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Citnsiiri{ nf (fust 3iiiiin luniulrligt. 





months' pilgrimage through PERSIA, TURKEY, RUSSIA, AND 







This is a compllatioii. It has been suggested by the compiler's daily 
experience of the ahuost universal ignorance of Oriental terms, phrases, 
expressions, places. Every fortnight brings a mail from India, and the 
intelligence which it imparts is fraught with words which perplex the 
multitude. The despatches from India — the conversation of Orientalists — 
the speeches in Parliament, turning upon Eastern affairs — the Oriental 
novels, travels, and statistical works — likewise abound with terms 
" caviare to the general." The new arrival in India, ignorant of the 
language of the country, is puzzled, for some time, to comprehend his 
countrymen, whose conversation " wears strange suits," and even he, 
who has been for years a sojourner in India is, to the last, unacquainted 
with the meaning of numerous words which occur in his daily newspaper, 
the Courts of Law, and the communications of his Mofussil or up-countiy 

The following pages impart a knowledge of all the terms in question 
as far as they have occurred to the communicant during an examination 
of two or three years, diligently pursued, and an appeal to his recol- 
lection of the phrases in common use in India and Persia. 

The authorities from whom the " explanations" have been borrowed 
are numerous. They are mentioned below, as much from a .sense of 



the obligations of justice, as from a desire to protect the publisher fi-om 
injunctions, or the protests of holders of copyrights. They are: — 

The compiler's own " Hand Book of Bi'itish India" (whence are 
derived the description of domestics, and of one or two places in India) ; 
Williamson's " Vade Mecum ;" Symonds's " Geography and History " 
(from which the Gazetteer portion has been chiefly borrowed); Cole- 
biooke's " Hindoo Mythology ;" Eraser's " Kuzzilbash ;" Ward's " Hin- 
doos ;" Bellew's " Memoirs of a Griffin ;" the " Dictionnaii'e Historique ;" 
Ballln's " Fruits of India ;" Colonel Sleeman's " Rambles of an Indian 
Official;" Hebei-'s "Journal;" Mrs. Postan's "Western India;" the 
" Asiatic Journal ;" the " Oriental Herald ;" Selkirk's " Ceylon ;" 
Forbes's " Eleven Years in Ceylon ;" Galloway's " Law of India ;" 
Miss Emma Roberts's " Scenes and Sketches in Hindostan ;" Luard's 
" Views in India ;" the "' Glossai'y of Revenue Terms ;" the " Bengal 
and Agra Guide and Gazetteer ;" the " Encyclopedia Britannica ;" 
"Real Life in India," &c., &c. 

In the orthogra})hy of the words, pains have been taken to convey 
Oriental sounds without resorting to accents or arbltraiy pronunciations. 
The reader is only required to bear In mind, that the letter " A," wherever 
it may occur, is to be sounded as in the interjection "AH !" 

The compiler ■will be happy to find that, in the preparation of a work 
which has consumed more time, and involved more labour, than its bulk 
would lead the reader to imagine, he has supplied a public want, and 
added a useful mite to the stock of Oriental Literature. 



written Haroim al Rascliid), the first 
caliph of the Abassides. His zeal 
for the Mahometan religion induced 
liim to carry the Arab conquests 
into Spain and the Indies. He was 
a mild and humane prince, and a 
great patron of men of letters. 

ABAD, " built hj." In the names of 
Indian towns the concluding syllable 
usually affords some clue to their 
past history; thus "abad" signifies 
" built by," as Ahmed-abad, a city 
built by Ahmed Sliah ; Aurung-abad, 
Hyder-abad, &c. 

ABBAH, a warm woollen cloak of dust- 
colour, sometimes striped black or 
brown, and worn by the Arabs of 
the Persian and Arabian Gulfs. 

ABDAR (literally " keeper of the 
water"), the name given to the do- 
mestic who used to cool the wines, 
water, &c., with saltpetre, before en- 
terprise afforded the residents of Cal- 
cutta, Madras, and Bombay the de- 
lightful luxury of American ice; and 
his services are still called into requi- 
sition wlien the non-timely arrival 
of the ice-ships throws back the 
citizens upon tlieir old resources. 
The Abdar now manages the ice; 
but it is only in wealthy establish- 
ments that such a servant is retained, 
as the Khedmutgar and Sirdar bearer 
between them can manage well 

ABKARREE, taxes or duties on the 
manufacture and sale in India of spi- 
rituous liquors and intoxicating 

ABWAB, items of taxation, cesses, 


imposts, taxes. This term was par- 
ticularly used under the Mahratta 
government to distinguish the taxes 
imposed subsequently to the estab- 
lishment of tlie assal, or original 
standard rent, in the nature of addi- 
tions thereto. In many places they 
had been consolidated with the assal, 
and a new standard assumed as the 
basis of succeeding imposition. Many 
were levied on the Zemindars as the 
price of forbearance, on the part of 
native governments, from detailed 
investigations into their profits, or 
actual receipts from the lands, accord- 
ing to the hastabuod. 

ACBAR, otherwise called IMahomed 
Galladeen, one of the Mogul em- 
perors, who reigned at Deliii in the 
latter part of the sixteenth and the 
beginning of the seventeentli cen- 
tury. He was a wise and just sove- 
reign, and so accessible to all his 
subjects, that it is recorded of him 
that he was accustomed to ring a bell, 
the rope of which was suspended in 
his chamber, to announce to his 
people that he Avas prepared to 
receive their petitions and com- 
plaints. His name is still revered 
in Hindostan. 

ACHEKN is situated at the north- 
western extremity of the island of 
Sumatra. This was formerly the 
principal trading port in that part of 
the world, and its sultann was held in 
great respect throughout the East. 
It has since greatly declined, and 
is now a place of no consequence. 

ADAWLUT, justice, equity; a court 
of justice in India. 



ADEN, a port in the Eed Sea, cap- 
tured from the Arabs by tlie 
British, and now forming an entre- 
pot for the coals of the steamers 
which ply between India and Suez. A 
British and a Sepoy regiment garri- 
son Aden, prepared to resist any at- 
tacks from the Arabs of the desert. 

ADIGAR, a title of rank among the 
natives of Kandia, in the island of 
Ceylon, divided into three ranks, as 
foliows: — I. The iirst, second, and 
third adigars, who only are allowed 
to wear gold and silver lace in their 
caps; 2. the gaja nayaka nilame; 
3. the disave; 4. the mohottal ; 5. 
the has nayaka nilame, the lay 
head of the wiharas; 6. lekam ma- 
hatmaya ; 7. kate mahatmaya; 8. 
korala; 9. kanghanama ; 10. gama 
rala. Of these the adigars, gaja 
nayaka, nilame, disave, mate mahat- 
maya, and korala, wear ivhite caps ; 
the rest black ones. The kanghanama 
and gama rala are not allowed to wear 
any caps. Great numbers of these 
headmen are attached to the governor, 
and several to the government agents 
in the different parts of the country. 
Of the practices and privileges of 
the adigars, a complete account wiU 
be found in Forbes, Selkirk, and 
other writers. There is one custom, 
however, peculiar to the Kandian 
adigars, which is worthy of notice, 
i. e., the custom of having a certain 
number of whipcrackers whenever 
they appear in public. On all public 
occasions, when they are carried on 
elephants, or in palankeens, or in 
carriages, in addition to the persons 
reqiiired to attend upon the horses, 
palankeens, or carriages, the first 
adigar has twenty-four men bearing 
immense whips, with a lash about 
three yards long, and the handle 
about half a yard. These persons, 
curiously dressed, clear the way for 
them, cracking their whips with all 
their might. Near the adigar go 
two men bearing talpats, large tri- 
angular fans, made of the talpat leaf, 
and ornamented with talc. On each 
side of him is one native headman. 

called the madige nilame, then a 
korala, a lekam mahatmaya, and 
two arachies, one bearing a gold 
cane, and the other a silver one, 
eacli holding it with both his hands. 
The duty of these persons is to keep 
silence. Then go fifty or sixty men 
with large spears, and in a peculiar 
dress, a mat-bearer, a kettle-drum- 
bearer, a torch-bearer, and a kang- 
hanama bearing betel. These are 
his 7iecessan/ attenditnts on a festival 
occasion, at the wihara, or at a 
levee. In travelling the number 
of attendants is much increased. 
The second adigar is only entitled 
to twenty-four spearmen, and fifteen 
whipcrackers. The third to twenty- 
four spearmen, and twelve whip- 
crackers. No other headmen are 
allowed the honour of having whip- 

AI>KAREE, a governor, or superin- 
tendent; or any thing relating to a 
superior. A term applied in India to 
villages where an individual holds 
the entire iindivided estate. 

ADMEE, Hindostanee, for a man; 
hurra admee, a great man. 

AFEREEN ! Persian. An expression 
of praise and surprise: Admirable! 
Capital! You don't say so! 

AFGHANISTAN. This kingdom lies 
upon the north-western frontier of 
Hindostan. It is bounded on the 
north by ranges of mountains sepa- 
rating it from 'J'artary; east, by 
Cashmeer and the Indus; south, by 
Sind and Beloochistan ; and west, 
by Persia. It is divided into a num- 
ber of districts, corresponding with 
the divisions of tribes of the inhab- 
itants; but its main portions maybe 
considered as included under the 
following general heads: — Herat, 
Kafiristan, Cabul, Peshawur, and 
Candaliar. The principal mountains 
are the Hindoo Koosh, or Indian 
Caucasus, wliich are a continuation 
of the Himalayas, and run westward, 
terminating nearly north of the city 
of Cabul; the Paropamisan, which 
run from north to south, from about 
34 deg. to 29 deg. north latitude. 



There are several other inferior 
ranges of hills connected with those 
above mentioned, which cross the 
country in various directions. Nu- 
merous mountain streams flow 
tlirouEch the country, but with the 
exception of tlie Cabul river, the 
Helniund, and the Urghundab, none 
are of any size. The Cabul river 
rises in the Paropamisan mountains, 
and flows past Cabul easterly into the 
Indus, a little above Attock. The 
Helmund also rises in the same 
mountains, about thirty miles to the 
we^tward of Cabul, and flmvs south- 
erly and westerly into a large lake 
called the Zoor, on the borders of 
Persia. The Urghundab rises in the 
liills, about eighty miles north-east of 
Candahar, and flows south-westerly 
into the Helmund. This country pos- 
sesses great variety of surface, as well 
as of climate and productions. It may 
be described generally as consisting 
of wild, bleak moimtains and hills, 
■with extensive tracts of waste land, 
together with fertile plains and val- 
leys, populous and well cultivated. 
The climate of different parts varies 
extremely, owing partly to the dif- 
ference of latitude, but cbiefly to the 
difference of elevation. About Herat 
the snoAv lies deep through the winter 
months, and in the Cabul district the 
cold is severe. At Ghuznee, espe- 
cially, where the snow is often on 
the ground from October to March, 
while the rivers are frozen, the cold 
is quite equal to that of England, 
The climate of Candahar is mild, 
snow being rarely seen, and that of 
I'eshawur is oppressively hot during 
summer, and not colder in winter 
than that of Ilindostan. During 
"winter, the inhabitants of the cold 
districts clothe themselves in woollen 
garments, and in some places in 
clothes of felt, over which they M^ear 
a large great coat, called a posteen, 
made of tanned sheep skin, with 
the Avool inside. They have fires in 
their houses, and often sleep round 
stoves. Kafiristan occupies the 
mouatainous country lying along 

the northern frontier of Cabul. It 
is composed of snowy mountains, 
covered with deep pine forests, with 
small but fertile valleys, producing 
abundance of grapes, and furnishing 
pasture for sheep and cattle. Cabul 
is also mountainous, but has exten- 
sive plains and forests, though 
between the city of Cabul and the 
Indus there is a great scarcity of 
wood. The i)art lying between 
Cabul and the mountains is called the 
Kolnstan or highlands. Candahar is 
more open, but not so fertile, and large 
portions are desert. Herat is hdly to- 
wards the north and north-east, but 
generally open, and one of the most 
fertile countries in the world. Wheat, 
barley, and rice, are the principal 
grains produced in this country. 
Wheat is the general food, barley 
being given to the horses. It also 
yields abundance of fruits and vege- 
tables, both European and Asiatic, 
besides tobacco, sugar, assafoetida, 
alum, rock salt, saltpetre, sulphur, 
lead, antimony, iron, copper, and a 
little gold. The wild animals are 
generally the same as in India, the 
elephant excepted, which is not au 
inhabitant of AfghMuistan. The 
common Indian camel is found in all 
parts of the level country, and wild 
sheep and goats are numerous. 
Herat is celebrated for a fine breed 
of horses, and Bameean for a descrip- 
tion of poneys called yahoos, much 
used for carrying burdens. Mules 
and asses also abound, and are used 
for the same purpose. The sheep, 
of which large flocks are pastured, 
are generally of the broad, fat tailed 
kind. There are fine dogs, especially 
greyhounds and pointers, and cats of 
the long-haired description, known 
in India as the Persian. Snakes and 
scorpions are foiind, bxtt no alligators. 
Wolves are numerous, and during 
winter are fierce, sometimes attack- 
ing men. The commonest woods 
are oak, cedar, walnut, and a species 
of fir. Wind-mills and water-mills 
are generally used for grinding the 
corn. Neither palankeens uor 



■wheeled carriages are used, both 
sexes being accustomed to travel on 
horses or camels. Coal is found 
about Kohat in the Peshawur dis- 
trict, and naphtha, or pstroleum, that 
is, earth oil. Silk Avorms are also 
reared in this part. Tlie principal 
towns are Herat, Cabul, Julalabad, 
Peshawur, Ghuznee, Candahar, 
Khelat-i-Ghilzee, and Dura Ismail 
Khan. By Europeans, this comitry 
is commonly designated by the 
general name of Cabul. By the 
Persians it is styled Afghanistan, 
meaning the land of the Afghans, 
by which name also it is usuahy 
mentioned in Indian history. The 
inhabitants are known by the 
general name of Afghans, which is 
a Persian appellation. Their com- 
mon national designation, among 
themselves, is Pooshtanu or Pookh- 
tanu, but they more frequently use 
the names of the different tribes. In 
India, they are generahy denomi- 
nated Pathans, and in the province 
of Delhi, PohiUas. The Afghans 
assert that tliey are descended from 
the Jev/s, and often style themselves 
" Bun-i-Israeel," or children of Israel, 
though they consider the term 
Yahoodee, or Jew, as one of reproach. 
It is certain that they have in many 
points a strong resemblance to the 
Jews, and there appears reason to 
believe that the tradition of their 
origin is not unfounded. They are di- 
vided into a number of distinct tribes, 
or Oolooss, each consisting of a num- 
ber of separate clans, and these last 
again subdivided into khails, which 
means a band or assemblage. The 
principal are the following: — First, 
the Dooranee, formerly called the 
Abdallee, which includes amongst 
its clans the Populzye, the head 
I^ail of which is the Suddoozye, 
the chief division of the whole of the 
Dooranees, and containing the royal 
family; the Barikzye, the Achikzye, 
Noorzye, and others. Second, tlie 
Ghilzees. Third, the Berdooranees, 
or eastern Afghans, including the 
Yoosoofzyes, liliyberees, and others. 

The termination zye means son, 
corresponding with the Mac prefixed 
to Scotch names. There are also in 
the towns many of mixed descent, 
from different parts of Asia; amongst 
whom are the Kuzzilbashes and 
Tajiks of Persian origin, and the 
Ilindkees, the descendants of settlers 
from Ilindostan. The inhabitants 
of Kafiristan, which means the land 
of the infidels, are called the Syah 
posh, or Syah posh Kafirs, from 
their usually wearing dresses of 
black sheep skin; syah signifying 
black, and posh a covering. They 
are a fine handsome race, very fair, 
many of them having light hair and 
blue eyes, on which account it has 
been conjectured tliat they are the 
descendants of the Greeks. There 
seems reason, however, to believe 
that this is not the case, and that 
they are the descendants of the ori- 
ginal inhabitants of Cabul and Can- 
dahar. They are a brave and hos- 
pitable people, though in a rude 
state, and have never been conquered 
by the Afghans. They have no 
king, but are divided into a number 
of independent tribes. Some of the 
tribes, occupying the borders, are 
termed Neemchu-jMoosulmans, or 
half Moosidmans, from their having 
partially adopted the Mahomedan 
faith. They are generally idolaters. 
The language of the Afghans is 
called Pushtoo. It is written in the 
Persian character. Persian is also 
used by the chiefs, and the descend- 
ants of the Hindoo settlers speak 
a mixed dialect, resembling Hin- 
dostanee, called Hindkee. 

AGA, Turkish and Persian. Equi- 
valent to " gentleman" in English, 
and used when the person addressed 
is not noble, neither khan, bey, nor 
meerza, neither in the civil nor mili- 
tary service of the court. 

AGHON, the eighth month m the 
Hindostanee year. See Bysack. 

AGNI is, according to the Hindoo 
mythology, the personification of 
Ag', fire, and the regent of the 
south-east division of the earth. 



He is variously described : some- 
times with two faces, three legs, and 
seven arms, of a red or flame colour, 
and riding on a ram, his vahan, or 
vehicle. Before him is a swallow- 
tailed banner, on which is also 
painted a ram. He is by others re- 
presented as a corpulent man, of a 
red complexion, with eyes, eye- 
brows, head, and hair of a tawny 
colour, riding on a goat. From his 
body issue seven streams of glory, 
and in his right hand he liolds a 
spear. The Brahmuns, who devote 
themselves to the priesthood, should, 
like the priests of the Parsee (guebre) 
religion, maintain a perpetual fire; 
and in the numerous religious cere- 
monies of the Hindus, Agni, the re- 
gent of that element, is commonly 
AGRA. This province is bounded on 
the north by Delhi; east, Oude and 
Allahabad; south, ilahva; west, 
Ajmeer. Its divisions consist of 
Narnool, Agra, Aligurh, Furruk- 
habad, Etaweh, Macheree or vVlvar, 
Bhurtpoor, Gwalior, Gohud, Kalpee. 
The tract of coimtry between the 
Ganges and Jumna, comprehending 
the districts of Aligurh, Furruk- 
habad, and Etaweh, is also com- 
monly designated tlie Dooab, from 
(loo two, and ab river. The rivers 
are the Ganges, Jumna, Chumbal, 
and several smaller streams. The 
Chumbal rises in Malwa, and flows 
northerly and easterly into tlie Jum- 
na, running between tlie districts of 
Bhurtpoor and Gwalior. iS'orth- 
ward of the Jumna the surface of 
the province is in general flat and 
open, and for the greater part very 
bare of trees. Southward and west- 
ward it becomes hilly and jungly. 
Though traversed liy several rivers, 
the province is not well watered, and 
depends greatly upon tlie periodical 
rains. The heat, during tlie iirc- 
valence of the hot winds, is intense, 
and the jungly districts very un- 
healthy, but at other seasons the 
climate is generally temperate, and 
occasionally cold, llice is grown in 

the vicinity of the rivers, but the 
general cultivation is of dry grains, 
as millet, barley, gram, &c. The 
staple article of product is cotton. 
The province also yields abundance 
of indigo, with tobacco, sugar, salt- 
petre, and salt. It has the commoa 
breeds of cattle and sheep, and 
horses of a good description. Fire- 
wood is scarce throughout the 
Dooab, and expensive. The jungly 
districts swarm with peacocks, 
which are held in great veneration 
by the natives. The only manufac- 
ture of note is that of coarse cot- 
ton cloths. The towns of the pro- 
vince of Agra are, Narnool, Nooh, 
IMuttra, Agra, Dholpoor, Attaer, 
Anoopshuhr, Cowl, Moorsaum, Se- 
cundra, Hatras, Furrukhabad, Futih- 
gurh, Kanoje, Mimpooree, Etaweh, 
Bela, Alwur, Macheree, Kajgurh, 
Deeg, Bhurtpoor, Eeeana, Gualior, 
Antra, Peclior, Nurwur, Bliind, Ja- 
lown, Kalpee, and Koonch. The 
present name of this province is de- 
rived from tliat of its capital. The 
inhabitants are Hindoos, including 
the Mewatties and Jats, and Ma- 
homedans, among whom are many 
Pathans. They are generally a 
handsome, robust race of men, much 
superior to the natives of the more 
eastern provinces.' 
AGKA, the capital of the province of 
Agra, stands on the southern side 
of the Jumna, in Lat. 27 deg. 1 1 min. 
N., Long. 77 deg. 53 min. \L During 
the reign of the Emperor Akbar, 
by whom it was greatly enlarged 
and embellished, Agra was made 
the capital of the Mogul empire, 
and became one of the most splendid 
cities in India. Tlie seat of govern- 
ment having been subsequently re- 
established at Delhi, Agra greatly 
declined, and is now much decayed. 
Amongst the still remaining edifices 
whicli bear witness of its former 
grandeur, the most remarkable is 
the Taj Mahal (q. v.), erected by the 
Emperor Shah Julian, for the cele- 
brated Noor Jchan, and which is 
considered the most beautiful and 



perfect specimen of oriental archi- 
tecture in existence, unequalled by 
any thing in India. 

AGRAHARAH, Avho takes first, an 
epitliet given to Brahmuns. Rent- 
free villages held hy Brahmuns. 

AHMEUABAD, a zillali station in 
Guzerat, Western India, under the 
government of Bombay, distant fi'om 
the presidency 300 miles. Long. 72 
deg. 37 min. E., Lat. 22 deg. 5s min. 
N. It was originally a ■well fortified 
town, but, nevertheless, fell to the 
British arms late in tlie last century. 

AHMEDNUGGER is situated in Lat. 
19 deg. 5 min. N., Long. 74 deg. 55 
min. E. It was built in 1493, b}' 
Ahmed Nizam Shah, wdio made it his 
capital. At present it is one of the 
principal civil stations of the Bri- 
tish Government. It contains about 
twenty thousand inhabitants, and 
has a strongly -built fort. See Nug- 


AHMEDNUGGUR, a fortified city of 
the Deccan, under the government of 
Bombay, from which presidency it is 
distant, via Poonah, 180 miles. It was 
founded by the Emperor Aurungzebe, 
who made it his head-quarters 
during the progress of his conquest 
of the Deccan and Cnrnatic. It is 
now garrisoned by one or two native 
infantry regiments. Long. 150 deg. 
E., Lat. 19 deg. 10 mm. N. See 


AHON, Persian, a moollah (q. v.). 

AIGRETTE, or EGRET, a tuft of 
feathers worn in the turban of the 
Sultan of Turkey and other persons 
of great distinction. 

term, signifying " the hope (or de- 
pendencej of the state," a title 
bestowed on officers in the Shah's 
confidence, generally on the jirime- 
minister or vizier. 

bounded on tlie nortii by Alooltan and 
Delhi ; east, Delhi and Agra ; south, 
Malwa, Guzerat, and Cutch; west, 
Sind. The Bhattee country, Bika- 
neer, Jussulmeer, IMarwar or Joud- 
poor, Jeyi)oor, including Skikawut- 

tee, Ajmeer, IMeywar or Ode3-poor, 
Boondee, and Kota, form the bound- 
aries of tlie province, which is des- 
titute of rivers, except in the south- 
ern and eastern parts. The only 
streams of any note are the Banass, 
which rises in the disti-ict of Odey- 
poor, and flows south-westerly, until 
it is lost in the Run of Cutch; and the 
Churabul, which enters the district of 
Kota from JMalwa, and flows north- 
erly into the province of Agra, to 
the Jumna. In its south-eastern 
district this province is fertile, well 
watered, and hilly; but westward 
and northward, witli a few excep- 
tions, it is absolutely desert, the 
whole surface of the country being 
either covered with loose sand, which 
in some places is driven by the wind 
into mounds and hillocks, some of 
them 100 feet in height; or else com- 
posed of hard flat salt loam, wholly 
destitute of vegetation. In the midst 
of these burning plains, the water- 
melon, tlie most juicy of all fruits, is- 
found in astonishing perfection and 
of large size. Water is procured, but 
in small quantitj-, and brackish, from 
wells, which are frequently 300 feet 
deep, though not more than three or 
four feet in diameter. During the 
hot season, the passage of the desert 
cannot be attempted without great 
risk of suffocation from whirlwinds 
of driving sand. The productions 
of the cultivated parts of this pro- 
vince are wheat, barley, rice, sugar, 
cotton, indigo, and tobacco. Camels 
are numerous, and bullocks of a su- 
perior description. Salt is abundant, 
and the Odeypoor districts yield 
copper, lead, sulphur, and iron. The 
chief towns in the province of Aj- 
meer are Bhatneer, Bikaneer, Jus- 
sulmeer, Nagore, Joudpoor, Jeypoor, 
Ajmeer, Chitore, Odeypoor, Nee- 
much, Boondee, Kota. This pro- 
vince derives its name of Ajmeer 
from that of the city of Ajmeer, 
which was its jMahomedan capital; 
but it is more commonly designated 
as Rajpootana, or the country of 
the Rajpoots, from its being the 



seat of the chief Eajpoot principal- 
ities of India. The inhabitants 
are Rajpoots, Jats, Bhatteeas, Bheels, 
and a small proportion of Malio- 

A JMEEE, formerly the capital of the 
province of Ajmecr, stands at the 
bottom of a fortified hill, in Lat. 26 
deg. 31 min. N., Long. 74 deg.28 min. 
E. This was once a large and opu- 
lent city, and occasionally the resi- 
dence of the Emperor of Delhi. The 
English had a trading factory here 
in 1616. It was nearly ruined during 
the disorders Avhicli followed upon 
the dissolution of the Mooghul em- 
pire, and the establishment of the 
Mahratta power; but since its trans- 
fer to the British in 1818, it has 
greath' improved, and is now a hand- 
some town. At Nusserabad, fifteen 
miles from Ajmeer, is a British can- 
tonment, and there is a British poli- 
tical agent in the town. 

AJUNTEE, in Lat. 20 deg. 34 min. 
N., Lon. 75 deg. 56 min. E., is a 
large town, but not populous. In 
the neighbourhood are some excava- 
tions resembling those of Ellora. 

AKHBAR-NURVEES. news-writers, 
a class of men formerly employed at 
the native courts of India to record 
the proceedings of the princes and 
their ministers. The newspaper has 
almost superseded tlie functions of 
these court chroniclers. 

tanee. Expenses of an uurung, or 
place where goods are manufactm-ed. 
Charges for transporting salt to the 
place of sale; for weighmen, erection 
of storehouses, &c. 

AKYAB, the principal military sta- 
tion of the British troops in Arracan. 

AL, an Indian plant, rising(w hen fit to be 
dug) less than a foot above ground, and 
having a ligneous root above eighteen 
inches in length, and of a bright yel- 
low colour. It is grown only in the 
black soil, and receives no watering. 
It is an article of consiilerable traffic 
in the Dooab and to the south, and 
is used for dyeing the coarse red 
cloth called Kurwa. 

be peace !" the usiial reply to the or- 
dinary Mahometan salutation, " Su' 
Ilium Alec/wom." 

ALEEWAL, a village on the banks of 
the Sutlej, which has acquired cele- 
brity from its contiguity to the 
scene of a great battle, in which. 
Major General Sir Harry Smith, 
witli a division of the army assem- 
bled under Lords Hardinge and 
Gough to oppose the Sikhs, in 1845, 
totally defeated an immensely su- 
perior body of the enemy's troops. 

ALEBriE, in the province of Travan- 
core, is on the IMalabar coast, about 
midway between Cochin and Nuilon. 
It is the chief depot from which the 
Travancore government exports its 
pepper and timber. 

AL HUM ID ILLAH! Thanks be to 
God! A Moslem ejaculation. 

ALIGURH, a strong fortress, situated 
about fifty miles to the north of 
Agra. In 1803 it was one of Dow- 
let Rao Scindia's principal strong- 
holds, and was stormed by the 
I'.ritish troops under Lord Lake. 
The town is called Coel. A regiment 
of Sepoys is quartered here, and 
there is a civil court of justice and a 
collector of revenue. 

ALLAH, the name given by the Ma- 
hometans of all classes to the Al- 

ALLAHABAD, a province of India, 
bounded on the north by Agra and 
Oude; east, Bahar; south, Baliar and 
Gonduana; Avest, jMalwa and Agra. 
The divisions are Cawnpoor, Alla- 
habad, Manikpoor, Juwanpoor, Be- 
nares, Mirzapoor, Bundulkhund, 
Rewa. It is watered by tlie rivers 
Goomtee, Ganges, Jumna, Tonse or 
Tunsa, Betwa, and numerous others. 
The Gogra flows along part of the 
northern frontier of the province, di- 
viding it from Oude. Tliis province 
is one of the richest and most pro- 
ductive in India. The surface of the 
districts adjacent to the Ganges and 
Jumna is level and very fertile. In 
Bundulkhund and Rewa, the country 
forms an elevated table laud, occa- 



sionally mountainous and jungly, 
and diversified with high hills; but 
for the greater part open and capa- 
ble of being made very fruitful. The 
northern frontier of the Rewa coun- 
try consists of an abrupt front of 
sandstone rock, rising perpendicu- 
larly from 200 to 300 feet from a 
sloping base. A large proportion of 
the water that falls during the I'ainy 
season on the table land of ]\ewa is 
precipitated over this rocky margin 
in numerous catara(;ts; amongst 
which those of the Beyhar and Tonsa 
rivers are of remarkable grandeur. 
The Beyhar cataract is one of the 
highest in tiie world, forming a single 
unbroken fall of 360 feet. AVheat, 
barley, rice, maize, and other grains, 
are the productions of this province, 
as well as opium, sugar, indigo, 
cotton, and flax; in the hilly districts 
are dj'eing drugs and gums; chironja 
nut, catechu, and iron-diamonds, 
sometimes of large size, are found in 
the Punna district of Bundulkhund; 
and in the district of Benares there 
are extensive stone quarries. A great 
deal of alkali is also supplied from 
the country between the Goomtee 
and Ganges, from Kurra to Benares. 
The province has long been noted 
for its cotton fabrics, i^articularly 
muslins and brocades. Carpets are 
also manufactured, and coarse cum- 
lies. The towns are Rusoolabad, 
Cawnpoor, Akberpoor, Futihpoor, 
Kurra, Shahzadabad, Allahabad, 
Manikpoor, i\Iahowl, Azimgur, JIow, 
Juwanjjoor, Benares, CImnar, Ghazi- 
poor, Mirzapoor, Dittea, Jhansee, 
Keeta, Banda, Kallinjer, Chuttur- 
poor, Punna, ilaltown, llutta, Dou- 
ree, and Rewa. By the Hindoos, Alla- 
habad is named Bliat Prayaga, or, by 
way of distinction, as the largest 
and principal, .simply Prayaga, and it 
is much resorted to by pilgrims; 
amongst whom suicude, by drowning 
themselves at the spot M'here the 
rivers unite, is a frequent practice. 
The word Prayaga means the con- 
fluence of any two or more sacred 

ALLAHABAD, a city, and civil and 
military station in the province of 
Oude in Hindostan. It is situated 
at the confluence of the rivers 
Ganges and Jumna, 470 miles N. W. 
of Calcutta, in Long. 82 deg. E., Lat. 
25 deg. 45 min. N. Allahabad was 
founded by the Emperor Acbar, 
who intended it as a defensive post; 
but the fortifications, of which rem- 
nants still exist, in spite of the subtle 
and undermining assaults of the 
Jumna's waters, could never have 
been of any importance. Allahabad 
is the seat of a superior court of 
justice, and it has been sometimes 
contemplated to convert it into the 
locale of the Supreme Government of 
India, a distinction for which it 
appears from its central position to 
be well adapted. 

ALLAH HUAKBER! Persian. God 

ALLAH KEREEM! God is merciful! 
A ^loslem expression. 

ALMORA. In the province of Ku- 
maoon. It is situated in Lat. 29 deg. 
35 min. N., Long. 79 deg. 44 min. E. 
It is the modern capital of the pro- 
vince, and the only place of any 
consequence in it. A regiment of 
Bengal infantry and a detacUment of 
artillery are quartered here. At AJ- 
morah there are five bungalows, 
called sick bungalows, belonging 
to Government; these are kept in 
good repair, and are exclusively for 
the use of such officers as may go 
upon sick leave, who are furnished 
with one to live in, free of all cost, 
on application, through the executive 
officer, in whose charge they are, to 
the officer commanding. These sick 
houses are, of course, totalh' unfur- 
nished. As to climate, Almorah is 
sufficiently cool and pleasant, and it 
is, unquestionably, a very healthy, 
renovating one. In regard to so- 
ciety-, likewise, there is a sufficiency. 
Those who visit Almorah on leave, 
merely for their own pleasure, can 
always procure bungalows for hire 
to live in, there being more than are 
needed for the accommodation of 



the officers of the regiment, and 
others permanently residing at the 
place, and the rent charged is ex- 
tremely reasonable. The military 
cantonments are at the western ex- 
tremity of, and close to, the city oi" 
Almorah. Prior to our invasion 
and conquest of Kuniaon, Almorah 
was the place of residence of the 
Goorka Viceroy, who was appointed 
from Katmandoo; and previous to 
the Goorka invasion, it was the 
seat of government of the Ilajahs of 
Kuniaon. The town is built on tlie 
top of a ridge, running east and 
west, at an elevation of 5400 feet 
above the level of the sea. From 
the nature of its situation, the city 
of Almorah is principally composed 
of one long street of nearly a mile in 
length, though there are suburbs 
which extend down a long way on 
both sides of the hill. It is paved 
with stone throughout, and the 
houses are generally very good, none 
being under two stories, and many 
three and four stories high; the 
houses even of the poorest people 
are all built of stone, and have slated 
roofs, so that they are remarkably 
substantial. Indeed, those in the 
town of Almorah are unlike any 
thing one ever sees in the plains of 
India, and reminds the visitor of 
England, to a small town in wliich 
country Almorali has altogctlier a 
greater resemblance than to one in 
Hindostan. The officer command- 
ing at Almorah has, also, tlie general 
command of all the troops in the 

ALVAK, or ALWIJR, is situated in 
Lat. 27 deg. 44 min. N., Lon. 7G 
deg. 32 min. E., at the base of a 
strongly fortified hill. It is the 
capital of the ilacheree rajah's 

AMANUT DUKTl':il, an office in In- 
dia for deposits, or perhaps for 
recording the re])orts of Aianeens. 

A1\I AUN ! A Persian cry for " Mercy !" 

AMROOlt, a town situated near the 
eastern liills of tlie I'aramahal, about 
120 miles westerly of Madras. It is 

neat and well built, and manufactures 
large quantities of castor oil. On a 
mountain, at one side of the town, 
there was formerly a strong fort. 

AMBOYNA, a spice island in the 
Indian Ocean, Long. 12 deg. 70 min. 
E., Lat. 40 deg. S. Originally 
occupied by English and Dutch 
settlers; the latter expelled the 
former, but Avere in their turn 
driven out in 1796. It was subse- 
quently ceded to the Dutch, in 
whose hands it now remains. 

AMEER, (or Emir,) a nol)leman. The 
terra is Asiatic and African. Its 
origin is Moslem. 

AMEER UL OMIIAH, noble of noble, 
lord of lords. 

AMHEKST. See Ava. 

AMLAII, IIindosta,nee. Agents, offi- 
cers ; the otKcers of government 
collectively. A head of zemindar?/ 
charges. N.B. It is sometimes writ- 
ten omlali, or umlah. 

ANAM. See Cochin China. 

ANARUSII {bromcUa atianas), the 
pine-apple. As the name for this 
fruit is Persian, and there being no 
Sanscrit one, it is supposed to be an 
imported fruit in India, though com- 
mon all over the country where the 
climate is not too severe for its 
growth in the open air; a green- 
house, hot-house, or cooZ-house for 
plants or fruits, being yet entirely 
unknown in India, even amongst 
Europeans. The common bazar pine 
of India is a very inferior fruit to 
the English liot-house pine, and 
even to those which have been raised 
with care and under shade (which 
tliey seem to prefer) in India. Those 
of the eastern islands are very far 
superior, the conunonest JMalay or 
Javanese anana being equal, it is 
said, to the best in India, except, 
j)erliaps, those of Goa and other 
Portuguese establishments on the 
western coast, where, as in the case 
of the mango and some other fruits, 
we still finil traces of the care which 
the early Portuguese colonists be- 
stowed on them. This is probably 
owing to pecidiarities of soil and cli- 




mate, as well as care, though the 
Portuguese, like the Dutch, were 
good gardeners and paid attention to 
horticulture, which the English, hi- 
therto, cannot be said to have done. 
It is said, and with much justice, 
that no fruit in India requires to be 
eaten more cautiously than this, both 
by new comers and old residents; it 
is accused, and with some consi- 
derable truth, of occasioning very 
severe and dangerous attacks of 
pseudo-cholera and dysentery. To 
the newly-arrived Europeans, espe- 
cially of the lower orders, it is in- 
deed a most tempting fruit, and its 
powerful acid and tough flesh may 
often make it dangerous to them. 
An exceedingly beautiful flax, of 
great fineness and strength, may be 
prepared from the leaves of this 
plant by simple maceration and 
beating. lu the Philippine Islands 
dresses, equal to the finest nuislin, 
are woven from it, and embroidered 
with extraordinary taste ; and though 
expensive, they last for many years, 
being in duration, colour, and beauty, 
equal to fine Flanders lace. 
ANATHEE, an Indian word, signify- 
ing having no lord, master, or owner; 
from natha, a lord or master, with 
the primitive a prefixed. Old waste 
land ; lands not cultivated within the 
memory of man. 
ANDAMANS. In the Bay of Bengal, 
opposite to the Tenasserim coast, 
and a short distance from it, between 
Lat. 10 deg. 32 min. and 13 deg. 40 
min. N., lie two islands, called the 
Andamans. The northernmost, or 
great Andaman, is about 140 miles 
in length by twenty in breadth. 
Though considered as only one, the 
great Andaman consists in reality 
of three islands, as it is divided in 
two x>laces by very narrow straits. 
In the centre of the great Andaman 
is a mountain named Saddle Peak, 
about 2,400 feet high. The south- 
ernmost, or little Andaman, is about 
twenty -eight miles in length by 
seventeen in breadth. There are no 
rivers of any size. These islands pro- 

duce various kinds of wood, amongst 
which are ebony, red wood, damoner, 
bamboo, and rattans. The coasts 
abound with fish of every description. 
In the woods are a few kinds of birds 
and fowls, and the shores abound 
with a variety of beautiful shells. 
There are no other animals, with the 
exception of swine. Within the 
caverns and recesses of the rocks are 
found the edible birds' nests, so 
highly prized by the Chinese. The 
vegetable productions are few, and 
there are no cocoa-nut trees. The 
inhabitants of these islands are a 
very singular race, differing entirely 
not only from all the inhabitants of 
the neighbouring continent, but also 
from the natives of the Nicobar 
islands, though not a hundred miles 
distant. In appearance, they re- 
semble a degenerate race of negroes, 
having woolly hair, flat noses, and 
thick lips. Their eyes are small 
and red, and their skin of a deep dull 
black. In stature they seldom 
exceed five feet, with large heads, 
high shoulders, protuberant bellies, 
and slender limbs. They go quite 
naked, their only covering being 
composed of a coat of mud, which 
they plaster all over their bodies, 
in order to protect themselves from 
the insects. Their heads and faces 
they paint with red ochre. They 
are an exceedingly savage and igno- 
rant race, and have always evinced 
an inveterate hatred towards 
strangers, constantly rejecting all 
intercourse, and frequently attacking 
boats' crews landing for water. They 
do not appear ever to have made any 
attempt to cultivate the ground, but 
subsist upon what they can pick up 
and kill. They are armed with wooden 
spears, and bows and arrows, which 
they use with much dexterity. As 
far as can be ascertained, they have 
no distinct ideas of religion. They 
appear to pay some sort of adoration 
to the sun, and to spirits whom they 
suppose to rule over the woods, and 
waters, and mountains. They were 
formerly supposed to be cannibals. 




that is, men wlio eat human flesh, 
but there is reason to believe tliat 
tliis is not the ease. As far as is 
known of their lang-uage, it does not 
possess the least affinity with any 
spoken in India, or among the 
neighbouring islands. The total 
population is supposed not to exceed 

ANJAR is situated in Lat. 23 deg. 
3 min. N., Lon. 70 deg. 11 min. E., 
about ten miles from the Gulf of 
Kuch. It contains about 10,000 in- 
habitants, and is the iirincipal town 
of the British district of Anjar. It 
was much injured in 1819 by the 

ANNA rUONA DEVI, a Hindoo 
household goddess, extensively wor- 
shi])ped by the Hindoos. Her name 
impUes " the goddess who fills with 
food," and they believe that a sin- 
cere Avorshipper of her will never 
want rice. In the modern represen- 
tations of this beneficent form of 
Parvati, she is described of a deep 
yellow colour, standing, or sitting on 
the lolus, or water-lil^^ Slie has two 
arms, and in one hand holds a spoon, 
in the other a dish. 

AOUL, or OOLOOS, Turkish. A 
subdivision of a tribe or camp. 

AP, unleavened cakes, eaten in the 
west of India. 

ARARAT, Turkish. Literally " a 
place of prisons." Purgatory, a mid 
receptacle of souls between Paradise 
and Hell. 

ARCHIPELAGO. See Eastern Is- 

ARCOT (Urkat) is situated on the 
south side of the river I'alar, seventy 
miles south-westerly from JMadras. 
This was the capital of the Carnatic 
under the government of the Maho- , 
medan nabobs, and it is still a favou- 
rite place of residence with Maho- 
medan families. 'J"he fort was for- 
merly large, and tolerably strong, 
but it is now in ruins. The cele- 
brated Clive took it in 1751 with a 
small party of 200 European and 
300 natives, although the garrison 
then consisted of 1100 men. The 

place was immediately besieged by 
rajah Sahib with an army of 10,000 
men, assisted by 150 French and 
artillery; but after a hard struggle 
of fifty days, Clive, with his handful 
of men, entirely defeated them. Oa 
the north side of the river is an 
English cavalry cantonment, and a 
large open town connected with it. 
This, also, is named by Europeans 
Arcot, but by the natives it is 
usually termed Raneepet. 
AREKA, the betel nut. See Paun- 


ARGAUM, a village in the province 
of India, where the armies of Scindia 
and the Basla rajah were defeated 
in 1803 by the British troops, under 
the Duke of Wellington, then Ge- 
neral Wellesley. 

ARISTOO, the Persian pronunciation 
of Aristotle, whose works are highly 
esteemed among the Orientals. 

ARNEE is situated about twenty 
miles to the south of Vellore, in 
the province of Central, or Middle 
Carnatic. During the wars with 
Hyder All, this was a place of con- 
siderable consequence, and its for- 
tress was Ilyder's chief magazine. 
It is noted for its clever workman- 
ship in cloths, which are held in 
great estimation by the natives of 
this part of Hindostan. 

ARRA. Vide Bahau. 

ARRACAN. Arracan lies to the 
south-east of Bengal, betAvcen Lat. 
18 deg. and 21 Aag. N., and is 
bounded on the north by the dis- 
trict of Chittagong, in the province 
of Bengal, from which it is separated 
by the river Nauf; east, by a chain 
of mountains dividing it from Ava; 
south, by the district of Bassein in 
Pegu; and Avest, by the Bay of 
Bengal. It is divided into the dis- 
tricts of Arracan, Kamree, SandoAvy, 
and Cheduba. The district of Ram- 
rce is an island separated from the 
mainland liy a narrow creek. Che- 
duba is also an island in the open 
sea, a few miles from the coast of 
Ramree. It is one of a small cluster, 
and is in length thirty miles, by 




about ten miles in breadth. Lime- 
stone is tmind in these ishmds. Be- 
tween the mountains and tlie sea, 
this country is covered with thick 
jungles, inundated and intersected 
in all directions by small rivers, 
lakes, and creeks. In extreme 
lengtli it may be estimated at 230 
miles from north to south, by an 
average breadth of fifty miles from 
east to west. The great chain of 
mountains, forming the eastern 
boundary, commences at Cape Ne- 
grais, and runs northerly almost as 
far as the southern bank of the 
Brahmapootra in Assam. By the 
natives, these mountains are called 
the Yomadoung. Their general ele- 
vation seems to be from 3000 to 
5000 feet. In both Kainee and Che- 
duba are many small volcanoes, 
mostly of the description called mud 
volcanoes; generally, when in their 
tranquil state, throwing up greasy 
mud mixed with petroleum, and 
strongly impregnated with sulplmr; 
and occasionally also discharging 
flames and quantities of iron pyrites. 
These volcanoes are worshipped by 
the Mugs, who think they are occa- 
sioned by the great Naga, or serpent, 
which supports the world. The 
productions of this country are prin- 
cipally rice, salt, tobacco, indigo, 
cotton, hemp, ivory, timber, and 
bees' wax. Lead is found in the 
mountains, and in the streams to- 
wards Basseiu small quantities of 
gold and silver. The forests afford 
abundance of timber of various 
kinds; but, although they produce 
the teak, it is generally found in 
places so difficult of access, that 
little advantage is derived from it. 
The animals are, in general, the 
same as in Bengal, the principal 
being the elephant. The principal 
towns are Arracan, Akyab, Kamree, 
and Sandowy. This country is 
called by tiie natives Kekhaing, and 
l)y Mahomedan writers " Urkhung," 
from the name of its capital; and 
from this last is derived the English 
name Arracan. Its inhabitants con- 

sist of ]\Iugs, who are tlie original 
natives, jNIahomedans, originally from 
India, and Burmese. The Mugs are 
called by the Burmese " Great 
Mrunmas," and are considered by 
them as the original source of their 
own race. The total population in 
182G, including the islands, was 
estimated at not more than 100,000, 
of whom G0,000 were Mugs, 30,000 
Mahomedans, and 10,000 Burmese. 

ARRACAN, the capital of the pro- 
vince of Arracan, is situated inland, 
about forty miles from the coast, 
upon a river of the same name, 
which flows into the sea. Lat. 20 
deg. 30 min. N., Lon. 92 deg. 5 
min. E. 

AS AR, the third month in the Hindos- 
tanee year. See Rysack. 

ASH AM, or AHSHAM, Hindostanee. 
Retinues, militar^^ pomp, and parade; 
the military. 

ASHAM OMLAH, retinues of the 
public officers, whether for protection 
or parade. 

ASHAM SESSAYE, retinues of sol- 
diers, military pomp, or parade, 
^lilitary jaghires, or assignments of 
land, for defraying military ex- 

ASIA, a quarter of the globe, extend- 
ing eastward from the twenty -fifth 
degree of east longtitudeto the hun- 
dred and seventieth degree of west 
longitude, and from the seventy- 
eiglith degree of north to the tenth 
degree of south latitude. It is about 
GOOO miles in breadth from the Dar- 
danelles on the west, to ihe eastern 
coast of Tartary, and about 5500 
miles in lengtli from the most 
northern cape of Asiatic Russia to 
the most southern part of Malaya. 
It is bounded on the north by the 
Arctic or Frozen Ocean; north-east, 
by Bhering's Straits; east, by the 
Pacitic; south, by the Indian Ocean; 
west, by the Indian Ocean, h'ed Sea, 
Mediterranean, Black Sea, and Hussia 
in Europe. The principal countries 
of Asia are Tartary, which includes 
Asiatic Russia, Chinese Tartary, 
Tartary, and Thibet; Turkey in 




Asia, Persia, China, Arabia, Ilin- 
dostan, or India, Burma, or Ava, 
Siam, Cochin China, Malaya, and 
some islands. The people of Asia are 
called by the general name of Asiatics. 
All religions exist among them, the 
heathens being the most numerous. 

ASIN, the sixth month in the Ilindos- 
tanee year. See Bysack. 

ASSAL, written also ASIL, AUSIL, 
AUZIL, origin, root, foundation; 
capital stock, principal sum. Origi- 
nal rent, exclusive of subsequent 
cesses. The word is in use through- 
out India. 

ASSAM. This country lies on the 
north-eastern frontier of Bengal. 
On the north it has Bootan, and a 
range of lofty mountains dividing it 
from Thibet ; on the east, it is believed 
to be bounded by other ranges of 
mountains separating it from China; 
south, it has the Shan country, 
Mogaong, and Cossia districts of 
Ava and Kachar ; and west, the 
district of Gentinpoor, adjoining the 
Silhet district of Bengal, the Garrow 
mountains, and Bijnee. It is divided 
into three provinces, Kamroop on the 
west, Assam in the centre, and See- 
diya on the east. The province of 
Kamroop was formerly an extensive 
division in Hindoo geography, and 
included a large part of Assam, with 
the modern districts of Kungpoor and 
Kungamutty, part of Mymunsing, 
Silhet, Munnipoor, Gentia, and Ka- 
char. As the name is now used, how- 
ever, it is restricted to the western 
divisions of Assam, and extends from 
the province of Bengal eastward about 
130 miles. In number and magni- 
tude the rivers of Assam probably 
surpass those of any other country 
in the world of equal extent, the 
total number being said to be sixty- 
one. The principal are the Brahma- 
pootra, or, as it is called in Assam, 
the Loohait ; and the Dihong, 
I3ihong, Dikho, and Diprong, all of 
which fall into the Brahmapootra, 
or some of its branches. Tiie whole 
of this country may be considered as 
forming the maia valley of the Brah- 

mapootra river, extending in its 
greatest dimensions about 350 miles 
in length, by sixty, its average 
breadth. It is enclosed on all sides 
by ranges of mountains. Those on 
tiie north and east particularly 
are very lofty, and have their sum- 
mits constantly covered with snow. 
There are hilly tracts covered with 
woods in different parts of the valley, 
and the mountains also are covered 
with forests. The productions of 
Assam are much the same as those 
of Bengal, which country it greatly 
resembles in appearance. The prin- 
cipal articles are rice, mustard-seed, 
black pepper, chillies, ginger, betel, 
tobacco, and opium. The sugar-cane 
thrives, but is generally eaten by the 
natives fresh from the iield; cocoa- 
nuts are very rare, oranges abound. 
The most remarkable produce of 
Assam, however, is silk. No fewer 
than four different kinds of silk- 
worms are reared, silks of several 
varieties forming great part of the 
native's clothing, besides leaving a 
quantity for exportation. The 
native women of all classes, from 
the rajah's wives downwards, wear 
the four sorts of silk. The cul- 
tivation of tea has lately been intro- 
duced, and promises to become of 
much importance. Gold is found in 
all the rivers, particularly in the- 
Dikrong ; and there are probably- 
other metals. Buffaloes and oxen 
are common, but horses, sheep, and' 
goats are scarce, and there are nO' 
asses. The wild animals are gene- 
rally the same as in BengiU. The 
principal towns are Gaohati, Jorhat, 
Gerghong, Kungpoor, and Snddiya. 
The inhabitants of Assam consist of 
numerous different tribes, some of 
Hindoo origin, others apparently from 
Thibet and China. The following are 
the names of some of the principal 
classes: — Ahanis, Mismees, Maha- 
maris, INIeorces, Singhpos, and 
Kolitas; all differing from each other 
more or less in language and man- 
ners. The whole arc, however, com- 
monly denominated by European 




•writers by the general name of 
Assamese. The amount of the 
population is doubtful, but it may be 
estimated not to exceed 150,000, 
including the petty states adjacent. 

ASSEERGURH is a strong hill 
fortress, situated about twelve miles 
nortlierly and easterly from Boor- 
hampoor. It is noted on account of 
its siege in 1819 by the British 
troops, by whom it was captured 
after an obstinate resistance. 

ASSYE, a village in the province of 
Berar, remarkable as having been 
the scene of a great battle between 
the British troops under the Duke of 
Wellington (then General Wellesley), 
and the Mahratta armies of Scindia 
and the Basla rajah. 

ATA {minona squamosa), the Indian 
custard apple. The fruit of a small 
tree which grows above fifteen feet 
high in all parts of India. The 
leaves are smooth and soft, and 
about three inches long, tapering at 
both ends, The fruit is nearly 
round, with a rough outside, about 
the size of an orange. When ripe, 
it is easily burst. It is filled Avith a 
soft white substance of a sweet taste, 
and separable into small portions, 
each containing a small black seed. 
It bears once a year. The fruits are 
ripe in July, and are much sought 
after. Perhaps there is no Indian 
fruit about -which we liear so many 
various opinions expressed by Euro- 
peans. To some it is the most 
delicious fruit in the country, while 
to others its flavour seems not merely 
a mawkish sweetness, but almost 
nauseating. In a word, it is rare to 
meet two persons who agree in their 
opinion of the custard apple. Care 
should be taken when eating it, not 
to scrape off with the spoon the part 
•which adheres to the outside scales 
of the fruit; for this certainly will, 
if frequently repeated, cause a smart 
inflammatory sore throat. And the 
finer the fruit the more liable it is to 
cause this. The part which sur- 
rounds the seeds, and which adheres 
to them, should alone be eaten. The 

kernels of the seeds are also poison- 
ous, though the seeds are frequently 
swallowed whole without any ill 
effects. In countries where it meets 
with peculiar soils and careful culti- 
vation, as in the Mauritius and the- 
Eastern islands, the ata attains a 
very large size, at least double that 
of the largest in India, and its flavour 
is generally improved; this last dif- 
ference may be observed here, and 
indeed with many fruits in all coun- 
tries, the largest sized are generally 
the best flavoured. There is much 
imcertainty as to whence this fruit, 
and its congener, the annona reticu- 
lata, or sour-sop of the West Indies, 
were originally derived; it has been 
supposed that both were originally 
brought from Spanish or Portuguese 
America, and thus propagated 
through their Asiatic dominions and 
to China, though from its abundance 
in China and Cochin China, it may 
equally have been obtained from 
those countries. It is probable that 
the Portuguese settlements on the 
eastern coast of Africa may have 
furnished it on the one side and 
China on the other; but if the truth 
be told, there is but little or nothing 
known of what are the peculiarities 
of the various kinds of this and 
many other fruits, which are, how- 
ever, well worthy of more attention 
and study than they have hitherto 
obtained from us. The annona 
reticulata is said to be indigenous 
in the mountainous country east of 
Bengal, but the absence of any- 
Sanscrit name for the fruit is evidence 
enough that it is of foreign introduc- 
tion, though now the commonest 
fruit in India. 

ATCHKUTT, Hindostanee. Eice- 
fields, lands prepared for the culture 
of rice. 

ATTA-GOOL, the Hindostanee term 
for the essence of the rose; caUed in 
England, and vulgarly spelt, " Otto 
of Roses." 

ATTAH, coarse flour. This is as much 
in use in the north of India as rice 
is in the south and west. It is 




simply mixed ■with water, and baked 
into cakes on a thin circular iron 
plate. The cakes are called Chup- 

ATTI, the name of a deed, by which 
the Jalmkars, or hereditary tenants 
of the soil in IMalabar, pledge their 
lands, reserving to themselves two- 
thirds of their value, besides a certain 
interest therein, amounting to about 

ATTI PER, the name of a deed in 
Malabar, by which an hereditary 
tenant transfers the whole of his in- 

- terest in his land to a mortgagee. 

ATTOK, a fortress situated on the 
eastern bank of the Indus, in Lat. 
33 deg. 56 min. N., Long. 71 deg. 57 
min. E. It is noticed as being placed 
on the principal route across the 
Indus, and as marking the point at 
which Alexander the Great, Tymoor, 
and Nadir Shah all entered India. 
The name Attok (Utok) means limit, 
or hindrance. It is a place of little 
strength, and does not contain more 
than 2000 inhabitants. 

AUB-E-DOOGH, Persian. Butter- 
milk and water, a common and 
much-esteemed beverage, especially 
among the Persian soldiery and 
wandering tribes of lllyaixts. It is 
generallv made from goats' milk. 

AUB-E-GOSHT, Persian. LiteraUy, 
water of meat. Soup. 

AUGIAREE (from Ag', or Aug, /re). 
The temple, or place of devotion of the 
Parsees or fire-worsliippers. Within 
these temples the sacred fire is kept 
constantly burning, the priests ful- 
filling the office of the vestals in con- 
tinually watching and feeding the 
fiame. Pious Parsees, in going to 
the Augiaree for purposes of prayer, 
take with them lumps of fragrant 
sandal wood, which are handed to one 
of the priests or officers of the temple, 
who see to its appHcation to the in- 
tended object. It is usual with 
wealthy Parsees to endow a temple 
with a vase of silver for the recep- 
tion of the sacred fire. There are 
two or three Augiarees in Bombay 
and in Surat, the cities in Western 

India where the Parsees chiefly 
AUM, the mango (fruit of the man- 
gijha Indica), a rich fruit, of a 
bright orange-coloured pulp and a 
coat of orange or green intermingled 
with a red bloom. There are in In- 
dia so many sorts and varieties of 
this rich fruit, whicli, in fact, may 
be called for its abundance, the In- 
dian Apple, that it would take a 
volume to describe them. As a mere 
tree it is valuable, being of not very 
slow growth, and affording, by its 
dense, dark shade, the most grateful 
shelter from " the traveller's enemy," 
the sun. Its wood is most exten- 
sively used, and, in fact, the planks 
suppl}^ for a large part of India, the 
uses of fir plank in Europe, and 
when carefully preserved by paint, 
it lasts many years. The fruits, in 
their season, are so abundant in all 
the bazars that the cows are oftea 
regaled with them, and always Avith 
the stones, which they crunch, appa- 
rently with great delight. A curious 
fact is, that in remote villages, near 
extensive forest tracks, the bears, at 
the season of the fruit, are known to 
invade the mango topes, and to take 
possession of them till they have de- 
voured all the fruit, in spite of all 
the efforts of the villagers to drive 
them out! The finest mangoes on 
the Bengal side of India are said to 
be those of Malda, though there are 
certainly some in the neighbourhood 
of Calcutta equal, or superior to 
tliem. The finest in all India are 
said to be those of Goa, where tliey 
have been cultivated by the Portu- 
guese. Until of late years, however, 
little or no attention was paid to the 
sorts planted, or, at all events, it was 
rarely thought, by natives at least, 
worth tlie trouble or expense of send- 
ing far for good kinds; the tvpes, in- 
deed, being as often iilantcd as an 
act of piety to afli)rd sliade, as for 
the fruit, which, he who planted 
rarely expected to taste. Good 
grafts, and these upon good stocks, 
ar-c now more sought after, especially 




in the neiglibourliood of larj^e towns, 
where a few mango trees, if bearing 
choice fruit, are valuable property. 
Perhaps nothing can show more 
strongly what the mango may be- 
come, by careful cultivation, than 
the fact that, at tlie plantation of 
Black River, in the Isle of France, 
no less than twelve varieties, of the 
most exquisite flavour, of sizes from a 
large apple, to that of a man's head, 
some almost witliout stones, have 
been obtained by the care and atten- 
tion of a long series of years. The 
mango, in India, is eaten in every 
possible form, and an extensive trade 
is carried on in the young green and 
acid fruits, which, being dried in the 
sun, are sold in all the bazars as a 
favourite condiment for curries. The 
crop of this fruit is very uncertain, 
as the prevalence of fogs at the time 
of flowering, drought, or storms, will 
often destroy a large crop in a few 

trust, charge. Land in charge of an 
Aumeen, or trustee, to collect its re- 
venue on the part of government. 
K.B. In the peninsula of India the 
term is particularly applied to a set- 
tlement under which the government 
receives its share of the produce of 
the lands from each cultivator in 
kind, instead of stipulating for a pe- 
cuniary commutation, or farming 
them out to individuals by villages, 
or large portions of territory. The 
same term appears to prevail in 

AUMEEN, trustee, commissioner. A 
temporary collector, or supervisor, 
appointed to tlie charge of a country 
on the removal of a zemindar, or for 
any other particular purpose of local 
investigation, or arrangement. 

AUMIL, agent, ofScer, native col- 
lector of Indian revenue. Superin- 
tendent of a district or division of a 
country, either on the part of the 
government, zemindar, or renter; the 
same as Ausiildak, q. v. 

AUMILUAR, agent, the holder of an 
office in India. An intendant, and 

collector of the revenue, uniting 
civil, military, and financial powers 
under the Mahomedan government. 

AURUNG, the place in India where 
goods are manufactured. 

AURUNGABAD, a province of the 
Dcccan. Its boundaries consist of, 
north, Guzerat, Khandesh, and 
Berar; east, Berar and Beder; south, 
Bejapoor and Beder; Avest, the sea. 
Tlie following are the principal dis- 
tricts: — Jowar, Kallianee, Bombay, 
below the mountains ; Sumgumneer, 
Jooneer, Ahmednuggur, Perraiuda, 
above the mountains, belonging to 
the British dominions, and Aurung- 
abad; Bheer, occupying its eastern 
side, and belonging to the Nizam of 
Hyderabad. The rivers are the 
Godaver}^ Seena, Beema, all of 
Avhich have their sources in this 
province, Moota, Moola, and many 
smaller. This province is traversed 
from nortli to south by the great 
range of western^mountains, and its 
surface throughout is very irregular 
and broken, abounding with rocky 
jungly hills. It is in general fertile, 
and its climate, above the mountains, 
temperate. There are some remark- 
able caves or excavations in diSerent 
parts, which are noticed in con- 
nexion Avith the towns near which 
they are situated. On the coast, ia 
about 19 deg. N. Lat., and separated 
from the main land by a narrow- 
strait, are several small islands, of 
Avhich the principal are Salsette and 
Bombay. The productions of the soil 
are rice and other grains, and 
cotton. Horses of a small, but very 
active and hardy breed, are reared in 
great numbers on the banks of the 
Beema. Fruits of different kinds 
are abundant and fine, particularly 
grapes, melons, oranges, and figs. 
The towns are Jowar, Basseen, 
Kallianee, and Bombay, below the 
mountains ; Nassuck, Sungumneer,. 
Jooneer, Ahmednuggur, Perrainda, 
Aurungabad, Jalna, and Peytun. In 
ancient Hindoo geography, this pro- 
vince, with some others, was included 
under the general name of Mahrash- 




■tin. After its subjugation by the 
IVIabomcdans, it received successively 
the names of Dowlutabad, Ahmed- 
nutjgur, and Aurungabad. Tlie in- 
liabitants of tliis province are prin- 
cipally INIahrattas, this being the 
original country of that people. 
AURUNGABAD, the capital of the 
province of Aurungabad, is situated 
in Lat. 19 deg. 54 min. N., Long. 75 
deg. 33 min. E. This city was 
originally named Goorkha, but 
having become the capital of the 
province, and the favourite residence 
of Aurungzebe, when viceroy of the 
Deccan, it received from him the 
appellation of Aurungabad. It is a 
large, well built town, abundantly 
supplied with water brought in 
stone conduits from the neighbouring 
hills, and distributed through pipes 
into numerous stone reservoirs in 
every quarter. It has a large and 
handsome bazar named the IShah- 
ginj, particularly noted for silks and 
shawls. Aurungabad is the usual 
residence of the governor of the 
northern division of the Nizam's 
one of the descendants of Tamerlane. 
He reigned at Delhi, as Great Mogul, 
from IfiGO until 1707, obtaining his 
place on the throne by imprisoning 
his father and causing his brother to 
be murdered or driven into exile. He 
was a prince of warlike habits, and 
extended his conquests over the Dec- 
can, the Carnatic, and the coast of 
Golconda. Several towns and public 
ediiices in India owe their origin to 
this sovereign. 
AVA. Ava is situated to the east- 
ward of India. It is bounded on 
the nortli by Assam; north-easterly 
by China; east, by Slam; south, ])y 
Siam and the sea; west, by the 
sea, Arracan, and Bengal. It is 
divided into the following chief pro- 
vinces: — Ava, Tegu, Martaban, Ta- 
voy, and Tenasserim, of Avhich the 
latter two are subject to the British 
government. The province of Ava 
extends to Tromc, which Avas the 

southern boundary of the empire 
])revious to the conquest of Pegu. 
Its principal districts are Cossai, Mo- 
gaong, Ava, and the Shan country. 
Mogaong borders upon Cossai on the 
west, and Assam on the north. Ava, 
so named from the capital, constitutes 
what was originally the whole ex- 
tet.t of Burma Proper, and comprises 
the remainder of the province. 
The province of Pegu extends south- 
ward from Prome. Its principal 
districts are the following: — Prome, 
larawadi, Ilengawadi, Donabew, 
Bassein, Negrais, Syriam, Rangoon, 
Sitong, and Tongo. The provinces 
of Martaban, Tavoy, and Tenas- 
serim, follow in succession southward 
from Pegu, and embrace the whole 
of the coast from the south side of 
the Saluen river. The principal 
rivers are the Irawadee, Kienduem, 
Saluen, or Martaban river, Pegu 
river, and Lokiang. This country 
may be described, in general terms, 
as consisting of the great valley of 
the Irawadee, intersected by several 
other smaller rivers and low hills, 
and having ranges of mountains 
along its northern and western sides, 
Avith another cross range separating 
it from the Shan country. The 
inland districts of Pegu arc also 
generally hilly. The plains and 
valleys near the rivers are fertile 
and well cultivated, and yield abun- 
dance of rice, wheat, and other 
grains; sugar, tobacco, cotton, and 
indigo. The tea plant grows in a 
district to the north of Amrapoora, 
named Palongmyoo, but its leaf is 
very inferior to that of the Chinese 
plant, and is seldom used except for 
a pickle. The most remarkable 
product of the country is petroleum 
oil, an article of universal use 
throughout the provinces, and af- 
fording a large revenue to the go- 
vernment. Tin, antimony, iron, 
coal, and saltpetre, are also ibund in 
ditl'erent parts; and it is said that 
in the mountains of the northern 
frontier, there are mines of gold, 
silver, and precious stones; but it 




does not appear that these have ever 
been in any great abundance. There 
are quarries of excellent white marble 
a few miles from Amrapoora. The 
forests abound with teak and almost 
every description of timber known 
in India. The animals are the same 
generally as in India, with the ex- 
ception of the camel, Avhich does not 
appear to be known to the eastward 
of India. The elephant abounds 
most in Pegn, it is sometimes found 
of a white, or sandy colour, the 
consequence, it is supposed, of some 
leprous disease. The w hite elephant 
holds a very remarkable place in the 
estimation of the Burmese, who 
consider it an indispensable part of 
the royal establishment, and the 
■want of one woidd be deemed a sure 
sign of some great evil about to come 
upon the country. The residence of 
the white elephant is contiguous to 
the royal palace, and connected with 
it by a long open gallery, at the 
further end of which a curtain of 
velvet embroidered with gold con- 
ceals the august animal from vulgar 
eyes. Its dwelling is a lofty hall 
covered with gilding, and supported 
by numerous gilt pillars. Its fore 
feet are secured by silver chains, and 
its hinder ones by chains of iron. 
Its bed consists of a thick mattress, 
covered with cloth, over which is 
spread another softer one covered 
■with silk. Its trappings are of 
gold, studded •with diamonds and 
other precious stones. Its betel-box, 
spitting-pot, bangles, and the vessel 
out of which it feeds, are also of gold, 
inlaid with precious stones, and its 
attendants ami guard exceed a 
thousand persons. It ranks next 
in honour to the king himself, and 
all ambassadors attending the court 
of Ava, are expected to show it 
their respect by offerings of muslins, 
chintzes, silks, &c. The horses are 
small, but very active and hardy; 
those of Pegu especially are much 
valued. Amongst the wild fowl, is 
one named the henza, or braminy 
goose, the tigure of which is used by 

the Burmese as the symbol of their 
nation. The principal cities are the 
following: — In Ava: Umrapoora, 
Ava, Yandaboo, Pagam, Melloon, 
and Meeaday, all situated on the 
banks of the Irawadee. In Pegu: 
Pronie, on the bank of the Irawadee, 
Tongo, and Pegu inland, Sarawa, 
Henza, Donabew, Bassein, Negrais, 
Syriam, Dalla, and Rangoon, all on 
the banks of the Irawadee and its 
branches. In ilartaban : Martaban, 
Amherst, and iMoulmein. In Tavoy : 
Tavoy. In Tenasserim: JMegnii. 
Its inhabitants are composed of the 
following principal classes : Burmese, 
properly so called; Cossayans, Ta- 
liens, or the people of Pegu ; Karens, 
also inhabitants of Pegu; and Shans. 
The total population of the empire 
is estimated at about 3,500,000. In 
regard to religion, the Burmese are 
followers of Booddh, whose image is 
worshipped throughout this country 
xmder the name of Gaodhma, or 
Gaotoom. The Booddhist system is 
not much superior to mere Atheism, 
as according to it, the world and all 
its affairs are left to go on as chance 
may determine, the Deity not taking 
any concern therein. The Boodd- 
hists, therefore, offer no Avorship to 
tlie eternal God, but say, that from 
time to time men of surprising piety 
have appeared, who have, in conse- 
quence, after their death, received 
power over the living, and these 
saints are the direct subjects of 
their worship. This system has, 
notwithstanding, one advantage over 
Ilindooism and Mahomedanism, as 
it leaves the people entirely free, 
both from the absurd prejudices of 
caste, and the evil feelings of igno- 
rant bigotrj^ Christian mission- 
aries have latterly gone amongst 
them, and many have embraced the 
gospel, particularly amongst the 
Karens. The common language of 
this country is called the Burman, 
and is written from left to right in 
characters of a circular form. The 
language in which all their religious 
books arc composed is called the 




Pali, and is written in the Sanscrit 
character. The Burmese use the 
Palmira leaf, and for common pur- 
poses, the iron stj'le; their religious 
and other books of value are "written 
with lacquer, or sometimes with 
gold and silver, and the leaves are 
splendidly gilt and ornamented. 

AVADAVAT, a small East Indian 
bird, with very pretty plumage 
(brownish black, spotted white), red 
legs, &c., but no song. They arc 
much kept by the natives of India in 
small wicker cages, and are sold in 
the bazars as pets. 

AVATAE, incarnation; applied to 
the alleged several appearances of 
Vislinu, q. v. 

AYACUT, reputed measurement of 
land ; land in India prepared for cul- 

AYAH, a lady's maid in India. The 
Ayah has no innate taste for dress- 
ing, but can usually plait hair well, 
and contrives to fasten a hook, and 
to stick in a pin so that it shall soon 
come out again. She is often the 
wife of one of the khedmutgars 
(q. v.), and then the double wages 
make the service valuable to the 
worthy couple. Frcquentlj' she is 
an Indo-Portuguese woman, and 
though a sad and ugly drab, is in 
most respects superior to the 5Ius- 
siolman woman. 


BABA LOGUE, literally, in Hindos- 
tanee, the " children people." It 
is the name by which the olfspring 
of Europeans of the higher classes 
are called by the domestics. 

BABOO, master, sir. A Hindoo title 
of respect paid to gentlemen. Mer- 
chants, head clerks, &c., in Bengal, 
are invariably called Baboos. 

BACKEIIGUNGE, a district of 

BAEE, a tea garden, or garden in 
Assam, where the cultivation of tea 
is carried on. 

BAFTAII, a coarse description of silk 

mauTifactured at Bhaugulpore, a 
town on the Ganges. 

BAGDAD, a Turkish town on the 
banks of the Tigris, where an ofScer 
of the Indian army, representing 
English interests, usually resides. 

BAHADOOE, a great person, a pom- 
pous fellow. 

BAIIAR, a province of India. It is 
bounded on the north by tlie hills of 
Nepal; east, Bengal; south, Orissa 
and Gondwana; west, Gondwana, 
Allahabad, and Oude. The divisions 
are Sarun, including Bettia, Tirhoot, 
Shahabad, Bahar, Boglipoor, Ilam- 
ghur, including Chota-Nagpoor. 
The rivers are the Ganges, Gunduk, 
Kurumnasa, and Sone, all three flow- 
ing into the Ganges, and many others. 
The Kurumnasa, though but an insig- 
nificant stream, is noticed on account 
of the singular character it bears 
amongst the Hindoos. They con- 
sider its waters to be so impui'e, that 
if a pilgrim, crossing it on his return 
from BenaiX's, do but touch them, all 
the sins Avhich the Ganges had 
washed away, will return upon him 
doubled. From its northern frontier 
southward, including Sarnn, Tirhoot, 
Shahabad, and Bahar, the country 
in general presents a level open 
surface, copiously Avatered, and re- 
markably fertile. There are, how- 
ever, some low sterile hills scattered 
through the district of Bahar. Bog- 
lipoor is occasionally hilly, and 
towards its eastern frontier moun- 
tainous and Avoody. Ramghur is 
mountainous throughout, A'cry 
rocky, and much covered with 
jungle. There are liot springs in 
various parts, and the climate of the 
northern and central districts is 
temperate and healthful. Agricul- 
ture, manufactures, and commerce 
have alwa3's flourished in this pro- 
vince; opium may be considered its 
staple commodity. Its other chief 
articles of produce are rice of the 
finest kind, excellent wheat and 
other grains, sugar, indigo, tobacco, 
cotton, hemp, pun, castor and seed 
oils, and a gi'cat variety of flower 




essences, particularly atta, usually 
called otto of roses, and rose-water. 
Sarnn abounds in large timber, much 
used for ship building, and produces 
a superior breed of cattle. Very 
good horses are bred in Tirhoot; 
amongst the wild animals a species 
of baboon is found in Boglipoor, 
named the Ilunooman, which is held 
by the Hindoos as sacred as the cow. 
IBears also are numerous, and in the 
hilly parts, tigers, wolves, and 
hyenas. Large quantities of nitre 
are supplied from Sarun and 
Tirhoot, and iron, lead, antimony, 
and mica are found in Kamghur. 
The manufactures are principally of 
cotton goods, and earthenware, in 
imitation of English crockery. 
Opium, which has been mentioned 
as the stajjle of this province, is 
produced from a species of the 
poppy. When ripe, a small incision 
is made in the pod of the flower 
towards evening, from which the 
juice distils during the night. In 
the morning this is scraped oii', and 
afterwards, being dried in the sun, 
becomes opium. The towns are 
Bettia, or Chumpanm, Chupra, 
Cheerun, MoozufJurpoor, Hajeepoor, 
Buxar, iXrra, Hotasgurh, Dinapoor, 
Patna, Bar, Bahar, Daoodnuggur, 
Gaya, Monghir, Clmmpranuggur, 
Boglipoor, Eajmahal, Sheergotti, 
Palamow, liumgarh, and Burwa. 
The present name of this province is 
derived from that of the town of 
Bahar, or Vihar, which is supposed 
to have been its capital at some 
former period. In Hindoo writings, 
the districts north of the Ganges 
vere called Ma'dhila, and Bahar and 
Shaliabad were included under the 
name of Moogadha. The inhabitants 
of Bahar are Hindoos, including a 
great number of Brahmuns, and a 
large iiroportion of INIahomedans; 
this province having been conquered 
by them at an early period. The 
hills of Boglipoor are inhabited by a 
number of original tribes, living in 
a very uncivilised state, and in the 
southern parts of Eamghur are the 

Lurkakoles and other wild moun- 
taineers. Amongst the Hindoos of 
tliis province there are a consider- 
able number of the Sikh sect, and 
some Jains. The Boglipoor, and 
other hill tribes in general, have not 
adopted the Brahminical system, but 
still follow their original practices. 
The language is Hindostanee and 
Moogadhee. The latter, which is 
the vernacular language of the Hin- 
doos of the province, does not greatly 
differ from Hindostanee. 

BAIR (zi:/phus jiijuha), the egg plum. 
Of this fruit there are several 
varieties. Originally from Western 
India and Persia, it is now natu- 
ralised in all the gardens about Cal- 
cutta, and in some of the larger 
towns. The inferior and hedge sorts 
are met witli all over India. The 
common wild kind much resembles 
in shape, colour, flavour, and size 
an unripe crab-apple, and one would 
almost suppose that from it a good 
cider might be made. The better 
and fine sorts are of the flavour of 
an inferior apple, or wild plum. 
They are eaten in large quantities 
l)y natives of India, by whom the 
fruit, in all its states, is very highly 
esteemed, not only when green 
and ripe, but also when dried and 
preserved in various ways. The 
best produce of the wild tree, how- 
ever, is not its fruit, but the strong 
and durable silk (Tusser) which it 
produces. The trees, even in the 
midst of the tOAvns, are often seen with 
numbers of worms upon them, and 
in the districts where the silk is an 
object of culture, the moths are bred 
from the cocoons, and the worms fed 
upon the leaves like silk-worms. 
'J'hcy are, however, kept in close 
baskets, being very active, and 
crawling away fast if left on open 
spots. The great enemies to the 
culture are crows and other birds, 
and ants, Avhich devour the 3'oung 
caterpillars in all the stages of their 

BAJAREE, a Hindostanee word for 
the grain called millet. 




BAJJA, a band of music— Ilinilos- 

BAJRA, a grain (holcus spicatus), 
much used in India in feeding horses 
and cattle. 

BALAGHAT, the name of the Ceded 
Districts in soutliern India. Tlie 
houndaries are, on tlie nortli, the 
rivers Toombudra and Kistria, sepa- 
rating it from Bejapoor and Hyder- 
abad; east, tlie mountains dividing 
it from the northern Circars, and 
northern Carnatic; south, Mysore; 
and west, the Dooab. Its princijjal 
districts are Doossad, Kurnoul, Adoni, 
Curamum, Bellary, Gooty, Gundi- 
cotta, Cuddassa, iSidout, llaidroog, 
Gurrumconda, and Punganoor. The 
rivers are the Vedavutti, also named 
the Hajnee, or Pajnee, flowing north- 
erly into the Toombudra, twenty 
miles from Adoni, the Pennar, 
Toombudra, Kistna, and several 
smaller streams. This province con- 
sists for the greater part of an 
elevated open plain, intersected in 
different directions by ranges of low 
hills, and generally very barren of 
trees. The soutliern portion of the 
province consists of valleys lying 
between the eastern mountains, 
•which extend from Colar to Gurrum- 
conda, and thence stretch inland to 
the vicinity of Sera. The soil is 
remarkably good. The scarcity of 
trees is not natural, but has been 
occasioned by the continual passage 
and encampments of the large 
armies, by which this province was 
desolated during tlie constant wars, 
of which it was Ibrmerly the seat. 
The climate of this province is 
intensely hot, and it is much subject 
to drought, and consequently to 
famine. Cotton, indigo, sugar, rice, 
and various dry grains, are the 
natural productions of this province. 
Diamond mines arc found cliiefly in 
the Cuddassa district; all the dia- 
mond mines in this part of India, 
•with a few exceptions, lie between 
the Kistna and Pennar rivers, from 
which tract the Golconda iliamonds 
were procured, the district of Goi- 

conJa itself not producing any. The 
district of Bellary is noted for the 
manufacture of cumlies. The prin- 
cipal towns are of the same names as 
the districts. The word Balaghat 
means " above the passes," and was 
first used by the Mahomedans to 
distinguish the whole of the ujiper 
country, extending from the Kistna 
to the southern extremity of Jlysore, 
from the Paeen Ghat, or country 
" below the passes." The term 
" Ceded Districts" was given to the 
province in 1800, when it was ceded 
or given up by tlie Nizam of Hyder- 
abad to the British. The original 
name of this province was " Karna- 
tuk, or Karnuta Desum," subse- 
quently misapplied by both Maho- 
medans and Europeans to the Paeen- 
ghat country, to which it is now 
exclusively appropriated, although 
no part of the ancient "Kurnata" 
was below the mountains. With 
the exception of a few thousand 
Pathans, the inhabitants of this 
province arc all Hindoos; generally, 
they are more robust and active 
than the people of the Paeenghat 
countries, and of a bolder character. 
The total population is estimated at 

BALA-HISSAR, literally, the upper 
palace, the citadel of a fortified 
town in central Asia. 

BALA KAMA, the name of a Hindoo 
god, the brother of Krishna. He 
was saved from the fury of Consa, 
by being translated from the womb 
of his mother into that of another 
female. He is frecpiently represented 
as the coadjutor of his brother in his 
exploits, and his image usually accom- 
panies that of Krishna in his re-ani- 
mation (after having been killed) 
iinder the form of Juggarnath. He 
married one of the mo3t beautiful old 
maids of ancient times, of a standard 
somewhat above tlie usnal size; his 
wife, Kevati, having been, " at the 
time of her marriage, 3,888,000 years 
of age, and so tall, that her stature 
readied as higl'i as tlie hands clapped 
seven times could be heard." 




BALASORE (Balisliwar), the prin- 
cipal sea-port of the province of 
Orissa, is situated near tlie moutli 
of a small river called tlie Boori 
Balang, in Lat. 21 deg. 32 min. N., 
Lon. 86 deg. 56 min. E. This was 
formerly a flourishing town, and at 
an eai'ly period of tlieir intercourse 
■with India, the Portuguese, Dutch, 
and English had factories here. It 
is still tlie principal trading place of 
the province, and is tlie regular re- 
sort of the Maldive vessels. It has 
dry docks capable of receiving small 
vessels, not drawing more than 
fourteen feet. 

B.^LKH, in Tartary, is situated in 
Lat. .36 deg. 48 min. N., Lon. 65 deg. 
16 min. E. It is believed to be one 
of the most ancient cities in the 
world. By Asiatics it is commonly 
designated as the mother of cities, 
and it is said by them to have been 
built by Kyamoors, the founder 
of the iirst empire of Persia. It 
was long celebrated after the con- 
quest of the country by Alexander, 
as the capital of the kingdom of 
Bactria; and it was the residence of 
the chief of the Magi, or fire worship- 
pers of Persia, until conquered by 
the Jlahomedans about the year 
710. In the early part of tlie thir- 
teenth century the city was taken 
and plundered by the celebrated 
Jungez Khan; and in the course of 
the many vicissitudes to which it 
has since been exposed, it has de- 
cayed into an insignificant town, of 
not more than 2,000 inhabitants, 
though its ruins extend over a cir- 
cuit of aboitt twenty miles. It is 
remarkable for a great abundance of 
fruit of various kinds, apricots, for 
example, being commonly sold at the 
rate of 2000 for a rupee. Snow 
is brought from the mountains 
about twenty miles distant, and 
sold in the bazar during the sum- 
BALLAKHAXEH, Persian. Balcony, 
an upper room, open in front, and 
cenerally overlooking another and 
lower apartment. 

BANAS, a river of Guzerat, flowing 
along the nurth-wcstern frontier into 

BANDA, isles of. These form a small 
cluster, situated about 120 miles 
south-easterly from Amboyna, the 
principal being the island of Banda. 
They are almost exclusively appro- 
priated to the cultivation of the 
nutmeg, which they produce in great 
abundance. Tliey belong to the 
Dutcli, and in their history, inhabit- 
ants, religion, and language, resemble 
the Moluccas. 

BANDA is situated in Lat. 25 deg. 
30 min. N., Long. 80 deg. 20 min. 
E. This is the modern capital of 
Bundulkliund, and the residence of 
the principal British authorities of 
the district. The cotton of the 
neighbouring country is of a superior 

BANDICOOT, a very large description 
of rat common to the East Indies. 
They grunt like little pigs, which 
they have sometimes been found to 
equal in size. 

BANDIES, the name given at Madras 
to a clumsy description of gig or 
buggy in very common use. 

BANGALOHE, in the IMysore pro- 
vince, is a lai'ge fortified town, 
situated about 200 miles nearly due 
Avest from flladi'as. It is one of the 
principal military stations of the 
Enghsh, and much resorted to by 
them on account of its climate, which 
is much more temperate and health- 
ful than that of tlie low country. 
The cantonment, which is extensive 
and well arranged, stands about two 
miles from the Petta. The fort is 
weak, and only calculated for defence 
against a native enemy. There are 
coarse cloth and silk manufactories 
at this place. Bangalore is famous 
for its gardens, which j)roduce a 
great variety of fruits and excellent 
BANGIIY, Ilindostanee. A slip of 
bamboo, perhaps five feet in length, 
which in tlie middle may be four 
inches in width, the thickness about 
an inch ; towards the ends it tapers 




a little, and has shoulders left 
■whereby to secure ropes or nets, in 
vhich are placed two tin boxes or 
two baskets, made either of rattans, 
or of reeds, very closely worked, and 
probably covered with painted can- 
vas or leather. The bangliy-wallah 
that is, the bearer who carries the 
laanghy, supports the bamboo on his 
shoulder, so as to equipoise the 
■baskets suspended at each end. The 
Ibangliy generally contains the bag- 
gage of a dawk or palankeen tra- 
veller. If not overladen, tlie banghy- 
■wallah will generally keep pace with 
the palankeen, the bearer shifting 
the bamboo from one to the other 
shoulder as he proceeds. 

BANGLES, armlets or anklets, some- 
times of silver or gold, sometimes of 
glass or cane. They are worn by 
the Hindoo, and Parsee and Mogul 

BANKA, buck, beau, rake, debauchee, 
and much else which it is difficult to 
define, save that to these explana- 
tions we may not unfrequently add 
the term blackguard. They are a 
species of dare-devils in Mahometan 
society, who pride themselves in their 
dress, which is extravagant to a 
degree, their profuse expenditure, 
and their prowess iu love and fight- 
ing. They are, of course, generally 
young men, and to ape them and their 
manners is the fashion with youths 
of family. 

BANKOK. This town, Avhich became 
the capital of Siam on the capture of 
Yoodia, is situated on the banks of 
the Menam, in Lat. 13 deg. 40 mln. 
N., Lon. 101 deg. 10 min.^E. It is 
the chief sea-port of Siam, and is a 
busy flourishing town, containing 
about 40,000 inhabitants. It is 
built almost entirely of wood, the 
houses being all raised upon posts, 
so as to i)lace them above the rise of 
the tide and the periodical inunda- 
tions. The greater part of the 
town floats upon the river, the houses 
being constructed upon bamboo 
rafts, and moored in rows of ten or 
more from each bank. The popu- 

lation forms a mixed assemblage of 
Siamese, Burmese, Shans, Malays, 
and Ciiinese, the last amounting to 
a half of the whole number. The 
principal manufactures are in tin, 
iron, and leather, carried on entirely 
by Chinese artisans. Nearly all 
the junks used iu the eastern trade 
are built here. 
BANYAN, a Hindoo merchant, shop- 
keeper, or confidential cashier and 
broker. The term is used in Bengal 
to designate the native who manages 
the money concerns of the European, 
and sometimes serves him as an 
interpreter. At Madras the same de- 
scription of person is called a Dubash, 
a corruption of Dwl bashi, one who 
can speak two languages. Some ban- 
yans usurp the designation of dewan, 
which should imjily an extensive 
delegated power; that oflace, under 
the emperors of Hindostan, and even 
now in the courts of Lucknow, 
Hyderabad, &c., being confidential, 
and never bestowed but on persons 
in high favour. The banyans are 
invariably Hindoos, possessing in 
general very large property, with 
most extensive credit and influence. 
So much is this the ease, that Cal- 
cutta was, some years ago, absolutely 
under the control of about twenty or 
thirty banyans, who managed every 
concei'n in which they could find 
means to make a profit. It is incon- 
ceivable what property was in their 
hands ; they were the ostensible 
agents in every line of business, 
placing their dependents in the 
several departments over which 
themselves had obtained dominion. 
Was a contract to be made Avith 
government by any gentlemen not 
in the company's service, these be- 
came the securities, under the con- 
dition of receiving a per ccntage, and 
of appointing their friends to such 
duties as might control the principal, 
and save themselves from loss. When 
a person in the service of the com- 
pany was desirous of deriving benefit 
from some contract, in the disposal 
of which he had a vote, and which, 




consequent!}', lie could not obtain in 
his own name, then the banyan 
became the principal, and the donor 
either received a share, or derived 
advantage from loans, &c., answering 
his purpose equally well. The same 
person frequently Avas banyan to 
several European gentlemen, all of 
■whose concerns were, of course, accu- 
rately known to him, and thus be- 
came the subject of conversation at 
those meetings the banyan of Cal- 
cutta invariably held, and do yet 
hold, after the active business of the 
day has been adjusted. A banyan in- 
Tariably goes attended by several un- 
derling sircars, liirharalis. Sec. He, to a 
certain degree, rules the office, enter- 
ing it generally with little ceremony, 
making a slight obeisance, and never 
divesting himself of his slippers: a 
privilege which, in the eyes of the 
natives, at once places him on a foot- 
ing of equaUty with his employer. 
Of late 3'ears, however, the power of 
the banyan has diminished greatly; 
for, if we except a few large concerns, 
such as banking-houses and the 
principal merchants, who, having 
valuable cargoes on hand, are each 
under the necessity of retaining one 
of these people, for the purpose of 
obtaining cash to make up pay- 
ments, or to furnish advances to 
indigo factors, &c. It cannot, how- 
ever, be denied that many specula- 
tions are carried on by the aid of 
banyans, which, but for the strength 
of their resources, could never have 
been attempted. We owe our present 
extended trade in the fabrics of Dac- 
ca, &c., in the sugar of the western 
and northern districts, in indigo 
throughout the country, and numer- 
ous other branches of connnerce, to 
the support given by this class to 
such gentlemen as appeared to them 
likely to succeed. 
BANYAN THEE. This tree is com- 
mon tin-oughout Indi;u Its branches 
are nearly horizontal, and they send 
fortli great numbers of roots, which, 
■when tliey reach the ground, soon 
grow, and act as supports to the 

branches. Tliere are some trees of 
this description whose ponderous 
branches have extended themselves 
for many yards in every direction, 
and unless supported by these smooth 
columns formed of their own roots,, 
would probably soon fall. When 
these roots descend from branches 
overhanging a jtublic road, it becomes 
necessary, when they have descended 
so low as to be Avithin reach, to 
twist several of them together, and 
in this way, by tying them with a 
rope, to give them a slanting direc- 
tion, till they are sufficiently long 
to reach the earth at the other side 
of the road. Thus the road actually 
passes through between the roots of 
the tree. The wood is of little ser- 
vice, being coarse and soon decay- 
BARAHAT, a town situated on the 
Ganges, in Lat. 30 deg. 35 min. N., 
Long. 78 deg. 22 min. E., is the 
modern capital of the province of 
BARAilAIIAL. This province is 
bounded on the north by Mysore and 
Central Carnatic; east, by Central 
Carnatic; south, by Salem; and 
west, by IMysore. Its principal 
rivers are the Palar and the Panar» 
This is a small province, situated 
among the Eastern Mountains. It 
is generaUy of a Avild, irregular 
appearance, and in former times 
was thickly studded with formidable 
hill forts. The valleys produce rice 
and other grains, but the articles 
principally cultivated are dry seeds, 
vegetables, and plantations of cocoa- 
nuts and palms. The manufactures 
are coarse, and consist of little be- 
sides inferior cumlies, and cottoa 
cloths. The principal towns are 
Venkatagherry, Satgurh, Oossoor, 
Sooloogherry, Vaniambadd}', Eut- 
nagherry, Kistnagherry, llyacotta, 
Tripatoor, and Allambaddy. 
BARA ROOPA, a class of men whose 
profession it is to disguise them- 
selves, and most admirably do they 
effect it. For this reason they are 
often employed as spies with the 




Indian army, and it is next to im- 
possible to detect them. 

BAREILLY, a large town, and for- 
merly the capital of one of the 
Rohilla chiefs, situated in Lat. 28 
deg. 23 min. N., Long. 79 deg. 16 
min. E. Amongst other manufac- 
tures it is noted tor brass water-pots, 
carpets, and cabinet work. 

BAREKILLAH, a Persian exclama- 
tion in constant colloquial use, lite- 
rally signifying "Good God!" "Praise 
be to ^God!" "Excellent!" "Well 
done!" " Bravo!"' 

BAROCH, or BROACH, is situated on 
the north bank of the Narbudda, 
about twenty -five miles from the 
sea, in Lat. 21 deg. 46 min. N., Long. 
73 deg. 14 min. E. At an early 
period this place is noticed in history 
as a very flourishing seaport. It has 
since much declined, but still carries 
on a considerable coasting trade. Its 
present population is estimated at 
about 30,000 inhabitants, including 
a large proportion of Banyans and 

BARODA is situated in Lat. 22 deg. 
21 min. N., Long. 73 deg. 23 min. 
E. This is the capital of the 
Gaicowar. It is a large and 
flourishing town, and contains about 
100,000 inliabitants. 

BAROONEE, an ample cloak -with 
sleeves, made to cover tlie whole 
person. It is worn by the Turks 
and Persians, and is considered to 
be a good defence from barooii (rain), 
■whence the name takes its deriva- 
BARRACKPORE is in the province 
of Bengal ; it is at a distance of 
about twenty miles from Calcutta. 
Barrackpore, called by the natives 
Achanuck (corruiUed from Charnock, 
the founder of Calcutta, who abided 
here), consists of a large park and a 
military cantonment, in the former 
. of which is the spacious country- 
house of the Governor-general, wiiile 
the latter affords accommodation to 
six regiments of native infantry and 
the full proportion of officers. Lord 
' Auckland established a native school 

at Barrackpore, and left funds for its 
support. The regiments here, with 
the artillery at Dum-Dum (seven 
miles from Calcutta), and tlie troops 
in Fort William, constitute the pre- 
sidency division of thejarmy, which 
is commanded by a general officer, 
who resides at Barrackpore. 

BASIN, Bengalee. A mixture of 
orange peel, ground fine on a stone, 
and mixed with flour made from 
peas. It is successfully used in 
cleansing the hair. 

BASSA, a Turicish title of honour 
bestowed upon governors of pro- 
A'inces and privy counsellors of the 
Grand Signor. 

BASSEEN is a seaport, separated 
by a narrow strait from the island 
of Salsette, and distant about thirty 
miles from Bombay. This place 
was obtained by treaty from the 
sultaun of Cambay in 1531, by the 
Portuguese, Avho lost it about 17.50 
to the Mahrattas, from whom it 
was subsequently taken by the 

BATAVIA is the capital of the island 
of Java, and of all the Dutch pos- 
sessions in the east; it is situated 
on the northern coast, in Lat. 6 deg. 
8 min. S., Lon. 106 deg. 54 min. E. 
Its population, of all classes, is esti- 
mated at about 50,000. It was 
founded by the Dutch in the year 

BATCIIEET, Ilindostanee for chit- 

BATTA, Ilindostanee. Deficiency, 
discount, allowance. Also allow- 
ance to troops in the field. In the 
garrison troops are allowed half- 
BATTAS, savage inhabitants of 

Sumatra, q. v. 
BAUBOOL, a species of mimosa, ge- 
nerally growing wild all over India. 
The crooked billets of the Banbool 
are deservedly in great estimation, 
and its bark is considered to be, if 
any thing, superior to that of oak 
for the tiinncr's use. 
BAUGDOHE, a leading halter, a 
strong cotton cord, which the Si/ce, 




or ghora wallah (groom), in India, fas- 
tens to the left cheek of tlie bit when 
leading a horse, and does not loosen 
until his master lias mounted, when, 
by drawing a slip knot, the animal 
is liberated from the groom's control. 

cook. To small establishments in 
India he is not essential, for the 
khedmutgar and miisalchee will 
there manage the business very cre- 
ditably between them: and where he 
is kept, he is i^aid according to his 

BAZEE ZAilEEN, smidry or miscel- 
laneous goods. The term is parti- 
cularly applied to such lands as were 
exempt from paj^ment of public re- 
venue, or very lightly rated, during 
the native rule in the Indian penin- 
svda. It refers to not only such as 
are held by Ura'inmns, or appro- 
priated to the support of places of 
worship, &:c., but also to the lands 
held by the officers of government, 
such as zemindars, canongoes, put- 
war ries, &C. 

BECHESil! a Persian expression. 
"By my eyes!" 

BEDEK. Tills province is bounded 
on the north by Aurungabad and 
Berar; east, Hyderabad and Gond- 
wana; south, the Kistna; west, 
Bejapoor and Aurungabad. The 
divisions consist of Puthree, Nan- 
dair, Calliany, Beder, Akulcotta, and 
Kulburga. Tiie rivers are the Go- 
davery, Munjera, Beema, Ivistna, 
and several smaller rivers. The 
surface of this province is broken 
and hilly, but not mountainous, 
generally open, and \cvy jiroductive, 
but thinly peopled, and consequently 
not well cultivated; though, under 
its ancient Hindoo government, it is 
said to have been exceedingly popu- 
lous and fruitful. The productions 
are wheat, cholum, and otlier dry 
grains, and cotton. The towns are 
Nandair, Neermul, Calliany, Beder, 
Akulcotta, and Kulburga. Notwitli- 
standing its having so long been 
under a Mahomedan government, 
this province contains few Maho- 

medans, the inhabitants beingchiefly 
Hindoos. The junction of three 
languages takes place in this pro- 
vince. Northward and westward 
of Beder, the prevailing language is 
the Mahratee; northward and east- 
ward, the Teloogoo; southward and 
eastward, the Teloogoo; and south- 
ward and westward, the Kanarese. 

BEDER, the capital of the province of 
Beder, and formerly of the Bhamenee 
empire, is situated in Lat. 17 deg. 
49 min. K, Lon. 77 deg. 48 min. E. 
The present town of Beder was built 
near the ruins of the old Hindoo 
city of the same name, by Ahmed 
Shah Bhamenee about the year 
1440, and was called by him Ahmed- 
abad. It was noted for works of 
tutenague inlaid with silver, such as 
hookah bottoms, and similar articles, 
which are still denominated Beder« 

BEDOUINS, Arabs, who constantly 
live in tents. They wander over the 
whole of Turkey, Persia, Arabia, 
Egypt, and Syria. They recognise 
no government but that of their own 
sheik or superior. 

BEEANA stands on the banks of the 
Ban-Gunga, in Lat. 26 deg. 57 min. 
N., Lon. 77 deg. 8 min. E. It is a 
large and flourishing town, and was 
the capital of the province before 

BEEGAH, or BIGGAH, a land 
measure, varying in different parts 
of India. In the west it measures 
3025 square yards; in Bengal, 1600 
square yards; in Malw, or Central 
India, nearly two roods. 

BEENA, the musk deer. This little 
animal, which inhabits the Himalaya 
range, seems to have puzzled the 
savans, who find a difficulty in plac- 
ing it, and it generally stands be- 
tween the lamas and the deer. The 
musk is timid and solitary; the male 
and female are hardly ever seen to- 
gether; but if one is found in a kud 
or dell, it is very likely the next 
kud Mill contain its mate. It is 
supposed the musk is for the purpose 
of enabling them to rejoin each other 




at night, for their liabits are noc- 
turnal. None of the other musk 
deer species have tlie bag or poucli 
peculiar to the male of this animal, 
and at some seasons of the year, and 
far to the north of Thibet, the con- 
tents of the bag, even of this species, 
are almost inodorous. 

BEGLEEBEY, a Turkish title, mean- 
ing lord of lords, a title equivalent to 
duke or prince. 

BEGUil, a Hindoo lady, princess, 
woman of high rank. 

BEJAGUR is a large hill fort, si- 
tuated in the Satpoora mountains, 
in Lat. 21 deg. 36 min. N., Lon. 75 
deg. 40 min. E. This was the ca- 
pital of the old Hindoo province of 
Neemar, and was subsequently that 
of the Mooghul province of Khan- 
desh, until supplanted by Boorhan- 

BEJAPOOE. Thisprovince is bounded 
on the north by Aurungabad; east, 
Aurungabad and Beder; south, tlie 
Dooab; and west, the sea. Its 
principal divisions are Sattara and 
Kolapoor, the former composing tlie 
present dominions of tlie Maliratta 
rajah, tlie latter belonging to a petty 
chief, styled tlie Kolapoor rajah; 
and on the coast, the northern and 
southern Konkan. The rivers are 
Beema, Kistna, Gutpnrba, and some 
others. In the vicinity of the moun- 
tains, along its western boundary, 
this province is very hilly, and 
thickly wooded ; eastward it becomes 
more level and open. The produc- 
tions are cholum, maize, gram, 
and other dry grains, with a small 
proportion of rice, cotton, and 
sugar. The principal towns are 
Colaba, Poona, Sevcrndroog, Sattara, 
Sholapoor, Rutuagherry, Kolapoor, 
IVIerrich, Bejapoor, Vingorla, and 

BEJAPOOR, called by old European 
writers " Viziapour," is situated in 
about 17 deg. N. Lat., and 76 deg. 
E. Lon. This was in former times 
one of the largest cities in Asia, the 
fort measuring not less than eiglit 
miles round the outside. At pre- 

sent, it is almost entirely in ruins, 
but there remains enougli to show 
that the place was, originally, of 
great magnitude. It contained 
numerous handsome edifices, many 
of them are still in good order. 
Of these, the principal are the mau- 
soleum an<l musjid of Ibraheem 
Adil Shah, and the mausoleum of 
Mahomed Shah. The latter is a 
plain square building, surmounted 
by a dome of 350 feet in circum- 
ference, the largest in India, and 
visible from the village of Kunnoo, 
fourteen miles distant. Bejapoor 
was the capital of the Mahomedan 
kingdom of that name. 

BEKTEE, or COCKUP, a fish of the 
Indian seas, which very strongly re- 
sembles the jack, and grows to an 
enormous size. The average size at 
which they are brought to market 
may be from eighteen to thirty in- 
ches in length ; and their weight 
from two to ten or twelve pounds. 
They flake like cod, to which, also, 
their flavour greatly assimilates. 

BELATEE, or'Velagut, Hindostanee 
for foreign, European. 

BELGAUM, or Shapoor Belgaum, is 
a large flourishing town in the Dooab, 
or southern ilahratta country, well 
situated in an elevated plain in Lat. 
15 deg. .02 min. N., Lon. 74 deg. 42 
min. E. It consists of two distinct 
towns, Helgaum, which has a strong 
well-built fort, and Shapoor. Amongst 
the inhabitants of Belgaum are many 
of the .Jain sect. 

BELINGAIIA, the Cingalese name 
for the Bilimbi tree. The tree 
grows in the island of Ceylon to 
about twenty feet in height, and has 
small leaves. The fruit springs 
immediately out of the trunk, and 
is seldom more than an inch and a 
half long. The blossom is like the 
" London I'ride." It bears twice a 
year, in January and INFay. 

BELLAEY, the ca])ital of the province 
of B;daghat (the Ceded Districts), is 
situate(Hn about 15 deg. N. Lat., and 
77 deg.* E. Long. It has a small 
hill fort and a fortiticd pettah. 




About 30 miles N. W. from Bellar}' 
are the ruins of tlie ancient Hindoo 
city of Anagoondee, or Bijanagur 
(VijayaniiiTgur), formerly the capital 
of the Hindoo Empire of Kurnata, 
already noticed in the account of 

BELLI, literally (in Persian) "Yes;" 
but colloquially used as an expression 
of acquiescence, or an exclamation of 
gratified surprise. 

BELOOCHEE, an inhabitant of Be- 

BELOOCHISTA^\ Beloochistan lies 
to the north-westward of Hindostan. 
It is bounded on the north by Persia 
and Afghanistan; east by Afghan- 
istan, and the Brahooee mountains, 
separating it from Sind; south, by 
the sea; and west, by Persia. Its 
chief divisions are iShawl, Kelat, 
Kuch-Gundava. formerly called Se- 
Tvistan, and Alukran. The general 
character of this country is moun- 
tainous, and its climate in M-inter, in 
the northern parts, intensely cold, 
the snow lying deep, even in the 
valleys, from the end of Koveraber 
to the beginning of February. The 
soil is generally sandy, stony, and 
arid, but there are occasional tracts 
of great fertility. Kuch-Gundava, 
in particular, was formerly much 
celebrated as a very populous and 
well-cultivated district, though now, 
from the prevalence of light drifting 
sand, almost desert. Its productions 
are in general the same as those of 
Afghanistan and Sind. Wheat, bar- 
ley, and other grains, but no rice. 
Fruits of all kinds, both European 
and Asiatic. Sheep and cattle are 
numerous, and camels and horses in 
abundance. The woods are princi- 
pally the apoor. resembling the teak, 
tamarind, and the babool. The date 
also grows in the plains. Slinerals of 
all descriptions are said to be found in 
different parts, but our information 
on this subject is as yet defective. 
The greyhounds of this country are 
excellent, and are bred with great 
care by the Eeloochese, who hold 
them in great estimation. The prin- 

cipal towns are Kevetta. in Shawl; 
Kelat, Dadur, Bhag, and Gundava, ia 
Kuch-Gundava; andKedje, in Muk- 
rau. The inhabitants are called by 
the general name of Beloochees. 
They are composed of two great di- 
visions, the one named Beloochee, 
the other Brahooee, and both sub- 
divided into a number of smaller 
tribes and families. There are also 
many Hindoo and Afghan settlers, 
and a tribe called Jats, who appear 
to be descended from the original 
Hindoo inhabitants of the country 
converted to IMahomedanism. In 
religion, both Beloochees and Bra- 
hooees are Mahomedans of the 
Soonnee sect. 

BENARES is situated on the northern 
bank of the Ganges, in Lat. 25 deg. 
30 rain. N., Long. 83 deg. 1 niin. E. 
This is considered to be the largest 
and most populous city in Hin- 
dostan, its population (consisting of 
all classes, including natives of all 
parts of India, with considerable 
numbers of Turks, Tartars, Persians, 
and Armenians), being estimated at 
not less than 700,000 persons. It is, 
however, very badly built, the streets 
being extremely narrow, and the 
whole town remarkably dirty. By the 
Hindoos it is usually styled Kusee, 
or " the splendid," and according 
to the Brahminical legends, it was 
originally constructed of gold, which 
in consequence of the wickedness of 
the people became stone, and latterly 
has degenerated into mud and 
thatch. The city, with the surround- 
ing country for ten miles distance, 
is held by the Hindoos to be sacred, 
and it is resorted to by great numbers 
of pilgrims. Many chiefs of distant 
provinces, who cannot visit it in 
person, are accustomed to send 
deputies thither to wash away their 
sins for them by proxy. It is a 
place of considerable commerce, and 
a noted mart for diamonds procured 
chiefly from Bundulkhund. 

BENCOOLEN, or Fort Marlborough. 
It lies on the south-Avestern coast of 
the island of Sumatra, and formerly 




■belonged to the English, who made 
a settlement there in 1685, but in 
1825 it Avas given over to the 
BENGAL, a large province in the East 
Indies; its boundaries are, nortli, 
Nepal and Bootan; east, Assam and 
Arracan ; south, Arracan, the Bay of 
Bengal, and Orissa; west, Bahar. Ex- 
clusive of the dependent states, Avhich 
■will be separately noticed, the prin- 
cipal divisions of this extensive pro- 
vince are the following: Purnea, 
Eungpoor, Dinajpoor, Mymoonsing, 
Silhet, Beerbhoon), IMoorshedabad, 
Eajshahee, Dacca- Julahpoor, Burd- 
M-an, Jungal Mahals, Midnapoor, 
Hoogly, Twenty-four Purgannas, 
Kuddea and Jessoor, Bakergtmj, 
Tippera, and Chittagong. The 
rivers are the Ganges, Hoogly, 
Teeta, Brahmapootra, and numerous 
others. Along the whole northern 
frontier of this province there runs 
a bed of low land from ten to twenty 
miles in breadth, covered with the 
most exuberant vegetation, particu- 
larly aujaerga grass, wliich some- 
times grows to the height of thirty 
feet, and is as thick as a man's wrist, 
mixed with tall forest trees. Beyond 
this Ixjit rise the lofty mountains of 
Northern Hindostan. Eastward of 
the Brahmapootra are other ranges 
of mountains, and along the west- 
ward and south-westward of Beerb- 
hoom and Midnapoor. the country 
becomes hilly und broken. The 
whole remainder of the province 
may be described as one immense 
open plain, intersected in every 
direction by rivers and jhecls, or 
small lakes, and liaving large tracts 
subject to annual inundation, forming 
one of the most fertile countries in 
the world. 'J'he whole extent of the 
southern coast, between the Hoogly 
en the west and the Mcgna on the 
cast, forming tlie delta of the 
Ganges, is broken into numberless 
small marshy islands called the Sun- 
derbunds, covered with forest, and 
swarming with tigers of the largest 
description and alligators. These 

are uninliabited, but are resorted to 
during the dry season by woodcutters 
and salt makers, wl;o carry on their 
trade at the constant hazard of 
their lives. Latterly, attempts have 
been made to clear one of tlie prin- 
cipal of these islands, named Sugor, 
occupj'ing the south-western corner, 
but as yet little has been accom- 
plished. There are hot sulphurous 
springs in some parts of this pro- 
vince, and the vicinity of Calcutta 
is occasionally stibject to slight 
earthquakes, llice in the greatest 
abundance, wheat, barley, chenna, 
and other grains; indigo, cotton, 
silk, hemp, tobacco, opium, sugar, 
mustard, ginger, madder, lac, dyeing 
and medicinal drugs and gums, 
various seed oils, betel, wax, ivory, 
iron, saltpetre, limestone, shell lime, 
coal, and salt. Its manufiictures of 
silk, and of muslins, calicoes, and 
other descriptions of cotton goods, 
have long been the most celebrated 
in India. Amongst its fruits are 
oranges of the finest kind, which are 
produced in Silhet in such (iuantities 
that they have been sold at the rate 
of 1000 for a rupee. The sheep and 
cattle are small, as are also the 
horses, of whicli there are some 
breeds of a remarkably diminutive 
size. Elephants abound, witli tigers, 
bears, apes, monkeys, and other wild 
animals and snakes of all descrip- 
tions. The rhinoceros is likewise 
found in this province, chiefly in the 
northern and north-western parts, 
and otters are numerous. The silk, 
of which mention has been made 
above, comes from a small worm 
which feeds upon the leaves of the 
midbcrry tree. The worm, when 
full grown, spins from its body, like 
the spider, a fine thread, which it 
winds round itself so as to form a 
ball. Tliis ball, which is called a co- 
coon, is thrown into hot water to kill 
the worm inside, and then the silk is 
wound off on a wlicel. If tlie worm 
be not killed in this way, it changes 
into a motli, and eating its way out 
of the cocoon spoils the silk. The 




towns are Purnea, Eangamathy, 
Goalpara, Clielonaree, Dinajpoor, 
Nussiirabad, Silhct Chera Poonjee, 
Moorsliedabad, Burhampoor, Cossim- 
bozar, Nattoor, IJacca, Jiircedpoor, 
Narraiiigunj, Biirdwan, Bankrora, 
Midnapoor, Jcllasore, Chunder- 
nagore, Sernmpore, Calcutta, llish- 
enagur, JMoolec, Burrishol, Lukhi- 
poor, Romilla, Chittagong, and 
Cox's Bazar. In Hindoo books 
this province is generally designated 
as the Gour or Bunga Desa. The 
lower part of the province was 
anciently called Bung, from which, 
probably, has been derived its pre- 
sent general appellation of Bungalee, 
or Bengal. The upper parts of the 
province, not liable to inundation, 
were distinguished by the term Ba- 
rindra. The inhabitants are Hin- 
doos of various classes, and Maho- 
medans. The Hindoos of the central 
parts of the province are styled 
Bengallies, or Bengalese, and are 
distinguished for their effeminate 
and timid character, though in 
■words, forward and litigious. There 
are also connected with this pro- 
Tince several savage tribes, probably 
the original inhabitants, dwelling in 
the woods and hills. The principal 
of these are the Garrows, Cosseahs, 
or Khasiyas, and Kookees. The 
prevailing language of the iirovince 
is called Bengalee, and is written in 
the Deva-Nagree character. Hin- 
dostanee, or Ilindee, is also general. 
BERAR, a province of India. It is 
bounded on the north b}' Khandesh 
and Gondwana; east, Gondwana; 
south, Beder and Aurungabad; west, 
Aurungabad and Kliandesh. The 
province is divided into a number of 
small districts, but which are not 
sufficiently well defined to be cor- 
rectly enumerated. The rivers arc 
the Tuptee, Wurda, Paeen Gunga, 
and two Poornas. The Wurda and 
Paeen Gunga both have their 
sources in this province. The Paeen 
Gunga'flows easterly into the Wurda, 
and the Wurda south-easterly, join- 
ing the Wyne Gunga in Gondwana; 

one Poorna flows westerly into the 
Tuptee, and the other south-easterly 
into the Godavery. The principal 
portion of this province consists of an 
elevated valley shut in on the south 
by ranges of hills, extending from 
Ajuntee to the Wurda; other ranges 
of hills traverse the province further 
northward, but the country in 
general is open. The soil is chiefly 
of the description designated black 
cotton, and is naturahy fertile, 
though, owing to the very disturbed 
state in which tlie province has long^ 
been, it is poorly cultivated. The 
jjroductions are wheat, maize, gram, 
and other grains; cotton and flax. 
The bullocks of this province are 
noted for their size and strength. 
The towns are Gawilgurh, NarnuUa, 
Ellichpoor, Mulkapoor, Balapoor, 
Akola, Oomrawutti, Ajuntee, Jaffur- 
abad, ]\Iaikher, and IMahoor. 

a shepherd. Bej'ond the metropolis 
of India a Berriarah is included 
among the usual servants attendant 
upon the out-door concerns of a 
family. It is a common, and often 
an unavoidable practice, for up coun- 
try families to keep their own flocks 
and herds, or they stand an indif- 
ferent chance of getting supplied 
Avith good meat. 

BETEL, the Areka. See Padxsoo- 


BEY, a Turkish title of nobility. 

BEYA, or BE A S, a river (the Hyphasis 
of the Greeks), which rises in the 
Himalayas, and falls into the Sutlej 
some distance above Ferozepoor. 

BHADON, the fifth month in the 
Ilindostanee vear. See Bysack. 

BHAGIRUTTEE, the name which 
the Ganges acquires in the province 
of Gurwal, where it has its source. 

BHAIRAVA, or BIIYRU, in the 
Hindoo mythology, is an incarnation 
or son of Siva, in his destructive 
character, and Kali. He is a terrific 
deity, and can only be satisfied by 
blood. He cut off the fifth head of 
Brahma with his thumb nail. There 
are two Bhairavas, the fair and the 




black (Gora and Hiila), ■who, in the 
field of battle, are the standard- 
bearers of their mother. The sable 
deity is the one most Tirorshipped. 
The dog is sacred to him, and in 
sculptures he is commonly repre- 
sented on one. He is also called 
Bajranga, or of thunderbolt fame. 
Under the name of Bhairava, Siva 
is regent of Kashi (Benares). All 
persons dying at Benares are entitled 
to a place in Siva's heaven ; but if 
any one violate the laws of the 
Shastre during his residence, Bhair- 
ava grinds him to death. 

BHAT, boiled rice, the staple food 
of the natives of Lower India. It is 
likewise much used by Europeans 
in that country, in conjunction with 
fried fish, curried meat, &c. 

BHATA'EEE, in the province of 
Ajmeer, is the principal town of the 
Bhattee tribe, and is a i)lace of some 
antiquity, as it is mentioned as 
having been taken by Tymoor in 
1398. It stands on the eastern 
border of the Great Desert. 

BHATOTUE, from b/iaat, a class of 
brahmuns ; meaning a maintenance 
for the bhaat brahmuns . 

BIIATS. Sec Guzerat. 

BHATTEAS, inhabitants of the pro- 
vince of Ajmeer, or Rajpootana. 
They were originally shepherds, but 
have long been noted as a plundering 
tribe, remarkable for carrying on 
their depredations on foot, and for 
the length and rapidity of their ex- 
cursions. See CuTCH. 

BllATTIAS, a Hindoo tribe, the prin- 
cipal merchants of the country, 
actively engaged in trade with 
Arabia and the west of India. 

BHAUGULrOOIl. The Ganges is 
here of great breadth. In the rainy 
season, when tiie waters have risen, 
the river is not less than eight miles 
across! The situation of Bhaugid- 
poor is pretty and healthy. It com- 
mands a distant view of Mount 
Mandar, an insidated conical hill, 
renowned as a place of Hindoo pil- 
grimage. There are some silk ma- 
nufactories here, which produce a 

coarse stuff, called baftah, and a 
lighter silk termed tusser, much 
used, when stretched upon a frame, 
for room-punkahs, and also for gen- 
tlemen's blouses and ladies' morning- 
dresses. The station is a civil one, 
but a corps of hill rangers, composed 
of the Puharees or hill men, is kept 
up in an excellent state of discipline, 
to protect the country from banditti, 
and otherwise to act as the magis- 
trate may occasionally require. The 
Puharees, who inhabit the neigh- 
bouring hills, are not many degrees 
removed from the savage race. 
They live chiefly b}'' the chase, and 
always go armed. They are hospi- 
table and honest in tlieir intercourse 
with one another, though accustomed 
to make predatory inroads upon 
their neighbours or hereditary foes. 
Their probity is remai'kable, and 
they are faithful when employed as 
servants. They believe in a Supreme 
Being, to whom they offer up sacri- 
fices, and have adopted the doctrine 
of Metempsychosis. 

BHAVAXI, in Hindoo mythology, 
another form of Parvati. She is 
nature personified; in which cha- 
racter she is fabled. Parvati is very 
generally known under the form of 
Bhavani among the Jainas, Bhud- 
das, and other heterodox sects. At 
Omer Kantuc, near the sources of 
the Nerbuddah and the Soane, she 
is fancifully worshipped as Bhavani, 
under the symbol of Narmada, or 
the Nerbuddah river. 

BHAY KHELAUT, cost of robes of 
honour called hlielats. Farms under 
the Deccan government. A cess, or 
contribution, was levied to defray 
the expense of i)roviding such 

BHEAEER, an annual ^Mahomcdan 
fete, which takes place at night. It 
is instituted in honour of the escape 
of an ancient sovereign of Bengal 
from drowning, who, as the tradition 
relates, being upset in a boat at night, 
would have perished, his attendants 
being unable to distinguish the spot 
where he struggled iu thoAvater, had 




it not been for a sudJcn illumination 
caused by a troop of beauteous 
maidens, 'vvlio had simultaneously 
laimched into the river a great 
number of little boats, formed of 
cocoa nuts, garlanded with flowers, 
and gleaming with a lamp, whose 
flickering flame each viewed with 
anxious hopes of happy augury. The 
followers of the king, aided by this 
seasonable diflusion of light, per- 
ceived their master just as he was 
nearly sinking, exhausted by vain 
efforts to reacli the shore, and guid- 
ing a boat to his assistance, arrived 
in time to snatch him from a watery 
grave. Tliis is the connnon, though 
not the universal interpretation of 
the origin of the festival. Whatever 
may have been the motive of its 
institution, the scene which is ex- 
hibited on the occasion of its cele- 
bration is exceedingly beautiful. The 
banks of the Ganges are brilliantly 
lighted uj) on the evening of the 
festival, and numerous flights of 
rockets announce the approach of a 
floating palace, built upon a raft, 
and preceded by thousands of small 
lamps, which cover the surface of 
the water, each wreathed with a 
chaplet of flowers. Tlie raft is of 
considerable extent, formed of plan- 
tain trees fastened together, and 
bearing a structure which Titania 
lierself might delight to inhabit. 
Towers, gates, and pagodas, appear 
in fantastic array, liright with a 
thousand colours, and shining in 
the light of numberless glittering 
BHEELS (Coolies, Eamoosees). The 
Bheels, a race of people Avho inhabit 
the northern part of the chain of 
Ghauts running inland parallel with 
the coast of Malabar. On one side 
they are bordered by the Coolies, 
and on another by the Goands of 
Goandwana, They are considered 
to have been the aborigines of Cen- 
tral India ; and with the Coolies, 
(joands, and liamoosees, are bold, 
daring, and predatory marauders ; 
occasionally mercenaries, but inva- 

riably plunderers. There are, how- 
ever, many shades of difference in 
the extent of the depredations of 
these several people, in which the 
balance of enormity is said to be 
considerably on the side of the Bheels. 
They arc, nevertheless, described as 
faithful wlicn employed and trusted, 
and the travellers who pay them 
their choute, or tribute, may leave 
untold treasure in their hands, and 
may consider themselves as safe with 
them as in the streets of London. 
" Their word is sacred, their promise 
imimpeachable." The Bheels are a 
distinct and original race, claiming 
a high antiquity, and that they were 
masters of the fertile plains of India, 
instead of being confined, as they 
now are, to the rugged mountains, 
and almost impenetrable jungles. 
The Eajpoot princes deprived them 
of the fairest portions of their coun- 
try, leaving them the wild and im- 
cultivated tracts which they now 
inhabit. The Bheels are divided 
into many tribes, the chief of which 
claim a distinct celestial origin, in 
addition to their common divine de- 
scent. Some of these tribes have 
been converted to Mahomedanism, 
but the larger part of them are pro- 
fessedly Hindoos. They worship the 
same deities, but limit their ceremo- 
nies to propitiating the minor in- 
fernal deities, [particularly Sita 
Maya (Shetula), the goddess of the 
small-pox, M'hom they invoke under 
various names, in the hopes of avert- 
ing its dreadful ravages. They pay 
great reverence to Mahadeo. 

BHEESTY, properly Bihishtee, a wa- 
ter-carrier. Hanging a " sheepskin 
on his recreant hip," filled with the 
fluid obtained from wells, tanks, or 
rivers, the bheestee supplies water 
to the domestic establishments in 
India (pumps being unknown in 
the houses) and the troops on the 
line of march. 

BHOGUEWITTEE, from hhogu, en- 
joyment, possession, and oottin, a 
maintenance to any person. A Hin- 
doo grant. 




BHILSEA, a large town on the east 
side of the Betiva, about thirty-two 
miles to the north-eastward of Bho- 
pal. It is celebrated for the tobacco 
of the surrounding district, which is 
carried to all parts of India. 

BHOOJ, the capital of Cutch. It is 
situated inland in Lat. 23 deg. 15 
min. N., Lou. 69 deg. 52 rain. E. 
It is a modern town, having been 
founded by the Eao of Cutch, about 
the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century. It is tolerably well 
built, and contains about 20.000 
inhabitants, among Avhom are artists 
remarkable for their ingenuity in 
working gold and silver. This town 
was nearly destroyed in June, 1819, 
by a severe earthquake. 

BHOOTEAS, inhabitants of Bootant, 
a division of the province of Ku- 
maoon in India, q. v. 

BHOOWANI, a town in the pro- 
vince of Coimbatore, which, being 
situated at the conflux of the rivers 
Bhoowani and Cavery, is considered 
a sacred place, and is in consequence 
much resorted to by the Hindoos. 

BHOPAL is a JMaliomedan princi- 
pality, founded in the latter yjart of 
the seventeenth century by a Pathan 
cliief, to whom the district was as- 
signed as a reward for his services 
by Aurungzebe. His family still 
continue to hold the government, 
having succeeded in maintaining 
their indepemlence against all tlie 
attacks of the neighbouring ]\Iah- 
ratta chiefs, without any aid from 
the English, until 1816, when, in con- 
sequence of the widely increasing 
power of the Pindarees, the British 
government foimd it necessary to 
take his state under its protection. 
Bhopal has ever since remained in 

BH(JPAL, a town situated about 100 
miles to the eastward of Oojein, on 
the frontier of the province of 
]\lalwa, having one gate in Malwa, 
and the opposite one in Gondwana. 
It. is the capital of the nabob of 
Bhopal, but in other respects is not 
a place of any particular note. 

BHOWANEE, the popular name of 
one of the Hindoo goddesses, more 
correctly called Parvati, which see. 

BHOWLEY, the term, as applied to 
land, used under the native go- 
vernments of India, where the pro- 
duce of the harvest is divided be- 
tween the government and the culti- 

BHOWNUGGUK, a smaU town in 

BHUND MOORG, the jungle cock. 
This bird is pretty generally known 
to Indian sportsmen. It is found in 
almost every part of the country 
where there is jungle. Being ex- 
ceedingly shy, and frequenting the 
thickest cover, an elephant is ne- 
cessary for this sport, though an oc- 
casional bird may be shot on foot. 
The cock weighs about 3lbs. 2oz., 
being something smaller than the 
game bird; the hen smaller still, and 
of a dirty brown colour, except here 
and there, M'here she shows the game 
feather. The bills of both are much 
shorter and more curved than the 
common or game fowl, and the spurs 
of the cock much longer and thicker, 
and he has a peculiarly brilliant fea- 
ther in the wing, which the other 
cannot boast of. They occasionally 
rise in pairs, affording an easy shot, 
though likely to flurry a young 
sportsman on first coming across 

BIIURRAL, or bunbhera, or nahoor, 
the wild sheep of the Himalays, is a 
variety of the ovis unmon, the ar- 
gali of Siberia, or the Asiatic ar- 
ffali, and the ovis muswox. 

BHURTPORE, the capital of the 
Bhurtpore rajah, one of tlie j)rinci- 
pal Jat Chieftains, is situated in 
Lat. 27 deg. 17 min. N., Lon. 77 deg. 
23 min. E. This place is much 
noted on account of its siege in 1805 
by the EngUsli, who four times 
assaulted it, and were repulsed with 
severe loss. The rajah, however, 
fearing to continue his resistance, 
sent his son to the Englisli camp 
with the keys of the fort, and sub- 
mitted. This chief, who so gallantly 




defeniled his capitnl, died in 1824, 
and was succeeded by liis son, who 
jilso died immediately afterwards, 
leaving a son, then seven years of 
age, under the guardianship of the 
mother and an uncle. In 1825, a 
cousin of the young rajah murdered 
the uncle, and seized the person of 
the rajah, on which the British go- 
vernment being compelled to inter- 
fere, Bhurtpore was once more at- 
tacked by the English, and in Janu- 
ary, 1826, was taken by assault after 
a siege of six weeks. The town 
was subsequently restored to its 
lawful chief. 

BIJANAGUK, on the bank of the 
Toombudra, in Lat. 15 deg. 14 min. 
N., Long. 7G deg. 37 min. E. About 
30 miles north-westerly from Bel- 
lary, are tlie ruins of the ancient 
Hindoo city of Bijanagur (Vijaya- 
nuggur, the city of ^^ctory). Though 
long uninhabited, except by a few 
Brahmuns, the numerous pagodas, 
choultries, and other buildings, com- 
posed of massive blocks of granite, 
still in excellent preservation, bear 
witness to its former grandeur. 
Amongst other remarkable buildings, 
there is at a part of the town called 
" Humpee," a magnificent temple 
dedicated to Jlahadeva, the gobrum 
of which is of ten stories, about 160 
feet in height. Including Anagoondy, 
on the opposite bank, this celebrated 
city is said to have been twenty-four 
miles in circumference. It was 
founded in the year 1336. 

BIJNEE, a dependency of the pro- 
vince of Bengal. It adjoins Kooch 
Bahar, having on the north Bootan; 
cast, Assam and the Garrows; and, 
on the south, the Bungpoor district 
of Bengal. This district is sepa- 
rated by the Brahmapootra into two 
divisions, the northern called Khun- 
taghat, and the southern Ilowraghat. 
It is fertile, and, if well cultivated, 
would be a very valuable district, 
being well Avatered and open, and 
having an excellent soil. The chief 
productions are rice, wheat, barley, 
betel, and sugar. It also possesses 

the mulberry-tree, which, however, 
has not as yet been made iise of for 
the rearing of silkworms. The prin- 
cipal town is Bijnee, situated in Lat. 

26 deg. 29 rain. N., Long. 89 deg. 
47 min. E. 

BIKANEER, in the province of Aj- 
meer, is situated in the midst of a 
very desolate tract of country, Lat. 

27 deg. 57 min. -N., Long. 73 deg. 2 
min. E. It is a fortified town, and 
the capital of the rajah. 

BIMLirATAM, a seaport, and place 
of considerable coast trade in the 
district of Chicacole, in the Northern 
Circars. The chief articles of ex- 
port are cotton cloths, commonly 
called " piece goods," which are ma- 
nufactured in various parts of the 

BINTANG is a small island, lying off 
the south-eastern end of Malaya, iu 
Lat. 1 deg. N., about thirty-five miles 
in length by eighteen in breadth. It 
belongs to the Dutch, who have a 
town there, named Rhio. 

BISHNOTTER (correctly, vishnootter), 
from Vishnoo and oottur, i. e., a grant 
of land under the native government 
of India for the worship of Vishnoo. 
A Hindoo grant. 

BISMILLAH! Persian. "In the name 
of God!" an exclamation constantly 
in the mouths of Mahometans, 
who pronounce it on all occasions 
before commencing even the most 
common operations of life: it is 
prayer, invocation, blessing. 

noise, a noisy fellow. The word is 
properly Bapre. 

BO-GAIIA, the Botree, or "God-tree" of 
Ceylon. It is considered sacred by the 
natives of Ceylon, as being the tree 
under Avhich Budha, when in the 
island of Ceylon, Avas accustomed to 
sit and preach to the people, and 
against Avhich he leaned at his death. 
Those bogahas that grow near the 
wiharas, or temples, are generally 
enclosed Avith stones, to the height 
of three or four feet, the roots care- 
fully covered Avith earth, and the 
space around swept clean. Sometimes 




the natives carry their veneration 
for the tree so far, as to erect an 
altar, or place a table under it, and 
burn lamps near it, and offer flowers, 
&c., to it ilaily, as they do to the 
images of Budha. If they find one 
of these trees in the jungle, the place 
is cleared round it, and it is pro- 
tected with iis much care as those 
uear the temples. It is held to be a 
vcrk of great merit to plant these 
trees, as he who does so is sure to 
enjoy heavenly beatitude hereafter. 
It grows to a great height, and has 
long spreading branches. 
BOKHARA, in Tartary. It stands 
about six miles from the southern 
or left bank of the Zur-Ufshan, in 
Lat. 39 deg. 43 min. N., Long. 64 deg. 
30 min. E. This is a city of great 
antiquity, and particularly celebrated 
amongst the Mahomedans from 
its having been at an early period 
conquered and converted to their 
faith. On this account, as well as 
because of the number of learned 
men whom it produced, its Jlaho- 
medan rulers gave it the title of 
slmreff, or holy, by which name it 
poon became distinguished in the 
cast. It w^as for many centuries a 
very rich and populous city, but in 
common with all other places under 
jMahomedan rule, it has undergone 
many changes, and has long cdased 
to be of any importance. The pre- 
sent city is about eight miles in cir- 
cumference, and is surrounded by a 
vail having twelve gates. It has a 
great many mosques with lofty mina- 
rets, particularly the Great Mosque, 
part of which was built by the re- 
nowned Tymoor, besides colleges of 
various kinds, said to be 306 in num- 
ber, frequented by students from all 
parts oi the country. It has a popu- 
lation of about 1. '50,000, including 
about 4000 Jews of a remarkably 
handsome race, emigrants from Me- 
fchid in Persia, and about 300 Hin- 
doos, chiefly Shikarpoorees from 
Hind. In this city may be found 
Persians, Turks, Kussians, Tartars, 
Chinese, Afghans, and Indians, all 

assembled together in tlie same 
bazars. This city is remarkable for 
the prevalence of guinea-worm, 
nearly one-fourth of its population 
being attacked by it in the course 
of every year. 

BOLAUK, a nasal trinket, worn by 
native Indian women; it is fiat, and 
has a small ring, with hook and eye, 
at its narrowest part, for the pur- 
pose of appending it to the middle 
of the nose, by means of a gold ring 
passing through the septum, or divi- 
sion between the nostrils; the orna- 
ment lying fiat upon the upper lip, 
and having its broad end furnished 
with pendants. It is inconceivable 
what the Hindoo women undergo for 
the sake of displaying their riches in 
this way. Not only does the holaitk 
interfere with the operations of the 
lips during meals, but ulcers of the 
most unsightly description are often 
created in that very tender part to 
which the ornament attaches. 

BOLEAH, a small covered boat, used 
on the Ganges. 

BOMBAY, in the province of Aurung- 
abad, is the third principal Eng- 
lish town in India. It is situated in 
Lat. 18 deg. 50 min. N.,Long. 72 deg. 
57 min. E., on a small island, about 
ten miles in length and three in 
breadth, lying south of Salsette, from 
which it was formerly separated by 
an arm of the sea about 200 yards 
across, but now communicating witli 
it by a causeway, which was com- 
pleted in 1805. The first European 
settlement here was formed by the 
Portuguese, Avho acquired possession 
of the island in 1530, from the chief 
of Tanna in Salsette. In 1601 the 
Portuguese ceded it to the English. 
It is a place of very extensive com- 
merce with every part of the world. 
Its harbour is the best in India, 
and its dockyards large and good. 
Vessels of the largest size, as well 
for the British navy, as for the mer- 
chant service, are built here by I'ar- 
see sliipwrights, ))erl'cctly equal to 
those constructed in tin- dockyards 
of England. The population of thu 




town of Bombay is estimated at 
200,000 persons, comprising a mixed 
multitude of Hindoos, Parsees, Ma- 
liomeduns, Portuguese, Jews, and 
a few Armenians. About five miles 
eastward from Bombay is a small 
island named Klephanta, in which 
is a remarkable cave, formerly 
used as an idol-temple. It is 
eiiihteen feet high, fifty-five feet 
long, and as many broad, and is 
filled with large idols, of whicli the 
principal is a colossal Trimoorti, 
or three-formed figure, combining 
Brahma, Vishnoo, and Siva. The 
cavern is not now used as a place of 
worship. Near the landing-place, 
leading to the cavern, is a large ele- 
phant hewn out of the rock, from 
which the Portuguese gave the island 
its present name. Ihere are also 
other remarkable excavations at 
Kanneri in Salsette. 

BOONDEE, a handsome, well built 
city, in Lat. 25 deg. 28 min. N., 
Long. 75 deg. 30 min. E., the resi- 
dence of the rajah of the district, in 
the province of Ajmeer. 

BOOKHANPOOE, formerly the capi- 
tal of the province of Khandesh, 
is situated in a fine plain on the 
banks of the Tuptee, in Lat. 21 deg. 
19 min. N., Long. 76 deg. 18 min. E. 
This is one of the largest and best 
built cities in the Deccan, and abun- 
dantly supplied by water brought 
into the town by aqueducts, and 
distributed through every street, 
the stream being conveyed at a 
certain depth below the pavement, 
and the water drawn up through 
apertures by means of leather 
buckets. The grapes grown in the 
vicinity of this town and Asseergurh 
are considered the finest in India. 

BOORRAUK, a proper name in Persia 
for a swift horse. Literally, "light- 

EGOS A, chopped straw; food given to 
cattle in India. 

BOOSSAH (Hindostanee), chaff, 

BOOTAN. The province of Bootan is 
adjacent to the northern frontier of 
the province of Bengal. It is bounded 

on the north by the Himalaya moun- 
tains separating it from Thibet; east, 
by China; south by Assam, and the 
frontier districts of Bengal; and 
west, by the river Teesta, separating 
it from Sikkim. It has no divisions 
worthy of particular notice. Its 
rivers arc numerous. Tlie principal 
are the Teesta, on the west ; the 
Gudhadhur towards the centre; and 
Monas or Goomarce, to the eastward; 
all flowing from the Himalaya range, 
the Teesta into the Ganges in the 
province of Bengal, the others into 
the Brahmapootra. The northern 
portion of this country consists of 
an irregular assemblage of lofty 
mountains known by the general 
appellation of Tangustan, some co- 
vered with snow, others clothed with 
fo;-ests. Amongst these are popu- 
lous villages, surrounded by orchards 
and plantations; at the base of the 
liills, towards the Bengal frontier, is 
a plain of about twenty-five miles in 
breadth, covered with luxuriant ve- 
getation, and marshy forests abound- 
ing with elephants and rhinoceroses. 
From its mountainous character the 
climate of Bootan varies greatly, 
the inhabitants of the more elevated 
parts shivering with cold, while a 
few miles lower down the jjeople are 
oppressed by intense heat. Every 
favourable spot is cultivated, the 
sides of the mountains being indus- 
triously cut into terraces. Its prin- 
cijial productions are wheat and 
other grains, numerous fruits and 
vegetables, including peaches, apri- 
cots, strawberries, and other fruits; 
bees' wax, Ivor}", and coarse woollen 
manufactures. In the forest there is 
a variety of useful timber, such as 
the ash, birch, yew, pine, and fir, the 
last growing to a considerable size; 
and the hills yield abundance of 
limestone. Wild animals are not 
numerous, with the exception of 
those m the low country. Monkeys 
of a large and handsome kind 
abound, and are held sacred. Bootan 
has also a peculiar breed of horses, 
noted for strength and activity. They 




are small and short-bodied, seldom 
exceeding thirteen hands in height, 
but remarkably well proportioned, 
and commonly piebald. They are 
known in India by the name of Tan- 
gun, or Tanyan, from Tangustan 
tlieir native country, and numbers of 
them are brought to llungpoor for 
sale by the annual caravans from 
Bootan. The principal towns are 
Tassisudon, Poonukka, and Wandi- 
poor, towards the north, and Dellam- 
cotta, Lukheedwar, Bukhsheedwar, 
and Kuchboobaree, lying along the 
eouthern hills, nearly in a line from 
■west to east. The inhabitants are 
styled Bhootiyas, or Bootanners. 
They are part of a numerous tribe 
of Tartar origin, which has peopled 
the greater part of the mountainous 
tract bordering upon the Himalaya 
range. In features they resemble 
tlie Chinese, and like the Chinese 
they are remarkable for cowardice 
and cruelty, though in person a very 
robust and active race. Their wea- 
pons are chiefly bows and arrows, 
and swords; their arrows Ixiing gene- 
rally poisoned. They have also fire- 
arms, but of a very inferior kind. 
There are also some thousands des- 
cendants of Bengalese and Assamese. 
The total population is believed not 
to exceed 150,000. The government 
of this country is of a very peculiar 
cliaracter. There are in fact two 
sovereigns, one styled the Dehor 
Deva rajah, who exercises all the 
real authority; and a second,- styled 
the Dhurma rajah, who is the 
legitimate sovereign. The Dhurma 
rajah, however, being considered 
a sacred person, and an actual 
incarnation of tlie Deity, never 
interferes in any but religious mat- 
ters, leaving every thing else to 
the Deva rajah, who is nominally 
his deputy. The religion of Bootan 
is the Booddhist system of Thibet, 
or, as it i> termed, the lama religion. 
3-\)ur (lillL-reiit diulei-ts are spoken in 
diifcrent parts of this country. The 
whole are generally designated as tlie 
Bhootiya language, and it is believed 

to be derived from the language of 

BORAS, a singular class of men found 
in all the larger towns of Guzerat, 
and in parts of Khandesh and the 
adjacent provinces, who, although 
Mahomedans in religion, are Jews 
in features, manners, and character. 
They form everywhere a distinct 
community, and are noted for their 
skill in trading and their extreme 
devotion to gain. They profess to 
be quite uncertain as to their own 

BORNEO. This island, which is the 
largest in the Eastern Archipelago, 
extends from Lat. 70 deg. N. toLat. 
4 deg. S., and from Long. 109 deg. 
to 118 deg. E. In length, it is esti- 
mated to be about 750 miles by an 
average breadth of 350. It com- 
prehends several distinct principal- 
ities, of which the principal and only 
one of note is Borneo, occupying the 
north-western coast along a line of 
about 700 miles. Little is known of 
its interior, but as far as has been 
ascertained, the island is in general 
level towards the coast, and culti- 
vated; and inland, mountainous and 
covered Avith forests. Its produc- 
tions are abundant ; rice, sago, 
pepper, caraplior, cinnamon, Avax, 
rattans, and many useful woods; and 
in the seas, pearls, mother-of-pearl, 
tortoise-shell, and sea-slug (bic/te <Ie 
mer). It has all the common domestic 
animals, and the forests swarm with 
wild beasts, including the elephant, 
rhinoceros, and leopard, but no 
tigers. It has numerous varieties of 
the ape and monkey tribes, amongst 
which is the ourang-outang, or 
" man of the woods," so called by the 
Malays, from its great resemblance in 
size and figure to the human form. 
Gold is abundant, and diamonds, 
frequently of a large size. Sago, 
which has been mentioned above, is 
produced fmm a sjiecies of palm, the 
trunk of whicli is liiled with a spongy 
l>illi, which, beingextracted, is ground 
down in a mortar, and ilien ])assed 
through a sieve, by which means it is 




formsd into grains, as it is seen when 
brought to India. One tree yields 
upon an average about 300 pounds 
of sago, and the tree is generally 
considered ripe for cutting down in 
fifteen years. The principal town is 
Borneo, situated ou the coast, in 
Lat. 4 deg. .56 min. N., Long. 114 
deg. 44 niiii. E. There was formerly 
an English factory here, but it has 
been abandoned for some years in 
consequence of the unsettled state of 
the country. By its inhabitants, 
and throughout the Archipelago, 
this island is called Pulo Klemantan ; 
but Europeans have given it the 
name of Borneo, from "Boornee," 
the principal state, and the first 
visited by them. Tiie inhabitants 
are composed of Malays, Sooloos, 
Javanese, and others, on the coast, 
noted as rapacious and cruel pirates, 
and a number of savage tribes in the 
interior, of wjiich the principal are 
the Dayaks and Biajos. These are 
of the original brown race, and are 
much handsomer and fairer than 
the Malays, to whom they are also 
superior in strength and activity. 
There are also great numbers of 
Chinese, more than 200,000 of that 
nation being settled at the gold 
mines. None of the Negro race have 
been seen in Borneo. The total 
population of the island is supposed 
to be about 4,000,000. The people 
are in a degraded state, but there is 
now some hope of their reaping the 
blessings of civilisation. A few 
years since an English gentleman of 
fortune devoted his days, his riches, 
and his life to their emancipation 
from barbarism and bondage. In 
his own person and from his own 
purse Mr. Brooke supplied the en- 
terprise of a missionary and the 
subscriptions of a congregation. 
JSilently and without proclamation 
he departed with a following which 
he had formed, and betook himself 
to an unexplored island in a distant 
sea, where thousands of miserable 
wretches were living in a state just 
so much worse than the negroes of 

the Bights, that they had not even 
the chance of being carried otf to 
the happier lot of slavery. The 
relations of the Dyak to his Malay 
ruler were compounded from those 
of a Connaught cottier to his land- 
lord, a Turkish slave to his master, 
and a Russian prisoner to his gaoler. 
His contributions were regulated 
solely by the wants of his superior, 
and his wife and children were dis- 
trained upon to supply an inevitable 
deficiency, or recompense an invo- 
luntary fault. Nothing but the 
primeval wilds of the interior, and 
the retreats of the more human ape 
could possibly have preserved the 
aborigines of Borneo from utter ex- 
tirpation at the hands of the Malay. 
With four European and eight native 
followers Mr. Brooke landed on the 
coast. In eight short months he 
had interposed himself between the 
persecutors and the oppressed, had 
released the necks of the Dyaka 
from their intolerable yoke, had in- 
culcated a little sobriety as well as a 
salutary terror into the minds of the 
IMalays, had reluctantly received a 
dominion untenable by its possessors, 
and.had transformed the principality 
of Sarawak from a miserable agglo- 
meration of pirates and slaves, 
into a miniature kingdom of con- 
tented subjects — a refuge for the 
persecuted, a terror to the prowling 
corsair, and a model for the whole 

BOSTANDGIS, the body-guard of the 
Sultan. They superintend his gar- 
dens and palaces, and attend him on 
his aquatic excursions. They are 
expert in the use of the oar, and in- 
variably row the Sultan's caique. 

BOTELHO, a small sloop, used to 
navigate the upper part of the Per- 
sian Gulf and the Tigris and Eu- 

BOY ! probably a corruption of bhaee, 
brother. At Bombay and Madras a 
servant is summoned to his master's 
presence by this call (as Qui-hye ! is 
used in Bengal), and it is rather 
amusing to the stranger sometimes 




to see the summons answered by 
a ver}' venerable " boy" indeed. 
EE AIKvI, according to tlie Hindoos, the 
Ahiiiglity, infinite, eternal, incompre- 
hensible, self-existent being; he who 
sees every thing, though never seen ; 
he who is beyond the limits of human 
conception; he from whom the uni- 
versal world proceeds; whose name 
is too sacred to be pronounced, and 
whose power is too infinite to be 
imagined. Under such, and innu' 
merable other definitions, is the Deity 
acknowledged in the Veda, or sacred 
writings of the Hindoos; but, while 
the learned Brahmuns thus acknow- 
ledge and adore one God, M'ithout 
form or quality, eternal, unchange- 
aljle, and occupying all space, they 
liave carefully confined their doc- 
trines to their own schools, and have 
taught in public a religion, in which, 
in sui)posed compliance with the in- 
firmities and passions of human na- 
tm-e, the Deity has been brought 
more to a level with our own preju- 
dices and wants; and the incompre- 
liensible attributes assigned to him, 
invested with sensible, and even hu- 
man forms. Upon this foundation the 
most discordant fictions have been 
erected, from which priestcraft and 
superstition have woven a mytho- 
logy of the most extensive character. 
The Hindoos ]iossess three hundred 
and thirty millions of gods, or forms 
under which they are worshipped. 
Certain it is, that tlie human form 
in its natural state, or possessing the 
heads or limbs of various animals; 
the elements, the planets, rivers, 
fountains, stones, trees, &c., &c., have 
been deified and become objects of 
religious adoration. The Brahmuns 
allege, " that it is easier to impress the 
minds of the rude and ignorant by 
intelligible syndjols, than by means 
"vvhich are incomprehensible." Act- 
ing upon this principle, the supreme 
and omnipotent God, whom the Hin- 
doo has been taught to consider as 
too mighty for him to attempt to ap- 
proach, or even to name, has been 
lost sight of in the multiplicity of 

false deities, whose graven images 
have been worshipped in his place. 
To these deities the many splendid 
temples of the Hindoos have been 
erected; while, throughout the whole 
of Hindostan, not one has been de- 
voted to Brahm, whom they designate 
as the sole divine author of tlie uni- 
verse. Brahm, the supreme being, 
created the world; but it has not 
been agreed upon by the Hindoo 
mythologists in what manner that 
important event took place. Some 
imagine that he first formed the 
goddess Bhavani, or nature, who 
brought forth three sons, Brahma, 
Vishnu, and Siva, whom, having con- 
verted herself into three females, she 
married. The first (or Brahma) was 
called the creator; the second ( 
nu), the preserver; the third (Siva), 
the destroyer. To these the future 
arrangement and government of the 
world were entrusted, (jthers be- 
lieve that the elements of the world 
were enclosed in an immense shell, 
called the mundane egg, which burst 
into fourteen equal parts, and -formed 
the seven superior, and seven inferior 
worlds. God then appeared on the 
mountain IMeru, and assigned the 
duties of continuing the creation to 
Brahma; of preserving it to Vishnu; 
and of again annihilating it 1o Siva. 
Others again assert, that as Vishnu 
(the preserving spirit of God) was 
sleeping on the serpent Ananta, or 
eternity, on the face of the waters, 
after the annihilation of a former 
world, a lotus sprung from his navel, 
from which issued Brahma; who 
produced the elements, Ibrnied the 
present world, and cave birth to the 
god Budra (or Siva), the destroyer. 
He then produced the human race. 
From his head he formed the 
Brahmuns, or priests; from his arms, 
the Kettries, or warriors; from his 
thighs, the "N'aisyas, or merchants; 
and from his feet, tlie Sndras, or hus- 
bandmen. The religion of the Hindoo 
sage, as inculcated by the Veda, is the 
belief in, and worshij) of, one great 
and only God, omniscient and cm- 




nipotent, of ■whose attributes he 
expresses his ideas in the most 
awful terms. These attributes he 
conceives are allegorically (and alle- 
gorically only) represented by the 
three personified powers of Creation, 
Preservation, and Destruction — 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. But this 
consistent monotheism, tliis worship 
of God in unit}^ is bounded here; as 
the religion taught to the common 
herd is polytheism, accompanied by 
the most disgusting of abominations, 
profanations, and inconsistencies, 
for the deities most honoured, and 
the worship most practised, are of 
the least beneficent character. Thus 
Siva, Durga, Kali, Surya, Mungula, 
and Sani, are held in far higher ve- 
neration than those deities whose 
attributes are of a more mild, but 
less imposing description. Five sects 
of Hindoos exclusively worship a 
single deity, and one sect recognizes 
the five divinities which are adored 
by the other sects respectively. 
These five sects are the Saivas, who 
worship Siva; the Vishnaivas, who 
worshiiJ Vishnu, Saurias, Surya, or 
the Sun ; the Ganapatyas, who adore 
Gamisha; and the Saetis, who Avor- 
ship Bliavani, or Parvati: the last 
sect is the Bhagavatis. These deities 
have tlieir different avatars, or in- 
carnations, in all of which, except 
that of the Saetis themselves, they 
have their saetis (wives), or energies 
of their attributes. These have 
again ramified into numerous names 
and forms. 
BRAHMA. This deity, the least im- 
portant at the present day of the 
Hindoo Triad, is termed the creator, 
or the grandfather of gods and men. 
Under this denomination he has been 
imagined to correspond with the Sa- 
turn of the Greeks and Latins. 
Brahma is usually represented as a 
red or golden coloured figure, witli 
four heads. He is said (by the 
Saivas) to have once possessed five ; 
hut, as he would not acknowledge 
the superiority of Siva, as Vishnu 
had done, that deity cut oflf one of 

them. He has also four arms, in 
one of -wliich he holds a spoon, in 
anotlier a string of beads, in the 
third a water jug (articles used in 
worsliip), and in tlie fourth the Ve- 
da, or sacred writings of the Hin- 
doos. Tlie temples of this deity 
in Hindostan have been overturned 
by the followers of Vishnu and Siva; 
and he is now but little regarded, 
and very seldom, if at all, wor- 
shipped, except in the worship of 
other deities. Like the other gods, 
he has many names. Brahma had 
few avatars or incarnations on earth : 
Daksha is the principal of them; 
Viswakarma, Narcda, and Briga are 
his sons. The Brahmadicas, Menus, 
and Richis, are also called the de- 
scendants of Brahma. His heaven 
is described as excelling all others in 
magnificence, and containing the 
united glories of all the heavens of 
the other deities. 
BRAHMAPOOTRA, tlie largest river 
in India. It rises on the north side of 
the Himalaj^a mountains, about Lat. 
32 deg. N., and Long. 82 deg. E. It 
runs eastward through the country of 
Thibet, and after winding for a great 
distance through the mountains 
which divide Tliibet from Assam, 
turns to the westward into Assam, 
and enters the province of Bengal 
near Bungamutty. It then passes 
round the western point of the Gar- 
row mountains, after which it turns 
to the south and joins the river 
Megna in the district of Dacca. It 
then takes the name of Megna, and 
imiting with the Ganges near the sea, 
flows with it into the Bay of Bengal. 
The whole course of this river, fol- 
lowing its windings, is about 1,600 
miles. In 1822, this river overflowed 
its banks in the district of Baker- 
gunge, and deluged the surrounding 
country. About 37,000 men and wo- 
men were destroyed by the flood. 
practice exists among the Hindoos 
of the Brahmin caste, of branding 
young bull calves in the haunches 
■with the emblem of Siva, and turning 




them loose to feed where thev list. 
Knowing that they are devout offer- 
ings to Siva, the Hindoos not only 
forbear to molest them, but suffer 
them to eat tlie grass in their mea- 
dows, the flowers in their gardens, 
and tlie grain exposed in their mar- 
kets and shops. As the hulls grow 
up, however, they become exceed- 
ingly mischievous, and commit every 
description of offensive trespass, as if 
aware that they enjoy an immunity 
from chastisement. 

BRAHMUNS. The Brahmuns are the 
first and most distinguished race 
of the Hindoos, raythologically de- 
scribed to have sprung from the 
head of Brahma; as the Kettries, 
Vaisyas, and Sudras did from his 
arms, thighs, and feet. They had, 
in consequence, the charge of the 
Vedas assigned to them; and from 
them only (except among the Yogees, 
mostly weavers, the Chundalus, and 
the basket-makers, who have priests 
of their own castes) can the sacer- 
dotal office be at any time filled; and 
their influence in that character is 
almost unbounded. In the sacred 
writings they are styled divine, and 
the killing, or entertaining an idea 
of killing, one of them is so great a 
crime, that Menu says, " no greater 
can be known on earth." There 
are various orders of Brahmuns, the 
chief of which are the Kulenas, the 
Vcnif/slaijas, and the Shrotujas, the 
liar/iecs, and the VunlUtas, See, &c. 
The divisions and sub-divisions of 
the different castes are also nume- 
rous. The Sudras are said to have 
nearly fifty. Purity of caste is held 
of the highest consequence among 
the Hindoos. Loss of caste may be 
caused by various means. It can be 
regained only by atonement and 
fasting on the part of the offender, 
together with a liberal expenditure 
in presents and feasting towards the 
Brahmun priest. 

BllANUY PAUNEE, brandy and 
water, a beverage in much request 
among the Europeans in India. It 
is unquestionably the most whole- 

some drink, taken in moderation, 
the alcohol destroying the animal- 
culer, with which the purest water is 
unavoidably impregnated. 

BRIGU is another son of Brahma. 
His name is frequently found in 
Hindoo mythology. 

SIES, a description of men, armed 
with swords and shields, formerly 
employed bj' the Zemindars of 
Bengal to guard their property 
against dacoits, or robbers, and now 
generally engaged as part of the po- 
lice force of the British Government. 

BRINJAL, an Indian vegetable of the 
cucumber species, much eaten at 
European tables when boiled and 
seasoned with bread crumbs and 
black pepper. 

BRINJAREE, men who possess bul- 
locks which they employ in carrying 
goods for merchants. They are em- 
phatically the carriers of India. 
They live entirely in the open air, 
and traverse the wilds of southern 
and western India Avith tlieir bul- 
locks. In their wandering habits 
they are similar to the muleteers of 
the continent. 

according to the Hindoo mythology, 
the regent of the planet Jupiter, and 
the preceptor of the gods, hence 
called their gooroo. He is the son of 
Ungina, a son of Brahma, and is of 
the Brahmun caste. He is described 
of a golden or yellow colour, sitting 
on a horse, and holding in his hands 
a stick, a lotus, and his beads. The 
Hindoos consider it fortunate to be 
born under this planet, and are strict 
in their worship of Brishput. Be- 
sides being called Gooruo, or the pre- 
ceptor, he is termed Gishpvfu, the 
eloquent, &c., &c. Vrihuspatwar, or 
Thursday, is the day over which he 
presides. The mango tree is sacred 
to him. 

BUCKRA EADE, a Mussulman festi- 
val still kept up with ragged pomp 
at Dchli, Lucknow, Hydtraliad, &c. 
The followers of Mahomet claim 
to be descendants of Abraham, 




through his son Ishmael, whom they 
iiver to have been chosen for the 
ofiering of the Almighty, and not 
Isaac. The offering thus made to 
.Heaven is commemorated by the sa- 
crifice of particular animals ; camels, 
sheep, goats, kids, or lambs, accord- 
ing to each person's means; this is 
supposed to answer a double pur- 
pose, not only honouring the me- 
mory of Abraham and Ishmael, but 
the sacrifices assisting in a time of 
great need. It is supposed that the 
entrance to Paradise is guarded by a 
bridge made of a scythe, or some in- 
strument equally sharp, and afford- 
ing as unstable a footing. The fol- 
lowers of the Prophet are required to 
skate or swim over this passage, and 
it will be attended with more or less 
difficulty, according to the degree of 
favour they have obtained in the 
sight of Heaven. The truly pious 
will be wafted over in safety, but the 
imdeserving must struggle many 
times, and be often cut down in the 
attempt, before thej^ can gain the op- 
posite side. In this extremity, it is 
imagined that the same number and 
kind of animals, which, being clean 
and esteemed fitting for sacrifice, 
they have offered up at the celebra- 
tion of the Buckra Eade. will be in 
waiting to convey them in safety 
along the perilous passage of the 
bridge. Under this belief, the richer 
classes of Mahomedans supply their 
indigent brethren with goats and 
sheep for the sacrifice; a work of 
charity, incited by the purest mo- 
tives, and which, if not possessing 
all the efiicacy ascribed to it, at least 
furnishes the poor man's home with 
an ample and a welcome feast; for 
tliough poverty compels the lower 
classes of IMussulmans to imitate the 
Hindoos in the frugality of a vege- 
table meal, they never refuse meat 
when it is procurable. 
BUDH (BOODH). the Mercury of the 
Hindoos, is the son of Soma or Chan- 
dra and Kohini. He is a Kettrie, 
and the first of the Chandrabans, 
or lunar race of sovereigns. He is 

represented as being eloquent and 
mild, and of a greenish colour. 
Budh is the god of merchandise 
and the protector of merchants ; he 
is, therefore, an object of worship by 
the Begs caste. It is fortunate to be 
born under this planet. Budh pre- 
sides over Budhwar, or Wednesday. 
BUDIIA, the founder of the religion 
of the Singhalese, Burmese, &c. The 
names given to Budha in the native 
books are as follows : " Supreme," 
" Incomparable," " Vanquisher of 
the five deadly sins (killing, ly- 
ing, adultery, theft, drunkenness)," 
" Teacher of the three worlds (of 
gods, men, and devils)," the " Sanc- 
tified," "the Omniscient," "Imma- 
culate," " World compassionating 
Divine Teacher," " Benefactor of the 
AVorld," "Saviour," " Dispeller of 
the Darkness of Sin," " Comforter of 
the World," " Lord of Lanka (Cey- 
lon)," " Ruler of tlie World," " Ruler 
of Men," "Incomprehensible," " Di- 
vine Teacher," " Lord of the Divine 
Sages," " Deity of felicitous Advent." 
The doctrines of the Budhists are 
briefly these : they do not believe in 
one supreme self-existent God. Mat- 
ter, in some form or other, is eternal. 
The present state of things has 
arisen out of a former, and that from 
one previous to it, and so on. Every 
living being or thing, gods, men, 
devils, beasts, reptiles, vegetables, 
are in their present state of enjoy- 
ment or suffering from the merito- 
rious or demeritorious actions of a 
former state of existence. The good 
or the evil done by living beings in 
their present birth or state of ex- 
istence will be rewarded or lumished 
in a future state. Tlie souls, or living 
principle of the good, on their depar- 
ture from the present body, enter into 
other bodies, whose state will be 
superior to the present ; and the souls 
of the bad, on their departure out of 
the present body, will enter into 
others more degraded than those 
they now inhabit. Every evil suf- 
fered in the present life is in conse- 
quence of some bad actions done ia 


a former ; and every good enjoyed is 
in consequence of some good actions 
in a former. But neither the good 
nor the evil will be eternal, for the 
souls continue to transmigrate till 
purged of every particle of evil ; 
when they are admitted to the su- 
preme blessedness of annihilation, in 
■which state Budha is at present. 
Eternal suffering, or eternal happi- 
ness, forms no part of their belief. 
There is no superior to whom they 
are accountable, to inflict punish- 
ment, or to bestow good ; but happi- 
ness necessarily follows a course of 
good actions, and misery a course of 
evil actions : hence there is no for- 
giveness of sins. Almsgiving seems 
to be omnipotent. It opens the door 
of all future good, and to Nirwana. 
" The sound of charitable deeds is 
heard through the three Avorlds." 

BUDHUK, a species of dacoit. See 

BUDRA, a river which rises in a 
chain of hills, called the Baba Boodun 
Hills, situated to the eastward of the 
Western IMouutaius, nearly opposite 
to Jlangalore. 

BUDZAT, Hindostanee. Bad caste, 
applied to a mauvais sujet. 

BUGGALOW, a large single-decked 
vessel, with one mast and a latteen 
sail, employed in the carrying 
trade between Bombay, the Malabar 
coast, and the Persian and Arabian 
Gulfs. The owners are generally 
Persian, Arab, or Armenian mer- 
chants; the nacquodah, or captain 
and navigator, is an Arab, and the 
crew are Araljs. Horses, shawls, 
dates, carpets, precious stones, kal- 
lecns, and a peculiar glass ware, 
form the staple of the cargo from 
the Gulfs ; rice, cotton, crockery, 
and hardware form the return car- 
goes. The buggalows are crazy, ill- 
built vessels, and so badly calculated 
to resist a storm, that it is the usual 
practice of the captain, when a shtm- 
niil, or north-wester, is threatened, 
to run for the nearest cove, and 
anchor till the danger is past, 

BUGGESS, or BUGIS, an iuhabitant 



of Japan, the island of Celebes, the 
Moluccas, and other eastern islands. 

BUGGARAH. a small Ar;ib vessel, 
used in navigating the Persian Gulf. 

BUHAWULPOGR, a large and flou- 
rishing town, the capital of the Khan 
of the district. It stands about sixty 
miles to the south-eastward of Mool- 
tan, near the left bank of the Sutlej, 
here named the Garra. It has an 
extensive manufacture of silks, which 
are in much request. 

BUKKUR. See Sukicur. 

BUKSHEE, Hindostanee. A pay- 

BUKSHISH, or BUXIS, a term used 
to denote presents of money. The 
practice of making presents, either 
as a matter of compliment or in re- 
quital of service, is so ver}' common 
in India and the East generally, that 
the natives lose no opportunity of 
asking for bukshish. In Egypt, per- 
haps, more than iuiywiiere else, the 
usage is a perfect nuisance. Half- 
naked Aral)s, donkey boys, boatmen, 
&e., if left alone with an Englishman, 
heard by his fellows, will invariably 
whisper "bukshish!" whether he 
has or has not rendered any service. 
The word "boxes," as applied to our 
Christmas gifts, has probably taken 
its origin in the oriental term. 

BULBUL, the nightingale of the East, 
often alluded to in tlie poems of Ha- 
fiz. 'J he oriental bulbul has prettier 
plumage than the Philomel of Eu- 
ropean groves, but does not boast so 
sweet a melody. 

BUMiMI<:LO\V, a small, glutinous, 
transparent fish, about tiie size of a 
smelt, caught in the Indian Seas. 
When dried they are mucii eaten by 
the Hindoos and Europeans in 
Western India, and enjoy the face- 
tious ai)pelIation of Bombay ducks. 

BUND, Hindostanee. A band, bond, 
or fastening. An embankment against 

BUNDER, Uindostanec, A port or 

BUNDEK-BOATS, boats which lie 
off the pier at Bombay, and carry 




passengers, goods, and occasionally 
cargoes to and from the shore. They 
are remarkably strong well-built 
vessels, resembling the celebrated 
Deal lioats in form and capability. 

BUN ULECUXD, a division of the pro- 
vince of Allahabad (Hindostan), 
famous for its fertility. 

BUNJ)OOBUST, Hindostance. Ty- 
ing and binding. A settlement. A 
settlement of the amount of revenue 
to be paid or collected. 

BUNDUCK, a deposit or pledge. It 
is confined entirely to the Hindoos. 
Mussulmans are prohibited by their 
sacred institutes from receiving, 
though they are not so strictly tied 
down in respect to paying interest; 
indeed, owing to the less frugal habits 
of this sect, and their greater indulg- 
ence in ostentatious display, few of its 
individuals can be considered totally 
exempt from that heavy fine collected 
by the Hindoo sh-qlfs and mahajuns 
from such inconsiderate persons as 
have occasion to seek their aid. 

BUNGALOWS, Indian houses or 
villas of a single floor. Most of 
those built by Europeans are run up 
with sun-dried bricks, usually of a 
large size, eight of them making a 
cubic foot. \Vith these, in a proper 
state for building, work proceeds at 
a great rate, care being taken that 
the slime used for cement be of a 
proper consistence, and well filled in. 
The bungalows are either thatched 
or tiled. 

BUNNAO, Ilindostanee. A make-up; 
a fabrication; applied equally to a 
verbal falsehood and to the docking 
and cropping of a pariah dog, to 
make him pass for a terrier. 

BUNNEAH, a kind of chandler, chiefly 
to be found in cantonments, or fol- 
lowing camps in India. 

BURGOT, one of the many sacred 
trees in India. 

BURKONDOSSES, from /mrfutn- 
dciz, "thrower of lightning." Men 
armed with matchlocks, and em- 
ployed as police-constables in ludia. 

BURTIAMPORE is an inland town, 
situated 20 miles south-westerly 
from Ganjam, in the Northern Cir- 
cars. It is noted for its silk manu- 
factures. The silk is imported from 
Bengal and China. 


BURM JEWIN, a small temple on a 
hill at the east end of the town of 
Gya, in the province of Behar. 

BURNOOSE, part of a Turk or Arab's 
clothing ; a cloak. 

BURRA ADAWLUT, Hindostanee. 
The chief court of justice. This is 
the vulgar term for the court, the 
more correct one being "Sudder 

a great lady; the appellation be- 
stowed upon the female liead of a 
house, or the wife of the principal 
personage at a station or presidency 
of India. 

BURRA-KIIANAII, a great dinner. 
The word is universally applied to 
the feasts of the English residents in 
India, at which perfect hecatombs of 
meat are consumed. In India, as in 
England, a " Burrah Khana" consti- 
tutes a great portion of the felicity 
of the people. " Among the Hindoos," 
says Mrs. Postans, " it is customary 
for the heads of castes to expend 
large sums in giving feasts to their 
social party ; thus do we find a goodly 
company of Sonars or goldsmiths, of 
Vauzaris or grain-merchants, of 
Kansars or copper-smiths, with simi- 
lar exclusiveness, prevailing through- 
out the castes; while every week 
some one among the servants of an 
Eastern establishment is certain to 
request permission to attend ' hum- 
mara jat ke khana,' (the dinner of 
my caste,) a feast usually given 
either on the death or marriage of 
some among their friends. The 
Dhobi (or Washerman), if residing in 
his employer's compound, comes all 
smiles and salaams to crave permis- 
sion to depart on a rice and ghee de- 
vouring exploit. The commonly dirty 
Mali, after donning a garb and turban 
of unusual cleanliness, forthwith de- 




siros permission to attend the gar- 
dener's feast: and wliether tlie occa- 
sion is one of sorrow or of joy, whe- 
ther the monruers go about the city, 
in ' dyed garments from Bosrah' and 
vrith sound of tomtoms and of songs 
announce the triumph of the charm- 
ing Camdeo, the table is yet spread, 
and the sorrowful and the gay alike 
seek pleasure at the festive board. 
The Mahomedans, in common with 
the Hindoos, mark the death of a 
valued friend by a ' Burrah Khana,' 
in token of the days of mourning ; 
crowds of guests are then invited, 
who, squatting in circles on the 
ground, devour the chosen delicacies 
of rice and ghee, and rich pillaus, to 
most uncomfortable repletion. There 
Mill the mourners sit, attired in flow- 
ing robes, with long beards and dark 
moustache, each with his lota of water 
by his side, with primitive simplicity 
every individual using his fingers for 
a spoon; while all talk, and eat, and 
smoke, as if the party assembled were 
celebrating the most joyful event ima- 
ginable. This conduct is not, how- 
ever, the result of heartlessness, but 
custom. Many may have loved with 
strong affection, the wife or husband, 
the friend or sister, who, in accord- 
ance with the inevitable doom of man, 
have gone so sadly from among their 
social group : but custom or habit 
has reconciled them, and accustomed 
their forefathers for ages to con- 
sider these observances as honourable 
and good, and a commemoration 
agreeable to the deceased. Sad as 
this may appear to those accustomed 
to weep and fast,and to put on mourn- 
ing apparel on similar occasions, a 
little reflection will convince us, that 
this habit is at least better than such 
as mark the celebration of an Irish 
wake, where rational beings, howling 
in drunken chorus, commit all sorts 
of horrible excesses. Would men 
but seek to know more, and to com- 
pare more, of the usages of va- 
rious people, prejudice would shrink 
abashed from the contemplation, and 
charity materially increase among 

the great human family. Like our 
friars of old, the religious protl-ssors 
of Hindooism, with the sacred class 
of Brahmins and Fakirs, are espe- 
cially addicted to the enjoyment of 
nourishing condiments; tlie wealthy 
and the great, consequently, as an 
expiation for sin, or in fulfilment of 
especial vows, commonly set apart 
large portions of their annual in- 
come for the entertainment of eccle- 
siastics. For days before the ap- 
pointed time, preparations are to bj 
made, and the neighbourhood of somj 
great temple, or sacred tank, is 
usually decided on as the trysting- 
place. Thither carts laden with 
huge cauldrons, camels bearing pon- 
derous sacks of grain, , carboys of 
oil, and gourds of honey, with every 
appurtenance for the feast, may be 
seen travelling slowly towards the 
spot. A provision of wood in large 
quantities is felled in the neigh- 
bouring jungle, and numbers of 
Avomen are employed, to bear water 
vessels from the adjacent well or 
river, in furtherance of the ap- 
proaching culinary preparations. 
On the appointed day, the route 
between tlie city and the place of 
general rendezvous forms a livelv 
and animatea picture — women in gay 
and brilliant raiment, glittering witii 
jewels, their handsome countenances 
radiant with holiday expectation, 
peep from between the crimson cur- 
tains of innumerable rutts; horse- 
men, on caracoling and richly ca- 
parisoned steeds, display their eques- 
trian skill, by curvetting and wheel- 
ing the half-broken animals, whom 
a severe Mahratta bit alone keeps 
in comparative submission to their 
riders' will; old men and children, 
mounted on miseral)le jjonies, and 
camels carrying double, and some- 
times treble, on this occasion, throng 
the highway; while numerous little 
groups may be observed emerging 
in knots from every bye-path in thj 
neighbourhood. Here and there a 
wealthy Brahmun is seen sitting 
cross-legged upon a pile of cushions, 




luxuriantly arranged in an open 
gliiirree, drawn by sleek and enormous 
bullocks, or a Takir, smeared Avitli 
dust and ashes, and crowned with a 
plume of brightly dyed feathers, 
trudges onwards amongst the people, 
determined to fill his wallet to over- 
flowing, on so propitious an occasion. 
A festive party at length arrived 
beneath some widely spreading shade; 
all seat themselves on little knolls, 
or pleasant spots, to partake of the 
abundant feast. Each is provided 
with a little plate of leaves, neatly 
joined with twining fibres: whilst 
smoking jjlatters of piled rice and 
seasoned curries are placed before 
the guests; sweetmeats and confec- 
tions follow, the fragrant hookah is 
banded round, and the animals of 
burthen (not neglected in the general 
mirth) revel on the fragrant grass 
l^repared for their refreshment. So 
passes an Indian feast. Of the general 
character of the condiments furnished 
on such occasions an idea may be 
formed from the subjoined list, pre- 
sented by a native minister to his 
prince, as a carte of the articles re- 
quired at a dinner, which was after- 
wards given to a party of Brahmins 
and Fakirs at a very sacred temple 
in one of the provinces of west- 
ern India: — 800 maunds of sugar, 
1200 of ghee, 1200 of flour, 200 of 
rice, 75 of pulse, 36 of gram or grain, 
50 of rice and kedgeree, 180 of bad- 
jeree, 36 of mutt, 108 of gowa for 
bullocks, 135 of cotton seeds, 3 of 
curry powder and coriander seeds, 
20 of oil, 10 of salt, 3000 bundles of 
grass, 250 cart-loads of fire-wood, 
10,000 basins, 100 maunds of tobac- 
co, 1 of opiimi, and 2 of bang. The 
expense of this dinner amounted 
to 14,000 rupees, and was an enter- 
tainment of frequent occurrence." 

BUESAUT, the rainy season in India; 
the periodical rains. 

BUESAUTEE, a disease to which 
horses are subject in India during 
the rainy, or bursaut, season. 

BURUTA-GAH.4, the Cingalese name 
for the satin-wood tree, which grows 

chiefly in the eastern parts of the 
island of Ceylon. In appearance the 
trunk is like the teak, and the leaves 
are as small as those of the jack 
tree. The wood is used for all kinds 
of ornamental furniture. It is of a 
beautiful colour, rather yellow, and 
takes a fine polish, 

in the Persian Gulf, governed by a 
sheikh. There is an English resident 
here; and the port is a place of com- 
mon resort for English vessels. 

BUSSORAH, a Turkish town on the 
banks of the Euphrates, where an 
agent of the British Government 
resides. A public dwelling or " Re- 
sidency" for the accommodation of 
the British Resident at Bagdad is 
kept up here. The commerce be- 
tween Bombay and Bussorah (or 
Basra) is extensive. 

BUTCIIA, a Hindoo word in use 
among Englishmen for the young of 
any thing, from that of a mouse, to 
that of a man. In England we ask 
after the children ; in India you in- 
quire tenderly after the butchas. 

BUXAR is situated on the east side 
of the Ganges, seventy miles below 
Benares. A celebrated battle was 
fought here in 1764, between the 
British and the united armies of 
Shajaood Dowlut and Kasim Ali- 

BYLEE, a common native cart, used 
in the interior of India. 

BYRAGEE, a Hindoo ascetic, who has 
renounced the world. 

BYSACK, the Hindostanee name for 
the first month in the year. The 
months of the Hindostanee j'ear all 
begin on the days of the entrance of 
the sun into a sign of the Hindoo 
Zodiac, and they vary from twenty 
to thirty-two days in length, though 
making up 365 days in the total, and 
366 days in leap years. The inter- 
calation is made when and where it 
is required, not according to any ar- 
bitrary rule, but by continuing the 
length of each month. This brings 
about twenty-six leaj) years in every 





CAABA, the temple or mosque at 
Mecca, towards which all good Mus- 
sulmans turn their faces at the time 
of prayer. This edifice, or part of it, 
is attributed to Abraham, and is 
considered the holiest earthly object 
of Maliomedan regard. 

CABOOLEAT, an agreement, parti- 
cularly that entered into by the Ze- 
mindars and farmers with the Go- 
vernment of India, for the manage- 
ment and renting of the land reve- 

CABUL, a very ancient and beauti- 
ful city in the province of Afghan- 
istan. It is situated in a fine plain 
upon the banks of the Cabul river, in 
Lat. 34 deg. 10 min. N., Long. 69 deg. 
15 min. E. After the subversion of 
the d3-nasty of Ghuznee, Cabul be- 
came the capital of the countr3% It 
has not many bixildings of note, the 
houses being constructed principally 
of wood, in consequence of the fre- 
quency of earthquakes. It had a 
very fine covered bazar built by Ali 
Murdan Khan, a celebrated noble- 
man in the service of the Emperor 
Juhangeer, but this was destroyed 
by tlie English, on their second cap- 
ture of the city in 1842. On a neck 
of land at the eastern side of the 
city, about 150 feet above the plain, 
stands the Bala Hissar, or upper 
citadel, the usual residence of the 
kings. Outside the town is the tomb 
of the renowned Emperor Baber. 
Cabul enjoys a remarkably fine cli- 
mate, and is celebrated for its beauti- 
ful gardens, which produce fruits 
and llowers of all kinds in the great- 
est abundance. Fruit indeed is more 
])lentiful than bread, and is consi- 
<lered by the people as one of the 
necessaries of life. Its population 
before the war with the English was 
estimated at C0,000. In the moun- 
tains, a short distance to the north- 
westward of Cabul, in Lat. 34 deg. 
40 min. N., Long. 60 deg. 57 min. E., 
is the city of Bamcean, the capital 

of a small district of the same name, 
dependent upon Cabul. It consists 
for the greater part of a multitude 
of apartments and recesses, cut out 
of the rock, which are believed to 
be of great antiquity. Amongst 
other remarkable objects are two 
colossal statues, cut in the face of 
the mountain, about 150 feet in 
height, and supposed to be ancient 
idols. There are also some large 
mounds, or, as they are termed by 
the natives, topes, constructed of 
blocks of stone, by some considered 
to have been the work of the 
CACHAR, one of the Bengal depen- 
dencies, in India, bounded on the 
north by Assam ; east, by Cossai; 
south, ))y Tippera and Sylhet; and 
west, by Gentia. It extends about 
140 miles from north to south, and 
100 miles from east to Avest. It is 
composed of two divisions, the 
northern called Dhurmapoor, and 
the southern Cachar, separated from 
each other by a ridge of mountains. 
Its principal rivers are the Capili 
and Boorak, both of which rise in 
the eastern mountains, and flow 
south-westerly into the Megna. 
This country is, for the greater part, 
mountainous, and much overrun 
with jungle and sAvamps. In the 
level parts the soil is fertile, but nut 
Avell cultivated. Its i)roductions are 
cotton, silk, wax, timber, limestone, 
iron ore, and salt, with rice and 
other grains. The towns are Dhur- 
mapoor, Doodputtie, and Kospoor. 
The original and correct name of 
this country was Hairumbo. It has 
acquired its present denomination 
of Cachar from the tribe composing 
its inhabitants, who are called 
Cacharees, and are part of a nume- 
rous tribe scattered over this quarter 
of Asia, though the name is usually 
limiteil to the Cachar principality. 
They are a robust race, of fairer 
comj)lexion than the Bengalese, and 
of Tartar features. The iiresent 
religion of Cachar is that of the 
llinduos, which was introduced in 




]7S0. Tlie language is the Ben- 
galee, recently iutroduecd. The 
original Hairiinibian dialect has 
now become extinct. 

CACTUS. This plant, in all its nume- 
rous varieties, grows in great abun- 
dance in India. It makes a formid- 
able hedge around the compounds or 
garden enclosures of houses, and in 
some of the native towns is used, 
with bamboos, as a fortification. The 
milky juice of some kinds of cactus 
is often used medicinally. 

CAD J AN, a term used by the Euro- 
peans in the peninsula of India to 
denote the leaves of the fan palmyra 
tree, on which the natives of the 
south write with an iron style. It 
likewise applies to a matting made 
of the leaves of the cocoa-nut tree. 

CAFFE-GAHA, the coffee tree of 
Ceylon. It is now one of the most 
valuable trees in the country, and 
the growth of it has lately become 
an object of considerable importance, 
not only among the natives, but 
among Europeans, many of whom 
have large plantations of it in the 
interior. It grows to about ten or 
twelve feet high, and is seldom 
thicker than nine or ten inches. The 
coffee-berry grows at the root of the 
leaves, in clusters of four or six. The 
berry is at first green ; it then be- 
comes red, and when ripe is nearly 
black. It is surrounded by a pulp of 
a sweetish taste. As soon as plucked, 
the berries are spread on mats in 
the sun to dry. When the moisture 
is quite evaporated, tiie berry is 
pounded in a mortar to take off the 
rough outside. By this process it is 
separated into two parts, flat on one 
side and oval on the other, and after 
being well cleansed and picked, it is 
put in bags, each containing about 
sixty pounds weight, and in this 
state sent to England. 

CAFILAH, Persian. A caravan. 

CAFTAN, a quilted or thick outer 
cloak, worn by tlie Tm'ks, Persians, 
and Arab Shieks. 

CAIIAK KA NAUTCH, the dance of 
the bearer, a favourite pantomimic 

dance or movement among the 
Nautch-girls of India. 

CAIQUE, a light bark, much used oa 
the Bosphorus. 

CALCUTTA, the capital of India, and 
the " emporium of the east," is si- 
tuated on the east side ofthe western 
branch ofthe Ganges, in the province 
of Bengal, called by Europeans the 
Hoogly, but by the natives tlie Bha- 
giruttee, about a hundred miles from 
the sea, the whole of which distance 
is navigable for ships, the river at 
Calcutta itself being more than a 
mile in breadth. Calcutta owes its 
origin entirely to the English. In 
1717 it was a petty village of mud 
huts; it is now a city of palaces. la 
1756 Calcutta was besieged and taken 
from the English by Surajood Dow- 
lut, the nabob of Bengal, on which 
occasion the English prisoners, to 
the number of 146, were confined by 
him in a small room, called the 
Black Hole, about twenty feet square, 
where in one night all, except 23, 
perished from suftbcation. Tlie fort, 
named Fort William, stands about a 
quarter of a mile below the city. It 
was commenced by Lord Clive, 
shortly after the battle of Plassey, 
and is considered the strongest in 
India. The total population of Cal- 
cutta, amongst which are to be found 
natives of every part of Asia, is es- 
timated at about 550,000 persons. 
Calcutta is the seat of the supreme 
Government of British India. 

CALICUT, on the coast, in Lat. 1 1 deg. 
15 min. N., Long. 75 deg. 50 min. E., 
was formerly the capital of the pro- 
vince of jMalabar. It is also celebrated 
as being the first place in India at 
which any European settlement was 
formed, the Portuguese, under Vasco 
de Gama, having landed there in 149S. 

CALIINIINDER, the name of a tree, 
formei'ly abundant in Ceylon, and 
used by the inhabitants in the manu- 
facture of furniture. 

CALIPH, vicegerent, successor, title 
of the first successors of jMahomed. 

CALIYUG, the most ancient of tlie 
Indian eras. It dates from a period 


3101 j-ears before Christ. It begins 
■\vitl) the entrance of the sun into the 
Hindoo sign Aswin, -which is in 
CALPA. According to the chrono- 
loffv of the Hindoos their extraor- 
dinary system comprises a culpa, or 
grand period of 4,320,000,000 years, 
vhich they form as follows. Four 
lesser yugs or yoogs, viz.: — 


1st, Satya yug 1,728,000 

2nd, Treta yug l,29fi,000 

3rd, Dwapayug 864.000 

4th, Kali yug 432,000 

■which make one divine age or malia 
(great) yug; 71 maha yugs make 
306,720,000 years, to which is added 
a sandhi (or the time when day and 
night border on each other, morning 
and evening twilight), equal to a sa- 
tya yug, 1,728,000, make a manwan- 
tara of 368,448,000 years ; fourteen 
nianwantaras make 4,318,272,000 
years ; to which must be also added 
a sandhi to begin the calpa, 
1,728,000 years, make the calpa or 
grand period of 4,320,000,000 j-ears. 
Extraordinary as this jargon may 
appear, it is no fanciful fiction, but 
founded upon an actual astronomical 
calculation. The Hindoos calculate 
from the commencement of tlie pre- 
f:ent Cali yug, which took place in 
tlie 906th year of the world. Tlieir 
<late, to correspond with the year of 
our Lord 1832, or that of the world 
5839, will be about 4933 of the Kali 
yug. The Hindoos have various 
other eras : those most conmionly 
current are, the Saka, and the Sam- 
bat. The former is computed from 
the supposed l)irth of Salivahana, 
King of Pratishthana, in Southern 
India, in the year of the Kali yug 
3179, which makes it seventy-eight 
years after the birth of Christ. The 
Sambat year numbers the luna solar 
years in the same manner as tiic 
Saka does the solar years. It is 
computed from the reign of Vikra- 
maditya, King of Uujeiu, which 



began fifty-seven years before the 
birth of Clirist. 

CA]\I1)AY is a sea-port, situated at the 
head of the Gulf of Canibay, in Lat. 
22 (leg. 21 min. N., Long. 72 deg. 
48 min. E. It is an ancient town, 
and was formerly of considerable 
commercial importance. Tiie silver- 
smitlis at this place are still noted 
for their skill in embossing. 

CANUAHAR. Tliis town is in the 
province of Afghanistan, in Lat. 36 
deg. 11 min. N., Long. 66 deg. 28 
min. E. It is believed that this place 
was founded b}- Alexander the Great, 
and has always, from its position 
near the frontiers of Persia, been a 
phvce of considerable importance. 
The original city was destroyed by 
Nadir Shah, and the present town 
was built in 1753, by Ahmed Siiah, 
who made it his cajjital. It contains 
about 100,000 inhabitants, of whom 
a large i)roportion are Uooranee 
Afghans. Sir William Nott, with a 
British force, held possession of the 
town against the Afghan kurds in 

CANDEISII, a province of the Deccau 
in India, bounded on the nortii by 
Guzerat and ]\Ialwa ; east, Gen- 
dwana aud Berar; south, Berar and 
Aurungabad; west, Aurungabad and 
Guzerat. This province may be 
considered as consisting of three di- 
visions: British, Candeish, Holkar, 
and Scindia. The British portion 
comprises the whole of Candeish 
Proper, and occupies the western 
part of the province from north to 
south. Holkar's portion occupies a 
small space in the centre, and Scin- 
(lia's, a tract along the eastern side. 
The rivers are the Nerbudda, Tup- 
tee, Poorna, and others. The pro- 
vince in general is hilly, and tra- 
versed centrally, and along its eastern, 
southern, and western sides, by 
ranges of mountains. It is, however, 
for the greatest p:'.rt remarkably fer- 
tile, and copiously watered, and until 
the commencement of the present 
century well cultivated and thickly 
peopled. In 1802 it was ravaged 




by the Holkar IMalirattas. and the 
year following it was nearly depo- 
Xnilated by a severe famine. From 
this period it rapidly declined ; op- 
pressed by a rapaci(n:s govei'nment, 
and continually devastated by Bheels 
and Pindarees, it was rendered al- 
most a desert, and when entered by 
the British, in 1818, the larger por- 
tion of the province was foimd to be 
overspread M-ith jungle, and aban- 
doned, without inhabitants, to the 
■".vild beasts. A long period of time 
"vill probably be required ere this 
territory can be restored to its ori- 
ginal prosperity. This province is 
capable of producing in abundance 
every thing foxuid in the adjoining 
countries. ; Its fruits and vegetables 
are excellent, particularly grapes, 
which are considered the finest in 
India. Amongst the wild animals, 
tigers and wolves are very numerous 
•and troublesome. The towns are, in 
British Candeish, Xunderbar, Sind- 
wa, Dowlea, Chopra, Jamneer, 3.1al- 
ligaum, and Chundoor; in Holkar's 
districts, Kurgoon and Bejagur; in 
Scindia's, Hoshungabad, Hindia, 
Ilurdwa, Chorwa, Asseergurb, and 
Boorhampore. The inhabitants are 
IMahrattas, a small proportion of IMa- 
horaedans, inchidingthoseoftheBora 
class, and Bheels, of which tribe this 
jirovince may be considered the ori- 
ginal country. The Bheels are found 
in all the hilly and wooded districts, 
from Malwa toBej apoor, and from the 
eastern parts of Gnzerat to Gondwa- 
]ia. They are a distinct people from 
the Hindoos, and are supposed to 
form part of the original inhabitants 
of central India. In person they are 
generally small and black, of Avild 
appearance, going nearly naked, and 
constantly armed with bow and 
arrow. They are divided into a num- 
ber of tribes, each under its ownnaik, 
or chief. They are generally averse 
to agriculture, and addicted to hunt- 
ing and plunder; but, being now- 
subject to a more regular control, 
they Avill probably acquire more civi- 
lised habits. The religion is Hindoo- 

ism and Mahornedanism. The pre- 
vailing language is the Mahrattee. 
In the Hoshungabad district the 
Gondee is commonly spoken. 

CANIATCHY, or, by mistake, CALI- 
ATCHY, a term used in Malabar, 
signifying landed inheritance, or pro- 

C ANN ANOEE is situated on the Mala- 
bar coast, in Lat. 11 deg. 42 min. N"., 
Long. 75 deg. 27 min. E. This town, 
with a small surrounding district, in 
theprovince of JIalabar, was foraierly 
under the government of a bebee or 
princess, whose descendant still re- 
tains the title, and resides in her 
palace, under the protection of the 
English. Her ancestor, a chief of the 
ISIaplais, purchased the estate from 
the Dutch. It was subsequently 
seized byllyder Ah, and in 1799 an- 
nexed to the British dominions ; an 
adequate pension being settled upon 
the bebee. The Portuguese had a 
factory at this place in 1505. 

CANONGOE, an officer of the Penin- 
sular government, whose duty is to 
keep a register of all circumstances 
relating to the land revenue, and 
when called upon, to declare the cus- 
toms of each district, the nature of 
the tenures, the quantity of land 
in cultivation, the nature of the 
produce, the amount of rent paid, 

CANTON is the largest sea-port town 
in China, and the only one to which 
Europeans were formerly permitted 
to resort. It is situated on the 
banks of the river Quantung, or 
Pekiang, in Lat. 32 deg. 4 min. N., 
Long. 118 deg. 4 min. E., and has, 
besides the suburbs on shore, a large 
floating town upon the river, contain- 
ing altogether nearly a million and a 
half of inhabitants. There are fac- 
tories in the suburbs estal^lished by 
England and America, and by most 
of the European powers. No fo- 
reigners are permitted to enter the 
city itself, but are restricted to the 
suburbs. The Russians are excluded 
from the sea-ports, because a land 
trade is carried on with them on the 




frontiers of Siberia. About eighty 
miles below Canton, on a small pe- 
ninsula near the month of the river, 
tlie entrance of which is called by 
Europeans tlie Bocca Tigris, stands 
tlie town of ilacao, belonging to the 
Portuguese, who were permitted to 
form this settlement in 1586, by the 
Emperor of China, in reward for ser- 
vices rendered by them in expelling 
some pirates. Until 1842 it was the 
only European settlement in the 
Chinese empire, and is under strict 
supervision, being in reality governed 
by a mandarin, j^o foreign females 
are allowed to pass beyond Macao, 
v.'here European ships are conse- 
quently obliged to land any who may 
be on board, before they can proceed 
up tlie river. A short distance from 
JIacao is the small island of Hong 
Kong, which was finally ceded to the 
English in 1842, and is now an 
Enu'lisli settlement. 

CAPIDGI, Persian and Turkish. A 
porter or door-keeper ; a chamber- 
lain. The Capidgi-Bashee are a 
higlier class of officers, and exclu- 
sively employed to use the boAv- 

CAPITAN PASHA, the Turkish High 

CAEABOYS, great bottles for rose- 
Avater, Persian wines, &c. 

C All LEE, a village on the road from 
Bombay to Poona, in the Deccan, 
which gives its name to a remark- 
able cavern, hewn on the face of a 
precipice, about two-thirds up the 
sides of a steep hill, rising, with a 
very scarped and regular talus, to 
the heiglit of probably 800 feet above 
the plain. The excavations consist, 
besides tlie principal temple, of many 
smaller apartments and galleries, in 
two stories, some of them ornamented 
with great beaut^^ A mean and 
ruinous temple of Siva serves as a 
sort of gateway to the cave; a simi- 
lar building stands on tlie right hand 
of its portico. Within the portico 
are colossal figures in alto relievo of 
elephants, bestridden liy mahouts, 
and moiuited with howdahs. There 

are a number of columns witliin the 
cave, with capitals resembling bells, 
finely carved, and surmounted each 
by two elephants with their trunks 
entwined, and each carrying figures 
of byraaees or ascetics. 
DLE. This Indian province is 
bounded on the north by the Ceded 
Districts and the river Pennar; east, 
by the sea; south, by the Coleroon; 
west, by Salem, Baramahal, and My- 
sore. Its principal districts are, 
part of Nellore, Venkatagherry, Ko- 
lastree, Chandgherry, Chittoor, Ma- 
dras, Arcot, Chinglepet or the Jageer, 
Cuddalore, and part of Trichinopoly. 
The chief rivers are the Pennar, 
Palar, and Panar, besides many 
smaller streams. This province is, 
in general, level and 0]3en, gradually 
rising from the coast to the eastern 
mountains ; broken in diflerent di- 
rections by ridges and clusters of 
rocky jungly hills. It is well wa- 
tered by rivers and large tanks, and 
is considered fertile. The produc- 
tions are rice, raggy, gram, and other 
.dry grains; indigo, and salt. Iron 
is abundant, and is manufactured 
into steel of very superior quality, 
at Porto Xovo. Copper is also found 
in the neighbourhood of Ivolastree. 
The principal towns are Kolastree, 
Chandgherry, Pulicat, Chittoor, Jla- 
dras, Amboor, Vellore, Arcot, Con- 
geveram, Chinglepet, Arnee, Vandi- 
wasli, Sadras, Trinomally, Gingee, 
Pondicherry, Trincaloor, Cuddalore, 
and Chillumbrum. In ancient times 
this province formed part of the 
Hindoo sovereignty of the Karnatah 
Desum ; the various petty princi- 
palities which it comprised being all 
nominally subject to it. The pre- 
vailing languages of the Hindoo po- 
pulation of this province are, in the 
northern and western districts, Tc- 
loogoo. and in the soutlicrn, Tamil. 
dian province is bounded on the north 
by the small river Gundiaama, which 
separates it from the Guntoor dis- 
trict of the Northern Circars ; east, 




the sea; south, the Pennur, diviiling 
it from Centnil Carnatic; and vest, 
the eastern nioinitains, separating it 
from the Ceiled Districts. It is di- 
vided into tlie districts of Ongole, and 
part of Nellore. Tlie rivers are the 
Gundig'ama, which flows into the sea 
near INIoodapilly, tlie IVnnar, and 
several small streams. Towards its 
western bomidary this province is 
hilly, but for the greater part it is 
level and open, and tolerably fertile. 
Kice and other grains are cultivated, 
but the chief article of product is 
salt, Avhich is manufactured in large 
quantities on the coast for exporta- 
tion. There are also copper-mines. 
In Hindoo geography this province 
formed part of what was denomi- 
nated the Ujulra Desum. Its present 
name of Carnatic has been given to 
it by the English, on account of its 
being included in the dominions of 
the Nabob of the Carnatic, though 
properly not applicable to it. 
daries of this province are on the 
north the Cavery, and Coleroon, 
separating it from Salem and Cen- 
tral Carnatic; east, the sea; south, 
the Gulf of Manar ; west, Travan- 
core and Coimbatoor. The follow- 
ing are its principal districts : Tri- 
chinopoly, Tanjore, Tondiman's 
Country, Dindigul, Jfadura, and 
Tinnevelly. The rivers are the Cole- 
roon, Cavery, Vyparoo, and several 
smaller streams. This province pre- 
sents great variety of appearance. 
The districts of Trichinopoly and 
Tanjore are level and open, well wa- 
tered and fertile, particularly Tan- 
jore. Tondiman's Country consists 
for the greater part of thick jungle. 
Dindigul and ]\Iadura are moun- 
tainous and Avoodcd, well Avatered 
and fertile. Tinnevelly is level and 
open. The productions are rice, to- 
bacco, cotton, and jaggery, the latter 
two articles principall}' in Tinne- 
velly. There are elephants in the 
southern and western parts of ]Ma- 
dura and Dindigul. The princi]>al 
towns are Trichinopoly, Tanjore, 

Combaconum, Tranqucbar, Nagore, 
Negaputam, Poodoocotta, Dindigul, 
Sholavandrum, Madura, Shevagun- 
ga, llanumd, Tinnevelly, Palamcot- 
tah, and Tuticorin. This province 
has its present general name of 
Southern Carnatic from the English. 
There is no native name applicable 
to it as a whole. 

CAROOR is situated on the northern 
bank of the river Amravutti, in the 
province of Coimbatoor, not far from 
the Cavery, and about fifty miles 
westerly from Trichinopoly. The 
Amravutti being the ancient boun- 
dary between the dominions of My- 
sore and Trichinopoly, Caroor was 
formerly a place of considerable com- 
merce, and is stiU a neat, pleasant 

CARWANUK, the bustard florikan. 
It is a common bird in India all the 
year round, but not much esteemed 
by sportsmen. 

CASHMERE. Cashmere is bounded 
on the north and south-cast by the 
Himalaya mountains, separating it 
from Thibet; and on the east, south, 
and west by Lahore. Its principal 
river is the Jelum, which traverses it 
from east to west. There are also 
numerous smaller streams and lakes, 
many of them navigable for boats, 
affording means of communication, 
and copiously watering the province 
throughout. Caslimere consists of a 
valley, of an oval form, about 60 
miles from north to south, and 110 
miles from east to west, surrounded 
on all sides by lofty mountains. 
There is a tradition, which seems 
from appearances to be well founded, 
that the whole of this valley was 
once the bed of a large lake. It is 
generally of a level surface, and is 
celebrated throughout Asia for the 
beauty of its situation, the fertility of 
its soil, and the pleasantness of its cli- 
mate. Earthquakes are, however, fre- 
quent, and on this account the houses 
are usually built of Avood. This pro- 
vince yields abundant crops of rice. 
It also produces wheat, barley, and 
other grains ; various kinds of fruits 




and flowers common to Europe, as 
well as those generally fomid in 
i\sia; suijar, wine, and a superior 
kind of saifron. Iron, of an excel- 
lent quality, is found in the moun- 
tains. Cashmere is famous for the 
manufacture of very fine sliawls. 
The wool of which these are made is 
hrought from Tliibet, and j)repared 
in Cashmere. The natives are like- 
Avise very clever in all kinds of lac- 
quered ware and cabinet-work, and 
they make the best writing-paper in 
Asia. The principal towns are Cash- 
mere and Islamabad. The natives 
of Cashmere, or, as they are gene- 
rally denominated, Cashmerians, are 
partly of Hindoo, and partly of Af- 
ghan and jMoghul origin. They are 
;i stout, well-formed people, of a gay 
and lively disposition, and much ad- 
dicted to literature and poetry. The 
Cashmerian females have always 
been noted for their beauty and 
their fair complexions, and were for- 
merly much sought after for wives 
by the Moghul nobleniLn of Delhi. 
The mountains arc inhabited by 
tribes entirely distinct from the 
Cashmerians of the valley, but 
scarcely any thing is yet known 
about them. The total population 
of the valley is sujiposed to be about 
600,000. It is governed by a iSikh 

CASHMERE, formerly called Srce- 
nuggur, is the capital of the pro- 
vince of Cashmere. It is situated 
on both banks of the river Jelum, 
in Lat. 33 deg. 23 min. N., Long. 74 
deg. 47 min. E., and contains about 
150,000 inhabitants. 

CASTE, tribe, breed, from the Por- 
tuguese word casta, a breed. The 
Hindoo religion divides the people 
into castes. 

CATAMARAN, a small boat, or, ra- 
ther, a log of wood, on which cer- 
tain amphibious natives of the Co- 
roniandel coast traverse the sea. 
There is much conmiunication be- 
tween the shipping and the shore at 
JIadras by means of these small 
craft. They accommodate but a 

single individual, who either sits 
across them, or squats, tailor- 
fashion, emploj'ing a single jiaddle 
to direct and propel the vessel. It is 
amazing to observe the rapidity and 
ease with which the adventurous 
navigator rights his craft and re- 
sumes his position after being cap- 
sized by a hostile wave. 

CATTIE, a Chinese measure, used in 
computing quantities of tea. 

CAUZEE, or CAZI, a ]\[ahomedan 
judge, or justice, who occasionally 
officiates also as a public notary, in 
attesting deeds, by affixing his name 
thereto. He is the same officer Avhom 
in Turkey is called Cadi. 

CAVERY, the. This river rises in 
the western hills of Koorg, near the 
province of Malabar, and runs east- 
wards through Mysore, Coimbatoor, 
and Southern Carnatic. At Triclii- 
nopoly it divides into two branches: 
the northern branch is named the 
Coleroon, and flows into the Ray of 
Rengal at Devicotta. The southern 
branch retains the name of the 
Cavery, and flows through Tanjore 
by a number of channels into the 
Bay of Bengal. 

C AWNEY, a Aladras measure, equal to 
1.3223 acres. 

situated on the west side of the 
Ganges, which is here more than a 
mile broad, in Lat. 26 deg. 30 min. 
iS"., Long. 80 deg. 13 min. E. It is 
a modern town, and one of the 
l)rincipal military stations in the 
lirovince of Allahabad to which cir- 
cumstance it owes its rise. The 
neighbouring gardens produce abun- 
dance of grapes, peaches, and other 
European fruits and vegetables. 

CELEBES. This is a large island, of 
very irregular shape, extendingfrom 
Lat. 2 deg. N. to nearly G deg. S., 
and from Long, ll'.t deg. to 125 deg. 
E., and lying east of Borneo, from 
which it is separated by tlu; Straits 
of Macassar. It is divided into :i 
number of independent states, of 
which the princijjal are Boni and 
JIacassar. Its principal articles of 




export are gold, cotton cloths, sn.fro, 
cassia, pearls, and sea-slug. The 
small Island of i;ootoon,at the south- 
eastern extremity of Celebes, also 
produces the bread-fruit. The prin- 
cipal towns are IMacassar and I5oni. 
By the natives, and by the IMalays, 
this island is called Kegree Ourang 
Buggess, or the " Buggessman's 
Country," and sometimes " Thana 
Macassar." It received its European 
name of Celebes from the Portuguese. 
It contains several distinct tribes of 
inhabitants, of which the principal 
aretheBnggesses and the JMacassecs. 
CEYLON, an island, situated at the 
entrance of the Bay of Bengal. It 
lies between 6 deg. and 10 deg. of 
N. Lat. and between 8(! deg. and 82,1- 
deg. E. Long. Its extreme length 
is about 240 miles, and the breadth 
varies from forty to 170 miles. It 
is called Lanka, or Lanka Dwipa 
(the island of Lanka), by the Cin- 
galese, who are the inhabitants of 
the interior, and of the southern 
parts of the islands, Ilangee by the 
Tamulians, who are the inhabitants 
of the north. It was known to the 
; ancient Greeks and Eomans under 
the name of Taprobane. The east 
shore is in many places bold and 
rocky. The north and north-west 
are low and flat. The south and 
sovith-east are much elevated, and 
have a very picturesque appearance. 
The interior abounds Avith immense 
jungles, lofty mountains, extensive, 
rich, and well watered plains. 
The annual range of the thermo- 
meter is trom 76 deg. to SG deg. at 
Colombo, on the west coast ; from 
70 deg. to 87 deg. at Galle, on the 
south coast; from 70 deg. to 90 deg. 
at Jafhia, on the north coast ; and 
from 74 deg. to 91 diig. at Trinco- 
malee, on the east coast. Atlvandy, 
in the centre of the island, it ranges 
from GG deg. to 80 deg. AtNuwara 
Eliya, fifty miles south-east of 
Kandy, in the middle of the day, 
the thermometer seldom exceeds 73 
deg., and in the nights in December 
and January, 1836-37, it was some- 

times as low at 28 deg. Tliere are 
four large rivers (besides many 
secondary ones), all of which take 
their rise in the range of mountains, 
the centre of which is Adam's Peak. 
Thej' are the I\iahawEeli Ganga, the 
Kalu Ganga, the Kalani Ganga, and 
the Walawa Ganga. The chief 
harbours in Ceylon are Colombo, 
on the west coast (in the form of a 
semicircle, not capable of containing 
ships of more than 200 tons burden) ; 
Trincomalee, on the cast coast ; a 
harbour so large and commodious, 
that it has been said the whole navy 
of England could ride in it with 
perfect safety; and Galle, on the south 
coast. In the inner harbour, ships 
may lie in security all parts of the 
A'car, as the high lands on all sides 
shelter it from every wmd. The 
outer roads are spacious. Tlie chief 
towns of Ceylon are the following: 
Colombo (Kolamba, in the native 
language), tlie English capital, on 
the west coast, in Lat. 6 deg. .57min. 
N., and Long. 80 deg. E. The fort 
is situated on a small projection of 
land, W' ashed on three sides by the 
sea. Tlie ramparts are strong. 
There is a deep fosse on the side 
that is not washed by the sea. Over 
this are two drawbridges, one near 
the south gate, leading to the Galle 
i'ace, the other on the east, leading 
to the Pettah, outside or native 
town. The streets, of which there 
are four principal ones, and along 
each side of which are rows of fine 
old Suriya, or tulip trees, cut each 
other at right angles. The public 
buildings in the fort are the Gover- 
nor's house, the English church, a 
library well stocked Avith books of 
all kinds, but open only to the civil, 
militaiy, and ecclesiastical servants 
of government, a general post-of&ce, 
the government offices, a hospital, 
medical museum, and numerous 
shops and offices, &c., belonging to 
I'^nglish and native merchants. A 
lake almost insulates the fort. In 
the centre of this lake is a tongue of 
land, called Slave Island, being the 



place where the Dutch used to keep 
their slaA'es. The Pettah, or outside 
town, is regularly built, and divided 
into numerous streets. In the 
Pettah are situated the supreme 
court, the magistrate's court, the 
cutcher}-, the Dutch church, a lofty 
building erected in 1746, on a hill 
in the centre of the Pettah, a 
Malabar, or Tamul cluircli, called 
St. Thomas's, another churcli called 
St. Paul's, built by government in 
ISIG, for the use of tlae Portuguese 
Protestants; several churches and 
chapels belonging to the Roman 
Catholics, and chapels belonging to 
the Wesleyan Wethodist and Bap- 
tist missionaries. The population 
of Colombo, consisting of English, 
Dutch, Portuguese, Cingalese, 
Moormen, Malays, Parsees, Chinese, 
Tamulians, and Caflfres, is estimated 
at about 35,000. Three English 
judges preside over the supreme 
court of Colombo. The criminal 
sessions are held four times a year. 
In other places the sessions are held 
twice a jear. According to the 
charter granted to the island in 1833, 
one of the three judges must always 
remain in Colombo. Tiie magis- 
trates of the district courts have no 
power to condemn a person to suffer 
death, to be transported, to be impri- 
soned more than a year, to suffer 
more than 100 lashes, or to be fined 
more than ten pounds. In all cases 
there is a right of appeal from the 
smaller courts to the supreme court, 
and the governor has the power to 
reverse the sentence of the supreme 
court. In any case of more than 
live Imndred pounds, the parties, by 
giving security to the amount of 
tiiree hundred pounds, can appeal to 
the Queen of England. The govern- 
ment of Ceylon is vested in a 
governor (with a salary of 700 )/. a 
year), assisted by two councils, the 
legislative and executive councils, 
the members of both of which are, 
except in tliree or four instances, 
servants of government. The mili- 
tary force of Ceylon consists of 3300 

or 4000 men, about two-thirds of 
whom are Europeans, and the rest 
Malays, Cafires, &c. The ecclesi- 
astical establishment consists of 
an archdeacon, under whom are five 
European chaplains and five native 
chaplains. The roads from Colombo 
to Kandy, seventy-two miles into 
the Ulterior, and from Colombo to 
Galle, seventy-two miles along tlie 
coast southwards, are nearly as 
good as the roads in England, and 
mail coaches run daily to both of 
these places. To other parts of the 
island the mails are carried hj men. 
Large tracts of land in almost every 
part of the country, and particularly 
in the southern and central parts of 
the island, have been purchased of 
government by English merchants 
and others at the rate of five shillings 
an acre. Parts of these have been 
cleared and planted with coSee, 
or cinnamon, or sugarcane, the pro- 
duce of which has far more than 
realised the expectations of the pur- 
chasers in most instances. Some 
also of the richer natives, seeing the 
success that has attended the specu- 
lations of the Eurojjean merchants, 
have imitated their good example, 
and there is every reason to believe 
that in the course of a few years the 
wild beasts of the jungles will be 
driven away from their fastnesses 
by the advances of civilisation, and 
that tracts of jungles and mountains, 
now altogether useless, or worse 
than useless, will soon be brought 
under cultivation, and will yield 
their fruit in its season ibr the benefit 
of man. Compnlsor}' labour, which 
was almost as great a hindrance to 
the improvement of the natives as 
slavery itself, has been abolished. 
Ceylon aboimds with minerals and 
precious stones, iron ore, mica, 
plumbago, nitre, mercury, salt, 
the ruby, cat's eye, liyacintli, 
sapphire, topaz, the adamantine 
spar, Matura diamond, the tour- 
maline, and the amethyst. There is 
a great variety of <piadrupeds in 
Ceylon. The j ungles and momitains 




are literally filled with elephants. 
Tamed ones are used in common. 
Buffiiloes are as common as cows in 
England. In some parts they are 
■wild. The breed of native cattle is 
small. Tlie horses used in Ceylon 
are chiefly those hronght from 
Arabia, the coast of India, and the 
Cape of Good Hope, and some few 
from England. Sheep and goats 
abound chiefly in the north of the 
island. Among ■wild animals may 
be reckoned leopards, bears, elk, 
deer, hogs, jackals, polecats, porcu- 
pines, ■wild cats, different kinds of 
monkeys, squirrels, musk rats, and 
field rats. Among reptiles and in- 
sects may be mentioned the tortoise, 
large and small guana, rock snake, 
cobra capella, polonga, rat snake, 
aUigator,lizard, chameleon, tarantula, 
beetles of various kinds, scorpion, 
grasshopper, musquito, wasp, fire- 
fly, glow-worm, eye-fly, black, white, 
and red ant, land and water leech, 
and centipede. The plumage of the 
feathered tribes is very brilliant. 
Among the birds may be enumerated 
the wild peacock, kite, vulture, 
various kinds of owls, heron, wild 
red or jungle cock, snipe, kingfisher, 
crane, a species of the bird of para- 
dise, wood-pecker, water-hen, green 
parrot, teal, mmah, myriads of 
sparrows, and millions of crows. 
Tlie principal inhabitants of the 
island of Ceylon are the Cingalese. 
They inliabit all the interior of the 
island, as well as the maritime parts, 
and may with the greatest propriety 
be considered the Aborigines. The 
Cingalese are kind, mild in their 
manners, and hospitable. The better 
educated amongst them, who have 
learnt the English language, are 
employed by the government in 
various offices of great responsibility. 
Though the Cingalese profess, as 
the majority of them do, the doc- 
trines of the Budhist religion, in 
which no distinction of caste is 
recognised, yet they do observe caste 
with the nicest punctuality. They 
are divided into twenty-one castes. 

Feelings of the most intolerable pride, 
on the one hand, and of the most 
abject humiliation on the other, are 
generated and kept alive from age to 
age by the system of caste, which 
sets every man's heart as well as 
hand against his brother. There is 
little domestic intercourse between 
persons of different castes, and it is 
considered a great disgrace and 
degradation for a man or woman to 
marry a person of a lower caste than 
their own. There is little in their 
outward appearance to distinguisli 
persons of one caste from those of 
another. In the maritime parts 
persons of some of the low cistes 
are not allowed to wear combs in 
their hair, or jackets, or shoes and 
stockings, as those of the high castes 
do. In "personal appearance the 
Cingalese are good looking : they 
have bright black eyes, long black 
hair, which persons of both sexes 
turn up behind, and fasten in a knot, 
which they call a "ciindi/." The 
men wear above their cundies large 
square combs of tortoise shell, under- 
neath which is a small semicircular 
one. Young unmarried women are 
generally to be distinguished from 
married women by having a small 
semicircular comb in their hair 
above their cundies. The insldes 
of their hands and the soles of 
their feet are white, the rest of the 
body black. The people of the inte- 
rior seldom shave their beards, while 
those on the sea-coast do. \Vhen a 
young man undergoes the operation 
of shaving for the first time, he 
always gives a feast to his friends. 
The dress of the Cingalese is very 
neat, and remarkably well adapted 
to the country. The head men in the 
low countries generally wear a 
combo)/, which is a piece of cloth 
about three yards long, wrajiped 
round the waist, and fastened by a 
broad band or strong belt. Their 
shirts reach only just within the top 
of the comboy, where they are bound 
tight Avith it. The dress for the 
upper part of the body is a waistcoat 




and jacket. The married ■women 
amoni;- the Cingalese in general do 
all tlie household Avork, and go to 
the ba.-ars to sell tlie produce of their 
gardens. They are also mucli en- 
gaged in ■weeding the paddi/ (rice, 
'wheu growing) crops, cutting the 
htrukhan, and other " fine grains," 
■when ripe, planting and digging up 
the sweet potatoe, &c. They carry 
all tlieir goods on their heads in 
baskets. A poor ■woman may be 
seen with a basket load of the pro- 
duce of her garden on her head, and 
carr\'iiig one little cliikl astride on 
her hip, supported b}* one of her arms 
passing across its back, and with 
anotlier little child dragging her 
comboy on the other side. The men 
never carry burdens on their heads. 
They have an elastic piece of wood 
called alkata or kat-Ii, generally made 
of the areka tree, about live feet long 
and three inches broad, made very 
smooth, and a little tapering towards 
each end, ■where there is a notch. 
To each end they tie their loads of 
pnchlii. rice, &c., and carry it across 
their shoulders. 

CIIABOOK, a whip. Before ■vvise 
governors had insisted upon a re- 
cognition of the personal liberty of 
the natives and a proper treatment 
of all classes by the I^uropeans in 
India, the " whip" was a common 
instrument of coercion, used alike to 
punish servants or chastise the inso- 
lence of a poor trader who dared to 
ask for his due, or declined to part with 
his yoods without promj)t pavment. 

CHABUOK-SOWAK, literally, a 
■whip-horseman, a rough rider. 

CHAKUKAN, service lands, from 
chakur, a servant. 

CJIALIEBS, a distinct class of people, 
employed on tlie island of Ceylon to 
prepare the spice fmm the cinnamon 
tree. I'roc'uring bunches of about 
three feet in length, they scrape off 
the rough bark with knives, and 
tlien, witli another instrument, strip 
off tlie inner rind in long slips. 
The.'e are tied up in bundles, and 
put to dry in the sun, and the wood 

is sold for fuel. The caste of the 
Chaliers or "peeler" is very low, 
and it would be considered a degra- 
dation for any other to follow the 
same business. 

CHALL, the Turkish term for a 

CIIAA'DA, situated eight}- miles 
southward from Nagpore, in the pro- 
vince of Gondwana, is a populous 
and strongly fortified town, e(iual in 
size to Nagpore, and lias generally 
been the principal depot of thelMah- 
ratta government in this province. 

CHAN UAL AS, pariahs ; outcasts, 
Hindoos who have violated some 
leading principle in the Hindoo 

CHANDERNAGORE, distant sixteen 
miles from Calcutta, on the west: 
bank of the Hoogly, belongs to the 
French. It contains about 45,000 
inhabitants. It is a place of no sort 
of importance. 

CHANDOOR, a fortified town, com- 
manding the principal pass into 
Aurnngabad, and situated in Lat. 
20 deg. 19 min. N., Long. 74 deg. 19 
min. E. 

CHANDRA, or SOilA, the moon. In 
Hindoo mytliology it is described as 
a male, and is painted young, beau- 
tiful, and of dazzling fiiirness ; two- 
armed, and having in his hands a 
club and a lotus. He is usually rid- 
ing on or in a car drawn by an ante- 
lope. Being a Kettrie, he h of the 
warrior caste. It is liekl fortunate 
to be born under this jjlanet, as the 
individual will possess many friends, 
together witii the iiigli distinctions 
and enjoyments of life. Soma pre- 
sides over Somvor. or IMondav. 

CIIAPER KHANEII, a piace'in Per- 
sia, where post-horses are held in 
readiness for the service of the go- 

CHARPOYS, small beds in use among 
all classes of natives of India, and not 
unfrequently used by officers iu camp, 
because of their portable character. 
Tliey consist of a square or oblong 
wooden frame, resting upon four 
stout legs, cotton tape being stretched 




and laid across to receive a mat, a 
goochy, or otlier bedding. 

CHAliVEDAR, a mule driver with a 
caravan in Persia or Turkey. 

CHATTAIT, an umbrella or parasol. 
These very necessary protections 
from thelndian sun areof all sizes and 
materials. The overseer who is much 
exposed in going over Avorks and 
plantations, the engineer superin- 
tending the construction of buildings, 
the sportsman in his howdah on the 
elephant's back, the functionary -who 
has frequently to go from shore to 
ship, are usually attended by a coo- 
lie, who bears a broad chattah 
form.ed of the talipot or dried plan- 
tain leaf over his head. The natives 
use silk or cotton umbrellas, except- 
ing at Bombay, Madras, and Cejdon, 
where a Chinese parasol, formed of 
paper spread on ribs of bamboo, and 
varnished black, is exceedingly po- 

CHATTY, an earthen pot of a globular 
form, witli a sliort neck. Chatties 
preserve water at a cool temperature, 
and being partially porous, free it of 
many of its impurities before use. 
Several chatties of water form the 
shower bath of a European in those 
houses wliich are not furnished with 
one of the ordinary mechanical con- 

CHECKS, screens to keep out the 
glare. These agreeable addenda to 
Indian habitations are formed cf 
bamboo latlies or strips, fi-om four to 
•six feet in length, and about the 
thickness of a very large knitting- 
needle, or, perhaps, of a crowquill. 
A thin, clean-worked lath, of the 
.same material, is put at the top and 
bottom. The cheeks are generally 
painted green or reddish brown, and 
are suspended to the windows, doors, 
and entrances of tents. 

CHEECHEE, a word used offensivel}', 
to designate the half-castes orcountr\' 
borns (Ihirasians, q. v.) It takes its 
origin in every-day expressions of 
the country born ladies, synonymous 
with " Oil fie! " — " Nonsense" — " Eor 
shame," Sec. 

CHEETA, the spotted leopard. 
These animals, which abound in 
the jungles of Hindostan, are 
caught -when young and trained by 
the native chieftains to hunt ante- 
lopes. Tliey are brought out upon 
a wheeled platform blindfolded and 
restrained ; the bandage being re- 
moved from their eyes, and the ante- 
lope then allowed plenty of law, they 
are let loose upon the animal and 
speedily succeed in bringing it down. 
This is a popular up-country sport. 

CHELA, a disciple, or follower. 

CHELLAUN, Hindostanee. A way- 
bill, provided by postmasters in In- 
dia as a check to travellers, govern- 
ment messengers, carriers, &c., Avho 
have contracted to perform a given 
distance in a certain time. 

CHENAB, the largest of the fivp 
rivers forming the Punjab. It rises 
in the Himalayas, eastward of Cash- 
mere, and flowing south-westerly, is 
j oined by the Jelum at Trimoo Ghaut. 
Lower down, about 50 miles north of 
jNIooltan, it receives the Bavee, and 
a little above Ooch it is joined by 
the Sutlej, or, as it is also called at 
this part, the Garra, whence it flows 
south-westerly into the Indus at 
Mittun. The Chenab is considered 
to be the Acesines of the Greeks. 

C HENNA, parched grain, a favourite 
condiment among the Hindoos when 
it is mixed with lime-juice and 

CHEKA POONJEE, a small English 
station in the Cossai hills, about 
20 miles to the north of Silhet. 

CHERRY ]\IERRY, the vulgar phrase 
for Buxis, or Bukshish (presents), 
chiefly, if not solely, in use in West- 
ern India. " Cherry Merry Bam- 
boo" is a pleasant phrase for a 
thrashing with a bamboo. 

CHIAOUISnES, Turkish or Persian. 
i\Iessengers or heralds. 

CHIBOUK, a long Turkish pipe, the 
stem of which is formed of cherry 
wood or ebony, the mouth-piece of 
amber, and the bowl of baked earth- 

CIIICACOLE, a district of the North- 


■ CH 


ern Circars. It was anciently de- 
signated the Kalimja Desum. It is 
the largest of the Circars. It is 
generally hilly, well watered, having 
four rivers flowing into the sea at 
Kalingapatam, Chicacole, Bimlipa- 
tam, and Vizigapatam, besides some 
smaller streams, and very fertile. 

CHICACOLE. Tliis town is situated 
a little distance inland, on the north- 
ern bank of a river of the same 
name in the district of Chicacole, in 
the Xorthern Circars. By the Ma- 
homedans it was named Mafooz 
Bundur. It is noted for the manu- 
facture of muslins. 

CHIKARA, the Indian ravine deer. 

CHUvOIJ, a large bird, of the partridge 
kind, bigger than the red grouse, 
found in the jungles and corn-fields 
of India, at the foot of the hills. 

CHILLAW, Persian. Plain, boiled rice. 

CHILLUai, the bowl of the hookah 
and the ingredients placed therein 
for smoking purposes. The prepared 
tobacco, and the charcoal ball (ghool) 
constitute a chillum. 

CHILLUMBEUM, This is a large 
and poi)idous town, situated on the 
coast, tliirty-six miles south from 
Pondicherr}', in the province of Cen- 
tral or rdiddle Carnatic, and not far 
from the river Coleroon. Tliere is an 
extensive indigo factory at tliis place, 
and the islands in the Coleroon are 
covered with the indigo plant. It is 
also celebrated on account of its pa- 
godas, wliich are large and ancient. 
About a mile to the north of Chil- 
lumbrum are the remains of Porto 
Novo, formerly a large and wealthy 
town, but destroyed by llyder Ali 
when he invaded the Carnatic in 
1782. It is still a place of some trade. 

CHILLU.MCHEE. See Giiindy. 

CIIIN-CIIIN, a familiar con,ii)liment- 
nry salutation in use among the 
Chinese of Canton and otlier ports. 

CHINNU MU8TUKA, in Hindoo 
mythology, is a form of Parvati as 
Kali, and the mcti of Siva, in the 
form of Kapali. 

CHIT, a corruption of tlie Hindoo term 
Chit, hee (loosely pronounced Chitty), 

which in English means " a letter," be 
tlie same short or long, for there are 
not in India any such epistolary dis- 
tinctions as correspond with our 
" notes," " letters," &c. Through- 
out the British eastern territories, 
verbal messages by servants are al- 
most unknown, so that chits are 
flying about towns and cantonments 
all day long, and the peons or sepoys 
are kept in constant employment as 
the bearers of these despatches. The 
chit is often sent open, and the replj^ 
returned " per bearer " on the same 
sheet of paper, to save time. 

CHITTACX, the lowest denomination 
of the gross weights. It Aveighs one 
ounce, seventeen pennyweights and 
twelve grains troy. 

CHITTAGONG, or properly Islama- 
bad, is a seaport, situated in Lat. 22 
deg. 22 min. N., Long. 91 deg. 42 
min. E. It is a place of considera- 
ble trade, particularly for teak and 
other woods, and numbers of large 
ships are constructed in its dock- 
yards. About twenty miles to the 
northward of Islamabad is a hot 
spring, called Seetakoond, and about 
eight miles from Seetakoond there is 
a small volcano. 

CHITTLEDPOOG, a fortified town 
and strong hill-fort, the capital of 
the district of Chittledroog, in the 
province of Mysore. It is situated 
in Lat. 14 deg. 4 min. N., Long. Tfj 
deg. 30 min. E. By the natives it is 
called " Seetla Doorg," which signi- 
fies " the spotted fortress," and also 
Chuttra kul, " the lunbrella rock." 
The fort stands on a cluster of rocky 
hills, the highest jaeak of whicli is 
about 800 feet above the plain. The 
ascent is partly by steps, and partly 
by notches, cut in the steep and 
smooth surface of the rock, Tlierc 
are in the fort two fine tanks of 
water, several pagodas, and a deep 
well sunk in the rock as a magazine 
for ghee. Cliittledroog is famous for 
tlie variety and excellence of its 
fruits. In a dell among the moun- 
tains, a short distance to the west of 
Chittledroog, there is a curious suite 




of (lark subterranean apartments, 
Avliicli probably Avere formerly the 
habitations of devotees. 

CHITTOOK, in the province of Cen- 
tral C;;rnatic. This town is situated 
in the hills, about eighty miles west 
from JIadras. It was formerly one 
of sevei'al small pollans, or hill dis- 
tricts, and came into the possession 
of the English in 1801, though the 
Polygars, or hill chiefs, were not 
finallV subdued till 1804. 

CHITT ORE stands in Lat. 24 deg. 52 
min. N., Long. 74 deg. 45 min. E. 
This was for many centuries the ca- 
pital of the principality of Odeypoor, 
and much celebrated for its strength 
and riches. It was several times 
captured by the ilahomedans, but 
was never permanently retained by 
them. It is still a line town, and 
contains many temples and other 
buildings remarkably well construct- 
ed, particularly two towers of white 
marble, about 100 feet high, and 
finely carved, dedicated to Siva. 
The fort, which was formerly consi- 
dered one of the strongest in India, 
stands on a steep rock overlooking 
the town, and about four miles in 

CHOBDAR, or silver pole-bearer. A 
retainer of persons of consequence; 
sometimes only one, but usually two 
are employed, and even four may be 
seen in the retinue of very exalted 
characters, such as judges, members 
of council, collectors, &c. The pole, 
or chohe, borne by these functionaries 
is about four feet and a half in length, 
tapering gradually, from the metal 
ferule at its base, to the top, which 
is usually about four inches in dia- 
meter, and embossed with figures, 
such as a tiger's head, &c., while the 
rest, for the whole length, is of some 
pattern, such as volutes, scales, 
flowers, &c. The pole consists of a 
stafl", perhaps three quarters of an 
inch in diameter, spreading towards 
its top, so as to assimilate to the 
form of the exterior case, which is 
of solid wrought silver, often weigh- 
ing 150 rupees or more. The chob- 

dar is generally a man of some pru- 
dence, versed in all the ceremonies of 
court etiquette. He stands at the 
inner door of the audience, or re- 
ceiving apartments, announcing the 
approach of visitors, and conducting 
them to the presence. The clwbe 
being in itself of some value, and 
the office of considerable trust ia 
many instances, it is usual for this 
servant to give adequate security, 
by means of creditable persons, who 
vouch for, and take upon themselves, 
the actual responsibility regarding 
his conduct. Besides the duty of 
announcing visitors, chobdars run 
before the palankeens, or occupy 
seats with the coachman on the car- 
riages of their employers. They like- 
wise carry messages, or notes, on 
formal occasions, especially to su- 

CHOITUNYA, the founder of the sect 
of Gosains. 

CHOKEEUAR, a watchman; an offi- 
cer who keeps watch at a custom- 
house station, and receives tolls and 
customs. They are a corrupt body 
of officers, antl as frequentl}^ serve 
to cloak as to detect crimes and 

CHOKEEDAREE, the duty, or pay 
of a ■watchman ; a tax for defraying 
the expense of watchmen. 

CHOKY, or CHOWKIE, a chair, seat; 
guard, watch; the station of a guard 
or watchman; a place where an 
ofEcer is stationed to receive toUs 
and customs. 

CHOOP ! contraction of Chooprao, to 
be silent. When domestics in India 
make a noise, whilst you sigh for 
quiet, it is common to call out 
" choop." 

CHOP, a Chinese word, indicating qua- 
lity; first chop denotes superiority. 

CHOULTRY, a covered public build- 
ing, generally of hewn stone, often 
richly carved and ornamented, for 
the accommodation of travellers. 

CHOUMONK.l DEVL ti mountain 
in tlie province of Kemaon, 7,800 
feet hid). 

CHOW-CHOW, a Chinese word, indi- 




eating a mixture of any kind. Ap- 
plied particularly to picicles and 

CHOWDRV, a permanent superin- 
tendent and receiver of the land re- 
Tenue under the Hindu system, 
whose office has been partly super- 
seded by the Zemindars. 

CHOW-PATTIES, unleavened bread, 
.generally made of wheaten or of bar- 
ley meal; which, being made into a 
good dough, is flattened into cakes 
between the hands. Such cakes are 
tl'.en either put at the edges of the 
heated choolah, or fire-place, or they 
are baked upon a convex plate of 
iron, circular, and aljout ten inches 
or a foot in diameter. This plate, 
called a towah, is precisely the same 
as the (jirdle made in Scotland for 
baking their oaten bread, and is 
used in the same manner. 

CHOWKIE, a whisk, made by fasten- 
ing horse-hair to a short stick, com- 
monly lacquered in rings of alternate 
colours. This implement is used to 
drive the flies away. 

CIIUBOOTUll, a terrace raised in 
some elevated place in India. 

CHL'UDER, a long piece of cloth, of 
every variety of material (nmslin, 
cambric, silk, &c.), worn by the wo- 
men of Hindostan to envelop the 
luad, neck, shoulders, and entire 
person. It extends somewhat below 
tiie knee, and is thrown across the 
body, supported on the shoulder, 
forming folds resembling those of 
the Roman toga. 

CIIULL, Hindostanee. An abbrevia- 
tion of ClhuUo, or " Go along." A 
word in common use to stimulate 
the motions of a Hindoo servant. 

CHUMBUL, a river in the province of 
]Mal\va, which flows northward into 
Ajmeer, where it turns to theeastward 
into Agra, and falls into the ffunma. 

CHUMPANEKK, in tiie province of 
Guzerat, is a hill fortress situated 
upon a large mountain, or rock, 
rising about 2500 feet above the 
surro\mding level plain. At its foot 
there are the remains of an ancient 
city, the ruins of M'hich extend for 

several miles round, said to have 
been the capital of a Hindoo princi- 
pality long prior to the first Ma- 
homedan invasion. 

CIIUNAM, lime. 

CHUNDRIKA, Hindostanee. The 
ravs of the moon. 

CHUPPA-KHANEH, a printing-office. 
Printing is now carried on to a great 
extent in the East Indies; at each 
Presidency there are numerous news- 
papers published in the English and 
native languages, together witli ma- 
gazines, pamphlets, and works of 
all kinds. The Government and the 
Missionary establishments likewise 
support many printing presses for 
the purpose of multiplying copies of 
regulations, school books, transla- 
tions of the Scriptures, &c., for dis- 
semination among the natives. The 
compositors are natives. 

CHUPPAO, a foray, or plundering ex- 
cursion. The term is in use in 
Persia, Tartarv, and Afghanistan. 

CHUPRASSY, Hindostanee. A mes- 
senger; a police peon. 

CHURRAGHEE, allowances for oil 
for the lamps burnt in the tombs of 
reputed saints. 

CHURRAL'G, or CHEEAUG, a small 
shallow earthen lamp, nearly in the 
shape of a heart, and about three 
inches in diameter. It is placed in 
one of the numerous niches made in 
the inner walls of native houses in 
India, at perhaps, four feet above 
the floor. The wicks are chiefly 
formed of slips of rag, rolled up to 
the thickness of a goose quill, and 
deposited in a small pool of cocoa- 
nut oil. A larger description of 
chiirrauf) is used for nautches in the 
open air or public illuminations. It 
is then placed on a stem of wood, 
having a broad base, or a cross to 
support it, and a small block at its 
summit, hollowed out to receive the 
bottom of the lamp. Some use brass 
apparatus, not unlike the beacon fires 
in vogue in England a few centuries 

CIIURUK POOJA, a Hindoo festival 
deriving its name Churuk (or duihra'), 




a -".vheel or discus, from the circle 
performed in tlie swinging part of it, 
that terminates the annual ceremo- 
nies in honour of Siva. Williamson, 
in his Vade Mecitm, says, " The hijiher 
classes do not engage in it, although 
they contribute towards the expense 
of, and countenance it. The initi- 
atory ceremonies of purification, ab- 
stinence, and exercises of devotion, 
take place several days before the 
commencement of the rites, during 
■which time the Simnyasees, or wor- 
shippers, form themselves into par- 
ties, and wander about the streets 
vrith horns, drums, &c., making a 
most intolerable din. The first ex- 
hibition is that of suspension, which 
is performed by two posts being 
erected, on the top of which is placed a 
strong bar, from which the Sunny usee, 
or worshipper, is suspended Iw his 
feet over a fire kindled beneath him, 
into which i-osin is occasionallj^ cast. 
His head is then completely enveloped 
in the smoke, though sufficiently 
high to be beyond the reach of the 
flame. On the following day the 
Sumvjasees dance and roll themselves 
upon the downy beds of various de- 
scriptions of j)rickly plants. Their 
next ceremony is called the Jump 
Sanya, or jumping on a couch of 
pointed steel, which has been thus 
described. A bamboo scaffolding 
of three or four stages is erected, 
on which the Sunnyasees stand, tier 
above tier, the principal and most 
exiDcrt occup3ing the upper row, 
which is sometimes between twenty 
and thirty feet high. A kind of bed- 
ding, supported by ropes, is stretched 
heneath the scaffolding by a number 
of men. Upon the mattress are 
attached several bars of wood, to 
■whicli are fixed very loosely, and in a 
position sloping forward,semicircular 
knives, \ipon which tlie Sunnyasees 
throw themselves in succession. 
In general the effect of the fall is to 
turn the knives flat upon the bedding, 
in winch case they do no harm; but 
occasionally severe wounds, and even 
death are the consequences of this 

rite. Before they take their leap, 
the performers cast fi'uits, as cocoa- 
nuts, bels, plantains, &c., among 
the crowd, in which there is a great 
scramble for them, as they are sup- 
posed to possess much virtue. Wo- 
men desirous of progeny are very 
anxious to get these donations; and 
those of the first families send per- 
sons to obtain and bring them for 
their private eating. The next is 
the day of the churuh, or swinging 
ceremony. Posts, about thirty feet 
in height, are erected in the sub- 
urbs of a town, across the upper 
part of which are loosely suspend- 
ed long bamboos so as to enable 
them to traverse freely. To one end 
of the bamboo two hooks are fixed, 
by ropes, -which are run through the 
fleshy parts of the back, near the 
shoulders. A rope is also fastened 
to the other end of the bamboo, 
which, as soon as the party who is 
to swing is secured to the hooks, is 
pulled by several men, Avho thus 
raise the other end somewhat higlier 
than the post. They then go round 
with it, Avith considerable velocitj^; 
by which means the man at the other 
end describes a circle of about thirty 
feet in diameter. Sometimes a cloth 
is tied round the body and secured 
to the hooks, to prevent, if the fles'.i 
should be torn away, the man from 
being dashed to pieces; but such is 
frequently not the case, and the party 
falling is often killed on the spot. 
Some of these men, while swinging, 
amuse themselves in smoking and 
throwing fruit and flowers (which 
they take up on purpose) among the 
spectators. On the morning follow- 
ing the churuk, Siva is worshipped 
in the temple, and the festival is con- 
cluded. Dui'ing each day of the 
festival, the Sunnyasees worship the 
sun, pouring water, flowers, &c., &c.. 
on a clay image of the alligator, and 
repeating mimtras," (Jreat eflbrts 
have been made by the missionaries 
and the British government to put an 
end to these ba,rbarous rites, and 
there can be little doubt that under 




the influence of education they ^v]ll 
soon become mere matter of history. 

CHUSAN, an extensive group of is- 
lands in China, of v/liich the princi- 
pal one, named Chusan. is situated in 
Lat. 30 dec-. N., Long. 122 deg. 14 
min. E., about ten miles from the 
mainland. They form part of the 
adjacent province. 

CHUTXEE, a condiment, compounded 
of sweets and acids. Strips of ripe 
fruit, raisins, spices, sour herbs, 
cayenne, lemon juice, &c., are the 
ordinary ingredients pounded and 
boiled together, and then bottled for 
use. Chutnee is much eaten in India 
with curries, stews, &c. 

CINGiVLESE, natives of the interior 
of the island of Ceylon. 

in Hindostan. The boundaries 
of this province consist of, on 
the north, Orissa ; east, the sea ; 
south, the Northern Carnatic; west, 
the Ceded Districts, Hyderabad, Gon- 
dwann, and Orissa, from which pro- 
■vinces it is separated by ranges of 
hills. The divisions are Ganjam, 
Chicacole, Ilajamundry, EUorc, Kon- 
dapilly, and Guntoor. The rivers 
are, the Goodaverj'' and Kistna, 
besides many smaller rivers and 
streams. This province consists of 
a long and narrow tract on the sea- 
coast, shut in throughout the whole 
length of its western boundary by 
ranges of wooded hills. The soil 
along the coast is chiefly sandy, but, 
inland it improves, and is fertile. 
The climate is hot, a:id the air of the 
hills remarkably unhealthy. Tlie 
productions are rice, gram, Avheat, 
and other grains in abundance ; 
sugar, cotton, and excellent tobacco. 
Large quantities of salt are manu- 
factured, and exported, and the 
forests produce teak of a large size. 
The diflerent Circars, and their prin- 
cipal towns, will be separately no- 

COBILV CAPELLA, the hooded- 
snake of the East. There is not, 
it is said, nuich difficulty in extract- 
ing tlie poison of the serpent, which is 

contained in a very small reservoir, 
running along the palate of tlie mouth 
and passing out at each fang:. The na- 
tives of India are supposed to be very 
dexterous in forcing their captives 
to eject this venom, and are then 
enabled to handle them without the 
least danger. Some persons, how- 
ever, Avell acquainted v/ith tlie habits 
of snake-charmers, deny that they 
extract the poison, and atti'ibute the 
impunity with which they handle 
these dangerous reptiles to their ac- 
curate knowledge of the temper and 
disposition of the animal, and their 
ready method of soothing down irri- 
tation. The natives boast the pos- 
session of various antidotes to the 
bite of a snake, and often pretend to 
have imbibed the venom and effected 
a cure. There is an Indian plant 
which goes by the name of choudraca, 
in which considerable confidence is 
placed ; and arsenic, whicli enters 
very largely into the composition of 
the celebrated Tanjore pill, is often 
employed as a counteracting power. 
Volatile alkalies are most generally 
tried by European practitioners, and 
very often prove successful ; but the 
119 different degrees of strength in 
the venom of snakes render it doubt- 
ful wliether, in the worst cases, tliey 
would have any beneficial effect. 
Some medical men aver, that the 
bite of a cobra capella in full vigour, 
and in possession of all its poisonous 
qualities, is as surely fatal as a pis- 
tol-ball ; and that it is only when 
this poison is weakened by expen- 
diture that medicine can bo of any 
COCHIN (Koochee) is upon the Mala- 
bar coast, in the province of Travan- 
core, in Lat. 9 deg. 51 min. N., Long. 
7G deg. 17 min. E. In the year 150.'?, 
the celebrated I'ortuguese admiral, 
Albuquex-que, obtained the permis- 
sion of the rajah to erect a fort at 
this place, which Avas the first pos- 
sessed by any European nation in 
India, In 1663, it was taken by the 
IJutch, under whose government it 
became a very flourishing town. 




]irivin;,' an extensive commerce with 
Arnbia, and otlier countries. It came 
undtr the dominion of the EngHsli 
in 1795, and still has a considerable 
traffic with other parts of India, and 
also with Arabia, China, and the 
F.astern Islands. Ship-building is 
likewise carried on here. About a 
mile distant from Cochin is a small 
town, called ISIuttacherry, inhabited 
by Jews. 
COCHIN CHINA. This country oc- 
cupies the south-eastern corner of 
Asia, being liounded on the north 
by a range of moimtains dividing it 
from China ; east, by the Chinese 
Sea ; south, by the ]\Ialayan Sea; 
west, by ihe Gulf of Siam, and a 
range of mountains separating it 
from Siam. Its divisions or pro- 
vinces are Tunqnin, Cochin China, 
Cambodia, and Siampa. Few coun- 
tries are better supplied with water 
than Tunqnin and the lower parts of 
Cochin China. In the first there are 
more than fifty rivers which flow 
into the sea. The principal are the 
Dounai or Tunquin river, and the 
Cambodia. The Dounai is said to 
have its source in the province of 
Yoonan in China, and receiving the 
addition of many others in its course, 
traverses nearly the whole extent of 
the kingdom, fiilling into the sea 
near Saigong, in Lat. 10 dcg. 47 
min. N, The Cambodia is also said 
to rise in the same province, and 
flows southerly into the sea in about 
Lat. 10 deg. N., after a course of 
abont 1500 miles, the greater part 
of Avhich is navigable for boats. 
This is one of the largest rivers in 
Asia. This country may be de- 
scribed in general terms as consist- 
ing of long and well watered valleys, 
lying between two principal ranges 
of mountains running from north to 
south ; the one on its western, the 
other towards its eastern side, be- 
sides other ranges traversing it from 
west to east. Taken altogether this 
is one of the most fertile countries in 
this quarter of the world, and 
itbounds with valuable productions, 

such as rice in abundance, sugar, 
cotton, silk, tobacco, betel, indigo, 
cinnamon, pepper, ivory, and wax. 
A coarse kind of tea is also exten- 
sively cultivated. The forests are 
well supplied with teak, ebony, 
cedar, and various other woods, and 
they also yield stick-lac and gam- 
boge ; which latter article derives 
its English name from a corruption 
of that of its native district, Cam- 
bodia. Mulberry trees abound, and 
supply food for the silk-worm. Iron 
ore is found in great purity, and it 
is said that there are also mines of 
silver and tin. Gold is procured in 
most of the rivers and mountain- 
streams, and salt and saltpetre are 
plentiful. The animals are in gene- 
ral the same as are found in India, 
witii the exception of sheep, asses, 
and camels, Mhich are not common 
to this country. The flesh of the 
elephant is iised for food. There 
are numerous towns, particularly in 
Tunquin, the principal of which are 
Cachao, the capital of Tunquin ; 
Quinnong, Hue, and Saigon, in 
Cochin China ; and Parorapin, in 
Cambodia ; all sea ports. The 
capital of the kingdom is Hue-foo, or 
Hue, the word " too" meaning city. 
It is situated on a river of the same 
name, about ten miles from its mouth, 
in Lat. 16 deg. 19 min. N., Long. 107 
deg. 12 min. E., strongly fortified 
and armed, and containing about 
40,000 inhabitants. The derivations 
and meaning of the word "Cochin," 
applied to this country, are not 
known; amongst themselves, each 
province retains its distinct name. 
The inhabitants, who are called by 
Europeans by the general appellation 
of Cochin Chinese, are, properly 
speaking, composed of two divisions, 
the Anams and Quantos. The 
Ananis are of Chinese origin, and 
include Tunquinese, Cochin Ciiinese, 
Cambodians, and Sianipese. The 
(Quantos, Avho inhabit the moun- 
tainous districts, are the original 
natives, Avho Avere expelled fi-om the 
low country on its being colonised by 




the Chinese. In appearance and man- 
ners the Anams resemble the Chi- 
nese, from Avhom tliey are descended. 
They are accustomed to redden 
their lips, and stain tlieir teeth 
black, considering wliite teeth to be 
fit only for doi?s. Though remark- 
ably indolent, they are a clever and 
ingenious people, and particularly 
skilful in ship and boat building. 
Tliey have foundries for casting 
cannon, and manufactories of ammu- 
nition, as also of cotton and silk 
cloths, paper, brass and ironware, 
&c. ; but they have not yet been able 
to supply themselves with muskets, 
Avhich they still import from Europe 
and America. The total population 
is estimated at about 5,000,000. 
Tlie religion of this country is a 
branch of the Booddhist system, 
though some of the mountain tribes 
are said still to follow the ancient idol- 
atry, and to Avorship the tiger and 
dog. The Komish religion Avas in- 
troduced by the Portuguese about 
the beginning of the 17th century, 
and subsequently carried on by 
French missionaries, and notwith- 
standing repeated and violent perse- 
cutions, it has made great progress; 
as, according to the statements of the 
French missionaries, tliere are 
throughout the kingdom as many as 
350,000 persons professing their 
religion. The general language is 
the Anam, wliich is of Chinese 
origin, though now so far changed 
as to be distinct. The character 
remains the same as the Chinese, 
and is written the same way. The 
Quantos liave a dirtinct language of 
tlieir own, which they write on 
leaves with an iron style. On the 
sea coast the people usually carry 
on their intercourse with foreigners 
in a very corrupt sort of Portuguese. 
Printing with Avooden blocks is 
practised, but books arc not nume- 
rous, nor do tlie Cochin Chinese 
possess any works of value, either in 
historv or science. 
COCOA-NUT. Tlie cocoa-nut tree 
abounds in the Peninsula of India, 

the coast of Burmah, and the west, 
north, and east parts of the island of 
Ceylon. It is a tree of immense value 
to the people, and to its possessors. 
The tree begins to bear when eight 
or nine years of age. Nearly all the 
domestic Avants of the Hindoo and 
the Cingalese can be supplied by 
the cocoa-nut tree. He can build 
his house entirely of it. The Avails 
and doors are made of cajans (the 
leaA-es plaited), the roof is covered 
■with the same, the beams, rafters, 
&c., are made of the trmik. The 
builder needs no nails, as he can use 
the coir rope made from the outside 
husk. If he Avants a spout, he hol- 
lows the trunk, split in two. It also 
supplies him Avitli spoons, ladles, and 
cups, pans and drmking vessels, 
hookah bowls, lamps, and Avater buc- 
kets; tlio refuse of the kernel, after 
the oil is expressed, serves for food 
for fowls and pigs; the milk from 
the kernel is used in his food. In 
short, if a man has a few cocoa- 
nut trees in his garden, he will neA'cr 
starve. Arrack, a strong spirit, re- 
sembling Avhiskey, is made from 
toddy, tlie juice of the flo\A-er; and 
brooms are made from the ribs of 
the leaflets. 
COCOS. The Cocos, or Keeling Islands, 
are ten or twelve in number, con- 
nected, with the exception of one, by 
coral reefs, and therefore accessilile to 
the inhabitants, Avithout boats, Avhen. 
the tide falls ; one, howcA'er, is sur- 
rounded by deep Avater. Tliese 
islands extend from Lat. 12 deg. 
4^ min. to 12 deg. 14 niin. S., Long. 
97 deg. 4 min. E. On the Avestern 
side of the cluiin they are, from tlieir 
peculiar conformation, a half-circle, 
supposed to have been of volcanic 
origin, the coral insect carrying up 
the Avork to the surface. Tiie trade- 
Avind blows constantly Avitli more or 
less strength, varying occasionally 
between S. and JiN.E., the current 
usually sets to the iiorth-AvestAvard, 
from one to one and a half miles per 
hour. This current is continually 
bringing drifts of various kinds. 




sea-weed, floating timber, witli all its 
accumulations of seeds, and still 
stranger products, which, by the un- 
erring laws of nature, are directed to 
spots where they are eminently useful 
in creating vegetation. The coral 
chain of islands, or rather wall, 
which forms the harbour, named 
Port Albion, is only from three to 
fourteen feet in elevation above the 
sea at high water, or spring-tides ; 
but the greater number of the 
islands, in consequence of the drift 
before mentioned, are covered with 
coco and two other trees, one a sort 
of white spongy Avood, and the other 
a species of iron wood. 

COEL, in India, in Lat. 27 deg. 54 
niin. N., Long. 78 deg. E., is two miles 
from the fortress of Aligurh, with 
which it is connected by a fine 
avenue of trees. It is a large busy 
town, and the principal civil station 
of the district. 

COIMBATOKE, a province in India, 
is bounded on the north by Mysore, 
Salem; east, Salem, Southern Car- 
natic; south. Southern Carnatic,Tra- 
vancore, Malabar; west, Malabar. 
Its principal divisions are the dis- 
tricts of Suttimunglum, Coimbatore, 
Caroor, and Darapooriim. The rivers 
are the Cavery, Bhoowani, Amra- 
vutti, and smaller streams. This is 
an elevated district, especially to- 
wards the north and west, much 
diversified with hill and dale, forest 
and open country, generally fertile, 
and well cultivated. The soil for 
the most part is dry; but in the 
vicinity of the hiUs, and also in some 
of the southern parts, there is much 
low marshy ground. In the district of 
Coimbatore, along the western fron- 
tier, are the Neilgherry mountams. 
The chief articles of produce are cot- 
ton, rice, and tobacco. The province 
also yields abundance of muriatic and 
common salts, nitre, and iron. The 
principal towns are Suttimunglum, 
Bhoowani, Coimbatore, Caroor, and 
Darapoorum. The inhabitants of 
these hills are of four classes — Toders, 
Koters, Burgers, and Kurrumbcrs. 

The Toders are the aborigines and 
lords of the soil, which, however, they 
do not cultivate, restricting them- 
selves to pasturing cattle. They are 
quite distinct in language and religion 
from the Hindoos, and, though a 
fine-looking race, often fair, and ge- 
nerally of good size and figure, are 
in a very rude and ignorant state. 
They are not numerous, not exceed- 
ing more than five or six himdred. 
The Koters appear to be nearly of 
the same description as the To- 
ders, but occupy themselves as arti- 
sans, chiefly in the manufacture of 
coarse iron tools. The Burgers are 
the cultivators of the land, which 
they hold under tribute to the To- 
ders. They are of Hindoo origin, 
and speak the Kanarese language. 
They are estimated at between sLx 
and seven thousand. The Kurrum- 
bcrs are a very wretched race, black 
and small, inhabiting the jimgles 
upon the skirt of the hills, in number 
not more than a few hundred. These 
hills produce barley and other dry 
grains, and very fine vegetables and 
fruits. The animals are black cat- 
tle and buflaloes, a species of sheep, 
wild elk, bears, and tigers. Tlie 
proper appellation of these hills is 
the " Neelagiri," from neela, blue, 
and giri, hill or mountain. The in- 
habitants of this province are chiefly 
Hindoos, there being few Maliome- 
dan families to be found. The total 
population is estimated at about 
COIMBATORE, the capital of the 
province of Coimbatore, is situated 
in Lat. 10 deg. 52 min. N., Long. 
77 deg. 5 min. E. This was formerly 
one of the principal military stations 
of Tippoo Sultaun. It has a musjid, 
which was built by him ; and at Pe- 
nura, two miles distant, is a cele- 
brated Hindoo temple, called Mail 
Chittumbra. Some time since an 
ancient ttimulus, or mound, was dug 
open near this place, which on ex- 
amination was found to contain va- 
rious weapons and other articles, such 
as were formerly used by the Eomans. 




A short distance to the northward 
and westward of this town are the 
Neilgherries, or Neelagiris (see fore- 
going article), a range of mountains 
connecting the eastern and western 
ghauts. They contain a fertile and 
Avell-cultivated table-land, entirely 
free from jungle, and vary in height 
from 5,000 to 9,000 feet above the 
level of the sea : Jackanairy being 
5,659; Dimhutty, 6,041 ; Ootaka- 
mund, 6,416; and one of the highest 
peaks, named Dodabet, about 9,000. 
The air is exceedingly clear, and the 
climate cool and healthy, on which 
account they are much resorted to 
by European invalids. 

COIR, the fibre of the dry cocoa-nut. 
It is used by the people of India in 
the manufacture of cordage, matting, 
&c., and makes a cool stuffing for 
beds, chair bottoms, &c. 

COLES. The inhabitants of the pro- 
vince of Orissa are Hindoos, with 
the distinguishing name of Ooreas, 
but there are also in the woods and 
hills three distinct tribes, called Coles, 
Khoonds or Goands, and Soors, all 
differing in language and appearance 
from the Hindoos, and generally sup- 
posed to have been the original natives 
of the province. The Coles, who are 
subdivided into a number of small 
tribes, are a hai'dy, athletic race, of 
black complexion, and exceedingly 
ignorant, without any regular sys- 
tem of religion, vrorshipping the dog, 
the sahajan tree, paddy, mustard 
seed, and oil. They are, however, 
generally industrious cultivators, 
and have their houses tolerably well 
built of wood. Their original country, 
which they style Kolat Desum, is de- 
scribed by them as the north-Avest- 
ern districts of Orissa, between 
Singhbhoom and Mohurbunj. The 
Coles were in a state of revolt 
against the authority of the British 
Government so far back as 1832-33, 
but are now obedient subjects. 
The country is termed the Colhan; 
the people, the Coles. A political 
commissioner resides in the terri- 
tory, and a corps of local infantry is 

placed a': his disposal. The upper 
boundary of this tract of country 
forms the south-west frontier of the 
possessions subordinate to the Su- 
preme Government of British India. 

COMBACONUM, in the province of 
the Southern Carnatic, is situated 
about 23 miles north-easterly from 
Tanjore. This was the ancient capi- 
tal of the Chola rajahs. It is still 
a large and populous toivn, chiefly 
inhabited by Brahmuns, and pos- 
sesses a number of fine tanks and 

COMPADORE, a Madras butler, who 
is also called konnah-sircar, or keraz 
burdar. He acts as purveyor, some- 
times under the orders of the master, 
but more generally of the head ser- 
vant, who never fails to participate 
in the profits made by over-charges, 
and by the receipt of dustoorce (q. v.) 
from the vendors of whatever may 
be provided for domestic consump- 

COMPOUND (corruptedfrom the Por- 
tuguese word campana),the enclosure 
in which isolated houses or bungalows 
in India stand. Compounds are formed 
either by a low wall or paling, or (in the 
interior) with bushes of cacti or other 
hardy plants. In the field, the com- 
manding and other superior officers 
form tl leir compounds of canvass wall i 
(kunnauts). The compound contains 
the dwelling, which is generally in 
the centre, the out-offices, stable or 
awning for horses, the farm-yard, 
and the garden. 

RUM, is a large open town in Cen- 
tral Carnatic, situated about 45 miles 
south-westerly from Madras. It 
stands in a valley, and being built in 
a straggling manner, covers a space 
of ground nearly six miles in length. 
It consists of two divisions, one 
named Vishnoo Kanchi, and the 
other, Siva Kanchi. The principal 
street is about two miles and a half 
in length. This place is noted on ac- 
count of its being the chief Brah- 
mim station in the Carnatic. The 
great pagoda in Siva Kanchi has a 
r 2 




lofty toM'er over ils entrance, from 
the summit of vhich there is a fine 
view of the surrounding country. 
Besides Brahmuns, Congeveram is 
inhabited by a considerable number 
of Ave avers. 

CONICOPOLY, an accountant, writer, 
clerk on the Madras establishment. 

COOLIE, a porter or carrier. Also 
see Bheel. 

COOLIN, or KOOLUNG, a bird of 
the stork species; the '■'■demoiselle de 
Namedie'' of the French. The ex- 
tensive sands of rivers, and tlie 
borders of lakes, are their usual 
places of resort. 'Jhe natives call 
them '■'• kurkurah" from the cry re- 
sembling that Avord. They fly at an 
immense height, in the same form as 
Avild geese, and can be heard at a 
long distance. They feed during the 
night in corn-fields, but seek the 
sandy beds of rivers shortly after 

COO^M, a name given to the Hurdwar 
fair, when once in twelve years the 
number of persons present readies a 

COOIIG. See Koorg. 

COOR MONAL, the partridge of 
the Himalayas. It is a wary bird, 
and as there is no cover ou the 
grounds it frequents, it requires a 
good deal of manoeuvring to get a 
shot at it. The Coor Monals chiefly 
inhabit the snowy range. 

COOKTAH, the little close-fitting 
jacket worn by the native women of 

CORE A. Corca consists of a remark- 
able peninsula, bounded on the north 
by the mountains dividing it from 
Chinese Tartary; and separated 
from Japan on tlie east by the Sea of 
Japan, also called the Straits of 
Corea; and from China on the west 
by tlie Yellow Sea. This coimtry, 
which is 400 miles from north to 
south, by 150 from east to west, is 
traversed through its whole length 
by a chain of mountains, but con- 
tains a considerable extent of fertile 
and well cultivated plains, though in 
some parts sterile and rugged. The 

capital is Kingkitao, an inland toAvn, 
situated nearly in the centre of the 
countrj^ Very little is known of 
Corea, the inhabitants having al- 
ways shown great jealousy of all 
f(5reigners, never allowing them to 
proceed into the intei'ior, nor to 
obtain any information regarding 
tlie country. It is under its own 
sovereign, paying only a nominal 
tribute to China. The written lan- 
guage is the same as the Chinese, 
but the language spoken by the peo- 
ple is quite distinct. The population 
is understood to be about 8,000,000. 

CORGE, a score. (Bortuguese, corja.) 

CORINGA, in the Noi-thern Circars, 
about thirty miles south-east from 
Rnjamundry, is a seaport, and has a 
wet dock, which is the only one of 
the kind on the coast of India be- 
tween Calcutta and Bombaj-. 

COROMANDEL, the eastern coast of 
the peninsida of India. 

COSS, a corrupt term, used by Eu- 
ropeans to denote a road- measure of 
about two miles, but varying in dif- 
ferent parts of India. 

COSSAI. Cossai, sometimes called 
Munnipoor, from the name of its ca- 
pital, is a mountainous and woody 
country, lying between the pro- 
vinces of Bengal and Ava, Ry 
Europeans it is sometimes called 
Muklee, though neither of these 
names are used by the natives, who 
stjde themselves Moitay. The Ben- 
galesecall them Muggaloo. Cathee, 
orKasee, is the name given to the 
people by the Burmese. It con- 
tinued to form part of the Burman 
empire until 1826, Avhen, by the 
terms of the treaty of peace with 
the English, it was restored to inde- 
pendence. It is now under its own 
chief, protected by the English. The 
Cossayers have more resemblance to 
the Hindoos than to the Burmese; 
and they follow the Brahminical sys- 
tem of religion. The Cossayers are 
considered good artificers, and for- 
merly supplied all the gun-smiths of 
the Burman empire. Being also 
much superior to the Burmese in 




horsemanship, they furnished tlie 
only cavalry employed in the armies 
of Ava. 

in the province of Bengal, is situated 
about a mile south from Moorsheda- 
bad, of which city it may be consi- 
dered the port. It is particularly 
noted for its silk manufactures, this 
district being perhaps next to China, 
the most productive silk country in 
the world. 

erected during the prosperous times 
of the empire of Delhi, in the iipper 
part of Inaia, and denoting distances 
of a mile and a half or two miles. 

COTTAH, a Bengal measure, equiva- 
lent to 720 square feet. 

COWL, word, saying; promise, agree- 
ment, contract, engagement. An en- 
gagement or lease of land to a 
Peninsular Zemindar or large farmer. 

COWRY, a small shell, which passes 
in India as money. Five thousand 
cowries are the equivalent of one 
rupee, or two shillings ! 

CRANGANORE is situated on the 
coast, in the province of Travancore, 
sixteen miles north from Cochin. It 
formerly belonged to the Dutch, and 
was a commercial settlement of some 
consequence. Its inhabitants are 
principally Jews, and according to 
their statements, Travancore was 
possessed by their people as early as 
A.D. 490. 

CRIS, or CREESE, the dagger of the 
Malays, a formidable instrument of 

CROQUETTES, a very delicate pre- 
paration of cliicken, beaten in a mor- 
tar, mixed up witli fine butter, and 
fried in egg-shaped balls. It is in 
very common use at the tables of the 
Europeans in India. 

CHORE, Ilindostanee. One himdred 
lars (q. v.). or ten millions. 

CUDDALORE(Goodaloor) is situated 
on the Malabar coast, twelve miles 
south of rondicherry, standing be- 
tween two arms of the river Tanar, 
in Central or Jliddle Carnatic. It is 
an extensive and populous town, and 

was formerly the seat of the English 
Government. The English factory 
was first established there in IGoi, 
when a piece of ground was pur- 
chased from the rajah, and a fort 
erected, called Fort St. David. After 
the capture of }tladras by the French 
in 1746, Fort St. David became |the 
head of the English settlements, and 
continued so until 1758, when it was 
besieged and taken by the French 
under Lally, who entirely demolished 
the fort. 

CUDDAPA, called by the ^ natives 
Kurpa, is a town in the province of 
Balaghat. It stands on the bank of a 
small river, in about 14 deg. 30 min. 
N. latitude, and 79 deg. E. longitude. 
This was for many years the capital 
of an independent Pathan state, the 
chief of which was termed the nabob 
of Cuddapa, and many old Pathau 
families still remain here, who are 
considered to speak the Ilindostanee 
language with remarkable purit}'. 
Large quantities of sugar and jag- 
gery are made in the neighbourhood. 
The diamond mines are about seven 
miles north-east of the town, upon 
the bank of the Pennar. 

CUMLIE, a woollen shawl or covering, 
used by the common people in the 
west of India. There are nmmtfac- 
tories of this article in Bellary. The 
demand is very extensive. 

CUM:\IABUND, a waistband, formed 
of folds of muslin, worn at all times 
by the most respectable classes of tlie 
natives of India, and on holiday occa- 
sions bv the town classes. 

snake-men, wlio profess to have the 
power of purging Indian dwellings of 
tliese noxious reptiles. 

CUITRA, ilindostanee. Clothes, 
pieces of cloth. 

CUTCII, a province in the west of 
India, bounded on the north by 
Ajniere, fmm which it is sepa- 
rated by tlie great sandy desert ; 
east, Guzerat, from which it is 
divided by the Run ; south, the 
sea ; west, the easternmost branch 
of the Lidus, called the Louce, and a 




salt marsh sepai'ating it from Sind. 
The soutlicrn boundary is formed by 
an arm of the sea running inland, 
l^etween Cutch and the Peninsula of 
Guzerat, and called the Gulf of 
Cutch. There are no rivers in this 
province, with the exception of the 
Lonce, which flows along its western 
frontier. During the rainy season 
there are many streams, but their 
channels are generally dry soon after 
the rains cease. This province may 
te described as consisting of two 
distinct portions. One, an immense 
salt morass, named the Eun ; the other 
an irregular hilly tract, completely 
insulated by the morass and the sea. 
The Eun, which is estimated to cover 
a surface of about 8000 square miles, 
commences at the head of the Gulf 
of Cutch, with which it communi- 
cates, and sweeps round the whole of 
the northern frontier of the pi'ovince. 
It varies in breadtli from five to 
eighty miles across, and during the 
rainy season forms a large sheet of 
salt M^ater. At other times it presents 
a variety of appearances, being in 
some parts dry, barren sand, in 
some deep swamps, in others shallow 
pools and lakes, elsewhere fields of 
salt, and occasionally affording pas- 
turage, and capable of cultivation. 
The other portion of this province is 
intersected by a range of rocky 
barren hiUs, running through the 
centre from east to west. It is almost 
destitute of wood, and has no water, 
except as procured by means of wells. 
The whole face of the country near 
the hills is covered with volcanic 
matter, and there is said to be an 
extinct volcano eighteen miles to the 
eastward of Lukliput Bundur. In 
1819 Cutch was visited by a severe 
earthquake, which nearly destroyed 
a number of towns and forts, and 
fdled the Run with water. It ap- 
pears probable that originally this 
province was an island. This pro- 
vince is not fertile, water being 
scarce, and often salt, and the soil 
either rocky or sandy. Its produc- 
tions are couscquently few, the prin- 

cipal is in cotton, which is exported 
in exchange for grain from Sind and 
other provinces. The horses of this 
province are, however, considered 
the best in India. Camels and goats 
also thrive, but the cattle are of an 
inferior description. Iron and alum 
are found in various parts, witli a 
species of coal, and abundance of 
bituminous earths. Date trees grow 
in some tracts, and produce fruit of 
a good quality; but the cocoa-nut is 
reared witli difficulty, even on the 
coast. Salt is procured from the Run, 
the banks of whicli are also much fre- 
quented by the wild ass. This animal 
is much larger and stronger than the 
domestic ass, and remarkably swift, 
l)ut very fierce, and quite untame- 
able. It is sometimes caught in pits, 
but has never been domesticated. 
Its flesh is esteemed good eating. 
The towns are Sukhput Bundur, 
Kowra, Blioqj, Anjar, and Mandavie. 
In ancient times this province ap- 
pears to have been occupied entirely 
by pastoral tribes of Hindoos. At 
present its inhabitants are principally 
Jahrejahs of Sind origin, Bhattias, 
and other tribes of Hindoos, and a 
large i3roportion of Mahomedans. 
As a people, the inhabitants of this 
province, or, as they are generally 
styled, the Cutchees, may be de- 
scribed as the most degraded in 
India. They are noted for drunken- 
ness and debauchery, and their 
treachery is xiroverbial. Female in- 
fanticide is universally practised by 
the Jahrejas, even by tribes calling 
themselves INIahomedans. The Cutch 
pilots and mariners, however, are 
noted for their skill, and claim the 
merit of having first instructed the 
Arabs in navigation and ship-build- 
ing, though they still follow the 
practice of their forefathers without 
CUTCHA, a weak kind of lime, ob- 
tained by burning a substance called 
kunhiir, which at first might be mis- 
taken for small rugged flints, slightly 
coated with soil. The experiments 
made upon these alkaUue concre- 


tions give the following results:— 
calcareous earth, 41; silicious earth, 
16; calx of iron, 3; and air, 40. 
Kunkur is not easily reduced to a 
calx, it requiring a greater heat than 
is necessary to burn the harder kinds 
of gutty ; it is likewise less durable 
and tenacious as a cement, of which 
the colour, viz., commonly what we 
call a fawn, is a strong indication. 
A cutcha building is of an mferior 
character, run up by persons of smaU 
capital or for temporary pm'poses. 
The word "cutcha" is generally 
used, in contradistinction to " pucka," 
to imply mferiority. 

CUTCHERRY, court of justice; also 
the public office where rents are 
paid, and other business respecting 
the revenue transacted. 

CUTLAH, an Indian fish, a species of 
the perch, thougli some consider it to 
be of the bream kind : it is only found 
in the great rivers, is generally of a 
dark colour, approaching to black, 
and commonly weighs from ten to 
sixty pounds. 

CUTTACK, the southernmost station 
under the Bengal Presidency. The 
road, which is a continuation of 
the great Benares line, leads to Poo- 
ree, the seat of the Temple of Jug- 
gernauth, and a delightful place of 
resort for sea-bathers from Calcutta. 
Cuttack, from its vicinity to the sea, 
and the total absence of all vegeta- 
tion, is one of the most agreeable and 
healthful stations in India. The 
society is small, consisting, as it 
does, of a few civilians and a regi- 
ment or two of sepoys; but the con- 
tiguity of Cuttack to other small 
stations renders a considerable re- 
union of visitors a matter of no 
great difficulty. The finest salt in 
India is manufactured on the coast 
of Cuttack, yielding the Government 
a revenue little sliort of eighteen 
lacs of rupees. The produce, dis- 
tinguished for its Avhiteness and 
purity, before it has passed into the 
hands of the merchant, is of the 
species called pangah, procured by 
boihng. The i)roccss observed by 

DA 71 

the raolmighees, or manufacturers, 
is rude and simple to the last degree. 
The sea-water, which is brought up 
by various small channels to the 
neighbourhood of the manufacturing 
stations, or khalai'ies, is first mixed 
up and saturated with a quantity of 
the salt earth or efflorescence, which 
forms on the surface of the low 
ground all around, after it has been 
overflowed by the high tides, and 
which being scraped off by the 
moiunghees , is thrown into cylindri- 
cal receptacles of earth, having a 
vent underneath, and false bottom 
made of twigs and straw. The 
strongly impregnated brine filtering 
through the grass, &c., is carried, 
by a channel dug underground, to a 
spot at hand, surrounded with an 
enclosure of mats, in the centre 
of which a number of oblong earthen 
pots, generally about two hundred, 
are cemented together by mud in 
the form of a dome, under which is 
a fire-place, or oven. The brine is 
pouretl into this collection of pots, or 
clioolas, and boiled until a sufficient 
degree of evaporation has taken 
place, when the salt is taken out 
as it forms, with iron ladles, and 
collected in heaps in the open air. 
The heaps are afterwards thatched 
with reeds, and remain in this state 
untiljsold or removed by the officers 
of the agency. 

CUTTORAII, a metal cup. 

CUTWAL, the chief officer of police 
in a large Indian town, or city, and 
superintendent of the markets. 


DACCA, a city in tlie province of 
Bengal, on a branch of the Ganges, 
in Lat. 23 deg. 42 min. N., Long. 90 
dog. 17 min. E. This was formerly 
one of the largest and riclieit cities 
in India, and was the capital of the 
eastern division of the JMahomedan 
government of Bengal. It is a large, 
but irregiUarly built town, contain- 
ing about 180,000 inhabitants, and 




is now probably the second in the 
province with respect to size and 
population. It is a place of exten- 
sive trade, and has long been cele- 
brated throughout Europe as well 
as Asia for its beautiful muslins and 
other fine cotton fabrics. 

DAIKCHEES, metal boilers, used in 

DAKSHA. Daksha, in Hindoo my- 
thology, was an avatar or appearance 
of Brahma upon earth in a human 
shape. He was the father of Suti, 
the consort of Siva, Avhose son, Yira 
Badra (produced from the jatta or 
locks of Siva), cut off his head for 
treating his father with indignity, 
and causing the death of Suti. On 
the intercession of the gods, Daksha 
was restored to life ; but his head 
having during the battle fallen into 
the fire, and been burnt, it was re- 
placed by that of a he-goat, in which 
form he is seen. 

DALBI, the Hindostanee word for 
the pomegranate (Punica Gran- 
atum). From Spain to Persia, and 
from Persia to China, the pome- 
granate is held in high repute not 
only as a delicious, cooling, and 
highly wholesome fruit, but as a 
remedy, a principal ingredient in 
many drinks, sherbets, and sweet- 
meats, and finally, as a fiivourite 
source of allusions for lovert, poets, 
warriors, and orators. In inter- 
tropical India, except at considerable 
elevations, it is rarely found of a fine 
quality, being mostlj- not of the 
sweet kind, but of the sour, acid sort, 
becoming even stringent as the fruit 
approaches more to the common 
wild kind. It is an object of much 
care and attention in the south of 
Europe and Barbary, both as a fruit, 
as a flowering plant, and as one 
proper for garden hedges and cover- 
ing of walls in espaliers, or some- 
thing between the espalier and the 
creeper. This it is to a very con- 
siderable height and extent, its 
numerous branches forming a close 
covering, and its brilliant flowers 
and excellent fruit making it an 

object of great beauty and even of 
value in some situations, where the 
flowers and fruit are all saleable to 
the druggists or the dj'crs. The 
bark of its root is also, there is no 
doubt, an invaluable remedy against 
that frightfully severe disease, the 
tape-worm, which, before the know- 
ledge of it, had baffled, both in India 
and Europe, allthe skill of physicians. 

DALLEE, a basket of fruit, flowers, 
and vegetables ; a frequent present 
from a native of India to his em- 
ployer ; much valued by those w ho 
do not boast of gardens. 

DA MAUN, a seaport in the province of 
Guzerat, in India, Lat. 20 deg. 23 
min. N., Long. 72 deg. 58 min. E. It 
belongs to the Portugiiese. It was 
formerly a place of much commerce, 
but at present it is noted chiefly for 

DAMMEK, a Kind of pitch used in 
India to cover wooden roofings, 
tanks, chests, and other objects 
which it may be important to render 
water-tight or impervious to rain. 

DANDIES, the boatmen of the 

DAEAPOORU:\r, a town in the pro- 
vince of Coimbatore, in India, in a 
fine open country, about half a mile 
from the Amravutti river, near the 
southern end of tlie province. It is 
populous and well built, and the 
surrounding country produces abun- 
dance of rice and tobacco. 

DAKOGAH, superintendent or in- 
spector. Formerly the word was 
much in vogue to denote a Gomastah 
or factor in the service of Indian na- 
tive princes. It is now bestowed almost 
exclusively on inspectors of police 
and overseers of large public estab- 
lishments, but is often assumed by 
inferior functionaries for the sake of 
the importance it gives to a man in 
the eyes of the natives. 

Hindostanee. Demons, giants. 

DAUIM, a copper coin, the twenty-fifth 
part of a pisa, or according to some, 
an ideal money, the fortieth part of 
a rupee. 




The abode of royalty, the capital. 

DAWK, literally " the Post." There 
are various ways of carrying the post 
over India. In some places there 
are horse-dawks, mounted runners, 
Avho carry their letter-bags either 
across their own or tlieir horse's 
Bhoulders ; in others, a camel is em- 
ployed, and in one or two places 
a mail cart is used. But by far the 
most common description of "dawk" 
is the foot-runner, Avho carries a bag 
of letters slung across his person, 
■with ■which he runs for an hour or 
two at the rate of nearly four miles 
an hour, transferring his cliarge to 
anotlier, who stands at a given point 
prepared to relieve him. Large par- 
cels are conveyed in petarrahs or 
boxes, suspended by ropes to either 
end of a pliant bamboo placed across 
the shoulders, and to this mode of 
carriage the term dawk-banghy is ap- 
plicable. Travelling dawk implies 
journeying by palankeen, an agree- 
able, safe, but somewhat tedious 
description of locomotion. Eight or 
twelve bearers (sufficient for one or 
two reliefs, four being tlie number 
that bear a palankeen), a nuissalchee 
carrying a torch, and a couple of 
banghy bearers with the luggage, 
usually constitute the equipment of 
a dawk traveller. Within the palan- 
keen he carries his boolcs, biscuit, 
bottle of brandy, and such light ar- 
ticles as he may require on alighting 
at one of the stage bungalows for 
purposes of refreshment, ablution, 
&c. These bungalows stand fifteen 
or twenty miles apart on the prin- 
cipal roads in India (there being no 
friendly hotels for the accommoda- 
tion of the traveller), and are pro- 
vided with a lihetmiilgLar and a 
hearer, the former of wiiom will 
catch and cook a barn door fowl for 
the visitor, while the latter will pro- 
vide him with a pleasant bath of 
cool water, and assist at his toilette. 
The dawk is entirely under the con- 
trol of the government post-masters, 
to whom applications must be made 

for the necessary accommodation 
some days before it is required. The 
expense of a palankeen-dawk, with 
eight bearers, &c., is about half a 
rupee per mile, to which is to be 
added a small gratuity at the end of 
a stage to each relav of bearers. 

DECCAN, the, a division of Hin- 
dostan, bounded on the north by 
the Nurbudda, and a line drawn from 
the source of that river eastward to 
the mouth of the Hoogly; on the 
south it is bounded by the rivers 
Kistna and IMalpurba. It is divided 
into the provinces of 1. Candeisli ; 
2. Gondwana; 3. Berar; 4. Orissa; 
5. Aurungabad; 6. 13edcr; 7. Hyder- 
abad; 8. the Northern Circars; and 
9. Bejapoor. 

DECOITS, Indian gang robbers. 

DECOITY, gang robbery, 

DEESA, a town in India, situated on 
the Banas river, in the province of 
Guzerat, in Lat. 24 deg. 9 niin. N., 
Long. 72 deg. 8 min. E. It is the 
most advanced military station of 
the British on the Guzerat frontier, 

DEEWAI KIIANEII, the name given 
indiffei-ently in India to a hospital, 
a dispensary, or an apothecary's 

DEUBA SIIEE, a Persian officer in 
command of ten men. 

DEIIDAP, village-keeper, under the 
peninsula native government of India. 
An inferior officer of police in a village, 
one of whose duties was to distrain 
the crop, when necessary, to secure 
the rent. 

DEKINEII, Persian. Jlouth or en- 
trance of a pass. 

DEL-GAIIA, the bread-fruit tree of 
Ceylon. It grows as liigh as the 
jack tree, and has very large branches 
which, twice a-year, in Jlarch and 
June, are lumg with round, rough 
fruit, about tlie size of an infant's 
head. The fruit is evervAvhero 
used, both liy natives and Europeans, 
as an article of food. Wlien boiled 
it resembles a jiotato, but is more 
watery. It is often cut into slices 
and fried, in wliicli state it is very 
crisp. The wood, which is white 




and rather coarse, is not much 
used. The leaves are large, and of 
a dark green. The fruit groArs from 
the ends of small branches, and 
does not rise immediately from the 
trunk as the jack fruit. There is 
another tree of the same species, 
called the foreign bread-fruit tree 
(rata-del-gaha). Its leaves are not 
so large as those of the common 
bread-fruit, and are not gashed. The 
fruit is a thick pod, about six inches 
long, and when split contains a num- 
ber of white seeds, as big as peas ; 
these are eaten by the natives when 
boiled. This tree is much used for 
making canoes, its trunk being fre- 
quently long, straight, and thick, 
and the wood light and durable. 
DELHI, a province in Hindostan, 
bounded on the north by Sirmoor, 
GurwaJ, and Kamaoon; east, Oude 
and Agra; south, Agra and Ajmere; 
west, Ajmere and the Punjab. This 
province is divided into a number of 
districts, of which tlie principal are 
the following: Sirhind, Suharunpoor, 
Meerut, Dellii, Aligurh, EohUkliund. 
The rivers are the Jumna and Gan- 
ges, with several smaller rivers. On 
its northern and western frontiers 
this province is hilly, but otherwise 
it is generally level and open. In 
former times it was fertile and well 
cultivated; but having subsequently 
been for a series of years exposed to 
the ravages of numerous armies, the 
means of irrigation were destroyed, 
and large districts became almost 
desert from the prevalence of moving 
sands blown over the surface by the 
winds. During the last twenty years, 
however, the attention of the British 
government has been given to the 
restoration of the canals, of which 
there were formerly three, much 
celebrated m that part of India, viz. : 
All Murdan Khan's, constructed 
during the reign of the Emperor 
Baber; Sultaun Eeroz Shah's, and 
Zabita Khan's. Ali Murdan Khan's 
canal, running from Kurnal to Delhi, 
180 miles in length, was restored in 
1820, after a labour of about three 

years, and has produced the most bene- 
ficial effects over a large extent of 
country. The principal productionsof 
the province are wheat, bajra, and 
other;grains. sugar, and cotton. The 
principal towns are Ferozepore, Loo- 
diana, Kurnal, Suharunpore, Delhi, 
Meerut, Moradabad, Eampore, Ba- 
reilly, Aligurh, and Shahjuhanpore. 
The inhabitants consist of Hmdoos of 
various tribes, and a large proportion 
of Mahomedans ; of the latter class 
there are considerable numbers in 
the district of Kohilkhund, called 
liohillas, or Patans. They are de- 
scendants of Afghans, and retain 
much of the Afghan manners and 
DELHI, the ancient city of the Mahome- 
dan empire in India. It is situated 
on the banks of the Jumna, in Lat. 
2S deg. 41 min. N., Long. 77 deg. 
5 min. E. Long before the Maho- 
medans invaded India, DeUii ap- 
pears to have been a city of con- 
siderable importance, and the ca- 
pital of one of the most powerful ot 
the Hindoo sovereigns. Under its 
Mahomedan sovereigns it became 
one of the most splendid cities in 
Asia, and in the time of Aurung- 
zebe, had a population estimated at 
not less than two milhons. The 
ruins of numerous buOdings, extend- 
ing over a space of nearly twenty 
square miles, remain to attest its 
former magnificence, and there are 
still many beautiful mosques, and 
other edifices in good preservation, 
particularly the Jumna Musjid, built 
by the Emperor Shah Juhan, and 
the Mausoleum of Hoomayoon. The 
Kootub Minar or Minaret of Koo- 
tub (q. v.), which stands at a few 
miles distant from the city, is also 
a very remarkable object. Under 
the British Government, Delhi has 
again become a thriving town, and 
is one of the principal marts for 
the interchange of commodities be- 
tween India and the countries to 
the north and west. Its present 
population is believed to be about 
250;000. Fifty miles to the north- 




■ward of Delhi, stands the towii of 
Paniput, celebrated in history as 
the scene of two of the greatest 
battles ever fought in India. The 
legitimate descendant of the Great 
Mogul is still permitted to exercise 
a nominal sovereignty in Delhi, but 
lie is, in fact, a mere pensioner of 
the British Government, restricted 
to dominion within the walls of 
his palace. 

DERVISE, or DERVISH, a Turkish 
anchorite or fanatic. The different 
orders originated in the two sects of 
Ebu Bakir and of Ali. The title is 
derived from a Persian Avord which 
means the sill or threshold of a door, 
and infers " a mind filled with hu- 
mility, desirous of retreat, and i^er- 
Bevering in practice." When as- 
sembled for the ceremonial of the 
dance the dervises all leave their 
places, and range themselves on 
the left of the superior, and ad- 
vance towards him very slowly. 
When the first dervise comes oppo- 
site the Sheik he makes a salutation, 
and passing on begins the dance. 
It consists of rapidly turning round 
upon the right foot, Avith the arms 
widely extended. 

DESIMOOK, headman of a district. 
Collector of a district, or portion of a 
country: an officer corresponding 
with Zemindar, but more ancient. 

DEVANAGAIII, the Sanscrit alpha- 
bet. It is composed of fifty-two 
letters and a great number of signs ; 
it is written from left to right, and 
it is the model after wliich are 
formed several alphabets peculiar to 
different idioms of the peninsula of 
India, as well as the alphabet of 
Thibet, and the alpliabets which are 
used in writing several of the Indo- 
Chinese languages. 

DEWAN, originally a place of assem- 
bly ; and under the nativegovernment 
of India a minister of the revenue de- 
partment, and chief justice in civil 
causes within his jurisdiction ; re- 
ceiver-general of a province. The 
term has, by abuse, been used 
to designate tixe principal revenue 

servant imder an European collector, 
and even of a Zemindar. Bj-this 
title the East India Company are 
receivers-general, in perpetuity, of 
the revenues of Bengal, Bekar, and 
Orissa, mider a grant from the Great 

DEWANNEE, the office or jurisdiction 
of a Bewail. 

LUT, an Indian coiu-t for trying re- 
venue and other civil causes. 

DEWOTTER, a Hindoo grant of land 
for the expense of a deity. 

DHAL BAAT, Hindostanee. Rice and 
j-ellow pease stewed together. 

DIIANGAH, hill coolee. See PuraiA- 


DHARWAR, a town in India, situated 
in the Dooab, or Southern Mahratta 
Country ; it is called in Mahomedan 
geograjDhy Nusseerahad, and is in 
Lat. 15 deg. 28 min. N., Long. 75 
deg. 8 min. E. It consists of a large 
fort and open town, and is the prin- 
cipal station of the civil authorities 
of the province. 

DHERNA, a mode of caption or arrest 
adopted by the Brahmuns to gain a 
l^oint which cannot be accomplished 
by any other means ; and the process 
is as fjUows : — The Brahmun who 
adopts this expedient for the purpose 
mentioned, proceeds to the door or 
house of the person against whom it 
is directed, or Avherever he may most 
conveniently interrupt him. He 
there sits down in dhema, with poison 
or a poignard, or some other instru- 
ment of suicide, in iiis hand, and 
threatening to use it if his adversary 
should attempt to molest or pass liim, 
he thus completeh" arrests him. In 
this situation the Brahmun fasts; and 
by the rigoiu' of the etiquette, which 
is rarely infringed, the unfortunate 
object of his arrest ouglit also to fast ; 
and thus they both remain until the 
institutor of the dlicrna obtains sa- 
tisfaction. In this, as he seldom 
makes the attempt without resolu- 
tion to persevere, he rarely fails ; for 
if the party thus arrested were to 
sufier the Bralunun sitting in diterna 




to perish by hunger, the sin would 
for ever be upon his head. This 
practice has been less frequent of late 
years, but the interference of our 
courts has often proved insufficient 
to check it; as it has been deemed in 
general most prudent to avoid for 
this purpose the use of coercion, from 
an apprehension that the first ap- 
pearance of it might drive the sitter 
in dlierna to suicide. The discredit 
of the act would not only fall upon 
the officers of justice, but upon the 
government itself. The practice of 
sitting in dherna is not confined to the 
Brahmuns only, it is adopted by all 
classes, with the same views, or, 
often for mere purposes of revenge. 

DIIINGY, a small Indian boat, with a 
sharp prow, propelled by oars, and 
chiefly used to communicate from the 
shore with ships at anchor. 

DIIOBEE, an Indian washerman. He 
differs in some'respects from the Eng- 
lish washerwoman, as well as in being 
of a different sex. For instance, while 
she is up to her elbows in a wash- 
tub, he is up to his knees in a tank, 
or may be in a river: — while she 
rubs her knuckles into a shrivelled 
and blistery -looking skin, he bangs 
the linen raiment of master, mistress, 
and child, against a serrated log, or 
a roughened stone: — while she is all 
suds, the frotliy article is scarcely 
known to liim, and yet he is well off 
for soap, but the modus operandi is 
unfavourable for the accumulation 
of the frothy pile: — while she man- 
gles, he is ironing with an enormous 
brazen iron, of wliich the weight has 
an effect, equivalent to mangling, on 
the cloth: — and finally, while she 
brings home her linen as yellow as 
saffron, he brings his home as white 
us snow. The dhobee of a bachelor 
gets five or six rupees per mensem; 
but where there is a lady in the case, 
his wap;es aro at least doubled, and 
increased also by a rupee or two for 
every child. 

DHOMBA SHEEP, the broad-tailed 
sheep of Afghanistan. Prom 
" dhomb," a tail. 

DHOTEE, a long narrow strip of 
cotton cloth, used by the Hindoos 
instead of pantaloons. 

DIIOU, a tree, which abounds in the 
jungles of Hindostan. It is the 
hjtltrum fntctuosiini of botanists. 

DliOW, a large rudely constructed 
vessel, with a single mast and a 
latteen sail, much elevated at the 
stern. It is used in the Persian 
Gulf and Red !Sea, and carries the 
produce of their shores to the Mala- 
bar Coast and other parts of India. 
Until the year 1821, the dhows were 
the piratical vessels of the Arabs, 
but at that time an expedition, sent 
from Bombay, destroyed all that 
could be found in the piratical ports, 
and put an end to buccaneering. 

DHUM*IAP01\E, a town in Kachar, 
one of the Bengal dependencies, 
situated in an extensive valley on 
the banks of the river Kapiii. 

DHUIiM SALEII, a species of cara- 
vanserai, or resting-place for travel- 
lers in India. 

DHYE, a wet nurse, or child's nurse, 
more generally an atteijdant upon 
native ladies in India. 

DINAPORE, a town in India, on the 
south side of the Ganges, ten miles 
to the westward of Patna, in the 
province of Bahar. It is one of the 
principal military stations of the 

DINDIGUL, the capital of the district 
so named, in the province of Southern 
Carnatic, in India. It was formerly 
tlie capital of an Hindoo kingdom, 
and is sitviated in Lat. 9 deg. 55 min. 
N., Long. 78 deg. 14 min. E., near 
tlie western entrance of an extensive 
plain, about thirty miles from east to 
west, and twenty-five from north to 
south, almost surrounded by moim- 
tains. It is a clean and neatly built 
town, and has a strong fort built 
upon a rock about 400 feet high, on 
tlie summit of which is a Hindoo 
temple. Under the northern ledge of 
the rock there is a remarkable na- 
tur;d cavern, inhabited by some Ma- 
homcdan fukeers. 

DIVAN, the Sultan's privy council at 




Constantinople. Also a raised gvoTind 
in a hall, or ;iny other room in a 
house. It is likewise applied to a 
range of cushioned seats round a 

D'JEKEED, the Arab javelin, or ar- 
row. The dexterity with which the 
Arab throws the d'jereed, when at 
full gallop, has often excited the 
"wonderment of travellers. It is con- 
sidered so advantageous an accom- 
plishment in a warrior in the pursuit 
of an enemy, mounted on a fleet 
courser, or flying from an opponent 
whom it is desirable to keep at a 
distance, that throwing the d'jereed, 
by way of practice, forms a favourite 
Arab pastime. 

DONABEW, See Ava. 

DOMIES, small Indian craft, intcndeil 
for the coasting trade, carried on prin- 
cipall}' by native merchants. These 
^ari'aA vessels present a contrast with 
the superb craft under British ma- 
nagement, and at once characterise 
not only the ignorance, but the narrow 
minds of their owners. Few donies 
measure more than 150 tons, or have 
more than two masts ; sloops are by 
far most common, and the generality 
are equipped with coir cordage, as 
Avell as with country made canvass. 
The gi'eater portion of these vessels 
return either in ballast, after de- 
livering their cargoes of rice at 
various ports on the Coromandel, 
Malabar, and Tenasserim coasts, or 
with light cargoes, composed chiefly 
of coir and cowries, from the Seclielles 
and Maldives; to which tliey likc- 
■wise, now and then, make a bold 
voyage, at favourable seasons, with 
small invoices of coarse cottons, fit 
for the \ise of those islanders. Here 
and there Ave see a donci/ witli some 
European on board to navigate her; 
but, in general, only natives are 

KATTA COUNTRY, a province 
in India, bounded on the north l)y 
the rivers Gutpurba and Kistna, 
separating it from Bejapore ; east, 
Hyderabad, and the Ceded Districts; 

south, Mysore and Kanara ; west, 
tlie mountains dividing it from tlie 
sonthern Konkan. The rivers are 
the Gutpurba and IMalpurba, both 
flowing into the Kistna ; Wurda, 
flowing into the Toombudra, and the 
Toombudra. The western districts 
of the province are mountainous and 
woody ; eastward, it is open and 
generally level. The soil is good, 
and the climate favourable. The 
productions are principally cotton, 
and dry grains. The chief towns 
are Belgaum, Kittoor, Dharwar, 
Gujunderger, Hooblee, and Savenore. 
The term " Dooab" is applied to this 
province from its position between 
the two rivers Kistna and Toom- 
budra, wluch flow along its northern 
and soutiiern boundaries. It is of 
modern origin, this district having 
formerly been included in Bejapore. 

DOOAB, from do, two, and awi, water. 
It is tlie name given to those tracts 
of country in the East Indies ■which 
lie between two rivers. 

DOODPUTTEE, a small town in 
Kachar, one of the Bengal Depen- 
dencies. It stands on the banks of 
the river Boorak, in Lat. 25 deg. 3 
min. N., Long. 92 deg. 42 min. E. 
Since 1811 it has been the residence 
of the rajah, and, consequently, tlie 
capital of tlie country. It is also 
noted as the scene of an action 
whicli took place in 1824, between 
tlie Burmese and a British detach- 
ment, in which tlie latter was de- 
feated M'itli much loss. 

DO(JG DOOGIl':,along narrow drum, 
played iipon by tiie natives of India 
at their festivals and nautches. 

DOOLY, or covered litter, of tlie pa- 
lankeen kind; it is yet in very com- 
mon use among the less opulent 
classes, and especiaUy employed for 
the conve3'ance of women. In our 
armies this little vehicle affords ex- 
cellent means of transporting sick 
and wounded men, either to the hos- 
pitals, or on a march. Its usual 
construction is extremely simple; 
consisting of a small charpoi/ (q. v.), 
a very slight frame of bamboo work, 




equal in size to the frame of the 
litter, is placed over it horizontally, 
serving as a roof for the support of 
a double cover (generally of red 
karwcth, or of blue or white calico), 
■which lies over the roof, and faUs all 
around, so as to enclose the -whole 
space between the roof and the bed- 
stead. There is seldom any bedduig 
but what is provided by the party 
carried in the dooly ; unless it be one 
apper tauiuig to some family, by Avhom 
it is frequently used : in such case, 
the interior is made very comfort- 
able, and the cover ornamented with 
borders, fringes, &c. This last kind, 
being almost exclusively appropri- 
ated to the zenanah, is on a A'ery 
small scale, rarely exceeding three 
feet by little more than two. 

DOOM AULA HS, houses in India 
having a second floor. 

Hindoo festival in honour of Devi, 
or the goddess consort of Siva; the 
most splendid and expensive, as well 
as the most popular of any of the Hin- 
doo festivals. It takes place in the 
month Ashwinu or Assin (the end of 
September or beginning of October). 
The preliminary ceremonies occupy 
scA-eral days previous to the three 
days' worship. During the whole of 
this period all business throughout 
the country is suspended, and uni- 
yersal pleasure and festivity prevail. 
On the first of the three days of wor- 
ship, the ceremony of giving eyes and 
life to the images takes place, before 
which they cannot become objects 
of worship. This is performed by 
the officiating Brahmun touching 
the cheeks, eyes, breast, and fore- 
head of the image, saying, " Let the 
soul of Durga long continue in hap- 
piness in this image." Other cere- 
monies, and the sacrifices of numer- 
ous animals, as buffaloes, sheep, 
goats, &c., then follow. The flesh 
and blood of the animals, and other 
articles, are then offered to the 
images of the goddess and the other 
deities which are set up. The cere- 
monies and sacrifices of the second 

and third days of the worship arc 
nearly similar to those of the first 
day. After the whole of the beasts 
have been slain, the multitude daub 
their bodies Avith the mud and clotted 
blood, and then dance like Baccha- 
nalian furies on the spot. On the 
following morning, the image is, 
with certain ceremonies, dismissed 
by the officiating Brahmim. It is 
then placed on a stage formed of 
bamboos, and carried, surrounded by 
a concourse of people of both sexes, 
and accompanied by drums, horns, 
and other Hindoo instruments, to 
the banks of the river, and cast into 
the water in the presence of all ranks 
and descriptions of spectators ; the 
priest, at the time, invoking the 
goddess, and supplicating from her 
life, health, and affluence ; urging 
her (their universal mother, as they 
term her) to go then to her abode, 
and retiirn to them at a future time. 
During this period licentiousness and 
obscenity prevail. During the three 
days of worship in Bengal the houses 
of the rich Hindoos are at night 
splendidly illuminated, and thrown 
open to all descriptions of visitors; 
and they acknowledge with much 
attention and gratitude the visits of 
respectable Europeans. The images 
exhibited on these occasions, are 
made of a composition of hay, sticks, 
clay, «S:c., and some of them are ten 
and twelve feet high. On the morn- 
ing after the pooja, hundreds of them 
are conveyed on stages through the 
streets of Calcutta to be cast into the 
river. During the whole of the day, 
as some of them are brought from 
villages at a considerable distance 
from the holy stream, the uproar 
and din ai'C mdescribable. Immense 
sums of money are expended on these 
DOOHEAII, a dog-boy, though pro- 
perly an out-door servant, residing 
at the dooreah-kannah, or kennel. 
Although confined to one occupation 
in general, a dooreah can have very 
little knowledge of its duties, beyond 
the mere mechanical routine of 




dressing a little rice and meat for 
the dogs, and taking tliem out for 
an airing. He is usually provided 
■with a short whip, consisting of a 
thong, or tvro, of raw hide, fastened 
to a piece of small bamboo ; "with 
this he corrects the animals under 
his charge, the number of which 
necessarily varies according to their 
size. Thus, a brace of greyhounds, 
or, at the most, a leash, ai'e consi- 
dered as many as a dooreah should 
lead out -, while of small dogs, it is 
common to see him surrounded by 
seven or eight. Each dog has a col- 
lar, to which a strong metal ring is 
sewed very firmly : tliis serves to 
fasten a piece of stout cord, the 
other end of which is looped, so as 
to pass over the dooreah's hand, and 
to sit round his "wrist; in general, 
the whole are led by the left hand, 
tlie right exercising the whip. 

DOTEE, waistcloth. A Hmdoo article 
of dress, containing almost cloth 
enough to serve for the envelopment 
of a mummy. 

DOWAL, a tom-tom, a drum. 

DOWLUTABAD, a fortress, seven 
miles to the north-westward of 
Aurungabad, in the pro^'ince of 
Aurungabad, in India. Prior to 
the conquest of this province by 
the !Mahomedans, this place was 
the capital of an independent 
Hindoo state, and was then called 
Deogurh, or Tagara. In the early 
part of the 14th century the empe- 
ror, Sultaun ]\Iahomed, endeavoured 
to make Deogurli the capital of his 
kmgdom, on which occasion he 
(hanged its name to Dowlutabad; 
but he was obliged to desist from 
his project, after nearly ruining the 
city of Delhi, by driving away the 
inhabitants, in order to make them 
settle at the new seat of government. 
In a mountain, about a mile to the 
eastward of Dowlutabad, are the 
caves of Ellora, or, as the place is 
called by the natives, Vcrrool. In 
magnitude and execution these ex- 
cavations excel every thing of the 
kind in India, They compose seve- 

ral temples, and are fiUed with 
figures ; some are dedicated to Siva, 
and others are Booddhist. Accord- 
ing to the Brahmuns, they were 
formed by Eeloo, rajah of Ellichpoor, 
about 8000 years ago, but on in- 
vestigation, they appear to have 
been executed about 2500 years 
since, and not more. 

DRAGOMAN, an interpreter of lan- 
guages at the court of the sultan, 
and indeed throughovit Turkey. 
There are several of them attached 
to each European embassy. 

DUBASH, a class of men Avho are 
employed by Europeans upon their 
first arrival at Madras or Bom- 
bay, to make purchases, furnish 
houses, procure servants, &c. Every 
ship has a dubash attached to it 
during its stay in the harbour or 
roadstead, and as they charge high 
prices for every thing they pur- 
chase, it is generally a lucrative 
employment. The dubashes all 
speak broken English, understand- 
ing, however, much more than they 
can express in our language. 

DUBBOW, to shampoo tlie person, an 
operation performed by pressing the 
limbs and kneading them, or gently 
knocking them with the doubled 
fists. It is a lazy indulgence com- 
mon to natives of India and Eu- 
ropeans of indolent habits. 

DUEFADAIv, the connnander of a 
party of horse, also of Peons, (q. v.) 

DUFTER KHANEII, a record office; 
any office in India. 

DUFTOREE, an office-keeper, who 
attends solely to those general matters 
in an Indian office, which do not come 
within the notice of the /teranee or 
clerk, sucli, for instance, as making 
pens, keeping the inkstands in order, 
ruling account books, and perhaps 
binding them; preparing and trhn- 
ming the lights, setting pen-knives, 
together with a great variety of 
other little jobs. 

DULLAUK, the barber who attends 
at the Persian "llumniaum," (q. v.) 

DU]MCO\V, lluidostanee. Verb, to 
bully; 7wun, a bully. 




DUNGAREE, a coarse kind of un- 
bleached calico. Tiie name also of 
a disreputalile village near Bombay. 

DUEBAK, Ilindostanee. The court; 
the luiU of audience; a levee. 

DURGA, or DOORGA. In this cha- 
racter Parvati (Hindoo mythology) 
is represented with ten arms. In 
one hand she holds a spear, with 
xvhich she is piercing the giant 
JNIuhisha ; in another a sword ; in 
a third, the hair of the giant, 
and the tail of a serpent twined 
round him ; and in others, the tri- 
dent, tlie discus, the axe, the club, 
the arrow, and the shield. One of 
her knees presses on the body of the 
giant, and her riglit foot rests on 
the back of a lion, which is lacerating 
his arm. On her head she has a 
crown richly gemmed, and her dress 
is magnificently decorated with 
jewels. The giant is issuing from 
the body of the buffalo, into which 
he had transformed himself during 
his combat witli the goddess. 

DURGAH, acourt; mosque connected 
with a tomb. 

DURKHAREH, Persian. Entrance 
to a great man's house or tent ; 
palace gate. 

DURZEE, tailor, an indispensable ad- 
junct to a domestic establishment in 
India, his business being to mend 
the clothes as fast as the dhobee, 
or washerman, tears them, and 
for this purpose, chiefly, he works 
daily from morn till dewy eve — 
from nine o'clock till five in Cal- 
cutta, but from sunrise to sunset in 
the upper provinces, or (more com- 
prehensively) in the ]\Iofussil. A 
lady's tailor gets from eight to ten 
rupees a month, and has no very 
quiet life of it; but the scolding is 
systematic, and lie cares Utile about 
the matter, though he never may 
have "heard great ordnance in the 
field." But the bachelor's tailor 
hath a life of ease andpleasure, work- 
ing half the time for the servants, 
who pay him for that same. 

DUSTOOREE, commission, per cen- 
tago, vails, perquisites. The word 

is derived from Oustoor "custom, 
for no other reason than that ser 
vants, brokers, sircars, and all de- 
scriptions of middle men have made 
it a practice to exact a per centage 
from every one receiving money 
from their master. 


Archipelago, as it is sometimes 
termed, comprises the largest assem- 
blage of islands on the globe. It 
extends from Long. 95 deg. to 138 
deg. E., and from Lat. 1 1 deg. S. to 
19 N., and includes the following 
principal islands : northward, the 
Philippines ; central, the Sooloo Isles, 
Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, and 
the Isles of Banda ; east, Papua; 
south and west, the Sunda Islands. 

ECKA, a light pony gig on two 
wheels, with crimson cloth cusliions 
on the top, on which the natives of 
India (who alone use them) sit 

EEDGAH, a place in India for the 
celebration of a festival. 

wandering tribes of Persia, who live 
constantly in tents, have no settled 
home, and rove about continually ia 
certain districts, to which they con- 
fine themselves, in search of pasture 
for their cattle and flocks, on the 
produce of which they subsist. 

ELATCHEE, cardamum, a spice 
much esteemed in India. 

ELCIIEE, Persian. An ambassador 
or envoy. 

ELEPHANTA. See Bombay. 

ELLICHPOOR, a large open town in 
India, the capital of the provmce of 
Berar, in Lat. 21 deg. 40 min. N., 
Long. 77 deg. 30 min. E. It is an an 
cient town, and has always been 
place of note in the province. 


ELLORE. This is a small inl 
district in India, one of the Nortl 
Circars, lying between Rajamu 
on the north, and KoudapiUy o: 




south. The town of Ellore is usually 
called Oopoo EUore, to distinguish it 
from Ra-EUoor, or Vellore. This is 
an inland town, situated about fifty 
miles from the coast, in Lat. 1 6 deg. 
43 min. N., Long. 81 deg. 15 rain. E. 
It is noted for carpets, and for leather 
manufactures. About five miles 
from Ellore is a large fresh -water 
lake, called the lake of Kolair, formed 
chiefly by the overflowings of the 
Godavery and Kistna. Its breadth 
varies from seven to twelve miles, 
and its extreme length is about 
twenty-two miles. It contains a 
number of islets, which i^roduce 
abundant crops of rice. Tliis lake 
communicates with the sea by a 
small river called the Ooi)utnair, 
navigable for boats. 

EMAUMBARREE, a place of Mussal- 
man worship, and a depot for the 
Tazecs used at the Mohurrum. 

EMIK, a title. See Ameer. 

ENAUM, Hindostanee. l^resent, gift, 
gratuity, iavour. Enaums are grants 
of land free of rent ; or assignments of 
the government's share of the produce 
of a portion of land for the support 
of rehgious establishments, and 
priests, and for charitable purposes ; 
also to revenue ofScers, the pubhc 
servants of a village, retired and 
deserving old soldiers, &c. 

ENAUMDAR, holder of any thing as 
a favour. A person in the ])OSsession 
of rent-free or favoural)ly rented 
lands, or in the enjoyment, under 
assigmncnt thereof, of tlie govern- 
ment dues from a particular portion 
of land, granted from cliaritv, &c. 

E:NDARU-GAHA,tlie castor-oil tree. 

This is a slirub in the island of 

Ceylon that seldom grows more 

than ten or twelve feet liigh. Tlie 

trunk is like the stalk of a cabbage, 

md equally frangible. The fruit 

TOWS out from tlic ends of tlie 

■ranches, and is rather larger than 

Dca. The outside is rough and 

■;kly. When ripe, it is nearly 

'•,k. Each fruit contains two 

's, covered with small black 

1. These, when -well dried, are 


pounded in a mortar to express the 
oil, which the natives use as a 
medicine. The growth is very rapid, 
as it arrives at maturity in about 
twelve months, and having borne 
fruit once, it dies. The natives pay 
little regard to the cultivation of it, 
and when they want a little oil, they 
pluck its seeds, and make it at once, 
never keeping a supply of it by them. 

ETAWAH, a town and station in the 
north-west of India, in the province 
of Agra. This was once a flourish- 
ing place, the abode of omras and 
grandees of the Mogxd empire, but 
it is now a mass of ruin and decay. 
Standing upon the banks of the 
Junma, it possesses a splendid ghaut, 
which rather serves, by contrast 
Avitli all else, to indicate the present 
poverty, than to illustrate the an- 
cient importance of the place. A few 
bungalows scattered over a wide 
sandy plain, nearly destitute of 
trees, intermixed with other build- 
ings of an inferior kind, announce 
the presence of civil and military 
residents. These are, however, few 
in number — the one being limited to 
a coUector and magistrate, with their 
subordinate officers, and the other 
to the wing of a corps of native 
infantry. Nothing can be imagined 
more dreary and desolate than this 
place as a residence ; but for the 
naturalist it possesses attractions of 
no connnon order, the result, in a 
great measure, of the abundance of 
vegetation, arising from the absence 
of a large European population. 

EURASIAN, the offspring of the 
European father and the Hindoo or 
Mussulman woman in India. The 
names of East Indian, country-born, 
half-caste, are given to tliis class, 
but "Eurasian" appears most pro- 
perly to indicate tlieir origin, and 
lias nothing oflcnsive about it. The 
Eurasians arc an orderly, intelligent, 
and (as clerks) an industrious race of 
people, but they are devoid of mental 
and personal energy, and thcrcfure 
seldom attain either individual or 
corporate weight and inipor Lance. 




TAKEER, a poor man, mendicant, 
or Avandering Indian beggar. 

FAKERAN, from fakeer, a mendicant 
(]Mahomedan law, fookra), to main- 
tain the poor. A Moslem grant. 

FANAM, a nominal coin in use under 
the Presidency of Madras. 

FELLICK, the beam and noose by 
which the feet of Persian or Turkish 
criminals are secured when receiving 
the bastinado. 

FEREDJE, the out-of-door dress of a 
Turkish female. It is generally 
composed of green cloth, and invests 
the entire i^erson. 

FERINGEE, Frank, or European; 
more commonly applied by the na- 
tives of Intlia to the descendants of 
the Portuguese, or tlie half-castes. 

FEROSH, or furniture-keeper ; the 
duty of this menial, among Europeans 
in India, consists chiefly in cleaning 
the furniture, putting up or taking 
down beds (which, in India, is always 
efifected Avithout the aid of a carpen- 
ter), beating carpets, pseparing and 
trimming the lights, opening and 
shutting the doors for guests, handing 
chairs, setting tables for meals, 
together with a variety of minutise 
of a similar description. Among 
the natives the olBce comprehends 
far more laborious employments, 
among which the arrangement of 
tents may be adduced. In this they 
aid the kalashies, or tent-men, reserv- 
ing to themselves the performance 
of whatever relates to the interior. 
According to the account of Abu 
Fazil, who wrote regarding tlie 
establishment of the Emperor 
Akbar, that monarch retained no 
less than 1000 fcroshes, for the pur- 
pose of attending his encampments 
or parties of pleasure. These, how- 
ever munerous, must have had 
plenty to do, for we find that the 
equipage, on such occasions, con- 
sisted of 1000 elephants, 500 camels, 
400 carts, and 1000 men, escorted by 

500 cavalry. There were employed 
in this service, 1000 feroshes, 500 
pioneers, 100 water-carriers, fifty 
carpenters, 50 tent-makers, 50 link- 
men, 30 workers in leather, and 150 
sweepers. The number of large 
tents was prodigious ; but some 
idea may be entertained of their 
amount, when it is stated, that the 
royal precinct was enclosed by 
kunnauts (walls of cloth) eight feet 
high, and in the whole, nearly two 
miles in length! 

towns in India in the province of 
Delhi, which are the principal sta- 
tions of the British territory on the 
north-western frontier, both on the 
left bank of the Sutlej . Ferozepore is 
situated in Lat. 30 deg. 55 min. N., 
Long. 74 deg. 35 min. E., and Loodi- 
ana in the same latitude, Long. 75 
deg. 48 min. E. 

FIRDOUSEE (Abool Kasim), the 
author of the Shah Nameh, (q. v.) 

FIRMAUN, a decree, order, warrant, 
or passport, issued by the Shah of 
Persia or the Sultan of Turkey. No 
subject dares to disobey the firmaun 
of the sovereign ; it supersedes aU 
laws and regulations, and renders 
those who pass it independent of 
their immediate local governors. 

FLORnaN, or FLORICAN, a large 
game bird of the bustard species, 
found in the plains of India. It 
afibrds excellent sport, and ranks 
with the j;)heasant among English 

FLORIS, or EUDE, one of the Sunda 
islands. It is situated immediately 
to the westward of the island of 

FLYING BUG, a winged insect, com- 
mon to India, especially where 
jungle or vegetation abound. In 
shape, size, and scent, with the addi- 
tional faculty of flight, they resemble 
tlie " grabbatee" genus, well known 
in England. In the night these 
insects rush m masses into dwellings, 
crowd round the candles and lamps, 
and like moths, destroy themselves 
by too close a contact with the light. 




TOO KHODAH, Tersian. In God's 
name ! 

FOONTI, the melon. Of melons there 
are many varieties in India, but 
there are few of the Bengal sorts 
•worth eating, for their flavour, ex- 
cept in the northern and north- 
western provinces, where the Per- 
sian and Afghan conquerors have 
brought some good kinds, is very in- 
different. In intertropical India 
the best melons almost immediately 
degenerate into a sort of half water 
melon. A few successful attempts 
have been made, with great care and 
attention, to raise fine high-flavoured 
melons from seed obtained from 
England, France, and Afghanistan, 
but it is yet only by a succession of 
fresh seed that good ones can be 
obtained, and the care and cost are 
such that hitherto there seems little 
chance of counting the melon of 
Persia, Afghanistan, or Europe, 
amongst the Indian fruits. The 
■water melon in some parts of India 
attains to a monstrous size. Tliose 
of Agra, which are cultivated on the 
sandy flats left by the subsiding 
•waters of the Junma, are famous; 
and stories of them are standard 
jokes of approved ciurrency in those 
l)arts. On the coast they are also 
considered to attain " great respect- 
ability," and, in short, good water 
melons are pretty common all over 
India, and they are very highly 
esteemed by the natives and by 
many Europeans. The foonti, or 
phootee, as it is called by the Ben- 
galese, has a strong melon scent, but 
very little of the taste, and less of 
the perfume, of the true melon. To 
some Europeans, and to most natives, 
however, it is an acceptable fruit, at 
least as a change, during the short 
time that it is in season, and in great 
demand for the various preparations, 
such as sherbets, and the like, into 
Aviiich it enters. It is, like all the 
tribe, considered as cooling and even 
medicinal, and no doubt justly so. 
rORM(JSA, a large island, about 180 
miles in length, and fifty in average 

breadth, lying off the south-eastern 
coast of China,distant about 200 miles, 
between Lat. 23 deg. and 24 deg. N. 
FOUJDAE, under the Mogul govern- 
ment of India, a magistrate of the 
police over a large district, who took 
cognisance of aU criminal matters 
within his jm"isdiction, and some- 
times was employed as receiver- 
general of the revenues. ' 
FOUJDARKY, any thing appertain- 
ing to a Foujdar, as his ofiice, juris- 
diction, covirt, and the like. Also the 
produce of fines and confiscations in 
the Foujdarry courts. 
FURRUKHABAD, a town in India, 
in the province of Agra. It stands 
at a short distance from the bank of 
WxQ Ganges, in Lat. 27 deg. 24 min. 
N., Long. 79 deg. 27 iiiin. E. It is 
large and populous, containing about 
7000 inhabitants, and is a place of 
considerable commerce. 
land measure, equivalent to four 
British miles. 
FUTIIIGURH, a town in India, in 
the province of Agra. It is situated 
three miles to the eastward of Fur- 
rukhabad. It is the principal resi- 
dence of the civil authorities of the 
district, and is noted for the manu- 
facture of tents. 
FUTWAH, a judicial decree, sentence, 
or judgment. In every court of law 
in India is an officer versed in Jla- 
homedan law, whose "futwah" in a 
measure regulates the decision of the 
FYZABAD, a town in India, in the 
province of Oude. It stands on the 
south side of the river Gogra, about 
eight miles to the eastward of Luck- 
now. This was formerly tlie capital 
of the province. It is still of con- 
siderable extent, and contains a nu- 
merous population. 


GAICOWAR, the chieftain of Baroda, 
in (iuzerat (west of India), in friendly 
alliance with the British. The title 
O 2 




is derived from the name of Pellagie 
G aicowar, the founder of tlie sove- 
reignty, lie vas originally a village 
potail, M'ho after many struggles and 
intrigues succeeded iu establishing 
his authority. 

GALLEE, abuse; an instrument of 
personal warfare, in the use of which 
the natives of India are peculiarly 
dexterous. It generally takes the 
form of a comprehensive censure of 
all the female relatives of one's family, 
together with the grandfathers and 
grandmothers of the party abused. 

GANESHA(vulgo, GUNNESS). This 
deity, the god of wisdom and policy 
(according to the Hindoo my thology), 
is painted as a short, fat, red- 
coloured man, with a large belly, and 
the head of an elephant. He has 
four arms; in one hand of which he 
holds the haunhris or hook for 
guiding the elephant ; in another, a 
chank or shell ; in the third, a 
conical ball ; and in the fourth a cup 
with small cakes, with which he is 
supposed to feed himself. He is 
sitting on the lotus. He is frequently 
described as riding on, or having 
near him a rat, the emblem of jiru- 
dence and foresight, and is invoked 
on all matters of business by the 
Hindoos. If a person undertakes a 
journey, or build a house, prayers 
are addressed to Ganesha, for which 
purpose his statues are set up on 
the roads and other ojien places. At 
the commencement of a letter or a 
book, or an invocation to a superior 
deity, a salutation is usually made 
to him, and his image is fre- 
quently seen placed, as a propitia- 
tion over the doors of houses and 
shops, to insure success to the tem- 
poral concerns of their owners. 
Ganesha is often called the Pan or 
svlvan deity of the Hindoos. 

GANESHA JUNANI,aform of Parvati 
(in Hindoo mythology), under which 
she is represented sitting on a lotus, 
dressed in red, and supporting the 
infant Ganesha in her arms. Very 
expensive festivals are held in honour 
of this form of Parvati. 

GANGES, the. This river rises on 
the south side of the Himalaya 
mountains, in the north of India. It 
is first seen in about Lat. 31 deg. N., 
and Long. 79 deg. E., where it issues 
from under a very low arch, at the 
bottom of a great mass of solid 
frozen snow, about 300 feet high. 
Its breadth at this place is about 
thirty feet, and the depth about one 
foot. It enters Hindostan Proper 
near Ilurdwar, in the i^rovince of 
Delhi, about 120 miles distant from 
the city of Delhi. It passes through 
the ])rovinces of Delhi, Agra, Oude, 
Allahabad, Bahar, and Bengal, and 
falls into the bay of Bengal. About 
200 miles from the sea, taking a 
straight line, or 300 miles, taking 
the windings of the river, the Ganges 
sends out a number of branches. 
The two westernmost branches, 
called the Kasimbazar and Jellinghee 
rivers, join together at Nuddea, sixty 
miles from Calcutta, and form the 
river Hoogly. 

GANJA, hemp; an intoxicating mix- 
ture used in India for smoking and 

GANJAM, a district in India, the 
most northern of the Circars. Its 
north-western part, bordering upon 
Orissa, forms a hilly district, called 
Goorasur, covered with thick bam- 
boo forests, and inhabited by a rude 
mountain tribe. The remamder of 
the Circar towards the sea is flat 
and open. It is separated from 
Orissa by a chain of hills and a 
large sheet of water, about thirty- 
five miles long and eight broad, 
called the Chilka Lake. 

GANJAM, a seaport in Ganjam, one 
of the Northern Circars, in India. It 
is situated in Lat. 19 deg. 21 min. 
N., Long. 8.5 deg. 10 min. E., and 
Avas formerly a ])lace of considerable 
trade, and one of the principal sta- 
tions of the English; but for some 
years past it has been abandoned, 
on account of the great imhealthiness 
of its climate. 

town in India, in the province of 




Assam. It is situated on the 
south side of the Brahmapootra, in 
Lat. 25 deg. 55 min. N., Long. 91 
deg. 40 min. E. It was in ancient 
times the capital of Kamroop, but is 
now a place of little consequence. 

GAEREEWAUN, coachman (in native 
corruption coachmauri) of an English 
carriage in India. lie would be out 
of his element in the crowded streets 
of London, or in a throng at the 
opera, but he is sufficiently expert 
for his vocation in the East, where 
crowds of carriages are unknown, 
and Avhere all cart drivers, &c., are 
forced to get out of the way. He 
lias no great delicacy of bridle touch, 
and not the smallest pride in his 
harness or other appointments, 
whicli, if the master chooses, will 
' go dim and dirty enough. 

GARUDA, or GURURA. This demi- 
god, with tlie head and wings of a 
bird, and the body, legs, and arms of 
a man, is of considerable importance 
in the Hindoo mythology. He is 
tlie son of Kasj'apa and Vinata, the 
brotlier of A run, and the vuhan or 
vehicle of Vishnu. As Arun, the 
charioteer of Surya (the sun) is tlie 
dawn, the harbinger of day, so does 
Garuda, the younger brother, follow 
as its perfect light. He is the em- 
blem of strength and swiftness, and 
besides being the bearer of the omni- 
potent Vislinu, is greatly distin- 
guished in Hindoo legends on many 
very important occasions. 

GASMADDOO, tlie "tree-snare," a 
thick kind of hind-rope, used in Cey- 
lon to entrap elephants. 

GAWILGUKH, a fortress in Lidia, in 
tiie province of Berar, situated on a 
rocky hill, in tlie midst of a range of 
mountains, lying between the Tuptee 
and I'oorna rivers, in Lat. 21 deg. 22 
min. N., Long. 77 deg. 24 min. E., 
fifteen miles north-westerly from El- 
lichpoor. Tliisfortress was considered 
by the natives of India as impreg- 
nable, but it was taken by assault 
in 1803 by tiie British troops, 
after a siege of not more than a few 

trict of the Bengal dependencies, in 
India, lying between Assam on the 
north, Kachar on the east, Sylhet on 
the south, and the Garrows on the 
west. Its extreme length from east 
to west, is estimated at 100 miles; 
and its extreme breadth, from north 
to south, at about eighty. For 
some miles from its borders, north 
and south, this territory consists 
partly of thickly wooded hills, and 
partly of low land ; but the inter- 
mediate country, about fifty miles in 
extent, is an undulating plain, free 
from jungle, and well adapted for 
pasturage, but very thinly inhabited, 
and not cultivated. Its productions 
are chiefly cotton, rice, and a coarse 
kind of silk, called tussur, made 
from the wild silk-worm. Elephants 
and ivory also are exported, and 
amongst the minerals are iron, lime- 
stone, and coal. The only town is 
Gentiapoor, the residence of the 
rajah, situated about thirty miles to 
the northward of Sylhet. The in- 
habitants of this district appear 
to be of the same class as those of 
Kachar. This tcrritoiy, although 
of such limited extent, is ruled by a 
number of petty chiefs, nominally 
subject to the rajali of Gentiapoor, 
but paying very little real deference 
to his authority. The people are, in 
consequence, harassed with inces- 
sant feuds, and remain in a very 
Avretchcd and barbarous condition. 
Their present religion is that of the 
Hindoos, Avliich has been introduced 
among them from Bengal. Their 
language very much resembles the 
Chinese, but has no written character. 
Tlic Bengalese, however, has latterly 
been adopted by their chiefs, and 
will ])robal)ly Ijecome their general 

GENTOU, Indian. One of the abo- 
rigines of India. At Madras our 
coimtrymen use this term to de- 
signate the language and peo- 
ple of TMingmia, who occupy the 
north-eastern portions of the penin- 




GERGHONG, a tomi in India, in the 
province of Assam, is situated on 
the river Dikho, and was for many 
years the capital of the Assam king- 
dom ; but an insurrection of the 
people breaking out in 1794, ruined 
the town, and caused the seat of 
government to be transferred to 

GHAUT, a mountain. Ghaut also 
implies a landing-place or wharf 
on the Ganges. Pious Hindoos de- 
vote considerable smiis to the con- 
struction of these landing-places, 
Avhich generally consist of a hand- 
some flight of steps, with, some- 
times, a pagoda or temple at the 

GHAUTS, a range of mountains in 
India, divided into Eastern and 
Western. The Western Mountains 
extend from the Tuptee river to 
Cape Comorin. The highest part of 
the range is about 6000 feet above 
the level of the sea. The Eastern 
Mountains extend from the liistna 
to near the Cavery rivers. The 
highest part of the chain is about 
3000 feet above the sea. The word 
gliaut signifies a pass, o^ ford. It is 
commonly used by the English in 
speaking of these two ranges of 
mountains, though properly meaning 
only the passes through them. 

GHAZAL, Persian. A song, or 

GHAZIPOOR, a town in India, in the 
province of Allahabad, situated on 
the north side of the Ganges, in 
Lat. 25 deg. 10 min. N., Long. 83 
deg. 35 min. E. This is a large and 
populous town, and is celebrated for 
the manufacture of rose water. 
Numbers of superior horses are 
bred here in the government stud; 
and there are cantonments for three 
regiments of cavalry. 
GHEE, the butter produced from the 
milk of the Indian buffalo. It 
is very inferior, generally white and 
brittle ; it possesses qualities suit- 
ing it admirably to the climate, and 
occasioning the natives to give it 
the preference. After being warmed 

to a certain degree, so as to become 
rather liquified, it is kept in that 
state until it loses its aqueous par- 
ticles, and is rendered fit for keep- 
ing. 'Eeyf of the natives Avill touch 
cow-butter, to which they attribute 
many bad effects, though they will 
drink ghee by the quart, and pride 
themselves not a little in being able 
to afford so luscious an enjoyment. 
The uncontrolled iise of this article, 
though it may tend to that obesity 
of which the higher classes of Hin- 
doos are inordinately vain, contri- 
butes to the generation of those 
bilious diseases with which they are 
often attacked. Ghee and idleness 
may be said to give birth to half 
their disorders. As an article of 
commerce, ghee possesses some 
claim to importance, many thou- 
sands of maunds being sent every 
season from some of the grazing dis- 
tricts to the more cultivated parts, 
and especially to the western pro- 
vinces. The ghee is generally con- 
veyed in dubbahs, or bottles made of 
green hide, which, being freed from 
the hair, and worked up, while in a 
pliant state, into the form of a 
caraboy, such as is used in England 
for sjjirits of turpentine, &c., will 
keep sweet for a long time. Ghee 
is used for culinary purposes in 
European families. 

GHINDY, a flat-bottomed circular cop- 
per basin placed on a stand about three 
feet high. It is the common accom- 
paniment of an Indian oflBcer on the 
Ihie of march, as it admits of being 
placed with other baggage on the 
back of a bullock or camel without 
risk of damage. 

GHOONT, a small hill pony, resem- 
bling, excepting in its coat, the 
shaggy Shetland breed. They are 
very sure-footed, and are used in 
the Himalayas and other mountain 
ranges as pack or saddle-horses. 

GHokA- WALLAH, literally, horse- 
felloAv, a groom. The term is only 
employed in Western India, and is 
synonymous with syce, (q. v.) 

GH011U3ISAUG, a Turkish word of 




abuse, wliich may be translated by 
the English •word " scoundrel," 
although its literal meaning is even 
still more gross. It is in very 
frequent use where Turkish is spo- 
ken, and is sometimes used jocu- 

GHOSAL KHANEH, a bathing room. 
The bath is naturally of much use 
in every house in India, where fre- 
quent ablution is requisite. The 
ghosal khaneh, however, is seldom any 
thing more than a small square 
apartment, with a chunam or marble 
floor, and a sink or gutter to carry 
off the water, which is obtained 
from large earthen jars (chatties) 
or shower baths. 

GHUKREE, an Indian hour, twenty- 
four minutes ; also, a gong, or copper 
plate, used to strike the hours, or as 
a signal. 

GHUZNEE, a fortified city m Afghan- 
istan, situated in Lat. 33 deg. 10 min. 
N., Long. 66 deg. 57 min. E. For 
nearly two centuries this place was 
the capital of a powerful kingdom, 
commencing with Subuktageen, in 
A. D. 975, to the time of Mahomed 
Ghourie, in 1171, who subdued 
the empire of Ghuznee, and burnt 
the city. For many years after- 
wards, however, Ghuznee continued 
to be one of the principal towns in 
Afghanistan, and has always been 
regarded with veneration by the 
Mahomedans, in consequence of its 
containing the tombs of numerous 
distinguished personages of their 
faith. About three miles from the 
city is the tomb of the celebrated 
Sultaun Mahmoud. Glmznee was 
taken by storm by the 15ritish troops 
in 1839. Upon the insurrection in 
1841, it again fell into the hands of 
the Afghans, from Avhom it was re- 
captured in 1842, when the English 
entirely demolished the fort, and 
carried ofi' the sandal-wood gates of 
Mahmoud's tomb, which had been 
taken by him from the Hindoo 
temple of Sonmauth in 1024. They 
also took away tlie Sultaun's mace 
as a trophy of their conquest. 

GIAN BIN GIAN, the Oberon of the 
East; the king of the fairies. 

GIDDH, the Bengal vulture, the 
vulture Bengalensis of authors, is 
gregarious to the full extent of the 
word, not only flying and feeding in 
flocks, but also building its nest in 
company. The plumage of the male 
is dark brown above, deepest on the 
wings and tail ; under parts of a, 
lighter shade of brown, the shaft 
and middle of each feather being 
dashed with a dirty white, or buflT- 
coloured streak ; head and neck of 
a dirty livid colour, and destitute of 
feathers, but scattered over with 
short hairs ; at the bottom of the 
neck a ruff" of long, narrow, and 
pointed feathers; the crop covered 
over with short brown feathers, and 
slightly overhanging the breast ; bill, 
strong, and black at the end, but 
paler at the base; nostrils, lateral; 
irides, dark hazel ; legs, thick and 
blackish; claws, black and strong, 
and not much hooked. Length, 2 feet 
7 inches ; breadth, 7 feet 5 inches. 
The female in length 3 feet 1 inch, 
and in breadth 7 feet 7 inches ; the 
plumage above is much lighter, being 
of a buff or pale fawn coloured 
brown ; under parts of a dirty 
white ; irides, dark hazel ; bill, 
strong, and dark at the end, but of 
a greenish livid colour at the base ; 
the claws are longer and more 
hooked than in the male. 

GIRRA, the common teal found in 
India. It is identical with the 
British species, and is one of the 
handsomest of the duck tribe, as 
well as one of the most delicate. 
The girra are generally found in 
flocks of four to twelve on ponds and 
jheels, but sometimes they congregate 
in great numbers. They arc birds of 
passage, and do not breed in India. 
Tiiey are netted in various ways by 
tlic natives, and sold in most of the 
bazars for a mere trifle. Tlic most 
usual way of netting them is, after 
having ascertained tlie place where 
they resort to feed at night, to sur- 
round it by a line suspended by 




■bamboos, to which are attached 
nooses, at intervals of a few inches. 
The teal ali.tfht outside of this line, 
and in swimming towards the place 
■where they find their food, have to 
pass the nooses, and in doing so a 
number are caught, and in general 
this does not alarm tlie rest. They 
are permitted to feed a short time 
unmolested, when the jwrson M-atch- 
ing the nets makes a slight noise, 
sufficient to cause the teals to swim 
back to the deep water, M'hen they 
have to repass the nooses. When 
as many birds are netted so as to 
create confusion, the birds are se- 
cured in a basket, and all being 
again quiet, the teals return again 
to their favourite resort for food. 
Another way is by using the flap 
net on an extensive scale, when a 
whole flock may be secured; but it 
is expensive, and the above is the 
most common method in use on snudl 
jheels. To the gunner the teal pre- 
sents a difficult shot, particularly if 
the bird is fairly on wing, taking a 
sweep through the air. A small 
charge of shot, and a good charge of 
powder, is requisite to come up with 
them, and do execution. In wild- 
fowl shooting, if a bird or two are 
winged, it is a common plan to 
stake them down in a favourite 
resort in the jheel; the teal, when 
flying over, will be attracted by 
these birds, and afford good shots. 
GO A, a Portuguese possession in In- 
dia, consisting of two towns, (Jld 
Goa and New Goa, or Panjim, situ- 
ated upon a small islancl on the 
Malabar coast, in the province of 
Bejapoor, in India, Lat. 1.5 deg. 30 
min. N., Long. 74 deg. 2 min. E. 
Old Goa, formerly the most splendid 
city in India, is now in ruins, the 
seat of government having been 
removed to Panjim, which is a hand- 
some and well-built town upon 
the island of Goa, five miles 
nearer the entrance of the harl)our 
than old Goa. Though still the 
residence of the Portuguese viceroy, 
it has ceased to be a place of any 

importance. Including Goa, and 
some small island connected with 
it, the Portuguese possess in India 
a small territory of about forty 
miles in length by twenty in 

GOALPARA, a frontier town in 
India, in the province of Bengal, 
and the principal trading mart be- 
tween Bengal and Assam, Lat. 26 
deg. 8 mill. N., Long. 90 deg. 38 
min. E. 

a wild tribe of Indians, uihabiting 
the hills of Omerkantuk, at the 
source of the Sone and Nurbuddah. 
The Goands are one of the lowest 
classes in the scale of civilisation to 
be found throughout India. The 
manners and customs of these people 
are peculiar to themselves, and their 
physiognomy differs very widely 
from the usual characters found in 
the natives of the Peninsula. Their 
skin is much blacker than the ordi- 
nary shade, their lips are thick, and 
their hair woolly, resembling that of 
an African ; their forms are well 
proportioned, being strong and 
athletic, and though steeped in the 
grossest ignorance, there appears no 
reason to suppose that they are in- 
capable of mental improvement. 
They had for a long time obtained 
the reputation of being cannibals, 
before the unhallowed nature of 
tjieir banquet was established be- 
yond a doubt. Unlike the general 
habits of those savages who devour 
human flesh, they are rather par- 
ticular in their tastes, and will only 
partake of a feast aflbrded by per- 
sons belonging to their OAvn tribe ; 
the sacrifice of the victim, and the 
preparation of the abhorrent food, 
partaking somewhat of the nature of 
a religious rite. It appears that 
when any member of a family is 
seized with a hopeless malady, or 
becomes aged, and therefore of no 
further use to the community, he is 
forthwith killed and eaten, thus 
rendering his death a public benefit. 
When closely questioned, no Goand 




■will deny this practice, but all in- 
dignantly exclaim against the sup- 
position that they -would partake 
indiscriminately of human flesh, and 
disgrace themselves by eating that 
of a stranger, or any individual not 
belonging to their own tribe. This 
smgular and unprepossessing class 
of persons, who are scattered over 
the country about Omerkantuk, live 
in the most barbarous manner pos- 
sible, upon wild roots and vegetables, 
and such animals as they can snare 
or kill, not troubling themselves 
with the care and cultivation of the 
soil, and being frequently reduced to 
great extremity. They construct 
rude cisterns of bamboo and mud in 
the most accessible parts of the 
forest, which, in the rainy season, 
are filled with water, each family 
congregating round one of these cis- 
terns, and should all the water con- 
tained in it be consumed before the 
next fall, they wander to another of 
these rude reservoirs, Avhich are 
formed at the distance of several miles 
from each other, and to which they 
also fly at the approach of an enemy. 
Partaking of the propensity common 
to all the inliahitants of India to 
divide themselves into separate com- 
munities or castes, they are tenacious 
of the customs of their tribe, yet 
they do not conform to any of the 
prejudices respecting animals held 
sacred by other classes of Hindoos; 
making no scruple of killing and 
eating the cow, when they can ob- 
tain a prize of such magnitude, and 
feeding without hesitation upon 
snakes, monkeys, or any thing else 
that may come in their way. These 
people have very little intercourse 
with Goands of (Ufferent tribes, who 
live \mder chiefs in towns or vil- 
lages, or, until lately, with the more 
civilised portion of tlie community 
residing in tlie ]>lains, seldom ven- 
turing l)eyond their own districts, 
except when driven by necessity to 
barter any of the products of the 
hills for ])rovisions. The difficulty 
of procuring the means of existence 

prevents them from congregating in 
large numbers, and there are seldom 
more than eight or ten huts in one 
place. In sacrificing their aged or 
sick relatives to Devi, they consider 
that they perform a meritorious 
action, — first, liy propitiating the 
goddess; secondly, by putting their 
friends out of their misery ; and 
thirdly, by assuring to themselves 
an ample meal, in addition to the 
blessing which descends upon all 
who comply with the insatiable 
demands of that gloomy deity, who 
craves unceasingly for blood. Inde- 
pendently of a superstition at once 
so revoltuig and degrading, the result 
of the most barbarous state of igno- 
rance, the Goands are a simple race 
of people, not addicted to the usual 
vices of the savage character. It is 
said, that a growing taste for salt 
and sugar is now bringing them into 
more frequent contact with the 
peojile of the plains, and could they 
be induced to estimate the blessings 
of civilisation, and take back with 
them the means of improving the 
condition of their fellow-tribes, they 
would prove valuable members of 
the community, since they alone can 
live throughout the year in the 
pestiferous atmosphere of their hills. 
These wild Goands recognise a chief, 
and many extensive tracts of country 
belong to their rajahs; the Rajah of 
liustar, in the Nagpore country, 
being one. All the Goand chieftains 
are in the habit of pro])itiating the 
favourite deity, the goddess Devi, 
by the sacrifice of human victims; 
their sacriticcs being distinct from 
tlie immolations before mentioned, 
which are confined to the more 
savage tribes, who only nuirder tlieir 
nearest relatives. When they have 
the success of an}' imdertaking very 
nuich at heart, tliey make a vow to 
Devi, proniisiuf^a cert;! in number of 
human offerings, should their wishes 
be fulfilled. This vow is religiously 
kept, the victims being selected, if 
possible, from the Jungum caste, on 
account of a supposition generally 




entertained, that the smallest portions 
of their bones and flesh will, if buried 
in fields, render the crops miracu- 
lously abundant. K such persons 
are not easily obtained, others are 
procured by the collectors employed 
by the rajah for the purpose, who 
seize any strangers that may be 
passing through. These practices 
were brought to the notice of the 
British government, in consequence 
of complaints having been made by 
the relatives of persons who were so 
unfortunate as to fall into such in- 
human hands, to the Company's 
political agent at Nagpore, and since 
then efforts have been made to put an 
end to the horrible rites; but they still 
prevail to a very great extent, and it 
is dangerous for natives of Lidiafrom 
distant parts of the country to ven- 
ture amongst a people addicted to 
such frightful religious ceremonies. 
GOD A VERY, the. This river has its 
source in India, in the Western Moun- 
tains, about seventy miles to the north- 
east of Bombay. It runs eastward 
through the provinces of Aurung- 
abad and Beder ; and turnuig to the 
south-east, flows between the pro- 
vinces of Orissa and Hyderabad, 
wliich it separates, and through the 
Northern Circars into the Bay of 
Bengal. Its whole course is about 
850 miles. 

GODOWN, a warehouse, or cellar, in 

GOGLETT, a small porous earthen 
jar or vase, used for the reception of 
water, which it cools and dei)urates. 
The goglett is much in use at 
Bombay, where they are made very 
light and cheap. 

GOHARREAS, a class of Indians, 
whose profession is to hire themselves 
out for the purpose of fighting. They 
usually stipulate for a certain re- 
ward, and a provision in case they 
should suffer imprisonment for any 
afliiir in which, having been en- 
gaged, they should be apprehended 
and punished. 

GOLAH, Hiudostanee. A warehouse. 

GOLEEAH, a member of a boat's crew 

on the Ganges. He has particular 
charge of the bow, where he either 
rows the foremost oar, or, when ne- 
cessary, keeps the boat from running 
against the l^ank, or upon shoals, by 
means of a luggy, or long bamboo pole, 
first casting it out in the proper direc- 
tion, and then lapping it round several 
times with the end of a strong tail- 
strap, fastened to a ring on the fore- 
castle, so as to prevent the pole from 
returning. Often the fate of a boat de- 
pends on the certainty of the goleeaKs 
throw ; especially under a cutchar, 
or sand-bank, perhaps twenty feet 
or more in height, under which a 
strong current cuts away the foun- 
dation, occasioning immense bodies 
of the soil to fall in, attended by a 
noise competing with thunder. 
GOMASTAH, Hindostanee. A com- 
missioner, factor, agent. 
GONDVVANA, a province of the 
Deccan, in India, bounded on the 
north by Allahabad and Bahar; 
east, Bahar and Orissa ; south, 
Orissa, the Northern Circars, and 
Hyderabad ; west, Beder, Berar, 
Kliandesh, Malwa, and Allahabad. 
Of the numerous districts into which 
this extensive province is divided, 
the following may be considered the 
principal : Baghela, or Baghul- 
khund, Singrowla, Gurra-Mundla, 
Sohajpoor, Sirgooja, and Sumbhul- 
poor, belonging to the British do- 
minions, and Deogur, Nagpore, 
Chanda, Chouteesgur, Wynegunga, 
and Bustar, belonging to the Rajah 
of Nagpore. The rivers are the 
Sone, Nurbudda, Gunga, or Wyne- 
Gunga, Wurda, and Mahanudee, all, 
excepting the Wurda, having their 
sources in this province. The Gunga 
flows southerly, and joining the 
Wurda, falis with it into the Go- 
davery. The greatest portion of this 
province presents a very wUd ap- 
pearance, abounding with rugged 
mountains, and covered with forests. 
The eastern and southern districts, 
particularly, are in an exceedingly 
savage state. Westward, though 
traversed by ranges of hills, and ia 




many parts thickly ■wooded, the 
country is more open; and in Chou- 
teesgiir and the northern districts 
there are large tracts of clear and 
fertile ground. The province in 
general is poorly cultivated, and 
thinly inhabited. The climate of 
the hilly and wooded districts is re- 
markably unhealthy, and usually 
fatal to the natives of other parts. 
The productions are rice, wheat, 
chenna, jowaree, and other dry 
grains; sugar, hemp, cotton, opium, 
tobacco, arrow-root, pan, and bees'- 
wax, dyeing drugs, oils, gum, and 
coarse silk, of the description called 
tussur. The forests yield a plentiful 
supply of teak, saul, and other large 
timber; and the lac insect abomids. 
Diamonds of a large size, and gold, 
are to be found in the vicinity of 
the rivers, particularly of the Maha- 
nudee; but the imhealthiness of the 
climate i)revents their being much 
sought after. Iron, talc, limestone, 
coal, red-ochre, and marble, are also 
procured in different parts. The 
district of Singrowla contains the 
largest quarry of corundum in India. 
Wild beasts are numerous, particu- 
larly tigers, aud bears of a large 
size, Avith the gaour, mirjee, a 
peculiar species of wild dog, and 
some others, very little known to 
Europeans. Tlie gaour is a very 
powerful animiU, of the ox kind, 
resembling the bison. The mirjee, 
or mouse deer, so called from its 
head resembling that of a mouse in 
form, is the smallest of the deer 
species, being about the size of a 
jackal. Among the snakes, which 
abound in this provmce, is the boa 
constrictor. TJie towns are Ban- 
doogui', iSaipoor, Gurra, Jubbulpoor, 
Mahadeo, Chouragur, Choupara, 
and Mundla, Sohajpoor, Kurgom- 
ma, and ( )omerkuntuk, Hiriuidoo, 
Juslipoor, (iangi)oor, Sumltiiuljjoor, 
and Tatna, Deogur, IJabye, Eaitool, 
Jilpee-Anmeer, Nagpore, Clianda, 
Kuttanpoor, Konkcer, and Byrgur, 
Wynegunga, Wyragur, and Bustar. 
This province has received its 

general name of Gondwana, as being 
the country of the Goand or Khoond 
tribe. The inliabitants are Goands, or 
Klioonds (q. v.), Hindoos of various 
classes, principally Mahrattas, and 
Telingas, from different parts of Hin- 
dostan Proper, and the Deccan, and 
a small proportion of Mahomedans. 
The language is principally Gondee, 
Mahrattee, and Jelougo. Many 
other dialects are spoken by the 
various wild tribes. 

GOOLAL, a red powder, used during 
the Hoolee festival to besprinkle 
people, after the manner in which 
bonbons are scattered by the Italians 
during the Neapolitan carnival. 

GOOLISTAN, the Hose Garden, or 
the Land of Eoses, the name of a 
celebrated Persian poem, -written by 
Musleh ud Deen, of Shiraz, surnamed 
Sheik Sadi. 

GOOLS, balls composed of pounded 
charcoal, mixed Avith water, and 
baked in the sun. When ignited, 
they are jjlaced in the hookah bowl 
(chiilum), and keep the tumaco(a 
corruption of " tobacco") constantly 

GOOR, unrefined sugar. 

GOORAL, the chamois of the 
Himalayas. This animal affords 
excellent sport to tlie deer-stalker. 
He is to be found early in the morn- 
ing feeding among the long grass, 
generally on the side of the steepest; 
momitains, but must be carefully 
approached, as his senses are of a 
retined order. When wounded, he 
often leads his destroyer a chase of 
many a weary mile down the 
steepest kudds, and over sharp- 
jjointed rocks, Avhere the trail must 
be followed by the signs of the 
mountain dew brushed from the 
surface of the grass, or the rocks 
stained by tlie ebbing blood of the 
stricken animal. 

GOCJlvClIKllAS, irregular horse, in 
the service of the Sikh government. 

GOORGOORY, a very snuiU kind of 
hookah, intended to be conveyed in 
a palanlccen, or to be carried about 
a house ; the person who smokes 




holding a vase-sliaped bottom by 
its neck, and drawing- through a stiff, 
instead of a phant pipe, formed of 
a reed, arched into such a shape as 
sliould conduct its end conveniently 
to the mouth. 

GOOEKAH, the mountaineer of 
KepauL Since the British campaign 
in Nepaul, a good understanding lias 
been established with these hill 
people, and they now freely enter 
the native army, and are among the 
most faithful, active, and courageous 
of our troops. In the battles on the 
Sutle.i, in 1845-46, the Goorka 
battalion particularly distinguished 
itself. Beside the musket or rifle, 
the Goorkas carry koohrees, formi- 
dable couteaux-de-chasse, with which 
they encounter a ioa at close quar- 
ters, or despatch a wounded man. 

GOOEKHA, a city in India, in the 
province of Nepaul, is situated in 
Lat. 27 deg. 52 min. N., Long. 84 
deg. 22 min. E. This was formerly 
the capital of the Goorkhas, before 
the formation of the present king- 
dom of Nepaul. 

GOOEOO, a grave and pious man; 
the spiritual gxiide of a Hindoo. 

GOOTY, a strong hill fort in India, 
in the province of Balaghat, about 
forty -five miles east of Bellary. Tlie 
highest part of the rock is 1000 feet 
above the surrounding plain. 

GORACCO, smoking paste, the ma- 
terial used in the hookahs, kalleeons, 
nargheels, &c., of the residents in 
Bombay and other parts of Western 

GOSAEES, or GOSAINS, a sect of 
mendicants. They perform the 
ceremonials of marriage and otlier 
rites among themselves. They will 
also, contrary to tlie usiral customs 
of the Hindoos, dissolve a marriage 
vith as much fiicility, on an applica- 
tion from the parties. The Gosaccs 
observe none of the Hindoo festivals, 
except those of Krishna ; but the 
anniversaries of the deaths of their 
founders are observed as such. They 
do not reject the mythology, or the 
ceremonies of the Hindoos, but they 

believe that those of Huree (Krish- 
na) only are necessary. 

GRA]\[, a coarse description of pea, 
chiefly used in India as food for 
horses and cattle. It is considered 
superior in point of nutriment to 
grass, oats, bran, &c. 

GRIFFIN, more familiarly grijf, is an 
Anglo-Indian cant term applied to 
all new comers whose lot has been 
cast in the East. " A grifHn,"' 
writes Captain Bellew, in his very 
pleasant " Memoirs" of one of that 
class, " is the Johnny Newcome of 
the East, one whose European man- 
ners and ideas stand out in huhcrous 
relief when contrasted with those 
which appertain to the new country 
of his sojourn. The ordinary period 
of grifBnhood is a year, by which 
time the novus homo, if apt, is sup- 
posed to have acquired a sufficient 
familiarity with the language, ha- 
bits, customs, and manners of tlie 
countrj% both Anglo-Indian and na- 
tive, so as to preclude his making 
himself supremely ridiculous by 
blunders, gaucheries, and the indis- 
criminate application of English 
standards to states of things to ' 
which tliose rules are not alwa.ys 
exactly adapted. To illustrate by 
example: — A good-natured Englisli- 
man, who should present a Brahmun, 
who worships tlie cow, witli a bottle 
of beef-steak sauce, would be de- 
cidedly 'griffined,' particular!}' if lie 
could be made acquainted with tlie 
nature of the gift." 

GRUNT'H, the sacred book of tlio 
Sikhs of the Punjnub. It was partly 
compiled by the autlior of tlieir reli- 
gion, one Nanuck, an ascetic and 
inspired teacher, and was continued 
by his disciples. 

GUALIOR, a town in India, in the 
pi'ovince of Agra, situated in Lat. 
26 deg. 15 min. N., Long. 78 deg. 
1 min. E. It is tlie capital of the 
i^cindia JNIahratta territories. 

GUAVA, called in Hindostanee Soopri 
Am, is a fruit of the Psidium Pami- 
fenini and Pyriferum. Tlie fruit is 
usually thought to be originally from 




the "West Indies, but it is certain 
that there is more than one African, 
and several Chinese and Cochin- 
Chinese species or varieties, botli of 
the edible and wild sorts. Those 
may, it is true, have been carried to 
China by the early voyagers, and 
India may have received hers from 
the coasts of Africa, with which, 
long before Europeans visited her 
shores, she held a steady intercourse. 
The most remarkable evidence for 
its being of foreign introduction in 
India is that it has, we believe, no 
Sanscrit name. Thence we suppose 
it, like tobacco, to have been brought, 
perhaps about tlie same time. Tlie 
tacility with which this fruit is pro- 
pagated from its numerous fertile 
seeds, of which the hard shell resists 
insects and other destructive influ- 
jences for a very long period, renders 
it one of the most common in India. 
The strong flavour of tlie common 
sorts is usually found disagreeable 
to newly arrived Europeans, but to 
this, custom reconciles ; and the finer 
sorts, of which one, the Psidium 
Microphylla, or true West Indian 
sort, has the flavour of th.e rasp- 
berry, and another, a large and very 
rich kind, has scarcely any of the 
strong taste of the Bazar guavas. 
There are some very fine varieties 
amongst tlie Malay Islands, for with 
the IVIalaj's and Chinese, as with the 
natives of India, this, like all high- 
flavoured fruits, is a favourite. By 
Europeans it is more generally eaten 
stewed in wine, and for the Avell- 
knoAvn jelly made from it, when 
much of its flavour disappears. The 
leaves of tiie tree are somewhat 
aromatic, and much used in the 
Eastern Islands medicinally, or as a 
substitute for the betel-leaf. Tlie 
wood of the old trees is exceedingly 
close-grained and tougli. and in 
some degree resembles box-wood ; 
It is much used amongst tlie natives 
of India for gun-stocks, as it takes 
a good polish, and is rarely known 
to split with heat, or fracture from 

GUNDA, a sum of four cowries, or 
shells, used by the poorer natives of 
India as coin, in fractional pay- 

GUNDA VA, the second town in 
importance in Beloochistan. It is 
the winter residence of the Khan or 
ruler, the cold not being so great 
here as at Kelat. Lat. 27 deg. 55 
min. N., Long. 67 deg. 38 min. E. 

GUNGA. The honour of having given 
birth to this goddess, the personifi- 
cation of the sacred stream of the 
Ganges, has been claimed for tlieir 
deities, both by the Saivas and Vish- 
naivas, the former alleging that she 
sprang from the locks of Siva, and 
the latter urging that she issued 
from the foot of Vishnu. From the 
heaven, however, of either we must 
allow her to have come, v.'hich she 
was induced with much difliculty to 
do, to restore to King Suguru the 
sixty thousand sons whom the deity 
Brigu had caused his wife to have at 
one birth, and who, for some mal- 
practices, had been reduced to ashes. 
In her passage towards the sea she 
was swallowed by a lioly sage for 
disturbing him in his worship ; but 
by some channel or other she con- 
trived to make her escape, and hav- 
ing divided herself into a hundred 
streams (now forming the Delta of 
the Ganges), readied the ocean, 
where, it is fabled, she descended 
into Patala, to deliver the sons of 
Suguru. All castes of the Hindoos 
worship this goddess of their sacred 
stream. Numerous temples are 
erected on the banks of tlie river in 
honour of her, in whicli clay images 
are set up and worshipped. The 
waters of the river are highly reve- 
renced, and arc carried in compressed 
vessels to the remotest parts of tlie 
country, from whence also persons 
perform journeys of several months' 
duration, to bathe in tlie river itself. 
By its waters the Hindoos swear in 
our courts of justice. There are 
3,500,001) places sacred to Gunga ; 
but a person, by either bathing in, 
or seeing the river, may be at once 




as much benefited as if he had visited 
the whole of them. For miles, near 
every i)art of the banks of the sacred 
stream, thousands of Hindoos, of all 
ages and descriptions, pour dowTi, 
every night and morning, to bathe in 
or look at it. Persons in their dying 
moments are carried to its banks to 
breathe their last : by which means 
the deaths of many are frequently 
accelerated; and instances have been 
known wherein such events have 
thereby been actually produced. 

, (They are called " Ghaut murders.") 
The bodies are thus left to be washed 
away by the tide; and from on board 
the ships in the neighbourhood of 
Calcutta, numbers of them are seen 
floating down every ebb, with carrion 
crows and kites about them, feeding 
upon their entrails. Several festivals 
are held during the year in honour 
of Gunga. She is described as a 
white woman, with a crown on her 
head, holding a water-lily in one of 
her hands, and a water vessel in ano- 
ther, riding upon a sea-animal re- 
sembling an alligator, or walking on 
the surface of the water, with a lotus 
in each hand. 

GUNJES, grain-markets. 

GUNNY, coarse sacking, very much 
used in India in the formation of bags 
for the stowage of rice, nuts, spices, 
biscuit, and various other articles 
embarked on ship -board. 

a district in the Northern Circars, 
in the Deccan. It is the most south- 
ern of the Circars, and lies between 
the Kistna on the north, and the 
Gundigama on the south, separating 
it from the Northern Carnatic. Its 
principal article of produce is maize, 
which forms the chief subsistence of 
the natives of the district ; rice is not 
plentiful, and cotton is only partially 
cultivated. There are diamond mines 
in the district, but they have not 
produced any for many years. The 
towns are, Bellumconda, Guntoor, 
Kondaveer, Nizampatam, and Tuna- 
koonda. About twelve miles east of 
Tunakoondais a hill, called Buggul- 

khonda, which is supposed to be an 
extinct volcano. At present it does 
not possess the least appearance of 
the kind, but is subject to frequent 
earthquakes, Avhich are sometimes 
of sufficient violence to move the 
houses of the adjacent villages. The 
present name of this province is of 
modern origin, and was first applied 
to it by Europeans, on account of its 
consisting of several distinct circars, 
or districts, originally five in num- 
ber, namely, Kalinga, Rajamundry, 
Elloor, Moostuffabad, and Moortiza- 
bad. Exclusive of a few thousand 
Mahomedans dispersed in the differ- 
ent towns, the inhabitants of this 
province are wholly Hindoos, com- 
posed chiefly of two classes, originally 
forming distinct nations ; Ooreeas 
(q. v.), and the Telingas. Tlie Te- 
lingas, or Teloogoos, are the original 
inhabitants of the district south of 
the Godavery, and bordering upon, 
the Telingana Desum. Of this class 
are the Vulmas. By Europeans the 
Teloogoo people are frequently called 
" Gentoos," from a Portuguese word 
signifying Gentiles, or Heathens. 
The total population of the circars 
is about three millions. The religion 
is Hindooism and Mahomedanism ; 
and the language is Ooreea and Te- 
loogoo — the former language princi- 
pally in the north-western and north- 
ern parts. 

GUP, or GUP-SHUP, the origin of 
gossip, to which, in India, it bears 
the closest possible affinity. 

GURRYE, the mud-fish, very similar 
in form to our miller's-thumb. 

GURWAL, a province of Hindostan, 
bounded on the north by the Hima- 
laya Mountains ; east, Kumavon ; 
south, Delhi ; west, the Jumna, 
separating it from Sirmoor. Its 
divisions are Gurwal, the sources of 
the Ganges, and Deyra Doon. The 
rivers are the Ganges, called in this 
province the Bhagirathi ; Alkanan- 
da, which joins the Bhagirathi at 
IJevaprayaga, where the two form 
what is then called the Ganges and 
the Jumna. The whole of this pro- 




vince consists of an assemblage of 
hills, some covered with trees and 
Terdm:e, others perfectly bare and 
stony, affordhig shelter neither for 
birds nor beasts. The valleys are all 
narrow, often little more than mere 
water-courses between the hills. 
Only a small portion of the country 
is eitlier populated or cultivated, the 
larger part being left to the wild 
animals. There are extensive forests 
of oak and fir, and also copper-mines 
of some value. In the mountains, 
on the north-eastern side of the 
Deyra Doon, are the stations of 
Landour and Mussoorie ; these have 
been formed by the Enghsh, who 
resort to them for change of air, the 
chmate being cold and healthfiU. 
This province is often called Sree- 
nuggur, from its former capital. 
The origin of the name Gurwal is 
not known. The inhabitants are 
generally termed Khasiyas, but they 
claim to be considered as the de- 
scendants of Hindoos, and reject the 
former name. The religion of the 
inhabitants is the Brahminical, and 
the prevailing language is the Kha- 

GUTTA PERCHA, a substance ex- 
tracted from the tuban tree of the 
Straits of Malacca ; it is of a dirty 
white colour, greasy in texture, and 
of a leathery scent. It is not af- 
fected by boiling alcohol, but when 
thrown into boiling water becomes 
soft and plastic, and can be moulded 
into any shape. It is superior to 
caoutchouc, and is used for aU the 
purposes to which that elastic com- 
modity is applicable. 

GUTTIES, dried cow-dimg. 

GUZERAT, a province of Ilindostan. 
It is bounded on the north by Aj- 
mere ; east, INIalwa and lOiandesh ; 
south, Aurungabad and tlio sea ; 
west, the sea and Cutch. The divi- 
sions consist of Puttunwara, Eder- 
wara, Doongurpoor, Banswara, 
Jhutwar, Chowal, Kattwar or the 
Peninsula, Ahmedabad, Kaira, 
Soont, Sunawara, Earrea, Barode, 
Baroach, Kajpecpla, Surat. The 

rivers are the Banas, Subrmuttee, 
Mhj'c or Mahe, Nurbudda, and Tup- 
tee. The Banas flows along the 
north-western frontier into the Run. 
The Subrmuttee rises in Ajmere, and 
flows southward into the Gulf of 
Cambay. The Mhye enters the pro- 
vince in the Banswara district, and 
flows south-westerly into the Gulf of 
Cambay. The northern and east- 
ern districts of this province are 
mountainous, rugged, and jungly. 
The central districts form an exten- 
sive plain, generally well watered, 
open, and fertile. The south-west- 
ern portion, forming the division of 
Kattiwar, or Kattwad, approaches 
the shape of a peninsula, liaving an 
arm of the sea. called the Gulf of 
Cambay, on its eastern side, the sea 
on its south, and the Gulf of Cutch 
on its west. The Gulf of Cambay 
is about 150 miles in length. The 
surface of the peninsula in general 
is hiUy, remarkably well watered 
throughout, and fertUe. On the 
north-west, Guzerat is separated 
from Cutch by the Rim and the Ba- 
nas river, and the adjacent districts 
consist chiefly of arid plains, or salt 
swamps and jungles. The produc- 
tions are wheat, rice, and other 
grains, cotton, liemp, indigo, opium, 
sugar, honey, saltpetre, and various 
seed oils, horses and cattle of a 
superior description, liides, and tim- 
ber. There are cornelian mmes in 
Rajpeepla, and jaspers and agates 
are procured in Ederwara and other 
hilly districts. The Kattiwad sup- 
plies abundance of white clay, used 
by the Hindoos for the purpose of 
marking their foreheads. Large 
quantities of salt are obtained from 
the Run. The manufiictures are 
principally coarse cotton fabrics and 
soap. The towns are Deesa, Pal- 
hanpoor, Radliunpoor, Puttun, Eder, 
Ahmednuggur, Doongurpoor, Bans- 
wara, Patiirce, Bejapoor, Nuwanug- 
gur, Poorbunder, joonagur, Puttun- 
Somnath, Dice, Ahmcihibad, Kaira, 
Kuppurwunj, Cambay, Bhownuggur, 
Gogo, Soonth, Lunawara, Barrca, 




Clmmpaneer, Baroda, ChandoJ, 
Jumbusseer, Baroch, Nandod, Raj- 
peepla, Surat, Sacheen, Bulsar, 
Dhuruipoor, and Damau. The in- 
habitants of this jirovince comprise 
a great variety of classes, the prin- 
cipal of which are the following : — 
Johrejas and other tribes of liaj- 
poots (q. v.), such as Juts, Katties, 
Jats, Koolees, Bheels, Bhats, Ban- 
yans, Persees, Boras, Siddees, and 
Mahrattas. Amongst these the 
Bhats deserve especial mention, 
their religion is Hindooism and Ma- 
liomedanism. The various rude tribes 
in this province generally consider 
themselves followers of the Brah- 
minical system ; they know very 
little, however, of Hindooism, and 
mostly worship the sun. Amongst 
the Hindoos the Jains are numerous. 
The general language of the pro- 
vince is the Goojratee; it is written 
in a character closely resembling 
the Nagree, and it may be termed 
the grand mercantile language of 
Western India. 

GYA, a town in India, in the pro- 
vince of Bahar. It is situated in 
Lat. 24 deg. 49 min. N., Long. 85 
deg. E., about 55 miles to the south- 
ward of Patna. The town consists 
of two parts ; one the residence of 
the Brahmuns, and others connected 
with them, which is Gya Proper, 
and the other called Sahibgunge, in- 
liabited by merchants, tradesmen, 
&c. This is one of the most noted 
jilaces of pilgrimage in India, both 
for Booddliists, and for the followers 
of the Brahminical system. By the 
former it is considered to have been 
either the birth-place or the residence 
of the founder of their sect. The 
neighbourhood abounds with exca- 

GYNAHS, gold and silver ornaments. 


HACKERY, a rude cart, composed en- 
tirely of wood, and used by the na- 
tives of India for the transport of 

produce, goods, and individuals, 
across the rough and ill-made roads 
of the country. They are drawn by 

IIADJEE, a pilgrim. The natives of 
India, Persia, Arabia, and Turkey, 
have great faith in the virtue of pil- 
grimages. The Hindoos make them 
to holy temples (such as Jugger- 
naut), holy cities (Benares, to wit), 
the confluence of rivers, and spots 
celebrated in mythological liistory. 
The Mussulmans resort to the tomb 
of JMahoraet, or to his birthplace, to 
Mecca, Medina, and Mushed, &c. 

HAFIZ, the name of a florid Persian 
poet, a writer who rouged his roses, 
and poured perfume on his jessa- 

HAINAN, an island, situated at the 
southern extremity of China, sepa- 
rated only by a narrow channel 
from the province of Canton. It is 
about 190 miles in length, and 70 
in breadth ; and though so close to 
the mainland, is in a very rude state, 
the inhabitants still consisting prin- 
cipally of the original savage tribes. 

HAJEEPOOK,a town in the province 
of Bahar, in India, situated at the 
confluence of the rivers Gunduh, and 
Ganges, nearly opposite to Patna, in 
Lat. 25 deg.,41 min. N., Long. 85 deg. 
2 1 min. E. It is noted for its annual 
horse fair, on which occasion thou- 
sands of pious Hindoos purge them- 
selves of their mortal oflences by 
bathing at the place of the " meeting 
of the waters." 

HAKEEM, a physician, a character 
held in great respect in all Eastern 
nations. European travellers, as- 
suming the character of a Hakeem, 
and dispensing medicines as they 
pass through a country, are almost 
certain of safety. 

HANUiMAN, the monkey-god of the 
Hindoos. Hanuman is extensively 
worshipped, and his images are to 
be found in temples, sometimes alone, 
and sometimes in the society of the 
former companions of his glory, 
Kama and Sita. He is supplicated 
by the Hindoos on their birth- days, 


to obtain longevitj^, which he is 
supposed to have the power to be- 
stow, and which, of course, he un- 
hesitatingly grants; or which, at 
least, ilie disinterested Brahmuns of 
his temples unhesitatingly promise. 
Hanuman is called Maruty, from 
Pavana being chief of the Maruts, 
or genii of the Avinds. He is also 
called Muhabar. 

HARAMZADEH, literally, " base- 
born." A term of abuse obnoxious to 
Oriental ears ; but, nevertheless, 
much in use in India. 

HAllEM. or HAllEEM, the ladies' 
apartment; the zenana, or seraglio, 
in an Eastern household. 

HARGEELAH, the butcher-bird, or 
adjutant, is common in India. By 
some persons the bird is called the 
bone-eater, from its peculiarity of di- 
gestion, it having the power of swal- 
lowing whole joints, such as a leg of 
lamb, or even entire animals, like 
young kids, kittens, &c., and of re- 
turning the bones and hair after the 
meat has been digested. When thus 
rejected the bones appear as clean 
as though they had been boiled for a 
considerable time, and the hair is 
accumulated in a single ball. 

HATRAS, a town in India, situated 
in Lat. 27 deg. 37 min. N., Long. 
75 deg. 58 min. E., in the province 
of Agra. It is a busy town, and 
flourishing. Its fort, which was 
strong and well built, was taken in 
1817 bj' the British troops (being 
then occupied by a refractory chief;, 
and destroyed. 

IIATTA SC'lIERIF, a warrant, pro- 
clamation, or decree, issued by the 
ISultan of Turkey. 

IIAUNKUS (or driver), the implement 
used by the mahouts to stimulate 
and direct the pace of elephants. It is 
commonly about twenty, or twenty- 
four inches in length, generally 
made of iron, though some have 
■wooden hafts ; the tip is pointed, and 
about six inches below it is a hook, 
welded on to the stem, forming 
nearly a semicircle, wliose di;uneter 
may be four or five inches. At the 



butt of the shaft a ring is let through, 
for the purpose of fastening the 
haunkus to a line ; the other end 
of which is fastened to some soft 
cord, about half an inch in diameter, 
passing, very loosely, eight or tea 
times round the elephant's neck, and 
serving in lieu of stirrups, to keep 
the mahout from falling over to the 
right or left, on any sudden motion, 
as well as to retain his feet in their 
due direction. 

HAUT, a weekly market, held ia 
India on stated days. A bazar is a 
daily market. 

IIAVILUAR, a native Serjeant of se- 
poys or peons. 

HEGIRA, the Mahometan era, which 
dates from the flight of Mahomet to 
Medina, on the 15th of July, a.u. 622. 
The Mahometan year is purely lu- 
nar, consisting of twelve months, 
eacli month commencing with the 
appearance of the new moon, with- 
out any intercalation, to bring the 
commencement of the year to the 
same season. By this arrangement 
every year begins much earlier in 
the season than the preceding one, 
being now in summer, and sixteen 
years hence in winter. In chrono- 
logy and history, however, as well as 
in all documents, the Mahometans 
use months of thirty and twenty- 
uiue daj's alternately, making the 
j'car thus to consist of .354 days. 
Eleven times in thirty years, one 
day is added to the last month, 
making 355 days in that year. 

HENNA, a i)lant that grows in many 
parts of the East, and is in vogue 
among the natives of India and 
Persia for its ornamental properties. 
The leaves are pounded and mixed 
up with a little oil, or ghee, into a 
l^iste, which is applied to the nails, 
palms, and soles. After an adhe- 
rence of a few hours, it is removed, and 
leaves a beautiful red stain, which 
lasts many days, and is considered 
a great set-off to personal beauty. 

HERAT, a fortified town in the Af- 
ghanistan country, situated on the 
western frontier, in Lat. 34 deg. 20 




min. N., Long. 60 degr. 50 min. E., 
in a very beautiful and fertile plain. 
It is one of the most ancient and 
celebrated cities in Asia, giving its 
name to an extensive province at the 
time of the invasion of Alexander ; 
and sxihsequently it was for many 
years the cnpital of the empire estab- 
lished by Tymoor Lung. It was 
taken from the Persians by the Af- 
ghans in 1715, and was retaken by 
Nadir Shah in 1731. It was again 
captured by the Afghans, in 1749, 
and has ever since remained in their 
possession. It usually formed a go- 
vernment for one of the king's fa- 
mily ; and on tlie dissolution of the 
Dooranee monarchy, in 1823, it be- 
came a separate principality under 
Shah Kamran, the son of the king. 
Shah Mahmood, and has since con- 
tinued under his rule. 

HEKI HARI, in Hindoo mythology, 
the conjoint forms of Siva and Vish- 
nu, This singular union of the two 
great deities of the Hindoo sects is 
involved in much obscurity, and the 
little light that we have on the sub- 
ject is not of the most becoming de- 
scription. The union is, perhaps, 
little else than the caprice of tlie 
votaries of the two deities. The 
sculptures of them in this form 
somewhat resemble Ardha Nari. In 
pictures, Vishnu is painted black, 
and Siva M'hite. 

HILSAll, the sable fish of the Ganges, 
which seems to be midway between 
a mackarel and a salmon. Whether 
for form, general appearance, or fla- 
vour, the Ililsah is, perhaps, the 
richest fish with which any rook is 
acquainted. It is very oily and 
bony, and when baked in vinegar, 
or preserved in tamarinds, the hilnah 
is remarkably fine. 

These mountains, which are believed 
to be the highest in the world, form 
the northern boundary of India, 
separating it from Thibet. Their 
greatest height has not yet been 
determined. The highest peak which 
has been measured is 27,000 feet. 

The sloping brows of the mountains, 
as they recede from the river, are 
laid out in fields and orchards, where 
the apricot and walnut grow to an 
enormous size; pear and apple trees 
are also to be found ; but the cultiva- 
tion of the two latter being little 
understood, the fruit which they 
produce is of a very inferior quality. 
The woods and thickets clothing the 
sides of the hills are filled with 
pheasants, which, crowing all 
around, frequently mock the hungry 
European traveller, who depends 
upon his gun for a dinner, since, 
notwithstanding their abundance, it 
is difficult to get a fair shot, and 
even though the bird may be 
winged, it cannot always be picked 
up afterwards. Wild grapes and 
currants must be added to the list 
of fruits to be found in these pro- 
vinces, and, from the former, two 
sorts of intoxicating liquor are pro- 
duced ; the superior kind having 
some pretensions to the name of 
wine, while the inferior, — a spirit 
obtained by pouring, in the first 
instance, hot water over the residue 
of the fruit, — being cheaper, is 
drank abundantly by the lower 
classes. Wheat, barley, and rice, 
together with a multitude of smaller 
and inferior grains, are grown in 
these provinces, but the quantity 
does not equal the demand, and a 
large portion of that which is con- 
sumed is imported from other places. 
Tobacco and opium are also culti- 
vated, but not to any extent, the 
former, in common with all that has 
hitherto been grown on the hills, is 
acrid, and of bad quality. The 
vegetables consist of spinach, a 
peculiar kind of carrot, peas, beans, 
and turnips, the latter bitter and 
unpalatable; garlic, not of the best 
kind, and abundance of useful herbs. 
In some parts of the hills, the arable 
land is so circumscribed, that the 
poverty-stricken inhabitants are 
compelled to support a miserable 
existence upon horse-chestnuts, 
mixed with a small portion of the 


coarser grains. Where apricot trees 
grow, much ])ettcr fare may he ob- 
tained from the kernels, mingled in 
the same manner with pulse, while 
the fruit dried serves to feed the 
cattle. The iiihal)itants of the 
Himalaya gather themselves to- 
gether in villages, a custom which 
prevails over every part of the hills, 
isolated liabitations being very 
seldom to be seen. The quantities 
of apricot trees, Avhich mark the 
sight of former hamlets, and which 
grow so abundantly, as to leave a 
doubt upon the mind of the most 
scientific botanist, whether they are 
indigenous to the soil, or an intro- 
duction from foreign countries, show 
that the population was much more 
numerous at a former i^eriod. This 
fact is also attested by the terraced 
fields, once blooming with cultiva- 
tion, but now suffered to run to 
waste in the midst of the most pro- 
found solitudes. The ravages of the 
Goorkas, who made a very tyran- 
nical use of their conquests, selling 
whole families into slavery, and 
oppressing the people in every way, 
are adduced as the principal causes 
of the scantiness of the present 
])opulation. Sickness also, — those 
frightful pestilences, the small-pox 
and the cholera, — have had their 
full share in thinning the ranks; it 
is well known, that the inhabitants 
of Avhole villages have been swept 
away in this manner, and, in many 
places, the facilities for communi- 
cation are so small, that a large 
tract of country might be reduced 
to a desert, without the people of 
the adjacent districts knowing any 
thing about the matter. Villages 
are frequently perched upon some 
steep liill, surrounded on all sides 
by almost unfathomable ravines, 
access l)eing only afforded by a tree 
thrown across tlie narrowest part of 
the chasm; people thus situated, if 
struck with disease, would die off 
like sheep, alike destitute of friends 
to assist them in their utmost need, 
or to mourn over their untimely fate. 



The villages seldom consist of more 
tlian twenty-five or thirty families, 
and though sometimes occupying 
commanding sites, are usually situ- 
ated midway on a mountain side ; 
the high crowning peak sheltering 
them from the storms. Occasion- 
ally tliey are to be found in valleys, 
but only in the more elevated ; tlie 
glens, low down at the foot of the 
mountains, being usually too warm, 
while the labour of climbing to their 
crops would be greatly increased. 
Some of the houses are three stories 
in height, but the generality are 
only two; a few, but these are much 
less common, having but one. In 
external appearance, they greatly 
resemble the picturesque cottages of 
Switzerland. The roof, projecting 
all round, forms a shelter to the 
verandah or balcony, which either 
encircles the house, or communicates 
with the one adjoining. The walls 
are a mixture of wood and stone, 
very substantially put together, and 
cemented with mud. The apart- 
ments are not very spacious, but 
are commodious, and have the ap- 
pearance of being well kept ; the 
floors are composed of planks of 
cedar, and the interiors whitewashed 
or plastered with mud, which, if 
sufficiently beaten, affords a very 
fair kind of stucco. The fire-place 
occupies the centre, and is always 
well swept, but tlie smoke, which 
has no aperture for its escape, ex- 
cepting the doors and windows, and 
the vermin, which in consequence 
of the habits of the people, abounds, 
render their interiors abliorrent to 
the European travellers, mIio always 
prefer the shelter of a cow-house. 
Usually the cattle are accommo- 
dated upon the ground floor, the 
family occupying the apartments 
above, which are entered either by 
a rude staircase on the outside, lead- 
ing to the verandah, or by a notched 
plank or inclined ])lane within. The 
doors and windows are extremely 
small, the latter being niereiy closed 
with wooden shutters, no substitute 




for glass having yet been found. As 
the severity of the weather fre- 
quently obliges the inhabitants to 
close these apertures, nothing, save 
long endurance, could enable them 
to tolerate the smoke, which must 
impregnate the Miiole atmosphere. 
The fuel burned being wood, it is of 
course less offensive than if coal 
were the material ; but still it can- 
not fail to contribute to the coating 
of dirt, which is allowed to accumu- 
late upon the skin of the moun- 
taineers, who, with few, if any ex- 
ceptions, testify a great dislike to 
come in contact with water. Tiie 
furniture of the houses is exceed- 
ingly scanty, consisting merely of a 
few culinary utensils, and a chest 
to contain the clothes. The ward- 
robes of the people, to judge from 
their appearance, can neither be 
very extensive, nor very costly ; 
there is, however, among the richer 
classes, some attempt at magnifi- 
cence, the gold and silver ornaments 
worn being profuse in quantity, and 
sometimes of considerable value. 
Crime, in its very worst form, seems 
rare, but the virtues of the native 
character, in these mountainous re- 
gions, must be pronounced to be of 
a negative description. They appear 
to be kind and good-humoured to 
each other, attaching less import- 
ance to the distinctions of rank and 
wealth, than is usual in even less 
civilised societies. At their public 
festivals, rich and poor, the ragged 
guest, whose tattered garments 
scarcely afford a decent covering, 
will be seen joining hands with per- 
sons arrayed in costly attire, and 
decked out with an abundance of 
ornaments ; and, though divided 
into castes, the distinctions between 
them are less invidious than those to 
be found in the plains. The great 
ingenuity displayed by these people 
in the construction of numerous 
small articles, as well as in their 
buildings, and some of their bridges, 
shows intellectual capabilities, which 
the stranger, holding converse with 

them, could scarcely give them credit 
for ; and there can be little doubt, 
that if proper pains were to be 
taken in their improvement, they 
would shortly emerge from their 
present low and degraded condition. 

IIINDEE, a town in the province of 
Khandesh, in the Deccan, situated 
on the river Nerbudda, in Lat. 22 
deg. 56 rain, N., Long. 77 deg. 5 min. 
E. It is the head of a district of the 
same name, occupying tlie north-east- 
ernmost part of the Sindia division. 

HINDOO, or HINDU, one of the abo- 
rigines of India, by the Persians 
called Hind. 

HINDOOISM, a religion which may 
be briefly described as a very com- 
plicated system of idolatry, combin- 
ing a kind of vague declaration of 
the unity of a Supreme Being with 
the worship of a multitude of gods 
and goddesses, amounting, according 
to some accounts, to upwards of 
three hundred millions. There are 
three principal sects of worshippers, 
the Saivas, followers of Siva; Vaish- 
navas, followers of Vishnii ; and the 
Sactas, followers of the Sactis, or 
wives of the gods. There are two 
other rehgions, which, although dis- 
tinct from Brahminism, appear to 
belong to the same stock ; these arc 
the Booddhist and Jain systems. 

stan is situated in the southern part 
of Asia, and lies between the Sth 
and 35th deg. of N. Lat., and the 
68th and 92nd deg. of E. Long. The 
extreme length from north to south 
is about 1900 miles, and from east 
to west about 1500. It is bounded 
on the north by the Himalaya 
Blountains ; on the east, by Assam, 
Arracan, and the Bay of Bengal ; 
south, by the Indian Ocean ; and 
west, by the Arabian Sea and the 
river Indus, separating it from Be- 
loochistan and Afghanistan. Hin- 
dostan is divided into four large 
portions, called Northern Hindo- 
stan, Hindostan Proper, the Dee- 
can, and Southern India. 

HINDOSTANEE, the common Ian- 




guage of India. It bears some re- 
semblance to Persian in its charac- 
ters and the termination of verbs. 

HISSA, share, portion, division, part. 
Hissa-lands are such as are divided, 
with respect to the rent, into shares, 
paj'able to two or more zemindars,who 
are called hissadars, or shareholders. 

HOG A, do. "That won't /(O^'a," or do, is a 
phrase in every man's mouthin India. 

HONAWUR, a town on the coast of the 
province of Kanara, in India, and 
formerly a place of considerable trade, 
Hyder All having established a dock- 
yard for building ships of war there ; 
which was afterwards entirely de- 
stroyed by Tippoo Sultaun. The Por- 
tuguese erected a fort at this place as 
early as 1505. There is a lake here of 
great extent, reaching nearly to the 
mountains, and abounding with fish. 

HOOBLEE, a town in India, in the 
province of the Dooab, situated thir- 
teen miles S. E. from Dhanvar, is a 
large and populous town, and has 
long been celebrated as one of the 
principal places of trade in this part 
of India. The English had a fac- 
tory here in 1G60. 

HOOKAH, a species of pipe, much 
in jase in India, both among the 
principal natives and the Euro- 
peans. It consists of several parts. 
A bowl of silver or earthenware, 
called a chillum, receives the prepared 
tobacco and the lighted charcoal. 
This is placed on a hollow stem or 
tube, which rests upon a bell-shaped 
glass vase, filled with water, whence 
another tube, in connexion with the 
foregoing, rises, and is linked to a 
long pliable hose, covered with cloth- 
velvet, or keemkaub, and decorated 
witli gold or silver tliread. At the 
end of the hose is a mouth-piece of 
cane, silver, or amber, through 
which the cooled and fragrant fumes 
of the tobacco, or guracco (q. v.) pass 
into tlie mouth of the smoker. 

HOOKAH-BUKDAK, the preparer of 
the pipe ; a domestic of consequence 
with many gentlemen in India, who 
give themselves up, almost wholly, 
to the enjoyment of smoking. Some 

begin before they have half break- 
fasted, smoking, with little inter- 
mission, till they retire to rest. The 
usual mode of preparing tobacco for 
the hookah, is by first chopping it 
very small, then, adding ripe plan- 
tains, molasses, or raw sugar, toge-^ 
ther with some cinnamon, and other 
aromatics; keeping the mass, which 
resembles an electuary, in close ves- 
sels. When about to be used, it is 
again worked up well ; some, at that 
time, add a little tincture of musk, or 
a few grains of that perfume ; others 
prefer pouring a solution of it, or a lit- 
tle rose-water, down the snake, or 
pliable tube, at the moment the 
hookah is introduced. In either case, 
the fragrance of the tobacco is effec- 
tually superseded. 

IIOOLY, a Hindoo festival, held in the- 
vernal equinox, to commemorate the 
beginning of a new year. 

HOONDEE, a draft or bill of exchange, 
written in the language of the coun- 
try. The Hoondee is the ordinary 
instrument of remittance from the 
Shroif or Banker in the remote in- 
terior of India to the house of agency 
at the Presidency. It is usually pre- 
pared on a small piece of yellow 
glazed paper, and is valid with or 
Avithout a stamp. 

IIOORMUT, personal respectability. 
Great men, and, in fact, all persons 
of consideration in India, are most te- 
nacious of their personal dignity, and 
will suffer death rather than permit 
any disgrace to be offered them. 
This sensitiveness is often taken ad- 
vantage of to extort money. In the 
larger towns of Hindostan there is a 
class of persons who realise large 
sums of money from respectable but 
defenceless people, by threats of in- 
flicting in public some indignity, 
such as knocking off the turban, 
pelting witli dirt, or even giving foul 
abuse in default of their demands 
being satisfied ; and it requires a 
very strong and active arm to pre- 
vent this custom. 

HOSIIUNGABAD, or, as it is some- 
times called by the English, Ilus- 




singabad, a large town in the pro- 
vince of Khandesli, in tlie Deccan, is 
situated on the south bank of the 
river Nurbudda, in Lat. 22 deg. 40 
min. N., Long. 77 deg. 51 min. E. 
It is a hirgc town, and of consider- 
able importance on account of its 
position, as itcommands the principal 
fords in this direction. In lS'-7 a 
vein of blind coal was discovered here. 
The town with its dependent district 
belongs to the British, and may be 
considered as annexed to the Gurra- 
Mundla division of Gondwana. 

HOWAH-KHANEH, literally inllin- 
dostanee, to " eat the air." When 
a gentleman leaves his house for 
purposes of exercise or change of 
air, he is said by his domestics to 
liave gone to eat the air. The term 
is very expressive, but can only be 
thoroughly appreciated by those 
who know, from personal experience, 
what a substantial repast is obtained 
by inhaling a cool and pure atmo- 
sphere of an evening after the torrid 
horrors of the day. 

HOWDAH, a square enclosure, four 
feet by four, formed of wood, or cane 
stretched upon a wooden frame, and 
provided with a seat slung across for 
ihe convenience of the occupant. 
This machine is placed on the back 
of an elephant and strapped round 
the body by means of broad leathern 
girths and chains. Seated herein, 
and provided M'ith rifles, ammuni- 
tion, and a day's provision of biscuits, 
sandwiches, and a bottle of ale or 
brandy and water, a European can 
travel in a single day a distance of 
forty miles, either in searcli of tigers, 
or to reach a station to which he may 
be summoned by business or pleasure. 

HUBSHEES, African slaves, many of 
whom are taken from Zanzibar, and 
usually form a considerable portion 
of the establishment in a IMahomedan 
family in the west of India. 

HULWAEE, a sweetmeat, composed 
of candied sugar, butter, and the 
juice of fruit, boiled to the consist- 
ency of a tlnick jelly, and then baked 
in small earthen pans. It is the pro- 

duce of IMuscat and the Persian 
Gulf, and is much consumed in 
Western India. 

HUMJMAUL, a porter, or palankeen 
bearer, a Avord in use in the West 
and youth of India. 

HUMMAUM, a Persian bath. The 
operation of bathing is an elaborate 
process in Persia and in Turkey, 
rendered necessary by the filthy 
habits of the people, who seldom in- 
dulge in personal ablutions. Strip- 
ping to the skin, the bather is at 
once deluged Avith warm water, in 
an apartment constructed of brick, 
stone, and marble (or sometimes only 
of the latter) and lieated to a high 
temperature. Streamingat every pore, 
he is covered by an attendant with 
soap, and then rubbed with a hair 
glove, or the fibres of some root, until 
every thing that lies upon the surface 
of the body has been removed. An- 
other copious shower of hot water 
succeeds to this friction — the bather 
is covered with a wai'm cotton sheet, 
and conveyed into an adjoining 
apartment of a somewhat more mo- 
derate temperature.' Here he is suf- 
fered to dry, and while he waits that 
result an attendant barber sliaves 
him, or trims and dyes his beard and 
moustaches, pares his nails, and 
shampoos (kneads) his body and 
limbs. This last process is very 
soothing and agreeable, producing a 
drowsiness, which often terminates 
in sleep. In Persian and Turkish 
hummaums, coffee or sherbet, with 
the kaleeoun, or chibouk, are often 
served after the purifying operation 
has been gone through. 

HUNZA, the Brahminy duck, a game 
bird of the Ganges. These ducks 
fly in couples, have a plaintive cry, 
and are considered emblems of con- 
stancy by the natives. The hunza 
is the ensign of the Burmese, as was 
the eagle of the Koraan empire. 

HUPtDASSES, Hindoo preachers, pro- 
perly called " sadoos." They chiefly 
pursue their vocation in the west 
of India, after the following manner: 
the hurdass stands with certain col- 




leagues, and while he chaunts 
stanzas, verses, odes — the various 
forms of prayer and homily — they 
perform upon sitars and other in- 
struments. A wreath of flowers is 
thrown around his neck, a nose- 
gay pUiced in his turban, and an 
odoriferous powder (called ubeii) 
rubbed on his forehead. A small 
collection is made for his benefit 
after the recital. 

HURKAKUH, Hindostanee. A mes- 
senger; formerly, a servant used 
solely for carrying ex^iresses, or such 
letters, messages, &c., as were to be 
sent beyond the circle of ordiuar}^ or 
daily communication ; he was, in fact, 
■what is now commonly called acossid. 
The duty of the Imrkaruh, as an 
attendant upon a gentleman in 
office, &c., is similar to that of the 
peon, or piada, or running footman. 

HUSSEIN, and HOSSEIN, the sons 
of Alee, who were mm-dered at Ker- 
belah by the soldiers of Yezid. 
Their assassination is mourned to 
this day by one of the sects of Ma- 
hometans. See MoHURRUM. 

HUZZOOR, literally, " the presence." 
The seat of government, or of the 
European authority in a collectorship 
in India. It is also used in a respect- 
ful sense by servants to their masters, 
and means, his, or your, worship. 

HUZZOOKEE, relating to the pre- 
sence, or chief station, of European 
authority. Applied to talaokdars, 
&.C., the term indicates, that they 
pay their revenue immediately to 
the European officer of government, 
and not through Zemindars. 

HYDERABAD, a province of India, 
bounded on the north by the river 
Godavery, separating it from Beder 
and Gondwana; east, the Godavery, 
and ranges of hills separating it 
from Gondwana and the Northern 
Circars; south, the rivers Kistna 
and Toombudra (dividing it from 
the Ceded Districts), and part of 
the Dooab; and west, Beder. It is 
divided into several small districts, 
or coUectorates for revenue pur- 
poses, named after the principal 

town of each, but which need not 
be enumerated, as they are liable to 
occasional alteration. The rivers 
are the Godavery, Munjera, Moosa, 
and liistna. The Munjera flows 
northerly into the Godavery, the 
Moosa, easterly and southerly into 
the Kistna. The surface of this 
province is an elevated table-land, 
hilly, but not mountainous, and 
generally open. Southward of the 
city of Hyderabad, the country is 
much covered with jungle, and 
thinly peopled. The climate is 
temperate, and the soil naturally 
fertile, but it is indifferently culti- 
vated. In former times this pro- 
vince was thickly populated^' and 
prosperous, but from being very 
badly governed, it has long been iu 
a declining state. The productions 
are wheat, cholum, and other dry 
grains, and a little opium. The 
towns are, Maiduk, 'W'arungol, 
Hyderabad, Neelcoonda, and Kum- 
mmn-nait. There is a large pro- 
portion of ilahomedans in this pro- 
vince, but the Hindoos still form the 
most numerous class. The religion 
is Mahomedanism and Ilindooism, 
and the language Teloogoo and 
HYDERABAD, a city in the province 
of Hyderabad, in India; also styled, 
in former times, Bag-nuggur, stands 
on the south side of the river Moosa, 
in Lat. 17 deg. 15 min. N., Long. 
78 deg. 35 min. E. It is a large, but 
meanly-built town, containing about 
200,000 inhabitants, and having been 
for a long time the capital of a 
Moosulman government, is now tlie 
chief resort of the principal Ma- 
homedan families of the Deccan. 
It was founded about the year 1585, 
by Kootb Shah. Three miles to the 
Avest of the city of Hyderabad, stands 
the fortress of Golconda, formerly 
the capital, first, of a Hindoo, and 
afterwards of a Mahoniedan king- 
dom. Under the empire of Delhi, 
this fortress was frequently used as 
a prison for the Moghul princes. 
Hyderabad is uudcr the government 




of the Nizam, who maintains, be- 
sides an army of his own, a British 
subsidiary force. The military can- 
tonment of Hyderabad is called 
HYDERABAD, a city in India, the 
modern capital of the whole country 
of Sind, and formerly the residence of 
the principal Ameer, stands on the 
bank of the river Fulalee, a branch of 
the Indus, in Lat. 25 deg.22 min. N. 
It contains about 20,000 inhabitants. 
The armourers of this place are noted 
for the excellence of tlieir workman- 
ship, as also are the artificers, who 
embroider in leather, Hyderabad 
was the scene of a desperate battle, 
in which the British troop?, under 
Sir C. Napier, completely routed the 
Scindian arm v. 

ICHLOGANS, boys brought up at 
Constantinople to act as pages to the 
Sultan. They are for the most part 
the children of Christian captives, 
carefully instructed in the principles 
of the Koran. 

INAH (or looking-glass), an Indian 
ornament formed of a ring fitting 
upon the thumb, and having a small 
mirror, about the size of a half- 
penny, fixed upon it by the centre, 
so as to accord with the back of the 
thumb. Each finger is provided 
with its quota of angooties, or 
rings, of various sorts and sizes, 
generally of gold; those of silver 
being considered mean. The inah 
should correspond in this particular; 
but, on account of the quantity of 
gold required wherein to set the 
glass, many content themselves with 
silver mounting. 

INDORE, a town in India, in the pro- 
vince of Malwa, situated in Lat. 
22 deg. 42 min. N., Long. 75 deg. 
SO min. E. It is the capital of the 
Holkar Mahrattas, and is a large and 
populous town, but contains few 
buildings of any note. 

INDRA. In Hindoo mythology this 

god is the king of the immortals and 
the lord of the firmament. He is re- 
presented as a white man sitting 
upon his celestial vuhan, the elephant 
Airavat, produced at the churning 
of the ocean, and holding in his 
hand the vajra, or thunderbolt. He 
is depicted, like Argus, covered Avith 
eyes, and is thus called the thousand- 
eyed god. 

INDUS, the. A river in India, called 
by the natives the Sind, and by Ma- 
homedan writers the Hind. It has 
not yet been ascertained with cer- 
tainty where this river rises. It en- 
ters Hindostan through the moun- 
tains of Cashmere, passes along the 
western side of Lahore, and running 
to the south through Mooltan and 
Sind, falls into the Arabian Sea. It 
is said to be navigable for vessels of 
200 tons as far as Lahore. Includ- 
ing its windings, the course of this 
river is supposed to be not less than 
1700 miles in length. 

INSHALLAH ! Persian. " Please 

IRAK, the central and principal pro- 
vince of Persia. 

IRAN, the name given by the Persians in 
former times to the empire of Persia. 

ISKANDER, the name by which Alex- 
ander the Great is known and cele- 
brated all over the East. 

ISKARDOH, a mountainous country, 
divided into valleys of various ex- 
tent. It is situated towards the 
point where the Belat Tak and Mus 
Tak mountains converge and sepa- 
rate the lofty ledges of Thibet, from 
the plains and valleys of Turkistan: 
among the natives it is generally 
known by the name of Beldestan. 
The tradition is, that Alexander the 
Great came here on an expedition 
towards Khatai or Scythia (modern 
China), and that the Koteli Mustak, 
or the Mustak mountains, which lie 
between Yarkand and Khatai, being 
at that time impassable, on account 
of tlie depth and severity of the 
snow, the Macedonian halted on the 
present site of the capital, until a 
road could be cleared for his passage; 




■when, leaving every part of his su- 
perfluous baggage, together with the 
sick, old, and iiitirni of his troop, 
behind, in a fort which he erected 
while there, lie advanced against 
Khatai. These relics of the army 
founded a city, which they named 
Iskandaria or Alexandria, now pro- 
nounced Iskardoh. In length, the 
territorj' of Iskardoh is estimated to 
be a journey of eleven days, and its 
average breadth about nine days' 
journey. On the cast it is bounded 
by Ladakh, which is a journey of 
eleven days from the capital; and on 
the west, by Gilget, a journey of nine 
days. Yarkand bounds it on the 
north, at a distance of twelve days' 
journey, and Cashmere, on the south, 
a journey of nine days. No correct 
estimate can be formed of the popu- 
lation of the country. It is said to 
amount to 300,000 families, which 
in all probability greatly exceeds 
the actual number. The people are 
divided into several different tribes, 
but tliey are generally known by the 
name of Baldi. Among them there is 
a tribe called Kerah, the members 
of which are enjoined by their re- 
ligious laws to follow four ordi- 
lumces, viz. first, to destroy their 
female infants ; second, not to tell 
falsehoods; third not to desert tlieir 
party in tlie day of battle ; fourth, 
not to slander any one. Tlie natives 
arc descrit)ed to be of a phlegmatic 
disposit ion, likeot her Thibetan tribes. 
Asiatic physiologists maintain the 
opinion, tluit the temperament of 
man is affected l)y the nature of the 
animal or vegetable jjrodnction on 
which he feeds! and tlie pliiegmatic 
character of the inhabitants of little 
Thibet is accordingly ascril)cd to 
barley, millet, and fruits, being their 
chief articles of Ibod. They are a 
stout, well-made, race of people, 
with ruddy complexions and good 
features, 1)utliave little hair on their 
bod}% and scarcely any beard. It is 
said, they are defi(!ient in enterprise, 
and of a treacherous and designing 
disposition. Barley, wheat, and 

flesh are tlie cliief articles of food; 
rice is not generally used. All those 
who can afford it are in the ha])it of 
drinking tea at their breakfast, and 
in the course of the day it is usual 
with them, as with their neighbours 
of Ladakh, to gi'cet their visitors 
Avith a cup of tea. There is little 
variation in the dress of the people 
from their neighbours of Ladakh. 
The wealthy classes generally wear 
kabas (a kind of coat, with skirted 
margin all round), and caps, &c. ; 
Avhile the dress of the peasantry 
consists of jamahs (another kind of 
coat, formerly much used in India); 
it resembles the vest worn by the 
Indian dancing girls, and is made of 
jiattu, which is manufactured both 
of a coarse and fine quality, from 
goat's wool. They wear caps of 
the same stuff. Cotton is not pro- 
(hiced here. It is imported froni 
Yarkand to Cashmere, but very few 
people show a desire to wear cotton 
clothes. Their houses are mostly 
made of layers of stones and wood, 
with flat roofs, and are two or three 
stories high, with far projecting 
roofs, somewhat similar to those on 
the southern face of the Himalaya 
range. The connnon religion of the 
people is Mahomedan, of the Shia 
sect, and the Ibllowers of the Imam 
J afar; but towards Gilget, there is 
a race of people which does not seem 
to possess any well-defined religioua 
system: some of them are idolators, 
and worship trees ; while others, 
like the Hindoos, do not eat the 
flesh of kine, and yet profess to be 
Mahomedans. Thibetan is the com- 
mon language of the country, but 
the people have no books in it. 
Thej^ are beyond the influence of the 
Lamas, and receive their education, 
which is exclusively confined to the 
chiefs and ])ricstliood, in I'ersiau. 
They have no system of coinage in 
the shai)e of ru])ees, pice, or cowries. 
The only means of exchange known 
among them is in small i)ieces of 
unwrought gold, which is found in 
the country, both in mines and in 

106 IS 

the beds of rivers. The government 
of Iskardoh is absolute. The re- 
venue of the state is collected in 
kind in the following form:— one 
kharwar of wheat, one of barley, 
and one of mustard or millet, are 
levied from each landliolder. Some 
of the zemuidars pay their rents in 
one kharwar of ghee each, instead of 
the other three articles. A kharwar 
is about forty seers in weight. 

ISLAMABAD, a large town in India, 
in the province of Cashmere. It is 
situated on the north side of the 
river Jelum, about 30 miles E. S. E. 
from Cashmere. 

ISPAHAN, or ISFAHAUN, a city of 
Persia, the largest and finest. There 
is an expression in every Persian 
mouth, " Isfahaun nisfehJelian eu /"' — 
Ispahan is' half the world. The city 
is now nearly in ruins. 

ISSAU, Persian, Jesus. The Persians 
are very fond of discussing the rela- 
tive merits of Issau and Moussa 

ISTACKBAL, the ceremonial of send- 
ing forth a deputation to receive a 
great man, on his approach to any 

ISTAMBOUL, the Turkish title for 


panepatnam), lies on the north of 
the island of Ceylon, in Lat. 9 deg. 
47 min. N., and Long. 80 deg. 9 min. 
E., and is 219 miles distant from 
Colombo. The fort is built in the 
form of a pentagon, and contains, be- 
sides the barracks, a few good build- 
ings, and a Dutch church, Avluch is 
made use of by the English. The 
Fettah is about half a mile to the 
east of the fort. It contains many 
large, broad streets, running parallel 
to each other, and crossed at right 
angles by smaller ones. The houses 
are, in general, large and convenient, 
and, like the greater part of the 
houses built by the Dutch in all 


parts of the island, of one story, with 
very wide verandahs. In the Pettah 
are situated the Cutchery, a church 
belonging to the Tamul Protestant 
Christians, called St. John's, and a 
Wesleyan chapel. At the distance 
of about a mUe and a half, is a large 
Hindoo temple, grander and more 
magnificent than any other in the 
district of Jaffna. It was built se- 
veral years ago, and is called the 
Kanda Swamy Temple. 

JAGGERY, sugar ; sugar in its un- 
refined state ; I'efuse molasses. 

JAG HIRE, or JAGHEER.from>M, a 
place, and geruftun, to lay hold of. 
Literally, the place of taking. An as- 
signment of the government share of 
the produce of a portion of land to 
an individual. There were two kinds 
of Jaghires, one called jay-gir-i-tan, 
bodUy or personal jaghire, being for 
the support of the person of the 
grantee; the other, jay-gir-i-sa?- Jag- 
hire. of the head, or an assignment, 
particularly of a military nature. 
Jaghires may be said to be a military 
tenure. Their origin in India may 
probably be traced to the following 
practice of Timour. " He ordered 
the whole of the revenues of the 
country to be divided into lots of 
different amount ; and that these 
lots should be written on a royal as- 
signment, yurleegh. These assign- 
ments were brought to the Deewan 
Khana (exchequer, to be entered, 
perhaps). Each of the omrahs and 
mingbaushees (ofiScers of horse, who 
received sixty times the pay of a 
trooper), received one of these as- 
signments. If the amount was 
greater than his o^vn allowance, he 
was to share it with another ; if 
less, he got another to make up the 
amount." Timour directed, how- 
ever, " that no ameer or mingbanshee, 
should collect more from the subject 
than the established revenue and taxes; 
and for this purpose, and to keep an 
account of the jumnia, and of the 
payments and shares of the ryots, 
&c., to every province on wliich 
royal assignments were granted, he 




appointed two wuzeers, one of whom 
was to take care that the jageerdar 
should not oppress the ryots. The 
jageerdar got the grant first for 
three years ; at the end of that pe- 
riod the country was inspected. If 
it was found in a flourishing condi- 
tion, and the peasantry were con- 
tented, the jageerdar was continued; 
otherwise, it ('the jageer), was re- 
sumed, and the jageerdar was pu- 
nished, by withholding from him his 
subsistence for the three years fol- 
lowing." Here, then, we see the 
jageerdar received a grant of no more 
than the reward of service. The 
tenure by jageer is recognised by our 
government as resumable. It is re- 
sumable when the grantee ceases to 

JAIN AS, or Svarakas, or Swarkas, 
have been considered a division of 
the sect of Buddha; but the principal 
tenet of their faith is in direct oppo- 
sition to the belief of that sect. The 
latter deny the existence of a Su- 
preme Being : the former admit of 
one, but deny his power and inter- 
ference in the regulation of the uni- 
verse. Like the Buddhas, they 
believe that there is a plurality of 
heavens and hells; that our rewards 
and punishments in them depend upon 
our merit or demerit ; and that the 
future births of men are regulated by 
their goodness or wickedness in 
every state of animal life. 

JAINS. Among the variety of reli- 
gious professors, Brahmuns, Gossains, 
Jogces, Fakirs, and Moolahs, who 
are to be met with in all the large 
towns of Western India, the most 
remarkable, perhaps, are the disci- 
ples and priests of the Jain sect, who 
"vary much in appearance, manners, 
and faith, from their countrymen. 
In social life, the Jains are a calm, 
benevolent class of people, and their 
Gurus, or expounders of their reli- 
gious tenets, are sedate, contem- 
plative, and philosophic. The disci- 
ples of the sect are ciiietly Banyans, a 
money-making, bustling class, the ap- 
propriation of whose Avealth to religi- 

ous purposes has bestowed a degree of 
magnificence and beauty on the tem- 
ples of their religion, which marks 
them as amongst the finest relics of 
Hindoo architecture. In addition to 
their priestly learning, the Gurus, or 
teachers of the Jain religion, profess 
a knowledge of astrology and the me- 
dicinal art ; both are so entwined, 
however, by the ignorances and pre- 
judices of the practisers of them, 
that they have become indivisible, 
and the disciples of Galen would be 
powerless indeed but for the credu- 
lous belief in fatality which their 
patients entertain, and their con- 
tented submission to the authoi'ity of 
prescience; the Jain Hakeems, or 
" Weids," as they are usually called, 
receive a medical education, and the 
calling is usually considered here- 
ditary. They possess some few works 
on medicine, the most authoritative 
being the work of " Dunter Weid," 
a celebrated physician, said to have 
arisen from the sea, and taught the 
uses of all the medicines at present 
known. Another work is stated to 
have been written by Mahadeo, for 
it would seem that the Hindoo gods 
were addicted to authorship, as ap- 
pears from the labours of Brahma, 
Maliadeo, and others. The work 
most in favour, however, with the 
Jain physicians, is the " Kal Giran," 
or " Book of Fate," which in all dan- 
gerous cases is consulted, previous to 
any treatment of the patient, with 
the object of discovering his ultimate 
fate. The Jain medicincrs believe 
that all disorders of the human sj's- 
tem originate in the blood, and that 
its purification is consequently the 
best means of expelling disease ; they 
have some knowledge of the proper- 
ties of herbs and simples, which 
often prove efficient remedies for tri- 
fling ailments, but, in dangerous dis- 
eases, their best trust is in the Kal 
Giran, and the prayers of the priests, 
the science of the Weul availing 
little. I:i cases of small-po.K they 
attempt no remedj-, but simply anoint 
the bodv with sacred chalk from the 




hoi}'' tomple of Dwnka, to which it 
is supposed to have been brought 
from the Severga, or heaven of the 
Hindoos; in cases of madness, it is 
common to apply the quadruped re- 
medy, of firing with hot irons, com- 
bined with stimulating medicines. 
The Jains are quite ignorant of sur- 
gery, and in the case of a broken 
limb, bandage it with splints, and 
apply an embrocation of sweet oil 
and neem leaves, trusting the result 
to the Kal Giran. JMemories of an- 
cient feud have long conspired with 
differences of religious faith, to con- 
tinue feelings of discord and hatred 
between the Brahminical priesthood 
and the Pontiffs, Gurus, or teachers 
of the Jains ; the great religious 
schism being founded on the refusal 
of the Jains to acknowledge the 
Vedas— an offence Avhich is held as 
too grievously heretical to be readily 
forgiven. The Jains, opposed as 
they are to the Brahmuns, on the 
most important matters of religious 
faith, have yet many customs of a 
social nature in common, the result 
possibly of climate, which would 
tend to generalise any habits among 
the people, Avhich were found pecu- 
liarly suited to their health and po- 
sition; a distinction of castes con- 
sequently obtains with the Jains, as 
with other Hindoos; they avoid ani- 
mal slaughter, and the use of intox- 
icating liquors, strictly observe the 
duties of ablution, and practise great 
mortification as ascetics. Should an 
individual succeed in making himself 
sufficiently wretched to obtain the 
highest class of Devoteeism, he is 
dubbed a Nirvan, and considered as 
an incarnation of the deity. The 
Jains worship twenty-four Tirtha- 
cnrs, or deified saints; these worthies 
are believed to have been wise and 
virtuous beings, whom Jain has at 
various times permitted to become 
their spiritual teachers. The spirits 
of these good men now dwell in a 
state of bliss ; and all beings, whe- 
ther sinful or otherwise, will con- 
tinue to undergo changes, until ren- 

dered worthy the association of their 
teachers in the courts of heaven. 
In addition to these saints, the Jains 
believe in the advent of other twenty- 
four wise men, who are destined to 
appear in the fulness of time; the 
names of these magi are not yet re- 
vealed, but the worship of their 
predecessors, together with works 
of charity, and extensive benevo- 
lence, both towards men and animals, 
is considered the best preparative the 
Jains can undergo, previous to the 
purification which shall introduce 
them to their state of bliss. The 
Jains, who are as remarkable as the 
Quakers for the spotlessness of their 
garb, never allow it to be washed, 
lest they incur the heinous sin of 
destroying animal life ; the muslin is 
therefore constantly renewed, and 
preserved with great care from all 
chance of being soiled. 
JAJPORE, a town in the province of 
Orissa, in India, situated on the 
south bank of the river Bytoornee, 
in Lat. 20 deg. 52 min. N., Long. 86 
deg. 24 min. E. This was the 
ancient capital of the kings of 
Orissa, and was also a place of im- 
portance under the Mooghul govern- 
ment, and was the usual residence 
of the Mahomedan governor of the 
province. At present, it is little 
more than a large straggling village 
of mud huts, but it contains some 
remarkable ruins of Hindoo temples, 
and it is considered by the Hindoosr 
as a holy place, being frequently 
styled the first gate of Juggernaut. 
A good deal of cloth is manufactured 
JAINIBO, the Malay apple of Ceylon. 
It is a handsome tree, of a conical 
shape. It grows to the height of 
forty or fifty feet. Its branches 
spread but little, and are numerous. 
Its leaves are about fifteen inches 
long, and four broad, and are pointed 
at both ends. Its blossom is of a 
bright pink colour. The fruit is of 
the shape of a pear, and nearly 
like an apple in taste, though more 
juicy, and contains a large kernel. 




In some trees the fruit is red, in 
others of a clear delicate white, with 
a slight tinge of red on one side. 
The wood is seldom used. 

JAMMA, Hindostanee. The whole, 
total, sum, amount, sum total, assem- 
blj% collection. Tlie total of a terri- 
torial assessment. 

JAMMABUNDY, a settlement of the 
total of an assessment, or a written 
statement of the same. 

JAMROOL {Eugenia Alia or Aquea), 
a tasteless white fruit grown in 
India. It is mostly planted for 
ornament, its bright pale, and 
almost transparent fruit, hanging in 
clusters amongst the large, dark 
green leaves, rendering it an .object 
of peculiar beauty. The Malays 
and natives of India, who are great 
lovers of watery fruits, which they 
eat as cooling medicines, think very 
highly of the Jamrool, and eat it in 
large quantities during its season, 
■which is always the hottest months 
of the year. The Malay name lor 
it is a very expressive one, jambu 
aj'er (the water jambu), and, with 
them the bark is thought a sove- 
reign remedy for aptha) in children. 
The fruits of all the family appear 
to be singularly attractive to bats 
of all kinds and sizes, which swarm 
about the trees at the time of its 
ripening ; the large bats will even 
cut through a net to get at the fruit, 
and are thus caught by those tribes 
of Coolies, Dangurs, and Boonwahs, 
who esteem a dish of stewed bats as 
a delicacy, and sometimes pass a 
night in hunting them, with as 
much perseverance and zest as the 
English sportsman follows tlie snipe 
or the floriken ! 

JANEE! "ISIy life!" A Persian ex- 
pression of affection. 

JANISSAIiY, a European corruption 
of Ycni-tchiri, a member of a body 
of Turkish infantry soldiery, now 
no longer in existence. 

JANVVAll, a vagabond. The word is 
used by sportsmen m India in speak- 
ing of the fox, the hycua, and other 
cunnuig beasts. 

JAO, or JOW ! a phrase in the im- 
perative mood, nmch in use among 
the English in India, addressing their 
inferiors, and meaning" Go ! Beoff !" 

JAPAN. The empire of Japan con- 
sists of four large, and several small 
islands, lying to the east of Chinese 
Tartary and China, and about 150 
miles distant, extending from Lat. 
46 deg. to 30 deg. N. The large 
islands are Jesso, Nipon, Sikoke, 
and Kinsin, and of these the largest 
and principal is Nipon, which is 
about 850 miles 'in length. These 
islands are all mountainous, and have 
several volcanoes, some of which are 
continually in action. They are well 
watered, and cultivated with re- 
markable industry and skill. Their 
principal produccions are rice and 
other grains, and vegetables, tea, 
cotton, silks, varnish, and camphor. 
The animals are not numerous. 
There are horses and cattle, but no 
sheep, and the wolf is the largest of 
their wild beasts. Gold is abundant, 
anil tliey have also silver, copper, 
lead, iron, sulphur, and coal. There 
are numerous towns, many of them 
large and populous. The princi- 
pal are Jeddo, Miako, and Nunga- 
saki. The name of Japan is derived 
from the Chinese term .Sippon, or 
Jippon. By the natives, their coun- 
try is called Japan. The inhabitants, 
called by the English Japanese, 
appear to be of the same general 
race as the Tartar and Chinese, being 
distinguished by the same small nar- 
row eyes and flat faces. Their com- 
plexion is yellowish, occasionally 
approaching to white. They are an 
exceedingly ingenious people, and in 
point of civilisation may be consi- 
dered on a footing with the Chinese. 
Their manufactures, of all kinds, are 
excellent. In silk and cotton fabrics 
they are superior to any other Eas- 
tern country, and in varnished and 
lacquered wares they are unequalled, 
even Ijy Europeans. 8o celebrated 
have they always been for this last 
art, thai "japan" has become the 
couiraoa English term for this de- 




script ion of ware. Their acquire- 
ments in science, liowever, are li- 
mited, as this nation, hke the Chi- 
nese, has remained stationary, so 
that in navigation, meclianics, &c., 
they -ire still very far behind. The 
amount of the population is not 
known. It probably does not exceed 
fifteen or twenty millions. In reli- 
gion, the Japanese are idolaters; 
some of the Buoddhist system, intro- 
duced, it is understood, from China, 
and others of a more ancient system, 
recognismg a Supreme Being, but 
worshippuig a multitude of inferior 
deities. Japan was visited by Por- 
tuguese missionaries in 1549, and 
they continued to teach their reli- 
gion with very considerable success 
until 1638, when the government, 
becoming suspicious of their inten- 
tions, commenced a fierce persecu- 
tion, and, after massacreing many 
thousand persons, entirely rooted out 
the Romish religion ; since which 
time, all attempts to introduce Chris- 
tianity into this country have been 
carefully prevented, and the name of 
Christian proscribed. The Dutch are 
now the only Europeans whom tliey 
allow to trade with their country. 
The Japanese language is entirely 
distinct from the Chinese. 

JAROO-WALLAH, literally, a broom 
fellow, or s\veeper. The word is in 
use in Western India, instead of 
Mehtur — which see. 

JATS, a tribe of Hindoos of a low 
class, much inferior in every respect 
to the Rajpoots, who hold them in 
strict subjection, and denj' the claim 
which they advance to be considered 
of Rajpoot origin. They first at- 
tracted notice in Tlindostan about 
the year 1700, Avhen they migrated 
from the banks of the river Indus, 
and settled, chiefly as agriculturists, 
in various parts of the Dooab. The 
Jats are generally of short stature, 
black, and ill-looking. 

town, in the province of Aurung- 
abad, in India, situated in Lat. 19 
deg. 52 min. N., Long. 76 deg. 8 

min. E. It consists of two towns, se- 
parated by a small river and a fort, 
and is an English military station. 

JAUNPANEE, a covered arm chair, 
attached by swivels to poles, and 
borne on men's shoulders up and 
down the Himalaya mountains. It 
is the ordinary vehicle for the transit 
of Europeans, especially those of the 
softer sex, who are afraid to trust 
themselves to the Ghoouts, or moun- 
tain ponies. 

JAVA, a large island, lying westward 
of Floris, one of the Sunda Islands, 
between the sixth and ninth degrees 
of south latitude and the 115th and 
105th degrees of east longitude, 
being about 660 miles in length, and 
of a breadth varying from fifty to 
130 miles. It includes the small 
islands of Madura and Bally. The 
interior of this island throughout its 
whole length is marked by an un- 
interrupted range of mountains, 
varying in their elevation from 5000 
to 12,000 feet, and many of them 
occasionally subject to volcanic 
eruptions. The rivers are nume- 
rous, and the soil remarkably rich. 
Java abounds with all the produc- 
tions, and swarms with all the 
animals, both wild and domestic, 
known in India. It also produces 
sago, and the edible birds' nests. 
The principal towns are Batavia, 
Saraarang, Sooryakarta, and Soo- 
rabaya. By the Malays and na- 
tives this island is namQd Thana 
Java. The inhabitants are called 
Javanese. There arc also many 
Chinese, Malays, Buggesscs, Arabs, 
and Indians. The total population 
amounts to about 4,500,000. The 
predominant religion is Mahome- 
danism ; the Hindoo system, how- 
ever, is still prevalent in the island 
of Bally. The language is called 
Javanese, and is written in a cha- 
racter formed upon the Sanscrit 

JEl )[)(), the capital of the empire of 
Japan, is situated upon the southern 
coast of the island Nipon, in Lat. 3& 
deg. 29 min. N., Long. 140 deg. E. 




JEE, sir, mister ; the "word is found 
terminating the names of Parsees 
and Hindoos, as Cursetjee, or Kago- 
iee, familiarly " Curset" or " Rago." 

JELINGA. See Teloogoo. 

JELLALABAD, a to^vn in Afghan- 
istan, situated in Lat. 34 deg. 6min. 
N., Long. 69 deg. 46 min E., a short 
distance westward of the Khyber 
Pass. It was formerly a place of 
considerable importance, and is still 
one of the principal to-\ms; but it is 
chiefly noted on account of its gal- 
lant defence by a handful of British 
troops, under Sir Robert Sale, 
against the Afghans, in 1842. 

JELOW-DAR, Persian. Head groom, 
from Jeloio, a rein, because a groom 
is supposed to ride at the bridle rein 
of his master, ready for any service. 

JEMMADAR, a native officer in a 
sepoy or other native Indian regi- 
ment, whose rank, in reference to the 
subadar's, corresponds with that of 
a lieutenant. Also the head of tlie 
peons, or peadas (foot messengers), 
in public offices and large private 
establishments. The Jemmadar does 
not wear a badge upon his belt, like 
the havildar (serjeant), and common 
peons, but is generally decorated 
with cotton epaulettes, or silver or 
gold lace, and wears a dagger, in a 
crimson velvet sheath, in his cum- 
merbard, or waistcloth. 

JERROW, or MAHA, the noblest spe- 
cimen of the stag to be met with, 
and may be called the elk of the Hi- 
malayas. He stands from four to 
five feet in height ; his colour is a 
rich brown, and his antlers branching 
into six on each side, have obtained 
for him the name of bara-sinyh, 
twelve liorns, in the plains. During 
the day-time, the Jerrows usually 
lie in the heaviest jungle; but at 
morning and evening tbey may be 
seen grazing in the rich pastures, 
and usually in pairs. 

JEWASSIR, a green prickly shrub, 
which grows in abundance in Upper 
India, and is given to camels as 
food. Dried, and Avoven into tatties, 
it answers all the purposes oikuskus. 

JEYPORE, a city in India, the capital 
of the principality of Aj mere, is si- 
tuated in Lat. 26 deg. 55 min. N., 
Long. 75 deg. 37 min. E. This is 
considered to be the handsomest and 
most regularly built town in India, 
many of its streets being equal in 
appearance to those of European ci- 
ties. The present town is of modern 
origin, having been planned and 
built for tlie Kajah Jey Sing, a cele- 
brated chief in the time of the Em- 
peror Aurungzebe, by an Indian 

JEZAIL, along musket of large calibre, 
and supported upon an iron fork 
driven into the ground, and much in 
use amcmg the Afghans. 

JHADOO, witchcraft. The belief of 
the Hindoos in witchery, is as strong 
as was that of the people of England 
in the middle ages. All the results 
of science, such as steam naviga- 
tion, ajrostation, and electricity, are 
ascribed by them to witchcraft. 

JHEEL, a lake or pond. Tanks and 
jeels are, in almost every part of 
India, full of rushes and of the con- 
ferva, which, together witli duck- 
weed, docks, &c , both cover the sur- 
face, and fill up the deeps. They 
are generally replete with small 
fishes of various descriptions, and if 
of any extent or deep, either harbour, 
or serve as visiting places for, alli- 
gators, which infest both the nm- 
ning and the stagnant waters in 
every part of the country. Tlie bor- 
ders of jheels are hence the haunt 
of wild-fowl. Snipe, curlews, duck, 
teal, cranes, cooluns, and other of the 
stork species, swarm in these loca- 

JHIL-MIL, Venetian blinds. The na- 
tives of India are fond of making the 
sounds of their words an echo to the 
sense. 'J'hus jhil-niil represents the 
clatter of the l)lind when being closed, 
as tom-tom expresses the so>md of the 
drum, put-tuch, the explosion of a 
cracker. The jhil-mils, or Venetians, 
are in general use in India. They 
modify the intense light in European 




JHOOL, the housing of the elephant. 

JHOW, a small tir ; a species of jungle 
broom, which grows upon the banks 
of the Ganges. It resembles the 
yew tree in form, and affords good 
food for camels. 

JINJALL, a piece of cannon of small 
calibre, mounted on a wall of India 

JOALS, bags used in Persia, made of 
canvass or carpet stuff, for containing 
clothes or other necessaries on a 
journey, and carried slung on either 
side of a horse or mule. 

JOONEER, a town in the province of 
Aurungabad in India, situated in 
Lat. 19 deg. 12 min. N., Long. 74 
deg. 10 min. E. It is a large town, 
with a strong fortress, and was for- 
raerly the capital of the province. 
There are numerous excavations and 
cave temples at this place of Jain 

JORHAT, a city in the country of As- 
sam, latterly the capital of the coun- 
try, stands on both sides of the river 
Dikho, in Lat. 26 deg. 4S min. N., 
Long. 94 deg. 6 min. E. 

jqUDPORE, or MARWAR, a town 
in India, in the province of Ajmere, 
is situated in Lat. 26 deg. 18 min. N., 
Long. 73 deg. E. It is the capital of 
the district of Joudpoor, and is said 
to be a well-built town. 

JOW-JEHANUM ! a peremptory in- 
junction (in Hindostanee) to proceed 
to a place which it is not usual to men- 
tion to " ears polite." 

JUBBULPORE, a city in India, in the 
province of Gondwana, situated in 
Lat. 23 deg. 11 min. N., Long. 80 deg. 
J 6 min. E. It is the modern capital 
of the district, and is better built 
than tlie majority of the towns in 
this part of India. Coal is fouud in 
its neiglibourhood. 

JUGGERNAT'H. In IDndoo mytho- 
logy the re-animated form of 
Krishna. According to the Hin- 
doos, the love-inspiring Krishna was 
one day shot with an arrow from the 
bow of a hunter, who left the lovely 
form of the deity, whom the Gopias 
had so franticly adored, to rot under 

the tree where it fell. After some 
time, his bones were collected by 
some pious persons, and made the 
means of enriching the priests of the 
Hhidoos. Being placed in a box, 
they remained till Vishnu, on being 
applied to by a religious monarch, 
Indra Dhoomna, commanded him to 
make an image of Juggernat'h, and 
place the bones in it. The king 
would willingly have done as he was 
desired, but, unfortunately, possessed 
not the skill for such an undertaking: 
so he made bold to ask Vishnu who 
should make it ? Vishnu told him to 
apply to Viswakarma, the architect 
of the gods. He did so, and Vis- 
wakarma set about forming the 
image of Juggernat'h, but declared, 
if any person disturbed him in his 
labours, he would leave his work un- 
finished. All would have goue on 
well, had not the king shown a re- 
prehensible impatience to those di- 
vine injunctions which he had 
solemnly pledged himself to observe. 
After fifteen days he went to see 
what progress the holy architect had 
made ; which so enraged him, that 
he desisted from his labours, and left 
the intended god without cither arms 
or legs. In spite, however, of this per- 
plexing event, the work of Viswa- 
karma has become celebrated through- 
out Hindostan ; and pilgrims, from 
the remotest corners of India, flock, 
at the time of the festivals of Jug- 
gernat'h, to pay their adoration at 
his monstrous and unhallowed shrine. 
Between two and three thousand per- 
sons are computed to lose their lives 
annually on their pilgrimage to Jug- 
gernat'h. The temples of this deity 
being the resort of all the sects of the 
Hindoos, it is calculated that not less 
than two hundred thousand wor- 
shippers visit the celebrated pagoda 
in Orissa yearly, from wliich the 
Bralununs draw an immense revenue. 
All the land within twenty miles 
round the pagoda is considered holy; 
but the most sacred spot is an area 
of about six hundred and fifty feet 
£cj[uare, which contains fifty temples. 




Tlie most conspicuous of these is ,i 
l(jfty tower, about one hundred and 
eighty-four feet in height, and about 
twenty-eight feet square inside, called 
the Bur Dewali, in Mhieh tlie idol, 
and his brother, and sister Subhadra, 
are lodged. Adjoining are twopyra- 
midical buildings. In one, about 
forty feet square, the idol is wor- 
shipped ; and, in the other, the food 
prepared for the pilgrims is distri- 
buted. These buildings M-ere erected 
in A.v. 119S. The walls are covered 
with statues, many of Avhich are in 
highly indecent postures. The grand 
entrance is on the eastern side ; and 
close to the outer wall stands an 
elegant stone column, tliirty-five feet 
in height, the shaft of wliich is 
formed of a single block of basalt, 
presenting sixteen sides. The pe- 
destal is richly ornamented. The 
column is surrounded by a finely 
sculptured statue of Hanuman, the 
monkey-chief of the Ramayana. The 
establishment of priests, and others 
belonging to the temple, has been 
stated to consist of three thousand 
nine hundred families, for whom the 
daily provision is enormous. The 
holy food is presented to the idol 
three times a day. Tliis meal lasts 
about an hour, during which time the 
dancing girls belonging to the temple 
exhibit their professional skill in an 
adjoining building. Twelve festivals 
are celebrated during the year, the 
principal of which is theEat'h Jattra 
(See Rat'h Jattra). Juggernat'h is 
styled the Lord of the World. liis 
temples, which are also numerous in 
IJengal, are of a pyramidical form. 
Uuriiig the intervals of worship they 
are shut up. The imtigc of this god 
is made of a block of wood, and has a 
frightful visage, Avith a distended 
mouth. His arms, Avhich, as he was 
formed without any, have been given 
to him by the priests, are of gold. 
He is gorgeously dressed, as are also 
the other two idols which accompany 
him. In a compartment in the 
temple of Kama, he is represented 
in company with Bala llama and 

Subhadra, without arms or legs. The 
town of Juggernat'h is situated on 
the coast of the province of Orissa, in 
Lat. 19 deg. 49 min. N., Long. 85 deg. 
54 min. E. It is named, and usually 
called, Pooree, and is inhabited 
chiefly by Brahmnus, and others 
connected with the pagoda. On the 
sea shore, eighteen miles to the 
northward of Juggernat'h, are the 
remains of an ancient temple of the 
sun, called, in English charts — the 
black pagoda. The greater part of 
the temple is in ruins, having been 
thrown down, apparently, by light- 
ning or eartiiquake ; but, from what 
remains, it appears to have been one 
of the most singular edifices ever 
constructed in India. Part of the 
tower, 120 feet high, is still stand- 
ing, and the antechamber, or jung- 
mohnn, about 100 feet high. They 
are built of immense blocks of stone 
and massive beams of iron, some of 
which are nearly a foot square, and 
from twelve to eighteen feet long. 
This temple, which has been long 
deserted, was built by a rajah of 
Orissa, in 1241. 

JUGUD'ilATlU. In Hindoo mytho- 
logy a form of Parvati. as Doorga. 
She is represented as a yellow woman , 
sitting on a lion, holding in her four 
hands a shell, a discus, a lotus tlower, 
and a club. This goddess is wor- 
shipped witli much rejoicing in the 
month Kartiku, on which occasion 
large sums are expended. After the 
ceremony her images, like those of 
Doorga, are conveyed, attended in 
the customary manner v/ith mucli 
noisy music, to the banks of the 
river, and cast into the stream. 

JUIMANS. This Indian Avord may 
be rendered parishioner, but docs not 
fully express the proper sense. Ec- 
ligious client, if such can be con- 
ceived, is the more correct interpre- 

JUMMA-KUR, Ilindostanee. To 
make an admixture. For example : 
if a young subaltern officer goes to 
the tent or bungalow of a brother 
officer, and finds him about to diue 



on frugal fare, he would probably 
say toium, " Come, I Jiave some cut- 
lets at home, let us add them to your 
moorgee (fowl), and have a jiimma- 

mosque, or the assembly mosque; 
that is the principal mosque at which 
the Mahomedans assemble on the 

JUIMNA, the. A river in India, 
which rises in the Himalaya moun- 
tains, to the west of the Gauges, 
and not far from it . It flows through 
the ijrovince of Sreenuggur (or 
Gurwal), and enters Hindostan 
Proper in the province of Delhi. It 
proceeds southward through Delhi 
and Agra, and falls into the Ganges 
at Allahabad. From its source to 
its joining the Ganges, the length of 
its course is about 700 miles. 

JUMPTIE, a state pleasure barge, 
formerly used by the Ameers of 
Scinde upon the river Indus. 

JUNGLE, forest, wilderness. The 
term jungle is very ill understood by 
European readers, who generally 
associate it with uninhabited forests 
and almost impenetrable thickets, 
Avhereas all the desert and unculti- 
vated parts of India, whether co- 
vered with wood or merely suffered 
to run to waste, are styled jungles; 
and jungle-iuallah is a term indiscri- 
minately applied to a wild cat, or to 
a gentleman who has been quartered 
for a considerable period in some deso- 
late part of the country. Persons 
who are attached to very small sta- 
tions in remote places, or who re- 
side in solitary houses, surrounded 
only by the habitations of the na- 
tives, are said to be living in the 

JUNK, or JONTv CEYLON, properly, 
JAN SILAN, a division of the 
country of Siam. It may l)e con- 
sidered as an island, being connected 
Avith the main land only by a sand- 
bank, Avhich is overflowed at high- 
water. It is sitiuited on the western 
coast of Siam, near the northern 
entrance of the Straits of Malacca, 


in Lat. 8 deg. N. It is forty miles 
in length, ))y fifteen in breadth. 
Inland, the country is mountainous, 
but towards the coast, low, well 
sup|)lied with Avater, and fruitful. 
The hills are covered with large and 
useful timber, and the land produces 
every variety of rice. Tin of the 
best quality is found in great abun- 
dance, and forms a valuable article 
of commerce. The mines are worked 
entirely by Cliinese settlers. The 
island is thinly inhabited, having 
been nearly depopulated in the 
course of the Burmese invasions; 
and from 14,000 to 15,000 persons, 
it is now reduced to not more than 
2000, including Chinese. The natives 
are Booddhists, as in Siam, but there 
are also some Mahomedans. 

JUNKS, Chinese trading vessels. 

JUTS, a tribe, descended from the 
original Kajpoota inhabitants of the 
province of Sind, in India, converted 
at an early period to the Mahome- 
dan faith. They compose the chief 
military force of the country. 

JUWANPORE, a town in India, in 
the province of Allahabad, is situ- 
ated on the banks of the river 
Goomtee, aboiit forty miles north- 
westward of Benares. This was 
formerly a place of considerable im- 
portance, and for a short time the 
capital of an independent sove- 
reignty, founded by Khaja Juhan, 
wuzcer to Sultaun Mahmood, Shah 
of Delhi, who assumed the title of 
Sultaun Sbirkee, and taking pos- 
session of Bahar, fixed his residence 
at Juwanpore. There is liere a 
bridge, remarkable for the skill and 
solidity of its architecture, which 
was constructed in the reign of the 
Emperor Acbar, and still remains 
perfectly firm. 

JUWAUi3, literally, "an answer," 
but familiarly used in Anglo-Indian 
colloquy to imply a negatur to the 
matrimonial proposal. " He has got 
his jmvtmb," or "He has been 
juivmtbbed," denotes the failure of 
an aspirant to obtain the hand of the 
object of his devotion. 





KABBA, the common Persian gown 
■worn by all classes. 

KABOB, roast meat. In the Maho- 
niedan bazars, in India, Persia, Tur- 
key, &c., kabobs, or small pieces of 
meat, roasted or fried iipon metal 
skewers, are sold in abundance. 
Kabobs, which is only another word 
for cutlets in the English cuisine, are 
often served up on European break- 
fast-tables, fried and curried. 

KADDIN, or KADEUN, a select 
Odalisque, chosen, from the 500 
reputed to tenant the seraglio, to 
become the mother of an heir to the 
Turkish throne. See Odalisque. 

KADDUM (Muccadum), head, head 
man; one of tlio numerous terms used 
in the peninsula of India to designate 
the head man of a village. 

KAFFIR. In the Persian language 
this word is used to indicate an 
infidel, or unbeliever iu Mahomed. 
At the Cape of Good Hope it implies 
the Hottentot race. 

KAIMAKAN, a Turkish title, a 
deputy lieutenant or governor of a 
city. The grand vizier's vicegerent. 

KAIIIA, a town, in the i)rovince of 
Guzerat, in India, situated about 
forty miles to the north of Cambay, 
in Lat. 22 deg. 47 min. N., Long. 72 
deg. 48 min. E. It is a large and 
neat town, the capital of the eastern 
division of the British territories in 
Guzerat, and the principal military 
station in the province. 

KALASIIY, an Indian menial. His 
business is, properly speaking, con- 
fined either to what relates to 
camp equipage, or to the manage- 
ment of the sails and rigging on 
board a budjrow or river boat. In 
the former instance he is expected to 
understand how to set up tents of 
every descrijition ; to pack and un- 
pack ; to load and unload ; to make 
tent-pins ; to scav the taut (or canvass 
bags), in which each part of a tent is 
generally enclosed when on the ele- 

phant, camel, bullock, or cart, by 
Avhicli it is conveyed ; to handle a 
pkourah, or mattock, to level the in- 
terior ; and, in short, to complete 
the whole preparation within and 
without. Many kalashies are ex- 
tremely expert m all the fore- 
going duties, and are, besides, ex- 
cellent domestics ; not hesitating to 
perform a variety of services about 
a house, such as swinging the punkah 
(or great fan), suspended in most 
dining-halls, rattaning the bottoms 
of chairs, helping to arrange and to 
clean furniture, and doing besides 
the duties of hurkaruhs or peons. 
This general assemblage of useful 
talents, no doiibt, renders the ka- 
lashij an important servant. As a 
public servant, whether attached to 
the artillery, or to a quartermaster's 
establishment, his merits are equally 
conspicuous. His duty in the above 
instance, is, however, by no means 
trifling : during the whole day he is 
employed generally in the arsenal or 
the store-room, or the artillery shed; 
or, eventually, in drawing timbers, 
cannon, &c., on transport carriages, 
mounting or dismounting great guns, 
cleaning arms, working in the labo- 
ratory, piling or serving out shot, 
with a million of et ceteras in the 
various branches of that department. 
Whether attached to the train, or 
serving with a regiment of intantry 
or cavalry, the halasliy (or, as he is 
often termed while in the public ser- 
vice, the lascar) must be adroit in 
whatever relates to camp equipage, 
making up ammunition of all kinds, 
sorting stores, jiacking, loading, ser- 
ving, and drawing fieid-pieccs, lim- 
bering, yoking the cattle, marking 
out lines for a camp, and, in short, 
Avhatever relates either to the ord- 
nance, or to the quartermaster's du- 
ties. The halasliics on board bud- 
gerows, which are generally of the 
pinnace or keeled kind, may be 
placed nearly on a footing with those 
retained by individuals, allowing for 
a certain imitation of the public ser- 
vant, and a smattering in what rc- 




lates to the management of sails. 
This class is by no means numerous, 
being confined entirely to the aquatic 
equipages of great men : one of this 
description is by no means flattered 
■when directed to handle an oar on 
board the budyerow, though he prides 
himself in rowing a jolly-boat fur- 
nished with oars on the European 

KALEAUN, a small kind of hookah, 
used in Persia and on the west 
coast of India. It has a larger 
bottom in general than the Iwokah, 
and consists of a cone of rosin, 
firmly cemented to the bottom of 
the kaleaun by heat ; the several 
leaves, branches, flowers, birds, &c., 
are introduced one after the other in 
a heated state, and applied to the 
rosin, in which they become so fixed 
as sufliciently to retain a firm hold. 
Some of the real Persian kaleauns ex- 
hibit considerable ingenuity and taste 
on the part of their manufacturers. In 
the centre of the interior bvmches of 
flowers, beautifully coloured, far too 
large and too delicate to have been 
introduced at the embouchures of 
the vessels, may be seen. Over these 
the glass, which is rarely of the best 
quality, has evidently been cast or 
blown. Many of these artificial 
bouquets are, however, made piece- 

IvALI (Parvati), in the mythology of 
the Hindoos, tlie consort of Siva, in 
his destrojdng character of Time. 
As such she is painted of a black, 
or dark blue complexion. In one 
hand she holds the exterminating 
sword; in another a human head; 
a third x^oints downward, indicat- 
ing, according to some, the de- 
struction which surrounds her ; 
and the other is raised upwards 
in allusion to the future regeneration 
of nature by a new creation. AVhat- 
ever her gestures may import, tlie 
image of this goddess is truly 
horrid, as are the devotional rites 
performed in honour of her. Her 
Avild dishevelled hair, reaching to 
her feet, her necklace of human 

heads, the wildness of her coun- 
tenance, the tongue protruded from 
her distorted mouth, her cincture of 
blood-stained hands, and her posi- 
tion on the body of Siva, altogether 
convey in blended colours so power- 
ful a personification of that dark 
character she is pretended to por- 

' tray, that whatever Ave may think 
of their tastes, we cannot deny to 
the Hindoos our fuU credit for the 
possession of most extraordinary 
and fertile powers of imagination. 
Kali is also called the goddess of 
cemeteries, under which form she ia 
described dancing with the infant 
Siva in her arms, surrounded by 
ghosts and goblins (likewise danc- 
ing), in a cemetery amongst the 
dead. To this ferocious goddess 
sanguinary sacrifices are made. The 
Kalika Purana, which details in due 
order and with much precision the 
difiercnt descriptions of animals that 
are to be sacrificed, and the length 
of time by which this insatiate lady 
will be gratified and kept in good 
humour by each, ordains, that one 
man (or a lion) will please her for 
1000 years; but by the immolation 
of three men she will graciously 
condescend to be pleased 100,000 
years. At present, her smiles are 
not courted for so long a period, by 
any other sacrifices than those of 
animals; kids are usually sacrificed, 
which the priests allege immediately 
ascend to the heaven of Indra, and 
become musicians in his band. 

KALLIANEE, a populous town in 
India,in the province of Aurungabad, 
situated about thirty miles to the 
north-eastward of Bombay. 

KALLINJER, a town in the province 
of Allahabad, in India, situated in 
Lat. 25 deg. 6 min. N., Long. 80 
deg. 25 min. E. It is a large open 
town, witli an extensive and strongly- 
built hill fort. The latter, however, 
is now dismantled, having been 
taken by the British m 1812, after 
a bloody siege, and subsequently 





a trilie, •nlio for many centuries 
occujiied tlie eastern shores of tlie 
Black Sea. They are now chiefly 
found to inhabit to the north of tlie 
river Jaxartes, having migrated 
thither in tlie hitter part of the ISth 

IvALPEE, a town in Ilindostan, in 
the province of Agra, situated on 
the bank of tlie river Jumna, Lat. 
26 deg. 10 min. N., Long. 79 deg. 41 
min. E. It is a large and populous 
town, possessing an extensive trade, 
and noted for the manufactvire of 
paper, and sugar-candy. 

Hindoo god of love. In Hindoo 
mythology this deity is represented 
fis the child of Brahma, and subse- 
quently as the illusive offspring of 
Vishnu and Lakshmi,in their avatar, 
as Krishna and Eukmini. He is 
hence called the son of Maya, or 
illusion. The image of this god is 
represented as a beautiful youth, 
riding on a hory (or parrot), Avitli 
emerald wings. In his hands he 
holds a bow, strung with bees, and 
five arrows, tipped with flowers. 
Kama, like the other Hindoo deities, 
has numerous names, either indica- 
tive of the power of love over the 
mind, or descriptive of his attributes. 
He is called Smara, the son of Maya; 
Ananga, the bodyless; I\Iudun, he 
■whose banner is a fish ; Pradyumna, 
&c., &c. 

KA?.IULA KAMINI, a form of the 
Hindoo goddess Doorga; inwhichshe 
is described iiuUing an elephant 
out of her mouth. 

KANAKA, a province of India, 
bounded on the north by the Portu- 
guese territories of Goa, and the 
l)ooab ; east, the Ceded Districts 
and IMysore; south, l^Ialabar ; and 
■west, tlie sea. This province is di- 
vided into two parts, called North 
and South Kanara. North Kanara 
is divided into the districts of Soonda 
and Biljee, above the mountains ; and 
Unkola, Honawur, or Oonnoor, and 
Koondapoor, below the mountains. 
Soonda was formerly an independent 

principality, under a Hindoo rajah, 
and was a populous and well-culti- 
vated district ; but being for many 
years the principal seat of war be- 
tween the Mahrattas and ]\Iysoreans, 
it became completely ruined. The 
districts of Unkola and Honawur 
are commonly designated by the na- 
tives the Haiga countnj. South Ka- 
nara occupies the remaining part of 
the province, southward from Koon- 
dapoor. It is called by the natives 
tlie Toolna comitry. AVitli the ex- 
ception of the open plains of Soonda, 
above the ghauts, the whole of Ka- 
nara may be described as a rocky, 
moimtainous country, intersected by 
numerous small rivers, running from 
the mountains to the sea, exceed- 
ingly fertile, and abounding with 
lofty forests. The rains generally 
commence in jMay, and last until 
October. Its chief productions are 
rice, in great abundance (large quan- 
tities being constantly exported to 
other parts of India, and to Arabia), 
teak and other woods, pepper and 
spices, sandal, and sugar. The cat- 
tle are very small, and are little em- 
ployed, the cultivation being chiefly 
done by hand. There are no manu- 
factures. There are few towns or 
villages ia any part of the interior, 
the natives generally residing on 
their farms. On the coast, how- 
ever, there are several. The prin- 
cipal of these are Sedashegur, IIo- 
navrur, or Oonnoor, and Koonda- 
poor, in North Kanara, and Manga- 
lore, iir South Kanara. Above the 
ghauts is the town of Soonda, for- 
merly populous and flourishing, and 
the capital of the district, but now 
nearly a ruin. The name Kanara, 
which is a corruption of Kurnata, 
was first given to this part of India by 
the Mahomedans. It does not pro- 
perly belong to it, and has never been 
known l)y the natives, who do not 
use it. The inliabitiints of this pro- 
vince, called by the English the Ka- 
narese, are composed of several dis- 
tinct classes. Tiie first is that of 
the Brahmuns, amountuig to about 




one-sixth oi" the whole population. 
The next principal class, in tlie in- 
terior, is that of the Nairs, who are 
the chief farmers. Slavery is com- 
mon throughout the x'rovince, most 
of the cultivators beinir slaves, either 
by caste, as the Bakadoora, and Ba- 
tadoora castes in the Toolva dis- 
trict, or by purchase. The inha- 
bitants of the coasts are principally 
Moplas. These are ^Jlahomedans, 
descendants of Arab settlers, and 
are the chief traders of the province. 
The total population is estimated at 
about 800,000. The rehgion is Hin- 
dooism and IMahomedanism ; but 
there are also several thousands 
called Christians, of the Romish 
church ; the Jain sect of Hindoos 
is likewise numerous, this and the 
adjacent province of Malabar being 
now the only part of India in which 
the Jains are found in a collected 
state, though individuals of the sect 
are scattered throughout tlie coun- 
try. The language of this province 
is a branch of the Ivanarese, inter- 
mixed with Telooaoo and ]\Ialiratee. 
NUWAE A, the Great City, is situa- 
ted nearly in the centre of the 
island of Ceylon, in an amphitheatre 
formed by the surrounding hills, the 
highest of which is Mattana Pat- 
tana (corrupted by the English into 
Mutton Button), and 3192 feet 
above the level of the sea. It lies in 
Lat. 7 deg. IS min. N., and Long. 
80 deg. 50 min. E., and is seventy- 
two miles distant from Colombo. In 
the time of the Kandian kings, the 
town consisted of one street, about 
two miles long, and a few narrow 
lanes, branching out on both sides. 
None of the houses, or huts, as they 
might then more properly be called, 
were tiled or whitewashed, except 
those of the king and his ministers, 
and a few of the head men's, the rest 
being covered with cadjans, or shin- 
gles, or thatch. Ivandy was taken 
from the natives by the British in 
1815. The king, one of the most 
cruel tyrants that ever sat on a 

throne, was soon after taken pri- 
soner, and sent into banishment to 
Vellore, on the jNIadras coast. Since 
its cajiture by the English, Kandy 
has been much improved ; many new 
and commodious houses have been 
erected, new streets have been 
formed, and the old ones widened. 
The iiavilion, the residence of the 
governor for about half the year, 
erected at the north-east of the town 
by a late governor. Sir Edward 
Barnes, is one of the handsomest 
buildings in the country. Bemg 
erected on a rising ground, it com- 
mands a view of the whole town, as 
Avell as an extensive prospect to the 
south and west. The king's palace, 
and buildings connected with it, arc 
now used as government otSces. The 
sessions of the supreme court of 
judicature are held in the former 
hall of audience twice a year. There 
is a public library, erected on jjU- 
lars, built in the lake ; a neat 
and commodious building. Kandy, 
being the chief seat of Booddhism, 
contains numerous Wiliaras (tem- 
ples). There are twelve Wiharas 
which belong to the Booddhists, and 
four Dewatas to the Hindoos. 

ILASOJE, a town in the provhice of 
Agra, in India, situated in Lat. 27 
deg. 4 min. N., Long. 79 deg. 47 min. 
E., about two miles distant from the 
banks of the Ganges, with which it 
communicates by means of a canaL 
In the remote ages of Hindoo his- 
tory, Kanoje was a place of great 
renown, and the capital of a power- 
ful empire, which existed at the 
time of the first Mahomcdan invasion. 
Not the slightest vestige now re- 
mains of the ancient Hindoo city, aU 
the existing buildings being of Ma- 
homedan and modern origin. 

KANTAL (Artocarpus Integrifolia), 
the jack-fruit. The jack-tree is a 
great ornament to our Indian vil- 
lages, its shining dark green leaves 
and deep shade rendering it most 
useful as shelter. It is also valuable 
property when near populous towns ; 
the fi'uit is sold for a considerable 




sum, and the wood, -which is of a 
handsome yellow and orange tinge, 
being much sought after by the na- 
tives, and even esteemed by Euro- 
peans for furniture. The seeds, 
■when roasted, are a capital substi- 
tute for chestnuts, and the native 
bird-catchers prepare an excellent 
bird-lime from the milky juice, 
which flowsfreelyfrom all parts of the 
tree Mhen cut. The root, bark, and 
wood also afford a yellow dye. It 
is not known whether this noble 
tree is indigenous in India or not. 
It is probably an importation from 
the Eiastern Islands. The ripe fruit 
has an offensive smell, and is rarely 
eaten bv Europeans. 

KAPOO, KAPOOR, written also KAN 
POOR, one of the terms used in the 
peninsula of India to denote the 
head man among the Meerassadars of 
a village. 

KARA-COUM, black sand or desert, 
a Turkish expression, often applied 
to the extensive desert on the eastern 
bank of the Caspian Sea. 

KARAVOEES, Persian. The black 
tents of the wandering tribes. 

KARENS. The Karens are among tlie 
most interesting people with whom 
the expansion of our eastern empire 
has brought us in contact. Origi- 
nally emigrating from the borders of 
Cliina and Thibet, they have gradually 
occupied the mountains and glens of 
the south, as far as the promontory of 
Junk-Ceylon,ontheTenasserim coast. 
Like all mountaineers, the}' have 
retained their own distinct character 
from generation to generation, and 
have lost none of their nationality by 
intercourse with the people of the 
plains. Their language is distinct 
from that of the Burmese or Siamese, 
and appears never to have been re- 
duced to writing. Compared with 
those nations, they may l)e consi- 
dered barbarous; yet they have never 
adopted the degrading worship of 
idols, and their ideas of the character 
and attributes of the eternal God 
present a noble contrast to the wild 
fancies of the Booddhists. Many of 

their religious traditions bear so close 
a resemblance to the facts related in 
the Holy Scriptm'es. as almost to 
support the idea of their having 
a common origin; and perhaps there 
are few subjects of religious research 
more interesting than the origin of 
these remarkable traditions. The 
Karens, though described by tliose 
who have had the best opportunities of 
knowing them as possessed of greater 
manliness of character than the Bur- 
mese, have been invariably oppressed 
by them in such a manner as only 
one oriental nation can oppress 
another ; j-et, in their deepest afflic- 
tions, they have never lost the hope 
of deliverance, of which the elders of 
their nation left them many predic- 
tions. Those ancient seers seem, by 
an almost miraculous foresight, to 
have led the nation to expect relief 
from the " white foreigners, dressed 
in shining black and shining red, who 
sail in sliips and cutters, and can 
cross oceans and reach lands ;" and our 
advent among them appears to have 
been rendered the more welcome by 
its coincidence with their own tra- 
ditionary expectations. 
KARI-BHAT, curry and rice, the 
staple dish, alike of Europeans and 
natives of India. The ingredients of 
a curry are turmeric, chillies, garlic, 
ginger (green, if possible), carda- 
mums, and coriander seed, pounded 
together, and, with the addition of a 
little butter or ghee, mixed in tlic 
gravy of the meat or fish. Some- 
times the ^vhite of a cocoa-nut is 
scraped and added to the other in- 
gredients, sometimes a sour mango, 
or tamarinds, and not nnfrequently 
a few bay leaves. Every thing is 
curried in India — nnitton, fowl, pork, 
veal, kid, fish of every description 
(fresh ami salted), hard boiled eggs, 
vegetables, pumpkins, sour fruits, 
lobsters, and shrimps ; and it must 
be allowed tliat a more wholesome 
and palatable dish could not be 
"placed before a king." The na- 
tives, who eat large quantities of 
rice, and very little animal food, find 




curry un admirable accompaniment 
to tlie insipid grain, and a great 
stimulant of the digestive faculties. 

KAKKHAXA, Ilindostanee. One of 
those untranslatable terms A>.hicli 
defy tlie linguist. It signifies a 
Avliole concern, business, or liouse- 

KAEKOOX, the register of the col- 
lections under an Indian zemhidar, 
or landholder. 

KAKKUIi, the barlcing deer of the 

K AIITIKE YA, a Hindoo deity ; the son 
of Siva, produced in an extraordi- 
nary manner, for an extraordinary 
purpose, and the leader of the celes- 
tial armies. He is sometimes repre- 
sented with one face, and sometimes 
with si.x faces ; possessing two, four, 
or six arms, holding various instru- 
ments in his hands ; of a yellow 
complexion, and riding on a peacock, 
his vahan, or vehicle. Kartikcya is 
worshipped in the month Kartika, on 
wl'.ich occasion numerous images are 
made, which, after tlie ceremony of 
worship, are cast, like those of Doorga 
and Kali, into the river. Images of 
him are also set up and worshipped, 
with thoseof Doorga, on the festivals 
of that goddess. Vows and olferings 
are made to him by Hindoo females, 
to obtain children, especially sons. 
Kartikcya has many names, among 
which are Skunda, Subrahmani, Ta- 
rikajit, or he who conquered Tarika, 
&c.. 6cc. 

exhibition of fantoccini. The show- 
men are of various grades, and ex- 
hibit their puppets at different prices, 
from a rupee upwards, ai;cording to 
the richness of their scenery and de- 
corations. A large room, in the 
interior of a house, is selected for the 
place of representation ; a sheet 
stretched across between two pillars, 
and reachmg within three feet of the 
groimd, conceals the living per- 
formers from view; there is a back 
scene behind this proscenium, gene- 
rally representing the exterior of a 
palace of silver, and the entertain- 

ment commences with the prepa- 
ration for a grand durbar, or levee, in 
Mhich European ladies and gentle- 
men are introduced. The puppets 
are of a very grotesque and barba- 
rous description, inferior to the ge- 
nerality of Indian handy-works, but 
they are exceedingly well managed, 
and perform all their evolutions with 
great precision. Sofas and chairs 
are brought in for the company, Avho 
are seen coming to court, some on 

. horseback, some on elephants, and 
some in carriages; their descent from 
these conveyances is very dexterously 
achieved; and the whole harlequinade 
of fighting, dancing, tiger-hunting, 
and alligator-slaying, goes off with 
great eclat. 

KATES, or KHETS, plantations in 

KATHAE, or KATHAY, the Per- 
sian word for " China." 

KATTEE, the Eajpoots (q.v.) of Kat- 
teowar. The Kattee differs in some 
respects from the Rajpoot : he is 
more cruel in his disposition, but far 
exceeds him'in the virtue of bravery; 
and a character possessed of more 
energy than a Kattee does not exist. 
His size is considerably larger than 
common, often exceeding six feet. 
He is sometimes seen with light hair, 
and blue coloured eyes. They are 
all horsemen, and are wonderfully 
particular in the breed of that animal. 
ilares are universally preferred. A 
Kattee's mare is one of his family : 
she lives under the same roof, by 
which means she is familiarised, 
and is obedient to his voice in all 
situations. — A Kattee is seldom seen 
but walking or gallopping his beast. 
He is so averse to walking on foot, that 
he rides to the field where he means 
to labour ; and is prepared either to 
join a plundering party, or resist 
attack. The Kattee women are large 
and masculine in their figures, often 
dressed in long dark garments, but 
have tlie character of being always 
Mxll-looking, and often remarkably 
handsome. They are more domesti- 
cated than the Rajpoot, and coa- 




fine tliemselves solely to the duties 
of tlieir families. — They are often 
brides of sixteen and seventeen j-ears 
of age, ■wliich may probably account 
for the strength and vigour of the 
race. The Kattees do not inter- 
marry with any other caste. The 
Katteo is a Hindoo, yet no Hindoo 
will eat with him. A Kajpoot will, 
however, eat food dressed by a Kat- 
•tee. He v.'orships tlie cow ; leaves 
a lock of hair on his head ; and 
adores Mahadeo and other Hindoo 
deities, although he is more attached 
to tlie worship of the Soonije (Surya, 
or the smi) and to Ambha and other 
terrible goddesses. 

KAUXCH,or CHANK, rings made of 
the common sea-conch, cut out, by 
means of very fine saws, into narrow 
s\i\}S, which, Avhen joined very accu- 
rately, give the whole an appearance 
of being form.ed from the most circu- 
lar part of eacli shell. There is a 
small process or button at the base of 
each shell, which is sawn off, and 
after being ground to a shape re- 
sembling that of a flat turnip, is 
perforated for the purpose of being 
strung. When so prepared, these 
receive the name of krantalis, of 
whicli two rows, each containing 
from thirty to forty, are frequently 
worn round the necks of sepoys in 
the Company's service, as a part of 
their uniform, a substitute, indeed, 
for their stocks. The city of Dacca, 
in Hindostan, so famous for muslins, 
carries on a large intercourse Avith 
Chittagong, and the coast of Arra- 
can, for conchs, whicli are used for 
beating the finer cloths, manufac- 
tured m that populous and rich cm- 
l)orium of cotton-fabrics. 

KECHUK, a robber. The Kechuks 
carry on their depredations chiefly 
in IJengal: tlieir tribe seems to be 
scattered about Bootan and Is'epaul, 
and the northern districts of Eengal. 
They dress like the inhabitants of 
Bengal, and speak Bengalee. They 
appear tohave scarcely any of the pre- 
judices of caste with respect to food, 
since they use the flesh of all kinds 

of animals. Tlieir ordinary mode 
of life is that of a common ryot ; 
they cultivate their lands, and sup- 
port themselves partly on their pro- 
duce, and partly on the phtnder that 
they collect on tlieir expeditions, 
which are undertaken whenever 
they receive intelligence of property 
being deposited in an exposed or 
unguarded situation. The "Bad- 
huks" are a similar race, subsisting 
on service and agricultural labour, 
and plunder, as opportunity oflers. 
Some of tlie Budhuks pretend to be 
Eajpoots of the Solunkee tribe ori- 
gmally, avIio, seduced bj^ the wealthy 
condition of those about them who 
practised dacoity, joined the da- 
coits, and were ever after classed 
with the Budhuks. Before going 
on an expedition, the whole party 
settle the rates by Mhicli the booty 
is to be shared amongst them; men, 
women, and children, all and each, 
have their respective rates allotted 
to them, and the widow and children 
of any man who is killed or dies 
during the expedition, cither get a 
large donation, or else continue to 
receive their shares as long as the 
Avidow remains unmarried. They 
then sacrifice a certain number of 
goats, and swear fidelity to each 
other, after dipping their fingers 
into the blood of the sacrifice; they 
finish their ceremony by making a 
feast on the goat's flesh, with a 
plentiful allowance of liquor. They 
pay due attention to omens before 
setting out on their expedition. On 
one occasion certain of the part)' 
went some distance in the direction 
they were about to take, and offered 
up a prayer to God and to Kalce, 
" If it be thy will, O God, and thine, 
Kalce, to prosper our undertaking 
for the sake of tlie blind and la ate, 
the widow and the orphan, that de- 
pend upon our exertions, vouchsafe, 
we pray, the call of the female jackal 
on the right." Thus having said, 
they sat down and smoked their 
l)ipes, waiting for the reply of the 
deity ; on such occasions, if it be 




favourable, they return thanks, and 
if unfavourable, they retii-e in 
silence, and try the omen another 
day. Thus it appears, that their 
proceedings are ruled by a certain 
faith in the protection of Providence, 
as are those of the Thugs, and by a 
firm belief in the propriety of their 
acting after the manner of their 
forefathers. In this, the Kechuks 
and Budhuks arc more honest than 
the robbers of our own more ciAilised 
country, who have the voice of re- 
ligion as well as the fear of punish- 
ment to check their eagerness after 
other people's goods and chattels. 
The dacoits do not appear generally 
to use unnecessary violence to those 
whom they plunder; as long as no 
one resists them, they show no incli- 
nation to shed blood or injure any 
one. "The life of a Kechuk or 
Budhuk," says a Avriter in an 
Indian jom-nal, "may be briefly 
sketched. He is generally born one 
of the body. His father lives nomi- 
nally as a ryot on the estate of some 
landowner, who countenances the 
residence there of a body of these 
robbers, and shares their gains. 
Probably ten reside on one property 
with their families ; and these are 
under some jemadar, and are in 
connexion with two or three other 
little bands ; these again are miited 
under the control of a sirdar, who 
employs spies to gain information 
respecting the houses of rich na- 
tives, or the passage of treasure 
through the country. When intel- 
ligence is thus gained, notice of it is 
conveyed to the several jemadars, 
Avho meet at some convenient point, 
travelUng to it as pilgrims or bird- 
catchers, or otherwise disguised. 
When assembled, a bargain is made 
respecting the shares of the plunder, 
and if the diffei'ent bands are not at 
the time in possession of sufficient 
money, one of the party, gencrall}' 
the leader, advances a subsistence- 
allowance, and agrees for repajmient, 
in the first instance, with large in- 
terest; as, for instance, 250 rupees 

for the use of 200. The plan 
is then arranged, and the bands 
separate. They travel in very small 
companies of three or four, sending 
on bel'ore two or three men, with 
their spear-heads and axe-heads, to 
be hidden in some convenient spot 
adjacent to the scene of action. 
Thus they escape the burden anil 
risk of carrying arms. When they 
arrive at the point of junction, they 
cut bamboos for their weapons, and 
arrange their attack. Frequently 
they boldly march in broad daylight 
to the intended house, and, vi et 
armis, plunder it, amidst the shouts, 
but as it appears, nothing worse, of 
the villagers. At other times, they 
make a more circumspect arrange- 
ment. If a police guard be near, 
they set a chosen body to watch 
them, and then, dividing into sepa- 
rate parties, who are stationed at 
the several outlets of the house, but 
reserving a body for the main attack, 
they i^roceed to action. Choosing a 
dark night, they proceed with care 
to the place, and then, suddenly 
lighting a single torch, they break 
open the door with their axes, or 
climb the walls with their ladder; 
and, with or without being provoked 
by resistance, assault every person 
they meet, and carry off every thing 
they discover. As the j^oung Ke- 
chuk or Budhuk grows up, he is 
initiated into the secrets of the 
trade, and accompanies the expe- 
ditions. When all is done, the body 
separates again and remiites at some 
other place. The sirdar then divides 
the spoil, repaying himself for aU 
expenses, appropriating a share for 
the JMustajirs, on whose land they 
live, and then distributing the 
T)alance according to the agreement. 
With this spoil, the robbers return 
home each to his hut, and there live 
for months, or perhaps for a year, 
till some new dacoity is suggested 
by a spy, and then again join in the 
enterprise in the same manner. So, 
in the course of thirty years, if he 
continue engaged so long, the robber 




may be engaged in fifty or more 
such outrages. The wealth gainerl 
in this way appears to be quickly 
spent, in most cases ; but, in some 
instances, is hoarded, and soon be- 
comes A-ery great. One sirdar be- 
queathed a lac of rupees to his wife, 
out of -winch she supported her hus- 
band's band, and then employed 
them as robbers in her service. But 
this system does not seem to have 
answered her purpose so well as the 
formerplan of joint shares In the spoil. 
The secrecy of the combination is 
kept up partly by a private lan- 
guage, partly by the connivance of 
the police and landowners, and 
partly by tlie terror of the people. Its 
efficiency is maintained by its disci- 
pline, and its success by its numbers. 
To what extent it has carried depre- 
dations, it is imjiossible to deter- 
mine ; but it appears that it is not 
an exaggerated statement, to allow 
an average of twenty considerable 
dacoities in the year, to each district, 
and to calcidate the average amount 
of spoil of each dacoity at 1000 
rupees. The Kechuks alone are said 
to have committed from 150 to 200 
dacoities in Bengal, in the course of 
fifteen years ; but this seems to refer 
to one tribe only, of one caste. In 
the same period, the aggregate ex- 
tent of the depredations committed 
by the Avhole number of the tribes 
was much greater in a single dis- 
trict, in wliich they M-ere more par- 
ticularly examined, and in which 
the magistrate's liooks sliowed an 
average of ten a year which were 
reported, these being laiown to be 
only a portion of the total number 
actually committed in tliat district. 
So far as can be ascertained, these 
dacoities appear seldom to be effected 
"witliout tlie loss of life on the part 
of the assailed. Tlie robbers are, in 
fact, nmrderers, and treat this part 
of the subject with complete sancj- 
froid. The approvers profess to lie 
in utter ignorance, and to be quite 
indifferent about it, whether any 
person died or not; but generally 

they speak to the facts, tliat they 
rushed to the attack, armed with 
weapons, like axes and spears, and 
that they did not succeed without a 
struggle. On the otiier hand, they 
tliemselves seldom suffer in the con- 
flicts, partly, perhaps, because of the 
alarm of the persons they attack, 
and partly from the suddenness 
and unexpected nature of their en- 
trance. Wlien fire-arms are used 
against them, they are generally 
speedily disconcerted and dispersed,, 
and they very rarely venture on 
dacoities in the premises of Euro- 
peans, or in the neighbourhood of 
troops. With the poUce they keep 
up an amicable understantling; or, 
if this do not exist, they overawe 
tliem by a guard of the most despe- 
rate of their band, who remain be- 
tween the thanna and the scene of 
action. Few instances are recorded 
in which efficient succour has been 
rendered by the police in the midst 
of affrays, and not many in which 
the}' have been disturbed, or, if dis- 
turbed, in which they have chosen 
to interfere. But the appearance of 
dacoits in a native town is a signal 
for a violent outcry from the people, 
who commonly confine their help to 
loud and discordant yells, sufficient, 
we might reasonably apprehend, to 
disturl) any body, but a bribed 

KEDAH, the guinea-worm. A com- 
plaint very common in India, appear- 
ing in the leg or foot, and often 
causing perpetual lameness. 

KEEilKAB, or KINCAUB, is a sort 
of silken-fabric, in wliich flowers, 
&;c., of gold or silver thread are 
■woven. It is manufactured at Be- 
nares, and other of the principal 
towns in India. 

KEESAll, a rough hair glove, used in 
the iMahomedan baths, or hiunmaums, 
to rub the cuticle and epiilcrmis. 

KELA, the plantain {Miisa Para- 
disiaca). The varieties of the plan- 
tain hi India are innumerable, liotli 
as to size and taste. AVitli respect 
to size, there are the diminutive 




cliumpa, -which might be clasped by 
"an alderman's thumb-ring." and 
the great Dacca plantain, which is 
nine or ten inches long, and jiropor- 
tionably thick. Indian plantains, 
iiowevcr, are but dwarfs compared to 
the great Madagascar ones, which 
are as large as a man's fore-arm ; 
and those, even, are small, compared 
to a sort produced in the mountains 
of the Philippine Islands, of which a 
single fruit or two is said to be a 
load for a man ! As to quality, there 
are some of the wild kinds, which, 
fiays Koxburgh, are " not even fit 
for a monkey to cat;" and others, of 
the cultivated sorts, of which the 
flavour approaches to that of the 
richest pear. Some also, and those 
are in great demand amongst na- 
tives, require, like potatoes, to be 
boiled, or roasted on the embers, be- 
fore they are eatable : though many 
of them then become excellent. Of 
this kind are all the monstrous sorts 
spoken of above. The plantains and 
bananas are not merely fruit, they 
are also a very considerable article 
of food amongst the natives of all 
the nations of the East, as well as of 
the West, who possess this invalu- 
able fruit, and most of the sorts are 
very wholesome. The uses of the 
wild plantain are, as yet, not fully 
known in India. Valuable cordage 
is made from the stems in large 
quantities, and extensively exported 
from Manilla to ail parts of the 
world; of this manufacture, the na- 
tives of India are wholly ignorant, 
and it is singular that, aljounding as 
the forests in some parts are with 
wild kinds, no European has j'et 
shown them, that the fibres give a 
Taluable hemp, or indeed both hemp 
and the finest flax ; for not only are 
the largest cables made from it, but 
also tissues almost as fine as those 
from the fibres of the anana. The 
•fruit of the plantain, when dried in 
the sun, is found to keep perfectly 
lor a length of time, and to resemble 
a rich fig. The plantain leaf is of 
:great utility. It forms plates and 

dishes for the natives, and the cool 
upper side is constantly applied, by 
our medical men in India, as dress- 
ings for blisters, or as a covering for 
the shaven head in cases of brain 

KELAT, the capital of Beloochistan, 
situated in a well cultivated valley, 
in Lat. 29 deg. 8 min. N., Long. 65 
deg. 50 min. E. It is inhabited by a 
mixed poi)ulation of Beloochees, Af- 
ghans, and Hindoos, the latter prin- 
cipally traders froni Mooltan, and 
speaking the Punjabee dialect. The 
gardens around Kelat produce every 
kind of fruit, European and Asiatic, 
in great abundance, notwithstanding 
the severe cold of the Avinter. 

KElt ANEE, a clerk, in an Indian oflice, 
either a native Armenian, a native 
Portuguese, or a Bengalee : the former 
are not very common, the second are 
more numerous, but the third are 
almost countless. It really is won- 
derful how well many of the latter 
can write, without understanding a, 
word of what is written. They have 
a steady hand, a keen eye, and an 
admirable readiness in casting up 

KERANCHEE, a very rude descrip- 
tion of vehicle in use in Calcutta, 
for the accommodation of natives — 
for none but the poorest Europeans 
employ such a rieketty convej-ance. 
It is formed like a hackney coach, 
but the materials ai'e wood and rope, 
the former rarely painted. The 
horses are wretched, half-starved 
ponies; the harness, rope; the driver, 
a naked native. 

KERBELAH, the mausoleum, at Mec- 
ca, of Hussein and Hossein, the sons 
of Alee, who were murdered at that 
place by the soldiers of Yezid. De- 
vout IVIussulmans, when praying, 
turn their faces to the west, because 
they believe Kerbelah to lie in that 
direction. It is a very holy place cf 
l^ilgrimage for the Sheahs, and it is 
customary for all of that sect to 
carry with them a piece of clay 
brought from thence, and stamped 
with the seal of the high-priest of 




the tomb, which they place before 
them during prayers, and press their 
forehead against it when prostrating 

KETU, in Hindoo astronom}^ the 
planet of tlie descending node, va- 
riously described, by some sitting 
on a vulture, and by others as a 
head oa the back of a frog. 

KHAUUIM, a servant at the shrine at 

KHAHOON, twelve hundred and 
eighty cowries, equal, as money, to 
about four annas, or the fourth of a 

KHALSA, Mahrattee. Pure, unmixed. 
An office of government, in which 
the business of tlie revenue depart- 
ment is transacted ; the exchequer. 
When this term is applied to lauds, 
it signifies lands, the revenues of 
which are paid into the exchequer, 
as contradistinguished from jayhire, 
or other descriptions of lands, the 
government share of whose produce 
has been assigned to others. 

KHAN, a Persian title, equivalent to 
" Lord."' 

KHANSUMA. An Indian domestic, 
who, by the various corruptions of the 
title, is called " consumer," and " con- 
summa," and "kansaman," and other 
nomenclatural errors. He is a person- 
age who is often "done into English" 
by the terms "butler," " steward," &c., 
but who is not very analogous, in his 
vocation, to either tlie one or the 
other. He acts the part which, in a 
moderate English establishment, is 
acted by the mistress and cook toge- 
ther ; that is to say, he markets, pre- 
pares the pastry and the made-dishes, 
makes preserves, sees to the whole 
kitchen arrangement, and, in general, 
leaves nothing to tlie cook but the ac- 
tual cooking. It is tlie custom to think 
him a rogue, and the theory is dis- 
creet, inasmuch as it induces a strict 
scrutiny of his accounts ; but, to 
infer from it that he is less honest 
than an English servant would bo, 
under like facilities, were to libel the 
Khansimia. In the first place, a poor, 
or only a middling rich man, has no 

business to have this functionary 
upon his establishment at all. He 
is a luxury for the rich only, and in 
their houses he has such scope for 
" knavish tricks," that his not plim- 
dering his emplo3'er on a large scale 
is to be noted, to his credit, under 
the head of the virtue denominated 
abstinence. He is entitled, by pre- 
scriptive right, to charge the round 
rupee for any thing which falls but 
a little short of it ; thus, as there 
are sixteen annas in the rupee, he 
would debit " master" with the in- 
tegral coin, though he might have 
obtained the article for fourteen 
annas ; and in addition to this, he 
obtains, as a matter of course (tlie 
rule obtaining in all native dealings), 
what is termed dustooree, which means 
"custom" {cpiod vide), and this is le- 
vied from the vendor, at the rate of 
h:df an anna out of every rupee, so 
that in every thirty-two rupees the 
purchaser gains one, being upwards 
of three per cent. ; and there are 
cases where the exaction is extended 
to double that amount. Ten, twelve, 
and sixteen rupees, may be taken as 
the running averages of the species. 
The khansumas are always intelli- 
gent, respectful, and well-mannered 
men — ^Mussulmans, of course — and 
have much influence in the house^ 
being treated very familiarly (within 
perfectly becoming bounds) by their 
masters and mistresses, of whose 
interests they are usually watchful, 
against all depredators but them- 

KIIANUI\r, the feminine of Khan, 
" Lord," and signifies Lady, the wife 
of a Khan. 

KHAS, private, peculiar, particular, 
proper. Revenue collected imiuedi- 
atcly liy the Indian government, 
without the agency of Zemindars. 
Under the Company's government in 
Jhntjal the term is generally applied 
wheu there is an immediate division 
of the actual produce between the 
government and the Ryots, and also 
where the revenues of smaller por- 
tions than Zemindarics are let to farm. 




KHATMANDOO, the capital of Xe- 
paul, a province of India, situated 
upon tlie banlc of a small river called 
the Bishenmuttee, in Lat. 27 deg. 
42 min. N., Long. 85 deg. E. 

KHEDMUTGAli, a domestic of the 
Kliansuma (q. v.) genus, and often 
assumes the title -when no regular 
one is kept. His own business, ho\v- 
ever, is (in a full establishment) 
solely to lay the table, bring up the 
dinner, and wait during the meal. 
A couple, well to do in the Calcutta 
world, would probably keep four of 
these menials, and more than that if 
the domestic quiver was full — for 
the childi'en of such magnates liave 
Kliedmutgars of their own. General 
honesty, amid much temptations and 
facilities for a lapse from virtue, can- 
not but be conceded to them ; for they 
have constant access to the plate, 
wines, tea, table linen, and similar 
valuables, and might decamp with 
various spoons under all reasonable 
chances of impunity, as the police in 
India is rather inferior to that of 
Paris when Eouche had its manage- 
ment. The Khedmutgar is a clean 
and smart-lookuig servant, not at all 
mahulroit in the practice of waiting, 
though inferior in nimbleness to the 
true pjuglish waiter, to whom, how- 
ever, it must be remembered, there 
is no necessity for his being equal : 
because, as at all Indian parties every 
guest brings his or her own attendant 
( and seldom so few as one a-piece), 
the entertainer's servants have little 
cr nothing to do with that part of 
the convivial business. Small peojjle, 
if bachelors, are for the most part 
content witli one IChedmutgar, and 
dream not of a khansuma ; but whe- 
ther there be one or half-a-dozen, the 
Ireakfast and diimer-table exhibits 
ihe same fanciful neatness of ar- 

KIIEKEEF, Hindostanee. Autumn ; 
autumnal Jiarvest. 

KHETKODAH, Persian. A chief 

KIIILAUT, a robe of honour with 
which Indian i^rinces confer dig- 

nity. An item of the abwab, or 

KHIPGIZES, a people who inhabit the 
eastern parts of Koondooz in Tartar}', 
and the Kuzzaks (known in Europe 
as the Cossacks, who appear to be 
nearly the same people as the Kirghi- 
zes), occupy tlie northern and north- 
eastern borders towards Kussia. 

KHIVA, also called Orgunje, and 
anciently Kharizm, a division of 
Tartary Avhicli occupies the western 
part, between Bokliara and the Cas- 
pian Sea. Excepting in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the river Oxus, this 
province is almost entirely a sandy 
desert, its inhabitants depending for 
their support principally upon their 
camels, wliich are bred in great 
numbers, and upon the sale of slaves 
captured in the adjoining territories 
of Pussia and Persia. The only 
places of any note in the province 
are Orgunje and Khiva. The inha- 
bitants of this province are chiefly 
Toorkmans, consisting principally 
of wandering tribes, under the im- 
mediate control of their sevei'al 
chiefs, but subject to the general 
government of an Uzbek, who has 
the title of Ivhan of Khiva. The 
total population is supposed not to 
exceed 200,000. 

KHODABUND, slave of the lord. A 
term of respect applied by Bengal 
servants to their masters. 

KHODAH, the Persian word for the 

sian. " May God protect you!" 

KHOOXDS. See Goands. 

" Eight welcome." 

KHOOTBA, the oration at a Mahome- 
dan mosque after prayers ouFridavs. 

KHORAK AFFIAE, food of elephants. 
An allowance in Sylhet for main- 
taining elephants when caught. 

KHOTE-HAVILDAR, a pay serjeant 
in a sepoy regiment. 

KHUBBEK, news. A common ex- 
pression in India is " Kya kubber ?" 
and in Persia, "Che kliubber ast ?" 
meaning " What is the news ?" 




" What is all this about ?" It gene- 
rally follows the salutation of the 
day, instead of the remarks upon 
the weather, Avhich in Oriental coun- 
tries is not liable to much fluctua- 

expense, expenditure. Casual ex- 
penditure for public purposes in the 
business of revenue arrangement in 
the Indian peninsula. 

KIIUEETA, a letter enclosed in a 
bag of ricli brocade, contained in 
another of fine muslin. The mouth 
is tied ■with a string of silk, to whicli 
hangs suspended the great seal, 
■which is a flat round mass of seal- 
ing-wax, with the seal impressed on 
each side of it. This is the kind of 
letter which passes between natives 
of high rank in India, and between 
them and the public functionaries of 

KIIVEEEEES, a clan of the Berdoor- 
anees. or eastern Afghans. 

KHYliANTEE (literally alms, mean- 
ing tliat whicli is given voluntarily 
with a good intent), land given in 
charity by the ainil yumeeiular, or 

KIIYEEOEE, a city in the province 
of Scinde, in Ilindostan. It is a 
place of some trade, and is noted for 
the dyeing of cloths. It has about 
150,000 inhabitants. 

KILE ADAH, Ilindostanee. Warder 
of a castle; commander of a fort. 

KIOSK, a pavilion in Turkey or Per- 

KISLAR AGA, Turkisli. The prin- 
cipal black eunucli of the seraglio. 
He has the whole interior manage- 
ment of the apartments of the fe- 
males, and to him l)elongs the duty 
of informing tlie odalisques, or sid- 
tanas, on whom the choice of the 
sultan has fallen. 

KISiMISS, the very small raisin, the 
sultana. Earge quantities are im- 
ported into India from the Persian 
and Arabian Gulfs, where they 
are much used in pilaos, stews, &c. 

KISiNIUT, division, proportion, share, 
part. A division of country iu In- 

dia, sometknes forming part of a 
circar, and including several dis- 
tricts, more or less, but more gene- 
rally part of a percjunnah. The pro- 
portions of such divisions are dis- 
tinguished by the number of annas, 
or sixteenth parts they contain. 

KISSAGO, Persian. A professional 
teller of stories and romances, com- 
mon all over tlie East. 

KISSAS, the Mahomedan law of re- 

KIST, Ilindostanee. Stated payment, 
instalment of rent. 

KISTBUNDY, a contract entered into 
in India for the payment of a debt 
or rent bv instalments. 

KISTNA, 'the. This river has its 
source near the Western Mountains, 
not far from Sattara, in the province 
of Bejapoor, and about fifty miles 
from the western coast of India. It 
flows south-easterly as far as Mer- 
rich, where it turns castAvard, 
forms the southern Ijoundary of 
Beder and Hyderabad, and flows 
through the Northern Circars, by the 
district of Koudapilly, into the Bay 
of Bengal. 

KISTNAGHERRY, a small town in 
the province of Baramalial, in India, 
situated in Lat. 12 deg. 32 min. N., 
Long. 78 deg. 23 min. E., only 
noticed on account of its fort, built 
upon a ver}^ bare and steep moim- 
tain, of 700 feet perpendicular 
height; several times besieged, but 
never taken, except by surprise. In 
1791, the British troops attempted 
to storm it, but were repulsed witli 
h)ss. The fortifications are now in 

KITCHIREE, a dish which very com- 
monly makes its appearance upon 
an Englishman's breakfast-table in 
India. It consists of l)<)iled rice and 
split peas, mingled with slircds of 
fried onion, and is eaten with boiled, 
fried, salted, pickled, or dried fish, 
curried meat, &c. 

KITTOOR, a fortified town in India, 
situated in the Dooab, or Southern 
Mahratta Country, thirty miles 
south-easterly from Eelgaura. It is 




the residence of a Mahratta jageer- 
dar, usually styled the Jessaye of 

KOHAN, called also FERGHANA, a 
division of Tartary, occupying the 
north-eastern part of the country, 
separated Ijy ranges of mountains 
from Toorkistan on the north, and 
Koondooz on the south, and bounded 
on the east by the Beloot Tagh. It 
may be described as the valley of 
the river Jaxartes, which flows 
through the middle, from east to 
west. It is a fertile and well- 
cultivated district, and its produc- 
tions are similar to those of Bok- 
hara. It is celebrated for its silk. 
The principal town is Kokan, situ- 
ated on the Jaxartes, and containing 
about 150,000 inhabitants. This 
province forms an independent 
principality imder an Uzbek chief, 
who bears the title of Khan, and 
claims his descent from Alexander 
the Great. 

KOLAPOOR, a town in India, in the 
province of Bejapoor, is situated 
about seventy miles south of Sattara, 
a short distance to the westward of 
Merrich. It is a neat town, and 
the capital of the district of Kola- 

NUGGUR, one of the Northern 
Circars, in India. This district, 
which now more commonly bears the 
name of INIasulipatam, is separated 
from Ellore, on the north, by the 
Lake of Kolair, and the river 
OopTitnair; and from Guntoor, on the 
south, by the river Kistna. It is a very 
fruitful district, being well watered 
by the Kistna and other rivers. 
There are diamond mines in this 
circar, but for many years past they 
have been improductive. Tlic towns 
are Kondajjilly, and Masnlipatam. 

KONDAPILLY, a town in Kondap-lly, 
or Masnlipatam, one of the Bengal 
dependencies, in India, is situated 
inland, a few mUes north of the 
river Kistna, in Lat. 16 deg. 37 min. 
N., Long. 80 deg. 33 min. E. This 
place was formerly called by the 

JIahomedans JIoostuffa-NuggTu*, 
and was a hUl fort, and the ancient 
capital of tlie district, under both its 
Hindoo and JIahomedan rulers. 

KOOCH BAHAR, one of the Bengal 
dependencies in India, situated be- 
tween Bhootan on the nortli, Bijnee 
on the east, Rungpore on the south, 
and Sikkim on the west. The 
southern portion of this district is 
fertile and well cidtivated, but to 
the north of Bahar, approaching to 
the mountains, the land becomes 
marshy, covered with thick jungles, 
intersected by numerous nullahs, 
and completely choked with rank 
grass, reeds, and ferns. Its princi- 
pal article of produce is opium. Its 
chief town is Bahar, or Vihar, situ- 
ated in Lat. 2G deg. 18 min. N., 
Long. 89 dog. 22 min. E., about 
thirty miles north-easterly from 
Rungpore. It derives its name from 
that of its capital Bahar, with the 
addition of Kooch, to distinguish it 
from the Indian province of Bahar. 
The inhabitants of this country are 
generally styled Kooch, or Koochee, 
and the Bengalese usually look upon 
them as a low and impure race. 
This opinion, however, is very dis- 
agreeable to their chiefs, who reject 
the name of Kooch, and assert that 
they are of divine origin. The peo- 
])le style tlicraselves Rajbungsees. 
The Brahminical system appears to 
l-.ave been introduced at an early 
jjeriod, and is now nearly general ; 
some, however, of the original Kooch 
tribes, who still remain in a very 
rude state, follow their ancient prac- 
tices. Tlie prevailing dialect is 
believed to be the Bengalee. 

KOOKERY, a large curved knife used 
by the Goorkhas of Nepaul, and 
tliose who compose the rifle corps in 
the Bengal army. It answers the 
several purposes of hewing woocT, 
destroying animals, close combat, 
and putting a wounded enemy out 
of his misery. 

KOOLEES, a wild predatory tribe, 
spread in considerable numbers 
throughout the province of Guzerat, 




in India, formins; numerous clans 
under the command of different 
chieftains. They have always been 
noted as a most turbulent race, de- 
lighting^ in war and bloodshed, and 
preferrinf^ plunder to any other 
means of subsistence. They are 
hardy and brave, and, with the 
Bheels, were for a Ions? series of 
years the incessant disturliers of the 
province of Guzerat, until coerced 
by the British into more regular 
habits. The Portuguese at an early 
period used the name coolie as a term 
of reproach, and from them it has 
passed in the same sense to the Eng- 
lish. This must not be confounded 
with the word cooh/, commonly used 
in Southern India, which is derived 
from the Tamil language, and mere- 
ly means a labourer for hire. Pro- 
bably both the Bheels and Koolees 
are of the same race, and it is the 
common belief in Guzerat that these 
rude tribes are the original inhabi- 
tants of the province. 

KOO]MIS, mare's milk. The Tartars, 
who make long marches and live 
almost entirely in tlieir tents in 
desert wastes, subsist chiefly upon 
coarse flour and mare's milk. Car- 
rying the former in bags, and the 
latter in skins, or extracting it from 
their steed as they cross the steppes, 
these hardy horsemen content 
themselves with a handful of tlie 
flour dipped into the milk, and rolled 
into a ball, once or twice in the 
twenty-four hours. 

KOONDA, iron spikes, or large wood- 
en pegs, to which it is customary in 
India to fasten an elepliant's hind 
legs while he feeds or is at rest. 

KOONDOOZ, a division of Tartary, 
which now includes Budukhshan, is 
situated in the south-eastern part of 
the country, between Bokhara, 
Balkh, and Afglianistan, having the 
Beloot Tagh along its eastern side, 
and on tlie southern the Hindoo 
Koosh. The district of Koondooz 
consists of a valley among low hills, 
which extend from east to west for 
about thirty miles, and from north to 

south forty miles. Its climate is very 
unhealthy, the heat of the summer 
being excessive, while in winter the 
snow lies upon the ground for three 
months. The greater part of the 
valley is so marshy that the roads 
across are constructed of wood. The 
district of Budukhshan, on the con- 
trary, is celebrated for its climate, 
and for its abundance of fruits and 
flowers, though from having been 
repeatedly ravaged by the neigh- 
bouring tribes, it is now almost 
depopulated. Koondooz produces 
abundance of rice, and in the dry 
parts wheat and barley ; silk also is 
produced on the banks of the Oxus. 
Budukhshan is celebrated for its 
ruby mines ; it also yields lapis 
lazuli, sulphur, salt, and iron. The 
chief traffic of the province is in 
cattle and slaves. The principal 
towns are Koondooz and Khooloom. 
Koondooz is the residence of the 
chief, but is otherwise an insignifi- 
cant town, and does not contain 
more than 1500 inhabitants. Klioo- 
loom is situated on the western fron- 
tier, and is the principal trading 
town; it contains about 10,000 inha- 
bitants. The inhabitants of Koon- 
dooz are chiefly Tajiks, with a small 
proportion of Uzbeks, and the pro- 
vince is under the government of an 
Uzbek chief, who bears the title of 
Meer of Koondooz. 

KOOR, a practice in the peninsula of 
India (now nearly disused) of a very 
singular and cruel nature. A circu- 
lar pile of wood is prepared ready 
for conflagration ; upon tliis some- 
times a cow, and sometimes an old 
Avoman, is placed by the constructors 
of the pile, and the whole is con- 
sumed together. Tlie object of this 
practice is to intimidate the officers 
of government, or others, from im- 
portunate demands, as the cH'ect of 
the sacrifice is supposed to involve 
in great sin the person whose con- 
duct forces the constructor of the 
/mor to this expedient. 

K001lG,aprovince of India, bounded on 
the nor th, east, and south, by Mysore ; 




■west, Malabar nndKanara. The rivers 
are tlio Clavery and Boodraa ; both 
have their sources in Koorg, and there 
are various other small streams. This 
province, being situated in the midst 
of the mountains, is comjiosed of a 
succession of hills and valle3's,in some 
places open, -with some scattered trees 
and shrubs ; but the hills, for the 
greater part, are wild, and covered 
•with forest. The valleys are exceed- 
ingly fertile, yielding a plentiful 
supply of rice, and cattle in abund- 
ance, the pasturage being excellent. 
The forests produce sandal, teak, and 
other valuable woods, and abound 
with elephants. There are no manu- 
factures. There are no towns of any 
consequence in this province, the 
Koorgs preferring to live scattered 
over the valleys, and in their woods. 
The rajah's principal residence, and 
which may therefore be called the 
capital, was Merkara, situated nearly 
in the centre of the country, about 
fifty miles north-easterly from Telli- 
cherr}-, and 178 from Bangalore. 
The natives of this province, or, as 
they are usually styled, the Koorgs, 
are a division of the Nair caste of 
Hindoos, and have always been con- 
sidered as a people of martial habits. 
Some of the tribes inhabiting the 
hills and forests are of a very Avild 
character. The total population is 
estimated at 200,000. The religion 
is Ilindooism, and the language 

KOOTEE,a house. The word is in use 
in Persia as well as India. 

KOOTHUL, Persian. A steep moun- 
tain pass. 

KOOTUB MINAE, a lofty piUar of 
curious brick work, standing amidst 
some ruins in the vicinity of Delhi. 
This wonderful pillar derives its 
name from Cutteb-ud-din (the pole- 
star of religion), who having come 
from Turkistan as a slave, was pur- 
chased by the Emperor Mahommed 
Ghori, rose in his favour, became a 
great general, and ultimately suc- 
ceeded to the throne, and was the 
first of the Patan, or AtJghan sove- 

reigns. In the year 589 Hegira, 
1193 A.D., he took tlio fort of Meerut, 
and tlie city of Delhi, from the family 
of Candy Rei, and establislied the 
seat of his government there, and 
obliged all the districts round to 
acknowledge tlie Mussulman faith : 
to commemorate this, and other suc- 
cesses over the infidels, this pillar 
was commenced about the year 1195 
A.D. The circumference at the base 
is 143 feet ; height of the first balcony 
90 feet ; the second 140 feet ; the 
third 180 feet ; the fourth 203 feet. 
Total height in 182G was 113 feet. 
There were spiral stairs to the top, 
easy of ascent ; but part were torn 
away when the pillar was struck by 
lightning : tliey have been repaired 
at the expense of the British Govern- 
ment. The balconies have been 
restored, and the cupola rebuilt ; 
but there are doubts if they have 
been executed in the original style 
of the building. The following in- 
scriptions in Persian are found upon 
the pillar. "No. 1. — The prophet, 
on whom be the mercy and peace of 
God, has declared ' whoever erects a 
temple to the true God on earth, 
shall receive six such dwellings in 
Paradise.' The Minar, the building 
of the King of Kings, Sheras-ud- 
dimya-Waud-din, now in peace and 
pardon — be his tomb protected, and 
his place be assigned in heaven — 
Avas injured by lightning in the reign 
of the exalted monarch, Secunder, 
the son of Behol (may his power and 
empire last for ever, and his reign 
be glorious :) and therefore the slave, 
Futteh Khan, the son of iVIesned-Ali, 
the liberal of the liberal, and the 
meritorious servant of the King, 
repaired it according to command, 
the 13th of Eebi-ul-Akher, in the 
year 909. No. 2.— The Sultan 
Shems-ul-IIak-Wa-ud-din Altumsh 
erected this building. No. 3. — In 
the year 907, this Minar having 
been injured by lightning, by the aid 
and favour of God, Firozmencl Yamani 
restored whatever was needed by the 
building : may the supreme Lord 




preserve this lofty edifice from future 
mischance. Ko. 4. — The erection 
of this building was commanded in 
the glorious time of the great Sultan, 
the mighty King of Kings, the master 
of mankind, the Lord of themonarchs 
of Turkistan, Arabia, and Persia : 
the Sun of the "world and religion, of 
the faith and the faithful : the Lord 
■of safety and protection, the heir of 
the kingdom of Suliman, Abul J\Iu- 
geffer Altumsh, Nasir-Amin-ul-I\Io- 
menin. No. 5. — Cutteb-ud-din- 
Ibek, on whom he the mercy of God, 
constructed this mosque. No. 6. — 
In the name of the most merciful 
God, the Lord has invited toParadise 
and jjrings into the M-ay of righteous- 
ness, him who wills it. In the year 
592, this building was commenced 
by the high command of Moez-ud- 
dunya-Wa-ud-din, Mahommed Beni 
Sam, Amir al Momenin." 

KOIJAN, the book which contains 
the doctrines and precepts of Ma- 

KOSPOOE, a town in Kachar, one of 
the Bengal dependencies, in India, 
the former capital, situated in Lat. 
24 deg. 45 mui. N., Long. 92 deg. 45 
min. E., about sixty miles easterly 
from the town of Silhet. Previous 
to the rajah's removal to Doodputtee, 
it was a flourishing town, but has 
since greatly decaj'ed. 

EOTA, the capitafof the district of 
the same name, in the ])rovince of 
Ajmere, in India, situated on the 
east side of the river Chumbul, about 
150 miles to tlie south, eastward of 
Ajmere. It is a large and populous 
place, and contains some handsome 
buildinsjs of white marl)le. 

animal of the deer species, inhabiting 
the jilains and jungles of Cutcli. 
"The brown Porcine axis {Axis Por- 
cinus), the Kota pacha or Parah of 
the Scindians," says Sir W. Harris, 
"attains the height of two feet at 
the siioulder, and is somewhat higher 
at the croup. The legs are sliort, 
and the contour exceedingly robust, 
and destitute of grace. The general 

colour is a deep black brown, marked 
witli a line (or two) of white spots 
on either side of the spine, which, 
however, disappear altogether, as 
the animal advances in age. The 
scut is white. The head extremely 
short. The muzzle abruptly pointed 
and whitish — a disc of the same 
colour encircling the eye. The 
horns, which are infurcate, and 
occur in the male only, are more 
slender than those of the common 
axis — the brow and bez antler being 
simply short processes, or rather 
snags. The cry of the parah is a 
curtailed bark, followed by a Avhine 
resembling that of the dog. These 
animals are usually found among 
heavy and tangled grass jungles 
along the banks of rivers, where 
they congregate in small troops. 
Being of an exceedingly irascible 
and pugnacious turn, they are kept 
by the liao of Cutch for public ex- 
hibitions, and are then pitted like 
rams, tlieir horns and f\ices having 
first Ix'en besmeared with the red 
powder called scndoor." 

KOWRA, a town in tlie province of 
Cutch, in Hindostan, remarkable 
for its situation in the midst of the 
Run of Cutch, which comjilctely 
surrounds it. It is in Lat. 23 deg. 
46 min. N., Long. 69 deg. 44 min. E., 
thirty-eight miles to the north of 

KRISHNA, the eighth avatar of 
Vishnu. The eighth incarnation of 
Yishna, in the person of Ivrishna, 
the shepherd Apollo of the Hindoos, 
is most extensively and enthusi- 
astically worshipped. 

KRISHNA KRORA, in Hindoo my- 
thology, a form of I'arvati as Doorga, 
under vliich slie is giving suck to 
Krislma, to pi'cvent the cnectsof the 
poison which he received in subduing 
the monstrous serpent, Kah'a. 

KUDI), a chasm or valley of the Hima- 

KUDDOO, pumpkin, an esculent eaten 
in ci'.rrics or tarts at the tables of 
Europeans and natives in India. 

KLDJOOR, the date tree. A very 




passable kind of matting is made of 
the leaves. 

KULBURGA, a to-vrn in the province 
of Beder, in India, situated in Lat. 
17 deg. 19 niiu. N., Long. 76 deg. 56 
min. E. It is now a place of little note, 
but was of considerable celebrity in 
ancient times, having been the capital 
both of a Hindoo and a Mahomedan 

KULENAS, or KOOLINS, a superior 
order of Brahmuns, to whom the seat 
of honour is on all occasions yielded. 
A Kuhna may marry his son to a 
daughter of a Brahmun of a lower 
class, but can only marry his daugh- 
ters to those of his own order. It 
was formerly (and still is to a less 
extent) considered a distingmshed 
honour to unite a daughter to a 
Kulena, who on such occasions re- 
ceive large presents from the father 
of the bride. ]Many Kulenas have, 
in consequence, a number of wives : 
sometimes marrying into thirty, 
fifty, and even a himdred families, in 
various parts of Hindostan. With 
tacli of these wives the Kulena re- 
ceives a portion ; and also, as he 
leaves them after marriage with their 
parents, a handsome present when 
he may, occasionall3% condescend to 
visit them. Sometimes he never sees 
them after the marriage ceremony, 
and sometimes visits them once in 
three or four years ; but does not 
always, in doing so, cohabit with 
them, as he dreads having a female 
offspring, whom he can only marry 
to a Kulena ; which, as these Brah- 
muns receive, as before observed, large 
portions from those of inferior orders, 
is commonly a matter of some diflB- 
culty. The evils arising from these 
circumstances, and the neglect of the 
married females, are manifold. Bro- 
fligacy, adultery, and a consequent 
destruction of unborn children, are 
of common occurrence among the 

KULWAR, according to all, general. 
The term is applied to a settlement 
of the land revenues of India, when the 
rent of each individual Byot is fixed 

and collected by theofScers of govern- 
ment, without the intermediate 
agency of Zemindars, or farmers of 
the revenue. 

KUMAOON, a province of Hindostan, 
bounded on the north by the Hima- 
laya Mountains; cast, Nepaul, from 
which it is divided by the river 
Kalee ; south, Delhi ; and west, 
Gurwal. The divisions are, Ku- 
maoon, Bhootant, and Painkhundee. 
The rivers are the Ganges on the 
west, and Kalee on the east. The 
whole of this province is mountain- 
ous. The mountains of Kumaooa 
lie between Kumaoon and Sreenug- 
gur, or Gurwal. At the foot of the 
hills on the Delhi side is a belt of 
jungle, and higher up, throughout 
the ranges of moimtains, are forests, 
producing various kinds of trees, in- 
cluding the oak and fir. Parts of 
the province are open and naked, 
particularly about Almora. The 
northern part of Bhootant, through 
which are several passes into Thibet, 
is covered with snow during more 
than half the year. The productions 
of this province are principally a 
coarse kind of wheat, barley, and 
chenna. The tea-plant grows wild, 
but not fit to use. In the forests are 
oak and fir ; and gold is supposed to 
exist in the mountains. In the 
Painkhundee are cedars of a large 
size, and hemp. Paper of a par- 
ticular kind is manufactured from a 
plant in this district. The only 
place of any consequence in tlie pro- 
vince is Almora. The inhabitants 
are Bhooteans and Khasiyas, with 
about 6000 Brahmuns scattered 
through the districts, but the pro- 
vince is very thinly inhabited. The 
Brahminical system of religion gene- 
rally prevails; the Khasya dialect 
is commonly spoken in this pro- 

KUMBUCKT, ill fated, wretch. A 
common term of reproach or abuse 
in Persia. 

KUNJOOR, in the province of Orissa, 
in India, the chief town of the Zu- 
meendaree of the same name, is 




situated in Lat. 21 degr. 31 min. K, 
Long. 86 deg. 42 rain. E. 

KUNKUR, lirae-stone. It is miicli 
used in India in building and tlie 
repair of roads. 

KUNNAUT, the enclosure of the 
tents used in India. It is formed of 
canvass, with perpendicular pieces of 
Ijaraboo inlaid at intervals of four or 
five feet, whicli being driven into 
the ground, preserve the canvass 
erect, and so compose a species of 

KUKACHEE, one of the principal 
sea-iiorts, and a British station in 
the province of Scinde, in Hindostan, 
tituated at the westernmost moiith 
of the Indus, in Lat. 24 deg- 51 min. 
N., Long. 67 deg. IG min. E. 

KUHGOON, a town in India, situated 
in Lat. 21 deg. 50 min. N., Long. 75 
deg. 40 min. E. It is considered the 
capital of the Ilolkar districts, in 
the province of Khandesh, and the 
usual residence of the Mahratta go- 

KUim AVATAR A, in the Hindoo 
tnytliology, the second of Vishnu's 
avatars. In this avatar Vishnu 
fl.ssumed the foriu of an immense 
tortoise to support the earth. 

KURNAUL, alarge town,about seventy 
miles from Delhi, in the province of 
Delhi, in India, is one of the princi- 
pal military stations in the province. 

KURNOOL, called also KUMEER- 
KUGGUR, a town in India, in the 
province of Ralagliat, is situated on 
the south side of the river Toombu- 
dra, a few miles distant from its 
junction with the river Kistna, in 
Lat. 15 deg. 44 min. N., Long. 78 
deg. 2 min. E. It is strongly forti- 
lied, and until 18'i9, was the resi- 
dence of a petty Ratiian chief, the 
descendant of the former nabob of 
Knrnool. This place has been for 
several centuries the principal sta- 
tion of the Deccan I'atlians. 

KUlvllU(JXDA, an Indian bush, which 
bears berries as large as a purple 
grape, and resembles tliat fruit in 
•colour and appearance. It is highly 
acrid and glutinous, and scarcely 

edible. In its wild state it is not 
larger than a black currant, sweet 
and pleasantly flavoured. The blos- 
soms are Avhite and starry, and dif- 
fuse a most agreeable perfume. 
KURUNDU, the cinnamon tree of ths 
island of Ceylon. Tiiis tree is gene- 
rally small and bushy, though this 
arises from its not being- permitted 
to grow, as the shoots of three years' 
growth are those that are generally 
cut down for peeling. Some cinna- 
mon trees have been seen which 
measured five feet in circumference, 
and thirty or thirty-five feet high. 
The bark of the young shoots is of 
a delicate green. To make the 
bushes thrive the better, they are 
cleared of all weeds, &c., and the 
earth is heaped up round tlieir roots 
once a j'car. The leaves resemble 
those of the laurel, but are cliiefly 
distinguished by three thick fibres 
running lengthwise, without any 
others crossing them. The flower 
is white and small, and M'ithout 
smell, and blows in IMarch. The 
fruit, which is like a small acorn, 
and black, is ripe about July. Great 
quantities of the seeds are collected 
every year for the purpose of being 
planted. The government cinnamon 
gardens of Ceylon are very extensive, 
reachingfromNegombo, twenty-three 
miles north of Colombo, to Caltura, 
twenty-six miles south of it, and co- 
vering a surface of many thousand 
acres. Since the government mono- 
poly of the cinnamon trade ceased in 
1833, several hundreds of acres of the 
gardens have been sold to mercliants, 
natives, and others, and the trade in 
cinnamon in private hands is now a 
most i)rofitab!e and flourishing one. 
There is a duty of 3s. Gd. a pound 
on all cinnamon exporte<l by the 
merchants from the island of Cey- 
lon. The method of peeling cinna- 
mon is this : — In July and August 
the shoots of three and four years 
of age are cut down, the leaves and 
end of tlie stick are cut off, and the 
sticks are carried in large bundles 
into some convenient and shady 




place, or some maduwa (temporary- 
shed) erected for the i)urpose. The 
peelers have a knife of a peculiar 
construction, and having rubbed the 
stick with the handle uf the knife, 
to make the bark supple, tiiey make 
an incision along the stick, and then 
loosen the bark so that they can 
easily take it off without breaking 
it. It now appears like a long tube. 
In this state it is laid in the sun to 
dry, and when the moisture is ab- 
sorbed the two edges fold in under 
each other, and it is thus reduced to 
a much smaller bulk than when first 
peeled off. It is then put up in 
bundles or bales, each containing a 
certain number of pounds, and taken 
to the godowns. From the leaves and 
roots, and refuse of the cinnamon, 
oil is distilled. The barked sticks 
are used for firewood. 

KURWAH, a coarse kind of red cot- 
ton cloth, used for a variety of com- 
mon pm'poses; it makes palankeen 
covers, dusters, &c. 

KUSS-KUSS, a peculiar kind of Indian 
grass, used for screens and blinds. 
See Tatties. 

KUTTACK. See Ccttack. 

KTJVERA is the god of wealth, and 
the Hindoo Plutus ; he is also the 
regent of the north. This deitj-- was 
a son of Viswasrava, and a brother 
of Ravan, who was overcome by 
llama, as related in the account of 
that god. Thus the latter was one 
of the datyas, and Kuvera one of the 
celestials. He is also called Paul- 

KUZZILBASII, a Turkish word signi- 
fy^ing "red head." It was an appel- 
lation originally given by Shah 
Ismael the first, to seven tribes 
which were united and firmly bound 
to defend their king and the Sheah 
faith against all enemies and aggres- 
sors. These tribes wore a red cap 
as a distinguishing mark, which 
afterwards became the military 
head dress of the Persian troops; 
hence the term kuzzilbash is used 
to express a Persian soldier, and 
often, particularly among the 

Toorkomans and Oozbecks is applied 
as a national designation to the 
people in general. 
OIL, the volatile oil obtained from 
the leaves of the cajeput tree, caje- 
]>uta ojficinarum, the melaleuca, 
kiicadendroii of Linnasus. The tree 
which furnishes the Kyapootee oil 
is frequent on the momitains of Am- 
boyna and the other ilolucca Islands. 
It is obtained hy distillation from 
the dried leaves of the smaller of two 
varieties. It is prepared in great 
quantities, especially in the island 
of Eanda, and sent to Holland ia 
copper flasks. When it arrives in 
England, it is of a green colour, 
very limpid, lighter than water, of 
a strong smell resembling camphor, 
and a strong pmigent taste, like 
that of cardamoms. It burns entirely 
away, without leaving any residuum. 
It is frequently adulterated with 
other essential oUs, coloured with 
the resin of mUfoil. In the genuine 
oil, the green colour depends on the 
l)resence of copper, for when recti- 
fied it is colourless. As an embro- 
cation, this oil is of the greatest 
utility, especially in cases of rheu- 
matism, sciatica, lumbago, &.c. 

LAC, a gum (gum lacca) obtained in 
India and China. It is yielded by 
insects (the coccus lacca), wliicli 
fix themselves upon the succulent 
extremities of the branches of the 
trees on which they are produced, 
and form small cells like honey- 
combs ; these cells constitute the 
gu!n. The lac, after undergoing 
various processes of preparation, is 
much used for sealing-wax, varnish, 
japanning, painting, and dyeing. 

LAC, one hundred thousand. A las 
of rupees (£10,0010 was once the 
desiderated maximum of an Anglo- 
Indian fortune. The "nabobs" of 
the last ceuturj', and a few of the 
present, often retm'ued to England 




with several lacs. At the present 
day, the accumulation of a single lac 
is a matter of difBculty. 

LACCADIVES, the, a duster of 
islands situated opposite to the coast 
of Malabar, a province of India, and 
distant aljout seventy-five miles 
from tlience. They consist of thirty 
small low islets, extending from 
the tentli to the twelfth degree of 
north latitude, being separated from 
each other by Avide cliannels, and 
the largest not containing six square 
miles of laud. Tliey are all very 
barren, producing nothing but cocoa- 
nuts, coir, jaggery, and a little betel 
nut, which are exported to India in 
exchange for grain, clothes, and 
other articles. The inhabitants are 
Mahomedans of the Malay class; 
they are very poor, and subsist chiefly 
upon cocoa-nut and fish. 

LAHORE, or the PUNJAB, a pro- 
vince of India, bounded on the north 
by the Ilimalaj'as, Cashmere, and 
the Himalayas ; cast, the Sntloj, 
separating it from Delhi ; south, 
Mooltan ; west, the Indus. The pro- 
vince is divided into a number of 
small districts for the purposes of 
government; but the two principal 
natural divisions may be said to be 
the Lower Punjab, or level country, 
between the rivers, ami the Kohis- 
tan. or liill country, occupying the 
northern part. The principal rivers 
are the Indus, Jeluni, Chenab (([. v.), 
Ravee, Beya, or IJeas, and tSutlej. 
The Jeluni has its source in the 
south-eastern corner of Cashmere, 
and flowing first westward, andafter- 
■wards to the south, fidls into the 
ChcTiab, after a course of about 4.'i0 
miles. 100 miles above !Mooltan. 
The Kohistan division is implied by 
the name, is hilly throughout, and 
its productions are not numerous, 
the cold, for some months, being too 
severe for those of India generally, 
and the heat during others being too 
great for those of more northern 
climates. The declivities of the 
mountains, however, produce abund- 
ant crops of wheat, barley, and peas. 

■which constitute the principal arti- 
cles of food of the inhabitants. The 
Punjab is generally level, and affords 
both pasturage and tillage. It yields 
■wheat, barley, rice, pulses of all sorts, 
sugar, and tobacco. Horses of tole- 
rably good quality are bred in great 
numbers, and the oxen and buffaloes 
are of a large powerful kind. Large 
quantities of fossil salt are found in 
many places, particularly between 
the rivers Indus and Jelum. The 
towns are Attock, Rawulpindea, 
Rotas, Kishtagar, Lahore, Umritzur. 
The inhabitants of this province are 
Sikhs, Singhs, Jats, Raji)00ts, and 
other Hindoos of inferior castes, and 
Mahomedans. The latter are still 
numerous, but chiefly of the poorer 
classes. The total population is 
supposed to amount to between three 
and four millions. They are gene- 
raUy a robust, athletic race, and of 
martial habits. The religion of the 
Sikhs may be described as a mixture 
of Hindooism and Deism. It was 
founded about the middle of the 15th 
centur3% by a Hindoo priest named 
Baba Narnak or Narnak Sah, who 
desired to reform what he looked 
upon as the corruption of his religion. 
This system gradually spread under 
the influence of the Gooroos, or 
teachers, who succeeded him, until 
the time of the tenth Gooroo, Govind 
Singh, who, animated b}'' the ambi- 
tion of worldly, as well as religious 
power, entirely remodelled the Sikh 
constitution, and converted his fol- 
lowers into fierce and formidable 
soldiers, changing their designation 
from Silkhs, signifying simply disci- 
plc.t, into Singhs, or hions, which 
before had exclusively belonged to 
the Rajpoot tribes. The Sikhs re- 
vere Gooroo Narnak as the founder 
of tlieir religion, Ijut have still greater 
veneration for Gooroo Govind, as the 
founder of their national power, 
(iooroo Govind is believed to have 
died about the year 1708, and was 
the last of the Gooroos. Their tenets 
are containe;! in a numljer ot books 
■written at different times, by Nar- 




nak, and other of the Gooroos, and 
finally arranged in one volume, 
called the Grinth, or Grunth, a San- 
scrit work, meaning hook, or writing. 
The Sikhs reject all distinction of 
caste, and admit converts from all 
classes. The language of the Sikhs 
is called the Punjabee. It is a mix- 
ture of Hindostanee and Persian. 

LAHORE, a city in India, the capital 
of the Punjab, or province of Lahore, 
situated on the south side of the 
Kavee river, in Lat.31 deg. 36 min. 
N., Long. 74 deg. 3 min. E. In the 
earliest times of which we have any 
record, this place appears to have 
been of consequence as the capital 
of the Kajpoot Kings of Lahore. 
Subsequently, in the year 1520, Sul- 
taun Baber made it the capital of his 
■empire, and it continued to be the 
seat of government for nearly a 
hundred years. Though the old 
city is now, in many parts, nearly 
in ruins, it still retains the vestiges 
of its former grandeur, and contains 
several magnificent edifices, particu- 
larly the palace built by the Emperor 
Acbar, the Shah Dura, or Mauso- 
leum of the Emperor Juhangecr, on 
the opposite side of the river, and 
the tomb of his queen, the celebrated 
!Noor Juhan. There is also the beau- 
tiful garden of Shah Julian, called 
the Shalimar, mtersected by a canal, 
■which throws up its water in 450 
fountains to cool the air. 

free; lands rent-free, or lands the 
government dues from which are 
assigned to any person for his own 
benefit, or are appropriated to any 
public purpose. The term is used 
in contradistinction to Malgoozary. 

LAKSHiVIl. This sea-horn goddess 
(Hindoo mythology) of beauty and 
prosperity, the consort, or sacli of 
Vishnu, was obtained by him at the 
churning of the sea. She is painted 
yellow, sitting on the lotus, or water- 
lily, and holding in her hand some- 
times the kamalu, or lotus, at others, 
the shell or club of Vishnu. At her 
birth she was so beautiful that all 

the gods became enamoured of her; 
but Vishnu at length obtained her. 
She is considered the Hindoo Ceres, 
or goddess of abundance. Lakshmi 
has various names, among which are 
Sri or Sris, the goddess of prospe- 
rity ; I'edma, or Kamala, from the 
lotus or nymphfea being sacred to 
her; Kembha, the sea-born goddess; 
Varahi ( as the energy of Vishnu in 
the Varaha avatar); Ada Maya, th(3 
mother of the world ; Narayana, 
Vidgnani, Kaumali, &;c. The festi- 
vals in honour of Lakshmi are held 
in the months Bhadra, Aswinu, 
Karteku, Poushu, and Choitru. The 
ceremonies are performed before a 
corn measure filled with rice in the 
husk, which is decorated with a gar- 
land of flowers, shells, &c. No san- 
guinary sacrifices are offered. The 
cliewing of the ciid by the cow arose, 
according to the Hindoos, from a 
curse of Lakshmi, that her moutli 
should be always in a state of un- 
cleanliness, in consequence of a false- 
hood told by the animal to the god- 

LALITAPUTTUN, a town in India, 
in the province of Nepaul, situated 
about two miles to the north of 
Khatmandoo. This is the largest 
town in Nepaul, and contains about 
25,000 inhabitants. 

LAMA. See Thibet. 

LA-MAH-E-IL- ALLAH ! Persian. 
"There is no God but God!" The 
first part of the Mahomedan confes- 
sion of faith. It is in constant col- 
loquial use, as an exclamation of 
astonishment, grief, or pleasure, or 
even as an occasional ejaculation 
Avithout any meaning at all. 

LAND(JUR, a military cantonment, 
or dtpot for sick troops in a ridge of 
outer Himlaya of that name, im- 
mediately above the Deyrah Dhoon. 
It was established in 1827, at the 
recommendation of Lord Comber- 
mere, then Commander-in-chief in 
India, as a sanatorium. The climate 
from ]Marc]i to June is delicious, and 
favourable to the restoration of Eu- 
ropeans to health. In the rainy sea- 




son the mountain is enveloped in a 
thick fog, and the winter months are 
extremely cold, but by no means 
unhealthy. The roads of the can- 
tonment are excellent. 

LASCAR, a European term for certain 
descriptions of menials in India. 
Sailors (ship-keepers) employed in 
harbour, tent-pitchers, tiie people 
employed to do the dirty work of 
the artillery and the arsenals, &c., 
are called lascars. The term is de- 
rived from lushkur, literally, an army 
man . 

LASS A, the capital of the country of 
Thibet, and the residence of the dalai, 
or grand lama, situated in Lat. 29 
dog. 30 min. N., Long. 91 deg. 6 
min. E. 

LATEO, a species of club, though 
rather long in proportion to its 
thickness, in comparison of weapons 
socalled in Englaml. They are in con- 
stant use among Indian villagers, and, 
like the Irish shillelal), are the usual 
implements in rustic battles. 

LEBAD A {from "Ii/jd,"arpiilt, in Arabic 
or Hebrew), a loose cloak made of 
common chintz, and quilted with 
cotton; nnu'li worn by the natives 
of Upper India. 

LEII, or IjAII, the capital ofLahdack. 
a division of the country of Thibet, 
situated on a branch of the river 
Indus, here called the Lahdack river, 
in Lat. 34 deg. 10 min. N., and about 
Long. 78 deg. 20 min. E. It is the 
residence of the rajah of Lahdack, 
and is a place of considerable traile, 
being a principal mart for the shawl 
"wool of Thibet. In the neighbouring 
district is a breed of remarkably 
small sheep, not larger than lambs 
in India of si.K months old, but 
cijvered with a very large and fine 

LTCIII (Neechee Phol). ThcLichi, or 
Leechee, as it is sometimes written, 
is a purely Chinese fruit, for it bears 
no other name but its Chinese one 
in any part of tlie world. Like 
most foreign fruits it has much de- 
generated in India, from the utter 
want of culture, and by propagation 

from seed only; the natives, except 
a few gardeners about the large 
towns, being wholly ignorant of 
grafting, and too indifferent to prac- 
tise it, or to give a young plant the 
care and attention necessary to pro- 
duce a fine fruit-bearing tree. 
Hence, with the exception of some 
from the Botanic Garden, Calcutta, 
the majority of the Lichis in India 
are of a most inferior description, 
and not to be compared Mith those 
of China, Batavia, the Mauritius, 
and Bourbon. It is, moreover, in and 
about Calcutta a very capricious 
fruit tree as to its bearing, the crop 
being very subject to failure from 
various causes; and even when the 
fruit is ripening the trees must be 
covered with netting to prevent the 
fruit being destroyed by the rapa- 
cious crows, which, with the squirrels, 
are the great enemies of all fruit- 
gardening in Lower India, as the 
monkeys are in other parts of it. 
While the Lichi lasts, however, and 
its duration is but for about a month 
in any perfection, it is a rich addi- 
tion to the dessert, and to the break- 
fast table. The Cliinese dry it in 
ovens, and in the sun, and it is thus 
exported in considerable quantities; 
but in this state it is little sought 
after in India. The juice of the 
fruit is perfectly wholesome. In 
countries where the Lichi abounds, 
and from its sweetness and rich fla- 
vour it is greedily eaten by children, 
deaths from indigestion and obstruc- 
tions brought on by this cause are 
so common, when the fruit is in 
season, that in slave colonies the 
fruit is often broken from the trees 
when green, to avoid this danger to 
the cliildren and young negroes. 
The Lichi tree is very hardy and 
will bear cold, heat, excessive rains, 
and even inundation for weeks, with- 
out api)arentsurtering, though doubt- 
less the fruit is afiected in quantity 
or quality by tliese trials. 
LING A. The Linga is the mytho- 
logic symbol of the regenerator Siva, 
Byuonymous with, but divested of 




the gross appearance of the Phallic 
emblem of the Greeks, -worshipped 
by the Saivas. Of the origin of the 
mystic worship of the Linya and the 
Yoni (q. v.), little appears to be 
tmderstood. It may be presumed to 
have been nature, under the male 
and female forms, personified; as 
Siva, the sun (which he is, equally 
witli 8urya) or fire, the genial heat 
•which pervades, generates, and 
vivifies all ; and Bhavani, who as the 
goddess of nature is also the earth, 
the universal mother. Tliese two 
active principles of life having been 
thus personified, may have been 
subsequently converted by the 
grossness of idolatry (which, in its 
progress, invariably seeks rather to 
gratify the sensual appetites than to 
instruct the minds of its votaries) 
from imaginary forms to realities; 
from the personified symbols of 
nature, to typical representations 
of the procreative powers of these 
symbols themselves. 

LOGUE, a Hindoo word meaning 
people, kind. It is applied as an 
appendix to the substantive expres- 
sive of the nature of the people; as 
laba Iwjue (children people), rundee 
loyue (women kind), &c. 

LOUCHOO ISLANDS, the, situated 
about 400 miles from the coast of 
China, occupying the 27th degree of 
north latitude, and the 129th degree 
east longitude. They are tributary 
to China. The inhabitants are a 
kindly, intelligent race of people, 
and have frequently shown great 
hospitality to shipwrecked crews of 
European vessels. 

LOODIANA. See Ferozepore. 

LOONGHIE, a fabric of rich coloured 
silks, interwoven with cotton, of the 
brightest colours, manutactured at 
Kurrachee, in Scinde. The loonghie 
is about four yards m length and 
two feet in Avidth. It is worn 
usually round the waist, and has a 
very rich effect. 

LOOTAH, a brass water vessel; of 
"which there are various sizes, from 
a pint to half a gallon. 

LOOTER A, from loot (Hindostanee), 
plunder ; a name given to the 
Pindarras, who were great plun- 

LOQUAT (Mespilus Japonicn'). As 
a pretty and almost a picturesque 
fruit and tree, the loquat may rank 
very high, for the dark green foUage 
of the tree, and, twice in the year, 
the rich perfume of the flower, 
which render it a great addition to 
the garden, and equally so to the 
dessert, when served with a few of 
their leaves. Of the properties of 
the fruit there is but little to say, 
being almost what the French would 
call un fruit insignijiant in India, 
though much prized in its native 
countries of China and Japan, where 
it grows to a much larger size, and 
has a far richer flavour than in 
India, or even in the Eastern Islands; 
in all of which countries the climate 
seems too warm and moist for it, 
while in Northern India, though it 
may there have the winter which 
it evidently requires, it has not the 
same degree of moisture; the winters 
of China and Japan being, as com- 
pared with those of India, wet win- 
ters. Amongst the natives of 
India it does not seem to be a fruit 
much thought of or prized, not 
being common in their gardens at 
any distance from large towns, and 
probably not being sufficiently high 
flavoured. Amongst the Europeans 
there also it is nearly neglected, and 
when it appears, may be said to be 
rather tasted as a novelty than eaten 
as a favourite fruit. Amongst the 
Chinese and Dutch in the Eastern 
Islands it is, however, much more 
prized, and the culture of the tree 
much attended to. Presents of fine 
sorts are frequently interchanged, 
and from the gardens of some of the 
wealthy Chinese, and Malay-Chi- 
nese, Portuguese, and Dutch families 
of the olden times, who are all 
capital horticulturists, and have, in 
the great Chinese population of those 
countries, excellent gardeners, the 
fruit is really a delicious one. 




LOTUS, the India water-lily, a large 
and handsome aquatic plant which, 
rising from a cluster of broad leaves 
lying flat upon the siuface of the 
water, jiresents a very beautiful ap- 
pearance. The lotus is considered 
so enth'ely emblematic of India, that 
in all allegorical pictures it is inva- 
riably used, and is besides constantly 
found in mythological sculptiires 
and pictorial subjects. 

LOTXNDIES, servant maids, usually 
attendant on ladies of rank and re- 
epectability in the peninsula of 
India. They are often children of 
old dependents, formerly slaves, and 
eometimes Avives of Kahers, or 

LL'BBUIIKEEA, a commander of a 
"lubbur," or grand division of a 
horde of Piiidarras. 

LUCNOW, a city in India, the capital 
of the province of Oude, situated on 
the soutli side of the river Goomtee, 
in Lat. 26 deg. 51 min. N., Long. 80 
deg. 50 min. E. It is a large and 
populous town, diA'ided into three 
distinct quarters. The first, consist- 
ing of the old native city, is exten- 
sive but meanly built, and very 
dirty ; the second, containing the 
king's palace and the residence of 
the court, is of modern origin, and 
the houses are for the most part in 
a mixed style of European and East- 
ern architectui-e; the third consists 
chiefly of palaces and religious edi- 
fices, erected by the former nabobs. 

LUGGAO, to make fast. Tlie word is 
used on board tliebudgerows and otlicr 
hoats on the Ganges, and signifies 
casting anchor, or making the boat 
fast to some object on the river's 
banks. The word is likewise em- 
ployed to instruct a person to tie or 
bind up. 

LUGGIES. bamboo poles, from twenty 
to fiftv feet in length. 

LUKPUT BUNDER, a town in India, 
in the province of Cutcli, situated 
on the bank of the river Lonee, in 
Lat. 23 (leg. 47 min. N., Long. G8 
deg. 5G min. E., thirty-eight miles 
to the north of Bhooj. 


MAAFEE, .Hindostanee. Literally, 
exempted, privileged, or revenue- 
exempted lands, exempted on the 
autliority of the nazim or the zu- 

MAAS, Persian. Curds expressed 
from the milk or butter-milk dried 
in the sun, and thus preserved. 
Broken into small pieces and mixed 
with water they form a pleasant 
acidulous beverage. 

JMADRAH, a city in India, in tlie pro- 
vince of Central or ^liddle Canuitie, 
the capital of the Britisli Govern- 
ment, a large and populous town 
with a strong fort, situated on the 
sea-coast, in Lat. 13 deg. 5 min. N., 
Long. 80 min. 21 deg. E. This town 
was founded in 1G36, in whicli year 
the Englisli obtained the grant of a 
piece of ground, for the erection of 
a town and fort, from the rajah of 
Chandgherry, Sree-rung-Iiayeel. 
Tlie rajah desired that the new town 
should be named after himself, Sree- 
runga-raj-a-Puttun ; but tlie naik, or 
governor of the district, ordered the 
English to give it the name of his 
own father, Cliinnapun, and it was 
accordingly called Chimm-l'iiltun. 
Madras was the name of the village 
which existed before the present 
town was founded, and this name 
has been continued by the English 
to the town, the fort being denomi- 
nated Port St. George. j\Iadras 
soon became a flourishing city, and 
the chief station of the English on 
the Coromandel coast. In 1702 it 
Avas besieged by Daood Khan, one of 
Aurungzebe's generals, who notified 
that he liad orders to take the fort, 
and entirely destroy it. However, he 
was defeated, though the fort was 
then a very weak place, witii only 
a few soldiers to defend it. in 1744, 
it was besieged and taken by the 
French, who kept it until 1749, 
when peace was made, and t!ie place 
was restored to the Euglisii. in 




1758, it was aErain besieged by the 
French, under the celebrated Lally, 
■who was obliged to retreat, after a 
siege of two months. Since that 
time Madras has never been besieged 
by an enemy; though, in 1769, it was 
threatened by Hyder Ali, who en- 
camped his army within a few miles 
of the fort, and forced the English 
to make a treaty with him. In the 
quarter called Triplicane, or Tir- 
oomul-kheree, a little to the south 
of the fort, is the residence of the 
nominal nabob of Arcot, the de- 
scendant of the former iMahonwdau 
rulers of the Carnatic. Near Tripli- 
cane, on the sea-side, is the small 
town of Llylapore, or St. Thome, 
the latter being the name given to 
it by the Portuguese, who captured 
the place and formed a settlement 
there in the year 1547. Eight miles 
southward from the fort is the 
Mount, the principal station of the 
Jladras Artillery. At this place is 
an old Romanist chapel, built by the 
Portuguese, upon the summit of a 
rocky hill, from Avhicli it has its 
name of St. Thomas's Mount. By 
the natives it is usually called Eur- 
ingee Konda, or Euringee Mulye. 
Two miles from the Mount, towards 
Madras, is the Little Mount, a low 
rocky hill, on which stand the re- 
mains of an old Portuguese convent. 
The road here crosses the Adyar 
river, over which is a narrow bridge 
of twenty -nine small arches, 1230 
feet long, called the Marmalong 
Bridge. It was built by an Arme- 
nian gentleman of Madras. The 
total population of Madras is esti- 
mated at 450,000, including about 
30,000 Mahomedans. 

MADRISSA, a college. The word is 
derived from the Arabic, and applied 
to colleges where the Oriental lan- 
guages only are taught. 

JIADUKA, a city in India, the capi- 
tal of the district of Madura, in the 
province of Southern Carnatic, situ- 
ated in Lat. 9 deg. 55 min. N., Long. 
78 deg. 14 min. E. This is a city 
of considerable antiquity, and con- 

tains the remains of many magnifi- 
cent edifices, comprising some of the 
most extraordinary specunens of 
Hindoo architecture now extant, 
particularly the ancient palace of 
the rajahs. It has a pagoda cover- 
ing an extent of ground almost suf- 
ficient for the site of a town, in front 
of which is a celebrated choultry, 
called liroomul Naik's, 312 feet in 
length, and covered with grotesque 
sculptures. Near the town is a re- 
markable eminence, called, from its 
shape, the Elephant Rock. There 
was formerly at ]Madura, a college, 
called by the natives Maha Sunkum. 

MAHA, the Ganges stag, the cervus 
elaphoide.f of Hodgson, the bahrauja 
of the Eastern, and the maha of the 
Western Tarai. 

MAHABHARATA, an epic poem in 
the Sanscrit language, forming part 
of the Vedas. It describes the most 
important events in the early history 
of India. 

MAHABULESmVAR, a range o? 
hills in Western India. The hot 
season, with its early, blazing sun- 
risings, its still, burning noons, and 
its breezeless, oppressive evenings, 
could scarcely be endured in India, 
by those avIio have passed many 
years of their life in its wasting 
climate, were it not for the invigo- 
rating replenishment of the system, 
afforded by an annual visit to " the 
hills," as they are emphatically 
called. "\Miile the Bengalees boast 
the snowy peaks of the Himalayas, 
the JNIadrasees, their Neilgherries, 
Avith its sociality and sport, the 
I?ombay people are j ustly proud of the 
beautiful range of the filahabulesh- 
war, whose climate and scenery ren- 
der the station formed there one of 
tlie most interesting as well as one of 
the most sanitary localities in West- 
ern India. The bungalows on the 
Mahabuleshwar are built irregularly 
on such points of the hills as present 
the most agreeable views. They are 
small, and have thatched roofs, pre- 
senting a very rustic and chalet-like 
appearance ; but as health rather 




than luxury, exercise rather than 
etiquette, form the object of visitors 
to the Mahabuleshwar, the weaUliy 
civilian, or the ricli commandant, 
■who leaves his splendidly furnished 
bungalow', and his handsome car- 
riages, in the lowland station, is satis- 
fied with the simple accommodation 
of a sleeping apartment surrounded 
with reeds and calico, a dining-room 
in which a good appetite is the chief 
luxury, and an open verandah com- 
manding an uninterrupted view of 
the magnificent scenery around ; 
while a strong Pegue pony, for 
neighbouring excursions, is more 
prized than the most valuable Arab, 
whose services would be found use- 
less among the steep rocky passages 
of these Ghauts. In addition to the 
bungalows, whose rent is rather 
proportioned to the demand for 
them than to the accommodation 
they afford, invalids have the ad- 
vantage of rooms in the Sanitarium, 
for which they pay nothing. In tlie 
month of October, particularly, fires 
are in constant requisition on the 
hills; and this enjoyment, which in 
the East brings somewhat of an 
European air to the liearth, affords 
a species of gratification, whicli mere 
logs, some of them too uncomfortably 
green and smoking, from rather ill- 
contrived chimneys, would be 
scarcely thought capable of pro- 
ducing. There is also another 
effect of climate found productive of 
much satisfaction to the hill visitors, 
simply, for the same reasons of asso- 
ciation ; this is tlerivcd from the 
fogs, wliich envelop the mountains 
about sunset during tlie autumn 
months, and, disagreeable enough in 
themselves, remind the residents 
of an English November, and are 
prized accordingly, even by persons 
wlio, if really in their native coun- 
try, breakfasting by lamp-light, 
would grumble over the dark days 
of " Merry England." A very 
curious effect also on the Mahabu- 
leshwar Hills is caused by the 
passing of light vapours and fleecy 

clouds across particular portions of 
the mountains. The doors of the 
bungalows usually face each other, 
and it is not uncommon for a 
cloud to enter at one, obscure 
the room, and pass out at the 
other, leaving the atmosphere as 
clear as before its entrance. The 
excursions to be enjoyed about the 
Mahabuleshwar Hills, even to those 
not caring for the sport afforded in 
the dense forests clothing the moun- 
tain sides, and which abound iu 
beasts of prey and of the chase, are 
numerous and beautiful ; many of 
the roads have been made at the 
charge of the British government, 
but others, which lead perhaps to 
the most lovely spots, are rugged 
and broken, mere stony footpaths, 
crossed occasionally by a brawling 
mountain-stream, to which troops of 
unwieldy, stupid-looking buffaloes, 
stroll to quench their tliirst. This 
fact, indeed, occasions the only 
disagreeable or dangerous circum- 
stance connected with free ram- 
bles on the hills ; for although 
these animals are tame, and the 
property of shepherds, they are suf- 
fered to stroll about the woods un- 
tended, which produces a degree of 
wild shyness, and it sometimes hap- 
pens that, if suddenly alarmed by a 
horseman or foot-passenger, when 
tliey cannot avoid imagined danger, 
by crashing through tiie brush- 
wood, the animals will cliarge in 
a body, which, when a rambler is 
unarmed, on a ]*cgue pony, and :i 
slippery path, i)laces him in rather 
an unenviable position. However, 
the cliance of sucli a rencontre witli 
the long-nosed and indigo-coloured 
animals who entertain these mis- 
taken ideas of one's objects, is too 
rare to interfere witli the stroller 
who desires to penetrate tlie tangled 
thickets of this most lovely region, 
wiiile the amioyanee, and even dan- 
ger, will weigh little against tlie cer- 
tain gratification to be gained. There 
is an interestingspot within tlie rcac!i 
of the hill cantonment where the rises 




of the Kistna river are situated, over 
which singular temples have been 
erected. Although knowing little of 
painting, and not much more of 
poetr}', ifwe except their ancient lyric 
songs of Sanscrit origin, the Hindoos 
liave yet an eye so true to nature 
(when not called upon to imitate it), 
that tlieirtemplesare ever found com- 
manding the most lovely and attrac- 
tive views ; and so in one case at 
Mahabuleshwar. a fine arch being 
cut in one of the basaltic temples, 
permitting the rich foliage of the 
mountain to be seen at its back, as 
well as the exquisite landscape that 
forms the foreground of the picture. 
With respect to the principal temple, 
however, whose tri-sided colonnades 
surround a tank, into which, from 
the mouth of a bull, tlows the sacred 
stream, it commands a view of the 
fair, deep valley of the Kistna. The 
level ground of the Mahabuleshwar 
is one tangled mass of fern and 
ari'ow-root. The last, a pretty 
jilant, resembling a white lily, with 
long, dark, glossy leaves. The Chi- 
nese colonists of Bombay, Avho are 
condemned to labour here for their 
delinquencies, use the root as a prin- 
cipal article of food. 

MAHADEO, the Adam of the Hindoos. 

MAHADEO, situated in the Mahadeo 
hills, in the province of Gondwana, 
in India, in Lat. 22 deg. 22 min. N., 
Long. 78 deg. 35 min. E. This is 
one of the Avildest tracts in the Dec- 
can, and was almost unknown to 
Europeans until the year 1818, 
when it was entered by the British 
troops in pursuit of • Appa Sahib, 
the ex-rajah of Kagpore. It is 
a place of pilgrimage for the Hin- 
doos, but it is chiefly noticed on 
account of its hot sulphurous 
springs, of which there are two in 
the vicinity. 

MAHA DEVI. Devi, the goddess, in 
Hindoo mythology, is a title given 
to Lakshmi, Suraswati, and Parvati; 
but the latter is commonly called 
Maba Devi. 

IMAHAJAKUM, Hindostanee. A 

great person, a merchant, proprietor 
of land, a banker. 

MAHA JViODELIAR, the first degree 
of rank among the natives of the 
maritime provinces of the island of 
Ceylon. The different degrees are 
as follows : — 1. The first, second, 
third, and fourth Maha Modeliars. 
2. Modeliars. 3. Mohottals. 4, 
Mohandirams. 5. Arachies. 6. 

MAHAKATTAS. Of the numerous 
tribes of India there are few whose 
names have been better, or whose 
character has been less known in 
Europe than the Maharattas. Their 
sometimes rival, and sometimes con- 
federated chieftains, the Peishwa, 
Holkar, and Scindiali, have given a 
dazzling, but ephemeral celebrity to 
the Maharatta name, which has 
caused many to blend with them the 
Rajpoots, the Kattees, the Blieels, 
and other more or less warlike and 
predatory tribes, who have occa- 
sionally sided with them. These 
races are altogether distinct. They 
all, however, occupy the Deccan, 
Central and Southern India. 

MAHAEIMAH, a piece of muslin 
worn over the head and across 
the mouth and chin of a Turkish 
or Armenian lady when she appears 

MAHASEER, great head. The name 
of a delicious fresh water fish com- 
mon to Indian rivers, which rises to 
the fly and affords splendid sport to 
the lovers of angling. Tliey are 
often caught of the size of a large 
cod, which they resemble in colour 
and shape. 

MAHE, a town in India, in the pro- 
vince of Malabar, situated on the 
coast, in Lat. 11 deg. 42 min. N., 
Long. 7.5 deg. 36 min. E., was for- 
merly the chief French settlement 
on the Avestern side of India, and is 
still in their possession. 

MAIIEE MORATUB, the order of 
the Fish, one of the insignia con- 
ferred by the Mogul Emperors of 
Delhi upon independent princes of 
the first class. The order of the 


Fisli -was first instituted by Khosroo 
Parwez, King of Persia. Having 
been deposed by his general, Beli- 
ram, Khosroo fled for protection to 
tlie Greek einjieror, Maurice, wliose 
daughter, Sheereen, he married, and 
he was sent back to Persia with an 
army, imder the command of Nar- 
ses, who placed him upon the throne 
cf his ancestors, a.d. 591. He as- 
certained from his astrologer, Aruz 
Khasliasli, that Avhen he ascended 
the throne the moon was in the con- 
.^tellation of the Fish, and he gave 
• orders to have two balls made of 
jolished steel, which were to be 
called the konkabas (planets), and 
mounted on long poles. These two 
jilanets, with a large fish made of 
gold, upon a third pole in the centre, 
were ordered to be carried in all 
regal processions immediately after 
the king, and before the prime- 
minister, whose cortege always fol- 
lowed that of the king. 

MAHIUPORE, a small town in India, 
in the province of Jlalwa, situated 
on the right bank of the river Sec- 
pra, about twenty-four miles to the 
northward of Oojein. A great bat- 
tle was fought there on the 21st of 
December, 1817, between the army 
of ]Mulharrao Holkar and the British 
troops, when the Maharattas were 
entirely defeated, witli great loss. 

ilAIIOMEDANISil, a religion which 
derives its name from its founder, 
Mahomed, sometimes improperly 
called Mahomet, who was born at 
Mecca, in Arabia, a.d. .'5G9. He 
died in the C3rd j-ear of his age, at 
Medina, a.i>. G.32. The faith of 
the Mahomedans consists in belief in 
God, in the angels, the scriptures, 
the prophets, the resurrection and 
final judgment, and in God's abso- 
lute decrees. The system of religion 
taught by IMahomed is contained in 
a book called the Koran. Tlie prac- 
tice of the Mahomedan religion con- 
sists in pra3'er, ablutions, fasting, 
alms, pilgrimages, conmiemorations, 
and circumcision. The fastings and 
commcmoratious of great events in 



Mahomedan history are accom- 
panied by sundry ceremonials, such 
as tlie Hamazan, or Lent, the Bai- 
ram, the Mohurrum (q. v.), &c. 
Fasting is considered so serious an 
obligation that Mahomed called it 
one-fourth part of the faith. Accord- 
ing to the Mahomedan divines, there 
are tliree degrees of fasting: — 1. The 
restraining the belly and other parts 
of the body from satisfying their 
lusts. 2. The restraining the ears, 
eyes, tongue, hands, feet, and other 
members from sin ; and, 3. The fast- 
ing of the heart from worldly cares, 
and restraining the thoughts from 
every tlung beside God. The Ma- 
homedans are obliged, by the express 
command of the Koran, to fast the 
whole month of Ramazan, from the 
time the new moon first appears, till 
the appearance of the next new 
moon; during which time they must 
abstain from eating, drinking, and 
women, from day-break till night, 
or sun-set; and this injunction they 
observe so strictly, that, M-hile they 
fast, they suffer nothing to enter 
their mouths, or other parts of their 
bod}- ; some being so cautious, that 
they will not open their mouths to 
speak, lest they should breathe 
the air too freely; the fast is also 
deemed void if a man kiss or touch 
a woman, or if he vomit designedly. 
But after sunset they are allowed to 
refresh themselves, and to cat and 
drink, and enjoy the company of 
their wives till daybreak ; though 
the more rigid begin the fast again 
at midnight. This fast is extremely 
rigorous and mortifying when the 
month of Kamazan happens to fall 
in summer (for the Arabian year 
being lunar, each month runs 
through all the different seasons in 
the course of thirtj'-three j'cars), 
the length and heat of the days 
making the observance of it much 
more diflicult and uneasy than in 
winter. The Bairam signifies ii 
solemn feast. The Mahomedans have 
two Bairams, the Great and the 
Little. The Little Bairam is pro- 




perly that lieid at the close of the 
last Kamazaii, beginning with the 
first new moon in the following 
month, Shawal. This succeeds Ra- 
mazan, which is their Lent, and is 
more usually called the Great Bai- 
rani, because it is observed with 
great ceremony and rejoicing at 
Constantinople and through Turkey, 
for three days, and in Persia for five 
or six days, at least by the common 
people, to make themselves amends 
for the mortification of the preceding 
month. The fast commencing with 
the new moon, the Mahomedans are 
very scrupulous in observing the 
time when the new moon commences; 
for which purpose observers are sent 
to the tops of the highest mountains, 
and, the moment they espy the 
appearance of a new moon, run to 
the city, and proclaim Muzhdaluc, 
•'welcome news;" as it is the signal 
for beginning the festivity. The 
Great Bairam is properly that held 
by the pilgrims at Mecca, and lasts 
three days. This is called by the 
Arabs, Idul adlia, that is, the feast of 
sacrifice, as being celebrated in 
memory of the sacrifice of Abram, 
whose son God redeemed with a 
great victim. On the feast of Bai- 
ram, after throwing little stones, 
one after another, into the valley of 
jSIina, they usually kill one or more 
sheep, some a goat, bullock, or even 
a camel; and after giving a part 
thereof to the poor, eat the rest with 
their friends. After this, they 
shave themselves. The second is a 
day of rest. On the third they set 
out on their return home. 
MAHOUT, a person employed in 
India to feed and to drive an ele- 
phant. The mahout sits upon the 
neck of his elephant, bare-footed, 
and furnished with an instrument 
called a haunkus (or driver), where- 
with to guide the animal. When 
ihe elephant is to be urged forward, 
the point of the haunkus is pressed 
into the back of his head, while the 
mahout's toes press under both the 
animal's ears : when it is to be 

stopped, the mahout places the hook 
part against the elephant's forehead; 
and, throwing his weight back, occa- 
sions considerable pain, which soon 
induces obedience : when it is to 
turn to the left, the mahout presses 
the toes of his right foot under the 
right ear of the elephant, at tlie same 
time goading him about the tip of 
the right ear, thereby causing the 
auimal to turn its head, and to 
change its direction: to turn to the 
right, vice versa. When tlie ele- 
phant is to lie down, in order to be 
laden, the haunkus is pressed per- 
pendicularly upon the crown of the 
head: but most elephants, after a 
j-ear or two, become very well ac- 
quainted with the words of command ; 
obeying them readily, without being 
mounted, or even approached. Tlie 
mahout has the assistance of a cooJi/, 
who is generally i)rovided with a 
cutting bill, for the purpose of lop- 
ping off the lesser branches of bor- 
gheets, peepuls, and other trees, in 
common use as fodder. An elephant 
will usually carry as much of these 
on his back as he can consiune in 
two days. Boughs, as thick as a 
man's arm, are very easily chewed 
by this stupendous animal; which 
often uses one, of full a hundred 
weight, to drive the flies from its 
MAHUNT, a Hindoo high priest. 
MAL, Hindostanee. Wealtli, property ; 
revenue, rent, particularly that 
arising from territory, in contradis- 
tinction to the customs and duties 
levied on personals. 
MALABAK, a province of India, 
bounded on the north by Kanara; 
east, My sore,Koorg,and Coimbatora 
south, Travancore; west, the sea. 
It is divided into three districts, 
Wynaad and Palghat, in and above 
the mountains, and Malabar below. 
Black pepper may be considered the 
staple of this province, which also pro- 
duces abundance of rice, cocoa-nuts, 
and jaggery. Gold dust is foimd in 
some of the mountain streams, and 
the forests of the Wynaad and Pal- 




ghat abound with excellent teak and 
bamboo. The principal towns are 
Cannanore, Tellicherry, Mahe, Ma- 
nantoddy, Calicut, and Palghat- 
cheriy. The inliabitants of this 
province are principally Hindoos, 
divided into Numoorees, or Brah- 
muns, Nairs, Tiars, and Maliars, 
■who are all free men; and Poliars, 
and other lower castes, who are all 
slaves. There are also several 
thousand Christians of the llomish 
and Syrian churches, and on the 
coasts, Moplas and Jews. The 
total population is estimated at 
1,000,000. Hindooism is the pre- 
vailing religion of the inland dis- 
tricts, and Mahomedanisra, mixed 
with many Hindoo usages, that of 
the maritime parts. Though ruled 
by a Hindoo government, this pro- 
vince appears to have received tlie 
Mahomedan system at a very early 
period; and when the Portuguese 
first visited the Zamorin's domi- 
nions, they found them filled with 
Moosulmans. Christians, also, of 
the Syrian and Eomish churches 
are numerous. There are likewise 
many of the Jain sect in the interior. 
The languages most generally spo- 
ken are the Kanarese and Malay- 

MALACCA, the principal town of the 
country of Malaya, in Asia, occu- 
pying the coast towards the south- 
ern extremity, between Salingore 
and Johore, and is about forty miles 
in length, by about thirty miles in 
breadth inland. This place is so 
named from a fruit called the Malka, 
produced in great abundance in its 
neighbourhood. It contains, includ- 
ing the adjacent district, about 
arjjOOO inhabitants, composed of 
Malays, Hindoos, descendants of 
Dutch and Portuguese, and Chinese, 
almost all tlie cultivators and arti- 
sans being of the last-named nation. 
Malacca is situated in Lat. 2 deg. 14 
min. N., Long. 102 deg. 12 min. E. 

MALAYA. This country occupies the 
southern extremity of the continent 
of Asia. It forms a peuiusuia, ex- 

tending from about Lat. 8 deg. 30 
min. to 1 deg. 30 min. N., bounded 
on the north by the Siamese terri- 
tories; east and south, by the sea; 
west, by the straits, separating it 
from Sumatra, called the Straits of 
IMalacca, and by the Bay of Bengal. 
In length it may be estimated at 800 
miles, from north to south, by aa 
average breadth of 125 miles, from 
east to west. It consists of the fol- 
lowing principal divisions : Queda, 
Province Wellesley, Perak, Salen- 
gore, Malacca, and Johore; with the 
islands of Penang, Singapore, and 
Bintang. Queda occupies the north- 
ern part of the western coast, be- 
tween Lat. 8 deg. and 5 deg. N. It 
belongs to the Siamese. Province 
Wellesley belongs to the British, and 
was formerly a part of Queda. Perak 
and Salengore are both independent 
principalities. Malacca belongs to 
the British, and Johore is an inde- 
pendent state. The only towns 
worthy of notice upon the peninsula 
are Malacca and Johore. This pe- 
ninsula is composed of a central 
range of mountains, traversing its 
whole length from north to south, 
leaving a tract of undulating low 
country on both sides to the sea, 
watered in every direction by small 
rivers, of wliich there are aliout 
ninety altogether, and covered with 
forests and vegetation. Its principal 
articles of produce are rice, rattans, 
canes, betel, ivory, and various kinds 
of useful wood. The forests, how- 
ever, do not produce the teak tree. 
The animals, both wild and domestic, 
are the same as are found in India, 
with the exception of sheep and 
horses, which are not natural to the 
country. Tin is plentiful, and tliere 
is some gold. The inliabitants of 
this peninsula consist of two classes: 
the original natives and the Malays. 
The original natives (or (ifjiiii(/iiu's) 
are of the class usually denominated 
oriental negroes, and inhabit the 
mountains of tiie interior. They 
arc of a diminutive stature, but in 
other respects reseiublc the negroes 




of Africa. They are in a perfectly 
Bavage state. By the Malays they 
are called Samaiig. As a people, the 
Malays are uoted for their ferocity, 
cunning, and treachery; never for- 
giving an affront, hut always taking 
a cruel revenge. They are addicted 
to gambling of all kinds, especially 
to cock-fighting, to an extraordinary 
degree, and they are universally in 
the practice of intoxicating them- 
selves with opium. Their vessels, 
which are called prows, arc many of 
them very well built, and skilfully na- 
vigated ; but it is only as pirates that 
they have ever shown activity or 
enterprise. The religion of the 
Malays is Mahomedanism, of the 
Soonnee sect. Their language is 
termed the Malay. It is a compoimd 
of various others, including Sanscrit 
and Arabic, and is considered very 
eoft and simple. It is written from 
right to left, in the Arabic character, 
with a few slight alterations, and is 
general to all the adjacent islands. 
MALDIVES, the. These islands lie 
in the Indian Ocean, between Lat. 7 
deg. 6 min. N., and Lat. deg. 46 
min., S, south-west of the island of 
Ceylon. They consist of numerous 
circular clusters, separated from 
each other by narrow passages, and 
amounting to about 1200 of various 
Bizes, tlie largest not being more 
than three miles in circumference. 
The larger islets are inhabited and 
cultivated, but ihe greater number 
are mere rocks and sand-banks. 
The principal island is named IMull, 
and is the residence of the chief. 
Their chief articles of produce are 
coir, cocoa-nut oil, cowries, tortoise- 
shell, and dried fish, which are ex- 
ported by the islanders in their own 
boats, to the coast of Orissa, and to 
the straits of Malacca, in exchange 
for rice, sugar, and other necessaries. 
The islands are inhabited by Maho- 
medans, the descendants of Arab 
colonists. They are under the go- 
vernment of a chief, who takes the 
name of sultaun. It is not accu- 
rately known what language is pro- 

perly that of the Maldives, but the 
islanders all understand and speak 
Ilindostanee. Their religion is Ma- 
homedanism mingled with Paganism. 
Like the Biajoos of Borneo, they 
annually send adrift into the sea a 
vessel laden with perfumes, gums, 
and flowers, as an offering to the 
spirit of the winds, and sometimes a 
like offering is made to the spirit 
whom they term the king of the 

MALES, or MALLEY, the gardener 
in an Indian establishment. He is 
seldom very well acquainted with the 
theoretical part of his profession, 
and is therefore employed simply to 
perform the duties of hoeing, digging, 
watering, planting, pruning, clipping, 
&c. In gathering flowers for a 
bouquet, the Indian malee is accus- 
tomed to break them off close at the 
top of the stem, and to tie them to- 
gether upon a stick. 

M ALEM, Persian for " master." 

MALGOOZAE, one who pays rent or 
revenue. The term is applicable in 
India to every description of persons 
who hold land, paying a revenue to 
government, whether as tenant, ze- 
mindar, or farmer. 

MALGOOZARRY, land paying reve- 
nue. A term applied to assessed 
lands, or to the rent of such lands. 

MALIK, Ilindostanee. Master, lord, 
proprietor, o'wner. 

MALIKANA, what relates or belongs 
to a person as master or head man. 
The mali/uma of a Mocuddim, or head 
Ryot, is a share of each Ih/ot's pro- 
duce received by him as a customary 
due, forming an article of the Neak- 
DARUT, q. v. The term is also 
applicable to the nancar, or allow- 
ance to village collectors, or Mocud- 
Dijis of such villages as pay rents 
immediately to the khalsa. 

MALWA, a province of India, bound- 
ed on the north by Ajmere, Agra, 
Allahabad; east, Allahabad, Gond- 
wana; south, Candeish; west, Guze- 
rat. It consists of three divisions: 
1st. The territories of Sindia. 2nd. 
The territories of Holkar. 3rd. 


Those of Bhopal. The principal 
rivers are the Mhj-e, Seepra, Chum- 
bul, Parbuttee, Ivalee, SincI, and Bet- 
■wa, all of which have tlieir sources 
in or near tlie Vindhj'a moun- 
tains. This province consists of an 
elevated table-land, generally open, 
excepting towards tlie frontiers, but 
diversified with conical flat-topped 
hills and low cross ridges. It has 
numerous rivers and streams flow- 
ing in opposite directions, its level 
being above that of all the adjacent 
provinces; and it enjoys a mild and 
healthful climate, with a rich and 
fertile soil. A ridge of mountains 
separates it from Ajraere on the 
north-west, and the great Vindhyan 
range forms its southern frontier 
along the line of the Nerbudda, 
from which branches run iip the 
eastern and western sides. Its pro- 
ductions are wheat, grain, peas, 
maize, and other grains; the first 
two being articles of export ; rice 
is also grown, but only in small 
quantities ; sugar, tobacco, cotton, 
and a little indigo. The Malwa 
tobacco is the best in India, and is 
much sought after. The grapes 
also of this province have long been 
celebrated for their riclmcss; but 
the staple article of produce is opium, 
the soil and climate of Malwa ap- 
pearing to be particularly well 
adapted for the cultivation of the 
poppy. An immense quantity of 
this pernicious drug is annually 
suppUed from this province. The 
towns are lvajgm"h, Khemlasa, Se- 
ronje, Mahidpoor, Oojein, Sarnng- 
poor, Bhopal, Bhilsea, Salomon, Muu- 
doogurh, and Indore. The inhabi- 
tants are principally Rajpoots and 
Mahrattas, with a few Mahuniedans, 
chiefly in the district of Bhopal. 
The mountains are occupied by 
Bheels and other savage tribes. The 
religion is generally Ilindooism, and 
in Bhopal, Mahomcdanism; and the 
language Mahrattee, and a mixed 
dialect called the Kimgkee, formed 
chiefly from the Ilindee. 
MANANTODDY, a small inland vil- 



lage in India, in tlie province of 
Malabar, situated in the forest of 
Wynaad. It is the principal military 
post of the district, and commands 
the Peria Pass. 
MANAIl (Mannarama), an island, 
eighteen miles long, and from two 
to three broad, on tlie west coast of 
Ceylon. It is separated from the 
main land by a gulf of the same 
name, full of sand-banks and shoals, 
and inaccessible except for small 
vessels. A reef of sunken rocks, 
called Adam's Bridge, extends from 
this island to Rammisserara, on the 
Coromandel coast. ^Nlanar, the 
chief town at the south-east 
extremity of the island, is 142 
miles north of Colombo. It has 
a fort, in which, besides a few houses, 
is a small Protestant church. In 
the Pettah are a court-house and 
several chapels belonging to the 
Roman Catholics. The island con- 
tains twenty-two villages, and is 
remarkable as being the first place 
where the Roman Catholic religion 
was introduced by Saint Francis 
Xavier, or one of his colleagues, in 
MANDAVIE, the principal sea-port; 
of the province of Cutch, in India, 
situated on the soutli coast, in Lat, 
22 deg. 50 min. N., Long. 69 deg. .33 
min. E. It possesses a tolerable 
harbour, and is a place of considera- 
ble trade with the western coast of 
India, Scinde, Arabia, and Africa, 
but it has no maniilacturcs of any 
note. It is the most populous town 
in Cutch, containing about 35,000 
inhabitants, principally Bhattias, 
Banyans, and 13rahmuns, with some 
Mahomcdans, and otlicrs. 
MANGALORE, called also KOW- 
RIAL BUNDUR, a flourishing 
town in India, in the province of 
Kanara, situated in Lat. 12 deg. 53 
min. N., Long. 74 deg. 57 min. E. 
It stands on a small ])cninsula, 
formed by a lake or backwater, 
which is separated from the sea by 
a beach of sand. Above the ghauts 
is the town of Soonda, formerly 
L 2 




populous and flourishing, and the 
capital of the district, but now nearly 
in ruins. 

in the East Indian Archipelago, and 
esteemed far superior in flavour and 
beauty to the rest of the vegetable 

number of islands in the Eastern 
Archipelago, lying between the fifth 
and nineteenth degrees of north 
latitude, due eastward from Cochin 
China. The principal are Luzon, 
Mindora, Samar, Salawan, and Min- 
danao. These islands are moun- 
tainous, and there are in them 
several volcanoes, particularly in 
Luzon, the largest of their number, 
which has suffered some severe 
earthquakes. The latest great erup- 
tion took place in 1814, and occa- 
sioned great devastation. They are 
exceedingly fertile, and yield all the 
ordinary productions of India ; in 
addition to which they possess the 
bread-fruit tree, and also the edible 
birds' nests, or sea-slug, so much 
esteemed by the Chinese. Their 
domestic animals are also the same 
as in India, but they are believed to 
be free from tigers and other large 
wild beasts. There are mines of 
gold and iron, and abundance of ex- 
cellent timber, much used for ship- 
building. The principal town is 
Manilla, in Luzon, situated in Lat. 
14 deg. 38 min. N., Long. 120 deg. 
50 min. E. This is the capital of 
the Spanish possessions, and contains 
about 175,000 inhabitants of all 
classes. These islands received the 
nameof Philippines in honour of King 
Philip II. of Spain, By the English, 
they are more commonly styled the 
Manillas, from the name of the capital. 
Besides Europeans and Chinese, the 
inhabitants consist of a number of 
distinct tribes, the most considerable 
of which are the natives of Luzon, 
comprising both races, the brown 
and the negro. The natives of Ma- 
nilla, of European descent, are con- 
sidered much superior to the others 

in intelligence, and are much em- 
ployed in the country ships of India, 
being very active and clever sailors. 
The religion of the native inhabi- 
tants is jirincipally Paganism. 
Some of the tribes, however, are 
IMahomcdans, and the Komish re- 
ligion has been introduced by the 
Spaniards. Several distinct dialects 
are current in the islands, the princi- 
pal of which are the Tagala and the Bi- 
sayan, the former a written language. 

MANJEE, a steersman of a Ganges 
boat. His business is to steer, and to 
give directions regarding the several 
operations incident to the very 
numerous metamorphoses of cir- 
cumstances in rivers perpetually 
changing their direction: thus, it is 
by no means uncommon to see a 
budgerow hoist and lower her sails, 
take to her oars, or to the track- 
rope, some scores of times during 
the course of a day's progress, just 
as the localities may render neces- 
sary. Whatever authority may be 
vested in a manjee, it is rare, how- 
ever, to see one able to enforce liis 
orders : each of the crew has an 
opinion of his own ; and, knowing 
that his services cannot be dispensed 
with, will, in most cases, adhere to 
his Avay of thinking, imtil peremp- 
torily compelled by the master's 
interference, to submit to orders, or 
overcome by absolute force. 

MAR, an abbreviation of " Marro" to 
beat (Hindostanee). When a servant 
has erred, and the weather is too 
hot to use superfluous syllables, Eu- 
ropeans are apt to give instruction to 
the proper authorities to "Mar" such 
a one. 

MARABOUT, a holy man. AppUed 
to serious Mussulmans. 

MAR A.TAH, a Hindoo sovereign prince. 

MART ARAN, a town in India, in the 
country of Ava, situated on the 
northern side of the Paluen river, 
which divides the Burmese from the 
British territories. It belongs to 
the Burmese. 

MASHA, a weight of fifteen grains 
troy. Used by native goldsmiths 




and jewellers, and in the native 
evaluation by assay of the precious 

MASHALLAII! Persian. Praised be 
the Lord! 

struction of keeled boats being, in 
many respects, unsuitable to inter- 
course between the shipping and 
the shore at Madras, wliere the surf 
runs very liigh, a peculiar kind of 
country boat, adequate to the pur- 
poses of conveying goods and pas- 
sengers to and fro with safety, is 
had recourse to. These vessels, 
called Masoolah boats, are generally 
of from forty to sixty tons burthen: 
they are made of plank, about two 
inches in thickness above, and three 
below, fastened together by means of 
coir (see Com) passed througli small 
holes pierced along tlie edges of the 
several planks, all around each: 
these planks appear as though sewed 
together with twine of the above 
description, and are fastened to 
battens and sleepers, answering for 
ribs and floor timbers. At the 
bottom, planks are laid in tlie oppo- 
site directions of those which form 
the vessel, and near the gunwales 
several thwarts are secured across, 
passing tlirough the sides and being 
firmly pinned in. Tliere is no 
deck, and the rudder consists of a 
large kind of oar, rigged out at the 
stern. At a little distance, the 
Masoolah boats look like rude imita- 
tions of English coal barges: they 
row from ten to sixteen oars, and 
wlieri unladen make excellent speed, 
getting through the surf with amaz- 
ing facility. As the boat ai)i)roaclies 
the shore, the boatmen watch the 
opportunity of a coming wave to 
pull the vessel on to the beach, 
where it is soon run up out of tlie 
reach of tlie next rolling wave. 

]\rASULIPATi\.M, a sea-port in India, 
in the district ot Koiuhipilly, one of 
the Northern Circars, situated in 
Lat. IG deg. 10 min. N., Long. 81 
deg. 14 nun. E. It is commonly 
called " liundur," and also Muchlee- 

bundur. This has been a place of 
considerable commerce for many 
centuries, being mentioned as such 
by European travellers as far back 
as A.D. 1295. The surf here is less 
violent than on other parts of the 
coast, and the roads are therefore 
more convenient for shipping. Ma- 
sulipatam is noted for chintzes, and 
other cotton manufactures, large 
quantities of which are exported to 
Persia ; and also for snuff. 

MATCH-LOCK, a long musket, usei 
by the Sikhs, the Arabs, the Per- 
sians, Rajpoots, &c. It diriers from 
the musket in the method by which 
the powder in the pan is ignited, 
a lighted cotton rope attached to 
the hammer supplying the place of 
the steel and flint. 

MATSAYA, in Hindoo IVIythology, 
one of Vishnu's avatars; the first. 
In this avatar Vishnu is fabled to 
have assumed the form of a fish, to 
restore the lost Veda, wliich had 
been stolen from Brahma in his 
sleep by the demon Ilayagriva. 
This and the two following avatars, 
seem to refer to the universal deluge. 

MATY, a servant-of-all-workin South- 
ern India. 

MAUN, a Persian measure, of about 
seven pounds and a half weight. 

MEEiMI-KE-TALE, Hunum Oil. Oil 
said to have been extracted from the 
bodies of malefactors; who, being well 
fed for a month or more, previous to 
execution, for the purpose of increas- 
ing their fat, had large fires lighted 
under them while on tlie gibbet, and 
metal vessels placed to receive tiio 
drippings. Tiiis practice obtained 
imder the government of the native 
Indian princes. 

MEEK ACI lOK, Persian. Master of the 
horse : literally, '* lord of the stable." 

]\IEI<:KASEENS, a particular kind of 
naulr.h woman (q. v.) 

MEEUGAIl, a species of carp, abun- 
dant in the great rivers, and in all 
the waters connected witli them. It 
rarely exceeds ten jiounds in weight. 

MEEIUJT, a large and ancient town 
in India, in the province of Delhi, 




about forty miles north-east from the 
city of Delhi, and one of the prin- 
cipal civil and military stations of 
the British. 
MAL, Ilindostanee. Places, dis- 
tricts, departments. Places or 
sources of revenue, particularly of a 
territorial nature: lands. This 
term should not, as is often the case, 
be confounded with vial, another 
Arabic word, to an incorrect ear, 
something like it in sound. IVIelial 
denotes the places or lands yielding 
a revenue; but mal is the rent or 
revenue itself arising from the lands. 
See Mal. 

MEHMAN-KANEH, a house in Per- 
sia for the reception of travellers, 
smaller than a caravanserai. 

MEHTUK, a word signifying in Ilin- 
dostanee a prince, is the pariah of a 
domestic establishment, but has no 
small opinion of himself, and is wise 
enough to eat of the crumbs (a phrase 
including every good thing) which 
falls from his master's table. He 
sweeps the house, cleans out the 
bathing-room, and does all the dirty 
work in fact, as well as take care of 
a dog or two, if necessary; and is 
usually the happiest, and often the 
sprucest, and most prettily wived 
of all the domestics. 

MEHTUR. In Persian this word signi- 
fies a groom. 

the sweeper's wife in an Indian 
household. She is more intelligent 
than the Ayah, and does the slop 
work of "my lady's chamber;" but 
is often, where there are no children, 
the only female on the establishment, 
in which case her wages are raised a 
rupee or so, and the arrangement 
answers very well. Where children 
are, then tlie women of both classes 
are multiplied in a concatenation ac- 

MELA, a fair, occasioned generally by 
the great periodical religious assem- 
blages of the Hindoos, at places like 
Hurdwar, Allahabad, &c., celebrated 

for their holiness in connection with 
the Ganges. 
MENANCxVBOO, a city in the island 
of Sumatra, the capital in the state 
so named. It was in former times 
considcix'd the chief city of Sumatra, 
and the seat of all ]\lalay learning 
and religious authority. The state 
of Menancaboo constitutes the ori- 
ginal country of the Malays, and is 
entirely peopled with them at the 
present time. The natives of this 
place are the most expert artists in 
the island, and are particularly 
famous for their gold and silver 
filagree work. 

MENU, or MUXOO, the author of the 
Hindoo Institutes, or, as some allege, 
the compiler of the aphorisms of the 
Vedas. Menu is sisoken of in the 
Purana, or Hindoo mythological 
poems, as the son of Brinha, and 
one of the progenitors of mankind. 
When a pedigree fails them, it is not 
unusual for the Hindoos to assign a 
Hivine origin to any eminent man. 

MERU. The mythological mountain 
Morn, the Micnmo of the Burmese, 
and the Sineru of the Siamese, is 
termed liy the Hindoos the navel of 
the world, and is their Olympus, 
the fabled residence of their deities. 

METAI, sweetmeat. The natives of 
India are particularly fond of sweets 
compounded of sugar, butter, and 
flour. It is as much the regal of the 
lower orders as ale and beer are of 
the English vulgar. Confections of 
various kinds are in high favour with 
the upper classes of Indians also. 

MEWLEWYS, dancing dcrvises. 
They take their designation from 
the name of the founder of the sect. 
They are distinguished by the sin- 
gularit.y of their mode of dancing, 
which has nothing in common with 
the other societies. They perform 
their exercises in bodies of nine, 
eleven, or thirteen persons. They 
first form a circle, and sing the first 
chapter of the Koran. The sheik 
(chief) then recites two prayers, 
M-hich are immediately succeeded by 
the dimce of the Mewlewys. 




MIAKO, an inland town in the island 
Nipon, in the empire of Japan, is 
the second capital, or residence of 
the reliffious ruler of the kingdom. 
Miai-BASHEE, a Persian or Turkish 
colonel. Literally, commander of a 
MIMBEK, a pulpit in a mosque, 
whence the Moollahs lecture or read 
aloud chapters in the Koran. 
MINAH, a common bird of the magpie 
species, abounding in AVestern India; 
a foul feeder, a chatterer. Their 
flesh is carrion. 
MINAEET, the turret or steeple of a 

MIRZAl^ORE, a toivn in India, in the 
province of Allahabad, situated on 
the south side of the river Ganges, 
in Lat. 25 deg. 10 min. N., Long. 83 
deg. 35 min. E., is a large and 
flourishing town, well bi^lt and 
populous, containing about 70,000 
inhabitants, of a remarkably active 
and industrious character. It is a 
place of extensive inlaml trade, and 
the principal cotton mart of the pro- 
vince. It is noted for its manufac- 
tures of carpets, and various cotton 
MISSEE, a black stain, applied by 
Indian women to the eyes and to the 
teeth, made of the rust of iron and 
Kurra, compounded. It is, in fact, ink 
powder; for the kurra is a nut equally 
astringent with galls. The powderis 
rubbed on, or rather between, the 
teeth, and leaves a black stain, which 
is deemed liy the natives both a pre- 
servation and an ornament to them. 
MOCUDLIM, Ilindostanec. Placed 
before, antecedent, prior, foremost. 
Head ryot, or ])rincipal man in a 
village, who superintends the affairs 
of it, and, among other duties, col- 
lects the rents of tcovernmcnt within 
his jurisdiction. The same officer is, 
in BoKjril, called also Mnuduh, and 
in the I'eninsula Goad, and Potail. 
In Bombay the term applies to the 
head of small bodies of servants and 

IS-Sf 3,1*3 

MODEIJARS. In Colombo there 
are nineteen native gentlemen who 

have the honorary title of "Mode- 
liars of the governor's gate," and 
eight Mohandirams, called " ilolian- 
dirams of the governor's gate." In 
the western province, attached to the 
government agents, are nineteen 
Modeliars, and seventy-one Mohan- 
dirams, besides four other head men. 
In the southern province are one 
Bas-nayaka Nilame, one Maha Mo- 
deliar, two Disaves, twenty Mode- 
liars, twenty-eight Mohandirams, 
and twenty-three others, with vari- 
ous titles. In the northern province 
are seven Modeliars, fourteen 
]\Ianiagars, 146 Odigars, four 
(called) Adigars, and twenty- 
four others, with various titles. 
In the eastern pi'ovince are six 
Modeliars, one Mohandiram, three 
Wananiyas, seven Odigars, and one 
head Moorman. In the central pro- 
vince are the first and third Adigars, 
two Modeliars, fourteen Rate IMahat- 
mayas, nineteen principals of witi- 
aras, who have the title of ]\Iodeliars, 
six Disaves, and a few others, with 
various titles. 
MOFUSSIL, a term applied to the 
Bengal and North-west provinces ; 
all the military cantonments and the 
residences appointed for civilians be- 
yond the presidency being called mo- 
fussil stations. Individuals quartered 
in the provinces are styled mofus- 
silites, but those who may have bar- 
bariscd a little during their seclusion 
amid wilds and fastnesses, are styled 
par distinction "jungle wallahs." It 
is difficult to explain the precise 
meaning of the word wallah ; it is 
usually translated "fellow;" but to 
the natives of India, who call in- 
digo planters, "/eaY (blue) wallahs," 
camel drivers, "oonic wallahs," Sec, it 
does not convey the idea wiiich we 
attach to this expression in England. 
MOGREE, the Indian jasmine. The 
fragrance of this flower is very pow- 
erful. Then;mtch or dan';ing girls 
of the East are fond of decorating 
their persons witli wreaths and fes- 
toons of inogree, which form a pow- 
erful antidote to the odour of the 




coco!x-mit oil, ■with wliich they anoint 
their bodies. 

MOGUL ANEE, a native Indian female 
of the Mahomedan persuasion. 

MOIITURAN, from Sanscrit, muhut, 
great, and turana, to cherish ; i. e. 
lands set apart for tlie maintenance 
of a great or revered person or place. 
A Hindoo ijrant. 

MOIiUNT (abbot), the title of the 
heads of the monasteries of Geer, 
Bhartee, and Eawut Gosains, who 
are, or ought to be, religious ascetics. 
These people profess, and ought to 
be, dedicated wholly to religion, but 
their present practice corresponds 
much with that of the monks of old, 
and their superiors. 

MOHUR, a gold coin in use in the 
East. Its value is sixteen rupees. 
The coin is now scarce, but the word 
is in use, to indicate the value of 
prizes at races, &c. 

IIUHUKRUM, an annual Mahomedan 
festival. The celebration of the 
Mohurrum in all large INIahomedan 
con;munities of the Sheah sect, 
though, strictly speaking, a fast of 
the most mournful kind, is accom- 
panied b}^ so much pomp and splen- 
dour, that strangers are at some loss 
to distinguish it from festivals of 
pure rejoicing. The Slieahs, who 
are settled in Hindostan, are in some 
degree obnoxious to the charge of in- 
troducing rites and ceremonies al- 
most bordering upon idolatry, in 
their devotion to the memory of the 
Imaums Hossein and Houssein. Im- 
bibing a love of show, from long do- 
mestication with a people passion- 
ately attached to pageantry and 
spectacle, they have departed from 
the plainness and simplicity of the 
worsliip of their ancestors, and in 
the decorations of the tazees (mimic 
tombs), and the processions which 
accompany them to the place of se- 
pulture, display their reverential re- 
gard for All and his sons, in a man- 
ner which would be esteemed scan- 
dalous, if thus accompanied, in Per- 
sia and Arabia, where the gi'ief of 
the Sheah is more quietly and so- 

berly manifested. Several proces- 
sions take place during the celebra- 
tion of the Mohurrum. At Lucknow, 
on the fifth day, the banners are 
carried to a celebrated shrine, or 
durgah, in the neighbourhood, to be 
consecrated, it being supposed that 
the standard of Hossein, miraculously 
pointed out to a devout believer, is 
preserved at this place. The vene- 
ration in which this sacred relic is 
held, nearly equalling that which in 
some places in Europe is displayed 
towards pieces of the true cross, af- 
fords another proof of the corruptioa 
of the Mahomedan religion by the 
Sheah sect of India. The durgah at 
Lucknow is not only visited at the 
commemoration of Hossein 's obse- 
quies, but prayers and oblations are 
offered in its holy precincts, upon 
recovery from illness, or any other 
occasion which calls for praise and 
thanksgiving. The gifts deposited 
at the durgah, consisting of money, 
clothes, and other valuable articles, 
become the property of the officiating 
priest, who is expected to disburse 
the greater portion in charity. AM 
the Moslem inhabitants of Lucknow 
are anxious to consecrate the ban- 
ners employed at the Mohurrum, by 
having them touched by the sacred 
relic, and for this purpose they are 
conveyed to the shrine, with as much 
pomp and ceremony as the circum- 
stances of the proprietors wiU admit. 
A rich man sends his banners upon 
elephants, surrounded by an armed 
guard, and accompanied by bands of 
music. The arms and accoutre- 
ments, representing those worn by 
Hossein, are carried in some of these 
processions; and one of the mosfc 
important features is Dhull Dhull, 
the horse slain with his master on 
tlie fatal field oflvurbelah: his trap- 
pings are dyed with blood, and ar- 
rows are seen sticking in his sides. 
Jlultitudes of people form these pro- 
cessions, which frequently stop while 
the mooUahs recite the oft -told, but 
never-tiring story, or the tragic 
scene is enacted by young men 




expert at broad-sword exercises ; 
and as Hossein is surrounded and 
beaten down, muskets are fired 
off, and sliouts and beatings of 
the breast attest the sincerity with 
■whicli liis followers bewail his un- 
timely end. On the seventh night of 
the Mohurrum, the marriage of Hos- 
sein's daughter with her cousin, a 
faithful partisan of the house of Ali,is 
celebrated with much pomp and show. 
The procession of the marriage of the 
unfortunate Cossim and his ill-fated 
bride is distinguished by trays bear- 
ing the wedding presents, and 
covered palankeens, supposed to 
convey the lady and her attendants; 
the animals employed in the caval- 
cade, with the exception of the 
favoured Dhull Dhull, are left out- 
side the Avails; but the trays con- 
taining sweetmeats, &c., a model of 
the tomb of Cossim, and the palan- 
keen of the bride, are l)rought into 
the interior and committed to the 
care of the keepers of the sanctuary 
until the last day, when they make 
a part of the final procession to the 
place of interment. The most ex- 
traordinary feature, however, in the 
commemoration of the deaths of 
Hossein and Houssein, is the parti- 
cipation of the Hindoos, who are 
frequently seen to vie with the dis- 
ciples of Ali in their demonstrations 
of grief for tlie slaughter of his two 
martyred sons, and in the splendour 
of the pageant displayed at the 
anniversary of their fate. A very 
large proportion of Hindoos go into 
niourniiig during the ten days of the 
Mohurrum, clothing themselves in 
green garments, and assuming the 
guise of fakecrs. The complaisance 
of the Hindoos is returned with 
interest at the Hooly, the Indian 
Saturnalia, in which the disciples of 
the proi)het mingle with the heartiest 
good will, apparently too nuich de- 
lighted with tlie general licence and 
frolic revelries of that strange car- 
nival, to be withheld from joining it 
by horrorofits heathen origin. The 
ceremonials observed at the celebra- 

tion of the ]Mohurrum are not con- 
fined to processions out of doors; 
persons of wealth and respectability 
having an Imaum-barrah constructed 
in the interior of theirown dwellings. 
This is usually a square building, 
containing a hall and other apart- 
ments, in which the mourning as- 
semblages during the period of the 
festival are congregated. It is de- 
corated for the time with all the 
splendour which the owners can 
afford. The tazee is placed upon 
the side facing Mecca, under a 
canopy of velvet or tissue richly 
embroidered, and near it there is a 
pulpit very handsomely constructed 
of silver, ivory, ebony, or carved 
wood, having a flight of stairs covered 
with an expensive carpeting of broad 
cloth, velvet, or cloth of gold. The 
tazee is lighted up by numerous wax 
candles, and near it are placed offer- 
ings of fruit and flowers, presented 
by pious ladies to do honour to the 
memory of the Imaums. The re- 
mainder of the hall is fitted up with 
considerable splendour, furnished 
with mirrors, which reflect the light 
from numerous lustres, lamps, and 
girandoles. Poorer persons are con- 
tent with less glittering ornaments; 
and in all, an assemblage is held 
twice a day, that in the evening 
being tlie most imposing and attrac- 
tive. The guests are seated round 
the apartment, the centre of which 
is occupied by a group of hired 
mourners, consisting of six or eight 
persons. These men are usually of 
large stature, and of considerable 
muscular strength. They are very 
scantily clothed in a drapery of 
green cloth, their breasts and heads 
being perfectly uncovered. A 
moollah or priest, selected on ac- 
count of his superior elocution, as- 
cends the puli)it, andiiroceeds to the 
recital of a portion of a jjoeni in the 
Persian language, wliicli contains a 
detailed account of the persecution 
and tragic fate of the Imaum. The 
conij)osition is said to be very pure, 
and its eUect upon the auditory is pro • 




digious. After some Arell-wronght 
passage, describing the sufferings of 
the unhappy princes, the reader 
pauses,and immediately the mourners 
on the ground commence violently 
heating their breasts, and shouting 
*• Hossein ! Houssein !" until at length 
they sink exhausted on the ground 
amid the piercing cries and lamenta- 
tions of the spectators. A part of 
each day's service consists of a chant 
in the Hindostanee language, in 
•which the whole assembly join; and 
the Sheahs end it by standing up 
and cursing the usurping Caliphs 
hy name, devoting the memory of 
each offending individual to universal 
execration. The Soonnees hold these 
solemn assemblies; but their grief 
at the cruel sufferings of so many 
estimable members of the prophet's 
family does not assume so theatrical 
a character. Attired in the deepest 
mourning, they evince the most pro- 
found sorrow; and it is persons of 
this persuasion who manifest the 
greatest indignation when there is 
any risk of their processions being 
crossed by the heathen revelries of 
the Hindoos. The pomps and cere- 
monies Avhich precede it are nothing 
to the grandeur reserved for the dis- 
play on the last day of the jVIohur- 
rum, M'hen the tazees are home to 
the place of interment. Tliis pa- 
geant represents the military caval- 
cade of the battle of Kurbelah, toge- 
ther with the funeral procession of 
the young princes, and the wedding 
retinue of the bride and bridegroom, 
divorced by death upon their nuptial 
day. The banners are carried in 
advance, the poles being usually 
surmounted by a crest, composed of 
an extended liand, which is emble- 
matic of the five holy personages of 
the prophet's family, and a symbol 
particularly designating the Sheali 
sect. Many make a declaration of 
their religious principles by liolding 
lip tlie hand; the Soonnee displays 
three fingers only, while the Sheah 
extends the Avhole five. The horse 
of Prince Hossein and his camp 

equipage appear, furnished with all 
the attributes of sovereignty; some 
of the tazees, of which there is a 
great variety, are accompanied by a 
platform, on which three effigies are 
placed, — the ass Borak, the animal 
selected by Mahomed to bear him on 
his ride to heaven, and two houries. 
The tomb of Cossim, the husband of 
Hossein's daughter, is honoured by 
being carried under a canopy; the 
bridal trays, palankeens, and other 
paraphernalia, accompany it, and 
the whole is profusely garlanded 
with flowers. These processions, 
followed by thousands of people, take 
the field at break of day, but there 
are so many pauses for the reading 
of the poem dedicated to this portion 
of the history of the events of Kur- 
belah, and such numerous rehearsals 
of Hossein's dying scene, that it is 
night before the commencement of 
the interment. Devout Mussulmans 
walk, on these occasions, with their 
heads and their feet bare, beating 
their breasts, and tearing their hair, 
and throwing ashes over their per- 
sons with all the vehemence of the 
most frantic grief; but many con- 
tent themselves with a less inconve- 
nient display of sorrow, leaving to 
hired mourners the task of inciting 
and inflaming the multitude by 
their lamentations and bewailments. 
The zeal and turbidence of the afflic- 
tion of Ali's followers are peculiarly 
offensive to the Soonnees, who, pro- 
fessing to look upon Hossein and 
Houssein as holy and unfortunate 
members of the Prophet's family, 
and to regret the circumstances 
which led to their untimely end, 
are shocked by the almost idolatrous 
frenzy displayed by their less ortho- 
dox brethren; and the expression of 
this feeling often leads to serious dis- 
turbances, which break out upon 
the burial of the tazees. Private 
quarrels between the sects are fre- 
quently reserved for adjustment to 
this period, when, under pretext of 
religious zeal, each party may make 
an assault upon his enemy without 




exposin^T the real grounfl of his en- 
mity. In a few places wliich border 
the Ganges or Jumna, the tazees are 
thrown into the river ; but generally 
there is a large piece of ground set 
apart for the purpose of the burial. 
It is rather a curious spectacle to 
see the tombs themselves consigned 
to earth, with the same ceremonies 
■whicli would attend the inhumation 
of the bodies of deceased persons; 
the tazees are stripped of their orna- 
ments, and when little is left except 
the bamboo frames, they are depo- 
sited in pits. Tliis ceremony usually 
takes place by torch-light, the red 
glare of innumerable flambeaux 
adding considerably to the wild and 
picturesque eSect of the scene. 

MOLUCCAS, a group of islands situ- 
ated a little to the eastward of Ce- 
lebes, and occupying nearly the same 
latitudes in the Eastern Archipelago. 
The principal arc Gilolo, Ternate, 
Tidor, Cerani, and Amboyna. Their 
most important articles of produce 
are cloves and nutmegs. They 
abound with sago, and Amboyna 
yields also indigo and cayaputi oil. 
They are free from beasts of prey, 
but possess the common domestic 
animals. The principal towns are 
Ossa in Gilolo, and Amboyna, or 
Fort Victoria, in Amboyna, the ca- 
pital of the JJutch possessions. 
These islands are now generally 
termed the Molucca, or Spice Islands. 
They are inhabited partly by Ma- 
homcdans, and partly by Pagans of 
the brown race. Tliey are distin- 
guished as the most civilised and en- 
terprising people of tiie whole East- 
ern Archipelago, particularly the 
Buggesses, Avho have always been 
actively employed in navigation and 
commerce, and are remarkable for 
their honesty and fair dealing. These 
islands are subject to the IJutch. 
The general language on the coast is 
the Malay. 

MOLUNGHEE, manufacturer of salt 
in Bengal. The salt is procured by 
solar evaporation. Of the manufac- 
ture of this article in India the go- 

vernment enjoys a monopoly, which 
enables it to charge as much as 
three half-pence or two-XK'nce per 
pound for the article. A large 
revenue is the consequence of the 
charge, but it is felt by the native as 
a very oppressive tax, especially as 
the insipid quality of his rice, pulse, 
or vegetable diet renders much sea- 
soning indispensable. 

IMONGHYK, a town in India, in the 
province of Bahar, situated on the 
south side of the river Ganges, la 
Lat. 25 deg. 23 min. N., Long. 8G deg. 
2G min. E. This was formerly a 
place of considerable importance. It 
is now principally noted for its iron 
and leather manufactures, including 
in the former, guns, pistols, &c. The 
gardeners of Monghyr are considered 
the best in that part of India. 

MONGOOSE, the ichneumon. This 
little animal is peculiarly service- 
able in Indian domestic establish- 
ments. He is not only an enemy to 
serpents, but to rats, mice, cock- 
roaches, and vermin of every de- 
scription. It is customary to let; 
him run loose about a domicile, and 
to give him ingress to the hollows 
beneath the boarded floors and above 
the ceilings of buildings. He is 
friendly to the human race, and sub- 
mits to become as much of a pet as a 
favourite dog or cat. 

MONSOON, a regular or periodical 
wind in the East Indian and other 
Asiatic seas, which blows constantly 
in the same direction during six 
months of the year, and contrariwise 
the remaining six months. In the 
Indian Ocean, the winds are i)artly 
general, and blow tlie whole 3'ear 
round from the same points, as in 
the Ethiopic Ocean ; and partly 
periodical, namely, half the year 
from one way, and tlie other half 
year nearly on the opposite points: 
these points and times of alteration 
differ in different parts of the Indian 
Seas, and tliesc latter M-inds are 
termed monsoons. Tiie change of 
the monsoon does not occur at one 
precise period of time ; in some 




places the time of the change is 
accompanied by calm weather ; at 
others, by variable winds ; those 
of China in particular, on ceasing to 
blow westerly, are very liable to be 
tempestuous; such is their violence 
(appearing to be similar to tlie West 
Indian hurricanes), that the navi- 
gation of those seas is very hazardous 
in tliose seasons. These tempests 
the seamen call the breaking up of 
ihe monsoons. 

MOOCHY, Hindostanee. Saddler ; 
applied also to a bookbinder, or 
other Mho works in leather. 

MOOJDEH, Persian. A present for 
bringinsT good news. 

MOOJETCHECH, Persian. A high- 

MOOLAVY, or MOULVEE, a learned 
and religious man ; an interpreter of 
the Mahomedan law. 

MOOLLAH, a learned man, a school- 
master, a Mahomedan priest. 

MOOLTAN, a province of India, 
bounded on the north by the Punjab ; 
east, by the Punjab and Ajmere; 
south, Ajmere and Scinde ; west, 
the Lidus. The divisions are Mool- 
tan andBuhawulpoor; and the rivers 
are the Chenab and Sutlej. This 
province is generally level and open, 
in parts fertile and well cultivated, 
but with large tracts of arid, sandy 
soil ; and partly from natural causes, 
but chiefly from its having been 
during many centuries the scene of 
continual invasions and warfare, it 
has become for the greater part a 
poor and thinly inhabited country. 
Its productions are wheat and other 
grains, cotton, and indigo. Tlie 
towns are Mooltan, Buhawulpoor, 
and Ooch. The inhabitants are 
principally Juts, with Eeloochees, 
iSikhs, and Hindoos. The inhabi- 
tants of Buhawulpoor style them- 
selves Daoodpootras, or descendants 
of Daood, from a celebrated chief of 
that name. The religion is princi- 
pally Mahomedanism, and the lan- 
guage generally the dialect spoken 
in Lahore, and called the Punjabee. 

MOOLTAN, one of the most ancient 

cities in India, in the province of 
Mooltan, stands in Lat. 30 deg. 9 
min. N., Long. 71 deg. 7 min. E., four 
miles from the left bank of the 
Chenab. This was formerly the 
capital of a Hindoo kingdom, and 
subsequently the residence of a 
viceroy of the Emperor of Delhi. 

MOOM, or MUM, a species of wax, 
like cobbler's-wax, found in Persia. 
De Bode says, " Near the Straits of 
Tengi-Teko, from whence the Kur- 
distan river issues into the plain 
above the ruins of Arrijan, and not 
far from the village of Peshkur, is a 
fissure high up in the mountains, 
out of which runs a black substance 
resembling pitch, which is gathered 
by the natives, and is much esteemed 
in Persia for its healing qualities, 
especially for bruises and fractures. 
It is called mitmia, and sometimes 
mumia-i-Nai, from the name of the 
village Nai-deh, which lies at the foot 
of these mountains. The fissure was 
doubtless originally ijroduced by a 
volcano now extinct. At the time 
Sliiraz was visited by an earth- 
quake, Behbehan likewise felt its 
effects ; the rest of the hill, from 
whence the mumia oozed out spar- 
ingly, was widened, and since that 
time it runs out more abundantly, 
but the quality is said to be deterior- 

MOONSHEE, or linguist, ordinarily 
a teacher of some language, particu- 
larly the Persian, Hindostanee, and 
Hindee, though numbers are em- 
ployed only as interpreters, or as 
scribes. Learning is their sole pur- 
suit ; and so far as that can reach in 
a country where but little is inider- 
stood of philosophj'and mathematics, 
some of them advance themselves 
considerably. Generally speaking, 
however, a few volumes of tales, the 
lives of those great men who have 
either invaded or ruled the empire, 
some moral tracts, and the Koran 
({ormoo7iskees are i\Iussulmans), con- 
stitute the acquirements of this class 
of servants. 

MOONSLFF, literally, a just and equi- 




table man ; officially, a native justice 
or judge. 

MOORADABAD, a town in India, in 
the province of Delhi, stands on the 
western bank of the river Kamgunga, 
in Lat. 28 deg. 51 niin. N., Long. 78 
42 min. E. It is one of the most 
populous and flourishing commercial 
towns in the province. 

IMOORSHEDABAD, a town in India, 
in the province of Bengal, situated 
on both sides of the most sacred 
branch of the river Ganges, named 
the Bhagerattee, or Cossimbazar 
river, about 120 miles above Cal- 
cutta, in Lat. 24 deg. 11 min. N., 
Long. 88 deg. 15 min. E. It is a 
large, but very meanly built city, 
and contains about 160,000 inhabi- 
tants. In 1704, it became the capital 
of Bengal, and continued so until 
superseded by Calcutta. It is now 
the principal civil station of the 
district, and a place of extensive 
inland traffic. 

Z^TOORUT, a Hindoo idol. 

jMOPILLAS, a tribe of Arabs settled 
on the Malabar coast. They are 
chiefly pedlars by profession. 

MORAII, Hindostanee. Afoot-stool; 
often a seat formed of cane, circular at 
the top, and contracted in the centre, 
somewhat in the shape of an hour- 
glass. They are conmionly covered 
with cloth, varnished, and painted 
•witli representations of flowers, ani- 
mals, fanciful arabesques, &c. 

jilORIJA-FEROSII, literally, a sweeper 
of dead bodies or skulls; a menial of 
great utility to the dwellers on the 
banks of the Ganges, whose olfac- 
tories .are often disturbed by the prox- 
imity of putrid carcases, which the 
receding tide leaves upon the shore. 

MOSQUE, Arabic. A temple, or place 
of religious adoration among the 
Mahomedans. All mosques are 
square buildings, generally con- 
structed of stone. Kvcry mosquo 
lias six high towers, called minarets, 
from tlience, instead of a bell, tlie 
people are summoned to prayers by 
certain appointed ])ersons. Each 
iuosq[UC has also a place called tarbe, 

which is the burying-place of its 
founders; within it is a tomb, with 
several seats round it, for those who 
read the Koran and pray for the 
souls of the deceased. 

MOULMEIN, a town in India, the 
princijial one in the British province 
of Ava, being the chief military 
station. It lies nearly opposite to 
the Burmese town of Martaban, and 
is 27 miles higher up the river 
Saluen than Amherst. 

MUCKUN- WALL Alls, in Bengalee, 
butter-men. In Bombay, Muska- 
wallah is the term. 

MUEZZINS, Mahomedans, whose 
business it is to ascend the minarets 
or steeples of the mosques and call 
the people to prayer. The cry is 
uttered in a loud shrill voice, and in 
a musical measure. It is a substi- 
tute for the " church-going bell." 

MUFFRUSHES, travelling packages 
used in Persia. 

MUFTI, the chief of the Mahomedan 
religion in Turkey. 

MUG UAH, heavy wooden clubs with 
handles, used by the Jiativcs of India 
after the fashion of dumb-bells, to 
expand the chest, strengthen the 
muscles, and render the joints supple. 
The dexterity with which the up- 
country Rajpoots, the sepoys, &c., 
use these implements, is perfectly 

MUGGRA, sulky. A Hindostanee 

MUGS, natives of the coast of Arracan. 
They formerly committed great de- 
predati(jns in the river Ganges, but 
since the war with the Burmese in 
1824 and 1825 they have settled 
down into domestics, seamen, sepoys, 
or rustics. 

MUHANUDDEE, the. A river in 
India, which rises in the province of 
Gondwana, it is supposed near Ky- 
ragur. It runs eastward, in a very 
winding course, of 550 miles, tlirough 
Gondwana and Orissa, and falls into 
tlie Bay of Bengal in the district of 
Cuttack. Diamonds of good quality 
are found in this river. 

MUUUL, literaUy signifying "the 




place," but meaning the residence of 
the ladies in any large house in India, 
to allude to whom among polished 
Moslems is considered very impolite, 
and whom to name would be an in- 
sult. This feeling, originating and 
strongly existing among the Mos- 
lems, lias partially spread among the 
Hindoos, even among the lower 
classes, who might be supposed less 
scrupulous in these matters. It is 
no uncommon thing to hear a woman 
of low caste addressed, not by lier 
oAvn name, but by that of lier son, as 
" Arce Teencouree Ki Ma" — " Hollo, 
mother of Master Tliree-farthings," 
for such names does it delight them 
to give their sons. 

MUHULEH, a word in Persia an- 
swering to Okel in Turkey. The 
" quarter" of a city assigned to Jews, 
Christians, or other sects. 

MUN, or MAUND, an Indian Aveight, 
equivalent to one hundred pounds 

the province of Malwa, in India. 
The place is now in ruins, and unin- 
habited, but it was formerly much 
celebrated as the capital of the 
Pathan sovereigns of Malwa during 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
It was then twenty-eight miles in 
circumference, and contained many 
splendid edifices, the ruins of which 
still remain. 

MUNDOOK, the bull-frog. These 
amphibious reptiles grow to an enor- 
mous size in India, and croak witli 
a vehemence and force unknown in 

MUNGHLA, in Hindoo mythology, is 
the Mars of the Hindoos. He is one 
of the planets, and is of the Kettrio 
caste. He Avas produced from the 
sweat of Siva's brow; and is painted 
of a red or flame-colour, with four 
arms, holding in his hands a trident, 
a club, a lotus, and a spear. 

LAHS, men who pretend to tlie art of 
magic. They are generally Brahmuns, 
trading upon the ignorance andcreihi- 
lity of the masses. They affect the 

power to work miracles througli the 
agency of rice, battasahs (sweet- 
meats), gooJal (red powder), incense, 
and incantations. 

MUNTUKS, or MUNTRAS, prayers, 

MUSALCHEE, an Indian domestic, 
like unto the scullion in British 
households, but who looks to being 
one day a Khedmutgar, and who has 
even attained, though in rare in- 
stances, the Khansamaship itself. 
The analogy between the Musalchee 
and tlie scullion, indeed, is not com- 
plete in all its parts: for the former 
cleans knives, jilates, spoons, glasses, 
&c., and does, in a word, the under 
work of the butler's pantry, which 
is somewhat above the performance 
of the nymph of the scullery. 

MUSHED, the burying-placeof Imaura 
Reza, the eighth Imaum of the Sheah 

. Mahometans, who was poisoned aS 
Toos, in Khorasan, by Mamoon, son 
of Caliph Ilaroon al Rasheed. 

MUSHROOT, Hindostanee. Stipu- 
lated, conditional. As applied to 
grants of lands, it signifies that the 
grants are, either wholly or in part, 
to be appropriated to particular uses. 

MUSJEED, a Mahomedan mosque. 
The word is more frequently used 
in India than in Persia, though the 
thing itself is equally common in 
botli coimtries. 

MUSNUD, the Hindostanee word 
for a throne. 

MOSQUITOES, large gnats, which 
swarm in India, and inflict irritating 
wounds upon men and animals. At 
night the attacks of these insects, 
especiafly during the hot and damp 
months, are incessant, rendering 
sleep (except under gauze curtains 
tucked under the bedding) an im- 
possibility. Europeans in India often 
wear loose trousers passing imder 
the feet, or stockings bagged over 
the instep, for the protection of their 
nether limbs from the attacks of 
musquitoes when the legs are under 
a table. Scratching the parts stung 
by the musquitoes often causes very 
serious sores upon healthy persons 




newly arrived from England, which 
Bores leave a mark for a very consi- 
derable time. 

MUSSALAH, curry-stuff. The in- 
gredients wiiich go to the composi- 
tion of a dish of curry, minus the 
fish or meat. 

MUSSOOREE, a European station 
in the Himalaya Mountains, about 
8000 feet above the level of the sea. 
Its proximity to the principal mili- 
tary stations of INIeerut, Cawnpore, 
&c., causes it to be much resorted to 
in the hot season. 

MUSSUCIv, the leathern bag, composed 
of the entire skin of a sheep, in 
which the hheestie,puckauly, or water- 
carrier, transports the water taken 
from the tanks or wells for house or 
camp use in India. 

MUSSULMAN, a true believer, one 
resigned to God. The Mahomedans 
modestly arrogate the title to tliem- 
selves as the only elect of God. 

MUTHA KAMRLTsGA {averrhoa 
carambola), the star apple.Of this very 
handsome and valuable fruit there are 
two varieties in India, theacid and the 
sweet kind ; the latter of which is 
only eaten (when boiled) with various 
dishes, to which, like tlie tamarind, 
it gives its acid flavour ; and an 
acid stew or curry is a favourite dish 
with eastern nations. The rich 
taste of the star apple, of wliich the 
flavour of the best kinds, when fully 
ripe, resembles more that of apple 
jelly or marmalade than any otlier 
to which we can compare it, has 
made it a favourite in almost every 
country, except with the English in 
India, who, generally speaking, know 
little of the fruit, and less of its 
invaluable properties for the sick. 
The tree is small, but of handsome 
appearance; the leaves are sensitive, 
when somewhat rouglily handled, 
and are by the Malays, and even by 
the natives of India, often eaten as 
sorel, to which family the tree be- 

MUTTRA, or MATITURA, a town in 
India, in the province of Agra, situ- 
ated on the west bank of the river 

Jumna, in Lat. 27 deg. 31 min. IT., 
Long. 77 deg. 33 min. E. Tiiis is a 
place of great antiquity, much cele- 
brated in the legends of the Hindoos, 
by whom it is supposed to be sacred. 
On account of its position, it is still 
considered one of the principal towns 
in the province, and forms an English 
mihtary station. Muttra must be 
the same word as, or, at least, have 
some connection with, the IVIithra or 
Sun God of the ancient Persians; 
and hence, probably, they derived 
tlie leading features of their simple 
and sublime superstition, — magni- 
ficent tndy; for if any palliation can 
be foiind for him who bows to the 
creature rather than to the Creator, 
it must be for the sun-worshipper, 
who prostrates himself in gratitude, 
awe, and wonder, before the resplen- 
dent glories of the god of day. 
Mathura. contains many curious and 
ancient buildings, some of them in a 
ruinous state; they are for the most 
part complex and irregular, some 
having courts, cloisters, and arcades, 
with ghauts or flights of steps, over- 
shadowed by trees, leading from 
them to the Jumna. The construc- 
tion of sucli works of utility confers 
a well-earned fame on the wealthy 
in India, and they have a saying, that 
the man is sure of heaven, " who 
digs a well, plants a grove, and be- 
comes the father of a child." About 
these sacred edifices, numerous 
Brahmuns, mendicants, and other 
pious Hindoos, maj'' be seen inces- 
santly engaged in bathing, anointing 
their brazen gods, blowing* conchs, 
and in the other ten thousand and 
one idle observances and foolish 
mummeries of this most extraordi- 
nary sui)erstition, which furnishes 
one of the strongest examples extant 
of how completely forms and cere- 
monies, unduly multiplied, tend to 
encourage indolence and destroy all 
mental vigour. About the Ghauts 
where the jieople batlic are swarms 
of fish and turt'c, the latter so 
voracious, and in such a hurry to bo 
fed, that instances have been "known 




of their seizing young children by 
the feet, when the parents have been 
washing lliem, and dragging them 
into the stream in a moment. In 
one part of the town is a large 
mansion, in the Hindoo taste, and 
not far from it a fine, but dilapidated 
mosque, constructed on the spot 
where once stood a Hindoo temjile 
of considerable sanctity, built by a 
prince of celebrity, whose fame still 
lives amongst his grateful and ad- 
miring countrymen in Bundelkhund. 
Matura, or jMuttra, must be one of 
the paradises of monkeys, for in no 
part of the world are they more 
cherished and respected. Even 
princes consider it an honour to 
contribute to their comfort and sup- 
port. The place absolutely swarms 
with them, and in riding through 
the narrow and crooked streets, they 
may be every where seen, gambolling, 
pilfering, nursing their young, or 
engaged in those entomological re- 
searches to Avhich these quadrupeds 
are so much addicted. Every now 
and then you stumble on a young 
one, who shows his little teeth and 
grins with terror, or, perched on the 
corner of some temple, or on the 
wall of a bunyah's shop, you en- 
counter some stolid old fellow, de- 
voured apparently Avith chagrin and 
melancholy, avIio, however, no sooner 
catches a glimpse of the strange- 
looking topee wala (hat-man), than, 
arousing from his trance, he becomes 
endued with astonishing animation 
and fury, gnashing his teeth as you 
pass, • in a manner unequivocally 
hostile. The monkeys are usually of 
the common greyish-green sort ; 
nevertheless, the Hanuman, or 
great black-faced ape, Avhich is a 
very fine creature, is common 
enough. The Hanuman is he 
who cuts so conspicuous a figure 
in the history of Hindoo supersti- 
tions; who is the hero of some of 
their tales, and so frequently repre- 
sented both by painting and sculp- 
ture in their temples. The Ha- 
numans do not associate with the 

other monkeys ; no doubt it would 
be i7ifra dig. in monkeys of such 
high historical pretensions to do so. 
In certain parts of the town are ter- 
races a few feet high, and of a circu- 
lar form, on which, at certain times 
of the day, the monkeys are fed; the 
Brahmun, or he Avhose duty it is to 
cater for them, after spreading out 
the grain, makes a signal, and the 
tribe of satyrs, great and small, come 
trooping down from the trees and 
house-tops, and are soon busily en- 

MUTWALLAH, a Hindoo phrase, 
signifying a drunken fellow. 

MUZEEA, a cultivated field sown, or 
ready for sowing. In the Northera 
Circars (q. v.) the term implies a 
component part of a monza, or 

MYSORE, a province of India, bounded 
on the north by the Dooab and Ceded 
Districts ; east, by the mountain3 
separating it from the Carnatic, 
Baramahal, and Salem; south, by 
Coimbatoor; and Avest, by Koorg, 
Malabar, and Kanara. It is divided 
into three great districts, namely, 
Chutakul or Chittledroog, Nugger 
or Bednore, and Puttun or Seringa- 
patam. The largest of the three, 
Chittledroog, which occupies the 
northern part of the province, con- 
sists of an extensive open plain. It 
is not very fertile, not being well 
supplied with water, but it abounds 
with sheep. Nugger is situated in 
the midst of the western mountains, 
and is for the greater part covered 
Avith forest, producing abundance of 
sandal wood, pepper, betel, and car- 
damoms. This district Avas formerly 
an independent principality, under 
a Hindoo rajah. In 1762 it was 
conquered by Hyder Ali, Avho an- 
nexed it to Mysore, Avith which it 
has since remained. The Puttun 
district is partly mountainous and 
partly plain, and abounds with rocky 
hills and forest. The principal 
rivers are the Toombudra, Vedavuth, 
Pennar, Panar, Patar, and Cavery, 
all of which, except the Cavery, have 


their sources in tliis province. This 
province presents every variety of 
appearance in its different districts. 
It is enclosed on two sides by the 
Eastern and Western mountains, or 
ghauts, and tlius forms an elevated 
table-land, from which rise clusters 
of lofty hills, containing the sources 
of nearly all the rivers which water 
the low countries adjacent. The 
altitude of the level land varies from 
1800 to 3000 feet above the sea! 
Sivagunga, which is the highest hill 
in the province, is 4600 feet above 
the sea. Mysore produces rice, 
raggy, wheat, and other grains; 
sugar, betel, opiimi, castor-oil, and 
various other articles. Kaggy, or 
ragee, is the grain principally cul- 
tivated, as it forms the food of all 
the poorer classes. The western 
forests yield rich supplies of 
sandal and other valuable woods. 
Sheep are very numerous — red, 
white, and black ; and there is also 
an inferior breed of horses. Mysore 
abounds in iron ore, which is Avorked 
by the natives, but in a very imper- 
fect manner. Its principal manu- 
factures are black and M'hite cumlics 
and woollen carpets, and shawls. 
Cotton manufactures are few and of 
inferior qualities. Tiie principal 
towns are Ilurryhar, Chittledroog, 
Kuggur, Simooga, Sera, Colar ban- 
galore, Seringapatam, and Mysore. 
The inhabitants of the ]irovince, or 
Jlysoreans, are chiefly Hindoos, and 
the}' are generally stouter and taller 
than the people of the Carnatic. 
There are also considerable nunihers 
of Maliomedans dispersed tluvjugh 
different jiarts. The total jiopula- 
tion is estimated at about 3,000,0(10. 
The religion is Ilindooisin and Ma- 
honicdanism. The general language 
of the province is the Karnataka, or 
Kanarese. The official documents of 
the government are usually written 
in Mahratee. 
MYSORE, a city in India, the ancient 
and present capital of the province 
of Mysore, situated about nine miles 
south from Seringapatam. The 



town is large and poptdous, and the 
fort, which is separated from it, is 
built in imitation of the European 
style. The rajah's palace is inside 
the fort, and the British residency, 
on a rising ground, a short distance 
outside. A large tank extends from 
near the fort towards the foot of 
Mysore hill, Avhich is a conical 
mountain, about 1000 feet high, 
rising from the plain at five miles' 
distance from the city. On the 
summit is a house belonging to the 
British rcsidencj', and on the south- 
western declivitj', in the midst of a 
Brahmun village, there are two 
pagodas of great repute, to which 
the raj all is accustomed to make an 
annual visit. Lower down, on the 
same part of the hill, is a figure of a 
bull, sixteen feet high, cut cmt of the 
rock. The name Mysore, or as it is 
termed by the natives Mysoor, is a 
corruption of Mahesh Usoora, a fa- 
bulous monster of Hindoo mytho- 


NAGA, the hooded serpent; the copra 
di capclla of the Hindoos. 

NAG-EN TAEA. See Gakuda. 

NAGORE, or NAGOOR, a town in 
India, situated in the district of Tan- 
jore, in the province of Southern Car- 
natic; lies on the coast, thirteen miles 
south of Tranqucbar. It is a popu- 
lous and busy place, and possesses 
a number of trading vessels, some of 
them of a considerable size. The 
main branch of the Nagore river 
forms its harbour. There is hero a 
curious minar, 150 feet high, and 
several mosques, erected at difi'erent 
times l)y the nabobs of the Carnatic. 

NAGPOlvK, a city in Indiji, the capi- 
tal of the province of (.londwana, and 
of the Blionsla Mahratta State, is 
situated in Lat. 21 deg. 9 min. N., 
Long. 79 deg. 11 min. E. It is 
a large town, but meanly built, and 
its site is low and swamjn'. It con- 
tains about 11,>,000 iidiabitants of 
various classes. 




NAGREE, the character used in San- 
scrit works, and sometimes called 
the Deva Nagree. 

NAIB, a deputy or under law officer 
in Indian courts. 

NAIK, or NAIGUE, leader, conduc- 
tor, chief; petty military officer. In 
the Indian army, the title is applied 
to a non-commissioned officer Avhose 
rank and duties correspond Avith 
those of a corporal. 

NAIE, chief, head-man. The N"airs 
are a peculiar description of Hindoo, 
principally of the military class, who 
hold lands in Malabar. 

NAKSIIATRA, the twenty-seven lu- 
nar mansions, or daily positions of 
the moon in the Hindoo Zodiac; and 
as, to perfect the revolutions, some 
odd hours are required, they have 
added another not included in the 
regular chart, 

NALKEE, a litter, only used by 
the highest classes of Mahomedan 
princes in India. It is one of the 
three great insignia which the Mo- 
gul Emperors of Delhi conferred 
upon independent princes of the first 
class, and could never be used by 
any person upon whom, or upon 
whose ancestors, they had not been 
so conferred. There were the Nal- 
kee, the Order of the Fish, and the 
fan of the peacock's feathers. These 
insignia could be used only by the 
prince who inherited the sovereignty 
of the one on whom they had been 
originally' conferred. See Mahee 


NANCAE, Ilindostanee. Literally, 
bread for work, stated to be land 
given by the amiJs, or, nazini, or the 
zumeendars, choictlries, taluohdars, for 
some service performed. It was, 
however, an allowance received by 
tha zumeendar,v;\\i\e he administered 
the concerns of the zumeendary, 
from government, without reference 
to proprietary right. When he did 
not administer the affiiirs of tlie zu- 
meendary no nancar Avas allowed. 

NANDAIll, a town in India, in the 
province of Eeder, situated on tlie 
north bank of the river Godavery, 

135 miles northerly and westerly 
from Hyderabad, in Lat. 19 deg. 3 
min. N., Long. 77 deg. 38 min. E. 
It is a large and populous town, and 
was the capital of Nandair, when it 
was a distinct province of the Moo- 
ghul Empire. At this place there 
is a Sikh college, erected on the spot 
where Gooroo Govind is supposed to 
have been assassinated, and many of 
the inhabitants are of the Sikh sect. 

NARA-SINGII, m Hindoo mythology, 
the fourth (]\ran-Lion) of Vishnu's 
avatars. In this avatar Vishnu took 
the form of another monster, to 
punish the wickedness of a profane 
and unbelieving monarch. 

NAEAYAjSTA, in Hindoo mythology, 
this appellation is claimed by the 
followers of the three principal dei- 
ties for the three several objects of 
their worship. Thus, Brahma was 
Narayana ; the Vishnaivas bestowed 
the title upon their god Vishnu; 
and the Saivas xipon Siva. Nara- 
yana is the spirit of the supreme 
god; but, as the Hindoos, when they 
lost sight of an unity of worship, 
endowed their idol with his essence, 
Narayana may he, as above stated, 
Brahma, Vishnu, or Siva, and is 
sometimes even Ganesha. Jsarayani, 
his sactt, may be, accordingly, Sur- 
aswati, Lakshmi, or Parvati. Vish- 
n\i is, however, in common usage, 
called Narayana, in which character 
he is fabled to be sleej^ing on the 
serpent Shesha, or Auanta, on the 
waters of Eternity, and causing the 
creation of the world. He is also 
described with his toe in his mouth, 
reposing in like manner on the leaf 
of the lotus. 

NARAYUN BAWA, the name of a 
remarkable cliild, who, from his 
power of controlling serpents, was 
supposed to haA'e a divine origin, 
and regarded by thousands of Mah- 
rattas,"in 1829-30, as the Slessiah, 
The mania regarding tliis boy was 
extraordinary as long as he lived, 
but his death, by the bite of a ser- 
pent, put an end to the niusion. 

NAEEDA, in Hindoo mythology, a 




son of Brahma and Suras^rati, the 
messenger of the gods, and the in- 
ventor of the veena, or Ilindoo lute. 
He was a wise legislator, an astro- 
nomer, and a musician, but a distin- 
guished warrior. 

NARGAS, a pilao, consisting of the 
flesli of a fat lamb well pounded in 
a mortar with cloves, cmuamon, and 
other spices, and then used in cover- 
ing a imcleus of half a hard boiled 
egg, the yellow and white of which 
was meant to represent a nargas, or 

NARGHEEL, a smallpipe of thehookah 

KAIIGIL, the cocoa-nut tree in South- 
ern India. 

NARNAC, the founder of the religion 
of the Sikhs of the Punjab.' His 
father Avas a merchant living upon 
the banks of the Beas, who wished 
his son to follow the same profitable 
calling. Narnac, hov/ever, had learnt, 
partly by intuition, partly by read- 
ing tlie sacred books of the Hindoos, 
and partly by conversing with Fa- 
keers (wandering beggars, who as- 
sume a character for sanctity), that 
the sole uses of wealth were to suc- 
cour the poor. Acting upon this 
impression, he did what we should 
l)erhaps consider to evince a loose- 
ness of moral principle — he gave 
away to the mendicants aU the 
money with which he was in- 
trusted to purchase salt, and even 
distributed among the poor the 
whole of the contents of a granary 
coumiitted to his charge. After 
this, it was naturally thought dan- 
gerous to employ him, and he was, 
accordingly, left to his own resources. 
Narnac then adopted the profession 
of the wandering Fakeers, and went 
about to all the Hindoo places of 
pilgrimage, and the holy spots at 
Jledina and Mecca, where Ma- 
homed had been born and buried, 
preaeliing the doctrines of the Unity 
and tlie Onniipresence of God. He 
Avas careful in his teaching not to 
oHend the opinions and prejudices 
of others, his object behig rather to 

explain and defend his own. To 
discord ho professed himself a foe, 
whose sole purpose was to reconcile 
the two faiths of the Hindoos and 
the IMahomedaus by recaUing them 
to that great original truth, the 
basis of their creeds, the Unity of 
God. Narnac suflfered much dur- 
ing his travels from climate, priva- 
tion, and the persecution of zealots 
of all faiths; but the purity of his 
life, his great patience with which 
he endured every calamity and every 
reproach, carried him through his 
pilgrimage, and he died respected by 
myriads, and leaving thousands of 
disciples to propagate tiie simple 
doctrines of his faith. In all, but 
the circumstances of his birth, and 
death, and the character of his tenets, 
we may trace a close resemblance 
between the life of Narnac and 
that of the founder of the Chris- 
tian religion. Each manifested 
a total indifference to worldly pos- 
sessions — each trusted to his own 
powers of persuasiveness— each was 
patient and uncomplaining — and 
each bequeathed to the communi- 
ties among whicli they moved 
apostles lull of devotion and earnest- 
ness, Avho perfected the good work 
their principals had begun. Narnac 
expounded his doctrines before the 
fierce and intolerant Persian Empe- 
peror Baber, but, instead of being 
scolled at and put to death, he was 
honoured for his courage and sim- 
phcity. The IMahomedan govern- 
ment, though ordinarily cruel and 
tyrannical, did not indeed adopt his 
doctrines, but they respected the 
manner in which they were urged. 
When Narnac died, at least one 
hundred thousand i)crsons had be- 
come converts to his doctrines. 
These persons were called Siiciis, 
from the Sanscrit word sic-sha, 
which is a general term, denoting 
ilisciple, or clevoted follower. Nar- 
nac had begun a book called the 
Granth, wliich contained the ele- 
mentary principles of his faith. Tliis 
book was coutiuued by his succcs- 




sors, and is now the bible of the 

NARNOOL, a town in India, m the 
province of Agra, situated in Lat. 
28 deg. 5 min. N., Long. 75 deg. 52 
min. E., about ninety miles south- 
westerly from Delhi, is the frontier 
town of the territories belonging to 
the rajah of Jypore. It is a place 
of consideraljle antiquity, but at 
present of little importance. 

NARNULLA, a fortified town inlndia, 
in the iirovince of Berar, situated 
about forty miles N.W. of Ellichpore, 
Lat. 21 deg. 40 min. N., Long. 77 
deg. 30 min. E. It is an ancient 
town, and has always been a place 
of note in the province. 

NASSACKJEE, tlie Persian term for 
an execTitioner. 

NASSUCK, a town in India, in the 
province of Aurungabad, in Lat. 19 
deg. IG min. N., Long. 73 deg. 5G 
min. E. It is a large town, con- 
taining about 30,000 inliabitants, 
principally Erahmuns, and is nnich 
resorted to as a jjlace of pil- 
grimage. In the neighbourhood 
are some extensive Booddhist exca- 

NAUTCH, an Indian entertainment, 
of which dancing forms the chief 
element ; not, however, where the 
guests dance, but where they wit- 
ness certain evolutions dignified by 
the appellation of dancing. The native 
of Inilia does not condescend to 
Terpsichorean indidgence. He pre- 
fers to be a spectator of the gesticu- 
lations of others who make a trade 
of the "light fantastic," and are 
called nautch girls. These girls are 
of different kinds. The most respect- 
able are the mceraseens, sometimes 
called cloominca; though the real doo- 
rninca exhibit in public before men, 
which tlie meeraseens never do. The 
word meeras means an inheritaiicv, 
and meeraseen an inheritress, from 
the custom, in certain families, of 
never changing the set. As the 
meeraseens are never accompanied 
by male minstrels, they seldom 
play on other instruments than 

drums of different kinds, such as 
the fabla, dholuk, and munjeera ; 
though the meeraseens never per- 
form before assemblies of men, yet 
the husband and his sons may be 
present. Tliey are modest and chaste 
in their manners and dress; but, 
notwithstanding this, it sometimes 
liappens that a fair meerusecn at- 
tracts the attention of the male 
part of the family. The kunchenee 
are of an opposite stamp : they dance 
and sing for the aumsement of the 
male sex, and in every respect 
are at their command. They are 
attended by male minstrels, to whom 
they are often married. It is said 
these women always consider their 
first lover as their real Imsband 
during the rest of their lives; and, 
on his death, though they should 
be married to another, they leave oft' 
their pursuits for a proscribed period, 
and mourn, agreeably to the custom 
of widows. They do not consider 
any part of their profession either 
disgraceful or criminal. There are 
many otlier kinds of dancing women, 
such as Iworkenees, bazeegarnees, 
dharec, &c., &e. In dancing, the 
nautch-girls present very pic- 
turesque figures, though somewhat 
encumbered by the voluminous folds 
of tlieir drapery. Their attire consists 
of a pair of gay-coloured silk trou- 
sers, edged and embroidered with 
silver or gold lace, so long as only 
to afford occasional glimpses of the 
rich anklets, strung with small bells, 
which encircle the legs. Their toes 
are covered with rings, and a broad, 
flat, silver chain is passed across the 
foot. Over the trousers a petticoat 
of some rich stufl" appears, contam- 
ing at least twelve breadths, pro- 
fusely trinuned, having broad silver 
or gold borders, finished with deep 
fringes of the same. The coortee, or 
vest, is of the usual dimensions, but 
it is almost hidden by an immense 
veil, which crosses the bosom seve- 
ral times, hanging down in front 
and at the back in broad ends, either 
trimmed to match the iietticoat, or 




composed of still more splendid ma- 
terials, tb.e rich tissues of Benares. 
The hands, arms, and neck are 
covered with jewels, sometimes of 
great value, and the hair is hraided 
■with silver ribbons, and confined 
with bodkins of beautiful workman- 
ship. The ears are pierced round 
the top, and furnished with a fringe- 
like series of rings, in addition to 
the ornament worn in England : the 
diameter of the nose-ring is as large 
as that of a crown piece; it is of 
gold wire, and very thin; a pearl and 
two other precious gems are strung 
upon it, dangling over the mouth, 
and disfiguring the countenance. 
With the exception of this hideous 
article of decoration, the dress of the 
natitch -girls, when the wearers are 
young and handsome, and have not 
adopted the too-prevailing custom of 
blackening their teeth, is not only 
splendid, but becoming; but it re- 
quires, however, a tall and graceful 
figure to support the cumbrous ha- 
biliments Avhich are worn indiscri- 
minately by all the performers. The 
nautch-girls of India are singers as 
well as dancers; they commence the 
vocal part of the entertainment in a 
high, shrill key, which they sustain 
as long as they can ; they have no 
idea whatsoever of modulating their 
voices, and tiie instruments wliich 
form the accompaniment are little 
less barbarous; these consist of non- 
descript guitarsand very small kettle- 
drums, wliich cliime in occasionally, 
making sad havoc Avith the original 
melodies, some of Avhich are sweet 
and plaintive. The dancing is even 
more strange, and less interesting 
than the music ; tlie performers 
rarely raise their feet from the 
ground, but shuffle, or, to use a more 
poetical, though not so expressive 
a phrase, glide along tlie door, rais- 
ing their arms, and veiling or un- 
veiling as they advance or describe 
a circle. Tiie same evolutions arc 
repeated, with the most unvarying 
monotony, and are continued until 
the appearance of a new set of 

dancers gives a hint to the preced- 
ing party to withdraw. 

NAWAB, a species of Mahomedan 
sovereign ; a very great deputy, 
vicegei'ent, or viceroy. The governor 
of a province under the ftlogul 
government, and popularly called by 
the English a nabob. The title of 
Nawab is also by courtesy often 
given to persons of high rank or 
station. It was formerly used (under 
the corrupticm nabob) to designate 
wealthy Englishmen who returned 
from India laden with wealth. 

NAZIM, composer, arranger, adjuster. 
The first officer or governor of an 
Indian province, and minister of the 
department of criminal justice under 
the native government; styled also 
N'aivab and Souhahdar. 

NAZlli, Ilindostanee. A supervisor, 
or inspector. 

NEAKDAKHY, Ilindostanee. Hold- 
ing or keeping safe or well ; safe- 
guard. Perquisites or fees received 
or collected from the ryots, being 
shares of the produce of their lands 
appropriated to partieidar public 
officers in the village, or other per- 

KEELA, blue; indigo. 

NEEL GHAE, the blue cow; the nyl- 

NEEL WALLAH, literally, blue- 
fellow ; an indigo planter. 

NEE.MU CII, in the province of Ajmere, 
in India, situated about forty miles 
to the south-eastward of Cliitore, is 
the principal British station in the 

NEEMUCKY, saline, salt; salt lands. 

NEGArATAM, a town in India, in the 
district of Tanjore, in the province 
of Southern Carnatic, situated on 
the coast, twenty miles south of 
Trancpiebar, in Lat. 10 (leg. 45 min. 
N., Long, 79 deg. 54 min. E. This 
place, originally a Portuguese settle- 
ment, was taken in lOGO by the 
Dutch, who ma<lc it the capital of 
tlieir possessions on tlic Curomandel 
coast. It is now nucii decayed and 





In Hindostan, these mountains form 
a connecting range between the 
eastern and western Ghauts or 
moimtains through the province of 
Coimbatore (q. v.) Their highest 
point is estimated at 8800 feet above 
the sea. 

NEJD, the province of Arabia which 
produces the finest horses. 

NELLOKE, a city in India, situated 
in the Northern Carnatic, on the 
south side of the river Pennar, a few 
miles from the coast, about 100 miles 
north of Madras. It is a populous 
town, and the capital of the pro- 

NEPAUL, a province of Hindostan, 
bounded on the north by the Hima- 
laya Mountains, separating it from 
Thibet ; east, Sikkim ; south, Ben- 
gal, Bahar, Oude, and Delhi; west, 
Kamdoon. The divisions are, Jemla, 
Goorkha, Nepaul, Mukwanpore, Mo- 
rung. The rivers are, the Kalec and 
Suryoo, which, joining together at 
Bramadee, form the Goggra and 
Gunduk. The Gunduk is supposed 
to rise in the Himalayas, and flows 
into the Ganges near Patna. The 
upper part of the river is called the 
Salgramee, from the stones called 
Salgrams which are found in it. 
These stones are considered sacred 
by the Hindoos, and are carried for 
sale to all parts of India. Some have 
been sold for as ° much as 2000 ru- 
pees each. The lower part of the 
country, lying along the borders of 
Oude and Bahar, and which is called 
the Turiyanee (Iow-la7ids), consists 
of a long belt, or strip, of low, level 
land. Beyond this is a strip of nearly 
the same width of hills and valleys, 
rising graduaUy towards the nortli. 
The upper, or northern part, is com- 
posed of high mountains, terminat- 
ing in the Himalayas. The produc- 
tions of Nepaul are wheat, oats, bar- 
ley, millet, maize, and other grains; 
and, in the valleys, large quantities 
of rice, which forms the principal 
article of food, sugar, and carda- 
moms, wax, demmee, and oil. 
Amongst other trees, the forests 

produce oak and pine, with rattans 
and bamboos, both of enormous size. 
Elephants are numerous. The sheep 
are large, and their wool is good. 
Iron and copper are found in the 
hills. The sheep and goats are used 
in the mountain districts to carry 
burdens. These animals, being sad- 
dled with small bags of grain, are 
despatched in flocks, under the 
charge of a few shepherds and 
their dogs. An old ram, furnished 
•vvith a bell, leads them. The towns 
are Malebum, Goorkha, Khatman- 
doo,Salitaputtun, and Mukwanpore. 
The inhabitants of Nepaul are com- 
posed of a number of tribes of different 
origin, and differing from one anotlier 
in their langiiage and manners. The 
original inhabitants appear to have 
been of Tartar descent. They now 
chiefly occupy the northern parts. 
The tribes occupying the central 
and southern districts form a mixed 
race, partly Tartar, and partly Hin- 
doo. Of these, the principal are the 
Goorkhas, composed mostly of Kha- 
sij^as and Mogurs, both original 
tribes, and the Pm-buttees and Ne- 
wars. The ]\Iogurs constitute the 
principal military force. The Pur- 
buttees usually inhabit the moun- 
tains, and are a pastoral race; while 
the Newars live in the valleys, and 
are engaged in agriculture and com- 
merce. The prevailing religion is 
the Brahminical, but many of the 
tribes still follow a sort of Booddliism, 
and latterly Mahomedanism has 
been introduced. A number of dif- 
ferent dialects are spoken, of which 
the principal is the Purbuttee, called, 
in the western parts, the Khasee, 
which appears to be derived from 
the Hindawee, and is written in a 
character resembling the Nagree. 
NERBUDDA, the. A river in Hm- 
dostan, which rises in the province 
of Gondwana, in about Lat. 23 deg. 
N., Long. 82 deg. E. It runs west- 
ward through the provinces of 
Gondwana, Malwa, Candeish, and 
Guzerat, and falls into the sea below 
Baroach. Including its windings, 




its course is about 750 miles. The 
Nerbudda river, though quite as 
sacred in the eyes of tlie natives of 
India, and scarcely less celebrated 
than the Ganges and Jumna, has 
not attracted an equal number of 
European pilgrims to its source, 
"which has only lately been traced 
by scientific men. As early as 1795, 
Capt. Blunt, Avhile employed in sur- 
veying a route between Berar, Orissa, 
and the Northern Circars, approached 
within a few miles of Omerkantuk, 
on the smumit of which the river 
takes its rise, but was prevented 
from further advance by the hostility 
of the native mountaineers. A long 
time elapsed before any other at- 
tempt was made to penetrate the 
fastnesses of Gondwana, where, on 
the summit of a Avooded hill, 24G0 
feet above the level of the sea, the 
sacred river springs to life and light ; 
in these days however of adventure 
and research, an excursion to the 
temple of Omerkantuk is frequentlj^ 
imdertaken by the Anglo-Indian 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood. 
The source of the Nerbudda, there- 
fore, is no longer a terra incognita; 
and, though the ascent of the hill is 
still attended with considerable 
difficulty, since fatigue, hardship, 
and privation must be encountered 
by the way, a lady has been fomid 
bold enough to join one of these 
exploring parties. Sportsmen were 
of course the first to try the adven- 
ture, for to the hog-hunters and 
tiger-slaters of the Indian army we 
are indebted for many interesting 
particulars relating to remote and 
almost inaccessible places, penetrated 
in the true spirit of the chase. Jub- 
bulpore, a town in tlie province of 
Gondwana, to the north of the Ner- 
budda, and one of the military sta- 
tions of the Bengal armj', generally 
contains some eager aspirants, anx- 
ious to avail themselves of every 
opportunity to vary the monotony 
of the scene, by excursions to cele- 
brated places in the vicinity. Some 
of the best fishing in India is to be 

found in the Nerbudda, which is 
famous for its Mahasseer, and the 
hunter may cncoimter nearly every 
Asiatic zoological specimen in its 
neighbourhood. Thejmigles between 
Jubbulpore and Omerkantuk abound 
in the fiercest description of savage 
beast; tigers, bears, leopards, and 
panthers, bold in consequence of 
their numbers, and not much dis- 
turbed on account of the feebleness 
and the scantiness of the native 
population, roam fearlessly abroad 
in the noon-day, and are sometimes 
to be found on the public roads. 
The country about Jubbulpore, 
which is one of the prettiest stations 
in India, offers a pleasing contrast to 
the surroimdmg wildernesses, the im- 
mediate neighljourhood being dis- 
tinguished for the richness of its 
cultivation. A march through the 
valley tlistricts of the Nerbudda from 
Jubbulpore, towards the liills, con- 
ducts the traveller on his first stage 
to Bamun}-, over sheets of cultivation, 
but the appearance of the face of the 
country changes at the latter-named 
place. Instead of the smiling suc- 
cession of garden-like fields, Avhich 
attest the skill and industry of the 
tillers of the soil, the ground becomes 
rugged, rising over a series of rough 
and stony eminences covered with 
forest, and leading through passes or 
ghauts exceedingly narrow, and 
difficult to climb; the habitations of 
men becoming more remote from 
each other, fewer in number, and 
degenerating into mere huts. No- 
thing, however, can exceed the 
beauty of these woody regions, 
which teem with animal life, the 
noblest beasts of the chase making 
their lairs in the thickets, while the 
trees are tenanted by innumerable 
tribes of monkeys and of birds, many 
being literally full of wild peacocks. 
The only place of importance on the 
road from Jubbulpore to Omerkan- 
tuk is Mundlah, a celebrated fortress, 
formerly belonging to the Kajah of 
Nagpore, which was ceded to the 
British in 1818, once deservedly 




considered one of the strongest places 
in Central India. Gnrrah Mundlali, 
as it is called by tlie natives, pre- 
sents a very fine specimen of the 
fortresses constructed in ancient 
times by Indian warriors. It stands 
out boldly in the centre of the 
stream, a channel beinj? cut through 
on the side in which the Nerl)udda 
did not naturally flow. It is situated 
on the right bank of the river, wliicli 
is very deep and rapid during the 
rainy season, rushing tumidtuoiisly 
along with loud and sullen murmurs. 
Though originally very strongly 
built of stone, neglect is aiding time 
and the elements to liasten its decay. 
In its present stage of existence, 
however, its tower-crowned bastions, 
and battlemented walls, afford evi- 
dences of former solidity and gran- 
deur. The luxuriant growth of ve- 
getation in India is unfortunately 
very detrimental to even the most 
massive buildings, that are suffered 
to fall into decay ; the walls are in 
many jjlaces perforated by the ex- 
panding force of the roots of ancient 
tamarind and peepul trees. This is 
greatly the case in the town and 
fortress of Gurrah Mundlah; the 
former, from which it is divided by 
the river, is fast mouldering into 
ruin, the walls being in many places 
choked up Avith thick brushwood, 
or obscured by the pappyah tree, 
while black-faced monkej's sport 
from bough to bough, and battlement 
to battlement. Gurrah Mundlah 
in former days has been the theatre 
of many stirring scenes, a field for 
the exploits of Patau warriors, who 
established themselves as the Tha- 
koors or chiefs of the surrounding 
districts; while, during the Pindarree 
incursions, it M'as made the frequent 
halting-place of those daring free- 
booters in their route from Bundel- 
khund to Cuttack. Officers Avho 
served in the campaigns of 1817 and 
1818, were particularly struck by 
the picturesque ai)pearance made 
by the enemy upon the wild and 
rocky banks of the Nerbudda, and 

the neighbourhood of Gurrah ]\Iund- 
lah in particular. ]\Iore than once 
tlie sudden starting up of mailed 
figures from the tall grass, or grey 
stories, the bristling of spears where 
a moment before leaves alone had 
stirred in the breeze, realised the 
poet's description of the martial 
array of Eoderick Dhu, emerging 
at a call from crag and heather. 
Had the skill of the defenders of 
these passes been equal to their 
valour, the country, so profusely 
supplied with natural defences, 
might have been made impregnable; 
but, either overlooking or despising 
these advantages, they ventured to 
give battle ujion the open plain, and 
were defeated at every point. Gur- 
rah IVIundlah was also a great haimt 
for pilgrims, who came from distant 
countries to worship on the banks of 
Nerbuddajec, the very sight of the 
sacred stream being supposed to 
cleanse the soul from all impurity. 
This splendid but solitary place is, 
however, no longer the resort of 
warriors or of numerous devotees; 
its beautiful ghauts and temples, 
dedicated chiefly to ]\Iahadco, being 
deserted, excepting by the dwindled 
population of the neighbourhood, 
and a few poverty-stricken strangers, 
l^umcrous ■wild and striking tales 
are told concerning the saints and 
soldiers who have made tlie ancient 
city famous; but the most interesting 
of the traditions connected with the 
place records the warlike deeds of 
an Amazonian queen, said to have 
reigned over a district to the east- 
ward, and to have held a splendid 
court in a large and i^opulous city, 
now wholly efliiced from the surface 
of the earth, not a vestige remaining 
to sliow its former magnificence. 
The people of Gurrah Mundlah are 
fond of talking of this female war- 
rior, who they describe as being 
beautiful beyond comijare, and brave 
as the bravest hero of her day. 
Eamnuggur, the ancient capital of 
the Goauds, is situated about fifteen 
miles from the above renowned for- 




tress, 'on the left bank of tlie Ncr- 
Ludda; little, however, remains of 
this once celebrated place, excejiting 
the ])a]ace of the rajali, M'hich, 
though in ruins, still consists of two 
stories, and contains some curious 
inscriptions, which, when deciphered, 
will in all probability throw conside- 
rable light upon the history of the 
place. The Nerbudda, throughout 
the whole distance from Mundlah, is 
wide; free from rocks, transparently 
clear, and unruffled in its course: 
the banks on either side are soft and 
verdant, with a back-ground of 
luxuriant forests; but all is desert, 
not a single village or trace of human 
habitation being at present to be 
seen. Though i^or tions of Gond wana 
liave been frequently subjected to 
the Mahomodan rule, the popida- 
tion is essentially Hindoo; and close 
to Mundlah the waters of the Ner- 
budda are held so sacred, that even 
the fish, which in many places are 
eaten without scruple by the most 
orthodox believers in the doctrine of 
metempsychosis, are imdcr the pro- 
tection of the Jirahmuns, who feed 
them with parched grain and balls 
made of flour. Thus feasted, the 
Khoee, in particular, grows to an 
enormous size; but woe to the pro- 
fane wretch who should presume to 
make a dinner of one of these mo- 
narchs of the flood, the crime of 
slaughtering beef being considered 
scarcelj' less heinous. The sacrifice 
of the sacred cow is looked upon as 
a crime of the greatest atrocity by 
the dwellers upon the banks of the 
Is^erbudda, who attribute every evil 
that befals the country to the con- 
version of its sacred flesh into an 
article of food. They show trees 
•which they allege to have withered 
in consequence of beef haviug been 
hung upon, or cooked under their 
branches, by the European and Ma- 
homedan troops stationed in the 
country, and they say tliat even the 
marriages contracted by the widows 
of Bralmiuns are less calculated to 
bring down divine vengeance than 

the slaughter of the cow. The temple 
of Omerkantuk. situated on the table- 
land of the hill or mountain of the 
same name (q. v.), is five days' 
march from Gurrali jNIimdlah. A 
small cistern, near the temple, con- 
tains the first wavelets of the Ner- 
budda and the Soane: bamboo pipes, 
pointing east and west, seem to give 
somewhat of an artificial direction 
to the course pursued by these 
impetuous rivers, which, uncurbed 
by man, rush onwards to their 
destination, fretted only by 
powers as mighty as themselves. 
In the present settled state of the 
countr3% there are no difficidties of 
any importance to prevent European 
travellers from exploring the source 
of the Nerbudda, but these districts 
can only be traversed, witliout in- 
jury to the health, at a certain sea- 
son of the year, that is, the months 
between January and IMay. The 
commencement of the rains in June, 
and the consequent rapid growth of 
every description of vegetation, oc- 
casion jungle fever to all who are 
exposed to an atmosphere loaded 
with deleterious matter, a south- 
east wind pz-evalent at the time add- 
ing its influence to other causes. 
The breeze, heavy with miasma, 
produced by decaying foliage ex- 
posed to constant and ))aleful damps 
from the mists which rise in places 
where not a single sunbeam can pe- 
netrate, and where there is no free 
circulation of air, brings death upon 
its wings. The water is equally un- 
wholesome, being a decoction of rank 
weeds and poisonous foliage, highly 
charged with the worst description 
of gas; proving that shade and 
water, however beautiful and de- 
lightful, have their disadvantages, 
and are not always conducive to 
health. At Jubl)ulpore. the evil in- 
fluences of the pestilential air of the 
jungle are felt whenever the wind 
comes from the east or the south. 
Fortunately, during the greater part 
of the rainy season, it takes a west- 
erly direction, blowing steadily up 




tho valley of the Nerbudda, and ren- 
dering the cUmate both healthy and 
agreeable; ■when it changes, as it 
does occasionally, and sweeps over 
the extensive jungles to the east 
and south, sickness generally follows. 
The effect of a south-east Avind on 
animal and vegetable life, and the 
influence it exercises upon the phy- 
sical and mental energies, arc pro- 
verbial all over the world; but it 
comes armed with tenfold power 
■when it passes across an imi^enetra- 
ble jungle in its progress. Nearly 
all the unhealthiness which is en- 
dured in India may be traced to the 
same cause : malaria frequently tra- 
velling over vast tracts, and causing 
sickness in places usually supposed 
to be free from its influence. 

NERIAUL, an implement for smoking. 
It is nothing more than a cocoa-nut, 
with the pipe-stem thrust through a 
hole at its top, and a piece of reed, 
about a cubit long, applied to ano- 
ther hole lower down. The nut-shell 
being half filled with water, the air, 
or rather the smoke, is cooled. These 
little hookahs are even used without 
any reed to conduct the smoke ; the 
lips being, in that case, applied 
to the small lateral aperture into 
which the reed should be fitted. 
One of these usually serves half-a- 
dozen men, who pass it round with 
great glee : it often forms an append- 
age about the feet of a palankeen, if 
the opportunity oSers for securing 
it there without " master's know- 

N'HUT. The nose has its share in 
the decorations of the Ilindosttinee 
woman ; it usually bears two orna- 
ments, one, called a,n'hut, commonly 
passed through the left nostril, con- 
sists only of a piece of gold wire, as 
thick as a small knitting-needle, 
with the usual hook and eye, and 
having the centre, or nearly so, fur- 
nished with several garnets, pearls, 
&c., perhaps to the number of five 
or six, each parted from its neigh- 
bour by a thin plate of gold, usually 
having serrated, or escalloped edges. 

and being fixed transversely upon 
the wire, whicli passes through their 
centres, as well as through the] gar- 
nets, pearls, &c. The diameter of 
the circle of a n'hut may be, ordina- 
rily, about two inches and a half. 
On the coast of Coromandel, a similar 
ornament is worn by men of respect- 
ability in each ear. 

NICOBAES, a group of islands, situated 
in the south-east quarter of the Bay 
of Bengal, between the sixth and 
tenth degree of north latitude, and 
occupying the space from the Little 
Andaman island to the north-western 
point of Sumatra. These islands 
compose an extensive group, of which 
those named Nancowrj', Car Nicobar, 
and Little Kicobar, are the only ones 
which have been much visited by 
Europeans. They are generally 
hilly, and some have high mountains. 
Their chief productions are cocoa- 
nuts and betel, for which they are 
much resorted to by ships from In- 
dia. The natives are in a very rude 
state, and have sometimes attacked 
and murdered the crews of vessels 
visiting tliem for traflic. The Danes 
attempted to form a settlement upon 
the islands from Tranquebar, in 1756, 
and many missionaries engaged in 
the undertaking; but the climate 
proved so extremely unhealthy, that 
after many missionaries and other 
colonists had died, it was found ne- 
cessary, in 1787, finally to abandon 
tlie design. There is also a number 
of small islands a few miles from the 
coast of Tenasserim, known by the 
general name of the IMergui Islands, 
or the Mergui Archipelago. They 
are occupied merely by a few Bur- 
mese fishermen. 

NIJJOTE {neechjote), from neecli, 
under, and j'o/c, to plough; i. e., land 
in India reserved by tlie zumeendar, 
and excluded from the jumma, for 
cultivation under himself. Either 
Hindoo or Moslem grant. 

NlililUK, salt. Nimmuk-haram and 
nimmuk-hidall are Persian phrases, 
expressive of fidelity or unfaithful- 
ness to one's salt. They typify gra- 




titude or ingratitude. In the East, 
the circumstance of having tasted 
salt or food in any dwelling becomes 
a pledge of union and safety between 
the liost and guest, Avhicli is seldom 
violated even among the worst ban- 
ditti. The word nimmuk-wallah is a 
favourite method among the sepoys 
and otlier servants of expressing 
their duty and attachment to the 
East India Company, Avhose salt 
they eat. 

NIE NARRAIN, a personage in Hindoo 
mythology, worshipped by a sect 
represented as having its rise from 
Odhow, to whom the charge of the 
human race was delivered by Ivrishna 
■when he left this world. The new 
doctrines were first preached by a 
Brumacharee called Gopai, and after- 
wards by Atmanund fciwamee. The 
grand j^rinciple of the system seems 
to be, that the souls of all mankind are 
equal. The principal observances 
enjoined are abstinence from what 
are represented as the four besetting 
sins of the flesh : indulgence in 
drinking sjiirituous liquors, eating 
flesh, stealing, and connexion Avitli 
other than their own women. 

NISHUN-BUKDAR, a standard- 

NIZAM, order, arrangement ; an ar- 
ranger; nizamulmulk, the administra- 
tion of the empire. 

NIZAIMUT ADAWLUT, the court of 
criminal justice in India, the prin- 
cipal offices in whicii are filled by 
some of the oldest of the Company's 

band of music which plays on state 
oc(;asions before a great man, " and is 
usually," says Eraser, " stationed in 
an apartment over the gateway." 

NOLKOL, an Indian escidcnt, partak- 
ing of the turnip and the cabbage in 
flavour, but in form and colour more 
resembling the former. 

NOOH, a place in India, in the pro- 
vince of Agra, in Lat. 27 deg. .01 
min. N., Long. 77 dcg. 31 min. E., is 
noted for the manufacture of culinary 
salt, distinguished by the name of 

" salimiba," which is procured from 
salt springs in the neighbourliood. 

NOONA (jinnona reticulata), the sour 
sop. A very ordinary fruit in the 
East; those of the West Indies have 
a superior flavour. The fruit is 
eaten both raw and roasted in 
embers; its bark, or hard external 
skin, is a powerful astringent and 
tonic, and of great use in native 
medicine, particularly amongst the 
Malays and Chinese, avIio also use 
it in some of their dyeing processes. 
The tree does not grow to any size 
which would allow its wood to be of 
any use. The fruit is much coveted 
by bats, squirrels, monkeys, and 
other vermin, Avliich in the East so 
cruelly disappoint the hopes of the 

NOVVBUTKIIANA, is a tower placed 
in India OA^er the gateways of palaces, 
in Avhich the hour is struck, and at 
particular times of the day, as Avell 
as on great occasions, musicians 
stationed therein play. This was 
the exclusive attribute of royalty; 
but noAV ever}' petty chieftain apes 
the dignity Avhich no one disputes. 
At fairs, those Avho Avish to aflect 
great grandeur, erect them on poles, 
and place tAvo or three screaming 
trumpets and a large drum on the 
top, to the great amioyance of their 
neighbours, tliough doubtless to 
their own great gratification. 

NUGGUK, or BEDNOKE, a city in 
India, in the province of Mj'sore, the 
capital of the district so called, Avas 
fonnerly a large and very rich city. 
It is noAV in ruins, and almost de- 
populated. Nnggur is situated on a 
Avide plain, surroimded by hills, and 
intersected bj^ rivers, so that the 
level ground sliould be ever Avaving 
Avith bright green crops ; the fine 
mangoe-trces tliat cluster round the 
pretty villages, ever productive; but 
in Nuggur, as elscAvhere, that Avhich 
should be, is not always so, for 
droughts reduce the flowing Avaters 
to mere occasional pools, wither tlie 
corn, slay the cattle, and reduce the 
strong mau to a condition of hollow- 




eyed and trembling feebleness. The 
fort is one of the strongest in the 
Deccan, and there are various 
handsome buildings, musjids, and 
palaces, within and about it. A 
luige tree on the glacis of the fort is 
honoured hy the much-believing, as 
that imder which the Great Captain 
of his age conducted operations 
against the enemy; but if the Uuke 
ever did honour to its peepul shade, it 
must have been after, and not during, 
the siege, or, like Kustum, he must 
have borne a charmed life. The 
fort of Nuggur, ho^\■ever, hath a 
stirring history attached to it ; a 
true tale of life romance, that affords 
an interest quite equal to that which 
llhine-ascending tourists feel for 
Konensworth and liolandseck. It is 
the history of Salabat Khan's tomb, 
which is a favourite place for picnics, 
and a residence during the hot 
weather; it is about four miles from 
Camp, and on a considerable eleva- 
tion. Fifty persons have dined to- 
gether in the lower apartment of the 
tomb, which gives a very fair idea of 
its size, when it is remembered that 
the four compartments have an 
equality of extent, a regal space for 
the " eternal habitation" of a camp- 
trained soldier. It is fortunate for 
modern travellers and sojourners in 
the East, however, that the i\Iaho- 
medan conquerors of India and their 
descendants had this taste for hand- 
some mausolea, as it supplies many 
with houses in a styled' architecture 
not to be met Avith at present, as 
well as substantial shelter, at the 
expense of driving out the bats, and 
fitting in a few doors and windows. 
Tlie few feet of earth with tlie 
conical masonry, occupied by the 
original tenant, neither seems to be 
considered as an objection nor an in- 
convenience : it forms a seat or a 
stumbling-block, as the case may be, 
but the last only literally, and is 
never considered as a subject for ve- 
neration or troublesome respect. 
Then, again, the situations these 
true believers chose for their mau- 

solea are so attractive, the trees that 
shade them are so bright and wav- 
ing, the mounds where they are 
raised so dry and clean, and the 
gardens about them so cool and 
fresh-looking, that the living may 
well envy the dead their possession. 
It must be remembered that these 
Moslems were characteristically very 
capable of appreciating the luxuri- 
ous and agreeable. No people ever 
knew so well how to live in India as 
the}' did in their days of glory, 
proofs of Avhich we have in their 
underground apartments for the hot 
season, tiieir Avater-palaces, thick- 
walled under-rooms.and descriptions 
of well-cooled sherbets; and, as it 
was their custom to pray, meditate, 
and spend hours in the tombs of 
their departed friends, it is but pro- 
bable tliat these handsome mausolea 
had some reference to the comforts 
and convenience of the living, as 
well as to the secure resting of the 
dead. Eight miles from Nuggur is 
the Happy Valley, a favourite 
spot for sportsmen, newly-married 
couples, and Parsee amateur tra- 
vellers. Its situation is as remark- 
able as its scenery is attractive. 
After riding over a wide plain, here 
and there studded with villages, 
sheltered by thick clumps of man- 
goe-trees, a rock appears more 
desert than the rest, flanked by 
arid hills. On approaching it, how- 
ever, the tops of palms, cocoa-nut 
trees, and all the chief varie- 
ties of Indian foliage, attract atten- 
tion just peeping above its edge; 
and a flight of granite steps cut in 
the rock, lead down into this fairy- 
like glen of natural Vieauty. The 
Ilmdoos have a deserted temple 
there, but the spot was evidently 
selected as a Moslem pleasure- 
ground, a fact which now affords 
travellers the advantage of a good 
bungalow, built in true Mahomedan 
taste, which means, with a flat roof, 
on which to smoke, sleep, and pray, 
in accordance with the uses made of 
such places by their original de- 




signers ; small, square, slate-coloured 
rooms, M'ith arched roofs, for the 
occupation of bats, and little recesses 
for the reception of oil-lights; with 
doors that do not close, or if closed, 
do not open; tri-sided, underground 
apartments, looking into the valley, 
and arches instead of windows. This 
last peculiarity is here, however, an 
advantage, lor the view commanded 
is most lovely. The valley, indeed, 
is the mere gorge of an isolated hill, 
but the foliage is dense and beauti- 
ful — originally well cultivated, but 
novr having the appearance of the 
wiklest nature; huge masses of rock 
are piled amougst it, and a fair 
•stream, every here and there taking 
tlie form of waterfalls, or a rapid 
torrent, as the nature of the ground 
may cause, makes its way onward 
to the lower plain. The fine banian, 
with its columned shade, is here 
seen in pecidiar grandeur, its 
daughter-stems stretching widely, 
and descending deeply into the 
ravine, the parent branches form- 
ing noble studies of forest foliage, 
.so noble, indeed, that Hindoo travel- 
lers have even been attracted by the 
beauty of one, that owns some dozen 
pillars all around it, among which 
have sprung the aloe, and various 
lesser slirubs, giving to each stem 
the semblance of its being an in- 
dependent tree. JO very stone round 
whicli the rivulet rushes is smeared 
Avitli red pigment, and no traveller 
passes along the little footpath on 
liis way to the distant village, but 
raises his hand in reverence to this 
naturid temple of the grove. Trees, 
and shade, and water, are sure at- 
tractions to the natives of the East, 
and varied travellers, hour by hour, 
arrive at the Happy Valley, ilany 
are pilgrims, witli scrip and staff, 
who eat, l)athe, beg, and smoke, and 
then, witliout paying the slightest 
homage to the temple, or to the 
huge stone Xaudi tliat form its chief 
ornament, altlujugh supposed to be 
on religious service all intent, go 
their way, laughhig and chatting 

through the valley. Nuggur was a 
scene of many of the worst cruelties, 
and also highest triumphs, of the 
great conqueror Aurungzebe ; he is 
said to have died there, and a little 
tomb on the left of the fort is con- 
sidered as the depository of his 
heart. The mausoleum commands 
a very beaxitiful panoramic view of 
Nuggur, with its palaces, musjids, 
gardens, and flowing streains; while 
a pretty Protestant church rising 
amongst them, together Avitli the 
" compounds" in tlie artillery-lines, 
gives it, to the English sojourner, a 
refreshing "home" look. The gar- 
dens of Nuggur are celebrated 
throughout the west side of India, 
for their beauty and produce ; thick 
hedges of myrtle four feet high, vines 
that rival the south of Italy, and 
English vegetables in abundance, 
are their characteristics. The 
native gardens are also rich in 
produce; but a native garden is, 
after all, but a mere orchard; and, 
amongst rubbish, weeds, and stony 
roads, and large fruit-trees, one 
looks in vain for the neat enclosures, 
the well-kept paths, trim borders, 
and perfumed parterres of an Eng- 
lish shrubbery. Utility appears 
the only object in the Eastern gar- 
dener's view; acres of rose-bushes 
are cultivated only that the blossoms 
may be cropped at sunrise to pro- 
duce rose-water; and jasmine is 
grown in abundance, but merely for 
decorations on festivals, and in offer- 
ings at the temples. At Nuggur, 
the *' Mootee Bhaug," or Garden of 
Pearls, is an exce])tion, having been 
formed in English taste, and being 
rich in beautiful shrubs, bearing 
Oriental flowers of every hue; yet, 
even here, jowarree is sown amongst 
the plants, and the song of bulbul 
is lost in the cry of the corn- 
watcher, as he M'hirls his sling aloft, 
to scare away the feathered plun- 
derers. There is ihe " Behicstie 
Bhaug." too, or Garden of J'aradise, 
with the ruins of a palace at its 
entrance, about which the dry old 




historians are very voluminous in 
their accounts, of how one khan 
built it, and another added to it, and 
a third advised about it, and a foiirtli 
seized it. A water-palace of consi- 
derable size, still remaining in the 
neighbourhood of Nuggiir, is said, 
with great probability, to have been 
the residence of Aurungzebe, and is 
situated in the remains of an exten- 
sive garden, known as the " Furruh 
Bhaug," or Garden of Happiness. 
Considering the palace was com- 
menced in 1006 of the Hegira, it is 
yet in remarkably good preserva- 
tion, and must have been, in its day, 
a very substantial and handsome 
building. The centre-room, which 
is of huge proportions, is lighted and 
ventilated by two open balconies, 
running round the ceiling at small 
distances from each other; and the 
interior architecture of the arched 
recesses and roofing is, in many 
cases, ornamental, and finished with 
much skill. The prince who com- 
menced its erection, did so, it ap- 
pears, as a matter of state pohcy, to 
show the Delhi nobles his opinion of 
the stabihty of a possession on which 
it was considered wise to expend so 
much; but the water which sur- 
rounds the palace was not thought 
of until his successor brought it from 
the hhls at some distance by means 
of aqueducts, the remains of which 
may still be seen in all directions 
about Nuggur; and this prince, with 
much good taste, built round the 
palace a reservoir of some forty acres 
in extent. Soon after the rainy sea- 
son, the waters on every side bathe 
the palace walls to some feet in 
depth, and the garden immediately 
around it would be unapproachable 
for foot passengers, but for a raised 
vallade carried out from the western 
side of the garden. In the early 
mornhig, few efiects of liglit and 
shade can be more beautiful than 
those which adorn the water-palace 
of the Furruh Bhaug, for the most 
perfect and handsome portion of it 
receives the first rays of the morn- 

ing sun, which, lighting up its Go- 
thic-looking architecture, separate 
it vividly from the masses of 
fine trees clustering roimd its base, 
while they again are reflected, 
leaf and branch, and stem, in the 
deep, clear waters that surround 
and bathe their roots ; and these, 
contrasted in their depth of richest 
shade, by the crimson turbans and 
orange-coloured scarfs of the native 
groups, who Avend hither daily to 
enjoy the pleasures of the spot, the 
cool bathing beneath the trees, or 
the social chit-chat meal. Wild 
ducks may occasionally be seen 
in flocks upon the surface of the 
lake, aifording considerable attrac- 
tion to the denizens of the Camp; 
but even when the sportsman is dis- 
appointed of liis spoil, the eye of the 
lover of the picturesque may be 
always gratified by the number of 
snow-white, graceful birds A\'hich 
rest upon the banks, or seek their 
food among the beautiful aquatic 
plants that adorn these fair waters, 
where the rich green rushes throw 
into fine relief the tender tints of 
the lovelj' lotus, and a hundred blos- 
soms, red and yellow, blue and pur- 
ple, are distinctly mirrored upon 
this charming lake, which, barbarian 
as he was in some matters. Shah 
Tiah certainly showed infinite taste 
in forming. The dream of Moslem 
grandeur, however, and tlio luxuri- 
ous indulgences of its princes, are 
now at an end, and the beautiful 
Furruh Bhaug has long been sub- 
servient to supposed purposes of 
utility and improvement. A grant 
of its acres having been made to a 
medical officer of government, mul- 
berry-trees were planted in great 
quantities for the growth and culti- 
vation of the Italian worm and silk. 
The plan, to a certain degree, failed ; 
perhaps in consequence of the san- 
guine enthusiasm of its originator, 
as expenses were entered into that 
tlie results of the early trial could 
not justify, and debt became the 
consequence. Feebleness and dis- 




couragemcnt followed, and as the 
world generally takes some advan- 
tage of misfortune and disappoint- 
ment in the plans of others, so a 
number of private malices set about 
digging up the young trees and sell- 
ing them for a trifling remunera- 
tion to the amateur garden cultiva- 
tors of the Camp. The collector, how- 
ever, interfered ; fortunately for the 
delightful shades of the Furruh 
Bhaug, the trees were restored, and 
the system still Avorks in a trifling 
•degree; the fine foliage becoming 
every clay more luxuriant from the 
abimdance of sweet water, while the 
■worms slumber in the chambers of 

MJKTA, the barrel-headed or painted 
goose ; the Anas Jndui of Indian au- 
thors. During the night they rob 
the corn-fields, and, in the day, the 
flocks join and locate together in 
prodigious numbers on a solitary 
sand-bank in the river. It is sup- 
posed they come from Thibet, and 
their flesh is free from the rankness 
which attends Avild-fowl in general. 
The black-backed, or Nukta goose, 
is the AnaK il/«/rt?iotos of authors. The 
male weighs about five pounds. It is 
plentiful in the rainy season, in the 
vicinity of Delhi. The comb on the 
male in some specimens, is large and 
more handsomely marked with white 
s^TOts than others, and their size and 
plumage also differs a good deal ac- 
cording to their age. There is an 
obtuse horny process on the bend of 
the wing. Tiie nukta frequents 
most places where there is not much 
"water, and subsists on the seed of 
grasses. The female is much smaller, 
being about the size, and having 
nearly the same plumage as the 
common duck ; it has no comb, but 
there is an appearance on the upper 
part of tlie bill as if nature had at 
one time intended to place one there. 
The upper part of the upper mandi- 
ble is red, and tlie point of the bill 
and the legs are yellow. 

NULLA, Ilindostance. A streamlet, 
rivulet, water-course. 

NUIMAZ, stated prayers, which good 
Mussulmans peiform five times a 

NUMMUD, carpetting of felt, much 
used in Persia. 

NUNGASAIvI, a town situated on 
the western coast of the island of 
Kinsin, in the empire of Japan, in 
Lat. 32 deg. 48 min. N., Long. 132 
deg. 35 min. E. It is the only sea- 
port to which Europeans are allowed 
to resort. 

NUT-CUT, roguish, mischievous. A 
term of reproach, good-naturedly 
applied in India to vauricns. 

NUTTS, gipsies, an Indian tenn. 

NUWANUGGUR, a town in India, 
in the province of Guzerat, situated 
on the western coast of the penin- 
sula, in Lat, 22 deg. 55 min. N., 
Long. 70 deg. 14 mm. E. It is a 
large town, the capital of a tribu- 
tary chief, styled the Jam of Nuwa- 
nuggur, and is noted for various 
cotton manufactures. 

NUWARA ELIYA (City of Light), 
a new settlement formed in the 
momitainous parts of the interior of 
the Island of Ceylon, about fifty 
miles south-east of Kandy. In the 
months of December, January, Fe- 
bruary, and part of March, there is 
little rain, and the air is pure and 
healthy, the thermometer being 
sometimes at night below the freez- 
ing point ; and in tlic day, in these 
months, seldom rising higher than 
sixty-six or sixty-eight. All kinds 
of European vegetables common in 
gardens, grow here, and it is delight- 
ful to see the healthy and thriving 
appearance of peas, beans, straw- 
berries, cabbages, &c. It has been 
found by tlie experience of ten or 
twelve years to be an excellent sta- 
tion for invalids. Companies of 
several of the English regiments 
serving in Ceylon are stationed there; 
and the men, their wives andchildren, 
look as healthy and fresh-coloured as 
in England. The Cingalese resident 
there are chiefly persons who have 
gone from the maritime provinces 
for the purpose of trade. There arc 




a court-house, as it is the station of 
an assistant fjovernment agent, a 
rest-house, and, in addition to the 
barracks, several English gentle- 
men's residences. Tiie plain of Nu- 
wera EUya is about four miles in 
length, and varies in breadth from 
half a mite to a mile and a half. 
Eoads have been made round the 
plain; and neat wooden bridges in 
several places have been thrown 
across a small river that runs through 
the middle of it. For a few months in 
the year, it is one of the most delight- 
ful i)laces in tlie island. 

NUZZER, Hindostanee. A vow, an 
otfering; a present made to a su- 

NUZZERI DURGAH, literally, an 
offering at a sacred place for main- 
taining places of M'orship. 


ODALISQUE, the female tenant of a 
Turkish seraglio. The Odalisques 
usually consist of Georgian, Ar- 
menian, or Circassian slaves. The 
Sultan generally has a great number 
in his service, six or seven however 
(called Kaddives), have alone the 
privilege of producing an heir to the 

ODEYPORE. a city in India, the pre 
sent capital of the province of Aj- 
mere, situate in Lat. 24 deg. 35 min. 
N., Long. 73 deg. 44 rain. E. It 
stands on the border of a large lake, 
which on the other sides is enclosed 
by ranges of wild and rugged hills. 
The palaces and garden residences 
on the borders of the lake are all of 
marble, highly sculptured. Images, 
toys, and a great variety of articles 
of marble and rock-crystal, are sent 
from this place to the neighbouring 

O'M, a mystic syllable, signifying the 
supreme god of gods, which the Hin- 
doos, from its awful and sacred mean- 
ing, hesitate to pronounce aloud ; and, 
in doing so, place one of their hands 
before their mouths. The (jayalri, 

called by Sir William Jones the mo- 
ther of the Vedas, and in another 
place the holiest text of the Vedas, 
is expressed by the tri-literal mono- 
syllable, AUM, aud meaning that 
divine light of knowledge dispersed 
by the Almighty, the sun of right- 
eousness, to illuminate the minds of 
created beings. 

OMERKOTE, a town in India, in the 
province of Scinde, situated on the 
eastern frontier, about eighty-live 
mUes to the eastward of Hyderabad. 
This was formerly the residence of 
an independent Rajpoot chief, and is 
noted as being the birth-place of the 
Emperor Acbar. 

OilLAH, officers; the civil officers of 

ONGOLE, a small town in India, in 
the province of Northern Carnatic, 
situated near the coast, about 150 
miles north of ^Madras. It is small, 
and irregularly built. 

OOCH, a city in India, in the province 
of Mooltan, situated at the junc- 
tion of the rivers Sutlej and Bey a 
with tlie river Chenab. It stands 
in a fertile plain, four miles from the 
left bank of the river. It is an an- 
cient city, much noted during the 
first invasions of the Mahomedans. 
It has now about 2000 inhabitants. 

OODAGHERRY, a town in India, in 
the province of Travancore, has a 
small fortress, thirty miles south of 
Trivandei'am, formerly one of the 
jirincipal military stations of the 
province. Adjoining is the town or 
village of Papanaveram, where the 

■ rajah has a palace. 

OOJEIN, a town in Hindostan, in 
the province of Malwa, situated on 
the right bank of the river Secpra, in 
Lat. 23 deg. 11 min. N., Long. 75 deg. 
35 min. E. This is one of the most 
ancient cities in India, and is parti- 
cularly noted in Hindoo geography, 
as being on the first meridian, called 
the meridian of Lunka, which some- 
times also takes the name of this 
city, and is called the meridian of 
Oojein. The ancient city, which 
was greatly celebrated as one of the 




principal seats of Hindoo learning, 
has long since gone to ruins. The 
modern town, Miiich stands about a 
mile further to the south, -was until 
recently the capital of the Scindia 
Jlahrattas. It is a large and popu- 
lous place, and contains many hand- 
some pagodas and other buildings, 
with some remarkably good sculp- 
ture. It had formerly an observa- 
tory, built by rajah Jey ^ing, which, 
however, has been allowed to decav. 

OOLOOS, the tribes of Afghanistan, 
divided into clans, which again are 
sub-divided into Khails. The prin- 
cipal tribes are the Dooranees, the 
Ghilzies, and the Bcrdooranees. 

OOLTA-POOLTA, Hindostanee. Top- 

OOMERKANTUK, in the province 
of Gondwana, in India, is situated 
at the sources of tlie rivers Sonc and 
Nerbudda, in Lat. 22 deg. 55 min. 
N., Long. 82 deg. 7 min. E., on Avhich 
account alone it is noticed, being 
otherwise merely a place of resort 
for pilgrims. A melah, or religious 
festival, is held at Omerkantuk once 
a 3'ear, but notwitlistanding the 
alleged superior sanctity of the ri- 
vers, and the comparative case Avith 
wiiich their sources may be attained, 
the attendance is not so much more 
numerous than that at Gungootree 
and Jumnootree, as might be ex- 
pected. In addition to the advan- 
tages of ablution, and of imbibing 
the holy Avaters of Omerkantuk's 
thrice-blessed rivers, the true be- 
lievers who visit the mountain, if 
not encumbered witli too much flesh, 
may find a speedy and certain road 
to heaven. A large rock rising ab- 
ruptly on the summit of the hill, 
has been carved into the form of an 
elephant; there is a simcc, or rather 
hole, between the body of the sculp- 
tured animal and the earth, and 
those who can contrive to insinuate 
themselves througli this aperture, 
are secure, after death, of an en- 
trance into the regions of the l)lessed. 
The temple of ()merkant>ik is said 
to have been built by one of the au- 


cient rajahs of Rutturpoor, a district 
of Gondwana, and to contain an 
image of Bhavani; under whose 
name the consort of Siva is wor- 
shipped in this part of the country. 
Tlie blessings derived from these 
lakes and rivers, and the wise en- 
forcement of the ablutions enjoined 
by the religious worship performed 
upon their banks, render every 
stream sacred in the eyes of tlie Hin- 
doos, and no doubt led, in the first 
instance, to the gratitude to the Di- 
vine Dispenser of all good gifts, 
which, corrupted into idolatry, is 
now, by the perversion so unfortu- 
nately connected Avith the gross no- 
tions entertained of the Creator of 
the Universe by ignorant men, ren- 
dered absurd and contemptible. In 
tracing, however, the superstitions 
of a nation to tlieir source, Ave gene- 
rally find that they have originated 
in something natural and praise- 

OOMKAWUTTI, a town in India, in 
the province of Berar, situated 
thirty-four miles south-easterly from 
EUichpore, in Lat. 20 deg. 54 min. 
N., Long. 77 deg. 57 min. E. It is a 
large and populous toAvn, and a 
place of considerable inland trafiic. 

OOREEAHS, i. e., natives of the pro- 
vince of Orissa, who seek emjiloyment 
at the several presidencies of India as 
bearers. The Ooreahs are, in some 
respects, excellent servants ; they 
are very careful of furniture; and 
being able-bodied men in general, 
are capable, Avhen bearing a palan- 
keen, of proceeding great distances; 
they are, besides, cleanly in their 
persons and neat in their dress; 
Avhich, howcA'er, consists merely of 
a cloti/, folded round the middle, 
and tucked in, togetlicr Avith a 
Avrapper, to be thrown oA^cr tlieni 
in very inclement Aveatlicr, but usu- 
ally carried over the shoulder. 
When their heights are unequal, 
they use a small quilted pad of 
linen, stufli'd Avitli rags or cotton, 
Avhich is suspen<UMl from t\\v ])ahm- 
keen pole, or bamboo, and being 




placed betAvecn it and the shoulder 
of the sliortest bearer of the two 
(they carryinjj in pairs, two bearers 
■before, and two behind), serves to 
bring about an even bearing on 
each. The Balasore bearers, /. e., the 
Ooreahs, preserve but one lock 
of hair on the top of their heads; 
they wear no turban, but touch their 
faces, arms, throats, and breasts with 
sandal-wood and vermilion. Some 
wear a few small beads, chiefly of 
turned wood, about their necks; and 
occasionally a bangle, or hurrah, a 
stout silver ornament of the ring 
kind, on either wrist. The Ooreah 
bearers never wear shoes, and prefer 
clothes of an almond colom*. The 
number of Ooreahs in a single set is 
generally seven : the head bearer, or 
sirdar, receiving five, or even sL\-, 
rupees montlily; sometimes a mate 
receives, or is said to receive, five, 
and the residue about four. 

OOSTADE, Persian. A master, a 
teacher of any profession. 

OPIUM, a drug; a powerful narcotic, 
extracted from the poppy, and used 
by the Chinese, Turks, Mahomedans, 
and Hindoos, in their pipes and 
hookahs, either Avitli or without 
tobacco. The Hindoo, however, 
prefers a drug called hang, which 
produces alternately the exciting 
and stupefying effects of opium. 
Opium is grown in large quantities 
in tlie provinces of Bahar and 
Malwa, in India. The East India 
Company's government monopolise 
the cultivation, and dispose of the 
article wholesale to the Bombay 
and Calcutta merchants, Avho trade 
with China and the Straits of Ma- 
lacca. An enormous revenue is de- 
rived from the monopoly at the ex- 
pense of the morals and physical 
condition of the Chinese. 

OEISSA, a province of India, bounded 
on the north by the river Subun- 
rceka, separating it from Bengal; 
east, the sea; south, the Ganjam 
district of the Northern Circars; 
west, Gondwana. The divisions of 
the province are, Singhboom, Mo- 

hurbunj, Balasore, Kunjoor, Boad, 
and Kuttack, with several smaller 
zinneendaries. The rivers are Su- 
bunreeka, Solundee, Bytoornee, Bah- 
munce, IMahanudee, and others. 
This province may be considered as 
consisting of three distinct regions: 
the maritime, the central (called the 
Mooghulbimdee), and the western, 
or Rajwara. The maritime, from the 
Subunreeka on the north, to the 
Chilka Lake on the south, and from 
the sea to about twenty miles inland 
is a low, flat, swampy tract, covered 
with wood, and frequently inundated, 
and intersected in all directions by 
numerous rivers. Twenty mUes in- 
land the country rises considerably, 
with an open, drj', and fertile sur- 
face, forming the second or Moog- 
hulbundee division, which, about 
twenty miles further inland, swells 
into wooded hills ; and beyond, there 
is the third, or Rajwara, occupjdng 
the western portion of the province, 
and consisting entirely of ranges of 
hUls. The greater part of the inte- 
rior of this province is in a very 
savage state, particularly the Raj- 
wara division, being composed of 
rugged hills, thick jungles, and deep 
nullas, and pervaded by a remark- 
ably pestilential atmosphere. The 
productions arc rice, maize, wheat, 
gram, and other grains; aromatic 
roots, spices, dyeing drugs, sugar, 
cotton, tobacco, honey, wax, and 
dammer. The woods of the mari- 
time districts are chiefly of Soon- 
dree, from Avhich oil is extracted, 
and Janool; those of the Mooghul- 
bundec abound with resinous trees, 
and others valuable for cabinet-work 
and for dyeing; and from the Raja- 
wara forests teak of good quality is 
procured. Iron is abundant; many 
valual)le and curious minerals are 
found in Raj wara, and from the moun- 
tain streams gold dust is collected. 
Diamonds also, of a large size, are to 
be found, but the extreme unhcalthi- 
iiess of the climate in the districts in 
which they are met Avith prevents 
their beiug properly sought after. 




Abundance of salt, of a remarkably 
vhite and pure description, is manu- 
factured on the coast. The rivers 
abound Avith fish, and the whole 
province swarms with wild beasts, 
particularly leopards of a large size; 
and it is much infested bj' snakes, 
alligators, and reptiles of all kinds. 
The towns are Singliboom, Huriur- 
pore, Balasore, Kunjour, Jaipore, 
Kuttack, and Juggernaut. The in- 
habitants of the province are Hin- 
doos, with the distinguishing name 
ofOoreeahs; but there are also, in 
the woods and hills, three distinct 
tribes, called Koles, Khonds, and 
Soors (q. v.), all differing in lan- 
guage and appearance from the Hin- 
doos, and generally supposed to 
liave been the original natives of 
the province. The Ooreeahs are all 
followers of the Brahminical system ; 
but the wild tribes of Koles, Khonds, 
and Soors have no intelligible sys- 
tem of religion, and are entii*ely 
strangers to the institution of caste 
or other Hindoo observance. There 
are also Jains in this province. The 
language of the Oreeah nation is a 
dialect of the Sanscrit, much resem- 
bling the Bengalee, and called the 
Ooreali. The dialects of the wild 
tribes are distinct. 
OUDE, a province of India, bounded 
en the north by Nei)aul ; east, Bahar ; 
south, Allahabad; west, Agra and 
Delhi. Its divisions consist of Khy- 
rabad, Baraitch, Luknow, Fyzabad, 
Gorukpore, and Manikpore. The ri- 
vers are the Ganges, Goomtee, and 
Gogra, all flowing through the pro- 
vince south-easterly. The whole 
surface of the ])rovince, excepting 
upon the northern and north-eastern 
frontiers, is perfectly level, well 
watered, and very fertile. It is one 
of the smallest provinces of Hin- 
dostan Proper, but has always been 
one of the richest and most populous. 
Its length from west to east is 
about 250 miles, by 100, the average 
"breadth from north to south. Tlie 
productions are wheat, barley, peas, 
rice, and other grains ; sugar, in- 

digo, opium, and tobacco ; salt- 
petre is abundant, and lapis lazuli 
is amongst the mineral productions. 
The towns are Khyrabad, Baraitch, 
Luknow, Koy-Bareilly, Fyzabad, 
Tanda, Sooltanjjore, Gorukpore, 
and Manikpore. The inhabitants of 
this province are generally remark- 
able as a fine robust race, of an in- 
telligent and manly character ; par- 
ticularly the Rajpoots, who are com- 
monly superior in stature and ap- 
pearance to Europeans. A large 
proportion are Mahomedans of 
Afghan and Persian origin, the 
province having been for many 
centuries under a Mahomedan go- 
vernment. The Bengal army pro- 
cures a considerable number of its 
best Sepoys from this province. A 
treaty having been made with the 
British Government in the year 
1765, Glide has been preserved from 
all external enemies, and has conse- 
quently enjoyed a long continuance 
of peace and prosperity. The Go- 
vernor of Glide was originally styled 
the Soobadar, and afterwards the 
Kabob. This Avas changed in 1814 
to Vizier (Wuzcer), and in 1S19 to 
Padshah, or King, by which he is 
now recognised. The religion is 
J\Iahoinedanism and Hindooism, the 
former the most prevalent. The 
language is Hindostanee. 

OUTAUGH, Persian. A chamber 
or cell in a caravanserai. Also a 
business-chamber, an office. 

OUTCIIY, the Anglo-Indian word for 
an auction. The sales of houses, 
and every description of article, 
European or Indian, by outcry, are 
so numerous and extensive, that the 
auctions are regarded as regular 

PACHA, a Turkish title, signifying a 
governor, prince, or viceroy. The 
pachalics, or local govermnents, 
are all in the gift of the Siillan, and 
their possessors are bound to obey 
N 2 




his firmauRS. It is not unusual for 
the pachas, however, to revolt and 
endeavour to establish an indepen- 
dent authority, hut none have as yet 
succeeded. When the Sultan as- 
sumes, as he is at liberty to do in 
extreme cases, the character of a 
Caliph, an appeal is made to the 
rehgious feehngs of the rebellious, 
who then recognise his paramount 
authority as the representative of 
Mahomed, and return to their alle- 

PADIJY, an Indian term for rice in 
the husk. 

PADDY-BIRD, a sort of small crane, 
abounding in the rice fields in India. 

PADISHAH, emperor, imperial. 
There is no sovereign in the East, 
excepting the King of Persia, to 
vhom the title strictly applies, and 
that potentate is more frequently 
called the Shah-in-Shah, or King of 

PAGODA, a term, unknown to the 
natives of l7idia, given by Euro- 
peans to Hindoo temples ; also to a 
gold coin, in use at Aladras, often 
with an image on it, properly called 
hun, or hoo7i. 

PAINA, bracelets of zinc, worn by 
the native women of India. 

PALAMCOTTAH, a town in India, in 
the province of Southern Carnatic, 
situated on the eastern side of the 
Tumbrapoonee river, which divides 
it from Tinnevelly. It is a fortified 
town, and was formerly the princi- 
pal stronghold of one of the southern 

PALKEE. The latter is the word 
in most general use in India. The 
palankeen of the European, and in- 
deed of all the principal inhabitants 
of the Presidencies, may be likened 
to a wooden box, opening at the 
sides by sliding doors. It is about 
six feet in length and four in 
height, having a pole at either end, 
which rests on the shoulders of the 
bearers. Usually painted a dark 
green, with sometimes the crest of 
the owner painted on the pannels, 

and furnished inside with a long 
cushion, covered with morocco 
leather, silk, or chintz, and a pillow 
of the same material for the support 
of the head or back, the palkee is a 
very commodious and not inelegant 
vehicle. At the opposite end of the 
palkee is a flat wooden resting-place 
for the feet, and above that a shelf 
and small drawer for the reception 
of light articles, papers, &c. Some 
people take great pride in these ve- 
hicles, causing the upper part of the 
sides to be provided with Venetian 
blinds, and throwing over the whole, 
in very warm weather, a covering of 
fragrant cuscuss. In the great towns 
in the Mofussil, the native gentry 
and pensioned princes, and chief- 
tains, use the open palankeens, or 
litters, such as are often seen on the 
British stage in mock oriental 

PALANPORE, a town in India, in 
the province of Guzerat, situated 
about twelve miles to the eastward 
of Deesa. It is a populous town, 
and the capital of a small llahome- 
dan principality, tributary, to the 
Gaikowar. It contains about 30,000 
inhabitUnts. Their counterpanes of 
chintz are manufactured here, and 
take their name from the place. 

PALAR, the, a river in India, which 
rises in the hills near Nundydroog, 
in the province of Mysore, not far 
from the river Pennar. It flows 
southerly, through Mysore, and Cen- 
tral Carnatic, into the Bay of Bengal, 
which it reaches near Sadras. 

PALEjMBANG, an ancient Malay 
town on the eastern coast of the 
island of Sumatra, in Asia, and Pa- 
dang on the western coast, now form 
the two principal settlements of the 

PxVEGHATCHERRY, a station in 
India, in the province of Malabar, 
situated inland, about seventy miles 
S.E. from Calicut, in Lat. 10 deg. 
45 min. N., Long. 76 deg. 38 min. E. 
Under Hyder Ali this was a place 
of considerable importance as a mili- 
tary post. It is stiU a station for an 




English garrison. The surrounding 
forests abound with excellent teak. 

PALI, one of the dead langunges of 
India. It may be considered as a 
sister to Sanscrit. In ancient times 
it was spoken in Eehar, the cradle 
of Buddha. Prior to the birth of 
Christ, it was spread extensively in 
India, but when the Buddhists were 
expelled from India, the language 
became extinct, and for many ages 
Pali has ceased to be spoken. Even 
yet it is the language of the liturgy, 
and of the literature of the great 
islands of Ceylon, Beli, Madura, and 
Java, as well as of all the Indo- 
Chinese countries; and it is also tlie 
sacred language of the innumerable 
worshippers of Buddha, both in China 
and Japan. The Pali language has 
the strength, richness, and harmony 
of the Sanscrit. Its literature is 
very rich ; its various dialects in 
diflerent countries are written with 
alphabets derived from the Devana- 

PALKEE GHAKEE, a carriage in 
use in India, the body of which is 
shaped like a palankeen, with a well 
for tlie feet of the occupants. 

PANDL'S, five heroes, or demi-gods, 
descended from the ancient sove- 
reigns of the countries of Hindostan 
bordering upon the Jumna, thus 
called " Pauduan Kaj, or the King- 
dom of tiie Pandus." Pandu, the 
father of these five heroes, was the 
son of Vyasa and Bandea. 

PANSWAY, the smallest description 
of boat, next to the canoe, on the 
Hooghly, or Ganges. It is the ordi- 
nary boat of tlie fishermen, and has 
at the after-part an awning of mat- 
ting in the shape of a hood. 

PAPAYA, (carica pnpai/a). This 
fruit, tliough abounding in India, is 
a well-recognised importation from 
the West Indies or Africa, wiiere it 
is found abundantly, and of far 
larger size than those of the common 
Indian growtli. As a fruit, eaten 
botli raw and boiled, pickled or jire- 
eervod, it ranks high; the choice 
cues being of a very rich and some- 

what melon-like flavour when eaten 
with sugar and wine. As a tree, it 
is highly ornamental, few garden or 
orchard trees surpass it in graceful- 
ness of appearance, in which indeed 
it approaches to the palm. The size 
and beauty of the leaf, and even of 
the leaf-stalks, are always much 
admired when closely examined by 
those to Avhom the wonders of tro- 
pical vegetation are new. One of 
the curious properties of the papaya 
tree is, that it renders tough or 
newl3--killed meat tender, when hung 
up amongst its leaves for a few 
hours, wliicli effect is also produced 
by some other trees. 

PAPOOSEES, Turkish. Slippers. 

PAPUA, or NEW GUINEA, an island 
of Asia, in the Eastern Archipelago. 
It is a large island, commencing a 
little to the eastward of Gilolo, and 
slanting in a south-easterly direction 
as far as Lat. 10 deg. S., having the 
Pacific Ocean along its northern and 
eastern coasts, and separated by 
Torres Straits on the south from 
the continent of Aiistralia. It ap- 
pears to rise gradually from the 
coast to hills of considerable eleva- 
tion, covered with palm-trees and 
forests of large timber. It prf)duce3 
both the cocoa-nut and bread-fruit 
trees, but has no animals except dogs, 
■wild cats, and hogs. The western 
part of the island is inhabited by the 
Negro race, and the eastern by a 
people approaching more to the ap- 
pearance of the South Sea islanderp, 
that is, having yellow complexions, 
and long black hair. Sucli of these 
Negro tribes as are known to Euro- 
peans are in an entirely savage state, 
and some of them are said to be can- 
nibals. They wear tlieir hair bushed 
round tlie liead to a circunil'erence 
of two and three feet, combing it 
out straight, and occasionally stick- 
ing it full of feathers; and from this 
practice they have received from Eu- 
ropeans the name t'reciuently applied 
to them of " mop-headed Negroes." 
They understand the manufacture of 
common earthenware and mats, and 




are so far civilised as to comprehend 
the nature of traffic, which tliey 
carry on -with the Buggesses and 
Chinese, from whom they purchase 
iron tools, croclcery, and cloths, in 
exchange for slaves, missoy-l)ark, 
ambergris, sea-slug, birds of paradise, 
loorees, and other birds, which they 
dry and x^rescrve with great skill. 
The origin of this race is not known. 
They formerly were found in all the 
islands of the Archipelago, and are 
still to be found in the mountain dis- 
tricts; and the aborigines of Malaya, 
as well as the natives of the Anda- 
man Islands, seem to be of the same 
stock, though much inferior to the 
Papuans, who are robust and power- 
ful men. Their arms are chiefly 
bows and arrows. The word Papua 
is a corruption of Pua Pua, the term 
used by the brown tribes to designate 
the Negro race. The name New 
Guinea was given by Europeans on 
account of the resemblance of the 
inhabitants to the Africans. 

PAExVSU EA]\IA, in Hindoo mytho- 
logy, the sixth avatar of Vishnu. In 
this avatar Vishnu no longer assumes 
the form of a monster, but as a 
youthful hero claims admiration for 
his filial piety and imdaunted prowess 
in exterminating a race of tyrants, 
the Khetrie, or warrior tribe of In- 
dia, who had oppressed mankind, 
and barbarously caused the death of 
his parents. 

PAR BUNNY, what relates to the 
Hindoo festivals at the new and full 
moon. A tax sometimes levied by 
Zemindars and f;irmers on the te- 

PAEP,UTTEE. See Parvati. 

PAIMAH, the lowest caste of Hindoos. 
The distance and aversion which 
the other castes, and the Brahmuns 
inparticular,manifestfor the Pariahs, 
are carried sofar, that in many places 
their very approach is considered 
sufficient to pollute the whole neigli- 
bourhood. They are not permitted 
to enter the street Avhere the Brali- 
munslive: if they venture to trans- 
gress, those superior beings would 

have the right, not to assault tliena 
themselves, because it would lie pol- 
lution to touch them even with the 
end of a long pole, but they would 
be entitled to perform the operation 
by deputy, or even to make an end 
of them, which has often happened 
by the orders of the native princes, 
without dispute or inquiry. Any 
person who, from whatever accident, 
has eaten with Pariahs, or of food 
provided by them, or even drank of 
the water which they have drawn, 
or which was contained in earthen 
vessels which they have handled; 
any one who has set his foot in their 
houses or permitted them to enter 
his own, would be proscribed without 
pity from his caste, and would never 
be restored without a number of 
troublesome cereirionies and great 
expense. The Pariahs are con- 
sidered far beneath the beasts who 
traverse the forests. It is not per- 
mitted to them to erect a house, but 
only a sort of shed, supported on four 
bamboos, and open on all sides. It 
shelters them from the rain, but not 
from the injuries of the Aveather. 
They dare not Avalk on the common 
road, as their steps would defile it. 
When they see any person coming 
at a distance, they must give him 
notice by a loud crj% and make a 
great circuit to let him pass. 

PARIAH DO Gr, an Indian cur, whose 
breed is exceedingly doubtful. 

PAUSE E, the fire worshipper of 
Western India, a descendant of the 
Guebres of Persia, who fled from 
IMahomedan persecution to Surat, 
Bombay, and other jilaces on the 
Malabar coast. These disciples of 
Zoroaster are among the most in- 
dustrious and enterprising of the 
people of the West. As merchants, 
ship-builders, bankers, shop-keepers, 
and domestics of the higher classes, 
they monopolise much of the biisi- 
ness of Bombay, Poona, the Concans, 
and Guzerat. Tliey hold together 
much like the Jews and the Quakers, 
and, througli the exercise of the 
qualities which distinguish those 




people, such as thrift, industry, pa- 
tience, and intelligence, they have 
acquired great uealth and a high 
position. One of tlieir body (Jem- 
setjee Jcjeehhoy), Avliose father was 
a buyer and seller of bottles, and so 
acquired the sobriquet ofbottlij-icallah, 
was created a knight by patent of 
Queen Victoria. The charities of 
the Parsees are extensive and mu- 
nificent. They contribute laro^ely to 
institutions erected for the benefit 
of Europeans and Hindoos. See 


ing to Hindoo mj^thology, the goddess 
Bhavani (or nature), divided herself 
into three females, for the purpose of 
marrying her three sons, Brahma, 
Vishnu, and Siva; to i\\c last of 
•whom she united herself imder the 
name of Parvati. Some accounts 
make Parvati the datighler of Brahma, 
in his earthly form (or avatar) of 
Daksha, named Suti. Parvati is the 
goddess of a thousand names; and 
both her forms and powers are more 
various and extensive than those of 
any of the other Hindoo deities. She 
acts, sometimes dependent on, at 
others wholly independent of, her 
husband, Siva. Parvati has been 
described under numerous forms ; but 
they are only variations of the more 
important ones, Bhavani, Devi,T)ooi'- 
ga, and Kali. As Parvati, she is 
described of a white; as Kali, of a 
dark blue or black; and as the ma- 
jestic and tremendous Doorga, of a 
yellow colour. 

PATNA, a city in India, in the pro- 
vince of Bahar, situated on the south 
side of the river Ganges, Avhich is 
here, during the rainy season, live 
miles wide, in Lat. 2r) deg. 37 min. 
N., Long. 85 deg. 15 min. E. It is 
the capital of the province, large, 
but irregularly built, and contains 
about 300,000 inhabitants. It has 
always been a place of considerable 
trade, and was resorted to at an early 
period by thcEnglisli, Dutch, French, 
and Danes, who all had factories here. 

PAUL, a small tent, used for the ac- 

commodation of sepoys and private 
soldiers in the Bengal army. It is 
likewise used by oflBcers as a cooking 
tent, or a shelter for their domestics. 

PA V ANA, in Hindoo mythology, the 
god of the winds, generally repre- 
sented sitting on a deer, holding ia 
his hand a hook for guiding the 

of the betel-nut plant. It is chewed 
by the natives, and prepared in the 
follov>-ing manner: — The leaves are 
cleaned and the stalks removed up 
to their very centres; four or five 
leaves are then laid one above the 
other, when the upper one is smeared 
with shell-lime, a little moistened 
with Avater. The seeds of the elat- 
ckce, or cardamom, are added, to- 
gether with about the fourth part 
of a betel-nut (the areka), and, the 
whole being lapped up by folding 
the leaves over their contents, the 
little packet is kept together in its 
due form, which is usually triangu- 
lar, by means of a slice of betel-nut, 
cut into a thin wedge, so as to trans- 
fix it completely. It is in its pre- 
pared state that the pawn acquires 
the name oi' paimsooparec. The chew- 
ing of pawn (which occasions the 
saliva to be tinctured as red as 
bloodj is certainly fragrant, and an 
excellent stomachic ; but its too 
frequent use produces costiveness, 
which, in India, ever induces 
serious illness. The saliva will not 
be tinctured, if the churram (/. c, the 
lime) be omitted; hence it is evident 
that the alkali produces the colour 
from the juices contained in the 
paivti. The colour thus obtained 
does not stain linen. Some use the 
k'hiit, whicii is tlie same as our Terra 
Japvnicu, and is procured by l)leed- 
ing various kinds of trees, principally 
the mimosa, abounding in most of 
the jungles (or Mildcrnesses). Some 
persons attribute the blackness of 
the teeth, in Iwlh mak's and females, 
throughout India, to tlie use of tlie 
yaivii ; under the opinion tliat tlie 
discoloration is effected by the lime 




blendcil therein. Such is, however, 
wide of the fact: pawn is found to 
be highly favourahie to the gums 
when the Hme is omitted ; and so 
sensilile are tliose who chew it of 
the had effects produced by the 
alkali upon the enamel of the teeth, 
that in order to i)reserve them from 
corrosion, they rub them frequently 
with the preparation called missee ; 
thereby coating them with that 
black substance, which does not 
readily give way, even to the most 
powerful dentrifice. 

PEADAII, the name by which peons 
(q. V.) are known in Bengal. 

r-ED'R SUKTEH, Persian. The most 
common term of abuse in a Persian's 
mouth. It implies one whose father 
is burning in eternal lires. 

PEEK-DAUN, an Indian spitting- 
pot, made generally of phool, which 
is a very tolerable kind of tuten ague. 

PEEPUL, an Indian tree (Jicus indicus 
Jicus religiosa). It is found in great 
abundance, and, as some suppose, 
grows spontaneously ; assuredly it 
rises in most extraordinary places, 
and often to the great detriment of 
public buildings, growing out of the 
cement which connects stones and 
bricks, and by the violence of its 
pressure gradually destroying the 
edifices. The branches of the yoiing 
peepul afford a grateful shade, and 
the growth of the tree is, therefore, 
encouraged by the natives. It 
makes its appearance by the sides 
of the flights of stone-steps leading 
down to bowlics or large wells, above 
the domes of mosques, through the 
walls of gardens, &c. No Hindoo 
dares, and no Christian or Mahome- 
dan will condescend to lop off the 
Leads of these young trees, and, if 
the}' did, it would only put off the 
evil and inevitable day, for such are 
the vital powers of their roots, when 
they have once penetrated deeply 
into a building, that they will send 
out their branches again, cut them 
off as often as you may, and carry 
on their internal attack with un- 
diminished vigour. " iSfo wonder," 

says Colonel Sleeman, " that super- 
stition should have consecrated this 
tree, delicate and beautiful as it is, 
to the gods. The palace, the castle, 
the temple, and the tomb, all those 
works which man is most proud to 
raise, to spread, and to perpetuate 
his name, crumble to dust beneath 
her withering grasp. She rises tri- 
umphant over them all in her lofty 
Ijeauty, bearing, high in air, amidst 
her light green foliage, fragments of 
the wreck she has made, to show 
the nothingness of man's greatest 
efforts." In the very rudest state of 
society, among the woods and hills 
of India, the people have some deity 
whose power they di'ead, and whose 
name they invoke when much is 
supposed to depend upon the truth 
of what one man is about to declare. 
The peepul tree being everywhere 
sacred to the gods, who are supposed 
to delight to sit among its leaves 
and listen to the music of their 
rustling, the deponent takes one of 
these leaves in his hand, and invokes 
the god who sits above him, to crush 
him, or those dear to liim, as he 
crushes the leaf in his hand; if he 
speaks any thing but the truth ; he 
then plucks and crushes the leaf, 
and states what he has to say. The 
large cotton tree is, among the wild 
tribes of India, the favourite seat of 
gods still more terrible, because their 
superintendence is confined exclu- 
sively to the neighbourhood, and 
having their attention less occupied, 
they can venture to make a more 
minute scrutiny into the conduct of 
the people immediatelj' around them. 
The peepul is occupied (according 
to the Hindoos) by one or other of 
the Hindoo triad, the god of crea- 
tion, preservation, or destruction, 
wjio have the affairs of the universe 
to look after, but the cotton and 
other trees are occupied by some 
minor deities, who are vested with 
a local superintendence over the 
alliiirs of a district, or, perhaps, of 
a single village. 
PEEK. See Wullee. 




PEERALEE, a Hindoo avIio lias lost 
caste by intercourse with Mahome- 

PEE RAN, from peer, a confessor, or 
spii'itual guide. Lands set apart for 
a peer; a Moslem grant. 

PEGU, a town in the country of Ava, 
in Asia, formerly the capital of the 
kingdom of Pegu, situated about 
ninety miles from liangoon. It was 
taken in the year 1757 by the Bur- 
n'.esc, under Alompra,w]io destroyed 
the city, leaving only the temples, 
and dispersing all its inhabitants. 
In 1799, the Burmese government 
ordered it to be rebuilt, but it has 
never recovered its former conse- 
quence, and is now little more than 
a large, open village. 

PEISli, KllIDMUT, Persian. A body 

PEISHWA, guide, leader. The title 
of the last prime minister of the 
Mahratta government. 

PENANG, an island of Asia, situated 
opposite to the coast of Queda, in 
Mala3'a, from Avhicli it is separated 
by a strait two miles broad. It is 
of an irregular four-sided figure, 
containing about IGO square miles. It 
is mountainous and woody, well sup- 
plied witli water and well-cultivated. 
Its principal article of produce is 
pepper. It also yields betel, cotfee, 
spices, sugar, rice, kayapootce oil, and 
caoutchouc, commonly named Indian 
rubljcr. In the forests there is also 
abundance of excellent timber. The 
town of Penang, called by the Eng- 
lish George Town, with a fort 
named Fort Cornwallis, is situated 
on the north-eastern corner, in Lat. 
5 deg. 25 min. N.. Long. 100 deg. 19 
min. E. Tlic liill overlooking the 
town, on whicli the flag-staff is 
placed, is tlie highest point in the 
island, its ek'vatiou being 2248 feet 
above the sea. 'I'his island, called 
by the English Prince of Wales' 
Island, and by the natives Pulo Pe- 
nang, was granted, in 1785, by the 
King of Queda, as a marriage por- 
tion with his daugliter, to Captain 
Light, of an English country ship, 

and by him transferred to tlie Bri- 
tish government. In ISOO, the King 
of Queda further sold to tlie British 
a tract on the main land opposite, 
now called Province Wellesley. Pe- 
nang is believed to have been 
peojiled by the Malayas or others 
in early times; but, when taken 
possession of by the British, it was 
one large forest, with no inhabitants, 
exceptmg a few fishermen on the 
coasts. Its population is now about 
50,000, comprising a mixed assem- 
blage of almost all the nations of the 
East, about one-half being iMalays. 

PENDALLy, huts, temporary bar- 
racks. The term is only used in 
Western India. 

PEXNAR, the, a river in India, 
which rises in the hills near Nun- 
dydroog, in the province of llysore. 
It runs northward until near Gooty, 
in the province of Balaghat, when it 
runs to the eastward, and flows be- 
tween Northern and Central Carnatic 
into the Bay of Bengal, near Nellore. 

PEON, a chuprassy, or messenger, 
who carries letters, runs l)y palan- 
keens, stands behind carriages, and 
is also a functionary of consequence. 
When forming part of the official 
establishment of a civil servant, he 
is feared, hated, and outwardly reve- 
renced by the natives of the district; 
for tlien he acts as bailiff, process- 
server, and all manner of hateful 
things, and invariably turns his 
power into a source of unlawful pro- 
fit, from exactions and general cor- 

PERGUNNAH, the largest division of 
a land in a zemindarree. 

PESIIANU^I, a species of fine Indian 
rice ; tlie ]>csha/iuin liar vest liegins 
about tlie latter end of January, and 
ends about the beginning of June. 

PESIIAWUK, a city in the country 
of Afghanistan, in Asia, situated in 
Lat. 34 deg. G min. N., Long. 71 deg. 
13 min. E. It stan<is in a well culti- 
vated populous plain, forniing a 
circle of about thirty-five miles 
across, and nearly surrounded by 
mountains. Tliis city was founded 




by the Emperor Acbar, and from its 
convenient situation between -western 
Afghanistan and India, it has be- 
come a place of considerable com- 
merce. Its population is estimated 
at 100,000, principally of Indian 
origin. It Avas captured in 1825 by 
Kunjeet Singh, and has since re- 
mained in possession of the Siklis. 

PESHCAE, a chief agent in India, or 
manager; chief assistant. 

PESHCUSH, Hindostanee. A present, 
particularly to government, in con- 
sideration of an appointment, or as 
an acknowledgment of any tenure. 
Tribute, fine, quit -rent, advance on 
the stipulated revenues. The tribute 
formerly paid by the Polkjars to 
government. The first fruits of an 
appointment, or grant of land. 

PETTAH, the suburbs of a fortified 
town in India. 

PETTARAH, a square box, formed of 
tin and painted green, or a basket 
of rattan woi-k covered with wax 
cloth impervious to rain, and of a 
size adapted to the reception of 
twenty (or more) pounds' weight of 
clothes, &c. A pair of pettarahs, 
slung at either end of a bamboo four 
feet long, form a load for a bangliy- 
bearer, and are generally made to 
contain the wardrobe and et ceteras 
of a dawk traveller. 

PEYTUN, properly PUTTUN, a town 
inlndia,in the province of Berar, situ- 
ated on the river Godavery, in Lat. 19 
deg. 26 min.N., Long. 75 deg. 35 min. 
E. This place Avas formerly noted for 
the manufacture of cloths, with beau- 
tiful gold, silver, and silk borders. 


PHAESAGH, a Persian mile; some- 
times caWeAfursuh, or fursung. 


PHOONGEE, a Burmese priest of the 
Buddhist persuasion, who inhabits 
a Keoung, or monastery. 

PILAO, PIlAFF, a favourite dish in 
Persia, and not disrelished in India. 
It consists of rice, meat (chiefly fowl 
or mutton), raisins, almonds, chillies, 
cardamoms, all boiled together, and 

served up with a sweet gravy and 
fried onions. 
PINDAEEAS, freebooters inhabiting 
Central India. The name of Pin- 
darra may be found in Indian history 
as early as the commencement of 
the last century ; several bands of 
these freebooters followed the ISIah- 
ratta armies in their early wars in 
Ilindostan. They were divided into 
Durrahs, or tribes, commanded by 
Sirdars, or chiefs; people of every 
country, and of every religion, were 
indiscriminately enrolled in this he- 
terogeneous community, and a horse 
and sword Avere deemed sufficient 
qualifications foradmission. A com- 
mon interest kept them united ; the 
chiefs acquired wealth and renown 
in the Mahratta wars; they seized 
upon lands Avhich they were after- 
wards tacitly permitted to retain, 
and transmitted, with tlieir estates, 
the services of their adherents to 
their descendants. In 1814 they en- 
tered the province of Bahar, and 
threatened Bengal; and in the two 
following years invaded the British 
territories under Fort St. George. 
Passing with the rapidity of lightning 
through the country of the Nizam, 
they suddenly broke in upon the de- 
fenceless district of Guntoor, and in an 
instant spread themselves over the 
face of the country, everywhere com- 
mitting the most shocking and wan- 
ton atrocities. In 1816, they returned 
with redoubled numbers, and extend- 
ing themselves from the coast of 
the Concan to that of Orissa, threw 
the whole southern part of the pe- 
ninsula into a state of alarm. They 
again passed without difficulty, and 
without opposition, through the do- 
minions of our then allies, the Peish- 
wah and the Nizam, carried fire and 
sword almost from one end to the 
other of the district of Ganj am, and 
returned home laden with the spoil, 
and stamed with the blood of our 
subjects. The result of these daring 
attacks on the British territories and 
those of our allies, was the complete 
overthrow of these rapacious tribes, 




and, from our since extended con- 
trol over Central and Western India, 
it may be hoped for ever. A plea- 
sant writer has described the Pin- 
darra in the following familiar man- 
ner : — " The Pindarra Avas a very 
devil-may-care sort of a personage 
in practice, though wanting in that 
dash and romantic attribution, wliich 
render the brigand of Europe so 
tndy and justly interesthig to young 
ladies, and so very terrific and cooUy- 
through-the-head-shooting to imagi- 
native young gentlemen. The Pindar- 
ra was a coarse, unsentimental ruffian, 
"Whom a slight show of opposition 
always caused to keep his distance; 
but as his fierceness of deportment 
and apparent fury generally put the 
villagers into as great a fright as he 
■would otherwise have been in him- 
self, he contrived, for many years, 
anterior to 1816, to have every thing 
so much his own way, that he had 
a thorough notion of his invinci- 
bility, and the smallest Pindarra 
believed himself a Ilustum, at the 
lowest computation. Neither sex 
nor age spared he, if he thought that 
by so doing he would miss a single 
rupee or tlio thinnest silver orna- 
ment, and lie would tear away ear 
and all, to secnire the nudtitudinous 
ear-rings, if there was any inconve- 
nient struggling, or if other circum- 
stances induced him to be in a hurry. 
But in the generality of cases he 
preferred inflicting torture to dealing 
immediate death; for, as dead men 
tell no tales, while tortured ones tell 
almost any thing they are asked to 
tell, the Pindarra did not choose 
that the secret of the hidden treasure 
should be buried in the owner's 
grave. Wherefore, when a gentle- 
man villager — one evidently well to 
do in the world — was suspected of 
having treasure elsewhere than 
about his ill-used person, he had 
spear points, pincers, and similar 
pleasant applications, put to his 
natural sensibility, on tlie principle, 
perhaps, of Dousterswivcl's divining 
rod; but the panacea was a heax^ of 

fine fresh chillies, pomided and put 
into a tobra (horse's nose-bag), and 
the same tied over the recusant's 
face, inasmuch that he had to inhale 
that, or go without, wliich latter 
procedure, if, on the voluntary prin- 
ciple, was next door to suicide. In 
this manner did the Pindarra horde, 
numbering from thirty to fifty thou- 
sand men, lay all India under annual 
contribution for a series of years; 
robbing, slaying, and devastating, 
with virtual impunit}^; and even 
supported by the Mahratta princes 
of the time, who shared in the general 
plimder, and regularly treated with 
tlie bandit chieftains. But the ISIar- 
quis of Hastings i^ut an extinguisher 
on them at last, and thousands of 
villages now stand in safety which 
formerly used to be sacked or har- 
ried, when the nullahs (minor rivers) 
])ecarae fordable, after the rains, 
with greater regularity than the 
border countries of Britain in the 
days of Scott's idolatry. The horse 
of the Pindarra was of the ragged 
order to look at, but he had infinite 
pluck, and would go his forty or fifty 
miles at a stretch, as a thing to 
which he was l)y no means unaccus- 
tomed. He had balls given to him, 
in which opium was an ingredient, 
and these used to stimulate him to 
first-rate exertion, especially if the 
Company's cavalry were hanging oa 
his rear!" 

PISH PASH, an Indian dish; weak 
broth tliickened with rice, and a fowl 
pulled to pieces. 

PODAll, a money-teller, or changer. 

POINT 1)E GALLE, generally called 
Galle (Gal-la in the Cingalese lan- 
guage), a port and town in the 
island of Ceylcjn, seventy -two miles 
south of Colombo, in Lat. G deg. 
1 min. N., and Long. 80 deg. 20 
min. E. Tlie fort is about a mile 
in circumference. The houses in 
general are good and convenient; 
and though some of the principal 
streets are narrow and hot, it is 
reputed, ujion tlie whole, one of the 
most healtliy and agreeable stations 




in the island. There is a Dutch 
churcli, in which divine service is 
pert'ornied in Portuguese by a go- 
vernment proponent. Besides this, 
there is a cliapel belonging to the 
"Wesleyan missionaries, and a Ma- 
honiedan mosque. The Pettah, 
vhich is separated from the fort by 
the esplanade, is extensive, and con- 
tains several good houses, occupied 
chiefly by government servants. 
The steamers plying between Bengal, 
JIadras, and the Hed Sea, coal here. 

POITxV, or ZENNAAR, the sacred 
thread of the Hindoos. Various 
ceremonies are attendant iipon Hin- 
doo boys between infancy and the 
age of eight years. After that age, 
and before a boy is fifteen, it is im- 
perative upon him to receive the 
poita, zennaar, or sacred thread. The 
sacred thread must l)e made by a 
Brahmun. It consists of three 
strings, each ninety-six hands (forty- 
eight yards), which are twisted to- 
gether; it is then folded into three, 
and again twisted ; these are a second 
time folded into the same number, 
and tied at each end in knots. 
It is worn over the left shoulder 
(next the skin, extending half-way 
down the right thigh), by the Brah- 
muns, Kettries, and Vaisya castes. 
The first are usually invested with 
it at eight years of age, the second at 
eleven, and the Vaisyas at twelve. 
The period may, from especial causes, 
be deferred; but it is indispensable 
that it should be received, or the 
parties omitting it become outcasts. 
The Hindoos of the Sudra caste do 
not receive the poita. The ceremony 
is considered as the second birth of 
the Hindoo. A boy cannot be mar- 
ried till he has received the poita. 

POLIGAPt, head of a village district. 
Military chieftain in the peninsula, 
similar to a hill zemindar in the 
Northern Circars, the chief of a 
Pollum (q. V.) 

POUiUM, in the peninsula of India, 
means a district held by a Poligar 
((I. v.); also a town. 


venomous serpent inhabiting the 
island of Ceylon. Its bite destroys 
life in a few minutes. 

PONCH-GHUll (punch-house), the 
name given by the natives of the 
lower orders of Indians to an hotel. 
Punch must have been a common 
drink with the early Portuguese 
settlers or visitors, for we find it in 
use, to signify an hotel or public- 
house, at each of the presidencies. 

city in India, in the province of 
Central or Middle Carnatic, situated 
on the coast, about ninety miles 
south from Madras. It is a hand- 
some, well-built city, belonging to 
the French, and "was once the most 
splendid Eurojiean settlement in 
India, though now much decayed. 

POOD(JOCOTTA, a town in India, in 
the province of Southern Carnatic, 
the capital of the district of Ton- 
diman's country, situated in Lat. 
10 dog. 28 min. N., Long. 78 deg. 58 
min. E., is a remarkably clean, well- 
built town, of modern erection. 

POOJA, Hindoo worship. 

POONA, a city in India, in the pro- 
vince of Bejapore, situated about 
thirty miles to the eastward of the 
Western Ghauts, or Mountains, in 
Lat. 18 deg. 30 min. N., Long. 74 
deg. 2 min. E. It stands on an ex- 
tensive open plain, and is considered 
one of the best-built native cities in 
Hindostan. The small rivers Moota 
and ]Moolai unite at this place, and 
form the Moota Moola, which flows 
into the river Beema; and it is thus 
possil^le, during the rainy season, to 
efiect a journey hy water in a light 
canoe, from within seventy-five miles 
of the west coast of India to the 
Bay of Bengal. Under the Peish- 
wa's government, Poona was the 
capital of the Avestern Mahratta 
empire, and it was here that the 
chiefs were accustomed to assemble 
every year with their followers for 
the celebration of the Dusseera, 
before setting out upon their plun- 
dering excursions into the neigh- 




bourinsf countries. It is now the 
principal English military station of 
the province, and contains about 
100,000 inhabitants. 

cotton harvest. Small grain harvest 
in the Northern Circars. 

POONYUM PATAM, literally, a fair 
or equitable pottah, or written en- 
gagement. A lease where the rent 
and interest of tl:c sum advanced 
by tlie Indian tenant to the landlord 
seem security for each other. 

POOKAH, an Assamese word, signi- 
fying a piece of land containing 
62,900 square feet, and is nearly 
equivalent to a Scotch acre, or three 
and a half Bengal beegahs. 

POORANICK, a Hindoo lecturer, by 
caste a Brahmun. These people live 
by reading to the people the " Poo- 
runs," whicli are written in the 
Sanscrit and Pracrit (ancient and 
modern) languages, and explaining 
to the hearers in the latter, the for- 
mer language beinghardly understood 
by unlettered Hindoos. After read- 
ing the "Pooruns"they collect money, 
fruits, and sweetmeats, and depart. 

POOROOPA, enaums, or grants of 
land, paying a fixed money rent or 
tribute in the Dindigul and Tinne- 
vcUv provinces, 

POPULZYES, a clan of the Dooranee 
trilie of Afghans. 

POREBUNDEK, a town in India, in 
the province of Guzerat, on the 
south-western coast of the peninsula, 
in Lat. 21 deg. 39 min. N., Long. 
69 deg. 45 min. E., is large and 
populous, and one of tlie principal 
trading ports of Guzerat. 

POSHAUK, a breast-plate worn by 
the Malirattas and Rajpoots in for- 
mer times. 

POTAIL, or PATEL, headman of an 
Indian village, who collects the rents 
from the other ri/ots tlierein, and has 
the general superintendence of its 
concerns. The sa.iie person who in 
EeiiLcalis called Mocuddim, andMun- 
dul Oi. V.) 

POTTAH, a lease granted in India to 
the cultivators on the part of go- 

vernment, either written on paper, 
or engraved with a style on the leaf 
of the fan palmira tree, by Euro- 
peans called cculjan. 

PRACRIT, modern Hindostanee. 

PRAHU, or PROW, a small vessel 
used to navigate the Malayan Archi- 

PRASHARIES, stroUing players in 

PREM SAGOR, a Hindostanee le- 
gend, one of tlie books usually put 
into the hands of students of the 
language. Amid a vast deal of fable 
and exaggeration, there is a strong 
vein of probability running through 
this legend, whicli seems to be 
founded upon historical facts, and 
is, perhaps, as true as the Trojan 
war. The assertion that tliere were 
rival kings, and empires so near to 
each other as jMuthura and Delhi; 
that the Clianderee Raja was a 
powerful prince, Benares an inde- 
pendent kingdom ; and that the de- 
feated Yudoobunsees retired to a for- 
tified city, in a circumscribed terri- 
tory, allows the truth to peep out, 
and proves tliat this is nothing more 
than a history of wars between 
pett}'' tribes, inhabiting tracts, which, 
in all probability, were far less po- 
pulous than at this tune, being in a 
great measure covered with tlie ex- 
tensive forests, which are herein 
described as such interminable jun- 
gles. Sir Walter Scott has observed, 
that the eras by which the vulgar, 
in remote ages, compute time, have 
always reference to some pL-riod of 
fear and tribulation, and they date 
by a tempest, a conflagration, or a 
burst of civil commotion. Accord- 
ingly, that Krishn was a cunning 
adventurer, who, with the help of 
his brother's strength and valour, 
took advantage of the unpopularity 
of the ferocious Kunsa, to dethrone 
the reigning monarch of Muthura, 
and carve out a principality lor him- 
self, seems to be near the truth ; and 
it is not without many a parallel in 
the more authentic and more modern 
histories of all nations. The times 




were out of joint, as appears from 
the great war of the Kooroos and 
Pandoos: these families, originally, 
it is supposed, from Kashmeer, or 
perhaps still farther north, from Tar- 
tary, and so far strangers and con- 
querors in the land, are almost proto- 
types of what subsequently occurred 
among the ilahomedans, whose 
downfall, as the ruling dynasty pa- 
ramount of Hindostan, was preci- 
pitated by their intestine divisions; 
and the contests between IMoghul 
and Puthan, which have ultimately 
terminated in the subversion of 
almost all Jloosulman rule. But, if 
the Prem Sagor be interesting as 
shadowing forth, however dimly, the 
ancient and obscured chronicles of 
past ages, it is not less so when 
viewed as a picture of the manners 
of Eld in the East, which, on exami- 
nation will prove that there existed 
a very great similarity to those of 
the better known nations of very 
ancient times. In the Prem Sagor, 
we meet with descriptions of cus- 
toms and weapons not altogether 
obsolete at this day, though super- 
seded among those with whom we 
axe most famiUar, by others of more 
modern date: yet sometimes, among 
the retainers of the more rude and 
isolated chieftains, may be seen arms 
of the ancient time; and perhaps 
among the fastnesses of Chanderee 
and other little -visited fortalices of 
the Deccan, may be deposited pa- 
noply like that which furnished forth 
the legions of Yoodbishthira and 
Duryodhuna, 3000 or, at the lowest 
computation, 1400 years before our 
era; which last is a century prior 
to Pope's date of the Siege of Troy. 
Tlie greater facility for acquiring 
Persian, added to the circumstance 
of few Hindoo books being acces- 
sible, save under the difficult and 
mysterious veil of Sanscrit, has led 
most miUtary men in India to pur- 
sue the former literature; and, as a 
consequence, their knowledge of the 
ancient state of India is confined to 
a smattering of the reigns of half a 

dozen of the more prominent IMoosul- 
man emperors of Dellii, the oldest of 
whom is scarce of 800 years stand- 
ing, identical Avith the period of our 
own Norman conquest; Avliile the 
whole of the purely Hindostanee 
history is a sealed book to the very 
men whose lives are passed among 
the posterity of the Sun and Moon, 
and the, to this day, sectaries of 
Rama and Krishna. The predilec- 
tion for Persian literature may also 
be ascribed to our being early im- 
bued with Moosulman fragments 
and chronicles, through Spam, the 
Crusades, and Turkey; from our 
boyish delight in the Arabian 
Kiglits (borrowed, possibly, from 
these very Hindoos), and from tales 
of genii and fairies, David and So- 
lomon, with whom we are familiar 
from our very earliest youth: but 
it cannot be doubted that this pre- 
ference has much contributed to 
keep us in ignorance of the current 
language of Hindostan Proper, 
which, in many districts, is still 
little adulterated by admixture of 
Persian words. The histories of 
India, too, usually placed in the 
hands of destmed sojourners in the 
land, are ill-adapted to encourage 
them to study the language of the 
Hindoos : ilill, more especially, 
seems to assume rather the tone of 
a controversialist, desirous of throw- 
ing odium and ridicule upon that 
nation, than of a faithful and philoso- 
phical historian. He ridicules their 
pretended antiquity, which, how- 
ever, on comparison Avitli our own 
received accounts, brings the com- 
mencement of their Call yoog to 
within 700 years of the Flood, while 
lie might charitably conclude the 
legends of the three former eras to 
be but exaggerations, monstrous, 
'tis true, of traditions respecting the 
antediluvians, whose stature and 
longevity are, in our own scriptures, 
shown to have been tiir above the 
present standard. Deeply imbued 
with western lore, most men of li- 
terary habits resorting to India have 




been generally incapacitated for an 
impartial judgment of the preten- 
sions of the East : and many, hein;; 
of the clerical i)rofession, have added 
religious disgust to other antipa- 
thies. Thiis, Mr. Ward, in his ex- 
cellent •work, expressing his horror 
at the bloody sacrifices of Kalee, 
describes one by the Kajah of Burd- 
wan, when he immolated some hun- 
dreds of goats and other animals, the 
whole temple being one slaughter- 
house, slippery with gore and filth, 
and resounding with the cries of 
dying victims: forgetting that such 
things are inseparable from the slay- 
ing of beasts, and must have equally 
occurred in the hecatombs of Greece 
and the memorable dedication of the 
Temple of Solomon, when 20,000 
oxen and 100,000 sheep bled before 
the altar. The Prem Sagor, as a 
text-book, should be in the hands of 
every ofiicer of the Indian army who 
has hope and energy to pant for and 
obtain distinction. A diligent study 
of its pages may avail to enable mi- 
litary men gradually to wean the 
minds of those natives with whom 
they come in contact from a debas- 
ing superstition on many points, 
which are, in reality, mere history, 
disguised and exaggerated by priest- 
craft and cunning. It has been said 
that the natives of India, as a body, 
are more intimately acquainted with 
the wars of the Kooroos and Pan- 
doos, &c., than with the modern 
victories of the last century. Tliese 
traditions, therefore, so difficult to 
eradicate, may, by a more diffused 
knowledge of them among Euro- 
peans generally, give us weapons to 
combat the erring faith built upon 
them: treated as mere histories of 
Imman beings, proved to be imi)ious 
impossibilities as jiredicatedof divine 
beings, they will find their own level 
as legends of old ; and, no longer per- 
nicious to the religious feelings, or 
degrading to the understandings of 
men, tliey may be gradually stripped 
of tlieir absurdities and indelicacy, 
and form the groundwork of sen- 

sible chronicles of Hindostan, in- 
centive of honest jiride and patriot- 
ism in her regenerated and disabused 
children, and a monument of the 
zeal and philanthropy of her en- 
lightened rulers. The strong affi- 
nity of some cii-cumstances of Krish- 
na's early history to those of our Sa- 
viour's, such as the massacre of tha 
innocents, the flight, &c., cannot fail 
to strike the student, and, together 
with the sunilarity of the names 
Krishna and Kristos, are undoubt- 
edly singular coincidences. Mr. 
Colebroke has devoted much time 
and research to the elucidation of this 
mystery, which, it seems probable, 
may have arisen from vague accounts 
of the Messiah's birth penetrating to 
India, and being rudely incorporated 
witli the legend of Krishna, whose 
name, however, has no real affinity 
Avith Kristos, being merely an epi- 
thet, signifying " black," his real 
name being Kunhya. However this 
may be, it cannot affect the historical 
part of the Prem Sagor, which, as 
referring to events better known, and 
more prominent than the early child- 
hood of the hero, is probably more 
consistent with facts in the main: 
since, though it would be easy to 
introduce foreign incidents into the 
obscurer years of the young conque- 
ror, there must have been less faci- 
lity in tampering with matters 
which were familiar traditions 
among a people so tenacious oi an- 
cestry as the Hindoos, and in which 
the ancestors of many then living 
must have been implicated. 
PlilT'IIIVI. Prit'hivi, the goddess 
(in Hindoo mythology) of the earth, 
is a form of Lakshmi, or of Parvati. 
Her husl)and is Prit'hu, produced in 
strict accordance with mythological 
extravagance, by churning the right 
arm of a deceased tyrant who had 
died without issue, that he might 
have a posthumous son, who is re- 
presented as a form of Vishnu. TJiis 
primitive couple appear to have 
quarrelled in a very i)rimitive man- 
ners that is, the mother of nature 




■became sulk)'', and would not supply 
her husband or his family (mankind) 
Avith food. I'rit'hu, in consequence, 
beat and -wounded her: on which she 
assumed the form of a cow, and com- 
plained to the gods; who, liaving 
heard both sides of the question, 
allowed him and his children to treat 
her in a similar manner whenever 
she again became stubborn and 
sulky. As a form of Lakshrai, Pri- 
t'hivi is the Indian Ceres. Daily 
sacrifices are offered to her. The 
Hindoos divide the earth into ten 
parts, to each of which a deity is 

PUCHESEE, the game of " twenty- 
five," much in vogue among the 

PUCK ALLY, a man who, in the In- 
dian ijeninsula, carries water in 
leathern bags or skins, on a bullock. 
He is called a Bheestie in other 
parts of India. 

PUGGREE, the turban of the native 
of India. The variety of this head- 
gear is infinite. It consists of all 
sorts of materials, and is of every 
kind of colour. Folds of white mus- 
lin are, however, the most usual 
material, but there is no describing 
the diversity of form given to them. 
The banj'ans of "\7estern India wear 
ample turbans with a projecting 
peak; the baboo of Eastern India 
twists his puggree into tlie semblance 
of a barber's basin inverted; the 
sircars, keranees, shraffs, and rajahs 
wear small turbans of inelegant 
cushion shapes on the crown of their 
heads. None of them, indeed, con- 
form to English notions of Oriental 
elegance. In Turkey alone is the 
tastefully-folded turban, Avith its 
flowinsc ends, to be seen. 

PUGGREE BUND, turban wearers, 
a term employed by the natives of 
Bengal to distinguish the people of 
the country from the Europeans or 
Topee Wallas {hat men). 

PULICAT, a town in India, in the 
province of Central or IMiddle Car- 
natic, situated on tlie sea-coast, about 
twenty-five miles north from Madras. 

It formerly belonged to the Dutch, 
wlio established themselves in it in 
the year 1609. Tlie town stands on 
the bank of a lake, of about forty 
miles in length and six in breadth, 
wliich communicates by means of a 
canal with Madras. 

PULSEE, one of the numerous sub- 
divisions of Hindoo castes. They 
chiefly profess the healing art in 
Western India, and are, in their 
medical capacity, called Josees. 
Tliey have a small dispensary in 
their own houses, and although they 
scarcely believe in Euro^jean medi- 
cines, and know little or nothing 
about anatomy and chemistry, pre- 
ferring the use of " simples" and 
jungle roots, their services are much 
in demand among the natives and 

PU^MPLENOSE (citrus decumanus). 
There seems no doubt with botanists 
that Java is the native country of 
this fine fruit, of which the best 
varieties almost rival a good orange, 
and its easy growth and abundant 
bearing make it in fact pretty nearly 
the orange of the iater-tropical 
coimtry, or where, from want of ele- 
vation or peculiarity of soil or cli- 
mate, the orange is difficult to rear. 
This is the case in Calcutta, which 
is supplied witli oranges from the 
Sylliet Hills. In the West Indies 
this fruit is called the shaddock, and 
is said to be so named after the cap- 
tain of the ship who brought it from 
the East, whicli seems probable, for 
it is not mentioned in the writings 
of the early Spanish authors. The 
varieties of the fruit are numerous, 
and of all degrees of flavour, from that 
of a rich sugary orange, melting in 
the mouth, to a tough half-sour and 
half-dry taste, which prejudices 
many against the fruit. It is a sin- 
gularity tliat the trees which bear 
very fine ones one year, will give but 
indifferent ones the next; but this 
may be owing to the utter want of 
all care and culture which our tree- 
fruits invariably experience. A tree 
which gives fruit is, to the native of 




Benjjal, somethina; so ready-made to 
liis hand, tliat he does not seem even 
to suspect it can be improved. In 
Upper India, where, through their 
Tartar, Persian, and Afghan neigh- 
bours and conquerors, they have 
some ideas of gardening, and even 
boolvs upon it, much more attention 
is paid to these matters, but the cli- 
mate there becomes too severe for 
the Puraplenose. There can be no 
doubt from the richness of flavour of 
the finer sorts, that they are sus- 
ceptible of vast improvement. The 
sherbet prepared from them is a 
most grateful drink to the sick, and 
the fruit itself, if good ones can be 
had, is an invaluable sea stock. 

PUN, Ilindostanee. A handful of 
cowries, equivalent to twenty gun- 
das. Five puns, or 400 cowries, 
constitute one anna, the sixteenth 
part of a rupee. 

" May Heaven protect us!" 

assembled. An assembly or jury 
of five persons to whom a cause is 
referred for investigation and deci- 
sion. An ancient Hindoo establish- 

PUNDIT, a learned Brahmun. 

PUNGANOOK, a fortified town in 
India, in the province of Balaghat, 
situated about fifty miles north-west 
from Vellore, in Lat. 13 deg. 21 min. 
N., Long. 78 deg. 3 min. E. It is 
the residence of a Polygar, generally 
styled the Punganoor Kajali, wlio 
holds the town and a small adjoin- 
ing district under tribute to the 

PUNJAB. See Lahore. 

PUNJAH, land in India that cannot 
be easily watered l)y artificial means, 
depending chiefly on the falihig 
rains for irrigation, and, tlierefore, 
unfit for the cultivation of rice. 

PUNKAH, a fan. The heat of the 
climate of India renders tlie constant 
use of a fan so indispensable, that 
in Euro])ean houses there is usually 
a iternianent one fixed in all the 
principal apartments, and kept in 

motion by one of the bearers of the 
establishment. This description of 
punkah is formed of a thin kind of 
canvass stretched over an oblong^ 
frame work of from six to ten feet 
in length, and three feet in width, 
and suspended from the ceiling of 
the room to Avithin four feet of the 
table. A rope attached to the centre 
of the punkah, and carried high 
above the heads of the occuijants of 
the apartment, passes through an 
aperture in the wall, outside of 
which the servant sits and pulls the 
punkah. The agitation of the ma- 
chine keeps the room, which would 
otherwise, at times, be insupport- 
able, pleasantly cool. jMany per- 
sons take much pride in their pun- 
kahs, decorating them with gold 
mouldings and ornaments, or paint- 
ing them in distemper to correspond 
with the walls, and finishing them 
with a fluted linen fringe. The hand 
punkahs, Avhich are of various di- 
mensions, are formed of the leaf of 
the cocoa-nut tree (see Talipot), or 
of kuss-kuss, silk, or talc, but the 
latter are more for ornament, on 
occasion of bridal processions, 
nautches, &c., than for any useful 

PUHANAS, Hindoo mythological 

PUKUAHS, curtains made of Kurwah 
(or gu:zy), or both mixed in per- 
pendicular stripes of eight or ten 
inches wide eacli ; some arc of shal- 
loon, perpet, or very coarse broad 
cloth. Those purdahs wliich are 
made of Kurwuh, or otlier cotton 
stutl', are generally quilted Avith 
cotton, or are composed of many 
folds, or have coarse blankets inlaid 
between their outer coatings. Their 
l)est use is certainly to deaden sounds ; 
hence, they are advantageously sus- 
pended outside the doors of sleepinj^ 
or other retired apartments; when 
by closing the doors, privacy and 
quiet may usually be eflected. The 
jiresence of a purdah usually indicates 
the exclusion of males; and that the 
apartments, Avithin that entrance. 




are devoted to the accommodation of 

PUKIIARIAIIS, or Hill People, of 
mountainous districts in India. 
These people are in some places 
more immediately distinguished by 
the designation of Danga]is; they 
are of small stature, extremely poor, 
rather squalid, but capable of under- 
going great fatigue. They are won- 
derfully adroit in the exercise of the 
tow; and, after performing the little 
labour needful for the cultivation of 
tlie valleys, generally repair, at cer- 
tain seasons, to the military and 
civU stations in the neighbouring 
districts of Ehamgur, &c., wiiere 
they serve as dawk bearers. Some 
thousands of them have of late years 
emigrated to Mauritius, Demerara, 
Trinidad, and other West India co- 
lonies, where they are found of 
great utility on the sugar planta- 

PUKRAjMPOKE, land in India utterly 
unproductive, such as sites of towns 
and villages ; beds of rivers, and, in 
some cases, of tanks ; roads and ex- 
tensive tracts of stony and rocky 
ground where no iilough can go. 

PURVOE, the sircar of Western In- 
dia, Bombay, the Deccan, &e. See 

PURWASTEE, favour, protection. 
You purwastee a native when you 
cast the shield of protection over his 
misdeeds, or advance him in life. It 
is a word constantly in the mouths 
of dependents in India, but more 
particularly used when they have 
any great favour to ask. 

PUSSEREE, a five seer weight, in 
very general use in India. 

PUTTEE, the name of a low caste of 
people who till the land in Tanjere, 
and are considered the slaves of the 

PUTTOO, a species of coarser and 
thicker manufacture of the refuse 
shawl goat-wool, mixed with the 
long hairs. It is always of the colour 
of the hare's skin, and extremely 

PUTTU^, a town in India, in the 

province of Guzerat, situated on the 
south side of the Suruswate river, in 
Lat. 2.3 deg. 4S min. N., Long. 72 
deg. 2 min. E. This was the ancient 
capital of Guzerat, and was formerly 
styled Nuhowala. 

PUTT UN, Hindostanee. Regiment, 

PUTTUN-SOMNATH, a place in 
India, in the province of Guzerat, 
on the south-west coast of the penin- 
sula, in Lat. 20 deg. 53 min. N., 
Long. 70 deg. 35 min. E., is noted 
on account of its celebrity as a place 
of pilgrimage for the Hindoos. 
There was formerly a temple here, 
in which was an idol of very great 
repute. Mahmood, of Ghuznee, al- 
lured by the report of its riches, 
attacked and captured the town in 
1024, and destroyed the idol. The 
Brahmims entreated him to spare 
the image, and even ofiered a very 
large sum of money for its ransom, 
but JIahmood Avas deaf to their 
solicitations. The idol was broken 
in pieces, Avhen, to the agreeable 
surprise of the Mahomedans, an im- 
mense store of precious stones, as 
well as of monej^ was found con- 
cealed inside it. The idol was, in 
fact, the treasury of the Brahmuns, 
Avho had, therefore, good reason for 
the great love they professed towards 
it. The gates of the temple were 
carried to Ghuznee as trophies, but 
m the year 1842 the British troops 
brought them back to India. 

PYCAUST, Hindostanee. An inferior 
or under-teuant. The term applied 
to lands, means cultivated by an 
under-tenant or peasant belonging 
to another village. 

PYCAUST RYOTS, Hindostanee. 
Under-tenants or cultivators. Those 
who cultivate lands in a village to 
which they do not belong, and hold 
their lands upon a more indefinite 
tenure than the khode khosht rj/ots, 
the pottahs, or leases under which 
they hold, being generally granted 
with a limitation in point of time. 

PYJA]\IAS, trousers, generally ap- 
plied to loose and capacious panta- 




loons, supported by a tape or silk 
cord drawn round the waist. Many 
of these (composed either of sillr, 
long-cloth, or ginirhani) are made to 
cover the feet entirely, and so pro- 
tect them from the attacks of mus- 
PYlvE, a foot messenger. A person 
employed in India as a night M-atch 
in a village, and as a runner or 
messenger on the business of the 


QUEDAH. See Malatah. 

"Who is there?" or "Who waits?" 
In domestic establishments in Ben- 
gal, where no bells are used, a ser- 
vant sits outside the room in Avhich 
his master or mistress may be, and 
is summoned to the presence by the 
foregoing exclamations. Hence, the 
Europeans who reside in Bengal are 
called Qui-ht/es, to distinguish them 
from the residents of Bombay, Ma- 
dras, or Ceylon. 

QUILON (KOOLLUM), a town in 
India, in the province of Travancore, 
situated on the coast, in Lat. 8 deg. 
53 min. N., Long. 7G deg. 39 min. E. 
This was formerly the principal 
town of the province, and is still 
a place of considerable native trade. 


EACKI, arrack, or indeed spirits of 
any kind. The Avord is in use in 
Persia and Asia Minor. 

EADHUMPORE, in the province of 
Guzerat, in Ilindostan, situated in 
Lat. 23 deg. 40 min. N., Long. 71 
deg. 31 min. E., the residence of a 
Mahomedan chieftain, the descend- 
ant of the last Mahomedan guvernors 
of the province of Guzerat. 

EAIIDAIIS, Persian. Guards or keep- 
ers of the road ; a sort of police es- 
tablished at particular stations for 
the purpose of collecting duties, pre- 

serving the peace, and protecting 
travellers against thieves and rob- 

RAHDAEEEE, Hindostanee. Keep- 
ing the roads. The term applied to 
duties, means those collected at dif- 
ferent stations in the interior of the 
country from passengers, and on 
account of grain and other necessa- 
ries of life, by the Zemindars and 
other officers of government, being 
a branch of the Sayer. 

EAHU, in Hindoo mythology, is by 
some called the son, and by others 
the grandson of Kasyapa, and is the 
planet of the ascending node. He 
is also variously represented on a 
lion, a flying dragon, an owl, and a 
tortoise. He is worshipped in mis- 
fortune, and to avert the approach 
of evil spirits, malignant diseases, 
earthquakes, comets, &c., and espe- 
cially during an eclipse. He is re- 
presented without a head, which is 
supposed to belong to his other por- 

EA JAH, king, prince, chieftain, noble- 
man. A title in ancient times given 
to chiefs of the second or military 
Hindoo tribe only. 

EAJAMUNDRl^ a district in India, 
in the Northern Circars, lying along 
both sides of the Godavery river, 
and from its being so well watered, 
is the most fruitful of all the Circars. 
About thirty-five miles from the 
sea the Godavery divides into two 
branches, and forms a triangular or 
three-cornered island, called Nagur, 
or Nagrum, containing about 500 
square miles of ground, and very 
fertile. The Eajamundry forests in 
the hills along the southern bank of 
the Godavery abound with teak. 
The other principal productions of 
this district are sugar and rice. 

EAJAMUNDRY {liaja-muhundrce\ a 
town in India, the capital of the dis- 
trict of tlie same name, in tiie pro- 
vince of Nortiiern Circars, situated on 
the northern bank of the Godavery 
river, in Lat. IG deg. 59 min. N., 
Long. 81 deg. 53 min. E., about fifty 
miles from the sea. It is a largo 




tovrn. Durintj the rainy season, the 
Godavcry is here about a mile 
broad. Below the town it separates 
into several branches, forming a 
number of fertile deltas and large 

EAJE, the title, office, or jurisdiction 
of a rajah. 

EAJ'HUN, the red flamingo. They 
frequent the lakes of the north- 
western provinces of India. 

EAJMISTKEE, Hindostanee. A 
master mason or head mason ; the 
man to whom the instructions are 
given on the occasion of building a 
house or other edifice. 

RAJPOOTS, natives of the peninsula 
of Guzerat, commonly known under 
the name of Kattiwar. They are 
divided into several tribes, standing 
in power and wealth tims : — 1. Jha- 
rejah ; 2. Jhalla ; 3. Goil ; and 4. 
Jetwah. The Jharejahs, who are 
the most powerful and numerous of 
the Rajpoot tribes, are a brancli of 
the family of Rao of Cutch, who in 
consequence of intestine feuds, left 
their country about a.d. 800, and 
having crossed the Runn at the head 
of the Gulf of Cutch, established 
themselves upon the ruins of the 
Jetwah Rajpoots and a few petty 
Mahomedan authorities which at 
that time existed in Halar. The 
character of the Rajpoot of Kattiwar 
is composed of the extremes of 
praiseworthy and objectionable qua- 
lities. Pie is hospitable to strangers, 
and will defend them at the expense 
of his life and property. Indolent 
and effeminate to an extreme degree, 
he will, in cases of emergency, or 
when his own interest is involved, 
be roused to an incredible exertion 
of energy and activity. As an ene- 
my he is often cruel. Impatient of 
an insult or injury, though seldom 
or ever offering one, he is, upon the 
whole, an inoffensive character; but 
what may, perhaps, be considered 
the most admirable ingredient in the 
composition of his mind, is a certain 
pride of family, which raises him 
above the level of his neighbours, 

and which, united with a passionate 
love of liberty and attachment to 
each other, forms a character, which, 
if it does not call for admiration from 
its virtues, is probably entitled to it 
on the score of novelty. In stature, 
he may be considered to exceed the 
natives of the Deccan, being gene- 
rally tall, but not of a robust frame. 
The complexion of the respectable 
Raji)oot is generally fair ; contour 
of the face, long ; nose, aquiline ; 
and eyes, large, but devoid of ani- 
mation ; the general expression of 
the face is pleasing. The Rajpoot 
women of high rank are often of 
an intriguing disposition, and always 
meddle in the affairs of their hus- 
band. Every rajah has several 
wives, each of whom has a sejiarate 
establishment of friends, relations, 
servants, lands, and every thing else. 
Each is jealous of the influence of 
the others over their lord, who, by 
the time he is forty years old, is 
generally a victim of opium, tobacco, 
or spirituous liquors, and other ex- 
citing drugs. If one of the wives 
has offspring, the others practise 
deceit upon the family, and every 
woman of spirit has a son. Dissen- 
sion and discord prevail, and it has 
become almost as rare an event for 
a rajah to leave this world in peace 
and quiet, as it is for a Rajpoot 
guddee to be filled by a person, the 
purity of whose birth is perfectly 
ascertained. Tliis melancholy pic- 
ture of the morals of Rajpoot ladies 
is confined solely to the higher 
classes ; and the female sex in Kat- 
tiwar, generally speaking, are mo- 
dest, chaste, and faithful to their 
lords, and kind and hospitable to 
strangers. As a proof of the former, 
there are few or no women of easy 
virtue in the villages, and those in 
the large towns are frequently na- 
tives of other countries. The word 
Rajpoot literally signifies son of a 
raiah or king. 
RAMA CHANDRA, the seventh 
avatar of Vishnu, in the Hindoo 
mythology. lu this avatar Vishnu 




appears in the person of a coura- 
geous and virtuous prince to punisli 
a monstrous giant. 
RAAIAYANA, an epic poem in the 
Sanscrit language, forming part of 
tlie Vedas. 
RAMAYUM, an epic poem, describing 

tlie exploits of Kama. 
RAMXAD, a city in India, in the dis- 
trict of Madura, in the province of 
Southern Carnatic, situated near 
the coast, in Lat. 9 deg. 23 niin. N., 
Long. 78 deg. 56 min. E. It is the 
capital of a pollum, generally styled 
the Eamnad zumeendaree, which 
•*vas granted to the present zumeen- 
dar's family, imder the Hindoo go- 
vernment of Madura, with the title 
of Sutti-pntli, for the defence of the 
road, and protection of the pilgrims 
resorting to the pagoda of lianiise- 
rum. The town is of an irregular 
appearance, and contains nothing of 
RA:MXUGGUE. See Nerbudda. 
RAM00SI':E. See Bueel. 
RAMPORE, a place in India, in the 
province of Delhi, situated about 
twent}' miles to the eastward of 
Mooradabad. It is the residence of 
a Kohilla chief, styled the Nabob of 
Rampore, and is celebrated on ac- 
count of a severe action which took 
place a few miles from it in 1794, 
t)etween the Rohillas and the British 
RAM KA^tf, the ordinary salutation 
of the Hindoos to each other and to 
the images of certain deities. 
RANA, a Hindoo chieftain or sove- 
reign among the hill tribes only. 
RANGOON, in llie country of Ava, in 
Asia. This place, which on account 
of its trade may be considered as 
perhaps the jiriiicipal city of the 
Burman empire, is situated on the 
Irawaddee river, about twenty- 
eight miles from the sea. It is a 
dirty mean-looking town, built of 
wuod and l)amI)oo, and surrounded 
l)y a weak stockade. Outside the 
town, and about two miles and a half 
from it, stands the Shoe J)agon I'a- 
godii, built upon a snudl hill, seventy- 

five feet above the road. It is 338 
feet high, and is surmounted by a 
cap of brass, forty-five feet high, the 
whole covered with gilding. 
RANNICE, queen, princess, wife of an 

Indian rajah (q. v.) 
RASDAREE, dancing boys attached to 

temples in the Indian ghauts. 
RAT'H JATTRA, the throne and car 
of Juggernaut. On the occasion of 
the festivals of Juggernaut, he is 
accompanied by his brother Bala 
Rama, and his sister Subhadra, and 
is conveyed to a place about a mile 
from the temple at Porce. This 
throne, on Avhich he is seated, is 
fixed on a stupendous car, sixty feet 
in height; the enormous weight of 
which, as it passes slowly along, 
deeply furrows the ground over 
which it rolls. Immense cables are 
attached to it, by which it is drawn 
along by thousands of men, women, 
and even infants ; as it is considered 
an act of acceptable devotion to assist 
in urging forward this horrible ma- 
chine, on which, round the throne of 
the idol, are upwards of a hundred 
priests and tlieir attendants. As the 
ponderous car rolls on, some of the 
devotees and worshippers of the idol 
throw themselves under the wheels, 
and are crushed to death; and num- 
bers lose their lives by the pressure 
of the crowd. 
RATNAPURA (the City of Jewels), 
is fifty-two miles south-cast of Co- 
lombo, in Ceylon, on the banks of 
the Kalu Ganga. On the right bank 
of the river stands a small fort, still 
kept in good repair, and commanding 
a delightful and extensive view of 
the surrounding country. The Pettah 
is large and i)opulous. Tlio whole of 
the low country around is sometimes 
for several weeks together overflowed 
with water. Some of the finest, most 
extensive, and fertile tracts of the 
whole country lie in this district. 
The people in general have less ap- 
pearance of poverty than in most 
other places. 
REIS EFEENDI, a Turkish Secretary 
of State. 




EEISn-SUFFERED. Persian. White- 
beard; an elder or patriarch of a tribe 
or village. 

EHUT, a creakincT kind of cart, com- 
jiosed of «"ood and rope, in which the 
native ladies of Upper India, con- 
cealed from public view by thick 
curtains, huddle themselves when 
they travel or pay visits. 

ETSHIS, in Hindoo mj'thology, the 
children of the Menus, the offspring 
of the Brahraadicas, who were the 
sons of Brahma. They are seven 
in inimber, and are named Kasyapa, 
Atri, Vasishta, Viswamitra, Gau- 
tama, Jamadagni, and Bharadwaja. 
They are, astronomically, the hus- 
bands of the Pleiades. 

EI8SALDAR, an officer of the Irre- 
gular India cavalry, Avhose rank cor- 
responds with that of a captain of 
a troop. 

EODIYAS, or outcasts, a tribe who 
inliabit different parts of the interior 
of the island of Ceylon. They are 
looked upon by the other natives as 
persons of so degraded a character, 
that ihey wUl have no communica- 
tion with a Rodiya village. They 
have a wild and rough appearance, 
and scarcely wear any clothing. The 
only dress of either male or female 
is a piece of cloth tied round their 
loins. They live partly by cultiva- 
ting the lands that belong to the 
villages which they inhabit, and 
partly by robbery and plunder. 
They have no marriage rites, but 
live together p^omiscuouslJ^ It is 
also doubtful Avhether they have 
any religious worship, as they are so 
much despised by other people that 
no one Avould frequent a Wiliara or 
Dewata to which the Ilodiyas 

EOOEE (rooee-mutcMee), a species of 
carp found in all the great rivers of 
Lidia, and likewise in tanks or ponds. 
They are sometimes caught of great 
weight, from fifty to eighty pounds. 

EOOM, the Persian term for Constan- 

EOOMAL, handkerchief; the name 
also given to the kerchief used by 

theTlmgs, or Phanseegars, in stran- 
gling their victims. 

ROOSHUN, light, splendour ; a com- 
mon name for a favourite horse 
amongst the Persians. 

ROOSTUM, a hero, celebrated for his 
deeds of arms in the Shah Nameh of 

ROTAS, a strong fortress in India, in 
the province of Lahore, or the Pun- 
jab, situated about 100 miles to the 
northward of the city of Lahore. 
It is much celebrated in the early 
history of the Maliomedans in India, 
one of their main bulwarks between 
Tartary and Hindostan. 

ROWANA, a Hindostanee passport, 
or permit. 

ROWTEE, a small tent for the accom- 
modation of sepoys and private sol- 
diers in the army of Western India. 
The rowtee is likewise used by 
officers as a cooking-tent, or a domi- 
cile for their domestics. 

RUNDEELOGUE, Hindostanee. The 
woman kind. 

RUNGPORE, the principal town of 
the country of Assam, in Asia, in 
regard to size and importance, situ- 
ated on the river Dikho, in Lat. 26 
deg. 55 min. N., Long. 94cleg. 30 min. 
E. It is a walled to^vn, and contains 
several mosques and other buildings. 

RUPEE, the name of a silver coin of 
comparatively modern currency in 
India, for it is remarkable that there 
does not exist any specimens m that 
metal of a date anterior to the estab- 
lishment of the Mahomedan power 
in India ; while a great many in 
gold have been preserved of a far 
higher antiquity. The silver cur- 
rency is uniform throughout India, 
and consists of rupees, half rupees, 
and quarter rupees, or four anna 
pieces. The rupee represents six- 
teen annas (q. v.), equal to 2s. Eng- 

RUSSOOM, customs, customary com- 
missions, gratuities, fees, or perqui- 
sites. Shares of the crops and ready- 
money pajnnents received by iiublic 
officers in India as perquisites at- 
tached to their situations. 




tomary perquisites attached to the 
oflBce of a Zemindar in India. Per- 
quisites, or shares of the sayer duties 
allowed to Zemindars; and deduc- 
tions from the collections equal to 
about five per cent, on the net re- 
ceipts in the mofussil treasury, en- 
joyed by the Zemindars in addition 
to tlieir nancar or savcram lands. 

EUTTEE, a weight of 1875 grains 
troy, used chiefly by goldsmiths and 
jewellers in India, and employed 
in the native evaluation, by assay, 
of the precious metals. 

EYACOTTA, a fort in the province of 
Baramahal, in India, situated about 
fifteen miles to the east of Kistna- 
gherry. It is built upoji a rocky 
mountain, 1150 feet in perpendicular 
height, and is a place of some 
strength, the present fortifications 
being principally of English construc- 
tion. It commands one of the i^asses 
from the Carnatic into j\l3'sore. 

EYOT, the tiller of the soil in India; 
the husbandman; the peasant. 

EYOTTEE, relating to a ryot, 
Ihjottee lands are those in which the 
ryots pay the government dues in 
money ; contradistinguished from 
khomar lands, in which they are paid 
in kind. 

EYOTWAIv, according to, or with 
ryots. A ryotwar, or hulwar, set- 
tlement is a settlement made by go- 
vernment immediately w^ith the 
ryots individually, under which the 
government receives its dues in the 
form of a money-rent fixed ou the 
land itself in cidtivation, and not 
being a pecuniary comnmtatit)n for 
its share of the produce, varying as 
the extent of tlie produce may vary 
in each year ; but under an aumanee 
settlement the government receives 
its dues in kind from each culti- 

SAADI, a Persian poet, who was the 
author of the earhest pieces iu lliu- 
dostanec verse. 

SACTIS, the consorts or energies of 
the Hindoo gods: thus Parvati is 
t\\Q sacti of Siva; Lakshmi, that of 
Vishnu; and Suraswati, Brahma or 
Brahmini, of Brahma. As their 
energies, they participate in their 
various avatars, or incarnations : 
Lakshmi. in those of Vishnu, being 
Varahi, Is'arasinhi, Sita, Eadha, &:c., 
and iu like manner are the other 

NUM, a town in India, in the pro- 
vince of Central or Middle Carnatic, 
situated on the sea coast, about forty 
miles south from Madras. It belongs 
to the Dutch, who settled there ia 
1 647 ; and it was formerly a flourish- 
ing town, but it now consists of 
merely a few houses, and a native 
village. About five miles to the 
northward of Sadras is a Brahmuu 
village, called Mahabalipuram {Muha 
Bulipoorum, the city of the great 
Bull, one of the titles of Vislmu), or 
as it is named by the English, the 
Seven Pagodas,, remarkable for va- 
rious extraordinary remains of Hin- 
doo temples and sculptures of great 
antiquity. According to the Hindoo 
legends, there was, at some very 
remote period, a considerable town 
at this place, the site of which is now 
covered by the sea. 

SAPEE NAM AH, a testimonial given 
by the defendant in the native courts 
of Intlia upon the final settlement of 
a cause, that the matter in dis^mte 
has been cleared up or settled. 

SAHEB, "gentleman," "sir." It is 
always added in addressing or speak- 
ing of Europeans in India or Persia: 
as "Colonel Saheb," Colonel; "Lord 
Saheb," Lord, the Bishop or Go- 
vernor General; "Elchec Saheb," 
the Ambassador. 

SAHIB KAllOON, a Persian silver 
coin of about the value of a shilling. 

SAHIB L( )GUE, tlie conmion appella- 
tion given to European gentlemen in 

SAIIRAB, Persian. Water of the 
desert; mirage. 

SAlGU2s"G, the largest and most im- 




portant city in Cochin China, It is 
situated on tlie banlcs of the Donnai, 
in Lat. 10 (leg. 47 min. N., Long. 
107 (leg. 5 min. E. It is an exten- 
sive city and well built, and has a 
fortress of considerable strength con- 
structed upon European principles. 
It is the chief naval depot of the 
empire, and has large arsenals and 
numerous ship-builders. Its popu- 
lation is estimated at about 200,000. 

SAKA, a Turkish water-carrier. 

SALA, simply, in Hindostanee, bro- 
ther-in-law. But although there is 
nothing particularly offensive in 
being a brother-in-law, the word, 
when used witliout reference to 
domestic ties, is considered abusive. 

SALAAM. This word is indifferently 
used in India to express compliments 
or salutations. Sending a person 
your salaam is equivalent to pre- 
senting^ your compliments. The 
personal salaam or salutation is 
an obeisance executed by bending 
the head slightly downwards, and 
placing the palm of the riglit hand 
on the forehead. This gesticulation 
is universal throughout India. 

with you!" The ordinary Mahome- 
dan salutation. 

SALAGKAMA, stones sacred to 
Vishnu, and valued according to 
the perforations and spiral curves in 
each, as they are thereby supposed 
to contain Vishnu and Lakshmi in 
their different characters. The sala- 
grama is worshipped daOy by the 
Brahmuns, and is used in the sever;d 
Hindoo ceremonies of Srad'ha, &c. 
One should be always placed near 
the bed of a dying person, and the 
marks on it shown to him. This is be- 
lieved to secure his soul an introduc- 
tion to the heaven of Vishnu. The 
Biulang stones, which are found in 
the Nerbudda river, arc also wor- 
sliipped as emblems of Siva. 

SALEM, a province of India, bounded 
on the north by the Barmahaal and 
Central Carnatic; cast, Central Car- 
natic; south, Southern Carnatic and 
Coimbatore; west, Coimbatore and 

Mysoi'c. The only river of any note 
is the Cavery, which flows along the 
western side of the province. It is 
an elevated district, generally open, 
with occasional ridges and clusters 
of hills, and towards its western 
boundary mountainous. The She- 
varay hills, in the vicinity of the 
town of Salem, are particularly 
noted, and have been much resorted 
to Ity Europeans for change of 
climate. These hills consist of three 
distinct divisions, the Salem Naad, 
the Moko Naad, and the Moottoo 
Naad. This last is the highest, its 
elevation above the sea being about 
5000 feet. It has a table-land, seven 
miles by three, producing coffee of 
very good quality, wheat, barley, 
and millet. The inhabitants of these 
hills are exclusively of the VuUaler 
caste, and according to their own 
traditions, emigrated from Conje- 
varum about the year 1200. The 
chief productions of this province are 
rice, maize, cotton, coffee, saltpetre, 
and magnesia. Its cotton manu- 
factures of all kinds are extensive. 
The principal towns are Dhurm- 
pooree, Salem, and Namkool. The 
inhabitants are chiefly Hindoos; the 
religion is principally Ilindooism, 
and the language Tamil and Te- 

SALEM, the capital of the province of 
Salem, in India, situated in a plain, 
six miles south of the Shevaray 
hills, in Lat. 11 deg. 37 min. N., 
Long. 78 deg. 13 min. E. It is a 
celebrated mart for cotton goods. 

SAMAKCAND, a town in the division 
of Bokhara, in Tartary, situated near 
the southern bank of the Zur- 
Ufshan, about 120 miles to the east- 
ward of Bokhara. This was in the 
early times of the Mahomedan power 
one of the most renowned cities of 
the East, and it is still regarded with 
great veneration liy the people of the 
country; and no king of Bokhara is 
considered by them to be the lawful 
sovereign who has not possession of 
Samarcand. It was the capital of Ti- 
mour, whose tomb still remains. It 




has now declined to a provincial town 
of not more than 10,000 inhabitants, 
and gardens and fields occupy the 
place of its former streets and 
mosques. A few colleges and other 
buildings still exist, some of them of 
beautiful architecture, particularly 
one which originally formed the ob- 
servatory of the celebrated astro- 
nomer, Ulug Beg. The manufacture 
of paper was introduced into Europe 
from this city, on its conquest by 
the Mahomedans, about the year 
SAMBUR, the, (cervus Aris toteJis) 
is the largest of the deer tribe in 
Asia, a full-grown stag frequently 
attaining the height of sixteen hands 
at the shoulder. The colour, with 
the exception of a white under lip, 
and a pale j-ellow disc round the 
eye, is tan below, and of an uniform 
dull brown above, varying to slate 
colour in some specimens, and even 
almost verging upon black. The 
hair is coarse, resembling split whale- 
bone in its texture, and increasing 
in length about the neck and shoul- 
ders, so as to form a long shaggy 
mane, susceptible of being fully 
erected when the animal is excited, 
at which periods both the suborbital 
cavities and the nostrils are dilated 
to their utmost extent. These pe- 
culiarities, added to an incessant 
stamping of tlie fore foot, and vici- 
ous grinding of the teeth, the latter 
accompanied by a coi)ious flow of 
saliva, impart a singularly ferocious 
aspect, the animal being withal ex- 
ceedingly muscular and formidable. 
The eye is small, but remarkably 
brilliant and mcclainf. The antlers, 
•which are imiformly cast in the 
month of April (the time at which 
the rutting season commences), and 
reproduced during the rains, aug- 
ment progressively in volume willi 
the age of the animal, imtil tluy 
attain an enormous size. Tliey stand 
upon a short and broad pedicle, and 
consist of a round rugous beam, Avith 
a ponderous brow and bez-antler — 
the burr being pearled and very pro- 

minent. The female resembles the 
male in shape and colour, but is on 
a smaller scale, and has no horns. 
She produces one or two at a birth. 
Tlie apple of the tree, called by the 
natives of India viendhole, constitutes 
the favourite food of the sambur, and 
it is attached also to all bitter forest 
fruits. Its cry or call is a shrill pipe 
resembling wired music, or the sound 
produced by striking a gong with 
great violence. The animal, when 
alarmed, also emits a sound which 
in tlie jungles might often be mis- 
taken for the rumbling of distant 
thunder. At these times, the whole 
of the hair on the body bristles on 
end, and there is a cold shivering of 
the whole frame, which appears to 
create this rumbling internally. 
This phenomenon has never been 
noticed by writers on the natural 
history of the sambur. It is grega- 
rious in small troops, a single patri- 
archal stag being usuallj" lord of 
about a score of does. Timid, vigi- 
lant, and active; endowed also with 
the use of sight, hearing, and smell, 
in the highest degree of perfection, 
the sambur is exceedingly ditiicult 
of access. Earely descending from 
his chosen haunts in the heart 
of the most dense and unfrequented 
forests, he looks down witli contempt 
upon his pursuers from the rocky 
pinnacles of the mountain, whose 
rugged sides he has traversed with 
the greatest facility. 
SANI, or SHUNI, is, according to the 
Hindoos, the planet Saturn. He is 
described of a dark colour, and 
clothed in black, holding a sword, 
arrows, and two daggers in his 
hands. His vahan is variously re- 
presented, being by some called a 
black vulture or raven, and by 
others an elei)hant. He is old, ugly, 
lame, of an evil disposition, has long 
hair, nails, and tectli. and is of the 
Sudra caste. It is unfortunate to be 
born under this planet, and the ills 
of life are ascril'ed to his influence, 
as he is supjiosed to be skilled in all 
kinds of wickedness. lu the Avor- 




ship of liim numerous ceremonies 
arc in consequence resorted to, to 
appease him. He presides over the 
day of the week Saniswar, or Satur- 

SANSCKIT, the ancient language of 
Hindostan. It has long been a dead 
language, and tliere is reason to 
doubt whether it ever Avas com- 
monly used for colloquial purposes. 
It is written from left to right, in a 
character called the Deva Nagree. 

SANYOGY, a Hindoo devotee, who 
does not give up his family. 

SAREE, a portion of the dress of the 
women of Western India. See 

SARUS, or CYRUS, a bird of the 
crane species, found on the borders 
of marshes and jeels (lakes) of India. 

SATGURH, a place in the province of 
Baramahal, in India, situated at the 
foot of the mountains, a few miles 
from the Naikunary Ghaut, or pass. 
There was formerly a hill fort here, 
to which the name of Satgurh jiro- 
perly belonged, the pettah being 
called Lalpet. This place is now 
chiefly noted on account of its gar- 
dens, which produce abundance of 
fine fruit, particularly oranges and 

SATRINJEES, Indian carpets, or very 
large coloured sheets, in which, ex- 
cept for a cubit's breadth all around, 
the whole is divided into bars, or 
stripes, usually from two to six inches 
wide, proportioned to the extent 
of the fabric. The principal colours 
in these carpets are crimson fin* a 
ground, with bars of deep or light 
red; or blue grounds, with white, 
yellow, or tawny bars; or green 
grounds, with deeper or lighter 
green, or crimson, or orange bars ; or 
any of these, vice versa. It is no 
imcommon thing to see a sairlnjec of 
full twenty by thirty feet; ancl tins, 
too, made upon nothing more than a 
bamboo roller, round which the work 
gradually collects, as the threads are 
crossed, by passing the warp-lines 
alternately over and under the woof- 
lines, in regular changes. 

SATTARA, in the province of Beja- 
pore, in India, is a strong hill-fort 
and town, situated fifty-six miles 
south of Poona, in Lat. 17 deg. 42 
min. N., Long. 74 deg. 12 min. E. 
This place was taken from the Ma- 
homedan sovereigns of Bajapore, in 
1651, by Sevajee. Subsequently, on 
the usurpation of the government of 
the Poona Mahratta empire by the 
Peishwa, Sattara was converted into 
a royal prison, in which Sevajee's 
successors were confined. 

SATYAVRATA, the Noah of Hindoo 
mythology, evidently agreeing with 
the Noaii of Holy Writ. 

SAUDS, a sect of pure Indian deists, 
whose form of worship is most sim- 
ple. The Sauds resemble the Qua- 
kers, or Society of Eriends, in Eng- 
land, in their customs, in a remark- 
able degree. Ornaments and gay 
apparel of every kind are strictly 
prohibited. Their dress is always 
white. They never make any obei- 
sance or salutation. They will not 
take an oath; and they are exempted 
in the courts of justice, their asseve- 
ration, like that of the Quakers, 
being considered equivalent. The 
Sauds profess to abstain from all 
luxuries, such as tobacco, betel, 
opium, and wine. They never have 
exhibitions of dancing. All violence 
to man or beast is forbidden; but, 
in self-defence, resistance is allowable. 
Industry is strongly enjoined. The 
Sauds, like the Quakers, take great 
care of their poor and infirm people. 
To receive assistance out of the tribe 
or sect would be reckoned disgraceful, 
and render the ofl'ender liable to ex- 
communication. All parade of M'or- 
ship is forbidden. Private prayer is 
conmianded. Alms should be im- 
osteutatious ; they are not to be 
given that they should be seen of 
men. The due regulation of the 
tongue is a princijial duty. 

SAUL, an Indian wood, used to an 
immense extent, both in buildings 
and in the construction of ships, 
but is not to be compared, either 
for toughness, strength, resistance 




ajrainst insects, or durability, ■^vith 
tmh. There is something very pe- 
culiar in said wood, since it is seen 
to warp, even after having been em- 
ployed in bulk for many years, riving 
into large fissures longitudinally: 
the white ants also devour it with 
avidity. Saul timbers are found in 
all the forests, ranging under the 
hills, branching our possessions 
from Assam up to Ilurdwar: they 
are more abundant in some parts 
than in others, but no where scarce. 
Many of these forests present thou- 
sands upon thousands of acres, 
whereon tlie said, sissoo, and other 
useful timbers grow spontaneously. 

SAVAXOKE, properly SHANOOll, a 
place in the province of the Uooab, 
in India, once the capital of a small 
Pathan state, the chief of which Avas 
known as the Nabob of Savanore. 

SAWNY, lord, master, OA^oier, pro- 
prietor ; a title given also by the 
Hindoos of the peninsula to their 

SAYER, Hindostanee. What moves. 
Variable imposts, distinct from land 
rents or revenue, consisting of cus- 
toms, tolls, licences, duties on mer- 
chandise and other articles of per- 
sonal moveable property, as well as 
mixed duties, and taxes on houses, 
shops, l)azars. Sec. 

SCINDE, a province in India, bounded 
on the nortli by Afghanistan and 
Mooltan ; east, A j mere; south, 
Cutch and the sea; west, Beloochis- 
tan. The divisions are Upper 
Scinde, or the northern part of the 
countrj- down to Shikarpore, and 
Lower Scinde, extending from Shik- 
arpore to the sea. The river Indus, 
including its various branches, flows 
through this province. East of the 
Indus, the coimtry is almost a perfect 
level, and is for the greatest part, 
except in the immediate vicinity of 
the river, a barren waste. West of 
the Indus, the face of the country 
varies, and on the western and 
north-western frontiers becomes 
mountainous. The climate of Upper 
Scinde is temi)erate, but that of 

Lower Scinde oppressively hot, and 
very unhealthy. Upper Scinde pro- 
duces wheat, barley, and other 
grains; and Lower Scinde, rice and 
bajree in great abmidance, sugar, 
and indigo, saltpetre and potash. 
Cattle and sheep are numerous, as 
also a small breed of horses and 
camels of a superior description. The 
towns are Shikarpore, Sukkur, 
Kliyrpore, Larkhanu, Schwun, Hy- 
derabad, Omerkote, Tatta, Kura- 
chee, and IMeerpore. The inhabi- 
tants of this province are Hindoos, 
Juts, and Beloocliees. The Juts are 
Mahomedans, the descendants of the 
original Ilajpoot inhabitants of the 
province, converted at an early 
period to the Mahomedan faith, and 
they compose the chief military force 
of the country. It is believed 
that the total population does not 
exceed 1,000,000, although in early 
times the province appears to have 
been very thickly peopled. The 
prevailing rehgion in Scinde is Ma- 
homedanism, generally of the Soon- 
nee division, though the Ameers 
themselves are Shiahs. The lan- 
guage is termed Sindee, and resem- 
bles the Hindee dialects of Hindo- 

SEBUNDY, an irregular native soldier, 
employed in the service of the re- 
venue and police of India. 

SEEKUL-PUTTY ((. e., polished 
sheets), a very beautiful species of 
mat, made in some parts of India, 
but especially in the south-eastern 
districts, about Dacca and Lucky- 
pore, from a kind of reedy grass, of 
which the rind, Iteing pared off very 
thin, and trimmed to about the 
eighth of an inch in width, is wove 
into mats, rarely exceeding seven or 
eight feet in length, by about four 
feet in width. They are peculiarly 
slippery, whence their designation; 
their colour resembles that of com- 
mon horn. The principal uses of the 
seekul-putty, are, to be laid under 
the lower sheet of a bed, thereby 
keeping the body cool: which is cer- 
tainly ejected to a great degree by 




this device, by its remarkably 
slippery surface ; some few pillows 
for couches are likewise covered 
therewith, and it is employed in 
niakincj covers for mahogany tables. 

SEEE, the conmionest Aveight in use 
in the retail business of the bazars 
in India. It weighs two pounds six 
ounces troy, but being liable to vary 
in weight in different parts of the 
country, for every article sold, as 
•well as for every market, is generally 
referred to the common unit in 
native mercantile dealings, as " the 
seer of so many tolas," the standard, 
or bazar-seer, being always eighty 

SEEKKY is composed of the stems of 
the surput, or tassel grass, which 
grows to the height of ten feet or 
more ; it is found to be a larger 
species of the celebrated Guinea 
grass, formerly introd^iced as a sup- 
posed novelty into the East, but 
■which proved to be nothing more 
than the common bainsea/i, or buf- 
falo-grass, that grows wild, in the 
greatest luxuriance, all over Bengal. 

SEETA-COOND, "Well of Seeta." 
About five miles from Monghyr, on 
the Ganges, there are some hot 
springs, and though not possessing 
any medical properties, the water is 
much sought after on account of its 
great purity. The springs are en- 
closed in a cistern of brick eighteen 
feet square. The temperature is so 
hot as to cause death to any animal 
venturing into it. There is a record 
of an Eiu^opean soldier who at- 
tempted to swim across, but was so 
miserably scalded as not to survive 
the perilous exploit. There is a dif- 
ference in the degrees of heat at 
different periods, but the higliest 
point to which the thermometer has 
risen upon immersion is said to be 
163 deg. 

SEIKIIS, the natives of the Punjab. 
The doctrines of the Seikhs appear 
to partake both of the Brahminical 
and Jaina sects, blended with pecu- 
liar tenets of their own. They be- 
lieve in a divuie imity, and preach 

a strict and fervent devotion to the 
deity, but raise their gooroos, or spi • 
ritual guides, to an equality with, 
or superiority over him. Like the 
Brahmuns, in one of their hypo- 
tliesis, tliey believe that nature is 
the mother of the world, and that 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, are 
her sons, who regulate it; but they 
teach that there is a god (Naraya- 
na) superior to them, who created 
the world, and innumerable other 
worlds, which, and the periods of 
their creation, are known only to 
himself. The Seikh doctrines, as 
taught by their founder, Narnac, in- 
culcate that devotion to God is to 
partake of God, and, finally, to obtain 
absorption into the divine essence. 
The fcjeikhs believe in transmigra- 
tion, a multiplicity of heavens and 
hells, and future births; and that 
mankind will be punished or re- 
warded according to their merits or 
demerits. God, thej' say, is pleased 
with devotion which springs from 
the heart; outward forms he disre- 
gards, lie is infinite, omnipotent, 
invisible; nothing can speak his 
praise; nothing describe his power. 
Every thing is absorbed in him: all 
that exists in the world is of him. 
The millions of Hindoo deities, with 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, as well 
as iMahomed, and all other divine 
personages, are subject to his power: 
nothing, in fine, is equal to him, ex- 
cept the gooroos, or spiritual teachers 
of the Seikhs. A'otwithstanding this 
reservation, the fundamental doc- 
trines of the Seikh religion, as taught 
by Narnac, breathe the purest spirit 
of holiness, truth, justice, benevo- 
lence, a regard toward sentient ani- 
mals, and that meek and unobtru- 
sive devotion of the heart which 
acknowledges the Deity in all his 
works, and leads to the worship of 
him, regardless of outward forms 
and observances, in silent meditation 
and prayer. (For further account 
of the Seikhs, see Lahork.) 
SELICTAR, the sabre-bearer to the 
Turkish Sultan. 


SEPOY, sometimes -irritten SIPAHEE, 
the title given to the i^rivate soldiers 
in the Anglo-Indian army, and the 
peons, or foot messengers, under the 
Bombay presidency. The former re- 
ceive ahout seven rupees, or four- 
teen shillings, per mensem, and a 
pension after a certain length of ser- 
vice, or when incapacitated for 
fiirther duty by M-ounds or incur- 
able diseases. They are generally 
brave and faithful soldiers, obedient 
and tractable, requiring only the 
presence and example of European 
officers to render them equal to any 
soldiers in the world when in the field. 

SEQUIN, a Persian coin, worth about 
eight shillings sterling. The word, 
corrupted into chikeen, is often used 
by military men and others in India 
to signify a stake (in gambling, 
racing, &c.) of four rupees. 

SERAGLIO, the Turkish term for a 
harem, zenana, or abode of the 
females of an esta1)lishment. 

SERAIES, buildings for the accom- 
modation of travellers in India, such 
as Europeans generally understand 
to be cax&ymn-seraies, but that term 
can only apply to those ])arts of 
Arabia, Persia, &c., that furnish 
caravans, which are not known in 
the great peninsula of India; where, 
on account of tlie extent of sea- 
coast, navigation absorl)s the chief 
part of the trade. Seraies are usu- 
ally known by tlie name or title of 
the founder. Thus, Maraml-ka- Se- 
rai implies that the public accom- 
modation for the rece]>tion of tra- 
vellers was founded by Maraud, 
respecting whom the people in at- 
tendance either have some tradi- 
tional account, or Rup])ly a famous 
history invented for tlie occasion. 
Seraies are now going fast to decay; 
the power of the native princes has 
been so much abridgeil, and their 
influence is so little felt, that, gene- 
rally speaking, were a ricli or ex- 
alted character to found ^ serai, even 
on the most liberal footing, it is pro- 
Jjable his expectation of immortal 
fame would not be realised. The 



rage is now more bent towards gun- 
jes. or grain-markets; hauts, or vil- 
lages holding periodical markets; 
molalis, or annual fairs; and, infiict, 
to such establishments as afford a 
profit, or which, from becoming no- 
torious in the way of trade, are 
more likely to perpetuate the cele- 
brity of the institution. 

SERAMPOKE, in the province of Ben- 
gal, in India, is situated on the west 
side of the Hoogly, a few miles dis- 
tant from Calcutta, higher up the 
river. This place has long been 
celebrated as a missionary station, 
and is an exceedinglj^ neat town, and 
beautifully clean. It formerly be- 
longed to the Danes, but was pur- 
chased from them in 184G. 

SER ASKIER, a Turkish general. 

SERF, Ilindostauee. Exchange, dis- 

SERINGAPATAM, a town in India, 
in the province of Mysore, situated 
on a small island in the river Cavery, 
in Lat. 12 deg. 25 min. N., Long. 76 
deg. 45 min. E. The island is about 
four miles in length, and one and a 
half in breadth; the town occupying 
about a mile at one end of it. The 
town was first built in about 1630, 
and became the capital of Mysore 
under Hyder Ali. The fort was 
constructed chiefly by Tippoo Sul- 
taun, assisted by French engineers, 
but with little skill, the works being 
faulty and not strong. On an emi- 
nence in tlie centre o'i the island, at 
some distance from the fort, stands 
a large and well-built village or town, 
called Shutor Gunjam. In a garden 
adjoining, amidst some choultries 
and a musjccd, is the mausoleum of 
Ilyder himself, his wife, and Tippoo 
Sultaun. Tiie proper naine of this 
place is Sree-rungaputtunnm, but 
in Mysore it is generally called 
merely Puttunum. 

SERISIITADAR, the title of an In- 
dian revenue-ofKccr. 
SERI'L'RDiaiS, I'ersian. Canvass 
screens stretched up<,)n wooden poles, 
corresponding with, the kunnauts of 
an Indian camp equipage. 




SETII, a title given to Hindoos of 
importance in Sinclh and other parts 
of tlie west of India. The Nvord sig- 
nifies " master." 

SEVERNDEOOG, in India, in tlie 
province of Bejapore, is a small 
rocky island on the coast, in Lat. 17 
deg. 46 min. N., Long. 73 deg. 15 
min. E., formerly the stronghold of 
a celebrated Mahratta xiirate, named 
Conajee Angria. It was captured 
by the British in 1756. "Droog" is 
a conmion termination to the names 
of hill fortresses; it means "a moun- 
tain fortress." 

SHABASH! Persian. Well done! 
admirable ! 

SHAH NAMEH, an heroic poem in 
the Persian language, containing the 
history of Persia from the earliest 
times to the conquest of that empire 
by the Arabs. It was written by 
Abool Kasim Ferdoosee. 

SHAMEANA, a lofty awning, sup- 
ported with jjoles, and open at the 
sides to let in the evening breeze.' 
It is iiscd in India and Persia. 

SHA]MPOOING, a gentle pressure of 
the feet and legs, as also of the arms 
and hands, or occasionally of the 
body, between the hands of the ope- 
rator, who passes, either slowly or 
rather rapidlj% according to the fancy 
of his or her master, from one part 
to anotlier. Considerable relief from 
pain or fatigue is to be obtained from 

SHAN COUNTEY, the, in Asia, con- 
stitutes an extensive region centrally 
situated between China, Ava, and 
Siam, and occupied by a number of 
tribes; those on the frontier being tri- 
butary to those three kingdoms, ac- 
cording to their contiguity, andtliose 
in the interiorbeing independent. For- 
mer writers were accustomed to desig- 
nate this country as the kingdom of 
Laos, a name derived from that of 
one of the principal tribes. It is 
generally divided as follows: — Lao 
Shan, Yoon Shan, and Taroop Shan, 
lying in succession between Ava on 
the west, China on the north, and 
Tunc^ula on the east; LIrelap Shan, 

situated south of Lao Shan; Lowa 
or Lawa Shan, occupying the centre; 
and south-eastward, bordering upon 
Siara and Cochin China, Laos Shan. 
It is mountainous and woody, and 
said to abound in metals, principally 
silver, lead, copper, antimony, and 
iron. By the Burmese, the inhabi- 
tants of this country are called by 
the general name of Shans, but they 
style themselves T'hay. They form 
a number of distinct tribes under 
chiefs called Chobwas. In appear- 
ance and dress they bear some re- 
semblance to the Chinese, and they 
are believed to be an active and in- 
genious people. Their religion is 
supposed to be a modification of 
Booddhism. Their language is that 
of Siam, and according to Shan ac- 
counts, abounds with books, some of 
very ancient date. 

SHASTRAS, Hindoo sacred books 
and laws. 

SHATIR, Persian. Running footmen. 

SHEAHS, or " Heretic," the name of 
the sect of Mahomedans who, re- 
jecting all traditions, insist upon the 
sole authority of the Koran, and con- 
sider Ali alone as the rightful suc- 
cessor, and equal to IMahomed. 
The Persians are Sheahs. Both 
sects, Soounees and Sheahs, exist ia 

SHEIKH, Persian. A term signifying 
" an old man," and is applied not 
only to heads of tribes, but to 
men eminent for religion, austerity, 
and Avisdom; such as Calandus, 
Dervishes, Fakeers, wandering reli- 
gious becrcars and fanatics. 

SHEITAUN, Hindostauee. Satan, 
the devil. 

SHERBET, a beverage composed of 
the juice of fruits and sugar, tlavoured 
with musk or rose-Avater, cooled 
with ice, and much drank in Turkey 
and in Persia. 

SHIGRAMPO, a four-wheeled car- 
riage, the body of which is square or 
somewhat oblong, generally painted 
a dark green, and furnished with 
Venetian blinds all roimd. It is in 
use iu Bombay. 




SHIHIE, or SHIRE, often cornipted 
into " Seer,"' signifies a city, and is 
usually found appended to the names 
of the founders or builders of great 
towns in Persia and India. Thus, 
Ahu-shihir, the city of " Abu;" Bud- 
dra-seer, the city of " Buddra." 

SHIKAU, game, sport. 

SHIIvARGAH, hunting gi-ounds, pre- 
served forests. These are scarcely of 
any extent excepting in Scinde, and 
these will doubtless be cleared for 
tuilding or salubrious purposes under 
the government of the English. 

SHIKARPORE, a town in India, in 
the province of Scinde, situated a 
little distance to the westward of the 
river Indus, in Lat. 27 deg. 36 min. 
N., Long. 69 deg. 18 min. E. It is 
the most populous town in Scinde, 
and carries on an extensive com- 
merce with the adjacent coimtries. 
The inhabitants are almost all Hin- 
doos, termed Shikarpoorees, and 
speak a dialect of Hindostanee, 
distinguished by that name. 

SIHKARREE, a sportsman or hunts- 
man. The word is Indian. The 
people employed l)y European and 
other sportsmen in the East Indies 
to mark down or beat up for game, 
are called Shikar rees. 

SHOAK, or SHOKE, Hindostanee, for 
a "taste" or "fancy,"' for any thing. 
" I have," or " I have not a slioke 
for so and so," is a phrase in every 
European's moutli in India. 

SHROEE, money changer. A lucra- 
tive office in India, where the people 
being extremely poor, require to con- 
Tert the silver coins in which they 
are paid into copper coin and cowries 
(small shells), for the purchase of 
the produce of tlie bazar. Slirort's 
are also of great utility in the pu])]ic 
offices and bankmg houses in shroff- 
ing (examining) money, of the coun- 
terfeit of which there is always a 
siifficient quantity in India. 

SHUJMiVUL, the Persian and Arabic 
term for a nortli-west squall. The 
Arab sailors of tiie Persian Gulf 
invariably make for a neighbouring 
harbour when the aspect of the sky 

betokens the advent of a north- 
SIAM, a country of Asia, bounded on 
the north by China; east, by the do- 
minions of Cochin Cliina; soutli, by 
tlie sea, and by the peninsula of 
Malaya; and west, by the sea, a 
range of mountains dividing it from 
the British province of Tenasserim, 
and the Saluen river separating it 
from the dominions of Ava. It con- 
sists of the following principal di- 
visions : — northward, the Shan 
Country ; central, Siam Proper; east- 
ward, part of Cambodia; southward, 
part of the Malay peninsula, as far 
as Lat. 7 deg. IST., where at Trang 
on the western side, and Sungora on 
the eastern, commence the posses- 
sions of the Malay nation; and. 
westward Junk Ceylon (Jan Silan). 
It has one great river, the Me- 
nam, which rises in the Yoonan 
province of China, and flows 
southward through Siam into the 
Gulf of Siam, watering the whole 
country in its course. Siam Proper 
may be described as a vast plain, in- 
tersected by the river Menam, on the 
banks of which all the principal 
towns are situated. The other divi- 
sions are hilly and wooded. The 
productions of Siam are numerous 
and valuable. The land in the vici- 
nity of the river is remarkably fer- 
tile, and yields rice in such abund- 
ance that it is i^robably cheaper hero 
than in any part of the world. It 
produces also sugar, pepper, tobacco, 
gum, gamboge, and cardamoms. The 
Shan districts supply benzoin and 
sticklac. The fruits are in general 
the same as in India, as also tlie do- 
mesticated animals, but their horses 
are of an inferior description. In 
the jimgles are tigers, rhinoceroses, 
and elephants, including those of a 
white colour, which here, as in Ava, 
are held in great estimation, and 
considered a necessary appendage of 
royalty. The most valuable woods 
are tlie teak, rose-wood, eagle, and 
sapan, of the latter of which largo 
quantities are exported to China, in 




the interior, to tlie northward, are 
mines of iron, tin, copper, and gold. 
In religion the Siamese are Boodd- 
hists, of the same sect as the Cinga- 
lese, but all religions are tolerated. 
Their la n guage is called by Europeans 
the Siamese, and by themselves the 
T'hay. It belongs, apparently, to 
the same general division as the 
Burmese, and is written from left to 
right. The names Siam and Sia- 
mese, Avliich are given to this 
country and its inhabitants by 
Europeans, appear to be corruptions 
of the word shun, the appellation by 
■which they are known amongst the 
Burmese. The natives style it tlie 
T'hay country, and call themselves 
T'hay. The Siamese nation, pro- 
perly so called, consists of two races 
or tribes of people, the T'hay, and 
the T'hay J'luu'. By the Burmese 
they are generally called Slums, and 
sometimes from the name of tlie 
ancient capital, Yoodras. In man- 
ners and customs they greatly re- 
semble the Burmese, and like them 
are distinguished by tlie most inor- 
dinate ideas of their national import- 
ance. The amount of their popula- 
tion cannot lie correctly stated. It 
probably does not exceed 3,000,000, 
includini,'- 150,000 Chinese. 

SICKLEGHUK, Hindostanee. A 
polisher of steel. Sicklcghurs are 
attached to the artillery and cavalry 
regiments in India, and are employed 
to polish the harness, swords, stir- 
rups, &c. 

SIDDEES, or SEEDEES, descendants 
of Abyssinians, who were formerly 
much employed under the Moghul 
government for its naval service, 
and also in the army. The sailors 
of the province of Guzerat have 
always been considered the best in 
India, especially those of Gogo, and 
other parts of Kattivad. The Sid- 
dees profess the Mahomedan religion, 
and serve much on board the Arab 
vessels trading to the gulfs of Per- 
sia and Arabia. 

SIKKOI, one of the Bengal depen- 
dencies, in the province of Bengal, 

in India, bounded on the north by 
the Himalaya mountains, which 
separate it from the Chinese do- 
mhiions in Thibet; east, by Bootan, 
from which it is divided by the river 
Tcesta, and Ivooch Bahar; south, 
by llungpore and part of Morung; 
and west, by IMorung. In length it 
may be estimated at sixty miles, 
from west to east, by an average 
breadtli of forty miles from north to 
south. It is a mountainous district, 
but fertile and Avell cultivated. Its 
principal productions are rice, mad- 
der, or munjeet, bees'-wax, and tim- 
ber of various kinds. Its towns are 
few, and none of any importance. 
The principal are Sikkim, Tasiding, 
and Bilsee. Sikkim is the capital, 
and stands in Lat. 27 deg. 16 min. 
N., Long. 88 deg. 3 min. E., about 
110 miles northerly from the town 
of Purnea. A short distance to the 
south-eastward of Sikkim, and about 
350 miles from Calcutta, is Darje- 
ling, a station in the hills, which is 
resorted to by the English from the 
low country for change of air, the 
climate being cold and healthfuL 
The inhabitants of this district are 
composed principally of a hill tribe, 
called Lapches. There are also some 
Bhootiyas, and the hills are said to 
contain many of the Limboo tribe. 
The system of religion most preva- 
lent in Sikkim is that of Thibet or 
Lama Booddliism. The dialect is 
believed to be the Bhootiya. 
SIM ALEES, natives of theeastem coast 
of Africa, employed as seamen on 
board of Arab ships, or as lightermen 
and stowers of cargo in the Arabian 
ports. At Aden, on the Red Sea, they 
are entertained to coal the steamers, 
'iliey receive twenty shillings a 
month wages, and work hard in 
their grimy vocation; but they will 
only put forth their strength when 
excited by music and their national 
dance. " In consequence of this 
latter peculiarity," says Mrs. Pos- 
tans, a pleasant writer on Oriental 
manners," tambourines are incessant- 
ly beaten on the deck of the vessel 




which the Simalees accompanj', by 
clapping their hands and treading a 
grotesque measui'e in most perfect 
time. A group of Simalees being 
assembled on the deck of the steamer 
near the open hold, in which are de- 
posited the bags of coal, with a crane 
and pulley above it, the rope attached 
is lowered, and the hook fastened to 
a bag. Meanwhile the Simalees 
■with a loud song, chanted to the 
tune of the tambourines, run towards 
the forecastle and return dancing in 
line in the most grotesque way 
imaginable, clapping their hands, 
raising one to the ear, and then with 
a kind of curtseying movement turn- 
ing slowly round with one leg bent 
and raised from the ground, changing 
the foot at intervals; the movements 
completed, they with one accord 
seize the rope and rush merrily back, 
raising the coal-bag as they go." 
Such is the wild excitement of this 
labour, and such its lamentable etiect, 
that it is calculated that, in putting 
on board every hundred ton of coals, 
one man at least is sacrificed. The 
Simalees have short, curly, woolly 
hair, which the fops of the race are 
fond of dyeing a bright red. Some- 
times they shave their heads, and 
place on them red wigs formed of 
the long wool of the Abyssinian 

SJMKIN SHEAUB, a corruption of 
" (Champagne Shraub" (wine). The 
new arrival in India will be sur- 
prised to hear gentlemen at a dinner- 
party pledge each other in " Sinikin," 
and still more surprised to find the 
native attendant serve champagne 

SIMLA, a station in the province of 
Sirmoor, in India, on the hills near 
Subathoo, about 7000 feet aliove the 
level of the sea, which has been 
formed by the lOnglish, who resort 
to it on accoimt of its cool and 
healthful climate. On the hills of 
Simla there are upwards of one hun- 
dred residences, built after the fa- 
shion of English cottages. As the 
chosen retreat of goveruyrs-gcucral 

and commanders-in-chief, from the 
burning plains of India, the place 
has enjoyed for some years past 
many considerable advantages. The 
roads to the residences, and for some 
distance beyond them, are spacious 
and elegant. Shopkeepers have 
been induced to establish themselves, 
and form emporiums of all the crea- 
ture comforts. There is a reading- 
room and billiard-table, an amateur 
theatre, a church, a school, an ob- 
servatory, and a pretty valley called 
Annandale, where fauc}' fairs and 
races are held, and contribute to the 
embellishment of existence. As Simla 
and the neighbouring hills are the 
property of certain small chieftains, 
who reside in small townships, a poli- 
tical agent is stationed at the former 
place to regulate the respective re- 
sponsibilities and do the honours in 
behalf of the British Government. 
The people of the hills are poor, 
simple, and tractable, subsisting en- 
tirely by the produce of their lands;, 
they are Hindoos, and 400,000 in 
number. Though polygamj^ pre- 
vails in some parts, polyandry is a 
more conmion institution, for the 
insufficiency of the products of the 
soil renders it advisable to check 
the increase of the human race. It 
is by no means uncommon for one 
M-oman to reside in the same house 
with four or five men, and to fulfil 
the duties of a wife towards all. The 
Momen are good-looking and strong; 
they wear a slight cloth covering 
for the head, not concealing the face 
as in the plains, a chemise of coarse 
cloth, and trousers. The commercial 
products of these hills are iron, Avax, 
honey, borax, musk, wool, ginger, 
and opium. The fruits are a] tricots, 
walnuts, strawberries, raspljcrries, 
quinces, greengages, red and black 
currants, rhubarb, wheat, gram, bar- 
ley, rice, &c., and in the kitchen- 
garden may be fouml peas, Ijcans, 
potatoes, cabbages, lettuces, jiarsnips, 
&c. Access to Sinda from the plains 
is very easy; a palankeen dawk from 
the Stations of Kurnaul or UmbalJa 




brings tlie traveller to Bhar, at the 
foot of the hills, Avhich is distant 
about thirty miles from Simla; there 
are three stage bungaloAvs, situated 
at Chumbul, Hurreepore, and Syree, 
•which lead to Simla. The ascent 
from Bhar to the first of these stages 
is considerable; the road winds up 
the tace of an immense mountain, 
and brings the traveller to the sum- 
mit, where he finds the first bunga- 
low. From Chmnbid to the lOmt- 
war river the descent is steep but 
not dangerous; the course of the 
traveller is for some miles along its 
banks, through a well cultivated 
valley, when, by a sharp turn of the 
road, he is suddenly brought to a 
chasm, flanked by perpendicular 
rocks about 800 or 1000 feet in 
height, through which the river 
Gumber rolls. Passing through this 
gap, along the banks of the Gumber, 
the traveller at length advances half 
a mile up a gentle ascent to the 
Hurreepore bungalow, and thence, 
continuing gradually the ascent by 
a barren but good road, he reaches 
Syree, whence he proceeds to Simla. 
The roads are excellent and well 
fenced in. Previous to ascending 
the hills, the traveller, as is usual, 
deposits his carriage, palankeen, or 
tent, &c., in godowns belonging to 
a Simla firm at Bhar, and proceeds 
upwards with such indispensable 
articles of furniture only as are al)- 
solutely necessary. The usual mode 
of travelling is by jampatins, a con- 
veyance not unlike a large clumsy 
chair, having a top, from which cur- 
tains are suspended. They are car- 
ried by four men, by means of poles 
fixed to the sides, and are supplied 
by the agents of the firm, together 
with bearers and porters. 

SINDWA, a fortress in the province 
of Candeish, in India, situated in 
Lat. 21 deg. 34 min. K, Long. 75 
deg. 7 min. E., which commands one 
of the principal passes through tlie 
Satpoora mountains, coramuuicatmg 
with Malwa. 


Asia, a small island at the southern 
extremity of Malaya. It belongs to 
the English, who obtained it by pur- 
chase from its native chief in 1819, 
and on account of its situation com- 
manding the navigation of the straits, 
and its good harbour, it is considered 
a place of great commercial import- 
ance. It has a mixed population of 
about 15,000, of whom one-third or 
more are Chinese, and it is rapidly 
increasing. When taken possession 
of by the British there were not 
more than 150 persons on the island. 

SINGIIEE, the bayonet fish, so called 
from its having three spines in its 
dorsal and lateral fins. It is an in- 
habitant of the Indian seas. 

SIRCAll, head of affairs. Literally, 
the state or government. A general 
division of a province. A head man. 
This title is now seldom used but by 
Europeans in Bengal to designate 
the Hindoo writer and accountant 
employed by themselves, or in the 
public oiSces. This functionary, 
who, in Bengal, is often denominated 
baboo, is the chancellor of the ex- 
chequer in a household, and it is not 
unseldom (in the olden time it was 
always the case) that his master is 
his debtor, and then the mastership 
is but a vox. They are a shrewd 
intelligent race, of most respectable 
appearance and demeanour, talk 
English, and manage every thing for 
you so easily and so dehghtfully that 
where you feel you can alwa}' s meet 
the day of reckoning, a sircar is the 
most delightful servant you can 
have. They rarely abscond with 
your money, because their great 
profit is made by commissions and 
small surcharges upon every thing 
you buy, and dustooree, or custom 
(per centage taken from the native 
seller) upon every payment you have 
to make. They are a strange com- 
pound of easiness and strictness, 
usuriousness and libertdity, honesty 
and fraudulence, patience and im- 

SIRDAR, "llindostanee. A chieftain, 
captain, head-man. 




SIRDAE-BEARER, the chief of the 
palankeen bearers, and generally his 
master's valet -de - chambre. The 
sirdar-bearer, called sirdar in brevi- 
ty, prepares (he and his mate, if a 
mate be kept) the evening lights, a 
dut}' which naturally involves the 
furbishment of the candlesticks, 
glass-shades, and snuflTers. He also 
polishes shoes, boots, straps, and so 
forth, rubs tables into brightness 
•with cocoa-nut shell and wax-cloth, 
makes the beds (for housemaids are 
things unknown), and performs a 
variet}' of little nameless items which 
need not to be enumerated. He car- 
ries an immense bunch of keys at 
his girdle, and whether his master 
have boxes enough to demand a 
large bunch or not, such bunch there 
is sure to be for the dignity of the 
SIRMOOR, a province of Hindostan, 
bounded on the north by the Hima- 
laya mountains ; east, the river 
Jumna, separating it from Gurwal ; 
south, Delhi ; and Avest, the Sutlej, 
separating it fi'oni Lahore. It has 
no divisions of any note. The rivers 
are, the Sutlej, Paber, Tonse, or 
Tonsa, and Jumna. "\\'ith the ex- 
ception of a small portion called the 
Karda IJoon, the whole of this pro- 
vince consists of ranges of moun- 
tains, with narrow A'alleys and 
ravines. The Karda Doon is a valley 
in the south-eastern part, bordering 
upon the river Jimina, consisting 
principally of marsh and low jungle, 
but cai)able of being rendered very 
friiitful. Coal is found near Nahan. 
The towns are Simla, Subathoo, and 
Nahan. The inhabitants, usually 
called Sinnoorees, are Hindoos, in- 
cluding a large proportion of Raj- 
poots. The religion of the province 
is the Rrahminical, and the language 
is the Khasiya dialect. 
SIR SHIKUN, Ilindostanee. Literally, 
broken-headed, land broken or sepa- 
rated from the capital or liead, 
granted in charity by zumeendars, 
chowdries, and canoongoes. It is, 
liowcver, a graat of parcels or por- 

tions of land to some public function- 
ary of the village ; the priest, or 
perhaps the village washerman or 
plough-maker, to induce him to re- 
side there. It is taken a little and 
little from each zumcevdar or head ; i.e., 
breaking a httle ofi' each head to 
give for the above purpose : so called 

SISSOO, a kind of Indian wood, pos- 
sessing a very fine grain, and rather 
handsomely veined, grows in most of 
the great forests, intermixed with 
the saul; but, in lieu of towering up, 
with a straight stem, seems partial 
to crooked forms, such as suit it 
admirably for the knees of ships, 
and for such parts as require the 
grain to follow some particular curve. 
This wood is extremely hard and 
heavy, of a dark brown, inclining to 
a purple tint, when polished ; after 
being properly seasoned, it rarely 
cracks or warps ; nor is it so subject 
as saul to be destroyed by either 
white ants, or river worms. Ihe 
domestic uses of sissoo are chiefly 
confined to the construction of fur- 
niture, especially chairs, tables, te- 
poys(or tripods) bureaus, book-cases, 
escritoires, &;c., &.C., for all M'hich 
purposes it is peculiarly appropriate, 
with the exception of its being very 
ponderous. This objection is, how- 
ever, counterbalanced by its great 
durability, and by the extraordinary 
toughness of the tenons, dovetails, 
&c., necessarily made by the cabinet- 
maker or joiner. Sissoo is, of late, 
more employed than formerly for 
the frame, ribs, knees, &c., of ships, 
especially those of great burden : 
for such, it is found to l)e fully as 
tough and as durable as the best 
oak. When timbers can be had of 
this wood long enough for the pur- 
pose, it is often applied for bends, 
and, indeed, for a portion of the 
planking, or casing ; but it is very 
rarely that a plank of ten feet can 
be had free from curve. 

SITAH, a kind of guitar, Avith only 
three strings, used in India and 





SIVA, ]\rAIIADEO, or RUDR A. Tl:e 
destroyer, in Hindoo mythology, is 
represented under dilTurent forms. 
He is usually painted of a white or 
silver colour, with a third eye, and 
the crescent (which he obtained attlie 
churning of the ocean) in the middle 
of his forehead. Sometimes he is de- 
cribed with one head, and at others 
with five : sometimes armed with va- 
rious instruments of destruction ; at 
others riding on the bull, Nandi, with 
Parvati on his knee ; and again, at 
others, as a mendicant, with in- 
flamed eyes and besotted counte- 
nance, soliciting alms from Anna 
Purna, a form of Parvati. He is 
also represented vindcr the appear- 
ance of Kal, or Time, the destroyer 
of all things. The bull, Nandi, tlie 
valian of Siva, is held in great re- 
verence by the Hindoos. This animal 
is one of the most sacred emblems 
of Siva, as the Egyptian Apis was 
of the soul of Osiris. The Egyp- 
tians believed that, Miien he ate out 
of the hands of those who went to 
consult him it was a favourable an- 
swer. The Hindoos place rice and 
other articles before their doors as 
the animal passes along in their 
processions, and if he stoji to taste 
them, consider it as a fortunate 
event. This, at least, he is very 
prone to do, to the serious injury of 
the Hindoo shopkeepers, as he wan- 
ders, not in his most sacred capacity, 
through the streets of Calcutta and 
other towns. Siva is principally 
worshipped under the form of the 
linga (q.v.) ; some of these emblems, 
usually of basalt, are of an enormous 
size ; and they are also made morn- 
ing and evening of the clay of the 
Ganges, which, after worship, are 
thrown into the river. The linga 
is never carried in procession. The 
temples dedicated to it are square 
Gothic buildings, the roofs of Avliich 
are round, and tapering to a point. 
In many parts of Hindostan they 
are more numerous than those dedi- 
cated to the worship of any other of 
the Hindoo idols J as are the numbers 

of the worshippers of this symbol, 
bej'ond comparison, more extensive 
than the worsldppcrs of the other 
deities or their emblems. The Bin- 
lang stone is also sacred to Siva. 
Besides the daily worship of the 
Ihuid in the temples, there are several 
otlier periods in which the image 
of Siva is worshipped under dif- 
ferent forms. In the month of Phul- 
gunu he is worshipped for one day 
as a mendicant. On the following 
day the images of him, with a 
bloated countenance, matted locks, 
and inflamed eyes, are carried in 
procession, attended by a large con- 
course of people, dancing, singing, 
and playing on various instruments, 
and thrown into the river. In the 
month Mughul there is another fes- 
tival in honour of him, called Hari 
Gauri, in which he is represented 
riding on a bull, with Parvati on his 
knee. But the most celebrated oc- 
casion of his worship is in the month 
Choitru, at the time that the cere- 
mony of the churuka, or swinging by 
hooks fastened in the flesh of the 
back, is performed. — (See Ciiuruk 
PoojA.) Amongst the mendicants 
who devote themselves to this de- 
stroying demon the Charuns bear an 
elevated rank, and are held by the 
Hindoos in pecuhar sanctity. Ac- 
cording to their fabled origin, it is 
said that Mahadeo first created the 
Bliauts, or sacred minstrels, to attend 
his lion and bull; but the former 
killing the latter every day, the god 
was put to infinite trouble and vex- 
ation in creating new ones. He, 
therefore, formed theCharun, equally 
devout as the Bhaut, but of bolder 
spirit, and gave him charge of these 
favourite animals. The influence of 
the Charun was, therefore, very 
great amongst a people so ignorant 
and superstitious as the Hindoos; 
and it was usual for merchants or 
travellers to hire one to protect them 
on their journies; the sanctity of 
their character being generally suffi- 
cient for that purpose. If robbers 
appeared, the Charun interposed his 




ghostly influence between them and 
liis employers ; but if his denuncia- 
tion was not enough to deter them 
from plunder, he Avas bound in ho- 
nour to stab himself, nay, even to 
put himself to death, at the same 
time dooming the marauders to eter- 
nal punishment, in the event of such 
a catastrophe. 

SIYA:MB.\LA-GAHA, the tamarind- 
tree of Ceylon. It grows to a great 
height, and is of vast extent. Its 
leaves are very small. The fruit 
hangs down like the pods of beans, 
each of which contains four or five 
seeds, surrounded with an agreeable 
acid pulp, full of strings, which is 
sometimes used in medicine. The 
wood, which is white, hard, and 
close-grained, is used for making 
mills, called checkos, for expressing 
cocoa-nut oil, vast quantities of 
which are made, and yearly sent to 

SOHTA, a Turkish student of Ma- 
homedan law. 

town in India, in the province of 
Bejapore, is large and flourishing, 
vith a strongly-built fort, in Lat. 
17 deg. 40 min. N., Long. 76 deg. 3 
min. E. It is an important English 
military station, and is also a 
place of considerable mlaud com- 

SOLEE, a fish of the Ganges, not un- 
like tlie pike of English rivers, and 
equally ravenous. 

SONAII WALLAH. The sonah ivallah 
is a fellow, wlio, for one shilling aday, 
will come to your house, in India, and 
in theverandah,with afewrude tools, 
will make trinkets and ornaments of 
any gold which may be given him 
for the purpose, except English 
jewellery, whicli is so hard, from 
the quantity of alloy mixed with it, 
that the native cannot work it. He 
uses a pair of long tongs, or rather 
forceps, to arrange his charcoal fire; 
at tlie same time, a tin tube placed 
to his moutli, assisted by his lungs, 
performs tlie duty of bellows. In 
spite of the tools used, these people 

work with considerable accuracy 
and taste, and with great ingenuity 
The native female servants, who are 
charmed with trinkets, are deligiited 
when they receive their mistress's 
instructions to send for a sonah 
wallah. Wallah, in Ilindostanec, 
means fellow; and without inten- 
tional disrespect, is used for all ranks 
and classes of people; the general 
commanding a division, is called a, 
burrah topee wallah (great hat fellow), 
the infantry soldiers are always 
called loll coatee ivallahs (red coated 
fellows), and there are many hhote 
acha wallahs (good fellows), and 
more hurrah carab ivallahs (very bad 

SONAH, a worker in gold (in India); 
a goldsmith. 

rudder;" the quartermaster or 
steersman of an Indian or Arab 
vessel. The word is often written 
and pronounced seacunnij. 

SOOJEE, Hindostanee. The heart ot 
the wheat, which is very fine 
ground; a kind of meal, so far from 
being pulverised as to bear a strong 
resemblance to rather coarse sand. 
Soojee is kneaded in the same man- 
ner as flour, but there being no 
yeast in the country, it is leavened 
by means of toddy; which is the 
juice obtained by making incisions 
into the taul (or palm-tree). In 
many parts of India taul trees are 
very scarce, and are caretully pre- 
served for the sake of the toddi/, which 
is sold to the nunbaks (or bakers) 
at a high price. 

SOOLOO ISLES, in Asia. These are 
a chain of numerous small islands in 
the Eastern Archipelago, situated 
between the Avestern extremity of 
IMindanao, the soulhermost of the 
JManillas, and tlie north-eastern 
extremity of Borneo, and lying be- 
tween the fourth and seventh de- 
grees north latitude. Sooloo, which 
is the principal, and gives its name 
to the group, is sitiiateil about Lat. 
6 deg. N., and Long. 121 deg. E., 
and is about forty miles in length, 




by seven, the average breadth. This 
island is fertile and well cultivated. 
It produces rice, and the usual tro- 
pical fruits, and iiossesses the com- 
mon domestic animals. It is believed 
to be free from the large sorts of 
■wild beasts. The shoals round and 
between the islands yield abundance 
of pearls, and mother-of-pearl, which 
are disposed of chiefly to the Chi- 
nese. The inhabitants, who are 
termed Sooloos, are of the Malay 
race. They are an exceedingly 
savage and treacherous people, and 
have always been noted as pirates. 
They are under the government of a 
Malay chief, who has the title of 
sultaun. Their religion is Maho- 
medanism of the Soonnee sect, and 
their language a mixture of jMalay, 
Javanese, and Tagala, written in the 
Malay character. 
BUNDS, an immense wilderness, 
full fifty miles in depth, and in 
length about a hundred and eighty 
miles, in the south of Bengal. This 
wilderness, which borders the coast 
to the water's edge, forming a strong 
natural barrier in that quarter, occu- 
pies the whole of what is called the 
Delta of the Ganges, everywhere 
intersected by great rivers, and in- 
numerable creeks, in whicli the 
tides arc so intermixed, that a pilot is 
absolutely necessary, both to tliread 
the intricacies of the passage, and 
to point out at what particular 
parts the currents will, at certain 
times, be favourable in proceeding 
either to the eastward, or to the 
westward. In many places there is 
scarcely breadth for the passing of a 
single boat, and even then the boughs 
of the immense trees, and of the sub- 
ordinate ./Mn^f/e, frequently are found 
so to hang over, as nearly to debar 
the progress of ordinarj^ trading- 
vessels, fortunately, these narrow 
creeks are short, or, at least, have in 
various parts such little bays as 
enable boats to pass. The water 
being brackish, or rather absolutely 
salt, throughout the SunderOunds, it 

is necessary, for all who navigate 
this x>assage, to take a good stock of 
fresh water for their own consump- 
tion ; calculating for at least a fort- 
night's service. Even the villages, 
which here and there are to be 
found on the banks of the great 
rivers, are sometimes supplied from 
a great distance; especially during 
the dry season, when the tides are 
very powerful. 

SOONNEES, or "orthodox." The 
name of the sect of INIahomedans, 
who insist on the supremacy of Ma- 
homed, and revere equally his first 
four successors, and acknowledge 
the authority of various traditions. 
The Turks are Soonnees. 

SOONTAH-BUKDAR, a staff-bearer 
in the cortege of an exalted official, 
or opulent native of India. He bears 
a baton of about thirty inches in 
length, generally curved at its upper 
extremity, so as to resemble the 
ordinary form of bludgeons. These 
batons are made of the same mate- 
rials as the c/iobe, or pole, but while 
the latter are borne, when their 
bearers are proceeding with a palan- 
keen, by a suitable balance near 
their centres, like trailed arms, the 
former are held by their lower ex- 
tremities, which, since they never are 
rested on the ground, as the cliobes 
arc, require no ferules, the crooked 
end of the soontah being carried over 
the shoulder. Soontah-hurdars are 
frequently employed by persons in a 
second or third rate ofhce, or of 
opulence, where no jemmadar or 
chohdar is kept. 

SOOl'AREE, the betel-nut. As it is 
generally used with the paun-leaf, 
the more frequent word is paun- 

sive terms, of which the Ilindosta- 
nee language is fertile. Soar is a pig, 
and soor-ka-butcha the offspring of a 
pig. As the disciples of JNIahomed 
abominate the imclean animal, these 
epithets are highly offensive when 
applied to the IMoslem. 

SOORKY, Hmdostanee. Brick-dust. 




To pound soorky is a labour corres- 
ponding with the beating hemp in 
English Houses of Correction. 

SOOHMA, a preparation of antimony, 
with which the gay Hindoos, especi- 
ally the women of pleasure, nautcli 
girls, &c., anoint the eye-lids. 

SOUCAE, an Indian merchant or 
banker, a money-lender. 

SPAHIS, Turkish cavalry. 

SKAD'HA, or SHRADDA, obsequies 
paid by the Hindoos to the manes 
of deceased ancestors, to etfect, by 
means of oblations, the re-embodying 
of the soul of the deceased after 
burning his corpse, and to raise his 
shade from this world (where it 
would else, according to the notions 
of the Hindoos, continue to roam 
among demons and evil spirits,) up 
to heaven, and then deify him, as it 
. were, among the manes of departed 

SEEENUGGUE, the former capital 
of the province of Gurwal, or Sree- 
nuggur, in India, situated in Lat. 30 
deg. 1 1 min. N., Long. 78 deg. 4-1 
min. E. In the mountains, on the 
north-eastern side of the Deyra 
Doon, are the stations of Landour 
and Mussoorie ; these have been 
formed by the English, who resort 
to them for cliange of air, the cli- 
mate being cold and healthful. 

SUBAII, or SOCJBAII, tlie term ap- 
plied by the ^logul Government to 
a province such as Bemjal. A grand 
division of a country, wliich is again 
divided into circars, chuchlalis, per- 
gunnahs, and villages. N.U. The 
term, thougli Arubic, is in this sense 
peculiar to India. Europeans ai'e 
apt to confound this term with su- 
hahdar (q. v.) 

SUBAHDAE, the viceroy or governor 
of a province. (See Suuah.) The 
title is also used to designate a native 
military officer, wiiose rank corres- 
ponds witli tliatofa captain. 

SLJiAli KAUZII5, i'ersian. The ly- 
ing or false da^vni, a plienonienon 
common in the East, consisting of a 
brightness which appears for an 
hour before the true dawn com- 

mences. " It may be," says Eraser, 
'• some optical deception, depending 
upon refraction of the sun's rays, 
even when he is considerably below 
the visible horizon." 

SUCH-BAT, Hindostanee. True words ; 
truth. A common expression among 
the natives to signify assent. 

SUDDER, Hindostanee, The breast ; 
the fore court of a house. The chief 
seat of government, contradistin- 
guished from mofussil, or interior of 
the country. Tlie presidency. 

SUDDEE AUMEEN, hterally, "chief 
arbitrator;" an officer in the local 
courts of British India. 

the chief civil court of justice under 
the East India Company's govern- 
ment held at the Presidencies of 

SUDDOOZYE, the chief division of 
the whole of the Dooranee tribe of 

SUDDYA is little more than a village 
in the country of Assam, in Asia, 
situated at the moutli of a small 
river named the Kondeil nulhi, run- 
ning into the Brahmapootra river, in 
about Lat. 57 deg. o2 min. N. 

SUKKUR, a place in India, in the 
province of Scinde, on the right 
bank of the Indus, opposite Bukkur, 
a fortress built upon a rock, in the 
middle of the river, Lat. 27 deg. 42 
min. jST. A few miles from Sukkur 
are the ruins of Alore, in early limes 
the capital of a mighty kingdom, 
which extended from the ocean to 
Cashmere on the north, and from 
Candahar on the west, to Kanoje on 
the east, and mentioned by the 
Greek historians as the Icingdom of 

SUKRA, the name given in Hindoo 
mythology to the planet Venus ; 
Sukra is a Brahmun, the preceptor 
or cjoo/uo of the yian/.s; or ditis, and i3 
hcid in great estimation by the 
Hindoos. He is by some calk'd the 
son, by others the grandson, of Brigu, 
and is described as variously mounted. 
In one of the zodiacs he is seated on 
a camel, with a large ring or hoop 




in his hands, and having the appear- 
ance of a female ; in another, on an 
animal resemblinp: a rat. He is of 
a white complexion, middle aged, 
and of an agreeable countenance. A 
person horn under this planet Avill 
be gifted witli the power of omnis- 
cience, and possess the gifts of for- 
tmie and the blessings of life, among 
■which are many wives. He presides 
over Sukcrwar, or Friday. 

SULTAN, or SULTAUN, the sovereign 
of the Turkish empire — the acknow- 
ledged head of the Mahomedan re- 

SULTANA. See Odalisque. 

SUMATRA, in Asia, a large island of 
the group of Sunda Islands, in the 
Eastern Archipelago, lying obliquely 
north-west and south-east, between 
the sixth degree of north latitude and 
the sixth of south, and longi- 
tude 95i deg., and 107 deg. E. 
In length it may be estimated at 
1000 miles by 150, the average 
breadth. Its chief divisions are 
Acheen, the Batta country, Menan- 
caboo, Palembang, and the Eejangs. 
It has numerous rivers, some of 
them large and navigable. Ranges 
of lofty mountains run through the 
whole extent of the island; many of 
them are volcanic, and lava is occa- 
sionally seen to flow from them. 
Earthquakes also are frequent, but 
generally slight. The highest moun- 
tain visible from the sea has been 
named by the Europeans Mount 
Ophir, and is 13,842 feet in height. 
In addition to all the productions of 
India which it possesses in remark- 
able abundance, this island produces 
camphor, cassia, nutmegs, cloves, 
benzoin, rattans, sago, the bread- 
fruit, and the edible birds'-nests. 
The animals, wild and domestic, are 
the same as in India, the tiger grow- 
ing to a very large size. There is 
also the ourang-outang. The horses 
are of a small and active breed, 
generally known in India as the 
Acheen ponies. In the Batta coun- 
try they are used for food. Gold is 
abundant, and there are mines of 

copper, tin, and iron. Earth, oil, 
and sulphur, are also plentiful. The 
principal towns are Acheen, Me- 
nancaboo, Palembang, Padang, and 
Bencoolen. By the natives this 
island is usually called Palo, Pari- 
choo; and by tlie Javanese, Thana 
Palembang; the origin of its Euro- 
pean name, Sumatra, is quite un- 
known. Its inliabitants consist of 
various tribes, of the brown race, of 
which the principal are the Malays 
and Battas. The Battas are ad- 
dicted to an extraordinary system 
of cannibalism. According to their 
laws, all persons put to death for 
capital offences are cut up and 
eaten; as are also all enemies killed 
or taken prisoners during any general 
war. Notwithstanding this savage 
practice, the Battas are remarkable 
as a quiet and timid people. In 
apiiearance they resemble the Hin- 
doo. It is a general custom through- 
out Sumatra for both sexes to file 
down their teeth, and to stain them 
jet black ; many also casing the 
two front teeth in gold. All classes 
are inveterately given to gaming 
and cock-fighting, and all are great 
opium-smokers. Mahomedanism is 
the religion of the ]\Ialay tribe, but 
the Battas, and others, are still pa- 
gans, and without any regular form 
of religion, as they have no kind 
of worship, possessing little more 
than a confused notion of some 
superior and invisible beings, with 
very little idea of a future state. 
The principal languages are the 
Malay and the Batta. The Batta 
differs not greatly from the ilalay, 
but is ■written in characters derived 
from the Sanscrit, from left to right, 
upon the inner bark of a tree, and 
on bamboos. 
SUM.KJW, a Hindostanee word, lite- 
rally not to be translated, but most 
significant in its usage. It comes 
from Sumujha, to cause to understand, 
or to persuade; but the means of per- 
suasion, Avhether argument or force, 
are ingeniously left to the conception 
of those whose interests it suits, in 




•which case the interpretation rests 
with the most powerful. Thus orders 
sent to pohce-officers, to the effect 
of persuading people to certain ends, 
occasionally lead to unexpected re- 
sults, as may be imagined. 

SUNDA ISLANDS, in Asia. The 
Sunda Islands, or Sumatran chain, 
form the southern and western line 
of the Eastern Arcliipelago, compre- 
hending Timor, Floris, Java, and 
Sumatra, with some smaller islands. 

SUNNUD, Hindostanee. A prop, or 
support; a patent, charter, or writ- 
ten autliority, renewable from year 
to year, and if not renewed the title 

SUNNYASSEE, a Hindoo devotee, or 

SUPERNA. See Garuda. 

SURASAVATI,the goddess of learning, 
music, and poetry, is the wife of 
Brahma. She is also called Brahmi, 
or Brahmini, the goddess of the 
sciences; and Bharadi,the goddess of 
history. She is sometimes seen as 
a white woman standing on a lotus, 
or water-lily, holding a lute(or?.'iHa) 
in her hand, to show that she is also 
the goddess of music; at others, 
riding on a peacock, with the same 
emblem in her hand. Although the 
worship of Brahma has fallen into 
disuse, the ammal festival of Suras- 
wati, in the month JNJaghee, is higldy 
honoured. On that day she is wor- 
shipped with ofierings of perfumes, 
flowers, and rice; and the Hindoos 
abstain from either reading or wri- 
ting, as they ascril)e the power of 
doing both to be derived from this 
goddess. Offerings are also made to 
her iu expiation of the sin of lying, 
or of having given false evidence. 

SUIIAT, or SObllUT, a city in India, 
in tlie proviu'je of Guzerat, situated 
on the south l)ank of the river Tup- 
tee, about twenty miles from its junc- 
tion with the sea, in Lat. 21 dcg. 11 
inin. N., Long. 73 deg. 7 min. E. 
Tills is one of the most ancient cities 
of llindostan, being mentioned in the 
Eamayana. After the discovery of 
the i)assage to ludia, by way of the 

Cape of Good Hope, Surat became 
the principal resort of European 
trading vessels. Factories were es- 
tablished by the different European 
nations, and its population is said to 
have increased to 800,000 persons. 
In latter times the trade of Surat has 
much declined; other ports having 
risen into notice, and. its manufac- 
tures not now being in so much re- 
quest. It is now the capital of Gu- 
zerat, and the residence of the prin- 
cipal British authorities iu the 
l)rovince. The town is large, but 
ugly and badly built, and contains 
about 180,000 inhabitants. 

SURROW, a deer of the Plimalayas, 
about three feet and a half iu lieight 
at full growth. He is of dark hue, 
with short deflected horns, thickly 
built, and with coarse bristling hair, 
much like the wild hog. His head 
and shoulders resemble a donkey 
ornamented with a horse's mane and 
goat's horns. This scarce and sin- 
gular beast has a spirit iu proportion 
to his deformit}'. 

SUllYA. This deity, a member of the 
Hindoo mythology, was the son of 
Kasj-apa and Aditi, and from his 
mother is called Aditya. He is pic- 
tured of a deep golden complexion, 
with his head encircled by golden 
rays of glory. He has sometimes 
four, and at others two arms, holding 
a lotus iu one of his hands and some- 
times the chukra or Avheel iu an- 
other; standing or sitting on alotu3 
pedestal, or seated in his splendid 
car Avith one wheel, drawn by a seven- 
headed horse of an emerald colour, 
or'" the seven coursers green" of the 
si-in. Surya is the personification of 
the sun, the orb of light and lieat; 
but the omnijiotent sim, tlie creator 
of all things, the god of th.e luiiverse, 
is Brahm ; ty]iifie(l among the first 
idolaters liy the visible sun, and by 
tlie Hindoos by their three ])rincipal 
deities, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, 
jiersonifications of his attributes, 
creation, preservation, and destruc- 
tion. But Surya, as the type also 
of the deity, is likewise that of his 




attributes. Thus, in the east, morn- 
ing, lie is Brahma, creation; at noon, 
Vishnu, i^reservation ; in the west, 
evening, Siva, destruction. We 
shall, therefore, have little occasion 
for surprise at the great veneration 
in -which this deity is held by all 
classes of the Hindoos. The Aswi- 
nikumara, the twins of the Hindoo 
zodiac, are called the children of 
Suraya, from Aswmi, a form ofPar- 
vati in the shape of a mare, into 
•whose nostrils Surya breathed, and 
thus impregnated her with sunbeams, 
and gave birth to the Aswini. Su- 
raya is, by some writers, called the 
regent of the south-west. He pre- 
sides over Adit-war, or Sunday 
(from Ail it, the first, and Wai; day.) 
Suraya has various names. In the 
Gayatrl he is called Savitri, as the 
symbol of the splendour of the su- 
preme rider, or the creator of the 

SUTLEJ, or SUTLEDGE, the, a river 
in India, which issues from two 
lakes on the north side of the Hima- 
laya mountains, in about Lat. 31 
deg. 46 min. N., Long. 80 deg. 43 
min. E.; passes along the eastern 
side of Lahore, and through Mooltan, 
and falls into the Chenab river, a 
short distance to the northward of 
Ooch, after a course of between four 
and five hundred miles. 

SUTTEE, female iiumolation on the 
funeral pile of a deceased husband. 
Although the Shastras recommend, 
and contain regulations for the prac- 
tice of the rite, the sacred ordinances 
not only do not expressly, as some 
have supposed, enjoin it, but dis- 
tinctly point out in what manner 
a woman, after the decease of her 
husband, shall be taken care of; and 
leave it optional with her, either to 
burn herself, or live a future life of 
chastity and respectability. If, they 
say, after marriage her (the woman's) 
husband shall die, her /hw/>(/ /«/"*■ rela- 
tions; or, in default thereof, her fa- 
ther's ; or, if there be none of either, 
the magistrate, shall take care of 
her; and, in every stage of life, if 

the person who has been allotted to 
take care of a woman, and do not 
take care of her, each in his re- 
spective stage, the magistrate shall 
fine them. The ordinance, never- 
theless adds, that it is proper for a 
woman to Ijurn herself with the 
corpse of her husband ; m wliich case 
she will live with him in Paradise 
three crore and fifty lacs, or thirty- 
five millions of years. If she cannot 
burn, she must observe an inviolable 
chastity. If she remain always 
chaste, she will go to Paradise; if 
not, she will go to hell. Immediate 
beatitude, an almost immortal life in 
heavens of ineffable delight, and 
other enjoj^ments whose gross sensu- 
alities are concealed by the dazzling 
brilliancy of Oriental colouring, are 
among the irresistible charms which 
are held forth to enthral the mind, 
and lead the victim of marital sel- 
fishness, too often, to become a suttee. 
In short, it is averred, that the gods 
themselves reverence and o1)ey the 
mandates of a woman who becomes 
one. There is, besides these, another 
powerful motive which operates in 
conjunction with them. Among the 
Hindoos a woman, after the decease 
of her husband, loses entirely her 
consequence in his family, and is 
degraded to a situation little above 
that of a menial. She is told that if she 
become a suttee, she will not only es- 
cape from that life of assured debase- 
ment and contempt, but M'ill ascend 
to a state as pre-eminently exalted; 
and will thus (whatever the crimes 
of the parties may have been) save 
both her own soul and the soids of 
her husband and her husband's fa- 
mily from purgatory and future 
transmigration. Tlie practice of self- 
inunolation has been entirely sup- 
pressed in British India, but it 
obtains in several of the native inde- 
pendent states. 
SYCE, an Indian groom. He does 
what his translated name denotes, 
but in a way very difTerent from his 
English namesake. Smart and vigo- 
rous grooming are unknown in India: 




and judging from the fair condition 
of the horses, woiild not appear to 
be needed. The syce, moreover, 
nms behind the horse, or vehicle, as 
the case may be, and will keep up 
frith the latter for miles, Avithout any 
apparent effort, as also with a horse 
goingat an easy canter. He is a good, 
and generally a trustworthy servant. 

SYGWAM, teak. The best timber 
for building in whatever branch, but 
its dcarness prevents its general use, 
especially since naval architecture 
has been so much an object of specu- 
lation at Calcutta. Those who build 
houses of the first class, rarely fail 
to build all their terraces upon teak 
joists; botli because they possess 
superior strength, and that they are 
far less likely to be attacked by the 
■white ants. This has been attri- 
buted to the quantity of tannin con- 
tained in teak wood, which some 
have asserted to be a perfect pre- 
ventive or antidote. There is in 
teak wood evidently some propertj^ 
hitherto occult, that repels the white 
ant, at least for some years, but 
which is doubtless diminished by 
exposure to the air, as we find that 
very old teak timbers become rather 
more subject to depredation than new 
ones. Tlie greater part of the teak 
used in Bengal and at Madras, is 
imported from the Pegu coast, in im- 
mense beams, and in spars, planks, 
&c., of all sizes. It is by no means 
unusual to see the squared timbers 
measuring from forty to fifty feet in 
length, and averaging from fifteen to 
twenty inches in diameter. 

SYRAXG, a boatswain. The vessels 
which trade from India to China, 
and from port to port in India, are 
commanded and otficered by Euro- 
peans and Eurasians, but the crew 
and petty-officers are natives, gene- 
rallycallcd Lascars (Lushi/curs). The 
native terms for the petty officers 
are invariably used instead of their 
corresponding English designations. 

SYUDS, descendants of the prophet 
Mahomet, and therefore considered 
to partake of his sanctity. 


TABEEJES, silver cases, enclosing 
either quotations from the Koran, 
or some mystical writings, or some 
rubbish from the animal or vege- 
table kingdom, worn by the Ilin- 
dostanee women, strung upon an 
assemblage of black threads, passing 
round their necks, and reaching to 
their middles. Whatever the con- 
tents may be, great reliance is placed 
on their efiicacy in repelling disease, 
and in averting the iiifluence of 
witchcraft (fhaddoo), of which the 
people of India, of every sect, enter- 
tain the most unlimited dread. 
Hence, it is not uncommon to see 
half-a-dozen, or more, of these 
charms strung upon the same 
threads. The upper parts of the 
arms are adorned with semi-circular 
ornaments, made hollow, but filled 
up with melted rosin ; the ends are 
furnished with loops of the same 
metal, generally silver, which admit 
silken skeins, whereby they are se- 
cured to their places. The above 
trinket is called a Banjoo-bund. 

TAJIKS, a tribe of Tartars, of Per- 
sian origin, chiefly occupied in com- 
merce and agriculture. 

TAJ MEHAL, a magnificent tomb, 
constructed at Agra (in India) at 
the instance of the Mogul Emperor, 
Sliah Jehan, in commemoration of 
his beautiful queen, Noor Jehan, 
the Light of the World. The build- 
ing was designed by Austin do 
Bordeu.v, a Frenchman of great ta- 
lent and merit, in whom the emjieror 
placed great reliance. It cost 
3,174,802/., and occupied 20,000 
labourers and arcliitects for twenty- 
two years. The building stands 
upon the north side of a hirge qua- 
drangle, looking down into the clear 
lilue stream of the river Jumna, 
while tlie other three sides are in- 
closed with a high wall of red sand- 
stone. The entrance to this qua- 




drangle is through a magnificent 
gateway in the south side opposite 
the tomb, and on the otlier two sides 
are very beautiful mosques facing 
inwards, and corresponding exactly 
with each other in size, design, and 
execution. 1'hat on tlie left or west 
side is the only one that can be used 
as a jilace of worship, because the 
faces of the audience and those of 
all Maliomcdans, at their prayers, 
must be turned towards the tomb of 
theirprophet tothe west. Themosque 
on the east side was, therefore, built 
merely as a companion to the other. 
The whole area is laid out in square 
parterres, planted with flowers and 
shrubs in the centre, chiefly the 
cypress, all round the borders, form- 
ing an avenue to every road. These 
roads, or paths, arc all paved with 
slabs of freestone, and have, running 
along the centre, a basin, Avith a row 
of jets deau in the middle, from one 
extremity to the other. The qua- 
drangle is from east to west 964 
feet, and from north to south 329. 
The mausoleum itself, the terrace 
"Upon which it stands, and the mina- 
rets, are all formed of the finest 
white marble inlaid with pi'ecious 
stones. The wall around the qua- 
drangle, including the river face of 
the terrace, is made of red sand- 
stone, witii cupolas and pillars of 
the same white marble. The inside 
of the mosques and apartments in 
and upon the walls are all lined with 
marble' or with stone work that 
looks like marble ; but on the out- 
side the red sandstone reseml)les 
uncovered bricks. The dazzling 
white marble of the mausoletnn was 
brought from the Jeypore teiTito- 
ries, a distance of 300 miles, upon 
wheeled carriages. What was figu- 
ratively said of Augustus may be 
literally said of Shah Jehan : he 
foimd cities all brick, and left them 
all marble. The emperor and his 
queen lie buried side by side, in a 
vault beneath the building, to which 
access is obtained by a flight of 
steps. Their remains are covered 

by two slabs of marble, and directly 
over these slabs, upon the floor above, 
in the great centre room under the 
dome, stand two other slabs or ceno- 
taphs of the same marble, exqui- 
sitely worked in mosaic. Upon that 
of the queen, amid wreaths of flowers, 
are worked in black letters, passages 
from the Koran. Upon the slab over 
the emperor there are none — merely 
a mosaic wall of flowers and the date 
of his death. The cause of the dif- 
ference is that Shah Jehan had him- 
self designed the slab over his M'ife, 
and saw no harm in inscribmg the 
words of God upon it ; whereas, the 
slab over himself was designed by 
his more pious son Aurungzebe, who 
did not think it right to place there 
" holy words" upon a stone which 
the foot of man might some day 
touch. Noor Jehan, the Light of the 
World, or, as the inscription on her 
tomb calls her, Eanoo Begum, the 
ornament of the palace, died in 1631 ; 
her husband in 1666. She died in 
giving birth to a daughter, and oa 
her death-bed made two requests, 
first, that Shah Jehan would not 
marry again after her death, and 
get children to contend with hers 
for his favour and dominions; and 
secondly, that he Avould build for her 
the tomb with which he had pro- 
mised to perpetuate her name. Both 
her dying requests were granted. 
Her tomb was commenced upon im- 
mediately. No woman ever pre- 
tended to supply her place in the 
palace, nor had Shah Jehan childrea 
by any other. 
TALC (mica) may be obtained in al- 
most any quantity, at the several 
cities in India, especially towards 
the frontiers, very extensive deal- 
ings being carried on in this article, 
by persons resident chiefly at Luck- 
now, Benares, and Patna, who im- 
port it from Thibet, and the coun- 
tries on the north of the I'unjab, or 
Sikh territory, in masses, often as 
large as a (jiuirtern loaf. A seer of 
talc, that splits well, will sometimes 
yield a dozen or more panes, of about 




twelve inches by nine, or of ten by 
ten; and thus, according to the form 
of tiie lump, which can only be split 
in the direction of the lamina. 
These panes are so far diai)hanous, 
as to allow ordinary objects to be 
seen at about twenty or thirty yards 
tolerably distinct, and, of course, 
present an excellent substitute for 
glass. Talc supplies the material 
for numberless brilliant illusions ; 
the splendid tazees, carried about at 
the IMohurrum, are chiefly composed 
of tlie shining and transparent plates 
of this mineral, which may be cut 
into any shape, and made to assume 
all the colours of the rainbow. When 
illuminated by the profusion of lamps 
which are always brouglit in aid of 
any midnight exhibition, the eflect 
is perfectly magical. 
TAL-IFOT, or TALPAT, a tree com- 
mon in the island of Ceylon, and on 
the coasts of Malabar and Coro- 
monde. It grows very straight and 
lofty, from eighty to 100 feet, and 
has a large tuft of immense leaves 
at the top. Tlie wood is seldom 
put to any other use than that of 
rafters for buildings. Near the root 
of the tree the wood is black, very 
hard, and veined with yellow, but 
the inside is nothing more than pith, 
for the sake of which it is sometimes 
cut down, as the natives make use 
of it for food, beating it in a mortar 
till it becomes like flour, when they 
mix it with water for dough, and 
bake it. It bears no fruit till the 
last year of its life. When the 
flower, which is incased in a sheath 
(like that of the cocoa-nut), is ripe, 
the sheatli bursts with a loud noise, 
and emits a smell that is so dis- 
agreeable, that the people sometimes 
cut it down, not being able to live 
near it. The fruit is round, and 
about the size of an apple. It con- 
tains two nuts. Tiie most curious 
and useful part of this tree are its 
leaves. Tliese hang down from the 
top, and are nearly circular, and 
very large, one of tbem being suf- 
ficient to cover fifteen or twenty 

men. The leaf folds up in plaits, 
like a fan, and is cut into triangular 
pieces, which are used everywhere 
as umbrellas, for protection against 
the sun or rain. Every man of con- 
sequence among the natives of Cey- 
lon has a taljiat-bearer, to keep off 
the rain or sun. The leaf, in strips, 
is used in schools, to teach children 
to write upon, and as every letter is 
cut into it by a sharp-pointed style, 
the writing is indelible, and con- 
tinues legible as long as the leaf 
itself lasts. The tents of the Kan- 
dian kings and others, in time of 
war, were made of these leaves, and 
hence were called tal-ge, tal-pat 
houses. They used to carry Avith 
them great quantities of these leaves, 
already prepared, and cut into proper 
shape, and thus the labour of erect- 
ing a tent was very small. They 
are also used to cover carts, palan- 
keens, or any thing that it is neces- 
sary to keep from the sun or rain in 

TALLIAK, a guard or watchman. A 
village police officer in the peninsula 
of India, who gives information of 
crimes and offences, and escorts and 
protects persons traveUing to neigh- 
bouring villages. 

TALOOK, the being dependent, de- 
pendence, a dependency. A dis- 
trict in India, the revenues of 
which are under the management 
of a Tahohdar (q. v.), and are 
generally accounted for to the 
Zemindar within whose jurisdictioa 
it happens to be included; but some- 
times paid immediately to govern- 

TAMIL, or TA:\IUL, an ancient 
language of Southern India, which 
appears to have been the ori- 
ginal source of the Malayalim,. 
Kanarcse, Teloogoo, Malirattee, 
and Ooreea. It has since, together 
Avith other dialects, received a 
large admixture of Sanscrit. It 
is spoken in the island of Cey- 

TAMULIANS, inhabitants of all the 
eastern coast from J3attakalo, north- 




^va^d to Jaffna, in the island of Cey- 
lon, and from Jatiha southward along 
the western coast to Putlani. The 
general opinion respecting them is, 
that they at tirst came over into the 
island from the opposite coast of 
India. They are a more enterpris- 
ing, active, and industrious people 
than the Cingalese, and are pos- 
sessed of equal selfishness. They 
are divided into four princijial tribes : 
the Piramas, Katriyas, Vaisyas, and 
Sudras. The Piramas, besides being 
alone permitted to oiSciate as priests, 
are chiefiy engaged in agriculture 
or commerce. Katriyas constitute 
the royal race of warriors. This 
tribe, however, though recognised 
in their classification, exists not in 
Ceylon. The Vaisyas constitutes 
the nobility. They are divided into, 
1 . ilerchants, commonly called Chet- 
ties (the most honourable, and in- 
dustrious, and enterprising race of 
men on the island); 2. Husband- 
men and herdsmen. The Sudras, or 
fourth tribe, perform all the lower 
offices of life. They are likewise 
bound to serve the three preceding 
classes of Vaisyas during the public 
ceremonies, and are incapable of 
raising themselves to any superior 
rank. They are divided into two 
classes, the one including all kinds 
of domestic servants, and the other 
all kinds of town or public servants. 
The Tamulians in general are a 
stouter and more active race of men 
than the Cingalese. TJiey are less 
cringing in their manner, more in- 
dependent and adventurous, and 
more faithful servants and sulyects 
of government. Many of the Chet- 
ties are employed by merchants and 
others in various parts of the island 
as copolies, that is, collectors of 
their bills, at a certain per centage; 
and in this way a great deal of 
money from time to time passes 
through their hands, and they are 
very seldom found dishonest. The 
native merchants are almost all of 
this class. They deal largely in 
cloths, rice, &c. The dress of the 

men is a long piece of white muslin 
or calico tied round their bodies 
neatly and gracefully, and reaching 
down to the ankles, and a jacket 
somewhat like the one worn by the 
Cingalese. They wear turbans, and 
have large bunches of ear-rings, in 
each ear four or five rings, the 
smallest about two inches, and the 
largest about three inches in dia- 
meter. These sometimes reach as 
low as their shoulders, and make 
the aperture in the ear very large. 
The poorer classes have fewer ear- 
rings, and those of smaller dimen- 
sions ; and a great many have none 
at all. 

TAN. There are very many words in 
Hindostanee, like this for instance, 
which the European exile in 
India has arbitrarily abbreviated. 
" Tari" is a contraction of the word 
" 1(171710," " to pull." It is usually 
applied to the i^ulling of the pimkah, 
with the appendix of the word '■\joor- 
say" (strongly), and also sometimes 
to boatmen. 

TANJORE, a city in India, the ca- 
pital of the district so named in the 
province of Southern Carnatic, situ- 
ated in a fertile plain, in Lat. 10 
deg. 42 min. N., Long. 79 deg. 11 
mih. E., about thirty-eight miles 
easterly from Trichinopoly. It con- 
sists of two parts; the fortified town, 
and the fort or citadel, both on the 
same level, and connected together 
by a -wall. The city is regularly 
built, and contains many good edi- 
fices. In the fort is a celebrated 
pagoda, one of the finest specimens 
of the pyramidical temple in India. 
Its principal tower is 199 feet high. 
In ancient times, Tanjorewas one of 
the chief seats of learning in South- 
ern India. 

TANK, Hindostanee, tullao. An 
artificial pond, constructed for the 
purpose of supplying towns and 
villages with water, and aflfording 
the people opportunities for bathing. 
To dig a ta7ik is a work of piety, and 
therefore often performed by penitent 
or ostentatiously religious Hindoos, 




^vho likeM'ise bequeath money for 
such puii)oses. 

TANNAH, Hindostanee. A sta- 
tion; a military post, or station, 
often protected by a small fort; a 
petty police jurisdiction, subordinate 
to that of a darogah (q.v.) 

TANNAHDAlv, the keeper or com- 
mandaut of a tannah ; a petty police 
officer, whose jurisdiction is subor- 
dinate to that of a darogah. 

TxVPASS, propitiatory austerities 
practised b_v Hindoo fakeers to ob- 
tain the more especial divine favour 
and blessings of the gods. This 
consists in standing on one toe, the 
shin of the same leg having the heel 
of the other foot resting upon it. 
The arms are at the same time raised 
over tlie head; and the ej^es must, 
during the day, be constantly gazing 
upon the sun. 

TAJiEE, palm -wine. It is a beverage 
derived from the Taul-gatch, or Pal- 
myra tree, and early in the morning, 
when just drawn, is cool, salutary, 
and exhilai'ating ; but when fer- 
mented by the heat of the sun, it 
becomes highly intoxicating; its 
potent and maddening qualities be- 
ing not uufrequently increased by 
an infusion of Datura juice, which 
possesses a strongly narcotic and 
deleterious quality. Taree is called 
toddy by the Europeans in India. 
The natives, owners of the trees, 
extract it by bleeding a branch of 
the palm, and attaching thereto an 
earthen i^ot, with its mouth to the 
incision, over night. 

TARTAllY, in Asia (properly so 
called), lies between about S4 deg. 
and .50 deg. N. Lat., and 50 deg. and 
75 deg. E. Long. It is bounded on 
the north by Kussian Tartary; east, 
by Chinese Tartary; south, by Af- 
ghanistan anil Persia ; west, by Per- 
sia, the Caspian Sea, and part of 
Eussian Tartary. Its divisions are, 
Toorkistan, Khiva, Kokan, Bokhara, 
Toorkmania, Koondooz. The prin- 
cipal rivers are, the Jaxartes, Zur- 
Ufshan, the Oxus, and the Moor- 
gliab. The Jaxartes, called by 

Asiatics the Sir, or Sihoon, rises in 
the Beloot Tagh, and flows -westerly 
and northerly through Kokan, Bok- 
hara, and Toorkistan, into the sea of 
Aral. The Zur-Ufshan (scatterer of 
gold), called also the Kohuk, rises in 
the mountains eastward of Samar- 
cand, and flows westerly and south- 
erly past Samarcand and Bokhara, 
some distance to the southward of 
•which last city, it forms a small lake. 
The Oxus, called by Asiatics the 
Jihoon, and more commonly the 
Amoo, has its source on the northern 
side of the Hindoo Koosh, and flows 
westerly, and northerly through 
Koondooz, Bokhara, and Khiva, into 
the sea of Aral. The Moorghab, or 
river of Merve, rises on the northern 
side of the Paropomisan mountains, 
and flows north-westerly past Merve, 
fifty miles beyond which place it 
falls into a small lake. Between the 
northern part of Khiva and Toorkis- 
tan is an inland sea, about 200 miles 
in length from north to south, by 
seventy in breadth, named the sea 
of Aral. It is supposed, by the 
common people of the coimtry, to 
flow lielow ground into the Caspian 
Sea. The principal mountains are 
the Beloot Tagh, running from north 
to south along the eastern frontier; 
and the Ghour mountains, Hindoo 
Koosh, and Paropomisan on the 
south. The southern and eastern 
parts of the country produce rice, 
wheat, barley, and other grains, with 
fruits of different kinds in great 
abundance. Horses, camels, and 
sheep, are very mmierous through- 
out, particularly in the northern and 
western divisions, where each horde 
has large herds and flocks of them. 
The horses of Bokhara, called Uz- 
bekecs, and ; of Toorkistan, and 
Toorkmania, known as 'J'oorknia- 
nees, arc particularly celebrated 
for their great strength, and power 
of enduring fatigue. The camel is 
of a large, strong breed, with two 
humps, connuonly known as the 
Bactrian camel; the Indian camel, 
with the single hump, being pro- 




perly the dromedary. The wild 
animals are principally tigers, which 
are ibund in the Eeioot Tagh moun- 
tains, wolves, horses, asses, and the 
chamois goat. There are also nu- 
merous smaller animals, such as er- 
mines, and others alfording valuable 
furs. Gold is fomul in the sand of 
the Oxus, and to a smaller extent in 
the Zur-Ufshan and other rivers; 
and the mountainous parts contain 
silver, copper, iron, vitriol, and dif- 
ferent kinds of valuable stones and 
marbles. There are large cotton 
manufactories at Bokhara, and a 
considerable trade with the neigh- 
bouring countries in silk, wool, and 
lamb-skins. The people of Bokhara 
make great use of tea, Mhich they 
obtain from China. The name of 
Tartary is not known in eastern 
geography, the general name given 
by eastern writers to the country 
north of the Jaxartes being Toor- 
kistan, and to that part between the 
Jaxartes and the Oxus, Mawur-ool- 
Is'uhr. The religion in Tartary is 
generally Mahomedanism of the 
Soonnee sect, with the exception of 
the Kalmuk Tartars, who follow the 
Lama system. The prevailing lan- 
guage is the Toorkmanee, and 
amongst the Tajiks, Tersian. 
TARTARY, Chinese, in Asia. This 
country lies between Lat. 35 deg. 
and 5.5 deg. N., and Long. 70 deg. 
and 145 deg. E., and is bounded on 
the north by Siberia; east, by the 
Gulf of Tartary and the Sea of Ja- 
l)an; south, by the Yellow Sea, China, 
and Thibet; and west, by Tartary. 
it may be divided into the country 
of the Eliauts, or Kalmuk Tartars, 
the country of the Mooghuls, and 
the country of the Manshoors. The 
Kalmuks occupy the western parts, 
including Little Bucharia, or Eastern 
Toorkistan, the Mooghuls the Cen- 
tral, and the Manshoors the Eastern. 
Belonging to the Manshoor country, 
and separated from it by the Gulf of 
Tartary, and a very narrow strait, 
is the island of Sagalin. It has 
several rivers, but none of any im- 

portance. The principal is the Sa- 
galin, flowing eastward into the Gulf 
of Tartary. There are also several 
large lakes. Its principal ranges of 
mountains are, the Altaian on the 
north, and Beloot Tagh, dividing it 
from Tartary, on the west. The 
Beloot Tagh mountains are named 
in ancient geography the Imaus. 
The face of this country is much 
diversified with moiintain and plain, 
though with little forest. The 
greater part consists of a vast plain, 
supported like a table by the Thibet 
mountains on the south, and the 
Altaian on the north, and considered 
the most elevated level land on the 
face of the globe. Part of this plain 
is occupied by two large sandy de- 
serts, the Desert of Gobi, and the 
Desert of Sharno. The rest is de- 
voted to pasturage. The produc- 
tions of this country, as far as they 
are known, are few ; the Tartar 
tribes in general paying little or no 
attention to agriculture or manufac- 
tures, but depending chiefly upon their 
flocks and herds, of which they have 
great numbers. Horses and cattle 
are very abundant; they have also 
the bush-tailed, or grunting ox, and 
the camel. AVild horses and asses 
are numerous, and the tiger is also 
found in different parts. Ginsing 
root, and sable and other furs, form 
the principal part of their trade, and 
in tlie ^Manshoor country pearls are 
found in some of the rivers. The 
different tribes in general form Avan- 
dering hordes, and live in tents, 
which they remove from place to 
place, according to the season, or as 
they find pasturage for their flocks. 
Except in the western division, in- 
habited by the Kalmuks, there are 
consequently few towns. The prin- 
cipal are Kashgar, Turfan, and 
Yarkhund,in Little Bucharia; Ilomi, 
or Chamil, in the Mooghul country; 
and Sangalin Oula, Tsitchikar, and 
Chinyang, or Moogden, in the Man- 
shoor country. The general name 
of Tartary has been applied to this 
country by Europeans, hut it has no 




distinct native appellation, the differ- 
ent tribes having eacli different 
names for their respective lands. 
The inhabitants may be divided into 
three principal tribes of Kalmuks, 
Mooghuls, and Manshoors. Their 
complexion is generally of a reddish, 
or yellowish brown. The prevailing 
religion of the tribes is Booddhism, 
of tlie Lama sect. Many are also 
followers of what is called Shaman- 
ism, that is, idolaters who acknow- 
ledge a Supreme Being, but worship 
a multitude of inferior deities, lu 
little Bucharia there are also Ma- 
homedans of tlie Soonnee sect. The 
languages of the tribes are distinct; 
that of the Manshoors is said to 
"be exceedingly copious, though not 
vritten till the seventeenth century, 
■when the Mooghul character was 

TASSISUDON, in Asia, a town in the 
country of Bootan, of which it is the 
capital. The name is pronounced 
Tassjung by the natives. It stands 
in Lat. 27 deg. 5 min. N., Long. 99 
deg. 40 min. E., about 100 miles 
■north from the town of Kooch Bahar. 
It is pleasantly situated, and has a 
number of handsome buildings, and 
has a large manufactory for paper, 
V'hich is fabricated from the bark of 
a tree named dea, growing in the 

TATAE, or TARTAR, a Turkish 
messenger. These mounted couriers 
are excellent horsemen, of robust 
constitutions, capable of travelling, 
at a quick pace, very considerable 
distances, upon a small quantity of 
food. They often travel unarmed, 
for, being known to the tribes and 
robbers on their resjiective routes as 
the emissaries of the Sultan or the 
pachas, their persons are respected. 

TATTA, the ancient capital of the 
province of Scinde, in Lidia, stands 
on the right bank of the river Indus, 
about 130 miles from the sea, in Lat. 
24 deg. 44 min. N. It is believed to 
be the Pattala mentioned by the 
Greeks, and^vas a place of consider- 
able importance before the Maho- 

medan invasion. During the exist- 
ence of the Mooghul empire, it con- 
tinued to be much celebrated as a 
city of considerable commerce, and 
was famous for its manufactures of 
silk. It has since greatly decayed, 
and does not now contain more tlian 
15,000 inhabitants. It is still visited 
by numbers of Hindoos, being on the 
high road to Ilinglaj, inBeloochistan, 
a place of pilgrimage much resorted 
to by the people of the western pro- 
TATTIES, screens made of the roots 
of kuss kuss, a long grass which 
abounds in most of the jungles in 
India, and which corresponds exactly 
with Guinea grass. The fibres are 
of a rusty brown colour, devious in 
their direction, and may be from ten 
to twenty inches in length. Ihe 
frame in which this material is en- 
closed to form a screen, is made of 
split bamboo, chequered into squares 
of about four inches eacli way, and 
in the whole sufficiently extensive to 
overlap the exterior of the door or 
window to which it is applied, at 
least six inches, or perhaps a foot, at 
the sides and above. The huss kuss 
is then placed very regularly on the 
bamboo frame, as it lies on the 
ground, in the same manner as tiles, 
each layer being bound down, under 
a thin slip of bamboo, extending the 
full breadth of the tatty. Tlie great 
art is to make the tatty neitlier too 
thick, which would exclude the wind, 
nor too tliin, as it Avould then let the 
dust pass tlirough, without rendering 
the interior sufficiently cool. In the 
western provinces, and other parts 
of India, tatties are frequently made 
of a sliort, prickly bush, that thrives 
during the hottest months on sandy 
plains, especially in places inundated 
during the ramy season. This shrub 
is csl\c'\ jewasscth; its leaves are not 
unlike, but not so numerous, nor of 
so deep a green, as those of rue. It 
is extremi.'ly prickly, being every- 
where furnislicd with spines about 
the size of a pin. The I'^uropcans 
in India employ a bhccati/, or M'ater- 




carrier, to saturate the tatties with 
•water, for their fragrance is then 
most powerfully elicited, and the 
wind passing through them hecomes 
cooled and discharged of the particles 
of dust it gathers on its course across 
the plains. 

TATTOO, the Indian term for a little 

TAZA-WALAIT, fresh European. A 
phrase employed by the natives of 
Eastern India to describe a recent 
arrival from England. 

TAZEAH, a representation of the 
shrine of Kerbela, generally formed 
of paper and lath, painted and gilded, 
and borne in procession at the Ma- 
homedan festival of the Mohurrum. 

TCHOCADAR, an attendant upon a 
Turkish gentleman or nobleman. 
They generally follow him in the 
streets, or linger about the house, to 
perform any service that may be re- 
quired of them. 

TEERUT, or TEERUTH, a place of 
pilgrimage and sacred bathingamong 
the Hindoo Mahrattas. 

TEHSIL, or TEHSEEL, Hindostanee. 
Acquisition, attainment; collection 
of tlie public revenues. 

TEHSILDAR, one who has charge of 
the India revenue collections; a native 
collector of a district acting under 
a European, or a Zemindar. 

TEKA-GAHA, the teak-tree, is a 
large and stately tree, Avhich grows 
in the island of Ceylon and on the 
Malabar coast. It is of great value, 
owing to its hardness and capability 
of resisting the attacks of all kinds 
of insects. It has sometimes been 
called the Indian oak, and in India 
is frequently used for building ships. 
The trees have often a ragged ap- 
pearance, as the soft parts of the 
large green leaves are eaten away 
by insects, while the small fibres 
still remain untouched. It has a 
small dull white blossom, from which 
arises a seed as big as the hazel-nut. 
A kind of red ink is made from its 

TELLICHERRY, a small sea-port 
town, in the province of Malabar, in 

India, situated in Lat. 11 deg. 45 
min. N., Long. 75 deg. 33 min. E. 
It Avas for many years the principal 
English settlement on the western 
coast, a factor}'^ having been estab- 
lished there in 1G83. It is the 
principal mart in India for sandal- 
wood, brought from the forests above 
the ghauts, and for the cardamoms 
of "Wynaad, which are considered 
the best on the coast. 

TELOOGOO, the Gentoo language, 
peculiar to the Hindoos of the north- 
eastern provinces of the Indian pe- 
ninsula. This language is also 
called " Telinga." 

TESHOO-SOOMBOO, a town in the 
country of Thibet, in Asia, situated 
in Lat. 29 dog. 7 min. N., Long. 80 
deg. 2 min. E., 180 miles north from 
the frontier of the Rungpore district 
of Bengal. It is the second town in 
Thibet, and the residence of the 
teshoo lama. 

TIIER, the wild goat of the Himalayas. 
It is the Jemla goat of Hamilton 
Smith; it is also called Cupra Qua- 
drimammis, from the circumstance of 
its having four teats. Besides the 
Tehr, or Quadrimammis, there are 
three other wild goats to the north- 
ward, viz. Capra Ibex ICmodi vel 
Hkeen, vel SiiJieen; Capra Ophro- 
phagus vel Marhhor, so called, be- 
cause he destroys reptiles, has 
straight flattened horns, like the 
sheath of a sword, twisted on its 
axis ; and another Markhor, or 
Soorliha, Avith round horns, and is a 
very large animal. These goats are, 
in some places, so numerous, as to 
afford food, and their hairy wool, 
raiment for the people of the coun- 
try. Hunting days are appointed 
by the chief, and seventj'^ heads of 
them is not reckoned an extraordinary 
day's slaughter. 

THIBET, a country in Asia, lying on 
the northern frontier of Hindostan. 
It is bounded on the north by Chi- 
nese Tartary; east, by China; south, 
by Assam, 13ootan, and Hindostan; 
west, by Cashmere and Tartary. In 
general terms it may be said to be 




between Long. 74 cleg, and 100 cleg. 
E., slanting southwards along the 
Himalaya mountains, from Lat. 28 
deg. to 37 deg. N. Its chief divisions 
Lahdak, Undesa, Teshoo-Loomboo, 
and Lassa. Its principal rivers are 
the Sanpoo and Mounchoo, and in it 
are also the sources of several of the 
principal rivers in Asia. The Indus, 
Sutlej, Brahmapootra, of the Indian 
rivers, besides others of China and 
of Northern Tartary. The Sanpoo 
is believed to be one of the most con- 
siderable rivers in Asia; but as yet 
the information regarding it is very 
defective. It has two great ranges 
of mountains, the Himalayas, lying 
along its southern limits, and the 
Kailas, nearly parallel to the Hima- 
layas, in about Lat. 32 deg. N., and 
of about the same elevation; some of 
the villages on them being situated 
at a height of nearly 20,000 feet 
above the sea. Thibet may be con- 
sidered as consisting of two portions, 
the valley between the Himalaya and 
Kailas mountains, studded with ir- 
regular hills, and averaging a height 
of 10,000 feet above the sea, and an 
exten'jive table-land, beyond the 
Kailas, of similar elevation, declin- 
ing towards the north and east. Of 
tlis interior of Thibet, north of the 
Kailas, little is known; but it is 
believed to consist of extensive 
stony and sandy plains, diversified 
by hills, and by pastures traversed 
by small streams. Between the Hi- 
malayas and Kailas are two remark- 
able lakes; the Jlanaswarora, in 
Lat. 31 deg. N., Long. 81 deg. E., 
and the Rawun Hrood, about ten 
miles further Avestward. The for- 
mer is considered by the Hindoos as 
the most sacred of all tlieir places of 
pilgrimage. The Ciiinese and Thi- 
betians of Undesa call it Choo I\Ia- 
pang, and it is considered by them 
also a holy place. Kawun Hrood is 
tiie source of the river Sutlej. In 
consequence of the great elevation of 
this countrj', its climate is exceed- 
ingly cold, particularly in the vicinity 
of the Himalaya range; where, dur- 

ing winter, the cold is quite as se- 
vere as in the nortli of Europe; meat 
and fish being preserved in a frozen 
state as in Russia. Its vegetable 
productions are not numerous, its 
chief riches consisting in its animals 
and minerals. Barley, coarse peas, 
and wheat, are the grains ; rice is 
not cultivated. Turnips and ra- 
dishes are the only vegetables, and 
peaches and bynes the only fruits. 
Thibet, however, abounds in cattle 
and sheep, and wild-fowl and game 
of every description. Horses and 
mules are numerous, the latter being 
commonly used for carriage. The 
sheep also are used for the same pur- 
pose. The horse and the ass are 
both found wild. The most remark- 
able animals of Thibet are the yak, 
or bushy-tailed ox, sometimes called 
the grunting ox, the musk deer, and 
the shawl goat. The yak is rather 
larger than the Malwa bullock, and 
is covered all over with a long thick 
hair, from which are manufactured 
ropes and cloths for tents. Their 
bushy tails are greatly valued, and 
are much used as fly-flaps (or chow- 
ries), or as ornaments for horses and 
elephants, for which purposes they 
are in much request in India, China, 
and Turkey. These oxen are never 
employed in agriculture, but gene- 
rally for carriage. The musk-deer 
is about the size of a common hog, 
which it resembles a good deal in 
appearance. The musk is found 
only in the male, in a little bag at its 
navel. The shawl goat is so named 
from its yielding the soft silky hair 
used for the manufacture of the 
celebrated Cashmere sliawls. I'his 
species of goat is found in no otiier 
country. All the animals of Thiliet 
are provided with thick coats of hair 
and fur adapted to tlie coldness of 
the climate. The dogs arc large and 
powerful, and the cat of the long- 
haired kind, known in India by the 
name of Persian or Lama cats. The 
minerals are principally gold, quick- 
silver, nitre, and salt. Firewood is 
very scarce throughout tlic country 




beyond the Kailas, the dried dunr? 
of aiiinwls bciiii; ahnost the only 
fuel. The inhabitants are called by 
the English Thibetians. They are 
considered to belong to the same 
general race as the Tartars, and are 
entirely distinct in appearance from 
the natives of Ilindostan. They 
are described as a mild and con- 
tented, but indolent people. Their 
manufactures are chiefly of shawls 
and woollen cloths, of Avhich they 
supply large quantities to China, 
their principal intercourse, both 
commercijil and political, being "vvith 
that country. The Thibetians have 
the singular custom of polyandria, 
that is, of one wife belonging to 
several husbands: the elder brother 
of a family having the right to select 
a wife for himself and all his brothers. 
They do not bury their dead, but 
burn the bodies of the lamas, and 
expose those of tlie other classes to 
be devoured by the beasts and birds. 
Their chief food is mutton, which 
they are fond of eating raw, and 
barley prepared in various ways. 
They use plates of china or copper, 
■with knives and forks. The religion 
of Thibet is that of Bood'h, which 
appears to liave been introduced 
from India, and established through- 
out this country at an early period. 
The priests are all styled lamas, and 
amongst these the dalai lama, or 
grand lama, and terlioo lama are 
]ield to be particularly sacred. The 
Grand Lama is considered to be no 
less than the deity in a human form, 
on the dissolution of which he enters 
a new one. The terhoo lama is 
also looked upon as an incarnation 
of Bood'h, and is honoured by the 
Emperor of China as his religious 
teacher and guide. There are two 
sects of the lama Eooddhists, distin- 
guished from each other by the dress 
of the lamas, the one wearing a red, 
and the other a yellow cap. The 
latter may be considered the prin- 
cipal, being that of the grand and 
terhoo lamas and of the Chinese 
emperor. The red division is 

chiefly established in Bootan. The 
lama Booddhists entirely reject all 
distinction of caste, and admit pro- 
selytes of any nation. The principal 
idol in their temples is that of Maha 
IMoenee ((jreat saint), the Bood'h of 
Hindostan. The language appears 
to be quite distinct from the lan- 
guages of India, though the alphabet 
and character are believed to have 
been derived from the Sanscrit. It 
has two dialects; one for works of 
learning and religion, the other for 
common purposes. The letters run 
from right to left. Printing with 
wooden blocks is practised, and is 
said to have been known to the Thi- 
betians from a very early period, 
but it has been so limited in its use 
through their superstition, that not 
the slightest improvement in it seems 
to have been made, and it therefore 
remains in a very imperfect state. 
THUGS, or PHANSEGARS (as they 
are styled, to distinguish them from 
common dacoits) consist of a set of 
abandoned characters, either Moo- 
sulmans or Hindoos, of various 
castes, who live for a part of the 
year in cities or villages, apparently 
engaged in harmless occupations. 
These persons resemble Freemasons, 
so far as they are always kno^vn to 
each other by some distinguishing 
sign. At a convenient period, the 
brotherhood of each district assemble 
together, and, being formed into 
bands, disperse themselves over large 
tracts of country, those of the Dooab 
moving down towards the central 
provinces, and in their devastatinj^ 
progress waylaying, robbing, and 
murdering every individual who has 
the misfortune to cross their path. 
Although, during a considerable 
period, the existence of T/ntgs (as 
they are called from their dexterity 
in strangling) was suspected, the 
ideas formed concerning them were 
extremely vague and uncertain. Re- 
ports went abroad of the ftite of 
travellers ensnared while walking or 
riding upon the road, by a silken 
noose throAvn over their heads in 




the manner of the lasso, and the per- 
petrators were supposed to be iso- 
lated individuals infesting tlie Avild 
and less frequented parts of India. 
Many persons imaj^ined that tiiese 
atrocities ■were eontined to the Kaj- 
poot States and the kingdom of 
Oude, districts exhibiting scenes of 
outrage and bloodshed unknown to 
the Company's territories ; but, in 
1S30, the apprehension of a band of 
depredators was the means of l)ring- 
ing the whole of an uni)aralleled 
system of atrocity to light, and the 
depositions of some of the criminals 
have proved that, in this instance, 
rumour, so far from exaggerating 
the horrors of the deeds committed, 
has fallen short of the truth. It has 
never been known that in a single 
instance has a robbery Ijeen com- 
mitted by the Thugs without the 
previous destruction of life, gene- 
rally by strangulation. This is ef- 
fected either by means of a roomaul, 
or shred of cloth, well twisted and 
■U'etted, or merely by the hands, 
though the last is rarely practised, 
and only in the event of failure in 
the former and usual mode. On a 
preconcerted signal being given, the 
victim, or victims, are immediately 
overpowered, and the perpetration 
is the business of a moment. In 
committing murder it is a strict rule 
■with the Thug to avoid shedding 
blood, as its traces woidd, in many 
cases, lead to detection. In the hurry, 
however, in which it is sometimes 
necessary to provide for the disposal 
of a more than ordinary number of 
bodies, the graves cannot be made 
large enough to contain them entire, 
in which case they are cut to pieces 
and closely packed. When buried 
by the road-side, or any other ex- 
posed place, it was their practice to 
kindle fires on the spot, in order to 
prevent the marks of the newly- 
turned earth from being too con- 
spicuous. Murders in the manner 
thus described are accomplished 
with equal certainty and despatch, 
and with the same facility while the 

victims are walking along the roads, 
as when they have been enticed to 
their encampment and are sitting 
amongst them confident and secure, 
while the}' have every thing carefully 
and leisurely prepared for their de- 
struction. These murders are fre- 
quently perpetrated contiguous to 
villages, from whence they have in- 
duced strangers, on their journey 
from distant parts, to take up quar- 
ters in their company. They are 
usually performed before the twilight 
is completely over; and while the 
work is going on, a jiart of their 
band are singing and beating their 
tomtoms, in order to drown any 
noise the sufferers might make, and 
to give the whole cam}) the appear- 
ance of careless festivity ; thus the 
victims are despatched with ease and 
security, even within call of assist- 
ance, and almost in the face of a 
whole village. The diflerent persons 
actually engaged commence their 
operations simidtaneously, and by a 
signal given, which, of course, is 
preconcerted, but at the same time 
quite arbitrary, generally a common- 
place expression not likely to excite 
attention, such as tumhahoo lao (bring 
tobacco). The roomaul, or twisted 
shred, is the only implement used 
by the Thugs. The noose is not 
made of cord, although the general 
supposition is that such an instru- 
ment is employed in the commission 
of the murders, but if it ever was 
adopted, its use has been long aban- 
doned, for this obvious reason, that 
if in any search so suspicious an 
article should be found upon them, 
there would be no difliculty in guess- 
ing them to be professed Thugs. In 
passing through a country, the large 
number of which the bands consist 
is sufficient in itself to excite in- 
quiry, and there is always some 
plausible tale or explanation ready 
to be given by these people, in order 
to remove any doubt respecting the 
peaceableness of their characters 
and i)ursuits. Few carry arms; 
amid twenty or thirty persons there 




will not be above three swords, and 
they have emissaries at all the 
kutcherries of tlie diflerent districts, 
who manage in various ways to 
screen the parties from detection 
when the murder of missings persons 
is suspected. Great efforts have 
been made by the government to 
annihilate the race of Thugs, but 
they still exist in great force. 

TIIUMBOO, a tent. The camp equi- 
page in India is necessarily of a 
superior description to that used in 
Europe. The intense heat of tlie 
climate suggests the use of flies (or 
false roofs), kunnauts (double walls ), 
thick chintz linings, &c. Officers on 
the line of march, and civilians out 
on district duty are under canvass, 
as the phrase runs, for a large por- 
tion of the year. 

TICCA, hired. As every body in India 
finds it more convenient to own 
every thing he uses, and generally 
more economical, it is seldom that 
any thing but palankeens, boats, 
and carriages ai'e hired, and then 
only by persons of small income, or 
who have rare occasion for those 

TIFFIN, the term in use amongst the 
English residents in India to signify 
" luncheon." It is an important meal 
in India, as people generally dine late. 

TlMOll, an island in Asia, forming 
one of the Sunda Islands, in the East- 
ern Archipelago, lies between about 
Lat. 8 deg. and 11 deg. S., and Long. 

123 deg. and 127 deg. E. Its chief 
productions arc sandal wood and 
earth oil. It also yields gold and 
copper. Rice is also cultivated, and 
a species of sago, and it has all the 
common domestic animals. It is 
inhabited by a pagan race, of dark 
complexion and frizzled bushy hair, 
but differing in other respects from 
the Papuans, and appearing to hold 
a middle place between them and 
the brown races. This island belongs 
to the Datcli, who have a fort at 
Koopang, at the southern extremity, 
in Lat. 10 deg. 10 miu. S., Long. 

124 deg. 10 min. E. 

TIXDaL, a boatswain's mate. (See 
Sauang.) The title is also given to 
the master or coxswain of the large 
pier or l)under-boats which ply in 
the harbour of Bombay. 

TINDOO, the tree which yields 

TINNEVELLY, a town in India, the 
capital of the district so named, in 
the province of Southern Carnatic, 
is inland, and situated in Lat. 8 deg. 
48 min. N., Long. 78 deg. 1 min. E., 
a little to the westward of the Tum- 
brapoornee river, about twenty-five 
miles distant from the Western 
Ghauts, or Mountains. It is a large 
and populous place. 

TOBllAH, the nose -bag of a horse. 
The word is in use in Persia and 

TODDT, a corruption of Taree, the 
juice of the taul, or Indian palm- 
tree, which in a fermenting state is 

TODEAS. See Cooibatore. 

TOFUNCHEE, musketeers in Persia; 

TOKDAK, tlie name given in Hur- 
reeana to the bustard. The natives 
call the bird Goorarm, because the 
male, during the breeding season, 
growls like a lion. The birds resort 
together in the cold season in flocks 
of from three to twenty-five, but in 
the liot winds and rains they sepa- 
rate, pair, and breed. The female 
lays two eggs in a nest on a promi- 
nent hillock among grass. 

TOLA, the unit of the Britisli Indian 
ponderary system. It weighs 180 
grains English troy weight. The 
tola is chiefly used in weighing the 
precious metals and coins. 

TOiMAUX, a Persian gold coin, vary- 
ing in its value according to locality 
or the temporary necessities of the 
government. At some places and 
times it is worth only fifteen or even 
twelve shillings sterling; while in 
otliers, particularly in Khorassan, it 
rises as high as from thirty to thirty- 
five shillings. 

TONDAMlJND^\XUM, a district 




of the province of Southern Camatic, 
in India. This division Avas origi- 
nally connected with the Hindoo 
kingdom of the Chola Desum. It 
subsequently became a distinct zu- 
meendaree, under the rule of a Hin- 
doo chief, called by the English the 
Tondiman, from Tondi, and the 
English word man, a corruption, 
probably, of tlie old Hindoo name, 
ToHf/a-mundalum. Although at 
present nominally a dependent of 
the British Govermnent, the Tondi- 
man is allowed the full possession of 
his zumeendaree, free from tax or 
tribute of any kind, as a reward for 
the remarkable fitlelity exhibited by 
his family in their connexion with 
the English through all the changes 
of fortune, especiall}' during the 
early wars of the Carnatic. The 
natives of this district Avere long 
celebrated as most expert thieves, 
from Avhich circumstance they de- 
rived their name of coUaries {kullu- 
rees, from hiillur, thief), but so much 
is their character improved, that 
now a theft is seldom known among 
them. The instrument commonly 
called by Europeans the " cholera 
horn," derives its name from this 
people, and is properly the " Kullu- 
ree horn." 

TON.KJN, a large easy chair, sup- 
ported on men's shoulders by a sin- 
gle pole, running fore and aft, like 
that of a palankeen. The Tonjon is 
chiefly used by ladies in India, 
■wherein to take the air in the morn- 
ing or evening. 

TOOLSEE, the Ilindostanee name for 
a shrub of sacred basil. 

T0()]\II5U1)]IA, the, a river in In- 
dia, which is formed by the junction 
of two other rivers, named tlie Toon- 
ga and the Budra. The Toonga 
rises in the "Western Ghauts or 
Mountains, a little to the south of 
Nuggur, or Bednore. The Budra 
rises in a chain of hills, called the 
Baba Boodun Hills, situated to the 
eastward of the Western Ghauts, 
nearly opposite to !Mangalore. The 
two rivers join at Koorlce, near 

Hoolee Gonnoor, in the province of 
Jlysore, and form one river, called 
the Toombudra. From this, the 
Toombudra Avinds to the north and 
north-east, and falls into the river 
Kistna, a little beyond Kurnool. 

TOORKIE, galloways and ponies 
from Toorkistan, sold at the great 
fair at Hurdwar. They have been 
taught to amble, a pace very agree- 
able to the natives of India, but 
quite the reverse to Europeans. 
Thev fetch from 250 to 800 rupees. 

TOORKISTAN, a division of Tartary, 
in Asia, Avhich occupies tlie northern 
part of the country. It is generally 
open, but not cultivated, and devoted 
chiefly to pasturage. It is inhabited 
by Avandering tribes of Toorkmans, 
Avho haA'e large herds and flocks, of 
horses, camels, cattle, and sheep, 
with Avhich tliey move from place 
to place, according to the season. 
They have no towns, but live in 
camps formed of tents, made of wool- 
len, like thick black cumlics. Each 
tribe or horde is independent. No 
estimate can be formed of the total 

TOORKMANIA, a division of Tar- 
tary, in Asia, Avhich occupies the 
southern and Avestern part of the 
country, from Balkh, to the Caspian 
Sea; having KluA'a and the river 
Oxus along its northern frontier, 
and ranges of mountains separating 
it from Persia and Afghanistan on 
the southern. In the north-western 
parts it is mountainous, but for the 
rest it consists of sandy desert, A^ery 
scantily supplied Avith Avater, in 
some places quite flat, and in others 
risingup into mounds, some of Avhich, 
toAvards the Caspian, attain a height 
of from sixty to eighty feet. There 
are no toAvns or villages, ]n-operly so 
called, the Toorkmans being all no- 
mutlc, that is, Avandering tribes, mov- 
ing from one Avell to anotlier Avith 
their flocks and herds, and taking 
their conical huts, called Ithirgalts, 
Avith them, in search of Avater and 
pasture. The only lixed settlement 
Avorth noticing is Shui'ukhs, situated 




in Lat. 3G dcir. 31 min. N. It con- 
sists of a small fort, almost in ruins, 
and a few mud huts, which have 
been built by Jews from Meshid, in 
Persia, the Toorkinans living in 
their khirgalis. These are huts of 
a conical form, constructed of wood, 
surrounded by a mat of reeds, and 
covered on the roof witli felts. In 
Lat. 36 deg. N., Long. 61 deg. 1 min. 
E., stand the ruins of ]\Ierve, for- 
merly the capital of a principality, 
said to have been built by Alexander 
the Great. It is still styled by the 
natives " Merve Shah-i-Juhan." or 
Merve the King of the world; and 
a celebrated epitaph on one of its 
kings is often quoted by eastern 
writers. " You have witnessed the 
graudeur of Alp Arslan exalted to 
the skies: repair to iMervc, and see 
it buried in the dust." Under the 
government of the Persians, Merve 
"was long a great and opulent city, 
and the surrounding district was one 
of the most fertile in the world. 
But in the latter end of the eigh- 
teenth century, the district was con- 
quereil by the King of Bokhara, 
who destroyed the canals, and drove 
out the inhabitants; and the country 
soon became as sterile as the rest of 
Toorkmania, while its former fixed 
population has been succeeded by 
the wandering tribes of Toorkmans. 
The inhabitants of this province are 
Toorkmans, divided into a number 
of independent hordes or tribes ; they 
have no permanent ruler, and ac- 
knowledge only the general direction 
of their Aksukals, or elders. Their 
life is passed in the most reckless 
plunder of the neighbouring coun- 
tries, from which thej' carry off the 
men and women as slaves. Their 
children are brought up from their 
earliest years in the same habits. 
They have a proverb, which very 
aptly illustrates their character, 
namely, that a Toorkman on horse- 
back knows neither his father nor 
mother. They have no science nor 
literature, nor any mosques, though 
nominally Mahomedans. Their food 

consists of the milk and flesh of their 
herds and flocks, the milk of the 
camel especially being a favourite 
drink. Of mare's milk the northera 
tribes make a spirituous liquor, 
called huumis, of which they are ex- 
ceedingly fond. They carry on some 
trade with the neighbouring districts, 
exchanging horses, cattle, wool, and 
furs, for arms and other manufactured 
articles ; ])ut their main traffic is in 
slaves, whom they capture from the 
Persian and Russian territories. 

TOPE, a grove. There is nothing for 
which the sylvan scenery of India is 
more remarkable, than the groves of 
palm and mango trees planted all 
over the country, the former in the 
vicinity of the coasts, the latter in 
the north-western provinces and 
Behar. A strong religious feeling 
influences the Hindoo in these planta- 
tions. He believes that his soul in 
tlie next world is benefited by the 
blessings and grateful feelings of 
those of his fellow-creatures, who, 
unmolested, eat the fruit and enjoy 
the shade of the trees he has planted 
during his sojourn in this world. 
The names of the great men who 
built the castles, palaces, and tombs 
at Delhi and Agra, liave been almost 
all forgotten, because no one enjoys 
any advantage from them; but the 
names of those who planted the 
mango groves are still supposed to 
be remembered by all who eat of 
their fruit, sit in their shade, and 
drink of their water, from whatever 
part of the world they come. 

TOPE-BASHEE, Turkish and Per- 
sian. Commandant of artillcrv. 

TOPECHEE, the Persianand Turkish 

TOPEKHANAH, Hindostance. The 
ordnance, the artillery; the place 
where artillery and military stores 
are kept. 

TOTA KOHANEE, tales of a parrot. 
One of the elementary books iu Hin- 
dostance, put into the hands of tyros 
by their Moonshees. Many of the 
tales correspond with the fables of 




TOTIE, a village police-officer in India, 
whose duties are confined more im- 
mediately to the village; but who 
also guards the crops, and assists in 
measuring them. 

TRANQUEBAR, a town in India, in 
the district of Tanjore, in the pro- 
vince of Southern Carnatic, situated 
on the coast, in Lat. 1 1 deg. N., Long. 
72 deg. 53 min. E. It is a very neat 
regularly built town, and belongs to 
the Danes, who settled there in 1 6 1 6, 
having purchased the ground from 
the Rajah of Tanjore. 

TRAVANCORE, a province of India, 
tounded on the north by Malabar ; 
east, the Western Ghauts or Moun- 
tains, separating it from Coimbatore 
and Southern Carnatic; south and 
west, the sea. The divisions are. 
North Travancore, including the 
small principiility of Cochin, and 
South Travancore. Of rivers, there 
are none of any magnitude, but nu- 
merous small streams. This pro- 
vince consists of a long strip of land, 
shut in from the main count rj^ by a 
lofty range of mountains running 
from its northern to its southern 
extremity, terminating at Cape Co- 
morin. In length it may be estimated 
at 140 miles, by an average breadth 
of about forty. Through the moun- 
tains are three passes. Tlie north- 
ern, or Chow-ghaut, leading into 
Coimbatore; the central, or Ariyun- 
gol, not practicable for carriages, 
about ten miles in length, leading 
into Tinnevelly; the southern, or 
Arumboolce, twelve miles from Cape 
Comorin, a broad level opening be- 
tween the mountains into the south 
of Tinnevell}'. Along the coast, 
separated from the sea by a narrow 
strip of sandy soil, is a back-water, 
or brackish lake, communicating 
with the sea by creeks at different 
points, and extending from Chow- 
ghaut to Quilon, a distance of about 
140 miles. Its breadth and depth 
vary very nmch, but it is navigable 
throughout for boats. From Quilon, 
a canal connects this back-water 
with another at iVnjengo, continuing 

the water communication as far as 
Trivanderam. Travancore is one 
of the richest and most fertile coun- 
tries in India. Its surface is beau- 
tifully varied Avith hill and dale; 
and winding streams, flowing down 
the mountains, preserve the valleys 
in a constant state of verdure. The 
mountains are covered with lofty 
forests. The productions of this 
province are numerous and valuable. 
Pepper, cardamoms, cassia, betel-nut, 
cocoa-nut, ginger, mace, nutmegs, 
bees'-wax, ivory, sandal-wood, ebony, 
&c. Rice is always in the greatest 
plenty, a scarcity being quite un- 
known ; the country generally yield- 
ing three crops in the year. The 
cattle are of a small breed, and there 
are not any sheep, except such as are 
procured elsewhere. The forests 
are filled with teak and other valu- 
able woods, and abound with ele- 
phants. Buffaloes and tigers are 
numerous, as are also monkeys, apes, 
and other wild animals. The black 
tiger is a native of this province. 
There are few towns of any conse- 
quence, the natives preferring to live 
dispersed over the country upon 
their farms. The principal are 
Trichoor, Cranganorc, Cochin, Alep- 
pie, Quilon, Trivanderam, Ooda- 
gherry, and Nagracoil. Trichoor is 
only noted as being situated near 
tlie Chow-ghaut. It belongs to the 
Cochin rajah. The inliabitants of 
this province, called in English wri- 
tings by the general name of Tra- 
vancoreans, may be classed as fol- 
lows: — Namboorees, or Hrahinuns, 
Nairs, and other Hindoo divisions, 
as in jMalabar, forming tlie bulk of 
the population. ]{omanists, that is, 
followers of the Romish church, 
consisting chiclly of the fishermen 
and others dwelling on the coast, 
and amounting to about 11.5,000 
persons, Syrians (called by the 
Hindoos, Sooriance JNIaplay, or Na- 
zarenc Maplay), so named as being 
Christians of tiie Syrian church, 
and amounting to alxmt 125,000, 
being principally in the inland parts 




of North Travancore; Jews, in num- 
ber about 2000, living at Cocliin and 
Cranganore, and a few thousand 
Maliomedans. The total population 
is estimated at about 1,500,000. The 
religion is Hindooism. There are 
also in this province, as already no- 
ticed, a considerable number of Sy- 
rians and Romanists, and a small 
proportion of Maliomedans and Jews. 
The general language of the province 
is IMalayalim. In the southern 
parts, bordering upon Tinnevelly, 
TRICHINOPOLY, also called TRI- 
CHIRAPOORA, a city in India, 
the capital of the province of South- 
ern Carnatic, situated on the south 
side of the river Cavery, is a large 
and poi>ulous town. By the Malio- 
medans it is commonly called Nut- 
hur-Nuggur. Trichinopoly is cele- 
brated for a memorable siege, which 
it sustamed from 1751 to 1755, when 
it-was successfully defended i)y tlie 
English against the French and 
their native allies. "Within the for- 
tified city is a rock, about 300 feet 
high, in which are a pagoda, and 
other buildings. In a durgali outside 
the city, not far from the western 
■wall, under a plain slab, lie the bones 
of Chunda Saliib; and in a sort of 
choultry adjoining, are the burial- 
places of Umeer-ood-Oomra and his 
family. Trichinopoly is one of the 
principal military stations of the 
English. Opposite to the town of 
Trichinopoly, the Cavery separates 
into two branches, forming an island 
called Seringam {Sreerunyum). 
About thirteen miles to tlie eastward 
of the point of separation, the branches 
again approach each other, but 
the northern one is at this spot 
twenty feet lower than the southern. 
The northern branch, which takes 
the name of Coleroon, is allowed to 
run Avaste to the sea; but the south- 
ern, which retains the name of Ca- 
very, is led by numerous channels to 
irrigate Tanjore. Near the east end 
ol' Seringam, an immense mound, 
called the Amiicut, has been formed, 

to prevent tlie waters of the Cavery 
from descending into the Caleroon. 
About a mile from the western ex- 
tremity of the island, at a short dis- 
tance from the bank of the Coleroon, 
stands the celebrated pagoda of Se- 
ringam. It is composed of seven 
square enclosures, 350 feet distant 
from each other; and each enclosure 
has four large gates, with high 
towers, placed one in the centre of 
each side, opposite to the four car- 
dinal points. The outward wall is 
nearly four miles in circumference. 

TRINCOMALEE (Tirikunamale) lies 
on the north-east coast of the island 
of Ceylon, in Lat. 8 deg. 33 iiiiu. N., 
and Long. 81 deg. 24 rain. E. It is 
108 miles from Kandy, and ISO from 
Colombo. The fort occupies an ex- 
tent of nearly three miles, and in- 
cludes a high hill immediately over 
the sea. It has a citadel called Fort; 
Ostenliurg, erected on a clifl' that 
projects into the sea. There are a 
few good houses within the fort, 
among which may be mentioned the 
commandant's. A large room in the 
barracks is used as a churcli. for the 
military and Europeans. The es- 
planade separates the Pettah (or 
town) from the fort; the native 
houses in the Pettah are mean, low. 
buildings, and irregularly placed. 
The bazar is extensive. The houses 
occupied by the English and the 
more respectable Dutch and Portu- 
guese inhabitants are spacious and 
airy. There are two Roman Ca- 
thoUc chapels, and several mosques 
and temples belonging to the Moor- 
man and the Tamulians. There is 
also a chapel belonging to the Wes- 
leyan missionaries, a neat building 
near the esplanade. Trincomalee is 
generally considered the least healthy 
and the hottest jilace in the island. 
It is the rendezvous of British ships 
of war. A naval storekeeper is con- 
sequently stationed there. 

TRINOMALLY (Tiroona Muhje), a 
place in the province of Central or 
Middle Carnatic, in India, situated 
about fifty miles from the coast, in 




Lat. 12 dcg. 11 mill. Is., Long-. 79 
deg. 7 mill. E. It is chiefly noted as 
being a place of pilgrimage for the 
Hindoos. It consists of a large 
craggy mountain, on which are 
several pagodas, and at its base a 
populous toivn. The principal pa- 
goda is built at the foot of the moun- 
tain, and has a large gateway of 
twelve stories, 222 feet high. 

TRI PETTY, a Hindoo temple in the 
kingdom of Tanjore. It is situated 
in tlie Carnatic, about eighty miles 
from Madras, and is resorted to by 
pilgrims from everj' part of India. 
It is dedicated to Vishnu as Ballaji, 
whose image is here worshipped with 
those of Lakshmi and the serpent 
Seslia. It is built of stone, and 
covered with plates of gilt copper, 
and stands in a valley in the centre 
of a range of hills, Avhich are imper- 
>'ious alike to the Christian and the 
Mussulman. The very sight of tlie 
hills, although at the distance of 
many leagues, is so gratifying to the 
Hindoo devotees, that iipon first 
catching a glimpse of these sacreJ 
rocks they fall prostrate, calling 
unon the idol's name. 

TElVAXDEilAM, a town in India, 
the modern capital of the province 
of Travancorc, situated about three 
miles from the coast, and about fifty 
miles from Cape Comorin. It is the 
usual residence of the rajah, who 
has here a large palace built in imi- 
tation of the European style, and 
decorated with a variety of coarsely- 
executed paintings, clocks, and other 
European ornaments. 

TUCKyEEM, division, distribution. 
The divisions or constituent parts 
of the assessment in the peninsula 
of India are called tumar jamma, and 
comprehending not only the quota 
of the greater territorial divisions, 
but of the villages, and of the indi- 
vidual rr/ots, and applied by some 
to designate other standard assess- 

TL'KT-E-EOWAN, a litter borne by 
mules, used only in Persia. 

TULLAO, a tank, or artificial pool 

of water; the grand reservoirs of 
rain or river water in most of the 
towns in India. Amongthe Hindoos 
it is an act of grace and piety to dig 
a tank, and accordingly wealthy 
men, aspirants to beatitude, conse- 
crate large sums to their construc- 
tion. In a country where good water 
in abundance is of the highest con- 
sequence to the health and comfort 
of the populace, the value of such 
edifices cannot be overrated. Some 
of them are of immense extent, and 
cost from £20,000 to £50,000. 

TULLY, a fiat brass plate, with a 
border about an inch high, nearly 

TUMAK JA^niA, Hindostanee. The 
sum total of an assessment enrolled 
or recorded in the public register. 
The term is particularly applied to 
a standard money assessment, by 
measurement of the land revenues, 
formed by Turell Mull about a.d. 
1582, during the reign of Acbar, 
by collections through the medium 
of Canongoes, and other inferior 
officers, the accounts of the rents 
paid by tlie ryots, which formed the 
basis of it. It is also used to desig- 
nate the same standard assessment 
as it was reformed under Sultan 
Sujah in 165S. and by JaflSer Khan 
in 1722, during tlie reign of the 
emperor Mahomed Shah. 

TU:NGAn, Persian. Literally, "a 
straight," a word applied to the 
narrowest and most difficult jiart of 
a mountain pass. 

TUrSEY, a fish, of the river Ilooghly 
(Bengal), called by the English 
" Mmicjo-Jish," on account of its ap- 
pearing about the time that mangoes 
first come into season. It comes 
up from the sea with tlie tide. In 
appearance it is not milike the smelt, 
though rather deeper, and with red- 
dish fins. The flesh of this fish is 
fine, but its roe is deservedly es- 
teemed delicious. An immense 
quantity are cured by being slightly 
salted and sun-dried; after which 
they arc smoked for a short time 
over a fire made of chafi", &c. 




TUPTEE, the, a river in India, 
which rises near tlie village of Ba- 
tool, in the northern mountains of 
the province of Berar. ]t runs west- 
ward, through the provinces of Can- 
deish and Guzerat, and falls into the 
sea below ISurat, after a course of 
about 750 miles. 

TUSBEE, the rosary or string of beads 
of the Hindoos. 

TUSSER, a silk manufactured in Ben- 
gal. It is produced from the silk- 
worm found upon the Bair (or egg- 
plum) tree, and is much worn by 
both natives and Europeans. 

TUTICOKIN, a town in India, in the 
district of Tinnevelly, in the pro- 
vince of Southern Carnatic, situated 
on the coast, in Lat. 8 deg. 57 min. 
N., Long. 7G deg. 36 min.^E. It is 
a large town, and is noted for its 
pearl fishery, which has existed for 
many centuries, and still continues 
productive, though the pearls are 
considered inferior to those found 
in the bay of Condatchy, iu Ceylon. 


ULEMA, a Turkish professor of Ma- 
liomedan law. 

ULLUIIA SALAAM! Peace be on 
him! No Mussulman jirofessing 
common decency, or tolerably edu- 
cated, ever utters this reverend name 
without adding the salutation. 

UMBALLAII, a military station in 
the north-west of India, near the 
base of the Iliraalava range. 

UMRAPOOKA, in' the country of 
Ava, in Asia. Both Ava and Umra- 
poora have been the capital of the 
Burman empire at different times, 
according to the caprice of the king. 
At present the seat of government 
is Ava. 

UMRITSIR, a city in India, in the 
province of Lahore, or the Punjab, 
situated fifty miles north-westerly 
from Lahore. This is jiroperly the 
capital of the Sikh nation, being 
considered by them as their holy 
city. It derives its name, which 

signifies the pool of immortal it i/, from 
a small tank, in the centre of which 
stands a temple dedicated to Gooroo 
Govind Singh, and containing the 
book of laws written by him. It is 
larger than Lahore, and the prin- 
cipal mart of the province. Many 
rich merchants and bankers reside 
here, and amongst its inhabitants 
are several hundred Akalees. 

UNUEROON, the Persian word for 
zenana, harem, &c. ; the women's 
apartments in a Mussulman's dwell- 

URNEE, a wild buffalo in the north 
of India. 

URZEE, a petition. All great per- 
sonages in India, from a Nuwaiib or 
Rajah exercising power, to a judge 
upon the Bench, are only approached 
by petition; and so servile a spirit 
has this usage begotten among the 
natives, that clerks and servants 
seldom venture to address their em- 
ployers excepting through the usual 
abject form of a petition. Some of 
these compositions in the English 
language are exceedingly amusing 
from the loftiness of the phraseology 
and the malapropisms with which 
they abound. 

UZBEKS, a race of Tartar people, 
partly nomade, but generally living 
in a settled manner, occupying 
Bokhara, Kokan, and Koondooz. 
The Tajiks and the Uzbeks are 
greatly superior to the other tribes 
of Tartary in all respects, being in- 
dustrious and civilised ; they carry 
on a considerable commerce Avith 
Persia, India, Thibet, China, and 

VAHAN, a mythological bull. The 
vehicle of Siva. 

VAlvliKL, one endued with authority 
to act for another. An ambassador, 
agent sent on a special commission, 
or residing at a court. Native In- 
dian law pleader under the judicial 
system of the Company. 




VAMUNA, the fifth (dwarf) of 
Vishnu's avatars. Vishnu in this 
avatar took the form of a Brahniun 
dwarf, to humble the pride and 
arroijance of another monarcli. 

VARAHA, the third (boar) of Vishnu's 
avatars. Vishnu is represented with 
the head of a monstrous boar, sup- 
porting the world on liis tusks. 

VARUNA, in Hindoo mythology, is 
the god of the waters, the Indian 
Keptune, and the regent of the west 
division of the earth. He is repre- 
sented as a white man, four armed, 
riding on a sea animal, with a rope 
called pashu in one of his hands, and 
a club in another. He is worshipped 
daily, as one of the regents of the 
earth; and also, by those who farm 
the lakes in Bengal before they go 
out fishing. And in times of drought, 
people repeat his name to obtain 
rain. His heaven, formed by Viswa- 
karma, is 800 miles in circumference, 
in which lie and his queen, Varuni, 
are seated on a throne of diamonds, 
attended 1)y Samudra, Gimga, &c. 

VEDANTAS, the Hindoo code of phi- 

VEDAS, the Vedas are the earliest 
sacred writings of the Hindoos. The 
first four, called the immortal Vedas, 
are the Rig or Rish Veda, the Yajar, 
or Yajush Veda, the Sama or Saman 
Veda, and the Atharva or Athar- 
vana Veda. Thcj^ comprise various 
sections, which are again divided 
and subdivided, under the distinc- 
tions of Mantras, Brahmana, Ita- 
hasa, I'urana, Upanishad, i^c. They 
were reduced to order by Vyasa, and 
prescribed the moral and religious 
duties of mankind. The original 
Veda is believed by the Hindoos to 
liave been revealed by Brahma, and 
to have been preserved by tradition 
imtil it was arranged in its present 
form by a sage, who thence obtained 
the surname of Vyasa, or Vedavyasa; 
that is, compiler of the Vedas. 
Each Veda consists of two parts, de- 
nominated the ^Mantras and the 
Erahmanas, or prayers and precepts, 
The complete collection of the hymns, 

prayers, and invocations, belonging 
to one Veda is entitled its Sanhita. 
Every other portion of Indian scrip- 
ture is included under the general 
head of divinity (Brahmana). 

VEENA, an instrument of the guitar 
kind, with seven metal strings. It 
is the most ancient musical instru- 
ment of the Hindoos, and in good 
hands is capable of yielding great 
melody and expression. 

VELLORE, a place in India, in the 
province of Central or Middle Car- 
natic, called by the natives liae- 
Elloor, situated about ninety miles 
westerly from Madras. The fort is 
large and strongly built, and sur- 
rounded by a deep ditch, which was 
formerly filled with alligators, but 
it is completely commanded by the 
neighbonring hills. It is now a 
place of little imi^ortance. 

VERANDAH. Almost every house 
and bungalow in India is furnished 
with a verandah ; in other words, 
with an outer wall of Venetian blinds 
fixed to brick work to keep the muer 
rooms cool and dark. 

India ; they extend through the 
provinces of Bahar, Allahabad, and 
Llalwa, along the north side of the 
river Nerbudda, almost as far as the 
western coast of Hindostan. 

an avatar, or by some called a son 
of Siva, in Hindoo mythology, pro- 
duced from the jalra, or plaited locks 
of that deity, which he cut o(f and 
threw on the ground, in a moment 
of frenzy, on learning the death of 
Suti, caused by the curse of Daksha; 
Vira Badra innnediately attacked 
Daksha, and cut od'his head, which 
fell into the fire prepared for a sa- 
crifice, and was ])nrnt. He is armed 
with various instruments of destruc- 
tion; and the representations ot'him 
are usually seen with the head of a 
goat (with which that of Daksha 
was replaced on his body) near them, 
or accompanied by a human figure 
with a goat's head. 

VIRAJ, according to the mythology 




of the Hindoos, the primeval being, 
represented under a form half male, 
half female. The terra is usually- 
applied to Siva and Parvati. Accord- 
ing to some, Viraj was the first issue 
of the mighty heing who had thus 
divided herself; and was conse- 
quently the first man and the founder 
of the human race. Swayambhuva 
is considered to have been his son. 
There are many accounts respecting 
their descendants, each at variance 
with the other. 
VISHNU, the second named of the 
Trimerti, or Hindoo triad, and the 
preserving spirit of the supreme 
deity, Brahm. This god is repre- 
sented of a black or blue colour, with 
four arms, in which he holds a club, 
to show that he punishes the wicked ; 
the chanJi, or wreathed shell, blown 
on days of rejoicing, and at a period 
of worship; the chukra, or discus, 
the emblem of his universal domina- 
tion; and tlie lotus, or water-lily, 
the type of his creative power. He 
is variously described: sometimes 
seated on a throne of tlie sacred lotus, 
with his favourite wife, Lakshmi, in 
his arms; or standing on a lotus pe- 
destal between his two wives, 
Lakshmi and Satyavama; at others, 
reclining on a leaf of that flower, or 
on the serpent Anonta, or eternity', 
floating on the surface of the i)ri- 
meval waters; or riding on Garuda, 
which is represented as a youtli witli 
the wings and beak of a bird. As 
each of the deities of the triad is oc- 
casionally seen possessing the attri- 
butes of the others, Vishnu is found 
sometimes as the Creator, and at 
others, as the god of Destruction, as 
well as the Preserver. In one of the 
hypotheses respecting the creation 
of the world, he appears in his crea- 
tive attribute, giving birth to Erah- 
ma, who is springing from his navel 
to execute his high behests, in pro- 
ducing the elements, and forming the 
system of the world. Vishnu had 
a thousand names; and many awi^ars 
or incarnations are ascribed to him, 
in which he is represented in various 

forms, to save the world; to restore 
the lost Veda, or sacred writings; to 
destroy the giants; and to punish 
the wicked. Ten of these avatars 
compose a large portion of the Hin- 
doo mythology. Nine of them are 
already past, but the tenth is yet to 
come, in which the dissolution of the 
Avorld will take place. In his tenth 
incarnation, or the kalki avatar, it is 
fabled that he will appear at the end 
of the Calbjoog as an armed warrior, 
mounted on a white horse, furnished 
with wings and adorned with jewels, 
waving over his head with one hand 
the sword of destruction, and holding 
in the other a discus, or a ring, or 
emblem of the perpetually-revolving 
cycles of time. The horse is repre- 
sented holding up the right fore-leg; 
and the Prahmuns say, that ^vhen 
he stamps on the earth with that, the 
present period will close, and the 
dissolution of nature take place. No 
sanguinary sacrifices are offered to 
Vishnu. He is considered as a 
household god, ^and is extensively 
worshipped. His wives are Lakshmi, 
the goddess of fortune and beauty, 
and Satyavama. Vishnu is often 
invoked by the Hindoos by the cry 
of Hurree bole ! Hurree bole ! 
VISWAKARMA, according to the 
mythology of the Hindoos, the archi- 
tect of the universe, and the fabrica- 
tor of arms to the gods, is tlie son of 
Brahma, and the Vulcan of the Hin- 
doos. He is also called the Soortar, 
or carpenter, and presides over the 
arts, manufactures, &c. In paint- 
ings, he is represented as a wliite 
man with three eyes, holding a club 
in his right hand. Some of the most 
magnificent of the cavern-temples at 
Ellora, Nassuck, &c., bear the name 
of this god. One, at the first-men- 
tioned place, is hewn, 130 feet in 
depth, out of the solid rock, present- 
ing the appearance of a vaulted cha- 
pel, supported by ranges of octangular 
columns, and adorned by sculptures 
of beautiful and perfect workman- 
ship. In the sculptured representa- 




tions of this deity, he is shown in a 
sitting posture, Avith his legs per- 
pendicular, and holding with the 
fingers of one hand the fore-finger 
of the other. 

VIZAGArATAlNI, a sea-port, in the 
district of Chicacole, in the province 
of the Northern Circars, in India, and 
a place of considerable coast trade. 
Cotton cloths, commonly called 
" piece goods," which are manufac- 
tured in various places in the district, 
form the chief articles of export 
from thence. 

VIZIER, pronounced Wuzeer, a mi- 
nister. The term is Turkish and 

VIZIER AZEJI, the Turkish prime 


WADA-GAHA, the shoe-flower-tree. 
A shrub growing in the island of 
Ceylon and in other parts of India, 
and which attains the height of 
nearly twenty feet. It is chiefly 
remarkable for the very beautiful 
bright red flowers which always 
abound upon it. It grows thick 
and bushy. There are some species 
that bear pale yellow, pink, and 
light blue flowers. It derives the 
vulgar appellation of the shoe-flower, 
from its possessing the property of 
blacking or polishing leather shoes. 

TV AH, WAH! an expression of sur- 
prise, common all over India. 

WALLAH ! a Rersian oath, or excla- 
mation, equivalent to " Heavens !" — 
" By Heaven!" 

WARUNGOL, a town in India, in 
the province of Hyderabad, situated 
about 80 miles north-easterly from 
Hyderabad (city), in Lat. 17 deg. 
54 min. N., Long. 79 deg. .34 min. V]. 
It was built about the year 1067, 
and was the ancient capital of the 
Hindoo sovereignty of Tclingana. 

WASIL, what is received; head of re- 
venue in India under the «.s-.s// tumar 
jamma, derived from the annexation 
of territory, discovery of concealed 

sources of rent from the lands, and 
assumption of jaghires and undue 

WAZEAT, abatement. Deductions 
which were allowed in the accoimts 
of the Zemindars, Sec, from the col- 
lections under the general heads of 
Mokharije and Muscorat. 

WEDAHS. In various parts of Cey- 
lon, but especially in the interior, 
east of Kandy, in the country of 
Bintenne, is found a tribe of natives 
called Weddhs, of whose origin, cus- 
toms, religion, and language, very 
little is known. Some of them speak 
a broken dialect of the Cingalese, 
which Avoidd lead to the supposition 
either of their having been Cinga- 
lese, but for some cause or other 
been banished into the jungles, and 
compelled to live separate from the 
rest of the inhabitants; or that when 
the rest of the people were cultivat- 
ing fields, and sowing and planting 
for their support, and subject to the 
control of government, they still, to 
retain their liberty, chose rather to 
retire into the fastnesses of the 
country, where for centuries they 
have remained unmolested either by 
the Portuguese, the Dutch, or the 
English, into whose hands the 
country has successively fallen. 
They are said to be fairer than the 
other inhabitants of the island, to 
be well made, liave long beards, long 
hair fastened in a knot on the crown 
of their heads, and to wear scarcely 
any covering on any part of their 
bodies. Some, indeed, are said to 
live entirely destitute of clothing. 
They have little intercourse with 
other natives. They live chiefly on 
the flesh of animals which they take 
in hunting, or kill with the bow and 
arrow, and on the fruits of the trees. 
They build no huts, but sleep cither 
in the trees, or at the foot of them, 
or in caves in the ground. It is said, 
that when they require knives, 
clothes, or any articles of iron, Ihcy 
contrive to make their wants known 
by marking them on the tal^iat leaf, 
which they deposit by night near 




some village with a quantity of 
ivory, wax, or honey, and that on 
the "following night they find their 
•wants supplied. Honey forms an 
article of food among them, and in 
some respects answers the purposes 
of salt, as they preserve their food 
in it. Their dogs are described as 
being remarkably sagacious, and are 
of the greatest value to them in 
their hunting excursions. 

WITTOBA, in the Hindoo mythology, 
is one of the minor incarnations of 
Vishnu. This avatar would appear 
to have been, like some of the other 
minor avatars of the Hindoo deities, 
of a circumscribed worship, and not 
very ancient date. It seems to have 
occurred at Pandipur, about eighty 
miles south of Poona, in which town 
a magnificent temple has been dedi- 
cated to Vishnu, luuler the name of 
Wittoba. The images of him and 
his two wives, Piukniini and Saty- 
uvhama (the names, also, of the 
•\vives of Krishna), have commonly a 
rude and modern appearance, and 
Tepresent them with their arms 
akimbo. The Jainas represent the 
world by the figure of a woman in 
that position; her waist being the 
earth, the superior portion of her 
body the abode of the gods, and the 
inferior part the infernal regions. 
The sculptures and paintings of the 
modern Hindoos possess mucli 
beauty and richness of colouring, 
intermixed Avith gold, laid on in a 
manner peculiar to these people; 
but the paintings are devoid of 
perspective, and the sculptures are 
as clumsy as those of greater anti- 
quity are generally fine. 

WUKF, or'AVUKOOF, endowment. 
Land in India granted for some cha- 
ritable or pious purpose. This te- 
nure is absolute as to the usufruct, 
but does not convey the full right of 
property to the incumbent; though, 
as the law says, it annuls that rigiit 
in the endower. The benefice lands, 
however, even though the endoivmcnt 
he from the crowv, are lialile to the 
land-tax. This is a most important 

rule of law as applicable to India; 
the law says, " if tithe-lands, they are 
liable to the tithe ; if khuranjee lands, 
to the hhuranj." " In the above 
power," says Galloway, " which the 
Mahomedan's law recognises in the 
sovereign, of assigning the khuranj 
of one's own lands to the proprietor, 
however, I can see the seeds of the 
variety of anomalous tenures, which 
are recognised by our government 
in India as lakhuranjee, or rent-free 
and permanent, without such tenures 
having ever been traced to their 
origin ; and, in fact, without their 
nature ever having been ascertained; 
to the enormous diminution of nearly 
three millions sterling, perhaps, of 
the public revenue, under the Ben- 
gal presidency alone." The resump- 
tion of these tenures came under the 
consideration of government a few 
years ago, and although the people 
resisted the measure, it was carried 
through, to the large augmentation 
of the revenue receipts. 
WULLEE. Mahomedans, whose re- 
putation for sanctity during their 
lives is very great, are generally 
sainted after death by common con- 
sent, and are termed Peers and Wul- 
lees. Prayers offered up at tlie tombs 
of such persons, are by the ignorant 
considered to derive considerable 
efficacy from the sanctity of the de- 
ceased, and his influence. 

YABOO, the name given in Persia to 
pack horses, or poneys, of almost 
every size, which do not rank under 
the more dignified title of " Asp" — 

Hyder ! AUee ! Exclamations 
ever in the mouths of Persians, in 
extremities. Hyder is a name of 
Alice, and signifies the " Lion," i.e., 
of God. 

YAK, a species of cattle inhabiting 
the Himalayan mountains. The 
yak is very strong and very hand- 




some, though rather wild in its ap- 
pearance, a circumstance prochiced 
by its coat of long silken hair, which, 
covering every part of the body, 
even the legs, gives it a shaggy cha- 
racter, in keeping with the thick 
bushy tail; its eyes also have some- 
what of a fiery aspect, thougli in 
reality it is a gentle, docile creature, 
and employed in all agricultural pur- 
poses. Those iiossessing white tails 
are considered the most valuable; 
the white bushy cow-tail being all 
over India the emblem of greatness 
and a distinguishing mark of wealth. 
The black sort, though occasionally 
to be seen in the plains, is not nearly 
so much prized, and fetches compa- 
ratively very small prices. Black 
tails are, of course, abundant in the 
birth-place of the yak, but in con- 
sequence of the prejudice in favour 
of the white variety, are seldom sent 
to foreign markets. 

YAMA, the Hindoo Pluto, ruler of the 
infernal regions. 

Hindoo mythology, resembles botli 
the Grecian Pluto, the king of hell, 
and ^linos, the judge of departed 
souls, and is tlie regent of the south, 
or lower division of world, mytho- 
logically called Patala, or the in- 
fernal regions. The Hindoos make 
daily oblations of water to Yama. 
The second day of the month Kar- 
liku is sacred to him and his sister, 
the river goddess, Yamuna, or Jum- 
na, who entertained liim on tliat 
day; in consequence of which an 
annual festival is held, in which sis- 
ters entertain their brothers. On 
this occasion an image of him, of 
clay, is made and worshipped, and 
then thrown into the river. He is 
also worshipped on the fourteenth 
day of the dark part of the month 

YANDABOO, in the country of Ava, 
in Asia, is noted as l)eing the i)]ace 
to wjiich the Britisli army had ad- 
vanced when peace was concluded 
with the Burmese in February, 1826. 
It is distant forty-five miles from Ava, 

YATAGHAN, a sort of curved knife 
or short scimitar, much worn in 

YEKDAUNS, travelling-trunks, only 
used in Persia, where they are 
thrown across the backs of mules or 

YEMEN, a province of Arabia Felix, 
stretching along the Red Sea and 
the Indian Ocean. Sanaa is the 

YERWADDY. Yerwaddy ryots are 
those Indian villagers who cultivate 
or occupy land in a neighbouring 
village in which they do not reside. 

YESSAWUL, Persian. An officer 
performing the duty of master of 
the ceremonies in the houses of chiefs 
and petty sovereigns. 

YOGHIS, or JOGHIS, a sect of religi- 
ous Hindoos, in India, Avho never 
marry, nor hold any thing as private 
property ; but live on alms, and 
practise strange severities on them- 
selves. They are subject to a gene- 
ral, who sends them from one country 
to another to preach ; they are a 
kind of penitent iiilgrims, and are 
supposed to be a branch of the 
ancient Gymnosophists. These per- 
sons frequent, principally, such 
places as consecrated by the de- 
votion of the people, and pretend to 
live several days together without 
eating or drinking. After under- 
going a course of discipline for a 
certain time, they consider them- 
selves as impeccable, and privileged 
to act as they please ; they then 
yield to the indulgence of their 
passions, and lead irregular lives. 

YONI, the symbol of Avonian, wor- 
shipped by the sect of the Sactis, 
and, in conjunction witii tlie Linga, 
by the Saivas. It is the especial 
emblem of Parvati. In represen- 
tations of the Linga, it forms the 
rim or edge of the Argha, Avhich en- 
circles it. 

YOODIA, a town in the country of 
Siam, in Asia, situated in Lat. 14 
deg. 5 min. N., Long. 100 deg. 25 
min. E., on an island formed by tlie 
branches of the river Menam. It is 




of ?reat extent, and was the ancient 
capital, until its capture by the Bur- 
mese in tlic vcar 1767. 
YOOSOOFZYES, a clan of the Ber- 
clooranees, or eastern Afghans. 

ZAL, a famous hero, celebrated in the 
Shah Nameh of Ferdousee. 

ZANZIBAE, a country on the eastern 
coast of Africa, lying between Lat. 
3 deg. N., and 18 deg. S. The in- 
habitants are chiefly Mahoraedans 
and idolaters. The principal terri- 
tories are Mombaza, Lamo, Melinda, 
Quiola, Mosambique, and Sofala. 
The trade consists of slaves, ivory, 
gold, ostrich-feathers, wax, and 
drugs. The productions are much 
the same as in other j)arts of Africa 
between the tropics. 

ZEMINDAE, Hindostanee. Land- 
holder, land-keeper. An officer who 
under the Mahomedan government of 
India was charged Avith the superm- 
tendence of the lands of a district, 
financially considered, the produc- 
tion of the cultivators, and the reali- 
sation of the government's share of 
its produce, either in money or kind, 
out of which he was allowed a com- 
mission, amounting to about ten per 
cent., and, occasionally, a special 
grant of the government's share of 
the produce of the land of a certain 
number of villages for his subsist- 
ence, called Nanncar. The ap- 
pointment was occasionally re- 
newed, and, as it was generally con- 
tinued in the same person, so long as 
he conducted himself to the satis- 
faction of the ruling power, and even 
continued to his heirs; so in process 
of time, and through the decay of 
that power, and the confusion which 
ensued, hereditary right (at best pre- 
scriptive) Avas claimed and tacitly 
acknowledged; till, at length, the 
zemindars of Bengal in particular, 
from being the mere superintendents 
of the land, have been declared the 
hereditary proprietors of the soil, and 

the before fluctuating dues of go- 
vernment have, mider a permanent 
settlement, been unalterably fixed in 

ZKMINDAllREE, the ofiice or juris- 
diction of a zemindar, the land of a 

ZEM ZEM, the miraculous well at 
INIecca , so called from the murmur- 
ing of its waters. It is a jwpular 
fancy that in the interval between 
death and resurrection the souls of 
believers remain in that holy foun- 

ZENANA, the apartments of the la- 
dies of a Mahomedan family ; the 
word is also synonymous with " Se- 
raglio," the secluded abode of the 
concubines of a Mahomedan. 

ZENDAVESTA, or ZEND, a book 
ascribed to Zoroaster, containing his 
pretended revelations ; which the 
ancient IMagi and modern Parsees, 
called also Gaiirs, observe and re- 
verence in the same degree as the 
Christians do the Bible, and the IVIa- 
homedans the Koran, making it the 
sole guide of their faith and cus- 
toms. The word signifies any in- 
strument for kindling fire, and is 
applied to this book to denote its 
aptitude for kindling the flame of 
religion in the hearts of those who 
read it. The Zendavesta is written 
in the pure old Persian language, 
and in the character called Peplavi. 
Four hundred years ago, when the 
old Persian language had become 
little understood, one of the dcsiours 
or high priests among the Parsees 
composed the Sadda, which is a com- 
pendium in the modern Persic 
tongue of those passages in the Zend 
which relate to rehgion, or a kind of 
code of canons and precepts drawn 
from the theological writings of Zo - 
roaster, serving as an authorised 
rule of faith and practice for his 
followers. The Sadda is written in 
a low kind of Persic verse. The 
tenets of the Zend maintain the ex- 
istence of a Supreme Being, eternal, 
self-existent, who created both light 
and darkness, out of which he made 




all other things ; that there shall he 
a general resurrection and judgment, 
and a just retribution to all men, 
according to their -works, with ever- 
lasting punishment for evil deeds, 
and a state of everlasting light and 
happiness for the good. The Zend 
also enjoins the constant mainte- 
nance of sacred fires, and fire-temples 
for religious worship; the distinc- 
tion of clean and unclean beasts; 
payment of tithes to priests, Avho 
are to be of one family or tribe ; a 
multitude of washings and purifica- 
tions, and a variety of rules and ex - 
hortations for the exercise of bene- 
volence and charity. See Zoeoas- 


ZILLAH, Hindostanee. Side, part, 
district, division. A local division 
of a country, having reference to 
personal jurisdiction. 

ZOBEUvS, a tribe of Arabs, mhabit- 
ing a town eight miles fi'om Bussorali, 
on the Euphrates. 

supporter of the state ; a title of 
honour bestowed by the Shah on a 
distinguished public ofiBcer. 

celebrated ancient philosopher, said 
to have been tlie reformer or the 
founder of the religion of the Magi. 
It is uncertain to how many eminent 
men tlie name of Zoroaster belonged. 
Some persons have asserted that 
there Avas but one Zoroaster, and 
that lie was a Persian; others liave said 
that tlierc were six eminent founders 
of philosophy of this name. Many 
different opinions have also been 
advanced concerning the time in 
■which he floiirished. K, in the 
midst of so nmch uncertainty, any 
thing can be advanced with the ap- 
pearance of probability, it seems to 
be this: that there was a Zoroaster, 
a Perso-Median, who lived in the 

time of Darius Hystaspes; and that 
besides him there was another Zo- 
roaster, Avho lived in a mucli more 
remote period among the Babylo- 
nians, and taught them astronomy. 
The ancient writers ascribe to a phi- 
losopher, whom they call Zoroaster, 
the origin of the Chaldeaji astronomy, 
wlaich is of a much earlier date than 
the time of Darius Hystaspes; it 
would therefore imj^ly that there was 
a Chaldean Zoroaster distinct from 
the Persian. Concerning this Zo- 
roaster, however, nothing more is 
known than that he flourished to- 
wards the beginning of the Babylo- 
nian empire, and was the father of 
the Chaldean astrology and magic. 
All the writings that have been 
ascribed to Zoroaster are unquestion- 
ably spurious. 

ZUBBERDUST, Zuhherdmfee, force, 
vi ct armis. The difficulties of ob- 
taining justice, or rather of procuring 
the due enforcement of its decrees, in 
the agricultural districts of India, 
often drives suitors to take the law 
in their own hands, and get posses- 
sion of their property zuhherdiistee. 

ZULF, the love-lock. A lock of hair 
pendant behind the ear of Persians 
and Eajpoots. 

ZUMBOORUK, from " Zumbnor," a 
wasp; a small cannon supported by 
a swivelled rest on the back of a 
camel, from Avhence it is fired. 
There were many such in the Sikh 
army before its annihilation at 

ZUMEEN, security, pledges, deposits. 

ZUNDEROOD, the river which flows 
past Ispalian. 

ZYE, the termination of the names of 
several of the Afghan tribes, or 
Ooloos, signifying Ao», corresponding 
with the Mac prefixed to many 
Scotch names. Sec Afchakistan. 







Agra Agra 

Ahraedabad Guzerat 72 

Ahmednuggur Aurungabad 

Ahtoor Salem 

Ajmere Eajwarra 

Akola Berar 

Akulcote Beeder 

Akyab Arracan 

Allahabad Allahabad 

Alleppee Cochin 

AUyghur Agra 

Allynuggur or Mogulferai Allahabad 

Almorah Kumaon 

Amuluair Candeish 

Anantapore Balaghaut 

Anjunwel Bejapoor 

Anopshuhur Agra 

Arcot Carnatic 

Arnee Carnatic 

Arrah Bahar — 

Aska Circars 84 48 

Asseerghur Candeish 

Avanashy Combatoor 

Aurungabad Aurungabad 75 35 

Azimghur Allahabad 

Backergunge Bengal .... 

Bair Bahar 

Baitool Gundwana. 

Balasore . Orissa 

Bancoorah Bengal .... 

Banda Allahabad . 

Bangalore Mysore .... 

Baraset Bengal .... 



78° 2' 


' 11' 































































































































Bareilly Delhi 79° 25' 28° 23' 

Baroda Guzerat 73 23 22 21 

Barrackpoor Bengal 88 24 22 44 

Bassein Aurungabad 72 52 19 20 

Bagapilly Balaghaut 78 13 42 

Bagundee Beng'iil 88 51 22 38 

Beana Agra 77 15 26 57 

Beauleah Bengal 89 38 24 6 

Beejapoor Bejapoor 75 48 16 50 

Beerbhoom Bengal 87 36 23 48 

Belgaum Bejapoor 83 26 18 35 

Bellary Balaghaut 76 59 15 9 

Benares Allahabad 82 40 25 20 

Berhampore Bengal 88 20 24 5 

Berhampore Circars 84 30 19 14 

Bewur Ajmere 74 23 26 04 

Bezoarah Circars 80 40 16 .35 

Bhagulpore Behar 87 8 25 11 

Bhewndy Aurungabad 72 53 19 18 

Bhilsah Malwa 77 54 23 37 

Bhoqi Cutch 69 58 23 15 

Bhooiooah, or NoacoUy Bengal 91 12 22 52 

Bhopawur Malwa 75 5 22 36 

Bhobdah Bengal 

Bhopaul Malwa 77 30 23 

Bhurtpore Agra 77 32 27 15 

Binilipatam Circars 83 33 17 52 

Eishnath Assam 79 34 29 54 

Bissly Mysore 75 50 12 42 

Biznore Delhi 78 9 29 23 

Bogra Bengal 89 26 24 50 

Bogwangola Bengal 88 26 24 21 

Bolarum Hyderabad 78 42 17 38 

Bolundshuhur Delhi 77 55 28 24 

Bombay Aurungabad 72 55 18 58 

Bongong Bengal 89 40 23 20 

Boorianpore Khandesh 76 21 20 55 

Boultolly Bengal 88 20 23 37 

Broach Guzerat 73 8 21 47 

Bugwah Bengal 89 40 25 43 

Bugchurah Bengal 

Burdwan Bengal 87 54 23 14 

Burkaghur Behar 85 30 23 19 

Burkee Beliar 85 30 24 17 

Buxar Behar 83 55 25 32 

Cachar Cachar 92 44 24 55 

Calcutta Bengal 88 24 22 36 

CaHcut Malal)ar 75 52 11 15 

Calimere Poiut Carnatic 79 51 10 23 

Callian Balaghaut 77 10 14 33 

Calpee Agra 79 41 26 10 

Cannanore IMaiabar 75 26 H 54 

Carunoly Carnatic 79 59 12 31 




CaYoor Coimbatoor 

Catmandoo Nepaul ... 

Cawiipore Allahabad 

Chandernagorc Bengal 

Cliaudore Khandeish 

Cheybassa Orissa 

Chickacole Circars 

Chingleput ■ Carnatic. 



Cliirra Poonjec Bengal 91 

Chitwye Malabar 76 

Cliittagong Bengal 91 

Chittledroog ilysore 76 

Chittoor Carnatic 79 

Cliunar Allahabad 82 

Chundpore Delhi 77 

Chuprah Behar 84 

Chutterpore Allahabad 85 

Cochin Cochm 76 

Coel Agra 78 

Coimbatore Coimbatoor 77 

Colgong Behar 87 

Corabaconum Carnatic 79 

CommercoUy Bengal 89 

Condapilly Circars 80 

Conjeverara Carnatic 79 

Contai Bengal 87 

Coochbehar Bengal 89 

Coringa Circars 82 

Coringa Circars g 

Cotamputty Carnatic 79 

Cotapuramba ^Malabar 75 

Cotyam Cochin 76 

Cuddalore Carnatic 79 






Cuddapah Balaghaut 

Culnah Bengal ... 

Culneah Bengal . . . 

Cumbum Balaghaut 

Cuttack , Orissa 










10° 50^ 

27 42 

26 30 
22 40 

20 21 
22 3& 
18 15 

12 39 
25 17 

10 31 

22 22 
14 14 

13 14 
25 9 
30 41 
25 48 

23 38 
9 59 

27 53 

11 a 

25 15. 
10 51 
23 51 
16 4(> 

12 51 

21 49 

26 IS 
16 5(> 

See Tugeram. 
14 9 59 


11 48 

9 38 

11 40 

14 32 
23 13 
22 50 

15 34 
20 27 

Dacca Bengal 90 

Damaun Guzerat 72 

Dandporc I^engal 89 

Dapoolee Bejapoor 73 

Darampoory Carnatic 78 

Darjecliug Bengal 88 

Decsa Guzerat 96 

Delhi Delhi .., 

Deyrah Dhoon Gurwal 

Dharwar I'ejapoor. 




Dhoolia Khandeisli 74 

Dhummow iSIalwah 

Diamond Harbour Bengal 

Dinajepore Bengal 

Dinapore Behar 





23 43 

20 26. 
23 10 
17 5& 
12 12 
27 a 
16 59 
23 40 
30 22 

22 22 


23 44 

22 0& 
25 38 
25 38 






Diudigul Carnatic 78° 2' 

Dowlutpoor Bengal 71 8 

Durandah Behar 85 35 

'Durbangah Behar 85 56 

Dum-Dum Beniral 88 21 


10=^ 18' 
28 18 
23 27 
26 9 
22 38 

Elliclipore Berar 77 

Ellore Circars 81 

Errode Coimbatoor 77 

Essackapatam Circars 

Eta Agra 78 

Etawah Agra 78 

34 21 14 

9 16 41 

48 1 1 20 
U. Agra. 

41 27 34 

59 26 45 

Eerozepore Delhi 74 35 30 55 

Furreedpore Bengal 79 38 28 13 

Furruckabad, or Futtyghur Agra 79 38 27 23 

Futtypoor Allahabad 80 49 25 56 

Ganjam Circars 85 10 

Ghazeepore Allahabad 83 33 

Goa Bejapoor 73 59 

Goalparah Assam 90 40 

Goomsoor Circars 84 58 

Goorgong Delhi 75 15 

Gooty Balaghaut 77 43 

Gopaulpore Circars 85 68 

Goruckpore Oiide S3 IS 

Gowahatty Assam 90 40 

Gunga Khair Aiirmigabad? 77 12 

Guntoor Circars 

Gurrawarra G unchvarra 

Guthal Bengal 

Gwalior Agra 

Gyah Behar 

SO 32 

19 21 

25 35 
15 30 

26 9 
19 52 
21 20 

15 8 
19 09 
26 44 
18 58 

16 21 

See Nursingpore. 
87 39 22 38 
78 4 26 17 
77 58 33 31 

Hameerpore Allaliabad 80 05 

Hansi Delhi 75 57 

Hanper Delhi 77 

Hazareebaugl i Behar 85 

Heerapore Allahabad 79 

Hingolee Buder 77 

Hissar Delhi 75 

Honore Canara 74 

Ilooghly Bengal 88 

Hospet Balaghaut 77 

Hurryhur Mysore 75 

Hursole Gnjerat 73 

Hussingabad Gundwana 75 

Huttah Malwah 79 

Hydrabad llydrabad 78 



Inchoora Bengal 

Incolloo C i rears 

Indore Mahva 

88 26 
80 18 
76 14 

26 00 

29 6 

28 44 
26 20 
19 43 

29 10 

14 18 

22 55 

15 35 
14 31 

23 21 

22 45 

24 8 

17 22 

23 00 

16 00 

18 49 



Ingeram, or Coringa Circars 82° S' 16° 45' 

Jaloun Agra 79 19 26 9 

Jaulnah Aurungabad 76 8 13 52 

Jaunpore Allahabad 70 46 29 14 

Jeagunge, or Moorshedabad Bengal 88 15 24 11 

Jelasore Bengal 87 13 21 50 

Jellidabad Delhi 83 23 25 51 

Jessore Bengal 89 15 23 7 

Jeypore Ajmeer 76 23 20 42 

Jhansee Allahabad 79 40 23 2 

Jorehaut Assam 94 7 26 47 

Jubulpore Gundwana 79 59 25 10 

Juggumpet Circars 82 02 17 08 

Jumalpore Bengal 80 55 24 56 

Kaira Guzerat 78 3 25 31 

Kaludghee Bejapoor 75 43 18 54 

Kamptie Gundwana 79 15 21 15 

Karical Carnatic 79 53 10 55 

Kedgeree Bengal 83 38 25 23 

Keranoor Carnatic 78 45 11 34 

Keerpoy Bengal 87 39 22 44 

Ivhandala Aurungabad 73 30 18 45 

Ivhasgunj Agra 78 42 27 50 

Khosaulpore Bengal 88 20 23 43 

Ivliyuk Bhyoo Arracan 93 04 19 12 

Kimedy Circars 84 10 18 40 

Kircurabady Carnatic 79 32 13 37 

Kirkee Aurungabad 73 52 18 35 

Kishore Saugor Ajmeer 76 12 24 51 

K^otah Ajmeer 75 53 25 10 

Kotirgherry Coimbatoor 76 53 11 28 

Kuneir Aurungabad 75 21 20 17 

Kurar Bejapoor? 74 10 17 16 

Kurnal Delhi 76 58 29 30 

Kurnool Balaghaut 78 7 15 50 

Landore Gurhwal? 78 10 30 30 

Lohooghat Kumaon 80 20 29 21 

Loodianah Delhi 75 55 30 54 

Lucheepore Bengal 91 45 23 07 

Lucknow Oude 80 58 26 53 

Maddapollum Circars 81 45 16 24 

Madras Carnatic 80 22 13 4 

Madura Carnatic 78 13 9 57 

Mahableshwur Aurungabad 73 45 17 57 

Mahidpore jMalwa 75 52 23 31 

jMaldah Eengid 88 14 25 08 

Malwan Bejapoor 73 34 le 3 

Mangalore Canara 76 53 12 52 

Manuntoddy Malabar 76 22 II 45 

Masulipatam Circars 81 14 16 10 



Maunbhoora Bensral 86° 32' 23° 09' 

Meerut Delhi 77 42 28 50 

Methenkote * Mooltan 70 48 28 15 

Mercara Malabar 75 50 12 62 

Mliar Cutch 68 56 23 32 

Mhow Mahva 75 41 22 36 

Mhow BuncUecund Bundelcund 85 29 25 47 

Midnapore Bengal 87 20. 22 26 

Mirzapore Allahabad 90 10 24 05 

Mommabad Beeder 76 50 18 48 

Monegalah Hyderabad 79 46 17 28 

Monghyr Bahar 86 29 25 2 

Moradabad Delhi 80 5 26 57 

Mozuifernuggur Delhi 77 44 29 26 

Muctul Hyderabad 77 35 16 43 

Mulligaum Khandiesh 74 36 20 31 

Mundleysir Mahva 75 47 22 12 

Munnipore Munipore 93 55 24 48 

Muttra Agra 81 20 21 36 

Mymunsing Bengal 90 24 46 

Mynpoorie Agra 78 54 27 14 

Nabobgunge Bengal 90 15 23 39 

Nacricul Hyderabad 79 20 17 40 

NagercoU Caniatic 77 38 8 30 

Nagery Carnatic 79 40 13 20 

Nagore Carnatic 79 54 10 40 

Nagpoor Gundwana 79 8 21 9 

Naidopet Circars 79 55 13 47 

Nalchitty Bengal 90 25 22 50 

Nassick Aurungabad 73 54 19 55 

Neelpelly Circars 82 18 16 44 

Ncemuch Malwa 75 24 29 

Neermiil Beeder 78 26 19 2 

Negapatam Carnatic 79 54 10 45 

Nellore Carnatic 80 3 14 28 

Nepaul Nepaul See Catmandoo. 

Nerumbauk Carnatic 80 15 13 12 

Nohutta Bengal 88 40 24 25 

Nowgong Assam 92 50 26 26 

Nowgaum Circars 84 28 20 03 

Nubbenugur Bahar 84 07 24 30 

Nuddea Bengal 87 22 23 28 

Niuidydroog Mysore 77 46 13 25 

Nujeebad Delia 78 20 29 37 

Nursapore Circars 81 05 17 06 

Nursingpore, or Gurrawarra Gundwana 80 16 23 09 

Nusseerabad Ajniere 75 44 21 5 

Nyasurai Bengal 88 30 22 58 

Odeyporo Ajmeer 74 14 24 58 

Ongole Carnatic 80 7 15 31 

Oojein Malwa 75 52 23 11 

Oonirawutty Berar 77 48 20 52 



Oorungabad Bengal See Rajmahal. 

Oossoor Mysore 75° 0' 15° 40' 

Ootacamuntl Coimbatore 76 43 11 27 

Padigaum Aurungabad 74 22 17 57 

Palamcotta Carnatic 79 37 8 35 

Palaveram Carnatic 80 20 12 54 

Palghaut Malabar 76 38 10 45 

Palumpore Guzerat 72 22 24 12 

Paniput Delhi 76 45 29 25 

Pamvell Aurungabad 73 15 18 59 

Patna Bahar 85 15 25 37 

Payakerowpet Circars 82 34 17 15 

Pelebeet Delhi 79 42 23 42 

Penn Aurungabad 73 10 18 43 

Periapatam Mysore 76 9 12 20 

Pertabghur Ajmeer 74 57 24 09 

Petoraghur Kuraaoon 80 4 29 36 

Pondicherry Carnatic 79 54 11 57 

Pondigul Hyderabad 79 39 17 04 

Poonah Aurungabad 74 18 31 

Poonamalee Carnatic 80 8 13 02 

Poondy Circars 84 40 18 44 

Pooree Orissa 85 51 19 26 

Poossa Bahar 85 46 26 01 

Porto Navo Carnatic 79 51 11 31 

Pubna Bengal 91 52 24 32 

Pulicat Carnatic 80 23 13 24 

Punderpore Bejapoor 75 24 17 40 

Purneah Bengal 87 32 25 49 

Putealee, or Sirpoorah Agra 78 52 27 50 

Puttahat Bengal 90 58 23 11 

Quilon Travancore 76 39 8 53 

Ragaporc Circars 81 04 17 07 

Eajamundry Circars 81 50 17 01 

Eajcote Gujerat 70 53 22 09 

Eajmahal Bengal 87 43 25 02 

Eamapatam Carnatic 80 07 15 00 

Eamorad Carnatic 78 55 9 13 

Eamree Arracan 93 30 19 00 

Eewah Allahabad 81 19 24 33 

Eewarry Delhi 76 25 28 17 

Ehotuck Delhi 76 36 28 54 

Eogonatlipore Behar 77 00 26 00 

Royacotta Salem 78 06 12 28 

Rudrampore ])elhi 79 22 28 58 

Ruugpore Bengal 89 22 25 43 

Rutnagherry Bejapoor 73 25 17 02 

Ryepore Gundwana 82 13 21 15 

Sadras Carnatic SO 13 12 30 

Sahuswau Agra 78 42 28 OS 



Shahanmpore Delhi 77° 26' 29^^ 56' 

St. Thomas' Mount Carnatic 80 20 12 37 

Salem Salem 78 U 11 41 

Sambur Ajmeer 74 57 2G 53 

Saimilcotta Circars 82 17 17 14 

Sandoway Arracan 94 06 18 12 

Santipore Bengal 80 50 26 

Sarsah Bengal 

Sarungporc Malwa 76 35 23 38 

Sasseram Bahar 83 59 24 59 

Saugor Mahva 78 47 23 48 

Secundrabad Hyderabad 78 33 17 30 

Sedashagur Canara 74 09 14 51 

Sehore Malwa 77 11 23 15 

Seonie , Gundwana 79 55 22 03 

Sepree Agra 77 10 25 25 

Serah Mysore 76 58 13 44 

Serampore Bengal 90 35 23 03 

Seringapatam Mysore 76 47 12 30 

Seroor Aurungabad 74 .30 18 50 

Serowie Ajmeer 73 15 24 52 

Setapore Oudc 80 32 27 43 

Sevendroog Bejapoor 73 15 17 46 

Shazadpore Allahabad 81 23 25 40 

Shajehanpore Delhi 78 2 28 52 

Sheally Carnatic 79 53 11 12 

Shergotty Bahar 84 55 24 32 

Shekohabad Agra 78 36 27 07 

Sholapore Aurungabad 76 00 17 42 

Sigouly Bahar 84 48 26 48 

Sirdhanah Dellii 77 37 29 08 

Simla Delhi? 77 09 31 06 

Sittarah Bejapoor 74 12 17 42 

Soomoderghur Bengal 88 17 23 18 

Soorool Bengal 87 42 23 37 

Soorut (Surat) Guzerat 73 07 21 11 

Subathoo J)elhi 76 59 30 57 

Suckreegully Bengal 87 42 25 09 

Sultanpore.B Benares 82 26 25 18 

Sultanpore, Oudo Oude 82 00 26 18 

Sumbulpore Gundwana 83 45 21 21 

Surdah Bengal 88 50 24 18 

SyUiet Bengal 91 40 24 55 

Tanjore Carnatic 79 14 10 49 

Tannah Aurungabad 74 13 15 37 

Tarputry Ualaghaut 78 10 14 49 

Tellecherry Malabar 75 34 11 48 

Tezpore Assam 92 30 26 41 

Tindevanimi Carnatic 79 .50 12 15 

Tippcrah Comillah Bengal 91 02 23 28 

Tirhoot Mozufferporc Bahar 85 27 26 14 

Toticoreen Carnatic 78 30 8 57 

Trauquebar Carnatic 79 54 10 56 



Trevandnim Travancore 77° 2' 8° 30' 

Trichinopoly Carnatic 78 46 10 52 

Tripasore Carnatic 79 59 13 09 

Tulleh Aurungabad 73 17 18 15 

Tumlook Bengal 88 02 22 17 

Vaniumbaddy Salem 78 45 12 43 

Vellore Salem 80 6 15 24 

Vemboocottah Carnatic 79 37 9 18 

Vencottagherry Salem 79 40 13 58 

Vingorla Bejapoor 73 41 15 52 

Vizadroog Bejapoor 73 28 16 32 

Vizagapatam Circars 83 24 17 42 

Vizanagram Circars 83 32 18 02 

Umballa Delhi 76 44 30 23 

TJndul Bengal 87 06 23 32 

Wallajabad Carnatic 79 55 12 48 

Yanan Circars ,. 82 18 16 49 






British mUes. 

Adoni 1030 

Agra 839 

Ajmeer 1030 

Akyab 520 

Allahabad 495 

AUighur 802 

Almorah 1000 

Arracau 475 

Arrah 350 

Assam 660 

Attock (Punjab) 1700 

Bahar 297 

Balasore 141 

Bancoorah 102 

Bareilly 766 

Barrackpore 16 

Beerbhoom 131 

Benares 420 

Berhampore (Moorsliedabad) ... lis 

Bhopal 892 

Bhurtpore 878 

Bikaneer 1222 

Bogoorah 255 

Bolundshuhur 829 

Burdwan 73 

Buxar 408 

Cawnpore 619 

Cashmere 1564 

Chandcrnagore 21 

Chittagong 317 

Coel 790 

British miles. 

Cuttack 247 

Dacca 186 

Darjeeling 350 

Deeg 898 

Delhi 976 

DeyraDhoon 992 

Dinagepore 356 

Dinapore 350 

Etawah 768 

Ferozepore 1105 

Furruckabad 755 

Futteegliur 662 

Futteepore 572 

Ghazeepore 450 

Gwalior 805 

Hajopore 350 

Ilaupper 852 

Ilurdwa 975 

Iiidore 1030 

Jcssulmere 1337 

Jodjjore 1175 

Jubbuljwre 766 

Kumaon 887 

Kurnoul 895 

Laliorc 1356 

Loodiana 1049 

Lucknow 649 

Madras 1030 

Malda 180 

Mcerutt 869 

Mdruipore 72 



British miles. 

Mirzapore 439 

Mhow 1289 

Monghyr 272 

Mooitan 1470 

Moorshedabad 118 

Moradabad 825 

Muttra 874 

Mynpooree 500 

Kagpore 722 

Neennich 1160 

Nepaul 591 

Kusseerabad 1060 

Odeypore 1214 

Oojeeiu 997 

Oude 562 

British miles. 

Patna 340 

Purneah 271 

Rungpore 399 

Saugor (N. W.) 806 

Secmidra G69 

Seliarmipore 951 

Serampore 21 

Shahjehanpore 710 

Sluirgotty 289 

Sikkim 308 

Sirhind 1114 

Smiibulpore 438 

Sylhet 325 

Umballah 999 



Amedabad 321 

Amedmigger 181 

Barosa 280 

Bassein 27 

Belgaum 318 

Broach 221 

Calcutta 1310 

CaUian 32 

Cambay 281 

Cochin 780 

Damami 100 

Deesa 451 

Goa 292 

Kaira 384 

Kolapoor 216 

Oojein .500 

Poouah 98 

Sattarah 146 

Surat 180 

Tatta (Sciude) 741 



Arcot 70 

Arnee 81 

Armigabad 689 

Bangalore 208 

Bareepore 416 

Bardanalanka 358 

Beder 470 

Bellary 316 

Bisnaghur 346 

Berhampore (Gayam) 677 

Calicut 422 

Calmacherry 115 

Carangoolee 49 

Caroor 257 

Chatterpore 75 

Chicacole 566 

Chingleput 36 

Chittledroog 350 

Chittoor 80 

Coimbatore 36 

Combaconum 19 

Com1)am 28 

Comorin (Cape) 40 

Condapilly 25 



British miles. 

Condaver 255 

Conjaveram 45 

Corinja 343 

Cuddalore 104 

Cuddapat 166 

Diudigul 271 

Elliclipore 751 

Ellore 315 

Ganjam 697 

Golconda 358 

Gooty 264 

Guntoor 255 

Giirramconda 149 

Hurryhur 400 

Hyderabad 388 

Ingeram 340 

Innacoudah 237 

Jaulnah 659 

Kulburga 422 

Kurrool 280 

Madapollam 233 

Madura 292 

Maiiantoddy 365 

Mangolore 440 

Masulipatam 285 

Mysore 294 

Naggeiy 57 

Nagorc 174 

Nagpore 704 

Nandair 529 

Narsingapatam 716 

Negpatam 178 

Nellore Ill 

Nugger (Bidnorc) 422 

Nundydroog 199 

Ongole 150 

British miles. 

Palamcottah 388 

Palaveram 12 

! Paulghaut cherry 340 

! Pouciieherry 88 

j Poodoocotta 241 

j Poonamallee 13 

Pulicat 27 

Quilon 448 

Eachore 349 

Eajahmundry 373 

Ramnad 321 

Eaolcondah 382 

Ruttunpore 903 

Pyacottah 183 

Sadras 40 

Salem 210 

Sankerrydroog 245 

Secunderabad 397 

Seringapatam 296 

SuracoUan 267 

Seronj 905 

Tanjore 206 

Tellicherry 412 

Timerycottah 291 

Timievelly 401 

Tranquebar 160 

Travancore 515 

Trichinopoly 207 

Tripassore 31 

Trivanderam 480 

Tutacorin 421 

VeUore 87 

Vizagapatam 498 

Viziapore 534 

Warangole , 414 

Willahjabad 40 




My first recommendation is, that whatever part you are goincf to, or in what* 
ever capacity, let no one induce you to purchase cheap common-made clothes, 
under the idea that any thing is good enough for abroad, as nothing can be more 
fallacious. It is true, that rich expensive clothing is rarely, if ever, required, 
and it is not such that I Avould recommend ; but the rough usage all things meet 
with abroad, and the very great difficulty of getting them repaired or replaced, 
renders it doubly important that every article should be strongly made and of 
good material. If j'our means are limited, it will be much better to put up with 
the inconvenience of a short stock of good useful things, than to have an ample 
supply of the common trash so generally put off for outfits, as, independent of 
the discomfort of wearing such things, they actually cost more money in the end. 

It is quite absurd to suppose that in London (where competition in every bu- 
siness is so great) any one house can sell goods of equal quality ranch lower than 
another ; and, therefore, whenever a tradesman professes to supply you at ten 
or fifteen per cent, less than any others, you may rely upon it that his goods are 
very inferior, and his word not be depended upon. The great difference in trades- 
men, I appreliend, to be this, — that some are striving to do a large business and 
get money at any risk, while others, equally anxious, iierhaps, for an exten- 
sive business, are, notwithstanding, more intent upon keeping up an established 
name than upon the actual money-getting, and you will find men of this class 
are as careful to maintain the name and standing of their house as any noble- 
man can be his title ; and hence it is that you are so much better served at a 
house of respectability. 

When ordering an outfit, I strongly recommend the employment of a respec- 
table, well-established outfitter. The articles required are so various, and such 
a thorough knowledge of business is necessary for the selection, that I am quite 
convinced none l)ut experienced tradesmen can execute such orders jn'operly, 
and more particularly as the most inferior goods arc now produced so like in 
appearance to the better kinds, that it is only the most practised eye which can 
detect them. 

Never have your military things made by an outfitter, as none but military 
tailors can make them up as they should be made. 8ome of the best outfitters 
make the white jackets and trousers quite as well as tailors, and nmcli cheaper, 
but none of them can be depended upon for military clothing; nor would I recom- 
mend them for any kind of clolh clothes. Should you not be acquainted witli a 
military tailor, the outfitter you employ can most probably direct you to a good 
one, and would necessarily be responsible for the order being well executed. 


I recommend you, therefore, to employ a tailor for all military and cloth 
clothes ; but I would advise you, on no account whatever, to order your shirts or 
any other portion of your outfit from the tailor, as they can only buy tliem from 
some outfitter or slopseller, and consequently you will either have to pay an 
extra profit, or what is more frequently the case, have inferior articles ; added 
to which, not being thoroughly acquainted with the outfitting business, is a most 
decided bar to your orders being well executed, or your outfit properly arranged 
by them. 

It is advisable, if possible, to make arrangements with some house in London, 
that will forward any articles required wliile abroad, as you will thereby effect 
a considerable saving in many of your future wants. If you have not an agent 
in London, and employ a respectable outfitter, you can probably make the ar- 
rangement with him ; but if you adopt the latter, I would strongly recommend 
you to give no orders until you have proved your outfit to have been well exe- 
cuted, as, if that is not satisfactory, it will be in vain to expect better success 
with after orders. 

Having had but little to do Avith agents myself, I liave not much to say upon 
the subject ; there are many cases, however, where they can render good ser- 
vice. In procuring a passage, for instance, they can generally make better terms 
than a private individual ; besides which, their intimate acquaintance with the 
various ships, and knowledge of the diSerent captains, is often of great advan- 
tage, as the comfort of a voyage depends very much upon both. I believe some 
of the agents undertake outfits, or, ut any rate, will recommend you an outfitter. 
I advise you, however, not to trust too implicitly to such recommendations, but 
look well to your own outfits, give your own orders, pay your own bills, and 
keep your own receipts. 

It is commonly observed, that many things may be got quite as good and 
cheap in India, as in England ; and it is so far true, that in some parts of India 
you may, by chance (but it is only chance), meet Avith a gun, or pistol, or saddle, 
or something of the kind, both good and cheap ; but the experience I have iiad 
in that way will not induce me again to risk such chances, nor would I recom- 
mend others ; but, on the contrary, I advise all parties to take with them every 
article they are hkely to want, most particularly those I have enumerated in the 
several lists. I would urge this especially with writers, cadets, and assistant 
surgeons, and, in fact, with all j'oung men, as it is very desirable to avoid, if 
possible, the necessity of any outlay until they are somewhat acquainted with 
the habit, mode of living, and value of money in India ; for on first landing, 
with but little knowledge of future expenses, and the command probably of more 
money than he ever before had in his possession, the youngster is too apt to 
supply his present Avants without sufiicient regard to the contingencies which 
await him. 

Saddlery. — The saddlery of this country is much better than can be got iu 
India, and therefore it is desirable to take out any that may be required. 

Canteens. — Some old officers strongly recommend canteens, and others con- 
demn them as useless in India. I think that a small breakfast canteen is 
very useful ; but unquestionably it can be dispensed with. A small case, how- 
ever, containing two spoons and forks of each size, and knives to match, is very 
desirable, if not indispensable. 

Books.— I presume that no one would be without his Bible and Prayer-book; 
others must be a matter of taste ; but I most particularly reconmaend a few 
well-selected books, and amongst others. Mill's " History of India ;" Wilson's 
" Continuation of ^liU" (Jas. Madden) ; Emma Roberts' "Scenes and Sketches 
in Iliiidostan ;" the " History of the Punjaub" (published by Allen & Co.) ; 
Mrs. Postans' " Western India ;" the " Calcutta Review" (Smith, Elder, & Co.) ; 


Orme's " Military History;" Snodgrcass's "Burmese War;" tlie "Memorials of 
Affghanistan" (Allen & Co.) ; ^Ir. Shore's "Notes on Indian Affairs ;" " Eeal 
Life in India" (Houlston & Stoneman). 

Flannel Waistcoats. — Whatever may be said upon the subject of wearing 
flannel in India, I am quite certain that no one thing is more essential to health 
in warm climates than the continual use of flannel. The thinnest and most 
gauzy material is desirable ; the important object to obtain being a good ab- 
sorbent without oppressive heat. An extremely light woollen waistcoat, caUed 
Thresher's India Gauze, is very highly esteemed in India, and is certainly the 
most comfortable thing possible for under-waistcoats. 

White Jackets and Trousers.— It is not uncommon to hear some of the 
learned Indian friends assert, that jackets and trousers can be got cheaper in 
India than in England ; but this only applies to the common cotton tilings, 
which no young man would like to appear in on lately leaving England. The 
fact is, that two dozen of trousers, and at least one dozen jackets, are absolutely 
necessary immediately on arrival in Lidia, and therefore should be taken from 
this coimtry, of good quality, and very strongly made. Expenses come on a 
young man quite fast enough in India, and it is very unwise, and, indeed, cruel, 
to subject him to positive charges the moment he steps foot in a land many 
thousand miles from home. 

Socks and Stockings of all kinds are very inferior in all parts of India, and 
are also very expensive, therefore an ample supply is necessary ; and they 
should be very good. 

BtTLLOCK Trunks are more suitable for India than any other package what- 
ever ; from their convenient size, they may be used for travelling in every part 
of India, and if well made, will last many years ; but the inferior ones become 
useless in a few months. They should be made very strong, and covered with the 
material that valises are made of, and should also have brass corners. The 
leather trunks do not answer, and it is a bad plan to take out common boxes, 
with the idea of changing them for bullock trunks in India, as a little more cost 
at the time will procure good ones, and prevent the necessity of buying them in 
India. For the overland route, there is a very light regulation trunk, made to a 
particular size, and as any additional weight has to be paid for, it is very 
desirable to confine j-ourself to these trunks for that route, notwithstanding 
many will tell you tliat any size may be taken. It is true that large trunks 
may be taken, but it is often attended with much inconvenience, and always 
with additional expense. 

Swing Cot or Coucii. — If by ship route, and comfort only be studied, I 
should recommend a swing cot and a coucli with drawers, the hitter being very 
convenient in the cabin, altliough rather too cumbersome for much travelling. 
There is, however, an article combining both, which is called a swing sofa, one 
of which I have used for some years, and found extreraclj'^ comfortable. A good 
article of this kind will serve a cadet as sofa and bed for years in India. The 
best of them are made of cane, with the sides and back to fold up in a strong 
canvass, and sufficiently light to be carried on men's heads. Mine, with the 
mattrass and jjillows, cost 6/. lOv. ; but I have since seen them nuich lower in 
price, and inferior in quality. If expense is an object, I would advise a swing 
cot in preference, as an article of the kind named will be useless in a few months, 
if not very well made and strong. 

The following lists (suitable to the classes named) comprise all that is actually 
necessary for an outfit to India ; and the numbers fixed are the smallest comple- 
ment that can be taken with any degree of comfort and cleanliness -, for it must be 
observed, that in warm latitudes, frequent change of linen is absolutely neces- 




Equipment for a Civilian by Overland Route. 

Thirty-six pairs cotton socks. 

Twelve pairs silk socks. 

Twelve pairs woollen socks. 

Thirty-six shirts. 

Twenty-four Thresher's India gauze 

Twelve pairs calico drawers. 
Two pairs flannel drawers. 
Tliirty-six pocket handkerchiefs. 
Four black silk cravats. 
Twelve pairs cotton gloves. 
Twenty-four pairs kid gloves. 
Four pairs braces. 
Six pairs pj'jamas. 
Two pairs woollen pyjamas. 
One cotton dressing-gown. 
One flannel dressing-gown. 
One clotlies bag. 
One straw hat covered. 
One cloth cap. 

Twelve pairs white trousers for dress. 
Twelve pairs white duck trousers for 

Six pairs'holland trousers. 
Six hollaud long coats. 
Six white linen coats. 
Six hoUand Avaistcoats. 
One dress coat. 
One pair trousers. 
One dress waistcoat. 
One frock coat. 
Two pairs coloured trousers. 

This equipment is also suited, with very little variation, for all civil appoint- 
ments, whether clerical, legal, or mercantile. 

Equipment for a Civilian by Ship. 

One shooting coat. 

Twelve wliite jackets. 

Twelve white waistcoats. 

Twenty -four towels, all linen. 

One leather dressing-case. 

Six good tooth-brushes. 

Two hair brushes. 

Two nail-brushes. 

Two combs. 

Tooth-powder and perfumery. 

Two large sponges. 

One bag, with needles, tapes, buttons, 

Shoe ribbon. 

One leather writing-case. 
Good supply of pens, ink, &c. 
Two or three knives. 
One pair dress shoes. 
One pair dress boots. 
Two pairs walking boots. 
Two pairs walking shoes. 
One pair strong boots. 
One pair sliijpers. 
One looking-glass. 
Case of spoons, knives, and forks. 
Case of pistols. 

Double-barrelled fowling-piece. 
Shot or cartridge belt. 
Two overland regulation trunks. 
One bag fur cabin. 
Case of saddlery. 

Forty-eight pairs cotton socks. 

Twelve pairs silk socks. 

Twelve pairs woollen socks. 

Seventy-two shirts. 

Twenty-four Thresher's India gauze 

Twenty-four pairs of calico drawers. 
Two pairs flannel drawers. 
Forty -eight pocket handkerchiefs. 
Twenty-foiu- fine cambric ditto. 
Six black silk cravats. 
Twelve pairs cotton gloves. 
Twenty-four pairs kid gloves. 
Four pairs braces. 

Six pairs pj'janias. 

Two pairs woollen pyjamas. 

One cotton dressing-gown. 

One flannel dressing-gown. 

One clothes bag. 

One straw hat. 

One clotli cap. 

One cachniere jacket. 

One pair cachmere trousers. 

Twelve pairs white trousers for dress. 

Twelve pairs duck trousers for riding. 

Six pairs lioll.and trousers. 

Twelve wliite jackets. 

Twenty -four white waistcoats. 



Six holland coats. 

Sbc white linen coats. 

Six holland waistcoats. 

Two pairs coloured trousers. 

One frock coat. 

One shooting coat. 

One dress coat. 

Two dress waistcoats. 

One pair dress trousers. 

Eight pairs sheets. 

Eight pillow-cases. 

Three blankets. 

Two quilts. 

Forty-eight towels, all linen. 

One leather dressing-case. 

Six tooth-brushes, good. 

Two hair-brushes. 

Two nail-brushes. 

Two combs. 

Tooth-powder and perfumery. 

Two or three knives. 

Two pairs dress shoes. 

Two pairs dress boots. 

Two pairs walking boots. 

Two pairs walking shoes. 

One pair strong shooting boots. 

One pair slippers. 

One washstand to form table. 

One couch or cot. 

One foot-tub. 

One chest of drawers. 

One looking-glass. 

One chair. 

One cabin lamp. 

Six pounds candles. 

One tin can. 

Eloor-cloth or carpet for cabin. 

Case of pistols. 

Case containing spoons, knives, and 

Double-barreUed fowling-piece. 
Shot or cartridge belt. 
Case of saddlery. 

Two large sponges. 

One bag, with needles, tapes, buttons, &c. 
Shoe ribbon. 

One leather writing-case, and supply 
of paper, pens, &c. 

This equipment is also suited, with very little variation, for all civil appoint 
ments, whether clerical, legal, or mercantile. 

Equipment for Infantry and Cavalry Cadets, and Assistatit- Sur^ 
geons, by the Overland Route. 

Thirty-six pairs cotton socks. 
Twelve pairs woollen socks. 
Thirty-six shirts. 
Twenty-four Thresher's Indian ga 

Twelve pairs calico drawers. 
Two pairs flannel drawers. 
Thirty-six pocket-handkerchiefs. 
Four ])lack silk cravats. 
Twelve pairs cotton gloves. 
Four pairs military gloves. 
Four military stocks. 
Four pairs braces. 
Six ])airs pyjamas. 
Two pairs woollen ditto. 
One dressing-gown. 
One clothes bag. 
One straw hat, covered. 
One cloth cap. 
Two holland coats. 
One shooting coat. 
Two pairs holland trousers. 

Two pairs coloured trousers. 

Two holland waistcoats. 

Twelve pairs white trousers for dress. 

Twelve pairs white duck trousers for 

Twelve white waistcoats. 
Twelve white jackets. 
Twenty-four towels. 
One dressing-case, leather. 
Six tooth-brushes, good. 
Two liair-brushes. 
Two nail-brushes. 
Two combs. 

Tooth-powder and perfumery. 
Two large sponges. 
Bag, M'ith needles, buttons, &c. 
Shoe ribbon. 

Leather writing-case and stationery. 
Two or three knives. 
One pair dress shoes. 
One pair dress boots. 
Two pairs walking boots. 



Two pairs walking shoes. 

One pair shooting boots. 

One pair slippers. 

One loolcinji-glass. 

Case of spoons, knives, and forks. 

One case of pistols. 

Fowling-piece, double-barrelled. 

Shot or cartridge belt. 

Two regulation overland trunks. 

One bag for cabin. 

Case of saddlery, 

Military things same as by ship. 

Necessary Equipments for Infantry and Cavalry Cadets and As' 
sistant- Surgeons, hy Ship. 

One leather dressing-case. 
Six tooth-brushes, good. 
Two hair-brushes. 

Porty-eight pairs cotton socks. 

Twelve pairs woollen socks. 

Sixty shirts. 

Twenty-four Thresher's India gauze 

Eighteen pairs calico drawers. 
Two pairs flannel drawers. 
Forty-eight pocket handkerchiefs. 
Twelve fine cambric ditto. 
Four black silk cravats. 
Four military stocks. 
Twelve pairs cotton gloves. 
Six pairs military gloves. 
Six pairs dress kid gloves. 
Four pairs braces. 
Six pairs pyjamas. 
Two pairs woollen pyjamas. 
One cotton dressing-gown. 
One flannel dressing-gown. 
One clothes bag. 
One straw hat, covered. 
One cloth cap. 
One pair cachraere trousers. 
Two holland blouses. 
Twelve pairs white dress trousers. 
Twelve pairs white duck trousers for 

Twelve white jackets. 
Twelve white waistcoats. 
Eight pairs sheets. 
Eight pillow-cases. 
Three blankets. 
Two quilts, 

Two nail-brushes. 

Two combs. 

Tooth-powder, &c. 

Two large sponges. 

Bag, with needles, buttons, &c. 

Slioe ribbon. 

One leather writing-case. 

Good supply of paper, pens, &c 

Two or tliree knives. 

One pair dress shoes. 

One pair dress boots. 

Two pairs walking boots. 

Two pairs walking shoes. 

One pair , shooting boots. 

One pair slippers. 

One washstand to form table. 

One couch or cot. 

One foot-tub. 

One chest of bullock drawers. 

One looking-glass. 

One chair. 

One cabin lamp. 

Six pounds of candles. 

One tin can. 

Floor-cloth or carpet. 

Case of spoons, knives, and forks. 

One case of pistols. 

Double-barrelled fowling-piece. 

Shot or cartridge belt. 

Case of saddlery. 

Two bullock trunks. 

Forty-eight towels. 

The following Lists comprise all the military clothing and appointments that 
it is desirable for a young Cadet to take out with him : 

Military Clothing, SfC,,for an Engineer Cadet. 

Full dress coattcc. 
Pair dress trousers. 
Blue cloth frock coat. 
Undress jacket. 
Pair undress trousers. 

Military cloak. 
Full-dress cocked hat. 
Featlier for ditto. 
Foraging cap, gold band. 
Regulation sword. 



Steel scabbard. 

Sword knot. 

Leather s^^•ord knot (undress). 

Embroidered belt. 

Crimson silk sash. 

Pair rich gold epaulettes. 

Pair shoTilder scales for frock coat. 
Pair shell jacket shoulder plates or 

Four military stocks. 
Cloth for extra jacket. 

Military Clothing, Sfc.,for an Artillery Cadet. 

Full dress coattee. 
Pair dress trousers. 
Blue cloth frock coat. 
Undress jacket. 
Pair undress trousers. 
Military cloak. 
FuU dress cap. 
Foraging cap, gold band. 
Regulation sword. 
Steel scabbard. 
Sword knot. 

Leather sword ditto (undress). 

BufF shoulder belt with slings and plate. 

Black sling belt and plate. 

Crimson silk sash. 

Pair rich gold epaulettes. 

Pair shoulder scales for frock coat. 

Pair shell jacket slioulder scales or 

Four military stocks. 
Cloth for extra jacket. 

Military ClotJiing, S)-c.,for a Cavalry Cadet. 

Blue cloth frock coat. 

Undress jacket. 

Pair regimental trousers. 

Undress chaco. 

Foraging cap, silver band. 

Cavalry sword. 

Sword knot. 

Leather sword knot (imdress). 

Set of undress belts, viz. — pouch belt 

waist belt, sabretasche, &c. 
Barrel sash ; (if for Bengal a gold 

Pair plated scales. 
Four military stocks. 
Cavalry cloak. 

Military ClotJdng, Sjc.^for an Infantry Cadet. 

Undress frock coat. 

Shell jacket. 

Pair regimental trousers. 

Kegimental cloak. 

Regulation full dress cap 

Foraging cap. 

Kegulation sword. 

Waterproof sword bag. 

Steel or brass scabbard, very useful, 

but not absolutely necessary. 
Sword knot. 
But!" shoulder belt. 
Black sling belt. 

Crimson silk sash. 

Pair of skirt ornaments. 

Pair gold epaulettes. 

Pair frock shoulder scales. 

Pair shell jackets shoulder cords. 

Four military stocks. 

Scarlet cloth for dress coattee. 

Gold lace for dress coattee. 

Scarlet cloth or cachmerc for extra 

shell jacket. 
Blue cloth for regimental frock coat. 
Kerseymere for regimental trousers. 

Military Clothing,S)C., for an Assistant Surgeon. 

Undress frock coat. 

Shell jacket. 

Pair regimental trousers. 

Regimental cloak. 
Cocked hat. 
Foraging cap. 



Ecgulation sword. 
Waterproof sword bag. 
Sword knot. 
Black slino- belt. 

Pair frock shoulder scales. 

Pair shell jackets, shoulder cords. 

Two military stocks. 

All military clotliing and appointments should be packed in tin, to prevent 


The following table exhibits the scheme of the British India Monetary 
?ystem : 






Calcutta 1 





Madras and } . 
Bombay i' "•^ 














Small shells, called cowries, are also still partially made use of for fractional 
payments, and are reckoned as follows ; but their value is subject to consider- 
able fluctuation, and they are now nearly superseded by the copper currency : 

4 Cowries make , 1 Gunda. 

20 Gundas 1 Pun. 

5 Puns 1 Anna. 


For the conversion of the rupee into the equivalent currency of other nations, 
it is necessary to take into consideration the fluctuating relative value of the 
I)recious metals inter sc, from the circumstance of gold being in some, and silver 
in others, the legal medium of circulation. 

It is also necessary to take account of the mint charge for coining at each 
place, which adds a flctitious value to the local coin. The pm- of exchange is, for 
tliesc reasons, a somewhat ambiguous term, requiring to be distinguished under 
two more definite denominations. 1st, The intrinsic par, which represents that 
case in which the pure metal contained in the parallel denominations of coins is 
equal. 2nd, The commercial par, or that case in Avhich the current A'alue of the 
coin at each place (after deducting the seignorage leviable for coinage) is equal ; 
or, in other words, " two sums of money of different countries are commercially 


at par, while they can purchase an equal quantity of the same kind of pure 

Thus if silver be taken from India to England, it must be sold to a bvdlion 
merchant at the market price, the jiroprietor receiving payment in gold (or notes 
convertible into it). The London mint is closed against the imiJorterof silver; 
■which metal has not, therefore, a minimum value in the English market fixed by 
the mint price, although it has so in Calcutta, where it may always be converted 
into coin at a charge of 2 per cent. On the other hand, if a remittance in gold 
be made from India to England, its out-turn there is known and fixed ; the 
new Calcutta rjold mohur being convertible into 1 66th or 1 2-3rds sovereign 
nearly ; but the price of the gold mohur fluctuates as considerably in India as 
that of silver does in England, the natural tendency of commerce being to bring 
to an equilibrium the operations of exchange in the two metals. 

The exchange between England and India has, therefore, a two-fold expression ; 
for silver, the price of the sicca rupee in shillings and pence ; for gold, the price 
of the sovereign in rupees. To calculate the out-turn of a bullion remittance in 
either metal, recourse may be had to the following. 

Talk of English and Indian Exchanges. 

The data for the calculation of these tables are : 

1st. One 77mn. (or lOOlbs. troy) of silver (l-12ths alloy) is coined into 3200 Com- 
pany's rupees, of which sixty-four and sixty respectively are taken as mint 
duty, being at the rate of 2 per cent. 

2nd. lOOlbs. troy of English standard silver (18-240ths alloy) is coined into 
6600 shillings, of which 400 are taken as seignorage or mint duty, being 4s. per 
lb. or nearly 6 per cent. ; but the mint is not open to the holders of silver bullion, 
■which is only purchased through the bank when required for coinage. 

3rd. The sovereign (l-12ths alloy) weighs 123.25 grains troy, and no duty is 
charged on its coinage. lOOlbs. of pure gold j-ield 5098.3 sovereigns — 3069.5 
new gold mohurszzSOilA o\il gold mohuj-szzM90.9 Madras and Bombay moliurs. 

The par of exchange with other countries may be estimated from the intrinsic 
and mint produce of their coins thus, assuming the Spanish dollar to weigh 416 
grains troy, and to be 5 dwts. worse in assay, we have for 

Spain and America 

{—231.111 tolahs in Aveight. 
—225.858 Fd. rupees \ or deducting duty ^ 221.341 Fd. Rs. 
—211.742 Sa. rupees i of 2 percent. "/ 207.508 Sa. Rs. 

The Spanish dollar forms also the currency of the Straits of Malacca and of 
Manilla ; and it is extensively known in the colonies of England, Ceylon, the Cape, 
Australia, &c. 

For the British colonial possessions, however, an Order in Council was pro- 
mulgated on the 23rd of j\Iarch, 1825, extending to tliem the circulation of 
British silver and copper money, and directing all public accounts to be kept 
therein. Where the dollar was, either by law, fact, or practice, still a legal 
tender, it was to be accounted equivalent to 4.«. Ad., and vice versa. For the Cape 
of Good Hope, where the circulation consisted of paper rix-dollars, and Ceylon, 
where it consisted of silver and paper rix-dollars, as well as a variety of other 
coins, it was provided tliat a tender and payment of 1a-. Gd. in I'ritish silver 
money should be equivalent to the rix-dollar. The Conqmny's rupee is allowed 
circulation at Is. l\d., and the five franc-piece at 4*. These regulations are 
still in force in Ceylon, Australia, Van Diemau's Land, the Cape, Mauritius, 
and St. Helena. 



The French kilogramme of standard silver (1-Olth alloy) is coined into 200 
francs, and the kilogramme weighs 85,744 tolas, therefore, 

f =r42.872 tolas in weight. 
100 Francs < —42.092 Company's ts.I or deducting duty C 41.250 Fd. Es. 
(—39.462 Sicca rs. iof2 per cent. 138.673 Sicca Es. 

The coinage duty on silver at Paris is 1^ per cent., or § per cent, less than in 
India ; hence it will be found that 100 Sa. Es. realise almost precisely 250 francs 
at the Paris mint. 

Minted gold in France is worth 15^ its weight of minted silver, or the 
Mogramme is coined into 155 Napoleons or twenty franc-pieces ; the seignorage 
on gold is only h per cent. 

One kilogramme of pure gold yields 81,457 gold mohurs, or (deducting 2 per 
cent, mint duty) 79,328 ditto, therefore 

f ^:55.319 tolas in weight. 

I —47.315 old gold mrs. ^or deduct- /46.369 old gold mohurs. 
100 Napoleons •{ :=47.757 new ditto f ing dut)'! 46.802 new ditto. 
I IZ54.343 Madras and f of 2 per\ 53.227 Madras and 
[ Bombay gold rs. 3 cent. \ Bombay gold rupees. 

Note. — In a coin we consider the weight and standard. By standard is meant 
the proportion of pure gold or silver which it contains ; the rest is alloy. Thus, 
if we suppose a coin to contain a thousand parts of metal, of which 917 are pure 
gold or silver, the eighty-three remaining parts being alloy, the 917 represent 
the standard or relative purity of the coin. 

Suppose we wish to know what is the value in English money of the 
Eussian Imperial often rubles ; the weight is 13,073 gram., the standard at 
917 ; deducting the alloy, that is, 108 gram., there remain, in pure gold, 11,988 

The English sovereign weighs 79,808 gram., the standard is at 917, the aUoy 
consequently 662 gram., and the weight of pure gold contained in it 73,184 

Now, by the rule of three, the question will thus be resolved : 7318 gram.: 
11,988 gram. : : 20 shillings : = \l. 12s. 6rf. 

By this method, we can ascertain the relative value of all coins ; but some- 
times the value thus ascertained will not exactly agree with the sum allowed in 
exchange. This difference arises from political causes and commercial vicissi- 
tudes. Thus, for instance, the value at par of the sovereign in French money 
is 2of. 26c., yet it rose to 25f. 50c. in the month of August last, after the change 
of the French Ministry. This fall and rise, in the relative value of money, 
principally takes place whenever there is a paper currency. 



The^i?r is a space measured by the extension of the thumb and first finger. 
The shibr is the common span measured by the extension of the thumb and little 

The Eg'jptian cubit, for measuring linen, is equal to 22l English Inches. 


The Indian cubit (drah belidee), used for measuring Indian 
goods 25 English In. 

The Turkish cubit (drah stamooke), used for measuring 
European cloth 264 » » 

Tlie ckub'dahs is the measure of a man's fist with the thumb 
erect, or about 6i „ „ 

Thefcddan Cabout one-third of an English acre) has twenty- 
four parts, or clieerets, or 333^ ckub'dalis. 

Tlie malackal, or Egyptian league, is, in Lower Egypt, from 

•2s miles to 3 miles. 

In Upper Egypt from 3| miles to 4i „ 


The ardeb, nearly five English bushels. 
The ivei/beh is the sixth of an ardeb. 
The rooba is the fourth of a weybeh. 


The grain (of wheat), about f of a grain. 

The grain (of barley), about I grain. 

Four grains 1 keerat (carat). 

Sixteen grains (49 grains English) 1 derhm (drachm). 

One and a half derhm 1 mitqal. 

Twelvederhms 1 oqeea. 


The mitqal 1 derhm, or nearly 72 grains. 

8 mitqals 1 oqeea or oz. av. 

12 oqeea 1 rotl or pound. 

2? rotl 1 equ or wuq'qa. 

110 „ 1 qantar or cwt. 

108 „ „ „ „ for coffee. 

102 „ „ „ „ for pepper, &c. 

120 „ „ „ „ for cotton. 

150 „ „ „ „ forgums,&c. 



Thefudd'ah (copper and silver mixed), about i of a farthing.* 

The 7ioos'.<i chir'sh (half a piastre), about Isd. 

The cAiVs'A (piastre), about 2f;d. 

The .saaA'tye/i (or small kheyreeyeh, gold) 9?d. 

The khey'reeych (gold) 21;;d. « 

The kees, or purse, is the sum of 500 piastres, or... 5/. sterling. 

The khaz'neh, or treasury, is 1000 purses, or 5000/. sterling. 

The coins of Constantinople are current in Egypt, but scarce. European and 
American dollars are also current, most of them equivalent to twenty Egyptian 
piastres. The English sovereign is called gin'yeh (for guinea), and is current in 

* There are pieces of five, ten, and twenty fuddahs. 



China Weights and Money. 

10 hAvuh make asze* 

10 sze a haou.t 

10 haou a a le, or cash. 

10 lef a fun, or candareen.f 

10 fun a tseen, or mace 

10 tseen a leang, ortael. 

16 leang akin, or cattyrrl^lb. avordiipois. 

100 kiu a tan, or pecul:=133^lbs. 

7 mace 2 can a Spanish Dollar. 

As the Chinese have no gold or silver coins, but make payments in those 
metals by weight, this table applies equally to money and to weights of all 
kinds, excepting that, in money reckonings, nothing higher than the leang or 
tael is employed. The only coined money the Chinese have is the le, or cash. 
It is made of a very base alloy of copper, is round, about the size of an English 
farthing, and has a square hole in the middle, by which a hundred or more are 
usually strung together ; on one side are Chinese characters, denoting the 
reign imder which the cash was cast ; and on the other side, in those of the 
present dynasty, are either Chinese or Manthchou characters, designating the 
place of coinage. Under preceding dynasties, two, five, and ten-cash pieces 
have been in use, as well as other coins of various descriptions ; but the single 
cash lis the only coin now current throughout the empire. It is cast also in 
Japan, Corea, and Cochiu-China, and is clandestinely imported from the last- 
named place, to a large amount. 


In China, almost every thing is sold 1)y weight, not excepting even liquids 
and live stock. The only weights are those already given above, the principal 
of which are the pecul, catty, and tael, divided thus : — 

16 taels make a catty. 

100 catties a pecul. 

At Macao, the pecul is distinguished by the Portuguese into three kinds, 
viz. — 

The pecul balanca of 100 catties rr 133^1bs. avoirdupois ; 
The pecul seda, of 111-15 do. := 148"ilbs ; and 
The pecul chapa, of 150 do. =r 200lbs. 

90 catties seda rr a Canton pecul, or pecul balanca. 

* These terms are also applied to designate the parts of a dollar: haou is a 
tenth, and sze a hundredth part. 

t In money, the value of the candareen varies from ten to thirteen or four- 
teen copper cash, and hence the mace varies from 100 to 140, and the dollar 
from 720 to 1000 cash ; but in weight, whether of silver or of any other article, 
the le, or cash, always continues the same integral part of a candereen. 

X This is the general estimate, made by the government, and the bazaar 
change for dollars to small amount, seven mace two candereen being the full 
weight of a good and unmutilated dollar ; but in consequence of the system 
adopted by all Chinese merchants and shopkeepers, stamping every dollar they 
pay out, the weight very speedily diniinislies, until the dollar is eventually 
broken uato pieces, in which state it is melted into sycee. 


By the first, are sold cotton and valuable articles ; by the second, alum, 
pepper, and coarse goods ; and by the third, rice. 

In transactions between one Chinese and another, goods are weighed by the 
Chinese dotchin, or balance, which is about 3 per cent, less than the English 
weights ; the latter are always used in transactions with foreigners. 

Note. At the money standard of 120 oz. 16dwts. English troy weight for 
100 taels, the pecul, which contains 1600 taels, should weigh, avoirdupois, 
132,535lbs. The actual standard of the pecul being 1333lbs., a slight discre- 
pancy thus appears between the money tael and the commercial tael, as the 
standard assigned to each. But no such diffei'ence is recognised by the Chinese. 
This is noticed, to account for what will otherwise appear erroneous in some of 
the following tables. 

Measures. — I. Long Measure. 

10 fun, or parts, make a tsun, or punt. 

10 tsun, or punts a chili, or covid ~ 14f inches. 

10 chill, or covids a chang zz 4 yards nearly. 

10 chang a yin. ^ 

The above are employed in the measurement of all kinds of piece goOTR, &c., 
as well as of every description of workmanship. The following are employed in 
measuring distances : — 

5 cliih, or covids, make a poo, or pace zz 5k feet nearly.* 

360 poo, or paces a le, or Chinese mile 3: 959:^ yards. 

250 le, or miles a too, or degrees on the equator. 

The chill, covid, or foot, is of several varying lengths ; according to Milburne, 
that of the Mathematical Academy is about 13^ English inches ; that of the 
Tribunal of Public Works, 12.7 inches ; and that employed by tailors and 
tradesmen, 13^ inches. None, however, of these three, is the same as the ordi- 
nary covid of Canton, used both in the measurement of vessels, and by trades- 
men, wliich is about 14| inches. Tiie le, or mile, is likewise a very uncertain 
measure of length, varying in almost every part of the countrJ^ It also, like 
the European geographical mile, forms an integral part of a degree, whether of 
latitude or longitude. But the scientific division of a degree, derived from 
the European missionaries, is into 60 fun, or minutes, the fun being divided into 
CO mcaou, or seconds. 

II. — Land Measure. 

5 chil, or covids make a poo, or kuiig. 

240 poo, or kiuig a mow, or acre. 

100 mow, or acres a king. 

This is the present established land measure, which varies considerably from 
that formerly in use. In scientific calculations, the mow is divided into ten fun, 
and the fun into 24 le, and so on, tiirough the several fractional terms wliicli 
have been already given, at the commencement of the table of weights. The 
poo, or pace, also, is divided decimally, the same terms, fun, Ic, &c., being 

III. — Measure of Contents. 

6 suli make a kwei. 

10 kwei a chaou. 

10 chaou a tsuy. 

* This, being according to the measure of the mathematical academy, differs 
from the preceding statement. 


10 tsuy a cho. 

10 cho a ho 

10 ho a shing — 31| cubic punts. 

10 shhig a tow — 316 „ „ 

Stow , ahwo ~ 1580 „ „ 

2 hwo a shih —3160 „ „ 

This is the scientific division, established by the reigning dynasty. The 
common measures are : — 

2 cho make a ho. 

10 ho a shing, or pint. 

10 shing a tow. 

10 tow a hwo. 

This table is employed almost exclusively in the measurement of grain ; all 
other articles, and even liquids, being sold by weight. In dealings with 
foreigners, however, and probably, also, in large dealings among themselves, the 
Chinese sell rice and other grain by the catty and pecul weight, instead of tlie 
shing,%)w, &c. In the sale of paddy, two-thirds are allowed for the trouble and 
diminution in weight, which accompany the taking off the husk, or, which is the 
same thing, paddy is sold at one-third the price of the same weight of rice. 

Though not properly included among the subjects now treated of, may be, 
not inappropriately, here given. The ten units are the following : — 

Atfalllength. ^XurTctlT ^^-*-- ^°"«''- 

1 Yih yat yit* chit 

2 Urh ee je no 

3 San sam sam sua 

4 Sze se soo se 

5 Woo ing ngoe goe 

6 Lew luk leuk lak 

7 Tseih tsat chit chit 

8 Pa pat pat payh 

9 Kew kow kew kaou. 
10 Shih shap sip chap 

The Chinese term for expressing 100, is pih ; 1000, tseen ; 10,000, wan ; 
1,000,000, pih wan, "a hundred myriads;" 100,000,000, yih, &c., progressing 
decunally through the terms chaou, king, hae, te, jang kon, keen, ching, and 
tsae. To express 12, 13, &c,, the words are figures 10 and 2, 10 and 3 are put 
together ; thus, shih-urh, 12 ; shih-san, 13, &c. Also urh-shi-yih, "two tens 
and one," denotes 21, &c. 

In China, almost every trade has a distinct system of secret numbers ; that 
is, instead of using the proper characters for designating prices, they adopt other 
characters, by which they arbitrarily express their meaning, so as to be under- 
stood only by persons of the same trade. The Chinese method of computing is 
by a kind of abacus, which they call a Swan-pwan, " coimting board." 

• In the Fokien provincial dialect characters have two prommciations, the 
reading and the spoken or colloquial. The pronunciations here printed in 
italics are the colloquial 




This is one of the most pleasant months in the year ; its temperature is cool 
and refresliing, and extremely congenial to all but the victims of gout and 
rheumatism. The air at mid-day is generally clear and wholesome, but the 
mornings and evenings are sometimes damp and foggy. 

The thermometer ranges, in the shade, from 52° in the morning to 65° in the 

A northerly wind prevails during this month, but seldom blows with much 
strength. When it does, and is accompanied with rain, the cold is very dis- 

Vegetables of all kmds are now in the highest state of perfection ; the 
markets abound with green peas, cauliflowers, cabbages, turnips, potatoes, 
asparagus, yams, carrots, spinach, greens, cucumbers, radishes, celery, let- 
tuces, young onions, nol-cole, kutchoo, French beans, seem, brinjalls, red and 
white beet, &c., &c. 

In the meat market there is a plentiful supply of beef, mutton, veal, lamb, 
pork, kid, poultry, &c., of the superior kinds. 

Game also is to be had in great abundance — snipe, duck, teal, &c. 

The fish market is well supplied at this season, with beckty, or cock-up (the 
salmon of the liast), moonjee, rowe, cutlah, quoye, sowle, selliah, bholah, eels, 
soles, and many others of inferior descriptions. 

Fruit trees, in general, begin to show their buds and blossoms this month ; 
mangoe, peach, pumplenose (shaddock), rose-apples, &c. 

The fruits in season are Sylhet and China oranges, loquats, plantains, pine- 
apples, long and round plums, large guavas, pumplenose, tipparah, and a few 

The following fruits and vegetables are procurable, not only in this month, 
but throughout the whole year, viz. — plantains, sugar-canes, cocoa-nuts, guavas, 
pine-apples, papiahs, custard-apples, jack, country almonds, tamarinds, orarah, 
barbutty, mint, sage, parsley, onions, radishes, lettuce, &c. Sow the lirst crop 
of melon seeds about the 20th or 25th of this month. 


This month is generally cool and comfortable, particularly if the northerly 
wind prevails ; the weather :ifterwards becomes disagreeable, till a change of 
season takes place about the end of the month. 

When the weather is variable, the wind blows principally from the N.W., 
veering round occasionally to the N.E., attended with clouds and drizzling 
rain ; this continues till about the 2nth, when the southerly wind sets in. 
The weather now becomes mild and genial; the days, however, sometimes 
rather hot, and the nights cold, with heavy dews. 

The thermometer, in the shade, ranges, on a medium, from 58^ in the morning 
to 75° in the evening. 


Rheumatism and pout become less troublesome after the southerly winds 
have set in. Warm clothing becomes rather unpleasant to new comers, but not 
so to old Indians, whose blood is not so easily heated. Sometimes this month 
is rather showery, which protracts the cold season till the middle of the follow- 
ing month. 

The fish market has the addition of the small hilsah (the Indian mackerel). 

Meat and vegetables continue good and abundant. 

The additional vegetables are pumpkins and young cucumbers, and the fruits 
custard-apples, mulberries, and small water-melons. 

The weather, during the greater portion of this month, is but just pleasantly 
■warm, at least to old Indians ; towards the latter part of it, however, the heat 
becomes occasionally rather oppressive, even to them. 


The thermometer ranges, in the shade, from 68° in the morning to 82° in the 

Various operations of husbandry generally commence this month, so soon as 
the ground is moistened by rain; this, however, sometimes happens at the latter 
end of Februar}'-, and then it is occasioned by an unusual quantity of rain. 

The meat market continues good. 

Fish to be had in abundance, and the market has the addition of the gooteah, 
a small, but well-flavoured fish. 

Green peas and turnips disappear at the end of this month ; salad, cabbages, 
carrots, and celery, are on the decline ; but asparagus and potatoes continue 
excellent : green mangoes and unripe musk-melons are to be had ; also omrah, 
greens, and water-cresses. 

Fruit is also plentiful ; large water-melons appear about the middle of the 
month, and continue in perfection till the middle of June. 

The north-westers, with thunder and lightning, and rain, generally appear 
towards the end of this month. 


The beginning of this month is sometimes pleasant, particularly if the north- 
westers are frequent ; but the middle and latter part are disagreeable in the 
extreme ; it is one of the worst months in the year. 

The thermometer ranges, in the shade, from 80= in the morning to 90° in 
the afternoon ; but when exposed to the sun, it rises to 1 10°. 

The wind blows from the south, and is very strong throughout the month ; 
and when the wind is hot, from the absence of rain, it becomes oppressive. This 
state of the weather is very unfavourable to vegetation. 

The north-westers are, at times, attended with dreadful storms of thunder 
and lightning, during which rain and hail fall in torrents ; these storms some- 
times occasion much damage. The north-westers continue, at intervals, till the 
beginning, and sometimes till the middle of May. 

This is an unfavourable season for meat, which begins to be flabby and poor, 
the fat spongy and yellow. 

Thc|fish-market has the addition of the mangoe fis