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Full text of "Theophilus Jones, F.S.A. : Historian : his life, letters, and literary remains"

THGOPHII.US JONGS, 

HISTORIAN: 

HIS LIFS, LGTTGRS AND 

LITGRARY RGMAINS 



HENRY GRAY'S Periodical Catalogue, No. 283. 

/ 
1 Morgan. Theophilus Jones, F.S.A., Historian : i jF 

1 his Life, Letters and Literary . Remains. 1 
Edited by Edwin Davies. Portraits, Arms, 
Monument, etc. 8vo, cloth, list of sub- \ 
ssribers, pp. xi., 158. Brecon, 19" 5. 7s 6d : 
^ 42 ^' 

Historian of Brecknockshire, bum at Brecon. Con- 
tains Pedigree of the Morgans of Tredegar, Machen, 
Llantamam, etc. 



^^^/(/b-^rl ff^'xj^^ 







( See ixtijK 21.) 



THEOPHILUS JONES, RS.A., 

HISTORIAN : 
HIS LIFE, LETTERS & LITERARY REMAINS. 



EDITED BY EDWIN DAVIES. 



"CAS NI CHARO Y WLAD A* I MAGO. 



BRECON : 

Published by Davies & Co., Bridge Sthekt ; 

AJ»D PBINTBD FOB THEM BY ANTHONY BKOTHEBB LIMITED, " HEREFOED TTMEi 
OITICBS, HEBEFOHD. 

1906. 



TO THE 

RIGHT HON. LORD TREDEGAR. 



My Lord, 

I was privileged to inscribe to you my Reprint of 
Theophilus Jones's History of Brecknockshire, in the 
production of which you manifested a kindly interest. 

I have thought that the following pages of 
Biography and Letters of the Historian might be 
acceptable to his countrymen, and I am happy in the 
knowledge that the enterprise has your lordship's 
approbation. 

To you, therefore, the most generous Patron of 
Welsh Education, Literature, and Art, the distinguished 
and beloved Welsh Hero and Philanthropist, I likewise 
Dedicate tliis Volume, and count myself doubly 
honoured in being permitted to do so. 

I am, my l/ord, 

Your obedient servant, 

THE EDITOR. 



206'7339 




Right Hox. Lord TiiKUHciAR. 

( l-'rom I'hoto bij Alfrnl Freke, Queen St., Cardi//'.) 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Portrait of Theophii^us Jones. 

The House Where he Died. 

His Book-plate. 

Fac-simii,e of Tombstone in L,i,angammarch 
Churchyakd. 

Portrait of Lord Tredegar. 



PREFACE. 

npHESE I<etters, written by Theophilus Jones, now 
■^ published for the first time, form part of a most 
interesting collection of MS. Letters from eminent 
Welshmen now in the possession of the Cardiff Free 
Library Committee, to whose courtesy, as well as that 
of their accomplished Librarian, I am indebted for 
permission to copy and print. 

The personaUty of the writer of the Letters is 
admirably described in Miss Morgan's Biography, 
and it is unnecessary to add anything further in that 
direction. But I may perhaps be allowed to say here, 
that the letters are a complete refutation of an 
assertion which has gained currency to the effect that 
the History which Jones published was largely the 
work of another person. It is quite true that 
Theophilus Jones obtained information from every 
source which he thought to be reliable. He was also 
diligent in seeking advice from those he thought capable 
of giving it, and in verifying facts about which he had 
any doubt. But the work was his from beginning 
to end. These Letters are a striking testimony of the 
patience with which he, under many trying circum- 
stances, carried his great task to a successful 
conclusion. 

For the most part the Letters were written by 
Theophilus Jones to his Hfe-long friend, the Rev. 
Edward Davies, of Olveston, Gloucestershire, but 
there are a few others to the Rev. Walter Davies 
(" Gwalter Mechain"), and for these I am indebted 
to Mr. J. Glyn Davies, the Welsh Librarian at 
Aberystwith College. 



Vlll. 

Of the Rev. Edward Davies, in whose career the 
Historian took such an affectionate interest, it should 
be stated that he was a Radnorshire man, bom on the 
7th July, 1756, some three years before Jones's birth, 
at a farm called Hendre Einon, in the parish of Llan- 
vareth, three miles from Builth. His father was 
farmer of a small estate of which his uncle was the 
proprietor. 

Edward Davies was a student for a Httle over a 
year at Christ College, Brecon, and in 1775 opened a 
school at Hay, and was ordained curate of Bacton, in 
Herefordshire, four years later. He served this and 
several other curacies, after the manner of his time, 
besides keeping his school ; and it is stated that he 
conducted five services every Sunday, and travelled 
30 miles to do so, for £30 a year. Mr. Davies was 
master from 1783 to 1799 of the Grammar School at 
Chipping Sodbury, in Gloucestershire, and in the 
former year he married his first wife, Margaret Smith, 
of Whittington, 

Mr. Davies devoted his leisure to Celtic antiquarian 
studies, to poetry, and divinity. He made the 
acquaintance of Owen Pughe, Edward Williams, and 
other leading Welsh antiquarians. Some of the poems 
of the ' ' Myvyrian Archaiology ' ' were taken from 
his transcripts. In 1799 he went as curate of Olveston, 
also in Gloucestershire, and it was to this address 
that Jones, the Historian, directed nearly all his 
Letters. 

Jones, who was Davies's contemporary at school, 
exerted himself to obtain for him some preferment, 
and many of Jones's Letters betray anxiety on account 
of his friend's impoverished condition. Theo. Jones 
only too well knew the exacting character of the literary 
work in which Edward Davies was engaged, and no 



IX. 

doubt desired to get his mind relieved of the cares due 
to his evident financial embarrassment. After pro- 
longed efforts, Theo. Jones appears to have succeeded, 
for in i8g2 Mr. Davies secured the perpetual curacy 
of i/lanbedr, and in 1805 the rectory of Bishopston, 
in Gower, near Swansea. He continued to live at 
Olveston until 1813, when he removed to Bishopston. 
Bishop Burgess, who expressed himself as charmed 
that Edward Davies ' ' was not a mere black letter 
' ' man, but an orthodox divine and admirable theo- 
" logical writer," in 1810 gave him the prebend of 
Llangunllo, in the then almost dilapidated Christ 
College at Brecon. 

In 1816 Mr. Davies took to himself a second wife, 
Susanna Jeffreys, and was made Chancellor of Brecon 
and Rector of Llanfair Orllwyn, in Cardiganshire, 
but as Theophilus Jones died in 1812, he was not per- 
mitted to rejoice over his friend's increased prosperity. 

The Letters show a constant anxiety on the part 
of Jones with regard to Edward Davies's eyesight, 
which, in consequence of an accident received when a 
boy, was always defective. In his latter days, he 
became totally blind. When he relinquished his 
clerical duties in 1823 in consequence of ill-health, 
he was soon after elected an associate of the Royal 
Society of Literature, and thus obtained £100 a year. 
He died on January 7th, 1831, and was buried at 
Bishopstone. The Rev. Edward Davies's chief works 
were — 

1. Aphtharte, the genius of Britain ; a Poem written 

in the taste of the i6th century ; 1784. 

2. Vacunalia ; consisting of Essays in verse ; 1788. 

3. Eliza Powell ; or the Trials of Sensibility ; a 

novel ; 1795. 



4- Celtic Researches, or the Origin, Traditions, and 
Language of the Antient Britons, with Intro- 
ductory Sketches on Primitive vSociety ; 1804. 
This is his best known book. 

5. A Series of Discourses on Church Union, in which 

it is maintained that the duty of Communion 
with the ApostoHcal Church remains iincancelled 
by the tolerance of the British Laws ; 181 1. 

6. Immanuel, a Letter on Isaiah vii., 14, in answer 

to the Strictures of a Modern Jew; 1816. 

7. The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids, 

ascertained by national documents and com- 
pared with the traditions and customs of 
Heathenism ; 1809. 

8. The Claims of Ossian, examined and appreciated 

together with some curious particulars relative 
to the State of Poetr>^ in the Celtic dialects of 
Scotland and Ireland ; 1825. An attack on 
Macpherson for disparaging the Welsh Bards. 

9. Various Papers and Translations, such as those 

of Davydd ap Gwilym, which are printed in 
the Cambrian Register. 
Through the efforts of Miss G. E. F. Morgan, of 
Brecon, money was raised in 1899 for the purpose Of 
placing a tablet in Llangammarch Church to the 
memory of Theophilus Jones and for renovating the 
memorial to him in Christ College chapel. The 
omission may be entirely due to an oversight ; but it 
is to be hoped that at Christ College there will shortly 
be erected suitable memorials to the Rev. Edward 
Davies and the Rev. Thomas Price (" Carnhuanwc ") 
two remarkable Welshmen and both students of the 
school. 



XI 

To this collection of Letters are added some 
anonymous papers by Theophilus Jones, as well as 
some accoimt of his books, &c. And, as they are of 
local interest, and were for the most part written 
whilst visiting Theophilus Jones, several extracts from 
Richard Fenton's MS. Diary are also included. 

Miss Morgan has very kindly revised and enlarged 
her Biography of the Author of ' ' Brecknockshire, ' ' 
and the new portrait of him has been engraved from a 
portrait in her possession, drawn from life by the 
Rev. Thomas Price, Cwmdu. 

The Author's book-plate was fortunately dis- 
covered before going to press. It is taken from a 
photograph of the plate in the 2nd vol. of Jones, 
History, which was presented by his widow in 1827 
to the Welsh I,ibrary at St. David's College, I^ampeter ; 
and I have to thank Mr. William Davies, the Bursary 
Clerk, for attending to this matter. 

Mr. Ifano Jones, of Cardiff Library, has been good 
enough to look over the Welsh in the letters. 

The pedigree of the " Morgans of Tredegar," &c., 
forms a part of the MS. collection by Jones, and for 
that reason it is now included. 

THE EDITOR, 

Brecon. 



tri&eopl&ilu^ Woxxe$, ^^S^n. 



" If anything I have suggested shall be pro- 
ductive of benefit to one deserving person, or my 
lucubrations shall afford amusement and satis- 
faction to the public, my ends are obtained. The 
utmost extent of my ambition is, that I may live a 
few years in the recollection and approbation of 
my countrymen after Providence shall have con- 
signed me to the long silence of the grave." 

Theophilus Jones. 

H EARLY a century^ has passed since the words 
quoted above were written by the Historian of 
Brecknockshire, and the fact that a reprint of his 
History — without note or comment, but an exact 
copy of the first edition — should have been eagerly 
subscribed for at this distance of time, is proof, if any 
such were needed, of the vitality of the book, and of 
the place which Theophilus Jones holds in the hearts 
of his countrymen. 

The saying " Happy is the country that has no 
history ! ' ' may also apply to individuals, and in that 
sense it is true of the subject of this sketch. His un- 
eventful existence passed in a quiet country town 
furnishes no stirring incidents from which to weave 
an elaborate biography, the story of his life being 
that of his History. Some three generations have 
passed away since he walked through the land he 
loved so well, yet into our own time there have lived 
those who knew him, who have watched him fishing 
of a summer's evening, who have spoken of his 
kindliness, and who have nothing to tell that does not 



confirm the impression left on our minds after reading 
his great book, that he was a God-fearing, amiable 
and upright man. His life was one of simplicity and 
hard work carried out during a period of physical suffer- 
ing heroically borne. He turned from the possibilities 
of wealth (his partner and successor amassed a large 
fortune, and purchased a considerable estate in the 
neighbourhood), to comparative poverty", in order that 
he might rescue from oblivion the memorials of past 
days, many of which would otherwise never have 
come down to us. The debt which the posterity of a 
county owes to its conscientious, careful antiquary can 
hardly be over-estimated, and Brecknockshire has been 
peculiarly fortunate in this respect. It is surely a 
matter of no small pride and satisfaction to us to realize 
that the best County History in Wales was written 
by Theophilus Jones, that the best Historj^ of Wales 
in Welsh, " Hanes Cymru," was the work of the Rev. 
Thomas Price, vicar of Cwmdu, and that the only 
History of Wales written in English (until Prof. Owen 
Edwards recentlj^ gave us ' ' Wales ' ' in the ' ' Story 
of the Nations" series) was by Miss Jane Williams, 
" Ysgafell," all of whom belonged to Brecknockshire 
by birth, breeding or descent. 

Theophilus Jones was the only son of the Rev. 
Hugh Jones, Vicar of I^langammarch and Lb'wel, 
and Prebendary of Boughrood IJanbedr Painscastle, 
whose father, another Hugh Jones, married Mary, 
daughter of Rees Lloyd, of Nantmel, a member of 
the famil}' of lyloyd of Rhosferig and Aberannell. 
Our Historian was thus of the line of Elystan Glodrydd, 
Prince of Ferregs, whose descendants peopled the 
hundred of Builth, and through his paternal grand- 
mother he was connected v/ith the Jeffreyses of 
Brecon and the Watkinses of Penoyre. 



The Rev. Hugh Jones married Elinor, elder 
daughter of the Rev. Theophilus Evans, vicar of 
Uangammarch from 1738 to 1763, in which year he 
resigned the living in favour of his son-in-law, Mr. 
Hugh Jones ; Mr. Evans was also vicar of St. David's 
Brecon, to which he was inducted 8th June, 1739, 
It is always interesting to note the hereditary 
influences, which have helped to form the tastes and 
characters of remarkable men, and no account of 
Theophilus Jones's life would be complete, that did not 
touch on the career of his maternal grandfather, who 
seems to have been a man of considerable ability, and 
is spoken of by his grandson with affectionate respect. 

Theophilus Evans was the fifth son of Charles 
Evans, of Pen-y-wenallt, Cardiganshire, of the tribe 
of Gwynfardd Dyfed, whose father had suffered even 
to imprisonment for his loyalty to Charles I. He was 
born in 1694, ordained deacon in 1718, and priest 
in 1719, by the Bishop of St. David's. The friend- 
ship existing between his countrymen the Uoyds 
of Millfield and the Gwynnes of Glanbran, induced 
him to settle in this county. Here it may be well 
to give a short account -of his literary work. 
His first publication was in Welsh, it appeared in 1716, 
and was called " Drych y Prif Oesoedd," or a 
" Mirror of Ancient Times," being a brief history of 
the ancient Britons. "This book," wrote his 
grandson, ' ' seems to have been more read and admired 
' ' by the inhabitants of South Wales than any other 
' ' ever published in the language, unless it be Uyfr 
' • y Ficcar Llandyf ri, and it is still as great a favourite 
"as ever in this part of the Principality." There 
have been fourteen Welsh editions of this remarkable 
work, the latest being that published by Spurrell 
of Carmarthen in 1884. In 1739 appeared his " Pwyll y 



Pader," being an exposition of the Lord's Prayer in 
several sermons, which he dedicated to Sackville Gwynne, 
Esq., of Glanbran, to whom he pays a compliment for 
his zeal in the encouragement and promotion of the 
worship of God by the erection of the church of Tyr 
Abot, which was Mr. Evans's first curacy ; he was 
also domestic chaplain to Mr. Gwynne of Garth. The 
dedicator}' portion of the work concludes with a prayer 
to the Deity, " that as his patron had until that day 
' ' lived in a mansion situated in a rich soil and in the 
' ' fat of the land, nourished and fertilized by the dew 
" of heaven, after a length of days spent piously and 
" happily in this world, he might be awakened by 
" an angel of life in the realms of bliss." In 1752 
he published in English " A History of Modern En- 
thusiasm," of which another edition was brought out 
in 1757 ; both are now very rare. This book contained 
a severe attack upon all dissenters from the Estab- 
hshed Church. The circumstances under which this 
work, which roused so much feeling, was published, 
have not been fully recognized. In 1743 the Rev. 
John Wesley paid his first visit to Brecknockshire, 
which had already been stirred by the preaching of 
Howel Harris and Rowlands of Llangeitho. We read 
in his Diary (which Mr. Birrell has recently told us 
throws more Ught upon the moral and social conditions 
of England in the eighteenth century than an^- other 
book,) under date 

" May, 1743, Wednesday 3rd. — came to Builth. 
" Mr. Phillips, the Rector of Maesmynis (at whose 
" invitation I came), soon to take knowledge of me. 
" I preached on a tomb at the east end of the church 
" at four, and again at seven. Mr. Gwynne and 
" Mr. Prothero, Justices of the Peace, stood on 
" either hand of me." 



Mr. Gwynne was of Garth, and previously to this had 
stood with the Riot Act in his pocket near IJanwrtyd 
Church to hear Howel Harris preach, determined to 
arrest him, not doubting he was a madman, but was so 
deeply impressed by his preaching, that at the close he 
grasped Howel Harris's hand, besought his pardon, and 
took him home to Garth. Dr. Stevens gives a very 
interesting account of Mr. Gwynne : — " In Wales the 
* ' Wesleys were entertained at the opulent mansion 
" of Marmaduke Gwynne, Esq., a magistrate, of Garth. 
" His princely establishment usually comprised, beside 
' ' nine children and twenty servants, a chaplain, and 
" from ten to fifteen guests. . . . The Wesleys 
' ' preached to them daily while seeking repose amid 
" their hospitality." The chaplain was the Rev. 
Theophilus Evans, as has been said, and he must have 
had many arguments with Mr. Wesley during their 
frequent and lengthy interviews, though when Charles 
Wesley, the sweet singer of the movement, wedded 
Miss Sarah Gwjmne, we do not find that the chaplain 
assisted at the ceremony. To quote again from John 
Wesley's Diary : — 

" 1739. April, Friday 7th, we reached Garth. 
" Saturday 8th, I married -my brother and Sarah 
" Gwynne. It was a solemn day, such as became 
"the dignity of a Christian marriage." 

Unconvinced by all that he saw and heard, Mr. 
Evans felt it his duty to protest, and Mr. Wesley and 
Mr. Whitfield wrote a reply to his book. In later 
years his grandson apologised for the bitterness of 
his tone in the following words: — "He wrote as a 
" member of the Established Church to prevent by 
" timely warning the repetition of those calamities 
" produced by fanaticism in the generation preceding 
" him, of the recurrence of which he seems to have been 



" apprehensive from the spread of an enthusiasm equally 
" mischievous, though assuming a different garb, artfully 
" fomented and encouraged, as he apprehended, by the 
" Church of Rome." It is curious to read, that he 
seriously thought the Methodists were emissaries of the 
CathoHc Church, though it was not an uncommon belief 
at the time, John Wesley himself having been taken for 
a Jesuit in disguise, when preaching in South Wales ; 
the memory of the Rising of 1745, and the sympathy 
of the Catholics with the cause of the White 
Rose, made the poptilar mind ready to assign 
any new departure in rehgion or politics to the influence 
of the Jesuits. Then the traditions of family suffer- 
ings and losses during the Civil War doubtless account 
for a genuine though exaggerated alarm at the doings 
of John Wesley and his followers. To his mind the 
terms ' ' fanatic ' ' and ' ' enthusiast ' ' were evidently 
synonymous, but to us, who are looking back at the 
course of events he anticipated, it seems impossible to 
imagine what the religious and social Hfe of the 
eighteenth — nay, even of the nineteenth — centuries 
would have been without the " enthusiasm" of the 
great Fellow of Lincoln. 

At the same time whilst it is customary to pour 
contempt on the clergy of the Church in Wales during 
the last century, it is refreshing to think of Mr. Evans 
as one, who may not unreasonably be taken as typical 
of the better kind of Welsh parish priest, of whom 
such a character remains as that given to him by 
Theophilus Jones : ' ' My revered, learned and respec- 
table grandfather "... who, notwithstanding the 
bitterness of his tone towards those who differed from 
him in their forms of faith, ' ' had perhaps as much of 
" the milk of human kindness as any man who ever lived. 
' ' Of the value of money he knew little, books were 



' his only treasures, and employed the greatest part 
' of that time in which he was not engaged in the 
' duties of his holy function, and in this character he 
' was remarkably eminent ; many of the sectaries 
' whom he condemned heard his exhortations with 
' pleasure, if not with improvement, and his sermons 
' are even now recollected with rapture ; he had a 
' method of bringing home his arguments to the 
' feelings of his auditors, without descending to low 
' or familiar phrases, which was peculiarly 
' persuasive. ' ' 

Mr, Evans was a fellow-labourer with the Rev. 
Griffith Jones, vicar of Llanddowror, the founder of 
the first day and Sunday schools in Wales. His cir- 
culating schools were started in 1730, in which year 
Mr. Evans wrote a " Letter on Education," published 
by Mr. Robert Raikes, of Gloucester, who may have 
been induced by the example of these Welsh clergymen 
to establish Sunday schools in England. It is pleasant 
to trace their beginning to our own county. When 
the good Vicar of Llanddowror, ' ' The Morning Star 
of the Welsh Reformation," died in 1761, these schools 
had been instrumental in teaching over 150,000 of the 
W^elsh people to read God's Holy Word in their own 
tongue. 

In the previous century the Rev. R. Powel, vicar 
of Boughrood, whose pious memory so many Brecon 
boys have had reason to bless, had left money by his 
will ' ' to teach and instruct poor children, natives of 
" Brecon, in the English tongue, the better to enable 
* ' them to serve God, and manage their trades or occu- 
" pations," on which Theophilus Jones makes the 
following remarkable commentary, which at least shows 
that he did not share his grandfather's opinions in 
relation to Simday schools : — " It is not clear to me 



8 

" from these words, whether this good divine intended 
' ' these children should be taught to read and write or 
' ' not. I am sure I should respect his memory much 
*' more, if I thought he did not, notwithstanding the 
" fashionable mania for parochial and Sunday schools, 
' ' which, nineteen times out of twenty, only teach boys 
" to misapprehend their Bible, to prate and become 
"troublesome in their neighbourhood." One hundred 
years have passed away since that sentence was written 
in happy unconsciousness of the advent of a com- 
plete system of Welsh education, which will give our 
boys and girls the same advantages that Scotland 
has so long enjoyed, and which will make Brecon an 
educational centre of the greatest importance, if our 
countrymen realize the possibiUties now within their 
grasp. 

In the year 1732 Mr. Evans discovered the mineral 
springs of Llanwrtyd, called ' ' Ffynon Drewllyd 
(stinking well), so valuable as a cure for scrofulous com- 
plaints. In a letter to the Editor of the " St. James's 
Chronicle," in 1738, he gives an interesting account 
of the manner in which his attention first became 
attracted to these waters. In his quaint style he says : — 
' The writer hereof, being then almost worn out by a 
' disease of many years continuance, was casually 
' informed of this then reputed venomous spring. 
' His curiosity led him that way, which, by the smell, 
' he could easily find without a guide. He sat on 
' the brink of it a long time dubious what to do. As 
' he was thus musing and revolving in his mind what 
' he had best do, a frog popped out of the bottom, 
' looked cheerfull}^ and, as it were, invited him to 
' taste of the water. He then immediately concluded 
' that the water could not have any poisonous quality, 
' because of that creature's living so comfortably 



" there, and took a moderate draught, about half-a- 
' ' pint or more, without any concern or dread of danger. 
" By the use of this for about two months, and by 
" taking baths in the water every day, he became 
" perfectly whole, though his case had been deemed 
' ' incurable. ' ' 

Mr. Evans lived at L,lwyn Einon, in Llangam- 
march (now a farmhouse), and on his death left the 
little estate to Theophilus Jones, who honoured the 
memory of his grandfather by a peculiar attachment 
to the place. The Rev. Theophilus Evans died 
September nth, 1767, aged 73, and was buried in the 
Churchyard of lylangammarch, " near the stile 
entering from the east." 

Theophilus Jones was born in Brecon on i8th 
October, 1759, and on 8th November following he was 
baptized in the chapel of St. Mary in that town. His 
father was at that time curate of St. David's, Brecon, 
and lived in a charming old house in lyion street (one 
of the many town residences of the county families, who 
used to come to Brecon for the Assizes and other gather- 
ings), where Dr. George Bull, Bishop of St. David's, had 
died earlier in the century. The future Historian 
passed some of his early years at 1/lwyn Einon, and, 
young though he was, there can be little doubt that his 
antiquarian tastes were awakened and fostered by his 
grandfather, from whom he inherited valuable 
materials for the History. The Rev. Thomas Price, 
who was born in the hundred of Builtli less than a 
generation later, has left a graphic picture of the 
manners and customs of the inhabitants of that district : 
" Brought up, as I have been, in the remote parts 
" of the PrincipaHty, often do I dwell with pleasure 
upon the recollections of my infancy : when in the 
" winter's night I sat in the circle around the fire 



lO 

' under the spacious chimney-piece, and Hstened to 
' the songs and traditions of the peasantry, or to the 
' poetry of David ab Gwilym read by the fireHght ; 
' and if but a harper should chance to visit us happy 
' was the day, yea, I might say, earthly speaking, 
' blessed was the time. . . . About the year 
' 1750 the young people in Wales were very fond of 
' dancing. They met together frequently in parties, 
' and danced country dances, some of which had four 
' and twenty variations, all of which were to be danced 
' through ; and I think there were variations in the 
* figure of the dance to correspond to those of the 

' tune The introduction of Methodism 

' made a great change in the habits of the people. 
' Dancing was altogether discouraged as profane." 

Theophilus Jones was educated at Christ's 
College, Brecknock, which was then a large and 
flourishing school, attended by the sons of the 
surrounding country gentry, amongst whom he found 
many friends, and here began the life-long regard which 
existed between him and the Rev. Edward Davies, of 
Olveston, co. Gloucester, the learned author of 
"Celtic Researches," "Mythology of the British 
Druids," and other works. To him he dedicated the 
second volume of his History. During the time he was 
at Christ's College, the Head Master was the Rev. 
David Griffith (grandfather of the late Rev. Charles 
Griffith, M.A., of Glyn Celyn, Brecon), an accomplished 
scholar, of whom he spoke in after years as " the 
respected and respectable preceptor of my youth. ' ' His 
parents having decided that he should become a lawyef, 
Theophilus Jones was articled to Mr. Penoyre Watkins, 
a solicitor in large practice then living in Brecon, and 
having passed through this period with great credit, 
upon the expiration of his articles he entered the pro- 



II 

fession on his own account, and continued in it for 
many years, practising vdth equal reputation and 
success as a solicitor and attorney in his county town. 
He married Mary, daughter of Rice Price, Esq., of 
Porth-y-Rh5'^d, in the county of Carmarthen (who 
was a member of the family of Price of Cilgwyn, a branch 
of the Prices of Glynllech, in Ystradgunlais), by Mary, 
daughter of Daniel Williams, Esq., of Llwynworm- 
wood. A vacancy occurring in the Deputy Registrarship 
of the Archdeaconry of Brecon, he was appointed to 
that office, which he held until his death. To this 
circumstance we are probably indebted for the History, 
which will be for ever associated with the name of 
Theophilus Jones. Amongst the documents committed 
to his care were the records of the various parishes for 
centuries past, in the perusal of which he must have 
obtained a great amount of the information he after- 
wards introduced into his History. There is every 
reason to believe, that he had no natural inclination 
for the profession, to which he had been brought up, his 
chief delight being in literary studies and antiquarian 
research, but it was not until the year 1800 or 1801, 
that he seriously entertained the idea of writing the 
History of his native county. His father, the Rev. 
Hugh Jones, died 2nd April, 1799 (and was buried in 
St. David's Churchyard with his wife Elinor, who died 
24th July, 1786), and this circumstance may have had 
much to do with the determination he now formed. 
He found it was quite impossible to write the History 
and at the same time to carry on his other duties. 
On their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Theophilus Jones lived 
in a large and comfortable house in Mount Street, 
Brecon, now converted into an inn known as " The 
George," the rooms of which are oak-panelled and 
lofty, where they remained until his father's death, 
when they moved to the house in Lion Street, in 



12 

which the History was written. In a letter, dated 
Oct. 4th, 1801, to the Rev. Edward Davies, he says : 

* ' I've such a room ! such a stud}^ ! 

"it is at the back part of the house, no noise or 
' ' interruption, except now and then a call into the office 
" . . . I laugh, I laugh at the imps of gloominess." 
Having a small patrimony of his own, he deter- 
mined, with his wife's consent, to give up his practice, 
and live upon his private means, so that he might 
have time to prosecute his labours in compiling the 
History, which he succeeded in doing, though he lost 
upwards of £400 in the undertaking. He disposed of 
his practice to his partner, Mr. Samuel Church, of Ffrwd- 
grech, reserving to himself the Deputy Registrarship, 
which enabled him to have access to the various deeds, 
wills, &c., which were so important in his researches, 
though it was not until 1809 that he was able 
to write : ' * Done with the law ! ' ' Having 
now the leisure in which to pursue the great 
object of his life, he spared neither time nor expense in 
its execution. He personally visited every parish in 
the county ; he copied the mural and monumental in- 
scriptions in every church (many of which have since 
entirely disappeared during the " restorations " of 
recent years) ; he collected the folk-lore and legends 
from the aged inhabitants ; he gathered all the 
information that could be acquired, and industriously 
gleaned from every repository that was open 
to his inspection, the contents of such documents 
as might enlarge, illustrate, or enrich his work. 
His perfect acquaintance with the language 
of his country enabled him to employ them to 
the best advantage. He availed himself largely of 
Hugh Thomas's MS. "Essay towards a History of 
Brecknockshire," which is preserved at the Bodleian 
L/ibrary, Oxford, and a portion of wliich is in the posses- 



13 

sion of Mr. George Hay, Brecon. This Essay was 
written about i6g8, and as far as it goes forms an 
invaluable contribution to local history, bringing the 
Brecon of the seventeenth century very vividly before us. 
Hugh Thomas was a member of an old Brecknockshire 
Catholic family settled at Llanfrynach from the earliest 
times. He was a deputy herald and lived in Blooms- 
bury, London, though from his intimate knowledge of 
the place and people, he must have frequently visited 
Brecon, where he stayed with his kinswomen, 
Mary and Margaret Thomas, of saintly memory*. 
His spelhng is peculiar, but his style of writing is 
easy and pleasant, at times gliding into gossip and 
long-forgotten scandals connected with the town. He 
was greatly impressed by the wickedness of the Normans 
in appropriating to themselves the fair lands which 
belonged to the native Welshmen, and never wearies 
of pointing out how the judgment of God had fallen 
upon their descendants for that and other sins, and 
how the Welsh had reasserted themselves even in his 
time as owners of the soil, the old Norman families 
having merged their names in those of the Welsh, or 
" extinguished themselves in heiresses," or sold their 
lands, so that the principal landowners in 1698 bore 
Welsh surnames. The following (the introduction of 
which may be forgiven, as Jones has not quoted it), 
is a fair specimen of his style, though it is rather 
involved : — 

" Hugh Havard was 4 times Baylif and twice 
" Alderman of Brecon. This man began to write 
" a book of pedigrees t about January, 1580, and not 
" ended until about 1600. He tells us that in the 
" year 1590, there was no rain from Easter till All 

* See " Forgotten Saints," by G. E. F. M., Brecon Parochial 
Magazine, 1902. 

t Harleian M.S. 3525, 



14 

" Saints, and that on loth December following 
" began a hard frost and snow, which continued 
" till 25 March, 1591, on which day there happened 
" with the thaw such a tempest of Raine as occasioned 
' such Fluds, that the like was not known since the 
" time of Noah, which carried away all stone bridges 
" and great mills, and the same year all manner 
" of Beasts died for want of fodder. That year 
" our Lady was upon Good Friday. The Havards 
" have for sometime been the most landed and 
" florishing family of the County and older in this 
" Parish (St. John's, Brecon,) than any other family 
" whatsoever, tho' now for their offences against 
" God and their neighbours brought down to 
" nothing. Having once to the Honour of God 
" builded a suptious Chapell adjoined to the Priory 
" Church, which yet retains their name, and is 
" called Capell Havardiad, where I conjecture they 
" ordained a priest to pray for their souls for ever, 
" and were most of them buried, but now the 
" good reformers have reformed this Chapell almost 
" to the ground, as they have not only this worthy 
" Family, but almost all the noble Families of the 
" kingdom out of their estates, (and almost all their 
" gravestones thrown out or broke to pieces) for 
" their great negligence in promoting these abuses." 

There is yet another unrecorded paragraph by Hugh 
Thomas, which no lover of Brecon would wish to be 
omitted, and which many still believe to be as true 
as when it was written : — 

" Brecon is well stored with wood and water and 
" fish especially trout, ye best and ye most in ye king- 
" dom are taken in Uske river, no better in all 
" Wales, having abundance of fine springs and 
" purling streams besides the rivers Uske, Honddu 



15 

" &c. &c. which makes the country most pleasant 
" and healthy, insomuch that it wants nothing that 
■' can make a man happy, and from ye top of our 
" Hills seeing ye most pleasantest I,andskips in 
" nature, having at one view the prospect of hills, 
" valleys, wood and water. The state of the 
" people are as in most parts of ye kingdom, their 
" complexions very comely, and much better than 
" those of ye sea coasts, neither are their humours 
" less commendable. Deo Gratia ! " 

But Hugh Thomas's most valuable contribution to 
Brecknockshire history is his volume of MS, pedigrees 
in the Harleian Collection at the British Museum 
which he bequeathed to Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford. 
Of the value and interest of this book it is hardly possible 
to speak too highly. Modern genealogists tell us, that 
no other pedigrees relating to our county families 
of the seventeenth century are equally satisfactory 
or correct, and the more it is studied, the stronger 
grows the impression, that Theophilus Jones 
knew little about it, even supposing he ever saw it. 
Had he known it well he could never have omitted many 
items of interest there recorded. For instance Hugh 
Thomas's pedigree of the Walbeoffes of Llanhamlach 
is given with a fulness of detail wholly absent from the 
genealogical table of that family given by Jones, who 
has also omitted entries of the greatest importance 
relating to the families of Games of Aberbran and 
Vaughan of Newton, Llansantffread, whilst the very 
interesting pedigree of the ancient family of Powel of 
Maespoeth, which Hugh Thomas gives at length, does 
not appear at all in Theophilus Jones's History. It 
is quite possible that he may have hastily glanced at 
the volume during a visit to London, or he may have 
been told of it by a friend ; that he knew of its existence 



i6 

is proved by his reference to the pedigree in it of the 
Powels of Castle Madoc, which vaiied from his account 
of the same family. Genealogy and heraldry were 
the favourite subjects of his enquiry. His pedigrees, 
generally speaking, are correct. That here and there 
some names may have been omitted, that some errors 
from misinformation may have crept in is very possible, 
but such lapses are unavoidable, certainly in the first 
edition of such a book. In a work of such multi- 
farious enquir\^, where the materials are collected 
from many different sources, where the families them- 
selves, to whom theA^ more immediately relate, are 
so often ignorant, and still more frequently indifferent, 
it is scarcely possible for the historian to be 
minutely accurate. No man, how^ever, could have 
taken greater pains than Mr. Jones did, and we ma}' be 
quite sure that whatever errors may occur in the 
earlier part of his genealogies (and they are few), they 
are correct for at least one hundred years before the 
time he wrote, which period would include all his 
original work. So painstaking a man would have 
carefully recorded from the lips of the oldest members 
of the various families the names of their immediate 
ancestors, and any circumstances of interest connected 
with them. 

That he, to some extent, shared the prejudices 
of his grandfather, and was not altogether unbiassed 
as an historian, is shewn by his ignoring the 
martyrdom of John Penry and the life-work of 
Dr. Coke, both of them men who from their characters 
and actions were deserving of more than a passing 
allusion. It was probable that he regarded John 
Penry as a traitor who died an ignominious death, 
whose fate it was better to pass over in silence, and it 
may have been for the same reason, that he made no 



I? 

mention of another Brecknockshire martyr, the 
Venerable Father PhiUp Powel, aUas Morgan, O.S.B., 
who suffered at Tyburn, 30th June, 1646, for adherence 
to his Faith, being technicaUy guilty of High Treason 
under an Act passed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 
Howel Harris also, one of the founders of Welsh 
Calvinistic Methodism, lived too near to Theophilus 
Jones's own time to receive the appreciation which 
posterity accords him, from one who evidently 
looked with suspicion and alarm on all forms and 
methods of religion outside the Established Church. 
But a man's deeds are often much better than his 
opinions and words, and the most prominent traits 
in Mr. Jones's character were kindliness and 
benevolence. ' ' lolo Morganwg ' ' has written very 
bitterly on the innumerable mistakes, which 
he says were made by Theophilus Jones, in whose 
defence the Rev. Thomas Price, " Carnhuanawc," 
wrote: "Mr. Jones, whilst preparing his work 
' for the press, was so grievously afflicted with 
' gout, that his left hand had to support the 
' wrist of his flannel-bound right as he guided 
' the pen, with the tips only of his fingers at liberty, 
' while severe twinges of pain every now and then 
' arrested his progress, and under such circumstances 
' it is wonderful that the mistakes were not still more 
'numerous." Had he lived to bring out another 
edition of his History, we cannot doubt that these 
mistakes would have been corrected. He, himself, 
complains of his ' ' constitutional indolence and 
" aversion to writing. . . . Indolence is the 
"passion of T.J.," and yet he accomplished his 
labours in so short a time. We are so accus- 
tomed to speak of him as " Old Jones," in terms of 
affectionate regret, that it does not occur to us, until 
we are reminded of the fact, that he died in the prime 



i8 

of life, and that it is cause for wonder and congratu- 
lation that he should have achieved so much in the few 
years out of a short life which he devoted to his great 
work. 

But the severest criticism, which has been passed 
on our Historian, is that by modern writers on his 
treatment of Henry Vaughan (Silurist). It is not 
necessary here to repeat the epithets which have been 
hurled at him, though at the same time it is impossi- 
ble not to make a protest against the injustice of the 
attack made upon him. Even in the present day, 
when Vaughan' s Poems have passed through many 
editions, his audience is ' ' few but fit ; " when Jones 
wrote, the quaint little volumes were very rare, and 
it is doubtful whether anyone then living appreciated 
the Silurist excepting Wordsworth, who had a 
marked copy of ' ' Silex Scintillans ' ' in his cottage 
at Grasmere. It is quite certain that Theophilus 
Jones had never seen nor read the majority of these 
Poems, and he even supposes " Olor Iscanus" (which 
he knew), to have been written by Thomas Vaughan, 
and whilst he quotes two of the most striking poems 
in that book, he ignores those which contain local 
references, that he could not have passed over had he 
carefully read them. As in the case of Hugh Thomas's 
Pedigrees, he probably only saw the book during a 
visit to Oxford or lyondon, and had not time to fully 
possess himself of its contents. The most curious 
thing is, that whilst he quotes at length from Anthony 
a Wood's account of Thomas Vaughan, he seems to 
know nothing of the same writer's notice of the 
Silurist, which settles the authorship of ' ' Olor 
Iscanus." The biography of Henry Vaughan given 
by a Wood is the more interesting, as it was written 
by John Aubrey, a Brecknockshire man, and cousin 



to the Vaughans, who supplied a Wood with much 
of the iuformation in his " Athense Oxonienses." 
He says : 

" Henry Vaughan followed the pleasant paths 
" of poetry and philology, became noted for his 
" ingenuity, and published several specimens thereof, 
"of which his " Olor Iscanus " was most valued. 
" Afterwards applying his mind to the study of 
" physiC; became at length eminent in his own country 
" for the practice thereof, and was esteemed by 
" scholars an ingenious person, but proud and 
" humorous." 

These last words may partly account for what 
was undoubtedly the local opinion of the brothers, 
who are described by Jones as " eccentric," a term 
not unlikely to be applied to poets and Rosicrucians by 
their Welsh neighbours two hundred years ago. He 
faithfully wrote down all that he knew and heard of 
them, and when we remember that Denys Jones, Henry 
Vaughan 's grand-daughter, was living in Brecon at 
the same time as Theophilus Jones's parents, it is pro- 
bable that he reflected the true impression of con- 
temporary popular opinion respecting the Vaughans. 
Mr. Jones's assertion, that he had not been able to 
trace any of their descendants, and that the line had 
become extinct, has not yet been refuted, though of 
recent years the closest search has been made on the 
subject. To blame him for not appreciating the 
Silurist's Poems, which he had not read, is hardly 
criticism. Theophilus Jones had the limitations of 
his environment, limitations which probably conduced 
to the success of his History, though they would hardly 
have made him in advance of his age in admiring poetry, 
which belonged more to the school of Wordsworth 
and of George Herbert than to that of the eighteenth 



20 

century. The most that can be said is, that he was 
a better historian than he was a literary critic, for 
he recorded his dehberate opinion that " Gower, 
" Chaucer and even Spenser (whom I think the most 
" respectable of the three) are not to be compared 
* ' with Pope, Dryden or Gray, ' ' and again ' ' no 
" comparison whatever in the poetry of Chaucer and 
" Pope." 

It is matter for regret that he never saw the 
Aubrey MSS. which contain so many references to 
Brecknockshire people, and which were published 
for the first time in 1898, under the title of " Brief 
Ivives," by John Aubrey. 

Whatever imperfections may exist in it, Jones's 
History is stiU the standard History of Brecknockshire ; 
though admitting this by no means ignores the fact, 
that a great part of the histor>' of our county still 
remains to be written.* The late Mr. Edwin Poole's 
History is invaluable in recording the local events 
of the last century, and fills up the gap from 1809 
to the present daj^ but there are sources unknown 
to Theophilus Jones, that have simpty been untouched. 
The histor^^ of a county is the history of its land, 
the land which remains (even the names of places 
rarely changing), whilst the families who at various 
times own it pass away, their history being mainly 
recorded in relation to their estates. The history 
of the land is to be found in the records of 
litigation arising in connection with it ; for instance, 
at the Record Office the Brecon Plea Rolls afford a 
mass of information, which has never been published, 
and only slightly examined. There is a complete series 

* Mr. John Lloyd, Barrister-at-Law, of 15, Chepstow Place, 
Loadan, is pviblishia^ muoh original informatioa from inaccessible 
docutnents in " Historica' Memoranda of Breconshire," the second 
volume of which is now ready. 



21 

from 1603, and seven, odd, earlier Rolls, they are all 
in Latin. Another very valuable source exists in the 
Exchequer Depositions, and the Fines, which contain 
many useful facts regarding Brecknockshire estates. 
Then again the Brecknockshire Wills in the Registry 
Office at Hereford would give such an insight into 
the social habits and customs of our forefathers, as can be 
obtained in no other way, but they are not even indexed. 

There is also an unwritten history lying around 
us, which he who runs may read, in the British camps 
on the hills, in the Roman roads and remains, in the 
silent stones, and in the place-names of our farms, 
houses and even fields. No record exists in any library 
of the fierce battle, which took place near Scethrog 
between the Roman legions passing from the Gaer 
to Cwmdu and the Welsh, who may have descended 
from their hill entrenchment on the AUt, but we have 
the memorial stone to the Roman general on the road- 
side, and we have the name, which still clings to the 
dingle close at hand, Cwm geleddion, i.e., " The 
Valley of Corpses," which remind us of 

' ' Old, unhappy far-off things 
And battles long ago." 

Generations have listened with mingled awe and in- 
credulity to the legend of the sunken city beneath 
Llangorse Lake, the chime of whose church bells (a 
mediaeval addition this) could be heard on summer 
evenings by those who sailed on its waters ; the anti- 
quity of this legend has been proved in our own day, 
by the discovery of a crannoge on the island at Llyn- 
savaddan with all the usual signs of its occupation in 
prehistoric time by lake dwellers. Legends are not 
in themselves evidence of historic facts, but it is 
always worth while to cc>nsider them, as they may, as 
in this case, contain a germ of truth. 



22 

In regard to place-names, it is well to remember 
that in Wales, at least, all the names have descrip- 
tive meanings, which are either historical, ecclesiastical 
or geographical. In this interesting study Theophilus 
Jones will be found a great help, as he took immense 
pains to arrive at the correct translation of his 
native language. 

The first volume of ' ' The History of Brecknock- 
shire " (in 4to), comprising "The Chorography, 
" General History, Religion, Laws, Customs, Manners, 
" Language and System of Agriculture used in that 
" County," was issued from the press of Messrs William 
and George North, at Brecknock, on 13th September, 
1805. It was dedicated to his friend the Venble. 
Archdeacon Payne, who had supplied him with most 
of the information concerning the parishes in the hun- 
dred of Crickhowel. The second volume, divided into 
two parts, containing ' ' The Antiquities, Sepulchral 
" Monuments and Inscriptions, Natural Curiosities, 
" Variations of the Soil, Stratification, Mineralogy, and 
" a copious list of rare and other Plants ; also the Genea- 
' logics and Arms of the Principal Families, properly 
" coloured or emblazoned, together with the Names 
" of the Patrons and Incumbents of all the Parishes 
" and Livings in that County," in 1809. This last the 
author has inscribed (as has been mentioned) with much 
affection to his old friend and schoolfellow, Mr. 
Davies — ' ' The associate of his youth, the kind corres- 
' ' pondent and assistant of his Hterary pursuits, the 
sincere friend in mature age ; and oh ! may he add 
"in trembhng hope {si modo digni erimus), the par- 
' ' taker of a blissful eternity ! ' ' 

Mr. Jones, in the patriotic ardour of his heart, 
caused not only the printing of his book, but 
even the manufacture of the paper to be carried 



23 



out in his own county, the latter being executed 
at the Llangenny Paper Mills. The plates of 
arms in the second volume were drawn by the 
Rev. Thomas Price, and many copies of these plates 
were coloured by his indefatigable hand. Most of 
the engraved representations of archaeological remams, 
which illustrate that volume, were taken from original 
drawings made by him. He likewise prepared the 
ground plan of the Priory, &c. The engravings of 
castles, towns, &c., were by J. Basire, after drawings 
by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, who himself superintended 
and corrected the proof plates, The writer of this 
Biography has in her possession the original sepia 
drawing by vSir R. C. Hoare of Brecknock Castle and 
Bridge, taking in Buckingham House, which is not 
included in the engraving of this picture in Jones. 
It is dated 31st May, 1793, and is the only drawing of 
the old home of the Aubreys, as it appeared before 
its architectural features were destroyed by ' ' res- 
toration ' ' at the beginning of the last century. The 
gateway on the bridge is also clearly to be seen on the 
east side of the river Usk. One illustration (that of 
Porth Mawr, Crickhowel, the ancient seat of the Breck- 
nockshire Herberts), bears the famiUar name of 
Landseer as the engraver. The History is weak m 
portraits, which is the more to be regretted, as so many 
engravings of Brecknockshire worthies were available. 
It is true that of some there are no portraits extant, 
and under this head must come the Silurist and 
his brother, Thomas Vaughan, but the book is the 
poorer for not possessing Holbein's fine drawing of 
Sir Thomas Parry, of Tretwr, and the interesting en- 
graving of Dr. William Aubrey, called by Queen EUza- 
beth "her Httle doctor." We also miss the stately 
figures of Edward Stafiord, last Duke of Buckingham 
of that creation, and his father, Duke Henry, not to 



24 

speak of the Ven. Philip Powel, [Morgan] O.S.B., John 
Aubrey, the antiquary, the graceful cavalier and 
traveller James Howel, and others. Mr. Jones in 
his Preface speaks of a portrait of Sir David Gam, 
which he hoped to reproduce in his History, but on 
examination this picture turned out to be that of his 
descendant. Sir John Games, the builder of Newton, 
1582, " a great traveller, who visited Rome and 
" Jerusalem, and several other remote parts of the 
"world," according to Hugh Thomas, and whose 
picture (in a ruff and high hat) is in the hall at Penpont 
amongst other paintings of members of the Games 
and Williams families. 

The accompanying portrait of Theophilus Jones is 
engraved from a photograph (in the possession of 
the writer) of a sketch of Mr. Jones taken by the Rev. 
T. Price, underneath which the latter has written : 
" An excellent likeness, taken a short time before his 
death by me, T. Price. ' ' The kindly, benevolent coun- 
tenance justifies the character given him by his 
friends, whilst the firm mouth and chin show that he 
was a man of strong opinions and convictions, possess- 
ing moreover a considerable amount of humour. 

The original MS. of the History was in the late 
Mr. Joseph's library, and is now in the possession of 
his grandson, Mr. Buckley, of Bryn-y-Caerau, Car- 
marthenshire. " In style of language and expression 
Theophilus Jones is" (to quote the remarks of a 
learned and esteemed friend of his, who had ample 
opportunities of knowing his private worth, and was 
well qualified to appreciate the importance of his 
literary labours), " for the most part plain, manly 
" and unaffected. It cannot, however, be denied, 
" that in some instances he has indulged too freely in 
" that species of facetiousness, which the severer 



35 

critics may be inclined to treat as unworthy of the 
sober dignity of history. But the real fact is this : 
Theophilus Jones on all occasions wrote with the 
same freedom and honest independence as he thought 
and spoke. ' I might as well,' said he to a friend 
to whom he had shewn his MS., ' endeavour 
' to write a history in rhyme, as in what is called 
' dignified prose, but which I call sombrous or sleep- 
' provoking paragraphy. M}^ disposition and 
' turn of thinking and speaking must discover 
' themselves. I should almost think myself a hypo- 
' crite to conceal them ; if I am not notorious for 
' buffoonery or imbecile attempts at wit, I shall 
' not much care whether my readers laugh at me 
' or with me.' As a county historian, we may 
venture to assert generally that he is faithful." 
Bishop Burgess, in his charge to the Chapter of St. 
David's at his primary visitation of the Cathedral 
Church on 30th July, 181T, spoke of the "History 
of Brecknockshire " as "a very interesting, elaborate 
and useful work." Lowndes remarked, "that it 
" was a work of considerable labour and research, con- 
" taining a great mass of information." lylewellyn 
Prichard in his "Heroines of Welsh History," says: 
" Candour calls for the admission that, notwith- 
" standing the errors in taste and the mis-statements 
' ' abounding in that work, the ' History of Breck- 
' ' nockshire ' contains much valuable information, 
' ' brought together from innumerable and f ar- 
" spreading sources, too difficult of access for the 
" researches of the modern antiquary and historian." 
Dr. Nicholas, in his "Annals of Wales," published 
in 1872, observes : ' * Theophilus Jones produced one 
" of the most complete and methodical county his- 
" tories in the EngHsh language, the ' History of 
" Brecknockshire,' a work which much requires 



26 

" republication, with notes and additions, bringing 
" it down to the present time." The late Mr. G. T. 
Clarke, in his "Land of Morgan," published by the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, wrote : ' ' There 
" is but one history of any Welsh county at all worthy 
"of the name — Jones's Brecknock." 

Allusion has been made to the assistance Theo- 
philus Jones received in his work from the Rev. Thomas 
Price ; he was the son of the Historian's old friend 
and neighbour, the Rev. Rice Price, vicar of I.lan- 
wrthwl (who during many years had rendered him 
valuable help in collecting topographical information), 
and having in the 5^ear 1805 become a student at 
Christ's College, he received a great deal of kindness 
and hospitality from Mr. and Mrs. Jones, which he 
ever remembered with affectionate gratitude. In the 
Letters to the Rev. Edward Davies frequent reference 
is made to ' ' Tom Price, ' ' and the infinite pains Mr. 
Jones took to procure a Hebrew Psalter for him is 
very characteristic of his kindly nature. ' ' This 
' ' boy, ' ' he wrote, "is a most valuable ornament 
" to the Principality, and there is nothing that I can 
"do that shall be omitted to serve him." In the 
' ' Literary Remains of the Rev. Thomas Price, ' ' a 
delightful memoir of this great and gifted Welshman by 
Miss Jane Williams (" Ysgafdl ") we have a pleasant 
ghmpse of the social life of the time. After the battle of 
Trafalgar several French naval officers, prisoners of 
war on parole, resided then and in subsequent years 
in Brecon. They were men of intelligence, good 
breeding and accomplishment, and Mr. Price frequently 
met them at the hospitable board of Mr. Theophilus 
Jones. It is not recorded whether music formed part 
of the entertainment at these gatherings, but in his 
early years Mr. Jones learnt the Welsh harp, the first 



27 

tune he played on that instrument being the old Welsh 
air, " Pys a Menin " (Butter and Pease). In 1811 
Mr. Price was ordained by Dr. Burgess, Bishop of St. 
David's, later he was appointed vicar of Cwmdu, and 
became known throughout Wales by his bardic name 
" Carnhuanawc." He was an exemplary clergy- 
man, beloved by all who knew him, an accurate his- 
torian, and an enthusiast on all matters relating to 
the preservation of the ancient language and customs 
of the Welsh people. He died 7th November, 1848, 
at Cwmdu Vicarage. 

Fifty years ago Jones's History could be purchased 
for about £2 ids. ; now it has become so rare that 
when copies turn up for sale they realize from £y to 
£10 los., according to the condition they are in. 
About the year i860 a dealer in Brecon bought the 
surplus copies of Vol. II. and the copper-plates from 
I. Booth, the London publisher, the former at five 
shillings each. Mr. Joseph secured some of the plates. 
Therefore, to all who love Brecknockshire, it is a matter 
of deep satisfaction, that through the public spirit of 
Mr. Edwin Davies, the Editor and Publisher of the 
reprint, this valuable work is within reach of all who 
care to read it. Theophilus Jones intended writing 
a similar History of the adjoining county of Radnor, 
but the state of his health was such that he was un- 
able to attempt any additional work. He was a 
martyr to hereditary gout, which crippled him to so 
great an extent, that latterly he could walk with 
difficulty. But notwithstanding his severe and con- 
stant sufferings, his bright cheerfulness never forsook 
him, and to the end he continued to write upon those 
subjects to which his life had been devoted, though 
with the exception of the following papers contributed 
to the magazines of the day, his History was the only 



literary work he published. He wrote an article for 
the second volume of the " Cambrian Register," 
signed " Cymro," entitled " Cursory Remarks on 
Welsh Tours or Travels." The same volume contains 
from his pen " Remarks on the History of Mon- 
mouthshire by David Williams." On loth January, 
1797, Mr. Jones addressed a letter to E. Williams, 
Strand, London, the publisher of the " Cambrian 
Register," which was printed in the third volume of 
that periodical, which also contains a " Biographical 
Sketch of Howel Harris, Esq., of Trefecca," by him. 
A letter to Lancelot Morgan, Esq., Brecon, preserved 
in MS,, gives a most interesting account of a " Cist- 
vaen " (stone coffin), discovered on Ty-yn-y-llwyn 
Farm, in the parish of Lianfrynach, after the publi- 
cation of his History. Mr. Jones conjectures that 
the interment took place during the early Christian era. 
On October 28th, 181 1, he addressed a communica- 
tion to the Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, Mr. 
Nicholas Carlisle, giving an account of some Roman 
remains near Llandrindod, which was read on 14th 
November, and printed in the seventeenth volume 
of the ' ' Archaeologia. ' ' He was elected Fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries 20th December, 18 10, Sir 
H. Englefield, vice-president, in the chair. His last 
literary attempt was the translation of his favourite 
romance in the Welsh language, entitled " Gweledi- 
gaethau 3^ Bardd Cwsg," or " Visions of the Sleep- 
ing Bard ' ' (in the manner of the ' ' Visions of Fran- 
cisco de Quevedo,") by the Rev. Elhs Wynne (*), 
which is in style one of the most beautiful works 
Welsh literature possesses. Mr. Jones translated it 
with great spirit, as well as close accuracy. Though 

* Rector of Llanfair, Merionethshire. He was bom 1670, 
riied 1734. He was an excellent poet, and stands unrivalled as a 
Welsh prose writer. In 1701 he published a translation of Jeremy 
Taylor's " Holy Living." 



29 

this translation has never been published, George 
Borrow, author of "Wild Wales," "The Bible in 
Spain," &c., gave to the world another translation 
of this extraordinary production, which was published 
by Murray, i860. Amongst his friends and corres- 
pondents he numbered Mr. William Williams, of Ivy 
Tower, Pembrokeshire, the author of " Primitive 
History " (a presentation copy of this work from 
Mr. Williams to Theophilus Jones was in the late Mr. 
Joseph's library) and "The Head of the Rock," 
a poem in which he refers with enthusiasm to the in- 
habitants of Brecknockshire : — 

" Brecon, fertile of the best of men. 
Hail, Brecon, hail ! with every comfort blest, 
That mothers know of pious sons possessed." 

* * The Traveller, tired and lone, partakes of Good. 
Mountains are level'd to prepare his Road" (*) 

" Nor in thy soil do these, fam'd Brecon, rise 
Sole treasures ; other riches greet our eyes ! ' ' 

" Distinguished land, each spot each virtue fills, 
Thy valleys patriots, saints adorn thy hills ! " (f) 

Mr. Williams was maternally descended from Robert 
Ferrar, the martj^red bishop of St. David's. 

Theophilus Jones was a prominent member of 
the Loyal Brecknock I^odge of Freemasons, and his 
name is enrolled as its first Worshipful Masters in 1798. 

The following description of the character of 
Theophilus Jones was written by his friend, to whom 

* This county introduced the newly-cotiatructed road^ into 
Wales,— 1775. 

t A reference to St. Elyned, who was martyred on Slwch 
Tump. 



30 

reference has before been made : — " In private life 
' ' he was truly, ' the generous friend and best-hearted 
" of men.' Few, indeed, were more generally esteemed, 
" or more sincerely regretted by those who knew him 
" best. In his profession he was that highly estimable 
" character, an upright, independent lawyer, zealous, as 
" in duty bound, to protect and vindicate the legi- 
" timate rights and interests of his clients, but never 
" sacrificing the convictions of his own unblemished 
" conscience at the sordid altar of advantage. In 
' ' society he was kind, affable, and good-humoured ; 
' ' hospitable, but unostentatious in his habits and 
" mode of living ; and considerately benevolent to 
" the necessities of his poorer neighbours. In his 
" religious creed he was upon the strictest principle a 
" member of the Church of England. He embraced 
" her tenets, not from the mere prejudice of education, 
' ' but from conviction ; for in this, as in all other 
" matters, he strictly acted as he thought, but still 
' ' in Christian charity towards those who conscien- 
" tiously differed from him." 

The accompanying Letters to the Rev. Edward 
Davies, his " dearest friend," as he called him, reveal 
a whole-hearted, affectionate capacity for friendship 
of the most disinterested kind, which was a delightful 
trait in his character. The correspondence of a 
lifetime shews what infinite pains and trouble he was 
constantly taking to help his friend in the management 
of his affairs, and how eagerly he used his influence 
amongst his ecclesiastical acquaintances to obtain the 
recognition of Mr. Davies, which he felt his talents 
and character deserved. This was acknowledged by 
the Rev. Edward Davies, who in the preface to his 
" Celtic Researches" wrote " Mr. Theophilus Jones of 
* * Brecon, my generous friend and the best hearted of 



3^ 

'* men, had, for a course of years, made it extremely 
" difficult for me to say for which of his affectionate 
" boons to me I thanked him the most and loved 
" him the best." His last letter to him closes with 
the following words of faith and hope : ' ' My 
* ' good friend, let me remind you without flattery, 
' * and, I trust, without presumption, that in consequence 
* ' of the hardships of your lot here you may entertain 
* ' a well-founded hope of a far more eternal and exceeding 
" weight of glory hereafter. — Thus sincerely prayeth 
"your friend, Theo. Jones." 

His last illness is supposed to have arisen from 
the effect of gout upon a constitution much weakened 
by repeated attacks of the malady. His lingered for 
some time, and after severe suffering died 15th January, 
1812, at his house in Lion Street, Brecon (now the resi- 
dence of Captain D. Hughes Morgan, J. P. for the 
County and Borough of Brecon, and H.S. in 1900), where 
his father, the Rev. Hugh Jones, had lived and 
died. He was buried at Llangammarch, in the same 
grave as his maternal grandfather, whose memory 
through life he held in the highest veneration. ' ' When 
" I am dead," he said, ' let me be buried in the 
" grave of my grandfather, and let my inscription 
" be : ' Here lies Theophilus Jones, the grandson of 
" Theophilus Evans.' " His widow erected in Christ's 
College Chapel, Brecon, (where he had been educated 
when a boy, of which he had been for many years 
chapter clerk, and in the improvement of which he 
had ever taken the deepest interest), a white and 
grey marble tablet to his memory, with the following 
inscription (*) : — 

* There is some mistake as to liis age, but the inscription i^ 
given as copied from th? tablet. On his tomlistone in Llangammarch 
Churchyard, a print of which appears at the end of the biography, 
the Historian's age is stated to be 52. 



32 

To the Memory 
of 
Theophii^us Jones, Esq., 
Late Chapter Clerk of this Collegiate Church, 
and 
Deputy Registrar of the Archdeaconry of Brecknock. 
He died January the 15th, 181 .i, 
Aged 51. 
His remains, with those of his maternal grand- 
father, Theophilus Evans, Clk., lie interred 
in the Cemetery of lylangammarch. 
This Marble but records his name — the History of 
this, his loved, his native County will long survive 

and be his Monument. 

The above Theophilus Jones was the son of the 

Rev. Hugh Jones, who was Prebendary of 

Boughrood, Llanbedr Painscastle, of this 

Collegiate Church. 

The tombstone in Llangammarch Churchyard 
has been recently restored, and there is also a memorial 
tablet in that Church. 

His library, containing a large and valuable col- 
lection of books, was sold by public auction in the 
town of Brecon by Mr. Wise, of Bath, and very good 
prices were realized, many of the volumes being anno- 
tated by himself. The copyright of his History, with 
the copper-plates and some MS. collections in his own 
writing, were purchased by Mr. George North, of 
Brecknock, for the sum of £2^^. Mr. Llewelyn, of 
Penile' rgaer, bought a large number of his books, 
and these were until recently in the library at Hen- 
drefoilan, the seat of the late Mr. Dillwyn, M.P. for 
Swansea. Theophilus Jones possessed a MS. copy of 
Aneurin's " Gododin." Its date appears to be about 
the year 1200. It is a small 4to of thirty-eight pages, 




{hrutii ji/wto 1/1/ W. J. Miltcv, l.mupi^ler). 



33 

written upon vellum, and the lines are filled to the 
margin, irrespective of the metre. Capital letters, 
ornamented and coloured alternately red and green, 
are used only at the beginning of the paragraphs. 
The names of Gwilym Tew and of Rhys Nannor, who 
flourished 1440- 1470, are inserted on one of the pages 
as severally owners of the MS., and the style of their 
penmanship appears to be more modern by at least 
two centuries than that of the book itself. Mr. Jones 
attached to this MS. the following note : — " This copy 
" Mr. Davies, of Olveston, supposes to be that men- 
" tioned by Llwyd, and said to have been lost out 
' ' of the Hengwrt Libra^>^ It was given me by Mr. 
' ' Thomas Bacon, who bought it from a person at 
" Aberdar." It afterwards became the most valued 
possession of the Rev. Thomas Price, " Carnhuanawc," 
on whose death it was purchased by Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, Bart., of Middle HiU, Worcestershire, at 
whose sale it was bought by the Cardiff Free L/ibrary, 
where it now is. 

The heraldic bearings borne by Mr. Jones, and 
engraved on his book-plate, are those of Elystan 
Glodrydd, Prince of Ferregs, and are as follows : — 
Crest : A demi-lion, ramp. sa. Arms : Quarterly ist 
and 4th Sa. a lion, ramp, regard, or., 2nd and 3rd Arg. 
a chev. sa. betw. 3 boars' heads couped of the second, 
crined or. impaling his wife's — Az. a hon ramp, 
regard, arg. Motto : " Cas ni charo y wlad a'i mago." 

After the death of her husband, Mrs. Theophilus 
Jones removed to Llandovery, where she resided until 
her decease. During the commercial panic of 1827, 
she seems to have shared the general anxiety, and 
for a short time to have anticipated ruin. A letter 
from her, dated 17th April, 1827, to her old friend, 
the Rev. Thomas Price, bears witness to the faithful, 

c 



34 

grateful and generous spirit in which ' ' Carnhuanawc ' ' 
had volunteered his services, and offered his purse 
and home to her. The cause for anxiety cleared away, 
but she did not long survive ; she died on July 22nd, 
1828, aged 70 years, and was buried in the chancel 
of Myddfai Church, Carmarthenshire, near her own 
relatives, where there is a tablet to her memory. By 
her will amongst other bequests she left £500 and all 
her plate to her niece, the late Mrs. Powell, of Maes- 
carnog ; the plate bears the crest and arms of 
Theophilus Jones. 

Theophilus Jones had an only sister, Miss Sarah 
Jones, who, dying in May, 1832, was buried in St. 
David's Churchyard, Brecon. There is a chest tomb 
over her grave on the right hand of the main entrance 
to the Church, but the inscription has wholly disap- 
peared owing to the perishable nature of the stone. 
There is also a marble, mural tablet inside the Church 
erected to her memory by her grandson, Mr. Hugh 
Lawrence, to whom she left her property. 

Dr. Johnson laid down a rule, " That nobody 
" can write the life of a man, but those who have ate 
" and drunk and lived in social intercourse with him." 
This is perfectly true, but as at this distance of time 
so ideal a biography is impossible, the next best 
thing has been done, and use has been largely made of 
the writings of those who knew Theophilus Jones 
intimately, and who wrote down their impressions 
immediately after his death. 

To the writer of this altogether inadequate sketch 
it has for years been a labour of love to collect every 
incident and detail connected with Theophilus Jones, 
arising no less from admiration of the character and 
work of the Historian, than from a deep sense of 
gratitude for the interest and delight his ^History has 



35 

brought into so many lives, and as a remembrance 
of the friendship which existed between him and her 
kinsmen one hundred years ago. 

The information so collected has been chiefly 
obtained from the rare library of the late Mr. Joseph, 
F.S.A,, of Brecon, whose unique collection of MvSS, 
and books relating to Brecknockshire was simply 
invaluable for such a purpose, access to the same being 
at all times generously given. 

The writer is also much indebted to the late Rev. 
Prebendary Herbert Williams, whose kindly sympathy 
and ready help were unfailing ; to the Rev. B. h- Bevan, 
Vicar of Brecon ; to the late Rev. Rees Price, Vicar 
of St. David's, and to the Rev. David Williams, Vicar 
of Myddfai, for courteously allowing unlimited 
reference to be made to the Parish Registers and 
records in their charge. 

" CAS NI CHARO Y WLAD a'i MAGO." 

GWENLLIAN E. F. MORGAN. 

Buckingham Place, 

Brecon. 



M 




S.M of 

TKeof)hilus J^vans 
laie/ Yica-T opdhie 
Farifh and AISO 
of St IDavid's la 

BTtECON 
He died Sepi. 11^ 



I-rrKE lie 
■thje- Remains of 
Thoop?llUus tJoTieS 

lid cr^tx-l/ooJ' of the' 
|}Tg died JaiTy 15" ^ 



^ 



/cam 



£S rALC/\RTl4 



^. 






Hettetjs* 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES, HAY. 

Brecon, A-pril 30, 1780. 
Dear Parson, 

I have read the Pastoral you sent me and the 
other poem. Pray who is the author of the former ? 
It is but an indifferent performance. Indeed every 
poem of that nature is at best but a composition of 
water gruel, sweetened with honey ; but when the 
Poet substitutes sugar instead of the honey it is not 
palatable. Such I am afraid has the author of the 
pastoral above mentioned infused in his mess. ]\Ir. 
Phillips has contrived, I own, to make the gruel 
agreeable, but his sweet n'or is the genuine — manufacture 
(excuse the expression) of the Bees of Hybla. But I 
must candidly confess that I prefer Mr. Pope's gruel, 
which is seasoned with the true Altic salt, to Mr. 
Phillips'. His pastorals, Hke the rest of his com- 
positions, contain a strong nervous diction, and every 
line conveys sentiments which will appear just, when 
applied to the various scenes and incidents in real life ; 
and if sometimes he strays into the mazes of 
extravagant fancy and exceeds the bounds of 
probability', you will always find him return, as soon as 
his subject will permit, into the more natural plains of 
truth and propriety. Those warm passions, those 
gentle breezes, cooUng arbours, and romantic 
descriptions of beauty and place, are not calculated to 
please the English reader. Our dispositions and 
climate render us so very inadequate of recognizing 
the pleasures, and enjoying those very fine feelings 
ascribed to the lovers in pastorals, that nothing but the 
most delicate dress can ever prompt us to read them, 
and then it puts in mind of a handsome, tho' extravagant 
young fellow who is perhaps going to the gallows, and 
we are obliged to exclaim ' * Oh ! what a pity it is such 
a fine young man had not applied himself to a better 
employment." 



38 

Britannia is worthy of the penf of Mr. Davies ; 
it is exceedingly well wrote. I must therefore beg 
leave to keep it a little while, and I shall send you a 
small pamphlet of my comments upon it. The 
Preface has a quaintness in the stile which I do not 
admire. I would therefore wish you would either 
omit it "or substitute another in its stead. It has so 
much of the old stile of " Gentle Reader," &c., that I 
cannot say I admire it at all, but however shall leave 
you either to rescind or amend it at your own 
discretion. 

Miss Winter's mother is dead. The ladies are 
much pleased at your compliment, and if I mistake 
not would wish they were included in it. I shall 
expect to see you Whitsuntide to spend a week with 
me. I have a great deal more to say, but must 
conclude, as I have a call at present very incidental 
to human nature. I am going to dinner. 

Yours sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 
I beg you'll write to me once a week at least. 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES, HAY. 
Dear Parson, 

Tho' I have not corresponded with you as 
frequently as usual, you will not, I trust, impute it to 
want of esteem, but to that constitutional indolence 
and aversion to writing, joined to the hurry of 
business, which is really the occasion. This letter is 
the T3th I have wrote to-day ; you may, therefore, 
suppose I must be pretty well tired of this kind of work. 
Your friend the lawyer has wrote to your debtor by 
this day's post, and will, if you are not paid in one week, 
take proper steps to get you your money. I feign 
would write more, but have two long bills of costs to 
write out immediately. You'll therefore excuse the 
brevity of 

Yours, &c., 

THEO. JONES. 
1781. 

Charge Ashley 3s. 6d. for the letter, if he pays you. 
If you staj' in Brecon I shall expect you will be with me 
at my house. 



39 
To THE REV. EDWARD DAVIES, HAY. 

Brecon, Oct., 1782. 

Dear Parson, 

As I have a few leisure hours to spare, I shall 
dedicate them to a purpose which ought 'ere now to 
have taken up their attention. . . . Indolence is 
the poison of T. J. ; to give you an instance of your 
friend's laziness, I am now much pressed for money, 
yet I have not resolution enough to sit a few hours to 
write out my bills, which I know would be paid me, 
most part of them, on demand, and which would 
treble the sums I owe. Account for this, ye logicians ! 
Account for this, ye learned in metaphysics ! 
Account for this, O all ye moral philosophers ! But 
it is unaccountable. Therefore don't put your addle 
heads together to do what you have often done before — 
to attempt to account for impossibilities ; better you 
should puzzle your bald pates about the diving bell 
at Plymouth, the weight of water upon the Royal 
George, the longitudes, or the cost of flying, than 
endeavour to make inconsistency consistent. 

Rise Conrad, thou that slumherest and sleepest, 
and snoorest among the peaceful dead, once more 
shalt thou wield the faulchion, and once more fight thy 
battles o'er again ; no longer shall the ball pated 
mower brandish his scythe o'er thy grave, restored by 
the revivifying hand of a Davies (confound it, your 
name is not poetical ; I wish you had some fine sounding 
apellation ; but, however, merit will obliterate that 
misfortune). High ! High ! where am I going to now } 

I was just going to say but what signifies what I 

was going to say, 'thou = Let it rest, let those two 
black strokes explain my meaning if I had any, which 
will admit of a doubt. Conrad is without flattery 
a very perfect resemblance of the author. It is a heap 
of spar, an imperfect gem ; had the author the 
advantage of a liberal education (you know what I 
mean by Hberal) he would, I precUct, have been an 
honour to the country ; as he is, and as his book is, 
they are far from being deficient of literary merit ; 



40 

however there are several speeches in the book alluded 
to that want correction, several that the most rigid 
critic cannot correct, and some few that had better 
not have appeared at all in it — to instance some of 
the first. 

Scene i. Act ist. Hold my Arvizagus, how I 
would halt one moment to enjoy the open air, and now 
we do not understand that Malgo is just come out of a 
dungeon or a prison. If that had been the case no 
wonder then if he had wished to take a walk in the 
Priory Groves to enjoy the fresh air. As to me, I cannot 
help thinking when I read this of my dog Toss, 
whom I've often seen running against the wind and 
snuffing the fragrant gale, as the song has it. Then 
comes in next page a truly beautiful sentiment, 
and well expressed, "The patriot's honour is better 
treasured in the people's breast, than spent in banquets, 
feasts, and guady titles. " "He cri'd ' ' : there is no 
need for that abbreviation ; cried is often used as 
one syllable. ' ' Envy wtll rise ' ' ; this is very ill 
expressed. The word rise is very inadequate to 
convey the idea you mean to convey ; however, my 
paper will stint me in my further progress, which you 
may expect to find thro' the whole work and in the 
which you will find me deal with the same candour as 
I have in the above critique. I needn't tell you my 
motive for dealing with you in my observations with 
so little sorrow — you guess it I'm sure. The postscript 
to your last is very brief and very pithy — could not 
conceive the meaning of it. Went from Presteign to 
Glo'er. Can't tell where I was on last Thursday 
fortnight. Was at home when I read your letter, 
but knew not the reason of our servant's giving it me 
so secretly. Here followeth the history of the 
transaction. When I came into the house (at g o'clock, 
being a good hour for a rake) the girl pulled your letter 
out of her bosom and gave it me slily, and then vanished 
like the baseless fabric of a vision. What all this 
mistery meant she will not inform me. Poor E. W. will 
be wrote to this post by 

Yours, &c., 

THEO. JONES. 



41 

To THE Rev. Mr. DA VIES, CHIPPING SODBURY, 
GLOS. 

1798. 
Dear Sir, 

I am extremely obliged to you for your letter 
and translation, which arrived here when I was in 
London, in which place I was confined for near 6 weeks 
— I say confined, for after 9 days or a fortnight 
London becomes disagreeable to me. I dined with all 
our Cambrian Register men ; one day at Williams's, 
and was much pleased with some of them. Some of 
them are dumb fish and some of them are (I am afraid) 
dull fish. David Williams (who, however, is not one of 
us) is certainly a man of strong sense and a very able 
writer, notwithstanding he has been washed by the 
ignis fatuus of the modern enlightened Philosophy as it is 
called. It is strange to me that men of learning who, the 
further they proceed in knowledge, must find how much 
more they have to know, and who must be satisfied 
that there are so many things which it is impossible 
human learning can ever comprehend, should upon 
that most serious of all subjects, Religion and Futurity, 
stumble because it is not within the reach of our finite 
capacities. Yet these folks will readily admit that they 
cannot comprehend the primary causes of the most 
common operations of nature. Yet so it is, and because 
David Williams's strong, manly understanding cannot 
comprehend the Trinity in Unity, the necessity of 
Atonement, &c., he is become a Deist, if not an Atheist, 
for the transition from the one to the other is less than 
is generally imagined or admitted. I shall send you j^our 
Armes (for these are mihtary days) by coach. It 
appears to me to be an incoherent, rhapsodical com- 
position, not without beauty certainly, but you'll pardon 
me for differing with you as to the merit of the early 
publications in our or indeed in any other language 
I am acquainted with. There is certainly something 
more nervous, more comprehensive, and expressive, in 
the compound words in the early Welsh poems than 
those of a later period. 

The sterling Bullion of one antient hue* 

Drawn in modern wire wo'd thro' whole pages shine. 

♦ I may say word. 



42 

And there is less affectation in these ideas ; they were 
Nature's children, and their dress was simple and plain, 
but I should no more prefer your Disgogan awen 
dygobryssyn to " Hoff iawn oedd gorphennu Tuy 
haf wrth lynn Tyfi " than I should the rough music 
of the Otaheite or the American Indians to the notes of 
Handel or Purcell. My opinion is the same as to the 
English ; Gower and Chaucer and even Spencer, whom I 
think the most respectable of the three, are no more to 
be compared to Pope, Dryden, or my friend Gray, than I 
am to Ned Davies. It may be said that our late 
authors and poets have borrowed several of their 
most beautiful thoughts from the antients. I am 
not disposed to deny that, and perhaps it may be 
more difficult to avoid plagiarism than is generally 
supposed. What Puff or Bayes (I don't know which) 
says, tho' jocularly, ' ' Why, I think I have seen that 
thought or that line somewhere before " ; " well, 
suppose you did, it only proves that two great men 
thought alike, and the thought occurred first to your 
author," — is more true than the writers of the present 
age wiU allow ; it would be a curious disquisition to 
ascertain how long ago the world has been compleatly 
peopled with ideas or whe'r it has yet happened. I 
am inclined to believe the former, not having so high 
an opinion of the perfectibility of the human species 
as Mr. Godwin. Pray is that idea a creation of the 
present day or not ? I think not, tho' there has been 
a pretty long, long parenthesis, from its first ist 
generation to its regeneration. This is something hke 
digression, if an epistle, not professing to treat upon 
any particular subject, or boasting of anything like 
connection, may be said to digress. I was just before 
talking to you upon the beauties of antient and 
modern poetry. Will you permit me to say I prefer 
Gray's Triumph of Owen to the original. My friend 
Owen grinds his teeth with a most Druidic and 
bardic grin when he pronounces 

A'r Gild gad greudde 
A'r Gryd gryd graendde. 

Bravo, Bravissimo. Divine ! says I. Oh, beautiful, 
quoth he. Nothing like it among the moderns. 
Certainly not, say I, for when I see a good-natured 
fellow riding his hobby horse, admiring him as he goes 



43 

along : " Isn't this a pretty pony — do look at him, do 
stroke him," there is no harm in indulging — nay, it is 
ill-natured not to do it — but ' ' Ar Tal y moelfre mil o 
fanieri," tho' expressed in soft language, is not equal 
to Talymoelyfre's (which the English Galymalfries 
have made Talymalfry's rocky show. 

Echoing to the battle roar 
Where'er his glowing e^^eballs turn, 
A thousand banners round him burn. 

These two last lines are exquisite. Now I'm getting 
on horseback, and take care I don't kick you. I know 
there is something like this said of Horton, but Mr. 
Pope's " fames in the van, and blazes in the war," is 
not equal to Gray — at least in my opinion — the original 
I have forgotten : nay the letters have almost become 
pot-hooks and links to me. It is strange how that the 
1st ode of Aneurin, or at the least the beginning 
of it, is still familiar to me, and I was going to say 
sometimes haunts me. Now to Armes again. I have 
sent you with your MS. some notes I made, not intended 
for inspection, but merely for my own amusement. 
However, as you wish to have them, and, as I sometimes 
think, tho' by no means a democrat, that two heads 
are better than one, I have sent them to you without 
altering a letter. You are welcome to burn them, to 
laugh at them, reject them, or make any other profitable 
or convenient use whatever of them. If you should take 
the trouble of perusing them you will probably say this 
fellow knows little of his subject ; he does not understand 
the language, and when he does ride his hobby horse how 
he looks for all the vassal world like a Taylor riding to 
Brentford. Talking of Democrats just now, pray are 
you democratically inclined ? Owen is, but is either 
afraid or ashamed to own it. As he writes (poor 
fellow) for bread, it may be prudent to say nothing 
upon the subject in his book ; but I see no necessity 
for concealing it among friends. It is no more any 
impeachment upon a man's head or his heart that 
he should be a Republican than a Monarchist, and tho' 
I am of opinion that the latter is the least evil of the 
two, I don't hold it necessary to knock down or quarrel 
with any man who differs from me. Without being 
vain, I wish to God all the world would agree to differ 



44 

in this manner, and I should have no more objection 
to change our Government every 6 or 7 years, or 
reform what we must admit to be rotten, than I have 
in changing my shirt every day, but such is the 
tenacity of power on the one side and the untameable 
phrenzy of the multitude on the other that, from the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer to the little paltry 
Corporation of Brecon, not one iota of their power or 
their superfluous riches will the}^ part with till they 
cannot avoid it, and then the strong, the furious, the 
undiscriminating arms of the mob levels all distinctions, 
and the most eminent abilities or exalted virtues are 
disregarded and laid in the dust. But where the 

d 1 am I driving to now ? What will be the next 

subject ? I've done. I've only one wish more, which 
is your health and happiness. If I can throw- in a word 
for you with the Bishop of Gloiicester*, without being 
impertinent, I'll do it, but I have no dependence upon 
m3^ influence. I would not, therefore, buoy you up 
with false hopes. Pray write when you are at 
leisure to, dear Davies, 

Your old and sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

[The following are the notes referred to in this 
letter. A reference to Arymes Prydain Vawr, translated 
into English bj^ the Rev. Edward Davies, shows that 
several of the alterations suggested by Theophilus 
Jones were adopted by Mr. Davies. The Welsh Poem 
and the English translation are to be found in the 
Cambrian Register. — Editor.] 

Line. No. 

13. Pell dysgoganer appears to be " Far and wide shall be sung," 
or ' ' renown'd in song in distant climes, shall be the time when 
their sway or dominion shall commence " ; if it had been 
dysgoganed T should have said my friend Davies was right. 
There is no when in the two following lines, nor do I see any 
necessity for introducing one, or supposing it to be understood. 

Ymhervedd eu rhagwedd is Shakspearian or Shakespeare in Camhrian. 
" Thus far have we travelled into the bowels of the land." 

25-6. That we had not revolted from the Government and our 
partiality or ill-judged fondness for the Saxons — I hope cychmyn 
is not plural of cachwron, the adjective is by — or at least 
naturalized, the termination is certainly hardly a denizen. 

♦ Richard Beadon, Bishop of Gloucester, 1789—1802. 



45 

or .tS„c»°of Vortigwn." from thoLr hav.ng oome th«. f.r 
in their journey of plunder ? 
9S Ff f^rhant &c T should read this " May they reach Germany 
n^ trni'shm^nt/' that is banishment from the country, and 
nerhaps thirpiophet might think, as is now sarcastically said 
Ef tScotch^ that to beSent back again into their ane conetrey 
was the worst species of banishment. 
W DreiEhvnt. that stopped or stay'd or cast anchor in every harbour 
to wWch they were driven, meaning that wherever they came 
theTe was no^getting rid of them ; they stuck to he country 
liTe lelches, and never quitted it till they had swal owed all its 
fridts! Mr. Owen, if he has not made nonsense of the passage, 
has made it certkinlv most delightfully obscure ; it is not 
however, improbable that these seers frequently affected 
obscurity, in^ which they have in general been extremely 
successful. 
33 Anfonedd, a misfortune T should translate, for the vonedd is now 
^^- in common parlance of a noble or antient origin and of co^ae 
Infonedd the reverse ; vonedd is sometimes used for goodness, 
happiness, or felicity. _ 

S5 to 40 are fine lines. Thev contain a beautiful invocation or appeal 
to the pLsons of the Poet or Prophet's injured countrymen. 
Think of the fandful mead's insidious bowl, 
Which manv a thoughtless guest bereft of soul, 
The mortaf wound, the widow's bitter tear. 
The daily sorrows they are doom'd to bear, 
Think of those wrongs which Britons must endure. 
When scoundrel Saxons shall their rei?n secure. 
42. I should rather think that the country of the Britons shoiJd be 
'iven up to or destroyed by the powerful or anarchica Saxons 
^I feel the difficulty of thus translating it. T"«^d not remind 
my friend that to rise ar/ainst is a phrase to which pobsh d 
Author's are not accustomed, nor need I inform him what tarddu 
means in English. "Urn g6r, un gyngor, un eifor ynt — 
Th^ is not the style of the time, and I am rather surprised at 
meeting it here ; this wo'd do for the most polish'd author of 
the 18th century. . ,• i 

57 ' ' And the gi-ove trembles at the warrior's shout —hyperbolical, 

but boldly and beautifully expressed. 
79 Utterly kill is a phase not much in use now ; perhaps utterly 
exterminate or destroy or the Scripture phrase of they will 
xitterlv destroy ' ' would do better. 
82. The surgeon shall not receive advantage from what they 11 do. 

Cad a wnaant— they shall make a slaughter. 
87 88 Thev shall have a song and be a light in darkness in the grove, 
the fields? and motmt." Conan shall be their leader m every 

106 Is^noTiTohawr (tho' the termination is now obsolete and hardly 
interisible\, F v, or mav they fly, and not may they be made 
to fly.^ (Se; no^c to line 47, surely this is peculiar to this poem 
and the author seems to bo fond of it). Ho bonydd, shall fly 
daily ; see above. ,, 

114 Eu henydd, is, I believe, their forefathers or ancestors as well 
a^ their Chief, and certainly will apply well here in that sense 

117 Pen heb emmenydd, the brainless sku/l is more literal, and 1 
think less equivocal than empty skull. 



46 

Line. No. 

125. The Welsh succeeded or successful were from their being 
unanimous ; they were one in goodness, one in language, one 
in sound (this seems to be a repetition) and one in faith. 

133 to 140. A number of pertinent and probable questions are asked 
the Saxons, to which T believe they would be puzzled to give 
satisfactory answers criminating themselves. 

143. Hyd pan dalont (till they pay) here means till they have been 
compelled to pay. 

160. The destroyer in battle, the destroyer of armies. 

171. The prophetic song of the Druids ; a multitude shall come 
forth ; from Mynaw to Lydau shall be in their hands ; from 
Ddyfod to Ddaned shall they possess ; from Wa-wr to Weryd 
shall be their harbours ; and their dominion shall be extended 
even over the west. This is much in the style of the Bible 
prophecies. 

189. The Germans are retreating fcychwyn vant) or upon their journey 
to the place of banishment, or as we should now say, they're 
on board a transport bound for Botany Bay. 

193. Let not the Bookworm and the Man of Books, or the interested 
Poet be sought. The concluding lines are very fine — "he 
shall not fly," &c. Be firm as a rock and conscious of the 
Stability and justice of Him in whom he confides, he shall not 
even tremble ' ' but stand ' ' unmov'd amidst the wreck of 
matter and the crush of worlds." 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIRS, CHIPPING 
SODBURY, GLOS. 

February ii, 1799. 
My Dearest Friend, 

Don't suppose I have forgot you because you 
have not heard from me for some time. . . I am 
going to London in a fortnight and shall see the 
Bishop, though I am afraid my influence with him is 
not very great ; yet still I'll try what I can do. Pray 
write to me the particulars of your situation, your 
health, &c., and everything else which your discretion 
may think requisite or befitting a Bishop's ears to 
hear. I have no great hopes, but if we fail we shall 
not be worse off than we are at present. Direct to 
me next week at No. 37, Golden Square. I have 
translated Gronwy Owen's Poem upon the Day of 
Judgment into Rhyne. I shall send it you to explain, 
amend, alter, add, erase, diminish, cut down poem, or 
transpose at your own will and pleasure, provided 
always, nevertheless, that 3^ou do it dashingly and 
without any fear of offending the pride or the learning 
of the Rhymetagger — I mean 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



47 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES, CHIPPING 
SODBURY, GIvOS. 

Why, how now, Adam ! No greater heart in thoe ? Live a little, 
comfort a little, cheer thyself a little. Thy conceit is nearer death 
than thy powers. For my sake be comfortable ; hold death awhile at 
the arm's end . — Cheerly, good Adam ! 

My Good Friend, 

Comfortless as your situation is at present, 
still recollect how many thousands (I will not say more 
deserving, but excellent men) are even more miserable 
than the curate of Chipping Sodbury. I think 

How many pine in want and dungeon gloom, 
Shut from the common air and common use 
Of their own hmbs. How many drink the cup 
Of baleful grief, or eat the bitter bread 
Of misery — sow pierced by wintry winds ; 
How many shrink into the sordid hut 
Of cheerless poverty. 

Very fine (^^ou'll say) my fat and pamper' d friend, 
sitting in your own parlour and enjoying all the 
conveniences and many of the luxuries of life. 
Admitted, but the advice is salutary, whether it come 
from the palace or the cot. Look below you. It 
will help to reconcile you while you struggle thro' 
your difficulties and wrestle with your misfortune, 
especially when you consider that they are ordained 
by the all wise dispensation of Providence — 
probably — very probably, to prove your fortitude 
and to intitle you to a far more exceeding and 
eternal weight of glory hereafter, in proportion as 
3'-ou support them with magnanimity now, and let 
me add that while you continue to keep in view that 
sweet reward it is not necessary you should lose sight 
of hope here. I send you, hereunder, the substance of 
the Bishop of Gloucester's to me, which I enclosed to 
the Bishop of St. David's, who appears to me from his 
term ' ' abandoned " to be an unfeeling — shall I say 
Scot ? No, that would be illiberal, but as I have at 
present no proper phrase to express myself in, I wish 
— a speedy translation — and depend upon it I will 
never lose sight of you if I can do anything for you. 
I really beheve the Bishop of Glos. wishes to assist you, 
and we may have a Bishop of St. David's who will not 



48 

call an attempt to seek a livelihood abandoning the 
diocese. You'd have heard from me sooner, but tho' 
I wrote to the Bishop of St. David's a month ago, 
I did not receive his letter till to-day, but as he kept 
your letter and that of the Bishop of Glos'ter's, I 
augured well from this. Yet often how vain is the 
hope of man, says poor old Walters in his Preface, 
which I wish you to read as one of the most beautiful 
specimens (or as Churchey calls it, specimena) in the 
English or any other language. After losing two 
sons who were an honor to him, as well as his country, 
while two others are idiots and drunkards survive, 
he concludes his affecting lamentation with a bleeding 
heart and overflowing eyes, with the following quotation : 

Accept fraternal band 
This last sad tribute from a father's hand. 
My poor father has at last (I trust) ascended the realms 
of Peace, after a long and afflicting illness of near 
three months, in which he could be barely said to have 
existed. I wish you could have succeeded him in 
Llywel, but I find it is promised, and not to my friend, 
but let me give you the Episcopal Letters addressed 
to, Dear Davies, 

Your very sincere friend, 
Brecon, April 14, 1799. THEO. JONES. 

Let me hear from you. 

FROM THE BISHOP OF GLOUCESTER. 
Yoiir recommendation of Mr. Davies required no apology. I 
know the worth of his character, and heartily wish it was in my power 
to render the situation more comfortable, but jou seemed to be 
thoroughly apprized how very poor a patron I am, and must add as a 
confirmation of it I have only disposed of one living, vacant by death, 
in the ten years I have been Bishop of Gloucester. His stipend for 
serving httle Sodbiu-y is, I think, too small, and if he thinks proper 
to apply for an augmentation he shall have my support in obtaining 
it ; but the appUcation should be first made as a matter of civility 
to Mr. Coxe, the incumbent, whose address he must send me if he 
wishes me to write him. With respect to Yale, I expect Mr. Hay to 
reside himself as soon as his house is finished, but till that time I shall 
not readily consent to a change of curate. 

I am, &c., 

R. GLOUCESTER. 

FROM THE BISHOP OF ST. DAVID'S. 
I am to beg your pardon for not giving j'ou a more immediate 
answer (the cause, his children's illness). Mr. Davies's case appears 
to be deserving of notice, but I know not how to assist him. I have 
many claimants whom I wish to satisfy, and those who live within 
my diocese have certainly a better right to preferment in my gift 
than gentlemen who have thought proper to abandon it. 



49 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

"Thou Shalt not die for lack of a dinner if there be "-any 
lii,ing-'^ in this district. "-Cheerly good Adam. 

Why don't I hear from you ? I am afraid those 
eyes of yours will play you a trick ; if they do, 
thcif eyes. 

I have written to my friend George Hardinge 
this evening, who is as inconsistent and eccentric as 
he is benevolent. Hardinge is our Judge, and m 
Parhament. 

Forgive my hawking you about m this manner. 
God and perhaps the world will reward me. I ask 
not for the praise of the latter, but upon your account. 

I hope you have had my letter with copies of the 
Bishops of Gloucester's and St. David s. 

Let me hear from you, tho' you cannot depend 

upon the success of ■ c • a 

^ Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
Brecon, April 27, 1799- 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES, CHIPPING 
SODBURY, GLOS. 

May 6, 1799. 

My Dear Davies, ^ 1 *• „ ^^ 

Herewith I send you my tame translation or 
parodv or paraphrase, call it what you will, of Gronwy 
Owain's subUme poem. I insist upon you correcting 
altering, adding, %runing, revising, and ameiiding 
without mercy, or I'll have none upon you There are 
Tophistries out of number which should be weeded , 
wrong translations numerous, which you must rectify 
and inaccuracies which you must attend to. I will 
not have it back unless I observe frequent marks of 
your fingers upon it-tho' it is but a dirty thing now 
having travelled with me to London. I wish, however, 
to see it returned more blotted, erased, and interlined 
from Chipping Sodbury, together with the parcel with 
which you threaten me and which I hope to receive 
soon The 2nd vol. of the Cambrian Register is out. 
Your Armes is in it, two critiques of mine upon 
Welsh Tourists and Williams' Monmouthshire— mo-t 
damnaUy^pnnted (as the Vicar and Moses hath it), 



50 

such confounded blunders in punctuation, and even 
grammar, such alterations as to make me sometimes 
talk nonsense, and sometimes the very reverse of 
what I meant. A long preface of my review of 
Williams directly against niN"- opinion, and a tail piece 
to contradict what has preceded it — in fact I am 
perfectly ashamed of my appearance, and only tell 
3^ou in confidence I am the author of them. Pray send 
for this book, if you have it not. I understand they 
want to give it you, if not, be sure you tell them to 
put it to my account, for 'tis shamefully dear, los. 6d. 
Upon second thoughts. I'll write to Williams about it, 
so you need say nothing. I don't know what Owen 
is about at present, nor indeed do I know what 
Williams means. 

You see my little friend the Judge* is not idle. 
He is a Quixote in benevolence, and will knock his head 
against a windmill to serve you, and make some of the 
pillars of our Church shake unless he is attended to, 
tho' God knows I much fear that many of them have 
no more feeling than those supports in architecture. 

Do you mean by the Archaeologia the 2nd 
vol. of lylwyd ? If so, I can't get at it. I am at 
present about a very heavy work — mining — 
extracting silver out of lead, exploring those ■ dark 
caverns and black letter repositories, the Statutes at 
large, for illustrations of the manners and customs 
of other as well as the present times, and comparing 
them with some of our Historians and correcting the 
anachronisms and inaccuracies of the latter. It will 
take me a considerable time to lick the work into shape ; 
at present I have not determined upon that part of the 
subject, but it shall certainlj^ however questionable 
it be at present, not bear the least semblance of a 
lawyer. Seven years hence you shall see it. See it, 
quoth you. Yes, see it. 

Pray don't forget the parcel and the revised Poem 
as soon as you can. Mrs. Jones is as warmly 
interested for you as, dear Davies, 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

* George Harding, Chief Justice of the Brecknock Circuit 
1787 — 1816. See hia Biography in W. R. Wihiama' Welsh Judges, 
p. 149. 



51 



To THE REV. Mr. DAVIES, OTA^vSTON, 
THORNBURY, GLOS. 

Brecon, May 6, 1800. 

My Dear Davies, , 

I should have written to you earher, but that 
I fooHshly hoped to have addressed you as Vicar or 
Rector, but all we can get from the great men are 
" Goodly Words," and now something like promises. 
I'll never cease to plague them until something is 
done ; they shall not at least sleep undisturbed. In 
the meantime I shall be glad to know what your present 
income is. The Bishop of Gloucester I think, said 
something about your having two good curacies and 
being at present well provided for— how is that ? 
Not that I think it material, for I have endeavoured 
to explain myself as well as I could that it is not the 
necessity of the moment, but the contingency of your 
being unable to perform your professional duty that 
I wish to provide for. I however hope, whether I 
succeed or not, that that may never happen both on 
your own account and on my own. Your kind 
attention to my last letter proves to me how much 
I am interested in the preservation of your visual 
powers. I subscribe almost in toto to your clefimtions 
and your reasonings, and if I was not writing to a 
friend whose apphcation and reading I have long 
known, I might perhaps have thought it necessary to 
compHment you upon your learning, but as I see your 
capital is strong, and you agree to accept, I shall 
certainly draw upon you. I shall this summer see 
as much of the county as my professional avocations 
will give me leave to, for tho' the clergy m general 
have very kindly answered such questions as I h^ve 
sent to them, I chuse to trust my own eyes. There 
is one great stumbling block to information which 
they and others can seldom get over -that which is 
in their neighbourhood and which they see every day 
they consider to be known to all the world ; there 
are also several little anecdotes and also occurreiices 
&c generally known near them which might be ot 
real' use which they suppose to be too insignificant 
to be communicated, whereas the aggregate ot 
historical knowledge is formed from the combination 
of facts and circumstances which separately frequently 
appear trifling. 



52 

Let's look at your book. I have a definition of 
Chweore which preceded yours Chi Dwfrfri — pretty and 
ingenious. Yours, however, will do for me. In 
Camlas you are correct, but Dulas I cannot so readily 
give up ; it shall be considered. Grw>'ne being 
a rocky river full of deep holes has been derived 
from Gerwynau, and we have a part of the river 
Taaf of this description which is called Y Gerwynau 
Duon, but perhaps you will tell me the river ran and 
had a name before . . . were in fashion. 
Admitted. Crawnon I have seen antiently written 
Gerwynion. Dihonwy is a briskly flo^\ing river 
and not sluggish, but running from the Turbaries 
I think it takes its name from the color Du Mawn 
w^^ You have given me Mardwl, whether from 
me or from the maps, T don't know ; the little 
brook by Brecknock is Mardrel. I used to derive 
Mellte from Mellt w\^ — water swift as lightning. How 
is it that in almost all old MSS. Tarell is called 
Tartarell. What are Pirgad and Rhiangoll ; they are 
the only rivers I can recollect at present. You shall 
have a cargo of land and water after my visitation. 
So much for the great the hea\-y work 

How often would he dine 
On some bulky school divine. 
And for dessert eat verses. 

(Shenstone tt-pon a College Motive). 

I, too, eat verses occasionally, and amuse myself 
with translating Welsh Peninllion. I have a bag full 
which I have a good mind to throw into sheets in a 
few days. They are converted into English verse 
with great ease. The thoughts are sometimes 
strikingly humorous, and those as well as the metre 
which may be in some degree initiated, would be new 
to an English reader. Take the following out of 50 : — 

On'd yd}^' hyn rhyfeddod 
Fod dannedd wraig yn darfod 
On'd tra fo yn ei geneu chwith 
Ni dderfydd byth mo''i thafod. 

Translation : 

And is't not strange to say 

That females' teeth decay. 

By while the've Ufe and breath to scold 

We ne'er perceive the tongue grow old, 



53 

Clywais siarad ctywais dwndro 
Clywais rhan o'r byd yn beio 
Erioed ni chlywais neb yn ddatcan 
Fawr o'i hynod feiau ei hunan 

Translation : 

I've heard men talking, heard them bother 
Each still blaming one the other ; 
But though our faults to all are known 
I never heard one blame his own. 

Os collais i fy nghariad Ian 
Mae Bran i fran yn rhywle 
Wrth ei bodd y bo hi byw 
Ag Ewyllys Duw i minneu 

Translation : 

And if I've lost my dearest love, 
There's Dove for Dove designed ; 
May she Hve pleas'd and happy still, 
To God's high will I'm perfectly resigned. 

I believe the Cywydd, the Awdl, the Englyn, and the 
Pennili to be what we would call in Enghsh the Poem, 
Ode, Stanza, and Epigram. I mean to give a specimen 
of each. Gronwy Owain shall go for the ist, the 2nd 
I shall take from some of the antients, and Englynion 
and Penillion we have thick as hops. By the bye, let 
you and me have a little conversation about these 
same antients, I know Owain and you (who it is 
nothing like compliments to say are more profoundly 
and intimately acquainted with the language than 
myself) pity us poor children who are pleased with 
the rattle and gingle of the modern rhymer. When 
sense is sacrificed to sound I give it up, but I 
apprehend both may be produced and the harmony 
of letters and syllables may recommend and assist 
the sentiments, and are certainly a help to the 
memory. This gingle, however, has been objected 
to by some men of learning, even to Pope, and they 
have preferred Chaucer to him. Now I have a hobby 
horsial turn for antiquities, and I hope have all due 
respect for the learning of our ancestors, of which I am 
willing to allow them a greater stock than is generally 
attributed to them, but I really can see no comparison 
whatever in the poetry or language of Chaucer and 
Pope or Tahessin and Edward Richard, the latter of 



54 

whom I know Owain despises. Let us have a little 
of our favourite Penbeirdd : — 

Dyhuddiant Elphin. 
Elphin deg taw ath wylo 
Na chabled neb yr eiddo 
Ni wna les drwg obeithio 
Ni wyl dyn ddim ai portho 
Ni fydd goeg gweddi Cynllo 
Ni thyrr Duw ar addawo 
Ni chad Ynghored Wyddno 
Erioed cystal a heno. 

Translation : 

EivPhin's Lullaby. 
Pretty Elphin, donna cry 
Don't despair boy ! becase why 
It really donna signify 
Man should not believe his eyes 
Nor good Cynllo's pray'r despise 

Ne'er was caught in Gwyddno Weir 
Such a draught as this I swear. 

From this as well as the remainder of the poem 
we learn that Elphin had a private fishery (I am sorry 
to find these cursed monoplies are of so old a date) ; that 
instead of salmons he one night caught a ballad singer; 
who by way of comfort tells him that if he (the little, 
Elf) gets into a scrape he'll do him more service than 
300 Salmon. "Oh," says Elphin — or I dare say he 
thought as Jack Wilkins did fishing upon Glazbury 
Bridge with his rod and line and fly about 6 yards 
above the water — " I wish the Lord I could catch a 
salmon."* 

T have taken very little hberties with the 
originals here, and there are more which are equally 
childish and flimsy. I am ready to allow the old Bards 
great merit ; though their language was rough and 
dissonant, and by no means as polished and copious 
as that of the 14th, 15th, or even i6th century, their 
compounds were very comprehensive. Multum in 

* The Rev. John Wilkins, B. 1742 (younger brother of Mr. 
Walter Wilkins, M.P., who purchased the Maesllwch Estate). He 
was known by the pseudonym, " Catch-a-Sahnon," a favourite 
phrase of his. 



55 

parvo, and what was said of French wire may be well 
applied to them — 

" The sterling bullion of our British line," &c. 

I am about Aneurin Gwawdrydd's " Englynion 
y Misoedd." I am sure you have seen it. I've 
translated the greater part of it into something like 
verse. There is much merit and much oddity in this 

composition. I am much pestered by my d d 

profession and the folks of the fair, or I should have 
given you as much more nonsense as my paper would 
permit. Write to me at your leisure, but let it not be 
lazy, lounging leisure. Is there no servus servorum 
Dei (I don't mean the Pope, but a journeyman 
parson) ? who would serve for you for 2 Sundays 
this summer, while you sport a few days with, dear 
Davies, 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

Least after my Pennill about the female tongue 
you may suppose I am damning the fair sex in general, 
or my wife in particular, know that this is our 
commercial fair day — and a fine day it is, thank God. 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES, Near 
THORNBURY, GI.OS. 

Brecon, July i8, 1800, 
My Dear Davies, 

You will no doubt consider me a strange, 
inconsistent fellow, one moment professing friendship, 
then apparently deserting or seeming to forget it for 
a 12 month, but the truth most assuredly is that I 
have not lost sight of you since you left school. I 
pray God that may not be the case in one sense with 
yon, in that sense in which I use to you I am sure it 
never will ; and first then let me ask how are your 
twilights ? I hope since you have left off playing 
Floggum, and of course working as Mr. Floggum, 
they improve, and that you now see thro' a millstone 
or a 9-inch board at least. 

I should certainly have noticed your last sooner 
if Mr. Hardinge had not pocketed it, and tho' I told 



56 

him I did' not know how to direct to you without it, 
his eccentricity has probably applied, or rather 
misapplied, it to most base and ignoble purposes long 
ere this. I learned, however, accidentally from the 
Bishop of Gloucester in a letter which I lately received 
from him that a letter directed to you near Thornbury 
would probably find you. I shall therefore venture 
to send this so addressed. 

I have been among Bishops and among lords by 
the half dozens — one has a son to prefer and a 
chaplain to promote, but as to the Bishop of Rochester, 
says Mr. Hardinge, " Napthali is a hand let loose, 
he giveth — Goodly Words." In short, I don't know, 
or rather I do know, what to think of them, but I 
shall persevere. I can do you no mischief, tho' if I 
were sure Providence would enable you to go thro' 
your professional duty I'd see the tj^the of them (at 
least) hanged first. 

I now ride a pony of another colour from that 
which I kept when I wrote to you last. That if you 
recollect was an old big black nag called Antient 
vStatutes ; this is an ambling, shuffling little fellow, 
who frisks up our hills and down our vales, over tomb- 
stones and cromlechs, thro' ford and whirlpool, over 
bog and quagmire. He is not called (as you may 
suppose) Flipportigibbot, but is hereafter to be 
instituted The History of Brecknockshire : whether 
he may not (as is frequently the case among great 
folks who call their children George Augustus Stanislaus 
Bouned) have the additional appellation of statistical, 
topographical, geometrical, or geographical, I am not 
yet determined. I have ridden very hard of late, 
and am now, to use a phrase of these days ' of 
encampment, resting upon my arms, but I shall mount 
again shortly — hold my horse's head for a moment. 
In Builth the tenants of the manor pay upon their 
admission fines to the lord called Maccwyn and 
Mabryddiaeth ; the former is only paid in a small 
part of the district. What is the import of the ist 
word in particular, the second I can guess at. Owen, 
who speaks very highly indeed of 3-ou, says it is now 
become extremely fashionable to give definitions in the 
pail up and easian style, and that I must attend to 



57 

that carefnllv. I now, however, to prove that you 
must get up' behind, set you a task for your leisure. 
What do the foUowing rivers in Brecknockshire 
mean ? I know the import of many, but I wish to 
compare yours with my own. 

j My eye, Betty Martin, 1 suppose, this 
is unintelhgible to me. 



Mehascyn 

Cynrig. 
Caerfanell. 
Annell. 
Tarell. 

Dihonwy. 

CiUeni. 

Grwyne. 

Nedd. 

Escyr. 

Honddu. 

Taaf. 

Bemw. 



I 



Senny. 
Crai. 
Cynlais or 

Cynlas. 
Mollte. 
Gwidderig. 
Camarch. 
Olchon. 
Crawnon. 
Mardrol. 
Hoywy. 
Brynich. 



Clydach and 

Ysclydach. 
Gwessin. 
Palleg. 
Craaf. 
Chwefri. 

And any others you 
can recollect whose 
names you know 
to be difficult of 
translation. 



Mrs. Jones presents her respects and best wishes. 
Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE REV. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Brecon, Oct. 4, 1801. 
My Dear Da vies. 

Dr. Turton and I had talked over your 
business at Swansea, and he had suppHed me with your 
prospectus before your parcel arrived. Pray whom 
have you employed at Hay to receive subscriptions ? 
I'll get some person there to refer to if you have not 
alreadv spoken to anyone. I had hung up a bit of 
pasteboard in the coffee house at Brecon and at North's 
about a fortnight ago, and I have a subscription for 
50 copies. The Judge promises me to do great things 
for you in Tondon. I think you had better write 
to him to say I have comnmnicated his kind intention 
to you and to thank him for his kindness ; you may 
at the same time state the big beatings you have 



58 

received from the bitch Fortune for these last lo or 
15 years. Pray let this be done. He was very 
anxious to set about a subscription for you about 2 
years ago, which, however, I put an end to by 
insisting that in case of your becoming blind I could 
afford, to buy a dog and a string for your employment 
in the day and a bed at night. For this he called me 
a proud, impudent fellow, but though I am as much 
hurt as any man at your situation and circumstances, 
I cannot promote any subscription to improve them 
which may injure your feelings or degrade the 
establishment. By the mode now proposed, I trust 
neither are affected, nor do I see any impropriety in 
your accepting the first reward of your labours (in part), 
however, without being too nicely attentive to the 
size and bulk of the book. I mention this because 
Turton told me you were a little squeemish upon this 
part of the subject. 

Our correspondence is something like what the 
Spectator (I think it is) describes that of Hilpa and 
Shalum (two antediluvian lovers) to be ; the last 
letter which I wrote was about a year and a half ago 
expressing a desire of seeing you here, since which you 

have not given me one word. I suppose has 

been entertaining you all this time with the virtues 
of Jamaica pepper, or the mode of ciiltivating sugar 
canes ; he has, however, I trust sold you some ex- 
perience, tho' I am extremely sorry it cost you so 
much ; but really books are bad instructors if they 
either do not teach us to read mankind or to conduct 
ourselves with caution in our concerns with strangers 
at least. 

Now we are upon the subject of reading, I assume 
(a great effort certainly) that you have read the 
fable of the Good Samaritan. You shall have a 
parody. I was mentioning to a rich clergyman that I 
had a friend whose purse did not, as I apprehended, 
run over, and that this friend, who was in the Church, 
was now publishing a book by subscription. " Ho," 
quoth the lycvite, " these are not times for sub- 
scriptions," and so he passed by. I was entertaining 
a lawyer with a dismal tale of a poor parson who was 
not quite so well rewarded as I thought he ought to 



59 

be "Ay" savs he, "is he the man you describe 
him ?— then he" shall have my hving on the first 
vacancy" But tho' I am satisfied he'll religiously 
stick to his word, the curate of Olveston may outstrip 
the present incumbent— who is between 50 and 60— 
in the race to heaven. I shall certainly employ you 
before vou go (if Providence permit it) m my 
Breconshire business, for we lawyer men have always 
an interest in view when we take any trouble. You 
will however, give me credit for other concomitant 
motives, at least, and beUeve me to be, dear Davies, 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

Mrs Jones presents her compliments. She tells 
me there is a spare bed or two in the house. Oral 
language would, I think, have better than vocal m 
your proposal. 

Direct to George Hardinge, Esq., M.P., Weymouth 
Street, Ivondon. 

I've such a room ! such a study. 
You rogue ! so snug ! that if you 
Could see it, I'm sure you'd like it. 
It is at the back part of the house, no noise or 
interruption, except now and then a call mto the ofiice 
from those cursed fellows John Doe and Richard 
Roe. 



To THE REV. EDWARD DAVIES, OLVESTON, 
GLOS. 

Brecon, Dec. 16, 1801. 
Dear Davies, 

Our friend Mr. Hardinge called out to a young 
barrister (who was remarkablv nervous) while he was 
cutting up a goose, ' ' Have a care, Mr. Gw>'lym, the 
eyes of all Europe are upon you." I have sent you a 
list of your .subscribers on the other side to show you 
that the Bench of Bishops are extremely kind and 
always ready to reward merit. You have also a letter 
to Mr. Hardinge from Briareus Briant, the hterary 
giant, part of which I can't read, and some of it I 
don't understand. No language is older than 



6o 

another, but the Chaldaic is the oldest of them all ! 
Homer and Heriod knew nothing of Moses, yet his 
(Bryaint's) Book is published to prove that the heathen 
Mythology is borrowed from Scripture. As to the 

Celtic, it's blown to the d ; Mr. Hardinge is his 

convert. I am not, but I own to you that I know of 
no literary Remains of the Celtic. Be it yours to show 
them, but as lads in high life below stairs say Mind 
y'r hits. 

Mr. Hardinge had desired me to set his name 
down for what number of copies I want to write my 
own. I wrote lo, but you see he says 2 — this may be 
right, because we must not appear to be more liberal 
than our greaters, but you'll consider me as 10. 
There are two or three of Dr. Turton's men in this 
Hst, but I should explain to you that I had them only 
a few days after the proposal came out at Swansea. 
The Bishop of Gloucester has a list for you which I've 
not got by me, but which he writes Mr. Hardinge 
word he hopes will not be contemptible. Don't publish 
till after the circuit. Mr. Hardinge desires this, as 
he intends to poll the lawyers (he says) as he has the 
parsons. I have much to say to you as to his mode 
of pushing on this business, but it is late, and I'll write 
to you again when I can get a frank. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, May 22, 1802. 
My Dear Davies, 

I have received a letter from the Prebendary 
of Llandilo-graban to say that if he does not serve 
the curacy himself (which I know he will not) he will 
attend to my request ; so that the moment the present 
curate retires to Abraham's bosom, you may go to 
Botany Bay, which you'll not dislike, as you have 
relations among the natives. You shall hear from 
me when the cancer has done its work. 

Mr. Hardinge has sent me your letter. I agree 
with you in toto ; and, as the man said about the 
Peace, may he who hkes you not, be shotto. The 



6i 

Judge accuses you of being low spirited. I tell him 
he may as well condemn you for being afflicted with 
a fever or an ague. If I understand one part of your 
letter, Mr. H. wanted you to say something in your 
work about the Persian and Indian languages. I 
have told him that cannot now be done, and he, as well 
as I, wish you immediately to go to Press. Take as 
much exercise as you can, but don't read or write. 
Enquire instantly as to the value of the Crown 
livings in Gloucestershire. I insist upon it ; your 
letter must only contain their names, value, and the 
probability of their becoming vacant ; if you say one 
word more you will hurt yourself, but much more 

Your sincere friend, 

THKO. JONES. 
Go to Press instantly. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, June 26, 1802. 
My De\r Davies, 

The curacy of Painscastle is vacant, but alas ! 
Llandilo-graban is in the nomination of the lessee (and 
not the Prebendar>') and he has promised it. I doubt 
whether this is worth your acceptance ; however, 
if you can find time come down, and I'll go with you 
and endeavour to find out the value of it. I rather 
think it is a poor thing, and will not suit you, but our 
friend Payne will not give it to any other person till 
he has your answer. 

Yotirs very sincerely, 
THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES, 

Brecon {Sunday Mornins), 1802. 
Dear Davies, 

A short letter, for I am but barely recovered 
from the gout and my wrist aches. Mr. Hardinge 
wishes you to employ Faulder as your bookseller in 
lyondon ; have you spoken already to any of those 
thieves ? Write to him to inform him how and about 
it. The Bishop of Gloucester writes me a very kind 



62 

letter in which he states he has procured you over 
70 subscribers, the Duchess of Gloucester, Prince 
William, and the Princess Sophia at the head of them 
— that he shall persevere till your work is published, 
and he adds (which gave me great pleasure) ' ' from 
Mr. Davies's letters to Mr. Hardinge I am not afraid 
he'll throw any discredit upon those who have 
recommended him . ' ' 

What is the reason that in Welsh we call a week 
8 nights and a fortnight 15 nights ? 

Yours very sincerely, 

TIIEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIBS, 

Cardiff, Wednesday Morning. 
My Dear Friend, 

The account you gave me and the statement 
in your letter to Mr. Hardinge, as far as it respected 
your health, alarmed me nmch, and finding your 
pains and headaches were increased by writing, I took 
the liberty of writing to him that it might hurt you to 
apply often, even to 5'our favourite subjects at present, 
and I at the same time told him that I intended to 
request you would not write to me for some time till j^'ou 
had found your health improved, which (in the language 
of the circuit) I hereby give you notice to abstain 
from ; and I should not even puzzle your poor 
blinkers to pore over these tiny hieroglyhics if I was 
not anxious to communicate the pleasure I feel from 
a perusal of Dr. Moncriffe's letter, who assures our 
friend Mr. Hardinge that excepting your defect of sight 
(which he does not think hkely to become worse, unless 
yoiir application to books is too intense) he apprehends 
no danger whatever from your other complaints, which 
he thinks are nervous, and which may be easily 
removed ; this being the case, I don't think it 
improbable you may yet be forced to tell a truth 
where all your predecessors have bounced, and in spite 
of your holo Episcopari may furnish a bed occasionally 
for your friend at Abergwili, as soon as his present 
lordship shall march upstairs. Send me Whitaker's 
Manchester, and the Itinerary as soon as you can. I 
do not perfectly comprehend the wythnos, or the 



63 

Pymthenos, but if you give me your opinion I'll throw 
it in, though if it exceeds three hues, for much as I 
value them I will not have long letters from you at 
present. Before my great evil appears pubhcly, you 
Shan hear more oi my sentiments as to the Dimotoe 
and Silures, which I rather think alarmed you as much 
as your symbols did Mr. Hardinge. It is not necessary 
that either of us should yet thmk upon the subject. 

Yours very sincerely, 
THEO. JONES. 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

I,I.ANBEDR, NEAR CrICKHOWEU,, 

Wednesday Evening (1802). 

Dear Davies, 

I am now at my friend Payne's, who _ is 
Prebendarv of Painscastle, and has the nomination 
to the perpetual curacy of that parish. He tells me 
Powell, who officiated there, cannot hve many weeks 
It is I beHeve, about the annual value of £50, and it 
Llandilo-graban could be had, which is now served 
by the same person, it would be about £100. Before 
he nominates any person he wishes to know if this 
would suit you. Tell me whether, if I can also get at 
the Prebendarv of I.landilo-graban, you would like 
to take theni. Consider well before you answer, 
because (without being sanguine) I hope you are now 
in a fair way of doing better ; but I would not lose this 
opportunitv of mentioning this to you before I write 
to the Prebendary of Llandilo, and let me have your 
answer as soon as possible. 

Yours very sincerely, 

■ THEO. JONES. 

Direct, of course, to Brecon. 

To the Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

1802. 

My Dear Davies, 

Our whimsical friend Hardinge is of all whimsical 
men the most whimsical. One letter brings me 
complaints of your book, that it does not jump out ot 



64 

the Press, and begs that I'll goad you. The next comes 
to complain that you don't take the MS. out of the 
printer's hands to send to him. In answer to a 
remonstrance which I sent him against increasing 
the expense by printing additional lists of subscribers 
and pointing out to him that he was only serving the 
paper makers and printers, as I doubted whether you 
would get IS. a copy by them, whereupon the said 
George Hardinge chargeth the said Theophilus with 
ingratitude and strictly injoineth and commandeth 
him to send the MS. copy now in the said T.J.'s 
possession to the said Edward Davies, in order that 
the said may be sent to the devil,* I have obeyed 
with reluctance, and this day's coach conveys the 
parcel to Messrs. Whitcomb, Griffiths and Philpott, 
Attorn ies, Glo'ster, where it will wait till you send 
for it or direct it to be conveyed by a safe conveyance. 
When I say it is with reluctance, it is because, if the 
book turns out well, I fear he will take more merit 
for smooth polishing than he deserves. I am in love 
with Dafydd ap Gwylym's poem to the wind ; when your 
eyes are better, give me a literal English translation. 
I believe I understand it perfectly, but I would not 
distort or lose a thought for the world, and I want to 
give it an English poetic dress. I think it superior 
to " C5nvydd y Daran," and " Dwynwen deigr 
danian Degwch," which Owen has taken the pains 
to convert into " Dwynwen fair," as the glittering 
drops of morn is to m.e nonsense in English or Welsh. 
He has also, I think, wrongly translated 

Dy laeblaid yn dy Iwysblwyf, 
Doslurus ofalus wyf. 

Grant me thy extended protection in thy pleasant parish, 
for I am in pain and anxiety. I think it should be I 
am thy hmnhle or prostrate suppliant, full of pain and 
care in thy abode of chearfulness or in thy chearful 
parish. 

Now for the goad. Get on with the book — sans 
delai et sans peur. ' ' But can that be done ? ' ' says 
the curate of Olveston. " Sans monish," as my devil 
careth not for the sentence of Judge Hardinge, or the 

* The printer, very often so called (See Dr. Brewer's Diet- 
of Phrase and Fable, p. 222. 



65 

excommunication of Jones, the Registrar. Ay, there's 
the rub. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

I never had either letter or message or the least 
intimation that the MS. was to be sent to you till to-day. 
They were delivered to me loosely by Church 63% who, 
I suppose with his uncle's and aunt's and sons and 
daughters, have read and formed their opinions of the 
work. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DA VIES. 

L,I.ANBEDR, Aug. 9, 1802. 

My Dear Davies, 

I have written the Bishop of St. David's to 
request he will inform me when you may wait upon 
him, but as great men move slowly, and answer letters 
slowly, I would not advise you to wait till you hear 
from him or from me ; you may depend upon his being 
at Abergwili whenever you chose to come down, and 
the sooner the better. Your nomination was signed 
this evening in the presence of Sir Wm. Ouseley and 
myself. I shall leave it in Mrs. Jones's hands, and if 
you go in the coach you need not fear knocking at 
my door, though the coach comes at an hour when 
our family will be snoozing. I shall tell Mrs, Jones 
that your arrival will be expected, and conjointly it 
will be ready for you at a moment's notice. You will 
not find me at home, for our circuit begins this day 
se'nnight, but your friend Mr. Payne expects you will 
spend a few hours with him before you return. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, Aug. 21, 1802. 
Messrs. North. 

Pay the Rev. Mr. Davies Five Pounds for 

Your humble servant, 

THEO. JONES. 



66 

You know North's are booksellers at Brecon. 
Hardinge tells me he promised not to show the extracts 
from your book to anyone. I have engaged to 
indemnify him. You have delighted one and kept 
one alive during a penniless session, but I cannot 
attempt to follow you round the world. You'd break 
my neck. Hereafter I may creep along your road. 
We do vastly well about the Druids ; we think much 
alike without interfering or crossing or jostling each 
other. I want much to know " Hu Gadarn," but 
doubt as to his being Noah. Your discovery (for it 
is your own) of the Trioedd in Greek and Latin pleased 
as well as surprised me. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Bristoi,, Monday. March y, 1803. 
Dear Davies, 

Here I am in my way to the Speaker of the 
House of Commons who has ordered (as I will the 
contrary at my peril) that I appear at the Bar of that 
House on Tuesday at 3 o'clock, but least you may 
suppose I have committed anything like a Breach of 
Privilege, know that it is the Carmarthenshire 
election which takes me up and 1,000 men and women 
and children besides. What's become of your book ? 
— it's time it should come out now. Can I do 
anything in London for you upon that or any other 
subject ? Pray command your 

Very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

I shall be at No. 11, Golden Square. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, March 11, 1804. 
My Dear Davies, 

I write this speedily to you, because I am in 
hopes to relieve you in part of your doubts and 
anxiety, when I tell you that I have now before me a 
letter of Mr. Booth's, dated in October, 1802, which 
was in consequence of my remonstrance to Mr. 
Hardinge about the expenses of printing your letters 



and subscribers, in which Booth says : "I am 
surprised at Mr. Jones's fears, and disapprobation 
of the expences incurred, &c. That I might be able 
to satisfy myself as to the justness of the application, 
I have taken some trouble to ascertain the probable 
profit which may accrue to Mr. Davies, the result of 
which is that he gains £390 " (the number of 
subscribers were then 1950). He then goes on to 
state further particulars, and calculates 5s. 6d. each 
volume — this may perhaps not be perfectly accurate, 
but if Booth is an honest and a man of judgment, this 
should make your mind perfectly easy upon this part 
of the subject. 

As to Hardinge, the ingenuity of active malice 
could not have been more tormenting than his 
services, and yet he has placed you in so awkward a 
dilemna that 3^ou must not complain. I was hurt, 
I own, at the omission of Turton, to whom I have 
written to-day, and am very certain his hberality will 
overlook the apparent neglect, when he knows you 
are not to blame. I also note that the name of your 
friend, and mine, Henry Thomas Payne, R. of 
Lrlanbedr, does not appear among your subscribers, 
tho' he was one of the earliest on my list. John 
Josiah Holford, Esq., of Culgwyn, Chas. Holford, 
Esq., Richard Hill, jun., Esq., Plymouth Lodge, — 
Yeats, Esq., Monk's Mill, and, I have no doubt, 
several others are forgotten, but I feel more the 
apparent inattention to Payne than the rest. Pray 
write to him to state that the fault does not lie with 
you, and to saddle the right horse. I shall send him 
a book, and at the same time explain to him to whom 
the neglect attaches. 

I fear you have been imposed upon by Owen as 
to the Coelbren 5^ Beirdd. I am very much mis- 
taken if that alphabet is not the manufacture of 
Ned WiUiams*, and himself and the behaviour of Mad 
Ned at last Cardiff Assizes, when he heard that you 
had inserted those letters in your book, convinces 
me he fear'd detection ; he only pretended to me to 
trace the discovery to John Bradford, excepting in 
some dark allusions — as a stave in singing — writing 

♦ " lolo Morganwg " (The Rov, Edward WUliams). 



68 

a good stick, &c., but this, compared with the time 
which has elapsed since they were used, is not above 
a minute in 24 hours. Owen is undoubtedly barned, 
and Williams has eccentric talents, but both are 
system mongers, and, I believe, system makers. 

I see your book has upon the cover 12s. in boards. 
I presume this is to non-subscribers, for I have been 
in the habit of receiving half a guinea, which was the 
original subscription : if I am wrong you must write 
me immediately. If I don't hear from you I shall 
conclude I am correct. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Bristol, March 22, 1803. 
Dear Mr. Da\t[ES, 

Upon receipt of your letter, I called \ipon Mr. 
Booth and found that that part of your work which 
was printed was not even then arrived in town. I 
therefore determined to call upon the Bristol man in 
my way down, and to " bullers him a bit." I have 
just been there, and a lad in the shop, if he is to be 
believed, assures me that he saw the printed sheets, 
&c., put into the wagon for London on Saturday last ; 
if this is correct all's well ; if it is not, and you don't 
hear in the course of a week or 9 days from Mr. Booth 
that he has received it, pray write to me, and you may 
depend upon it I'll compel this fellow to do you 
justice, and whatever you do, resist despondency 
and low spirits. I am just off for Cardiff, where our 
circuit commences this evening. 

I am, my dear friend. 

Yours verv sincerelv, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Brecon, June 11, 1804. 
My Dear Da vies. 

Our visitation, or rather the Bishop's visitation, 
of this Archdeaconry will be held at Brecon on the 
24th of next month, when I hope to see you, and when 



69 

you will hear me. I shall reserve a bed for you, if you 
say you mean to occupy it. Give me a line to signify 
your intention. 

The Gentleman's Magazine has noticed you, but 
with few comments. I believe the reviewers had better 
adopt the same plan, for if they pretend to give their 
sentiments upon many parts of your work, I firmly 
believe they'll break their necks. 

I have now money for you, and will give you a 
list of subscribers when we meet. 

I have given, in your na}n'i, one of your books 
to the Library at Ystradmeurig. Williams, the 
schoolmaster, was install' d here yesterday to the 
prebend of Trallong in our nearly dilapidated College 
Church. 

Will not our Sovereign Lord the King recommend 
you to the Dean and Canons of Windsor to succeed 
the late Vicar of Talgarth, in this county ? 

Yours sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 



1804. 



Dear Davies, 

Cive me credit for £4 till our next account, 
which will be soon opened, as I learn that qo of your 
books are on the road to Brecon, and Booth tells me 
to remit to you. 

The Rev. Mr. Wells, Rector of Ilston and Penmaes, 
is dead, and the livings are in the gift of the Chancellor. 
Tnrton gave me a hint that you had some expectation 
of them thro' Hardinge's assistance ; had you not 
better write to [him] ? We are civil, but do not 
correspond since I objected to the expence of 
publishing more lists and more letters from you, and I 
don't know whether he does not consider us both as a 
couple of ungrateful scoundrels ; but never mind that, 
jog him. 

Say you have received the enclosed from 
Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

I shall keep two of your books. 



70 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

1804. 
My Dear Davtes, 

I enclose you £50 on account of the subscriptions 
I have received for your book ; you shall have a list 
when I have completely stock'd the market, or (as the 
ironmasters say) gobb'd the furnace here. Never 
mind the profits of the book ; you'll be safe, and unless 
the devil rides rough shod over the legislative as well 
as the episcopal part of the creation, you must be 
preferr'd. 

I received a letter from Dr. Turton yesterday ; 
he tells me he has advertised that the books are ready 
for delivery, but that the subscribers are rather shy 
of bringing in the money ; that will not do. I never 
press'd anyone to subscribe, and wish the Judge had 
not, but I'll make ever^^ one pay who breathes the 
same atmosphere with me, provided I can prove they 
put down their names, or consented they should be put 
down. It is not sufficient to say the book is ready ; 
call for it. I carry it in one hand, and hold out the 
other for the half guinea whenever I meet them. 

That d n'd good natured friend of ours, Hardinge, 

could not help persecuting you with his kindness here 
during the Inst sessions, tho' I told him I had supplied 
most of the subscribers here, and had books for others, 
he must send down for them by coach, when, after 
making Churchey (who is his clerk) dance about to 
20 or 30 persons, to whom I had already delivered 
them, he found they were not wanted, and they were 
sent here by sixes and sevens, and I was desired to 
sign a receipt for them without seeing or reckoning 
them, which I did. He says he'll pay the expense 
of the carriage, but he is so extremely fond of the 
devil (I mean the printer's devil) that he must have 
-printed receipts for the guinea and half guinea. 
Myn Duw y mae whiw yn ei ben. 

I am happy to teU you that Mr. Nichol, the 
barrister, who is one of the ablest and most acute 
reasoners, as well as profound thinkers, I ever met 
with, is a convert to your sentiments in general. The 
first time he read your book he was witty upon it ; the 
second time " there was more in it than he at first 



conceived," and after a third reading he said to me 
with a very grave face, ' ' Such another book, Jones, 
would make me an inveterate and confirmed Linguist 
and Antiquarian." If you were acquainted with the 
gentleman you would know how to appreciate his 
approbation ; unfortunately, he thinks too fast for 
me, and will not permit me to chew the cud ; he goes 
thro' the circuitous chain of reasoning, and infers, 
deduces, and concludes before I can comprehend his 
position, tho' he is always accurate in stating, and 
generally correct in deciding upon it. 

I hope to see you next summer, and that you will 
contrive to spend one da^^ with Pajme, where you will 
meet with 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, May 5, 1805. 
My Dear Davies, 

At last I forgive Hardinge for all his faults 
and I trust that Providence will have mercy upon his 
manifold imperfections, in consideration of his having 
done some good acts. He write to me that Bishop 
Watson offers him the hving of Bishopston, near 
Swansea, worth £130 per annum, and desires that you 
will hesitate before you refuse it. I doubt much 
whether it is worth half that sum, and I am sure thou'Ut 
not increase it much ? But it is still a certainty, and I 
believe you'll not hesitate to determine. The Bishop 
insists upon residence, tho' I doubt whether there is 
a parsonage house on the living. It is, however, in 
a comparatively cheap country, 5 miles from Swansea, 
upon the seashore, and you will be within an hour's 
ride of our very eccentric friend Turton, to whom I 
write this day to make inquiries as to the value, &c. 

I enclose you a five-guinea bill, which is nearly the 
amount of what I have received since my last. We'll 
state and settle the account when you proceed to take 
possession of your Bishoprick. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



72 

COPY OF LETTER FROM W. TURTON TO 
THEO. JONES. 

Swansea, May 9, 1805. 

My Dear Sir, 

Your letter about Davies has rejoiced me 
exceedingly. He will, of course, not hesitate in 
accepting the Bishop's offer, far as it is below his worth 
and his merits. I yesterday went to Bishopston to 
make aU the inquiries I cotdd about the vicarage. I 
was just in time, for the churchwardens were about to 
sequestrate the living, but I informed them it was 
unnecessary, as I had no doubt but that their future 
Pastor would shortly be among them. There is a 
parsonage house, but totally dilapidated and 
unrepairable. From the last incumbent no dilapi- 
dations can be expected* .... There are 30 
acres of excellent glebe land, now let for 30 guineas, 
the remaining tithes are let for fifty pounds, but as 
they were leased to a sly old cock, who had advamced 
money for the necessities of the late parson, it is 
probable they are much tmdervalued. It is the 
opinion of the curate, who lives and has an estate in 
the parish, that the real value, without injury to any 
party, is from one hundred and thirty to one hundred 
and fifty pounds. A lead mine has lately been opened 
and is now working to advantage in this parish, but 
whether these pigs are titheable you know better than 
I. The situation is dry and healthy, and the distance 
from Swansea about five miles. When you write to 
Davies say to him that if he comes into this neigh- 
bourhood my house is to be his home till he has 
arranged everything to his mind, or else his house 
will never be my home. 

Bassett wants a curate here and at the Mumbles 
—perhaps something may be hit off between them to 
put an additional twenty or thirty pounds into 
Davies's pocket. 

Sincerely yours, 

W. TURTON. 

* Thiti Incumbent died in a state of great poverty. 



73 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, May 12, 1805. 

Dear Davies, 

On the other side you have a letter from our 
friend the Doctor in answer to mine, by which you wiU 
finri th?t vou have no tumbUng house upon youi 
hvfng for Hs afready tumbled down. All dja^ou 
Ar. ;« fVik rase is to request from the bishop a 
Zl'tZ, ^d rappropriaa a part of you. i„^n,e 
sav /^o per annum, towards it, and m that case i 
hould h^pe 3 or 4 years at the .f^f^-^' ^^f f^ 
finish it for I do not apprehend that a palace is 
neceLry, tho' your parish be a Bishoprick. 

I sent you a letter on this day se'nnight (if that 
be not a soUcism) in which was inclosed a hve-guinea 
bill. Pray have you received it ? 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

June, 1805. 



My Dear Davies, 



A^ T was writing to the Bishop of St. David s 

r;.r.r,.;;;3S-j, ,.„ j- - - s 

him as soon as you please, ^na maL y 

r o) S Lid your present curacy for a 12 month 



74 

I'll send to j^our brother, and I dare say he will lend 
you a horse to come from Swansea to this place on 
your way back. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Brecon, July 14, 1805. 
My Dear Sir, 

I received your maps, and am perfectly aware 
of the value of them ; indeed they were not new to 
me, tho' I was never before possessed of them, but 
I did not think I ought to put you to the expence of 
postage merely to acknowledge the receipt of them. 

I continue in my resolution of preventing the 
men of Bishopston from imposing upon you further 
that 15s. in the pound, and perhaps we'll make them 
stop something short of that. I shall take care of your 
letter, and as I always go to Swansea after the circuit 
I'll play the lawyer the registrar, the proctor, and 
possibly the gentleman at the same time. What you 
have hitherto done has been right. Rely upon it, 
that with all the friendship I bear for you I do not 
forget that your pecuniary interest is not what ought 
to be chiefly in view, but that with a proper regard 
to prudence, you ought to possess the friendship and 
goodwill of 3-our parishioners, unless they chuse to set 
such a price upon it as to make you a beggar. 

Under this impression, I will not send that Scotch 
fellow Clark, the Surveyor, over to them, whose 
chiefest excellence is in the application of the 
thumbscrew, and who knows precisely what quantity 
of pain a man can bear without actually putting him 
to death ; but I have in my mind's eye a sensible 
farmer, who is conversant on this subject, and who, 
I beheve, will teU us what you reasonably and fairly 
ought to have, and what they can fairly afford to pay. 
So till you hear from me again, make your mind easy, 
and in the meantime your affairs shall not be neglected 

^y . . 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



75 



To THE REV. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Brighthelmstone, Aug. 2, 1805. 

My DEAR Friend, 

system or plan to rce^vepupiL ^^^^^^ ^^_^ ^^^^_^^_ 

SaUo^he isC%n4 - Place u^d. you. care . 

LI' him 'in board! washing, a,:d •odgmg.^f";^,™'^-^^ 
he begs to have your terms, but tho i snouia leei 
anxious as weU as my relation, to place hun with you 
I beTthat if from the state of your eyes, or some other 
circumstances you have given up the education of 
vour you win not hesitate in saying so, or be ed 
Cr^ friendship to me to sacrifice either your health 
or convenience. . 

Should it suit you to receive my httle cousin and 

1^ TViPo-nhilus Tones, I know you'll not be 

namesake, itieopniius juucs, , ^^ 1 ^^ rantion vou 

iefe^rwevT^lt^' ^r^^^^^^ ^^, 
Tnd tSore' he must try the atmosphere of 
Gloucestershire or some other country air^ Write to 
me by return of post direct to No. 11 as above. 

Yours sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

July {or August) 1805. 
My DEAR Davies, 

As our Member* is here and we have nothtng 
to do (this by way of compliment) I ^^y as well emp^^^^^ 
a few moments in an invitation to my friend to dance 
down to Abergwile next week, and to request he will 
indSge our Uttie Earner with a few hours' conversation 
ehher^going or returning. I do this by his particular 

* Sir Charles Morgan. Bart..^ ^^Tredogar was M^?;^ for 
Brecknockshire, and Sir Robert Sahsbury. Bart., of Llanwern. 
Mon., M.F. for the Borough, at the tune. 



76 

desire, having just seen him, and received a copy of 
one of your chapters. He thinks you are too fond 
of Vallancey, too nearly converted iDy him, not fond 
enough of the Bishop of Dromore, and that you don't 
quote authorities often enough, but perhaps Bishop 
Horsley or Dr. Vincent would be offended if you told 
them that lertoger vitce scelovisque punts was a 
quotation from Horace. I have received a very civil 
letter from our Bishop ; part of it (it is true) I don't 
understand, but no matter for that, he says you will 
find him at home whenever you come down. We shall 
be in Brecon on Saturday, and remain there a week ; 
so that if you cannot come next week, you will find us 
the following week (until Friday) at Cardiff. You'll 
have a coach, which will take you from Caermarthen 
to Caerdiff. I desire you'll not be pendatic ; least 
you may want cash, I'll send you a draft for a trifle 
which you may have in your way thro' Brecon, and 
when you see me you may have more if you want it, 
to be repaid me out of the first fruits of your 
Bishoprick. 

{This is not signed). 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 
(In answer to June ii, 1805), 

Od. 4, 1805. 
My Dear Davies, 

I have been at the palace, and overlook' d the 
Cathedral ; the former consists of a beautiful cluster 
of ruins, and the latter is a most venerable edifice, 
thro' which the air is here and there (from salutary 
motives, no doubt) permitted to ventilate the interior. 
I have desired an architect at Swansea, in whom I 
think I can confide, to look over the estimate sent you, 
and he accompanied me to Bishopston to look at the 
dilapidations ; his report has not reached my ears. 
I shall go to Bishopston when the time for payment 
for the present year expires, and see what I can do 
with those Flemings. 

The book* is out, and I'll send it you in the course 
of a week together with Mr. Peach's, tho' it has a 
confounded circuitous route to reach you. The Bishop 

* The First Vol. of " Brecknockshire." 



77 

of St. David's speaks very handsomely of it, and the 
approbation of Dr. Burgess is no trifling acquisition. 
He says " Highly as he esteemed my talents as an 
antiquary and historian, the pleasure he received in 
reading the book far exceeded his expectation." I 
shall fire off, or in the language of our shop, set off his 
praise against the bayonets of the critics and the 
stings of the mosquitoes — a race to whom you will 
be introduced when you read the book. 

I have just bought Ossian's Poems, and have 
been reading Dr. Blair's critical dissertation upon 
their merits. There is a great deal of good sense and 
a great deal of learned nonsense in what he says. 

What a resemblance there is between the sisters 
Gaelic and Cymraeg, 

A chos air Croraleach, druim-ard, 
Chos air Crom-meal dubh 
Thoga Fion le lamh mhoir, 
An d'uisge o I^ubhair na fruth. 

A'i gos ar Cromlech, Twyn ardd, 
A'r ail gos ar Crommel ddu 
A dwg Ffion a'i law mawr 
Yr wysc o Llifwy'r ffrwd. 

You told me something about Tyssiho — more 
about him if you please. 

By the bye, I don't think I have written to you 
since I left London ; if so, I'm a good for nothing 
fellow, as you might fancy I was sulky. No such 
thing, be assured ; the proposal about the little boy 
was made to you in expectations that it was perfectly 
convenient to you if you had taken him, and any 
difficiilties occurred in consequence of your kindness 
for me. I should have thanked you, but by no means 
have been satisfied with your determination. The 
boy has 50 places to apply to, where he may be well 
brought up and kindly treated, and it was only in 
consequence of my partiality for you that my uncle 
wished to give you the preference, in hopes it would 
be advantageous to you. 

Pray what is the rule in trade as to the allowance 
to booksellers where they only disperse books to the 
subscribers and receive the money for the author. 



78 

My trade price is £2 5s ; price to subscribers, 
£2 I2S. 6d. ; to non-subscribers, £2 15s. Are Booth 
and the rest of them entitled to 7s 6d. out of those 
subscribed for, or only for such as they sell to non- 
subscribers ? It seems to me to be too much to say 
they ought to have 7s. 6d. where they run no risk and 
have no merit ; but upon the other hand, people in 
trade should not take any share of trouble or lose 
their time without some recompense. This is material, 
therefore drop a line to 

Your very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

Mrs. Jones joins in warmest wishes for your health 
and welfare. 



To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Sunday Evening, Oct. 10, 1805. 

My Dear Friend, 

By North's waggon of this night, I send you three 
copies of my first volume, one for the curate of 
Olveston and one for his friend Mr. Peach, and another 
for Captain Davies, of the Caermarthenshire Militia. 
I have advised the latter gent, of the route his book is 
likely to take, that he may have it upon appl5dng to 
you, should no opportunity occur of forwarding it 
from Olveston, and that he may pay his subscription, 
£2 I2S. 6d., to you, or by draft to me, and you will act 
accordingly. Mr. Peach will, of course, pay you, 
and you may remit to me. 

Since I wrote to you last, I have received a letter 
from the architect I spoke to at Swansea, who tells 
me the carpenter's estimate sent to you is extravagant, 
and that he will attend to the repairs of the palace ; 
but nothing effective can be done till I go to Swansea 
in January next, and then you will hear further from 
your thoughtless. 

But very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

The books are directed to be left at the ' ' Ship * * 
at Olveston ; deduct the carriage. God bless you. 



79 
To THE Rev. Mr DAVIKS. 

Brecon, Nov. 17, 1805. 
My Dear Davies, 

You need not have informed me that you were 
in better health when you wrote your last letter than 
when you wrote the former ; the handwriting, tho' 
the writing of the same hand, would have told me as 
much. I hope the next will again improve. 

Have you received 3 of my books addressed for 
you at the ' ' Ship ' ' at Olvestone. If not, let me 
know, but I should not probably have asked this 
question at present, if Mr. Hardinge, in answer to an 
inquiry of mine as to Astle's " Progress of Writing," 
had not informed me that you referred to it in your 
book ; it is material to me in my progress among the 
tombs that I should see this publication, and if you 
have it, or can procure it from any friend of yours, 
I'll give my bond to return it safe and unsoiled at any 
time that the return may be required, even if only one 
day is allowed for a hasty view of it. 

I am stuck fast in our Priory Church, and when I 
shall extricate myself from thence to proceed in my 
tour I know not, but most assuredly the name of the 
man that had the seven league boots is not like that of 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, March, 20, 1806. 
My Dear Friend, 

After near three months' confinement by my 
inveterate enemy*, and under the custody of my 
winter gaoler, I tried to escape into Carmarthenshire 
and Glamorganshire, but was re-taken in the latter 
county, and brought back, tho' not without some 
difficulty, to my former pri-on, where I am again tied 
to th chair or the bed, how long to remain I know not. 
Probably (or at least I hope so) when warmer weather 
permits other reptiles to appear, I may be permitted 
to crawl about, certainly not to fly, for a few months. 

* Gout, 



8g 

I was told your Celtic Researches now sell for a 
guinea at Bristol : pray tell me if that be the case, 
as I may upon receiving such information make a penny 
in an honest way. 

Poor Owen's head is turned about the Millennium, 
and " a slip-shod sybil," of the name of Johanna 
Southcote, drags him into storms and tempests which 
he tells me are to commence in this Island during the 
summer of 1807, when he gives me formal and serious 
notice that the restoration of all things is to take place, 
and the devil is to be the scapegoat for all the believers. 
In the meantime he is translating the Mabinogion, 
which I hope he'll finish, tho' I have advised him to 
get a smooth polish for his Enghsh style, for he really 
does not translate intelligibly in his "Dictionary." 
Sir Wm. Ouseley is so struck with the nonsensical 
translations that he insists the Welsh authorities can 
have neither sense or meaning. 

My wrist aches. I must, therefore, conclude 
with a carpenter's wish : ' ' Health, peace of mind, 
a clean shirt, and a guinea to you." prayeth 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, June 6, 1806. 
Dear Sir, 

Who was the bookseller to whom your Vicar 
applied for my book, tho' I suppose the London book- 
seller was too indolent to call at Mr. Booth's, Portland 
Place, for it, who has plenty of them to dispose of. 
Duncomb, the man of Herefordshire, writes me word 
that Dr. Aitkin in his Annual Review has favourably 
reported my case, tho' he has put blisters upon his 
back. Pray have you seen this review ? I don't 
expect to sell the whole of the first volume before the 
second is printed ; tho' more than half are gone ofif, 
for owing to the tricks of Polwhele and others, many 
persons are cautious how they purchase incomplete 
works. Did you see Turton's attacks upon Mr. 
Justice Hardinge. The latter frequently does 



8i 

imprudent things with impunity, but is generally 
attacked when he does not deserve it. I don't think 
what he said on the trial called for this from the 
Doctor, tho' I highly disapprove of his publishing 
his speech and the trial in the Cambrian. Turton is, 
in my mind, equally imprudent to provoke a 
discussion of his conduct in the business. He was sent 
for on behalf of the prisoner to Cardiff at an ordinary 
pra;mium without ever having seen the body of the 
girl supposed to be murdered, merely to watch the 
surgeon's evidence, which looks like an engagement 
to testify in proportion to the reward received ; but 
Turton is and always will be eccentric. 

I should be glad to hear when you are at leisure 
how your eyes serve you and what you are about — 
whether you have given a public blast to Tyssiho or 
not ; is another question from 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIEvS. 

Jiily, 1806. 
My Dear Friend, 

I am sorry you should put yourself to the trouble 
of inquiring about Astle, for I do not think it would 
answer my purpose, which was to obtain a specimen 
or specimens of the handwriting principally seen from 
1400 to 1600. As you say Massey's is Mr. Hardinge's. 
I presume I am to deliver it to him. What is the 
technical descriptions of letters cut into the stone 
and what of letters raised above the surface of the 
stone? I beUeve the latter are said to be in rehef. 
I certainly received the bill and the letter enclosing 
it, and thought I had acknowledged it, but my 
thoughts are running idly into every dark hole and 
corner but where they should be. 

I approve much of your coimterblast to Tyssilio 
and wish you would publish it ; but stooping to 
notice the critic you shall have it with my remarks 
by Captain Davies in his return. Pray say where 
at Bristol it shall be left for you. For God's sake, my 



82 

sjood friend, don't talk of the arrogance of criticising 
upon my work — you have ten times the capability 
of those who will undertake it, and if anything occurs 
let me know it. It is singular that at the very moment 
I received your last letter I was employed in 
the manner you recommend, which was in noting 
down any error I observed in a book kept for the 
purpose. 

Whether the sea swans or the flamingos of Gower 
are the prettiest birds, I know not. I have no 
partiality for either, but those which have the smallest 
swallow and can build the most convenient nest are 
those which I seek for. Wallis told me that the 
estimate I sent him which was received from you was 
too high in some particular. I have not heard from 
him since, but I have written to Turton to beg he will 
press for his answer, and he who will do the work 
cheapest and best ought to be employed. The barn 
must be undertaken and built as soon as the season 
will permit ; or we shall never be able to manage 
those fellows. I'll take care, meo proviculo, costs and 
charges, it shall be done. I have likewise requested 
Turton to ask the man when he receives for last year, 
and not to make agreements in future without my 
knowledge. 

Poor Churchey* has followed lyord Nelson with 
his elegy in his hand. May he improve in his 
singing, and our late Admiral be permitted to hear him. 
Don't read or write too much, but in order to save a 
shilling or two in an honest way, tell me shortly where 
your MS. is to be dropp'd at Bristol. Tell Mr. Peach 
I am proud of his approbation, for tho' I am not 
personally known to him, I am no stranger to his 
merit or abilities. 

Mrs. Jones unites in best wishes with, dear 
Davies, 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

* William Churchey, a member of an old Brecon family, 
published a volume of Poems in 1789, and some Ones " addressed 
to Lord Nelson on his arrival at Brecknock amidst the joyful 
acclamations of the people, on July 26th, 1802," for which he 
received tho hero's thanks. 



83 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, Sept. i8, 1806. 
My Dear Sir, 



How go you on with Tyssilio and Ossian. 
My second vol. is finished, but, like the fellows in the 
farce of the Critic, whenever I get a good thing, 
I never know when I (or rather my readers) have 
enough of it. I am now at Vol. 2, part 2, and if the 
gout will let me alone it will be in the Press next 
spring. My friend Payne has lent me Astle's 
" Progress of Writing," and a very young but a very 
zealous antiquary* is now copying the Saxon hands 
into a book, which has the Norman characters in the 
different reigns, which will complete my graphic 
collections, for I cannot follow you into the wilderness 
and the woods. By the bye, talking of woods and 
woody writing, that fellow Nedd Williams is a 
strange fellow, and all that can be said for him he is 
mad ; he now finds fault with Owen. He, however, 
suggested to me one part of my work which I should 
be sorry to have omitted. I mean the poets of 
Breconshire. I did not know we had any 

Cisca 1 180. Macclaf ap Llywarch. 

A.D. 1460. Bedo Brwynllys. 
Siencin Defynog. 
Dafydd Epynt. 
Rhys Celli neu o'r GelU. 
Tho. o Frwynllys. 

A.D. 1500. Rhys Brychan. 

leuan ap Rhys of Merthyr Cynog. 
Gwynfardd Brecheiniog. 

Pray can you give any information as to the 
dates (where here omitted) of any of them ? Any 
anecdotes of them or any other of their Breconshire 
fellows, and what were their compositions ? If you 
can, without blinding yourself find, or rather recollect 
any, pray send them to 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

* The Rev. Thomas Price, '* Carnhuanawc." 



84 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIEvS, 

Brecon, Dec. 31, 1806. 
My Dear Friend, 

I have been confined here these two months 
with an oozing at my heel without any pain, which 
the apothecary says is a mere flea-bite, and which 
indeed I believe to be a friendly effort of nature. 
During this time my hand has been free, my head 
unaffected, and my spirits uncommonly good, so that 
I have nearly finished the 2nd part of my 2nd Vol. 
As I shall want again to deal with the engravers, I 
have now some thoughts of taking a jolt up to lyondon, 
for I am told I may, and ought to do it, as the best 
remedy that can be applied. 

Your very sincere friend. 

THEO. JONES. 



Brecon, Feb. 18, 1807. 
My Dear Friend, 

I just say a word to you to make your mind easy 
and to remove your apprehensions as to the strong 
house. WHien it is necessar>^ you should pay the £50 
I insist upon yont writing to me, and I'll advance it 
you. At this moment the expenses of my journey to 
town, &c., have drained my pockets, but don't suffer 
yourself to be sued ; when it comes to ne plus ultra 
tell me, and I'll stop dunny's bawHng. 

As to my heel, it is all my eye as the doctors tell 
me, for which information I gave a guinea and was 
sent about my business. 

I am going to Haverfordwest, and have at present 
no time to say more than that I am 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, June, 1807. 
My Dear Sir, 

I have received your book, and you may be 
sure I have redde it (as Bishop Horsley wrote it) before 



85 

I put pen to this paper. All I have to say at present 
is that with some parts I am very well pleased ; with 
the Gododin and your remarks I am enraptured, 
but the Mythology I am neither prepared to admit 
or deny. At present, therefore, I quit the stage and 
leave you to boil your hell broth with Ceridwen. 

Double, double, toil and trouble, 
Fire burn and cauldron bubble. 

I am sorry to find that your friend Mr. Peach's 
name is so sinful a parent, and as I believe he formerly 
had a better, if my advice were good without a fee 
I would recommend him again to adopt his paternal 
appellation. Morant, in his History of Essex, 
says the name of Peche, Peach, or Peachy, is derived 
from Williams Peccatum (Temp. i8i) of Netherhall 
jn Essex, ' ' a very wicked fellow surely, the name 
gignifying sin in the abstract," says the author. 

In a survey of the Manor of Brecon, about the 
time of Elizabeth, is the word Maurode, evidently 
signifying the roll of tenantry. The number of the 
Maurode in patvia, 515, ; in villa, 617. 

Boneddig, says Owen, is gentle ; is it not bon 
hyddig of high descent, tho' I don't see such an 
adjective in Owen, but I am inclined to think I have 
seen such a word in that sense. 

Milast, 5''ou say correctly, is a greyhound 
bitch, but what is Lluast, which occurs as the 
name of several places in this county. I thought it 
a corruption of Elu arth, the encampment of the 
army or Elu arthan. 

I am very much pleased at your exposing and 
detecting the frauds and the tricks of Ned Williams, 
adopted, partly by choice and partly by combination, 
by Owen, but you have in one part of your book 
accredited their mummeries by quoting Owen for the 
drawn sword placed at the Gorsedd. Depend upon 
it, all these monkey tricks exhibited at Primrose Hill 
by Owen and others have no more foundation or 
pretence for antiquity than Williams's Chair of 
Glamorgan. But, however, I shall explain myself 
further upon this and other parts of your book, which 
musi be published, tho' it will, as you say, want further 



86 

arrangement, and the ist part must, I believe, be licked 
into the shape of a preface, having too much of 
private anecdote and too little of mythology and 
Ijistory. 

When I have gone over j^our book once more, 
to which I shall make some notes in pencil, which you 
may adopt or notice, or not, as you please, it shall be 
returned you with the little MS. book of which your 
translation has made me comprehend the full value. 
I mean the intrinsic value of the poem, which I really 
did not before understand. 

I am, dear Davies, 
Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, T.$ih July, 1807. 
My Dear Friend, 

As my Mr. Hall was sitting at my elbow in 
our Hall, I axed him for a frank to save a penny for a 
poor curate when I was about to inform him that I 
sent Aneurin Gwawdrydd, and the Druidism of the 
Bards, yesterday se'nnight, per mail coach, from 
Brecon to Gloucester, carriage paid, to be forwarded 
from thence to you at Olveston, near Bristol, and to 
be left at the * ' Ship ' ' at Olveston. Have you 
received them ? If you have drop me a line to say so, 
and solve me the difficulties as to the Maurode, &c 

I have just sent the sixth of the Simons of 
I^lanafan fawr out of the county. A father and son I 
prosecuted and convicted for murder, two nephews 
of that father I convicted of sheep stealing, the son 
of that father, whose evidence hung him, as well as the 
witness's own brother, fled from the kingdom, and the 
brother of the first named has been convicted within 
this half hour of sheep stealing. Such a gang, perhaps, 
never existed. Two of this man's sons escaped last 
Sessions ; I have no doubt I shall have them again, 
and if I can drive them away I shall have thinned 
their ranks tolerably. 

Yours verv sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



8? 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, Jtdy 28, 1007. 

''^ "riuTvou your MSS. with many thanks, 
accomparied by-Aneu'rin Oh that Grey had been 
alive to see this put into Enghsh prose ; it wou^d nave 
Formed an admirable structure for a poem by h.m 
hut as he is dead I'll try it some day or other the I 
must"ose%ight of him and keep too -les behmd hnn^ 
PrQ^7 answer me as to Maurode, and me omer 
HtUe trifling questions which I put to yon, but which 
T have now forgot, when you have leisure, 
t' lam very nmch satisfied with the toitt ensenMe 
te vonr^ook though some of the features are rather 
^L'^strong Trposit that the early inhabitants 
of BrS had a tradition of the Deluge and the 

Patriarch and his family, that they P^^s^^J^d^^^T^f^t 
of this event, and that they afterwards deified not 
If NoTh and His faini> but the very m^^^^^^^ 



?^sSvS . nc^ on^^rob^e but ^^ -tai. 

s;;Ltr^in;i^^&r th/^- ^= cf 

and the words Ark and Arkite Mythology 
occur too frequently ; they should be janed it you 
ran I wish you much to correct the insolence 01 
Nedd Wmkms"^ and I intreat that he may not be 
stSred but as I said in my last that part of the Mb. 
Ci wSch appears like a defence, is out of order 
as an Essay and therefore should form a preface, 
:^th'which% would 3ustify yo-eH ^ 3ustificat^^^^ 
were necessary) for appearing agam b^ore the pubfic 
and expatiating upon a subject upon which you have 

^'nVvTalL'ffew notes in pencil wMch you may 
attend to or not, just as you please. Some ot ^em I 
know are wrong, as I saw upon second reading I did not 
S.e vour meaning on my first perusal ; many of them 
a^ merely the correction of hasty clerical errors 
YourTote^s will want revising, as the same thing s 
repeated twice or thrice, but this is not what you 
were writing to me about. The mine you were 
Tay'ng^or Tyssilio and Ossian, I suppose you have a 
dozen of those brats, to all of whom I beg you would 
introduce Your very sincere^frigd, ^^^^^ 



8B 

There is a letter written by ' ' Wal. Churchey,' ' 
dated " Brecon, January 21, 1806," on behalf of 
Theo. Jones, "who is in the gout." It deals 
principal^ with the tithe account, but proceeds : 

" You'll acquaint your friend that Mr. Jones's 
2nd Vol. is in the press, but goes on slowly for want 
of printers. Mr. Jones wishes much to know whether you 
could not procure him a couple of journeymen in that 
trade at Bristol, who will come down here, and for what 
price ? The expenses will be paid them, and they will 
be employed for six months certain— perhaps more." 

Attached to this letter is the dedication : " To the 
Rev. Edward Davies, " &c. (See " Brecknockshire.") 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, Nov. i, 1808. 
My Dear Friend, 

I see (I hope you do see) that you are again got 
into print nolens volens, and perhaps you'U excuse my 
adding all your titles and preferments. Rector of 
Bishopston, in the county of Glamorgan, and curate 
of the perpetual curacy of Boughrood, Elanbedr, Pains- 
castle, in the coimty of Radnor. You shall have the 
book or rather two ' ' d — big square books ' ' shortly, 
accompanied with sets for all the subscribers in your 
neighbourhood, whose names I'll send you. I'll 
trouble you to dispose them, and after deducting the 
carriage, to place to my credit the sums received for 
them ; which reminds me that Christmas is 
approaching, soon after which I hope to scramble for 
a little of the Gower cash for you. I have ordered 
the repairs of the house to be snipped, pared, and cut 
into as small a pattern as may be. The hobby 
horse led me home from Glamorganshire this Sessions 
without permitting me to take an excursion to 
Swansea, so that I cannot tell how we stand ; before 
another year expires depend upon an account, and I 
trust a completion of ever^^hing like repairs, after 
which I hope to be able to arrange with my friend 
James, so that you may have an annual certain sum. 
How are your daylights ? if there be enough left, and 
it do not injure you, write to inform 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



89 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, 2^th January, 1809. 
My Dear Sir, 

Your last letter was received, and the names 
of the Commissioners to value your curacy in 
Radnorshire forwarded to the Bishop at Durham, 
but to avoid more applications to you, I have sent 
them to the Lord Charles Morgan at Caermarthen, 
who is a greater man than his master. I'll look for 
your license when I get my office into anything Hke 
order ; at present it is chaos, for I have done with the 
Law, as I hope the Law has done with me, and am now 
only an ecclesiastical officer, tho' I may occasionally 
serve a few friends in an amphibious capacity. 

By the last night's wagon, directed to you to be 
left at the ' ' Ship ' ' at Olveston, I have sent you four 
of my second volumes— one for yourself, another for 
Sir Samuel Fludyer (Lieut. -Col. of our Militia at Bristol), 
another for Mr. Peach of Tockington, and another 
for the Rev. Mr. Davies, Clifton. Will you be good 
enough to procure them to be delivered, and request 
they will pay you £4 for each, which, when received, 
you'll place to my credit, and charge the carriage for 
the parcel to me. 

I have seen all that is printed of your book, and 
this day return to Booth your MS. as to coins. Your 
first and principal observation is so clear as almost to 
defy contradiction ; it is absurd to suppose that a 
man who would give us a human head as well as we see 
it on some (indeed most) of these coins should represent 
a horse's with the bill of a bird, his back like a bow 
or a boat, and his feet like detached drumsticks ; 
therefore there is mysticism in the figures ; ay, and 
Druidic mysteries, too, in which your Arianrhod 
comes in well and opportunely to support you against 
the assertion of the keeper of the coins in the British 
Museum, who told Booth that the Druids knew 
nothing about coins. He probably knows as much 
about the Druids as the keeper of the lions in the Tower, 
and I have assured Booth he may place equal confidence 
in both. Thus far you are seen travelling gaily 
and treading on terra firma, but having got on board 



go 

the No Van it, I fear the critics will tell you, you 
have touched at Pail-up-and-ease-us, and are bound 
to Utopia. Well, fare you well, " Nulla vestigia 
retrorsum," as we landmen say, and I am not without 
hopes that your voyage of discovery may produce 
treasures for the learned, present pay to the pilot, 
and I hope fame and some wealth to the Captain. But 

to sea you must go post , as I have told Booth ; 

your vessel makes a goodly shew, and must not be 
suffered to rot in the dock at Olveston. 

Talking of Owen's translation of Gorchan 
Cynvelyn, your phrase is " but besides that his 
version is not sufficiently close for a disquisition of this 
kind, I observe," &c. The commencement of this 
sentence is not elegant, if indeed it be not equivocal 
and liable to be misunderstood. I have therefore 
altered it thus : ' ' But not to dwell upon the freedom 
of his version, which is not sufficiently close for a 
disquisition of this kind, I observe," &c. ; and there 
are also two or three ' ' buts ' ' immediately following, 
and standing so near each other in the ranks that I 
have displaced them and taken a substitute for one or 
more. These trifling amendments I have told Booth 
to adopt meo periculo. 

I relish your present title much better than your 
former relics. Booth sent it me with the MS., 
and if we could have preserved so valuable a life to his 
country as Sir John Moore, I should have more easily 
have swallowed the news of this morning, and almost 
rejoiced at the safety of our retreating countrymen. 
This will lead to a transient and delusive peace, which 
however may perhaps endure as long as you and I 
live, but if the foul fiend* survives us, he will 
ultimately subjugate this country. He must give his 
commercial subjects breath, and therefore I am 
inclined to think he will offer us terms if Spain is subdued, 
which I suppose we must accept, tho' we may depend 
upon it that 

Hush'd in grim repose he'll expect his ev'ning's 
prey, 
and if can only teach the Monkey-Tigers to swim, 
most assuredly we shall feel their claws. 

* The Great Napoleon. 



9' 

But, ah, why sho'd we know our fate 
Since sorrow never conies too late 
And happiness too swiftly flies. 

Therefore, as you and I cannot keep away Apollyon, 
though we are neither of us men likely to run away, 
let us hope that Providence has not designed our 
speedy destruction, and that it may be consistent 
with His dispensation to spare the rod and to remove 
the Scourge of Europe before he has completed 
his triumph over our hitherto highly favoured Isle. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



There is a letter dated Jan. 28, 1809, relating to 
the Bishopston tithes — and at the end it is clear, from 
a remark made by Jones, that his legal work had passed 
into the hands of Church — " for I cannot refer to letters 
now, as between Church's office and my own, papers 
are now at sixes and sevens." 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, March 3, 1809. 

My Dear Friend, 

You know how fond our Bishop is of the Hebrew 
language. I am just this moment informed by my 
ingenious young friend and artist Tom Price, who is 
now at the College School, and chops the language 
like a dragon, that he (the Bishop) gives a premium 
at Easter to any boy who will copy a Hebrew Psalm. 
Now let me request, as a particular favour, that you 
would send me per coach instanier that book, if in your 
possession ; if not, and it be not very dear, buy me the 
book of Psalms of the most improved or approved 
edition in Hebrew and charge it to my account. This 
boy is a most valuable ornament to the Principality, 
and there is nothing that I can do that shall be 
omitted to serve him. 

I hope you have had my big square books ere this. 
Sir Samuel Fludyer returns to Bristol this month, and 



'92 

he tells me he only wants interest and influence, or on 
my recommendation, he would make you a Bishop. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 
If the book is your own, my life on't, it shall be 
returned. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Hereford, Monday Morning, 

March 21, 1809. 
My Dear Friend, 

I do not wish to obtrude my book upon Dr. 
Davies or any other person, but I could have wished 
that if he did not chuse to be considered as a subscriber 
he would have informed me before the book went to 
press. I will thank you if you'll drop him a note to 
tell him that if he'll part with the first vol., and it is in 
a saleable condition, that I should be glad to purchase 
it, and in that case you will pay him for it, allowing 
him to fix any sum he pleases for reading it, because 
I shall now, I apprehend, be in want of ist vols., of 
which not above 40 remain, while I have near 100 of 
the 2nd. Sir Samuel Fludyer either is, or v/ill be, in 
Bristol this month. I have requested him to make 
you a Bishop, which he says he'll do, if his influence is 
powerful enough, which if it be, ne nolo episcopari to me. 

I have received the Hebrew Psalter for which you 
have Tom Price's thanks and mine, and likewise the 
MS. of Ossian, the style of which pleases me very- 
much, but I recommend a preface, in which you 
should explicitly and unequivocally declare that your 
objection to Macpherson's book is that he wishes it 
to be considered as a history, and that you are not bUnd 
to those poetic merits of the work as a collection, 
though you consider the epic poem as an imposition, 
and therefore to be reprobated. I have already said 
as much, but the object of your argument and attack 
cannot be too prominent. 

I am here quasi registrar only, and have, thank 
God, no interest in the forensic war of woods that is 
waged with such violence, and this attendance I was 



93 



enjoined not to omit under pain of woe. The threat 
was unnecessary, as the exercise will be of service to 

Your very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, April g, i8og. 
My Dear Friend, 

I thank you for Miss Brook's book. The taxes 
of all description, income, property, land, church and 
poor of Bishopston are paid on the spot, and a pretty 
spot they make in the annual amount of the living. 

I cannot yet find the commission to inquire into 
the value of Painscastle. Your brother was here 
yesterday, and tells me he has searched the post offices 
at Hay and Builth without success. Perhaps it may 
have been sent to Mr. Drake at Clyro, or Mr. Hughes 
of Glasbury, two of the clerical commissioners ; I go 
that way tomorrow, or next da3^ and will make another 
effort, when (if it fail) I will write to the Bishop. Our 
Judge* Harlequin made several inquiries about your 
forthcoming book- — whether it has come forth, 
whether I saw the MS., what I thought of it, whether 
you are fortified against the artillery of Edinburgh, 
&c., &c. He plays all sorts of monkey tricks — rides 
into the houses of country gentlemen and orders 
breakfast, dinner, and supper, whether they are at 
home or not, criticises upon them if he finds any 
awkwardness in their person, address, or in the 
conduct of their families, writes upon subjects upon 
which he ought not to interfere, such as the length 
or sentiments of sermons, the mode of education 
adopted by a schoolmaster, abuses one day, and invites 
most politely the same person to dinner the next, and 
then wonders he does not attend, and lastly, after all 
this, lumps us as a proud snifi'-necked generation. 
He is highly offended with me for exposing a 
misrepresentation of his to Lettsom and Neild in my 
book ; is at this moment bottling up his vengeance 
for a Philipic in his charge to the Grand Jury next 
Autumn Sessions, and seeking for evidence to support 

* Hardiuge. 



94 

it at the same time — that I see and hear : * ' Dear Sir, 
Dear Jones, I hope you'll not deprive us of the 
pleasure and honour of your company to dinner," 
&c., &c. Such dissimulation, or if he pleases to call 
it, in lyord Chesterfield's phrase, whom he copies in 
manners and principles, simulation, is the detestation 
of 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, April 20, 1809. 
My Dear Friend, 

I sent you by last night's coach directed to the 
"Ship" at Olveston your MS. upon Ossian, 
your Whitaker's Manchester, which had almost 
gained a settlement in this parish, and four additional 
addenda or corrigible corrigenda, which you will divide 
among the purchasers of my book in your neighbourhood. 

Assuming, as I do, that your references are correct, 
your reasoning is irresistible, and you will pardon me 
if I say your ch'ef d ceuvre. I intreat as a personal favour, 
and on pain of responsibility and indemnity against 
any loss, that you would publish it. I have made some 
verbal alterations in pencil, to which I beg you will 
pay no attention unless you think they deserve it. 

I have not had the commission to inquire about 
Painscastle, tho' I hear of their being executed all 
round me. I write to your brother to-night to beg 
he'll inquire about it ; to-morrow I'm off for Caerdiff, 
quasi compounder, not for emolument but for the 
preservation of my health ; this is the best physic, 
but it is confoundedly dear ; they'll not shake you 
there and back again under 10 pounds or guineas. 

Has Miss Brookes a translation of the Irish Poems ; 
if she has, and it is in your possession I should be glad 
to see it, but the original is as tremendous to my eyes 
as our mountain Greek to a Saxon. Booth says you 
come out upon Coins before the end of this 
month, and that you have the Wands of Prospero, 
Morpheus, &c., which will set aU the critics in a sound 



95 

snooze for a thousand years. Quere de hoc, saith 
the sceptic ; courage mon ami, shew them that 
you are now a tough bit, and if they bite and attempt 

to swallow you, I pray G , after choking them, 

you may come out whole ; and that you will survive 
it, notwithstanding the operation may be painful 
to you for a time, is the firm conviction of 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

I need not say, received the Gododin. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, March lo, 1809. 

My Dear Friend, 

This will come to you ' ' trwy Fuallt i Henffordd," 
Anglice, from Brecon thro' L^ondon to Olveston, 
but there is part of it which I wish Booth to see ; unless 
he has already christened and registered your Pagan 
Babe ; if so be, then I must put up with the relics or 
relicts or reliques of Druidism. We have heard of 
Celtic Remains, we have seen Celtic Researches, 
and now proceeding on, alphabetically, to D, we have 
Druidical reliques. Now will not some of the wags 
say those Celtic fellows sell nothing but old cloaths 
or the offals of the regular shops, mere remnants, 
scraps, patches. I wish, if it be not too late, and you 
agree with me, and if it pleases our Dancing Master 
in Portland Street, who, being more than a godfather 
has a right to be consulted, that the brat should be 
named The Mythology of the British Druids, or 
if that be promising too much, as from the recollection 
I have of the book I think it is, suppose you say an 
Essay on The Mythology of the British Druids, 
of if that be too much, Essays upon the Principal 
or several or many of the tenets and Mythology of 
&c. Consider this well in council, but I leave you 
both to determine, tho' I feel almost as much interest 
as either of you in the success of the work. 

I shall cause my books to be unshipped at the 
"Ship" at Olveston, and perhaps may send you a 
copy more than is subscribed for, which you may 
place with some respectable bookseller at Bristol, 



96 

if such a character can be found there, for entre nous 
I have my doubts, and would prefer deahng with the 
Shylocks of, what d'ye call it ? place in lyondon, than 
with the fair tradesmen of Bristol : the devil sent me 
from there is one of the most rascally imps that ever 
issued from Pandemonium ; he drinks on one or two 
days in the week, and not only sins himself, but like 
his brother or his uncle Beelzebub seduces the other 
black boys ; and now that the work is near a 
conclusion, not having employment in view, he 
absolutely keeps away on purpose to prevent its 
completion. 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DA VIES. 

Brecon, 2T.st April, 1809. 
My Dear Friend, 

I shall write by to-night's post to James to 
furnish you with the survey of Bishopston, made by 
one Evans by my direction soon after your induction, 
but I am, previous to your examination of it (as I have 
always been), firmly of opinion that it would be the 
most eligible step you can take to let the tythes at a 
sum certain. If I could have brought Harry L,ewis 
to this, I should have dealt with him, but he was for 
poundage only, £70 per annum, but it seems even your 
drunken predecessor, by his being upon the spot^ could 
make more of them than Mr. Davies at Olveston or 
Mr. Jones at Brecon, for the distance at which I reside 
I found it was impossible to manage such rogues as 
these men of Gower. Take an instance of one of their 
tricks. I had information that a Thos. Hopkin had 
carried his corn in in the night to cheat the parson. 
The clergyman of Cilfrwch, the tenant of your glebe, 
and the parish clerk employed to look after your tythes, 
all agreed there was some foul play, but then how to 
catch him was the point. Nothing easier. A 
Captain Hammond of this parish told me that he and 
his servant saw the corn carried home by Hopkin. 
I still hesitated about going to law, because my poor 



97 

parson was a nervous man and hated disputes. 
' ' Very right and compassionate, ' ' quoth he, * ' but I 
hope you don't mean to call upon me for tythes ; if 

you do, I'll be d if I pay them." Thus situated, 

I cited the man to the Bishop's Court ; he came to 
Brecon, denied the accusation with many asservations. 
I told him I had proof of the offence, but if he would 
pay 2 guineas for the citation and service, and 
promise not to do the same again, I would forgive him. 
This he refused, and chose to spend £io at least in his 
defence. When the business was ripe for producing 
the witnesses I called upon the Captain, who by this 
time had made it up with his neighbour, who was a 
poor man with a large family, not worth following. 
Beside he could not be certain as to the quantity of 
corn, the time, or even the person who carried it in. 
Thus situated, I was glad to bring your Proctor and 
the cause out of Court without paying costs. 

James, I am fully persuaded, is an honest man, 
tho' I am sorry to learn he is indolent in answering 
letters, which in my mind is an unpardonable offence 
in business. His charge for his own trouble in the 
account he sent me was very moderate (£5 5s.), but 
I am almost satisfied he must be imposed upon in the 
deductions. It is, however, useless to attempt 
bringing the business to a speedy conclusion by a 
correspondence. You must fix a day for letting the 
tythes, and that during the next month, before the 
tythe lambs and wool are due, and you rmist go down 
yourself to see that they are let at a fair price, and 
to prevent and defeat a combination to lower their 
value, if such should be formed, or perhaps to guard 
against friendships or partiality in those who may 
have the management of the sale. I am satisfied, 
notwithstanding your fears and reluctance to quit 
your home, the journey would be of service to you. 
As to myself, tho' I am a few miles nearer (for I must 
go thro' Caermarthen) as I cannot travel at night, 
and consequently must take a chaise part of the way, 
the exposure therefore would be considerably greater 
than your coach hire from the Passage ; beside I do 
not know whether James would not now consider me 
as a kind of spy or supervisor whose company might 
be dispensed with. 



98 

I will do all I can to prevail upon the Bishop to 
grant you a non-residence license, and to excuse your 
attendance, whether at Caermarthen or Brecon, but 
he is one of the most unaccountable beings that ever 
wore lawn sleeves. 

I have been lately teazed by Meyrick, who has 
written a sort of history of Cardiganshire, to request 
some translations from the Welsh from you. I have 
no notion of compl^nng with this : he knows nothing 
of the language, which he has mutilated in a most 
barbarous manner, and wants to borrow the assistance 
of others to make up a book upon subjects which he 
does not understand, and consequently cannot elucidate. 
I beg you will take no notice of him if he writes to you : 
I have told him your state of health is such that I have 
taboo'd your apphcation to literature for some time, 
which I hereby do. 

Perhaps James may have greater influence with 
the Bishop of St. David's than I have, for they 
possess a wonderful similarity of manners. My I^ord 
never answers letters ; if, however, I write to him on 
your case he may vouchsafe me a verbal answer on 
his way down. 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DA VIES. 

Brecon, 22nd April, 1809. 

My Dear Friend, 

(Letter opens with a reference to the fact that 
the Commission for the valuation of the profits of 
Painscastle has arrived). 

Our friend Payne and his wife will be our guests 
during the whole of next week. 

One word more. My old friend, the Rev. John 
Hughes, of Glasbury, died 15th of this month, aged 
60, leaving three daughters. He had an ample 
property, which he neither squandered or hoarded, 
tho' he placed now and then some money in the funds ; 
be was by no means deficient in talents, and liberal 



99 

almost to a fault to the poor ; for no one was ever turned 
from his door, consequently he was sometimes imposed 
upon ; reserved in manner, but of inflexible integrity, 
I believe never told an untruth in his lifetime ; steady 
in his attachments and friendships, for several years 
an active magistrate and an excellent father. Try-- 
your hand at an epitaph for a plain oval marble tablet, 
which I wish to be erected in that church in which for 
many years, notwithstanding his ample income, he 
officiated as curate, without receiving any emolument 
or any benefice in the church until a few years before 
his death, when he had the prebend of lylansaintfread 
and the vicarage of Pembroke. 

Yours most sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DA VIES. 

Brecon, Jtme 5, 1809. 
My Dear Friend, 

On the 15 th of this month the subscribers to 
the Clerical Fund for the relief of the distress' d 
widows and orphans of the clergy of this Arch- 
deaconry meet at the Lion. I will venture to put 
your name down as curate of Painscastle for los. 6d. 
annually to this excellent institution, which actually 
preserves three or four distressed women from 
starving and materially relieves others. 

I wish you would think of paying a visit to your 
parishioners at Bishopston as soon as you can find a 
cloak and trimmings for two or three Sundays. My 
arms are not long enough to reach to Gower, and the 
Flemings are confounded rogues ; the last year's 
receipt was most terribly frittered away. My friend 
James, the Attorney of Swansea, will show it you ; 
he is an honest young man and will assist you in 
increasing the rent of the glebe, which must be done, 
and I hope in renting out the tythes at a certain 
annual sum. 

When you go down you will also see what state 
the house is in, and tell them what you would wish 
to be done. 



100 

Mr. Hardinge admires your Dedication to the 
Bishop of Llandaff, and so should I if you had 
omitted the word ' ' competence " ; he has not given 
you a competence or anything like it, tho' the public, 
and among them the Bishop, will think he has, and 
quote your admission as proof. 

I see a catalogue of books to be sold at Gutch's, 
a bookseller at Bristol, advertised. I should wish to 
have one (price id.) especially if Whitaker's library 
is among them ; but how can you convey it to 

Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, June i8, 1809. 
My Dear Sir, 

A young friend of mine who is captain in our 
local Militia was summoned to appear at Bristol on 
Friday to sit on a Court Martial upon some rioters 
at Hereford. When they came to Durdham Down 
they were informed by General Ward, not General 
Watch, that their attendance at Bristol was not 
necessary, that they might return to Brecon, and 
proceed to Hereford to assist at the trial ; there is 
nothing like method in business ! 

My yoimg captain, however, went on to Bristol 
and during the hour or two he remained there he 
bought me the catalogue, which he delivered me last 
night ; it is not (as you observe) what I want, tho' I 
should be glad to get hold of one book it contains, if 
you can lay hands upon it, No. 1306 Brook's " Dis- 
covery of Errors in Camden, &c., with the Answers," 
price los. 6d. If you buy it, send it down with my 
2nd sleeping and sleepy volume (intended for Dr. 
Davies who is properly awake to his own interest), 
the original Ossian, and the Appendix only, con- 
taining Whitaker's books ; all of which that are 
valuable, will (I dare say) be snapped up before I can 
get at them. 

I have no doubt of your meeting the approbation 
of the learned readers of your last work, and you must 
habituate yourself to the kicks of the jackasses 
who are turned out by the mob for the same purpose 



lOI 

as over-driven oxen in the streets of London ; their 
tunes upon the harp, which it seems you considered 
inharmonious, were, unintentionally on their parts, 
so many hymns to merit, and the highest eulogy they 
could pay you. In your conclusion as to your 
having reached the acme of your preferment, I trust 
equally wrong ; but I must intreat that to arrive 
at something nearer the acme of the value of what 
you have, you will exert yourself, chase the blue devils 
out of the chimney corner, and if they return to the 
charge, see whether the mail coach to Swansea will 
not distance them ; my life on't, you are more 
certain of success than Captain Barclay. Cor- 
respondence will not do ; if that could have effected 
your purpose, the business would have been completed 
by me ere this ; but I have more than once been 
baffled in my attempts to serve you through the 
medium of correspondence. However, that you may 
place matters in a proper train, and settle such 
preliminaries as may be prudent or necessary, 
previous to your visitation, you may communicate 
your sentiments to Mr. John James, Attorney, 
Swansea ; tell him of your intention, then ' ' prime 
and load," "make ready," "present," "wait well 
or the word." Say I requested you to write. 

You see " Nos quoque tila sparsimus," tho' now 
lame, spavin' d, and wind-gall'd, but yet with some 
blood, and good spirits on getting rid of a confounded 
corn which plagued me more than the gout, and as to 
the blues, a fig for them. I laugh at them until I am 
reminded that they torment my friends, when I feel 
something like the claw and long nails of one of the 
imps. I long to see your Ossianomastrix in good 
birth, after which you may lie upon your oars for some 
time. Pray can you beg, borrow, hire, or steal from 
your friends (I'll indemnify you in any case) Col de 
la Motte's " Principal Historical and Allusive Arms 
borne by the families of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain," &c. (read England). A similar undertaking 
for Monmouthshire, South Wales, with a brief 
genealogical history and anecdotes is now the hobby 
horse ot Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 
Received Payne's book and deUvered, I believe. 



I02 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

1810. 

My Dear Friend, 

I cannot believe that Gutch's Catalogue contains 
the whole of Whitaker's books ; if it does, tho' they 
may be more expensive, and more numerous, I 
would not give mine in exchange for them. Pray get 
hold of the following if you can, and send them me. 

i s. d. 
2840 Pillitior (I presume Polontier is 
meant) Dictionare de la langue 
Brit 

2853 Pigge's Archseologia, &c. 

2854 Shaw's Gaelic Dictionary . . 
3908 Smith's Gaelic Antiquities . . 



Of the first of the four I know nothing ; perhaps you 
do. If it contains nothing more than what may be 
seen in lylwyd's Archseologia I would not have it ; 
if there is any new or additional matter, I should be 
glad to possess it. 



18 





10 


6 


I 4 
18 






£3 10 


6 



Mr. John Place, of the Abbey Copper Works, 
near Neath, tells me he thinks there is fire clay (and I 
think there is lead also which may be converted into 
England gold) under the glebe [at Bishopston] for which 
he offers most liberally 6d. per ton. This will never do, 
but I have promised him that you will consider his 
proposal ; you will do well, therefore, to settle this 
business also yourself when you come down, and in 
the meantime desire James to make inquiries with 
some intelligent person conversant in business of this 
nature what would be a fair compensation or ground 
rent to the landlord to a speculator finding and 
raising this article, and how much he ought to be 
compellable to raise per week or month, or to pay a 
certain sum in lieu. 

I beg you would not fail come down and give your 
parishioners a sermon on honesty into the bargain ; 
let me know a day or two before you set off, and if you 



I03 

come back this way you shall have my account, if 
not it shall be sent you. 

Mr. S. Meyrick, who has just published a history 
of Caerdiganshire, thus writes to me : ' ' Will you have 
the goodness to ask your Celtic friend Mr. Davies 
what Cambrian, Greek, Roman, or other proof there 
are of the time when Britain was first peopled. The 
Welsh Chronicles, I beUeve, place it about 1300 years 
before Christ, Mr. Davies about 1000, Mr. Roberts 
700. All that can be advanced about settling the 
period I should like to have, and also if he knows 
anything about the first peopHng of Ireland. I mean 
previous to the Belgiaid, who were the lyloegrians, 
termed by the Irish Fitzbolg, and the Damnonians 
going there. Was it before peopled from Britain or 
were the first inhabitants the Nemetas only, who came 
from Gaul ? How long after their arrival does he think 
the lyloegrians quitted Britain for Ireland ? " If 
you have leisure to answer these queries direct to Mr. 
S. R. Meyrick (or Meyrick, Esq.) No. 3, Sloan 
Terrace, Chelsea. 

Mind you go to Gower, or you will be excom- 
municated by 

Your friend, 
THE DEPUTY REGISTRAR. 



To The Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, August 14, 1810, 

My Dear Friend, 

The Bishop very readily excused your absence 
at the Visitation, and said he would dispense with 
the medical certificate, but he says as to the license 
you must write him, and explain your grounds for 
requesting it ; which letters must remain among the 
the papers of the Diocese as his justification for granting 
it. I stated to him that there is no house on 
Painscastle ; that the barn at Bishopston cost between 
£100 and £200 in repairing, or rather re-building, and 
that the house the money is laid out upon annually 
is not yet habitable. I mention this in order that 
you may know the reasons I have given for your non- 
residence, and which I firmly believe to be true. 



I04 

Don't be surprised if I send you a History of the 
World before the Flood. Mr. Wilhams, of Ivy Tower, 
a very learned man, but Penuhiwish and book 
maddish, is extremely delighted with your last book, 
which I presented to him, and threatened to send you 
his own if he can convey it. The address to Paul, 
" too much learning," &c., will tmquestionably apply 
to him, but he means well, and is a zealous Christian, 
notwithstanding his truly Cambrian irritability, of 
which you may have seen a very impolitic and rather 
incoherent specimen in the last Swansea paper, if it 
reaches you. 

I am glad to inform you by command of Booth 
that your book, which has hitherto been too shelfish 
begins to move. I do all I can to recommend, because 
I highly admire it and wish to serve you, but the knack 
or habit of lending and borrowing is become so 
prevalent, that I fear authors must eat even less than 
they have been hitherto compelled to starve upon. 

It is very extraordinary that my volumes have 
been reviewed by all the gentry of that description, 
except by the British Critic, a publication which 
professes to support the Established Church and those 
writers who are zealous for its honour and the 
maintenance of its discipline and doctrines. There 
is something wrong, and I suspect venal in this shop. 
I am totally unknown to them. I have received 
assistance at the British Museum from one or two of 
them, and yet my book has lain nearly 6 years upon 
their shelf, while Meyrick's Caerdiganshire, which 
has hardly appeared 6 months back, has been 
reviewed, and what is extraordinary, commended ; 
tho' it is already mere waste paper in the principality, 
being a chain of notorious and egregious blunders 
from the preface to the index. 

Pray let me hear from you, and I hope hear a better 
account of your health, if you should catch any 
Jaffers on their way to the Passage. 

You shall see the Bishop's charge as soon as it 
comes out ; it is in my mind the most orthodox, the 
ablest and the soundest that ever was delivered, or 
at least that has been ever heard or read by 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



I05 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, Sept. i8, 1810. 

My Dear Davies, 

Your half-saved, quarter-saved, half-quarter 
saved, drunken, idle curate, lost a paper delivered 
him by the Bishop at the Visitation under the direction 
of a late Act for Augmentation of Small Livings. 
Seeing your brother at Kington, I desired him to inquire 
about it, and received an answer from him that it 
could not be found, whereupon I wrote as the Bishop 
had instructed me to Richard Burne, Esq., Dean's 
Yard, Westminster, stating the above fact, and 
requesting he would send me another, which I would 
take care should be properly executed ; to that letter, 
tho' post paid, I received no answer ; I therefore 
recommend you to try your hand, informing this 
Burning man that you have heard of the above 
circumstances from me, that you are the Ucensed 
curate of Llanbedr Painscastle, and requesting he 
would send one to you, or you may lose a future 
advantage by Hwlws's neglect. 

I sent you Mr. Williams's, of Ivy Tower's book 
a fortnight ago, directed to you at the "Ship" at 
Olveston. I hope you have received it, tho' I doubt 
whether it will entertain you, for the author is 
certainly of the Pen-whiw family. 

I don't mean again to deal in County Histories 
I mean that I don't intend risking the expence o 
printing, &c., tho' I have no reason to complain of 
the experiment I have made ; but my worthy and 
excellent friend, Mr. Richard Price, the Member for 
New Radnor, is very anxious about that county, and 
I have promised to make collections for him, assisted 
by Cheese,* Lewis of Harpton, and one or two more. 
As Captain of this press gang, I seize you, and insist 
upon your becoming one of our boat's crew and 
handling your oar immediately. Heave off — and away 
we go ! 

What do you consider to be the meaning of 
Radnor, and when and by whom was it first adopted ? 

* Thia Cheese was graiidlather to Edmuiid H. Cheese, Esq., 
Solicitor, of Hay. 



io6 

What is the meaBing of Maelenydd Melenidd, 
alias Elvil Uwch Mynidd, or Ecton ? 

What of Elwel or Elfel Is mynidd ? 

And of the following parishes : — Llanbister, 
Nantmel, Llanddewi Ystradenni, Clyrow, Llowes, 
Disserth, Llanfaredd, Llanelwedd, Llanyri, Glandestry 
or Gladestry, and Cregrina ? 

Who was Saint Wonno to whom Llanono is 
dedicated, as well as two other churches — one in 
Monmouthshire and one in Glamorganshire ? 

Answer me these questions in seamanship as soon 
as you can, and if you know of any able minded lad 
or greybeard, living or dead, willing to lend a hand, 
give notice to the Captain, and you shall have plenty 
of flip for your trouble. 

I was very happy to see your last letter, from which 
it appears that the blues have been blown out of 
Olveston ; be assured that burying them occasionally 
in the red sea is a proper remedy, and may be justified 
in your case, provided it be not too often resorted to. 

As for your friend, ' ' whom villainous company 
hath been the spoil of," who hath tried the experiment 
and who in consequence hath ' ' cramps ' ' 

Side-stitchy that do pin his breath up, urchins 
That for the vast of night while they do work 
All exercise on him, and oft he's pinch' d 
As thick as honey combs, each pinch more stinging 
Than bees that made them. 

And yet, notwithstanding this, I laugh, I laugh, at the 
imps of gloominess, and have just now discovered, 
as they tell me, a cure for the gout, or at least I am 
determined to try it, for I cannot contemplate the 
loss of the use of my right hand, which must follow 
repeated attacks for a few winters to come. While, 
however, I can thus apply it I know not how to do it 
more agreeably than by assuring you 

That I am, 

Your very sincere friend, 
I THEO. JONES, 



I07 

To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, Nov. i8, i8io. 

My Dear Davies, 

I wish to have a seal engraved, because I some- 
times write to great men. The arms I know ; but 
the motto must be my own :— 

' ' Me studia delectant domi 

' ' Cas ni charo y wlad a mago 

" Cas ni char y wlad a mag." 

Utrumhorum ? 

Give me your opinion. 

I shall be at No. ii, Golden Square [London] 
for the next month, where I beg you will command 
the services of 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

Given under our hand and wafer, not 

having at present a seal, at Brecon, in 

the County of Brecon, i8th Nov. 1810, 

tho' meant for Gloucester, Thursday, 

20th. T. J. 

You know all my propensities, and therefore I 

leave it to you. I should like (if you prefer the Welsh) 

to puzzle the English with the appropriate rhyme 

and jargon : but I cannot make up my mind which of 

the two mottoes to prefer. 

Point out any other mottoe, not such as your 
friendship may suggest, but which you in sincerity 
would recommend me to adopt— for I have alrea,dy 
chopp'd and changed 50 times without satisfying 
myself at last. 

To THE Rev. EDWARD DAVIES. 

Brecon, April 6, 181 1. 

My Dear Sir, 

Vive I'eau Mediimorle ! It has done its duty, and 
if it had failed I should have lain in bed in London 
until the present fine weather brought me out with 
other reptUes. 



io8 

Our Bishop is a nondescript of the class just 
mentioned ; nothing is aimed particularly against you, 
but inattention to letters is one of his common vagaries ; 
however, you need not t.pply to him upon the business 
of the augmentation, as you'll observe the certificate 
of his Registrar will do, and, indeed, is that which is 
generally seni. I advise you to write the Sec't for 
£8, viz., for the two years due Lady Day last, and if 
they object to it we can send another. Booth will, 
I dare say, do this for you. I received from him this 
week your vol. of sermons. No other copy has as yet 
reached this place, tho' I advise a few to be sent here. 

I think you had better write a most humble address, 
petition, and remnsirance to your Diocesan to remind 
him of the liability to attack to which you are now 
exposed ; tho' you possess no mansion upon the one 
or habitable dwelling on the other benefice, and tho' 
you have not the sine qua non to provide a sufficiency 
of soil even for the semper vivum tectormn, if he does 
not attend to you, let me know and I'll prevail upon 
Charles Morgan to be flapper. 

Your information as to the plague and trouble of 
purchasing for the county is correct ; however, you'll 
do what you can, and so will 

Your very sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



To THE Rev. Mr. DAVIES. 

Brecon, July 7, 1811. 
My Dear Friend, 

A Shot for the Blues. 

And if I do not scare them, then am I no gunner. 
You are, I see, at this moment comfortably in their 
power, and yet I believe they never had so little reason 
to triumph, for you never were in your lite so much in 
the sunshine of episcopacy as you are at this moment, 
and I reaUy have sanguine expectations that the next 
summons to Saint David's will be accompanied with 
the ofl'er of another living in the diocese. To account 
for all this, which will appear a marvel to you while 
you are reading it, know then that upon the 25th of 
last month your Diocesan was at Brecon, and showed 



log 

me your long letter, as well as the Bishop of Gloucester's, 
upon which followed numerous interrogatories and 
explanations, and a conversation twice as long as both 
their letters. He did not seem to understand what 
you meant by expecting cold comfort or encouragement 
on your living, nor indeed did he seem to me to know 
whether j^ou were to be sent to Painscastle or 
Bishopston ; but when I told him what a set of Goths 
and knaves your parishioners were, how miserable 
the house was, and how exposed to the weather the 
situation (tho' this last argument, of course, did not 
weigh much with the founder of T.landdewi Brefi College) 
he evidently relented and promised me to write to you. 
He was, however, so taken up with the controversy 
with Sir John Nichol upon the case of Wickes for not 
bur^dng a Dissenter that (knowing the man) I don't 
wonder he lost sight of the letter. In the course of 
the day he asked me for your book of sermons, with 
which I furnished him, and now again he lost sight of 
Wickes and appeared quite in raptures with your 
composition. "Why," says he, "if our society had 
offered /^too to support our institution it could not be 
more effectually or ably done than by this work of 
Mr. Davies's. I thought him, Mr. Jones, a mere 
antiquary or black letter man like yourself, but I find 
him an orthodox Divine and an admirable writer on 
theological subjects." You need not trouble 
yourself about sending a book to him, he has probably 
had it ere this, for he said he should send for it 
immediately, which I daresay he did, unless Wickes's 
case again drove away the sermons. I shall, however, 
have in the case of next week a parcel from Booth, 
in which I desired him to send a copy for Payne and 
half a dozen for sale here, if I can dispose of them. 
When they arrive it will afford me an opportunity of 
asking the Bishop whether he has had the book or 
whether I shall send it him ; and at the same time 
reminding him that the long letter of the curate of 
Olveston remains unnoticed ; which I'll take care shall 
be done in such a manner as shall not give offence. In 
the meantime set your heart at rest as to the estimation 
in which you now stand with him. 

I am sorry on both your accounts to hear of your 
wife's general state of health. Sed levius fit patientia 



no 

quicquid corrigere est nefas, for medicine I fear has very 
seldom any salutary effects in correcting the evil when 
long and deeply rooted ; persuasives, however, to resigna- 
tion are unnecessary with you, who have had so many 
and such impressive lessons that if you have not already 
learnt to submit, at least without whining or kicking, 
it would be useless in me to either preach or pray, 
to lash or to pat you. Still, my good friend, let me 
remind you without flattering, and I trust without 
presumption, that in consequence of the hardship of 
your lot here you may entertain a well founded hope 
of a far more eternal and exceeding weight of glory 
hereafter. 

Thus sincerely prayeth. 

Your friend, 

THKO. JONES. 



To THE EDITOR AND PUBLLSHER OF "THE 
CAMBRIAN REGISTER." 

Brecon, Jan. lo, 1797. 
Dear Sir, 

I embrace the first moment the wheel will 
permit me to thank you for a few hours' agreeable 
amusement, received in the perusal of your Register. 
The book has much merit, and will, I think, claim and 
deserve the public attention ; and as you desire my 
free thoughts upon it, you shall have them freely and 
candidly. It has its faults, and I will point out to you 
what appears to me to be such ; not for the purpose 
of displaying my learning, or indulging an ill-natured, 
but too prevalent propensity to disparage the labours 
of others but merely to point out inaccuracies which 
may be corrected, and some trifling errors or instances 
of neglect, which, by a very little attention, may be 
avoided, either in a future edition or volume. You 
know I wish well to the work, and I am sure you will 
require no further apology. 

You have published a very sensible letter of Mr. 
Ivewis Morris's, about Geoffrey of Monmouth and his 
giants ; and yet I am afraid, that under the title of 
History, you arc publishing Geoffrey and not 
Tyssilio's history ; or, at all events, you have 



Ill 

translated Caur, a giant, which is by no means the 
sole or exclusive meaning of the worrl. You remember 
in my MS. review, for my own amusement, of Mr. 
WiUiams's History of Monmouthshire, I observed that 
Choir Gaur (Stone Henge) does not probably mean chorea 
gigantum, but chorea regum, principum, sacerdotum, 
legislatorum, or probably of all those characters united. 
Caur had much the same meaning, or might, at least, be 
as equivocally applied, as a great man in Hnglish, a term 
which appHes equally to size and abilities. How the 
deuce came Penteulu to be translated patron of the 
family ; a term neither intelligible, nor warranted 
by the original ? The office meant in the original 
was well known in all, or at least most, monarchial 
courts, and has existed ever since, though the duties 
of it may differ in different counties ; and I think you 
anticipate what I can hardly call information, when I 
say that the master of the household is meant. Gostegur 
might as well have been translated by Crier as silentiary, 
as the former is much more easily understood. 

As I have pointed out to you all the faults which 
now occur to me (and believe me I am not as trite to 
pick out more), let me notice the beauties. The 
observation upon the language, upon the origin of the 
Cymri, has much learning, much sound sense, great 
ingenuity, bordering now and then upon our favourite 
topic. etymologA^ ; (Pail up and ease us /) and will, if 
continued and conducted in the same manner, not 
disgrace any publication, in however high estimation 
among the learned, few of whom but condescend to 
pick up instruction as well as amusement from it. Sir 
Rhys ap Thomas's Life is a precious morceau. As a 
piece of modern biography, indeed, it would be 
considered astedious ; but as a specimen of the style 
of the age in which it was written, containing many 
particulars which cannot be generally known, it is a 
valuable curiosity. Pray do not omit to continue the 
Mabinogion ; you must endeavour to please all 
palates, and these have the double chance of amusing 
the antiquary and the novelist, or, at least, the 
romance-reader ; there are indeed some Welshisms 
that I could wish were dropped, as "Of all the hounds 
in the world he had ever seen." Of all that he had 



112 

ever seen in conversing with her, she was most un- 
embarrassed. Perhaps it is presumption in me to say 
I could better this style, but I cannot help saying I 
should have been glad to have seen it before it was 
published, to have suggested my opinion upon it, 
whatever attention had been paid to it. I am pleased 
to see a translation of Hywel's Laws, though there is 
one in Latin, but the book is so scarce that they are 
little known. Pray continue them, except those as 
to fornication or adultery, which I am certain neither 
Mr. Owen's nor your modest}^ will permit you to read, 
much less to clothe in an English dress. Your two 
first statists are men of sense, and valuable corres- 
pondents. The parson of lylanrhug has sent you, I 
really believe, a hteral copy of his answer to the 
Bishop's queries at the last visitation : — " In my 
parish " is so extremely like that style, that, 
accustomed to it, as I have been, I could hardly help 
turning the leaf to see whether I had marked upon it 
the payment of his visitation fees. More of I^ewis 
Morris's Letters,* and more of everything that belongs 
to him, pour ramour du hon Dieu. This part of your 
work is worth its weight in gold. I did not think 
Evan Prydydd Hir the poet he was. I knew him well, 
but I suppose the Cwrw had expelled the Awen before 
I became acquainted with him. 

Your vignette is elegantly executed, and will not 
attract the eyes of a street-lounger as he passes by the 
shop. O'ch ! to be sure — no it will not ; and you 
had no idea of its attracting attention. 

God bless you ! and be as merry and happy as a 
warm room, a piece of roast beef, mince pies, or good 
port, an amiable wife, a prattling little one, and a good 
conscience, will give you leave. Make my com- 
pliments to that same rib of yours, and to Owen, when 
you see him, and believe me to be, dear Williams, 

Yours, &c., 

THEOPHILUS JONES. 

* Lewis Morris's Letters are delightful. I hope there is no end 
to them. Gronwy Owen does not write as well as from his adver- 
sary I should have expected. The History of Pembrokeshire has 
much curious and genuine information, but upon the whole hangs 
heavy. / trust in God the tale from '• Mabmogion " can be com- 
pleted ; if it cannot, you have only tantalized ua. 



"3 

To The Rev. WALTER DAVIES (" GWALLTER 
MECHAIN") MEIVOD, MONT. 

Brecon, Dec. 23, 1799. 
Dear Sir, 

You see how important and familiar I am, 
but it is a professional fault, and tho' perhaps you would 
not recognise either my hand or my features if I 
introduced myself to you, I have taken it into my head 
from reading lyavater and the Cambrian Register that 
I should instantly know the Rev. Mr. Walter Davies, 
I believe he is good humour'd as well as learned, and 
as a proof that I so think of him, I have taken the liberty 
of informing him that I am at present forming a Great 
Evil and furnishing the world with a proof of my Folly 
in Folio. Perhaps one of the shelves at Meivod or 
Yspythy Ifan may hereafter groan under its weight. 
Now to the purport of this letter, and I proceed without 
further ceremony to ask (which I am sure with you 
will have the authority and weight of a command) 
whether you can give me any assistance or hint how 
I may obtain any information as to the History of 
this County. It is necessary I should tell you I have 
Tanner's Notitia Monastica, and that I have, or at 
least am in a train of procuring all the materials there 
stated. I have also officially some particulars which 
cannot be elsewhere procured. Do you know where 
I can get any others ? What are become of the 
Celtic Remains ? I think our friend Williams, the 
bookseller, of the Strand, told me you were about them. 
That rogue has used me very ill in our last volume ; 
he has made me talk nonsensically and ungram- 
matically et omne quod exit in allay, and his excuse after 
two years' delay was — he had no time ! ! ! You of course 
know Owen. These dogs the booksellers will kill him. 
I know it, and hereby testify it will be murder — it is 
done with malice prepense — poor fellow ! It is really 
hard so able a man should be obliged to fag and starve, 
for he does little better, but virtus laudatur et algei — 
as it was in the days of Horace, is now and ever shall 
be. Do favour me with a few lines (if you can be of 
any service to me, or even if you cannot) in answer 
to this incoherent epistle. I am much afraid those 
Appenines, which at this moment might certainly be 

H 



114 

written Penwin (for the plural would spoil the pun) 
will prevent our meeting, but if you should surmount 
and cross them no person will be happier to see you 
than 

Sir, 

Yours sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

You'll be good enough to direct to Air. Jones, 
Registrar, Brecknock. 

Dugdale's M. I have. 

I wish Owen had condescended to write his 
dictionary in the character now used, for tho' he had 
authority for his letters we have so long accustomed 
ourselves to a different mode of reading that I am now 
and then tempted to exclaim as the Frenchman did 
upon purchasing Dr. Johnson's Dictionary. Begar, 
I find if I buy Monsr. Owen's Welsh Dictionary I must 
buy another Dictionaire to explain de lettre of Monsr. 
Owen. I mentioned this to him before he began ; 
I hkewise pointed out to him the impropriety of 
attempting his quotations in English rh^mie. The 
latter hint he attended, but his v's and his s's, &c., &c.. 
he would not part with. They have hurt the sale of 
his book here very much. 



To The Rev. WALTER DA VIES. 
My Dear Sir, 

Brecon, June 27, 1802. 

Great facts, like great wits, have, I presume, 
a plentiful stock of absence (to use an Irish phrase). 
In your descent from our Snowdon the farmer tells me 
you borrowed a great coat, which you have either 
mislaid or wrapped up in your own by mistake. If the 
former be the case, pray tell me where I am to enquire 
for it, as I hear tis not at the Lion. If you have it, 
I'll thank you to send it by the coach directed to my 
house. 

Remember (if I have not the pleasure of seeing 
you again) that you were good enough to promise me 
the outlines of your labours in Breconshire, and the 



"5 

obligation shall be always acknowledged in private 
if you don't wish I should do it publicly by 

Dear Sir, 

Yours sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

How can I get at your last Prize Poem ? I'll 
thank you for the printer's name. 



To The Rev. WAI.TER DAVIES. 

Brecknock, Nov. 23, 1806. 

Dear Sir, 

When I had last the pleasure of seeing you iu 
Brecknockshire, you gave me hopes of a communi- 
cation upon the subject of the mineralogy of the 
county. I have written to you twice by private hands, 
but not hearing from you I fear they have met with 
the fate of many letters thus attempted to be 
conveyed, and under this impression I take the 
liberty of making one effort more to obtain your 
assistance before I finish my 2nd vol. of the History 
of this County, which I hope shortly to send among the 
devils. 

An answer to the following queries will much 
oblige, but even an answer saying I will not, or I cannot, 
or I have no leisure, or anything of that nature will 
be preferred to no answer ; for I shall then know 
what to expect. Mrs. Jones tells me that you have 
been in Breconshire without calling upon 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 

What is the position of the strata in the Vale 
of Usk in Breconshire ? 

What in the Vale of Wye ? 

How do they dip and rise, and are there any 
remarkable instances of their being thrown out of 
their courses ? 



ii6 

How many different strata do they consist of 
and their depth ? 

What are the component particles of each ? 

What are the stones pick'd up on the surface at 
different places, and be pleased to name the places 
where stones of peculiar or uncommon substances 
are found ? 

Did you observe the crumbling argillaceous stone 
in the Vale of Irvon and Hundred of Builth ? What 
is that called ? 

Any other observations in your mineralogical 
Tour ? 

What are the strata of the Beacons ? 

If you have any rough draft of your report to the 
board that is legible and will lend it, send it per post. 
I don't care for the expence. I only want to pick out 
a few articles of information, and it shall or shall not 
be known they came from you — as you please. 



To The Rev. WALTER DAVIES. 
Dear Sir, 

How are you, and what are you now about ? 

I purpose giving an heraldic and genealogic map 
of Wales in the style and by the way of enlargement 
of Yorke of Ecddig. Can you, or rather will you assist 
me with the Arms of the families in N.W. or any of 
them, their origin, or that of their mottoes ? 

Do you publish in N.W. ? I see nothing from 
thence ; but, alas ! there is a great gulph between 
thee and me. 

Owen Jones' 3rd vol. of the Archa. is a paltry 
compilation. I expected Owen would have given 
us the remainder of the Mabinogion and other extracts 
from the Llyfr Coch and Llyfr Du at Oxford : much 
of them should be pubHshed. 

Pray have you seen my friend Davies's Mythology 
of the Druids (lyondon, 8vo., Booth, 1803) ? If you 



117 

have not, I beseech you to read it. Bishop Watson 
in a note to our judge says : " It will be an eternal 
monument of his learning, his ingenuity and his labours." 
I can hardly hold my pen, while I assure you that I am 
Yours very sincerely, 

THEO. JONES. 

Gout ! villainous gout, 
Hath been the spoil o' me. 

What do you understand by the Eagle of Pengwern 
and EH, the Churches of Bassa and the Kini of 
Edeirnion in Llywrch hen's Elegy to Cynddylan ? 
Pray give me your opinion per post letter at your 
leisure. 

I don't approve of my countryman Williams of 
Ystradteilaw's translation of Cen i Ddewi. See how 
beautifully, almost literally, the four first hues may 
be rendered into English verse : — 

♦Almighty Pow'r in midnight's shade, 
May balmy sleep my frame pervade. 
And e'en the morning dawn appear 
The Poet's fire my spirit cheer. 



To The Rev. WALTER DAVIES. 

Brecon, Oct. i6, 1811. 

Dear Sir, 

May the hour in which you lost your MSS. in 
my study be the most unfortunate of your hfe. 

If I publish my translation of Budd Cwrc, I should 
wish to say something about Ellis Wynne ; if, therefore, 
you know or can procure any anecdotes relative to 
him, pray communicate them when you send the 
pedigrees and the copy of your poem, which perhaps 
may be conveyed by the Receiver, who will not be here 
until next month. At present you are, I presume, 
in your Perihelion, as I beUeve Crickhowel was your 
Aphelion. When your return into our more southern 

* Not creative pow'r. 



ii8 

skies will be I have not yet been able to calculate, 
but instead of dreading it, as we have been taught to 
do those other luminous but inexplicable appearances, 
depend upon it your approach will always be greeted 
with pleasure by 

Your sincere friend, 

THEO. JONES. 



The following undated letter, belonging to the Rev, 
M. Powell Williams, Rector of Llansantffread, shows 
that Mr. Jones's conscientious anxiety for the welfare 
of his friends and clients was not limited to that of his 
old schoolfellow, the Rev. Edward Davies : — 

TO MR. WALTER PRICE, GIvYNLLECH, IN 
YSTRADGUNLAIS. 

Dear vSir, 

As I find Mr. Bishop in my absence drew Mr. 
Jones, of Blarngwrthyd's Will (which I am happy to 
hear is in favour of you and 3'ours), I could not when 
I heard of it (which was not till this evening) but be 
uneasy at my not seeing it, and as no person has your 
interest more at heart than myself, I was much more so 
when I found that the real estate was devised with 
remainders over, which I am afraid Mr. Bishop, or 
indeed any other Clerk is hardly capable of doing with 
propriety ; if therefore you can either send me a copy 
of it, or if you think I can with propriety wait upon 
you at Blarngwrthyd, or if you can bring the Will to 
Brecon, it will make my mind easy, as I should be 
exceedingly hurt, if hereafter any dispute should arise 
from the ignorance or inadvertence of any person 
connected with me, where you are concerned. However, 
if you are satisfied that the present Will needs no 
revisal, or if (for this may be the case) you may think 
that it may be hazardous or improper to make any 
bustle or stir in the business by bringing up the 
business afresh, let me hear from you and I shall 
acquiese. 

I am, Dear Sir, 

Your obliged humble servant, 
THEO. JONES. 

Wednesday, past 11 at night. 



1 19 

To NICHOLAS CARLISLE, Esq., SECRETARY TO 
THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

Brecon, Oct. 28, 1811. 
Dear Sir, 

I send you a sketch and a letter which I lately 
received from a young but intelligent and zealous 
antiquary ; you will be pleased to communicate them 
to the Society, if you think them worthy of their 
attention. 

The great camp and station at Cwm, in the parish 
of Llanfihangel-Helygen, is the same that is men- 
tioned by Mr. Strange, in a paper read to the Society 
in May and June, 1774, and I beheve pubhshed in the 
Archceologia. He is inclined to fix the Magnis of 
Antoninus (he says) at Cwm ; but I must take leave to 
differ from him here : later antiquaries have, I think, 
correctly placed Magna or Magnis at Kenchester, in 
Herefordshire. Certain I am that this station (for such 
it appears to have been) lies very much out of the 
road from Gobannium, or Abergavenny, to Uriconium, 
or Wroxeter. It is forty-four miles from the first- 
mentioned place ; and a traveller from the first 
station to the latter by Cwm, would describe nearly 
the same angle as one starting from Guildford, in 
Surrey, through Reading to London. 

Cwm was, I apprehend, the next station on the 
south-west to Caer-sws in Montgomeryshire, and 
situated on the Via Helena, or more correctly, in my 
opinion. Via Leona, the Chester road ; that city being 
called Caer - Lleon - Gawr. At Cwm, this road 
bifurcated ; one branch proceeding through the 
Hundred of Builth, near Llandovery, and along the 
north side of the Towy to Muridumum, or Carmarthen ; 
the other branch led to the station at Gaer, near 
Brecon ; soon after which it again formed two lines, 
one proceeding to Nidum, or Neath, and the other 
directing its course more westwardly to Trecastle, 
Talysam, and along the south side of Towy, until it 
united again with the road just above mentioned at 
Muridumum. 

I fear we seek in vain for either the Roman or 
most ancient British name of the station at Cwm : 



I20 

for Castell Coll-llwyn, the castle of the brake, only 
describes its dilapidated state, when even its ruins 
were over-run with underwood. It is remarkable, 
that though this castle (as the Welsh call it) is situated 
in the Hundred of Melenydd, its name should be 
similar, and indeed the same, though differently 
pronounced, as a hundred lower down the Wye, called 
Coll-wyn, correctly Coll-llwyn, for the same reason as 
the site of the fortress is now so denominated ; because 
that district was also anciently overgrown with 
underwood. 

If I should hereafter discover anything further 
as to the name of this place, which may amount to 
somewhat more than conjecture, if I may hope to meet 
with their approbation, it shall be communicated to 
the Society, by 

Dear Sir, 
Their and your obedient humble servant, 
THEO. JONES. 

[The sketch referred to is by Thomas Price, clerk, 
curate of Llanyre, " Carnhuanawc." — Editor.] 



I elyn ap 

II Welsh, 



1. Jane, dau. of Roger 
Bredwardine. 



Philip Morgan, m. Nest, dau. of Hywel Melyn, from him are 
descended the Lewis' of St. Pierre's. 



Thomas, m. Jennett, dau. of Llew. Fyclian, Llewelyn, 
ap. Cynfrig. I 

Morgan, m. a dau. of Llewelyn Powell Fychan Powell. 

John Hik, m. a dau. of Tlio. Nerber, of Castleton. 



2dly Marg. dau. of 
Matthew Heu. 

J 



J 



Pedigree of the MORGANS of Tredegar, Machcn, Llantarnam, &c. 



Blwlri, Lord of Klved. bur. ot Lltiiigadook. 1119, in. Clydwon, Hmi. uf 






"""Y owe yc inn. ^'■'''How'^ror'As'ora.Vy Symi?.ln.H!Vslr JiTCv'v" 

Kill, or as om. Thoa. Welsh, at Lliuiywom. 









. Herbert, of Itt.>n. 



~ . r 

yn Sarpli. Km 



at .fns. Lriuigloy, John Jonkin a 



Ph. MoHUAN. of W«mgIopf 



mvor W.nartin. t. M. m. 2ndly a <lttu. of — .' I ' 8ir Ed. M. of Honiy M. m. Jsshkt. dnu. of 

in Soiii. [ Limit. (L) Jolm Games, of Aberbraii. 

organ, m. Blandi. dan. of W. Morgan. Thomas, in. a dau. of Sir Kitli. VV. Morgan. n>, Blnncli. dan. Sir Ed. M. (M) Rowland Morgan, ni. a dau. ot 



1. of H. JDotio, of Pictoii, by whom ho had MiiddMcoinbi-. and from Iiim ut<- diMnmdod E.— Sir W. Morgan. Knt., marn(<d Florence, dau. ot Sir Giles BurgM, Knt. 

, nftorn-ardB ot Cydwoh. in Carmurthonsluro. F.— .lolin Morgan, of Cacrlcon. ni. Kli/. , dim. .T I.:'u-ifl mi Biolmrd Owin. 



.r Cruflilla. dau. ot Evan Gwin Gwylym David, ot Rhj 
Pancarn, in Newport parish, m. " ■' '" ' 
of Wood Cwin, Devon. 



Sir Maltliow M* 



1, St, John, ot I 
* HhiWDcrrra, 

of SI. Loo of SoKUirarl. 



r 



HOWEIv HARRIS. 



Howel Harris was born at Trevecka, in the parish 
of Talgarth, in the county of Brecknock, on the 23rd 
of Januar>% 1714 ; his parents were of Caermarthenshire 
extraction, in low circumstances ; they, however, 
contrived to give him a classical education, and he was 
kept at school until he was 18 years of age, at which 
time his father dying, he was obliged to employ 
himself in instructing a few boys in the neighbourhood 
in reading and writing, in which situation he supported 
himself for some time, intending at a proper age to 
take holy orders. 

In November, 1735, he went to Oxford, and entered 
at St. Mary's Hall, under the tuition of a Mr. Hart, 
but here he did not remain long, as we find him in the 
following year keeping a school at Trevecka, which 
he afterwards removed to the parish church ; he now 
seems to have given up every idea of the Established 
Church, and to have adopted the opinion of a sect 
since called Methodists, and which were then in their 
infancy. 

About this time a man went about the country 
instructing young persons to sing psalms ; on these 
occasions he first appeared as a preacher, in which he 
met with no opposition, but being sent for by a 
gentleman in Radnorshire, who had heard of his rising 
fame, to preach before a large congregation, either 
his doctrines or his conduct gave offence to some of 
the clergy or magistrates of the county, and he was 
turned out of his school. This, however, did not dis- 
courage him, and he continued from thenceforward 
to preach publicly, sometimes twice or thrice a day, 
being supported by several who became converts to 
his opinion. 

In 1739, while Mr. Harris was in exercise of what 
he no doubt conceived to be his duty, and holding 



122 

forth to a congregation in Merionethshire, he was 
charged by some magistrates with a breach of the 
Conventicle Act (a law made in the reign of Charles 
II. for the suppression of seditious assembhes). Mr. 
Harris observed upon this occasion with great 
propriety, that he was not within the purview of this 
Statute, that he was a Conformist, and that neither he 
nor his hearers entertained any seditious intentions ; 
upon which, and upon consulting some lawyers, the 
prosecution was dropped ; but notwithstanding this 
he met with considerable opposition in some places ; 
et Machynlleth, in Montgomeryshire, a pistol was 
fired at him ; at Pontypool, in Monmouthshire, his 
congregation was dispersed by a magistrate, who read 
the Riot Act to them, and Mr. Harris was bound over 
to appear at the Assizes, where, however, upon further 
consideration, it was not thought expedient to pursue 
the business. He also met with very rough treatment 
in several other places, and once or twice narrowly 
escaped with his life from the fury of a bigotted and 
ungovernable populace. 

In the month of March, 1739, he first became 
personally acquainted with Mr. Whitfield, though he 
had previously received a letter from him, approving 
of his conduct, and encouraging him to proceed in his 
itinerant exhortations. Mr. Whitfield in his Journal 
describes the pleasure he received in the interview 
with his brother Howel Harris, at CaerdifF ; he says 
that ' ' he generally discoursed in a field, from a wall, 
or table, but at other times in a house, or anything 
else ; and that he had established near thirty 
societies in Wales." The friendship formed between 
these two extraordinary characters, from the 
unanimity of their sentiments upon religious subjects, 
and particularly as to free grace and election, in which 
they differed in some points from the followers of Mr. 
Wesley, continued during their Hves. 

In 1744 he married Anne, daughter of John 
Williams, of Skreen, in the county of Radnor, Esq., 
by whom he left issue only one daughter, Elizabeth, 
who married Charles Prichard, of Brecon, Esq., by 
whom she has several children. 



123 

After preaching in different parts of Wales and 
England for upwards of seventeen years, a wish 
probably to enjoy a home occasionally, and domestic 
fehcity, induced him to lay the foundation of the present 
building of Trevecka which was begun in April, 1752, 
At this time the funds were very inadequate to the 
undertaking, but the subscriptions of many who wished 
well to the undertaking, and of some who being fond 
of Mr. Harris's manner and style of preaching, desired 
to reside in what was afterwards called the Family 
of Trevecka, enabled him to complete the work. Here 
he established a small manufactory in wool, and in 
1754 there were settled under the same roof with him 
100 persons, the profits of whose labours were applied 
towards a general fund for their support. The com- 
munity, or family, still continues, but since his death 
the numbers have considerably decreased. 

Soon after the breaking out of the war with France, 
in the reign of George II. the Breconshire Agricultural 
Society offered to form themselves into a troop of horse 
to serve in any part of Great Britain, without pay ; 
on this occasion Mr. Harris engaged to furnish ten men 
and horses, with their accoutrements, to attend them 
at his own expence ; for some reasons, which do not 
now appear. Government did not think it expedient 
to accept their services, but on his recommendation 
five young men, who were settled at Trevecka, entered 
into the 58th Regiment of Foot, and fought for their 
King and country at the Seiges of Ivouisbourg, Quebec, 
and the Havannah. 

In the year 1759 the loyalt}^ of Mr. Harris 
becoming generally known and approved of, he was 
solicited to accept of an Ensign's commission in the 
Breconshire Militia ; this, after some consideration, 
he agreed to do, and having taken with him from 
Trevecka twenty-four men, twelve of them at his own 
expence, as to clothing and arms, he joined the regiment 
in 1760, and some time afterwards he was advanced 
to the rank of Captain in that Corps. The first year 
of their services they were ordered to Yarmouth, 
whither Mr. Harris accompanied them, sometimes 
joining his men on their march, in singing hymns and 
psalms, and at other times, and in most towns through 



124 

which they passed, preaching to them in his 
regimentals, a sight at that time perfectly novel, and 
not very common at this day. 

In 1762 he returned from Plymouth, upon the 
conclusion of the war, to Trevecka, after having served 
three years in the Militia. In 1767, Selina, the late 
Countess Dowager of Huntingdon, came to reside at 
Trevecka, where she established what was called a 
college, for the education of young men of this 
persuasion who were intended for preaching, to which 
several resorted during her life time, but it is now 
nearly, if not totally, deserted. 

In the year 1770 he lost his wife, and in the year 
1773, upon the 21st of July, an attack of the stone 
and gravel, to which he had been then lately subject, 
put a period to his existence. He was buried at 
Talgarth, and over his grave in the church there is a 
long epitaph, on the merits of which readers will 
probably differ. 

His character. Uke most of those who have made 
warm friends and bitter enemies, has been variously 
represented, with one set he was an angel, with another 
a knave. Charity, though it may not inspire us with 
the raptures of his admirers, will induce us to hesitate 
before we admit either his hypocrisy or roguery ; to 
his only daughter he was hardly just, and by his will 
it appears that he was extremely anxious that the 
whole of his property should go in the first place in the 
discharge of his debts, and the remainder to those 
whom he conceived himself obliged for assistance, 
in money or otherwise. He was a strong robust man, 
though not tall, his voice was loud, and by some 
thought sonorous. He was, when preaching, always 
completely cloathed in sulphur, fire, and brimstone, 
which he dealt out liberally and with no inconsiderable 
effect. The terrors of hell, which he painted with almost 
a poet's fire, contributed, no doubt, frequently to frighten 
men from their vices ; but it is submitted (without 
the least idea of blaming those who may differ with 
the writer in opinion), though it would be much more 
conducive to the cause of Christianity, and conse- 
quently to the advance of virtue and true reUgion, 



125 

to address the reason, rather than the passions of 
mankind. The old gentleman with his horns and hoofs 
sometimes terrifies, but like the scare-crow in the garden, 
the intended effect is lost by his frequent introduction 
and atheism sometimes follows ; whereas if a man can 
be convinced that it is his interest in this, as well as in 
a future world, to lead a virtuous life, he will feel 
benefits more immediately, and yet they will certainly 
be more endurable. 

T. J. 

[This Biography appeared in the second vol. of The 
Cambrian Register, and was written by Theophilus 
Jones. — Editor\ 



REMARKS ON WELSH TOURS. 

The Article opens with a reference to the alleged 
practise of Courtship in Bed by the Welsh, and Theo. 
Jones most emphatically declares that there was no 
such custom in general. He then proceeds : — 

I am happy in confirming the account of strewing 
flowers upon the grave, a practice frequently observed 
in some of the country churchyards, and has truly 
the becoming appearance of veneration for the dead 
at the same time that it produces a sentiment of pleasing 
melancholy in the living. Yet, in this, our pleasant 
traveller cannot help bellishing and adorning his 
tale when he informs us that the woman with whom he 
was in conversation, told him ' ' that if a nettle or a weed 
was to be seen to-morrow (meaning on a Sunday) in 
the churchyard — the living party to whom it (the grave 
I presume, on which it grew) would he hooted after divine 
service by the whole congregation ! ' ' Sad jade, to impose 
thus upon a stranger. " Hooting ! " — hoot awa, mon, 
it's nae sic a thing ! 

The Welsh weddings are prittey much as described 
by this author : noisy, riotous, and dedicated by the 
guests drinking and singing. He might have added 
that they are frequently preceded, on the evening 
before marriage, by presents of provisions, and 
articles of household furniture, to the bride and 
bridgegroom ; on the wedding day as many as can 
be collected together, accompany them to the church 
and from thence home, where a collection is made in 
money from each of the guests, according to their 
inclination or ability, which sometimes supplies a 
considerable aid in establishing the newly-married 
couple, and in enabling them to " begin the world," 
as ih&y call it, with more comfort ; but it is at the same 
time considered as a debt to be paid hereafter, if 
called upon, at any future wedding of the contributors, 



127 

or their friends, or their children, in similar circum- 
stances. Some time previous to these weddings, where 
they mean to receive contributions, a herald with a 
crook or wand, adorned with ribbons, makes the 
circuit of the neighbourhood, and makes his 
' ' bidding ' ' or invitation, in a prescribed form. 
The knight errant cavalcade on horseback — the 
carrying off of the bride — the rescue — the wordy war 
in rhythm between the parties, &c., which formerly 
formed a singular spectacle of mock contest at the 
celebration of the nuptials, I believe to be now almost, 
if not altogether, laid aside everywhere throughout 
the principality. 

It cannot be denied that the Welsh have much 
superstitution amongst them, though it is wearing off 
very fast. But the instance adduced here, that of their 
predicting a storm by the roaring of the sea, is a curious 
kind of proof of their superstition. Their predictions, 
if they may be so called, are commonly justified by the 
event ; and may, I apprehend, be accounted for from 
causes as natural as the forebodings of shepherds ; 
for they have rules and data as well known to 
themselves, and, perhaps as liable to error, as any of 
those established by the more enlightened philosophers 
of the present day. That, among the lower class of 
people, there is a general belief in the existence of 
apparitions is unquestionable : but as to the lighted 
candle, springing up upon the errand of love, I believe 
that no person in Wales has ever heard of it. The 
traveller has probably confounded it with a very 
commonly received opinion, that within ihe diocese 
of St. David's, a short space before death, a light is seen 
proceeding from the house, and sometimes, as has 
been asserted, from the very bed where the sick person 
lies ; and pursues its way to the church, where he or 
she is to be interred, precisely in the same track in 
which the funeral is afterwards to follow. This light 
is called canwyll corph, or the corpse-candle. 

The extravagant ravings of Methodism, which 
the author very truly and properly represents as 
exceeding everything which can be seen or heard in 
any civilized country, are certainly a reproach to the 



128 

good sense and understanding of the inhabitants. 
Between 30 and 40 years ago a branch of the sect of 
Mr. Whitfield's persuasion began to exhibit certain 
enthusiastic extravagancies from which they are some- 
times denominated Jumpers. Persuading themselves 
that they are involuntarily actuated by a divine 
impulse, they become intoxicated with this imagined 
inspiration, and utter their rapture and their triumph 
with such wildness and incoherence — with such 
gesticulation and vociferation — as set all reason and 
decorum at defiance. This presumption, seizing 
chiefly the young and sanguine, and, as it seems, like 
hysteric affections, partly spreading through the crowd 
by sympathy ; its operation and effects extremely- 
varying according to the different degrees of consti- 
tutional temperament, mock all description. Among 
their preachers, who are also very various in their 
character (illiterate and conceited, or well meaning and 
sensible, or, too frequently, I fear, crafty and 
hypocritical), some are more distinguished by their 
success in exciting those stravaganzas. . . The 
Gleaner next .... tells us that in Wales the 
beHef in Fairies is general. That there are silly weak 
people in all countries every man who has travelled 
must be convinced ; and that there may be many of 
the lowest kind of people in Wales, as well as in 
England, who beheve in ghosts, gobhns, and fairies, 
I k^ow full well : but that there is a greater proportion 
of the credulous in the former than in the latter 
[Glamorganshire and Pontypool] though I have seen 
a great deal of the manners of all ranks in both, I have 
fovmd no reason to affirm 

I wish we could admit, as a fact, that there is a 
harper in every village, and a bard to every mountain 
in Wales. The truth is some of the villages of North 
Wales have their harpers ; in South Wales there are 
few. As to the bards, alas ! they may be said to be 
nc more. The Awen — the Welsh vis poetica, seems nearly 
extinguished ; and though some few scintillations may 
still sparkle in two or three of the bards of North 
Wales, I am much afraid that like the faint and 
transient blaze of a nearly wasted candle, they only 
forbode its approaching extinction. . . . 



129 



Salmon, per lb. . . . o 
Turbot, per lb. . , i 

Cod, per lb o 

Eggs, 3 a penny 
Couple of fat ducks . 2 
Chicken, per couple . i 
Goose 2 



Prices in Brecon, 1796. 
s. d. 

6 Bacon, per lb. 
o Beef, per lb. 
6 Mutton, per lb. . 
Pork, per lb. . 
6 Veal, per lb. 
o Coals, per bushel 
o Wheat, per bushel 



d. 
o 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



Rents in retired places for a tolerable house and a 
few acres of land are given as ^25 per annum. In 
populous counties, a gent's house with a dozen acres 
of land, £40 or £50 was the rent. 

[This criticism by Theophilus Jones was written for 
and published in The Cambrian Register, vol. 2 ; it was 
signed •• Cymi'o." — Editor. 



SALE OF THEO. JONES S BOOKS. i 

There were 430 lots at the sale and 1,220 volumes. 

The title page of the Catalogue read as follows : — 1 

' Catalogue of the Valuable Library, Prints, Micro- j 

' scopes, Globes, Library Table, Book Cases, and other ] 

' effects of the late Theophilus Jones, Esq. (deceased) ' 

' to be sold by auction by Mr. Wise, of Bath, on the j 

' premises at Brecon, Wednesday, Sept. 2nd, and two j 

' following days [1812]. Sale to commence each 

' morning at eleven. Price one shilling. George \ 

'North, Printer, Brecon." Size of catalogue, large i 

post 8vo., 23 pages. , 

The whole of the Catalogue is not here given, but : 

included in the sale were : — j 

I Fenton's " Pembrokeshire." i 

I Meyrick's " Cardiganshire." 1 

6 Jones's " Brecknockshire." 'i 

I Williams's "Monmouthshire." , 

Maps of Breconshire and seven prints. | 

14 small Ditto Ditto ; 

I Duncombe's "Herefordshire." I 

' * A very curious Black Letter Bible before the division i 

into verses, and undoubtedly one of the earliest j 

copies printed." (Lot 225). ; 

A Black Letter Edition of Fox's ' ' Martyrology . ' ' 1 

Sir Richard Hoare's "Wiltshire," the i.st and 2nd 

Parts, folio (2 vols.) 

Fenton's " Pembrokeshire," fine paper elegant. i 
Plot's ' ' History of Staffordshire ' ' (very scarce). 

Plot's "History of Oxfordshire." J 

Worsley's " Isle of Wight." '] 

Millar's "History of Doncaster." ': 

Whitaker's "Manchester" (very rare). i 

Reynold's on God's Revenge against murder and | 

adultery (the scarce edition, 1640, plates, folio). j 

Deering's "Nottinghamshire," 1751 (scarce). \ 

Enfield's " History of Liverpool." U 

Price's "Leominster, Ludlow," &c., 1795. '' 
North's "Dial of Princes," 1557, very rare, black 
letter, and an extra fine copy. 



Smith's "History of Cork, Kerry, and Waterford " 

Queen ^Sbeth's Prayer Book, curious wood cuts. 

black letter, 1608 (rare). 
Wit's " Common Wealth " (very scarce). 
The Life of Sir Francis Drage (scarce). 
Life of Sir Philip Sydney (very rare). 

?hf f lua'Sir'Soppe. Plates belonging to Jones's 

^wU' X^:t^ an-tttroTthe 

Second Vol. in quires. 
Edmonson Baronagium Genealogicum or Pedigrees 
Edmonson st5a g coloured, according 

?o the Blazonry of the Arms, and enriched 
with additional MS., folio, calf gilt, 6 vols. 

290 Cambrian Biography, Owen's, and History 
^ of the Gwedis Family - v°^^- 

2QI Itinerarii Cambrise, the original edition of 
'^ Giraldus, 1585. and Ware's Antiquitatis 

Hibernia, 1654, (both scarce) _ 2 xois. 

292 Dafydd ap Gwilym and Edwards s Welsh^ ^^^^ 

2QCI Fitz^rovl Antiquities of the Gauls and 
^^^ Son's History of Britain (both scarce 2 vols. 

294 Heylin's Help to History, British Anti- ^^^^^ 
quities, Tracts, &c., h_ , 

2Q5 Warner's Albion's England, 1602 (scarce) i ^ol 

2q6 Stowe's Survey of London, 1618 (scarce) 

297 Camden's Remains and Ridley's Civil and 

^' Ecclesiastical Law ^ 2 vo s. 

298 Carolau Duwiol, Worthies of Wales, &c. 2 vojs. 

299 Welch Common Prayer Book, Gramma. , &c 5 vo s. 

300 PoweU's History of Wales (scarce) i vol. 

301 Mercurius Rusticus, 1685 (scarce) and 

^ Howell's Familiar Letters „ .^ ^ '^°^^' 

302 Whitaker's History of the Antient Britons 

^ and Two Welsh Tours 3 voi^. 

303 Linden's Treatise on the Waters of Llan- 

drindod and History of Wales 2 vols. 

304 Welsh Bible, Richards's Welsh Dictionary ^^^^^ 

&c. 



12 


vols. 


Tour 




2 


vols. 


6 vols, 


I 


vol. 


I 


vol. 


I 


vol. 


I 


vol. 


I 


vol. 


I 


vol. 



132 

LOT 

305 Baxter's Glossarum Antiquitatum and 

Jeffrey of Monmouth's History of 
Britain 2 vols. 

306 Pritchard's Welsh Poems. Vicar of I,lan- 

dovery, and Williams's ditto 2 vols. 

307 Evans's History of Britannic and Welsh 

History of the World 2 vols. 

308 Three Vols, of Selections of Welsh Poetry 
3oq Miscellaneous Welsh Books 

310 Excursions down the Wye and 

through Wales 

311 Tracts, &c., Miscellaneous 

312 Price's Cornith Grammar, 4to 

313 Welsh Bible by Balkett 

314 One ditto 

315 Davis's Mythology of the Druids 

316 Davis's Celtic Researches 

317 Rowland's Mona Antiqua, 4to 

318 Walker's Memoirs of Irish Bards and Life 

of Lord Herbert of Cherbury 2 vols. 

319 Vallancey's Irish Grama, Kelly's Monks, 

and Bishop of St. David's Charge 3 vols. 

320 Warrington's History of Wales, 8vo. 2 vols. 

321 Cambrian Register 2 vols. 

322 Quantity of Welsh Tracts, Pamphlets, &c. 

323 History of the Gwedir Family, the original 

MS. I vol. 

324 Glamorganshire Pedigrees in MS. i vol. 

325 Quantity of MS relating to the History 

and Pedigrees of Brecknockshire. 

326 Well Springe of Welch Nobilitee. By G. 

Owen, Harrie and others, curious MS. 
of Welsh Pedigrees. 

327 Miscellaneous Welsh MSS. 

328 Powell's Historic of Wales, the old Black 

Letter Edition of 1584 (very rare) i vol. 

329 T. Richard's Welsh Dictionary and 

Grammar i vol. 

330 Dav^is's Welsh Dictionary, folio i vol. 

331 J. David Rhees's Welch Grammar, foUo i vol. 

332 Jones's Collection of Welch Poetry i vol. 

333 Walters's EngHsh and Welsh Dictionary, 

Russia, quarto, 1794 i vol. 

334 Ditto in numbers, the edition of 1788 i vol. 



133 

335 Matth. Paris Historia, 1571, folio i vol. 

336 Matth. Westr. Flores, Histonamm, 1750 8 vols. 

337 Prvme'sHistrio Matrix Welsh Hd., 1633, 4to i vol. 

338 Hardvng's Chronicle, black letter, imprint i vol. 
33Q Price''s Leominster and Hereford, Thorley 

on Bees, &c. 3 vols. 

340 Hederici Lexicon, 1727 i vol. 

341 Ainsworth's Latin and English Dictionary, 

Morell, 1796 I vol. 

342 Boyer's French Dictionary, 1727 i vol. 

343 Maw's Gardener's Dictionary, 4to. i vol. 

344 Johnson's Eng. Dictionary, 4to, 1785 2 vols. 

345 Weever's Funeral Monuments, 4to, 1767 i vol. 

346 Harris's English Insects, color'd plates, 4to i vol. 

347 Gerarde's Herbal, foHo, 1633 i vol. 

348 Dillwyn's British Confervae, col. plates i vol. 
C54Q Minshaer's Dictionary of Nine Languages, 

1627 I vol. 

350 Spelman's Glossary, fine copy, 1637 i vol. 

351 Samm's Antiquities of Britain, 1637 i vol. 

352 Strype's Memorials, 1721, good copy i vol. 

353 GwyUim's Heraldry i vol. 
■^^A Dugdale's History of Warwickshire, title 

wanted i vol. 

355 Registrum Honoris de Richmond, 1722 

(scarce) i vol. 

356 Wilkin's Leges Anglo Saxonicae, 1721, a 

large paper copy i vol. 

357 Wotton's Laws of Howel Dha, large paper, 

1720 (scarce) 



134 



From The Cambrian, Sept. 13, 1805 : — 
This Day was published, 

Price £2 I2S. 6d. to Subscribers ; to Non-Subscribers, 

£2 15s. 

A HISTORY OF BRECKNOCKSHIRE. 

VOL. I. IN ROYAL QUARTO. 

Containing the Chronography, General History, 
Religion, Laws, Customs, Manners, Language, and 
System of Agriculture used in that County. 

By THEOPHILUS JONES, 

Deputy Registrar of the Archdeaconry of Brecon. 

Illustrated by a new and accurate Map of the County 
a Map of the Ancient Provinces of Demetia and 
Siluria, and with views of most of the Towns and 
Castles of Brecknockshire. 

Brecknock, sold for the Author, by W. M. and 
Geo. North ; and by John Booth, Duke Street, Portland 
Place, London ; and may be had of most others of 
the principal Booksellers in England and Wales. 

The Second Volume is in considerable forwardness, 
and will complete the work. 



135 



From The Cambrian, Dec. 24, 1808. 

Brecon, Dec. 19, 1808. 

On Monday, Jan. 2, will be published 
And may be had of the Printer of this Paper, 

The Second and Concluding Volume op 
A HISTORY OF BRECKNOCKSHIRE, 

By THEOPHILUS JONES, 
Deputy Registrar, &c., 

In Two Parts, Royal Quarto, illustrated with numerous 
Engravings. 

Two title pages are given with this volume, in order 
that the parts may be bound in one or separately. 
Containing the antiquities, sepulchral monuments 
and inscriptions, natural curiosities, variations of the 
soil, stratification, mineralogy, a copious list of rare 
and other plants, and also the genealogies and arms 
of the principal families properly coloured or blazoned ; 
together with the names of the patrons and incumbents 
of all parishes and Uvings in this county. 

Price to original subscribers, who are requested 
to be as early as possible in their application for this 
book, £4. — Price to Non-Subscribers, £4 14s. 6d. 

Brecknock : Printed and sold by George North, 
Bookseller, &c. ; and sold also by J. Booth, Duke 
Street, Portland Place, London ; and by the Author 
at his house, in Brecon. 

Where also mav be had some remaining copies of 
Vol. I., price £2 15s. 



EXTRACTS FROM RICHARD FENTON'S 
DIARY. 

The distinguished Author of A Tour Through 
Pembrokeshire, first pubHshed in 1811, and recently 
re-printed under my supervision, left in MS. some 
account, in the form of a diary, of a tour through parts 
of Wales which he made in company with his friend 
and patron. Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Those MS. notes 
are now in the Cardiff Library, and I have copied 
therefrom Fenton's references to his visit to Brecon- 
shire and some portions of Radnorshire. They are 
here given because of the frequent mention made of 
Theophilus Jones and his friend Archdeacon Payne 
and others. It should be stated that Fenton had an 
idea of writing a History of Wales, and his tour 
appears to have been taken with that object in view. 

THE EDITOR. 



May 19, 1804. — A fine day. We set off from 
Builth for the station on the Ithon, and went by Court 
Llechryd, a farm situated within a large square en- 
trenchment, but on examination, and in the opinion 
of Sir Richard Hoare, very conversant with such 
matters, with the corners not sufficiently rounded to 
pronounce it Rom.an ; yet it puzzles me to determine 
what it could have been. Probably the Britons 
finding that the Romans had occupied the spot, and that 
it was a convenient place for guarding the Ford below 
it over the Wye, did away with the greater part of the 
Roman traces. However, it is clear that it had been 
a place of some consequence, either as the occasional 
residence of one of the Princes of South Wales or 
usurping chieftains of the Normans. Powell's 
Chronicles mentions a battle fought there between 
Rhys ap Tewdwr and Madoc Cadwgan and Ro'syd, 
sons of Blethyn ap Cynfin, when Madoc and Ro'syd 
were slain ; and there is a field on the farm to this day 
called Maes Madoc. The farmer at the house told me 
that a very large human skull had been dug up there, 



137 

and some silver small coins, but of what age he could 
net say. The farm is now the Court House of a large 
lordship belonging to the daughters of the late Thomas 
Jones, Esq., of Pencerrig, lately married the same day, 
the eldest to one Thomas, of Glamorganshire, the 
yoimgest to one Capt. Dale, It is finely wooded with 
venerable and round oak. After riding about 2| miles 
on the Rhayader road, we turned off over a large 
common, hoping we might discover some traces of 
the Roman Road which we had pursued over the hills 
above Glanbrain, and which, from its bearing, must 
have crossed the Wy somewhere by the west of Builth, 
and probably at I^lechryd, but by the track of the old 
Roman Road we fell in with on the western side of 
Llandrindod Common, it must, after crossing the Wy, 
struck off rather to the eastward of the place we turned 
up to out of the Rhayader road. On that common 
we followed it for about a mile, pointing exactly to the 
station in question, and within half a mile of it. There 
can be no doubt of the other road from the Gaer, in 
Brecknockshire, portions of which are discernable near 
and on the present road from Builth to Llandrindod, 
in several places uniting with it before it crossed the 
Ithon to the station, though we could not discover 
this union. We crossed the river by a wooden bridge 
and came to Cwm, the seat, or rather the wretched 
farm house of a Mr. Wilhams, a man of large fortune, 
and a Radnorshire magistrate (a pretty specimen). 
We rode up to the house ^ and this rough unbottoned 
'squire appeared, and having asked his permission, 
we rode on to see the station, which lay a few hundred 
yards beyond his house. Saw several pieces of brick 
and the foundations of several stone buildings, the 
whole circuit without the camp having been built on. 
Sir R. Hoare, in a ploughed field adjoining, picked up two 
pots of very fine pottery, with enough of the antient 
glazing on it to distinguish it. 

The Camp, Mr. Williams told us, was called Caer 
Collen, i.e., the Hazel Camp, as he supposes from the 
number of hazels growing over the sides of it, but why, 
more properly, may it not be a corruption of Caer 
Cae Cen, the Camp of the field of Legion ? On our 
return, rode up to see the wells of Llandrindod, a 



138 

miserable place, and by so doing overshot that part 
of the present road on the common where traces of 
the Roman appear, having kept too much to the east. 
Saw a circular camp near Howey, a dingle we crossed, 
falling into the road in time to distinguish the traces 
we were in quest of. To the west of which and close 
to it a very fine tumulus. Riding on towards Pencerrig, 
found several bits of the road too strong for anything 
but Rom^an 

We dined at Builth, and after dinner walked to the 
church, an ordinary plain building with a tower at the 
west and dignified by a town clock ; standing in a very 
large cemetery where, though the town is populous 
and the parish considerable, few graves are seen, and 
those that are, all on the south side. In the chancel, 
on the south side, is the effigy of a warrior of great size, 
as represented, particularly his head ; it is in armour, 
legs mutilated, of a purplish stone of the country. 
The inscription belonging to it is one brass plate affixed 
to a piece of old oak, and shown by the clerk. From 
thence continued our walk over the bridge on the 
Irvon, and through pleasant fields and woods to Builth 
Wells, with an octagon building. There are three 
pumps not above four feet asunder, the water of each 
differing from the other. One, a strong sulphurous 
and saline mixed, another of a weaker sort, and the 
third only sulphurous. A little way off to the north- 
ward another spring and place to bathe in, the water 
of which was of the sulphurous and saline mixed, but 
infinitely more brilUant and lively than the other 
waters. The wells are very inconvenient for invalids, 
who generally lodge at Builth, at least a mile and a 
quarter off, there being no accommodation nearer, 
except some veiy ordinary ones, at a farm house near. 
Returned to tea and closed a pleasant day. 

May 20. — Stopped at Builth. Wrote after break- 
fast for an hour, then walked to see Builth Castle, 
or rather the place where the Castle stood, which con- 
sists of a very large tommena in the centre, surrounded 
with a very deep ditch circular, and that by an outer 
one, a very small portion of wail here and there ap- 
pearing. It occupied a considerable space, and of its 
size very strong. Two or three beautifvil and very 



139 

picturesque ash trees are growing in the sides of the 
entrenchments. After dinner strolled as far as the 
Irvon, and turned to the left at the bridge, where I 
met Price, of Builth, with his wife and another lady- 
admiring the river in that place rushing rapidly over 
a bed of slaty rock, the sides of which contain very- 
curious pieces of lean ironstone, almost globular, 
bedded in the slate. A little above the place was 
formerly an old bridge which must certainly be the same 
mentioned in Powell's Chronicles as Pont Orewyn, for 
Pont ar Irvon, at which pass there was an obstinate 
encounter between Mortimer and Llewhellin, who was 
encamped on that singular Peninsular formed by the 
Irvon called Caerbiris, there being a very antient 
castelet at the extreme point. Walked on the old 
turnpike, which forms one of the finest terraces that 
can be conceived, boldly placed above the river, taking 
the most romantic bends below, with its banks finely 
wooded, with all the near and distant scenery producing 
the most striking effect, but particularly the range 
of the Ellenith mountains deliciously tinged by the 
setting sun. 

May 21. — Left Builth after a shower, which gave 
freshness to the air and made the roads pleasant. 
About a mile beyond Llanelwydd Church, descending 
into a little valley, one of the most beautiful landscapes 
imaginable presented itself, Sir Richard Hoare ob- 
serving that he never saw more charming circumstances 
united. Turning to the left we forsook the Wy and 
our road became rather uninteresting. At a place 
called Penybont at the upper end of a small dingle, 
observed one of the usual round tummens or castelets 
entrenched, and near it in a field a tumulus and 
another without on a common. It seems there are some 
very strong mineral waters at a place called Blan Edw. 
Our road to Glascwm. then took a turn to the left, 
leaving Creggrina to the right, marked b}' a yew tree 
or two. It seemed nothing but a plain roof, no cross 
aisle, steeple, or aperture without for a bell. After 
passing a bridge, we opened the little narrow but beau- 
tiful valley of Glascwm, terminated by the church and 
village. The church, like the last, but larger, had a 
porch, and on the south side the remains of windows 



140 

that in former days showed handsome stone work, but 
was stopped up and repaired in various ways. Vide 
Giraldus to account for taking this very out of the way 
route. Ascending a very steep hill we rode some miles 
in rain over the summit of the mountain between 
Glascwm and the Wy, on several parts of which my eye 
caught the larger kind of "love and idea," a ,flower I 
never saw wild before. The hills passed, we caught a 
fine view of the rich vale of the Wy, and our place of 
destination. The Hay, and the lovely country aroimd, 
backed by Talgarth mountains. Within a mile and half 
of Hay bridge near a farm house, one of the frequent 
castelets, and at last got to the Hay through most 
horrid roads, but a beautiful country, thank God 
without any accidents, and with only my feet a little 
damped. 

After dinner, walked about the town of Hay. 
Sir R. Colt Hoare stopped and made a drawing of the 
only bit of the old Castle now existing, which is 
a very fine gateway, with the place for the portcullis, 
and the old oak door from its appearance, thickness, 
size, and rust of its hinges, and all over studded with 
bolts which might be coeval with the building ; part of the 
outer wall, finely clad with ivy to the east and a square 
tower to the west, which, though old, appears less so 
than the gateway it joins. A large mansion, about 
the age of Queen Elizabeth, or rather later, belonging 
to the Wellingtons, who own the site of the Castle, 
adjoins the old part. The windows are more modern 
than the other part. Walked to the east of the town 
for a quarter of a mile without the walls, which there 
show pretty entire, and once enclosed a very large space. 
The gateways were taken down in the memories of 
several now living. The Church, prettily situated, 
has been loftier in roof and steeple. Nothing worth 
notice in the Church and nothing without, but a stone 
with an effigy on it so very much mutilated and worn 
that even the sex of the figure it represented cannot 
be correctly ascertained. The common people call 
her Maud Walby, and say she was a witch. 

May 22. — Set off from the Hay to Brecon, called 
at the Rev. Mr. Hughes's, of Glasbury, at whose house 
we expected to meet Mr. Theo. Jones, of Brecon, but 



141 

he was gone from there the day before. Mr. Hughes 
and a Mr. Ainsworth accompanied us to see a small 
cromlech near a small farm called Brynygroes, and 
in a field called Clos y Llechau. We walked to it across 
a field, and found a pretty large stone resting on one 
side an old thorn, and on the other an old ash stump, 
which they say by the strength of vegetative power, 
have raised the incumbent stone oft" from the end stones 
that once supported it, which certainly at present it 
does not appear to touch, and this is said to be con- 
firmed by people living who remember the progress 
in the elevation of the stone. 

Passed by Gwernyfed Park to the left, formerly 
the seat of Sir David Williams, one of the 12 Judges 
in Queen Elizabeth's time, and to whose memory- there 
is a monument in the Priory Church, Brecon. It must 
have been a charming place in its time, finely wooded, 
fine in equalities everywhere, and bounded bya fine range 
of mountains to the east. At a modernish mansion 
on an eminence in the Park called the Lodge lives a 
Mr. Allen, a barrister. The old house lies low, at some 
distance from that. There is something like a Camp 
in the Park, seen from the road, and of a form that 
tempted us to think it Roman, but on examination 
it was doubtful if it had been a Camp or not. 

Rode on and came to Porthamal. now a farm house, 
but formerly the baronial residence of the Vaughan 
family. The gateway, with a tower over it, is supported 
by a groined arch, simply elegant, which Leland speaks 
of, still exists. Thence to Brynllys Castle. While 
Sir Richard Hoare took a sketch of the only tower now 
up, I walked to the farm house standing in the 
midst of the old building. Nothing now discernable 
of the old Castle but the above tower of considerable 
size with walls of immense thickness, the lower apart- 
ment being arched, and in all likelihood a dungeon or 
prison. The farmer told me he had opened a 
tumulus near Talgarth, and found an urn and a flint 
spear head, an exact drawing of which I saw with Mr. 
Theo. Jones. The flint was dark in the middle, with 
sharp edges yellowish. Another tumvilus existed on 
the same spot. In Buck's view of this Castle there is 
a considerable portion represented, scarce a trace of 
which now remains. 



142 

Thence, through a pleasant country with a fine 
view in front of the Van, and its retinue of mountains, 
to Brecon. After dinner, walked out to see the 
Collegiate Church, the nave and other parts of which 
are entirely in ruins, the grass having grown over the 
tombs in the nave and almost over all the pediments 
of the fine old pillars that supported the roof. The 
choir and chancel, where the stalls are in a very little 
better state, though the floor is covered with very antient 
tomb stones, and its side and walls dignified by many 
elegant monuments and tablets, such as those to the 
memory of Bishops Biill, Mainwaring, and l/ucy. The 
neglect of a place of worship so uncommon is shameful, 
to say nothing as a mausoleum of the respectable dead 
it contains, is such a reflection on the See of St. 
David's that language is too weak to represent it 
properly. 

Walked then to the Priory, a most venerable, 
large building, whose pavement is pregnant with 
sepulchral history, and whose sides exhibit several 
curious and antient monuments. I never saw a church- 
yard so full of graves. The walls of the church, and 
even the tower, are full of yew trees growing out of the 
small interstices of the stones. 

The Priory walks above the Honddu, though now 
much neglected, but used as a fashionable promenade, 
are charming, overhanging and winding above a narrow 
dingle, steep and magnificently wooded. 

The old gateway of the Priory to the north, ?3 well 
as that to the west, and many other parts of the old 
building still exist : a wall with embattlements en- 
compass the whole. 

In the evening on our return we had the company 
of Mr. Theo. Jones, and a very sensible divine, Mr. 
Payne, who sat with us for an hour. 

May 23. — Set off accompanied by Mr. Payne to 
see the Station at the Gaer, charmingly situated near 
the Usk, nor can a finer situation be imagined, 
whether we consider the aspect, the river, the woods, 
and the sublime background of mountain seen through 
a skreen of trees. Observe the Roman Road from 
Gobannium just entering the Station and a Roman 



143 

monument representing a man and his wife with a tablet 

underneath, on which " Conjunx Eju T" may be 

read distinctly ; standing on the edge of the old Road, 
which falls in at right angles with that towards the 
Ithon, and that which led to Neath and lylanfair 
Arybryn, united till they cross the Usk beyond the 
Church of Aber Eskyr. At the farm house of Aber 
Eskyr saw a brick about 9 inches square and 2 thick, 
stamped with 

"LEG II AVG." 

Went to Llandevaelog Church, after, as we thought, 
having traced the Ithon branch of the Roman Road 
almost opposite to Mr. Thos. Watkins' seat called 
Pennoyar, on the brow of the hill to our left. Saw the 
long stone on the south side of the church, 7ft. gjin. 
long and 15 inches wide, with a very rude figure 
sculptured in the middle compartment, on the upper 
a cross with rude ornaments round it, and on the lower 
compartments rude ornaments, said, but without the 
least foundation, to be the tomb of Brochmail Yskithog. 
There is a place near called Sarnau, which probably 
may refer to a Roman Road, but I did not see it. 
Returned through pleasant lanes enriched with the 
luxuriancy of bird cherries which grew here, and in 
some parts of Radnorshire wild, and dined at Mr. 
Theo. Jones's. The party, Mr. and Mrs. Jones, Miss 
Jones, "Mr. and Mrs. Payne, vSir Richard Hoare, and 
myself. We had an elegant dinner — Welsh antiquities 
the principal topic. 

May 24. — Rainy day ; bringing up the leeway 
in my journal. Dined at Mr. Theophilus Jones's, and 
saw for the first time the Rev. Mr. Watkins, whom I 
found a pleasant, well informed man and in no way 
conceited or assuming as he had been represented to 
me. Passed a pleasant evening. Conversation various. 
Mr. Watkins enquired poUtely after ray sister, and Mr. 

C , and gave me a very cordial invitation to his 

house. 

Friday. — Set off from Brecknock for the Rev. 
Mr. Payne's, Uanbedr, near Crickhowell, through the 
beautiful Vale of Uske, which, whether we consider 
its form, its cheerfulness, its boundaries, is without 
comparison the prettiest vale in the kingdom ; a very 



144 

peculiar feature of it is the endless openings into smailer 
vallies on each side. Pass the Peterstone, and here 
the monument of the I^ady whom Mr. Theo, Jones 
cannot make out is, but this is Fast Day and service 
performing we could not see it. On the other side of the 
river, Penkell}^ Castle, once the seat of a branch of 
the Herberts ; now shows nothing of the Castle but the 
knoll on which it stood, or very little more. Before 
we came to Crickhowell some miles we leave on the right 
a large comical hill, wooded charmingly and studded 
with houses almost to the top, which breaks the 
regularity of the vill and forms a beautiful amphi- 
theatre up to Crickhowell. Saw the course of the new 
canal to Brecknock for a great way on the north side 
of the Uske and then on the south side. Crickhowell, 
the most cheerful looking town I ever saw, left to the 
right, a narrow ascending road bringing us in about 
two miles and a half to Mr. Payne's house. On our way 
to it have views of several beautiful openings into 
little well wooded and watered vaUies bounded by 
fine motmtains. To the left of the road above Crick- 
howell observ-e a truncated conical hill, the summit 
of which is a camp called Crug Howel. Arrived at 
Mr. Payne's, we found a little paradise — the house 
neat, situated in the churchyard, the north side of 
which is close shaven and made a lawn of, with a walk 
all round skirted with shrubber3\ In the churchyard 
are some of the largest old yew trees I ever saw. The 
church is situated on the summit of the hill over- 
hanging the Gronw^^ fychan, a beautiful mountain 
stream ftill of trout, that flows and foams at the bottom 
of a narrow dingle, the sides of which are charmingly 
wooded, particularly with oak, beech, and wych elm, 
through which Mr. Payne has made walks with great 
taste, extending for a considerable way between two 
bridges of a single arch most remarkably clad with ivy. 
The garden behind the house, a mixture of kitchen, 
fruit and flower garden, exhibits a scene at once com- 
fortable, picturesque, and cheerful. 

Mr. Theo. Jones accompanied us to Mr. Payne's, 
and indulged in the evening's conversation, anticipating 
the business of the cromlech meant to be examined 
the following day. 



145 

Saturday. — This great, this most important day, 
rose most favourably for our plan ; we breakfasted 
early, and were on horseback soon after, and a pleasant 
ride brought us to the scene of action, about a mile the 
Brecon side of Crickhowell. We found the incumbent 
stone, after being spUt in two, removed from off the 
supporters, and the small area within was soon cleared 
till we got below the bottom of the supporters, and 
found nothing but small bits of charcoal and several 
small bones. There was a piece of dry wall, regularly 
built, between two of the upright stones, which 
appeared coeval with the cromlech, what I never saw 
before in any. In short, from what appeared, there 
was nothing' turned up that would favour the sup- 
position of these being sepulchral. The company 
present were our own party. Admiral Gell, Sir William 
Ouseley, and a Mr. Everest. This grand ceremony 
over, we looked at the old gateway at Crickhowell, 
the remains of the Castle, and the Church, in which 
there were some old monuments, particularly of the 
Pauncefoot, verv much mutilated, who appeared to 
have been a Crusader. The effigy is of stone, and 
the shield bears three Uons. as in the Arms of the 
Herberts, but without the distinction of party perpale. 
The Pauncefoots were owners formerly of the Castle. 
After dinner we rambled through the charming walks 
at Uanbedr above mentioned, from which it was with 
difficulty I could tear myself, and of which I talked 
with imabated rapture the whole evening. 

Sunday.— Breakfasted early, being engaged to 
attend Mr. Pa5aie to the church of Partrico, a chapel 
annexed to Uanbedr, where I saw the most elegant 
and perfect rood loft perhaps now extant in the 
Kingdom, of seemingly Irish oak, which fortunately 
has "^escaped either whitewashing or painting. In a 
mansion not a great wav from the church lived a Herbert, 
and to that family may in all probabiUty be ascribed 
this curious relick. Below the church saw the samted 
well of Ishaw, being a very scanty oozing of water, 
to which, however, was formerly attributed great virtue, 
as within the building that encloses it there are little 
niches to hold the vessels visitors drank out of and the 
offerings they left behind. The road to Partricio is 



146 

through steep, stony, narrow lanes arched with wood. 
Obser\^ed the Sugar Loaf on my return from this 
church Hke a small ridge, in no way like its appearance 
from I/lanbedr. vSaw to the left, returning, Coed 
Gronw {vide Giraldus). Dined at Admiral Gell's, a 
very pretty situation about a mile from Crickhowell, 
the house an odd looking building by Nash. The 
Admiral is a very singular character — the rough 
swearing tar with a most excellent heart. Our dinner 
good, with good Maderia, the company Sir R. Hoare, 
Sir W. Ouseley, Mr. Payne, Mr. Theo. Jones, a Mr. 
Russel (an angling tourist), and myself. At parting, 
the Admiral gave me a general invitation, and begged 

I would make an inn of his house, " for d n me," 

says he, "I hke that an inn would be made of my 
house." Sir William Ouseley distinguished himself as a 
scholar and a gentleman in the course of the con- 
versation. Returned and passed a pleasant evening in 
talking of antiquities, &c., and was much pleased with 
Mr. Payne's accoimt of the Book Club at Crickhowell. 

Monday. — Imprisoned all day, as it rained so hard, 
but in a charming cell, viz., Mr. Payne's study ; made 
several extracts. Saw some things with Mr. Payne 
taken out of MS. by George Owen Harry of Kernes. 
Will ask Mr. Theo. Jones to borrow it for me of Mr. 
Bold, of Brecon. 

Tuesday. — Set off after breakfast to see The 
Gaer, in Cwmdu, a Roman station first discovered 
by the Rev. Mr. Payne. Beyond the cromlech we 
opened on Saturday, to the right of the road, pass one 
of the tommens or castelets, of which there is no 
history, but that it was used for the view of Frank 
Pledge in the lordship of Crickhowell. It is now 
overgrown with trees, and has an yew on it. Went 
by Tretower Castle, which now consists of a round 
tower of considerable size, within an outer wall battle- 
ments with a larger embattled wall, on each side to 
small bastions, including a very considerable area. 
In the great tower there appeared to have been 
elegant chambers, if we may judge by the remains 
of the chimney pieces, for that age. Near it are the 
remains of the old and dignified mansion of the 
Vaughans, entered from the road by a handsome 



147 

gateway with a chamber in a square tower over it. 
Rode on to see a camp which Mr. Payiie took to be 
the castrum cistvaen of The Gaer, just above a wood 
called Coed y Gaer, but vSir R. Hoare seemed to think 
from long observation that the Romans never chose 
any very elevated situations for their camps ; besides 
we found it to be not of the figure they always 
used, viz., an oblong or a regular square, as the 
angles rounded, but of a something between a triangle 
and an oval. We descended from this camp, which 
occupied a projecting point of land commanding 
two valHes, and rode on to The Gaer, which 
occupied a small rising in the vale at the foot of the 
Myarth. We found the square camp had been 
enclosed by a wall, in the rubbish of which was seen 
brick of various shapes and sizes. At one end of the 
square is nearly a semi-circular elevation supposed 
to be the Prsetorium. In the fields adjoining, several 
hewn stones, bricks, and pieces of pottery, &c., have 
been seen at different times, which proves beyond a 
doubt that this had been a considerable station, as 
it was called Tref y Caeraii. In one of the fields near, 
a stone lies with an inscription that might have been 
on the side of the Roman Road leading towards 
Gobannium. Having thoroughly examined the place, 
returned to lylanbedr to dinner. After dinner 
ascended Crug Howel, a prodigious height, on the 
summit of which a camp surrounded with vast 
entrenchments of loose stones with a very deep foss, 
entered by an opening to the East or N.E. From 
this eminence had a most extensive view of the Vale 
of Uske to the South, but to the North shut up by the 
higher hill, on the summit of which there is a small 
vein of lime stone. Descended very gradually, 
enjoyed a cup of tea, and went to bed perfectly 
fatigued. 

TtJESDAY. — Left Ivlanbedr, Mr. Payne accom- 
panying us, for Hereford, purposing to visit Dor Abbey 
and Kilpeck in our way. 



INDEX. 



A Lost MS., 117 

Abbey Copper Works, 102 

Aneuriu'g " Gododin," 32, 33 

ArkitQ Mythology, 87 

Astle's ' ' Progress of Writing, 

79 
Aubrey, John, 19 
Aubrey MSS., 20 
Aubrey, WiUiam, 23 

Bishopston, living offered to Rev. 
E. Davies, 71 ; letters on, 
72-74 ; visit to, 76 ; difficulties 
in collecting tithe", 96 ; 

Brecon, French Naval officers 
at, 26 

Brecon, great floods in 1591, 14 

Breconshire Pleas Rolls, 20 

Breconshire Poets, 83 

' ' Brecknockshire, ' ' advertise- 
ments of, 134, 136 ; pubhca- 
tion of Vol. I., 76 ; price of, 78 ; 
second vol., 83 ; original MS. 
of, 24 ; comments on by Bishop 
Burgess, Lowndes, Llewelyn 
Pritchard, Dr. Nicholas, G. T 
Clarke, 25 ; plates and surplus 
copies, 27 ; second edition of, 
27. 

Builth Manor fines, 56 

Bull, Dr. George, Bishop of St. 
David's, 9 

Caermarthen, a journey to, 97 
Cardiff, cost of a visit to, 94 
Carhsle, Nicholas, letter to, 119 
Camhuana\\c, on the manners 
and customs of the district, 9 ; 
defends Theo. Jones, 17 ; as 
an artist, 23 ; some notes on, 
26 ; Jane WiUiams' Memoir of, 
26 ; at Christ College, 91 
" Celtic Researches," subscrip- 
tions to, 67 
Cheese, of Kington, 106 
Church, Samuel, of Ffrwdgrech, 

12 
Churchey, Judge Hardinge's 

clerk, 70 ; death of, 82 
Cistvaen at Ty-yn-y-Llwyn, 28 
Clerical widows and orphans' 

fund. 99 
Coelbren y Beirdd, 67 
Court Martial upon Rioters, 100 



Dafydd ap Gwilym, 64 

Davies, Rev. Edward, memoir of, 

vii.-x. ; Jones's Letters to, 

37-11-2; preferment, 88; 

manuscript on '' Coins," 89 
Da\'ies, Capt of Carmarthenshire 

Militia, 78 
Dedication, iii. 

Defence of Judge Hardinge, 80, 81 
Deluize, tradition of, 87 
Dissenter, Wicke's refusal to bury, 

109 
Druidic Mystei'ies, 89 

Evans, Charles, of Wenallt, 3 
Evans, Rev. Theophilus, Hterary 

work, 3 ; burial place, 9 
Exchequer depositions, 21 

Fenton's Diaby, 136-147. On 
the Ithon, 136 ; Maes Madoc, 

136 ; the daughters of Pen- 
cerrig, 137 ; visit to Rhayader, 

137 ; Sir R. Colt Hoare finds 
ancient pottery at the Cwni, 
137 ; Caer Collen, 137 ; Builth 
Wells and Castle, 138 ; Builth 
to Glascwm, 139 ; Hay Castle 
and Town, 140 ; Glasbury, 
Talgarth, Gwemyfed, to Brecon 
140, 141 ; Cromlech at BrjTiy- 
groes, 141 ; Gwernyfed Park, 
141 ; Porthamal, 141 ; Bronllys 
Castle, 141 ; tumulus near Tal- 
garth, 141 ; Collegiate Church 
at Brecon, 142 ; Priory Church 
and Graves, 142 ; the Gaer, 
142, 143 ; Llandevaelog Church 
143 ; Brecknock to Llanbedr, 
143 ; Crug Howell Camp, 144 ; 
Crickhowell Church and Castle, 
145 ; Cromlech near Crick- 
howell, 145 ; the Pauncefoots 
and Herbei-ts, 145 ; Partrico 
rood loft, 145 ; Gaer, in Cwmdu 
146 ; Tretower Church, 146 ; 
Tref y Caerau, 147. 

Games, of Aberbran, 15 

Game-J, Sir John, builder of 

Newton, 24 
" Gododin," 85 
Urifiith Jones, founder of Simday 

and Day Schools in Wales, 7 



150 



Griffith, Rev. David, head master 

Christ College, 10 
Ghosts, gobblins, and fairies, 128 
' ' Gwalter Mechain, ' ' letters to, 

113-118 
Gwynne, Marmaduke, of Garth 4 
Gwynne, Sarab, marries Charles 

Wesley, 5 

Havard, Hiigli, bailiff of Brecon, 
13 

Haverfordwest, a visit to, 84 

Hill. Richard. 67 

Hoare, Sir R. Colt, Bart., 23 ; 
sketches Brecknock Castle and 
bridge, 23 

Holf ord, John Josiah, of Culgwyn, 
67 

Holford, Charles, 67 

Howel, James, cavaLier and tra- 
veller, 24 

Hughes, Rev. John, of Glasburj', 
98 

Hugh Thomas's MSS., 12 ; pedi- 
grees and his description of 
Brecon, 14, 15 

Hywel's Laws, 112 

Haebis, Howel, of Trevecca.- — 
Theo. Jones' Memoir of, 121- 
125 ; Harris marries a daughter 
of the Skreen family, 122 ; his 
" Family," 123 ; forms a troop 
of horse, 123 ; accepts Ensign's 
commission, 123 ; promoted to 
Captain, and serves at Yar- 
mouth, 123 ; returns to Tre- 
vecca, 124 ; Selina, Countess of 
Himtington, 124 ; his death 
and burial, 124 

lolo Morganwg, 67 

Jones, Theophilus : BioonAPHY 

I ; descent and family, 2, 3 ; 
his grandfather, 6 ; birth place. 
9 ; niarriage and profession, 

II ; Brecon residences, 11, 12 ; 
intended History of Radnor- 
shire, 27 ; his anonymous 
papers, 28 ; literai-y transla- 
tions, 28 ; Freemasonry, 29 ; 
description of his character by 
a friend, 29, 30 ; last illness and 
death, 31, 32 ; memorials of, 

32 ; librarv, 32, 33 ; book plate 

33 ; his wfe, 33, 34 ; her will, 

34 ; his only sister, 34 ; arms 
and Welsh motto, 35. Letters, 
37 ; various criticisms, 37-39 ; 
visits London, 41 ; meets Cam- 



brian Register men, 41 ; The- 
ology, 4] ; Armes Prydain, 
41-43 and 44-46 ; Repubh- 
canism, 43 ; Remarks on 
Gronwy Owen's Poem upon the 
"Day of Judgment," 46-49; 
liis fatlier's death, 48 ; begins 
'Brecknockshir.%' 50 ; arranges 
to visit parishes, 51 ; Brecon- 
shire rivers, 52-57 ; Welsh 
Peninllion, 52-54 ; translates 
Aneurin Gwawdrydd's ' ' En- 
glynion y Misoedd, " 55 ; in- 
terest in ' ' Celtic Remains, ' ' 
60 ; " My friend Payne, " 63 ; 
at the Bar of the House of 
Commons, 66 ; \asits Bristol, 
68 ; his nephew, 75 ; attends 
Glamorganshire Assizes, 88 ; 
rehnguishes the law, 89 ; 
Catalogue of his books, 130-133 
Jones of Blarngwthyd's Will, 118 
Joseph Joseph, F.S.A., his libi-ary, 

33, 35 
Judge ' ' Harlequin, ' ' 93 



Lewis of Harpton, lOt 

Lewis Morris and Geoffrey of 

Monmouth, 110; his Letters. 

112 
Llangenney Paper mills, 23 
Llangorse Legend, 21 
Lloyd's ' ■ Historical Memoranda 

of Breconshire," 20 

Mabinogion, Owen's translation 

of, 80 
Methodist Revival, 127 
Mevrick's "Cardiganshire," 98, 

103 
Mineral Springs discovered at 

Llanwrtyd, 8 
;\Iineralogy, 115 
Moore, death of Sir John, 90 
Mythology of British Druids, 95 



Napoleon, 90 

Nichol, Mr., a barrister, 70 

North's, booksellers, 66 ; North's 

waggon's, 78 
North Wales famihes' arms, 116 

Ossian's Poems, 77 

Owseley, Sir WiUiam, 66 

Owen and the Millennium, 80 ; 
his translation of Gorohan 
Cynvelyn, 90 ; Dictionary, 
114 



151 



Peach fa mily, 85 

Porthmawr, 23 

Powel, Ven. Father PhiHp, O.S.B., 

17 
Powel's of Castle Madoc, 16 
Powel, vicar of Bovighrood, 7 
Powel of Maesporth, 15 
Powell, of Maescarnog, 34 
Preface, vii 

Prices of Glynllech, 11 
Prices of Porthyrhyd, 11 
Price, Richard, M.P., for Radnor 

105 
Price, Walter, letter to, 118 

Radnorshire, Notes for a History 

of, 105, 106 
Rents and prices in Brecon, 1796, 

129 
Roman Remains, 28 ; Camps, 119 



Scethrog, great battle at, 21 
' ' Ship ' ' at Olveston, 79 
Simons family, transportation of, 
86 



Stevens, Dr., his account of 

Gwynnes of Garth, 5 
Stone Henge, 111 

Thomas, Sir Rhys ap. 111 
Tm-ton, Dr., 70 

Valley of Corpses, 21 
Vaughan the Silurist, 18 
Vaughan of Newton, 15 

Walbeoffes of Llanhamlach, 15 
Wesley, John, in Breconshire, 6 ; 

thought to be a Jesuit, 6 
Wilkins, Walter, of Maesllwch, 

54 
Welsh Customs, 126, 127 ; Tours, 
126 ; superstitions, 127 ; place- 
names, 22 
Wells, Rev. M., 69 
Williams, Daniel, of Llwynworm- 

wood, 11 
Williams, of Ivy Tower, 29 
Williams, Rev. Edward, 85 
Williams's " Chair of Glamorgan" 
86 



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The Right Hon. I^ord Tredegar, Ivord-Lieut. of Mon- 
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Sir William T. Lewis, Bart., The Mardy, Aberdare. 

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Abergavenny. 

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A. 

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B. 

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Brecon. 
Bund, J, WiUis, Esq., F.S.A., etc., 15, Old Square, 

Lincoln's Inn, London. 
Bloor, James, Esq., J. P., Brynmawr. 
Bache, Rev. Kentish, Walford Vicarage, Ross 



Crawshay, Wilham T., Esq., J. P., D.L., Caversham 
Park, Reading. 

Coles, S. H. Cowper, Esq., Penmyarth, Crickhowell. 

Cheese, E. H., Esq., Solicitor, Hay. 

Conder, Edward, Esq., New Court, Colwall, Here- 
fordshire. 

Corbett, John Stuart, Esq., Bute Estate Office, Cardiff. 



154 
D. 

Davies, Mr. Evan, Post Office, Sennybridge, Brecon- 
shire. 

Davies, William D., Esq., J. P., Cwmwysg, Sennybridge. 

Doyle, J. A., Esq., J. P., Pendarren, Crickhowell. 

Davies, Charles Morgan, Esq., Architect, Merthyr Tydfil. 

Davies, ]\Ir. E. Blissett, io8, Haughton Green Road, 
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Dawson and Son, Ltd., Booksellers, Cardiff. 

Davies, Frederic C, Esq., Brooklyn, Llanishen, Cardiff. 

Davies, Morgan, Esq., A.M.I.C.E., Gwydr Gardens, 
Swansea. 

Davies, Edward, Esq., J. P., Machen House, Newport. 



Evans, Rev. Arnold F., The Rectory, Neath. 

Evans, Rev. T. Howel, Preston Capes Rectory, Byfield, 

R.S.O., Northamptonshire. 
Evans, H. A., Esq., Begbroke, Oxford. 
Evans, Rev. J. J., R.D., Cantref Rectory, Brecon. 
Evans, Rev. George Eyre (Author of ' ' Cardiganshire 

Antiquities," etc., Tan-y-bryn, Aberystwith. 
Evans, J. H. Silvan, Esq., M.A., Ty-Gwyn-ar-Daf, 

Whitland. 
Evans, W. Eilir, Esq., 66, Plantagenet Street, Cardiff. 



Francis, Dr. G. P., J. P., Bulwark, Brecon. 
Freemasons, The Brecknock Lodge of 
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Surrey. 

G. 

Gwynne, Howel, Esq., J. P., Llanelwedd Hall, Builth. 
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Carm. 
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Glam. 



155 

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smith's Estate, East Acton, London, W. 

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George's Sons, Booksellers, Top Corner Park Street, 
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H. 

Haines, W., Esq., Y Bryn, Penpergwm, Abergavenny. 
Hedger, Mr. Councillor J. W., High Street, Brecon. 
Hughes, J. Walford, Esq., National Provincial Bank 

House, Brecon. 
Howells, Dr. WilHam, Watton House, Brecon. 
Hughes, Thomas, Esq., Solicitor, Ebbw Vale. 
Hartland, E., Esq., F.S.A., J.P., M.A., Hardwick Court, 

Monmouth. 
Herbert, Arthur, Esq., J. P., British Legation, Darmstadt, 

Germany. 



Tones, M. Powell, Esq., J. P., Pwll Court, Llangynidr. 

Jones, Edward, Esq., (the late) J.P., and D.L., Snatch- 
wood Park, Pontypool. 

Jones, Rev. H. J. Church, 13, The Struct, Brecon. 

Jones, William, Esq., Oaklands, Llangynidr. 

Jones, Edward J., Esq., M.E., Fforest Legioms, Pont- 
neddfechan, near Neath. 

Jenkins, Rees, Esq., J. P., Bronyderi, Glyncorwg Glam. 

Jeffreys, David T., Esq., Solicitor, Brecon, and Castle 
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Jones, Evan, Esq.. Ty-mawr, Aberdare. 

Jones Dr. W. W., M.D., Wellington Street, Merthyr. 

Jones', Rev. William, The Vicarage, Ystradfellte, 

Al^ f^Tn rLT^ 

Jenkins, Mr. Josiah, 26, King's Road, Canton, Cardiff. 
Jones, Mr. J. Emlynydd, Abergerlech County bchool, 

Carmarthen. 
Jones, Dr. A. Emrys 10, St. John Street, Manchester. 



156 

Jones, W. Ifano, Esq., The Central Library, Cardiff. 
Jacob, M., Esq., Western Mail Chambers, Cardiff. 
Jenkins, J. Austen, Esq., Registrar University College, 
Cardiff. 



Library, The St. David's College, Lampeter. 

Library, The Jesus College, Oxford (E. E. Jenner, Esq., 

Librarian). 
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Davies, Esq., Welsh Librarian). 
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Librarian.) 
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Lewis, Col. D. Rees, Penydarren House, Merthyr Tydfil. 
Lloyd, John, Esq., J. P., 15, Chepstow Place, Bayswater, 

London, W. 
Lewis, John, Esq., Llochesfa, Brecon. 

M. 

Morgan. D. T., Esq., Fairfield House, Merthyr Tydfil. 
Moore-Gwyn, J. E., Esq., J. P., D.L., Dyffryn, Neath. 
Morgan, The Misses Phihp, Buckingham Place, Brecon. 
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Railway, Brecon. 
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Martin, E. Pritchard, Esq., J. P., The Hill, Abergavenny. 
Martin, Henry, Esq., J. P., Dowlais. 
Martin, Mr. W., Assistant Overseer, Brecon. 
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Vicarage, Rhuddlan, R.S.O., N.W. 
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157 

Owen, Rev. David, Btiilth Wells. 

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Wells. 



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Ongar, Essex. 
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Parry, W., Esq., Talybryn, Bwlch, Breconshire. 
Pairy, Mr. T. Roy Brecon. 
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Partridge, W. B., Esq., J. P., Bacton, Herefordshire 

(High Sheriff Breconshire for 1904-5)- 
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Brecon. 
Price, Mr. W. R., Barthballey, Brecon. 
Pritchard, D. F., Esq., Crumlin Hall, Newport. 
Pritchard, Mrs. E. M., The Priorv, Cardigan (author of 
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158 

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Thomas, H. Edgar, Esq., Clerk of the Peace and Clerk 

to the Breconshire County Council, Sunnybank, 

Brecon. 
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Rectory, Oswestry. 
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Crescent, Swansea. 
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