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Full text of "Theophilus Jones, F.S.A., Historian: His Life, Letters & Literary Remains"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




FRED NORMS ROBINSON 

op CAMBRIDGE 



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THEOPHILUS JONES, F.SA., 

raSTORIAN: 

mS LrFE, LETTERS & LITERARY REMAINS. 



EDITED BY EDWIN DAVIES. 



'CAS NI CHARO Y WLAI> A I UAGO. 



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To THB 

RIGHT HON. LORD TREDEGAR. 



Mv LcotD, 

I was privileged to inscribe to you my Reprint of 
Theophilus Jones's Histoty of Biecknockshiie, in the 
production of which you manifested a Idndly interest. 

I have thought that the following pages of 
Biography and Letters of the Historian might be 
acceptable to his countrymen, and I am happy in the 
knowlei^ that the enterprise has your lordship's 
approbation. 

To you, therefore, the most generous Patron of 
Welsh Hducation, Literature, and Art, the distinguished 
and beloved Welsh Hero and Philanthropist, I Ulcewise 
Dedicate this Volume, and coimt myself doubly 
bonouied in beii^ permitted to do so. 

I am, my Lord, 

Your obedient servant, 

THE EDITOR. 



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Right Hon. 1,ord TREDiia.VK. 

{f-ram I'kolobi/ Alfred t'rtke.Qaem St.. CnrdijH 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Portrait of Thbophilds Jones. 
Thb House Weeks he Died. 

His BOOK-FtATE. 

FaC-SDOLE op TOMBSrONB IN Llangj 
Chuschyabd. 



PoKnuiT OF Lord Trbdboar. 



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PREFACE. 

TTHESE Letters, written by Theophilus Jones, now 
published for the first time, form part of a most 
interesting collection of MS. Letters from eminent 
Welshmen now in the possession of the Cardiff Free 
Library Committee, to whose courtesy, as well as that 
of their accomplished Librarian, I am indebted for 
permission to copy and print. 

The personality of the writer of the Letters is 
admirably described in Miss Morgan's Biography, 
and it is tmnecessary to add anything further in that 
direction. But I may perhaps be allowed to say here, 
that the letters are a complete refutation of an 
assertion which 'has gained currency to the effect that 
the History which Jones published was largely the 
work of another person. It is quite true that 
Theophilus Jones obtained information from every 
source which he thought to be reliable. He was also 
diligent in seeking advice from those he thought capable 
of giving it, and in verifying facts about which he had 
any doubt. But the work was his from b^inning 
to end. Thege Letters are a striking testimony of the 
patience with which he, under many trying circum- 
stances, carried his great task to a successful 
conclusion. 

For the most part the Letters were written by 
Theophilus Jones to his life-long friend, the Rev. 
Edward Davtes, of Olveston, Gloucestershire, but 
there are a few others to the Rev. Walter Davies 
(" Gwalter Mechain"), and for these I am indebted 
to Mr. J. Glyn Davies, the Welsh Librarian at 
Aberystwith College. 



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Of the Rev. Edwaid Davies, in whose career the 
Histotian took such an affectionate interest, it should 
be stated that he was a Radnorshire man, bom on the 
7th July, 1756, some three years before Jones's birth, 
at a farm called Hendre Einon, in the parish of Llan- 
vareth, three miles from Builth. His father was 
fanner of a small estate of which his uncle was the 
proprietor. 

Edward Davies was a student for a little over a 
year at Christ CoU^;e, Brecon, and in 1775 opened a 
school at Hay, and was ordained curate of Bacton, in 
Herefordshire, four years later. He served this and 
several other curacies, after the manner of his time, 
besides keeping bis school ; and it is stated that be 
conducted five services every Sunday, and travdled 
30 miles to do so, for £30 a year. Mr. Davies was 
master from 1783 to 1799 of the Grammar School at 
Qiippii^ Sodbury, in Gloucestershire, and in the 
former year be married his first wife, Margaret Smith, 
of Whittington. 

Mr. Davies devoted his leisure to Celtic antiquarian 
studies, to poetry, and divinity. He made the 
acquaintance of Owen Pt^e, Edward Williams, and 
other leading Welsh antiquarians. Some of the poems 
of the ' ' Myvyrian Archaiology ' ' were taken from 
his transcripts. In 1799 he went as curate of Olveston, 
also in Gloucestershire, and it was to this address 
that Jones, the Historian, directed nearly all his 
Letters. 

Jones, who was Davies's contemporary at school, 
exerted himself to obtain for him some preferment, 
and many of Jones's Letters betray anxiety on account 
of his friend's impoverished condition. Theo. Jones 
only too well knew the exacting character of the literary 
work in wbidi Edward Davies was engaged, and no 



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doubt desired to get his mind relieved of the cares due 
to his evident finandal embarrassment. After pro- 
longed efforts, Theo. Jones appears to have succeeded, 
for in 1802 Mr. Davies secured the perpetual curacy 
of Iflanbedr, and in 1805 the rectory of Bishopston, 
in Gower, near Swansea. He continued to live at 
Olvestoo until 1813, when he removed to Bisht^ton. 
Bishop Burgess, who eqnressed himself as charmed 
that Edward Davies ' ' was not a mere black letter 
' ' man, but an orthodox divine and admirable theo- 
" Ic^cal writer," in 1810 gave him the prebend of 
Uangnollo, in the then almost dilapidated Christ 
Ccdl^e at Brecon. 

In 1816 Mr. Davies tot^ to himself a second wife, 
Susanna Jeffreys, and was made Chancellor of Brecon 
and Rector of Uanfair Orllwyn, in Card^anshire, 
but as Theophilus Jones died in 1812, he was not per- 
mitted to rejoice over his friend's increased prosperity. 

The Letters show a constant anxiety 00 the part 
of Jones with regard to Edward Davies's eyesight, 
which, in consequence of an accident received when a 
boy, was always defective. In his latter days, he 
became totally blind. When he relinquished his 
clerical duties in 1823 in consequence of ill-health, 
he was soon after elected an associate of the Royal 
Society of literature, and thus obtained £100 a year. 
He died on January 7th, 1831, and was buried at 
Bishopetone. The Rev. Edward Davies's chief works 



1. Aphthaite, the genius of Britain ; a Poem written 

in the taste of the i6th century ; 1784. 

2. Vacunalia ; consisting of Essays in verse ; 1788. 

3. Eliza Powell ; 01 the Trials of Sensibility ; a 

novd; 1795. 



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4. Cdtic Keseaiches, ot the Origin, Tiaditions, and 

Language of the Aotiest Britons, with Intio- 
ductory Sketches on Primitive Society; 1804. 
This is his best known book. 

5. A Series of Discourses on Chuich Union, in which 

it is maintained that the duty of Communion 
with the Apostolical Chuich tenuuns uncancelled 
by the tolerance of the British Laws ; rSii. 

6. Inuuanud, a Letter on Isaiah vii., 14, in answei 

to the Strictures of a Modem Jew; 1816. 

7. The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids, 

ascertained by national documents and com- 
paied with the tiaditions and customs of 
Heathenism ; 1809. 

8. The Claims of Ossian, ^»mitied and appreciated 

together with some curious paiticulais lelative 
to the State of Foetiy in the Celtic dialects of 
Scotland and Iieland; 1825. An attadc on 
Macpheiscm for disparaging the Welsh Bards. 

9. Various Papers and Translations, such as those 

of Davydd ap Gwilym, whidi are printed in 
the Cambrian R^istei. 
Through the efforts of Miss O. E. F. Morgan, of 
Brecon, money was raised in 1899 for the purpose Of 
pladng a tablet in Llai^ammarch Church to the 
memory of Tbeo[^us Jones and for renovating the 
memorial to him in Christ Collie chapd. Thit 
omission may be entirely due to an oversight ; but it 
is to be hoped that at Christ CoU^e there will shortly 
be erected suitable memorials to the Rev. Edward 
Davies and the Rev. Thomas Price (" Camhuanwc ") 
two remarkable Welshmen and both students of the 
school. 



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To this collection of I^etteta are added some 
anonymous papers by Theophilus Jones, as well as 
some account of his books, &c. And, as they aie of 
local interest, and were for the most part written 
whilst visiting Theophilus Jones, seveial extracts from 
Richard Fenton's MS. Diaiy are also induded. 

Mjss Morgan has very kindly revised and enlarged 
her Biography of the Author of ' ' Brecknocksbiie, ' ' 
and the new portrait of him has been et^raved from a 
portrait in her possession, drawn from life by the 
Rev. Thomas Price, Cwmdu. 

The Author's book-plate was fortonatdy dis- 
covered before gcnng to press. It is taken from a 
j^otograph of the plate in the 2ad vol. of Jones, 
History, which was presented by his widow in 1827 
to the Welsh Library at St. David's College, Lampeter ; 
and I have to thank Mr. William Davies, the Bursary 
Clerk, for attending to this matter. 

Mr. Ifano Jones, of Cardiff Library, has been good 
enough to lode over the Wdsh in the letters. 

The pedigree of the " Morgans of Tred^ar," &c., 
forms a part of the MS. collection by Jones, and for 
that reason it is now iaduded. 

. THE EDITOR. 



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Wfteopftilns ^omg, d?.S.a. 



' ' If anythii^ I have suggested shall be pro- 
ductive of benefit to one deserving person, oi my 
lucubrations shall afford amusement and satis- 
faction to the public, my ends are obtained. The 
utmost extent of my ambition is, that I may live a 
few years in the recollection and approbation of 
my countrymen after Providence shall have con- 
signed me to the long silence of the grave," 

TSEOPHII,US JONB3. 

H EARLY a century has passed since the words 
quoted above were written by the Historian of 
firecknoclfshire, and the fact that a reprint of his 
History — without note or comment, but an exact 
copy of the first edition— should have been eagerly 
subscribed for at this distance of time, is proof, if any 
such were needed, of the vitaUty of the boolc, and of 
the place which Hieophilus Jones holds in the hearts 
<rf his countrjnnen. 

The sayit^ ' ' Happy is the country that has no 
history ! ' ' may also apply to individuals, and in that 
sense it is true of the subject of this sketch. His un- 
eventful existence passed in a quiet country town 
furnishes no stirring incidents from which to weave 
an elaborate biography, the story of his life being 
that of his History. Some three generations have 
passed away since he walked through the land he 
loved so well, yet into our own time there have lived 
these who knew him, who have watched him fishing 
of a summer's evening, who have spoken of bis 
kindliness, and who have nothing to tell that does not 



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confirm the impression left on our minds after reading 
bis great book, that he was a God-fearing, amiable 
and upr^ht man. His life was one of simplicity and 
hard work carried out during a period of physical suffer- 
ii^ heroically borne. He turned from the possibilities 
of wealth (his partner and successor amassed a large 
fortune, and puidiased a considerable estate in the 
neighbourhood), to comparative poverty, in order that 
he might rescue from oblivion the memorials of past 
days, many of whidi would otherwise never have 
come down to us. The debt which the posterity of a 
county owes to its conscientious, careful antiquary can 
hardly be over-estimated, and Brecknockshire has been 
peculiarly fortunate in this ie^>ect. It is surely a 
matter of no small pride and satisfaction to us to realize 
that the best County History in Wales was written 
by Theophilus Jones, that the best History of Wales 
in Welsh, " Hanes Cymru," was the work of the Rev. 
Thomas Price, vicar of Cwmdu, and that the only 
History of Wales written in English (until Prof. Owen 
Edwards recently gave us ' ' Wales ' ' in the ' ' Story 
of the Nations" series) was by Miss Jane Williams, 
" Y^afell," all of whom bdonged to Brecknockshire 
by birth, breeding or descent. 

Theophilus Jones was the only son of the Hev, 
Hi^ Jones, Vicar of Llangammarch and Llywd, 
and Prebendary of Boughrood IJanbedr Painscastle, 
whose father, another Hugh Jones, married Mary, 
daughter of Rees Uoyd, of Nantmd, a member of 
the family of Lloyd of Rhosferig and Aberannell. 
Our Historian was thus of the line of Elystan Glodrydd, 
Prince of Ferregs, whose descendants peopled the 
hundred of Builth, and through his paternal grand- 
mother he was connected with the JefEreyses of 
Brecon and the Watkinses of Penoyre. 



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The Rev. Hi^h Jones married Elinor, dder 
daughter of the Rev. Theophilus Evans, vicar of 
Uangammaich from 1738 to 1763, in which year he 
redgned the livit^ in favour of his son-in-law, Mr. 
Hugh Jones ; Mr. Svans was also vicar of St. David's 
Brecon, to which he was inducted 8th June, 1739, 
It is always interesting to note the hereditary 
influences, which have helped to form the tastes and 
characters of remarkable men, and no account of 
Theophilus Jones's life would be complete, that did not 
touch on the career of his maternal grandfather, who 
seems to have been a man of considerable ability, and 
is spoken of by his grandson with affectionate respect. 

Theophilus Evans was the fifth son of Charles 
Evans, of Pen-y-wenallt, Cardigan^re, of the tribe 
<rf Gwynfardd Dyfed, whose father had suffered even 
to imprisonment for his loyalty to Oiarles I. He was 
bom in 1694, ordained deacon in 1718, and priest 
in 1719, by the Bishop of St. David's. The friend- 
^p- exisUi^ between his countrymen the Lloyds 
of Millfield and the Gwynnes of Glanbran, induced 
him to settle in this county. Here it may be wdl 
to give a short account of his literaiy work. 
His first pubhcation was in Welsh, it appeared in 1716, 
and was called " Drych y Prif Oesoedd," or a 
" Mirror of Ancient Times," beii^ a brief history of 
the andent Britons. " This book," wrote bis 
grandson, ' ' seems to have been more read and admired 
" by the inhabitants of South Wales than any other 
' ' ever published in the language, unless it be Llyfr 
' ' y Ficcar Uandyfri, and it is still as great a favourite 
" as ever in this part of the Principality." There 
have been fourteen Welsh editions of this remarkable 
work, the latest being that published by Spurrell 
of Carmarthen in 1884. In 1739 appeared his " Pwyll y 



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Pader," beii^ an expositioa of the Lord's Prajrer in 
several sermons, which he dedicated to Sackville Gnynne, 
Ksq., of Glanbrao, to whom he pays a compUment for 
his zeal in the encouragement and promotion of the 
worship of God by the erection of the church of Tyr 
Abot, which was Mr. Evans's fiist curacy ; he was 
also domestic chaplain to Mr, Gwynne of Garth. The 
dedicatory portion of the work concludes with a prayer 
to the Deity, ' ' that as his patron had until that day 
' ' lived in a mansion situated in a rich soil and in the 
' ' fat of the land, nourished and fertilized by the dew 
" of heaven, after a lei^h of days spent piously and 
' ' happily in this world, he mif^t be awakened by 
" an angel of life in the realms of bliss." In 1752 
be published in English ' ' A History of Modem En- 
thusiasm," of which another edition was brought out 
in 1757 ; both are now very rare. This book contained 
a severe attack upon all dissenters from the Estab- 
lished Church. The circumstances under which this 
work, which roused so mudi feeling, was published, 
have not been fully rect^nized. In 1743 the Rev. 
John Wesley paid his first visit to Brecknockshire, 
wbid) had already been stirred by the preaching of 
Howel Harris and Rowlands of Llangeitho. We read 
in his Diary (which Mr. Birrell has recently told us 
throws more light upon the moral and social conditions 
of Ei^land in the eighteenth century than any other 
book,) under date 

" May, 1743, Wednesday 3rd. — came to Builth. 
" Mr. Phillips, the Rector of Maesmynis (at whose 
" invitation I came), soon to take knowledge of me. 
" 1 preached on a tomb at the east end of the diuich 
" at four, and again at seven. Mr, Gwynne and 
" Mr. Prothero, Justices of the Peace, stood on 
" either hand of me." 



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Hi, Gvynne was of Garth, and previously to this bad 
stood with the Riot Act in his pocket near IJaawrtyd 
Church to hear Howel Harris preach, deteimined to 
arrest him, not doubting he was a madman, but was so 
deeply impressed by his preadiing, that at the close he 
grasped Howel Harris's band, besought bis pardon, and 
took him home to Carth. Dr. Stevens gives a very 
int^esting account of Mr, Gwynne ; — " In Wales the 
' ' Wesleys were entertained at the opulent m a nsion 
' ' of Marmaduke Gwynne, Esq., a magistrate, of Garth. 
" His princely establishment usually comprised, beside 
"nine children and twenty servants, a chaplain, and 
' ' from ten to fifteen guests. . . , The Wesleys 
' - preached to them dally while seeking repose amid 
" their hospitality." The chaplain was the Rev. 
Theophilus Evans, as has been said, and he must have 
bad many arguments with Mr. We^ey durit^ their 
frequent and lengthy interviews, though when Charles 
Wesley, the sweet singer of the movement, wedded 
Miss Sarah Gwynne, we do not find that the chaplain 
assisted at the ceremony. To quote again from John 
Wesley's Diary : — 

" 1739. April, Friday 7th, we reached Garth. 
" Saturday 8th, I married my brother and Sarah 
" Gwynne. It was a solemn day, such as became 
" the dignity of a Christian marriage." 

Unconvinced l^ all that he saw and beard, Mr. 
Evans fdt it his duty to protest, and Mr. Wesley and 
Mr. Whitfidd wrote a reply to his book. In later 
years bis grandson apologised for the bitterness of 
his tone in the followii^ words : — " He wrote as a 
" member of the Established Church to prevent by 
" timdy warning the repetition of those calamities 
" produced by fanaticism in the generation preceding 
" him, of the recuireoce of which he seems to have been 



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" apprebexi^ve from the spread of an ettthusiasm equally 
" miscMevoits, thoi^ assuming a different gaib, MifiUly 
" fomented and encouraged, as he apprehended, by the 
" Church of Rome." It is cuiious to read, that he 
seriously thought the Methodists were emissaries of the 
Catholic Chuich, though it was not an unconuDoa belief 
at the time, John Wesley himself having been taken for 
a Jesuit in di^uise, when preaching in South Wales ; 
the memory of the Risii^ of 1745, and the sympathy 
of the CathoUcs with the cause of the White 
Rose, made the popular mind ready to assign 
any new departure in religion or politics to the influence 
of the Jesuits, llien the traditions of family suffer- 
ing^ and losses during the Gvil Wat doubtless account 
for a genuine though exa^erated alarm at the doings 
of John We^ey and his followers. To his mind the 
terms ' ' fanatic ' ' and ' ' enthusiast ' ' were evidently 
synonymous, but to us, who are looMrm back at the 
course of events he anticipated, it seems impossible to 
imagine what the religious and social life of the 
eighteenth — nay, even of the nineteenth — centuries 
would have been without the "enthusiasm" of the 
great Fellow of Lincoln. 

At the same time whilst it is customary to pour 
contempt on the clergy of the Chuich in Wales durir^ 
the last century, it is refreshing to think of Mr. Evans 
as one, who may not unreasonably be taken as typical 
of the better kind of Welsh parish priest, of whom 
sudi a character remains as that given to him by 
Theophilus Jones ; ' ' My revered, learned and respec- 
table grandfather "... who, notwithstanding the 
bitterness of his tone towards those who differed from 
him in their forms of faith, ' ' had perhaps as much of 
" the milk of human kindness as any man who ever Uved. 
" Of the value of money he knew little, books were 



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' liis only tieastires, and employed the greatest part 
' of that time in which he was not engaged in the 
' duties of his holy function, and in this character he 
' was lemarkably eminent ; many of the sectaries 
' whom he condemned heard his exhortations with 
' pleasure, if not with improvement, and his sermons 
' are even now recollected with rapture ; he had a 
' method of bringing home his arguments to the 
' feelings of his auditors, without descending to low 
' or familiar phrases, which was peculiarly 
' persuasive. ' ' 

Mr. Evans was a fellow-labourer with the Rev. 
Griffith Jones, vicar of Llanddowror, the founder of 
the first day and Sunday schools in Wales. His cir* 
culatii^; schools were started in 1730, in which year 
Mr. Bvans wrote a " I<etter on Education," published 
by Mr. Robert Raikes, of Gloucester, who may have 
been induced by the example of these Welsh clergymen 
to establish Sunday sdiools in England. It is pleasant 
to trace their begirming to our own county. When 
the good Vicar of Uanddowtor, ' ' The Morning Star 
of the Welsh Reformation," died in 1761, these schools 
had been instrumental in teaching over 150,000 of the 
Welsh people to read God's Holy Word in their own 
tongue. 

In the previous century the Rev. R. Powel, vicar 
of Boughrood, whose pious memory so many Brecon 
bo3^ have had reason to bless, had left money by his 
will " to teach and instruct poor children, natives of 
" Brecon, in the Er^jUsh toi^ue, the better to enable 
' ' them to serve God, and manage their trades or occu- 
" pations," on which Theophilus Jones malces the 
following remarkable commentary, which at least shows 
that he did not share his grandfather's opinions in 
relation to Sunday schools : — " It is not clear to me 



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" from these words, whether this good divine intended 
' ' these children should be taught to read and write or 
' ' not. I am sure I should respect his memory much 
" more, if I thoi^t he did not, notwithstanding the 
" fashionable mania for parochial and Sunday schools, 
*' which, nineteen times out of twenty, only teach boys 
" to misapprehend their Bible, to prate and become 
" trouWesome in their neighbourhood." One hundred 
years have passed away since that sentence was written 
in happy tmconsdousness of the advent of a com- 
|dete system of Welsh education, which will give our 
b(^ and giris the same advantages that Scotland 
has so long enjojred, and which will make Brecon an 
edncatiooal centre of the greatest importance, if our 
cotmtiymen realize the possibilities now within their 
gtasp. 

In the year 1732 Mi. Evans discovered the mineral 
springs of Llanwrtyd, called ' ' Ffynon Drewllyd ' ' 
(stinking well), so valuable as a cure for scrofulous com- 
plaints. In a letter to the Editor of the " St. James's 
Chronide," in 1738, he gives an interesting account 
of the manner in whidi his attention first became 
attracted to these waters. In his quaint style he says : — 
" The writer hereof, being then almost worn out by a 
' ' disease of many years continuance, was casually 
' ' informed of this then reputed venomous spring. 
" His curiosity led him that way, which, by the smell, 
' ' he could easily find without a guide. He sat on 
" the brink of it a long time dubious what to do. As 
' ' he was thus mudng and revolving in his mind what 
' ' he had best do, a frog popped out of the bottom, 
' ' looked cheerfully, and, as it were, invited him to 
' ' taste of the water. He then immediately concluded 
■ ■ that the water could not have any poisonous quaUty, 
"because of that creature's living so comfortably 



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" there, and took a moderate draught, about lialf-a- 
" pint or more, without any concern or dread of danger. 
" By the use of this for about two months, and by 
"taking baths in the water every day, he became 
' ' perfectly whole, though his case had been deemed 
" incurable." 

Mr. Evans Uved at Llwyn Einon, in I^angam- 
mardi (now a farmhouse), and on his death left the 
little estate to Theophilus Jones, who honoured the 
memory of bis grandfather by a peculiar attachment 
to the place. The Rev. Theophilus Evans died 
September nth, 1767, aged 73, and was buried in the 
Churchyard of Llangammarch, " near the stile 
entering from the east." 

Theophilus Jones was bom in Brecon on 18th 
October, 1759, and on 8th November following he was 
baptized in the chapel of St. Mary ia that town. His 
father was at that time curate of St. David's, Brecon, 
and Uved in a charming old house in Lion street (one 
of the many town residences of the county families, who 
used to come to Brecon for the Assizes and other gather- 
ings), where Dr. George Bull, Bishop of St. David's, had 
died earlier in the century. The future Historian 
passed some of bis early years at Uwyn Einon, and, 
young thoi^h he was, there can be Uttle doubt that his 
antiquarian tastes were awakened and fostered by his 
grandfather, from whom he inherited valuable 
materials for the History. The Rev. Thomas Price, 
who was bom in the hundred of Builth less than a 
generation later, has left a graphic picture of the 
manners and customs of the inhabitants of that district : 
" Brought up, as I have been, in the remote parts 
" of the Principality, often do 1 dwell with pleasure 
' ' upon the recollections of my infancy : when in the 
' ' vdntei's night I sat in the circle around the fire 



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' ' under the spacious cliiiimey-piece, and listened to 
' ' the soi^s and traditions of the peasanti;, or to the 
' ' poetry of David ab Gwilym read by the firel^t ; 
' ' and if but a harper should chance to visit us happy 
' ' was the day, yea, I might say, earthly speaking, 
' ' Uessed was the time. . . . About the year 
' ' 1750 the youi^- people in Wales were very fond of 
' ' dancing. They met together frequently ia parties, 
" and danced country dances, some of which had four 
' ' and twenty variations, all of which were to be danced 
' ' through ; and I think there were variations in the 
' ' figure of the dance to correspond to those of the 

' ' tune The introduction of Methodism 

' ' made a great chat^e in the habits of the people. 
" Dancing was altogether discouraged as profane." 

Theophilus Jones was educated at Christ's 
College, Brecknock, which was then a large and 
flourishing school, attended by the sons of the 
surrounding country gentry, amongst whom he found 
many friends, and here b^an the life-long r^ard which 
existed between him and the Rev. Edward Davies, of 
Olveston, co. Gloucester, the learned author of 
"Celtic Researches," "Mythology of the British 
Druids," and other works. To him he dedicated the 
second volume of his History. Durii^ the time he was 
at Christ's Collie, the Head Master was the Rev. 
David Griffith (grandfather of the late Rev. Charles 
Griffith, M.A., of Glyn Celyn, Brecon), an accomplished 
scholar, of whom he spoke in after years as " the 
respected and respectable preceptor of my 3«>uth." His 
parents having decided that he should become a lawyer, 
Theophilus Jones was articled to Mr. Penoyre Watldns, 
a solicitor in large practice then hving in Brecon, and 
having passed through this period with great credit, 
upon the expiration of his articles he entered the pro- 



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fessioQ on his own account, and continued in it for 
many years, practising with equal reputation and 
success as a solicitor and attorney in his county town. 
He married Mary, daughter of Rice Price, Esq., of 
Porth-y-Rhyd, in the county of Carmarthen (who 
was a member of the family of Price of Cilgwyn, a branch 
of the Prices of Glynllech, in Vstradgunlais), by Mary, 
daughter of Daniel Williams, Esq., of Llwynworm- 
wood, A vacancy occurring in the Deputy Registrarship 
of the Archdeaconry of Brecon, he was appointed to 
that office, which he held until his death. To this 
circumstance we are probably indebted for the History, 
which will be for ever associated with the name of 
TheophJlus Jones, Amongst the documents committed 
to his care- were the records of the various parishes for 
centuries past, in the perusal of which be must have 
obtained a great amount of the information he after- 
wards introduced into his History, There is every 
reason to believe, that he had no natural inclination 
for the profession, to which he had been brought up, his 
chief dehght being in Uterary studies and antiquarian 
research, but it was not until the year 1800 or 1801, 
that he seriously entertained the idea of writii^ the 
History of his native county. His father, the Rev. 
Hugh Jones, died 2nd April, 1799 (and was buried in 
St. David's Churchyard with his wife Elinor, who died 
24th July, 1786), and this circumstance may have had 
much to do with the determination he now formed. 
He fomid it was quite impossible to write the History 
and at the same time to carry on his other duties. 
On their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Theophilus Jones lived 
in a large and comfortable house in Mount Street, 
Brecon, now converted into an inn known as " The 
George," the rooms of which are oak-panelled and 
lofty, where they remained mitJl his father's death, 
when they moved to the house in l4on Street, in 



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which the History was written, In a letter, dated 
Oct. 4tli, 1801, to the Rev. Eclward Davies, he says : 

' ' I've such a. room ! such a study ! 

"it is at the back patt of the house, oo noise 01 
' ' interruption, except now and then a call into the office 
" . . .1 laugh, I laugh at the imps of gloominess." 
Having a small patrimony of his own, he deter- 
mined, with his wife's consent, to give up his practice, 
and Uve upon his private means, so tiiat he might 
have time to prosecute his labours in compiling the 
History, which he succeeded in doing, thon^ he lost 
upwards of ^400 in the undertaking. He disposed of 
his practice to his partner, Mr. Samud Church, of Ffrwd- 
grecb, reserving to himself the Deputy R^istrarship, 
which enabled him to have access to the various deeds, 
wills, &c., which were so important la his researdies, 
though it was not until 1809 that he was able 
to write : ' ' Done with the law 1 ' ' Having 
now the leisure in which to pursue the great 
object of his life, he spared neither time nor opense in 
its execution. He personally visited every parish in 
the county ; he copied the mural and monumental in- - 
scriptions in every church (many of which have since 
&itirely disappeared durii^ the ' ' restorations ' ' of 
recent years) ; he collected the folk-lore and l^ends 
from the aged inhabitants ; he gathered all the 
information that could be acquired, and industriously 
gleaned from every repository that was open 
to his inspection, the contents of such documents 
as might enlarge, illustrate, or enrich his work. 
His perfect acquaintance with the langu^^ 
of his country enabled him to emidoy them to 
the best advantage. He availed himself lately of 
Hugh Thomas's MS, "Essay towards a History of 
Brecknockshire," which is preserved at the Bodleian 
library, Oxford, and a portion of which is in the posses- 



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13 

sion of Mr. George Hay, Brecon. This Essay was 
written about 1698, and as far as it goes fonns an. 
invaluable omtribution to local history, brii^t^ the 
Brecon of the seventeenth century very vividly before us. 
Hugh l^omas was a member of an old Brecknockshire 
Catholic family settled at I/lanfiynach from the earliest 
times. He was a deputy herald and lived in Blooms- 
bury, London, though from his intimate knowledge of 
the place and people, he must have fr^uently visited 
Brecon, where he stayed with bis Idnswomen, 
Maiy and Margaret Thomas, of saintly memory*. 
Uis speUing is peailiar, but his style of writing is 
easy and pleasant, at times glidii^ into gossip and 
long-forgotten scandals connected with the town. He 
was greatly impressed by the wickedness of the Normans 
in appropriating to themselves the fair lands which 
belonged to the native Welshmen, and ne\'er wearies 
of pointing out how the judgment of God had fallen 
upon thdr descendants for that and other sins, and 
how the Welsh had reasserted themselves even in his 
time as owners of the soil, the old Norman families 
havii^ mc^ed their names in those of the Welsh, or 
"extinguished themsdves in heiresses," or sold their 
lands, so that the principal landowners in 1698 bore 
Welsh surnames. The following (the introduction of 
which may be forgiven, as Jones has not quoted it), 
is a fair specimen of his style, though it is rather 
involved : — 

' ' Hi^h Havard was 4 times BayUf and twice 
" Alderman of Brecon, lliis man b^an to write 
" a book of ped^reesf about January, 1580, and not 
" ended until about 1600. He tells us that in the 
" year 1590, there was no rain from Easter till All 

• 8aa " Forgottaa Sainta," br O. E. F. «... Breoon PuoahU 

Haguins, ISOS. 

t Haileuui BLS. ISIS. 



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" Saints, and that on loth December followii^ 
" began a hard fiost and snow, which continued 
" till 25 March, 1591, on which day there happened 
" with the thaw sudi a tempest of Raine as occasioned 
" such Fluds, that the like was not known since the 
" time of Noah, which carried' away all stone bridges 
" and great mills, and the same year all manner 
. " of Beasts died for want of fodder. That year 
" our Lady was upon Good Friday. The Havards 
" have for sometime been the most landed and 
" florishing family of the County and older in this 
" Parish (St. John's, Brecon,) than any other family 
" whatsoever, tho' now for their offences against 
" God and their neighbours brought down to 
" nothing. Having once to the Honour of God 
" builded a suptious Chapell adjoined to the Priory 
" QiuTcb, which yet retains their name, and is 
" called Capell Havardiad, where I conjecture they 
" ordained a priest to pray for their souls for ever, 
" and were most of them buried, but now the 
" good reformers have reformed this Chapell almost 
" to the ground, as they have not only this worthy 
" Family, but almost all the noble FamiHes of the 
" kingdom out of their estates, (and almost all their 
" gravestones thrown out or broke to pieces) for 
" their great n^Ugence in promoting these abuses.' ' 
There is yet another unrecorded paragraph by Hugh 
•fliomas, which no lover of Brecon would wish to be 
omitted, and which many still believe to be as true 
as when it was written : — 

" Brecon is well stored with wood and water and 
" fish especially trout, ye best and ye most in ye king- 
" dom are taken in Uske river, no better in all 
" Wales, having abundance of fine springs and 
" purling streams besides the rivers Uske, Hooddu 



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&c. &c. which makes the country most pleasant 
and healthy, insomuch that it wants nothing that 
can make a man happy, and from ye top of our 
Hills seeii^ ye most pleasantest Landsldps in 
nature, having at one view the prospect of hills, 
valleys, wood and water. The state of the 
people are as in most parts of ye kingdom, their 
complexions very comely, and much better than 
those of ye sea coasts, neither are thdr humours 
less commendable. Deo Gratia ! " 

But Hi^h Thomas's most valuable contribution to 
Brecknockshire history is his volume of MS, pedigrees 
in the Harleian Collection at the British Museum 
which he bequeathed to Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford. 
Of the value and interest of this book it is hardly possible 
to speak too h^;hly. Modem genealogists tell us, that 
no other pedigrees rdating to our county families 
of the seventeenth century are equally satisfactory 
or correct, and the more it is studied, the stronger 
grows the impression, that Theophilus Jones 
knew little about it, even supposit^ he ever saw it. 
Had he known it well he could never have omitted many 
items of interest there recorded. For instance Hugh 
Thomas's pedigree of the Walbeoffes of Llanhamlach 
is given with a fulness of detail wholly absent from the 
genealf^cal table of that family given by Jones, who 
has also omitted entries of the greatest importance 
relating to the families of Games of Aberbran and 
Vaughan of Newton, LlansantSread, whilst the very 
interestit^ pedigree of the ancient family of Powel of 
Maespoeth, which Hugh Thomas gives at lei^h, does 
not appear at all in Theophilus Jones's History. It 
is quite possible that he may have hastily glanced at 
the volume during a visit to London, or he may have 
been told of it by a friend ; that he knew of its existence 



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i6 

is proved by his reference to tbe pedigree in it of the 
Powers of Castle Madoc, which varied from his account 
of the same family. Genealogy and heraldiy were 
the favourite subjects of his enquiry. His pedigrees, 
generally spealdi^, are correct. Hiat here and there 
some names may have been omitted, that some,enx)TS 
from misinformation may have crept in is ^"ery possible, 
but such lapses ate unavoidable, certainly in the first 
edition of such a book. In a work of such multi- 
farious enquiry, where the materials are collected 
from many different sources, where the famiUes them- 
selves, to whom they more immediately relate, are 
so often ignorant, and still more frequently indifferent, 
it is scarcely possible for the historian to be 
minutely accurate. No man, however, could have 
taken greater pains than Mr. Jones did, and we may be 
quite sure that whatever errors may occur in the 
earlier part of his genealogies (and they are few), they 
are correct for at least one hundred years before the 
time he wrote, which period would include all his 
original work. So painstaking a man would have 
carefully recorded from the lips of the oldest members 
of the various families the names of their immediate 
ancestors, and any circumstances of interest connected 
with them. 

That he, to some extent, shared the prejudices 
of his grandfather, and was not altogether unbiassed 
as an historian, is shewn by his ignoring the 
martyrdom of John Penry and the life-work of 
Dr. Coke, both of them men who from their characters 
and actions were deserving of more than a passing 
allusion. It was probable that he r^arded John 
Penry as a traitor who died an ignominious death, 
whose fate it was better to pass over in silence, and it 
may have been for the same reason, that he made no 



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, mention of another Brecknockshire martyr, the 
Venerable Father Philip Powel, alias Morgan, O.S.B., 
who suffered at Tyburn, 30th June, 1646, for adherence 
to his Faith, being technically guilty of High Treason 
under an Act passed in the reign of Queen Flizabeth. 
Howel Harris also, one of the founders of Welsh 
Calvioistic Methodism, hved too near to Theophilus 
Jones's own time to receive the appreciation irtiich 
posterity accords him, from one who evidently 
looked with suspicion and alarm on all forms and 
methods of religion outside the Established Church. 
But a man's deeds are often much better than his 
(pinions and words, and the most prominent traits 
in Mr, Jones's character were kindliness and 
benevolence. ' ' lolo Morganis^ ' ' has written very 
bitterly on the innumerable mistakes, wbidi 
he says were made by Theophilus Jones, in whose 
defence the Rev. Thomas Price, " Camhuanawc," 
wrote : ' ' Mr. Jones, whilst ptepsxias his work 
' ' for the press, was so grievously afflicted with 
' ' gout, that his left hand had to support the 
' ' wrist of his flannel-bound right as he guided 
" the pen, with the rips only of his fillers at hberty, 
' ' while severe twii^^ of pain every now and then 
" arrested his progress, and under such circumstances 
" it is wonderful that the mistakes were not still more 
"numerous." Had he hved to bring out another 
edition of his History, we cannot doubt that these 
mistakes would have been corrected. He, himself, 
complains of his " constitutional indolence and 
' ' aversion to writing. . . . Indolence is the 
"passion of T.J.," and yet he accomplished his 
labours in so short a time. We are so accus- 
tomed to speak of him as " Old Jones," in terms of 
affectionate r^ret, that it does not occur to us, until 
we are reminded of the fact, that he died in the prime 



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i8 

of life, and that it is cause for woada and congiatn* 
lation that he should have achieved so much in the few 
yeaiB out of a short life which he devoted to his great 
work. 

But the severest ciiticisni, which has been passed 
on onr Historian, is that by modem writers on his 
treatment of Henry Vatican {Siluriat). It is not 
necessary here to repeat the epithets which have been 
hurled at him, though at the same time it is impossi- 
ble not to make a protest against the injustice of the 
attack made upon him. Even in the present day, 
when Vangban's Po«ns have passed throogh many 
editions, his audience is ' ' few but fit ; " when Jones 
wrote, the quaint little volumes were very rare, and 
it is doubtful whether anyone then living appreciated 
the Silurist excepting Wordsworth, w4io had a 
marked copy of ' ' Silez Sdntillans " in his cottage 
at Grasmere. It is quite certain that Theophilus 
Jones had never seen nor read the majority of these 
Poems, and he even supposes " Olor Iscanus" (which 
he knew), to have been written by Thomas Vau^ian, 
and whilst he quotes two of the most striking poems 
in that book, he ignores those which contain local 
references, that he could not have passed over had he 
carefully read them. As in the case of Hugh "Hiomas's 
Pedigrees, he probably only saw the book during a 
visit to Oxford or I/Midon, and had not time to fuUy 
possess himself of its contents. The most curious 
thing is, that whilst he quotes at length from Anthony 
k Wood's account of "Hiomas Vaughan, he seems to 
know nothing of the same writer's notice of the 
Silurist, which settles the authorship of " Olor 
Iscanus." The biography of Henry Vaughan given 
by k Wood is the more interesting, as it was writtoi 
by John Aubrey, a Brecknockshire man, and cousin 



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19 

to the Vaugbans, who supplied i Wood with much 
of the informatioQ in his " Athenae Oxonienses." 
He says : 

" Henry Vaughan followed the pleasant paths 
" of poetry and philology, became noted for his 
" ingenuity, and published several specimens thereof, 
" of which his " Olor Iscanus " was most valued. 
" Afterwards applying his mind to the study of 
" physic, became at lei^^ eminent in his own coiuitry 
" for the practice thereof, and was esteemed by 
" scholars an ingenious person, but proud and 



These last words may partly account for what 
was undoubtedly the local opinion of the brothers, 
who are described by Jones as " eccentric," a term 
not unlikdy to be applied to poets and Rosicrudans by 
their Welsh neighbours two hundred years ago. He 
faithfully wrote down all that he knew and heard of 
thon, and when we remember that Denys Jones, Henry 
Vat^an's grand- daughter, was hving in Brecon at 
the same time as Theophilus Jones's parents, it is pro- 
bable that he reflected the true impression of con- 
temporary popular opinion respecting the Vaughans. 
Mr. Jones's assertion, that he had not been able to 
trace any of their descendants, and that the line had 
become extinct, has not yet been refuted, though of 
recent years the closest search has been made on the 
subject. To blame him for not appreciating the 
Siluiist's Poems, which he had not read, is hardly 
criticism. Theophilus Jone^ had the limitations of 
his environment, limitations which probably conduced 
to the success of his History, though they would hardly 
have made him in advance of his age in admiring poetry, 
which belonged more to the school of Wordsworth 
and of George Herbert than to that of the eighteenth 



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centuiy. The most that can be said is, that he was 
a better histoikn than be was a literary critic, for 
he recorded his deliberate opinion that " Gower, 
" Chauco' and even Spenser (whom I think the most 
" respectable of the three) are not to be compared 
' ' with Pope, Dryden or Gray, ' ' and again ' ' no 
' ' comparison whatever in the poetry of Chaucer and 
" Pope." 

It is matter for regret that he never saw the 
Aubrey MSS. which contain so many references to 
Brecknockshire people, and which were published 
for the first time in 1898, under the title (rf " Brief 
Uves," l^ JtAn Aubr^. 

Whatever imperfections may exist in it, Jones's 
History is still the standard History of Bret^ockshire ; 
though admitting this by no means ignores the fact, 
that a great part of the history of our county still 
remains to be written.* The late Mr. Edwin Poole's 
History is invaluable in recording the local events 
of the last century, and fills up the gap from 1809 
to the present day, but there are sources unknown 
to Theophilus Jones, that have simply been untouched. 
The history of a county is the history of its land, 
the land which remains (even the names of places 
rarely ch an ging), whilst the families who at various 
times own it pass away, theii history being mainly 
recorded in relation to their estates. The history 
of the land is to be found in the records of 
litigation arising in connection with it ; for instance, 
at the Record Office the Brecon Plea Rolls afford a 
mass of information, which has never been published, 
and only slightly examined. "Riere is a complete series 

* Hr. Joha Lloyd, Barriater-at'Lavr, of IS, Chepitow Place. 
Loadon, i3 publishing raudh original iafocmatioa fmm iooooeBaible 
doouToanta iu " Histono&l MsmonHida at B»oonahire," the WMoad 
VClnnia ol vrititik is now read^. 



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from 1603, and seven, odd, earlier Rolls, they are all 
in I*atin. Another very valuable source exists in the 
Exchequer Depositions, and the Fines, which contain 
many useful facts regarding Brecknockshire estates. 
Then again the Brecknockshire Wills in the Registry 
Office at Hereford would give such an insight into 
the social habits and customs of our forefathers, as can be 
obtained in no other way, but they are not even indexed. 

There is also an unwritten history lying around 
us, which he who runs may read, in the British camps 
00 the hills, in the Roman roads and remains, in the 
silent stones, and in the place-names of our farms, 
houses and even fields. No record exists in any Ubrary 
of the fierce battle, which took place near Scethrog 
between the Roman l^ons passing from the Gaer 
to Cwmdu and the Welsh, who may have descended 
from thdr hill entrenchment on the Allt, but we have 
the memorial stone to the Roman general on the road- 
side, and we have the name, which still clings to the 
dingle close at hand, Cwm geleddion, i.e., " The 
Valley of Corpses," which remind us of 
' ' Old, unhappy far-off thir^ 
And battles lot^ ago." 
Generations have listened with mingled awe and in- 
creduhty to the legend of the sunken city beneath 
Llangorse Lake, the chime of whose church bells (a 
medieeval addition this) could be heard on summer 
evenings by those who sailed on its waters ; the anti- 
qnity of this legend has been proved in out own day, 
l^ the discovery of a ctannoge on the island at Ujni- 
savaddan with all the usual signs of its occupadoa in 
piehistoric time by lake dwdleis. L^ends are not 
in themselves evidence of historic facts, but it is 
always worth while to consider them, as they may, as 
in this case, contain a germ of truth. 



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In i^aid to pUce-names, it is well to remember 
that in Wales, at least, all the names have descrip- 
tive meanings, which ate either historical, ecclesiastical 
or geographical. In this inteiestiiig study Theophilus 
Jones will be found a great help, as he took immense 
pains to arrive at the correct tran^tion of his 
native language. 

The first volume of "The History of Brecknock- 
shire " (in 4to), comprising " The Chorograpby, 
" General History, Religion, Laws, Customs, Manners, 
" Langui^e and System of Agriculture used in that 
"County," was issued from the press of Messrs William 
and Geoige North, at Bredmodc, on 13th September, 
1805. It was dedicated to his friend the Venble. 
Archdeacon Payne, who had supplied hiin with most 
of the infonnadim ccmceming the parishes in the hun- 
dred of Crickhowd. The second volume, divided into 
two parts, containing ' ' The Antiquities, Sepulchral 
" Monuments and Inscriptions, Natural Curiosities, 
" Variations of the Soil, Stratification, TiSiaeialogy, and 
" a copious list of rare and other Plants ; also the Genea- 
'" logics and Anns of the Principal Families, properly 
" coloured or emblazoned, together with the Names 
" of the Patrons and Incumbents of all the Parishes 
" and livings in that County,' ' in 1809. This last the 
author has inscribed (as has been mentioned) with much 
affection to his old friend and schoolfdlow, Mr. 
Davies— " The associate of his youth, the kind corres- 
" pondent and assistant of his hterary pursuits, the 
" sincere friend in mature age ; and oh ! may he add 
" in trembling hope {si modo digni erimus), the par- 
" taker of a bUs^ul eternity! " 

Mr, Jones, in the patriotic ardour of his heart, 
caused not only the printing of his book, but 
even the manufacture of the paper to be carried 



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23 

out in liis own county, the latter being executed 
at the Llangenny Paper Mills. The plates of 
anns in the second volume were drawn by the 
Rev. Thomas Price, and many copies of these plates 
were coloured by his indefatigable hand. Most of 
the engraved representations of arch^eolf^cal remains, 
which illustrate that volume, were taken from original 
drawings made by him. He likewise prepared the 
ground plan of the Priory, &c. The engravii^ of 
castles, towns, &c., were by J. Basire, after drawii^ 
by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, who himself superintended 
and corrected the proof plates, The writer of this 
Biography has in her possession the original sepia 
drawing by Sir R. C. Hoare of Brecknock Castle and 
Bridge, taking in Buckingham House, which is not 
induded in the engraving of this picture in Jones. 
It is dated 31st May, 1793, and is the only drawing of 
the old home of the Aubrej^, as it appeared before 
its architectural features were destroyed by ' ' res- 
toration " at the beginnii^ of the last century. The 
gateway on the bridge is also clearly to be seen on the 
east dde of the river Usk. One illustration (that of 
Forth Mawr, Crickhowd, the ancient seat of the Breck- 
nodcshire Herberts), bears the familiar name of 
Landseer as the engraver. Ilie History is weak in 
portraits, which is the more to be r^retted, as so many 
engravings of Brecknockshire worthies were available. 
It is true that of some there are no portraits extant, 
and under this head must come the Silurist and 
his brother, Thomas Vaughan, but the book is the 
poorer for not poeses^ng Holbein's fine drawing of 
Sir Thomas Parry, of Tretwr, and the interesting en* 
gravii^ of Dr. William Aubrey, called by Queen Eliza- 
beth "her little doctor." We also miss the statdy 
figures of Edward Stafford, last Duke of Buckingham 
of that creation, and his father, Duke Henry, not to 



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speak of the Veil. Philip Powd, [Morgan] O.S.B., John 
Aubrey, the antiquary, the graceful cavaliei and 
tiaveller James Howel, and oUiers. Mt. Jones in 
his Preface speaks of a portrait of Sir David Gam, 
whidi he hoped to reproduce in his History, but on 
examination this picture turned out to be that of his 
descendant, Sir John Gaines, the bnilder of Newton, 
1582, " a great tniv^er, who visited Rome and 
" Jerusalem, and sereial other remote parts of the 
"world," accordit^ to Hugh Thomas, and whose 
picture (in a ruff and high bat) is in the hall at Penpont 
amongst other paintings of members of the Games 
and William!* families. 

The accompanying portrait of Theophilus Jones is 
ei^aved from a photograph (in the possession of 
the writer) of a sketch of Mr. Jones taken by the Rev. 
T. Price, underneath which the latter has written : 
" An excellent likeness, taken a short time before bis 
death by me, T. Price." Tlie kindly, benevolent coun- 
tenance justifies the character given him by his 
friends, whilst the firm mouth and chin show that he 
was a man of strong <^inion5 and convictions, possess- 
ing moreover a considerable amount of humour. 

The original MS. of the History was in the late 
Mr, Joseph's library, and is now in the possession of 
his grandson, Mr. Buckley, of Bryn-y-Caerau, Car- 
marthenshire. ' ' In style of langu^e and expression 
Theophilus Jones is" (to quote the remarks of a 
learned and esteemed friend of his, who had ample 
opportunities of knowing his private worth, and was 
well qualified to appreciate the importance of his 
literary labours), " for the most part plain, manly 
" and unaffected. It caimot, however, be denied, 
' ' that in some instances he has indulged too freely in 
' ' that species trf facetiousness, which the severer 



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35 

critics may he inclined to treat as unworthy of the 

sober dignity of history. But the real fact is this : 

Theophilus Jones on all occasions wrote with the 

same freedom and honest independence as he thought 

and spoke. ' I might as well,' said he to a friend 

to whom he had shewn his MS., ' endeavour 

' to write a history in rhyme, as in what is called 

' dignified piose, but which I call sombious or Sleep- 

' provoking paiagraphy. My disposition and 

' torn of thinking and speaking must discover 

' themselves. I should almost think myself a hypo- 

' crite to conceal them ; if I am not notorious for 

' buffoonery or imbecile attempts at wit, I shall 

' not much care whether my readers laugh at roe 

' or with me." As a county historian, we may 

venture to assert generally that he is faithful." 

Bishop Burgess, in his diat^e to the Giapter of St. 

David's at his primary visitation of the Cathedral 

Church on 30th July, 181T, spoke of the "History 

of Brecknockshire " as "a very interestii^, elaborate 

and useful work." Lowndes remarked, "that it 

" was a work of condderable labour and research, con- 

" tainit^ a great mass of information." I4ewellyn 

Pridiard in his "Heroines of Welsh History," says: 

' ' Candour calls for the admission that, notwith- 

' ' standing the errors in taste and the mis-statements 

' ' abounding in that work, the ' History of Breck- 

' ' nockshire ' contains much valuable information, 

' ' brought together from innumerable and fax- 

' ' spreadit^ sources, too difficult of access for the 

" researches of the modem antiquary and historian." 

Dr. Nicholas, in his " Annals of Wales," published 

in 1872, observes : ' ' 'Hieophilus Jones produced one 

" of the most complete and methodical county his- 

' ' tones in the English language, the ' History ol 

" Brecknockshire,' a work which much requires 



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" TcpublicetioD, with cotes and additions, bringing 
" it down to the present time." The late Mr. G. T. 
Clarke, in his " Land of Morgan," published by the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, wrote: "There 
" is but one history of any Welsh county at all worthy 
"of the name — Jones's Brecknock." 

Allusion has been made to the assistance Theo- 
philus Jones received in his work from the Rev. Thomas 
Price ; he was the son of the Historian's old friend 
and neighbour, the Rev. Rice Price, vicar of Llan- 
wrthwl (who during many years had rendered him 
valuable help in collecting topographical information), 
and having in the year 1803 become a student at 
Christ's College, he received a great deal of kindness 
and hospitality from Mr. and Mrs, Jones, which he 
ever remembered with afiectionate gratitude. In the 
Letters to the Rev. Edward Davies frequent reference 
is made to " Tom Price," and the infinite pains Mr. 
Jones took to procure a Hebrew Psalter for him is 
very characteristic of his kindly nature. ' ' This 
"boy," he wrote, " is a most valuable ornament 
' ' to the Principality, and there is nothing that I can 
" do that shall be omitted to serve him." In the 
" Lit«ary Remains of the Rev. Thomas Price," a 
del^htful memoir of this great and gifted Welshman by 
Miss Jaoe Williams ("Ysgafell") we have a pleasant 
glimpse of the sodal life of the time. After the battle of 
Trafalgar several French naval officers, prisoners of 
war on parole, resided then and in subsequent years 
in Brecon. They were men of intelligence, good 
breedii^ and accomplishment, and Mr. Price frequently 
met them at the hospitable board of Mr. Theophilus 
Jones. It is not recorded whether music formed part 
of the entertainment at these gatherii^, but in his 
early years Mr. Jones learnt the Welsh harp, the first 



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27 

tune lie played on that instmment being the old Welsh 
ajt, " Pys a Menin " (Butter and Pease), In i8lt 
Mr. Price was ordained by Dr. Burgess, Bishop of St. 
David's, later he was appointed vicar of Cwmdu, and 
became known throughout Wales by his bardic name 
" Camhuanawc." He was an exemplary clergy- 
man, beloved by all who knew him, an accurate his- 
torian, and an enthusiast on all matters relating to 
the preservation of the ancient language and customs 
of the Wdsh people. He died 7th November, 1S48, 
at Cwmdu Vicarage. 

Fifty years ^o Jones's History could be purchased 
for about £2 IDS. ; now it has become so rare that 
when copies turn up for sale they realize from £7 to 
£10 los., according to the condition they are in. 
About the year i860 a dealer in Brecon bought the 
smplus copies of Vol. II. and the coppei-plates from 
I. Booth, the London publisher, the former at five 
shillings each. Mr. Joseph secured some of the plates. 
Therefore, to all who love Bredmockshire, it is a matter 
of deep satisfaction, that through the public spirit of 
Mr. Edwin Davies, the Editor and Publisher of the 
reprint, this valuable work is within reach of all who 
care to read it. Theophilus Jones intended writit^ 
a similar History of the adjoining county of Radnor, 
but the state of his health was such that he was un- 
able to attempt any additional work. He was a 
martyr to hereditary gout, which crippled him to so 
great an extent, that latterly he could walk witli 
difficulty. But notwithstanding his severe and con- 
stant sufferings, his bright cheerfulness neyer forsook 
him, and to the end he continued to write upon those 
subjects to which his life had been devoted, though 
with the exception of the following papers contributed 
to the magazines of the day, his History was the only 



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literaiy work be published. He wiote an article foi 
tbe second volume of the " Cambrian Roister," 
s^ed " Cjmiro," entitled " Cursory Remarks on 
Welsh Tours or Travds." Hie same volume contains 
from his pen ' ' Remarks on tbe History of Mon- 
mouthshire by David Williams." On lotb January, 
1797, Mr. Jones addressed a letter to E. Williams, 
Strand, London, tbe publisher of the ' ' Cambrian 
Register," which was printed in the third volume of 
that* periodical, which also contains a. ' ' BiographicaJ 
Sketch of Howel Harris, Esq., of Tiefecca," by him. 
A' letter to Lancelot Morgan, Esq., Brecon, preserved 
in MS., gives a most interesting account of a " Cist- 
vaen ' ' (stone coffin), discovered on Ty-yn-y-llwyn 
Farm, in the parish of Llanfrynadi, after the publi- 
cation of his History. Mr. Jones conjectures that 
the intennent took place during the early Christian era. 
On October 28th, 1811, he addressed a communica- 
tion to the Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, Mr. 
Nidiolas Carlisle, giving an account of some Roman 
remains near Uandrindod, iriiich was read on 14th 
November, and printed in tbe seventeenth volume 
(rf the " Archseologia." He was elected Fellow of 
the Society of Antiqnaries 2oth December, 1810, Sir 
H. Englefidd, vice-president, in the chair. His last 
Uteraiy attempt was the translation of bis favourite 
romance in the Welsh language, entitled ' ' Gwdedi- 
gaethau y Bardd Cwsg," or " Visions of the Sleep- 
ing Bard ' ' (in tbe manner of the ' ' Visions of Fran- 
cisco de Quevedo,") by the Rev. Ellis Wynne (♦), 
which is in style one of tbe most beautiful works 
Wdsh literature possesses. Mr. Jones translated it 
with great spirit, as well as close accuracy. Though 

* Rector of Lluitsir, Merionetfaiihire. Ho wa« bom IflTO, 
dind lT34. Hs was an exoellent post, and Btandx Dnrivafled aa a, 
WeiMh pToM wiitsi. Id 1701 he pnbiiBhtd « tnmilation of Jeramy 
Tajlor'i " Holy linos." 



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this translation has never been published, George 
Borrow, author of "Wild Wales," "The Bible in 
Spain," &c., gave to the world another translation 
of this extraordinary production, which was published 
by Murmy, i860. Amongst his friends and corres- 
pondents he numbered Mr. William Williams, of Ivy 
Tower, Pembrokeshire, the author of " Primitive 
History" (a presentation copy of this work from 
Mr. Williams to Theophilus Jones was in the late Mr. 
Joseph's library) and "The Head of the Rock," 
a poem in which he refers with enthusiasm to the in- 
habitants of Brecknockshire: — 

" Brecon, fertile of the best of men. 
Hail, Brecon, hail t with every comfort blest. 
That mothers know of pious sons possessed." 



' The Traveller, tired and lone, partakes of Good. 
Mountains are levd'd to prepare his Road ' ' (*) 



" Not in thy soil do these, fam'd Brecoo, rise 
Sole treasures ; other riches greet our eyes ! ' ' 



" Distinguished land, each spot each virtue fills, 
Thy valleys patriots, saints adorn thy hills I " (f) 

Mr. Williams was maternally descended from Robert 
Ferrar, the martyred bishop of St. David's. 

Theophilus Jones was a prominent member of 
the Loyal Brecknock Lodge of Freemasons, and his 
name is enrolled as its first Worshipful Masters in 1798. 

The following description of the character of 
Theophilus Jones was written by his friend, to whom 



■ martj'Nd aa Slwoh 



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reference has before been made: — "In private life 
' ' he was truly, ' the generous friend and best-hearted 
" of men.' Few, indeed, were more generally esteemed, 
" or more dnceidy regietted by those who knew him 
" best. In his profession he was that highly estimable 
" character, an upright, independent lawyer, zealous, as 
"in duty bound, to protect and vindicate the legi- 
' ' timate rights and interests of his clients, but never 
' ' sacrificing the convictions of his own unblemished 
' ' conscience at the sordid altar of advantage. In . 
' ' society he was kind, affable, and good-humoured ; 
' ' hospitable, but unostentatious in his habits and 
' ' mode of living ; and considerately benevolent to 
" the necesdties of his poorer ne^hbours. In his 
' ' religious creed he was upon the strictest principle a 
" member of the Church of England. He embraced 
" her tenets, not from the mere prejudice of education, 
"but from conviction; for in this, as in all other 
"matters, he strictly acted as he thought, but still 
' ' in Qiristian charity towards those who consden- 
" tiously differed from him." 

tlie accompanyi:^ Letters to the Rev. Edward 
Davies, his " dearest friend," as he called him, reveal 
a whole-hearted, affectionate capacity for friendship 
of the most disinterested kind, wiucb was a delightful 
trait in his diaracter. The correspondence of a 
lifetime shews what infinite pains and trouble he was 
constantly taking to help his friend in the management 
of his affairs, and how eagerly he used his infiuence 
amongst his ecclesiastical acquaintances to obtain the 
recognition of Htfr. Davies, which he felt his talents 
and character deserved. This was acknowledged by 
the Rev. Edward Davies, who in the preface to his 
" Celtic Researches " wrote " Mr. Hieophilus Jones of 
' ' Brecon, my generous friend and the best hearted of 



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5,1 



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3t 

" men, had, for a couise of years, made it extremely 
" difficult for me to say for vinch of his affectionate 
' ' boons to me I thanked him the most and loved 
" him the best." His last letter to him closes with 
the following words of faith and hope : ' ' My 
' ■ good friend, let me remind you without flattery, 
' ' and, I trust, without presumption, that in consequence 
' ' of the hardships of your lot here you may entertain 
' ' a well-founded hope of a far more eternal and exceeding 
" wdght of glory hereafter. — Thus sincerely prayeth 
"your friend, Theo. Jones." 

His last illness is supposed to have arisen from 
the effect of gout upon a. constitution much weakened 
by repeated attacks of the malady. His lingered for 
some time, and after severe sufferii^ died 15th January, 
1812, at his house in Ijon Street, Brecon (now the resi- 
dence of Captain D. Hu^es Morgan, J.P. for the 
County and Borough of Brecon, and H.S. in 1900), where 
his father, the Rev. Hugh Jones, had lived and 
died. He was buried at Llangammarch, in the same 
grave as his maternal grandfather, whose memory 
through life he held in the hi^est veneration. ' ' When 
" I am dead," he said, *' let me be buried in the 
" grave of my grandfather, and let my inscription 
" be : ' Here lies Theophilus Jones, the grandson of 
!■ Theophilus Evans.' " His widow erected in Christ's 
Collie Chapel, Brecon, (where he had been educated 
when a boy, of which he had been for many years 
chapter clerk, and in the improvement of which he 
had ever taken the deepest interest), a white and 
grey marble tablet to his memory, with the following 
inscription (•) : — 

* There ia wrae mistake as to hU age, but the iiuoription ia 
eiveD aa copied irom ths tablet. On his tambatoae in Llaaganunarah 
Charchsrard, a print of whioh appeara at the ead ot the biograpl^, 
(l>e Hiitoijan'B age ia stated to be (8, 



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To the Memory 
of 
Thbophcus Jonbs, Esq., 
Late Oiapter Qerk of this Collegiate Chuich. 
and 
Deputy R^istrar of the Archdeaconry of Brecknock. 
He died January the 15th, 1812, 
Aged 51. 
His remains, with those of his maternal grand- 
father, Theoptiilus Evans, Clk., He interred 
in the Cemetery of Llangammarcb. 
This Marble but records his name — the History of 
this, his loved, bis native County will long survive 

and be his Monument. 

The above Tbeof^ilus Jones was the sou of the 

Rev. Hi^ Jones, who was Prebendary of 

Boughrood, Llanbedr Fainscastle, of this 

Collegiate durch. 

The tombstone in Llangammarcb Churchyard 
has been recently restored, and there is also a memorial 
tablet in that Church. 

His library, containing a large and valuable col- 
lection of books, was sold by public auction in the 
town of Brecon by Mr. Wise, of Bath, and very good 
prices were realized, many of the volumes beir^ anno- 
tated by himself, llie copyright of his History, with 
the copper-plates and some MS. collections in his own 
writing, were purchased -by Mi. George North, of 
Brecknock, for the sum of £255. Mr. Llewelyn, of 
Fenlle'rgaer, bought a large number of his books, 
and these were until recently in the library at Hen- 
drefoilan, the seat of the late Mr. Dillwyn, M.P. for 
Swansea. Theophilus Jones possessed a MS. copy of 
Aneurin's " Gododin." Its date appears to be about 
the year 1200. It is a small 4to of thirty-eight pages, 



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\A^ 



O'Tieii 



■H pMo fy l¥. J. M,a,T, Ijiuif 



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33 

written upon vellum, and the lines are filled to the 
maigin, irrespective of the metre. Ca|atal titers, 
ornamented and coloured alternately red and green, 
are used only at the b^innii^ of the par^raphs. 
The names of Gwilym Tew and of Rhys Nannor, who 
fiourished 1440-1470, are inserted on one of the pages 
as severally owners of the MS., and the style of their 
penmanship appears to be more modem by at least 
two centuries than that of the book itself. Mr. Jones 
attached to this MS. the following note : — " This copy 
' ' Mr. Davies, of Olveston, supposes to be that men- 
' ' ttoned by Llwyd, and said to have been lost out 
' ' of the Hengwrt Library. It was given roe by Mr. 
' ' Thomas Bacon, who bought it from a person at 
"Aberdar." It afterwards became the most valued 
possession of the Rev. Thomas Price, " Camhuanawc," 
. on whose death it . was purchased by Sir Thomas 
PhiUipps, Bart., of Middle HiU, Worcestershire, at 
whose sale it was bought by the Cardiff Free Ubrary, 
where it now is. 

The heraldic beaiiogs borne by Mr. Jones, and 
engraved on his book-plate, are those of Elystan 
Glodiydd, Prince of Ferrt^, and are as follows ; — 
Crest : A demi-llon, ramp. sa. Arms : Quarterly ist 
and 4th Sa. a hon, ramp, r^ard. or., 2nd and 3rd A^. 
a diev, sa. betw. 3 boars' heads couped of the second, 
crined or. impaling his wife's — Az. a lion ramp, 
regard, a^. Motto : " Casni charo y wlad a'imago." 

After the death of her husband, Mrs. Theophilus 
Jones removed to Llandovery, where she resided until 
her decease. During the commercial panic of 1827, 
she seems to have shared the general anxiety, and 
for a short time to have anticipated ruin. A letter 
from her, dated 17th April, 1827, to her old friend, 
the Rev. Thomas Price, bears witness to the faithful. 



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34 

grateful and generous spirit iu which ' ' Carnhuanawc ' ' 
had volunteered his services, and offeied his purse 
and home to her. The cause for anxiety cleared away, 
but she did not long survive ; she died on July 22nd, 
1828, ^:ed 70 years, and was buried in the chancel 
of Myddfai duich, Carmaithenshiie, near her own 
relatives, where there is a tablet to her memory. By 
her will amongst other bequests she left £500 and all 
her plate to her niece, the late Mrs. Powell, of Uaes- 
camog ; the plate bears the crest and arms of 
Theophiliis Jones. 

Tlieophilus Jones had an only sister, Miss Sarah 
Jones, who, dying in May, 1832, was buried in St. 
David's QiurchyaTd, Brecon. There is a chest tomb 
over her grave on the r^ht hand of the main entrance 
to the Qiurch, but the inscription has wholly disap- 
peared owing to the perishable nature of the stone. 
There is also a marble, mural tablet inside the Church 
erected to her memory by her grandson, Mr. Hugh 
I^wrence, to whom she left her property. 

Dr. Johnson laid down a rule, "That nobody 
" can write the life of a man, but those who have ate 
" and dnmk and lived in social intercourse with him." 
This is perfectly true, but as at this distance of time 
so ideal a blc^aphy is impossible, the n^t best 
thing has been done, and use has been laigely made of 
the writings of those who knew 'Hieophilus Jones 
intimately, and who wrote down their impressions 
immediatdy after his death. 

To the writer of this altogether inadequate sketch 
it has for years been a labour of love to collect fevery 
incident and detail connected with Theophilus Jones, 
arising no less from admiration of the diaracter and 
work of the Historian, than from a deep sense <rf 
gratitude for the interest and dehght his History has 



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35 

brought into so maay lives, and as a remembrance 
of the friendship wbidh existed between him and her 
kinsmen one hundred years ^o. 

The information so collected has been chiefly 
obtained from the rare library of the late Mr. Joseph, 
F.S.A., of Brecon, whose unique collection of MSS, 
and books relating to Brecknockshire was simply 
invaluable for such a purpose, access to the same being 
at all times generously given. 

The writer is also much indebted to the late Rev. 
Prebendary Herbert Williams, whose kindly empathy 
and ready help were unfailing ; to the Rev. E. L. Bevaa, 
Vicar of Brecon ; to the late Rev. Rees Price, Vicar 
of St. David's, and to the Rev. David Williams, Vicar 
of Myddfai, for courteously allowing unlimited 
T^eroice to be made to the Parish Registers and 
records in their charge. 

" CAS NI CHAKO Y WI,AD A'I HACO." 



GWENLLIAN E. F. MORGAN. 



Buckingham Place, 

Bream. 



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SM of 

the, Hot'' TW 
Theojjhittts Jnran* 
1.4* Ticai ofdhi. 
rarifh And ALSO 
of St David's iii. 

BKECON 
KedieaSel^ll^ 

1767. Aged. J7; 




HERE lie 

■tKft HsTnams of 
Thaopfidluj %hTies 

■thi4 Cbundu 
be diaa Jany 15*" 






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fLtttttfi* 



To THB REV. Mr. DAVmS, HAY. 

Brecon, April 30, 1780. 
Da&K Passon, 

I have read the Pastoral you sent me and the 
other poem. Pray who is the author of the former ? 
It is but an indiSeient performance. Indeed every 
poem of that nature is at best but a composition of 
water gmel, sweetened with honey ; but when the 
Poet substitutes sugar instead of tite honey it is not 
palatable. Such I am afraid has the author of the 
pastor^ above mentioned infused in his mess. Mr. 
Phillips has contrived, I own, to make the gruel 
agreeable, but his sweet n'or is the genuine — manufacture 
(excnse Uie expression) of the Bees of Hybla. But I 
must candidly confess that I prefer Mr. Fope/s griid, 
which is seasoned with the true Altic salt, to Mr, 
Phillips'. His pastorals, like the rest of his com- 
positions, contain a strong nervous diction, and every 
line conveys sentiments which wiU appear just, wh^i 
applied to the various scenes and incidents in real life ; 
and if sometimes he strays into the mazes of 
extravagant fancy and exceeds the bounds of 
probabdity, you will always find him return, as soon as 
his subject will permit, into the more natural plains of 
truth and propriety. Those warm passions, those 
gentle breezes, cooling arbours, and romantic 
descriptions of beauty and place, are not calculated to 
please the English reader. Our dispositions and 
climate render us so very inadequate of recognizing 
the pleasures, and enjoying those very fine feelings 
ascribed to the lovers in pastorals, that nothing but the 
most delicate dress can ever prompt us to read them, 
and then it puts in mind of a handsome, tbo' extravagant 
young fellow who is perhaps going to the gallows, and 
we are obl^ed to ^claim " On ! what a pity it is such 
a fine young man had not applied himself to a better 
employment." 



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38 

Britannia is worthy of the pen of Mt. Davies ; 
it is exceedingly well wrote. I must therefore b^ 
leave to keep it a little while, and I shall send you a 
small pamphlet of my comments upon it. The 
Preface has a quaintness in the stile which I do not 
admire. I would therefore wish you would either 
omit it or substitute anothei in its stead. It has so 
mudi of the old stile of " Gentle Reader," &c., that I 
cannot say I admire it at all, but however shall leave 
you either to rescind or amend it at your own 
discretion. 

Miss Winter's mother is dead. The ladies are 
much pleased at your compliment, and if I mistake 
not would wish they were included in it. I shall 
expect to see you Whitsuntide to spend a week with 
me. I have a great deal more to say, but must 
conclude, as I have a call at present very incidental 
to human nature. I am going to dinner. 
Yours sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 
I b^ you'll write to me once a week at least. 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES, HAY. 

DBAS PAKSON, 

Tho' I have not corresponded with you as 
frequently as usual, you will not, I trust, impute it to 
want of esteem, but to that constitutional indolence 
and aversion to writing, joined to the hurry of 
business, which is really the occasion. Hiis letter is 
the 13th I have wrote to-day ; you may, therefore, 
suppose I must be pretty well tired of this kind of work. 
Your friend the lawyer has wrote to your debtor by 
this day's post, and will, if you are not paid in one week, 
take proper steps to get you your money. I feign 
would write more, but have two lot^ bills of costs to 
write out inunetUately. You'U therefore excuse the 
brevity of 

Yours, &c., 

THEO. JONES. 
1781. 
Charge Ashley 3s. 6d. for the letter, if he pays you. 
If you stay in Brecon I shall expect you will be with me 
at my house. 



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39 

To THE Rkv. EDWARD DAVIES, HAY. 

Brecon, Oct., 1782. 

DBAS Parson, 

As I have a few leisure hours to spare, I shall 
dedicate tbem to a purpose which ought 'ere now to 
have taken up their attention. . . . Indolence is 
the poison of T. J. ; to give you an instance of your 
friend's laziness, I am now much pressed for money, 
yet I have not resolution enough to sit a few hours to 
write out my bills, which I know would be paid me, 
most part of them, on demand, and wbiti would 
treble the sums I owe. Account for this, ye Ic^dans ! 
Account for this, ye learned in metaphysics ! 
Account for this, O aU ye moral philosophers ! But 
it is unaccountable. Therefore don't put your addle 
heads together to do what you have often done before — 
to attempt to account for impossibilities ; better you 
should puzzle your bald pates about the diving bell 
at Plymouth, the weight of water upon the Royal 
George, the loi^tudes, or the cost of flying, than 
endeavour to make inconsistency consistent. 

Rise Conrad, thou that slmnberest and steepest, 
and sttoorest among the peaceful dead, once more 
shalt thou wield the faulchion, and once more fight thy 
battles o'er again ; no longer shall the ball' pated 
mower brandish his scythe o'er thy grave, restored by 
the revivifying hand of a Davies (confound it, your 
name is not poetical ; I wish you had some fine sounding 
apellation ; but, however, merit will obhterate that 
misfortune). High ! High ! where am I going to now f 

I was just going to say but what signifies what I 

was gomg to say, 'thou ^^ Let it rest, let those two 
black strokes explain my meanir^ if I had ady, which 
will admit of a doubt. Conrad is without fiatteiy 
a very perfect resemblance of the author. It is a heap 
of spar, an imperiect gem ; had the author tlie 
advantage of a liberal education (you know what I 
mean by liberal) he would, I predict, have been an 
honour to the country ; as he is, and as his book is, 
they are far from bdng deficient of Uterary merit ; 



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however theie are several speedies in the book allttded 
to that want correction, several that the most rigid 
critic cannot correct, and some few that had better 
not have appeared at all in it — to instance some of 
the first. 

Scene I, Act ist. Hold my Arvizagus, how I 
would halt one moment to enjoy the open air, and now 
we do not understand that Mdgo is just come out of a 
dimgeon or a prison. If that had been the case no 
wonder then if he had wished to take a walk in the 
Priory Groves to enjoy the fresh air. As to me, I cannot 
help thinktng when I read this of my dog Toss, 
whom I've often seen running against the wind and 
snuffing the fragrant gale, as the song has it. Then 
comes in next pE^e a truly beautiful sentiment, 
and well expressed, "The patriot's honour is better 
treasured in the people's breast, than spent in bani^uets, 
feasts, and guady titles." " He cri'd " : there is no 
need for that abbreviation ; cried is often used as 
one syllable. ' ' Envy will rise ' ' ; this is very ill 
^Epre^ed. The word rise is very inadequate to 
convey the idea you mean to convey ; however, my 
paper will stint me in my further pr(^;ress, which you 
may expect to find thro' the whtde work and in the 
which 5fou will find me deal with the same candour as 
I have in the above critique. I needn't tell you my 
motive for dealing with you in my observations with 
so Uttle sorrow — ^you guess it I'm sure. The postscript 
to your last is very brief and very pith^— could not 
conceive the meaning of it. Went from Prestedgn to 
Glo'er. Can't tell where I was on last Thursday 
fortnight. Was at home when I read your letter, 
but Imew not the reason of our servant's giving it me 
so secretly. Here followeth the history of the 
transaction. When I came into the house (at 9 o'clock, 
being a good hour for a rake) the girl pulled your letter 
out of her bosom and gave it me smy, and then vaniafied 
like ike baseless fabric of a vision. What all this 
mistery meant she will not inform me. Poor E. W. wQl 
be wrote to this post by ' 

Yours, &E., 

THEO. JONES. 



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To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. CHIPPING SODBURY, 

GLOS. 
T^ . '798- 

Dbak Snt, 

I am extremely obliged to you foi jroui tetter 
and tianslation, which amved hae when I was in 
London, in whidi place I was confined for near 6 weeks 
— I say confined, for after 9 days or a fortnight 
Ixuidon becomes disagreeable to me. I dined with all 
our Cambrian Register men ; one day at Williams's, 
and was much pleased with some of them. Some of 
them are dumb fish and some of them are (I am afraid) 
doll fish. David Williams (who, however, is not one <^ 
us) is certainly a man of strong sense and a very able 
writer, notwithstanding he has been washed by the 
igtusfaiuus of the modem enligkUned Philosophy as it is 
mled. It is strange to me that men of learning who, the 
further they proceed in knowledge, must find how much 
more they have to know, and who must be satisfied 
that theie aie su many things which it is impossible 
human learning can ever comprehend, should upcm 
that moat serious of all subjects. Religion and Futurity, 
stumble because it is not within the reach of oui finite 
capacities. Yet these folks will readily admit that they 
cannot compi^iend the prinuxy causes of the most 
common operations of nature. Yet so it is, and because 
David Wmiams's strong, manly understanding cannot 
comprehend the Trinity in Unity, the necessity of 
Atonement, &c., he is become a Deist, if not an Atheist, 
for the transition from the one to the other is less than 
is generally imagined or admitted. I shall send you your 
Annes (for th^ are mihtaiy days) by coach. It 
appears to me to be ao incoherent, rhapsodical com- 
position, not without beauty certainly, but you'll pardcm 
me for differii^ with you as to the merit of the early 
publications in our or indeed in any other language 
I am acquainted with. There is certainly something 
more nervous, more comprehensive, and expressive, in 
the compound words in the early Welsh poems than 
those oi a later period. 
Tlie sterling Bullion of one antient line* 
Drawn in modem wire wo'd thro' whole pages shine. 

* Inaj nf wind. 



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And there is less aSectatioQ in these ideas ; they were 
Nature's childrm, and their dress was simple and plain, 
but I should no more prefer your Disgogan awen 
dyeobryssyn to ' ' Hoff lawn oedd goiphennu Tuy 
haf wrth lynn Tyfi ' ' than I should we rough music 
at the Otaheite or the American Indians to the notes of 
Handel or Pnrcell. My opinion is the same as to the 
English ; Gower and Chaucer and even Spencer, whom I 
think the most respectable of the three, are no more to 
be compared to Pope, Dryden, or my friend Gray, than I 
am to Ned Davies. It may be said that our late 
authors and poets have borrowed several of their 
most beautiful thoughts from the antients. I am 
not disposed to deny that, and perhaps it may be 
more difficult to avoid plagiarism than is generally 
supposed. What Puff or Bayes (I don't know which) 
says, tho' jocularly, ' ' Why, I think I have seen that 
thought or that line somewhere before " ; " well, 
snppose you did, it only proves that two great men 
thought alike, and the thought occurred first to your 
author," — is more true than the writers of the present 
age will allow ; it would be a curious disquisition to 
ascertain how long ago the world has been compleatly 
peopled with ideas or whe'r it has yet happened. I 
am inclined to believe the former, not having so high 
an opinion of the perfectibility of the human species 
as Mt. Godwin. Pray is that idea a creation of the 
present day or not ? I think not, tho' there has been 
a pretty long, long parenthesis, from its first ist 
generation to its regeneration. Tms is something like 
d^ession, if an eiHstle, not professing to treat upon 
any particular subject, or boasting of anything Uke 
connection, may be said to d^ess. I was just before 
talking to you upon the beauties of antient and 
modem poetry. Will you permit me to say I prefer 
Gray's "mumph of Owen to the ordinal. My friend 
Owen grinds his teeth with a most DruitUc and 
bardic grin when he pronounces 

A'r QAd sftd neudde 

A'l aryagtyd giModde. 
Bravo, Bravissimo. Divine ! says I. Oh, beautiful, 
quoth he. Nothing like it among the modems. 
Certainly not, say I, for when I see a good-natured 
fellow riding his hobby horse, admiring him as he goes 



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43 

along ; ' ' Isn't this a pretty pony — do look at him, do 
stroke him, ' ' there is no harm in indulging — nay, it is 
ill-natured not to do it — hut " Ar T41 y moelfre mil o 
fanieri," tho' expressed in soft language, is not equal 
to Talymoelyfre's (which the K^Ii^ Galymalbies 
have made Talymalfiy's rocky show. 

Echoing to the battle roar 
Where'er his glowing eyeballs turn, 
A thousand banners round him bum. 
These two last lines are exquisite. Now I'm gettii^ 
on horseback, and take care I don't kick yon. I know 
there is something like this said of Horton, but Mr. 
Pope's " fiatnes in the van, and blazes in the war," is 
not equal to Otay — at least in my opinion — the original 
I have forgotten : nay the letters have almost beoome 
pot-hooks and links to me. It is strar^e how that the 
1st ode d Aneurin, or at the least the b^inning 
of it, is still familiar to me, and I was goii^ to say 
sometimes haunts me. Now to Ames again. I have 
sent you with your MS. some notes I madK, not intended 
for inspection, but merely for my own amusement. 
However, as you wish to have them, and, as I sometimes 
think, tho' by no means a democrat, that two heads 
are better than one, I have sent them to you without 
altering a. letter. You are welcome to bum them, to 
lai^h at them, reject them, or make any other profitable 
or convenient use whatever of them. If you should take 
the trouble of perusing them you will probably say tb& 
fellow knows little of his subject ; he does not understand 
the lai^uage, and when he does ride his hobby hoise how 
he looks for all the vassal world like a Taylor riding to 
Erentford. T allHtig of Democrats just now, pray are 
you democratically inclined ? Owen is, but is either 
afraid or ashamed to own it. As he writes (poor 
fellow) for bread, it may be pradent to say nothing 
upon the subject in his book ; but I see no necessity 
for concealing it amoi^ friends. It is no more any 
impeachment upon a man's head or his heart that 
he should be a Rroublican than a Monarchist, and tho' 
I am of opinion that the latter is the least evU of the 
two, I don t hold it necessary to knock down or quarrel 
with any man who differs from me. Without being 
vain, I wish to God all the world would ap'ee to differ 



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in this manner, and I should have no moie objection 
to change our Government every 6 or 7 yeais, or 
refonn what we must admit to be rotten, thii I hav» 
in changing my shirt every day, but sudi is the 
tenacity of power on the one side and the untameable 
frenzy of the multitude on the other that, from the 
Chancdlor of the Exchequer to the little paltry 
Corporation of Brecon, not one iota of their power or 
their superfluous riches will they part with till they 
cannot avoid it, and then the strong, the furious, the 
ondiscriminating arms of the mob levels all distinctions, 
and the most eminent abilities 01 exalted \'irtues are 
disr^arded and laid in the dust. But where the 

d- 1 am I driving to now ? What will be the next 

snbject ? I've done. I've only one wish more, whidi 
is your health and happiness. If I can throw in a word 
for you with the Bi^op of Gloucester*, without being 
impertinent, I'U do it, but I have no dependence upon 
my influence. I would not, therefore, but^ you up 
with false hopes. Pray write when you are at 
Idsnre to, dear Davies, 

Your old and sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
[The following are the notes referred to in this 
letter. A reference to Arymes Prydain Vaiar, translated 
into English by the Rev. Edward Davies, shows that 
several of the alterations su^ested by Theophilus 
Jones were adopted by Mr. Davies. The Welsh Poem 
and the Engli^ translation are to be found in the 
Cambrian Register. — ^Editor.) 

UkVo. 

IS. Pell dymapoer ^ipakn to be " Far and wide ibBll be soDg," 
or " noown'd in long in diatsnt olimeB, alull be tbe time wEeo 
tbeir amy or domimon «hall oonunenoe " ; if it had been 
dyagoguied I abould have said roy frieod Dnviea was righti. 
Tlirae U no vAcn in the two following lines, not do' I sea any 
neoevlty for introdnaing one, or soppoeiug it to be onderBtood. 

ian or abakeep 

o the bowela of the laud." 
That we had not revolted from the Qovernment uid Oni 
partiality or ill'i'UdgEd toudnon for ths Saxoni — T hope oyebmyn 
!• not pliiral of eaehwron, the adjeotive ia by — or at ImM 
natnrtiuad, the termination ia oertainly hardly a denixaa. 

• lUohard Baadon, Bilhop ol (^oooaatar, 1T8»— 1808. 



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45 

C^chmyn meniiB to set down upon ■ jonmej, il tlientOio tllll 
u • BQbstanlive from tbat verb. Why not, ' ' tbe travdlen 
or Htran^ra at Vortigem," from tbeir lumng oome thna lac 
in their journey of plunder I 
Ef gyrhsjtt, ke. 1 should read tbii ' ' Hdy th«r nMfa Qannanr 
into bamBhment, ' ' that ii banishnient from the ooimtiy, and 
perhaps this prophet might think, aa is now roioaatieally t«id 
ot the Scotch, that to be «sat baok again into their ana ooneto«j 
was the worst spedes of banishment. 
It, that stopped or stay'd or oast 
o w£ich they were driven, msaning that 

there waa no getting rid ot them; they a . _, 

like leeohea, and never quitted it till they had swallowed all it! 
fruits. Mr. Owen, if he nas not miide nonaenae ot tbe pavaga, 
has made it oertiunly moat delighttuJly obaotiTe ; it is not, 
howoTer, improbable that these seers trequently aSaotad 
ohaonrity, in whioh they have in general been axtMniely 
■occeestui. 
Anfonedd, a mlsfoitnne T shonld tranilals, for the Tonedd ia now 
in common parlanos ot a noble or antient origin, and o{ ooniM 
anfonedd the rerene ; vonedd is sometimes naed tor goodnaaa, 
happiness, or felioity. 
to 40 are Bna lines. They contain a besatiful invooation or appeal 
to the paBsona of tbe Poet oi Prophet's injured eo uutryni eti. 
Think of the fandfnl mead's msidioiu bowl, 
Whioh many a thonghtleaa goeet bereft of soul. 
The mortal wonnd, the widow's bitter tear. 
The daily sorrows tjiey are doom'd to bear. 
Think of those wrongs whieh Britons moat mdara, 
When scoundrel Saioca shall their reign aeottre. 
I should rather think that the oonntry of tbe Brftona dioald be 
^ven up to or destroyed by the powerful or anarchical Saxona 
— I teel the ditdaulty of thus tranalatine it. T need not remind 
my friend that to rim ogainM is a phraae to wUoh poliab'd 
anthor's are not accnstomed. nor need J inform bini what tarddn 
means in Bnglish. " Um a' 
this is not tbe style ot the ti 
meeting it here ; this wo'd d 
tbe 18th century. 
" And tbe grove tremblea at the witfrior's shont " — byperbolioaiU 

but boldly and beautitull? expressed. 
Utterly kill is a phaae not mooh in nae now ; perhan utterly 
exterminate or destroy or the Scripture phiaae of they will 
utterly destroy ' ' would do better. 
Tie anrgeon shall not 
Cad a wna&nt— they 

They shall have a BO_„ _„ . _ „ 

the flslds, and mount. Conan ihall be their leader in every 



BS. Tbe anrgeon shall not receive advantBEe frcnn what they'll do. 

Cad a wna&nt— they ahall make a daughter. 
87-88. I^sy shall have a song and be a light in darkneaa in the grove. 



IM. Is not iTohawr (tho' tbe termination is now obsolete and hardly 
Intal!igible), Fly, or may they Sy, and not may they be mad* 
to fly. (See note to line iT, surely this is peculiar to this poem, 
and tbe author saema to be fond ol it). Ho bonydd, shall fly 
daily ; see above. 

114. Bu hniydd, ia, I believe, their toTetBthers or anoeston aa well 
as thmr ohief, and certainly will apply well hare in that aenae. 

IIT. Fen heb emmenydd, the brainless sknll is more literal, and I 
tiunk lew equivocal than empty s^ull. 



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ISfl. The Wolih mcDeeiled 

unanimous ; thay were one in Eoodneaa, one in language, one 
in sound (this seema to be a repetition) and one in faith. 

ISd to 140. A number of pertinent and probable qowtionB are naked 
the BajCDUB, to whioh I believe they would be puieled to give 
■atistaotor]' anatren oriminating themselves. 

113. Hyd pan dalont (till they pay) het« means till tbey have bean 
compelled to pay. 

ISO. The destroyer in battle, the destroyer ot armieB. 

ITI. The prophetic song ot the Druids; a multitude ahoU oome 
forth 1 from Mynaw to Lydau shall be in their hands ; from 
Ddyfod to Ddaned shall they poaaes? ; from Wawr to Weiyd 
■baJl be their barbonrs ; and their dominion ahalt be extended 
even over the weot. This is muoh in the style of the Bible 
prophecies. 

ISS. The Oermiins are retreatini) (aychwyo vont) or npon their journey 
to the place ot banishment, or as ve should now aay, they're 
OD board a transport bound for Botany Bay. 

1S3. Let not the Bookworm and the Han ot Boobs, or the interested 
Poet be sought. The concluding lines are very fine — *' he 
shall not flyT^ Ac. Be Grm as a rock and conscious of the 
Stability and justice of Him in whom he oonfldes. he shall not 
mn tremble but stand " nnmov'd amidst the wreck ot 
matter and the crush of worlds." 



To THE Rbv. Mr. DAVIES, CHIPPING 
SODBURY, GLOS. 

February il, 1799. 
Mt Deabest Pkibhd, 

Doo't suppose I have forgot 70U because you 
have not heard from me for some time. . . I am 
going to IfOndon in a fortnight and shall aee the 
Bishop, thoiigh I am afraid my influence with him is 
not very great ; yet still I'll try what I can do. Pray 
write to me ^e particulars of your situation, your 
health, &c., and everythii^ else which your discreticnt 
may think requisite 01 1:^tting a B^o^'s ears to 
bear. I have no great hopes, but if we fail we shall 
not be worse off than we are at present. Direct to 
me next week at No. 37, Golden Square. I have 
translated Gronwy Owen's Poem upon the Day of 
Judgment into Rbyne. I shall send it you to explain, 
amend, alter, add, erase, fJit ninish, cut down poem, or 
transpose at your own will and pleasure, provided 
always, nevertiieless, that you do it daslunj^y and 
without any feat of offeadii^ the pride or the teaming 
of the Rhjrmetagger — ^I mean 

Your sincere friend, 

THBO. JONES. 



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To THB Rbv. Mr. DAVIES, CHIPPING 
SODBURY, GLOS. 

Why, how now, Adam I No ereator hBttrt in thee ( lAvt a litUo, 
comfort a little, ahe«r thjiself a little. Thy oonoeit is nearer death 
than thy powers. For taj sake be oomfortable ; hold death awhile at 
the arm's end . — Cheerly, good Adam I 

My Good Fribnd, 

Comfortless as yoni situation is at present, 
still lecoUect how many thousands (I will not say more 
deserving, but excellent men) are even more miserable 
than the curate of Chipping Sodbury. I think 
How many pine in want and dungeon gloom. 
Shut from the common air and common use 
Of their own limbs. How many drink the cup 
Of baleful grief, or eat the bitter bread 
Of misery — sow pierced by wintry winds ; 
How many shrink into the sordid hut 
Of cheerless poverty. 
Very fine (you'll say) my fat and pamper'd friend, 
sitting in your own parlour and enjoying all the 
conveniences and many of the luxuries of life. 
Admitted, but the advice is salutary, whether it come 
from the palace or the cot. Look below you. It 
will help to reconcile you while you strug^e thro' 
your difficulties and wrestle with youx misfortune, 
especially when you consider that th^ are ordained 
by the all wise dispensation of Providence — 
probably — ^very probably, to prove your fortitude 
and to intitle you to a far more ezceedii^ and 
eternal weight of glory hereafter, in proportion as 
you support them with magnanimity now, and let 
me add that while you continue to keep in view that 
sweet reward it is not necessary you should lose sight 
of hope here. I send you, hereunder, the substance dt 
the Bishop of Gloucester's to me, wMch I enclosed to 
the Bishcn> of St. David's, who appears to me from his 
tenn ' ' abandoned " to be an unfeeling — shall I say 
Scot ? No, that would be illiberal, but as I have at 
present no proper phrase to express myself in, I wish 
— a speedy translation — and depend upon it 1 will 
never lose s^t of you if I can do anything for you. 
I really believe the Bishop of Glos. wishes to assist you, 
and we may have a Bisht^ of St- David's who will not 



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call an attonpt to sedc a livelihood abaadoning ihe 
diocese. You'd have heard from me sooner, but tho' 
I wrote to the Bishop of St. David's a month ago, 
I did not receive his letter till to-day, but as he kept 
your letter and that of the Bishop of Glos'ter's, I 
augured well from this. Yet often how vain is the 
hope of man, says poor old Walters in his Preface, 
wmch I wish you to read as one of the most beautiful 
roedmens (or as Churchey calls it, spedmoia} in the 
^iglish oi any other langu^e. After losit^ two 
sons who were an honor to bun, as well as his country, 
while two others ate idiots and drunkards survive, 
he concludes his affecting lamentation with a bleeding 
heart and overflowing eyes, with the following quotation : 
Accept fraternal band 
This last sad tribute from a father's hand. 
My poor father has at last (I trust) ascended the realms 
of Peace, after a long and afflictii^ illness of near 
three months, in which be could be barely said to have 
existed. I wish you could have succeeded him in 
Uywd, but I find it is promised, and not to my friend, 
bat let me give you the Episcopal Letters addressed 
to, Deal Davies, 

Your very sincere friend, 
Brecon, April 14, 1799. THEO. JONES. 

Let me hear from you. 

PBOH THE BISHOP 07 QLOVOXSTEIt. 
Toor raeommendBtion of Hr. Davias raqolred no apiAogj. I 
tai«i» tlw worth of hi* ohatacter, •nd hMitily wish it wm in my pcnrac 
.._ .. .. ... — .._..,_ . . ', to b» 



1 mora comlcwtaUo, but yotx >iiiiiiliii1 J 
<w very poor s patron I um, and most adi 

re only diapoBed of one living, vacant by ( 

In the tan y«an I have been Biihop of QIonoeMer. Hi* lUpeod fot 
m» iiliill little Bodbury is, I think, too small, and if be thinka proper 
to wpiy tor an sugmeatatloD he ahall have my siqiport in obtainmg 
it ; but the applioation sbotdd be Brst made as a matter of dvility 
to lb. Coxa, tba inotunbent, whose addreaa be must srad me il lis 
wishes me to write him. With iMpeot to Yale, I ezpwt Mr. Htv to 

not nadily oonsetit to a ohuge of onrate. 



I am to beg yaar pardon for not giving yoa a more immediate 
answer (the oaaas. hii ohildnQ'a illnesiO- Ur. Daviea'a case upean 
to be deserving of notioe, but I know not how to aasijtt him. I nave 
many olaimants whom I wish to saldafy, and those who live within 
my diooeee have oertsinly a better ri^t to pr ef erment in my gift 
tMD gantletoen who have tbooght prop« to abandon it. 



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To THB Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

" Then BhMt not die for luk of a dinnOT if Hum be "—any 
IMnf — " in thia diatriet. " — Cheeily good Adaro. 

Why don't I hear from you ? I am afraid those 
eyes of yours will play you a trick ; if they do, ——— 
their eyes. 

I have written to my friend George Harding e 
this evening, who is as inconsistent and eccentric as 
he is benevolent. Hardinge is our Judge, and in 
Parliament. 

Forgive my hawking you about in this manner. 
God and perhaps the world wiU reward me. I ask 
not for the praise of the latter, but upon your accoimt. 

I hope you have had my letter with copies of the 
Bishops of Gloucester's and St. David's. 

I«et me hear from you, tho' you cannot depend 
upon the success of 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
Brecon, April 27, 1799. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES, CHIPPING 
SODBURY, GXOS. 

May 6, 1799, 
MV DSAK Davibs, 

Herewith I send you my tame translation or 
parody or paraphrase, call it what you will, of Gronwy 
Owain's sublime poem. I insist upon you correcting, 
altering, adding, pruning, revising, and amending 
without mercy, or I'll have none upon you. There are 
sophistries out of number \riiich should be weeded ; 
wroi^ translations numeroiis, which you must rectify, 
and inaccuracies which you must attend to. I wUl 
not have it back unless I observe frequent marks of 
your fingers upon it — tho' it is but a dirty thing now, 
having travelled with me to London. I wish, however, 
to see it returned more blotted, erased, and interlined, 
from Chipping Sodbury, together with the parcel with 
which you threaten me and which I hope to receive 
soon. The 3nd vol. of the Cambrian Register is out. 
Your Armes is in it, two critiques of mine upon 
Welsh Tourists and Williams' Monmouihshire — ^most 
damnably printed (as the Vicar and Moses hath it). 



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such confounded Uundeis in punctuation, and even 
granunar, such alterations as to make me sometinus 
talk nonsense, and sometimes the very reverse of 
what I meant. A long preface of my teview of 
Williams directly against my opinion, and a tail piece 
to contradict what has preteded it — in fact I am 
perfectly ashamed of my appearance, and only tell 
you in confidence I am the autnor of them. Pray send 
for this book, if you have it not. I understand they 
want to give it you, if not, be sure you tell them to 
put it to my account, for 'tis shamefully dear, los. 6d. 
Upon second thoughts, I'll write to Williams about it, 
so you need say notldng. I don't know what Owen 
is about at present, noi indeed do I Imow what 
Williams means. 

You see my little friend the Judge* ia not idle. 
He is a Quixote in benevolence, and will knock his head 
against a windmill to serve you, and make some of the 
pillars of our Church shake unless he is attended to, 
tho' God knows I much fear that many of them have 
no more feeling than those supports in architecture. 
Do you mean by the Archseologia the 2nd 
vcA. of Uwyd ? If so, I can't get at it. I am at 
present about a very heavy work — minii^; — 
extracting silver out of lead, explorii^ those dark 
caverns and black letter repositones, the Statutes at 
large, for illustrations of ttie manners and customs 
of other as well as the present times, and compaiii^ 
them with some of our Historians and correcting the 
anachronisms and inacciuacies of the latter. It will 
take me a considerable time to lick the work into shape ; 
at present I have not determined upon that part of the 
subject, but it shall certainly, however questionable 
it be at present, not beat the least semblance of a 
lawyer. Seven years hence you shall see it. See it, 
quoth you. Yes, see it. 

Pray don't foiget the pan^ and the revised Poem 
as soon as you can. Mrs. Jones is as warmly 
interested for you as, dear Davies, 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



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5> 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES, OI^VESTON, 
THORNBURY, GU)S. 

Brecon, May 6, 1800. 
My Dear Davibs, 

I should have written to you earlier, but that 
I foolishly hoped to have addressed you as Vicar or 
Rector, but all we can get from the great men are 
" Goodly Words," and now something like promises. 
I'll never cease to plague them until something is 
done ; they shall not at least sleep undisturbed. In 
the meantune I shall be glad to know what your present 
income is. Tbs Bishop of Gloucester, I think, said 
something about your naving two good curacies, and 
being at present weU provided for — how is that ? 
Not that I think it material, for I have endeavoured 
to explain myself as well as I could that it is not the 
necessity of the moment, but the contingency of your 
being unable to perform your professional duty that 
I wish to provide for. I however hope, whether I 
succeed or not, that that may never happen, both on 
your own account and on my own. Your kind 
attention to my last letter proves to me how much 
I am interested in the preservation of your visual 
powers. I subscribe almost in toto to your definitions 
and your reasonings, and if I was not writing to a 
friend whose application and reading I have loi^ 
known, I might perhaps have thoi^ht it necessary to 
compliment you upon your leamii^, but as I see your 
capital is strong, and you agree to accept, I shall 
certainly draw upon you. I ^all this summer see 
as much of the county as my professional avocations 
will give me leave to, for dio the clergy in general 
have very kindly answered such questions as I have 
sent to them, I chuse to trust my own eyes. There 
is one great stumUing block to information which 
they and others can seldom get over — that which is 
in dieir ne^hbourhood and which they see every day 
they consider to be known to all the world ; there 
aie also several little anecdotes and also occurrences, 
&c., generally known near them which might be of 
real use which they suppose to be too insignificant 
to be communicated, whereas the aggr^ate of 
historical knowledge is formed from the combination 
of facts and drcumstauces whidt separately frequently 
appear trifling. 



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I^'s look at your book. I have a definition of 
Chweore whidi preceded yours Gii Dwfrfri — ^pretty and 
ingenious. Yours, however, will do for me. In 
Cainlas you are correct, but Dulas I cannot so readily 
give up ; it shall be considered. Orwyne bdng 
a rocky river full of deep holes has been derived 
from Gerwynau, and we have a part of the liver 
Taaf of this description which is called Y Gorwynau 
Duon, but perhaps you will tell me the river ran and 
had a name before . . . were in fashion. 
Admitted. Crawnon I have seen antiently written 
Gerwynion. Dihonwy is a briskly Sowing river 
and not sli^gish, but running from the Turbaries 
I think it takes its name from the color Du Mawn 
wy. You have given me Uardwl, whether from 
me or from the maps, I don't know ; the little 
brook by Bredcnock is Mardrel. I used to derive 
Mellte from Mellt wy — water swift as Ughtniag, How 
is it that in almost all old 9ISS. TareU is called 
Tartarell. What ate Pirgad and Rhiangoll ; they are 
the only rivers I can recollect at present. You shall 
have a cargo of land and water after my visitation. 
So much for the great the heavy work 
How often would he dine 
On some bulky school divine, 
And for dessert eat verses. 

{Shenstone upon a CoUege Mouse). 
I, too, eat verses occasionally, and amuse myself 
with translating Welsh Peninllion. I have a bag full 
which I have a good mind to throw into sheets in a 
few days. They are converted into English verse 
with great ease. The thoughts are sometimes 
strikingly humorous, and those as well as the metre 
which may be in some degree initiated, would be new 
to an English reader. Take the following out of 50 : — 
On'd ydyw hyn rhyfeddod 
Fod dannedd wraJg yn darfod 
On'd tra f o yn ei geneu diwitb 
Ni dderfydd byth mo'i thafod. 
Translation : 

And is't not strange to say 

*niat females' teeth decay. 

By while the've life and breath to scold 

We ne'er perceive the tongue grow old. 



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55 

QywaJs siarad dyvraia dwndio 
Oywais rhan o'r byd yn beio 
Erioed ni cblywais neb yn ddatcan 
FawT o'i byiiod fdau ei hunan 
Translation : 

I've heard men talking, beard tbem bo&ter 
Each stQl blaming one the other ; 
But though our faults to all are kcovn 
I never heard one Uame his own. 
Os coUais i fy nghaiiad Un 
Mae Br4n i fran yn rhywle 
Wrth ei bodd y bo hi byw 
Ag Ewyllys Duw i minneu 
Trattstaiion : 

And if t've lost my dearest love. 
There's Dove for Dove designed ; 
May she Uve pleas'd and happy still. 
To God's high will I'm perfectly r 
I believe the Cywydd, the Awdl, the Bnglyn, and the 
Peniaili to be what we would call in EnglSh the Poem, 
Ode, Stanza, and Ep^am. I mean to give a spedmen 
of each. Gronwy Owain shall go for the ist, the 2nd 
I shall take from some of the antients, and Englynion 
and Fenillion we have thick as hops. By the bye, let 
you and me have a httle conversation about these 
same antients, I know Owain and you (who it is 
nothing like compliments to say are more profoundly 
and intimately acquainted with the language than 
myself) pity us poor children who are pleased with 
the rattle and gingle of the modem rhymer. When 
sense is sacrificed to sound I give it up, but I 
appreheid both may be produced and the harmony 
of letters and syllables may recommend and assist 
the sentiments, and are certainly a help to the 
memory. This gingle, however, has been objected 
to by some men of learning, even to Pope, and they 
have preferred Chaucer to him. Now I have a hobby 
hoTsial turn for antiquities, and I hope have all due 
respect for the learning of our ancestors, of which I am 
wjlung to allow them a greater stock than is generally 
attributed to them, but I really can see no comparison 
whatever in the poetry or lai^iuage of Chaucer and 
Pope or Taliessin and Edward Richard, the latter of 



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whom I know Owain despises. Let as have a little 
of our favourite Penbeiidd : — 

DySUDDIANT ^JHDf. 

"Eipbm 6eg taw ath wylo 
Na chabled neb yr eiddo 
Ni wna les drwg obeitiiio 
Ni wyl dyn ddim ai portho 
Ni fydd go^ gweddi Cyullo 
Ni diyn Duw ai addawo 
Ni chad Ynghored Wyddno 
Erioed cystu a heno. 
TransiatioH : 

Blphin's Luulaby. 
Pretty Elphin, donna cry 
' Don't despair boy ! becase why 

It really donna signify 
' Man should not believe his tyta 

Nor good Cynllo's pray'r despise 

Ne'er was caught in Gwyddno W«r 
Sud) a draught as this I swear. 
From this as well as the remainder of the poem 
we learn that Elphin had a pnvate fishery (I am sorry 
to find these cursed monoplies are of so old a date) ; t^t 
instead of salmons he one m^ht caught a b^lad singer; 
who by way of comfort tells him that if he (the little, 
Hf) gets into a scrape he'll do him more service than 
300 Salmon, ' ' Oh, ' says £lphin — or I dare say he 
thought as Jade WiUdns did fishing upon Glazbury 
Bridge with his rod and line and Qy about 6 yards 
above the leaier — ' ' I wish the Lord I could catch a 



I have talon very little liberties with the 
originals here, and there are more which are equally 
childish and fiimsy. I am ready to allow the old Barek 
great merit ; though their language was rough and 
dissonant, and by no means as -pcJished and copious 
as that of the 14th, 15th, or even i6th century, their 
compounds were very comprehensive. MuUum in 

■ The Rot. John Wilkini, B. 1742 [TounEei farotber of Mr. 
Walter Wilkiiu, H.P.. who puiobMed thn V»MiTlTiTh Bintnlii) Be 
wa* known by UtB faendoDym, " 0»toh<a.Bal»on," a bTOuhta 
phmeol hi*. 



„Goo(^k- 



55 

farvo, and wliat was said of Fiendi wire may be wdl 
applied to them — 

" The sterling bullion of oar British line," &c. 

I am about Aneurin Gwawdiydd's ' ' Bt^ynion 
y Misoedd." I am sure you have seen. it. I've 
translated the greater part of it into somethii^ like 
veise. There is much merit and much oddity in this 
composition. I am much pestered by my d — -d 
profession and the folks of tne fair, or I should have 
given you as much more nonsense as my paper would 
permit. Write to me at your leisure, but let it not be 
lazy, lounging Idsure. Is there no servus nervorum 
Dei (I don't mean the Pope, but a journeyman 
parson) ? who would serve for you for z Sundays 
this summer, while you sport a few days with, dear 
Davies, 

Your sincere biend, 

THEO. JONES. 

Least after my Pennill about the female tongue 
you may suppose I am damning the fair sex in general, 
or my wife in particular, know that this is our 
commercial fair day — and a fine day it is, thank God. 



To THB Rev. EDWARD DAVIES, Neak 
THORNBURY, GWS. 

'BsSfXibi, /«fy iS, 1800. 
My Dear Davies, 

You will no doubt consider me a strange, 
inconsistent fellow, one moment professing friendship, 
then apparently deserting or seeming to fo^t it for 
a 12 month, but the truth most assuredly is that I 
have not lost sight of you since you left school. I 
pray God that may not be the case in one sense with 
you, in that sense in which I use to you I am sure it 
never will ; and first then let me a^ bow are ycmx 
twilights ? I hope since you have left oS ' {daying 
Ploggum, and of course working as Mr. Floggum, 
they improve, and that you now see thro' a millstone 
or a g-inch board at least. 

I should certainly have noticed your last sooner 
if Mr. Hardinge had not pocketed it, and tho' I told 



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bim I didfnot know how to direct to you without it, 
his eccentricity has probably applied, or rather 
misapplied, it to most base and ignoble purposes long 
ere this. I learned, however, accidentally from the 
Bishcni of Gloucester in a letter which I lately received 
from him that a letter directed to you near 'ftiombury 
would probably find you. I shall therefore venture 
to send this so addre^ed. 

I have been among Bishops and among lords by 
the half dozens — one has a son to prefer and a 
chaplain to promote, but as to the Bishop of Rochester, 
saj^ Mr. Hardinge, ' ' Napthali is a hand let loose, 
he giveth — Goodly Words." In short, I don't know, 
or rather I do Imow, what to think of them, but I 
shall persevere. I can do you no mischief, tho' if I 
were sure Providence would enable you to go tiiro' 
your professional duty I'd see the tythe of uem (at 
least) hanged first. 

I now ride a pony of another colour from that 
which I kept when I wrote to you last, that if you 
recollect was an old big blade n^ called Antient 
Statutes ; this is an ambling, shuffling little fellow, 
who frisks up our hills and down our vales, over tomb- 
stones and cromlechs, thro' ford and whirlpool, over 
bog and quagmire. He is not called (as you may 
sup|)ose) Flipportigibbot, but is her^fter to be 
instituted The History of Brecknockshire : M^ether 
he may not (as is frequently the case among great 
folks who call their children George Augustus Stanislaus 
Bonued) have the additional appellation of statistical, 
topographical, geometrical, or geographical, I am not 
yet determined. I have ridden very hard of late, 
and am now, to use a phrase of these days of 
encampment, resting upon my arms, but I shall mount 
again shortly — ^hold my horse's head for a moment. 
In Builth the tenants of the manor pay upon their 
admission fines to the lord called Maccwyn and 
Mabiyddiaeth ; the former is only paid in a small 
part of the district. What is the import of the 1st 
word in particular, the second I can guess at. Owea, 
who speaks very highly indeed of you, says it is now 
become extremely fashionable to give definitions in the 
pail up and easian style, and that I must attend to 



D,j,l,.,-. nGOO^^IC 



87 

that carefully. I now, however, to prove that you 
must get up' behind, set you & task for your lasuie. 
What ik» the followiog riveiB in Brecknockshire 
mean ? I fc^ow the import of many, but I wish to 
compare yours with my own. 



Mehascyn | 


My eye, ceii, 
IS unm 


itell^ble to me. 


Cyniig. 






CaerfaneU. 


Senny. 




Annell. 


Crai. 




Tardl. 


Cynlais or 


Clydach and 




Cynlis, 


Ysclydach. 


Dihouwy. 


Mollte. 


Gwessin. 


Ciheoi. 


Gwidderig. 


Palle^. 


Grwyne. 


Pa march. 


Craaf. 


Nedd. 


Olchon. 


Chwefri. 


Escyr. 


Crawuon. 


And any others you 


Honddu. 


Mardrol. 


can recollect whose 


Taaf. 


Hoywy. 


names you know 


Bemw. 


Brynich. 


to be difficult ot 
translation. 


Mrs. Jones presents her 


respects and best wishes. 




Yours 


very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

BsscoN, Oct. 4, 1801. 
My DSAS Davibs, 

Dr. Turton and I had talked over your 
business at Swansea, and he had supplied me with your 
prospectus before your parcel arrived. Pray whom 
have you employed at Hay to receive subscriptions ? 
I'll get some person there to refer to if you have not 
already spoken to anyone. I bad hung up a Ht of 
pasteboard in the coffee house at Brecon and at North's 
about a fortni^t ^o, and I have a subscription for 
50 ct^ies. The Judge promises me to do great thii^ 
for you in London. I think you had better write 
to him to say I have communicated his kind intention 
to you and to thank him for his VinHnwai ; you may 
at the same time state the big beatings yon have 



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58 

received from the bitdi Fortune for these last lo or 
15 yeais. Pray let this be done. He was very 
aiudons to set about a subscription for you about 2 
years a%p, which, however, I put an end to by 
insisting that in case of your becoming blind I could 
afford to buy a dc^ and a string for your employment 
in the day and a bed at night. For this he called me 
a proud, impudent fdlow, but though I am as much 
hurt as any man at your situation and circumstances, 
I cannot promote any subscription to improve them 
which may injure your feelings or abrade the 
estaUishment. By the mode now proposed, I trust 
neither are affected, nor do I see any impropriety in 
your accepting the first reward of your labours (in part), 
however, wimout being too nicely attentive to tlw 
size and bulk of the book. I mention this because 
Turton told me you were a httle squeemish upon this 
part of the subject. 

Our correspondence is somethit^ Eke what the 
Spectator (I think tt is) describes that of Hilpa and 
Sialum (two antediluvian lovers) to be ; the last 
letter which I wrote was about a year and a half ago 
expressii^ a desire of seeing yoii here, since whidi you 

have not given me one word. I suppose has 

been entertaining you all this time with the virtues 
of Jamaica pepper, or the mode of cultivating sugar 
canes ; he has, however, I trust sold you some ex- 
perience, tho' I am extremely Sony it cost you so 
much ; but really books are bad instructois U they 
either do not teadi us to read mankind or to conduct 
oursdves with caurion in our concerns with strai^rs 
at least. 

Now we are upon the subject of reading, I assume 
(a great effort certainly) that you have read the 
fable of the Good Samaritan. You shall have a 
parody. I was menrioning to a rick clergyman that I 
had a friend whise purse did not, as I apprehended, 
run over, and that this friend, who was in me Qiurch, 
was now publishing a book by subscription. " Ho," 
quoth the Levite, ' ' these are act times for sub- 
scriptions," and so he passed by. I was entertaining 
a lawyer with a dismal tale of a poor parson who was 
not quite so well rewarded as I thou^t he ought to 



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59 

be. "Ay," says he, "is he the man you describe 
him ? — ^thea he shall have my living on the first 
vacancy." But tbo' I am satisfied he'll rel^ously 
stick to his word, the curate of Olveston may outstrip 
the present incumbent — ^who is between 50 and 6t^— 
in the race to heaven. I shall certainly employ you 
before you go (if Providence permit it) in my 
BiecoDshite business, for we lawyer men have always 
an interest in view when we take any trouble. You 
will, however, give me credit for other concomitant 
motives, at least, and believe me to be, dear Davies, 
Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
Mrs. Jones presents her compliments. She tells 
me tliere is a spare bed or two m the house. Oral 
language would, I think, have better than vocal in 
yonr proposal. 

Direct to George Hardinge, Esq., M.P., Weymouth 
Street, I^cmdon. 

I've sacb a room ! such a study. 
You rogue ! so snug I that if you 
Could see it, I'm sure you'd like it. 
It is at the back part of the house, no noise or 
interruption, except now and then a call into the office 
from uiose cursed fellows John Doe and Richard 
Roe. 



To THB Rev. EDWARD DAVIES, OLVESTON, 
GLOS. 

Bbbcoh, Dec. 16, i8oi. 
DBAS Davibs, 

Our friend Mr. Hardit^;e called out to a young 
barrister (who was remarkably nervous) while be was 
cutting up a goose, ' ' Have a care, Mr. Gwylym, the 
eyes of all Europe are upon you.' ' I have sent you a 
list of your subscribers on the other side to show you 
that the Bench of Bishops are extremely kind and 
always ready to reward merit. You have also a letter 
to Ml. Hardinge from Briareus Briant, the literary 
giant, part of which I can't read, and some of it I 
don't understand. No language is older than 



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anotbet, but the Chaldaic is tbe oldest of them aU 1 
Homer and Heriod knew nothii^ of Hoses, yet his 
(Biyaint's) Book is published to prove that the heathen 
Uytiiology is borrowed from Scdpture. As to the 

Celtic, it^ blown to the d ; Mr. Hardinge is his 

convert. I am not, but I own to you that I know of 
no literary Remains of the Celtic. Be it yours to show 
them^ bat as lads in high life below st^is say Mind 
y'r hits. 

Ml. Hardinge bad desired me to set his name 
down foi what number of copies I want to write my 
own. 1 wrote lo, but you see he says 2 — ^this may be 
light, because we must not appear to be more liberal 
than our greaters, but you U consider me as 10. 
There are two or three of Dr. Turton's men in this 
list, but I should ezjdain to you that I had tbem only 
a few days after the proposal came out at Swansea. 
The Bishop of Gloucester has a list for you which I've 
not got by me, but which he writes Mr. Hardinge 
word he hopes will not be contemptible. Don't publi^ 
till after tne drcuit. Mr. Hardii^ desires wis, as 
he intends to poll the lawyers (he says) as he has the 
parsons. I have much to say to you as to his mode 
of pushing on this business, but it is late, and I'll write 
to you again when I can get a frank. 

YouiB very stiLcerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

To THE Ksv. Mr. DAVIBS. 

BKBCcof, May 32, 1802. 
Mt Dsak Davibs, 

I have received a letter from the pFebendaxy 
of Uandilo-graban to say that if be does not serve 
the curacy himsdf {which I know he will not) he will 
attend to my request ; so that the moment the pres^it 
curate retires to Abraham's bosom, you may go to 
Botany Bay, which you'll not diaUke, as you have 
relations among the natives. You shall hear from 
me when the cancer has done its work. 

Mr. Hardinge has sent me your letter. I agree 
with you in Mo ; and, as the man saiA. about the 
Peace, may he who likes you not, be shotto. 'The 



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Judge sccuses you of bang low ^rited. I tell him 
he may as well condemn you for being afflicted with 
a fever or an ^ue. If I understand one part oi your 
letter, Mr, H. wanted you to say something in your 
work about the Persian and Indian langti^es. I 
have told him that cannot now be done, and he, as well 
as I, wish you immediately to go to Press. Take as 
much exercise as you can, but don't read or write, 
inquire instantly as to the value of the Crown 
livings in Gloucestershire. I insist upon it ; your 
letter must only contain their names, value, and the 
probability of their becoming vacant ; if you say one 
WOTd more you will hurt yourself, but mudi more 
Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
Go to Press instantly. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brbcox, June 26, 1802. 
My Db.\r DAVIB3, 

The curacy of Painscastle is vacant, but alas ! 
Uandilo-giaban is in the nomination of the lessee (and 
not the Prebendary) and he has promised it. I doubt- 
whether this is worth your acceptance ; however, 
if yon can find time come down, and I'll go with you 
and endeavour to find out the value of it. I ra^er 
think it is a poor thing, and will not suit you, but our 
friend Payne will not give it to any other person till 
he has your answer. 

Yours very sincerely, 
THEO. JONES. 



To THB Rbv. Mr. DAVIES, 

Brbcon {Sunday Morning), i8o3. 
Dear Davibs, 

A short letter, for I am but barely recovered 
from the gout and my wrist aches. Mr. Hardinge 
wi^es you to employ Faulder as your bookseller in 
London ; have you spoken already to any of those 
thieves ? Write to him to inform him how and about 
it. The Bishc^ of Gloucester writes me a very kind 



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letter in whidi lie states he has procured you over 
TO suhscribers, the Dudiess of Gloucester, Prince 
V^lliam, and the Princess Sophia at the head of them 
— ^t he shall persevere till your work is published, 
and he adds (which gave me great pleasure) "from 
Mr. Davies's letters to Mr. Hardinge I am not afraid 
he'll throw any discredit upon those who have 
recommended him. ' ' 

What is the reason that in Welsh we call a wec^ 
8 nights and a fortnight 15 nights ? 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIKS, 

Casdiff, Wednesday Morning. 
My DBAS Fbibnd, 

The account you gave me and the statement 
in your letter to Mr. Hardinge, as far as it respected 
your health, alarmed me much, and finding your 
pains and headaches were increased by writii^, I took 
the liberty of writii^ to him that it might hurt you to 
apply often, even to your favourite subjects at present, 
and I at the same time told him that I intended to 
reqtiest you would not write to me for some time till you 
bad found your health improved, which (in the languMe 
of the circuit) I hereby give you notice to a^am 
from ; and I should not even puzzle your poor 
blinkers to pore over these tiny hieroglytucs if I was 
not anxious to communicate the pleasure I feel from 
a perusal of Dr. MoncriSe's letter, who assures otu 
friend Mr. Hardinge that excepting your defect of sight 
(which he does not think likely to become worse, nnlr" 
your application to books is too intense) he apprdiends 
no danger whatever from your other complaints, which 
he thinlfii are nervous, and which may be easily 
removed ; this being the case, I don't think it 
improbable you may yet be forced to tell a truth 
where all your predecessors have bounced, and in spite 
of your holo Episcopari may furnish a bed occasionally 
for your friend at Abergwili, as soon as his present 
lordship shall march upstairs. Send me Whitaker's 
Mandiester, and the Itinerary as soon as you can. I 
do not perfectly comprehend the wythnos, or the 



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«3 

PymtheDos, but if you give me your opinion 111 throw 
it in, though if it exceeds three lines, for much as I 
value them, I will not have long letters from you at 
present. Before my great evil appears publicly, you 
shall hear more of my sentiments as to the Dimotoe 
and Silures, whidi I rather think alarmed you as much 
as your symbols did Mr, Hardinge, It is not necessary 
that either of us should yet think upon the subject. 
Yours very sincerelv, 
THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rjsv. Mr. DAVIES. 

IjLANBBVSi, NSAR ChICKHOWBIX, 

Wednesday Evening (1S02). 
Dbar Davies, 

I am now at my friend Payne's, v/bo is 
Prebendary of Painscastle, and has the nonunaticm 
to the perpetual curacy of that parish. He tells me 
Powell, who officiated there, cannot hve many weeks. 
It is, I believe, about the annual value of £50, and if 
I/landilo-graban could be had, which is now served 
by the same person, it would be about £100. Before 
he nominates any person he wishes to know if this 
would suit you. Tdl me whether, if I can also get at 
the Prebendary of I,landilo-graban, you would like 
to take them. Consider well before you answer, 
because (without being sanguine) I hope you are now 
in a fair way of doing better ; but I would not lose this 
o^)ortunity of mentioning this to you before I write 
to the Prebendary of LUmdilo, and let me have your 
answer as soon as possible. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 
Direct, of course, to Brecon. 



To THE REV, Mr. davies. 

1802. 
My DBAS Davies, 

Our whimsical friend Hardinge is of all whimsical 
men the most whimsical. One letter brii^s me 
complaints of your book, that it docs not jump out of 



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the Press, and begs that I'll goad you. The next c»mes 
to c(»DplaiD that you don't take the US. out of the 
printer's hands to send to him. In answer to a 
temonstTonce whidi I soit him against increasing 
the expense by printii^ additional lists of subscribers 
and pcnnting out to him that he was only serving the 
paper makers and printets, as I doubted whether you 
would get IS. a copy by them, whereupon the said 
George Haidioge chargeth the said lllieophilus with 
ingratitude and strictly injoinetfa and commandeth 
hmi to send the MS. copy now in the said T.J.'s 
possession to the said Edward Davjes, in order that 
the said may be sent to the devQ,* I have obeyed 
with rductance, and this day's cxiach conveys the 
parcel to Messrs. ^^tcomb, Griffiths and Fhilpott, 
Attomies, Glo'ster, where it will wait till you send 
for it or direct it to be conveyed by a safe conveyance. 
When I say it is with reluctance, it is because, if the 
book turns out well, I fear he wiU take more merit 
for smooth polishing than he deserves. I am in love 
with Dafydd ap Gwylym's poem to the wind ; when your 
eyes are better, give me a literal English tran^ation. 
I believe I und^tand it perfectly, but I would not 
distort or lose a thought for the world, and I want to 
give it an English poetic dress. I think it superior 
to " Cywydd y Daran," and " Dwynwen deigr 
danian D^:wch," which Owen has taken the pains 
to convert into "Dwynwen fail," as the glittering 
drops of mom is to me nonsense in English or Wdsh. 
He has also, I think, wrongly translated 

I>y laeblaid yn dy IwysMwyf, 

Doslurus ofalus wyf. 
Grant me thy extended protection in thy pleasant parish, 
for I am in pain and anxiety. I think it should be I 
am thy humble or prostrate suppliant, full of pain and 
care in thy abode of cheaifiuness or in thy diearful 
parish. 

Now for the goad. Get on with the book — sans 
delai et sans peur. ' ' But can that be done P ' ' says 
the curate of Olveston. " Sans monish," as my devil 
careth not for the sentence of Judge Hardinge, or the 

8 Dr. Brewer'* Diet. 



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Youts very sincerely, 
THEO. JONES. 
I never had either letter or message or the least 
intiinatioii that the US. was to be sent to you till to-day. 
Hiey were delivered to me loosely by Oiurcbey, who, 
I suppose with his uncle's and aunt's and sous and 
daughters, have read and formed their opinions of the 
work. 



To THE Rbv. Mr. DAVTES. 

IfLANBBDB, Mtfg. 9, l802. 

Mt DBAS Daviss, 

I have written the Bishop of St. David's to 
request he will inform me when you may wait upon 
him, but as great men move slowly, and answer letters 
slowly, I would not advise you to wait till you bear 
from him or from me ; you may depend upon his beir^| 
at Abe^iwili whenever you chose to come down, and 
the sooner the better. Your nomination was signed 
this evening in the presence of Sir Wm. Ousdey and 
myself. I shall leave it in Mrs. Jones's hands, and if 
you go in the coach you need not fear knocking at 
my door, though the coadi comes at an hour when 
our family will be snoozing. I shall tell Mrs. Jones 
that your arrival will be expected, and conjointly it 
will be ready for you at a moment's notice. You will 
not find me at home, for our circuit begins this day 
se'nnight, but your friend Mr. Payne exacts you will 
spend a few hours with him before you return. 
Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mit. DAVIES. 

Bkecon, Aug. 21, 1802. 
Messrs. Korth. 

Pay the Rev. Mr. Davies Five Pounds for 
Youi humble servant, 

THEO. JONES. 



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66 

Yoa know North's are boobsdlers at Brecon. 
Hardinge tdls me be promised not to show the extracts 
from your book to anyone. I have engaged to 
indemnify him. You hiive delighted one and kept 
one alive during a penniless session, but I cannot 
attempt to follow you romid the world. You'd break 
my neck. Hereafter I may creep along your road. 
We do vastly well about the Dnuds ; we think mudi 
alike without interfering or crossing or jostling each 
other. I want much to know " Hu &adam," but 
doubt as to his being Noah. Your discovery (for it 
is your own) of the Tnoedd in Greek and Latin pleased 
as well as surprised me. 



To THB Rbv. Mr. DAVIES. 

Bristoi,, Monday. March 7, 1803. 
DBAS Davibs, 

Here I am in my way to the Speaker of the 
House of Commons who has ordered (as I will the 
contrary at my peril) that I appear at the Bar of that 
House on Tuesday at 3 o'clock, but least you may 
suppose I have committed anything like a Breach of 
Privilege, know that it is the Carmarthenshire 
election n^ch takes me up and 1,000 men and women 
and children b^des. What's IXKxime of your book ? 
— it's time it should come out now. Can I do 
anythiiu; in London for you upon that or any other 
subject? Pray command your 

Very dnc«re fnend, 

THEO. JONES. 
I shall be at No. 11, Golden Square. 



To THE Rbv. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, March 11, 1804. 
My Drar Davibs, 

I write this speedily to you, because I am in 
hopes to relieve you in part of your doubts and 
anxiety, iriien I teU you that I have now before me a 
letter of Mr. Booth's, dated in October, 1802, which 
was in consequence of my remonstrance to Mr. 
Hardinge about the expenses of printing your letters 



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67 

and subscribers, in wbich Booth says : "I am 
surprised at tir. Jones's fears, and disapprobation 
of the expences incurred, &c. That I might be able 
to satisfy myself as to the justness of the application, 
I have taken some trouble to ascertain the probable 
profit which may accrue to Mr. Davies, the result of 
which is that he gains £390 " (the number of 
subscribers were then 1950). He then goes on to 
state further particulars, and calculates 53. 6d. each 
volume— this may perhaps not be perfectly accurate, 
but if Booth is an honest and a man of judgment, this 
^ould make your mind perfectly easy upon this part 
of the subject. 

As to Hardline, the iimenuity of active malice 
could not have been mote tonnentiug than his 
services, and yet he has placed you in so awkward a 
dilenma that you must not complain. I was hurt, 
I own, at the omisson of Turton, to whom I have 
written to-day, and am very certain his liberality will 
overiook the appareut n^ect, when he knows you 
are not to blame. I also note that the name of your 
friend, and mine, Henry Tliomas Payne, R. of 
I4anbedr, does not appear among your subscribers, 
tbo' he was one of the earliest on my list. John 
Josiah Holford, Estj., of Culgwyn, Chas. Holford, 
^q., Richard Hill, jun., Esq., Plymouth Lodge, — 
Yeats, Esq., Monk's JCU, and, I have no doubt, 
several others are forgotten, but I feel more the 
apparent inattention to Payne than the rest. Pray 
wnte to him to state that ttie fault does not lie with 
you, and to saddle the right horse. I ^lall send him 
a book, and at the same time explain to him to whom 
the n^tlect attaches. 

I fear you have been imposed upon by Owen as 
to the Coelbren y Bdrdd. I am very much mis- 
taken if that alphabet is not the manufacture of 
Ked Williams*, and himself and the behaviour of Mad 
Ned at last Cardiff Assizes, when he heard that you 
had inserted those letters in your book, convinces 
me he fear'd detection ; he only pretended to me to 
trace the discovery to John Bradford, ezceptii^ in 
some dark allusions — as a stave in singing — ^wnting 
• •' lojo UoTgauw^ '■ (TbB Rav, Edwftrd WUliams). 



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a good stick, &c., bat this, compflied with the time 
whidi has elapsed ance they were used, is not above 
a minute in 24 hours. Owen is undoubtedly baraed, 
and Williams has eccentric talents, but both are 
system mongers, and, I believe, system makers. 

I see yom biwk has upon the cover 12s, in boards. 
I presume this is to non-subscribers, for I have been 
in the habit of receiving half a guinea, whicb was the 
original subscription ; if I am wrong you must write 
me immediately. If I don't hear from you I sl^ 
conclude I am correct. 

Yours very sincerely, 
t THEO, JONES. 



To THE Rbv. Mr. DAVIES. 

Bristol, March 22, 1803. 
DBAS Me. Davies, 

Upon receipt of your letter, I called upon Mr. 
Booth and found that that part of your work which 
was printed was not even Uien arrived in town. I 
therefore determined to call upon the Bristol man in 
my way down, and to " bullers him a bit." I have 
just been there, and a lad in the ^op, if he is to be 
believed, assures me that he saw the printed sheets, 
&c., put into the wagon for I/indon on Saturday last ; 
if tins is correct all's well ; if it is not, and you don't 
hear in the course of a week or 9 days from Mr. Booth 
that he has received it, pray write to me, and you may 
depend upon it I'll compel this fellow to do you 
justice, and whatever you do, resist despondency 
and low spirits. I am just oS for Cardiff, where our 
circuit commences this evening. 

I am, my dear friend, 

YouiB very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THB Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Brecon, June 11, 1804. 
My Dear Davibs, 

Out visitation, or rather the Bishop's visitation, 
of this Archdeaconry will be ht^d at Brecon on the 
24th of next month, when I hope to see you, and when 



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you will hear me. I fiihaU reserve a bed for you, if you 
say you mean to occupy it. Give me a line to agnify 
youi iuteotion. 

The GeMtleman's MagtuitK has aotu^ you, but 
with few comments. I bdieve the reviewers 1^ bett^ 
ado^t the same plan, for if they pretend to give their 
sentiments upon many parts of your work, I firmly 
believe they'll break their necks. 

I have now money for you, and will give you a 
list of subscribers when we meet, 

I have given, in your name, one of your books 
to the Library at Ystradmeurig. Williams, the 
schoolmaster, was install' d here yesterday to the 
prebend of Trallong in our nearly dilapidated Collie 
Church. 

Will not our Sovere^ Lord the King recommend 
you to the Dean and Canons of Windsor to succeed 
the late Vicar of Talgarth, in this county ? 
Yours sincerdy, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THB Rbv. Mr. DAVIES. 

1804. 
DBAS Davibs, 

Give me credit for £^ till our next account, 
which will be soon opened, as I learn that QO of your 
books are on the road to Brecon, and Booth tells me 
to remit to you. 

The Rev. Mr. Wells, Rector of Ilston and Penmaes, 
is dead, and the livii^ are in the gift of the Chancellor. 
Turton gave me a hint that you had some expectation 
of them thro' Hardinge's assistance ; had you not 
better write to [him] ? We are dvil, but do not 
corre^x>nd since I objected to the expence of 
puUi^ting more lists and mote letters from you, and I 
don't know whether he does not consider us MA as a 
couple of ungrateful scoundrels ; but never mind that, 
iog him. 

Say you have received the enclosed from 
Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
I shall keep two of your books. 



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To TBB Rbv. Ub. DAVI£S. 

1804. 
Uy DBAS Davibs, 

I encloGe you £50 on accotmt of the subscriptitna 
I have received for yoiir book ; you shall have a list 
when I have completdy stock'd the maiket, or (as the 
ironmasters say) gobb'd the furnace here. Never 
mind the profits of the book ; you'll be safe, and unless 
the devil rides rough shod over the legislative as well 
as the episc(^)al part of the creation, you must be 
preferr'd. 

I received a letter from Dr. Tuiton yesterday ; 
he tells me he has advertised that the books are ready 
for delivery, but that the subscribeis are rather shy 
of bringing in the money ; that will not do. I never 
press'd anyone to subscribe, and wish the Judge had 
not, but I'll make every one pay who breathes the 
same atmosphere with me, provided I can prove they 
put down their names, or consented they should be put 
down. It is not sufficient to say the book is ready ; 
call for it. I carry it in one hand, and hold out the 
other for the half guinea whenever I meet them. 

That d n'd good natured friend of ouis, Hardinge, 

could not help persecuting you with his VitiHTuwi here 
during the last sessions, tho' I told him I had supplied 
most of the subscribers here, and had books for ouieis, 
he must send down for them by coach, when, after 
making Churcbey (who is his clerk) d^ce about to 
20 01 30 persons, to whom I had already delivered 
them, he found they were not wanted, and they were 
sent here by sixes and sevens, and I was desired to 
sign a recent for them without seeing or redconing 
them, which I did. He says he'll pay the en>ense 
of the carriage, but he is 50 extremely fond 01 the 
devil (I mean the printer's devil) that he must have 

ginled receipts for the guinea and half guinea, 
yn Duw y mae vUw yn et ben. 

I am happy to tell you that Mr. Niched, the 
barrister, who is one of the ablest and most acute 
reasoners, as well as profound thinkers, I ever met 
with, is a convert to your sentiments in general. The 
first time he read your book he was witty upon it ; the 
second time ' ' ttu^ was more in it than he at first 



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conceived," and after a third teadiiiK lie said to me 
with a very grave face, ' ' Sncli anouer book, Jones, 
would make me an inveterate and confirmed Unguist 
and Antiquarian." If you were acquainted with the 
gentleman you would know how to appreciate his 
approbation ; unfortunately, he «-Tiinlrg too fast for 
me, and will not permit me to chew the cud ; he goes 
thro' the circuitous chain of reasoning, and infers, 
deduces, and concludes before I can comprehend his 
position, tho' he is always accurate in stating, and 
generally correct in decidii^ upon it. 

I hope to see you next summer, and that you will 
contrive to spend one day with Payne, where you will 
meet with 

Your sincere friend, 

"niEO. JONES. 



To THE Rbv. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brbcon, May 5, 1805. 
My Dbak Davies, 

At last I forgive Hardinge for all his faults 
and I trust that Providence will have mercy upon his 
manifi^d imperfections, in consideration of his having 
done some good acts. He write to me that Bishop 
Watson offers liitn the living of Bishopston, near 
Swansea, worth £130 per annum, and desires that you 
will hesitate before you refuse it. I doubt much 
whether it is worth half that sum, and I am sure thoullt 
not increase it much ? But it is still a certaint>', and I 
beUere you'll not hesitate to determine. The Bishop 
insists upon residence, tho' I doubt whether there is 
a parsonage house on the living. It is, however, in 
a cowpe^aiiv^ cheap country, 5 miles from Swansea, 
tipon the sea^iore, and you will be within an hour's 
tide of our vety eccentric friend Turton, to ^lom I 
write this day to m^ inquiries as to the value, &c. 

I enclose you a five-guinea biU, whidi is nearly the 
amount of what Z have received ance my last We'll 
state and settle the account when yon proceed to take 
1 of your Bishoprick. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



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COPY OK LETTER FROM W. TURTON TO 
THEO. JONES. 

SwANSBA, May g, 1805. 
Mv DBAS &S, 

Youi letter about Davies has rejoiced me 
exceedingly. He will, oi course, not hesitate in 
accepting the Bishop's offer, far as it is below his woidi 
and his merits. I yesterday went to Bisbopston to 
malce all the inquiries I coiild about the vicarage. I 
was just in time, for the churchwardens were about te 
sequestrate the living, but I infonned them it was 
unnecessary, as I had no doubt but that their future 
Pastor would shortly be among them. There is a 
parsonage house, but totally dilapidated and 
unrepairable. From the last incumb^it no dUf^- 
dations can be ejected* .... There are 30 
acres of excellent ^ebe land, now let for 30 guineas, 
the remaining tithes are let for fifty pounds, but as 
th^ were leased to a sly old cock, who had advanced 
money for the necessities of the late parson, it is 
probable they are much undervalued. It is the 
opinion of the curate, who Hves and has an estate in 
the parish, that the real value, without injury to any 
party, is from one hundred and thirty to one hundred 
and fifty pounds. A lead mine has lately been opened 
and is now working to advantage in tWs parish, but 
whether these pigs are titheable you know better than 
I. The situation is dry and healthy, and the distance 
from Swansea about five miles. When you write to 
Davies say to him that if he comes into this ndgh- 
bourhood my house is to be his home till be has 
ananKed everything to hjg mind, or else bis house 
will never be my home. 

Bassett wants a curate here and at the UumUes 
— perhaps something may be hit off between them to 
put an additional twenty or thirty pounds into 
Davies's pocket. 

Sincerely yours, 

W. TURTON. 

■ Tbie Inovmbant di«d in B Btateof gcaktpovatl;. 



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To THB Rbv. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brscon, May iz, 1805. 
Dbak Davibs, 

On the other dde you have a letter from our 
friead the Doctor in answer to mine, by which you will 
find that you have no tumbliiu; house upon youi 
living, for it is already tumbled down. All that you 
can do in this case is to request from the Bishop a 
little time, and to appropriate a part of your income, 
say £30 per annum, towards it, and in that case I 
should hope 3 ot 4 years at the farthest, would 
finish it, for I do not apprehend that a palace is 
necessary, tho' your parish be a Bishoprick. 

I sent you a letter on this day se'nnight (if that 
be not a solidsm) in which was inclosed a five-guinea 
hai. Pray have you received it ? 

Yours very sincetdy, 
THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

June, 1805. 
My Dbak Davibs, 

As I was writing to the Bishop of St. David's 
npon business, I mentioned to him that the Bishop of 
Tjfli^HqfF had given you Bishopston, and that you 
intended to wait upon our Diocesan at Abergwili 
shortly, and I likewise represented to him the state of 
your house. He writes me word that he is very glad 
to hear of your preferment, that you may wait upon 
him as soon as you please, and that you shall have 
every uidulgence in ms power as to repairs. I think 
your best man would be (if you can be permitted to 
do so) to hold your present curacy for a 12 month, 
and after having taken possession, and let your tithes, 
to a{>propriate the first year's income to bf^ the 
repairs. 

I beUeve that the mail coach from the New 
PassE^ will be 3'oux most expeditious way of 
travemng, and when you have been with the Bishop 
and retomed to be inducted, if you write to me 



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74 

I'll send to your brother, and I dare say he will lend 
you a hoise to come from Swansea to this place on 
your way back. 

Yours very sincerdy, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rbv. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Bkbcon, Jtdy 14, 1805. 
Mv Deas Sik, 

I received your maps, and ain perfectly aware 
of the value of them ; indeed they were not new to 
me, tho' I was never before possessed of them, but 
I <IUd not think I ought to put you to the expence of 
postage merely to adcnowledge the receipt of them. 

I continue in my resolution of preventing the 
men of Bish(n>ston from imposing upon you further 
that J5S. in the poiwd, and perhaps we'll make them 
stop something short of that. I shall take care of your 
letter, and as I always go to Swansea after the circuit 
I'll play the lawyer the registrar, the proctor, and 

Essibly the gentleman at the same time. What you 
ve hitherto done has been rig^t. Rely upon it, 
that with all the friendship I bear for you I do not 
forget that your pecuniary interest is not what ought 
to be chiefly in view, but that with a proper regard 
to prudence, you ought to possess the friendship and 
got^wiU of your parishioners, unless they chuse to set 
sudi a price upon it as to make you a beggar- 
Under this impression, I will not send that Scotch 
fellow Qark, the Surveyor, over to them, whose 
chiefest excellence is in the application of the 
thumbscrew, and who knows precisely what c|uantity 
of pain a man can bear without actually puttmg him 
to death ; but I have in my mind's eye a sensible 
farmer, who is conversant on this subject, and who, 
I beheve, will tell us what you reasonably and fairly 
ought to have, and what they can fairly aSord to pay. 
So till you hear from me again, make your mind easy, 
and in the meantime your ajSairs shall not be neglected 
by 

Your smcere frien d, 

THEO. JONES. 



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75 

To TBZ Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Bbighthcuistone, At^. 2, 1805. 
Mt Deas Friend, 

I write to you at the lequest of my uncle, Mr. 
Rice Jones, of No. 11, Golden Square, Ivondon, to 
know whether it be consistent with your present 
^rstem or plan to receive pupils. He has a httle boy 
between 7 or 8 years of age, whom, from my recom- 
mendation, he is very anxious to place under your care 
and tuition. He vnshes him to learn the Bi^lish, 
Latin, and Greek grammatically, and that you would 
find hitn in board, washing, and lodging, for which 
he b>^ to have your terms, but tho' I should feel 
anxious, as well as my relation, to place him with you, 
I beg that if from the state of your eyes, or some other 
circumstances you have given up the education of 
youth, you will not heatate in saying so, or be led 
from friendship to me to sacrifice either your health 
or convenience. 

Should it suit you to receive my little cousin and 
namesake, TheophJlus Jones, I know you'll not be 
morose or unkind to hun, but I hereby caution you 
against his insinuating address and prattle by whidi 
he governs completely in our good city of I/mdcoi, 
where, however, he is " servile to the skyie influences," 
and therefore he must try the atmosphere of 
Gloucestershire or some other country air. Write to 
me by return of post direct to No. 11 as above. 
Vours sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



Jtdy {or Ai^usf) 1805. 
My Dbak DaviES, 

As our Member* is here and we have nofhii^ 
to do (this by way of compliment) I may as well employ 
a few moments in an invitation to my friend to dance 
down to Abergwile next week, and to request he will 
indulge our little Bamer with a few hours' conversation 
either going or returning. I do this by his particular 
* Bit Cliulai I 



Hon., H.F. lot tbe Bonnigb, at the ti 



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desire, havii^ just seen him, and received a copy oi 
one oi youi ciiapters. He thinlcs you are too fond 
of VaQancey, too neaily converted by him, not fond 
enough of &e Bishop of Diomoie, and that you dtm't 
quote authorities often enough, but perhaps Bishop 
Horsley oi Dr. Vincent would be ofFended if you told 
them that lertoger vita sceiorisque fntrus was a 
quotation from Horace. I have received a very civil 
tetter from our Bishop ; part of it (it is true) I don't 
understand, but no matter for that, he says you ndUl 
find him at home whenever 3rou come down. We shall 
be in Brecon on Saturday, and remain there a week ; 
so that if you caimot come next week, you will find us 
the following week (until Friday) at Cfurdiff. Yoo'U 
have a coadb, whidi will take you from Caermarthen 
to Caerdiff . I desire you'll not be pendatic ; least 
you may want cash, I'll send you a draft for a trifle 
which you may have in your way thro' Brecon, and 
wboi you see me you may have more if you want it, 
to be repaid me out of the first fruits of jrour 
Bishf^mck. 

(TAt's is ma sigiud). 

To THB Rev. EDWARD DAVTES. 
(In answer to June ii, 1805). 

Oct. 4, 1805. 
My Dear Davibs, 

I have been at the palace, and overlook'd the 
Cathedral ; the former consists of a beautiful duster 
of ruins, and the latter is a most venerable edifice, 
thro' which the aii is here and there (from salutary 
motives, no doubt] permitted to ventilate the interior. 
I have desired an architect at Swansea, in whom I 
think I can confide, to look over the estimate sent you, 
and he accompanied me to Bishopston to look at the 
dilapidations ; his report has not reached my ears. 
I shall go to Bishopston when the time for payment 
for the present year expires, and see what I can do 
with those Flemings. 

llie book* is out, and I'll send it you in the course 
of a week together with Mr. Peach's, tho' it has a 
confounded circuitous route to reach you. ^e Bidiop 
* Ths Fizrt VoL of *■ Biaoknoolafain." 



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77 

of St. David's speaks very handsomely of it, and the 
approbation of Dr. Bu^ess is no trifling acquisition. 
He says ' ' H^ily as he esteemed my talents as an 
aotic|uaiy and h^torian, the pleasure he received in 
readmg the book far exceed«i his expectation." I 
shall fire oS, or in the language of our shc^, set off his 
praise against the bayonets of the critics and the 
stings of the mosquitoes — a race to whom you will 
be introduced when you read the book. 

I have just bnught Ossian's Poems, and have 
been reading Dr. Blair's critical dissertation upon 
their merits. There is a great deal of good sense and 
a great deal of learned nonsense in what he says. 

What a resemUance there is between the sisters 
GaeUc and Cymraeg, 

A chos air Cromleach, druim-ard, 
Cbos air Crom-meal dubh 
Thoga Fion le lamh mhoir. 
An d'uisge o IfUbhair na fruth. 
A'i gfls at Cromlech, Twyn ardd, 
A'r ail gos ar Crommel ddu 
A dwg Ffion a'i law mawr 
Yr wysc o Llifwy'r fErwd. 
You told me something about Tyssilio — ^more 
about him if you please. 

By the bye, I don't think I have written to yon 
since I left London ; if so, I'm a good for nothing 
fdlow, as you might fancy I was sulky. No such 
thing, be assured ; the proposal about the little boy 
was made to you in expectations that it was perfectly 
convenient to you if you had taken him, and any 
difficulties occurred in consequence of your kindness 
for me. I should have thanked you, but by no means 
have been satisfied with your determination, ^e 
boy has 50 places to apply to, where he may be well 
brought up and kindly treated, and it was only in 
consequence of my partiality for you that my uncle 
wished to give you the preference, in hopes it would 
be advantageous to you. 

Pray what is the rule in trade as to the allowance 
to booksellers where they only disperse books to the 
subscribers and receive the money for the author. 



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My trade price is ;f2 5s ; price to subscribers, 
iz I2S. 6d. ; to non-subsaibeis, £2 15s. Are Booth 
and the rest of them entitled to 7s 6d. out of those 
subscribed for, or only foi such as they sell to non- 
subscribers ? It seems to me to be too much to say 
they ought to have 7s. 6d. where they run no risk and 
have no merit ; but upon the other hand, people ia 
trade should not take any share of trouble 01 lose 
their time without some recompense. This is material, 
therefore drop a line to 

Your very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
Mrs. Jones joins in warmest wishes for youi health 
and wdfare. 



To T^E Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Sunday Evening, Oct. 10, 1805. 
My Dear Fwend, 

By North's waggon of this night, I send you three 
copies of my first volume, one for the curate of 
Olveston and one for his friend Mr, Peach, and another 
for Captain Davies, of the CaermarthenshJre Militia. 
I have advised the latter gent, of the route his book is 
likely to take, that he may have it upon applying to 
you, should no opportunity occur of forwarding it 
from Olveston, and that he may pay his subscriptioa, 
£2 I2S. 6d., to you, or by draft to me, and you will act 
accordingly. Mr. Peach mil, of course, pay you, 
and you may remit to me. 

Since I wrote to you last, I have received a letter 
from the architect I spoke to at Swansea, who tells 
me the carpenter's estimate sent to you is extravagant, 
and that he will attend to the repairs of the palace ; 
but nothing effecrive can be done till I go to Swansea 
in January next, and then you will hear further from 
your thoughtless. 

But very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

Hie books are directed to be left at the " Ship " 
at Olveston; deduct the carriage. God Uess you. 



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I 



To THE Rkv. Mr DAVIES. 

Brecon, Nov. 17, 1805. 
My Dear Davies, 

You need not have informed me that you were 
in better health when you wrote your last letter than 
when you wrote the fonner ; the handwriting, tho' 
the writing of the same hand, would have told me as 
much. I hope the next will again improve. 

Have yon received 3 of my books addressed for 
you at the "Ship" at Olvestone. If not, let me 
know, but I should not probably have asked this 
question at present, if Mr. Hardinge, in answer to an 
inquiry of mine as to Astle's " Progress of Writing," 
had not informed me that you referred to it in your 
book ; it is material to me in my progress among the 
tombs that I should see this pubhcation, and if you 
have it, or can procure it from any friend of yours, 
I'll give my bond to return it safe and unsoiled at any 
time that the return may be required, even if only one 
day is allowed for a hasty view of it. 

I am stuck fast in our Priory Church, and when I 

shall extricate myself from thence to proceed in my 

tour I know not, but most assuredly the name of the 

man that had the seven league boots is not like that of 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev, Me. DAVIES. 

Brecon, March, 20, i8o6. 
Uv Dear Friend, 

After near three months' confinement by my 
inveterate enemy*, and under the custody of my 
winter gaoler, I tried to escape into Carmarthenshire 
and Glamorganshire, but was re-taken in the latter 
county, and brought back, tho' not without some 
difficulty, to my fonner prison, where I am again tied 
to the <^iair or the bed, how long to remain I Imow not. 
Probably (or at least I hope so) when warmer weather 
permits otiier reptiles to appear, I may be permitted 
to crawl about, certainly not to fiy, for a few months. 

* Qoat, 



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8o 

I was told yoar Celtic Researches now sell for a 
guinea at Bristol ; pray tell me if that be liie case, 
as I may upon recdvii^ such infoqnation make a penny 
in an honest way. 

Poor Owen's head is turned about the ^fi11l^nllil1n^ , 
and "a shp-shod sybil," of the name of Johamia 
Southcote, drags him into storms and tempests which 
he tdls me are to commence in this Island during the 
summer of 1807, when he gives me formal and serious 
notice that the restoration of all things is to take place, 
and the devil is to be the scap^oat for all the beUeveis. 
In the meantime he is translating the Mabinogion, 
whidi I hope he'll finish, tho' I have advised him to 
get a smootii polish for his lv"gl"^ style, for he really 
does not trarislate intdligibly in his " Dictionary." 
Sir Wm. Ouseley is so struck with the nonsensical 
tran^tions that he insists the Wdsh authorities can 
have neither sense or meaning. 

My wrist aches. I must, therefore, ccmdude 
with a carpenter's wish: "Health, peace of mind, 
a dean diirt, and a guinea to you," prayeth 
Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THB Rev. Us. DAVtBS. 

Bbbcon, June 6. 1806. 
Dbab Sue, 

Who was the bookseller to whom youi Vicar 
applied for my book, tho' I suppose the London book- 
sdler was too indolent to caU at Ur. Booth's, Portland 
Place, for it, who has plenty of them to dispose of. 
Dnncomb, the man of Heiefordshire, writes me word 
that Dr. Aitkin in his Annual Review has favouraUy 
reported my case, tho' he has put blisters upon ba 
back. Pray have you seen tms review ? I don't 
e:q>ect to sell the whole of the first volume before the 
second is printed ; tho' more than half are gone ofF, 
for owii^ to the tricks of Polwhele and others, many 
persons are cautious how they purchase incomplete 
works. Did you see Turton's attacks upon Mr. 
Justice Hardmge. the latter frequently does 



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8i 

impniii^it things with impunity, but is generally 
attacked when he does not deserve it. I don't think 
what he said on the trial called for this from the 
Doctor, tho' I highly disapprove of his publishing 
his speedi and the tnal in the Cambrian. Turton is, 
in my mind, equally imprudent to provoke a 
discussion of his conduct in the business. He was sent 
for on behalf of the prisoner to Cardiff at an ordinary 
praemium without ever having seen the body of the 
girl supposed to be murdered, merely to watch the 
surgeon's evidence, which looks tike an engagement 
to testify in proportion to the reward receiv^ ; but 
TurtOB is and always will be eccentric. 

I should be glad to hear when you are at leisure 
how your eyes serve you and what you are about — 
whether you have given a pubhc blast to Tyssilio or 
not ; is another question from 

Yours very sincerdy, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Jidy, 1806. 
My Deas Fkiend, 

I am sorry you should put yourself to the trouble 
of inquiring about Astle, for I do not think it would 
answer my purpose, which was to obtain a specimen 
or specimens of the handwritic^ principally seen from 
1400 to t6oo. As you say Massey's is Mr. Hardinge's. 
I presiune I am to deliver it to him. What is the 
tedinical descriptions of letters cut into the stone 
and what of letters raised above the surface of the 
stone ? I believe the latter are said to be in relief. 
I certainly received the bill and the letter enclosing 
it, and thought I had acknowlet^ed it, but my 
thoughts are running idly into every dark hole and 
comer but where they should be. 

I ^jprove much of your coimterblast to Tyssilio 
and wish you would publish it ; but stooping to 
notice the critic you shall have it with my remarlcs 
by Captain Davies in his return. Pray say where 
at Bristol it shall be left for you. For God's sake, my 



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good friend, don't talk of the anoganoe of critidsiog 
upon my work — ^you have ten times the capability 
of those who will undertake it, and if anything occurs 
let me know tt. It is singular that at the very moment 
I received your last letter I was employed in 
the manner you recommend, which was in notii^ 
down any error I observed in a book kept for the 
puipose. 

Whether the sea swans or the flamingos of Gower 
are Uie prettiest birds, I know not. I have no 
partiality for either, but those whidi have the smallest 
swallow and can build the most convenient nest are 
those whidi I seek for. Wallis told me that tiie 
estimate I sent him whidi was received from yon was 
too high in some particular. I have not heard from 
him since, but I have written to Turton to b^ he will 
press foi his answer, and he who will do Uie work 
dieapest and best ought to be employed. Hie bam 
must be undertaken and built as soon as the season 
will permit ; or we shall never be able to manage 
those fellows. I'll take care, mo provicido, costs and 
charges, it shall be done. I have likewise requested 
Turton to ask the man when he receives for last year, 
and not to make agreements in future without my 
knowledge. 

Poor Churchey* has followed Lord Nelson with 
his elegy in his hand. May he improve in his 
singing, and our late Admiral be permitted to hear him. 
Don't read or write too much, but in order to save a 
yT;iHir|g or two in an honest way, tell me shortly where 
your MS. is to be dropp'd at Bristol. Tell Mr. Peach 
I am proud of his appiobation, for tho' I am not 
personally known to him, I am no stranger to his 
merit or abilities. 

Mrs. Jones unites in best wishes with, dear 
Davie», 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

* WUiam Chmcbsjr, a msmbBr of aa old BroooD (uiuly. 
nnblUhBd B voliuno at Pomu in 1TB9, (uid some linM " addreMed 
to Lord Nelson on his Brrivsl at Brooknixik amidit tho joyful 
aoolamatioos of the paopls, on July S6bh, IS09," for whioh he 
neaind the bero'a tiwaks. 



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To TBS, Rbv. Mb. DAVIES. 

Bbbcon, Sept. i8, 1806. 



How go jrou on with Tyssilio and Ossian. 
My second vol. is finished, but, like the fellows in the 
farce of the Critic, whenever I get a good thing, 
X never know wluni I (or rather my readers) have 
enough of it. I am now at Vol. 2, part 2, and if the 
gout will let me alone it wUl be in the Press next 
spring. My friend Payne has lent me Astle's 
Pr^ess of Writing," and a very young but a very 
zealous antiquary* is now copying the Saxon hands 
into a book, which has the Norman characters in the 
different re^ns, which wiU complete my graphic 
collections, for I cannot follow you into the wilderness 
and the woods. By the bye, talking of woods and 
woody writing, that fellow Nedd Williams is a 
strange fellow, and all that can be said for him he is 
mad ; he now finds fault with Owen. He, however, 
su^ested to me one part of my work which I should 
be sorry to have omitted. I mean the poets of 
BrecoDshire. I did not know we had any 
Cisca 1180. Macclaf ap Llywarcb. 
A.D. 1460. Bedo Brwynllys. 
Siendn Defynog. 
Dafydd Epynt. 
Rhys Celli neu o'r GeUi. 
Tho. o Frwynllys. 
A.D. 1500. Rhys Brychan. 

leuan ap Rhys of Merthyr Cynog. 
Gwynfardd Brecheiniog. 
Fray can you give any information as to the 
dates (where here omitted) of any of them ? Any 
anecdotes of them or any other of their Breconshire 
fellows, and what were their compositions P If you 
can, without blinding yourself find, or rather recollect 
any, pray send them to 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

* TbeplaT. Thomai Prioa, " CwnhnaQawo." 



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To THE Rbv. Mr. DAVXES, 

BsBCOM, Dec. 31, 1806. 
Hy Deas Fsibkd, 

I have been confined heie these two months 
with an oozing at my heel without any pain, which 
the apothecary says is a mere flea-bite, and which 
indeed I bdieve to be a friendly effort of nature. 
During this time my hand has been free, my head 
unaffected, and my spirits uncommonly good, so that 
I have nearly finished the 2nd part of my and Vol, 
As I shall want again to deal with the engravers, I 
have now some thoughts of taking a jolt up to I/mdon, 
for I am told I may, and ouf^t to do it, as the best 
remedy that can be applied. 

Your very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



Bhbcon, Feb. 18, 1807. 

Uy DBAS FSIBND, 

I just say a word to you to make your mind easy 
and to remove your apprehensions as to the strong 
house. When it is necessary you should pay the £50 
I insist upon your writing to me, and I'll advance it 
you. At this moment the eicpenses of my journey to 
town, &c., have drained my pockets, but don't suffer 
yours^ to be sued ; when it comes to ne plus ultra 
tdl me, and I'll stop duimy's bawlii^. 

As to my heel, it is all my eye as the doctors tell 
me, for whidi information I gave a guinea and was 
• sent about my business. 

I am going to Haverfordwest, and have at present 
no time to say more than that I am 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



Uy Dbak Sm, 



To THE Rev Mr. DAVIKS. 

>N, Jwte, 1807. 



I have received your bocdc, and yon may be 
sure I have redde it (as Bislu^ Hoisley wrote it) before 



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8j 

I put pen to this paper. All I have to say at present 
is that with some parts I am veiy well pleased; with 
the Gododin and your remarks I am enraptured, 
but the Mythology I am neither prepared to admit 
or deny. At present, therefore, I quit the stage and 
leave you to boil your hell broth with Ceiidwen. 
Double, double, toil and trouble. 
Fire bum and cauldron bubble. 

I am sorry to find that your friend Mr. Peach's 
name is so sinful a parent, and as I believe he formerly 
had a better, if my advice were good without a fee 
I would recommend him again to adopt his paternal 
appellation. Morant, in his History of Essex, 
says the name of Peche, Peach, or Peachy, is derived 
from Williams Peccaium (Temp. i8i) of Netherhall 
ju Essex, ' ' a very wicked fellow surely, the name 
gignifying sin in the abstract," says the author. 

In a survey of the Manor of Brecon, about the 
time of Elizabeth, is the word Maurode, evidently 
signifying the roll of tenantry. The number of the 
K^urode tM pairia, 515, ; in vilia, 617. 

Boneddi^, sairs Owen, is gentle ; is it not bon 
hyddig of high descent, tho' I don't see such an 
adjective in Owen, but I am inclined to think I have 
seen such a word in that sense. 

Milast, you say correctly, is a greyhound 
bitch, but what is Uuast, which occurs as the 
name of several places in this county. I thought it 
a comiption of Liu aith, the encampment ca the 
army or Uu arthan. 

I am very much pleased at your exposing and 
detecting the frauds and the tricks of Ned Williams, 
adopted, partly by choice and partly by combination, 
by Owen, but you have in one part of your book 
accredited their mummeries by quoting Owen for the 
drawn sword placed at the Go^edd. D^end upon 
it, ell these monkey tricks exhibited at Fnmioee Hill 
by Owen and others have no more foundation or 
pretence for antiquity than Williams's Qiair of 
Glamorgan. But, however, I shall explain mysdf 
further upon this and other parts of your book, which 
must be published, tho' it will, as you say, want further 



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arrangement, and the ist part must, I bdieve, be U<±ed 
into the shape of a preface, having too much of 
private anecdote and too little of myliudogy and 
history. 

When I fiave gone over your book once more, 
to which I shall make some notes in pencil, wbidi you 
may adopt or notice, or not, as you please, it shall be 
returned you with the little MS. booTc of which your 
translation has made me compTdiend the full value. 
I mean the intrinsic value of the poem, which I redly 
did not before mideistand. 

I am, dear Davies, 
Vours v«y sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, 15th July, 1807. 
Mv Dear Friend, 

As my Mr. Hall was sittii^ at my elbow in 
ow HaQ, I axed him for a frank to save a peony for a 
poor curate when I was about to inform him that I 
sent Aneurin Gwawdtydd, and the Druidism of the 
Bards, yesterday se'onight, per mail coach, from 
Bream to Gloucester, carriage paid, to be forwarded 
from thence to you at Olveston, near Bristol, and to 
be left at the " Ship ** at Olveston. Have you 
received them ? If you have drop me a line to say so, 
and solve me the difficulties as to the Mauiode, &c. 

I have just sent the sixth of the Simons of 
Llanafan fawr out of the county. A father and son I 
prosecuted and convicted for murder, two nephews 
of that father I convicted of sheep stealing, the son 
of that father, whose evidence hung him, as well as the 
witness's own brother, fled from the kii^om, and the 
brother of the first named has been convicted within 
this half hour of sheep stealing. Such a gang, perhaps, 
never existed. Two of this man's sons escaped last 
Sessions ; I have no doubt I shall have them again, 
and if I can drive them away I shall have thinned 
their ranks tolerably. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



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8? 

To THE Rbv. Ma. DAVIES. 
My Deah Friend. Brecon, July 28, 1807. 

I return you youi MSS. with many thanks, 
accompanied by Aneuiin. Oh, that Giey had been 
alive to see this put into English prose ; it would have 
fonned an admirable stnictme for a poem by him, 
but as he is dead I'll try it some day or other, tho' I 
must lose sight of him and keep 100 miles behind him. 
Pray answer me as to Maurode, and the other 
little trifling questions which I put to you, but which 
I have now forgot, when you have leisure. 

I am very much satisfied with the lout etuemile 
of your book, though some of the features are rather 
too strong. The position that the early inhabitants 
of Britain had a tradition of the Deli^e and the 
Patriarch and his family, that they preserved memorials 
of this event, and that they iSterwards deified not 
only Noah and his family but the very memorials 
themselves, is not only probable but nearly certain, 
but in establishing or rather conforming and 
illustrating this positiou, the system appears too often 
and the words Ark and Arkite Mythology 
occur too frequently ; tiiey should be varied if you 
can. I wish you much to correct the insolence of 
Nedd Williams, and I intreat that he may not be 
spared, but as I said in my last that part of the MS. 
No, I, which appears like a defence, is out of order 
as an 'Esfa.7, and therefore should form a preface, 
with which you would justify yourself (if justification 
were necessary] for appearing again before the public 
and expatiating upon a subject upon whidi you have 
shortly treated before. 

I have added a few notes in paicil which you may 
attend to or not, just as you please. Some of them I 
know are wrong, as I saw upon second reading I did not 
take yx>UT meaning on my first perusal ; many of them 
are merely the correction of hasty clerical errors. 
Yoor notes will want revising, as the same thing is 
repeated twice or thrice, but this is not what you 
were writing to me about. The mine you were 
laying for Tyssilio and Ossian, I suppose you have a 
dozen of these brats, to alt of whom I b^ you would 
introduce Your very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



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There is a letter written by " Wal. Qitirdiey," 
dated "Brecon. Janoaiy 31. l8o6." on behalf o( 
Theo. Jones, " who is in the gout." It deals 
principally with the tithe account, but proceeds : 

' You'll acquaint your friend that Hi. Jones's 
2nd Vd. is in the press, but goes on slowly for want 
of printers. Mr. Jones wishes much to know whether you 
could not procure him a couple of journeymen in that 
trade at Bristol, who will come down here, and for what 
price ? The expenses will be paid them, and they will 
be employed for six months certain — perhaps more." 

Attadted to this letter is the dedication : " To the 
Rev. Edward Davies," &c. (See " Brecknockshire.") 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, Noo. i, 1808. 
My DBAS Friend, 

I see (I hope you do see) that you are again got 
into print noUns vokns, and perhaps you'll excuse my 
adding all your titles and preferments. Rector of 
Bishopston, in the county of Glamorgan, and curate 
of the perpetual curacy of Boughrood, Uanbedi, Pains- 
castle, m the county of Radnor. You shall have the 
book or rather two ' ' d — big square books ' ' shortly, 
accompanied with sets for all the subscribers in your 
neighbourhood, whose names I'll send you. I'll 
trouble you to dispose them, and after deducting the 
carriage, to place to my credit the sums received for 
them ; which reminds me that Christmas is 
approaching, soon after which I hope to scramble for 
a little of the Gower cash for you. I have ordered 
the repairs of the house to be snipped, pared, and cut 
into as small a pattern as may be. The hobby 
horse led me home from Glamorganshire this Sessions 
without permitting me to take an excursion to 
Swansea, so that I cannot tell how we stand ; before 
another year expires depend upon an account, and I 
trust a completion of everything like repairs, after 
which I hi^ie to be able to arrange with my friend 
James, so ^t you may have an annual certain sum. 
How are your daylights ? if there be enough left, and 
it do not injure you, write to inform 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



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To THB Rsv. Ms. DAVXES. 

Brecon, 24M January, 1809. 
My IteAS Sm, 

Your last letter was received, and the names 
of the ComtnissioneTs to value your curacy in 
Radnorshire forwarded to the Bishop at Durham, 
but to avoid more applications to you, I have sent 
them to the Lord Oiarles Morgan at Caermarthen, 
who is a greater man than his master. I'U look for 
your license when I get my office into anything like 
order ; at present it is chaos, for I have done with the 
Law, as I hope the Law has done with me, and am now 
only an ecclesiastical officer, tho' I may occa^ooaUy 
serve a few friends in an amphibious capacity. 

By the last night's wagon, directed to you to be 
left at the " Ship at Olvestou, I have sent you four 
ot my second volumes — one for yourself, another for 
Sir Samuel Fludyer (Lieut.-Col. of our Militia at Bristol), 
another for Mr. Peach of Toddngton, and another 
for the Rev. Mr, Davies, Clifton. Will you be good 
enough to procure them to be delivered, and re(juest 
they will pay you £J^ for each, which, when received, 
you'll place to my credit, and diarge the carriage for 
the pai^ to me.. 

I have seen all that is printed of your book, and 
this day return to Booth your MS. as to a}ins. Your 
first and principal observation is so dear as almost to 
defy contradiction ; it is absurd to suppose that a 
man who would give us a human head as well as we see 
it on some (iiLdeeo most) of these coins should represent 
a horse's with the bill of a bird, his back like a bow 
or a boat, and his feet like detached drumsticks ; 
therefore there is mysticism in the figures ; ay, and 
Diuidic mysteries, too, in which your Arianibod 
comes in well and opportunely to support you against 
the assertion of the keeper of the coins in the British 
Museum, who told Booth that the Druids knew 
nothing about coins. He probably knows as mudi 
about the Druids as the keeper of the lions in the Tower, 
and I have assured Booth he may place equal confidence 
in both. Thus far you are seen travelling gaily 
and treading on terra firma, but having got on board 



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the No Van it, I feai the critics will tdl you, you 
have touched at Fail-up-and-ease-us, and aie bound 
to Utopia. Well, fare you well ' ' NuUa vestigia 
retrorsum," as we landmai say, and I am not without 
hopes that your voyage of discovery may produce 
treasures for the learned, present pay to the pilot, 
and I hope fame and some wealth to the Captain. But 
to sea you must go post— — , as I have told Booth ; 
your vKsel makes a goodly shew, and must not be 
suffered to rot in the dock at Olveston. 

Talking of Owen's translation (rf Gorchan 
Cjmvelyn, your phrase is ' ' but besides that his 
version is not sufficiently close for a disquisition of this 
kind, I observe," &c. The commencement of this 
sentence is not elegant, if indeed it be not equivocal 
and liable to be misunderstood. I have therefore 
altered it thus : ' ' But not to dwell upon the freedom 
of his version, which is not sufficiently close for a 
disquisition of this kind, I observe," &c. ; and there 
are also two or three ' ' buts ' ' immediately following, 
and standing so near each other in the ranks that I 
have displac^ them and taken a substitute for one or 
more. These triffing amendments I have tdd Booth 
to adopt meo pmciSo. 

I relish your present title much better than your 
former relics. Booth sent it me with the MS., 
and if we could have preserved so valuable a life to his 
country as Sir John Moore, I should have more easily 
have swallowed the news of this morning, and almost 
rejoiced at the safety of our retreating countrymen. 
This will lead to a transient and delusive peace, which 
however may perhaf^ endure as long as you and I 
live, but ii the foul fiend* survives us, he will 
ultimately subjugate this country. He must give bis 
commercial subjects breath, and therefore I am 
inclined to think he will offer us terms if Spain is subdued, 
which I suppose we must accept, tho' we may depend 
upon it that 
Hush'd in grim repose he'll aspect his eVning's 
prey, 
and if can only teach the Monkey-Tigers to swim, 
most assuredly we shall feel their claws. 

* TlM OrMt N>pol«oa. 



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Bat, ah, why sho'd we know oar fate 
Since sorrow never comes too late 
And happiness too swiftly flies. 
Therefore, as yoa and I cannot keep away Apollyon, 
thot^ we are neither of us men likely to run away, 
let us hope that Providence has not designed our 
speedy destruction, and that it may be consistent 
with His dispensation to spare the rod and to remove 
the Scourge of Europe before he has completed 
his triumph over our hitherto highly favoured Isle. 
Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



There is a letter dated Jan. zS, l8o^, relating to 
the Bishopston tithes — and at the end it is clear, from 
a remark made by Jones, that his I^al work had passed 
into the hands of Church— " f or I cannot refer to letters 
now, as between Giurch's office and my own, papers 
are now at sixes and sevens." 



To THB Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brbcon, March 3, 1809. 
My Dea» Fribkd, 

You know how fond our Bishop is of the Hebrew 
language. I am just this moment informed by my 
ingenious young friend and artist Tom Price, who is 
now at the College School, and chops the language 
like a dragon, that he (the .Bishop) gives a premium 
at Easter to any boy who will copy a Hebrew Psalm. 
Now let me request, as a particular favour, that you 
would send me per coach instanUr that book, if in your 
possession ; if not, and it be not very dear, buy me the 
book of Psalms of the most improved or approved 
edition in Hebrew and charge it to my account. This 
boy is a most valuable ornament to the Fiindpality, 
and there is nothing that I can do that shall be 
omitted to serve him. 

I hope you have bad my big square books ere this. 
Sir Samuel Pludyet returns to Bristol this month, and 



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b« tdls me he only wants interest and influence, oi on 
my recommendation, he would make you a Bi^iop. 
Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 
If the hock is your own, my life on't, it shall be 
rctufDed. 



To THB Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Hbrefokd, Monday Morning, 

March 21, 1809. 
Mt DBak TaiBSD, 

I do not wi^ to obtnide my book upon Dr. 
Davies or any other person, but I could have wished 
that if he did not diuse to be considered as a subscriber 
he would have infonned me before the book went to 
press. I will thank you if you'll drop hiin a note to 
tdl him that if he'll |mt with the first vol., and it is in 
a ^eable condition, that I should be glad to purchase 
it, and in that case you will pay him for it, allowing 
hun to fix any sum he pleases for reading it, because 
I shall now, I apprehend, be in want of ist vols., of 
which not above 40 remain, while I have near 100 of 
the 2nd. Sir Samuel Fludyer either is, or will be, in 
Bristol this mottth. I have requested him to make 
you a Bishop, whidi he says he'll do, if his influ^ice is 
powoful enou^ which if it be, ne nolo episcopari to me. 

I have received the Hebrew Psalter for which you 
have Tom Price's thanks and mine, and likewise the 
HS. of Oeian, the style of which pleases me very 
much, but I recommend a preface, in which you 
should explicitly and unequivocally declare that your 
objecdoQ to Uacpherson's book is that he wishes it 
to be considered as a history, and that you axe not blind 
to those poetic merits of the work as a collection, 
though you consider the epic poem as an imposition, 
and therefore to be reprobated. I have already said 
as much, but the object of youi a^ument and attack 
cannot be too prominent. 

I ain here quasi r^istrai only, and have, thank 
God, 00 interest in the forenac war of woods that is 
waged with sudi violence, and this attendance I was 



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93 

eajoined sot to omit under pain of woe. l%e threat 
was unnecessaiy, as the exercise will be of service to 
Youi very sincere fri«id, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. BAVTES. 

Brecon, AfrU 9, 1809. 
Mv Dear Fkiend, 

I thank you for Miss Brook's book. The taxes 
of all description, income, property, land, church and 
poor of Bishopston are paid on the spot, and a pretty 
spot they make in the annual amount of the Uving. 

I cannot yet find the commission to inquire into 
the value of Painscastle. Your brother was here 
yesterday, and tells me he has searched the post ofilces 
at Hay and Builth without success. Perhaps it may 
have been sent to Mr. Drake at Clyro, or Mr. Hughes 
of Glasbury, two of the clerical commissioners ; I go 
that way tomorrow, or next day, and will make another 
effort, when (if it fail) I will write to the Bishop. Our 
Judge* Harlequin made several inquiries about your 
forthcoming 000k— whether it has come forth, 
whether I saw the MS., what I thought of it, whether 
you are fortified against the artillery of EdinbuKfa, 
&c., &c. He plays all sorts of monkey tricks — rides 
into the houses of country gentlemen and orders 
breakfast, dinner, and supper, whether they are at 
home or not, criticises upon them if he finds any 
awkwardness in their person, address, or in the 
conduct of their families, writes upon subjects upon 
which he ought not lo interfere, such as the length 
or sentiments of sermons, the mode of education 
adopted by a schoolmaster, abuses one day, and invites 
most politely the same person to dinner the next, and 
then wonders he does not attend, and lastly, after all 
this, lumps us as a proud sniS-necked generation. 
He is highly offended with me for exposing a 
misrepresentation of his to Lettsom and Neild in my 
book ; is at this moment bottling up his vei^eance 
for a Philipic in his charge to the Grand Jury neiU 
Autumn Sessions, and seeking for evidence to siiq^xnt 
* Hardinge. 



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it at the same time — that I see and hear : " De^i Sii, 
Dear Jones, I hope you'll not deprive us of the 
pteasuie and honour of youi company to dinner," 
&C., &C. Such diaaimulation, or if he pleases to call 
it, in Lord Qiesteifield's phrase, whom he copies in 
manneiB and prindides, simulation, is the detestation 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE SSV. Ms. DAVIHS. 

Brecon, April 20, 1809. 
My Dbak Friend, 

I sent you hy last night's coadi directed to the 
"Ship" at Olveston your MS. upon Ossian, 
your Whitaker's li^mchester, which nad almost 
gained a settlement in this parish, and four additional 
addenda or corrigible corrigenda, which you will divide 
amoDg the purchasers of my book in your neighbourhood. 

Assuming, as I do, that your references are correct, 
your reasoning is irresistible, and you will pardon me 
if I say your ck'ef d auvre. I intreat as a petsonal favotir, 
and on pain of responsibility and indemnity against 
any loss, that you would publish it. I have made some 
verbal alterations in pencil, to which I beg you will 
pay no attention unless you think they deserve it. 

I have not had the commission to inquire about 
Painscastle, tho' I bear of thdr being executed all 
round me. I write to your brother to-n^ht to b^ 
he'U inquire about it ; to-morrow I'm ofi for Caerdifi, 
quasi compounder, not for emolument but for the 
preservation of my health ; this is the best physic, 
but it is confoundedly dear ; they'll not shake you 
there and back again under 10 pounds or guineas. 

Has Miss Brookes a translarion of the Irish Poems ; 
if she has, and it is in your possession I should be glad 
to see it, but the original is as tremendous to my eyes 
as our mountain Greek to a Sazon. Booth says you 
come out upon Coins before the end of this 
month, and that you have the Wands of Prospero, 
Ifoipheus, &c., which will set all the critics in a sound 



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95 
snooze foi a thousand years, ^uere de hoc, saith 
the steptic ; courage mon ami, shew than that 
you ate now a tough bit, and if they bite and attempt 

to swallow you, I pray G , after chokii^ them, 

you may come out whole ; and that you will survive 
it, notwithstandhig the operation may be painful 
to you for a time, is the finn conviction of 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES, 
I need not say, received the Gododin. 



To THB Rev. Ms. DAVIES. 

Brecon, March lo, 1809. 
Ut Dear Friend, 

This will come to you ' ' trwy Fuallt i Henffordd,' ' 
Anglice, from Brecon thro' iondon to Olveston, 
but there is part of it which I wish Booth to see ; unless 
he has already christened and registered your Pagan 
Babe ; if so be, then I must put up with the reUcs or 
relicts or reliques of Druidism. We have heard of 
Celtic Remains, we have seen Celtic Researches, 
and now proceeding on, alphabetically, to D, we have 
Druidical reliques. Now will not some of the wags 
say those Celtic fellows sell nothing but old doaths 
01 the offals of the regular shops, mere remnants, 
scraps, patches. I wish, if it be not too late, and you 
agree with me, and if it pleases our Dancing Master 
in Portland Street, who, being more than a godfather 
has a ri^t to be consulted, that the brat should be 
named The Mythology of the British Druids, or 
if that be promisii^ too much, as from the recollection 
I have of the book I think it is, suppose you say an 
Essay on The Mythology of the British Druids, 
of if that be too much. Essays upon the Principal 
or several or many of the tenets and Mythology of 
&c. Consider this well in council, but I leave you 
both to determine, tho' I feel almost as much interest 
as either of you in the success of the work. 

I shall cause my books to be unshipped at the 
"Ship" at Olveston, and perhaps may send you a 
copy more than is subscribed for, wtuch you may 
place with some respectable booksdler at Bristol, 



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if sod) a character can be found there, for entre nous 
I have my doubts, and would prefer dealing vith the 
Shylodcs of, what d'ye call it ? place in London, than 
with the fair tradesmen of Bristol : the devil sent me 
from there is one of the most rascally imps that ever 
issued from Pandemonium ; he drinks on one or two 
days in the week, and not only sins himself, but like 
his brother or his uncle Bedzebub seduces the other 
black boys ; and now that the wot^ is near a 
conduaon, not having employment in view, he 
absolutdy keeps away on purpose to prevent its 
completion. 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THB Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brbcon, 2zsf April, 1S09. 
Uy Dbab Fbibnd, 

I shall write by to-night's post to James to 
fnmish you with the survey of Bidiopston, made by 
one Evans by my direction soon after your induction, 
but I am, previous to your examination of it (as I have 
always be^), firmly of opinion that it would be the 
most eligible step you can take to let the tythes at a 
sum certain. If I could have brot^t Harry Lewis 
to this, I should have dealt with him, but he was for 
poundage only, £70 per anniun, but it seems even your 
drunken predecessor, by his being upon the spot, could 
make more of them than Mr. Davies at Olveston or 
Mr. Jones at Brecon, for the distance at whidi I reside 
1 found it was impossible to manage such rogues as 
these men of Gower. Take an instance of one of their 
tricks. I had information that a Thos. Hopkin had 
carried his com in in the night to cheat the parson. 
The de^yman of Cilfiwch, tibe tenant of your glebe, 
and the parish derk employed to look after your tjrthes, 
all agreed there was some foul play, but Uien how to 
catch him was the point. Nothing easier. A 
Captain Hammond of this parish told me that he and 
his servant saw the com carried home by HopkiQ. 
I still hesitated about going to law, because my poor 



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91 

parson was a nervous man and hated disputes. 

Very right and compassionate," quoth he, "but I 

hope you don't mean to call upon me for tythes ; if 

you do, I'll be d if I pay them." Thus situated, 

I dted the man to the Bishop's Court ; he came to 
Brecon, denied the accusation with many asservations. 
I told him I had proof of the ofEence, but if he would 
pay 2 guineas for the citation and service, and 
momise not to do the same again, I would forgive him. 
This he refused, and chose to spend £io at least in his 
defence. When the business was ripe for producing 
the witnesses I called upon the Cap^in, who by this 
time had made it up with his neighbour,, who was a 
poor man with a large family, not worth following. 
Beside be could not be certain as to the quantity of 
com, the time, or even the person who carried it in. 
Thus situated, I was glad to bring your Proctor and 
the cause out of Court without paying cxiets. 

James, I am fully persuaded, is an honest man, 
tbo' I am sorry to learn he is indolent in answerii^ 
letters, which in my mind is an unpardonable ofEence 
in business. His charge for his own trouble in the 
account he sent me was very moderate [£5 5s.), but 
Z am almost satisfied he must be imposed upon in the 
deductions. It is, however, useless to attempt 
bringing the business to a speedy conclusion by a 
corre^>ondence. You must fix a day for letting the 
tythes, and that during the next month, before the 
tythe Iambs and wool ate due, and you mtist go down 
yourself to see that they are let at a fair price, and 
to prevent and defeat a combination to lower their 
value, if such should be formed, or perhaps to guard 
gainst friendships or partiaUty in those who may 
have the man^ement of the sale. I am satisfied, 
notwithstanding your fears and reluctance to quit 
your home, the journey would be of service to you. 
As to mysdf, tho' I am a few mUes nearer (for I must 
go thro' Caermarthen) as I cannot travel at n^ht, 
and consequently must take a chaise part of the way, 
the exposure therefore would be considerably greater 
than your coach hire from the Passage ; beside I do 
not know whether James would not now consider me 
as a land of spy or supervisor whose company might- 
be dispensed with. 



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9« 

I will do all I can to prevail upon the Bishop to 
giant you a non-iesidence Ucense, and to excuse your 
attendance, whether at Caenn&rthen oi Brecon, but 
he is one of the most tmacconntable beings that ever 
wore lawn sleeves. 

I have been latdy teazed by Meyrick, who has 
written a sort of history of Cardiganshire, to request 
some translations from the Welsh from you. I have 
no notion of complying with this : he Imows nothing 
of the language, which he has mutilated in a most 
barbaiotis manner, and wants to borrow the assistance 
of others to make up a book upon subjects which he 
does not understand, and consequently cannot elucidate. 
I beg you will take no notice of him if he writes to you ; 
I have told him your state of health is such that I have 
taboo'd your application to literature for some time, 
vrtiich I hereby do. 

Perhaps James may have greater influence with 
the Bishop of St. David's than I have, for they 
possess a wonderful similarity of maimers. My Lord 
never answers letters ; if, however, I write to him on 
your case he may vouchsafe me a verbal answer on 
his way down. 

Youis very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, 2znd Afril, 1809. 
Hv Dear Psibnd, 

(I^ter opens with a reference to the fact that 
the Commission for the valuation of the profits of 
Painscastle has arrived). 

Our friend Payne and his wife will be our guests 
during the whole of next week. 

One word more. My old friend, the Rev. John 
Hughes, of Glasbury, died 15th of this month, aged 
60, leaving three daughters. He had an ample 
property, which he neitiiei squandered or hoarded, 
tfao he placed now and then some money in the funds ; 
be was by no means deficient in talents, and liberal 



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99 

almost to a fault to the poor ; for no one was ever turned 
from Ms door, consequently he was sometimes imposed 
upon ; reserved in manner, but of inflexible integrity, 
I believe never told an untruth in his lifetime ; steady 
in his attachments and friendships, for several years 
an active magistrate and an excellent father. Try 
your hand at an epitaph for a plain oval marble tablet, 
which I wish to be erected in that church in which for 
many years, notwithstanding his ample income, he 
officiated as curate, without receiving any emolument 
or any benefice in the church until a few years before 
his death, when he had the prebend of Uansaintfread 
and the vicar^;e of Pembroke. 

Yours most sincerdy, 
THEO. -' 



To THB Rbv. Mr. DAVIES. 

BSBCON, Jvne 5, 1809. 
Mv Dbak Fsibnd, 

On the 15th of this month the subscribers to 
the Qerical Fund for the relief of the distress' d 
widows and orphans of the clergy of this Arch- 
deaconry meet at the Lion. I mil venture to put 
your name down as curate of Painscastle for los. 6d. 
aonually to thi^ excellent institution, which actually 
preserves three or four distressed women from 
starvli^ and materially relieves others. 

I wish you would think of paying a visit to your 
parishioners at Bishopston as soon as you can find a 
cloak and trimmings for two or three Sundays. My 
arms are not long enough to reach to Gower, and the 
Flemings are confounded rogues ; the last year's 
receipt was most terribly frittered away. My friend 
James, the Attorney of Swansea, will show it you ; 
he is an honest young man and will assist you in 
increasing the rent of the glebe, which must be done, 
and I hope in renting out the tythes at a certain 
fl iim i fll stun. 

^ ^When you go down you will also see what stated 
the bouse is in, and tell them what you would wish 
to be done. 



oy Google 



J 



Ur. HardJngg Bdmires yonr Dedication to the 
Bishop of Uandaff. and so should I if you had 
omitted the word ' ' competence " ; he has not given 
yon a competence or anythii^ like it, tho' the public, 
and amot^ them the Bishop, will think he has, and 
quote your admission as proof. 

I see a catalo^e of books to be sold at Gutch's, 
a booksellei at Bnstol, advertised. I should wish to 
have one (price id.) especially if Whitaker's library 
is among them ; but how can you convey it to 
Youis very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

To THE Rhv. Mb. DAVIES. 

Brkcom, June i8, 1809. 
Ht Dbak Snt, 

A young friend of mine who is captain in our 
local USIitia was summoned to appear at Bristol on 
Friday to sit on a Court Martial upon some rioters 
at Hereford. When they came to Durdham Down 
they were informed by General Ward, not General 
Watdi, that thdr attendance at Bristol was not 
necessary, that they might return to Brecon, and 
proceed to Hereford to assist at the trial ; there is 
nothing like method in business ! 

My young captain, however, went on to Bristid 
and during the hour or two he remained there he 
bought me the catalogue, which he delivered me last 
night ; it is not (as you observe) what I want, tho' I 
should be glad to get hold of one book it contains, if 
you can lay hands upon it. No. 1306 Brook's " Dis- 
covery of Errors in Camden, &c., with the Answers," 
price los. 6d. If you buy it, send it down with my 
2nd sleeping and sleepy volume (intended for Dr. 
Davies who is properly awake to his own interest), 
the original C^sian, and the Appendix only, con- 
tainii^ Whitaker's books ; all of which that are 
valuable, will (I dare say) be snapped up before I can 
get at tiiem. 

I have no doubt of your meeting the approbation 
of the learned readers of your last work, and you must 
habituate yourself to the kicks of the jackasses 
who are turned out by the mob for the same purpose 



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as over-driven oxeo in the streets of London ; their 
tunes upon the harp, which it se«m3 you considered 
inbannonious, were, unintentionally on thdr parts, 
so many hymns to merit, and the lushest eulogy they 
could pay you. In your conclusion as to your 
having reached the acmd of your preferment, I trust 
equally wrong ; but I must intreat that to arrive 
at something nearer the acm^ of the value of what 
you have, you will exert yourself, chase the blue devils 
out of the chimney comer, and if they return to the 
clu:ige, see whether the mail coach to Swansea will 
not distance them ; my life on't, you ate mote 
certain of success than Captain Barclay. Cor- 
respon<knce will not do ; if that could have effected 
your purpose, the business would have been completed 
by me ere this ; but I have more than once been 
baffled in my attempts to serve you thioi^ the 
medium of correspondence. However, that you may 
place matters in a proper train, and settle such 
preliminaries as may be prudent or necessary, 
previous to your visitalion, you may communicate 
your sentiments to Mr, John James, Attorney, 
Swansea ; tell him of your intention, then ' ' prime 
and load," "make ready," "present," "wait well 
or the word," Say I requested you to write. 

Yon see' " Nos quoque tila sparsimus," tho' now 
lame, spavin'd, and wind-gall'd, but yet with some 
blood, and good spirits on gettix^ rid of a confounded 
com which plagu«l me more than the gout, and as to 
the blues, a % for them. I laugh at mem un^ I am 
reminded that they torment my friends, when I feel 
something like the daw and long nails of one of the 
imps. I long to see your Ossianomastris: in good 
birth, after which you may lie upon your oats for some 
time. Pray can you b^, borrow, hire, or steal from 
your friends {I'll indemnify you in any case) fol de 
la Motte's " Principal Historical and Allusive Arms 
home by the families of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain," &c. (read England). A similar undertaking 
for Monmouthshire, South Wales, with a briS 
genealogical history and anecdotes is now the bobl^ 
noise of Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
Received Payne's book and delivCTed, I believe. 



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To TBK Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

i8xo. 
Ut Dbak FfaxxD, 

I cannot believe that Gutch's Catalogue contains 
the whole of Whitaker's books ; if it does, tho' they ■ 
may be moie expensive, and more numerous, I 
would not give mine in exchange for them. Fray get 
b(dd of the foUowii^ if you can, and send them me. 
i 9. d. 
2840 Pillitior (I presume Polontiei is 
meant) Dictionare de la langue 
Brit o 18 o 

2853 F^e's Archaeolt^ia, &c o 10 6 

2854 Shaw's Gaelic Dictionary . . . . 140 
3908 Smith's Gaelic Antiquities . . . . 18 o 

£3 10 6 



Of the first of the four I know nothing ; perhaps you 
do. If it contains nothing more than what may be 
seen in Uwyd's Archaeologia I would not have it ; 
if there is any new 01 additional matter, I should be 
glad to 1 



Mi. John Place, of the Abbey Copper Works, 
near Neadi, tells me he thinks there is fire day (and I 
think there is lead also which may be converted into 
England gold) under the glebe [at Bishopston] fot which 
he offers most liberally 6d. per ton. This will never do, 
but I have promised him that you will consider his 
proposal ; you will do well, therefore, to settle this 
Dusmess aJso yourself when you come{down, and in 
the meantime desire James to make inquiries with 
some intelligent person conversant in business of this 
nature what would be a fair compensation or ground 
rent to the landlord to a speculator finding and 
raising this article, and how much he ought to be 
compdlable to raise per week or month, or to pay a 
certain sum in Ueu. 

I beg you would not fail come down and give your 
parishioners a sermon on honesty into the bai^rain; 
let me know a day or two before you set oS, and u you 



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103 

come back this way you shall have tny account, if 
not it shall be sent you. 

Mr. S. M^mck, who has just published a history 
of Caerdiganshire, thus writes to me : " Will you have 
the goodness to ask youi Celtic friend Mr. Davies 
what Cambrian, Greek, Roman, or other proof there 
are of the time when Britain was Sist pe^ed. The 
Welsh Chronicles, I believe, place it about 1300 years 
before Christ. Mr. Davies about 1000, Mr. Roberts 
700. All that can be advanced about settling the 
period I should like to have, and also if he knows 
anything about the first peopling of Ireland. I mean 
previous to the Belgiaid, who were the Lloegrians, 
termed by the Irish Fiizbolg, and the Damnonians 
going there. Was it before peopled from Britain or 
were the first inhabitants the Nemetas only, who came 
from Gaul i How long after their arrival does he think 
the Llo^tians quitted Britain for Ireland ? " If 
you have leisure to answer these queries direct to Mr. 
S. R. Meirrick (or Meyridc, Esq.) No. 3, Sloan 
Terrace, Chelsea. 

Mind you go to Gower, or you will be exonn- 
municated hy 

Your friend, 
THE DEPUTY REGISTRAR. 



To The Rbv. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, Awgtuf 14, 1810. 
My DBAS Fribnd, 

The Bishop very readily excused your absence 
at the Visitation, and said he would dispense with 
the medical certificate, but he says as to the license 
you must write him, and explain your grounds for 
requesting it ; whidi letters must remain among the 
the papers of the Diocese as his justification for grantii^ 
it. I stated to him that there is no house on 
Painscastle ; that the bam at Bishopston cost between 
^100 and £200 in repairing, or rather re-building, and 
that the house the money is laid out upon annually 
is not yet habitable, I mention this in order that 
you may know the reasons I have given for your non- 
residence, and which I firmly believe to be true. 



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'«♦ 

Don't be surprised if I send yon a History of the 
World before the Flood. Mr. WilUaffls, of Ivy Towei, 
a very learned man, but Penukiwish and book 
maddish, is exttemdy ddighted with youi last book, 
which I presented to him, and threatened to send you 
his own if he can convey it. The address to Paul, 
" too much learning," &c., will unquesticmal:^ apply 
to him, but he means well, and is a zealous Quistian, 
notwithstanding his truly Cambrian irritability, of 
which you may have seen a very impolitic and rather 
incoherent specimen in the last Swansea paper, if it 
reaches you. 

I am glad to inform you by conunand of Booth 
that your book, which has hitherto been too shdfiak 
b^ns to move. I do all I can to recommend, because 
I hi^y admire it and wish to serve you, bnt the knack 
or habit of lending and borrowing is become so 
prevalent, that I fear authors must eat even less than 
they have been hitherto compelled to starve upon. 

It is veiy extraordinary that my vohunes have 
been reviewed by ail the gentry of that description, 
except by the British Critic, a publication which 
professes to support the Established Church and those 
writers who are zealous for its honour and the 
maintenance of its discipline and doctrines. There 
is somethii^ wrong, and I suspect venal in this shop. 
I am totaUy unmiown to them. I have received 
assistance at the British Museum from one or two of 
them, and yet my book hqs lain nearly 6 years upon 
their shelf, whiU Merrick's Caerdiganshire, whidi 
has hardly appeared 6 months teck, has been 
reviewed, and what is extraordinary, commended; 
tho' it is already mere waste paper in the principality, 
bdr^ a chain of notorious and egregious bhmdess. 
from the preface to the index. 

Pray let me hear from you, and I hope hear a better 
account of your health, if you should catch any 
Jafiers on their way to the Passage. 

You shall see the Bts^iop's charge as soon as it 
comes out ; it is in my mind the most orthodox, the 
ablest and the soundest that ever was ddivered, or 
at least that has been ever heard or read by 
Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



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To TBB Rav. Mr. DAVIES. 

Bbbccw, Sef4. i8. 1810. 
My De&k Davies, 

Your half-saved, quarter-saved, half-quatter 
saved, diunken, idle curate, lost a paper ddiveied 
bim by the Bishop at the Visitation under the direction 
of a late Act for Augmentation of Small Ijvin^ 
Seeing youi brother at Kington, I desired hitn to inquire 
about it, and received an answer from him that it 
could not be found, whereupon I wrote as the Bishop 
had instructed me to Richard Bume, Esq., Deans 
Yard, Westminster, stating the above fact, and 
requesting he would send me another, which I would 
take care should be properly executed ; to that letter, 
tho' post paid, I recdved no answer ; I therefore 
recommend you to try your hand, inJEorming this 
Burning man that you have heard of the above 
circumstances from me, that you are the licensed 
curate of Uanbedi Painscastle, and requesting he 
would send one to you, or you may lose a ratnie 
advantage by Hwlws's n^lect. 

I sent you Mr. Williams's, of Ivy Tower's book 
a fortnight ago, directed to you at the ' ' Ship ' ' at 
Olveston. I hope you have received it. tho' I doubt 
whether it will entertain you, for the author is 
certainly <A the Fen-whiw faJsily. 

I don't mean again to deal in County Histories 
I mean that I don't intend risking the expence o 
printing, &c., tho' I have no reason to complain of 
the experiment I have made ; but my worthy and 
excellent friend, Mr. Richard Price, the Member for 
New Radnor, is very anxious about that county, and 
I have promised to make collections for him, assisted 
1^ Cheeae,* Lewis of Haipton, and one or two more. 
As Oiptain of this press gang, I seize you, and insist 
upon your becoming one « our boat's crew and 
hatidling your oar immediately. Heave ofi— and away 
we go! 

What do you consider to be the meaning of 
Radnor, and when and by whom was it first adopted f 

• Thia Ghana wH grandfathac to Edmund H. Obttme, Eaq^ 



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What is the meaning of Uaelenydd Mdentdd, 
tdias ^vil Uwch Mynidd, or Ecton ? 

What of Ehrel oi Elfel Is mynidd ? 

And of the following parishes :— -Uanbister, 
Nantmd, Llanddewi Ystradenni, Clftow, Llowes, 
Dissoth, lianfaredd, Llanelwedd, Llanyri, Glandestiy 
OI Gladestiy, and Cr^iina ? 

Who was Saint Wonno to whom Llaoono is 
dedicated, as wdl as two other chnich^-— one in 
}jfrfnrr\ m i thuhir p and One in Glamoisanshiie ? 

Answer me these questions in seamanship as soon 
as you can, and if you know of any able minded lad 
or greybeard, living os dead, willing to lend a hand, 
give notice to the Captain, and you shall have plenty 
of flip foi your trouble. 

I was veiy happy to see youi last lettei, from whidi 
it appeals that the bines have been blown out of 
Olveston ; be assured that burying them occasionally 
in the red sea is a ptopet remedy, and may be justified 
in your case, provided it be not too often resorted to. 

As for ytmi friend, ' ' whom villainous company 
hath been the spoil of," who h&'th tried the experiment 
and who in consequence hath ' ' cramps ' ' 

Side-stitchy that do pin his breath up, urchins 
That for the vast of night while they do work 
All exercise on him, and oft he's pinch'd 
As thick as honey combs, each pinch more stinging 
Than bees that made them. 
And yet, notwithstanding this, I laugh, I laugh, at the 
imps of gloominess, and have just now discovert, 
as they tdl me, a cure for the gout, or at least I am 
determined to try it, for I cannot contemplate the 
loss of the use of my right hand, which must follow 
repeated attadcs for a few winters to come. While, 
however, I can thus aj^ly it I know not how to do it 
more agreeably than by assurii^ you 

That I am. 

Your very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



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To THE Rbv. Mb. DAVIES. 

Bbbcon, Nov. iS, iSio. 
Uv Dbab Davibs, 

I wish- to have a seal au^aved, because I some- 
times write "to great men. Toe amis I know ; but 
the motto must be my own : — 

" Me studia ddectant domi " 
' ' Cis ui chaio y wlid a nu^ ' ' 
" C&a ni chii y wl&d a mAg." 

Utrumhomm ? 
Give me yoxa opinion. 

I shall, be at No. il. Golden Square [London] 
for the next month, where I b% you will command 
the services of 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

Given under our hand and wafer, not 

bavii^ at present a seal, a.t Brecon, in 

the County of Brecon, i8th Nov. 1810, 

tho' meant for Gloucester, ^ursday, 

20th. T. J. 

You know all my propensities, and therefore I 

leave it to you. I should like (if you prefer the Webh) 

to puzzle the English with the appropriate rhyme 

and jargon : but I cannot make up my mind which of 

the two mottoes to prefer. 

Point out any other mottoe, not such as your 
friendship may suggest, but whidi you in sincerity 
would recommend tne to adopt — ^for I have already 
chopp'd and changed 50 times without satisfying 
mysdf at last. 



To THB Rav. EDWARD DAVIES. 

BsBCoif, April 6, iSll. 
Mt Dbab Sm, 

Vive I'eau Mediunorle ! It has done its duty, and 
if it had failed I should have lain in bed in I/mdon 
until the present fine weather brought me out with 
other rq>tiles. 



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Our Bishop is a noadescTq>t of the" class just 
meotioned; nothing is aimed particularly against you, 
but inattention to letters is one of his common vagaries ; 
however, you need not apply to him upon the business 
of the augmentation, as you'll observe the certificate 
of his Rc^trar will do, and, indeed, is that which is 
generally sent. I advise you to write the Sec't for 
£8, viz., for the two years due Lady Day last, and if 
they object to it we can send another. Boc^ will, 
I dare say, do this for you. I received from him this 
week your vol. of sermons. No other copy has as yet 
reached this place, tho' I advise a few to be sent here. 

I think you had better write a most humble address, 
petition, and rem nstrance to your Diocesan to remind 
him of the liability to attack to which you are now 
exposed ; tho' you possess no mansion upon the one 
or habitable dwelling on the other benefice, and tho' 
you have not the sine qua non to provide a sufficiency 
of soil even for the semper vtvum tectorum, if he does 
not attend to you, let me know and I'll prevail upon 
Charles Mo^an to be flai^>er. 

Your information as to the pl^ue and trouble of 
purchasing for the county is correct ; however, you'll 
do what yon can, and so will 

Your very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Bbecon, Jvly 7, iSii. 
Ut De&s Fbibnd, 

A Shot for the Blues. 

And if I do not scare them, then am I no gunner. 
Yon are, I see, at this moment comfortably in their 
power, and yet I believe they never bad so little reason 
to triumph, for you neva were in your lite so much in 
the sunshine of episcopacy as yon are at this moment, 
and I really have sanguine expectations that the next 
summons to Saint David's wul be accompanied with 
the ofier of another living in the diocese. To account 
for all this, which will appear a marvel to you while 
you are reading it, know then that upon the 25th of 
last month your Diocesan was at Brecon, and showed 



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M9 

me yourloi^ letter, as well as the Bishop of Gloucester's, 
upon which followed numerous iuterrc^tories and 
explanations, and a conv^'sation twice as long as both 
their letters. He did not seem to understand what 
you meant by expecting cold comfort or encouragement 
on your living, nor indeed did he seem to me to know 
fi4iether you were to be sent to Painscastle or 
Bishopston ; but when I told him what a set of Goths 
and knaves your parishioners were, how miserable 
the house was, and how exposed to the weather the 
situation (tho' this last a^ument, of course, did not 
weigh much with the founder of Llanddewi Brefi CoU^e) 
he evidently relented and promised me to write to you. 
He was, however, so talun up with the controversy 
with Sir John Nichol upon the case of Widces for not 
burying a Dissenter that (knowir^ the man) I don't 
wonder he lost s^ht of the letter. In the course of 
the day he asked me for your book of sermons, witii 
which I furnished him, and now ^ain he lost sight of 
\^ckes and appeared quite in raptures with your 
composition. " Why," says he, " if our society had 
offered ^loo to support our institution it could not be 
more effectually or ably done than by this work of 
Mr. Davies's, I thought him, Mr, Jones, a mere 
antiquary or black letter man hke yourself, but I find 
him an orthodox Divine and an admirable writer on 
theological subjects." You need not trouble 
yourself about sending a book to him, he has probably 
had it ere this, for he said he should send for it 
immediately, which I daresay he did, unless Wickes's 
case again drove away the sermons. I shall, however, 
have in the case of next week a parcel from Booth, 
in which I dedred him to send a copy for Payne and 
half a dozen for sale here, if I can dispose of them. 
When they arrive it will afford me an opportunity of 
asking the Bishop whether he has had the book oi 
whether I shall send it him ; and at the same time 
reminding hitn that the long letter of the curate of 
Olveston remains unnoticed ; which I'll take care shsjl 
be done in such a manner as shall not give offence. In 
the meantime set your heart at rest as to the estimation 
in which you now stand with him. 

I am sorry on both your accounts to hear of your 
wife's general state of h^th. Sed levius fit paiietitia 



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qmcquid compere est nefas, for medidne I fear has very 
seldom any salutary effects in correcting the evil vrhea 
long and deeply rooted ; persuasives, however, to resigna- 
tion are unnecessary wim you, who have had so many 
and such impressive lessons that If you have not already 
learnt to submit, at least without whining or kicking, 
it would be useless in me to either pr^di or pray, 
to lash or to pat you. Still, my good friend, let me 
remind you without flattering, and I trust without 
presumption, that in consequence of the hardship of 
your lot here you may entertain a well founded hope 
of a far more eternal and exceeding weight of f^ory 

Thus sincerdy prayeth. 

Your friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE EDITOR AND PUBLISHER OF "THE 
CAMBRIAN REGISTER.'* 

Bkbcon, Jan. lo, 1797. 
Deak Snt, 

I embrace the first moment the wheel will 
permit me to thank you for a few hoars' agreeable 
amusement, received in the perusal of your Register. 
The book has much merit, and will, I think, claim and 
deserve the pnbUc attention ; and as you desire my 
free thoughts upon it, you shall have them freely and 
candidly. It has its faults, and I will point out to you 
what appears to me to be such ; not for the purpose 
of displaying my learning, or indulgii^ an ill-nati^ed, 
but too prevalent propensity to di^>arage the labours 
of others but merely to point out inaccuracies which 
may be corrected, and some trifling errors or instances 
of neglect, which, by a very little attention, may be 
avoided, either in a future edition or volume. You 
know I wish well to the work, and I am sure you will 
require no further apolc^y. 

You have published a very sensible letter of Mr. 
Lewis Morris's, about Geoffrey of Monmouth and Us 
giants ; and yet I am afraid, that under the title of 
History, you are publishing Geoffrey and not 
Tyssiho's history ; or, at all events, you have 



I 



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translated Caor, a giant, ^lich is by no means the 
sole or exclusive meaning of the word. You remember 
in my MS. review, for my own amusement, of Mr, 
^^lliams's History of Monmouthshire, I observed that 
Choir Gaur (Stone Henge) does not probably mean chorea 
gigantum, but chorea r^^m, prindpum, sacerdotum, 
l^islatomm, or probably of all those characters united. 
Caur had much the same meaning, or might, at least, be 
as equivocally applied, as a great man in BngUsb, a term 
whick apphes equally to size and abiUties. How the 
deuce came Penteulu to be translated patron of the 
family ; a term neither intell^ble, nor warranted 
by the original ? The office meant in the original 
was well known in all, or at least most, monarchial 
courts, and has existed ever since, thoi:^ the duties 
of it may differ in different counties ; and I thinlc you 
iantidpate what I can hardly call information, when I 
say mat the master of the household is meant. Gost^ur 
m^t as wdl have been translated by Crier as silentiary, 
as the former is much more easily understood. 

As I have pointed out to you all the faults idiidi 
now occur to me (and bdieve me I am not as trite to 
pick out more), let me notice the beauties. The 
observation upon the language, upon the origin of the 
Cymri, has much leamii^, much sound sense, great 
ingenuity, bordering now and then upon our favourite 
topic, etymology ; [Pail up and ease us !) and will, if 
continued and conducted in the same maimer, not 
di^race any publicarion, in however h^h estimation 
among the learned, few of whom but condescend to 
pick up instruction as well as amusement from it. Sir 
Rhys ap Thomas's Life is a piedous morceau. As a 
piece of modem bic^raphy, indeed, it would be 
considered astedious ; but as a specimen of the style 
of the age in which it was written, containing many 
particulars which cannot be generally known, it is a 
valuable curiosity. Pray do not omit to continue the 
Mabinogiott ; you must endeavour to please all 
palates, and these have the double chance of amusing 
the antiquary and the novelist, or, at least, the 
romance-reader ; there are indeed some Welshisms 
that I could wi^ were dropped, as " Of all the hounds 
in the world he had ever seen." Of all that he had 



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ever seen in conversing with her, she was most un- 
embarrassed. Perhaps it is presumption in me to say 
I could better this style, but I cannot help sa3ring I 
should have been glad to have seen it before it was 
published, to have suggested my opinion upon it, 
whatever attention had been paid to it. I am pleased 
to see a translation of Hywef's Laws, thou^ there is 
one in Latin, but the book is so scarce that they are 
little known. Fray continue them, except those as 
to fornication or adultery, wbicb I am certain neither 
Mr. Owen's nor your modesty will permit you to read, 
much less to clothe in an T^glwi* dress. Your two 
first statists are men of sense, and valuable corres- 
pondents. THie parson of Llanrhug has sent you, I 
really believe, a literal copy of his answer to the 
Bishop's queries at the last visitation: — " &i my 
parish " is so extremely like that style, that, 
accustomed to it, as I have been, I could hardly help 
turning the leaf to see whether I had marked upon it 
the payment of his visitation fees. More of Lewis 
Uoms's iMters,* and more of everything that belongs 
to him, pow I'amour du bon Dieu. This part of your 
work is worth its weight in gold. I did not think 
Evan Frydydd HIr the poet he was. I knew him well, 
but I suppose the Cwrw had expelled the Awen before 
I became acquainted with him. 

Your vignette is elegantly executed, and will not 
attract the eyes of a sfreet-loun^ as he passes by the 
shop. CVch ! to be sure — no it will not ; and yon 
had no idea of its attracting attention. 

God bless you ! and be as merry and happy as a 
warm room, a piece of roast beef, mince pies, or good 
port, an amiable wife, a prattling Uttle one, and a good 
conscience, will give yon leave. Make my com- 
pliments to that same rib of yours, and to Owen, ^riien 
you see him, and beheve me to be, dear Williams, 
Yours, &c., 

THEOPHILUS JONES. 

* Lswii Morria's Lattora are delightful. I hope there is no end 
to tliem. Qnmwy Owen doee not write u well u Iroin his kdvar- 
■kry I ihonld have expected. The Bittort/ of PembnduiMn has 
miujh cmioui and genuine informatim, but upon the whole hanga 



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"3 

To Thb Kbv. WAI,TER DAVIES ("GWAU^TER 
MECHAIN ■') MEIVOD, MONT. 

BiEBCDN, Dec, 23, 1799. 
Dbak Snt, 

You see how important and familiar I am, 
but it is a professional fault, and tho' perhaps you would 
not recognise either my hand or my features if I 
introduced myself to you, I have taken it into my bead 
from reading Lavater and the Cambrian Register that 
I should instantly know the Rev. Mr. Walter Davies, 
I believe he is good humour'd as well as learned, and 
as a proof that I so think of him, I have taken the liberty 
of infnTtnJTig him that I am at present for ming a Great 
Evil and furnishing the world with a proof of my Polly 
in Folio. Perhaps one of the shelves at Meivod or 
Yspythy Ifan may hereafter groan under its weight. 
Now to the purport of this letter, and I proceed without 
further ceremony to ask (which I am sure with you 
will have the authority and we^t of a command) 
H^iether you can give me any assistance or hint how 
I may obtain any information as to the History of 
this County. It is necessary I should tell you I have 
Tanner's Notitia Monastica, and that I have, or at 
least am in a train of procuring all the materials there 
stated. I have also officiaUy some particulais which 
cannot be dsewbere procured. Do you know where 
I can get any others ? What are become of the 
Celtic Remains P I think our friend Williams, the 
bookseller, of the Strand, told me you were about them. 
That rogue has used me very ill in our last volume ; 
he has made me talk nonsensically and ungram- 
matically et ornne quod exit in allay, and his excuse after 
two years' delay was — ^he had no time ! 1 ! You of course 
know Owen. These dogs the booksellers will Idll hun. 
I know it, and hereby testify it will be murder — it is 
done with malice prepense — poor fellow ! It is really 
bard so able a man should be obl^ed to fag and starve, 
for he does little better, but virlus laudatur et alget — 
as it was in the days of Horace, is now and ever shall 
be. Do favour me with a few lines (if you can be of 
any service to me, or even if you cannot) in answer 
to this incoherent epistle. I am much afraid those 
Afiperanss, which at this moment might certainly be 



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"4 

written Penwin (for the plural would spoil the pun) 
will prevent our meeting, but if you should sunnount 
and cross them no person win be happier to see you 
than 

Si, 

Yours ancerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

Youll be good enough to direct to Mr. Jones, 
Registrar, Bredmock. 

Dugdale's M. I have. 

I wish Owen had condescended to write his 
dictionary in the character now used, for tho' he had 
authority for his letters we have so long accustomed 
ourselves to a different mode of reading tl^t I am now 
and then tempted to exclaim as the Frenchman did 
upon puTchasmg Dr. Johnson's Dictionary. Begar, 
I find if I buy Monsr. Owen's Welsh Dictionary I must 
buy another Dictionaire to explain de lettre of Monsr. 
Owen. 1 mentioned this to him before he began ; 
I likewise pointed out to him the impropriety of 
attempting his quotations in English rhyme. Tlie 
latter hint he attended, but his v's and his s's, &c., &c., 
he would not part with. They have hurt the sale of 
his book here very much. 



To The Rev. WALTER DAVIES. 
Mt I^ar Sir, 

Brecon, June 27, 1802. 
Great facts, like great wits, have, I presume, 
a {Jentiful stock of absence (to use an Irish phrase). 
In yout descent from our Snowdon the farmer tells me 
you borrowed a great coat, which you have either 
mislaid or wrapped up in your own by mistake. If the 
former be the case, pray tell me where I am to enquire 
for it, as I hear tis not at the Lion. If you have it, 
I'll thank you to send it by the coach directed to my 
bouse. 

Remember (if I have not the pleasure of seeing 
you again) liat you were good enough to promise me 
the outlines of your labours in Breconshire, and the 



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"5 

otdigation shall be always acknowledged in private 
if yon don't wish I should do it poblidy by 
Dear Sr, 

Youis ancerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

How can I get at your last Prize Poem ? I'll 
thank you foi the printer's name. 



To Thb Rev. WALTER DAVTES. 

BSECENOCE, Nov. 23, 1806. 

Dear Sir, 

When I had last the pleasure of seeing you ia 
Brecknockshire, you gave me hopes of a communi- 
cation upon the subject of the mineralogy of the 
county. I have written to you twice by private bands, 
but not hearing from you I fear they have met with 
the fate of many letters thus attempted to be 
conveyed, and under this impression I take the 
liberty of making one effort more to obtain your 
assistance before I finish my 2nd vol. of the History 
of this County, which I hope shortly to send among the 
devils. 

An answer to the following queries will much 
oblige, but even an answer saying I wUl not, or I cannot, 
or I have no leisure, or anything of that nature will 
be preferred to no answer ; for I shall then know 
what to expect. Mrs. Jones tells me that you have 
been in Biecon^iire without calling upon 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

What is the posirion of the strata in the Vale 
of Udc in Brecon^dre ? 

What in the Vale of Wye ? 

How do they dip and rise, and are there any 
remarkable instances of thar being thrown out of 
their courses ? 



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ii6 

How many different strata do they consist of 
and thdi deptii ? 

What are the component particles of each ? 

Whet are the stones pick'd up on the surface at 
different places, and be pleased to name the places 
where stones of pecnliat or uncommon substances 
are found ? 

Did you observe the crumbling argillaceous stone 
in the Vale of Irvon and Hundred of BuHth P What 
is that called ? 

Any other observations in your mineralc^cal 
Tour ? 

What are the strata of the Beacons ? 

If you have any rough draft of your report to the 
board that is l^ble and will lend it, send it per post. 
I don't care for the exp^ice. I only want to pick out 
a few articles of information, and it shall or shall not 
be known they came from you — as you please. 



To The Rbv. WALTER DAVIES. 
DBAS Snt, 

How are yon, and what are yon now about 7 

I purpose giving an heraldic and genealogic map 
of Wales m the style and by the way of enlai^ement 
of Yorke of Ecddig. Can you, oi rather will you assist 
me with the Arms of the families in N.W. or any of 
them, their origin, or that of their mottoes 7 

Do you publish in N.W. 7 I see nothing from 
thence ; but, alas ! there is a great gulph ^tween 
thee and me. 

Owei Jones' 3rd vol. of the Archa. is a paltry 
compilation. I expected Owen would have given 
us the remainder of the Mabinc^on and other extracts 
from the Llyfr Coch and Llyfr Du at Oxford : much 
of them ^ould be published. 

Pray have you seen my friend Davies's Mythology 
of the Druids (London, 8vo., Booth, 1803} P If you 



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117 

have not, I beseech you to read it. Bishop Watson 
in a note to out ju<^ says : " It will be an eternal 
monument of his kammg, his ingenuity and his labours," 
I can hardly hold my pen, while I assure you that I am 
Yours very smcerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

Gout 1 villainous gout, • 

Hath been the spoil o' me. 

What do you understand by the E^le of Pengwem 
and E3i, the Churches of Bassa and the Kud of 
Edeimion in Llywrch hen's El^y to Cynddylan ? 
Pray give me your opinion per post letter at your 
leisure. 

I don't approve of my countryman Williams of 
Ystradteilaw's translation of Cen i Ddewi. See how 
beautifully, almost hterally, the four first lines may 
be rendered into English verse : — 

*Ahn^ty Pow'r in midnight's shade, 
May ba^y sleep my frame pervade, 
And e'en the morning dawn appear 
The Poet's fire my spirit cheer. 



To The Rbv. WALTER DAVIES. 

Brecon, Od. i6, 1811. 
Dbak Sis, 

May the hour in which you lost youi MSS. in 
my study be the most unfortunate of your Ufe. 

If I publish my translation of Budd Cwrc, I should 
wish to say sometlur^ about Ellis Wynne ; if, therefore, 
you know or can procure any anecdot^ relative to 
him, pray communicate them when you said the 
ped^ees and the copy of your poem, which perhaps 
may be conveyed by the Receiver, who will not be here 
until next month. At present you are, I presume, 
in your Perihelion, as I beUeve Crickhowel was your 
Aphelion. When your return into our more southern 



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ii8 

skies win be I have not yet been able to calculate, 
but instead of dreading it, as we have been taught to 
do those other luminous but inexplicable appearances, 
depend upon it your a|^roadi will always be greeted 
wim pleasure by 

Your sncere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



The following undated letter, belonging to the Rev. 
M. Powell Williams, Rector of Uansantffread, shows 
that Mr. Jones's conscientious anxiety for the welfare 
of bis friends and clients was not limited to that of his 
<Ad schoolfellow, the Rev. Edward Davies : — 

TO MR. WA1,TER PRICE, GhYNUMCK, IN 
YSTRADGUNLAIS. 
Dbak Snt, 

As I find Mr. Bishop in tny absence drew Mr. 
Jones, of Blamgwrthyd's Will (which I am happy to 
hear is in favour of you and yours), I could not when 
I heard of it (which was not till this evening) but be 
uneasy at my not seeii^ it, and as no person has youi 
interest more at heart than myself, I was much mote so 
when I found that the real estate was devised with 
remainders over, which I am afraid Mr. Bishop, or 
indeed any other Cleric is hardly capable of doing with 
prt^riety ; if therefore you can either send me a copy 
of it, or if you think I can with propriety wait upon 
you at Blamgwrthyd, or if you can bring the Will to 
Brecon, it will nudce my mind easy, as 1 should be 
exceedingly hurt, if hereafter any depute should arise 
from the igporance or inadvertence of any person 
connected with me, where you are concerned. However, 
if you are satisfied that the present Will needs no 
revisal, oi if (for this may be the case) you may think 
that it may be hazardous oi impr(q)er to make any 
bustle or stir in the business ay bringing up the 
business afresh, let me hear from you and I shall 
acquiese. 

I am. Dear Sir, 

Your otdiged humble servant, 
THEa JONES. 

Wednesday, past ii at ni^t. 



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iig 

To NICHOLAS CARLISLE, Esq., SECRETARY TO 
THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

Bkbcok, Oa. 2S, iSii. 
Deas Sis, 

I send you a sketch and a letter v^ch I lately 
received from a young but intelligent and zealous 
antiquary ; you will be pleased to communicate them 
to the Society, if you think them worthy of their 
attention. 

The great camp and station at Cwm, in the parish 
of Llan£hangel-Helygen, is the same that is xaea- 
tioned by Mr. Strange, in a paper read to the Society 
in May and June, 1774, and I believe published in the 
Archaologia. He is inclined to fix the Magms of 
Antoninus (he says) at Cwm ; but I must take leave to 
differ from him here : later antiquaries have, I think, 
correctly placed Magna or Magnis at Kenchester, in 
Herefordshire. Certain I am that this station (for such 
it appears to have been) lies very much 01 it of the 
road from Gobannium, or Abergavenny, to Uriconium, 
or Wroxeter. It is forty-four miles from the first- 
mentioned place ; and a traveller from the first 
station to the latter by Cwm, would describe neatly 
the same angle as one starting from Guildford, in 
Surrey, through Reading to London. 

Cwm was, I apprehend, the next station on the 
south-west to Caer-sws in Montgomeryshire, and 
situated on the Via Helena, or more correctly, in my 
opinion. Via Leona, the Chester road ; that dty being 
called Caer - LUott • Gawr. At Cwm, this road 
bifiucated ; one brandi proceeding through the 
Hundred of Builth, near Llandovery, and along the 
north side of the Towy to Muridumum, or Carmarthen ; 
the otiier branch led to the station at Gaer, near 
Brecon ; soon after which it again formed two lines, 
one proceedit^ to Nidtun, or Neath, and the other 
directing its course more westwardly to Trecastle, 
Talysam, and aloi^ the south side of Towy, until it 
united again with the road just above mentioned at 
Muridumum. 

I fear we seek in vain for either the Roman or 
most andent Briti^ name of the station &t Cwm : 



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J 



for Castell CoU-Uwyn, the castle of the brake, only 
describes its dilapidated state, when even its rains 
were ovet-run with underwood. It is retturkaUe, 
that thou^ this castle (as the Welsh call it) is situated 
in the Hundred of Melenydd, its name should be 
similar, and indeed the same, though differently 
pronounced, as a hundred lower down the Wye, called 
C(dl<wyn, correctly Coll-llwyn, for the same reason as 
the site of the fortress is now so denominated ; because 
that district was also anciently overgrown with 
underwood. 

If I should hereafter discover anything further 
as to the name of this place, which may amount to 
somewhat more than conjecture, if I may hope to meet 
with their approbation, it shall be communicated to 
the Society, l^ 

Dear Sir, 
Thai and your obedient humUe servant, 
THK). JONES. 

[the sketch referred to is by Tbomas Price, derk, 
ciu^te of Uanyre, " Camhuanawc" — Editer.^ 



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iLcGooglei 



iLCD, Google 



HOWEL HARRIS. 



Howel Harris was bom at Trevecka, in tlie parish 
of Talgaitli, in the county of Brecknock, on the 23rd 
of January, 1714 ; his parents were of Caermarthenshiie 
extraction, m low cdicumstances ; they, however, 
contrived to give him a classical education, and he was 
kept at sdaool until he was 18 years of age, at which 
time his father dying, he was obliged to employ 
himself in instructing a few boys in the neighbourhood 
in reading and writing, in which situation he supported 
himself for some ti'ne, intoiding at a proper ai;e to 
take holy orders. 

In November, 1735, he went to Oxford, and entered 
at St. Mary's Hall, mider the tuition of a Mr. Hart, 
but here he did not remain long, as we find him in the 
followii^ year keepins a school at Trevecka, which 
he afterwards removed to the parish church ; he now 
seems to have given up every idea of the Established 
Cburdi, and to have adopted the tqunion of a sect 
since called Methodists, and which were then in their 



About this time a man went about the country 
instructing young persons to ai% psalms ; on these 
occasions ne first ai^)^red as a preacher, in which he 
met with no opposition, but being sent for by a 
gentleman in Radnorshire, who had heard of his rising 
fame, to preach before a large co^^egation, either 
his doctrines or his conduct gave ofEence to some of 
the clergy or magistrates of the county, and he was 
turned out of his school. This, however, did not dis- 
courage him, and he continued from thenceforward 
to preadi pubhdy, sometinies twice or thrke a day, 
being supported by several who became converts to 
his opinion. 

In 1730, while Mr. Harris was in ^«rdse of what 
he no doubt conceived to be. his duty, and bedding 



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forth to a coog r ^ation in Uerionethshiie, he was 
cbaiged iiy some magistrates with a breach of the 
Conventicle Act (a law made in the leign of Charles 
n. for the sappression of seditious assemblies). Mr. 
Harris oboerveo upon this occasion with great 
propriety, that he was not within the purview of this 
Statute, that he was a Conformist, and that neither be 
nor his hearers entertained any seditious intentions ; 
upon which, and upon consulting some lawyers, the 
prosecution was dropped ; but notwithstanding this 
he met with considerable opposition in some pkces; 
et MachyiUletb, in Montgomeryshire, a pistol was 
fired at him ; at Pontypool, in Monmouthshire, his 
congr^ation was dispersed by a magistrate, who read 
the Riot Act to them, and Mr. Harris was bound over 
to appear at the Assizes, where, however, upon further 
consideration, it was not thought expedient to pursue 
the business. He also met with very roi^ treatment 
in several other places, and once or twice narrowly 
escaped with his ufe from the fuiy of a bigotted and 
tmgovemable populace. 

In the month of March, 1739, he first became 
personally acquainted with Mr. Whitfield, though he 
bad previously received a letter from him, approving 
of his conduct, and encouraging him to proceed in his 
itinerant exhortations. Mr. WiitSeld in his Journal 
describes the pleasure he received in the interview 
with his brother Howel Harris, at Caerdiff; he says 
that " he generally discoursed in a field, from a wall, 
or table, but at other times in a house, or anything 
else; and that he had estabhshed near thirty 
societies in Wales." The friendship formed between 
these two extraordinary characters, from the 
unanimity of their sentiments upon religious subjects, 
and particularly as to free grace and election, in which 
they differed in some points from the followers of Mr. 
Wesley, continued during thdr lives. 

In 1744 he married Anne, daughter of John 
Williams, of Slcreen, in the county of Radnor, Esq., 
by whom he left issue only one ^tighter, Elizabeth, 
who married Charles Frichard, of Brecon, Esq., try 
whom she has several children. 



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After preadung in different parts of Wales and 
England for upwards of seventeen years, a wish 
pic^bly to enjoy a home occasionally, and domestic 
felicity, induced him to lay the foundation of the present 
buildit^ of Trevecka. which was begun in April, 1752. 
At this time the funds were very inadequate to the 
undertaking, but the subscriptions of many who wished 
well to the undertaking, and of some who being fond 
of Mr. Harris's manner and style of preaching, desired 
to reside in what was afterwards t^ed the Family 
of Trevecka, enabled him to complete the work. Here 
he establi^ied a small manufactory in wool, and in 
1754 there were settled under the same roof with him 
100 persons, the profits of whose labours were apphed 
towards a general fund for their support. The com- 
munity, or family, still continues, but since his death 
the numbers have considerably decreased. 

Soon after the breaking out of the war with France, 
in the reign of Geo^e II. the Breconshire ^ricultural 
Society offered to form themselves into a troop of horse 
to serve in any part of Great Britain, without pay ; 
on this occasion Mr. Harris engaged to furnish ten men 
and horses, with their accoutrements, to attend them 
at his own e^>ence ; for some reasons, which do not 
now appear. Government did not think it e:q>edient 
to accept their services, but on his recommendation 
five young men, who were settled at Trevecka, entered 
into the 58th Regiment of Foot, and foi^t for their 
King and country at the Series of Louisbouig, Quebec, 
and the Havaniuih. 

In the year 1759 ^^ loyalty of Mr. Harris 
becoming generally known and approved of, he was 
solicited to accept of an Ensign's commission in the 
Breconshire Mihtia ; this, after some consideration, 
he agreed to do, and havii^ taken with Tiitn from 
Trevecka twenty-four men, twelve of them at his own 
cxpence, as to clothing and aims, he joined the regiment 
in 1760, and some tune afterwards he was advanced 
to the rank of Captain in that Corps. The first year 
of their services they were ordered to Varrnoutb, 
whither Mr. Harris accompanied them, sometimes 
i<niiiiig his men on their march, in wtifflng hymns and 
ptelmB; and at other times, and in meet towns thitnigh 



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which they passed, preaching to them in his 
T^imentals, a sight at that time perfectly novel, and 
not very commcm at this day. 

In 1762 he retained from Plymouth, upon the 
omdtiaon of the war, to Trevecka, after having served 
three years ia the Militia. In 1767, Selina, the late 
Countess I>owager of Huntingdon, came to reside at 
treveckti, where she estabU^ed what was called a 
con^e, for the education of young men of thi'! * 
peisuafflon who were intended for preaching, to which 
several resorted during her life time, but it is ilow 
nearly, if not totally, deserted. 

In the year 1770 he lost his irife, and in the year 
1773, upon the 2ist of July, an attack of the stone 
and gravel, to vrtuch he had been then lately subject, 
put a period to his existence. He was buried at 
Talgarth, and over his grave in the church there is a 
IcKig nutaph, on the merits of wfaidi readers will 
probably dmer. 

His character, like most of those who have made 
warm friends and bitter enemies, has been variously 
represented, with one set he was an angel, with another 
a knave. Charity, though it may not inspire us with 
the raptures of Ids admirers, will induce us to hesitate 
before we admit either his hypocrisy or roguery ; to 
his only daughter he was hardly just, and by his will 
it appears that he was extremely anxious that the 
whole of his property should go in the first place in the 
disdiaige of his debts, and the remainder to those 
whom be conceived himself obliged for assistance, 
in money or otherwise. He was a strong robust man, 
though not tall, his voice was loud, and by some 
thoi^t sonorous. He was, when preaching, always 
completely cloathed in sulphur, fire, and brimstone, 
lAidi he dealt out liberally and with no inconsiderable 
effect. Theterrors of.hell, which he painted with almost 
a poet's fire, contributed, no doubt, frequeotly to frighten 
men from their vices ; but it is submitted (without 
the least idea of blaming those who may differ with 
the writer in opinion), thoi^ it would be mucb more 
conducive to the cause of Christianity, and conse- 
quently to the advance of virtue and true religioa. 



„Goo<^lc 



"5 

tx> address the Feason, rathei than the passions of 
mankind. The old geatlemao with his horns and hoofs 
sometimes terrifies, but like the scare-crow in the garden, 
the intended effect is lost by his frequent introduction 
and atheism sometimes follows ; whereas if a man can 
be convinced that it is his interest in this, as well as in 
a future world, to lead a virtuous life, he will feel 
benefits more immediately, and yet they will certainly 
be more endurable. 

T.J. 

[This Biography appeared in the second vol. of The 
Cambrian Register, and was written by Tbeophilus 
Jones. — Editor], 



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REBtARKS ON WELSH TOURS. 

the Artiole mens witli a reference to the alleged 
pnctise of Courtship in Bed by the Welsh, and Theo. 
Jones most emphatically dedaiea that there was no 
sudi cnstom in general. He then proceeds : — 

I am happy in confirming the account of strewing 
flowers upon the grave, a practice frequently observed 
in some of the country churchyards, and has truly 
the becoming appearance of veneration for the dead 
at the same tune that it produces a sentiment of pleasing 
melancholy in the living. Yet, in this, our feasant 
traveller cannot help bellishing and adomii^ tii» 
tale when he informs us that the woman with whom he 
iras in conversation, told him ' ' that if a nettle or a weed 
was to be seen to-monow (meaning on a Simday) in 
the churchyard — the living party to whom it (the grave 
I presume, on which it grew) vould be kooUd after divine 
service by the whole congregation I " Sad jade, to impose 
thus upon a stranger. " Hooting ! " — hoot awa, mon, 
it's oae ac a thing ! 

Hie Welsh weddings are prittey much as described 
by this author : noisy, riotous, and dedicated by the 
guests drinking and singing. He might have added 
that they are frequently preceded, on the evening 
before marriage, by presents of provisions, and 
articles of household furniture, to the bride and 
Inidgegroom ; on the wedding day as many as can 
be collected together, accompany them to the churdi 
and from thence home, where a collection is made in 
money from each of the guests, according to thdr 
incUnation or abDity, which sometimes supplies a 
considerable aid in establishing the newly-married 
oouple, and in enabling them to " b^;in the world," 
as they call it, with more comfort ; but it is at the same 
time considered as a debt to be paid hereafter, if 
called upon, at any future wedding of the contributors. 



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137 

or thdr friends, or thdr childTen, in sinular dicum- 
stances. Some time previous to these weddii^, ^lere 
t^y mean to leceive contributions, a herald with a 
crook or wand, adorned with ribbons, makes the 
drcuit of the neighbom-hood, and makes his 
"bidding " oi invitation, in a prescribed fonn. 
The knight errant cavalcade on horseback — the 
carrying off of the bride — the rescue — the wordy war 
in rhySim between the parties, &c,, which formerly 
formed a singular spectacle of mock contest at the 
cdebration of the nuptials, I believe to be now almost, 
if not altogether, laid aside everywhere throughout 
the prindpiuity. 

It cannot be denied that the Welsh have much 
superstitution amongst them, though it is wearii^ off 
very fast. But the instance adduced here, that of thdr 
predicting a storm by the roari^ of the sea, is a curious 
land of proof of their superstition. Their predictions, 
if they may be so called, are commonly justified by the 
event ; and may, I apprdiend, be accounted for from 
causes as natural as the forebodings of shepherds ; 
for they have rules and data as well known to 
themselves, and, perhaps as hable to error, as any of 
those established by the more enlightened philosophers 
of the present day. That, among the lower dass of 
people, there is a general belief in the existence of 
apparitions is unquestionable : but as to the lighted 
candle, springing up upon the errand of love, I bdieve 
that no person in Wales has ever heard of it. The 
traveller has probably confounded it with a very 
commonly received opinion, that wtlhin the diocese 
of St. David's, a short ^>ace before death, a light is seen 
proceeding from the house, and sometimes, as has 
been ass^ted, from the very bed where the sick person 
lies ; and pursues its way to the church, where he or 
^le is to be interred, predsdy in the same trac^ in 
which the funeral is afterwart^ to follow. This light 
is called canwyll corpk, or the corpse-candle. 

The extrav^ant ravir^ of Ifethodism, which 
the author very truly and properly represents as 
ezceedi;^ everything which can be seen or heard in 
any dviUzed country, are certainly a reproach to the 



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good sense fud undentanding of tbc itdiabitants. 
Between 30 and 40 years ago a brandi of tlie sect of 
Mr. Whitfield's penuasion bqcan to ezhitut certain 
entiiusiastic extravagancies from wUch they are some- 
times denominated Jumpers. Persuading themselves 
that they are involuntarily actuated by a divine 
impulse, they become intoxicated with this imagined 
inspiiatioo, end utter their rapture and their triumph 
widi such wildness and incoheience — with such 
gesticulation and vociferation — as set all reason and 
decorum at defiance. This presumption, seizing 
chiefly the young and sanguine, and, as it seems, like 
hysteric aflections, partly ^reading through the crowd 
by sympathy ; its operation and effects extremely 
varying accc^ding to the different d^rees of consti- 
tution^ temperament, mock all description. Among 
their preachers, who are also very various in their 
character (illiterate and conceited, or well meaning and 
sensible, or, too frequently, I fear, crafty and 
hypocritical), some are more distinguished by their 
success in etcitii^ those stravaganzas. . . Tins 
Gleaner next .... tells us that in Wales the 
belief in Fairies is general. That there are silly weak 
people in all countries every man who has travelled 
must be convinced ; and that there may be many of 
the lowest kind of people in Wales, as well as in 
England, who believe in ghosts, goblins, and fairies, 
I kaow full well : but that there is a greater propo r tion 
of the credulous in the former tluin in the latter 
[Glamorganshire and Pontjrpool] though I have sem 
a great deal of the manners of all ranks in both, I have 
found no reason to affirm 

I wish we could admit, as a fact, that there is a 
harper in every village, and a bard to every mountain 
in Wales. The truth is some of the villages of North 
Wales have their harpers ; in South Wales there are 
few. As to the bards, alas 1 they may be said to be 
no more. The Awen — the Welsh vis poetica, seems nearly 
extinguished ; and though some few scintillations may 
still sparkle in two or three of the bards at North 
Wales, I am much afraid that like the faint and 
transieDt Uaze of a nearly wasted candle, they only 
forbode its q>pioacbing extinction. . . . 



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Salmon, pei lb. . . 
Turbot, per lb. . 
Cod, per lb. . . . 
^:gs, 3 a penny 
Couple of fat ducks 
ChidEen, per couple 
Goose 



129 

Prices in Brecon, 1796. 
s. d. 
..06 Bacon, per lb. 
..10 Beef, per lb. , 
Mutton, per lb. . 
Pork, per lb. . 
Veal, per lb. . , 
Coals, per bushel 
Wheat, per bushel 



7 o 

Rents in retired places for a tolerable house and a 
few acres of land are given as £25 per annum. la 
populous coimties, a gent's house with a dozen acres 
of land, £40 or £50 was the rent. 

[Thia criticism by Theophilus Jones was written for 
and published in The Cambrian Register, vol. 2 ; it was 
signed " Cymro." — Editor. 



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SALE OF THEO. JONES S BOOKS. 

There were 430 lots at the sale and 1,220 volumes. 
The title p^te of the Catalogue read as follows : — 
" Catalogue (A the Valuable Library, Priats, Micio- 
' ' scopes, Globes, I4brai7 Table, Book Cases, and other 
" effKts of the late Theophilus Jones, Esq. (deceased) 
" to be sold by auction 1^ Mi. Wise, of Bath, on the 
' ' premises at Brecon. Wednesday, S^t. 2nd, and two 
" loUowing days [1812]. Sale to commence each 
' ' morning at eleven. Price one shilling. Gecnge 
"North, Printer, Brecon." Size of catal<q;:ue, laige 
post 8vo., 23 pages. 

The whole of the Catalogue is not here given, but 
included in the sale were : — 
I Kenton's "Pembrokeshire." 
I Meyrick's "Cardiganshire." 
6 Jones's " Brecknockshire." 
I Williams's ' ' Monmouthshire. ' ' 
Maps oi Breconshire and seven prints. 
14 small Ditto Ditto 

I Duncombe's "Herefordshire." 
' ' A very curious Black letter Bible before the division 

into verses, and undoubtedly one of the earhest 

copies printed." (I,ot 335). 
A Black Letter Edition of Fox's " Martyrology." 
Sir Richard Hoare's "Wiltshire," the ist and 2ud 

Parts, folio (2 vols.) 
Fenton's " Pembrokeshire," fine paper elegant. 
Plot's ' ' History of Staffordshire ' ' (very scarce). 
Plot's "History of Oxfordshire." 
Wordey's " Isle of Wight." 
Millar's "History of Doncaster." 
Whitaker's ' ' Manchester ' ' (very rare). 
Reyn<dd's on God's Revenge against murder and 

adultery (the scarce edition, 1640, plates, foUo). 
Deering's "Nottinghamshire," 1751 (scarce). 
Enfielas "History of Liverpool." 
Price's "Leominster, Ludlow," &c., 1795. 
North's "Dial of Princes," 1557, very rare, lAadk 

l«tt«i, and an extra fine co|^. 



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»3i 

Smith's ' ' History of Cork, Kerry, and Waterfoid ' ' 
(very rare). 

Queen Elizabeth's Fiayer Book, curious wood cuts, 
black letter, 1608 (rare). 

Wit's " Common Wealth " (very scarce). 

The Life of Sir Francis Drage (scarce). 

Life of Sir Philip Sydney (very rare). 

Hogarth's Worl^. 

The Valuable Copper Plates belonging to Jones's 
History of Brecknockshire, about 24 copies of 
the work complete, and a quantity of the 
Second Vol. in quires, 

Edmonson's Baionagium Geneal(^aim or Pedigrees 
of English Peers, the plates coloured, according 
to the Blazonry of the Arms, and enriched 
with additional MS., folio, calf gilt, 6 vols. 

ago Cambrian Biography, Owen's, and History 

of the Gwedis Family 2 vols. 

291 Itinerarii Cambrise, the original edition of 

Giraldus, 1585, and Ware's Antiqiiitatis 
Hibemia, 1654, (both scarce) 2 vols. 

292 Dafydd ap Gwilym and Edwards's Welsh 

Songs 2 vols. 

293 Fitzroy's Antiquities of the Gauls and 

Milton's History of Britain (both scarce) 3 vols. 

294 Heylin's Hdp to History, British Anti- 

quities, Tracts, &c., 4 vols. 

295 Warner's Albion's England, 1602 (scarce) i vol 

296 Stowe's Survey of London, 1618 (scarce) 

297 Camden's Remains and Ridley's Civil and 

E^xlesiastical Law 2 vols. 

298 Carolau Duwiol, Worthies of Wales, &c. 2 vols. 

299 Welch Common Prayer Book, Grammai', &c 5 vols. 

300 Powdl's History of Wales (scarce) t vol. 

301 Mercurius Rusticus, 16S5 (scarce) and 

Howell's Familiar Lettei^ 2 vols. 

302 Whitaker's History of the Antient Britons 

and Two Welsh Tours 3 vols. 

303 Linden's Treatise on the Waters of Llan- 

drindod and History of Wales a vols. 

304 Welsh Bible, Richards's Welsh Dictionary, 

&C. 4 vols. 



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30s BAZtei's GloaBamm Antidnitfitom and 
Jeffrey of Uotunouth s History of 
Britain 2 vtAa. 

306 Pritchard's Wdsb Poems, ^^car of IJan- 

dovery, and WiUiams's ditto 2 vob. 

307 Evans's History of Britannic and Welsh 

History of the World 2 vols. 

308 Tliree Vols, of Selections of Welsh Poetry 

309 Miscellaneous Welsh Books 12 vols. 

310 Emirsions down the Wye and Tour 

through Wales 2 vols. 

311 Tracts, &c., Miscdlaneous 6 vOls. 
3x2 Price's Coroith Grammar, ^to I vol. 

313 Welsh Bible by Balkett i vol. 

314 One ditto i vol. 

315 Davis's Mythology of the Druids i voL 

316 Davis's Cdtic Researches i vol. 

317 Rowland's Mona Antiqua, 4to i vol. 

318 Walker's Memoirs of Irish Bards and Ijfe 

of Lord Herbert of Cherbury 2 vols. 

319 Vallancey's Irish Grama, Kelly's Monks, 

and Bishop of St. David's Charge 3 vols, 

320 Warrington's History of Wales, 8vo. 2 vols. 

321 Cambrian Register 2 vols. 

322 Quantity of Welsh Tracts, Pamphlets, &c. 

323 History of the Gwedir Family, the ordinal 

MS. I vol, 

324 Glamorganshire Pedigrees in MS. i vol. 

325 Quantity of MS relating to the History 

and Pedigrees of Brecknockshire, 

326 Well Springe of Welch Nobilitee. By G. 

Owen, Harrie and others, curious MS. 
of Welsh Pedigrees. 

327 Miscellaneous Welsh MSS. 

3«8 Powell's Historic of Wales, the old Blade 

Letter Edition of 1584 {very rare) i vol. 

329 T. Ridiard's Welsh Dictionary and 

Gnunmar z vol. 

330 Davis's Welsh Dicrionary, folio i vol. 

331 J. David Rhees's Welch Grammar, folio i vol. 

332 Jones's Collection of Welch Poetry i vol. 

333 Walters's English and Welsh Dictionary, 

Russia, quarto, 1794 i vol. 

334 Ditto in numbers, the edition of 1788 i vci. 



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LOT 

335 Matth. Paris Histxma, 1571, foUo i vol. 

336 Matth. Westr. Flores, Historianira, 1750 8 vols. 

337 Ptyme's Histrio Matrix Welsh Hd., 1633, 4to 1 vol. 

338 Hardyng's Quonicle, black letter, imprint i vol. 

339 Price's Leominster and Hereford, Thorley 

on Bees, &c 3 vols. 

340 Hederid Lexicon, 1727 I voL 

341 Ainsworth's Latin and English Dictionaty, 

Morell, 1796 I vol. 

342 Boyer's French Dictionary, 1727 i vol. 

343 Maw's Gardener's Dictionary, 4to. i vol. 

344 Johnson's Eng. Dictionary, 4to, 1785 2 vob, 

345 Weever's Funeral Monuments, 4to, 1767 i vol. 

346 Harris's Bn^sh Insects, color'd plates, 4to i vol. 

347 Geiarde's Herbal, folio, 1633 I vol. 
3^ DiUwyn's British Confervie, col. plates i vol. 

349 Minshaer's Dictionary of Nine Languages, 

1627 I vol. 

350 Spelman's Glossary, fine copy, 1637 i vol. 

351 Samm's Antiquities of Britain, 1637 i vd. 

352 Strype's Memorials, 1721, good copy i vol. 

353 Gwyllim's Heraldry i voJ. 

354 Dugdale's History of Warwickshire, title 

wanted i voL 

355 Registnun Honoris de Richmond, 1722 

(scarce) i vol. 

356 Wilkin's L^es Ai^o Sa»>nicse, 1721, a 

large paper copy i vol. 

357 Wotton's Iavs of Howel Dha, large paper, 

1720 (scarce) 



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From The Cambrian, Sept 13, 1805 : — 

7'Ats Day vas published. 

Price 1,1 125. 6d. to Subscribers ; to Non^Subscnbers, 

£2 15s- 

A HISTORY OF BRECKNOCKSHIRE. 

vol,. I. m SOVAL OnAKTO. 

Containing the Cbronogiaphy, General History, 
Rdigion, I^ws, Customs, Mannets, Language, and 
System of Agriculture used in that County. 

By THEOPHILUS JONES, 

Deftuiy Registrar of the Archdeacoray of Brecon. 

Illustrated by a new and accurate Map of the County 
a Map of the Ancient Provinces of Demetia and 
Siluria, and with views of most of the Towns and 
Castles of Brecknodcsbire. 

Brecknock, sold for the Author, by W. M. and 
Geo. North ; and by John Booth, Duke Street, Portland 
Place, I/mdon ; and may be had of most others of 
the principal Booksellers in England and Wales. 

The Second Volume is in considerable forwardness, 
and will complete the work. 



oy Google 



From The Cambrian, Dec. 24, 1808. 

Bkbcon, Dec. 19, 1808. 

On Monday, Jan. 2, will be published 

And may be bad of the Printer of this Paper, 

Thb Second and Concluding Volume of 

A HISTORY OF BRECKNOCKSHIRE, 

By THEOPHILUS JONES, 

Deputy Registrar, &c.. 

In Two Farts, Royal Quarto, illustrated with nmoeious 



Two title pages aie given with this volume, in order 
that the parts may be bound in one or separately. 
Containing the antiquities, sepuldiral moniunents 
and inscnptions, natural oiriosities, variations of the 
soil, stratification, mineralogy, a copious list of rare 
and other plants, and also ^e genealogies and arms 
of the principal families properly coloured or blazoned ; 
together with the names of the patrons and incumbents 
of all parishes and hvings in this county. 

Price to original subscribers, who are requested 
to be as early as possible in their application for this 
book, £4. — Price to Non-Subscribers, £4 14s. 6d. 

Brecknock : Printed and sold by George North, 
Bookseller, &c. ; and sold also by J. Booth, Duke 
Street, Pt^and Place, London ; and by the Author 
at his house, in Brecon. 

Where cUso mav be had some remaining copies of 
Vol. I., price £2 15s. 



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EXTRACTS FROM RICHARD FENTON'S 
DIARY. 

The diBtinguiahed Author of A Tom Through 
Pembrokeskire, first published in 1811, and recendy 
re-ptinted under my supervision, left in HS. some 
account, in the fonn of a diary, of a tour through parts 
of Wales which he made in company with his fiieud 
and patron. Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Those MS. notes 
are now in the CardiS Library, and I have copied 
therrfrom Fenton's references to his visit to Brecon- 
shire and some portions of Radnorshire. They are 
here given because of the frequent mention made of 
Theophilus Jones and his friend Archdeacon Payne 
and others. It should be stated that Fenton had an 
idea of writing a History of Wales, and his tour 
appears to have been taken with that object in view. 
THE EDITOR. 



May 10, 1804.— A fine day. We set off from 
Bnilth for the station on the Itbon, and went by Court 
Uecbryd, a farm situated within a large square en- 
trenchment, but on examination, and in the opinion 
of Sir Richard Hoare, vcay conversant with such 
matters, with the comers not sufficiently rounded to 
pronounce it Soman ; yet it puzzles me to determine 
what it could have been. Probably the Britons 
finding that the Romans had occupied the spot, and that 
it was a convenient place for guarding the Ford bdow 
it over the Wye, did away with the greater part of the 
Rcmian traces. However, it is dear that it had been 
a place of some consequence, either as the occasional 
residence of one of the Princes of South Wales or 
usurping chieftains of the Normans. Powell's 
ChxcMiides mentions a battle fought there between 
Rhys ap Tewdwr and Madoc Cadwgan and Ro'syd, 
sons of Blethyn ap Cynfin, when Madoc and Ro'syd 
were slain ; and there is a field on the farm to this day 
called Maes Madoc. 'ihe fanner at the house told me 
that a very large human skull had been dug up there, 



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»»7 

■w) some silver smafl coins, but of what age lie could 
not say. The fann is now the Court House of a Ui^e 
ItHd^p belongiiig to the daughters of the late Thomas 
Jones, Esq., ta Pencerrig, UXdy married the same day, 
the eldest to one Thomas, of Glamorganshire, the 
youngest to one Capt. Dale. It is finely wooded mth 
venerable and round oak. After ridit^; about z| miles 
on the Rhayader road, we turned ofi over a laige 
common, hoping we might discover some traces of 
the Roman Road which we had pursued over the hills 
above Glanbrain, and which, from its bearing, must 
have crossed the Wy somewhere by the west of Builth, 
and probably at Llechryd, but by the track of the old 
Roman Road we fell in with on the western side of 
Uandiindod Common, it must, after crossing the Wy, 
struck ofi rather to the eastward of the place we turned 
np to out of the Rhayader road. On that common 
we followed it for about a mile, pointing exactly to the 
station in question, and within Imlf a nule of it. l^iere 
can be no doubt of the other road from the Gaer, in 
Brecknockshire, portions of which are discernable near 
and on the present road from Builth to Iflandrindod, 
in several ^aces uniting with it before it crossed the 
Ithon to the station, Uioi^ we could not discover 
this union. We crossed the river by a wooden bridge 
and came to Cwm, the seat, or rather the wretched 
farm house of a Mr. WilUams, a man of large fortune, 
and a Radnorshire magistrate (a pretty specimen). 
We rode up to the house, and this rough unbottoned 
'squire appeared, and having asked his permission, 
we rode on to see the station, which lay a few hundred 
yards b^ond his house. Saw several pieces of brick 
and the foundations of several stone buildings, the 
whole circuit without the camp having been built on. 
Sir R. Hoare, in a ploughed field adjoining, picked up two 
pots of very fine pottery, with enough of the antient 
gazing on it to distinguish it. 

The Camp, Mr. Williams told us, was called Caer 
Collen, i.e., the Hazel (^mp, as he supposes from the 
number of hazels growing over the sides of it, but why, 
more properly, may it not be a corruption of Caer 
Cae Cln, the Camp of the field of Legion ? On our 
return, rode up to see the wells of Iilandriadod, a 



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■3« 

miserable place, and by so doing overshot that part 
of the present road on the common where traces of 
the Botnan appear, having kept too much to the east. 
Saw a circular camp near Howey, a dingle we crossed, 
falling into the road in time to distinguish the traces 
we were in quest of. To the west of which and close 
to it a very fine tumulus. Riding on towards Pencertig, 
fotmd several bits of the road too strong for anything 

but Roman 

We dined at Builth, and after dinner walked to the 
church, an ordinary plain building with a tower at the 
west and dignified by a town doc^ ; standing in a very 
large cemetery where, though the town is populous 
and the parish considerable, few graves are seen, and 
those that are, all on the south side. In the chancel, 
on the south side, is the effigy of a warrior of great size, 
as represented, particularly bis head ; it is in armour, 
legs mutilated, of a purplish stone of the country. 
The inscription hdonging to it is one brass plate afSzed 
to a piece of old oak, and shown by the clerk. From 
thence continued our walk over the bridge on the 
Iivon, and through pleasant fields and woods to Builth 
Wdls, with an octagon building. There are three 
pumps not above four feet asunder, the water of eadi 
diSering from the other. One, a strong sulphurous 
and s^ne mixed, another of a weaker sort, and the 
third only sulphurous, A little way ofi to the north- 
ward another spring and place to bathe in, the water 
of which was of the sulphurous and saline mixed, but 
infinitely more brilliant and lively than the other 
waters. The wells are very inconvenient for invalids, 
who generally lodge at Builth, at l^ist a mile and a 
quarts ofi, there being no accommodation nearer, 
dcept some very ordinary ones, at a farm house near. 
Returned to tea and clewed a pleasant day. 

May 20. — Stom»ed at Builth. Wrote after break- 
fast for an bout, then walked to see Builth Castle, 
or rather the place where the Castle stood, wbidi con- 
sists of a very large tomniena in the centre, surrounded 
with a very deep ditch circular, and that by an outer 
one, a very small portion of wall here and there ap- 
pearing. It occupied a considerable space, and of its 
size very strong. Two or three beautiful and very 



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139 

picturesque ash trees are growing in the sides of the 
enttendmients. After dinner strolled as far as the 
Irvon, and turned to the left at the bridge, where I 
met Price, of Builtb, with his wife and another lady 
admiring the river in that place rushing rapidly over 
a bed of slaty rock, the sides of which contain very 
curious pieces of lean ironstone, almost globular, 
bedded in the slate. A little above the place was 
formerly an old bridge which must certainly be the sa{ne 
mentioned in Powdl's Chronicles as Pont Orewyn, for 
Pont ar Irvon, at which pass there was an obstinate 
encounter between Mortimer and Llewheliin, who was 
encamped on that gingular Peninsular formed by the 
Irvon called Caeibiris, there being a very antient 
castelet at the extreme point. Walked on the old 
turnpike, which forms one of the finest terraces that 
can be conceived, boldly placed above the river, taldi^ 
the most romantic bends below, with its banks finely 
wooded, with all the near and distant scenery producing 
the most striking efiect, but particularly the range 
of the Ellenitfa mountains dehdously ti^^ed by the 
setting sun. 

May 21. — Left Builth after a shower, which gave 
freshness to the air and made the roads pleasant. 
About a mile beyond Uanelwydd 0iurch, descending 
into a little vaUey, one of the most beautiful landscapes 
imaginable presented itself. Sir Richard Hoare ob- 
serving that he never saw more charming circumstances 
united. Turning to the left we forsook the Wy and 
our load became rather uninteresting. At a place 
called Penybont at the upper end of a small dingle, 
observed one of the usual round tummens or castelets 
entrenched, and near it in a field a tumulus and 
another without on a common. It seems there are some 
very strong mineral waters at a place called Bldn Edw. 
Our road to GUscwm then took a turn to the left, 
leaving Ci^[grina to the right, marked by a yew tree 
or two. It seemed nothing but a plain roof, no cross 
aisle, steeple, or ^>erture without for a bell. After 
l^assing a bridge, we opened the little narrow but b^u- 
tiful valley of Glft-scwm, terminated by the church and 
village. The church, Uke the last, but larger, had a 
poi(£, and on the south side the remains of windows 



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I4B 

that is fonncf days showed handsome stone work, but 
was stopped up and repaired in various ways. Vide 
Giraldos to account for taking this veiy out of the way 
loute. Ascending a veiy steep hill we rode some miles 
in tain over the summit of the mountain betvreea 
GlAscwm and the Wy, on several parts of which my eye 
caught the larger kmd of "love and idea," a ^ower I 
never saw wild before. The hills passed, we caught a 
fine view of the rich vale of the Wy, and our pl^ <rf 
destination. The Hay, and the lovdy country around, 
backed by Talgarth mountains. Within a mile and half 
of Hay bridge near a farm house, one of the frequent 
castelets, and at last got to the Hay through most 
horrid roads, but a beautiful country, thank God 
without any accidents, and with only my feet a httle 
damped. 

After dinner, walked about the town of Hay^ 
Sir R. Colt Hoaie stopped and made a drawing of the 
only bit of the old Castle non existing, which is 
a very fine gateway, with the place for the portcullis, 
and me old oak door from its appearance, thidcness, 
size, and rust of its hinges, and all over studded with 
bolts which might be coeval with the building ; part of the 
outer wall, finely clad with ivy to the east and a square 
tower to the west, which, though old, appears less so 
than the gateway it joins. A large mansion, about 
the age erf Queen Elizabeth, or rather later, belongii^: 
to the Wdlingtons, who own the site of the Castle, 
adjoins the old part. The windows are more modem 
than the other part. Walked to the east of the town 
for a quarter of a mile without the walls, which there 
show pretty entire, and once enclosed a very large space. 
The gateways were taken down in the memories of 
several now living. The Church, prettily situated, 
has been loftier in roof and steeple. Nothing worth 
notice in the Church and nothing without, but a stcme 
with an eflBgy on it so very muai mutilated and worn 
that even the sex of the figure it represented casnot 
be correctly ascertained. The common pet^e call 
her Maud Walby, and say she was a witoi. 

May 22.— Set off from the Hay to Brecon, called 
at the Rev. Mr. Hughes's, of Glasbury, at whose house 
we expected to meet Mr. Theo. Jcmes, of Brecon, tmt 



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be wBS gone bom there the day befc^e. Mr. Holies 
and a Mr. Ainsworth accompamed us to see a ^laU 
cromlech neai a small farm called Brynygrpes, and 
in a field called Clos y Uechau. We walked to it across 
a field, and fomid a pretty large stone resting on one 
side an old thorn, and on the other an old ash stump, 
which they say by the strength of vegetative power, 
have raised the incumbent stone off from the end stones 
that once supported it, which certainly at present it 
does not appear to touch, and this is said to be con- 
firmed by people living who remember the progress 
in the elevation of the stone. 

Passed by Gwemyfed Park to the left, formerly 
the seat of Sir David Williams, one of the 12 Judges 
in Queen Elizabeth's time, and to whose memory there 
is a monument in the Priory Church, Brecon. It must 
have been a charming place in its time, finely wooded, 
fine in equahties everywhere, and bounded bya fine range 
of mountains to the east. At a modemish mansion 
on an eminence in the Park called the I<odge lives a 
Hi. AUen, a banister. The old bouse lies low, at some 
distance fr<nn that. There is something like a Camp 
in the Park, seen from the road, and of a form that 
tempted us to think it Roman, but on examination 
it was doubtful if it had been a Camp or not. 

Rode on and came to Porthamal, now a farm house, 
but formerly the baronial residence of the Vaughan 
family. The gateway, with a tower over it, is supported 
by a groined arch, simply elegant, which Leland speaks 
of, still exists. Thence to Brynllys Castle. VSialt 
Sir Richard Hoare took a sketch of the only tower now 
up, I walked to the farm house standing in the 
nudst of the old building. Nothing now discemable 
of the old Castle but the above tower of considerable 
size with walls of immense thickness, the lower apart- 
ment beingardied, and in all likelihood a dungeon or 
prison. The faimei told me he had opened a 
tumulus near Talgarth, and found an um and a flint 
roear bead, an exact drawit^; of which I saw with Mr. 
"Hieo. Jones. The flint was dark in the middle, with 
sharp edges yellowish. Another tumulus existed on 
the same spot. In Buck's view of this Castle there is 
a considerable portion lejttesented, scarce a trace (d 
which now remains. 



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143 

Ibence, through a pleasant country with a fine 
view in front of the Van, and its retinue of mountains, 
to Brecon. After dinner, walked out to see the 
Collegiate Church, the nave and other parts of which 
aie entirely in niins, the grass having grown over the 
tombe in the nave and almost over all the pediments 
of the fine old pillars that supported the roof. The 
durir and dtancd, where the stalls are in a very little 
better state, though the floor is covered with very antient 
tomb stones, and its side and walls dignified by many 
elegant monuments and tablets, such as those to the 
memory of Bishops Bull, Mainwaring, and Lucy. T^ie 
n^ect of a place of worship so uncommon is shameful, 
to say nothing as a mausoleum of the respectable dead 
it contains, is such a reflection on the See of St. 
David's that language is too weak to represent it 
properly. 

Walked then to the Priory, a most veneraUe, 
large building, whose pavement is pregnant with 
sepulchral history, and whose sides exhibit several 
curious and antient monuments. I never saw a church- 
yard so full of graves. The walls of the diurch, and 
erven the tower, are full of yew trees growing out of the 
small interstices of the stones. 

The Priory walks above the Honddu, though now 
much n^lected, but used as a fashionable promenade, 
are charming, overhangii^ and winding above a narrow 
dingle, steep and m^^ficently wooded. 

The old gateway of the Priory to the north, as well 
as that to the west, and many other parts of the old 
building stUl eadst ; a wall with embattlements en- 
compass the whole. 

In the evening on our return we had the company 
(rf Mr. Theo. Jones, and a very sensible divine, Mr. 
Payne, who sat with us for an hour. 

May 23. — Set off accompanied by Mr. Payne to 
see the Station at the Gaer, charmingly situated near 
the Usk, nor can a finer situation be imagined, 
whether we consider the aspect, the river, the woods, 
and the sublime baclqrround of mountain seen through 
a skreen of trees. Observe the Roman Road from 
Gobannium just entering the Station and a Roman 



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143 
monument repiesentii^ a man and his wife with a tablet 

tindemeath, on which •' CoNjtranc Eju ^T " may be 

read distinctly ; standing on the edge of the old Road, 
which falls in at right angles with that towards the 
Ithon, and that which led to Neath and Llanfaii 
Arybryn, united till they cross the Usk beyond the 
Church of Abet Eskyr. At the farm house of Aber 
'Eskyr saw a brick about 9 inches square and 2 thick, 
stamped with 

" LEG II AVa." 
Went to LUindevaelog Church, after, as we tbooght, 
having traced the Ithon branch of the Roman Road 
almost tq>posite to Mr. Thos. WatHns' seat called 
Pennoyar, on the brow of the hill to our left. Saw the 
long stone on the south side of the church, 7ft. Qjin. 
long and 15 indies wide, with a very rude %ure 
sculptured in the middle compartment, on the upper 
a cross with rude ornaments round it, and on the lower 
compartments rude oniaments, said, but without the 
least foundation, to be the tomb of BiochmaU Yskithog. 
There is a place near called Sottmu, which probably 
may refer to a Roman Road, but I did not see it. 
Returned through pleasant lanes enriched with the 
luxuriancy of bird clierries which grew here, and in 
some parts of Radnorshire wild, and dined at Mr. 
Theo. Jones's. The party, Mr. and Mrs, Jones, Miss 
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. PajTie, Sir Richard Hoare, and 
mys^. We had an elegant dinner — Welsh antiquities 
the principal topic. 

May 24. — Rainy day ; bringing up the leeway 
in my journal. Dined at Mr. Theophilus Jones's, and 
saw for the first time the Rev. Mr. Watkins, whom I 
found a pleasant, well informed man and in no way 
conceited or assuming as he had been represented to 
me. Passed a |deasant evening. Conversation various. 
Mr. Wattdns enquired politely after my sister, and Mr. 
C — " , and gave me a very cordial invitation to his 
bouse. 

FsiDAY. — Set off from Brecknock for the Rev- 
Mr. Payne's, Llanbedr, near Crickhowdl, through the 
beautiful Vale of Uske, which, whether we consider 
its form, its cheerfulness, its boundaries, is without 
CtHuparison the prettiest vale in the kii^om ; a very 



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144 

pecnliar feature of it is the endlcat openingB into siiiafler 
vallies oa eadi side. Pass the Peterstone, aoA hei« 
the monument of the Lady whom Mr. Theo, J<hms 
cannot make out is, but tins is Past Day and service 
performing we could not see it. On the other side of tlie 
river, Pei^elly Castle, once the seat of a branch ot 
the Herberts ; now shows nothit^ of the Castle but the 
knoll on which it stood, or very little more. Before 
we came to CiicUiowell some miles we leave on the right 
a lai^ comical hill, wooded charmingly and studded 
with bouses almost to the top, wwdi brealcs the 
regularity of the vill and forms a beautiful amphi- 
theatre up to Criddiowell. Saw the coarse of the new 
canal to Brecknock for a great way on the north side 
of the Uske and then on tiie south side. Cridchowdl, 
the most cheerful looking town I ever saw, left to the 
T^^t, a narrow ascendii^ road bringing us in about 
two miles and a half to Mr. Payne's house. On our way 
to it have views of several beautiful openings into 
little wejl wooded and watered vallies oounoed by 
fine mountains. To the 1^ oi the toad above Crkk- 
bowdl observe a truncated conical hill, the summit 
of which is a camp called Cr&g Howel. Arrived at 
Mr. Payne's, we found a little paradise — the house 
neat, situated in the churchyard, the north side of 
whidi is dose shaven and made a lawn of, with a walk 
all round skirted with shrubbery. In the churchyard 
are some of the largest old yew trees I ever saw. The 
church is situated on the summit of the hill over- 
hanging the Gronwy fychan, a beautiful mountain 
stream full of trout, ^lat flows and foams at the bottom 
of a narrow ding^ the sides of which are cbaimingly 
wooded, particularly with oak, beedi, and wych ^n, 
through which Mr. Payne has made walks with great 
taste, extending for a considerable way between two 
bridges of a sii^e ardi most remarkably dad with ivy. 
The garden b^ind the house, a mixture of kitchen, 
fruit and flower garden, ediibits a scene at once com- 
fortable, picturesque, and cheerful. 

Mr. Theo. Jones accompanied us to Ur. Payne's, 
and indulged in the evening's conversation, antidpating 
the business of the cromlech meant to be ezamined 
the following day. 



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»45 

Satobdat.— This great, thig most important iacy, 
mse most favourably for our plan ; we breakfasted 
early, and were on horseback soon after, and a pleasant 
ijde brou^t uS:to the scene of action, abont a mile the 
Brecon side of CricMiowdl. We found the incumbent 
stone, after being split in two, removed from off the 
supporters, and tbe small area within was soon cleared 
tiU we got below the bottom of the supporters, and 
found nothing but small bits of charcoal and several 
small bones. There was a piece of dry wall, r^ularly 
built, between two of the upright stones, which 
ameared coeval with tiie croml^h, what I never saw 
b^ore in any. In short, from what appeared, there 
was nothing turned up that would favour the sup- 
position of these being sepulchral. The company 
present were our own party. Admiral Gell, Sir WiUiam 
Ouseley, and a Mr. Everest. This grand ceremony 
over, we looked at the old gateway at Crickhowell, 
the remains of the Castle, and the Church, in which 
there were some old monuments, particularly of the 
Pauncefoot, very much mutilated, who appeared to 
have been a Crusader. The efBgy is of stone, and 
tbe shield bears three lions, as in the Arms of the 
Herberts, but without the distinction of party perpale. 
The Pauncefoots were owners formerly of the Castle. 
After dinner we rambled through the charming walks 
at I4anbedr above mentioned, nom which it was with 
difficulty I could tear myself, and of whidi I talked 
with unabated rapture the whole evening. 

Sunday. — Breakfasted early, beii^ engaged to 
attoid Ur. Payne to the church of Partrico, a chapd 
annexed to ijanbedr, where I saw the most el^iant 
and perfect rood loft perhaps now extant in the 
Kingtuim, of seemingly Iridi oak, which fortunatdy 
has escaped either whitewashing or painting. In a 
mansimi not a great way from the diurch lived a Herbert, 
and to that fanuly may in all probability be ascribe 
this curious relick. Bdow the church saw the sainted 
well of Ishaw, being a very scanty oozing of water, 
to which, however, was formerly attributed great virtue, 
as within the building that encloses it there are littl« 
nidies to hold the veasds visitors drank out of and the 
offerings th^ left behind. Tbe road to Partricio is 



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■46 

through steq>, stony, nairow lanes ardied with wood. 
Obsetred the Sugar Loaf on my return from this 
church like a small ridge, in no way tike its appearance 
frcm Uanbedr. Saw to the Irft, returning, Coed 
Gionw {aide Giraldus). Dined at Admiral Gall's, a 
very pretty ^tuation about a mile from Crickhowell, 
the house an odd looking building by Nadi. The 
Admiral is a very singular character — the rough 
swearing tar with a most excellent heart. Our dinner 
f;ood, with good Maderia, the company Sir R. Hoare, 
Sir W. Ouseley. Mr. Payne, Mr. Theo. Jones, a Mr. 
Rnssel {an angUng tourist), and myself. At partii^, 
the Admiral gave me a general invitation, and begged 

I would make an inn of his house, " for d n me," 

says he, "I like that an inn would be made of my 
house." Sir William Ouseley distinguished himself as a 
sdiolar and a gentleman in the course of the cxm- 
versadon. Returned and passed a pleasant evening in 
talking of antiquities, &c., and was much pleased with 
Mr. Payne's account of the Book Qub at Crickhowell. 

Monday. — Imprisoned all day, as it rained so hard, 
but in a charming cell, viz., Mr. Payne's study ; made 
several extracts. Saw some things with Mr. Payne 
taken out of MS. by George Owen Harry of Kernes. 
Will ask Mr. Theo. Jones to borrow it for me of Mr. 
Bold, of Brecon. 

TuBSDAY.— Set off after breakfast to see The 
Gaer, in Cwmdu, a Roman station first discovered 
by the Rev. Mr. Payne. Beyond the cromledi we 
opened on Saturday, to the ri^t of the road, pass one 
of the tommens or castelets, of which there is no 
history, but that it was used for the view of Frank 
Pledge in the lordship of Crickhowell. It is now 
overgrown with trees, and has an yew on it. Went 
by Tretower Castle, which now consists (A a round 
tower of considerable size, within an outer wall battle- 
ments with a larger embattled wall, on each side to 
small bastions, inrliiHing a very considerable area. 
In the great tower there appeared to have been 
el^ant chambers, if we may judge by the remains 
of the chimney pieces, for that age. Near it are the 
remains of the old and dignified mansion of the 
Vangfaans, entered' froni th^ road b^ a haadsonK 



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»47 

gateway with a chamber in a square tower over it. 
Rode on to see a camp which Mr. Payne toot to be 
the castrum dstvaen of The Gaer, just above a wood 
called Coed y G4er, but Sir R. Hoare seemed to think 
from long observation that the Romans never chose 
any very elevated situations for their camps ; besides 
we found it to be not of the figure they always 
used, viz., an oblong or a r^ular square, as the 
angles rounded, but of a something between a triangle 
and an oval. We descended from this camp, which 
occupied a projecting point of land commanding 
two vallies, and rode on to The Gaer, which 
occupied a small rising in the vale at the foot of the 
Myarth. We found the square camp had been 
enclosed by a wall, in the rubbish of which was seen 
brick of various shapes and sizes. At one end of the 
square is nearly a semi-drcular elevation supposed 
to be the Prsetorium. In the fields adjoining, several 
hewn stones, bricks, and pieces of pottery, &c., have 
been seen at diSerent times, which proves beyond a 
doubt that this had been a considerable station, as 
it was called Tref y Caerau. In one of the fields near, 
a stone lies with an inscription that might have been 
on the side of the Roman Road leading towards 
Gobannium. Havii^ thoroughly examined the place, 
returned to IJanbedr to dinner. After dinner 
ascended Crug Howel, a prodigious height, on the 
summit of which a camp surrounded with vast 
entrenchments of loose stones with a very deep foss, 
entered by an opening to the East or N.E. From 
this eminence had a most extensive view of the Vale 
of Uske to the South, but to the N'orth shut up by the 
higher hill, on the summit of which there is a small 
vem of lime stone. Descended very gradually, 
enjoyed a cup of tea, and went to bed perfectly 
fatted. 

Tdesday. — ^Left Llanbedr, Mr. Payne accom- 
panying us, for Hereford, purposing to visit Dflr Abbey 
and Kilpedc in our way. 



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iLCD, Google 



INDEX. 



Bbv. Edwud, memair o^ 
, i Jonea'a Lett«n to. 




Aabray, John, IB 
Aubrey HSS., SO 
Aubtoy, WilHam, : 



1, liviiis otteed to R*v. 
' Daviea, 71 ; lettm on, 
72-74 J vwit to, 7(1; '"" ' ' 
'd aoUaoting ^th•^ 



•oripton "C<riii&" M 
Gapt of CannaitlHDdllN 



difBmiltdea Diuidio Hfitoriai, S 



Bnoon, Fraooh Naval offioen Evam, CbmihK, 



Bieoonahiie Poeta, t 

" Braoknookshins " advsrtue- 
menta of, 134, 13B i pnblioa- 
tion of V<^ I., 7a i priea of, 78 ; 
■econd vol., S3 ; orioiiial HS. 
of, 24 i Dommenta on by Bithop 
Bnrgen, Lownda^ IJ«trdyii 
Fiitohan], Dr. Niohol*^ Q. T 
GUAi^ ii t plaMn and aoiplnB 
oojHes, 27 ; aaooiid aditdon of. 



CaamuvthsD, • joumey to, B7 



i M Cbiin Oollwe, t 
" Coltia BMawoliai,'^ ml 

tioiu to, DT 
CbM«, of Kington, 105 
Ohiwab, Saniu^ of FlnvdgTMh, 

12 
CbtuclMF, Judgjt Haidingo'a 

olorii, 70 i d«M£ ol B2 
OttTMo St Tr-yn-y<Uwyn, 2S 
dotloal widowi and oipbani' 

(nnd. M 
Coallnan y Bnidd, ST 
Oonit Hutial npon Biotas 100 



m, of WaoaUL 3 
EvHiL B«v. Thsopbiln^ litaMi 

iTor^ 3 ; burial plaoa, B 
Exchequer df^Oaitioni, 21 

Fbhtom's Dust, 1S«-14T. ( 

the Ithon, 189; 

13« I tbe dai " 

oerrig^ 137 ; v 

137 i Sir R. Colt Hoan' fluda 



137 I Caer Collai, 137 ; Btultb 
WeOa and Caatle, 138; BnUth 
to CUaaowDi, 13B ; Hh Caatle 
and Town, 140 ; (HUbary, 
Talgarth, Qwer^ed, to Bieaon 
IWl 141 ; Cromlech at BiyiiT- 
groe^ 141 i Owvnyfed Pa^ 
141 ; Porthamal, 141 ; Bnwlljra 
Caetle, 141 ; tuntolna near Til- 
garth, 141; Colluiat* Onmta 
at Breoon, 142 ; nion Qnuob 
and Otmvm, 148; the Oaar, 
142,143; UaodevaalMChuEoh 
143; Braoknoek to Qanbedr, 
143 ; Cng HoweU Ctim, 144 ; 
Ciiokhowell Clnit«h aM Caatla, 
14S i Ciomlaoh near Oiiek- 
luntall, I4S ; Oia Paonoifnota 
and Berberta, 140; Partiioa 
rood loft, 140 ; Oaer, in Cwindii 
14S; Tivtowar Chorab, 14a i 
Trrf r Caenn, 147. 

Oame^ of Abarhran, IS 

Oame^ Sir John, boildo of 

Newton, 14 
"Qododin," SS 
Qiifflth Jocaa, tonndw of Bonday 

aod Day Bchoola in Wak^ T 



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QrifBth, Bot. David, bead a 

Chiut Callngc^ 10 
Ohonta, gobblina, and fairiei^ 188 
" OwalUir Ueohain," Istlsn to, 

113-118 
Gwynne, Mannaduke, ol Oaith * 
Owymu, Sarah, maniea Charlw 
WMla;, 

Havard, Hof^ bailifl of Brecon, 
IS 

HavnfardwHt, a vimt to, U 

HilL Kicbaifi, 67 

Hoan, Sir B. Colt, Bart., 23 ; 
Bkalchea Breoknock CuUfl and 

^ bridge^ 23 

HoUord, John Joaiah, of Culgwyii, 
87 

Htdiard, Charley ST 

Howd, Jamea, oavalier and tra- 
veller, 24 

Ragbag Rev. John, of Olwbiuy, 



Hugh Thomas's MSS, 



ipadi. 



Bnooa, It, IS 

Hfwel'a Laws, 112 

HiRMH, HowcL, of Treveoca. — 
Theo. Jonca' Hemoir of, 121- 
llitt; Hanii mairiea a daughter 
of the Skrean family, 122 ; hia 
"Family," 123; farms atfoop 
of horse, 133 ; aooepts Enstgn » 
commission, 123 ; promot«d to 
Captain, and aervee at Yar- 
mouth, 123 1 returns to Tre- 
veoca, 124 ; 3elina, Countess of 
Huntington, 124 ; bis dt«th 
and banal, 124 

Ida HorgHDwg, 67 



1 ( dancent and family, 2, 3 j 
bis grandfather, 6 ; birth place, 
fl ; marriage and profeasion, 
11 ; Brecon residencae, II, 12 ; 
intauded Hiatoi^ of Rodnor- 
■hiie, ST ; his aoonymona 
papers, 28 : literary tranala- 
tion% 2S ( Freemasonry, 29 ; 
deecription of hia character by 
a friend, 29, 30 ; leat illness and 
death, 31, 32 ; memoriala of, 
32 i librsjy, 32, 33 ; book plate 
S3 ; his wife, 33, 34 i her will, 
34 1 his only sister, 34 : arms 
and Wslsh motto, 3G. 



Qronwy Owao'a Poem upon the 
" Day of Judgment," 46-49; 
*-'- father's death, 43 ; begins 

; SI ; Brecixa- 
livers, 62-S7 ; Welsh 
lOn, 92-64 ; tianslatea 
euriu Owawdrydd's ' ' En- 
glynion y Bfisoedd, " SB ; in> 
teieat in "Celtic Remains," 
60; "Hj friend Payne," 63; 
at the Bar ol the Hoiue of 
Commona, fl8 ; vivta Bristol, 
68 1 his nephew, TS ; attmda 
Olaniorgaoabire Assize^ 88 ; 
relinguiahee the law, S9 ; 
Calalogoe of his books, 130-133 
J«UH of Blamgwthyd's Will, 118 
Joseph Joseph, t^.S. A., his library, 

33, 36 
Judge " HaHeqain," 93 



Lewia of Harpton, 10£ 

Lewis Horris and Oaoflrey of 
Hoomoutb, 110 i his Lettan. 



Lloyd's ' 



Llangenney Pi4>er mills, 23 

" 1 Legraid, 21 

* Historical Memoranda 



, Owsn^a tranalation 



Mjner^ Springs diacovered at 

Llanwrtyd, 8 
Mineralogy, lln 
Moore, death of Sir John, 90 . 
Mythology of British Druids, OS 



Nichol, lii., a baniBter, TO 
North's, bookseller^ 66 ; North's 

wagaonX 78 
North Wales families' arms, 118 

Oasian's Poems, 77 
Oweeley, Sir WiUiam, 6G 

bis translation of Ckirohso 
Cynv^yn, 90 ; Diotiimaryr 
114 



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FbhIi family, SB 

Porthmawr, 23 

PowaL Van. Father Philip, O.8.B., 

17 
Powel'B of CaMla Madoo, IS 
Powol, vicar of Boughrood, T 
Fowel of Haeqwrth, 16 
Powell, of Uaaaoamog, U 

Prioee of OlfnllBob, 11 
Prioea of Porthjrhyd, 11 
FriiM, Biohard, H.P^ for Radnor 

IDS 
PHoe, Walter, letter to, US 

Radnonbin^ Notes lor a History 

of, ins, loe 
BeotH and prioea in Brecon, 1790, 

12S 
Boman BMnaina, 28 ; Campa, 119 



BoethrofL gnatbatUe at, 
•' Ship" at Olveston, 79 



21 



WalbeofTen of IJanhamlaoh, U 
Weoley, John, in BreoonBhire, 8 ; 

thought to be a Jeaoit, S 
Wilkina, Writer, 



. of Manllwoh, 



Welsh Cuotoms, 130, 1S7 i Tome, 
12S ; saperstitioiiB, 127 j place- 
Dames, 32 

Wells, Bev. H^ flU 

Williame, Darnel, of Llwynwonn- 

Williaina, of Ivy Tower, 39 
WiUiama, Bev. Edward, 8S 
Williams'ii " Chaii of Q~ 



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The Right Hon. Lord TtedKiar, Lord-Iieut. of Ubn- 

mouthshire, l^red^^ar Park, Newport. 
The Sight Hon. Lord Llangattock, P.S.A., The Hendie, 

Monmouth. 
The S^t Hon. Lord Glanuslc. Loid>Iieut. of Bcodc- 

noacshiie, Glanusk Fai^, CiickhoweU. 
The Bishop of St. David's, AbeigwiU Palace, Carai. 
Sir TOlliam T. Lewis, Bart., The Mardy, Aberdare. 
Sir John WiUiams, Bart., Plas Llanstephen, Caim. 
Sir T. Matchant WiUiams, Straendiary Miagifltrate of 

Merthyr Tydfil, Taflf House, CardiB. 
The Hon. Mis. Herbert, of Llanover, Llanover Pai^ 

Abergavenny. 
The Hon. Mrs. Bulkeley-Owen, Tedmore Hall, Oswestry. 



Anwyl, Piof. B., UA.. 6z. Marine Terrace, AboirstwitlL 



Bevan, The Ven. Archdeacon, MJi., The Ely Tower, 



Bund, J, Willis, Esq., F.SJi., etc., 15, Old Square, 

Lincoln's Inn, I^ndon. 
BloOT, James, Es(^., J.P., Brynmawr. 
Bache, Rev. Kentish, Walford Vicarage, Ross 

C. 

Cravshay, William T., Esq., J.P., D.L., Caversham 
Farie, Reading. 

Cdes, S. H. Cowper, Esq., Peom^rtb, Crickbowdl. 

Cheese, B. H., Esq., Solicitor, Hay. 

Conder, Edward, Esq., New Court, Colmll, Here- 
fordshire. 

Corbett, John Stuart, Esq., Bute Estate Office. Oudiff. 



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Davies, Mr. Evan, Post Office, Senoybridge, Biecx>a- 

sliire. 
Davies, William D., Esq., J.P., Cwmwysg, Sennybric^e. 
Doyle, J. A., Esq., J.P., Pendarren, Crickhowell. 
Davies, Charles Morgan, Esq., Architect, Merthyi Tydfil. 
Davies, Mr. E. Blissett, io8, Haughton Green Road, 

Haughton Green, Denton, Lanes. 
Davies, Mr. Howel, Pannau, Llanfrynach, Brecon. 
Dawson and Son, Ltd., Booksellers, Cardiff. 
Davies, Frederic C, Esq., Brooklyn, Llaniahen, Cardiff. 
Davies, Morgan, Esq., A.M.I.C.E., Gwydr Gardens, 

Swansea. 
Davies, Edward, Esq., J.P., Machen House, Newport. 

E. 

Evans, Rev. Arnold P., The Rectory, Neath. 

Evans, Rev. T. Howel, Preston Capes Rectory, Byfidd, 

R.S.O., Northamptonshire. 
Evans, H. A., Esq., B^broke, Oxford. 
Evans, Rev. J. J., R.D., Cantref Rectory, Brecon. 
Evans, Rev. George Eyre (Author of ' ' Cardiganshire 

Antiquities," etc, Tan-y-bryn, Aberystwith. 
Evans, J. H. Silvan, Esq., M.A., Ty-Gwyn-ar-Daf, 

Whitland. 
Evans, W. Eilir, Esq., 66, Plantagenet Street, Cardifi. 



Prands, Dr. G. P., J.P., Bulwark, Brecon. 
Freemasons, Tlie Brei^ock Lodge of 
Fentoo, Feirar, Esq., M.R.A.S., 8, King's Road, Mitcham 
Soney. 



Gwynne, Howel, Esq., J.P., Llanelwedd Hall, Builth. 
Gwynne, Capt. David C S.. Cilgwyn, Llangadock, 

Carm. 
Gough, F., Esq., J.P., Yniscedwya House, Ystalyfera, 

GUm. 



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'55 

Gray, Henry, Esq., Geceological Record Office, Gold- 
smith's Estate, East Acton, I/>iidoa, W. 

Gwymic, J. E. A., F.S.A., FolkiQgton, Polegate, Sussex. 

George's Sons, Booksellets, Top Comer Park Street, 
Bristol. 

Griffith, Henry, Esq., F.S.A., Clifton Spa, Bristol. 

Griffiths, W., Esq., Pencaemawr, Merthyr. 

Gwymie-Lawrence, R., Esq., J.P., Qearbrook, near 
Llanarthney. 

Gwynne-Hughes, W., Esq., J.P., Nantgaredig, Cann. 

H. 

Haines, W., Esq., Y Bryn; Penpergwra, Abergavenny. 
Hedger, Mr. Councillor J. W., High Street, Brecon. 
Hu^es, J. Walford, Esq., National Provincial Bank 

Hotise, Brecon. 
Howells, Dr. William, Watton House, Brecon. 
Hughes, Thomas, Esq., SoUdtor, Ebbw Vale. 
Hartland, E-, Esq., F.S.A., J.P., M.A., Hardwick Court, 

Monmouth. 
Herbert, Arthur, Esq., J.P., British Legation, Darmstadt, 

Germany. 

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Jones, M. Powell, Esq., J.P., Pwll Court, Uangynidr. 
Jones, Edward, Esq., (the late) J.P., and D.L., Snatdi- 

wood Park, Pontj^Mwl. 
Jones, Rev. H. J. Church, 13, The Struct, Brecon. 
Jones, Wilham, Esq., Oaklands, Uangynidr. 
Jones, Edward J., F^., M.E., Fforest Legionis, Pont- 

neddfechan, near Neath. 
Jenkins, Rees, Esq., J.P., Bronyderi, Glyncorwg, Glam. 
Jeffreys, David T., Esq.. SoUdtor, Brecon, and CasUe 

House, Trecastle. 
Jones, Evan, Esq., Ty-mawr. Aberdare. 
Jones, Dr. W. W., M.D., Welliiigton Street, Merthyr. 
Jones, Rev. William, The Wcarage, Ystradfellte, 

Aberdare. 
Jenkins, Mr. Josiah, 26, King's Road, Canton, Cardiff. 
Jones, Mr. J. Emlynydd, Abergerlech County Sc^wl, 

Carmarthen. 
Jones, Dr. A. ^nrys 10, St. John Street, Mandwster. 



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Jeoo. W. Bum, Esq.. The Ceotial Xibniy. Cudiff. 
Jacob, M., Esq., Waiem Mail Chambeis, Cardiff. 
Jenkiiu, j. Austen, E«q., Registrar University Cdfege, 
Cardiff. 



Library, The St. David's College, Lampeter. 

Ubraiy, The Jesus Collie, Cmord (E. E. Jenner, Esq.. 

librarian). 
Ubrary, The Cardiff Free (}(dm Ballinger, Esq., 

Prindpal Librarian). 
Library, Tftie Aberystwith University College (J. Glyn 

Davies, Esq., Welsh Librsiian). 
Mbraiy, The Bodleian, Oxford. 
Liluary, The Hereford Free (J. Cockcr(rft, Esq., 

librarian.) 
Library, The Aberdare Free 

I^ewis, Col. D. Rees, Penydarren House, Merthyr Tydfil. 
IJoyd, John, Esq., J.P., 15, Chepstow Place, Bayswater, 

London, W. 
Lewis, John, Esq., Uodiesfa, Brecon. 



Mo^aa, D. T., Esq., Fairfield House. Merthyr Tydfil. 
Moore-Gwyn, j. E., Esq., J.P., D.L., Dyffryn, Neath. 
Uorgan, ^me Misses PbiUp, Buckingham Place, Brecon. 
" Morien," Ashgrove, iMorest, Glamorgan^iire. 
Manton, Jas. O., Esq., District Superintendent, Midland 

Railway, Brecon. 
Morris, W., Esq., Manest, Brecon. 
Miles, Mr. J. H., Bookseller, Cardiff. 
Martin, E. Pritchard, Esq., J.P., The Hill, Abergavenny. 
Martin, Henry, Esq., J.P., Dowlais. 
Martin, Hr. W., As^tant Overseer, Brecon. 
Maybeiy, H. Hartland, Esq., The Conagar, Lland<%e, 

Chepstow. 



Owen, Rev. Canon R. Trevor, MJV., Bodelwyddau 

Vicarage. Rhuddlan, R.S.O.. N.W. 
Owen, ^lia, Esq., Express Office, Brecon. 



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Owen, Rev. Dsvid, Builtli W^. 
Owen, "Rev. Edwaxdes, Llanelwedd Vicarage, Biiilth 
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Fowell-\^^lliams, Rev. M., XJaosantffread Rectory, 

Bwlch, Breconshire. 
Price, C. E. Weaver, Esq., V.D., North House, Brecon. 
Plley, Walter, Esq., The Barton, Hereford. 
Povell, David, Esq., J.P., for Brecon Borough and 

County, Caediyssau, Brecon. 
Price, Rev. T., M.A., Osborne House, Builth Wdls. 
Price, Howel J. J., Esq., J.P., D.L., Greensted HaQ. 

Or^ar, E^ex. 
Powell, Richard, , Esq., Nantycroen, VstradfeUte, 

Aberdare. 
Price, Rev. M. Gwynne, B.A., Brecon. 
Prys. Professor Owen, M.A., Trevecca Collie, Talgarth. 
Parry, W., Esq., Talybryn, Bwlch, Breconshire. 
Parry, Mr. T. Roy Brecon. 
Phillips, Mr. T. A. R.. Dan-y-fan, Brecon. 
Partridge, W. B., 'E^.. J.P., Bacton, Herefordshire 

(High Sheriff Breconslure for 1904-5). 
Powel, H. Powell, Esq., J.P., D.L., Castle Madoc, 

Brecon. 
Price, Mr. W. R., Barthballey, Brecon. 
Pritchard, D. F., Esq., Crumlin HaQ, Newport. 
Pritdbard, Mrs. E. M., The Priory, Cardigan (anthor of 

" Cardigan Priory in the Olden Days.") 

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Quaritdi, Bernard, Esq., 15, Piccadilly, I/mdon, W. 



Roberts, William, Esq., Eastfield, Brynmawr. . 
Rylands, C. J., Esq., Clifton House, Southemdown, 

Glam. 
Richards, D. M., Esq., P.I.J., The Wenallt, Aberdare. 
Richards, Edwin, Esq., J.P., Nantyderry, Abergavenny. 
Roberts, D. P., Esq., 120, North End, Crojrdon, 



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Rees, Professor T., M.A., Memorial Coll^, Brecon. 
Sice, l£s9 M., Brecon. 

RothMO, Mr. W. E-, 62, Oliver Street, Kingsley Park, 
Northampton. 



Salmon, David, Esq., Training College, Swansea.^^^ 
Southey, H. W., Esq., J.P., Express, Merthyr. 
Stedman-Hiomas, W. Gwynne, Esq., Belle Vue House, 
near Carmarthen. 



Thomas, David, Esq., M.D., Ystralyfera, Glam. 
Thomas, H. Edgar, 'Esq., Clerk of the Peace and Clerk 

to the Breconshire County Council, Sunnybank, 

Brecon. 
Thomas, Ven. Archdeacon, M.A., F.S.A., Llandiinio 

Rectory, Oswestry. 
Thomas, D. Lleufer, ^&q., Barrister-at-lrfiw, 8, Brynmil 

Crescent, Swansea. 
Thomas, D. A., Esq., M.P., Uanwem, Newport. 

W. 

Watkins, Thomas, Esq., The Wem, Pontypool. 
Williams, John J., Esq., J.P., Aberelydadi, Talybont- 

ar-Usk. 
WiUiams, The Rev. Prebendary Gamons, Abercamlais, 

Brecon. 
Watkins, Mr. T. Hadley, the Walton, Brecon. 
Wilcocfcson, Mr. George, High Street, Brecon. 



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