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w^Ay-? v e 

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-r \ r\ 






VOL. I. 



* (1 I 3 I* 3 . ! 3 o i 0-. O 







The Avthvu to the Rladlk. . . . . . .3 


The Apostles eye-witnesses of our Lord, and ear-witnesses of His doc- 
trine, St Paul aii Apostle. Many personal qualities in them- They 
were governors of Churches. . , . * . ■ I 


The Church of Jerusalem under the charge of James and his presbyters. 
This wan James > son of Alphtru*. How he was brother of our Lord. 
Cleophai* and Alphtus both one, * . * * -3 


The Apostles planted mother~Churches in mother- cities. The government 
of them rotated upon presbyteries. St. Paul at the beginning made no 
Bishops over those presbyteries. The reason. Himself had the oversight 
of the Churches of his planting for the time. The like in the Churches 
of St. Peter's charge, .,.»..* 7 


As the Apostles withdrew, to Bishops came over the presbyteries in their 
stead. Timothy and Titus had not their charge till St. Paul left those 
parts. His journey from Ephesus, through Macedonia, into Greece. 
By the way he left Titus in Crete. Why he wintered at Nicopolis, At 
spring he returned by land hito Macedonia. There and then Timothy 
undertakcth the Church of Epliesus, Timothy an evangelist The 
prophecies that went before of him, and the grace he received. Titua 
and he over many presbyteries, BUhops over each afterwards. The 
ajigels of the t even Churchen. . . . . . - !2 




The presbytery at Antiochia. St Peter and St Paul beada of the Church 
there ; likewise of that at Rome. The difference about their next suc- 
cessors. Epiphanims's conjecture upon it Another. Clemens suc- 
ceeded St Peter, and Linus St. Paul. The succession of the Apostles 
there is unquestionable. . . . .21 


Dionysius the Areopagite Bishop of Athens. St Mark of Alexandria. No 
Bishop at Corinth when Clemens wrote his epistle. How they were 
propagated, and by what rule. . 2fc 


Presbyters govern with the Apostles in Scriptures. Nothing done in the 
Church without their advice. Why both ranks are called "sacerdotes," 
"presbyteri," " antistites," and the like. . .80 


What pattern this government might have in the synagogue. Aaron and his 

sons. Correspondence of the Sanhedrin with the Bishop and presbyters. 36- 


Presbyteries composed of no lay persons,, as the Sanhedrin. What is brought 
out of the Scripture to that purpose. The labour of presbyters in the 
word and doctrine. Preaching went by gifts under the Apostles. Those 
gifts make no different ministries. Teaching and ruling belong to the 
same presbyters. No colour for lay elders in the primitive Church. 
Preaching, how rightly esteemed. . ~ .39 


Offices of Divine service performed in chief by the Bishop ; after him, by the 
presbyters. Order of Christian assemblies appointed by Bishop and 
presbyters. Maintenance of the Church and poor disposed of likewise. 50 


Of the discipline of penance. Those that have the keys remit sins by pre- 
scribing penance. The intercession of the Church. Particular persons 
excommunicated among the Jews. Our Lord prohibiteth their course 
among His disciples. Two degrees of excommunication, as well in the 
Church as in the synagogue. The keys are given to Bishop and pres- 
byters. The interest of the people, and what is required at the hands 
ef the commonwealth. . . .55 




Of ordinations what is remembered in Scripture, The course held in the 
primitive Church. The election and constitution of Bishops upon what 
ground** Presbyters had their part in ordinations ; Ktiporovla was not 
election by holding up baud*. Ordination or deacons for common busi- 
ness of Churche*. The interest of the people is satisfied in the course 
now practised. What the primitive form requireth in the constitution 
of Bishops. , * 




The rule of censuring persons ordained directed to Timothy alone. The 

office exercised according to the other purls of ic . . f 89 


lining the primitive form, Bishops cannot he abolished* How Aerius is 
counted an heretic* All displeasure against Bishops occasioned by de- 
fect of presbyteries* To what purpose they might be restored. 




The public service of God the most eminent work of Christians, How the 
form of it may be derived from the Scriptures* The subject, and the 
proceeding of this discourse. . . , . , . Iu3 


Days of assemblies appointed by the law. The moral service of God not 
specified in it, but collected from it How the Jews are taxed for spend- 
ing the Sabbath in pastime. Places of such assemblies not provided in 
it, The priests charged to teach the law by deciding controversies of it* 
The chair of Moses, the chair of prophets. High places, to what pur- 
pose. Beginning of synagogues. Disciple* of prophets studied bo In 
prophets* They ministered the moral service of God in high places 
and synagogues* ,,*...* 



The profession of scribes that succeeded the prophets. Wise men of the 
Jews were the learned sort of scribes. Scribes of all the three sects. 
They tnught in synagogues. Who were lawyers. Who sat in their 
courts, and of their disciples. The manner of their li I hools 

and synagogues. How they sat in feasting. Of the* ciders of syna- 
gogues. Who among them received imposition of hands. 




Presbyteries of Churches, with their Bishops, snswerable to the Jews' con- 
sistories, made with imposition of hands. They sat in the Church as 
the other in the synagogue : that argueth their office of governing the 
Church. And the difference of them from the people. The elders of 
the people in the African Churches were not of this rank. What is the 
double honour of presbyters in St Paul. The Apostle's rule in discern- 
ing spiritual graces. The proceeding and extent of his discourse. His 
catalogue of graces and ministries. How divers of them may meet in 
the same roan. Doctors are those of the presbyters that preached. 
Helps were deacons. .145 


Prophets in most of the Churches remembered by the Apostles. The gift of 
languages, the purpose and nature of it The limbs and branches of 
both these graces in St Paul. Of praying, and praising God by the 
Spirit Those that spake strange tongues understood whst they said. 
Interpretation concerneth all that was spoken in strange languages. 
They prayed and studied for spiritual graces. Prophesying in St Paul 
signifieth singing psalms. Prayers of the Church conceived by imme- 
diate inspiration. The nearness of the graces of prophesying and lan- 
guages. The ground and meaning of the Apostle's rule. It proceedeth 
of none but prophets. What is to be judged in that which prophets 
spake. The custom in the primitive Church of many preaching at the 
same assembly came from hence. . . . . .182 


The parts of that work of God's service for which Christians assemble. 
Psalms of God's praises part of the substance of it The ground and 
efficacy of common prayers. Reading the Scriptures a substantial part 
of public service. The necessity and excellence of preaching, for ex- 
pounding the Scriptures. The Eucharist the chief part of public ser- 
vice. The Apostle's rule, of order and comeliness. The force of cus- 
tom in preserving order, and of reason in judging of comeliness. All 
practice of the primitive Church prescribeth not to us. Correspond- 
ence with it necessary. The practice of it, in the point in hand, of what 
advantage. Order of public service, a law of Christian kingdoms. 
Direction of ministers of the Church requisite. The obligation of it 
The agreement of the chief reformers. .... 208 


The prohibition of quenching the Spirit concerneth immediate inspirations. 
Prescript form of prayers as well as of other parts of the service is for 
the edification of the Church. Order not to be maintained without it. 
Three parts of the service of the temple. The praises of God, the con- 



fession of sin*, the priest*' hleasings. The service of the synagogue pre- 
scribed. Of the eighteen benedictions. Of the service of their fast of 
seven days. The den eon ministered their service. Justin Martyr and 
Tertullian misunderstood* Sum of the Church service. All prescript* 
Of canons that prescribe the service to be ordered by councils. Alter- 
ation! ia liturgies. Agreement of reformed Churches, . ♦ 236 


Of times of Assemblies. Daily morning and evening service is for the 
edification of the Church. Human Institution of festivals lawful. 
Public service upon thcni, and upon weekly and yearly times of fasting, 
is for increase of godliness. Of frequent celebration of the Eucharist* 
Hours of prayer among the Apostles and primitive Christians! from the 
synagogue. Festivals of the law for gladness, and those of human, 
institution in the synagogue. Of fasting days in the synagogue and 
primitive Church. How the Eucharist was frequented in the primitive 
Church. The order of this Church agreeable with tlie judgment of 
chief reformers. , , * * . , .J 


The reasons why it is for the edification of the Church to use ceremonies in 
public service. It is avowed by the chief reformer*. Of the respect of 
times and places. Of the difference of ventures and gestures. Caution 
in matter of ceremonies* The obligation of rules whereby they are 
determined, ,....,.. 



What is to be considered touching our Service. The service of hearers and 
believers. Confession of sins whether of old the beginning of Service. 
The ancient order of psalms and lessons. The Mass containeth an 
abridgment of it Several manners of singing psalms. Purpose of 
lesson*. The place of the sermon* Dismission of hearers. Original of 
litanies. Prayer indicted by the deacon. The thanksgiving from 
whence the Sacrament is called the Eucharist. Prayer which it was cele- 
brated with- Prayer for all the Church at celebrating trie Eucharist. 
The residue of that service. The charge of the Mass on our service. 
Extent of the power of the keys *"d wherein it consisteth. Of confes- 
sion of sins and absolution at the beginning. Our order of psalms mi 
lessons. The sermon part of our service. Of the Creed and Golfectfc 
Of the Communion her vi re find appurtenances of it, i . , ,'M3 


B©« the form of public service is ordered. Dependence of Churches is from 
the Apostles, for that and other purposes. How the preaching of lay- 
men imports srhi&ui* The good of the order of public service. , 35 1 





The Church hath no temporal power, but stands by God's privilege of hold- 
ing assemblies. The ground of the secular power's interest in Church 
matters. The power of the keys what it it, and that it cannot be taken 
from the Church. ....... 399 


That the whole bodies of Christians, contained in several cities and the terri- 
tories of them, make several Churches, depending upon the Churches of 
greater cities ; therefore the people is not endowed with the chief power 
in any Church. ........ 430 


That the chief power of every Church resteth in the Bishop and presbyters, 
attended by the deacons. That only the power of the keys is converti- 
ble with the office of consecrating the Eucharist And therefore, that 
there are no lay elders. The right of the Bishop, presbyters, and 
people, in Church matters. ...... 469 


Secular persons, as such, have no ecclesiastical power, but may have sove- 
reign power in ecclesiastical matters. The right of giving laws to the 
Church ; and the right of tithes, oblations, and all consecrations, how 
original, how accessory to the Church. The interest of secular powers 
in all parts of the power of the Church. . .513 


How the Church may be reformed without violating Divine right What 
privileges and penalties a Christian state may enforce Christianity with. 
The consent of the Church is the only mark to discern what is the sub- 
ject of reformation, and what not All war made upon the title of 
Christianity is unjust, and destructive to it ; therefore religion cannot be 
reformed by force. Of the present state of Christianity among us, and 
the means that is left us to recover the unity of the Church. . . 572 










The advantage this slight worthless piece aimcth at hi 
this address is of great consequence, but of a civil And mode- 
rate nature ; it is no marvel if it desire to go forth under so 
great a name, that is not like to appear considerable to the 
world otherwise. But the countenance it demandeth is ac- 
cording as the cause may deserve: more it must not expect 
from jour justice ; less it cannot expect from your goodness* 
If it fall of the truth, it is a child rebellious to the father's in* 
tentions ; and according to the law of Moses, here he bringeth 
him forth to receive his doom* If it have any thing consider- 
able, in a cause wherein the world is so well informed long 
since, my suit is, that from your Grace's hands it may be de- 
rived to the public- The Lord of Heaven and earth bless 
your Grace with happiness of this life, and of that which is to 
come. So prays 

Your Grace's 

most humble Chaplain, 




2To t&e Sobers of $eace anb STrutf). 

That style must serve me for a preface to this short dis- 
course. The love of peace and truth, my hope is, hath made 
some impression in the reasons whereupon it proceedeth : and 
it were a wrong to the world to think that those marks can be 
offensive. My purpose was to contribute towards the true 
meaning of the Scripture in these matters: if I have failed 
of it, the attempt will deserve your excuse. But my heart 
telleth me not that I have set any text on the rack to make it 
confess more than it means. Ecclesiastical writers I have for 
the most part stripped of the authority which their years and 
merits in the Church have won, and produced them as wit- 
nesses at the bar of common sense, to make evidence from 
the historical truth of their sayings. The meaning of them is 
here translated and left to every man's apprehension to value ; 
for when all is done, men must and will be judges for them- 

H. T. 

[In the first edition the latter part of this preface read thus; The mean- 
ing of them is for the most part either translated by their words or ex- 
pressed in the current of my discourse. Sometimes it is left to every man's 
apprehension, &c] 



He that desire th to espy light at a narrow hale, must lay 
his eye near, if he mean to discover at large. So must he be 
curious in considering the Scriptures, that meancth to dis- 
cern those things that are not declared there at large, but 
arc collected by circumstance, or consequence ; especially in 
matters which we view at this distance of time, which repre- 
sented to us things done then through a mist of succeeding 
custom. Those that seek for mines have their virguia divina, 

2 a rod, which they hold even-balanced over the place where 
they hope for a vein, which if it hit right, the rod of itself 
bendeth towards the earth. Our Lord in the Gospel com- 
manded us to search the Scriptures, as men would seek for 
mines or treasure: let us keep an even balance of judgment, 
not bowing but as the vein of truth swayeth it; for if we put 
the grains of affection and prejudice into the gold scales which 
we weigh nice truths with, no marvel if the lighter go down* 

§ 2* Now because the question conccrneth the Apostles 1 time 
and the next to it, and the purpose is, to represent the form 
pointed at in Scripture, by comparing it with such passages 
of historical truth and primitive practice as shall seem best to 
express it, let us, in the first place, consider the nature of their 
charge, that it may appear how far the Church retaincih a 

3 succession of it For true it is, divers personal qualities arc 
requisite in an Apostle, because they were to preach the 
Gospel to all nations* They must be men to witness those 
things they had seen our Lord do, those words they had 
heard Him speak, upon their own knowledge j and therefore 
men that had conversed with Him from the beginning of His 
doctrine. It is that St. Peter required at the choice of Mat- 
thias, Acts i* 21, "Of these men, that have companicd with 



The ipo- 
stiet cyt*- 

of our 
Lord nut) 
ne^tes of 

m* * i 





fit Paul an 


Mnny per- 
mit ial i|ua~ 
lllfai in 


were go- 
vernor* of 

us all the while that the Lord Jesus went in and out among 
us, . , . ♦ must one be ordained for a witness of His resurrec- 
tion with us." It is that the same Apostle challenge th, 1 Pet 
v. 1 ; " The ciders which are among you I exhort, who am 
also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ." I le 
condeseendeth to the rank of presbyters, when he saith* " who 
am also an elder jj* but he voucheth the privilege of an Apostle, 
when he addcth, " and a witness of the sufferings of Christ,** 
And his fellow- Apostle of the Gentiles to the same purpose, 
1 Cor, ix. 1, "Am I not an Apostle? am I not free? have I 
not seen Jesus Christ our Lord?** As if to be an Apostle re- 
quired one that had seen the Lord, which was supplied to 
him by his raptures and visions ; as the hearing His doc- 
trine was supplied unto him by that revelation by which he 
a voucheth to have received His Gospel, in the beginning of 
his epistle to the Galatians. This is that God had provided 
for satisfaction of common sense, — men that could witness, 
upon the credit of their eyes and ears, what they published. 

§ 3. But it required greater matters to convince the world of 
those things which reason could not evidence; the gifts of the 
Holy Ghost, for knowledge, for language, for miracles, for all 
the like were requisite in a marvellous nature for those that 
undertook to preach the Gospel to all nations. This was the a 
Apostles' charge w f and the power this charge importcth, the 
endowments it require th, are personal, wherein no man pre- 
tendeth to succeed the Apostles. But the execution of this 
charge, reason telleth us, must needs proceed — and experience 
of that which is written telleth us it did proceed — according to 
the exigence of their several opportunities, concerted by con- 
sent among themselves; for so w T e find the chief Apostles, 
Gal. iL 9> dividing their care between the Jews and the 

§ 4* If it appear* then, that the Apostles, for their time, took 
upon them the oversight of Churches of their own planting; 
if it appear, that an Apostle fixed his abode, and care both, 
upon some Church in several, though all the world were their 
diocese in common ; well may we proceed, upon these terms, 
to make the Apostles Bishops of such and such Churches, and 6 
Bishops successors of the Apostles; though neither for the 
extent of their charge, nor for their abilities to perform it, yet 



because they are trusted with that oversight of one Church, chap. 
which the Apostles for their time afforded to all within their — — • — 



Tuts is that we must stand upon in the first place, to aver 
the first pattern of the for in j after which it shall appear that 
Churches were governed from the beginning by Bishops and 
their presbyters* It is to be seen in the first Church — the 

7 Church of Jerusalem, mother of all Churches, — which we 
shall find under the charge of James of Jerusalem, one of the 
Apostles, and his presbyters ; no doubt by consent and ap- 
pointment of the Apostles, providing for the Church there 
before their departure from it* Wherein wc shall not need to 
set up our rest upon the credit of Ignatius, or Clemens Alex- 
andrians — though either of them of age sufficient to witness 
as great a matter as this— having so many pregnant passages 
of Scripture to aver it The Apostle, relating his going up to 
Jerusalem to see Peter, Gal. i. 18, prosecuteth it thus in the 
next words, u But other of the Apostles saw I none, but 
James, the brother of the Lord." How com eta he to meet 
James at Jerusalem, when he went to see Peter there, more 
than the rest of the Apostles, but because he abode there at 

6 his charge ? And again, Gal ii- 9, " And when James, Peter, 
and John, who seemed to be pillars, saw the grace of God 
that was given to roe," &c, we shall not need to think James 
is put in the first place for nothing, when we have so fit a 
reason to give for it, — because they were then all at the place 
of his charge. For so you shall find it again in that most 
considerable action of the council at Jerusalem, Acts xv* 7, 13* 

of Jeru- 
salem un- 
der the 
ohitfi of 
James and 
his pres- 

* " For to succeed them (the A po- 
tt) es) is After them to have that epis- 
copal kind of power which was first given 
to them. 'All Bishops are/ saith St 
Jerome, * the Apostles* successors ; p in 
like sort Cyprian doth term Bishops, 
Prapetitot qui Apostolis vicarin vrdi- 
ntccedtmL From hence it may 

haply seem to have grown, that they 
whom we now call Bishops were usually 
termed at the first Apostles, and so did 
cany their very names in whose rooms 
of spiritual authority they succectlfi." 
— Hooker, Book tiL iv* 3* up, 186, 7, 

wL Keblf. l83o\ 


c H a P. The decree of the council, as it is resolved upon St Peter's 

reasons, so is it framed and drawn up in St James' terms, 

ver. 7, 13 ; the one, as first of the Apostles, the other, as 
having the charge of the Church there ; which still further 
appeareth by that which is read, Gal. ii. 12, that "before 
some came from St James, St Peter ate with the Gentiles ; 
but when they -came, he withdrew, and separated himself, 
fearing those of the circumcision." We see St Peter taketh 
advice of St. James ; as likewise afterwards St Paul, at his 
last coming to Jerusalem, Acts xxi. 20, went in to James, 9 
where all the elders were present, to advise with him that 
had the care of that Church about the great business in hand, 
— how to behave himself towards those of the circumcision that 
believed. Now of the college of presbyters at Jerusalem, and 
of their concurrence and assistance with this James in the 
government of the Church there, we have three unreprovable 
arguments in the Acts of the Apostles. The first, in dispos- 
ing the maintenance of the poor ; whereof we read, Acts xi. 30, 
that the benevolence of the Church of Antiochia was sent to 
the ciders at Jerusalem by the hands of Saul and Barnabas, 
to be disposed of by them, but ministered and laid out by the 
deacons, as shall be shewn afterwards. The second is found 
in the passage of the council at Jerusalem, wherein their 
concurrence appeareth in that which is resolved, Acts xv. 2, 10 
that "Paul and Barnabas should go up to Jerusalem to 
the Apostles and elders about that question." And ver. 4, 
" being come to Jerusalem, they are received of the Apo- 
stles and elders." Again, ver. 6, " the Apostles and elders 
came together to consider of this matter." And, ver. 22, " it 
pleased the Apostles and elders, with the whole Church, to 
send chosen men of their own company to Antioch, with Paul 
and Barnabas." And the letter in the next verse runneth in 
the name of the Apostles and elders. All to argue the con- 
currence and assistance of the presbyters with the Apostles, 
which were then present there, besides James, which had the 
particular charge. The third is, that which hath been re- 
membered at St Paul's last going to Jerusalem, where we 
find the elders assembled with James, as his assistants, in ad- 
vising with St Paul about the matter on foot; for it is plain, n 
that the advice whereupon he proceedeth in a matter of that 


weight, is given him by James and the presbyters both, as c 11 a p. 


we read there b , verse 20. 4e And they said unto him,' 1 that is, ■ 
James and the elders. This James of Jerusalem I make no Thfrw« 
scruple to reckon among the Apostles, because St. Paul hath ^"JJ 
done it afore me c , For it is plain that he speaketh of no A1 P lluu * 
other but the twelve, so called by our Lord from the begin- 
ning, Luke vi 13, Because of them the question might have 
been made* whether he had received his doctrine from them 
or not, which he there dcuicth. And therefore it is plain, 
this James can be no other than James son of Alpheua, 
reckoned in the Gospels among the twelve,- — James the son 
of Zcbedee, brother of John, being put to death by Herod 
before. Acts xii, % 

12 §2* On the other side, when St Paul callcth him "brother Hew fee 
of our Lord," without doubt lie meaneth no other but him that tfaeraf our 
is called in the Gospels "James the less," brother of Joscs L,,,L 

tand son of Mary, Matt* xxvii, 5Q f Mark xv. 40; the same 
Mary, no doubt, that is called, John xix. 25, M Mary of Cle- 
ophas," sister to the blessed Virgin, First, because these 
Gospels speak of the same women that stood by our Saviours 
cross ; and a^aiu, because the brethren v\' our Lord are 
reckoned, Mark vi, 3, James, and Joscs, and Judas, and 
Simon. So that all the difference that hath been about the Gtafhai 
several Jameses and Maries remembered in the Gospel, is phcu* " 
extinguished by making Alpheus and Cleophas both one in v " 
the language then in use, though divers ways written in the 
Greek. A thing nothing strained: for though Cleophas be 
otherwise written in the Syriac— because it is translated out of 

13 the Greek—yet the Syriac name Chulpai may be expre&sed 
either by Atpheits or Clcojthas^ which is also written Clopas 
in some copies, John xix. 25, and in llegcsippus, quoted by 
Euscbius, EccL Hist. til* 11, 

§ 3. This I perceive, since the writing hereof, to be the opi- 
nion of Lud. Capellus, who hath alleged St. llicrome against 
llclvidius' 1 , to strengthen it, where he rnaketh Mary of 

b Acti %XL 
Gal. L 19, 

tte«t«f eonchuio, <J r . Maria Uin, 
Jicobj tninoriPi acnbitur n 
rit uxor Alpha-i, vi ion 
mat ps Dutitini, quam Miriam Ck-npha- 

JfjIiiijiUL-a EriAgtliftl cognomiujit. 

Tom. |f, p. 13S. eil, lkm<d. — Ludovici 

Cupt-Ui SpicitegiuiK MMt VlttMin | ad 

im-ijliiI. Mau\ 

P ,-tt| C^ili. Jnh. {".iltr 

mi In • ii. Mvuii^tiif HI32. 


C H A P. 



Cleophasj sister of die blessed Virgin, the wife of Alpheus, 
aod mother of James the less. Wherewith agroeth Clemens 
Aiexandrinus in Eusebius, EccL Hist, ii, 1, where he acknow- 
ledge th but two Jameses*- — the son of Zebedee, and this 
James of Jerusalem mentioned by the Aposde. And here- 
widi agree til St Chrysostom*, upon that text of the Apostle, 
where he observeth, that for St* James 1 honour, St Paul 
calleth him * brother of our Lord," whereas he might as well 
have called him ** son of Cleophas,** as the evangelist had J* 
done, I lere it is plain, that James the brother of our Lord, 
and son of Cleophasj is the Apostle, son of Alpheus* according 
to SL Cbrysostom, As for that which folio we th— that never- 
theless he was not of kin to our Lord according to the flesh, 
but according to the opinion of the world — it seemeth to 
depend upon Hegesippus in Eusebius, iii. \l f where he 
maketh Cleophas brother to Joseph, supposed father of our 
Lord ; which is possible to be true, that Joseph and Cleophas 
brothers should take to wife the two Maries, sisters or cousins. 
But otherwise there is so much appearance in the Gospel, that 
Mary mother of James and Joses is Mary of Cleophas, sister 
to the blessed Virgin, that it must needs be an inconvenience 
to deny this James to be kin to our Lord by her side f , 
§ 4. As for other relations and conjectures of Church- writers* is 

• 'A^A* Spa if el rnvrov }**& oVjjs rtpfis 
(1'i'ap.aati'. qv yap flirt v airAaM 'idLxatflov 
oAAa ifctl rh trtfiyoKAyrifLa TrpatriihiKty. . * . 
tl yap fryjfxiivai hv tk*yiv1}&fAii/ lrf}v koX 
*4 krtpov yvmpirr paras tovtq troiTjfJat 
&7l\nv, no} Fi*f?r rhv Tdii KA&rtra, Sir*p 
ha) A *vayytXnTTTis ihtyty* , m « . . „ 
oh yap ikaAtartv avrbr m'Twt, ws el-wot/, 
&A Aa itqji ; rbv aZtktpbv Tav Kvpiov, 
KaiTotyt oufl* Hara tfdptia aZ*kiph$ fa 
rov Kvpiov LkX* aortas ivuplfera. — In 
Gal. i. 19. torn, iii, p. 72 k ed. BmA 

' Ha?c sontentia cons tat t primo, 
quia hie fuit Apostolus. Sic enim 
vocat enm Paul us ad Gal&t. i. cum 
ait " nlium Apontolonim vjdt nemmem 
niii Jaeohum fhttrem Domini M aed inte r 
Apostolos duo tautvnn numeral tur 
Jaeohi, Matth. x, 2. Marci iii 16, et 
Lticu? vi. 1*. {iu notarunt Chryaostomua 
limn. 3X In Mtrthinim et Theonhy- 
lacL in Matth. x.) Jacobus Zebcdri et 
J-ACuliUB Alphii'L At Jacobus fratcr 
I > « - 1 • i i i » i unn cat film* Zebcds*] est vr%n 
Jacobua Alpha?]. Frelerea, quia Ja- 

cobus fratcr Domini dicitur minor et 
Jacobus Zehcdwi major : ejus modi 
auteni com pa ratio mm fit nisi inter 
duns, sunt ergo tan turn duo J a cob L 
Demum quia Ecclesia duos tantum 
Jacobos eelebrat Apostolos, Jacnbum 
Zebetkei, et una cum Philippe Jacob Uffl 
Hieroaolymitanum qui si nnn fuJsiet 
Jacobus Alpha?] reliquisset profectohune 
sine festo t quod esaet mirabile. Nc 
tfige t.iTik afamrdam rem asacfvniit 
Ian q nam aatta probabjle, confiteri opor- 
tet duo* tan turn extitUse Jaeoboa, et 
Jacobum fratrem Domini eundem eaae 
cum Jacobo A I pi i si* — HUtoria Dei- 
para*, cap. I, p. 43, a Christophoto 
dc Caatro, In oatio aures Moguntia*, 

* Chriitophorua de Castro, in tlw? 
place mentioned in the lost note, enu- 
merates many writeri who have con- 
■idered that James the son of Alplueus 
w** a di In? rent person from James the 
brother of our Lord, and the first Bi- 
shop of Jerusalem. Francis Combefia, 


— the variety whereof is endless and unreconcilable — it is not chap. 

reason to draw them into consequence to the prejudice of a ■ — 

conjecture which maketh so clear an agreement of this whole 
difference. It was my desire to shew the true meaning of the 
Apostle'a words; but it is not my purpose to build upon un- 
certainties. Whosoever this James of Jerusalem was, we find 
the Church of Jerusalem under his charge, almost as soon as 
there was a Church there ; at least, if we believe Ignatius, 
EpisL ad Tmft b , where he saith St, Stephen was deacon to 
this James of Jerusalem, which must he betimes after our 
lord's death- And therefore thus we see whom the Bishops 
of Jerusalem succeed. 




Let us now go abroad with the Apostles, and see how they 
followed this pattern in the Churches which they converted 
to the faith, TertulBan Lib, de Prescript [adwsus H&re- 
tico&ji e. 20j speaketli thus of them ; Ac pmimh Ec&eshti 
apud unamqwimqne cteitatern condidenntt This slight cir- 
cumstance, which he but pointeth at, — that the Apostles 
founded Churches in cities, — is very considerable in our 
business* For it is plain, they could not bestow their pains 
17 on all places: reason required they should labour most to 
plant the faith in the most populous- And common sense, 

The Apo- 
itles plant- 
ed pother 

in mother 

in a vory elaborate and learned note 
upon the tract of S. Hippolytus, De 
duodeeim Apwtulis, considers the in 
distinct persons, S* ttippol. Opera, cd. 
Fabric. Hamburg, 1716, p 4 3* — 30. 
Sec on the other Bide the Commentaries 
m|" Brims upon I Corinth, xv. 7- and 
GaLi. 19. 

h AftTftupyci?inr*i airr$ KWravpyiatt 

■toL Interpol c« vii. torn* ii. p + 66. ed. 
C-ukr. The genuine Epistles of S, 
Ignatius had not been discovered when 
Thomdikc wrote this book. He did 
not, however, look upon them as he 
found them, without suspicion j and ever exceptions may be made to 
his use of the interpolated writings in 
controversy* he ha-a fairly answered in 
the 3rd chapter of the Rights of the 
Clmif h in a Christian State, 


chap, and the least knowledge of times, will serve to shew, that from 

' — thence it was propagated through the countries that lay to 

those cities, which therefore in time became and were called 
the territories, parishes, or dioceses of such or such Churches. 
The go- § 2. Now the form of government estated by St Paul over 
of thTi^ 1 tnese Churches is pointed out to us, Acts xiv. 23, where we 
J*£ n ed read, in the end of their first journey, that Paul and Barnabas, 
byteries. " having ordained them presbyters in every Church," returned 
to Antiochia. But unto Titus the Apostle writeth thus, Tit. 
i. 5 : " For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou mightest 
set in order the things that are wanting, and constitute elders 
in every city, as I had appointed thee:" "elders in every 
Church" in the one place, and "elders in every city" in 
the other; both to the same effect: not meaning one in a is 
place, but presbyteries, that is, colleges, Ixxlies, companies 
of presbyters, with common advice to order the Churches 
planted in these cities. Such a college of presbyters it was 
that we spoke of in the last chapter, instituted by the Apostles 
in the Church of Jerusalem ; the pattern whereof St. Paul 
followeth in the Churches which he converted out of the 
Gentiles. And thus in the Church of Ephesus, you shall see 
St. Paul, Acts xx. 17, sending for the bench of elders there 
to Miletus. Thus in the Church of Philippi, you shall find 
that the Apostle directeth his epistle to the Bishops and 
deacons there, which must be to the college of presbyters* 
next above the order of deacons. Thus when the Apostle 
writeth to the Thessalonians, 1 Thess. v. 12, "And we 
beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among 
you, and are over you in the Lord," the multitude, whereof 19 
he speaketh, is to be understood of the like company of pres- 
byters. Thus in Ignatius' epistles, you shall find him, up and 
down, reckoning next after the Bishops the presbyteries of all 
the Churches to which he writeth. The like in St Cyprian's 
epistles, for the presbyteries of Rome and Carthage. To 
spare more words, in all Church-writers you shall find con- 
tinual remembrance of these presbyteries, whensoever there is 
speech of mother-Churches in mother-cities. And therefore 
those we are to understand, when we read that Paul and 
Barnabas ordained presbyters " in every Church," and Titus 
" in every city." And such bodies, or colleges of presbyters, 



they were, to whom the Apostle committed the Churches 
which he had planted. 

§ 3. But this being granted, the question will be in the next 

20 place, where arc the Bishops, the chief and heads of these 
presbyteries ? For had the Apostle, from the beginning of 
his planting these Churches, placed that rank over these 
presbyters, it is like we should have found some remembrance 
of it* Now these presbyters arc styled by the name of 
" Bishops,* 1 as hath been observed ever since St. Hierome ; 
and which is more — to aver the observation for this purpose 
— neither in the relation of his planting and ordering the 
Churches, nor in the style of his epistles, nor in his instruc- 
tions concerning ministers of these Churches, is there any 
remembrance or respect to be found but of presbyters and 
deacons; which in so much eminence of place, so much 
difference of Bishops' office* if any then had been, could 
scarce have come to pass ; and makcth tne conclude, that the 
Apostle ordained none such from the beginning over the 

21 presbyteries. No Bishop the Apostle had yet settled at 
Ephesus when he used these words to the presbyters there, 
Acts xx, 28, H Take heed to yourselves, and to the whole 
flock over whom the Holy Ghost hath made you Episcopos, 
Bishops or Overseers 5* for as he giveth the name to t he 
presbyters, so he addresseth his instructions to none besides* 
None at Philippi, when he directed his epistle to the " Bishops 
and deacons" there, neither the custom of the Church bearing 
more than one Bishop in one Church at once, nor being a 
thing reasonable to think, if any such had been, that the 
Apostle would not have found a room for him iti the style of 
Ins epistle* None in the Churches within the charge of 
Timothy and Titus — set aside their own persons, whereof wc 
shall give account afterwards — in whose instruct ions the 
Apostle is large in qualifying Bishops and deacons ; such 

22 Bishops as we read of, Tit* i. 7* where* having said that "he 
left him in Crete, to make presbyters in every city," the 
Apostle addcth, u for a Bishop must be blameless ;" but of 
any other rank, not a syllabic. None in the Church of 
Corinth. The Commentaries under St Ambrose's' name 

1 Tlu>ve Commentaries Iiave been it- one, the work of Hilary of Surd is * 
trihutert to different persona j the more Roman deacon under Pope Damtnu*- 
prokiUt Opinion i* thai they *rc, if of The Qmrslionea upon tht Old and New 



St. Paul 
at the be- 
made no 
over those 






had the 

of the 
Of Mi 

or the 

yield this reason of the disorders the Apostle taxcth the; 
] Cor- xL 21, because there was no Bishop there, 
words are not of ordinary mark ; Hos notat qui wic in eecte- 
si am eonvcnielxmti ut m niter a sua offereitteis advenientihus pres- 
bi/teris f — quia adhuc rcctores ecclems non omnibus locts Juerani 
eonstitutii — Mum sibi qui ohtulemnt 9 tindiearent schismatic 
MMtif*. w He taxeth those who assemble so unto the Church, 
that offering their gifts to the presbyters that came — because 
governors of the Churches were not yet established in all places 
— those that had offered challenged all to themselves in the 
way of schism-" So whereas that, whereof the Eucharist was 
consecrated, should be spent by the assembly in the common 
feast of love ? some made good cheer; others, that had not 
offered, went away without their share. Therefore saith the 
Apostle, ven 22, m Have ye not houses to eat and drink in ? 23 
or despise ye the Church of God ? n coining thither tor dis- 
sension's sake and belly-cheer, not for the Sacrament and for 
peace ? and " shame them that have not," sending them away 
without entertainment ? Therefore, ven 33, he exhorted j to 
" stay for one another' 1 at their meetings* Thus far out of 
those Commentaries* Which reason, as it givcth a clear 
meaning to the whole passage of the Apostle, so it groweth 
still more probable, because we shall find afterwards that it 
continued still in force at the time of writing Clemens 1 
epistle, published not long since 1 * And men of learning have 
argued, that this reason might better be yielded for their 
dissensions,— u saying, I am of Paul, I am of Apollos, I am 
of Cephas ; w which the Apostle reproveth in the beginning 
of the epistle, to wit, — because there was then no Bishop 
there, and in the Apostle's absence, 

§ 4, And indeed, if we reckon not amiss, what reason have 2* 
we to think that this Apostle should ordain in the Churches of 
his planting a higher rank of Bishops to govern the Churches, 
above and with the presbyters? Do we not see that he 
ehargeth himself with the oversight of these Churches wherein 
he had planted the colleges of presbyters aforesaid, 2 Con xi 
28, " Besides those things which are without, that which 

Testament, that have pone under the 
name of St. Augustine, are Fiipjmsed to 
be the work of the same writer. 

k $. Ambro*. torn, it col. 148. App* 

ei Beru 

1 By Fa trie i ua Junius, 
Young) Oxford, 163$. 




cometh upon me daily, the care of all the Churches 'f n To chap. 

what purpose else is the journey he taketh, Acts xv. 36, to — — 

visit the Churches, wherein he had ordained presbyters afore ? 
" Let us return," saith he to Barnabas, u and visit our brethren 
in all cities where we preached the word of the Lord, and see 
bow they do." We see he taketh care to exercise discipline 
upon the incestuous person at Corinth — which it secmeth the 

25 rulers of the Church there had neglected to do— I Cor, v. 4, 
pronouncing sentence of excommunication, and requiring the 
Church to see it ratified and executed. And for a thing re- 
markable, observe in what terms he proceedeth, 1 Cor. v. 4, 
■* When ye are gathered together, and my spirit," saith he ; 
his w spirit," which ruled there in chief for the time, So 
that it is not for nothing that TertulHan, Lib, de Prescript 
[adt\ Htcretic.~\, cap. 36, reckonctfr Corinth, Pbilippi, Thes- 
salouica, Ephcsus, and the rest of the same rank, all apo- 
stolical Churches, from this one Apostle, because he planted 
and ruled them all for his time. Apud quas, saith he, ipste 
adhuc cathedrce Apostohrum suis heis president ; which is, in 
good English, neither more nor less than bere is affirmed. 
The Apostle's chair rested in them all till Tertullian's time ; 
therefore the Apostle for his time sat in it. And to my 
apprehension, all his epistles are nothing else hut so many 

26 acts of this government spiritual in chief, which the Apostle 
reserved himself in the Churches of his own planting. 

§ 5. The like to he said of St, Peter's epistles, and hath been The like 
observed in part by Eusebius, Eccks. IfisL lib. iii* cap, 4.™ ; church** 
that the title of bis former epistle, addressed to "the strangers jJjJJrt 
dispersed through Pontus, Asia, Galatia, Cappadocla, and t'hargc. 
Bithynia ;" that is, to the Jews sojourning in those provinces, 
argue th it to be a work of his care, in preaching the Gospel 
to the charge he had undertaken, according to tbe division 
alleged before, Gal. iL 9. And therefore, as hath been 
hitherto argued of the other Apostle, so when we sec St. 
Peter, 1 Pet. v. 1, direct his exhortation to "feed the flock" 
to none but presbyters, we have cause to conceive that those 

m ttal Ik tuc WttpQu &k A#£ftt* p iv 
frwSfTtM koI o&Ttff iwapxtatj "Fpu? in 

rby rrjt Ktuyfa JJm^iNTjr raps 5* 8 w> kdyttv, 
hv tf*}> 4'^ fa tlptixafi**' AjttoAa* 

yovntnfs owtov iirt<rrftX?JF" %r rots #£ 
Efgpafvi' olfTitf lv 5m<nru^a U6vtov Htd 
Va.\ar uis T K«inra3oKias Ti ttal "Afffai, «al 
Bifluffotr yp&Qtu p* 7X id. V&lce. Pari*, 



chap. Churches to whom he writeth — and whom we shall hear Epi- 

in * 

'■ — phanius say anon that he went sometimes from Rome to visit 27 

— had as yet no Bishops over their presbyters. The same 
that St Hierome hath argued long since out of Hebrews xiii. 
17 n , where the Apostle writeth in the plural number, " Obey 
them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves." 




As the But as the Apostles began to wear out — or otherwise as their 

withdrew, occasions gave them not leave to attend in person upon the 
SmeovCT 8 Churches of their care — reason required — if but in corre-29 
byterieT 8 P° n ^ ence to tne state of government that had hitherto rested 
in some Apostle and the presbyteries of particular Churches — 
there should be instituted some heads of these companies of 
presbyters, to whom the name of Bishops hath been appro- 
priated ever since ; and certain it is, that during the time of 
the Apostles instituted they were. This agrecth extreme 
well with the charge and instructions of the Apostle to his 
disciples Timothy and Titus, over the Churches of Asia and 
tiiislpaul Crete; whom as all ecclesiastical writers after Eusebius ac- 
knowledge tc be made Bishops of Ephesus and Crete, so must 
we not fail to observe here, that this was not done till it was 
revealed to the Apostle that from thenceforth the Lord would 
employ him in the western parts of the world. 

§ 2. The business is most an end agreed upon on all hands ; 30 

in their 

and Titus 
had not 


n Et hie diligentius observate quo- 
modo unius Civitatis Ephesi Presby- 
teros vocans, postea cosdem Episcopos 
dixerit. Si quis vult rccipere cam Epis- 
tolary quae sub nomine Pauli ad He- 
bncos scripta est ; et ibi a?qualiter inter 

plures Ecclesia? cura dividitur. Si- 
quidem ad plebem scribit : Parete 
principibus vestris, &c. — Comment, in 
Ep. ad Titum, eap. i. 5. col. 4-18. torn, 
iv. ed. Ben. 



yet, because the observation is so effectual to this purpose, let 
roe take leave to enlarge it by clearing the whole passage of 
the Apostle's last voyage from Epbesus, through Greece, and 
back again. Acts xix. 21, we read at that time, " Paul re- 
solved, by the Spirit, having passed through Macedonia and 
Achilla, to go to Jerusalem, saying, When I have been there, 

1 must also see Rome." In 2 Con i. 15 — 17, he writeth to 
them, that he had formerly purposed to go first to Corinth, 
thence into Macedonia, from Macedonia to Corinth again, 
antl of the Corinthians to be brought on the way lor Judea. 
u When 1 then purposed this," saith he* * f did I use lightness ? 
or what I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that 
with me there should he yea, yea, and nay, nay?" signifying, 
that, not taking up his resolutions upon human considerations, 

31 it was no lightness in him to balk his intended purpose, to 
follow the direction of the Holy Ghost, in going first through 
Macedonia, God having so ordered it, it seemeth, for the 
reason that followeth. The first epistle to the Corinthian-* 
was sent from Ephcsus about this time. From Ephcsus it is 
plain it was sent, though subscribed from Philippi — for those 
subscriptions, it is well known, are of no credit — by the salu- 
tations he sonde th, 1 Cor. xvi* 19, front the Churches of Asia, 
from Aquila and Priscilla, which dwelt there, Acts xvui< 19; and 
after his first resolution was changed, because he saith, 1 Cor. 
xvi. 5, that he meant to * pass through Macedonia." In 

2 Cor, ii. 12, the Apostle, relating one passage of that voyage 
not mentioned in the Acts, " When I came to Troas," saith 
he, u to preach the Gospel of Christ, a door being opened me 
of the Lord, I had no rest in my spirit, because I found not 

32 Titus my brother; hut, taking leave of them, I departed thence 
into Macedonia," Titus he desired to meet with, because he 
desired to hear from Corinth by him, that was coming from 
thence, 2 Con vii, 6. For, as he protested], 2 Cor. i. 23, it 
was to " spare them that he came not yet to Corinth ; * " not 
yet," as being directed by the Spirit to go first through Mace- 
donia, and to spare them, that is, not to be engaged to proceed 
rigorously against them, in case they gave noi due respect to 
his former epistle. From Macedonia he despatcheth Titus to 
Corinth again, about the business specified, 2 Cor. fiiL 6, 10 J 
and it is most like, upon these circumstances, that both those 


Hi* jour- 
ney from 
nia into 




By the 
way he 
left Titus 
in Crete. 

Why he 
at Nico- 

to the 
Huiium* to 
he dated 
from Illy. 

epistles were sent by Titus, whatsoever the subscriptions 

§ 3, To go on with the Apostle in this voyage, Acta xx. 2, 8, 
we reads that having gone over the parts of Macedonia, and 
"given them much exhortation, he came into Greece, and 33 
there abode three months*" In this journey, let me be bold 
to affirm, it was that the Apostle put in at Crete* to preach 
the Gonad there : the relation agrecth so well from point to 
point, that I will use no other words to persuade it is true* but 
the coherence of it From Ephcsus, then, the Apostle partcth 
at Pentecost, 1 Cor. xvi 8* By the way at Troas he stayed 
not, but came straight into Macedonia, 2 Cor. ii. 12, 13. 
From thence, having despatched Titus for Corinth, 2 Cor* viiL 
6, 16, 17, going by sea for Greece, he puttcth in at Crete, to 
preach the Gospel there ; and meeting with Titus — returned 
from Corinth — in this journey, leavcth him in Crete, to con- 
stitute presbyters in every city, and to finish those things 
which he, for the strait of time, was fain to leave undone, 
And thus his three months being spent in Greece, he found 
winter at Corinth, 

§ 4, There he had once thought to have wintered, 1 Cor, xvi 
6, and that the Corinthians should bring him on his journey ; 
which there he expresseth not, but, 2 Cor, i. 16, it is for 
Judca. But understanding the Jews laid wait for him as he 
returned into Syria by sea, Acts xx. 3, he taketh a resolution 
to winter at Nicopolis, whereof he certifieth Titus, appointing 
him to meet him there at spring, Tit. iiL 12, This was a 
convenient rendezvous for the Apostle, in the meanwhile, to 
preach the Gospel in the parts of Epirus, as far as Illyricum ; 
which he purposed to do when he wrote to the Corinthians, 
2 Cor. x. 15, 16, that when his spirit was in quiet in regard 
of them, he had hope • to preach the Gospel in the parts 
beyond them ; ■ and which he uffirmcth to have done, Rom. 
xv. 19, where he writeth, that from Jerusalem to Illyricum 
he had "fully preached the Gospel of Christ." And therefore, 35 
with leave, I suppose the epistle to the Romans is rather to 
be dated from hence than from Corinth, as the subscription 
goeth t for before this, it could not be sent ; after this, we 
find not that he returned to Corinth. From whence being 
new come, he might send commendations from Cuius, his 






host at Corinth, Rom. xvL 23, 1 Cor. i. 14; and by Phebe 
he might write, seeing him in passing by the coast of Epirus, 
from Corinth to Home, 

§ 5, When winter was spent, from Pyrrachium, the confines 
of Epirus — where he had wintered at Nicopolis — and Illyricum 
— whither his doctrine was got — the journey by land was short 
good to Thessalonica in Macedonia, by the great road in 
bo called "via Egnatia ;" so that in good time, after the 
days of unleavened bread, he might sail from Philippi, as we 
read he did, Acts xx* 6. This for Titus. 

§ 6, As for Timothy's case, thus we read, 1 Tim, i« 3, " I 
besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into 
Macedonia." The sound of these words maketh Baronius* 1 
believe that Timothy was left with his charge at Ephesus upon 
the beginning of this voyage of the Apostle through Greece, 
And he had Theodores to go before him in the conceit; for 
in his preface to St* Paul's epistles, he concludeth, that the 
first epistle to Timothy was sent from Macedonia when the 
Apostle passed through it. But it is easy to perceive that 
this cannot stand with the Scriptures, He that sent Ttmo- 
tlieus, and Erastus before him, into Macedonia, Acts xix. 22, 
how could he leave him Bishop at Ephesus ? Besides, in the 
first epistle to the Corinthians, iv. 17, xvi. 10, it is plain that 
he was then sending Timothy to Corinth, though he over- 
took him before he got thither, in Macedonia ; for afterwards 
Timothy was with him in Macedonia, at the sending of his 
second epistle to the Corinthians, as appearcth by the begin- 
ning of it, and with him be was at his return into Asia through 
Macedonia, Acts xx. 4, It remaincth, then, that the Apostle, 
coming through Macedonia to go into Asia, began then to 
move Timothy to stay at Ephesus, 1 Tim. i. 3, and to take 


At spring 

In.' rr- 
by land 
into Mace- 

There and 
Ihy imdir- 
taketh the 
Church of 

L['ln -i. , 

Aftef irpbs Aya-roAcU tav<ri} ton fclfcrira- 
Korttttias* — Stratum. Rci\ Geofrraph. 
Excerpt, ex libr, sept. fin. p. 508. ed. 
AtiLEtclod. 17U7- 

p Ac ill ad in primis quod vent urns 
in Maeedoniam, rationem babcua Ec- 
cleaite E phew in a?, tie pemttts Pastore 
destttutam relinquerct ut ejus neces- 
si tat i prospiceret, Timotheutn dis- 
ci puluni omnium amanliSHimum inibi 
r«nanei8*e vol nil, Id en tin PauluB t e 

Macedonia primam id cundem sen- 
bens EuLHtolatn, testatur bis verbis 
*' Rogavt te" &c. ad annum $f t n. 18G\ 
(ISO.ed. Manai.) 

a*& T^ft 'E^nVou TrapwylvcTQ fir r$v 

irdyr* Apunrov Tifi6&*ov ittti waTaAe- 

<Tn>TT\fnov K-iipiry^id. — B,Theodoreti Pn - 
fat in EptwL S. Pault, p. +. totn. Hi. ed + 
Sirmond + Parii*, JC42. 





;m rvan- 

upon him the charge of the Churches of Asia, Which befog 
- accordingly agreed and done, he sendeth him before with the 
rest of his company into Asia, as we read Acts xx, 4, 5, not 
knowing then how soon himself should iollow them. For 
thus he writcth, I Tim. hi. 14, 15, *' These things write I 
unto thee, hoping to come unto thee shortly ; but if I stay, 
that thou mayest know how to behave thyself in the house of 
God/* Therefore it is plain, that he sendeth him this epistle ftfl 
of instructions after their parting from Macedonia, but before 
his coming to Ephesus; it seeraetb while he stayed for him 
at Troas, as we read Acts xx, 5. And thus we may well un- 
derstand the words of Atbanasius in Synopn — though Baro- 
nius r allege him for his purpose — because he saith no more 
but this, that the first to Timothy was sent from Macedonia*. 
But the Apostle having resolved, if it were possible, to be at 
Jerusalem the day of Pentecost, Acts xx. 10, makcth haste, 
and overtake th his company at Troas, Acts xx, 6, And thus we 
see the reason why there is no respect of Timodiy in his in- 
structions to the elders of Ephesus, Acts xx* 18, because that 
then he began to enter upon his charge there, and because 
of the instructions he had received from the Apostle by his 
first epistle, besides word of mouth. So the upshot of all this 39 
discourse is thus much, that within compass of the lime of 
this voyage — at the beginning whereof the Apostle said in the 
Spirit, that ^ when he had been at Jerusalem, he must also 
see Rome," Acts xlx, 21 — at the midst whereof he writcth 
to the Romans, chap, xv. 23, that " he had no more place in 
those parts" — and at the end whereof he saith to the elders 
of Ephesus, Acts xx, 25, M And now behold, 1 know that all 
you, among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom of 
God, shall see my ^cc no more ;* knowing by revelation that 
he was to serve God no more in those parts — he appoint cth 
his two disciples Timothy and Titus to be in his stead over 
the Churches of Asia and Crete* 

§ 7. Now that the charge of Timothy and Titus givelli them 
a power as great as that of Bishops was from the beginning, 
no question is made; if they prove not more than so, the 
business is clear. For true it is, something not ordinary in < 

r AdaTiiiumj7-iUS7.(;i90edLMansi.) 

— S. A than as. Synapsis, Script Sacr, 
p. H*S t torn. iL e(L Hen. 



Bishops we must acknowledge in Timothy's person when he hap. 

is called an " evangelist/ 2 Tim. iv. 5, u do the work of an — 

(h evADgeKfit.* To which we must refer that grace whereof 
the Apostle speaketh, 1 Tim. iv, 14, " Neglect not the gift 
that is in thee, that was given ihee by prophecy, with the 
laying on of the hands of* the presbytery. 1 ' Whereof again, 
2 Tim. i, 6, u I put thee in mind that thou stir up the gift 
that is in thee, by the putting on of my hands." And, 1 Tim. 
h 18, "Tins charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, ac- 
cording to the prophecies that went afore of thee." 

§ 8. In this the disciple's case is somewhat like the Apostle's, The pro- 
as you shall see it anon, Acts xiii. 2, where the prophets in n,!" 
the Church of Antiochiaj having foretold through the Holy him.""' ° 
Ghost what God would do in the planting of His Gospel by 

it his hands and Barnabas, and declared His will for setting 
them apart for that purpose; hereupon they receive imposi- 
tion of hands. So, likewise, we must conceive that these 
prophecies went afore of Timothy, to inform the Church of 
the will of God concerning him, and the work He had a]>- 
pointcd him to perform. As for the grace he receive th by Ami Qm 
imposition of hands, what other can any man imagine it to be JSSveS, 
than that which is designed in the name of an evangelist, 
which the Apostle meant when he said, Ephes. iv. 11 3 that 
our Lord hath given to His Church, "some Apostles, some 
prophets* sonic evangelists?" Or how can we further distin- 
guish it otherwise from the gifts of Apostles and prophets, 
than [by] placing it in the extraordinary temporary endow- 
ments of the Holy Ghost, enabling such persons, according 
to the exigence of that time, to publish the Gospel, and to 

42 persuade it? which, nevertheless, comcth short of the per- 
sonal quality of witnesses of our Lord and His doctrine, and 
of the measure and kind of those graces of miracles, lan- 
guages, and the like, that make an Apostle. 

§ 9. But he that would draw this into consequence, and argue 
that Timothy was no Bishop, because an evangelist ', may, 
with more reason, conclude that Philip was no deacon because 
he was an evangelist, and contradict the Scripture that saith, 

* "And to any man that will but un- 
derstand and consider what the office 
of an evangelist was ; and wherein it 
differed from the office of a presbyter or 


Bishop, it will be manifest that Timo^ 
thy and Titui were evangelists and no 
Bfihopct" — Smeetymnuus, sect xiii. p, 


chap. Acts xxi. 8, " we entered into the house of Philip the evan- 
— - 1 — gelist, which was one of the seven." For if an Apostle, in 
that eminence of graces and privileges — nevertheless abiding 
upon a certain charge, and taking care of it — is to be counted 
Bishop of a particular place, as was argued afore *, much 
more may an evangelist for his extraordinary gift be a 
Bishop for his several charge: which is to say thus much 
in English, that the gift of an evangelist may fall upon any 43 
rank of ordinary ministers ; as we see Philip, for his place in 
the Church, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem, Acts vi. 
5, is nevertheless an evangelist, for the graces God had 
bestowed upon him, by his means to convert Samaria to the 
faith, Acts viii. 5. Nay, further, if the gift of an evangelist 
be competible with a deacon's place, it must be granted that 
Timothy, as an evangelist, is no governor of Churches. 
Titus and § 10. And whereas it is argued y , that it was but a commission 
manyPres- for the time, which Timothy and Titus are trusted with from 
byteries. t j lc Apostle, because it appeareth they were other-whiles em- 
ployed otherwhere by the Apostle, 2 Tim. iv. 9, 10 — as any 
Bishop in case of public necessities of the Church must be 
without the Apostle — let me be bold to affirm, that the rules 
of continued settled government, directed to them by the 
Apostle to be executed by them in their persons, are suffi- 44 
cient evidence that they were appointed by him for perpetual 
governors, and not for temporary commissaries. Indeed, as 
there is something more than ordinary in Timothy's person, 
so is there something more than ordinary in Titus' charge, 
in that he was " left in Crete, to ordain presbyters in every 
city," Tit i. 5 ; by which, as appeareth in the sequel of the 
epistle, the Churches of those cities were to be governed 
under Titus, as was observed afore. The like to be said of 
Timothy, whose instructions, qualifying presbyters and deacons 
alone, leave him alone superior to all the presbyteries he 
should institute according to his instructions. 

* Chap. ii. sect 1. Dalmatia. All which doth more than 

y "All these journeys to and fro did probably shew, it never was the intend- 

Titus make at the designment of the ment of the Apostle to fix Titus in Crete 

Apostle, even after he was left in Crete, as a Bishop, but only to leave him there 

nor do we find that after his first re- for a season, for the good of that Church, 

moval from Crete, he did ever return and to call him from thence, and i 

thither : we read indeed, 2 Tim. iv. 10, him abroad to other Churches for their 
he was with Paul at Rome, and from good, as their necessities might require." 
thence returned not to Crete, but into — Smectymnuus, sect xiil p. 51. 



§11. Now, if we observed the custom of the Apostles, hitherto C H AE 

set forth, of instituting presbyteries in populous cities, and Biah ' 

15 observe ihe custom of the Church after their time, wherein nowewh 

Bishop was always head of one of these presbyteries — Quid 

est enim £piscopus t nisi print as pnsht/tcr, hoc est, sum mas 
saeerdfls ? saith St. Augustine z , w for what is a Bishop but 
ihe chief of the presbyters? 1 ' — it will not be hard to cspv 
a difference between the place of a Bishop and the extent 
of their charge. For it will not serve the turn to say, as 
some do, that Titus was Archbishop of Crete*, and so en- 
trusted with divers Churches ; for an Archbishop is a chief 
among Bishops, not a person to govern divers Churches, 
seats of bishoprics. And therefore Titus was not Bishop of 
all the Churches in Crete by being Bishop of the chief 
city of it b . But, in the meantime, let me use Epiphanius 1c 
words: "The Apostles could not settle all things uniformly 

.-ill once," Is it a reasonable tiling to argue, that because 
St. Paul taketh no order for the heads of these presbyteries 
which were not yet made, therefore he did not intend there 
should be any such in the Church? Bather let me argue* 
that because St, Paul loft two of his principal disciples in two 
principal places, with charge to plant presbyteries as there 
was means to propagate Churches, therefore he gave a pattern 
of that which these disciples, and all the Church was to do 
afterwards, in settling the government of those Churches, in 
the presbyteries of them, and in their heads, which them- 
selves were tor the time, 

§ 12. And this we shall find was done in good time in the The 
Churches of Timothy's charge, if we take but a short eon- tii"^cv©« 
sidcration of the beloved disciple John the Apostle and ihur ' 
Evangelist, what we find concerning him in Scriptures, or 

17 otherwise received and credible in this nature. He lived 

• Question ea « utroque miitim. — 
Tom. ill. Append, col. 93. ecL li 

* Hint" a Paulo c real us eat Arehi- 
epiacopus (_'reta\ aliarumqtie vicinarum 
Lnsuluruin. — Cornel, n Lapitk -in I EpLsi. 
ad Titiun, Comm. argument, 1, 

b *' Besides : hat f these degrees anion g 
Bishops eaiuc in Afterward*, when ihe 
Church i rite J 

of provinces, or according to ihr pre- 
OwiiGfl of places wherein the em- 
perors, or chief temporal po*V% made 
their residence." These words were 
replaced in the second edition hy those 
beginning with "And therefore," end- 
th +p city oi it." 

4 OtV -yap Trdttra tv&vs i}Svy4i&7jffav ol 
'Att^ottoAch KaTaffTTjffaj,' — Ha 1 re sit 75. 
- J -^p*u* Aeiium, cap, v. p. 1K)8. e<L 


CHAP, longest of all the disciples, as is said : and he will easily shew 


us Bishops over the Churches of Timothy's charge ; for such, 
without doubt, were the seven Churches of Asia, unto whom 
the Apostle, sending from our Lord seven epistles — ii. and 
iii. chapt of his Revelation — directeth them to the "Angels" 
of those Churches; a style not competible to a person of 
common rank, — and the act of directing epistles to one in the 
name and behalf of the whole Church arguing the eminence 
of the head, fit to answer for the body he representeth. 

§ 13. Herewith agree the words of Clemens Alexandrinus, in 
Eusebius iii. 23, concerning this Apostle, that being returned 
from Patmos to Ephesus, he used, upon request, to go among 
the neighbour nations, ottov fikv ^EtruTKonrov^ KaTcumfo&v, 
oirov Bk 5\a$ 'EfCfcXTjaia? ap/ioa&v, ottov Se tcXtfpcp a/a yi nva 
tc\7)pdxTQ)v t&v irrro rov Hvevfiarof; (rq^iaivofihtov d , — that is, 48 
"in some places to constitute Bishops" — to wit, where there 
were presbyteries afore that yet had none — " in some to found 
whole Churches, in others to ordain a clergy* out of such as 
were signified by the Spirit," as we read of St Paul and 
Timotheus. For will you have these to be Bishops accord- 
ing to the use of f the word in St. Paul, where it is all one 
with " presbyters ?" Sure we must needs think of such as his 
own writings make Angels of Churches. Ignatius, that was 
his disciple according to some, in all his epistles specifieth, 
and sometimes by name, the Bishops of some the same 
Churches, and some of others, together with their presby- 
teries ; and in particular Onesimus g , Timothy's successor at 
Ephesus. Tertullian h and Irenaeus*, the most ancient we 
can allege, have named Polycarpus in particular, made Bishop 
of Smyrna by this Apostle. It is not possible to say more in 49 
this case. 

§ 14. So often as we find mention of government in particular 
Churches in Scripture, so often we meet with presbyteries, or 

d The passage is found in the " Quis stolicae census suos deferunt ; sicut 

dives Salvetur," cap. xlii. p. 959. ed. Smyrnaeorum ecclesia habens Poly- 

Venet. 1757. carpum ab Joanne conlocatum refert. — 

e " In others to ordain a clergyman, De Prescript, adv. Haeretic. cap. xxxil 

Rome one of those that were signified p. 337. ed. Pam. 
by the Spirit." Second edition. K Ob ^vov inrV Kto<tt6\u>v fxafhrrwlkls 

f These words, " the use of," are ... &AAa koI %nrh 'Atoctt^Xmv tearo- 
om it ted in the second edition. <rra0c}* us tij* 'Afflar iv rjj 4v Ipffvp 

* Epist ad Ephes. cap. L 4iuc\7talq, iwUteawos. — Adver»ua_ H«- 

h Hoc enim modo Ecclesiae Apo- reses, lib. iii cap. 8. p. 17*. i " 



the heads of presbyteries, Apostles themselves, or deriving chap. 
their charge from the Apostles, Efay, it is very much, — not — — : — 
pretending that Bishops came on otherwise than to be instead 
of the Apostles over particular Churches, — that there is so 
much to be said for their office out of Script tires all written 
during their time. 




t uracil there; likewise op that at Rome, the difference Attoi 1 


The Church of Antiochia is remembered next to that of The pre*- 
Jerusalem in the Acts of the Apostles, but of the government AnSothii. 
t hereof we have nothing so distinct or express in Scripture* 
Yet this we read, Acts xiii* 1 — 3, u Now there were in the 
Church at Antiochia certain prophets and teachers* »«••«»! 
And as they ministered unto the Lord and fasted, the Holy 
(.•host said , Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work 
51 whercunto I have called them. And when they had fasted and 
prayed, and laid their hands on them, they sent them away," 
That these prophets and teachers were all of them presbyters 
of that Church, is more than can be affirmed, because it is 
no where set down. But when we read that they ** ministered 
unto the Lord" — which must be understood of the service of 
God in their assemblies, especially in celebrating the Eu- 
charist — and gave "imposition of hands k ," which cannot 
signify the ordination of Paul and Barnabas to the work 
there specified, being appointed by the Holy Ghost* but the 
benediction of them, which was the solemnity of putting 
them into the office * 

§ 2* Now, as concerning the heads of this Church, wc must bl Peter 
have recourse to Ignatm- epistle ad MagTmiano$ m f where pitheads 

h ■* We find anions the number of 
llicin the work* u\' <ir»iinarv ministers, 
when there was no higher rank than 
thnt of presbyters able Lu do tin. 1 like," 
These worth in the (Ltvl edition were 
in the place of those beginning with 
11 whkli cannot/' ending wiih ^office/' 

The next sentence began " For/' 

|M Cornelius a i>apUle on the 
who quote* Ari&s, Cajetanus, 
tad Siutrez for the statement in the test, 
thuugli from it himself, 

w n**Aifyx»Ttti rpilrrun iv %vpt* m iv 
'Ai'Tm^fi* yap JxpyftidTtfrM ch na&i]Ta\ 


chap, he uscth these words, "For at Antiochia the disciples were 
-— — - — first called Christians, Paul and Peter founding the Church.** 
Church And in the epistle ad Antiochenos n 9 — if it be his, as the other 

unquestionably ib°, — IlavKov teal Ilerpov yeyovare fiaBrp-cU' 52 

fivrj/ioveiHTaTe Eva&iov, fc irparro? kve^npUrOri 

irapa tow 'AttootoXow rr)v vfieripav TrpooTaclav, — that is, 
" Ye are Paul's aud Peter's disciples. Remember Euodius, 
that first had the rule of you put into his hands by the 
Apostles." Be he what he will be that wrote this — let me 
be bold to say — it agrccth marvellous well with what hath 
been said, and with the Scripture. In which it is plain, 
there were at the beginning two congregations of Christians 
at Antiochia ; one of the circumcision, the other converted 
from the Gentiles p ; because St. Peter, Gal. ii. 12, "fearing 
those of the circumcision, withdrew himself, and ate no more 
with the Gentiles. " In regard of the care of which two con- 
gregations, performed by St. Peter and St. Paul, according to 
the division agreed upon, Gal. ii. 9, the words of Ignatius are 
to be verified, where he makcth both Apostles founders of the 
Church at Antiochia; who, finding themselves employed in 53 
other parts of the world, took the same course with this 
Church which St Paul did with those he commended to 
Timothy and Titus, and put both congregations — by that 
time united and concorporate in one — under the charge of 
Euodius, predecessor to Ignatius. 
Likewise § 3. These two Apostles are usually counted founders of the 
at Rome. Church at Rome, as well as of that of Antiochia. Irenaeus, iii. 
3 : * Fundantes igitur et instruentes bcati Apostoli Eccksiam, 
Lino episcopatum administranda* Ecclesia tradiderunt. Htgus 
Lint Paulus in his qua sunt ad Timotheum epistolis meminit 
Succedit autem ei Anaclctus : post eum tertio loco ab ApostoUs 
episcopatum sortitur Clemens. "Therefore the blessed Apostles, 
founding and constituting the Church, delivered to Linus the 

Xpumayol, IlavKov teal Zltrpov 0c/** At- then published. 

owrwv t V iiac\ri<riay. — Ep.Interp.cap. p So Baronius also. Rom. MartyTol. 

x. torn, ii. p. GO. ed. Coteler. Feb. 1. not b. p. 60. Antwerp, 1613. 

n Adscript Epist ad Antiochen. c. ' &*fi*\itb<ravTcs olv Ktd oUo9of4^ 

vii. p. 111. ib. aayrts oi ptucdpioi 'Airrf orroXoi tV 4k- 

° Probably he meant that St. Igna- K\rj<rlay, \iv<a rfyy rr\s 1*i<rKoinjs A.«i- 

tius' epistle to the Magnesians was rovpyiay lv*x*lp l<ray > rovrov rod Alrov 

upon the whole to be taken for hi.» TluvKos iv rai$ icphs TtfJi6$eov iirurroXxut 

writing ; without answering for the par- /t^/ifirreu. — p. 1 76. ed. Ben. apud Euseb. 

ticular form in which these epistles were Hist. Eccles. lib. v. c. 6. p. 1 70. ed. Valet. 


bishopric for governing it. Of this Linus St Paul makcth 
mention in the epistles to Timothy* Him succeedeth Ana- 
cletus. After him in the third place from the Apostles the 
lot of the bishopric falls to Clemens." Where you see he 
referreth the foundation of that Church to both the Apostles, 
as doth Dionysius also of Corinth, some hundred and twenty 

54 years after their death, in Eusebius, Ecch Hist ii, 25 T , and 
others of later stamp sans number* Whereupon Epiphanuis*, 
/for, 27, reckoning the succession of the Bishops of Rome, 
putteth Peter and Paul in the first place. 

§ 4. But yet observe further the difference between the 
words of Iretifcus — which put Linus after the Apostles — and 
the Latin Church, which, according to St Ilierome*, CataL 
\pt hi Ckm.i rcckoneth Clemens in that place ; which 
Tertullian, the most ancient of that language, lib, Dc Prm- 
teripb u , averreth. To which difference we may ascribe the 
confusion that Baron i us T hath observed in the pontifical book 
under the name of Pope Damasus% an ancient piece, but 
pieced indeed out of several writings, and cross to one 
another divers times. As for the purpose : when it maketh 
Linus to succeed the Apostles and suffer martyrdom the 

55 same year — who nevertheless sitteth twelve years according 
to Eusebius? — whereas Cletus, next in order unto him, be- 
gin neth seven years after in time ; but Clemens, third in 
rank, one year after Linus, suffering in the third year of 
Trajan, long after both their deaths. 

§ 5. Epiphanius*, in the place afore named, stumbling, as 
it sccmeth, at the credit of those that put Clemens first, pro- 
pounded this conjecture : EZt ovv en ■jrcpuW&n' [t&v Mtto- 
gtoXcw] Otto FUrpov Xapftavet Ttfv j(€tpo&€tr{t7V t% eTuown-?}?, 
tcai 3 TrapaiTTfQ-dfietwi tjpyet' \&y€t yap £v fita t&v ewtaroX^v 

e<L Be lu 

" Sicut RumaiioruTH \ Ecclesb 

m a Petro ordain turn edit, cap, 
xxxii. )k 337. ed, Pain. 

¥ Ann. <J9, n. 3-^—38. ct ad aun. 384. 
n + 1 Ij at 17. 

1 Printed in the willectionB of the 

K^fj<riai BwKalBtKO. tV hwiTovpyiay 4vt- 
avroh MaTonTx^ 1, '-^l^ s ^ Ecele*. iii. IAL 
p. 87. e<i Vales- 

Omtift Carpncnit. Hatfea, 27. cap. 
I; p. 107- ed. Colon. 


The differ- 
ence- abnut 
tluir next 

niuV con- 
upon it. 

* Knpwititeif "HwtmtowQS JiiavvGutf 4y- 
ypQ.<ptirf 'Vwfxalott opaKwv, flrS* tfws 
<rrr}(nv. Tfti/ra koI vp* Ty 5m TT/srTttcrctuTijr 
wrtwiat, *vv awh nirpott Ktu Tlai/Auu 
ptmioM y*vTidu&&v 'P&ftaiW tc teat Kit* 
ptvQlwv trvrtitfpdaart, — p. (J0. ed. Vale*. 

- *E* 'Ftfyiij ykp ytySvaai wptirroi n*- 

vpas fcai n<£cjA<n, ol * A*6<rTttkat ainal 

krI 'EirttrKowot, tiro. AiVot, t Wa Kk^rot, 

ft ''. — Contra CarpocratiBJios»HuH > eM,l27. 

,; . 1 1. ](J7, ed. Col uii. 

* Tametti p1erit|ue Latmnrum gttui- 
dum pmt Pet rum Apostolus potent 
fuiaae Clem enteral. —Tom. It* cejL ll>7- 


chap, avrov, *Avax&p&, awetfu' evcTaBeirm* 6 \oo9 tov Oeov' rurl 
* — tovto crufiftovXevovv (evpofiev yap & ruriv inrofJunffJLarurfjtoS^ 
rovro ey/ceifievov.) "Whither then during the time of the 
Apostles, he was ordained Bishop by Peter, and declining it, 
sat still, for he saith in one of his Epistles, I withdraw, I de- 
part, let the people of God be in quiet, advising some so, (for 
this we find couched in some records)." These words of 
Clemens, quoted by Epiphanius, are yet extant in his epistle 
to the Church of Corinth, published not long since b ; wherein 
• he tellcth him, that was the occasion of the schism he writeth 
against there, that a generous man and so forth, would say 
in that case, " I depart ; I withdraw : let the people of God 66 
be in quiet" Epiphanius, it seemcth, meeting them at the 
second hand, alleged for Clemens 9 advice to some man men- 
tioned in the epistle c — as they are indeed— conceived never- 
theless they might have reference to his own case, advising to 
withdraw, and give way to Linus and Cletus, for the quiet of 
the Church ; which now, by reading the epistle, proveth 
* otherwise. Besides, he sticketh not to digest the inconveni- 
ence of admitting more than one Bishop in the same Church 
at once. For because, according to his conjecture, Linus and 
Cletus, as well as Clemens — that gave way to them — must be 
made Bishops by the Apostles, he addeth d , that Bishops 
might be made there during the time of the Apostles, because 
they travelled sometimes from Rome — St. Paul into Spain, 
as indeed he purposeth, Rom. xv. 24 ; St Peter into Pontus 
and Bithynia, whither he directeth his first epistle — and must 57 
not leave the Church unprovided there. 
Another. § 6. But if it be worth the while to vent a conjecture that 
succeeded shall avoid this inconvenience, and make all good that is re- 
md Unus P ortec ' by tnese ancient Fathers, that matters of circumstance, 
St. Paul, wherein they are at difference, destroy not their credit in the 
main, wherein they are at agreement, — let this be mine, that 
there were at Rome from the beginning, as at Antiochia, two 

• Eutrrolclrw, Junius: IvtrraMrrw, \ovs iroWdxts M ras&Waswar pitas t^f 

Petavius. xoptlcuf dT&A«r0af, 8t& to icfipvyfia tov 

b By Junius, in 1633. Xpitrrov, p.^) Hycur9cu^ T^yrwy'PwfxaiofP 

c Cap. liv. p. 177. ed. Coteler. x6\iy Hytv 1xktk6xov dyai. 'O p^y yap 

d n\V aX\a koI ovrwi ififoaTo Irt UavKos Kcd M r^y 'Icrwavla* bpiKyurai, 

x(pi6yrcDy rStv 'AwoaT<JA«v, typd 8i twv Tl4rpos 8i xoKAdxts l\6yroy tc koI B*0w 

irtpX Tltrpov Kcd Tlav\ov 4xhtk6xovs &\- Way £rc<rKrfaro. — Epiphan. ut supr. 

Aovs KaBitrraffBai, 8ta rb tows 'Ainxrrrf- 



congregations of Christians, one of the cireumeision* the other char 
of the Gentiles ; that St Peter was head of the one, St Paul - — - — 
of the other, according to the division aforesaid ; that after 
their death, Linus* who was deacon to St Paul — if we believe 
Ignatius in the epistle to the Tralliiins 14 — succeeded him over 
the one ; ClemenSj who was deacon to St. Peter — according 

58 to the same author there — succeeded him over the other ; till 
both congregations, — being concorporate and united in one, — 
came to be f governed by Clemens that survived. 

§ 7* And if any man be so d la favourable, as upon these 
differences of the by to discredit the main, let him know, that 
though he allow not the pillars of the Church in their time 
the credit of discreet men, to have reason for what they re- 
port, yet must he allow Irenaeus and Tertullian to be men 
of common sense, when they allege the succession of Bishops 
in the Churches of that time — wherein that of Rome is 
always one — for an evidence of the faith which had been 
preserved in them ever since the Apostles ; the force of the 
reason lying in that which Calvin R hath exceeding well ob- 
served, — that it was a thing known and received at that time, 
that dc facto the faith which the Churches professed came by 

59 succession from the Apostles, from which succession the 
heretics were fain to separate, and make congregations apart, 
wherein to profess the belief which themselves had devised. 

§ 8. Be all the world judges now 3 whether a man in hisThe»tio- 
right senses would appeal to the succession of Bishops, if it ofThe' 1 
had been a thing questionable whether any such were or not i). 1 ";*! 1 '^ 
The like is to be said of Optatus b , and St Augustine 1 , when ' ]l 

* Tf 31 AuUowl; AAA' fl jUI^atjtoI toi* 
&yy* hittwv 6vvdt**u>v, \itrovpyovVT4s 
au?<p \fiTfjitftylav Kutfap&P teal tiiiiw^tff, 

Kttftcf, not TtfiA&was tt(d AiVoi flai'A^, tral 
AvryKkijTaf gal KA^ptijf UfTpy. — Ep. 
rap* vii. p. 6*6\ iiL Coteler. 
f "Came to be;" ** became/ T first 

r Set) quum extra con trovers lam 

exact, nihil a principio usque ad illam 

K-tttcm mutatuin fuisse in doctrinu, 

• ait quod omniitr ribus 

icudis *tt£ficeret, illi* oppugnuri 

-l-i lriiinui ab ip%ife u»quc A post u I is 

ixUutm et uuAiiimi consensu re- 

Aam* — liistitut, lib. Iv. dip, ii. § 3. p. 

ii, Obgicit illi* Augustiims* 

qui s illi repudtabatil Ecclesias, et a 
quibus diicesaioneni feccrant, continue 
none a b ipsis Apostolic fluxisse, Optimo 
id riuidem jure, quum eas in recepta 
semel doctrtna, Donatiata* 
ipMMcerent*— Vera Eecla * t reform, rat. 
p, 279. ed, AmsteloiL 1 1157, 

k Ergo cathedrum unieam, quae cat 
prima de donlm*, todit prior Tctrus: 
cut success) t Linus* Lino auccessit Cle- 

inena ....... Damaao Siriciua, 

hodic qui BOdCf fl4 soeius, cum quo 
nobi«cuiu totm orbi* comtnercio For* 
inatarum, in una OOmaWDSoaSa soeie- 
tate concordat, — De Sehiamatc Dona- 
tistarutn, Hb. ii. e. 3 f pp. IJ, Si. cd. 
Dn Pin. Antwerp, 1702. 

' Si cnim ordo Episcoporuin mbi 


chap, they appeal to the succession of Bishops in the Church of 


Rome to prove the Donatists schismatics, not communicating 
with the lawful successors, both of the faith of the Apostles, 
which both sides granted, and of their places, from which 
they argue. 



Dionysius Tnus we are out of the Scripture ; but because we are not 

pagiteT " yet out of the time of the Apostles, I will name further Diony- 

of Athena. s * us tne Areopagite, St Paul's convert, Acts xvii. 34, because 

there is so ancient a witness to depose for him, Dionysius of 

Corinth, some hundred and twenty years after that, averring, 

in Eusebius k , that he was the first bishop of Athens. 

St. Mark § 2. And so the last I will name shall be the Church of 

andria? Alexandria, and that for St. Hierome's sake, and in his words, 

because he it is that is persuaded, and persuadeth men to 

think, that the order of Bishops came in by mere custom of 61 

the Church, to avoid schisms that arise for want of heads. 

In his epistle to Evangelus 1 thus we read : Nam et Alexandria 

a Marco Evangelista usque ad Heraclam et Dionysium Epis- 

copos 9 presbyteri semper unum ex se electum, in excelsiori gradu 

colbcatum, Episcopum nominabant " For at Alexandria also, 

from Mark the Evangelist till Dionysius and Heraclas were 

Bishops, the Presbyters were wont to choose one of their 

number, whom they placed in a higher seat, calling him 

Bishop." How that can be said to come in by custom for 

avoiding of schism, which was practised at Alexandria from 

succedentium considerandus est, quanto successit, videte. 
certius et vere salubriter ab ipso Petro Cont part Don. Ps. t ix. col. 7. ed. Ben. 
numeramus, cui tortus Ecclesioe figuram k 'fly teal Aiovihtios 6 y Kptoirayirnt 
gerenti Dominus ait Super have petram thro rov axocrr6\ov TlaiXov Trporpenrcls 
ttdificabo Ecciesiam meant et porta in- M r^v xlffrty Kara, t& iv rous npd£*a-i 
ferorum non vincent earn, Petro enim Se&rjAco^Va, rparroy rijs'AdTivaluvTrapoi- 
successit Linus, Lino Clemens, Cle- tela* r\i* &irt<ncoir))v 4yK*x*lp l<rr <>' — Hist 
menti Anacletus, &c. In hoc ordine Eccles. iv. 23. p. 144. ed. Vales, 
successions nullus Donatista Episcopus * Ep. 101. ad Evangelum, torn. iv. 
invenitur.— Epist 5.3. ad Generosum col. 802. ed. Bened. This letter is gene- 
coll. 120, 121. torn. ii. Again rally cited "ad Evagrium;" the Bene- 

Numcrate S&cerdotcs vel ab ipsa dictine editors discovered the mistake, 

Petri sede, and made the correction, which is now 

Et in ordine illo Patrum, quis cui inserted in Thorndike's text 



Mark the Evangelist, let St- Ilierome devise ; it shall serve 
our turn, that so it was there from the Apostle's time* 

§ 3. Otherwise it is reasonable enough to believe that, 
upon such occasions., Bishops came in over some Churches, in 
particular, the Church of Corinth, in which we find a schism, 
but can find no Bishop at the time of writing Clemens' 
epistle, some few years after the death of the Apostles; be- 
cause the reason produced afore ■% to argue that there was no 

ti2 Bishop at Corinth when St. Paul wrote his epistles, con- 
tinued! still in force at the time of writing Clemens' epistle. 
For, p. 52 n , he is very earnest with them to keep due order 
and decorum in bringing their oblations, and celebrating the 
Eucharist ; for when he namcth there ra? irpotrifxipas xal Xci- 
rovpyia% by the one, we must understand the species of fruits 
of the earth, and meats, which ttie people offered, out of 
which the Eucharist being celebrated, the rest was spent in 
the Agapa, or feast of love, to which the words of the Apostle 
are to he referred ; by the other, the Eucharist, for celebra- 
tion whereof he is so earnest with them to keep due order in 
their assemblies ; alleging that those things which the Lord 
had commanded to be done, those He had not commanded 
to be done disorderly and at random, but at set times and 

C3 seasons, when and by whom they should be done. Where God 
hath appointed an order, when and where, and by whom 
Christians should celebrate their assemblies, is not to be 
found in Scripture further than the Apostle's rule, 1 Con xiv, 
40, " Let all things be done decently and in order." It 
sccmcth be argucth from the pattern of the Levitical priest- 
hood; for so it followeth, p. 53, Tft jftp apxt€p€t i&tai \eirovp- 
yiai SeSo/AiEvcu etai^ &c. — " To the high -priest,"" saith he, f * are 
assigned bis proper services," Which further appeareth when 
he itrgeth the example of their sacrifices, that were offered 
before the temple, being first visited Std rov apx^p^ ml 
rmp trpoeipifpAvaw XtLTaupyow, p. 54, — * by the high-priest 
and the foresaid minister*/' But the presbyters of that 
Christian Church he exhorteth with these words: "EtcavTos 
VfimUp r!&X*£ol, iv ra> ihlw rdyfian ev^apKmirto &e$ f ev tvyaBf} 
GVV£tBi}<T£i VTrdpymv* fit) 7rap£tc$aivtov top wpt&pAvQV rift Xci- 

* In Qlup, iii Met 3 ami t, torn. i. \u I6& edi Cm. hi. 

■ Ed, Jujiii, Oxon, 161 J. tap, *L 



No Ri^hop 
at Corinth 
if bed Ck- 


c ha p. Tovpyla? airov tcavova — "Brethren," saith he, "let every one of 

'• — you give thanks to God" — that is, "celebrate the Eucharist," 64 

in his language, — " in his own order, being in a good con- 
science, not stepping out of the set rule of his ministry." 
Perhaps his meaning is, that they should celebrate by turns. 

§ 4. Howsoever, here is my reason, that there was then no 
Bishop there, because then there could not have been so 
much debate about the order in celebrating the assemblies of 
Christians ; which, as shall be shewed afterwards , were not 
to be held but upon appointment of the Bishop, with advice 
of the presbyters, being a mark of schism to assemble other- 
wise. And if this be not enough, there is another to second 
it. Whatsoever may be argued from the dissensions at 
Corinth, one saying, " I am of Paul," another, " I am of Ce- 
phas," to shew that there was no Bishop there when the 
Apostle wrote this, and in his absence, still continueth in 
force at the time of writing Clemens' epistle ; the whole sub- 65 
ject whereof is to quell such another dissension as this, but 
only that it was not under such colourable names of Paul, 
and Cephas, and Apollos, as he complaineth, but — which is re- 
markable to prove my intent — was, as he saith, p. 62 p , a mere 
faction, for the love of one or two persons, against the pres- 
byters, no Bishop bearing any part either at one end or other 
of it. Neither is it marvel that this Church should be still 
without a Bishop for some ten or twenty years, perhaps, after 
the death of the Apostle, so many companions of the Apostles 
being then alive — Clemens at Rome, Titus in Crete, Timothy 
at Ephesus, Dionysius at Athens, others elsewhere — to furnish 
whatsoever assistance they had received from the Apostle 
during his time, no otherwise than did Timothy and Titus 
to those Churches, wherein they had planted presbyteries 66 
before they had Bishops. 
How they § 5. And therefore, if any man ask the question how Bishops 
pagatcd° came to be propagated through all Churches: the answer 
wiiatniic. must k e > ^ e y were mac ' c * n due ti me by the heads of neigh- 
bouring Churches; which we shall discern anon q , when we 
come to speak of the course held from the beginning in the 

° In chap. x. 174. ed. Coteler. 

p Ai* $i> ^ 84o irp6(Ttcira (ttcuti&(*iv i In chap. xii. 

irpbs robs irp€<r£vrcpot/5. — Cap. xlvii. p. 



choice and constitution of Bishops. And by the practice of 
the Church, it should seem the aim was afar oft' to propagate 
Bishops according to the first practice of the Apostles. For 
as they planted presbyteries to govern mot her- Churches in 
mother-cities, so, when it became questionable which Churches 
should have Bishops and which not^ the matter was regulated 
according to the greatness of cities, or the multitude of pres- 
byters which the service of the Churches in them required, 

67 whereof the Bishops were to be heads r . And therefore, in 
the council of Sardica*, can- vi. it is provided, that there 
should be no Bishop in towns or small cities where one pres- 
byter might serve i but in those places where Bishops were 
of old lime, or if a place became so populous that it nii^lit 
deserve to have a Bishop; that is, either in cities that had 
been so populous of old time as to have Bishops, or which 
should afterwards become so populous. But the seventeenth 
canon of the Chalcedon council 1 , providing against innova- 
tion in dioceses, taketh order nevertheless, that when a place 
is promoted by the emperor to be a city, the form of the 
Church shall go along with the form of the commonwealth ; 
that is, it shall have a Bishop, and his diocese the territory of 
that city. There is here a difference in the particular, and 
yet the same general ground of both canons, — the practice of 

68 the Apostles* ordaining presbyteries to govern the Churches 
which they had planted in cities, the heads vi hereof were 
Bishops after their departure' 1 . And this secmeth to be the 
reason why the seats of cathedral churches are wont to be 
cities.* And by this means Italy is so full of bishoprics, be- 
cause it is so full of cities. 

col. IS1. ecL \>n. t. 

' Ei B# tit 4k &a.<Ti\ittiii llQU&Lat ittai- 

rutdjf teal Sij^acrlotf two** ntti r€iv <tit- 
tc\t)<Ti<XfTTitciiJV irnpotKMV ij t^iv fata- 
\ovQ*It$>. — < .'niH'il.ChalofiliMi, A.D. 16] . 
Labbci* torn* fv. ooL 1688* ed, Venet. 

u So the sixth council of Paris. A J). 
823: Sic lit unicuique CtvUnti conduit 
proprium habere Episcopuni, ita el 
imiiTiiqu&mquc Rasilicnm Deo dimUni 
deeet ct oporlet proprium habere pret- 
hytcrunii — Labbii, torn. ix. col, 740. 
ed* Venet. And before this Mme, A.D. 
7.15, Ut Episcopi det^a^t per rin^ulas 
Civitato* esse, — Coneih Vernenso, Lab- 

\, totn. viii. col. 417. 

C H A P. 

t Vid. Tbmnaasm. Vet. el Nov. EecL 
Diiripl, pt. i. lib. i. c. iii. See "The Epi- 
logue/' bL iiL c. 1 8, 

* M^j /|*iVat $k aTAtof tta&urrav twl- 
itkqwqv 4v KfCfir) Tit>l f} fl^a\<i^ w6hii 7 $ 
nvi ttal rTi fi6voi Tlpi<r0{rrtp&§ iwaptttt, 
oi'K a.vaytcaloi' yap iwi&Kijiruvs ^*re«re 
H.adi<TTa(T&ai t 1ta /*Jj Ka?*trrt\i£iiTtit tb 

TOV ITttfTHt^OV UfUpLO. KOI YJ (Xl'&tVTia., a\\' 

at tt]* ^jrap^fas, it Ttpatiwttv, iirtffKQWQt 
if TavTo.ii xa7s iruAetri KaBtcrTa* fan- 
tTKuTrnttf iHptiAoviTiif, (tiQa *fai Tp6rtpot/ 
y gavap ytyttvAr*? itri^HQWou tl 8i 

liiTJT«(TO fJ^Tii* - l ^ — ■ il? 







» u . 


< ir a p. 


with The 
in Scrfp- 

Having hitherto justified the ground whereupon we go, 
and shewed that Bishops came after the Apostles to he heads 

Ptv-hvter* - * ■• • i • i 

jotcth ot presbyteries in consequence hereunto it must now be 
averred, that the government of Churches passed in common^ 
by Bishops and presbyters, as from the beginning the pres- 
byters governed with the Apostles themselves* If in that 
great action of the council at Jerusalem, the elders of that 
Church bore their part with the Apostles* what cause have 
we to think they did less when they were dispersed, St James 
alone remaining there? If they concurred with St James in 
his advice to St Paul about a matter of greatest weight, — 
bow to deal with those of the circumcision that believed, — 
dull wc imagine they did not do the like with his successors? 
If St Peter call the presbyters of the Churches to which lie 
writeth his u fc I low-ciders," it is to the purpose to put them 
in mind of their share in thai office which he chargcth him- 
self with. If the Apostle of the Gentiles charge the elders of 
the Church of Ep lies us, Acts xx* 28, with their part of that 
care of Christ's nock after his departure, which he for his time TO 
had performed over them, shall wc think them eased of it 
because Timothy came to be Bishop there ? Rather let m© 
conceive this to be the cause why Timothy's instructions arc 
addressed in the singular number to him alone, without 
mention of his presbyters, — because they were to receive their 
charge by themselves about the same time 1 : so far is it from 
me to think, that his presbyters were not to concur in assist- 
ing that course of government, wherein he alone is directed 
by the Apostle to proceed. And if we can go no further in 
proving this point out of Scripture, the reason must be, be- 
cause — as appeareth by that which hath been said — the Scrip- 
tures for the most part speak of that time when Bishops yet 

■ See eh. iv. gect. G. 


were not, but the Apostles themselves. To which purpose, ciiai*. 

7 1 nevertheless, there will be still something to be said out of— — S — 
the Scriptures, in the particulars which we shall survey. 

§ 2. In the meantime, let us take notice of a few passages, Nothing 
among many more, out of ecclesiastical writers, to argue the church 
general whereof we speak. Ignatius EpisL ad TraVL ?, TL ^l[!^ ut 
he 7rp£&/3vr£ptQv > saith he, aXX* f} nv<m)^ia Upov } a-vfi^avXot ■£**<•« 
xal avj/eSpevral rov ^Ewt&KQTrovt—wQ cannot understand 
rightcr what the presbytery meancth than out of these 
words, "What is the presbytery but a college or bench of 
assessors to the Bishop in sacred matters." The Commenta- 
ries under St, Ambrose's name, upon 1 Tim, v, l 1 , speak 
home to this purpose, — -Nam apud otnnrs utique gentes honor- 
abilis est senectus : unde et Synagogti % H postea Ecclesia seniores 
hahuitj quorum sine consilio nihil ageltatur in Eeelesia* " For 
truly age is honourable among all nations ; whereupon the 
Synagogue, and afterwards the Church had elders, without 
whose advice nothing was done in the Church/' This is as 
much as can be demanded, when we hear that nothing was 
done in the Church — to wit, by the Bishop* — without the 

72 advice of his presbyters. The same is affirmed by St, Hie- 
rome upon Titus I. 5 ; * Antequam, diaboll instinctu f studio, 
in rri/f/ifwr fiermt % et diceretur in populis, Ego sum Pauli s ego 
Apollo, ego autem Cephce, eommuni prvshgterorum cotmtio Ec- 
clesim gubemctfamhir* n Before there came factions in rcli- 
tiiun by the instinct of the devil, and it was said among the 
people, I am of Paul, I of Apollos, I of Cephas, Churches 
were governed by common advice [of the presbyters],^ In that 
St. I Heroine thinketh there were no Bishops till Churches 
were forced to that course to avoid schisms, it hath been 
shewed he is not in the right b 5 but in that he affinneth (hat 
at first Churches were governed by common advice, we may 
well hear him speak in so good company of witnesses. Last of 
all, St* Cyprian having said, once for all, epist, vi. c , Quando a 
primordio episcopatus mei sta titer im nihil sine coimlio ventro \Jpr$$* 


Bpfrt Interp. cup. vii, [h Vttl t >il, 

■ St, Ajnbros. Gpp. torn. Li i-ol. 298. 

St Hicrouymi Opp t turn, iv. coL 
41-X cd. Ben. 

b C'hnp. vi, Kce't, 2. 

1 V.[k xi\. p, 19. td. Om 1682, in 
which the reading; is, ** Sine t-onsen«u 
plights, md brivfttim scuteiitii gererc/* 
thai m tlit* Wxl W\ux tlit' common one. 


CHAP, byterorum et diaconorurn], et sine consensu plebis meee, privata 

■ sententia gerere, " seeing I have resolved from the beginning 
of my bishopric to do nothing upon my private judgment, 
without the advice of you (the presbyters and deacons) and 
the consent of my people," — how well he observed it, is 
yet to be seen in the passage of divers businesses related in 
his epistles. Out of which the like is to be conceived of the 
presbyters of Rome, by those things that are touched there. 73 
why both § 3. And this is the true reason why many times — especially 
called"* among the most ancient Church-writers — Bishop and pres- 
"Sa^f- byters both are comprised in the same styles and names, not 
"Presby- because there were then no Bishops — as some men imagine — 
"Antiu- but because both states concurred in the same office. Cle- 
thTiike? mens, in the epistle aforesaid, page 54 d , speaking of the 
ministries instituted by the Apostles, saith thus, Kadeoravov 
ra$ airapxas airrcov, . . . eis 'Eirta/ciwovs teal Siatcovovs r&v 
fieXKoPTwv TTurreveiv, — that is, " they made the first-fruits of 
believers overseers and ministers" — that is, Bishops and dea- 
cons — "of those that should believe." It seemeth, indeed, that 
Clemens calleth the presbyters Bishops, because as yet there 
was no other Bishop there, as was proved afore ; for so the 
word is used in St. Paul's epistles and the Acts of the Apo- 
stles, for the same reasons, as hath been said. But in Igna- 7* 
tius' epistle to Hero e , his deacon at Antiochia, you have these 
words : MrjSev avev t&v 'Eiruriconr&v irparre. 'IepeU yap elai, 
av hk Sidtcovos t&v Upicw, — "do nothing without the Bishops," 
that is, without the presbyters, " for they are priests, thou a 
minister of priests," who were indeed Bishops in Ignatius 9 
absence, when this is pretended to be written. And be he 
who he will be that writ it, I believe it will not often be 
found that presbyters are called Bishops in any monument of 
Church-writers after this time, unless it be in these words of 
Tertullian, De Prescript c. iii, Quid ergo, si Episcopus, si 
diaconus, si vidua, " What then if a Bishop, if a deacon, if a 
widow," &c, where putting the deacon next to the Bishop, 
he seemeth to comprise the presbyter with him in the same 
style. For afterwards the name of Bishops became appro- 
priate to the heads of presbyteries; as we heard f St. Hierome 

- Ed. Junii. Cap. xlii. p. 170. ed. e Cap. iii. p. 114. ed. Coteler. 

Coteler. f Chap. vL sect 2. 





say of the presbyters at Alexandria, that the head whom they 
75 chose themselves out of their own number, they named 
4 * Bishop" of Alexandria. 

§ 4. Otherwise^ as it is well known that the name of " saecr- Brat* 
dos" is common to both estates, in regard of the offices of divine 1 
service which were performed by both*, so in regard of the 
government of the Church, common to both, are they many 
times comprised together in the common style of " pres- 
byters," the name of their age> or antist'des^ TrpoetrrwT&ti prm- 
posits and the like, the names of their charge 11 . For as the 
Apostle maketh himself an elder when he writcth to them in 
this style, I Pet. v. 1, ts The elders I exhort, who am also an 
elder," so is the like to he observed in that well-known pas- 
sage of Clemens Alexandrinus 3 , related by Euscbins, Eecles. 
Hist iiu 23, concerning the youth which St. John the Apostle 
recommended to the Bishop of a certain place* Clemens, pro- 
ceeding in the relation, addeth, d Bk irpeafiuTepos — M but the Preaby- 
elder," saith he, "taking the youth home to his house;" &c* 
calling him a "presbyter" whom he had named a "Bishop" 
but just afore. So Tertullian, ApologeL c. 39, describing what 
was wont to be done in the assemblies of Christians, addcth 
President probati quiquc senior e$ y honorem i&tum non pretfo sed 
ttstimofrio atlrpti; M Elders all approved are presidents having 
obtained the honour by testimony not by reward;" not meaning 
to tell us that there was no Bishop to be seen at these meet- 
ings—for in his book De PrasrripL, where he nameth Poly- 
carpus, whom we alleged afore J , cap. 32, Bishop of Smyrna, he 
speaketh as much of Bishops that succeeded the Apostles in the 
rest of the Churches of their plantings — but comprising both 
ranks and estates in one name of " ciders ; " and that, upon the 
reason specified in the commentaries under St. Ambrose's 
77 name, upon I Tim* iii. S\ where he giveth the reason why the 


f Fresh y ten sac cr Jot es v ocantur. qui a 
sacrum dant, &icut et EpiGcopi, qui licet 
si nt Sacerdnte*. tamen Pontine at tin api- 
cem non habent. — Isidor. Hiapa). Ety- 
mol lib. vii cap* xiL 2L torn. Iii p. 342, 
Rom. 179fl. 

h Ac Tidcnhur universe, qui cum que 
& ectasia in adminuitrabant, pet ill nil 
!mm]ilis nomcn utrumque consecuti, ic 
tarn Kpihcupi, vocati quam Presbyter! t 
qui i run i iuiiniiiuni t Lt]torumaciirationect 
inapectione; altcrum ab &tate primum. 


turn ab honore ac dignitate aumptum 
efct. — Dion. Petnvii Theologic. 
Ecele*. Hierarclnlib. iv. c;ip. *j. 2. torn, 
iv* p. 142. Antvrrp. 1700. 

1 Quk dives Hjklvetur. cap* xlii. p. 
059* ed* Vend. 

i Cbap, iv. acct, 13. 

h Post Episcopum tamen diaco- 
natfis urdiualionem eubjecit- Quare, 
nisi i|tua Epiacapi et preabyteri una 
ordinal io est ; Uteraue enim sacerdos 
eat, a*d Episcopus primus e»t, nt omnia 



c " } R Apostle passeth straight from Bishops to deacons ; because, 

* — saith he, ** every Bishop is a presbyter, though every presbyter 

is not a Bishop, who is the chief of prcsliyters," Arid the true 
St. Ambrose 1 , Offic* L 20. Vidwtrum ac viryinum domos, nisi 
visitajtdi gratia, Jumorcg adire nan est opus : et hoc cum sent* 
hU*i hoc est, vel mm Episcopo 9 vcl, si f/rarior est coma* cum 
presbyteri*— 1 * It is not expedient that the younger go to 
the widows* and virgins' houses unless it be to visit, and that 
with the elders," sailh he ; " that is, with the Bishop, or if 
need be with the presbyters*" Justin Martyr, in his first" 1 
Apology, relating the orders of Christians in their assemblies, 
having spoken of reading the Scriptures, ** Then," saith he, 
" the reader having done, 6 irpoetrraH i the ruler, maketh a 
speech of instruction to the people, exhorting them to imitate 
what was read",™ And again, of the Eucharist: "Then," 
saith lie, *' bread and wine is offered to the ruler,*' t$ irpoe- 
crTftjT* . Was it the Bishop alone, or the presbyters alone, that 
preached and celebrated the Eucharist ? Sure both did it ; 78 
and the name of Trpoearay? was chosen on purpose by Justin to 
comprise both* 

<*■ §5. The same is to be observed in the words of St. Augus- 
tine?, Horn. ult. ex quiuqufighrfa, cap. 11, Venial [peecator] ad 

antistiteSy per tptas ilii in A\v/r*/Vi dares mtmstrantur^et 

• « * a pr&positis mcramentonan accipiat mti&faetionis 

suwmodum" "Let the sinner come to the president by whom 

the keys are ministered to him in the Church and let 

him receive the measure of his satisfaction from those that 
are set over holy things." Antistites in Ecclesia is not the 
Bishop alone, but the Bishop and the presbyters, llegesippus 
in Eusebius, Ecdes* HUL Hi. 20, rclateth how some of our 
Lord's kindred were brought afore Domitian upon suspicion 
of danger to the state, in regard of their title to the kingdom, 

Epiacopus presbyter *ii, non tamen 
onmb presbyter Epitoogmi \ hie enim 
K^iHcojrus est, qui inter presbyteros pri- 
mus cut. — Tom. iL col, 295, ed. Hen. 

1 S. Amhrosii de officiis Ministro- 
rum, lb, L xx. 87, torn. ii. coll. 24, 25, 

m Thomdike wrote ** h\a seconds" as 
it wu In the editions of hi* day. 

B EiTtt -ravtrafttvov tov &vayivu><rKov- 
toi 6 rpQfirrJits *ii \6yau t$v vovQtftiav 
*al wpfak-rjiftv Trji t&* koAmv to&tm 

lufifattts Trowrau — Apol. L cip. 67* fh 
83, id. Ben. 

T-ffi *0jt^T, fiprys irpa&<p4p€?ai ko1 olros 
jcal t/iwp, ib. referring to fir* [ to; vpmr- 
<f>tp€Ttn t^j TTpattn Qrt trntr &Ht\(pa>p 

&pTor Ifdl TTGTTffHQV tfSaTOI Kfll Kpd^aTOt. 

— cap. 6 J. p. 82, 

* o. Augustmi »ctm, 351. de Pceni- 
tentia, torn, v* roL 1 359, ed. Ben. 

or cur lie n es. 


l)iit dismissed by him upon notice of their profession of life in chap, 

tilling their grounds with their ovra hands, tried by the hard ■ — 

ness of them which it had wrought* " These," saith llege- 
aippus, " were hereupon chosen t)yTJaao-0at t&v *EKK\i}<rt£>V) 

79 to be leaders of Churches, as both cousins of our Lord and 
His witnesses^ ; M comprehending both Bishop and presbyters 
in one title. As in Ignatius', ad Trails oi ijyovfievot tmv 'E/e- 
Kkt}<n^v^ "the rulers of Church c *" is put in one word to express 
Bishops and presbyters both, as the circumstance of the place 
will evidence. To this we must add the words of Iron a? us, iv. 
43 ; " Wherefore," saith he, " it behovcth us to obey the elders 
that are in the Church, which have received, according to the 
Father's pleasure f the certain grace of truth, with the succession 
of their bishopric*." And again, iiu *2 f he speaketh of the 
tradition "coming from the Apostles, which had been pre- 
served in the Churches through the succession of presbyters 1 ," 
Iremeus, that is wont to appeal to the succession of Bishops, 
to evidence that which the Church then Ijelieved to have come 
from the Apostles, here referreth himself to the presbyters for 

80 the same purpose, affirming that they succeeded the Apostles; 
without doubt calling the Bishops by the name of "pres- 
byters,* in regard of the office common to both. 

§ 6, Thus are both ranks comprised in one name of wpoev* [vpo«4rr&- 
tmt&z in the first canon of the Council at Antioehia", where wc "*' J 
read, El &e rt? rS/P irpoecTTQrr&p ttJv 'EtcKkrjvim *fJ7rar«07rw, ij 
wp€&fivrepOi t rj hwLKGv&r " If any of the presidents of the 
Church, Bishop, presbyter, or deacon : * where we are not to 
conceive that deacons are reckoned among the TrpoeoT&jTfe, a* 
hath been mistook ; but the sense is to be directed by distin- 
guishing the words thus: EI tw twv frpoetrTarttov rift "EKfcXr^ia^ 
(*Eirt&tctrmy; ^ Trpt&fivrepos;) 4 &*S*0M09j reckoning the wpoe- 
<TT&re?, as well presbyters as Bishops, neither more nor less 

' Ekk&tj fndrv uri hit 8^ p.dpTvpa$ 6pav kqI 
itrh y§rwt% ftrras tow KvploVr — KuM'b. 
Hist Eccles, iii. 20, p* !M» # e<L Vale*. 

Tcuj trupw^poiirtut pot 'EKicATjfria** rau 
&*ou A &w W trfoi'fixvol fit nark wmr &#4* 
iravd'u', aafiKi ti koI wvt opart, — EpisC 
tnterp* cap, iiL p. 7L cd. Coteler- 

* Wuaproptct cia, qui in Ecclcai* 
*uni, pafltbjtttii nhaurtire opoilct, hi* 
qui auccegsionem li»bent ab ApuKtolh, 

ricut oatendimu*; qui cum Em*cop**ui 
^*ione chariama veniatfo cerium, 
secundum p taciturn Patria, accept runt, 
— S. Irt-njcj, lib. iv. cap, x*vL 2. p, 2(JZ 
ccL Ben* 

* Cum antem ad earn ItOttB iradj* 
tioiifTTj, qua? c«t ab Apo%loli« l quae per 
«uccc?aiuTii^ prcabyterorura in Eecjcuia 
dtatixiitur, provocaniuj «*i,— Lib. iii 
• a p. ii* 2, p. 17a. 

■ Concit Antiochi-n. AD. 311, L*b- 
bci t torn, it coL 585, «L Vtn*L 


r II AP 

than antistites in Latin, which wc had in St. Augustine before* 
Ant! thus you have both ranks comprised in the same style, 
of prfiposth in St. ( \prian, and of prttsidentes in TVrtullian. 
The first, EpisL 6*2*, Et titflU vmncs onmino disripliuam trnere 
oporteat, multo magi* propositus et diac&ttos curare hoc fas est, 
** And seeing all utterly arc to observe discipline, much more 
is it just that the presidents look to this/' The other, De Cor, 
mil* c. iiL EuehtiristitE sacramentum * * , , net de aliornm rnanu 
quam pr&sidvntium sumimus, " Wc receive the Sacrament 
of the Eucharist from do other hands but of the presidents'," 




What pat- 
tern thia 

Inn- in 

Bbtift, ] 

Before wc leave this point, it will not be amiss to take 
notice what pattern the Apostles might have for this form of 
government in the synagogue* For when our Lord In the 
Gospel, Matt xviti. 17, giveth His disciples, in the case of 
private offences, the rule, Die Ecclesia, it is to be supposed 
lie rcilccteth upon some bench to which that people were wont 
to resort with their causes— otherwise what could the hearers 82 
understand by these words? — intimating that His will was, 
the Church* which He was now founding, to be provided of 
the like. Nevertheless, in regard this Church was intended 
a mere spiritual state, to be cherished and nourished in the 
bosom and entrails, as it were, of all commonwealths, there 
must no comparison be made in that which conccrncth the 
temporal state of that people* 

§ 2* Let us see, then, Moses' charge. Deut xvii. 8, 9, thus 
we read: u If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, 
between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between 
stroke and stroke, being matters of controversy within thy 
gates ; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up into the place 
which the Lord thy God shall choose ; and thou shalt come 
unto the priests and Levites, and to the judges that shall be 

■ Ep, iv. ad Fomponmm. p. 8. ed. Ojeod. 100ft, 


[TJip prai^ 
3d "('the 


in those days, and enquire | and they shall shew thee the sen- t 

83 tence of judgment" He that rcadcth here on the one side 
two sorts of persons — the "priests and Levitcs 1 ' for one, and 
"the judge that shall be in those days;" on the other nde* 
two sorts of causes— one concerning ceremonies of the religion 
in force, the other the civil laws of that people, hath cause 
to think that the meaning of this law h, that they should 
resort to several person s ? according to the differences of their 
causes : especially, being indifferent in the words, to translate 
it thus: "Thou shalt come to the priests, the Levi tea, or to 
the judge that shall be in those days," as after, verse 12, it is 
read. Had it been thus, the correspondence had been clear 
between the High-priest and his inferiors in the synagogue, 
and the Hi shop and his presbyters in the Church* 

§ & But the practice of the nation beareth it otherwise ; in 

84 which we must believe their doctors, when they tell us that the 
whole passage — as well that of u the priests and Levi tea," as 
that of M the judge that shall be in those days," — is referred to 
the Sanhedrin, whereof li. Isaac Abarbanel giveth this reason 
in his commentaries upon that place: because that court for a 
great part consisted of priests and Levites, and therefore hail 
the hearing of all sorts of causes K And though they were 
brought hither from lower courts — whereof there was one of 
three and twenty persons in every place which contained one 
hundred and twenty families, one of three in less places — by 
the judges themselves, as the Hebrew doctors will have it, 
arguing from the words, ** thou shah arise " — " thou that 
iindest a matter too hard for thee in judgment shah arise ;" 
yet can we compare the consistory of the Church with no 
court but this; first, because all mother- Churches in mother- 

B5 cities are absolute in their rule, as to those Churches or con- 
gregations that depend upon them, as members on the whole* 
But as to the Churches of more eminent cities, they arc all — 
by the subordination wherein the unity of the Church con- 

f Hebnti hune Terrain refenmt ad 

concilium Sanhedrim quod irat #11111- 
Tnum, itntaj jm f lift mt riti, ct judicabat 
dc icjrc, rege ct prophet*, ad illudque 
erat ultima appelJatio. I\»m> Sanlie- 
drim con«lanit ' ■ j ui tarn tx 

Sacerdotibus ijiiam ex pnrnariit firif 
raj usque tribu* anumtbaittur, qiiati 

till hie inullipsntnr per rb judicein, id 
eat judice*, ut v • ir -. *\. d. 

I ad SawerduU 1 * et ad judice*, nl 
eal p am com -ilium Sanbedrim m qajp 
huh Sat .. rdotca, et judict* SvcuU; c* t 
quibua mninlfaui pnecat its mum* I 
tifex* — Comet a Lapide in Deutcr 
cap, xvii 9. 




Aaron ami 


of the Ran- 
* irli the 
and |WJi 

sistcth — to depend upon the same *■ And again : because Jeru- 
salem was the only scat of the whole state of religion and 
justice both, in that people, — sacrifices being done no where 
else, — and the chief causes in religion brought to no court 
hut this. 

5 4. Well then, as Ignatius, in one of his epistles*, dis- 
tinguishelh two parts of the Bishop's office, r& apjpw, koX to 
UpaTevetv — **to rule the Church, and to perform divine ser- 
vice;" so must we enquire the correspondency of the Church 
With the synagogue in both respects; reflecting from the 
Bishop and presbyters, in regard of divine service to be per- 
formed by their hands, upon Aaron and his sons, or the M 
High-priest and the rest; as St. Ilicrome hath done before 
us writing in these terms, Epist ad Evangel*: Quod Aaron, 
etJiUi e/W, atfpir Levi to; in templo furrunU hoc *ibi Episcapi f et 
preshyteri f et dlaconi vrndimit m Ecckiia* if What Aaron 
and his sons and the Levitcs were in the temple, that let 
the Bishop, presbyter, and deacons challenge to themselves 
in the Church.** 

§ 5- But in respect of government and discipline, — whereof 
our Lord speaketh in the Gospel aforesaid — we must reflect 
upon the Sanhedrin* as the same St Hierome hath done in 
another place, upon the first to Titus d , saying of Bishops in 
respect of their presbyters, Imitantc* Mogsmt^ ytri, qumn 
hahewt in potestate solus pr&esse populo Israel \ scptuufftnta elegit, 
cum ambus populumjudicareL u Imitating Moses, who having 
in his power to be over the people of Israel alone, chose 

■ "So fax an the Scripture bath ap- 
pointed H T otherwise than as the law 
of love tieih Christians to assist one 
another'* necessities ; our Lord and 
His Apotfles having instituted po other 
judicatories in spirituA-l matters but one 
of these presbyteries in each Church, 
and many of them in several Churches, 
when the matter required common ad- 
vice**' Thin passage in the first edition 
was instead of that between the words 
u their rule," and "And again/' 

* *Ewtimowav Bl t ws apxitpta, ©#oD «f- 
tttiva fpapovyra HtXTapty *b &px fty * 0*ol», 
Kara Hi rb Upartvav, Xpiffrair xa\ pttf cl 
toitov Ti^y xprh jcai fiaaXta. — Ep. 
(nlerp. ad Smynuros, cap. ix. p. !«1. 
f.l. Cotter > 

M Plpbt, rtrl Ev Angel ii m. tank iv. coL 

803, ed. Ben. 

c Here Thorndike alludes to the 
question discussed in the Schools- — 
whether the Episcopate he a distinct 
order from the Priesthood. Viewed 
in relation to the celebration of the 
Eucharist they are one ; for the Priest 
has power to consecrate as fully a* the 
Bishop; hut in relation to the discipline 
of the Church they are distinct orders: 
the Priest is subject to the Bishop, In 
the former case Aaron and his sous, 
who were of but one order in the 
temple, arc types ; in the latter the 
authority of Motes shadowed forth the 
jurisdiction of the Episcopate over the 
whole body mystical of Christ- 

A Comment, in Ep. ad Titum, esp. 
l ver, & torn, iv» col. 114. ctl. Ben. 



seventy with whom he might judge the people." So then, chap, 

Moses' spirit is taken and divided upon seventy elders, to 

help him to bear the charge of the people, Num, xi. 25. 
The same thing is done when the Apostles ordain presby- 
teries by imposition of hands. Therefore we sec the spirit of 

b7 prophecy rest upon the presbytery by which Timothy was 
ordained, as well as upon that of Antioehiaj no otherwise than 
it did upon Moses* Sanhedrin, Num. xi* 26* To continue* 
and procure the continuance whereof upon their successors, 
it was * that this court sat in the temple ; as the old Hebrew 
doctors observe, it is said, " thou shalt go up to the place 
which I shall choose;" signifying that the temple in which 
the Holy Ghost dwelt occasioned the influence of it upon the 
court that sat there. But when Moses was dead, a president 
was chosen, over and beside the seventy, whom they called 
the Nasi, to he in his stead from age to age, as H. Moses 
writcth in liilruth Sanhedrin^ cap. L Such is the Bishop, 
chief of the presbyters, after an Apostle. All the difference 
is this: the Sanhedrin is but one, as the nation to which God 
was known was hut one : whereas the Apostle and his suc- 

s a cessors remaineth head of so many presbyteries as his office of 
preaching the Gospel to all nations advise th him to institute, 
as hath been said. 



It is well enough known how this comparison, and the Prabytc- 
text that occasion eth it* is drawn into consequence, to prove p mei \ & 
that presbyteries were intended to consist part of ciders of the ""mUtto 
fi9 people, part of ministers of the Church*; as the Sanhedrin SP**** 

* This allude* to the 
of Calvin upon St Maith. xriii 16 — \% t 
who* la j elder* if atipported 

by reference to the Sinned- 
Potto qtttun a pud Judnro* prnr* 
ttonia p 

C H A R 


of some priests and Levi tea, some of the people. And it 19 
as well to be known what a forced presumption it is to re- 
quire correspondence between the Chureh and the synagogue 
in that point, which the difference of a mere spiritual and 
temporal commonwealth hringcth to pass. The Siinhedriri 
consisted of the chief of that people* as well as of priests and 
Levitcs; because the chief causes of that commonweatth, as 
well as of religion, passed through their hands. The Church 
is subject to a]] commonwealths, where it is maintained, in 
temporal matters f ; in those which concern the soul, whom 
shall we think our Lord ieaveth her in charge with, but those 
whom lie trusteth with the keys of His house? Who those 
are, we shall see anon. In the mean time, let this serve their 
turn that will needs presume that these presbyteries must con-uo 
sist part of lay persons *, as the Sanhcdrin, while we prove 
that,, de facto, they did consist of none but ministers of the 

§ 2. For upon this occasion, it will not be amiss here to 

oui"ffThe add the utmost of the rest whereupon that platform is 

|!!"n!l!i ir,f grounded ll1 Scripture ; which is 5 in effect, no more than 

purpose, that text of the Apostle, 1 Tim. v, IT, "Let the elders that 

rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially 

those that labour in the word and doctrine;" carrying, at the 

first sound, an appearance of two sorts of ciders — some 

preachers, others nothing but rulers \ It is seconded indeed, 

What is 

qui totius Ecclesb* personam gcrebant, 
apposite ChliitUf tunc demum puLlice 
ad Ecclesiam traduci dicit, qui pecea- 
runt . . . . * . Scimus ex quo reversifuc- 
ruut ab esilio Hahylonieo Judsei, dc- 
lecto cundlioquod vocabant, Sitihedrin, 
G rwci Sy ned ri a n t ma ndatam fuisse cen- 
iwatn Riorum et dnetrmie .»•«...,« t4 
Quod autcm sub lege servatum fucrat, 
diCUtUI ad iie»s trausiuisit* quia nobis 
communis est ratio cum anliquis Pa* 
tribu*. Neque eiiim consilium Christ! 
fuit, suosdiscipulos adSynagugam ablo 

gare Sed ad u tomtit in Et-eksisV 

sua tenendum esse ordiiiem qui priikm 
sub Lege s&ncte institulus fucrat, 

1 Rruf'iihiicft tion eat in Ecvteda r est 
EceleMarn non facere bella t non leges 
figcre, non po polos sub legihus coer- 
cerc T non res civilcs exercere, et similia: 
B e*t t si <m»mtan0tM in fa ■•fmblien 1 Chris- 
tian o& gub kgi bus Imperatorum \ivere 
protegi, quietatn v*tain sub vh et ex 

corum protectione, ducere et similia, 
— Nota Albupiuai in S* Optati de 
Schism. Donati&L L iii p. So\ Ant rem. 

* Atqui legitimam Ecclesiie g^uber- 
nationem presbytcris injunctam fuisse 
L:(iii!)tat,noii tan turn verbi ministris sod 
pd t ,r ph'bv ni&rum censom illis adjunct! 
eraoC — Calvin, ibid. 

* Qui Eoclesue regLndnJ secundum 
Chriati inrfimtioiiein prasuut, saith 
Calvin, numluantur a Paulo primum 
ApoNtoli riemde Prophet*, tertio- Evan- 
geljstfe, quarto Pastorea, pmtrewo Doe- 
lOMfei Ex qui bus duo tan turn ultuni 
ordinanuiH in EogJmm in u nun hahent, 
alios tre* initio rtgui sui Dominus ei- 
citavit, et susciUt etiarn intcrdum, 
prmit temporum neeesaitas postulaU 
Hi then proceeds to (five his notions 
of the duties of Apostles, Prophets, 
and Evangelists, concluding tkua: Se- 
qnunlur Paslores ae Doetorea qvubua 



by those passages of the Apostles wherein they reckon the CII ** P - 

graces, for the edification of the Church distributed upon the 

members of it, upon the ascension of Christ* Ephes. iv, 11, 
"some Apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, some pas- 
tors and doctors j w or else, both for edification and for other 

91 necessities, Horn, xii, 6, "prophesying, ministering, teaching, 
rxhurting, communicating, ruling ; " and, I Con xti. 28, 
"Apostles, prophets, teachers, miracles, gifts of healing, helps 
in government*, tongues ; " and afore, ver« 8, those gifts 
which are called "the manifestation of the Spirit, given to 
every man to profit withal," because of their use to the 
edification of the Church of that time, are reckoned as 
folio weth : " the word of wisdom, the word of knowledge, 
faith, gifts of healing, miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, 
tongues, interpretation of tongues;" and, 1 Pet iv. 11, "speak- 
ing, and ministering." But that which is gathered hence is but 
in consequence to the two sorts of elders, supposed out of the 
text aforesaid. For out of these passages are culled the gifts of 
"ruling," or "helps in government," and " ministering,"-— the 
offices of "pastors," of "doctors" or "teachers;" upon presump- 

92tion of the difference aforesaid, to argue that the ministries 
appointed to continue in the Church till our Lord's coming 
to judgment are that of pastors, to preach in the Church; 
that of "rulers," or " helps in the government" — elders of the 
people — to assist in ruling; and, last of all, "doctors" or 

carere numejuatn potest Ecclcsta, inter 
quoa hoe di sen minis esse puto T quod 
Doctnte* nee, Disciplime m.'C Sacra- 
niLUtorum admim*trali<Hii, OM monN 
tianibuKt aui Ltionibua preemunt, 

Bed Scripture tantuui in lerp relation em, 
ut sincera saitaque acKtrina inter fidclcs 
retineatur. Pastorale autem mum» 

omnia m *e cuntinet — Institut. 
lib. iv, cap. tii, ♦, Again, Colligere 
iiiitmi Mne licet, dno fuisse tunc prcs- 
hytcrorum genera; quia lion onirics ad 
docendurn orHmahantiir. Nam aperte 
verba sonant, quusdam bene el honeste 
pnefuiyte, qui bun tameu nou enmt 
comini&aiE doeendi partes. Et sane ex 
ptipulo delist' bantu r graves et pi 

'->, qui una cum pn&torihus com- 
Miuiii eonailta et authoritate Eecle*iw 
diacipLinora admmtatrarent, ac ttaettt 
quasi ettisoret moribus tomg&O^M, 
Hune more in Ambrosiui obaolevisse 

conqueritur doclorum ignavia, vel po~ 
tius superbia, duin soli vol mi t embiere. 
— Coniui. in J Ep. ad Tim. v, 17. He 
alludes to the Coinuicuhitii's ujjtm 1 
Tim. v. 1, attributed to St. Ambrose, 
the (rue inenning of' which Thwndlkt 
explains, in chap. ix. sect. y. Beta's 
note upon tbe seine place is to the *»ine 
HlWtj and Smart yiujiuua following 
their maaiera, write thus : M Wa will 
(to avoid prolixity) not urge those three 
known text*, of Script mi.' ( I Tiui. v. 
17; 1 Cor. xii. 2ft ; Itmn. xii. S) pro- 
duced by some tor tbe establishing of 
governing elders in tbe Church, Mil 
yet vindicated by the adversaries, nor 
will we urge that famous text of Am- 
brose in 1 Tim. v* pt — Sect, xv, p. G2. 

1 Tbe author's reading is that ol I In- 
version then in use. Sec Discourse of 
Ri.-li^ioua Assemblies, eb. iv. 



C H A P. 


The In. 
bmir of 

in the 
word and 

" teachers,^ to read lessons in point of religion* not meddling 
with government k ; besides deacons, to whom the gift of 
ministering belongeth. 

§ 3. Here, it is plain* there is work ent out; and sure it 
is a fit place to take into consideration the first part of that 
office we pretend to prove common to Bishop and presbyters, 
consisting in labour ** in the word and doctrine," as it was in 
the primitive time, and is understood by the Apostle ; which, 
withal, will make appear upon what sort of persons the rule 
of the Church WM cstatcd. Without doubt, when we have 
named the preservation of the true faith, by preventing the P3 
creeping in of heresies and errors — the instruction of those 
that are converted in the mysteries of the faith — diligence in 
propagating it, by converting more and more, — we have 
named a very great work of labour In the word and doctrine, 
and yet specified nothing but that which is contained in the 
presbyter's office from the beginning. For when the Apostle* 
Acts xx* 29, foretelleth to the presbyters of Ephcsus "the 
coming in of grievous wolves, that should not spare the 
flock," and " the rising up of perverse teachers," it is to the 
purpose to put them in mind, ver. 31, "to be watchful" of 
these things, as of their own charge; vouching withal his 
own example, ver. 20, "in preaching and teaching them, 
both in public and house by house, admonishing them with 
tears, every man in particular," as it followcth, ver* 31, for 
them in their place and rank to folio w. And the rule of the 9+ 
Apostle, Gal, vi 6, " Let him that is catechized communicate 
to him that catechteeth in all good things, 7 ' without doubt 
aimcth at this private way of instruction whereof we speak* 
Be the same said of the other Apostle's instructions to his 
elders, 1 Pet v. 2, " Fol-cI the flock of God which is among 
you, taking the oversight thereof not by constraint, but 
willingly, not for filthy lucre" — because it is said, "the elders 
that rule well are counted worthy of double honour," that is, 
reward — "but of a ready mind, neither as being lords of 
God's heritage, but being ensamples to the Hock." And 

k Dominus Calvmui {tii fallal- ) fiiit 
primus qui ex line feco [ 1 Tim. v. 17] 
*e mores deduxit, qui non doeercnt ud 
tantum censurre morum praecssent. I V 
Eexa Urtiam *pm^m addit. Scilicet 

Doctor em* quern a pit store diltuiguit 
quod hie pr ia, ille minimi ! 

— Defense Traetutiams dc divers. Mi- 
ni*!, Evangel. Grad. ah Hadriano Sara- 
vU, p. 131. Loud. WO. * 

of cHrnctiEs. 


again : the office of watching over the flock, by which the 
leaders of the Church are characterized, Ilcb. xiiL 7; the 
parts of a Bishop in the instructions of Timothy and Titus 
that concern teaching and instructing in the faith, as by the 

95 meaning of the words they may consist, so for my part they 
arc undoubtedly taken to consist most an end, for the time of 
the Apostles, in that private diligence, those abilities, thai 
watchfulness, that presbyters were to use in guiding and 
instructing particular persons of Christians ; which in conse- 
quence must be understood of that "labour in the word and 
doctrine" specified in the leading text, 1 Tim. v. 17* 

§ 4, And the reason shall be, because then, to the best of 
my judgment — which if it prove otherwise, then shall the 
spirits of the prophets be subject to the prophets— the work 
of preaching in the assemblies of Christians at that time— so 
far as we understand by the Apostle —went more by men's 
gifts than by their places in the Church* Read the fourteenth 
chapter of the first to the Corinthians throughout* and con- 
sider what great use there was of the gifts of prophesying and 

96 speaking strange languages in their assemblies, which the 
Apostle there regulate th ; sure you will never imagine — for 
there is not a syllable to intimate it— that these were all pres- 
byters, ordinary ministers in the Church* The like must be 
said of the gifts reckoned, ch, xii. 8, " the word of wisdom, 
the word of knowledge, discerning spirits.-* and the like ; of 
the gifts of "teaching" and "exhorting," Rom, xii. 7, 8 ; of 
"pastors" and "doctors" mentioned by the Apostle, Epru iv. 
11. The office of the presbyters at Thessakmica, the Apostle 
rccommendcth to the brethren there in these terms, I Thes, 
v. 12; "We beseech you, brethren, to know them which 
labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and 
admonish you; and to esteem them very highly in love, fbf 
their work's sake." But we are not bound to think thctn all 
the same persons, whose graces he recommendeth when he 

07addeth, ver. 19, 20, "Quench not the Spirit; despise not 
prophesying." Acts xiii. 1, there were in the Church of 
Autiochia "prophets" and "teachers;" and of them they 
were that gave Paul and Barnabas "imposition of hands." 
Viid, 1 Tiro, iv. 14, these arc those that "prophesied" of 
him ; and presbyters they were, 1 suppose, that gave him 




hi.J H<tJl 


unflor Ihe 




from ihe 

of the 


"imposition of hands " with tlie Apostle. And so it was 
argued from hence afore^ that the spirit of prophecy rested 
upon those presbyteries* But that all such prophets were 
presbyters, or all presbyters such prophets, neither is it 
written in God's book, nor of itself credible, in such variety of 
graces specified; which all being given for edification, and used 
in the assemblies to that purpose, must either rest in the rank 
of ordinary ministers, or be counted personal and miraculous 
graces 1 , used for the edification of the Church, in supplement 
of their endeavours which have served the turn in after-ages. 98 

§ 5. lie that wrote the commentaries upon St, Paul's 
epistles, under St. Ambrose's" 1 name, upon Ephe& iv, 1 ] t 
12, having laboured to accommodate the gifts there speci- 
fied to the ministries then in use in the Church, is at 
length driven to this point ; Tnmm postqunm in omnibus /oris 
Eee/esien sunt WMfftYlfflg, et officia ordhmta^ alitcr camposita res 
est quam cceperat. Primum enim omnes docelmnt f et omnes 
baptiztthtinty fjuibuscunque tlitbtts vel tempotibus j'nissct occasio* 
n Notwithstanding after Churches were settled in all places, 
and offices ordained, the business was ordered otherwise than 
at the beginning. For at the first all taught, and all baptized. 
on what days or time soever there was occasion*" And after 
a while : Ut ergo cresceret plebs et multiplied retur, omnibus 
inter i/iitia concession est et evangelizare^ et baptizar* 1 ^ et Scrip- 
turas in Eccksia expkinare* " Therefore that the people 
might increase and multiply, at first it was granted to all to 
publish the Gospel, to baptize, and to expound the Scriptures 
in the Church. n That which he saith of all persons publish- 
ing the Gospel, is justified by that which we read Acts viiL 
4: "Therefore they that were scattered abroad, went every 
where preaching the word," And again. Acts xi, 19: " Now 93 
they which were scattered abroad upon the persecution that 
arose about Stephen, travelled as far as Pfao&nice, and Cyprus, 
and Antiochia, preaching the word to none but unto the 
Jews only." That which he saith of expounding the Scrip- 
tures, that is, "speaking in the Church " will be justified no 
less, if it be referred to that variety of gifts specified out of 

1 "Personal and miraculous grace*:*' 
the first edition read* thus, " or be 
counted personal grace*, whether mira- 

culous or otherwise, used for** &ft 

* S« Ambros. Opp. torn, ii col. 241. 
ed, Den. 



the Apostle, most an end miraculous, and concerning that 
time, the use whereof was for edification in the assemblies. 
And the reason that is to be given for this must needs appear 
very considerable i because that among men chosen out of 
those that were newly converted to the faith in their elder 
years, for which they are called " presbyters, 11 and that in 
respect of other kind of abilities, tending to other parts of 
their office, there should be found men fit to speak in public 

100 assemblies upon human parts and endeavours, so as to pre- 
serve the decorum and reverence of so great a work, is be- 
yond the compass of common discretion to imagine 11 ; these 
qualities being not often found but in those that are habituated 
to them from their youth. Do but look on those of our 
Lord's kindred that confessed Him before Domitian, and 
therefore were made leaders of Churches, as was related be- 
fore from Ilegesippus , and think whether men, whose hands 
were hardened with the plough, already struck in years, were 
fit to make preachers when they were made rulers of Churches : 
so far is it from us to think, that in the cradle of the Church 
no presbyter was made but for his abilities in preaching p , 

§ 6. Let us now look hack a little upon the platform 
pretended, and ask what commission men have to turn 
temporary endowments into perpetual places? or according 

101 to personal gifts and graces to distinguish oecumenical offices? 
— And yet it will not appear that ever pastors were distin- 
guished from doctors by the Apostle ; for he never said, that 
Christ hath given "some pastors, some doctors;" but his words 

■ Qutliiu ergo docetvdi m unit a in- 
junctum crat, eos omnes nomittabant 
prealiylcxGiv ..... Hahcbaitt ergo sin- 
gula? emtates Presbyter orum Colle- 

Sum, qui Pastures erant ac Doctor?*, 
im et a pud populum muims dncendi, 
exhortandi et corrigendi, quod P&iUua 
E pi sco pis inj illicit* omnesotiibaiit , . .• . 
tam Episcopumi|uain Presby teres verbi 
et Sacrameiitorum dispensationi incurn- 

fuen opoHuh . . r . valojj < Fg0 diu 

illud in Eci'k'Kiaut prima Epigcopi partes 
esst'iit, popnlum verba Dei pasccre, ami 
edific&re Ecclestam publico ac privntim 
aana dofiriua. — CaMn. Institut. Hb. I v. 
cap, iv. 2, 3, He uae* the word* Eplseo- 
pus and Presbyter for the tame order. 

■ Chap. vii. acct. 5* 
* " For to be able to teach, and m>t 

to be a novice* are placet! before aa tbe 


essential points required it* every law- 
ful pastor and doctor «f the Church, 
win i>'Ky hv rii libretti fro in the rc*l of 
the Church, which in cvt-ry tpidbil of 
it ought to have the either qua Illicit 
there required of a Bishop. And there* 
fore W€ newr read in ficriptttr* aj any 
to %uhom fhp adminutratitm of Sacra* 
7itrnf.t wax eummiUeti, which were twt 
trusted uith the prraehing t*f the word*'* 
— Cart wright* a Annotation* on I Tim. 
v. 17. p. 573. Again, "The want 
of wifflflUBl i n misters ought to be no 
cause for men to break the unchangeable 
laws of God, which be thut none may 
be made minister of the Church, which 
cannot teacli ; that none minUter the 
Sacrament* which da not preach**" — Cart- 
wright's Reply to Whitgift, p. 104 
seir. S, 





CHAR are, Ephcs. iv. 11, that lie gave "some pastors and doctors,' 

— — having said afore, that " He gave some Apostles, some evi 

^clists, some prophets," distinguishing these, but comprising 
those % — If teaching and preaching must make two offices, as 
then they were two graces, why shall not exhorting come in for 
a share, and demand that there may be an office institute*! for 
the purpose of it, as well as for teaching, which it standeth in 
equipage with Rom. xtL 7, 8 ? Why should not the word 
wisdom and the WGfd of knowledge do the like? for these, 
mentioned 1 Cor. xii. 8, are of perpetual use, although 
prophecies and strange languages were but for the time. M 
There is one good reason to be given and no more : because 
perpetual ministries are one thing, temporary gifts arc another 
thing. Those we know, by the institution of them in Scrip-* 
tu re, — by the office of them specified in the Acts and in the 
epistles, — by the practice of them in all ages of the Church; 
these we know were in the time of the Apostle, but not ini 
tuled for ministries, because not continued. 

§ 7. The office of presbyters, we know, was both 
bcimig io B government and teaching : both are found in St Petei 
t!re^bytcrs exhortation to the presbyters of his charge, 1 Pet, w. 2, 
** feeding" the nock, and "overseeing" it; both in St, Paul's 
charge to the presbyters of Ephesus, Acts xx* 28, and after- 
wards ; both in the qualities of Bishops— that is, as is ac- 
knowledged, of presbyters — wherein Timothy is instructed 
by the Apostle, 1 Tim. in. 2, 5; both contained in that very 
passage that is alleged to bring in a difference of presbyters, 103 
I Tim. v. 17 j for those elders that u rule well," arc such as 
"labour in the word and doctrine." Why might not the 
Apostle then difference presbyters by the execution of their 
functions, as well as by the functions themselves? Why 
might not some presbyters shew more diligence in the most 
eminent point of the office — taking special pains in the word 
and doctrine, which special pains the word xoTrtwin-^ mgni- 
fielh — and yet others be counted worthy of double honour, 
and good rulers, as well in respect of their diligence in the 

ami ruling 

* Nee vero putaiidum, quod si cut in 
supermh bus iribua, alios dixit esse 
Apostolus,, alius Frophetas, alios Evjtn- 
gelistas : ita el in pasta ri bus et magis- 
tral offieia di versa pcHmerit Non enim 

Bit | alio* a ur fin pastorea et alios nui- 
:• i M I. , stul , Liofl pastel < - el maglftMfti 
ut qui pastor est, esse debeat et uiapiMer* 
R Hiepnnymi Comm, lib. iL in Ep. Hd 
Kplies. iv. 1 1, toin. it, col, 365. e4 Bei 



prime point as of their performance in the rest? The per- chap. 
sonal gifts of the Holy Ghost were then distributed on several — — — 
persons, as the Apostle shewetkj that all might be useful, and 
such endowments, in the time of spiritual graces, might be 

104 employed to the edification of assemblies, as well as the gifts 
of ruling, to assist the presbyters in their office of government. 
But he that would take order now, that who could pretend a 
gift in ruling should be helpers in government, or in the word 
of wisdom and knowledge should stand up to edify assemblies, 
might soon find more help m government, more words of 
wisdom and knowledge, and in time more prophesying, than 
himself would desire. Well may we turn the world into con- 
fusion, if we think to do what then was done ; but shall never 
find any ministries of place and succession in the Church but 
presbyters and deacons — for of the coming-in of Bishops hath 
been said — to the parts of whose office, consisting iti ruling 
teaching, and ministering, all those other gifts of the Holy 
Ghost are to be referred as assistant at that time ; and from 

105 whose office, and the ordinary blessing of God upon it, the 
effect of them all is to be expected at this time. 

§ 8, For let me ask, what is become of those ** doctors," K* ootau 
distinguished from " pastors," in M succeeding ages? Where cjderiin 
have those M ruling elders" hid themselves, that they were {JX*^ 
never seen since the time of the Apostles ? Is it possible that Ch urch. 
the whole Church should conspire to suppress such an institu- 
tion of our Lord and His Apostles, almost as soon as it was 
made ? Or is it imaginable, had It not been suppressed, that 
all ecclesiastical writers, whereof there is such store, should 
conspire so far to suppress the remembrance of it, that among 
them all there is not one witness produced to depose for them, 
unless it be by those that bring the meaning with them which 
they desire to find in their writings'^? Were we alive in 

T " If then these elders were the go- 
vernors of the ancient Church, — as T, 
Cartwright and hia fellows boldly 
avouch i, against all record of story — 
how chance their nan it.'* are not re- 
corded ? why is not their succ 
noted? why do we find no mention 
of any action done hy them I why is 
tbe mem or> i *d<Icn 

under foul and abolished i why alum Id 
the proceedings of the rider* of late 

Churches he more famous now than in 
Hint* past ? Wlierefore, either let ua 
have some record of their names, Uvea 
and doings shewed, or else let the dis- 
ciplinarians acknowledge that elders, 
though they have their name of age, 
are hut new-born infants, and ln< 
succession from ihe ancient fathers of 
•liureli."— Sutclille. Treatise of 
Kicks, Disc-ip). eh, iv. sect 3. p, 127. 
London! 15t*0 + 




[N->r in 
the later 

Tertullian's time, we might go into the assemblies of CI 
tians, and see with our eyes what now will not be believed, l 
though it be told us in terms plain enough to them that will 
understand, when he saith as afore. President probati qirifut 
seniores, Iwnorem is t tun nan pretio sed testimanio adepti\ We 
might sec them sitting in the head-room of the congregation 
by themselves apart from the people: whereupon they are 
called by him otherwhiles orrfb and 00$ti*uut\ And mm 
there oeeasion to see any of them censured to the loss of bis 
office, we might see him for his punishment sit and commu- 
nicate in the rank of the people. 

§ 9, It hath not been my lot yet to meet with any thing 
in ecclesiastical writers* or out of them, to hear an appearance 
of this difference, but only those words of the commentaries 
under St Ambroses' 1 name upon 1 Tim, v. 1 : Unde et 
SfynapOffOt et postea Ecctr&ia, senior es hahuit^ quorum sine 
consilio nihil agebatur in Ercfesia. lie spcaketh in the time I ft? 
past, of that which had been in the Church, and was not ; 
and without doubt giveth men of excellent abilities, men of 
incomparable merit in the Church, occasion to mistake his 
n Killing* as if he had spoke of a sort of presbyters which 
had been in the Church, and now were not K ; whereas they 
should have taken the whole clause with them, when he saith, 

Unde et postea Eeclesia seniores habuit* quorum sine 

consilio nihil agebatttr in Ecclesia ; and then his meaning had 
been plain, as in truth it is, that the Church once had pres- 
byters that joined advice with the Bishop in all Church 
matters ; which my desire is to prove was so from the begin- 
ning, and which he complaineth was now otherwise. For so 
St Hierome, about the same time, manifestly declarcth that 
he thought an alteration in this point was come to pass, when 
he saith, that at the first Churches were governed by common ids 
ea. ed. 

» Apologet tap, xxxix. p, 

Pam — See chap. vL sect. 4- 

1 Different iam inter ordinem et ple- 
bem con&tituit Ecelesiaf auctoritas, et 
honor per orclinb conses&utn sanctifi- 
catus a Deo. UbI Ecclesiastic! ardinis 
eat consensus, et offert et tingnit sacer- 
dos qui est ibi solu*. — EshnrtaL ad 
Castit. cap, 7. p. 041. ed. Pom. 

u S, AtnbniR. Opp. torn, ii coL 298* 
erl. Ben, 

■ Archbishop Whit^ft in ** The An- 

swer to the Admonition/* p. 162. 
says, " Both the names and offices of 
Sen ton wan (were) extinguished before 
Ambrose's time, as he him self doth tes- 
tify writing upon the first of the fifih to 
Timothy/* And in M The Defense of 
the Answer to the Admonition/* Tract 
17, eh. 1. div. 2* p. 0*28. Also Hadrian 
Sara via " de diversis gradibus mini- 
fitrerum Evangeli)," c. *iL p. 13* and 
Juatellus, in his notes upon the African 
Canons, p. 438, can, 100, e<L Paris 1661. 



advice, but afterwards all was referred to one, hereupon ex- c n a p. 

horting Bishops to communicate the government of their '- — 

Churches with their presbyters* as Moses did his with the 
Sanhedrin of Israel*. And this further appeareth by that 
which folio we th in the said commentaries : Quod qua neg- 
ligcntia obsoleverit neseio 3 nisi forte doetoriim demfin, aut magis 
snperhia^ dum soli volunt aliquid videri t " Which bj what 
negligence it came out of use I know not j unless by the 
sloth, or rather pride, of some doctors, desiring that nobody 
seem any thing beside themselves," — imputing the change to 
the negligence of u teachers/* or to their pride. And therefore 
they are '* teachers," that were called "elders" afore; and 
through their negligence, or the Bishops taking all on them- 
selves, all came into their hands; which perhaps may he 
referred to that which by and by shall be said, that the 
Bishops afterwards in some parts took the office of preaching 
109 in the mother-church where they lived, in a sort to their 
peculiar, not suffering the presbyters to preach in their 
presence K 

$ 10, Which office of preaching, nevertheless, as the matter prcach- 
is now, being become the necessary charge of Bishop and J^tly* 
presbyters — temporary graces being ceased and dioceses wtow** 
divided, churches built and means assigned — as it is without 
doubt, rod always was accounted* in regard of personal per- 
formance, the most excellent work they arc able to contribute 
to the service of God, so is it, for the use of edification, as 
much to be preferred before other their employment, as pro- 
phesying is by the Apostle preferred before speaking whh 
strange languages : always provided — since we must not now 
presume upon immediate inspirations 4 , but expect God*s 

f Commuut presbyterorum consilio 

Ecclerfa; gu hern aha ntur * • » , , 

pan latins vero ut dissent ion um pi ant aria 
evellerentur, ad unum umnem sol id t ad i* 
ncm esse <k< la tarn, Si cut ergo pres by- 
te ri sciunt *e ex Ecelesiit eon hue incline 
ei (jiii sibi propositus fuerit, esse imb- 
jeeto* : ita Episeupi mncrint *e magi* 
consuet ndinu t q nam disposition.* Domi- 
nica? veritate, presbyteris esse majorcs f 
et in comiuiitit' riebrrc Ecclesiain revere, 
BnklAtM tformii qui quitm hahcrct 

potentate iolus prices se populo Israel, 
scptuagint*. Hcpit cum quihus populuro 
judicaret* — S. Hicronyiti. in Epistol. 


ad Titum, cap. i. o. torn. jv. call. 413, 
414. cd. Bcned. 

■ The rule of the Eastern Church 
seem * to have been in this respect 
different from tliat which pre* ailed in 
the Western. In the former, presby- 
ters preached frequently ; in the Latter, 
St. Auguttine was the first Thomas- 
sinus, however* considers there was no 
rule, or at least* that it was not 

* '* Tktn, ax God gaw ttftrrawr, $kt§ 
pTtarht'd the word only* wsti* they read 
lu.uuliei, articles, injunctions* &c,'* — 
Admonition to the Parliament* quoted 



ordinary hi casing upon human endeavours — -that men and 
abilities may be stored fur the work before the work be cut 1 10 
out for them s so as the honour and reverence thereof may be 
preserved without offence. For as the Apostle with*, that if 
unbelievers should come into the assemblies of Christians, and 
hear them nothing hut speak languages which most under- 
stood not, they would say they were mad ; so> if the enemies 
of our profession should hear in our churches a great deal of 
tongue, but the meaning of the Scripture not in it* needs 
mnst this bring an evil opinion upon it. 



oTFicjcaor mviKF seevjc* I'EnroHMKD iw chief iit tee ui^uor ; after 


Well, then, this particular of labour in the word and doc- 
trine is out of doubt common to Bishop and presbyters both. 

Offices of 
tit vine 

perfroad It jg that which St. Peter most aimeth at when he exhorteth 
l-ytue those whom he catlcth his "fellow-elders" to the office of 

feeding the flock ; it is that which St. Paul for the most part 
expresseth, when he exhorteth the presbyters of Ephcsus to 
" take heed to the flock, which they were to feed/' Acts 
xx, 28, according to his example that "ceased not to warn 
every one night and day with tears," ver* 31 ; u teaching them 112 
both in public, and from house to housed as it is afore, ver. 20, 
And we shall find this office of teaching and instructing the 
Church to rest afterwards upon the Bishop in chief, and upon 
the presbyters in consequence, whether in private — upon 
particular occasions, whereof we find much argument of 
practice in St Cyprian's epistles e — or in public, in the assem- 
blies of Christians. For thus the matter went afterwards, the 
principal parts and offices of divine service — that is, the ser- 
mon, and the celebration of the Eucharist— were wont to be 
reserved to the Bishop, in honour of his place and the emi- 
nence of it, unless he were absent, or it were disposed of 

in Wluteiftfi Answer to the Admoni- 
tion, p. 93. Loud » n, lift, 

b 1 Cor. *iv. 23. 

r S*e Epp T Yiii> xiti. rv. 



otherwise. Which I take to be the reason why 
Marty r* in the place alleged afore d * related that the sermon 
was wont to be madc 3 and the Eucharist celebrated, by the 

llSTTpoetrr^, which name compriscth Bishop and presbyters 
bothj as hath been said ; because the office belonged to the 
Bishop in the first place, to the presbyters in case of his 
absence* or the like. 

§ 2. And you shall hear even now Ignatius'* argument to 
persuade the Ephcsians not to assemble for the Eucharist but 
with the Bishop; " For," saith he, "if the prayers of one or 
two have that force that Christ is in the midst of them, much 
more the prayers of the Bishop and Church:'* therefore it 
was the Bishop whose prayers the Eucharist was celebrated 
with. And in the life of St* Augustine f is related, that it 
was not the custom lor presbyters to preach in the Churches 
of Africa — that is, not if the Bishop were present — whereupon 
the Bishop Valerius, being a Greek, and not so fit to speak 
to the people in Latin, brought that into use there which he 
had seen practised in the East, and assumed St Augustine to 

iu assist him, by preaching in his presence* 

§ 3. The commentary under St* Ambrose's name, so 
often alleged, having said, upon Ephcs. i\\ 11, as we had it 
afore *> that at the first all sorts preached in the cburdi, but 
afterwards it was otherwise settled, prosecuted* it with 
these words: Unde nunc mque dhictmi in popwiQ prwdtawt. 
" Wherefore now neither do deacons preach to the people. " 
And of baptizing, Tertulltan lib* de Raptisma 3 cap. xviL 
Dundi tfttkb'M hubrt jns summus mcerdost qui est Ephcopus* 

Justin CIU l\ 

A Chap, vii. itft k 

* E* ykp ifbi Kal 5fuW|pcia Ttpo^titxh 

iv aural s lanLtfat* ttAatfi fiuAAov flr* tuu 
"Eiri(r*f(hrftu teal trdffru tjjj iKK\T)&la$ 
-wpontvx^in &e. — Ep. Interjund Ephe*. 
cap. v. ji, 47, eu\ Coteler* 

' Sanctus veru Valerius ordinator 
. . * . Dfu gratia* agebat *uas ex- 
audif at a Domino fuiHsc preces quas sc 
frequeotiidine ru&ace narrsbat, ul sibi 
divuiitus homa tHincedetctur talis qui 
posset verbo Dei et doctrina Suhibri 
EcclesUm Domini sdincare i cui rei 
se homo nalura Gruecus miii usque 
La tin a lingua et litteriw instruct us, mi- 
mis utilem pervidebaL Et eidem prcs- 

bytcro poteatatem, dedit coram se in 
Eodesia EvugcHuni ptteilicmidi, ac 
fTt*f] tiL'ntisftime tractandi, contra usum 
quid em et eonafuetudmecn Afriennarum 
Efldarom, unde ttiani ei nonnulli 
Episcopi detrahehnnt. Scd ilie vir 
vcuerabilU ae pro villus in < h 
Eccleiils Id ex more fieri sciens et cer- 
tua, et utilituti Ecclesiie. Consukns, 
obtrcctantium nou curab&tlinguaa dum- 
modu factitaretur a presbyter o t quod a 
se Episcopo impleri mini me posse cvt- 
nebaL — Possidius in vita S. Angus* 
tin! cap v« col. 261). Append* turn. 
x. ed. Ben. 

* In chap* ix. sect. 5. 

I. u 




Dekhtc presbyter* ct diaconi, mm to men sine Episcopi auetoritate, 
propter Ecclema* honorem. Quo salvo, xalva pux est ** The 
chief priest truly f that is, the Bishop, hath power to give it, 
then the presbyters and deacons, but not without the autho- 
rity of the Bishop, for the honour of the Church, which when 
it is safe, then is peace safe.** To shew us, that all services 
of the Church, even to baptize, belonged in chief to the Bishop, 
in respect to his place ; that, for the same reason, the presby- 
ters were silent in his presence, and the deacons not suffered 
at all to preach at that time. 
Order of § 4. Now, as the office common to Bishop and presbyters 
membilei ^" as and is seen in the services of the Church, so was it also \\$ 
bv J B^ho[> Scen m appointing the assemblies of the Church for that pur- 
nml pre*- pose. This we have here to observe, out of Ignatius* epistles 
— in consequence to that which was produced afore out of 
St. Paul and Clemens* concerning the disorders of the assem- 
blies at Corinth h — that to correct them, and to prevent the 
like, the order of the people's oblations, — of the presbyters 
celebrating the Eucharist, — of the assemblies of the Church 
for that purpose,— was regulated by the appointment of the 
Bishop and presbyters. His words arc these, EplsL ad 
Smyrn* ' : Qirtc e£oV iuri ^capis rov ^Eirur/coTrov ovre ffaTrri^ev, 
ovt€ wpoa^epetPjQuTG Bvatav TrpocKop.i^v^ ovre Bo^jjv iwiTckelv, 
—that ** without the Bishop neither might any man baptize," 
nor the people "bring their offerings,** nor presbyters " con- 
secrate the Eucharist," nor both " celebrate the feasts of love** 
used at these assemblies. 

§ 5. And for the purpose of this particular it is that he is lis 
so earnest and frequent, throughout his epistles, in exhorting 
to be subject to the Bishop and presbyters, Epht, ad TVfflflL 1 ; 
'O evros Toy Bvai&trrrjptou <iw, xadapos i<rrt r Sto tcaX viraKOvu 
T(f> ^Ewt&K&Trm Kol TOit Trpeaffmtpot*;. 6 B& €fCTQ<; &v, q&to<? itrriv 
6 %wpl$ TQV ^EwUTKOTTOV Kal T&P Trp€G$VT&p<x>V teal TWV StfL/COlWV 

ti TrpdG&wV)^" be that is within the altar,** saith he, "is pure; 
wherefore he obeyeth the Bishop and presbyters : but he that 
is without is he that doth any thing without the Bishop and 
preebyters [and deacons]. 1 ' He that is w without the altar" — 

h Cb. Hi. «ect 3, and ch, v. sect, £, 
1 Ep. Interp* e*|> k viii + p. 90, eel 

k Ep, Interp. cap, 

6& rcL 



in Ignatius' terms, "that doth things without the Bishop and 
presbyters" — is meant of those of the people that assembled, 
or those of the presbyters that celebrated the Eucharist wit li- 
on t the Bishop and presbyters, or their appointment; which 
was called "erecting altar against altar 1 " in the primitive time; 
for so Ignatius again, in the epistle to the Ephesians m ; " Let 
DO man mistake," saith he; "if a man be not within the altar, 

U7 he Cometh short of the bread of God* For if the prayer of 
one or two be of such force that Christ standcth in the midst 
of them, how much more shall the prayer wherein the Bishop 
and Church agree th"— that is, at the Eucharist, which he 
spoke of when he mentioned " the bread of God" afore — 
"prevail?" And therefore, in the end of that epistle 11 wra- 
fcovovre*; T<p ^ETruTiCQTrtp tcaX rm irpeo-fivrepifp, airepicnrdaTtp 
StavQiq, eua dprop teXwvT€s f 5 (fort ifxipfMUtap affavatrta^ — 
f * obeying the Bishop and presbyters without distraction of 
mind, breaking one bread, which is the medicine of immor- 
tality." A plain case. The intent of his exhortations is to 
persuade them to assemble without schism; because that to 
assemble and celebrate the Eucharist besides the Bishop's 
appointment was then the due mark of a schismatic. And 
that the presbyters concurred with him in ordering these 
matters, appcarcth by the obedience he reqinreth to both, 

ns And so still in Ignatius the presbyters are assistant to the 
Bishop in all things* And this is the meaning of that sixth 
canon of the council at Gangra, whereof the tenour is, "if 
any man assemble in private beside the Church, and will 
perform ecclesiastical offices in contempt of the Church, no 
presbyter being there with assent of the Bishop, let him be 

c II a P. 

1 Si qui* presbyter contcmnens Epi- 
nji suum, #eor*um collogvrU, et 
nliutl erexerit It 32. 

Contemti* KpWopi*, et Dei Knccrdoti- 
bua ilerdiciU conAtituere audut aliud 
alt* re, — S. Cyprian de l r nit a to Eccle- 
Mav tk 116. e*L Oxun, Aliud ajtare 

mi uui noerdoliflm novum fieri 

prater nam ahare, et unum sacer- 
dotium htm potML — S, Cyprian. Bfk. 
43. Uuivema? plebi, p, 83- M itiafl] 

majoreni Donaium a ca»is nipris, qui 
alttirt cuMtra nit tire in tadem eivitdte 
primus rr+rit — S. Auguattni con If. 
Crraeon. Donati&t. lib, ii. cap* L torn, 
ix. cot +10. od. Ben. BrfgtHJM rtHmv 

CMitrtt nhrirr, ut umtatem Cbristi dis- 
cord i i*fu rial ib usdissi panics. — Ejusdem 
Ep* 43. tutu, iL eoL UO. KpiscupUm 
contra EpbenpLim orditiuverunt altart 
rt'Htra mttatt frrticrnat* — Ep. 70* coL 
ISO, See also Psalm, contra partem 
Donnti* and S. Op tat us do Sebi>in. 
Donati&t. hb, L b lft cd I hi pin. Ant- 
werp 1702. 

m Mtj3* It irkavdff&tn, i&w m^ Til Jyrbs 
jj fau Sinftatmjpiou, utTTtpfTTOu tow 
Apron rot? 0*oi~. %l y&p twos, and ai 
in note e. — Ep* Interp. cap. v, p. 47. ed, 

■ Cap. **♦ p. 54. ed, Cotaltt. 

en a v. 


Ma in ten* 

ami piinr 

of like- 


anathema ;" providing herein against schism, as the occasion 
iii' that council cvidcnecthJ*. Wherewith agreeth the thirty- 
second 13 canon of the Apostles. 

§ 6. And in the seventh and eighth canon next following 
of the same council', there is provision against bringing or 
receiving oblations otherwise than to the Church, beside the 
Bishop's mind, or his that is trusted for these things, for the 
benefit of the poor, under pain of anathema ; the heaviness 
of the sentence proceeding upon the mark of schism which 
the action forbidden importcth, though there is in it a respect 1 19 
to the maintenance of the Church and poor, arising for that 
time out of the oblations of Christian people; the dispensing 
whereof was then another particular of the office common to 
Bishop and presbyters. For as we read, Acts xi. 30, that 
the benevolence of the brethren of Antiochia was directed to 
the elders at Jerusalem * by the hands of Barnabas and 
Saul*" though the seven deacons were made afore to attend 
upon the poor ; so are we not to think that their office went 
so high as to dispose of their maintenance, but to execute the 
disposition of Bishop and presbyters. For when the Church 
of Antiochia maintained three thousand poor, as is read in a 
passage of St. Chrysostom", the Church of Rome one thou- 
sand and five hundred in Cornelius' time, as is to be seen in 
his words related by Eusebius, Eceles, IlisL vL 43*, it is not 120 
reason to imagine that all this means was put in the power 
of the deacons; whose office St. Ilicrom 11 well cxprcsseth, 

iittt&yirii&itHi *co! KaTtitppav&v ttjv *Ek- 
#f ATjrrtas, t& ttJs *EKKk7j<rta.s i&i Km itpat- 
t#£K, jity avnivTtif Tot* itpffff&vTtpov kara 
yt'u>f*T}v roil 'E.irt(TK6wov, avddtpa fenh 
— Caiicll. Gangrcn*, circ A. 1>. _' I. 
Labbei* torn* it col* 42y* ed< Vim- 1. 

* Etiscbius of Sehaste in Armenia 

ondemiicd in this emmet.* who to 

his other errors added this, that he de- 

tpised the assemblies of the Church, 

and held private ones of his own. 

i Si q wis presbyter mute mnmji Epti- 
copum fcuum scorsum cn)1*gerit,vi I 
a.iud erexerit ..,.>. el ctftsti cleHcl 
quicunqut tali consent! Lint depot. an fur. 
In the Greek text this canon is the 

r KIT Tir Kopwutyaplas ^mcATrffiatfTj- 
tf&f i&ikoi \an$&it*iv % &ta6vat /{u ttji 
iKKKrtfrlar, ttapA. ypw^rj* tqu ifrt(nc6wov t 

ff to? tr'yuc f \( ifUfTjifvav ra roiavTa ♦ , , . Ef 
t.s 3j3o7 ^ &a.,u.0a.vot Kapirotpoptar wape- 

KThl TOU t-Kl&tt/tTTt3V t J} TQU FTTlTf TOy^XfyOV 

fis 1 tHx.rnfOp.iav ttnratas, «ai 6 Siftmn, wai 
6 i >¥ r avadt^ia forte Can n. vii, 

viii + ConeiL Gangrens, ut supra* 

' 'Y.vvfa}iTM ti trail i-ttaptctl tcatf l*d- 
ctttjk T { jj.tpav x"hp*i** Zffatt vapdivois { teal 
yap *h rbtf twc rpt &X * Ata f apifyib* A 
KardXoyas ainutv ttpQatrt.) — Horn, lsvi. 
in St, Matt, torn, ii. p, *22. ed. B 

* Xiipas ahv Q\i&Ofj.*vdi5 frrlp rk$ 
X'A^af vtyrattaa-tas' o?s "trdvrai ^ to* 
A* (tw6tqv X^pa ncu <pt\ar$panria Siarpf* 
#€i*— p. 2*t. ed, Vale** 

n Nam quuin Apostolus perspicue 
dooeat eosdem esse presbyte?«>H quo* 
Kpiscopoa, qui* patiatur numaarum et 
vidunrum minister, ut supra eos ae 
tijinidiis efferat, ad quomm prcces 
CbrtKii eorpuH Hanpuiscpic cnnfteiturt 


when he calleth them memarum €t mduarum ministrm* as chap. 

those that "ministered/' not " disposed," of their maintenance, '■ — 

— Though perhaps the advantage of fingering money was it 
that made them take so much upon them in his time, whereof 
he complainctb. Nay, it is plain this must rest in the power 
of Bishop and presbyters by the portions and divisions there- 
of* wherein each of them had interest, as his maintenance; 
whereof we find remembrance in St, Cyprian's epistles 1 . In 
the last canon of the council of Autiochia* is provided, that 
tfie Bishop shall .not alienate the Church-goods — which, 
though immovable , were given for the same purpose — with- 
out consent of his presbyters. And in those which are called 
121 the canons of the Apostles — which the world knoweth are 
not theirs* but yet do express very ancient customs of the 
Church — canons iiL and iv. having ordered what sorts of 
first-fruits should l>e sent to the Church, — what home to the 
Bishop and presbyters, it followeth, "now it is manifest that 
•they are to be divided by them among the deacons and 
clergy 1 :" to the deacons, for the maintenance of the poor; 
to the clergy, for their own. Where you see the interest of 
the presby ters in disposing of such oblations. 




There remaineth now two particulars of the office common 
to Bishop and presbyters, wherein the people also claim their 

ciplitie of 

— Ep. *wl Evang, torn. iv. coL &U2, ftd. 

"■ Set? cp. v. jliiJ viu udL Oxnn. tGK2. 

f . .... fi fit piT) TOUT Oli dpK<HT[l, Jl*Ta- 

fidWw fit to Trpdypar* #11 aonti't xpt Jar, 
koI rybs wdpoitT ri}* ftiKX-rjirtas, ij roifs 
tvv hypwv Ka.f*XHVf, pr) at** yvwftiil TUV 

HI. mil 2 J. Labbd, lom, ii eol. 595. 
•4 Venet 

■ EteBqtti pnma omnia n& donmm 
primiti» Epi»copo et presbyter* s 
ganttkr, nun ofterantnr in altari. ' 
turn *»i autem, quod Episcapu* et pres- 
byter* tlividant et disccrnis et rcliquK 
i -it ri<i*. — Dm. v. Labbei T tom* L col. 47 

c ii a r, 

Those that 
have tlie 
key* ri'mit 
■lm by 

in*? |M?n* 

interest ; — the one is, tbe discipline of penance,- — the other, 
the making of ministers. The due course whereof, assigned 
by our Lord ?tnd His Apostles, will best be discovered, 133 
laying together, first, what we find of them in Scripture, and 
then comparing of it with the proceeding of the primitive 
time, which we shall perceive the right to go along with* 
The keys of the kingdom of heaven arc given by our Lord 
to the first of His disciples, in these words, Matt xvi. 19: 
"And I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven : 
and whatsoever thou si i alt bind on earth* shall be bound in 
heaven ; whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed 
in heaven/' If men's minds were not possessed with preju- 
dice, it would soon appear to be the same power that is given 
to all the Apostles, John xx. 23 : H Whosesoever sins ye 
remit, they are remitted unto them ; and whosesoever sins ye 
retain, they are retained." But Matt xviii. 17, 18 to the 
same purpose, though more at large : "And if be shall neglect 
to hear them, tell it unto the Church; but if he neglect to 124 
hear tbe Church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man and 
as a publican. Verily, I say unto JOO* whatsoever ye shall bind 
on earth shall be bound in heaven ; and whatsoever ye shall 
loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." To this must be 
added the proceeding of the Apostle, in delivering to Satan 
the incestuous person at Corinth, 1 Corinthians v* 3, 4, 5, 
which he also did to Hymenals and Alexander, 1 Timothy 
L 20. 

§ 2. Now in the practice of the primitive Church, those that 
exercised this power were in part judges — censors you may 
call them, if you please — and in part physicians: both parts 
comprised in St. Cyprian's words, Epiat, li,», Ubi lapsts f me 
cemura dee&t^ qtitE mcrepet ; nee medicina^ qum samL " Where 
the lapsed want neither censure to reprove, nor medicine to 
cure/' Judges they are, in shutting God's house upon 
offenders, and binding their sins upon their consciences \ and 
the effect of this censure such — supposing the proceeding of 1 25 
it to be due — that as the disease of sin is not to be cured 
without the medicine of repentance, no more can this knot 
wherewith sins, notorious of themselves, or otherwise known, 
are tied to men's consciences, be undone, without known 

• Ejj. 5*, p. IU0, cd. Ojtoii. 1082. 



11 pcntance. For since the worst of the soul's sickness con- 
sisteth in not acknowledging her disease, it pleased God to 
give His Church power and charge to constrain offenders to 
take their physic, which the grief of bodily diseases is able to 
do alone. Physicians they are, then 11 , in prescribing the 
medicine of repentance ; and in that respect alone are truly 
said to remit sins, God Himself saith not to the soul, M I 
absolve thee from thine offences/' but upon supposition of the 
means — His own gift of repentance — that workcth the cure j 

12G so far it is from the power of His creature to pronounce for- 
giveness without knowledge of the effect which the medicine 
of repentance hath wrought. But if we say true, when a 
physician is said to cure a man's disease, though all the world 
know he doth no more than prescribe the medicine, or at 
the most see it applied, with as good right is it to be said 
that men's sins are cured by them that prescribe the course 
by which they are cured. Only, whereas he that is cmed of 
a bodily disease is able to tell himself when he is well, he 
that is once sensible of the maladies of his soul is not easily 
satisfied when the cure is done. It hath therefore pleased 
the goodness of God to provide an office and charge in His 
Church, to assure men of forgiveness of sins upon due know- 
ledge of repentance, by taking away that knot wherewith 
they retnained tied upon their consciences* Firm! Han us, 

127 Bishop of Caesarea Cappadocia, in his epistle to St Cyprian, 
the seventy -fifth in number of his epistles, thus writeth : 
JL&pA quwpte frfUrilmSj et post lavacrum salutare a diaboto 
rftl/m'trtix, per pamiterrfiam medeta qumratur* Nun quasi a nobis 

■ remissionem peccatorum comequantur, sed at per nos ad mtelli- 
gentutm delictanim quorum etmvertatttttrj it Domino pbnhts 
satisfacere cotfantur. *' And a cure may be sought for the 
brethren that are fallen, by penance. Not as though they get 
remission of sins from us, but that by us they may be con- 
verted to the knowledge of their sin, and constrained more 
fully to satisfy the Lord." And this [is] another difference 
between physicians and the power of the Church, that physi- 


b So the constitution of Otliobon, 

Tit -«♦ oY public* Absolutions t Siciit 

Ecclesiastics ceuMira? vinculum ad 

lam invent urn eM, ut sanurn cili- 

rial languidum quern cocrcrt , , . The 

gloss upon winch is, Est enim censura 
medicinal:*, not! mortalis ; disci plinaua 
nnu crfldic*iifr. See also the Decretum 
of Bwdurd, Dish op of Worm*, lib, jdx. 
cap. 29. 



€ : 1 1 A t\ 

The in- 

of the 

clans cannot constrain any man to take their medicines. The 
Church may and must put him from the Church that refuse th 
the medicine of penance. To this purpose was the time, 
and order, and fashion of penance regulated in the ancient 
Church, that the diseases of the soul might receive every one 
their coinjwtent cure ; and therefore it is plain, that among 
them it was a favour to be admitted to penance, in opposition 
to Novatianus, qui nemini panitentiam dandam putamt t 'who 
thought that penance was to be granted to nobody," saith 
St, Ambrose % De PamiL lib. i. cap. 2; u exhorting men to 
repentance indeed, but leaving them for pardon to God, Who 
had power to give it," as his disciple Socrates write th* Beck 
HhL iv. 2K' 1 ; that is, not employing the power of the keys, I 
and the benefit of it, to the cure of their offences. Where- 
upon St. Ambrose, you sec, calleth it dare pcenitenthtm ; as 
on the offender's side it was then called petere p(rwtcnti'am\ 
demanding and granting of penance. 

5 3. For this cause it was, that this medicine of repentance 
was wont to be joined with the prayers of the congregation, 
but in the chief place, of the Bishop and presbyters ; which, 
if repentance be physic, is correspondent to that which is 
given to make physic work ; and this is called in Tertullian f , 
pr*ibjf&&jri$ admh'iy et cutis Dei tidz/euicalitri^ omnibus fratribus 
legatimtes deprecationis sua* iitjungere ; "to fall down to the 
presbyters, to kneel to those that are dear to God, to charge 
all the brethren with embassies of intercession for them;" and 
in SL Augustine k , fremitus cotumbm^ the "mourning of the 
turtle," procuring their release at God's hands. And to this 
purpose was the imposition of hands so often rejteatcd in 
penance, because, as St. Augustine saith of it, in confirmation 


wherein he folio we th Tertulliau ; the one in these words, 129 

* S, Ambros. de Pcenitentm, lib. i. 
c. 3. 10. torn. IL tol ML td. 

J Tois rravroi-^Qu &tk Algerian typafftt, 
fify Stxiff&ai tovs iirtrtBuK^rat nt t& 
p.v<TTt,f}ia' aAAtt ffpurp iictiv f.ue ai/rwi 

*X**iti rrvyxwpttv a^a^T^arq. — p. 245. 
ecL Vulca. 

* Nam pi clique futuri mipplicii nietu 
peccatorucn suoruni ctmseii, pan 
liam petutil, et enm icceperilit psiblii :v 
nupplioatjom* revoejiitur pudorc, Hi 

vidciitur nuilormn peLii&sc ptcnitentiam, 
agere bonomm — *De Pccnil*?ntia, lib, 
ii. i;ip, iv S5. col. 431. cd. Ben. 

' De Pomitcntin, cap. Lx. p, lti0. e<L 

J'tiriu EUrthmag. Mini. 

f T&mcn si corri^antur et »e powfenOi 
ail baptismum *oc nun 

rL-bajiMzanhir scd hicipimil .tit GoVum- 
h&m pertintrrc, per enjua genii! uspeccata 
solvitntur a enjus pace alien aris teue- 
li.Liit lit. — De Baptism, contra Doiio- 
tistas, lib. iii. cap. xviii. torn, fat. col, I [8, 
-I. Ben. 




cmm est imptmth mammiiiy nisi oratia super homhtem h ? CHAP, 
" For what is imposition of bands but prayer over somebody ? n 
the other afore him in these, Dehinc mcams imponitur per 
benedictionem ad vocans et invttans Spirit urn Sanctum 1 ; "Then 
is the hand imposed, calling and inviting by benediction the 
Holy Ghost; 11 — that it is but a ceremony of benediction, 
imploring; the overshadowing of the Holy Ghost* which it 
representeth* — So was it in penance nothing else but a form 
of benediction, interceding fur their reconcile menlA 

§ 4. This may very well be thought to be the intent of the 
words of our Lord in the Gospel alleged. Matt xviii. 1 & 
For, having delivered to the Church the power of binding 
and loosing, in the words recited, it followed! straight : 
c Again, I say unto you, that if two of you shall aj^rce on 
earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be 
done for them of My Father which is in heaven : for where 
\ two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I 
in the midst of them/ 1 For as, in the words next going 
afore, lie sheweth how men's sins are bound and loosed — to 
wit, by the power which lie giveth His Church to that 
purpose, — so lie may well seem, in the next wonl^ to point 
at the course by which this power may become effectual to 
the loofling of sins, to wit, the intercession of the congrega- 
tion of God's people k . At least, thus much hath been ob- 
served by men of excellent learning, that lamenting is a work 

*' Mantis autem inipositio, non sicut 
bnptUmu*. raped noo potest Quid eft 
ennn aliud. nisi (initio super hominem ? 
— S. August, de Baptism, cotitr. Dona- 
tist. lib. iii. cap, xvi. turn* ix. col. 117* 

I Tcrtulu'an. de Baptism, cap. vjii. 
' ed. Para. RotLooMf. 1002, 

1 Qui bug verbis vult Augnstinus 
(those just quoted) manus imposition em 
esse cfreinoniam esrteriiam, qua tt, qui 
ea utitur, significat, se orare, DM 
cere, b ri, vei a pud Deuin inter- 

cedere pro eo eui iiwrnimi vel H 
impnnit. Kst i oritur oratio, non vet 
sect, ut ita dicam caTcmnitialis. cum 
di tamen t vel saltern men tali «rn- 
e, aeu benedictione conjuncta. — Ca- 
talan, in Kit. Rom, p. 230. tutu. i. 
Patavii 17 GO. 

k See the whole passage in St. Au- 
gustine, part of which is quoted in Mtt 
g. In the form of reconciling pcnitemti 

on Maundy Thursday, according to the 
u«e nf Sarum, the intercession of the 
Church is spoken of thua : the arch- 
deacon presenting the penitents to the 

P, says adsunt filii tui, 

Pater, quo* Deo per Spirit um Sanctum 
vera mater Ecclcsia cum laetitia pepcrit, 
sed iterura auadente Diubolo a so i 
tcgritate cormptos, a litem misiros fac- 
to*, exules, novis quotidie duhjribus 
ingeuibtiL Pro his quooue cr 
orant* rmtcumiue felices In sinu suo re- 
mmeBimt, ojnque dtvina protegonte »e 
dementia stabiles fide per*titerunt , . , 
. ■ . Plural rnsit iftil, immo pro i^is 
plortra et eicorare non desistit sane la 
i i r I-'.. ■! fill -sLi. ft lacbryiuir ejus in 
iiiimU s, c|uia vuitit tempBf miscratdi 
ejus, Move it pietiton tuam, l\iter. 
vox fidelif ft liebitis, movant gin 
et babitus tget mfr er uram . 





specified bv the Apostle himself, in the business of reducing 
offenders by penance, 1 Cor. v. 2 : " Ye have not lamented 
to put away such a transgression from you ; " and again, 2 
Cor, xii, 20, " I fear that when I come unto you, I shall not 
find you such as I desire . • • • and shall bewail many which 
ha\ T e sinned already, and have not repented of the unclean- 
ness, and fornication, and laseiviousness, that they have com- 
mitted j* meaning that he should put them to penance by 13 l 
consequence, This maketh the interest of the congregation 
in the work of discipline to be considerable, but entitleth it 
not U> the keys of God's house 1 , 

§ 5* For to conceive our Lord's meaning aright, let us take 
notice that there was among the Jews much use of cxeom- 
nkaftd municatins bv particular persons — «s is to be seen in their 

among the . « . 

Jew*. writings : Maimoni, in Talmud Torah f c. vik ; Arba Turim, 

or Skulchan Amc/t f in Jure Dcah f Hilcoth Niddui Uchcrem — 
and that many times upon causes of their particular interest. 
For example, a rabbi, or rabbi's mate, was able to excommu- 
nicate for his credit, when he found himself slighted* True 
it is, they count it commendable in a rabbi to pass over all 
disrespect to himself in private ; but he that shall do it in 
public, they bind him to remember it, and watch his party 
like a serpent, till he seek favour and reconcilement, Maimoni, 132 
n* tilt* And true it is, that in some cases they void excom- 
munication that is grounded upon particular interest, and not 
for the honour of God, Jore Deah r out of the Jerusalem 
Talmud^ and R. Joseph Karo upon it t f. 364 m . And gene- 

1 This is the principle of the Brown-* 
ista or Independent"! ; Luther taught it 
before in divers of Ms writing*, but, per- 
haps , without seeing the consequences 
of his own theory. Nos autcfn omm-s. 
saith he, qui Christian.! sum us, luibemm 
rum unfit? hoc qjficium r I avium, id quod 
UbelHs contra 1'apam totus prohnvi et 
iravi + Slat enim verbum Christ! 
Matth. xviii, nan Aprntolu tautum, aed 
vmuihu* pror*tiX fratrihu* ...... Chris- 

tus hie dat jus et usum clavium cuilihet 
Christ in no, dum die it sit tihi sieut . . . , quid enim est dicerc. Sit. 
t£M -^irut Eibnkus. nisi tautum noli ci 
conversari, eommuttiontm Mi ttcge*. At 
hoc e#J t-err ercommunicare et llgare ac 
ckudere cerium , . . . . f laves sunt 

tnliua EcclesuE, et rujuslibrf mrmbri 

rjus tarn jure qnam ustt ft omnibus modi*. 
— De mstitiiemLi* mmistris Eeeleshs, 
foh 367, Luther, Op. torn, ii, Witt- 
hergaf* 1551. 

"That the power of excommunication 
is in the body of the Church, whereof 
the parties that are to he caat out are 
member*. ., . because excommunication 
ia the sentence and judgment of Christ 
by His Church concerning such as are 
within, 1 Cor. v. 4. 12. . . , because the 
power of excommunication is in them, 
upon whom it lieth to put out the 
wicked from among themselves* and so 
to purge cut the old leaven."* — An Apo- 
logy or Defence of snob True Chris- 
tians as are commonly but unjustly 
called Brownists, p. 62. 1001 

" See the fourth book of Moriniu, 


rally, he that excommunicate th without cause is to be excom- chat. 
munieated himself— it is the last of twenty-four causes for — * — 
which they excommunicate**; — but what disorders might come 
upon such practice is easy to imagine. 

§ 6, And, therefore, there is great cause to think that our our Lord 
Lord^B words, whereof we speak, are aimed on purpose to eth their 
abrogate this course among lib followers, though covertly ^JJJ^ 
to avoid offence. For two things He prescribeth in opposi- Hi* cita- 
tion to it : first, to aim at a brother's reformation and nothing 

else in all the proceeding, Matt xviii, 15, "If thy brother 
133 shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between 
thee and him alone : if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained 
thy brother-" The second is, that they shall proceed no 
further than contestation in private. The rest lie prescribeth 
to be referred, in public, to the Church. So it followeth, 
"But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or 
two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every 
word may be established. And if he shall neglect to hear 
them, tell it unto the Church-" 

§ 7. Now this word *15tf*f\??07a, " the Church," as also 2Wa- 
ytoyiji is lirst used in the Greek of the Old Testament, to 
signify the congregation of the people of Israel, The Jews 
that have lived since the prophets have espoused and appro- 

Ipriated this latter word, the "synagogue," to signify sometimes 
the whole body of that nation, or rather of that faith — as 
among the Fathers u the synagogue" standeth fof the Jews, in 
4 opposition to the Church of Christians — sometimes parti- 
cular congregations of it, and, by consequence, the place of 
their assemblies, as in the Gospeli*, ** He loveth our nation, 
and hath built us a synagogue*" And just so, in all respects, 
is the word Eccksia Y "the Church," used in re hit ion to Chris- 
tians ; our Lord, in the Gospel, having begun to appropriate 
it to the congregation which He now began to institute, 
Matt, xvi. 18, H Upon this rock will I build my Church;* 

chapters xxiiL — xxviti, de Administra- 
tion c Sacramenti Ptftnitetitiae Commen- 
tarius, Bruxellis, UI85- 

* Vid. Morin. de AdmmUtrat Sacra- 
ment. Pec ni tent. Hb. tv. cap, 27> \ 2. 

"In lynagoga populum I erael acci- 
pimua, quia ct ip*orum prnprie Syna- 

jroga clici solct quanm* ct Kcclesia dicta 
fit Nostrum vera Apnstuli nunquam 
Synagogam dixemnt, sed semper Eo 
clettiam. — S. Angus tin. in Psalm* 81* 
col. 870. torn* iv. cd. Bon. 
* St. Luke vii. 5. 


CHAP, and in the text in hand, Matt, xriii. 17, "tell k to the 
— — — Church." So that it most not be denied it is not asaal for 

"the Church,' which ngnifieth the whole congregation of 

people, to signify the chief part of it. 

Two de- $ 8. But it is as certain, on the other side, that looking 

externa- backward to the synagogue, upon which our Lord reflected!, 

nk *Z? as was said, such censures as these are mh ereof our Lord 
••well * . 

in the speaketh, proceeding from the public — prhrate ones being 

a* in the excluded, as hath been said — issued all from the courts of l£ 
*3 rM S°fc ue - justice mentioned afore, without respect to the congregation 
of the people. As thus : there were among them two degrees 
of excommunication, and no more ; the less called *rc that 
is, "separation;'' the greater rm, or "anathema; 1 " and the 
effect of them, to cut a man off, more or less, from the con- 
gregation of the people ; — as is to be seen in the late most 
learned work, De Jure Naturali et Gentium, juxta disciptinam 
Ehraorum, ir. 9 q . — Tlie ordinary sentence of separation, which 
is that we spoke of afore, was for thirty days, unless the court 
thought fit to abridge or enlarge the term. For that time, 
no man must come within four cubits of him that stood ex- 
communicate, besides those of his house ; — he must not be 
reckoned among three, which is the number required at 
blessing of meat; — he must not be reckoned among ten, 
which is the number required to make a synagogue ; under 13 
tliat, they go not to prayers in the synagogue. And how it 
is in the power of the court to aggravate this, is to be seen in 
Shulchan Aruch, as afore r , Num. x. At thirty days' end 
they iterated the sentence, and stayed thirty days more ; if 
then he stood out, it was in their power to excommunicate 
him with curses, which is that which is called "anathema." 
With these the proceedings of the Christian Church keep 
some correspondence, according to Scripture. For when our 
Lord saith, " If he hear not the Church, let him be unto thee 
as a heathen man and as a publican," He intimateth withal 
a course the Church had to take for his correction and 
amendment that should give ear to it: which, though it 

' Selden, in the place mentioned in seems to have confounded. — Selden,vol. 

the text, allows of only two degrees of i. col. 484. London, 1726. Morinus, lib. 

excommunication, but Morinus allows iv. cap. xxiii. 7. p. 226. 

of three, distinguishing Niddui from ' Chap. x:. sect 5. 
Schamata, which, he says, Maimonides 

might perhaps end in a verbal admonition of the Church, chap, 
57 and real amendment of the party, jet, those that were under — 
the discipline of penance, wc know, were in a sort excom- 
municate, because they were not admitted to the communion 
of the Eucharist; besides that — as those which were sepa- 
rated among the Jews — they put upon them the state, and 
fashion, and habit of mourners. And I shewed afore* what 
we find in Scripture to argue this course directed by our Lord, 
and practised by the Apostle. 

§ 9. But here was a difference, that in that state we find 
not that a man was cut off from the conversation of Chris- 
tians ; those which were admitted to penance being always 
accounted in the way of salvation, supposing the performance 
of their enjoined penance. That was the effect of that 
grievous censure whereof our Lord speaketh, "Let him be 
unto thee as a heathen man and as a publican,™ Not because 
He meaneth to forbid Christians to converse with heathen 
S3 men and publicans, who, being to be converted from among 
them, must needs be compassed with them on every side; 
and therefore that case the Apostle hath resolved, 1 Cor. 
v. 9, 10, where he informeth them that, whereas he had 
"written to them not to converse with fornicators/* his mean- 
ing was, not to forbid them to converse with " the fornicators 
of this world*"- — that is, Gentiles — or with " the covetous, or 
extortioners, or with idolaters ; for then must ye go out of 
the world; 11 and as it followeth, ver* 12, "for what have I 
to do to judge those that are without? do not ye judge those 
that are within ?" But our Lord's meaning is, that Christians 
should shew that respect to a brother that should be refrac- 
tory to the Church, as the Jews did then to Gentiles and 
publicans; which the Apostle secondeth there, vcr. 11, *'Nu\v 
I write to you not to converse, if any man that is called a 
brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a 
railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner, with such an one no 
not to eat ;" which is to avoid them, as the Jews did Gentiles 
and publicans 1 * And the sentence whereupon this is to be 
practised is intimated in the next verse; " For what have I 


* In the beg inni ng flftfcia chapter. 

1 "Gentile* and pulilH*flm," in the 

fii*t edition ** him that ftood teptrnte 4 




to do to judge those that arc without ? do not ye judge those 
that are within ?" 

§ 10, And this censure it seemeth the Apostle presup- 
pose th # when he writeth to Titus, iii. 10> "A man that is 
an heretic, after the first and second admonition reject** For 
his meaning is, not to instruct Titus alone what he in his 
person should do, but in the person of Titus to instruct all 
the Church to reject and avoid refractory heretics ; and 
therefore, in the consequence of avoiding them, it seemeth 
he intimate th the censure whereupon they are to he avoided. 
The same censure against the incestuous person at Corinth 
he intimateth by the same consequence, when he saith, I 140 
Con v. 13, (i Therefore put away from you that wicked per- 
son \* which he calleth "giving over to Satan" in the same 
ease, ver, 5, afore, and in the case of ilymeuseus and Alex- 
ander, 1 Tim. i. 20; and which he signified], 1 Con xvL 22, 
"If any man love not the Lord Jesus, let him be anathema, 
inaranatha ; w where "anathema** is the term that cometh from 
the synagogue ; and so doth the other, as some men think, 
So i hut this censure cutteth men off from the conversation 
of Christians, which forfeit the privileges to which they pre- 
tend, and so delivers them to Satan by consequence; as those 
that lodged without the camp of Israel were in danger to be 
licked up by the Amalekite". Which course, nevertheless, 
as it was preservative in regard of sound members, that they 
might not be tainted, as the Apostle sign t fie th when he Baitfe, 
1 Cor. v, 6, " Know yc not that a little leaven leaveneth the 141 
whole lump?" so was it medicinal in respect of the sick, 
shame and grief being a good way to the cure; which the 
Apostle seemeth to respect when he directeth, 1 Cor, v, 6, 
(f to deliver him to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that 
the spirit might he safe in the day of the Lord Jesus ;*' and, 
1 Tim, i, 20, " whom I have delivered to Satan, that they 
may learn not to blaspheme," 

5 11. This is the correspondence between the proceeding 
JJ^Lhopi °f tue Church and synagogue. And therefore, as looking 

The key* 
an jdfm 

and pres- 

■ " Remember what Amalek did unto 
thee by the way* when yc were come 
forth nut of Kjrcpt. How he met thee 
by the way, and *mote th* hindmost of 

iliec t even all that were feeble behind 
thee, when thou wast faint and weary*" 
— Deuu x**\ 17, 18. 



backward to the synagogue— whereupon our Lord rcflecteth Ciiai 1 . 
when He saith, Die Eeebtia — we see to whom they had re-~ — ■ 

course; so shall we see, looking forwards upon the Church — 
which our Lord pointeth towards in the same words — to 
whom lie directed! Mis followers to have recourse. The 
keys of Gods house arc given in the Gospel to St, Peter, 

142 with the effect of "binding and loosing;" and the same 
power to all the Apostles, in equivalent terms of " retaining" 
and "remitting" mw; tbr if there were advantage, it were an 
inconvenience that, in the third place, the power of "binding* 
and " loosing" should be given to the Church, which is pre- 
tended [to be] given to St. Peter tbr a* privilege beyond the 
Applies. Well then might St. Cyprian argue, Eptet xxvii. \ 
tlint localise our Lord promised to St Peter the keys of His 
Church, therefore the acts of government of it were to pass 
through the Bishop's hands, and without him apostates could 
not be reconciled* And it is the same which St Augustine 
affirnieth so oft as he tcachcth — which many times he doth — 
that St Peter in receiving the keys represented the Church ; 
as*, St hoc ergo in EcclesiaJit—hQ speaketh of binding and 
loosing— Pt'trus, quando claves accepit^ Eccksiam sanctum &ig- 
nijteavit " If this be done in the Church, then Peter, when 
he received the keys, represented the Church." For what 

143 was promised to St Peter was given the rest of the Apostles, 
but was to ml in the Church, to which it is also given in the 
same terms' ; as St Cyprian is willing to acknowledge, so 
oft as he calleth the presbyters his colleagues, and professcth 
to do nothing without their advice. So that it is not possible 
to give a more impartial meaning to the words of our Lord 
in the Gospel, than the practice of those times hath ex- 
pressed, when that power was exercised in common by the 
Bishop and his presbyters. 

§ 12. This it is TertulHan hath shewed us, Apolog. cap. 

Dominus nnsrer , . . (licit lVtm, 

.7/1 ihtba rlnvr* , . , Midi* . . . 

ct Erelesiu* ratio decurrit, u£ Ecclesia 

uper Epi&capos constituahir, et omnia 

ctujs Eedesi?L» per eosdem Pneposito* 

guberoetur. — Ep. 32, p. 66. ed. Oxon. 

r Expo ait. in Evangel S. J charm. 

cup. xi h 12. Tract at. 50. torn, Hi p. 2. 

col. 033. til Hen, 

1 Dieitur beat i as into Petro, Tibi dnbo 


rfovrs. . . .. Transivil quidem etiam in 
■Hat Apoatolos jus patc&tntifl istii 
ltd onincs EcL'lesia? principes docreri 
hujus conttitutio comxneavit i sed nan 
frustra uni commendntur, quod omni- 
bus intimetur. IVtro enlm ideo hoc 
singulariter creditur, quia en&ctii Ec- 
tlcsiif nctoribiu Petri forma prarno- 
nitur. — S. Lconis Magni Smn. iv. p. 
18, torn, i. Tenet. 1753, 




The in- 
of the 

xxxix., alleged afore*, where, having commended the gravity 
and integrity of ecclesiastical censures, to shew by whom they 
were done, he addeth as afore, President probati quique seni- 
ores, konorem istum non pretio sed testimonio adepti. And 
St Augustine's words are plain, which we had afore b , Veniat 
[peccator] ad antistites, per quos Mi in Ecclesia cloves mi«w-l44 
trantur, et . . . . aprapositis sacramenlorum accipiat satisfactionis 
sua modum. And in St Cyprian there is so much mention 
of reconcilement by imposition of hands of the Bishop and 
clergy c , that I will say no more of it, because this point, of 
all the rest, hath continued a chief employment of presbyters 
in the corrupt and pernicious opinions and customs of the 
Church of Rome d . 

§ 13. Let not any man think now that the Apostle com- 
municateth this power with the congregation* of the Church 
of Corinth, when he writeth to them, 1 Cor. v. 4, 5, "being 
assembled with his spirit, to deliver the incestuous person to 
Satan." For it is plain that the sentence is given by the 
Apostle, ver. 3, where he writeth, " For I verily, as absent 
in body, but present in spirit, have judged already as though 
I were present, concerning him that hath so done this deed." 
And to cause this proceeding to be the better digested, he 145 
hath vouched his power in the end of the chapter afore, ver. 
18 : "Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come 
unto you ; but I will come unto you shortly, if the Lord will, 
and will know not the speech of them that are puffed up, but 

• Ch. vii. sect 4. 

b Ch. vii. sect 5. 

c See Ep. xvi. (ed. Pam. x.) p. 87, 
Ep. xvii. (ed. Pam. xil) p. 39. 

d "The bringing in of a definitive 
sentence of absolution, instead of the 
prayers of the Church, which a man 
was admitted to by undertaking pen- 
ance — the communion of the Eucharist 
being his actual and final reconcile- 
ment — argues as much change in the 
inward Christianity, as in the outward 
form of the Church. But if the prayers 
of the Church, joined with the penance 
of the penitent, be a competent means 
to regain the state of grace, a prayer 
immediately upon confession, immedi- 
ately before absolution, is not How 
much less since the council of Trent, 
which makes the definitive sentence, the 

substance — the prayers that are used, 
but accessories of the means of regain- 
ing the state of grace by penance." — 
Epilogue, bk. iii. c. ix. 

• "Seeing every particular congrega- 
tion of Christ hath the power of our 
Lord Jesus Christ against all sin and 
transgression, to censure the sin, and 
to excommunicate the obstinate offen- 
ders." — A plain refutation of Mr. Gif- 
fard's book intituled A Short Treatise 
against the Donatists of England, p. 80. 
A.D. 1591. "That the power of ex- 
communication is in the body of the 
Church, whereof the parties that are 
to be cast out are members." — An 
Apology or Defence of such true 
Christians as are commonly (but un- 
justly) called Brownists, p. 62. A.D. 



the power. What will you? shall I come unto you with a char 

rod , or with the spirit of meekness?" Which power other- - 

whiles he setteth before them, in case of their disobedience, 

§ 14 And therefore it must be acknowledged that he 
writeth to them to see his sentence published* ratified, and 
executed, which the presbyters there had either neglected 
to do, as was touched afore', or perhaps were not able to 
bring the people under the discipline of Christ's kingdom; 
which must needs oblige the Apostle to interpose. And 
therefore the Italian gloss of Diodati*, which maketh the 
Apostle in this place speak of assembling the pastors and 

146 guides of the Church, as in Mattb, xviii. 17, though in effect 
true — because, for certain, what is to be acted by the congre- 
gation , therein the presbyters are to do their part, by the 
meaning of the Apostle — yet must leave us room to think 
that the words are to be understood of the public assemblies 
of the Church there for divine service, seeing we find in 
Tertullian, the place afore quoted' 1 , that these censures were 
exercised at and in the assemblies of the Christian people : 
Ibidem vtmin e.rhoitatione$ y cmti(/atione$ t et censura dwhta*, saith 
he, speaking of their assemblies* And St. Cyprian *, in the 
great case of those that fell away in persecution, writeth to 
the presbyters, that he doth not think to do any thing in it 
without their counsel, and the consent of the people, 

§ 15, And this, without doubt, is the reason why the 
Apostle writeth in these terms* 1 Con v. 12: "For what 

1+7 have I to do to judge those that are without? do not ye 
judge those that are within?" speaking to the Church in 
general — though the sentence passed, as hath been said, by 
Bishop and presbyters — because matters were censured in 
the congregation, and executed by the people. And thus 
the practice of that time giveth a reason, without straining, 
why our Lord scemeth to refer these matters to the congre- 
gation, when He saith " tell it to the Church ; n because they 
passed at their assemblies, though under censure of Bishop 
and presbyters. And great reason there is why this regard 
should be had by the Apostle, and by the Church afterwards, 

' [o chap* iiL sect 4, h Apolog. o + xxxix* p* 6S, rd. Paitw 

■ Pari* alia raunanua de* pa*tori e ' Ep. 14. [>* 3-1, quoted in eh. vtu 

coruluttori del 1a Chief** sec t 2. 



chap, to the people; because the Church, being a mere spiritual 


commonwealth, and not endued with temporal strength, so 
much as to execute those sentences which the power of the 
keys, given by Christ, obligcth it to inflict — always setting 
aside that power of working miracles which was in the 148 
Apostle, upon which some think he reflecteth in some passages 
of those epistles — requisite it was, then, the congregation 
should be satisfied of the course of those proceedings, which 
must come into execution and effect by their voluntary sub- 
mission to the will of God, and the office of His ministers. 
And what §16. And as the matter is now, that things of this nature 

is required - , , . . 

at the proceed not upon mens private consciences and judgments 
of "he * n particulars, but upon general rules of common right, requi- 
common- g ft c ft j s t h at t he commonwealth have satisfaction ' of those 


laws according to which the Church now must proceed in 
their censures ; it being acknowledged that they cannot pro- 
ceed with effect but by virtue of those laws that are put in 
force by the secular arm. But as it is now no longer time 
to leave matters to the conscience of men's places, which may 149 
be regulated by laws which experience maketh commendable, 
so is it no longer time to expect at the people's hands volun- 
tary submission to the discipline of the Church, further than 
it is enabled by laws of the kingdom to exercise it. And 
therefore it is much to be wished that the laws by which the 
ministers of the Church are enabled, directed, constrained 
to exercise this prime part of their office, may prove so suffi- 
cient, and that the power of the keys given it by our Lord in 
the Gospel may be so strengthened by the secular arm, and 
rules put in force by it, that it may be able to reduce all 
heinous and notorious offences under the discipline of penance, 
and to cut them off from the Church that refuse it. Is it to 
be believed that our Lord's intent was, in settling such a 
power as this is, that it should take hold of sins of incontin- 
ence, or the like, letting all others, of as deep a stain, and as 150 
well known, escape uncensured? Or could any man devise 
a more puissant means to discountenance malefactors in a 
Christian commonwealth than that which our Lord hath ap- 
pointed, by making them know that, when they have satisfied 
the laws of the kingdom with loss of goods or fame, or have 
escaped with life by the gentleness of them, the fact being 



proved, nevertheless they cannot communicate with the people c if a p. 

of God till the Church be satisfied of their correction and : — 

amendment? Nay, shall we imagine that the institution of 
our Lord Christ is satisfied and in force in a Christian com- 
monwealth, so long as the case of particular offences, upon 
occasion whereof it is settled by Him in the Gospel, is scarce 
understood among us, because it is so far from common 

j j] practice by the laws of the kingdom-*? whereas it might 
easily appear what an excellent and charitable course our 
Saviour hath chalked out to us, if a good Christian heart, 
being desirous rather of his brother's amendment than of his 
own satisfaction, and able to make an appearance of such 
an offence, as our Lord intended, by witnesses, — the Church, 
enabled by rules of law established by the secular arm, should 
call the person offending to the acknowledgment of wrong on 
his side, cutting him off in ease he refused amendment. 
Thus much for certain : if the zeal of well-affected Christians 
towards the state of this Church did not mistake the true 
mark, the discipline of penance must needs be thought one 
of the first points to be reformed in it. And then the rest 
of that satisfaction, which the people can demand of the 

152 Church, will consist tn not releasing the correction inflicted 
until there be reasonable appearance of the effect wrought 
by it* For if, in St Cyprian's discipline, the people rested 
so unsatisfied of some whom his gentleness had reconciled, 
that they were hardly persuaded to admit them to communi- 
cate, as he writetb, EpisL lv. k , — just cause have good Chris- 
tiatis to be scandalized when they see them admitted to corn-* 
municate of whose offences they are sure, but have no cause 
to be sure of their amendment'. 

I " If t after a person is excommuni- 
cated, thrrc cornea a general act of 
pardon, which pardons all contempts, 
&e„ it t&enu thai this ofTence it taken 
■way without way formal absolution. " — 
Bacon's Abridgment of die Laws* Tit. 

k Vix plebi pmuadeo, immn extor- 
queo ut talcs patkntur ndinilti- I Zp, 

i Coroettum Sil p. 137. ed. Oxon. 

1 Sec the twenty- fifth and twenty- 
ninth chapters of T homelike** Ihx- 
cmtrMi t;f the FortH-ttrtiHet. or Penalties 
which 'mtitiun require** 


CHAPTER Xn. 153 


chap. As for the constituting and ordaining of ministers, which 
Of 6fdTT~ is behind of my promise, these are the particulars remembered 
n *hTto concern i n g ft m Scripture, for the most part touched upon 
remem- occasion heretofore : Acts xiiL 3, " And when they had fasted 
in scrip, and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they sent them 154 
ture ' away." Acts xiv. 23, Paul and Barnabas, " when they had 
ordained them elders in every Church, and had prayed with 
fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they 
believed ;" and 1 Tim. iv. 14, " Neglect not the gift that was 
given thee by prophecy, with the imposition of hands of the 
presbytery ;" which is 2 Tim; i. 6, " by imposition of my 
hands ;" and the charge of the Apostle unto him 1 Tim. v. 
22, " Lay hands suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of 
other men's sins ;" and the whole instructions of the Apostle 
to Timothy and Titus, by whom he had appointed them to be 
ordained. To which must be added the choice of Matthias, 
and the seven deacons, where is said, " that they" — the con- 
gregation — "put up two," Acts i. 23; "and the twelve said 
unto them, Acts vi. 3, Look ye out among you seven men of 
honest report ;" and ver. 5, " and they chose Stephen," and 
the rest ; and ver. 6, " they set them before the Apostles ; 155 
and when they had prayed, they laid hands on them." 
Which are alleged by St Cyprian m for the interest of the 
people in this business. 

§ 2. Wherein we shall discern the course of proceeding in the 

m Nee hoc in Episcoporum tantum tarn diligenter et caute convocati plebc 

et Sacerdotum, sed in diaconorum tota gerebatur, ne quis ad Altaris minis- 

ordinationibus observasse Apostolos terium vel ad sacerdotalem locum in- 

animadvertimus, dc quo et ipso in dignus obreperet — Ep. lxvii. ad clerum 

Actis eorum scriptum est, "et convo- etplebesin Hispania, p. 172. ed. Oxon. 
caverunt," &c. Quod utique idcirco 



primitive Church, hy that which is read in a heathen a who 
being an enemy to all, cannot be thought partial to any rank 
of Christians* It is in the life of Alexander Severus; where 
you have related how that excellent young prince, being to 
promote to the government of provinces, or the like charges, 
was wont to set up the persons' names, inviting the people to 
come in against any of them, upon any crime whereof they 
could make evidence, upon pain of life if any failed in it, 
And then it follows, Dicebatque grave esse, quum id Chris- 
tiani et Judm facere/tt, in pr&dicandis *av* trdotibus qui ordinandi 

l&Qsmit, non fieri in prwinciarum rector rbifs, qmbus et fortunes ho- 
viimtm cammitterentur et capita, "And, he* said it was a 
heavy case, when Christians and Jews did it in publishing 
those that were to be ordained priests, that it should not he 
done in the governors of provinces, to whom both the fortunes 
and persons of men were committed/* These words, in 
prtedicandis sacerdoiibus qui ordinandi sunt, the learned 
Casaubon understandeth lo be meant of that publication of 
men's merits and qualities which must needs fall out in dis- 
cussing the competence of persons put up to the approbation 
of the people, to be ordained in any rank of ministers, at the 
assemblies of Christians, according to the custom then in 
practice, Which custom St, Cyprian commendeth upon the 
pattern of Eleazar, made and invested High-priest by Moses in 
sight of the people ; whose interest he specified! when he 
saith p : OrdmatkmtM saccrdoiales nan nisi sub populi assis- 
tends eomcientitijifji oportere, ut piebe prarsente, vel detegantur 
mtdorum crimina^ tW bouornm nwrtta pradicentur ; et sit ordi- 
natia jttsta ct A qtks omnium suffragio et judicio fuerit 

examinata* "That ordinations of priests be made under the 
privity of the people -timilmg by, that cither the crimes of the 
bad, or the merits of the good, may be published in pre- 
nee of the people ; and so a just and lawful ordination be 
made, being allowed by the suffrage and judgment of all." 
§ 3. But before mens deserts and qualities could be scanned, 

157 it behoved that their persons should be nominated in the first 
place, the publication whereof is called in the sixth canon 


held i 


of tt» 

■ yniius La in j>ri»l ius aputl HUtolilo 
Au^ugtjc Seriptorea vi. ioni, i. p, 991 
l.iig'tun. Ratav. 1671. 

■ in lut\ dial. 

v Eji, lxvii. p. 173, cd s Oxon. 


CHAP, of the Chalcedon council q hrucrjpvfc : where is provided, 

— - — MrjSeva Sk airohekviihtw ^tporrovudBcu, fi^re irp€a , /3vT€pov > 
fjurfre Stcucopov, fifjre o\o>? nva raw cv r$ £tctc\i)<Tui<jTuca> turf- 
parr), el fiff iBucw £p iKKXrjaia 7r6\€<h»? r) ta&firfi, rj /laprvpup rj 
fxovcurrqpUpy 6 yeipcrrovovpevos ijrucijpvTToiTo, — " that no man 
be ordained presbyter, or deacon, or in any rank of the Church 
at large, unless he be published to be ordained in some parti- 
cular church of a city or village." That which is called here 
lmicqpvf*iQ 9 prcedicatio in Latin, meaning the publication of 
persons' names that were put up to be ordained, seems to 
come nearer that which the historian meaneth when he saith 
in pradicandis sacerdotibns, because hereupon followed the 
examination of their competence which St. Cyprian declareth 
to be the interest of the people. For if we conceive that all 158 
men indifferently had the right to nominate, we must think a 
great deal of unsufferable confusion must needs follow at such 
assemblies. And the same St Cyprian, when he writeth to 
his clergy, Ep. xxiv. r , concerning the ordination of Saturus 
and Optatus, in these words, quos jampridem communi con- 
silio clero proximos feceramus, " whom long since by common 
consent we had made next to the clergy," excusing himself to 
them that he had ordained them alone, upon this, that they 
had before promoted them to be next the clergy by common 
advice, — sufficiently sheweth that the course was to advise 
with the presbyters and rest of the clergy about the persons 
to be propounded to the people. We need then no more to 
shew us the course of that time. 

[Order § 4. There was first nomination of the person to the people ; 

ceedtng.] u P° n their knowledge and approbation of the persons, and 

agreement, there followed imposition of hands, wherein con- 159 
sisted the accomplishment of the work, from whence the whole 
was called in Greek ysLporrovv&y as ordinatio in Latin compriscth 
the whole work whereby they are promoted. In the ordina- 
tion of Bishops there must needs be something particular. By 
• the precedent which St Hierome hath recorded us in the 

Church of Alexandria — where he said afore, that the presby- 
ters were wont to choose a Bishop out of their own rank — it is 
plain their stroke was the greatest in nominating the person, 

*» Concil. Chalchedonens. A. D. 451, ed. VeneL 
can. vi. Labbei, torn. iv. col. 1684. r Ep. xxix. p. 55, ed. Oxon. 


to be approved by the people, and ordained by the Bishops* chap. 
And the commentaries, under St. Ambrose's name, upon — - 
Ephes. i\% I l t tell us, that at the first the next of the presbyters 
in rank was wont to be assumed — and so might it well be 
practised in some places — until it was tried that divers times 
they fell out to be unfit for the place. Then, saith he, 

160 immutatti est ratio pro&piciente Concilia, tit non ordo sed ' wrritum 
crearet Episcopuoi, multorum sacerdvtrtm jnrUcio constitution , \jtte 
indif/nm temere usurparet^ et essct itiuitis scandaium^] — " the 
course was changed upon advice, which provided that a Bislmp 
should not be made by rank, but by merit, to be esteemed by 
tilt judgment multorum succrdotum*" signifying by this term 
as well the presbyters of the one* Church by whom he was 
desired, as the Bishops of other Churches by whom he was 

§ 5. For because, according to that which we conceived Tht tin-. 
afore" from the beginning, Bishops were propagated through e^JJy, 
all Churches by no other means but by the assistance rfSSJjl 
neighbour Churches that had Bishops afore, hereupon it pro* upon what 
ceeded to be a custom in the Church, that a Bishop was not 
made without approbation and consent of the neighbour 

jiii Bishops, from whom he was to receive imposition of hands, 
and with whom he was to preserve the unity of the Church, 
which at that time was actuated by no means, but by the 
corresjK>ndcnce of Bishops in the name of their Churches* 
This is the ground of the custom, that under three Bishops 
it was not usual to ordain one\ Novatianus was ordained by 
no less at Rome, in the way of schism, against Cornelius, 
win* was ordained by sixteen, as we read in St, Cyprian*. 

§ 6. But when the proceeding of this business came to be ]> 
regulated by the canons of Nice and Ant lochia, — the Church couuriM 
by that time being incorporated in the state of the Roman 
empire, — then was it ihought fit that a Bishop should be 
made by all the Bishops of the province, the Metropolitan, 
that is, the Bishop of the head city, in chie£ without whom 

• 9. Anabroa. Offic. torn. iL col. 241. 
ed. Hen, 

1 **ttMt" **wm w in tin* original text 
■ Clmfi, fi MOt & 

* Vide Petii ik' Murcn dv Oooeaid, 
Sutrdoi. et Imprr. lib, tiii. 2. 3. 

where Uri* subject is treated of 

at Jar 

1 EpttOOpO .J M.-ik'dtn w- KpiAcopirt 
facto, — Ef», lv .nl Am in.. 
Cctnieljn et Nui'Mimim, p. J 12, ^ 




tion pecu- 
liar to the 
Bishop. ] 

nothing to be done ; so that if some few agreed not, the 
business nevertheless to proceed, and be executed by three 162 
at the least The intent was indeed, so far as opportunity 
should serve, that these acts should be done at the provincial 
synods of Bishops, to be held twice a year by the fifth canon 
of Nice ; as may be observed, among others, in that which St 
Augustine mentioneth, contra Cresc. iii. 26 v : De vestris autem 
majoribus exstat Secundi Tigisitani concilium, cum paucissimi* 
quidem factum, apud Cirtam 9 post persecutionem codicum traden- 
dorum, ut illic in locum defuncti ordinaretur Epi&copus. " Of 
your predecessors there is extant a decree of Secundus, Bishop 
of Tigisis, made indeed with a very few, at Cirta after the 
persecution, for the delivery of books, that there a bishop 
might be ordained in stead of the deceased." If no such fell 
out, it was provided that three might do it, the rest consenting 
under their hands, canon xix. Con. Antioch*. Thus, without 
consent of the Bishops, all proceedings of clergy and people 
were quite disabled and becalmed, if any faction, any sinister 
practice appeared in them ; and all this upon the charge of 
the Apostle to Timothy, " Lay hands suddenly on no man, 163 
neither be partaker of other men's sins." And by virtue of 
their ordination, a Bishop was established and invested ; so 
that a Bishop with jurisdiction before ordination was an estate 
not yet come into the world, so long as the primitive custom 
and rule of the Church was in force, which it seemeth succeed- 
ing custom hath brought to pass since*. 

§ 7. Now of all parts of the office common to Bishop and 
presbyters, this of ordination is that which the Bishop first 

* Contr. Crescon. Gramma tic. torn, 
ix. col. 44-9. ed. Ben. 

1 Haiti fihy avavroiw oi vdvrcs, 

&4\tiov el 8c 8u<rx<f>«? «ft? toOto, robs 
7c xKtlovs ltdxavTos irapuyau Bti fj 81A 
ypafifidray dfw^^ovs y*v4<r6cu. — Con- 
cil. Antiochen. A.D. 341. can. xix. 
, Labbei, torn. ii. col. 593. ed. Venet. 

* The jus pralatura accrues to a 
Bishop elect; but its exercise is for- 
bidden him before confirmation. By 
a rigid construction of the canons it 
came to pass that when confirmation 
was a separate act from consecration , 
the Bishop exercised jurisdiction though 
not consecrated. Van Espen considers 
this separation to have begun as late as 

the eleventh, or the commencement of 
the twelfth century. Jur. Eccles. Univ. 

fart 1. tit. xiv. de confirmatione, c. i. 7. 
'eter de Marca, however, thinks it 
began in the fourth century, de Concord. 
Sacerdot et Imp. lib. viii. cap. ii. 1. 
Cavallarius says plainly that to invest 
the Bishop with jurisdiction before he 
is consecrated, is "against the ancient 
discipline, which derived the jurisdic- 
tion of the Bishop and his whole power 
in sacred things from consecration, and 
made no distinction between the power 
of order, and that of jurisdiction." In- 
stitut Jur. Canonic, part i. cap. xxiv. 
viii. Matriti. 1821. 


hail tin ir 
1 - 1 1 t in 

began to exercise alone ; so that with St Chrysostom and St c n a p. 
Hicrome it is taken hi a manner for granted that it was to be — - — '— 
clone by him alone, The one, Horn* xi in 1. ad Tim^ i rj} 
yap ^tporovla ftovp v7T€pl3€0i}Kao-t 9 teal rovrtp p,6vov ho/covet 
TrXEovexreiv row? wpe&jSvrepQw;}—" only in ordination the 
Bishops go beyond the presbyters; that is it alone which 
they seeni to have more than these." The other, E/u ad 
16 4 EuangeL* : Quid enim facit } excepta ordinatbne t Epwcvpus, 
quod presbyter non facial ? " For what doth a Bishop that a 

(presbyter doth not, excepting ordination, which a Bishop 
doth, a presbyter, as he grantcth, doth not" 
§ 8, In which, nevertheless — setting aside the stroke the 
presbyters had in making their Bishops — if we take not our 
marks amiss, we shall find argument enough, at least at the 
beginning, for the concurrence of presbyters with him in 
making of presbyters and other inferior orders* In the first 
place, those general passages of the Fathers wherein is wit- 
nessed that the presbytery was a bench assistant to the Bishop, 
without advice whereof nothing of moment was done, must 
needs be drawn into consequence to argue that it had effect 
in a particular of this weight Then the ordination of 
Timothy, by imposition of hands of the presbytery, will prove 
no less within compass of the Scripture. 
16* § 9« Indeed it is well known that the word irpea^vripiov 6 in [irpttr&v- 
c celestas tic al writers signifieth divers times the office and rank 
of presbyters, which signification divers here embrace, ex- 
pounding "imposition of bands of the presbytery" to mean 
that by which the rank of presbyter was conferred. But the 
Apostle's words, running as they do, fiera im&iatm twi/ ^£t- 
w rov Trp€o-{BvT€ptQv* f oblige a man to ask, when he is come 
far as u the imposition of the hands," of whom or whose 
hands they were he speaketh of, which the next words satisfy. 
Had it been fiera ^upodetria*; rov wpe&fturepfoU) the sense 
might better have been diverted ; but running as it doth with 
the article, p,era. €7ri0£a€Q)<; rotp ^ipmv rov Trp€(rfJvT€pt&v M 
** with imposition of the bauds," it remaineth that it be 
specified in the next words whose hands were imposed, as 


* S. Chryswat. Opp, torn. iv. p. 289. 
' B. Hieron. Opp. torn* iv + p. 803, 

ei.1. Benpfl, 

■' Vide Suiccri Thcsaur* in voce. 
I Tim. iv, II. 




[What it 

ters had 
their part 
in ordi- 
from the 
of the 

in the other place, 2 Tim. i. 6, /a€t£ lirUficew; r&v x €c P* )P 
fMov f " with imposition of my hands." 

§ 10. Thus this word wpeaftvripiov, in the Gospel, Luke 
xxii. 66, and in Ignatius' epistles, signifieth the college of 166 
presbyters, which hath the nature and respect of a person in 
law, and therefore is read in the singular for the whole bench ; 
and being assembled and set is called awthpiov in both places, 
and in Cornelius of Rome's epistle f to St Cyprian, where he 
saith, placuit contrahi presbyterium. But to put the significa- 
tion of the word out of doubt by the circumstance of the 
sense, call to mind the prophecies that went before concerning 
Timothy, and compare his case with the Apostle's, and the 
prophecies that went before of him in like case, and the im- 
position of hands which thereupon both received ; and sure it 
will prove an unreprovable ground, to conclude that what is 
expressed in the Apostle is to be understood of the disciple, 
that these prophecies, declaring * the purpose to which God 167 
hath ordained them in His service, occasioned that which they 
did about both in giving them imposition of hands ; and that 
as St Paul received imposition of hands from the Church b 
of Antiochia, so did Timothy from St Paul and the presby- 
ters of that Church, which he speaks of, but names not 

§ 11. Neither are the arguments of this interest quite worn 
out of the practice of the Church, either in the point of 
nominating the persons, or that of imposing hands. For 
when St. Cyprian 1 expresseth himself so oft in this parti- 
cular, that it was not his purpose to do any thing without 
advice of his presbyters and consent of his people, it is not 
his meaning that the clergy should bear no other part in this 
work than did the multitude ; but as they were distinct 
bodies, so, according to his own words, to expect advice 
from them as concerning the persons to be promoted, but 168 
consent from the people, if there were no fault to be found 
of moment with the persons designed. And on these terms 

f Omni igitur actu ad me perlato, 
placuit contrahi presbyterium.— Ep.xlix. 
ap. St Cyprian. Epist p. 92. ed. Oxon. 

* "Declaring," "prophecies, coming 
from the ministers of the Church, con- 
cerning the purpose," &c. first edition. 

h "Church/' "presbyters" first edi- 

1 In ordinationibus clericis, . . . so- 
lemus vo8 [presbyteros et diaconos] 
ante consulere, et mores ac merita sin- 
gulorum communi consilio ponderarc. 
— Ep. xxxviii. p. 74. See also Ep. lv. 
ad Antonianum, p. 104, and Ep. lxvii. 
ad fratres Hispanos, p. 172, cd. Oxon. 

the matter stands in the twenty-second canon of that which chap. 
is called the fourth conned of Cart h age j , where is provided, 
ni Epiicopu* sine consilio clericornm suorum ckricos non ordinet, 
ita nt eirittm asserts urn, et connwmtiam et testimonium, qttisraL 
"That a Bishop ordain no clergymen without the advice of 
his clergy, so that he seek the consent and testimony and 
connivence of the citizens,'* Because the rule was, as I said k , 
that Bishops* sees should be planted in cities. And as for 
imposition of hands, we have, in the epistle aforesaid of Fir- 
milianus, Bishop of Cssarea Cappadocia 1 — if not rather of 

*lhe whole act of ordination — Omnh potestas et gratia in Se- 
eks kt eon stituta sit, in qua president major es naliu fui ft bapti- 
zandi, et murium imponendi, et ordinandi potsident potestaf 
L All power and grace is settled in the Church in which the 
ciders are president, having power both of baptizing and of 
tnpflring ba&dS) in penance, and of ordaining," And in 
lathis' epistle to Hero m , — whosoever wrote it, it is ancient 
enough to speak to our purpose — speaking to his deacon of 
his presbyters, *EfC€tvoi ffairrt^ova'tv, Upovpyavtn* ^etpoTovovai, 
169 ^tpoOerovat' &v <3e avrats Staxovel^ w %Ti<fcavo<; 6 ayto^ ev 
' Iepoaokvftoiv Tatfei/3&* teal rots Trpeo-fturipow, — - fl they baptize* 
they celebrate the Eucharist, they impose hands in penance, 
they ordain : thou ministerest unto them, as holy Stephen 
at Jerusalem to James and the presbyters," And where it 
provided. Cone, Carthug. iv. Q. 3 n , that the presbyters, 
when the Bishop giveth imposition of hands, shall likewise 
impose their hands by his, it beboveth us in their case also 
to call to mind that this is, and was, and ought to he, in sign 
of their consent to what is done; the Apostle having said to 
Timothy, "Lay hands suddenly on no man, neither be par- 
taker of other men's sins." 

§ 12, But the interest of the people is enhanced beyond all x**/xnWa 
measure or rule of primitive practice. It will not serve the e ]e< 
turn, that the people had then satisfaction of the persons, and ^J'^JfJ" 8 

\l Curthag. iv. A.D. 39S. 
n, torn, ii. cot 1 13!), where the 
ii: — cmum canniventiani et 
otiium quierat. That in the text 
may be seen in the older edit ions. 
k In chap. vL aecL 5, 
1 Ep. 1je*t. p. 221, ed. 0» 
» Cap. Hi. ji, 1 1 fc. ed. Cottfa 


" Preabytcr cum urrtinatur. Epbcopo 
cum hrnedierntc. it manum super Cftput 
ejus tenetitt, etiam omnun prc»^vu-rL 
qui prp&aetJtes tunt man us MM juxta 
numum EpLseopi super caput illiua to- 
ueant. — Ctmcil. Carthag. if ■ . A.D. 3}>8. 
i, .il .be-i, torn. ii. col. 1437. cd. Vem-t. 




their competence to the ministries to which they were or- 
dained, unless we will believe that when it is said, Acts xiv. 170 
23, yetporrovrjaames hk airrols TrpeafJvripovs /car 'EtacXtyrtav, 
the meaning is, that they were made by most voices of the 
people, signified by holding up their hands — as we find in 
Demosthenes and others that custom to have been in Greekish 
communalties — Saul and Barnabas doing nothing but moder- 
ating the choice, that is, in effect, telling the voices . And 
tD this purpose is alleged that of the Apostle, 2 Cor. viii. 19, 
"And not that only, but who was also chosen of the Churches 
to travel with us, with this grace that is administered by us;" 
where in the Greek is xciporrovrfiek, signifying election, as 
they would have it, and not ordination, seeing the office of 
carrying alms requireth no imposition of hands. To which 
let me add, if they refuse not that help, the words of Igna- 
tius, much in the same kind ; for in his epistles ad SmyrnA 
et ad Polyc. r , out of his care and affection to his Church at 171 
Antiochia, having received news of their good estate, and 
finding himself in the like, he desires the Church of Smyrna 
and Polycarpus to choose one to go with their letters to 
Antiochia, whom he will have called Oeoirp&rfievTqv* — so it 
should be read, not 0€O7rp€a/3vTr)p — or 0eoBp6/iov 9 a messenger 
in matters belonging to God, to certify them of his good 
estate, and to congratulate with them of their own. This 

This is in allusion to Calvin, who 
writes thus : Refert enim Lucas con- 
Btitutos esse per Ecclesias presbyteros 
a Paulo et Barnaba : sed rationem vel 
modum simul notat, quum dicit factum 
id esse suffrages. Xttporotrficrayrts, in- 
quit, irp*<r/&vT4poys icerr* 'EtcK\7)(r(ay. 
Creabant ergo ipsi duo ; sed tota 
multitudo — ut mos Gnecorum in elec- 
tionibus erat — manibus sublatis decla- 
rabat quern habere vellet Nempe sic 
Romani historici non raro loquuntur, 
consulem qui comitia habuerit, creasse 
novos magistrates, non aliam ob causam 
nisi quia suffragia et populum mode- 
rates sit in eligendo. This is repeated 
by Cartwright in his Reply to Whit-' 
gift, p. 29. sect 5. p. 44, second edition. 
" In another place 1 conclude, that 
St Luke, Acts xiv, used that word, as the 
Grecians before him, for election byntf- 
frages."— The Second Reply to Whit- 
gift's Second Answer, p. 208. London, 

p In the Admonition to the Parlia- 
ment, thus "then no (Acts xiv. 13, 
2 Cor. viii 19.) minister placed in any 
congregation but by the consent of the 
people, now that authority is given 
into the hands of the Bishop alone ; " 
to which Whitgift replies, " To prove 
that no minister was placed in any 
congregation, but by consent of the 
people, you allege the fourteenth chapter 
of the Acts, and of the second to the 
Corinthians the eighth chapter." — The 
Answer to the Admonition, p. 72. 
London, 1573. 

* Tlp4w*i tls Btov rifjL^y x tl P orov ^ (Tai 
tV 'EkjcAijcW vfxiav dto*p€<r&im)v. — 
Ep. Interp. cap. xi. p. 92. ed. Coteler. 

' npeVct, noKfaaarc $€Oficucapi(rr6' 
Tcrri ffvpfiotoiov brfoytiv Bcowpewttrra- 
rovy koJ x c *P 0T0 *'?i< ra « rtva, tv i.ydw'n- 

0*6tpofios icaXcMcu.— Cap. viL p. 43. 

• Ussher says that this reading is to 
be preferred. 



Legimtift cuim Paulum Apo»lo1um 
ct Barnabam, initio oorinitfil Ecdeaia 
presbyteros per *iM£ula§ cmtatefl st'U 
CccIl^ ins xuparovlaj hoc est, MilTVa^io 

et consensu pupuli ordinflssc. Id tes- 
ta tur ]>. Lucas Act, nap. xiv + 23, x ft P Q * 
Torrttrwrrii wpwofivr tpovs *aT J 'EkkAtj- 
ftv. Unfit* et ipse Lucas (licit ur 
X**pvTiin)6th inrb r&v i E*it\»jo , iw*' mf* 
J r a if i ix lit- Ut t a. t oh F,r f i,-,n;i v Cob, cap. 
viii. l!* r K;idctJUkntioncx<tfH»TffWaacri- 
pitur hoe cauoitc pr<» election* videlicet 
ct *uffrag5o populi, ut trad it Theodora* 
Ba)*anio, et Zonaraa in can. i. ApoatoL 
ctgui verba ex Codies M SS. Hihliothoc* 
Revise adacribam, Nuv p%v xcipoTwia 
K&\ *7t ai. .,,.,.,., rcAttf ujujryfa fwy 

iv^&v ffaAai 8c ko! aiTTj tj TpTjtpu* 

X**pOTovta u^juatrra. — Justellus in bis 

notes upon the Canons of the Universal 
Church, BLbliutliee, Jur. Canon. Veter. 
torn, L p. 85. ed. Paris, 10GL 

"» . i Sri ya(t Talr t«? irtfAfwi' wA,^- 
Cf^rif Iffi? Jnki-ytTda.1 roij% &p£ifpF7f, 

}fpauvro f ol 4f T^*8f* T«t aZjr 17 tw 
irAfi^ra** 1 ifpafofij ^fjtpoi, AeyrTcu tf*|* 
*'#*»» Tar xttpar f¥M tV /*iAtryJ),p 
YomujJifVovr, teal 3ia Toirr«>*" aoitf^eia'tfai 
Tot' 1 CA-arrTOf ^-Tjcfujjujjif ww? mil t6v *af>A 

ptutrvvT}^ -xpoKpivfTttar K^tfrtvBttf i£t- 
kippJhj ttji -^fiporoWaf t£ uvopta. — 
Zonar. in Can. i. AposL apud Bcvc- 
KgiL Synodic, torn. i. p. L Oxon. 


* Nunc ordinem ucerdotii %ura- 
runt saeerdotefi et Leviue, et Ithamai 


office, it seemcth, require th no imposition of hands; and chap. 

therefore that ^iporovia^ by which Ignatius desireth them to — 

appoint it , siguifieth, as it should seem, not ordination, hut 
election, by the same reason as that of the Apostle. 

§ 13. The rest 6 that is brought to avouch this new conceit 
is the words of Zonaras, upon the first of the canons of the 
Apostles, where, in downright terms, he delivercth the use 

172 of this word j(€tpoTovia to come from the fashion of giving 

P voices by holding up hands, used in the Church at first, to 
discern on which side most voices were, from whence it came 
afterwards to be used for imposition of hands*. But let them 
bethink themselves, that if these presbyters were made by 
Saul and Barnabas by holding up hands of the people, then 
were they not made by imposition of their own hands i for 
if we take that sense of the word ^eiporoptlv^ the other must 
needs be excluded. And then let me ask, if it be a thing 
reasonable to measure the sense of the Apostle's language by 
what w T as done at Athens, rather than by that which, among 
the Jews, from whence the faith of Christ was transplanted* 
was known, and in use? or to imagine that the Apostle, — to 
follow the fashion of Greekish communal ties, never heard of 
in after-ages of the Churchy — should balk the ceremony which 

173 the people of God had received from Moses, — -which was from 
old time frequented in creating their Sanhedrin-judges— which 
the Apostles in their own persons practised— which the Church 
hath always observed in promoting of ministers, signifying the 
overshadowing of the Holy Ghost, and praying to obtain it*. 




of St. Paul 
and St. 
Ignatius. ] 

tion of 
for com- 
mon busi- 
ness of 

§ 14 To the words of the Apostle and Ignatius, seeing 
they have in them no appearance of resolute sense, let me 
answer two ways. First, though they were not ordained by 
imposition of hands, yet it is no inconvenience they should 
be called y^ipc/Tov^Bhn&iy using the word in a general sense, 
for those that are ordained or constituted in any form, because 
this form was so frequented on divers occasions : as, for the 
purpose, among the Jews all their rabbis are called q<d&D3, 
which in the letter signifieth ^et/ooroi^^euTe?, or "ordained 
by imposition of hands," because at the first so they were 174 
made, though they be not promoted after that form, but 
made, as since they are ordinarily made, by writing or word 
of mouth y ; as Rabbi Moses, in Sanhedrin, chap. iv. writeth. 
But, in the second place, observe the words which Ignatius, 
writing to Polycarpus about this matter, useth : Ilpkirei . . . 
avfifiovXcov aryayciv deoirpejrioTaTOV, teal yevporovr^aaiy et riva 
arfairrjrbv \lav e^ere kcu aotcvov, h$ huvrjaerai, Oeohpofuy; /caXet- 
trOcu 1 . Where, for the constituting of a person fit for this 
purpose, he adviseth him to convent one of these assemblies 
wherein they used to advise about ordinations, as hath been 
said. And therefore it seemeth no inconvenience to think 
that he desireth him to be ordained to that purpose. Where- 
upon it will not be amiss to enquire a little further, to what 
ministry in the Church such a person may be thought to be 
ordained; wherein if we fail not, perhaps it will make us 175 
able to give a fair conjecture at that of the Apostle by the 
correspondence of the cases. 

§ 15. Ignatius, in the epistle to the Philadelphians*, writeth 
to them for the same purpose, as here he doth to those of 

et Eleazar et Phinees sacerdos, et 
Zacharias. Habitavit Excelsus super 
moutem Sinai, et descendit manus Ejus 
in Mosem, et Moses posuit earn super 
Aaron, et deduota est usque ad Joan- 
nem, Joannes dedit earn Domino nos- 
tra, Dominus noster dedit earn Apo- 
stolis, et illi per creaturas omnibus 
ordinibus sacerdotii. Hunc sacerdotii 
gradum constituerunt nobis sancti 
Apostoli, et hodie in medio Ecclesiae 
per manus Patris nostri perficitur. — 
Syrorum Maronitarum Ritus Ordina- 
tionis Presbjteri : ap. Joan. Morin. 
Comment de Sacris Ecclesiae Ordina- 
tionibus, p. 337. Antverpiae, 1695. 

7 Tandem is tarn Rabbinorum crea- 
tionem solo aliorum Rabbinorum edicto 
tine manuum imposilione fieri posse 
assever&runt, ita ut vel absentee, atque 
etiam per epislolam creari posscnt, 
modo promovens et ordinans in terra 
starent Israelis aut in terra Babel . . . 

Unde ordinatio apud 

eos duplex statuitur una cuimmanuum 
impositione, altera solo verbo. — Morini 
de Sacr. Ordin. part iii. Exercit vil o. 
4. p. 112. See Discourse of Religious 
Assemblies, chap. iii. sect. 25. 

* Ep. Interp. cap. vii. p. 97. ed. 

• Cap. x. p. 85. ed. Coteler. 

b See an account of this MS. in 
Smith's preface to hi a edition of St* 
Ignatiu.*, Ox on. IJOf). 

* Thorn dike conjectured rightly. 
Vowiui published the jrcnuinr cpistlea, 
nut of* MS, in the library at Florence, 
in the year 1610 at Amsterdam, having 


the reading suggested in the test 

* Vocliu* i n Hi bted on the false rend- 
ing, writing thu»: " PhiUdelpbemri Er- 
clcsiie tribuit Ignatius potentatem eli» 
gnidi seu romtittirn<ii Kpiienpvm An- 
tioehcuie Ecdesiie," — Desperata causa 
Papatus, lib. it sect. L cap. 10. p- 122. 


Smyrna, though the sense is hitherto disguised in the printed ch 
copies* in which the words run thus : *E t rretBitv awiiyyeht] fwi — — 
elpijvevetv Tiiv'BtcKXy&iav ri}v sv J Avrtw^ia t% Svpta^ irpetrov 
iarlv vpt>iv % &»e ^xxXrja-ia ©e&5, yetporovriaat, f EwuTKO7T0P } eh 
to irpe&fSeiKrat itcet 0€ou 'trpevfielav, ek to irvy)(mp7}8i}vai 
airraid errl to avro yevofLivow, koI Bo^aaat to ovo^ua tov &€ov : 
which words, it is plain, make no sense. But I have seen 
the written copy of an old translation of those epistles in 

k barbarous Latin, in Caius College library here with us, in 
which these words are rendered thus: Quia annunciatum est 
tnihiy pacem habere Kwhsiam^ quw est in yfuttttchki Syria* ,- 
decern est iv;g, ut Eccivskun Det\ ordiitare diaconum ad interce- 
addendum itlic Dei inter cesmonem? in cott'/audrre ipsfa in idtpsnm 

Ifacth) et ghrificare nomen b , "Whereas it is told me that the 
Church of Aiitiochia in Syria is in peace, it beeotneth you as 
a Church of God, to ordain a deacon that may intercede 
there the intercession of God, in congratulating with their 
assembly and glorifying the name." He that made this transla- 
tion read here ^eiporom^ai Btdjcovov instead of '.ETnWoTro* 1 , 
and trvyxaipup or o-i/y^aprjiw avraU } which now is read avy- 
-)(tDpT}0rjP€u, and makcth it no sense ; and this is without ques- 
tion the true reading*, for it ibllowcLh. tiatcaptos ... 09 tcaTw- 
tjm0ij tj}<? ToiavTtfi Siaxovtas. And where he saith afterwards, 
<«V koX ael Oi €yyt<rra *Etctc\i}trtai hr^p.'^au ^Ewiq^kottov^^ at S£ 
wpewfivrepotw neat BtaKovovs, * as always the next Ch lurches 

I were wont to send their Bishops, some, presbyters and dea- 
cons,'* It is agreeable to the charitableness of those times to 
think that neighbour Churches sent some their Bishops, some 
their presbyters or deacons, to comfort, to advise, to con- 
gratulate with his Church of Autiochia in their Bishop's 
i absence $ and reasonable it is that he should desire those of 
Smyrna and Philadelphia should ordain a deacon for that 
purpose : but that they should make a Bishop for it, as 
77 now we read it, is without the compass of common sense to 
imagine d . Be it then resolved, that it is no other than a 


chap, deacon which Ignatius desires those of Smyrna, as well as 

'■ — these of Philadelphia, to ordain, to carry this message. 

rshewn § 16. And let me have leave to conjecture, that those 
few Tel whom the Apostle— in the place alleged, 2 Cor. viii. 23 — 
tament] calleth airoarokoi 'EfCKkrjtruov, "messengers of the Churches/* 
were by their rank in the Church no other than deacons; 
which is, by like reason, to be said of Epaphroditus, whom 
St Paul, Phil. ii. 25, calleth " the apostle of the Philippians, 
and minister of his necessities;" and perhaps of Andronicus 
and Junias — reading it for the name of a man, and not of a 
woman — Rom. xvi. 7, where they are called eiriarjfwi iv tow 
M7ro<rr6\<H5, "noted among the Apostles." For the name 
Apostle is relative to him by whom he is sent The Apostles 
of Christ are Christ's messengers; the apostles of Churches are 
the messengers which they send on common business. Now 178 
ye shall often find, in the practice of the ancient Church, that 
deacons were sent to foreign Churches about the business of 
their own. And this practice beareth correspondence with the 
synagogue : for those that are called among them nD»n *Jin, 
of whom £piphanius e speaketh in these terms, describing 
their office, icaX *A%avir&v r&v Trap 9 avrol<; huutowov ipfirjvevo- 
Itbwv, % irmipeT&v, " that they are by interpretation deacons 
or ministers," are by another name called in*VH *n^>BS which 
is verbatim airocrrokoL r?)? ovpevyayyfjs or e/c/tX^cr/a?, "mes- 
sengers of the synagogue," because it is like they were wont 
to be employed about business of the synagogue. And there- 
fore, if the person of whom St. Paul speaketh be no other 
than St Luke the Evangelist, as many think, and the sub- 
scription of that epistle beareth, when he sets him forth thus, 
2 Cor. viii. 18, 19: "Now we have sent with him our 179 
brother, whose praise is in the Gospel" — or in preaching the 
Gospel — "through all the Churches; and not that alone, but 
was ordained by the Churches to travel with us, with this 
grace which is ministered by us," I shall not stick to think 
of him — as of Philip the deacon and evangelist — that for his 
rank he was ordained a deacon by consent of many Churches; 
in some of them to dispense the alms they sent with St Paul 

Amstelodami, 1635. See also Vedelius « Contr. Ebion. Hseres. SO. cap. xi. 

in his notes upon this epistle, cap. xix. p. 135. ed. Colon, 
p. 159. Geneva?, 1623. 



to Jerusalem, though for his personal grace he was an evan- CRAP. 

gelist. Nay, if the question be asked, to what rank Timothy : — 

was ordained by that imposition of hands of the presbytery 
mentioned by the Apostle ? my answer must be — seeing 
presbyters are for the oversight of their Churches, and 
Bishop he was none till he undertook his charge at Ephesus 
— that he was ordained deacon by that Church, to give 
> attendance on St Paul in his travels, for which purpose 
his personal grace of evangelist was very opportune ; for thus 
much Ignatius hath said, writing to the deacons at Trallis, 
u that the deacons were such as ministered a pure and 
blameless ministry ; as holy Stephen to blessed James, and 
Timothy and Linus to Paul, and Anaclctus and Clemens to 

5 17. Now, as for Zonaras— that had a mind to shew his [Zonaros 
reading in Demosthenes, or the like Greek authors, and im- mi * Ta "*^ 
prove it by expounding the canons according to it— it is but 
sending him to Balsamon for his answer, who, writing upon 
the same canon, hath met this impertinence of his with an 
unavoidable reason to convince his mistake ; which is, that 
-)(jEipoTGvia y in the canons, cannot mean election by most 
voices, because the choice of a Bishop is done by all the 
Bishops of the province, according to the canons of Nice and 
lil Antiochia, alleged afore *; whereas the ordination, which is 
^€tparouia f is performed by two or three, by the tenor of that 
canon of the Apostles h , And therefore Justcllus 1 , by the 
way, did not right to allege Balsamon for one that seconds 
Zonaras in this conceit, wherein it is plain he hath laid him 

' See note e T chap. v. ice! (k 
* Chap. x». sect 6, 

Aiyoutyuit, Btit r^v rutff xttpwy $KTturtv, 
T$fr ytvo^iineir drt -napa rod ir\{i&av$ 

iyttrovro .,.,.,,,. jcal if iw* £kk\tj- 
triat xttpwayir, 5i&. f.<vcniKtL<v tvx&v T *- 
XttTai, k$v tvl'iriQv iniKhuiv y(vr)TCU+ 

ttaia a+ aryltts crvrtlSoir* Hiopi^o^tvav tJjv 
rau *ZintrKuwav tyjj$ow yivttrOat wapk 
wdrtwr twf rr,s intxp\lan *$,ititrit6wM 
^ Twr rprnv^ tyy pampers W t«k \otirwy 
mmairQwrtav, anvpw irm *?it*jv nvtt 
t&k ttavAva roi'tov vatltr&at w*pl ilrii<puu 

Balsam, m Cau. L Apontol. apud licve- 
rcpii Synodic lorn. i. p. I, 

1 See note t, It is not unlikely that 
Justcllus nlludes to the commentaries 
of Balsamon on the fifth cation of (lie 
council of Laodieen T for in the note 
upon canon clixxiv. he cites them for his 
purpose. His mistake therefore will he 
less than if he had alleged the com- 
mentaries upon the first of the Apo* 
Static canons ♦ though still fOMtt tor 
H&lranion say*, kot* i&imv at apxirptiV 

eluding ihc people from the election*. 
— Beveregii Synod, loin. L p. 45J, 

G 2 



chap, upon his back. To which let me add this: the fifth canon 


'■ — of Laodicea k provide th firj Belv ra$ ^eiporovla^ hrl irapovala 

cucpowfihwv ylveadcu, " that ordinations be not made in pre- 
sence of the hearers or catechumeni," that is, "elections," 
saith Zonaras. For this canon he allegeth for his purpose, 
because at elections scandals were ripped up, and men's faults 
examined 1 . And so say all those that allow the people in- 
terest of approving or excepting against those that stood to 
be ordained; but he that looketh as far as the thirteenth 
canon of that council will never allow the people right of 
electing by most voices according to that council, which pro- 
videth, wept rod firj toU tf^Xots irnTpeireiv, ra$ i/cXoya? Trot- 182 
elaOcu t&v fie\\6vT(Dv KaOioracrOcu els Uparelov, — "that the 
choice of such as are to be placed in the rank of presbyters 
must not be yielded to the people." Now it is well enough 
known, that many times at these assemblies for making of 
ministers, the votes of the people, desiring such or such 
persons for Bishops, or presbyters, or others, prevented the 
order in practice, nominating such beforehand as they desired 
to have made ; as it is to be seen in the eminent examples 
of Augustine™ among presbyters, and St Ambrose among 
Bishops. Neither was it an inconvenience, that those which 
ordained should balk the accustomed course to give satisfac- 
tion to the people's desire, when there was appearance that 
it was bred upon a due opinion of merit in the person recom- 
The in. § 18. And the case is in a manner the same, when the 
the C peopie k^* Christian emperors did oftentimes of themselves nomi- 183 
in «ie fled nate t0 ^ e hi 800 ? 1 ™ 8 of the chief seats of the empire , where 

* Cone. Laodic. circ. A.D. 364. 
Labbei, torn. i. coL 1531. ed. Venet. 

1 Xtiporovias &h r&s \fti<f>ovs wv6yjM*v* 

iv $\ reus itftpois 8t& rb u<rdy*- 

<r0cu rivk curidfjutra Kark r&v tj/i^tfo- 
liivwv kvZp&v, birny6p*mcu rh wdptival 
twos, Kcd iucpoutrBat roArwv. — Comm. in 
L Can. Apostol. apud Beveregii ut supr. 

m jam scientea catholici sancti 

Augustini propositum et doctrinam, 

manu injecta, eum ergo 

tenuerunt, et, ut in talibus consuetum 
est, episcopo ordinandum intulerunt, 
omnibus id uno consensu et desiderio fieri 
perficique petentibus, magnoque studio et 
clamore Jtagitantibus, ubertim eo fiente. 

— Possidius in Vita S. Augustini, cap. 
iv. coL 260. App. torn. x. ed. Ben. 

» perrexit (Ambroaius) ad 

Ecclesiam, ibique cum alloqueretur 
plebem subito vox fertur infantis in 
populo sonuisse Ambrosium episcopum 

ita qui antea turbulentissirae dissi- 

debant repente in hunc unura 

mirabili et incredibili concordia con- 
senserunt — Paulinus in Vita S. Am- 
brosii, cap. vi. colL ii. iii. App. torn. ii. 
ed. Ben. 

° Theodosius the Great nominated 
Nectarius to the throne of Constanti- 
nople, and Arcadius St Chrysostom, 
Theodosius the Younger, Nestorius. 



the state was most interested in the condition of the person chap. 

to he ordained* For in this they proceeded as those in whom ■ — 

J J course 

rested all the right of the people in that common wealth : the mow- nrac- 
Bishops proceeding to do their office — upon due knowledge 
and approbation of the person — without examining the course 
of proceeding, as not so near concerning their charge. And 
thus it is plain that the Apostles did not leave the choice 
of Matthias or the seven deacons at large to the people ; but 
qualifying the persons by their directions in whom those 
qualities were found — resting indifferent themselves — they 
referred to the knowledge of the people. For so we read 
of Matthias, Acts L 21 : " Of these men that have companied 
with us ever since the Lord Jesus went in and out among 

164U3 . • . . must one be chosen, to be a witness of His resur- 
rect ion with us*" And of the seven deacons, Acts vi. 3 : 
" Wherefore, brethren, look you out among you seven men 
of honest report^ full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom 
we may appoint over this business. But had the persons 
been found not qualified, no man will be so gross as to think 
the Apostles might not, or ought not, to control the choice. 
And though it were granted 3 which with truth cannot be 
granted, that the pmhyteil aforesaid were made by Saul 
and Barnabas upon most voices of the people, yet if we 
reserve to tbem the nomination of the persons, the interest 
of the people will be less — rather than mure — than the people 
of this Chusetk iiscth at the present, though not in them- 
selves, yet in the patrons of churches, to whom the Church 

l&5 yieldeth it, in the name of the people, in respect to the merit 
of those that built or endowed churches; at least if the ancient 
canon were in use* 1 * 

■* Originally the ttUhops — a* *ue- 
ressor* of the Apostles founders of all 
< litmhes either in person or bv their 
imiimliitlr n |>ri**cntatives — collate*! tu 
all beiufu-is within their territorial ju- 
risdiction. Hut tlie council of Orange, 
A.!L Ht Can, x, innovated, or sanc- 
tioned innovations m this matter, hy 
making it lawful for a Hi shop who 
ihouhl found a church in another' .* 
diocese to present n clerk lo that Bishop 
for institution, tt ia doubtful whether 
bii ftUfiAttaor had the name prh 
The council of Agda, A.D. 50U; can, 
nxu, Allowed oratories to laymen, hut 

the fourth counril of Or It ana, A. I), 
54 L can. til* forbade the in to intro- 
duce i lerK* without the apprftb*t$Ofl of 
the DUhop, At tbk time, il out in 
this year, Justinian published a l*w, 
Novell 123. cap, w%ii r , by which he 
allnwfii the patronage Irs of 

the founders. 

The third Late ran council, A. D„ 
1 1 7°s tlr j'trt patronnttts f sanctioned the 
passing of the patronage to other per- 
sons than the heirs of the founder* — 
namely, to those who should acquire, 
hy purchase or otherwise, the ir- 
on which the church was buih 




[ Pfeiwhiai 

deptnd nti 

\h + cathe- 

§ 19. For though it be a little without the terms of m 
subject, yet let me say tbia word for the provision of pastors 
in rural congregations, that by the order thus far specified, it 
must needs conic from the mother- Church, out of the gre- 
mitils of it. In the first ages of the Church, there is little or 
no mention but of presbyteries in gross, for the common ser- 
vice of mother-Churches, whereof hitherto we speak* After- 
wards, when the faith was planted, and congregations ordered, 
in the territories of those cities, or dioceses of those Churches, 
we find in the thirteenth canon of Ncocae$area q a difference 
made between Uic prrsbylers of them, whereof some are called 
there hn^ptoi, others oi Kara rroXtv— these of the mother- 
Church, those of rural congregations. And by the canon of tsti 
Chalcedon, mentioned afore r , forbidding all ordinations at 
large but for the service of the city-Church, or other depend- 
ing on it, it uppearcth, that — by virtue of the ordination in 
the mother- Church, wherein the people concurred no other- 
wise than hath been said, whether presbyters or other, — 
ministers were invested in their charge of those Churches* 
Before that time it is to be observed that the Council of Nice, 
canon xv., forbidding ministers to pass from city to city — 
whether Bishops, presbyters, or deacons— that is. to leave 
their own mother-Church to serve in another mother-Church, 
proceeded] in these terms: — y £So|e rramdrram weptatpeOfjuai 
Tqv a-wtjOeiai/ rrjv rrapa top tcavava evpeOetaav h* T«rt fup€&tv m , 
— M it seemed good to put down the fashion that is come up 
in some parts beside the rule ;" signifying that the rule of 
the Church from the beginning was, to ordain ministers in ]&7 
mother-Churches, for the service of those mother-Churches, 
But in the sixteenth canon, next following, it is further pro- 

English barons, in their letter to Pope 
Gregory IX, say that their forefathers 
lifcd enjoyed tliis liberty "« prima 
Chrifttiam talis fundatione in AngHi." 
— Malth. Paris, ad ui. 12311 p. £13. 
London, 1640. The condition and 
privilege*: and duties of patrons are 
summed up in these lines: 

Patron u in facuiut dos, tcdifi ratio, 

Pat i ono debet ur hones, onus, utili- 

Pnpsentet, prresit, defendet, alalur 

' *ET*x*Jpim irp*>{rfifcr*ptH iy t^ Ku- 
ptaKy tt}¥ TtiAfiwr -wpaiTipjptiir air bwav 
tui. TrdptiVTOs iici<Tit6wou $ TjPCtfjStfTtplW 
-fftJAtwf a&r* firTjv tproy &i66vai iv tux*}, 
oWf WQT'fipUHt. 'Eaf fit ifowi, teal *h 
tOxhf K*n®fi fL&ras, Stttadrjp, — ColiciL 

Hcomu A.I), life Labbci, tan. L 
col 1513. ed. VeneL 

' Chap. xii. sect, 3, 

* The next words are, Strr* fork W- 
htwt tit w6\ty ft% pLtra$aitftiv t prrr* 
iwtffK&wov, fiTfTt irjPfff£eV*00x T f"7T* 
didttway— CondL Nimi. A.I). 325. 
Lahhei, torn, ij, col. -KI. ed + VtaeL 



videtl that they shall he constrained to return to their 6rst 
charges^ in these terms : — *AXkA wm&ap avrms dvdytctjv hrd- 
yeaOai j£pr), avaGTp&fatv ffe ras iaur&v wapoucia%~ u they 
must he constrained hy all means to return into their own 
dioceses." For TrapoiKta f in the canons, signifieth the country 
lying to the city of the mother-Church, which we call the 
diocese. This canon, speaking of presbyters and deacon s, 
and not of Bishops, besides the voiding of such attempts, 
which is done in the fifteenth canon afore, providing a course 
to constrain them to return, extendcth further than the other 
diil — to presbyters and deacons In country cures, whereas 
that rested in the mother-Church. So the third canon 

186 of Antiochia*; so the fifteenth of the Apostles % provid- 
ing that ministers should not leave tw? iavr&v Trapoitcia^ 
M their dioceses/* as was said, speak plain to let us know how 
much the cures of the wlu>lc diocese, and the persons by 
whom they were exercised, were in the disposing of the 
mother-Church, when it appeareth that the ministers of them 
could not depart, to serve in or under other Churches, till 
they were dismissed their first charge, with letters of license 
from the mother-Church, which they called dTroXurttcas, or 

§ 20, Wherein the condition of the Church is just that of 
the Greek ish colonies : they were wont to have their priests 
sent them from the mother-cities, and reserved the first-fruits, 
which were the priests' due, for an honour to their founders; 
as Thucydides, lib. iJ and his scholiast writeth, alleging this 

led for an occasion of that war, because those of Corcyra neg- 
lected their mother-city of Corinth in that accustomed right 
So all rural congregations, being at first nothing but colonies 



1 Ef Ttr *p*a&{mpat fl fa fawns % 
$hws tw td« itpartlov rti ncaTaAnr&* 

Qui. The penuhy \§ suspension, Et Si 
frol fri^mu iv draffo* then the penalty 
h deposition from the holy ministry* 
!. Antioeh. AD. 311. Labbei, 
tuin* II eol* 3H8* ftL Vcnet* 

* Almost m the word? of the canon 
of AiitiurliU in the preceding note; it 
b thi fourteenth in the Greek copies 
Ubbei, tom.i roll* 28* 4*. 

* These were letters granted by the 
Ilibbop to those of bin clergy whom he 

released from their serif ice in the 
Church in which they had beeti or- 
dained, and permitted to re tile in an- 
other diocese. No clergyman could be 
received in an oilier Church without 
them. ConciL in Tmllo. can. xviL 
Labbei. torn, vil col* 13 JO* ed, Venet 
A' ■ "I'l.u^ to modem eu^lmn they are 
letter!! granted by one Bkhoj feO <' m- 
di dates for orders in his own d: 
to be ordained by another Bishop* 

w&Atws Aapfidi'tiv. cap* 25, 


chap, of the faith, planted from mother-Churches, founded in 

'■ — mother-cities, from the time of the Apostles, it was but 

reason they should receive their pastors from the head of 
the diocese, where the charge of overseeing as well as plant- 
ing them belonged. The right of presenting, then, yielded 
by the Church — to the people or to the patron, it concerns 
not in her regard — if it were to orders as well as to cures, 
was more than the people should have, in choosing out 
of those which Saul and Barnabas might nominate. But he 
that would have the people both name the persons, and 
choose out of those themselves named, neglecting imposition 
of hands, or enjoining it upon the choice, must first put the 
epistles to Timothy and Titus out of the Bible, lest, at the 190 
first insight, that appear to belong to the office of men of 
their place, the account whereof lieth upon their charge. As 
for the constituting of Bishops, fit it is, in the first place, 
provision be made for the interest of the state, as well in 
ordering the choices, as in approving the persons chosen, that 
no man be established prejudicial to the commonwealth. 
But yet that course, in which the Christian emperors of 
ancient times interposed themselves to nominate the persons, 
being acknowledged to be beside the rule, did not destroy it 
in all, but balk it for the time, 
what the § 21. Now, if the people from the beginning had a due 
SJmre, 6 share of interest in giving consent to those which were to be 
theransti ora< ained their presbyters, much more must we needs think 
fution of that it was due and of right, that the votes of the presbyters 

and consent of the people should go before, in designing the 191 
persons under whom and with whom they were to guide and 
be guided in spiritual matters. As for imposition of hands of 
neighbour-Bishops, with whom the unity of the Church was 
to be preserved by the ordained, it was not then the formality 
of a thing done, but the substance of the act*, resting upon the 
account of them that did it by virtue of the Apostle's charge. 
And therefore, though it is not easy for me to judge how far 
it concerneth the Church to retain the primitive form, yet it 

* Haec synodus ex omnibus Episco- toritate omnia agebant, qua ces*ante, om- 

pis provincial constare debebat vel sal- niafuitsent irrita, utdocet canon Nicae- 

tem ex tribus prasentibus .... absentes nus iv. et vi. et canon xix. Antiochc- 

consensum scripto dabant rebus geren- nus. — Petr. de Marca, de Concor. Saccr. 

dis, et tres illi cum Metropolitani auc- et Imper. lib. viii. cap. iii. 5. 


is easy for indifferent persons to discern huw much is required C if ar 
to the retaining of it. — --• ' 




Something would here be said, in the last place, of that 
which dependeth upon these two last particulars, of penance 
and ordination ; that is, the censure of offences, whether in 
doctrine or manners of persona ordained ; because the Apostle 
seemeth to refer this to Timothy, that is, to the Bishop alone, 
not mentioning any concurrence of his presbyters an it. For 
so we read, I Tim. v m 19, 20, "Against an elder receive not 
an accusation, but under two or three witnesses. Them that 
sin rebuke before all, that others also may have fear." But 
having hitherto shewed that our Lord in the Gospel hath 
193 appointed matters of particular offence to come before the 
consistory of Bishop and presbyters' 1 ; that the Apostles 
themselves, in divers matters belonging to the government 
of the Church, used their assistance b ; that in the primitive 
times of the Church, even under the Apostles, matters of 
censure and ordination both were wont to pass by the pres- 
byters, but in the assemblies of Christian people 1 '; let me 
refer this to all indifferent persons to judge, whether the 
same course of proceeding were in likelihood observed in 
the censure of presbyters, The Apostle's direction, regulating 
what information to admit, is directed to Timothy alone; for 
the meaning is not, that two or three should be present when 
it is put in, hut that it should not be admitted, hut — as the 
Syriac translateth it — " upon the mouth," that Is, the word, of 
two or three witnesses, 

5 2, But the censure of reproof is prescribed to pass in the 
congregation, when he saith, "them that sin," that is, them 
that arc found in fault, "rebuke before all, that others may 
have few;" no otherwise than the censure of the Apostle did 

Chap, xl sect. 5, 12, and chap, v 

TIip rule 
of < en- 
to Timo- 
thv alone* 

The office 


other part* 


Chap, it. xwi. 2 

sect h 


chap, and was prescribed to do, 1 Cor. v. 4, 2 Cor. ii. 6 ; and there- 
XIIL fore we are to think that the examination of such causes 
must pass, as others of like nature, by him, with the pres- 
byters, to whom the Apostle had assigned a charge of govern- 
ing the Church there, Acts xx. 28, 35. So the keys of the 
Church, given to St Peter and to the Apostles, were never- 
theless intended to be exercised by the Church, as hath been 
said d . So the charge of excommunicating heretics is directed 
to Titus alone, Tit iii. 10: but we have no reason therefore 
to imagine that Titus is directed to proceed otherwise in it 
than we know the Church was wont to proceed in censures 195 
of that nature, according to that which hath been said e . And 
so it is in the case that followeth a little after, ver. 22 f : " Lay 
hands suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of other men's 
sins:" where the rule of ordinations is directed to Timothy 
alone ; yet have we no cause to believe that it was practised 
by him otherwise than according to the form aforesaid, joining 
with him the presbyters in imposition of hands, as was prac- 
tised by the Apostle. The eminence of their place is to be 
acknowledged, because the Apostle's instructions for managing 
these matters are directed to them alone. But their course 
of proceeding must be measured by that which we know 



Retaining That which hath been said, being intended to represent 
live form 1 tne ^ orm delivered in Scripture by the agreement of historical 
cannot be trut ^ an( * primitive practice, concerneth no more, as every 
abolished, man sees, than the government of mother-Churches con- 
tained in mother cities; because that is all the Scripture 
hath expressed. But what influence and effect this ought to 
have in the present state of the Church, now that dioceses 

d Chap. xi. sect. II. '1 Tim. ▼. 

r Chap. xi. sect. 10. 



are dmded 3 churches built, and congregations assigned, is char 
not for a private person to part icul arize, unless he meant '■ — : — 
107 to build churches — as some men do castles — in the air. Let 
it he enough to say thus much in general — which every man 
must think that belie veth what hath been said to be true — 
that he that aimcth at the primitive fornix and that which 
cometh nearest the institution of our Lord and His Apostles, 
must not think of destroying Bishops, but of restoring their 

§ 2, Were it but a human ordinance of yesterday, esta- how 
blished by due course of right, let me be bold to say, that ^ulnicd* 
if Acinus withdraw his submission to it, he must come within ft wwlfe 
Epiphanius' list of heretics* 1 ; not understanding an heretic 
in St. Augustine's sense * — wherein Tertulban in his book de 
PrmcriptJ went afore him — to be none but he that will not 
believe some point of doctrine necessary, as the means of 

* " For most certain truth it is that 
Churches cathedral, and the Bishops 
of them arc as glasses wherein the face 
and very countenance of Apostolical 
antiquity remaineth ppfN a* yt*t to be 
mm, notwithstanding the alteration! 
which tract of lime and the course of 
the world hath brought For defence 
and main tr nance of them we are most 
earnestly hound to strive, even as the 
Jews were for Iheir temple and the 
high -priest of God therein. The over- 
throw and ruin of the one, if ever the 
sacrilegious avarice of atheist* should 
prevail so far, which God of His infi- 
nite mercy forbid t ought no otherwise 
to move m than the people of God 
were moved, when having beheld the 
sack and com I motion of His sanctuary 
in most lamentable manner flaming 
before their eyes, they uttered from 
the bottom of their grieved spirits thine 
voices of doleful supplication, ' Exsurpe 
Dnmine et miserearis Sion : Scrvi tui 
diliguut lapides ejus, pulveris e^us 
mfseret cos/" — Hooker, bk. vii. eh. 
vii 2, p. 224-5. ed, Keble. )8.1b\ 

* ( * Are we to think that Aerius bad 
wrong in heintr judged an heretic for 
holdintr this opinion? Surely if heresy be 
an error falsely fathered upon Scripture*, 
but indeed repugnant to the truth of the 
word of (!nd, nod by the evntettt of the 

'$af Chvrrh, in the councils, or in 
her contrary uniform practice through- 
out the whole world, declared to be meh: 
and the opinion of Aerius in this point 

be a plain error of that nature, there 
is no remedy, hut Aerius. M ?ehi«imatj- 
cally and stiffly maintaining it, must 
even stand where Epiphanius and Au- 
gustine have placed him. An error 
repugnant unto the truth of the word 
of God is held by lliem, whosoever 
they be, that stand in defence of any 
conclusion drawn erroneously out of 
Srripture, and untruly thereon fathered. 
The opinion nf A'eriut therefore being 
falsely collected out of Scripture, must 
needs 1« acknowledged an error re- 
pugnant unto the tnttk of the word uf 
God. His opinion was that there ought 
not to he any dijferrnte betwem tt Buhop 
and n presbyter. His ground* and ren- 
,iot:i for this opinion were sentence* of 
S crtp i ur *,** — Hooker, bk. vii. ch. ix. 2, 
p, -217-8, voL iii, ed* Ketde, l8:to\ 

1 Sunt fniin huerctici, quod fa tend urn 
est, qui singulis* vel lion multo am* 
plius, dogmatibus oppugn ant regulam 
Ye ri talis. — S. An gust in. ii It. de Havre* 
si bus, lorn, viii. eoL 27. ed, Ben. 
1st urn nondum hanetirtun dlco, niti 
manifeatata sibi doctritia catholic** 
fidei resbtere maluerit, ct illud quod 
tenebat, elegerit — De Baptism, CM**, 
Dottatist. lib. iv. cap, svi. torn, it col, 
IW. <d. Ben. 

j Huec regula (symbolum A pi* ml o- 
mm) a Chris to ut prima hit ur instil ut a, 
Bulla haht-l npud nos qwrstiones, nisi 
qua* h;erescs inferunt, el quie hfefttlMXH 
facium\^TertQll. adv. Ha?rcL cap. xiii. 
p. 333, cd. Pam. Uothom. 1662 




salvation, to be believed ; but, according to the latitude of 
-the word, taking all to be heretics that make sects, and 198 
assemble themselves apart beside the Church of God law- 
fully settled k . This sense is used in can. vi. Cone. Con- 
stantinop. 1 ', where they are counted heretics that hold the 
sound faith, airoaxlfyvra^ Bk /ecu avrurwdrfovra^ rok tcavovi- 
Kok rjfiiv \E7rur*o7T04<?, " but cut themselves off, and assemble 
in opposition to us the canonical Bishops." And this latitude 
it seemeth Epiphanius comprised, because he reckoneth the 
Quartodecimani in the roll of heretics 111 . These, when the 
position whereupon the separation is grounded is not of 
weight — setting their separation aside — to separate them from 
the invisible Church, are since, according to the authors 
named afore, by a proper term called schismatics, though 
heretics in the proper sense separate no less than they do. 
And of this crime my earnest desire is, that those which have 
separated themselves from this Church of England upon this 
quarrel of government by Bishops, or the like unjust or in- 
sufficient causes, may stand acquitted ; though how they will 199 
acquit themselves of it, I cannot yet perceive. 

§ 3. But if the rank of Bishops over their presbyters be 
not only a just human ordinance, but estated in possession 
of sixteen hundred years, without deceit or violence at the 
beginning, let me have leave to think it will be hard to shew 
a better title of human right for any estate upon the earth. 
How much more, when the possession is avouched to have 
been delivered from the hands and time of the Apostles, must 
it needs seem strange that the successors of their place should 
be destroyed by the sons of their faith? Be it pardonable 
for our neighbours and brethren of the reformed Churches 

k Qui sunt hroretici, nisi qui, relicta 
Dei Ecclesia, privatas elegerunt socie- 
tates ? de quihus Dominus dicit, Jcr. 
ii. 13. Duo mala fecit populus metis, me 
dereliqucrunt fontem aqua viva, etf ode- 
runt sibi cisternal [cisternal] dissipatas 
qua continere non valent aquas. — Isidori 
Hispalensis, lib. prim, sen tent. cap. xvi 
7. torn. vi. p. 157. Rom. 1802. 

1 AlperiKovs 5^ \£yon*v . . . . icol robs 
tV wlffTtv fiiy rty 6711} wpooitoiov- 
litvovt 6fio\oy<7v : then follow the words 
in the text. — Concil. Constantinopol. i. 
A.D. 381. Labbei, torn. ii. col. 1127. 

ed. Venet 

m These heretics agreed with the 
Catholic Church in all things, except 
that for which they are called heretics, 
namely, that they celebrated the feast 
of Easter not according to the rule of 
the Church, on Sunday, but according 
to the law of the Jews, on whatever 
day of the week the Passover might 
happen. — Epiph. Uteres. 50. torn. i. 
p. 419. ed. Colon. 

■ He uses the word in the popular 
sense of the day ; in another place 
he speaks of these " Churches" thus 



abroad to have overseen the succession of the Apostles, be- chap, 
cause they could not discern it f as they found it blended — 4 — 

200 with such abundance of accessories, especially in the persons 
of men that hated to be reformed ; but among us there hath 
been time to plead the right to the quick ; and though not 
without eagerness of debate, which interest breedeth,, yet 
always with advantage to the true tenure. And among the 
multitude of speech that this time hath bred, we have heard 
little or nothing, as yet, of new reasons to quell the cause 
with. So that, before advancing new plea, the old right 
descending from such hands standcth now in as good terms 
as ever heretofore. As for the point of peace within our- 
selves, and correspondence with our neighbours, be it con- 
sidered how large St. Ilicrome — of all Church- writers least 
favourable to the order, as he that found himself pinched 
with the Bishop of Jerusalem — hath been nevertheless in 
acknowledging that the peace of particular Churches could 

201 not be preserved without it". To which we must add the 
remembrance of so many happy days as this Church, since 
the reformation, hath seen, without such ruptures as have 
fallen out in other parts, by the benefit of it, among a people 
always observed to be of all others most daring to innovate 
opinions, in matters of religion especially, as well as in those 
that concern other knowledge- But he that callcth to rc~ 
membrance that correspondence which, in ancient times, was 
actuated between Churches of several nations and people — 
commerao form® tar urn % as Op tat us speak eth, by traffic of 
those letters of correspondence which, under set forms, were 
wont to pass between Btflbopfl in the name of their Churches 
— the true form of that unity which our Lord commended to 
His Church, after it was become catholic — must needs lament 

. , . . . " a course by which it may 
be discerned how far thf Church of 
England may abate of the right (of 
holding synod*.) for bo good a purpose 
is to reconcile unto it those who may 
otherwise fall into Churches in natn? t 
but tckhmt tndfedS'—Tjiv Right of 
the Church in a Christian State, 
chap. v. 

• Vid. S. Hieron. Epp. 38, 30. Adr, 
Error** Johaunis H ierowjlymytmii, torn, 
iv. ed, Ben* 

* See note y* chap. Lx* teeu 6. 

i Quoted in note h. chap. v. neet S. 
Liter ;is formats, or canonics, com* 
preheltd the ctimmunicntoritr, cotuwirhrftr* 
(it Sir, dim i*sori&, and jnivijir<r. Without 
these, according to their circumstance* 
or condition, none travelled into .strange 
countries* for without them they could 
not he received into communion. These 
letters were granted by the Bishops 
onlv, — 73L disL 




All rlis- 
Hi shops 
by defect 
Of pres- 

to see that most beautiful peace of the Church, which was the 
effect of this government in ancient time, but since hath 
been defaced and lost, by the fault of them that hate to be 20 
reformed, in the dissensions of Christendom alleged to destroy 
it, The honour and esteem, which the learned * of the re- 
formed Churches abroad have professed of the state of our 
Churches, and" our charity in excusing the necessities of 
theirs, and acknowledging the efficacy of the ministry which 
they use", will be sufficient, through God's goodness, to 
actuate the correspondence we desire to preserve with them, 
without those innovations which they never required at our 
hands to such purpose 1 * 

§ 4. But he that acknowledged, and is glad to see these 
heads stand In their right place, looking back upon their 
beginning, which was to succeed the Apostles over several 
presbyteries, in the place which they held overall for the time, 
must needs miss their relatives, the bodies of these presby- 
teries, in the government of Churches* And though that jf 
alteration cannot he charged upon any man, which is come 
to pass through time and insensible custom ; especially seeing 
it cannot be counted an alteration in this Church of England, 
because we are to think it had prevailed in the Church before 
this nation received the faith ; yet must it needs be remem- 
bered, by him that believe th all the evil consequences which 
this government is charged with, whether in opinion or truth, 
to have come from the discharge of presbyteries from their 
part of the office. One particular no man need to he nice 
in reckoning to be of that nature, though it is not in the 

¥ Bishop Hall, in his '* Humble Re- 
monstrance," j>. S2, mention s two nf 
the in, Lectins, a civilian, anil Frederic 
Spanheim, Reader in Divinity at Ge- 

■ M It is possible that some of our 
writers, and particular members of our 
Churcbes t may have been deceived in 
the question of fact, and esteemed the 
Lutherans and Cahimst* more free 
from fit u It than they really were, but 
if mo. It was a mistake as lo fact only ; 
there wan no wish to countenance heresy 
or aclii sin , w hi eh the Ch n rehe so 1" B ritai n 
have always abhorred and condemned,*' 
— Palmer's Treatise on the Church, vol. 
i. p. #)2> second edition. 

1 The Puritans were desirous of a 

formal recognition of the Protestants, 
and would have Episcopacy set aside 
for the purpose* Thorn dike insists on 
the ancient way of intercommunion, 
which of course involves Episcopacy.— 
SmectymnuiiSt sect, xviii. Queries 
about EpiscOptCY, write thus: "Why 
slmuld England, that is one of the 
cli it- test kingdoms in Europe that sepa- 
rate from Antichrist, maintain and de- 
fend a ditripfhir ttijfirt'itt from aft other 
reformed Churches which stand in the 
like separation ? and whether the nin- 
th"! nance In this discipline will not at 
last bring us to communion with Home 
from which we are separated, and to 
separation from the other reformed 
CMu-clus unto which wrfl tfi united \ n 

or cHritciiEs, 


power of one man — were he as much in love as I am with en a p. 
the primitive form — or scarce of one age, without a public — - — — 
act to amend it. That is f the committing of jurisdiction at 
large — even that which is proper and essential to the Church, 

20 * by the power of the kc} T s ? which our Lord hath given it, as 
hath been said — in effect, to lay persons 11 . Which jurisdic- 
tion, though for the present it pass not upon present advice, 
but upon laws of the Church for the purpose, yet so long as 
laws are general and few, cases particular and numberless, 
will always deserve to be exercised with mature and charit- 
able advice of those to whose charge our Lord first com- 
mitted it, if we mean to attain the ends of correction and 
example. Though the profession by which it is ministered 
deserve to retain the rank it holdcth, in regard of those other 
points of jurisdiction in charitable causes*, by the favour of 
princes, and laws of commonwealths annexed to the Church, 
passing, as it doth, by the laws whereof they profess know- 
ledge, This inconvenience, if such it be counted, seemeth 

205 to proceed from that insensible change whereof hath been 
said: for had the presbyteries continued, as at the beginning, 
upon the exercise of this discipline of penance, it is not to 
be thought that power could have been so tightly alienated as 
from one, wherein a number had their interest, 

§5. But this and the like consequences seem to have To what 
brought this undue opinion upon the Church-go vcrnincnt, thJy might 
that, as cathedral-churches long since, so now the state ofjjj 
Bishops among indifferent men, is counted a matter of in- 
(litFiTcnce, which, had they continued in the primitive charge, 
must needs have been counted — as counted they ought to 
be — inviolable. And therefore though, as the case standeth. 
it is neither possible nor desired to call the whole presbytery 
of a diocese to a share in the public government, yet let me 

20CJ have leave to say, that the next course to retrieve the primi- 

■ The appointment of laymen into 
judicial places was made an argument 
of by the Presbyterians in favour of 
lay -ciders* and also against ibe whole 
hierarchical discipline. '* Was gvft 
such a thing as this heard of in the 
beat primitive times,** saith SinecUiss- 
nuus, sect, i, "that mfn thtt 
ccived iwponitfan nf hand*, should not 

only he received into assistance, hut be 
witotly tmitmiitd uith tki ptww .- 
t f lufll j urimUfii tm, even then when it U 
to be ejrrched ovrr tuck person* as have 
hid hands laid upon them/' Sw 
a pamphlet called *' Christ nn Ilis 
Throne,'* cases v, and *i. printed 1 fi 40. 
■ Causes testamentary and matri- 



chap, tive form, with the wholesome grounds and consequences of 

' — it, is to re-estate these presbyteries in cathedral churches, 

and perhaps, in other populous places, seats of jurisdictions, 
where the diocese is great, furnishing them with number of 
men of abilities, and joining them with and under the 
Bishops, for assistance in all parts of the office hitherto 
proved common to both. It seems the means that hath 
brought to pass that insensible change whereof we speak, 
was from the beginning no other than this: because the 
form of proceeding in particular Churches was never regu- 
lated by canons of the Church, but left to particular custom. 
And therefore it is past my apprehension how more right 
should be done than distributing the common charge into 
particular interest, by such rules as may best express those 
general terms which the purest primitive times were con- 207 
tent with; that as without the Bishop nothing to be done, 
so the Bishop to do nothing without advice of his pres- 
byters y . 

§ 6. The performance of divine service in the cathedral, 
common sense finds too slight a work for such persons : the 
cures of all Churches within such populous places, if they 
belonged to their titles, would be a work suitable to such 
prime abilities. Then the exercise of the power of the keys 
in the discipline of penance, trial and approvement of per- 
sons presented to cures, or assistance of cures, according to 
laws — excluding all ordinations without such title — censure 

r That deans and chapters may con- 
tinue with these conditions : — 

1. That they may be annexed to the 
parish churches in the great towns 
where the cathedrals stand. 

2. That they may be elected in those 
places by the king, with the approba- 
tion of the clergy and cum conscientia 

3. That they may be enjoined to 
preach ordinarily twice every Lord's 
Day at their parish. 

4. That they may preach every Sun- 
day once or twice in their courses at 
the cathedrals. 

5. That they may be a consilio to the 
Bishops in all matters of ordination 
and jurisdiction, so that nothing shall 
be done without them. 

So shall the exceptions of non-em- 

ployment and non-residence be taken 

The Bishops' absolute authority in 
ordination and jurisdiction shall be 

The admission of unfit men unto 
these dignities shall be prevented. 

And all those great cities shall he 
furnished with an able ministry, which 
as a fountain of knowledge may derive 
it unto the country with which they 
have such perpetual commerce. — Five 
motives with reasons concerning deans 
and chapters, printed at the end of a 
pamphlet, with the title of " To the 
Right Honourable the Lords and Com- 
mons assembled in Parliament, the 
Humble Petition of divers of the Clergy 
of the Church of England," A.D. 1611. 



of offences in doctrincj or life of persons ordained* always chap. 

under the Bishop, and for his assistance — are works that : — 

require mature advice, and pass best in common for satisfac- 
i tion to the public ; matters of religion being by nature more 
popular than the commonwealth. If this be not enough, 
such may be men's abilities, that all these presbyteries may 
become schools of the prophets s and seminaries of able 
preachers through ihe several jurisdictions or dioceses ; a 
thing wished on all hands, but not to be expected without 
means to bring it to pass. This hath been always desired 
at the hands of cathedral- Churches, and some steps of it 
remain still in some of ours; and though the staple of this 
education, being long since drained from other places to the 
two Universities, the charge hath been sustained by them 
alone with unspeakable benefit to the Church, as well as to 
the common weal th, yet the assistance of these places with 
them, for the service of the Church, is not to be counted their 
prejudice, leaving entire unto them the place ihey possess of 
seminaries of the commonwealth. 









There is no such light to the true meaning of the Scrip- 
lure, as the practice of matters contained in it, under the 
synagogue first, and in the Church afterwards. This is the 
reason of the course held here, in inquiring what was done, 
or arguing what is to be done, for the public service of God, 
It is not to be expected that the particulars here observed 
or discoursed under the judgment of this Churchy and the 
learned in it, should indifferently take place* It is enough 
if the main foundation, which I have given my thoughts a 
little freedom to dig for, prove not fleeting. Then may it 
serve for the edifying of it unto peace. However, you see 
wherefore writing in English, nevertheless I produce the 
passages of writers in their own formal words. You shall 
find them translated for the satisfaction of all sorts, The 
learned readers may please to excuse mc, if walking for the 
most part an untrodden path, they find nothing but work cut 
out, to be made up at leisure. All may please to do so much 
right to themselves or mej as to refer themselves to such 
things as the delay of the press hath given occasion to add 
at the end% before they begin to read. The heads of matters 
here intreated, arc premised for the ease of such as make 
choice uf what they think best to read. 

* These additions are inserted lb their proper place in the text uf thii edition. 



The most eminent work that men are able to tender to C H A p. 
the honour of God, is His public service at the assemblies - 
of Christians. 


That supernatural tincture which the faith puMie 
of Christ and His grace infusetk into the beat of our actions, t if God 
seetneth to consist in the obedience to God, out of which ^»™rit 
the j are done; and the intention of His glory and worship, SJJ 1 "^ •?* 
to which they are addressed; — That the reason of them is 
derived from the will and pleasure of God, and the intent 
of them directed to His honour and service. Whereas all 
the men of this world can do nothing but out of love to 
2 themselves, taking the rise and motive of their doings from 
that which concerneth their particulars, and aiming at 
nothing else in their intentions. All sorts of Christian men's 
actions, as they proceed from such considerations as these, 
are capable to be qualified " the service of Got!." But that 
which is called His public service professeth the exercise 
of nothing else, neither is capable to be accounted otherwise, 
unless it be counterfeit* For what consideration can common 
sense fasten upon that which we do, when we assemble our- 
selves for religious service, but the conscience of our subjec- 
tion to God, the acknowledgment of our want of His direc- 
tion and assistance, and our desire and affection to the good 
which we expect at His hands ? Only to be public is still 
an addition of advantage to it, inasmuch as tbe honour, 
which it please th God to accept at men's hands, becometh 
His greatness more when it proccedeth from more agree- 
ment of minds. And as the strength of men's bodies, joined 
to one purpose, removeth that, which, one by one, they 
could not do ; so united devotions prevail with God to such 
effect, as severally they cannot bring to puss. 


chap. § 2. The Prophet Esay, ii. 2 — 4, from the Prophet Micah, 
iv. 1, " In the last days it shall come to pass," saith he, " that 
by the the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established in 
prop J the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the 3 
hills : and people shall flow unto it, and many nations shall 
come and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of 
the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob ; and He 
will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths: 
for the law shall go forth of Sion, and the word of the Lord 
from Jerusalem." And a third Prophet, Sophon. iii. 9, " For 
then will I turn to the people a pure language," or, a pure 
lip, " that they may call upon the name of the Lord with 
one consent," or, with one shoulder. The meaning of these 
Prophets is, to tell us what the Gentiles should do when 
they applied themselves to the Church — the mountain of 
God, the hill of Sion — by two principal particulars: they 
should flow like the waters of a deluge to learn the will of 
God which the Church teacheth; they should crowd in like 
a multitude, with one shoulder, to serve God with that 
language which He had sanctified. Who can read this, and 
not think what God recommendeth to Christians ? one 
current to the Church, to learn His will there— one shoulder, 
striving who shall crowd in first— one lip, one language that 
soundeth nothing but His praises. So that in the public 
service of God are fulfilled the words of the Gospel, Matt, 
v. 14, "A city cannot be hid that standeth upon an hill:" 
be the profession what it will be that differenceth a true 
visible' Church from a false, it must be the public service 4 
of God that must make that profession visible. And the 
Apostle — 1 Tim. ii. 8, "I will therefore that men pray every 
where, lifting up pure hands without wrath or disputing" — 
when he saith, "every where," taketh away the difference 
which the temple at Jerusalem made ; when he saith, " with- 
out wrath or disputing," signifieth that his speech is of public 
assemblies, the fruit whereof he would not have intercepted 
through their dissensions : and so ezpoundeth that one lip 
of the Prophet, signifying that unity of mind which God's 
people serve Him with. 
How the § 3. This is too much to be said here, but perhaps too 
Jnay bede- Kttle to persuade how much the frame of public worship 


coocerneth the honour of God and His service : how much 
it must needs be for the advantage of godliness, that it be 
formed without prejudice. Were all particulars of it ordered the St rip- 
in Scripture — as the ceremonies of that figurative service 
under Moses are — there were no more to do, but to make 
all things according to the pattern shewed in the mountain, 
Ileb. viii. 5, Exod. xxv* 40. And he that did it should be, 
for his part, faithful in all the house of God, as was Moses, 
Heb. Hip 2, Numb, xiu 7, But he that is there said to be 
faithful in all the house of God as Moses was, hath dis- 
charged his office in revealing and establishing the substance 
of the worship of God in spirit and truth: and what is further 
determined in Scripture, and what is not, my purpose is not 
to dispute here, because my discourse proceedeth from that 
which I can find expressed in Scripture, to that which re- 
maineth questionable, according to it. For my part, I do 
not find so much delivered concerning the service of God 
at the assemblies of Christians, any where in Scripture, as 
in the first epistle to the Corinthians, where the Apostle 
discourscth the use of spiritual graces of that time in those 

§ 4, And therefore my first travel in this little work shall The sub- 
be, to inquire the true meaning of that whole discourse of Jec ' 
the Apostle, the proceeding of it, and the grounds where- 
upon his rules are framed. Which to do with success, I and ih P 
shall first discover the office of prophets and scribes under j n ^ 3? 
the first and second temple— of the graces of prophesying ^a^T 
and of languages under the first times of the Gospel, in 
ministering the moral and perpetual — not the ceremonial and 
figurative service of God — at their assemblies for that purpose. 
To the result of which inquiries, if we shall join the rules 
which the same Apostle debateth in the eleventh chapter 
of the same epistle, concerning men and women veiling or 
uncovering their heads in those assemblies, and concerning 
6 celebrating the Eucharist, with the feasts of love used then 
at common meetings, with the grounds whereupon they pro* 
cced ; adding to both such passages of Scripture as fall in 
with the meaning of these, speaking home to what was 
done, or prescribed to be done, at their religious assemblies: 
perhaps by this means we shall be furnished of such princi- 


chap, pies, and such rules derived thence, as the Scriptures afford 
— - — the Church to proceed upon, as well in the substance of 
that which is to be done in the public service of God, as in 
the form, and course, and circumstances of it 

§ 5. And this, upon the by, will minister just occasion to 
inquire further into the condition of those graces and minis- 
tries, by which the several parts of this work were exercised 
at that time according to the Apostle, or intended to be 
exercised in after ages. To which point having said some- 
thing of late in a little tract of the Primitive Government of 
Churches*, and finding it too much slighted there — because 
the particular discourse of it suited not with the model of 
that treatise — my desire is to take it in hand upon this occa- 
sion once more, and inquire what further satisfaction the 
consideration of public service at their religious assemblies 
will yield them that desire the truth, as concerning the 
nature and condition of ministries first instituted for that 



Days of Of the figurative service proper to the law of Moses, — and 
■pentad ^ at P^pk which received it,— of the kinds, and times, and 
by the law. place for offering sacrifices, — there is particular appointment 
in it : but of serving God by prayer, or hearing His word, 
you have there so much the less remembrance b . In Leviticus 
xxiii. we find the particular of all their solemnities that are 
called holy assemblies : for thus the general is propounded, 
ver. 2; "The assemblies of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim 

■ Chap. ix. » See the Epilogue, book i. chap. 13. 


for holy convocations, these are My asserublies." The first 
of these is the Sabbath, then the Passover, Pentecost, the 
beginning of the new year, the day of atonement, and the 
S feast of tabernacles. And, with leave, I rather use the word 
assemblies than feasts in this place, because the name of 
feasts is proper to those solemnities which are to be celebrated 
with joy and cheerfulness : whereas in this number, the day 
of atonement was to be observed with the greatest humilia- 
tion that could be expressed. The original word unD con- 
taining all assemblies, such as all these are commanded to be, 
and, as I take it, none else. For that which is read Ps» 
lxxxL 3, "Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the 
time appointed, against the day of our feasts," dependeth 
upon the law, Numb* x. 10, "Also in the day of your glad- 
ness, and in your solemn feast days," — or rather days of 
assemblies, for the word is the same that I translated so afore 
— "and in the beginning of your months, you shall blow 
with your trumpets over the burnt-offerings, and over the 

» sacrifice of your peace-offerings, that they may be to you for 
a memorial before your God*" Where we see three sorts 
of solemnities distinguished : first, " the day of your glad- 
ness," containing solemnities to be celebrated with cheerful- 
ness of heart, that is, feasts: then, "the solemn days of 
assemblies," as the word signineth, containing besides those, 
assemblies for humiliation, as the day of atonement; and 
last, "the beginnings of your months," wherein peculiar sacri- 
9 ficcs are enjoined, Numb, xxviii. 11, And here it is provided, 
that trumpets should be sounded over those sacrifices by the 

P priests in the tabernacle ; but that no assembly is appointed 
to be upon them, the difference here made between them and 
their days of assemblies, is presumption enough. 

§ 2. But in particular, the first and last days of the passover, 
and feast of tabernacles — the one whereof was kept for seven 
days, the other for eight— were to be solemn assemblies, 
which the rest were not, and therefore in the Greek of the 
Septuagint are called fieyakai qftipai, or great clays, to wit, 
of those feasts, in comparison of the less. Esay i. 13, "The 
new moons and Sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot 
away with i* ra$ mvpwjviaq vugm\ teal to, aafiftara, tcaX peydkTjp 
yfiepav. The calling of assemblies is here translated " great 

c Ji a i 




< ii a P. day," as in the Gospel, John viL, 37, "In the last day, the grca 

'■ — day of that feast" By which translation* that which is gener 

in the original, is restrained to the first and last days of those 
two festivals* Now the Sahbath was the greatest of all solem- 
nities appointed for assemblies : for they were commanded so 
to rest from bodily labour, as not to kindle fire, to dress the 
meat they cat upon it : for ;is in KxotL xvi. 5, 22, 29* God 
con teste th that He gave them a double measure of manna the 
day before, that they might dress it against the Sabbath: so 
we have again Exod. xxxw 3, " You shall kindle no fire lo 
throughout your habitations upon the Sabbath-" The same, 
Levit. xxiiL 3, where Abcnc/.ra, u in all your habitations, that 
is, in your land, and out of your land, at home, and upon the 
way." To teach us, that it was not for the time that they 
lived upon manna in the wilderness, that they were forbidden 
to kindle fire upon the Sabbath, but through all their habita- 
tions, wheresoever they dwelt afterwards* And many have 
observed, that in Levit, xxiii, it is not said of any other day 
but of the Sabbath, and the day of atonement, "thou shalt do 
no work upon it ; * but of the other days of assemblies, "thou 
shalt do no servile work upon them;" to shew us the difference 
between them, that upon the Sabbath and day of atonement 
it was prohibited to dress the meat of the day ; but upon 
other solemnities that was permitted, but to do any work that 
men were wont to put their slaves to, was prohibited i which 
is the received practice of the Jews, and hath a just ground 
in the Scripture, Exod. xii. 16, where, of the first and last 
day of the passover, is said, "no manner of work shall be 
done in them, save that which every man must cat, that only 
may be done/' or dressed, w of you." Abcnczra upon that 
place, lai QHJNDn talj "Of none of the solemn assemblies, beside 
the Sabbath and day of atonement, it is said, no manner 11 
of work ; only of the passover He saith it, and addcth an 
exception of the meat of the soul ;" that is, requisite for the 
sustenance of nature c . Here is a strict command of bodily 
rest — especially upon the Sabbath, and that particularized — to 
concern both Israelites themselves, and their slaves, and those 
that sojourn within their gates, 

The moral 
(terviCK of 

§ 3. But that is very considerable which excellent divines 




have observed, that in the fourth Commandment, where is c H a p. 
so large provision for bodily rest, tberc the purpose of that — iL — 
rest is only pointed at in general terms, when it is commanded inV^ 1 imt 
to be " sanctified ;" which is likewise done in all their solem- S^ViV'iV"* 1 
nities, when they are called "assemblies;" but there is no 
mention made of any particular work of the moral service of 
God, wherewith the Sabbath is commanded to be sanctified, 
or for performance whereof they are commanded to assemble, 
unless it be the reading of the law upon the seventh year, 
commanded Dent xxxL 11, So that it seemeth the Jews 
have reason , when they observe that neither the form, nor 
time of prayer, is appointed them by the law of Moses, but 
by the constitutions of their elders, Maimoni of Prayer, cap, L 
num. 1, 2* Indeed, that the spiritual service of God, of 
prayers, and His praises, of hearing the Word, and meditating 
\ i upon Ilis works, was the thing, for love whereof the Jews 
were commanded to keep the Sabbath, those miserable people, 
who in most things are bhnded with the letter, and never look 
under the vail upon Moses* face, have been able always to 
perceive ; as it is to be seen by the sayings of their late and 
ancient writers, 

$ 4, Joseph us adv. Appionem ii. d KdWarrop teal amy- 
ttatorarov dweBe^e TratBevfJUiTttiv top vqjjlov, ovk eltrdirafj u/cpoa- 
aafiepov^, ov$€ 81$ ^ Ty>t?, d\V ttcaan?}? £j3hofid$Q? r t<Si> ep* 
ya>p d<f>€fievav<; s errl ri}P attpoaatp rov poputv itciXevcre <ruXX4- 
yeaBai, teat toutqp atcpifiws ittpavBdvetp. " Moses propounded 
to the Jews the most excellent and necessary learning of the 
law ; not by hearing it once or twice, but every seventh day, 

N laying aside their works, he commanded them to assemble for 
the hearing of the law, and thoroughly and exactly to learn 
it.^ Phi In de vita Moxi& iiL e relating the passage of him that 
gathered wood on the Sabbath, of whom it is said, Numb, xv* 
33, c * they brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all 
the congregation ; " <rvXkaj36vres & ayov&tP avrbp cttI toi> 
ap%Qpra f $ <rvpi]Bp€vav ptev iepels, Trapeurnjicei, Si trvfLiratra ^ 
7r\i}$vii TTpos dtcpoaatv* " They take him," saitb he, u and bring 

* Cap, 1 7. p, 1 378. cd. Hudson, O*on. 

172(1. Hudson, instead of Tpls, reads. 

oWdxti, and i riser U (fcAAwv before 

fpywr after Euscbius in Evangelic. 

Frrrparat, book v'nv ebap, S. p. 363. 
od. Viper. Paris, 1628. 

* Phil on, Opp. p. Gttfi. Paris, lo'+OL 


chap, him to the ruler, with whom sat the priests, all the multitude 

'• — standing by to hear." He observeth that Moees was then 

expounding the law, as upon the assembly of the Sabbath; 
Aaron, — that is, as he expoundeth it, — the priests, sitting on 
the bench with him, the congregation standing by to hear. 
The observation he prosecuteth with his reason in these words: n 
"E0o$ y&p fy, ael phr icarh, tA irapeueov, Trporjyovfihw} Si raSn 
i&SofjLav;, ax? iSrjXaxra xal irpoaOev, Kfukoaofeur rovfihrrlyefiovos 
vfayovpApov, teal Si&ur*oiT09 &, re xpb irpdrreiP koX \iyew, r&v 
$ eh tcaXotcpyadlap hnStSovrcov, kcl\ fieXriovfieiHDP, rd re eOq 
tud top filov. cuf oi tcai elafri vvp faXoo-wfxwai rak e/386juu* 
'IovScuoi Trjv irarpiop <j>iKoao<f>lav, top %povov itcelvov avaBhrns 
brurrypuQ, kcu decopla t&v irepl <f>v<riv. rck y&p Kark irtihrn 
TTfxxTevKTrjpiOy rl frepSp iarip fj hiZcLatcahela <f>powj<T€co$ ; "For 
the custom was, always when occasion gave way, but princi- 
pally on the seventh days, as I shewed afore, to be exercised 
in knowledge ; the chief going afore and teaching, the rest 
increasing in goodness, and bettering in life and manners. 
From whence at this day the Jews study their country learn- 
ing upon the seventh days, dedicating that time to know- 
ledge, and the contemplation of nature. For the synagogues 
in cities, what are they but schools of wisdom ?" And in his 
book de Decalogo*, he deriveth the employment of the Sabbath 
in considering the works of God, and calling their own works 
to account, from that which God did in the beginning, when 
He saw all that He had made, and behold it was good. 

§ 5. Abenezra upon the fourth commandment, Exod. xx. 8, 
W *3 W*n» " We see that the year of remission is correspondent 
to the Sabbath, for it is likewise the seventh of years. And 
the Lord commanded that they should read the law in the 
beginning of it, before men, women, and children, expressing 
the reason, Deut xxxi. 12, s That they may hear, and learn, 14 
and observe :* and behold, the Sabbath was given to consider 
the works of God, and to meditate upon His law, as it is 
written, Ps. xcii. 4, 'For Thou, Lord, hast made me glad 
through Thy work, I will triumph in the works of Thy hands."' 
R. Isaac Abarbinel upon Deut v. 12, Divi ntain& TO nvn 
ntepinvfocn mm mm mn&* nv» Ton* dk6 r\rb ntn vnptm 
to wn» *ntM3 ran* iddi n«o -noc6 mpnpri rwrw oy nnaT 

' Philon. Opp. p. 758. Paris, 1640. 


nna now nt ^jn mmn Dro t\d9? hd «b» q^id dw mme? una 
mi son fe 1333 rati' rtopM' rm onm id ficns nr rmx> 
11 Besides, part of the benefit of this hallowed day is to give 
to the blessed God the seventh of the week, to learn the 
Divine law, aod the tradition of the words thereof, the expo- 
sitions of it, and to mark well the f niceties' of it: as they say 
— that is, their ancient Talmud doctors— in the Gemara of the 
Jerusalem Talmud, * Sabbaths and feasts were not given, but 
to ieam the law upon them/ And therefore they say in the 
great Midrash, or allegorical exposition of Exodus, sect. 26, 
and of Deuteronomy, 'that the Sabbath weigbcth against all 
the Commandments :'" as procuring thera to be known and 

§ 6. A man may justly marvel, seeing the moral intent and 
i j purpose of this Commandment was so well known among the 
learned of this people, how it cometh to pass that the Fathers 
of the Church charge the Jews so deep for observing the 
Sabbath with bodily ease and luxurious pastimes, Ignatius, 
EpisL ad Magnes* e "EfcanTos v/mov aafSftarL^erw 7rvevfiartfew t 

fieXjETT} VQfJLQV Jf&tpiBV, OV <TWftaTQ$ aVC&ei, SrjfLlQVpylaV &€QV 

0avfm%G}v t otr% €a>Xa £a&u&p y teal ^Ktapa irtvoiVj teal fie^ierpr}- 
fteva, f$a&i§a>Vj teal opxtfaei teal teporot^ vovv ovte Jtyown jpttpwp- 
I understand that there is cause to think these words to be 
none of Ignatius* own, and indeed the passage seemeth to 
have been crowded in hither out of Justin Martyr's dialogue 
with Trypho the Jew, though contrary to his meaning ; for it 
appeared that the Jews of that time gave not leave to drink 
wanned drink on the Sabbath, by his words there, fvq&i on 
Bepfiop irlpo^EP iv rots trdfifiaertv Sgipqv fpyutrffe* ; which not- 
withstanding, they are ancient enough for this purpose, and 
in themselves remarkable; if first we observe that the Eastern 
Christians of ancient time observed the Sabbath in some mea- 
sure for Divine service, as well as the Lord's day, from whence 
came afterwards the difference about fasting on the Saturday 1 . 



How the 
Jews are 
tread fee 


the s.»h, 
hath in 

■ Ep. Interp- cap, 9- p. 39. ccL 

* Cap. xxix, p. 127, etL Ben. 

* The Eastern Church fasts on Wed- 
nesday and Friday, observing the Sa- 
turday as a festival Albaspin&us dc 
veter. Eccles* rit. lib. i obs. 13- p. 
1*3. Parts, 1696, eon side™ that the 
Wot crn Church hid once the same 

rule, and that when the Roman Church 
began to fast OB Saturday, the Wed- 
nesday fast was neglected. The council 
of Elvira, A-D. 305, introduced the 
Roman observance into Spain. The 
British Church seems to have kept the 
Eastern rule iflngBTffff marriages were 
forbidden on Wednesday % t excerpt* D. 
Egbert Arch. Ebor. 108. A.D. 750.— 


CHAP. For immediately upon these words it folio weth, koX iierit to 

: — aaftftarlcrcu, eopra^era) iras ^CKoypurro^ rifv scupuucrjv, " and 

after he hath kept the Sabbath, let every lover of Christ keep 
the Lord's day festival" Thus, then, saith the supposed Ig- 
natius : " Let every one of you keep the Sabbath spiritually, 
taking pleasure in meditation of the law, not in bodily rest, 
admiring the workmanship of God, not eating meat dressed 
the day afore, nor drinking lukewarm drinks, and walking by 
measure, and taking pleasure in dancing and senseless noises." 
§ 7. St Augustine in Joan. Tract iiL k — Observa diem Sab' 
batiy magis nobis pracipitur, quia spiritaliter observandum pro- 16 
cipitur. Judcei enim serviliter observant diem Sabbati, ad luxu- 
riant, ad ebrietatem. Quanto melius foemince eorum lanam 
facerenty quam itto die in Menianis saltarent f " Keep the 
Sabbath, is commanded us more, because it is commanded us 
spiritually to be observed. For the Jews keep the Sabbath 
day slavishly, for luxury, for drunkenness ; how much better 
had their women spin wool on that day, than dance in the 
porticoes!" And in Psalm xcL 1 : Ecce el hodiernus dies 
Sabbati est : hunc, in prasenti tempore, otio quodam corporaUter 
languido, et fiuxo, et luxurioso, observant Judcei: vacant enim 
ad nugasy et cum Deus prceceperit Sabbatum, Hit, in his qua JDeus 
prohibet, exercent Sabbatum. Vacatio nostra a malis operibus, 
vacatio iUorum a bonis operibus est ; melius est enim arare quam 
saltare. IUi ab opere bono vacant, ab opere nugatorio non vacant 
" Behold this is also a day of Sabbath, which the Jews at this 
present keep with a kind of bodily, languishing, dissolute, and 
luxurious ease : for they are at leisure for toys. And whereas 
God commandeth to keep the Sabbath, they spend the Sabbath 
in that which God forbiddeth. Our being at leisure is from 
bad works, theirs from good works ; for it is better to plough 
than to dance. They are at leisure from doing good, from 
trifling business they are not at leisure." 

§ 8. He that readeth this and the like that might be produced 
hath cause to marvel that the practice of that people should 17 
be so wide of the profession of their doctors : but that there 

Wilkins, Concil. torn. i. p. 107. In the neglect had prevailed, and that it was 

year 1078, a council at Rome under considered difficult to restore the rule. 

Gregory VII. enjoins the Saturday fast — Labbei, torn. xii. coL 621. ed. Venet 
anew, and from the words of the canon k Tom. Hi. p. ii. col. 311. ed. Ben. 

talubriter admonemut, it seems that great l Tom. iv. colL 981, 982. ed. Ben. 



is great cause to think, — whereas bodily rest is expressly chat. 

commanded, the spiritual and moral employment of it but 
intimated in the commandment, and by the learned collected 
from thence, and from other Scriptures, by consequence of 
discourse, — that the people apprehended that more, which was 
open, as being for their ease, neglecting that which was col- 
lected, as not so pleasant And therefore unless we be wilful 
in refusing the truth, it cannot be denied that the dispensa- 
tion of that time prevaileth in this, as well as in other parti- 
culars. For though no man double th that the ancient people 
of God were led by the promises of the kingdom of heaven, 
and life everlasting ; yet are those promises, in the hvw of 
Moses, conveyed and recommended to them under the figure 
of paradise, of the land of promise, and the fruits of it. /Iff At 
in evangelm promUtttntur regna ccelorum, ourc instntnientum 
vctus omnhio non nominal, saith St. Jerome, EpisL m 129. "To 
me is the kingdom of heaven promised in the Gospel, which 
the Old Testament doth not so much as name." S. Augus- 
tine cunt. Fauetum, xix, 3L U Testimoniis wY<e aiternrs et resiir* 
(trtufiiis mortnorum abundat ilia Scripturtij sett hoc no-men t id cst^ 
IB Itegnum eadorum, dc nulto inde loco mihi octmrrit t hoc cnim 
propric peril net ad revttationem Nbvi Testttmndi. " The old 
Scriptures are full of testimonies of life everlasting, and the 
resurrection of the dead ; but the name of the kingdom of 
heaven I meet with in no place of it, for it properly bc- 
longeth to the revealing of the New Testament. Again , 
Mortrm urn utt secundum, dim dicerct * Adam* nhi es9' std 
dc ea nihil dLrissc credmdnm est, propter dispensationem Novi 
Testameidi, ubi mors secunda apertissime declarator : n God fo» 
timateth the second death," eaitli he, "when lie saith, ( Adam, 
where art thou?" but it is to be thought that He expressed 
nothing of it, because of die dispensation of the New Tes- 
tament, where the second death is most manifestly declared." 
Others might be produced to the same purpose* 

■■Ad Darda&um, torn. iL col. 60D. 
cd. Hen. 
■ Tum, viiu eoL SS3. ed. Ben. 
* Cum vcro Deus, et dieendo Admm 

ubi fM I nmrtom significaverU animtp, 
quit? fact-* eft illu deserente et UjmiuIo, 
Terra t§ rt m terrain ihii mortem sig- 
nifies vrrit corporis*, qtiie ill I fir onima 
luoitMimr., J 

dfaeedente ; propter ca tie mortc secutidn 
nihil dixtase eredendu* est, quia occuU 
tain csst- voluit propter diKpeowitiouein 
Ttgtej&cnti Kovi ubi secunda mora 
npertisMmtr declarator. — De Civiiai, 
Dei, lib. xiii. cap, 23. col. 3 4& Com. vii. 
*d. Hen* 


chap. § 9. The reason is the same in the matter of sacrifices — for 
— — — which we know what particular order is taken in the law of 
Moses — and yet are not the prophets afraid to say that God 
gave no command for them. Psalm xL 6, " Sacrifice and offer- 
ing Thou didst not desire :" Jerem. vii. 22, " I spake not to 
your fathers, nor commanded them, in the day when I brought 
them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings 
and sacrifices." And all this according to the tenor of the 
law, which commanded a ceremonial service, as the figure of 
that worship which God requireth in spirit and truth. Thus 
standcth the matter in our present business : for if the Sab- 19 
bath be a figure, — as the Scripture declareth, and the Jews 
themselves acknowledge, — then the observation of it com- 
manded must needs be figurative. Which is no more than 
the Apostle proveth in the fourth to the Hebrews, that the 
rest which they observed the Sabbath with, was the figure of 
that rest which remaineth to the people of God. Therefore 
it pleased God, in this point also, to observe that dispensation 
of the Old Testament which He had set on foot in other par- 
ticulars : taking order at large, that the Sabbath should be 
celebrated with bodily rest, but that service of God in spirit 
and truth, which is proper to the dispensation of the New 
Testament, as it is greatest in esteem, so is it least in appear- 
ance of the commandment which God gave for the purpose. 
Places of § 10. To the same purpose, as hitherto it hath been observed, 
sembHes tnat tne ^ aw natn specified no particular work of the moral 
no i *??" m service of God, with which it commandeth the Sabbath to be 

vided in it. ' 

sanctified, or for which it appointeth assemblies: so must 
we further observe in this place, that it neither provideth for 
places, wherein it might be exercised by the body of that 
people, nor taketh order by whom it should be ministered in 
such places, but hath left us to collect by circumstance and 
the traces of their ancient practice remembered in the Scrip- 20 
tures, that it was administered by the prophets, as prophets, 
rather than by the priests and Levites, as priests and Levites, 
as well in synagogues as in the temple, or at the tabernacle. 
The command of assemblies, Levit xxiii., might well be pre- 
scribed in the law of Moses, with a particular effect, in respect 
of that time that the whole congregation of that people lived 
together in the wilderness of Arabia. Then and there it is 



easy to conceive how they were assembled to celebrate those 

solemnities, that is, at the tabernacle* or round about it, which 
the Jews call the camp of Levi. But when they were settled 
in the land of promise, we see what the law reqiureth t Dent. 
xvL 16, fil Three times in a year shall all thy males appear 
before the Lord thy God, in the place which lie shall choose*" 
This is the extent of the law, thrice a year to resort to the 
tabernacle, and that none but males ; and therefore the ques- 
tion will remain, how the body of that people assembled 
themselves through the year- — it being a thing manifest that 
the greatest part could not resort to the tabernacle, — and those 
houses of prayer which afterwards were called synagogues, 
whereof Fhilo speaketh in the words alleged, not yet erected 
through the country, as shall appear by the dark traces of the 

21 beginning of them, which we shall find by and by in the 
Scriptures, during the time of Solomon's temple- So that 
the words of Philo and Joscphus alleged before, wherein they 
tell us that Moses commanded that people to assemble every 
seventh day, to learn the law, that it was their custom s<> to 
do, and that the chief taught at those assemblies, and the 
rest learned to live according to that which was taught, must 
be understood with these limitations, that it was collected 
from the letter of the law of MoseSj and preserved in the 
practice of that people* at such times and places as afforded 
means of religious assemblies for such purpose. In fine, it 
will appear that the law of Moses, according to the dispens- 
ation of that time, intended to be most express in the figura- 
tive ceremonial service peculiar to that people, by the minis* 
tries of priests and Levites, so particularly appointed in it for 
that kind of service. 

§ 1 i, And yet, so little provision as we find in the law for the 
office of prophets, and children of the prophets, that is, their 
disciples, these were the men nevertheless that ministered the 
moral service of God, of prayers, and the praises of God, and 
the exposition of the law, at their religious assemblies ; a 
thing that may sound strange to them that find the charge of 
teaching the law laid upon the priests and Levites from the 

22 beginning, in divers passages of it But if we view those 
passages at a near distance, it will appear that they speak not 
of * teaching 1 the law at any religious assemblies for such 



..I Lq 
teach the 


of it 


CHAP, purpose, but of deciding cases emergent, or giving judgment 

: in causes arising upon it Deut. xxiv. 8, "Take heed in the 

plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do accord- 
ing to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you : as I 
commanded them, so shall ye observe to do." In Leviticus 
there is much provided concerning the priests proceeding in 
judging leprosies, but that the people should stand to their 
judgment provision is not made. Here is declared that in 
those cases they did not resort to the priests as to physicians, 
to follow their sentence so far as their own respect should 
advise, but that their sentence, called here c teaching,' had the 
force of binding them to stand to it 2 Chron. xvii. 7, 
Josaphat in the third year of his reign sent his princes " to 
teach in the cities of Judah, and with them he sent Levites 
and priests." R. Solomon Jarchi there : in D^iTDn hv *3> "For 
it lay upon the priests and Levites to teach and instruct, as it 
is written, Deut xxiv. 8, ' According to all that the priests 
and Levites shall teach.' And the princes went with them, 
that none might disobey them, and to constrain them to hear 
them, and observe to do according to the command of the 
judges, like that Deut xvi. 18, * Judges and officers shalt23 
thou make thee :' judges to judge the people, and officers to 
constrain them to do the command of the judges p ." 

§ 12. This teaching then consisted in declaring the obli- 
gation of the law by the judges of it, the priests and Levites, 
and the princes were officers with power to enforce the exe- 
cution of it. Mai. ii. 7, " The priest's lips should preserve 
knowledge, and the law they should require at his mouth, for 
he is the messenger of the Lord of Hosts." In the Chaldee 
of Jonathan^, w in WWto nx, " because he ministcreth before 
the Lord of Hosts." From which translation some of the 
Jews expound this reason thus : " You shall have recourse to 
the priest to determine matters doubtful in the law, for, 
standing to minister before the Lord in the temple, he is 
always ready for such purposes." R. Isaac Abarbinel upon 
Deut xvii. 9. But however this prove, if we consider what 
followeth there, ver. 9, " You have been partial in the law," 
we shall find the gloss of David Kirachi to be most true, 

p R. Salom. Jarchi Conim. Latine p. 572. Gothae, 1714. 
versus a Joli. Friderico Breithaupto. * Printed in Bibl. Polyglott Walton. 



131 OWU onK, " You accept ihe persons of great men in mat- en v \\ 

ter of the law, which saith, Levit. xxiu 22;, * Ye shall not offer : — 

these unto the Lord:* and when they bring an offering with a 
stain, you are afraid to reprove them, and tell them, this 
offering is not allowable/ 1 So that the intent of this text 

24 also poiutelh at the deciding of difficulties emergent about 
the law of Moses* Levit. x> 9, where the priests are forbid- 
den to drink wine, during the time of their sen ice, there 
followeth a further reason, ver. 10, 11, "And that you may put 
difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean 
and clean : and that ye may teach the children of Israel all 
the statutes which the Lord hath spoken unto them by the 
hand of Moses* " To resolve where the law took hold or not 
in particular cases of that nature, is " to divide between un- 
holy and holy, between clean and unclean:" therefore we 
have cause to think that the general which followeth, of 
' teaching' all statutes, is commanded to the same purpose, in 
matters of other nature. And that of Deut, xxxiii. 10, "They 
shall teach Jacob Thy statutes, and Israel Thy law," Abarbi- 
nel expoundeth to the same effect For he observe th that it 
goeth before thus, l( Who saith unto his father and to his mo- 
ther, I have not seen him; neither doth he acknowledge his 
brethren, nor know his own children:" as the reason of that 
which followeth, "They shall teach Jacob Thy statutes, and 
Israel Thy law." Because they take no notice of their dearest 
relations in judgment, therefore *' they shall teach Jacob Thy 
statutes, and Israel Thy law, 7 ' by deciding the controversies of 
it* And all this because the original word min is proper 
to signify instruction by way of precept, from whence the law 

25ia called m>n, and the declaration of the obligation or not 
obligation of it is, in the language of their doctors, called 
n&OiTV Neither is it material, though some of these Scrip- 
tures be otherwise understood. For my purpose is not to say 
that the people was not taught at all by the priests and 
Levites at religious assemblies, but not as such. It is for 
divers reasons to be believed, that the most part of prophets, 
and disciples of prophets, were priests and Lcvitcs. They 
were free from the care of estates and inheritances : they 
were the men that came nearest to God by their office in His 
lemonial service, which an extraordinary degree of the 


chap, knowledge and fear of God best suited with: but it is as 
— : — certain that the charge of teaching the people belonged as 

well to the prophets that were not priests and Levites. 
The chair § 13. " The Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses* chair," 
saith our Lord in the Gospel ; which is very well expounded 
in the words of Philo alleged afore ; for he telleth us that 
it was the custom, from the time of Moses, for the chief to 
teach, and the people to learn to live as he taught. Then 
the chair of Moses is the chair of doctrine as well as of 
judgment, and Moses the chief of doctors as well as of 
judges. But it is well known what the Lord said unto 
Moses, Numb. xi. 16, 17, "Gather unto Me seventy men 
of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be elders of 26 
the people, and officers over them, and I will take of the 
spirit that is upon thee, and put it upon them." These that 
were known to be elders of Israel in their several tribes, or 
their officers in Egypt, as we read, Exod. iv. 29, v. 19, are 
chosen to receive their share of Moses' spirit : whereupon 
it followeth, ver. 25, " And it came to pass that when the 
spirit rested upon them, they prophesied and ceased not" 
The Jews' doctors seem to apprehend the nature of the gift 
which these men received, not amiss. Moses Maimoni t» 
Mare Nebockim. ii. 45. r Abarbinel upon the place. They tell 
us that the meanest degree of God's Spirit was that whereby 
men found themselves moved and enabled to those works of 
wisdom and courage which otherwise they thought not them- 
selves fit to undertake, with assurance that all was from above. 
This is the grace, say they, which the Judges received, when 
it is said, " The Spirit of God invested Gideon," or " came 
upon Sampson," for example. The second is, when men 
Ure moved to speak of things belonging to the knowledge 
of God, and His praises, beyond their natural or habituated 
capacities, without seeing any figures, asleep or awake, but 
with assurance that it was from God. And this they make 
to be the grace of them which writ those parts of Scripture 27 
which the Jews call D*3in3, ecclesiastical writers aywyptufxiy 
that is, " written by the Holy Ghost," which nevertheless in 
a large sense are called Prophets : and in these two degrees, 
they say, consisted the condition of Saul, that was endued 
r Page 316 of the Latin version of BuxtorC Basil, 1629. 



with the Holy Ghost, to enable him for government, so as chap. 
sometimes he arrived at the rank of a prophet And thus — ^ — 
these elders received of the spirit of Moses, for the govern- 
ment of the people with him, in such measure, that they 
nt tui tied also to be prophets. 

§ 14. It is the constant tradition of that people that the The chuir 
knowledge of the law was delivered by Moses, and this eon- phett* 
sistory of elders, to succeeding ages. Which if it go no 
further, is no more than reason for us to believe, though they 
have built all the fooleries of their unwritten law upon it 
If Moses were the chief of doctors, those of Moses' bench 
must needs in their degree be the like* The Lord promiseth 
to His people a successor to Moses in this grace, Deut xviii. 
15, "A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you 
of your brethren like unto me, him shall you hear 3 :" which 
the New Testament verifieth in our Lord Christ, Acts vii. 
37, and elsewhere. But if this promise be partly verified 
for the time, in those prophets which God raised up from 
28 age to age after Moses, for further knowledge of the law 
which He gave, — as the promise of a Saviour, was, for the time, 
in part verified in their judges and kings, by whom God 
delivered His people from their enemies, as some will have 
it, — then is the charge of hearing those prophets but the 
relative of their charge in teaching the people* In the time 
of Samuel we read of certain colleges of prophets, and disci- 
ples of prophets, such as w r as that 1 Sam, x, 5, where Saul 
and his servant met a company of prophets ; and such as 
was that 1 Sam. xix. 18— 20, at Naioth in Raniab, where 
David abode with Samuel : and where Saul's messenger saw 
the f4 company of prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing 
as appointed over them." This Naioth in Ramah is here 
translated by Jonathan the Chaldec paraphrast, jcdViH JV3 
KJ1D13, * the house of learning in Ramah :' ' and Samuel stood 
over them w m their master to teach them, " as he rendereth 
it. It is the place where Samuel was born and dwelt, called 
in the beginning of that book, Ramathaim Zophim, in the 
Greek *Aptta9aip t and is the same with Joseph's town of 
Arimatham in the Gospel. By the word it should seem 
it was compounded of two towns, in the one whereof was 

i The word* arc cited rather from Acts vii* 37, than from Deutcruv- 


chap. Naioth, the residence of those that studied the law there 

: — under Samuel : whereupon Jonathan translateth it there, 

" Ilamah of the disciples of the prophets." 
Hi'sh § ]5. It is here very much to be observed that they were 29 

what pur- forbidden by the law 1 "to offer sacrifice but before the ark, 
p08e ' in the place which the Lord shall choose." Nevertheless, 
while this choice of God stood suspended, and while the 
house at Shiloh was desolate, — from the time that the ark was 
taken by the Philistines, till it was settled again at Jerusalem, — 
high places were licensed as the Jews speak, that is, it was 
lawful to offer sacrifices where the ark was not u . Such are 
these whereof we now speak, 1 Sam. ix. 12, x. 5, where 
Jonathan translateth it KnnnDK rva, " the house of feasting," 
because having offered their peace-offerings, the use was, to 
feast upon the remains of them, as you find it there. In fine, 
the people assembling to such places to offer their sacrifices, 
and to celebrate their solemnities, and the prophets having 
their residence there, what doubt can be made but that all 
this must be for the purpose of preaching to the people, as 
they assembled there, or ministering what else may appear to 
belong to their office. 
Beginning § 16. And this is well apprehended by men of learning 
gogues. to be the beginning of synagogues and schools among that 
people. For when the ark was settled, and it was become 
unlawful to offer sacrifices in the high places, to assemble 
for public prayers, and the praises of God, and learning the 
law, was no inconvenience. 

§ 17. The like is to be said of those abodes of prophets, 30 
at Bethel, and Jericho, 2 Kings ii. 3, 5, the like whereof 
were in other cities, saith D. Kimchi upon that place : and 
that in 2 Kings vi. 1, where we may observe Elisha to be 
master, as Samuel in that of Naioth afore. The like we may 
conceive of that, 2 Kings xxii. 14, where Huldah the pro- 
phetess is said to dwell, rufctDn, which Jonathan translateth 
as afore, " the house of learning," our English, " the college." 
R. David Kimchi there, " Our doctors of blessed memory 
say that three prophesied in the days of Josiah, Jeremiah 
in the streets or villages, Zephaniah in the synagogues, and 

1 Deuteron. xii. 5 — 15. one Priesthood and one Altar, chap. 

* See Dodwell's Discourse of the Hi. sect. 3— 6. 


Iluklah among the vromen,** Solomon Jarchi v upon Esay 
i. 21 3 "It was full of judgments righteousness lodged in it," 
131 irvov "And we find in Pesikta thus: * It. Menahem son 
of R. Hosaia saith there were four hundred and eighty 
synagogues in Jerusalem, according to the number of the 
word *n*6o in Gern atria/ * that is, counting the number which 
the letters of it make. As who should say, that it was irregular 
on purpose, to put them in mind how many synagogues were 

tin Jerusalem when the prophet spake this. And that so 
many there were in it under the second temple ? is oft re- 
ported among tliem s and may pass for historical truth : but 
to find this out of the prophet in his time, is one of the 
crotchets which these men's brains are always teeming with. 
31 § 18. In fine, if there be any express remembrance of 
synagogues, under Solomon's temple, in the Scripture, I 
suppose it must be that, Psalm Ixxiv. 8, "They have biirm 
up all the synagogues of God in the land," and afore, ver. 4, 
m Thine enemies roar in the midst of Thy congregations," 
which is more than can be understood of the temple alone, 
or the several buildings of it. Only the doubt is, to what 
time the meaning of this Psalm is to be related, and when 
it might be penned, because Junius hath been bold to refer 
it to Antiochus Epiphancs' time*. But the constant tradition 
of the Jews seemeth to have obtained the credit of historical 
truth that the Scripture was signed in Ezra's time : and the 
end of Malachi — whom the Jews will have to be Ezra — 
seemeth to speak no less, iv. 4, 5, sounding like the passage 
from the Old to the New Testament : reflecting upon the 
Old, when he biddeth them "remember the law of Moses," 
and pointing at the New, when he promiseth the u sending 
of Elias before the day of the Lord came*" Besides, it is 
against the truth of history, that the temple was destroyed 
in Antiochus Epiphanes 1 time, which not only this Psalm, 
but divers of the same title import, lxxix. 1, **0 God, the 
heathen are come into Thine inheritance, Thine holy temple 

< II .\p. 

■ p, 12 of the Lntin version ol" F. 
Breith*ti|iL Goth if, 1713. 

1 Yidetuf aukin banc oden Eo 
clesia Deo eceini;>se T quo tempore An- 
tiachu* Epiphanes ptrpuhim Dei du- 

ri&stma tyrannide profit, et amoral 
cultttni Dei nofkrie prophuiarit — Com- 
ment, in Psalm 7 1. cd. Junij ct Tre- 
mellii, f. 139, Gene v. 1517- 


chap, have they defiled, and made Jerusalem an heap of stones." 
1L Upon the title of this Psalm, which is, "A Psalm of Asaph," 

the Chaldee descanteth thus: "A song, by the hands of 32 
Asaph, upon the desolation of the sanctuary, by the spirit 
of prophecy he said, Ixxx. 13, 'The boar out of the wood 
doth waste it, and the wild beast of the field doth devour it.'" 
§ 19. Therefore I observe much, what we read after the 
seventy-second Psalm ; " Here end the prayers of David the 
son of Jesse : " and yet you shall find not a few under David's 
name afterwards. Which seeraeth to argue the first to have 
been a several collection of David's Psalms by themselves: 
besides which nevertheless were found others of his, which 
with the rest, belonging to other names, as Moses, Asaph, 
Heman, and others, make up the collection that followeth. 
The case is not much unlike in the book of Proverbs. Two 
titles of Solomon's Proverbs, chap. i. and x., argue two 
several collections. Chap. xxv. there beginneth a third 
collection of them, with this title, " These are also Proverbs 
of Solomon, which the men of Hczckiah king of Judab 
copied out" But that this collection lasteth to the end of 
the book, meeting with a title so disputable, chap, xxx., who 
shall assure us ? Since then after the seventy-second Psalm, 
where we read, "Here end the prayers of David son of 
Jesse," there follow a considerable number under the name of 
Asaph, why should we doubt him to be [the] writer of them, 
more than David of his ? or that he, that was a prophet, as 
shall be said, foresaw in them the destruction of Jerusalem 33 
by Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans ? If there can yet be 
question who penned the Psalm, it is quite extinguished by 
the text of 2 Chron. xxix. 30, where Hezekiah commandeth 
the Levites to praise God "in the words of David and Asaph:" 
and therefore the Scripture speaketh of synagogues during 
Solomon's temple : but with such obscure remembrance, that 
it cannot be thought they could afford the body of that people 
means to assemble for the service of God. 
Disciples § 20. One doubt there is yet behind, as concerning this 
phStT B race : to what purpose the disciples of the prophets studied 
8tU b£ ed ^ or * at S race w hlch was only in the power of the Holy 
prophets. Ghost to bestow, being far from us to believe, as some 
Mahometan philosophers are said to do, that it is to be 

compassed with human endeavours : which if they aimed 
not towards that purpose* why then are they called sons, 

Ethat is, disciples, of the prophets, as the Chaldee of Jonathan 
always translateth it? why do we see, that for the most 
part, in Scripture, those persons that were brought up to it, 
were indued with the grace ? It was in the power of God, 
no doubt, to bestow it where He pleased : nevertheless, so 
it was found, that for the most part He did bestow it, where 
men's manners were suitable, where men's courses were 

34 applied to it : — to say nothing here of those dispositions of 
nature and fortune which the Hebrew doctors require. This 
is to be seen in the place alleged, 1 Sam* x, 11. And the 
proverb that did rise upon Saul's prophesying, " Is Saul also 
among the prophets?" For had it not been unusual that 
persons never bred to any such course, should be invested 
with the Spirit on the sudden, it had not been so great a 
marvel as to cause and occasion the proverb : on the other 
side, to shew how it cometh to pass, it followeth there, " And 
one of the same place answered and said, But who is their 
father } m to say, that seeing these children of the prophets, 
that is, disciples, had God to their father, to teach them 
by His Spirit, it was no marvel to see a man grown a pro- 
phet without help of other masters* Which is the case that 
Amos expresseth, vii, 14, 15, "I was no prophet, nor pro- 
phet's son, but an herdsman, and gatherer of sycamore fruit. 
And the Lord took me, as I followed the Hock, and the Lord 
said unto me, Go, prophesy unto My people IsraeL" 

§ 2L Now the Study that disposed men to this grace was, 
without doubt, that of the law of Moses : in that all conversed, 
and spent their time, that pretended ; though some attained 

blhe gift of God's grace, others stayed at that knowledge 
which by human endeavours they could compass : where- 

35 upon that which is called in the places of Samuel aforesaid 
( 'a company of prophets," is by Jonathan translated in the 
Chaldee KnsD J1JPD* " a pack of scribes." A difference remark- 
able in that translation, which it makcth in rendering the 
word " prophets :" for when he conceive th the speech is of 
such as had the grace, he translateth it tra'33, "prophets:* 5 
when he extendeth it to those that did but pretend, he le 
eth it divers times, "scribes" and "doctors.'' Jer* xxvi 

en A 


chap. " Then said the princes and all the people unto the priests, 

— and to the prophets:" Jon. KnaD^, "to the scribes." Jen 

xxix. 1, " These are the words of the letter that Jeremiah the 
prophet sent from Jerusalem unto the priests, and to the 
prophets:" Jon. KnaD^, " to the scribes." And again, ver. 15, 
" Because ye have said the Lord hath raised us up prophets 
in Babylon:" Jon. pate, "doctors." When the Scripture 
speaketh plainly of false prophets, then he is wont to add in 
translating, "'false' prophets." This we shall see to be the 
beginning of those that are called "scribes" in the Gospel, 
which among the Jews are called " wise men" otherwise, 
when the grace of prophecy had ceased among that people. 

§ 22. And to this purpose it is worth the noting which R. 
Moses Maimoni, among others of their doctors, delivereth of 
Baruch the scribe, the son of Neriah, in More Nebochim 
ii. 32, that his complaint, specified Jer. xlv. 3, " Wo is me 
now, for the Lord hath added grief to my sorrow, I fainted in 3d 
my mourning, and find no rest," was upon this occasion, that 
having run his best course, under Jeremy, for the purpose, 
the Lord in the end refused him the grace of a prophet, 
which he aimed at For sure the answer the Lord giveth is 
very suitable : as it followeth, " Behold, that which I have 
built will I pull down, and that which I have planted will I 
pluck up, even this whole land, and seekest thou great things 
for thyself?" To say, that in the time of public wrath, it 
was more fit for him to seek deliverance than eminence; 
which is his reward, as it followeth, "Behold, I will bring 
evil upon all flesh, saith the Lord, but thy life will I give 
unto thee for a prey, in all places whither thou goest" Now 
it is to be observed, that the original word, which we translate 
" prophesying," is of so large a meaning, that it containeth 
whatsoever that grace enableth, or that office requircth a man 
to do. For, how is it said, Ecclus. xlviii. 13, that Elizeus's 
body " prophesied," because of the miracle wrought by his 
bones after his death, but because it was always expected at 
prophets' hands to do miracles? as our Lord is called "a 
prophet mighty in word and deed," Luke xxiv. 19. It is 
then no marvel that prophets should be inspired by the Holy 
Ghost to set forth the praises of God, or that their ministry 
should be required in that work. 1 Sam. x. 10, we read of 37 



Saul and his servant ; 1 Sam. xix. 20, we read of his messen- 
gers, thus ; m And Saul sent messengers to take David : and 
when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying* and 
Samuel standing as appointed over them, the Spirit of the 
Lord was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophe- 
sied." In the Greek, that which is in the Hebrew 0*K*3JPl npn^ 

or in the other place owaarr bin, "a hand of prophets," 

or " a congregation of prophets," is rendered ^opo? Trpo^ifrm^ 
and ciuckijo'ta, and prophesying is by Jonathan turned "TOWS, 
that is, " praising or flinging i* they found them singing the 
praises of God j under Samuel, master of the choir, and they, 
when it came to their turn, sting that which tin. v were in- 
spired with : as the Apostle, 1 Cor. xiv. 26, "When you come 
together, every one of you hath a psalm. " Thus Exod. xv. 
20, " Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron., took a 
limhrel in her hand, and all the women went oui after ber 
with timbrels and dances* and she answered them saying :" in 
the Greek it is ml e£%r^n> avrwv, "she led them the song, 
which she had composed," as being a prophetess : or she 
sung that which Moses bad composed by the Holy Ghost 
albre ; for her beginning is, " Sing unto the Lord, for 1 Ic 
hath triumphed gloriously, the horse and his rider hath lie 
cast into the sea :" which is that of Moses. Again we read, 
1 Chron. xxv. 1, " Moreover, David and the captains of the 
host, separated to the service of the sons of Asaph, and of 
Heman, and of Iduthun, who should prophesy, with harps, 
with psalteries, and with cymbals ;* and ven ■>, "All these were 
the sons of llctnan* the king's seer, in the words of God, to 
lift up the horn." In the first place, the Greek hath it airo- 
^ffeyyopwovs, "speaking/' that is, " the praise of God ;" in the 
other, oi (ipaKpovoftfVQt rftKvpup f "that struck up tu the Lor* I >'/* 
§ 23. But there must be a reason why the praises of God are 
called "prophesying," and "seers/" that send them forth* And 
what is that but this, because the Spirit of God indited psalms 
to the heads mentioned here, with whom the rest joined in 
singing them to the Lord? R. David Khnchi there, *j£ vn f 
Iji *pNj "the sons of Asaph played upon instruments, and sang, 
and the Holy Spirit rested upon Asaph, and he sung with his 

< II v i\ 

yon 0fdu O^dfffai Ktyai ; in the Eng- 

lish version, "the kitig** seer in 
words of God, to lift tip tbl ban 


chap, voice to the noise of the harps. So Heman and Iduthun 

were all prophets with instruments of song: for the book of 

Psalms was wriUen by the Holy Ghost, and there are in it 

prophecies of the captivity and deliverance." Here you see 

that Asaph and the rest were prophets inspired by the Holy 

Ghost, so that it can be no marvel to find prophecies under 

their name in the Psalms, as was said : besides, their children 

also and scholars are said to " prophesy " in singing the 

praises of God which they were inspired with. A thing to 

be observed towards that which shall follow. 39 

They mi- § 24. Further, that prophets instructed people in the law, 
ntetered * *. r r • i i i 

the moral at their assemblies tor that purpose, in the temple or else- 
God in where, there is enough to argue out of Scripture. Abenezra 
places and u P on Exod. **• 8, ut jtodi, " And it was the fashion of the 
syna- Israelites, close upon the Sabbath, to go unto the prophets : 
as it is said, 2 Kings iv. 23, * Wherefore wilt thou go to him 
to-day? It is neither new moon nor sabbath.'" R. Levi ben 
Gereon upon that place, \y\ *a n«"0, " It seemeth that in those 
days they used to go before the great (wise) men, and they 
instructed them in the way they should go, and the things 
they should do." Neither is this exposition the apprehension 
of these later doctors : Mcnasseh ben Israel, the now Rabbi at 
Amsterdam, hath quoted it to us from the Talmudists : Gem. 
Succoth, cap. 2. Concil. in Exod. qusest 35.* To the same 
purpose belongeth that of the Talmudists alleged from David 
Kimclii, that Jeremiah prophesied in the villages, Zephaniah 
in the synagogues, and Huldah amongst the women. The 
same D. Kimchi upon 2 Kings ii. 3, telle th us that the reason 
and purpose of those colleges of prophets there remembered, 
was to reprove the Israelites through those cities. In Psalm 
Ixxiii. 16, 17, "When I thought to know this, it was too 
painful for me ; until I went into the sanctuary of God ; then 40 
understood I their end." Abenezra there, ui fo ivnpQ DWi, 
" and the meaning of the sanctuary of God is, because there 
were the priests of account, and the wise men of Israel, and 
they revealed this secret" And Eccles. v. 1, " Keep thy foot 
when thou goest to the house of God, and be more ready to 
hear, than to give the sacrifice of fools : for they consider not 

* Menasseh Ben Israel, Conciliator, tura?, que pugnare inter se videntur. 
ahre de convenientia locorum S. Scrip- p. 149. Amstelodam. 1633. 



that they do evil." The Chaldee paraphrase thus descanteth chap, 

upon these words, iji KE'J "D ru«, " Thou son of man, keep thy — 

feet when thou goest into the sanctuary of God to pray, that 
thou goest not thither full of sins before thou dost repent ; and 
apply thine ear to receive instruction of the law from the 
priests and wise men : and be not as fools that offer sacrifice 
upon their sins, and repent not of their evil works, that stick 
in their hands, and it is not accepted ; neither know they 
how to do good or evil about them." 

§ 25* Here you have the meaning of these Scriptures ex- 
pressed, by conjecture, takeu from the practice of after times 
better known: but "wise men' 1 joined here with priests, are 
they which Jonathan called "scribes" afore, as shall be said, 
and such priests they were that did this office. It is to be 
believed that it was no less the office of prophets to conceive 
prayers in behalf of the congregation at their assemblies, 
though we find no such express conjecture in Scriptures of 
11 the Old Testament When people resorted to the prophets, 
when they taught them the law, as was said, shall we believe 
they had not public prayers at those assemblies? or shall wc 
believe that it was not ministered by the prophet to whom 
ibev resorted? especially seeing that it appeareth many ways, 
that it was the office of prophets to pray for the necessities of 
the people, as men most familiar with God, and so most like 
to prevail. And the prophets of Baal, 1 Kings xviii. 2(5, 
"called upon the name of Baal from morning till noon," 
which in ven 29 is thus said : " And it came to pass when 
mid-day was past, and they prophesied till the offering of 
the evening sacrifice." Here their prayers to their God arc 
called " prophesying," as a part of the prophet's office, which 
Elias doth afterwards. And Samuel, 1 Sam. xii. 23, " As for 
me, God forbid that I should sin against the Lord in ceasing 
to pray for you : but I will teach you the good and the right 
Joining together the parts of his office, teaching and 
ying. Last, the king of Israel, 2 Kings vL 31, "God do 
so and more also to me, if the head of Elisha the son of 
Shaphat shall stand on him this day :" as he whose office it 
was to remove the wrath of God by his prayers, and did not, 
If these consequences seem not to speak home to the minis- 
tering of the service of God by prayer at their religious 


chap, assemblies, compare that which hath been said with that 42 
'- — which followeth, concerning the prophets of the New Testa- 
ment, and the things that have been said will no doubt appear 



The pro- That the chief, if not the only knowledge, to which men 
scribes, °f learning were bred among the people of God from the 
ceededthe beginning, was that of the law, and afterwards of the other 
prophets. Scriptures, the name of "scribes" is evidence enough: whose 
profession Epiphanius thus describeth ; OX rive; fyrav Sevrefxo- 
ral tov vo/iov, d>9 ypafifiarucrjv two, hrurrqfirfv vtyqyovnatoi, 
ra aXka Trpdrrovrei Ttov 'IovSatcov a . " These," saith he, " were 
men that repeated the law, teaching a kind of grammatical 
knowledge : in other things practising the fashions of the 
Jews." And Abarbincl in the words alleged afore b , hath ex- 
pressed three particulars concerning the law, wherein the 43 
Jews were instructed upon the Sabbaths : nWlpIT n WTD DJJ 
nnai n^np. The first concerneth no more than the very 
words, and the ordinary reading of them, as it was delivered, 
and as the people received it : and by this continual hearing 
the law, the people came to be so cunning in it, as Josephus 
professeth, in the place afore named : 'Hfi&v 8' oimvovv el 

T19 €pOlTO TOIS VO/JLOV?, pOOV &V 6t7TOt TTaVTa, fj TOVVOfUl TO 

iavrov. TOiyapovv airb rffc Trparrr)? evOix; alaOijcrea)? avrovs i/c- 
fjutvOdvovre^, expfjbev iv reus ^rt^o*? Sxnrep iyKexcLpa^fievoxs. 
"But if a man ask any of us concerning the laws, he will tell 
every thing readier than his own name: for learning them 
straight as soon as we come to knowledge, we keep them im- 

a Lib. i. contra Scribas, p. 32. ed. b Chap, ii. sect -5. 

Colon. e Chap. ii. sect 4v 



printed in our minds," The third thing, which he calleth Cf J An+ 

frpn*P* coneerueth the grammatical niceties in reading the 

words of the law, the knowledge whereof Epiphanius saith the 
scribes did profess* 

§ 2, This is the reason that it is recorded for the commen- 
dation of Esdras, Esd. vii, 6, " that he was a ready scribe in the 
law of Moses*' 1 As in the third hook of Ezra, chap. vlU- [19] 
for the same cause he is called dvayvwrrq*; tov vojiqvtqv 0€ov t 
" a reader in the law of God," who is called a " scribe of the 
law of God * elsewhere d . And that is the reason of the lan- 
guage which our Lord uscth to the scribe, n What is written 
in the law ? How read est thou ?" Luke x. 26, For as it 
is true that the vowels, which the letters must be sounded 
with, are not distinguished in the substance of that language, 
so it is most certain, that the way of reading was not at the 
first delivered to that people, in that method of general rules 

** which since hath been invented, but was taught and received 
by particular tradition, and continued by remembrance and 
practice. Whereupon it is evident what difference of sounds 
may be fastened upon the same characters of letters, if it be 
but from that most ancient translation of the Bible in Greek, 
commonly ascribed to seventy eiders of Israel, The sub- 
stance whereof still remaining — whatsoever alterations may 
have been made — is sufficient to shew how much difference 
there was between the reading which they followed, and that 
which we now use** And by consequence, how much it 
concerned the true meaning of the law to have learned the 
true reading of it, which the Jews, whose reading we follow, 
pretend to have received from Esdras, and the men of learn- 
ing in his time, whom they call " the men of the grand syna- 
gogue," But the endless niceties and curious observances 
wherewith the reading, which we now deservedly use, is deli- 
vered unto us, is sufficient to demonstrate that which I was 
saying afore, that from the beginning, the certain manner of 
reading was delivered by particular observance, and in time 

45 became reduced unto that general method which now we use 
with such unspeakable speed and advantage. 

4 I Esdrai vih 12, 21. the first book of the EpflogUt 

* See the two concluding chapters of 



chap. § 3. Thus, all that made profession of book-learning among 
-- — '■ — that people are called " scribes ;" though it seemeth some that 
ott he Jews enjoyed the style went no further than writing and reading. 
icalmed 6 And such as these they were that taught little children after- 
fcribcf wards among the Jews, of whose office we find rules in Mai- 
moni, Talmud Torah, cap. ii. f And the Jewish doctors 
imagine that Jacob prophesied that most of these should be 
of the tribe of Simeon, when he said, Gen. xlix. 7, "I will 
divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel." And 
the Commentaries under St Ambrose's name expound the 
office of those doctors of whom St Paul speaketh, 1 Cor. xii. 
28, in these words, libs dicit doctores, qui in ecclesia Uteris et 
lectionibus retinendis pueros imbuebant, more synagogce, quia 
traditio illorum ad nos transitum fecit g ; " He speaketh of 
those teachers in the Church which instructed children in 
reading and retaining their lessons, after the fashion of the 
synagogue, for their tradition hath passed over to us." How 
well he hath deciphered the office of doctors in the Apostle 
we shall see afterwards ; but that which he saith of the 
fashion of teaching children to read, and say over lessons of 
the Scripture, which the Church learned from the synagogue, 
is that business of less learned scribes whereof we speak. For 46 
there was a further degree of knowledge, consisting in the 
exposition of the law, which is the third particular remaining, 
expressed in Abarbinel's words, in the second place; and 
those which came to this pitch, as they were still scribes, 
which is the name common to all men of learning among that 
people, so they were counted "wise men" besides, in regard 
of the knowledge of the law they professed, which was the 
wisdom of that people, according to Deut iv. 6. 

§ 4. Thus you shall find scribes and wise men joined toge- 
ther in the New Testament : Matt xxiii. 34, " Behold I send 
unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes :" and 1 Cor. i. 
20, " Where is the wise ? where is the scribe ? where is the 
disputer of this world ?" And for this cause it is that the 
disciples of the prophets are translated " scribes" in Jonathan, 
as was said afore h : and the same are the "wise men" which 

1 Dc doctrina Legis. Latine vers, a ed. Ben. 
Rob. Clavering, pp. 7, 8, 9. Oxon. 1705. *» Chap. ii. sect 21. 

* S. Ambr. Opp., torn. ii. coL 153. 



taught the law of God in the temple : which we also read of C H a p. 

Ezra the scribe, vii. 10, **For E&ra had prepared his heart to - 

seek the la%v of the Lord* and to do* and to teach in Israel 
statutes and judgments." Whether they were priests and 
Levites, or whether they were others, that were hrcd from 
their youth to tbe knowledge of the law and Scriptures, these 

47 were the men, and no other but these, that were indifferently 
assumed to sit in all courts of judgment of that people, and to 
teach in their schools and synagogues. You heard afore i 
some slight remembrance of places of learning, where com pa* 
Dies of prophets had their residence, — some suspicion of syna- 
gogues, where that people assembled, not for that ceremonial 
worship which was confined to tbe temple, but for tbe moral 
and spiritual service of God, according to the light of that 
time, during the time of Solomons temple. But after the 
return from Babylon, schools and synagogues, for certain, 
were multiplied all over the country, and the effect of it was, 
without doubt, of unspeakable benefit* 

§ 5, Men of learning have thought it strange, and inquired [NnidoU- 
wbat the reason might be, that this people, before their cap- the mpti- 
tivity, when they had the prophets to leach and admonMi *"**- 
them, still from time to time should fall away from God to 
the worship of idols: whereas after their return, though there 
were no more prophets, nor miracles 'wrought, nevertheless 
they continued constant in the service of one God, however 
the service and knowledge of Him were corrupted. To my un- 
derstanding this one reason goelb far in giving account of it; 
because where assemblies were held,— where tbe law was read 
and taught, — where the service of God was exercised, that is, 

48 where there were synagogues, there was the most powerful 
means to bold them constant to that which I hey professed, 

§6. But on the other side, we sec what a great evil sprung srribi 
among them instead of it, diversities of opinions, sects and J^ree* 
divisions, among them which held all constant to one law, 
whereof the learned professed the knowledge, The chief 
whereof were those of the Sadducees and Pharisees which the 
Gospel rcrnembereth ; and which arc remembered here, to 
shew that they look not upon them the teaching of the law, 
but as they were scribes, as well as Pharisees or Sadducees : 

1 Chap-iL aei-tt. 17* IS* 
K 2 


chap, the name of "scribes" importing the learning of the law to 
: — which they were bred, the name of " Pharisees" and " Sad- 
ducees," the sect and manner of life they professed, according 
to the opinions those orders maintained. So that as nothing 
hindereth him that hath professed some monastical order to 
proceed in the degrees of the schools, no more inconvenience 
is it to take the same men both for scribes, and also for Pha- 
risees and Sadducees. "The scribes and Pharisees sit in 
Moses' chair," saith our Lord, Matt xxiii. 2. The difference 
is made because many were scribes that were not Pharisees, 
as also many Pharisees that were no scribes: as in those 
words which Sigonius' hath produced out of the life of 
James son of Zebedee, Josias unus d Scribis Pharisaorum, 49 
mint funem in collum Apostoli: "Josias a scribe, one of the 
Pharisees, put a rope upon the Apostle's neck." 
They § 7. Gamaliel, of whom we read in the Scripture for St 
taught in p au p 8 ma8ter> i 8 called there a " Pharisee ;" and that he was 
gogues. a scribe for his learning there can lie no doubt And when it 
is said, Acts xxiii. 9, " The scribes that were of the Pharisees' 
part," it is plain that there were also scribes of the Sadducees : 
which seem to have carried more credit after our Lord's 
death, under another High Priest, than when He was alive. 
For when it is said, Acts v. 17, "Then the High Priest rose 
up, and all that were with him, which is the sect of the Sad- 
ducees, and were filled with indignation," it may be observed 
that afore, iv. 1, we read thus, "And as they spake unto the 
people, the priests and captain of the temple, and the Saddu- 
cees came upon them ;" which same faction is thus specified, 
ver. 5, 6, "And it came to pass on the morrow that their 
rulers and elders, and scribes ...... were gathered together 

at Jerusalem ;" out of which as it is to be presumed that the 
faction of the Sadducees, cherished by the High Priest, had 
then the stroke, — whereupon the Apostles, preaching then the 
resurrection of our Lord, found some advantage in Gamaliel, 
and St Paul afterwards in the Pharisees, — so there is necessity 
to think the same were scribes and Sadducees both which 50 
dealt in these matters. And for the third sect of the Essenes, 

J Carol. Sigon. de Republ. Hebneo- mint Josias, id enim ei nomen 

rum, lib. v. cap. 10. Tunc ille Scriba erat — Mombritii Acta Sanctorum, fol. 
PharUacorum qui funem ei in collum 20. eoL2da, torn, ii Mediolan. ante 1 480. 



there ia no doubt but the learned of them also were counted in cha r 
the number of the scribes ; seeing we know that they taught — 
the law in their own synagogues, as shall be said. 

5 8- But of those that are called in the Gospel " lawyers," Who were 
there is question among men of learning what might be the 
difference between them and scribes, whose profession w T as 
the law of Moses, and the exposition of it* For when our 
Lord saith unto them, Luke xi. 46, "Wo unto you also law- 
yers," having said the like afore to the scribes, it is plain that He 
might speak to scribes and not to lawyers ; and yet the pro- 
esston of scribes being the law of Moses, and the exposition 
of it, it is strange there should he lawyers which were no 
scribes. And therefore my resolution must be, that they 
cease not to be scribes which are called lawyers, but as they 
own that style for their profession of learning, so is the other 
due for the privilege they have in it : which seemeth to have 
been among them, whatsoever was then conferred by imposi- 
tion of hands, which made them rabbies or doctors of the law 
that had it : Maimoni, in Sancdrin. cap. iv. num. 2, k And 
therefore when Gamaliel, Acts \\ 34, is called mtwSt£da-tc&- 
Xo$, it is the same with vofiucbs or BtBtltrfcaXo^ or rabbi alone. 
51 For hereupon you shall observe the words that he uscth, 
Luke xx, 45, " Then answered one of the lawyers and said 
unto Ilim, Master* in thus saying Thou reproachest us also:" 
to shew that they were still of a better rank than the rest, 
and should take it worse to he found fault with ; which is 
here verified by the privilege which they, of all other scribes, 
were invested with. 

§ y. For to shew in how great esteem was this profession who «u 
among that people, be it here observed that no man was court*. 
capable, at least of sitting in their courts of judgment, but (JJ^L 
those that were bred to this kind of knowledge, I speak not • » 
here of the free times of that commonwealth under their own 
hiws and governors : then it is reason to think that the 
princes of Israel and noblest persons were placed in the 
grand court of seventy-one at Jerusalem, with the chief 
priests and prophets, or their successors, the greatest of the 
scribes, to assist them in the knowledge of the law. It is 

h MAJmofiiilis <!«' SvMdriii h pm- p» 2& Aixiatelodain. I 
ni»» L« titie v?n, ab II curie, iiuutitig* 


chap, observed of late 1 , that Josephus maketh the middle court of 

: — twenty-three to consist but of seven, with two assistants to 

each of them, of the tribe of Levi, to wit, for the knowledge 
of the law ; which came near the number of twenty-three. 
The description that followeth, derived from their ancient 
doctors, seemeth to concern the times when the freedom of 
the people was abated, and that great court reduced from 
governing the state, to judge the greatest of those matters 52 
wherein they were left to their own laws. Which fitteth the 
present purpose nevertheless. Because from it we shall per- 
ceive the employment of their scribes, together with the 
fashion of their consistories, and of their synagogues in conse- 
quence, whereupon that which is to follow dependeth. 

§ 10. R. Moses in Sanedrin. cap. ii. num. 1, " They place 
not in any sanedrin, great or little, but wise men ; men 
abounding in knowledge of the law, men of large knowledge 
in other sciences :" and straight afterwards, " They place not 
in the sanedrin but priests and Levites, and Israelites of 
birth, fit to be of alliance to the priesthood, as it is said, 
Numb. xi. 16, 'And they shall stand there with thee:' of 
men like thee, in wisdom, and godliness, and birth. And it 
is a precept, that there be priests and Levites of the great 
sanedrin, as it is said, Deut xvii. 9, 'And thou shalt come 
unto the priests the Levites.' But if none be found, though 
there be none but Israelites, it is allowable." Israelites of 
birth were not assumed for their birth ; for the priests and 
Levites, that were counted among them of best birth, sat not 
there, unless their learning were answerable : the High Priest 
himself, unless he were fit, for his wisdom, had no place in the 
sanedrin of seventy-one in Jerusalem, as it followeth straight 
afterwards. Now the manner of breeding here requisite is to 53 
be understood from the description of the second court of 
three-and-twenty, which he maketh in the first chapter there 
afore ; num. 6, \y\ hmn pi, " The judge that is of greatest 
wisdom among them is head over them; the rest sit in a 
round, as it were a half circlet, that the head may see them 
all." And again, num. 7, " Before every sanedrin they 

1 By Grotius in his Commentary passage in Josephus is in the fourth 
upon St Matth. v. 21, on the words book of the Antiquities, chap. 1 4. p. 
"in danger of the judgment" The lb'3. ed. Hudson. Oxon. 1720. 



place three ranks of disciples of wise men, three-and-twcnty chap. 

in every rank : the first near the judges ; the second lower '■ — 

than that ; the third lower than the second : and in every 
rank they sit according to their degree in wisdom." Out of 
these* as need requireth, they assume the next in rank to 
assist in judgment, when the bench Is not complete, by impo- 
sition of hands, as it followeth there, because finable causes, 
that belonged to this middle court, were not judged but by 
masters made by imposition of hands, 

5 1 L But the lowest of their courts was thus: cap. i. num. 
6, "In cities of less than six score families they place three 
judges, as in no court less than three, that it may have more 
and less if they chance to be divided in a cause* When there 
are not in a city two great wise men, one fit to teach aud 
decide in all the law, the other that can understand and dis- 
pute," ask and answer, " they place no sanedrin In it, though it 
have two thousand of Israel t where there are these two, one 
5* to understand, and one to speak, it is a sanedrin: where 
there are three, it is mean : wherefore, whereof three can 
speak, that is a sanedrin of wisdom :" for as you have it there 
three be a full court, it is commendable whensoever there are 
afterwards, cap. ii, num. nit, m *b Sy *]&*i " Though a court of 
more, and better that a cause be decided by eleven than by 
ten ; and it is requisite that all that sit in the court be disci- 
ples of the wise* and fitting.'* So, though this court, reaching 
but to money matters, require not imposition of hands, yet 
you see what qualities it require th, in two that are necessary, 
and in all that may sit In it And thus it appeareth how that 
is verified in particular which was generally affirmed afore, 
that none could come to sit in any of their courts of justice 
but their scribes, but their wise, but the disciples of wise* but 
those that were bred to the knowledge of the law, 

§ 18, But it concerneth my purpose to observe further, in The man- 
that description of the middle court, the three ranks of disci- ^Jhle in" 
pies that sat beneath the judges by degrees, according to their ^«n 
knowledge, because the like order took place at their religious g»guc*. 
assemblies in the synagogues, the people sitting flat on the 
floors, St. Ambrose upon the words of the Apostle, 1 Con xiv, 
29, 30, 31, " Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the 
other judge; if it l>e revealed to another as he sitteth, 1c 


chap, first hold his peace." Hac traditio synagogue est, qttam nas vultss 

: — sectari: ut sedentes disputent; seniores dignitate in cathedris, 

seqnentes in subselliis, novissimi in pavimento super mattas m * " It 
is a tradition or custom of the synagogue which he would 
have us to follow ; to dispute sitting : the eldest in dignity in 
chairs, the next upon benches, the last upon matted floors." 
To this purpose speak those words alleged to us from the 
Talmud ists, Gem. Horaiotfu cap. iii. 13, m JW3HBO nn> "Our 
masters say, when the prince cometh in — that is, the head of 
the high court of seventy-one — all the people stand up to him, 
and sit not down till he bid them : when the father of the 
court cometh in — that is, his mate — they make him two ranks, 
one on this side, another on that, and sit not down till he is 
set: when the wise man cometh in — that is, the next, that 
always sat on the left hand to the prince— one standeth up, 
and one sitteth still. Disciples of the wise, and their chil- 
dren, when the people want them, step over the heads of the 
people, though it is an imputation for a disciple of the wise to 
come in last If he go out for his necessities, he cometh 
in, and sitteth down in his place. Sons of disciples of the 
wise that are deputed pastors of the synagogue, when they 
have understanding to learn, come in and sit before their 
fathers, with their backs to the people : while they have not, 
they come in and sit behind their fathers, with their faces to 
the people. R. Eleazar, son of R. Sadoc, said, at feasts also 56 
they set them each beside their fathers." Here you see how 
the elders sat in a round in the face of the people, sitting 
before them upon the floor. The manner whereof in the 
synagogue is thus further expressed in Maimoni, Tephillah 
vbircath Cohenim, cap. xi. 4 : for having told us that in every 
synagogue, in the quarter towards which they pray, looking 
to the temple, they build a place, which they call therefore 
the " hecall," where they lay a copy of the law, and set the 
ark, out of which they take the book of the law which they 
read in the synagogue, with the back to this hecall, and the 
face to the people, he pursneth it thus : num. 4, " How sit 
the people in the synagogue ? The elders sit with their faces 
towards the people, and their backs towards the hecall, and all 
the people sit rank before rank, the face of every rank toward 

m S. Ambro*. Opp., torn. ii. col. 150. ed. Ben. 



the back of the rank before it; so the faces of all the people chap, 
are towards the sanctuary, and towards the ciders, and to — — 

wards the ark, and when the minister of the synagogue sland- 
er h up to prayer he standeth on the ground before the ark, 
with his face to the sanctuary, as the rest of the people*" 

§ 13. And for that which St* Ambrose saith of matted 
floors, it fullowcth there, num. 5, ff They use respect in the 
synagogues and schools, and sweep them, and floor them ; and 
57 the Israelites in Spain and the west, and in Shinar, and the 
land of comeliness, they use to set up lights in the syna- 
gogues, and floor them with mats, to sit upon, but in the land 
of Edom— the Roman empire — they ait upon seats," Thus is 
the meaning of that in the Psalm cvh. 32, brought into their 
practice, when he saith, u Let them exalt Him also in the 
congregation of the people, and praise Him in the seat of the 
elders." The Chaltlee: "Exalt Him in the synagogue of the 
people of Israel, and praise Him in the sanedrin (or seat) of 
wise men."' R. SoL Jarchi there, iji "pv% "Ami it is requi- 
site to confess Him before ten, whereof two are the strength 
of our masters:" that is, such two as were requisite afore to 
make a sanedrin according to It. Moses. For their rule is, 
that those whom this Psalm mentioneth give public thanks, 
that is, in a synagogue, that is of ten, where there are two 
"wise men," which therefore are counted a sanedrin, of 
which they expound the words of the Psalm, viu 32, "the 
seat of the elders." True it is, you shall find divers sayings of 
the Hebrew doctors wherein the disciples of the wise are 
described sitting on the floor at the feet of their masters, and 
not upon seats of a lower rank ; and so was St, Paul, Acts 
xxii. 3, "brought up at the feet of Gamaliel/ 1 But that, it 
should seem, is to be understood of masters sitting alone 
among their scholars, by that which we read of it in Mai- 
oni 5 Talmud Torah t cap. iv. num. 3, \%\ pD^D W3§ * How do 
they teach? the master sit teth in the head, and the scholars 
in a round afore him like a crown, that they may all see the 
master, and hear his words. The master sitteth not in a 
chair, and his disciples on the floor, but all on the floor or in 
chairs. Formerly the masters sat and the scholars stood, but 
before the destruction of the second temple all practised it, 
their disciples and themselves sitting." Though in St. 1 


chap, there is something particular, if we believe that which Aben- 
— — — ezra relateth out of the Talmudists, upon Nehem. viii. 5, 
where we read, " And Ezra opened the book in the sight of 
all the people — for he was above all the people — and when he 
opened it, all the people stood up." " It may be," saith he, 
" they stood up in their place. So say our masters of blessed 
memory, from the days of Moses to our master Gamaliel they 
learned standing." Good reason St. Paul should remember 
the feet of Gamaliel, and good reason we should think his 
scholars sat at his feet, if he were the first that brought up 
the custom — which Maimoni saith was received before the 
temple was destroyed — for scholars to sit when their masters 
read and discoursed: which I leave to the masters of the 
Talmud to be verified. 

§ 14. In the mean time, the fashion of these assemblies, 
and the very posture of those that sat there to teach, maketh 
that very clear which our Lord saith in the Gospel, Matt 59 
xxiii. 2, "The scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses' chair." 
And the same are the seats whereof our Lord speaketh there, 
ver. 6, " and love the uppermost rooms at feasts," irpwroicktr 
alav, because they eat leaning, " and the chief seats in syna- 
gogues," Trp&ToteaOeSpias, because they taught sitting in chairs, 
as St Ambrose said afore. For which purpose you have 
seen hitherto that the doctors sat with their faces to the 
people, that they might be ready to stand up when the law 
was read, and from thence take the occasion and argument of 
their speech to the people. Therefore saith the Apostle, 
Acts xv. 21, "For Moses hath of old time in every city them 
that preach him; being read in the synagogues every Sab- 
bath." And Acts xiii. 14 — 16, "Paul and Barnabas went into 
the synagogue at Antiochia in Pisidia on the Sabbath, and sat 
down : and after the reading of the law and the prophets, the 
rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye men and 
brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation to the people, 
say on. Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand, 
said." In like sort our Saviour, in the synagogue at Naza- 
reth, Luke iv. 16 — 20, having read the lesson of Esaiah the 
prophet, proceedeth to expound it And certain it is that 
our Lord and His disciples were admitted and invited to 
teach in the synagogue, upon no other respect but the opi- 



60 o i on which the world had of their wisdom and knowledge of char 

the Scripture, for which, they going so far beyond those that ■ — 

professed it, no marvel if they were received for doctors of it". 
And Philo" of the Esscnes, lib. Omnem probum liberum esse; 
Els iepov*; atf>ttcvQVfi€VOt roirom ol tcakovvrat* HwarfwyaXj fcaff 
ffiutci'as ip ra^eaiv imh wp€<T^\rrlpot^ vioi tca0itpin-ai t fiera tfotr- 

tlvayiP&XTtcei XajSow, €T£po$ 5e t&v spLTrstporraTttiv, oaa pi] yvm- 
pifWf *rmp€h$o}p ava t yiv^<rK€t. w Coming to their holy places 
called synagogues, they sit down in ranks, according to years, 
the young under the elders, with fit decorum, disposed to 
hear: then one talceth the book and readeth, another of the 
best practised cometh afterwards, and recognise th that which 
was least understood:" that is, expoundcth it And it should 
seem by the name the Jews give their sermons, that the cus- 
tom was, for many of these doctors that sat in the head of 
synagogues to speak to the same purpose, inquiring the truth 
of the Scripture, For as they call the school emon JV3, so they 
call preaching in the synagogue itm and d*X m tu preachers both 
for the reason, of inquiring at these meetings the meaning of 
the Scriptures. For which reason St. Paul, 1 Cor. i. 20, IIqv 
«ro0ov ; 7Tov ypap>pmr€v^ ; ttov av^TpiftTj^ rov al$>PQ$ rovrov ; 
calling the same persons "wise men" first* then *' scribes," 
and last of all, ** inquirers of this world ;" T that is, Jewish 
6J doctors, that were still inquiring among themselves the truth 
of the Scriptures at their meetings, and yet believed not ; 
that seemeth to be the true meaning of the words* As our 
Saviour, Luke ii. 46, was found " in the temple sitting in the 
midst of the doctors, hearing them, and asking them ques- 
tions," which was the school where they disputed. 

§ 15, But this posture of sitting, in the court, in the school, Hnwiitcy 
in the synagogue, in judgment, in learning, in their service of fcJ^L. 
God, will he still better understood if we observe that it was 
the fashion of that people to sit at meat no otherwise ; as did 
also the Greeks and Romans after them, eat lying, and lean- 
ing on the elbow, in a half round, which they call "sigma," 
from the ancient figure of that letter, which was thus, C. 

■ See Hammond** Anne*. Si- Mali. 
ix. IS, p. 50. 

° PJrilon. JueL Opp* Omn.t |>. ft " 
td Pari*, 1 6*0* 


C nf P " '^ 8 * s ^fed * n tne Bible mDD, p in the Chaldee it is trans- 
" • ■'• ~ lated KnnnDK, signifying the company that were met, for the 
reason of sitting in compass. Of which the words of the 
Talmud alleged out of Horaioth, cap. 3, are to be under- 
stood, where, having said that the sons of disciples of the 
wise, before they be capable of learning, sit at their 
fathers' backs, in the round whereof we spoke, it followeth, 
"R. Eleazar son of R. Sadoc said, in feasts also they set 
them beside their fathers ; w that is, behind their places in the 
round aforesaid. And of old time it may be observed, that 
the middle place, in this fashion of sitting, was most honour- 62 
able among that people, by that of king Saul, 1 Sam. xx. 25, 
"And the king sat upon his seat as at other times, even 
upon a seat by the wall" Sol. Jarchi, <vpn Sw nDDn BWU» 
" in the head of the couch next the wall." Supposing them 
to sit in a round or half circle, as was always the fashion to 
do, we must needs imagine that the back or middle of this 
half circle must be toward the wall for all convenience. And 
thereupon, by the way, we have cause to think that there is 
no mistake in the vulgar way of representing the last Supper 
of our Lord ; which the learned Jesuit Sirmondus, Annot. 
in Sidon, 1 Epist. ii. thinketh the painters make, when they 
set our Lord in the midst at table. Whereas the right order 
he conceiveth to be that which he observed in the mosaical 
work at Capua — done by the Abbot of Cassino, that was after- 
ward Victor IL Pope — where our Lord sitteth in the dexter 
point of the couch, St. John leaning his head in His bosom, 
who by that means might easily perceive St Peter beckon to 
him, as he sat in the sinister point of it, as chief of the disci- 
ples^ And indeed he hath reason to say, that among the 

p 2U0' Vid. Gesenii Lexic. Maj. Capuse opus, a Desiderio Cas : nensi 

p. 933. Abbate, qui Victor II. postea fuit, de- 

* Honoratissimus ergo stibadii locus, dicatum. Quae quidem si ad veram 

cornu dextrum, ut diximus, proximus im a gin em expressa sunt .... haud dif- 

sinistrum Sed admonet nos sti- ficile fuerit intelligere, cur aut Joan- 

badii mentio et ordo accumbentium, ut nes, qui per a? tat em fortasse ultimus 

de Christi quoque Domini suprema erat, Christo proximus in ejus miiu ac- 

Coena disquiramus. cubuerit, aut Petrus qui remotior in- 

Recubuisse autem in ea Christum, non nuisse Joanni dieatur, ut Christum de 

in medio stipantibus latera hinc inde proditore interrogarct — Sirmond. Opp. 

Apostoli*, ut nostri vulgo pictores re- var., torn. i. col. 872. Paris, 1696. See 

pnesentant, sed dextro in coruu also two letters of his to Suarez on this 

rum alia in libris tabulisque antiquis subject, in vo!. iv. coll. 665 — 669. 
monirnenta ostendunt, turn musivum 



Romans the dexter point was most honourable, the sinister chap. 
next to it : but among the Hebrews, as hath been said, it was — 

03 the middle, where St John leaning in our Lord's bosom, 
might easily enough perceive St Peter beckon as he sat in 
the point 

§ 16. But in the words alleged out of Maimoni, we must nriheH- 
now observe the condition of these elders of the synagogue nagogtm 
which he said sat in the bead of the assembly, with their 
faces to the people, It is the title of those chief of the tribes 
that had authority over the people in Egypt, out of whom 
were chosen the seventy assistants to Moses in the grand 
consistory, as was said f . It is in the Gospel the title of those 
in whom, together with the chief priests and scribes, the 
authority over that people rested, so far as they were suffered 
to use their own laws, the grand court of seventy being at 
that time either dissolved, or removed from Jerusalem, and 
abated, as the Tahmidists, agreeing with Joseph us, relate: 
for he telle th us that they were put to death by Herod, 
Antiq, xv. 1/ They tell us that they removed from Jerusa- 
lem forty years before the destruction of the temple, that is, a 
little before our Lord's death, because they would not be used 
as a stale to give sentence of death beside their own judg- 
ment; the force of their sentence consisting in their residence 
at Jerusalem, as they will have it, [Gem. cod. Talmud,] Aboda 
ztira, cap. i., 1 which it is probable is to be understood %vhcn 
they began to recover themselves of the blow received under 

tttllerod. Corrcspondently therefore, in the synagogues of 
their dispersion, under this name we must understand those 
by whose authority the common businesses of the congregation 
were transacted, bo far as they had leave to use their own law 
among the nations; which it seemeth are therefore called, 
Acts xiii. 15, "rulers of the synagogue;" and were sometimes 
men of learning, scribes, wise men, rabbies, otherwhiles not 

§ 17. That their doctors in this respect were called "elders,** 
I will use no other proof but that which is ordered in their 
law concerning him that they call a *■ rebellious elder,** of 
whom Maimoni hi Mamrim, cap. vii. n. 1, "A rebellious 

' Chap. ii. *eet. 1 & 
* p, 66 L See also hook xiv, cap, 8. 
p*62tf. ed. Hudson. 1720. 

1 Vid, Vontii Dissert, de Synedrii* 
Hehr. cnp. ilii. ap. Ugolin. Then. An- 
ttq. Shot., torn, xxv, p. I Htt. 


chap, elder is not liable to death, till he be a wise man that hath 

in . 
'■ — attained to be fit to decide, next to a sanedrin." And in 

Talmud Torah 9 cap. vii. 1, a wise man, that is, an elder ex- 
cellent in wisdom, is one of those that must not be excommu- 
nicated in public. 

§ 18. On the other side, that some of these elders in 
synagogues were not rabbies, it shall appear by the descrip- 
tion which the same rabbi maketh of their order, in holding 
the fast of seven days, whereof he writeth in Taanioth, cap. 
iv. 2, w *p in«i, u "After that they put up among them an 
elder that is a wise man, themselves sitting : if there be no elder 
that is a wise man, they put up a wise man ; if neither, they 

set up such an one as will serve, and he speaketh words 65 

of humiliation, irro *D3, according to his ability, till he humble 
their hearts, and they repent with perfect repentance." By 
which it appeareth, that elders in their synagogues, whose 
place R. Moses described us, in the head of the people, were 
some of the profession of learning, some not These are the 
elders of the synagogues remembered of Epiphanius, /for. 
xxx. n. 11,* and in divers constitutions of the emperors, 
mentioning all public persons in synagogues y. In particular 
we are to observe here, that some of these elders were wont 
to be deputed to make provision for the poor of the syna- 
gogue. Which some think are the men that are called 
Patres Synagogarum, in the constitution of Constantine the 
Great, L. iv. Cod. Theod. de Jud. et Caelicolis*. Of these, 
those words of the Talmud alleged out of Horaioth, cap. iii. 
are to be understood : " The sons of disciples of the wise, 
that are deputed pastors of the synagogue." For it is for 
no other cause but this that they are called D'DJ*id, or 

■ Tract de jejun. Hebr. Latine vers. Judaeorum querelas .... reclaman- 

a Jo. Ben. Carpzov., pp. 24, 25. Lip- tibus legis suae Primatibus. — Leg. 8. 
siae, 1662. . . . prater vos Proceres que vestros. 

1 . . . &px i<rvt ' a y < * r y a>1 '> K( d Up4wv t Kal —Leg. 1 0. 
irpccr/St/Wpw, teal 'AfariTw, ru>v Trap* Also LL. 11, 13, 14, 15. — xvL Cod. 
airrois Ziok6vwv ipfxr\vtvo^vo}v y 1j irm)- Theodos. Tit viii. 
pvrStv. — Contr. Ebion., p. 135. ed. ■ Hiereo*, et Archisynagogos, et Pa- 
Colon, trea Synagogarum, et ceeteros qui Syna- 

' Judaeis et majoribus eorum et Pa- gogis deserviunt, ab omni corporali mu- 

triarchis volumus intimari. — Leg. 1. nereliberosessepraecipimus. — xvi.Cod. 

Qui devotione tota Synagogis Ju- Theodos. Tit viii. 1. 4. torn. vi. p. 222. 

daeorum Patriarchu vel PresbyterU se ed. Gothofred. Lugdun. 1665. 
dederunt — Leg. 2. 



is pastors," as well at this day, as of old time \ Leo Modena, c H a p. 

• • ■ jit 
the now rabbi at Venice, callcth those deputies that provide- — — 

for the poor, in his own language, Memtutrntt^ and Piirnttsswt, 

in his little Italian tvvct, u Of the Rites and Customs of 

the Hebrews," p. i. c. siv, u And in divers places of R. 

Benjamin's Itinerary c we read of divers rahhies, whom he 

66 calleth Parnau&fii for this cause, not because they were 
preachers to the synagogue. Those that had that faculty, 
and undertook that charge, both he and others call Dar- 
shaninu To let ns understand that all their rabbies preached 
not in the synagogues — for rabbies they are all that have 
that style- — but those alone that had the talent of it, as the 
same Leo Modena writetli of them, p. ii, c\ iu\ 2. d For the 
Jews are no flinchers from old customs. 

§ 19. We are to observe further here, what elders were who 
made by imposition of hands, Maimoni il Stinedriit, cap, iv,, mem 
131 T¥*:ii, " And how is imposition of hands done ? not that ^» ( ^f. 
they stay their hands upon the head of the elder, but that J]J^£ f 
cy call him - rabbi,' and say to him, Behold, thou art 
ained, and hast licence to judge even finable causes. And 
they give not this imposition of hands, which is the ordination 
of elders to be judges, but by three," So that of the Misna 
Sanedrin, c* i, n. 2, "ordination of elders is done by three," 
may well be understood of such elders as are ordained judges 
in finable causes, because the name of elders is common to 
judges and other elders. True it is, there be other purposes 
reckoned by Maimoni (in the place aforesaid) afterwards, to 
which they might he ordained* But all of them concern 
controversies of the law, which their ordination licenseth 

G7 them to decide. And seeing it is said that ordination is 
made by styling the person ordained, "rabbi/* it secmcth it 

» belonged to none but doctors. Indeed, in the Itinerary 
aforesaid, we read, that in his days, about the year of our 

• •' Who then is that faithful and 
-vise b tew anl, whom his lord shall make 
ruler over hU household, to give them 
their portion of meat hi due ■mtOB [ 
St Luke xii. jg;. flee V it dug* de 
Svnagoga Vetere, lib + ill p. I. cap* 2, 
p. u21. Franequcrce, liBX, 

* '■* Besides, the Purnassim or Me* 
mnnnim — whose office it is to look afier 
such things (alms) — lake earc to send 

them (the poor) something home to 
their houses every week.'* — Owen's 
Translation, p. 57. London, 1707* 

1 ltinerarium I), Benjamin) a* cum 
vtftfosM et tfcotisj Coutantini L'Einpe- 
renr ah Oppyek. Lugd, Batav. 1633. 

4 "These, that in, the C a earn Rav, 
or Iforcnn, [Master or Doctor,] decide 
controversies . . . , and preach $ they 
have any laUnt that way/* — p« 77* 


chap. Lord 1173, all the rabbies and deacons of synagogues of 

'■ — that great resort, were appointed by him, whom they called 

"head of the exile," at Bagdad, and came thither to him 
to get imposition of hands, p. 73 and 74. But according 
to the ancient custom of that people, those that were pro- 
moted rabbies by imposition of hands, were made only in 
the land of Israel, that is, in all that they possessed when 
they came out of Egypt "Insomuch that unless he that 
promoted, and he that was promoted, were both in the land 
of promise, there was no imposition of hands : if both were 
within the compass of it, then might it be done by writing, 
if they were not present:" Maimoni in the same place*. 
Therefore, if we believe that all elders of synagogues and 
deacons — called among them D*3tn, in Epiphanius, 'AQaviTai* — 
were made by imposition of hands, then must it be said that 
Maimoni, and others according to him, speak of no imposi- 
tion of hands but that which made rabbies, because of the 
eminence of such persons. 

§ 20. Last of all, it is to be observed here, that in these 
colleges or benches of elders, whereof my speech is, that 
governed great and populous synagogues, there was also one 6\ 
head, the chief in learning and authority, called in the Gos- 
pel, in the life of the Emperor Alexander Severus g , and in 
divers constitutions of the emperors 11 , "the ruler of the 
synagogue," or " archisynagogue." And as it hath been 
proved elsewhere 1 that the Bishop and presbyters of Christian 
Churches are many times comprised in the common style 
of presbyters, Trpoe<rrGyrei> propositi, antistites, prcesidentes, 
and the like, so it seemeth that both the archisynagogue 
and elders are signified under the same title, " rulers of the 
synagogue, at Antiochia in Pisidia," Acts xiii. 15. And 
so was Jairus " one of the rulers of the synagogue," Mark 
v. 22. 

• De Synedr. et poems, p. 23. ed. Architynagogum eum vocantes et Ar- 

Houting. chierea. Hist Aug. Scriptores vi. torn. 

r Epiphan. Haeres. xxx. contr. Ebion. i p. 930. Lugd. Batav. 1671. 

cap. xxl p. 135. ed. Colon, see Prim. » xvi Cod. Theodos. Tit. viii. 1L 4, 

Govern., chap. xii. sect 16. 13, 14. 

g . . . quod quodam tempore festo ... * Primitive Government of Churches, 

lacessiverant eum convitiolis, tyrum chap. vii. sect 4—6. 




When the Gospel of Christ was to be published to the c h ap. 
world, the nation of the Jews was now dispersed far and — 

wide, and their synagogues and assemblies settled in the most u>ru- V,r 
eminent places of the Horn an empire, as the Acts of the wJthThSr 
Apostles alone are enough to inform us. God's singular 2jjj5* 
providence having procured their profession, and the writings able to 

i i t \T t i i i a i *i m the Jews' 

that contain it, thus to come to the knowledge ot the Gen tiles, amsbto- 
to make way for the Gospel which drew near. Now the ™^, ™ e 
Apostles being themselves Jews by birth, and pretending to P£ V^^ 
call those congregations which they converted to the faith, 
whether from Jews or Gentiles, to a condition correspondent 
to that of the Jews in their banishment, that is, as the 
Apostle alludeth, 1 Pet IL 11, to live "strangers and pil- 
grim**" from that Jerusalem which is above, as they were 
from Jerusalem upon earth, it is no marvel if the state of 
them which they ordained bear a great deal of correspond- 
ence with the synagogue. 

§ 2. The chief point of which correspondence consisteth 
in those presbyteries upon which, as hath been proved else- 
where k , they cstated the government of those Churches which 
70 they converted to the faith. It is no marvel that the Apostles 
ordained these presbyteries of Churches with imposition of 
hands, though it be more than I can affirm of those presby- 
teries of synagogues'. It was from the beginning a sensible 

k Prinu Govern, of Church ei, chap* 
iii. 2, 

1 VicL Morin. de Saeria Ordinatiotu* 
bus. Part iii, Exemt. vii + cap* it 





Tbi v «J 
in tllC 


nth it in 
th»> -\iia- 

i of Goers hand stretched out to bestow the grace of the 
Holy Ghost, which was pretended to be procured by the 
benediction of him that pave it m . Such graces of the Holy 
Ghost, the Apostles professed to go along with the truth 
which they preached, to convince all nations of it. And we 
sec how it pleased God to make good what they professed, 
by tluit abundance of spiritual graces mentioned by the 
Apostle. Whereas the Jews may seem to have confined 
those graces to the land of promise, out of their opinion of 
that kingdom which they promise themselves there. In re- 
gard of this imposition of bands, the presbyteries of Churches 
may well be compared with those consistories of the Jews, 
which were so ordained, as well for deciding matters of judg- 
ment as for teaching the law* at such time as those same 
consistories were among them, as well schools of learning 
as courts of judicature. Those consistories, with their presi- 
dents, whereof you heard afore out of Moses Maimoni, 
answering these presbyteries, and the beads of them called 
Bishops, which came over them, as hath been shewed, in 71 
succession to the Apostles*. Otherwise, setting aside imposi- 
tion of bauds, the very pattern of these presbyteries in Chris- 
tian Churches, is to be seen in those presbyteries of great 
and populous synagogues under their rulers, or arc hi syna- 
gogues, whereof hath been said . 

f S, To make this correspondence further to appear, that 
which hath been discoursed, of the manner in which these 
consistories or elders sat in the school or synagogue, shall 
now be declared to have held in the Church, for the sitting 
of the Bishop and his presbyters. The words of Ignatius, 
EphL nd Magne$> p f arc hitherto ill read in our copies, by 
which means the true sense is diverted: I mean these where- 
in he salute (h them, Mera rov it^iOTrpeTreardrov iwtcncoirov 
Vftwp, teal fi^wvifcov teal irvevfJut-TUcov Sretpavov rov npetrfit*- 
ripov fyfti)?, teal r&v Kara dcov StaxovtavX ** With your 
reverend Bishop, and the victorious spiritual Stephen their 
presbyter, and their deacons" — or ministers — " according to 

01 See Primitive Government, chop* 
xi. sect. 3. 

Prim. Govern., chap, viiL sect 5. 
* Chap, iil *e«L 20. 

* C4J, xiil p. 62. ed Cotota 

ed. Verlol. Gene v. 1023, 


which direeteth th 



Cux\" which direeteth this salutation to one Stephen a pres- 
byter there : but in that old translation of these epistles re- 
membered elsewhere % these words arc rendered thus: Cum 
digne deccntlmmo Mphcopn vestro, et digne eompksa tpitiiuaH 
carotid Presht/terii vestry et eorum qui secundum Drum diaco- 
norunu Whereby it appetreth that he that made that transla- 

72 tion read, JJit£vpjirmov aretpavou rov wpeafivTeplov vamv*: 
that is, "the spiritual crown of their presbytery;" because 
sitting in a half round, in the head place of the Church, they 
very well resembled the fashion of a crown, and are therefore 
called in the constitutions of the Apostles, ii. 28^ Tfjs ctcteXrj- 
aim <rT€(f>ava$, "The crown of the Church," There order 
is taken, that the presbyters, at the feasts of love then prac- 
tised* shall receive a double share to that of the widows, in 
these words, Tots Be irpea-fivrepoiSt &><? ctv Kapimert irept top Tip? 
BtBa&teaXta*; \6yov, BtTrXtj teal auTofc atpopt^itrBm jJ p.otpa 7 ety 
Xtipn* TfldF rov Kvpiou tiTroaroKeoj^ wv teal top tqttov tyvXaer&ov* 
<rtv f cw? eru^ovkot rov iwt&xoTTQV, teat ttj¥ itetcXrjaias ar€$apo$ w 
"As for the presbyters, that they may take pains about the 
word of doctrine, let there be a double part set aside for them 
also, for the Apostles of our Lord's sake, whose place they 
possess, as counsellors to the Bishop, and the crown of the 
Church." We are not to conceive that it must needs be a 
full round that is called a crown : that constellation of stars 
that is so called, wanteth a great deal of a circle. I suppose, 
because we must allow room to tie it behind the head, to 
avoid TcrtullianV objection, that the hinder parts of the 
bead smell not. If then the Bishop and presbyters sat in 
that figure of a half round, which we saw practised in the 
Jews' consistories, and that in the head of the congregation, 
it is for no other reason that they are called the * crown of 

73 the Church." 

§ 4. Now, this fashion of their sitting is thus described in 
the same book, iL 57 J KsfaBw Bi fieo-os o rov iTnateaTrou 9p6vos t 
trap etcarepa BeatTov tead^ta&m to wpea-fiirriptov, teal ol Btdteopot 
TraptcrTitG-Owaav evaraXets tTjs wkqiam ierfffrros , ioUa&t yap vav- 
raw teal TOtj(apr)(ot^ m irpovola hi tqvtg>p €i% to erepop ptp&z oi Xai* 

' Prim. Govern*, chap. *il wet. 15. Vetiel, 

* So published by Voksiub in IMflv u Dp Corttti MiHli«, c*p. v. p, 290. 

1 Ap. Labbei, SS. Condi., torn* i. ed. ed* Pam. Rrithomsg, 1 1 

i MAP 



i" HAP coi ca&^&rlWa*. pcra «*-?? 901^(0? coi dragta*' kclL cu yv- 

raLce?. KC)(*purf*ams au avrtu m0€$eaOmaav 9 auairrpf ayovatu. 

t*&ro% 6 6 avaymanj^ €<f> irjrqXov Tiros iorme aMwyunxriceTW . . . 
-Let the Bishop's chair stand in the midst, and let the presbytery 
sit on both sides of him, and the deacons stand by, lightened 
of too much apparel, for they are in the ship of the Church, 
like mariners, and rulers of sides ; by their direction let the 
people sit on the other side, with all quietness and good 
order; and let the women also sit apart, keeping silence: 
then let the reader stand on high, and read." It is plain that 
he settcth here the Bishop's chair in the midst of the upper 
end of the Church, l>ccause he called them afore " the crown 
of the Church," and because, if the deacons order the sides, 
then is the Bishop master at the stern. In the mean time, 
he sitting in the midst, and the presbyters on both hands, the 
deacons must needs be conceived to stand beside them, behind 
the compass of that round in which they sat And thus sitting 
they are said, in the Constitutions, as you had it even now, to 
possess the place of our Lord's Apostles. And in Ignatius, 
Epist ad Magnes.* : IIpoKaOrjfievov rov hruricoirav efc witch/ 
Seov 9 /ecu t&p TrpecfUvripaiv eU ronrov owehpiov ra>v airoaroXxov. 74 
"The Bishop sitting highest in place of God," that is, of 
Christ, " and the presbyters in place of the bench of Apostles." 
And Gregory Nazianzen setting down the dream, wherein he 
saw himself sitting as he was wont to do in the Church, de- 
scribeth himself sitting in the midst, and the presbyters in 
chairs on this hand and on thaty: to shew in what posture 
there they sat. 

5 5. This will be all still more clear if we compare it with 
the jHwture of the clergy at celebrating the Eucharist, described 
iu the same Constitutions, and in him that calleth himself 
IWuvaius the Arcopagite, Eccles. Hierarch. cap. 3. x ' O fih> 
tt^x^yv* eV piaip rov Oeiou Owriaarqplov /cafiurraTCU, Trepie- 
yMuat & im>vqi> fiera r&v iepewv, oi r&v Xetrovpy&p eicKpiTOi. 

» N «... \u ^ 57. wi Ooteler. O/ V V {ncoZpritrrfjpts iv ctfiaai 

* N ». *u § \*««*«c«* frfftfpoi'Oi, o$x waiuf>av6u><riy 

^■ivWJp „ . , "Etrrturay, lyyckucrjs *lic6y*s A-y- 

v\ V . V^"<M**" **»«H- S. Gregor. Theologi Opp. torn. ii. p. 

x • % i*tw<»*i 844. ed. Ben. 
Vk r ■ w t*v»*«* *>«**▼« i\<- ■ Tom. i. p. 284. ed. Corder. Ant- 

v y verpi«, 1633. 



"The Bishop staadeth at the midst of the Divine Altar, and CHAP. 

only the chief of the deaeons stand about him with the 1 

priests." ConstiL Apost viiL 12, more in particular; KaX 

Ol Wp€af3vT€pQt, €K Bz^tWV aVTOV teal c£ EUWVVpL(tiV &T1}K€Ttd<iaV, 

ewv av fta&ip-al Trapearmre^ &t.BafTicaktp i hvo Bt htwcovof, c£ 

€KaT€p&V T&V p.€pQ>V TOV 8vCTiaOT7}plQV t KOTe)(€TtiMiaV 4% VfihmP 

\ernwv pnriBtQtt% § Trrepmv Taon'os* '/ o86vt}$j teal rfpifui airo- 
trofSetTQiaav ra pucpa rtav tTrrapivrnv £ttKUJ/, enroj? av p,7j 
iyXptfiirTtiwrai gvs ra KinreXXa. "And let the presbyters 
stand on his right hand and on his left, like scholars that 
stand beside their master; and let two deaeoua on either side 
the Altar, hold fans of thin skins, or peacock's feathers, or 
linen, to drive away the little creatures that fly about, that 
75 they light not iu the cups." The posture of the presbyters on 
each hand [of] the Bishop, and of the two deacons* at the points 
of tlie communion-table* describe th that round whereof we 
speak, in which the Bishop aud presbyters sat with their faces 
to the people— ready to rise and speak to them when time re- 
quired — ready to celebrate the eueharist in the like posture 
behind the eomm union-table ; which therefore seemeth to 
have been the most ancient custom of the Church, as, out of 
Jewell against Harding, is noted in the last chapter of the 
Holy Table b , and is like to have been the original reason of 
all that is observed there of compassing the Altar in the Greek 

§ 6, This is that which Tertullian c calleth Ordinem et Comes- That argu- 
sum Eccksia?, Ignatius d , ovviSptov, "the order, or the bench of * ff J t . c of 
the Church," consisting of the Bishop and his presbyters, in ff£aJ£ 
allusion and correspondence to the commonalties of the Roman On 
empire, governed by their annual magistrates, and a bench of 
their counsellors, called Ordo Reipublicf£* % u the order or the 
bench of such coram on allies." The consideration hereof is 
very forcible to convince common sense of the succession of 
Bishops from the Apost les* as the heads of these presbyteries, 

• The patBtar mentioned in the 
Greek Liturgies is called in the Latin 
Church fl&bcllum, and mmcarium. 
The Benedictines in the Voyage Litte- 
taire, torn. i. p. i, p. 23 l f describe one 
they -saw at Tounms. 

b The lIol> Table, Name and tiling ; 
a wui-k ni* John \\ iliiama, liip^hop ol 

Lincoln, published A.D, 1637. 
c Prim, Govern- ♦ chap, ix, ace' 
4 Ail M^ni.-v cup, vl p, 18, ad Trail. 

cap. iii p. 23. ad Phil. cap. vii. p. 33, ed. 


* See the notes of JusteMus on ilie 

African Canons* p, 437* Ordim 



chap, granting that which men of learning cannot refuse for histo- 

'- — rical truth. It is found in Tertullian's words, de Prescript. 

Hasret. cap. xxxvi. Age jam, qui voles curiositatem melius exercere 76 
in negotio salutis tuce, percurre Ecclesias Apostolicas, apud qua* 
ipsa adhuc cathedra Apostolorum suis locis president, apud quas 
ipsa authentic® littera eorum recitantur, sonantes vocem et rc- 
preesentantes faciem uniuscujusque. "Thou that shalt have a 
mind to exercise thy curiosity better, in the business of thy 
salvation, go to now, run over the Apostolic Churches, in 
which the very chairs of the Apostles govern in their places, 
in which their authentic writings are read, sounding the voice 
and representing the visage of each." He that should have 
denied the books kept and used by those Churches to have 
been the authentics of the Apostles, would have been thought 
to disadvantage the faith. What shall we imagine of him that 
denieth the very chairs, wherein the Apostles sat in the head 
of those Churches, to be possessed by their successors as was 
pretended there, from whence Tertullian argueth ? For when 
he saith that they sounded their voice and represented their 
visage, doth he not affirm that their epistles written to those 
Churches preached in their absence, as themselves did out of 
those chairs in presence ? I have shewed out of the Scriptures, 
that the Apostles exercised the government in chief, of those 
Churches which they had planted presbyteries to govern, as 
occasion required f . The chairs whereof Tertullian speaketh, 77 
were the seats of that government, as well as doctrine, when 
they were there. 
[Compan- § 7. The Apostles had divers companions which were both 
Apostles their disciples in the doctrine, and their coadjutors in the 
Churehe d s.]Work of the Gospel. Of these St Paul speaketh, Phil. iv. 3, 
" with Clement also, and the rest of my work-fellows." These, 
or some of these — which sometimes gave personal attendance 
upon the Apostles, not moving in their office but at their dis- 
posing — became afterwards settled by them upon particular 
Churches, which they found they could not attend so well 
themselves, for the government of those which were converted, 
and the conversion of those which were not. Thus were 
Timotheus and Titus placed over the Churches of Asia and 
Crete, just upon the time when he made account to see them 

f See Primitive Government of Churches, chap. iii. 

no more. Thus was Mark attendant on Peter at writing his cm P. 
first epistle, v. 13, who was afterward, as all agree, seated by — — '- — 
him at Alexandria, and did the office of an evangelist there. 
Clemens and Linus, companions of the Apostles, all antiquity 
agree th, were placed by them over the Church at Rome, 
though in what rank and condition, it agreeth not* The 
words of Theodore t are remarkable, where he answereth the 
question, why Sl Paul wrote epistles to Timotheus and Titus, 
none to Silas or the rest of his fellows: Kcu (fxifieV} qtl toutou? 

7bffp tJS?7 i/c/ckrjalw iyfce^ipt/co^j tow oc ahXovs en e^e ficd' 
eavToQz. " And wc say,'* sakh he, M that he had already put 
C I mrehes in the hands of these, the rest he had with hint." 
What ineaiicili the Apostle's instructions concerning the per- 
petual government of those Churches, if they had nothing to 
do but to plant presbyteries there, and away? St, Paul sendeth 
for Timotheus to Rome, 2 Tim. iv. 9, as for Titus to Nicopolis, 
iii. 12, who was also with him at Home, and went thence to 
Dalrciatia, 2 Tim* iv. 10. But did he mean that his instruc- 
tions should be void thenceforth, or be practised at Ephesus, 
and in Crete aftenvards ? We cannot discredit antiquity that 
maketh them Bishops there, without offering violence to the 
tenor of the Scriptures that enforceth it. But how is Titus 
counted Bishop of a Church, that is instructed to plant prcs- 
byteries through the cities of Crete, L 5 f all under his own 
government and oversight ; or how is Timotheus Bishop of 
one Church of Ephesus, that is instructed (o govern, as well 
as to plant all the presbyteries whereof the Apostle writeth, 
for all those presbyteries import episcopal Churches ? No 
otherwise than the Apostle had his chair in all the Churches 
of his planting, according to Tcrtullian\ 

§ 8. The Apostles could not settle all things in the intended [ B *« 
form at the beginning* So far there is no fault in Epiphanius'' 

7 a words. Not because they knew not what to do, but for rea- 
sons best known to themselves; because perhaps they might 
find it more to the purpose, to put into the hands of their own 
disciples those Churches on which depended the planting and 
government of many more, than to set men untried over the 

* (Ecu men. Coram, in 1 Ep. ad Tim*, 
int p. 20*i, cd. Pari*, IG3L 
^ePriin, Cnwern^chiip, hi. sect, k 

1 II teres, 75 contr. Atrium, en p. J. 
St* Primitive Government, chap, iv» 
sect. IK 

[And suc- 
ceeded the 


presbjteiues of particular Churches. Is St# Mark^ Bishop of 
Alexandria, the less, because he preached the Gospel through 
the country under it, — because he planted the government of 
Churches, perhaps under his own oversight for the time ? Or 
what inconvenience is it, that Sl James, an Apostle, should 
he deputed by consent of the Apostles, to exercise that office 
in the parts of Palestine and Arabia, always with resort to his 
residence at the Mother-Church of Jerusalem? or that he 
should therefore be counted Bishop of it ? In due time, even 
during the age of the Apostles, several Churches had their 
several Bishops, as appeareth by the Angels of the seven 
Churches of Asia, which from the beginning were in the 
compass of Timothy's charge. At first all presbyters were 
Angels of Churches, according to the Apostle, 1 Cor, xi, 10. 
11 For this cause ought a woman to have power upon her head, 
because of the Angels." That seemeth the most natural 
meaning of his words, for Tertullian in divers places of his 
book, De Velandk t'irgmibus\ intimate th one reason of v ailing so 
women's faces in the Church, from the scandal of their eoun- 
te nances. When Bishops came over them, no marvel if they 
alone were called the Angels of those Churches, for it is acknow- 
ledged, that all presbyters are called Bishops under the Apo- 
stles, But when several heads were set over several Churches, 
then heads of presbyteries were only Bishops thenceforth. 

§ 9. Those 1 that would have us take those Angels of 
Churches for the Churches of those Angels, rather than be- 
lieve that epistles concerning those Churches were fit to be 
addressed to their Bishops, might have corrected their mis- 
take out of the Scripture, that saith, Rev, L 20, " The 
seven stars arc the Angels of the seven Churches, and the 
seven candlesticks are the seven Churches/' St, Ambrose, or 
whosoever writ those Commentaries, upon 1 Cor. xii. 2B 9 m 
saith two things t first, the Apostles spoken of there are 

k Capp* iiL viL ix. xiv. 

' M Angel in those epiillcs ii put 

tolti-rtivrht not hulirultiitihj, a.i iip|H-.irs 

by the epistle to Thyafira , « ♦ by Angdl 
is meant not one singular person, hut 
the whole coin puny of presbyters .... 
the very name Angtl is sufficient to 
prove that it is not meant of one person 
alone . . . . . Hie epistles themselves are 
dedicated to all the Angela ami minis* 

ters in every Church, owl to the 

Chtirrh*-5 tHiHUtlvti - , IlOt to 

be understood as tanal of one indivi- 
dual person, but ol the whole eoinpnny 
of min is tor*, and also of thr ulmU 
Church, because that the punishment 
tteoid h to the whole Church," — 
Smeetymnuus* seel, xiii. 

■ S. Ainhroa. Opp„ torn, ii eoL 153, 
eu\ Den, 



Bishops ; to wit, in the then state of the Church : then, hav- chap. 

ing compared the Apostles with prophets* he conclude th, z — 

Et quia ah uno Deo Patre sunt omnia, singuhs Episcopos 
singulis Ecclesiis pr&esse decrevit : " And because all things 
are from one Father, God, therefore He decreed that several 
Bishops should be over several Churches." In these two 
particulars be speaketh my whole meaning : the Apostles 

si were Bishops, but not several ones of several Churches : but 
as there is one God over all, so He decreed, saith he, that 
afterwards several Bishops should be over several Churches, 
In the mean time, the rights reserved to great Churches over 
the less, which now we see* derived with so much learning 
from the times of the Apostles, is the print which remaineth 
of that government and oversight of them, which at the first 
rested in those great Churches, from which they were propa- 
ted by the Apostles or by their companions* VValo Messa- 
us D standeth stiff upon St Hierome's opinion, that there 
ere no Bishops till they were appointed by the Church to 
extinguish the schisms of presbyteries. But Text Lillian's 
words enforce more, that the Bishops of his time sat in those 
chairs which the Apostles possessed for theirs p . And afore, 
cap* xxxii. Sicut Smymmorum Ecchsia habeas Potycarpum ab 
Joanne cmdocatum referL " As the Church at Smyrna rclateth 
that John placed Poly carpus, 1 * or installed him ; to wit, iu the 
Bishop's chair there. He thinketh that all this importeth, 
that Polycarpus took place of the rest of the presbyters, and 
no more. But indifferent reason will require him to grant 
no more superiority of Bishops than the chair of the Apostles 
importeth* However St. Hierome reconcile his opinion with 

82 his own words concerning the presbyters of Alexandria, that 
from Sl Mark's time were wont to take one of their number 
and place him on a higher step, and call him Bishop of Alex- 
andria 1 !: common sense will enforce the high rank in which 

• Sec Archbishop Utsher'* u Origi* 
not «/ Bishops and M?tropotitatM t ,t 
among the "Certain brief treatises con- 
cern hitf l lie ancient and modem j*o- 
vcrninent oftbt Church." Oxford. 1 S 1 1 . 

* Nob ex Hierunymo „ . . . . . . tm 

bite certo tenenda if pro tlefimtb ha* 
UtuIa coJliglmui. Primum, AnoMoln- 
rum state nullum omnino disennun. 
nor* ordinis. non gradua, non potitfl 

tin, nitft honoris, prvsbyttTUK utter et 
Episcopoi intcrecsFisse, sed unuin etm- 
demque re et nomine fuisse Episco- 
pum ac presbyterum.— Wulon. Me«- 
talln. (Salmasius) de Episeopis et pres- 
uyuris, cap, ii. p. 131, 132. Lugdun. 
Batav. 16*1. 

f Dc l' rescript, adv. Hie ret. cap. 3fi. 
Sii =vrt Ci. 

i Prim. Govern., chap, vi, Beet, 2, 


C H a l*. he sat to import the superiority and eminence of his office, 

: — even during the Apostles' time. 

>es § 10. The consideration of this order, or this bencli of the 

to Biihopi Church, shall give me further occasion to resume and aver 

bytoE?" * wo particulars of good consequence in this business. The 
first, the extent of the office common to the Bishop and pre§- 
bjtan; as for preaching and celebrating the sacraments, so 
for the oversight and government of the Church, in those 
spiritual matters wherein, as members of the Church, men 
communicate, expressed in all places of the Scripture wherein 
there is any remembrance of their charge. Surveying those 
passages of the Acts and Epistles of the Apostles in which 
the office of presbyters is remembered, we find it every where 
described as well by the oversight, or government, or can. , 
whatsoever you please to call it, of the Church in spiritual 
mutters* as by the charge of teaching the people. Both parts 
ascribed to them that bear the rank and style of presbyters. 
Acts xx, 28 ; 1 Pet. v. 2 ; I Tim. iiL 2, 5 ; Titus L 7, 9; 
1 Them v> 12. True it Ls that the Church is of itself a 
mere spiritual commonwealth, not endued with any tempi : 
power to enforce, by way of constraint, the effect of those 
ministries which they stand trusted with. Before the tem- 
poral powers of the world were converted to the faith, they 
came to effect by the voluntary consent of Christians: the 
same good will that moved them to become such was enough 
to prevail with them to yield effect to those ministries which 
Got! had provided for the maintenance and propagation of it*. 
It seemeth that the ground of the present separation is de- 
rived from hence*; that hereupon ordinations and censures 

f See chop. 3tviiL of the Epilogue, 
bcxile i. 

1 u Be it here tpeeially noted, Ihatr*- 

epmmHNictUhft, aod the absolution or re- 

tkrfion of die excommunicate, are 

aeiiom CQtnmoti to the tvttofe Church, and 

Hot of any private person ur persons. 

For howsoever the Udrrs are 

to administer these ordinances, p$i the 

trt/nii' t lunch mutt gh* their run* f tit 

freeiy hereto. /« Ihr jpoittri* titnr ami 

. titt tht t/rttr 250, S86Fp IMN that 

tew* ■ tfc* ( "hturh had io the 

Church bis voice in acekaiftatica] rautex 
and dttrriHittati&n* qfthf CWc4 Christ 

doth not itjj whru than h eante of 

accusing or censuring any. * Icll the 
Bishop/ but ' tell the Church ; 4 and ac- 
cordingly in tin; times of tht: Apostle*, 
nnd long after, as the epistles of < y- 
prian do manifest, they were judged by 
the word io an assembly of presbyters 
and brethren, as the incestuous Corin- 
thian, which shews us that neither one 
man, nor the presbyters alone, were 
judges in such causes, hut the Church, 
which by Scripture's, cither cleared or 
censured any person accused, as by the 
word of God he appeared, either guilty 
or not guilty."— A Necessity of Separa- 
tion, by John Can tie, chap, iiL *cct. * 
pp. 13*. 135. A,l). 1 1 



are to pass by voices of the congregation according to the CHAP, 

Scriptures, And true it is ? that in the primitive Church, — 

according to the practice of the Apostles* times, these matters 
passed at their religious assemblies under the sight and con- 
science, as St Cyprian speaketh 1 ; that is, under the notice 
of the people. Ordinations were allowed by them, as not 
having to except against the persons : reproofs and censures 
were their reproofs and censures; for they reproved, and cast 
out those whom the ecclesiastical order sentenced to it. 
2 Cor. ii. 6* s w Sufficient to such an one is the rebuke by the 
many," The congregation must needs rebuke him whom 
they put from their body to give effect to the Apostle's sen- 
84 tence, 1 Cor. v. 4, 5* To shew us the meaning and extent of 
his words there, ven 12, "For what have 1 to do to judge 
those that are without ? do not ye judge those that are 
within ?" The Apostle censurctb* and the people censurcth. 
The difference of their right and charge is in the third verse 
expressed in the case, u I truly have judged or determined 
already, that he be delivered to Satan at one of your assem- 
blies," that is, solemnly put from the body of Christians. In 
regard of the faction then on foot among the presbyters, 
as hath been shewed elsewhere % it appearcth that the person 
in fault was borne out by a side of the people ; especially if 
we believe St. Chrysostom* that he was one of the pastors. 

5 11. The Apostles were so charitable to expect the people's And the 

1- 1 II ''til 

consent in ordinations and censures, that tney meant not to of thou 
betray their own right with God's cause. Judge whether he {^"'/J 16 
proceedeth upon voices that enchargeth them to execute his 
sentence, and yet he saith, "1 condemn and you condemn'*" 
But how shall the government of the Church in general 
belong to the ecclesiastical order, if the particulars of it be in 
the hands of the people ? 1 Pet, v. 2* 3, tt Feed the flock of 
God, overseeing, not upon constraint, but willingly ; not as 

* See Prim, Govern^, chap, xii, seel, 2. 

a Prim, Gov cm, t chap. vL 3. 

1 Pmftt iu 1 Corinth, torn* iii, p. 
2K ed. SaviL 

y "We on the contrary affirm, that 
kmntk . . . reproveth the Church 
of Corinth . , . for sutler inj*, as they tUd t 
thai wicked man, uncaift out, and that 
he now wills them to discharge 
duly when in ttuy had formerly failed, 

in excommunicating him, to wh'uh hr 
foff hi* consent. „*..,*..,. 
and it is most untruly arid uncomehm- 
ably u (finned . ♦ * ♦ » that all that can 
be gathered From thift pi nee is, that llie 
res are tu he executed with the 
public knowledge of them that are ga- 
thered together/* — Robinson' h Justin- 
cation of Separation from the Church of 
England, pp. VJii, 1H7. AJ) I 



CHAP, lording it over the heritage, but as ensumples to the flock." 
— — : — I Thess. v. 12 t " Know tliein which labour among you, and 
are over you in the Lord." Titus L 7, W A Bishop must be 85 
blameless , as the steward of God :" endued with those quali- 
ties that follow, not concerning preaching, but government. 
The tike* 1 Tim* iii, % 4, and ver, 5, i4 If a man know not 
huw to rule his own house, how shall he take care of die 
Church of God?" Rom. xil 8, "He that ruleth with dili- 
gence," Hcb. xiii. 1 7, " Obey them that have the rule over 
you," or guide you. Is all this obedience no more than to 
give them the hearing when they preach ? Who shall be left 
to yield obedience according to this general charge* if the 
particulars of it, ordinations and censures, belong as well to 
the people 1 ? Of the right of the ecclesiastical order in these 
particulars, enough hath been said. And the primitive prac- 
tice of them in the Church is enough to interpret the mean- 
ing of those Scriptures, to the common sense of men that 
will use it. Tertullian, ApofogeL cap. xxxix., speaking of 
their assemblies; Ibidem vliam exhor tat times , casti)jationes s et 

eensura divina Ptwsidcnt prohuti qui que Seniores. 

He telle th us that exhortations, reproofs, and spiritual cen- 
sures passed at their assemblies, but under the presidence of 
their presbyters* Finnitiani, Epist Ixxw ad Cypr. ; Omnis 
potestas et gratia in IZcclesia constituta sit^ ubi president majo- 
jfS tiatU) qui et bapttzandi^ et manitm imponendi, et ordinandi 
pvssident potestatem ! " All power and favour is seated in the 
Church ; in which the presbyters are presidents 3 which have &6 
power both to baptize, to impose bands" in penance, lf and 
to ordain," All my meaning is contained in these words. 

■ **Eut by whom was this imposition 
oF hands lined nl the eh nice of minis- 
feeft! t answer, by those who gave 
their suffrages or votes to the election ; 
and those were tometime the congre- 
gation itself, and ■omtthxM otfari at 
their request joining with them, as we 
read Acts vi. o. 6," — Christ on His 
Throne, case xt. p. 6&. A.D. Iti+O* 

" We deny not thm, bnt the floek 
both severally and jointly U to obey 
them that have the oversight uf them, 
Jleb. jciii. ]? ♦ to know them and to 
have them in *inp;ubir love, 1 Tl- 
12* 15 j hut it must be in the Lord . . 
, ... but what now if the officers will 

reign besides the Lord ? .... most 
iln-y still obey tlum ? Of hath the 

('hnron no remedy? If the 

congregation may choose and elect 
their govern ors, thru they may reject 
and reprobate them, .,.*,,. They 
arc therefore to Ih? rust out by tlie peo- 
ple* ..,,,♦, They that are without 
. . . * ate exempted from the Church' a 
nwnti, but they which are within 
the Church must Judge, jmd therefore 
if the tDixtfetm In. within .... ilu-v 
undergo the jutt^iutiLls 6f tbe 
ChurcV i* e. the multitude, — Robin- 
ton's JiiNtifkatiuu, pp. 17o\ 177. 



§ 12. Some of Sl Cyprian's presbyters made a side of the 
people to admit the lapsed to communicate without penance, 
upon petition of the imprisoned towards martyrdom- St 
( vprian neither neglecteth the danger of schism nor sitteth 
down to tell voices, which, if that were the right, in con- 
science must carry it ; but caste th about, with authority, to 
reduce the people and their leaders to acknowledge them- 
selves* He compkineth that the people was debauched by 
some of his clergy, that ought to have kept them in discipline, 
and instructed them to desire no man's reconcilement before 
penance. Lib. in, Ep. 14, 16.* He writeih to those of the 
clergy that they shall give account of what they did to him 
and the clergy, to the confessors, and to the people. Ep. 14. 
To the people he write th to advise and rule those that were 
so irregular in their demands. Ep. 16. But he rcsolveth, as 
a cause that concerned the rest of the Church, not to proceed 
without the advice of his fellow Bishops : Pnesente et stmi- 
tium plebe, quibus et ipsh pro Jide et timore sua honor kabendus 
est Ep. 18, b "In presence of those of the people that fell 
not, to whom respect was to be had, for the faith and fear 
87 they had shewn." He yieldeth respect unto his people to 
encourage their obedience : but in whom the keys of the 
Church rested he sheweth, Ep. 1G. C Cum in minorihm delictis^ 
qum non in Dominum committttntur, pamitentia agatur justo 
tempore^ et ezomoloije&isjiaty impectd vitd ejus qui apt pomiien- 
tffim, nee ad commitnicationem venire qui* possit f nisi prtus illi €tb 
Episcopo et clero manmfuerit imposita. n Seeing in less faults 
that are not done against God men do penance their due 
time, and come to confession upon consideration of the life of 
him that doth penance, and no man can come to communi- 
cate unless first hands be laid on him by the Bishop and 

§ 13. Shew me any share of the people in determining the 
measure of penance, or in releasing the persons, and let it be 
believed that the keys of God's house belong to the people. 
The words of Sl Augustine., emiim Epiit Panmn* iii. 2. d Tunc 
ettam itte et timore prrcutitur, et pudore sanatur s cum ab universa 

* Kp. xvi. xviL cd. Oxon. The re- * Ep, xvn. p. 30. ed. Oxon, 

ferencr in tbe text is to the edition of d S« Aug. Opp*, torn, tit. col. GV. 

Erasmus. ed. Ben, 

p Ep. xix. p, 4-2. ed. Oxon, 






Eccksta $c anathematizatiim vidms, nociam turham cum qua in 

delicto mo ffamlcai^ et bonis mttdttt, turn potent inoenirt. " Then 
also is he both struck With fear, and healed with shame, when 
seeing himself anathematized by the whole congregation, he 
can find no rout to bear him company, wherewith to esnlt in 
his fault, and insult over the good/ 1 Shall I believe that in 
St Augustine's time the sentence of anathema came from the 
congregation, which Tcrtullian so long before hath appro- 
priated to the ecclesiastical order, when he saith, De PttJiritia, 
cap. xiv. Hoc enim non a Duo post uta ret ut\ quod erat in prm 
tis officio. u For that would not be desired of God which was 
part of the president's office"— speaking of delivering to 
Satan the incestuous person at Corinth, Yet nevertheless 
St. Augustine saith that a man is anathematized by the whole 
congregation* in regard of the execution and effect which the 
sentence of the Bishop, or ecclesiastical order, then found by 
consent of the people when the law enforced it not, which is 
the very case of the Apostle alleged before*.* And this is 
their interest in the government of the Church. For they 
that give them right of deciding controversies, because they 
are mentioned in the council at Jerusalem, Acts zv, 12, 22* 
23 f , may please to consider St. Cyprian's order, which allow- 
eth their presence for their satisfaction, not their voices to 
decide*. As they are present at councils, but not called to give 
sentence. But since kingdoms and commonwealths are become 
Christian, the laws of those kingdoms and commonwealths, 

a Chap. iiL sect. 4. 

' "The brethren in the coun- 
cil at Jerusalem were not shut out 
while the Apostles and elders came to- 
gether to consider of a grtrit controversy 
in dirrnitt^ utid iu waking t fit if decrees ; 
but when they were sent forth they 
passed under their own name and the 
name of the brethren also, Acta xt, 6, 
22, 23, + , . » This monopoly was not 
tli en learned among God** people, nor 
among: the holy Apostles in their days.'* 
— A Short View of the Prelatical 
Church of England, p. 4 A-D. 164L 

11 By *the whole Church* (in Acts 
xy. 22} either the whole company of 
elders, or the chief of the people, if not 
the whole Christian congregation pre- 
sent at Jerusalem, is understood ; the 
former cannot be. . , . . . It follows 
then that by * the whole Church* others 

he meant besides Bishops and elders. 
It matters not much whether they he 
called lay-presbyters or not, as long as 
the thing intended is granted, viz. that 
the laic congregation may meddle m 
Church affairs, and give counsel and 
assistance to the pastors, and he, as 
well as they, arbiters and censurer* of 
errors and disorders/*— An A ni ' - iv mnn - 
*t ranee to the late Humble Remon- 
strance, 2nd ed. p. 10. A.D. 1041. See 
alio Robinson's Justification of Sepa- 
ration from (be Church of England, 
p. tee. A,h. 1839. 

* Collation* eunsiKorum cum Epis- 
copis, presbyteris, din con is omtJftmnTi 
bus pariter ac stantibus iatcis facia, lap- 
sorum tractare rat ion em. — S, Cyprian. 
Ep. xxx_ p, 59. ed. Oxon. See Fame- 
Hits' note on the place. 



fisas they enforce the ministers of the Church to execute their 
office according to such rules as they enforce, so they constrain 
the people to yield outward effect to the same* The good 
order and peace of the Church cannot be preserved otherwise* 
§ 14. All this while the office of ministers continueth the 
same. No part of it accructh to the secular powers* By 
becoming Christians they purchase themselves no more right, 
than the charge uf maintaining the ministers of the Church 
in doing their office contained]. Only, as all Christians have 
the judgment of particular discretion to discharge unto God, 
even in matters of religion, the account of what themselves 
do; so is this judgment of particular discretion by public per- 
sons, but most by the Sovereign* of right employed in all that 
iu which they lend or refuse their assistance to the ministers 
of the Church in their office, always under the account due to 
God and to the Sovereign. What is then the meaning of 
that which we read in these days, that all jurisdiction of the 
Church, exercised by the ministers of it, even that of excom- 
m unseating — call it jurisdiction for the present, though the 
term be proper where there is power to constrain — is inherent 
and derived in and from the commonwealth, that is, in our 
particular from the Crown of this kingdom 11 ? From whence 

* u But what is this, T a*k, to our that not only bishoprics, but Bishops, 
Bishops who profess — notwithstanding 
the apostolical* that \% the divine righl 



tion of the 
not from 
the state.] 

of their calling — to hold the place* and 
frtrci-fe of their itirisdictiim wholly from 
his Majesty." — Bishop Hull's Answer 
to the Vindication, para^r* iv. p. 1*2. 

11 Whatsoever may be said of the 
function of Hishops it is one thing; 
but for their jurisdiction it is merely 
htiTttanti imtitttifam\ and they must 
thank the king for it" — Mr* Grim* 
slon'? 5 Speech in the Hi^h Court of 
Parliament, p. 'J. London, H>M. 

Tli*? Hi shop* were said by the Puri- 
tans to have M usurped upon his Ma- 
jesty's prerogative royal t and to have 
proceeded in the high commission and 
other ecclesiastical courts contrary to 
the law* and fttaUitei* of the realm." — 
Wilkin*, Concil., torn. iv, p. &H The 
twelve judges however decided in favour 
of the BifbtipCf — that their jurisdiction 
was not restrained by the statute i Edw. 
Vf. cap. 2, which derived it from the 
lung. Bishop Hall instead of denying 
the proposition of Smeclymnuua, sevt- 
ativ., "The laws of the land proclaim 

and all the jurisdiction they have* is 
from the king," admitted and defended 
it. Archbishop Laud in the Star 
Chamber, June 14, 107, eaya, "that 
though our oificc he from God and 
Christ immediately, yet we cannot ex- 
ercise our office of order or jurisdiction 
In it as Gad hath appointed «*, that IS, 
nut in m's Majesty's or any Christian 
king's kingdoms, but by and under 
the power of the king given us so to 
do." The Archbishop's words, how- 
ever, relate to a matter of fact — as to 
the then exercise of the episcopal juris- 
diction — aud not to the principle of the 
puritanical object^ >n : " Suppose our 
calling," sajth he, "as Bishops, could 
not be made good jure iffriwij yet jure 
eerie si mi tea it cannot be denied 
we Maud in as good condition as the 
laws of England can make us + , . . 
supposing we had no other argument 
luii this, I say stipptur this* hnt f grant 
it not.** — See Huntley** *' Breviate of 
the PrelatM' Intolerable Usurpations,'* 
for the legal argument on the puritan 


CHAP- it will follow by just and due consequence, that the office 89 



ami JlXrJ*- 


charged upon the ministers of the Church by the Scriptures 
cannot be executed by them of right, so long as kingdoms 
and commonwealths are enemies of the faith. So that what- 
soever the Church did under the empire, before it was con- 
verted to the faith, was an attempt upon the laws of it: and 
the Church must of necessity die, and come to nothing, for 
want of right to execute and propagate the ministries which 
it standeth encharged with by the Scripture. 

§ 15* The canonists have done well to distinguish between 
order and jurisdiction in the ministries of the Church, pro- 
vided that the ground be right understood upon which these 
terms are distinguishable according to the Scriptures. That 
will point the effect of it to a far other purpose : but we must 
not be beholden to the canonists for it, being indeed this. 
Because he that receiveth the order of presbyter in the Church, 
for example* is not of necessity by the same act deputed to 
the exercise of all that his order importcth and enable th to 
exercise, without receiving the order anew j I say, by the 
Scriptures he is not confined, when he receiveth the order, 
when, where, how, what part of those things he shall exercise 
which the order enable th to do, True it is, when the canon 1 
that prohibited ordinations without title of office was in force, 
to the true purpose of it, by receiving the order a man was 
deputed to the service of the Church in which he received it, 
as a Bishop is now when first he is ordained, And * the 
nearer the course of law cometh to this canon, the better I 
conceive it is in that regard. But as this deputation was 
alterable, so was the execution of it of necessity limitahle, in 
them that received it. What law of God, what command of 
Scripture, what rule or practice of the whole Church is there, 
to hinder him that is deputed to one service to undertake 
another for the good of the Church? or to enable all that 
have received the order of presbyter, for example, indiffe- 
rently to exercise the power of the keys, and of ordaining, so 
far as it belongeth to that order of right ? much less to exer- 
cise it according to their own sense, and not according to 
rules prescribed by the Church* Therefore, when the order 


1 Cone. Chalcedon. A.D. 451, Can. 
yu Labbei, torn, \v. col. )08*> ed, Vend 

See Prim, Govern., chap, xii. sect. Z, 



in given s if you please to call the right and charge of exer- chap. 

rising that which it importeth in such time, and place, : — 

and sort, as he that rcceivcth it is, or may be deputed to do, 
without receiving the order anew, the power of jurisdiction : 
this power of jurisdiction may be given or limited by other 
acts besides, though habitually, and afar off it be contained in 
the order of presbyters* and exercised without receiving the 

91 order anew, so soon as a man is deputed to the exercise of it. 
If further the question be made, from whom this power of 
jurisdiction, — that is, the right of exercising that which the 
order thus enable th to do — is derived, and in whom the power 
of jurisdiction — that is, the right of giving this right restdeth — 
which the canonists derive from the Pope upon the whole 
Church ;■ — the answer is plain, that it must rest in them and 
be derived from them upon whom the government of par- 
ticular Churches, and that which falleth under them, is estated 
according to the Scriptures ; inasmuch as no law of God 
enforceth the rest of Churches to be governed by one, further 
than the law of charity enforceth all to concur to the unity of 
the whole* The dependence, indeed* of particular congrega- 
tions upon episcopal Churches \ is clearly derived from the 
institution of the Apostles related in the Scriptures, as must 
be observed afterwards; but it must also be said that the 
dependence of episcopal Churches is from human right k . 

§ 16. In the outward jurisdiction of the Church in charita- 
ble causes, settled here upon Bishoprics, the matter is some- 
what otherwise, inasmuch as it is not so settled by express 
provision of Scripture, And yet not so strange from the 
Scripture, and that winch is provided there, but that it may 
seem originally to have been derived from thence. The Apo- 
stle, 1 Cor. vl, reproving them for impleading one another in 
the courts of unbelievers* sheweth that the Church was dispa- 
raged in that course, as if it had none fit to decide their con- 
troversies : whereas it had been better to refer their causes to 

92 the ii lean est of the Church, than to sue before infidels. That 
is the meaning of bis words there, ver. 4, * f If ye have causes 
concerning matters of this life, set them to judge who are 

i Episcopal Churches, i. e* those 
it here the Bishop ha» bis thruuv. 
k Upnit others, as ihu Cathedrals 

within a province up hi the Metropoli- 
tan CLiurcb. 





least esteemed in the Church :" not spoken by way of pre- 
cept, commanding them to let the simplest of the brethren 
judge their causes* — that were a strange course where there 
were abler men to do it* — but by way of concession, that it 
were better so to do than as they did do. For the practice of 
the Church argue th that the custom grew, upon this order of 
the Apostle, to refer their causes to the chief of the Church 
as the Church, that is, to the Bishop and presbyters. In the 
Constitutions of the Apostles, ii.47, Ta BtKatmipta vp&v ya4- 
<xQm hemipa aafijBaTWv, owws iap ain-iXoyla tjJ jhrofyaaei 
vfjLWV yewjrat) Sus ffafifidrov expires afieww'* Bvvrj&i}T€ tv&vvai 
rf}v amtXoyiavy teal eipfjvev&at fig ti)v KupLaxfyit rows &ta<f>€po- 
pivQW} wpos aKkrfkovr o r vp,7rap€tJTQ}^au S£ t&j Buecurrripttd teal 
ol htdfcovm teal ol Trpeafivrepoi, aTrpoaGrTroXrjin-Q}? tcptpovre^ <w 
&eov av0pmrot. "Let your consistories be upon the Mon- 
days* that if there arise opposition to your sentence, having 
leisure till the Sabbath, you may set the opposition straight* 
and make them friends that are at variance among themselves, 
against the Lord's day. And let the deacons also and presby- 
ters be present at the consistory, judging without respect of 
persons* as men of God." Cap. 45 afore* *A\\a pip ^M 
av&%€(7$€ KQa-jjUKoite apxpvras Kara twp vp.eripoiv hmd^uv, 
" But suffer not the magistrates of the world to give sentence 
on yours." Not withdrawing obedience from the secular 93 
powers — he should he much mistaken that should so under- 
stand it — but taking up controversies within the Church after 
this course. And all to this purpose, that on the Lord's day 
they might communicate^— that they might give and receive 
the kiss of peace— that when the deacon pronounced, MjJ tk 
rl Kara tipos, fiij ti<? eV v7rovoia\ ** let no man have a quarrel 
or suspicion against any*" they might nevertheless draw near. 
§ 17, Such was the beginning of the external jurisdiction 
of the Church* by which it may be judged whether it were 
first bestowed by the indulgence of Christian princes, or by 
them continued, upon the practice of the Church before the 
empire was Christian. But of this we speak not here, as not 
concerning the government of the Church in spiritual mat- 
ters, wherein* as members of the Church, we communicate. 

* Apoatol. Con&tit viii. 12. p$ rts possible that Thorndike may have 
itari riroj. p4 Tit i» thnueplm* It ia quoted from memory. 



That standeth indeed, and cometh to effect* by the free con- 
sent of members of it, so far as religion is not the law of that 
kingdom or commonwealth in which it flourisheth. Because our 
Lord endued not the ministers of His kingdom with that power 
to constrain obedience which Himself used not upon earth. 
But as the laws of kingdoms and commonwealths enforce the 
execution and outward effect of ministries instituted in the 

94 Scriptures; in this respect, not the power of excommunicating 
alone, — but of preaching, and ministering the Sacraments, and 
whatsoever else helongcth to the office, — is derived from the 
commonwealth, that is, in our particular, from the imperial 
crown of this kingdom, because it is exercised with effect 
outwardly — that is, of doing the work, though not of produc- 
ing the inward end and purpose of converting the soul — by 
laws enforced by it. 

§ 18, The like is to be said of all that is done in deputing 
those that receive any order in the Church, to the exercise of 
any part of that function which the order received imported]. 
The right and charge of it must rest upon those ministries 
that are encharged with the oversight and government of 
such matters, according to the Scriptures, and by whom it 
must be exercised, were the commonwealth not Christian, 
But the power that enforccth the effect of that which they do 
in this and all parts of their office, is derived from the secular 
arm of the commonwealth, that cherisheth the Church in the 
bosom of it. As far excommunication by judges delegate, or 
high-commissioners, that is, by men not of these orders ; first, 
it proeeedeth upon rules directed by the Church, and then 
the course of it is not so agreeable to the tenor of Scripture 
as to the necessities of the kingdom. For that is here to be 

95 averred again, that the presbyteries whereof we speak arc dif- 
ferenced from the rest of the people, as benches composed of 
none but persons ordained by imposition of hands for the 
purpose of teaching the people, and ordering and governing 
spiritual matters, So you have the office described in all 
places where there is remembrance of it in the Scriptures. 
Only in the words of the Apostle, 1 Tim. v, 1 7, ( * Let the 
elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour i 
especially those that labour in the word and doctrine," it is 
imagined that two kinds of presbyters, as well as two parts of 

m 2 




The elder* 
of the peo- 
ple in Hie 
were not 
of this, 

their office, are expressed, one of ministers of the Church, 
another of the people ; one perpetual, the other ambulatory 
for their time, both alike interested in the government of the 
Church, the office of preaching charged upon the one. How 
little of this is set down in the words of the Apostle, were the 
sense of them that which is pretended, let all the world 
judge : jet this is the state of that discipline which hath been 
pressed as one of the essential marks of a visible Church ru . 

§ 19, But the purpose is now to satisfy that which hath 
beet; alleged, from the collections of Justcllus upon the Afri- 
can canons* to make good this pretended meaning of the 
Apostle, and that from the Apostle's own words. He hath 
there produced, out of Church- writers of the age of St Au- 
gustine and Optatus* or underneath, much remembrance of 95 
certain persons, styled in those writers, Seniores J£ccle$iamm 9 
"Elders of Churches." As in Actis Purgationis Cteciliani et 
Felicis": Ckrioi et seniores Cirthendum* In St* Augustine 
Contr. Crescon* iii. 06 °, Percy r inns pre shifter et $e7iiore$ Ecde- 
si(E MtistitanfS regioms ; and Ep. 1 37 p , Clero senioribus et uni- 
verstE plebi EeeJesue fiippanensis* And to these persons are 
ascribed certain acts pertaining at least to the government of 
those Churches* As, **lhe Church goods are deposited in 
their hands," Optatus, lib. i.M w They reprove a drunkard-" 
August Serm. xix< De verbis Domini p * " They are present 
at an ecclesiastical judgment," Greg, L xiii. Ep. 44,* " The 
elders of the Church at Carthage solicit the sentencing of 
their Bishops' cause/' Epist Concil. Cabarsussitani apud Au- 
gust, in Psalm, xxxvi. 20.* These and more particulars pro- 
duced by Justcllus \ Out of Origan, iii. 51, Contr. Cehum\ 

■ See "A Full and Plain Declara- 
tion of Ecclesiastical Discipline/' re- 
printed i"innu 1617: originally writ- 
tun in Latin by W, Travers, and 
prntcd, Riipclln?, 1574* 

* Ad talc. S. Optati Opp, r p. 160* 
ed, Daphx Antvcrp. 17<i*2. 

u Tom. bt. col* *liu\ ed, Ren* 
p Tom, EL col. 182, ed. Ben, 
H De Schism. DonaL, lib. L capp. 

xv ii. xvliL pp, 17, 18. ed. Dupin, 
r Vid. S. Aug, Opp. Append, torn. v, 

col* 14D. cd, Ben. The sermon is none 

of St, Augustine' p. 

* Hegist Epp. torn. ii. col, l'2t!>, 
1*250, ed, Bon. 

* Tom, iv. col. 277. ed. Ben* 
u Ui hi loth. Jur. Canon let Veter, p. 

i-;s. ed. Paris, lo6L 

* Hap* oh flirt Ttvts rtray^vai »pSf 

&7<tf7dr rorv Tpoai&vrmy. — Origen, torn. 
). p. 4H I - ed, Ben. This passage was pro- 
dated by Since tynimiu^ upon which 
Bp. Hall observes u Your testimony 
from Origen cannot but shame you, if 
yet you can blush : you feared to dte 
the chapter, that in so long a- book you 
might not be discovered.'*- — Defence of 
the Humble Remons trance, sett, xv, p, 



that the Church had certain of the people to inform them of c H A ] 

scandalous offences, whereupon they might proceed to reproof — 

or censure. But observe first the style of the Apostle, 01 
tcak&s wpo£OTMT€$ 7rp€ffj3vT€pot> 1 Tim, v. 17 j and Hebi atiiL 
17, 01 Tjyovfiemt, agreeing with that of Tertullian, Apolog* cap, 
xxxix., Pnr sklent prohati qnhpte seniores; and of Fimiilianus, 
Epi Ixxv* ad Cypr., Ubi pr&sident maj&res natu ; and Ignatius 
afore % HpOKaBiffiepov rov £*irtfTKQirov . * ♦ . xai tgji> wpetrftvri- 

c r ; pwv. All expressing the first rank of the Church, in which, 
after the Bishop, they put the presbyters* 

§ 20. Compare herewith the rank in which we see these elders 
of the people in the time of Optatus and St. Augustine placed 
in these writings from whence the remembrance of them is 
alleged. In Actis Purgat, Cieeik et Felicia., Episeopi, presby- 
teri, diacones, sen tores, August. Cantr. Crese, iii, 56, Presbyter 
et senior es Eeelesm f and then let common sense judge whether 
these, that stand in rank and style behind all degrees of the 
clergy, he the men that the Apostle placeth in the head of 
the Church, as rulers of it : or how those that governed the 
Church can come behind deacons, and inferior ranks whom 
they governed. The truth is, in that age, when the Latin 
tongue began to decay and corrupt, they are called seniores — 
in the authors alleged by Justellus — in the same sense as 
now in the vulgar languages, into which the Latin is changed, 
signori or seigneurs, And therefore there is remembrance of 
seniores loeorum 3 et seniores regni Childeberti> out of Gregory 
of Tours", as well as seniores Eeelesim: signifying the "alder- 
men of commonalties," and " lords of the kingdom," as well 
as the chief persons of such or such a people, that acknow- 
ledged the Christian faith, at such time as all were not 

98 Christians, but Churches and commonalties in which they 
subsisted, made bodies distinct in persons as well as in rights* 
In that regard it seemeth they are called sometimes Viri 
ecclesiastici\ " ecclesiastical persons," that is, belonging to the 
Church, because there were others of like rank, which, being 
heathen, belonged not to it, rather than for any settled charge, 
in these offices, which we find them executing in behalf of 

* Sect, +, 

* Seniores loci,— lib. viii< tap. ;il. ool 
"iimibuH senior! bus in regno CluU 

deberti regis.— Hb, viL cnp t S3, col 358* 

■ Act. PurgaL C»ci1. p. tfP* a<1 
calc* S + O plait eA. D tip in* Antverp. 




the Church; — which nevertheless import not the government 
of the Church, settled upon the Bishop and presbyters, but 
that assistance which the best of the people* in commonalties 
where the Church was planted, vouchsafed to afford the go- 
vernment managed by the ministers according to Scripture ; — 
and have well been understood, as a good and ancient prece- 
dent of the office of churchwardens among us b , 
what is § 21. There is jet another peremptory exception against 

honour of 2 tn ^ s pretended meaning of the Apostle, published of late in 
F«*frg«j the observation of Scultetus r , which shall here be repeated to 
aver the truth of it- For when he saith, ** Let the elders that 
rule well be accounted worthy of double honour," the mean- 
ing is* for certain, of double maintenance, which must be in 
respect of single maintenance allowed somewhere else- Now 
let any man judge without prejudice, whether these elders 
of congregations, remembered in St- Augustine's time, being 99 
none of the clergy, received maintenance from the Church, 
out of the oblations of the people, or not Whereas the 
Apostle in the beginning of the chapter having said, " Honour 
widows that are widows indeed," that is, allow them mainten- 
ance from the means of the Church, which the Bishop always 
dispensed j when he cometh to speak of elders unre provable 
in their charge, fitly orderetb that their maintenance be 
double to that of widows, which is also the Italian gloss of 
Diodati d . 

§ 22* The like practice we find in the Constitutions of the 
Apostles, where he orderetb the course of dividing portions, 
at the agnpa? or feasts of love then used, abrogated after- 
wards by the twenty-eighth canon of Laodicean The words 
are in the place alleged afore, ii. 28, "O&qp Be €tca<rr$ rwv 

h II mill ttem to UN, qui hodic apud 
no* templorum vel ecclesiarum gardiani 
vulgo vocitantur. — Casaubon. not. in 
s < >ptaL lib. i. p, 226, London, 1631, 
So also Sara via, de divers, grad, Mi- 
mat cap. xil p. 13. London, IH1S. 
Tborndike gives the following expla- 
nation of these Seniores t " Cum an tern, 
ex institute Apostolorum in Eeclesia? 
couveutihiiA expediebantur, quie ad 
Ecrlesiffi statu m pertinercut ;,..,. 
cum, multipUcatiH poKtniodum ccetibua 
Ecclesiaruut, et cans is proinde ecele- 
siasttcis tractari omnei sub populi tu- 
sistrnti* conseitntia no-n po&*<?ut, insti- 

1 1] turn eat, quibuadam in partibus Ec- 
elcsia?, ut prim&res ptebi* cjua nomine 
agerent qua? ad plebem ox more perti- 
nere viderentur,'* &c« — De Ration, ct 
jure fin. ConlToversias, cap. xviii* p. 
338, London, 1670, 

c Subjoined to the " Defence of the 
Humble Itemonstrance," London, 1 64 1 . 

A Supra quello die si dea reside re ad 
altre person e, che ne sou depie nella 
chk-aa, quali erano lesante vedove, 

vers, 17 # 

e Circ. A.D. 364. Lftbbei, torn. L coL 
1*311. cd. Venet 



wp€G0vT£&a>p BtBorat, BtirXovv BtBoa&oj toi$ Bulkopqi^, ek yipaq CHAR 

Xpt&rauj ** But whatsoever is given to the old women" — that — — 

is, to the widows of whom the Apostle speaketh there — " let 
twice so much be given to the deacons, in honour of Christ" 
Then follow the words alleged afore f , wherein it is ordered 
that the presbyters have as much as the deacons. I know 
that in another case, that is, in dividing the remains of obla- 
tions for the Eucharist, the proportion is otherwise, according 
to the same Constitutions* viiL 31* TcW TTtptafrevovtras iv raU 
fivoTttcols evkoyta^j Kara yprnfiyp tqv hraTK&rrav ^ rwv •Trpzo-fiv- 
\i}0TEpti)V ol Statcopot BtaveftCTtiyaap ray /cX?Jp^* t&> eViovcoTrgj p,€pf} 
T€aaapa 9 irpeo-ffivrepw pep*} rp(a t Swucoptp p£p*\ Bvo f tow Be aX- 
\ot$, imoStaKOPQi^ 17 aPivypdxrrai*;, */ ^frakrai^ 1) BtoKOplcrffm^ 
ptpos fr, u Let the deacons distribute the remains of the 
blessings at the mysteries, according to the mind of the 
Bishop or presbyters, to the clergy ; to the Bishop four parts ; 
to a presbyter three ; to a deacon two ; to the rest, subdea- 
eons, readers, singers, or deaconesses, one part*" Nevertheless, 
from the particular remembered afore, we may well conclude 
the meaning of the Apostle, that his order is, the maintenance 
of presbyters to be double that of widows. And upon these 
considerations it shall not trouble me to repeat what I have 
affirmed elsewhere, that for this mistake of lay-eiders there is 
neither appearance in Scripture, nor in ecclesiastical writers*. 
For of the text, 1 Cor, xii. 28, I shall speak afterwards. 

§ 23. Walo Messalinus b deriveth the pedigree of these 
African elders, by conjecture, from those of the Apostle, 
whose employment consisted in governing the Church, 
rather than in teaching the people. But out of his excellent 
learning he acknowledged that though they are called " ec- 
clesiastical persons," yet they were uot of the ecclesiastical 
order, not of the bench of the Church, which those of the 
Apostle did constitute. And therefore the pretence of their 

1 Sect 3. 

* PHm« Govern., chap, Ix + sect 8, 

* Ab ant j qua porxo institutione at 
disciplina, qua preabyteri et BpiMQfl 
non in online ecclesiastico Bed in centu 
lu coram esse credebantur, m&tiferunt 
et in KccleKia African a senior es illi 
live presbyteri laicit qui Eeelesiifl de- 
tervicbaut. Quorum mentio extat in 

cod ice Africans Ecckslv et apud Au- 
gust i num. * 

PoftOA vero quam t ad instar Aaronts 
fAmtlia.' sacerdotum, creditum est, iu- 
iti tutosesse prcsbyteroii Eccksiit CUHs- 
tiana? p aboliti sunt ubtque locorum illi 
laici presbytcri, in tola Africana Ee- 
etatfa rcmimserunL— De Epiacopii et 
precbyteris, cap. v, pp. 3DG-S&b* 



C If A P. 


pedigree availeth not to make them inherit the charge which 101 
those of our lime have been invested with, as much without 
precedent of the Churches of Africa, as without warrant from 
the Scriptures. The ground of the mistake was, because 
men would not believe that in the time of the Apostles, aud 
among the presbyters of their ordaining, there was none that 
did not preach from time to time. Whereas the state and 
condition of their congregations required as well men's wisdom 
and goodness, in the oversight of those spiritual matters, 
wherein the members of them did communicate, as their 
learning and eloquence in speaking, which was not always 
to be expected from such qualities of men as were promoted 
to that charge. Of our Lord's kindred that confessed Him 
afore Domitian, promoted therefore afterwards to the govern- 
ment of Churches, I have made mention elsewhere*. TerttilL 
de IdoL cap, vh\, Parum sit, si ab aim manihus accipiant tptod 
contaminant^ sed etiam ip&& tradunt aliis quod contaminavei'ttnL 
Adleguntttr in ordinem Ecclesiasticum artifices idolorum. " Be 
it a small thing, if they receive of others that which they 
pollute, nay themselves deliver also to others that which they 
have polluted. Men whose craft is to make idols are chosen 
to the bench of the Church." If presbyters, that delivered 
the Eucharist, were sometimes painters and carvers in those 
days, well may we imagine that all of them preached not 102 
always : it was enough that the Bishop or some of them did it 
§ 24. If this were the condition of the ecclesiastical order 
in that time, then must of necessity the office of teaching 
in the Church belong rather to the particular gifts and 
abilities of some, than to the general aud perpetual charge 
of all presbyters. And this I still suppose to be part of the 
cause that it pleased God, in the time of the Apostles, to 
distribute such varieties of spiritual graces among those that 
believed, that there might be every where such as might 
furnish this office of preaching and teaching in their assem- 
blies by the help of extraordinary graces, which, upon the 
ordinary means of men's learning and studies — which now 
the Church is so well provided with — would then have 
proved defective. The use of these graces is that w T hich 
the Apostle debate th at large, I Cor. xii. xiv., and the ex- 

1 Prim. Gov,, chap, f$j* seel. S, 

The Apo- 
fltle** rule 
in i.ii-.- 
spirit mil 



of his meaning there is the business which hencc- 
ftttb I charge myself with. The issue whereof will enable 
us to discern by what sorts of persons and graces the public 
service of God was ministered at those assemblies, which his 
purpose in that discourse is to regulate. 

§ 25. This discourse the Apostle openeth in the beginning 
of the twelfth chapter, with a mark to discern such as spoke 

103 indeed by the Spirit of God, from such as pretended it* but 
were moved in truth by unclean spirits. For that I take to 
be the meaning of his words there, ver. 3, "Wherefore I give 
you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of 
God calleth Jesus accursed*" or anathema : " and that no 
man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost*" 
The words of St. Chrysostom upon this place: Alq teal ap%&- 
fAZVOS irpitiTOV To fiia-QV fMLvrzim teal 'n-po^ijTEta^ TiOijaV But 
tovto teal Bta/cpiaets £\aJ3ov Trwv^aT&w, wore 8ta/epiv€tv, teal 
el&€veu f rh p,€is o Trveuaari tfrdtyyo^mtQ*; /caffapm t rU St 6 
/iKxiQdprm k t that is, "Therefore at the first beginning he 
putteth down the difference between divining and prophesy- 
ing, for which purpose they received the gift of discerning 
spirits/* — as it followeth ven 10. afterwards — " that they might 
distinguish and know who spake by a clean spirit, and who 
by an unclean.'* And again, Kat yap fitapos ojy 6 &tdf3o\Q$ f 
iirewfiei rot? 7rpQ<fw}T£vav<rLs ^evBofrpo(ptJTafi elxrdywV} ch$ &rj&€P 
ra fLeXkavra TrpoXiyovras /cat avrofaK " For the devil being 
naught, shuffled in among those that prophesied, foisting in 
false prophets, forsooth such as themselves also foretold things 
to come." So that in bis judgment, the words of the Apostle 
are not general, to affirm that no man could call Jesus Lord 
but by the Holy Ghost, but relate to the particular whereof 
he speaketb ; to tell us, that such as pretended to speak by 
the Holy Ghost, if they glorified our Lord Christ, then were 

lot they what they pretended to be, otherwise not* As who 
should say, that it was not in them to persist in their counter- 
feiting, when it was re quired of them to confess Christ For 
Pwe know that in the primitive times, at the naming of Jesus, 
unclean spirits forsook the possessed. And thus St Chrysos- 
tom 111 answereth, that she which had the unclean spirit, Acts 

c H A p. 

k Hnmil. jotix. in 1 Ep. ad Corinth 
tom. iij, p. 42J1, C d, Savil 

1 Ibid, p. 430, 
m lb. i 


s pro- 

and • • x ■ 

xvi. 16, confessed Christ indeed, but unwillingly, and so as 
she was discovered by it For being a thing evident that 
men did and might counterfeit themselves Christians, and 
call Jesus Lord, with a tongue rather moved by the evil 
spirit, it seemeth an inconvenience to grant that all men* in 
confessing Christ, speak by the Holy Ghost, in regard of the 
truth which they confess. 

§ 26. But it is reasonable to conceive that God suffered 
not those that pretended to spiritual graces — of whom the 
Apostle propoundeth there to speak in particular — being 
moved indeed by the evil spirit to persist in their counter- 
feiting, This sense I embrace, because the same mark is laid 
down so plainly by another Apostle, to the same purpose, 
1 John iv. 1 — 3 : " Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try 
the spirits, whether they are of God, because many false 
prophets are gone out into the world : hereby know ye the 
Spirit of God; every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ 
is come in the flesh, is of God. And every spirit that con- 
fesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, is not of 
God,** "Spirits" the Apostle here calleth "inspirations," asio5 
in St, Paul, 1 Cor. ill 10, " discerning of spirits," that is, 
"inspirations:" and 1 Cor. xiv. 12, "because ye are zealous 
of spirits," that is, "of spiritual graces/' And the ditibrenee 
between his mark to try them by and St. Pant's, is but this : 
according to the one, " He that acknowledged Jesus the 
Messias to be come in the flesh ; " according to the other, 
" He that acknowledge th Jesus that is come in the flesh, to 
be the Lord, he it is that speaketh by the Holy Ghost" The 
same is the meaning of the Apostle, 1 Thess, v. 19, 20, 
according to the same St. Chrysostom n : where having said, 
" Quench not the Spirit, despise not prophesying," he addcth 
immediately, "Try all things, hold fast that which is good:" 
instructing them in the particular in hand, to examine all 
that pretended to these spiritual graces, by the gift of dis- 
cerning spirits, which God then allowed the Church for that 
purpose ; and to make use of such as proved that which they 

§ 27. The proposition of this discourse of the Apostle then, 
concerneth those graces of the Holy Ghost that consisted in 

■ Noniil, x'h in I Ep. ad Thcssalort cap* v. torn. if. p. 215. q<L SaviL 



speaking, whereof therefore there might be use in public chap, 
assemblies, which his purpose is to order by such rales as we 

shall see him propound in the end of the fourteenth chapter yg ain- 
of this epistle. But this to do, he fetcheth a compass about, cqurse - 

106 and launcheth into a general discourse of all manner of graces 
— all manner of minis tries— alt manner of works that have 
relation to the public body of the Church— to shew that all 
were given and intended, not for the eminence of those per- 
sons on whom they were bestowed, but for the public benefit. 
This is the point to which he proceeded ver. 4, M Now there 
are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit ; and there are 
differences of administrations, but the same Lord. And there 
are diversities of operations, but it is the same God that 
worketh all in all* But the manifestation of the Spirit is 
given every man to profit withal." 

§ 28. It concerncth not the purpose of my discourse here, 
to be nice in inquiring the difference between graces, and 
ministries, and operations, remembered here by the Apostle. 
It is enough to observe that the name of ministries is some- 
times particular for those that are called deacons, from the 
original word Smzkovki, because they ministered to the Apo- 
stles, to the Bishop, and presbyters, for discharge of their 
office t sometimes general, for all kind of service, in regard 
of him to whom it addressetb. For as concerning the force 
of the word, as the Apostle saith here, ** There are differences 
of ministries, but the same Lord;" so generally that which 
is done in service to any person, that person is the Lord, and 

107 those services in his regard are ministries. Indeed, the Apo- 
stle, when he saith in the next words, u the manifestation of 
the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal," manifestly 
proceedeth to speak of none but miraculous gifts of the Holy 
Ghost, demonstrating the presence thereof in the Church. 
Though the word %aplafmra is general in its own nature, 

(signifying all manner of gifts proceeding from favour and 
grace, as it is translated in the Syriac, KnaniD, signifying 
"gifts:" whereas ivipyetat, " ope rati ons>" seemeth particularly 
to relate to such graces as tended to miraculous works, and is 
therefore rendered in the Syriac nttbw, signifying "powerful 

§ 29. Thus it is true which St Chrysostom writeth upon this 




chapter , in the beginning ; because those that were converted 
from idols knew not the Old Testament, and the Holy Ghost 

is invisible, God gave in these graces a sensible evidence of 
the operation of it : Kal tovto etfaavepov rots If &>#€*>, ort irvevfid 
iariv iv avrm rm <f>8€yyop,£v(p' Sto teal ovtws airro xaXei, Xfycav, 
'EtcaaTfp £t t) <f>avipwtnii rov TrvevfiaTOS SiSorat tt/joy to (rv/Mf>epoif f 
tu j(aptirftaTa <pavipa)<Tiv rov Trv£Vfiaro^ Qt'Qfuifov. "And 
this," saith he, " manifested to those that were without the 
Church, that the Holy Ghost is in him that speak eth» There- 
fore so he ealleth it, saying, 'But to every one is given the 
muni testation of the Spirit to profit with;* calling gifts the 
manifestation of the Spirit;" and (Ecunienius according to 
him p . Though this he true, yet the process of the Apo- los 
stle's discourse from ver. 12, intendeth not only to comprise 
miraculous graces, but all ministries ordained for the public 
service of the Church, whether depending on miraculous 
graces or not ; z® appeareth both by the reason whereupon 
he proceedeth, and by the catalogue, wherein from ver, 28, 
he recapitulateth and reclconeth the particulars of all that 
can be reduced under those heads of graces, of ministries, of 

§ 30, For the reason where with the Apostle pursueth this 
point proposed, that all these are intended not to make the 
persons eminent in whom they are, but for public benefit, is 
the comparison of a natural body and the members of ji, 
whereof there is none that envieth or despise th another ; to 
teach private persons not to grudge at them upon whom 
public graces or places are bestowed; and them not to despise 
private persons. This comparison the Apostle setteth on 
foot also in his epistle to the Romans, but sllghteth it over 
more in brief there, because as St. Chrysostom ihinkcth 1 *, it 
seemeth, the abuse against which he writeth, as it was also 
there, so was it more rife among the Corinthians. This 
reason, it is plain, concerneth those that have public minis- 
tries no less than those thai have miraculous graces ; both 
being for the common benefit of the body, which is the 
Church, But the Apostle having enlarged this comparison 

° Homil. xxix. in 1 Ep. ad Coriuth. I8SI. 

p Qaydpmrtv wvivfutrm t to 015*1* Fa ■» HumiL xxix. in 1 Ep, ad Corinth.* 

itiiAf i. CEcuiti. io loco, p. 538. Paris, tora. ui. p. 429. cd. Sarif. 



to the full in this place, to shew to whom he speaketh as char 

members of public places* proceedeth vcr. 28, to particularize - — - 

all to whom his exhortation belongetb. Apostles, prophets, 
arid the rest ; among whom he reckoneth avrikrpfreis, Kvj3epv$- 
<xe*c, that is, "helps" and " governments ;" which our English 
rendereth "helps in governments' ;" which, whether they mean 
miraculous graces, such as the Apostle ealleth " the manifes- 
tation of the Spirit," or ministries of public service in the 
Church, I refer to further consideration afterwards* 

§ 31. In the mean time observing that the Apostle, writing 
to the Romans for the same purpose, hath reckoned more 
particulars of the same nature not necessarily proceeding from 
miraculous graces, though his discourse there, xii. ft, com- 
prise th those also when he saith, n having several gifts accord- 
ing to the grace that is given to us," for the present, we 
may see what this whole discourse of the Apostle aimeth at, 
by the conclusion of the chapter, where he saith, " Covet 
earnestly the best gifts : and yet shew I unto you a more ex- 
cellent way." For this exhortation it is that ttetli all that 
hath passed with that which foil owe th. The Syriac rcadeth 
it thus; ts If ye be zealous of the best graces, I will yet shew 
no you a more excellent way*'* Theodoret* and (Ecumenius 
make a question of it, thus ; u Are ye zealous of the most 
eminent graces ? I will yet shew you a way beyond them 
all-" But whether the meaning be to exhort them to pursue 
the most use fid graces 3 or to suppose that they did it, thus 
much for certain his intent is, to give the ground and reason 
why all members of public service in the Church are not to 
seek the eminence of their persons, but the common benefit ; 
because there is a thing called t£ the common charity of 
Christians," more available towards the esteem of all men's 
persons, be they never so private in the Church, with God, 
than all those gifts of the Holy Ghost, that appear so marvel- 
lous to common sense. 

§ 32. This is the occasion of that comparison which fol- His cata- 
loweth throughout the thirteenth chapter, between the com- gnat* an d 
mon charity of Christians, and their particular miraculous [J^T 
graces; which being despatched there, in good time doth the 

* Authorized ventotij A-D. 1011. irar 1 ip>rri\if\r iuriyvtMtaatf. 

* Theodores in luco, tooti r&t* nius eiics l'liDthu, p. 547. 


:har Apostle proceed to resume that which he had proposed afore. 


- and upon this occasion intermitted, concerning zeal and study 
for the most excellent graces, which he tieth up with that 
charity which hitherto he hath preferred to them all in that 
proposition w T hich he openeth the fourteenth chapter with, 
" Follow after charity and desire spiritual gifts, hut rather that 
ye may prophesy," For when he preferreth prophesying in 
before other spiritual gifts, it is plain enough what he meant 
when he said before, " be zealous of the best graces : n a thing 
in which there can be no doubt, because it is the subject of 
what is behind in this discourse. 

§ 33, Now let me lay down the words of the Apostle 
wherein he reckoneth in particular the graces and ministries 
of the Church, 1 Cor, xii, 28 ; "And God hath set some in the 
Church, first Apostles* secondarily prophets* thirdly teach ers, 
after that miracles, then gifts of healing, helps in governments, 
diversities of tongue s, n where unto we may add out of ver, 10, 
t( interpreting of tongues.'* And herewith compare the cata- 
logue of the same, which he com prise tb under the name of 
gilts and graces, Rom, xii. 6, 7, 8 j '• Having then gifts differing 
according to the grace that is given to us ; whether prophecy, 
let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith ; or minis- 
try, let us wait on oar ministering; or he that teacheth, on 
teaching; or he that exhorteth, on exhortation; he that 
giveth, let him do it with simplicity ; he that ruleth, with 
diligence ; he that shewcth mercy, with cheerfulness," That 
which followeth, concerning the particular virtues of Chris- 
tians, and the works of them, as love, hope, patience, and the 
like ; such as are also those that went afore, " of giving and 
shewing mercy," which the Apostle hath ranked among those 
graces which tend to the general good of the Church, it] 12 
scemeth, because they also respect the benefit of others, 

§ 34, Last of all, add unto these the ministries which the 
grace of Christ — upon His Ascension* poured out upon the 
Church — appointcth ; according to the same Apostle, Eph. 
iv. 11, 12, w And He gave some Apostles, and some prophets, 
and some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers ; for the 
perfecting of the sainta, for the work of the ministry, for the 
edifying of the body of Christ" By which words, as well as 
by the particulars which he putteth down, and which he 





leaveth out of those which he reckoneth in the other places, 
It appeareth that he intended — according to the purpo&e of his 
speech there — to comprise none but those graces and minis- 
tries which tend to the edification of the whole Church in 
matter of doctrine. But writing to the Corinthians, his intent 
was to set down all manner of graces and ministries tending 
to the common benefit of the whole Church either in spiritual 
or corporal necessities, in working miracles and the like ; 
none whereof he menhonetb to the Romans, neither the 
graces of Apostles and Evangelists, it seemeth, because they 
are graces and offices not confined to one Church in parti- 
cular. These catalogues are here compared for the ease and 
113 direction of them that desire to judge of such particulars as 
seem not yet out of doubt in the ministries appointed by the 

§ 35. To which purpose we must resume what hath been How di- 
elsewhere 1 observed, that nothing hindereth divers of the u^m may 
graces specified to meet in the same persou, For though we fh^saae 
suppose, as the Apostle seemeth to suppose, all ministries to matl - 
be accompanied with the graces which the discharge of them 
rcimlrcth ; as the elders of Israel* Num. xi. 25, received part 
of Moses* spirit ; and though all graces infer ministries, 
as he that is endued with any of the graces specified to the 
Corinthians, ministereth the effect of his grace to the benefit 
of others; yet there is a difference between ministries of 
public office in the Church, whether to cease or continue^ 
and graces which enable either a public person to a public, 
or private persons to a particular work, as that of miracles* 
Several ministries of public place in the Church must 
belong to several persons ; but public persons are capable as 
well of the graces which private persons have f as of those that 
belong to their public charge, including perhaps the graces of 
inferior ministries, 

§ 36. And the instance of the first in the catalogue shall 

put this out of doubt* that is, of Apostles. For nothing 

hindereth an Apostle to be a prophet, to speak strange Ian- 

mguages, to work miracles, or the like. The commentaries 

onder St Ambrose's" name, Quamvis sint et Apostoli pro- 

* Prim- Govern*, chap. ix. soctt. 5, G. 
' In Ep + I *d Corinth, xil 28. torn. 

iL co?. IJ3* ed. Ben, 


phet& t quia primm gradim mntda subjecta habet " Though/* 
- saith he, u Apostles also are prophets, because the chief de- 
gree hath the rest subject to it" His meaning is, the grace 
of Apostles conlainolh the graces of inferior ministers, as their 
ministries arc subject to that of the Apostles* Evangelists 
were no Apostles, but their ministers in using their graces to 
second the Apostles, therefore the grace of Apostles con- 
taincth that of evangelists. Prophets were no Apostles to 
preach the faith and plant Churches, but for the instruction 
of Churches planted in the knowledge of the Scriptures i but 
the grace of a prophet to all purposes might be in an Apostle. 
Doctors were no Apostles, but Apostles chief of doctors. 
Elders of Churches could not he Apostles, they were from 
the beginning ordained for the service of several Churches, 
but the Apostles make themselves their fellow elders in regard 
to the government of all Churches of their charge. If pres- 
l>Ykrs, much more Bishops, which as heads of presbyters, 
were that in one Church which the Apostles were in all of 
their own planting and charge. 

§ 37. Those companions of the Apostles whereof you have 
heard, are some of them called in express terms evangelists, 
and the office may well be thought to belong to the rest,] 15 
Titus, Clemens, Linus, Erastus, and others, may upon good 
presumption be called evangelists ; as those are to whom 
their condition is so answerable, Mark, Luke, Timothy, that 
are so called in Scripture* or so reputed in ecclesiastical writers. 
My conjecture was v , that they were sent by their several 
Churches — as Timothy from that of Lystra, Acts xvL 3_, — -as 
deacons to minister unto the Apostles, heads of those Churches 
for the time that they continued in their attendance, and by 
them employed to preach the Gospel, at their appointment, in 
such places where themselves could not, in regard of the grace 
given them to do it. As Philip, deacon to the Apostles first, 
and afterwards to St. James, was also an evangelist to preach 
the Gospel to Samaria, Acts viii. 5 ; xxi. 8, And I see no 
cause to repent of this conjecture reading thus, Acts xix. 22, 
" So he sent before two of those that ministered unto him," 
Ti mo the us and Erastus, It is the word from whence deacons 
have their name. But when they received the charge of 

w Prim. Govern., dmp* xii, neet. ]fi> 



Churches, though Bishops of those Churches, yet ceased they chap. 

not to he evangelists, tor the charge of propagating the Gos- : — 

pel through the countries seated underneath the cities of those 
Churches- Thus was Mark at Alexandria, Timothy at Ephe- 

iJiisua, Titus at Gortyna in Crete; the rest are to he seen in 
Walo Meesalinus 1 , p, 192. He supposeth that these com- 
panions of the Apostles are themselves also called Apostles of 
a second rank, as sent by the Apostles to preach the Gospel 
at their disposing, as the Apostles were by Christ to preach 
the Gospel every where without restraints And there is 
appearance of this sense, 2 PeL iiL 2 ; Rev. iL 2,— -not in 
Phil. iL 25 ; 2 Cor. viiL 23; where Epaphroditus and others 
are called ( Aposdes of Churches, 1 in a third sense, declared 
elsewhere 1 , answerable to those Apostles of the synagogue, 
mentioned in the constitutions of the emperors that were 
sent through the synagogues to gather the dues of their 
Patriarch residing in Palestine.— And Thcodoret * con- 
ceive th that when all presbyters were called Bishops, then 
Bishops were called Apostles in this sense. But wc must 
not understand those to be the Apostles of whom this place 
speakethj but the first Apostles of Christ ; for those that are 
thus called Apostles, are the same that are called Evangelists 
here and Eph, iv, 11, Thus there is a difference between 
graces and ministries. 

§ 38. But as concerning the office of doctors mentioned by Doctor* 
the Apostle, it may be two ways understood. The disciples Jrfii, e OMi 
of prophets under the Old Testament, such as attained not to {j^'( ,,iylera 

117 the grace of immediate inspiration, — but rested in that know- preached. 
ledge which the ordinary blessing of God upon their studies 
was able to compass, — in the Scripture are called " prophets," 
in the Chaldee paraphrase are sometimes translated "scribes," 

De E pis cop Lb et Presbyter! a, 
cap. ?v, Lugrf. Butav., 1(H0* 

* S&d h*ec differentia cxtilit inter 
BpiftCdpOH Apostolus, et Epi>> 
preshyttnts Apostolici sji-culi, <pit>il 
hi tpeeulem tertarum ecdeshnmi 
iwttTKowb*' habebant, Uli generakm 

Hi. — 1*1. p„ UtU 
■ Prim. Gotem., chap* sii, sect lti. 

* ''E.ntTttAituus 5* touj ■wpfeffiuTipQus 
tmX*7* &./**pirT*pa yap flx ov ttvr* intiyov 
rhtf Kmpbv rk Mpvra. — Comm* in 


J'hilippcn*. i* 1. p. 323. Mer4 ?ty 
-robs ivantenriKohs vipvus robs fols Sta- 
Kovtns wpoffJiKQvrai ypdfii^ rahs *pttr- 

fiv-rtp&vs vapaXnrutv , tows Si vvv 

HaAavfitvvvt liriGK6wav$, ftTdOTciAuus 
l/t'dfta^ov* Tau B} xpavau TfiofrjjTflT, tH 

'A*"p<tt^A(»f HaT*kiTFnr' tV Si t^j ^i- 
o-KOTTjf TTfMMfTjyupiar Tmt TcfAcu koAoiW- 
vots 'ATOffTdAoii tVf fl* ffa^.-t '01 nni h ill 
1 TIhl L I- pp. 4T*,4H. Toiu, IB. ed, 
Sinnoud, Paris- l#t& 





v,vtv dea- 
con .1. 

lerV office 
twofold, J 

sometimes "doctors,'* as hath been said 1 ** Some man may 
conceive the like of the prophets of the New Testament; 
that their disciples, that had no immediate inspirations, were 
admitted to teach in the Church, which, after this rank of 
prophets was ceased, came also to nothing. But because 
there is no mention of any such in ecclesiastical writers as of 
ministers of Churches, — it shall he observed indeed that 
sometimes laymen were licensed to teach the people in the 
primitive times, but those are never called or accounted doc- 
tors of Churches, that we should suppose them to be the 
remains of those ministers of Churches which the Apostle 
callcth " doctors," — there is no reason to doubt that the men 
whom the Apostle here callcth "doctors," are those of the 
presbyters which had the abilities of preaching and teaching 
the people at their assemblies ; that those of the presbyters 
that preached not, are called here by the Apostle "govern- 
ments," and the deacons arraXrJiJrcY?, that is, "helps," or 
"assistants" to the government of presbyters; so that it is 
not to be translated "helps in governments V but "helps,* 
"governments," For we are not here to imagine that the 
Apostle reckoning one by one the list of all graces and minis- 
tries of the Church, should say never a word of presbyters 
and deacons, the only ministries of succession in the Church 
under Bishops. 

§ 39* Now the office of deacons, though set up at the first 
upon occasion of ministering the oblations of the faithful to the us 
necessities of the poor, yet if we regard the practice of it in 
the times next the Apustles, cannot he better expressed than 
[by] calling them "assistants" to the office of government rest- 
ing in the presbyters, when there was no Bishop at Corinth. 
And we have here a particular reason why the Apostle would 
not call them by the usual name of "deacons** in this place, 
because he had used it before in a general sense, when he said, 
"There be divers ministries," BiaKoviat, f "but one Lord," and 
therefore could not so well use it again here in this particular 

§ 40* And the Apostle's intent here being to distinguish 
all graces in his catalogue, and having shewed that there were 

* Chap. iL sect. 21. 

c It wai m traiulated in tht version 

Huthorixecl by King Jam es, printed J 6 1 1. 
The in intake was corrected tit 1638. 




two parts of the presbyter's office in teaching and governing, 
the one whereof some attained not, even in the Apostle's 
time : it is reasonable to imagine that the office and ministry 
of presbyters is specified here in the names of these two 
graces, in the exercise whereof it consistcth. No otherwise 
than in the other place to the Romans, in these words, 'O 
$tS&a-tcmp t iv rj} SiSaaxaXta k « * » , 6 Trpoiardp^vo^ iv fnrov&jjj are 
designed the same two graces, in the work whereof consisteth 
the office of presbyters: which he that acknowledged shall 
give reason enough why the Apostle reckoneth the gift of 
exhortation there, besides that of doctrine ; being no incon- 

i)9yenience to make several parts of this grace, tending to the 
edification of the Church, according to that which several 
men arc most able to do, though all may be comprised under 
one name of " doctrine.*' Whereas those that, upon the men- 
tion of teaching, imagine a several ministry of doctors insti- 
tuted by the Apostle for all ages of the Church, are tied in 
consequence to set up the like for exhortation, which is ridi- 
culous. Again, hereby we give account what the Apostle to 
the Ephesians understand cth by "pastors and teachers," to 
wit, those that exercised also that part of the presbyter's office 
which concerned the edification of the Church in doctrine, 
whereof there he speaketb, and of nothing else : and there- 
upon conclude that pastors and doctors are both one there 
with the Apostle. 

§ 41. For what reason else can be rendered, why there is [Preaby- 
no remembrance of pastors in cither of those other places, duvt^] 
wherein the Apostle maketh a more particular reckoning of 
the ministries of the Church, both lo the Romans and to the 
Corinthians? What reason hut this, because they are set 
down in both places under the name of "doctors?" Well 
may it seem that the office of them, whom the synagogue 
called "pastors," being referred in the Church to the inferior 

120 order of deacons, the name stuck upon those that ministered 
the food of the soul in the Church which is for the purpose of 
it* Clemens, EpkL ad Cor, p, 63 d : v Htq* tU ttktto^ $tg* 
Svvarbq yvmaiv i^€tir€iv } rfreo <70<£q? iv Bta/tptttt* Xoywp, ijtg) 
aypoq iv epyots, " Be a man faithful, be a man able to utter 
knowledge, be he wise in discerning discourses, be he pure in 

' Cap, xlvIiL p. 174, etL Cote I it. * Cotelciim reads, fr JFueoIb itpttrti. 




C If A I', 


works," He seemcth to point at some of the presbyte 
there in whom these abilities were. Tcrtull. de prescript 
cap. iii. \ Quid ergo si Fpiscopm, si diaconns t si vidua, si virgo^ si 
doctor, si etiam martj/r lapsus a regidafueritf ** What then if 
a Bishop, if a deacon, if a widow, if a virgin, if a doctor, if 
even a martyr shall fall from the rule?" In this list of princi- 
pal ranks in the Church, presbyters have no room, unless we 
understand them in the name of u doctors," the best part of 
their office. 

§ 42. Thcodoret, Epit Ifmn Fabuh lib, v. cap* penult/; 
TItpl tov iv Kaplv8<p vrerrapveutcoTos, r( up efirotev, os ov 
pavov Betwv pLUO-n)pimv jjfwuro, aXXa koX StSatncakucov ir&- 
TV XV >C€l yapltTfiaro^ ; H What can they say of the incestuous 
person at Corinth, who was not only vouchsafed the divine 
mysterieSj but also had attained a doctor's grace?" He fol- 
loweth St ChrysostonVs conjecture, which conceived! tlmt 
the Corinthians were "puffed up," as the Apostle blameth 
them, 1 Cor. v. 3, with the opinion of that man, because be 
was one of their doctors, that is, one of the presbyters of that 
Church that exercised the office of preaching, and by that 
means bore sway among the people. In fine, the Apostle 121 
intended! by "doctors" the same that are so called in all 
ecclesiastical writers, that is, the Bishops, or such of the pres- 
byters as were seen in preach ing, 

§ 43, It is worth the observing, that Beza hath expounded 
those whom the Apostle callcth atm\tpfr€t^ t tcv$€ppi]&€t<?* f no 
otherwise than "deacons" and "presbyters;" meaning indeed 
those elders of the people which he imagined. But having 
shewed that there never was any such in the Church h , well 
may we take his judgment along with so much of the truth 
as he acknowledged ; which deservcth still more credit from 
the president of synagogues, which had elders, some learned, 
some not, some that preached, and some that did not, as hath 
been said '. 

§ 44. Salmasius of late, in his work De Farnore Trapezit*, 
hath shewn some evidence of two sorts of presbyters in the 

1 B. Theodores Opp., torn* iv, p. 3H. loco, 
ed. Sirmond. Pari*. 16+2. h Prim. Govern,, chap* Ix. sect 8. 

* *Am*.4$cis f diacunorum et vidua- ■ Cliap. iii. *ect. 18. 

rum ministerial Kufl*p*Tj<mf Presby- k Lib, ii. pp. 110 — i20. LugfL Bur. 

terorum ordhiem decUr&L — Beza in 10 H). 



first times of the Church. But according to his admirable char 

knowledge, he saw withal that they were ail of one rank iu '- — 

the Church— ail of the ecclesiastical order — all made by impo- 
sition of hands ; and by consequence, none of those elders of 
the people which have been set up to manage the keys of the 
Church, that is, the office of the ecclesiastical order, accord- 
ing to the Scriptures. Besides, it is to be observed that the 

1 22 office of Bishops — which name he thinketh most proper to 
those presbyters which preached not* but were exercised in 
ordering Church-matters — and presbyters is described almost 
in all places where there is mention of it in the Scriptures by 
both qualities, of teaching and governing the Church* Which 
is my argument to conclude, that howsoever some men's abi- 
lities might be seen in the one rather than in the other, — 
howsoever some men, according to their abilities, might be 
applied to this rather than to that, yet both offices concerned 
the whole order, that of preaching in chief. To which, 
though some attained not, yet all are encouraged to labour 
towards it as the most excellent work of their place, as by St 
Paul allowing them that double maintenance, especially in 
that respect; so by these Constitutions allowing them that 
double portion at their feasts of love for that purpose, H that 
they may take pains in the word of doctrine," as the words 
go there t 

§ 45. Be it then resolved, that the presbyters of the [Doctor* 
Church, at least part of them, were those doctors whereof the tiM0 J ^l m 
Apostle writeth ; and from thence be it considered what dis- {^"V" 
tempers slight mistakes in the sound of the Scripture bring to 
pass, when we see the order of doctors, distinct from that of 
presbyters, pressed as a point of that discipline that nmketh 
one of the essential marks of a visible Church "*• But whether 

123 the prophets of the primitive Church, which taught the peo- 
ple at their assemblies, were presbyters or not* is not so easy 
to determine. Some of them wc have reason enough to think 
were, be it but for those prophets of Antiochia, Acts xiii. 2, 
that "ininistered unto the Lord and fasted," when the Holy 
Ghost said unto them, i6 Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for 

1 See chap- iv* sect. 3, Word of God, pp. 71 — B2 j reprinted 

■ See i Full and Plain Declaration 1617. 
of Kt-i Discipline out Of the 



CHAP, the work to which I have appointed them f * and those other 

'- — among whom Timothy received imposition of hands with 

prophesying, 1 Tim. iv* 14. But that all prophets were pres- 
byters is more than I can resolve. By the Apostle's descrip- 
tion, it should seem that they had their place with the bench 
of the Church, Walo Messalinus out of Ruffinus hath remem- 
bered to us Ordinem propheticum*, "the rank or bench of 
prophets, as a ministry by themselves." Irenoeus , Justin 
Martyr f, and Tertulliau% have left mention of the grace of 
prophets as extant in their time, but of the use of it, for the 
ordinary ministry of the Church in teaching the jieoplc, they 
have said nothing, to my knowledge. Of these prophet 
henceforth we arc to entreat. 


in amst 
of the 
bered by 
the A | if i- 


In the beginning of the Christian faith it pleased God, for 
the propagation and maintenance of it, to revive the grace of 
prophesying, decayed and lost among His ancient people, in a 
large measure, in most of the Chore hes planted by the Apo- 
stles : though there be not found so much concerning their 

n Prophets dum In Ecclcsia primi- 
tJva fuerunt, prophdicum m-d'mtm con- 
st! tuerunt. — Cap. v, p. 31*2. JttiHiiiua 
describes Spiridion, Bishop of Cyprus, 
as vir unuft ex ordiue prophctarum. — 
Hist EccIgb,, Hb. i. cap. r* p, 197. 
Paris. 1 5 80, 

■ Ad vers. Httrea., lib, H. cap. 33. 
4. quoted by Eusebius, Erclcs. Hist, 
lib. v. cap, 7- pp. 171, 172, cd. Vales. 

p Dialog, cum Tryphon,* cap. xxxit, 
p. 136. cap. LuxLL p. 179. ed. Jien. 

' Tcrtullian. Apolog., cap. xxiv. p. 
M. ed. Pam. Rothomsg. Ifi02, 



, lauguagea* 

office any where as in this Church of Corinth, In the chap. 
Church of Jerusalem, the mother of all Churches, Acts xi, — — L — 
27, "And in those days came prophets from Jerusalem to 
Antiochia;" xv, 32, * And Judas and Silas being prophets 
also themselves," In the Church of Antiochia, Acts xiii, 1, 
" Now there were in the Church that was at Antiochia cer- 
tain prophets and doctors." At Thessalonica, 1 Thess. v. 20, 
*' Despise not prophesying." At Corinth, as we see at large. 
At Ephesus, Eph, iv, 11, "And He gave some Apostles, 
some evangelists, some prophets, some pastors and doctors/ 1 
At Rome, Rom. xii, 6, ** Whether prophesy, according to the 
proportion of faith," And setting these particulars aside, haw 

125 general the grace was, is to be seen, because the Apostle, 
reckoning I Cor. xii. 28, all members of public use and ser- 
vice, Eph, iv. II, all ministries of edification, nameth "pro- 
phets" among them whom God hath placed in the Church. 

§ 2. Besides this grace, which was more for the edification The gift of 
of them that believed, instructing them in the mysteries of 
our faith at their religious assemblies, the grace of speaking 
strange languages was also bestowed upon the Churches, to 
make evidence to unbelievers that the Holy Ghost was pre- 
sent there, and by that means to draw them to believe, as the 
Apostle saith here, I Cor, xiv, 22, " Tongues are a sign not 
to them that believe, but to them that believe not : but pro- 
phesying serveth not for them that believe not, but for them 
that believe :" containing in it a preface to that which God 
now intended to do, in bringing all nations and languages to 
the acknowledgment of Him that was hitherto confined to 
one people, so that, when the Gospel was received, His praises 
should sound in all kind of languages. For it is not to be 
imagined as if the gift of languages, that maketh so much 
noise in this epistle, and in the Scriptures elsewhere, con- 
sisted merely in speaking in an unknown tongue, and not in 
the subject suggested to them by the Spirit to speak. 

§ 3. It is plain besides, that it was the praises of God, and The pw- 

126 those mysteries of the knowledge of God, which those that mom* 
had the gift could not reach to of themselves, that they were 
moved by the Holy Ghost to express in unknown languages* 
So it is said of the Apostles when first they received this 
grace, Acts ii. 4, "And they were all filled with the Holy 




c hap. Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit 
them utterance." And to shew further what matters 

sying a 


they uttered, the company assembled say of them, ver. II, 
"'We do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works 
of God.** As it is said of them which were with Cornelius 
Acts x, 46, " They heard them speak with tongues, and mag- 
nify GocL* 1 And upon this ground it is that St Peter ex- 
pounded* the passage of the Prophet Joel, "And it shall 
come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of 
My Spirit upon all flesh, and your sons and your daughters 
shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and 
your old men shall dream dreams," of the Apostles when they 
spake in strange languages. To shew us that the matters 
uttered in strange languages were the like as the prophets 
revealed, the gift of unknown tongues over and above. 

§ 4. From whence we may perceive the meaning of that 
which the Apostle hath set down here, ver. 2, " For he that 
speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh not unto men, but 
unto God ; for no man understandcth him, howbeit in the 127 
Spirit he speaketh -mysteries." And again, ver. 4. "He that 
speaketh in an unknown tongue edifieth himself." Where 
you have in plain terms, that those things, which the Holy 
Ghost moved men to speak in strange langungcs, were for the 
instruction of those that had the grace in the mysteries of 
Gods kingdom. For this reason the gift of languages is 
compared with that of prophesying throughout this whole 
fourteenth chapter of the first to the Corinthians, with intent 
to regulate the use of both at their religious assemblies. So 
that it seemeth all spiritual graces are by the Aposde referred 
to these two kinds, in that difference which he maketh from 
the beginning, "Be zealous of spiritual gifts, but rather of 
prophesying^ where I must allow Beza*s translation r to be 
more exact than that which we use. For where he saith, 
ZrjXovre ra 7rV€VfmTttca t fmXkov Be tva irpo^}T€inejr€ f it is plain 
that prophesying is of the number of spiritual graces, and 
therefore not to be excepted, in opposition to them, as if the 
Apostle exhorted to study prophesying rather than spiritual 
graces ; but as it is translated there, to be zealous of spiritual 

r AJTccttle spiritual! a, ma*iroe vero* ut propHetetia. 



graces, but of all spiritual graces, especially of that of pro- 

§ 5* (Ecumenius 8 thus glosseth the words, Qv Set Si, ovSe tu*v 
afckayv tlpeKeiv '^aparpArmv^ teal pLaXttrra tov Trepi ttjv Trpotprf- 

}2&T€iap ^apiafjLaTQ^. "Bat we must not neglect other graces, 
and especially that of prophesying ;" to the same sense, which 
is the true meaning of the words* Now the particulars in 
regard whereof the Apostle advanceth the gift of prophesying 
beyond that of languages, are thus set down, ver, 3 ; ** He 
that prophetic th spcaketh unto men to edification, and exhor- 
tation, and comfort," Toix yap avdpafrrovs^ tprjulv^ oitcoSofAet, 
teal wapaxaXet ewt ttjv vr£(mv* teal irapapufeiTat errl rots iav- 
phots Trztpaa-pots, This is the gloss of (Ecumenius 1 : that is, 
11 For, saith he, he edifieth men, and exbortcth them to the 
faith, and comforteth them upon the temptations that shall 
be." Here are then so many limbs of this grace, and of tbe 
work to which it did enable. And chap. xiii. £, when \w 
saith, " And though I have the gift of prophecy, and under- 
stand all mysteries, and all knowledge," it should seem by 
these words, that the knowledge of aU Divine mysteries is 
to be ranged under this grace- St, Chrysostom there ^ Ov 
tqv wpo^retav T(6t}(Ti pomp* aXXa tcai r^v {r^XordrTjv Trpo- 
$>rfT£Lav* mirmv yap* *Eav e%iB wpoff^jreia^ hrriyaye x icat etBw t*1 
fiv<m)pta irdvTa* teal *rraaav Tt)v yim<rtv. iw lie puttcth not 
down prophesying alone, but the highest degree of it; for 
having said, c If I have prophecy, 1 he addeth, * and know all 
mysteries, and all knowledge* 1 n 

§ 6, And whether those particulars which the Apostle here 
4&presscth xiL 8, when he saith, ** For to one is given by the 
Spirit the word of wisdom ; to another the word of knowledge 
by the same Spirit;" whether these, I say, be of the same 
nature, limbs of this gift of prophesying, and of immediate 
inspiration or not, is resolved both by the terms which the 
Apostle useth when he saith, "To one is given the word of 

129 wisdom by the Spirit, to another the word of knowledge by 
the same Spirit;" for those things which are given by the 
Spirit are inspirations in this place. And by the consequence 



The limV 

of bofh 
prueen In 
Si, Paul. 

[Of pro* 

Photiui ffp. CEcumenif Comment, 
hi 1 Ep. ad Corinth, p. 553. Tan*. 

1 Photius, ib, p. §f4 
* Homil **xfi* ia cap. xiii. 2. p. 
452 , tain, ui. cd Siivil. 



Tits par- 

chap, of his speech, having said afore, " The manifestation of the 
: — — Spirit is given to every man to profit with : w for the manifest- 
ation of the Spirit are those graces by which the presence of 
the Holy Ghost in the Church was made manifest. And we 
see in what particulars the Apostle further specifieth this 
grace, in opposition to that of languages, xiv, 6. " Now, bre- 
thren, if I come unto you with tongues, what shall I profit 
you, except I shall speak to you, either by revelation, or by 
knowledge j or by prophesying, or by doctrine ? " 

§ 7. These are all particulars comprised within the com- 
pass of that grace which the Apostle ititendeth to advance 
beyond that of languages, and in ver, 1. and elsewhere goetb 
under the name of prophesying, And therefore I am apt to 
think that in this text the word prophesying standeth in a 
particular sense, to signify foretelling of things to come : as it 
doth also chap, xii, 10, For the Apostle having said, ver. 8, 130 
" To one is given the word of wisdom by the Spirit, to an- 
other the word of knowledge by the same Spirit 11 — which are 
both members of the grace of prophesying in the latitude of 
it, as appeareth chap, xiii, 3 ; "And though I have the gift of 
prophecy, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge,** — 
addeth nevertheless, ver. 10, * To another is given the work- 
ing of miracles, to another prophecy ;" distinguishing the grace 
of foretelling things to come from the wisdom and knowledge 
Inspired by the Holy Ghost, which are all sometimes compre- 
hended under one grace of prophesying, 

§ 8, But that which the Apostle calleth revelation is with- 
out doubt the disclosing of secrets. That I take to be ques- 
tionless, by what we find afterwards, ver, 24, 25 ; " But if all 
prophesy, and there come in one that believeth not, or one 
unlearned, he is convinced of all, he is judged of all, and thus 
are the secrets of his heart made manifest, and so falling 
down on his face, he will worship God 3 and report that God 
is among you of a truth," St. Chrysostom here * Ovk ear* & 
laou eiceXdavra nva l&etv, tqv fiev H^po'torl tov Se Svpttrrl 
tfcdsyyofiemp, koi elcrekOovra ajcovtrat ra airopp^ra r^ avroii 
&trit'ota<; t Kal ctT€ Tretpatpn*} teal pbera, wotnjpav yi/wp/qfy etre 
iytw et<7€k^Xv0€ 7 teal qti to teal to avrq* TrtV patera^ teal to 
fiefiovka/rat, ttoXv yap tqvtq iteetvov {ftpucwSitrTepov, aai yp^tr 
1 Hoinil. jtxxvi, in cap. jcuL £5, \\ 48-t. torn, iii, ccL S*nL 

[li to- 




ftcirrepov. "It is not the same for a man to come in, and see chap. 
one speaking Persian, another Syriac, as it is to hear the '■ — 

131 secrets of his own mind, and whether he came in to try with 
an evil mind or with a sound one ; and that he hath done 
this or that j for this is much more terrible and useful than 
that " To this purpose he allege th Nebuchadnezzar's act, 
falling down before Daniel upon the discovery of his dream, 
ii. 46, 47, And that under the Old Testament revealing of 
secrets was a thing required at their prophets' hands, by the 
way, we may perceive by that which Saul and his father's 
servants did, 1 Sam. ix, G, repairing to Samuel to inquire of 
his father's asses that were strayed- 

§ 9, From whence we must conclude that this grace of [Ae under 
prophesying under the New Testament was of immediate Velta- 1 
inspiration of the Holy Ghost, to all purposes as under the ■**»] 
Old, For you shall find, ver. 30, * If revelation be made to 
another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace:" to shew 
us that some were inspired upon the very point of time with 
the truth of matters in debate at their assemblies, as was 
Jahaziel son of Zachariah at the meeting which Josaphat had 
assembled, 2 Cbron. xx. 14, As were those by whom Paul 
and Barnabas were sent, Acts xilL 1 — 3. And those by whom 
Timothy was ordained, 1 Tim. iv. 14. And as that maid at 
least pretended to be, of whom Tertullian De Anima 1 ^ cap. is. 
Besides, we sec how often these prophets of the New Tcsta- 

X32 ment are inspired to foretell things to come. And in reason, 
the gift of languages being inspired both for the subject and 
the tongue in which it is expressed, it is certain that the gift 
of prophesying is not contained within human conceptions. 
And indeed the offices specified out of the Apostle of edify- 
ing, exhorting, comforting, of speaking words of wisdom and 
knowledge of mysteries, may well be referred to that rank of 
inspirations whereby a man is moved to speak that which the 
use of his human reason cnableth him not to conceive, with 

'Eat hodie soror aptid nos revela- 
tion um charismata sortita* quas in ec* 
clesift, inter Dominica nolemma per ex- 
tasiu in spirit u patitur, con versa tnr cum 
Angelh, aK quail do etiain cum Domino, 
et ridet et audit Sacramenta, et quo- 
rum! am corda dignoacit, et medic Lua* de- 
ll do rat) tibu* submit tit, Jam vcro prout 

Scriptural legnntur, nut psalm I canun* 
tux, aut adlocutiones proferuntur, aut 
petit ionea ddegantur, it a indc materia; 
viaionibua submimstrantur, forte nescio 
quid de an "una disscrueratnus, cum ea 
aoror in spiritu cs*cL This sister waa 
PriHcilla the Mod tan ml P. *&U ed. Pa- 
mel Rothomag. lb" 62. 




[It ex 


Of pray- 
ing, and 

God by 
the Spirit 

assurance that the motion is from the Holy Ghost: which 
kind of inspi rations are counted prophecies even among the 
Hebrew doctors, as hath been said \ 

§ 10. And in this kind the exposition of Scripture is not 
j without cause understood under the gift of prophesying in 
this place. The Commentaries intituled to Sl Ambrose 11 , 
Prvphetm interpreter dicit Script ur arum* Sicut cnim propheta 
futura prmlieit, qua; nesciuntur ; ita et hw t dum Scrtptu rarum 
iensumy qui multis occultus est y manifestat 3 dmtur prophetare. 
"By prophets he meaneth expositors of the Scriptures, For 
as a prophet fore telle th things to come which are not known, 
so such an one, manifesting the meaning of the Scripture, 
which many perceive not, is said to prophesy," The same is 
to be found again in him and others divers times, not so 
much because the Apostle hath specified here any such part 
of prophets* office, as because the rules which he prescribeth 133 
in prophesying afterwards, from ver, 29, do plainly belong to 
those that had the Scripture in hand to expound, as shall 
appear afterwards. Therefore it is plain that these propheti- 
cal inspirations were seen in the exposition of Scripture, 
because it is that upon which the Apostle's rule proceedeth, 
ven 30, " If revelation be made to another sitting by, let the 
first hold his peace :" meaning, that he that was expounding 
the Scripture should give way to him to whom the truth of it 
was revealed upon the instant of time. 

§11. But there is something else besides this belonging 
to the gift of prophesying as well as of languages, For the 
Apostle from ver, 14 here, thus writeth : "If I pray in an 
unknown tongue, my spirit praycth, but my understanding 
is unfruitful, What is it then ? I will pray with my spirit, 
but I will pray with understanding also, I will sing with my 
spirit, and I will sing with understanding also. Else when 
thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth 
the place of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, 
seeing he undcrstandeth not what thou gayest? For thou 
verily givest thanks well, but the other is not edified," It is 
not so clear how the Apostle here saitb, " My spirit praycth, 
but my understanding is unfruitful," having said afore, "lie 

* Chap. ii. iecL 13, 

* 1 Ep. ad Corinth, si v. 1. torn. 

col F56. e± B<?iu 



that spcakcth in a tongue cdificth himself," For if he that char 

134 hath the gift profiteth in the understanding of the mysteries — - — 
whieh the Spirit suggesteth to him in a strange language, 

how is his understanding unfruitful ? Therefore St, Chrysos- 
tom b acknowledging this difficulty, yieldcth that some of 
them which had this grace understood what they said, others 
not; for thus he writeth upon these words, *'IIe that spoaketh 
in a strange language edincth himself:" Kal w£i$ el fit) ot&ev 
a \iyei , aWa t£q}<; wept twv et^oTwp a \iyov<rt r Btakiyerat, 
elhormp phr aurwv, q&k iiritJTa^pmv 8£ efc eripovs egeveytteiv. 
" And how if he know not what he smith ? but thus fax he 
spcaketh of those that understand what they say* but know 
not how to express it to others," But the words of Theo- 
doret are thus in the Greek of CEcumenius*: Ilvevtm, to 
irvGVfiarucQV ^dpia'fia \&fct } voutt SI, Ttjp <ra^P£tap teal tppw}- 
mlap tow XeyopLEvwi** That is, (t He meancth by spirit the 
spiritual grace, but by understanding the declaration and 
interpretation of things that are spoken." By thus expound- 
ing the word voxk y to signify a meaning understood, he 
sccmeth to reconcile the text with that afore, without ac- 
knowledging that they understood not what they spake in 
strange languages. According to which sense, 6 £e pqv% fwv 
oxa/nro? iort bcareth this interpretation, " my meaning is 
fruitless," to wit 3 to the hearers, not yielding them the fruit 
required of it : and again, wpo^ev^ofuu t$ pot^ is, "I will 
pray in a meaning understood. " 

135 § 12. Whether the words will bear this meaning or not, let Those thai 
men of learning judge : the thing is probable enough, seeing !J|^ r £ e 
the fault which the Apostle findeth, ven 17, is not that a J^^f;!^"" 
mans self is not edified, but, saith he, "another is not edi- >jou<iwhat 
fied." And if we follow the intent of the Apostle close, it 
will easily appear that the purpose of his speech require th 
more than that a man himself should understand what he 
speakcth in an unknown tongue, to wit, that his audience 
also should understand it And therefore let who will dis- 
pute the proper signification of his words — a thing not so 
seasonable in this place — so long as the drift and purpose of 

they said. 

b HomiL jkxxv. in cap, xm S* •«-• 
iii, p, 474, ed. S.-iviL 
* (Ecumeu, p, 560, & I 

Inn torn. iii. pv 191. ed. Sirmonfl. 
~ *i^L HvfVfiUT ixltv and ipw- 
wot in the text of Th*od0Wl 

C II A P, 

twin the 


the argument guideth and overrulcth the sense ; when he 
- saith, " I will pray and sing with my spirit, I will pray also 
and sing with understanding," to be this* I will pray and sing 
by inspiration* bill it ,-luill be in ■ HMMWling understood, or 
understandable : according to the words of Theodoret alleged 
afore, llvevfia, to irvevpbaTucbv ^dpujfta Xiyei, povp &k t^p 
<ra(f>i}V€tav f kqX ippLjfpetap rwi/ Xeyojievwi'* And it folio we th 
thus: Aiyet &€ 3tl wpoo^xet top irepa ykaxrovj StaXeyopevopf 
€iT€ hrl yfraXfMti&iav, etre hrl Trpoa€V%t}% cfre dirt Bt&a&KaXiaSj 
% avrbp epfiijvaieiv (teal poetv rl Xeyet) eh axpiXetav tu>v ukqv- 
6vto>Vj % &T€pov Tovro TTOwtv Bvpapevop <rvP€pyop rip? BtBao-/ca~ 
\{a$ 7rapa\afi f $££P£<r&at, " Now he saith, it is fit that he that 
speak eth in another tongue, whether singing Psalms, or pray- 
ing, or teaching, should either interpret himself (and under- 
stand what he saith) for the benefit of his hearers, or that 1 
another should do it, that is sufficient to be taken for an 
assistant to his doctrine,** The words inclosed are added by 
CEeumenius, desiring to jumble St, GhrysostonVs interpreta- 
tion and Theodorefs into one, which proceed from contrary 
opinions : for all the rest besides those words is extant in the 
Latin of Theodoret**, who hath delivered the right of the 
Apostles meaning, that it is requisite for him that speak cth 
tongues to interpret, supposing that he understandeth what 
he saitb, 

§ 13. The same sense is expounded by St. Basil % Reg, 
Brev tf Tract, 278, otherwise the nature of this branch of the 
gift of languages is truly set down by St. Chrysostom f in 
these words: Kal yap %<iap to ttuXowp tcai j(api&pui €vx$* 
e^opre? ttoXKoI p*ra yX^rrr}^. teal r}v%ovTO ptv, teal 17 yX&rrra 
i<f>$€yy€TO, ^ rf} Uepffwp, rj rjj 'Patp^Limv tfxAVfi ev^ofiivq^ 6 i*ov$ &€ 
ovk $&€& to \tyopevop. " For of old there were many that had 
the grace of pray er^ with that of language. And they prayed, 
and the tongue praying spake the Persian or Roman language, 
but the mind knew not what was said-" In that he thinketh 
that he which had the gift understood not what he said, I 
have shewed for what cause I leave him afore | but in that 
he saitb, "They had a grace of praying with that of Ian- 

a The Greek text of the ComtnvMa- ci Ben. 
riea of Theodoret wua published for the r Horn. xxxr. in cop. xiv, 15. torn, 

first time by Sirrnondi in 1642. 81 p. 477. eii Savil. 

* S, BaaiL Opp. om*, lom, fi p, 513, 



guages," as a branch of it, it shall further appear how right chap, 
he is afterwards* The more I marvel that the learned Heiti- — — : — 

1 37 siiis* of late should so disguise the meaning of this whole 
passage, in expounding that appurtenance of this gift of Ian* 
guages, whereof the Apostle speaketh here, ver. 13: * ( Where- 
fore let him that speaketh in an unknown tongue pray, that 
he may interpret. 1 * The meaning whereof he maketh this: 
when a man hath spoken in an unknown tongue, let him 
repeat the sum of it in his prayer afterwards, and so interpret 
his meaning in a known language. These are some of his 
words : Siquis ergo, inquit, lingud peregrind usus est, adjiwgat 
preceSy quthus ante dicta sic interpretetur* Peregrind ettim lingud 
preces m cancipiantur^frustrcifit hoc certe t quia nan inteltignntur* 
*'Xf a man have used a strange language, saith the Apostle, 
let his prayers follow, wherein he may interpret what he said 
afore. For if prayer be conceived in an unknown tongue, 
sure it is to no purpose, being not understood." Thus do 
men sometimes employ their wit and learning to make things 
obscure that are plain enough when they are let alone. But 
though, as he saith h , it is now in use in divers Churches to 
recapitulate the sermon in a prayer after it, yet it concerned 
him to have shewed us some trace or step of like practice in 
the writings of the Apostles, or primitive Christians, if he 
would have us to believe this to be the meaning of the 

§ 14. Now the Apostle, as he speaketh of praying, so he intcrpre- 

138 speaketh of singing, of blessing, of giving thanks with the J^™,™^ 
spirit and with understanding : these arc no dependences of tUn \ ™ 

r m ° r , spoken m 

that which was preached afore, therefore neither that praying strange 
whereof he speaketh here. For you heard what Theodoret 
said afore : Eire em Trpoaevx^} € * T€ ^"^ ifrdkpwtiia?, elre eVl 
$&$aG/ca\ias* " Whether in praying, or in singing psalms, 
or in teaching " And } T ou shall see what the Apostle saith 
afterwards, vcr. 26, 27 : " When ye come together, every one 
of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath an 
interpretation. Let all things be done to edifying. If any 
man speak in an unknown tongue, let it be by two, or at 

f Exercitationcs sac-rap ad Nov* Test, 
cap. xL p* 401. Lngd. BaUv. 168BL 

■ Cunv u si latum vi cleat ur pot i us eo 
tempore fuieae, ut i-a, qua? in exhorta- 

ti>mt.' flut homilia ad populum dicta 
easentj obiter repetereratur. Quod et in 
pi critique Ecclesiis nunc tenet Siquis 
ergo — as in the text, 








i'l.r spi- 

the mast by three* and let one interpret" Where, as Theo- 
dore t hath well expressed his meaning* that all things, as well 
singing of psalms as teaching matter of doctrine, — and Theo- 
dore t had cause to add praying, finding it afore* vcr. 15* — 
might he done to the best purpose of edifying, his will is that 
whatsoever is spoken in any of those kinds in a strange lan- 
guage, be interpreted by one* whether the same that spoke 
already, or another that had the gift to do it. 

§ 15. In fine, to make appear that the Apostle when he 
saith, vcr. 13, "let him that speaketh in an unknown tongue 
pray that he may interpret*" intendeth that he should pray 
for the gift of interpreting that which he was inspired to 
speak in a strange language, it shall here be declared that 
the Apostle dirccteth them Lo labour after these graces by 
their prayers as well as by their studies, or what means else 
they could address to God for the attaining of them* That 
which we saw practised by the disciples of prophets under 
the Old Testament, that we shall see prescribed by the 
Apostle under the New* when he saith, 1 Cor. xiL 31* *' But 
be zealous of the best gifts,* And 1 Cor. xiv, 1, "Be zealous 
of spiritual gifts." And again, ver, 13, "Let him that speaketh 
in an unknown tongue pray that he may interpret," Where 
St, Chrysostomh t Evrav0a oVwaa;<rjf iv airrots ov to Xafietp to 
Xaptapui. trpo^ev^aBm ydp t <£^<tj* tovtzotIj ra Trap* eavrov 
eiaay ia0a}j teal yap dap Gwov&aiats arnjer*??, \tpfr$. "Here 
he sheweth that it is in them to receive the grace. For, * let 
him pray/ saith he, that is, 'let him contribute that which is 
required at his hands/ for if thou ask studiously, thou shalt 
receive it" When he expoundcth "let him pray" to be, 'let 
him contribute what is required from him,' he meaneth that 
zeal and study which is spoken of in the other places; of 
which you have again, ver* 39, " Be zealous*" or studious 
"of prophesying, and forbid not to speak with tongues:" and 
1 Thess, v, 20* * Despise not prophesying." The like you shall 
find in St Chrysostom* upon I Cor. xii. 31* and the com- 
mentaries under St Ambrose V name upon 1 Con xiv. 32, 
"The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets/* 
Lfcirco dixit * suhjectm est prophetis, nt interna accenderei hac 



k Horn 11. xxw. in rap. 
ii. p. *7(>, el Savil. 

xiv. 15. torn. 

k Ho mil. xjtxii. torn. Hi. p, 451- 
* Tom. ii- col- ] ;39- ed* Ben, 



spe, quoil Spirit m co? mitts adjuvet, " Therefore he saith f is sub- 

rject to the prophets,* to encourage wits with hope that the Spirit 
helpeth their endeavours :" and by and by he draweth to this 
purpose the words of the Apostle, " For they drank of the spi- 
ritual Rock that followed them," and addeth. Hoc est et subjec- 
ttitm esse, quod et sequi • Ita et Spirt tus subjectus dicitiu\ 
at conatus If on os aeijuvet, cum suggerit* Subject us emm videtur 
qui ccepta alter ius perJiciL " For to be subject, is the same as 
to follow. So the Spirit is said to be subject, because of His 
help to good endeavours, when He bringeth them to pass. 
For he that bringeth another's undertakings to effect, seem eth 
to be subject/' 
§ 16. This is not to allow this meaning of the Apostle's 
words, which I shall shew afterwards to be otherwise ; but 
to take notice what impression of this truth they received 
from the places alleged. And you shall find the same 
authors, to let pass others, expounding the Apostle's words, 
Kotil xii. 3, 6, no otherwise, " According as God hath dealt to 
every man the measure of faith ..... and whether prophesy- 
ing according to the proportion of faith." St. Ambrose m , H&e 
erffd datur pro mode accipientis, hoc est, quantum causa extgit, 
propter quam datur. "This, therefore," that is, prophecy, 
" is given according to the measure of him that receiveth ; 
that is, as much as the cause require th, in respect whereof 
l+l it is bestowed." And St Chrysostoni*, El yap xai %upt^ iarlv, 
aXX* ou% wjfk&s itcy^evrat* aXXci ra p&rpa Trapa r€w hc)(Qp,h*tov 
\afi{Bdvov<Ta 9 tq&qutop €*wtpp€t ? Strop av £vp$ axevos Trlorem? 
aurr) 7rpoa-€V€x0€v* "For though it he a grace, it is nul 
indifferently poured forth. But taking the measure from 
them which receive it, floweth upon them in measure as it 
findcth the vessel of faith offered," understanding that faith 
which moveth men to sue to God for such graces, as he saith, 
"pray that he may interpret" And this is it which the 
Apostle write th to Timothy, 1 Tim. iv. 13, 14, "Till I come 
give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine. 
Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by 
prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery. n 
And 2 Tim. i. 6, " Wherefore I put thee in remembrance 

- ti col 95, 
■ HomiL kxL hi I 


lorn, iii. ed. SaviU 






syinp in 
St. Paul 

that thou stir up the gift of God that is in thee, by the 
putting on of my hands/ For in calling it a "gift," he signi- 
ficth an extraordinary grace of that time : but in willing him 
"to stir it up," and not to neglect it, he sheweth that it was in 
him to procure it at God's hands, by reading, and teaching, and 
praying, and the like means which he namcth, or nameth not. 

^ 17. The true meaning then of the Apostle when he 
saith, ver. 1 4 — 1 7 S " For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my 
spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful What is 
it then ? I will pray with the spirit, but I will pray with the 
understanding also: I will sing with the spirit, but I will sing 
with the understanding also: else when thou shalt bless with 142 
the spirit, how shall he that possesselh the room of the un- 
learned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he under- 
standeth not what thou sayest ? for thou verily gives* thanks 
well, but the other is not edified:" I say the meaning of 
this whole passage supposcth that which we began to prove 
of the prophets under the Old Testament, that it w T as part 
of their office to compose the praises of God* and the prayers 
of their congregations °. For if we take not our marks amiss, 
we shall see that the strength of our advantage upon these 
words against the Church of Rome lieth in this, because the 
Apostle argueth expressly against them that, to shew their 
gift of languages, took upon them not only to utter the 
mysteries of God in strange tongues, but also in them to 
conceive prayers and psalms of God's praises, in the name 
and behalf of the Church. This they arc <h siious to decline 
if the Apostle would give leave. For that which he saith, 
ver. 17, "another is not edified/' is as much as we find, ver* 
5 and ver* 12, "that the Church may be edified," and ver, 
19, "In the Church I had- rather speak ^\ve words to teach 
others," and the Apostle afterwards, ver. 26, "What is it 
1 1 icii, my brethren? when you come together every one of 
you hath a psalm." 

§ 18, And to this purpose it will be very effectual to observe, 
that as in the Old Testament Saul and hi:- servant arc said 143 
to meet a whole choir of prophets prophesying, and the sons 
of Asaph, Heman and Jedutlmn, are said to prophesy in 
singing the praises of God which the spirits of prophets had 
* Chap* !i. sect 11, 



indited p ; so in the New Testament, fur the snme cause, it CHAP, 
seemeth that singing the praises of God is called " prophesy- - — 
ing" by the Apostle. For let me ask what the Apostle raean- 
eth when he saith, 1 Con xL 5, " Every woman praying or 
prophesying with her head uncovered:" his speech concern- 
ing Christian assemblies, wherein he forbiddeth a woman to 
speak, 1 Con xiv, 34 ? Is it that which the Italian gloss of 
Diodati after Beza hath expounded ? "It seemeth/ saith he, 
" this word is to be taken here not only for handling or ex- 
pounding the mysteries of the word of Godj as Rom. xn, 6 § 
but also for bearing them, marking them, meditating upon 
them while they ate proposed of those that have the charge." 
This cannot be allowed* Praying is the party a own act, 
why not prophesying, that standeth in rank with it ? The 
commentaries under St. Ambrose's' 1 name, Prophetare trntem 
e&t> adventum fore Domini VQQi si/mhoU post oratmnem rffhri. 
" To prophesy is to pronounce in the words of the Creed that 
the Lord shall come." The Creed was pronounced by the 
whole congregation ; this he thlnketh was called " prophesy- 
Hi ing," because it speaketh of the coming of Christ which shall 
be* I bring not this because I allow it — for it is somewhat 
strange to make all people prophets that say their Creed, 
because one article of it speaketh of things to come ; besides, 
I do not find that the Creed was from the beginning any part 
of the Church service T — but because he saw the true point 
of the difficulty, — that hearing prophecies was no prophesying, 
but it must be something that the congregation uttereth, as 
well as in praying, which the Apostle calleth " prophesying : n 
and what doth the whole congregation send forth but prayers 
and psalms? In both these, as near as can be, the people 
hear their part : the whole pack of prophets prophesied 
together when Saul> and his servant, and his messengers 
came, because they all joined in the praises of God, Samuel 
guiding the choir* : when the Spirit of God came on them, 
they uttered the praises of God which the Spirit of God 
suggested, the rest bearing part in their sense* 

» 1 Sam, x, 5, 10; 1 Chron. xxv. 2—8. 

' In I Ep* arl Corinth* xL 4. torn, 
ii. col. I +7. ect Ben, 

r Guv ant us is of opinion that the 
Apostles' Creed was sung in the ser- 

vice, imtw Eccfaitt, until it was changed 
for the Nieene, or Cons tantinopuli tan. 
— Thesaur. Sarr* Kit, Tar, I tit xi de 
Symbol*, p. !»■>, Aiir. VindeL I7n3. 
* I Sam, six, 2fr— 2** 




[Si* under- 
fitooil by 

[And Ter- 
tulUtt. ] 

§ 19* Isidore Pelusiota, lib, L epist, 90 \ Ta? £v eWX??- 
atats <p\vap(a$ fcarawav&at fioukofiepat ol rod Kvplov airoaTo- 
\oi t teal r% 7}fiwv irat&evral /earacTuaect^, ^rdWetv tv airraid 
tA? yvvatxas awerm mjveg&priaap. " The Apostles of our 
Lord, and teachers of our orders, desirous to suppress idle 
talking in churches, understanding^ permitted women to 
sing in them," I know there are other texts of the Apostle, 
where he spcaketh in general to all persons to sing psalms; li 
Eph, v- 18, 19, " Re filled with the Spirit : speaking to 
yourselves in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs; singing 
and making melody in your hearts unto God." And Col. 
iii. 16, "Teaching and admonishing one another in psalms, 
and hymns, and spiritual songs : singing with grace in your 
hearts unto God:" yet with good right are these words 
referred to no place but this, because express mention of 
women singing in assemblies we find none but here. If any 
man thinkcth that Isidore in those words rcflccteth not upon 
any thing delivered in writing by the Apostles, but on the 
(ui-lom which the Church received at their hands* it must 
needs nevertheless seem the most probable sense of St. Paul's 
words, which maketh them agree with that custom, which, he 
saith, the Church received from the Apostles. 

§ 20. Tertullian de Virg* VelamUs^ cap. xvii,* Quanta m 
autem castitfationem merchant ur eiiam ill&, qua inter psalm as* 
vel in quaeunque Dei tnentwne f retecta? pcrseverant ? mei it one 
cttam in orutione ipsa Jhcillime ^fimbria m, ant villum t aut quod- 
libel Jitum cerebro superponunt, et teetas se opinantur ? "But 
what reproof shall even they deserve, that continue unveiled 
in singing psalms, or in any mention of God ? have they 
reason in their very prayers, at their best case to lay a fringe, 
or thrum, or any thread upon the brain, and think themselves 
veiled?" here you have the two particulars of psalms and UG 
prayers expressed, which the Apostle callcth " praying' 1 and 
"prophesying/' with the reason of reverence at the mention of 
God, to enforce his purpose, that they ought not to content 
themselves with no veil at psalms, or with a slight one at 
prayers. And afterwards u , Oporfet ergo omni tempore et omul 
loco memorcs I^egis incedere^ paratas et imtructas ad omnem Dei 
mentionem* qui sifuertt in pectore^ eogttoseetitr et in eaplte farmi- 
• Iiidor. Opp. p. 29, Parii, 1538, * lb., p. 315. ed, Paro, Bolhomag. ItffiZ 



narum* " It behoves therefore to walk mindful of this law, 
at all times and in all places, ready and provided against all 
mention of God, Who if He be in women's hearts will be known 
on their heads ; M expressing the Apostle's reason — reverence at 
the mention of God, 

§ 21, And as for the prayers of the Church, we have a 
singular passage in the Apostle, Rom, viiL 26, to the best of 
my judgment to he understood to this purpose: "And the 
Spirit also helpeth our infirmities, for we know not what to 
pray for as we ought, but the Spirit maketh intercession for 
us, with groan ings which cannot he uttered/* For what is 
it that the Apostle calls "the first-fruits of the Spirit," ver. 23 
there afore, but the flower and cream of those spiritual graces 
whereof the Apostle writeth all this while to the Corinthians? 
And when he saith, " we know not what we should pray for 
H7 as we ought,* true it is we are sufficiently informed what we 
are to pray for in the Scripture, but seeing the purpose of 
the Scripture in general is not so perfectly understood by all 
persons, much less the exigence of it duly pointed in parti- 
cular, it is no marvel if we believe that the inspiration of the 
Holy Ghost is able far better to inform us what we are to 
pray for, even at our assemblies, when we see the Apostle 
himself pray for the goad in the flesh to be removed, which 
God thought not fit to he granted. But when he saith, " the 
Spirit maketh intercession for us," we know first that by the 
Spirit the Apostle in this subject continually understandeth 
the inspirations of it, as hath been observed afore 1 : we know 
again what endless debate and difficulties the sense of these 
words breed cth, and what better course have we to end 
tbem than by understanding in these words the intercessions 
which the Holy Ghost inspircth ? and those * unutterable 
groans of the Spirit,* 1 whose mind u He that searcheth the 
heart trieth," ver, 27, "and findelh that it maketh iuterees- 
eion for the saints, according to God,* what are they etae 
but those desires which the Spirit inspireth to them which 
have the first fruits of it, causing them to groan within them- 
selves, " waiting fur the adoption, to wit, the redemption of 
the body," as it went afore, vcr. 23, 

§ 22, For as men inspired were not able to express the 
i s, 


I 'river* 
t>f the 
by imme- 
diate Itk- 



TOO! Bt, 

tutu, j 

Th« new- 
ness of the 
graces of 
log and 

vehemence of the desires they were inspired with, no more 148 
were they able to comprehend the meaning of them, the 
depth of things inspired being sounded by Him alone that 
indited the same, This exposition is St. ChrysostomV, who 
hath delivered us the ground of it for historical truth, upon 
the place, telling us that there was no less peculiar an in- 
spiration to pray, at that time, than there was to foretell 
things to come, to cure diseases, to do miracles, to speak 
strange languages, M€ra Be tqvtwv awawwv, fjv teal €&%*}$ 
yapta^a o /cat avru Hvevjta iXeyerQ* tttti 6 tovto ^mv^ \mi,p 
roit wXjJSqv? wavrbs f}v^ero. CTretSt; yap woXka twv vvfufrepov- 
Tflw tjpZv ayitoovvres, ra ftrj av^ipoi^ra aiTovptP, fjp^ero %a- 
pia-fia €^7)9 m %m rtva rmv rote, ml to fcotvg <rvfup4pov rq? 
cV/vX^ffik? tlwdaffSf auro? re &?r€p airavTw ZaraTQ aiT<0V 9 fcal 
tqvs aWov? JvotSn*. if With all these," saith he, " there 
was also a grace of prayer, which was also called a spirit, 1 ' — as 
the spirit of knowledge, the spirit of wisdom, and the like, 
that is, the spiritual gift of it, — if and he that had this prayed 
for all the multitude* For because, not knowing many of 
those things that are good for us, we desire those that are 
not," — as here it is said we know not what to ask for as we 
ought, — f * the grace of prayer came upon some man then, and 
he stood up to desire in the name of all that which was good 
for the Church in common, and taught others to do it." And 
again, o yap rotaim}^ tcaTa^twdet^ %dptTQ$ etrrm pera wioXXiJ? 
T779 Karavv^em^y pera ttoWmv twv <rr€vayf&wv f t&p Kara Swi- 
vmavy Tfli Oe^t TrpQtnrnrrwV) ra ai/^epovra waaiv alreZ' o5 real 
vvv <rvfXJ3o\6v itmv 6 &tdtcovo$> ru? xrrrep tqv S^fiov dva*f>€pa>v H9 
cu^af. " For he that was vouchsafed this grace, standing 
with much compunction, with many groans, such as prostrate 
a man in mind before God, asketh such things as are good 
for all* Correspondent whereto now is the deacon, when he 
offereth to God the prayers for the people." 

§ 23, The opinion and relation of this most excellent man 
at expounding the Scripture, going so clear with the words 
of the Apostle, maketh this beyond question with me to be 
the meaning of the Apostle, which shall afterwards get still 
more credit by the proffer which shall be made, of designing 
the kind and nature of these prayers and thanksgivings, 

r IIomiL xiv. in Horn, vtii, 26\ p, 120. lorn, lit ed. SaviL 



whereof the Apostle spcaketh here, to have been the same chap. 
that the Church hath practised in all ages since. And, these - 

things supposed, the meaning of the Apostle, in the passage 
which we are in hand with, sufficiently shcwcth, that as these 
which were endowed with the grace of languages did not 
stick to do those things- — to utter the praises of God, the 
prayers and thanksgiving of the people at their assemblies in 
unknown tongues — to make show of their gift which he for- 
biddcth: so those that had the grace of prophesying did and 
are directed to do the like for the benefit of the congregation 
in all particulars whereof he speaketh. 

§ 24. These things thus cleared, give us full assurance of 

150 the kindred between these two kinds of graces, of languages 
and prophesying, by the limbs and branches of the offices 
expected from both : and that by consequence all these 
prophetical graces were of immediate inspiration, as much 
as that of languages, which the Apostle coming up to his 
first purpose in this whole discourse— which was to regulate 
the use of both kinds of these graces at their assemblies — 
further declare th in recapitulating those offices of both, ver. 
27, which he thinketh fit to remember there. His words are 
these, ver, 26 ; " How is it then brethren ? when ye come 
together, every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, 
hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation r let 
all things be done to edifying-" Tongues and interpretations 
of them, it is plain, belong to none but those that have that 
grace; revelations are specified afore to be a kind of prophe- 
sying, but there is no reason to convince that they might not 
be suggested in strange languages: psalms it is plain by that 
which went afore, were uttered in strange languages, but the 
Apostle prescribed! to do it in the known tongue, as an 
office of prophesying. Of doctrines the like must be said 
as of revelations, 

§ 25, In fine, the reason which moves the Apostle to allow 
speaking in strange tongues in the Church — provided there 
be one to interpret, because the matters so uttered are for 

lfil the edifying of it— is enough to prove that the substance of 
things uttered by both graces was not unlike ; and therefore 
those rules also, in which the Apostle concluded^ serve to 
aver the difference and agreement observed between the two 



< ii a p. kinds of graces speaking as they do to two heads, one of lan- 

: — guages, the other of prophesying. The sum of them being the 

same that was proposed in the beginning of the chapter : for 
there we read, "desire spiritual gifts, but rather that yc may 
prophesy ;" and here in the conclusion we read, ver* 39, "covet 
to prophesy, and forbid not to speak with tongues/' Commend- 
ing the one without limitation, permitting the other with a ca- 
veat of one to interpret. The same is the meaning of bis rule to 
the Thessalonians, 1 Ep. v. 19, 20 : "Quench not the Spirit, de- 
spise not prophesying," The one part advising to maintain all 
spiritual graces, by allowing the orderly use of them at their 
assemblies; the other in particular to esteem aright of pro- 
phesying above the rest, which the Apostle expresseth in 
terms of abatement, charging not to despise it. Before I 
take in hand the meaning of these rules in particular be 
it observed* that these things which were delivered at their 
assemblies, in the use of both kinds of graces, were not 
conceived upon the instant, but ready provided afore : for 
within these terms the Apostle's words will conclude us, 
when he saith, ver. 2G ? " When yc come together every one 152 
of you hath a psalm," &c., which is, that they came provided 
of what they intended there to declare, as appcareth by that 
part of the rule that concerneth prophesying* ver* 29, 'Ml: 
"Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other 
judge : if revelation be made to another that sitteth by, let 
the first hold his peace." Where the difference is manifest 
between that which was suggested at the instant, and that 
which was conceived afore. 

§ 26. Now whereas the principle upon which the Apostle 
proccedeth is the edification of the people, as he saith, ver* 
26, " Let all be done to edifying f* well are we assured that 
it was for the edification of the Church to understand what 
the Spirit suggested to them that spake in strange languages, 
concerning the praises of God and the mysteries of His 
kingdom. It was for their edification indeed, but not so 
much as the knowledge of the Scripture, which consistcth 
not of revelation for the time, but is intended for the per- 
petual instruction of God s people. Therefore the Apostle's 
will is, that two or three speak with tongues, and another 
interpret, not to lake up that time which the exposition of 



rod nir.iri- 
iii£ of Che 




Scripture required* ver. 27, St. Ambrose* upon those words: 
Itieo ergo, i ut mnltum, tres,' nb occuparent diem Unguis loquentes^ 
ci interprctcs illorum ; et non Imberent propheUe tempus Scripttt- 

1 53 ras disserendi, qui sunt totitts Eeclesug ilktmirtatores. fi Therefore, 
three at the most, and him that interpretcth them, that they 
should not spend the day in speaking languages, so that the 
prophets, which are the enlightenens of the whole Church, 
should not have time to expound the Scriptures-" The Holy 
Ghost was dispensed among men that were converted to the 
faith j for their assistance in understanding the Scriptures, 
which always was their business* They began straight, as 
the use was under the Old Testament, to train others to the 
same knowledge* The Apostle's rule suppose th no less, ver, 
29 ? 30: **Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the 
other judge* If revelation be made to one that sitteth by, 
let the first hold his peace," The whole words of St Am- 
brose touched afore ■ : Hcec tr adit to st/nagogm est qitam nos cult 
sevtari — quia Christianis quidem scribits sed ex Gentibtts Jhctis f 
non ex Judms — ut sedentes disputent 9 seniores digmtate hi ct/thc- 
drhy sequentes in subselliis, novisrind in pact men to super mattax : 
quibus si revelatttm /writ* datulttm locum dicendi pr&apit} /tec 
despiciendos ; quia membra corporis sunt " It is a tradition of 
the synagogue which he would have us to follow, — for he 
write th to Christians, but converted, not from the Jews, but 
from the Gentiles, — to dispute sitting, the eldest in dignity 
in chairs, the next on seats, the last on matted floors. To 
whom if revelation were made, he commandeth that room 

lot- to speak be allowed, not despising them, as members of the 

§ 27. The inspiration of the Holy Ghost was not always 
present with prophets; they spake in exposition of the Scrip- 
ture, out of that which the Spirit formerly had suggested. 
Most like it is that the inspirations of the Holy Ghost should 
possess one or other of them which had the grace, in the time 
and place of Divine Service : for you saw afore, ver* 24, 
how the revelation of secrets was wont to be infused upon 
them at that time when unbelievers came into their assem- 
blies. If auy such thing came to pass, the Apostle's will is, 
though he were of a mean rank among the disciples of pm- 

1 Tom. LI. col. 158, *&> Ben. * Chip. in. sect. 12. 


It pro* 

of MMM 

but pro- 

phets, he should be allowed to speak. For let do man think 
that the Apostle here alio we th all members of the Church to 
speak in public ; in that the pretended St. Ambrose seemeth 
to mistake, admitting those whom he described! sitting on the 
floor to speak. For he that was inspired without peradven- 
ture sat not upon the floor, hut among the prophets. 

§ 28, The words of the Apostle are general, when he saith, 
ver, 31, " For ye may all prophesy one by one, that all may 
learn, and all may be comforted," But this speech all this 
while concerned! not the congregation, but those that have 
the gifts of prophesying and speaking with languages. And 
men oflearning know that general words are to be confined 15 
to the particular argument of the speech. Besides, the Apo- 
stle hath made the difference himself, when he saithj ver* 16, 
H How shall he that occtipieth the room of the unlearned say 
Amen at thy giving of thanks?" 'O avairktip&v rov tqttov tov 
ihtwTQV} he that sitteth in the place of a private person with- 
out learning, is so named in difference to those that, professed 
themselves teachers ; if he should stand up and teach, this 
difference which the Apostle maketh would be quite abo- 
lished. He forbidtlcth a woman to speak in the Church 
whatsoever be her graces, were she one of Philips daughters 
the prophetesses" : he alio wet h not all men to speak, but such 
whose graces were known and discerned, of whom all the dis- 
course hitherto proceedeth. 

§ 29, Now the matter in question is this: it is plain that 
the gift of languages came by immediate inspiration of the 
Holy Ghost; and it is plain that many particulars of the gift 
of prophesying did likewise, as the fore telling of things to 
come called "prophesying*" vcr, 6, the knowledge of men's 
secrets, the understanding of the Scripture, and of matters 
debated upon it, vcr. 25 and 30, the praises of God and the 
prayers of the congregation, which were inspired in strange 
languages, as it is said, ver. 14, "My spirit prayetb, but my 
understanding is unfruitful;" and therefore were no less in- 156 
spired to them of whom the Apostle, ver. 15, * £ I will pray 
and sing with the Spirit, and with understanding," In fine, 
there is no cause to make doubt that all the particulars 
through this whole chapter, ranged under the general grace 

* Acts xxi, 9. 




of prophesying, are by him understood to proceed from men 
endued with immediate inspirations. And therefore the ques- 
tion will be 5 what is his meaning in that which followeth, ver« 
32, " The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets ; " 
for on the one side, when he saith, fi *the spirits of the pro- 
phets," the word "spirits" in this subject hath always signified 
inspirations, true or pretended ; on the other side, the in- 
spirations of the Holy Ghost are not to be subject* are not 
to be judged as ver. 29, though it be by prophets. The 
meaning of these words give me leave thus to debate. 

§ 30. St. Ambrose thinketh that when it is said, "The 
spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets," a reason 
is given for the rule which commandeth to speak by turns, 
and to give way to him that is inspired upon the instant, 
ven 29 and 30, to shew that this they might well do* because 
they were not so inspired by the Holy Ghost as to be trans- 
ported to speak whether they would or not, but that it was 
in them to moderate* as it was in them to procure the influ- 
ence of it, according to his words produced afore 13 . In this 
157 sense the spirits of prophets arc subject to the prophets them- 
selves. But though we grant that men's particular endea- 
vours were means to attain the grace of immediate inspira- 
tions, as was proved d » yet we are not there lure bound to 
grant that it was in them to be inspired at their pleasure. 
In the Old Testament it is said% "that the Spirit of the 
Lord came upon Saul and his servants:" and Jer. xlii. 7, 
"After ten days the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah," 
having undertaken to pray for the revealing of the will of 
God to them before : from whence the Hebrew doctors 
collect, that he could not obtain the grace in the meantime : 
Maimoni Fundatn* Legis, vii, 5, and the late Annotations 
there f . 

§31. Besides, this sense is impertinent to the AposuVs What i> 
purpose; who when he saith, ven 29, "Let the prophets i fl 
speak two or three, and let the others judge," speaketh of jj 1 ^? 1 
things brought from home, and conceived afore the time prophet* 
of meeting, as you may see, ver* 26, " When you come to- 

■ Sect, i ;>. 

* In chap. ti. sect. 20 — 23. 

• 1 S*m, xix. 20— 21. 

' Co[»titutiunc*d« fimdtiTiicM*'* l.tgh 

Rabbi Mosi*. F* M*jemoni4i«. Utine 
reddlta per GtiJidmuin Voratium* p, 
9*1 Amstclod. 1638. 



chap, gather every one of you hath a psalm," and so forth. But 

: when he Baith, ver. 30, **If revelation be made to another 

as he sitteth, let the first hold his peace/* he speakcth of 
that which is inspired at the instant of time. And therefore 
it seenieth more reasonable to conceive that the Apostle, 
when he saith, ven 31, "yc may all prophesy one by one/' 
rendereth a reason for what he had said in commanding them 
to speak by turns, that all might contribute to the edification iss 
of the Church, as it followed* there, "that all may learn, 
and all may be comforted :" but when he addeth, M And the 
spirits of tbe prophets are subject to the prophets/' he 
rendereth a reason for what he said in commanding the 
others to judge, because if some should not yield to the 
judgment of others, the confusion and unquiet ness ensuing 
hereupon might be imputed to the ordinance of God. Theo- 
dore^, after Su Chrysostom : Ita Jesus suhjivtebatur Most, 
ka Bliz&us Elia!, ita ipsi Eliz&o multitudo prapkrtaritnu ita 
ipsi Apastolo TimothciiSj et Titus, et reliqui, " So was Joshua 
subject to Moses, so Eliseus to Elias, so a number of prophets 
to Kliseus, so Timothy, Titus, and tbe rest, to the Apostle-" 
And this sense Calvin embraccth h > According to which, the 
judgment whereof the Apostle speakcth — if we conceive it to 
concern im mediate inspirations — must not be understood to 
call them to account, as for the truth of that which the 
Holy Ghost indlteth, but to consist in judging the meaning 
and consequence of things inspired, which even the persona 
from whom they came — though not ignorant throughout, as 
not bereft of their senses and understanding in prophesying— 
yet were not able themselves to sound to the bottom. 
fimtaiieii § 32, Do we not see the Prophet Daniel, ix, % studying 

about the seventy years which the Prophet Jeremiah had 159 
foretold for the desolations of Jerusalem, whereupon he 
prayeth and obtaineth the revelation of the seventy weeks? 
and the Apostle, 1 Pet. u 10, 11, expressly affirmeth that the 
ancient prophets, who prophesied of salvation by Christ, 
searched and inquired diligently about it, and the time of 
it, whereof the Spirit within them prophesied. And to shew 
that it was no otherwise with them that were endued with 

of such 
iu the 
OIJ Tm» 

tame 1 it. J 

* Comm. in I acI Corinth, xiv, 32. 
p. lfl& cd. Sirmond Priris. 1012. 

* In Iqco. 



like spiritual graces under the New Testament, it is to be chap. 
observed with what earnest obtestations the Apostle dcaleth — — 
with the Thcssalonians, 2 Ep. ii. 2, not to be troubled 
as if the day of Christ were at hand, either by spirit* or 
by word* or by letter as from us. For if the Spirit spake 
it* how are they otherwise to be persuaded ? Is it because 
the Apostle speaketh of pretended inspirations? so it is 
said indeed \ but them he had instructed them to discern, 
1 Thess, v. 21* How then shall we think that the Apostle 
hescccheth them not to he moved with that which the Spirit 
spake, but as it might be a meaning collected out of words 
spoken by some man that had such graces ? and therefore 
in 1 Tim, iv, 1, the Apostle thus writeth, To £e Uvevfia ptfrwq 
Xeyeu " The Spirit speakcth expressly , n saith the Apostle, 
making that a different thing from the meaning apprehended, 
160 or collected from things which the Spirit spake, 


§ 33. And to my apprehension we have an eminent instance [in iht 
hereof in the Apostle himself, who having had a revelation, 
Acts xix. 21, by which he " purposed in the Spirit, when he 
had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jeru- 
salem, saying, after I have been there, 1 must also see 
Rome;** under this resolution writeth to the Romans in that 
epistle dated not long afterwards, xv. 23, *' that he had now 
noplace in those parts:" and to the elders of Ephesus noi 
long after that thus speakcth, Acts xx, £5, "I know that ye 
all among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom of God, 
shall see my face no more.* All which nevertheless, being 
afterwards at Rome, he writeth to the Philippians from 
thence, it. £4, **that he hopcth to come to them shortly." 
And to Philemon, in the parts of Asia, about the same time, 
ver, 22, fi to prepare him a lodging, as hoping to be granted 
to them through their prayers:" things which can noways 
stand with that which he had written afore, that he had no 
longer place in those parts ; and that the Epbesians should 
see htm no more: and all this no more inconvenience in the 
Apostle than this, that upon his revelation he conceived God 
had appointed that which afterwards, upon the success of his 
affairs, he was in hope would come to pass otherwise : nor 

1 Spirit us nomine fie t as proplietuiR ii. 2. So also Beza on the pi nee. 
.jit — Calvin. Coinni. in 2 The*s. 


more inconvenience that this should be related in Scripture, til 
than that the speeches of Job's friends should have a place 
in it, of whom it is said, [chap* ariii. 7»] "They have not spoken 
aright of Me as My servant Job hath done," If this please 
not, or if it seem not general enough, to satisfy the meaning 
of the Apostle's words, it may be said in larger terms, that 
all that which the prophets by help of human discourse con- 
ceived and uttered for and in their public assemblies, upon 
the grounds of their particular revelations, is here called the 
"spirits of the prophets," Which therefore must needs be sub- 
ject to the judgment of other prophets* 

§ 34. Thus then, when the Apostle willeth the others to 
judge of that which two or three prophets shall say, as he 
appointcth at their meetings, his meaning is, not only of that 
which by the way of common reason and ordinary skill shall 
be said in exposition of the Scripture ; but even those things 
which are spoken by inspiration, which he calleth " the spirits 
of the prophets," he will have subject to the judgment of the 
prophets, so far as conccrneth the meaning and consequence 
of them, to be measured by the rest of the Scriptures. And 
to this purpose it seemeth he ordereth the use of those spi- 
ritual graces which are poured upon this Church of Corinth 
in such abundance, that it was haul to find a course for all 
of them to employ their gifts so, that all might have oppor- 
tunity by turns, if not at the same meeting, to use their grace 
in prophesying, that the Church might be edified by it ; and 
that others might by the gift of discerning spirits judge the 
meaning of those things that were spoken by the Spirit, so 
that the Church might receive no such offence as that which 
the Thessalonians did, in conceiving from things that were 
spoken by the Spirit, that the day of the Lord was at hand 162 
at that time. Though it is nevertheless to be thought that 
this course, of speaking by many at the same assembly, was 
practised in the synagogue, especially when divers scribes 
and doctors were present; as also some traces of the same 
custom have continued in the practice of the Church. 
The cus- § 35. Beza expounding the words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. 
primitive x *- 10* "Therefore ought a woman to have power over her 
of b muir " em * Decaase °f tac Angels," to be meant of the ministers of 
preaching Churches : Utitur aufem plurali numero, fudd in maxima dono- 



rum Dei abundantia, non tantum apud Corinthian ut apparet CHAP. 

infra, xiv. 39, sed etiam ohm in aliis EcclesiiSj non unm solus, — 

sed etiam oini et terni in cmtibus mens sermonem haberent, ut nswmbiy 
de preedaris aliis plurinm donis taeeam, de quihus noster Apo- benct\ 
stains infrii* xiv, 2iL Quod etiam liquet ex Tertulliani Apolo- 
getico 3 et cjuibusdam in Anthchena Ecclesia Chrjfsostomi Ifomi- 
IiU, " Now he speak eth in the plural number, because for 
the abundance of God's graces, not only amongst the Corin- 
thians, as appcareth beneath, xiv* 39, hut also in other 
Churches of old time, not one alone, but two or three spake 
at religious assemblies. Which also appeareth by Tertulliani 
Apologetic, and some Homilies of Chrysostom in the Church 
of Antiochia." Tcrtull. Apolog*cap. xxxtx* : Certvjidem Sanctis 
vocibus ptucinitiSi spem erifjhnus* Jiduciam Jitjimtts, disciplinam 
v\:\ prtPeeptarum n ih Horn ten i mcu lea (ton ib it s den sa m us. Ibidem ctia m 
exhortationes, eastigationcs, et censura dirina* ** Certainly with 
these holy words we nourish faith, we erect our hope, we 
fasten our confidence ; as much wc compact our discipline, 
repeating the rules of iL There also exhortations, reproofs, 
and the censure of God:*' speaking of reading and expound- 
ing the Scriptures in their assemblies. Whether or no these 
be the words which he meaner h, I know not; I find nothing 
else in that book to the purpose. 

§ 36, But it is clear which he saith of Su Chrysostom* 
In Ferrarius De ritu Concionum, ii. 40, you shall find the 
passages of his Homilies (narked, in which he signineth that 
the Bishop was to preach when he had done k . And in one 
passage related out of him in Baronius, Ann, Ivii, n. 160 1 , he 
testifieth in express terms that this custom of the Church 
was but a figure and monument of those graces which had 
flourished in the primitive. Adding further, that when the 
preacher blessed, or, as they call it, saluted the people at his 
beginning with these or the like words, "The Lord he with 
you," the people answering — as the fashion was — which yet 

1 These and other* are cited by Bing- 
ham. Antiq. book xiv. c. *, Rt-ot. 6 t 

1 Eccle*. AniiaL, torn. L Ami* Ivii- n, 
]ti2.eo\ Llica. The passage of St rhry- 
BOBtom in a* follows; Nfr|i Tck tr&n$oba 

vov koI yhp jcal vvv tivo ^ 7 pus x4yofLtv t 
jt aj d*"A ntpoti koI trtpov aty&vr&s Irtpot 

&pX* rat i <*AA& trrifLeta ratrra. jjuIvqv la- 

dp£u^ir0a Acyf ip, b Aubf aiTitpdiyytrai. 
Tuf wvtvfiarL trav, fowvvS Brt rbwahaibv 
afrWf fKryov t quk oiKftq d"tx^%, AAAi 
Ty wtvpaTi KivQViMvoL—MomW. 3(i. in 
I ad Corinth. liv. ad Jin. p. 487* torn, 
ui. ed. Suvil. 




remaineth In one place of our service — a And with thy spi- 
rit i" the meaning of this answer had reference to the spiri- 
tual inspired grace out of which they were known to speak at 
the beginning* Gregory Nyssene, Ek rijv eavrou yttp&ro* 
itlavy Ni igitur hmgiu* roUrj J rut res* sermonis exordium pratra-lGt 
humus, cum minficis torum qui ante nos dixerunt orationihus 
operant iedtrUU m . w Therefore, brethren, not to draw you 
out the beginning of my speech too much in length, having' 
taken pains to hear the admirable sermons of those that have 
spoken before me." But of all the rest the book called the 
Constitutions of the Apostles most in particular, ii # 57, Kal 
If*?? irapaKaKetTwtrav ot Trpea-fivrepoi top Xootf, 6 tcaSeh avrmv^ 
uXkd /jJf airaVTei*, teal TcXei/rato? irdvrmv & eTritrKowo^, ws* feufett 
Kv/3epv?JTr}* "Then," saith he — when the Gospel is read — 
"let the presbyters exhort the people one by one, not all at 
once, and after all the Bishop, as it is fitting for the master to 
do." For here you see how the order of the Apostle was 
sometimes practised in the Church when the Bishop preached 
in the last place, after one or more of the presbyters. 

The pads 

nt that 
work <if 
Godl -it- 

vico Tor 



Thus far then have we travelled in the first part of our 
business propounded, inquiring the Apostle's meaning in this 
whole discourse, intended to regulate the use of spiritual 


* Quoted from Ferrari us. Gun nlv 

ii, pp. 40, 41. P»rU. 1538. 
& Br, m the text of Cotekriua, 



graces proper to that time in their assemblies, by comparing 
the particulars of it with that which is found remembered 
in the Scriptures to the like purpose, How wide soever 
these things may be thought from my intent — as having 
nothing to do with the particulars which the Apostle here 
ordereth— to mc it shall seem a great gain for the pains 
bestowed here, that from hence we may collect the substance 
of those things which are to be done at the religious assem- 
blies of Christians — the particulars of that work for which we 
assemble ourselves ; which are no other, according to the 

166 Apostle, than our common service expresscth in the en- 
trance to it , c * to set forth II is most worthy praise, to hear 
His most holy word*' — which must be understood according 
to the purpose and opportunities of several assemblies, either 
read or expounded, as the meaning of it hath always been 
declared by practice— u and to ask those things which be 
requisite and necessary, as well for the body as the soul." 
The same hath Tertullian expressed to have been the busi- 
ness of the primitive Christians at their assemblies, De Anim, 
cap. ix*: ° Jam verb prout Svripturm kgunhtr s aut Psahni canun- 
ttir 3 out adhmitionej? prqfenmtur f ant petition** delcgantur^ tiii 
inde matcriee vUiouibus submhmtmittur. '* Now, as the Scrip- 
tures are read, or Psalms sung, or exhortations produced, or 
prayers preferred, so is matter ministered to her visions," 

§ 2« In his Apologetic, chap, xxxix., and in Justin Mar- 
tyr's first Apology p — -where they describe to the powers of 
the empire what die Christians did at their assemblies — of 
singing Psalms there is no remembrance, the rest are the 
same particulars. There can be no question made that their 
practice was derived from the Apostles, when we consider 
how much this discourse of the Apostle inferreth, in which 
we have seen the Psalms and the prayers which those, that 
were endued with spiritual graces, composed and conceived on 
the behalf of the Church, as hath been shewed q : where ncver- 

l G7 theless he hath expressed the part that particular persons 
bear, when he saith, u Every man or woman praying or pro- 
phesying, 1 * that is, pggjng of Psalms, as hath been declared 
afore r . In like sort, whatsoever rules he givcth to order the 




° See note y* chap. v. sect. 9. 
* See Prim. Govern., chap. 


sect 4-. 

•» * Chap. y. secL 18. 




Psabni of 

course of prophesying among them, proceed from supposition 
of reading the Scriptures afore, to the exposition whereof he 
willeth them to contribute the fruit of their graces. And this 
in the first place I make account to be gained without contra- 
diction from this discourse of the Apostle, that all these are 
substantial parts of that work for which we go to church j all 
of them principals, none of them accessories, in it 

§ 3. The setting forth of God's praises in Psalms of thanks- 
giving you shall see to be that part of moral and perpetual 
JuWftiire C service, the order whereof is most particularly remembered in 
of it the Old Testament in Solomon's temple. As the sacrifice 

was burning upon the Altar, and the wine-onering pouring 
out on it, and the priests blowing with the trumpets in the 
court of the sanctuary, which was their ceremonial and figu- 
rative service, in the mean time the Levites stood upon their 
pulpits in the outer courts where the men or women of Israel 
were licensed to come, singing the psalms of God's praises- 
Times of their assemblies were prescribed by the law of 
Moses, as you have seen*, but no order for any particular in 
work of spiritual service to be performed at them is there 
remembered. Not to make a doubt that other offices were 
frequented > together with the exposition of the law, as the 
custom and opportunity served ; but to shew that the psalms of 
God's praises, for the ordinary daily practice whereof such ex- 
press order was taken and remembered, must by no means be 
reckoned of the by, but of the main of God's public service. 

§ 4. And if we should go further to shew that this was no 
personal service of the Levites alone, but of the whole con- 
gregation of God's people assembled there ; and that it is so 
acceptable with God in this regard, because His praise ap-* 
peareth more glorious when His people join together in set- 
ting it forth, we might produce a great part of the book of 
Psalms, wherein David and other persons, inspired by the 
Holy Ghost, have cither expressed or stirred up the affections 
of the whole congregation to that work, and recommended 
the service of God which it yieldeth. Psalm xxxiv. 3, "O 
magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt His name toge- 
ther." cxlix. 1, u O sing unto the Lord a new song, and His 
praise in the congregation of the saints." Ixxxiv. 4, " Blessed 

* Chap. ii. sect. 1, 



are they that dwell in Thine house, they will he still praising CHAP. 
Thee.** He commendeth die condition of priests and Levites, 

J6& but he desireth as far as he can to make it his own. cxvii. 
when he singcth, " O praise God ail ye people, praise Him 
all ye nations;" the Apostle sheweth lis that this is accom- 
plished when the Gentiles submit themselves to the Church, 
Rom. xv. 1 1 ; and so is all the rest of like nature, Psalm c. 4 f 
" O go your way Into His gates with thanksgiving, and into 
His courts with praise ; be thankful unto II im, and bless His 

§ 5. But shall we believe that these things are accom- 
plished in merely believing the Gospel, or in serving Htm 
according to it, as they are required to do in the Scriptures 
that foresaw it? In fine, St Augustine hath instructed us 
that the Psalms are to be understood in the person of David, 
or [of] him that composed them by the Holy Ghost* in the 
first place \ hut afterwards, they belong to the person of 
Christ first, and then to His mystical body the Church 5 so 
whatsoever is there read in the singular number hath the last 
resort of the meaning in the congregation of God's people ; 
but those things that are couched in the plural number there 
cannot properly be understood to proceed from particular 
persons ; every "praise ye," every "hallelujah," is owned of 
none but assemblies. Besides, it expresscth to us the interest 
which the honour of God hath in every thing of this nature 
that is public. Could it be supposed that the same thing 

170 were done, the same praises yielded to God by each man in 
private which all men yield Him in common, there is no 
Christian that is sensible of the body of Christ, and the fel- 
lowship of all members of it, could think these to be both one 
to God's service, because the Spirit that maketh this body 
one requiretb of each member of it a particular influence in 
the common office. Hearts endued with several graces to 
God are like several voices to the ear- But we are far from 
supposing this : many men may think that they need not go 
to Church for those offices which they do at home : but they 
ought to think what the common sort of Christians might do 
if assemblies were not held: as the matter is, the service 
which the best are able to yield unto God is much improved 
by joining with the rest of His members — but should we noL 

p 2 






and • ill - 
Cfiny tit 


assemble for that purpose, the hearts of plain simple mem- 
bers, which now are most acceptable to God, would be able 
to move little in this work, the order of the congregation not 
guiding them in it Last of all, be it considered that this is 
the employment of the other world : when men's desires are 
all satisfied, and all the subject of prayers possessed, the 
Angels, the elders about the throne of God, and all the peo- 
ple of Jews and Gentiles which encompass it, Rev. vii. 9, 
cease not to join in the praises of God, when the Church is 17 
become perfectly one. 

§ 6. As for the prayers of Christian assemblies, we know 
upon what patent they stand. Matth. xviii, 19, 20, "Again 
I say unto you, that if two of you shall agree on earth as 
touching any thing they shall ask, it shall be done for them 
of My Father which is in heaven, For where two or three 
are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst 
of them." And we know that all service of God at that time 
had reference to the temple at Jerusalem, which reference 
our Lord abrogateth in His speech with the Samaritan, John 
iv. 21, 23, substituting the worship of God in spirit anil 
truth, instead of the ceremonial worship of the temple, upon 
which all depended at that time. We must know further, 
that by the rules of the synagogue, under ten that are of 
years there is no congregation. Before that number of such 
as are come to years be present they go not to prayers ; but 
OUT Lord, intending to free His Church of all rules that 
might abridge the privileges of it— knowing that occasions 
might fall out to diminish the number of His people that 
desired to assemble— -assure th them of His presence in the 
midst of them, where the least number agree in the things 
which they desire at His hands. But if the reason of His 
presence among them be their agreement in their desires, 
then two or three that agree in their desires, with opposition 17 
to the rest of the congregation, shall not be heard ; but if 
they agree with the congregation, then must they, and will 
they* assemble with it to obtain their desires at God's hands* 

§ 7. The Apostle, I Tim. ii, 8, "I will therefore," saith he, 
"that men pray every where, lifting up pure hands without 
wrath or disputing." Beza there, His verbis tullilur llierasafy- 
mitani tempH rtrcntiist/nitia hgalis : et i$ta respondent verbis 




MaL i. 11, Joan, iv\ 21. Omnem tamem locum Intel lige sacris CHAP. 
nilihiis dtstinatum* Agit enim Paulas tie puhlicis precibus in - 
cammuni co?iventu, ut in toto orbe terra rum pura hme sacri/tvia 
Deo offeraniur, dc quibus apud Mahichmm agitttr. "These 
words," t in every place,' " Lake away the legal circumstance of 
the temple at Jerusalem. And this agree tli with the words 
MaL i, 1 1, John iv. 21. But understand 'every place* of such 
lis arc appointed for holy assemblies- For Paul speakcth of 
common prayers at public mee tings, that those pure sacrifices 
of which the Prophet Malachi speaketh be offered to God all 
over the world." When the Apostle forbiddcth wrath and 
disputing in their praycrs s it is plain enough his meaning is 
of their assemblies, the fruit whereof he would not have inter- 
cepted through their dissensions* A strange thing that men 
should so forget the communion of saints, as to think of the 
public prayers of the Church no otherwise than of those 
173 which they know they can make at home 1 : as who should say 
that the incense of the temple which the Psalm spcakcth of, 
cxIL 2, "Let my prayer be directed before Thee as the in- 
cense,' 1 made no other perfume than the spices would do 
were they burnt one by one, Cohnus in tiCBhsm et congrega- 
tionem ut ad Deum quasi manu factd precathnibus ambiamus 
or antes* H&c vis Deo grata est TcrtulL Apolog. cap. xxxix. 
" We come together into the assembly and congregation, that, 
as in a body, we may approach God in prayer. This violence 
is welcome to God." He that is earnestly desirous to obtain 
those things which the Church praycth for at God's hands, 
will think his pains well bestowed to join so much strength to 
his suit as the favour of the congregation with God affords. 

§ 8. The Jews have an opinion that the prayers of the 
congregation are always heard t not so the prayers of particu- 
lar persons in private. Maimoni of Prayer, cap. viit. num. ]. 
They have deserved to void the truth of this opinion as for 
the favourable part of it, but the promise of our Lord hath 
enlarged it to us. Again, ui dW!?1* " And always," saith he, 
" let a man go morning and evening to the synagogue, for his 

1 "Such » prescript (arm (as the Scot* God's people ; Ubay truuj a* urll */«y ut 

tUb) to against the glory of God in horn*, *irnl hr rrfijivif bg r aadiq g tkd too* 

b tinting to Him auch a daily measure tkemttfor**' — Reason a fur which I lie 

of aemce. . . * , It quenches the Holy Service- book urged upon Scotland 

Spirit, became He get* no employ- ought to he re (used, p* 15, A.D* l(i» Jti 
mi-iii. It hinder* the edifieatioa of 


tin Scrip- 
tures a 
I mil of 


prayer is not heard always but in the synagogue : and he that 
dwelleth in a city where there is a synagogue and prayeth 
not there with the congregation, this is he that is called a bad 
neighbour." Well may he be called a bad neighbour that 
will not lend his neighbour's prayers the strength of his own ; 174 
but himself findeth the fruit of his own bad neighbourhood 
when his own prayers want the assistance of his neighbour's, 
The Church is one in faith and one in love to this purpose, 
that all that hold the unity of it may find the strength of the 
whole in the effect of their own prayers. This is that " one 
shoulder" and that ** one lip" of the Prophet Zephaniab 11 ; one 
shoulder to crowd into God's service, one lip to praise Him 
with. Tliis is that " mountain of God " in the Prophet Isaiah 
unto which he foretelielh that all nations should flow: where- 
upon the rule of the Jews is, to run to the synagogue, but to 
come easily from thence ; Maimoni, cap, viiL num. 2, ^31 nvXDU 
** And we are commanded to run to the synagogue. As it is 
said, Hob. vi. 3, * And we shall know, we shall drive on to 
know the Lord/" 

§ 9; Neither is it to be thought that the public service of 
the Church can stand without reading the Scriptures, how 
easy soever some men imagine it is to do it at home. First, 
from the beginning of moral and not ceremonial service in 
synagogues, it hath appeared that it was wont to be read 
there as the subject for those speeches that followed for the 
exposition of it: we know we have the law of Moses distin- 
guished into divisions, answerable to the number of weeks in 
the year, that it might begin and end with it: and you shall 17* 
find afterwards an order of reading the law in public as an- 
cient as Nchemiah T s time. The lessons of the prophets cor- 
respondent to these, how ancient soever they be — Eliaa the 
Levite T deriveth them from the time of Antiochus Epiphaues, 
as if the Jews began to practise them when he had forbidden 
them to read the law of Moses — we know our Lord Christ 
took one of them for the subject of His sermon at Nazareth, 
as His Apostle stood up at Antiochia "after the reading of 
the law and the prophets 1 ," Certain it is, that from hence 

- See chap, L leot, 2. 
* Thiitbitet in wr TOD* p* 167* la- 
ma: in Al^avii, 1541. Quoted by Wl* 

tring* de Synagojre Vetera, lib. i». p. 2. 
eap. si. p. iuotf. Fraoeqoer, 1G0B. 
m St. Luke iv, 16 ; Act§ liil 14, *% 



hath been continued the custom of Lessons of the Old and < 
New Testament in the Church to the same purpose* 

§ 10. Justin Martyr in his first Apology x f T$ tqv 'HXlov 
XeyofLhfji rjpipa, wdvrwv tcard wakcis rj aypoi/f pLEVQitrw hrl 
to airro ovviXev&w yiverat, teal ra airo^v7}^ov€VjMaTa Tutv 
* A7rQ(TTQk<&Vy ^ ra ai/yypdfxpLara tow Upo^rfrt^p amy ivaxr Ke- 
ren p£%pt$ iy^mpei' €tra Travtrafihtov tqv avaywrnrKovro^^ 6 
irpoe&Tuy? 8ta Xoyov Ttjif vov$€a-(ap teal irpOKkifGiv T% rmv 
naXuw tqvtwp /ii/i^d'cw^ wotelTat, ** On the day called Sun- 
day, all that abide in towns or the countries about meet in 
one place, and the records of the Apostles, or the writings of 
the Prophets are read, as far as occasion serve th. Then the 
reader having done, the president in a speech instructeth, 
and exhorteth to the imitation of such excellent things." 
The words have a place here because the author is so an- 
176 cient : otherwise the matter is plain enough, were it but from 
that we had in the Constitutions of the Apostles % for no ques- 
tion the custom hath been very general to begin the sermon 
when the lessons of the Epistles and Gospels were done. 
And hereupon it is that preachers among the Latin Church 
writers are called tractatores 9 and truetare t to preach, and St. 
Augustine's exposition upon St. John is called tractatus, be- 
cause it was preached to the people. All this because they 
handled the Serin tures which were read. And Opt at us 
charging the Donatists and Parmcnianus, that their fashion 
was to leave the exposition of their texts, the lessons read, to 
fall on railing upon the Catholics, lib. iv.": Nulhts vestram 
[est qui nan convitia nostra suis tractatibus misceatj qui nan 
aliud initiet, athtd expHcet ; leetimtes Dominican incipitis, et 
tracttitus vestros ad nostras injurtas expUcatis • prafertis evanfje- 
linm f et facitis ahsenti fratri eonvitmnu " There is none of 
you," saith he, " but [mingleth revilings of us in their trac- 
tates, but] beglnneth one thing and expoundeth another: ye 
begin with the lessons of the Lord, but ye pursue your trac- 
tates to our wrong : ye produce the Gospel, but ye revile 
your brother in his absence*** Hereupon the name of trac- 
tatares staudeth sometime in opposition to eanamci and an- 
thmttici; to preserve the difference between the authority of 

f Apnlog. L cap, 67. p. S3* cd. Beti* 
■ Chap, v. sect* 36. 

* De Schism. DoiihL, lih 
pp. 73. 7-*. Antverp. 1702* 


The neces- 
sity and 

HTLCf i 

rif preach* 
j r :■,' for ex- 
[to uncling 
the Scrip- 


Scripture and whatsoever words it is expounded with. A 
difference not to be smothered between the Scripture and 
the best exposition of it that a man can imagine. 

{11. There is one thing that bindereth the effect of the 
Scripture when it is read, that is, because it is not under- 
stood. Thereupon cometh the office of preaching in the 
Church, to expound the word of God ; and that which Is 
preached hath the force and virtue of the word of God, be- 
cause the word of God is not the letters and syllables, but the 
sense and meaning of the Scriptures. But all men are capa- 
ble more or less of understanding the Scriptures as they are 
read ; and no man u rulers tan deth them so well but may im- 
prove by hearing them read in the Church. Let those tl 
slight this part of the Church-service b take order first, thai 
all congregations shall be perfect in the knowledge of the 
Scriptures. And yet were that come to pass we must not 
give way to leave it out : the better they are acquainted with 
it the more shall they improve in the understanding of it, by 
bearing it repeated. But so far as it is understood it is a 
thing strange and admirable, that any man living should 
imagine that the effect thereof in enlightening the mind, or 
converting the heart, is less when it is read than when it Is 
expounded out of the pulpit. The one the word of God as 
the Holy Ghost inspired it, the other no less, so far as it 
departcth riot from that which is written, but always subject* 
so long as man is subject to error and mistake, to depart from 17s 
it. And when this precious wine is once dashed with the 
water of human apprehensions it is no offence to me that it is 
still called the word of God ; for so it should be, and so it is 
presumed to be, till it appear otherwise ; but it will concern 
every man to look about him, that he pin not on God his 
own infirmities. As for the necessity and excellence of 
preaching, let all them that are most affected to it examine 
their reasons, and they shall not ascribe more to it than here 
shall be done* 

b "The Epistlea and Gospels read 
in their Churches is a practice liken 
wholly from Rome, and they use the 
very mimo which the others dn. This 
chapping and hacking of the Scriptures 
— thifi rending of it a-pieces one from 
another, i* contrary to the order whirh 

God hath ordained, and His Churches 
practised from time to time, and there- 
fore the non- con form ista have desired 
that it might he taken away as an evil 
thing/' — Cannes Neeess, of Separnt., 
chap, ii. scci r 1, pp. 1n7 f 108. 



§ 12. Here, if any where, that difference hath place which 
divines make of things necessary to salvation : some as means, 
without which it cannot he had in any case ; others as things 
commanded to he done, without which it is not to he had for 
those that are under that command and do them not c . He 
that in his ripe years hath learned so much of the Christian 
faith as to be informed in the means of our reconcilement to 
God, and that condition of life which it required], believing 
the one, and submitting to the other, and desiring. His bap- 
tism in consequence ; as he that was baptized an infant, and 
when he cometh to years of knowledge doeth the like, as it 
coneerneth his case to do, what wautcth such a man to set 
him in the state of salvation that can be counted necessary 
179 means of it ? what should hinder him with old Simeon to 
sing his Nunc dimitti& 3 should it please God to take him in 
that estate? But because that condition of life which Chris- 
tians undertake professcth to do all things out of olx*dience to 
the will of God, and with intention of I lis honour and ser- 
vice, therefore those things which, in the latitude of their 
kind and nature, are necessary but as things commanded to 
be done, become necessary as means of salvation to those that 
are under that command. He that by his own fault is igno- 
rant of that which it coneerneth him to believe, or to do for 
the discharge of his profession to God, — he that sufferelh 
himself to be abused, to be diverted and led aside by the 
deceits of the world and his corrupt inclinations, for WfUkt of 
that warning and advice whereof God appointeth him the 
means — -he must needs fail of his profession to God, in fulfil- 
ing whereof the means of salvation consistetb : but he must 
take it upon his own account that he faileth of it* 

J 1 3, Upon these considerations we are to value the neces- 
sity of preaching in respect of particular persons. Upon these 
considerations we are to value how much it must needs con- 
cern all Christian commonwealths to furnish the means; all 

Est alia nrctMsiiai medli alia prr- 

cepti, ut $chols loqiiuntur. Necewitss 
roedji facit, ut homines servari ntrjue- 
ant. nisj reapse* nut saltern deaiderio 
Sac r amenta suscipUut. Neccssita* 
veru MMCpd oMigat ad Sacrum en ta 
suscipienila, nisi junta causa imperii at. 
Necessitate mean nccesaaria Hunt Bap- 
fiWH et Peetutcntfa; et Baptismus 

quid em omnibus, Pccnitentia vero lap* 
sia post Baptisumm : reliqua vero Sa- 
crament* tantum ex divino poMftptfl 
censentur T nee tanien omnia 
singulis: nnn t-nim fiinpjitlos homines 
sacrisordinihu* iiutiari, nut mivtrimomo 
junpii n ec esse est, — CaTallar. Inst ilur. 
Can, |hir. ii. p. 6, i & Matriti, 1821, 






Christian Churches to take order that it may be done. As 
the means to bring men to know, as the means to move men 
to embrace those means, without which they cannot be saved: ISO 
as the means to instruct them more and more, to guide them 
from time to time in a straight course both of their judgment 
and doings. These considerations notwithstanding, if the ques- 
tion be made which is the chief work for which Christians 
assemble, to hear the Scriptures expounded by preaching* or 
to serve God in their prayers; there is a visible advantage 
due to this latter, because it is a means nearer the end of both, 

§ 14, It cannot be dented that all preaching is to the pur- 
pose of informing the mind, or moving the heart to desire 
that which is good indeed : but prayer being the actual de- 
sire of it, is the exercise of the means which God ordaineth 
to procure it- But otherwise, if we compare the work of 
ministering the prayers of the Church with that of minister- 
ing the doctrine of the Scripture upon the considerations 
premised, it must be affirmed that preaching is the chief work 
which the ministers of the Church, from their office, are able 
to contribute towards the public service of God* Because the 
other part of it may be ministered to the same purpose by 
men of common sense, whereas this requireth those personal 
abilities which all men have not. For one may be the mouth 
of the congregation hi prayer to as good purpose in alt 
regards in following a prescript form, as exercising his wit 
and understanding about it- — suppose this for the present igi 
which shall be proved afterwards— and therefore we see in 
the primitive Church most parts of the service were referred 
to inferior ministers* They had such as read the lessons* 
such as sung the Psalms, and a great part of the prayers were 
done by deacons. 

§ 15* And though many men are so eager to have all 
ministers to be the mouth of the congregation in conceiving 
prayers at the instant d ; yet no man shall persuade me that 

I *t Anrl wheren* the minister by the 
Scripture is the people's month t» Gud, 
this hook prescribes respormotiA to he 
said by the people Tlur Homi- 
lies . . . . ate left free either to be read 
or not by preaching minister*, and why 
nor then the Liturgy r especially con- 
hide ring that the ability to offer up the 

people's wants to God in prayer ik part 
etf j he ministerial office us well its 
preaching. And if it can be thought no 
tesft than sacrilege to rob the people of 
the ministers 1 gift in preaching and to 
tie them to H until its, it can be no le&a 
to deprive Lhem of their gift in prayer/' 
— Smectymnuus, sect ii. pp. 12, 13. 



their meaning is to place the best of their performance either 
in the conceptions or in the language wherein they express 
the desires thereof to God, for these sure make no difference 
to Him, so there be no offence- The best they can contribute 
is the devotion of the heart which they pray with, wherein 
they are but one of the congregation : the meanest of it may 
bring as good as they are able to do. But in preaching, a 
man's knowledge in the Scriptures— his abilities to express his 
knowledge to the capacity of his audience — his discretion in 
addressing it to their particular without offence, will either be 
seen or missed. And therefore whosoeirer com mend eth the 
price and value of the work, for due reasons must needs call 
to mind how difficult it is. For he that cometh to expound 
the Scripture to the people must understand it aright before 
he cometh to expound it, and that understanding cometh not 

182 in these days by the immediate Inspiration of the Spirit, but 
is allotted to human endeavours, in those that in the fear of 
God take pains about the means which He hath provided for 
it* And in delivering no more than a man's knowledge, 
there fall out many times these failings*, which, like E1F& 
sons, may make the offering of God to be loathed, and the 
ministry of God contemptible. And though all Scripture, 
as saith the Apostle, 1 Tim. Hi. 15, "is profitable for doc- 
trine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in right- 
eousness," yet may all this be so unseasonably ministered 
that the effect may prove offence, though the end be amend- 

§ 16. It cannot be said with justice that this truth is 
acknowledged here to abate the esteem of this work, which 
tendeth indeed to enhance the diligence of them which do it 
But this must be averred, that unless men and abilities be 
provided for the work, as well as the work for them, it may 
prove a sword in a bhnd man's hand, to wound the Church 
as well as the enemies of it. Though all that hitherto hath 
been said to the nature and use of these particulars of public 
service pretendeth to shew no more but this, that they are all 
principals and substanttals, no accessories in it. That the 
praise of God in Psalms, the reading of the Scriptures, is not, 
by the nature of the work, and the primitive custom of the 

1S3 Church, to while out the time till the congregation be assem- 





The Eu- 
ctwriit the 
chief part 
of public 


bled*: that the prayers of the Church are not, in the main 
intent of iheni, to usher in the sermon, or to leave impression 
of it in men*s minds afterwards, but for the procuring of all 
necessaries of the congregation, and each particular of it, so 
far as general order can comprise* 

§ 17* Hitherto hath nothing been said of the chief part of 
puhlie service among Christians, that is, of celebrating and 
n« riving the lord's Supper; the Eucharist, which from the 
beginning of the profession and name of Christians was fre- 
quented as the chief part of public service in most of their 
assemblies, now, because it is not of such continual use, is not 
mentioned among the rest at the beginning of our service* 
For the present I press no more but the words of the Apo- 
stle, as they seem to be expounded by a passage of Ignatius, 
to shew what effect the prayers of the congregation have in 
the consecration of that Sacrament, and the effect of it For 
it is a fearful word of the Apostle, 1 Cor. xL 20, 21, where 
having charged the divisions among them to be the cause 
that their assemblies were not for the better but for the worse, 
he proceedeth thus; u When ye come together therefore into 
one place, this is not to eat the Lord's Supper : for in eating 
every one takcth before other his own supper : and one is 18 
hungry, and another is drunken. 1 ' It is plain it was the Lord's 
Supper they intended to celebrate, therefore if they received 
it not through their own fault it must needs be sacrilege on 
their hands. The fault is plain enough, as well neglect of the 
congregation, out of the schisms that were among them, as 
their excess in particular* 

§ 18. Take the words of Ignatius to expound the Apostle ; 
they are the words of one that drank at his spring and spake 
to the same purpose ; EpisL ad EphesJ : MqlkU TrXavu<r$w 
iap fir} ti% $ eVro? rov Buo-taart}piov f voTepetrcu rov aprov 
rofu &eav~ "Let no man be deceived, if a man be not within 
the Altar he cometh short of the bread of God, 7 * " lie that is 

■ This will be explained by the fol- 
low iug extract from Archbishop Laud's 
diary, Nov. 14, lu'itf — n I desired his 
Majesty King Charles, that he would 
j) It-use tO be present at prayers tii wfU 
MM rtvrif Sunday, and I hat at 
whatsoever part of the prayers he 
rame, the priest Uihi officiating might 
proceed to the end of the praytTs* The 

moit religious king not only assented 
to this request, but aNo gave AM 
thanks for it* TbU had not before 
been done from the beginning of King 
J.i j in -s's reign to thii day. Now thanks 
be to God it obtaineth/* — p. 37, Lon- 
don, 10P5, See also Cypmnua Angli- 
ms p. 293. London, 1671. 
' Cap. v, p, la. ed. Coteler. 



within the Altar," with Ignatius, is he that communicateth CHAR 

with the Church : in imitation of those under the law that ■ — 

feasted upon the relies of pcacc~offeringSj to which the love- 
feasts of Christians osed with the Eucharist practised corre- 
spondence. There was one Altar from whence all men com- 
municated of those sacrifices ; which those that forsake, saith 
Ignatius, may take upon them to celebrate the Eucharist, but 
the bread they receive is not the Lord's, it is profane. 

§ 19. To the same purpose, Ep* ad Smyrna : r EfC€tv?i f3e/3aia 
€v%aptoTia riy€{<T0m if vttq rbi* iirio-Kowap oiWt, ■») m av auro? 
i-rrtTpeyfy. " Let that be counted a firm Eucharist which is 
held under the Bishop, or him to whom he committelh it" 

185 The celebration of the Eucharist is not sound nor effectual 
but under the Bishop, that is, in the unity of the Church, 
therefore sacrilege in them that attempt it. His reason is to 
our purpose, "for if the prayer of one or two have that force," 
saith he, H that God staudeth in the midst of them, how much 
more shall the prayer wherein the Bishop and Church agreeth 
prevail 11 ?" That prayer wherein they, agree prcvailcth to 
make the Sacrament the bread of God to them that agree in 
it* therefore that wherein they agree not leavcth it as it was, 
no bread of God, but the subject of their sacrilege* If this 
be not enough to enforce the virtue of public prayers, nothing 
will serve the turn. It is the agree merit of the congregation 
in their prayers that maketh the elements the Supper of the 
Lord with St, Paul ; the bread of God with Ignatius, to them 
that agree : those that agree not fail of the grace, fail not of 
committing sacrilege, 

§ 20. Having thus far derived the substance of that which ThcAjw- 
is to be done at Christian assemblies from the practice of the of order 
Apostles themselves, and after them of the primitive Chris- j* r 
tians, it will be requisite, before we go further, upon the pre- 
cedent of their practice to consider the weight and extent of 
the reasons, upon which the Apostle proccedeth in ordering 

18(5 the manner of performing the particulars, whereof hitherto 
hath been said among the Corinthians: the chief whereof is 
the edification of God's people, upon which he pitcheth the 
issue of his foregoing dispute [1 Cor, xiv.], vcr. 2(1, which 


* Tnp, vjii. p. 37- e4 Cole^r. 

11 Cited before in Primitive Govern- 

ment, chap. %. sect. 2. 




The force 
of custom 
in preserv- 
ing order. 

may seem to extend no further than the information of the 
-mind and understanding in matters of religion belonging to 
knowledge ; because the speech of the Apostle proceeded 
concerning the use of spiritual graces, which he directeth to 
that purpose : as you sec, ver. 3, it is expressly differenced 
from matter of exhortation and comfort, when he saith, " He 
that prophesieth speaketb to men to edification, and exhorta- 
tion, and comfort." Nevertheless it must be something eke 
that he mcanctu there, ver. 17, " For thou verily givest 
thanks well, hut the other is not edified :" that is, because he 
mule rstandcth not what thou sayest, he is not guided and 
directed to go along with the thanksgiving wherein thou 
goest afore in an unknown language. And in this epistle 
afore, viii. 10, "Shall not the conscience of him that is weak 
be edified to eat those things which be offered to idols?" 
Where you see a man is said to he edified by whatsoever it is 
that advance til his intentions towards any work. And there- 
fore, though the reason of edifying may sometimes tend to 
the particular sense of teaching, yet it is not so to be confined, 
but that whatsoever is a fit means to train and guide us in is* 
the ways of godliness must be said to tend towards the edifi- 
cation of God's people. 

§ 21. And thus the rules which the Apostle afterwards 
qualifieth all that is to be done in the Church with, when he 
saith, u Let all things be done decently and in order," are 
clearly subordinate to this main reason of the edification of 
the Church, and derived from it, For without doubt there is 
nothing so powerful to edification — that is, to guide and train 
the body of the Church in the exercise of godliness — as a good 
order for the particular practice of those offices thereof which 
are generally commanded in the Scriptures. Well might the 
Apostle say here > ver. 33, "God is not the author of confu- 
sion but of order, as in all Churches of the Saints." Whoso- 
ever withdraweth himself from the public order of the Church, 
out of opinion that a better might be established, will hinder 
the edification thereof more in that neglect of the course in 
force which he procure th, than it is possible he should advance 
it in the practice of those whom he thinketh to direct in a 
better course. For on the one side, his own followers, out of 
heat of contention, shall always spend their zeal upon matters 



of 5 mull consequence, which ought to be conversant about c IT A P. 
the great things of the Gospel : on the other side, those that - — 

188 are not affected with his singularities are disquieted in their 
own course of God's service. 

§ 22. The other part of the Apostle's rule seemeth to ex- 
tend further than the term of " decency," in which it is trans- 
lated , containeth : irdvra €va-^f^ovo>^ saith the Apostle, honest^ 
saith the Old Latin, and in St. Paul's epistles 1 fia^pw? 
TrepLirareivj which is rendered there h&nestd ambulare y and 
€v<r)$fAQV€<; yvvatK€$, in the Acts k , honesty mulieres ; all these 
express more than " decency." For that is seen in the least 
matters, where all things are fit and suitable, but that which 
in Latin is called honestas, in none but those that carry an 
appearance that deserve th respect. Which if the property of 
the word will not enforce, as to them that relish it right with- 
out fail it will do, the nature and kind of that whereof the 
Apostle speaketh will constrain it to import no less than that 
which beareth an appearance of respect and account : because 
in matter of so high a nature as the exercise of religion 
nothing can be decent, nothing can become, but that which 
preserve th the respect which actions of that rank arc to he 
performed with. So much, common sense telleth us ; that the 
outward appearance of all kind of proceedings is a means to 
maintain the inward esteem which men ought to hold of 
those things that arc done there* 

§ 23. Let no man blame rnc that appeal to common sense And of 

1 s*J to judge what becometh in matters of religion, which must judtfnV of 
neither stand nor fall by the judgment of common sense, ™™ :lu 
being so far beyond it. The Apostle here hath done it afore 
me, ver, 23 ; ** If the Church be met, and all speak with 
tongues, and there come in those that are unlearned or un- 
believers, wilt they not say that ye are mad?" For what is 
this but to condemn that which they did in the exercise of 
religion by the verdict of common sense, which though un- 
able to judge of the religion of Christians, nevertheless is able 
to discern what is suitable to the end which the assemblies of 
Christians profess ? And do wc not all see with what kind of 
reasons in another place, 1 Cor. xL 13, he argue! h another 
point of this nature, to settle a custom for men to be bare, 

1 Rom. *hi. 13; I Thess. iv, 12. k Chip, xiil 50; xvR 12. 

22 i 



VJ t 

. women to be veiled at their assemblies? It is first to be 
- known that the women of those times* and of the Jews in 
particular, as Tertullian 1 in one place witnesseth, were care- 
ful to keep their faces veiled from the sight of men when 
they came in public; which was in them a profession of 
bashfulness, and that modesty which they desired to preserve. 
On the other side, in men it was a mark of confusion and dis- 
grace to have the face covered ; the custom was to go bare in 
public, and that in token of the freedom and boldness which 
they professed, And it is plain that the covering whereof 
the Apostle speaketh was such an one as the face was veiled 1 
with : for therefore he saUh, ver. 4, the man disbonourcth 
his head in covering it when he prayeth or prophesietb, dis- 
claiming the freedom and dignity of his sex : the woman in dis- 
covering her head, not professing the modesty and subjection 
of her sex : therefore he saith afterwards that the woman's hair 
is given her for a veil, that is, to cover the face with, which if 
it be not done she had as good be shaven, saith he, ver_ 5. 

§ 24. In Tertullian's time those that professed virginity 
took upon them to sit with their faces unveiled in the 
Church, taking it for a privilege of their rank to disclaim the 
subjection of the sex and profess freedom* This is the occa- 
sion of tils book De Viry tidbits vdandis. What opinion it was 
upon which the custom which the Apostle writeth against at 
Corinth proceeded, is not known, How the Apostle argucth 
we see, 1 Con xi. 13; u Judge in yourselves :" saith he; "is it 
comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered ? Doth not 
even nature itself teach you," &c* To shew* us the reason 
whereupon he procecdeth, that the custom then practised, for 
men to go bare-head in sign oT freedom and profession of 
boldness and cheerfulness of heart, women veiled in sign of 
modesty and bashfulness, as it was agreeable to revealed 
truth, as the Apostle disputeth before, ven 3, 7, which 
tcacheth that the woman was created of the man, and must 191 
not forget the subjection she oweth him from whom she first 
came ; so is it to the light of nature, that teacheth women to 
keep their hair to veil themselves with ; if there be nothing 
else to do it with, men to part with theirs, that it hinder not 

' A pud Judaeoa tarn solenne Cit Cm- noscantur. — De CofOOa Militia, cap, iv* 
minis eorum velamen capitis, ut iiiclc p. 289. cd« Pain, llothoin. LG0S. 


their boldness to appear : as Tertull Apolog* cap. X3tx, m saith, cil ar 
they prayed bare-headed, because not ashamed* — : — 

§ 25* By which it reraainetk undeniable, how much the 
Apostle referreth to common reason, to judge of the fitness of 
those things that are practised at our religious assemblies, 
when he setteth aside his Apostolic authority to consult with 
their common sense about matters to be ordered* But when 
that is done — having alleged how agreeable the custom for 
which he pleaded was both to the light of nature and to 
revealed truth — because it is not possible that matters of this 
nature should be put past contradiction and dispute by con- 
straining reasons issuing from the mere nature of things, ami 
yet the quiet of the Church — on which the edification of it 
dependeth — rerjuireth that they should be out of dispute : you 
shall see where the last resort of his plea endeth, when he 
saith, ver. 16, "But if any man seem to be contentious, we 
have no such custom, neither the Churches of" God, 1 * where 
102 he hath estated a general rule for the Church to follow, that 
in matters of this indifference the custom of the Church is to 
be preferred before our own reasons. 

§ 26* The indifference, whereof here we speak, is not to be [Indite- 
found in the action to be done or not to be done, as if, in 
things of this slight nature, our obligation to God had no 
influence, as if it were indifferent to a man to do or not to 
do, to do this or the other; but the indifference, whereof we 
sj>eak, is to be understood in the latitude and kind of the 
thing prescribed to be done or not done, which indifference 
is taken away by custom accruing. For example, when St. 
Augustine saith, Ep* cxviiL/ that to fast on Saturday or not, 
to celebrate the Eucharist, or to communicate every day or 
not, were things of free observance ; his meaning was not 
that it was free for particular persons to do what they would, 

m Cftpite nudo, quia non erubesci- 
mus.— P. 62. ed. Pam. Rothom. WG*L 

D . * . . Alii jfjuiiuiit Sabbato, alii 
non : alii quotidie communicant cor- 
pt>H et aanguiiii Domini, alii certis 
d ft bus accipiunt : alibi nullu* tires 
pra?terniittilur t qua non offeratur, alibi 
Sub halo trtTUiun et Duuiinieo, alibi tan- 
tum Dominico : et si quid aliud bujus- 
modi animath'iirti potent, lotum boc 
genus rerun) liberal ha bet obserrati- 


ones ; nee dlsciplina till a est in hU 
mclior gravi prudentiquc Christumo, 
qiumi ut eo rnodo agat, quo agere vidf- 
ril E^elesiain ad quam forte devenerit, 
Quud eiiitu nequc contra fidcrti, ru j <|iie 
contra bun oh moras ease convincitur, 
iiidilferetiter est habendum, et propter 
eormn inter quos vivitur aocietatem 
sprvandum est.- — S, Augustin. ad in- 
quisitiones Januarii, lib, i. Ep. liv. torn. 
ii. col. 12k ed. Ik'iL 




fi I .,lu-- 

4ft§Hftt, ] 


All prac- 

li.v >'\' \hv 


t-tli tnil to 

without respect to the custom in which they lived ; that Is 
quite against the purpose of his epistle, which is for the 
observation of present customs: but that of their own nature 
and kind they were free to be determined by the practice of 
several Churches, which he that regardeth not in his particu- 
lar is the cause of an offence. It is no more thau the Apostle 
teacheth when he saith, K If any man seem to be contentious, 
we have no such custom, neither the Churches of God," 
Where he acknowledge th that in things of this nature even i& 
his own reasons for the custom in force must needs be subject 
to contradiction of contrary reasons, much more other men's 
reasons for customs of like nature might he opposed with 
such as might move men to think the contrary custom better^ 
for which they plead t and yet concluding that they ought to 
submit their reasons to the custom in force, hath given us 
authority to conclude that men are bound in matter of that 
nature to balk their private judgment to proceed upon public 
custom. The reason being that which was argued afore, 
because custom contalneth order, and upon order the edifica- 
tion of the Church dependcth : neither can private innova- 
tions, in the advantage which they yield beyond that which 
is received, countervail the disadvantage of public confusion 
and unquietness which they cause, 

§ 27- There are besides these which have been discoursed 
two considerations of singular moment to recommend and to 
enforce the orders of public service. For as the Church uni- 
versal is but one in regard of times, as well as of places and 
countries, those orders must needs appear most commendable 
which are derived from the universal practice of the ancient 
Church, especially next the Apostles s and as the Church is 
at this time incorporate into the state of kingdoms and com- is- 
mon wealths, it is the secular arm that established! it with a 
power that is able to constrain, but when that is done there 
must needs accrue a second obligation of obedience for con- 
science, which the Apostle requtreth to be yielded to secular 

§ 28. It is not my purpose to oblige the Church of this 
time to reduce into practice all things which a man may find 
to have been practised even in the time of the Apostles, 
much less afterwards : we have divers remarkable instances of 





matters allowed and appointed by the Apostles in Scripture char 

which are come to disuse, upon appearance that the reason is : — 

ceased whereupon they were prescribed. Such is that whereof 
I spake even now for women to be veiled on their faces in the 
time of public service, which the Apostle enforceth with so 
many reasons, and yet among us doth not take place, neither 
in the rest of countries where it was never the custom for 
women to go abroad with their faces covered, in sign of the 
modesty and subjection which they profess. Such is that 
ancient custom of Agapae, or Feasts of Love, the original 
whereof St, Chrysostom truly derive th from the manner of 
living of those primitive Christians that made all things com- 
mon in die Acts of the Apostles* There were those in other 
places that went not so far, yet intended to preserve some 
impression of their practice : these, upon set days of assem- 
blies, furnished a common entertainment both for rich and 
poor, so that service being done, after the communion of 
the mysteries they went all to feast together, the rich provid- 
ing and inviting the poor, and all together making good 
cheer. This is his discourse in 1 ad Cor, Horn. xxviL ; 
neither was it any part of the Apostle's mind to forbid this 
course, but rather to allow it, so far as he regulatetb and 
ordereth the course of iL Which nevertheless we see it is so 
lost as if there had never been remembrance of any such 
thing in Scripture, because it appeareth to common reason 
that it cannot be practised to the same purpose, now that all 
the world is Christian, as it was when they were tied so 
straight together by the profession that differenced them from 
the Gentiles, 

§ 29, And such is that order of the Apostle concerning [Cotinfii-u- 
Gcntiles converted to the faith, Acts xv. 29, "To abstain SJJS^JJ* 
from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things changed.] 
strangled i* the reason whereof being nothing but this, when it 
is examined to the bottom, that the Jews converted to the faith 
might find less offence in matters of daily practice which 
their orders imposed upon them, but the Gentiles made no 
scruple at, and so might the better piece into one household 
of the Church j it is no marvel if the observance of it came 
afterward to disuse when the reason had ceased* And there* 

■ Tom, Hi. p- 416, e4 8**0. 
Q 2 



C II A P. 

reason. ] 

fore it is remarkable even in Sl Augustine's time, as we find, 
Contr* Faust lib. xxxii. 13? 9 that clivers Christians then scru- 
pled at the violation of thk observance* in eating of a hare 
killed by breaking the neck, or small fowl without letting 
blood, which he that doth, saith he, is now laughed at for his 
pains of the rest ; because it would not appear to one so soon 
as the rest that the ground of this injunction was ceased, 

§ 30. If then such ordinances ami customs as are allowed 
and enjoined by the Apostles themselves are with right abo- 
lished because the reason of them is ceased, much more those 
which were taken up at the beginning upon human appoint- 
ment of the Church may cease when the reason of that good 
appeareth not, and must cease when evil consequences which 
they draw into the Church at their heels begin to appear. 
This is that which justirleth the reformation which we pro- 
fess % wherein some observances in the Church — as ancient as 
there is remembrance in it of things used since the time of 
the Apostles— are perhaps abolished by law, or disused by 
custom; the remembrance of the dead at the celebration of 
the Eucharist, for example r . The reason of edification of the 
Church* by the comfort which it receiveth at the communion 397 
professed with the deceased, not being now required in parti- 
cular by them which presume of it in all that die in the faith; 
and the abuses which it haih trained in after it appealing 
un suffer able. 
Carre. § 31. But all this being granted, the consideration of the 

winut 11 primitive Church and the precedent of it, to my understand- 
ing, prcscribcth two things: the first is general: as it is 
a Church, and all Churches make one Church by acknow- 
ledging and maintaining union and communion with the 
Churches that have been in other ages, as well as with the 


p Quia j am hoc Christian us ofoser- 
vat, ut turdos vet m in ut tores BvicnJai 
mum Eittln^nt, nisi ouanun sanguis ef- 
fusua est, aut leporcm mm eclat, si 
m ait ii a cerriee percusMt>, nn]k rni- 
cnto vulnere occjsuh est ? Et qui forte 
pauci adhue lane, ere ista. form i dan t, a 
ceteris itridtntur. — S. Aug., torn, riii, 
col. NJ7, cd. Ben, 

* Thomdike perhaps alludes to the 
preface to the Book of Common 
Prayer j " 0/ cerementc*, why t&me be 
abolished and tome retained ;" where 

we read, "And in these our doings wo 
condemn no other nations* nor pre* 
scribe any thing but to our own people 
only/ 1 

r When Tkomdiktf wrote, the "Prur/'-r 
for the Chunk Militant*' was without 
these words, "Arid we also bless Thy 
holy name for all Thy servants de- 
parted tli is life in TUy faith and fear, 
beseeching Thee to p?« us grace so to 
follow their good examples, that with 
them we may be partakers of Thy hea- 
venly kingdom.'* 



Churches that arc in other countries, wc are obliged not to chap. 

disclaim, not to renounce it, but to maintain ourselves always 

of communion with it, without substantial difference of belief 
or practice* The Donadsts in old time* as St Augustine* 
charge th, fell foul upon the Article of the Catholic Church 
because they acknowledged no Church but their own, but 
thought it had failed in all other countries by communicating 
with the Church of Africa, from which they had separated 
themselves : much more foul must he needs fall upon that 
Article that thinketh the Church perished almost as soon as 
it was instituted, and proeecdeth in his practice as obliged to 
renounce that which was in the first ages* To maintain this 
iys communion it is not requisite we commend, but it is neces- 
sary we tolerate* all that was then in practice : though we 
believe some things may be mended at this time, we must 
not believe any thing was pernicious at that time* 

§ 32, This indeed, in the height, concerneth them which [Mladilri 
separate from this Church : let them advise upon 
terms they renounce that Church which communicateth with 
the primitive Church, with which all Churches are bound to 
hold correspondence \ but in a lower degree concerneth all 
those that think they cannot detest the corruptions of the 
Church of Rome enough, till they involve the primitive 
Church, and whatsoever is done upon the precedent of it, in 
the same imputations which stick upon it : which is* out of 
indiscreet zeal to our own cause, to prevaricate against it, and 
for the blindness of the love we bear it, to oversee the advan- 
tages of it For what greater pleasure can we do the Church 
of Rome, than to quit them the ancient Church as their clear 
advantage ? Or what greater scandal can we fasten upon the 
Reformation which we love, than to make every thing we 
like not a mark of Antichrist, for which we hold ourselves 
bound to separate fc ? which if we should tlo upon no other 

>< S£f 

4 Vo« contagione malorum Afrorum 
Ecclttinm jjeriiste Melt is d* orbe terra* 
rum ft i» pnrte Donnti ejt$* retitfutat 
rrman*i**e. — Contr* Crescon* Donatist. 
Ilk iL cup* 37. torn. ix. col. 434. ed. 

1 " ♦ , , . Service Book, which ia an 
extract out of Komi's Latin Service, 
Mima) or Mast- book — as it ia con- 
fessed in the Book of Martyr* — the 

Roman Latin being turned into Eng- 
lish : If there were no more hi it than 
this, th it it is the form of Home's wor- 
ship* and so (as King James once 
called it) an ill-iaid mas* ; it might a 
lit He siartle such Christians as hold 
thai Christianity to be the purest which 
hath least eonformitie with Antichrist 
and hi* superstitions* For if we be 
commanded to come out of Rome* and 


The prac- 
tice <if it* 
in the 

point in 
h:iml, of 
pfufl ad- 

matters than those, which some men will hare to be such, 
then were we as true schismatics as they of the Church of 
Rome would have us* 

§ 33. The second is an advantage more particular to the 199 
point we are in hand with. As it was the Church pri- 
mitive! near the fountain, and resented that fire the Holy 
Ghost had inspired so late, that which discourse of reason 
conclude th to be for the edification of the Church in the 
service of God, must needs appear more reasonable if it were 
then in practice. Were the question about matters difficult 
and obscure in the meaning of the Scriptures, knowledge 
goeth al'jiig with grey hairs, and it is to be believed that the 
Church may improve in it, as in time : but whereas it was 
said afore 11 , that we are to use our common reason in judging 
what is for the edification of the Church in the order of pub- 
lic service, it is not to be thought that these are matters that 
require so much depth of understanding as they do upright- 
ness of disposition, to give sentence without inclination or 
prejudice. I say then, that when the coast was clear of par- 
tialities, the matters in hand not controverted on any side, 
the Church bent more to act in the service of God than to 
dispute about it, the practice of that time may be a way too 
steep for us to tread, but sure it is straight to direct us, 

§ 34 We must not slight those orders which directed thorn 
to make the service of God their earnest business, because 
the Church of Rome hath made it a formal employment to 200 
pass the time over with. If in weeding this garden of God's 
Church we pluck up wholesome ordinances with the abuses 
which have been pinned to them, well may men devise laws 
for a good sense but not to much purpose, when religion is 
not suffered to grow within the pale. That noble and learned 
Du PI ess is x thought it a great advantage to the cause he un- 
dertook against the mass if he could demonstrate the form of 

to have no communion with her idola- 
trous service j let it then be well consi- 
dered, whvthtr Christian* Mf with a 
go&t sntrtiMQI ht present at thr F 4 ng tilth 
Liturgy, which ia for the main, the 
mass turned into English," — Christ on 
His Throne, caae vi, pp. 23, 24. 

" Phjlip Mornay, Lord of Plesaia- 
Marly, was born in M After the 

death of his father in 15t?0 he publicly 
professed Calvinism, which his mother, 
sister of the Bishop of Nantes, had 
taught him in secret He published m 
1698 hie book "Ttiitl de l* institution 
de la Sainte Euchwristie." It appeared 
afterwards in Latin, with the title *'De 
Sacra Euchamtia in quatuor libros 
distlnctum opus/* HauoviH?, 1605, 



service used in the reformed Churches of France to be more 
agreeable to that of the primitive Church than that of the 
mass-hook of Rome, This he thought worth his pains to 
undertake, and if we regard the substance of public service, 
may well be thought to have performed it* I am yet in a 
more general point concerning the order of public service, 
but I shall think it advantage enough, to the cause in which 
I deal, to shew the points questioned in this order to be of 
more ancient practice in the Church than the corruptions of 
the Church of Rome, for which we leave it And when I 
come anon to survey the particular form of service which this 
Church uscth, let men of learning judge what is nearer to the 
primitive than both; but there upon I must take leave to con- 
clude, that this Church is not to forsake the primitive to con- 
201 form to other reformed Churches ?, where the order in force 
hath both the precedent of so ancient practice, and the reason 
of edification to commend it* 

§ 35. Now the di ftcrence between this state of the Church 
— incorporate into the bodies of kingdoms and common- 
wealths — and the primitive — when it was either tolerated or 
persecuted under the Roman empire — is to be seen in the 
Apostles fishing after the resurrection of Christ* John xxi, 
11: "Though there were taken one hundred and fifty- three 
great fishes, yet the net brake not" " For the multitude of 
he lie vers were of one heart, and one soul*" Acts iv. 32. 
They came out of good-will into the net of the Apostles, 
and out of good- will they applied themselves to the orders, 
wherein they were directed by them and their successors, 
not able to constrain obedience ; so the net was not strong 
enough to hold them, and yet brake not. But when the 
world came into the Church, then was the parable of our 
Lord more clearly fulfilled, which resembleth the Gospel to 
a net, which drew to the land both good and bad fish, and 
when the net is not strengthened by the secular arm, no 
marvel to see it break in pieces. It is therefore requisite 
that the orders of public service have the force of temporal 



Order of 
publir K-r- 
vice a law 
of Chris- 
tian king- 

f u There fa such a vast difference 
between it (the English Liturgy) and 
the Liturgies of nil other reformed 
Churebei a* that it ftfffM Hum at i £#- 

tnncc /mm w», fftrd Kl from fittl mmmtt- 
iv '[iu n k S. 


* mat. Ijlws, by act of kingdoms and commonwealths \ hut it is 
nevertheless requisite that it should be directed by the office 
of ministers of the Church, no otherwise than it was before 21 
the empire or any commonwealth received the faith. The 
change of directing belongcth to the one which cannot be 
dispossessed of it, the power of constraining hclongeth to the 
other which must give account how they use it or not Heb. 
xiiL 17 : u Obey them that have the rule over you*" or guide 
you, * and submit yourselves : for they watch for your souls 
as they that must give account* 1 * 1 Thcss. v. 12, 13 : "And 
we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among 
you, and are over you in the Lord ; and to esteem them very 
highly in love for their works' sake.'* 

§ 3G* What can these exhortations and injunctions of the 
Apostle concern, if— in matters so proper to their charge, 
as the public service of God and the order of it — those of 
whom the Apostle Speaketh are not to direct but to execute? 
and when those disorders fell among the Corinthians in their 
feasts of love, and receiving the mysteries, in praying, praising 
God, and preaching in unknown languages — -no doubt through 
those partialities of the presbyters, the ordinary guides of the 
Church there, whereof hath been spoken elsewhere 1 — the 
Apostle indeed himself taketh order in his time, but in case 
the like fall out afterwards, hath he not authorized the ordi- 
nary ministries of the Church, by his example, to take order 
in like matters ? and when he write th to Timothy, 1 Tim, 
it 1—" I will therefore that first of all supplications, prayers, 203 
intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men;* 1 
wherein without peradventure he taketh order for the sub- 
stance of public prayer for their assemblies, as shall appear — 
is it his purpose to refer the ordering of it to the congrega- 
tion there, or to his office whom he euchargeth with it? it 
is to be seen indeed how much King David did in ordering 
the public course of Divine Service in his time : but it is 
to be considered how he proceeded in it, by that which we 
read, 1 Chron. xv, 16, 17 : H And David spake to the chief 
of the Levites, to appoint their brethren singers with instru- 
ments of music, psalteries, and harps, and cymbals, sounding 
by lifting up the voice with joy. And the Levites appointed 

■ Primitive Government, rfoap. vi. sect. 4* clinp, iii* sect 3* 



lleman and the rest :" which is the very course by which we C HA P. 

pretend such things are to pass. 

§ 37- But in the Church of Christ, as from the beginning Direction 
things cume to be practised in the service of God, by order ter* of the 
of the ministers and consent of the people; so when emperors, ^^^ 
kingdoms, and commonwealths received the faith* they pur- 
chased themselves no right of disposing in such matters, as 
by the Scriptures belong to the minister's charge, but they 
impose upon themselves the charge of enforcing these orders 
which shall seem to be for the advancement of godliness, 

204 And therefore upon the judgment of discretion, common to 
all Christians, they are to proceed in denying or enforcing 
the execution of that which is directed by them whose charge 
it concern eth. If they proceed further, they are to answer 
for the good as well as for the wrong which they do ; so far 
as that which is done for the better, as it advanceth the 
public good in the particular substance of that which is 
done* so it may prejudice it more in the consequence of the 

§ 38. Let us then recollect from the first to the hist what [Edifice 
hath been said of the reasons and grounds whereupon the en j f j 
Apostle proceeded! in regulating matters concerning the 
public service of God, and we shall find that the Church 
in all ages is to proceed no otherwise- First, die edification 
of the Church, that is, the instruction of God's people in the 
knowledge of Him, and the traiuing of them in the exercise 
of godliness, is the aim proposed. This is procured by 
observing order and comeliness in all things to be done of 
that nature. The best and most impartial reason is to be 
employed in judging what best become th in matters of this 
weight ; and because it is not possible to put these ordi- 
nances past contradiction of opposite reasons, the custom 
directed by the ministers of the Church — upon advice of 
common reason, and most primitive and universal precedent 

205 of the Church, and enforced by the secular arm — is to take 
place for order sake. 

§ 39. If after all this a question be made whether matters, Tlic oh- 
established with a tolerable respect to the Jiducial line of nV' ' 1 ' 
this rule, oblige men in conscience to observe them or not, 
he shall leave the Church obnoxious to perpetual confusion, 






there Ki 

law. ] 

IIH'ill Of 

ih<* chief 

by necessary consequence, seeing it is not possible that all 
men should agree of their free accord to observe any course 
as fittest to be observed, unless they think themselves tied 
in conscience to observe that rule, which for the latitude and 
kind of it Is not sinful for themselves to observe, and that if 
they foil they may be constrained to it because it is esta- 
blished. Possible it is that men, proceeding in the form of 
this rule, should so far mistake themselves as to enjoin the 
Church to violate some of God's laws in obeying theirs ; 
in such, a man is bound with his blood to maintain his 

§ 40. But our speech concemeth matters of indifference — 
where the perpetual law of God and nature forbiddeth not 
the whole kind and latitude of the thing commanded — where 
no perpetual law of God or nature — no positive constitution 
of God or man that ought to take place afore this* cometh 
between ; if the laws of the Church, strengthened by the 
secular arm, bind not a man in conscience by virtue of that 
law of God, that enforceth obedience to their authors, to do 
according to them, then must all men be at their freedom 
to dissolve or preserve order in the service of God as they 
please* Where nothing but custom of the Church, upon 
probable reason, directeth our practice, we must not proceed 
according to our private reasons, which persuade the con- 
trary; but according to public custom, if we will be ruled by 
the Apostle : but where there is law to constrain us, we may 
perhaps have reason to think that the authors of laws might 
have done better in ordering matters otherwise, and yet be 
bound ourselves to follow the course which they prescribe. 
They are to answer for the things they enjoin ; we for our 
performance ; when was any human law made that could 
not be faulted ? if our obedience be delayed till it find such 
laws as no fault can be found with, the world must end in 
confusion before we practise that virtue. It is never lawful 
to do any thing that Is evil ; but it is not evil, but necessary, 
in the sphere of things indifferent, to follow the law that 
standeth, though a better might stand instead of it 

§ 41. Herewith agree th the judgment of the principal re- 
formed Divines, themselves chief Reformer^ which my desire 
is to repeat here, though it hath been produced more at 




207 large 1 , not as pretending to stand or fall by plurality of chap. 

voices, but desiring to make it appear that nothing is said : — 

here to cross the principles of the Reformation and chief 
Reformers. Philip, loco de C&rem. in EeclesiOi p. 65 1 b : In 
Ecctesiis emeudatis reliqui sunt ritus air qui adutphoriy quia /it /jus 
vita* aetiones ordlne altquo distribuendm sunt, Homimtm natura 
intelligit et amat ordinem^ qui quidem nxaxime decet JScelesiam 
et congressus publicos. " In reformed Churches there remain 
some indifferent rites," rites concerning indifferent things, 
"because the actions of this life are to be disposed in some 
order, Man by nature apprchendeth and loveth order, which 
especially becometh the Church and public assemblies," Calv. 
4, InstiL x* 27 : Neque enim haberi potest quod Pauhts exigit, 
ut decenter omnia et or dine Jtant y jrisi odditis observationibus, 
tanquam vincuUs quibusdam^ ordo ipse et decorum canmtat 
" That which Paul requireth, that all things be done decently 
and in order, is not to be obtained unless that order and 
comeliness stand upon some observances, added as bonds, to 
wit, to enforce it" To the same purpose a little afore : Si in 
rebus agendis vigere semper altquvm ritum, quern noil respui 
publico honestatis interest , atqm adeo humanitatis ipsius : id in 
JZcclesiis praiseriim observandum esse, qua* cum bene composite 
rerum omnium constitutione uptime sustinentur, turn veto sine 
concordia nullm sunt prorsus. And a little after he toucheth 

208 the reason here discoursed to the quick. At quum in hominum 
morihus tanta insit diversttas, tanta in animis varietm, tanta in 
judiciis ingeniisque pugna, neque politia ulla sath Jirma est f nisi 
certis letfibus constituta, nee sine stata quadam forma servari 
ritus quispiam potest " But there being so much difference 
in men's manners, so much diversity of minds, so much con* 
traricty of judgments and dispositions, neither is any com- 
monwealth firm as it should be, till it be settled with certain 
laws, neither can any rite be observed without some settled 

§ 42. Rites prescribed by God cannot be observed but 
according to forms prescribed by man. Philip, ubi supra : 
Rnr&us autem munitur publico tranquillkas fide doctrind t qubd 

* Passages to this effect art- found in 
a pamphlet of Peter du Mou1in T pub- 
tithtd A.D. 1040, with thia tilk, *• A 
Letter of a French Protestant 10 a 

Scotchman of the Covenant." 

fc Mt'hiiirthmii*, Opp. torn. L n>I, 
290, -2M7- WittcbergaN 1562. 



CHAP, dicimtts propter €vra^iaP t eo& ritus qui borti ordinis cmtsd in&tituti 

■ — sunt, servandos esse, et peccare homines petuiantes, qui in Eccle- 

mis emtndatU viulaut tides rttna cum ttemdoh, u Again, the 
public quiet is fortified by this doctrine t wherein we say, 
that for good ordcr*s sake, those rites which arc ordained for 
good order's sake are to be observed, and that such saucy 
persons as violate such rites with offence in reformed Churches 
do sin." Again* Alhpti Aemae*, &c. M Some men of savage 
nature hate all laws as a prison: but others of gentle nature 
and sociable, and understanding themselves to l>e horn to 
communicate, nay, that their chief work is to contribute their 
endeavours to help and cherish the Church of their own 209 
accord, observe honest and useful rites, and avoid offences, 
and knowing that public assemblies of the Church are or- 
dained by the singular providence and blessing of God, and 
that God would have this frequency credited, that the voice 
of the Gospel may sound upon earth, study to maintain the 
order, the quiet, the gravity of these assemblies." 


the rnoniBiTiox of quenching the spirit, concebketh immediate 


Tbn pro- 
hibition of 

This is the substance of those things that arc to be done 
ni™iin[" *° r ^ C public service of God at the assemblies of Christians : 
s r |rit and these are the grounds of those rules by which the form, 

ramnern- . ~ , 

etti iiiiim^ m which they are doncj is to he directed. Before we come 

iplnttav, to touch that particular form of service which we use, with 

these rules* let us make trial of them in some particulars, 




which in the general point of public service arc or may be chap* 

questionable. And that by the method, already set on foot, — 

of reasons drawn from the grounds and rules of the Apostle, 
seconded by the practice of the primitive, the judgment and 
agreement of reformed Churches, Among which there la 
none of more account than this, whether there ought to be a 
set form of prayer prescribed for our assemblies, 

§ 2, For it is not denied that there ought to be an order [Soon 
prescribed for public service in the whole c : but public prayers, allowed] 
and the form of them, it is pretended, are to be referred to 
the discretion of the person by whom they are ministered, 
by virtue of that charge of the Apostle, wherein he forbiddeth 
to "quench the Spirit," 1 Thess. v P 19, which is conceived to 
be done when the conceptions of men's minds, or the ex- 
pressions of their tongues, are stinted to prescribed forma, 
and men by that means so confined, that they cannot make 
demonstration of those graces which the Spirit of God hath 
2li endued them with*. This is, to my understanding, the best 
of that argument, that caste th so much and so dangerous 

c "If by liturgy this Remonstrant un- 
derstand an ordrr afar r n't J hi (hunk a*- 
tfmbfhx of pTaijing % reading, tmd rx~ 
pounding tits Scripture's, ait minis faring 
Snrrnmeut*, &c, such a liturgy we 
know, and do acknowledge both .Jews 
and Christians have used. 1 ' — Smectym- 
uuijs, net ii. p. u". 

* '* Tt (the liturgy) abridgeth the 
of lice of the Holy Ghost, which teach - 
eth ui how to pray aa we ought; and 
kcepelh out of the Church the gifts and 
graces of God ; and oucoeheth the spi- 
rit of the ministers and people in the 
■ervice of God, &e. Rom. viii. 26, 
27; Eph. iv. 8 ; vi + IS; 1 Thess. v. 
19; Jude 20.7' — Apology of Browuiats, 
p. 67. A.D. 1604. 

"^Tow though dumb priests hare 
need of such a liturgy, yet it doth 
not follow that therefore able godly 
ministers, that know how to fit their 
prayers to all such several occasions 
as do continually present themselves— 
which a set prayer in a book cannot 
do — should he tied to any such precise 
set form, for otherwise thm were to 
quench the spirit of prayer, 1 Thess. v. 
19, and to muzzle the mouth of prayer* 
and to stop the course of God's Spirit, 
which doth wonderfully improve itself 
in all those — both ministers and people 

— on whom God hath poured the spirit 
of grace and supplication,* 4 &Cv — Christ 
on Hts Throne, case vii. pp, 2!>, 3U. 
A.D. Iff 10. 

11 And that these stinted and devised 
forms do punch the spirit 
appears in that they deprive the Church 
and minister of that liluriy of lln spiiit 
of prayr r, which God would have the in 
ust!, stinting the minister, yea nil the 
win Uter* in the kingdom, to Me ww? 
ttu-tiwrr nf the Spirit, not anhj on*' with 
atmtftvr t hut all of them with him thnt U 
drud uml roitrn, ami *o stinting the 
Spirit which the Lord gives His minis* 
ters, for His Church \ and that so 
strictly as till the stint be out, it may 
not suggest one thought or word other- 
wise, or when it is out, one more than 
is prescribed* *The manifestation of 
the Spirit/ salth the Apoatle, 1 Cor, 
xii. 7, * is given to every man to profit 
withal/ But in the rending of a pre- 
script form of prayer, there is not the 
manifestation of the spirit of the minis- 
ter given htm to profit the Church 
withal, but tile manifestation of the 
spirit of him that ilcvfaed and penned 
Ml service book'* — Robinson*!. Ju ii- 
fi ration of Separation, p, 34a, A.D. 


CHAR scruple in a clear business; and at a distance carrieth an 

\ 1 1 j t 

- — -- — appearance of the Word of God, and the meaning of Scrip* 
ture, but surveyed near hand may be a warning to all men 
how they trouble the Church with misapprehension, received 
upon the superficial sound of the words of it* 
[Qu^. § 3. For when the Apostle forbtddeth to "quench the 

whafVi" 1, Spirit," he speak cth of immediate inspirations of the Holy 
■pBMt&j Ghost, such as they were by which men were enabled lu 
discern the secrets of other men's hearts, as in 1 Cor. xiv* 24 
— by which the prophets of Antiochia were informed of the 
will of God, for the sending of Paul and Barnabas, Acts xiii* 
2: and those others for the ordination of Timothy, 1 Tim, 
iv> 14 — by which the truth was revealed unto them, as con- 
cerning matters in hand at their assemblies, 1 Cor. xiw 30. 
And the rule of the Apostle, " If revelation be made to 
another as he sltteth, let the first be silent," is to the same 
purpose of not quenching these inspirations. Which, as it 
hath been shewed e that they were maintained by the exer- 
cise of them, so it is no marvel if the Apostle be earnest to 
have them by all means maintained, because in them con- 
sisted the edification of the Church at that time. Therefore 
he commandeth that when immediate revelation is made to 212 
one, he that spake afore be silent: not to demonstrate what 
the Spirit of God was able to do, in the person by whom it 
spcakcth, that is a mistake which overthroweth the whole 
dispute of the Apostle, in the twelfth chapter afore — for it 
tendcth to the admiration of those persons which are endued 
with such graces ; the thing the Apostle laboureth against 
through that whole discourse — but because by tbeni the 
presence of the Holy Ghost in the Church was evidenced to 
unbelievers, and confirmed to believers: and because by such 
inspirations, when it pleased God to send them, the Church 
was informed of all things contained in them, in the parti- 
culars of the true sense of the Scriptures, debated in their 

§ 4. In fine, w Quench not the Spirit," in regard of the 
Church, is the same with the proposition of this fourteenth 
chapter, w Be zealous of spiritual graces, especially of pro- 
phesying: 11 which is also the conclusion of the same, ver. 30, 

■ Chap, v. «rcf, 29. 



"Be zealous of prophesying, but forbid Dot to speak with 
tongues," He that hath the grace queneheth it when he 
pursue tli it not by those means which were effectual towards 
it at that time: and the Church queneheth it if they allow 
not the publishing of such inspirations at their assemblies. 
For my part* I am confident that the words of the Apostle, 

213 "Quench not the Spirit," relate as well to the gift of lan- 
guages, as his words in this fourteenth chapter, ven I, "Be 
zealous of spiritual graces, especially of prophesy ing. st For 
prophesying being excepted, the rest of spiritual graces is 
the gift of languages, and it concerned the Thcssalonians, 
as it did the Corinthians, that this gift of languages should 
be maintained among them, as well to evidence the presence 
of the Holy Ghost, as because the things inspired in strange 
languages, being expounded, served for the inestimable edu- 
cation of the people. 

§ 5. If then these that stand upon this prohibition of die 
Apostle, will come into our assemblies, and speak the myste- 
ries of God's kingdom in languages unknown to them afore, 
if they will take upon them to reveal the secrets of men's 
hearts— to design ministers of the Church — to decide matters 
in debate through the Church, by immediate inspiration of 
the Holy Ghost t and to make proof of these graces, as pro- 
phets are to do, we will acknowledge that the office of com- 
posing the praises of God, and conceiving prayers in tahalf 
of the Church, is to be referred to them upon the same 
terms as it was to those of whom we read in the Apostle : 
nothing composed by human reason shall be thought so 
acceptable to God, so much for the edification of His people 
as that which His own Spirit inditeth. But if they dare not 

21 4 pretend to any such grace, let them consider upon what con- 
sequences they pretend to the privileges of iu For they that 
pretend f that the Church is bound to use their conceptions 
and expressions for the direction of the people, in public 


' "Now for the explication* in terpreta- 
tiori, &c. and speech u tit o God in prayer: 
God hath gtafl ^[^ unto men to pray 
and prophesy, and ordained this minis- 
try of pastor* and teachers, whnttr iin Iff 
voice w appointed fa hv tht month of God 
nut*> ttit< fV<vJf, twti n/ Hi* prnple unto 
[[imMclfi in the public a**£inbiie** ...... . 

Now I may eon elude as I began, that 
onitf Gotf* huty word and thr. Urdu 
graven of Hi* Holy Spirit art- to tu- heard 
mid itjfertd up unto Him in tht' fMlMfe 
oMemhli*'*/' — Greenwood's Answer to 
George Gilford's pre tended defence of 
read prayers, p. 11. A. D, lfl&O* 



* II A l\ 




furm of 

u mtU hs 

of nt her 
parti! oft he 

■irtjoe i* 



of i lie 

prayers, upon ihis ground, because they are the inspirations 
of the Holy (2 host, may by as good right pretend to decide 
all matters controverted in point of faith — to order all matters 
of dispute iu the government of the Church — to root (MM 
and plant both kingdoms and Churches. For that which 
the Holy Ghost inspire th for ordering of Church or common- 
wealth, is as much to be executed as that which it inspircth 
for directing the prayers of congregations. 

§ 6, But if they disclaim all pretence of immediate inspir 
tion, as there is no doubt but they do, and profess no conf 
deuce but of the blessing of God's Spirit upon human endea- 
vours, perhaps complaining that these consequences are drawn 
upon them, which belong to those opinions which they re- 
nounce; first, it will be reason that they be free in acknow- 
ledging and professing their meaning in a matter of this con- 
sequence, because it is certaiu that the sound of God's 
Spirit, and the fashion of extemporary conceptions, in praying 
and preaching, insinuate th, and needs must insinuate to the 
people, the pretence of immediate inspirations, which to men 
of judgment they are constrained to disavenv. Then, th 
being done, our question will he upon the right hinges, and 
the point to be decided will be this, whether it be more for 
the edification of the people, in the direction of their public 
prayers, to use those forms, which upon mature advice huve 
been framed by the ablest of those the Church had to entrust 
with that business, or these, which particular persons, out of 
their readiness in conceiving and expressing those thing 
which they think fit to be said, shall use in their congreg 

§ 7, It hath been well observed already in this point, that 
the spirits of the people are stinted as much to the form 
which the minister conceive th, as his spirit to the form which 
the Church hath prescribed^ So that if the Church quench 
the Spirit in them, when it confineih them to the for 




it or 


i "Put cn*e one man pray with a 
thousand that have large spirits* will 
they My that their spirit* arc? Minted 
became they are lied np t For the time 
being, to his spirit .' so not we when 
we pray with others' prayers. Have 
we a spirit better than the disciples of 
Christ? ami do we know what will 


afint them better than Christ ? 
Christ gave them ihe Lord's pra^ 
not only to ,wy o/frr that manner, whff 
He tttught the doctrine of prayer ; bnt 
ii hu to mtf t when He taught them tbe 
practice of pray er/'— Ab hot* * Trial of 
our Church ForMkert, sect 15, p. i! l L 
London, 1639, 



which it hath advised, they do no less to the people in eon- c ma p. 

fining them to the form which they from tirae to time con : — 

ceive. The precept of the Apostle cometh to one effect in 
both courses, the question that remaineth is, which is more 
for the edification of the people. Which, because the Apo- 
stle in matters of this nature hath referred us to the com- 
mon reason of men not possessed with prejudice, my desire 
is that the common sense of Christians may sentence ; de- 
2i6spairing to carry any thing by dispute of reason, at the 
hands of such men as can make any question in a matter so 

§ 8. But because with reason it may be alleged that men's 
particular conceptions are more apt to address themselves to 
the particular occasions of congregations, fit to be represented 
to God in their prayers than a general form is able to do\ it will 
be requisite further to represent what advantages this conve- 
nience is outweighed with on the other side- First, in regard 
of abilities of persons by whom it must be performed, let me 
congratulate with those that are so sensible of their own, that 
they would have other men, for a punishment of their negli- 
gence, to shame themselves afore the people in doing it as it 
should not be done 1 . But let me wish them more love to 
our common profession than to desire to draw so just a scan- 
dal upon it Is it like to grow commendable with the ene- 
mies of it in this respect, because the ministry of public 
prayers is ridiculous to our own people ? Or what is the way 
to make religion and the sacrifice of God stink in men's nos- 
trils, if this do not ? 

§ 9, Those of the ablest of this opinion think themselves 
ill dealt with, when the stops and hums of their extemporary 
prayers are drawn, in consequence, to the prejudice of that 

fc M But a gorily minister that is best 
acquainted with the state of his Hook, 
and of thi! Church of God, can accord- 
ingly so enlarge and apply his prayer, 
by the supply of God's Spirit, 21s may 
be mo*! useful tn the congregation, a* 
being most accommodate to their spi- 
rit*, when thvy find the matter of the 
prayer to he that, the want whereof 
they are most sensible of, bo as there is 
here a concurrence of the spirits both 
of the minister and people* which BMtttfth 
a prayer to he so much the more eftbe- 


tual, lively, powerful , and operative : 
and that not only with God, but in the 
hearts of all those whose joint pray it It 
is» M — Christ on His Throne, case vii. 
pp. 31, 32. 

1 . . . " If . , . it should appear lhat 
any minister should prove insufficient 
to discharge the duty of prayer, in a 
ived way, it mntj he impn&rtl on htm, 
at a punishment ^ to wte *et farms ami no 
ether." — Smcctymnuus, sccL it quere 
it. p. 1 fc. 


but when we 

i u a P, way wbich they desire to render commendable* ! 

: — hear these flying pretences pass up and down, by which those 217 

demurs of human imperfection are entitled to those unutter- 
able groans which the Spirit of God ioditeth, according to 
the Apostle 1 , we have reason not to admire the occasion of 
such unsufferable profaneness. What shall we say then of 
the meanest rank of persons, by whom extemporary concep- 
tions and expressions in such high offices must be ministered, 
but this, that the ill order by which they are vented to the 
world must needs bring religion to be contemptible ? 

Order not § 10. Again, in regard of men's opinions and inclinations — 

tainert in regard of several discretions and judgments, in point of 
* to be recommended to God in public prayers, 

what is fit 

which way shall we attain that order, that reverence, which 
this office requircth according to the Apostle ? If men be 
left to themselves — whatsoever opinion in religion— whatso- 
ever debate between neighbours— whatsoever public matter 
of Church or commonwealth a man shall please to make his 
interest, upon like reason he may make the subject of his 
prayers and of the congregation j which if it be not well 
directed — as what man is free from mistake, where men may 
be 5 and always are, of divers opinions — must either pursue 
his interest for the will of God in their desires, or, as they are 
buund to be, must be scandalized at that which is done. 1 21 
had rather belie mine own senses than charge any man with 
that which appeareth not ; but if experience tell us not that 
such things have been done, that men's prayers in the Church 
have smoked with their choler in private and public matters, 
yet reason will tell us how easily it may be done, and such 

k Bishop Hall, in the Humble Re- 
monstrance, glanced at the " stop* and 
hums" of the Presbyterian* hi their 
prayer, yet aa if afraid of provoking 
their resentment 5 upon which it is ob- 
served by Smectyumuus as follows 1 
*' In his rhetorical encomium of con- 
ceived prayer we shall more willingly 
bear i part with him than they whose 
cause he pleads, for had that been in 
their hearts which is In this book, * to 
hate to be guilty of pouring water upon 
the Spirit, and gladly to add oil rather,' 
ko many learned, able, conscientious 
preachers had not been molested and 
■suspended, for * letting the constant 

flames of their fixed conceptions mount 
up from the altar of their zealous heart 
unto the throne of grace j" nor had there 
been so many advantages watched frvm 
xumr ttops and seenthig bolt-cisinx in some 
men's prayers, to blaspheme the spirit 
of prayer, which though now confessed 
to be " *so far from being offensive, that 
they are as pleasing music in the ears 
of the Almighty: yet time hath been 
when they have sounded as mere hat* 
tologies — nay, no better than mere 
blasphemies in the ears of some Bi- 
shops, '*' — Sect ti, 
« Rom. vui + 2o\ 



ordinance pointed in time against them that least deserve it C H A P. 

in Church or commonwealth. As the matter is among us, we — 

see how far men's minds are from being agreed when we are 
to pray for fair weather and when for rain. Make particular 
persons infallible judges, not of a thing of that consequence, 
but of whatsoever may be the subject of our prayers, and we 
make them all popes in their congregations : make them not 
infallible, and we multiply scandals in the service of God to 
the world's end, to which no man should come till all were 

§ 11. Last of all, it in not the ingenious conceptions of 
men's minds— it is not the eloquent expressions of their 
tongues that God is affected with : the minister's devotion 
will prove more free towards God, when his mind is less at 
work in framing terms to express what he conceive di to be 
for the purpose. But if we have regard unto the meanest 
rank in knowledge as well as in estate — which are always the 
219 greatest part, and therefore in whom charity hath the most 
share — it will appear a great advantage to their devotions to 
run smooth upon the forms to which they are practised, 
which must needs be intercepted with studying the meaning 
of new ones which they are directed with. Tins is that which 
my reason is able to inform in this point, whether a prescript 
form of prayers be for the edification of the Church, in main- 
taining order and reverence in the public service of God, or 
not* Let us see which way the practice of the Church in- 
clineth or hath inclined : though the manner be great as con- 
cerning the meaning of the Apostle's charge and the form of 
serving God, a man shall have no cause to suspect his own 
reason, when the reason of the Church and the guides of it go 

^ 12* But I must begin with the public service of God in Three 
the temple so far as it was moral, and consisted not in offer- IheaVrvice 
ing sacrifices: that carrieth more prejudice with it than man's f f { ,, i *j 
reason can enforce : that which was done there is precedent 
enough to presume that the like is not against the law of God 
and the Scripture. Of this we read thus, 1 Chron. xxiii. 3G; 
m And to stand every morning to thank and praise the Lord, 
and likewise at evening : and at all offering burnt-offerings to 
the Lord, on the sabbaths, the new moons* and the solemn 

r 2 




c i r a i\ assemblies," For without doubt the purpose is here to sp< 

at what times the Levitts sung the psalms of God's praises 
to the sacrifices that were offering in the court of the temple, 
whereof we read afore, 1 Chron. xvi. 4 ; " And he appointed 
of the Levites to minister before the ark of the Lord : and to 
record, and thank, and praise the Lord God of Israel" And 
again, vcr. 37, the same is repeated But afterwards, having 
spoken of the priests whom David left to sacrifice upon the 
Altar at Gibeon, it folio weth, ver. 41; * £ And with them 
He man, and Jeduthun, and the rest that were chosen, that 
were expressed by name to give thanks to the Lord, because 
Ilia mercy endure th for ever." Here you shall perceive the 
lime and the place of this service expressed in Scripture, Part 
of them with Asaph were to minister before the ark, part 
with Heman and Jeduthun to give thanks unto the Lord, 
where the priests offered the burnt-offering morning and 
evening, ven 40, for the time that the Altar was at Gibeoti, 
the ark in the city of David. 

§ 13. But for a perpetual course, as you have it, xxiii. 30; 
u To stand every morning to thank and praise the Lord, and 
likewise at evening : and at all offering of burnt-offerings to 
the Lord, in the sabbaths, in the new moons, and on the 
assemblies." For thus it must here be translated, as R. David 
Kimchi hath glossed it, that they should also he ready to 
praise when the burnt-sacrifice is offered on the sabbaths, 221 
and new moons, and days of assemblies; and also to help the 
priests on these days when there are many offerings. For by 
this exposition is signified both the help which the priests 
had from the Levites in sacrificing, and also the kinds of 
sacrifices at which the Levites sung psalms of praise and 
thanksgiving. Matmoni m Cek hammihdash, cap* hi, u> 'not, 
"And when do they sing? Over all the burnt-offerings of 
the congregation which w T ere due, and over the peace-offer- 
ings of an assembly, at the pouring of the wine : but the 
voluntary burnt-offerings of the congregation, over these they 
sung not the song*" A rule without doubt raked from the 
Scripture alleged ; and the place here signified where they 
stood to sing, that is, before the ark, is the same that is signi- 

tiq. Swt., torn. Tiii. p. 922. VcneL 1747. 


of Gud 


Cons til uti one s de vasis sanctuani, 
iii 2. apud Ugolini Thesaur, An- 



ficd at Solomon's sacrifice * 2 Chron* v, 1*2, where they stood char 
"east from the Altar/ 1 as it must be translated, that is, at the — — — 
cast gate of the temple, either before the men's court or be- 
fore the womcn*s court. For at both these gates there was a 
pulpit for the Levltes, where, at all these times, stood twelve 
at the least for this purpose, Maimoni as before. And before 
the latter were those fifteen steps from which the fifteen 
Psalms of degrees arc named, because they were sung there, 
as the Talmud is ts will have it, Mass. Mtddutk, cap. ii. num. 
222 5 f 6 n , and the annotations upon it. To this must be added 
that memorable passage of the Samaritan Chronicle, pub- 
lished not long since , the tenor whereof is this, " The 
High-Priest living at that time,*' that is, the year of the world 
4513, by their account, "took away that most excellent book 
which was in their hands ever since the calm and peaceable 
time of the Israelites, which contained those songs and 
prayers which were ever used before their sacrifices. For 
before every of their several sacrifices they had their several 
songs, still used in those times of peace, all which, accurately 
written, were transmitted to the subsequent generations, from 
the time of the legate* 1 Moses "unto this day, by the ministry 
of the High-Priest/' For this whole passage spcaketh clearly 
of the service of God in the temple, shewing us that besides 
the book of Psalms there were other songs used at the sacri- 
fices of their several solemnities, which were, according to 
the course of their service, put together in one book for the 

§ 14, There was besides another part of the service done The con- 
in the temple, which men of learning have hit upon by con- 9 i,^ u 
jecture, out of Rev. viii, 3 ; * And another angel came and 
stood at the Altar, having a golden censer, and there was 

D Surenhuaii, M ischium torn, v, pp. 
Mft Ml A mat clock m, 109ft. 

IW Bishop Hall in his Defence of 
the Humble Remonstrance, pp. 17* 18, 
He prefaces the extract tho*; ** In tW 
Samaritan Chronicle, now in the hand a 
of the incomparable Primate of Ire- 
land, ibe Lord Archbishop of Armagh 
[U flier], by him procured out of the 
library of trie famously learned Joseph 
tr, thus they find, after relation 
of the dvntli of Adrian the Emperor — 
1hc*c Jewt curte with a Den* 

ponterat ejus owwr — which in their com- 
putation fall a upon the year +513 from 
Adam ; Qntj ttHptfit tbtiJtJtt, ttc. t At 
which tii ne>. say they, he touk Away t &c" 
*' The High-Priest then Uving," in the 
tnar^in, Thomdikc ha* varied into "the 
H%a-Pri*ft living at that time,'* In 
ihe Biafcon'ft Short Answer to the te- 
rlioua Vindication of Smectymivum, p. 
38, H printed a Latin transition, of 
which the extract in the text is a more 
correct version tbau that given by 
Bishop HilL 




\ II, 

given onto him much incense, that he should offer it with 
the prayers of all saints, upon the golden Altar which was 
hefore the throne:" joined with Luke L 10 f ** And the whole 2*j 
multitude of the people were praying without at the time of 
incense." From which text LutL Cappellus^ collected, that 
while the priest offered his incense in the tabernacle the 
people were at their prayers abroad, and that St* John's 
vision aliudeth to nothing else. Whereupon our Mead'* of 
Christ's College very ingeniously conceived that where it is 
said therej ver. lj u When he had opened the seventh seal 
there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour," 
all this was represented in resemblance of the service of the 
temple, where first the praises of God are sung, as it is be- 
fore, vi i. 9^ then there is silence for half an hour, while the 
priest within offereth the incense, and the people without pray 
for remission of sins every one by themselves* For so I find 
this conjecture verified in Pirhe Aboth* cap. v. 5', where one 
of the ten miracles which the Jews relate fell out continually 
in the service of God in the temple, is this, D*SrtD¥ DHDip 
D^nn DMnriCW, that is, " they stood crowded, but they wor- 
t?hij>|>ed at large," which R* Obadiah Bartenora proccedcth 
thus to expound upon the meaning of the word DIBlDtf- \\%h 
D'Dn »j& hv *1Vj " It hath the sense/ saith he, "from swimming 
upon the face of the waters : for because of the crowd every 
one pressed his fellow, so that they stood swimming as it 
were, with their feet lifted up from the ground, in the air, 
At the time of worshipping, the miracle happened to them 12 
that they worshipped at large every man four cubits from the 
next, that he might not hear him when he confessed and 
remembered his sins/ 1 Wherefore they stood while the 
Levites sung at pouring the wine upon the burnt-offering, 
but when the priest went to offer the incense, then fell every 
man down to make confession of his sins in private. Which 
being done, the holy priest, coming out into the court, pro- 

p A pud Critic* lt torn. vii. coL 
4771* in Apoo. viii, 3, 

* Fro tcmpli nempe ritu in i-aiiH 
modi eacro obeundo* Constat cnim, in 
mciU ubivis ferft gentium fltfw f fl fm i 
de reKfrioiie fnis*? * . * id a populo Dei 
ohaervaiiun turn, cum incensutn fiertt, 
Dun enim ncrlficia offer ebantur rm<r 

pdma pars kttTovpytat fuit, t«nplum 
emit Ida , . , personabat, it tempore in- 
ccnsi omnia si le hunt t?t populus tadtc 
aecuin precabAtur, — In Saiicti JoliAnniR 
Apoealypsin Comments riuts, Parv » 
Si L ntfis, lib, iii. p. 568. London, 10§& 

r Surenhus. Miwbii&, torn, iv. n, 



nouncecl the benediction appointed in the law over the char 

people ? which was the end of service* — : — 

S 15. Of this, Maimoniof Prayer, and the Priests' Blessing, The 

p* ti i^i • i priests' 

xiv. 9, " In the temple* alter the morning service was done, blessing. 
the priests went up into the pulpit to bless :** which niaketh 
me presume that the order of service in the temple was no 
otherwise than hath been declared. Which Ecclesiasticus 
seemeth punctually to describe in Gnias, chap. L 15 — 17. 
*■ He stretched out his hand to the cup, and poured of the 
blood of the grape \ he poured out at the foot of the Altar a 
sweet-smelling savour unto the must high King of all Then 
shouted the sons of Aaron, and sounded the silver trumpets, 
and made a great noise to be heard for a remembrance before 
the Most High* Then all the people together hasted, and fell 
down to the earth upon their faces, to worship their Lord God 
Almighty, the Most High.* When the wine was poured forth, 
T25 and the priests blew the trumpets within, at festivals, it is to be 
understood that the Levites sung the praises of God without 
at the same timei as we saw afore': and so it followeth in the 
next words, wherein this description is repeated, ver. 18, 19, 
"The singers also sang praises with their voices, with great 
variety of sounds was there made sweet melody. Aud the 
people besought the Lord the Most High, by prayer before 
Him that is merciful, till the solemnity of the Lord was 
ended, and they had finished His service." After all follow- 
eth the priests blessing, as Maimoni said, ver. 20, 21 : 
"Then he went down, and lifted up his hands over the 
whole congregation of the children of Israel, to give the 
blessing of the Lord with his lips, and to rejoice in His 
name. And they bowed themselves down to worship the 
second time, that they might receive a blessing from the Most 
High," I make no doubt but there was time for reading and 
expounding the law in the temple, as it hath been touched ; 
but because [ find no remembrance of it in this service, and 
because it concemeth not the point in hand, I let it alone, 

§ 16. In this course of service then the prayer, wherewith 
each of them confessed their sins, was private and at plea- 
sure, the rest was all by prescript form. The priest's blessing 
expressed in Scripture, the praises of God out of the book 

I Sect. 12. 




of Psalms, and others for the purpose. And this is the 
strength of that armament that is drawn from the titles of the 2-1& 
Psalmn, shewing that they were indited for the purpose of 
praising Got), and praying to Hint, as the tenor of them is. 
Two or three of these titles it shall not be amiss to produce 
here. Psalm iv. and all the rest where the title is " To the 
chief Musician," the Chaldee translateth t«nir% * to sing,** or 
** to praise f* to tell us that they were Psalms composed for 
the muMter of music, to be used in the service of the temple. 
xciL "A Psalm, a Song for the Sabbath day:"* it is a pleasant 
thing to rend the vagaries of the Jews upon this title, from 
whence they conceive this Psalm to be made by Adam, after 
his fall on the Friday, to serve God with on the Sabbath 1 ; 
whereas the meaning in our observation is plain, that it was 
composed to be sung in the service of the temple on the 
Sabbath, which the very tenor of the Psalm en force th when 
it snithf vcr. 4, " For Thou, Lord, hast made me glad through 
Thy works : I will triumph in the works of Thy hands :* 
pointing at the meditation of the creation upon the Sabbath* 
as the Jews expound it, Last, the title of those fifteen 
Psalms after the hundred and twentieth, called " Psalms of 
"Minded as afore, from the fifteen steps between 
'<'?i'n court mid that of the priests, is assurance enough 
find ilii-y were tn ride to serve God with there. By which it 
fipjtfiirHli ilnif the prophets of God and their disciples — that 227 

vi n hint of the Jews — that the Apostles of our 

i i i when ihry frequented this service, as shall be said, 
1 1 >• night not their spirits stinted by the prescript form of it, 

§ 17* The service of God in the synagogues depended 
much upon this in the temple ; neither is it in me to imagine 
what reason can be alleged why a prescript form used in the 
temple should not fit the synagogue. The way to put this 
past peradventure had been to describe the particulars of that 
service, and to trace the antiquity of them, from their best 
writings ; but a discourse too long and obscure for this place, 
I shall be content to produce two or three passages of the 
substance or circumstance of it, by which shall appear what- 
soever alterations it hath received, as at the present in the 
substance of their service all agree, though for the particulars 

1 See H, Eliezer in Pirke, cap, xix + p + 42. cd. Vorrt. LugcL B«Lnv* 16ft 



there is not more difference among the Jews of several coun- c H a P. 

tries in any thing than in this, saith Leo Modena in the : — 

piece named afore u , p. 1, chap, xi. 6, that a prescript form 
was used among them under the second temple, while they 
continued the people of God. 

§18, The order whereof, for my part, I must needs refer of th* 
to the ancient scribes that succeeded the prophets ; as mine b^jfo 1 . 
author R, Moses Maimoni hath expressed in the first particu- P***' 

228 lar which I intend to allege, that is, the eighteen benedictions, 
wherein, praising God, they beg at His hands the supply of His 
daily blessings. These, in his treatise of Prayer and Benedic- 
tion of the Priests, cap. i. 2 X , he referreth to Ezra as the author 
of them, when being returned from the captivity it was found 
that the people was not able to praise and serve God in a 
continued speech, their language being mixed with that of 
strangers. I confess I should have thought it a more proba- 
ble reason to have said that they were composed as a direc- 
tion for the service of God, both in public and private, as still 
their use is : but for this authors credit it is very well known 
that all his stuff cometh from the best writings which that 
people have. And the agreement of the Jews of all countries 
in these and the other benedictions, whereof they are bound 
to say every day an hundred, and that of old* sufficiently 
sheweth how ancient they are, when other ingredients of 
their service are subject to change with times and places ; as 
their hymns for example, whereof is to be seen at large, in 
Abenezra upon Ecelesiastes, v, 1, where he disputcth against 
those of R. Eliezer Hakkalir, preferring before them those 
which R, Saadiah Haggaon had made. 

§ 19. The second particular that I will produce is the ser- oftheier- 

22DVice of the seven days' fast, described in the same Maimoni, J^f/J^t 
Taamoth, cap, iv, I5 y , how it was performed in Jerusalem. His Jj f *' b%( ■ 
words are to this effect ; lai ffliQj * When they prayed after 
this order in Jerusalem, they went into the mountain of the 
temple against the east gate, and when the Apostle of the 
congregation was come to, *He that heard Abraham,'" the 
prayer that ended thus, f * Blessed be Thou, O Lord God, our 

■ Chap. in. fleet 18. See Owen's lib, iii. par. % cap, xtv, p. 1032, m\<\. 
translation, p. 42* f De Jcjun. Elm,, p. 29. cd. Carp- 

* See Vitringa de Synagnga vcteji% tov,, Lipsjae. L002, 



God, the God of Israel, from generation to generation. 
- Blessed be Thou, O Lord, the Redeemer of Israel. The 
people answer. Blessed be the glorious and dreadful name of 
God, whose kingdom is to all generations and evermore. 
And the officer of the synagogue saitb to the priests that 
blow the trumpets," according to the law, Num. x, 9, "Sound 
ye sons of Aaron, sound : and again he praycth. 1 * This is a 
form then which was in use during the temple upon that 
occasion, and giveth presumption enough that there was the 
like for all other ordinary and extraordinary ones. 

§ 20. And at this occasion in particular is the rule verified 
which saith "that the people did not answer Amen within 
the mountain of the temple ; " Gem. Hierosol. Taanioth, cap. 
ii,,* Babylon Bemcoth, cap. ix.*; which rule is enough to 
prove my intent, because it sheweth that there were certain 
forms among them— the same that still are extant — which 
when they were used in the synagogue the people answered 
Amen in the end ; but when they were used in the moun- 
tain of the temple, that is, within the outmost compass of it, 2S0 
the people's answer was, as afore, " Blessed be the name of 
His glorious kingdom to all generations and evermore,^ And 
the case is related in the Mischna Taaniath, cap. ii- 5**, that 
whereas once this answer was used in the synagogue, the 
matter came before the wise— and, as I remember, it was 
before the great sanedrin at Sippore, during the time that it 
Silt there, being removed from Jerusalem, whereof afore c — 
and their resolution was, that it was not so practised but only 
at the east gate and in the mountain of the temple ; that is, 
as Maimoui and Bartenora both expound it d , at the east gate 
of the temple, and at the eastern gate of the mountain of the 
temple. To make the meaning of their resolution to be this, 
that the answer of the people aforesaid, instead of Amen, 
which they used to answer in the synagogue, was only prac- 
tised after the benediction of the priests which they gave at 
the east gate of the temple, as was said, and at this service of 
the fast of seven days in Jerusalem, where it was done at the 

■ Constitute xi. op. Ugoliu, Thesaur. 
Antiij. S.icr, tonu xviil p. 730, 

1 La Tat 11 1 url i .it* iJabyluue irmltiit • ii 
Laitpue Franpai**, par C'Abbi L. VUi- 
ariiii, nun, ii. p. 317. Lttpife IS3L 

* Surenbus. MUohiu, torn, ii. pp, 

< %ftgh tiL seel. lti. 

•' Surenhn*. nt supr. 



cast gate of the mountain of the temple, the outmost close of 
it But seeing the same service was done throughout their 
synagogues as the cause required* of necessity the same form 
was used upon those occasions, and the like upon others. 
5 21, The last particular I shall produce is a circumstance 

231 observable at all their services, that whereas the reading of 
the law and other Scriptures and the exposition of it was 
done by principal persons, the chief of the synagogue, with 
their faces turned to the people as they sat, as our Lord in 
the synagogue of Nazareth, Luke iv, 16— SO; on the other 
side the prayers were read by him whom they calif apparitor 
of the synagogue — correspondent to the deacon in the Chris- 
tian Church — with his back to the people, and his face to the 
ark and to the elders. This office, though of good ' account 
in the synagogue, as we see in Maimoni of Prayer, chap. viii. 
num, 1 2, being yet inferior to the seribes and wise* it is plain 
to my common sense that it was not entrusted to direct the 
prayers of their betters in qualities proper to that work upon 
other ground than this, because the prayers had been coin- 
posed by those wise and learned afore, and were therefore 
ministered by their inferiors, the deacons of synagogues. 

§ 22, Such is he of whom Luke iv, 20 ; " And he closed 
the book and gave it again to the minister, and sat down." 
Such is he that is called ** apostle of the congregation* 1 in 
Maimoni, the place aforesaid, that pronounccth the service 
prescribed there, and to shew that it was no late practice 
among them which he prescribed!, is called in the Mischna, 
Beraeoth) cap. v, 3, 4% Taanioih, cap, ii, 2 f , m<n *3e6 Tivn, "he 

232 that cometh down before the ark :" the reason, if my conjec- 
ture mistake not* being this, because the place where he sat 
among the elders was higher than that of the people by some 
steps, so that he must come down those steps to stand before 
them, with his back to the people, in doing service : as 
R, Benjamin in his Itinerary, p. 75, describeth the chief 
synagogue at Bagdad, that before the ark there were ten 
stairs of marble, in the top whereof sat the head of the 
captivity, of the lineage of David. 

§ 23, Now it is to be known that things related in the 

* Surcnhu&. Milduii, <i»m, i. np* ' Sm-enhu*. Mischna. tom. ii n. 36& 

1R, lfl, * 



The dea- 
con tni- 

thfir ser- 



Mischna, written in the days of Antoninus Plus* are not to be 
understood as if they were of no greater standing than that 
time, hut arc the most ancient orders of that people, practised 
and delivered long afore from hand to hand, as things not 
lawful to be committed to writing, and then first written, for 
fear that their manifold dispersions might bring their rules 
and orders into oblivion, as themselves profess* And from 
that first title of the Mischna we have enough to convince this 
whole point, if Scaligcr's judgment may take place, For 
there we have divers cases of those prayers which still they 
use, resolved by doctors that lived not long after our Lonft 
time. And Scaligcr's judgment is, vi. de Emend. Temp** f that 
there is no more question to be made, whether those resolu- 
tions be the resolutions of those doctors to whom they are 
entitled there, than whether the resolutions of the old Roman 
sages, preserved in the digests of the civil law, be their own 
or not. Thus must needs those prayers be far more ancient 
than the time of our Lord, concerning the formal terms 
whereof — cases never disputed at that time— see the Mischna 
Beracoth} cap. iv. #, cap* v* 2> 

§ 24* As for the practice of the Church next to the Apo- 
stles, let me use the advantage which is due to the truth, and 
prescribe one thing, in their 1 way, that intend to prove it to 
be against the Scripture, and the Apostle, forbidding to stint 
the Spirit, to use prescript forms in praying, — which is this ; 
that it is not enough for their purpose to shew out of some 
Church- writers that some Churches might refer themselves, 
in the direction of their devotions, to their Bishops or to23S 
their presbyters j but it behoveth them to shew that they did 
it as acknowledging that sense of the Apostle, alleging their 
reason, and forbearing it as against Scripture. For there 
is a great deal of reason why that course might be tolerable 
and sufficient in the beginning, while the Church was op- 
pressed by the secular powers of the empire, and the fear of 

* Hie fiiit vet us ritus celebrationis 
Pnaeha tein paribus Mcssirc, quod ve- 
tuati&aimi canones in Digestii Talmu- 
(Ucis manifesto probant, nisi quia eon 
neget antfquoa esse, quod idem ae ai 
quia capita Papiniani, Pauli t Ulniani, ct 
alionim jurifteansuJtanjm in Digest ia 
Juatiniani producta, negc-t esse mum 

jurist an aultoram quorum nomine ci- 
tJiutur. — De Emcndak Temp,, lib, vi. 
in caplte Rvtidua Pamifmis Dominic* 
p. 5*7, Liigd. BaUYh }i'iB&. 

h Surenhus. Mischna, lam. i. 
— 17. 

1 SmectvmnuuK, secL iL p 



persecution contained the people in respect to the orders of chap. 

their pastors, and them in respect to their office, which after- — 

wards, when the world was come into the Church, and the 
empire hccome Christian, would not serve the turn. Then 
as it was requisite that all rules of the Church should 
receive force from the secular arm, so might it prove requi- 
site that the order of public service should he settled in a 
prescript form, though it had been left to the discretion of 
particular persons afore, in regard of that good and bad fish 
that was come into the net, and might take the occasions 
pointed at to make rents in it. 

§ 25. But I allege this exception to put them in mind that Justin 
no ecclesiastical writer hath yet been alleged to use their MU | 7^. 
reasons, which giveth just evidence of the novelty of the opi- {J}}^"^. 
nion grounded on it : not because I do think the cause need- *i*mhL 
eth it, or that any time of the Church can be shewed, after 
23* the Apostles, and the time of extraordinary graces, wherein a 
prescript form of public service hath not been used ; much 
less that any such thing is proved by the words of Justin 
Martyr and Tertullian, produced out of their Apologies for 
the Christians, wherein they inform the powers of the empire 
what the Christians did at their assemblies \ which had they 
been but turned right into English, would have made it ap- 
pear that they enforce either another sense, or quite contrary 
to that which they are produced to prove. The words of Jus- 
tin, the place afore-named, ^4/W* L k : Kal f cu? irpoi^p^v^ Travrxa- 
phwm fjpmv t% €&xfj$ s apTo? irpotr^ip^TfU teal qivqs teal vSmpy 
xal 6 7rpQ€crTw^ t €Vj(a^ 6fiol&% real exr^apttrrla^ oot} £1/1/0/44? avr^j, 
avawipsrrett teal q Xoo? hr€tjrf>i}fi€t f Xiytav to ap^Vt which they 1 
translate "Then he who instructed the people prayed according 
to his ability." *0 wpQ€<n<&$ they translate " he that instructed 
the people f signifying i( him that governed the people," to 
wit, in ecclesiastical matters. True it is the same person did 
both, but the same word signified! not both 1 this by the way. 
§ 26, But S<tt) hvvapts they translate "according to his 
ability,*' as if Kara hvvapw and o<nj Bvvapus were both one. 
You shall see a difference by the Hebrew, Their ancient 

people prayed according to his ability.'* 
— Since lymiiuiu, sect ii p. 7- 


chap, doctors have this saying, ui noi«n to, " Whosoever saith Amen 
— — — with all his might, the gate of the garden of Eden is opened 
to him," Musar. cap. iv. And in the same manner of speech 
Maimoni describing their morning service, chap. ix. 1, "And 235 
the people answer, 'Amen: be His great name blessed for 
ever, and to all everlastings,' with all their might" Whereas 
the same Rabbi in another place, Taanioth, cap. iv. 2, de- 
scribing the speech of him that preached humiliation to the 
people at the fast of seven days, whereof afore, addeth ; " and 
proceedeth in such like discourses, according to his ability, 
until he humble their hearts and they repent perfectly." In 
the Hebrew it is here nriD *BD, in the other places iro fan ; 
the first is in Greek Kara Swa/iiv, the other b\rq Svvafue; 
in English that signifieth "according to his ability," this 
"with all his might," so much difference there is, and the 
mistake it causeth no less than thus : they will needs make 
Justin dream as much as themselves do of making show of 
men's faculties in conceiving prayers™, who speaketh of no- 
thing but that earnestness of devotion with which he saith 
the Bishop or presbyter came to consecrate the Eucharist, 
more proper, without doubt, to that prime point of God's 
service ; which he thus expresseth, " That he sendeth forth 
prayers and thanksgivings with all his might" In fine, when 
Justin, speaking of the thanksgiving which the Eucharist was 
consecrated with, saith that he made it ocrr) Swapus, " with 
all his might," he meaneth neither more nor less than afore, 246 
speaking of the common prayers of the people, which he saith 
they made evrovw;, or " earnestly," as shall be said. 

§ 27. The words of Tertullian, Apolog. cap. xxx. IUuc suspi- 
cientes Christiani manibus expansis, quia innocuis ; capite nudo> 
quia non erubescimus; denique sine monitore, quia depectore ora- 
mus 9 precantes sumus semper pro omnibus Imperatoribus. It is 
justly excepted that these words are not to the purpose, as 

m "Prayer being ended they went of public assemblies {secondly, know that 

to the Sacrament, in the beginning if he did the place is to your disadvan- 

whereof the president of the assembly tage; for— as a late learned author weU 

poured out prayers and thanksgiving ac- urges — would ye have it imagined that 

cording to his ability, and the people the assembled Christians did betake 

said Amen" — A Vindication of the themselves publicly to their private die* 

Answer, &c. by Smectymnuus, sect ii votions each man by himself, M Us 

P* 15. own heart dictated?" — Answer to tbi 

* " Prove first that Tertullian speaks Vindication, &c. sect ii. p. 24. 



containing the private devotions of Christians compared with 
those of the Pagans, Nevertheless, the subject of these 
prayers, which he prosecuteth afterwards, is the same with 
the prayers of their assemblies, whereof he speaketh cap* 
xxxix*° and giveth just cause to think that he speaketh of 
private forms of devotion borrowed from the public. He 
saitb there that Christians prayed with hands stretched out, 
to protest their innoceney ; bare-headed, to profess that they 
were not ashamed touching the Gentiles, that covered hands 
and faces in praying, which he interpreted a confession of 
guilt in the hands, an acknowledgment of shame in the face, 
which that habit signified, as hath been said p ; and in the 
same strain he goeth on to tell them that whereas they had 
their remembrancers to suggest the devotions they addressed 
to their several deities, which he called monitors* — the Chris- 
tians prayed without monitors, because they prayed by heart- 
There is a reason why the heathens had prompters to suggest 
unto them the devotions which they addressed to several 
deities, because they counted several deities properly able to 
bestow several blessings, and accordingly held several rites 
proper for their service, which it was sacrilege to perform 
otherwise. Am obi us contra Gentes, Hi. q ; Usque adev res ezitjit 
propriathn Deos scire, nee ambigere, uea dubitare de ummcitjus- 
que vi, nomine, ne si alienis ritibus et appellationibus fuerint 
itwocati, et aures habetmt &tructas t et piacidis nos teneant inexpi- 
abilibus ohlhjatos* "So far it concerns* particularly to know 
the gods, without ambiguity or doubt of the virtue and name 
of each ; lest when they are called upon by the rites and 
names of others they both have their ears stopped, and hold 
us ensnared with inexpiable sacrileges." Sec there afore. 
So Tertullian, according to this sense, makes a very pertinent 
apposition between the heathen that prayed as they were 
prompted and the heathen that prayed by heart 
237 § 28* For the words, sine monitore, quia de pcctare s of Ter- 
tullian, affected always to imitate and express the Greek, are 
to my best apprehension the translation of that which is called 
in Greek* airoarri&{%Etp t in English, "to say by heart:" and 

• Seed 


K p. 1 7C, Vwiet 1768,— P. 12J. Lugd. 
Bat. 1651. 

C H A P. 


chap, so they could not hare shewed a passage more pregnant with 
the sense they intended to destroy, that they prayed by pre- 
script forms, 
ftmrftfae § 29. The Surest proof we can make that the Church, after 
lenfee. the Apostles' time, and the use of extraordinary graces, betook 
themselves to prescript forms of prayer, as well as other parts 
of God's service, will be from the parts of it The Psalms 
of David, in the first place, do mix prayers with the praises 
of God, and are no extemporary conceptions, yet were always 
one of the first parts of public service, as shall appear in due 
time. As for other hymns of private composure, Come. Laod., 
Canon xv. r : Ilepi row fitf $eu> if\iov t&v kovopu&p ^fraXtw, 
r&v hit top ajifi&va avaftaivovraw, teal arrro SuftOipas ^fnaXXap- 
tow, ercpov? two* ^dXKeiv ei> hackrpia* "That besides en- 
rolled singers that go up into the desk, and sing out of the 
parchmine, others ought not to sing in the church." Canon 
lix. f : "Ori ov Sel JZuarucoxs yfraXfLois Xey&rdcu ir t§ hckkqaia. 
" That psalms of private persons must not be said in the 
church. 9 * These canons seem to make opposition between 
those that came from private persons, and those that were 
entered in the church books. These only to be sung out of 
those books by clergy chanters, enrolled in the list of the 
church, that other persons might take no occasion to bring 

i any into use, besides those that were prescribed and received. 

§ 30. I find that to meet with the poison of Arius, Sicut in 

r principio was added to Gloria Poiri in the church service. 

\ And I have heard, that to meet with the poison of Pelagius 

they took up the custom to put Dei Gratia in titles and in- 
scriptions of letters 1 . But that the custom of using such set 
forms was taken up first, because the Arian and Pelagian 
heresies conveyed and spread themselves by that means, is 

' Circa A.D. 364. Labbei, torn, i Quemadmodum etiam ad eundem Ari- 

coL 1633. ed. Venet. anorum errorem refellendum ac coar- 

■ lb., col. 1540. guendum constitutum fuit — ut ex Va- 

1 Quemadmodum enim ad Pelagii sensi Concilio ii. cap. v. constat. — ut 

hseresin ejiciendam promus et Glorification is hymno— sic appellabanl 

evellendam, consueverunt illius tern- Patres hymnum Gloria Patri et Spiritui 

pons patres in epistolarum suarum Sancto — adderentur ea verba, Sicnt eral 

principio misericordia Dei et Gratia in- in principio, &c— Ferrarii deantiq. Eo- 

digentes sese appellare ut observavit cles. Epist Genere, cap. v. p. 21. Me- 

Baroii. ad ann. 415. [num. 3],eamrefe- diolan. 1613. See Cardinal Bona di 

rens epistolam quam Lucianus .... Sing. Part Divin. Psalm. ** 

dederat, cujus ilia erat inscriptio Lu- vi. 2. p. 826. Antverp. Iff 

ciatuu misericordia Dei indigent 



strange news to hear 11 . It might have been said with more chap, 

reason of the hymns of Valentinus, so long afore, which Tcr — 

tail tan taxed], Da carne Christ^ cap* xviL* And let impartial 
reason answer the question, whether it he more like if any 
such thing were, that they should make that advantage, be- 
cause set forms were then in practice, or whether the Church 
should fall to use that course, because it was first taken up by 
these heresies* 

§ 3L In reading and expounding the Scriptures, the ques- [Of pnyer 
tion is not made. But that is the particular wherein I must g^^n 
yield something of private conception to have been used in 
the primitive Church service. It is believed that in the 
flourishing times of the Church, preachers were wont, in the 
beginning of their sermons, to commend themselves and their 
230 labours to God's blessing; the form is extant which St. Am- 
brose used*, neither do we find that it was not at their own 
choice. But after the sermon, the catechu meni or hearers — 
those that were under penance — those that were vexed with 
unclean spirits, were dismissed with the several prayers of 
the congregation and benedictions of the Bishop or presby- 
ter, on their several behalfs. When that was done, the 
prayers which were used at the Eucharist, by the congrega- 
tion that was admitted to it, were of two sorts, as shall be 
shewed afterwards, when I come to compare the service which 
this Church uscth with that of the primitive* 

§ 32* The first was of those which the Apostle calleth ron 
* supplications" and "intercessions," not only for the general ltanK,!4 -J 
and particular necessities both of the congregation and the 
mem!*ers of it but of all members of Church and common- 
weal Lh, together or in particular, which are the same for sub- 
stance which have since been called "litanies." The second 
was that a thanksgiving*" from which that Sacrament is still 
called the Eucharist, because it was always consecrated with 

° u Not was this liberty m prayer 

taken away, and set ami itiipost'ij ftmns 

introduced, until tht j time thai the 

and Pelagian heresies ilirl invade 

the Church ; and then, because those 

oa did convey and ipread their 

ouison in their forms of prayer and 

^ A Church thought it couve- 

"*\ the liberty of making 

• form*/' — Smectytn- 

tiuus, sect, ii* p. 7» 

* Set! Tcminao Alejandro cum suh 
lyllngismis, rjuoa in ftrgiimrntatioiiihim 
torquet, etiani cum psaluua Valentini, 
quos inagrna impudentia qunsi idond 
alkujus Auctari* i — De Came 

t'hiisti liber, p. 5J1. ed< Pam. Rothom. 

f Ferrari u*, rle Ritu Ooncinimm, lib. 
i. cap, viiL p. 26. Media la u. 1(120. 


chap, it ; wherein remembrance was made of all the blessings of 

God's providence, in particular, that of our Lord Christ, which 
it pretendeth to commemorate with prayer that His ordinance 
may be effectual to the present I know there followed 
thanksgiving after the communion, beside other pieces of 240 
that service, as shall be said : which I regard not so much 
now, because they seem not to have been of such considera- 
tion in the frame of their service. 
Ail pre- § 33. My intent is to shew in due time that these were 
* cnpt ' the prayers practised upon the Apostle's order, 1 Tim. ii. 1 : 
"I exhort therefore, before all, that prayers, supplications, 
intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men : for 
kings and all that are in eminence :" that they are the same 
which the Apostle intimateth, and specifieth to have been 
practised at that time, when he saith, 1 Cor. xiv. 15, 16, "I 
will pray with the Spirit, but I will pray also with the under- 
standing : I will sing with the Spirit, but I will sing also with 
the understanding : else when thou blessest with the Spirit, 
how shall he that filleth the place of the ignorant say Amen 
at thy giving of thanks, seeing he knoweth not what thou 
sayest?" in fine, that these intercessions whereof the Apostle 
speaketh, Rom. viii. 26, when he saith, "The Spirit itself 
intercedeth for us with groans not to be uttered," are the 
same which in the primitive Church were solemn and per- 
petual before celebrating the Eucharist according to St Chry- 
sostom's exposition averred afore*. This must be done after 
we have shewed what reason there is to think that the Eu- 
charist was celebrated at these assemblies whereof the Apostle 
writeth to the Corinthians, chap. xiv. In the mean time, 241 
as concerning the prayers for hearers, penitents, and pos- 
sessed persons, as well as the said supplications and interces- 
sions, that they were all done by prescript form, let me argue 
as I did afore a , of the prayers of the synagogue, because they 
were ministered by the deacon, as St. Chrysostom said, and 
as it shall appear afterwards, by the remembrance we shall 
find of the custom of the Church. For I suppose no reason 
will yield that the Church referred themselves to be directed 
in their public service by that rank of ministers. 
[Both at § 34. As for the thanksgiving which the Sacramen r 

charist] * Chap. v. sectt 21, 22. ■ Sect. 21. chap. ▼. ao* 



consecrated with, I will here use no more than the words of c II A i\ 

St Cyprian, de Lap&is\ Serm. xiv, Ubi verb solenmbus adim ■ — 

phH§ caUccm diaconus offer re pra>$entibu$ empitj &c., and in 
another place where he ealieth it CaSx benedict ione sokmu 
sacratus c , and ask whether the Kiicharist were consecrated 
with an extempore prayer, in Justin or Tertullian's lime* the 
form whereof by St. Cyprian's time was become solemn* 
Which question perhaps need not be asked, if we consider 
that St Cyprian spake in his master's terms, who» when he 
name th Dominica solemnia, and again, post transacta sohmtta^ 
de Anima, cap* ix. d , must needs he understood to mean the 
same, to wit, the solemn prayers which the Eucharist was 
celebrated with. For indeed the latter of these two passages 
of St Cyprian, I think is out of a work intitlcd to hinij but 
none of his own. Of the preface Sttrsmn Corda^ remem- 
bered by the same St Cyprian, de oration* Dominica* — and 
yet extant in all ancient liturgies as well as ours — as well 
as of other particulars, there will be occasion to speak after- 

§ 35, From that which hath been said of a prescript form [ And at 
2 12 of prayer at celebrating the Eucharist, I will take upon mc iime*,] 
to presume no less of other services at other assemblies. 
Cone. Laod* can- xviii/ taketh order, Ilepl too rtjv axrrqv 
XtiTQVpytav TW ^v%^ TTiivrtrre teal iv rat? iv%fdrai% teal ip Tats 
fOTTcpan? Q$€t\€iv ylveaOai i u that the same service of prayers 
ought to be performed both at ninth hours,* at three after- 
noon, "and evenings." It hath been said of lateE, that this 
canon first confined the prayers of the Church to a set form, 
commanding to use always the same, but such an one as every 
one composed for his own turn* This is argued b from the 

* P. 132. cd. Oxoti, 1682- 

e De Coma Domini, n, 39, ed. Oxoti, 

* See note y f chap. v» sect, 0- 
■ P. 152- cil 0*00, 

' Cin, A.I), Mi, Labfcei, torn. I col. 
15;iX od. Y. 

* * The Laodicean conn cil did for- 
bid men's varying their pmyetf us they 

did, ttlul dut ftQJOiO jill tutu to U*€ thv 
prayer* irt/H tow, it, t< h* 

nt Mithi we *^** 1 was a 
form - 

prove our assertion, we brought t!u* 
words of the council of Carthage, 
wlii c)i uur Remonstrant derides as * 
gross absurdity, to explicate the enuiuil 
of Lnodicsea by of Carthage* which 
is yet no more than Zonaras did before 
us.* ' — V indication of the Answer to the 
Humble Remonstrance* p* 20, 

h " Jt appears, first, that tins canon 

was made for poor ignorant priests, ike. 

, . ♦ , • Secondly, that when tins canon 

mule there was no set form in use 

id Die Church, &a . , .Thirdly, thai 

ting or circiimseribiiui the 

in prayer wns such as <lid not 


chap, third council of Carthage 1 — after this of Laodicea — can. xxiii., 

'- — where it is said, Et guicungue sibi preces aliunde describit, non 

eis utatur, nisi prius eas cum instructioribus fratribus contuleriL 
" And whosoever copieth out prayers for his use, from any 
where, let him not use them till he have debated them with 
his more learned brethren." Afterwards, that the forms to 
be used be first allowed in the synod, we are told k was first 
ordered in the second council of Milevis 1 , some few years 
after this. The words are these : Placuit etiam et illud, ut 
preces, vel orationes, seu rnissa, qu<B probata fuerint in concilio, 
sive prafationes, sive commendationes, seu mantis impositiones 
ab omnibus celebrentur. Nee alia omnino dicantur in Ecclesia, 
nisi qua a prudentioribus tractatte, vel comprobatce in synodo 
fuerint, nh forth aliquid contra fidem, vel per ignorantiam, w/243 
per minus studium sit compositum. " It seemed good also 
that those prayers, or masses, which have been allowed in the 
council, whether prefaces, or commendations, or impositions 
of hands, be frequented of all ; so that none at all be said in 
the Church, but such as have been treated by the more discreet, 
or allowed in the synod, lest perhaps something against the 
faith be composed, either through ignorance or too little heed." 
[Of the § 36. With what judgment these bold conjectures are im- 

counciL.] posed u P on tne world for truth, is now to be considered. 
First, it is acknowledged on all sides, among men of learning, 
that there is a great deal of confusion in these African canons, 
as they have been published in the collection of councils. 
In particular, by Justellus' preface and edition of those 
canons, it appeareth that the council which is there called the 
third of Carthage, Cmario et Attico Coss. A.D. 397, did make 
canons, which are yet extant in the code published by Jus- 
tellus, in number twenty-three ; the rest of the fifty fathered 
upon it are packed together, most of them, out of the council 

tie him to a set liturgy, but he might serve that this is the first mention of 

use the help of any other prayer, so he prayers to be appoved or ratified in a 

did [but] confer with the more learned synod, and the restraining to the use 

of his brethren." — Vindication of the of them we have made it good 

Answer to the Humble Remonstrance, that, liberty in prayer was not taken 

p. 21. away, and set forms imposed till the 

1 A.D. 397. Labbei, torn. ii. col. Arian and Pelagian heresies invaded 

1403. ed. Venet the Church." — Vindication of tie Aa* 

k " The Milevitan council went some- swer, pp. 21, 22. 

thing further .... the canon is this i A.D. 416, ' 

Placuit etiam % &c Where we ob- xii. col. 383. 



of Carthage in which that code was enacted, Post Cons* IIo- 
uttrii xii. ei Theod, viiu A.D, 419, whereof nevertheless this 
is none™. But this second council of Milevis% Theod* viL et 
Palladia Cass* A* IX 416, decreed indeed against Pclagius 
2 14 and Celestius , but made no canons whereof we have just 
remembrance : the twenty -seven fathered upon it are packed 
together out of divers African councils, one whereof is that 
of Carthage, Honorio vii. et T/teod. ii. Goss. A.D. 407, among 
the canons whereof there is one, which, in the copy published 
6rst in Greek by Du Tillet*, since with the original Latin by 
Justellus 11 , is in number one hundred and three, in these 
terms : Plaeutt etunn hoc, ut preces qum probate ftier hit hi con- 
cilia, she pretfationexj she comrue?idationes t sen manus impost 
Hones, ab omnibus celeb rent ur : nee alice onmino contra Jidem 
priefemntur—m the collection 1 " called the African council, 
proferaniur- — sed qntEcunqne a prudmthribus fuerhtt collector*, 
dicantur* "This also seemed good, lhat these prayers which 
have been allowed in the council, whether prefaces, or com- 
mendations, or impositions of hands, be frequented of all; so 
that by no means others against the faith be preferred," or 
"said/' il but these that have been composed by the more dis- 
creet be said," Balsamon upon this canon', *i2<? coi/ce, rwi$ 
eirtQ-Kowoi hrej^ipow Xeyetv zvxas aouvtj&ew* "It scenic th 
some Bishops took upon them to say prayers not customed/* 

VI l. 

» Qtiod vero adjii mn\ Catatto §4 At- 
tn u Co*t, concilium CarMut^iiicTisr ali- 
quori fuivc quod tertium vucanl, in inn* 
rt pudiu T quia Zonarasct IJuUamo Gnrei 
canonum collect ores id te^tiintur, iptfe- 
que, quam nunc rc*tituimu.ft, At. 
coljtctio Judical. Sed Iftlhmlur > nm 
illi concilio use ri bunt quinquagiuta ca- 
00064, quorum xxi* tanluin rid \\\m\ 
pertiucre reperiuntur : rrliqui vcro Fore 
Omn iiM-ribt-ndi sunt concilio Cnrtba- 
^iiin^S, quod i . ■ t tern port.- LkniifHcii 
T. K. ham tPM tuissc , T . . , acta *yno- 
daHi Eftitafifclir. Bonlfiieius tnim (\t- 
xitrut rt Jftiru Com. nonduiii crat Epi- 
iteopui queiu sub conaulatn Ilutturii xiL 
et Thtodtttti viiL A. D. ccecxcvm. v. 
calcnd, Januarii ordinal in n fniaae GOfll- 
*UL — Jiu&iclL. Fnc&L in Codic, Can. 
Erekv Al 17. Pilii. 1061. 

"I! . post aunta 

-nUtu Theottotii vii. . r P&lladii 


ex d i r< lis- A f rii -a n is co 1 1 ecti 

sunr t MiJevicttio idlicet primo, &c. — 
/A. f p. 317^ 

* Fulhuitur ergo concitionmi colkc- 
tores qui dixerunt MiUvitanuni con- 
cilium contra Pelagrjum et Cekstimu 
: ht *t liou»rio r A. 
A* CW* anno Cbristi ccccu, — I& tt pp. 
SItt, ai7. Paris. Itifil. 

p Johannes Tilling Biahop of SL 
BrifU in Nimimidy, and nlUrwirds of 
Meaux. Hi* ColWeiion was published 
in I MO at Paris, 

i Jliblioth. Jur + Can. p. 386, 

r Labbeip torn, iii, can, IxJt, col, 521. 
cd. Vein -t. 

• Cub prndtntiuritiUi lucrini i ■■ I- 
latae, Labbci, Ul 

1 Theodor. Balsam on. Comment in 
Can. KS. Ano^t. ConeH. Gcncr, P*o- 
nncift), "r Syn&i. Carthagin. can, ciri* 
p. 726. Parish 16"2l>, Et tgmd Rcvcrtg, 
Sj nod A. torn. i. p. (140. Oaon. 1G72. 


hap. § 37. It seemeth indeed inconvenience was perceived, by 

; the inconformity of particular episcopal Churches, upon 

it pre- alterations made by the ministers of them in their form of 
i ^j tbe service. Therefore it is provided that the service to be used 
J^*jt be first approved in the usual synod of the African Churches, 245 

that all episcopal Churches of those provinces might be con- 
formable. But this supposeth a form which those Churches 
had, how should else provision be made against alteration in 
it ? and this being without doubt the authentic canon from 
which both those recited have been jumbled into the councils 
specified, neither can we allow them more credit than can 
be thought due to him that pleased to make that jumble ; nor 
can we admit any other sense of the words of them, than the 
words of this canon enforce. Which sense, being of no more 
consequence, will not be worth the while further to dispute. 
>f the § 38. And it is to be observed that some Western canons 
nom.] have provided to the same purpose, that all the Churches of 
the same province be conformable in point of service. Cone. 
Venet. a can. xv. : Rectum quoque duximus, ut vet intra provin- 
ciam nostram sacrarum ordo et psallendi una sit consuetude 
"We have also thought it right, that in sacred offices, and 
the order of singing, the same custom hold through our pro- 
vince." Cane. Epaon. can. xxvii. x : Ad celebranda divina 
officio, ordinem, quern metropolitani tenent, provinciates eorum 
observare debebunt. " For celebrating divine offices, those of 
provinces shall be bound to observe the order which the 
metropolitans hold." To the same purpose Cone. Gerund. 
can. i.r By which appeareth the point aimed at in all these 246 
canons, to make the whole province conformable in Divine 
Service. Which was without doubt the intent of that of 
Laodicca, expounded by Zonaras*, by that hundred-and-third 
of the African canons, Tovro ovv eoitce teal 6 irapiov tcavwv 
ZuLTaTTtaOai. " The same thing," saith he, "doth this present 
canon also seem to ordain." 

§ 39. Thus it is easy to perceive that this canon of Lao- 

* A.D. 465. Labbei, torn. v. col. 82. ■ Zonar. Comment, in Canon. SS. 
ed. Venct Apost et Concil. in Laodic. 

* A.D. 517. Labbei, torn. v. col. 715. Can. xviii. p. 345. Paris. 1618. Et apud 
ed. Venet. Beveregii Synodik. torn. i. p. 461. Oxon. 

r A.D. 517. Labbei, torn. v. coll. 1672. 



dicea — providing that the order of prayer be always the same — C H ,\ I*, 
intended not to appoint the same minister always to use the 
same order of prayers, as is imagined, but that there should 
be one form unalterable, with respect to the diocese of Asia, 
for which it was originally made : as that of Carthage for the 
diocese of Africa, and others for tlitir several provinces. And 
because they allow a by this canon every man to compose his 
own service, so it be always the same, let them take notice 
how this agree th with Zonaras, Tovro ovv tottce, &c. w There- 
fore," saith he, w this canon scemcth to order the same, that 
whosoever would shall not compose prayers and say them at 
assemblies. rt 

§ 40. And now judge whether he, or these new masters, [Mining 
is best at expounding the canons. Only observe that this canons 
eighteenth canon of Laodieea concerncth not the service qt '* 
those assemblies at which the Eucharist was celebrated, of 
which alone that lumdrcd-and-third African canon proccedeth: 
the title whereof is, De precibus ad a! tan? dice mi h\ "Of Prayers 
217 to be said at the Altar," Whereupon it might perhaps be con- 
ceived, that the said pretended Mile vi tan canotij where it 
unlereth the prayers of the Eucharist, require th them to be 
allowed by the synod ; where it requireth them cither to be 
allowed by the synod* or else treated by the more discreet, 
speakcth of other services, such as that canon of Laodieea 
concerneth : but being of no more credit, it deserve th not to 
be sifted so near. Add to all this the tradition in the lives 
of the popes b — what this or that pope added to the prayers 
that the Eucharist was celebrated with — which there is no 
reason to discredit for the whole, and it will appear both that 
there was a set form from the beginning, and that it was sub- 
ject to continual alterations, the true reason why the primitive 
forms cannot now be exhibited. 

§ 41, I am not so credulous as to entitle the liturgies [Of <j. 

■ M And first It ordained thai none 
should pray pro arhitih *ed **?»ij»r 
iniLm firetix, that none should u*e 
vary in prayer, hut use 
Always tin.- CtiflsiL Lao- 

ilL. run, xviii, Vtt this s*Al n farm 
i own eompoMtng, as appear* hy 

Att&tllSI i:it , w Inn in it was ordered 

e thmtld use sny form uu- 

in»1rnct'wribus, with the more learned 
of his brethren. Cone. Carth. \\\. can. 
xxihV — Suiertymmius, *eet. & p, 7, 

V^ for instance, tfixtua I. added 
the hymn Sanetvs t SaNrtut, Stmctm, Do~ 
minus I him Subtwth ; Tcleaplmrus the 
Angelical hymn Ghria in EsceUts ; 
CelestlDOi the Psalms. — See tlie second 

■ if Cardinal Bonn's Rerum Lrlur- 



chap, fathered upon St. James, St Mark, St. Peter, no, nor St. 

'- — Basil, or St Chrysostom, as now we have them, to the per- 

to°the e sons whose names they wear. But I am confident they are 
Apostles. t ^ e gerv ; ces frequented in the Churches of Jerusalem, Alex- 
andria, Rome, Constantinople, and the parts of the East that 
followed St Basil in celebrating the Eucharist, from the time 
that they were put in this frame, and that to this frame they 
are reduced, through those changes which several ages have 24$ 
brought to pass, from a prescript form at the beginning, 
though not this c . For example, that which is called St 
Peter's is word for word the canon of the Roman missal, 
with some parts of the Eastern liturgies, which I find not 
yet to have been frequented in the Western. From hence 
we have ground enough to imagine, why it hath been called 
St Peter's. That of St James we may discern to be the 
service of the Church of Jerusalem, by the particulars of it 
related in the catccheses attributed to Cyril of Jerusalem, 
Catech. v. d That of St Mark may be discerned for the 
service of the Church of Alexandria, by the great agreement 
it carrieth with that of St Cyril sometime patriarch, and 
with the Ethiopic received from thence, as from their mother 
Church, both in Bibliotheca Patrum*. 

§ 42. But as for the alterations to which it is to be believed 
these liturgies have been subject from time to time, we have 
this confession of Victorius Scialach f , the Maronite at Rome, 
in his preface to Velserus of Augsburg, before the three litur- 
gies, which, at the request of his friends, he turned for him 
out of the Arabic copy sent him by Scaliger. Nam ut Latini 
ipsi et Graci pontifices, multa deinceps in suis lilurgiisy guas 

tions in 

c " What censure the learned critics, 
both protestants and papists, have 
passed upon these liturgies, we hope 
the Remonstrant knows; we only mind 
him of what the learned Rivetus speaks 
of the liturgies of James, Peter, Mat- 
thew, Mark, * Has omnes profectas esse 
ab inimico homine qui bona sementi 
Domini nocte superseminavit zizania, 
solidis rationibus probavit nobilis et 
Ulustris Philip. Mornau*, lib. t. de 
Missa et partibus ejus;* which, because 
the Remonstrant so often finds fault 
with our mis- Englishing, we leave to 
him to sec if he can construe these 

zizania to be any other than these 
liturgies, and this inimicus homo to be 
any other than the devil." — Vindica- 
tion of the Answer to the Humble Re- 
monstrance, sect ii. p. 28. 

d S. Cyril Hierosol. Cateches. Mys- 
tagogica. v. p. 325. ed. Ben. 

' Bibliotheca Sanctorum Patrum, 
torn. vi. ed. Paris. 1589. 

' Liturgiae S. Basilii Magni, S. Ore- 
gorii Theologi, S. CyriUi AJexs 
ex Arabic© ear-*"* 
lach, Ac* 



jam hide ab /lpostolis acceperant^ pro re nata 9 ml addiderunU CHAP. 

til i mm u tar tint ; ita etiam ab Ahztuidrims et ./Egyptm^ par est 

149 credere, pro temporum opportunitate Jactitation* *■ For as the 
Latin and Greek prelates either added or changed, upon 
occasion, divers things afterwards, in the liturgies which 
they received even from the Apostles : so is it meet to think 
w;is done, according to the occasion of times, by those of 
Alexandria and Egypt/* Of the alterations made in the 
Roman service by the popes Gelasius and Gregory the 
Great*, beside others, the remembrance is quick and fresh 
in divers writers. The like it is reasonable to conceive of 
other active prelates. This he very pertinently argueth 
afterwards from the copy which he translated, in which the 
liturgy called St. Basil's was couched at large. Of the two 
that remain, in titled to Gregory the Divine and St. Cyril, 
nothing was set down but the passages of difference from that 
of St, Basil b . Though being subject to such continual alter- 
ations, we cannot he bound to believe them, as they are, to 
have been composed by those persons whose names they bear, 
§ 43, And this truth we must take notice to be of great 
advantage to the cause of that reformation which we pro- 
fess'. For presuming, as wc do, that an alteration in matter 
of religion hath come to pass, what better account can we 

* The liturgy of Gelaaiua was su- 
perseded by that of St Gregory. It 
wu di> cove red by Thorn a&ius, and 
published at Home in ItiSU. That of 
^t. Gregory — Liber Sacraimentonmi— 
is pub Li shed with Menard's ootM in 
the 3rd voL of the Benedictine edition 
of St. Gregory** work*. Sr. 
alteration is remarkable; viz., tlie in- 
sertion in the canon of the words ZJiW- 
ylMf ' > &c* 

— Bona Ker. Liturgic, lik ii. cap. IS, 
| 4. p. 5 $+* Antwerp, 1672. 

L Kwti rel ex hoc imo eddica appa- 
rel, In ■aCBBiU liiur^ria, qua? S. Gre- 
gorio, et in tertis <ju*r S, (yrilio tri- 
buitur, ea dunt;i ript*, quje 

: prima? Iia-ilii Utorgias ab Lis 
dqobils adjunct* j «|uuiu reliqu 
ejusdelli 1 \ 

' pct*nda j ipk'X 

the following from Abulhircat : 
" Statu turn est hi Ecclesia Coptic a tres 
liturgias u&urpari Una est ijute Mr 
onmes jejuni i dies, et alios extra Jeju- 
ni uni usurpatur, scilicet liturgia S. liii- 
M _ Jif KphR-opi C a? sane a? Cappadocue* 
Secutida, quam Mgyptn consuevtmnt 
u *u rjmri tantum per quadragesimale je- 
joniunij ct mensem Co hue, est liturgia 
Marci fnon prnfidi V\ rill us, Tertia 
propria est ditbiih festoruui divinorum, 
et littitue, qua; est liturgia S. Greej. 

1 "But these many year* past, this 
godly and decent order of the? ancient 

ra, hath been so uttered* broken, 

Kiitl inflected "Whereas St> Paul 

would have such language spoken to 
the people in the Church as they En 
understand . . . The service in tOJi 

b oj England these many years 
hiith been read in Latin . , , . These in- 

. it nces therefore considered, hvtc 
is set forth such an order w] 

ihftU be redressed, ■ , . ,'*— Book 
imon Prayer, f 
t turck. 


I litur- 

uj' - not 



give how it should be effected* — what more reasonable way can 
we assigiij of conveying it into the minds of the people, than 2^ 
by insensible alterations in the form of public service? which 
so long as we know in general to have been clone, there is 
just cause otherwise to presume that it hath been to that pur- 
pose which we oppose* And if the traces hereof were well 
hunted in particular, perhaps it might be made to appear to 
common sense in the main particulars which we profess to 

§ 44, So when demand is made to exhibit the copies of 
primitive liturgies k t the case is much as it was of old at 
Athens, in the dispute about Thescus's ship in Plutarch, 
whether this which had been so changed that no man could 
tell what part of it remained, were the same or not 1 . Suppose 
we leave the problem to those keen wits of Greece that 
started it ? I suppose it could not be questioned on any side 
that there had been once such a ship of Theseus, In our case 
I shall hope to produce some ribs or limbs of the service 
practised and prescribed by the Apostle for the substance of it. 
And therefore, though I presume not with that Manmite, 
that the Apostles themselves prescribed the form, and deli- 
vered to those which succeeded them, having shewed afore 
that for that time the parts of it were ministered by imme- 
diate inspiration of God's Spirit : yet this I will take upon 
ine to conclude out of the premises, that as it had been in the 
synagogue afore, so in the Church afterwards, when those in-2J 
spirations were ceased they betook themselves on all hands to 
prescript forms™, which, at the first derived from the primi- 
tive practice, retained that agreement in several places which 
hi the substance of them still appcareth, and being prop** 
gated from the greatest Churches at the first, have at length 
all yielded in a manner to the principal. By Balsam on in 
can, xxxii. Sex, St/ti," and his answer to Mark , patriarch of 

v " We desire and expect that those 
ftinim whu!i t ho saith, are yet extant 
.md reiuly to be produced might once 
appear." — Smeetymnuiis, p, <j. 

1 PlttttTCb. OjJp. tOIIL i« in itiu Th - 

.-.;. \>. 10. r,,ii-. [li'jt. 

"' 8tt Rflti k. chap. v\ sect, :J6, 

n Theoilnr. BfrMttL Supplcm* p, 

1 1 1.1, Bt uptt'i Bev«regi^ Kyiimtik. lorn. 

i. p, L&f. The Bi&hop in his notes sus- 

pect* the latter part of the Comment 
t:iry to be none of the Scholia of Bal- 
> mi ii in, hut *' mnrgijtaleni primo f 
nttnolationem.* 1 — Svnodik. torn, iL p. 
1 3 k AnnoL in Can* Con. Trull 

Tln-od. Balsam. Kcspnnta, Re 
Ap. Juris Grjeco- Roman i, 1 
et Frehcri. p. 5(**J, FrancofJirti, 
eitcd partly by Bishop Bft 

mpfg, p, ii\>L 



Alexandria, it appeareth how desirous the service of St Chry- 
M>stonij that is 9 of Constantinople, was to put down these of 
Jerusalem and Alexandria. And it is well enough known 
how the Roman mass, whieh was once the Gregorian service, 
bath abolished the Spanish, Gaulish, and German orders, 
and confined that which is inlitled to St. Ambrose to his 
own Church of Milan. 

§ 45. That this perpetual practice of the Church of pre- 
script forms of service is not against the principles of the 
reformation, or the judgment of chief reformers, a few words 
shall serve to conclude. In particular iu this of England, 
for which I plead ; that the principal of the clergy should 
be employed to advise the whole kingdom assembled to enact 
a form of service, to the purpose that those which could make 
252 no prayers of their own head might use it as cork to help 
them to swim with — not for any of these considerations ex- 
pressed afore, especially the practice of it once enacted having 
been without interruption ever since— is a thing so far from 
common reason to conceive that it is hard to believe that 
those whieh speak it believe themselves in it q . In Luther's 
reformation the question is not made, though there is no 
reason to be shewed why their example should not be drawn 
into consequence here f . As for the other, according to Cal- 

c H A iv 

im -in of 

Churches ^ 

'" The Muz Arabic liturgy was, super- 
seded in Spam in the time of Gregory 
VI I. See Finius* Liturjria Mozara- 
blca, cap. vi § >K p. 47, Romae. 17 10. 
1 1 wm revived in the Chureh of Toledo 
by Cardinal Ximone*. ib. cap. vi], § 4. 
p. tiO. The Gallican liturgy was super- 
seded in the lime of Pepin and Charle- 
magne. — Mahillon, de Ltturuia Gnlli- 
cana, lib, I cap. 3. p. 18. Paris, J 72!). 

* ** Our second query is not so weak 
as this Remonstrant supposeth ; it is 
this, whether the first reformers of reli- 
sam did met intend the use of a lift 

! hi to be n help iu the want, 
and to tin- weakness of the mini 
In [the] way of answer he aaketh, why- 
W* CSH think that our reformers 
bad anj other intentions than all oilier 
the founders of liturgies. No, united, 
WB ihhik, mo other. And howsoever 
the ftrahooalnnit, accordln|| to hi* con- 
fide rive, lelif. Dl that the least pari of 
their care was the help of t hi? minis- 

it was the main drift of those that first 
brought prescribed forms of prayer inl>> 
the Church, — and therefore we eon- 
cetved it might possibly be the inten- 
tion of our reformers also, — witness 
the 23rd canon of the fourth CouMcil 
of Carthage, &eJ* — Vindication of the 
Answer to the Humble Remonstrance, 
sect, ii p* 39, 

' The Presbyterians did not regard 
tin Lutheran system with any great 
favour, e* g. M As for the Lutheran 
Churches, though uv bhw God fur th>u 
(ruth that §§ h* them for that glorious 
instrument of their reformation, v> 
think (Iu Remonstrant will not say that 
the Lutheran Ohurchot fame oral 
perfectly in ihe first edition, but that 
rauiur itotttwihi ; nor OSS he fa 
n( that in the ordinary phn 
writing tkev an called tkt Prot&tmt 
Chnrrk ' »H- *nd 



CHAP. vin% so far as my lot hath been to know the practice of it, I 

'- — confess it is a thing which hath made me much marvel to see 

them so punctual in practising their form prescribed, that 
scarce any thing came from the ministers themselves but that 
very short prayer afore the sermon, wherein they recommend 
themselves and their performance to the blessing of God, as 
you saw the fashion was in the ancient Church 1 . Because it 
is found that the opinions which this Church hath been dis- 
quieted with were taken up upon unreasonable affectation to 
be conformable with them, those that pretend their example 
are bound to shew us among them the principle whereupon 
this point is condemned, that a prescript form is that which 
the Apostle forbiddeth in " quenching the Spirit" 

§ 46. Therefore it will not be enough to say that divers 
Churches of that reformation used to neglect the order ap-253 
pointed them, and use the voluntary conceptions of their 
ministers in public prayers' 1 ; for that might be thought of all 
of us, and for the reasons premised must be thought an ex- 
ample of ill consequence, and not for this Church to imitate. 
But it is requisite to allege the same reason from their doc- 
tors, and to shew that they disallow set prayers, as " quench- 
ing the Spirit." To which purpose I have not yet heard any 
thing produced either from the Fathers of the Church or 
from the reformed doctors. And therefore till that be done 
I am bold to send home that principle to them that have 
most right to own it, that is, to those of the separation from 

ful ? Yet is this handful in respect of 
purity, of truth, and worship among 
them, to he preferred hefore all the 
Christian world besides." — Vindication, 
&c. sect. ii. pp. 42, 43. 

■ See Precum ecclesiasticarum formula 
in the 7th vol. of Calvin's works, Ge- 
neva, 1617. The directions for its use 
begin thus : — Diebus quidem profestis 
minister populum ad precandum qui- 
but ei visum fucrit verbis adhortatur. 
On Sunday morning a form is required 
to be used. After the singing of a Psalm, 
Minister revertitur ad preces, qui bus 
a Domino gratiam sancti sui Spiritus 
petit, .... precationu autem formulam 
ad id aptam minister sibi pro arbitrio 
deligit. After the sermon there follows 
a long prayer, and then the Apostles' 
Creed. Sec "The Form of Common 

Prayer used by the English at Genera," 
printed in the Phoenix, voL ii. p. 204*. 

* See sect. 31. 

11 " All other reformed Churches, 
though they use liturgies, yet do not 
bind their ministers to the use of 
them." — Smectymnuus, sect ii qoer. 
2. p. 13. "But it may be objected 
that the reformed Protestant Churches 
beyond the seas have their set fonts of 
public prayer and sacraments. It Is 
true, but 1 take it that the minister* 
are not tied to those forms, farther 
than they will themselves, As we as* 
the ministers of the Kirk of Bcotfaad 
now in England use no set forms of 
prayer, but do discharge the doty «f 
prayer with an excellent freedom of 
spirit." — Christ on His Throne, ens* 
vii. pp. 33, 34. A.D. 164a 



this Church of England, or rather to those German sectaries chat. 
that dreamed of enthusiasms and Immediate Inspirations. _ — 





The next point, concerning in general the order of public 
service, is the difference of times, and days, and hours, in 
respect of frequenting our assemblies for the purpose of it ; 
and first, the order of daily morning and evening service, 
how much it conecnicth the edification of the Church, that is, 
the training of it in the exercise of godliness* A point other- 
wise to be pleaded than the rest- For in other matters we 
have reason, or at least the shadow of reason, to deal with; 
in this, it is not for Christians to allege that it is not for the 
honour and glory of God to he served in public* or that it is 
not for the benefit of His people to join together in addressing 
their petitions in procuring their daily wants at 1 1 is hands *. 
Nevertheless, as if these considerations were to give way to 
the occasions of the world, those that deny thern not to he 
valuable are content to let them, and the order of daily ser- 
vice grounded upon thern, be ineffectual and to no purpose. 
This is not the place to dispute how much the consideration 

255 of God's service is to outweigh the world and the occasions of 
it. Only because it may be said how many idle bellies are 
maintained in the Church of Rome, to patter over their tnat- 

Of times 
and .'veil- 
ing service 
b for the 
of the 

* fk'on ahligntur fire obtfgnri debrt pa- 
pains iuUrtixt nr dinar it* rtcittitimti foe- 
iiannm in m&tutino et v< iperttno officio 
per ti.ebdotiin.dim, Ordiimrift ijtitur Ice- 
KrfUldi est puhlici* coiivcntiliu*. 
Vfl tftltfltt soihii Ifggndl oriHiiPtn el 

perlc^cndi lift lie re dtbi-nt. si propter 
pflpulum hie nrdo iiivlilutufi. Iclvu Ju- 
rlR-i Ainguli* Sultljntih lirgcbant — Di- 
docUvii (Cftldtrwot>ci) A lure Damas- 
i i mini, \*. *>;J3, Jntto \G2'k 



chap, ins and even-songs, in a manner not regarded by themselves, 
— and a language not understood by the people : let it be con- 
sidered what greater advantage the devil could wish to make 
of this abuse among them, than upon occasion of it to bring 
the service of God into disuse among us ; or how he could 
have improved this scandal to more purpose for the hindering 
of goodness, than rooting out the substance of God's service, 
rather than reforming the abuses of the manner of it y . 

Human & 2. In the next place, the difference of festival and fast- 

institution .,„,,. . , ./.^>t, 

of festivals mg-days from the ordinary, in respect to the service of God 

aw * upon them, is an order much concerning the edification of 
the Church in the exercise of godliness. Here indeed some 
pretence of reason hath been made to shew that it is not in 
the power of the Church to appoint festival-days, as a thing 
contrary to the tenor of the law, which saith, " Six days 
thou shalt labour and do all that thou hast to do*." I know 
not whether men by this time be ware of the mistakes which 
this reason involveth, because it maketh not so much noise in 
these days : but without doubt, it was always a gross inconse- 
quence to imagine an office of the second table — of labouring 256 
in ordinary work — to be commanded by a law of the first 
table : but without doubt, it was always a gross inconvenience 
to imagine God to give a command here which we must sup- 

* " Because the worshipping of God 
by read prayer is a part of the worship 
of Antichrist, used and enjoined in the 
papacy, maintaining superstition and a 
dumb and idol ministry, nourishing 
the people in ignorance of the nature 
and right use of prayer." — Apology of 
Brownists, p. 67. A.D. 160*. "First 
I say, that if it were praying, and that 
there were never an ill word nor sen- 
tence in all the prayers, yet to appoint 
it to be used, or so to use it as Papists 
did their matins and even-song, for a 
set service to God, though the words 
be good, the use is naught" — Second 
Admon. to the Parliament, p. 55. re- 
printed A.D. 1617. 

« " Seeing therefore that the Lord 
hath left it to all men at liberty that 
they might labour, if they think good, 
six days ; 1 say the Church nor no man 
can take this liberty away from them, 
and drive them to a necessary rest of 
the body. And if it be lawful to 
abridge the liberty of the Church in 

this point, and instead that the Lord 
saith Six days thou mayest labour if 
thou wilt, to say, Thou shalt not labour 
six days, I do not see why the Church 
may not as well, — whereas the Lord 
saith, Thou shalt rest the seventh day, 
— command that thou shalt not rest the 
seventh day. For if the Church may 
restrain the liberty that God hath given 
them, it may take away the yoke also 
that God hath put upon them." — Cart- 
wright's Reply to Whitgift, p. 152. 
Primum argumentum contra observa- 
tionem festorum petitur e verbis quarti 
precepti in Decalogo, sex diebua open- 
beru. Haec verba continent vel prm- 
ceptum vel permissionem. Si praecep- 
tum operandi sex diebus, ergo nuttua 
potest ccssationem ab omni open im- 
perare : si per missionem, ergo, nulla* 
potest hanc libertatem populo crfoere, tt 
simpliciter cessationem ab oami op*"" 
imperare vel etiam ob cultum divifiv 
— Didoclavii Altare Damaaceaam, 
670, 671. 



pose Him to cross afterwanla in the law of Moses, when lie en AP 


cometh to appoint new moons and other solemnities to be - — 

observed on these six days*- Therefore when the command- 
ment saithi " Six days thou shalt labour," the meaning is, 
a Six days thou may est labour :" thou art licensed and not 
forbidden to do thy daily work on them, by this command- 
ment So it is translated in our last English, Exoth xxxi, 
15, "Six days may work be done:" and in the Hebrew the 
same word standeth for both senses. 

§ 3. Last of all, whereas it is known that there were in the Pab&cair- 
Jews" calendar, at the time when our Lord Christ lived upon th*™! 1 * 1 " 1 
eacrth, divers solemnities besides those that were appointed by 
the law of Moses, of which something must be said after- 
wards; and we know by the Gospel that our Lord Himself 
kept the Feast of the Dedication instituted by Judas Macca- 
beus 11 ; by that particular we are assured, both that FTc ob- 
served the rest, and that by observing He allowed and com- 
mended the institution in general for the purpose whereof wc 
speak. For the blessings of God, whereof these solemnities 
257 renew the remembrance, are of that esteem to the Church, 
that wc are not able to express too much thankfulness in 
taking that occasion of solemnizing His service. And the 
greatest part of Christians are such as will receive much im- 
provement in the principal mysteries of our faith, by the sen- 
sible instruction which the observation of such solemnities 
Pyieldeth e , The remembrance of the birth, the Bufferings, the 
resurrection and ascension of Christ, the coining of the Holy 
Ghost, the conversion of the Gentiles by sending the Apo- 
stles, the way made before His coming by the annunciation of 

■ "And whereas you say .... the 
Jews had certain other feasts which 
they observed ; indeed the Lord which 
gave this general law might make as 
many exceptions as He thought good. 
Hut it ftiltou-tth not I Lord 

did it ttmi tht rq fbn the Church inay do 
it, &c/* — Cartw right** Reply to Whit- 
gilt, p. 1..2. 

b 1 Maecab. iv. 50 ; Si, John s, 22, 
* "And as far all tbfl commodities 
which we reOnrfl hy them — wlierchy 
Mr. Doctor gni'th about to prove the 
►linens an- i of thttl iu-li- 

ution — us that tl here 

vac! and e-xpoutKted, the patleih 

those Saints in their persecution and 
martyrdom is, to the edifying of the 
Church, remembered and yearly re- 
newed ; I say that wc mip;nl have all 
tho*c commodities withuut all those 
dangers which I have ■poked of, and 
without any keeping of yearly nn 
of those Saints, and, as it falleth mir, 
in better and more profitable a»urt/*— + 
Cartwright's Reply to Whttgift, p. 
153. u "Ihe holy days follow, . . . * If 
I hey were so in different ;is tht \ m 
. yet being kept of the Papiata, 
i are the enemies, of Gt»d t they 
iaaed." — Ik, ft 13 1» 





[Of their 
abuse. ] 

the Angel, and the coming of the Baptist, as it is a powerful 
-mean to train the more ignorant sort in the understand- 
ing of such great mysteries, so it is a just occasion for all 
sorts to make that a particular time of serving God upon 
which we solemnize those great works of His. For the pur- 
pose is not to hinder the occasions of the world by setting 
aside men's ordinary work, but to prefer the service of God 
before it d . 

§ 4. If the public service of God be of better esteem than 
the business of this world, well may the Church own all the 
means by which she laboureth to procure the exercise of it : 
but if the business of this world, so far as it hindereth not the 
service of God, be good and commendable, she shall not need 
to own the restraint of it further than it tendeth to that pur- 
pose. Therefore provided, as it is among us, that the whole- 258 
some effect of this ordinance vanish not in the excessive 
multitude of festivals — ordinary occasions crowding out the 
remembrance of those that deserve it — it will not serve the 
turn to say that the Papists have made these solemnities the 
occasion of worshipping the Saints that own the days e : to 
that must the same be answered as afore, that it is the use 
and improvement that the devil would choose to make of 

d "And if that it be thought so 
good and profitable a thing that this 
remembrance of them should be upon 
those days wherein they are supposed 
to have died, yet it followeth not 
therefore that after this remembrance 
is celebrated by hearing the Scriptures 
concerning them, and prayers made to 
follow their constancy, that all the rest 
of the day should be kept holy, in such 
sort as men should be debarred of their 
bodily labours, and of exercising their 
daily vocations." — Cartwright's Reply, 
p. 154. 

e " For although I confess as much 
as you say — that the Church of Eng- 
land doth not mean by this keeping of 
holy days that the Saints should be 
honoured, or as you allege . . . that with 
us the Saints are not prayed unto, or 
that it doth propound them as merito- 
rious, yet that is not enough.. . . For be- 
sides that the corrupt custom of popery 
hath carried their minds to another in- 
terpretation : the very name and ap- 
pellation of the day teacheth otherwise. 
For seeing that the days dedicated to 

the Trinity, and those that are conse- 
crate to our Saviour Christ are, in 
that they be called Trinity day, or the 
Nativity day of our Saviour Christ, by 
and by taken to be instituted to the 
honour of our Saviour Christ and of 
the Trinity ; so likewise the people, 
when it is called St Paul's day, or the 
blessed Virgin Mary's day, can under- 
stand nothing thereby but that they 
are instituted to the honour of St Paul 
or of the Virgin Mary, unless they be 
otherwise taught" — Cartwright's Re- 
ply, p. 153. Calderwood speaks more 
positively thus : Nam si dies ipse sit 
in honorem eorum sacratus et liturgia 
. . . canetur, coluntur ipsi sancti cultu 

religioso at dices non in cultum 

sed in memoriam martyrura dies istos 
observare, Deum autem cole re in Sanc- 
tis aut propter sanctos. Non possunt 
ista duo, celebrare diem in memoriam, 

et celebrare in cultum, separari 

honor sanctorum Celebris et cum so- 
lemnitate diei festi qui Deo soli debe- 
tur, est cultus religiosus.— Altare Da- 
mascen. p. 645. A.D. 1623. 




such scandals, to prevent the abuse of God's service, by root- 
out the exercise of it 

§ 5. As for particular solemnities of fasting, by the week, 
or by the year, tve arc to consider that abstinence is not only 
the cure of that sensuality which surfeit breed eth, but the 
most powerful means to represent unto a man the whole con* 
dition of his soul towards God* Would a man desire to hum- 
ble himself in the consideration of his offences? Let common 
sense be judge whether he shall do it full or fasting to better 
purpose- Wherefore, being subject to run into offence from 
time to time, what more wholesome ordinance can the Church 
have than to assemble from week to week to humble ourselves 
in the presence of God, and to labour to divert His due 
wrath, that it light not upon us in general or in particular ? 
And being subject nevertheless to heap wrath against our- 
selves, by slighting our continual humiliation and repentance, 
what more solemn ordinance could reason devise than fasting 
before festivals — than, before the most solemn yearly festival, 
the most solemn yearly fast ; by humiliation going before, to 
estate us in the right of those blessings which then we cele- 

§ 6* Our Lord in the Gospel hath said of His disciples, 
"When the bridegroom shall be taken from among them, 
then shall they fast in those days." Should Christians never 
fast but when public calamities, or extraordinary occasions of 
the commonwealth call for it*, well may it be asked, Where 



Ami upon 
and yearly 
lim> m Off 
fasting is 
for in- 

i of 


ohj tret ions 
to 'frist 
day* ] 

f " The Book of Common Prayer 
con tain eth in it sundry things that arc 
contrary to the word of Gad. . . . . ♦ It 
appointeth Saints* eves to be kept as 
fasting days, and commandeth the mi- 
nister to bid them so* It appointcth 
the timo of Lent to be kept a* a reli- 
gious fast, and pervert eth both the 
example of Christ's fast, and sundry 
other places of Scripture to the justify* 
ing thereof." — The Abolishing of the 
Book of Common Prayer, p. CL re- 
printed A J). 1641. " In this book day* 
are ascribed unto Saints and kept holy 
with fasts on their eves, and prescript 
service appointed for them, which be- 
side that they are of many Kupersti* 
tiousjy kept and observed, are also 
contrary to the commandment of 
God, ■ Six days shall thou labour/ and 
therefore we, for the superstition that 


is put in them, dare not subscribe to 
allow them*"— An Admoniiiori to the 
Parliament, p. 11, A.D, 1617. 

* Non tamen debent puhlica jeju- 
nia aut privata esse stata et ordinaria, 
Populo suo Dcus unicuni tan turn jeju- 
ni! diem gtatuni itnperavit, qui festo 
expiationU adjungebatur, quod tyni- 
cum erat et legale. Nam publica <|u:l' 
usurpaiitur ob calamity tern, vel qua? 
ob sua, graviora Eeclesiie negotia irtdi- 
cuntur jejuni a, lis peractia et cessante 
causa , cessare debent. Nam abMyu* 
causa impellent* calami talis aut mm 
tath boui adieu] us actisu ludicra et fri- 
gida era nt jejunia, Sie etiam privati* 
jejuni i stata tempera prascribere, ac si 
tentattonia boras et dies di^noscere 
possent periti isti an im arum mediei, 
ccque ridkulum est. — Altaic Damas- 
cene m, p. 715. 





Of fire* 
bration of 
the Eucha- 

is the effect of these words? I speak not now of any differ* 
ence of meats for conscience sake, in that abstinence is not 
seen in the consideration now in hand: but I speak of the 
service of God upon these occasion s> which being appointed 
for humbling of our aouls in consideration of our offences, 
common sense will not refuse that abstinence is necessary for 
the purpose. If it be said in this point as afore 5 that the 
Papists have abused this ordinance to a sacrilegious opinion 
of satisfaction and merit, and the worship of God h — having 
declared a just and true reason and ground of the ordinance, 
according to which it is no worship of God, but tiie opportu- 
nity and means of His due and requisite service — the answer 
must be as afore, that it is the advantage which the devils 
would wish to make of such abuses, to make them the pre- 
tence to root out the service of God, and so to save the pains 
of reforming it* 

$ 7* The last consideration which I refer to this head con* 
cerneth the frequent celebration and communion of the 
Eucharist, which is indeed the crown of public service, and 
the most solemn and chief work of Christian assemblies. 
And though for the particular time of communicating, it is 
rather commended than enjoined, yet the remembrance it 
importeth is so proper — so particular to the profession we 
make — that our assemblies are never so like the assemblies of 
Christians as when it is celebrated. And though it is not in 
men so to command the occasions of the world as to be al- 
ways disposed to communicate, yet that in the general of the 
Church there should not always be persons disposed to com- 
municate — that it should not be celebrated for those which 
are disposed to communicate — is an inconvenience for which 
nothing but too much love of the world — too much back- 

b u Lent fust, they say, was ordained 
by Pope Trlesphom*, in the year 136, 
Km they keep it in England for the 
same end that the Papists do. Justly 
therefore is it named a Romish error, a 
superstitious fast, , •« , For their other 
fasts, they are said to he monument* 
of idolatry, devised of Antichrist, in 
all the rights and orders of them su- 
perstitious, and directly against God's 
commandments,'* — Camie's Necess. of 
Separation, chap, £. sect 4. p. UKi. 
A.D, 1(331. "Because he dare uot 

answer, and cannot approve his Em- 
bers, Saints* Eves and Lent Fasts by 
Scripture, he seeketh to turn away, 
and to cavil about other doctrines, as 
the putting holiness, merit, &e. in the 
abstinence and the restraint of meats, 
with he was not charged by its, 
yet whereof haply — if he were narrowly 
sought and follow ed — A«? could net to 
welt clear hi* Church a* he supposcth/* 
A Plain Refutation of M. Giilkrd** 
book, p. 30. A. IX 159 J. 





warduess from spiritual duties — can be alleged** For if it l>e 
said that the Church of Rome, by retaining the custom of 
celebrating day by day, hath turned the communion into a 
sacrifice for the quick and dead, tlie answer must be as afore, 
that it is the use which the enemy of mankind would choose 
to make of their abuses, to persuade men that, so long as pri- 
vate masses are abolished, they arc at freedom to be secure of 
the frequent celebration and communion of the Eucharist. 

§ 8. If any man think that under this which hath been 
said, there is an intent to shoulder out preaching by com- 
mending other causes of religious assemblies, he shall both 
wrong my meaning, and mistake the truth of the cause*. He 
that will have men to preach more than they learn, and to 
void those crudities in the Church which were never digested 
in their studies, perhaps may have reason to think that where 
the stuff is light there the larger measure is due : but besides 
the scandals such raw doctrine must needs breed, he shall be 
sure to bring a slight esteem upon that profession wherein 
God is served no otherwise. But he that will provide abili- 
ties of men for so great a work, shall find that these assem- 
blies, on festival and fasting-days, the occasions whereof are 
here commended, shall minister opportunities of continual 
preaching, even beyond those of hearing, always for the edi- 
fication of the Church, where men are able to support the 
respect and esteem of so great a work, 

§ 9. It is now time to put together the primitive practice 
of the Church in the particulars here touched, deriving it as 
near as can be from the time of the Apostles, It is thus writ- 
ten of the first disciples, Acts ii. 42; "And they continued 
steadfastly in the Apostles' doctrine, and communion, and in 
breaking bread, and prayers," And ver. 46; "And day by 
day continuing with one mind in the temple, and breaking 



[Not in- 

flours of 
uinoiiL* flu 

and primi- 
tive Chris- 
from the 

1 H Four limea in the year wo think 
sufficient to the administration of the 
Lord's table, which we desire to be 
distlnctcd that the superstition uf times 
may he avoided so far as may be t for 
your honours are not ignoranf how 
superstition sly the people run Ed ih ll 
action at Posche, even us If the tittw 
gave virtue to th? Sacrament, ami how 
the rest of the whole year they are 
careless and negligent, as if it anper* 

tamed not unto them but at that time 
0»lj. M — Thu Doctrme and Discipline 
Kirk of Scotland, book L p. 6& 
A.IX Kilt. 

k The liturgy |l is so much idol- 
ized, il that it is accounted the only 
worship of God in England, nnd is 
now made the upholder of a con. 
preaching ministry*" &c— Smeetym* 
nuns, sect, ii. p. 12, 

T 2 



[Hours of 
by the 
Jews* ] 

[By the 


bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness 
and singleness of heart." Again, iii. 1 ; H Now Peter and 
John went up together into the temple at the hour of prayer, 
being the ninth hour ; n that is, three after noon, The syna- 
gogues were instituted for the moral and perpetual service of 
God, by prayer, and praising Him, and expounding His 
word, leaving the figurative worship of sacrifices to the tem- 
ple : upon which nevertheless the circumstances of that moral 
service depended, as hath been observed out of R. Moses 
Maim on i , TephtUah Vbircath Coheiiitn, cap* i. num. 7, and 
must be repeated here* Thus he deliveretb; that correspondent 
to the daily sacrifice morning and evening, there was ordered 
among them and practised one service for the morning, an- 
other for the evening : that therefore called nnntr, this JV2fiP« 
And on solemn days, when there was a sacrifice more than 
ordinary offered by the law, a third called vpV3 t that is, over 
and above. Further, num. 8 : that as the limbs of the even- 
ing sacrifice were burning all night upon the Altar, so, in 
correspondence, there was ordered a prayer at night, which, 
though not obligatory, he saith was practised by all Israel. 

§ 10. Of the service appointed for fasting-days, at closing 
in the evening, called therefore by them rb^Vh I need say 
nothing here. Cap. iii. num. 2, he declareth, that because 
when the eve of the passover fell upon the Friday, the even- 
ing sacrifice was killed half an hour after noon ; therefore the 
time from which the evening sacrifice became due was from 
thence to half an hour after three ; which was called nmtt 
nVna, the great evening service, the less being from thence to 
sunset. So that he who prayeth this service from half an 
hour after twelve is disobliged of the debt of it : and upon 
what terms it is said, either at both these hours or at the one, 
according to their orders, it folio weth there, num. 3. Of 
these three services, the Hebrew doctors — Maimoni as afore, 
Abenezra upon Psalm lv. 17, R, Saadiah upon Dan, vL 10 — 
constantly expound the words of the Psalmist there; "Even- 
ing, and morning, and at noon will I pray, and cry aloud, 
and He shall hear my voice," And that of Daniel, " 1 le 
kneeled upon his knees three times anlay, and prayed, and 
gave thanks before God, as aforetime," 

§ 11. Whence it should seem that when St. Peter went ur 



to pray upon the house-top about the sixth hour, Acts x* 9, 
264 his meaning was to observe the lawful hour of the evening 
service half an hour after noon : though, being at Jerusalem, 
he went up into the temple with John at the hour of prayer, 
being the ninth hour, when this service was performed there 
in the assembly of the people, The same which Judith ob- 
served, as we read Judith ix* 1 ; u About the time that the 
incense of that evening was offered in Jerusalem, in the 
house of the Lord, Judith cried with a loud voice and said." 
According to that of the Psalm, "Let my prayer be set forth 
in Thy sight as the incense, and let the lifting up of my 
hands be an evening sacrifice/ 5 as you heard afore, that their 
prayers in the temple were offered at the time of incense 1 . 
Thus the order of the synagogue aimed at the sacrifices 
which by the law were offered in the temple* In the Church 
it was received of very ancient time to pray at nine, at 
twelve, and at three afternoon, aiming, it should seem, at the 
practice of the synagogue and of the Apostles according to it, 
but with the difference you see, that they prayed thrice in 
the day-time, whereas the Jews' third service was at going to 
bed, as you have it in Maimoni as afore > 

| 12. Tertultian, De Jejun* adv. Psychicos, cap. x. m , sheweth 
that the hours of nine, and twelve, and three, were customed 
for prayer by the Christians of that time, by proving it from 
the example of the disciples assembled, as St Peter saith, 
205 Acts iL 15, upon the third hour of the day ; of St, Peter, 
that went up to pray at the sixth hour ; and of Peter and 
John, that went up to the temple at the hour of prayer, 
being the ninth hour. And then It followeth, Quod etiam 
sttadit Dft/tufU tjnofjue Qt'fjumcntitm> far die ormtth 9 utlque per 
nliquarum horarum e^ceptionem, nan altarum autem quam in- 
sif/nwrum ex'mde Apustoliearum y ierti(? f sextte, nonce. Hint 
Itaque et Pctrum dicam ex vetere potius usu nonam obscrvasse f 
tertio vrantem supreme? oratwnis munere* u Which also Daniel's 

1 Chap. rii. sect. If. plum aunt iutrogics&I, cur non intelli- 

m StaLiones nostras, tit indignas gam us aaWa plane in differentia semper 

qiMfldam vera et in aerum constitutes et unique et otrmi tempore oraiidum 

novitati* nomine t&eUMBt. >,.*•*»„. (mm tltt ifttas bora* ut insijjriiiores in 

Porro cum in eotk'in contmentaria Lu- rebut humanis qua? diem diEttrihuunt, 

eft, i*t tenia hum oration is dMMBttlte- qua? nej»otia distinpuuut, qu;e public? 

till* *ub Mia Spiritn SanctO iniliati pro resonant, ita et sofemniorcs fuiss*." in 

ebriis habebantui ; et *exLi qua PetTUi ontkmlbua riiviniet.— Pp. 9U5, 9M. wL 

;» flora \ et nona qua tern- Pain. Koilioiu. 1662, 



[ltv tfcf 




chap, praying thrice a-day argueth, forsooth, excepting some hoars, 
Vliy * and those no other than these of the Apostles, which thence 
were more notable, the third, sixth, and ninth. Hereupon 
I would say, that Peter rather observed the ninth by ancient 
custom, praying the third time, as the last oflering. w Here 
lieth the difference. It is the third prayer of the day, ac- 
cording to Tertullian, which Peter and John offered at the 
time of evening sacrifice, which these Hebrew doctors make 
but the second. Whatsoever become of this difference, as 
concerning the hours of men's private prayers, the public 
hours of the temple observed by the Apostles became a 
precedent to the Church for the public service of God at 
their assemblies. 

§ 13. In the Constitutions of the Apostles, they are exhorted 
to pray the Lord's Prayer thrice a-day — according to Ter- 
tullian — vii. 24 n . They are again exhorted to pray at other 26* 
hours besides, viii. 34°. But as concerning their assemblies, 
thus he instructeth the Bishop to teach the people — just ac- 
cording to the practice of the synagogue, alleged out of 
Maimoni — ii. 59*: AiMctkcov &, & brlcr/ame, xiKeue fcaX irar 
patvei tg) Xcup, efe rrjv iKtckrjcrlav ivSeXe^i^eiv, 6p0pov /ecu e<T7re- 
pa? €^aon;9 VM^P^y *<& M aTroXecTriadcu to ovvoXjov. " But 
in teaching, O Bishop, charge and instruct the people to be 
continually at Church, morning and evening every day, and 
not absent at all." Whereas upon Lord's days, in the same 
place q he remembereth three services, which seem to be 
those whereof the canon of Laodicea r speaketh, where it 
appointeth the same service of prayers to be used, both at 
three and at evenings, meaning upon Lord's days, according 
to these Constitutions. 

§ 14. It is not then this author's judgment, upon which 
I stand not, but it is the example of the Apostles, and primi- 
tive disciples, resorting to the temple to serve God with the 
Jews, in the service there practised, and that according to 

n OSru vpo<T€6x«r6*' Tldrtp iiftav * *Ev fj *al rplr cvx&s ivrorrts hti- 

k. r. A. TpU rijs rjfi4pas otfrw Tpo<r*6- rtXavfitv, ftrfifiris x&P lv r °v '*^ tomSt 

Xc<r0€ — Labbei, torn. i. coL 428. avcurrdvros rjfifpwv iv f Tfxxprrrwy avd- 

° E&x&* fotrcAcirc 6p$pov teal rptry yv<a<Tis, teal evayycKlov jnunMcfo, §cal 0v- 

&p<f, Kc& cicrp koI 4yydTrj f teal Imrtpa alas foatyopa koI rpo<prjs Upas &*p*a\— 

Kcd ak9KTopoJK»vta.--lb. t col. -500. Ib. t col. 301. 

r lb., torn. i. col. 300. ed. Venet, r See chap. Wi. sect 35. 



the custom of the synagogue ; but it is the custom of the 
Church by him remembered, and derived from their example, 
that must needs recommend with great weight unto us the 
order of this Church, as concerning daily morning and 
» evening service. And to the same puq>ose 5 in the Re forma- 
267 tiorij Calvin upon Acts iiL I : Instititcrat Dominus ut sacrifi- 
'him vesperi et mane Judmi offer rent* Hoe exercitio docebantur 
ab invocatwne et cultit Dei incipere diem et ciaudere. u God 
hath appointed the Jews to offer sacrifice morning and 
evening, By this exercise they were taught to begin and 
close the day with calling upon God and His service." A 
little after : Priiftitm, f/ubd status floras Dcus veteri populo esse 
valuity hide colligimm Kectesiam nan posse carere certd disci- 
plind, Ac kodie t nisi obstaret n* mitts torpor, utile easel quotidte 
Itabcri tales eonvenius* "First, whereas God appointed His 
ancient people set hours; thence we gather that the Church 
cannot be without a certain discipline. And at this day, if too 
much dulness hindered not, it were useful every day to hold 
such assemblies/ 1 

§ 15. Of festivals appointed by the guides of the syna- 
gogue, not by the law of Moses, we have four, to my remem- 
brance, expressed in the Scriptures. The first is that of 
Purim, Esther ix. 20 — 32. The second the festival of the law, 
upon Tim xxiil* — observed still among the Jews for making 
an end of reading the law, which they begin to read over 
again the next Sabbath — pointed at Nehcm. viii. 9; ix. 1, 
as Scaliger, De Emend. Temp, vii., NoL in Camp, Jud, % hath 
excellently observed. It is first to be known that the 
festivals of the law were appointed to be solemn bed with 
mirth and gladness of heart ; wherefore they are called, 
2(isNum. x. 10, "The days of your gladness/ And in the 
Psalm for the Sabbath, xciL 4, ** For Thou, Lord, hast made 
me glad through Thy works," saith he, "I will triumph in 
the works of Thy hands:" expressing the subject of that 
gladness, the remembrance of the creation, upon that day 
celebrated- Though the observance of rest upon the Sabbath 
was strict, yet when our Saviour went into the house of one 

1 Celebratur autem 23 Tim nona vestigia Nthtmitt ix. statim initio.— P. 
d i e In jj tKrrqytas , cuj u* cu 1 1 « i in itituti o IJ *S. G en ev * 1 G*l\h 
Tetuniinsima, Nam ejn* dm** extant 



til the 
law for 

and those 
u[ Li i in in 
in t lie sy- 


chap, of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the Sabbath, Luke xiv. 

1, this invitation and entertainment is argument enough that 

it was festival, for the manner of observance. Hereupon it 
is, that the people falling to weep upon hearing the law read, 
the first day of the feast of tabernacles, Xehem. viiL 9, are . 
forbidden to violate the law of the feast, and commanded to 
observe the day in the right nature of it Whereas the 
people then, being forbidden to mourn on the festival, are 
said, ix. 1, to have fasted on the twenty-fourth of that month, 
we have cause to presume with him, that the fast — whereof 
they acknowledged the cause, upon the first day of that 
feast — was deferred till the usual solemnities of it were past ; 
which by the law ending upon the twenty-second, and the 
fast not kept till the twenty-fourth, it is plain that the reason 
was the festival of the law falling then, and observed upon 
the twenty-third, as now, not by the law, but by the constitu- 
tion of their elders. 269 
[The feast § 16. The third is the feast of the wood-offering, of which 
wood. Nehem. x. 34: "And we cast lots among the priests, the 
offering.] Levi^ ^d the people for the wood-offering, to bring it 
into the house of our God, after the houses of our fathers, 
at times appointed year by year, to burn upon the Altar of 
the Lord our God, as it is written in the law." And xiiL 31 : 
" And for the wood-offering at times appointed." The same 
Scaliger conceiveth out of Josephus*, that this festival fell 
upon the twenty-second of the month Ab, to which sense 
he referreth the words of Orach Hajim, Ab est rex, quod in eo 
caderent ligna in sacrificium : " Ab is a king," among months, 
" tacaufte upon it they cut wood for the sacrifice 11 ." But the 
truth in that which the Mischna relateth, Mass. Taanioth, cap. 
W/ ttmti, ti*, that it was held for nine days of several months, 
*tm*4if * great part fell in that month. For this is that 
whiih flier .Scripture saith, "At times appointed year by 
[™ cf r";' S 17. The last is the dedication of the temple by Judas 

off he <led i. * , r J 

ediion.] Maccabeus, winch our Lord observed, John x. 22; neither is 
it within the compass of common sense to imagine that He 
did otherwise in the rest of the solemnities which were then 

* De hello Judaico, lib. ii. cap. xvii. ■ Scaliger, ih., p. 649. 

6. p. 1092. cd Hudson. « Surenhus.. torn. ii. p. 381. 



for certain in ihe Jews' calendar. As for their times of fast- 
ing, the day of atonement stood by the law of Moses, and 
the rest appointed for it, as strict as that of the Sabhath ; hut 
270 the nature of the observance quite otherwise, with hum illation 
and afflicting the soul. 

§ 18* There were divers other fasts which that people took 
upon them to observe — not upon the law, hut upon public 
order and custom — upon set days of several months, as in 
their calendar is yet to be seen ; whereof some are remem- 
bered in the Scriptures. Zach* vh\ 5, and viii, 19, we read 
of the fasts of the fourth, and fifth, and seventh, and tenth 
months, in remembrance qf those calamities which God had 
punished the sins of that people with upon those days, most 
of them still remembered in their writings. Besides, that 
which is read in the law of Moses, Num. x, 9, "And if you 
go to war in your land with your enemies that distress you, 
then you shall blow an alarm with the trumpets," hath been 
from old time understood, in the practice of that people, of 
all distresses that came upon them for their sins, and of pro- 
claiming fasts for strict repentance, and diverting God's wrath, 
Maimoni, Taamoth f cap. i. num. L 

§ 19. The order of which fasts was grounded upon that 
which the words of the Pharisee point at, Luke xvih, 12, 
tf I fast twice in the week." For without doubt the second 
and fifth day of the week, Mondays and Thursdays, were 
observed many ages afore that, for the purposes which the 
same Rabbi spcciricthj TephlUak Uhircath Cohenhn, cap. xii. 
:\ num. 1, \}\ ira^ rrtro, w Our lord Moses appointed Israel to 
read the law at morning prayer upon the Sabbath, and the 
second and the fifth, that they might not rest three days from 
hearing the law: and Ezra appointed to read it at evening 
prayer upon the Sabbath, because of idle persons. And he 
ordered that three men should read upon the second and 
fifth, and not less than ten verses/' And in Megillah^ cap. i. 
num. 6, \%\ o*"iS3n *J3> *' those that dwell in villages, that 
assemble not in the synagogues but upon the second and the 
fifth," These are his words, by which it appearcth that these 
days were more solemn for assemblies than the rest of the 
week, seeing that in villages they assembled upon them in 

CH a r. 

days in 
the? syna- 
gupju an d 

[The ordi- 
nary fast*.] 




[The cm. 



hsta |ir> 
fur Chrtk- 

the synagogues, which upon every day they did not The 
words of the Pharisee bear further, that they were observed 
with fasting: and, beside Epiphaniusy, their own writers 
have delivered no less. But the observance, without doubt, 
was not so strict upon them, else could not the Pharisee have 
alleged it for his own praise. 

§ 20* And the order of proclaimed fasts, whereof I began 
to speak, argueth no less. It was at the least for three days, 
beginning at the Monday, and so on the Thursday, and 
Monday next, Maimoni, Taanioth y cap. i. num. 5. But if 
seven days of fasting were appointed, then they went on 
interchangeably from the first Monday, cap* iii. num. 5* So 
the congregation fasted not on Sabbaths or festivals, neither 273 
did they begin fasting on new moons, or the dedication, or 
Purim, or the working-day of a feast— that is, the days that 
come between the first and last of the Passover and taber- 
nacles — but if they had begun afore, they went on upon 
these days, cap. i, num, 6, 7. If these days then had been 
fasted ordinarily with such strict observance, then could not 
the extraordinary fasts, which were purposely cast upon the 
same days, have been perceived. 

§ y31. The institution and observation of these solemnities 
in the synagogue — as it regarded no ceremonial service, 
which figured things to come, but the service of God by 
public prayers, and the praises of God with hearing His 
word upon the remembrance of II is blessings, or of our 
misdeeds — was a true precedent for the Church to follow, 
according to the chief occasions ministered by the principles 
of our faith, The Resurrection of our Lord in the first 
place. Who can doubt that the proper day of it was 
solemnized from the beginning, acknowledging, as we do, 
that it w T as the ground of determining the day which we 
celebrate through the year, instead of the Jews* Sabbaths i 
and seeing the Apostles assembled the next Pentecost after 
it, Acts ii. 1 ? We know there was from the beginning a 
great deal of difference and debate about the time, those 
ancient Christians of Asia solemnizing it according to the '-'73 
moon, by a custom pretended to come from St. John: — 

t See sp:t 26. 



whereof we read in Polierates* epistle related in Eusehius, chap, 


EvcL HhL v* 24 — the rest upon the first day of the week* 

upon which our Lard rose again. These that differed so 
much about the time, agreed always in observing the festival 
So they did In observing the fast before it, that were at much 
difference as well about the number of days, as the measure 
of abstinence. 

§ 22- Irenoeus in bis epistle to Victor of Rome, in Eusebius, {orthefat 
EccL Hist \\ 24 *: Oi Se jap fiovov irepl rfy vf^pa* Arrto * f UnL] 
i) afjL<f>iaftrrtt}a't<z f aXXa ical wepl rov etSou? airrov rr^ vrjcrrtlar 
ot p,ev jap otovrat fttav f}fi£pav Setv airraid ifljffTeyew, oi Be Bvo r 
oi oe teal TrXtiiovatf ot &€ TG&GapaKQvra wpas TJp^ptva^ teal 
wKTcptva*; o-vwterpoiKTi tijv rtfdpav avrwv. "For the differ- 
ence is not about the day alone, but about the very kind 
of fasting : for some think they are to fast one day, some two, 
some more ; some measure their day forty hours of the day 
and night" The Passion-day was commonly kept of all 
with public fasting, as Tertullian acknowledge th, De Orattone f 
cap. xiv,\ that is, the one day whereof Irenceus speaketh. 
But besides, De Jejuniis^ cap. ii., relating the opinion and 
practice of the Church, against which he write th there for 
the discipline of Montanus, Cert? in Evangelio iilos diesjejumo 
iiett*rminatos putant in qtiibtts ablatus est sponsus. "For certain 
they think/* saith he, "those days to he appointed for fasting 
271 in the Gospel, on which the bridegroom was taken away." 
That is, the Passion-day and the Saturday after it, according to 
Tertullian, De Jejunii& f cap. xiv, where the Sabbatli or .Satur- 
day is qualified, Nunquam nisi in Pa&cka jejitnandum : "Never 
but at Easter to be fasted" And the appointment of the 
Gospel, whereof he speaketh, is that, Mark ii. 20, " The days 
shall come in which the bridegroom shall be taken from you, 
and then shall ye fast in those days : ** or, on those days, as 
then it secmeth they understood it. 

§ 23. But in that which remaineth of Irenneus' words, there [DiflUmt- 
is — and seemeth to have been for divers hundred years — A hfrtorv 
slight difference of reading in the copies of Eusebius, which oflt l 
inferreth a main difference in the sense : that reading which 

1 S. Irtnm, Opp + , p. 340, ed + Ben. P, 183. Sec Pa melius* iiotiv wlirfcin he 
* Sic et die Pisl-Jwe quo communis shews that Pascha if- Good- Friday, 
et quasi publica jpjunii rdipio cat. — 

CH A 1\ 



Cluistophorson translated in Latin, acknowledged of late by 
Petitus, Van Liet iii. 4 b — though it is unknown to me from 
what copies — hath them thus : Ot p£v yap olovrat p,lav rjpjpav 
&€tv avTOvs vrjtrreveiVf ol he Ko 3 ot Be irXelovas* ot Bk reo-trapd- 
Koma wpas re fjp,€ptva$ tfai wtcrepiviU a-v^erpavGi *ri)v rjfUpav 
airrwp* That is, " For some think they are to fast one day, 
some two, some more, some forty : and they measure their 
day by the hours of the day and night.' 1 Meaning that when 
they fast, they fast from evening to evening. Which is more, 
Ruflmus c read it no otherwise : for thus he translatcth those 
last words : Nonnullt cttam quadraginta : tin itt horns diitnias 
nocturnasque computante^ diem statmmt. Meaning, that some 275 
fasted forty days, but that those which fasted forty days com- 
puted every day four-and-twenty hours of the day and nigbt 
By this reading, those some, of whom Irctueus speaketh, kept 
Lent forty days, even afore his time : though as Petit us fairly 
conjectureth, not upon all, but upon some days of each week, 
as it hath been shewed that the Jews kept their long fasts 
but on Mondays and Thursdays* 1 ; and as he duly provcth, 
that in St. Augustine's and Leo the Great's time they fasted 
the Lent at Home but three days in a week*, 

§ 24. The other reading related afore, is from Robert 

f Hew Ifnsg 

a luted. ] y tcvcns ' Greek, which Nicephorus folio we th, for so he is 
translated in Latin r : Nonnulti autem quadraginta hurts diurnfo 
et noet units diem metiuntur* t to say, " that some measured 
that one day which they fasted, by forty hours of the day 
and night.** To make good which reading, Beatus Rhe- 
nanus 11 in his preface to Rnffinus, complaining of the want 

* Samuel is Petiti Varianim Lectio* 
mini libri jv. p. H9. Paris. 16$& 

1 Eiisebii Cs^sariens, Ecele&iaslic. 
UUt. KtiJnno interprets, lib* v. 26 p 
124. BaaiL 1528. 

- Qui quadraginta die rum interval- 
I Urn {lefiniverunt, non singulis illis die- 
bit* jojuuatidum esse indixentnt, urtmes 
quiclem, Bid quibuadaln intra ill m quad- 
raginta tantum. Qncmadmodum eniiu 
Judrci, ubi plunbiis tHebai erat jeju- 
" Mulum, dims dies singulis bebdnmn- 
dibiibjejuniodestinulmnt, mmpe 1 
««?eundairi ft frrtatn ijuiiitatth— Petit, 
\ ir. Led iii. +. p. WK 

r Rnmatii rem ties tfintmn C 
singulis illis *ex scptmiam* jejutiabant 

nenipc feriam quartam et sextain, item- 
que Snbbalum. — Petiu p* 92, Qurotiell, 
Ditstrtat. ?i I H>. <h> hjttnu) SalilKiti, 
considers that it was the custom to fast 
the forty day* ot Lent in Home, and that 
the passage in St. Leo's homily, which 
seems to confine the fast to three day*. 
in the week, I* spunoLi£. — S. Leou. 
Opp., torn. ii. ed. BaJlerin. Wuh. 
t By Liiivjus printed at Antwerp 

■ Nirepbor. Ciltiit. EecUi* UUu lib. 
T, cap. Mh p. 208, ed. Lang. 

h NimeitpatoriM nd Staiuslatltn TV- 
sen. Olonmtx, Eptneop, lb ii. | 



which he found of the Greek of Eusebius, out of which much c ii a p. 
might have been mended in that Latin, instanceth in this — — 
passage thus : Inchli nupwrimh in avvotyiv quondam tt/s eiay- 
yektxrft t^ropia^ Gr&cam y quam cum evolverem^ occur rerunt 
forte fortuna Irenmi verba qua Eusebius, cap. xxiii. L v. ciiat, 
de jejuniorum tifiiwrj&ife, sic GrcEce habentia; 01 pkv jap ptai* 
jWWjv rtftipav £vt}OT€VOV f ol Bi &vo f oi £e Trketovas* oi Be Te<r<ra-- 

27G puKOtrra &pa$ fiavas r}fi€ptva$ kcu vvxreptva^ ibpav avri rjfiepas 
VTjar€vovT€^ " Very lately," saith he, u I lighted upon a 
certain abridgment of evangelical history in Greeks which 
turning over, I met by mere chance with the words of 
IreiiEeus, which Eusebius cketh, v. 23, concerning differ- 
ence in fasting, which in Greek run thus; For some fasted 
one day, some two, some more, some forty hours of the day 
and night, fasting an hour for a day : n that is, forty hours for 
the forty days of Lent afterwards, 

§ 25. This reading niaketh the conjecture probable that [Wtaj 
it was first called T€o~&apatcQari]i < >r qttfnira*/esima t for the quad re- 
number of forty hours, which they fasted at the beginning "* >mm J 
for the time of our Lord's being under the power of death, 
from twelve on Friday till the Sunday morning. For in the 
Constitutions of the Apostles, v, 14 l , the fast is not to be 
ended till then at cock's crowing, which afterwards was en- 
larged to forty days, as the author alleged by Rhcnauus saith, 
"That it was, at the first, of forty hours, an hour for a day," 
to wit, of those days that were observed afterwards* The 
issue of this dispute — whether forty days were observed in 
the Church before Irenaeus 1 time, or not — must rest upon the 
true reading of his words in Eusebius ; for though there is 
mention of r&Tffapa/eoaTrj or quadragesima in Ignatius k , and 
perhaps elsewhere, yet it is not said to lie called so from 

277 forty days in the writings of those times, to my knowledge. 
In the mean time it is manifest that there is no time of the 
Church to be assigned when the festival of the Resurrection, 
and the fast afore it, were not solemnized. 

£4/41} rj|U«p£, dA^KTopoi tptovTurairtoi. — 
CoL 361, Tw U 2fl$&frr<p tx4xpit A- 

TMjf ( l^rti Kvpiarn}, farh &<neipas ?wsr 
aAfKTQpo<putvLav &ypvTntouirr*<s Cap. 

18. Labbd, torn. i. coL 305. ed. Vflftet 

plpT)iTiv y&p mptcxtt r ^ r ™ ^Vpiov 

wakiTtlat,— Ep, ad Philippens., cat*. 
xiii, p. 124, ed. Cotelcr. The epistle 


chap. § 26. The fast upon Wednesdays and Fridays is referred 
— Jl — to the like reason in the Constitutions of the Apostles, v. 15, 
w^toTt. viL 23 1 : " The Wednesday is to be fisted," saith he, '< because 
fZ£? on it oar Lord was betrayed, and the bargain made between 
'*•*«• J Judas and the priests. The Friday, because he suffered upon 
it" Epiphanius alleging the like reason, referreth the order 
to the Apostles, Expos. Fidti CathoL m num. 22: <£two£a? 
Si hnreXjovfievcu rayOeiaai eurip awo rSw ^AttootoXop, rerpaU 
teal irpoo-afJfJarip, tool icvpuucy, rerpaU Be teal ev Trpoaa&fiany 
iv vTjcrrtiq ew &pa<; ewamy:. " But the assemblies we hold 
are appointed by the Apostles upon the Wednesday and 
Friday, and upon the Lord's day; upon those in fasting 
until the ninth hour." I marvel not to hear him refer those 
customs, whereof they knew no beginning, to the order of 
the Apostles. But the terms on which the Catholic Chris- 
tians stand against Montanus and his sect, in Tertullian, dt 
Jejuniis, cap. ii., may help to lead us to the true ground of it: 
Itaque de ctetero indifferenter jejunandum, ex arbitrio, mm ex 
imperio novas discipline pro temporibus et causis uniuscujusque. 
Sic et Apostohs observaue, nullum aliud imponentes jugum cer- 
torum et in commune omnibus obeundorum jejuniorum ; proinde 
nee stationum 9 quce et ipsa suos quidem dies habeant, quartern 
feri(B et sexfre, passive* tamen currant, neque sub lege prcecepti 
"Therefore otherwise," beside the days on which the bride- 
groom was taken away, " they say we are to fast indifferently, 
arbitrarily, not upon command of the new discipline, accord- 
ing to each man's times and occasions. And that so the 
Apostles observed, imposing no other yoke, of certain fasts 
to be performed of all ; neither by the same reason of sta- 
tions, which, they say, have also their days of Wednesday 
and Friday, but of ordinary course, under the law of no pre- 
cept" For which cause he calleth these stations semijejunia, 
or, " half-fasts," cap. xiiL n of that book. 

1 Ttrpdia teal tapaffKtvh* irooir4ra^tw pov, vwb Uovriov mxdrov. — Lib. vii. cap. 

Jlfiiy vri<rr*fair r^v iAv Ztk tV rpoto- 23. Labbei, torn. i. col. 425. ed. VeneL 

<r(ai% tV W Btii rb wdfios — CoL 361. ■ S. Epiphan. Opp., torn. I p. 1104. 

'TfMif 9h ^ rks *4m yrj<rrt6a-ar« jiptpbs ed. Colon. 1682. 

ff rtrpd&a teal xapatTKtv^y- bri rp p\v n Ecce enim convenio vos et praeter 

T«Tp&^ ii Kpliris 4tr)\$*y ^ tear* rod Pascha jejunantes, citra illoa dies, qui- 

Kvptov, 'Io65a xp^AUMftj' foayyc lAa/ilvov bus ablatus est spousus ; et stationum 

tV rpo&offlay' tV W rapaa-KtiAir, brt semijejunia interponentes. — P. 987. ed. 

tiradivdKtpiotlvairrjiicdeosTbZikvTav Pam. Rothom. 1662. 



$27. The Wednesday and Friday assemblies of the prirni- char 

live Christians, with fasting, were not of such strict and 


!>T Qf 

solemn observance. No more were those of Mondays and strict ob- 
Thursdays in the synagogue , and t herefore taken up in ■•"■•J*! 
imitation of the synagogue, and upon the like reasons* The 
general whereof is well laid down by St llicrome upon Gal. 
iv, 10°, His question is, how the Church, appointing festivals 
and set times of fastings, is clear of the Apostle's charge upon 
the Galatians there, " Ye observe days, and months, and 
years ; I fear lest I have laboured upon you in vain/* His 
answer is, first, Et n& inordinata congregatio populijidem mi?nt- 
eret in Christo, propterm dies alit/ui tvmitUt&i sunt* ut in unum 

279 omnes pariter veniremus. Non quo celehrior sit dies ilia tpid con- 
venintuS) sed quo, quacunque die cmwenimdum sit, ex eonspectu 
mutuo Imtitia major oriatur* u And lest the disorderly assem- 
bling of the people should abate faith in Christ, therefore 
certain days arc appointed for all to assemble at once : not 
because the day on which we assemble is more notable than 
others, but because on what day soever we assemble, by seeing 
one another, more gladness ariseth," Meaning that gladness 
wherewith they celebrated their festivals. So his mind is, 
that all difference of days among Christians, is in respect to 
the order of their assemblies, and that in respect to the work 
of those assemblies, 

§ 28, Again p , Qui and I us respondere eonatur, illud affir- 

mat : amftex dies (Equates esse Jejunia autem et amgrega- 

Hones* inter dies 3 propter cos, <$ viris prudentibus constitutes, qui 
mag is s&cufo vacant quam Deo, ?wc possuut, inn) nolnnU Ma in 
eeclesia vittg sum tempore congregari % et ante humanos actus, Deo 
orationum suarum offer re sacri/icium. "One that endeavour- 
eth to make a more subtle answer saith that all days are 
equal, but that fasts and assemblies are appointed among 
other days by discreet men, for those that spend more time 
in the world than on God, and cannot, nay, will not, assem- 
ble, all days of their life, in the Church, to offer unto God 
the sacrifice of their prayers before human actions." Adding, 
that whereas the Jews' service was confined to certain tin 

280 that of Christians is always seasonable. The primitive Chris- 

S, Hieitm. Opp p Omti., torn. iv. col. » th. t col, 272. 

27 L ed, Ben, 



chap, tians were always assembled, always in posture for the service 

of God, as we read in the Acts ; when the number increased 

there was no expectation of human reason that they could 
continue so unanimous in frequenting their assemblies for 
that purpose* The neglect of them must needs prove an 
abatement ; the disorder of them, a scandal to the faith. 
Here the wisdom and the authority of the Church-guides 
behoved to take place, by customing certain times, whereof 
the occasion was justest, to confine men from secular employ- 
ments to better purposes, And how this course prevailed in 
matter of festivals I refer to those well-known words of St. 
Augustine, Ep. cxviii.' 1 , where being to instance in some uni- 
versal custom of the whole Church, Sicuti, saith he, quod 
I}amini passio, et rcsurrectia, et OflOfftflb in aelum^ et ad* 
his de caih Spiritits Sttncti, atmicersarid solemnitate celebrant a r, 
et siqmd aliud tale occur rit quod servo tur ah nniversa* qua- 
cunque se diffundit, Ecclcsta. "As, that the passion, the re- 
surrection, and ascension of our Lord into heaven, and the 
coming of the Holy Ghost from heaven, is celebrated with 
yearly solemnity, and if there be any thing else which all the 
Church, wheresoever dispersed, observeth/' 

§ 29, As for times of fasting, the answer of our Lord inv- 
porteth two things: first, that His purpose was, that the out-2Sl 
ward freedom which lie allowed His disciples for the time 
should symbolize with the inward comfort which the Gospel 
professcth, and conduct and train them — as trained they were 
by His doctrine, in divers particulars, by corporal to spirit mil 
things — to understand it. The second, the reason of this 
purpose, because they were old vessels for the present, which 
a strict discipline for the present might cause to fly in pieces : 
but when the new wine of the Holy Ghost should make the 
vessels new, into which it was put on the day of Pentecost, 
then should they fast — then should they be willing to under- 
take the discipline which their profession suited with. Ac- 
cordingly we may find them serving God with prayer and 
fasting. Acts xiiL 3, 4 ; xiv* 23. But because disorder or 
coldness in this voluntary performance might disadvantage 
the faith, it soon proved time to bring those voluntary observ- 
ances to set rules of practice* These causes thus disposing 

1 Ad Joqutoit Januuv, Jib, L cp* liv. torn, iL coi. 124. etL Ben, 

tha duty 
of Chris- 
liana, ] 



the Church, and the precedent of the synagogue directing 
not to do less, what course should it observe, but, instead of 
Mondays and Thursdays used in the synagogue, to practise 
Wednesdays* and Fridays for this purpose ? holding in them 
a convenient distance from the Lord's day, as those other did 
from the Sabbath. 

282 § 30. Their writers tell us— beside the reason specified out 
of Mai mom afore r , that they might not rest three days from 
hearing the law — that they made choice of Mondays and 
Thursdays in regard of some great calamities that befel their 
nation upon those days : what marvel is it if the Church had 
regard to those things which befel our Lord on the Wednes- 
day and Friday, the other moral reason of assembling once 
in three days for God's service concurring ? Those ancient 
Christians of Tertullians time conceived that the fast afore 
Easter is appointed in the Scripture which saith, " The days 
will come that the bridegroom shall be taken from among 
you, and then shall ye fast in those days,** and Tertullian is 
content to have it believed, because Montanus required that 
and more. 

§31. But St Augustine found that there is a command in 
Scripture to fast, but no time commanded when it shall he 
done, Ep. Ixxxvi/ So he would have accepted their reason, 
as an allusion handsomely symbolizing with the nature of 
fasting, but the appointment he must needs refer to the cus- 
tom of the Church and the ordinance of the guides of it. It 
is not much otherwise with those other days wherewith some 
enlarged the fast afore Easter, even afore Ircnacus* time : it is 
not much otherwise with the Wednesday and Friday assem- 
blies, though Tertullian is willing to have them both counted 

23S innovations in the Church, on purpose to bring them into 
rank with Montanus 1 discipline, for which he plcadclh, re- 
charging the Catholic Christians, Et pneler Past- ha jtjunantes 9 
citra iltos dics t ynibus ablatus est spoiisus, it statkmnm xemijijii- 
mtt interponentes ; De Jejunm % cap. xiii, "Both as fasting 
besides the passover, over and above those days on which 

en AR 

[Reason of 
tin* Jewish 

[Dm of 


wit tletar- 
mined In 

Scripture* ] 

' Sect, UK 

* Ego in Evangelici* ct Apostolicis 
litteris totoqut* instrument o quod ttt- 
pellatur Tesiarnenlum novum, animo 
id revoWeni, video pneecplum MM Je- 

TJlOKNDIKfc. |j 

junium. Qulbu&autnn dtebusnon opor- 
teat jpjunnrc et quthu* oporteat, pr*- 
ccpto Domini vol Apostoloniui non in- 
nUD definition* — S. Aw Bfe xxaevi 
ad luiulim., loin, ii col, 78. ed. Hen. 



r n a p. 

[But hy the 
Church in 
of our 

ol'fhn oh- 
day and 
Friday ] 

the bridegroom was taken away, and interposing the half 

fasts of stations." 

§ 32. But the betraying of Christ and His death is a reason 
that may take place to move them, that have resolved to ap- 
point set days of fasting every week, to choose the days on 
which those things fell out afore others, especially being in 
a convenient distance from the Lord's duy y the assemblies 
whereof were most solemn ; otherwise, to think that there 
wiw no more reason than that for an appointment of such 
consequence, is to make them as childish as they would have 
them, that had rather despise than either observe or under- 
stand their ordinances, though the purpose be no more than 
to bring the precepts of fasting and of the public service of 
Got! into the ordinary and uniform practice of His Church, 
which being commanded but in general, without such parti- 
cular appointment are not like to lie exercised to great pur- 
pose. Whereas the discipline of Montanus set up in downright 
terms a schism in the Church, by assembling apart for the 281 
exercise of their own particular and voluntary observations, 
whatsoever heresies besides it may have been embarked with. 

§ 33. How ancient the observation of Wednesday and 
Friday assemblies was in the Church is to be valued by the 
recommendation of them in Ignatius, Ep. ad Philip. 1 , and 
Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom, vii, u How uniform the obser- 
vation of them was in the ancient Church is to be known 
from Epi phalli us' words, ll<?r* lvi. 1 ; Tivt 8% ov avpireifxtivqTat, 
iv ircun tckljia&t t% olmvp,hrt)% art rerpas, ml wpQud^^aro^ 
pytrrtia earlv iv t[j ifc/cXjja-ia mpterpivT} ; ** Who agree th not," 
saitli he, "in all climates of the world, that the Wednesday 
and the Friday are fasts appointed in the Church?" And 
when Tertullian saith in the same cap. xiiL y afterwards, that 

napopart TCTpciffa kqI wapaffKfv^tf^ vtj- 

wtpitratiav* Cap. xiii. p. J 24. ed. Cote- 
ler. See note k r sect. 2d. 

* OUty abrht teal tt|S ttjirrtfaj tA 
mviypara Tory fjufpajv rainvtv. xjjf rt- 
TpaSfis, if ft J Tijj irap{iff>€tvT}$ ktym. ^iri- 

'A$po9fn?f< aurfiva vTitrrfuct Kara rhp 
0iw $i\apyvpUs ri 6pou nal tptAjiBo* 
pins' 1£ $>v at iraVfu Itupoatrra* xaxtat. 
— S. Clement Struma!, lib. viL cap. xii. 

p. 877, ed. VeneL SL Clement give* 
moral reasons for the observation of 
thest days, concealing the mystical * ac* 
cording to the principle of the treatise* 

1 S, E pi plum* Com*. /Erium, llicrea. 
76. num. 6- p. 910, ed. Colon. 

' Bene autem, quod et Epfccopi 
universal pk'tii man Hare jejuni a aaso- 
lent, non dko de in Austria stipium con- 
fcrend&rum, ut vestrw capture est, scd 
interdum et e* aliqua solid tudinis ec- 
clesiasticje causru— De Jejnniis, cap. 
xiii. ji, 987. ed. Patn. Ru thorn. ltif>2. 



the Bishops were wont to appoint extraordinary fasts upon 
occasions which made ihc Church solicitous ; there can no 
question be made but they were wont to choose the Wednes- 
days and Fridays to be observed with more strictness upon 
these occasions : because we saw afore ' that all fasts that were 
indicted in the synagogue were by order to fall upon the 
Mondays and Thursdays, which in a lower degree they 
observed otherwise, 

§ 34. And therefore the order of this Church of England 
instituting festivals for the public service of God, in remem- 
brance of His most remarkable blessings, instituting times of 
285 humiliation and fasting for diverting His wrath, which our 
sins contract from time to time, standeth recommended to ua 
by the practice of the most ancient times of the Church. 
Setting aside difference of meats for conscience sake, whereof 
we speak not here, as was said*; opinion of merit, of satisfac- 
tion, of the worship of God, being abolished, by the reason of 
the institution here professed, the form of service appointed 
by the Church reconimcndeth the difference of days to our 
devotions. And though we come not near the strictness of 
abstinence wherewith in the primitive Church they were 
wont to afflict themselves — and perhaps for very good reasons 
we come not near it — yet to assemble for the public service 
of God — even in those places where there is not opportunity 
to assemble every day, as you saw it was practised in the 
synagogue— to abstain till these assemblies be over, setting 
aside the favour we lend our own case, must needs appear 
most commendable. 

§ 35. I cannot say that this institution in respect of set 
days for fasting hath found so good respect for the particular 
in the reformed Churches : the general reason is thus set 
down by Melanethon among chief reformers, Apologia Confcs- 
giants dc Trad. p. 171 h ; C^ter/nn ritas humanm observabant^ — 

IF \ P. 

In Enpj- 
Lm«l ] 

[Set aside 
LincntaJ re- 
in t i u i ■ r - . j 

■ Stat 15, 

fcK Ctetcrum rilus humsmos ubscrv** 
lant propter ut Hi tut cm eorporalem ; ut 
seirct pupuhis quo tampon? couvenUii- 
d m ii esse I ; ut unii/ie ft gr;micr t in 
tempi:*, exempli causa* fierent omnia; 
den i que ut villous etiam ha be ret qunn- 
tlam ftatSaywyiaf. Nam di^criinina 
temporutn, et varietas rituum valet ad 


admonendum vulgus. — p, 76. Dirii 
probandas ewe tiadit tones fin las 3<a 

hoc est, aut ail coerreiiihiin r^mem, 
propter di-itiplijiaiii rudiuui, aut prop- 
ter |m]itieu]n ordinem. Et nos prop- 
let lias euuaa* reete servari posse tra- 
dmone* judicfttnut, Ut populus bo* 
Briua intersit nacris ; tietit Jo<aphat, et 
rex Ninive jejuuia indixeruuL Item 





[ Hi (Ter- 
ence of 
sen- ice on 
fsKt and 
days. ] 

M Otherwise the Fathers observed human rites for outward 286 
benefit, that the people might know what time to assemble, 

that all things might be done in Churches orderly, and 
gravely, and exemplarily ; last of all, that the common sort 
might have some pedagogy or discipline* For the difference 
of times and varieties of rites serve to put in mind the com- 
mon sort/' Anil by and by afterwards, Dicit probanda* esse 
tradUbn&i — *' Epiphanius disputing against the Encratites 
sailh that traditions arc to be allowed that are made, Sia rrjv 
€ytcpdT€tav, *} Sid rijif Troktreiav, that is, either to restrain the 
flesh for discipline of the vulgar, or for order and govern- 
ment's sake* And we think that traditions may well be 
retained for these causes : that the people be at service sober" 
— that is, fasting, as it followeth— "as Josaphat and the king 
of Nineveh proclaimed fasts: likewise that the order and 
practice of the Church may teach the Church what was done, 
at what time* Hence come the festivals of the Nativity, 
Easter, Pentecost, and the like. This is that which Epipha- 
nius saith j that traditions were ordained for policy's sake, that 
is, for order's Bake, and that such order might put men in 
mind of the story and benefits of Christ For marks of things 
painted as it were in rites and customs are much more effec- 
tual to put the vulgar in mind than writings.*' 

§ 36. Now the difference of ancient [times] between seve- 
ral Churches in the point of public service upon festival and 
fasting-days is that which Epiphanius remembered afore c 5 287 
that the assemblies upon Wednesdays and Fridays were held 
all fasting till three after noon i and Tcrtullian, so long afore 
him, De Jejuniis t cap. ii, d , acknowledge th the stations of the 
Christians were wont to be kept on Wednesdays and Fridays 
till three after noon ; which he out of the leaven of Montanus 
is not content with. But of the Lord's day Epiphanius* in 
the same place, Ta% Se Kvptaxas aira&as rpvfapa*; Tfjeirtu <$ 

ut ordo ct politia ecclesise doceot im- 
perii os, quid quo tempore gestum sit. 
J line sunt feriie,. Natalia, PascliaiK 
Pentecost es T et similes. Hoc est, quod 
Epi)jhaiuu£ ait, poJitfa extupa in^titutas 
csfiQ trad itio ncs videlicet ordinis t 
et ut ordo ille admoneat homines de 
hiBtoria ct dc bem finis {' In i:-:i. Eternal 
multo efficarius admoncnt vuljni*. no- 
te rei, oua&i pi eta? in moribus ac riti- 

hun, quam li f ene + — -August, Confess, 
ej usque Apologise, p» 77* Argent or. 


• (1 ted in sect. 26. 

d O rati ones fere hora nona con el ud at 
dl Petri exemplo quod Actls rcfertur. 
— ]\ 062. cd. Pam, Ro thorn. I6C2. 

* Expos, fidel Catholic num. 22. 
p. 1105, 



C H A P, 

ay la avrr} Ka&oXmi} eK/cX-qvia, teal aui'd^ets a<f> €m$€V eTrmX**, 
cv vi}OT€V£i, avatcoXov&ov yap iartv iv Kvptatcf) wj<rr€V€Uh 
"But all Lord's days this holy Catholic Church emiuteth 
glad days — rpv$€pa$ servcth to express that of the Prophet 
Esa, haft 13, * And call the Sabbath delight,' which the 
Jews call niw'n JJ1JJ, * the delight of the Sabbath - — and hold- 
eth assemblies from morning, fasteth not : for it is inconse- 
quent to fast on the Lord's day." So to assemble in the 
morning was the mark of a festival ; to depart at three after 
noon, of a fast 

§ 37, Further* Socrates v« 22 r > Av$w Si iv'AX^avSpeta^Tfj mom tfc* 
rerpabi k<h rfj XeyQp&vj} "Trapaxr/ceufj ypatpai re avay tvtoc xovrat, wu 
teal oi StSaWaXot ravras €pp.*}V€VQVcrt* Ttavra re ra awdgeux; j^« primi? 
ytv€Tat) &X a ^fc ™ v pv&Tiyptmv xeXerrJ?" xai tqvto iartv iv HjJ 
*A\e^avBp*-ia eftjc, dpj^cuov, tcai yap *flpiyhfT}K ra iroXka iv 
Tavratq raTs r}fiipat^ tfxitverat hrt Tift iiaeXn&tas SiSd^at. 
ts Again, at Alexandria on Wednesdays and Fridays* both the 
Scriptures are read and the doctors expound them, and all 
288 that belongeth to an assembly is done, beside celebrating the 
mysteries. And this is an ancient custom at Alexandria: for 
it appeareth that Origen taught most of his* writings on these 
days in the Church," Because they took the Eucharist to he 
a piece of festival observance, therefore they thought it nut 
sui tunic urban they fasted. Therefore it is ordered, Cone. 
Laod tf can. xlix, K , Sri ov Set rp Tea-a-apa/coaTy aprrov irpotr^i- 
peiv €i ft?; iv Gaj3 f $uT<p<, teal Kvptcucf} fiovov. The meaning is 
that the Eucharist must not be celebrated in Lent, but upon 
the Sabbath and Lord's day, on neither whereof they fasted h . 
Nevertheless in other places this reason prevailed not* By 
Tertullian it appeareth, De Oratione, cap, xiv. 1 , that in his lime 

' SocriL Eecle*. Hist p. 289. e.l. 

* Circ, A.D. 364. Labbci, torn, t 
col. 1540. ed. Venet. 

* Quadragiuta et ooto dies ante Pai- 
elm singulis die bus hebdomadJt, exeep* 
li« Sabbato tt Doniiiiko, sicca come- 
dun I, ut de mouaehii dixtmua, Sab- 
bato et Dominica oleum i*t vinum per- 
mittitur, ft btna come&tio . . . ♦ Da Inn.- 
jejuuio illud quoque addam t plure* ex 
«DCf ularibua, ct quod magi* mirere ex 
fffya&ettlia, trn primot* trrt medio* §4 
ttti puitrtmai Qinutrttge*imtt eftr* DttUo 

vietti |io tuque paraffin *i it- 

inili abatincntia viret dcfieiaut, frui- 
tulo pan is ex nielle Micctimbehlihua 
vinous succmrunt. Et time adimra- 
bilf est intucri tone (Urn ill am tetatem 
jej unio afflict am, vt dela&satam, ft tan- 
tum non ex pi mn tern, tuin pert Jnac iter 
in media ilia peraeverare, et mori po- 
tiu* Talk '[iJiniL jtgiuiimii frangere. — 
Leon. A Mat* tie EecJeOi Ocddent. el Dri* 
cut. pcrfiet, Cofttena, lib, iil cap, ix* 3, 
p. 104o^a Colon, Agiipp. 1046, 

* Siuiilitri da itauonum diabne, nou 
putaal p1«riquc laoifidotDiB en 

i tn, 4uud slatio aol- 
venda Hi acccpto curporc DafBinL 




and the parts where he lived, the Eucharist was celebrated 
on days of fasting* And in the same place be dispute th 
against those that forbore the kiss of peace k — used in some 
places afore receiving the Eucharist, in some places after it. 
Carte* Laoa\ t can. xix. 1 Innocent. L ad Decentium m — upon days 
of fasting: which was an observance of fasting-days derived 
from the synagogue, where their fashion was not to salute 
one another when they fasted. Maimoni, Taanioth, cap, iii. 
num. 6, cap. v. num. ll. n And St. Basil, Epist eclxxxix. , 
'HfjL€ts fiivrmye reraprov tcaB* etcd&rrjv i^SofjABa tcQtvmtovp&v, 
ev t# Kvpiatcrj, iv ttJ t^t/joS*, teal ip t§ *irapaa'ic€vfi l teal t$> 
GafifiaTip, teal iv rdi$ aWai$ t}fiepat^ iav tj fivtjpt} ftaprvpo^ 
tipq$. n Yet we communicate four times a week, Lord's days, 2S9 
Wednesdays, Fridays, and Sabbaths, and on other days if the 
memory of a martyr fall out, 

§ 38. In fine, certain it is which St. Augustine delivereth in 
Churches.] this point, Epist cxviii.P, Alia vero qum per loca terrarum re- 
gionesque variantur t stcuti est quod alii jejunant Sabbaia f alii 
non : alii auotidie communicant carport et sang id ni Domini, 
alii certis dicbus accipiunt: alibi nullus dies prmtcrmittitury 
qtw non vfferatur> alibi Sabhato tantum et Dominico f alibi 
taut it m Dominico ; ct siquid aliud hujmmodi animadverti potest ', 
totum hoc genus reram libcras habet observationes. " Other 
things, which change according to places and countries of the 
world — as that some fast on Saturday, some not ; some parti- 

in Fume 

Ergo devorurn Deo oWqiuum Encha- 
ristia reaolvit, an magis Deo obligat ? 
Nnnne so I em mar erit etatio tua, si et 
ad aram Dei steteris 7 Aceepto corpore 
Domini ct reservato utrumque saJvuin 
est, et parti cipatio sacrincii t ct execu- 

tio officii P. 183. ed. Pain, Rcthora. 

1 Lib 2, 

k Alia jam conauetudo invaluit, je- 
j mi antes habit a orations cum fratribus 
* ultra hunt oscuhim pacis, quod eat 
signaculum orationis, Quanda autem 
nmgis conferenda cum fr at Minis pax 
est, nisi cum orationc commendabilior 
ascendit, ut ipai de nostra operaliune 
p art ici pent, quam audcrent de sua pace 
fratri transigefe? Que oratio cum 
divortio Eoncti osculi integra, quern 
Domino officiurn facientem impedit 
pax ¥ Quale sacrificinm est, a quo sine 
pace receditut ?— De Oration* cap. xiv. 
p. 183. ed. Pam. Rothomag. 1662. 

J Kal m*tA t& ■wptv$ur*pou$ tivvvat 

t£ iTtifftcSxy t^jk n\pf\in^» t Tori robs 
Aoi'woi's t^v (fip^prrjv fliBcWt. Kal oOrot 
T^v ayiav Trpo(T<popav hriTt\*7tr8a.u* — 
Labbd, torn, L coL 1533. ed. Venet. 

■ Pacem ergo aaseris ante con feet a 
materia quosdflm pop u lis imperare, Tel 
etbi inter sacerdotes trade re, cum post 
omnia, qua* aperirc non debeo, pax ait 
necesaarioindicenda, per quam eonstet, 
populum ad omnia, qua? in mysteriis 
aguntur, atquc in Ecclcsia eelebrantur, 
przcbuia&e consensu m, ac finita esse, 
pacts concludentis tignaculo demon- 
strentur.^-Labbci, torn. iiL col. -K ed. 
Venet, See Cardinal Bona, Rer. Ll- 
turgic. lib. )L cap. xvL § G, 7. 

* De Jejuniis Hebrstorum^ pp. 22— 
37. ed. Carpzov. Lipsiai, 1C02. 

« S. Basil. Ep. xeiii. torn, iii p. 186* 
ed. Ben. The Benedictine editors 
read 'Aytou instead of Mdprvpoi. 

* Ad In qui s. iTanuar, lib. i. Ep. liv. 
torn, ii. col. VI I-. ed. Deru 



cipate every day of the Lord's Body and Bloo J, some receive cha p. 
od certain days: in some places no day is intermitted, but — '— 
it is celebrated : otherwhere only on the Sabbath and Lord 5 
day, otherwhere on the Lord's day alone : and if any thing 
else of this sort can be observed — all matters of this kind, I 
say, are of free observance." This indifference, or this differ- 
ence, notwithstanding, we shall perceive the whole custom 
of the ancient Church was to celebrate the Eucharist, if not 
every day, yet upon all Lord*s days, if not rather by conse- 
quence upon all festivals, or all days of more solemn assem- 
blies, as the crown of the service for which they assembled : 
both upon example of the primitive time, 

§ 39. The practice of them that celebrated and received [Aooord. 
the Eucharist every day, standeth upon the example of the p™ L tieGof 
primitive Christians at Jerusalem. Of whom when it is said q , Q^J^jft 
that " they continued constant in the doctrine of the Apostles, 
and communion, and in breaking bread, and prayers ;" and 
that "continuing with one mind in the temple, and from 
house to house, they did eat their meat with gladness and 
singleness of heart: 11 to what purpose shall we imagine that 
breaking bread and communion is mentioned, beside the 
service of the temple, but to signify the service of the Eucha- 
rist, proper to the faith of Christians, in which they commu- 
nicated among themselves, as with the Jews in the service of 
the temple ? knowing that at the first it was used at meals— 
as it was instituted — among Christians. 

§ 40. This notwithstanding, in other places, it seemeth the [WtaWj 
Eucharist was celebrated but upon Lord's days, as well in the Ul MfflG ' 
times of the Apostles, as in the Church that succeeded. Acts ***** J 
ix. 7: "On the first day of the week, the disciples being 
assembled to break bread ; n that is, m to celebrate the Eucha- 
rist," as the Syriac translateth it Here the first day of the 
week seemeth to stand against the rest, in terms of difference, 
as if upon other days they did it not. And that is the day 
which St Paul appointed! the Church of Corinth, as he had 
291 done the Churches of Galatia, to make their collections for 
the poor, which Tcrtnllian sheweth was done at their assem- 
blies, 1 Cor. xvi. 2, Tertull Apofog,> cap. xxxix. r , and in 

* Acta iL *2— 10, 

1 Modicam tinupqiiUqiie stipe m men- 

strua die, vel cum velit j ct ti tnodo vclit* 
vt ii modo poiftit? appoint ; nam nenso 




Pliny's epistle concerning the Christiana of his government, 
Quod essent soldi state die ante lueem convenire. ** That they 
were want on a set day to assemble before light/* What 
day but the Lord's day can we think might be set for this 
purpose ? Justin Martyr, tor certain* mentioneth no other 
assemblies of Christians, but on the Lord's day, in the place 
afore named*. And in the Constitutions of the Apostles, ii. 
59, where he exhorteth to assemble every day morning and 
evening, as was said afore*, the Eucharist is mentioned to be 
celebrated but upon Lord's days, as it folio weth afterwards". 
Pliny's words in that place are these at large, EpisL lib. x* 
xcvii, : Quod essent soliti stato die ante lueem convening car- 
menque Chris to quasi Deo dieere secnm tnvicem ; seque Sacra- 
mento, non in seelus aliquod obstringere t sed tie furta, ni latro- 
cinia, ne adulter ia committerent, nejidem Jallerent 9 ni* deposit um 
appetlati ahnefjarent, quibns peractis morem sihi diseedendi fuisse, 
rursusque coeundi ad eapiendutu e'thum^ promise uum tamen et 
inmsnmu The Christians confessed "that they were wont 
to assemble on a set day before light, and to sing praise among 
themselves to Christ as to God ; and to tie themselves upon 
a Sacrament, not to any wickedness, but not to commit thefts, 292 
robberies, or adulteries^ not to falsity their trust, or deny a 
thing deposited, being demanded. This done, that their 
custom was to depart, and meet again to eat together, but in 
a vulgar and innocent sort" 

§ 41. Grotius of late, upon Matth. xxvi. 25 x , seemeth to 
ut meSst] conce * ve tnat at tne beginning the Eucharist was not cele- 
brated hut at meals, as it was instituted by our Lord. And 
that so it was celebrated, not only under the Apostle, as Acts 
xx- 11, 1 Con xi. , or under Ignatius, but in Justin Martyr 
and TcrtuHian's time, appearcth by their words. Justin., 


compel! itur, sed aponte confert, Ha-e 
quasi deposits, pietati* aunt, nam inde 
non epulis, nee uotaculus, net* ingratis 
voratriiiis <l tsptiisitur, sed egciiia alendis 
huniaiuiisqiiL* rt pueris ae piielli*; re nc 
parenlibus detiitati*, jainque clomesticia 
sr minis, item naufragis, et si qui in 
metal Ma, et si qui b lrumlis, w\ in 
mtodik, duntaxat ex: cauea Dei wrt*T, 
alumni confess i on is sua? Hunt, — P* OS. 
ed l l am. Rotlm* 

■ Chap, ft Reel. 10. 

1 Chap. viit. sect. 13. 

■ See note q, chap + viii* sect* 3S, 
1 Plimi ouoque Christian! inter enr- 
naudum eitlebrarimt hoc mystmum » 
jcAwj>t*j Tt kut oIkov . .. . hiquit Lucas 
Actor* ii, H*. Vide tt confer quod dieitur 
XX. 7 et 1 1, Hoc est quod Pli- 
nius ait Gditte ChrittiatM ad ttpi4tltd*m 

cihutrt tdd pUDOfjC It li ai ffl ittuojiitiitt. Id- 
ijue ipsmn est quod tiuwvav KupiaKi** 
'•fit um Paului ad Carinth&M — Grotii Comm. in S. Matth, 
jtxvi. 25, pp. its, 2MK Am*U-L I<?7* 



tt Tn/phJi "On piiv ovv teal €V)(al teal eiftapurTiiu CHA1 
a^iwv ytvopxvai, rikeuu ^6 vat teal evdpeerroi e«r* tw " 

DmL cum 
vtto rmv d^u 

0€q> duo-tat, teal avros <pr}pu' ravra yap pova teal ^ptcrrtavol 
irapiXaftov womv, teal hr dvafiptjtrnt Be tt}s Tpmfitjs avrwv tp}pa*i 
T€ teal vypa^ iu p zeal rov wdffov^j o iriwovBe cV airrov 6 Seos 
top Qgqv, fLipvyrai* M Therefore that prayers and thanks- 
givings made by the worthy arc the only complete sacrifices 
and acceptable to God, I also affirm : for these alone Chris- 
tians a) bo have received order to perform, and that upon 
remembrance both of their dry and moist nourishment : at 
which there is also remembrance of the Passion which God 
of God Himself suffered, n The like, ApoL i., the words shall 
follow afterwards 1 . Tertullian, de Corona MiHtis f cap. iiL * 
Euehamti& Sacramentnm, et in tempore wctus, et omnibus 
mandatum a Domino^ etiam antetucanis ctEtibus, nee de alwrum 
nan quam pr&sidentium sumimus, tf The Sacrament of the 
293 Eucharist, commanded by our Lord, both to all, and at meat 
time, we receive also at our assemblies afore day, but at do 
man's hands but our presidents'." They are the words where- 
upon he groundeth : for Tertullian reckoneth it among tradi- 
tions, that is, customs of the Church not commanded in Scrip- 
ture*. Which notwithstanding nothing hindereth, but the 
same might be practised in the Apostles' time, and remem- 
bered in the Scriptures. 

§42* To which opinion I rather incline. Otherwise, rpfthir 
whence should the custom rise, in Justin and Tertullian's iom*]° 
time, to celebrate the Eucharist at their morning assemblies, 
when it was still in use at supper time, in their feasts of love? 
that is it which Ignatius calleth Sqxw «rm\€&' f in the 
ancient translation alleged elsewhere b , translated agapenfa- 
cere, in that which is extant, missam faeere € t which he saith 
must not be held without the Bishop, and that must be in 
respect of the Eucharist. And when Justin and Tertullian 
affirm that it was frequented at meals, we must needs under- 
stand it, in the first place, of those meals to which they 

* S. Justin. Opp. p. 21(1. cap, cxvii. 
ed. Ben. 

* In chnp. x. sect. 5, 

* 1 1 it rum et aliarimi ejusmorfi diaei- 
pUimrnm si legem expostulcs fcriptu- 
mnmi nultnm JMtwfel 1 traditio libi 
pircteiirletur nwctrijc, rnniiuptudo eon- 

UTlnalrix ct fides ohservalrU>— fb. w p, 
2&X cd. Patn. Rotliomag. 1662. 

* Prim* Govern., chap, xiu sett. I ■">. 

* Ep. tnterp. ad Smym., cap. viii. a, 
NO. ed. Colder. See Usher* t note 



C H A P. 

assembled for the exercise of Christian charity and the praises 
of God, as we see in Tertullian, ApoL cap, xxxixJ, where if 
we find nothing of celebrating the Eucharist* it is to be 
attributed to Cassanders reason e , because it was not his pur- 29 * 
pose to make known the fashion of the Eucharist to unbe- 
lievers, which might bring it into contempt among them. 
[Eucharist § 43. Pliny's words alleged seem to import that the Chris- 
\n fli™ e tiftos of his time assembled twice on Lord's days, before day, 
morning,] an d at flight Before day, to praise Christ as God, and to 
tie themselves upon a Sacrament, or oath, to make good what 
they professed. I have not yet found that they were wont 
to make any such formal oath to themselves, and must think 
it strange that they should renew it at all solemn assemblies; 
and therefore do believe that his meaning concern eth the 
Sacrament of the Eucharist, which of its own nature, we 
know, is an obligation to such purpose. At night, when they 
met to eat together, it hath been shewed that the Eucharist 
was celebrated. And so Pliny's words import the same that 
Justin's [do], in which he describe th to us the celebration of the 
Eucharist at solemn morning service, and elsewhere at meals, 
among which the feasts of love had the first place ; and both of 
them the same that the Apostle [doth] in this place. His mean- 
ing in the eleventh chapter is not to abrogate those feasts of 
love, but to take a course that they might be held in common 
for the exercise of Christian charity, and the public service 
of God. Therefore if any man pretended the necessities of 
nature, he giveth him leave to eat at home, xL 34, because 
it hath appeared that these assemblies were held towards 295 
night, and that — when the custom of the world was to enter* 
tain themselves — then they assembled to this sober and Chris- 
tian refreshment But in this fourteenth chapter he hath 
touched all the parts of public service at solemn assemblies, 
prayers, the praises of God, the reading and expounding of 
the Scriptures: and therefore when he saith, ver. 16, "Else 
when thou shalt bless with the Spirit, how shall he that 
occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving 

d Quoted in chap, fi sect. 7. 

* Additur vero liic [ad n*ttr. lib, ii, 
cap. vl] dti oi bo el poouto Christi, 
quod ibi fortusbU, quod ad paganos 

et nondum initiates sermo habere hir, 
omUuhi tint, — CasAatid. Liturgie. T cap* 
iv. p. 14. Paris. 1610. 



of thanks?" my purpose is to shew that he referreth to the 
celebration of the Eucharist in particular, and that thanks- 
giving which from the beginning it was consecrated with i 
to which purpose I have premised these probabilities, that 
the Eucharist was then celebrated at their morning assem- 

§ 44. In the mean time, it is plain by the rubric of our ser- 
vice, which saith, * Upon the holy-days, if there be no com- 
munion, shall be said r ™ with that which foil owe th ; and 

more plain by the rubric of the first edition of Edward VL, 
after the exhortation, which saitli, (f In cathedral churches 

or other places, where there is daily communion," and 

again, * And if upon the Sunday or holy-day the people 
be negligent to come to the communion/' that our re- 
formers affected the frequentation of this service, according 
29G to the primitive practice, so far as they thought it attainable. 
And according to them, Calvin, iv. InstiL xviL 43. 46*, 
roundly professeth that it behoveth that the Eucharist be 
celebrated at least once a-week. Where let me have leave 
to say, that it had been much more for the edification of the 
Church to have laboured in reducing this pious intention 
of onr reformers into practice, than to contend about saying 
that part of the service — which nevertheless, as shall appear, 
never properly belonged to the celebration of that Sacrament 
— at the place appointed for the ministering of It 



The order 
of til is 
with the 
of chief 

1 Changed at the Restoration into 
11 Upon the Sundays and other holy- 
day a." 

* Porro tanta ceromoniarum conge* 
He faceuere jussa, »ic admimstrari de- 
centissiine poterat, ti $*pusimt tt tin 

pulis ad minimum htbd&madibut propo- 
neretur Eeclcsiae. — § 43. 

, i , singuHa ad minimum hebdnma- 
dibua proponents erat Chrislianomm 
ccclui mensa Domini,— -J 46. 



Cll A P. 

The rea* 
sous why 
it is for the 
of Un- 
church to 
use cere- 
monies in 

of cere- 

Of the rites, and circumstances, and ceremonies of God's 
service in public, it coucerneth to say something here, where 
we are about the general order of it: and yet so much hath 
been said of It* and to so good purpose, lhat he that would 
come down to the particulars of it, shall be enforced to say 
over what hath been said again* My purpose is to discourse 
in few words the reason and ground upon which in general it 
is expedient that the form of public service should be solemn 
and ceremonious, according to the method hitherto used. 
Ami that is this which I touched afore h : because the rule 
of the Apostle commaudeth these things to be done both in 
order and with comeliness ; and nothing can become the 
service of God but that which serve th to stir up, and to 
exercise the inward reverence of the heart in ourselves, and 
to procure it in others. What that is, common reason must 
be judge, according to the Apostle', 

§ 2. Here therefore lieth an appeal to the common reason 
of all the world, not to the particular reasons of persons 
interested in prejudice, whether that inward reverence and 
devotion of the heart, wherein the service of God consisteth, 
the exercise and maintenance of it do not require that it be 
in the circumstances and rites of it solemn and ceremonious ? 
ask the world to what purpose the chief actions of it are 
transacted with so much observance in circumstances, but 
to procure and maintain that respect which the public good 
requireth they should possess in men s minds, In the state 
of princes, in the courts of judgment, in military matters, in 2!>s 
the passage of all public matters of any consequence, conn 
sense is able to tell us what respect and observance is u 

Sec clmp. vi. Mat 22., vi. St'Ct- %$, 



and all reason alio we th the necessity of it : for by this means 
is conveyed into the minds of the greatest part of people that 
reverence, in which the public good requircth all men to hold 
those powers, by which these great matters are managed; 
which it is not possible should make impressions upon gross 
minds, by conviction of reason, were they not managed by 
their senses. 

§ 3. God hath made Christians, though governed by the 
Spirit of His grace, as gross in their bodily senses and facul- 
ties of their minds, as other men of like education are : and 
it is a debt which the guides of the Church owe to the wise 
and unwise of God's people, to conduct them in the way of 
godliness by means proportionable to their faculties. The 
outward form of public service availeth much, even with them 
whose minds are best in tune, to corroborate their reverence 
and devotion at the service of God, by the exercise of it : 
but speaking of them whose minds are less withdrawn from 
their senses, how great impression shall the example of the 
world, practising the service of God in an orderly and reve- 
rent form, make in the minds of men that cannot receive it 
299 from their reason, but from their senses ? this effect in things 
of slight consequence in particular, which nevertheless alto- 
gether amount to a considerable sum, is better seen by the 
gross in practice, than convinced by retail in dispute : yet 
since the importunities of men have caused false reasons to 
prevail with weak people, it is requisite the true reasons be 
pleaded, lest it be thought there are none such, because not 
so fit to be pleaded. 

§ 4. The circumstances and ceremonies of public service is* 
indeed a kind of discipline and pedagogy, whereby men sub- 
ject to sense are guided in the exercise of godliness : it is, as 
it were, the apparel of religion at the heart ; which some 
think, like the sun, most beautiful when it is most naked ; 
and so it were indeed, did men consist of minds alone with- 
out bodies, but as long as our bodily senses are manageable 
to our soul's advantage, the heat within will starve without 
this apparel without And therefore, under better judgment, 
I hold it requisite that the observance of rites and ceremonies 
in the public service of God ? should increase and become 
more solemn after the world was come into the Church, dian 


[In Divine 

of them,} 




[ Increas- 
eth with 
time. ] 

in the New 

IU i: tit, J 

It Is a. 
vowed by 
the chief 

under the persecuting times of it Persecution was like aiiii- 
pertstasis in nature, in preserving order and reverence in the 
public offices of the Church, with the respect of those guides 
that ruled it. 

§ 5. But since the net of the gospel hath been cast in theaoo 
ocean, and caught good and bad* it is more requisite that all 
should pass, as under rule and observance, so in the most 
reverent form, that the coldness and indifference of the woreer 
part appear not to debauch the good disposition of others. 
Though from the beginning, as early as the records of the 
Church are able to inform us, we are sure it was never with* 
out such outward observances as, according to the state of the 
time, tended to maintain, to witness the disposition of the 
heart answerable. 

§ 6. The Apostle's ordinance of praying and staging psalms, 
men with heads bare, women with heads covered, the saluta- 
tion of peace so long practised in the primitive Church, from 
the time of the Apostles, imposition of hands in divers acts 
of public service, signifying the over-shadowing of the Holy 
Ghost*, and God's hand stretched out to give the blessing for 
which prayer was made, and without question derived from 
the times of the Apostles, are of this nature* And it is 
thought that when the Apostles speak of putting off the old 
man, and putting on the new, CoL Hi, 9, 10, ii. 1 1,— of burying 
in Baptism, CoL ii. 12, Rom, vL 4, — of the unction of grace, 
1 John ii. 2Gj 27, 1 Cor. ii* 12, allusion is made to some rites 
of ecclesiastical offices, used even at that time 1 . 

§7, As for ecclesiastical writers, it will be hard to name 3 
any of them so ancient, in whom are not to be found divert 
particulars of this nature. But the general reason hitherto 
declared, hath been better sifted by the chief reformers* 
Philip, loco de Catrem. in EccL, p. 65 l m : Paulus graviszim$ 
dixit) I Cor. xiv*, irmna ev&xTyfWP&s ftai Kara to^ip ytvi&0t&* 
Nbn ordincm iantum 9 sed etiam singnlarem curam ornamli ordi- 
rtis requirk ; quare addidit €v<t)0^l6pqj^, ut videamus, quid ptr- 
sonas } Iom 9 tempora decent " Paul saith with much gravity, 
Let all things be done with decency, and in order. lie 

* Sec Prim, Govern., chap. xi. scot 

} 1. Tlie white mhes worn by the 
newly baptized, instead of their former 

garments. % Imnuamm in Baptism, 
3. Anointing in Connrmaiimi. 

m Melancth. Opp», torn. i. fol, 2°U 
Wittek-r-p. LfidSl 



requireth not order alone, but a singular care of setting that chap. 
order forth ; therefore he addeth decently, that we consider — — 
what become th persons, times, and places.*' This is it that 
I am now about, that the order of things done at public 
service be such as may set forth and insinuate the respect 
which those times, those places, those persons require. Which 
Calvin still setteth down in fuller terms, iv, Inst it x* 28 : Ut in 
Macro jidcUum ccetu decenter peragantur omnia, et qud convenit 
dignitate. " That in the holy assembly of the faithful all 
things be done decently, and in that worth and respect as 
befitteth." Afterwards he setteth down as much as I have 
done, when he saith, Ac decor i quidemjiids est, partim, ut dum 
adhibentur rltus qui vetierationem rebus sacris concili*nt* taHbus 
adminicuUs ad pitiatem exeitemur : partim etiam, ut mode$tia } 

302 et gravitas, qua? in omnibus honestis actionibm spectari debet, 
illic rnaximi etueeat* u And indeed the end of comeliness is, 
partly, that using such rites as procure reverence to sacred 
things, we may be by such helps excited to godliness : partly, 
that the modesty and gravity, which in all actions of respect 
ought to be attended, may there especially appear*" Again, 
num. 29 : Sid illud nobis decorum ertt, quod ita ertt ad sacrorum 
mi/steriorum reverentiam aptum, ut sit idoneum ad pietatem ex- 
ercitiimiy vel saltern quod ad or na turn facte t actioni congrumitem : 
neqrn idipsum sine fructu, sed ut fideUs admoneat* quanid mo- 
destidy rcligione, o k ftrv antid sacra tractate debeaut " But that 
shall be counted decent with us, that shall so fit the reverence 
of holy mysteries, as may be a competent exercise unto god- 
liness ; or which at least may conduce to ornament suitable 
to the action : and that not without benefit, but to put the 
faithful in mind with how much modesty and religious ob- 
servance they ought to be conversant in sacred actions* ,T What 
this in general importeth, is that which I desire in the par- 
ticular heads. 

§ 8. Times and places are no way sanctified otherwise than of tbe ro- 
as they are deputed to the service of God. The words of our 
Lord in the Gospel, Malik xaiii. 19, * Winch is the greater, p1aw ** 
the sacrifice, or the Altar that sanctifieth it?** point out to us 
a difference betwixt the law and the gospel in this parti- 

303cular. Fur as St. Hierome said afore" that the service of 

« Chap, viiL wrctt. 27, 24, 



CHAP, God in spirit and truth, proper to the dispensation of the 
— — gospel* is acceptable to God at all times, that all days are 
equal of themselves, no difference between them, but in re- 
spect to the assemblies of Christians upon them, and the 
work of those assemblies: so is it to be said with truth con- 
cerning places, to make it a general observation and a true 
one, that under the law the time and the place sanctified the 
service confined to it; but under the gospel the service re- 
quired sanclifieth the time and place of it 
[Of timet] § 9- For example, the passover on the due time was holy, 
on another time had been abominable : dwelling in taber- 
nacles, commanded on such a day of such a month, used 
otherwise, no part of God's service, but sacrilege in usurping 
it : the sacrifices whereof our Lord speaketh, holy upon the 
Altar, otherwhere abominable. On the other side, the service 
of Christians being good by nature, and acceptable to God 
at all times and in all places, hath a special promise of God 
from the unity of the Church, and the assemblies in it. 
Which because they cannot be held without public order, 
confining them to times and places, thereupon those times 
and places, which are capable of no holiness in themsel 
are nevertheless truly qualified holy* as an attribute derived 
from the holiness of those actions to which they arc designed- 2 
Which may well be called a relative or mctonymlcal holine 
Thus are times and places consecrated^ by being appoint 
to the service of God : places, as more subject to sense, by 
the execution of that appointment ; that is, by the prayers of 
the Church, ministered by the guides of it, 

§ 10. But inasmuch as it behoveth that the service which 
shall be acceptable to God, be done in the unity of His 
Church, and that which is so done must be according to 
public order, confining the times and places of assemblies : 
hereupon those times and places which are capable of no 
holiness but that which is ascribed to them, in relation to 
that work where unto they are assigned, give holiness to that 
work again, inasmuch as if it be done in opposition to that 
public order in which the unity of the Church consisicth, it 
is abominable afore God. He that hath promised to be 
present where we are assembled, by the same reason hatli 
promised to be absent where we are divided : let them look 




to themselves that cause it* those that do not have no catise 
to doubt of God's presence. Thk is the ground of that re- 
spect which is due to the times and places of God's service, 
and whirh, if it go not beyond the consideration here ex- 
pressed, cannot prove superstitious. The holiness of that 
305 work which differenceth them, re quire th they be so used n 
may conduce most to stir and maintain the right apprehen- 
sion of that work in our own minds, and to convey it to 
others. If the days of our assemblies be employed upon 
ordinary business, no marvel if the mind prove not at leisure 
to attend the work for which they are designed. Churches 
are still more subject to sense than days are, and the common 
use of them common reason and experience will prove to 
breed a common esteem of the work of God's service, and in 
consequence of the Majesty that owneth it* If we remember 
that God is there present to accept the service of our asscm- 
blieSj we cannot refuse to acknowledge respect due there 
in general, though we refer ourselves to law or commendable 
custom for the particular of it°. 

§ 11. That which is to be said for the difference of vesture, 
in solemnizing the service of God, is much to this purpose P. 
The meaning of it Li, to procure inward reverence to that 
work which it maketh outwardly solemn ; to represent to our 
own apprehensions, and to convey to other men's, the due 

c If A p. 

fereaoa ad 
and geti 

ft u Whereat the Church is the house 
of God, dedicated to His holy worship, 
and the re fore ought to mhid us both of 
the greatness and goodness of His Di- 
vine Majesty $ certain it is that the 
acknowledgment thereof, not only in- 
v mlly in mir hearts, but also out- 
wardly with our bodi cm, must needs 
he pious in itself, profitable unto us, 
and edifying no to others. We there* 
fore Ihiuk it very meet and behovcful, 
and heartily eotnmend it to all good 
And well-aftected people, members of 
i]]i< Church, that they be ready to 
tender unto the Lord the said acknow- 
ledgment, by doing reverence and obei- 
sance, both at their coming in and 
going out of the said churches, ch;m- 
Df ehapela, according to the most 
ancient ciihtiitii id' the primitive Church 
in the unrest tiroes, and oflhis Church 
ill -ii lor Miimy year* of the rcign of 
Unon EHiaceta, 1 ' — Canons of 1610, 
Wilkins' Crmrilj loin. iv. p, 


P " As for the appsrcl ».,.•■ mere is 
no order in it, hot confusion ; no come- 
lines*, but deformity ; no obedience, but 
disobedience, both against God and the 
prince* We marvel that they could 
Bin in their last synod, that a grey 
a mice, which is but a garment of dig- 
nity, should be a garment, as they smy t 
defiled with superstition, and yij ilm 
cope*, caps, surplices, tippeta, and Ittii 
like baggage, the preaching signs of 
popish priesthood, the pope's creatures, 
kept in the same form to this end, to 
bring dignity and reverence to the 
ministers and Sacraments, should be 
retained still and not abolish eiL But 
they are as the garments of the idol, to 
which we should say, A vaunt, and (ret 
thee heuee. They are »a the garments 
of Balaamites, of pnpish priests, ene- 
mies to God imd all ClirialiaflB.' t <— Ad- 
monition to tin- I'arlLmit.-nl., pp, 17, 18; 
ri'priuti'ti I tf 1 7* 


CHAP, respect and esteem which it ought to bear in our hear! 

— - 1 — And common reason and all experience justificth this intent, 
for all the actions of esteem in the world are set forth with 
the like solemnities, to no other purpose but to convey by 
the senses to the mind that respect which they ought to bear, 306 
And the world hath tried enough, that those which have 
made it part of their religion to stick scorn upon such slight 
circumstances, have made it no less to deface and disgrace 
the substance of God's public service. 

[Influence § 12. As for the difference of bodily gestures at the sen-ice 

gestuivi] °f God, that is still a more considerable mean to procure and 
preserve that esteem and respect of it, for which I pleach 
The words of St. Augustine of the gestures of prayer are 
remarkable, De Cura gmmda pro Morton*, cap. v. \ which, he 
sailh, are not used so much to lay the mind open to God, 
to whom the most invisible inclinations of the heart are best 
known, as to stir up a man's own mind to pray with more 
humble and fervent groans. And then it followcth, Et nescia 
quomodo, cum hi mot us corporis Jieri nisi motu mnml prmcedente 
non possiftL t-isdem rursus exterius visdnitter fitvtis, ille interior 
hwisthUh qui eo$ jceity aufjetnr ; ac per hoc cordis* affertus, qui 
utjierent ista pr&cessity quia facta sunt, crescit, "And I know 
not how, though these bodily motions are not done without 
the motion of the rotnd going afore, yet again, by the out- 
ward visible doing of them, that inward and invisible one 
which causeth them increase th : and so the affection of the 
heart, antecedent to the doing of these, by the doing of them 
gathereth strength." Christians have bodies as other men 
have, and though the service of God consist in the inward si 
intention of the mind, and the devotion of spirit which j>cr- 
formeth it, yet this brute part of us is able to contribute 
so far towards it, as it rcfrcsheth in ourselves, and express- 
eth to others the inward motions wherein it consisteth. 

§ 13. It is an impression of nature that teach eth all people 
thus to actuate, thus to animate the service they tender to 
God ; and experience shall tell them that observe it, that 
where it is passed over with indifference, there men behave 
themselves more as hearers than actors in it; there, as the 
natural heat of the heart, so the inward heat of devotion, 

" S. August, Qpp„ torn, vl cdL 520- ed, Ben. 




which aught to dwell there, stifleth and choketh fur want chap. 
of this airing and exercise. Thus that which maintained! — — : — - 
the intention of the mind in private, multiplieth it in public, 
and propagateth in others that which it cherisbeth in our- 
selves. Beside that, it contributeth towards the comelin 
of such assemblies, if it he uniform. To good puqx>se it was 
a deacon^ office in the primitive Church to put the people 
in mind of these observances, at least in great congregations* 

§ 14, But in this whole matter of rites and ceremonies in Ctutfaa m 
common service, there is caution to be used, with which — JlfJir™ 
thongh ill the latitude of their nature indifferent — they will vmm '^- 
prove an advantage to it ; and without which they may 

308 prove an offence in it For the nature and kind of that 
which is done, respect is to be had to die end proposed. If 
the particular observed be not, according to reason, a circum- 
stance apt to procure, to maintain in ourselves, to express 
and convey to others, that intention and reverence which 
the service of God requiretb, for what cause shall we say 
it is observed? shall it be thought acceptable to God alone 
of itself, without reference to the due end pod purpose? then 
must it needs turn to a voluntary observance, wherein we 
discharge ourselves to God, instead of the service He re- 
quireth. Besides, those that arc not offensive for their kind, 
for their number may prove no less. For as the suckers that 
grow under great stocks, where there are too many, intercept 
that sap that should nourish the trees to bear fruit : so where 
the circumstances and ceremonies of public service are mul- 
tiplied beyond measure, there the mind, distracted into a 
number of outward observations, cannot allow that intention 
to die substance which it spendeth upon the circumstance. 
And so it falleth out as afore, they are intended for their own 
sake, as acceptable to God of themselves, without respect of 
advancing that service which He require! lu 

§ 15. Last, because it hath been shewed' that order as [Cere* 

.103 well as comeliness is the rule to direct the form of Gods ^^I^ 
public service ; and because, without order, nothing becometb JJJj 1 ^^ 
it, though with order apt to become it, that which hath been Mum*, j 
said is to be understood of those rites and ceremonies which 
public order enforce th, that i% which are either enjoined 

' Hmp. vj. sect. 13 + 

x 2 



C II A 1*. 

[Of uvak 
( hfte- 

t Till* J 

[Apo>i!4 <h 
ik-alt with 
Them ilif- 

by law, or practised by custom which it alio we th : as for the 
voluntary observations of particular persons, they are by 
their nature subject to abuse, as is to be seen in the supersti- 
tions of the Church of Rome, which all reason shewetb had 
their beginning from the well-meant devotions of private 
persons* And the re fo re it is plain that they may prove a 
just subject of that offence to the weak, which the Apostle 
ibrbiddeth ; which those that are practised upon public 
orders, declaring the due meaning of them, cannot, as my 
purpose is now to declare : because it is an objection, which 
if it take place, as some think, must needs overthrow the 
most part of that which hath been said to the order and 
circumstances of public service, 

§ 1G. It is to lie known that there were two sorts of Jewish 
Christiana under the Apostles', according to the difference 
of whom, both their doctrine and practice, especially of St, 
Paul, is to be valued. For, on the one side, the Apostles, in 
the council at Jerusalem, ordered f Acts xv. 20, that those 
which were converted from the Gentiles should abstain from s]< 
things dying in the blood and sacrificed to idols, St, Paul 
circumcised Timotheus, xvu 3, purified himself according to 
the law, xxi, 2Q. In respect to the same sort, he is hold to 
say, Rom. xiv« 6, "He that regardcth a day, regardeth it to 
the Lord : and he that regardeth not a day, regardcth it not 
to the Lord : he that eateth, catcth to the Lord, for he 
giveth God thanks, and he that eateth not, to the Lord he 
eateth not, and giveth God thanks." And that, it sccmcth, 
upun the consideration that folio we th in the next words* 
because though not without blame for the ignorance of their 
freedom, yet living and dying to the Lord they had • 
pious intention in general to excuse their defect in parti- 

§ 17. But in regard to the other sort, it is the same Apostle 
that saith, Gal, iv. 10, 11, "Ye observe days, and months, 
and times, and years, I am afraid of you, lest I have be- 
stowed upon you labour in vain," And Coloss. ii, 16, "Let 
no man therefore judge you in meat or drink, or in respect 
of a feast, or new moon, or Sabbath:" expressing further 
what he meancth, when he saith, "Let no man judge you:* 

• S«e Prire. Govern., chap, v. se^tt 2, il 

rir ai\ 


ver, 8, " Beware lest any man spuil you:" and ver. 20, " Why 
as living in the world are you subject to ordinances, touch 
not, taste not, handle not?" and to Titus, i. 10, "There 
are many unruly and vain talkers, and deceivers, especially 
they of the circumcision, whose mouths must be stopped." 

3ii And wherein he expresseth, ver. 15, "Unto the clean all 
things arc clean :" shewing that they were not to be tolerated 
but opposed in that which they taught* of differences of times 
and meats according to the law of Moses, According to his 
practice in Titus, whereof Gal. iL 3, 4 : '* But neither Titus 
who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be cir- 
cumcised ; and that because of false brethren slily foisting 
in, that came in privily to spy out our freedom which we 
have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage," 

§ 18. This difference in the Apostles' practice and doc- [ Reasons 
trine must needs proceed from the difference of persons they feretice.] 
had to do with. The one, like men that were new come out of 
the dark, could not look right upon the light of that freedom 
which the Gospel estate! h, and not satisfied of the right of 
Christians for ilu ir particular practice, made a conscience 
of days and meats according to the law. The other, re- 
nouncing their freedom, and in love with their own servi- 
tude, took upon them to dogmatize and maintain the neces- 
sity of such observationSj upon those desperate consequences 
which the Apostle expresseth* Those are the weak, and 
these the strong, according to the Apostle j because though 
for reason weakest— for a false opinion is a further weakness 
than a doubt of ttie truth — yet for will most resolute to stand 

312 in it Those in action doubtful, these in opinion erroneous* 

§ 19. These are the men whom the Apostle chargeth by [Of giving 
the law of love not to scandalize ; shewing that in two things [^ wwkj 
it might be done : first, Rom. xiv. 15, M If thy brother be 
grieved with thy meat, then walkest thou not charitably: 
destroy not him with thy meat for whom Christ died." 
Which Origen conceiveth 1 to point at such as took distaste 

• Hoc itAtiute M per oWrvaiujani 
ciboriim nffriisioncfl frutrihu* vet MB* 
dila gcrteretist De oflemioue vei ran* 
HjiIo jam suprn rfiximua quod t,c ami il- 
ium *it ran in vU qua inculilur all* 

quid mvenitur ohjcctutn, in quo of- 
frndftiit itcandentium v*l iucrdi>iitium 

Itedes, Hoc 4->t ergo piitiuutui 
il qui viniu fidt'i nupcr inpivs^i, prio- 
rum wl iniLkiUiouibiis^ vet npgligvn- 


[The argu- 
ment of 
offence to 
the weak 


in. -it the 

tiered a iv 


at the profession of Christ, so as to forsake it upon occasion 
of such slight offences. And the vehemence of those terms 
which the Apostle useth scemeth to import do less. But by 
the words of the Apostle, ver. 15, " If thy brother he grieved 
with thy meat, 1 ' and vcr, 10, " Why judges! thou thy brother? 
why scttest thou thy brother at nought ?'* it appeareth, that 
all discourage tnent of these weak ones is, in the sense of the 
Apostle, a degree of this offence. But there is another ex- 
pressed, vcr, 22, 23. That whereas it behovcth all men to 
be resolved of what they do, that it is acceptable to God, 
vcr. 5, by the indiscreet example of one that understood his 
own freedom, he that did not might be moved to use it with 
a doubtful conscience, which the Apostle declareth to be siii* 
By the way ? that offence whereof the Apostle write th, 1 Con 
viii, 9, x. 27* is of another nature, not pertinent to this pur- 
pose ; for here the offence is an example that moveth a man 
to do that which is lawful with a doubtful conscience: there 313 
it is an example which moveth a man to do that w T hich is 
unlawful with an erroneous conscience, that is to say, when 
the example of him that hath knowledge, eating that which 
was sacrificed unto idols, without difference, moveth the simple 
to participate in the worship of idols by feasting on their 

§ 20, Thus it is supposed that offence is given to the weak 
by the orders of this Church u , when those that are not satis- 
fied in the things ordered either take distaste thereupon at 
the Church and the communion of it, or are moved by exam- 
ple to do that which is ordered with a doubtful conscience. 
Where it must be excepted that no man can use this argu- 
ment of scandal to the weak, but he must acknowledge the 
things ordered to be lawful. For the weak, whom the Apo- 
stle forbiddeih to offend, is he that is not persuaded of the 
lawfulness of that which is lawful indeed. Therefore in that 
they require that public order be not exacted in respect to 
1 lie weak, they acknowledge the thing lawful, by acknowledg- 
ing him weak that doubts of it ; though in truth it eoncerneth 
them rather to inform the weak of the lawfulness of those 

tiis, vel contemplu et elalmnibus ofTen- 
ihintur, ati[uc oxmnplii .-rum recusal 
.ivertuntiir I S4fc -O ripen. L'otmn. in 

Rflm., Hb. Ix* p. $64, torn* \s< eo\ Ben. 
H See DidocUv. Allure Damusi-e* 
until, j>p 5-50 — 5r?0. 



things which public order requiretH at their hands, than to 
continue them in their weakness, and thereupon pretend that 
public order ought not to be exacted at their hands 1 . Be- 
sides, he that pretendcth the scandal of the weak, by exam- 
ple moving to proceed upon a doubtful conscience, is not 
subject to that kind of offence. For in that he complaincth 
he she wet h he is aware enough of the danger : and it is with- 
out the compass of common sense to imagine that a man 
should stumble in following the example against which he 
314 § 21. In fine, the opposition made to public order, and 
that which it enjoineth, is evidence enough that they are not 
the weak but the strong, not the doubtful but the erroneous — 
weak in reason but strong in will, or, as it was once well said, 
headstrong* in refusing without reason what order prescribeth 
— not those whom the Apostle chargeth to forbear, but those 
whom he forbcareth not a moment, Gal. ii. 5, whom he 
chargeth the Colossians and Titus not to forbear, that we 
have to deal with. The matters were light wherein their 
offence stuck, but the consequence which opposition drew 
involved the substance of the Gospel, So are the things 
slight which we stick at, but public order, which dependeth 
upon the right of prescribing, and the edification of the 
Church, intended in the particulars, deserve not to be aban- 
doned for an unjust offence- True it is that a private person 
that will be charitable must forbear the use of his freedom, 
which no rule con fine th, when he seeth it will be offence to 
the weak J if he forbear it not, he givcth just offence accord- 
ing to the Apostle* And it is to be thought, that under the 
countenance and wing of the erroneous and strong, there walk 
divers of those doubtful and weak to whom respect is to be 
had according to the Apostle. 

any such, we for our own part* arc in- 
nocent : our care for our part hath been 
to inform our people that such &tum- 
UfM Mocks Jtts these arc not sufficient 
cause of separation. But we think, 
nay we know, that soine few prelates, 
by their over rigorous pressing of the 
service book and ceremonies, Hnve 
made more Mntratiitl than all the 
preachers disaffected to the ceremonies 
in England* " — Vindication of rhe An- 
swer, p* S8. 

C II A ]\ 


[ Perverse* 
l J urilan»>] 

■ " Many things contained therein 
are stumbling blocks to the feet of 
many, such as these, the clogging it 
with cere monies/' — Smecty mnuus, sect. 
iL quer. i. p. 1*2. 

'* That which makes many refuse to 
be present at our Church service is not 
only the liturgy itself, but the impos- 
ing of it upuu mrnfrtfrr. ** — Th, t quer. 
iL p. 13. 

11 That ill teaching to which he im- 
pute* this general distaste, tf there he 



Tin- «.Wi- 

i>f rules 
Ibey uri! 


| The Cmy- 
of the 
abuvc the 
Hrj-uplra of 
Hie weakJ] 

§ 22* But if the question thereupon be made, whether it 
be expedient for the Church to order such things as shall 31 1 
seem to advantage the form, the order ? the rite® of Divine 
Scrvic?, — whether it be expedient for those whom it concerncth 
to observe and exact the same, in case there may be doubtful 
consciences that may take offence? the answer witl be yes, 
even according to the Apostle : because otherwise the public 
order which he recommendeth can by no means be preserved 
in the Church, since it is not possible so to order things of 
this nature as to leave no jHvssible doubt In any conscience. 
Might not those of the Gentiles whom the Apostles enjoined 
to fbrbear things dying in their blood and offered to idol-, 
have taken offence because they were confined in the just use 
of their freedom? Or the Corinthians, that St Paul suffered 
not their women to sit with bare faces at public service? as 
the virgins of Tert Lillian's time professed themselves scandal- 
ized at those of their rank that practised it y . Suppose the 
Church cannot say as the Apostles, "It seemed good to the 
Holy Ghost and to us 1 :" Sl Paul in the other case proceed- 
eth upon no other reasons than such as the Church must now 
age in like cases. And I suppose the precedent inspired by 
the Holy Ghost aiithorizcth the Church to proceed in like 
matters, though not pretending immediate inspirations* 

§ 23. Last of all, who can doubt, but among the erroneous 
of them that did judaize under the Apostles, there were also a 16 
[divers] of the doubtful and weak led away with their pretences? 
And yet we see the Apostle " forbeareth them not a moment" 
in respect to the weak. All this containing no more incon- 
venience than this, that whereas all men are bound to endea- 
vour themselves to satisfy and overcome such doubts of their 
conscience, the Apostle's opposition redoubleth a new obliga- 
tion to do it, lest they offend this ministry if they do h not. 
So doth the constitution of the Church add a new obligation 
of resolving doubtful consciences, for fear of offending the 
public order which it scttletb. And in all this I suppose 
there is no just offence. For as there is always means in the 
Church with satisfaction to overcome doubts of consciences, 

t Scuittaliiamiirt foqtlittat, quia ali- VlI.mhIK er>p. in r :JI0. t«l. Tnm. Ho- 
ler aliae inrrclunt ; It irialimt siandali- ihom. 1663, 
zari, ijuam provnorL— Ik* Virgin ibus ■ Acts xv. 2fi, 



so is there no means to procure that there shall he no doubts chap. 

of conscience in the Church so long as tlicre are imperfect — — 

Christ i miis in it* But he whom it concerneth to observe or 
exact public order must not give just offence to public order 
and all that go by it, by neglecting it for fear of giving unjust 
uticncc to private persons by observing or exacting it. 




Being now to compare the form of service which we use What is to 
with that of the primitive Church, and to derive both fromd^J™* 
the practice pointed out to us in those particulars which are J^^ r ng 
remembered in the Scriptures, I am to profess at the begin- *ice- 
318 ning that my purpose is not to he extended to the particulars 
of words or conceptions wherein it is couched : it will he 
enough to reduce the main substance and order of it to that 
which we find practised under the Apostles. My business 
therefore is to describe the most ancient and general form of 
that solemn service, which was used when the Eucharist was 
celebrated, not out of the liturgies extant alone, but out of 
the test in tonies of the eldest ecclesiastical writers concurring. 
For it shall Appear that from hence is derived* and herein is 
contained, first, the order of daily morning and evening ser- 
vice, then the litanies, appointed besides for Lord's days, 



The dcr- 
vk'e of 
heart ni 
and be- 

hi the 
time of 


Wednesdays and Fridays; and fast* the celebration of the 
Eucharist, which is all, or almost all that, which this discourse 
intcndeih to comprise. 

§ 2. la the first place it is to be known that from the first 
times of the Church there were always two parts of public 
service : at the one all persons might be present, though not 
Christiana; till the sermon was done the church-doors were 
open and free : but when they went to celebrate the Eucha- 
rist, then all hearers or catechumen! — that is, those that were 
willing to be instructed in the faith, but were not as yet ad- 
mitted to baptism — all that were under penance— ail pos- 
sessed with unclean spirits — were dismissed and shut out; 
none suffered to be present but those that were admitted to 3 

§ 3. Of these two parts we have sufficient remembrance in 
Justin Martyr, the most ancient of Church-writers that re- 
main unquestionable. His words are these* Apoh L*; "Qaoi 
&v ireterBwut teal irurreimvtv aXrj&ri ravra rd v<f> j}ptav htBacrtcQ- 
fieva teal XeyopLEva etvai i teal $wvv otJro)? Zirvaadai Jiriff^aWai-, 
ei/^eadat re teal alr€tv mjoT^vovre^ irapa tqv Oeov T&v irpoi})mp- 
rvifikiwv afeortv StBdo-feovratf y^wv <ruit€v)(pp£v^v teat trvvm^ 
GT€v6t*rmv amah* " As many as are persuaded and believe 
those things to be true which are taught and said of us, and 
undertake to be able so to live, arc taught to pray and desire 
of God with fasting, forgiveness of foregoing sins, wc also 
praying and fasting with them." For what prayers were these 
whereof he speaketh but those which we shall shew afterwards 
were wont to be made as a part of their service on behalf of 
the hearers — as also of penitents and persons beset with evil 
spirits — by themselves and the congregation both, immedi- 
ately aibrc their departure ? Afterwards b , 'Hpxk ££, fiera to 
otmy? \®v<rat tqv treTreur fihfov /cal cruy/caTaTeBttpipQv, Ctrl tovs 
XeyojAepovs aSeX^ot^ ayou€v f Hu&a auinjypAimt €tai t iconw 
etJ%A? TTQWiaofmm, inrip re kavrmv teal tqv ^Ticrfletfo?, ml 
ttWwv wavra^ov iraprmv evrojws* " But w r c, having thus 
washed him that is persuaded and agreed, bring him to those 
that arc called brethren, where they are assembled to make 
common prayers, both for themselves, and for him that is 
baptized, and all men else every wherr, eflJDl >lU ." 


Cap. Ui. p. 71. ed. Rpu, 

lh.< rap. Ixv. p. S2, pd. Bon, 



^ 4, It shall appear in due time that the prayers of the CHAP, 

Church for all states of persons hi the Church followed after 


the hearers were dismissed, before celebrating the Eucharist under the 
Therefore at them only the brethren are present, whereas the : *" LKJ 
hearers were at those which were made ibr the forgiveness of 
their sins. That unbelievers were admitted to be present at 
preaching or expounding the Scriptures in the time of the 
Apostles it appeareth by St. Paul, 1 Cor. xiv, 24, " But if all 
prophesy and there come in one that believeth not :* that 
they were excluded at that time as after wards, when the 
Eucharist came to be eelebrated 3 1 have not the like evidence, 
but in reason I must needs presume it Hereupon riseth the 
difference between these which onee were called the first and 
second service : the ground whereof being taken away in this 
state of the Church, in which all are baptized infants, and 
public pe nance for the greatest part is unknown ; neverthe- 
less that service must needs remain the chief part of God's 
public service which the Eucharist is celebrated with ; how- 
soever it come to pass that the Eucharist is not celebrated at 
the greatest part of solemn assemblies. 

§ 5. This is remembered here upon occasion of that con- Gtafcafen 
fession of sins which our service beginneth with, as also the Aether 
321 service of almost all reformed Churches, in which it may be? fD ' dt . llc 
counted a general order to begin with confession of sins, of servk*:. 
Which order Du Plessis c laboureth to derive from the an* 
cient practice of the synagogue first, and consequently of the 
Church primitive, alle<rin^ to that purpose those forms of 
confession over the sacrifices which Paulus Fagius d hath pro- 
duced from the Hebrew doctors upon Lev. xvj. 21, where the 
law saith, "And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the 
head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities 
of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in their 
sins:" together with the words of Liranus upon that place, 
Stent f admits in corifemonc facta in principio missis* : as we 

p. 49. 

* In Ipnhs Jud&orum llbris verba 
tuiquam OQntepU extant, qua? Saeer- 
dtis i>rntuiTimre solUus. Q Bamine 
pi GCflMTHffl, iniqu? fgeruttt prtrvarleaii 
runt roram fr popuhi turn, Domut h- 
roft r &c. . - . voeabrvtur uuteni confer 
MO verkil ^ . Primi EflStOf Clir^li 

nni huic officio *scu cnlhii Dmno »cse 
accomniodarttut.— Mormci, lib. r. de 

Missa ef ptTtfbttftj dap* 
Uanov. 100$. 

4 Tbarguiit, hoc cat, Fiirnplirnsis 
Oiikeli Chaldjiiea in Sacra Bibiia e* 
Chaldtro in Lalmum liddi&tiimf* versa, 
auto re Paula Fagio, Argcnlorari, 1.HC 

• NlcoIuj du Lvra, Poatillap in Bibiia 


P* do, saith he, in the confession which is made at the beginning 
■ — of the Mass, as also the author de Cardmatibm ChrUti Open* 
&Mf*j among St* Cyprian's works. ITierarcka pins, quern Spi- 
rt tus Sand us campuwjit y excitat s inhabkaU et sanctificat) [eleva- 
fiitnv mtuttium cruris mi/sterutm repr&sentans,] coiifidenter oral 
pro sua et populi ignorantias rceolens pudibundi et contr'rfi animi 
cvrifessione} qudd altf/uattdo, pravatente adtwrsum se peccato 9 
fmrU derclictvs, " The pious Bishop, whom the Holy Ghost 
prick eth, fitirreth* inhabited}* and sanetifieth, [representing 
the mystery of the cross in the uplifting of his hands,] pray- 
cth confidently, for his own and the people's ignorance, re- 
calling in the confession of a mind ashamed and contrite, that 
sometime he hath been forsaken, sin prevailing against him," 

§ 6. It is manifest indeed that this confession of sins is 322 
used in the Breviary, in feriali officio ad primarUj as well as at 
the beginning of the Mass, in these words, Conjiteor Deo om- 
nipotent i — the people answering, Misereatur tut ommpotens 
Deusy et dimissis peccatis tuh 9 per ducat te ad Vitam teternam. 
Which done, the people also make the like confession for 
their parts, the minister answering the same. 

§7, And this is the confession of sins which is meant in 
the words of Uranus, and the author de Cardmalibus Christi 
Operiltus, though it is not probable that it passed in those 
scandalous terms that follow, in his time. And this, io the 
rubrics of the Maronites 1 missal *, as it is printed at Rome, is 
called absolving the priest by the people. But since sacri- 
fices are no part of the moral sendee of God, and it hath 
been declared how confession of sins was used in the temple 
at that moral service* 1 , it seemeth impertinent here to con- 
sider that which was done at offering sacrifices. 

§ 8. As fjr the service of the primitive Church, at which 
unbelievers, and such as only pretended to baptism, with 
those that were under penance, and the like, were present, 
this will be a constraining reason to prove that no confession 
of sins — no prayer for forgiveness was made in common for 

1 In the divkion de Ctena Domini, p. dike did not quote them, but marked 

43, Ox un. t Ii8*2. The author is Arnold, the omission* 
abbot of BooiWT&l, in the diocese of i Mis^ale rhaldaicum, juxta 

CharU-es : hr flourished m tin 12th Eeeleftiee natiouia Maronitaruui. 

century* The wurd* mcloted i« brack* nw, 159 1. 
et* were left out hy Du Plrssis. Thorn- h Chap, vii Met If. 




the in and all believers at the beginning of service, became chap. 

3-i.Tof the great distance of their estates and conditions In the — — '■ — - 
Church 3 and because this was the subject of those prayers 
which hearers and penitents were dismissed with at tbe end 
of the fir&t service, the congregation joining with them, and 
the Bishop or priest blessing them to that purpose, as must 
be said afterwards. Therefore in Justin Martyr and Tertul- 
Han — where they describe what was done at those solemn 
assemblies, — in the Constitution* of the Apostles, lib. viiL — 
which seems to be the most ancient form extant, — and in 
most of the Greek liturgies there is no confession of sins at 
the beginning. And therefore it may justly seem to have 
been put there — after that the difference of first and second 
. service came to be observed* rather for fashion's sake, and 
remembrance of the ancient custom, than for the original 
reason — when the world was become Christian, and the differ- 
ence between hearers ami the rest abolished, 

§ 9. In the beginning of the copy which they give us of 
the ancient Spanish course, called the Mozarainc* or Mustarabe, 
there is this rubric— Factd prius canfessione, nit sit in missis 
Lttttnis, juxta usum Tolelannm anthptum y dicitur mtroitm eo 
qui seifuitnr moda. " Confession * first being made* as in Latin 
masses, according to the ancient use of Toledo, the introit is 
said in manner following." As if this confession were proper 

It* to the Latin service, in opposition to the Greek. Which not- 
withstanding, in that which is intitlcd to St* James, he that 
celebrate th maketh confession of his sins, praying for pardon, 
to the purpose that his service in celebrating the Eucharist 
may be accepted : which originally, — when no mention was 
made of the Eucharist at the beginning, being kept private 
from the unbelievers — could not have been. 

§ 10, That which is now at the beginning of the Mass by 
the stuff is discovered to be of later date, being as scandalous 

# a passage as any in all the Mass besides, when he says, Con- 

Jiteor Deo Omnipotent^ Beato; Martm semper Virgini f Beato 

Mivhaeli Atchangdo % Beato Joanni Bapti$tm t Sanctis Apottto- 

lis Petro ct Paulo, Omnibus Sanctis et vobis Fmtre&y quia pec~ 

cavi nimis, cagitatiottc 9 verbo^ ct opere. This ie not to say that 

' MlfH tfounbfoft, in Mo &■ J»- t,m >> «*fH p. 6G7. Lugdiin P lti77* 
cobi Ofliciimi, in BlblifthAC, Pitrum, 




The mi- 
of psalms 

and li> • 

confession of sins is not fit for the beginning of servic 
mean nothing less, as shall be said afterwards — but that it 
not derived from the general and original form of public ser- 
vice in the Church, for reasons proper to that time. The 
example of St* Basil's monks and their morning service, de- 
scribed by him Ep. IxiiL". seemeth more pertinent to be made 
the precedent of ours. His words are these: *Ex wxtos yap 
6p8p{%et Trap* fjfup o Xoo? £7rl top qIkop tj}? TrpQtrGV}(rfi f teal eV 
TTQVtp, Kul ffKi^tj koI QVPOxH SaKpvtoit i^o^LoXoyovp^ifot 
Oew, reXeuraiop i^avaordvTes r&v irpoa€Vf^v y eh tijv ^a 
fxfo&tav tcaBiaravrcu* " For the people with us riseth be time 
after night to the house of prayer, and making confession 
God with pains, and tribulation, and distress of tears, at 
length rising from prayer fall to singing psalms." For here • 
he speaketh of confession at morning service. As also that 
confession of sins which we spake of in the Breviary, howso- 
ever scandalous for the stuff, seemeth to have been used to 
the same purpose with ours and that of other reformed 
Churches, for a preparation and entrance to morning service. 
§ 11. Now because it hath been shewed afore 1 that this 
solemn service of God consisted of psalms of Gods praises — 
of reading the Scripture and expounding it — of common 
prayers, and the celebration of the Eucharist — that which 
remaineth here to be declared is this, in what form and order 
these materials were practised according to the eldest and 
most general custom of the Church which we shall be able to 
discern. The order of reading the Scriptures is this, accord- 
ing to the Constitutions of the Apostles, ii. 57, having reck- 
oned the Scriptures of the Old Testament to be read in 
Churches: *Ava §t/o 8* yevofievmv dvayvw<rfj.dTtov t crepes Jit 
toi/s rov AttjSIB tyahXkrw fi/ii/ow, teat 6 Xaos rd dfcpoart^ta. 
V7r&*fra\\£r<t>* fitrd rovro at Ilpagets al -qpirepat AvaytvwcrK€- 
&8&<rap, teal hriOToXai UavXov rov auvepyov if/jubv) it? hri- 
&T€i\£ rats i/ttcXqtrlaiSj tcaff vfajyi}&iv rov dyiou Upevparos? Kal 
/4€T« ravra Biukopo 1 ? tj Trpetr^vrepos dpaytPw&tcerm rd evayyi- 
\ta* "And two lessons being read" out of the Old Tcs tames 
" let some other sing the Psalms of David : and let the peo] i 
answer the acrostics : after that let our Acts be read : and 

* S. Buil Ep, ccvii. « 3, torn, iii. p. 
311. ed. Ben. 

1 Chap. vi. 



the epistles of Paul our workfcllow, which he sent to the char 

Churches, by suggestion of the Holy Ghost : and after all 

this let a deacon or a presbyter read the gospels." The 
seventeenth canon of L nod ice a" 1 is, Hept rov fMj Bw hrurvvd- 
7TT€tv eV rait; awfi^etrt tgif; ifraX/tov?, aXXa Sta /.ticov tcad* 
etcoGTov ^raXfiop yivetrOat civdyvwatv, tt That the psalms should 
not be continued in assemblies, but a lesson to be interposed 
in the midst, after every psalm/' This is ordered, saith Bal- 
samon % to take off the weariness of the people at these offices 
by this mixture* 

§ 12. lie that calls himself Dionysius the Areopagite, 
Mcctes. Hierar^ cap* Hi.* 1 , *AvaXvaa^ &e t 7rdXt,p hrl to 0€iop 0v~ 
o-tatmjpiQVs dwdp^rat tijs ttpa$ tw ^aXp£>if fteXmhuzs, cvva- 
Stuwrqc axrrw t^i> -tyaXfittcTjv iepoXoytav tt«<t?jc ttj^ itcKXTjauurrttcffi 
BtaMo<rpL7]cr€W ejpfi 8e, BtA twv Xetrovpymp, 17 r&p ay toy pdjfcmv 
B4\tq>v avdyvmais dtcoXovOm yiverat* "Being returned back 
to the Divine Altar, he begiuneth the holy melody of the 
psalms, all ranks of the Church singing with him those holy 
psalms: after, follows in consequence, the reading of the 
Holy Scriptures by the ministers." In this form which he 
describes there is no interlacing of psalms and lessons, but 
the psalms first, and afterwards the reading of the Scriptures, 
Of the Churches of Africa and their custom we may presume 
327 from St Augustine^ His sermons make divers times men- 
tion of a lesson first out of the Prophets, then out of the 
Epistles and Gospels, with a psalm or psalms between them : 
and in his sermons he expounds thetn all sometimes. 


m Ctrttt, A.D* 304, Labbei, torn, [. 
col, 1533, ed. Veaet 

B Tuf ifoA/iw ayayivutTHo^tt W* 3«i 
fuus utfntf Kark TraAmikv', xal 
tq$ avvayopih'on \aov dTnua'aiuvro!, 

teal i£tpxojj.fvav &wk riis ixtthirnriaSn 
fapitrav 01 w^Ttpwf pfy trvvturrjits 4v tcu* 
avvd£t<Tiv JKtptt/vu<r8ti.t touj fttTUwafefj 
&AAa 5ta ptvuv ytrttrftat *ai arixy¥a><T*it, 
ill t^j &ya j *a&*a&ai tV wphs fit- 
Hphv, trad w&hiv i^d\Mii'. $vk y&p rourn 
teal fif KaOif^fxara Hndtyopa rb Upbv *a- 
rtft(ptff&7j ^.aKr^ptoy. — DaWm, in Can. 
Xvi i. Cone. Land, rtpud HfvercRii Sy- 
nodic, torn, i. p, 4GO. Oxon. Wf% 

S, Dionys, Opp, f torn, L pp, 283, 
284. ed. Corder, Antverp, 14&& 

9 Unim pgalLendi irel aliquot psalmi 
veraiculus, vel integrum paalmum, inter 

Epistolam ct Evanpt]iuni r multo anti- 
quioreraGrcgorio fujMd saltern inAfrfra* 
ex Augustine dare ostenditur. Nam 
initio Sena, xxxiii. de wrftw Domini 
[Srriu, 1 12. turn, v. col. 504. ed, Ben,] 
rewnset, quid in liCbcttH Apostoljca, 
quid in psalroo, quid in Kvantgelio 1*0- 
turn sit, Kt dr vrrltit jL pMttM Semi, 
viii. [Serm, !(>i5. tani, v. OoL 7t*f»- ed. 
Ben.] * ApOhtolum. audivimns, pAal- 
tnum audivimufl, Evangeliiim audivi- 
mus, consonant omnea divine tec done*.* 
Et infra, Serm, x. [Sonkk 176. torn. r> 
col, 83fl_] * Primam lectionem audivi 
itius Apostoli, • t • . dcindc cantavimiu 
psalttimn .... post hsc evangel i pa t««. 
tio decern leproaos mundatua nobi* os- 
tendiL*^]!^*^^ Rcr, Litunfie,, Hb. ii. 
cap. vi. ^ 4. p. 52tl. Antvcrp, 1677. 




§ 13. In the Mass itself there remains something of tikis 
custom, as brief and short as they have made it. To compare 

contaiiiefh it with the form described afore in part out of the Const it u- 
memofit". tionB > am * tor tn<? rc9t to &• described, it is strange to see to 
what a small model they have reduced it. Whether it were 
because it was framed for those times and places where morn- 
ing service was used besides, tor which reason they thought 
good to abridge it, retaining nevertheless the substantial parts 
of public service ; or whether out of a desire of multiplying 
private masses, it was so made on purpose for speed ; or whe- 
ther so it were always in the Latin Church, and we are to 
believe those copies which they give us of the Ambro 
service, and that of the Mozarabic or Spanish to be of any 
great time : indeed the order of lessons said to be composed 
by St. IlieromeS and of and phones by St* Gregory*, and 
other forms of the Latin Church, are all very short* This 
notwithstanding, in the introit* we see the trace of that 
singing of psalms in the beginning, of which Dionysius 
[speaks] i and the gradual 1 , as they call it, which is the shred 
of a psalm between the Epistle and the Gospel, is in the S3fl 
same place with that psalm between those lessons whereof St, 
Augustine speaks* In the pattern of the Ambrosian service 
for Christmas-day, which we have out of the missal of the 
Church of Milan, there is first a lesson out of the Prophets s 
a second out of the Epistles, and the last out of the Gospels, 
with versicles of psalms, or hymns, or an ti phones between 
each 11 . 

* Liber CotnitlR, ai?e Lectionarius, 
in Baluzius' Capitularia Return Fran- 
eorum* torn. ii. p. 13U9, and in Patne* 
JiuV Litnrgica, torn. ii. 

r Liber rcwponsali* ftivc Antiphona- 
rin-, in tin* 3rd vol, of t lie Benedictine 
ulirion of Su Gregory's works. 

* Dum Sacerdos ad Altare proeedii, 
Chorus pKaliit Autiplion.iin, [jure ritu 
R mil ii no Introit tat, AmbrofUano Ingretm 
dickur, quia nimirum tunc c&nitur cum 
Sacerdo* intra* ad Altaru, Kjus insti- 
tatio ab his qui eccleslaitfcos ritus ex- 
plan&ut Celestino Paps? unauuni fare 
•Pfiwmgu tribni sold, — Bona, Rer. Li- 
tur^ic, lib. ii cap, iiL | t, p. 502. 

1 Dum pttfcta Epistola prieparat 
se diaennu* ad lejre.ii dum Evangel bun, 
Chorus Ilesponsoriuni couehut, quod 
Graduate nuncupate, non a gradibus 

AItaris T ut quidam recentiorcs «ri* 
Red a gradibus am bonis live pulpit L — 
Bona, Iter. Liturgie., lib. ii. cap. vi. $ 
*. p. 52$. 

u Dielms vero Domini cin et aliis 
Mttfefntuoribua Ante Epi^tulam le^um 
Lectio una ex Veteri Testaments 
pMlmcllo, ut voeant. inatar Uraduali-s 
Jloimmi. Pn«t Ejiistulain prsemteas 
orationc Stuntlo cor nwum, die it Domt* 
nns t!ohismm t seque signaon m fronte, 
ore, et peetorCj ait. Lectio A'. fifaȣwtfi, 
i^r. Et dum rcspoudetur Gloria 
Dmnine f inclinans versus mictm pel it 
ben edict iouem, qiui* est KUftfHi Ronia- 
n& t turn lejjit EviiUfrelium. — Dona, 
Her. Lituiwic*, Hb, L cap. x~§ 2. p. 
See alio Mart cue lie Antiij. BodvC 
Hit., lib, i. (;ip r iv. art. 12, torn. 1. p, 
17 ft. Venet. 178a, 



§ 14, Here, as concerning the psalms in the Church, let chap. 

me have leave to resume that which was proved afore * out of — — - — 


St. Paul, that the custom was, from the times of the Apostles, manner 
so to sing them that the whole congregation might bear a p^^ ns 
part in the praises of God^ which the book of Psalms from 
time to time invite th them to do. Accordingly in the pre- 
tended Dionysius, the Bishop begins the psalms, but all the 
ranks proceed to join in the same* But in the Constitutions 
of the Apostles the people are to answer only the acrostics. 
What those were I cannot better conjecture than by the 
words of Philo, de vita Contemplative ', where he relates the 
fashion of those hymns which the Essenes by Alexandria in 
Egypt used at their common feasts, which he saith were sung 
first by the chief, afterwards by the rest in their order, Ilap- 
rwv KaTa woXXtjp fj&vxiav (hcpowfxivtt)v f ttXtjp iiroTe ra atcpanre- 
Xeurta xal itfivpvta aBew Seot, rare yap i^rfflovat Travm T€ Kal 
329 mum*. "All hearing with much silence, but when the ends 
and burdens of the hymns are to be sung, for then all the 
men and women sing out" 

§ 15. Some such thing I suppose it was, which in the Con- 
stitutions there is called atepao-rixta, or "end- verses" of the 
psalms, as the Gloria Pairi among us, known to the people 
at those times when for some inconvenience found of inde- 
corum in performing this office, the whole congregation 
joined no more in the psalms. For though in the custom 
of those Churches which Dionysius d escribe th, the people 
joined in them, at those times whereof he speaketh, and 
though I doubt not but those Constitutions, and the canons 
of the council of Laodicea be more ancient than the pre- 
tended Dionysius', yet by them it appeareth that when the 
Constitutions direct the people to join in the closes, and 
when that council ordercth, can, xv,*, that no more than the 
canonical singers — that is, enrolled in the list of the church 
— that went up into the desk, and sung out of the parchmine, 

M Chap, v, aectt IS, 19. 

r Philon. Opp., p. 9UL Pari*. 16*0. 

* Tbe writings that go under the 
name of Die ny sins are considered to 
have been written in the fourth cen- 
tury, about the middle of which the 
council of Laodicea wa« held* Le 


Qui en endeavours to «hew that they 
are the work of a Monophysitc heretic. 
See his second dissertation, chap. xii 4| 
tn his edition of 5. John Damascening 
The Constitutions of the Apostles are 
as early as the third century. 
• See chap, vii- «ecL 29. 



If a p. should sing in the church, there was hj that time, and in 
- those places of the Church, inconvenience found in the con- 
gregations joining in it, for which cause it was referred to the 
church singers. 

§ 10, Another course there was much used in divers parts 
of the Church, of singing the psalms by antiphones : of 
which it shall not be requisite here to repeat what is de- 
livered of the first use of it, in the East under Ignatius h — ^thc 330 
coming of it into the West under St, Ambrose r — the relation 
of St, Basil, and the practice of his monks, Ejmt lxiii, d — the 
order of Pope Celestine% fur the psalms to be sung before 
the Eucharist by way of anti phones : it shall suffice to take 
notice here, that this was one of the ways that were put in 
use, to the purpose that the congregation might join in the 
praises of God with most comeliness, according to the custom 
of the Apostles 1 time. 
Pnrpnwof § 17* Of the lessons of the Scripture it must further be 
observed here, that the ancient and primitive order of the 
Church scenic th to have intended them so large, that by 
hearing them read in the church* they might become 
familiar even to the unlearned of the people, as Josephns 
said afore ' that the Jews, by hearing Moses read in the 
synagogues* became as perfect in their laws as a man is in 
telling his own name, whereas among other nations* the 
simple never attain to know their own laws. For you see* 
how many lessons are directed to be read in the Constitu- 

b Haue igitur consuctudiuem xilter- 
natrm psollendi hnbet ah Ntttfqitiiwfomfl 
seculis orthotluxa Ecclesia* ah Igruitio 
mint rum, qui post Eu odium An t te- 
ctum ie Kcelesi* Antistes pontificatua 
gratiam, ut ait Tlieodorttus lib. i. W- 
rt'linvum fahnhrum^ per magni Petri 
dexteram arcepit. Hie in execs &u 
mentis suie vidit Angolas alternis 
hymn is sanctissimam Trim rat em col- 
1 and antes, undc psallendi forma m in 
ea vibione cxpressam Ecclesia? tin did it 
Antiochena?, qua? deinde in v arias Ee- 
clesias piorum Episcoporum studio in- 
sinuata ab omnibus demum Catholicis 
recepta est,— Bonn t Divio, P sal mod. 
cap, xvi f x. 1. p. 841. 

■ Sane in La tin a et Oecidentali Ee- 
cle&Ia, quotquot sen bunt de saeris ri- 
tibua, heat urn aiunt Ambrosium Me- 
diolanenscm Kpi:.ropum primumfuisse, 

qui CfiTceorum imitatus exemplum 
hune canendi modum per antlphnnaa 
trad id or it, quern postern Damasus P. 
pniitiiicali auctnritate confirm a rit-^/k 
He then proceedi to cite out of St. An- 

rs tine's Confessions, book ix. chapp. 
and 7, the account of St. Ambrose 
watching with tlie people in ehun-h T 
when Justin* persecuted the orthodox. 

* Quoted in sect. 10* 

c OftlMfatti ► « * * * constHujt ut 
P<almi David 150 ante sacrificium 
psallerentur, antiphonatim ex omnibus, 
quod autea nnu ficbat, sed tantum 
epiatola? beati Pauli T>ril;ibanl, v\ 

sanctum evangeliurn Vita CelcMini 

aptitl Labbei, torn, iil coh W7, ed* 

1 (.'bap. iil sect 1. 

i See sect II. 



lions of the Apostles, two out of the Old Testament, out of CHAP. 
the Acts, out of the Epistles, out of the Gospels. Last of all, 
accordingly he reck one th in particular the books of the Old 
Testament to be read in the Church ; as cloth also the said 

331 council of Laodicea b , in the last canon, upon this occasion 
repeat the list of Holy Scriptures to be read in the Church: 
and Dionysius expounding the order of the Church described 
by him afore, reckoncth the subject of all the particular 
books in the Scriptures, which he saith are read after the 
psalms, to enlarge with more ample declarations and ex* 
amples those things which in the psalms are but darkly and 
in brief pointed at 1 * 

§ 18, All which, I suppose, intimates a great deal more r Loup ori- 
than those short lessons picked out of some parts of the e 
Scriptures, as well for the Roman missal, as other liturgies 
extant. In that which is in titled to St. James *, there is a 
remarkable rubric after the angelical hymn, and the prayer 
that follows it, which says thus: Etra ava>ytvbxnc€Tat htt^oZt- 
/carrara ra tepa Xoyta rrjs *rra\atas Bta&tjKJ} 1 ?, teal rmv trpotfyt}- 
rmv t teal aTroSeiteifirrat tf rov vtov rov &eov ivav8pw7rT}tTts. 
"After is read very largely the holy oracles of the Old Testa- 
ment, and the prophets, and the incarnation of the Son of 
God is declared" — that is, the gospels are read* For hereby 
he gives us suspicion enough to presume that the reading of 
the Scriptures was wont to be larger at the first than after- 
wards it became, when in the declining and degenerating 
times of the Church, the increase of sensible ceremonies and 
observances began to crowd out the substantial parts of the 
reasonable service of God. 

3.12 § 1 9» For so there is cause to conceive by that of the fler- The ptiee 
rnon, whereof it follows immediately there, Mrrd Si to ava- Kftton. 
yrowttt teal BtSiiljaiy \4yet 6 Sulkqisqs* that is, " After the 
lessons arc read, and the sermon is done," For in Justin 
Martyr's 1 description of the service in his time, after the 

* Labbei, torn, i. coll, 1540, 15+K 
ed. Wi 

paWay £v -rp votpa t£** tfutApwi' Itpa^ 
koyia, 5t& ttAfhWv *at trwp*trr£ptnif 
fiKuyatv Hat afupblifTtuiv e vftMsrai, rait 
Up&t&Tais ?wv txyit)ypd<pwi' ffvvrdlfw 

Hierarchy cap, iSi. § 5, p, 288, Antwerp. 

k Liturg. 3. Patruin, p. S. Park 
1,160, Ilibltolhee. Pati% torn, ii p. 4, 
Parit. 1024. 

' See chap, tL reck 10 f and Prim* 
Govern*, chap* viL sei:L 4, 



C H A P. 

The epi< 
sitle was 
read be- 
fore the 

reading of the , Scriptures, follows immediately the sermon 
to expound them, and to exhort the people to follow the 
doctrine, TertuUian m speakcth not of the order or place 
which the sermon had in the service, but remembcreth it as 
a principal part of it In tbe Constitutions of the Apostles 
the place was produced afore n , wherein mention is made, 
after the reading of tfie Scriptures, of the presbyters speaking 
to the people one after another, and the Bishop after them, 
according to the custom derived from the Apostles' time. 
The nineteenth canon of Laodicea is, Hepi rov few ISia Trpm- 
tov fiera *nW 6pu\ia% rmv hntJKQirmv^ teal rwv tcaTtrxovfjmwv 
€\r)(})v hnreXeltrffai, tt That after the sermons of the Bishops, 
first the prayer for the hearers must be made apart" 

§ 20. In fine, it is manifest by the order of afl liturgies 
extant — in which is described the order of the solemn service 
of the Church ? that is, when the Eucharist was celebrated — 
first, that of all lessons of the Scriptures, those out of the 
gospels were read in the last place, as it is expressed in 
St Augustine alleged before p , in the Constitutions of the 
Apostles, and in divers others, that might be produced were j 
it questionable^: then that after the reading of the gospel, 
followed the sermon for the exposition of it, or some other 

m See chap, vi. sect. I, 
" Chap. v. sect, 3fi. 

* Labbd, torn, i. col 1534, ett 

p See note p, sect, Z4, 

* This order seems to have been 
disagreeable to the Puritan*. In a 
pamphlet by R> B* K.., L t. Robert 
Hail lie. published w London, 1641, 
with this title, A Parallel or Briefe 
Comparison of the Liturgie with the 
Masse Book, the Hreviarie, the Cere- 
monial! , and other Romish Ritual Is, we 
read* chap, iii p. 19, "The second part 
of the mass . • , ■ . is Buhdlvided into 
eight portions , ♦ « , the first is the 
epistle, the putting of this piece in 
the mass is ascribed to Pope Alex* 
ander and Damasus , . * . but whoever 
have put the epistle in the mass, it 
seems incredible that the abuses of the 
epistle, which this day are in the mass, 
and in our book from it, can have any 
very ancient or very judicious author. 
Why against the order of the New Tvm- 
tamrnt are the epistles Met be/are the gm- 

pei, the reason which the Rationalists 
give, is that the epistle* are baser than 
the gospel. Alcuin indeed denies this* 
but Walafridus and the rest after him 
avow it*' The words of IVaJafridus 
are as follows, and do not admit of the 
construction put upon them by this 
writer ; Antepomtur autem in ordine 
quod inferms est in digitate, ut ex 
minodtnoa animus audientium ad mi- 
jora aentienda prone iat, et gradatim ab 
imis ad sum ma conscenduL — De Re~ 
bus Ecclesiasticis, cap. xxii. Alcuin's 
words are these: Lectio Apostolic* 
ante evangelium, non causa dignitatis, 
sed ad murem Apostolorum, qui ante 
I'-ijniuum ibant, sicut narrat change- 
liuiu quos mittebat Dominus ante sc 
bin os et binos, Epistola autem diritur 
sttpermuaa, eo quod super vetus Tes- 
tamentum et evangelium inissa sit, 
non causa dignitatis sed ut quisque qui 
eyangelium fuerit iugTessus ibi inYe- 
niat medicinam salutia, — Lib- de drrin, 
Ofli, cap. de cetekraL Mti*. 



of the lessons. And yet in Dionysius r there is do mention chap. 
at all of the sermon* either in the description he makes of the — — — 
service, or in the exposition wherein he renders a reason of 
itj hot immediately after the reading of the gospel, the last 
in order of the New Testament, the hearers and penitent 
and the like are dismissed, and then follows the creed. 
Which to me is an argument of the author's time, and that 
when he wrote, the sermon in some places began to ne dis- 
used, and also because he mentions the creed in the order 
of public service j of which in Justin, Tertullian, the Con- 
stitutions of the Apostles, the canons of Laodieea, wherein 
almost all the particulars of public service are ordered, in fine, 
whereof in the most ancient descriptions of the service, there 
is no remembrance. 

§ 21. It appeared afore by the words of St Ambrose 8 , and 
so it doth by Dionysius, that it was pronounced from the 
beginning of the use of it, by the whole congregation : for 
the first expounded the words of the Apostle, w Every 
woman praying or prophesying,'* of saying or singing the 
creed ; and the second satth thus 1 , TrpoopLoXoy^B^t^q vttq 
wavro*; rov 1% *EitKkT}(Tla$ TtKripmfUtro^ ttJ? KaOoXttci^ vpvoho- 
33+ yiaq t "The Catholic hymn being acknowledged before by 
all the congregation of the church." Tim then the order 
of that former part of public service which from the beginning 
the hearers and penitents were to be present at, to learn the 
doctrine of the Church, and to profit in it, so as to be thought 
fit for baptism and for the communion of the Eucharist For 
the Latin Mass, as well as other liturgies extant — though re- 
duced to so small a model as was observed, by the shortness 
of the psalms and lessons, and leaving out the sermon, always 
principal ingredients of it — represenleth nevertheless the order 
and course of that solemn service which the Eucharist WM 
celebrated with. 

§ 22. This difference of the first and second service in the Dfcnte- 
lilurgies extant, is rather retained for fashion's sake, and in ^owL 

* After the words recited io wrct, 12, 
it follow* thus ; K«l fLtra ta^toj, ffw 

X*>vp*voi, xal irphj ainah at ivtpyovpt* 
vot, xal at iv ptranutx AWtf* ftfaoWTt at 

S£tot De Eccles. Hierarchy cap. tit. 

1 See ihap. v. sect. IS, 
* lii the nlate cited In uole r of the 
■MMd&Df section. 




[Of the 



remembrance of the ancient order, than according to the 
original purpose of it : for it shall appear that some part of 
the prayers which at the first were for believers alone, and 
such as communicated j not to come till the hearers and 
penitents were gone forth, in all the Greek and Eastern 
liturgies are now put into die first part of the service. But 
the end of the first service, and the beginning of that which 
only believers were present at, is manifest enough in it — as 
it is in downright terms expressed in all the Greek and 
Eastern liturgies when the hearers were to go forth — not 335 
in the place where Durandus would have it, iv. l u , after the 

offering ; but as it is in the Constitutions of the Apostles, 
in the nineteenth canon of Laodiceaj in Dionysius, in others* 
after the prayers for the hearers and penitents, which followed 
as soon as the sermon was done, immediately before the creed. 
Howsoever, from hence it appeareth, that the lessons of the 
epistles and gospels are originally belonging to the former 
part of this service. The nineteenth canon of Laodicea*, of 
these prayers for the hearers and penitents, spcaketh thus : 
Hepl rov &€tv tBta irpwrov p€Ta Ta<? 6fiL\ta$ rmv iirtaKmrmv^ 
teal t&v Ka-ni')(QVfihw>v evx^P eVmX^tcr&zi, teal pera to i&X&uv 
tov% tcaT7fflQvfj,ipQV$j T&v iv fAeravotq rtjv €vx$v ylimaBa^ teal 

TOVT&V WpQ&€\$6pTti>V VTTQ ^ipa, fCOl irTTQXWpTy&dvTiOVj OUTftJ? 

twv irurrwv rm e£#a9 ytvea-dat rpeUj ** That first after the ser- 
mons of the Bishops, the prayer be made for the hearers, and 
after the hearers are departed, the prayer for the penitents be 
made, and when they are come under hand and departed, 
that then the prayers of the believers be made [three in 

5 23* The subject and fashion of these prayers both, are very 
k_ plainly described in the Constitutions of the Apostles, to have 
been this : ^AvaoTavrmv airavrtav 6 BtutCQVoq e<£* infrrihov tipo? 

aVtXBtiW Kt}pVTT€TW f pYfTW T&V aJ£pQWfl€VWV? flt}Tt<i TWV aiTWT&U', 

teal fi<rvx(a$ yevofAivrjs Xeyera)" evj;a&&€ ol tcaTTfxovpLevob **»! 

11 Mjs&w? autem ofljflfiaiB in duns 
priuci pa liter clividitur partes videlicet 
in DliittlHI cntecliumeiioriuu ft missani 
Jickdium* Misaa eateehumviuirum est 

nh i ut tit it it u^ffw punt fijfi-rimwtttt qua 1 

missji nh emitteudo dioitur 

MUfti vcro TiHclium f*t nh tiffvrtari* 

uxquc uti pott comtnH nium* «< T et dieitur 
missa iiU a dimiltctido, quia t?a expleta 
ad propria quisquc fide! is dimittitur. 
— Diir.nnd. Rational., lib. iv. cap, i. £§. 
45. +8, fbl»«l. Vtwl. 1619- 

* Labhei, trnn. i, ool 1$3& ed, 



Travres oi Trtarol xari htdvoiav \mkp airr&v f irpQa€v%k&8waav t CHAP, 
Xiyom&ii Kvpte eXetj&QVi Statcavetno Be vir£p avrwv, \iytt)p t xnrkp — — - — 

Z'^rmv KaTJ}j(au}i£vtov TTiipTt*; tqv 0eo*> 7TapaKaXiaa>pL£i* t tva — viiL 
5, 6. y "AH rising up, let the deacon get up on some high 
place, and pronounce, * None of the hearers, none of the un- 
believers/ and silence being made, let him say, 'Pray ye 
hearers, 1 And let all the believers pray for them in their 
mind, saying, * Lord, have mercy : f and let him minister for 
them, saying, * Let us all beseech the Lord for the hearers, 
that*" — *<(> sKtwrm Se tqvtwv &v 6 SiaKoi'O'i irpotitfxtivUy arc 
TrpQztirQfjtfVt Xeyero* 6 Xew% Kvpte ekerjo-Qv* u And at every of 
these particulars which the deacon speaks to them of, let the 
people say, * Lord, have mercy/ " The particulars whereof he 
speaks are there at large, that God would hear them, that He 
would enlighten them, and make them wise, that lie would 
teach them the knowledge of God, and the rest : of these the 
deacon speaks to the people, when he bids them pray that 
God would do so and so for them ; which kind of prayers, 
ministered by the deacon, as he said afore, are called there- 
fore irpo&cfxdvtj&ets, or "allocutions*:" and the people answer 
at every point — as at litanies, the people still have their 
answer, called sometime the suffrage—" Lord, have mercy." 
And this is the reason that was used to prove that the form 
of these prayers was prescript, because it was ministered by 

§ 24, Afterwards it follows, Kktvovroar oe avru>v ra^ /cecfxi- 

S37 Xa?, euXoyciVctf avrois 6 j(€tpvrm^0&s iwt&KQTros, €v\&ytav to/- 
avBt, "They bending down their heads, let the Bishop or- 
dained" — for the service which is here described is at the 
ordination of a Bishop,—" bless them/ 1 saying as it follows 
there* In the same manner was prayer made for the beset 
with unclean spirits, and for the pen i Lei its, but that in these 
the canon of Laodicea exprcsscth that they were to come and 
kneel, the Bishop holding his hands over their heads, and so 
pronouncing the like prayer of blessing over them ; which 
is therefore there called wpo&ehB&v Otto X^P^ " io come 

t Lubbei, torn, i, coL +6+. ed. Ve- 

1 In the heading of (lie chapter we 
read, "H Btia \ttTovpyia, iv jj wpotr^w* 

* CliJilh fiL net. 3£ ; cliftp. v* sect 




under hand," and from whence, in this condition, they are 
called vTroTrhrTQirrc^i "those that fall under," to nit, the 
Rishop*s bands. These forms are here described, both to 
declare the ancient practice, and also for a help toward the 
understanding of that which follows, 

§ 25. After die departure of the hearers and penitents, 
there followed principally two sorts of prayers, as may be 

[Of the 
pray en 
that foj. 

JlismllJioti g at " ere d fr° m the words of Justin in his first Apology % 

• if the 

hearers. ] 

where that most ancient martyr, that flourished some thirty 
or forty years after St* John's death, that is, after the age of 
the Apostles, relates the course of public service at the assem- 
blies of Christians* After the sermon* he thus describes what fol- 
lowed : ^Enura avMrrapeBa mtvfi iravrc^ teal eu%a<i w£ptfrQfimr t 
kqX &W irpo€tfn}fi€Vj Travaapivwv tjjMtiv t% e^r)?, apTos Tr/wcr^e- 
percu, teal 0?yo? 3 koX iJ&up, Aral 6 TrpoeaTu**? cu^a? q^oim^ teal 
^v^apKrrla^ octtj Svvapu^ aircp avairifiire^ u After, we all rise 338 
and send forth prayers, and, as we said afore, when we have 
done praying, bread and wine and water are offered ; and the 
ruler likewise sendeth forth prayers and thanksgivings with 
all his might," Here you have the prayers of the whole 
congregation in the first place, which therefore are called 
in the words related in the beginning of this chapter d , ttowaX 
et^als " common prayers** or prayers of the whole congrega- 
tion, to distinguish them from those prayers and thanks- 
givings which he saith were made afterwards, for conse- 
crating of the Eucharist by the Bishop or presbyter alone, 
though in behalf of the people* Where, by the way* you 
may see further that Justin means by those words, ocrr} Suva- 
fi*$ avT$ f to express nothing but that earnest devotion which 
those prayers were offered with, by that which he addeth* 

h "Q<rm irplf fiKcmTatTfTr y§v4<r$Qti, 
tfnapTQV, ireWf ttal &tna It*giv {mow*- 

Tttf vpofftvx&s* .,,♦-*, *E£f ra£Wfla> fl'i 
avrwp Hal & iv t-jj intawTtft&ti jBioj, nal 
oHhois Tvyxavirtittrav t^s (ptXai'&ptvwlas. 
— Coneil. Ancyran, A. IX 814. ean, 
%vl r Lnbbei, torn, i t eel. 1492* ctt F#» 
net. In tortio gradu [pceniitentium] 
erant Snb&trali manentes intra a in bit u m 
Ect'lesiar usque ad ambonem, ultra 
quem progredi net as Hits er»t Hi je- 
juniiK. precibus, litimi tubal innibiis, ah- 
isque operibu* Inhoriosia afiUgebanTiir, 
atque b Rmgulin Synaxibus preees su- 

per illos in genua procumbentes mm 
mriftuum imponitimie fundebaulur, idqne 
per longum tempus, et internum per 
pi ores annas; atone interim in eorum 
mores dUigens iuqumtio fiebat, an vere 
contriti essent, an sineera eorum con- 
versio. Bona, Rer + Liturgic., lib. i, 
cap. xviL § 3, p, 309. Antverp> 1577* 
See a full aeeount of this order of pen in- 
tents, who are the penitents properly 
so called, in Marin us de AdminJst. Sa- 
crum. Penitent, lib. vl eap, 6. p. 360, 
Bin sell. lo8^ 

* Cap> htvii. p, 83. cd, Ben. 

* Sect, ft 



6fjLola><;> or u likewise * " for having said in the words alleged chap. 

afore * that the congregation made the former sort, which he — • 

ealleth their common prayers, eiropore, or " vehemently," he 
addetb, that the Bishop made the thanksgiving which the 
Eucharist was consecrated with* opclm o<nj Bvvapt$ airrtp, 
"in like sort with all his might:" with the like earnest devo- 
tion which the other were made with. 

§ 26, The most ancient description that we have next to [Described 
this, of the form of this solemn service, seems to be that constitu- 
which is found in the Constitutions of the Apostles. For by ^u^j 

339 many things we may find that that book meant to express the 
customs of the Church in the times afore Constantine. You 
may have observed before, how it forblddeth the faithful to 
plead before the powers of this world, that is, before heathen 
magistrates F » And that course of dividing portions at their ♦ 
feasts of love, which is there presented, was afore s observed 
to he abolished by the council of Laodicea, which was before 
Constantine b . And in the form of prayer for all states of the 
Church after the consecration — whereof afterwards — set down 
there fill 12, it is to be observed that prayer is made for the 
emperor and powers of the world, Xva up^v^vmvrat ra 7rpos 
4j«W, "that they may keep peace with us/' that is, not perse- 
cute the Church. 

§ 27. In this work then, lib- viii, cap. 10, 11, is described at [of the 
large, first, the prayer for the whole state of the Church, and rortne 
the particular members and conditions of it, and after that, ^'^^ 
cap* 1 2, the prayer of thanksgiving which the Eucharist was Church.] 
consecrated with* And to shew evident distinction of these 
two parts of the service, the kiss of peace comes between 
both, which being a received custom from the time of the 
Apostles, gives cause to presume that the prayers between 
which it is interposed, are no less derived from the primi- 

a to live practice of the Apostles' time; though true it is, 
that according to the custom of the Western Churches, 
it followed after the consecration of the Eucharist, before 
the receiving of it 1 . There follows besides in the same 

* Sect 3. 

r See chap. iv. secL 16, 
v Chap, iv. sect. 22. 
k Thorn dike is deceived in suppos- 
ing that the council of Laodicea was 

before Constantine. Conatantine died 
to A.D. 337 t while the earlieit Hate 
assignable to the council is. A.D* 342. 
1 Ante communionem tre* mtfattm 
Romano ritn praemitti solent ♦ , , , * 




place, a new admonition of the deacon to all that had not 
right to communicate, to depart before the celebration of 
the Eucharist, among the rest oi t*;i> wpayrrjv €ir)£r)v ^ir^a^epoi 
wpo€k$er€ f "you that pray the first prayer, depart." Which 
I take to be this, that such of the believers as were present 
indeed at the prayers of the congregation for all states of the 
Church, hut did not intend to communicate, should also 
depart: to shew the difference of those two prayers whereof 
we now speak, the subject whereof deserves to be further 
declared, out of the most ancient uf ecclesiastical writers, 

§ 28* Justin Martyr^, after the words alleged in the 
ginning of this chapter, thus described! the prayers of the 
faithful, to which he saith the new-baptized were brought : 
'Ottois xaTai*La)0mt&€Vj ra d\Tf&i} lAaQovres teal oY epywv dyaOol 
woKtrevraly /cat <f>vXax€$ tq*v frrmft^t&W evptOtjuatj oirw^ rijv 
auomou trtDT-qptav awO&ftev. u That we may be thought meet, 
having learned the truth, to be also found good livers in 
works, and keepers of things commanded, so as to be ever- 
lastingly saved*" He specifieth the chief point of those 
prayers, for otherwise you shall find in the words aft>re k 
quoted that they prayed in them for themselves, for the new 3*1 
baptized* and for all men else, every where. 

§ 29, Tertullian, Apology cap. xxxix., where he describes 
what was done at their assemblies, Coimus in ewtum ct am* 
t/rer/ationem, ut ad Dvum quasi matt a factd precationibus am- 
bkanUM or antes. H&c vis Deo f/rata est* Oram us vtiam pro 
imperatorihuSf pro mi hist vis eorum et potestatibus^ pro statu 
seeuttf pro rerum qtaite t pro mora Jiuts* " We meet and 
assemble in a congregation, that making as it were a strength 
against God, we may sue to Him in our prayers. This 
violence is welcome to God. We pray also for emperors and 
their ministers and powers, for the state of the world, for the 

prima cat, qua sacordos pacem precatur 
licclebisc, post qiuuii sequitur oseulum 
pacis , . , , „ et Romani quidetn at qui? 
Amhrosiani hot: loco, Gneci vera et 
alii O Ken tales, itcinquc Mosa rubes ante 
pftufationcm riant osculutn pads, di- 
vctjh) ritu, »ed eadem fide et religion? 
. ♦ . ♦ . hi Uturgia Jacobi, pott aymboli 
recitatiunem porrigitur oscultuii, prae- 
mum-rite diucono, (hcutcmnr no* in a*- 
cuio tanr *». In litiirpa Chry&osloini 
ante aytnboluni ait riia«iuiui, Ditignmu* 

not invicrm, ut in cotiettrdw eonjitcamttr 
Patrtim r FiUum t et Spirt turn Sanctum. 
A pud Maronitas saccrdos ante pro. 1 fa - 
tioneiu paeein Alum et niystems 
diceni : Pax tecum A Hart Dei, et pa* 
wytterii* Sanctis pwiti* super te. — Bona, 
Kit. Lkurgicj Ufa. ii. cap. xvi f 6. 
p. 584. Antverp. 1577* 

i S. Justin. Apol. u cap, I ,\v, p. 82. 
id. Ben. 



peaceable condition of affairs, fur the delay of the end.** The 
particulars of the prayers they made for the emperors arc 
enlarged, cap, xxx., upon the occasion of comparing the 
devotions of Christians and pagans, lltam lllis prolixum, 
imperium $ecurum y dumum tutam, vxcrciltts fortes, seitatum Jide- 
fem, populum pntbum y orbem quiet um^ qttmcunque hominis et 
C&saris vota sunt. ik Wishing them long life, secure rule, 
the court safe, the armies valiant, the senate faithful, the 
people good* the world quiet, whatsoever a man and Caesar 
may desire/ 1 

§ 30. Tertullian, as Cassandcr observed before 1 , intended 
not to declare to the heathen the manner of celebrating the 
Eucharist, as the custom was to keep it private, lest it might 
342 incur the scorn of those that understood not what it meant; 
those which Justin calls the common prayers of the congre- 
gation* which went next afore it, are here described by those 
passages that deserved most favour at the world's hands. In 
the nineteenth canon of Laodicca, after the departure of the 
hearers and penitents, Tav ev^d? rmv irioTtisv ytvevBai T/>as, 
f&lav fikv ttjv irpwT7iv f Bui atam??;, ti}p Bi Bevripav teal rplryv, 
Bta •frpQ&ifaQjvrja'taK ir\r}poikr0ai m eld* qvtgk t^v elprjvijv BiB(x?0at 
,,.,., teal QVTto ri}v ay lap vrpo&^opav iirvTtXjeZaOcLU u That 
the prayers of the faithful be made, in number three, one, 
that is the first, in silence ; the second and third to be accom- 
plished by allocution : and so then the peace to be given," 

that is, the kiss of peace, "and so the holy offering 

to be made*" What the purpose of that prayer might be, 
which here in the first place is prescribed to be made by all 
the people in silence, I find not elsewhere* 

§ 3L As for those which follow, to be made Bui Trpoa-ffta^ 
w?<r€w$ f or u by way of speaking to the people," the matter i* 
plain out of that which was declared afore ,n concerning the 
form of ttac prayers for the hearers and penitents, in which 
the deacons spake to the people, from point to point direct- 
ing the in what to desire of God on their behalf, the people 
answering to every point, "Lord, have mercy;" which prayers 
were therefore called •nyHxn^&wpretf, or "allocutions, 1 * in the 
Constitutions of the Apostles", In like sort were these 


Chap, viii tccL tSL 

* See note i f *ect t 2d. 


Tilt; si -itvit k or god 

prayers for all states of the Church directed by the deacon, 3 
speaking to the people, in the particulars expressed in the 
said Constitutions, viii. 10% u Let 11s pray for the peace and 
firm state of the world, that it may please God— For the holy 
Catholic and Apostolic Church, that it may please God — For 

the diocese for all Bishops, that God would give — For 

the deacons and inferior mi [listers, for the married and 

continent , » * « • for those that give alms and ohlations, that 
God would — For the sick and imprisoned, lor travellers bj 
land and sea," and the n 
Original § 3-- 1° fi ne * whosoever shall take notice of the particulars 
oflitanies. there related, shall perceive a very ancient, if not the original* 
pattern and use of those prayers, which have since been 
called litanies or supplications. I speak not now of the use of 
them in processions, for diverting the wrath of God in public 
calamities and the like occasions, or of what was put in prac- 
tice therein by Claudianus Mamertus, Gregory the Great, 
and others p. I speak of the original and universal use of 
them in that solemn service of the Church which the Eucha- 
rist was celebrated with : for in all liturgies extant — which* 
though they be not so ancient as the titles of them pretend, 
nevertheless retain the traces of ancient forms in all parts — it 
is easily to be perceived — both by the form of those prayers 
which are ministered by the deacon, the people answering, 3- 
and also by the subject of them concerning all estates of the 
Church, and the prosperous condition of it — that they are 

* *TlTfp T^Jt flpflVyil Hal TTJf filfTR- 
0f far toD KO&fiou Kal tw* Q.ylw iltKKl}- 
triivv 5tTj0up.#i'' fiirwf ♦ » . * . vitip Tijr 
£71111 JtaPoAxir^F «al diratfToAiKTJs 4k- 
tfAfja^a* t , , . , icai urko rjjt fVflaSt 
ay 1 at TrapatKtas , , . . * uirip ira^ri}} «TI- 
(TKoir^f rfjj vwb rbv oltpavbv .... tnrip 
irmriji Tijy iv XpnTTtp biaKOvitxs xal 
t'injpffn'aj Strtdutfitr , • * * t vor*p Twk iv 
trv£vyltus . • • * * vittp t&p iv iyKpaTtla 

. t . t . UTrip T&V . . . . « THHQUVTWV Tolt 

ftjrip tw Ta$ tfu<r(ai koI tAj amxpxi* 
iraafftpcptjvTwi' . • * * , inrcp Turf iv afifttii- 
ttria /£fTa{a^cWj/ . . * . irittp wKt6vTntv 

K0.1 &&QlTtOfHi{ryTWV Sf7J0<^JltV' u*lp TWV 

4v ^AeraAAair Kai l£aplau ko.1 ipvKajtais 
koI 5f<r/*mj qvtwv 5xo rh fivofta rav Kv- 
ptav bfYiQwptv. — L.'thbt/i, torn, i. M& 
470, ed. Venet. 

* Cum dfratit instituUs a Sancto 
Grcgorio, sic iiitelligas, nun ufc ipana 
majort'B litaniast Sunctus Oregon ui 
primus invenerit, sed quod ad Hint 
turn Petruiti cas ...... A quo 

at j tern litauiae prim urn fuermt injti- 
tutir, ad hue mihi eat iiuxplomtuin ; 
vetustis&inium sane uiorcm fuisse In 
Eccleaia litanias peragere t certissiinum 
est , , . . . Porro pcroclebres et ab um- 
versa pame Ecclosia rcceptsj sunt ilia?, 
qua* S- Mamertus Episcopus Vicn- 
uen?is reatiiuit in Galliis, temporibua 
Vjileiitiniani ul ImperoUirig anno clr- 

citer 452 apparet S« Mamtlftm 

EpWopuui non tarn iniitiUtissc quam 
Te«titui54e et in meliorem formam re- 
duxiaae $acras RogatitntL's*— liaron. in 
MartyroL Rom. Apr. 2j + pp. I7+* 175. 
Antverp. !*>];.{. 



nothing else but those common prayers whereof Justin CHAP. 

Martyr of so ancient time speaketh 3 according to the forms - 

practised at several times and in several places. True it is 
that in those ancient liturgies they come not after the depar- 
ture of the hearers, as in Justin, and the canon of Laodicea, 
and the Constitutions of the Apostles. But when the depar- 
ture of the hearers was retained in a manner for fashion's 
sake, in remembrance of the ancient custom — the reason of it 
being ceased when the world was become Christian — it is 
reasonable to think that the order of the service depending 
upon it might change, the substance nevertheless remaining, 
as descending originally from the Apostles. 

§ 33. And though it be not easy for me to give account 
why the canon of Laodicea prescribeth two of these prayers 
to be made, dividing it into two* or repeating it twice, yet it 
is easy for any man to observe, especially in the liturgies 
in titled to St, Basil and St. Chrysostom, that these prayers 
arc divers times repeated, whether in brief or at large ; that 
fashion so far complying with the prescript of the canon as 
to shew us that those are the prayers whereof it speaketh. 
3 15 The subject of them is thus comprised in another place of 
the Con st i tut ion Sj ii, 57: JTpocreu^eV&Jt) 6 Buikovok xrjrip rfjs ix- 
tt\7}<r£a$ OTrcurqSt /cat train-as tqu tco(TfLov f teal tw ev avrto 
fbepmVj teal itc(f>opt(M)Vj vwtp rmtf t€p4wp /col Tfiuv ap^ovrtav, urrlp 
rov apfttepiuiSi koa rov /3o<rt\ews, teal t% ko8q\qv ttp^vtf^, 
" Let the deacon pray for the whole Church, and all the 
world, and the parts of it, for fruitful seasons, for the priests 
and rulers, for the Bishop and King, and the general peace. 1 * 
This is the reason that it is called in the Greek liturgies, ra 
elpT}VLxa% or "prayers for peace," because the beginning of it 
is in the Constitutions of the Apostles', vrrep tt/<? ttptjitrjq *cal 
€vara0€ia$ rov <TvpLTravro<j ^o^r/xov, that is, "for the peaceable 
and quiet state of the whole world." It is also in some of 
them called awa-mri KojBokucq*) or "the general collect/* 
From whence it appeareth that this is the prayer whereof 
Tertullian speaketh, the subject whereof he expresseth, pro 
statu seculi, pro rerum quicta : "for the settled and quiet state 
of the world." 

■» See the IHuTgy ol" Ss I 
' Lib. mi. cap. 10. 

V-* m the liturgy of St, James, 




§ 34* That which hath been said of the manner and order 
of this prayer is to be understood of the liturgies of the East' 
ern Churches now. extant. Not only in those Greek ones 
under the names of St James, St. Mark* St, Basil; St. Chrv- 
sostom, but in the Ethiopia, in that of the Christians of St, 
Thomas in India, in that of the Maronites printed at Home, 
it talceth place according to the manner described. Of the 
service of the Latin Church the like cannot be said. The 3*6 
litanies, whereof this prayer is the source, are used upon 
several particular occasions in the Mass as it is now, but have 
no place in the ordinary course of it, unless we suppose die 
Kyrte ekeson, which the Rationalists call the litanies*, to be 
that which remains of them, the model of the Latin service 
being so abridged as was observed afore* And by Sl Am- 
brose*, or whosoever wrote those books de 8acramentis f it 
appearcth that prayer was made to that effect before the con- 
secration of the Eucharist: his words are, iv, 4, Oral to pr&- 
mtttitur pro papula, pro regihus, pro ceteris; "Prayer is pre- 
mised," saith he, to the consecration of the Eucharist, " for 
the people, for the emperors, for the rest*" But in those words 
he spcakcth of prayers that were made at the Lord's board 
by him that celebrated the Eucharist, of which afterwards; 
not of those that were ministered by the deacon speaking to 
the people in the manner aforesaid; which nevertheless 8t. 
Augustine of the Latin Church remembercth, when be saith, 
Epist, cxviii.*, ( T i/m . * . 4 communis or a f to voce diaconi indict fur* 
fi when common prayer is indicted by the deacon's voice : w 
fur this is that which Justin Martyr called "common prayer" 

§ 35. Ilhenanus in TertulL de Coronal, Et arhitrantnr qui- 
dfttt iltt missam iftOtptftt, dict-nte sarerdote, Dominus mhheum : 
et mox t Sursum corda. Dvindt\ Gr alias agamvA Domino Deo .ti~ 

* Usu Urnen receptum est t ut pro 
Gflfta cpiRctam €T clesias ticie supplicati- 
©nifc specie, qua Dei misericord ium, 
Sanclorumquc patrociniujn invoemmis 
litani.T? no men usnrpetur. Aicipihir 
etiam quaii claque pro solo Kyrie Wry- 
Mon t tnin J a Gtocik Sanctorum Jacob] 
fiwilii et ChrvBOstoml liturgiis t«m a 
IX Benedicts m repuln- -Bona, Divin. 
Psalmod*, cap r xlv, iii. { I. p, 7W6\ 
Aniverp. lb'77. 

b S, Amliroa. Opp. T torn- n\ col 368, 
ed- Den. The Benedictine editors con- 
sider it to hare been written ! ■ 
Ambrose. Dupin, however, Qtiriki 
them deceived. 

■ Ad inquiaUioncs Jaimnrii, lib. iL 
ep> Iv. torn, ii col. 1 +2. ed, Ben. 

* Bcnti lihenani An not. in lib. de 
Corona Militia pp. 40 f 41. Franekew, 
ad calc, cd, I'rmiel. 



nmtro: u And they truly" — that is, those that studied the crap. 

ancient form of service out of the eldest and best Church — '- 

writers — " think that the Mass begins when the priest says, 
'The Lord be with you/ and by and by, 'Lift up your 
hearts/ afterwards, 'Let us give thanks to our Lord God/" 
If his meaning be that the celebration of the Eucharist began 
always with the preface Sursmm corda, well and good. But 
if he mean this, that the second service, or the prayers at 
which believers alone were present, began then, it is an over- 
sight : the testimonies produced are beyond exception to 
shew that according to the most ancient custom of the 
Church, prayer was made for all states of men, and of the 
Church first, in the manner aforesaid, 

§ 36. In fine, the great agreement of all the liturgies spec*- Prayer in- 
fied, coming from those most ancient Eastern Churches — the dea- 
with the eldest of Church -writers, together with other preg- con * 
nant circumstances that concur — makes me bold to conclude 
that the practice of these prayers is derived from the Apo- 
stles and the custom of their time, and arc the same whereof 
St- Paul writes, Rom, viii, 26, 27, " Likewise the Spirit also 
belpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should 
pray for as we ought : but the Spirit itself maketh interces- 
sion for us, with groanings which cannot be uttered. And 
34S He that searchcth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the 
Spirit, that it maketh intercession for the saints according to 
God." For according to the exposition of St. Chrysoslom, 
proved good afore 1 , these prayers, which in the primitive 
times were made by men endued with prophetic graces, 
called here "the Spirit/' were afterwards ministered by the 
deacon, going afore the people : which holds good of these, 
not only according to all the liturgies and authorities alleged, 
but according to Justin in chief and in the oldest place, wb<>, 
when he relates that he, which ministered the Eucharist, 
began not but with the thanksgiving, after these which he 
calls the common prayers were ended, gives presumption 
enough that the said common prayers were ministered by the 
deacon with him, as with St Chrysostom* 

§ 37 - Then the terms in which the Apostle expresses the [CaiTtMi 
nature of these prayers, calling them " intercessions for the B ionij " 

• Chop. T* nec\* 21, 22, 






in» from 
the Sacra- 
ment l§ 
called the 

saints/' seem to specify the subject whereof we speak, for all 
states of the Church- And last, when the Apostle saith, 
"maketh intercession for us with groanings not to be ut- 
tered i u and afore, ver. 23, " Ourselves also which have the 
first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within our- 
selves:' 1 St. Chrysostom testifieth that the correspondent 
hereof was done by the deacon in his time : with whom 
agree the words of Justin, tcoivas €v%m wovria-ofi^vot evrovm^* 3 
Wherein he witnessed! the earnest vehemence which these 
prayers were made with* And in the prayers quoted in the 
Constitutions of the Apostles for the hearers and penitents*, 
which, as hath been shewed, were made after the same sort : 
€Tt inrtp avrwv £Vn-«WT€/Hw he-qS&pev; * £ Lct us beseech the 
Lord for them still more vehemently:" and in that for the 
faithful, at the end of k b , eyeiptofieffa Sei^eWcs e«r€vwv, " Let 
us stand up, having vehemently prayed," And to the peni- 
tents in the beginning , ev^axrde 01 £v t§ fierapota eVr«*ws% 
"Pray ye that arc under penance vehemently" And the 
Kyrie eke$on t or, " Lord, have mercy," the foot and burden of 
this prayer, as you have seen in the liturgies of St. Basil and 
St. Chrysostom, is called y etcrevtfi i/c€<ria t and in that of St* 
Peter d j *J £ fy*t r ^h c/ercvotK, understanding (fee&ias, " the 
prayer of vehement and earnest supplication to God." r 

§ 38* AH arguments of that vehemence and earnest devo- 
tion which the fashion and manner of the litanies, if it were 
relished aright, still breatheth, derived from those groans and 
tears with which men endued with primitive graces made 
then intercession to God for the Church, and states of it. 
And perhaps the Apostle, when he said, 1 Con xtv. 15, **' I 
will pray with the spirit, but I will pray with the understand- 
ing also : I will sing with the spirit, but I will sing with the 
understanding also :" meant no other prayers but those 350 
whereof he writes to the Romans, those first sort of prayers 
whereof here we speak at the service of believers. For in 
that which follows, ver* 16, "Else when thou shalt bless with 
the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the un- 

■ Lib. viii. cap* vi. col, 465; cup* 
viii, col. 4G8 s Lahbei* torn* L eil. Venet* 

b It*., co). 472. 

■ !b. t coL4fi«. 

4 Milan Apo*tnlica, sivc Divimim 

Sacrifidum Sanoli Apostoli Petri, cum 
Lindani Apologia, Antwerp* 1.589. In 
Bibl. Pair.* torn, ii* p, 11 a Paris. 1624. 
Latin version* »*f be seen in Retiau- 
dnt, loin, it p. 140. 



learned say Atnen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he under- c it a p. 

standeth not what thou say est ? for thou verily givest thanks - — 

%vellj but the other is not edified t* many things induce me to 
think that the Apostle speaks of nothing else but of that thanks- 
giving which from the beginning the Eucharist was conse- 
crated with, and from which it hath the name, and is the 
next point in the order of this service. For bo the Apostle's 
directions will appear complete, reaching to all parts of the 
service which proceed from men's particulars, 

§ 39. For the reading of the Scriptures we must here ex- [Pre* 
cept, presupposed as the subject and employment of present m M ,i,. 
graces. For the psalms of God's praises, which the Spirit the^Apn- 
then indicted, he provideth when he saith, "I will sing with &tlc l 
the spirit, but I will sing with the understanding also/' For 
the exposition of the Scriptures more at large, in the rules 
that follow, from ver* 26. For the prayers which by the sug- 
gestion of the Holy Ghost were made for the Church and all 
states of it, when he saitb, **I will pray with the spirit, but I 
will pray with the understanding also." For the prayers 
Sol which the Eucharist was celebrated with, in the words now in 
hand, vcr. 16, 17* The Commentaries under St. Ambrose's 
name*: Hi ex Ihhrms erant 9 qui aliquando St/rd lingua, pie- 
ntmque Hehrma in tractatibm aid ublathmibua ute&anhir ad 
commendationem. Ghriabanhtr enim se diet ffebra?os t propter 
meritum Abratim ; "These" — that would needs speak in 
strange languages in the Church — " were of the Hebrews, 
which for their commendation used sometimes the Syriac, 
most an end the Hebrew, in their sermons or oblations. 
For they took pride to be called Hebrews for the merit of 
Abraham." The offering is the whole action of prayers and 
thanksgiving which the Eucharist was celebrated with, as 
shall appear. So saying in express terms that they did it in 
Syriac and Hebrew, he dire etc th us to the Apostle's meaning 
in that which he calls w blessing and thanksgiving ; if which m 
the Scriptures and eldest of Church- writers stand sometimes 
absolutely and without addition to signify, by way of emi- 
nence, the celebration of the Eucharist, 

§ 40. Otherwise why is it called, I Cor. x. 16, £ * the cup of [Thanks 
blessing which we bless?' 1 but from that blessing or thanks- mentis the 

1 S. Ainbros. Opp„ torn, ii, cat. 167. ed. Ben, 
lllunxMKr. 2 




CHAR giving — as it is indifferently called in the Scriptures — with 
Euchtt'ru' wn ich ^ was instituted by Christ, and appointed to be used 
in the early afterwards, Ignatius ad Smyrnceos 1 , \Etfe*Vq 0€J3aia ev^a-pt^ 
<rrla rry^la-0^ *J biro top iwiatcoTrov ovaa y »; $5 &v avros tV Lrphfrg* 
"Let that be counted a sound thanksgiving which is under 332 
the Bishop, or to whom he gives leave." His meaning is, that 
to celebrate the Eucharist apart from the Bishop, and with- 
out his order, was not effectual toward God. The true Cle- 
mens, St Paul'*) scholar, EphL ad Corinth**/' Etcatrros u/j,wv f 
«Se\0*H, it/ T&) IBiti) rdypuLTt £v%apt&TWTui 0eco, M Let each 
of you 5 brethren, give thanks to God in bis own rank," 
He directs the presbyters of Corintli to celebrate the Eucha- 
rist by their turns, to avoid contention about it In the 
words of Ircnicus related in Greek by Epiphanius, Hmr* 
X3cxiv. h , of the Marcosians, Trpotrrroiov^vos evxcLpttrrui^ "pre- 
tending to give thanks," is as much to say as pretending to 
celebrate the Eucharist, and so more than once afterwards ; 
therefore when the Apostle saith, <f How shall he say Amen," 
iirl Tjj €v%apt<TTta crou, and after, ov yap tfaX&k ev^apt<rr€i^ 9 
he seems to mean neither more nor less. For the answer of 
the people saying Amen at the end of this thanksgiving is so 
solemnly remarked in ecclesiastical writers, that the Apostle 
may justly seem to make reference to it Justin Martyr, 
Apoh 1 l , Ov <rwre\ia"avro<: ra<? evj(a>s *<u Tyv €v%apt&TLav, 
ira? o irapwv Xab^ ewGvrfyrfftei X^/caVi, a/M^y > , f . . m)(apurr^~ 
Q-avrwi hk tov 7rpO€OTmr(Ky teal iTraj<f>T}p*}tTavTQ<; iravrb^ rov 
Xaov f "Who having done his prayers and thanksgiving, all 

the people present join assent with him, saying Amen , 

Then the chief having given thank a, and all the people 
assented with like wishes," And in the epistle of Dionysius 353 
of Alexandria in Eusebius, Hist Eecles. viL % Ev^apurriw: 
yap hratcovaavra teal avvewi6ey^tifi€vop to \A^v f " Having 
heard the thanksgiving ** — that is, being present at consecrat- 
ing the Eucharist — "-and answered Amen with the rest* 

§ 4L The subject of this thanksgiving is thus expressed by 
Justin the Martyr k in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew, 

1 Cap, viii. p. 37. ed. Coteler. See 

chap. vi. sect, 19, 
* Cji P; kK. p. 169. ed. Coteler, 
h S. Kpiphnn, Opp tf torn, i. p, 233. 

ed. Colon. The pruts age from St. Ire* 

tiffius is in lib, i. cap, ix. 

* Cap. Ixv. pp. 82, S3, ft& Ecu, 

h Red q ri}s fftfitldhftifs 3i *pu<r<p*p* f 

$ Mp*t> t\*yoy f ^ farkp tw tta.Bapt£*- 




where he compare th the offering of fine flour far the leper at ctf A p. 

his cleansing according to the law, Lev, xiv. 10, with the - 
bread of that thanksgiving which our Lord hath appointed us 
to make m remembrance of His passion, "JVa apa re €u%apt- 

OTttifteit T£J €?€£Jj V7T€p T€ TOV TOP HUCTflOV €KTUC€l>ai OVV *7T€Wn TQ$$ 

eV a^TftJj SiA rov dvOparrrov, teal xnrkp rov airb Trpz tcateia* €P $ 
yeyovapev iXev&epwtcivai *Jf*a$, teal to$ ap%d*i teal ra$ ^ovcrta? 
tcaraXeXvtcepat reXeiap ttarakvtTW, Sta rov wa$qrQv yawpAvov 
Kara t^j/ fiotArjv avrov. "That withal we may give thanks 
to God, for having made the world, and all things in it, for 
man, and for having freed us from that naughtiness wherein 
we were born, and overthrown principalities and powers with 
a perfect overthrow, by Him that became passible according to 
His counsel" And Ire n reus, iv. 34 '—arguing against the here- 
tics of that time, tbat denied God the Father to have created 
heaven and earth, because then the Church should do affront 
to God, offering Ilim the creatures which He acknowledged 
not for His — sufficiently shewctb that the creatures of bread 
35* and wine were offered with this Eucharist or thanksgiving, as 
well for the creation of all things as for the redemption of us. 
Justin Martyr, Apol, \, m f justifieth the Christians against the 
heathen, that consumed not God's creatures with fire in 
sacrifices, but received them with words of prayer and 
thanksgiving, *Twip re rov yt'yQvhtat) teal twv eh evpmariav 
wopmv 7rdvTatP t TroicnqTrnv piv yevwv, mi ti€raf3o\tou topcup, 
" For being bom, and for all means of health, kinds of quali- 
ties, and changes of seasons; 1 * wherein though the purpose of 
his speech is directed to the ordinary use of God's creatures, 
yet withal he seemeth to describe that thanksgiving which 


ti'Xapttrrtaiv ft* ftr hvdfiWQiTiv rov wd- 
&ovi ah $*adfv &wkp T»f tta8mpaft.4vv>r 
rkt ^v\a* dre wdtrfjf Travrjptmi &v0pc£- 
wuv, *li}(Tovs Xpitrrbs o Kvpios ^uup trap- 
i$wK* pnw , then the woids in the 
text. — Cap* xli. p. 1 37. ed, Ben. 

J Oportet enim no* oh la t ion em Deo 
fa cere . . . . pfffntitwi earmn, quae sunt 
ejus, creaturarum oSerontes ; et hnnc 
obUliouem Ecdcbia sola puram "flirt 
Fabricator! «..„,. Alii enim alterum 
prater Fahricatorem diccntea Fahvni. 
ea qua? secundum hob create sunt, 
offer en tea «, cup id urn alieni oatendunt 
turn, et alien* coneuplseeutcm. Qui 

vero ex defectlonet et ignorant]*, ct 
pa&sione dicunt facta ca» qua? aunt 
secundum nos ; i^norantia 1 , passio- 
nis, et defeclionU fruelus off* rentes, 
peccant in Patroni BUum contunieliam 
facicn tes ma pin ei, qumn prat ins apen- 
tea. , . . . Ergo aut sentential*! mutant* 
aut abstinent offerendn qua* pried I eta 
Mint. Nostra autcm consonant e*t left* 
sentia Kutharistia?, et Eucbari-tia mr- 
sua confirtiiat sentcutiam nostrani. Of- 
ferimus enim ei quoe sunt ejus conpru* 
e u le r en m m u n i e at j onem et uni tatem prse- 
dicante-H carnis et Spirit us* — S. I rerun, 
Opp,, lih. iv, cap. xviii p, 25 1, ed, Beu* 
■ Cap. xtiL p. 51. ed. Den. 




[The »ub- 

-1 -ncc- of 



then the Eucharist was celebrated with, being then used, as it 
was instituted, at meat, 

§ 42. In the Constitutions of the Apostles, viii. 12, you 
have at large laid down the form of this thanksgiving, con* 
taming first a rehearsal of God's unspeakable perfections : of 
the creation by Christ of things visible and invisible, and of 
man in righteousness : of the providence of God toward man 
having sinned, before the law and by it, with praise to Ilim 
therefore with the cherubim and seraphim : but more particu- 
larly recounting the incarnation of Christ, and the ^hole 
course of His dispensation in the flesh, especially His suffer- 
ings, death, and rising again. Hereupon it followeth, Mep^- 
pi}p,ivo& qvv wv Bi f}pLa<z irTrifiumv, €v%api{TTQvp€P <roi, 0ee TTttirrQ- 
Kparop 9 ov% otrov ofaChapep, flAV oaov &wdjjt,€8a, teal ttjv hid- 55. 
ra^tp axrrov TrXrjpov/Acv' iv $ yap pvktI Trapz&tfttyro. That is, 
" Therefore being mindful of those things which He suffered 
for us, we give Thee thanks, Almighty God, not so much as 
we ought, but as much as we arc able "—there is Justin Mar- 
tyr's awt) Buvapt^ — lf and fulfil His appointment: for upon the 
night wherein He was bet rayed " — rehearsing the whole words 
of institution of the Eucharist upon this. The same is the 
argument of this thanksgiving in the liturgies in titled to St 
James n and St* Basil, both the Greek and the Latin, and 
that which we have from Masius out of the Syriac°* In that 
of St, Chry sos torn it is to the same purpose, but in fewer 
words ; in that of St Mark, the same for substance, but more 
in brief, and for order somewhat otherwise : so in that which 
I spake of p, turned out of the Arabic, under the names of St* 
Basil, St Gregory, and St Cyril, in this last as in that of St 
Mark, and not much otherwise in that of the Christians of 
St Thomas in India* 1 . In the canon of the Mass, that which 
is called the preface 1 " scemeth to be that which rcmaincth of 

■ Biblioth* Patr., touu vi. Paris. 
1610; Bibliotli. Max., torn, ii. Lug- 
dun, 1077; Asscman. Cod, LHurg., 
torn, v, 

° Bioliotheca Patruro, Paris* torn, rl 
Ren mi dot, torn. ii. p. 548, 

► Set? chap. vii. sect- 42, 

4 A Latin version of it is {riven in 
RaulirTs Hi* tori a Ecclesiup M&l&bari- 
cue, p. 233, Horn, 17 45. And in Bib* 
liothee* Mast, torn. xxv'iL Lugdun. 1677. 

See also Le Brim, torn, tl p, 46 7* 

' Lectis secreto oration Ibus super 
oblata, incipit Saeerdoa prcefntioncm 
pram is a a populi salutation*?, Kst *u- 
tein prafatio veluti proloquium as tan- 
ten excitaus ct disponens ad pro&cj- 
pu&m actionem, in qua proprie saorifi- 
eium consist it. — Bona, R*r. Liturgic, 
Bo ii. cap, *♦ § L p, 561. Antveip* 
1&77. The Preface is not a part of t£* 
Canon properly so called. 



this thanksgiving, for it expresses the praises of God with char 

much vehemence, though the subject of those praises, either - — 

concerning the creation of the world, or our redemption, is 
not contained in it : for the tenor of it is in a manner that 

356 of our service — "It is verj meet, right" , • , - and after- 
wards, *■ therefore with angels and arch angels 1 ' ■ .,* « beside 
the proper prefaces*, in which are celebrated the works 
of Gods goodness, which the Church remembercth upon 
several solemnities. 

§ 43* In fine, it seemeth that this thanksgiving, from which 
both the action of celebrating this Sacrament and the conse- 
crated elements themselves are called Ei^apttrria, according 
to Justin Martyr and Irenaiiis*, did from the eldest times of 
the Church contain the remembrance of the creation of all 
things, in regard to the ordinary use of God s creatures, for 
the maintenance of our bodies, because it was at the first 
practised, as it was instituted, at meat So much the words of 
Justin Martyr related afore 11 seem to import, when he aflirm- 
eth that the only sacrifice that Christians have received to 
offer is that of praise and thanksgiving at their nourishment, 
at which remembrance is made of the passion which God 
suffered for us. 

§ 44. But as this Sacrament was frequented no otherwise [The»me 
than as the most solemn part of God's public service at reli- giei.] 
gious assemblies for that purpose, whatsoever was expressed 
more or less of the subject of it concerning the creation and 
redemption of the world, yet in all manner of liturgies of all 
Christian Churches there is none that I have seen which 

2.1 7 doth not premise this thanksgiving and praise to God to the 
celebration of that Sacrament. And it is very remarkable 
that in that distance of times and places from which we 
receive the several forms yet extant with so much difference 
as must needs proceed from thence, yet there are two parti- 
culars of it in which all the forms that are extant agree, the 
one the beginning of it, with Sursum corda\ or u Lift up your 

1 rive of these are retained in the * The /Ethiopic Liturgy does not 

English Woks the Council of Weat- contain ih* Sursum Cardtu In the Ma- 

minitfff A.D. 117-i, allowed ten only. Urablc we have it thus in the Latin 

Wi J kins' ConrfL, torn, i* p. 478. version : S. Sureum sint men tea ve*- 

1 Sect H, trie. D, Apod te Deum Abraham, 

* Chap. imL sect 4h Isaac et Israel, Regcm siiperglorioauin. 




which it 

hearts," the people answering as we use it, and then, to let us 
understand to what purpose they arc exhorted to do it, * Let 
us give thanks to our Lord God," specifying the prayer 
which I now describe : the other is the communion of the 
Church militant with the fellowship of angels in this office, 
expressed in the TrLsagion* or seraphical hymn, " Holy, 
Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth :" for though there is 
much difference between forms that are extant, yet it will be 
hard to find any of them wherein both those have not a 
place* which, had the forms been arbitrary, could not have 
come to pass. 

§ 45, Here a question lies, to mine apprehension, very 
was ai way i much concerning this purpose : whereas the creatures of 
with. bread and wine are deputed to the effect of becoming the 
body and blood of Christ to them that receive them aright by 
the appointment of our Lord, executed by the Church, how 
it can he conceived that by giving thanks to God to the pur>3< 
pose specified, they are, on the part of the Church, deputed 
to such effect To me it seemeth unquestionable that the 
thanksgiving wherewith our Lord in the Gospel is said to 
have celebrated this Sacrament at His last supper, contained 
also prayer to God for the effect to which the elements, 
when they became this Sacrament, are deputed : and that 
the Church ? upon 1 1 is example, hath always frequented His 
institution with the like, rehearsing His institution out of the 
Gospel, and praying for the effect of it at the present, after 
the thanksgiving hitherto described : and so — whereas in the 
sense of the Church of Rome the elements are consecrated, 
that is, transubstantiated into the body and blood of Christ, 
by rehearsing the affirmative words of Christ, This is My 
body, this is My blood, as operative — in the true sense of the 
Church they are consecrated, that is, deputed to be this 
Sacrament, and to the e fleet of it, by the prayer of the con- 
gregation* grounded upon the institution of Christ and the 
promise which it implieth. 

§46. Let me suppose in the first place that the elements, 

[The con- 

0f the ele* 
merits- ] 

7 Duplex eat Tiwemm Iattid nimi- 
iiiiu da quo nunc lujimua omnibus ee- 
cleHiis commune ; et illud, quod Gr»ci 
quodii*, Ltttini $emel in sunn Grace 
fumd tt L;ttine conclnuut in magna 

Paraaccue, nempe SttnctH* Dew*, Sane* 
tus /w/i* t StmetHJt immortal** mUrrrre 
nobis. — Bona, Rer, LUurgk.» lih, ii, 
rap. *♦ | ft. p. 55fi, 




by being deputed to become this Sacrament, are not abo- chap, 
lished for their substance, nor cease to be what they were, — *~ — 
but yet begin to be what they were not, that is, visible signs, 

359 not only to figure the sacrifice of Christ's cross — which being 
so used they are apt to do of themselves* setting the institu- 
tion of Christ aside— but also to tender and exhibit the invis- 
ible grace which they represent to them that receive. For 
though no man can receive the body and blood of Christ that 
is not disposed with a living faith to receive the same, yet on 
God's part it is undoubtedly tendered to those that are not so 
disposed* otherwise how saith the Apostle that those that eat 
and drink unworthily are guilty of the body and blood of 
Christ, as not discerning the same? And otherwise how 
saith our Lord of the elements at the instant of delivering 
them, " This is My body, this is My blood," in the present 

§47* Let me suppose in the second place that our Lord, [After the 
in celebrating this Sacrament, made use of the received cus- jud^f 
torn of His people: which was, as still it is* in receiving all 
good things at Gods hands, to premise thanksgiving, or 
blessing as they call it, before they used them. In particular, 
at feasts, before supper was done, they took bread and broke 
it, and gave it about* and the cup of wine likewise, having 
blessed God for the use of those excellent creatures. Upon 
solemnities and particular occasions mention was made of 
that which the time required. This is the ground of those 
two points of the thanksgiving discussed afore* the use of 

360 those creatures, and the redemption of the world ; which our 
Lord specified* upon the exigence of the general custom and 
the particular occasion, and the primitive Christians, accord- 
ing to Justin Martyr* frequented upon II is example* 

§ 48- But, as in the like case at the miracle of the loaves, [With 
when it is said that " our Lord looked up to heaven and thanki,] 
blessed," Matt, xiv. 19, **or gave thanks/* as it is John vi. 11, 
it cannot be doubted that beside blessing God for His crea- 
tures He prayed also for the purpose of that which lie in- 
tended to do : no more is it to be doubted that the thanks- 
giving which He made over those elements, fur that which 
they represented* contained also prayer* that by them it 
might be communicated to His disciples, The tenor ;m<l 



tiAP. consequence of our Lord's words require no less. For that 
— — which is affirmed must be true before it be truly affirmed, 
and the process of this action, blessing and delivering the 
elements, and commanding to receive them as His body and 
blood, importeth that He intended to affirm that so they were, 
in the true sense which the words import, at the instant of 
delivering them. And by what consequence could His dis- 
ciples conceive them to be deputed for signs to exhibit His 
body and blood upon His giving of thanks over them for the 
redemption of the world, unless we suppose His thanksgiv-36i 
ing, whereof the Gospel speak eth, to contain also prayer, that 
they might become effectual to that purpose ? And herewith 
agreeth that of the Apostle, [1 Tim. iv, 4, 5,] ** Every creature 
of God is good, and none to be rejected, being received with 
thanksgiving: for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer." 
For here the thanksgiving wherewith the creatures are sanc- 
tified to the nourishment of our bodies containcth also prayer, 
grounded upon the word of God, whereby He appointeth 
them for that purpose : accordingly, therefore, the thanks- 
giving wherewith these elements were sanctified by our Lord 
to be the nourishment of the soul, must contain prayer 
not grounded upon the institution of God to that purpose — 
because the act of Christ for the present went before His 
institution for the future — but as joined to His command, 
grounding a word of promise to the Church, whereupon it 
was to do likewise. 
[The Jew- §49, And herewith agree those forms of thanksgiving, or, 
tikiions.] as they call them, benedictions, which the Jews at this day 
practise, from very ancient time, as they pretend: for the 
foot and close of divers the most remarkable of them is with 
prayer for the blessing of God upon that wherefore they give 
thanks. For example, among the daily eighteen ; " Blessed be 
Thou, O Lord our God, that removes t sleep from our eyes and 
slumbering from our eye-lids: and let it please Thee, O Lord 362 
our God, and God of our fathers, to practise us in Thy law, 
and to make us cleave to Thy precepts; and bring us not into 
sin, and transgression, and temptation, and contempt," and so 
forth, ending thus, iS Blessed be Thou, O Lord, that givest 
good graces/' The blessing of the law, that is, the thanks- 
giving to God for it, is this; ** Blessed art Thou, O Lord our 



God, the King of the world, that hath sanctified us with Hib chap. 

precepts, and given us command concerning the matters of '■ — 

the law : and sweeten, O God, the words of the law in our 
mouth* and in the mouth of Thy people the house of Israel : 
and make us all, and our children, and our children's chil- 
dren, knowers of Thy name, and learners of Thy law for 
itself: blessed art Thou, O Lord, that teachest Thy people 
Israel the law." So in the blessing of wine, so in the blessing 
after meat. And so for the resemblance of the blessing of our 
Lord over the elements with these, and the exigence of the 
business, may we justly presume that it ran in the like form 
to the purpose of it Let a man look over the benedictions 
which they use before and after the lesson of w Hear, O 
Israel," Deut, vi., in the morning. Let a man look over the 
eighteen benedictions which they say every day, morning, 
evening, and at night, the antiquity whereof may in some 
sort be valued by that which hath been said afore, chap. vii. z , 
and it shall easily appear that they contain prayers as well as 
praises or thanksgivings to God, though called benedictions, 
because they begin, or end, or both, with " Blessed art Thou, 
O God," specifying something concerning the subject of 

§ 50. And last of all , herewith agreeth the practice of the [Thepreo 
ancient Church, wherein for certain the thanksgiving de- church*] 
scribed afore was joined with prayer for the effect of that 
which was done* So saith Justin, that the president sent 
forth prayers and thanksgivings to God. So in Tertullian, 
de Oratione, cap. xiv., sacrijieiorum orationibus f and in the 
363 next words, JEucharistia h y stand both for the same. So in the 
hundred-and-third of the African canons d these thanksgivings 
are called "prefaces," to my thinking, because this thanks- 

■ Tii section IB. 

* So also in the Church prevail* a 
liki* rule with reinject to the conclusion 
of each prayer j— Si Oratio dirigatur 
ad Patrem, concluditur : Per Dotni- 
mini [Collect for Grew]. Si ad Fill- 
urn : Qui titis et reguaa [first Sunday 
in Lent], Si in principle* orationis fiat 
mentio Filn, dicatur : Per eundem 
[Collect for the Feaat of the Circum- 
cision], Si In fine Orationis, dicntnr i 
Qui tecum vmt et regnat [Collect for 

Ascension -day]. Si flet mentto Spiri- 
tus Sancti, dicatur: In Irinitate cjus- 
dem Spiritua Sancti [Collect for Whit- 
sundayj. Rubric, de Oration* t Ere*, 
Rom, For a full account of the rule 
sec Durand, Ration. Divin. OK, lih, 
iv. cap, xv., f/f Orattomtt Num, 10-13, 
fol. 75. VcihjL 1009. 

* Cited before in chap. viji. sect. 37- 
Tiote i. 

1 Cited before in chap, rii. sect* 3G- 





Jirayer that 
the worth 
of Institu- 

[Tn the 
Const il ii- 
tion* nf the 

giving was always premised to the prayer which the Eucha- 
rist was consecrated with, 

§ 51. I will here propound that form of prayer which 
folio wo th after the rehearsal of the institution of this Sacra- 
ment, in the place alleged of the Constitutions of the Apo- 
stles. For a prayer to the like effect is to he found in all 
the Eastern liturgies. Which if wc compare with the testi- 
monies of ecclesiastical writers, which divers have produced 
to prove that the elements are not consecrated by the affir- 
mative words of Christ, as operative, but by the prayers of 
the Church 1 ', it will appear that it is the prayer whereof we 
now speak, always used in the Church, to obtain of God the 
promise which the institution of Christ suppose th, that the 
elements present might be deputed to the effect of becoming 
visible signs, tendering and exhibiting the invisible grace 
which they figure. Which is that which in this matter is 
called consecration, as I suppose. 

§ 52. Having repeated the institution of this Sacrament 
out of the Gospels, where we left afore % it followelh : Mspvvjr 
fiitmi roivvu rov Trddovs aurov teal rot) Bavdrou teat t?}<? i/e 
vtKpwv dpa&rii&eax: /cat i% et<? avpavotR i-rrapoh'ov teal T% /i€X- 
Xovgtjs aurov Bevrepa^ irapovtria^ ep tj ip^erat fiera Sctfyv teal 
hwapGw*; tcpivcu £&vra<: teal v€Kpovs t teal awohoOvat itedemp 
Kara ra eprya aurovt Trpoartykpop&p Sot t& fiatrikei teal Qeft*» 
Kara rrjp aurov Bbdra^ip* rov aprov tovtop /cat to woryptov 
rovro €u%aptGTOuvr&$ Sot Bt avrov , etf> oU tcaTqfjmcrav ^/*a? 
iordvai hmirtop Sov xal leparevetv Sot 1 teal d^tovft€P S^ 5tt&K 
evptevt&i iwtffkiyfrj}^ cttI rd irpoK€tp£va &wpa ravra iiwrrrtov 
Sou, Si* o dv€v$€i}v 0€o$* teat evBotctjaip; hr avrots m rtpw}p 
rov Xpurrov Sov, tca\ tcaraTreprtyri^ to ay top Sov Uvevpa jjg| 
rt}P 8tMTiav ravnfv top aaprvpa rtltp TraBfjptdrwp rot/ Kvptov 
*Irj<TQv s 07T&J9 diro(f)i]pr} top aprov tovtop <roj/Aa rov Xpto~Tov Sov f 
tcai to iroTf}ptov toOto alfjta rov Xptcrov Sov tva oi jjLcra\a0op~ 

* See the argument on the aide nf 
the Greeks in this controversy Jn Nieo- 
lnu* Cahasilas* Litiirfjirc Expos it to, 
printed in the Bibliotheca Patrum, 
torn, ii. p. 200. Paris. lf>2*. and in 
Latin in the Bibliotheca Pat rum, torn, 
vi. Paris. IfilO, The doctrine of the 
Englirii Church is the same with that 
of the Roman, as is shewn in the Ru- 

bric next after the delivery of the 
where the priest is directed u to cimsc* 
crate more according to the form before 
prescribed, beginning at *our Saviour 
CbrUt in the same night that He wna 
h 1 1 r ay ed T ' " Si c T Sevttiiis ubj eet treat ed 
of more at large in the Epilogue, bit. 
iii. chap, iv. 



T&$ ai/TOVj fiefiat &»0&><rt Trpos tvaefietav* ajpitrewt afiaprrjpuirtop CHAP* 

rv^axj-t* tov AtaftoXov real tt}s irXavr}? ainov puaflwar JJveu- - — 

paras ay lav irktipwOthatv agtot tov Xpiarov £ov yetmirrai' 
tyairjfi atmnov tu^gjo - *, Sov tcaraXkayhn-os at/rots Aitnrora trav~ 
roxpdrop. " Therefore mindful of His passion, and death, 
and rising from the dead, and ascension into heaven, and of 

364 His second appearance, at which He is to come with glory 
and power to judge the quick and dead, and to render 
to every man according to his works, we offer to Thee our 
King and God, according to His appointment, this bread 
and this cup, giving thanks to Thee through Him, that Thou 
hast vouchsafed us to stand before Thee, and to minister 
unto Thee ; and beseech Thee that Thou wouldest look 
favourably upon these oblations present before Thee, Thou 
God that wan test nothing, and accept them to the honour 
of Thy Christ, and send down Thy Holy Spirit, witness of 
the passions of the Lord Jesus, upon this sacrifice, to exhibit 
this bread the body, and this cup the blood of Thy Christ : 
that they which partake of it may be confirmed in godliness, 
obtain remission of sins, be delivered from the devil and his 
deceit, be filled with the Holy Ghost, become worthy of Thy 
Christ, and obtain life everlasting, Thou being reconciled 
to them, God Almighty." It is clearly true in the sense and 
language of the ancient Church, which St* Ambrose saith, 
De his qui mysteriis initlantur f cap* fat.' Ante benedictionem 
verh&rum cwlestium alia species nominatur f post consecrationern^ 
corpus Christi significatur : " Before consecration another 
species is named," that is, the bread, "after it the body of 
Christ is signified/' And de Sacramentis, lib. v. cap. 4*, Dm 
vobis, quod ante verba Christi, quod offer tur, panis dieatur f ubi 
Christi verba depromta Juerint, jam non pants dicitur,scd corpus 
appellatur : "1 told you that before the words of Christ, that 

365 which is offered is called bread ; after the words of Christ 
are produced, it is no more called bread, it is called His 

5 53. Therefore, whereas in this prayer the elements arc [its pur - 

r S. Arnhros. de My stems, liber unus, 
torn. n. col .1.19. eel. "Ben, The Bene- 
die tine editors have omitted the word 
Christi before ?ignifieatur "in nil former 
edition!,* 1 and in Body of the Canon 

Law, dt Cofljwer. dial, x. CoFtorius, how- 
ever, had omitted it before. Basil. 1567. 
* S + Atnbroa, Op p., torn. ii. eol, 37 S. 
ed. Ben* 



[Se<? tiring 

in the 



named by their kind* of bread and wine, it is plain that all 
that white they are not conceived, or intended, to be conse- 
crated. And what doubt can there be in that, when we sec 
a prayer follow* wherein is desired that the elements may 
become the body and blood of Christ ? And he that shall 
turn over the copies of liturgies, which we have extant from 
the Eastern Churches, shall find them to agree in this : that 
after the institution is rehearsed out of the Gospels, professing 
that what is presently done is in obedience to the same, 
prayer is made first, that by the Holy Ghost the elements 
may be sanctified to become the body and blood of Christ, 
and then that they may be to such effects of grace as are 
specified in the form rehearsed to them that communicate. 
Only in the missal of the Maronttes, printed at Rome, there 
be divers forms of consecration — which they call Anaphora — 
under the Apostles' names* and other Eastern doctors, wherein 
this prayer seemeth to be wilfully changed* to make them con- 
formable to the doctrine of the now Church of Rome. It was 
printed there for the use of that nation in the year MDXCIV. 
§ 54. In the ancient form of the Latin Church, there 
seemeth— not by the now canon of the Mass, but by these* 
remembrance of it extant in ancient Church-writers — to have 
been some difference from this, and that difference seemeth 
to have occasioned the error of the now Church of Rome, 
concerning consecration by operative words* Nevertheless 
the words of St* Ambrose, or whosoever wrote those books, de 
Sacramentis f arc these, iv. 5 h : Vis scire quia verbis coziest ibus 
consecratur f accipe qua* sunt verba, Dicit sacerdos y Fac Wj/a\ 
inqnit, banc oblationem adscriptam, rationabilem, acceptabihm f 
quodjigura est corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Je&u Christi* 
Qui pridie quam paterctur . , . "Wilt thou know that it is con- 
secrated by the heavenly words ? hear what be the words : 
the priest saith, Make this sacrifice imputable, accountable, 
acceptable for us, which is the figure of the body and blood 
of Jesus Christ our Lord. Who the night before He suffered 1 * 
. . . and so forth, proceeding to rehearse the institution out of 
the Gospel. In the canon of the Mass is added ratam\ or 

h S. Arnbros. Opp., torn* it coL 371. stored it into the text of St. Ambrose, 
to. lien. "out of m*uy MSS/* 

1 The Benedictine editor* have re- 


3 19 

ratified ; banc oblatiomm ad$criptam 9 mtam f rationabihm^ much 
to my purpose ; for it Is plain that this is not the doctrine 
of the now Church of Rome, when^ being to shew how the 
elements are consecrated, he produeeth the prayer of the 
Church joined to the institution of Christ : which is to say, 
that by virtue of Christ's institution, executed by the Church, 

367 with prayer to God to ratify and accept the elements pre- 
sently offered, to be the figure and remembrance of the body 
and blood of Christ, they arc deputed to become this Sacra- 

§ *35. In the canon of the Mass these words are somewhat 
changed from that which is set down in St. Ambrose, for they 
are read thus : Ui nobis corpus et sanguis fiat dilectissimi Filii 
Tut Domini mM Jesu Chrtsti : " That they may become to 
us the body and blood of Thy most beloved Son Jesus 
Christ our Lord." And it secmcth that they were changed 
on purpose, that this Sacrament might not be called a figure of 
the invisible grace of it But in the meantime it is manifest 
that here prayer is made for the effect of Christ's institution 
in these elements, and that nothing can be more cross to this 
doctrine of the now Church of Rome, than their own ser- 
vice. St. Ambrose observed k , that after the institution is 
rehearsed, the elements are called the body and blood : the 
reason seems to be, because they were intended to be deputed 
to become this Sacrament, by prayer grounded on the institu- 
tion of Christ, w T hich it is joined with. But it should seem 
that after the institution there followed in the ancient form of 
the Latin Church a prayer to the purpose, though not in the 
terms of that which now folio we th in the canon of the Mass* 

368 the close whereof is this : Ui quotquot ex hac Altar is participa- 
tione sacrosanctum Filii Tui corpus et sanauinem $umserimus y 
omni benedietione ccelesti et gratia repleamur ; u That as many 
as shall receive the holy body and blood of Thy Son, by 
participating of this Altar, may be fulfilled with Thy heavenly 
benediction and grace.* 1 Which is plainly in lieu of the 
second point of that prayer alleged out of all the Eastern 
liturgies, desiring the like effects of grace, by the means of 
this Sacrament upon them that communicate. 

§ 5G> If any man think that the forms hitherto described 

k See »ect S2, 




import that the ancient Church intended to consecrate tbe 
elements in the sense of the now Church of Rome* that is, to 
abolish the corporal substance of them, and substitute that of 
the body and blood of Christ instead, not in the true sense, 
to depute them io become visible signs, tendering and ex- 
hibiting the invisible grace which they figure, he shall much 
prejudice the truth which we profess: the due advantage 
whereof hath been long since proved to be this, that the error 
pinned upon it is not to be found so much as in the service 
of the Church where it is bred and maintained. 

§ 57. When prayer is made concerning the elements in 
the canon of the Mass, Ut nobis corpus Jiat dihethsind Ftlit Tut 
Domini nostii Jesu Christi : " That they may become to us 
the body and blood of Thy well-beloved Son Jesus Christ our 
Lord:" these words ' to us/ make an abatement in the proper 569 
signification of the body and blood. For the elements may 
be said to become the body and blood of Christ without addi- 
tion, in the same true sense in which they are so called in 
the Scriptures. But when they are said to become the body 
and blood of Christ to them that communicate, that true 
sense is so well signified and expressed, that the words 
cannot well be understood otherwise than to import not the 
corporal substance, but the spiritual use of them. In the 
Greek form' prayer is made that the elements may be made, 
or become, or be changed, or translated into the body and 
blood of Christ, That also among our writers of controver- 
sies is acknowledged to be verified, and is indeed easily 
verified, though we suppose them not to cease to be what 
they were, but to become what they were not, that is, 
visible signs exhibiting the invisible grace which they figure. 

§ 58* To which meaning that which always follows in that 
form directs us™, when prayer is made that the elements may 
become the body and blood of Christ, so that they which 
receive thera may be fulfilled with the blessings of His grace : 

1 *t.Ti -wpoir^pa^r Xo* TTjif hryyitdiif t$ kyiy. — Liturp. S. ChryiOSt. BibL 

Tavrriv ttal avaijxaKTuv Aarpttav. ttal J 3 at rum. Gncco-LaU, totil. iL p« 79. 

TapaxaXovfirW .... Kardw^fx^ov rb Pnm. 162-k 

Tlvtvfxd 2ou rb &yiov iip 1 ijjuSi not 4wl m *Cltrr* ytvitrBiu toij ii*raX.afi$foav- 

roiTitfov rbv ftky &prov tqDtoi',. rlfitov twi/, tU tdjtfutviay rov aytov TlifdjfxaToj t 

trmpa TaS Xpurrov 3ow* . t , tHUp t^! ei* &a(n\f ta< Qiipeumv TtX^paffta^ th ircifJ- 

lrQTripltji TQvrtis rifUQv alp.a tow XpHTTQu fft}trlav TTtv wphs 5f ju^ *h Kpif^a ^ *ii 

3Ew. *,•..* MfTo&aAwv t$ Uvtvfunt Zqu Kar&KpipLa.. — Ih, pf>. 79, 80, 



which is to say, that they may become that which they are char 

called — to wit, the body and blood of Christ — not in respect 

of the corporal substance and kind, whereof they consist, but 

(70 in respect to the spiritual communion which they exhibit. 
And indeed, when St, Ambrose saith that after consecration 
the body of the Lord and 1 1 is blood only is named, and 
signified, and expressed, this also seems to import a great 
abatement of the proper signification of the body and blood 
of Christ : as being so called and named and signified to 
us, not because the substance of their nature and kind is 
abolished, but because it comes no more into consideration, 
as not concerning the spiritual benefit of them that com- 
municate. Which seemeth to be the true reason why Church- 
writers continually call the elements by the names of that 
which they exhibit, without such addition as might import 
that abatement whereof now we speak : who nevertheless 
other whiles stick not to acknowledge that the species of the 
elements — that is, in their sense, not the outward appearance 
of the accidents, as those of the Church of Rome disguise 
the true meaning of the Latin word, but the inward nature 
and substance of their kind — doth remain as it was. 

§ 59. It remaineth now to declare both the right purpose Prayer for 
and true meaning of that prayer for all states of the Church, chttrcb 
which in all liturgies, that I have seen, is made at consc- { JSfe 
crating the Eucharist, and before the receiving of it. In that K£j£j* 
which hath been hitherto represented out of the Constitu- 

37i tions of the Aposdes, as in the most of the Eastern liturgies, 
immediately after the consecration hitherto described, the 
beginning of it there is thus : "En Beo^i€0d Sou* Kvpte, teal 
VTT€p T% tiff {as Xov iK/ckrj&las, t?}$ otto irepdrt&v !&>? frepdraiu^ 
$$v W€pt€TTOii}<Tta t^j Ttfilip atp&Tt tov Xptxrrov 3"ot), ott<x^ avrqp 
oifiufavXd^TjKi d&etGTOP, xai dtcXvSd>purToit f aypt rift avpreXeiuq tov 
atwvQ$ m teal uTT&p wdorft GTTwTKOTrtjs Trjs op6oTopA)vay}s top Xoyov 
Tv}* aXi}Q€ta^ €tl irapatedkovpAp Se teal irwip t% €pq$ to ^ 
wpotr^ipovtos Xol ouStri'fW teal imtp iravro^ tqv TrpetTfivTepiov* 
trrrep 7W htaxQvmp teal iravTos tov teapoy, tpa wdpras <rocf>iaas f 
TIpevpLaTQs Sty lav 7r\?}pmerj)v* ert irapaxaKov^ip £* Kvpt€ vwep 
tov /Ba&ihit&s teal tgji/ €p vTrepo-^fj teal Travros tg£ arparoTreBov^ 
wa etpriP&Jmn-aL tu Trpos *}fMi$* 07Tfl>? €v ^cru^ia teal opopoia 
Stayovrtt top irdpra ftpowv Tt?v fw/9 tjftwv dQ^dfaph' 2*e Bta 


Till-: SERVICE of <;im 


" irrrkp irtivTcav teal raw air aimvo^ euape&Tiia-dvT&v Soi ayta>p. 

ert *rrpQU$epQp,iv %o& x/rrkp rov Xaov tqvtov inrkp 

twv xqpwv r% etcxKTitrlar irrrkp rwv iv trefivafc ydpuM? teal retcpo- 
yovtaw virkp rmv vrprdav rov \aov Sov . * . ert «f tfyvpukv Je 
teal inrep t% ttoXeiu? teal t&v ivoucovvT&v inr^p t&v iv appear 
errlat^" imkp rwv iv iritepa Bovkeia* vir&p rwi* iv i^opuur inrep 
twv iv &r}p£V<T€t* VTTi-p irXeovrmv teal oEonropovirrwv* otto*? irirU 
tcovpos yiwy . * . , It* wapatcaXQvp.£v 2e teal vwkp rwv fuerovv* 
tg>v ripas teal himtcavr^v T}fMi$ Sta to ovopa Sov" vwf-p rmv cftw 
ovrtav zeal ire7tXav7}pLkvwv* Sirta? ♦ » • en TrapateaXovprht 5e tcaX 
inrkp r£v tcaT*j)(QviA€Vtov rr)? itctc\7}<ria<r teal virep to>i> %£ipba%Q~ 
pivmv vtto tov ahXoTplou' teat virip rtov iv peravola aheXxfx&v 
fip&v* qttqk , , ! ert TrpocnpEpopMv Sot teal vjrep tjJ? evxpaerta^ 
rov aipos' teal rri}? eufapta? r&v Kapir&v otto? . . . iri Trapajca* 
\ovfiev %€ teal x/rrkp rwv &t ajhoyov alrtav wjrovrmp* enrcu? n * , , 
« Further we pray Thee, O Lord, for Thy holy Church from 
end to end, which Thou hast purchased with the precious 
blood of Thy Christ, that Thou wouldst keep it unmoved, 
unwavedj till the eud of the world. And for all Bishops 
that divide the word of truth aright* Further wc pray Thee 
for the meanness of me that offer to Thee. For the whole 
presbytery, for the deacons and all the clergy, that * * . * 
Further, for the King and powers, that they may keep peace 
toward us. Further, we offer to Thee for all the saints that 
have pleased Thee from the beginning of the world 
Further, we pray Thee for all this people, * reckoning virgins, 
widows, married, and infants* " Further, we entreat for this 
city, for the sick, the banished, slaves, travellers, and those 
that are at home, that .... Further, we pray Thee for those 
that hate us and persecute us for Thy Name, for those that 
arc without, and go astray, that ... . Further, for the hearers, 
the possessed, the penitents, that . * * . Further, we offer to 
Thee for seasonable weather, and increase of fruits, that * * . * 
Further, we pray Thee for the absent for reasonable causes, 
that , . ♦ , B 

§ 60* In the same place, that is, immediately after the con- 
secration of the Eucharist, is this prayer made in the liturgies 
attributed to St, James, St Basil, and St* Chrysostom* In 

p Litbbei, torn- i. col 401 e*L VeneL 



the same place, in all the forms related under the names of CHAP. 

ancient saints and doctors of the Church, in the missal of 

the Maronites, unless it he one. But in the liturgy in titled 
to Sl Mark, this prayer is inserted straight after the be- 
ginning of the Eucharist or thanksgiving described afore. 
In the Ethiopic, immediately after the salutation of peace, 
which in the Eastern Churches was always straight before 
the Eucharist. In that of St, Cyril, among the three trans- 
lated out of the Arabic and mentioned afore , in the same 
place with that of St, Mark, From whence we may argue 
this to have been the course of the Church of Alexandria* 
by the agreement observed between those liturgies that are 
in titled to those that were Bishops of Alexandria, and the 
Ethiopic depending upon that Church, wherein they differ 
from the resL Yet so it is also in that of the Christians of 
St Thomas in the East Indies. In the Latin Churches this 
prayer seem cth of old to have gone before the consecration, 
for St Ambrose describing the consecration, saith, de Sacra- 
mentis, iv, 4, Oratia pr&mittitur pro popttto, pro regibus % pro 
cmterisV ; "Prayer is premised for the people, for the king, 
for the rest," And St Augustine, EpisL lix.* 1 ; Eligo in his 
373 verbis hoc intelligere, quod omnis vel pene omuis freqnentai Ec- 
ciesia s ut precationes accipiamtts dkttis, qnas facimus in cvlebra- 
tione Sa^rammtorum, anteqttam ilhtd, quod est in Domini menm f 
tneipiat benedici ; orationes, cum hvuvdicitur et sanctificatur ; "I 
choose to understand in these words," of St. Paul to Timothy, 
I., ii. 1, % " that which all or almost all the Church fre- 
quenieth, that we take those to be called supplications, which 
we make at celebrating the Sacraments, before that which is 
on the Lord's board begins to be blessed ; prayers, when it is 
blessed and sanctified." For without peradventurc these are 
the supplications for alt states of the Church, whereof he 

§61. The order of this prayer in the canon of the Mass [its pteM 
is somewhat strange : for he that will take notice of that ™ no *J; of 
which goes before the words of institution, and that which tb(jjii«.] 
follows after the same, until the Lord's Prayer, comparing 
all with the tenor of other liturgies, may observe that they 

* Chap* vii. tect, 41. 

* Oratio petitiir- — E4, Ben. 

« S. AugusL nti Pmidnutn, Ep, cxlix. 
ton i. iL col. 509. <mL Ben. 

a a 




[In the 

are all parcels of this prayer for all states of Christ's Church, 
which here wc describe. And I observe , that in that form 
which is intitled to St. Peter, in the missal of the Maronltes, 
this prayer is likewise made both before the words of institu- 
tion, and after the same* I am punctual in observing the 
tenor of several liturgies in this point, to give notice that 
there is no ancient or pretended ancient form extant, wherein 
prayer is not made by him that eclebrateth the Eucharist at 37 
the Lord's board, to this purpose, A thing which scenic th 
to me somewhat strange, that, according to the general 
custom of the Church declared afore, prayer having been 
made by the people a little afore upon the same subject, that 
is, for all states of Christ's Church, though not in the same 
manner, hut bidden by the deacon, and answered by the 
people, the same prayers should be again repeated by him 
that celebrate th the Eucharist at the Lord's board, 

§ 62. Which is more, the Church oi Africa seemeth to have 
Church.] differed from the rest in the manner of this prayer, whereof 
we speak, by St August in e^s words, Epi&L cvii. r : Quart do 
audis mcerdotem Dei ad Altar e ezhortantem populum Dei t orare 
pro incredults, ut cos Deus convertat ad Jidem f et pro catecku- 
menis, ut cis desiderium regeneration is inspiret, et pro fiddibus ut 
in eo quod esse coeperunt, ejus munere perseverent> " When thou 
nearest the priest at the Altar exhorting the people of God, 
pray for the unbelievers, that God would con\ T ert them to the 
faith : and for the hearers, that He would inspire the desire 
of regeneration into them: and for the faithful* that by His 
grace they may persevere in that which they have begun to 
be." Compare we herewith his words that arc read EphL 
cxviii. cap. 18 a : Quando autem non est tempm, cum in Ecclesia 
fratres eongregantur, sancta cantandi, nisi cum legitur, nut dte- 37 
putatur^ ant Antistes clard voce deprcca£ur t aid communis oratia 
voce diacotu indicitur f " When is it not time to sing holy 
songs at the assemblies of the brethren in the Church, but 
in time of reading or preaching, or when the Bishop prays 
with a loud voice, or when common prayer is indicted by 
the deacon's voice ? '* Again, Epist cvii. : Ubi audieris $acer~ 
dotem Dei, ad ejus Altare, populum hortantem ad Deum oran- 

T 3, Augustiii* Ep, eexvii. ftrt lita- 
itm t torn, ij. eoL 799, ed Ben. 

Kb. ii. Ep. lv\ torn. ii. coL 142* ed, Den. 



dt/m, vel ipsum clani voce orantem y ut incredulas ffenies adjidem c FT A p. 
suam venire compel tat, non rcspondebis^ Amen f " When you — — — 
hear the priest of God at His Altar exhorting the people of 
God, or himself praying with a loud voice, that He would 
compel unbelieving nations to His faith, do ye not answer, 
Amen ?" When St. Augustine mentioneth common prayer 
indicted by the deacon's voice, he acknowledged the litanies 
described afore — -which Justin Martyr also calls common 
prayers', because they proceeded from all the people — to 
have been practised in the African Churches before the 
Eucharist : which notwithstanding, by his words it appeareth 
that he which celebrated the Eucharist in the same form, was 
wont to exhort the people to make this prayer for all states 
of persons, unbelievers, hearers, believers, for instance of the 
rest, which is not according to the form of any of those litur- 
gies which we have, to my remembrance. But he informeth 
376 us besides, that those things which the Bishop exhorted the 
people to pray for, the same he prayed for alone afterwards, 
and that prayer he means when he speaks of the Bishop pray- 
ing with a loud voice. 

§ 63. It is hard for me to give account of this general prac- [ iu on* 
tice of the ancient Church otherwise than by conjecture. Thus Ema ' -* 
much may be affirmed with confidence, that the practice of 
this prayer was the effect of the Apostle's instruction whereof 
our service speaketh ; "Who by Thy holy Apostle hast taught 
us to make prayers and supplications, and to give thanks for 
all men." The words of the Apostle, 1 Tirn* ii. 1* 2 ; "I 
exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, inter- 
cessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men ; for kings, 
and all that are in authority ; that we may lead a quiet and 
peaceable life in all godliness and honesty/' St* Ambrose 
upon these words ; Il&c regula ecctesiastiea est tradita a ma- 
ffistro Gentium , qua ufttntur so cer dotes nostri, ut pro omnibus 
supplicmt) deprecantes pro regibus kitjus sttculi ; ut subjectas 
kabeant gentes t ut in pace pasiti, in tranquiUitate mentis et qniete 
Deo nostra servire possimus* Orantes etiam pro iis f quibus sub~ 
limis potestas est credit a, ut in just i tin et veritate gnhement rem- 
pubiieam f suppeditante rerum abundantia, ut amota perturba~ 
tione seditiontSj succedat lmtitia\ ** This ecclesiastical rule is 
* Sect 3. * S. Ambros. Opp., torn. ii. col. 292, ed, Ben. 

a a 2 

chap, delivered to the Church by the doctor of the Gentiles, which 

*- — our priests use lo make supplication for all, praying for the 

kings of this world, that they may hold the nations subject, 
that settled in peace wc may he able to serve our God with 
tranquillity and quiet of mind. Praying also for those that 
are trusted with high power, that they may govern the com- 
monwealth in justice and truth, with abundance of all things, 
that the trouble of sedition being removed, gladness may 377 

§ 64, When he calleth it the rule of that service which the 
priests ministered, it is plain he understandeth the words of 
the Apostle concerning the prayers which were made at the 
Lord's board at celebrating the Eucharist : besides, the brief 
which he relafccth containeth the chief particulars of that 
form produced out of the Constitutions of the Apostles, So 
St Augustine, EpisL lix., in the words partly related afore, 
partly to be related afterwards*, acknowledged the whole 
order of the service which the Eucharist was celebrated with 
to be prescribed in these words of the Apostle. But this 
purpose to prove there needs no great dispute* The general 
custom of the ancient Church, gathered from the marvellous 
agreement of all ancient forms of service that remain, speaks 
aloud that this prayer for all men at the Eucharist, whereof 
we speak, comes from the order of the Apostle. 
[Used at § 65. It teemeth therefore to me most probable that the 
brat ion of meaning of the Apostle is this, and so was understood and 
ri?t n udut " practised by all the ancient Church, that at the celebration of 
the Eucharist, supplications and prayers be made for all men, 
for kings, &e. For it is nothing forced or strained to take 
the word evxapitTrla^ or * thanksgivings," in the same sense 
in which it stands in the passages of Clemens and Ignatius s?s 
alleged afore *, for the celebration of the Eucharist, for the 
whole action 3 and all the prayers which it was celebrated 
with. And otherwise the consequence of the Apostle's words 
will be altogether impertinent. For in the common and gene- 
ral sense of this word thanksgiving, it is not proper to exhort 
that giving of thanks be made for all men, for kings and so 
forth, that we may lead a peaceable life in all godliness and 

1 Sect (JO, ud Meet. 7.'. 

* &*ct d'i. 



honesty: but it is proper to exhort that supplications and chap, 

prayers be made for all men, for kings and the rest* that by 

the means of their ride and government we may lead a peace- 
able life in all godliness and honesty : and it is proper enough 
to exhort that thanksgivings be made for all men to that pur- 
pose, understanding by thanksgivings that action of celebrating 
the Eucharist, part whereof are those supplications and prayers, 
§ f*6. And thus, as in lieu of spiritual graces in prayer, 
which were used to make supplication for the necessities of 
all members and states of the Church under the Apostle, 
according to St. Chrysostom alleged afore 1 , prayers after- 
wards in most parts of the Church were indicted by the 
deacon and made by the people, which for the manner and 
substance both were conceived afore to be the original of 

379 those that since have been called litanies : so nevertheless to 
give effect to this rule of the Apostle it scenic th to have been 
an ancient and general custom of the Church to make suppli- 
cations and prayers at the Lord's board at celebrating the 
Eucharist, though much to the same purpose with the former 
for all states of men, but of the Church in particular. 

§ 87. And this nice observation, if it may take place, will 
be of great consequence to out the Church of Rome of all 
pretence of the sacrifice of the Mass in the sense of the 
ancient Church, and in particular in the style and tenor of 
the liturgies themselves, which for the great agreement be- 
tween themselves, and with the style of the most ancient 
Church- writers, seem to contain and express it. For it is 
manifest that it is called an oblulion or sacrifice in all litur- 
gies, according to the style of the most ancient Church- 
writers, not as consecrated, but as presented and offered — 
whether by the people, as the custom was, to hiui that minis- 
tered, or by him that ministered, to God — to be consecrated 
as aforesaid. It is the style of the form produced out of the 
Constitutions of the Apostles', "We offer unto Thee this bread 
and this cup, beseeching Thee that they may become the 
body and blood of Christ to the soul's health of them that 
receive ;" or to that purpose. Thus far there is no pretence of 

3S0 the sacrifice of the Mass, which stipposetb the body and blood 
of Christ present as the subject of it, True it is that the 

* Chip. v. sect, 22. • Sett 52. 




style of this prayer whereof we speak, in divers points of 
divers liturgies runs in the terms of, M we offer unto Thee,'* 
for such and such, for this and that, 

§ 68, But it is to be observed that this prayer came not 
after the consecration in all liturgies, and according to the 
custom of all Churches, to give occasion to think that the 
meaning is, to offer Christ there present by consecration, for 
the said persons and causes, but went afore it in divers, as 
hath been said, the purpose of it being to execute the Apo- 
stle's exhortation to make prayers, supplications, and inter- 
cessions for all men at celebrating the Eucharist, Besides, it 
is nowhere said, " we offer unto Thee the body and blood of 
Christ" for such persons and causes; but it is divers times 
said, tf we offer unto Thee" rrfv Xoyt/crjv Xarpeiap Tavrr)v 9 "this 
reasonable service :" and what is that but these prayers ? For 
in the form alleged b it is said at some points, u we pray Thee 
for the Church, and for the king ;" at others, fl we offer unto 
Thee for this people, and for the weather , and fruitful sea- 
sons;" and shall we not think them both to stand in one 

§ 69* It hath been shewed that this prayer is the practice 
of the Apostle's exhortation to make prayers, and supplica- 
tions, and thanksgivings for all men; and it hath been de- 
clared that the meaning of his exhortation is, that at the cele-ssi 
bration of the Eucharist such prayers and supplications be 
made. Therefore when it is said by name, in the form re- 
lated out of the Constitutions of the Apostles, " we offer unto 
Thee for this people, we offer unto Thee for the weather, 
and fruitful seasons," what should hinder the meaning to be 
according, at this celebration of the Eucharist, iS In confidence 
that Thou nearest Thy Son for us, at this remembrance of 
His death, and in obedience to Thine Apostle, we pray unto 
Thee for such persons and causes f as it is in express terms 
in the liturgy of the Indian Christians ; Hdc enim hard qu4 
Patri Tito sacrifidum offerer* rogo Majestatem* Tuam, miserere 
omnium creaiurarum^ * For at thin hour, when sacrifice b 
offered to Thy Father, I pray Thy Majesty have mercy on 
all creatures. * And thus, so often as we read in Church- 

h Sect, 59. lioth. P«tr., lorn, xamt. p> 675. Lttgton, 

c Rogo gratiam tuam, in the Bib- 1077, 



writers of offering for such and such persons and causes^ the c H A P, 

meaning is 5 that tliey offered the elements in which the ■ — - 

Eucharist was to be celebrated, that with it they might pray 
for those persons or causes, according to the Apostle. 

5 70. And if the question be further made concerning! Of prayeri 
offering for the dead, it shall seem to me nothing improbable parted.] 
that because the Apostle exhorteth that supplications, and 
prayers, and intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all 
382 men j therefore the ancient Church enlarged the sense of that 
"all men" further than they needed to do, to comprise the 
dead as well as the living : and that thence came the comme- 
moration of the dead at the Eucharist and the offering of the 
elements, that it might be celebrated, and that such comme- 
moration might be made. Though as concerning the parti- 
culars of the prayers for the dead in the ancient Church, how 
far they came from the Scripture, and how far from human 
opinions, in that whole matter I refer myself to those things 
which have been declared with so much learning by that 
excellent learned Prelate, in his Answer to the Jesuit's Chal- 
lenge in Ireland d P 

§ 71. As for the rest of the service which the Eucharist is The resi- 
celebrated with, after the prayer hitherto described, there fol- * erV i C <», 
lows in the Constitutions of the Apostles a brief repetition of 
the litanies, with a prayer of the Bishop, that the congrega- 
tion may worthily communicate*. In the time of commu- 
nicating it is ordered there f that the thirty-fourth Psalm be 
sung, m regard of the words M O taste and sec how gracious 
the Lord is T In other of the Eastern liturgies, the twenty- 
third, forty-second, hundred-and-eightcenth, and the hundred- 
and-forty-fourth are prescribed*. The Latin liturgiats call the 
verses of psalms that are sung during the time of communi- 

6 Archbishop Usslier* See Tract* 
for the Times, No. 1*1. 

* *Eiri0\fif'iw itp? foww koI $*\ rb itoifi- 
vt6v Xou tovto" ft RV ovtqv i^€\i^ta ti'j 

trov Ha&apubi yivvfA^vov* awb watniti 
fioKuvfiott trap/ths kv& Trvt&pamt tux***' 
tuif trp'jH(t}itvit)Y ayaBitttf iral fnj&fva 
ijfxQv tLi'd^iov k pi ft} i, a.\ha fioTjOh'S vpatr 
ytFau' — Labbci, torn. i. col. -IB!-. id. 

1 WaXphf Bt \ty(<r9a TptRKOTTO* rpU 

ra* 4 V Tip fAtTaAtLH&dvfiF Trdvras fouj 
Aoiir^ur. Lahhei, torn* i, coL 185. ed. 
VtDtt. It h the thirty- Juurth in the 
English division of the Psalms* 

* The fatten xxli. Dtmkmi ngk 
me, exvi. Ltimhite Ihntiiium pMtii gen* 
to, and cxliv. Exalt aha Tr Dam tutus 
! to he sung in the li- 
turgy of St. J dines ; Psalm xii. Quern- 
Htlmtidiitti dctidctat rtrttm, m the li- 
turgy of St, Mark, These are mnn- 
in the English version respect* 
ivily xxfiL cxvii. lx\\ 



and the prayer or thanksgiving that 383 

[Oat of St. 

c H a R eating, " communions 1 

: — follows after the same ? u post-communions 1 ." Such a form of 

thanksgiving there is extant in all liturgies. The people is 
dismissed with the benediction of the Bishop in the Constitu- 
tions, which benediction comes after the communion k ; before 
the communion in most of the other liturgies 1 . 

§ 72* I will here repeat that whole passage of St* Augus- 
tine, the beginning whereof was produced afore m , for it con- 
taineth the whole order of these remains whereof we speak, 
Ep* Itx. ! Eligo in his verbis hoc intelligerey quod om7iis vel pene 
omnis frequentat Ecclesia, ut precationes accipiamus dictas* qua* 
facimus in celebratione Sacramentorum, antequam illud, quod est 
in Domini mensa, incipiat benedict; orationes, ciim benedicitur, et 
$anctijicatur> et ad dlstribumdum comtninuitur, quam Mam peti- 

Honenifjere omnis Eccksia Dominica oratione conchtdit; 

.....* inierpcllationcs anient, siuc ut vestri codices habent, posttda- 
tiomstjiunt} cum popuius benedicitur; tunc enim Antistites, vclut 
advocati) susceptos suos per manus intpositiottem misericordissima? 
offerunt potcstati* Quibus peractis, et participato tanto Sacra- 

b Post oseulum pads euscipit Sacer- 
dos sacra dona, quibus ipse rufeetua 
ea populo dispell.? nt» et interim chorus 
cant At Antiphanam quae ideo Commumo 
didtur, quia populo communicant? 
cantatm\ Ulim pa aim us aimul concini 
sol chat cum Glnha Patri, at que ipsiua 
Antiphonae repetitione, ut tola actio 
com muni on is, laude Dei person ante, 

fjerfieeretur, — Bona, Rer, Liturgic., 
ik ii cap, xvii. £ I. p. 58G. Atilvcrp. 


1 Dinconus veto ex pneBcripto Ordi- 
ii is Bonus!, videns ornnea com muni - 
c&sse, facie oat siguum cruel s in fronte, 
kit Prior scbobe caJitomm ex eo mtL-l- 
ligeiet, qunndo deWret post Aniiphv- 
nam, qua rtmmuuio vocatur, glumm S. 
Trinitati psallere, ct versum repeierc. 
Olim enim post ipsam communionem 
psalm us, et dincono iunuente, Gloria 
Ptitri eantari solcbaut, cum Aiuiplion.T 
repetitione. Turn surgens Pontifex c 
eede sua, ct veniens ad A] tare, da bat 
orationcm ad comphmlnm. Sic enim 
in libro Sacra me ntorum S. Greporii 
nuneupattir orntio, qua? nunc duitur 
Poslcommunio, quia niuut um ca reei- 
tata pro gratiarum action? Sacrifieiimi 
completur.— Bona, Her. Liturgic, lib* 
ti. cap. X3E. f 2. p. 600. Autverp. 1677. 

* Called ^■b-J'kAtjo'ii jirra t$jv fttrd- 

kT$iv.— -AposL Const it ut,, lib. viii, )5. 
Labhei, torn. i. col. 485. cd. Venet In 
the original edition the text ran that, 
"comes after the consecration." 

1 Communionem subaequentem pwe- 
cedebat henedictio ab Kpiaeopo vel Sa- 
cerdote impertita, ad quam Dinconus 
present es data voce adniouehat ut se 
inclinarcnt ...... Post benedictionem 

et Sacerdotjs communionem fi deles 
com muni cat uri ad Altare accede bant 
— Mk billon, de Liturg. Gallic., lib. J. 
r fl p. v. §§ 23, 24. p, 51. Paris. 1729. 
The reason of giving the benediction 
in thli place ilubilkut explains thus; 
— In Missali Mozarabico henedictio 
ubiquecommunbtii protmittitur, Item- 
ijue in Oallicano passim spud Thotna- 
aium : et hactenus benedictio Epkco^ 
palis ante communionem datiu : ftoippe 
liecbat iis, qui non communicabant, 
accepta benedictionc ante communio- 
nem disced ere , . . . , patet, non omnes 
qui tunc Missie adenint, in eadem 
communionem aceepisse . . , . . Porro 
•fait rxpieta cense bafttr ante roranm- 
nionenit . . . , lb , cap. iv, § 14, p. Stf. — 
See also Menard's miles upon the Li- 
ber Kacranieutnmm of SL Gregory the 
Great, mot. 100. Rrwdirtia. — S. Gregor. 
Opp,, tout, iii. ■ ' 2ftS, n\. lieu. 

■ Sttet, *io. 



mento, gratiarum actio cuncta concludit, u I choose to under- CHAP, 
stand in these words that which all, or almost all, the Church - — 

frequeuteth, that we conceive those to be called supplications 
which we make at celebrating the mysteries, before that 
which is on the Lord's board begins to be blessed ; prayers, 

384 when it is blessed, and sanctified, and broken to be distri- 
buted, which petition almost all the Church concludes with 
the Lord's Prayer" — so it is in all forms that are extant, and 
it is another mark that they were prescript—" but interces- 
sions, or as your books have it, requests, are made when the 
people is blessed : for then the Bishops, as advocates, receiv- 
ing their people* offer them to the most merciful Power with 
imposition of hands* Which done, and so great a Sacrament 
participated, all concludes with thanksgiving/ ' The hundred- 
at id-third of the African canons related afore D ; Plucuit etiam 
hoc, ut preces qua* probates fuerint in concilio f she prarfatio7ies f 
sive commmdationeSy sen wanus imposition's ab omnibus cele- 

§ 73* It seems that the benedictions of the Bishop or pres- [of the 
byter that celebrated— to whom this office also belonged, as Sl f \hz* 
Hicromc contendeth— whereof we speak* are called here com- P C(> P ,C -J 
mendations, or impositions of hands, [that is] to say, prayers 
to commend the people to God with imposition of hands: 
unless by' these commendations we understand those prayers 
for all men, according to the Apostle, wherewith the several 
estates of all men, especially of the Church, were commended 
to God: which, sailh Sk Augustine, went before the sanctify- 
ing of the elements* In the Anaphora of St* Basil published 
by Masius out of the Syriacp, there is this prayer at the 

385 beginning, before the consecration of the Eucharist : Extender 
Domme 9 manum Titam non aspeetalrilenh e * benedic servis et an- 
cittis Tuisy mundatoque ipsos ab omni macula cant is *t spirit us, 
atque dignare nos fieri participes corporis unigeniti Filii Tui. 
The people bowed the head at receiving this blessing, the 
Bishop holding his hands over them, as a sign of G oil's hand 
stretched out to bless* Therefore he saith, u Extend, O Lord, 
Thy invisible hand, and bless Thy servants and handmaids, 

" Chap, vii + sccL ffl. 
■ Rp, ad Ewtnget, qunied u. note t 
chap, x. sett. 6* i(f Trim. G«v«Tii 

* Bibliolhee. Patritm, tan 1 1 
27, Paris. 1610. 


chap, and cleanse them from all stain of flesh and spirit, and deign 

- them to become partakers of the body of Thy only begotten 

§ 74- Of confession of sins at beginning of the Mass hath 
been said 4 : after the consecration the benediction is con- 
tained in these words, Pax Domini sit semper vobheurn : H The 
peace of God be with you always*" You shall see how 
Luther understands it, in his form of communion of the year 
M D X X 1 1 1 r . Qu& est quasi p ubliea q u tedtt m aosohitio a peccatis 
comma uicantium* Vox plane l£vaiiaeiica t annnncians remissio- 
nem peccatorum f uniaz ilia ac dignissima ad mrnsam Domini 
pr&paratiQj sijide apprehemlatur, noti see us atqne ex ore Christi 
proiata : " Which is," saith he, "a kind of public absolution of 
them that communicate from their sins. The very voice of 
the Gospel pronouncing remission of sins the only fittest pre- 
paration to the Lord's board, if apprehended by faith, as out 
of Christ's mouth." But it is plain that this is to be accounted ast* 
a benediction, because, as hath been said, confession of sins 
and prayer for pardon upon the same is made at the begin- 
ning of the Mass* In the liturgy of St, Basil which we have 
translated out of the Arabic, at the beginning prayer is made 
for remission of sins at large, upon the promise of the Gospel, 
"whose sins ye remit" . . *< the like prayer is made there after 
receiving the Eucharist, In the Ethiopic, prayer is made 
before the consecration of the Eucharist to like purpose, 
though corrupted with that superstition which ignorance 
breedeth* In the Anaphora of St* Peter in the Maronites* 
missal this prayer is made for forgiveness of sins. In the 
Jesuit Kircherus' Prodromm Coptm* for an essay of that lan^ 
guagc, I remember, there is produced a form of this prayer, as 
ministered by the deacon, out of some of their liturgies. The 
books are not in my hands for the present, This seemeth 
most answerable to that confession of sins which our service 
useth before the Eucharist, otherwise it is to be granted that 
in most liturgies that which seemeth to keep most corre- 
spondence with it is rather a benediction than confession 
with prayer for pardon of sins. 

i Sectt. s — II. 

* Formula Misste Communion is pro 
Ecclesiii Wittemhprgenaj, Luther, t i^ mf 
to m. ii. fol. 3 6 8 W i u b e I g K, 1 55 L 

• AthanAsu Kireheri. Prounumi* 
Cofrtut, lite figyptiacttij tap. ii H p. 
37. Homo?, tti36. 



§ 75. It remaineth that from that which hath been said we c H a p. 

give account of that form of service which we use* deriving it ijj" — 

higher than the Mass — from which it is charged to come, as charge of 

containing nothing but that which is found there, though not j n olir 

all that is there — and shewing where it shall be requisite that servic€ - 

the corruptions of the Mass are laid aside in it 1 . How just 

this charge is may appear in the confession of sins which it 

387 begins with : were it enough to condemn any part of our 
service to say that the like is used in the Breviary and Mass, 
then must we condemn almost all reformed Churches that 
use confession of sins at the beginning of their service, as 
the Breviary and Mass do. l)u Plessls u thought otherwise : 
like a man of learning as well as nobility he saw it was an 
argument of some antiquity in the practice of the reformed 
Churches in France, that confession of sins, which they use in 
the beginning, was and had been used in the Mass, and this 
ancient use an advantage to recommend it And we have 
cause to see that though it was not used in the beginning of 
service, where hearers and penitents were dismissed in the 
middle, yet the alteration of times having brought that to 
nothing, we have no cause to balk it at the beginning, though 
it be there used in the Breviary and Mass, 

§ 76. He that will use a little judgment and conscience [of daily 
must distinguish between a form of public service and the i'SJjj" 
corruptions of the Mass pinned to it ; between that which we 
follow and the reasons why we follow it. If by doing that 
which is done in the Mass we retain the corruptions of it, it is 
time it were done no more : if any man would not have us 
do that aright which tends to the service of God, because in 

388 the Mass it is done amiss, we are bidden to our loss. The 
reason why we begin with confession of sins is not to be 
faulted ; both because daily sins accrue daily upon the con- 
gregation and members of it, and dally reckonings not daily 
cleared oppress in the end, and there b no such means as the 

1 M For although it be objected that 
U i» purged from the Popish tiros yet 
if it should W brought to the touch- 
stone, or tried in the teat, let the wisest 
then judge hnw free from Popish dross 
it is, when therein they shall find U>> 
mi&h superstitious ceremonies nmin- 
t uined and pressed upon men's con- 

sciences, as Ihe Surplice, Cross in Bap- 
tism, kneeHng at the Sn crimen t, stand- 
ing at the Creed, attended with their 
several significations.'* — Christ on Ilia 
Throne, case vi p, 24, See note t. 
chap. vi. sect. 32, for the former part 
of this passage. 
u Sec sect, 5 P 



public prayers of the Church to strike them clear : and parti- 
cularly as an entrance and preparation to the service of God, 
because if our confession be such as it must be presumed to 
be s it is the only sufficient disposition to make our service 
acceptable to God, 

§ 77, That which this Church of England is to give ac- 
count of in particular is the declaration of forgiveness, upon 

Extent of 
the power 
of 1 lie 

thwcinlt tne confession of sins* not used in other reformed Churches, 

coofiiteth* I n this he shall proceed upon the surest ground, that first 

shall resolve wherein the power of binding and loosing, of 

retaining and remitting sins, given by our Lord in the Gos- 
pel, under the symbol of the keys of His house, consisteth, 
and how far it extendeth. For as there is no question that 
the ministers of the Church, by this commission, are autho- 
rized to declare forgiveness of sins to whomsoever they shall 
find disposed by serious contrition and true faith to receive it 
at God's hands: so to think that to bind aud loose 5 to remit 
and retain sins, is nothing else but to declare them bound or 
loosed, remitted or retained, and that the charge whereof we 
speak consists in declaring this and nothing else, is a thing 
which the property of no language will bear, seeing that in 
all use of speech all men understand it to be one thing to 
bind and loose, to retain and remit sins, another thing to 
declare that : yet is it no part of my mind to make this 
power of the keys, by which sins are bound or remitted, to 
consist in the power of pronouncing sentence of forgiveness! 
which God rati fie th : as resting well assured that God giveth 
pardon to whomsoever lie sees disposed to receive it : aud 
that thenceforth that disposition being brought to pass, the 
ministry of the keys consisteth only in declaring the pardon 
given by God 1 : it seemeth nevertheless that the ministry of 


1 Hoc do remittendis ct rctinendiii 
pecentis man da tn in t et ilia de ligatnlo 
ct aolvendo Fetro facta promissio tion 
alio dvbent r^Jtrri qiuim ad verhi minis- 
terium, 41101! dum Apostoli* comtnilte- Dominium >imul et hoc aohendi 
lignndirjue JninuTi- ipMM iii^tiuiLuLL , ■ » 
To.stitientuH eat ergo Christ us nihil in 
EvnngeUi pr&diea timw ApMhtotHm «*«f 
- mijustfr'iitnu - . . Itaque peecato- 
rum remission em quam annunciarcnt, 
VL'ram e*se Dei promissionrm, d.iinnn- 
t ion cm nnain protmntiarcrtt, cert vim 

ess? Dei judicium. . * . - Hah f mm patet- 
i tift' in eluvium ewe tkmpUcMtr in ill is 
farts Rvangtdii fit.rdinu'iotii m : ncc turn 
1. item ease quam minbterium, si 
.j i hfffldliei r-sj)"u imus. Nm enim Ao- 
iiiinibus hattr pettttfUtGt pr<j)trie Christtt* 
rfidit, Sid Pirftf Mte cujui homines ml- 
nistroa fecit — Calvin. Institute lib. t¥, 
cap* xi. § J. Whitaker and Cauwright 
repeat the same duct Hue, the former 
in his Prelection**, the latter in his 
Annotations iiprm l lie Khemish ver- 
sion of the Now Testament. Whi laker 



the keys is formerly seen otherwise, that is, in procuring that chap. 

disposition of the hearts which is requisite to make men — - 

capable of forgiveness, in bringing them to the knowledge of 
their sins, in directing the course which tbey have to take in 
seeking their reconcilement with God*. 

§ 78. The discipline of the primitive Church seemcth to 
point out to us this direct meaning of our Lord's promise, 
agreeable to the rest of the Scriptures : according to the 
words of Firmilianus Bishop of C^sarea Cappadocia to St. 
Cyprian, in the seventy-fifth of his epistles produced else- 
350 where 1 ; Non quasi h nobis remisswnem peceatarum consequan- 
tttr, sed ut per nas ad inteltigentiam delict arum suorum conver- 
tantur, et Domino plenius satisfacere cogantur. " Not as if they 
procured the pardon of their faults at our hands," saith he, 
£t but that by us they may be converted to understand their 
faults, and constrained to make more full satisfaction to the 
Lord." How he meaneth that men are converted to acknow- 
ledge their faults to God by the means of His ministers is to 
be seen in Tertullian's words, ApologeL f cap. xxxix., speaking 
thus of their assemblies \ Ibidem ctiam exhortaticmes, castiga- 
Hones, et censura divina* Nam et judieatur magna cum pan- 
dere, ut apud certos de Dei conspecta ; summumque fitturi 
judicii pr&judicium est, siquis ita deHqiterit, ut a commtmica- 
tione oratianis, et convent us, et omnis sancti commercii relegetur : 
"There also are exhortations, reproofs, and the censure of 
God. For first, judgment is given with great weight, as 
among men assured of God's sight ; and then it is the great- 
est prejudice of the judgment to corne, if a man fail so as to 
be confined from the communion of prayers, and assemblies, 

saith ; — Cum ergo Apes toll et caeteri Ee- 
cltsiamm miuistri Ernrtgrliuw Chnxti 
popttli* attnttttciant et proptwnntt '"?« 
ctawjt is tax tractfHit t id cat, Ctrl urn cre- 
dent! bus et vitam emendantibus ape- 
riunt, uon credentibus atque impro- 
bii ckudunt. Oaves ergo in hujus 
Evangelic^ pm*dientionis functiane 
vers&ntur, ex qua etiam censura Ee- 
clesiastica Sacrament <i ruin que admin- 
istrate pendcu— Controv. iv. Q, *2. 
cap, v. p. 504, Gene v. 1610. Cart- 
wright thus ;— u By bifidm^ and loosing 
are signified the same things that arc 
marked by the keys .,.,..,,* There 
remaineth nothing here but to unsay 

that which the Jesuits do say j and to 
deny that which they do affirm* The 
sum of which denial is T that the Pope 
hath mulling but that [which] all other 
Hi -hops [hare], no, nor no much in 
thii usurpation of his as others have, 
and tiny nothing but a ministerial 
power to pronounce those bound or 
loosed, whom the Lord, by the preur fl- 
ing of the word t hath before hum id or 
loosed," — Annot upon St. Mattk xvi. 
19, p. 63, A.D. 1018, 

* See Prim. Govern., chap, xl secL 

■ Prim. Govern., chap. xL *ect. 3. 



chap, and all holy commerce * It was not the mere preaching of 

■ — the Scripture, and knowledge of the doctrine of it, that 

brought men to acknowledge their offences, according to 

§ 79* Tertullian shews it was the exhortations, the re- 
proofs, the censures of the Church, that were employed to 
that purpose. By whom it followeth there; prmidettt pro-n 
bait qnique senwres : "The presidents are all the approved 
elders." The Bishop— whom we have seen him acknowledge 
elsewhere* — and his presbyters* And in the same epistle 
of Firmilianus 1 '; Omnis potestas ei gratia in Ecclesia con&titiita 
sit, ubi prmxident majores natu, qui ct baptlzmidi, tt mattum 
imponendit ct ordinandi possident potestatem : m All power and 
favour is estated upon the Church, the presidents whereof are 
the elders, which have power both to baptize, and to impose 
hands" — in penance — "and to ordain. w It is the Bishop 
that writes this. The exhortations, the reproofs, the cen- 
sures, by which men were brought to the sight and acknow- 
ledgment of their faults, and constrained to the due course 
of humiliation for procuring forgiveness, were ministered at 
their assemblies, but by the presidents. 

§ 80, The means of forgiveness ministered in the discipline 
of penance consists in the party's repentance and the prayers 
of the Church. Penance was not prescribed in the ancient 
Church only to give satisfaction to the Church for the scandal 
of bad example : those that imagine this shall not take notice 
of any mention of it in ecclesiastical writers, but they shall 
find llieir mistake convinced; it was to appease the wrath c of 
God offended, and to recover His favour again, which is in 
Firmilianus 1 terms, "to make satisfaction to God;* 1 not in 3fl 
the senseless and impious sense of the now Church of Rome, 
to make Him recompense for the debt of punishment incurred, 
but according to the use of the word in good Latin, to ap- 
pease His wrath with true sorrow, and with cordial contrition, 
to seek reconcilement. Imposition of hands was not used 
once, in pronouncing sentence of forgiveness ; but always at 
public service, during the prescript time of penance, those i 

[Of pen 


* Prim. Govern., chap, til sect *. 
h Ep. Ixxv. p. 221, ed Oxon. Cited 
before in, Prim* Govern,, chap. xiL 

sect 11, 

c See Juat WcigtitR and Measures, 
chap* x viiL 




that state, after the earnest prayers of the congregation for chap. 

their pardon* coming and kneeling afore the Bishop* holding — 

his hands over their heads, with his blessing and prayers 
for that purpose, were dismissed afore the mysteries: tins 
was called on their part {rn-oTrrmut^ or falling down, on his 
part ^eipoOetrta or imposition of hands in penance d * In the 
ministry of these means of forgiveness the power of the keys 
is seen* In R hen an us' argument to Tcrtiillian s book de Pami~ 
tentia* are to be found divers remarkable things to this pur- 
pose, out of the Penitentials of Theodulpbus of Orleans, and 
Theodore of Canterbury, out of St. Basil and Tcrtiillian, 
that confession to God is that which clcanseth sin, but con- 
fession to the Church is to the purpose of learning the course 
men are to hold in seeking pardon, and obtaining the prayers 
393 of the Church to that purpose. 

4 81. Besides this, I find that St. Cyprian hath placed the 
power of the keys in the Sacrament of Baptism. His words 
arc these, Epist. lxxlii/ : Manifesium est mttcm f ubl et per quos 
remissa peccatorum dart possit) qum in baptismo scilicet datur. 
Nam Petro prirnum Dominus^super quern &dificavit Eceksiam t 
et unde unitatis originem imtituit et ostendit — potestatem islam 
dedit f ut id soheretur in cmlis 9 quod ille soluisset in terris* 
" Now it is manifest where and by w T hom remission of sins 
may be given, I mean that which is given in baptism. For 
unto Peter — upon whom He built the Church, and from 

1 See sect, 24, 

* Beat! Rhenani in Tertulliani Opera 
Annotation ei T p. 10. ad caic* Tertull. 
Opp,, Franekerie* 1597- — Confessio 
quam sacerdotibus fkriimts, hoc ctiam 
nobis adminirulum arifert, quia, ae- 
cepto ab cis salutori consiiio, aaluberri- 
mis pern Unit ire observation! bus nve 
mutuis oration lbus T peccatoniin macu- 
las diluimus, — Theodult Capitul. xxx w 
apnd Sirmondi Opp. Var.» torn. ii. <:<>L 
9. 16. Paris, 1696. et Labbci, torn, \x. 
col 19L ed. 

Quidam Deo solummodo confiteri 
debere peccata diennt, ut Grceei. Qui- 
dim vero Sacerdotibus eonntenda esse 
peTcensent, ut lota fere Sane La Eecle- 
aia t » • ♦ i Apoatoli institutio nobis se- 
quenda est* ut confiteamur aUemtrnin 
peccata nostra* et orcmus pro inviccm, 
ul salveniur, Confeftsio i taque qu» 
soli Deo fit* quod eat juitorum, puigat 

peccata, £a vera qns Sacerdoti fit, 
docet qu alitor ipsa purgentur peccata. 
Dcus oamque salutis et annctitatia 
auctor, et largitor plerutnqne banc 
prrrbct sua? poenitenlia? tnedicinam 
invlfiibi Ii admin intra tionc, pie rum que 
medicorum opcratione. — Thcodori Poe- 
iiiti ntiah\ p, 80* cd. Petit. Paris. 1677- 
Also m Gratjan, d* PmtH. dirt. L e. 
90* where the gloss on Mcdicorarn is 

Ef Ti yryay* Trapa rb 8#oy ...... faij 

iirixpunrfffitiMf rh irX^fXfif\Tjfi.a,, &AAd. t£ 
KOucf QayytWirtfi, £>* hv 5ii KQiyy}* 
rpttrtv^t 8*pairfv&Tf to *ddov to ft trvv- 
tvtxfMvraf t£ Tauiintp jrojfip. — S. Basil. 
Serin, Ascetic, torn. ii. p. 323. ci Ben. 
The passage from Terlullian ia quoted 
before in Prim. Govern,, chap. xi. sect 

' Ep, ljcxiii. p. 201. ed. Oxon. 

C,H A P 


whom He appointed and expressed the original of unity — 
our Lord at first gave this power, that it should be loosed in 
heaven which he loosed on earth." And by and by after- 
wards: Uttde InttAlhjimuSy mm nisi in Ecvlesia preepositiSj et in 
Evangclka lege ac Dominica ordinathnefundatisy licere baptiztire, 
et remissam peccatorum dare ; H Whence we understand that 
It is not lawful but for those that are set over the Chinch, 
and founded upon the law of the Gospel, and the ordinance 
of our Lord s to baptize and give remission of sins;" to wit, 
as is given by the power which St. Peter received under the 
figure of the keys of God's Church. 

§ 8& I find further that Primasius, a scholar of St. Augus- 
tine's* seems to place the power of binding and loosing in the 
Sacrament of the Eucharist, in Apocalt/ps, viii. 3 K . A thing 
somewhat strange, to make the power of binding and loosing 
all one with the Sacraments; but that it is to be remembered 
that the judgment of the Church and the ministers of it goes 
before the ministering of them, to discern how fit they are for 
them that pretend, and to constrain them to the means which 
make them capable of forgiveness. It is no more than follows 
there in St. Cyprian \ speaking of rebaptizing those that 
returned from their heresies: Quapropter t qui fidei et veritati 
prcesumuSy cos qui adjidem et veritatem veniunt 3 et agentes ptMfU- 
tentifitn remk Li si hi pvecata deposennt, t&cipert? mm debemus et 
falter e ; Med correctos a nobU^ ae refomiatos y ad regnum cwlo- 
nan discipliuis ccehsiibus erudire* " Therefore we that are 
over the faith and truth must not deceive nor cozen those 
that come to the faith and truth, and doing penauce, desire 
their sins to be remitted, hut instruct them, amended and 
reformed by us, to the kingdom of heaven, with heavenly 
discipline " They that returned from heresies sought remis- 
sion of sins by repentance: his opinion was that it was not to 
be had without a second baptism : and the power of binding 


w Et occtpU Angela* thttrihulum et 
tmpk rit iilud (V igne arre Dei, et whit 
in temm* Et accept t Domino* corpus 
suum, id est, Eccleaiatn ; et perfidendo 
I'atris voluntatem, unplevit illani t\ 
igne arfle t id est, ex potentate solvt'iidi 
atque ligandi qua? ton sis tit in sac ri Il- 
eus et propttiatioue Dll I line dicitur 
etiain, Qui fat? it Angelos suos Spiritus 
et minis tros mat iguem ardent cm. In 

his enim accepit Ecdeaia omnctn po- 
tcstatcm in coelo et in terra, dam Dei 
ftaerifleium perfeen% offered te Domino 
M principal iter et exhibentibus Sanctis 
sua corpora hontiaui main sanctum. 
— Primus, in Apocalype,, lib* ill, in 
Bibliothcc. Putrutn Maxim,, torn, K. p. 
310. Lugdun, 1677* 

1 1 ,p. Lviciii. p, 208. cd. Oxuju 



and lousing he makes to consist in prescribing repentance chap, 
and admitting them to baptism upon repentance. — — — 

§ 83. So that in sonic he shall seem most sufficiently to 

3 M comprise the whole charge of binding and loosing, that shall 
make it to consist in the ministry of those means which dis- 
pose men to be capable of remission of sins. In which regard 
the ministers of the Church shall he said, with m much pro- 
priety of speech, to remit and retain sins, to bind and loose, 
as the physician is said to cult those diseases in which he 
does no more but prescribe or apply the remedies. But no 
man doubts but this office, as it is appointed in respect of 
God to procure pardon, so is it in respect of the conscience 
to assure it : winch assurance, as it is warrantable for them to 
^ive, that have seen the course performed which they arc 
intrusted to preseribej so is it due for him to receive that 
hath performed it. 

§ 84. Suppose then we leave it questionable — as not to be 
disputed in this place — what sins are to come under the dis- 
cipline of penance, either of necessity, or for a sure course of 
procuring their pardon ; certain it is thai the children of God 
do continually rememlxr, with remorse and bitterness of 
spirit, the sins which they committed of old: and certain it is 
that men's daily offences are not capable of so solemn a cure : 
so great is the number of them that it is not possible tor 
man's mind to attend them in particular. And as certain it 
is that there is no means so powerful to obtain pardon of 

3j)tithem as the daily prayers of the congregation to that purpose* 
So that the course which the Church prescribed* for the 
pardon of daily offences being put in practice, what can he 
more just, more due, than to declare that forgiveness which 
those that dissemble not, those that are as they pretend to 
be, do attain? What more comfortable than to hear the news 
of it from his mouth by whom the Church ministercth the 
office ? What more seasonable than to do this before we 
come to praise God and hear 1 1 is word, that we may per- 
suade our hearts that He aeeepteth this sen- ice at the hands 
of them that hate not to reform themselves? 

§ 85. In this consideration I must needs prefer the order Ofronfc*- 
of this Church of England before that of other reformed sills nd 
Churches, in that we put confession of sins in the first place J{7h^b™ 
TnoBNpiKE. u |, ginning. 





of oiir service, they refer it till after the Psalms, and the 
reading of the Scriptures, when the preacher goes up ixito 
the pulpit*. They reckon them, as needs they must, of the 
substance of their service. And Du Plcssis* hath pleaded 
them, as he had reason, to shew that their service eoujeth 
nearer that of the primitive Church than the Mass; but he- 
ginning as they do ? without solemn confession of sins before, 
they give the people occasion to esteem them otherwise than 
the service of God, as taken up merely to while out the time 
while the people assemble 1 . Whereas the solemn beginning^ 
of our service, with confession of sins, serves to put the 
people in mind that it is all the solemn service of God that 
follows, and of the attention of mind, and devotion of spirit 
which they owe it, by the preparation of confessing and 
putting away sins, requisite to make it acceptable. The mure 
have they to answer for, that make it their employment to 
extinguish in the minds of the people that respect to this part 
of God's service, which the order of the Church hath laboured 
to procure, and with the blessing of God had procured, had 
not their peevishness been, that will not have God served, 
unless it be that way they like. Whatsoever honour the 
praises of God reverently and attentively performed might 
have yielded II im, whatsoever good fruit the learning of His 
Scriptures might have brought forth in His people, is with 

1 "The public worship begin neth 
with prajer, and reading some portion 
of Holy Scripture both of the Old and 
New Tea tam en t, which the people hear 
with attention and reverence, and after 
rending* the whole congregation joineth 
tn singing some psalm, Thin reading 
and singing do continue till the preach- 
ing begin ; at winch time the mil 
having prefaced u little for quickening 
and lifting up the hearts of the people, 
first makcih a prayer for remission of 
sin, snnetification, and all things need- 
fnl, joining also confession of sin? and 
thanksgiving, with itelfttSon to 
the hearers j after which in the fore- 
noon U another psalm, and after the 
paalm a prayer for a blessing upon the 
preaching of the word." — The Govern- 
ment and Order of the Church of Scot- 
land, pp. IS, 16. Edinburgh, Mill. 

k See chap. 3* sect. 5* 

1 "The most of them [the Puritans] 
that arc hut doctors — as they term 

themselves — and rcadVrs of lectures in 
other in i ii s i' large*, do seldom ar never 
cume t't the xrteiee which in read in the 
church according to Hat Majesty'* 
law* ; but under pretence of studying 
for their sermons, do absent themsetres 
until service he done* or at the least 
alrnhsf finixhrti, i\m\ then they come in f 
LM.ivrly I warrant you, and do e,<i tn 
ihi* their own form of senice/' — Ban- 
croft'i Dangerous Positions, p + 1G3. 
London, I $05, and HilU. 

*' Give leave to me, a poor minister of 
God's Holy Word, to put you in mind 
of some errors in the public worship 
and service of God, as they call it, for 
which many of His Majesty's subjects 
have, ami daily do, more and more* with 
grief of heart refrain from earning to (he 
public worship and service of Gud t till 
the service he aft redd"— 'Certain 
Grievances worthy the Consideration 
uf Parliament, p. L A,D. 16K), See 
chap. vj. *eeU lb. 



justice to be required at their hands, that have been the c h a p. 
means to intercept it, by the unjust disgrace which they havr 
stuck upon the settled order of this service, 

§ 86. Now as concerning the ancient and general course 
of God's praises, and reading the Scripture, it appeareth by 
Justin Martyr and Tertulliau, that the order of reading the 
Scripture in the Church was arbitrary in their time, as ar> 

80S com mod a ted to the condition of the times and occasions of 
their assemblies by the guides of several Churches, The 
one of them saith m that the Scriptures are read, p&XP 1 * 
iyXCtipzlj "as far as occasion serves:" the other's words arc 
these, ApologeL) cap, xxxix. : Caimus ad Uterarum Dwinarum 
cammemorathnem t si quid prasentium temporum aital'das aut 
prtBmonere cogit