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THEORY AND CALCULATIONS
OF
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
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PUBLISHERS OF BOOKS FOfO
Coal Age ▼ Electric Railway Jou r n a I
Electrical Wxld ^ Engineering NewsRecord
Railway Age Gazette v American Machinist
Electrical Merchandising * The Contractor
Engineering 8 Mining Journal ^ Power
Metallurgical 8 Chemical Engineering
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THEORY AND CALCULATIONS
OF
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
BY
CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ, A. M., Ph. D.
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First ETditi^ / /. j # . ' /,
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McGrawHill book company, inc.
239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK
LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., Ltd.
6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C.
1917
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PUBLIC Lirr.APvV,
789700
K
A don, LFNOX AND
Copyright, 1917, by the
McGrawHill Book Company, Inc.
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THE
IAPLC PRESS YORK PA
PREFACE
In the twenty years since the first edition of " Theory and Cal
culation of Alternating Current Phenomena" appeared, elec
trical engineering has risen from a small beginning to the world's
greatest industry; electricity has found its field, as the means of
universal energy transmission, distribution and supply, and our
knowledge of electro physics and electrical engineering has in
creased many fold, so that subjects, which twenty years ago could
be dismissed with a few pages discussion, now have expanded
and require an extensive knowledge by every electrical engineer.
In the following volume I have discussed the most important
characteristics of the numerous electrical apparatus, which have
been devised and have found their place in the theory of electrical
engineering. While many of them have not yet reached any
industrial importance, experience has shown, that not infre
quently apparatus, which had been known for many years but
had not found any extensive practical use, become, with changes
of industrial conditions, highly important. It is therefore
necessary for the electrical engineer to be familiar, in a general
way, with the characteristics of Pi" Irs iVeimenilwused types
of apparatus.
In some respects, the following work, and its companion vol
ume, "Theory and Calculation of. Electric X'irrvits," may be
considered as continuations, or ratliei as parts o< "Theory and
Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena." With the 4th
edition, which appeared nine years ago, " Alternating Current
Phenomena" had reached about the largest practical bulk, and
when rewriting it recently for the 5th edition, it became necessary
to subdivide it into three volumes, to include at least the most
necessary structural elements of our knowledge of electrical
engineering. The subject matter thus has been distributed into
three volumes: "Alternating Current Phenomena," "Electric
Circuits," and "Electrical Apparatus."
Charles Proteus Steinmetz.
Camp Mohawk, Vtele's Creek.
July, 1917.
\ ••"
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CONTENTS
Page
Preface v
Chapter I. — Speed Control op Induction Motors.
/. Starting and Acceleration
1. The problems of high torque over wide range of speed, and of
constant speed over wide range of load — Starting by armature
rheostat 1
2. A. Temperature starting device — Temperature rise increasing
secondary resistance with increase of current — Calculation of
motor 2
3. Calculation of numerical instance — Its discussion — Estimation
of required temperature rise 4
4. B. Hysteresis starting device — Admittance of a closed mag
netic circuit with negligible eddy current loss — Total secondary
impedance of motor with hysteresis starting device 5
5. Calculation of numerical instance — Discussion — Similarity of
torque curve with that of temperature startin gdeyice — Close
speed regulation — Disadvantage of impairment of power factor
and apparent efficiency, due to introduction of reactance — Re
quired increase of magnetic density 6
6. C. Eddy current starting device — Admittance of magnetic cir
cuit with high eddy current losses and negligible hysteresis —
Total secondary impedance of motor with eddy current starting
device — Numerical instance 8
7. Double maximum of torque curve — Close speed regulation —
High torque efficiency — Poor power factor, requiring increase
of magnetic density to get output — Relation to double squirrel
cage motor and deep bar motor 10
//. Constant Speed Operation
8. Speed control by armature resistance — Disadvantage of in
constancy of speed with load — Use of condenser in armature or
secondary — Use of pyroelectric resistance 12
9. Speed control by variation of the effective frequency: con
catenation — By changing the number of poles: multispeed
motors 13
10. A. Pyroelectric speed control — Characteristic of pyro
electric conductor — Close speed regulation of motor — Limita
tion of pyroelectric conductors 14
11. B. Condenser speed control — Effect of condenser in secondary,
VI 1
viii CONTENTS
Page
giving high current and torque at resonance speed — Calcula
tion of motor 16
12. Equations of motor — Equation of torque — Speed range of
maximum torque 17
13. Numerical instance — Voltampere capacity of required con
denser 18
14. C Multispecd motors — Fractional pitch winding, and switch
ing of six groups of coils in each phase, at a change of the num
ber of poles 20
15. Discussion of the change of motor constants due to a change of
the number of poles, with series connection of all primary turns
— Magnetic density and inferior performance curves at lower
speeds 21
16. Change of constants for approximately constant maximum
torque at all speeds — Magnetic density and change of coil
connection 22
17. Instance of 4 5 6 5 8 pole motor — Numerical calculation and
discussion 23
Chapter II. Multiple Squikkel Cage Induction Motor.
18. Superposition of torque curves of high resistance low reactance,
and low resistance high reactance squirrel cage to a torque
curve with two maxima, at high and at low speed 27
19. Theory of multiple squirrel cage based on the use of the true
induced voltage, corresponding to the resultant flux which
passes beyond the squirrel cage — Double squirrel cage induc
tion motor 28
20. Relations of voltages and currents in the double squirrel cage
induction motor 29
21. Equations, and method of calculation 30
22. Continued: torque and power equation 31
23. Calculation of numerical instance of double squirrel cage
motor, speed and load curves — Triple squirrel cage induction
motor 32
24. Equation between the voltages and currents in the triple
squirrel cage induction motor 34
25. Calculation of voltages and currents 35
26. Equation of torque and power of the three squirrel cages, and
their resultant 37
27. Calculation of numerical instance of triple squirrel cage induc
tion motor — Speed and load curves 37
Chapter III. Concatenation.
Cascade or Tandem Control of Induction Motors
28. Synchronizing of concatenated couple at half synchronism —
The two speeds of a couple of equal motors and the three
CONTENTS ix
Page
speeds of a couple of unequal motors — Internally concatenated
motor 40
29. Generator equation of concatenated couple above half syn
chronism — Second range of motor torque near full synchron
ism — Generator equation above full "synchronism — Ineffi
ciency of second motor speed range — Its suppression by
resistance in the secondary of the second motor 41
30. General equation and calculation of speed and slip of con
catenated couple 42
31. Calculation of numerical instances 44
32. Calculation of general concatenated couple 45
33. Continued 46
34. Calculation of torque and power of the two motors, and of the
couple 47
35. Numerical instance 48
36. Internally concatenated motor — Continuation of windings into
one stator and one rotor winding— Fractional pitch — No inter
ference of magnetic flux required — Limitation of available
speed — Hunt motor 49
37. Effect of continuation of two or more motors on the character
istic constant and the performance of the motor 50
Chapter IV. Induction Motor with Secondary Excitation.
38. Large exciting current and low power factor of low speed in
duction motors and motors of high overload capacity —
Instance 52
39. Induction machine corresponding to synchronous machine ex
cited by armature reaction, induction machine secondary corre
sponding to synchronous machine field — Methods of secondary
excitation : direct current, commutator, synchronous machine,
commutating machine, condenser 53
40. Discussion of the effect of the various methods of secondary
excitation on the speed characteristic of the induction motor . 55
Induction Motor Converted to Synchronous
41. Conversion of induction to synchronous motor — Relation of
exciting admittance and selfinductive impedance as induction
motor, to synchronous impedance and coreloss as synchronous
motor — Danielson motor 57
42. Fundamental equation of synchronous motor — Condition of
unity power factor — Condition of constant field excitation . . 60
43. Equations of power input and output, and efficiency .... 61
44. Numerical instance of standard induction motor converted to
synchronous — Load curves at unity power factor excitation and
at constant excitation 62
45. Numerical instance of low speed high excitation induction
motor converted to synchronous motor — Load curves at unity
power factor and at constant, field excitation — Comparison
with induction motor
4ti. Comparison of induction motor and synchronous motor regard
ing armature reaction and synchronous impedance — roor
induction motor makes kikkI, and good induction motor luaitea
poor synch roll 01 la motor
Indliclion Mnlor Canctitenatrd with Sj/iichriimnix
47. Synchronous characteristic and synchronizing speed of con
catenated couple — Division of load between machines — The
synchronous machine as .small exciter
48. Equation of concatenated couple of synchronous and induction
motor — Reduction to standard synchronous motor equation .
49. Equation of power output and input of concatenated couple .
50. Calculation of numerical instance of 56 polar high ,
induction motor concatenated to 4 polar synchronous .
51. Discussion. High power factor at all loads, at (
synchronous motor excitation 76
Inthtclion Motor Cimcotaiotcd with i'lxnmiiliitiinj Machine
52. Concatenated cmiple »il h com tilting machine asynchronous
— Series and shunt excitation — Phase relation adjustable —
Speed control and power factor control— Two independent
variables with concatenated commutaling machine, against one
with synchronous machine— Therefore greater variety of speed
and load curves 78
53. Representation of the commutatiug machine by an effective
impedance, in which both components may be positive or
negative, depending on position of commutator brushes ... SO
54. Calculation of numerical instance, with commutating machine
series excited for reactive antiinductive voltage — Load curves
and their discussion . 82
Induction Mntnr "ilk ('iiiiiliiimr in Strouifartj Circuit
55. Shunted capacity neutralising lagging current of induction
motor— Numerical instance — Effect of wave shape distortion —
Condenser in tertiary circuit of singlephase induction motor —
Condensers in secondary circuit— Large amount of capacity
required by low frequency 84
50, Numerical instance of low speed high excitation induction
motor with capacity in secondary — Discussion of load curves
and of speed 86
57, Comparison of different methods of secondary excitation, by
power factor curves: low at all loads; high at all loads, low at
light, high at heavy loads — By speed: synchronous or constant
speed motors ami asynchronous motors in which the Bpeed
decreases with increasing load 8S
CONTENTS xi
Induction Motor with Commutator
Page
58. Wave shape of commutatcd full frequency current in induction
motor secondary — Its low frequency component — Full fre
quency reactance for rotor winding — The two independent
variables: voltage and phase — Speed control and power factor
correction, depending on brush position 80
59. Squirrel cage winding combined with com mutated winding —
Hey land motor — Available only for power factor control— Its
limitation 91
Chapter V. Singlephase Induction Motor.
60. Quadrature magnetic flux of singlephase induction motor pro
duced by armature currents — The torque produced by it —
The exciting ampereturns and their change between synchron
ism and standstill ' 93
61. Relations between constants per circuit, and constants of the
total polyphase motor — Relation thereto of the constants of
the motor on singlephase supply — Derivation of the single
phase motor constants from those of the motor as threephase or
quarterphase motor 94
62. Calculation of performance curves of singlephase induction
motor — Torque and power 96
63. The different methods of starting singlephase induction motors
— Phase splitting devices; inductive devices; monocyclic de
vices; phase converter 96
64. Equations of the starting torque, starting torque ratio, volt
ampere ratio and apparent starting torque efficiency of the
singlephase induction motor starting device 98
65. The constants of the singlephase induction motor with starting
device 100
66. The effective starting impedance of the singlephase induction
motor — Its approximation — Numerical instance 101
67. Phase splitting devices — Series impedances with parallel con
nections of the two circuits of a quarterphase motor — Equa
tions 103
68. Numerical instance of resistance in one motor circuit, with
motor of high and of low resistance armature 104
69. Capacity and inductance as starting device — Calculation of
values to give true quarterphase relation 106
70. Numerical instance, applied to motor of low, and of high arma
ture resistance 108
71. Series connection of motor circuits with shunted impedance —
Equations, calculations of conditions of maxim urn torque
ratio — Numerical instance 109
72. Inductive devices — External inductive devices — Internal in
ductive devices Ill
73. Shading coil — Calculations of voltage ratio and pliane arigh? . 112
xii CONTENTS
Page
74. Calculations of voltages, torque, torque ratio and efficiency . . 114
75. Numerical instance of shading coil of low, medium and high
resistances, with motors of low, medium and high armature
resistance 116
76. Monocyclic starting device — Applied to threephase motor —
Equations of voltages, currents, torque, and torque efficiency . 117
77. Instance of resistance inductance starting device, of condenser
motor, and of production of balanced threephase triangle by
capacity and inductance 120
78. Numerical instance of motor with low resistance, and with
high resistance armature — Discussion of acceleration . . . . 121
Chapter VI. Induction Motor Regulation and Stability.
1. Voltage Regulation and Output
79. Effect of the voltage drop in the line and transformer im
pedance on the motor — Calculation of motor curves as affected
by line impedance, at low, medium and high line impedance . 123
80. Load curves and speed curves — Decrease of maximum torque
and of power factor by line impedance — Increase of exciting
current and decrease of starting torque — Increase of resistance
required for maximum starting torque 126
2. Frequency Pulsation
81. Effect of frequency pulsation — Slight decrease of maximum
torque — Great increase of current at light load 131
3. Load and Stability
82. The two motor speed at constant torque load — One unstable
and one stable point — Instability of motor, on constant torque
load, below maximum torque point 132
83. Stability at all speeds, at load requiring torque proportional to
square of speed: ship propellor, centrifugal pump — Three
speeds at load requiring torque proportional to speed — Two
stable and one unstable speed — The two stable and one un
stable branch of the speed curve on torque proportional to
speed 134
84. Motor stability function of the character of the load — General
conditions of stability and instability — Singlephase motor . . 136
4. Generator Regulation and Stability
85. Effect of the speed of generator regulation on maximum output
of induction motor, at constant voltage — Stability coefficient
of motor — Instance 137
CONTENTS xiii
Page
86. Relation of motor torque curve to voltage regulation of system
— Regulation coefficient of system — Stability coefficient of
system 138
87. Effect of momentum on the stability of the motor — Regulation
of overload capacity — Gradual approach to instability . . . .141
Chapter VII. Higher Harmonics in Induction Motors.
88. Component torque curves due to the higher harmonics of the
impressed voltage wave, in a quarterphase induction motor;
their synchronous speed and their direction, and the resultant
torque curve 144
89. The component torque curves due to the higher harmonics of
the impressed voltage wave, in a threephase induction motor —
True threephase and sixphase winding — Tl e singlephase
torque curve of the third harmonic 147
90. Component torque curves of normal frequency, but higher
number of poles, due to the harmonics of the space distribu
tion of the winding in the airgap of a quarterphase motor —
Their direction and synchronous speeds 150
91. The same in a threephase motor — Discussion of the torque
components due to the time harmonics of higher frequency
and normal number of poles, and the space harmonics of normal
frequency and higher number of poles . 154
92. Calculation of the coefficients of the trigonometric series repre
senting the space distribution of quarterphase, sixphase and
threephase, full pitch and fractional pitch windings 155
93. Calculation of numerical values for 0, %, \i, \i pitch defi
ciency, up to the 2l8t harmonic 157
Chapter VII. Synchronizing Induction Motors.
94. Synchronizing induction motors when using common secondary
resistance 159
95. Equation of motor torque, total torque and synchronizing
torque of two induction motors with common secondary rheo
stat 160
96. Discussion of equations — Stable and unstable position — Maxi
mum synchronizing power at 45° phase angle — Numerical
instance 163
Chapter IX. Synchronous Induction Motor.
97. Tendency to drop into synchronism, of single circuit induction
motor secondary— Motor or generator action at synchronism —
Motor acting as periodically varying reactance, that is, as
reaction machine — Low power factor — Pulsating torque below
synchronism, due to induction motor and reaction machine
torque superposition 166
CONTENTS
ChAPTBK X, HYSTERESIS Mo'
P.OI
98. Rotation of iron disc in rotating magnetic field — Equations
Motor below, generator nhove synchronism 168
99. Derivation of eqieit imih fin in hysteresis law  I lystcrcsi» (orque
of standard induction motor, and reJation to size 169
100. General discussion of hysteresis mot or —Hysteresis loop
collapsing or expanding . 170
Chapter XL Rotary Terminal Singli
I] InIU.'(.'TIO«J MoTOKS.
101, Performance and method of operation of rotary terminal
singlephase induction Mot or —Relation of motor speed to
brush speed and slip corresponding to the loud 172
102. Applicot inn of tin principle to n selfstarting si iigle>h;isc power
motor with high starting and accelerating torque, by auxiliary
motor carrying brushes 173
XII,
i Gem
, Alternating'
103. The printipli nf tin frequency converter nr general alternating
current transformer — Induction motor and transformer special
cases— Simultaneous transformation between primary elec
trical and secondary electrical power, and between electrical
and mechanical power — Transformation of voltage and of fre
quency — The airgap and its effect , 176
104. Relation of e.m.f., frequency, number of turns and exciting
current . 177
105. Derivation of the general alternating current transformer —
Transformer equations and induction motor equations, special
cases thereof 178
IDS. Equation or power of general alternating current transformer . 182
107. Discussion: between synchronism and standstill — Backward
driving— Beyond synchronism — Relation between primary
electrical, secondary electrical and mechanical power ... 184
108. Calculation of numerical instance 1S6
109. The characteristic curves: regulation curve, compounding
curve— Connection of frequency converter with synchronous
machine, and eomjieusation for lagging current — Derivation of
equation and numerical instance . , . . 186
110. Oversynchronous operation — Two applications, as double
synchronous generator, and as induction generator with low
frequency exciter 190
111. Use as frequency converter — Use of synchronous machine or
induction machine M second machine— Slip of frequency —
Advantage of frequency converter over motor generator . 191
112. Use of frequency converter— Motor converter, its advantages
and disadvantages — Concatenation for multispced operation . 192
CONTENTS xv
Chapter XIII. Synchronous Induction Generator.
Paqr
113. Induction machine as asynchronous motor and asynchronous
generator 194
114. Excitation of induction machine by constant low frequency
voltage in secondary — Operation below synchronism, and
above synchronism . . 195
115. Frequency and power relation — Frequency converter and syn
chronous induction generator 196
116. Generation of two different frequencies, by stator and by rotor . 198
117. Power relation of the two frequencies — Equality of stator and
rotor frequency: double synchronous generator — Low rotor
frequency: induction generator with low frequency exciter,
Stanley induction generator 198
118. Connection of rotor to stator by commutator — Relation of fre
quencies and powers to ratio of number of turns of stator and
rotor 199
119. Double synchronous alternator — General equation — Its arma
ture reaction 201
120. Synchronous induction generator with low frequency excita
tion — (a) Stator and rotor fields revolving in opposite direc
tion — (b) In the same direction — Equations 203
121. Calculation of instance, and regulation of synchronous induc
tion generator with oppositely revolving fields 204
122. Synchronous induction generator with stator and rotor fields
revolving in the same direction — Automatic compounding and
overcompounding, on noninductive load — Effect of inductive
load 205
123. Equations of synchronous induction generator with fields re
volving in the same direction 207
124. Calculation of numerical instance 209
Chapter XIV. Phase Conversion and Singlephase Generation.
125. Conversion between singlephase and polyphase requires energy
storage — Capacity, inductance and momentum for energy
storage — Their size and cost per Kva 212
126. Industrial importance of phase conversion from singlephase to
polyphase, and from balanced polyphase to singlephase . . .213
127. Monocyclic devices — Definition of monocyclic as a system of
polyphase voltages with essentially singlephase flow of energy
— Relativity of the term — The monocyclic triangle for single
phase motor starting 214
128. General equations of the monocyclic square 216
129. Resistance — inductance monocyclic square — Numerical in
stance on inductive and on noninductive load — Discussion . 218
130. Induction phase converter — Reduction of the device to the
simplified diagram of a double transformation 220
131. General equation of the induction ph&j«e converter . . 222
P*Q»
132. Numerical instance — Inductive load — Discussion and com
parisons with monocyclic square 223
133. Series connection of induction phase converter in single phase
induction motor railway — Discussion of its regulation .... 226
134. Synchronous phase converter and singlephase generation —
Control of the unbalancing of voltage due to singlephase load,
by stationary induciion phase balancing with reverse rotation
of its polyphase system — Synchronous phase balancer. . . . 227
135. Limitation of singlephase generator by heating of b
coils — By double frequency pulsation of annul
Use of squirrel cage winding in field — Its size — Its effect on the
momentary short circuit current 229
136. Limitation of the phase converter in distributing singlephase
load into a balanced polyphase system — Solution of the
problem by the addition uf a synchronous phase balancer lo the
synchronous phase converter — Its construction 230
137. The various methods of taking caro of large singlephase loads —
Comparison of singlephase generator with polyphase generator
and phase converter — Apparatus economy 232
Chapter XV. Synchronous Rectifiers.
138. Rectifiers for battery charging— For arc lighting — The arc ma
chine as rectifier— Rectifiers for compounding alternators —
For starting synchronous motors — Rectifying commutator —
Differential current and sparking on inductive load — Re
sistance bipass — Application to alternator and synchronous
motor 234
139. Open circuit and short circuit rectification — Sparking with
open circuit rectification on inductive load, and shift of
brushes . 237
140. Short circuit rectification on noninductive and on inductive
load, and shift of brushes — Rising i.lifferontial current and flash
ing around the commutator — Stability limit, of brush position,
between sparking and flashing— Commutating e.m.f. resulting
from unsymmetrical short circuit voltage at brush shift —
Sparkless rectification 239
141. Short circuit commutation in high inductance, open circuit
commutation in low inductance circuits I'sc of double brush
to vary short circuit — Effect of load — Thomson Houston arc
machine — Brush arc machine — Storage battery charging . . 243
142. Reversing and contact making rectifier— Half wave rectifier
and its disadvantage by unidirectional magnetisation of trans
former — The two connections full wave contact making recti
fiers — Discussion of the two types of full wave rectifiers —
The mercury arc rectifier 245
143. Rectifier with intermediary segments— Poly phase rectifica
tion — Star connected, ripg connected and independent phase
CONTENTS xvii
Pao»
rectifiers — Y connected threephase rectifier — Delta connected
threephase rectifier — Star connected quarterphase rectifier —
Quarterphase rectifier with independent phases — Ring con
nected quarterphase rectifier — Wave shapes and their discus
sion — Sixphase rectifier 250
144. Ring connection or independent phases preferable with a large
number of phases — Thomson Houston arc machine as con
stant current alternator with threephase star connected rectifier
— Brush arc machine as constant current alternator with
quarterphase rectifiers in series connection 254
145. Counter e.m.f. shunt at gaps of polyphase ring connected
rectifier — Derivation of counter e.m.f. from synchronous mo
tor — Leblanc's Panchahuteur — Increase of rectifier output with
increasing number of phases 255
146. Discussion: stationary rectifying commutator with revolving
brushes — Permutator — Rectifier with revolving transformer —
Use of synchronous motor for phase splitting in feeding
rectifying commutator: synchronous converter — Conclusion . 257
Chapter XVI. Reaction Machines.
147. Synchronous machines operating without field excitation . . 260
148. Operation of synchronous motor without field excitation de
pending on phase angle between resultant m.m.f. and magnetic
flux, caused by polar field structure — Energy component of
reactance 261
140. Magnetic hysteresis as instance giving energy component of
reactance, as effective hysteretic resistance 262
150. Make and break of magnetic circuit — Types of reaction
machines — Synchronous induction motor — Reaction machine
as converter from d.c. to a.c 263
151. Wave shape distortion in reaction machine, due to variable
reactance, and corresponding hysteresis cycles 264
152. Condition of generator and of motor action of the reactance
machine, as function of the current phase 267
153. Calculation of reaction machine equation — Power factor and
maximum power 268
154. Current, power and power factor — Numerical instance . . .271
. 155. Discussion — Structural similarity with inductor machine . . 272
Chapter XVII. Inductor Machine*.
156. Description of inductor machine type —hid actum by pulsating
unidirectional magnetic flux 274
157. Advantages and disadvantages of inductor typ*?, with regard*
to field and to armature 275
158. The magnetic circuit of the inductor machine, calculation of
magnetic flux and hysteresis loss 276
CONTENTS xix
Chapter XX. Singlephase Commutator Motors.
Page
189. General: proportioning of parts of a.c. commutator motor
different from d.c 331
190. Power factor: low field flux and high armature reaction re
quired — Compensating winding necessary to reduce armature
selfinduction 332
191. The three circuits of the singlephase commutator motor —
Compensation and overcompensation — Inductive compen
sation — Possible power factors 336
192. Field winding and compensating winding: massed field
winding and distributed compensating winding — Undercom
pensation at brushes, due to incomplete distribution of com
pensating winding 338
193. Fractional pitch armature winding to secure complete local
compensation — Thomson's repulsion motor — Eickemeyer in
ductively compensated series motor 339
194. Types of varying speed singlephase commutator motors: con
ductive and inductive compensation; primary and secondary
excitation; series and repulsion motors — Winter — Eichberg —
Latour motor — Motor control by voltage variation and by
change of type 341
195. The quadrature magnetic flux and its values and phases in the
different motor types 345
196. Commutation: e.m.f. of rotation and e.m.f. of alternation —
Polyphase system of voltages — Effect of speed 347
197. Commutation determined by value and phase of short circuit
current — High brush contact resistance and narrow brushes . 349
198. Commutator leads: — Advantages and disadvantages of resist
ance leads in running and in starting 351
199. Counter e.m.f. in commutated coil: partial, but not com
plete neutralization possible 354
200. Commutating field — Its required intensity and phase rela
tions: quadrature field 356
201. Local commutating pole — Neutralizing component and revers
ing component of commutating field — Discussion of motor
types regarding commutation . . 358
202. Motor characteristics: calculation of motor — Equation of cur
rent, torque, power 361
203. Speed curves and current curves of motor — Numerical instance
— Hysteresis loss increases, short circuit current decreases
power factor 364
204. Increase of power factor by 1«gg» n g field magnetism, by
resistance shunt across field 366
205. Compensation for phase displacement and control of power
factor by alternating current commutator motor with t^gf^g
field flux, as effective capacity — Its use in induction motors and
other apparatus . 370
206. Efficiency and losses: the two kinds of core loss 370
xx CONTENTS
P«o»
207. Discussion of motor types: compensated series motors: con
ductive and inductive compensation — Their relative advan
371
208. Repulsion motors: lagging quadrature flux — Not adapted to
speeds much above synchronism — Combination type: series
repulsion motor
373
209, Constructive differences— Possibility of ['hanging from type to
type, with change of speed or load
375
210. Other commutator motors: shunt motor — Adjustable speee:
polyphase induction motor— Power factor compensation
Heyland motor — WinterEichberg motor
377
211. Most general form of singlephase commut at or motor, with two
stator and two rotor circuits and two brush short circuits .
381
212. General equation of motor ,
382
213. Their application to the different types of single phase motor
with series characteristic
383
214. Repulsion motor; Equations
385
215. Continued
388
216, Discussion of commutation current and commutation factor
391
217. Repulsion motor and repulsion generator , . .
394
218, Numerical instance
395
219. Series repulsion motor; equations
397
220. Continued *
398
221. Study of commutation —Short circuit current under brushes .
403
222. Commutation current
404
223. Effect of voltage ratio and phase, on commutation . .
406
224. Conililiui) of vanishing commutation current
408
225. Numerical example
411
226. Comparison of repulsion motor and various series repulsion
414
227. Further example — Commutation factors
415
228. Overcompensation — Equations . . ,
418
229. Limitation of preceding discussion — Effect and importance o:
transient in short circuit current
419
Chapter XXI. Regulating Pole Converter.
230. Change of converter ratio by changing position angle between
brushes and magnetic flux, and by change of wave shape . .
422
A. Variable ratio by change of position angle between com
422
231. Decrease of a.c. voltage by shifting the brushes — By shiftinj
the magnetic flux — Electrical shifting of the magnetic flux by
varying the excitation of the several sections of the field pole .
422
232. Armature reaction and commutation— Calculation of the re
sultant armature reaction of the converter with shifted mag
netic flux
426
233. The two directions of shift flux, the one spoiling, the other
CONTENTS % xxi
Page
improving commutation — Demagnetizing armature reaction
and need of compounding by series field 429
B. Variable ratio by change of the wave shape of the Y voltage 429
234. Increase and decrease of d.c. voltage by increase or decrease
of maximum a.c. voltage by higher harmonic — Illustration
by third and fifth harmonic 430
235. Use of the third harmonic in the threephase system — Trans
former connection required to limit it to the local converter
circuit — Calculation of converter wave as function of the "pole
arc ^ 432
236. Calculation of converter wave resulting from reversal of
middle of pole arc 435
237. Discussion 436
238. Armature reaction and commutation — Proportionality of
resultant armature reaction to deviation of voltage ratio from
normal 437
239. Commutating flux of armature reaction of high a.c. voltage —
Combination of both converter types, the wave shape distor
tion for raising, the flux shift for lowering the a.c. voltage —
Use of two pole section, the main pole and the regulating pole . 437
240. Heating and rating — Relation of currents and voltages in
standard converter 439
241. Calculation of the voltages and currents in the regulating pole
converter 440
242. Calculating of differential current, and of relative heating of
armature coil r . . 442
243. Average armature heating of n phase converter 444
244. Armature heating and rating of threephase and of sixphase
regulating pole converter 445
245. Calculation of phase angle giving minimum heating or maxi
mum rating 446
246. Discussion of conditions giving minimum heating — Design —
Numerical instance 448
Chapter XXII. Unipolar Machines.
Homopolar Machines — Acyclic Machines
247. Principle of unipolar, homopolar or acyclic machine — The
problem of high speed current collection — Fallacy of unipolar
induction in stationary conductor — Immaterial whether mag
net standstill or revolves — The conception of lines of magnetic
force ....'... 450
248. Impossibility of the coil wound unipolar machine — All electro
magnetic induction in turn must be alternating — Illustration
of unipolar induction by motion on circular track 452
249. Discussion of unipolar machine design — Drum type and disc
type — Auxiliary airgap — Double structure — Series connec
tion of conductors with separate pairs of collector rings . . . 454
xxii CONTENTS
Paq«
250. Unipolar machine adapted for low voltage, or for large sice high
speed machines — Theoretical absence of core loss — Possibility
of large core loss by eddies, in core and in collector rings, by
pulsating armature reaction 456
251. Circular magnetizatiftn produced by armature reaction —
Liability to magnetic saturation and poor voltage regulation —
Compensating winding — Most serious problem the high speed
collector rings 457
252. Description of unipolar motor meter 458
Chapter XXIII. Review.
253. Alphabetical list of machines: name, definition, principal
characteristics, advantages and disadvantages 459
Chapter XXIV. Conclusion.
254. Little used and unused types of apparatus — Their knowledge
important due to the possibility of becoming of great industrial
importance — Illustration by commutating pole machine . . 472
255. Change of industrial condition may make new machine types
important — Example of induction generator for collecting
numerous small water powers 473
256. Relative importance of standard types and of special types of
machines 474
257. Classification of machine types into induction, synchronous,
commutating and unipolar machines — Machine belonging to
two and even three types 474
Index . . . 477
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
CHAPTER I
SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTORS
I. STARTING AND ACCELERATION
1. Speed control of induction motors deals with two problems:
to produce a high torque over a wide range of speed down to
standstill, for starting and acceleration; and to produce an
approximately constant speed for a wide range of load, for
constantspeed operation.
In its characteristics, the induction motor is a shunt motor,
that is, it runs at approximately constant speed for all loads,
and this speed is synchronism at noload. At speeds below full
speed, and at standstill, the torque of the motor is low and the
current high, that is, the startingtorque efficiency and especially
the apparent startingtorque efficiency are low.
Where starting with considerable load, and without excessive
current, is necessary, the induction motor thus requires the use
of a resistance in the armature or secondary, just as the direct
current shunt motor, and this resistance must be a rheostat,
that is, variable, so as to have maximum resistance in starting,
and gradually, or at least in a number of successive steps, cut
out the resistance during acceleration.
This, however, requires a wound secondary, and the squirrel
cage type of rotor, which is the simplest, most reliable and there
fore most generally used, is not adapted for the use of a start
ing rheostat. With the squirrelcage type of induction motor,
starting thus is usually done — and always with large motors —
by lowering the impressed voltage by autotransformer, often
in a number of successive steps. This reduces the starting
current, but correspondingly reduces the starting torque, as it
does not change the apparent startingtorque efficiency.
The higher the rotor resistance, the greater is the starting
torque, and the less, therefore, the starting current required for
1
2 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
a given torque when starting by autotransformor. However,
high rotor resistance means lower efficiency and poorer speed
regulation, anil this limits the economically permissible resistance
in the rotor or secondary.
Discussion of the starting of the induction motor by arma
ture rheostat, and of the various speedtorque curves produced
by various values of starting resistance in the inductionmotor
secondary, are given in "Theory and Calculation of Alternating
ruiTini Phenomena" and in "Theoretical Elements of Electrical
Engineering."
As Been, in the induction motor, the (effective) secondary re
sistance should be as low as possible at full speed, but should
be high at standstill — very high compared to the fullspeed
value— and gradually decrease during acceleration, to maintain
constant high torque from standstill to speed. To avoid the
inconvenience and complication of operating a starting rheostat,
various devices have been proposed and to some extent used, to
produce a resistance, which automatically increases with in
creasing slip, anil thus is low at full speed, and higher at standstill.
A. Temperature Starting Device
2. A resistance material of high positive temperature coeffi
cient of resistance, such as iron and other pure metals, operated
at high temperature, gives this effect to a considerable extenl :
with increasing slip, that is, decreasing speed of the motor, the
secondary current increases. If the dimensions of the secondary
mfetanoe Me chosen so that it rises considerably in tempera
ture, by the increase of secondary current, the temperature and
therewith the resistance increases.
Approximately, the temperature rise, and thus the resistance
rise of the secondary resistance, may be considered as propor
tional to the square of the secondarycurrent, ii, that is, repre
sented bv:
r = r° (1 + aii 3 ). (I)
As illustration, consider a typical inductiou motor, of the
oonatants:
Co = 110;
Ytgjb" 0.01  0.1 j;
Zo = r„+ j"j: =0.1 +0.3j;
Z, = r l +jx l = 0.1 f 0.3j;
the speedtorque curve of this motor is shown as A in Fig. 1
SPEED CONTROL 3
Suppose now a resistance, r, i8 inserted in series into the sec
ondary circuit, which when cold — that is, at lightload — equals
the internal secondary resistance:
but increases so as to double with 100 amp. passing through it.
This resistance can then be represented by:
r = r° (1 + i,« 10*)
= 0.1 (1 +»i , 10 4 ),
NDUCTION MOTOR
110
I
^
z,=r, + .3i
SPEED CONTROL BY POSITIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT r,
SPEED CURVES
i
1
£
..■„..
"'
TC
,«6*.B'.*?«f*)
e
...
vo"
^_
A
.
"if
S£
**
^
G.U
B
u
v
_u
'.u
i
3
I)
,
(j
,
*
fa
7
S
5
and the total secondary resistance of the motor then is:
r\ = r, + r<,{l + otV) (2)
= 0.2 (1 + 0.5 if 10').
To calculate the motor characteristics for this varying resist
ance, r'l, we use the feature, that a change of the secondary re
sistance of the induction motor changes the slip, s, in proportion
to the change of resistance, but leaves the torque, current, power
factor, torque efficiency, etc., unchanged, as shown on page
322 of "Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering." We
.thus calculate the motor for constant secondary resistance, n,
but otherwise the same constants, in the manner discussed on
page 318 of "Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering."
4 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
This gives curve A of Fig. 1. At any value of torque, T, corre
sponding to slip, s, the secondary current is:
('] = e y/a{ + of,
herefrom follows by (2) the value of r',, and from this the new
value of slip:
e + *  r'i * n. (3)
The torque, T, then is plotted against the value of slip, .•', and
gives curve B of Fig. 1. As seen, B gives practically constant
torque over the entire range from near full speed, to standstill.
Curve B has twice the slip at load, as A, as its resistance has
heen doubled.
3. Assuming, now, that the internal resistance, r lT were made
as low as possible, t x = 0.05, and the rest added as externa]
resistance of high temperature coefficient: r" = 0.05, giving the
total resistance:
= 0.1 (1 + 0.5 ir 10" 4 ).
(4)
This gives the same resistance as curve A ; r\ = 0.1, at light
load, where i L is small and the external part of the resistance cold.
But with increasing load the resistance, r'i, increases, and the
motor gives the curve shown as C in Fig. 1.
As seen, curve C is the same near synchronism as A, but in
starting gives twice as much torque as A, due to the increased
resistance,
C and .1 thus are directly comparable: both have the same
constants mid same speed regulation and other performance, at
speed, but C gives much higher torque at standstill and during
acceleration.
For comparison, curve .4' has heen plotted with constant
resistance r, = 0.2, so as to compare with B.
Instead of inserting an external resistance, it would be pref
erable to use the internal resistance of the squirrel cage, to in
crease in value by temperature rise, and thereby improve the
starting torque.
Considering in this respect the motor shown as curve C. At
standstill, it is: i, = 153; thus r'i = 0.217; while cold, the re
sistninc is: r'i = 0.1. Thjs represents a resistance rise of 117
per cent. At a temperature coefficient of the resistance of 0.35,
this represents a maximum temperature rise of 335°C, As seen,
SPEED CONTROL 5
by going to temperature of about 350°C. in the rotor conductors
— which naturally would require fireproof construction — it be
comes possible to convert curve A into C, or A' into B } in Fig. 1.
Probably, the high temperature would be permissible only in
the end connections, or the squirrelcage end ring, but then, iron
could be used as resistance material, which has a materially
higher temperature coefficient, and the required temperature
rise thus would probably be no higher.
B. Hysteresis Starting Device
4. Instead of increasing the secondary resistance with increas
ing slip, to get high torque at low speeds, the same result can be
produced by the use of an effective resistance, such as the effect
ive or equivalent resistance of hysteresis, or of eddy currents.
As the frequency of the secondary current varies, a magnetic
circuit energized by the secondary current operates at the varying
frequency of the slip, s.
At a given current, i\, the voltage required to send the current
through the magnetic circuit is proportional to the frequency,
that is, to 8. Hence, the suaceptance is inverse proportional
to «:
V = 6  (5)
8
The angle of hysteretic advance of phase, a, and the power
factor, in a closed magnetic circuit, are independent of the
frequency, and vary relatively little with the magnetic density
and thus the current, over a wide range, 1 thus may approxi
mately be assumed as constant. That is, the hysteretic con
ductance is proportional to the susceptance :
g' = V tan a. ((>)
Thus, the exciting admittance, of a closed magnetic circuit
of negligible resistance and negligible eddycurrent losses, at the
frequency of slip, «, is given by:
Y' = g'  jb' = V (tan a  j)
=  J = (tan a  j) (7)
8 8 8
1 "Theoiy and Calculation of Al format iri^rurr^nt Phfjiornwia,"
Chapter XII.
6 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Assuming tan a = 0.6, which is a fair value for a closed mag
netic circuit of high hysteresis loss, it is:
Y' = b g (0.6  j),
the exciting admittance at slip, s.
Assume then, that such an admittance, F', is connected in series
into the secondary circuit of the induction motor,* for the pur
pose of using the effective resistance of hysteresis, which in
creases with the frequency, to control the motor torque curve.
The total secondary impedance then is:
1
Y
 {» + Q + * (* + J) • «
Z i — Z\ + v/
where: Y = g — jb is the admittance of the magnetic circuit at
full frequency,, and
5. For illustration, assume that in the induction motor of the
constants:
6o = 100;
Y = 0.02  0.2 j;
Zo = 0.05 + 0.15 j;
Zi = 0.05 + 0. 15 j;
a closed magnetic circuit is connected into the secondary, of full
frequency admittance,
Y = g  jb;
and assume:
g = 0.6 b;
6 = 4;
thus, by (8) :
Z\ = (0.05 + 0.11 s) + 0.335 js. (9)
The characteristic curves of this induction motor with hysteresis
starting device can now be calculated in the usual manner, dif
fering from the standard motor only in that Z\ is not constant,
and the proper value of r h %\ and m has to be used for every
slip, 8.
Fig. 2 gives the speedtorque curve, and Fig. 3 the load curves
of this motor.
SPEED CONTROL 7
For comparison is shown, as 7", in dotted lines, the torque
curve of the motor of constant secondary resistance, and of the
constants :
> o.oi  o.i y,
 0.01 + 0.3 j;
> 0.1 + 0.3J;
As seen, the hysteresis starting device gives higher torque at
standstill and low speeds, with less slip at full speed, thus a
materially superior torque curve.
INDUCTION MOTOR
5
p
Z,!.OB + JMI+ .335.fi
J.
■
9
SPEED CURV
"fj
ao
5
?
:■;■
1 li
7n"
r
A
CO
T

r
\
T 1
"*
m
.
—
■—
""
 11
J
<i
i
2
1
ft
t
1
\T_
u
7
a
1
V
Fia. 2.— Speed c
a of induction motor with hysteresis starting device.
p represents the powerfactor, tj the efficiency, y the apparent
efficiency, V the torque efficiency and y' the apparent torque
efficiency.
However, T corresponds to a motor of twice the admittance
and half the impedance of 7". That is, to get approximately
the same output, with the hysteresis device inserted, as without
it, requires a rewinding of the motor for higher magnetic density,
the same as would be produced in 7" by increasing the voltage
y/2 times.
It is interesting to note in comparing Fig. 2 with Fig. 1, that
the change in the torque curve at low and medium speed, pro
duced by the hysteresis starting device, is very similar to that
produced by temperature rise of the secondary resistance; at
8
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
speed, however, the hysteresis device reduces the slip, while the
temperature device leaves it unchanged.
The foremost disadvantage of the use of the hysteresis device
is the impairment of the powerfactor, as seen in Fig. Z as p.
The introduction of the effective resistance representing the
hysteresis of necessity introduces a reactance, which is higher
than the resistance, and thereby impairs the motor characteristics.
Comparing Fig. 3 with Fig. 176, page 319 of "Theoretical
INDUCTION MOTOR
Y 6 = .oa.9j: Z, .05+155. e,100
Z,(.05+.ll») + .335 ja
SPEED CONTROL BY MYSTEHESIS
SPEED CURVES
Mil /
il ! 1 M /l
•
^£^y
r y~
=1 —
s
.
f.
/// i
5'
// !
4
i
w£4**t
1
ff\
■■y
r c.i i.o 1.5 z.o is i.a s.s <.o is s.» ss «.e .s ;s t.s
Fig. 3.— Load c
s of induction n
r with hysteresis starting device.
Elements of Electrical Engineering." which gives the load curves
of 7" of Fig. 2, it is seen that the hysteresis starting device reduced
the maximum powerfactor. />. from 91 per cent, to 84 per cent.,
and the apparent efficiency, 7. correspondingly.
This seriously limits the usefulness of the device.
C. Eddycurrent Starting Device
6. Assuming that, instead of using a welllaminated magnetic
circuit, and utilizing hysteresis to give the increase of effective
n=*iranr» with increasing slip, we use a magnetic circuit having
very hizh eddycurrent losses: very thick laminations or solid
iron, or we directly provide a closed highresistance secondary
wiiing around the magnetic circuit, which is inserted into the
ir.d lotionmotor secondary for increasing the starting torque.
SPEED CONTROL 9
The susceptance of the magnetic circuit obviously follows the
same law as when there are no eddy currents. That is:
&' = 6  (10)
s
At a given current, i h energizing the magnetic circuit, the in
duced voltage, and thus also the voltage producing the eddy
currents, is proportional to the frequency. The currents are
proportional to the voltage, and the eddycurrent losses, there
fore, are proportional to the square of the voltage. The eddy
current conductance, g f thus is independent of the frequency.
The admittance of a magnetic circuit consuming energy by
eddy currents (and other secondary currents in permanent closed
circuits), of negligible hysteresis loss, thus is represented, as
function of the slip, by the expression:
Y'gj (11)
©
Connecting such an admittance in series to the induction
motor secondary, gives the total secondary impedance:
Z J = Z\ + y,
= Ai + — ^iA + 3 /«»i + ™nr Y (12)
r^t)
Assuming:
g = b. (13)
That is, 45° phase angle of the exciting circuit of the magnetic
circuit at full frequency — which corresponds to complete screen
ing of the center of the magnet core — we get:
*'• = ( ri + 6TiT>)) + * (*' + 1 ( r+ *>) • < 14)
Fig. 4 shows the speed curves, and Fig. 5 the load curves,
calculated in the standard manner, of a motor with eddycurrent
starting device in the secondary, of the constants:
e = 100;
Y = 0.03  0.3 i;
Z = 0.033 + 0.1 j;
Z x = 0.033 + 0.1 j;
6 = 3;
10 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
thus :
7. As seen, the torque curve has a very curious shape: a
maximum at 7 per cent, slip, and a second higher maximum at
standstill.
The torque efficiency is very high at alt speeds, and prac
tically constant at 82 per cent, from standstill to fairly close of
full speed, when it increases.
i
1NOUCTION MOTOR
Yir.03.3j; Z».033+ 1j; e 100
SPEED CONTROL BY EDDIES
SPEED CURVES
?
i~~
;
s
?
...
p
• 7
1
it
n
>™.
t
""■
ue
1
^
"'
\
m
V^
Y
^'
,
t>
_
—
"
'
_
i
Z
1
r ,
t
7
s
a
9
1
'
t
c
t
i
t
s
(
a
io. 4. — Speed curves of induction unit or wil.li edilycurri'nt starting device.
But the powerfactor is very poor, reaching a maximum of
8 per cent, only, and to get the output from the motor, required
ewinding it to give the equivalent of a y/Z times as high voltage.
For comparison, in dotted lines as 7" is shown the torque curves
f the standard motor, of same maximum torque. As seen, in
ic motor with eddycurrent starting device, the slip at load is
ery small, that is, the speed regulation very good. Aside from
le poor powerfactor, the motor constants would be very
atis factory.
The low powerfactor seriously limits the usefulness of the
evice.
By differently proportioning the eddycurrent device to the
ccondary circuit, obviously the torque curve can be modified
SPEED CONTROL 11
and the starting torque reduced, the depression in the torque
curve between fullspeed torque and starting torque eliminated,
etc.
Instead of using an external magnetic circuit, the magnetic
circuit of the rotor or inductionmotor secondary may be used,
and in this case, instead of relying on eddy currents, a definite
secondary circuit could be utilized, in the form of a second
squirrel cage embedded deeply in the rotor iron, that is, a double
squirrelcage motor.
IN
AUCTION MOTOR
JN
\
SPEED CONTROL BY EDDIES
LOAD CURVES
s
\
/
/
/
f
■=>
•
I
/
v
y
/
<
/
r.
U
..
I
h
I I
1
■ ft
:
t 1
1
E 1
0.
S 6
D
i ■
a '
i
T
Fig. S. — Load curves of induction motor with eddycurrent atartinR devlra.
In the discussion of the multiple squirrelcage induction motor,
Chapter II, we shall see speedtorque curves of the character us
shown in Fig. 4. By the use of the rotor iron as magnetic cir
cuit, the impairment of the powerfactor is somewhat reduced,
so that the multiple squirrelcage motor becomes industrially
important.
A further way of utilizing eddy currents for increasing the
effective resistance at low speeds, is by the use of deep rotor
bars. By building the rotor with narrow and deep hIoIh filled
with solid deep bars, eddy currents in these bars occur at higher
frequencies, or unequal current distribution. That is, the cur
rent flows practically all through the top of the bars at the high
12
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
frequency of low motor speeds, thus meeting with a high resist
ance. With increasing motor speed and thus deereMlllg
secondary frequency, the current penetrates deeper into the bar,
until at full speed it passes practically uniformly throughout
the entire bar, in a cireuit of low resistance— but somewhat
increased reactance.
The deepbar construction, the eddycurrent starting device
and the double squirrelcage construction thus are very similar
in the motorperformance curves, and the double squirrel cage,
which usually is the most economical arrangement, thus will be
discussed more fully in Chapter II.
II. CONSTANT SPEED OPERATION
8. The standard induction motor is essentially a constantspeed
motor, that is, its speed is practically constant for all loads,
decreasing slightly with increasing load, from synchronism at
noload. It thus has the same speed characteristics as the direct
current shunt motor, and in principle is a shunt motor.
In the directcurrent shunt motor, the speed may be changed
by: resistance in the armature, resistance in the field, change of
the voltage supply to the armature by a multivolt supply circuit,
as a threewire system, etc.
In the induction motor, the s]>eed can be reduced by inserting
resistance into the armature or secondary, just as in the direct
current shunt motor, and involving the same disadvantages:
the reduction of speed by armature resistance takes place at a
sacrifice of efficiency, and at the lower speed produced by arma
ture resistance, the power input is the same as it. would be with
the same motor torque at full speed, while the power output is
reduced by the reduced speed. That is, Bpeed reduction by
armature resistance lowers the efficiency in proportion to the
lowering of speed. The foremost disadvantage of speed control
by armature resistance is, however, that, the motor ceases to D6
a constant speed motor, and the speed varies with the load:
with a given value of armature resistance, if the load and with it
the armature current drops to onehalf, the speed reduction of
the motor, from full speed, also decreases to onehalf, that is,
the motor speeds up, and if the load conies off, the motor runs
up to practically full speed. Inversely, if the load increases, the
speed slows down proportional to the load.
With considerable resistance in the armature, the induction
SPEED CONTROL 13
motor thus has rather series characteristic than shunt character
istic, except that its speed is limited by synchronism.
Series resistance in the armature thus is not suitable to produce
steady running at low speeds.
To a considerable extent, this disadvantage of inconstancy of
speed can be overcome:
(a) By the use of capacity or effective capacity in the motor
secondary, which contracts the range of torque into that of
approximate resonance of the capacity with the motor inductance,
and thereby gives fairly constant speed, independent of the load,
at various speed values determined by the value of the capacity.
(6) By the use of a resistance of very high negative tempera
ture coefficient in the armature, so that with increase of load and
current the resistance decreases by its increase of temperature,
and thus keeps approximately constant speed over a wide range
of load.
Neither of these methods, however, avoids the loss of efficiency
incident to the decrease of speed.
9. There is no method of speed variation of the induction
motor analogous to field control of the shunt motor, or change
of the armature supply voltage by a multivolt supply system.
The field excitation of the induction motor is by what may be
called armature reaction. That is, the same voltage, impressed
upon the motor primary, gives the energy current and the field
exciting current, and the field excitation thus can not be varied
without varying the energy supply voltage, and inversely.
Furthermore, the noload speed of the induction motor does not
depend on voltage or field strength, but is determined by
synchronism.
The speed of the induction motor can, however, be changed:
(a) By changing the impressed frequency, or the effective
frequency.
(b) By changing the number of poles of the motor.
Neither of these two methods has any analogy in the direct
current shunt motor: the directcurrent shunt motor has no fre
quency relation to speed, and its speed is not determined by the
number of poles, nor is it feasible, with the usual construction
of directcurrent motors, to easily change the number of poles.
In the induction motor, a change of impressed frequency corre
spondingly changes the synchronous speed. The effect of a
change of frequency is brought about by concatenation of the
14 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
motor with a second motor, or by internal concatenation of the
motor: hereby the effective frequency, which determines the
noload or synchronous speed, becomes the difference between
primary and secondary frequency.
Concatenation of induction motors is more fully discussed in
Chapter III.
As the noload or synchronous speed of the induction motor
depends on the number of poles, a change of the number of poles
changes the motor speed. Thus, if in a 60cycle induction motor,
the Dumber of poles is changed from four to six and to eight, the
speed is changed from 1800 to 1200 and to 900 revolutions per
minute.
This method of speed variation of the induction motor, by
changing the number of poles, is the most convenient, and such
"multispced motors" are extensively used industrially.
A. Pyroelectric Speed Control
10. Speed control by resistance in the armature or secondary
has the disadvantage that the speed is not constant, but at
a change of load and thus of current, the voltage consumed
by the armature resistance, and therefore the speed changes.
To give constancy of speed over a range of load would require
a resistance, which consumes the same or approximately the
same voltage at all values of current. A resistance of very
high negative temperature coefficient does this: with increase of
current and thus increase of temperature, the resistance decreases,
and if the decrease of resistance is as large as the increase of
current, the voltage consumed by the resistance, and therefore
the motor speed, remains constant.
Some pyroetectric conductors (see Chapter I, of "Theory
and Calculation of Electric Circuits") have negative tempera
ture coefficients sufficiently high for this purpose. Fig. 6 shows
the currentresistance characteristic of a pyroelectric conductor,
consisting of cast silicon {the same of which the characteristic
is given as rod II in Fig. 6 of " Theory and Calculation of Electric
Circuits"). Inserting this resistance, half of it and one and one
half of it into the secondary of the induction motor of constants:
e„ = 110; >'„ = 0.01  0.\j;Z B =0.1 + 0.3 j; Z, = 0.1 +0.3J
gives the speedtorque curves shown in Fig. 7.
The calculation of these curves is as follows: The speed
torque curve of the motor with shortcircuited secondary, r = 0,
SPEED CONTROL
1 1 1 1 1 I 1
l.B
1.7
RESISTANCE OF
PVRO ELECTRIC CONDUCTOR
[SILICON ROD NO.ll. FIQ.fl
■'ELECTRIC CIRCUITS' )
\
1.1
1.3
1.2
I.I
1.0
0.'.'
M
0.8
«.«
\
\
\
\
3
LI
S
\
v
II
\
v
\
n 
D
■
i
5
i 
i
1)
1
li !
10 L
u 1
■
:.
Fio. 6. — Variation of resistance of pyrocleotric conductor, with current.
PYROELECTRIC RESISTANCE IN SECONDARY OF INDUCTION MOTOR. «o1!0
Y. = .01.1; . ZcA+.3j : Z, = .1 + .3j : ra,4.6
4 SPEED CONTROL BY PYRO ELECTRIC CONDUCTOR.
p SPEED CURVES.
L
3
WJ.
1
o
■■■"■'
"X
s
\
V
•\
rn
J
T
°\
'0
n
\
\
\
V
\
LI
16 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is calculated in the usual way as described on page 318 of
"Theoretics] Element* of Electrical Engineering." For any
value of slip, s, and cor responding value of torque, T, the secondary
current is *'[ = c y/ac \ a*. To this secondary current corre
sponds, by Fig. (j, the resistance, r, of the pyroelectric conductor,
and the insertion of r thus increases the slip in proportion to the
jni'ieacil secondary resistance: ■> where ri = 0.1 in the
present instance. Tliis gives, as corresponding to the torque,
T, the slip:
, r + r ,
& = 8,
where s = slip at torque, T, with shortcircuited armature, or
resistance, r t .
As seen from Fig. 7, very close constantspeed regulation is
produced by the use of the pyroelectric resistance, over a wide
range of load, and only at lightload the motor speeds up.
Thus, good constant. a peed regulation at any speed below
synchronism, down to very low speeds, would be produced—
at a corresponding sacrifice of efficiency, however — by the use
of suitable pyroelectric conductors in the motor armature.
The only objection to the use of such pyroelectric resistances
is the difficulty of producing stable pyroelectric conductors, and
permiiiiriit terminal connections on such conductors.
B. Condenser Speed Control
11. The reactance of a condenser is inverse proportional to
the frequency, that of an inductance is directly proportional to
the frequency. In the secondary of the induction motor, the
Frequency varies from zero at synchronism, to full frequency at
standstill. If, therefore, a suitable capacity is inserted into the
Secondary of an induction motor, there is a definite speed, at
which inductive reactance and capacity reactance are equal and
Opposite, that is, balance, and at and near this speed, a large
current is taken by the motor and thus large torque developed,
while at speeds considerably above or below this resonance speed,
the current and thus torque of the motor are small.
The use of a capacity, or an effective capacity (as polariza
tion cell or aluminum cell) in the inductionmotor secondary
should therefore afford, at least theoretically, a means of speed
control by varying the capacity.
SPEED CONTROL 17
Let, in an induction motor:
Yo = g — jb = primary exciting admittance;
Z = r + jxo = primary selfinductive impedance;
Z\ = r\ + jxi = internal selfinductive impedance, at full
frequency;
and let the condenser, C, be inserted into the secondary circuit.
The capacity reactance of C is
k = 2*yc <»
k
at full frequency, and  at the frequency of slip, s.
The total secondary impedance, at slip, «, thus is:
Z{ = n+j («x x  *) (2)
and the secondary current:
T sE se
/l= "w ' k v ti= ~r~^ = ~^ (3)
r, + j («*t  J ^ + ( 5Xl _ *)
= E (di  ja 2 ),
where:
8r Y
ai m
s(s Xl  *)
C2 = " ■
W
m = ri 2 + (sxi — j
(4)
The further calculation of the condenser motor, then, is the
same as that of the standard motor. 1
12. Neglecting the exciting current:
/oo = $Y
the primary current equals the secondary current:
and the primary impressed voltage thus is :
$Q = # + Zo/o
1 "Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering," 4th edition, p. 318.
2
18 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and, substituting (3) and rearranging, gives:
b
Eolrt +j(sxi  )}
E . _ (g)
(ri + «r ) + j Isxi + sxu ■ )
or, absolute:
c 2 = jr — j (6)
(ri + sr ) 2 + («Ci + 8X J
The torque of the motor is :
T = e 2 a x
and, substituting (4) and (6) :
T = srie 2
(ri + *r ) 2 + \sxi + 8X0 J
(7)
As seen, this torque is a maximum in the range of slip, 8,
where the second term in the denominator vanishes, while for
values of s, materially differing therefrom, the second term in the
denominator is large, and the torque thus small.
That is, the motor regulates for approximately constant speed
near the value of s, given by :
that is:
k
8X1 + 8X0 = 0,
s
*  J— I— (8)
\£o + x i
and so = 1, that is, the motor gives maximum torque near
standstill, for:
k = xq + xi. (9)
13. As instances are shown, in Fig. 8, the speedtorque curves
of a motor of the constants:
r = 0.01  0.1./,
Z = Zi = 0.1 + 0.3 j,
SPEED CONTROL
19
for the values of capacity reactance :
it = 0, 0.012, 0.048, 0.096, 0.192, 0.3, 0.6— denoted respectively
by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
The impressed voltage of the motor is assumed to be varied
with the change of capacity, so as to give the same maximum
torque for all values of capacity.
The voltampere capacity of the condenser is given, at the
frequency of slip, a, by :
«' = ••■*
substituting (3) and (6), this gives:
(n + «r )* + (axi + «ro  )
II 1 II II 1 II II

SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR BY CONDENSER IN SECONDARY
Y =.01.1i: Z .l+3j; Z..1+.3)
5,
,A
A
^
K\^
\
^
X
s
'?■
s
lv
£
i.
B
\
I
■i
■
\
\
^.
V
\
>
V
■ s
\
\
\
10
.
.
\
V 1
and, compared with (7), this gives
T.
At full frequency, with the same voltage impressed upon the
condenser, its voltampere capacity, and thus its 60cycle rating,
would be:
20 ELECTRICAL APPARA TVS
As seen, a very large amount of capacity is required for speed
control. This limits its economic usefulness, and makes the
use of a cheaper form of effective or equivalent capacity desirable.
C. Multispeed Motors
14. The change of speed by changing the number of poles, in
the multispeed induction motor, involves the use of fractional
pitch windings: a primary turn, which is of full pole pitch for
a given number of motor poles, is fractional pitch for a smaller
number of poles, and more than full pitch for a larger number
of poles. The same then applies to the rotor or secondary, if
containing a definite winding. The usual and most frequently
employed squirrelcage secondary obviously has no definite
number of poles, and thus is equally adapted to any number of
poles.
As an illustration may be considered a threespeed motor
changing between four, six and eight poles.
Assuming that the primary winding is fullpitch for the six
polar motor, that is, each primary turn covers onesixth of the
motor circumference. Then, for the fourpolar motor, the
primary winding is 2 .j pitch, for the eightpolar motor it is Jj
pilch — which latter is effectively the same as ?g pitch.
Suppose now the primary winding is arranged and connected
as a sixpolar threephase winding. Comparing it with the
tune primary burns, arranged as a fourpolar threephase wind
ing, or eightpolar threephase winding, the turns of each phase
can be grouped in six sections:
Those which remain in the same phase when changing to a
winding for different number of poles.
Those which remain in the same phase, but are reversed when
changing the number of poles.
Those which have to be transferred to the second phase.
Those which have to be transferred to the second phase in the
reverse direction.
Those which have to be transferred to the third phase.
Those wdiich have to be transferred to the third phase in the
reverse direction.
The problem of multispeed motor design (hen is, so to arrange
I he wiiii lings, I hat I he change of connection of the six coil groups
of each phase, in changing from one number of poles to another,
is accomplished with the least number of switches.
SPEED CONTROL 21
16. Considering now the change of motor constants when
changing speed by changing the number of poles. Assuming
that at all speeds, the same primary turns are connected in series,
and are merely grouped differently, it follows, that the self
inductive impedances remain essentially unchanged by a change
of the number of poles from n to n'. That is :
Zn = Z o,
Z\ = Z i.
With the same supply voltage impressed upon the same number
of series turns, the magnetic flux per pole remains unchanged
by the change of the number of poles. The flux density, there
fore, changes proportional to the number of poles:
& n'
B n'
therefore, the ampereturns per pole required for producing the
magnetic flux, also must be proportional to the number of poles:
F' = n'
F n
However, with the same total number of turns, the number of
turns per pole are inverse proportional to the number of poles :
N' n
N n'
In consequence hereof, the exciting currents, at the name
impressed voltage, are proportional to the square of the number
of poles:
t'oo _ n' 2
too n 2 '
and thus the exciting susceptances are proportional to the square
of the number of poles :
b n 2 '
The magnetic flux per pole remains the same, and thiiM the
magneticflux density, and with it the hystereHin Iohh in the
primary core, remain the same, at a change of the number of
poles. The tooth density, however, increases with increasing
number of poles, as the number of teeth, which carry the mimo
flux per pole, decreases inverse proportional to the number of
22 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
poles. Since the tooth densities must be chosen sufficiently low
not to reach saturation at the highest number of poles, ami their
core loss is usually small compared with that in the primary core
itself, it can be assumed approximately, that the core loss of
the motor is the same, at the same impressed voltage, regardless
of the number of poles. This means, that the exciting con
ductance, y, docs not change with the number of poles.
Thus, if in a motor of n poles, we change to n' poles, or by the
ratio
the motor constants change, approximately:
from : to :
Z a = r + jx , Z a = r„ + j'xo.
rjau, Z, = r.+jr,.
Y» = g jb,
Y
 ja''b.
16. However, when changing the number of poles, the pitch
of the winding changes, and allowance has to be made herefore
in the constants: a fractionalpitch winding, due to the partial
neutralization of the turns, obviously has a somewhat higher
exciting admittance, and lower selfinductive impedance, than
a fullpitch winding.
As seen, in a multispeed motor, the motor constants at the
higher Dumber of poles and thus the lower speed, must be
materially interior than at the higher speed, due to the increase
of the exciting susceptance, and the performance of the motor,
and especially its powerfactor and thus the apparent efficiency,
are inferior at the lower speeds.
When retaining series connection of all turns for all speeds,
and using the same impressed voltage, torque in synchronous
watts, and power are essentially the same at all speeds, that is,
are decreased for the lower speed and larger number of poles
only as far as due to the higher exciting admittance. The actual
torque thus would !>e higher for the lower speeds, and approxi
mately inverse proportional to the speed.
As a rule, no more torque is required at low speed than at
high speed, and the usual requirement would be, that the multi
speed motor should carry the same torque at all its running
speeds, that is, give a power proportional to the speed.
This would be accomplished by lowering the impressed voltage
SPEED CONTROL 23
for the larger number of poles, about inverse proportional to the
square root of the number of poles :
since the output is proportional to the square of the voltage.
The same is accomplished by changing connection from multiple
connection at higher speeds to series connection at lower speeds,
or from delta connection at higher speeds, to Y at lower speeds.
If, then, the voltage per turn is chosen so as to make the actual
torque proportional to the synchronous torque at all speeds, that
M^,LTIJ^ElS_
NDUCTION MOTOR
1800 HEV
,
s
' IS
».
*
f,
f
\ll
\
j
f
1
'T
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V
P—
:. i
I
5 2
OS
: :
3
I 1
1
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o ;
It
d e
t 7
o •
iviltispeed induction i
poles.
r, highest speed, four
is, approximately equal, then the magnetic flux per pole and the
density in the primary core decreases with increasing number of
poles, while that in the teeth increases, but less than at constant
impressed voltage.
The change of constants, by changing the number of poles by
the ratio :
thus is:
from:
e 0j Y a , Z„, Zi to e„, aY , aZ a , aZ^
and the characteristic constant is changed from d to a*d.
17. As numerical instance may be considered a 60cycle 100
volt motor, of the constants :
24 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
5 .POLES IS
30 tR ~1~
—
H
POLES 900 .RE
v
1
f
/
3
1
y
<
/
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I
/
/ m
n
/
y
//
T
//
T
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*i
p
10
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p
Sq.5 I
; 2/i ■:; :;
36 4
fiw
/o.S 10 1.5 2
1 II IS E.S«*
Pto, 18.— Load Btirvofof multi
Kiu. 11.— Load curves o( muH
speed inilui'tion motor, middle speed induction motor, Ion speed
■peed, six poles. Wgta poles.
f
Ill
IK
i '
—
~
s,
r
i:
li
r
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ml
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i ===::::; ? C:; ^
mf/7
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o lie x'o as o
n 3
, j
6 E
I
t ■
r. 
(li>
m
S
o.
2. — Comparison of loud turves of threespeed induction
nolor.
SPEED CONTROL
25
Four poles, 1800 rev.:Z = n + jx Q = 0.1 + 0.3 j;
Z x = ri+jxt 0.1 + 0.3j; Y, = g  jb = 0.01  0.05 j.
Six poles, 1200 rev. :Z = U + jx = 0.15 + 0.45 j;
Z x = n + jxi = 0.15 + 0.45 j; Y = g jb = 0.0067  0.0667 j.
Eight poles, 900 rev. : Z„ = r + jx„ = 0.2 + 0.6 j;
Zi = r, + jx, = 0.2 + 0.6 j; Y = g  jb = 0.005  0.1 j.
Figs. 9, 10 and 11 show the load curves of the motor, at the
three different speeds. Fig. 12 shows the load curves once more,
..
[SPEED INDUCTION MOT
,■
1,
\
\
':,;:
\
11(1
1 .
\
**.
inn
"
"*
•*>
1.
f>
\
X
ty^
\
/
y
%
r
y
t
"p,
/
y
\
7
^
s
„
p,
1
t
,c.
iou a» aoo too wo eoo itx soo 9ooioooiu»i2ooi»oiHoicooi«o(inoai8«)
Fig. 13. — Speed torque curves of threespeed induction motor,
with all three motors plotted on the same sheet, but with the
torque in synchronous watts (referred to full speed or four
polar synchronism) as abscissa), to give a better compariFon.
5 denotes the speed, / the current, p the powerfactor and y the
apparent efficiency. Obviously, carrying the same load, that
is, giving the same torque at lower speed, represents less power
output, and in a multispeed motor the maximum power output
should be approximately proportional to the speed, to operate
at all speeds at the same part of the motor characteristic. There
fore, a comparison of the different speed curves by the power
output does not show the performance as well as a comparison
on the basis of torque, as given in Fig. 12.
26 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
As seen from Fig. 12, at the high speed, the motor performance
is excellent, but at the lowest speed, powerfactor and apparent
efficiency are already low, especially at lightload.
The three current curves cross: at the lowest speed, the motor
takes most current at noload, as the exciting current is highest ;
at higher values of torque, obviously the current is greatest at
the highest speed, where the torque represents most power.
The speed regulation is equally good at all speeds.
Fig. 13 then shows the speed curves, with revolutions per
minute as abscissae, for the three numbers of poles. It gives
current, torque and power as ordinates, and shows that the
maximum torque is nearly the same at all three speeds, while
current and power drop off with decrease of speed.
CHAPTER II
MULTIPLE SQUIRRELCAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
18. In an induction motor, a highresistance lowreactance
secondary is produced by the use of an external noninductive
resistance in the secondary, or in a motor with squirrelcage
secondary, by small bars of highresistance material located clow*
to the periphery of the rotor. Such a motor has a great slip of
speed under load, therefore poor efficiency and poor speed regu
lation, but it has a high starting torque and torque at low and
intermediate speed. With a low resistance fairly highreactance
secondary, the slip of speed under load is small, therefore effi
ciency and speed regulation good, but the starting torque arid
torque at low and intermediate speeds is low, and the current
in starting and at low speed is large. To combine good start
ing with good running characteristics, a noninductive resistance
is used in the secondary, which is cut out during acceleration.
This, however, involves a complication, which is undesirable
in many cases, such as in ship propulsion, etc. By arranging
then two squirrel cages, one highresistance lowreactance one,
consisting of highresistance bars clow* to the rotor surface,
and one of lowresistance bars, located deeper in the armature
iron, that is, inside of the first squirrel cage, and thus of higher
reactance, a "double squirrelcage induction motor" in derived,
which to some extent combines the characteristics of the high
resistance and the lowresistance secondary. That is, at start
ing and low speed, the frequency of the magnetic flux in the arma
ture, and therefore the voltage induced in the secondary winding
is high, and the highresistance squirrel cage thus carries con
siderable current, gives good torque and torque efficiency, while
the lowresistance squirrel cage is ineffective, due to its high
reactance at the high armature frequency. At speeds near
synchronism, the secondary frequency, being that of slip, is low,
and the secondary induced voltage correspondingly low. The
highresistance squirrel cage thus carries little current and gives
little torque. In the lowresistance squirrel cage, due to its low
reactance at the low frequency of slip, in spite of the relatively
27
28
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
low induced e.m.f., considerable current is produced, which is
effective in producing torque. Such double squirrel cage induc
tion motor thus gives a torque curve, which to some extent is a
superposition of the torque curve of the highresistance and that
of the lowresistance squirrel cage, has two maxima, one at low
speed, Mid another near synchronism, therefore gives a fairly
good torque and torque efficiency over the entire speed range
from standstill to full speed, that is, combines the good features
of both types. Where a very high starting torque requires
locating the first torque maximum near standstill, and large size
and high efficiency brings the second torque maximum very close
to synchronism, the drop of torque between the two maxima
may be considerable. This is still more the ease, when the motor
is required to reverse at full speed and full power, that is, a very
high torque is required at full speed backward, or at or near
slip s — 2. In this case, a triple squirrel cage may be used, that
is, three squirrel cages inside of each other: the outermost, of
high resistance and low reactance, gives maximum torque below
standstill, at backward rotation; the second squirrel cage, of
medium resistance and medium reactance, gives its maximum
torque at moderate speed; and the innermost squirrel cage, of
low resistance ami high reactance, gives its torque at full speed,
near synchronism.
Mechanically, the rotor iron may be slotted down to the inner
most squirrel cage, so as to avoid the excessive reactance of a
closed magnetic circuit, that is, have the magnetic leakage flux
or selfinductive flux pass an air gap.
19. In the calculation of the standard induction motor, it is
usual to start with the mutual magnetic flux, *, or rather with
the voltage induced by this flux, the mutual inductive voltage
E — e, as it is most convenient, with the mutual inductive
voltage, c, as starting point, to pass to the secondary current by
the selfinductive impedance, to the primary current and primary
impressed voltage by the primary selfinductive impedance and
exciting admittance.
In the calculation of multiple squirrelcage induction motors,
it is preferable to introduce the true induced voltage, that is,
the voltage induced by the resultant magnetic flux interlinked
with the various circuits, which is the resultant of the mutual
and the selfinductive magnetic flux of the respective circuit.
This permits starting with the innermost squirrel cage, and
INDUCTION MOTOR 29
gradually building up to the primary circuit. The advantage
hereof is, that the current in every secondary circuit is in phase
with the true induced voltage of this circuit, and is i x = — »
where ri is the resistance of the circuit. As ei is the voltage
induced by the resultant of the mutual magnetic flux coming
from the primary winding, and the selfinductive flux corre
sponding to the i\X\ of the secondary, the reactance, Xi f does not
enter any more in the equation of the current, and Cj is the
voltage due to the magnetic flux which passes beyond the cir
cuit in which e\ is induced. In the usual inductionmotor theory,
the mutual magnetic flux, <t>, induces a voltage, E } which produces
a current, and this current produces a selfinductive flux, <t>'j,
giving rise to a counter e.m.f. of selfinduction I\X\, which sub
tracts from E. However, the self inductive flux, <t>'i, interlinks
with the same conductors, with which the mutual flux, <t>, inter
links, and the actual or resultant flux interlinkage thus is <t>i =
$ — <t>'i, and this produces the true induced voltage e\ = E —
I\X\ y from which the multiple squirrelcage calculation starts. 1
Double Squirrelcage Induction Motor
20. Let, in a double squirrelcage induction motor:
$2 = true induced vpltage in inner squirrel cage, reduced
to full frequency,
It = current, and
Zi = r 2 + jx 2 = selfinductive impedance at full frequency,
reduced to the primary circuit.
#i = true induced voltage in outer squirrel cage, reduced
to full frequency,
/i = current, and
Z\ = t\ + jxi = selfinductive impedance at full frequency,
reduced to primary circuit.
jj? = voltage induced in secondary and primary circuits by
mutual magnetic flux,
#o = voltage impressed upon primary,
/o = primary current,
Z = r + jx = primary self inductive impedance, and
Yo = g — jb = primary exciting admittance.
*8ee "Electric Circuits", Chapter XII. Reactance of Induction
Apparatus.
30
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The leakage reactance, Xj, of the inner squirrel cage is Hint due
to the flux produced by the current in the inner squirrel cage,
which passes between the two squirrel cages, and does not in
clude the reactance due to the flux resulting from the current,
ft, which passes beyond the outer squirrel cage, as the latter is
mutual reactance between the two squirrel cages, and thus meets
the reactance, Si,
It is then, at slip s:
and:
sE t
•h + li+Yt
(2)
(3)
E, = E t + jx, h (4)
E  E,+jx,Ut + h) (5)
E = E + Z„f„. (6)
The leakage flux of the outer squirrel cage is produced by the
m.tn.f. of the currents of both squirrel cages, /, + ft, and the
reactance voltage of this squirrel cage, in (5), thus is jxt (f t + /»).
As seen, the difference between E, and E t is the voltage in
duced by the flux which leaks between the two squirrel cages, in
the path of the reactance, x?, or the reactance voltage, xtft', the
difference between E and E, is the voltage induced by the rotor
flux leaking outside of the outer squirrel cage. This has the
m.m.f. f i + fi, and the reactance X\, thus is the reactance voltage
xi (fi + /a). The difference between E <, and E is the voltage
consumed by the primary impedance: Zafn (4) and (5) are the
voltages reduced to full frequency; the actual voltages are s
times as high, but since all three terms in these equations are
induced voltages, the s cancels.
21. From the equations (1) to (6) follows:
f .f(i + if)
*l(»^)+*S+;
 ft (»J + JOi),
(7)
(8)
INDUCTION MOTOR 31
where:
(10)
Oi = 1 !
/Xi Xi XjV I
as = * ( H h — 1 I
\ri r a r*/ ;
thus the exciting current :
= Ei (g  >&) (ai + jot)
R(*i+jW, (11)
where:
6i = <*\9 + Oa6' v
and the total primary current is (3) :
'•*£ + £( 1+i ?) + * + *} (13)
= Fl (Ci + JCi),
where:
(12)
ci =  H 1 6i
Ct = — — + bt
(M)
rjr,
and the primary impressed voltage (6) :
Eo = Ei{ai + ja t + (r + jx ) (c, + jc,) }
= & (* + jdi), (15)
where:
di = a\ + roCi — XoC»
d* = a, + r^ + XoCi
hence, absolute:
(16)
C = =*=• (17)
to = e,\/ci* + c,*. (18)
22. The torque of the two squirrel cages is given by the product
of current and induced voltage in phase with it, as:
D t = /£,, /,/'
(19)
«62 2
_ sei 2
<(>+>?)■ «°>
32 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
hence, the total torque:
D = D 2 + D h (21)
and the power output:
P = (1  s) Z>. (22)
(Herefrom subtracts the friction loss, to give the net power
output.)
The power input is:
Po = /#o, Io/'
= e 2 2 (cidi + c 2 d 2 ), (23)
and the voltampere input:
Q = eoio.
P
Herefrom then follows the powerfactor gr * the torque effi
ciency y, , the apparent torque efficiency 7^, the power efficiency
P P
jj and the apparent power efficiency 7^
23. As illustrations arc shown, in Figs. 14 and 15, the speed
curves and the load curves of a double squirrelcage induction
motor, of the constants:
Co = 110 volts;
Zo = 0.1 + 0.3j;
Z, = 0.5 + 0.2 j;
Z 2 = 0.08 + 0.4 j ;
} r o = 0.01  0.1 j;
the speed curves for the range from s = to s = 2, that is, from
synchronism to backward rotation at synchronous speed. The
total torque as well as the two individual torques are shown on
the speed curve. These curves are derived by calculating, for
the values of s:
s = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3,
0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0,
INDUCTION MOTOR
Mill
i
".".'
!
'■ :
DOUBLE SQUIRREL CAGE
INDUCTION MOTOR
SPEED CURVES
?
■\J
■ri
\l
.4JS
AA
140
a
_1
T*
m.
D?"
U
Ds
in
.,„
£i
8 .7 .6 .6.
.1 .2 .3 A .6 .8 .7 .8 .9 1.0
s o/ douhle squirrelcage induct iu
DOUBLE SQUIRREL CAQE
INDUCTION MOTOR
LOAD CURVES
<<
1
i ••'■
i " y~
— ^\J\
/o
'ii
,
h
. A, u J. .
n :
■■ r
g j
■■■ i
o —
Fig. 15.— Load c
s of double squirrel cage induction motoi
34 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the values:
. S 2 X\Xi
a,\ = 1 >
rir 2
lX\ X\ . £ 2 \
a% = *( )»
\r\ r% T\i
b\ = aig + a 2 6,
bi = a^g — a\b,
c i = V + V + b u
c 2 = h btt
rirt
d\ = a\ + r Ci — XoCj,
da = a 2 + roC 2 + XqCi,
. *o*
e 2 * =
and:
di 2 + <V
to = e* Vci 2 + cf,
Z> = Z>! + Z> 2 ,
P = (1  s) D,
Po = e* 1 (cidx + c 2 d 2 ),
Q = eot'oi
P D P D Po
Po'Po'Q'Q' Q*
Triple Squirrelcage Induction Motor
24. Let:
<*> = flux, E = voltage, / = current, and Z = r + jx = self
inductive impedance, at full frequency and reduced to primary
circuit, and let the quantities of the innermost squirrel cage be
denoted by index 3, those of the middle squirrel cage by 2, of
the outer squirrel cage by 1, of the primary circuit by 0, and the
mutual inductive quantities without index.
Also let: Yo = g — jb = primary exciting admittance.
It is then, at slip s:
current in the innermost squirrel cage:
INDUCTION MOTOR
35
current in the middle squirrel cage:
/* — zr>
current in the outer squirrel cage:
* l — 7~>
(2)
(3)
primary current:
/o = U + I* + U + Fo#. (4)
The voltages are related by:
& = #» + J*./., (5)
tf i = #* + jx, (It + /•), (6)
# = #i + J'x, (/, + /, + /,), (7)
#o  # + Zo/o, (8)
where x 3 is the reactance due to the flux leakage between the
third and the second squirrel cage; x% the reactance of the leak
age flux between second and first squirrel cage; X\ the reactance
of the first squirrel cage and x that of the primary circuit, that
is, Xt + xo corresponds to the total leakage flux between primary
and outer most squirrel cage.
# 8 , fit and #i are the true induced voltages in the three squirrel
cages, $ the mutual inductive voltage between primary and
secondary, and $o the primary impressed voltage.
26. From equations (1) to (8) then follows:
^l^{l+J + (l+Jj+J
(9)
(10)
where:
= #3 (ai + ja 2 )i
(ID
 8 2 XzXz
d\ = 1 —  —
r»r 3
(x% .
«*=*( +
X2 , xi\
r 3 r 3 /
(12)
3
/, =  #, (O, + jttj),
(13)
36
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
.SXi
E = E s \ ai + jai + r:' («. + jo*) + 3 ^ (l + 3 ?) + 3 ?
= ^ 3 (6i+j6 2 ), (14)
where :
ri r 2 r 8 / J
hi = aj —
SXifl2 S #1X3
ri
r 2 r 3
fi r 2 r 8
thus the exciting current:
/oo = * ov
= #3 (&i + j6«) (g  jfc)
= # 3 (Cj +JC 2 ),
where:
C\ = feigr + 6 2 6,
c 2 = 6 2 g — 616,
and the total primary current, by (4) :
/o = #3
8 (ai+ja 2 )+^(l+; S f 3 )+J+ Cl +jc,
r 2 \ T3 / r 8
where :
di = ai H 1 h Ci
ri r 2 r 3
, s s 2 x s .
a 2 =  a 2 + ■ — t f2
n r 2 r 3
Zo/o = #3 (di + jrf 2 ) (r + ix )
= # 3 (/, +# 2 ),
where :
/j = r di — Xo^2
/ 2 = f(K* 2 T" Xo«l
thus, the primary impressed voltage, by (8) :
where:
#o = #3 (6i + jbt + /i + jf«)
= ^3 (j/i + jg 2 ),
(/j = 6i + /i
(Jz = b 2 + / 2
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
INDUCTION MOTOR 37
hence, absolute:
Vgi + gS
U = ez Vrfi 8 + _dS, (25)
e* =e 3y Jl+ ***?> (26)
e, = e 3 Va, 2 + a** (27)
26. The torque of the innermost squirrel cage thus is :
D, = *?; (28)
that of the middle squirrel cage :
z> 2 = * ea2 ; (29)
r 2
and that of the outer squirrel cage:
0, = s  '*; (30)
the total torque of the triple squirrelcage motor thus is:
D = D, + D 2 + D 3 , (31)
and the power:
P = (1  s) Z>, (32)
the power input is :
P Q = /#o, /o/'
= <?3 2 (dtfi + rf 2 </ 2 ), (33)
and the voltampere input :
Q = «oio. (34)
p
Herefrom then follows the powerfactor ~ » the torque effi
ciency d", apparent torque efficiency y^ power efficiency 5
*o v * o
p
and apparent power efficiency ^y
27. As illustrations are shown, in Figs. 16 and 17, the speed
and the load curves of a triple squirrelcage motor with the
constants:
e = 110 volts;
Z = 0.1 +0.3j;
Z, = 0.8 + 0.1 j;
Z 2 = 0.2 + 0.3 j;
Z 3 = 0.05 + 0.8 j;
I'o = 0.01  0.1 j;
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
ri
it
T
1IPLE StJUl
REL CAGE
1
M
SPEED CURVES
B~
¥
i
r
___
1
m
D,
>
£
3.0
m
SB
—

N
^
S,
„.
60
JL
, r
I'l
.
D,
H f «»
Fit
. i
. — Speed curves of triple si]iiirre](.':igi> induction mo
\
\
TRIPLE sguiRREL OAQE
INDUCTION MOTOR
LOAD CURVES
*
\
"n
s
_ ,UXL
H«.
\
^
^
N
/
/
•"
/
^>
_L

/o
/"
A
V
•
%
'
T
/
i.
i
1
1
!
J.
Fio. 17. — Load curves of triple squirrelcape induction motor.
INDUCTION MOTOR
39
the speed curves are shown from « = to « = 2, and on them,
the individual torques of the three squirrel cages are shown in
addition to the total torque.
These numerical values are derived by calculating, for the
values of *:
s = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.20, 0.30,
0.40, 0.60, 0.80, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 20,
the values:
ai  1 
8*XiXz
rtfz
/Xt . Xi . Xi\
8Xidi 8 2 X\Xt
6l = Ol 
n r 2 r 9
hx\d\ , sxi
8X\
. 8XiG\ . SXi . 8X\
bt = «i H h H i
r\ r 2 r s
c\ — big + 626,
ci = btg + bib,
dx =  +  +  + c,
r\ r 2 rz
j *a 2 * 2 x«
£
n
+  + c i}
TiTz rz
/1 = rodi — Xodj,
/ 2 = rodt + Xodi,
9\ = bi + /1,
gi = b t + ft,
e 8 * =
«3,
<V
gS + g* 2
to = e z y/d x 2 + dsS
** = " 2 ( x + v 1 )
ei* = ez 2 (a x 2 + a. 2 ),
Z>» =
Z>, =
S6 8 
rz
r 2
n  8€l
D = !>! + D 2 + /) 3 ,
P = (1  s) D,
Pa = ez 2 (rfififi + d 2 2 ),
Q = <?o* 0,
and
P D P D P
PV'Pl'Q'Q'Q'
(■HAI'TKH III
CONCATENATION
Cascade or Tandem Control of Induction Motors
28. If of two induction motors the secondary of the first motor
is connected to the primary of the second motor, the second
machine operates as a motor with the voltage and frequency
impressed upon it by the secondary of the first machine. The
first machine acts as general alternatingcurrent transformer
or frequency converter (see Chapter XII), changing^ part of the
primary impressed power into secondary electrical power for
the supply of the second machine, and a part into mechanical
work.
The frequency of the secondary voltage of the first motor, and
thus the frequency impressed upon the second motor, is the fre
quency of slip below synchronism, s. The frequency of the
secondary of the second motor is the difference between its im
pressed frequency, t, and its speed. Thus, if both motors are
connected together mechanically, to turn at the same speed,
1 — s, and have the same number of poles, the secondary fre
quency of the second motor is 2h — 1, hence equal to zero at,
* = u. 5, Thai is, the second motor reaches its synchronism at
half speed. At this speed, its torque becomes zero, the power
component of its primary current, ami thus the power bobi
poncnl of the secondary current of the first motor, and thus also
the torque of the first motor becomes zero. That is, a system of
two concatenated equal motors, with shortcircuited secninbuy
of the second motor, approaches half synchronism at noload,
in the same manner as a single induction motor approaches
synchronism. With increasing load, the slip below half syn
chronism increases.
In reality, at half synchronism, s = 0.5, there is a slight torque
produced by the first motor, as the hysteresis energy current of
the second motor comes from the secondary of the first motor,
and therein, as energy current, produces a small torque.
More generally, any pair of induction motors connected in
concatenation divides the speed so that the sum of their two
. CONCATENATION 41
respective speeds approaches synchronism at noload; or, still
more generally, any number of concatenated induction motors
run at such speeds that the sum of their speeds approaches
synchronism at noload.
With mechanical connection between the two motors, con
catenation thus offers a means of operating two equal motors at
full efficiency at half speed in tandem, as well as at full speed,
in parallel, and thereby gives the same advantage as does series
parallel control with directcurrent motors.
With two motors of different number of poles, rigidly con
nected together, concatenation allows three speeds: that of the
one motor alone, that of the other motor alone, and the speed of
concatenation of both motors. Such concatenation of two motors
of different numbers of poles, has the disadvantage that at the
two highest speeds only one motor is used, the other idle, and the
apparatus economy thus inferior. However, with certain ratios
of the number of poles, it is possible to wind one and the same
motor structure so as to give at the same time two different
numbers of poles: For instance, a fourpolar and an eight
polar winding; and in this case, one and the same motor struc
ture can be used either as fourpolar motor, with the one winding,
or as eightpolar motor, with the other winding, or in concatena
tion of the two windings, corresponding to a twelvepolar speed.
Such "internally concatenated" motors thus give three different
speeds at full apparatus economy. The only limitation is, that
only certain speeds and speed ratios can economically be produced
by internal concatenation.
29. At half synchronism, the torque of the concatenated couple
of two equal motors becomes zero. Above half synchronism,
the second motor runs beyond its impressed frequency, that is,
becomes a generator. In this case, due to the reversal of current
in the secondary of the first motor (this current now being out
flowing or generator current with regards to the second motor)
its torque becomes negative also, that is, the concatenated couple
becomes an induction generator above half synchronism. When
approaching full synchronism, the generator torque of the second
motor, at least if its armature is of low resistance, becomes very
small, as this machine is operating very far above its synchronous
speed. With regards to the first motor, it thus begins to act
merely as an impedance in the secondary circuit, that is, the first
machine becomes a motor again. Thus, somewhere between
42
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
half synchronism and synchronism, the torque of the first motor
becomes zero, while the second motor still has a small negative or
generator torque. A little above this speed, the torque of the
concatenated couple becomes zero— about at twothirds syn
chronism with a couple of lowresistance motors — and above
this, the concatenated couple again gives a positive or motor
torque — though the second motor still returns a small negative
torque — and again approaches zero at full synchronism. Above
full synchronism, the concatenated couple once more becomes
generator, but practically only the first motor contributes to the
generator torque al>ove and the motor torque below full syn
chronism. Thus, while a concatenated couple of induction
motors has two operative motor speeds, half synchronism and
full synchronism, the latter is uneconomical, as the second motor
holds back, and in the second or full synchronism speed range, it
is more economical to cut out the second motor altogether, by
shortcircuiting the secondary terminals of the first motor.
With resistance in the secondary of the second motor, the
maximum torque point of the second motor above half syn
chronism is shifted to higher speeds, nearer to full synchronism,
and thus the speed between half and full synchronism, at which
the concatenated couple loses its generator torque and again
becomes motor, is shifted closer to full synchronism, and the
motor torque in the second speed range, below full synchronism,
is greatly reduced or even disappears. That is, with high resist
ance in the secondary of the second motor, the concatenated
couple becomes generator or brake at half synchronism, and
remains so at all higher speeds, merely loses its braking torque
when approaching full synchronism, ami regaining it again beyond
full synchronism.
The speed torque curves of the concatenated couple, shown in
Fig. 18, with lowresistance armature, and in Fig. 19, with high
resistance in the armature or secondary of the second motor,
illustrate this.
30. The numerical calculation of a couple of concatenated
induction motors (rigidly connected together on the same shaft
or the equivalent) can be carried out as follows:
Let:
= number of pairs of poles of the first motor,
= tiiiuiljer of pairs of poles of the second motor,
CONCATENATION 43
; a = — = ratio of poles, (1)
m f = supply frequency.
Full synchronous speed of the first motor then is:
Se = £ (2)
of the second motor:
5'.  £ (3)
At slip 9 and thus speed ratio (1 — s) of the first motor, its
speed is:
S (1«)S  U«)£ (4)
and the frequency of its secondary circuit, and thus the frequency
of the primary circuit of the second motor:
*/;
synchronous speed of the second motor at this frequency is:
sS'o = s *,;
n
the speed of the second motor, however, is the same as that of
the first motor, S,
hence, the slip of speed of the second motor below its synchronous
speed, is:
.Z_ (1 _.)/.(«,.L=i) /f
n n \n n /
and the slip of frequency thus is:
s' = 8 (1 + a)  a. (5)
This slip of the second motor, «', becomes zero, that is, the
couple reaches the synchronism of concatenation, for:
« = ^ (6)
44 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The speed in this case is:
So = (1  so) I (7)
n(l+«)
31. If:
a = 1,
that is, two equal motors, as for instance two fourpolar motors
n = W = 4,
it is:
while at full synchronism :
If:
it is:
so
=
0.5,
i •
So
=
/
2 71
4
sm:
So
=
n
i
a
— s
2,
n
—
4,
n'
=
8,
So
=
2
r
So
=
/
3n
f
that is, corresponding to a twelvepolar motor.
While:
if:
it is:
So
=
n
i
a
=
0.5,
n
=
8,
n'
=
4,
So
5L o
=
1
3'
/
f
1.5n 12
CONCATENATION 45
that is, corresponding to a twelvepolar motor again. That is,
as regards to the speed of the concatenated couple, it is immaterial
in which order the two motors are concatenated.
32. It is then, in a concatenated motor couple of pole ratio:
ri
a =  >
n
if:
* = slip of first motor below full synchronism.
The primary circuit of the first motor is of full frequency.
The secondary circuit of the first motor is of frequency s.
The primary circuit of the second motor is of frequency «.
The secondary circuit of the second motor is of frequency s' =
* (1 + a) — a.
Synchronism of concatenation is reached at:
a
1 + a
Let thus:
eo = voltage impressed of first motor primary;
Yo = g — jb = exciting admittance of first motor;
Y'o = g* — jb' = exciting admittance of second motor;
Zo = ro + jxo = selfinductive impedance of first motor
primary;
Z'o = r'o + jx'o = selfinductive impedance of second motor
primary;
Z\ = T\ + jxi = selfinductive impedance of first motor second
ary;
Z\ = r'i + jx\ = selfinductive impedance of second motor
secondary.
Assuming all these quantities reduced to the same number of
turns per circuit, and to full frequency, as usual.
If:
e = counter e.m.f . generated in the second motor by its mutual
magnetic flux, reduced to full frequency.
It is then:
secondary current of second motor:
r/ _ *'* [« (1 + a)  a] e
1 * "" PT+ fix>\  ?;+j\MV+ a)  a] x\ = e(fll " Ja '^ (8)
46
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
where:
Ol =
a» =
r'x [s (1 + o)  a]
m
x', [«.(1 + a)  a]*
to
m  r',« + *V (« (1 + a)  a)*;
exciting current of second motor:
/' 00  eY' = e (g'  jb'),
(9)
(10)
(ID
hence, primary current of second motor, and also secondary
current of first motor:
where:
/o s /i = /] + /' 00
= e (bi  j6a)>
bi = a x + g',
bt = a* + 6',
(12)
(13)
the impedance of the circuit comprising the primary of the
second, and the secondary of the first motor, is:
Z = Z/ + ZV  (n + r' ) + js (*, + x' ),
(14)
hence, the counter e.m.f., or induced voltage in the secondary
of the first motor, of frequency is:
s$i = se + IiZ,
hence, reduced to full frequency :
where:
C  1 +
*!« + —
= e (ci + jc 2 ),
ri + r 6i + (x 1 + x / )6 a
(15)
8
c% = (xj + x'o) 6i 
ri + r'
8
bt
(16)
33. The primary exciting current of the first motor is:
loo = $]Y
= e (di  jd 2 ),
where:
di = C\Q + c»6
dt = C!& — Cjj/
(17)
(18)
CONCATENATION 47
thus, the total primary current of the first motor, or supply
current:
/o = /i + /oo
«(fiifi), (19)
where:
/i = 61 + di
ft  62 + d 2
(20;
and the primary impressed voltage of the first motor, or supply
voltage:
$0 = Fi + £0/0
«(0i+J0t), (21)
where:
and, absolute:
thus:
0i = Ci + ro/i + X0/2 i
02 = Ci + X0/1 — r / 2>
(22)
eo  e VST+'fifi*. (23)
e = 77^Y Y (24)
Vgi 2 + 02*
Substituting now this value of e in the preceding, gives the
values of the currents and voltages in the different circuits.
34. It thus is, supply current :
to  e VP~+'f2 2 = e J fl l * h ]\
power input:
Po = /#o, /V'
= e 2 (fig 1  / 2 2 )
01 2 + 02 2
voltampere input:
Q = Wo,
and herefrom powerfactor, etc.
The torque of the second motor is :
r « /«,/,/'
The torque of the first motor is :
7\ = /#„ /o/'
= C 2 (C1/1  C2/2),
48 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
hence, the total torque of the concatenated couple:
T = f + Ti  e= (oj + d/.  c/i),
and herefrom the power output:
J 3  (1 %) T,
thus the torque and power efficiencies and apparent efficiencies,
etc.
35. As instances are calculated, and shown in Fig. 18, the speed

MINI
„„,
£
,
..
*
^£>f
^4 i
L
jjdro_
..„'
1
,
■■
1/
*
k
u"
E
»
«
M
T
r
^
,»
\
1
s
,(.
\
g
»>.<*■
~c
»
Wl
Fig
tor
a =
I
anc
I
n at
thL
niL
18.— Sp
iue cur
l,oftr
Y
Zo
Zl
i B . 18 a
the su
ig. 19 a
'd eouj
second
Tw loat
ning, a
(Wit torque curves of concalenHted couple with low resist
secondary.
es of the concatenated couple of two equal mot
econstants:co = IlOvolts.
 Y'  0.01  0.1 j;
 Z',  0.1+ 0.3 j;
= Z', = 0.1 + 0.3.).
ao shows, separately, the torque of the second mc
j pi j r current.
jowa the Bpeed torque curves of the  e oofii
!e with an additional resistance r = 0.5 inserted
iry of the second motor.
curves of the same motor, Fig. 18, for concaten
id also separately 1 he load curves of either mc
ors:
tor,
ate
nto
ted
tor,
CONCA TEN A TION 49
are given on page 358 of "Theoretical Elements of Electrical
Engineering."
36. It is possible in concatenation of two motors of different
number of poles, to use one and the same magnetic structure for
both motors. Suppose the stator is wound with an npolar
primary, receiving the supply voltage, and at the same time with
an n' polar shortcircuited secondary winding. The rotor is
wound with an npolar winding as secondary to the npolar
primary winding, but this npolar secondary winding is not
shortcircuited, but connected to the terminals of a second
&«
"■'
..„
*■
.„
o.i]
s
i ;
\
N\
_j
<£
.««.
,
• «
* »
3 «!l
i •.
n'polar winding, also located on the rotor. This latter thus
receives the secondary current from the npolar winding and
acts as n'polar primary to the shortcircuited stator winding as
secondary. This gives an npolar motor concatenated to an
n'polar, and the magnetic structure simultaneously carries an
npolar and an n'polar magnetic field. With this arrangement
of "internal concatenation," it is essential to choose the number
of poles, n and n', so that the two rotating fields do not interfere
with each other, that is, the n'polar field does not induce in the
npolar winding, nor the npolar field in the n'polar winding.
This is the case if the one field has twice as many poles as the
other, for instance a fourpolar and an eight polar field,
If such a fractionalpitch winding is used, that the coil pitch
is suited for an npolar as well as an n'polar winding, then the
same winding can be used for both sets of poles. In the stator,
the e qui potential points of a 2 ppolar winding are points of
opposite polarity of a ppolar winding, and thus, by connecting
together the equipotential points of a 2 ppolar primary winding,
50
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
this winding becomes at the same time a npolar shortcircuited
winding. On the rotor, in some slots, the secondary current of
the npolar and the primary current of the n'polar winding flow
in the 3ame direction, in other Blots flow in opposite direction,
thus neutralize in the latter, and the turns can be omitted in
concatenation — but would be put in for use of the structure as
single motor of n, or of »' poles, where such is desired. Thus,
on the rotor one single winding also is sufficient, and this arrange
ment of internal concatenation with single stator and single rotor
winding thus is more efficient than the use of two separate motors,
and gives somewhat better constants, as the selfinduclive im
pedance of the rotor is less, due to the omission of onethird. of
the turns in which the currents neutralize (Hunt motor).
The disadvantage of this arrangement of interna) concatenation
with single stator and rotor winding is the limitation of the avail
able speeds, as it is adapted only to 4 r 8 + 12 poles and
multiples thereof, thus to speed ratios of I + % + \i, the last
being the concatenated speed.
Such internally concatenated motors may be used advantage
ously sometime as constant speed motors, that is, always run
ning in concatenation, for very slowspeed motors of very large
number of poles.
37. Theoretically, any numl>er of motors may be concatenated.
It is rarely economical, however, to go beyond two motors in
concatenation, as with the increasing number of motors, the
constants of the concatenated system rapidly become poorer.
If:
Y %  9 ~ A
Zo = r + jx a ,
Zi « Tx + 3*u
are the constants of a motor, and we denote:
Z = Z„ + Z, = (r + ri) + j (x n + x,)
= r + jx
then the characteristic constant of this motor — which char
acterizes its performance — is :
(J = yz;
if now two such motors are concatenated, the exciting admittance
of the concatenated couple is (approximately):
1" = 2 >\
CONCATENATION 51
as the first motor carries the exciting current of the second
motor.
The total selfinductive impedance of the couple is that of
both motors in series:
Z' = 2 Z;
thus the characteristic constant of the concatenated couple is:
#' = y'z'
= 40,
that is, four times as high as in a single motor; in other words,
the performance characteristics, as powerfactor, etc., are very
much inferior to those of a single motor.
With three motors in concatenation, the constants of the
system of three motors are:
Y" = 3 7,
Z" = 3 Z,
thus the characteristic constant :
0" = y"z"
= 9yz
= 9 0,
or nine times higher than in a single motor. In other words,
the characteristic constant increases with the square of the
number of motors in concatenation, and thus concatenation
of more than two motors would be permissible only with motors
of very good constants.
The calculation of a concatenated system of three or more
motors is carried out in the same manner as that of two motors,
by starting with the secondary circuit of the last motor, and
building up toward the primary circuit of the first motor.
CHAPTER IV
INDUCTION MOTOR WITH SECONDARY EXCITATION
38. While in the typical synchronous machine and eommu
tating machine the magnetic field is excited by a direct current,
characteristic of the induction machine is, that the magnetic
field is excited by an alternating current derived from the alter
nating supply voltage, just as in the alternatingcurrent trans
former. As the alternating magnetizing current is a wattless
reactive current, the result is, that the alternatingcurrent input
into the induction motor is always lagging, the more so, the
larger a part of the total current is given by the magnetizing
current. To secure good powerfactor in an induction motor,
the magnetizing current, that i«, the current which produces
the magnetic field flux, must be kept as small as possible. This
means as small an air gap between stator and rotor as mechanic
ally permissible, and as large a number of primary turns per pole,
that is, as large a pole pitch, as economically permissible.
In motors, in which the speed — compared to the motor out
put—is not too low, good constants can be secured. This,
however, is not possible in motors, in which the speed is very
low, that is, the number of poles large compared with the out
put, and the pole pitch thus must for economical reasons be kept
small — as for instance a 100hp. 60cycle motor for 90 revolu
tions, that is, 80 poles— or where the requirement of an exutMrVV
momentary overload capacity has to be met, etc. In such motors
of necessity the exciting current or current at noload — which
is practically all magnetizing current — is a very large part of
fullload current, and while fair efficiencies may nevertheless be
secured, powerfactor and apparent efficiency necessarily are
very low.
As illustration is shown in Fig. 20 the load curve of a typical
100hp. 60cycle 80polar induction motor (90 revolutions per
minute) of the constants:
Impressed voltage: e a = 500.
Primary exciting admittance: Y a = 0.02 — 0.6 j.
Primary selfinductive impedance: Zu = 0.1 + 0.3j.
Secondary selfinductive impedance: Zi = 0.1 + 0.3 j.
INDUCTION MOTOR
53
As seen, at fullload of 75 kw. output,
the efficiency is 80 per cent., which is fair for a slowspeed motor.
But the powerfactor is 55 per cent., the apparent efficiency
only 44 per cent., and the exciting current is 75 per cent, of full
load current.
This motorload curve may be compared with that of a typical
induction motor, of exciting admittance:
Y = 0.01 O.lj,
given on page 234 of "Theory and Calculation of Alternating
current Phenomena" 5th edition, and page 319 of "Theoretical

LOW 8PEE0 1
1DUCTI0N MOTOR
l\
'i*i
Y..02.SJ Z,.l+.3j
'I.
1
— i
m
v.
/
:>
350
J
>
PS
j
/
1
i
1
1
i
1 I
1
1
1
Fio. 20. — Lowepecd induction motor, load c
: the
Elements of Electrical Engineering," 4th edition,
difference.
39. In the synchronous machine usually the stator, in com
mutating machines the rotor is the armature, that is, the element
to which electrical power is supplied, and in which electrical
power is converted into the mechanical power output of the
motor. The rotor of the typical synchronous machine, and the
stator of the com mutating machine are the held, that is, in
them no electric power is consumed by conversion into mechanical
work, but their purpose is to produce the magnetic field flux,
through which the armature rotates.
In the induction machine, it is usually the stator, which is the
54
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
primary, that is, which receives electric power and converts it
into mechanical power, and the primary or stator of the induc
tion machine thus corresponds to the armature of the synchro
nous or commutating machine. In the secondary or rotor of the
induction machine, lowfrequency currents — of the frequency
of slip — are induced by the primary, but the magnetic field flux
is produced by the exciting current which traverses the primary
or armature or stator. Thus the induction machine may be
considered as a machine in which the magnetic field is produced
by the armature reaction, and corresponds to a synchronous
machine, in which the field coils are shortcircuited and the
field produced by armature reaction by lagging currents in the
armature.
As the rotor or secondary of the induction machine corresponds
structurally to the field of the synchronous or commutating
machine, field excitation thus can be given to the induction
machine by passing a current through the rotor or secondary and
thereby more or less relieving the primary of its function of giv
ing the field excitation.
Thus in a slowspeed induction motor, of very high exciting
current and correspondingly poor constants, by passing an
exciting current of suitable value through the rotor or secondary,
the primary can be made noninductive, or even leading current
produced, or — with a lesaer exciting current in the rotor — at
least the powerfactor increased.
Various such methods of secondary excitation have been pro
posed, and to some extent used.
1. Passing a direct current through the rotor for excitation.
In this case, as the frequency of the secondary currents is the
frequency of slip, with a direct current, the frequency is zero,
that is, the motor becomes a synchronous motor.
2. Excitation through commutator, by the alternating supply
current, either in shunt or in series to the armature.
At the supply frequency,/, and slip, s, the frequency of rotation
and thus of commutation is (I — s) /, and the full frequency cur
rents supplied to the commutator thus give in the rotor the
effective frequency,/ — (1 — s) / = sf, that is, the frequency of
slip, thus are suitable as exciting currents.
3. Concatenation with a synchronous motor.
If a lowfrequency synchronous machine is mounted on the
inductionmotor shaft, and its armature connected into the indue
INDUCTION MOTOR
55
tioninotor secondary, the synchronous machine feeds lowfre
quency exciting currents into the induction machine, and thereby
permits controlling it by using suitable voltage and phase.
If the induction machine has n times as many poles as the
synchronous machine, the frequency of rotation of the synchro
nous machine is thai of the induction machine, or How
n n
ever, the frequency generated by the synchronous machine must
be the frequency of the inductionmachine secondary currents,
that is, the frequency of slip s.
Hence;
1 8
or: 1
* JT+T
that is, the concatenated couple its synchronous, that is, runs at
constant speed at all loads, but not at synchronous speed, but at
constant slip — ■r^r
4. Concatenation with a lowfrequency commutating machine.
If a commutating machine is mounted on the inductionmotor
shaft, and connected in series into the inductionmotor secondary,
the commutating machine generates an alternating voltage of the
frequency of the currents which excite its field, and if the field
is excited in scries or shunt with the armature, in the circuit of
the induction machine secondary, it generates voltage at the
frequency of slip, whatever the latter may be. That is, the
induction motor remains asynchronous, increases in slip with
increase of load.
5. Excitation by a condenser in the secondary circuit of the
induction motor.
As the magnetizing current required by the induction motor is
a reactive, that is, wattless lagging current, it does not require a
generator for its production, but any apparatus consuming lead
ing, that is, generating lagging currents, such as a condenser, can
be used to supply the magnetizing current.
40, However, condenser, or synchronous or commutating
machine, etc., in the secondary of the induction motor do not
merely give the magnetizing current and thereby permit power
factor control, but they may, depending on their design or appli
cation, change the characteristics of the induction machine, as
regards to speed and speed regulation, the capacity, etc.
56 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
If by synchronous or com mutating machine a voltage is
inserted into the secondary of the induction machine, this vol
tage may be constant, or varied with the speed, the load, the slip,
etc., and thereby give various motor characteristics. Further
more, such voltage may be inserted at any phase relation from
zero to 300°. If this voltage is inserted 90° behind the secondary
current, it makes this current leading or magnetizing and so in
creases the powerfactor. If, however, the voltage is inserted
in phase with the secondary induced voltage of the induction
machine, it has no effect on (he powerfactor, but merely lowers
the speed of the motor if in phase, raises it if in opposition to the
secondary induced voltage of the induction machine, and hereby
permits speed control, if derived from a commutating machine.
For instance, by a voltage in phase with and proportional to the
secondary current, the drop of speed of the motor can be increased
and seriesmotor characteristics secured, in the same manner as
by the insertion of resistance in the inductionmotor secondary.
The difference however is, that resistance in the induct ion motor
secondary reduces the efficiency in the same proportion as it
lowers the speed, and thus is inefficient for speed control. The
insertion of an e.m.f., however, while lowering the speed, docs
not lower the efficiency, as the power corresponding to the lowered
speed is taken up by the inserted voltage and returned as output
of the synchronous or commutating machine. Or, by inserting a
voltage proportional to the load and in opposition to the induced
secondary voltage, the motor speed can be maintained constant,
or increased with the load, etc.
If then a voltage is inserted by a commutating machine in the
inductionmotor secondary, which is displaced in phase by angle
a from the secondary induced voltage, a component of this vol
tage: sin a, acts magnetizing or demagnetizing, the other com
ponent: cos a, acts increasing or decreasing the speed, and thus
various efferts can be produced.
As the current consumed by a condenser is proportional to the
frequency, while that passing through an inductive reactance is
inverse proportional to the frequency, when using a condenser
in the secondary circuit of the induction motor, its effective im
pedance at the varying frequency of slip is:
Z,' = n+j («i 7)'
where x t is the capacity reactance at full frequency.
INDUCTION MOTOR 57
For s — 0, Zj* = o° , that is, the motor has no power at or near
synchronism.
For:
8Xi = 0,
o
or
it is:
Zf = r h
and the current taken by the motor is a maximum. The power
output thus is a maximum not when approaching synchronism,
as in the typical induction motor, but at a speed depending on the
slip,
So
hi
and by varying the capacity reactance, x 2 , various values of reson
ance slip, So, thus can be produced, and thereby speed control of
the motor secured. However, for most purposes, this is uneco
nomical, due to the very large values of capacity required.
Induction Motor Converted to Synchronous
41. If, when an induction motor has reached full speed, a direct
current is sent through its secondary circuit, unless heavily
loaded and of high secondary resistance and thus great slip, it
drops into synchronism and runs as synchronous motor.
The starting operations of such an induction motor in conver
sion to synchronous motor thus are (Fig. 21) :
First step: secondary closed through resistance: A.
Second step: resistance partly cut out: B.
Third step: resistance all cut out: C.
Fourth step: direct current passed through the secondary : D.
In this case, for the last or synchronousmotor step, usually
the directcurrent supply will be connected between one phase
and the other two phases, the latter remaining shortcircuited
to each other, as shown in Fig. 21, D. This arrangement retains
a shortcircuit in the rotor — now the field — in quadrature with
the excitation, which acts as damper against hunting (Danielson
motor).
58
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
In the synchronous motor, Fig. 21, D, produced from the induc
tion motor, Fig. 21, C, it is:
Let:
l'"» = 8 — jk = primiiry exciting admittance
of the induction machine,
Z = r« f jxn = primary selfinductive impe
dance,
Z\ = t\ + jxt = secondary selfinductive im
pedance.
Fio. 21. — Sturtiiig of induction motor and
synchronous.
The secondary resistance, r,, is that of t lie field exciting winding,
thus does not further come into consideration in calculating the
motor curves, except in the efficiency, as iV is the loss of power
in the field, if i\ = field exciting current. Xl is of little further
importance, as the frequency is zero. It represents t he magnetic
leakage between the synchronous motor poles.
r is the armature resistance and x a the armature selfinductive
reactance of the synchronous machine.
However, x is net the synchronous impedance, which enters
the equation of the synchronous machine, but is only the self
inductive part of il, or the true armature selfinduct ancc. The
IXDTCTIOX MOTQSt
mutual inductive part of the synchronous hapedance. or Ik*
effective reactance of anaatare reaction x\ is not contained in x*.
The effective reactance of anaaxure reaction of the synchro
nous machine, x* f represents the field excitaiiou consumed by the
armature m.m.f., and is the voltage corresponding to this field
excitation, divided bj the armature current which consumes this
field excitation.
6, the exciting snsoeptance, is the magnetizing armature
current, divided bj the voltage induced by it, thus, x\ the effect
ive reactance of synchronousmotor armature reaction, is the
reciprocal of the exciting acceptance of the induction machine.
The total or synchronous reactance of the induction machine
as synchronous motor thus is:
*  x« + x'
.1
= x. + r
The exciting conductance, g, represents the loss by hysteresis,
etc., in the iron of the machine. As synchronous machine, this
loss is supplied by the mechanical power, and not electrically,
and the hysteresis loss in the induction machine as synchronous
motor thus is: e*g.
We thus have:
The induction motor of the constants, per phase:
Exciting admittance: 7 = g — jb,
Primary selfinductive impedance: Z ■= r + jx<>,
Secondary selfinductive impedance: Z x = r\ + jxi,
by passing direct current through the secondary or rotor, be
comes a synchronous motor of the constants, per phase:
Armature resistance: r ,
Synchronous impedance: x = Xo + r* (1)
Total power consumed in field excitation :
P = 2 t»r„ (2)
where i = field exciting current.
Power consumed by hysteresis:
P  e*g. (3)
it is then:
or:
60 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
42. Let, in a synchronous motor:
E = impressed voltage,
E = counter e.m.f., or nominal induced
voltage,
Z — r + jx = synchronous impedance,
/ = i\ — 3H = current,
#o = $ + ZJ
= # + (n'i + xi 2 ) + j (xt\  n 2 ), (4)
$ = $q — Zf
= #o  (n'i + xz 2 ) ~ j (xii  ri 2 ), (5)
or, reduced to absolute values, and choosing:
g = e = r eal axis in equation (4),
$o = e = real axis in equation (5),
eo 2 = (e + ri\ + xU) 2 + (xii — ri 2 ) 2 [e = real axis], (6)
02 = (^o — rii + xi 2 ) 2 + (xii — ri> 2 ) 2 [e = real axis]. (7)
Equations (6) and (7) are the two forms of the fundamental
equation of the synchronous motor, in the form most convenient
for the calculation of load and speed curves.
In (7), i\ is the energy component, and i 2 the reactive com
ponent of the current with respect to the impressed voltage, but
not with respect to the induced voltage; in (6), t\ is the energy
component and i 2 the reactive component of the current with
respect to the induced voltage, but not with respect to the
impressed voltage.
The condition of motor operation at unity powerfactor is:
i 2 = in equation (7).
Thus:
e 2 = (6o ~ rtf + xW (8)
at noload, for i\ = 0, this gives: e = eo, as was to be expected
Equation (8) gives the variation of the induced voltage and
thus of the field excitation, required to maintain unity power
factor at all loads, that is, currents, i x .
From (8) follows:
re ± \/z 2 e 2 — xV , n x
'* =   o  • W
z l
INDUCTION MOTOR 61
Thus, the minimum possible value of the counter e.m.f., e,
is given by equating the square root to zero, as:
x
e =  e<>.
z
For a given value of the counter e.m.f., e, that is, constant
field excitation, it is, from (7) :
xe , /e* 7. re \* , .
or, if the synchronous impedance, x, is very large compared with
r, and thus, approximately :
z = x:
ii = e i ± 4i ~ ^ (11)
The maximum value, which the energy current, t'i, can have,
at a given counter e.m.f., e, is given by equating the square root
to zero, as:
t, =  (12)
For: ij = 0, or at noload, it is, by (11):
eo ± e
ti = ___.
Equations (9) and (12) give two values of the currents i\
and *2, of which one is very large, corresponds to the upper or
unstable part of the synchronous motorpower characteristics
shown on page 325 of "Theory and Calculation of Alternating
current Phenomena," 5th edition.
43. Denoting, in equation (5) :
V = «'  je", (13)
and again choosing J5? = eo, as the real axis, (5) becomes:
e f — je" = («o — rii — xi 2 )  j (xii  n 2 ), (14)
and the electric power input into the motor then is :
Po = /#o, //'
= eoiu (15)
the power output at the armature conductor is :
= jttij+e'tt,
62 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
hence by (14):
" Pi = U (e — ri\ — xi 2 ) + it (xi t — n 2 ), (16)
expanded, this gives:
Pi = cot'i  r (tV + it 2 )
= Po  n 2 , (17)
where: i = total current. That is, the power out
put at the armature conductors is the power input minus the
t*r loss.
The current in the field is:
to  eb, (18)
hence, the i 2 r loss in the field; of resistance, ri.
iVn  «Wri. (19)
The hysteresis loss in the induction motor of mutual induced
voltage, e, is: e 2 g, or approximately:
P' = eoV (20)
in the synchronous motor, the nominal induced voltage, e, does
not correspond to any flux, but may be very much higher, than
corresponds to the magnetic flux, which gives the hysteresis
loss, as it includes the effect of armature reaction, and the hys
teresis loss thus is more nearly represented by e 2 g (20). The
difference, however, is that in the synchronous motor the hys
teresis loss is supplied by the mechanical power, and not the
electric power, as in the induction motor.
The net mechanical output of the motor thus is:
P = P v  toVi  P'
= Po— i 2 r — t'oV] — e 2 g
= e ii — i 2 r — 6*ft*ri — e 2 g, (21)
and herefrom follow efficiency, powerfactor and apparent
efficiency.
44. Considering, as instance, a typical good induction motor,
of the constants:
Co = 500 volts;
7o = 0.01 O.lj;
Z = 0.1 + 0.3j;
Zi = 0.lJ+j0.3j.
INDUCTION MOTOR 63
The load curves of this motor, as induction motor, calculated
in the customary way, are given in Fig. 22.
Converted into a synchronous motor, it gives the constants:
Synchronous impedance (1):
Z  r+jx = 0.1 + 10.3 j.
Fig. 23 gives the load characteristics of the motor, with the
power output as abscissae, with the directcurrent excitation,
and thereby the counter e.m.f., c, varied with the load, so as to
maintain unity powerfactor.
The calculation is made in tabular form, by calculating for
various successive values of the energy current (here also the
total current) t'i, input, the counter e.m.f., c, by equation (8):
e* . (500  0.1 t,)« + 100.61 if,
the power input, which also is the voltampere input, the power
factor being unity, is:
Po = e ii = 500 i\.
From e follow the losses, by (17), (19) and (20):
in armature resistance: 0.1 ii 2 ;
in field resistance: 0.001 e 2 ;
hysteresis loss: 2.5 kw.;
and thus the power output:
P = 500 ii  2.5  0.1 ii 2  0.001 e 2
and herefrom the efficiency.
Fig. 23 gives the total current as t, the nominal induced voltage
as e, and the apparent efficiency which here is the true efficiency,
as y.
As seen, the nominal induced voltage has to be varied very
greatly with the load, indeed, almost proportional thereto. That
is, to maintain unity powerfactor in this motor, the field excita
tion has to be increased almost proportional to the load.
It is interesting to investigate what load characteristics are
given by operating at constant field excitation, that is, constant
nominal induced voltage, e, as this would usually represent the
operating conditions.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
IN
UCT
ON
MOTOR
'™
Yo.OI.U Z,=.l+.3j
*~
100.
a"j
y
=~
—
jC
no
1
ro
.,„
m
m
■n
>
J
i
i
1 I
1
1
i 
B f
> 1
J 1
120 t
t
1.1 <■■
Fm. 22.— Load c
a of standard induction it
7
INDUCTION MOTOR
'
UNITY POWER FACTOR
a  500 Zo.1t .3j
Y .01.J Z.1 +.3i
fZ .1 + 10. 3j)
SYNCHRONOUS
;.;.
•/
...
....
...
,
'■■
'■;
M
^0
1
— X
ICHJ
.'
'
~

■m
/
M
„„,
IV
7
/
BO
MO
500
i
>
'
■■'
10
im
•
/
iff
u
<


in
1 1
)
i)
a so so i
» 110 ISO I.
1
a i
j i
]
u i
I*
INDUCTION MOTOR
Figs. 24 and 25 thus give the load characteristics of the motor,
at constant field excitation, corresponding to:
in Fig. 24:
in Fig. 25:
 2e ;
 5 e„.
For different values of the energy current, ij, from zero up to
the maximum value possible under the given field excitation,
INDUCTION MOTOR
CONSTANT DIRECT CURRENT EXCITATION
e = 500 . Z .1 + 3J.
—

a  .1 + 10.3;)
SYNCHRONOUS
*
'
>
V
>
*/
■m
t
/
f—
/
"."
7
7
t
a
i
I
t
__
— 
— ■—
so
L
3
t
■
...
Fia. 24.— Load c
as given by equation (12), the reactive current, is, is calculated
by equation (11):
Fig. 24: u = 48.5  V9410  u*;
Fig. 25: i, = 48.5  V58,800  t,».
The total current then is:
i = Vfi'T t^i
the voltampere input:
the power input:
Q = e i;
P* = e Q ii,
68 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the power output given by (21), and herefrom efficiency ij,
powerfactor p and apparent efficient, 7, calculated and plotted.
Figs. 24 and 25 give, with the power output as al.iscissjc, the
total current input, efficiency, powerfactor and apparent
efficiency.
As seen from Firs. 24 and 25, the constants of the motor as
synchronous motor with constant excitation, are very bad ; the
noload current is nearly equal to fullload current, and power
1 1 II 1 1 II
INDUCTION MOTOR
CONSTANT DIRECT CURRENT EXCITATION
*= 5e,
<t„600 Zo •« +.3)
Yo = .01.1i Zi.l + .3;
(I =..1410.3;)
SYNCHRONOUS
1
a
p
/y
.;■:
'
1
7
y
t
/
Y
/
/
!
D i
a 4
1
1
10 *»
Fib. 25.
factor a
range j
motor <
Thus
motor,
into a s
In F
apparer
efficienc
Load curves at constant excitation 5 e, of standard
motor converted to synchronous motor.
nd apparent efficiency are very low except in a
ust below the maximum output point, at wh
rops out of step.
this motor, and in general any reasonably good in
vould be spoiled in its characteristics, by oonvc
■nchronous motor with constant field excitation.
5. 23 are shown, for comparison, in dotted li
t efficiency taken from Figs. 24 and 25, and the a
y of the machine as induction motor, taken from
tduotioa
narrow
■ch the
luction
rting it.
nes, the
) parent
Fig. 22.
INDUCTION MOTOR 67
45. As further instance, consider the conversion into a syn
chronous motor of a poor induction motor : a slowspeed motor ot
very high exciting current, of the constants:
e = 500;
y„ = 0.02  0.6 j;
Z = 0.1 +0.3j;
Z,  0.1 +0.3;'.
The load curves of this machir
in Fig. 20.
as induction motor are given
LOW 3PEEO INDUCTION MOTOR
..;,
UNITY POWER FACTOR
e,  BOO Z„.t + .Si
Y„  .0S.8J Z..l + ,3j
(Z  1 + 2i)
SYNCHRONOUS
•
»
ft
/
/
/
ICJi
*
S
s
S*
s
RO
im
.
■mn
7
r.
M
J00
/
,
IK
/
m
irn
/
10
(J
'
1
(1 1
K 1
'J 1
1
n l
n U
1
1
') i
» i
■0 1
* •
Converted to a synchronous motor, it has the constants:
Synchronous impedance:
Z = 0.1 + 1,97 j.
Calculated in the same manner, the load curves, when vary
ing the field excitation with changes of load so as to maintain
unity powerfactor, are given in Fig. 26, and the load curves for
constant field excitation giving a nominal induced voltage:
e = 1.5 en
are given in Fig. 27.
As seen, the increase of field excitation required to maintain
68 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
unity powerfactor, as shown by curve e in Fig. 26, while still
considerable, is very much less in this poor induction motor,
than it was in the good induction motor Figs. 22 to 25.
The constantexcitation load curves, Fig. 27, give character
istics, which are very much superior to those of the motor as in
duction motor. The efficiency is not materially changed, as was
to be expected, but the powerfactor, p, is very greatly improved
at all loads, is 96 per cent, at fullload, rises to unity above full
LOW SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR
CONSTANT DIRECT CUHRENT EXCITATION
SoBOO Zo.1+.3j
Vo.02.6j Z..1 + .3;
(Z.1 + .2i)
SVNCHR0N0US
%
*
^
MM
'*
I
C==
r=—
— '
x
\,
/
\
Ml
■^7
^
."
/
D !
9
S <
7
1 G
'J
a i
1
10 1
» 1
1
10"
Flu. 27. — Load curve of luwftpnod liifchpxeirutiiiii induction motor con
verted to syiicliriihiiu.s motor, nt cimaUiiil field excitation.
oad (assumed as 75 kw.) and is given at quarterload already
ligher than the maximum reached by this machine as straight
nduction motor.
For comparison, in Fig. 28 are shown the curves of apparent
efficiency, with the power output, as abscissae, of this slowspeed
motor, as:
/ as induction motor (from Fig. 20);
So as synchronous motor with the field excitation varying to
maintain unity powerfactor (from Fig. 26);
S as synchronous motor with constant field excitation (from
Fig. 27).
INDUCTION MOTOR 69
As seen, in the constants at load, constant excitation, S, is prac
tically as good as varying unity powerfactor excitation, S , drops
below it only at partial load, though even there it is very greatly
superior to the inductionmotor characteristic, /.
It thus follows :
By converting it into a synchronous motor, by passing a direct
current through the rotor, a good induction motor is spoiled, hut
a poor induction motor, that is, one with very high exciting
current, is greatly improved.
Pio. 28. — Comparison of apparent efficiency and speed curves of high
excitation induction motor with various forms of secondary excitation.
46. The reason for the unsatisfactory behavior of a good induc
tion motor, when operated as synchronous motor, is found in the
excessive value of its synchronous impedance.
Exciting admittance in the induction motor, and synchronous
impedance in the synchronous motor, are corresponding quanti
ties, representing the magnetizing action of the armature cur
rents. In the induction motor, in which the magnetic field is
produced by the magnetizing action of the armature currents,
very high magnetizing action of the armature current is desirable,
so as to produce the magnetic field with as little magnetizing cur
rent as possible, as this current is lagging, and spoils the power
factor. In the synchronous motor, where the magnetic field is
produced by the direct current in the field coils, the magnetizing
action of the armature currents changes the resultant field excita
tion, and thus requires a corresponding change of the field current
to overcome it, and the higher the armature reaction, the more
70
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
has the field current to be changed with the load, to maintain
proper excitation. That is, low armature reaction is necessary.
In other words, in the induction motor, the armature reaction
magnetizes, thus should be large, that is, the synchronous react
ance high or the exciting admittance low; in the synchronous
motor the armature reaction interferes with the impressed field
excitation, thus should be low, that is, the synchronous imped
ance low or the exciting admittance high.
Therefore, a good synchronous motor makes a poor induction
motor, and a good induction motor makes a poor synchronous
motor, but a poor induction motor — one of high exciting admit
tance, as Fig. 20 — makes a fairly good synchronous motor.
Here a misunderstanding must be guarded against: in the
theory of the synchronous motor, it is explained, that high
synchronous reactance is necessary for good and stable synchro
nousmotor operation, and for securing good powerfactors at all
loads, at constant field excitation. A synchronous motor of low
synchronous impedance is liable to be unstable, tending to hunt
and Hive poor powerfactors due to excessive reactive currents.
This apparently contradicts the conclusions drawn above in
the comparison of induction and synchronous motor.
However, the explanation is found in the meaning of high and
low synchronous reactance, as seen by expressing the synchro
nous reactance in per cent. : the percent age synchronous reaCtMUM
is the voltage consumed by fullload current in the synchronous
reactance, as percentage of the terminal voltage.
When discussing synchronous motors, we consider a synchro
nous reactance of 10 to 20 per cent, as low, and a ayDchrOADUl
reactance of 50 to 100 per cent, as high.
In the motor, Figs. 22 to 25, fullload current— at 75 kw. out
put—is about 180 amp. At a synchronous reactance of x =
10.3, this gives a synchronous reactance voltage at fullload
current, of 1850, or a synchronous reactance of 370 per cent.
In the poor motor, Figs. 20,26 and 27, fullload current is about
200 amp., the synchronous reactance x = 1.97, thus the react
ance voltage 394, or 79 per cent,, or of the magnitude of good
synchronousmotor operation.
That is, the motor, which as induction motor would be consid
ered as of very high exciting admittance, giving a low synchro
nous impedance when converted into a synchronous motor, would
as synchronous motor, and from the viewpoint of synchronous
INDUCTION MOTOR 71
motor design, be considered as a high synchronous impedance
motor, while the good induction motor gives as synchronous
motor a synchronous impedance of several hundred per cent., that
is far beyond any value which ever would be considered in syn
chronousmotor design.
Induction Motor Concatenated with Synchronous
47. Let an induction machine have the constants:
Y = g — jb = primary exciting admittance,
Zo = r + jxo = primary selfinductive im
pedance,
Z\ = r\ + jxi = secondary selfinductive im
pedance at full frequency,
reduced to primary,
and let the secondary circuit of this induction machine be con
nected to the armature terminals of a synchronous machine
mounted on the inductionmachine shaft, so that the induction
motor secondary currents traverse the synchronousmotor arma
ture, and let:
Z% = r s + JX2 = synchronous impedance of
the synchronous machine,
at the full frequency im
pressed upon the induction
machine.
The frequency of the synchronous machine then is the fre
quency of the inductionmotor secondary, that is, the frequency
of the inductionmotor slip. The synchronousmotor frequency
also is the frequency of synchronousmotor rotation, or  times
the frequency of inductionmotor rotation, if the induction motor
has n times as many poles as the synchronous motor.
Herefrom follows:
1  a
= *>
n
or:
* = ^h <»
that is, the concatenated couple runs at constant slip, s = — —   >
thus constant speed,
1 — s = — .— of synchronism. (2)
n •+ 1
72 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Thus the machine couple has synchronous mo tor character
istics, and runs at a speed corresponding to synchronous speed
of a motor having the sum of the inductionmotor and syn
chronousmotor poles as number of poles.
If m = 1, that isj the synchronous motor has the same number
of poles as the induction motor,
s = 0.5,
1  *  0.5,
that is, the concatenated couple operates at half synchronous
speed, and shares approximately equally in the power output.
If the induction motor has 76 poles, the synchronous motor
four poles, n = 19, and:
a = 0.05,
1  s = 0.95,
that is, the couple runs at 95 per cent, of the synchronous speed
of a 76polar machine, llius at synchronous speed of an SOpolar
machine, and thus can be substituted for an 80polar induction
motor. In this case, the synchronous motor gives about 5
per cent., the induction motor 95 per cent, of the output; the
synchronous motor thus is a small machine, which could be con
sidered ms a .synchronous exciter of the induction machine.
48. Let:
#n = e'fl + je"o = voltage impressed upon in
duction motor.
Ei m e'i + je"i = voltage induced in induc
tion motor, by mutual
magnetic flux, reduced to
full frequency.
#? = e'i + je"? = nominal induced voltage
of synchronous motor, re
duced to full frequency.
/n ■ i'i — jf'"o • primary current in induc
tion motor.
/l = i'i — ji"i = secondary current of in
duction motor and cur
rent in synchronous motor.
Denoting by Z' the impedance, Z, at frequency, s, it is:
Total impedance of secondary circuit, at frequency, s:
Z' = Zt + z t 
= ('. + r0 + j{xx + x t ), (3)
INDUCTION MOTOR
73
and the equations are:
in primary circuit:
in secondary circuit:
and, current:
/o = /i + r^i.
From (6) follows:
/! = /, r#„
and, substituting (7) into (5) :
s#i = 8fa + Z'lo  Z'YE h
sE t + Z'to
substituting (8) into (4) gives:
sE 2 + (Z< + sZo + Z'ZoY) /o
hence:
#.=
and, transposed:
8 + Z'Y
or:
rrzh = ^° ~'(r+ z«f + Zo ) /o 
i + =r
Denoting:
ri + r 2
*
= r>
X\ + Xt = x 7
and:
= r'+;V =
_/ i „•_/ r/f 
it is, substituting into (9; and CIO;:
£. (1 + ZT; = E t + <Z' + Z» + Z'Z>,Y) U,
1 + Z'Y ~ E " M + Z'Y + Z ") I*
(4)
(5)
(0)
(7)
(8)
E (i + f r)  *, + [* + 2.(1 + * r) ] h, (9)
(10)
fllj
74 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Denoting:
E * =V = e '+je" (14)
1 + ZY
as a voltage which is proportional to the nominal induced voltage
of the synchronous motor, and :
r+^y + Zo = z = r+ix (15)
and substituting (14) and (15) into (13), gives:
# = #„  Z/ . (16)
This is the standard synchronousmotor equation, with im
pressed voltage, #o, current, / , synchronous impedance, Z, and
nominal induced voltage, $.
Choosing the impressed voltage, $q = e as base line, and
substituting into (16), gives:
e' + je"  (co  ri'o  xi"o)  j (xt'o  ri"o), (17)
and, absolute:
e 2 = (e — r i'o — s i"o) 2 + teot'o — r i"o) 2 . (18)
From this equation (18) the load and speed curves of the
concatenated couple can now be calculated in the same manner
as in any synchronous motor.
That is, the concatenated couple, of induction and synchronous
motor, can be replaced by an equivalent synchronous motor of
the constants, e, eo, Z and / .
49. The power output of the synchronous machine is:
P 2 = //„ «&/',
where:
/a+jb, c+jd/'
denotes the effective component of the doublefrequency prod
uct: (ac + bd); see "Theory and ^Calculation of Alternating
current Phenomena," Chapter XVI, 5th edition.
The power output of the induction machine is:
Pi = IK (i  *) £i/', (20)
thus, the total power output of the concatenated couple:
P = P 4 P
= /fi, «Ei + (1  «)£,/'; (2D
INDUCTION MOTOR 75
substituting (7) into (21):
P = //  r#„ s# 2 + (1  «)&/'; (22)
from (8) follows:
s#2 = #i (« + Z7)  Z'/o,
and substituting this into (22), gives:
P  //  r^i, #, (1 + Z'Y)  Z'lo/'; (23)
from (4) follows:
1$\ = #o — Zo/o,
and substituting this into (23) gives:
p = fu (i + ZoF)  r#o, #o (i + z*Y) 
/o (Z + Z„ + ZoZ'Y)/'. (24) •
Equation (24) gives the power output, as function of impressed
voltage, Fo, and supply current, /o.
The power input into the concatenated couple is given by:
Po = /*., /o/', (25)
or, choosing # = e as base line:
Po = eoi'o. (26)
The apparent power, or voltampere input ift given by:
Q = e io, (27)
where:
to = V'i'o* + i"V
is the total primary current.
From P, Po and Q now follow efficiency, powerfactor and
apparent efficiency.
60. As an instance may be considered the powerfactor control
of the slowspeed 80polar induction motor of Fig. 20, by a small
synchronous motor concatenated into its secondary circuit.
Impressed voltage:
e« = 500 volts.
Choosing a fourpolar synchronous motor, the induct ion
machine would have to be redesigned with 70 poles, giving:
n = 19,
' * = 0.05,
70 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
With the same rotor diameter of the induction machine, the
pole pitch would be increased inverse proportional to the number
of poles, and the exciting susceptance decreased with the square
thereof, thus giving the constants:
Y = g jb = 0.02  0.54 j;
Z = r +jxo = 0.1 + 0.3j;
Zi = ri+jxt = 0.1 + 0.3./.
Assuming as synchronous motor synchronous impedance,
reduced to full frequency:
Z 2 = r 2 + jx 2 = 0.02 + 0.2 j
this gives, for s = 0.05:
Z' = (ri + r 2 ) +js (xi + x 2 ) = 0.12 + 0.025 j,
and :
Z' = r' +jx' = Z ' s = 2.4 + 0.5 j,
Z = r+jx = 0.84 + 1.4 j,
and from (14):
E 2
E =
1.32 1.29 j'
C2
e ~ 1.84
thus:
"339 = (50 ° ~ °' 84 *'° ~ 14 *" o) * + (1 ' 4 ? '° ~ ° <84 '"' ,)! ' (28)
and the power output :
P = // (0.836 + 0.048 j)  (10  270 j),
(508  32 j)  /„ (0.241 + 0.326 j)/'. (29)
51. Fig. 29 shows the load curves of the concatenated couple,
under the condition that the synchronousmotor excitation and
thus its nominal induced voltage, e 2 , is varied so as to maintain
unity powerfactor at all loads, that is:
t"o = 0;
this gives from equation (28) :
~^ = (500  0.84t' ) s + 1.96 tV,
INDUCTION MOTOR
LO.V
SPEED
INDUCTION M
OTOR
EXCITED FOR UNITY POWER FACTOR
e„  500 z =.i +■ M
¥,.02 .54 j 2i = .l + 3j
g  .05 Z, = .02 + .2/
SYNCHRONOUS
.
■rr
nv
„,.
/
,„,
.
/
/
JW
tm
m
.,
•
S
/
1
/
'
S
f
h
^
I 1
1 I
1
1
1
1
1 ]
1
1
II
[
t 1
1
'J 1
:> 1
1
LOW SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR
WITH LOW FREQUENCY SYNCHRONOUS IN SECONDARY
CONSTANT EXCITATION. «  1.7C
e D = 500 Z = .1 +.3)
8 ■ .OS Z, .02 + .2J
SYNCHRONOUS
*
r
V
;
ln
HI
„. (
J*
j
1NI
gg
I
u I
"
» a
H 110 1
1
] 
Fio. 30.— Load n
78 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
P = /(0.8361 i\  10) + j (0.048 i' 4 270),
(508 = 0.241 1' )  j (32 + 0.326 *'»/'
= (0.836 i'»  10) (508  0.241 i' )  (0.048 j"' d + 270)
(32 4 0.326 i\).
As seen from the curve, e 2 , of the nominal induced voltage, the
synchronous motor has to be overexcited at all loads. However,
ei first decreases, reaches a minimum and then increases again,
thus is fairly constant over a wide range of load, so that with
this type of motor, constant excitation should give good results.
Fig. 30 then shows the load curves of the concatenated couple
for constant excitation, on overexcitation of the synchronous
motor of 70 per cent., or
c 2 = 850 volts.
(It must be kept in mind, that ei is the voltage reduced to full
frequency and turn ratio 1 :1 in the induction machine: At the
slip, s = 0.05, the actual voltage of the synchronous motor would
h« set = 12.5 volts, even if the numher of secondary turns of the
induction motor equals that of the primary turns, and if, as
usual, the induction motor is wound for less turns in the secondary
than in the primary, the actual voltage at the synchronous motor
terminals is still lower.)
As seen from Fig. 30:
the powerfactor is practically unity over the entire range of
load, from less than onetenth load up to the maximum output
point, and the current input into the motor thus is practically
proportional to the load.
The load curves of this concatenated couple thus arc superior
to those, which can be produced in a synchronous motor at con
stant excitation.
For comparison, the curve of apparent efficiency, from Fig. 30,
is plotted as CS in Fig. 28. It merges indisttnguishably into the
unity powerfactor curve, So, except at its maximum output
point.
Induction Motor Concatenated with Commutating
Machine
62. While the alternatingcurrent commulating machine, MpB*
cially of the polyphase type, is rather poor at higher frequencies,
ii becomes better at lower frequencies, and at the extremely low
' frequency of the inductionmotor secondary, it is practically as
INDUCTION MOTOR 79
good as the directcurrent commutating machine, and thus can
be used to insert lowfrequency voltage into the inductionmotor
secondary.
With series excitation, the voltage of the commutating machine
is approximately proportional to the secondary current, and the
speed characteristic of the induction motor remains essentially
the same: a speed decreasing from synchronism at noload, by a
slip, s f which increases with the load.
With shunt excitation, the voltage of the commutating machine
is approximately constant, and the concatenated couple thus
tends toward a speed differing from synchronism.
In either case, however, the slip, s, is not constant and independ
ent of the load, and the motor couple not synchronous, as when
using a synchronous machine as second motor, but the motor
couple is asynchronous, decreasing in speed with increase of load.
The phase relation of the voltage produced by the commutating
machine, with regards to the secondary current which traverses
it, depends on the relation of the commutator brush position
with regards to the field excitation of the respective phases, and
thereby can be made anything between and 2t, that is, the
voltage inserted by the commutating machine can be energy
voltage in phase — reducing the speed — or in opposition to the
inductionmotor induced voltage — increasing the speed; or it
may be a reactive voltage, lagging and thereby supplying the
inductionmotor magnetizing current, or leading and thereby
still further lowering the powerfactor. Or the commutating
machine voltage may be partly in phase — modifying the speed —
and partly in quadrature — modifying the powerfactor.
Thus the commutating machine in the inductionmotor
secondary can be used for powerfactor control or for speed
control or for both.
It is interesting to note that the use of the commutating ma
chine in the induction motor secondary gives two independent
variables: the value of the voltage, and its phase relation to the
current of its circuit, and the motor couple thus has two degrees
of freedom. With the use of a synchronous machine in the
inductionmotor secondary this is not the case; only the voltage
of the synchronous machine can be controlled, but its phase
adjusts itself to the phase relation of the secondary circuit, and
the synchronousmotor couple thus has only one degree of free
dom. The reason is: with a synchronous motor concatenated to
80
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the induction machine, the phase of the synchronous machine is
fixed in space, by the synchronousmotor poles, thus has a fixed
relation with regards to the inductionmotor primary system.
As, however, the inductionmotor secondary has no fixed position
relation with regards to the primary, but can have any position
slip, the synchronousmotor voltage has no fixed position with
regards to the inductionmotor secondary voltage and current,
thus can assume any position, depending on the relation in the
secondary circuit. Thus if we assume that the synchronous
motor field were shifted in space by « position degrees (electrical):
this would shift the phase of the synchronousmotor voltage by
a degrees, and the inductionmotor secondary would slip in posi
tion by the same angle, thus keep the same phase relation with
regards to the synchronousmotor voltage. In the couple with
a commutating machine as secondary motor, however, the posi
tion of the brushes fixes the relation between commutating
machine voltage and secondary current, and thereby imposes I
definite phase relation in the secondary circuit, irrespective of
the relations between secondary and primary, and no change of
relative position between primary and secondary can change this
phase relation of the commutating machine.
Thus the commutating machine in the secondary of the induc
tion machine permits a far greater variation of condition! of
operation, and thereby gives a far greater variety of speed and
load curves of such concatenated couple, than is given by the
use of a synchronous motor in the inductionmotor secondary.
63. Assuming the polyphase lowfrequency commutating
machine is seriesexcited, that is, the field coils (and compensat
ing coils, where used) in series with the armature. Assuming
also that magnetic saturation is not reached within the range of
its use.
The induced voltage of the commutating machine then is
proportional to the secondary current and to the speed.
Thus: e t = pix (1)
is the commutatingmachine voltage at full synchronous speed,
where tj is the secondary current and p a constant depending
on the design.
At the slip, s, and thus the speed (1 — s), the comnmUting
machine voltage thus is:
(1 s)e, = (1 
«) pii.
..L'i
INDUCTION MOTOR 81
As this voltage may have any phase relation with regards to
the current, t'i, we can put:
£2 = (Pi + jpt)h (3)
where:
P = Vpi 2 + p 2 2 (4)
and:
tan w = — (5)
Pi
is the angle of brush shift of the commutating machine.
(Pi + JPt) ls of the nature and dimension of an impedance,
and we thus can put :
Z° = Pi + m (6)
as the effective impedance representing the commutating machine.
At the speed (1 — s),
the commutating machine is represented by the effective
impedance:
(1  s) Z° = (1  8) Pl + j (1  8) P2. (7)
It must be understood, however, that in the effective impedance
of the commutating machine,
Z° = pi + jp>,
Pi as well as p% may be negative as well as positive.
That is, the energy component of the effective impedance, or
the effective resistance, p lf of the commutating machine, may be
negative, representing power supply. This simply means, that
the commutator brushes are set so as to make the commutating
machine an electric generator, while it is a motor, if pi is positive.
If pi = 0, the commutating machine is a producer of wattless
or reactive power, inductive for positive, antiinductive for
negative, p 2 .
The calculation of an induction motor concatenated with a
commutating machine thus becomes identical with that of the
straight induction motor with shortcircuited secondary, except
that in place of the secondary inductive impedance of the induc
tion motor is substituted the total impedance of the secondary
circuit, consisting of:
1. The secondary selfinductive impedance of the induction
machine.
82 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
2. The selfinductive impedance of the commutating machine
comprising resistance and reactance of armature and of field,
and compensating winding, where such exists.
3. The effective impedance representing the commutating
machine.
It must be considered, however, that in (1) and (2) the re
sistance is constant, the reactance proportional to the slip, s,
while (3) is proportional to the speed (1 — s).
64. Let:
Yo = g— jb = primary exciting admittance
of the induction motor.
Z = r + jxo = primary selfinductive im
pedance of the induction
motor.
Z\ = r x + jx\ = secondary selfinductive im
pedance of the induction
motor, reduced to full
frequency.
Zi — r2 + jx% = selfinductive impedance of
the commutating machine,
reduced to full frequency.
Z° = pi + jpi = effective impedance repre
senting the voltage in
duced in the commutating
machine, reduced to full
frequency.
The total secondary impedance, at slip, «, then is:
Z $ = (r, + jsxi) + (r 2 + jsxi) + (1  «) (pi + jp 2 )
= [r, + r 2 + (1 » pj + j\s (xi + xt) + (1  s) p 2 ] (8)
and, if the mutual inductive voltage of the induction motor is
chosen as base line, e, in the customary manner,
the secondary current is:
h = 7% = (aija 2 )e, (9)
where:
* [ r\ + r 2 + (1  s) pi]
ii\ —
m
8[s(xi + X2) + (1 s)p 2 ]
a 2 =
m
(10)
INDUCTION MOTOR
m  [p, + r t + (1  s) p,]* + [s (Xi + x,) + (1 
) Pd*.
The remaining calculation is the same as on page 318 of
" Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering," 4th edition.
As an instance, consider the concatenation of a lowfrequency
commutating machine to the lowspeed induction motor, Fig. 20.
The constants then are:
Impressed voltage:
Exciting admittance:
Impedances:
e e = 500;
Y Q = 0.02  0.6 j
Z* = 0.1 +0.3 j
Z v = 0.1 +0.3j"
Z, = 0.02 + 0.3 j"
Z" =  0.2 j.
LOW SPEED 1
DUCT
0!,
MOTOR
SERIES EXCITED FOR ANTIINDUCTIVE REACTIVE V0LTA3E
P,+ Jp.i.2j
..,.
Y,,".02.8i Zi.l+.3i ASYMCHRONO
JB
■ »
ft
*
»
m
zoo
m
s
<*
__
*7
*.
•>
>
i.
s
M
rn
T_
/
/
100
H
/
/
A
o 
1 I
1 4
1
1 t
i a
■
a 1
o i
01
i.l 1
1
n l
n u
n i
0"
That is, the commutating machine is adjusted to give only
reactive lagging voltage, for powerfactor compensation.
It then is:
Z> = 0.12 + j [0.6 s  0.2 (1  s)].
The load curves of this motor couple are shown in Fig. 31. As
84 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Bent, powerfactor and apparent efficiency rise to high values, and
even the efficiency is higher than in the straight induction motor.
However, at lightload the powerfactor and thus the apparent
efficiency falls off, very much in the same manner as in the con
catenation with a synchronous motor.
It is interesting to note the relatively great drop of speed at
lightload, while at heavier load the speed remains more nearly
constant. This is a general characteristic of antiinductive im
pedance in the inductionmotor secondary, and shared by the
use of an electrostatic condenser in the secondary.
For comparison, on Fig. 28 the curve of apparent efficiency of
this motor couple is shown as CC.
Induction Motor with Condenser in Secondary Circuit
66. As a condenser consumes leading, that is, produces lagging
reactive current, it can be used to supply the lagging component
of current of the induction motor and thereby improve the
powerfactor.
Shunted across the motor terminals, the condenser consumes a
constant current, at constant impressed voltage and frequency,
Mini as the lagging component of inductionmotor current in
creases with the load, the characteristics of the combination of
motor and shunted condenser thus change from leading current
at noload, over unity powerfactor to lagging current at overload.
As the condenser is an external apparatus, the characteristics of
the induction motor proper obviously are not changed by a
shunted condenser.
As illustration is shown, in Fig. 32, the slowspeed induction
motor Fig. 20, shunted by a condenser of 125 kva. per phase.
Fig. 32 gives efficiency, i?, powerfactor, p, and apparent efficiency,
7, of the combination of motor and condenser, assuming an
efficiency of the condenser of 99.5 per cent., thai is, 0,5 pet cent
loss in the condenser, or Z = 0.0025  0.5 j, that is, a condenser
just neutralizing i he magnetising current.
However, when using a condenser in shunt, it must be realized
that the current consumed by the condenser is proportional to the
frequency, and therefore, if the wave of impressed voltage is
greatly distorted, that is, contains considerable higher harmonics
— especially harmonics of high order — the condenser may produce
i uderable higherfrequency currents, and thus by distortion
INDUCTION MOTOR
85
of the current wave lower the powerfactor, so that in extreme
cases the shunted condenser may actually lower the power
factor. However, with the usual commercial voltage wave
shapes, this is rarely to be expected.
In singlephase induction motors, the condenser may be used
in a tertiary circuit, that is, a circuit located on the same member
(usually the stator) as the primary circuit, but displaced in posi
LOW SPEEC
INDUCTION
MOTOR
e„ = 50O Zo = .1 + .3i
Yo=.02.6j Z,«.1 + .3J
Z t .002S.SJ
p
*
M
1
1
7~
/
ML
i.
_SL
m
m
i i
I I
4
1
) C
i) ■
J
u
1
Xl 1
o l
>..
Fio. 32.— Load c
tion therefrom, and energized by induction from the secondary.
By locating the tertiary circuit in mutual induction also with the
primary, it can be used for starting the singlephase motor, and
is more fully discussed in Chapter V.
A condenser may also be used in the secondary of the induction
motor. That is, the secondary circuit is closed through a con
denser in each phase. As the current consumed by a condenser is
proportional to the frequency, and the frequency in the secondary
circuit varies, decreasing toward zero at synchronism, the cur
rent consumed by the condenser, and thus the secondary current
of the motor tends toward zero when approaching synchronism,
86 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and peculiar speed characteristics result herefrom in such a
motor. At a certain slip, s, the condenser current just balances
all the reactive lagging currents of the induction motor, resonance
may thus be said to exist, and a very large current flows into the
motor, and correspondingly large power is produced. Above this
"resonance speed," however, the current and thus the power
rapidly fall off, and so also below the resonance speed.
It must be realized, however, that the frequency of the sec
ondary is the frequency of slip, and is very low at speed, thus a
very great condenser capacity is required, far greater than would
be sufficient for compensation by shunting the condenser across
the primary terminals. In view of the low frequency and low
voltage of the secondary circuit, the electrostatic condenser
generally is at a disadvantage for this use, but the electrolytic
condenser, that is, the polarization cell, appears better adapted.
56. Let then, in an induction motor, of impressed voltage, e :
Y a = g — jb — exciting admittance;
Z» — H + J x <> = primary selfinductive impe
dance;
Z\ = Ti + jxi = secondary selfinductive im
pedance at full frequency;
and let the secondary circuit be closed through a condenser of
capacity reactance, at full frequency:
Z* — U — j*h
where r%, representing the energy loss in the condenser, usually is
very small and can lie neglected in the electrostatic condenser,
so that:
Zt=  jxj.
The inductive reactance, Xt, is proportional to the frequency,
that is, the slip, s, and the capacity reactance, x : , inverse propor
tional thereto, and the total impedance of the secondary circuit,
at slip, j*, thus is:
Zr, +;(»!, »), (I)
Ihus tlir secondary current:
;,  "
 < <«i  >=), (2)
INDUCTION MOTOR 87
where:
Oi = —i
m
o 2 =
(  ?)
m
and:
m = ri 2 + (sxi + yj •
(3)
All the further calculations of the motor characteristics now
are the same as in the straight induction motor.
As instance is shown the lowspeed motor, Fig. 20, of constants:
e = 500;
Y = 0.02  0.6 j ;
Z = 0.1 + 0.3j;
Zi = 0.1 + 0.3 j;
with the secondary closed by a condenser of capacity impedance:
Z, =  0.012 j,
thus giving:
0.04>
Z' = 0.1 + 0.3j(s^p)
Fig. 33 shows the load curves of this motor with condenser
in the secondary. As seen, powerfactor and apparent effi
ciency are high at load, but fall off at lightload, being similar
in character as with a commutating machine concatenated to
the induction machine, or with the secondary excited by direct
current, that is, with conversion of the induction into a synchro
nous motor.
Interesting is the speed characteristic: at very lightload the
speed drops off rapidly, but then remains nearly stationary over
a wide range of load, at 10 per cent. slip. It may thus be said,
that the motor tends to run at a nearly constant speed of 90 per
cent, of synchronous speed.
The apparent efficiency of this motor combination is plotted
once more in Fig. 28, for comparison with those of the other
motors, and marked by C.
Different values of secondary capacity give different operating
speeds of the motor: a lower capacity, that is, higher capacity
88 ELECTRICAL APPARATJJB
•eactance, x t , gives a greater slip, s, that is, lower operating
peed, and inversely, as was discussed in Chapter I.
67. It is interesting to compare, in Fig. 28, the various met hods
>f secondary excitation of the induction motor, in their effect in
niproving the powerfactor and thus the apparent efficiency of
v motor of high exciting current and thus low powerfactor, >mli
is a slowspeed motor.
The apparent efficiency characteristics fall into three groups;
—
LOW SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR
WITH CONDENSER IN SECONDARY CIRCUIT
e a = 500 Zo.t +.3i
Y„=,02 .6) Z, = .1 +.3i
2, =  .012)
ASYNCHRONOUS
\
J
/
1
*
— ~
/
T?
<C
i
70
'
1
7
i
l
7
11
7
1 7
1.
■ 1
n i
» i
n
a i
B l
D i
a i
o 
■'i<;. :j:i. — Load curves of liLghcxoitiitiou induction motor with condeiisera in
secondary circuits.
1. Low apparent efficiency at all loads: the straight slow
speed induction motor, marked by /.
2. High apparent efficiency at all loads:
The synchronous motor with unity powerfactor excitation, So
Concatenation to synchronous motor with unity powerfactor
excitation, CSq.
Concatenation to synchronous motor with constant excitation
CS.
These three curves are practically identical, except at great
overloads.
3. Low apparent efficiency at iiglitloads, high apparent
INDUCTION MOTOR 89
efficiency at load, that is, curves starting from (1) and rising up
to (2).
Hereto belong: The synchronous motor at constant excita
tion, marked by S.
Concatenation to a commutating machine,
CC.
Induction motor with condenser in secondary
circuit, C.
These three curves are very similar, the points calculated for
the three different motor types falling within the narrow range
between the two limit curves drawn in Fig. 28.
Regarding the speed characteristics, two types exist : the motors
So, S, CSo and CS are synchronous, the motors 7, CC and C are
asynchronous.
In their efficiencies, there is little difference between the
different motors, as is to be expected, and the efficiency curves
are almost the same up to the overloads where the motor begins
to drop out of step, and the efficiency thus decreases.
Induction Motor with Commutator
58. Let, in an induction motor, the turns of the secondary
winding be brought out to a commutator. Then by means of
brushes bearing on this commutator, currents can be sent into
the secondary winding from an outside source of voltage.
Let then, in Fig. 34, the fullfrequency threephase currents
supplied to the three commutator brushes of such a motor be
shown as A. The current in a secondary coil of the motor,
supplied from the currents, A, through the commutator, then is
shown as B. Fig. 34 corresponds to a slip, s = %. As seen from
Fig. 34, the commutated threephase current, B, gives a resultant
effect, which is a lowfrequency wave, shown dotted in Fig. 34
By and which has the frequency of slip, s, or, in other words, the
commutated current, B, can be resolved into a current of fre
quency, $, and a higher harmonic of irregular wave shape.
Thus, the effect of lowfrequency currents, of the frequency
of slip, can be produced in the inductionmotor secondary by
impressing full frequency upon it through commutator and
brushes.
The secondary circuit, through commutator and brushes, can
be connected to the supply source either in series to the primary,
90 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
or in shunt thereto, and thus given seriesmotor characteristics,
or shuntmotor characteristics.
In either case, two independent variables exist, the value of
the voltage impressed upon the commutator, and its phase,
and the phase of the voltage supplied to the secondary Hreuil
may be varied, either by varying the phase of the impressed
voltage by a suitable transformer, or by shifting the brushes on
the commutator and thereby the relative position of the brushes
with regards to the stator, which has the same effect.
However, with such a commutator motor, while the resultant
magnetic effect of the secondary currents is of the low [reqtMQgy
8
11 miluction motor
of slip, the actual current in each secondary coil is of full fre
quency, as a section or piece of a full frequency wave, and thus
it meets in the secondary the fullfrequency reactance. That is,
the secondary reactance at slip, s, is not: Z" = r, + jsx,, but is:
Z' = ft + jxi, in other words is very much larger than in the
motor with shortcircuited secoudary.
Therefore, such motors with commutator always require
powerfactor compensation, by shifting the brushes or choosing
the impressed voltage so as to be antiinductive.
Of the voltage supplied to the secondary through commutator
and brushes, a component in phase with the induced voltage
lowers the speed, a component in opposition raises the speed,
and by varying the commutator supply voltage, speed control
of such an induction motor can be produced iu the same manner
and of the same character, as produced in a direct current motor
INDUCTION MOTOR 91
by varying the field excitation. Good constants can be secured,
if in addition to the energy component of impressed voltage, used
for speed control, a suitable antiinductive wattless component
is used.
However, this type of motor in reality is not an induction
motor any more, but a shunt motor or series motor, and is more
fully discussed in Chapter XIX, on "General Alternatingcurrent
Motors."
59. Suppose, however, that in addition to the secondary wind
ing connected to commutator and brushes, a shortcircuited
squirrelcage winding is used on the secondary. Instead of
this, the commutator segments may be shunted by resistance,
which gives the same effect, or merely a squirrelcage winding
used, and on one side an end ring of very high resistance em
ployed, and the brushes bear on this end ring, which thus acts
as commutator.
In either case, the motor is an induction motor, and has the
essential characteristics of the induction motor, that is, a slip, «,
from synchronism, which increases with the load; however,
through the commutator an exciting current can be fed into the
motor from a fullfrequency voltage supply, and in this case, the
current supplied over the commutator does not meet the full
frequency reactance, X\, of the secondary, but only the lowfre
quency reactance, sxi, especially if the commutated winding is in
the same slots with the squirrelcage winding: the shortcircuited
squirrelcage winding acts as a shortcircuited secondary to the
highfrequency pulsation of the commutated current, and there
fore makes the circuit noninductive for these highfrequency
pulsations, or practically so. That is, in the shortcircuited con
ductors, local currents are induced equal and opposite to the
highfrequency component of the commutated current, and the
total resultant of the currents in each slot thus is only the low
frequency current.
Such shortcircuited squirrel cage in addition to the commu
tated winding, makes the use of a commutator practicable for
powerfactor control in the induction motor. It forbids, how
ever, the use of the commutator for speed control, as due to the
shortcircuited winding, the motor must run at the slip, s, corre
sponding to the load as induction motor. The voltage impressed
upon the commutator, and its phase relation, or the brush posi
tion, thus must be chosen so as to give only magnetizing, but
92 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
no speed changing effects, and this leaves only one degree of
freedom.
The foremost disadvantage of this method of secondary excita
tion of an induction motor, by a commutated winding in addi
tion to the shortcircuited squirrel cage, is that secondary excita
tion is advantageous for powerfactor control especially in
slowspeed motors of very many poles, and in such, the commuta
tor becomes very undesirable, due to the large number of poles.
With such motors, it therefore is preferable to separate the
commutator, placing it on a small commutating machine of a
few poles, and concatenating this with the induction motor. In
motors of only a small number of poles, in which a commutator
would be less objectionable, powerfactor compensation is rarely
needed. This is the foremost reason that this type of motor
(the Heyland motor) has found no greater application.
CHAPTER V
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
60. As more fully discussed in the chapters on the singlephase
induction motor, in " Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineer
ing" and " Theory and Calculation of Alternatingcurrent
Phenomena," the singlephase induction motor has inherently,
no torque at standstill, that is, when used without special device
to produce such torque by converting the motor into an unsym
metrical ployphase motor, etc. The magnetic flux at standstill
is a singlephase alternating flux of constant direction, and the
line of polarization of the armature or secondary currents, that
is, the resultant m.m.f. of the armature currents, coincides with
the axis of magnetic flux impressed by the primary circuit.
When revolving, however, even at low speeds, torque appears in
the singlephase induction motor, due to the axis of armature
polarization being shifted against the axis of primary impressed
magnetic flux, by the rotation. That is, the armature currents,
lagging behind the magnetic flux which induces them, reach
their maximum later than the magnetic flux, thus at a time when
their conductors have already moved a distance or an angle
away from coincidence with the inducing magnetic flux. That is,
if the armature currents lag ~ = 90° beyond the primary main
flux, and reach their maximum 90° in time behind the magnetic
flux, at the slip, s, and thus speed (1 — s), they reach their maxi
mum in the position (1 — s) ~ = 90 (1 — s) electrical degrees
behind the direction of the main magnetic flux. A component
of the armature currents then magnetizes in the direction at
right angles (electrically) to the main magnetic flux, and the
armature currents thus produce a quadrature magnetic flux,
increasing from zero at standstill, to a maximum at synchronism,
and approximately proportional to the quadrature component of
the armature polarization, P:
P sin (1 — s) •
93
ill
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The torque of the singlephase motor then is produced by the
action of the quadrature flux on the energy currents induced by
the main flux, and thus is proportional to the quadrature flux.
At synchronism, the quadrature magnetic flux produced by
the armature currents becomes equal to the main magnetic flux
produced by the impressed singlephase voltage (approximately,
in reality it is less by the impedance drop of the exciting current
in the armature conductors) and the magnetic disposition of the
singlephase induction motor thus becomes at synchronism iden
tical with that of the polyphase induction motor, and approxi
mately so near synchronism.
The magnetic field of the singlephase induction motor thus
may be said to change from a singlephase alternating field at
standstill, over an unsymmetrical rotating field at intermediate
speeds, to a uniformly rotating field at full speed.
At synchronism, the total voltampere excitation of the single
phase motor thus is the same as in the polyphase motor at the
same induced voltage, and decreases to half this value at stand
still, where only one of the two quadrature components of
magnetic flux exists. The primary impedance of the motor is
that of the circuits used. The secondary impedance varies
from the joint impedance of all phases, at synchronism, to twice
this value at standstill, since at synchronism all the secondary
circuits correspond to the one primary circuit, while at stand
still only their component parallel with the primary circuit
corres ponds.
61. Hereby the singlephase motor constants are derived from
the constants of the same motor structure as polyphase motor.
Let, in a polyphase motor:
Y = g — jb = primary exciting admittance;
2o = To + Jin = primary selfinductive im
pedance;
Z\ = fi + jxi = secondary selfinductive im
pedance (reduced to the pri
mary by the ratio of turns,
in the usual manner};
the characteristic constant of the motor then is:
&  y (z„ + z x ). (i)
The total, or resultant admittance respectively impedance of
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
95
the motor, that is, the joint admittance respectively impedance of
all the phases, then is:
In a threephase motor:
7 a = 3 Y,
Zo° = H Z,, , (2)
Zi° = H Zv
In a quarterphase motor:
Y°  2 Y, ]
Zo°  H Zo, (3)
Z,° = M Z,. 1
In the same motor, as singlephase motor, it is then: at syn
chronism: 8 = 0:
Y' = F°,
Z' = 2 Z °,  (4)
Z'! = Zx°,
hence the characteristic constant :
t>'  r (z'o + z',)
 r°(2Z ,, + Z 1 ) )
(5)
at standstill : * = 1 :
r = H y«,
Z'o = 2 Zo°,
Z'i = 2 Z,«,
(6)
hence, the characteristic constant:
t>', = Y° (Zo° + Zj )
(7)
approximately, that is, assuming linear variation of the constants
with the speed or slip, it is then: at slip, s:
Y' = F°(l ),
Lt o = 2 #0j
Z'i = Z t » (1 + »). J
This gives, in a threephase motor:
F'=3F(1 *),
Z'o  % z\
Z . x = i + i Zl .
(8)
(9)
96 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
In 8 quarterphase motor:
Y' =27(13,
Z = Zoj
(10)
Thus the characteristic constant, #', of the singlephase motor
is higher, that is, the motor inferior in its performance than the
polyphase motor; but the quarterphase motor makes just as
good — or poor — a singlephase motor as the threephase motor.
62. The calculation of the performance curves of the single
phase motor from its constants, then, is the same as that of the
polyphase motor, except that :
In the expression of torque and of power, the term (1 — *)
is added, which results from the decreasing quadrature flux, and
it thus is:
Torque:
T = T(l *)
= (1  *) a*. (11)
Power:
P* =P(1 *)
«(l*)*aif*. (12)
However, these expressions are approximate only, as they
assume a variation of the quadrature flux proportional to the
speed.
63. As the singlephase induction motor is not inherently
selfstarting, starting devices are required. Such are:
(a) Mechanical starting.
As in starting a singlephase induction motor it is not neces
sary, as in a synchronous motor, to bring it up to full speed, but
the motor begins to develop appreciable torque already at low
speed, it is quite feasible to start small induction motors by hand,
by a pull on the belt, etc.. especially at lightload and if«of high
resistance armature.
(b) By converting the motor in starting into a shunt or series
motor.
This has the great objection of requiring a commutator, and a
cwuttutatingmachine rotor winding instead of the common
iftd«c*iQ«in*otor squirrelcage winding. Also, as series motor,
tl* KthiKty exists in the starting connection, of running away;
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 97
as shunt motor, sparking is still more severe. Thus this method
is used to a limited extent only.
(c) By shifting the axis of armature or secondary polarization
against the axis of inducing magnetism.
This requires a secondary system, which is electrically un
symmetrical with regards to the primary system, and thus, since
the secondary is movable with regards to the primary, requires
means of changing the secondary circuit, that is, commutator
brushes shortcircuiting secondary coils in the position of effective
torque, and opencircuiting them in the position of opposing torque.
Thus this method leads to the various forms of repulsion
motors, of series and of shunt characteristic.
It has the serious objection of requiring a commutator and a
corresponding armature winding; though the limitation is not
quite as great as with the series or shunt motor, since in the re
pulsion motors the armature current is an induced secondary
current, and the armature thus independent of the primary
system regards current, voltage and number of turns.
(d) By shifting the axis of magnetism, that is producing a
magnetic flux displaced in phase and in position from that in
ducing the armature currents, in other words, a quadrature
magnetic flux, such as at speed is being produced by the rotation.
This method does not impose any limitation on stator and
rotor design, requires no commutator and thus is the method
almost universally employed.
It thus may be considered somewhat more in detail.
The infinite variety of arrangements proposed for producing
a quadrature or starting flux can be grouped into three classes:
A. Phasesplitting Devices. — The primary system of the single
phase induction motor is composed of two or more circuits
displaced from each other in position around the armature
circumference, and combined with impedances of different in
ductance factors so as to produce a phase displacement between
them.
The motor circuits may be connected in series, and shunted
by the impedance, or they may be connected in shunt with each
other, but in series with their respective impedance, or they
may be connected with each other by transformation, etc.
B. Inductive Devices. — The motor is excited by two or more
circuits which are in inductive relation with each other so as to
produce a phase displacement.
98 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
This inductive relation may be established outside of the motor
by an external phasesplitting device, or may take place in the
motor proper.
C. Monocyclic Devices. — An essentially reactive quadrature
voltage is produced outside of the motor, and used to energize
a crossmagnetic circuit in the motor, either directly through a
separate motor coil, or after combination with the main voltage
to a system of voltages of approximate threephase or quarter
phase relation.
D. Phase Converter. — By a separate external phase converter—
usually of the inductionmachine type — the singlephase supply
is converted into a polyphase system.
Such phase converter niay be connected in shunt to the motor,
or may be connected in series thereto.
This arrangement requires an auxiliary machine, running idle,
however. It therefore is less convenient, but has the advantage
of being capable of giving full polyphase torque and output to
the motor, and thus would be specially suitable for railroading.
64. If:
*o = main magnetic flux of singlephase
motor, that is, magnetic flux produced
by the impressed singlephase voltage,
and
4> = auxiliary magnetic flux produced by
starting device, and if
u> = space angle between the two fluxes, in
electrical degrees, and
* = time angle between the two fluxes,
then the torque of the motor is proportional to:
T  a** sin u sin tf>) (13)
in the same motor as polyphase motor, with the magnetic flux,
#o, the torque is:
T n = a*, 1 ; (14)
thus the torque ratio of the starting device is;
. T * .
I = y = ^ am w sin <f>,
or, if:
(15)
= quadrature flux produced by the startiug device, that is,
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 99
component of the auxiliary flux, in quadrature to the main flux,
$o, in time and in space, it is:
Singlephase motor starting torque:
T = afc'So, (16)
and startingtorque ratio:
t  £• (17)
As the magnetic fluxes are proportional to the impressed vol
tages, in coils having the same number of turns, it is: starting
torque of singlephase induction motor:
T = be e sin a> sin
= 6e e',
(18)
and, startingtorque ratio:
< = 8inw sin 6
e
e_
where:
(19)
eo = impressed singlephase voltage,
e = voltage impressed upon the auxiliary or
starting winding, reduced to the same
number of turns as the main winding,
and
e' = quadrature component, in time and in
space, of this voltage, e,
and the comparison is made with the torque of a quarterphase
motor of impressed voltage, eo, and the same number of turns.
Or, if by phasesplitting, monocyclic device, etc., two voltages,
ei and e 2 , are impressed upon the two windings of a singlephase
induction motor, it is:
Starting torque :
T = be\e% sin a> sin <f> (20)
and, startingtorque ratio:
t = ^y sin co sin 0, (21)
eo
where eo is the voltage impressed upon a quarterphase motor,
with which the singlephase motor torque is compared, and all
100 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
these voltages, ej, e^, e , are reduced to the same number of turns
of the circuits, as customary.
If then :
Q = voltamperes input of the singlephase
motor with starting device, and
Qo = voltamperes input of the same motor
with polyphase supply,
, = i (22)
is the voltampere ratio, and thus:
v =  (23)
q
is the ratio of the apparent startingtorque efficiency of the
singlephase motor with starting device, to that of the same
motor as polyphase motor, v may thus be called the apparent
torque efficiency of the singlephase motorstarting device.
In the same manner the apparent power efficiency of the start
ing device would result by using the power input instead of the
voltampere input.
66. With a starting device producing a quadrature voltage, e',
t = e ' (24)
is the ratio of the quadrature voltage to the main voltage, and
also is the startingtorque ratio.
The quadrature flux:
e' = te (25)
requires an exciting current, equal to t times that of the main
voltage in the motor without starting device, the exciting current
at standstill is:
e i'= 2
and in the motor with starting device giving voltage ratio, /,
the total exciting current at standstill thus is:
'a" U + O
SINGLEPHASE IXDUCTION MOTOR 101
and thus, the exciting admittance:
r' = y 2 °(i + 0; (27)
in the same manner, the secondary impedance at standstill is:
ZS = W (28)
and thus:
in the singlephase induction motor with starting device pro
ducing at standstill the ratio of quadrature voltage to main
voltage :
t =
eo
the constants are, at slip, s:
Z' Q = 2 Zo°,
Zi __ * ' s 7 o
1 + 8t
(29)
However, these expressions (29) are approximate only, as they
assume linear variation with s, and furthermore, they apply only
under the condition, that the effect of the starting device does
not vary with the speed of the motor, that is, that the voltage
ratio, t y does not depend on the effective impedance of the motor.
This is the case only with a few starting devices, while many
depend upon the effective impedance of the motor, and thus
with the great change of the effective impedance of the motor
with increasing speed, the conditions entirely change, so that no
general equations can be given for the motor constants.
66. Equations (18) to (23) permit a simple calculation of the
starting torque, torque ratio and torque efficiency of the single
phase induction motor with starting device, by comparison with
the same motor as polyphase motor, by means of the calculation
of the voltages, e' y e h e 2 , etc., and this calculation is simply that
of a compound alternatingcurrent circuit, containing the induc
tion motor as an effective impedance. That is, since the only
determining factor in the starting torque is the voltage impressed
upon the motor, the internal reactions of the motor do not come
into consideration, but the motor merely acts as an effective
impedance. Or in other words, the consideration of the internal
102
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
reaction of the motor is eliminated by the comparison with the
polyphase motor.
In calculating the effective impedance of the motor at stand
still, we consider the same as an alternatingcurrent transformer,
and use the equivalent circuit of the transformer, as discussed
in Chapter XVII of "Theory and Calculation of Alternating
current Phenomena." That is, the induction motor is con
sidered as two impedances, Z a and Z ( , connected in series to the
PFL
jTRRT
it of the induction n
impressed voltage, with a shunt of the admittance, Y a , between
the two impedances, as shown in Fig. 35.
The effective impedance then is:
approximately, this is:
= Z Q + Zx.
( :;<n
(31)
This approximation (31), is very close, if Zi is highly inductive,
as a shortcircuited lowresistance squirrel cage, but ceases to be
a satisfactory approximation if the secondary is of high resistance,
for instance, contains a starting rheostat.
As instances are given in the following the correct values of the
effective impedance, Z, from equation (30), the approximate
value (31), and their difference, for a threephase motor without
starting resistance, with a small resistance, with the resistance
giving maximum torque at standstill, and a high resistance:
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
103
IV.
z.:
z,:
z:
z.:
0.01  0.1/ 0.1 + 0.3/ 0.1 + 0.3/ 0.195 + 0.502/ 0.2 + 0.6 /
0.25 + 0.3 / 0.336 + 0.506/ 0.35 + 0.6/
0.6 + 0.3/ 0.661 + 0.620/ 0.7 + 0.6/
1.6 +0.3/ 1.552+0.804/ 1.7 +0.6/
a:
0.005  0.008/
0.014  0.004/
0.030 + 0.020/
0.148 +0.204/
A. PHASESPLITTING DEVICES
Parallel Connection
67. Let the motor contain two primary circuits at right angles
(electrically) in space with each other, and of equal effective
impedance:
Z = r + jx.
These two motor circuits are connected in parallel with each
Fio. 36. — Diagram of phasesplitting device with parallel connection of
motor circuits.
other between the same singlephase mains of voltage, eo, but
the first motor circuit contains in series the impedance
Z\ = ri + jxi,
the second motor circuit the impedance :
Z<L = T<l + JX2,
as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 36.
The two motor currents then are:
h = z + z, and h = z~+z\'
I = h + 1*,
(32)
(33)
the two voltages across the two motor coils
104 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Ei = /jZ and E t = / 2 Z
= eo z + z\' = eo z + z; (34)
and the phase angle between #1 and # 2 is given by :
m (cos <t> + j sin 0) = ^^z" ' ^
Denoting the absolute values of the voltages and currents by
small letters, it is:
T = beiei sin <f>; (36)
in the motor as quarterphase motor, with voltage, e 0} impressed
per circuit, it is:
To = 6e 2 , (37)
hence, the torque ratio:
t = ei6 ?8m<t>. (38)
The current per circuit, in the machine as quarterphase motor,
is:
to = > (39)
z
hence the voltamperes:
Qo = 2e *'o, (40)
while the voltamperes of the singlephase motor, inclusive start
ing impedances, are:
Q = eoi, (41)
thus:
and, the apparent torque efficiency of the starting device:
q CqIZ
68. As an instance, consider the motor of effective impedance:
Z = r +jx = 0.1 +0.3J,
thus:
z = 0.316,
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 105
and assume, as the simplest case, a resistance, a = 0.3, inserted
in series to the one motor circuit. That is :
Z x = 0, ' (44)
Zo = a.
It is then:
(32):/= <:. =„, f«  ; h= e ° e "
r+jx 0.1 + 0.3 j " r + a + jx 0.4 + 0.3 J
= e (l3j), = eo (1.6  1.2 j);
(33) : /  « (2.6  4.2 j),
i = 4.94 e ;
r+jx 0.1 + 0.3 j
(34): E> = e , U = *o f + a +  = e Q 4 + Q 3 ,
ei = eo, e 2 = 0.632 eo)
/«^x / , . • • ,\ r+jx 0.1 + 0.3.7
(35): m (cos * + j sin *) = r +  + . f = Q 4 + Mj
= 0.52 + 0.36 j,
tan * = 0.52'
sin <^> = 0.57;
(38): t = 0.36;
(43) : v = 0.46.
Thus this arrangement gives 46 per cent., or nearly half as
much starting torque per voltampere taken from the supply
circuit, as the motor would give as polyphase motor.
However, as polyphase motor with lowresistance secondary,
the starting torque per voltampere input is low.
With a highresistance motor armature, which on polyphase
supply gives a good apparent startingtorque efficiency, v would
be much lower, due to the lower angle, <f>. In this case, however,
a reactance, +ja, would give fairly good startingtorque efficiency .
In the same manner the effect of reactance or capacity inserted
into one of the two motor coils can be calculated.
As instances are given, in Fig. 37, the apparent torque efficiency,
v, of the singlephase inductionmotor starting device consisting
of the insertion, in one of the two parallel motor circuits, of
various amounts of reactance, inductive or positive, and capacity
166 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
or negative, for a low secondary resistance motor of impedance:
Z  0.1 +0.3;
and a high resistance armature, of the motor impedance:
Z = 0.3 + 0.1 j
resistance inserted into the one motor circuit, has the same effect
.ft
.r.
z=
1+1
n
1 +
1
o
+,»
+ S 4
i +
1 +
l
 1
I *
1
c
PAC
TV
+.*
IN
DUC
AHC
E If
ESIS
TAN
2L)
Kfi
/
+.S
+1(
+ i?
/
+1.4
H (
+ 1 s
•E* 1
+ 1
m
Pin
in t
inv
6
the
circ
90°
anc
A
37.— Apparent startingtorque eflutenoei of phasesplitting de
parallel cumieition uf motor cireuits.
lie first motor, as positive reactance in the second motor,
rsely.
K Higher values of startingtorque efficiency are aecurec
use of capacity in the one, and inductance in the other m
nit. It is obvious that by resistance and inductance al
phase displacement between the two component curre
thus true quarterphase relation, can not be reached.
s resistance consumes energy, the use of resistance is justi
and
by
tor
ne,
its;,
Bed
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 107
only due to its simplicity and cheapness, where moderate start
ing torques are sufficient, and thus the startingtorque efficiency
less important. For producing high starting torque with high
startingtorque efficiency, thus, only capacity and inductance
would come into consideration.
Assume, then, that the one impedance is a capacity:
X2 = — fc, or: Z 2 = — jk, (45)
while the other, xi, may be an inductance or also a capacity, what
ever may be desired:
Zi = +jx 1} . (46)
where X\ is negative for a capacity.
It is, then :
(35) : m (cos <t> + 3 sin <f>) =
r + j (xi + x) [r 2  (xi + x)(k  x)] + jrxik ( ? .
r j(k  x) ' r 2 + (fc x)* " K }
True quadrature relation of the voltages, e\ and e%, or angle,
<f> = s' requires:
cos <t> = 0,
thus:
(xx + x) (k  x) = r 2 (48)
and the two voltages, e\ and 62, are equal, that is, a true quarter
phase system of voltages is produced, if in
(34): [Z + ZJ = [Z + Z 2 ],
where the [ ] denote the absolute values.
This gives:
r* + (*i + xY = r* + (k  x)\
or:
X\ + x = k — x, (49)
hence, by (48) :
Xi + x = k — x = r,
k = r + x >\ (50)
Xt = r — x.
t
Thus, if x > r, or in a lowresistance motor, the second reactance,
Xi f also must be a capacity.
108 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
70. Thus, let:
in a lowresistance motor:
Z = r+jx = 0.1 + 0.3.?,
k = 0.4, xi =  0.2,
Z 2 0.4 i, Z x = 0.2j,
that is, both reactances are capacities.
(34) : e x = e 2 = 2.23 e ,
* = 5,
that is, the torque is five times as great as on true quarterphase
supply.
41 0.1 + o.i / i2 aioij'
/ = 10 e = i,
that is, noninductive, or unity powerfactor.
to = y = 3.166o,
g = 1.58,
v = 3.16,
that is, the apparent startingtorque efficiency, or starting torque
per voltampere input, of the singlephase induction motor with
starting devices consisting of two capacities giving a true quarter
phase system, is 3.16 as high as that of the same motor on a
quarterphase voltage supply, and the circuit is noninductive
in starting, while on quarterphase supply, it has the power
factor 31.6 per cent, in starting.
In a highresistance motor:
Z = 0.3 + 0.1 i,
it is:
k = 0.4, xx = 0.2,
Z 2 = 0.4j, Z 2 = +0.2 j,
that is, the one reactance is a capacity, the other an inductance.
ei = e 2 = 0.743 e 0)
t = 0.555,
i = 3.33 6o,
to =3.16 eo,
q = 0.527,
v = 1.055,
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
109
that is, the startingtorque efficiency is a little higher than with
quarterphase supply. In other words:
This highresistance motor gives 5.5 per cent, more torque
per voltampere input, with unity powerfactor, on singlephase
supply, than it gives on quarterphase supply with 95 per cent,
powerfactor.
The value found for the lowresistance motor, t = 5, is how
ever not feasible, as it gives: e x = 6 2 = 2.23 e , and in a quarter
phase motor designed for impressed voltage, e , the impressed
voltage, 2.23 eo, would be far above saturation. Thus the motor
would have to be operated at lower supply voltage singlephase,
and then give lower t, though the same value of v = 3.16. At
e\ = ej = e , the impressed voltage of the singlephase circuit
would be about 45 per cent, of e , and then it would be: t = 1.
Thus, in the lowresistance motor, it would be preferable to
operate the two motor circuits in series, but shunted by the two
different capacities producing true quarterphase relation.
Series Connection
71. The calculation of the singlephase starting of a motor
with two coils in quadrature position, shunted by two impedances
Fia. 38. — Diagram of phasesplitting device with series connection of motor
circuits
of different powerfactor, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 38,
can be carried out in the same way as that of parallel connection,
except that it is more convenient in series connection to use the
term " admittance" instead of impedance.
That is, let the effective admittance per motor coil equal:
y = v = ( J  A
110 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and the two motor coils be shunted respectively by the admit
tances:
Yi = gi  jb u
Y 2 = 02 — j&2,
it is then:
(52)
/ = 1 6 ° =— , (53)
ir~ +
2
Y +Yi ' Y +Y
the current consumed by the motor, and :
& = Y~+Ti and ^ 2 = Y + Y 2 ' (54)
the voltages across the two motor circuits.
The phase difference between E\ and E 2 thus is given by
Y + Y*
m (cos 4> + j sin 4>) = y^Y ' ^
and herefrom follows t, q and v.
As instance consider a motor of effective admittance per cir
cuit:
Y = gjb = l3j,
with the two circuits connected in series between singlephase
mains of voltage, e<>, and one circuit shunted by a noninductive
resistance of conductance, g im
What value of g\ gives maximum starting torque, and what
is this torque?
It is:
(53} ' ' " 1 , __J_ " 2g + g x  2j6 ~ (5b}
ff + flfi — jb  J&
(54). *— —^ *__.___, (57)
(55) : m (cos * + j sin 0)  *±«L^ = [^+_^)^Hl^;
hence:
gi&
tan =
pfa + gO + fc 2
sin * = , g '_. —  (58)
VViW + [flf (ff + 91) + 6 s ] 1
SIXGLEPHASE IS'DUCTIOX MOTOR 111
and thus:
'2» +
* _ 9*>
1(2? f g,)*
gib
9i)* + *&
+ 46*]
and for
thus:
maximum. 1:
•
St
= 2 V» f +6*
= 2 y = 6.32,
or, substituting back:
(59):
t =
,, . „ = 0.18.
(59)
(60)
(61)
■» \ir ~r yj
As in singlephase operation, the voltage, e , is impressed upon
the two quadrature coils in series, each coil receives only about
—v=. Comparing then the singlephase starting torque with that
of a quarterphase motor of impressed voltage, —.* it is:
t = 0.36.
The reader is advised to study the possibilities of capacity
and reactance (inductive or capacity) shunting the two motor
coils, the values giving maximum torque, those giving true
quarterphase relation, and the torque and apparent torque
efficiencies secured thereby.
B. INDUCTIVE DEVICES
External Inductive Devices
72. Inductively divided circuit: in its simplest form, as shown
diagrammatically in Fig. 39, the motor contains two circuits
at right angles, of the same admittance.
The one circuit (1) is in series with the one, the other (2) with
the other of two coils wound on the same magnetic circuit, M.
By proportioning the number of turns, n\ and n 2 , of the two coils,
which thus are interlinked inductively with each other on the
external magnetic circuit, M, a considerable phase displacement
112
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
between the motor coils, and thus starting torque can be pro
duced, especially with a highresistance armature, that is, a
motor with starting rheostat.
A full discussion and calculation of this device is contained in
the paper on the " Singlephase Induction Motor," page 63,
A. I. E. E. Transactions, 1898.
g^flgg
*&>°* ^M ATURE
FlO. 39.
External inductive
device.
Fiu. 40. — Diagram of shading coil.
Internal Inductive Devices
The exciting system of the motor consists of a stationary pri
mary coil and a stationary secondary coil, shortcircuited upon
itself (or closed through an impedance), both acting upon the
revolving secondary.
The stationary secondary can either cover a part of the pole
face excited by the primary coil, and is then called a "shading
coil," or it has the same pitch as the primary, but is angularly
displaced therefrom in space, by less than 90° (usually 45° or 60°),
and then has been called accelerating coil.
The shading coil, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 40, is
the simplest of all the singlephase induction motorstarting
devices, and therefore very extensively used, though it gives
only a small starting torque, and that at a low apparent starting
torque efficiency. It is almost exclusively used in very small
motors which require little starting torque, such as fan motors,
and thus industrially constitutes the most important single
phase induction motorstarting device.
73. Let, all the quantities being reduced to the primary num
ber of turns and frequency, as customary in induction machines:
Z = r<> + jxo = primary selfinductive impedance,
y = g — jb = primary exciting admittance of unshaded poles
(assuming total pole unshaded),
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 113
Y' = g' — jb' = primary exciting admittance of shaded poles
(assuming total pole shaded).
If the reluctivity of the shaded portion of the pole is the same
as that of the unshaded, then Y' = Y; in general, if
b = ratio of reluctivity of shaded to unshaded portion of
pole,
Y' = bY,
b either = 1, or, sometimes, b > 1, if the air gap under the
shaded portion of the pole is made larger than that under the
unshaded portion.
Yi = gi — jbi = selfinductive admittance of the revolving
secondary or armature,
Y* = 02 — jb 2 = selfinductive admittance of the stationary
secondary or shading coil, inclusive its exter
nal circuit, where such exists.
Z , Yi and Y 2 thus refer to the selfinductive impedances, in
which the energy component is due to effective resistance, and
Y and Y' refer to the mutual inductive impedances, in which the
energy component is due to hysteresis and eddy currents.
a = shaded portion of pqje, as fraction of total pole; thus
(1 — a) = unshaded portion of pole.
If:
eo = impressed singlephase voltage,
$i = voltage induced by flux in unshaded portion of pole,
$2 = voltage induced by flux in shaded portion of pole,
/o = primary current,
it is then :
e = #i + #2 + Zo/o. (62)
The secondary current in the armature under the unshaded
portion of the pole is:
/i = #iVY (03)
The primary exciting current of the unshaded portion of the
pole :
/„„ = f l J a , (64)
thus:
h = ft + f«.  & { r, + , } „!• («5)
114
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The secondary current under the shaded portion of the pole is:
/'i = frYi. (66)
The current in the shading coil is:
h  #2^2. (67)
The primary exciting current of the shaded portion of the pole
is:
/ 00 =
EjbY
thus:
/o = /'i + ho + u = & Yi + y + Y t
(68)
(69)
from (65) and (69) follows:
W*
y, +  y + Y t
a
Fi +
= m (cos <t> + j sin 0),
(70)
I a
and this gives the angle, 4>> of phase displacement between the two
component voltages, $1 and $2
If, as usual, 6=1, and
if fc = 0.5, that is, half the pole.is shaded, it is:
Ei wB Y l + 2Y+Y*
$2
(71)
YS+2Y
74. Assuming now, as first approximation, Z = 0, that is,
neglecting the impedance drop in the singlephase primary coil —
which obviously has no influence on the phase difference between
the component voltages, and the ratio of their values, that is,
on the approximation of the devices to polyphase relation — then
it is:
Pi + Pt = e ] (72)
thus, from (70) :
Pi = e
Yt + ^Y+Y*
a
2Yl + Y (l + v l a ) + Yi
Y t +
E t = e 
1  a
2Y l +Y(l + T ± ) +Y t '
\a 1 — at
(73)
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
115
or, for:
b = 1; a = 0.5;
JK, + 2F + F,
** 2 F,"+ 4 F +~F,'
„ F, + 2 F
** 2F l + 4F+F*'
(74)
and the primary current, or singlephase supply current is, by
substituting (73) into (65) :
Y \ t„ . b
/o = Co
(75)
or, for:
b = \;a = 0.5:
. _ c (F, + 2 YHY, + 2 F 
/0 " e ° 2 F! + 4 F + F,
+ F 2 )
(76)
and herefrom follows, by reducing to absolute values, the torque,
torque ratio, voltampere input, apparent torque efficiency, etc.
Or, denoting:
y ' + Ta = r °'
Y + ^Y+Y t =Y',
(77)
it is:
(70):
I
= ~ = m (cos <t> + j sin </>) ;
/
(78)
(73):
(75):
E, =
/.=
v.*
coF'
F° + F'
e F°
ft + F'» ]
c F l^_ •'
F° + F''
r = Aetfi sin #,
Q = e io;
(79)
(80)
e
and for a quarterphase motor, with voltage —y impressed per
V2
116 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
circuit, neglecting the primary impedance, z , to be comparable
with the shadedcoil singlephase motor, it is:
;«= e ° AY+Yt),
V2
q = 2e f* = eovr + y./,
V2
T. = A *',
thus
fo\/2
to
9 = i\72
. 2 6i6 2 . .
* eo2 sm«,
t; = •
(7
75. As instances are given in the following table the compo
nent voltages, ei and 62, the phase angle, 4> } between them, the
primary current, i 0 the torque ratio, t, and the apparent starting
torque efficiency, v y for the shadedpole motor with the constants:
Impressed voltage: e = 100;
Primary exciting admittance: Y = 0.001 — 0.01 j.
6 = 1, that is, uniform air gap.
a = 0.5, that is, half the pole is shaded.
And for the three motor armatures :
Low resistance: Y x = 0.01 — 0.03 j,
Medium resistance: Y x = 0.02 — 0.02 j,
High resistance: F, = 0.03  0.01 j;
and for the three kinds of shading coils:
Low resistance: Y 2 = 0.01 — 0.03 j,
Medium resistance: V 2 = 0.02 — 0.02 j,
High resistance: ^2 = 0.03  0.01 j.
As seen from this table, the phase angle, 0, and thus the start
ing torque, t } are greatest with the combination of lowresistance
armature and highresistance shading coil, and of highresistance
armature with lowresistance shading coil; but in the first case
the torque is in opposite direction — accelerating coil — from what
SIXGLEPHASE IXDUCTIOX MOTOR 117
it is in the second case — lagging coil. In either case, the torque
efficiency is low, that is, the device is not suitable to produce
high startingtorque efficiencies, but its foremost advantage is
the extreme simplicity.
The voltage due to the shaded portion of the pole, €•, is less
than that due to the unshaded portion, *i, and thus a somewhat
higher torque may be produced by shading more than half of
the pole: a > 0.5.
A larger air gap: b > 1, under the shaded portion of the pole,
or an external noninductive resistance inserted into the shad
ing coil, under certain conditions increases the torque somewhat —
at a sacrifice of powerfactor — particularly with highresistance
armature and lowresistance shading coil.
Co = 100 volts; a = 0.5; b = 1; Y  0.001  0.01 j.
Yii Yti er. e*: <f>: i : /,: v:
X 10~ 2 X 10~* per cent, per cent.
. 1  3j 1  Sj 38.3 61.8 +1.9 1.97 + 1.5!) +4.07
22./40.3 60.2 +11.0 2.07 +9.28 +23. (K)
. 3  \j 42.0 59.8 +21.5 2.17 +18.36 +43.70
2 2>1 3J 37.2 62.9 4.3 1.70 3.52 .9.65
22J38.5 61.7 +6.2 1.76 +5.12 +13.60
3 I; 39.2 62.0 +17.3 1.80 +14.44 +37.40
. 3  \j 1  3j 37.6 63.0 11.9 1.66 9,76 25.80
2  2j 37.8 62.5  0.8 1.66  0.66 '  1.75
3  Ij 37.4 63.0 +10.3 1.64 +8.44 +22.60
Monocyclic Starting Device
76. The monocyclic starting device consists in producing ex
ternally to the motor a system of polyphase voltages with single
phase flow of energy, and impressing it upon the motor, which is
wound as polyphase motor.
If across the singlephase mains of voltage, e, two impedances
of different inductance factors, Z\ and Z 2 , are connected in series,
as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 41, the two voltages, I$y and
#2, across these two impedances are displaced in phase from each
other, thus forming with the main voltage a voltage triangle.
The altitude of this triangle, or the voltage, # , between the com
118
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
mon connection of the two impedances, and a point inside of the
main voltage, e (its middle, if the two impedances are equal), is
a voltage in quadrature with the main voltage, and is a teazer
voltage or quadrature voltage of the monocyclic
system, e, E\, E s , that is, it is of limited energy
and drops if power is taken off from it. (See
Chapter XIV.)
Let then, in a threephase wound motor, oper
ated singlephase with monocyclic starting device,
and shown diagrammatically in Fig. 42:
■ — voltage impressed 1 jet. ween singlephase
lines,
/ = current in singlephase lines,
Y = effective admittance per motor circuit,
I'i, Ei and I',, and Y 2 , $ 2 and f' 2 = admittance, voltage and
current respectively, in the two impedances of the mono
cyclic starting device,
Fio. 42. — Threephase motor with monocyclic starting device.
/i, /] and /a = currents in the three motor circuits.
E ,, and /« = voltage and current of the quadrature circuit from
the common connection of the two impedances,
to the motor.
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
119
It is then, counting the voltages and currents in the direction
indicated by the arrows of Fig. 42:
substituting:
gives:
thus:
/o = J'i — I't = /* — h'y
/'* = EtYt,
I* = V>Y,
h = W,
l$\Yi — jpjl't = (#* ~ jFO F,
Ai Y t + Y
(81)
(82)
Zt Yt+Y
= m (cos 4> + j sin 0).
(83)
This gives the phase angle, <t>, between the voltages, #1 and #»,
of the monocyclic triangle. Since:
it is, by (83) :
Y t +Y
(84)
F, + F, + 2 F
Ki + r
Ki+ F, + 2F'
(85)
and the quadrature voltage:
c Fi  F,
~2F,+ F, + 2F (86)
and the total current input into the motor, inclusive starting
device:
/ = /'. + h + h
= ViY x + £,F + eY
,(Y l +Y)(Y i + F)
= e
+ Y
Yi+Y, + 2Y
= Y\Y t + 2 F(K, +_F 2 ) + 37*
" "7!+ F S _ +"2F"
(87)
As with the balanced threephase motor, the quadrature com
ponent of voltage numerically is « Vo, it is, when denoting by:
120
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Ee' the numerical value of the imaginary term of # ; the torque
ratio is:
<= 2B ;.' (^
The voltarnpere ratio is:
8 = 3i.
Si,
rims I he apparent startingtorque efficiency:
(89)
(90)
77. Three eases have become of special importance:
(a) The resistancereactance monocyclic starting device; where
one of the two impedances, Z, and Z t , is a resistance, the other an
inductance. This is the simplest and cheapest arrangement,
gives good starting torque, though a fairly high current consump
tion and therefore low startingtorque efficiency, and is therefore
very extensively used for starling singlephase induction motors.
After starting, the monocyclic device is cut out and the power
consumption due to the resistance, and depreciation of the power
factor due to the inductance, thereby avoided.
This device is discussed on page 333 of "Theoretical Elements
of Electrical Engineering" and page 253 of "Theory and Calcu
lation of Alternatingcurrent Phenomena."
(fe) The "condenser in the tertiary circuit," which may be
considered as a monocyclic starting device, in which one of the
two impedances is a capacity, the other one is infinity. The
capacity usually is made so as to approximately balance the mag
netizing current of the motor, is left in circuit after starting, as
it does not interfere with the operation, does not consume power,
and compensates for the lagging current of the motor, so that
the motor has practically unity powerfactor for all loads. This
motor gives a moderate starting torque, but with very good start
ingtorque efficiency, and therefore is the most satisfactory single
phase induction motor, where very high starting torque is not
needed. It was extensively used some years ago, but went out
of use due to the trouble with the condensers of these early days,
and it is therefore again coming into use, with the development
of the last years, of a satisfactory condenser.
(92)
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 121
The condenser motor is discussed on page 249 of " Theory and
Calculation of Alternatingcurrent Phenomena. ,,
(c) The condenserinductance monocyclic starting device.
By suitable values of capacity and inductance, a balanced three
phase triangle can be produced, and thereby a starting torque
equal to that of the motor on threephase voltage supply, with
an apparent startingtorque efficiency superior to that of the
threephase motor.
Assuming thus:
1\ = +jbi = capacity, 1 .
} r 2 = — j6 2 = inductance, J
Y = g  jb.
If the voltage triangle, e, E u # 2 , is a balanced threephase tri
angle, it is :
tfi«£(l jV3),
Substituting (91) and (92) into (83), and expanding gives:
(6,  6i + 26) a/3  j (6 2 + 6i  2g y/S) = 0;
thus :
6 2  6, + 2 b = 0,
62 + 61  2(7 V3 = 0;
hence :
bi = gy/S + b, \
62 = gy/3 ~ b)
thus, if:
b > g V3,
the second reactance, Z 2 , must be a capacity also; if
b<g \/3,
only the first reactance, Zi, is a capacity, but the second is an
inductance.
78. Considering, as an instance, a lowresistance motor, and a
highresistance motor:
(«) w
Y = g  jb = 1  3j, YgjbZj,
(93)
122 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
it is:
61 = 4.732, capacity, 61 = 6.196, capacity,
62 = —1.268, capacity, 6 2 = 4.196, inductance.
It is, by (86) and (92)
tfo>= (#2 E x ) =V3;
thus:
t = 1, as was to be expected,
/s = e(g  jb),
is = e vV + b 2
= 3.16 6;
it is, however, by (87) :
I = e(3gjb);
thus:
i = 4.243 e, i = 9.06 e,
and by (89) :
q = 0.448, g = 0.956,
thus:
v = 2.232, v = 1.046.
Further discussion of the various singlephase induction motor
starting devices, and also a discussion of the acceleration of the
motor with the starting device, and the interference or noninter
ference of the starting device with the quadrature flux and thus
torque produced in the motor by the rotation of the armature, is
given in a paper on the "Singlephase Induction Motor," A. I.
E. E. Transactions, 1898, page 35, and a supplementary paper on
"Notes on Singlephase Induction Motors," A. I. E. E. Trans
actions, 1900, page 25.
CHAPTER VI
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION AND STABILITY
1. VOLTAGE REGULATION AND OUTPUT
79. Load and speed curves of induction motors are usually
calculated and plotted for constantsupply voltage at the motor
terminals. In practice, however, this condition usually is only
approximately fulfilled, and due to the drop of voltage in the
stepdown transformers feeding the motor, in the secondary and
the primary supply lines, etc., the voltage at the motor terminals
drops more or less with increase of load. Thus, if the voltage
at the primary terminals of the motor transformer is constant,
and such as to give the rated motor voltage at fullload, at no
load the voltage at the motor terminals is higher, but at overload
lower by the voltage drop in the internal impedance of the trans
formers. If the voltage is kept constant in the center of distri
bution, the drop of voltage in the line adds itself to the imped
ance drop in the transformers, and the motor supply voltage
thus varies still more between noload and overload.
With a drop of voltage in the supply circuit between the point
of constant potential and the motor terminals, assuming the cir
cuit such as to give the rated motor voltage at fullload, the
voltage at noload and thus the exciting current is higher, the
voltage at overload and thus the maximum output and maximum
torque of the motor, and also the motor impedance current, that
is, current consumed by the motor at standstill, and thereby the
starting torque of the motor, are lower than on a constantpoten
tial supply. Hereby then the margin of overload capacity of the
motor is reduced, and the characteristic constant of the motor,
or the ratio of exciting current to shortcircuit current, is in
creased, that is, the motor characteristic made inferior to that
given at constant voltage supply, the more so the higher the
voltage drop in the supply circuit.
Assuming then a threephase motor having the following con
stants: primary exciting admittance, Y = 0.01 — 0.1 j; primary
selfinductive impedance, Z = 0.1 + 0.3 j; secondary self induc
123
124
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
tive impedance, Z, = 0.1 + 0.3 j; supply voltage, e = 110 volts,
and rated output, 5000 waits per phase.
Assuming this motor to be operated:
1. By transformers of about 2 per cent, resistance and 4 per
cent, reactance voltage, that is, transformers of good regulation,
with constant voltage at the transformer terminals.
2. By transformers of ahout 2 per cent, resistance and 15 per
cent, reactance voltage, that is, very poorly regulating trans
formers, at constant supply voltage at the transformer primaries.
3. With constant voltage at the generator terminals, and
about 8 per cent, resistance, 40 per cent, reactance voltage in
line and transformers between generator and motor.
This gives, in complex quantities, the impedance between the
motor terminals and the constant voltage supply:
1. Z  0.04 + 0.08 j,
2. Z = 0.04 + 0.3 j",
3. Z = 0.16 + 0.8,/.
It is assumed that the constant supply voltage is such u hi
give 1 10 volts at the motor terminals at FulHoad.
The load and speed curves of the motor, when operating under
these conditions, that is, with the impedance, Z, in series between
the motor terminals and the constant voltage supply, e., then can
be calculated from the motor characteristics at constant termi
nal voltage, e Bl as follows:
At slip, I, and constant terminal voltage, e a , the current in the
motor is i , its powerfactor p = cos 8. The effective or equiva
lent impedance of the motor at this slip then is z" = ., and, in
complex quantities, Z* = ." (cos + i Bin 0), and the total irn
pedance, including that of transformers and line, thus is:
Z x = Z° + Z = (?" cos 6 + r) + j(* sin + xj ,
or, in absolute values:
tl m .J(pcos0 4r)'+ (^sin0+j
and, at the supply voltage, e ,, the current thus is
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION 125
and the voltage at the motor terminals is:
e'o = z°i'i = e t .
Si
If e a is the voltage required at the motor terminals at fullload,
and io the current, zi° the total impedance at fullload, it is:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
V 0.01 0,1 j Z 0.1 +0.3)
TRANSFORMED IMPEDANCE 2(T 0.04+O.OBj
CONSTANT PRIMARY POTENTIAL 114.1 VOLTS
/
1
/
/
t.
...
T»
M
.13
/
/
■S
m
>
_n.
7^
/
/
<
V
^
/
rf,
/
/
f
31
>
X
Ji !
si . n
a
oo
o 110 volts at motor
hence, the required constant supply voltage is:
and the speed and torque curves of the motor under this condi
tion then are derived from those at constant supply voltage, e<,,
by multiplying all voltages and currents by the factor "> that
is, by the ratio of the actual terminal voltage to the fullload
terminal voltage, and the torque and power by multiplying with
126 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the square of this ratio, while the powerfactors and the efficien
cies obviously remain unchanged.
In this manner, in the three cases assumed in the preceding,
the load curves are calculated, and are plotted in Figs, 43, 44,
and 45.
80. It is seen that, even with transformers of good regulation,
Fig. 43, the maximum torque and the maximum power are ap
YOmO.ijo Z0.1 + <Mj
TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE, Z 0.04 +0.3)
CONSTANT PRtMARV POTENTIAL 121 VOLTS
t
'.,
/
/
—
~^_
ii
M,
/
TW
/
m
m
■"■'
id
/
_)
/
/
■'
/
/
/
A
«S
/
7
•
..;"
lMi
H
,
,,
Fio. 44.—
preciably
nal volta
torque at
In Fig
of the m
three ca
secondar
Fig. 48 f
si stance
former i
ndnd ionmotor load curves) corresponding to 110 volti
li'H ii iii;i l.s at 5000 watts load.
reduced. The values corresponding to consta
£e are shown, for the part of the curves near rr
d maximum power, in Figs. 43, 44, and 45.
. 46, 47, 48, and 49 are given the specdtorqii
otor, for constant terminal voltage, Z — 0,
es above discussed; in Fig. 46 for short<
es, or running condition; in Fig. 47 for 0.15
:>r 0.5 ohm; and in Fig. 49 for 1.5 ohms addii
nserted in the armature. As seen, the line ai
mpedance very appreciably lowers the tore
at motor
it termi
aximum
c curves
and the
ircuited
ohm; in
tonal re
d trans
ue, and
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION 127
v acio.ij i 0,1 +0Ji
CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE. Z,.L6*.SJ
CONSTANT OEHEBATOR POTENTIAL l*4.B VOLTS
*
#■>)
'
C£
■"
»*r
■T,
■,.
/
/
nn
^
1D0
"
1 =
—
/
•>
1/
N
/
*;
W
f
/
^
/
m
_.
y
/
ST X"
i
c
«
1
t«;
^o$*
ft**"
1.0 (1
it
DA**
FWOT
.,,,
;»■»

1 .i
128 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
especially the starting torque, which, with shortcircuited arma
ture, in the case 3 drops to about onethird the value given at
constant supply voltage.
3?
i£*"
_o
»*^
tji*
1o^i
si*
i^
\
\
\
ill (
"■'"
n
I
, )
Fig. 47. — Inductionmotor speed torque characteristics with a resistance o
0. 15 onm in secondary circuit.

S2
^
.
"ST
is*
£S5i
»j_
—
^5
o*i_

>*
i"i
1*^1
.."■;
Fifl. 48. — Induct ion motor speed turque characterise ch with a resistance of
0.5 ohm in secondary circuit.
It is interesting to note that, in Fig. 48, with a secondary
resistance giving maximum torque in starting, at constant tcr
INDUCTION MOTOR REGULATION
129
rainal voltage, with high impedance in the supply, the starting
torque drops so much that the maximum torque is shifted to
about half synchronism.
In induction motors, especially at overloads ami in starting,
it therefore is important to have as low impedance as pos
sible between the point of constant voltage and the motor
terminals.
_>j^_
\^&%
°yo^?I
L.K! g
I
p Friction of Synchroniwn
with a resistance of
In Table I the numerical values of maximum power, maxi
mum torque, starting torque, exciting current and starting
current are given for above motor, at constant terminal voltage
and for the three values of impedance in the supply lines, for
such supply voltage as to give the rated motor voltage of 110
volts at full load and for 1 10 volts supply, voltage. In the first
case, maximum power and torque drop down to their fullload
values with the highest line impedance, and far below fullload
values in the latter case.
130
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
P
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INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION 131
3. FREQUENCY PULSATION
81. If the frequency of the voltage supply pulsates with
sufficient rapidity that the motor speed can not appreciably
follow the pulsations of frequency, the motor current and torque
also pulsate; that is, if the frequency pulsates by the fraction,
p, above and below the normal, at the average slip, s, the actual
slip pulsates between s + p and a — p, and motor current and
=
=■

^pts
uw
^ ^^J '^
isV*i ix
*!vS
\
\ y§
j«fe
 r
V.
^„
s^
ft
\\
Hd
\
5;
^
k
V,
**
"'
^
\
N
yo.oio.ij Zgo.i*ojj z, 0.0540
ISJ\
\
OR i PERCE
HT
^
yp
Tin.
riF.
;;
ior.o
i r,,.»
:1 ,, l M..o'»«M);».«.r/.!l] l r 1 i.i: 1 ».; l
Fig. 50. — Effect of Frequency Pulsation on Induction Motor.
torque pulsate between the values corresponding to the slips,
s + p and 8 — p. If then the average slip s < p, at minimum
frequency, the actual slip, a — p, becomes negative; that is, the
motor momentarily generates and returns energy.
As instance are shown, in Fig. 50, the values of current and
of torque for maximum and minimum frequency, and for the
average frequency, for p = 0.025, that is, 2.5 per cent, pulsa
tion of frequency from the average. As seen, the pulsation of
current is moderate until synchronism is approached, but be
132
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
comes very large near synchronism, and from slip, s = 0.025, op
to synchronism the average current remains practically con
stant, thus at synchronism is very much higher than the current
at constant Frequency. The average torque also drops some
what below the torque corresponding to constant frequency,
as shown in the upper pari of Fig. 50.
3. LOAD AND STABILITY
82. At constant voltage and constant frequency the torque
of the polyphase induction motor is a maximum at some definite
speed and decreases with increase of speed over that correspond
ing to the maximum torque, to zero at synchronism; it also de
ereases with decrease of speed from that at the maximum torque
point, to a minimum at standstill, the starting torque. This
maximum torque point shifts toward lower speed with increase
of the resistance in the secondary circuit, and the starting torque
thereby increases. Without additional resistance inserted in
the secondary circuit the maximum torque point, however, lies
at fairly high speed not very far below synchronism, 10 to 20
per cent, below synchronism with smaller motors of good effi
ciency. Any value of torque between the starting torque and
the maximum torque is reached at two different speeds. Thus
in a threephase motor having the following constants: impressed
e.m.f., eg = 110 volts: exciting admittance, 1" ~ 0.01 — OAj;
primary impedance, Z v = 0.1+ 0.3 j, and secondary impedance,
Z\ = 0.1 + 0.3 j, the torque of 5.5 synchronous kw. is reached
at. 54 per cent, of synchronism and also at the speed of 94 per
cent, of synchronism, as seen in Fig. 51.
When connected to a load requiring a constant torque, irre
spective of the speed, as when pumping water against a constant
head by reciprocating pumps, the motor thus could carry the
load :tl two different speeds, the two points of intersection of the
horizontal Hue, L, in Fig. 51. which represents the torque con
sumed by the load, and the motortorque curve, O. Of these
two points, d and r, the lower one, rf, represents unstable con
ditions of operation; that is, the motor can not operate n tln
speed, but either stops or runs up to the higher speed point, C,
at which stability is reached. At the lower speed, d, a momen
tary decrease of speed, as by a small pulsation of voltage, load,
etc., decreases the motor torque, D, below the torque, L, required
by the load, thus causes the motor to slow down, but in doing
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
13,1
so its torque further decreases, and it slows down still more,
loses more torque, etc., until it comes to a standstill. Inversely,
a momentary increase of speed increases the motor torque, D,
beyond the torque, L, consumed by the load, and thereby causes
an acceleration, that is, an increase of speed. This increase of
speed, however, increases the motor torque and thereby the
speed still further, and so on, and the motor increases in speed
up to the point, c, where the motor torque, D, again becomes
/
^ . 9
l ~/  d/y «\y
^zzzzzzzi
HI 02 03 <w OK OG 07 OB 09 1.0
Flu. 61. — Speed torque elianieteristies of induction motor nnd lorul for
tic termination of the slnbility point;
equal to the torque consumed by the load. A momentary in
crease of speed beyond c decreases the motor torque, D, and thus
limits itself, and inversely a momentary decrease of speed below
c increases the motor torque, D, beyond L, thus accelerates and
recovers the speed ; that is, at c the motor speed is stable.
With a load requiring constant torque the induction motor
thus is unstable at speeds below that of the maximum torque
point, but stable above it; that is, the motor curve consists of
two branches, an unstable branch, from standstill, /, to the maxi
134
ELBt 'TRIt Wh AFP A RAT IS
mum torque point, m, and a stable branch, from the maximum
torque point., m, to synchronism.
83. It must be realized, however, that this instability of the
lower branch of the inductionmotor speed curve is a function of
the nature of the load, and as described above applies only to a
luad requiring a constant torque, L, Such a load the motor
could not start (except by increasing the motor torque at low
speeds by resistance in the secondary), but when brought up to
a speed above d would carry the load at speed, c, in Fig. 51.
If, however, the load on the motor is such as to require a
torque which increases with the square of the speed, as shown
by curve, C, in Fig. 51, that is, consists of a constant part p
(friction of bearings, etc.) and a quadratic part, as when driving
a ship's propeller or driving a centrifugal pump, then the induc
tion motor is stable over the entire range of speed, from standstill
to synchronism. The motor then starts, with the load repre
sented by curve C, and runs up to speed, c. At a higher load,
represented by curve B, the motor runs up to speed, b, and with
excessive overload, curve A, the motor would run up to low
speed, point a, only, but no overload of such nature would stop
the motor, but merely reduce its speed, and inversely, it would
always start, but at excessive overloads run at low speed only.
Thus in this case no unstable branch of the motor curve exists,
hut it is stable over the entire range.
With a load requiring a torque which increases proportionally
to the speed, as shown by C in Fig. 52, that is, which consists
of a constant part., p, and a part proportional to the speed, as
when driving a directcurrent generator at constant excitation,
connected to a constant resistance as load — as a lighting sys
tem — the motor always starts, regardless of the load — provided
that the constant, part of the torque, », is less than the starting
torque. With moderate load, C, the motor runs up to a speed,
c, near synchronism. With very heavy load, A, the motor starts,
but runs up to a low speed only. Especially interesting is the
case of an intermediary load as represented by line B in Fig.
52. B intersects the motortorque curve, />, in three points,
6i, 6i, by, that is, three speeds exist at which the motor gives the
torque required by the load: 24 per cent., 00 per cent., and $S
per cent, of synchronism. The speeds b, and b s are stable, the
speed bi unstable. Thus, with this load the motor starts from
standstill, but does not run up to a speed near synchronism, but
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
135
accelerates only to speed b u and keeps revolving at this low
speed (and a correspondingly very large current). If, however,
the load is taken off and the motor allowed to run up to syn
chronism or near to it, and the load then put on, the motor slows
down only to speed b ( , and carries the load at this high speed;
hence, the motor can revolve continuously at two different speeds,
61 and b%, and either of these speeds is stable; that is, a momen
tary increase of speed decreases the motor torque below that
:•
»,
A
y.
/
'•
K
n"*
T
//
<T
C,
\
D
A6
^T
1
*
1 ft
; a
.'. u
1 i
; <
u
s
'.' 1
FlO. 52. — Speed torque characteristics of induotioD motor and load for
determination of the stability point.
required by the load, and thus limits itself, and inversely a de
crease of motor speed increases its torque beyond that correspond
ing to the load, and thus restores the speed. At the intermediary
speed, 6i, the conditions are unstable, and a momentary increase
of speed causes the motor to accelerate up to speed fej, a momen
tary decrease of speed from b\ causes the motor to bIow down to
speed 61, where it becomes stable again. In the speed range
between Oj and J>j the motor thus accelerates up to 61, in the
speed range between b t and 61 it slows down to b,.
For this character of load, the inductionmotor speed curve,
D, thus has two stable branches, a lower one, from standstill, t,
to the point n, and an upper one, from point m to synchronism,
136 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
where m and n are the points of contact of the tangents from the
required starting torque, p, on to the motor curve, Z>; these two
stable branches are separated by the unstable branch, from n to
m, on which the motor can not operate.
84. The question of stability of motor speed thus is a func
tion not only of the motorspeed curve but also of the characler
of the load in its relation to the motorspeed curve, and if the
change of motor torque with the change of speed is less than the
change of the torque required by the load, the condition is stable,
otherwise it is unstable; that is, it must lie . < ' to give
stability, where L is the torque required by the load at speed, S
'\
D
/
/
/
/
/
/
t
1
i i
2
1 u
i (
1
1
7
1 ■
J 1
Fin. 5.
Occas
seated
that the
speed,
phase in
to syncl
crease in
speed c
torques
constant
middle c
converte
.— Spci'illurqui' rliiiriirtcriMtii 1 nf .;iin;Ii*ilmse induct
mally on polyphase induction motors on a loa
l Fig. 52 this phenomenon is observed in
motor can start the load but can not brin
VI ore frequently, however, it is observed
duction motors in which the maximum torqu
ronism, with some forms of starting devices
their effect with increasing speed and thus g
laracteristics of forms similar to Fig. 53
iced curve as shown in Fig. 53, even at a loat
torque, three speed points may exist of
ne is unstable. In polyphase synchronous n
rs, when starting by alternating current, t
in motor,
1 as icpn
tbe form
i it up io
>n single
i? is nearer
which de
ve motor
With a
requiring
which the
lotors and
lat is, as
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION 137
induction machines, the phenomenon is frequently observed that
the machine starts at moderate voltage, but does not run up to
synchronism, but stops at an intermediary speed, in the neighbor
hood of half speed, and a considerable increase of voltage, and
thereby of motor torque, is required to bring the machine beyond
the dead point, or rather "dead range," of speed and make it
run up to synchronism. In this case, however, the phenomenon
is complicated by the effects due to varying magnetic reluctance
(magnetic locking), inductor machine effect, etc.
Instability of such character as here described occurs in elec
tric circuits in many instances, of which the most typical is the
electric arc in a constantpotential supply. It occurs whenever
the effect produced by any cause increases the cause and thereby
becomes cumulative. When dealing with energy, obviously
the effect must always be in opposition to the cause (Lenz's
Law), as result of the law of conservation of energy. When
dealing with other phenomena, however, as the speedtorque
relation or the voltampere relation, etc., instability due to the
effect assisting the cause, intensifying it, and thus becoming
cumulative, may exist, and frequently does exist, and causes
either indefinite increase or decrease, or surging or hunting, as
more fully discussed in Chapters X and XI, of " Theory and
Calculation of Electric Circuits/ '
1 4. GENERATOR REGULATION AND STABILITY
86. If the voltage at the inductionmotor terminals decreases
with increase of load, the maximum torque and output are de
creased the more the greater the drop of voltage. But even if
the voltage at the induction motor terminals is maintained con
stant, the maximum torque and power may bo reduced essen
tially, in a manner depending on the rapidity with which the
voltage regulation at changes of load is effected by the generator
or potential regulator, which maintains constancy of voltage, and
the rapidity with which the motor speed can change, that is,
the mechanical momentum of the motor and its load.
This instability of the motor, produced by the generator
regulation, may be discussed for the case of a load requiring
constant torque at all loads, though the corresponding pheno
menon may exist at all classes of load, as discussed under 3,
and may occur even with a load proportional to the square of
the speed, as ship propellors.
138
ELECTRICAL M'PARA TVS
The torque curve of the induction motor at constant terminal
voltage consists of two branches, a stable branch, from the
maximum torque point to synchronism, and an unstable branch,
that is, a branch at which the motor can not operate on a load
requiring constant torque, from standstill to maximum torque.
With increasing slip, s, the current, i, in the motor increases. If
then D = torque of the motor, ,. is positive on the stable,
negative on the unstable branch of the motor curve, anil this
rate of change of the torque, with change of current, expf nm ed
as fraction of the current, is:
, _ 1 dD
* ~ D di'
it may be called the stability coefficient of the motor.
If k, is positive, an increase of i, caused by an increase of
slip, a, that is, by a decrease of speed, increases the torque, D, and
thereby checks the decrease of speed, and inversely, that is, the
motor is stable.
If, however, k, is negative, an increase of i causes a decrease
of D, thereby a decrease of speed, and thus further increase of j
and decrease of D; that is, the motor slows down with increas
ing rapidity, or inversely, with a decrease of t, accelerates with
increasing rapidity, that is, is unstable.
For the motor used as illustration in the preceding, of the
constants c = 110 volts; Y = 0.01  0.1 j; Z  0.1 f 0.3 j,
Zi = 0.1 + 0.3 j, the stability curve is shown, together with
speed, current, and torque, in Fig. 54, as function of the output.
As seen, the stability coefficient, k„ is very high for lightload,
decreases first rapidly and then slowly, until an output of 7000
watts is approached, and then rapidly drops below zero; that is,
the motor becomes unstable and drops out of step, and speed,
torque, and current change abruptly, as indicated by the arrows
in Fig. 54.
The stability coefficient, k„ characterizes the behavior of the
motor regarding its loadcarrying capacity. Obviously, if the
terminal voltage of the motor is not constant, but drops with
the load, as discussed in 1, a different stability coefficient results,
which intersects the zero line at a different and lower torque.
86. If the induction motor is supplied with constant terminal
voltage from a generator of close inherent voltage regulation
INDUCTION MOTOR REGULATION
13!)
and of & size very large compared with the motor, over a supply
circuit of negligible impedance, so that a sudden change of
motor current can not produce even a momentary tendency of
change of the terminal voltage of the motor, the stability curve,
k„ of Fig. 54 gives the performance of the motor. If, however,
II 1 1 1 1 1 1
\
'.Iv
Y0.Q1O.lj ZO.l + OJj
CONSTANT POTENTIAL HO VOLTS
GENERATOR IMPEDANCE Z0.OZ0.Sj
l>
TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE I0.0**0.1j
1*
9
STABILITY COEFFICIENT OF MOTOR i,l
STABILITY COEFFICIENT OF SYSTEM k,k*
MAXIMUM OUTPUT POINT •
f
.<*
±>
/
rt
ja
»,
A
E
/
1
i
//
m
%
.,,
v.
/
\
\
\
J
so
:
■is*
1
**»
/
N
«.
n
r
/
3D
/
<i
V
«.
/
/
. —
V
^
/
/
>
M
""",.
',"
a
oi

>.. ,
„
Fio. 54. — Induct ionmotor loud curves.
at a change of load and thus of motor current the regulation
of the supply voltage to constancy at the motor terminals re
quires a finite time, even if this time is very short, the maximum
output of the motor is reduced thereby, the more so the more
rapidly the motor speed can change.
Assuming the voltage control at the motor terminals effected
140
ELECTRICAL APPARA TVS
by hand regulation of the generator or the potential regulator
in the circuit supplying the motor, or by any other method which
is slower than the rate at which the motor speed can adjust itself
to a change of load, then, even if the supply voltage at the
motor terminals is kept, constant, for a momentary RuctOBtaon
of motor speed and current, the supply voltage mom e nta ri ly
varies, and with regard to its stability the motor corresponds
not to the condition of constant supply voltage but to a supply
voltage which varies with the current, hence the limit of stability
is reached at a lower value of motor torque.
"At constant slip, s, the motor torque, D, is proportional to the
square of the impressed e.m.f., e 1 . If by a variation of slip
caused by a fluctuation of load the motor current, i, varies by di,
if the terminal voltage, e, remains constant the motor torque, D,
varies by the fraction k, = ,, ..> or the stability coefficient of
the motor. If, however, by the variation of current, di, the
impressed e.m.f., e, of the motor varies, the motor torque, D,
being proportional to e ! , still further changes, proportion*! to
1 de* 2 de
the change e ! , that is, bv the fraction k,= —„ p =  ,.• anrl the
'  e* di e d%
total change of motor torque resultant from a change, di. of the
current, i, thus is k = k. + k r .
Hence, if a momentary fluctuation of current causes a momen
tary fluctuation of voltage, the stability coefficient of the motor
is changed from k, to k n = k, + fc„ and as k, is negative, . the
voltage, e, decreases with increase of current, i, the stability
coefficient of the system is reduced by the effect of voltage regu
lation of the supply, '.,, and k r thus can be called the regulation
coefficient «f the system.
k r = ,. thus represents the change of torque produced by
the momentary voltage change resulting from a current change
di in the system; hence, is essentially a characteristic of the
supply system and its regulation, but depends upon the motor
de
only in so far as .. depends tijmn the powerfactor of the load.
In Fig. 54 is shown the regulation coefficient, k,, of the supply
system of the motor, at 110 volts maintained constant at the
motor terminals, and an impedance, Z = 0.16 + 0.8 j, between
motor terminals and supply e.m.f. As seen, the regulation
coefficient of the system drops from a maximum of about 0.03,
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION 141
at noload, down to about 0.01, and remains constant at this
latter value, over a very wide range.
The resultant stability coefficient, or stability coefficient of the
system of motor and supply, A = k n + k n as shown in Fig. 54,
thus drops from very high values at lightload down to zero at
the load at which the curves, k, and fc r , in Fig. 54 intersect, or
at 5800 kw., and there become negative; that is, the motor drops
out of step, although still far below its maximum torque point,
as indicated by the arrows in Fig. 54.
Thus, at constant voltage maintained at the motor terminals
by some regulating mechanism which is slower in its action than
the retardation of a motorspeed change by its mechanical
momentum, the motor behaves up to 5800 watts output in
exactly the .same manner as if its terminals were connected
directly to an unlimited source of constant voltage supply, but
at this point, where the slip is only 7 per cent, in the present
instance, the motor suddenly drops out of step without previous
warning, and comes to a standstill, while at inherently constant
terminal voltage the motor would continue to operate up to
7000 watts output, and drop out of step at 8250 synchronous
watts torque at 16 per cent. slip.
By this phenomenon the maximum torque of the motor thus
is reduced from 8250 to 6300 synchronous watts, or by nearly
25 per cent.
87. If the voltage regulation of the supply system is more
rapid than the speed change of the motor as retarded by the
momentum of motor and load, the regulation coefficient of the
system as regards to the motor obviously is zero, and the motor
thus gives the normal maximum output and torque. If the
regulation of the supply voltage, that is, the recovery of the
terminal voltage of the motor with a change of current, occurs at
about the same rate as the speed of the motor can change with
a change of load, then the maximum output as limited by the
stability coefficient of the system is intermediate between the
minimum value of 6300 synchronous watts and its normal value
of 8250 synchronous watts. The more rapid the recovery of
the voltage and the larger the momentum of motor and load,
the less is the motor output impaired by this phenomenon of
instability. Thus, the loss of stability is greatest with hand
regulation, less with automatic control by potential regulator,
the more so the more rapidly the regulator works; it is very little
142
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
with compounderl alternators, and absent where the motor
terminal voltage remains constant without any control by prac
tically unlimited generator capacity and absence of voltage drop
between generator and motor.
Comparing the stability coefficient, h„ of the motor load and
the stability coefficient, ko, of the entire system under the assumed
conditions of operation of Fig. 54, it is seen that the former
intersects the zero tine very steeply, that is, the stability remains
high until very close to the maximum torque point, and the motor
thus can be loaded up close to its maximum torque without
impairment of stability. The curve, k , however, intersects the
zero fine under a sharp angle, that is, long before the limit of
stability is reached in this case the stability of the system has
dropped so close to zero that the motor may drop out of step by
some momentary pulsation. Thus, in the case of instability due
to the regulation of the system, the maximum output [joint, as
found by test, is not definite and sharply defined, but the stability
gradually decreases to zero, and during this decrease the motor
drops out at some point. Experimentally the difference l>etween
the dropping out by approach to the limits of stability of the
motor proper and that of the system of supply is very marked
by the indefiniteness of the latter.
In testing induction motors it thus is necessary to guard
against this phenomenon by raising the voltage l>eyond normal
before every increase of load, and then gradually decrease the
voltages again to normal.
A serious reduction of the overload capacity of the motor, due
to the regulation of the system, obviously occurs only at very
high impedance of the supply circuit; with moderate impedance
the curve, It, is much lower, and the intersection between fc, and
k, occurs still on the steep part of k„ and the output thus is not
materially decreased, but merely the stability somewhat reduced
when approaching maximum output.
This phenomenon of the impairment of stability of the induc
tion motor by the regulation of the supply voltage is of prac
tical importance, as similar phenomena occur in many instances.
Thus, with synchronous motors and converters the regulation
of the supply system exerts a similar effect on the overload
capacity, and reduces the maximum output so that the motor
drops out of step, or starts surging, due to the approach to the
stability limit of the entire system. In this case, with syn
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION 143
chronous motors and converters, increase of their field excita
tion frequently restores their steadiness by producing leading
currents and thereby increasing the powercarrying capacity
of the supply system, while with surging caused by instability
of the synchronous motor the leading currents produced by
increase of field excitation increase the surging, and lowering the
field excitation tends toward steadiness.
CHAPTER VII
HIGHER HARMONICS IN INDUCTION MOTORS
88. The usual theory and calculation of induction motors,
.■is discussed in '* Theoretical Elements of Electrical Enginccr
ing" and in "Theory and Calculation of Alternatingcurrent
Phenomena," is based on the assumption of the sine wave. That
U, it is assumed that the voltage impressed upon the motor
per phase, and therefore the magnetic flux and the current, KM
sine waves, and it is further assumed, that the distribution of
the winding on the circumference of the armature or primary,
is sinusoidal in space. While in most eases this is sufficicntly
the ease, it is not always so, and especially the space or airgap
distribution of the magnetic flux may sufficiently differ from sine
shape, to exert an appreciable effect on the torque at lower
speeds, and require consideration where motor action and
braking action with considerable power is required throughout
the entire range of speed.
Let then:
r — i j i cos * + e» cos (3 * — a,) + es cos (5 * — at) 4 e? cos
(7*  a) + e, cos (9 *  a„) + . . . (1)
be the voltage impressed uhjn one phase of the induction motor.
If the motor is a quarterpha.se motor, the voltage of the
second motor phase, which lags 90° or behind the first motor
phase, is:
= e,eos^« gj + c 3
+ 8) eos (?
3*
cos(.5«
•(♦$■
A 3 * 
1 . cost 3 <t>  «■( + * } ) + e t coalS <t> 
+ «odb(7#«t + 5) + *«*(&* ■•£) + ■ • ■ W
The magnetic flux produced by these (wo voltages thus con
sists of a series of component fluxes, corresponding respective]]
HIGHER HARMONICS 145
to the successive components. The secondary currents induced
by these component fluxes, and the torque produced by the
secondary currents, thus show the same components.
Thus the motor* torque consists of the sum of a series of
components:
The main or fundamental torque of the motor, given by the
usual sinewave theory of the induction motor, and due to the
fundamental voltage wave:
ei cos ]
Iju *\ ( 3 )
d cos \<t> ~ 2)
is shown as T\ in Fig. 55, of the usual shape, increasing from
standstill, with increasing speed, up j to a maximum torque, and
then decreasing again to zero at synchronism.
The third harmonics of the voltage waves are :
e 3 cos(3 — a 3 ), j
e 3 cos(3 0 «» + 5)   (4)
As seen, these also constitute a quarterphase system of
voltage, but the second wave, which is lagging in the funda
mental, is 90° leading in the third harmonic, or in other words,
the third harmonic gives a backward rotation of the poles with
triple frequency. It thus produces a torque in opposite direc
tion to the. fundamental, and would reach its synchronism, that
is, zero torque, at onethird of synchronism in negative direction,
or at the speed <S, = — J£, given in fraction of synchronous speed.
For backward rotation above onethird synchronism, this triple
harmonic then gives an induction generator torque, and the
complete torque curve given by the third harmonics thus is as
shown by curve T* of Fig. 55.
The fifth harmonics:
6 6 cos (5 — a 6 ), 
e b cos ^5 05  a&  2)
give again phase rotation in the same direction as the funda
mental, that is, motor torque, and assist the fundamental. But
synchronism is reached at onefifth of the synchronous speed of
the fundamental, or at: S = +}i } and above this speed, the
10
14(i ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
fifth harmonic becomes induction, genera tor, due to overayn
chronous rotation, and retards. Its torque curve is shown as
7\ in Fig. 55.
The seventh harmonic again gives negative torque, due to
backward phase rotation of the phases, and reaches synchronism
at S = — Jj, that is, oneseventh speed in backward rotation,
as shown by curve T, in Fig. 55.
„
DT(
.
1
N^
■T
OK
= HASE
3
^
, I
%
s
\ f
s
b
T ',
\t
j
\
I
<T
T,
A'
\
J3"
—
T,
1
*
1
Flo. 55. — Quarti'rplmsr imliirtinii riintnr, I'diiipoiiiiil harmonica mid
resultant torque.
The ninth harmonic again gives positive motor torque up to
its synchronism, 5 = %, and above this negative induction
generator torque, etc.
We then have the effects of the various harmonics on the
QUAIITERI'HASE INDUCTION MlJTOR
1 ■(
+ i H
+ll 
5
+
+ '.
7
9
+
+ '»
+J6
11 is
+
H, + ',.
 +K.
Synchronous
Torque positrt
otherwise n
peed: S . . . .
i'Uj.i tu; .. = .
galive.
HIGHER HARMONICS
147
Adding now the torque curves of the various voltage harmonics,
Tz, 7\, T7, to the fundamental torque curve, 7\, of the induction
motor, gives the resultant torque curve, T.
As seen from Fig. 55, if the voltage harmonics are consider
able, the torque curve of the motor at lower speeds, forward
and backward, that is, when used as brake, is rather irregular,
showing depressions or "dead points."
89. Assume now, the general voltage wave (1) is one of the
threephase voltages, and is impressed upon one of the phases
of a threephase induction motor. The second and third
phase then is lagging by « and « respectively behind the first
phase (1):
e' = ei cos \6  3 ~ J + e 8 cos (3 £  a 8 )
+ e h cos (5  ■•„*  a b J + e 7 cos \7 <t>  *  a 7 )
18 IT
(6)
+ e 9 cos(90 Q ir ~ a »)+ •
= 61 cos (0 — « J + e% cos (3 4> — a 8 )
+ e b cos (5  a 5 + q~) + e 7 cos ( 7 <t>  a 7  ^ J
+ e 9 cos (9 4> — ag) + .
e" = 61 cos ( — s J + e 8 cos (3 — a 8 )
+ e& cos (5 — «* + ■ 3*) + e 7 cos ( 7  a 7  « j
+ e 9 cos (9 4> — ag) + •
Thus the voltage components of different frequency, impressed
upon the three motor phases, are :
ei cos *
rj COR
n cos
e? cos
r* cos
(3 4>  a a )
(5*  a 4 )
(7*  a;)
(9 *  a»)
ei cos
/ 2t\
ft cos
es cos
/ 2t\
e 7 cos
/
2 f \
r» cos
(♦t)
(3  oa)
^♦« + j
17*  ai
t)
(9  a.)
ei cos
(¥)
f 3 cos
(3  ai)
f 5 cos
( 5 *°' + V)
ei 00s
(7*  ai
t)
n cos
(9  a»)
\ /
Fundamental....
1
3d
\ /
5th
7th
9th
148 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
As spm, in this case of the threephase motor, the third
harmonics have no phase rotation, but are in phase with each
other, or singlephase voltages. The fifth harmonic gives
backward phase rotation, and thus negative torque, while the
seventh harmonic has the same phase rotation, as the funda
menlal, thus adds its torque up to its synchronous speed, S =
+ \i, and above this gives negative or generator torque. The
ninth harmonic again is singlephase.
Fig. 56 shows the Fundamental torque, 5ft, the higher harmonics
,..!.
•"
s
i
T,,
1
THREE PHA
INDUCTION UIC
E
TO
1
\
\i
s
*T
n
T
v3
^
T t
~\ r
T ;
T[
'
Fig. 56. — HtrBCph;ini> inilii<t.inn motor, component harmonica and
resultant torque.
of torque, T& ami 5T ; , and the resultant torque, T. As seen, the
distortion of the torque curve is materially less, due In 1 lie
absence, in Fig. 50, of the third harmonic torque.
However, while the third harmonic (and its multiples) in the
threephase system of voltages are in phase, thus give no phase
rotation, they may give torque, as a singlephase induction motor
has torque, at speed, though al standstill the torque is eero.
Fig. 57 Ii shows diagrammatical ly, as T, the development of
the airgap distribution of a hue threephase winding, such as
used in synchronous converters, etc. Each phase 1, 2, 3, coi an
onethird of the pitch of a pair of poles or 5, of the upper layer,
HIGHER HARMONICS
149
and its return, 1', 2', 3', covers another third of the circumference
of two poles, in the lower layer of the armature winding, 180°
away from 1, 2, 3. However, this type of true threephase wind
ing is practically never used in induction or synchronous machines,
but the type of winding is used, which is shown as S, in Fig.
57 C. This is in reality a sixphase winding: each of the three
e
Uddt
N
i;
2'
2o
r
2'
■
2'
1o 3' 2' a
I
KCffl
N
2o
1
mm a
r
2'
'' ^« a
2
3
i'
r 3; 2'
3'
3 2
i; 3' 2i
£
MtttMtt
K
^ B
r
W
^_l
r 3' ft 2'
77
& c
Fig. 57. — Current distribution at air gap of induction motor, fundamental
and harmonics.
phases, 1, 2, 3, covers only onesixth of the pitch of a pair of
poles, or ~ or 60°, and between the successive phases is placed
the opposite phase, connected in the reverse direction. Thus
the return conductors of phases 1,2, 3 of the upper layer, are
shown in the lower layer as 1', 2', 3'; in the upper layer, above
1', 2', 3', is placed again the phase 1, 2, 3, but connected in the
reverse direction, and indicated as 1 , 2o, 3o. As 1 is connected
in the reverse direction to 1, and 1' is the return of 1, lo is in
150 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
phase with I', and the return of I..: I'o, is in the lower layer, in
phase with, and beneath I. Tims the phase rotation is: 1,3,
2, 1,3, 2, 1, etc.
For comparison, Fig. 57 .4 shows the usual quarterphase
winding, Q, of the same general type as the winding, Fig.' 57 C.
If then the three third harmonics of 1, 2 and 3 are in phase
with each other, for these third harmonics the true threephase
winding, T, gives the phase diagram shown as 7*» in Fig. 57 D.
As seen, the current flows in one direction, singlephase, through
out the entire upper layer, and in the opposite direction in the
lower layer, anil thus its magnetizing action neutralizes, that is,
there can be no third' harmonic flux in the true threephase
winding.
The third harmonic diagram of the customary sixphase ar
rangement of threephase winding, S, is shown as iS 3 in Fig. 57
E. As seen, in this case alternately the singlephase third har
monic current flows in one direction for 60° or „. and in the
opposite direction for the next „. In other words, a singlephase
m.m.f. and single phase flux exists, of three times as many poles
:is the fundamental flux.
Thus, with the usual threephase inductionmotor winding,
a third harmonic in the voltage wave produces a singlephase
triple harmonic flux of three times the number of motor poles,
and this gives a singlephase motortorque curve, that is, a torque
which, starting with zero at standstill, increases to a maximum
in positive direction or assisting, and then decreases again to zero
at its synchronous speed, and above this, becomes negative as
singlephase inductiongenerator torque. Triple frequency with
three times the number of poles gives a synchronous speed of
S = +}(>. That is, the third harmonic in a threephase vol
tage may give a singlephase motor torque with a synchronous
speed of oneninth that of the fundamental torque, and in cither
direction, as shown as Tj in dotted lines, in Fig. 56.
As usually the third harmonic is absent in threephase vol
tages, such a triple harmonic singlephase torque, as shown
dotted in Fig. 56, is of rare occurrence: it could occur only in a
fourwire threephase system, that is, system containing the
three phasewires and the neutral.
90. All the torque components produced by the higher har
monics of the voltage wave have the same number of motor poles
HIGHER HARMONICS
151
as the fundamental (except the singlephase third harmonic
above discussed, and its multiples, which have three times as
/ \_ ! /_ 8INE
 Q0
 S0
To
Qfc
r £ V is \
II^L^,— r JZI sVs
Q'/i . J. \
Q'A L
iznzr
ZL s'/t
£\
Fig. 58. — Current and flux distribution in inductionmotor air gap, with
different types of windings.
many motor poles), but a lower synchronous speed, due to their
higher frequency.
Torque harmonics may also occur, having the fundamental
152
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
frequency, but higher number of pairs of poles than the Funda
mental, and thus lower synchronous speeds, doe to the deviation
of the space distribution of the motor winding from sine,
The fundamental motor torque, I\, of Figs. 55 and 56, is given
by ft sine wave of voltage and thus of flux, if the winding of each
phase is distributed around the circumference of the motor air
gap in a sinusoidal manner, as shown as F under " Sine," in Fig.
58, and the flux distribution of each phase around the circum
ference of the air gap is sinusoidal also, as shown as * under
"Sine," in Fig. 58.
This, however, is never the ease, but the winding is always
distributed in a nonsinusoidal manner.
The space distribution of magnetizing force and thus of flux
of each phase, along the c i re u inference of the motor air gap,
thus can in tin' general case lie represented by a trigonometw
series, with to as space angle, in electrical degrees, that is, counting
a pair of poles as 2jt or 3ti0°. It is then:
The distribution of the conductors of one phase, in the motor
air gap:
= Fa J COS oj \ flj cos 3 tu + i
; COS 5 C
+
+ Or eos 7 n
a eos 9 to + .
(8)
hen (he assumption is made, that all the harmonics are in phase,
that is, the magnetic distribution symmetrical. This is prac
tically always the case, and if it were not, it would simply add
phase angle, a„, to the harmonics, the same as in paragraphs 88
and 89, but would make no change in the result, as the component
torque harmonics are independent of the phase relations between
the harmonic and the fundamental, as seen below.
In a quarterphase motor, the second phase is located 90°
or u) =  displaced in space, from the first phase, and thus
represented by the expression:
F'= PojoOfl(«  *) + » s cos(3 w  3 2 ") + U( .cos(5u  5 2 T )
 a 7 cos(7 w  ■*) +
" V\ + "' c ° 9 f 3 w + ^
+ «;COS(7
cos 9u  "
.(9.IH
HIGHER HARMONICS
153
Such a general or nonsinusoidal space distribution of magnetiz
ing force and thus of magnetic flux, as represented by F and F',
can be considered as the superposition of a series of sinusoidal
magnetizing forces and magnetic fluxes :
as cos 5co
m (5 «  D
COS CO
cos (•  J)
CL? COS 7 CO
a 7 cos
a 3 cos 3 to
The first component :
a 3 cos (3 co + 1 j
09 cos 9 co
a 9 cos (9w J
cos CO,
cos (co  p >
a 5 cos
(10)
(10)
gives the fundamental torque of the motor, as calculated in the
customary manner, and represented by 7\ in F*igs. 55 and 56.
The second component of space distribution of magnetizing
force :
a 3 cos 3 co, j
(id
a 3 cos
( 3 »+3
gives a distribution, which makes three times as many cycles
in the motorgap circumference, than (10), that is, corresponds
to a motor of three times as many poles. This component of
space distribution of magnetizing force would thus, with the
fundamental voltage and current wave, give a torque curve
reaching synchronism as onethird speed; with the third harmonic
of the voltage wave, (11) would reach synchronism at oneninth,
with the fifth harmonic of the voltage wave at onefifteenth of
the normal synchronous speed.
In (11), the sign of the second term is reversed from that in
(10), that is, in (11), the space rotation is backward from that
of (10). In other words, (11) gives a synchronous speed of
S = —% with the fundamental or fullfrequency voltage wave.
The third component of space distribution :
as cos 5 co, 1
a 5 cos
(»3
(12)
gives a motor of five times as many poles as (10), but with same
space rotation as (10), and this component thus would give a
torque, reaching synchronism at S = +^.
1.54
ELMCTRtCAL APPARATUS
In the same manner, the seventh space harmonic gives
S «* —%, the ninth apace harmonic S = + }■$, etc.
91. As seen, the component torque curves of the harmonies
of the space distribution of magnetizing force and magnetic
flux in the motor air gap, have the same characteristics as the
component torque due to the time harmonics of the impioawd
voltage wave, and thus are represented by the same torque
diagrams :
Fig. 55 for a quarterphase motor,
Fig. 56 for a threephase motor.
Here again, we see that the threephase motor is less liable
to irregularities in the torque curve, caused by higher harmonics,
than the quarterphase motor is.
Two classes of harmonics thus may occur in the induction
motor, and give component torques of lower synchronous speed:
Time harmonies, that is, harmonics of the voltage wave,
which are of higher frequency, but the same number of motor
poles, and
Space harmonics, that is, harmonics in the airgap distribu
tion, which are of fundamental frequency, but of a higher number
of motor poles.
Compound harmonics, that is, higher space harmonics of
higher time harmonics, theoretically exist, but their torque
necessarily is already so small, that they can be neglected, except
where they are intentionally produced in the design.
We thus get the two elates of harmonics, and their
characteristics :
Quarttr phair motor .
PKue tul»tion .
Synchro noun tpwil
Tim II I F *«™™>'
I No of polr*
sp.«H(£ et r nr !
I No. ol polp»
Phup rotation ....
" HIGHER HARMONICS 155
•
92. The space harmonics usually are more important than the
time harmonics, as the space distribution of the winding in the
motor usually materially differs from sinusoidal, while the devia
tion of the voltage wave from sine shape in modern electric power
supply systems is small, and the time harmonics thus usually
negligible.
The space harmonics can easily be calculated from the dis
tribution of the winding around the periphery of the motor air
gap. (See "Engineering Mathematics," the chapter on the
trigonometric series.)
A number of the more common winding arrangements are
shown in Fig. 58, in development. The arrangement of the
conductors of one phase is shown to the left, under F, and the
wave shape of the m.m.f. and thus the magnetic flux produced
by it is shown under <& to the right. The pitch of a turn of the
winding is indicated under F.
Fig. 58 shows:
Fullpitch quarterphase winding: Q — 0.
Fullpitch sixphase winding: S — 0.
This is the threephase winding almost always used in induction
and synchronous machines.
Fullpitch threephase winding: T — 0.
This is the true threephase winding, as used in closedcircuit
armatures, as synchronous converters, but of little importance
in induction and synchronous motors.
%> % and J^pitch quarterphase windings:
Q  H; Q  «; Q  «.
%l % and J^pitch sixphase windings:
S  Ve; S  }£; sy 2 .
%pitch true threephase windings: T — J^.
As seen, the pitch deficiency, p, is denoted by the index.
Denoting the winding, F, on the left side of Fig. 58, by the
Fourier series:
F = Fo (cos co + a 3 cos 3 co + a 6 cos 5 co + a 7 cos 7 co + . . . ). (13)
It is, in general :
IT JO
Foa n =  I F cosncodw.
njo
If, then: p = pitch deficiency,
q = number of phases
(14)
156
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
(four with quarterphase, Q, six with sixphase, 5, three with
threephase, T);
any fractional pitch winding then consists of the superposition
of two layers:
and
From w = to co = + rt  >
q 2
from cj = to co = — jrt
q 2
and the integral (14) become:
r , Pw v Vt
4F f« 2 A" 2
f ofln =  I <*os wcorfco + I cos ncodco
?r IJo Jo
=  ■ ; sin n\ + ~ ) + sin /<( r ~ J :■
717T I \(J 2 / \<7 2 / J
8F . 717T »/?7T
= — sin — cos ■ >
q 2
1VK
(15)
as for: n = 1; a n = 1, it is, substituted in (15)
8F
.IT VTT '
sin cos r rt
9 2
hence, substituting (16) into (15) :
o„ =
. nir pur
sin — cos n
_ 9_ _. 2
sin  cos 
q 2
For fullpitch winding:
p = 0.
It is, from (17):
(16)
(17)
«»° =
sin
sin
nir
(18)
HIGHER HARMONICS 157
and for a fractionalpitch winding of pitch deficiency, p, it thus is :
VWK
cos 2
a„ = a„° — • (19)
cos T
93. By substituting the values: q = 4, 6, 3 and p = 0, %,
Hj %} i n to equation (17), we get the coefficients a n of the
trigonometric series:
F = Fq { cos co + a 3 cos 3 co + a 6 cos 5 co + a 7 cos 7w+ . . . } ,
(20)
which represents the current distribution per phase through the
air gap of the induction machine, shown by the diagrams F of
Fig. 58.
The corresponding flux distribution, $, in Fig. 58, expressed by
a trignometric series:
<fr = $o {sin o> + 63 sin 3 w + 6 5 sin 5 co + 67 sin 7 co + . . . 
(21)
could be calculated in the same manner, from the constructive
characteristics of $ in Fig. 58.
It can, however, be derived immediately from the consideration,
that $ is the. summation, that is, the integral of F:
&
= J>dco (22)
and herefrom follows:
b n = * (23)
and this gives the coefficients, b n , of the series, 4>.
In the following tables are given the coefficients a n and b n ,
for the winding arrangements of Fig. 58, up to the twentyfirst
harmonic.
As seen, some of the lower harmonics are very considerable
thus may exert an appreciable effect on the motor torque at low
speeds, especially in the quarterphase motor.
158
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
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CHAPTER VIII
SYNCHRONIZING INDUCTION MOTORS
94. Occasionally two or more induction motors are operated
in parallel on the same load, as for instance in threephase rail
roading, or when securing several speeds by concatenation.
In this case the secondaries of the induction motors may be
connected in multiple and a single rheostat used for starting
. and speed control. Thus, when using two motors in concatena
tion for speeds from standstill to half synchronism, from half
synchronism to full speed, the motors may also be operated on
a single rheostat by connecting their secondaries in parallel.
As in parallel connection the frequency of the secondaries must
be the same, and the secondary frequency equals the slip, it
follows that the motors in this case must operate at the same slip,
that is, at the same frequency of rotation, or in synchronism with
each other. If the connection of the induction motors to the
load is such that they can not operate in exact step with each
other, obviously separate resistances must be used in the motor
secondaries, so as to allow different slips. When rigidly connect
ing the two motors with each other, it is essential to take care
that the motor secondaries have exactly the same relative posi
tion to their primaries so as to be in phase with each other, just
as would be necessary when operating two alternators in parallel
with each other when rigidly connected to the same shaft or
when driven by synchronous motors from the same supply.
As in the inductionmotor secondary an e.m.f. of definite fre
quency, that of slip, is generated by its rotation through the
revolving motor field, the inductionmotor secondary is an
alternatingcurrent generator, which is shortcircuited at speed
and loaded by the starting rheostat during acceleration, and the
problem of operating two induction motors with their secondaries
connected in parallel on the same external resistance is thus the
same as that of operating two alternators in parallel. In general,
therefore, it is undesirable to rigidly connect inductionmotor
secondaries mechanically if they are electrically connected in
parallel, but it is preferable to have their mechanical connection
159
100 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
sufficiently flexible, as by belting, etc., bo that the motors can
drop into exact step with each other and maintain step by their
synchronising power.
It is of interest, then, to examine the synchronizing power of
two induction motors which are connected in multiple with
their secondaries on the same rheostat and operated from the
same primary impressed voltage.
95. Assume two equal induction motors with their primaries
connected to the same voltage, supply and with llieir seeondarioi
connected in multiple with each other to a common resistance,
r, and neglecting for simplicity the exciting current and the vol
tage drop in the impedance of the motor primaries as not mate
rially affecting the synchronizing power.
Let Zi — n + ./jt = secondary selfinductive impedance at
full frequency; s = slip of the two motors, as fraction of syn
chronism; Co = absolute value of impressed voltage and thus,
when neglecting the primary impedance, of the voltage generated
iu the primary by the rotating field.
If then Ihe two motor secondaries are oul of phase with each
• if her by angle 2 r, ami the secondary of I he motor 1 is behind in
the direction of rotation mid the secondary of the motor 2
ahead of [he average position by angle r. then:
#i = sco (cost + jsinr) = secondary generated
e.m.f. of the first motor, (1)
E 3 = scij (cos t — j sin t) = secondary generated
e.m.f. of the second motor. (21
And if /i = current coming from the first, 1. = current coming
from the second motor secondary, Hie total current, or currenl
in (he external resistance, r, is;
/  /, + I,: (8)
it is then, in the circuit comprising the first motor secondary
and the rheostat, <',
{?,  [ t Z  fr = 0, (4)
in the circuit comprising (lie second motor secondary and the
rheostat, r,
E,  [,Z  {r = (),
where
z = n + jsxi;
£T3Hmxaenzn& JX3:vr? 4 xv jip^*r»v«^ t*x
« ;jr rff»r**n
s.  j. z    <v = *.
fc — ir — /. Z —  « A
£,  (■ i  /./& Z  iV
''« Z£
and v ^
/:  /, = z
for convenience the abbreviations.
1
y = *\ = 0i — ji>i.
v^
into equations (6) and substituting ill and v~^ into itf\ give**:
/i + /* = 2 ,nyo Y cos r %
Ii — I* = + 2j*f*Y\ sin r; V^
hence,
/V = sf i*eosr + jY\ sin r 0^
is the current in the secondary circuit of the motor, and there
fore also the primary load current, that is, the primary current
corresponding to the secondary current, ami thus, when neg
lecting the exciting current, also the primary motor current,
where the upper sign corresponds to the first, or lagging, the
lower sign to the second, or leading, motor.
Substituting in (9) for 1" and Y\ gives:
/V = se { (g cos t ± bi sin r) — j (b cos t "I f/i sin r)  , (1(1)
the primary e.m.f. corresponding hereto is:
£Y = e (cos t J j sin r ) , (II)
where again the upper sign corresponds to the first, the lower to
the second motor.
The power consumed by the current, / 2 ', with the e.m.f., Ij!%\
ii
102 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is the sum of the products of the horizontal components, and
of the vertical components, that is, of the real components and
of the imaginary components of these two quantities (as a
horizontal component of one does not represent any power with
a vertical component of the other quantity, being in quadrature
therewith).
where the brackets denote that the sum of the product of the
corresponding parts of the two quantities is taken.
As discussed in the preceding, the torque of an induction motor,
in synchronous watts, equals the power consumed by the primary
counter e.m.f.; that is:
2V = /Y,
and substituting (10) and (11) this gives:
D% 1 = se 2 {cost (g cost ± 6i sin r) + sin t (6 cos r + gr 7 sin r)\
(12)
, 8eo 2 (*+_! _ ?i^cos 2t ± bl "^sin 2t
and herefrom follows the motor output or power, by multiplying
with (1 — s).
The sum of the torques of both motors, or the total torque, is:
2 D t = 2>i + D 2 = se 2 {(gi + g)  (gfi  g) cos 2t}. (13)
The difference of the torque of both motors, or the synchroniz
ing torque, is:
2D, = se 2 (6i  b) sin 2 t, (14)
where, by (7),
nil
, sxi u sxi } (15)
mi
nil = ri 2 + s 2 Xi 2 ,
In those equations primary exciting current and primary
impedance are neglected. The primary impedance can be intro
duced in the equations, by substituting (n + sr n ) for r l} and
(xi + T<>) for X\, in the expression of Mi and m, and in this case
only the exciting current is neglected, and the results are suffi
ciently accurate for most purposes, except for values of speeel
g =
ri2r
m
'
6 =
SXi
m
m =
(r, + 2
r) 2
+
S 2 Xi 2 ,
SYXCHROXIZIXG IXDITTIOX MOTORS 1G3
very close to synchronism, where the motor current is appreciably
increased by the exciting current. It is, then:
TOi = (ri + r* ) 2 + s 2 (*i + To) 5 ,
m = ( ri + sr Q + 2r) J + «* (x, + Jo) 5 :
all the other equations remain the same.
From (15) and (16) follows
61 — b _ 2srxi (r x + «r + r)
2 mm 1
(16)
(17)
hence, is always positive.
96. (61 — b) is always positive, that is, the synchronizing
torque is positive in the first or lagging motor, and negative in
the second or leading motor; that is, the motor which lags in
position behind gives more power and thus accelerates, while the
motor which is ahead in position gives less power and thus
drops back. Hence, the two motor armatures pull each other
into step, if thrown together out of phase, just like two alternators.
The synchronizing torque (14) is zero if t = 0, as obvious,
as for r = both motors are in step with each other. The syn
chronizing torque also is zero if r = 90°, that is, the two motor
armatures are in opposition. The position of opposition is
unstable, however, and the motors can not operate in opposition,
that is, for t = 90°, or with the one motor secondary short
circuiting the other; in this position, any decrease of t below
90° produces a synchronizing torque which pulls the motors
together, to r = 0, or in step. Just as with alternators, there
thus exist two positions of zero synchronizing power — with the
motors in step, that is, their secondaries in parallel and in phase,
and with the motors in opposition, that is, their secondaries in
opposition — and the former position is stable, the latter unstable,
and the motors thus drop into and retain the former position,
that is, operate in step with each other, within the limits of their
synchronizing power.
If the starting rheostat is shortcircuited, or r = 0, it is, by
(15), 61 = by and the synchronizing power vanishes, as is obvious,
since in this case the motor secondaries are shortcircuit (id and
thus independent of each other in their frequency and speed.
With parallel connection of inductionmotor armatures a syn
chronizing power thus is exerted between the motors as long
as any appreciable resistance exists in the external circuit, and
164 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the motors thus tend to keep in step until the common starting
resistance is shortcircuited and the motors thereby become inde
pendent, the synchronizing torque vanishes, and the motors can
slip against each other without interference by crosscurrents.
Since the term — ^ — contains the slip, s, as factor, the syn
chronizing torque decreases with increasing approach to syn
chronous speed.
1
n
b,
"
..
„
t\.

^
:
ID
X

.„
<;
\
D
^
>
\
N
\
\
^
^
\

\
\
v
\
\
1
'.
Fig.
Fo
(12),
9 . — Sy n ch roniz in g
r r = 0, or with
(15), and (16):
induction motors: motor torque and ay
torque.
the motors in step with each othe
s<V (Tl + 2 r)
1.0
ichroniiing
r, it is, by
that
resist
Fo
that
is,
in
tl
X
tl
e
r i
ill
D
e
an
c
le
m
n
va
in
Ik
V*
(ri + «r + 2D= + .;' (i, +x )
lue as found for a single motor.
jn to both motors, for each moto
unstable positions of the motors,
sc *ri
"' (r, +«,)*+ 8* ( Xl +JV'
lue as the motor would give w
i
it
il
As the
enters
(19)
short
SYNCHRONIZING INDUCTION MOTORS 165
circuited armature. This is to be expected, as the two motor
armatures shortcircuit each other.
The synchronizing torque is a maximum for r = 45°, and is,
by (14), (15), and (16):
i), = ^ 6l ~ 6 . (20)
As instances are shown, in Fig. 59, the motor torque, from
equation (18), and the maximum synchronizing torque, from
equation (20), for a motor of 5 per cent, drop of speed at full
load and very high overload capacity (a maximum power nearly
two and a half times and a maximum torque somewhat over
three times the rated value), that is, of low reactance, as can be
produced at low frequency, and is desirable for intermittent
service, hence of the constants :
Zx = Zo = i+i,
Y = 0.005  0.02 i,
e = 1000 volts,
for the values of additional resistance inserted into the armatures:
r = 0; 0.75; 2; 4.5,
giving the values:
1 l + 2r
p — g — ._,
Wi m
, 2« , 8Xi
Oi = — , b = ,
Wi m
mx = (1 + s) 2 + 4 a 2 , m = (1 + s + 2 r) 2 + 4 s\
As seen, in this instance the synchronizing torque is higher
than the motor torque up to half speed, slightly below the motor
torque between half speed and threequarters speed, but above
threequarters speed rapidly drops, due to the approach to syn
chronism, and becomes zero when the last starting resistance
is cut out.
CHAPTER IX
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTOR
97. The typical induction motor consists of one or a number
df primary circuits acting upon an armature movable thereto,
which contains a number of closed secondary circuits, displaced
from each other in space so as to offer a resultant closed secondary
circuit in any direction and at any position of the armature or
secondary, with regards to the primary system. In consequence
thereof the induction motor can be considered as a transformer,
having to each primary circuit a corresponding secondary cir
cuit — a secondary coil, moving out of the field of the primary
coil,* being replaced by another secondary coil moving into the
field.
In such a motor the torque is zero a) synchronism, positive
below, and negative above, synchronism.
If, however, the movable armature contains one closed cir
cuit only, it offers a closed secondary circuit only in the direc
tion of the axis of the armature coil, but no secondary circuit at
right angles therewith. That is, with the rotation of the arma
ture the secondary circuit, corresponding to a primary circuit,
varies from shortcircuit at coincidence of the axis of the arma
ture coil with the axis of the primary coil, to opencircuit in
quadrature therewith, with the periodicity of the armature
speed. That is, the apparent admittance of the primary circuit
varies periodically from opencircuit admittance to the short
circuited transformer admittance.
At synchronism such a motor represents an electric circuit of
an admittance varying with twice the periodicity of the primary
frequency, since twice per period the axis of the armature coil
and that of the primary coil coincide. A varying admittance
is obviously identical in effeel with a varying reluctance, which
will be discussed in the chapter on reaction machines. That
is, the induction motor with one closed armature circuit is, at
synchronism, nothing but a reaction machine, and consequently
gives zero torque at synchronism if the maxima and minima of
the periodically varying admittance coincide with the
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTOR 167
and zero values of the primary circuit, but gives a definite torque
if they are displaced therefrom. This torque may be positive
or negative according to the phase displacement between ad
mittance and primary circuit; that is, the lag or lead of the
maximum admittance with regard to the primary maximum.
Hence an induction motor with singlearmature circuit at syn
chronism acts either as motor or as alternatingcurrent generator
according to the relative position of the armature circuit with
respect to the primary circuit. Thus it can be called a syn
chronous induction motor or synchronous induction generator,
since it is an induction machine giving torque at synchronism.
Powerfactor and apparent efficiency of the synchronous in
duction motor as reaction machine are very low. Hence it is
of practical application only in cases where a small amount of
power is required at synchronous rotation, and continuous current
for field excitation is not available.
The current produced in the armature of the synchronous
induction motor is of double the frequency impressed upon the
primary.
Below and above synchronism the ordinary induction motor,
or induction generator, torque is superimposed upon the syn
chronousinduction machine torque. Since with the frequency
of slip the relative position of primary and of secondary coil
changes, the synchronousinduction machine torque alternates
periodically with the frequency of slip. That is, upon the con
stant positive or negative torque below or above synchronism
an alternating torque of the frequency of slip is superimposed,
and thus the resultant torque pulsating with a positive mean
value below, a negative mean value above, synchronism.
When started from rest, a synchronous induction motor will
accelerate like an ordinary singlephase induction motor, but
not only approach synchronism, as the latter does, but run up
to complete synchronism under load. When approaching syn
chronism it makes definite beats with the frequency of slip, which
disappear when synchronism is reached.
CHAPTER X
HYSTERESIS MOTOR
98. In it revolving magnetic field, a circular iron disk, or
iron cylinder of uniform magnetic reluctance in the direction of
the revolving field, is set in rotation, even if subdivided so as to
preclude the production of eddy currents. Thin rotation is due
to the effect of hysteresis of the revolving disk or cylinder, and
such a motor may thus be called a hysteresis motor.
Let / be the iron disk exposed to a rotating magnetic field
or resultant m.m.f. The axis of resultant magnetization in the
disk, /, does not coincide with the axis of the rotating field, but
lags behind the latter, thus producing a couple. That is, the
component of magnetism in a direction of the rotating disk, /,
ahead of the axis of rotating m.m.f., is rising, thus below, and
in a direction behind the axis of rotating m.m.f. decreasing, that
is, above proportionality with the m.m.f., in consequence of the
lag of magnetism in the hysteresis loop, and thus the axis of
resultant magnetism in the iron disk, /, does not coincide with
the axis of rotating m.m.f., but is shifted backward by an angle,
«, which is the angle of hysteretic lead.
The induced magnetism gives with the resultant m.m.f. a
mechanical couple:
D = mS'b sin a,
whore
S = resultant m.m.f.,
4> = resultant magnetism,
« = angle of hysteretic advance of phase,
m = a constant.
The apparent or voltampere input of the motor is:
P ■ wiS*.
Thus the apparent torque efficiency:
Q = voltampere input,
HYSTERESIS MOTOR 169
and the power of the motor is:
P = (1  s) D = (1  s) m$$ sin a,
where
s = slip as fraction of synchronism.
The apparent efficiency is:
p
n = (1 — *) sin a.
Since in a magnetic circuit containing an air gap the angle,
a, is small, a few degrees only, it follows that the apparent
efficiency of the hysteresis motor is low, the motor consequently
unsuitable for producing large amounts of mechanical power.
From the equation of torque it follows, however, that at
constant impressed e.m.f., or current — that is, constant SF —
the torque is constant and independent of the speed; and there
fore such a motor arrangement is suitable, and occasionally used
as alternatingcurrent meter.
For s<0, we have a < 0,
and the apparatus is an hysteresis generator.
99. The same result can be reached from a different point
of view. In such a magnetic system, comprising a movable
iron disk, 7, of uniform magnetic reluctance in a revolving
field, the magnetic reluctance — and thus the distribution of
magnetism — is obviously independent of the speed, and conse
quently the current and energy expenditure of the impressed
m.m.f. independent of the speed also. If, now:
V = volume of iron of the movable part,
(B = magnetic density,
and
rj = coefficient of hysteresis,
the energy expended by hysteresis in the movable disk, 7, is
per cycle:
Wo = V V ® 1 \
hence, if / = frequency, the power supplied by the m.m.f. to
the rotating iron disk in the hysteretic loop of the m.m.f. is:
p =/Fi ? (B ,  e .
At the slip, sfj that is, the speed (1 — s) f, the power expended
by hysteresis in the rotating disk is, however:
Pi = s/FtjCB 1  6 .
17(1 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Hence, in the transfer from the stationary to the revolving
member the magnetic power:
has disappeared, and thus reappears as mechanical work, ami
the torque is:
D =
(1 «)/
. IV
that is, independent of the speed.
Since, as seen in " Theory and Calculation of Alternatingcur
rent Phenomena," Chapter XII, sin a is the ratio of the energy
of the hysteretic loop to the total apparent energy of the mag
netic cycle, it follows that the apparent efficiency of such a motor
can never exceed the value (1 — s) sin a, or a fraction of the
primary hysteretic energy.
The primary hysteretic energy of an induction motor, as repre
sented by its conductance, ij, being a part of the loss in the
motor, and thus a very small part of its output only, it follows
that the output of a hysteresis motor is a small fraction only of
the output which the same magnetic structure could give with
secondary shortcircuited winding, as regular induction motor.
As secondary effect, however, the rotary effort of the magnet ic
structure as hysteresis motor appears more or less in all induction
motors, although usually it. is so small as in be neglected.
However, with decreasing size of the motor, the torque of the
hysteresis motor decreases at a lesser rate than that of the in
duction motor, so that for extremely small motors, the torque
as hysteresis motor is comparable with that as induction motor.
If in the hysteresis motor the rotary iron structure has imi
uniform reluctance in all directions — but is, for instance, bar
shaped or shuttleshaped — on the hysteresismotor effect is
superimposed the effect of varying magnetic reluctance which
tends to bring the motor to synchronism, and maintain it
therein, as shall be more fully investigated under "Reaction
Machine" in Chapter XVI.
100. In the hysteresis motor, consisting of an iron disk of
uniform magnetic reluctance, which revolves in a uniformly
rotating magnetic field, below synchronism, the magnetic mix
rotates in the armature with the frequency of slip, and the
resultant line of magnetic induction in the disk thus lags, in
space, behind the synchronously rotating line of resultant m.m.f
HYSTERESIS MOTOR 171
of the exciting coils, by the angle of hysteretic lead, or, which is
constant, and so gives, at constant magnetic flux, that is, con
stant impressed e.m.f., a constant torque and a power propor
tional to the speed.
Above synchronism, the iron disk revolves faster than the
rotating field, and the line of resulting magnetization in the disk
being behind the line of m.m.f. with regard to the direction of
rotation of the magnetism in the disk, therefore is ahead of it in
space, that is, the torque and therefore the power reverses at
synchronism, and above synchronism the apparatus is an
hysteresis generator, that is, changes at synchronism from motor
to generator. At synchronism such a disk thus can give me
chanical power as motor, with the line of induction lagging, or
give electric power as generator, with the line of induction
leading the line of rotation m.m.f.
Electrically, the power transferred between the electric cir
cuit and the rotating disk is represented by the hysteresis loop.
Below synchronism the hysteresis loop of the electric circuit
has the normal shape, and of its constant power a part, propor
tional to the slip, is consumed in the iron, the other part, pro
portional to the speed, appears as mechanical power. At syn
chronism the hysteresis loop collapses and reverses, and above
synchronism the electric supply current so traverses the normal
hysteresis loop in reverse direction, representing generation of
electric power. The mechanical power consumed by the
hysteresis generator then is proportional to the speed, and of
this power a part, proportional to the slip above synchronism,
is consumed in the iron, the other part is constant and appears
as electric power generated by the apparatus in the inverted
hysteresis loop.
This apparatus is of interest especially as illustrating the
difference between hysteresis and molecular magnetic friction:
the hysteresis is the power represented by the loop between
magnetic induction and m.m.f. or the electric power in the
circuit, and so may be positive or negative, or change from the
one to the other, as in the above instance, while molecular mag
netic friction is the power consumed in the magnetic circuit by
the reversals of magnetism. Hysteresis, therefore, is an electrical
phenomenon, and is a measure of the molecular magnetic fric
tion only if there is no other source or consumption of power in
the magnetic circuit.
CHAPTER XI
ROTARY TERMINAL SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR
101. A singlephase induction motor, giving full torque at
starting and at any intermediate speed, by means of leading the
supply current into the primary motor winding through brushes
moving on a segmental commutator connected to the primary
Diagram of rotary terminal ainglepliaw induction motor.
winding, was devised and built by II. Eickemeyer in 1891, and
further work thereon done later in Germany, but never was
brought into commercial use.
Let, in Fig. 60, P denote the primary stator winding of a single
phase induction motor, S the revolving squirrel cage secondary
winding. The primary winding is arranged as a ring (or drum)
Winding and connected to a stationary commutator, C. The
singlephase supply current is led into the primary winding, P,
through two brushes bearing on the two (electrically) opposite
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 173
points of the commutator, C These brushes, B, are arranged so
that they can be revolved.
With the brushes, B, at standstill on the stationary commutator,
C, the rotor, S, has no torque, and the current in the stator, P, is
the usual large standstill current of the induction motor. If now
the brushes, B, are revolved at synchronous speed, /, in the direc
tion shown by the arrow, the rotor, S, again has no torque, but
the stator, P, carries only the small exciting current of the motor,
and the electrical conditions in the motor are the same, as would
be with stationary brushes, B, at synchronous speed of the rotor,
S. If now the brushes, B, are slowed down below synchronism,
/, to speed, /i, the rotor, S, begins to turn, in reverse direction, as
shown by the arrow, at a speed, / 2 , and a torque corresponding
to the slip, 8 = / — (/i + / 2 ).
Thus, if the load on the motor is such as to require the torque
given at the slip, s, this load is started and brought up to full
speed, / — 8 f by speeding the brushes, B, up to or near synchronous
speed, and then allowing them gradually to come to rest: at brush
speed, /i = / — s, the rotor starts, and at decreasing, f h accelr
ates with the speed / 2 = / — s — /i, until, when the brushes
come to rest: f\ = 0, the rotor speed is / 2 = / — s.
As seen," the brushes revolve on the commutator only in start
ing and at intermediate speeds, but are stationary at full speed.
If the brushes, B, are rotated at oversynchronous speed: /i>/,
the motor torque is reversed, and the rotor turns in the same
direction as the brushes. In general, it is:
/i+/ 2 + s=/,
where
/i = brush speed,
/ 2 = motor speed,
s = slip required to give the desired torque,
/ = supply frequency.
102. An application of this type of motor for starting larger
motors under power, by means of a small auxiliary motor, is
shown diagrammatically, in section, in Fig. 61.
Po is the stationary primary or stator, So the revolving squirrel
cage secondary of the power motor. The stator coils of P
connect to the segments of the stationary commutator, Co,
which receives the singlephase power current through the
brushes, B .
171
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
These brushes, B v , are carried by the rotating squirrel cage
secondary, Si, of a small auxiliary motor. The primary of this.
Pi, is mounted on thr power shaft, A, of the main motor, and
carries the commutator, Cj, which receives current from the
brushes, B,.
These brushes are speeder! up t<> or near synchronism by some
means, as hand wheel, H, and gears, G, and then allowed in slow
down. Assuming the brushes were rotating in couMiciil.uk
wise direction, Then, while they are slowing down, the (ex
ternal) squirrelcage rotor. .Si, of the auxiliary motor start* tad
. (il, — Rotary terminal an nipphase inriiutiuii motor with i trolling
s[ da up, in clockwise direction, and while the brushes, B,,
come to rest, .S', comes up to full speed, and thereby brings the
brushes, B v , of the power motor up to speed in clockwise rotation.
As soon as Bo has reached sufficient speed, the power motor gets
torque and its rotor, So, starts, in counterclockwise rotation.
As So carries Pi, with increasing speed of So and P, t Bj and with
il I lie brushes, B„, slow down, until full speed of the power motor,
So, is reached, the brushes. B B , stand still, anil the brushes, B u
by their friction on the commutator, <",, revolve together with
f„ /*, and 8+
In whichever direction the brushes, B,. are Btarted, in the
same direction starts Ihe main motor, So.
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 175
If by overload the main motor, So, drops out of step and slows
down, the slowing down of Pi starts Si, and with it the brushes,
Bo, at the proper differential speed, and so carries full torque
down to standstill, that is, there is no actual dropping out of
the motor, but merely a slowing down by overload.
The disadvantage of this motor type is the sparking at the
commutator, by the shortcircuiting of primary coils during the
passage of the brush from segment to segment. This would
require the use of methods of controlling the sparking, such as
used in the singlephase commutator motors of the series type,
etc. It was the difficulty of controlling the sparking, which
sidetracked this type of motor in the early days, and later, with
the extensive introduction of polyphase supply, the singlephase
motor problem had become less important.
CHAPTER XII
FREQUENCY CONVERTER OR GENERAL ALTERNATING
CURRENT TRANSFORMER
103. In general, an alternatingcurrent transformer conafete of
a magnetic circuit, interlinked with two electric circuits or sets
of electric circuits, the primary circuit, in which power, sup
plied by the impressed voltage, is consumed, and the secondary
circuit, in which a corresponding amount of electric power
is produced; or in other words, power is transferred through
space, by magnetic energy, from primary to secondary circuit.
This power finds its mechanical equivalent in a repulsive llirusi
acting between primary and secondary conductors. Thus, if
the secondary is not held rigidly, with regards to the primary,
it will be repelled and move. This repulsion is used in the
constantcurrent transformer for regulating the current for
constancy independent of the load. In the induction motor,
this mechanical force is made use of for doing the work: the
induction motor represents an alternatingcurrent transformer,
in which the secondary is mounted niovably with regards to
the primary, in such a manner that, while set in motion, it still
remains in the primary field of force. This requires, i hat the
induction motor field is not constant in one direction, but that
a magnetic field exists in every direction, in other words that
the magnetic field successively assumes all directions, as a so
called rotating field.
The induction motor and the stationary transformer thus are
merely two applications of the same structure, the former using
the mechanical thrust, the latter only the electrical power
transfer, and both thus are special cases of what may be called
the "general alternatingcurrent transformer," in which both,
power and mechanical motion, are utilized.
The general alternatingcurrent transformer thus consist* of
a magnetic circuit interlinked with two sets of electric circuits,
the primary and the secondary, which are mounted rotatably
with regards to each other. It transforms between primary
electrical and secondary electrical power, and also between
FREQUENCY CONVERTER 177
electrical and mechanical power. As the frequency of the re
volving secondary is the frequency of slip, thus differing from
the primary, it follows, that the general alternatingcurrent
transformer changes not only voltages and current, but also
frequencies, and may therefore be called "frequency converter."
Obviously, it may also change the number of phases.
Structurally, frequency converter and induction motor must
contain an air gap in the magnetic circuit, to permit movability
between primary and secondary, and thus they require a higher
magnetizing current than the closed magnetic circuit stationary
transformer, and this again results in general in a higher self
inductive impedance. Thus, the frequency converter and in
duction motor magnetically represent transformers of high ex
citing admittance and high selfinductive impedance.
104. The mutual magnetic flux of the transformer is pro
duced by the resultant m.m.f. of both electric circuits. It is
determined by the counter e.m.f., the number of turns, and the
frequency of the electric circuit, by the equation :
E = V2 rfnQ 10" 8 ,
where
E = effective e.m.f.,
/ = frequency,
n = number of turns,
$ = maximum magnetic flux.
The m.m.f. producing this flux, or the resultant m.m.f. of
primary and secondary circuit, is determined by shape and
magnetic characteristic of the material composing the magnetic
circuit, and by the magnetic induction. At open secondary
circuit, this m.m.f. is the m.m.f. of the primary current, which
in this case is called the exciting current, and consists of a
power component, the magnetic power current, and a reactive
component, the magnetizing current.
In the general alternatingcurrent transformer, where the
secondary is movable with regard to the primary, the rate of
cutting of the secondary electric circuit with the mutual mag
netic flux is different from that of the primary. Thus, the fre
quencies of both circuits are different, and the generated e.m.fs.
are not proportional to the number of turns as in the stationary
transformer, but to the product of number of turns into frequency.
12
178 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
105. Let, in a general alternatingcurrent transformer:
.. secondary . tl ,. „
« = ratio — :  frequency, or "slip :
primary n r
thus, if:
/ = primary frequency, or frequency of impressed e.m.f.,
sf = secondary frequency;
and the e.m.f. generated per secondary turn by the mutual flux
has to the e.m.f. generated per primary turn the ratio, «,
s = represents synchronous motion of the secondary;
s < represents motion above synchronism — driven by external
mechanical power, as will be seen;
8 = 1 represents standstill;
s > 1 represents backward motion of the secondary,
that is, motion against the mechanical force acting between
primary and secondary (thus representing driving by external
mechanical power).
Let:
n = number of primary turns in series per circuit;
n x = number of secondary turns in series per circuit;
a = = ratio of turns;
Til
Y = g — jb = primary exciting admittance per circuit;
where:
g = effective conductance;
b = susceptance;
Zq = r + jxo = internal primary selfinductive impedance
per circuit,
where:
r = effective resistance of primary circuit;
Xq = selfinductive reactance of primary circuit;
Zn = n + jx\ = internal secondary selfinductive im
pedance per circuit at standstill, or for « = 1,
where:
r x = effective resistance of secondary coil;
Xi = selfinductive reactance of secondary coil at stand
still, or full frequency, s = 1.
FREQUENCY CONVERTER 179
Since the reactance is proportional to the frequency, at the
slip, 8, or the secondary frequency, sf, the secondary impedance
is:
Zi = ri + jsxi.
Let the secondary circuit be closed by an external resistance,
r, and an external reactance, and denote the latter by x at
frequency, /, then at frequency, «/, or slip, s, it will be = *x, and
thus:
Z = r + jsx = external secondary impedance. 1
Let:
#o = primary impressed e.m.f. per circuit,
J$' = e.m.f. consumed by primary counter e.m.f.,
#i = secondary terminal e.m.f.,
#\ = secondary generated e.m.f.,
e = e.m.f. generated per turn by the mutual magnetic
flux, at full frequency, /,
/o = primary current,
/oo = primary exciting current,
/i = secondary current.
It is then:
Secondary generated e.m.f. :
#'i = sriie.
Total secondary impedance:
Zi + Z = (n + r) +js(xi + x);
hence, secondary current:
T E\ _ snie
/i ~ v T 7z 
Zi + Z (n + r) + js (X! + x)
1 This applies to the case where the secondary contains inductive react
ance only; or, rather, that kind of reactance which is proportional to the
frequency. In a condenser the reactance is inversely proportional to the
frequency, in a synchronous motor under circumstances independent of the
frequency. Thus, in general, we have to set, x = x' f x" + s'", where x'
is that part of the reactance which is proportional to the frequency, x" that
part of the reactance independent of the frequency, and x'" that part of the
reactance which is inversely proportional to the frequency; and have thus,
at slip, *, or frequency, */, the external secondary reactance, sx' f x" f
x ,n
%
180 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Secondary terminal voltage :
#i = #'i ~ JiZi = fiZ
= N r t + jgxi I = sntf ( r + jsx)
1 1 0i + r) + js (xi + x) J \r x + r) + j* (xi + x)
e.m.f. consumed by primary counter e.m.f.
$' = n e;
hence, primary exciting current:
/oo = #'Fo = no« (flf  jb).
Component of primary current corresponding to secondary
current, /\:
aMCri + O+^Cxi + x)}'
hence, total primary current:
/o = /oo + /
f 1 1 , g  jb
lfl2 (n + r) + js(xi + x) «
Primary impressed e.m.f. :
$o = E' + /oZo
I a 2 (ri + r) + js (xi + x) J J
We get thus, as the
Equations of the General Alternatingcurrent Transformer, of
ratio of turns, a; and ratio of frequencies, s; with the e.m.f.
generated per turn at full frequency, e, as parameter, the values:
Primary impressed e.m.f. :
ft = «oe { 1 + £ (  T ^ £L_ + (r . + ,*„) (,  jb) } .
Secondary terminal voltage:
et ft n + jsxi l r + jsx
1 (n + r) + js (xi + x) J Oi+r) +js fo + x)
Primary current :
io = Sttoe ^  2 7 , — r 7 — 7 . r +  r
1 a 2 (ri + r) + js (xi + x) s J
FREQUENCY CONVERTER 181
Secondary current:
T stiie
(ri + r) + js (xi + x)
Therefrom, we get:
Ratio of currents:
r  \ I l + t ^ " #> l < ri + r) + i* (atl + *>' r
Ratio of e.m.fs. :
* * fl + 2 ? ■ ?? w° . % + ( r ° + J*>) (g  jb)
Eo a* a 2 (ri + r) + js (xi + x)
#1 "~ *  _ r t + jsxi_
(ri + r) + js (xi + x)
Total apparent primary impedance:
Z« = ^ = ?8 {(ri + r)+i*(ae 1 +*)}
/ n #
1 + it L ?^~w v— n + (ro + J*o) (ff  j"6)
o^ (r, + r) + js (j i + x) > f
1 + v (9 ~ Jb) l(ri + r) + js (*, + *)]
o
where:
, , x" x'"
x = x' + — +
8 9
2
in the general secondary circuit as discussed in footnote, page 179.
Substituting in these equations :
* = 1,
gives the
General Equations of the Stationary Alternatingcurrent Transformer
Substituting in the equations of the general alternatingcurrent
transformer :
Z = 0, •
gives the
General Equations of the Induction Motor
Substituting:
(ri + r) 2 + s 2 (Xi + x) 2 = z k \
182 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and separating the real and imaginary quantities:
#o = no6 J [l + *—; (r (ri + r) + *x (xi + x)) + (rtf + xjb) J
 3 \J^i W*i + *)  * (ri + r)) + (rob  Xotf)] J ,
/§  ^ I Lis^ + a J  4~iv + iJr
/i = ^ {(ri + r)  j* (xi + x)
Neglecting the exciting current, or rather considering it as
a separate and independent shunt circuit outside of the trans
former, as can approximately be done, and assuming the primary
impedance reduced to the secondary circuit as equal to the
secondary impedance:
Yo = 0,  « = Z\.
Substituting this in the equations of the general transformer
we get:
#o = no6 { 1 + \ \t\ (n + r) + sx x (xi + x)]
 J 2 [sr x (xi + x)  Xi (r! + r)]
Zk
$i = *" e \[r (n + r) + « 2 x (xi + x)]  js[rxi xri]},
Zk
Zk
106. The true power is, in symbolic representation:
P = WY,
denoting:
srti 2 e 2
.  = w
Zk 2
gives:
Secondary output of the transformer:
FREQUENCY CONVERTER 183
Internal loss in secondary circuit:
Total secondary power:
Pi + Pi 1 = ("*) % (r + n) =sw(r + r,) ;
Internal loss in primary circuit:
Po 1 = to*r = toVid* = ( M ri = 9TiW\
Total electrical output, plus loss:
P l = Pi+ Pi 1 + Po l = ( 8U £) \r + 2 ri ) = 8w(r + 2 r,) ;
Total electrical input of primary:
Po = [tfo/o] 1 = s (**) 2 (r + n + «r0 = tp (r + n + Wi);
Hence, mechanical output of transformer:
P = PoP l = w(l 8)(r + ri );
Ratio:
me c hanica l out put _ P _ 1—8 _ speed
total secondary power Pi + Pi 1 « slip
Thus,
In a general alternating transformer of ratio of turns, a, and
ratio of frequencies, «, neglecting exciting current, it is:
Electrical input in primary:
p = sni 2 e* (r + r t + r^) .
(rV+r^ + ^tei+'i) 1 '
(r, + r)* + s* (xx + x)
Mechanical output:
P _ J!iJ_z *)l  i^!_(L.+i! 1 ) •
Electrical output of secondary :
D 8 2 ni 2 e*r
*i — v
(n + ry + sHxi + x)*'
Losses in transformer:
2 sViiVri
P i + p t i = pi =
(ri + r) 2 + 8* (xi + x) 2
184 BLECTRIl 'AI. APPA It A TVS
Of these quantities, P 1 and Pi are always positive; P and P
can be positive or negative, according to the value of s. Thus
the apparatus can either produce mechanical power, acting U
a motor, or consume mechanical power; and it can either con
sume electrical power or produce electrical power, as a generator,
107. AI:
s = 0, synchronism, P a = 0, P  0, Pi = 0.
At I) < s < 1, between synchronism and standstill.
Pi, P and Pa are positive; that is, the apparatus consumes
electrical power, P„, in the primary, and produces mechanical
power, P, and electrical power, Pi 4 Pi 1 , in the secondary, which
is partly, Pi', consumed by the internal secondary resistance,
partly, Pi, available at the secondary terminals.
In this case:
P, + fY _s_
P 1 a'
that is, of the electrical power consumed in the primary circuit,
Po, a part Pu l is consumed by the internal primary resistance,
the remainder transmitted to the secondary, and divides between
electrical power, Pi + Pi 1 , and mechanical power, P, in the
proportion of the slip, or drop below synchronism, s, to the
speed: 1 — s.
In this range, the apparatus is a motor.
At 8 > 1; or backward driving, P < 0, or negative; that is,
the apparatus requires mechanical power for driving.
Then :
Po  P,'  Pi' < P,;
that is, the secondary electrical power is produced partly by
the primary electrical power, partly by the mechanical power,
and the apparatus acts simultaneously as transformer nnd as
alternatingcurrent generator, with the secondary as armature.
The ralio of mechanical input to electrical input is the ratio
of speed to synchronism.
In this case, the secondary frequency is higher than the
p ill nary.
At:
a < 0, beyond synchronism,
P < 0; that is, the apparatus has to be driven by mechanical
power.
FREQUENCY CONVERTER 185
Po < 0; that is, the primary circuit produces electrical power
from the mechanical input.
At:
r + ri + sri = 0, or, s =  ,
the electrical power produced in the primary becomes less than
required to cover the losses of power, and Po becomes positive
again.
We have thus:
. r + ri
8 <
consumes mechanical and primary electric power; produces
secondary electric power.
_ r+ft <S<Q
consumes mechanical, and produces electrical power in primary
and in secondary circuit.
< s < 1
consumes primary electric power, and produces mechanical and
secondary electrical power
1 < s
consumes mechanical and primary electrical power; produces
secondary electrical power.
108. As an example, in Fig. 62 are plotted, with the slip, s, as
abscissae, the values of:
Secondary electrical output as Curve I. ;
total internal loss as Curve II.;
mechanical output as Curve III.;
primary electrical output as Curve IV. ;
for the values :
nie = 100.0;
r = 0.4;
n = 0.1;
x = 0.3;
xi = 0.2;
186
hence
ELEC
TR1
Pi 
Pi 1 =
Po
P 
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109
gener
conve
either
follow
intere
1.
terraij
prima
2.— Mpeedpower curves of general alternating current, transfo
Since the most common practical application ol
il alternatingcurrent transformer is that of frequ
rter, that is, to change from one frequency to ano
with or without change of the number of phases
ing characteristic curves of this apparatus are of
st:
'he regulation curve; that is, the change of secon
lal voltage as function of the load at constant imprt
ry voltage.
mm.
the
erjcy
her,
the
Toat
lary
ssed
FREQUENCY CONVERTER 187
2. The compounding curve; that is, the change of primary
impressed voltage required to maintain constant secondary
terminal voltage.
In this case the impressed frequency and the speed are con
stant, and consequently the secondary frequency is also constant.
Generally the frequency converter is used to change from a low
frequency, as 25 cycles, to a higher frequency, as 60 or 62.5
cycles, and is then driven backward, that is, against its torque,
by mechanical power. Mostly a synchronous motor is em
ployed, connected to the primary mains, which by overexcitation
compensates also for the lagging current of the frequency
converter.
Let:
Y = g — jb = primary exciting admittance per circuit of
the frequency converter.
Z\ = fi + j%\ = internal selfinductive impedance per sec
ondary circuit, at the secondary frequency.
Zo = r + jxo = internal selfinductive impedance per primary
circuit at the primary frequency.
a = ratio of secondary to primary turns per circuit.
b = ratio of number of secondary to number of primary
circuits.
c = ratio of secondary to primary frequencies.
Let:
e = generated e.m.f. per. secondary circuit at secondary
frequency.
Z = r + jx = external impedance per secondary circuit at
secondary frequency, that is load on secondary system, where
x — for noninductive load.
To calculate the characteristics of the frequency converter,
we then have:
the total secondary impedance :
Z + Zi = (r + r x ) +j(x + x x );
the secondary current:
/i = z + z = e ( fl i i***);
where:
r + ri , x + X]
0l _ — — anc j fl2 =
(r + nY +(x + x x y m " " 2 (r + r x y + (x + xtf'
188 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and the secondary terminal voltage:
**'* ST* 5
= e (r + jx) (ai  ja 2 ) = e (61  j7> 2 ) ;
where:
61 = (rai + xa 2 ) and 62 = (ra 2 — xa\) :
primary generated e.m.f. per circuit:
ac
primary load current per circuit:
/ l = abji = abe (ai — ja 2 );
primary exciting current per circuit:
loo = ° = (g — jb) :
ac ac
thus, total primary current:
/o = Z 1 + /oo = e (ci  jc 2 );
where:
Ci = abai + and c 2 = aba 2 H
ac ac
and the primary terminal voltage:
= e (di  jd 2 )
where:
di = + r Ci + XoC 2 and d 2 = r c 2 — ZoCi;
ac
or the absolute value is:
substituting this value of 6 in the preceding equations, gives,
as function of the primary impressed e.m.f., e :
secondary current:
/. =
eo (<Ji  joj) /o? + a 2 4
v^ + ^ or ' absolutc ' /l = eo V^ + ^ ;
secondary terminal voltage:
„ _ e (6,  jfr 2 ) / 6 7 + 6,2 .
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
primary current:
i _ e 5 ( c ' ~i c »)
primary impressed e.m.f. :
'<&W
i
s
1
fe
2.«
■.ill
„
REGULATION CURVES
PRIMARY. 6350 VOLTS CONSTANT
sec
25 CYCLES THREEPHASE
DNDARY, 62.5CVCLES Q.UARTERPH
SE
1 1 1 1
fl 30 « M
Flo. 63.— Regulation c
secondary output :
Pi = [AVt]'
primary electrical input:
P. = W.W
u of frequency converter.
«.' (oioi + o=4e)
<fi" + oV
e u s (cidi + c 2 'fs)
'if + oV ;
primary apparent input, voltamperes:
P.,  ejo.
itw
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Substituting thus different values for the secondary external
impedance, Z, gives the regulation curve of the frequency
converter.
Such a curve, taken from tests of a 200kw. frequency converter
changing from 6300 volts, 25 cycles, threephase, to 2500 volts,
62.5 cycles, quarterphase, is given in Fig. 63.
*■;.;
/
/
/
/
C0MP0UND1NQ CURVES
ECQNOARY, 2500 VOLTS CON5TAN1
6Z, S CYCLES QUARTER PHASE
PRIMARY, 25 CYCLES TMREEPMAS
°
1
"
n
" T' 1
r
i
Fio. 6*.— Compounding curve »l frequency converter.
From the secondary terminal voltage:
£i = e(b t jfe),
it follows, absolute:
3 Vfcl 1 + 6j*
e —
vV + W
Substituting these values in the above equation gives the
quantities as functions of the secondary terminal voltage, that
is, at constant, ei, or the compounding curve.
The compounding curve of the frequency converter above
mentioned is given in Fig. 64,
110. When running above synchronism: a < 0, the general
alternatingcurrent transformer consumes mechanical power and
FREQUENCY CONVERTER 191
produces electric power in both circuits, primary and secondary,
thus can not be called a frequency converter, and the distinc
tion between primary and secondary circuits ceases, but both
circuits are generator circuits. The machine then is a twofre
quency induction generator. As the electric power generated
at the two frequencies is proportional to the frequencies, this
gives a limitation to the usefulness of the machine, and it appears
suitable only in two cases:
(a) If s = —1, both frequencies are the same, and stator
and rotor circuits can be connected together, in parallel or in
series, giving the "double synchronousinduction generator."
Such machines have been proposed for steamturbine alternators
of small and moderate sizes, as they permit, with bipolar con
struction, to operate at twice the maximum speed available for
the synchronous machine, which is 1500 revolutions for 25 cycles,
and 3600 revolutions for 60 cycles.
(b) If 8 is very small, so that the power produced in the low
frequency circuit is very small and may be absorbed by a small
"lowfrequency exciter."
Further discussion of both of these types is given in the
Chapter XIII on the "Synchronous Induction Generator."
111. The use of the general alternatingcurrent transformer as
frequency converter is always accompanied by the production
of mechanical power when lowering, and by the consumption
of mechanical power when raising the frequency. Thus a second
machine, either induction or synchronous, would be placed on the
frequency converter shaft to supply the mechanical power as
motor when raising the frequency, or absorb the power as
generator, when lowering the frequency. This machine may be
of either of the two frequencies, but would naturally, for eco
nomical reasons, be built for the supply frequency, when motor,
and for the generated or secondary frequency, when generator.
Such a couple of frequency converter and driving motor and
auxiliary generator has over a motorgenerator set the advan
tage, that it requires a total machine capacity only equal to the
output, while with a motorgenerator set the total machine
capacity equals twice the output. It has, however, the dis
advantage not to be as standard as the motor and the generator.
If a synchronous machine is used, the frequency is constant ;
if an induction machine is used, there is a slip, increasing with
the load, that is, the ratio of the two frequencies slightly varies
192
ELECTRICAL API' A HA TVS
with the load, so that the latter arrangement is less suitable when
tying together two systems of constant frequencies.
112. Frequency converters may be used:
(a) For producing a moderate amount of power of a higher or
a lower frequency, from a large alternatingcurrent system.
(6) For tying together two alternatingcurrent systems of
different frequencies, and interchange power between them, so
that either acts as reserve to the other. In this case, electrical
power transfer may be either way.
(c) For local frequency reduction for commutating machines,
by having the general alternatingcurrent transformer lower the
frequency, for instance from 60 to 30 cycles, and take up the
lower frequency, as well as the mechanical power in a commu
tating machine on the frequency converter shaft. Such a
combination has been called a "Motor Converter."
Thus, instead of a BOcycle synchronous converter, such a
6Q/30cyc!e motor converter would offer the advantage of the
lower frequency of 30 cycles in the commutating machine. The
commutating machine then would receive half its input electric
ally, as synchronous converter, half mechanically, as direct
current generator, and thus would be half converter and half
generator; the induction machine on the same shaft would change
half of its (iOcycle power input into mechanical power, half into
30cycle electric power.
Such motor converter is smaller and more efficient than a
motorgenerator set, but larger and less efficient than a syn
chronous converter.
Where phase control of the directcurrent voltage is desired,
the motor converter as a rule does not require reactors, as the
induction machine has sufficient internal reactance.
(rf) For supplying low frequency to a second machine on the
same shaft, for speed control, as "concatenated motor couple."
That is, two. induction motors on the same shaft, operating
in parallel, give full speed, and half speed is produced,
at full efficiency, by concatenating the two induction ma
chines, that is, using the one as frequency converter for feeding
the other.
By using two machines of different number of poles, /i, and
pi, on the same shaft, four different speeds can lie secured, corre
sponding respectively to the number of poles: », + p\, » 2 , p h
pi — p a . That is, concatenation of both machines, opentJoq
FREQUENCY CONVERTER 193
of one machine only, either the one or the other, and differential
concatenation.
Further discussion hereof see under "Concatenation."
In some forms of secondary excitation of induction machines,
as by lowfrequency synchronous or commutating machine in
the secondary, the induction machine may also be considered
as frequency converter. Regarding hereto see "Induction
Motors with Secondary Excitation."
13
CHAPTKR XIII
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR
113. If an induction machine is driven above synchronism,
the power component of the primary current reverses, thai is,
energy flows outward, and the machine becomes an induction
generator. The component of current required for magnetiza
tion remains, however, the same; that is, the induction generator
requires the supply of a reactive current for excitation, just as
the induction motor, and so must be connected to some apparatus
which gives a lagging, or, what is the same, consumes a leading
current.
The frequency of the e.m.f. generated by the induction gen
erator, /, is lower than the frequency of rotation or speed, / .
by the frequency, ft, of the secondary currents. Or, inversely,
the frequency, ft, of the secondary circuit is the frequency of
slip — that is, the frequency with which the speed of mechaoioal
rotation slips behind the speed of the rotating field, in the induc
tion motor, or the speed of the rotating field slips behind the
speed of mechanical rotation, in the induction generator.
A3 in every transformer, so in the induction machine, the
secondary current must have the same ampereturns as the
primary current less the exciting current, that is, the secondary
current is approximately proportional to the primary current,
or to the load of the induction generator.
In an induction generator with shortcircuited secondary,
the secondary currents are proportional, approximately, to the
e.m.f. generated in the secondary circuit, and this e.m.f. is pro
portional to the frequency of the secondary circuit, that is,
the slip of frequency behind speed. It so follows that the slip
of frequency in the induction generator with shortcircuited
secondary is approximately proportional to the load, that is,
such an induction generator does not produce constant syn
chronous frequency, but a frequency which decreases slightly
with increasing load, just as the speed of the induction motor
decreases slightly with increase of load.
Induction generator and induction motor so have also l>eeu
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 195
called asynchronous generator and asynchronous motor, but
these names are wrong, since the induction machine is not
independent of the frequency, but depends upon it just as much
as a synchronous machine — the difference being, that the
synchronous machine runs exactly in synchronism, while the
induction machine approaches synchronism. The real asyn
chronous machine is the commutating machine.
114. Since the slip of frequency with increasing load on the
induction generator with shortcircuited secondary is due to
the increase of secondary frequency required to produce the
secondary e.m.f. and therewith the secondary currents, it follows:
if these secondary currents are produced by impressing an e.m.f.
of constant frequency, f lf upon the secondary circuit, the primary
frequency, /, does not change with the load, but remains con
stant and equal to / = / — /i. The machine then is a syn
chronousinduction machine — that is, a machine in which the
speed and frequency are rigid with regard to each other, just as
in the synchronous machine, except that in the synchronous
induction machine, speed and frequency have a constant dif
ference, while in the synchronous machine this difference is zero,
that is, the speed equals the frequency.
By thus connecting the secondary of the induction machine
with a 8010*06 of constant lowfrequency, f l9 as a synchronous
machine, or a commutating machine with lowfrequency field
excitation, the primary of the induction machine at constant
speed, /o, generates electric power at constant frequency, /,
independent of the load. If the secondary /i = 0, that is, a
continuous current is supplied to the secondary circuit, the
primary frequency is the frequency of rotation and the machine
an ordinary synchronous machine. The synchronous machine so
appears as a special case of the synchronousinduction machine
and corresponds to /i = 0.
In the synchronousinduction generator, or induction machine
with an e.m.f. of constant low frequency, f h impressed upon the
secondary circuit, by a synchronous machine, etc., with increas
ing load, the primary and so the secondary currents change, and
the synchronous machine so receives more power as synchronous
motor, if the rotating field produced in the secondary circuit
revolves in the same direction as the mechanical rotation —
that is, if the machine is driven above synchronism of the
e.m.f. impressed upon the secondary circuit — or the synchronous
190 • ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
machine generates more power as alternator, if the direction of
rotation of the secondary revolving field is in opposition to the
speed. In the former ease, the primary frequency equals speed
minus secondary impressed frequency: / = fn — j\\ in the latter
case, the primary frequency equals the sum of speed and sec
ondary impressed frequency:/ = f<, + /i, and the machine is a
frequency converter or general alternatingcurrent transformer,
with the frequency, /i, as primary, and the frequency, /,as
secondary, transforming up in frequency to a frequency, /,
which is very high compared with the impressed frequency,
so that the mechanical power input into the frequency con
verter is very large compared with the electrical power input.
The synchronousinduction generator, that is, induction gen
erator in which the secondary frequency or frequency of slip h
fixed by an impressed frequency, so can also be considered as a
frequency converter or general alternatingcurrent transformer.
116. To transform from a frequency, / (l to a frequency; f t , the
frequency, f%, is impressed upon the primary of an induction
machine, and the secondary driven at such a speed, or fre
quency of rotation, /«. that the difference between primary
impressed frequency, /,, and frequency of rotation, / , that, is,
the frequency of slip, is the desired secondary frequency,/!,
There are two speeds, /„, which fulfill this condition: one
below synchronism: / u = f\ —ft, and one above synchronism:
/« = /i + /=■ That is", the secondary frequency beoomaH f$,
if the secondary runs slower than the primary revolving field
of frequency,/,, or if the secondary runs faster than the primary
field, by the slip, / s .
In the former case, the speed is below synchronism, that is,
the machine generates electric power at. the frequency, / = , in the
secondary, and consumes electric power at the frequency, /,,
in the primary. If / 3 < f u the speed / = f, — / 5 is between
standstill and synchronism, and the machine, in addition to
electric power, generates mechanical power, as induction motor,
and as has been seen in the chapter on the "General Alternating
current Transformer," it is, approximately:
Electric power input ■*■ electric power output = mechanical
power output ■• f\ ■*■ ft + ft
If ft > !'• I hat is, the frequency converter increases the hc
quency, the rotation must be in backward direction, against the
rotating field, so as to give a slip, / ; , greater than the tmpnmd
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 107
frequency, /i, and the speed is /n = f* — f t . In this ease, the
iiimtiine consumes mechanical power, since it is driven against
I the torque given by it as induction motor, and we have:
Klectric power input ■*■ mechanical power input + electric
power output  f % +■ f f + f a .
That is, the three powers, primary electric, secondary electric,
and mechanical, are proportional to their respective frequencies.
As stated, the secondary ■ frequency, St, is also produced by
driving the machine above synchronism, /,, that is, with a
negative slip, St, or at a speed, / = /i + Si In this case, the
machine is induction generator, that is, the primary circuit
generates electric power at frequency Si, the secondary circuit
generates electric power at frequency St and the machine con
sumes mechanical power, and the three powers again arc proper
Itional to their respective frequencies:
Primary electric output + secondary electric output +■
mechanical input = /t s /» * /o
Since in this case of oversynchronous rotation, both electric
circuits of the machine generate, it can not be called a frequency
converter, but is an electric generator, converting mechanical
power into electric power at two different frequencies, / L and
and so is called a synchronousinduction machine, since
the sum of the two frequencies generated by it equals the fre
quency of rotation or speed — that, is, the machine revolves in
synchronism with the sum of the two frequencies generated
by it.
It is obvious that like all induction machines, this synchro
nousinduction generator requires a reactive lagging current for
excitation, which has to be supplied to it by some outside source,
s a synchronous machine, etc.
That is, an induction machine driven at speed, /«, when sup
ilied with reactive exciting current of the proper frequency,
;enerates electric power in the stator as well as in the rotor, at
he two respective frequencies, /■ and/, which are such that their
in synchronism with the speed, that is:
A + />/.;
otherwise the Frequencies, /, and /, are entirely independent,
i connecting the stator to a circuit of frequency, Si, the
•otor generates frequency, /» = /o  /i, or connecting the rotor to
198
ELECTRIC A], APPARATUS
a circuit of frequency, />, the stator generates a frequency
116. The power generated in the stator, P u and the power
generated in the rotor, Pi, are proportional to their respective
frequencies :
P,:P,:P, /•:/•:/*
where P is the mechanical input (approximately, that is, neg
lecting losses).
As seen here the difference between the two circuits, stator
and rotor, disappears — that is, either can be primary or sec
ondary, that is, the reactive lagging current required for excita
tion can be supplied to the stator circuit at frequency, ft, or to
the rotor circuit at frequency, f t , or a part to the stator and a pan
to the rotor circuit. Since this exciting current is reactive or
wattless, it can bo derived from a synchronous motor or con
verter, as well as from a synchronous generator, or an alter
nating comimitating machine.
As the voltage required by the exciting current is proportional
to the frequency, it also follows that the reactive power input or
the voltamperes excitation, is proportional to the frequency
of the exciting circuit. Hence, using the lowfrequency circuit
for excitation, the exciting voltamperes are small.
Such a synchronousinduction generator therefore is a two
frequency generator, producing electric power simultaneously
at two frequencies, and in amounts proportional to these fre
quencies. For instance, driven at 85 cycles, it can connect with
the stator to :i 25eycle system, and with the rotor to a 60cycle
system, and feed into both systems power in the proportion of
25 + 60, as is obvious from the equations of the general alter
natingcurrent transformer in the preceding chapter
117. Since the amounts of electric power at the two fre
quencies are always proportional to each other, such a machine
is hardly of much value for feeding into two different systems,
but of importance are only the cases where the two frequence
generated by the machine can he reduced to one.
This is the case:
1. If the two frequencies are the same:/! —ft
s*
In this
case, stator and rotor can be connected together, in parallel
or in series, and the induction machine then generates electric
power at half the frequency of its speed, that is, runs at double
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 199
synchronism of its generated frequency. Such a " double syn
chronous alternator" so consists of an induction machine, in
which the stator and the rotor are connected with each other in
parallel or in series, supplied with the reactive exciting current
by a synchronous machine — for instance, by using synchronous
converters with overexcited field as load — and driven at a speed
equal to twice the frequency required. This type of machine
may be useful for prime movers of very high speeds, such as
steam turbines, as it permits a speed equal to twice that of the
bipolar synchronous machine (3000 revolutions at 25, and 7200
revolutions at 60 cycles).
2. If of the two frequencies, one is chosen so low that the
amount of power generated at this frequency is very small, and
can be taken up by a synchronous machine or other lowfre
quency machine, the latter then may also be called an exciter.
For instance, connecting the rotor of an induction machine to a
synchronous motor of / 2 = 4 cycles, and driving it at a speed
of /o = 64 cycles, generates in the stator an e.m.f. at f\ = 60
cycles, and the amount of power generated at 60 cycles is 6 pj[ =
15 times the power generated by 4 cycles. The machine then
is an induction generator driven at 15 times its synchronous
speed. Where the power at frequency, / 2 , is very small, it would
be no serious objection if this power were not generated, but con
sumed. That is, by impressing / 2 = 4 cycles upon the rotor,
and driving it at / = 56 cycles, in opposite direction to the rotat
ing field produced in it by the impressed frequency of 4 cycles,,
the stator also generates an e.m.f. at f\ = 60 cycles. In this
case, electric power has to be put into the machine by a generator
at / 2 = 4 cycles, and mechanical power at a speed of / = 56
cycles, and electric power is produced as output at /i = 60 cycles.
The machine thus operated is an ordinary frequency converter,
which transforms from a very low frequency, / 2 = 4 cycles, to
frequency /i = 60 cycles or 15 times the impressed frequency,
and the electric power input so is only onefifteenth of the electric
power output, the other fourteenfifteenths are given by the
mechanical power input, and the generator supplying the im
pressed frequency, / 2 = 4 cycles, accordingly is so small that it
can be considered as an exciter.
118. 3. If the rotor of frequency, / 2 , driven at speed, / , is
connected to the external circuit through a commutator, the
effective frequency supplied by the commutator brushes to the
200
ELEi TR1CAL APPARATUS
external circuit is/„ — / s ; hence equals/,, or the atator frequency.
Stator and rotor so give the same effective frequency, /,, and
irrespective of the frequency, / s generated in the rotor, and the
frequencies, /[ and / s , accordingly become indefinite, that is,
jx may lie any frequency, /i then becomes f„ — /,, but. by the
commutator is transformed to the same frequency, /i. If the
stator and rotor were used on entirely independent electric
circuits, the frequency would remain indeterminate. As soon,
however, as stator and rotor are connected together, a relation
appears due to the transformer law, that the secondary ampere
turns must equal the primary ampereturns (when neglecting
the exciting ampereturns). This makes the frequency dependent
upon the number of turns of stator and rotor circuit.
Assuming the rotor circuit is connected in multiple with the
stator circuit— as it always can be, since by the commutator
brushes it has been brought to the same frequency. The rotor
c.m.f. then must be equal to the stator e.m.f. The e.m.f., how
ever, is proportional to the frequency times number of turns,
and it is therefore:
nJ,  ■»,/,,
where: /i] = number of effective stator turns,
>H = number of effective rotor turns, and f\
and/* are the respective frequencies.
Herefrom follows:
/,+/,«, + »,;
that is, the frequencies are inversely proportional to the number
of effective turns in stator and in rotor.
Or, since /o = A + /a is the frequency of rotation :
I +«!
+ ».,
ft
That is, the frequency, /,, generated by the synchronous
induction machine with commutator, is the frequency of imntinn.
/o, times the ratio of rotor turns, m, to total turns, n, + n».
Thus, it can lie made anything by properly choosing the
number of turns in the rotor and in the stator, or, what amounts
to the same, interposing between rotor and stator a transformer
of the proper ratio of transformation.
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 201
The powers generated by the stator and by the rotor, how
ever, are proportional to their respective frequencies, and so are
inversely proportional to their respective turns.
•
Pi §P» =/i +h = n 2 * m;
if n\ and n 2 , and therewith the two frequencies, are very different,
the two powers, Pj and P2, are very different, that is, one of the
elements generates very much less power than the other, and
since both elements, stator and rotor, have the same active
surface, and so can generate approximately the same power, the
machine is less economical.
That is, the commutator permits the generation of any de
sired frequency, /1, but with best economy only if f\ = w, or
halfsynchronous frequency, and the greater the deviation from
this frequency, the less is the economy. If one of the fre
quencies is very small, that is, f\ is either nearly equal to syn
chronism, /o, or very low, the lowfrequency structure generates
very little power.
By shifting the commutator brushes, a component of the rotor
current can be made to magnetize and the machine becomes a
selfexciting, alternatingcurrent generator.
The use of a commutator on alternatingcurrent machines is
in general undesirable, as it imposes limitations on the design,
for the purpose of eliminating destructive sparking, as discussed
in the chapter on "AlternatingCurrent Commutating Machines."
The synchronousinduction machines have not yet reached a
sufficient importance to require a detailed investigation, so only
two examples may be considered.
119. 1. Double Synchronous Alternator,
Assume the stator and rotor of an induction machine to be
wound for the same number of effective turns and phases, and
connected in multiple or in series with each other, or, if wound
for different number of turns, connected through transformers
of such ratios as to give the same effective turns when reduced
the same circuit by the transformer ratio of turns. .
Let:
Yi — Q — jb — exciting admittance of the stator,
Z\ = ri + jx\ = selfinductive impedance of the stator,
Z 2 = r 2 + jx* = selfinductive impedance of the rotor,
202 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and:
6 = e.m.f. generated in the stator by the mutual inductive
magnetic field, that is, by the magnetic flux corresponding to
the exciting admittance, Y\\
and:
/ = total current, or current supplied to the external circuit,
I\ = stator current,
I2 = rotor current.
With series connection of stator and rotor:
/ = /, = h,
with parallel connection of stator and rotor:
/ = /i + / 2 .
Using the equations of the general induction machine, the
slip of the secondary circuit or rotor is :
« = 1;
the exciting admittance of the rotor is:
Yt = g  jsb = g + jb,
and the rotor generated e.m.f.:
E\ = se = — e;
that is, the rotor must be connected to the stator in the opposite
direction to that in which it would be connected at standstill,
or in a stationary transformer.
That is, magnetically, the power components of stator and
rotor current neutralize each other. Not so, however, the
reactive components, since the reactive component of the rotor
current:
U = i\ + ji\
in its reaction on the stator is reversed, by the reversed direction
of relative rotation, or the slip, s = — 1, and the effect of the
rotor current, I* } on the stator circuit accordingly corresponds
to:
i 2 — I 2 — 3 l 2,
hence, the total magnetic effect is :
/i/' 2 = (*\*'t)+j(i"i + t" t );
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 203
and since the total effect must be the exciting current:
i o — to tj 0,
it follows that :
i'x — i't = i'o and i"\ + i #/ t = t
99
Hence, the stator power current and rotor power current,
i'x and i\ y are equal to each other (when neglecting the small
hysteresis power current). The synchronous exciter of the
machine must supply in addition to the magnetizing current,
the total reactive current of the load. Or in other words, such
a machine requires a synchronous exciter of a voltampere
capacity equal to the voltampere. excitation plus the reactive
voltamperes of the load, that is, with an inductive load, a large
exciter machine. In this respect, the doublesynchronous
generator is analogous to the induction generator, and is there
fore suited mainly to a load with leading current, as over
excited converters and synchronous motors, in which the reactive
component of the load is negative and so compensates for the
reactive component of excitation, and thereby reduces the size
of the exciter.
This means that the doublesynchronous alternator has zero
armature reaction for noninductive load, but a demagnetizing
armature reaction for inductive, a magnetizing armature reac
tion for antiinductive load, and the excitation, by alternating
reactive current, so has to be varied with the character of the
load, in general in a far higher degree than with the synchronous
alternator.
120. 2. Synchronousinduction Generator with Lowfrequency
Excitation.
Here two cases exist:
(a) If the magnetic field of excitation revolves in opposite
direction to the mechanical rotation.
(6) If it revolves in the same direction.
In the first case (a) the exciter is a lowfrequency generator
and the machine a frequency converter, calculated by the same
equations.
Its voltage regulation is essentially that of a synchronous
alternator: with increasing load, at constant voltage impressed
upon the rotor or exciter circuit, the voltage drops moderately
at noninductive load, greatly at inductive load, and rises at
204
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
antiinductive load. To maintain constant terminal voltage,
the excitation has to lie changed with ;i change of load and
character of load. With a lowfrequency synchronous machine
as exciter, this is done by varying the field excitation of the
exciter.
At constant field excitation of the synchronous exciter, the
regulation is that due to the impedance lietween the nominal
generated e.m.f. of the exciter, and the terminal voltage of the
stator — that, is, corresponds to:
Z = Z + Zi + Z„
Here 7.t, = synchronous impedance of the exciter, reduced to full
frequency, /i,
Zj = selfinductive impedance of the rotor, reduced to full
frequency. /i,
Zi = selfinductive impedance of the stator.
If then E D = nominal generated e.m.f. of the exciter generator,
that is, corresponding to the field excitation, and,
/i = i — jti = stator current or output current, the stator
terminal voltage is:
E,  E + ZI„ or, E» = E + (r + jx) {i  ji\);
and, choosing Ei = p as real axis, and expanding:
Bo = («i + « + Mf) + j (ri  ri>),
and the absolute value:
 (g. + ri
■ xn)
(«■
nO* — (n + j/i).
121. As an example is shown, in Fig. 6.5, in dotted lines, with
the total current, / = y/i + f"i ! , iis abscissa?, the voltage regu
lation of such a machine, or the terminal voltage, t u with a
fourcycle synchronous generator as exciter of the 60cycle
synchronousinduction generator, driven as frequency converter
at 56 cycles.
1. For noninductive load, or I,  i. (Curve I.)
2. For inductive load of 80 per cent, powerfactor, or /i *
7(0.8  0.6 j). (Curve U.J
3. For antiinductive load of 80 per cent, powerfactor, or
/, = 7(0.8 + O.Gj). (Curve III.)
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 205
For the constants:
e„  2000 volts, Z, = 1 + 0.5 j,
Z x = 0.1 + 0.3 j, Z„ = 0.5 + 0.5 j;
ence:
Z = 1.6 + 1.3 j.
e, = Vi X 10'  (1.3 i  1.6 ii) 1  (1.6 i + 1.3 *'i);
hence, for noninductive load, ii = 0:
c, = V4 X 10«  1.69f*  1.6 i;
; «* ''
^^ ""
^ ^  ^ ^
&&***
"""' ^sz~— . ~~ ~~ — _
1800 "s^. ...in " ■"•^
S  1 "^ iu
11 ^"i > ^ ^^
2 ^*, V
wo "^J
Z ^is
300 ^
Fio. 65. — Synchronous induction generator regulation curves.
for inductive load of 80 per cent, powerfactor j'i = 0.6 /, i =
e, = Vi X 10'  00064/*  2.06/;
and for antiinductive load of 80 per cent, powerfactor 1
 0.6/,* = 0.8/:
Vi
X 10« 4/ 1  0.5/.
As seen, due to the internal impedance, anil especially the
resistance of this machine, the regulation is very poor, and even
at the chosen antiinductive load no rise of voltage occurs.
122. Of more theoretical interest is the case (b), where the
206 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
exciter is a synchronous motor, and the synchronousinduction
generator produces power in the stator and in the rotor circuit.
In this case, the power is produced by the generated e.m.f., E
(e.m.f. of mutual induction, or of the rotating magnetic field},
of the induction machine, and energy flows outward in both
circuits, in the stator into the receiving circuit, of terminal
voltage, #i, in the rotor against the impressed e.m.f. of the
synchronous motor exciter, En. The voltage of one receiving
circuit, the stator, therefore, is controlled by a voltage impressed
upon another receiving circuit, the rotor, and this results in some
interesting effects in voltage regulation.
Assume the voltage, E a , impressed upon the rotor circuit as
the nominal generated e.m.f. of the synchronousmotor exciter,
that is, the field corresponding to the exciter field excitation,
and assume the field excitation of the exciter, and therewith
the voltage, E a , to be maintained constant.
Reducing all the voltages to the stator circuit by the ratio of
their effective turns and the ratio of their respective frequencies,
the same e.m.f., E, is generated in the rotor circuit as in the
stator circuit of the induction machine.
At noload, neglecting the exciting current of the induction
machine, that is, with no current, we have E n = E = E\.
If a load is put on the stator circuit by taking a current, /,
from the same, the terminal voltage, E x , drops below I he gene
rated e.m.f., E, by the drop of voltage in the impedance, Z u of
the stator circuit. Corresponding to the stator current, I,, a
current, /a, then exists in the rotor circuit, giving the same
ampereturns as Ii, in opposite direction, and so neutralizing the
m.m.f. of the stator (as in any transformer). This current, I t ,
exists in the synchronous motor, and the synchronous motor
e.m.f., Eo, accordingly drops below the generated e.m.f., E, of
the rotor, or, since Ea is maintained constant, E rises above E a
with increasing load, by the drop of volt age in the rotor impedance,
2V, and the synchronous impedance, Z«, of the exciter.
That is, the stator terminal voltage, E,, drops with increasing
load, by the stator impedance drop, and rises with increasing
load by the rotor and exciter impedance drop, since the latter
causes the generated e.m.f., E, to rise.
If then the impedance drop in the rotor circuit is greater than
thai in the stator, with increasing load the terminal voltage,
Ei, of the machine rises, that is, the machine automatically
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 207
overcompounds, at constantexciter field excitation, and if the
stator and the rotor impedance drops are equal, the machine
compounds for constant voltage.
In such a machine, by properly choosing the stator and rotor
impedances, automatic rise, decrease or constancy of the terminal
voltage with the load can be produced.
This, however, applies only to noninductive load. If the
current, I, differs in phase from the generated e.m.f., E, the
corresponding current, J 2 , also differs; but a lagging component
of I\ corresponds to a leading component in It, since the stator
circuit slips behind, the rotor circuit is driven ahead of the
rotating magnetic field, and inversely, a leading component of
7i gives a lagging component of 7 2 . The reactance voltage of
the lagging current in one circuit is opposite to the reactance
voltage of the leading current in the other circuit, therefore
does not neutralize it, but adds, that is, instead of compounding,
regulates in the wrong direction.
123. The automatic compounding of the synchronous induc
tion generator with lowfrequency synchronousmotor excitation
so fails if the load is not noninductive.
Let:
Z\ = T\ + jxi = stator selfinductive impedance,
Z 2 = r 2 + jx<t = rotor selfinductive impedance, reduced to the
stator circuit by the ratio of the effective turns, t =  , and the
J x ni'
h
ratio of frequencies, a = t)
Ji
Zo = r + jxo = synchronous impedance of the synchronous
motor exciter;
Ei = terminal voltage of the stator, chosen as real axis, = e\\
Eo = nominal generated e.m.f. of the synchronousmotor
exciter, reduced to the stator circuit;
E = generated e.m.f. of the synchronousinduction generator
stator circuit, or the rotor circuit reduced to the stator circuit.
The actual e.m.f. generated in the rotor circuit then is E' =
taE, and the actual nominal generated e.m.f. of the synchronous
exciter is E\ = taEo.
Let:
I\ = i ' — jii = current in the stator circuit, or the output
current of the machine.
208 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The current in the rotor circuit, in which the direction of
rotation is opposite, or ahead of the revolving field, then is,
when neglecting the exciter current :
li = i + jii.
. (If Y = exciting admittance, the exciting current is Io — EY f
and the total rotor current then h + 7 2 .)
Then in the rotor circuit:
E = E + (Z + Z 2 ) A, (1)
and in the stator circuit :
E = Ex + Zi/i. (2)
Hence :
Ex = E + U (Zo + Z 2 )  1 X Z U (3)
or, substituting for 1\ and 7 2 :
Ex = E + i (Zo + Z 2  Z x ) + jit (Z + Z 2 + Z,). (4)
Denoting now:
Z + Z\ + Z 2 = Z 3 = r 3 + jx 8 ,
Z + Z 2 — Zi = Zj = r 4 + jx 4 ,
(5)
and substituting:
tf, = E + iZ A + jUZ h (6)
or, since Ex = e\\
E = ei — iZ K — }i\Zz
= (ei  r A i + x 3 t'i)  j (xii + r i i l ) ) (7)
or the absolute value:
e 2 = (ex  r A i + x$ix) 2 + (x A i + r 3 /i) 2 . (8)
Hence :
ex = vco 2  (x A i + r 3 ii) 2 + r 4 i  x 3 ii. (9)
That is, the terminal voltage, ci, decreases due to the decrease
of the square root, but may increase due to the second term.
At noload:
i = 0, ix = and e\ = <v
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 209
At noninductive load:
t"i = and ei = Ve *  z A H 2 + r A i. (10)
e\ first increases, from its noload value, e , reaches a maximum,
and then decreases again.
Since:
r* = r + r 2  r lt
X\ = x + Xt — r x ,
at : r 4 = and au = 0,
or,
ri = r + r 2 ,
Xi = Xo + x 2 ,
and:
ei = ^o, that is, in this case the terminal vol
tage is constant at all noninductive loads, at constant exciter
excitation.
In general, or for I\ = i — ji\,
if ii is positive or inductive load, from equation (9) follows
that the terminal voltage, e h drops with increasing load; while
if i\ is negative or antiinductive load, the terminal voltage,
6i, rises with increasing load, ultimately reaches a maximum
and then decreases again.
From equation (9) follows, that by changing the impedances,
the amount of compounding can be varied. For instance, at
noninductive load, or in equation (10) by increasing the re
sistance, r 4 , the voltage, ci, increases faster with the load.
That is, the overcompounding of the machine can be increased
by inserting resistance in the rotor circuit.
124. As an example is shown, in Fig. 65, in full line, with the
total current, / = y/i 2 + i x 2 , as abscissae, the voltage regulation
of such a machine, or the terminal voltage, e h with a four
cycle synchronous motor as exciter of a 60cycle synchronous
induction generator driven at 64cycles speed.
1. For noninductive load, or Ii = i. (Curve I.)
2. For inductive load of 80 per cent, powerfactor; or
/, = / (0.8  0.6 j). (Curve II.)
3. For antiinductive load of 80 per cent, powerfactor; or
Ii  / (0.8+ 0.6 j). (Curve III.)
14
210 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
For the constants :
eo = 2000 volts.
Z t = 0.1 + 0.3j".
Z t ~ 1 +0.5 j.
Then:
Z = 0.5 + 0.5 j.
a = 0.067.
( = 1, that is, the
same number of
turns in stator
and rotor.
Z, = 1.6 + 1.3 j and Z« = 1.4 + 0.7 j.
Hence, substituting in equation (9) :
Cl = V4X 10' (0.7 1 + 1.6(1)* + 1.4 1  1.3 i,;
MM
*
+■
•
V
X
\
V
S
^
\
1IUII
"~
■ —
— it «
w—

»
»
U N
Fia. 66. — Synchronous induction generator; voltage regulation with power
factor of load.
thus, for noninductive load, n = 0:
e, = Vi X 10*  0.49 i* + 1.4 i;
for inductive load of 80 per cent. powerfactori'i=0.67;i = 0.87:
«i = V4 X 10»  2.31 7* + 0.34 7;
and for antiinductive load of 80 per cent, powerfactor i"i =
0.6 1;x 0.8 7:
e , = V4 X 10«  0.16 /* + 1.9 7.
Comparing the curves of this example with those of the same
machine driven as frequency converter with exciter generator,
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR 211
and shown in dotted lines in the same chart (Fig. 65), it is
seen that the voltage is maintained at load far better, and
especially at inductive load the machine gives almost perfect
regulation of voltage, with the constants assumed here.
To show the variation of voltage with a change of power
factor, at the same output in current, in Fig. 66, the terminal
voltage, 6i, is plotted with the phase angle as abscissae, from
wattless antiinductive load, or 90° lead, to wattless inductive
load, or 90° lag, for constant current output of 400 amp. As
seen, at wattless load both machines give the same voltage but
for energy load the type (b) gives with the same excitation a
higher voltage, or inversely, for the same voltage the type (a)
requires a higher excitation. It is, however, seen that with the
same current output, but a change of powerfactor, the voltage
of type (a) is far more constant in the range of inductive load,
while that of type (b) is more constant on antiinductive load,
and on inductive load very greatly varies with a change of
powerfactor.
CHAPTER XIV
PHASE CONVERSION AND SINGLEPHASE GENERATION
126. Any polyphase system can, by mean? of two stationary
transformers, be converted into any other polyphase system,
and in such conversion, a balanced polyphase system remains
balanced, while an unbalanced system converts into a polyphase
system of the same balance factor. 1
In the conversion between singlephase system and polyphase
system, a storage of energy thus must take place, as the balance
factor of the singlephase system is zero or negative, while that
of the balanced polyphase system is unity. For such energy
storage may be used capacity, or inductance, or momentum or a
combination thereof:
Energy storage by capacity, that is, in the dielectric fu Id,
required per kilovoltampere at 60 cycles about 200O <.•■. ol
space, at a cost of about $10. Inductance, that is. energy
storage by the magnetic field, requires about 1000 c.e. per kilo
voltampere at 60 cycles, at a cost of $1, while energy storage by
momentum, as kinetic mechanical energy, assuming iron moving
at 30 meterseconds, stores 1 kva. at 60 cycles by about 3 c.c.,
at a cost of 0.2c, thus is by far the cheapest and least bulky
method of energy storage. Where large amounts of energy have
to be stored, for a very short time, mechanical momentum thus
is usually the most efficient and cheapest method.
However, size and cost of condensers is practically the same
for large as for small capacities, while the size and cost of induc
tance decreases with increasing, and increases with dec ro a n i B g
kilovoltampere capacity. Furthermore, the use of mechanical
momentum means moving machinery, requiring more or less
attention, thus becomes less suitable, for smaller values of power.
Hence, for smaller amounts of stored energy, inductance and
capacity may become more economical than momentum, and
for very small amounts of energy, the condenser may lie the
cheapest device. The above figures thus give only the approxi
• "Theorv and Calculation of Alterwi tingcurrent Phenomena,"
edition, Chapter XXXII.
PHASE CONVERSION
213
that
rent
Whi
mate magnitude for medium values of energy, and then apply
only to the active energy storing structure, under the assumption,
thai during every energy cycle (or half cycle of alternating our
^nt and voltage), the entire energy is returned and stored again.
iile this is the case with capacity and inductance, when using
momentum for energy storage, as flywheel capacity, the energy
storage and return is accomplished by a periodic speed variation,
thus only a part of the energy restored, and furthermore, only
a part of the structural material (the flywheel, or the rotor of
the machine) is moving. Thus assuming that only a quarter
of the mass of the mechanical structure (motor, etc.) is revolving,
and that the energy storage takes place by a pulsation of speed of
per cent., then 1 kva. at 60 cycles would require 600 c.e. of
terial, at 40c,
Obviously, at the limits of dielectric or magnetic field strength,
or at the limits of mechanical speeds, very much larger amounts
of energy per bulk could be stored. Thus for instance, at the
limits of steamturbine rotor speeds, about 400 meterseconds,
in a very heavy material as tungsten, 1 e.c. of material would
store about 200 kva. of 60cycle energy, and the above figures
thus represent only average values under average conditions.
126. Phase conversion is of industrial importance in changing
from singlephase to polyphase, and in changing from polyphase
to singlephase.
Conversion from singlephase to polyphase has been of con
siderable importance in former times, when alternatingcurrent
generating systems were singlephase, and alternatingcurrent
motors required polyphase for their operation. With the prac
tically universal introduction of threephase electric power
leration, polyphase supply is practically always available for
itionary electric motors, at least motors of larger size, and
n version from singlephase to polyphase thus is of importance
■inly:
(a) To supply small amounts of polyphase current, for the
rting of smaller induction motors operated on singlephase
listribution circuits, 2300 volts primary, or 110/220 volts
secondary, that is, in those cases, in which the required amount
of power is not. sufficient to justify bringing the third phase to
the motor: with larger motors, all the three phases are brought
to the motor installation, thus polyphase supply used.
(b) For inductionmotor railway installations, to avoid the
214
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
complication and inconvenience incident to the use of two trolley
wires. In this case, as large amounts of polyphase power arc
required, and economy in weight is important, momentum is
generally used for energy storage, that is an induction machine
is employed as phase converter, and then is used either in series
or in shunt to the motor.
For the small amounts of power required by use (a), generally
inductance or capacity are employed, and even then usually the
conversion is made not to polyphase, but to monocyclic, as the
latter is far more economical in apparatus.
Conversion from polyphase to singlephase obviously means
the problem of deriving singlephase power from a balanced
polyphase system. A singlephase load can be taken from any
phase of a polyphase system, but such a load, when consider
able, unbalances the polyphase system, that is, makes the vol
tages of the phases unequal and lowers the generator capacity.
The problem thus is, to balance the voltages and the reaction of
the load on the generating system.
This problem has become of considerable importance in the
last years, for the purpose of taking targe singlephase loads, for
electric railway, furnace work, etc., from a threephase supply
system as a central station or transmission line. For this pur
pose, usually synchronous phase converters with synchronous
phase balancers are used.
As illustration may thus be considered in the following the
monocyclic device, the induction phase converter, and the
synchronous phase converter and balancer.
Monocyclic Devices
127. The name "monocyclic" is applied to a polyphase sys
tem of voltages (whether symmetrical or unsymmetrical), in
which the flow of energy is essentially single phase.
For instance, if, as shown diagrammatic ally in Fig. 67, we
connect, between singlephase mains, AB, two pairs of nonin
ductive resistances, r, and inductive reactances, x (or in general,
two pairs of impedances of different inductance factors), such
that t = x, consuming the voltages E\ and Et respectively, then
the voltage e» = CD is in quadrature with, and equal to, the
voltage e = AB, and the two voltages, e and eo, constitute a
monocyclic system of quarterphase voltages: e gives the energy
PHASE CONVERSION 215
axis of the monocyclic system, and e the quadrature or wattless
axis. That is, from the axis, e, power can be drawn, within
the limits of the powergenerating system back of the supply
voltage. If, however, an attempt is made to draw power from
the monocyclic quadrature voltage, e > this voltage collapses.
If then the two voltages, e and eo, are impressed upon a quarter
phase induction motor, this motor will not take power equally
from both phases, e and e , but takes power essentially only from
phase, e. In starting, and at heavy load, a small amount of
power is taken also from the quadrature voltage, eo, but at light
load, power may be returned into this voltage, so that in general
the average power of e approximates zero, that is, the voltage,
eo, is wattless.
A monocyclic system thus may be defined as a system of poly
phase voltages, in which one of the power axis, the main axis
or energy axis, is constant potential, and the other power axis,
the auxiliary or quadrature axis, is of dropping characteristic
and therefore of limited power. Or it may be defined as a poly
phase system of voltage, in which the power available in the one
power axis of the system is practically unlimited compared with
that of the other power axis.
A monocyclic system thus is a system of polyphase voltage,
which at balanced polyphase load becomes unbalanced, that is,
in which an unbalancing of voltage or phase relation occurs
when all phases are loaded with equal loads of equal inductance
factors.
In some respect, all methods of conversion from singlephase
to polyphase might be considered as monocyclic, in so far as the
quadrature phase produced by the transforming device is limited
by the capacity of the transforming device, while the main
phase is limited only by the available power of the generating
system. However, where the power available in the quadrature
phase produced by the phase converter is sufficiently large not
to constitute a limitation of power in the polyphase device sup
plied by it, or in other words, where the quadrature phase pro
duced by the phase converter gives essentially a constantpoten
tial voltage under the condition of the use of the device, then the
system is not considered as monocyclic, but is essentially
polyphase.
In the days before the general introduction of threephase
power generation, about 20 years ago, monocyclic systems were
2lft
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
extensively used, and monocyclic generators built. These were
.^iriulrpluisi' alternatingeurrenl generators, having a small
quadrature phase of high inductance, which combined with the
main phase gives threephase or quarter phase voltages. The
auxiliary phase was of such high reactance as to limit the quadra
< i < ti ■ poWCI and thus make the flow of energy essentially single
phase, that is, monocyclic. The purpose hereof was to permit
the use of a small quadrature coil on the generator, and thereby
to preserve the whole generator capacity for the singlephase
main voltage, without danger of overloading the quadrature
phase in case of a high motor load on the system. The genera]
introduction of the threephase system superseded the mono
cyclic generator, and monocyclic devices are today used only
for local production of polyphase voltages from singlephase
supply, for the starting of small siliElephiise induction motors,
clc. The advantage of the monocyclic feature then comaata in
1 1 Mm him the output and thereby the size of the device, and making
it (hereby economically feasible with the use of the rather expen
sive energystoring devices of inductance (and capacity) used in
this case.
The simplest and most generally used monocyclic device con
si sis of I wo impedances, Z, and Z«,ot different inductance factors
(resistance and inductance, or inductance and capacity), con
nected aiTuss the singlephase mains, .4 ami li. The common
connection, C, between the two impedances, Z, and Z>. then is dis
placed in phase from the singlephase supply voltage. A and B,
and gives with the same a system of outofphase voltages, AC,
Cli and .4 if, or a — more or less unsymmetrical — threephase
Iriaiude. Or, between this common connection, C, and the
middle, D, of an autotransformer connected between the single
phase mains, AB, a quadrature voltage, CD, is produced.
This ■monocyclic triangle" ACB, in its application as singlc
tuCtKM) motorstarting device, is discussed in Chapter V.
Tw.> mil monoeydic triangles combined give the monocyclic
square. Fig. (57.
138. Let then, in the monoeydic square shown diagrammalic
ally in Pig. 67:
1", = g, — j&i = admittance AC and DB;
)", = j,j — fit = admittance CB and AD:
Ye = o* — jb* = admittance of the load on
PHASE CONVERSION
217
the monocyclic quadrature voltage, # = CD, and current, /o.
Denoting then :
& = e = supply voltage, AB 9 and / = supply current, and
?it #« = voltages, /i, /i = currents in the two sides of the
monocyclic square.
It is then, counting voltages and currents in the direction
indicated by the arrows in Fig. 67 :
hence:
and:
substituting:
into (3) gives
#* + £i = e,
t
Ei — $i = #o;
1
„ E + Eq
& = 2 ~'
w  e ~ Eo 
** ~ 2 '
t
'
J =/l+/2,
/o = /i — /«;
/o = #0^0,
h = ^iK„
/ s = &y s ;
/ =#.ri + £*r,,
^qJ'o = #1^1 — 1$1
Fi;
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
substituting (2) into (5) gives:
_«(r 1 _r i ) .
*° r7+ r7+ 2 iV
(6)
substituting (6) into (2) gives:
£1 =
$2 =
e(K.+ Fo)
(7)
218
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
substituting (7) and (6) into (4) and (5) gives the currents:
eY (Yx  Y t )
/o =
— z^rl
Fi + F 2 + 2 Fo
f = ? (Z?7a_+ y * y * + 2YjY 2 )
/l =
/* =
Y 1 + Y i + 2Yo
eY x (y, + r )
yi +"y 2 + 2 yV
ey, (y! + y )
(8)
y 1 + y 2 + 2 y
129. For a combination of equal resistance and reactance :
RESISTANCEINDUCTANCE
MONOCYCLIC SQUARE
r « 7.07 OHMS
 100 VOLTS
E
<r
Fig. 67. — Resistanceinductance monocyclic square, topographical regula
tion characteristic.
and a load :
yi = o,
Y* = ja;
Y = a(pjq);
equations (6) and (8) give:
p _ e(l+j)
1  j + 2 (p  jj)
T _ea(p  jq)(l +j)
/0 lj+~2(pj?j
eo [(p  jg) (1  j)  2j ]
* lj + 2(pjg)
PHASE CONVERSION 219
Fig. 67 shows the voltage diagram, and Fig. 68 the regulation,
that is, the values of e a and i, with i as abscissae, for:
e = 100 volts,
a = 0.1 V*2 mho.
MINI
REGULATION OF
17
v
MONOCYCLIC SQUARE
*  1O0 VOLTS
,
'>
no
\
"<■
■N
«i
\
*»
V
\
m
J^
^
^
im.
X
Fia. 68. — Resist anceinductance monocyclic square, regulation curve.
For: q = 0, that is, noninductive load, the voltage diagram
is a curve shown by circles in Fig. 67, for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 amp.
load, the latter being the maximum or shortcircuit value.
For q = p, or a load of 45° load, the voltage diagram is the
straight line shown by crosses in Fig. 67. That is, in this case,
the monocyclic voltage, e B , is in quadrature with the supply voltage,
220
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
f,;it ;ill toads, while For noninductive load the monocyclic voltage
c, not only shrinks with increasing load, but also shifts in phase,
from quadrature position, and the diagram is in the latter case
shown for 4 amp. load by the clotted lines in Fig. 67.
In Fig. 68 the drawn tinea correspond to noninductive bftd
The regulation for 45° lagging load is shown by dotted lines in
Fig. 68.
e'o shows the quadrature component of the monocyclic voltage.
e ii, at noninductive load. That is, the component of e«, which is
in phase with e, and therefore could he neutralised by inserting
into 6o a part of the voltage, e, by transformation.
As seen in Fig. 68, the supply current is a maximum of 20 amp.
at noload, and decreases with increasing load, to 10 amp. at
shortcircuit load.
The apparent efficiency of the device, that is, Ihe ratio of the
voltampere output:
Qa = e n i„
to the voltampere input:
Q = ei
is given by the curve, y, in Fig. 68.
As seen, the apparent efficiency is very low, reaching a maxi
mum of 14 per cent. only.
If the monocyclic square is produced by capacity and induc
tance, the extreme case of dropping of voltage, e,„ witli increase of
current, i . is reached in that the circuit of the voltage, eo, becomes
a constantcurrent circuit, and this case is more fully discussed
in Chapter XIV of "Theory and Calculation of Electric Circuits "
as a constantpotential constantcurrent transforming device.
Induction Phase Converter
130. The magnetic field of a singlephase induction motor at
or near synchronism is a uniform rotating field, or nearly so,
deviating from uniform intensity and uniform rotation only by
the impedance drop of the primary winding. Thus, in any coil
displaced in position from the singlephase primary coil of the
induction machine, a voltage is induced which is displaced in
phase from the supply voltage by the same angle as the coil is
displaced in position from the coil energized by the supply vol
tage. An induction machine running at or near synchronism
thus can be used as phase converter, receiving singlephase sup
PHASE CONVERSION
221
ply voltage, E , and current, Z , in one coil, and producing a voltage
of displaced phase, E 2 , and current of displaced phase, J 2 , in
another coil displaced in position.
Thus if a quarterphase motor shown diagrammatically in Fig.
69A is operated by a singlephase voltage, E , supplied to the one
\ju y,
E
> E
*2
B
Eo
Io
Z z,
(mem
Yo
E
I
m
7JFI
JTLr^i
Yo
Yo
E
I:
fm_m
{mjwi
2Y
E
I
Fig. 69. — Induction phase converter diagram.
phase, in the other phase a quadrature voltage, E 2 , is produced
and quadrature current can be derived from this phase.
The induction machine, Fig. 69 A, is essentially a transformer,
giving two transformations in series: from the primary supply
circuit, Eohj to the secondary circuit or rotor, EJx, and from the
rotor circuit, EJi, as primary circuit, to the other stator circuit
222 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
or second phase, EJ*, as secondary circuit. It thus can be repre
sented diagrammatic ally by the double transformer Fig. 69B.
The only difference between Fig. 69A and 69B is, that in Fig.
69.4 the synchronous rotation of the circuit, £\Zi, carries the cur
rent, 1 1, 90° in space to the second transformer, and thereby pro
duces a 90° time displacement. That is, primary current and
voltage of the second transformer of Fig. 69/* are identical in
intensity with the secondary currents and voltage of the first,
transformer, but lag behind them by a quarter period in space
and thus also in time. The momentum of the rotor takes care
of the energy storage during this quarter period.
As the double transformer, Fig. 60S, can be represented by
the double divided circuit, Fig. 69C, 1 Fig. 69C thus represents
the induction phase converter, Fig. 69A, in everything except
that it does not show the quarter period lag.
As the equations derived from Fig. 69C are rather complicated,
the induction converter can, with sufficient approximation for
most purposes, be represented either by the diagram Fig. 69D,
or by the diagram Fig. 69i?. Fig. 69Z> gives the exciting current
of the first transformer too large, but that of the second trans
former too small, so that the two errors largely compensate.
The reverse is the case in Fig. 69E, and the correct value, cor
responding to Fig. 69C, thus lies between the limits 69D and 69£.
The error made by either assumption, 69/> or 69i?, thus man be
smaller than the difference between these two assumptions.
131. Let:
Y = So _ j°o ■ primary exciting admittance of the induc
tion machine,
Zo = r + jxq = primary, and thus also tertiary selfinduc
tive impedance,
Zi ™ Ti + jx, = secondary selfinductive impedance,
all at full frequency, and reduced to the same number of turns.
Let:
Y* = tfi — jbs = admittanceof the load on the second phase;
denoting further:
z = z a + z„
1 "Theory and Calculation of Al terns lingcurr
edition, page 204.
Phenomena," 5th
PHASE CONVERSION
223
it is, then, choosing the diagrammatic representation, Fig. 69D:
/o — #oFo = /i + $%Yq ■» lit
$o = #i + 2 Z (/t + #tVo)i
/«  ft^s;
substituting (11) into (10) and transposing, gives:
if the diagram, Fig. 692?, is used, it is:
Eq
(9)
(10)
(U)
(12)
jj?2 =
l + 2Z(Yo + Yt[l+YoZl)
which differs very little from (12).
And, substituting (11) and (12) into (9):
Io = $t(Yo+Y t )+VoYo,
F Yt + 2Yo + 2Z Y (Yo +Y i )
** 1 + 2ZJY.+ Y t )
(13)
(M)
Equations (11), (12) and (13) give for any value of Load, Y%,
on the quadrature phase, the values of voltage, #*, and current,
It, of this phase, and the supply current, fo, at supply voltage, ##.
It must be understood, however, that the actual quadrature
voltage is not &, but is jjfo carried a quarter phase forward by
the rotation, as discussed before.
132. As instance, consider a phase converter operating at con
stant supply voltage:
of the constants:
thus:
and let
#© * e© «= 100 volts;
>'o  0.01 0.1;,
Zv = Zi « 0.05 + 0.15;;
I = 0.1 +0.3;;
y , = u (j> jq)
= a (0.8  0.6;;,
that is, a load of W) per cent, powerfactor, winch <x>m*>poudi
about to the average powerfactor of au inductiou motoi .
224 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
It is, then, substituted into (11) to (13):
. _ _ioo
*■ (1.062 + 0.52 a) + j (0.36 a  0.0
.r 80j)«L
= 0, or noload, this gives:
e s = 94.1,
li  0,
I,  19.5;
= ™, or shortcircuit, this gives:
ei  0,
i,  159,
The voltage diagram is shown in Fig. 70, and the load char
acteristics or regulation curves in Fig. 71.
As seen: the voltage, et, is already at noload lower than the
supply voltage, e«, due to the drop of voltage of the exciting cur
rent in the selfinductive impedance of the phase converter.
In Fig. 70 arc marked by circles the values of voltage, en, for
every 20 per cent, of the shortcircuit current.
Fig. 71 gives the quadrature component of the voltage, e%, as
e"j, and the apparent efficiency, or ratio of voltampere output
to voltampere input:
and the primary supply current, Jo
lt is interesting to compare the voltage diagram and especially
the load and regulation curves of the induction phase converter,
Figs. 70 and 71, with those of the monocyclic square, Fige, 89
and 68.
As seen, in the phase converter, the supply current at noload
is small, is a mere inductionmachine exciting current, and in
creases with the load and approximately proportional thereto.
The noload input of both devices is practically the same, hut
the voltage regulation of the phase converter is very much better;
the voltage drops to zero at 150 amp. output, while that of the
PHASE CONVERSION
Fie. 70.— Induction phase converter, topographic regulation characteristic.
\
INDUCTION PHASE CONVERTER
Y .01 .lj, Z Z,=.05 +.15 j
Y,= (.6.6J)
e  100 VOLTS
'»,
*s
6 a
l"
;>
s
t.
1
i'\
r^^!
I
1 1
■i i
1
Fio. 71. — Induction phase converter, regulation c
220 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
monocyclic square reaches zero already at 10 amp. output.
illustrates the monocyclic character of the latter,' that is, the limi
tation of the output of the quadrature voltage.
As the result hereof, the phase converter reaches fairly good
apparent efficiencies, 54 per cent., and reaches these already at
moderate loads.
The quadrature component, e"g, of the voltage, en, is much
smaller with the phase converter, and, being in phase with the
supply voltage, eo, can he eliminated, and rigid quadrature relation
of e 2 with Bo maintained, by transformation of a voltage — e"j
from the singlephase supply into the secondary. Furthermore, as
e"i is approximately proportional to i" u — except at very low loads
—it could be supplied without regulation, by a series transformer,
that is, by connecting the primary of a transformer in series with
the supply circuit, u, the secondary in series with e%. Thereby
€i would be maintained in almost perfect quadrature relation
to Co at all important loads.
Thus the phase converter is an energy transforming device,
while the monocyclic square, as the name implies, is a device for
producing an essentially wattless quadrature voltage.
133. A very important use of the induction phase converter
is in series with the polyphase induction motor for which it sup
plies the quadrature phase.
In this case, the phase, e 0l in of the phase converter is connected
in series to one phase, e'oi'o, of the induction motor driving the
electric car or polyphase locomotive, into the circuit of the single
phase supply voltage, e = e u + e'o, and the second phase of the
phase converter, e^, ii, is connected to the second phase of the
induction motor.
This arrangement still materially improves the polyphase regu
lation: the induction motor receives the voltages:
e t = tt.
At noload, e, is a maximum. With increasing load, e t = t
drops, and hereby also drops the other phase voltage of the ii
duction motor, e'„. This, however, raises the voltage, e  r 
e' , on the primary phase of the phase converter, and hereby
raises the secondary phase voltage, ei = e' t , thus maintains the
PHASE CONVERSION 227
two voltages e' and e' 2 impressed upon the induction motor much
more nearly equal, than would be the case with the use of the
phase converter in shunt to the induction motor.
Series connection of the induction phase converter, to the in
duction motor supplied by it, thus automatically tends to regu
late for equality of the twophase voltages, e' and e' 2 , of the induc
tion motor. Quadrature position of these twophase voltages
can be closely maintained by a series transformer between i and
t's, as stated above.
It is thereby possible to secure practically full polyphase motor
output from an induction motor operated from singlephase sup
ply through a seriesphase converter, while with parallel connec
tion of the phase converter, the dropping quadrature voltage
more or less decreases the induction motor output. For this
reason, for uses where maximum output, and especially maximum
torque at low speed and in acceleration is required, as in rail
roading, the use of the phase converter in series connections to
the motor is indicated.
Synchronous Phase Converter and Singlephase Generation
134. While a small amount of singlephase power can be taken
from a threephase or in general a polyphase system without dis
turbing the system, a large amount of singlephase power results
in unbalancing of the threephase voltages and impairment of
the generator output.
With balanced load, the impedance voltages, e' = iz, of a three
phase system are balanced threephase voltages, and their effect
can be eliminated by inserting a threephase voltage into the
system by threephase potential regulator or by increasing the
generator field excitation. The impedance voltages of a single
phase load, however, are singlephase voltages, and thus, com
bined with the threephase system voltage, give an unbalanced
threephase system. That is, in general, the loaded phase drops
in voltage, and one of the unloaded phases rises, the other also
drops, and this the more, the greater the impedance in the circuit
between the generated threephase voltage and the singlephase
load. Large singlephase load taken from a threephase trans
mission line — as for instance by a supply station of a singlephase
electric railway — thus may cause an unbalancing of the trans
missionline voltage sufficient to make it useless.
A singlephase system of voltage, e, may be considered as com
bination of two balanced threephase systems of opposite phase
228 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
rotation: ,,,, 2 and v 2 i ^ where t = VI = .,'
The unbalancing of voltage caused by a singlephase load of
impedance voltage, e = iz, thus is the same as that caused by
two threephase impedance voltages, e/2, of which the one has
the same, the other the opposite phase rotation ;iw the threephase
supply system. The former can be neutralized by raising the
supply voltage by e/2, by potential regulator or generator excita
tion. This means, regulating the voltage for the average drop.
It leaves, however, the system unbalanced by the impedance
voltage, e/2, of reversepha.se rotation. The latter thus can l>c
compensated, and the unbalancing eliminated, by inserting into
the threephase system a set of threephase voltages, e/2, of re
versephase rotation. Such a system can be produced by a three
phase potential regulator by interchanging two of the phases.
Thus, if A, B, C are the three threephase supply voltages, im
pressed upon the primary or shunt coils o, b, c of a threephase
potential regulator, and 1, 2, 3 are the three secondary or series
coils of the regulator, then the voltages induced in 1, 3, 2 are
threephase of reversephase rotation to A, B, C, and can be in
serted into the system for balancing the unbalancing due to
singlephase load, in the resultant voltage: A + 1, B + 3, C + 2.
It is obviously necessary to have the potential regulator turned
into such position, that the secondary voltages 1, 3, 2 have the
proper phase relation. This may require a wider range of turn
ing than is provided in the potential regulator for controlling
balanced voltage drop.
It thus is possible to restore the voltage balance of a three
phase system, which is unbalanced by a singlephase load of im
pedance voltage, e', by means of two balanced threephase poten
tial regulators of voltage range, e'/2. connected so that the one
gives the same, the other the reverse phase rotation of the main
threephase system.
Such an apparatus producing a balanced polyphase system ui
reversed phase rotation, for inserting in series into a polyphase
system to restore the balance on singlephase load, is called n
phase balancer, and in the present case, a stationary inducliun
photo balancer.
A synchronous machine of opposite phase rotation to the main
system voltages, and connected in series thereto, would then be
a synchronous phase balancer.
PHASE CONVERSION
229
The purpose of the phase balancer, thus, is the elimination of
the voltage unbalancing due to singlephase load, and its capacity
must be that of the singlephase impedance voltamperes. It
obviously can not equalize the load on the phases, but the flow
of power of the system remains unbalanced by the singlephase
load.
136. The capacity of targe .synchronous generators is essentially
determined by the heating of the armature coils. Increased load
on one phase, therefore, is not neutralized by lesser load on the
other phases, in ils limitation of output by heating of the arma
ture coils of the generators.
The most serious effect of unbalanced load on the generator is
hat due to the pulsating armature reaction. With balanced
•olyphase load, the armature reaction is constant in intensity
nd in direction, with regards to the field. With singlephase
id, however, the armature reaction is pulsating between zero
ind twice its average value, thus may cause a doublefrequency
pulsation of magnetic flux, which, extending through the field
circuit, may give rise to losses and heating by eddy currents in
the iron, etc. With the slowspeed multipolar enginedriven
alternators of old, due to the large number of poles and low per
ipheral speed, the ampereturns armature reaction per pole
amounted to a few thousand only, thus were not sufficient to
cause serious pulsation in the magneticfield circuit. With the
large highspeed turboalternators of today, of very few poles,
and to a somewhat lesser extent also with the larger highspeed
machines driven by high head waterwheels, the armature reac
tion per pole amounts to very many thousands of ampereturns.
Section anil length of the field magnetic circuit are very large.
Even a moderate pulsation of armature reaction, due to the un
balancing of the flow of power by singlephase load, then, may
cause very large losses in the field structure, and by the resultant
heating seriously reduce the output of the machine.
It then becomes necessary either to balance the load between
the phases, and so produce the constant armature reaction of
balanced polyphase load, or to eliminate the fluctuation of the
armature reaction. The latter is done by the use of an effective
squirrelcage shortcircuit winding in the pole faces. The double
frequency pulsation of armature reaction induces doublefre
! currents in the squirrel cage— just as in the singlephase
duetion motor— and these induced currents demagnetize, when
230
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the armature reaction is above, and magnetize when it is below
the average value, and thereby reduce the fluctuation, that is,
approximate a constant armature reaction of constant direction
with regards to the field — that is, a uniformly rotating magnetic
field with regards to the armature.
However, for this purpose, the m.m.f. of the currents induced
in the squirrelcage winding must equal that of the armature
winding, that is, the total copper crosssection of the squirrel cage
must be of the same magnitude as the total copper crosssection
of the armature winding. A small squirrel cage, such as is suffi
cient for starting of synchronous motors and for antihunting
purposes, thus is not sufficient in high armaturereaction machines
to take care of unbalanced singlephase load.
A disadvantage of the squirrel cage field winding, however,
is, that it increases the momentary shortcircuit current of
the generator, and retards its dying out, therefore increases the
danger of selfdestruction of the machine at shortcircuit. In
the first moment after shortcircuit, the field poles still carry full
magnetic flux — as the field can not die out instantly. No flux
passes through the armature— except the small flux required to
produce the resistance drop, ir. Thus practically the total field
flux must be shunted along the air gap, through the narrow sec
tion between field coils and armature coils. As the squirrelcage
winding practically bars the flux to cross it, it thereby further
reduces the available flux section and so increases the Hux density
and with it the momentary short circuit current, which gives
the m.m.f. of this flux.
It must also be considered that the reduction of generator out
put, resulting from unequal heating of the armature coils due to
unequal load on the phases is not eliminated by a squirrelcage
winding, but rather additional heat produced by the currents
in the squirrelcage conductors.
136. A synchronous machine, just as an induction machine,
may be generator, producing electric power, or motor, receiving
electric power, or phase converter, receiving electric power in
some phase, the motor phase, and generating electric power in
some other phase, the generator phase. In the phase converter,
the total resultant armature reaction is zero, and the armature
reaction pulsates with double frequency between equal positive
and negative Values. Such phase converter thus can be used to
produce polyphase power from a singlephase supply. The in
PHASE CO.WERSIOX
231
duction phase converter has been discussed in the preceding, and
the synchronous phase converter has similar characteristics, but
a rule a better regulation, that is, gives a lietter constancy of
voltage, and can be made to operate without producing lagging
currents, by exciting the fields sufficiently high.
However, a phase converter alone can not distribute single
phase load so as to give a balanced polyphase system. When
transferring power from the motor phase to the generator phase,
the terminal voltage of the motor phase equals the induced vol
tage plus the impedance drop in the machine, that of the gen
erator phase equals induced voltage minus the impedance drop,
and the voltage of the motor phase thus must be higher than that
of the generator phase by twice the impedance voltage of the
phase converter (vectorially combined).
Therefore, in converting singlephase to polyphase by phase
converter, the polyphase system produced can not be balanced
in voitage, but the quadrature phase produced by the converter
ess than the main phase supplied to it, and drops off the more,
the greater the load.
In the reverse conversion, however, distributing a singlephase
load between phases of a polyphase system, the voltage of the
generator phase of the converter must be higher, that of the motor
phase lower than that of the polyphase system, and as the gen
erator phase is lower in voltage than the motor phase, it follows,
that the phase converter transfers energy oidy when the poly
phase system has become unbalanced by more than the voltage
drop in the converter. That iB, while a phase converter may
reduce the unbalancing due to singlephase load, it can never
restore complete balance of the polyphase system, in voltage and
in the flow of power. Even to materially reduce the unbalancing,
requires large converter capacity and very close voltage regula
tion of the converter, and thus makes it an uneconomical machine.
To balance a polyphase system under singlephase load, there
fore, requires the addition of a phase balancer to the phase
converter. Usually a synchronous phase balancer, would be
employed in this case, that is, a small synchronous machine of
opposite phase rotation, on the shaft of the phase converter,
and connected in series thereto. Usually it is connected into
the neutral of the phase converter. By the phase balancer, the
voltage of the motor phase of the phase converter is raised
above the generator phase so as to give a power transfer sufficient
232 ELECTRICAL APPAlt.l TVS
to balance the polyphase system, thai is, to shift half of the single
phase power by a quarter period, and thus produce a uniform
flow of power.
Such synchronous phase balancer constructively is a synchro
nous machine, having two sets of field poles, A and B, in quad
rature with each other. Then by varying or reversing the
excitation of the two sets of field poles, any phase relation of the
reversely rotating polyphase system of the halancer to that of the
converter can be produced, from zero to 360°.
137. Large singlephase powers, such as are required for single
phase railroading, thus can be produced.
(a) By using singlephase generators and separate .singlephase
supply circuits.
(b) By using singlephase generators running in multiple with
the general threephase system, and controlling voltage and me
chanical power supply so as to absorb the singlephase load by the
singlephase generators. In this case, however, if the single
phase load uses the same transmission line as the threephase
load, phase balancing at the receiving circuit may he ncressarv.
(c) By taking the singlephase load from the threephase
system. If the load is considerable, this may require special
construction of the generators, and phase balancers.
(d) By taking the power all as balanced threephase power
from the generating system, and converting the required amount
to singlephase, by phase converter and phase balancer. This
may be done in the generating station, or at the receiving station
where the singlephase power is required.
Assuming that in addition to a balanced threephase load of
power, Pn, a singlephase load of power, P, is required. Estimating
roughly, that the singlephase capacity of a machine structure is
half the threephase capacity of the structure — which probably
is not far wrong — then the use of singlephase generators gives
us /Vkw. threephase, and Pkw. singlephase generators, and us
the latter is equal in size to 2 Pkw. threephase capacity, the
total machine capacity would lie P<> + 2 P.
Threephase generation and phase conversion would require
Pi + 7* kw. in threephase generators, and phase converters
transferring half the singlephase power from the phase which is
loaded by singlephase, to the quadrature phase. That is, the
phase converter must have a capacity of P/2 kw. in the motor
phase, and P/2 kw. capacity in the generator phase, or a total
PHASE CONVERSION 233
capacity of P kw. Thus the total machine capacity required for
both kinds of load would again be P + 2 P kw. threephase
rating.
Thus, as regards machine capacity, there is no material differ
ence between singlephase generation and threephase genera
tion with phase conversion, and the decision which arrangement is
preferable will largely depend on questions of construction and
operation. A more complete discussion on singlephase genera
tion and phase conversion is given in A. I. E. E. Transactions,
November, 1916.
CHAPTER XV
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
Selfcompounding Alternators— Selfstarting Synchro
nous Motors — Arc Rectifier — Brush and Thomson
Houston Arc Machine — Leblanc Panchahuteur —
Permutator — Synchronous Converter
138. Rectifiers ffir converting alternating into direct current
have been designed and built since many years. As mechanical
rectifiers, mainly singlephase, they have found a limited use for
small powers since a long time, and during the last years arc
rectifiers have found extended use for small and moderate powers,
for storagebattery charging and for series arc lighting by constant
direct current. For large powers, however, the rectifier does not
appear applicable, but the synchronous converter takes its place.
The two most important types of directcurrent arclight ma
chines, however, have in reality been mechanical rectifiers, and
for compounding alternators, and for starting synchronous
motors, rectifying commutators have been used to a considerable
extent.
Let, in Fig. 72, e be the alternating voltage wave of the supply
source, and the connections of the receiver circuit with this sup
ply source be periodically and synchronously reversed, at the
zero points of the voltage wave, by a reversing commutator
driven by a small synchronous motor, shown in Fig. 73. In the
receiver circuit the voltage wave then is unidirectional but pul
sating, as shown by e in Fig. 74.
If receiver circuit and supply circuit both are noninductive,
the current in the receiver circuit is a pulsating unidirectional
current, shown as i in dotted lines in Fig. 74, and derived from
the alternating current, i, Fig. 72, in the supply circuit.
If, however, the receiver circuit is inductive, as a machine field,
then the current, i«, in Fig. 75, pulsates less than the voltage, e e ,
which produces it, and the current thus does not go down in wo,
but is continuous, and its pulsation the less, the higher the in
ductance. The current, i, in the alternating supply circuit, how
234
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
235
Fia. 72. — Alternating sine wave.
AC or
DC
Fig. 73. — Rectifying commutator.
Fig. 74. — Rectified wave on non inductive load.
Fig. 75. — Rectified wave oninductive load.
Fig. 76. — Alternating supply wave to rectifier on inductive load.
236 ELECTRICAL A I'I'A if A TU8
ever, from which the direct current, in, is derived by reversal, must
go through zero twice during each period, thus must have the
Bhape shown as i in Fig. 76, that is, must abruptly reverse. If,
however, the supply circuit contains any selfinductance — and
every circuit contains some inductance — the current can not
change instantly, but only gradually, the slower, the higher the
inductance, and the actual current in the supply circuit ftsamnes
K
Fig. 77.— DiiT.TrnM
itifier on inductive toad.
a shape like that shown in dotted lines in Fig. 76. Thus the cur
rent in the alternating part and that, in the rectified part of the
circuit can not he the same, but a difference must exist, as shown
as i' in Fig. 77. This current, (■', passes between the two parts
Fid. 78. — Rectifier with AC ami D.C. aliunl resist
of the circuit, as arc at. the rectifier brushes, and causes I lie recti
fying commutator to spark, if there is any appreciable inductance
in the circuit. The intensity of the sparking current depends
on the inductance of the rectified circuit , its duration on that of
the alternating supply circuit.
By providing a byepath for this differential current, /, ilie
sparking is mitigated, and thereby the amount of power, which BSD
Ik 1 rectified, increased. This is done by shunting a nonindaotivc
resistance across the rectified circuit, r„, or across the alternating
circuit, r, or both, as shown in Fig. 78. If this resistance is low .
i considerable power and finally increases sparking
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER 237
by the increase of rectified current; if it is high, it has little effect.
Furthermore, this resistance should vary with the current.
The beltdriven alternators of former days frequently had a
compounding series field excited by such a rectifying commutator
on the machine shaft, and by shunting 40 to 50 per cent, of the
power through the two resistance shunts, with careful setting of
brushes as much as 2000 watts have been rectified from single
phase 125cycle supply.
Singlephase synchronous motors were started by such recti
fying commutators through which the field current passed, in
series with the armature, and the first longdistance power trans
o
Fio. 79. — Opencircuit rectifier. Fig. 80. — Shortcircuit rectifier.
mission in America (Telluride) was originally operated with
singlephase machines started by rectifying commutator — the
commutator, however, requiring frequent renewal.
139. The reversal of connection between the rectified circuit
and the supply circuit may occur either over opencircuit, or
over shortcircuit. That is, either the rectified circuit is first
disconnected from the supply circuit — which opencircuits both
— and then connected in reverse direction, or the rectified circuit
is connected to the supply circuit in reverse direction, before
being disconnected in the previous direction — which shortcircuits
both circuits. The former, opencircuit rectification, results if
the width of the gap between the commutator segments is greater
than the width of the brushes, Fig. 79, the latter, shortcircuit
rectification, results if the width of the gap is less than the width
of the brushes, Fig. 80.
In opencircuit rectification, the alternating and the rectified
voltage are shown as e and e in Fig. 81. If the circuit is non
inductive, the rectified current, t , has the same shape as the vol
238
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
tage, 60, but the alternating current, t, is as shown in Fig. 81 as t.
If the circuit is inductive, vicious sparking occurs in this case
with opencircuit rectification, as the brush when leaving the
\
/
Fio. 81. — Voltage and current waves in opencircuit rectifier on noninduc
tive load.
commutator segment must suddenly interrupt the current. That
is, the current does not stop suddenly, but continues to flow as
an arc at the commutator surface, and also, when making con
z
Fiu. 82. — Voltage and current wave in opencircuit rectifier on inductive
load, showing sparking.
tact between brush and segment, the current does not instantly
reach full value, but gradually, and the current wave thus is as
shoWn as i and to in Fig. 82, where the shaded area is the arcing
current at the commutator.
Sparkless rectification may be produced in a circuit of moderate
SYNCHRONOUS RECITFIER
239
inductance, with opencircuit rectification, by shifting the brushes
so that the brushes open the circuit only at the moment when
the (inductive) current has reached zero value or nearly so, as
Fig. 83. — Voltage waves of opencircuit rectifier with shifted brushes.
shown in Figs. 83 and 84. In this case, the brush maintains con
tact until the voltage, e, has not only gone to zero, but reversed
sufficiently to stop the current, and the rectified voltage then is
shown by e in Fig. 83, the current by i and to in Fig. 84.
Fig. 84. — Current waves of opencircuit rectifier with shifted brushes.
140. With shortcircuit commutation the voltage waves are as
shown by e and e in Fig. 85. With a noninductive supply and
noninductive receiving circuit, the currents would be as shown
by i and to in Fig. 86. That is, during the period of shortcircuit,
240
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
\
Fig. 85. — Voltage waves of shortcircuit rectifier.
/
Fig. 80. — Current waves of shortcircuit rectifier on noninductive load.
Fm. 87. — Current waves of short circuit rectifier on moderately inductive
load, showing flashing.
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
241
the current in the rectified circuit is zero, and is high, is the short
circuit current of the supply voltage, in the supply circuit.
Xnductance in the rectified circuit retards the dying out of the
current, but also retards its rise, and so changes the rectified
c **rrent wave to the shapes shown — for increasing values of in
ductance— as to in Figs. 87, 88 and 89.
Fig. 88. — Current waves of shortcircuit rectifier on inductive load at the
stability limit.
Inductance in the supply circuit reduces the excess current
value during the shortcircuit period, and finally entirely elimi
nates the current rise, but also retards the decrease and reversal
of the supply current, and the latter thus assumes the shapes
shown — for successively increasing values of inductance — as i in
Figs. 87, 88 and 89.
Fig. 89. — Current waves of shortcircuit rectifier on highly inductive load,
showing sparking but no flashing.
As seen, in Figs. 86 and 87, the alternating supply current has
during the shortcircuit reversed and reached a value at the end
of the shortcircuit, higher than the rectified current, and at the
moment when the brush leaves the shortcircuit, a considerable
current has to be broken, that is, sparking occurs. In Figs. 86 ,
and 87, this differential current which passes as arc at the com
mutator, is shown by the dotted area. It is increasing with in
16
242
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
creasing spark length, that is, the spark or arc at the commutator
has no tendency to go out — except if the inductance is very small
— but persists: flashing around the commutator occurs and short
circuits the supply permanently.
/
Fig. 90. — Voltage wave of shortcircuit rectifier with shifted brushes.
In Fig. 89, the alternating current at the end of the short
circuit has not yet reversed, and a considerable differential
current, shown by the dotted area, d, passes as arc. Vicious
Fio. 91. — Current waves of shortcircuit rectifier with inductive load and the
brushes shifted to give good rectification.
sparking thus occurs, but in this case no flashing around the
commutator, as with increasing spark length the differential
current decreases and finally dies out.
In Fig. 88, the alternating current at the end of the short
circuit has just reached the same value as the rectified current,
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER 243
thus no current change and no sparking occurs. However, if
the shortcircuit should last a moment longer, a rising differential
current would appear and cause flashing around the commutator.
Thus, Fig. 88 just represents the stability limit between the
stable (but badly sparking) condition, Fig. 89, and the unstable
°* flashing conditions, Figs. 87 and 86.
By shifting the brushes so as to establish and open the short
circuit later, as shown in Fig. 90, the shortcircuited alternating
e m.f. — shown dotted in Figs. 90 and 85 — ceases to be symmet
rical, that is, averaging zero as in Fig. 85, and becomes unsym
ttietrical, with an average of the same sign as the next following
voltage wave. It thus becomes a commiUating e.m.f., causes a
more rapid reversal of the alternating current during the short
circuit period, and the circuit conditions, Fig. 89, then change to
that of Fig. 91. That is, the current produced by the short
circuited alternating voltage has at the end of the shortcircuit
period reached nearly, but not quite the same value as the recti
fied current, and a short faint spark occurs due to the differential
current, d. This Fig. 91 then represents about the best condition
of stable, and practically sparkless commutation: a greater brush
shift would reach the stability limit similar as Fig. 88, a lesser
brush shift leave unnecessarily severe sparking, as Fig. 89.
141. Within a wide range of current and of inductance — espe
cially for highly inductive circuits — practically sparkless and
stable rectification can be secured by shortcircuit commutation
by varying the duration of the shortcircuit, and by shifting the
brushes, that is, changing the position of the shortcircuit during
the voltage cycle.
Within a wide range of current and of inductance, in lowin
ductance circuits, practically sparkless and stable rectification
can be secured also by opencircuit rectification, by varying the
duration of the opencircuit, and by shifting the brushes.
The duration of opencircuit or shortcircuit can be varied by
the use of two brushes in parallel, which can be shifted against
each other so as to span a lesser or greater part of the circumfer
ence of the commutator, as shown in Fig. 92.
Shortcircuit commutation is more applicable to circuits of
high, opencircuit commutation to circuits of low inductance.
But, while either method gives good rectification if overlap and
brush shift are right, they require a shift of the brushes with every
change of load or of inductivity of the load, and this limits the
244
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
practical usefulness of rectification, as such readjustment with
every change of circuit condition is hardly practicable.
Shortcircuit rectification has been used to a large extent on
constantcurrent circuits; it is the method by which the Thomson
Fig. 92. — Doublebrush rectifier.
Houston (threephase) and the Brush arc machine (quarter
phase) commutates. For more details on this see "Theory and
Calculations of Transient Phenomena/ ' Section II.
Ficj. 93. — Volt ago waves of open circuit rectifier charging storage battery.
Opencircuit rectification has found a limited use on nonin
ductive circuits containing a counter e.m.f., that is, in charging
ntoragc batteries.
If, in Fig. 93, e is the rectified voltage, and e x the counter e.m.f.
p n ^_ p
of t ho storage battery, the current is i = » where r = ef
fective resistance of the battery, and if the counter e.m.f. of the
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
245
battery, e h equals the initial and the final value of e , as in Fig.
93, eo — e and thus t start and end with zero, that is, no abrupt
change of current occurs, and moderate inductivity thus gives
no trouble. The current waves then are: i and i Q in Fig. 94.
7
Z
X
z
Fio. 94 —Current waves of opencircuit rectifier charging storage battery.
142. Rectifiers may be divided into reversing rectifiers, like
those discussed heretofore, and shown, together with its supply
transformer, in Figs. 95 and 96, and contactmaking rectifiers,
shown in Figs. 97 and 98, or in its simplest form, as halfwave
rectifier, in Fig. 99.
HfHHK
Fia. 95. — Reversing rectifier with Fio. 96. — Reversing rectifier
alternatingcurrent rotor. with directcurrent rotor.
As seen, in Fig. 99, contact is made between the rectified cir
cuit and the alternating supply source, T, during onehalf wave
only, but the circuit is open during the reverse half wave, and the
rectified circuit, B t thus carries a series of separate impulses of cur
rent and voltage as shown in Fig. 100 as i\. However, in this
case the current in the alternating supply circuit is unidirectional
also, is the same current, i\. This current produces in the trans
former, T, a unidirectional magnetization, and, if of appreciable
246
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
magnitude, that is, larger than the exciting current of the trans
former, it .saturates the transformer iron. Running at or beyond
magnetic saturation, the primary exciting current of the trans
former then becomes excessive, the hysteresis heating due to the
unsymmetrical magnetic cycle is greatly increased, and the
transformer endangered or destroyed.
Halfwave rectifiers thus are impracticable except for extremely
small power.
The fullwave contactmaking rectifier, Fig. 97 or 98, does not
have this objection. In this type of rectifier, the connection be
tween rectified receiver circuit and
alternating supply circuit are not
synchronously reversed, as in Fig. 95
or 96, but in Fig. 97 one side of the
rectified circuit, B, is permanently
connected to the middle m of the
alternating supply circuit, T, while the
other side of the rectified circuit is
synchronously connected and discon
nected with the two sides, a and
6, of the alternating supply circuit.
Or we may say: the rectified circuit takes onehalf wave from
the one transformer half coil, ma, the other half wave from
the other transformer half coil, mb. Thus, while each of the two
transformer half coils carries unidirectional current, the uni
directional currents in the two half coils flow in opposite direc
tion, thus give magnetically the same effect as one alternating
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
247
current in one half coil, and no unidirectional magnetization re
sults in the transformer.
In the contactmaking rectifier, Fig. 98, the two halves of the
rectified circuit, or battery, B, alternately receive the two suc
cessive half waves of the transformer, T.
The voltage and current waves of the rectifier, Fig. 97, are
shown in Fig. 100. e is the voltage wave of the alternating sup
Fia. 100. — Voltage and current waves of contactmaking rectifier with
directcurrent rotor.
ply source, from a to b. d and e% then are the voltage waves of
the two half coils, am and bm, i\ and i 2 the two currents in these
two half coils, and to the rectified current, and voltage in the
circuit from m to c. The current, i\ y in the one, and, i% } in the other
half coil, naturally has magnetically the same effect on the pri
mary, as the current, i\ + ii = z'o, in one half coil, or the current,
io/2 = i, in the whole coil, ab, would have. Thus it may be said:
in the (fullwave) contactmaking rectifier, Fig. 97, the rectified
248
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
/'V,
voltage, e , is onehalf the alternating voltage, e, and the rectified
current, io, is twice the alternating current, i. However, the i*r
in the secondary coil, a&, is greater, by y/%
than it would be with the alternating cur
rent, i = io/2.
Inversely, in the contactmaking rectifier,
Fig. 98, the rectified voltage is twice the
alternating voltage, the rectified current
half the alternating current.
Contactmaking rectifiers of the type
Fig. 97 are extensively used as arc recti
fiers, more particularly the mercuryarc
rectifier shown diagrammatically in Fig.
Fig. 101.— Mercury 101. This may be compared with Fig.
arc rectifier, contact 97. That is, the making of contact during
one half wave, and opening it during the
reverse half wave, is accomplished not by mechanical syn
chronous rotation, but by the use of the arc as unidirec
rwm
hPHH
'hbHI
B
Fig. 102. — Diagram of mercuryarc rectifier with its reactances.
tional conductor: 1 with the voltage gradient in one direc
tion, the arc conducts; with the reverse voltage gradient
1 Sec Chapter II of "Theory and Calculation of Electric Circuits/'
SYXCHROXOUS RECTIFIER
249
— the other half wave — it does not conduct. A large induc
tance is used in the rectified circuit, to reduce the pulsation of
current, and inductances in the two alternating supply circuits
— either separate inductances, or the internal reactance of the
transformer — to prolong and thereby overlap the two half waves,
and maintain the rectifying mercury arc in the vacuum tube. A
diagram of a mercuryarc rectifier with its reactances, x x , x 2 , x Q ,
/
Fio. 103. — Voltage and current waves of mercuryarc rortilier.
is shown in Fig. 102. The "A.C. reactances" Xi and j* often
are a part of the supply transformer; the "D.C reactance" x
is the one which limits the pulsation of the rectified current. The
waves of currents, i h i 2 and i 0) as overlapped by the inductances,
Xi, x* and x , are shown in Fig. 103.
Full description and discussion of the mercuryarc rectifier is
contained in "Theory and Calculation of Transient Phenomena, 9 '
Section II, and in "Radiation, Light and Illumination."
250
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
143. To reduce the sparking at the rectifying commutator,
the gap between the segments may be divided into a number of
gaps, by small auxiliary segments, as shown in Fig. 104, and
these then connected to intermediate points of the shunting re
Fio. 104. — Rectifier with intermediate segments.
sistance, r, which takes the differential current, t — *i or the
auxiliary segments may be connected to intermediate points of
the winding of the transformer, T, which feeds the rectifier,
through resistances, r', and the supply voltage thus succettsnlj
fum
Via. 105. — Threephase >'eonriorted reetifier.
rectified. Or both arrangements may be combined, that is, the
intermediate segments connected to intermediate points of the
resistance, r, and intermediate points of the transformer wind
ing, T.
Polyphase rectification can yield somewhat larger power than
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
252
ELECTRICAL APPARATl 8
singlephase rectification. In polyphase rectification, the ■ ,, 
ments and circuits may he in star connection, or in ring connAB*
tion, or independent.
Thus, Fig. 105 shows the arrangement of a starconnected {<U
Y connected) threephase rectifier. The arrangement of Fig. 103
is shown again in Fig. 100, in simpler representation, by showing
the phases of the alternating supply circuit, and their relation
to each other and to the rectifier segments, by heavy black lines
inside of the commutator.
Fig. 107 shows a ring or deltaconnected threephase rectifier.
Fig. 108 a starconnected quarterphase rectifier and Fig.
109 a quarterphase rectifier with two independent quadra
Fio. 112. — Voltage warns of quarter phase sl!irn>uiii.>i'te\) rralificr.
ture phases, while Fig. 1 10 shows a ringconnected quarterphase
rectifier.
The voltage waves of the two coils in Fig. 109 are shown as
d and e 2 in Fig. 112, in thin lines, and the rectified voltage by the
heavy black line, e u , in Fig. 112. As seen, in star connection, tin
successive phases alternate in feeding the rectified circuit, but
only one phase is in circuit at a time, except during the Limn of
the overlap of the brushes when passing tin 1 gap between suc
cessive segments. At that time, two sueccssivi phases arc in
multiple, and the current changes from the phase of decreasing
voltage to that of rising voltage. Only a part of the voltage
wave is thus used. The unused part of the wave, c,. is hmni
shaded in Fig. 1 12.
Fig. 113 shows the voltages of the four phases, ri. fj, cj, f«, in
ring connection, Fig. 110, and as e the rectified voltage. As
seen, in this case, all the phases are always in circuit, two phases
always in series, except during the overlap of the bnwhee »1 the
gap between the segments, when a phase is shortcircuited dur
ing commutation. The rectified voltage is higher than that of
each phase, but twice as many coils are required as BOOroU of
supply voltage, each carrying half the rectified current.
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
253
By using two commutators in series, as shown in Fig. Ill, the
two phases can be retained continuously in circuit while using
Fig. 113. — Voltage waves of waterphase ringconnected rectifier.
only two coils — but two commutators are required. The voltage
waves then are shown in Fig. 114.
Fig. 114. — Voltage waves of quarterphase rectifier with two commutators.
A starconnected sixphase rectifier is shown in Fig. 115, with
the voltage waves in Fig. 117. The unused part of wave e\ is
Fig. 115. — Sixphase star
connected rectifier.
Fig. 110. — Sixphase ring
connected rectifier.
shown shaded. A sixphase ringconnected rectifier in Fig.
116, with the voltage waves in Fig. 118.
254 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
144. As seen, with larger number of phases, star connection
becomes less and less economical, as a lesser part of the alternat
ing voltage wave is used in the rectified voltage: in quarterphase
Fig. 117— Voltage w
omieotod rectifier.
rectification 90° or onehalf, in sixphase rectification 60° or
onethird, etc. In ring connection, however, all the phases are
Flu. 118.— Voltage
continuously in circuit, and thus no loss of economy occurs by
the use of the higher numl>er of phases.
Fig. 110.— Rectifying
machine.
Therefore, ring connection is generally used in rectification
of a larger number of phases, and star connection is never used
beyond quarterphase, that is, four phases, and where a higher
number of phases is desired, to increase the output, several
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER 255
rectifying commutators are connected in series, as shown in
Fig. 119. This represents two quarterphase rectifiers in series
displaced from each other by 45°, that is, an eightphase system.
Threephase starconnected rectification, Fig. 106, has been
used in the ThomsonHouston arc machine, and quarterphase
rectification, Fig. 108, in the Brush arc machine, and for larger
powers, several such commutators were connected in series, as
in Fig. 119. These machines are polyphase (constantcurrent)
Fia. 120. — Counter e.m.f. shunting gaps of sixphase rectifier.
alternators connected to rectifying commutators on the armature
shaft.
For a more complete discussion of the rectification of arc
machine see "Theory and Calculation of Transient Electric
Phenomena," Section II.
145. Even with polyphase rectification, the power which can
be rectified is greatly limited by the sparking caused by the dif
ferential current, that is, the difference between the rectified
current, io, which never reverses, but is practically constant, and
the alternating supply current. Resistances shunting the gaps
between adjoining segments, as bye path for this differential cur
rent, consume power and mitigate the sparking to a limited extent
only. A far more effective method of eliminating the sparking
is by shunting this differential current not through a mere non
inductive resistance, but through a noninductive resistance which
contains an alternating counter e.m.f. equal to that of the supply
phase, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 120.
In Fig. 120, ei to e* are the six phases of a ringconnected six
phase system; e\ to e\ are e.m.fs. of very low self inductance
25*i
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and mockrate resistance, r, shunted between the rectifier seg
ments. Fig. 121 then shows the wave shape of the current, i» — i,
which passes through these counter e.m.fs.,e' (assuming that the
circuit of e', t, contains no appreciable selfinductance).
Such polyphase counter e.m.fs. for shunting the differentia!
current between the segments, can be derived from the syn
chronous motor which drives the rectifying commutator. By
winding the synchro nous mo tor armature ring connected and
shape of differential current.
of the same number of phases as the rectifying commutator, and
using a revolvingarmature synchronous motor, the synchronous
motor armature coils can be connected to the rectifier segments,
and hyepass the differential current. To carry this current, the
armature conductor of the synchronous motor has to be increased
in size, but as the differential current is small, this is relatively
Fio. 122.— Leb lane's Paiiuliahulciir.
little. Hereby ihc output which can be derived from a poly
phase rectifier can be very largely increased, (he more, (he larger
the number of phases. This is Leblanc's Panchahuteur, shown
diagnimmatically in Fig. 122 for six phases.
Such polyphase rectifier with noninductive counter e.in.f.
byepath through the synchronousmotor armature requires as
'many collector rings as rectifier segments. It can rectify large
currents, but is limited in the voltage per phase, that is,
per segment, to 20 to 30 volts at best, and the larger th
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
257
required rectified voltage, the larger thus must be the number of
phases.
146. Any number of phases can be produced in the secondary
system from a threephase or quarterphase primary polyphase
system by transformation through two or three suitably designed
stationary transformers, and a large number of phases thus is
not objectionable regarding its production by transformation.
The serious objection to the use of a large number of phases
(24, 81, etc.) is, that each phase requires a collector ring to lead
the current to the corresponding segment of the rectifying
commutator.
This objection is overcome by various means:
1. The rectifying commutator is made stationary and the
brushes revolving. The synchronous motor then has revolving
mm
Fig. 123. — Phase splitting by synchronousmotor armature: synchronous
converter.
field and stationary armature, and the connection from the
stationary polyphase transformer to the commutator segments
and the armature coils is by stationary leads.
Such a machine is called a yermutator. It has been built to a
limited extent abroad. It offers no material advantage over the
synchronous converter, but has the serious disadvantage of re
volving brushes. This means, that the brushes can not be in
spected or adjusted during operation, that if one brush sparks
by faulty adjustment, etc., it is practically impossible to find out
which brush is at fault, and that due to the action of centrifugal
forces on the brushes, the liability to troubles is greatly increased.
17
258 ELECT HIV. Ah APPARATUS
For this reason, the permutator has never been introduced in
this country, and has practically vanished abroad.
2. The transformer is mounted on the revolvingmotor struc
ture, (hereby revolving, permitting direct connection of its
secondary leads with the commutator segments. In this case
only the three or four primary phases have to be lead into the
rotor by collector rings.
The mechanical design of eucfa structure is difficult, the trans
former, not open to inspection during operation, and exposed to
centrifugal forces, which limit its design, exclude oil and ilm
limit the primary voltage, so that with a highvoltage primary
supply system, double transformation becomes necessary.
As this construction offers no material advantage over (3),
it has never reached beyond experimental design.
3. A lesser number of collector rings and supply phases is
used, than the number of commutator segments and synchronous
motor armature coils, and the latter are used as autotransformers
to divide each supply phase into two or more phases feeding suc
cessive commutator segments. Fig. 123 shows a 12phase recti
fying commutator connected to a 12phase synchronous motor
with six collector rings for a sixphase supply, so that each sup
ply phase feeds two motor phases or coils, and thereby two recti
fier segments. Usually, more than two segments are used per
supply phase. The larger the number of commutator segments
per supply phase, the larger is the differential current in the
synchronous motor armature coils, and the larger thus must bj
I his motor.
Calculation, however, shows that there is practically no gain
by the use of more than 12 supply phases, and very little gain
beyond six supply phases, and that usually the most economical
design is that using six supply phases and collector rings, qq
matter how large a number of phases is used on the commutator.
Fig. 123 is the wellknown synchronous converter, which hereby
appears as the final development, for large powers, of the syn
chronous rectifier.
This is the reason why the synchronous rectifier apparently
has never been developed for large powers : the development of the
polyphase synchronous rectifier for high power, by increasing
the number of phases, byepassing the differential current which
causes the sparking, by shunting the commutator segments with
the armature coils of the motor, and finally reducing the number
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER 259
of collector rings and supply phases by phase splitting in the
synchronousmotor armature, leads to the synchronous con
verter as the final development of the highpower polyphase
rectifier.
For " synchronous converter" see "Theoretical Elements of
Electrical Engineering," Part II, C. For some special types of
synchronous converter see under "Regulating Pole Converter"
in the following Chapter XXI.
CHAPTER XVI
REACTION MACHINES
147. In the usual treatment of synchronous machines and
induction machines, the assumption is made that the reactance,
x, of the machine is a constant. While this is more or less
approximately the case in many alternators, in others, especially
in machines of large armature reaction, the reactance, x, is
variable, and is different in the different positions of the armature
coils in the magnetic circuit. This variation of the reactance
causes phenomena which do not find their explanation by the
theoretical calculations made under the assumption of constant
reactance.
It is known that synchronous motors or converters of large
and variable reactance keep in synchronism, and are able to do
a considerable amount of work, and even carry under circum
stances full load, if the fieldexciting circuit is broken, and thereby
the counter e.m.f., E,, reduced to zero, and sometimes even if
the field circuit is reversed and the counter e.m.f., £.',. made
negative.
Inversely, under certain conditions of load, the current and
the e.m.f. of a generator do not disappear if the generator field
circuit is broken, or even reversed to a small negative value, in
which tatter case the current is against the e.m.f., E a , of the
generator.
Furthermore, a shuttle armature without any winding (Fig.
120) will in an alternating magnetic field revolve when once
brought up to synchronism, and do considerable work as a motor.
These phenomena are not due to remanent magnetism nor
to the magnetizing effect of eddy currents, because they exist
also in machines with laminated fields, and exist if the alternator
is brought up to synchronism by external means and the rema
nent magnetism of the field poles destroyed beforehand by
application of an alternating current.
These phenomena can uol be explained under the assump
tion of a constant synchronous reactance: because in ilu oast
al nofield excitation, the e.m.f. or counter e.m.f. of the machine
REACTION MACHINES
2fil
let
mi
mi
H MVO, ;md the only cm. I', existing in tlic al tern (it in 1 is the e.m.f.
of selfinduction; that is, the e.m.f. induced by the alternating
current upon itself. If, however, the synchronous reactance is
constant, (he counter e.m.f. of selfinduction is in quadrature
with the current and wattless; that is, can neither produce nor
consume energy.
In the synchronous motor running without field excitation,
always a large lag of the current behind the impressed e.m.f.
exists; and an alternatingcurrent generator will yield an e.m.f.
without field excitation only when closed by an external circuit
of large negative reactance; that is, a circuit in which the current
the e.m.f., as a condenser, or an overexcited synchronous
iotor, etc.
14S. The usual explanation of the operation of the synchronous
machine without field excitation is selfexcitation by reactive
armature currents. In a synchronous motor a lagging, in a
generator a leading armature current magnetizes the field, and in
such a case, even without any directcurrent field excitation, there
is a field excitation and thus a magnetic field flux, produced by the
m.m.f. of the reactive component of the armature current*. In
the polyphase machine, this is constant in intensity and direc
tion, in the singlephase machine constant in direction, hut pul
sating in intensity, and the intensity pulsation can be reduced
by a shortcircuit winding around the field structure, as more
fully discussed under "Synchronous Machines."
Thus a machine as shown diagram mat ically in Fig. 124, with
a polyphase (threephase) current impressed on the rotating
armature, A, and no winding on the field poles, starts, runs up
to synchronous and does considerable work as synchronous
motor, and underload may even give a fairly good (lagging) power
factor. With a singlephase current impressed upon the arma
ture, A, it does not start, but when brought up to synchronism,
continues to run as synchronous motor. Driven by mechanical
power, with a leading current load it is a generator.
However, the operation of such machines depends on the
existence of a polar field structure, that is a strucinre having a
low reluctance in (he direction of the field poles, P — P, and a
high reluctance in quadrature position thereto. Or, in other
words, the armature reactance with the coil facing the field poles
high, and low in the quadrature position thereto.
In a structure with uniform magnetic reluctance, in which
263
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
therefore the armature reactance does oof vary with the posi
tion of the armature in the field, us shown in Fig. 125, such ■ H
excitation hy reactive armature currents does not occur, and
directcurrent field excitation is always necessary (except in the
socalled "hysteresis motor").
Vectorially this is shown in Figs. 124 and 125 by the relalivc
position of the magnetic flux, *, the voltage, E, in quadrature to
*, and the m.m.f. of the current, /. In Fig. 125, where / and
4> coincide, I and E are in quadrature, that is, the power zero.
Due In the polar structure in Fig. 124, /and * do not coincide,
thus / is not in quadrature to E, but contains a positive 01 a
negative energy component, making the machine motor or
generator.
As the voltage, E, is produced by the current, /, it is an e.m.f.
of selfinduction, and selfexcitation of the synchronous machine
by armature reaction can be explained by the fact that the
counter e.m.f. of selfinduction is not wattless or in quadrature
with the current, but contains an energy component; that if,
that the reactance is of the form X = h + jx, where x is the watt
less component of reactance and h the energy component of
reactance, and k is positive if the reactance consumes power —
in winch case the counter e.m.f. of selfinduction lags more than
90° behind the current — while h is negative if the reactance
produces power — in which case the counter e.m.f. of selfinduction
lags less than 90° behind the current.
149. A case of this nature occurs in the effect of hysteresis,
from a different point of view. In "Theory and Calcuation of Al
ternating Current" it was shown, thai magnetic hysteresis distorts
the current wave in such a way that the equivalent sine wave,
REACTION MACHINES 263
that is, the sine wave of equal effective strength and equal power
with the distorted wave, is in advance of the wave of magnetism
by what is called the angle of hysteretic advanee of phase a.
the e.m.f. generated by the magnetism, or counter e.m.f.
nf selfinduction lag* 90° behind the magnetism, it lags 90° + a
heh ; nd the current ; that is, the selfinduction in a circuit contain
ing iron is not in quadrature with the current and thereby
wattless, but lags more than 90° and thereby consumes power, so
that the reactance has to be represented by X = k + jx, where
h is what has been called the "effective hysteretic resistance."
A similar phenomenon takes place in alternators of variable
reactance, or, what is the same, variable magnetic reluctance.
Operation of synchronous machines without field excitation
is most conveniently treated by resolving the synchronous
reactance, 3"u, in its two components, the armature reaction and the
true armature reactance, and once more resolving the armature
reaction into a magnetizing and a distorting component, and
msidering only the former, in its effect, on the field. The true
armature selfinductance then is usually assumed as constant.
Or, both armature reactance and selfinductance, are resolved
into the two quadrature components, in line and in quadrature
with the field poles, as shown in Chapters XXI and XXIV of
"AlternatingCurrent Phenomena," 5th edition.
160. However, while a machine comprising a stationary single
phase "field coil," A, and a shuttleshaped rotor, R, shown
diagrammatically as bipolar in Fig. 120, might still be interpreted
in this matter, a machine as shown diagrammatically in Fig.
127, as fourpolar machine, hardly allows this interpretation.
In Fig. 127, during each complete revolution of the rotor, !<',
it four times closes and opens the magnetic circuit of the single
phase alternating coil, A, and twice during the revolution, the
magnetism in the rotor, n", reverses.
A machine, in which induction takes place by making and
breaking (opening and closing) of the magnetic circuit, or in
general, by the periodic variation of the reluctance of the
magnetic circuit, is called a reaction machine.
Typical forms of such reaction machines are shown diagram
matically in Figs. 126 and 127. Fig. 126 is a bipolar, Fig. 127
is a fourpolar machine. The rotor is shown to the position of
closed magnetic circuit, but the position of open magnetic iinuit
is shown dotted.
204
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Instead of cutting out segments of the rotor, iu Fig. 126, the
same effect can lie produced, with a cylindrical rotor, by a shorl
circuitcd turn, S, as shown in Fig. 128, This gives a periodic
variation of the effective reluctance, from ft minimum, shown in
Fig. 128, to a maximum in the position shown in dotted lines in
Fig. 128.
This latter structure is the socalled "synchronousinduction
motor," Chapter VIII, which here appears as a special form of
I he reaction machine.
If a direct current is sent through the winding of the machine,
BIO. 1 2U.— Bipolar n
Fig. 126 or 127, a pulsating voltage and current is produced in
this winding. By having two separate windings, and energizing
the one by a direct current, we get a converter, from direct cur
rent in the first, to alternating current in the second winding.
The maximum voltage in the second winding can not exceed the
voltage, per turn, in the exciting winding, thus is very limited,
and so is the current. Higher values are secured by inserting a
high inductance in series in the directcurrent winding. In this
case, a single winding may be used and the alternatingcircuit,
shunted across the machine terminals, inside of the inductance.
161. Obviously, if the reactance or reluctance is variable, it
will perform a complete cycle during the time the armature coil
moves from one field pole to the next field pole, that is, during
onehalf wave of the main current. That is, in other words,
the reluctance and reactance vary with twice the frequency of
the alternating main current. Such a case is shown in Figs.
129 and 130. The impressed e.m.f., and thus at negligible
resistance, the counter e.m.f., is represented by the sine MVft,
REACTION MACHINES
E, thus the magnetism produced thereby is a sine wave, $, 90°
ahead of E. The reactance is represented by the sine wave, x,
,,
h\
*_j _\
/p\ ' y^~/\ /"~1 E
""N / /*" ' / 7v  ■*" N .
\ / I / / //\ \
•^' V\ / \ Wp^X, J/ ' \ "*" \*v
\ /\ " X/i )\ V^^^ \ ?
a V ^~ > v/ / 1 — r *\ i V
v\ /\ Ji. \ A : \\ /\
\*J**T \ p «—  p' ^V—  — * N
i vSv i i v if / "Y^"^
\ \ i Ts/i/ / \ \
\ \ / ""■». ^^ \ ^
^^V  ^oJ
i 7
XX
V
Fio. 129. — Wave shapes in reaction machine as generator.
?v
ft
'""^
/ ^*r~x* E
N ~Xv Sl. W^ ^V
I' fa/ii t
\ ■**"'' V, // */J^""Vj \ /
^^^tn/^'A^^^^v
^ /\ /A ' / \V A
*» ' \ y~i^ / v /
\\ / X ' \ // ^N /
\ \ / / ')/ \\ / I \\/
1 ■£*,' > *^ s\' 1 \ /L '
»  N ^^' i \  "'/■*
i / IT /
R / A I
IV' vj
e shape in reaction machine a
varying with the dpuble frequency of E, and shown in Fig. 129
to reach the maximiim value during the rise of magnetism, in
266 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Fig. 130 during the decrease of magnetism. The current, /,
required to produce the magnetism, *, is found from * and x in
combination with the cycle of molecular magnetic friction of the
material, and the power, P, is the product, IE. As seen in Fig.
__ ] t* _ j/> _ ^ >^
Fid. 131.— Hysteresis loop of reaction machine as generator.
129, the positive part of P is larger than the negative part:
that is, the machine produces electrical energy as generator,
In Fig. 130 the negative part of P is larger than the positive:
/^ ' ""5
t _z
: U'z 
I / / 41
7y
€" J ; = =
Fia. 132. — Hysteresis loop of reaction machine as motor.
that is, the machine consumes, electrical energy and produces
mechanical energy as synchronous motor. In Figs. 131 and 132
are given the two hysteretic cycles or looped curves, *, I under
the two conditions. They show that, due to the variation of
REACTION MACHINES 267
reactance, x, in the first case, the hysteretic cycle has been over
turned so as to represent, not consumption, but production of
electrical energy, while in the second case the hysteretic cycle has
been widened, representing not only the electrical energy consumed
by molecular magnetic friction, but also the mechanical output.
152. It is evident that the variation of reluctance must be
symmetrical with regard to the field poles; that is, that the
two extreme values of reluctance, maximum and minimum, will
take place at the moment when the armature coil stands in front
of the field pole, and at the moment when it stands midway
between the field poles.
The effect of this periodic variation of reluctance is a distortion
of the wave of e.m.f., or of the wave of current, or of both.
Here again, as before, the distorted wave can be replaced by
the equivalent sine wave, or sine wave of equal effective intensity
and equal power.
The instantaneous value of magnetism produced by the
armature current — which magnetism generates in the arma
ture conductor the e.m.f. of selfinduction — is proportional to
the instantaneous value of the current divided by the instan
taneous value of the reluctance. Since the extreme values of
the reluctance coincide with the symmetrical positions of the
armature with regard to the field poles — that is, with zero and
maximum value of the generated e.m.f., E , of the machine —
it follows that, if the current is in phase or in quadrature with
the generated e.m.f., E , the reluctance wave is symmetrical to
the current wave, and the wave of magnetism therefore sym
metrical to the current wave also. Hence the equivalent sine
wave of magnetism is of equal phase with the current wave ; that
is, the e.m.f. of selfinduction lags 90° behind the current, or is
wattless.
Thus at nophase displacement, and at 90° phase displace
ment, a reaction machine can neither produce electrical power
nor mechanical power.
If, however, the current wave differs in phase from the wave
of e.m.f. by less than 90°, but more than zero degrees, it is un
symmetrical with regard to the reluctance wave, and the re
luctance will be higher for rising current than for decreasing cur
rent, or it will be higher for decreasing than for rising current,
according to the phase relation of current with regard to generated
e.m.f., #o.
268 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
In the first, case, if the reluctance is higher for rising, Inner Fat
decreasing, current, the magnetism, which is proportional to
current, divided by reluctance, is higher for decreasing than for
rising current; that is, its equivalent sine wave lugs behind the
sine wave of current, and the e.m.f. or selfinduction will lag
more than 90° behind the current; that is, it will consume
electrical power, and thereby deliver mechanical power, and do
work as a synchronous motor.
In the second case, if the reluctance is lower for rising, and
higher for decreasing, current, the magnetism is higher for rising
than for decreasing current, or the equivalent sine wave of
magnetism leads the sine wave of the current, and the counter
e.m.f. of selfinduction lags less than 90° behind the current;
that is, yields electric power as generator, and thereby consumes
mechanical power.
In the first ease the reactance will lie represented by X = ft +
jx, as in the case of hysteresis; while in the second case the
reactance will be represented by A" = — ft + jx.
153. The influence of the periodical variation of reactance
will obviously depend upon the nature of the variation, that is,
upon the shape of the reactance curve. Since, however, no
matter what shape the wave has, it can always be resolved in a
series of sine waves of double frequency, and its higher har
monies, in first approximation the assumption can l>e made
that the reactance or the reluctance varies with double frequency
of the main current ; that is, is represented in the form:
x = a + b cos 2 &.
Let the inductance be represented by:
L = I + 1' cos 2 ft
= ((1 +7 cos 2 0);
■ amplitude of variation of inductance.
!■ of current behind maximum value
where 7
Let:
fl = angle of lag of zero vah
of the inductance, L.
Then, assuming the current as sine wave, or replacing it by
the equivalent sine wave of effective intensity, /, current:
i » / v^sin (tf  8).
REACTION MACHINES 269
The magnetism produced by this current is:
Li
n
where n = number of turns.
Hence, substituted:
= l l^ s in (0. 0) (1 + 7 cos 2/3),
n
or, expanded:
$ = ^V? /l  A cos sin  (l + *) sin cos /j,
when neglecting the term of triple frequency as wattless.
Thus the e.m.f. generated by this magnetism is:
e = — n
dt
hence, expanded:
e = 2 tt/ZZ V2 I (l  ?) cos cos + (l + ) sin sin
and the effective value of e.m.f. :
E = 2wfll yj(l _^ 2 cos 2 0+ (l+) 2 sin 2
= 2vfllJ\ + £ 7 cos 20.
Hence, the apparent power, or the voltamperes:
Q = IE = 27r/// 2 ^l+£ 7C os20
*/*^l +
J£ J
1 + *  7 cos 2
4
The instantaneous value of power is:
p = ei
= 4tt/// 2 sin (0  0) I (l  ^ cos cos +
(l + J) sin sin /»} ;
270 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and, expanded:
V = 2wfll* {(l + l) sin 2 $ sin 2  (l  J)
sin 2 0cos 2 + sin 2/3 (cos 2 6  ) }•
Integrated, the effective value of power is:
P = 7r/LT 2 7sin2 0;
hence, negative, that is, the machine consumes electrical, and
produces mechanical, power, as synchronous motor, if 6 > 0,
that is, with lagging current ; positive, that is, the machine pro
duces electrical, and consumes mechanical power, as generator,
if 6 > 0, that is, with leading current.
The powerfactor is:
P y sin 2 $
V =
Q „ L '. y 2
2 Jl + £  7 cos 2 6
hence, a maximum, if:
dp
or, expanded:
de =0 >
2 , 7
cos 2 =  and = {r
7 2
The power, P, is a maximum at given current, /, if:
sin 2 6 = 1 ;
that is:
6 = 45°;
at given e.m.f., E, the power is:
p fl 2 7 sin 2
4wfl(l +^  7 cos 2 6)
hence, a maximum at :
to '
or, expanded: t
±y
cos 2 e =
•v 1
1+ 4
REACTION MACHINES 271
154. We have thus, at impressed e.m.f., E, and negligible
resistance, if we denote the mean value of reactance:
x  2 *■//.
Current:
/ E
x yjl +4* y cos 20
Voltamperes:
«....«■....
xJl + j  7 cos 2
Power:
E*y sin 2^
2x(l + ?  7 cos 2 0)
Powerfactor:
/et r\ 7 sin 2
V = cos {E, I) = ,^ ■ — 
2 Jl + ^  7 cos 2
Maximum power at :
cos 2 = y
7 2
1+ 4
Maximum powerfactor at:
2 7
cos 2 =  and = '•
7 2
> : synchronous motor, with lagging current,
< 0: generator, with leading current.
Ah an example is shown in Fig. 133, with angle as abscissa*,
the values of current, power, and powerfactor, for the constants,
E = 110, x = 3, and 7 = 0.8.
/ =   41
Vl.45  cos 2 6
p = 2017>in 2
1.45  cos 2
— »
, „ 7X 0.447 sin 2
p = cos (E, I) = /_.:.=. •
V 1.45  cos 2
272 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
As seen from Fig. 133, the powerfactor, j>, of such a machine
is very low — does not exceed 40 per cent, in this instance,
Very similar to the reaction machine in principle and characiei
of operation are the synchronous induction motor, Chapter IX,
and the hysteresis motor, Chapter X, either of which is a gen
erator above synchronism, and at synchronism can be motor as
REACTION MACHINE
p.
c.
E 110
* 3

m
«>
H
A
a
fcs
P= vUsmi* JP
m
/
\
Jp
...
/
<Z
s
^
—
^
7
\
/P
U
i
10
«i
i
/
»i
>,
/
*.
t
LB*

\
l.«
ra
s
\
a
1
\
■1*1
\
I
\
_/
M
<i
Ti
i'.H
■n
t
■■
"■ ; .
if
.if
LA
■JO
htf
..v
KM
 71
...
well a.
stator
166.
the re
also d
it thus
It h
in kecj
:
Fig. 133. — Load curves of reiirtion machine.
generator, depending on the relative position b
ield and rotor.
The low powerfactor and the low weigh! efficSu
iction machine from extended use for large powe
Ks the severe waveshape distortion produced by
has found a very limited use only in small sizes.
is, however, the advantage or a high degree of ex
ing in step, that is, it does not merely keep in synch
iftfi more or less over a phase angle with respect
>i ween
cy bar
s. Bo
t, and
tctnea
nnilil
to the
REACTION MACHINES " 273
impressed voltage, but the relative position of the rotor with
regards to the phase of the impressed voltage is more accurately
maintained. Where this feature is of importance, as in driving
a contactmaker, a phase indicator or a rectifying commutator,
the reaction machine has an advantage, especially in a system
of fluctuating frequency, and it is used to some extent for such
purposes.
This feature of exact step relation is shared also, though to
a lesser extent, by the synchronous motor with selfexcitation
by lagging currents, and ordinarily small synchronous motors,
but without field excitation (or with great underexcitation or
overexcitation) are often used for the same purpose.
Machines having more or less the characteristics of the reac
tion machine have been used to a considerable extent in the
very early days, for generating constant alternating current for
series arc lighting by Jablochkoff candles, in the 70's and early
80's.
Structurally, the reaction machine is similar to the inductor
machine, but the essential difference is, that the former operates
by making and breaking the magnetic circuit, that is, periodically
changing the magnetic flux, while the inductor machine operates
by commutating the magnetic flux, that is, periodically changing
the flux path, but without varying the total value of the magnetic
flux.
18
CHAPTER XVII
INDUCTOR MACHINES
Inductor Alternators, Etc.
156. Synchronous machines may be built with stationary
field and revolving armature, as shown diagrammatically in
Fig. 134, or with revolving field and stationary armature, Fig.
135, or with stationary field and stationary armature, but
revolving magnetic circuit.
The revolvingarmature type was the most frequent in the
early days, but has practically gone out of use except for special
Fia. 134. — Revolving armature
alternator
Fig. 135.— Revolving field al
ternator.
purposes, and for synchronous commutating machines, as the
revolvingarmature type of structure is almost exclusively used
for commutating machines. The revolvingfield type is now
almost exclusively used, as the standard construction of alter
nators, synchronous motors, etc. The inductor type had been
used to a considerable extent, and had a high reputation in the
Stanley alternator. It has practically gone out of use for
standard frequencies, due to its lower economy in the use of
materials, but has remained a very important type of construc
tion, as it is especially adapted for high frequencies and other
special conditions, and in this field, its use is rapidly increasing.
A typical inductor alternator is shown in Fig. 136. as eight
polar quarterphase machine.
274
INDUCTOR MACHINES
275
Its armature coils, A, are stationary. One stationary field
coil, F, surrounds the magnetic circuit of the machine, which
consists of two sections, the stationary external one, B, which
contains the armature, A, and a movable one, C, which contains
the inductor, N. The inductor contains as many polar projec
tions, N, as there are cycles or pairs of poles. The magnetic flux
in the air gap and inductor does not reverse or alternate, as in
the revolvingfield type of alternator, Fig. 135, but is constant
in direction, that is, all the inductor teeth are of the same
polarity, but the flux density varies or pulsates, between a maxi
mum, B\, in front of the inductor teeth, and a minimum, B tl
though in the same direction, in front of the inductor slots. The
magnetic flux, *, which interlinks with the armature coils, does
not alternate between two equal and opposite values, + * and
Fio. 136. — Inductor alternator.
— *», as in Fig. 135, but pulsates between a high value, *i,
when an inductor tooth stands in front of the armature coil,
and a low value in the same direction, *,, when the armature
coil faces an inductor slot.
167. fn the inductor alternator, the voltage induction thus
is brought about by shifting the magnetic flux produced by a
stationary field coil, or by what may be called magneto commu
tation, by means of the inductor.
The flux variation, which induces the voltage in the armature
turns of the inductor alternator, thus is #i — *», while that in
the revolvingfield or revolvingarmature type of alternator is
2 *„.
The general formula of voltage induction in an alternator is:
(1)
!  y/2 «/«*„,
27G
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
where :
/ = frequency, in hundreds of cycles,
n = number of armature turns in series,
* = maximum magnetic flux, alternating
through the armature turns, in megalines,
e = effective value of induced voltage.
*i — * s taking the place of 2 * , in the inductor alternator,
the equation of voltage induction thus is:
W2rt«<
(2)
As seen, *, must be more than twice as large as *o, that is,
in an inductor alternator, the maximum magnetic flux interlinked
with the armature coil must be more than twice as large as in the
standard type of alternator.
In modern machine design, with (he efficient methods of cool
ing now available, economy of materials and usually also effi
ciency make it necessary to run the flux density up to near satura
tion at the narrowest part of the magnetic circuit — which usually
is the armature tooth. Thus the flux, *o, is limited merely by
magnetic saturation, and in the inductor alternator, $,, would be
limited to nearly the same value as, 4> , in the standard machine,
*i — *i
and — i, — thus would be only about onehalf or less of the
permissible value of *  That is, the output of the inductor
alternator armature is only about onehalf that of the standard
alternator armature. This is obvious, as we would double the
voltage of the inductor alternator armature, if instead of pulsat
ing between 4>, and * 2 or approximately zero, we would alternate
between *i and — *i.
On the other hand, the single fieldcoil construction gives a
material advantage in the material economy of the field, and
in machines having very many field poles, that is, highfrequency
alternators, the economy in the field construction overbalances
the lesser economy in the use of the armature, especially as at
higli frequencies it is not feasible any more to push the alter
nating flux, $0, up to or near saturation values. Therefore, for
highfrequency generators, the inductor alternator becomes
the economically superior types, and is preferred, and for ex
tremely high frequencies (20,000 to 100,000 cycles) the inductor
alternator becomes the only feasible type, mechanically,
168. In the calculation of the magnetic circuit of the inductor
INDUCTOR MACHINES , 277
alternator, if 3>o is the amplitude of flux pulsation through the
armature coil, as derived from the required induced voltage by
equation (1), let:
p = number of inductor teeth, that is,
number of pairs of poles (four in
the eightpolar machine, Fig. 136).
Pi = magnetic reluctance of air gap in front
of the inductor tooth, which should
be as low as possible,
P2 = magnetic reluctance of leakage path
through inductor slot into the arma
ture coil, which should be as high as
possible,
(3)
(4)
it is:
and as:
$! f <f> 2 = — f
Pi P2
$1 — $2 = 2 $0,
it follows:
<
4*1 — £t 4?o y
P2 — Pi
* — 9 * P l
4^2 — 4 ™0 )
P2 — Pi
(5)
and the total flux through the magnetic circuit, C, and out from
all the p inductor teeth and slots thus is :
$ = P ($i + $2)
P2 + Pl
= 2 p$o
= 2 p$o
P2 — Pl
1 + ^} (6)
P2 — Pl 1
In the corresponding standard alternator, with 2 p poles, the
total flux entering the armature is :
2 p<f>o
and if pi is the reluctance of the air gap between field pole and
armature face, p 2 the leakage reluctance between the field poles,
the ratio of the leakage flux between the field poles, $', to the
armature flux, $ , is:
<r>  *' = A + } ; ( 7)
Pl P2
hence:
$' = $„ > (8)
Pa
278 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and the flux in the field pole, thus, is
_2pA
*„ + 2 *' =
.(i + !
hence the total magnetic flux of the machine, of 2 p pole*
* = 2p«„(l J 2 ")
2p L
As in 16), pi is small compared with p,, — in (6) differs
As regards to the total magnetic flux required for the induc
tion of the same voltage in the same armature, no material
difference exists between the inductor machine and the standard
machine ; but in the armature teeth the inductor machine requires
more than twice the maximum magnetic flux of the standard
Vu;. :>7. Siimli'v iti'iiirdir iiltt'Tiinlrtr.
alternator, and thereby ia at a disadvantage where the limit
of magnetic density in the armature is set only by magnetic
saturation.
As regards to the hysteresis loss in the armature of the in
ductor alternator, the magnetic cycle is an unsyrametrieal cycle,
between two values of the same direction, B x and B%, and the
loss therefore is materially greater than it would be with a
symmetrical cycle of the same amplitude. It is given by:
/B, Ba 1 ' 6
' = *°( 2 )
n»P +eB"].
INDUCTOR MACHINES
279
Regarding hereto see "Theory and Calculation of Electric
Circuits," under "Magnetic Constants."
However, as by the saturation limit, the amplitude of the
magnetic pulsation in the inductor machine may have to be
kept very much lower than in the standard type, the core loss
of the machine may be no larger, or may even be smaller than
that of the standard type, in spite of the higher hysteresis
coefficient, 170.
169. The inductormachine type, Fig. 136, must have an
£—21
\f\ j\j\/\r\/\j\r ^
:fA J
fttfMtai«4**Aft«
! I
>U
Fig. 138. — Alexanderson high frequency inductor alternator.
auxiliary air gap in the magnetic circuit, separating the revolving
from the stationary part, as shown at S.
It, therefore, is preferable 10 double the structure, Fig. 136,
by using two armatures and inductors, with the field coil between
them, as shown in Fig. 137. This type of alternator has been
extensively built, as the Stanley alternator, mainly for 60 cycles,
and has been a very good and successful machine, but has been
superseded by the revolvingfield type, due to the smaller size
and cost of the latter.
Fig. 137 shows the magnetic return circuit, B, between the two
armatures, A, and the two inductors N and S as constructed of a
number of large wroughtiron bolts, while Fig. 136 shows the
return as a solid cast shell.
2SU ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
A mollification of this type of inductor machine is the Alex*
anderson inductor alternator, shown in Fig. 138, which is being
built for frequencies up to 200,000 cycles per second and over,
for use in wireless telegraphy and telephony.
The inductor disc, /, contains many hundred inductor teeth,
and revolves at many thousands of revolutions between the
two armatures, A, as shown in the enlarged section, S. It is
surrounded by the field coil, F, and outside thereof the magnetic
return, S. The armature winding is a singleturn wave winding
threaded through the armature faces, as shown in section .S' ami
face view, Q. It is obvious that in the armature special iron
of extreme thinness of lamination has to be used, and the rotat
ing inductor, 7, built to stand the enormous centrifugal stresses
nf the great peripheral speed. We must realize that even with
an armature pitch of less than l fa in.
per pole, we get at 100,000 cycles per
second peripheral speeds approaching
bullet velocities, over 1000 miles per
hour. For the lower frequencies m
long distance radio communication,
20,000 to 30,000 cycles, such' ma
chines have been built for large
powers.
160. Fig. 139 shows the Eieke
meyer type of inductor alternator.
In this, the field coil F is not con
centric to the shaft, and the inductor
teeth not all of the same polarity, but
ductor alternator. the field coil, as seen in Fig. 139, sur
rounds the inductor, /, longitudinally,
and with the magnetic return B thus gives a bipolar magnetic
field, Half the inductor teeth, the one side of the inductor, thus
are of the one, the other half of the other polarity, and the
armature coils, A, are located in the (laminated) pole faces of the
bipolar magnetic structure. Obviously, in larger machines, a
multipolar structure could be used instead of the bipolar of Fig.
139. This type has the advantage of a simpler magnetic struc
ture, and the further advantage, that all the magnetic flux
passes at right angles to the shaft, just as in the revolving field
or revolving armature alternator. In the types, Figs. 136 and
137, magnetic flux passes, and the field exciting coil magnetizes
INDUCTOR MACHINES
281
longitudinally to the shaft, arui thus magnetic stray flux tends
) pass along the shaft, closing through bearings and supports,
and causing heating of bearings. Therefore, in the types 136
,nd 137, magnetic barrier coils have been used where needed,
that is, coils concentric to the shaft, that ia, parallel to the field
coil, and outside of the inductor, that is, between inductor and
bearings, energized in opposite direction lo the field coils. These
coils then act as countermagnetizing coils in keeping magnetic
flux out of the machine bearings.
The type, Fig. 139, is especially adapted for moderate fre
quencies, a few hundreds to thousands of cycles. A modifica
ti of it, adopted as converter, is used to a considerable extent:
he inductor, /, is supplied with a bipolar winding connected to a
■ommutator, and the machine therefore is a bipolar commutating
machine in addition to a highfrequency inductor alternator
(I6polar in Fig. 130). It thus may be operated as converter,
receiving power by directcurrent supply, as directcurrent motor,
and producing highfrequency alternating power in the inductor
poleface winding.
161. If the inductor alternator, Fig. 139, instead of with direct
current, is excited with lowfrequency alternating current, that
*t
:o. 140. — Voltage wiive of inductor niter
nth jitiB.il [ill.
, an alternating current, passed through the field coil, F, of a
requency low compared with that generated by the machine as
inductor alternator, then the highfrequency current generated
.• the machine as inductor alternator is not of constant ampli
tude, but of a periodically varying amplitude, as shown in Fig.
140. For instance, with 60cycle excitation, a 64polar in
ductor (that is, inductor with 32 teeth), and a speed of 1800
revolutions, we get a frequency of approximately 1000 cycles,
,nd a voltage and current wave about as shown in Fig. 140.
The power required for excitation obviously is small compared
the power which the machine can generate. Suppose,
icrefore, that the highfrequency voltage of Fig. 140 were
ftified. It would then give a voltage and current, pulsating
282 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
with the frequency of the exciting current, but of a power, as
many times greater, as the machine output is greater than the
exciting power.
Thus such an inductor alternator with alternatingcurrent
excitation can be used as amplifier. This obviously applies
equally much to the other types, as shown in Figs. 13(i. 137
and 138.
Suppose now the exciting current is a telephone or micro
phone current, the rectified generated current then pulsates with
the frequencies of the telephone current, and the machine is a
telephonic amplifier.
Thus, by exciting the highfrequency alternator in Fig. 138,
by a telephone current, we get a highfrequency current, of an
amplitude, pulsating with the telephone current, but of niany
times greater power than the original telephone current. This
highfrequency current, being of the frequency suitable for radio
communication, now is sent into the wireless sending antennae,
and the current received from the wireless receiving antennae,
rectified, gives wireless telephonic communications. As seen,
the power, which hereby is sent out from the wireless antenna?,
is not the insignificant power of the telephone current, but is the
highfrequency power generated by the alternator with telephonic
excitation, and may be many kilowatts, thus permitting long
distance radio telephony.
It is obvious, that the high inductance of the field coil, F, of
the machine, Fig. 138, would make it impossible to force a tele
phone current through it, but the telephonic exciting current
would be sent through the armature winding, which is of very
low inductance, and by the use of the capacity the armature
made selfexciting by leading current.
Instead of sending the highfrequency machine current, which
pulsates in amplitude with telephonic frequency, through radio
transmission and rectifying the receiving current, we can rectify
directly the generated machine current and so get a current
pulsating with the telephonic frequency, that is, get a greatly
amplified telephone current, and send this into telephone circuits
for longdistance telephony,
162. Suppose, now, in the inductor alternator, Fig. 139, with
lowfrequency alternatingcurrent excitation, giving a voltage
wave shown in Fig. 140, we use several alternators excited by
lowfrequency currents of different phases, or instead of II iimlc
INDUCTOR MACHINES 283
phase field, as in Fig. 139, we use a polyphase exciting field. This
is shown, with three exciting coils or poles energized by three
phase currents, in Fig. 141. The highfrequency voltages of
pulsating amplitude, induced by the three phases, then super
pose a highfrequency wave of constant amplitude, and we get,
in Fig. 141, a highfrequency alternator with polyphase field
excitation.
Instead of using definite polar projection for the threephase
bipolar exciting winding, as shown in Fig. 141, we could use a
distributed winding, like that in an induction motor, placed in
the same slots as the inductoralternator armature winding. By
Fig. 141. — Inductor alternator with threephase excitation.
placing a bipolar shortcircuited winding on the inductor, the
threephase exciting winding of the highfrequency (24polar)
inductor alternator also becomes a bipolar inductionmotor
primary winding, supplying the power driving the machine.
That is, the machine is a combination of a bipolar induction
motor and a 24polar inductor alternator, or a frequency
converter.
Instead of having a separate highfrequency inductoralter
nator armature winding, and lowfrequency induction motor
winding, we can use the same winding for both purposes, as
shown diagrammatically in Figs. 142 and 143. The stator
winding, Fig. 142, bipolar, or fourpolar 60cycle, is a low
frequency winding, for instance, has one slot per inductor pole,
that is, twice as many slots as the inductor has teeth. Successive
turns then differ from each other by 180° in phase, for the high
frequency inductor voltage. Thus grouping the winding in
284 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
two sections, 1 anil 3, and 2 ami 4, the highfrequency voltages
in the two sections are opposite in phase from each other. Con
necting, then, as shown in Fig. 143, 1 and 2 in series, and 4 and
3 in series into the two phases of the quarterphase supply cir
cuit, no highfrequency induction exists in either phase, but the
highfrequency voltage is generated between the middle points
Fio. 142.— Induction type of higb frequency inductor alternator.
of the two phases, as shown in Fig. 143, and we thus get another
form of a frequency converter, changing from lowfrequency
polyphase to highfrequency singlephase.
• HICH Wrf umJ 1
Z17" ffmlms\ 1S0 '
Fig. 143. — Diagram of connection of induction type of inductor alternator.
163. A type of inductor machine, very extensively used in
smalt machines— as ignition dynamos for gasoline engines — is
shown in Fig. 144. The field, F, and the shuttleshaped armature,
A, are stationary, and an inductor, J, revolves between field and
armature, and so alternately sends the magnetic field flux through
the armature, first in one, then in the opposite direction. As
seen, in this type, the magnetic flux in the armature reverses,
by what may be called magnetic commutation. Usually in these
INDUCTOR MACHINES 285
small machines the field excitation is not by direct current, but
by permanent magnets.
This principle of magnetic commutation, that is, of reversing
Fig. 144. — Magneto inductor machine.
the magnetic flux produced by a stationary coil, in another
stationary coil by means of a moving "magneto commutator"
or inductor, has been extensively used in singlephase feeder
Fig. 145.— Magneto com mutation voltage regulator.
regulators, the socalled " magneto regulator*)." It is illustrated
in Fig. 145. P is the primary coil (shunt coil connected across
the alternating supply circuit), 8 the secondary coil (connected
in series into the circuit which is to be regulated) the magnetic
inductor, I, in the position shown in drawn lines sends the mag
280
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
ratio flux produced by the primary coil, through the secondaf]
coil, in the direction opposite to the direction, in which it would
send the magnetic flux through the secondary coil when in the
position /', shown in dotted lines. In vertical position, the
inductor, /, would pass the magnetic flux through the primary
coil, without passing it through the secondary coil, that is, with
out inducing voltage in the secondary. Thus by moving the
shuttle or inductor, /, from position I over the vertical position
to the position /', the voltage induced in the secondary cod. S,
is varied from maximum boosting over to zero to maximum
lowering.
164. l r ig. 146 shows a type of machine, which has been EHri
still is used to some extent, for alternators as well as for direct
i fiTiT]*
current commutating machines, and which may be called an
inductor machine, or at least has considerable similarity with flu
inductor type. It is shown in Pig. 146 as sixpolar machine,
with internal field and external armature, but can easily be built
with internal armature and external field. The field contains
one field coil,/ 1 , concentric to the shaft. The poles overhang the
field coils, and all poles of one polarity, N, come from the mic
side, all poles of the other polarity from the other side of the field
coll. The magnetic structure thus consists of two parts which
interlock axially, as seen in Fig. 146.
The disadvantage of this type of field construction is the high
flux leakage between the field poles, which tends to impair the
regulation in alternators, and makes commutation more difficult
for directcurrent machines. It offers, however, the advantage
INDUCTOR MACHINES 287
of simplicity and material economy in machines of small and
moderate size, of many poles, as for instance in small very low
speed synchronous motors, etc.
166. In its structural appearance, inductor machines often
have a considerable similarity with reaction machines. The
characteristic difference between the two types, however, is,
that in the reaction machine voltage is induced by the pulsation
of the magnetic flux by pulsating reluctance of the magnetic
circuit of the machine. The magnetic pulsation in the reaction
machine thus extends throughout the entire magnetic circuit
of the machine, and if directcurrent excitation were used, the
voltage would be induced in the exciting circuit also. In the
inductor machine, however, the total magnetic flux does not
pulsate, but is constant, and no voltage is induced in the direct
current exciting circuit. Induction is produced in the armature
by shifting the — constant — magnetic flux locally from armature
coil to armature coil. The important problem of inductor
alternator design — and in general of the design of magneto com
iriutation apparatus — is to have the shifting of the magnetic
flux from path to path so that the total reluctance and thus the
total magnetic flux does not vary, otherwise excessive eddy
current losses would result in the magnetic structure.
It is interesting to note, that the number of inductor teeth is
onehalf the number of poles. An inductor with p projections
thus gives twice as many cycles per revolution, thus as syn
chronous motor would run at half the speed of a standard syn
chronous machine of p poles.
As the result hereof, in starting polyphase synchronous
machines by impressing polyphase voltage on the armature and
using the hysteresis and the induced currents in the field poles,
for producing the torque of starting and acceleration, there
frequently appears at half synchronism a tendency to drop into
step with the field structure as inductor. This results in an
increased torque when approaching, and a reduced torque when
passing beyond half synchronism, thus produces a drop in the
torque curve and is liable to produce difficulty in passing beyond
half speed in starting. In extreme cases, it may result even in
a negative torque when passing half synchronism, and make the
machine nonselfstarting, or at least require a considerable
increase of voltage to get beyond half synchronism, over that
required to start from rest.
CHAPTER XVIII
SURGING OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
166. In the theory of the synchronous motor the assumption
is made that the mechanical output of the motor equals the power
developed by it. This is the case only if the motor runs at
constant speed. If, however, it accelerates, the power input is
greater; if it decelerates, less than the power output, by the power
stored in and returned by the momentum. Obviously, the
motor can neither constantly accelerate nor decelerate, without
breaking out of synchronism.
If, for instance, at a certain moment the power prod wed by
the motor exceeds the mechanical load (as in the moment of
throwing off a part of the load), the excess power is consumed by
the momentum as acceleration, causing an increase of speed.
The result thereof is that the phase of the counter e.m.f., c,
is not constant, but its vector, e, moves backward to earlier time,
or counterclockwise, at a rate depending upon the momentum.
Thereby the current changes and the power developed changes
and decreases. As soon as the power produced equals the load,
the acceleration ceases, but the vector, c, still being in motion,
due to the increased speed, further reduces the power, causing
a retardation and thereby a decrease of speed, at a rate depend
ing upon the mechanical momentum. In this manner a periodic
variation of the phase relation between e and to, and correspond
ing variation of speed and current occurs, of an amplitude and
period depending upon the circuit conditions and the mechanical
momentum.
If the amplitude of this pulsation has a positive decrement,
that is, is decreasing, the motor assumes after a while a constant
position of e regarding e a , that is, its speed becomes uniform.
If, however, the decrement of Hie pulsation is negative, an
infinitely small pulsation will continuously increase in amplitude,
until the motor is thrown out of step, or the decrement becomes
zero, by the power consumed by forces opposing the pulsation,
as antisurging devices, or by the periodic pulsation of the syn
chronous reactance, etc. If the decrement is zero, a pulsation
288
SURGING OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 289
started once will continue indefinitely at constant amplitude.
This phenomenon, a surging by what may be called electro
mechanical resonance, must be taken into consideration in a
complete theory of the synchronous motor.
167. Let:
E = e = impressed e.m.f. assumed as zero vector.
E = e (cos P — j sin P) = e.m.f. consumed by counter e.m.f.
of motor, where:
P = phase angle between E and E.
Let:
Z = r + jx,
and z = Vr 2 + x 2
= impedance of circuit between
Eo and E, and
x
tan a = —
r
The current in the system is:
e — E eo — e cos P + je sin P
/o =
r + jx
=  {[e cos a — e cos (a + P)]
— j [e sin a — e sin (a + 0)] ) (1)
The power developed by the synchronous motor is:
Po = [EI] 1 =  {[cos p [e cos a  e cos (a + 0)]
z
+ sin [e sin a — e sin (a + 0)] J
= {[e cos (a — 0) — e cos a]). (2)
If, now, a pulsation of the synchronous motor occurs, resulting
in a change of the phase relation, 0, between the counter e.m.f., e,
and the impressed e.m.f., e (the latter being of constant fre
quency, thus constant phase), by an angle, 5, where 8 is a periodic
function of time, of a frequency very low compared with the
impressed frequency, then the phase angle of the counter e.rn.f.,
e, is P + 6; and the counter e.m.f. is:
E = e {cos (0 + 6)  j sin (p + 6)1,
19
290 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
hence the current:
/ =  {[e cos a — e cos (a + + 5)]
z
— j [e sin a — e sin (a + + 6)]\
= h + ysin* jsin(a + p+ *) + jcos(a + + ) [ (3)
the power:
i
P = {e cos (a — — 5) — e cos a}
= Po + — sin ^ sm^a   2 J • (4)
Let now:
t»o = mean velocity (linear, at radius of gyration) of syn
chronous machine;
a = slip, or decrease of velocity, as fraction of t' , where s is
a (periodic) function of time; hence
v = Vq (1 — s) = actual velocity, at time, t.
During the time element, dt, the position of the synchronous
motor armature regarding the impressed e.m.f., e , and thereby
the phase angle, + 6, of e, changes by:
dd = 2 Tcfsdt
= sd0, (5)
where:
= 2 icft,
and
/ = frequency of impressed e.m.f., e .
Let:
m = mass of revolving machine elements, and
M — )i im'o 2 = mean mechanical momentum, reduced to
joules or wattseconds; then the momentum at time, t, and
velocity v = v (1 — s) is:
AT = y 2 vivj(\  s) 2 ,
and the change of momentum during the time element, eft, is:
dM , .ds.
svmsixg or srxcHROsors motors 2*1
hence.
for srxihiL
TATaes Oil
*:
= —
.d*
™ r di
" Ml d*
at
ds
d*
dt
Since:
4«
di
= 2*
and from
5 :
t
di
d«
<U
<rh
d9
dr
it is:
d\I
di
= —
4„.«.£
Since, as discussed, the change of momentum equals the dif
ference between produced and consumed power, the excess of
power being converted into momentum, it is:
P  Po = d £ • l»
and. substituting <'4> and (7) into (8) and rearranging:
C *° sin * sin (a  fi  *) + 2 t/AT ™ = «• l»>
'Assuming 5 as a small angle, that is, considering only small
oscillations, it is:
. 6 6
Sln 2 = 2
sin [a   ^ J = sin («  £) ;
hence, substituted in (18):
^ 5 sin («  0) + 4 ir/Af jj]»  0, (10)
and, substituting:
ce «in(a/8) m .
4 rfzMo
it is:
(14)
292 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
This differential equation is integrated by:
5 = At' 9 , (13)
which, substituted in (12) gives:
aAe ce + ACU™ = 0,
a + C 2 = 0,
C = ± V a.
. 168. 1. If a <0, it is:
5 = A*+ me + A* m \
where:
/ / ee sin (0 — a)
\ 4 tt/zA/o
Since in this case, e* m9 is continually increasing, the syn
chronous motor is unstable. That is, without oscillation, the
synchronous motor drops out of step, if > a.
2. If a > 0, it is, denoting:
, ^/ , /ee sin (a  0)
\ 4 TT/^Af o
or, substituting for € +;n * and € + "" 4 * the trigonometric functions:
6 = (Ai + Ao) cos n0 + j (A x — *4 2 ) sin n$ t
or,
5 = B cos (n0 + 7). (15)
That is, the synchronous motor is in stable equilibrium, when
oscillating with a constant amplitude B, depending upon the
initial conditions of oscillation, and a period, which for small
oscillations gives the frequency of oscillation:
f „ f _ //ee sin (a  0)
As instance, let:
<?o = 2200 volts. Z = 1 + 4 j ohms, or, z = 4.12; a = 76°.
And let the machine, a 16polar, 60cycle, 400kw., revolving
field, synchronous motor, have the radius of gyration of 20 in.,
a weight of the revolving part of 6000 lb.
The momentum then is Af„ = 850,000 joules.
Deriving the angles, 0, corresponding to given values of output.
P, and excitation, r, from the polar diagram, or from the symbolic
SURGING OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 293
representation, and substituting in (16), gives the frequency of
oscillation :
P = 0:
e = 1600 volts; =  2°;/ = 2.17 cycles,
or 130 periods per minute.
2180 volts
+ 3°
2.50 cycles,
or 150 periods per minute.
2800 volts
+ 5°
2.85 cycles,
or 169 periods per minute.
P = 400 kw.
e = 1600 volts; = 33°; / = 1.90 cycles,
or 114 periods per minute.
2180 volts 21° 2.31 cycles,
or 139 periods per minute.
2800 volts 22° 2.61 cycles,
or 154 periods per minute.
As seen, the frequency of oscillation does not vary much with
the load and with the excitation. It slightly decreases with
increase of load, and it increases with increase of excitation.
In this instance, only the momentum of the motor has been
considered, as would be the case for instance in a synchronous
converter.
In a directconnected motorgenerator set, assuming the
momentum of the directcurrentgenerator armature equal to
60 per cent, of the momentum of the synchronous motor, the
total momentum is M = 1,360,000 joules, hence, at noload:
P = 0,
e = 1600 volts ;/ = 1.72 cycles, or 103 periods per minute.
1.98 cycles, or 119 periods per minute.
1.23 cycles, or 134 periods per minute.
169. In the preceding discussion of the surging of synchronous
machines, the assumption has been made that the mechanical
power consumed by the load is constant, and that no damping
or antisurging devices were used.
The mechanical power consumed by the load varies, however,
more or less with the speed, approximately proportional to the
speed if the motor directly drives mechanical apparatus, as
pumps, etc., and at a higher power of the speed if driving direct
current generators, or as synchronous converter, especially
294 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
when in parallel with other directcurrent generators. Assum
ing, then, in the general case the mechanical power consumed by
the load to vary, within the narrow range of speed variation con
sidered during the oscillation, at the pth power of the speed,
in the preceding equation instead of Po is to be substituted,
Po(l  s)p = P (l  ps).
If antisurging devices are used, and even without these in
machines in which eddy currents can be produced by the oscilla
tion of slip, in solid field poles, etc., a torque is produced more
or less proportional to the deviation of speed from synchronism.
This power assumes the form, Pi = c 2 s, where c is a function of
the conductivity of the eddycurrent circuit and the intensity
of the magnetic field of the machine, c 2 is the power which
would be required to drive the magnetic field of the motor
through the circuits of the antisurging device at full frequency,
if the same relative proportions could be retained at full fre
quency as at the frequency of slip, s. That is, Pi is the power
produced by the motor as induction machine at slip «. In
stead of P, the power generated by the motor, in the preced
ing equations the value, P + Pi, has to be substituted, then:
The equation (8) assumes the form :
P + PiPoUjmO = rf J^
or:
(P  Po)  (P. + pPos) = *% • (17)
or, substituting (7) and (4) :
2e e 2 ° sin  sin [«   *] + (c« + pPo) * + 4 ,/Af. ~ = 0;
(18)
and, for small values of 8 :
4 vfzMo
b , «! + P p JL. (2 Q)
Of these two terms b represents the consumption, a the oscilla
tion of energy by the pulsation of phase angle, p. b and a thus
SURGING OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 295
have a similar relation as resistance and reactance in alternating
current circuits, or in the discharge of condensers, a is the
same term as in paragraph 167.
Differential equation (19) is integrated by:
5 = At c ', (21)
which, substituted in (19), gives:
aAt c * + 2 bCAf + C 2 Ae c *  0,
a + 2 bC + C 2 = 0,
which equation has the two roots:
Ci  6 + V b*a ,
C, = 6  y/b 2  a. (22)
1. If a < 0, or negative, that is > a, C\ is positive and C%
negative, and the term with C\ is continuously increasing, that
is, the synchronous motor is unstable, and, without oscillation,
drifts out of step.
2. If < a < b 2 , or a positive, and b 2 larger than a (that is,
the energyconsuming term very large), C\ and C% are both
negative, and, by substituting, + \/b 2 — a = g } it is:
Ci=  (6flf), C, =  (6 + g);
hence:
5 = A l€ " <»*>• + A 2€ " (» + •)•• (23)
That is, the motor steadies down to its mean position logarith
mically, or without any oscillation.
b 2 > a,
hence :
(c 2 + pPo) 2 eeo sin (a  0)
16wfMo > 2 (M)
is the condition under which no oscillation can occur.
As seen, the left side of (24) contains only mechanical, the
right side only electrical terms.
3. a > b 2 .
In this case, y/b 2 — a is imaginary, and, substituting:
g = y/a'b*,
it is:
t\=b+jg,
296 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
hence :
and, substituting the trigonometric for the exponential functions,
gives ultimately:
6 = Bt b °cos(ge + y). (25)
That is, the motor steadies down with an oscillation of period:
/oflf
■v
_ fee sin (a  0) (c« + pP ) 2
(26)
4 ttzMo 64 T*3f o 2
and decrement or attenuation constant:
170. It follows, however, that under the conditions considered,
a cumulative surging, or an oscillation with continuously increas
ing amplitude, can not occur, but that a synchronous motor,
when displaced in phase from its mean position, returns thereto
either aperiodically, if b 2 > a, or with an oscillation of vanishing
amplitude, if b 2 < a. At the worst, it may oscillate with constant
amplitude, if b = 0.
Cumulative surging can, therefore, occur only if in the differ
ential equation (19):
«»+ 2 »2 + $ ' (28)
the coefficient, 6, is negative.
Since c 2 , representing the induction motor torque of the damp
ing device, etc., is positive, and pPo is also positive (p being
the exponent of power variation with speed), this presupposes
A 2
the existence of a third and negative term, Q rnf , in b:
O IT J M o
This negative term represents a power:
P 2 = h 2 s; (30)
that is, a retarding torque during slow speed, or increasing £, and
accelerating torque during high speed, or decreasing 0.
The source of this torque may be found external to the motor,
or internal, in its magnetic circuit.
SURGING OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
297
External sources of negative, Pi, may be, for instance, the
magnetic field of a selfexciting, direct current generator, driven
r the synchronous motor. With decrease of Speed, this field
's, due to the decrease of generated voltage, and increases
vith increase of speed. This change of field strength, however,
i behind the exciting voltage and thus speed, that is, during
decrease of speed the output is greater than during increase of
speed. If this directcurrent generator is the exciter of the
synchronous motor, the effect may l>e intensified.
The change of power input into the synchronous motor, with
change of speed, may cause the governor to act on the prime
mover driving the generator, which supplies power to the motor,
and the lag of the governor behind the change of output gives a
pulsation of the generator frequency, of e () , which acts like
a negative power, Pj. The pulsation of impressed voltage,
caused by the pulsation of 0, may give rise to a negative,
/'., also.
An internal cause of a negative term, / J s , is found in the lag
of the synchronous motor field behind the resultant m.m.f. In
the preceding discussion, i is the "nominal generated e.m.f."
I of the synchronous machine, corresponding to the field excita
tion. The actual magnetic flux of the machine, however, does
not correspond to e, and thus to the field excitation, but corre
sponds to the resultant m.m.f. of field excitation and armature
reaction, which latter varies in intensity and in phase during the
oscillation of 0. Hence, while e is constant, the magnetic flux
is not constant, but pulsates with the oscillations of the machine.
This pulsation of the magnetic flux lags l>ehind the pulsation of
m.m.f., and thereby gives rise to a term in 6 in equation (28).
If P B , &, e, e u , Z are such that a retardation of the motor increases
the magnetizing, or decreases the demagnetising force of the
armature reaction, a negative term, P,, appears, otherwise a
positive term.
Pi in this case is the energy consumed by the magnetic cycle
uf the machine at full frequency, assuming the cycle at full fre
quency as the same as at frequency of slip, a,
Or inversely, e may be said to pulsate, due to the pulsation of
armature reaction, with the same frequency as &, but with a
phase, which may either lie lagging or leading. Lagging of the
pulsation of e causes a negative, leading a positive, P t ,
P~, therefore, represents the power due to the pulsation of e
298 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
caused by the pulsation of the armature reaction, as discussed in
"Theory and Calculation of AlternatingCurrent Phenomena."
Any appliance increasing the area of the magnetic cycle of
pulsation, as shortcircuits around the field poles, therefore,
increases the steadiness of a steady and increases the unsteadi
ness of an unsteady synchronous motor.
In selfexciting synchronous converters, the pulsation of e is
intensified by the pulsation of directcurrent voltage caused
thereby, and hence of excitation.
Introducing now the term, P 2 = — h*s, into the differential
equations of paragraph 169, gives the additional cases:
b < 0, or negative, that is :
c 2 + pP Q  h 2
8./M0 < ° (31)
Hence, denoting:
6l 6 . __.. , (32)
gives:
4. If: 6i 2 > a, g = + VV  a,
6 = ^ l€ + (6l+/ ^ + A 2 € + (6l  /)tf . (33)
That is, without oscillation, the motor drifts out of step, in
unstable equilibrium.
5. If: a > 6i 2 , g = y/a  bS,
8 = £ € + M cos(00 + 6). (34)
That is, the motor oscillates, with constantly increasing am
plitude, until it drops out of step. This is the typical case of
cumulative surging by electromechanical resonance.
The problem of surging of synchronous machines, and its
elimination, thus resolves into the investigation of the coefficient:
8x/Jlf
(35)
while the frequency of surging, where such exists, is given by:
f _ jfeeo sin (a  0) (c 2 + p P  /i 2 ) 2 (Wi
Case (4), steady drifting out of step, has only rarely l>een
observed.
The avoidance of surging thus requires:
SURGING OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 299
1. An elimination of the term ft 2 , or reduction as far as possible.
2. A sufficiently large term, c 2 , or
3. A sufficiently large term, pP .
(1) refers to the design of the synchronous machine and the
system on which it operates. (2) leads to the use of electro
magnetic antisurging devices, as an induction motor winding in
the field poles, shortcircuits between the poles, or around the
poles, and (3) leads to flexible connection to a load or a mo
mentum, as flexible connection with a flywheel, or belt drive of
the load.
The conditions of steadiness are :
and if:
0>a,
c 2 + pP  h 2 > 0,
(c 2 + pP  A 2 ) 2 ^ ee sin (a  0)
> — :
16 t/M
no oscillation at all occurs, otherwise an oscillation with decreas
ing amplitude.
As seen, cumulative oscillation, that is, hunting or surging,
can occur only, if there is a source of power supply converting
into lowfrequency pulsating power, and the mechanism of con
version is a lag of some effect — in the magnetic field of the
machine, or external — which causes the forces restoring the
machine into step, to be greater than the forces which oppose the
deviation from the position in step corresponding to the load.
For further discussion of the phenomenon of cumulative surging,
and of cumulative oscillations in general, see Chapter XI of
"Theory and Calculation of Electric Circuits. ,,
CHAPTER XIX
ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS IN GENERAL
171. The starting point of the theory of the polyphase and
singlephase induction motor usually is the general alternating
current transformer. Coining, however, to the commutator
motors, this method becomes less suitable, and the following
more general method preferable.
In its general form the alternatingcurrent motor consists of
one or more stationary electric circuits magnetically related to
one or more rotating electric circuits. These circuits can be
excited by alternating currents, or some by alternating, others
by direct current, or closed upon themselves, etc., and connec
tion can be made to the rotating member either by ooIIesSsi
rings— that is, to fixed points of the windings — or by commutator
—that is, to fixed points in space.
The alternatingcurrent motors can he subdivided into two
classes — those in which the electric and magnetic relation
between stationary and moving members do not vary with their
relative positions, ami those in which they vary with the relatifl
positions of stator and rotor. In the latter a cycle of rotation
exists, and therefrom the tendency of the motor results to lock at
a speed giving a definite ratio between the frequency of rotation
and the frequency of impressed e.m.f. Such motors, therefore,
are synchronous motors.
The main types of synchronous motors are as follows:
1. One member supplied with alternating and the other with
direct current — polyphase or singlephase synchronous motors,
2. One member excited by alternating current, the other
taining a single circuit closed upon itself — synchronous induction
motors.
3. One member excited by alternating current, the other of
different magnetic reluctance iii different direction!
construction) — reaction motors.
4. One member excited by alternating current, the other by
altcrnating current of different frequency or different direction
of rotation — general alternatingcurrent transformer or fre
quency converter and synchronousinduction generator.
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 301
(II is the synchronous motor of the electrical industry. (2)
and (3) are used occasionally to produce synchronous rotation
without directcurrent excitation, and of very great steadiness
of the rate of rotation, where weight efficiency and power
factor are of secondary importance. (4) is used to some extent
as frequency converter or alternatingcurrent generator.
(2) and (3) are occasionally observed in induction machines,
and in the starting of synchronous motors, as a tendency to
lock at some intermediate, occasionally low, speed. That is,
in starting, the motor does not accelerate up to full speed, hut
the acceleration stops at some intermediate speed, frequently
half speed, and to carry the motor beyond this speed, the im
pressed voltage may have to be raised or even external power
applied. The appearance of such "dead points" in the speed
curve is due to a mechanical defect — as eccentricity of the
rotor — or faulty electrical design: an improper distribution of
primary and secondary windings causes a periodic variation of
the mutual inductive reactance and so of the effective primary
inductive reactance, (2) or the use of sharply defined and im
properly arranged teeth in both elements causes a periodic
magnetic lock (opening and closing of the magnetic circuit, (3)
and so a tendency to synchronize at the speed corresponding to
this cycle.
Synchronous machines have been discussed elsewhere. Here
shall be considered only that type of motor in which the electric
and magnetic relations between the slator and rotor do not vary
with their relative positions, and the torque is, therefore, not
limited to a definite synchronous speed. This requires that the
rotor when connected to the outside circuit l>e connected through
a commutator, and when closed upon itself, several closed cir
cuits exist, displaced in position from each other so as to offer a
resultant closed circuit in any direction.
The main types of these motors are:
1. One member supplied with polyphase or singlephase alter
nating voltage, the other containing several circuits closed upon
themselves — polyphase and singlephase induction machines.
2. One member supplied with polyphase or singlephase alter
nating voltage, the other connected by a commutator to an
alternating vol I age — compensated induction motors, commutator
lotors with shuntmotor characteristic.
:?. lioth members connected, through a commutator, directly
302
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
or inductively, in series with each other, to an alternating vol
tage — alternatingcurrent motors with seriesmotor characteristic.
Herefrom then follow three main classes of alternatingcurrent
motors ;
Synchronous motors.
Induction motors.
Commutator motors.
There are, however, numerous intermediate forms, which
belong in several classes, as the synchronousinduction motor,
the c o oipe n sat edin due lion motor, etc.
172. An alternating current, /, in an electric circuit produces
a magnetic flux, 4 1 , interlinked with this circuit. Considering
equivalent sine waves of / and *, 4> lags behind / by the angle
of hysteretic lag, a. This magnetic flux, $, generates an e.m.f.,
5 = 2 tt/;i<I>, where / = frequency, n = number of turns of
electric circuit. This generated e.m.f., E, lags 90° behind the
magnetic flux, *, hence consumes an e.m.f. 90° ahead of ♦,
or 90—ci degrees ahead of /. This may be resolved in a reactive
component: E = 2x/ft* eos a = 2 t/LI = xl, the o.m.f, con
sumed by selfinduction, and power component: E" = 2r/n*
sin a = 2irfHI = r"I = e.m.f. consumed by hysteresis (eddj
currents, etc.), and is, therefore, in vector representation denoted
by:
E' = jxf and E" = f>%
where:
x = 2 irfL — reactance,
and
L = inductance,
r" = effective hysteretic resistance.
The ohmic resistance of the circuit, r', consumes an e.n
r'(, in phase with the current, and the total or effective resistance
of the circuit is, therefore, r = r' + r", and the total e.m.f.
consumed by the circuit, or the impressed e.m.f.. is:
E = (r+jx)I = Z{,
.where :
Z = r + jx = impedance, in vector denotation,
z = Vr* + i* = impedance, in absolute terms.
If an electric circuit is in inductive relation to another electa
circuit, it is advisable to separate the inductance, L, of the cir
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 303
cuit in two parts — the selfinductance, S, which refers to that
part of the magnetic flux produced by the current in one circuit
which is interlinked only with this circuit but not with the other
circuit, and the mutual inductance, M , which refers to that part
of the magnetic flux interlinked also with the second circuit.
The desirability of this separation results from the different char
acter of the two components: The selfinductive reactance gen
erates a reactive e.m.f. and thereby causes a lag of the current,
while the mutual inductive reactance transfers power into the
second circuit, hence generally does the useful work of the ap
paratus. This" leads to the distinction between the selfinductive
impedance, Z = r + jx , and the mutual inductive impedance,
Z = r + jx.
The same separation of the total inductive reactance into self
inductive reactance and mutual inductive reactance, represented
respectively by the selfinductive or "leakage" impedance, and
the mutual inductive or "exciting" impedance has been made
in the theory of the transformer and the induction machine. In
those, the mutual inductive reactance has been represented, not
by the mutual inductive impedance, Z, but by its reciprocal
value, the exciting admittance: Y = ■=• It is then:
r is the coefficient of power consumption by ohmic resistance,
hysteresis and eddy currents of the selfinductive flux — effective
resistance.
x is the coefficient of e.m.f. consumed by the selfinductive or
leakage flux — selfinductive reactance.
r is the coefficient of powfer consumption by hysteresis and
eddy currents due to the mutual magnetic flux (hence contains
no ohmic resistance component).
x is the coefficient of e.m.f. consumed by the mutual magnetic
flux.
The e.m.f. consumed by the circuit is then:
# = Zol + Zh l (1)
If one of the circuits rotates relatively to the other, then in
addition to the e.m.f. of selfinductive impedance : Z /, and the
e.m.f. of mutualinductive impedance or e.m.f. of alternation:
ZJ y an e.m.f. is consumed by rotation. This e.m.f. is in phase
with the flux through which the coil rotates — that is, the flux
parallel to the plane of the coil — and proportional to the speed —
301
EL Ei TRIl 'A L APPA RA TVS
that, is, the frequency of rotation — while the e.m.f. of alternation
is 90° ahead of the flux alternating through the coil— thai is, Uw
flux parallel to the axis of the coil— and proportional to the fre
quency. If, therefore, Z' is the impedance corresponding to the
former flux, the e.m.f. of rotation is —jSZ'J, where S is the
ratio of frequency of rotation to frequency of alternation, or the
speed expressed in fractions of synchronous speed. The total
e.m.f. consumed in the circuit is thus:
g = z i + XI  jSZ'l.
Applying now these considerations to the alternatingcurrent
motor, we assume all circuits reduced to the same number of
turns— that is, selecting one circuit, of n effective turns, as start
ing point, if n, = number of effective turns of any other circuit,
all the e.m.fs. of the latter circuit arc divided, the currents multi
plied with the ratio, > the impedances divided, the admittances
multiplied with I ) . This reduction of the constants of all
circuits to the same number of effective turns is convenient by
eliminating constant factors from the equations, and so permit
ting a direct comparison.
When speaking, therefore, in (he fol
lowing of the impedance, etc., of the
different circuits, we always refer to
their reduced values, as it is cus
tomary in inductionmotor designing
practice, and has been done in pre
ceding theoretical investigations.
173. Let, then, in Fig. 147:
Pn, f«, Zn = impressed voltage,
current and selfinductive impedance
respectively of a stationary circuit,
F, c . 147. Pu h, Z> = impressed voltage,
current and selfinductive impedance
respectively of a rotating circuit,
r = space angle between the axes of the two circuits,
Z = mutual inductive, or exciting impedance in the direction
mI the axis (if the stationary coil,
Z' = mutual inductive, or exciting impedance in the direction
of the axis of the rotating coil,
Z"  mutual inductive or exciting impedance in the direction
at right angles to the axis of (he rotating coil,
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 305
S = speed, as fraction of synchronism, that is, ratio of fre
quency of rotation to frequency of alternation.
It is then :
E.m.f. consumed by selfinductive impedance, Z /o.
E.m.f. consumed by mutualinductive impedance, Z (/ + J\
cos r) since the m.m.f. acting in the direction of the axis of the
stationary coil is the resultant of both currents. Hence:
$o  Zo/o + Z (/o + /i COS r). (3)
In the rotating circuit, it is:
E.m.f. consumed by selfinductive impedance, Zi/i.
E.m.f. consumed by mutualinductive impedance or " e.m.f. of
alternation": Z' (/i + / cos r). (4)
' E.m.f. of rotation, — jSZ"lo sin t. (5)
Hence the impressed e.m.f. :
#i = ZJi + Z' (/! + U cos r)  jSZ"/o sin r. (6)
In a structure with uniformly distributed winding, as used in
induction motors, etc., Z' = Z" = Z, that is, the exciting im
pedance is the same in all directions.
Z is the reciprocal of the "exciting admittance," Y of the in
ductionmotor theory.
In the most general case, of a motor containing n circuits, of
which some are revolving, some stationary, if:
l$k, hy Zk = impressed e.m.f., current and selfinductive im
pedance respectively of any circuit, fc.
Z\ and Z" = exciting impedance parallel and at right angles
respectively to the axis of a circuit, i,
t*» = space angle between the axes of coils k and i, and
S = speed, as fraction of synchronism, or "frequency of
rotation."
It is then, in a coil, i:
$ { = ZJi + Z i $* /* cos Tu 1  jSZ" >* h sin r k \ (7)
i i
where:
Ziji = e.m.f. of selfinductive impedance; (8)
n
Z*^ /* cos r* 1 = e.m.f. of alternation; (9)
n
E'i =  jSZ iiS jkJ k sin tV = e.m.f. of rotation; (10)
i
which latter = in a stationary coil, in which 5 = 0.
20
306 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The power output of the motor is the sum of the powers of all
the e.m.fs. of rotation, hence, in vector denotation:
i
  S £ tfZ«J* /* sin r*S /J 1 , (11)
11
and herefrom the torque, in synchronous watts:
D  ^   J? ljZ u i h sin r*S UK (12)
o i i
The power input, in vector denotation, is:
(13)
Po = F [E i9 h]
i
= £ [E it hy + J? [ft, /j/
= Po 1 + jPo>;
and therefore:
Po 1 = true power input;
P</ = wattless voltampere input;
Q = VPo 1 + Po* = apparent, or voltampere
input;
D . = efficiency;
*o
n = apparent efficiency;
iTi = torque efficiency;
~ = apparent torque efficiency;
y
Jr = powerfactor.
From the n circuits, i = 1, 2 . . . n, thus result n linear
equations, with 2 n complex variables, /< and #».
Hence n further conditions must be given to determine the
variables. These obviously are the conditions of operation of
the n circuits.
Impressed e.m.fs. /? t may be given.
Or circuits closed upon themselves #» = 0.
Or circuits connected in parallel c^i = c*#*, where c, and c*
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 307
are the reduction (actors of the circuits to equal number of
effective turns, as discussed before.
Or circuits connected in series: ■* = » etc.
Ci c k
When a rotating circuit is connected through a commutator,
the frequency of the current in this circuit obviously is the same
as the impressed frequency. Where, however, a rotating circuit
is permanently closed upon itself, its frequency may differ from
the impressed frequency, as, for instance, in the polyphase in
duction motor it is the frequency of slip, s = 1 — *S, and the
self inductive reactance of the circuit, therefore, is sx; though in
its reaction upon the stationary system the rotating system nec
essarily is always of full frequency.
As an illustration of this method, its application to the theory
of some motor types shall be considered, especially such motors
as have either found an extended industrial application, or have
at least been seriously considered.
1. POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
174. In the polyphase induction motor a number of primary
circuits, displaced in position from each other, are excited by
polyphase e.m.fs. displaced in phase from each other by a phase
angle equal to the position angle of the coils. A number of sec
ondary circuits are closed upon themselves. The primary usu
ally is the stator, the secondary the rotor.
In this case the secondary system always offers a resultant
closed circuit in the direction of the axis of each primary coil,
irrespective of its position.
Let us assume two primary circuits in quadrature as simplest
form, and the secondary system reduced to the same number of
phases and the same number of turns per phase as the primary
system. With three or more primary phases the method of
procedure and the resultant equations are essentially the same.
Let, in the motor shown diagrammatically in Fig. 148:
#o and — j$o, /o and — j'/o, Z = impressed e.m.f., currents
and selfinductive impedance respectively of the primary system.
0, /i and —jl\ 9 Z\ = impressed e.m.f., currents and selfin
ductive impedance respectively of the secondary system, reduced
to the primary. Z = mutualinductive impedance between
primary and secondary, constant in all directions.
308
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
S = speed; s = 1 — S — slip, as fraction of synchronism.
The equation of the primary circuit is then, by (7) :
E* = ZoJ + Z (/,  /,). (14)
The equation of the secondary circuit:
 ZJi + Z (/i  /.) + jSZ (jf x  jh), (15)
from (15) follows:
Zo (1  S)
= /<
Zs
Z(lS) + Z l * V Z& + Zi
(16)
SU+
8
Fio. 148.
I.
I.
*jl
and, substituted in (14):
Primary current:
/o = Eo
Secondary current:
Za + Zi
ZZoS + ZZi + ZoZi
r  w  _ Zs _
/ 1 *° ZZos + ZZ X + Z^Zi
Zi
Exciting current:
/oo = h  h = Eo zzliTzzT+zifi
E.m.f. of rotation:
E' = jSZ (jh  jh) = sz (/.  /t).
ZZx
 SEi
ZZoS + ZZi + ZoZi
= (l8)E0r ? yT j'
ZZx
ZZoS + ZZ X + ZoZi
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 309
It is,
at synchronism ; s
 0:
h
Eo
~ Z'+'Zo
u
= 0;
/oo
" fa
V
2?oZ £10
Z + Zo t , Zo
1 + z
At standstill:
8 •
 i;
u>
£» (Z + zo .
ZZo H~ ZZi f ZoZi
*
h
_ 2?oZ
ZZo "h ZZi + ZoZi
EqZi
ZZo + ZZi + ZoZi
#' = 0.
Introducing as parameter the counter e.m.f ., or e.m.f. of mutual
induction :
# = #o — Zo/o, (21)
or:
#o = # + Zo/o, (22)
it is, substituted :
Counter e.m.f. :
v = ^° zZoT+zz\ + ZoZV (23)
hence:
Primary impressed e.m.f.:
« „ ZZos + Zi + ZZoZi , .v
#o = # 22 ' '**'
E.m.f. of rotation:
#' = #S = # (1  s). (25)
Secondary current:
h = Jj (26)
Primary current:
/o " ^~zzT' z; + z (27)
310 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Exciting current:
/oo = § = $Y. (28)
These are the equations from which the transformer theory of
the polyphase induction motor starts.
176. Since the frequency of the secondary currents is the fre
quency of slip, hence varies with the speed, S = 1 — 8, the sec
ondary selfinductive reactance also varies with the speed, and
so the impedance:
Zi = n + J8 Xl . (29)
The power output of the motor, per circuit, is:
P = [£', /i]
ri ""v'z" r  <7^i2 ( r i ~ J**i)» ( 3 °)
[ZZos + ZZl + ZoZx] 2
where the brackets [ ] denote the absolute value of the term in
cluded by it, and the small letters, c , z, etc., the absolute values
of the vectors, #o, Z, etc.
Since the imaginary term of power seems to have no physical
meaning, it is:
Mechanical power output:
p _c Vs(l  s)r x ( .
[ZZos + ZZx + ZoZtf K }
This is the power output at the armature conductors, hence in
cludes friction and windage.
The torque of the motor is:
D =
1  8
eJ&iS • _ eoV sis* _ ,o 2 \
[ZZos + ZZi + ZoZif 2 J [ZZos + ZZ X + ZoZtf ^ ;
The imaginary component of torque seems to represent the
radial force or thrust acting between stator and rotor. Omitting
this we have:
T\ _ ^o z __^} s (1*1}
~ [ZZos + ZZx + z&W*
where:
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 311
The power input of the motor per circuit is:
Po = [#o, /o]
= *° 2 L 1 ' ZZ08 +*ZZ l + ZoZj (34)
= P'o  jPoj
P'o = true power,
PJ = reactive or "wattless power,"
Q = a/PV + iV* = voltampere input.
Herefrom follows powerfactor, efficiency, etc.
Introducing the parameter: #, or absolute e, we have:
Power output:
 [* a
= — *  jii'Szi. (35)
Power input:
Po = [#o, /o]
t [ZZ os + Z Z t + ZoZi Za_+ Z t
" c L zzi ' zii .
Z (Z« + Zi) . , Za + Z,
t rZo(Z8 + ZQ Z« + Z,1
~ C L ZZ t " + *' ZZ, ~J
«[^*n[wi+<n.i+i]}
. rZs + Zn* / , . . e*s , . . , e 1 . . ,
 e \rzzv\ l ( ° " J o) + ^» (ri ~ • , * Cl) + 2« (r " Ja:)
= *V (r,  jxo) + ii* (~  j*,) + too* (r  j*). (36)
And since:
r, 5 + s Su ,
= — n   + r„
312 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and:
it is:
P o = (*o 2 r« + i, 2 r! + iooV + P)  j (tV*o + *V*i + ioo*x). (37)
Where:
2*o 2 r = primary resistance loss,
i\ 2 ri = secondary resistance loss,
tooV = core loss (and eddycurrent loss),
P = output,
io 2 Xo = primary reactive voltamperes,
ii 2 X\ = secondary reactive voltamperes,
ioo 2 x = magnetizing voltamperes.
176. Introducing into the equations, (16), (17), (18), (19), (23)
the terms:
z  *°'
(38)
Where Xo and Xi are small quantities, and X = Xo + Xi is the
"characteristic constant" of the induction motor theory, it is:
Primary current:
j = &± « + Xt _ _ E s + Xi .
/0 Z sX + Xi +"X X 1 2«Xo + X * J
Secondary current:
/. = E ° * = Eo ! (40)
41 Z sXo + Xi + XoXi Z 5X0 + Xi v '
Exciting current:
r _ Bo Xi __ Eo Xi .
/0 ° " Z sXo + X~i + XoXi ~~ Z 5X0 + Xi' l l)
E.m.f . of rotation :
W = QoS .— ,^ r .. = VoS \   (42)
sXo + Xi + X0X1 5X0 + Xi '
Counter e.m.f.:
sXo + Xi + X0X1 sXo + Xi v '
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
313
177. As an example are shown, in Fig. 149, with the speed
as abscissae, the curves of a polyphase induction motor of the
constants:
e = 320 volts,
Z = 1 + 10j ohms,
Z = Z l = 0.1 + 0.3 j ohms;
hence :
X = Xi = 0.0307  0.0069 j.
P&D
140
180
120
110
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
320 VOLTS
I
I
rr \i\ .
100
90
80
TO
^"^
•~**£.
1 WW
—450
^ s
4
>y
S,*^
\ i
4UU
850
D
P
J
P
i i
\ i
\ 
sno
00
CO
40
^
'1^
N
> \i
0UV
250
V
.— — 5^
\
OA/t
•_ _, — ^»
\
V4— 150
\ 11 1AA
30
— "»?
20
10
ft
—^^^^
M ^ft
*1 WJ
100
90
80
70
60
CO
40
80
20
—I 10
0.1
0.2 0.8
0.4 0.5 0.6
Fi«. 149.
0.7
0.8 0.9
1.0
It is:
/o =
320{ 10.30 s  (« + 0.1)i
(103 + 1.63*)  j(0.11  5.99«) amp *
D = (1.03 + 1.63^ + (0.11  5.99 s)' *y™ h ™<>™ kw 
P = (1  s) D
0.11  5.99 s
tan 6" =
1.03 + 1.63 s
tan*'= * + 01 ;
10.3 s '
cos (0' — 6") = powerfactor.
Fig. 149 gives, with the speed S as abscissae: the current, J;
the power output, P; the torque, D; the powerfactor, p; the
efficiency, rj.
314
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The curves show the wellknown characteristics of the poly
phase induction motor: approximate constancy of speed at all
loads, and good efficiency and power fact or within this narrow
speed range, but poor constants at all other speeds.
1. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
178. In the singlephase induction motor one primary circuit
acts upon a system of closed secondary circuits which are dis
placed from each other in position on the secondary member.
Let the secondary be assumed as twophase, that is, containing
or reduced to two circuits closed upon themselves at right angles
Fio. 150. — SiiiKlephosp induction n
to each other. While it then offers a resultant closed secondary
circuit to the primary circuit in any position, the electrical dis
position of the secondary is not symmetrical, but the directions
parallel with the primary circuit and at right angles thereto are
to be distinguished. The former may be called the secondary
energy circuit, the latter the secondary magnetizing circuit, since
in the former direction power is transferred from the primary to
the secondary circuit, while in the latter direction the secondary
circuit can act magnetizing only.
Let, in the diagram Fig. 150:
E a , Ja, Z n = impressed e.m.f., current and selfinductive im
pedance, respectively, of the primary circuit,
l\, Z\ = current and selfinductive impedance, respectively,
of the secondary energy circuit,
/), Zi = current and selfinductive impedance, respectively,
of the secondary magnetizing circuit,
Z = mutual inductive impedance,
S m speed,
and let s = 1  S 2 (where s is not the slip).
It is then, by equation (7) :
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 315
Primary circuit:
E = Zolo + Z(h~ /i). ' (44)
Secondary energy circuit:
= Z X U + Z (/i  /„)  jSZU (45)
Secondary magnetizing circuit:
= ZJ, + ZU ~ )SZ (/.  /,) ; (46)
hence, from (45) and (46) :
/l ~ /o zuT+2Zz; + zs' (47)
h = + jS/. ^^2 iz, + Z? ' (48)
and, substituted in (44) :
Primary current:
h = #o ^ (49)
Secondary energy current:
U = *. *<*» + *> . (50)
Secondary magnetizing current:
/. = + jSE ^ (51)
E.m.f. of rotation of secondary energy circuit:
#i =  jSZh = S'# Z ^ (52)
E.m.f. of rotation of secondary magnetizing circuit:
E' t =  jsz (/.  /o =  is^o ZZl ( ^ + Zl) ; (53)
where :
X = Z„ (Z*So + 2 ZZ, + Z,») + ZZ l (Z + Z,). (54)
It is, at synchronism, S = 1, s = 0:
, _ f 2Z + Z t .
*° *' Z«(2Z + Zi)+Z(Z+Zi)'
Jl = ^° Z (2 Z + ZO +~Z(Z +' Zi) '
/s = + j#o z7(2Z + Z,y + zlz + Z",")"
316 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Hence, at synchronism, the secondary current of the single
phase induction motor does not become zero, as in the polyphase
motor, but both components of secondary current become equal.
At standstill, S = 0, s = 1, it is:
/0 ^° ZZo + ZZ X + ZoZi'
? l = ^° zz7+~ zzV+lz'oZi'
U = 0.
That is, primary and secondary current corresponding thereto
' have the same values as in the polyphase induction motor, as
was to be expected.
179. Introducing as parameter the counter e.m.f., or e.m.f. of
mutual induction:
and substituting for / from (49), it is:
Primary impressed e.m.f.:
_ „ Z (Z 2 s + 2 ZZ X + Z?) + ZZ X (Z + Z,) ,
*°* zz^z + zo ' (o5)
Primary current:
r „ Z'so + 2 ZZ, + Z, ! riw v
h ~v zzaz + ZiT " m
Secondary energy circuit:
_ p ZsojH Z, _ s E S s £_ , _>
71 " * z7(z + z.) z, ~ l ~ z + z, v "
£'. = S*V gZ z (58)
Secondary magnetizing circuit :
/.+J Z + z ; (59)
VtJW' ^ (60)
And:
/o  /i = ^ (61)
These equations differ from the equations of the polyphase
induction motor by containing the term s = (1 — S 2 ), instead
SE
of s = (1 — S), and by the appearance of the terms, y~r^~ and
S 2 E
~, «■» of frequency (1 + S), in the secondary circuit.
(62)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 317
The power output of the motor is:
P  [Eu /J + [Et, h]
= ^^{[ZZu Zs + ZJ  [Z, (Z + Z,), ZJ}
[jq
and the torque, in synchronous watts:
D "s~~~~m • m
From these equations it follows that at synchronism tor
que and power of the singlephase induction motor are already
negative.
Torque and power become zero for:
SoZ 2 — Zi 2 = 0,
hence:
>/e)
that is, very slightly below synchronism.
Let z = 10, Zi = 0.316, it is, S = 0.9995.
In the singlephase induction motor, the torque contains the
speed S as factor, and thus becomes zero at standstill.
Neglecting quantities of secondary order, it is, approximately :
h = £o zJZ^ + Zl )+2Zai (65)
/.  + jSE, z (z^zj+YzX (67)
^ = S ^ Z(Z„ So + Z 1 )+2Z.Z l ' (68)
zz
. ^ = " jS ** Z (Zoso + zi)+2 ZoZi (69)
P = SWz^sp ,
[z TZoso + zo + 2 ZoZj*' uu;
n = _Se Vri8 / 71 x
[Z (ZoSo + Z\j + 2 ZoZi] 2 ' u i}
This theory of the singlephase induction motor differs from
that based on the transformer feature of the motor, in that it
represents more exactly the phenomena taking place at inter
318
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
mediate speeds, which are only approximated by the transformer
theory of the singlephase induction motor.
For studying the action of the motor at intermediate and at
low speed, as for instance, when investigating the performance
of a starting device, in bringing the motor up to speed, that is,
during acceleration, this method so is more suited. An applica
tion to the "condenser motor," that is, a singlephase induction
motor using a condenser in a stationary tertiary circuit (under
an angle, usually 60°, with the primary circuit) is given in the
paper on "AlternatingCurrent Motors," A. I. E. E. Transac
tions, 1904.
P&D
Fig. 151.
180. As example are shown, in Fig. 151, with the speed as
abscissae, the curves of a singlephase induction motor, having
the constants:
e = 400 volts,
Z = 1 + 10 j ohms,
and:
hence:
Z = Zi = 0.1 + 0.3 j ohms;
N
Io = 400 j* amp. ;
AT = (s + 0.2) + j(10s + 0.6  0.6 S);
K = (0.1+0.3j)AT+(l + 10j)(0.1+j)(0.30.3S);
D =
1616 Ss
[K\
synchronous kw.
ALTERXATIXGCURREXT MOTORS
319
Fig. 151 gives, with the speed, S, as abscissa*: the current, 7«,
the power output, P, the torque, D, the powerfactor, p, the
efficiency, y.
3. POLYPHASE SHUNT MOTOR
18L Since the characteristics of the polyphase motor do not
depend upon the number of phases, here, as in the preceding, a
twophase system may be assumed: a twophase stator winding
acting upon a twophase rotor winding, that is, a closedcoil
rotor winding connected to the commutator in the same manner
as in directcurrent machines, but with two sets of brushes in
quadrature position excited by a twophase system of the same
frequency. Mechanically the threephase system here has the
advantage of requiring only three sets of brushes instead of four
\ jl<*
Fio. 152.
as with the twophase system, but otherwise the general form
of the equations and conclusions are not different.
Let #o and — j# = e.m.fs. impressed upon the stator, #i and
— jfli = e.m.fs. impressed upon the rotor, O « phase angle be
tween e.m.f., #o and #i, and 0i ■» position angle lwtween the
stator and rotor circuits. The e.m.fH., #o and — j# , produce the
same rotating e.m.f. as two e.m.fH. of equal intensity, but dis
placed in phase and in position by angle O from #», and jf/l,,,
and instead of considering a displacement of phase, 0, h arid a dis
placement of position, 0i, between stator and rotor circuits, we
can, therefore, assume zerophase displacement and diMplacemeut
in position by angle O + 0i = 0. Phase diMplaecmcnf l*etween
stator and rotor e.m.fH. is, therefore, equivalent to n fluff of
brushes, hence gives no additional feature beyond those pro
duced by a shift of the commutator bru«he*.
320 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Without losing in generality of the problem, we can, therefore,
assume the stator e.m.fs. in phase with the rotor e.m.fs., and the
polyphase shunt motor can thus be represented diagrammatically
by Fig. 152.
182. Let, in the polyphase shunt motor, shown twophase in
diagram, Fig. 152:
#o and — j#o, /o and — j/o, Z = impressed e.m.fs., currents
and selfinductive impedance respectively of the stator circuits,
c$o and — jc# , /i and — j/i, Z\ = impressed e.m.fs., currents
and selfinductive impedance respectively of the rotor circuits,
reduced to the stator circuits by the ratio of effective turns, c,
Z = mutualinductive impedance,
S = speed; hence s = 1 — S = slip,
= position angle between stator and rotor circuits, or
"brush angle."
It is then :
Stator:
#o = Zo/o + Z(h /i cos  jh sin 0). (72)
Rotor:
cGo = ZJ X + Z (/i  /o cos 6 + jlo sin 6) 
jSZ (  j/i + h sin 6 + j[o cos 0). (73)
Substituting:
a = cos 6 — j sin 0,
b = cos + j sin 0,
it is:
ad = 1, (75)
and :
£o = Zo/o + Z (/o  5/0, (76)
c#o = Z,U + Z(f x  alo) + jSZ 07i " Wo)
= Z,/i + sZ (/i  cr/o). (77)
Herefrom follows:
(« + «c) Z + Z,
' ° _ *"> 7zz»~+ zzT+ ZoZi (78)
' ' " * izz7+"zzr+~z^' ( ' 9)
for c = o, this gives:
, _ „ *Z_+ Z\
/0 " *" sZZ* + ZZ\ + ZoZi
j  v sZ '
* l ' r « szz +zzl + z z i '
(74)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 321
that is, the polyphase inductionmotor equations, a = cos +
j sin = 1» representing the displacement of position between
stator and rotor currents.
This shows the polyphase induction motor as a special case of
the polyphase shunt motor, for c = o.
The e.m.fs. of rotation are:
£'i = jSZ ( jh + h sin + j/o cos 0)
 SZ (*h I i)i
hence :
& l ^'iZZl+ZZx + ZtZt' (80)
The power output of the motor is:
P  [£., 7.1
= m . + zz l + za# l( * Zl " cZo) z > (ff8 + c) z + cZ ° ] > (81)
which, suppressing terms of secondary order, gives:
p _ <Se V { g(r i + c (x sin — r cos 0) ) + c (r i c os + x t sin — cr ) }
~ [sZZo + ZZi + ZoZfr '
(82)
for Sc = o, this gives:
p Seohhri
[sZZo + ZZ! + ZoZJ' 1 '
the same value as for the polyphase induction motor.
In general, the power output, as given by equation (82), be
comes zero:
p = °'
for the slip:
r x cos + Xi sin  cr , QON
fi + c (x sin — r cos 0)
183. It follows herefrom, that the speed of the polyphase
shunt motor is limited to a definite value, just as that of a direct
current shunt motor, or alternatingcurrent induction motor.
In other words, the polyphase shunt motor is a constantspeed
motor, approaching with decreasing load, and reaching at no
load a definite speed :
So = 1  so. (84)
The noload speed, S , of the polyphase shunt motor is, how
ever, in general not synchronous speed, as that of the induction
21
322 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
motor, but depends upon the brush angle, 0, and the ratio, c, of
rotor J stator impressed voltage.
At this noload speed, So, the armature current, i\, of the
polyphase shunt motor is in general not equal to zero, as it is
in the polyphase induction motor.
Two cases are therefore of special interest: ,
1. Armature current, I\ = o, at noload, that is, at slip, *o.
2. Noload speed equals synchronism, s = o
1. The armature or rotor current (79):
T _ F vsZ + c (Z + Zi)
41 ** sZZo + ZZi + ZoZi
becomes zero, if:
Z
c = — as
Z + Z x
or, since Z x is small compared with Z, approximately:
c = — as = — s (cos — j sin 6);
hence, resolved:
c = — s cos 6,
o = s sin 6;
hence:
.' : .. ) «
That is, the rotor current can become zero only if the brushes
are set in line with the stator circuit or without shift, and in this
case the rotor current, and therewith the output of the motor,
becomes zero at the slip, s = — c.
Hence such a motor gives a characteristic curve very similar
to that of the polyphase induction motor, except that the stator
tends not toward synchronism but toward a definite speed equal
to (1 + c) times synchronism.
The speed of such a polyphase motor with commutator can,
therefore, be varied from synchronism by the insertion of an
e.m.f. in the rotor circuit, and the percentage of variation is the
same as the ratio of the impressed rotor e.m.f. to the impressed
stator e.m.f. A rotor e.m.f., in opposition to the stator e.m.f.
reduces, in phase with the stator e.m.f., increases the freerun
ning speed of the motor. In the former case the rotor impressed
e.m.f. is in opposition to the rotor current, that is, the rotor
returns power to the system in the proportion in which the speed
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 323
is reduced, and the speed variation, therefore, occurs without
loss of efficiency, and is similar in its character to the speed con
trol of a directcurrent shunt motor by varying the ratio between
the e.m.f . impressed upon the armature and that impressed upon
the field.
Substituting in the equations:
6 = 0,
8 + C = S\
(86)
it is:
h ~ V° sZZ Q + ZZ l + ZoZ/ (87)
h = ®» sZZo + ZZ X + ZoZ/ (88)
p _ Se<?z*8i (ri  cr ) (
r [sZZo + ZZ X + ZoZi] 2 ' K ]
These equations of 7 and I\ are the same as the polyphase
inductionmotor equations, except that the slip from synchron
ism, s, of the induction motor, is, in the numerator, replaced by
the slip from the noload speed, «i.
Insertion of voltages into the armature of an induction motor
in phase with the primary impressed voltages, and by a com
mutator, so gives a speed control of the induction motor without
sacrifice of efficiency, with a sacrifice, however, of the power
factor, as can be shown from equation (87).
184. 2. The noload speed of the polyphase shunt motor is in
synchronism, that is, the noload slip, s = o, or the motor out
put becomes zero at synchronism, just as the ordinary induction
motor, if, in equation (83) :
t\ cos 6 + Xi sin 6 — cr = o;
hence :
e = n«" !±* "Lf; (90)
or, substituting:
= tan «i, (91)
* where ai is the phase angle of the rotor impedance, it is:
c =  1 cos (c*i — 0),
r "
324 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
or:
cos ( ttl  6) =  c, (92)
or:
c = !i_^_(«j_^). (93)
To
Since r is usually very much smaller than z X) if c is not very
large, it is:
cos (c*i — 6) = o;
hence :
= 90°  «i. (94)
That is, if the brush angle, 0, is complementary to the phase
angle of the selfinductive rotor impedance, a\, the motor tends
toward approximate synchronism at noload.
Hence:
At given brush angle, 0, a value of secondary impressed e.m.f.,
c#o, exists, which makes the motor tend to synchronize at no
load (93), and,
At given rotorimpressed e.m.f., c# , a brush angle, 0, exists,
which makes the motor synchronize at noload (92).
185. 3. In the general equations of the polyphase shunt motor,
the stator current, equation (78) :
sZ + Zi +^bcZ
/o " *° sZZo + ZZ\ + ZoZi
can be resolved into a component:
/ "° = ^ IZZ* + ZZ, + ZoZy (95)
which does not contain c, and is the same value as the primary
current of the polyphase induction motor, and a component:
r ° = $* 'aZzT+zzx'+ZoZ'i (96)
Resolving /"o, it assumes the form:
/"o«£o*c(j1, jA 2 )
= c { A\ cos + A 2 sin 0) + j (Ai sin — A 2 cos 0) }. (97)
This second component of primary current, 7" , which is pro
duced by the insertion of the voltage, c#, into the secondary cir
cuit, so contains a power component:
z'o = c (Ai cos + A 2 sin 0), (98)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS 325
and a wattless or reactive component:
t"o = +jc (A i sin  A 2 cos 0); (99)
where :
/"o = t'o  j*"o. (100)
The reactive component, i"o, is zero, if:
Ai sin — At cos = o; (101)
hence:
tan 0! = + ^ 2  (102)
In this case, that is, with brush angle, 0i, the secondary im
pressed voltage, c#, does not change the reactive current, but
adds or subtracts, depending on the sign of c, energy, and so
raises or lowers the speed of the motor: case (1).
The power component, t'o, is zero, if:
Ax cos + A 2 sin = o, (103)
hence:
tan 2 =  4 1 ' (104)
In this case, that is, with brush angle, 2 , the secondary im
pressed voltage, cE, does not change power or speed, but pro
duces wattless lagging or leading current. That is, with the
brush position, 2 , the polyphase shunt motor can be made to
produce lagging or leading currents, by varying the voltage im
pressed upon the secondary, c$, just* as a synchronous motor
can be made to produce lagging or leading currents by varying
its field excitation, and plotting the stator current, /o, of such a
polyphase shunt motor, gives the same Vshaped phase charac
teristics as known for the synchronous motor.
These two phase angles or brush positions, 0i and 2 , are in
quadrature with each other.
There result then two distinct phenomena from the insertion
of a voltage by commutator, into an inductionmotor armature :
a change of speed, in the brush position, 0i, and a change of phase
angle, in the brush position, 2 , at right angles to 6\.
For any intermediate brush position, 0, a change of speed so
results corresponding to a voltage:
c$ cos (0i  0) ;
326 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and a change of phase angle corresponding to a voltage:
c$ cos (0 2  0),
= c& sin (0i  0),
and by choosing then such a position, 0, that the wattless current
produced by the component in phase with 0*, is equal and op
posite to the wattless lagging current of the motor proper, /'o,
the polyphase shunt motor can be made to operate at unity
powerfactor at all speeds (except very low speeds) and loads.
This, however, requires shifting the brushes with every change
of load or speed.
When using the polyphase shunt motor as generator of watt
less current, that is, at noload and with brush position, 2 , it is:
s = 0;
hence, from (78) :
'•  ezrtrxr (105)
''•  zfz. < l06 >
or, approximately:
7'o =
Eq
z
that is, primary exciting current:
(108)
'"•  * znrho)' (107)
or, approximately, neglecting Z against Z:
„ Eo&c
1 °  "Z' x
_ EpC (cos + j sin 0)
~" ri + jxi
= ° ■ { (ri cos + Xi sin 0) — j (Xi cos — n sin 0) ) ,
Zl
and, since the power component vanishes:
r x cos + X\ sin = 0,
or:
tan 2 =  r  (109)
X\
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
Substituting (109) in (108) gives:
/"o = ■! (^1 cos 2 — t\ sin 2 )
327
= J
m
. EoC,
Zl
(HO)
and:
T Eo . EoC
I' T~' I,'
 * (i  1 c  f.) )
(111)
186. In the exact predetermination of the characteristics of
such a motor, the effect of the shortcircuit current under the
brushes has to be taken into consideration, however. When a
commutator is used, by the passage of the brushes from segment
to segment coils are shortcircuited. Therefore, in addition to
the circuits considered above, a closed circuit on the rotor has
to be introduced in the equations for every set of brushes. Re
duced to the stator circuit by the ratio of turns, the selfinductive
impedance of the shortcircuit under the brushes is very high,
the current, therefore, small, but still sufficient to noticeably af
fect the motor characteristics, at least at certain speeds. Since,
however, this phenomenon will be considered in the chapters on
the singlephase motors, it may be omitted here.
4. POLYPHASE SERIES MOTOR
187. If in a polyphase commutator motor the rotor circuits
are connected in series to the stator circuits, entirely different
Fig. 153.
characteristics result, and the motor no more tends to synchronize
nor approaches a definite speed at noload, as a shunt motor, but
with decreasing load the speed increases indefinitely. In short,
328 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the motor has similar characteristics as the directcurrent series
motor.
In this case we may assume the stator reduced to the rotor by
the ratio of effective turns.
Let then, in the motor shown diagrammatically in Fig. 153:
#o and —j$o, lo and — j/o, Z = impressed e.m.fs., currents
and selfinductive impedance of stator circuits, assumed as two
phase, and reduced to the rotor circuits by the ratio of effective
turns, c,
#i and — j$\, /i, and — jfi, Z\ = impressed e.m.fs. currents
and selfinductive impedance of rotor circuits,
Z = mutualinductance impedance,
5 = speed; and, s = 1 — S = slip,
6 = brush angle,
c = ratio of effective stator turns to rotor turns.
If, then :
P and — j$ = impressed e.m.fs., / and — jj = currents of
motor, it is:
/i = /, (112)
h = c/, (113)
c#o + #i = E; (114)
and, stator, by equation (7) :
#o = Zoh + Z(f  h cos 6  jlx sin 6); (115)
rotor:
#, = Zi/i + Z (A  U cos 6 + jfo sin 6)  jSZ ( jf l + /
sin0 + j/ o cos0); (116)
and, e.m.f. of rotation:
Q\ =  jSZ ( jfi + /o sin 6 + jfi cos 0). (117)
Substituting (112), (113) in (115), (116), (117), and (115), (116)
in (114) gives:
(c 2 Zo + Z,j + Z(1 + c 2 2ccos0) + SZ(cc  i)' vllo;
where :
a = cos0  jsin 0, (119)
and:
, _ _ SZE(cel) .
* ' " (c*Z ~+ Zx) = Z (1 + c*  2 c cos 0) + SZ (c<r  1)] '
(120)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
329
and the power output:
P = U?\ hY
Se 2 { c (r cos + x sin 0) — r\
[{c*Z + Zi) + Z (1 + c 2  2 c cos 0) + SZ (or  1)]*
(121)
The characteristics of this motor entirely vary with a change
Se 2 r(x— 1)
of the brush angle, 0. It is, for = 0: P = — rj^i > hence
TW_
TMl
110 S*
x.
T
DOI VSUAOr GIDITQ
rfOTOf
IW
ftfiA
IK)
n
■
6^0 V
OLT8
AOA
120
i
R
jr\.
RRA
no
S i
\
\ In
1)0
" y^'
OW
460—
too
X)
JO
a
'
<o
^lK
360—
300—
ro
/
^r «
*
* ^
JO
f
— ^ 
\ 1 *
so
/
^•»"""*^
i\ 1
3EBW
AAA
■
*
\l
100
1VV
D&P
&
240 %:
220 110
200 100
180 90
100 80
140 70
120 60
100 60
80 40
60 80
40 20
20 10
.2 .4 .6
.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Fig. 154.
1.6
1.8 2.0
Ss 2 (xc — * t)
very small, while for = 90°: P = r~p — , hence consider
able. Some brush angles give positive P: motor, others negative,
P, generator.
In such a motor, by choosing and c appropriately, unity
powerfactor or leading current as well as lagging current can be
produced.
That is, by varying c and 0, the power output and therefore
the speed, as well, as the phase angle of the supply current or
the powerfactor can be varied, and the machine used to produce
lagging as well as leading current, similarly as the polyphase
shunt motor or the synchronous motor. Or, the motor can be
operated at constant unity powerfactor at all loads and speeds
(except very low speeds), but in this case requires changing the
330 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
brush angle, 0, and the ratio, c, with the change of load and speed.
Such a change of the ratio, c, of rotor f stator turns can be pro
duced by feeding the rotor (or stator) through a transformer of
variable ratio of transformation, connected with its primary cir
cuit in series to the stator (or. rotor).
188. As example is shown in Fig. 154, with the speed as
abscissae, and values from standstill to over double synchronous
speed, the characteristic curves of a polyphase series motor of
the constants:
e = 640 volts,
Z = 1 + 10 j ohms,
Z = Zx = 0.1 + 0.3 j ohms,
c = l,
$ = 37 ; ( a in 6 = 0.6; cos 6 = 0.8);
hence:
. 640
(0.6 + 5.8 S) + j (4.6  2.6 S) amp ''
P = 4 _673 S kw
(0.6 + 5.8 S) 2 + (4.6  2.6 S)*
As seen, the motor characteristics are similar to those of the
directcurrent series motor: very high torque in starting and at
low speed, and a speed which increases indefinitely with the de
crease of load. That is, the curves are entirely different from
those of the induction motors shown in the preceding. The
powerfactor is very high, much higher than in induction motors,
and becomes unity at the speed S = 1.77, or about one and three
quarter synchronous speed.
CHAPTER XX
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
I. General
189. Alternatingcurrent commutating machines have so far
become ef industrial importance mainly as motors of the series
or varyingspeed type, for singlephase railroading, and as con
stantspeed motors or adjustablespeed motors, where efficient
acceleration under heavy torque is necessary. As generators,
they would be of advantage for the generation of very low fre
quency, since in this case synchronous machines are uneconom
ical, due to their very low speed, resultant from the low frequency.
The direction of rotation of a directcurrent motor, whether
shunt or series motor, remains the same at a reversal of the im
pressed e.m.f., as in this case the current in the armature circuit
and the current in the field circuit and so the field magnetism
both reverse. Theoretically, a directcurrent motor therefore
could be operated on an alternating impressed e.m.f. provided
that the magnetic circuit of the motor is laminated, so as to fol
low the alternations of magnetism without serious loss of power,
and that precautions are taken to have the field reverse simul
taneously with the armature. If the reversal of field magnetism
should occur later than the reversal of armature current, during
the time after the armature current has reversed, but before the
field has reversed, the motor torque would be in opposite direc
tion and thus subtract; that is, the field magnetism of the alter
natingcurrent motor must be in phase with the armature cur
rent, or nearly so. This is inherently the case with the series
type of motor, in which the same current traverses field coils
and armature windings.
Since in the alternatingcurrent transformer the primary and
secondary currents and the primary voltage and the secondary
voltage are proportional to each other, the different circuits of
the alternatingcurrent commutator motor may be connected
with each other directly (in shunt or in series, according to the
type of the motor) or inductively, with the interposition of a
331
332
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
transformer, and for this purpose either a separate transformer
may be used or the transformer feature embodied in the motor,
as in the socalled repulsion type of motors. This gives to the
alternatingcurrent commutator motor a far greater variety of
connections than possessed by the directcurrent motor.
While in its general principle of operation the alternating
current commutator motor is identical with the directcums!
motor, in the relative proportioning of the parts a great differ
ence exists. In the directcurrent motor, voltage is consumed
by the counter e.m.f. of rotation, which represents the power
output of the motor, and by the resistance, which represents
the power loss. In addition thereto, in the alternatingcur rent
motor voltage is consumed by the inductance, which is wattless
or reactive and therefore causes a lag of current behind the vol
tage, that is, a lowering of the powerfactor. While in the direct
current motor good design requires the combination of a strong
field and a relatively weak armature, so as to reduce the armature
reaction on the field to a minimum, in the design of the alter
iiatiiigcurrent motor considerations of powerfactor predominate;
that is, to secure low selfinductance and therewith a high power
factor, the combination of a strong armature and a weak field is
required, and necessitates the use of methods to eliminate the
harmful effects of high armature reaction.
As the varyingspeed singlephase commutator motor has
found an extensive use as railway motor, this type of motor
will as an instance be treated in the following, and the other
types discussed in the concluding paragraphs.
II. Powerfactor
190. In the commutating machine the magnetic field flux gen
erics the e.in.f. in the revolving armature conductors, which
gives the motor output; the armature reaction, that is, the mag
net k Mux produced by the armature current, distorts and weakens
the field, and requires a shifting of the brushes to avoid Bparldag
due to the shortcircuit current under the commutator brushes,
and where the brushes can not l>e shifted, as in a reversible motor.
this necessitates the use of a strong field and weak armature to
keep down the magnetic flux at the brushes. In the alternating
current motor the magnetic field flux generates in the armature
conductors by their rotation the e.m.f. which does the work of
the motor, but, as the field flux is alternating, it also generates
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 333
in the field conductors an e.m.f. of selfinductance, which is not
useful but wattless, and therefore harmful in lowering the power
factor, hence must be kept as low as possible.
This e.m.f. of selfinductance of the field, e , is proportional
to the field strength, $, to the number of field turns, n , and to
the frequency, /, of the impressed e.m.f. :
eo = 2 ir/no* 10" 8 , (1)
while the useful e.m.f. generated by the field in the armature
conductors, or "e.m.f. of rotation," e, is proportional to the field
strength, $, to the number of armature turns, n h and to the fre
quency of rotation of the armature, /<>:
e = 2ir/on 1 <i> 10" 8 . (2)
This later e.m.f., e, is in phase with the magnetic flux, $, and
so with the current, i, in the series motor, that is, is a power e.m.f.,
while the e.m.f. of selfinductance, e , is wattless, or in quadrature
with the current, and the angle of lag of the motor current thus
is given by:
tan 6 = ^ (3)
6 r it
where ir = voltage consumed by the motor resistance. Or ap
proximately, since ir is small compared with e (except at very
low speed) :
tan 6 = > (4)
e
and, substituting herein (1) and (2):
tan 6  { ° (5)
Small angle of lag and therewith good powerfactor therefore
require high values of / and n\ and low values of / and n .
High /o requires high motor speeds and as large number of
poles as possible. Low / means low impressed frequency; there
fore 25 cycles is generally the highest frequency considered for
large commutating motors.
High ni and low n means high armature reaction and low
field excitation, that is, just the opposite conditions from that
required for good commutatormotor design.
Assuming synchronism, /o = /, as average motor speed — 750
revolutions with a fourpole 25cyclc motor — an armature reac
334
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
tion, n,, equal to the field excitation, n , would then give tan
6 = 1, 9 = 45°, or 70.7 per cent, powerfactor; that is, with an
armature reaction beyond the limits of good motor design, the
powerfactor is still too low for use.
The armature, however, also has a
self inductance; that is, the magnetic
flux produced by the armature cur
rent as shown diagrammatically in
Fig. 155 generates a reactive e.m.f. in
the armature conductors, which again
lowers the powerfactor. While this
armature selfinductance is low with
small number of armature turns, it
becomes considerable when the num
ber of armature turns, rti, is large
compared with the field turns, n ,
Let fflo = field reluctance, that
is, reluctance of the magnetic
field circuit, and <Ri = r = the armature reluctance, that is,
6 = = = ratio of reluctances of the armature and the field mag
netic circuit; then, neglecting magnetic saturation, the field flux
Fig. 155. — Distribution of
iiain field and field of a
;ure reaction.
the armature flux i;
and the e.m.f. of selfinductance of the armature circuit h
e x = 2»/ni*,10 s
hence, the total e.m.f. of self inductance of the motor, or wattless
e.m.f., by (1) and (7) is:
«, + ex = 2 J* 10 C'*,, 6 ' 1 '' )' (8)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 335
and the angle of lag, 0, is given by:
eo + ei
tan =
e
f n 2 + bni 2 .
/o notii
or, denoting the ratio of armature turns to field turns by:
tti
q = >
n
tan  J '
(9)
=mJ + ^ < w >
and this is a minimum; that is, the powerfactor a maximum, for:
^{tanfl} = 0,
or:
*o = ^ (ID
and the maximum powerfactor of the motor is then given by:
tan 0o = / > • (12)
h \/b
Therefore the greater b is the higher the powerfactor that
can be reached by proportioning field and armature so that
Tli 1
no * y/b
Since b is the ratio of armature reluctance to field reluctance,
good powerfactor thus requires as high an armature reluctance
and as low a field reluctance as possible; that is, as good a mag
netic field circuit and poor magnetic armature circuit as feasible.
This leads to the use of the smallest air gaps between field and
armature which are mechanically permissible. With an air gap
of 0.10 to 0.15 in. as the smallest safe value in railway work, b
can not well be made larger than about 4.
Assuming, then, 6 = 4, gives q = 2, that is, twice as many
armature turns as field turns; rti = 2 n .
The angle of lag in this case is, by (12), at synchronism:/© = /,
tan O = 1,
giving a powerfactor of 70.7 per cent.
It follows herefrom that it is not possible, with a mechanically
336 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
safe construction, at 25 cycles to get a good powerfactor
moderate speed, from a straight series motor, even if such a
design as discussed above were not inoperative, due to rate
distortion and therefore destructive sparking.
Thus it becomes necessary in the singlephase com mutator
motor to reduce the magnetic flux of armature reaction, thai is,
increase the effective magnetic reluctance of the armature fur
beyond the value of the true magnetic reluctance. This is m
complished by the compensating winding devised by Eirkemeyer,
by surrounding the armature with a stationary winding chistly
adjacent and parallel to the armature winding, and energized by
a current in opposite direction to the armature currem. ;imi ti
the same m.m.f., that is, the same number of ampereturns,
the armature winding.
s
F
N.
( /
\
rf
\ 1
f »
e
M
/ >
C v
/
n
SI
y
pha.
commutator n
191. Every singlephase commutator motor thus comprises a
field winding, F, an armature winding, A, and a compensating
winding, C, usually located in the pole faces of the field, as shown
in Figs. 156 and 157.
The compensating winding, 0, is either connected in aeriea  Imt
in reversed direction) with the armature winding, and then has
the same number of effective turns, or it is shortcircuited upon
itself, thus acting as a shortcircuited secondary with the arma
ture winding as primary, or the compensating winding i ener
gized by the supply current, and the armature shortcircuited as
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
337
secondary. The first rase Rives the eonduetively compensated
series motor, the second case the inductively compensated series
motor, the third case the repulsion motor.
In the first case, by giving the compensating winding more
turns than the armature, overcompensation, by giving it lesB
turns, undercompensation, is produced. In the second case
always complete (or practically complete) compensation results,
irrespective of the number of turns of the winding, as primary
and secondary currents of a transformer always are opposite in
direction, and of the same m.m.f. (approximately), and in the
third case a somewhat less complete compensation.
With a compensating winding, C, of equal and opposite m.m.f.
to the armature winding, A, the resultant armature reaction is
zero, and the field distortion, therefore, disappears; that is, the
ratio of the armature turns to field turns has no direct effect on
the commutation, but high armature turns and low field turns
can be used. The armature selfinductance is reduced from that
corresponding to the armature magnetic flux, *i, in Fig. 155 to
that corresponding to the magnetic leakage flux, that is, the
magnetic flux passing between armature turns and compensating
turns, or the "slot inductance," which is small, especially if rela
tively shallow armature slots and compensating slots are used.
The compensating winding, or the "cross field," thus fulfils
the twofold purpose of reducing the armature selfinductance to
that of the leakage flux, and of neutralizing the armature reac
tion and thereby permitting the use of very high armature
ampereturns.
The main purpose of the compensating winding thus is to de
crease the armature selfinductance; that is, increase the effect
ive armature reluctance and thereby its ratio to the field reluc
tance, b, and thus permit the use of a much higher ratio, q = ',
before maximum powerfactor is reached, and thereby a higher
powerfactor.
Even with compensating winding, with increasing q, ultimately
a point is reached where the armature selfinductance equals
the field selfinductance, and beyond this the powerfactor again
decreases. It becomes possible, however, by the use of the com
pensating winding, to reach, with a mechanically good design,
values of 6 as high as 16 to 20.
Assuming b = 16 gives, substituted in (11) and (12):
s4;
338 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
that is, four times as many armature turns as field turns, i*j
4 no and :
tan ,.  fe
hence, at synchronism:
fa = / : tan O = 0.5, or 89 per cent, powerfactor.
At double synchronism, which about represents maximum motor
speed at 25 cycles:
/o = 2/ : tan 8 = 0.25, or 98 per cent, powerfactor;
that is, very good powerfactors can be reached in the single
phase commutator motor by the use of a compensating winding,
far higher than are possible with the same air gap in polyphase
induction motors.
III. Field Winding and Compensating Winding
192. The purpose of the field winding is to produce the maxi
mum magnetic flux, $, with the minimum number of turns, n,.
This requires as large a magnetic section, especially at the air
gap, as possible. Hence, a massed field winding with definite
polar projections of as great pole arc as feasible, as shown in Fig.
157, gives a better powerfactor than a distributed field winding.
The compensating winding must be as closely adjacent, to the
armature winding as possible, so as to give minimum teoksfj
flux between armature conductors and compensating conductors,
and therefore is a distributed winding, located in the field poll
faces, as shown in Fig. 1,57.
The armature winding is distributed over the whole timuO;
feretice of the armature, but the compensating winding only in
the field pole faces. With the same ampereturns in armature
and compensating winding, their resultant ampereturns are
equal and opposite, and therefore neutralize, but locally the two
windings do not neutralize, due to the difference in the distribu
tion curves of their m.m.fs. The m.m.f. of the field winding is
constant over the pole faces, and from one pole corner to the next
pole corner reverses in direction, as shown diagninniui i. ■:! .
by F in Fig. 158, which is the development of Fig. 157. The
m.m.f. of the armature is a maximum at the brushes, midway
between the field poles, as shown by A in Fig. 158, and from there
decreases to zero in the center of the field pole. The m.m.f. of
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 339
the compensating winding, however, is constant in the space
from pole corner to pole corner, as shown by C in Fig. 158, and
since the total m.m.f. of the compensating winding equals that
of the armature, the armature m.m.f. is higher at the brushes,
the compensating m.m.f. higher in front of the field poles, as
shown by curve R in Fig. 158, which is the difference between
A and C; that is, with complete compensation of the resultant
armature and compensating winding, locally undercompensation
exists at the brushes, overcompensation in front of the field
Fio. 158. — Distribution of m.m.f. in compensated motor.
poles. The local undercompensated armature reaction at the
brushes generates an e.m.f. in the coil shortcircuited under the
brush, and therewith a shortcircuit current of commutation
and sparking. In the conductively compensated motor, this can
be avoided by overcompensation, that is, raising the flat top of
the compensating m.m.f. to the maximum armature m.m.f., but
this results in a lowering of the powerfactor, due to the self
inductive flux of overcompensation, and therefore is undesirable.
193. To get complete compensation even locally requires the
compensating winding to give the same distribution curve as the
armature winding, or inversely. The former is accomplished by
distributing the compensating winding around the entire cir
cumference of the armature, as shown in Fig. 159. This, how
ever, results in bringing the field coils further away from the
armature surface, aftd so increases the magnetic stray flux of the
field winding, that is, the magnetic flux, which passes through
the field coils, and there produces a reactive voltage of selfin
340
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
ductance, but does not pass through the armature conductor?
and so does no work; that is, it lowers the power factor, just
overcompensation would do. The distribution curve of the
armature winding can, however, W
made equal to that of the compen
sating winding, and therewith local
complete compensation secured, by
using a fractional pitch armature
winding of a pitch equal to the pole
arc. In this case, in the space be
tween the pole corners, the current*
are in opposite direction in the
upper and the lower layer of con
ductors in each armature slot,
shown in Fig. 160, ami thus DeutmUlB
magnetically; that is, the armature
reaction extends only over the spacr
of the armature circumference covered
by the pole arc, where it is neutralized
by the compensating winding in the pole face.
To produce complete compensation even locally, without im
pairing tbe~powerfactor, therefore, requires a fractionalpitch
Fio. 159.— Completely
distributed compensating
winding.
armature winding, of a pitch equal to the field pole arc, or s<
equivalent arrangement.
Historically] the first compensated singlephase commutfttov
motors, built about 20 years ago, were Prof. Elihu Thomeea^
repulsion motors. In these the field winding and coin pen sating
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 341
winding were massed together in a single coil, as shown diagram
matically in Fig. 161. Repulsion motors are still occasionally
built in which field and compensating coils are combined in a
single distributed winding, as shown in Fig. 162. Soon after the
first repulsion motor, conductively and inductively compensated
series motors were built by Eickemeyer, with a massed field
winding and a separate compensating winding, or cross coil,
either as single coil or turn or distributed in a number of coils or
turns, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 163, and by W. Stanley.
QC
\±is
Fig. 162. — Repulsion motor with Fig. 163. — Eickemeyer inductively
distributed winding. compensated series motor.
For reversible motors, separate field coils and compensating
coils are always used, the former as massed, the latter as dis
tributed winding, since in reversing the direction of rotation
either the field winding alone must be reversed or armature and
compensating winding are reversed while the field winding re
mains unchanged.
IV. Types of Varyingspeed Singlephase Commutator Motors
194. The armature and compensating windings are in induc
tive relations to each other. In the singlephase commutator
motor with series characteristic, armature and compensating
windings therefore can be connected in series with each other, or
the supply voltage impressed upon the one, the other closed upon
itself as secondary circuit, or a part of the supply voltage im
pressed upon the one, and another part upon the other circuit,
and in either of these cases the field winding may be connected
in series either to the compensating winding or to the armature
winding. This gives the motor types, denoting the armature by
342
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
(D
(4)
(2)
(6)
(3)
(6)
(7)
Fio. 164. — Types of alternatingcurrent coramutating motors.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 343
* •
A, the compensating winding by C, and the field winding by F,
shown in Fig. 164.
Primary Secondary
A+F
• • •
Series motor.
A + C + F
• • •
Conductively compensated
series motor. (1)
A +F
C
Inductively compensated
series motor. (2)
A
C + F
Inductively compensated
series motor with second
ary excitation, or inverted
repulsion motor. (3)
C + F
A
Repulsion motor. (4)
C
A +F
Repulsion motor with sec
ondary excitation. (5)
A+F,C
■■■}
• • • j
Series repulsion motors.
A, C + F
(6) (7)
Since in all these motor types all three circuits are connected
directly or inductively in series with each other, they all have
the same general characteristics as the directcurrent series
motor; that is, a speed which increases with a decrease of load,
and a torque per ampere input which increases with increase of
current, and therefore with decrease of speed, and the different
motor types differ from each other only by their commutation
as affected by the presence or absence of a magnetic flux at the
brushes, and indirectly thereby in their efficiency as affected by
commutation losses.
In the conductively compensated series motor, by the choice
of the ratio of armature and compensating turns, overcompensa
tion, complete compensation, or undercompensation can be pro
duced. In all the other types, armature and compensating
windings are in inductive relation, and the compensation there
fore approximately complete.
A second series of motors of the same varying speed charac
teristics results by replacing the stationary field coils by arma
ture excitation, that is, introducing the current, either directly
or by transformer, into the armature by means of a second set
of brushes at right angles to the main brushes. Such motors
are used to some extent abroad. They have the disadvantage of
344
ELECTRICAL APPARA TU8
Fig. 1(55.
req Hiring two sots of brushes, but the advantage that their
powerfactor can be controlled and above synchronism even
lending current produced. Fig. ll>5 shows diagrammatical!} surli
a motor, as designed by Winter EichbergLatour, the socalled
compensated repulsion motor. In this case componsatei! meant:
compensated for powerfactor.
The voltage which can be used in the motor armature is limited
by the commutator: the voltage per commutator segment is
limited by the problem of sparkless commutation, the number
of commutator segments Frew
brush to brush is limited
mechanical consideration of
commutator speed and width
of segments. In those motet
types in which the supply cur
rent traverses the armature, the
supply voltage is thus limited
to values even lower than in
the directcurrent motor, while
in the repulsion motor (4 and
5), in which the armature is the
secondary circuit, the armature voltage is independent of the
supply voltage, so can be chosen to suit the requirement! i ■:
commutation, while the motor can be built for any supply
voltage for which the stator can economically 1m? insulated.
Alternatingcurrent motors as well as directcurrent scries
motors can be controlled by series parallel connection of two or
more motors. Further control, as in starting, with direct current
motors is carried out by rheostat, while with alternatingcurrent
motors potential conlrol, that is, a change of supply voltage by
transformer or autotransformer, offers a more efficient method
of control. By changing from one motor type to another motor
type, potential control can bo, used in alternatingcurrent motors
without any change of supply voltage, by appropriately choosing
the ratio of turns of primary and secondary circuit. For in
stance, with an armature wound for half the voltage and thus
twice the current as the compensating winding (ratio of turns
 = 2) , a change of connection from tvpc 3 to type 2, or from
type 5 to type 4, results in doubling the field current and there
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 345
with the field strength. A change of distribution of voltage be
tween the two circuits, in types 6 and 7, with A and C wound
for different voltages, gives the same effect as a change of supply
voltage, and therefore is used for motor control.
196. In those motor types in which a transformation of power
occurs between compensating winding, C, and armature winding,
A, a transformer flux exists in the direction of the brushes, that
is, at right angles to the field flux. In general, therefore, the
singlephase commutator motor contains two magnetic fluxes in
quadrature position with each other, the main flux or field flux,
A', in the direction of the axis of the field coils, or at right angles
to the armature brushes, and the quadrature flux, or transformer
flux, or commu taring flux, *j, in line with the armature brushes,
or in the direction of the axis of the compensating winding, that
is, at right angles (electrical) with the field flux.
The field flux, *, depends upon and is in phase with the field
current, except as far as it is modified by the magnetic action of
the shortcircuit current in the armature coil under the commu
tator brushes.
In the conductively compensated series motor, 1, the quad
rature flux is zero at complete compensation, and in the direc
tion of the armature reaction with undercompensation, in oppo
sition to the armature reaction at overcompensation, but in
either ease in phase with the current and so approximately with
the field.
In the other motor types, whatever quadrature flux exists is
not in phase with the main flux, but as transformer flux is due
to the resultant m.ui.f. of primary and secondary circuit.
In a transformer with noninductive or nearly noninductive
secondary circuit, the magnetic flux is nearly 90° in time phase
behind the primary current, a little over 90° ahead of the sec
ondary current, as shown in transformer diagram, Tig. 166.
In a transformer with inductive secondary, the magnetic flux
is less than 90" liehind the primary current, more than 90° ahead
of the secondary current, the more so the higher is the inductivity
of the secondary circuit, as shown by the transformer diagram,
Fig. 166.
Herefrom it follows that:
In the inductively compensated series motor, 2, the quad
rature flux is very small and practically negligible, as very little
voltage is consumed in the low impedance of the secondary cir
cuit, C; whatever flux there is, lags behind the main flux.
346
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
In the inductively compensated series ipotor with secondary
excitation, or inverted repulsion motor, 3, the quadrature flux,
$1, is quite large, as a considerable voltage is required for the
field excitation, especially at moderate speeds and therefore high
currents, and this flux, $i, lags behind the field flux, $, but this
lag is very much less than 90°, since the secondary circuit is
•J*
Fig. 166. — Transformer diagram, inductive and noninductive load.
highly inductive; the motor field thus corresponding to the con
ditions of the transformer diagram, Fig. 166. As result hereof,
the commutation of this type of motor is very good, flux, $i,
having the proper phase and intensity required for a commu
tating flux, as will be seen later, but the powerfactor is poor.
In the repulsion motor, 4, the quadrature flux is very consid
erable, since all the voltage consumed by the rotation of the
armature is induced in it by transformation from the compen
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
347
sating winding, and this quadrature flux, *i, laps nearly 90° be
hind the main flux, *, since the secondary circuit is nearly non
inductive, especially at speed.
In the repulsion motor with secondary excitation, 5, the quad
rature flux, *i, is also very large, and practically constant, corre
sponding to the impressed e.m.f., but lags considerably less than
90° behind the main flux, $, the secondary circuit being induct
ive, since it contains the field coil, F. The lag of the flux, *i,
increases with increasing speed, since with increasing speed the
e.m.f. of rotation of the armature increases, the e.m.f. of self
inductance of the field decreases, due to the decrease of current,
and the circuit thus becomes less inductive.
The series repulsion motors 6 and 7, give the same phase rela
tion of the quadrature flux, $i, as the repulsion motors, 5 and 6,
but the intensity of the quadrature flux, $i, is the less the smaller
the part of the supply voltage which is impressed upon the com
pensating winding.
V. Commutation
196. In the commutator motor, the current in each armature
coil or turn reverses during its passage under the brush. In the
armature coil, while shortcircuited by the commutator brush,
the current must die out to zero and then increase again to its
original value in opposite direction. The resistance of the arma
ture coil and brush contact accelerates, the selfinductance re
tards the dying out of the current, and the former thus assists,
tin 1 latter impairs commutation. If an e.m.f. is generated in
the armature coil by its rotation while shortcircuited by the
commutator brush, this e.m.f. opposes commutation, that is,
retards the dying out of the current, if due to the magnetic flux
of armature reaction, and assists commutation by reversing the
armature current, if due to the magnetic flux of overcompensa
tion, that is, a magnetic flux in opposition to the armature
reaction.
Therefore, in the directcurrent commutator motor with high
field strength and low armature reaction, that is, of negligible
magnetic flux of armature reaction, fair commutation is produced
with the brushes set midway between the field poles — that is,
in the position where the armature coil which is being commu
tated encloses the full field flux and therefore cuts no flux and
has no generated e.m.f. — by using highresistance carbon brushes,
348
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
as the resistance of the brush contact, increasing when the arma
ture coil begins to leave the brush, tends to reverse the current.
Such "resistance commutation" obviously can not be perfect;
perfect commutation, however, is produced by impressing upon
the motor armature at right angles to the main field, thai is, UD
the position of the commutator brushes, a magnetic field oppo
site to that of the armature reaction and proportional to the
armature current. Such a field is produced by overcompensa
tion or by the use of a commutating pole or interpole.
As seen in the foregoing, in the directcurrent motor t he counter
e.m.f. of selfinductance of commutation opposes the reversal of
current in the armature coil under the commutator brush, and
this can be mitigated in its effect by the use of highresistance
brushes, and overcome by the commutating field of overcompen
sation. In addition hereto, however, in the alternatingcurrent
commutator motor an e.m.f. is generated in the coil shortcir
cuited under the brush, by the alternation of the magnetic flux,
and this e.m.f., which does not exist in the directcurrent motor,
makes the problem of commutation of the alternatingcurrent
motor far more difficult. In the position of commutation no
e.m.f. is generated in the armature coil by its rotation through
the magnetic field, as in this position the coil encloses the maxi
mum field flux; but as this magnetic flux is alternating, in this
position the e.m.f. generated by the alternation of the flux en
closed by the coil is a maximum. This "e.m.f. of alternation* 1
lags in time 90° behind the magnetic flux which generates it, h
proportional to the magnetic flux and to the frequency, but is
independent of the speed, hence exists also at standstill, while
the "e.m.f. of rotation" — which is a maximum in the position
of the armature coil midway between the brushes, or parallel to
the field flux — is in phase with the field flux and proportional
thereto and to the speed, but independent of the frequency. In
the alternatingcurrent commutator motor, no position therefore
exists in which the armature coil is free from a generated e.m.f.,
but in the position parallel to the field, or midway between tin
brushes, the e.m.f. of rotation, in phase with the field flux, is a
maximum, while the e.m.f. of alternation is zero, and in the posi
tion under the commutator brush, or enclosing the total field
flux, the e.m.f. of alternation, in electrical space quadrature with
the field flux, is a maximum, the e.m.f. of rotation absent, while
in any other position of the armature coil its generated e.m.f. has
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 349
a component due to the rotation — a power e.m.f. — and a com
ponent due to the alternation — a reactive e.m.f. The armature
coils of an alternatingcurrent commutator motor, therefore, are
the seat of a system of polyphase e.m.f s., and at synchronism
the polyphase e.m.fs. generated in all armature coils are equal,
above synchronism the e.m.f. of rotation is greater, while
below synchronism the e.m.f. of alternation is greater, and in
the latter case the brushes thus stand at that point of the com
mutator where the voltage between commutator segments is a
maximum. This e.m.f. of alternation, shortcircuited by the
armature coil in the position of commutation, if not controlled,
causes a shortcircuit current of excessive value, and therewith
destructive sparking; hence, in the alternatingcurrent commuta
tor motor it is necessary to provide means to control the short
circuit current under the commutator brushes, which results from
the alternating character of the magnetic flux, and which docs
not exist in the directcurrent motor; that is, in the alternating
current motor the armature coil under the brush is in the posi
tion of a shortcircuited secondary, with the field coil as primary
of a transformer; and as in a transformer primary and secondary
ampereturns are approximately equal, if n = number of field
turns per pole and i = field current, the current in a single arma
ture turn, when shortcircuited by the commutator brush, tends
to become io = n i, that is, many times fullload current; and
as this current is in opposition, approximately, to the field cur
rent, it would demagnetize the field; that is, the motor field
vanishes, or drops far down, and the motor thus loses its torque.
Especially is this the case at the moment of starting; at speed,
the shortcircuit current is somewhat reduced by the selfinduc
tance of the armature turn. That is, during the short time
during which the armature turn or coil is shortcircuited by the
brush the shortcircuit current can not rise to its full value, if
the speed is considerable, but it is still sufficient to cause destruc
tive sparking.
197. The character of the commutation of the motor, and
therefore its operativeness, thus essentially depends upon the
value and the phase of the shortcircuit currents under the com
mutator brushes. An excessive shorteimiit current, gives de
structive sparking by highcurrent density under the brushes
and arcing at the edge of the brushes due to the great and sud
den change of current in the armature coil when leaving the
350
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
brush. But even with a moderate shortcircuit current, the
sparking at the commutator may be destructive and the motor
therefore inoperative, if the phase of the shortcircuit current
greatly differs from that of the current in the armature coil after
it leaves the brush, and so a considerable and sudden change of
VI LTS
n 
/
'
I '
a
n '
1
AMP
a i
PKI SQ. H.
1GO1SO2O02202W26O29O3W
Fin. 167.— E.m.f. consumed at contact of copper brush.
current must take place at the moment when the armature coil
leaves the brush. That is, perfect commutation occurs, if the
shortcircuit current in the armature coil under the commutator
brush at the moment when the coil leaves the brush has the
same value and the same phase as the mainarmature current in
__v_
LT_=.
I 2

1
fly
.ft
HJ
I
1
1
i
B 1
i
■0
. 168.— E.m.f. consumed ft
t of higlii
earhon brush.
the coil after leaving the brush. The commutation of such a
motor therefore is essentially characterized by the difference
between the mainarmature current after, and the shortcircuit
current before leaving the brush. The investigation of the short
circuit current under the commutator brushes therefore is of
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 351
fundamental importance in the study of the alternatingcurrent
commutator motor, and the control of this shortcircuit current
the main problem of alternatingcurrent commutator motor
design.
Various means have been proposed and tried to mitigate or
eliminate the harmful effect of this shortcircuit current, as high
resistance or high reactance introduced into the armature coil
during commutation, or an opposing e.m.f . either from the out
side, or by a commutating field.
Highresistance brush contact, produced by the use of very
narrow carbon brushes of high resistivity, while greatly improv
ing the commutation and limiting the shortcircuit current so
that it does not seriously demagnetize the field and thus cause
the motor to lose its torque, is not sufficient, for the reason that
the resistance of the brush contact is not high enough and also is
not constant. The brush contact resistance is not of the nature
of an ohmic resistance, but more of the nature of a counter
e.m.f.; that is, for large currents the potential drop at the brushes
becomes approximately constant, as seen from the voltampere
characteristics of different brushes given in Figs. 167 and 168.
Fig. 167 gives the voltage consumed by the brush contact of a
copper brush, with the current density as abscissae, while Fig.
168 gives the voltage consumed by a highresistance carbon
brush, with the current density in the brush as absciss®. It is
seen that such a resistance, which decreases approximately in
versely proportional to the increase of current, fails in limiting
the current just at the moment where it is most required, that
s, at high currents.
Commutator Leads
198. Good results have been reached by the use of metallic
resistances in the leads between the armature and the commuta
tor. As shown diagrammatically in Fig. 169, each commutator
segment connects to the armature, A , by a high noninductive
resistance, CB y and thus two such resistances are always in the
circuit of the armature coil shortcircuited under the brush, but
also one or two in series with the armature main circuit, from
brush to brush. While considerable power may therefore l>c
consumed in these highresistance leads, neverthelebs the effi
ciency of the motor is greatly increased by their use; that is, the
reduction in the loss of power at the commutator by the reduction
352 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
of the shortcircuit current, usually is far greater than the mfltt
of power in the resistance leads. To have any apprecial <[•■ iffoci ,
the resistance of the commutator lead must lie far higher thau
that of the armature coil to which it connects. Of the e.m.f.
of rotation, that is, the useful generated e.m.f., the armature re
sistance consumes only a very small part, a few per cent. only.
The e.m.f. of alternation is of the same magnitude as the e.in.f.
of rotation — higher below, lower above synchronism. With B
shortcircuit current equal to fullload current, the resistance of
Fee. 160, — Commutation with resistance leads.
the shortcircuit coil would consume only a small part of the
e.m.f. of alternation, and to consume the total e.m.f. the short
circuit current therefore would have to lie about as many times
larger than the normal armature current as the useful generated
e.m.f. of the motor is larger than the resistance drop in the arma
ture. Long before this value of shortcircuit current is reached
the magnetic field would have disappeared by the demagnetuui
force of the shortcircuit current, that is, the motor would have
lost its torque.
To limit the shortcircuit current under the brush to a value
not very greatly exceeding fullload current, thus requires a re
sistance of the lead, many times greater than that of (he animt un
coil. The ir in the lead, and thus the heat produced in it, then,
is many times greater than that in the armature coil. The space
available for the resistance lead is, however, less than that avail
able for the armature coil.
It is obvious herefrom that it is not feasible to build these
resistance leads so that each lead can dissipate continuously, or
even for any appreciable time, without rapid si Ifdrst ruction,
the heat produced in it while in circuit.
When the motor is revolving, even very slowly, thiaiaatH DM
essary, since each resistance lead is only a very short tmn in
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
circuit, during the moment when the armature c
to it are shortcircuited by the brushes; that is, if t
i connecting
■ number of
armature turns from brush to brush, the lead is only  of the
time in circuit, and though excessive current densities in mate*
rials of high resistivity are used, the heating is moderate. In
starting the motor, however, if it does not start instantly, the
current continues to flow through the same resistance leads, and
thus they are overheated and destroyed if the motor does not
start promptly. Hence care has to be taken not to have such
motors stalled for any appreciable time with voltage on.
The most serious objection to the use of high re si stance leads,
therefore, is their liability to selfdestruction by heating if the
motor fails to start immediately, as for instance in a railway
motor when putting the voltage on the motor before the brakes
are released, as is done when starting on a steep upgrade to
keep the train from starting to run back.
Thus the advantages of resistance commutator leads are the
improvement in commutation resulting from the reduced short
circuit current, and the ahsence o fa serious demagnetizing effect
on the field at the moment of starting, which would result from
an excessive shortcircuit current under the brush, and such
leads are therefore extensively used ; their disadvantage, however,
is that when they are used the motor must be sure to start im
mediately by the application of voltage, otherwise they are liable
to l>e destroyed.
It is obvious that even with high resistance commutator leads
the commutation of the motor can not be as good as that of the
motor on directcurrent supply; that is, such an alternating
current motor inherently is more or less inferior in commutation
to the directcurrent motor, and to compensate for this effect
far more favorable constants must be chosen in the ruotui design
than permissible with a directcurrent motor, that is, a lower
voltage per commutator segment and lower magnetic flux per
pole, hence a lower supply voltage on the armature, and thus B
larger armature current and therewith a larger commutator, etc.
The insertion of reactance instead of resistance in the leads
connecting the commutator segments with the armature nib of
the singlephase motor also has Ixiri proposed And UWd f'ir
limiting the shortcircuit current, under I lie commutator brush.
Reactance has the advantage over resistance, that the voltage
864 ELECTRICAL APPABA TVS
consumed by it is wattless and therefore produces no scrum
heating and reactive leads of low resistance thus are not liable
to selfdestruction by heating if the motor fails to start im
mediately.
On account of the limited apace available in the railway motor
considerable difficulty, however, is found in designing sufficiently
high reactances which du not saturate and thus decrease nt
larger currents.
At speed, reactance in the armature coils is very objectionable
in retarding the reversal of current, and indeed one of the most
important problems in the design of commu.tating machines
give the armature coils the lowest possible reactance. There
fore, the insertion of reactance in the motor leads tnterfffW
seriously with the commutation of the motor at speed, and ihn
requires the use of a suitable commutating or reversing flux, thai
is, a magnetic field at the commutator brushes of sufficient
strength to reverse the current, against the selfinductance of the
armature coil, by means of an e.m.f. generated in the armature
coil by its rotation. This commutating flux thus must he m
phase with the main current, that is, a flux of overcompensation.
Reactive leads require the use of a commutating flux of over
compensation to give fair commutation at speed.
Counter E.m.fs. in Commutated Coil
199. Theoretically, the correct way of eliminating the de
structive effect of the shortcircuit current under the
tutor brush resulting from the e.m.f. of alternation of the main
flux would be to neutralize the e.m.f. of alternation by an equal
but opposite e.m.f. inserted into the armature coil or generated
therein. Practically, however, at least with most motor typos,
considerable difficulty is met in producing such a neutralizing
e.m.f. of the proper intensity as well as phase. Since the alter
nating current has not only an intensity but also a phase displace
ment, with an alternatingcurrent motor the production of com
mutating flux or commutating voltage is more difficult than with
directcurrent motors in which the intensity is the only v;n t.iM.
By introducing an external e.m.f. into the shortcircuited
under the brush it is rml possible entirely to neutralise itfl BJB '
of alternation, hut simply to reduce it to onehalf. Several such
arrangements were developed in the early days by Ekkettoyar,
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 355
for instance the arrangement shown in Fig. 170, which represents
the development of a commutator. The commutator consists
of alternate live segments, S, and dead segments, S', that is, seg
ments not connected to armature coils, and shown shaded in
Fig. 170. Two sets of brushes on the commutator, the one, B t ,
\MMS\m
Fig. 170. — Commutation with external e.m.f,
ahead in position from the other, B t , by one commutator seg
ment, and connected to the first by a coil, N, containing an e.m.f.
equal in phase, but half in intensity, and opposite, to the e.m.f.
of alternation of the armature coil; that is, if the armature coil
contains a single turn, coil A' is a half turn located in the main
Fio. 171. — Commutation by external e
field space; if the armature coil, A, contains m turns, '„ turns in
the main field space are used in coil, N. The dead segments, S',
are cut between the brushes, B x and /Jj, so as not to shortcircuit
between the brushes.
In this manner, during the motion of the brush over the com
356 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
mutator, as shown by Fig. 171 in its successive steps, in position:
1. There is current through brush, B\\
2. There is current through both brushes, Si and B«, and the
armature coil, A, is closed by the counter e.m.f. of coil,
.V, that is, the difference, A — JV, is shortcircuited;
3. There is current through brush B 3 ;
4. There is current through both brushes, B, and B t , and the
coil, JV, is shortcircuited;
5. The current enters again by brush B i ;
thus alternately the coil, JV, of half the voltage of the armature
coil, A, or the difference between A and JV is shortcircuited,
that is, the shortcircuit current reduced to onehalf.
Complete elimination of the shortcircuit current can be pro
duced by generating in the armature coil an opposing e.m.f.
This e.m.f. of neutralization, however, can not be generated by
the alternation of the magnetic flux through the coil, as this would
require a flux equal but opposite to the full field flux travers
ing the coil, and thus destroy the main field of the motor. The
neutralizing e.m.f., therefore, must be generated by the rotetifin
of the armature through the commutating field, and thus can
occur only at speed; that is, neutralization of the shortcircuit
current is possible only when the motor is revolving, but not while
at rest.
200. The e.m.f. of alternation in the armature coil shortcir
cuited under the commutator brush is proportional to the main
field, *, to the frequency, /, and is in quadrature with the main
field, being generated by its rate of change; hence, it can be rep
resented by
eo 2r/*10*/. (17)
The e.m.f., e,, generated by the rotation of the armature coil
through a commutating field, *', is, however, in phase with the
field which produces it; and since d must be equal and in phase
with e to neutralize it, the commutating field, *', therefore, must
be in phase with e , hence in quadrature with *; that is, the com
mutating field, *', of the motor must be in quadrature witfa tin
main'field, *, to generate a neutralizing voltage, e,, of the proper
phase to oppose the e.m.f. of alternation in the shortcircuited
coil. This e.m.f., ei, is proportional to its generating field. *',
and to the speed, or frequency of rotation, f„, hence is:
ei =2t/„*'10 s , ,lv.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
nil Si = p„ it then follow* that:
*' = jt
/.'
(19)
]
I
1
I
that is, the commutating field of the singlephase motor must
be in quadrature behind and proportional to the main field, pro
portional to the frequency and inversely proportional to the
speed; hence, at synchronism, /» = /, the commutation field
equals the main field in intensity, and, being displaced therefrom
1 quadrature both in time and in space, the motor thus must
have a uniform rotating field, just as the induction motor.
Above synchronism, fa > f, the commutating field, *', is less
than the main field; below synchronism, however, /& < /, the
commutating field must be greater than the main field to give
complete compensation. It obviously is not feasible to increase
the commutating field much beyond the main field, u this would
require an increase of the iron section of the motor beyond that
required to do the work, that is, to carry the main field flux. At
standstill *' should be infinitely large, that is, compensation is
not possible.
Hence, by the use of a commutating field in time and space
quadrature, in the singlephase motor the shortcircuit current
under the commutator brushes resulting from the e.m.f. of alter
nation can be entirely eliminated at and above synchronism,
and more or less reduced below synchronism, the more the nearer
the speed is to synchronism, but no effect can be produced at
standstill. In such a motor either some further method, as re
sistance leads, must, be used to take care of the shortcircuit cur
rent at standstill, or the motor designed so that its commutator
can carry the shortcircuit current for the small fraction of time
when the motor is at. standstill or running at very low speed.
The main field, *,of the series motor is approximately inversely
proportional to the speed, / , since the product of speed and field
strength, / *, is proportional to the e.m.f. of rotation, or useful
e.m.f. of the motor, hence, neglecting losses anil phase displace
ments, to the impressed e.m.f., that is, constant. Substituting
. — a. n>tior» &.. — main field at synchronism, into
358
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
that is, the commutating field is inversely proportional to the
square of the speed; for instance, at double synchronism it should
be onequarter as high as at synchronism, etc.
201. Of the quadrature field, <!>', only that part is needed for
commutation which enters and leaves the armature at the posi
tion of the brushes; that is, instead of producing a quadrature
field, <!>', in accordance with equation (20), and distributed around
the armature periphery in the same manner as the main field, ♦,
but in quadrature position thereto, a local commutating field
may be used at the brushes, and produced by a commutating
pole or commutating coil, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 172
Fig. 172. — Commutation with commutating poles.
as K\ and K. The excitation of this commutating coil, A', then
would have to be such as to give a magnetic airgap density <B'
relative to that of the main field, (B, by the same equations (19)
and (20) :
(B' = j(B {
= *<) 2
(21)
As the alternating flux of a magnetic circuit is proportional to
the voltage which it consumes, that is, to the voltage impressed
upon the magnetizing coil, and lags nearly 90° l>ehind it, the mag
netic flux of the commutating poles, K, can be produced by ener
gizing these poles by an e.m.f. e, which is varied with the speed
of the motor, by equation:
e = * (£) ,
whore e„ is its proper value at synchronism.
(22)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 359
Since (B' lags 90° behind its supply voltage, e, and also lags 90°
behind (B, by equation (2), and so behind the supply current
and, approximately, the supply e.m.f. of the motor, the voltage,
e, required for the excitation of the commutating poles is approxi
mately in phase with the supply voltage of the motor; that is,
a part thereof can be used, and is varied with the speed of the
motor.
Perfect commutation, however, requires not merely the elimi'
nation of the shortcircuit current under the brush, but requires
a reversal of the load current in the armature coil during its
passage under the commutator brush. To reverse the current,
an e.m.f. is required proportional but opposite to the current and
therefore with the main field; hence, to produce a reversing e.m.f.
in the armature coil under the commutator brush a second com
mutating field is required, in phase with the main field and ap
proximately proportional thereto.
The commutating field required by a singlephase commutator
motor to give perfect commutation thus consists of a component
in quadrature with the main field, or the neutralizing component,
which eliminates the shortcircuit current under the brush, and
a component in phase with the main field, or the reversing com
ponent, which reverses the main current in the armature coil
under the brush; and the resultant commutating field thus must
lag behind the main field, and so approximately behind the sup
ply voltage, by somewhat less than 90°, and have an intensity
varying approximately inversely proportional to the square of
the speed of the motor.
Of the different motor types discussed under IV, the series
motors, 1 and 2, have no quadrature field, and therefore can be
made to commutate satisfactorily only by the use of commutator
leads, or by the addition of separate commutating poles. The
inverted repulsion motor, 3, has a quadrature field, which de
creases with increase of speed, and therefore gives a better com
mutation than the series motors, though not perfect, as the quad
rature field does not have quite the right intensity.
The repulsion motors, 4 and 5, have a quadrature field, lag
ging nearly 90° behind the main field, and thus give good com
mutation at those speeds at which the quadrature field has the
right intensity for commutation. However, in the repulsion
motor with secondary excitation, 5, the quadrature field is con
stant and independent of the speed, as constant supply voltage
360 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is impressed upim the commutating winding, C, which produces
the quadrature field, and in the direct repulsion motor, 4, the
quadrature field increases with the speed, as the voltage consumed
by the main field F decreases, and that left for the compensating
winding, C, thus increases with the speed, while to give proper
commutating flux it should decrease with the square of the speed.
It thus follows that the commutation of the repulsion motors
improves with increase of speed, up to that speed where the
quadrature field is just right for commutating field — which is
about at synchronism — but above this speed the commutation
rapily becomes poorer, due to the quadrature field being far in
excess of that required for commutating.
In the series repulsion motors, 6 and 7, a quadrature field also
exfsts, just as in the repulsion motors, but this quadrature field
depends upon that part of the total voltage which is impressed
upon the commutating winding, C, and thus can be varied by
varying the distribution of supply voltage between the two cir
cuits; hence, in this type of motor, the commutating flux can be
maintained through all (higher) speeds by impressing the total
voltage upon the compensating circuit and shortcircuiting the
armature circuit for all speeds up to that at which the required
commutating flux has decreased to the quadrature, flux given by
the motor, and from this speed upward only a part of the supply
voltage, inversely proportional (approximately) to the square of
the speed, is impressed upon the compensating circuit, the rest
shifted over to the armature circuit. The difference between
6 and 7 is that in 6 the armature circuit is more inductive, and
the quadrature flux therefore lags less behind the main flux than
in 7, and by thus using more or less of the field coil in the arma
ture circuit its inductivity can be varied, and therewith the
phase displacement of the quadrature flux against, the main flux
adjusted from nearly 90° lag to considerably less lag, hence not
only the proper intensity but also the exact phase of the required
commutating flux produced.
As seen herefrom, the difference between the different motor
types of IV is essentially found in their different actions regarding
commutation.
It follows herefrom that by the selection of the motortype
quadrature fluxes, *i, can be impressed upon the motor, as com
mutating flux, of intensities and phase displacements against
the main flux, *, varying over a considerable range. The main
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 361
advantage of the seriesrepulsion motor type is the possibility
which this type affords, of securing the proper commutating
field at all speeds down to that where the speed is too low to
induce sufficient voltage of neutralization at the highest available
commutating flux.
VI. Motor Characteristics
202. The singlephase commutator motor of varying speed or
series characteristic comprises three circuits, the armature, the
compensating winding, and the field winding, which are connected
in series with each other, directly or indirectly.
The impressed e.m.f. or supply voltage of the motor then con
sists of the components:
1. The e.m.f. of rotation, e h or voltage generated in the arma
ture conductors by their rotation through the magnetic field, $.
This voltage is in phase with the field, $>, and therefore approxi
mately with the current, i, that is, is power e.m.f., and is the
voltage which does the useful work of the motor. It is propor
tional to the speed or frequency of rotation,/o, to the field strength,
$, and to the number of effective armature turns, tii.
«i = 2ir/ n 1 <i> 10" 8 . (23)
The number of effective armature turns, n if with a distributed
winding, is the projection of all the turns on their resultant direc
tion. With a fullpitch winding of n series turns from brush to
brush, the effective number of turns thus is:
♦* 2
fii = m [avg cos] \ « m. (24)
With a fractionalpitch winding of the pitch of r degrees, the
effective number of turns is:
fix = m [avg cos] / « m sin * (2/5)
2. The e.m.f. of alternation of the field, e«, tliat is, the voltage
generated in the field turns by the alternation of the magnetic
flux, 4>, produced by them and thus enclosed by them. This vol
tage is in quadrature with the field flux, 4>, and thus approxi
mately with the current [, is proportional to tin* frequency of the
362 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
impressed voltage, /, to the field strength, 4>, and to the number of
field turns, n„.
«o = 2jirfn * 10~ 8 . (26)
3. The impedance voltage of the motor:
e' = IZ (27)
and: Z = r + jx,
where r = total effective resistance of field coils, armature with
commutator and brushes, and compensating winding, x = total
selfinductive reactance, that is, reactance of the leakage flux of
armature and compensating winding — or the stray flux passing
locally between the armature and the compensating conductors
— plus the selfinductive reactance of the field, that is, the reac
tance due to the stray field or flux passing between field coils
and armature.
In addition hereto, x comprises the reactance due to the quad
rature magnetic flux of incomplete compensation or overcom
pensation, that is, the voltage generated by the quadrature flux,
$', in the difference between armature and compensating con
ductors, ni — n 2 or n% — n\.
Therefore the total supply voltage, E y of the motor is:
E = ei + e + e'
= 2 irforii* 10 8 + 2jirfn x * lO" 8 + (r + jx) /. (28)
Let, then, R = magnetic reluctance of field circuit, thus
j
$ = ~tr = the magnetic field flux, when assuming this flux as in
phase with the excitation /, and denoting:
as the effective reactance of field inductance, corresponding to
the e.m.f. of alternation:
S = y = ratio of speed to frequency, or speed
f as fraction of synchronism,
Tit
c = = ratio of effective armature turns to
n ° field turns;
(31)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 363
substituting (30) and (31) in (28):
# = cSxol + jxol + (r + jx) I
= [(r + cSxo) + j(x + x )] I; (32)
or:
1 = (r + cSxo) + 7 (x + *o)' (33)
and, in absolute values:
t = , _ — . • (34)
V(r + cSxo) 2 + (x + x ) 2
The powerfactor is given by:
tan *  7T& (35)
The useful work of the motor is done by the e.m.f. of rotation:
#i = cSxof,
and, since this e.m.f., #i, is in phase with the current, /, the
useful work, or the motor output (inclusive friction, etc.), is:
p = EJ = cSxoi 2
cSxoe 2
(r + cSx Q ) 2 + (x + xo) 2
and the torque of the motor is :
p
D = ~ = cxoi 2
(36)
cxtf 2
(r + cSxo) 2 + (x + xo) 2
For instance, let:
e = 200 volts, c = — = 4,
wo
(37)
then:
Z =± r+jx = 0.02 + 0.06 j, x = 0.08;
. 10,000
1 " vu + i^ 2 +49 amp '
♦ a 1 + 16 S
cot = — = >
p = 32^0005 ,
(1 + 16 Sj 2 "+ 49 '
n _ 32,0 00 ,
(1 + 16 S) 2 + 49 Syn * kW *
364 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
203. The behavior of the motor at different speeds is l*^t
shown by plotting i, p = cos 8, P and D as ordinates with the
speed, 8, as abscissae, as shown in Fig. 173.
In railway practice, by a survival of the practice of former
times, usually the constants are plotted with the current, /, as
abscissae, as shown in Fig. 174, though obviously this arrange
ment does not as well illustrate the behavior of the motor.
Graphically, by starting with the current, /, as zero axis,0/, the
motor diagram is plotted in Fig. 175.
£
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II.
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\
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\
V
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.
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m
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tern
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Fia. 173. — Binglephase commutatormotor spoori characteristics.
he voltage consumed by the resistance, r, is OE, — ir. in pi
l 01; the voltage consumed by the reactance, x, is OE, =
90° ahead of 01. OE, and OE, combine to the voltage c
ed by the motor impedance, OE' — iz.
ombining OE' = iz, OE\ — e it and OE = c thus gives
linal voltage, OE = e, of the motor, and the phase an
= e.
l this diagram, and in the preceding approximate calculat
magnetic flux, *, has been assumed in phase with the curren
l reality, however, the equivalent sine wave of magn
$, lags behind the equivalent sine wave of exciting curren
he angle of hysteresis lag, and still further by the po
ase
tx,
on
the
file,
on,
,/
etic
,/.
wcr
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
365
consumed by eddy currents, and, especially in the commutator
motor, by the power consumed in the shortcircuit current under
the brushes, and the vector,0*,therefore is behind the current
vector, 01, by an angle a, which is small in a motor in which the
shortcircuit current under the brushes is eliminated and the
eddy currents are negligible, but may reach considerable values
in the motor of poor commutation.
n„
" r
" I
\
" g / .r.
" \ ■£/«•'
u ^ , ». f
" V? 7
d.. ~~"S_^ l X m
Z i C 5 ^ ' j H:
/ V ^ \T
7 K , V \
04 D Z ^ \A»
7 s \"Z
. ^ i \ ■
M 30 3OT aio MOWI ^Twu W KOI* 1500 i: MlN
Fio. 174. — Singlephase commutatormotor current characteristics.
Assuming then, in Fig. 176, 0* lagging behind 01 by angle
a, OEi is in phase with 0*, hence lagging behind 01; that is,
the e.m.f. of rotation is not entirely a power e.m.f., but contains
a wattless lagging component. The e.m.f. of alternation, OE ,
is 90° ahead of O*, hence less than 90° ahead of OI, and therefore
contains a power component representing the power consumed
by hysteresis, eddy currents, and the shortcircuit current under
the brushes.
Completing now the diagram, it is seen that Hie phase angle, 9,
is reduced, that is, the powerfactor of the motor increased by
366
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the increased loss of power, but is far greater than corresponding
thereto. It is the result of the lag of the e.m.f. of rotation, which
produces a lagging e.m.f. component partially compensating for
the leading e.m.f. consumed by self inductance, a lag of the e.m.f.
being equivalent to a lead of the current.
Fig. 175. — Singlephase commutatormotor vector diagram.
As the result of this feature of a lag of the magnetic flux, $,
by producing a lagging e.m.f. of rotation and thus compensating
for the lag of current by selfinductance, singlephase motors
having poor commutation usually have better powerfactors, and
Fig. 176. — Singlephase commutatormotor diagram with phase displace
ment between flux and current.
improvement in commutation, by eliminating or reducing the
shortcircuit current under the brush, usually causes a slight de
crease in the powerfactor, by bringing the magnetic flux, <f>, more
nearly in phase with the current, /.
204. Inversely, by increasing the lag of the magnetic flux, <t>,
the phase angle can bo decrejised .and the powerfactor improved.
Such a shift of the magnetic flux, 4>, behind the supply current, ?,
can be produced by dividing the current, i, into components, i'
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 367
and i", and using the lagging component for field excitation.
This is done most conveniently by shunting the field by a non
inductive resistance. Let r be the noninductive resistance in
shunt with the field winding, of reactance, x Q + x\ f where X\ is
Fig. 177. — Singlephase commutatormotor improvement of powerfactor
by introduction of lagging e.m.f. of rotation.
that part of the selfinductive reactance, x, due to the field coils.
The current, i', in the field is lagging 90° behind the current, i",
in a noninductive resistance, and the two currents have the
•#
ratio .,, = — 7 — ; hence, dividing the total current, 01 , in this
* Xo T ^1
proportion into the two quadrature components, OF and 01" >
Fig. 178. — Singlephase commutator motor. Unity powerfactor produced
by lagging e.m.f. of rotation.
in Fig. 177, gives the magnetic flux, 0$, in phase with 01', and
so lagging behind 01, and then the e.m.f. of rotation is OE h the
e.m.f. of alternation OE 0) and combining 0E h OE 0) and OE'
368 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
gives the impressed e.ra.f., OE, nearer in phase to 01 than with
0* in phase with 01.
In this manner, if the e.m.fa, of selfinductance arc not CM
large, unity powerfactor can be produced, as shown in Fig. 178.
Let 01 = total current, OE' = impedance voltage of the
motor, OE = impressed e.m.f. or supply voltage, and assumed
in phase with 01. OE then must be the resultant of OE' and of
OEi, the voltage of rotation plus that of alternation, and resolv
ing therefore 0E% into two components, 0E% and 0E a , in quadra
ture with each other, and proportional respectively to the e.m.f.
of rotation and the e.m.f. of alternation, gives the magnetic flux,
0*, in phase with the e.m.f. of rotation, 0E U and the component
of current in the field, 01', and in the noninductive resistance,
01", in phase and in quadrature respectively with 04>, which
combined make up the total current. The projection of the
e.m.f. of rotation 0E\ on 01 then is the power component of
the e.m.f., which does the work of the motor, and the quadra
ture projection of, 0E t , is the compensating component of the
e.m.f. of rotation, which neutralizes the wattless component of
the e.m.f. of selfinductance.
Obviously such a compensation involves some loss of power
in the noninductive resistance, r a , shunting the field coils, and as
the powerfactor of the motor usually is sufficiently high, such
compensation is rarely needed.
In motors in which some of the circuits are connected induct ively
in series with the others the diagram is essentially thesame, except
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 369
that a phase displacement exists between the secondary and the
primary current. The secondary current, Ii, of the transformer
lags behind the primary current, Jo, slightly less than 180° ; that is,
considered in opposite direction, the secondary current leads the
primary by a small angle, 0o, and in the motors with secondary
excitation the field flux, 4>, being in phase with the field current,
1 1 (or lagging by angle a behind it), thus leads the primary
current, Jo, by angle O (or angle do — a). As a lag of the mag
netic flux $ increases, and a lead thus decreases the powerfactor,
motors with secondary field excitation usually have a slightly
Fig. 180. — Singlephase commutator motor with secondary excitation
powerfactor improved by shunting field winding with noninductive
circuit.
lower powerfactor than motors with primary field excitation,
and therefore, where desired, the powerfactor may be improved
by shunting the field with a noninductive resistance, r . Thus
for instance, if, in Fig. 179, 01 = primary current, 01 \ = sec
ondary current, OEi, in phase with 01 1, is the e.m.f. of rotation,
in the case of the secondary field excitation, and OEo, in quadra
ture ahead of 01 1, is the e.m.f. of alternation, while OE' is the
impedance voltage, and OEi, OEo and OE' combined give the
supply voltage, OE, and EOI = the angle of lag.
Shunting the field by a noninductive resistance, r , and thus
resolving the secondary current OI\ into the components OI\ in
the field and 01" \ in the noninductive resistance, gives the dia
gram Fig. 180, where a = I'iO$ = angle of lag of magnetic
field.
24
370 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
205. The action of the commutator in an alternatingeurreri
motor, in permitting compensation for phase displacement iwl
thus allowing a control of the powerfactor, is very imn. ■m.
and important, and can also be used in other types of machines,
as induction motors am! alternators, by supplying these machines
with a commutator for phase control.
A lag of the current is the same as a lead of the e.m.f., and in
versely a leading current inserted into a circuit has the same ef
fect as a lagging e.m.f. inserted. The commutator, however
produces an e.m.f. in phase with the current. Inciting the field
l>y a lagging current in the field, a lagging e.m.f. of rotation is
produced which is equivalent to a leading current. As it is easy
to produce a lagging current by selfinductance, the commutator
thus affords an easy means of producing the equivalent of a
leading current. Therefore, the alternatingcurrent commutator
is one of the important methods of compensating for lagging:
currents. Other methods are the use of electrostatic or electro
lytic condensers and of overexcited synchronous machines.
Based on this principle, a number of designs of induction
motors and other apparatus have been developed, using Qm
commutator for neutralizing the lagging magnetizing current
and the lag caused by selfinductance, and thereby produdng
unity powerfactor or even leading currents. So far, however,
none of them has come into extended use.
This feature, however, explains the very high powerfactor*
feasible in singlephase commutator motors even with COQndtf
able air gaps, far larger than feasible in induction motors.
VII. Efficiency and Losses
206. The losses in singlephase commutator motors ate BOB '
tially the same as in other types of machines:
(a) Friction losses— air friction or windage, lwaring friction
and commutator brush friction, and also ■ :■ .
mechanical transmission losses.
(6) Core losses, as hysteresis and eddy currents. These an 1
of two classes — the alternating core hiss, due to the alternation
of the magnetic flux in the main field, quadrature field, and arma
ture and the rotating core loss, due to the rotation of the arma
ture; through the magnetic field. The former depends upon the
frequency, the latter upon the speed.
(cj Commutation losses, as the power consumed by the slum
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 371
circuit current under the brush, by arcing and sparking, where
such exists.
(d) ihr losses in the motor circuits — the field coils, the compen
sating winding, the armature and the brush contact resistance.
(e) Load losses, mainly represented by an effective resistance,
that is, an increase of the total effective resistance of the motor
beyond the ohmic resistance.
Driving the motor by mechanical power and with no voltage
on the motor gives the friction and the windage losses, exclusive
of commutator friction, if the brushes are lifted off the commu
tator, inclusive, if the brushes are on the commutator. Ener
gizing now the field by an alternating current of the rated fre
quency, with the commutator brushes off, adds the core losses
to the friction losses; the increase of the driving power theto
measures the rotating core loss, while a wattmeter in the field
exciting circuit measures the alternating core loss.
Thus the alternating core loss is supplied by the impressed
electric power, the rotating core loss by the mechanical driving
power.
Putting now the brushes down on the commutator adds the
commutation losses.
The ohmic resistance gives the i 2 r losses, and the difference
between the ohmic resistance and the effective resistance, calcu
lated from wattmeter readings with alternating current in the
motor circuits at rest and with the field unexcited, represents
the load losses.
However, the different losses so derived have to be corrected
for their mutual effect. For instance, the commutation losses
are increased by the current in the armature; the load losses are
less with the field excited than without, etc. ; so that this method
of separately determining the losses can give only an estimate of
their general magnitude, but the exact determination of the effi
ciency is best carried out by measuring electric input and me
chanical output.
VIII. Discussion of Motor Types
207. Varyingspeed singlephase commutator motors can be
divided into two classes, namely, compensated series motors and
repulsion motors. In the former, the main supply current is
through the armature, while in the latter the armature is closed
upon itself as secondary circuit, with the compensating winding
372
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
as primary or supply circuit. As the result hereof the repulsion
motors contain a transformer flux, in quadrature position to the
main flux, and lagging behind it, while in the series motors no
such lagging quadrature flux exists, but in quadrature position
to the main flux, the flux either is zero — complete compensation
■ — or in phase with the main flux — over or undercompensation.
A. Compensated Series Motors
Series motors give the best powerfactors, with the exreptioii
of those motors in which by increasing the lag of the field flux
a compensation for powerfactor is produced, as discussed in V.
The commutation of the series motor, however, is equally poor
at all speeds, due to the absence of any eommutating flux, and
with the exception of very small sizes such motors therefore are
inoperative without the use of either resistance leads or eom
mutating poles. With highresistance leads, however, fair opera
tion is secured, though obviously not of the same class with
that of the directcurrent motor; with eommutating poles or coils
producing a local quadrature flux at the brushes good results
have been produced abroad.
Of the two types of compensation, conductive compensation.
1, with the compensating winding connected in series with the
armature, and inductive compensation, 2, with the compensated
winding shortcircuited upon itself, inductive compensation nec
essarily is always complete or practically complete compensa
tion, while with conductive compensation a reversing flux can
be produced at the brushes by overcompensation, and the com
mutation thus somewhat improved, especially at speed, at (fat
sacrifice, however, of the powerfactor, which is lowered by the
increased selfinductance of the compensating winding. On the
shortcircuit current under the brushes, due to the e.m.f. of alter
nation, such overcompensation obviously has no helpful effect.
Inductive compensation has the advantage that the compen
sating winding is not connected with the supply circuit, can I*
made of very low voltage, or even of individually shortcircuited
turns, and therefore larger conductors and less insulation used,
which results in an economy of spaee, and therewith an infix Hfld
output for the same size of motor. Therefore inductive compttf
satiou is preferable where it can be used. It is not permissible,
however, in motors which are required to operate also on direct
current, since with directcurrent supply no induction takes place
.1IXGLBPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
373
and therefore the compensation fails, and with the high ratio of
armature turns to field turns, without compensation, the field
distortion is altogether too large to give satisfactory commutation,
except in small motors.
The inductively compensated series motor with secondary ex
citation, or inverted repulsion motor, 3, takes an intermediary
position between the series motors and the repulsion motors; it
is a series motor in so far as the armature is in the main supply
circuit, but magnetically it has repulsionmotor characteristics,
that is, contains a lagging quadrature flux. As the field exci
tation consumes considerable voltage, when supplied from the
compensating winding as secondary circuit, considerable voltage
must he generated in this winding, thus giving a corresponding
transformer flux. With increasing speed and therewith decreas
ing current, the voltage consumed by the field coils decreases,
and therewith the transformer flux which generates this voltage.
Therefore, the inverted repulsion motor contains a transformer
flux which has approximately the intensity and the phase re
quired for commutation; it lags behind the main flux, but less
than 90°, thus contains a component in phase with the main
flux, as reversing flux, and decreases with increase of speed.
Therefore, the commutation of the inverted repulsion motor is
very good, far superior to the ordinary series motor, and it can
be operated without resistance leads; it has, however, the serious
objection of a poor powerfactor, resulting from the lead of the
field flux against the armature current, due to the secondary ex
citation, as discussed in V. To make such a motor satisfactory
in powerfactor requires a noninductive shunt across the field,
and thereby a waste of power. For this reason it has not come
into commercial use.
B. Repulsion Motors
208. Repulsion motors are characterized by a lagging quadra
ture flux, which transfers the power from the compensating wind
ing to the armature. At standstill, and at very low speeds, re
pulsion motors and series motors are equally unsatisfactory in
commutation; while, however, in the series motors the commu
tation remains bad (except when using commutating devices),
in the repulsion motors with increasing speed the commutation
rapidly improves, and becomes perfect near synchronism. As
the result hereof, under average conditions a much inferior com
374 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
mutation can be allowed in repulsion motors at. very low speeds
than in series motors, since in the former the period of poor
commutation lasts only a very short time. While, therefore,
series motors can not be satisfactorily operated Hit hoot resist a m.e
leads (or commutating poles), in repulsion motors peristanofl
leads are not necessary and not used, and the excessive current
density under the brushes in the moment of starting permitted,
as it lasts too short a time to cause damage to the commutator.
As the transformer field of the repulsion motor is approximately
constant, while the proper commutating field should decrease
with the square of the speed, above synchronism the transformer
field is too large for commutation, and at speeds considerably
above synchronism — 50 per cent, and more — the repulsion motor
becomes inoperative because of excessive sparking. At syn
chronism, the magnetic field of the repulsion motor is a rotating
field, like that of the polyphase induction motor.
Where, therefore, speeds far above synchronism are required,
the repulsion motor can not be used; but where synchronous
speed is not much exceeded the repulsion motor is preferred be
cause of its superior commutation. Thus when using a commu
tator as auxiliary device for starting single phase induction
motors the repulsionmotor type is used. For high frequencies.
as 60 cycles, where peripheral speed forbids synchronism being
greatly exceeded, the repulsion motor is the type to be considers!
Repulsion motors also may be built with primary and str
ondary excitation. The latter usually gives a lietter commuta
tion, because of the lesser lag of the transformer flux, and i here
with a greater inphase component, that is, greater reversing flux,
especially at high speeds. Secondary excitation, however, gives
a slightly lower powerfactor.
A combination of the repulsionmotor and seriesmotor types
is the series repulsion motor, 6 and 7. In this only a part of
the supply voltage is impressed upon the conqxnsating winding
and thus transformed to the armature, while the rest of the sup
ply voltage is impressed directly upon the armature, just as in
the series motor. As result thereof the transformer flux of tin 1
series repulsion motor is less than that of the repulsion motor.
in the same proportion in which the voltage impressed upon the
compensating winding is less than the total supply voltage.
Such a motor, therefore, reaches equality of the transformer flux
with the commutating flux, and gives perfect commutation at a
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 375
higher speed than the repulsion motor, that is, above synchron
ism. Withthe total supply voltage impressed upon the compen
sating winding, the transformer flux equals the commutating
flux at synchronism. At n times synchronous speed the com
mutating flux should be — 2 of what it is at synchronism, and by
IV
impressing —^ of the supply voltage upon the compensating wind
IV
ing, the rest on the armature, the transformer flux is reduced
to —j of its value, that is, made equal to the required commuta
ting flux at n times synchronism.
In the series repulsion motor, by thus gradually shifting the
supply voltage from the compensating winding to the armature
and thereby reducing the transformer flux, it can be maintained
equal to the required commutating flux at all speeds from syn
chronism upward; that is, the series repulsion motor arrange
ment permits maintaining the perfect commutation, which the
repulsion motor has near synchronism, for all higher speeds.
With regard to construction, no essential difference exists be
tween the different motor types, and any of the types can be
operated equally well on direct current by connecting all three
circuits in series. In general, the motor types having primary
and secondary circuits, as the repulsion and the series repulsion
motors, give a greater flexibility, as they permit winding the
circuits for different voltages, that is, introducing a ratio of trans
formation between primary and secondary circuit. Shifting one
motor element from primary to secondary, or inversely, then
gives the equivalent of a change of voltage or change of turns,
Thus a repulsion motor in which the stator is wound for a higher
voltage, that is, with more turns, than the rotor or armature,
when connecting all the circuits in series for directcurrent opera
tion, gives a directcurrent motor having a greater field excita
tion compared with the armature reaction, that is, the stronger
field which is desirable for directcurrent operating but not per
missible with alternating current.
209. In general, tthe constructve differences between motor
types are mainly differences in connection of the three circuits.
For instacne, let F = field circuit, A = armature circuit, C =
compensating circuit, T = supply transformer, R = resistance
used in starting and at very low speeds. Connecting, in Fig. 181,
the armature, A, between field F and compensate" Ending, C.
376
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
With switch open the starting resistance is in circuit . dofBO
switch shortcircuits the starting resistance and gives the run
ning conditions of the motor.
With all the other switches open the motor is a conductively
compensated series motor.
Fia. ]
raged to operate
Closing 1 gives the inductively compensated series motor.
Closing 2 gives the repulsion motor with primary excitation.
Closing 3 gives the repulsion motor with secondary excitation.
Closing 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 gives the successive speed steps of the
scries repulsion motor with armature excitation.
opanta
Connecting, in Fig. 182, the field, F, between armature, .1 , ud
compensating winding, C, the resistance, R, is again controlled by
switch 0.
All other switches open gives the conductively compensated
series motor.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
377
Switch 1 closed gives the inductively compensated series
motor.
Snitch 2 closed gives the inductively compensated series
motor with secondary excitation, or inverted repulsion motor.
Switch 3 closed gives the repulsion motor with primary
excitation.
Switches 4 to 7 give the different speed steps of the series re
pulsion motor with primary excitation.
Opening the connection at x and closing at y (as shown in
dotted tine), the steps 3 to 7 give respectively the repulsion motor
with secondary excitation and the successive steps of the series
repulsion motor with armature excitation.
Still further combinations can be produced in this manner, as
for instance, in Fig. 181, by closing 2 and 4, but leaving open,
the field, F, is connected across a constant potential supply, in
series with resistance, R, while the armature also receives con
stant voltage, and the motor then approaches a finite speed, that
is, has shunt motor characteristic, and in starting, the main
field, F, and the quadrature field, AC, are displaced in phase, so
give a rotating or polyphase field (unsymmetrical).
To discuss all these motor types with their in some instances
very interesting characteristics obviously is not feasible. In
general, they can all be classified under series motor, repulsion
motor, shunt motor, and polyphase induction motor, and com
binations thereof.
IX. Other Commutator Motors
210. Singlephase commutator motors have been developed as
varyingspced motors for railway service. In other directions
commutators have been applied to alternatingcurrent motors
and such motors developed :
(a) For limited speed, or of the shuntmotor type, that is,
motors of similar characteristic as the singlephase railway
motor, except that the speed does not indefinitely increase with
decreasing load but approaches a finite noload value. Several
types of such motors have been developed, as stationary motors
for elevators, variablespeed machinery, etc., usually of the
singlephase type.
By impressing constant voltage upon the field the magnetic
field flux is constant, and the speed thus reaches a finite limiting
value at which the e.in.f. of rotation of the armature through
378
ELECTRICAL APPARA TVS
the constant field flux consumes the impressed voltagi
armature. By changing the voltage supply to the field different
speeds can be produced, that is, an adjustablespeed motor.
The main problem in the design of such motors is to get the
field excitation in phase with the armature current and thus pro
duce a good powerfactor.
(b) Adjustablespeed polyphase induction motors. In the
secondary of the polyphase induction motor an e.m.f. is gener
ated which, at constant impressed e.m.f. and therefore apprffld
mately constant flux, is proportional to the slip from synchron
ism. With shortcircuited secondary the motor closely ap
proaches synchronism. Inserting resistance into the secondary
reduces the speed by the voltage consumed in the secondary.
As this is proportional to the current and thus to the load, the
speed control of the polyphase induction motor by resistance in
the secondary gives a speed which varies with the load, just M
the speed control of a directcurrent motor by resistance in tin
armature circuit ; hence, the speed is not constant, and the opera
tion at lower speeds inefficient. Inserting, however, a con&taitf
voltage into the secondary of the induction motor the speed is
decreased if this voltage is in opposition, and is increased if this
voltage is in the same direction as the secondary generated e.m.f.,
and in this manner a speed control can be produced. If c =
voltage inserted into the secondary, as fraction of the voltage
which would be induced in it at full frequency by the rotating
field, then the polyphase induction motor approaches at noload
and runs at load near to the speed (1 — c) or (1 + c) times syn
chronism, depending upon the direction of the inserted voltage.
Such a voltage inserted into the inductionmotor secondary
must, however, have the frequency of the motor secondary cur
rents, that is, of slip, and therefore can be derived from the full
frequency supply circuit only by a commutator revolving with
the secondary, If cf is the frequency of slip, then (1 — c)f is
the frequency of rotation, and thus the frequency of commuter
tion, and at frequency, /, impressed upon the commutator the
effective frequency of the eommutated current is/ — (1 — c)/ =
cf, or the frequency of slip, as required.
Thus the commutator affords a means of inserting voltage
into the secondary of induction motors and thus varying its
spetd.
However, while these eommutated currents in their resultant
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 379
give the effect of the frequency of slip, they actually consist of
sections of waves of full frequency, that is, meet the full station
ary impedance in the rotor secondary, and not the very much
lower impedance of the lowfrequency currents in the ordinary
induction motor.
If, therefore, the brushes on the commutator are set so that
the inserted voltage is in phase with the voltage generated in the
secondary, the powerfactor of the motor is very poor. Shifting
the brushes, by a phase displacement between the generated and
the inserted voltage, the secondary currents can be made to lead,
and thereby compensate for the lag due to selfinductance and
unity powerfactor produced. This, however, is the case only
at one definite load, and at all other loads either overcompensa
tion or undercompensation takes place, resulting in poor power
factor, either lagging or leading. Such a polyphase adjustable
speed motor thus requires shifting of the brushes with the load
or other adjustment, to maintain reasonable powerfactor, and
for this reason has not been used.
(c) Powerfactor compensation. The production of an alter
nating magnetic flux requires wattless or reactive voltamperes,
which are proportional to the frequency. Exciting an induction
motor not by the stationary primary but by the revolving sec
ondary, which has the much lower frequency of slip, reduces the
voltamperes excitation in the proportion of full frequency to
frequency of slip, that is, to practically nothing. This can be done
by feeding the exciting current into the secondary by commuta
tor. If the secondary contains no other winding but that con
nected to the commutator, the motor gives a poor powerfactor.
If, however, in addition to the exciting winding, fed by the com
mutator, a permanently shortcircuited winding is used, as a
squirrelcage winding, the exciting impedance of the former is
reduced to practically nothing by the shortcircuit winding coin
cident with it, and so by overexcitation unity powerfactor or
even leading current can be produced. The presence of the short
circuited winding, however, excludes this method from speed
control, and such a motor (Heyland motor) runs near synchron
ism just as the ordinary induction motor, differing merely by the
powerfactor. Regarding hereto see Chapter on "Induction
Motors with Secondary Excitation."
This method of excitation by feeding the alternating current
through a commutator into the rotor has been used very success
380 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
fully abroad in the socalled "compensated repulsion motor" of
WinterEichberg. This motor differs from the ordinary repul
sion motor merely by the field coil. F, in Fig. 183 being replaced
by a set of exciting brushes, G, in Fig. 184, at right angles to the
main brushes of the armature, that is, located so that the m_mJ.
of the current between the brushes, G, magnetizes in the same
D
_±
Fig. 1*3. — Plain repulsion motor.
direction as the field coils. F, in Fig. 1S3. Usually the exciting
brushes are supplied by a transformer or autotransfonner. so as
to vary the excitation and thereby the speed.
This arrangement then lowers the e.mJ. of selfinductance of
field excitation of the motor from that corresponding to full fre
C_
qoency in the ordinary repulsion motor to that cc the frequency
of sop. hence to a negative value above syririmrJsn: so that
hereby a compensation for lagging current ;*r he produced
above synchronism, and unity powerdacKc cc even leading
currents produced.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 381
211. Theoretical Investigation. — In its most general form, the
singlephase commutator motor, as represented by Fig. 185,
comprises: two armature or rotor circuits in quadrature with
each other, the main, or energy, and the exciting circuit of the
armature where such exists, which by a multisegmental commu
tator are connected to two sets of brushes in quadrature position
with each other. These give rise to two shortcircuits, also in
quadrature position with each other and caused respectively by
the main and by the exciting brushes. Two stator circuits, the
field, or exciting, and the cross, or compensating circuit, also in
quadrature with each other, and in line respectively with, the
exciting and, the main armature circuit.
These circuits may be separate, or may be parts or components
of the same circuit. They may be massed together in a single
slot of the magnetic structure, or may be distributed over the
whole periphery, as frequently done with the armature windings,
and then as their effective number of turns must be considered
their vector resultant, that is:
2 ,
n = n
7T
where n' = actual number of turns in series between the arma
ture brushes, and distributed over the whole periphery, that is,
an arc of 180° electrical. Or the windings of the circuit may be
distributed only over an arc of the periphery of angle, w, as
frequently the case with the compensating winding distributed
in the pole face of pole arc, w ; or with fractionalpitch armature
windings of pitch, w. In this case, the effective number of turns
is:
2 . . a)
n =  n sin «
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
where n' with a fractionalpitch armature winding i:
of series turns in the pitch angle, w, that is:
n" being the number of turns in series between the brushes, dun
in the spaed (*■ — w) outside of the pitch angle the armature
conductors neutralize each other, that is, conductors curryine
current in opposite direction arc superposed upon each other.
See fractionalpitch windings, chapter "Commutating Machine,"
"Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering."
212. Let:
Bo, /o, Z a = impressed voltage, current, and selfinductive
impedance of the magnetizing or exciter circuit of stator (field
coils), reduced to the rotor energy circuit by the ratio of effective
turns, Cn,
Ei, I,, Zi = impressed voltage, current and selfinductive im
pedance of the rotor energy circuit (or circuit at right angles
to /„),
Et, It, Z t = impressed voltage, current and selfinductive im
pedance of the stator compensating circuit (or circuit parallel to
/l) reduced to the rotor circuit by the ratio of effective turn*,  ■..
fia, t», Z\ = impressed voltage, current'and selfinductive im
pedance of the exciting circuit of the rotor, or circuit parafld
to/„,
It, Z t = current and selfinductive impedance of the short
circuit under the brushes, /,, reduced to the rotor cireuit,
h, /... = current and selfinductive impedance of the short
circuit under the brushes, / B , reduced to the rotor circuit.
Z = mutual impedance of field excitation, that is, in the direc
tion of h, /,, /,,
Z' = mutual impedance of armature reaction, that, is, in the
direction of /,, I,, /&.
Z' usually either equals Z, or is smaller than Z.
Ii and I a are very small, Z, and Z& very large quantities.
Let S = speed, as fraction of synchronism.
Using then the general equations "Chapter XIX, which ftpplji
to any alternatingcurrent circuit revolving with speed, S, bhnmgjb
a magnetic field energized by alternatingcurrent circuits, gives
for the six circuits of the general singlephase commutator motor
the six equations:
SIXGLEPUASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 383
G o = ZJ b + Z (/
E , = Z,/, + Z' (/
& = Z/ + Z' (/
£*  Zl/, + Z (/;
o = ZJ 4 + Z (/
o = Z>h + Z' (/.
+ /i  W, (1)
+ A  W  J'SZ (/• + /.  /«>, (2)
 /i  W, (3)
+ /o  A>  jSZ v /«  /»  h\ (4)
 /o  /,)  jSZ tf. + /*  f,\ (5)
+ /i  /»)  JSZ (h + /.  M. 16)
These six equations contain ten variables:
/o, /it /•* lit /i, Is, £o, £l, £2, £Y
and so leave four independent variables, that is, four conditions,
which may be chosen. <
Properly choosing these four conditions, and substituting them
into the six equations (1) to (6), so determines all ten variables.
That is, the equations of practically all singlephase commutator
motors are contained as special cases in above equations, and
derived therefrom, by substituting the four conditions, which
characterize the motor.
Let then, in the following, the reduction factors to the arma
ture circuit, or the ratio of effective turns of a circuit, t , to the
effective turns of the armature circuit, be represented by 0*.
That is,
number of effective turns of circuit, i
number of effective turns of armature circuit*
and if #,, /,, Z» are voltage, current and impedance of circuit, i,
reduced to the armature circuit, then the actual voltage, current
and impedance of circuit, i, are:
/.
d$i } * cc Zi.
213. The different forms of singlephase commutator motors,
of series characteristic are, as shown diagrammatically in Fig.
186:
1. Series motor:
e = c #o + Pi; h = Colx] h = 0; / 3 = 0.
2. Conduetively compensated series motor (Eickcmeyer
motor) :
e = c #o + #i + c 2 # 2 ; h = co/i; / 2 = c 2 /i; h = 0.
3. Inductively compensated series motor (Eickcmeyer motor) :
e = coEq + Pi; # 2 = 0; /o = c /i; / 3 = 0.
384
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
4. Inverted repulsion motor, or series motor with secondary
excitation :
e = #1; cqE + c 2 E 2 = 0; c 2 /o = c / 2 ; It = 0.
5. Repulsion motor (Thomson motor) :
e = c #o + c 2 # 2 ; #1 = 0; C2I0 = coA; It = 0.
6. Repulsion motor with secondary excitation:
c = c 2 # 2 ; co#> + #1 = 0; lo = co/i; It = 0.
Fig. 186.
7. Series repulsion motor with secondary excitation :
ei = co#o + #i;.e 2 = # 2 ; h = c /i; /s = 0.
8. Series repulsion motor with primary excitation (Alexander
sen motor) :
ei = #1; e 2 = c #o + c 2 # 2 ; c 2 / = c / 2 ; Js = 0.
9. Compensated repulsion motor (Winter and Eichberg
motor) :
e = C2E2 + cz$ z ; gi = 0; / = 0; C3/2 = c 2 / 3 .
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 385
/m
Fig. 187.
10. Rotorexcited series motor with conductive compensation :
e = & + cj# 2 + c 8 # 3 ; U = c 2 /i; h = ci/ij /o = 0.
11. Rotorexcited series motor with inductive compensation:
. e = & + c,# 3 ; ft  0; /o = 0; /,  c 3 /i.
Numerous other combinations can be made and have been
proposed.
All of these motors have series characteristics, that is, a speed
increasing with decrease of load.
(1) to (8) contain only one set of
brushes on the armature; (9) to (11)
two sets of brushes in quadrature.
Motors with shunt characteristic,
that is, a speed which does not vary
greatly with the load, and reaches such
a definite limiting value at noload
that the motor can be considered a constantspeed motor, can
also be derived from the above equations. For instance:
Compensated shunt motor (Fig. 187) :
#1 = 0; c a ft = c 8 #3 = e; /o = 0.
In general, a series characteristic results, if the fieldexciting
circuit and the armature energy circuit are connected in series
with each other directly or inductively, or related to each other
so that the currents in the two circuits are more or less propor
tional to each other. Shunt characteristic results, if the voltage
impressed upon the armature energy circuit, and the field excita
tion, or rather the magnetic field flux, whether produced or in
duced by the internal reactions of the motor, are constant, or,
more generally, proportional to each other.
ReptUtsion Motor
As illustration of the application of these general equations,
paragraph 212, may be considered the theory of the repulsion
motor (5), in Fig. 180.
214. Assuming in the following the armature of the repulsion
motor as shortcircuited upon itself, and applying to the motor
the equations (1) to ((>), the four conditions characteristic of the
repulsion motor are:
25
386 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
1. Armature shortcircuited upon itself. Hence:
2. Field circuit and crosscircuit in series with each other con
nected to a source of impressed voltage, e. Hence, assuming
the compensating circuit or crosscircuit of the same number of
effective turns as the rotor circuit, or, c% = 1 :
Cq$0 + #2 = e.
Herefrom follows:
3. io == CqI 2.
4. No armature excitation used, but only one set of commu
tator brushes; hence:
/•0 f
and therefore:
/ 6 = 0.
Substituting these four conditions in the six equations (1) to
(6), gives the three repulsion motor equations:
Primary circuit:
Z 2 / 2 + Z' (h  /1) + Co 2 Zo/ 2 + CoZ (co/ 2  h) = e; (7)
Secondary circuit:
Zxh + Z' (h  h)  jSZ (co/ 2  I a) = 0; (8)
Brush shortcircuit:
Z4/4 + Z(h coh)  jSZ'ih  /,) = 0; (9)
Substituting now the abbreviations:
Z 2 + co 2 (Z + Z) = Z 8 , (10)
(ID
(12)
Z'
z
"A,
z x
Z'
= K
z\
z
, + z
= X4;
(13)
where Xi and X«, especially the former, are small quantities.
From (9) then follows:
h = X 4 1/, (c,  jSA) + jShA } ; (14)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 387
from (8) follows, by substituting (14) and rearranging:
' '  '• 1 + x,  x,s<
and, substituting (15) in (14), gives:
t _x r (coi5A)(l + X,X 4 S*)+jSAS»coX i j,S(SA + jiCo)
/«  Wi ! q: Xi  ^ »
or, canceling terms of secondary order in the numerator:
'•  k '''TTT^?> < I6)
Equation (7) gives, substituting (10) and rearranging:
h (Z, + Z')  hZ'  7 4 coZ = 6. (17)
Substituting (15) and (16) herein, and rearranging, gives:
Primary Current:
_e(l+X, _S%) ,
#2 = ^ > (18)
where:
# = (i43iSco)+X 1 (A3+4)X4(S J i4 3 S 2 Co+co 2 jSco), (19)
and:
a, =  8 ; (20)
or, since approximately:
A z = Co 2 , (21)
it is:
X = (4,  jSco) + Xi (c« 2 + A)  X4C0 (Co  j/S). (22)
Substituting (18), (19), (20) in (15) and (16), gives:
Secondary Current:
.{.+*» **(* + fl }
'' ZK
Brush Shortcircuit Current:
(23)
/4 = x««oU.s*). (24)
388 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
As seen, for S = 1, or at synchronism, J \ = 0, that is, the
shortcircuit current under the commutator brushes of the re
pulsion motor disappears at synchronism, as was to be expected,
since the armature coils revolve synchronously in a rotating field.
215. The e.m.f. of rotation f that is, the e.m.f. generated in the
rotor by its rotation through the magnetic field, which e.m.f.,
with the current in the respective circuit, produces the torque
and so gives the power developed by the motor, is:
Main circuit:
Q\ = jSZ (coh ~ M. (25)
Brush shortcircuit:
V< = jSZ' (/i  /,). (26)
Substituting (18), (23), (24) into (25) and (26), and rearrang
ing, gives:
Main Circuit E.m.f. of Rotation:
£'. =^ 0f ll+XiM (27)
Brush Shortcircuit E.m.f. of Rotation:
$\ = ™{Sco+ j\iA  c X 4 } ; (28)
or, neglecting smaller terms:
£\ = £*• (29)
The Power produced by the main armature circuit is:
Pi = [#'., /.is
hence, substituting (22) and (27) :
i% e i + x,  M, J ±gg4 4li] •
p
Let:
(30)
m = [ZK] (31)
be the absolute value of the complex product, ZK, and:
1
A = cl + ja"
X, = X',  j\'\
X 4 = X'« + jX" 4
(32)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 389
it is, substituting (31), (32) in (30), and expanding:
Pi = ^jr U«U  Scoa")  rSc*a'] + (1  Sc*r") (x(X\  X' 4 )
 r(X"i + X" 4 )]  Scoa'[r(\\  X'„) + jr(X", + X" 4 )
 x (X'«iS*  X'iScoa" + X" 4 »Sc a') f r (k\ScW
X" 4< S* + X" 4 Sc,a")}, (33)
after canceling terms of secondary order.
As first approximation follows herefrom:
Pl = Sc ^ x U _ Sc oa "  ?Sc* a >)
m 2 \ x /
**{i*.(^+^)}
TO'
S#X jl  Sc»(«" + ^a')
= C (l +S l )
hence a maximum for the speed S, given by:
dS u '
(34)
or:
So = ^l+ Co 2 (a" + £ a') 7  c« (a" + ^ «').
(35)
and equal to:
e*z
Pi =
1 2
{^l+a«(^ + ^) , ^(^ / + ^« # ). (36)
The complete expression of the power of the main circuit ia,
from (33) :
Pi  ***£{ [l  &* (</' + V)]'ft*  M  M*;, (37)
where fc» T b Xf k* are functions of X'i, X"i, X' 4 , X"*, as derived by
rearranging (33).
The Power produced in the bru*h shortcircuit is:
P 4  [#',, /M«;
390 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
hence, substituting (24) and (28) :
p pS*c e X 4 ec (l  S*)y
4 IK' ZK J
SWe* ( 1  S«) r . . , .. „ "I
5'coV (1  8*) . . , , . „ ,
= ±r (rX 4 + xX" 4 );
TO 2
(38)
hence positive, or assisting, below synchronism, retarding above
synchronism.
The total Power, or Output of the motor then is:
P = Pi + P<
or:
Power Output:
p = 
Scoe*x
m 2
{ [l &. («" + \ «') ]  6o+S [c„ (x" 4 + ^X' 4 )  6t]
 S'6,  S'co (x" 4 + r x X' 4 ) } ; (39)
or, approximately:
1  8* (a" + T  a') ] (40)
,s^i sco («"+;;«')} (41)
co(i + s 2 )
hence:
Torque:
given in synchronous watts.
The power input into the motor, and the voltampere input,
are, if:
2 = I 2 — Jl 2,
and : (42)
*2 — V 2 T * 2 , J
given by:
Power Input:
Po = ei\ (43)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 391
Voltampere Input:
Powerfactor:
Pa = «,, (44)
V  j\ (45)
Efficiency:
Apparent Efficiency:
V = p , (46)
PV = p , (47)
etc.
216. While excessive values of the shortcircuit current under
the commutator brushes, / 4 , give bad commutation, due to ex
cessive current densities under the brushes, the best commuta
tion corresponds not to the minimum value of I a — as the zero
value at synchronism in the repulsion motor — but to that value
of Ii for which the sudden change of current in the armature
coil is a minimum, at the moment where the coil leaves the com
mutator brush.
J 4 is the shortcurrent in the armature coil during commuta
tion, reduced to the armature circuit, /i, by the ratio of effective
turns:
__ shortcircuited turns under brushes ,.~.
4 total effective armature turns
The actual current in the shortcircuited coils during commuta
tion then, is:
// = y, (49)
or, if we denote:
£ = A h (50)
where A\ is a fairly large quantity, and substitute (24), it is:
/'< = dWi_z_s') (51)
Before an armature coil passes under the commutator brushes,
it carries the current, — /i; while under the brushes, it carries
the current, J'\\ and after leaving the brushes, it carries the cur
rent, +/i.
302 ELECTRICAL APPARA TUS
While passing under the commutator brushes, the current in
the armature coils must change from, — f,, to f',, or bjr:
v,  r. + u
In the moment of leaving the commutator brushes, the rur
rent in the armature coils must change from, f, to + f x , or hy:
I» = h~ /'« (53)
The value, /' 8 , or the current change in the armature coils
while entering commutation, is of less importance, since during
this change the armature coils are shortcircuited by the brushes.
Of fundamental importance for the commutation is the value,
/„, of Ihe current change in the armature coils while leaving the
commutator brushes, since this change has to be brought about
hy the 'resistance of the brush contact while the coil approaches
the edge of the brush, and if considerable, can not be comptdtad
thereby, but the current, / B , passes as arc beyond the edge of the
brushes.
Essential for good commutation, therefore, is thai the current,
/„, should be zero or a minimum, and the study of the commu
tation of the singlephase commutator thus resolves itself largely
into an investigation of the commutation current, /„, or its abso
lute value, if.
The ratio of the commutation current, i t , to the main
current, >\, can be called the commutation constant:
k 
For good commutation, this ratio should l>e small or zero.
The product of the commutation current, t„ and the speed, S,
is proportional to the voltage induced by the break of ih< mt
rent, or the voltage which maintains the arc at the edge of the
commutator brushes, if sufficiently high, and may lie called the
commutation vettage:
C = Si,. (55)
In the repulsion motor, it is, substituting (23) and [51 En
and dropping the term with X«, as of secondary order:
Commutation Current:
jSc
A,c (l  S»)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 393
Commutation Constant:
I 1 + j ~°  ami  S 1 )
/'l
1 +
jSco
= 1 
A
A<co(l  S*)
TTTScT
"*" A
(57)
Or, denoting:
A A = a\+ ja" t ;
substituting (32) and expanding:
*' ZD
I, e { 1 c, [Sa" + (1  S 8 ) a'J jc [(1  S 1 ) a",  Sa'} )
/i (r5coa")+"iScoa'
and, absolute:
(58)
(59)
*' = m^ ( * ~ c ° (Sa " + ( l ~ ,S2) a ' 4] I * + C »M ( 1 " 5*) «"4  Sa'\ •
(60)
it
= #
 C [Sa" + (1  fi 1 ) a' 4 ]) 1 + C«« {(1  .S*) a" 4  Sa'} 4
(1  Scoa") 1 + S'c V 2
(61)
Perfect commutation, or /„ = 0, would require from equation
(58) :
1  c [Sa" + (1S s )a' 4 ] =0,
(1  S*) a" 4  Sa' = 0;
or:
1  CoSa"
(62)
« 4 =
c (lS 8 )*
,» _ Sa ' _ i '
'  = = 1 — a 4.
« 4 =
1  s*
(63)
This condition can usually not be fulfilled.
The commutation is best for that speed, S, when the commu
tation current, ?'„, is a minimum, that is:
di„
dS
= 0;
hence:
~{(lc*[Sa"+(lS*)a'<))*+Co\(lS i )a"<Sa') i \=0
(64)
394 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
This gives a cubic equation in S, of which one root, < Si < 1,
represents a minimum.
The relative commutation, that is, relative to the current con
sumed by the motor, is best for the value of speed, St, where the
commutation factor, fc, is a minimum, that is:
£«• (65)
217. The power output of the repulsion motor becomes aero
at the approximate speed given by substituting P = in the
approximate equation (40), as:
s.= !
eo(a"+ r a') (66)
X
and above this speed, the power, P, is negative, that is, the
repulsion motor consumes power, acting as brake.
This value, So, however, is considerably reduced by using the
complete equations (39), that is, considering the effect of the
shortcircuit current under the brushes, etc.
For S < 0, P < 0; that is, the power is negative, and the
machine a generator, when driven backward, or, what amounts
to the same electrically, when reversing either the fieldcircuit,
/o, or the primary energy circuit, /j. In this case, the machine
then is a repulsion generator.
The equations of the repulsion generator are derived from those
of the repulsion motor, given heretofore, by reversing the sign
of S.
The power, P 4 , of the shortcircuit current under the brushes
reverses at synchronism, and becomes negative above synchron
ism. The explanation is: This shortcircuit current, /«, and a
corresponding component of the main current, /i, are two cur
rents produced in quadrature in an armature or secondary, short
circuited in two directions at right angles with each other, and
so offering a shortcircuited secondary to the singlephase pri
mary, in any direction, that is, constituting a singlephase in
duction motor. The shortcircuit current under the brushes so
superimposes in the repulsion motor, upon the repulsionmotor
torque, a singlephase inductionmotor torque, which is positive
Mow synchronism, zero at synchronism, and negative above
synchronism, as inductiongenerator torque. It thereby lowers
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
395
the speed, S<>, at which the total torque vanishes, and reduces
the powerfactor and efficiency.
218. As an example are shown in Fig. 188 the characteristic
curves of a repulsion motor, with the speed, S, as abscissa?, for
the constants:
Impressed voltage: e = 500 volts.
Exciting impedance, main field: Z = 0.25 + 3 j ohms,
cross field: Z' = 0.25 + 2.5 j ohms.
i i i
e 5oo volts
L25+3J Z,aolS*0.075i
as+i» z, 0.02s + ot07w
z
»k.
1
mu
\d
O.04
bill
X
,
■n
;£i
■ ;
"
/A
N
>
*
v
*
1
/
^*
s
,
^
■; /
N
'■'/

Selfinductive impedance, main field: Z = 0.1 + 0.3 j ohms,
cross field: Z» = 0.025 + 0.075johms.
armature: Z x = 0.025 4 0.075 j ohms,
brush shortcircuit: Z* = 7.5 + 10 j ohms.
Reduction factor, main field: c — 0.4.
brush shortcircuit: c A = 0.04,
Hence:
Z, = 0.08 + 0.60 j ohms.
A =0.835  0.014 j.
j  a'+ja" 1.20 + 0.02 j.
Xi = 0.031  0.007;.
X, = 0.179 + 0.087 j.
A t = 4.475 + 2.175 j.
A» = 0.202  0.010 j.
396 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Then, substituting in the preceding equations:
K = (0.204  0.035 S)  j (0.031 + 0.328 S),
ZK = (0.144 + 0.975 S) + j (0.604  0.187 S).
Primary or Supply Current:
. _ 500 { (1.031  0.179 S*)  j (0.007 + 0.087 S*) \
/2 ~ " ZK
Secondary or Armature Current :
T 500 {(1 + 0.048 5 0.1 79 S*) +j 0.4 S  0.087 S*))
II  2K — :
Brush Shortcircuit Current:
500 (1  S s ) (0.072  0.035 j)
U= . ZK '
and absolute:
40 (1  S*)
lx =
Ttt
Commutation Factor:
. = /(L508 S l  0.673) 2 + (0.718  6.4 S  0.704S*)*
V (0.697 + 0.4 S 0.014 )*
Main E.m.f. of Rotation:
500 5 (4.052 + 0.792 j)
El = z _
Commutation E.m.f. of Rotation :
„, 500 S* (0.4  4.8 j)
E<=  ZK  •
Power of Main Armature Circuit:
P = 250 S (4 052 _ Q 122 s _ Q 65? S2) Jn kw
m 2
Power of Brush Shortcircuit:
n 49.2 S 2 (1  S 2 ) . .
P 4 = zlt~ — y in kw.
Total Power Output:
m 2
p = ?™ ? (4.052 + 0.075 S  0.657 S 2  0.197 S 8 ).
m 2
Torque :
D = °~ (4.052 + 0.075 S  0.657 S 2  0.197 S 8 ),
m 2
etc.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 397
These curves are derived by calculating numerical values in
tabular form, for S = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8,
2.0, 2.2, 2.4.
As seen from Fig. 188, the powerfactor, p, rises rapidly, reach
ing fairly high values at comparatively low speeds, and remains
near its maximum of 90 per cent, over a wide range of speed.
The efficiency, 17, follows a similar curve, with 90 per cent, maxi
mum near synchronism. The power, P, reaches a maximum of
192 kw. at 60 per cent, of synchronism — 450 revolutions with a
fourpole 25cycle motor — is 143 kw. at synchronism, and van
ishes, together with the torque, D, at double synchronism. The
torque at synchronism corresponds to 143 kw., the starting
torque to 657 synchronous kw.
The commutation factor, fc, starts with 1.18 at standstill, the
same value which the same motor would have as series motor,
but rapidly decreases, and reaches a minimum of 0.23 at 70 per
cent, of synchronism, and then rises again to 1.00 at synchron
ism, and very high values above synchronism. That is, the
commutation of the repulsion is fair already at very low speeds,
becomes very good somewhat below synchronism, but poor at
speeds considerably above synchronism : this agrees with the ex
perience on such motors.
In the study of the commutation, the shortcircuit current
under the commutator brushes has been assumed as secondary
alternating current. This is completely the case only at stand
still, but at speed, due to the limited duration of the shortcircuit
current in each armature coil — the time of passage of the coil
under the brush — an exponential term superimposes upon the
alternating, and so modifies the shortcircuit current and thereby
the commutation factor, the more, the higher the speed, and
greater thereby the exponential term is. The determination of
this exponential term is beyond the scope of the present work,
but requires the methods of evaluation of transient or momentary
electric phenomena, as discussed in "Theory and Calculation of
Transient Electric Phenomena and Oscillations."
B. Series Repulsion Motor
219. As fuither illustration of the application of these funda
mental equations of the singlephase commutator motor, (1) to
(6), a motor may be investigated, in which the four independent
constants are chosen as follows:
398 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
1. Armature and field connected in series with each other.
That is:
#1 + Co#o = # = «ii (67)
where:
Co = reduction factor of field winding to armature; that is,
. „ field turns
ratio of effective r — — :
armature turns
It follows herefrom:
/o = coli. (68)
2. The e.m.f. impressed upon the compensating winding is
given, and is in phase with the e.m.f., ei, which is impressed upon
field plus armature:
#2 = e 2 . (69)
That is, #2 is supplied by the same transformer or compensator
as 6i, in series or in shunt therewith.
3. No rotorexciting circuit is used:
h = 0, (70)
and therefore:
4. No rotorexciting brushes, or brushes in quadrature posi
tion with the mainarmature brushes, are used, and so:
U  0, (71)
that is, the armature carries only one set of brushes, which give
the shortcircuit current, J\.
Since the compensating circuit, e 2 , is an independent circuit,
it can be assumed as of the same number of effective turns as
the armature, that is, e 2 is the e.m.f. impressed upon the com
pensating circuit, reduced to the armature circuit. (The actual
e.m.f. impressed upon the compensating circuit thus would be:
«. , • compensating turns \
c 2Cs , where c, = ratio effective — mature turn8 )
220. Substituting (68) into (1), (2), (3), and (5), and (1) and
(2) into (67), gives the three motor equations:
(72)
e, = Zih + Z' (/,  /,)  jSZ (co/,  /«)
+ c *Zo /i + CoZ (c /o — h),
ei = Z t J t + Z' (Jt  /,), (73)
= Z4i + Z(I< Co/,)  jSZ' (/,  /,). (74)
SIXGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 399
Substituting now:
1
Y* = ~ = qua dratur e, or transformer exciting 
it — Xa — X • — jX 3
z + z<
Z'
= X 4 = X' i +jV' 4
and
~ = A = a' — jV = impedance ratio of the
two quadrature (tuxes,
Zi + c<r <Z» — Zi = Z*
« = «l + «2,
(75)
(7fy
Adding (72? and ' 73 r and rearrangim^, ajv#* :
< = ZJ« + [ l (Zi  jikj  IJL
_ ,«•
or:
^ = ***/* + U 'A*  ;.v %  /. '  # .!
From (73/ follows:
or:
and
/; = /; 1  X :  tt)\
(. = f 1  x.  *>'
From '74 foBow«
= /< Z ~ Z.  / tJ? ~ ,,>/',  ^Z'/,
> >
'»/
/ 7*
i'4,
in its eratafcT^oi:. That !•?>, wh*n *>uU*ututiiAg '7^ jij '70,, //
can be drr>pj^o :
or:
^UUfoxiu^wly
'Vh
400
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Hence, (80) substituted in (79) gives:
= U (Z + Z*) ~ CoZh + jSet,
or:
/■
jSet
Hence :
and actual value of shortcircuit current:
r. ».{/.£).
where:
Co
b = "°, a fairly large quantity, and
C\ = reduction factor of brush shortcircuit
to armature circuit.
The commutation current then is:
/.  /l  /'4
»/l(l 6X4) +
jSetb \<
c Q Z
Substituting (81) and (80) into (77), gives:
/i =
or, denoting:
e 1 ^JSt\i (c  jS)_— jf_X»_
Z A 8  j«Sco ~ XiCo (c  jS) + \ 2 A
it is:
K = A*  jSco  X 4 c (c  j/S) + X 2 A,
. _ ejl jSt\i(co jS) t\i\
(1  Zk
It is, approximately :
A 3 =
Z:
— /._2
hence :
z =
x, = 0,
7C = c (l — C0X4) (c j<S),
= efl — JSOn (c  jS) 1
'' c„Z(l c„X 4 )(co  j»S)"
c Z(l — CoX<) i Co — /<S
' 1 )
(81)
(82)
(83)
(84)
(85)
(86)
(87)
(88)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 401
Substituting now (85) respectively (87), (88) into (78), (81) (84),
and into:
r,=i,SZ(co/i/4), 1
#\  jSZ' (/,  /,),
gives the
Equation* of the Series Repulsion Motor:
K = A z  jSc  \iC (c — jS) + \sA,
approximately:
K = Co (1  c X 4 ) (Co  jS).
Inducing, or Compensator Current:
_ e { 1  i»Mc  jS)  (1 +_0_X 2  , eta  X 2 )
/2 Z# " """ " Z'
approximately:
/•
j»X 4 «
+
te
c Z (1  C0X4) (co  jS) c Z (1  C0X4) Z'
Armatore, or Secondary Current:
. e\l jSikifa jS ) <\» )
tl ~ — ZK~ '
approximately:
j __ _ e f 1_ .« I
' l " 60Z (f C0X4) 1 Co  jS ^ 4 / '
Brush Shortcircuit Current:
T cX 4
#4 — wr\ :
f 1
Z(l  C0X4) lco jS
approximately:
cX 4 j 1
 jSt(l +X4 c X 4 )!»
/4 =
Z(l coX 4 ) I c  jS
jstl
Commutation Current:
(89)
(90)
(91)
(92)
(93)
/. 
1  \ t b
c Z (1 — c X<) I Co — jS
!: — ,^+is<x 4 [(6 1)
+ 6X4(1  Co)]}'
approximately:
h =
e (1 ■
c Z(l — CoX<)lco
^ + jSt\ i b j
26
(94)
402
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Main E.m.f. of Rotation:
approximately:
jSe
f 1 X 4
Co\i
Co
^ + jS<X«*(l co)}
Wl = JSe (1
XO
(95)
(96)
(98)
(1  coX*) (c  jS)
Quadrature E.m.f. of Rotation:
E\ = + jSte.
Power Output:
P  P, + P 4
 [#'1, /J 1 + [^'4, /d l .
Power Input:
Po = [«i, /1] 1 + [62, /2] 1 .
Voltampere Input:
P = ea'i + e*i2
= e{(l  0*i + ^'2},
where the small letters, i\ and it, denote the absolute values of
the currents, /1 and / 2 .
When t'i and i 2 are derived from the same compensator or
transformer (or are in shunt with each other, as branches of the
same circuit, if e\ = 62), as usually the case, in the primary cir
cuit the current corresponds not to the sum, {(1 — i x + tit] of
the secondary currents, but to their resultant, [(1 — /1 + f/2] 1 ,
and if the currents, J\ and /2, are out of phase with each other,
as is more or less the case, the absolute value of their resultant
is less than the sum of the absolute values of the components.
The voltampere input, reduced to the primary source of power,
then is:
P ao = e[(l  /1 + th\\ (99)
and:
*■ <iq ^s. 1 a»
P
From these equations then follows the torque: D = ■», the
o
powerfactor, p = p , etc.
These equations (90) to (99) contain two terms, one with, and
one without t =  , and so, for the purpose of investigating the
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 403
effect of the distribution of voltage, e, between the circuits, e\
and 62, they can be arranged in the form: F = K\ + tK*.
For:
t = 0,
that is, all the voltage impressed upon the armature circuit, and
the compensating circuit shortcircuited, these equations are
those of the inductively compensated series motor.
For:
that is, all the voltage impressed upon the compensating or in
ducing circuit, and the armature circuit closed in shortcircuit,
that is, the armature energizing the field, the equations are those
of the repulsion motor with secondary excitation.
For:
a reverse voltage is impressed upon the armature circuit.
Study of Commutation
221. The commutation of the alternatingcurrent commutator
motor mainly depends upon :
(a) The shortcircuit current under the commutator brush,
which has the actual value: J\ = — * High shortcircuit current
C4
causes arcing under the brushes, and glowing, by high current
density:
(6) The commutation current, that is, the current change in
the armature coil in the moment of leaving the brush shortcir
cuit, J* = /1 — l\. This current, and the e.m.f. produced by
it, SI ot produce sparking at the edge of the commutator brushes,
and is destructive, if considerable.
(a) Shortcircuit Current under Brushes
Using the approximate equation (93), the actual value of the
shortcircuit current under the brushes is:
*'«  Jo" coxo I trhs  ** } ■' ( 100 >
e\J)
where:
Co 1
b = — , or t = reduction factor of shortcircuit under brushes,
C4 '
104 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
to field circuit, that is:
, _ number of fi e ld turns
number of effective shortcircuit turns'
hence a large quantity.
The absolute value of the shortcircuit current, therefore, h:
call  cXJ (c* + 8*)
hence a minimum for that value of I, where:
/ = co J + SMI  ( (c,, 1 + S 2 ))* = mi
= 1  ( (c 1 + S s ) = 0, hence,
t 
1
" a,' + S>'
8 " >f" *
That is, t = — = j, v" — j gives minimum shortcircuit cur
rent at speed, S, and inversely, speed 5 = »/ — e#*, gives
minimum shortcircuit current at voltage ratio, (.
For ( =■ 1, or the repulsion motor with secondary excitation,
the shortcircuit current is minimum at speed, S = y/\ — c a '. or
somewhat below synchronism, and is j'» =  , while in ihe re
pulsion motor with primary excitation, the shortcircuit current
is a minimum, and equals zero, at synchronism S = 1.
The lower the voltage ratio, t = ! , the higher is the speed, S,
at which the shortcircuit current reaches a minimum.
The shortcircuit current, f\, however, is of far less importance
than the commutation current, /,.
(6) Commutation Current
222. While the value, J'„ = [\ + f t , or the current change in
the armature coils while entering commutation, is of niiuor im
portance, of foremost importance for good commutation is that
the current change in the armature coils, when leaving the short
circuit under the brushes:
h = h /'. (103)
is zero or a minimum.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 405
Using the approximate equation of the commutation current
(94), it is:
/. 
c Z(l — c X 4 ) I Co — jS
e
[ l " X ?* + jStkJb
c Z(l  c X 4 )(co jS)
and, denoting:
X 4 = X\ + j\"<,
it is, expanded :
e
; r { 1  X 4 6 + jS (co  jS) t\ A b] ; (104)
UZTi
m HI  X'lfr + Stb(S\\  C X" 4 )]
CoZ(lc X 4 )(co+iS)
 j [\"<b  S» (c X' 4 + SX" 4 )] ) ; (105)
hence, absolute:
h =
C<>z[l  C X 4 ]y/ Co 2 + fi[2
\[1  X' 4 fc + Sft(flX # 4  c X" 4 )] 2 + [X" 4 fc  Stb(c \\ + SX" 4 )] 2 ,
(106)
where [1 — c X 4 ] denotes the absolute value of (1 — c X 4 ).
The commutation current is zero, if either S = 00 } that is,
infinite speed, which is obvious but of no practical interest, or
the parenthesis in (105) vanishes.
Since this parenthesis is complex, it vanishes when both of
its terms vanish. This gives the two equations:
1  X' 4 fc + Stb (SX' 4  c X" 4 ) = 0,
X" 4 6  Stb (c X' 4 + SX" 4 ) = 0.
(107)
From these two equations are calculated the two values, the
speed, S, and the voltage ratio, t, as:
hence:
on —
h =
Soto =
C» (6X 4 *  X' 4 )
x"
4
x'V
c W(6X 4 *  X' 4 ) '
X" 4
606X4*
(108)
For instance, if:
Z =0.25 + 3j,
Z< = 5 + 2.5 j:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
4
ZVZi
u ' '
Co
= 0.4,
C4
 0.04;
hence:
b
 10;
and herefrom
S,
k
 2.02,
 0.197
 0.248 j = X', + j\"„
that is, at about double synchronism, for e s = te = 0.197 e, or
about 20 per cent, of e, the commutation current vanishes.
In general, there is thus in the series repulsion motor only one
speed, Su, at which, if the voltage ratio has the proper value, (o,
the commutation current, i„, vanishes, and the commutation i.
perfect. At any other speed some commutation current is left,
regardless of the value of the voltage ratio, (.
With the two voltages, e\ and e t , in phase with each other, t lie
commutation current can not be made to vanish at any desired
speed, S.
223. It remains to be seen, therefore, whether by a phase dis
placement between e t and e», that is, if ei is chosen out of phase
with the total voltage, e, the commutation current can be made
to vanish at any speed, S, by properly choosing the value of the
voltage ratio, and the phase difference.
Assuming, then, ej out of phase with the total voltage, e, hence
denoting it. by:
# s = et (cos 0s  j sin (?,), (109)
the voltage ratio, (, now also is a complex quantity, and expressed
by:
T = ^ = t (cob 0i  j sin $i) = t'  jt". (110)
Substituting (110) in (105), and rearranging, gives:
'• " czacx.Xc.M I[1  v ' fc + m w '  **"•>
+ Xt"b ta,X' ( + SX",)  jK",6  St'b (c„X', + SX",i
+ S!"c.(SX'.  e„X",)]]; (HI)
and this expression vanishes, if:
1  X',6 + Sfb (SX\  c,X",) + .Sf'o ta,X', + .SX",)  0, I
X'Vi  Sl'b (e.X', + SX",) + Sf'b (SX',  oX",)  0:
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 407
and herefrom follows:
, = Sb A 2  S\\ + c X" 4
S6X 4 2 (S 2 + Co 2 ) Co 2 + S 2
1 
S\ 4 — CqX 4
„ = Co6X 4 2  CqX / 4iSX // 4 _ 1
S6X 4 2 0S 2 +co 2 )
or approximately:
V =
t" =
SfcX 4 2
Co Cq\\ + SX" 4 ]
Co 2 + S 2 \ S Sb\ A 2
}
(112)
Co 2 + S 2 '
Co
(113)
S (co 2 + S 2 )
t" = substituted in equation (112) gives S = So, the value
recorded in equation (108).
It follows herefrom, that with increasing speed, S, t f and still
more t", decrease rapidly. For S = 0, V and t" become infinite.
That is, at standstill, it is not possible by this method to produce
zero commutation current.
The phase angle, 2 , of the voltage ratio, T = t' — jt", is given
by:
, „ _ ^ _ C06X4 2  Cp\' A  SX" 4 .
tan 2  t ,  Sfex ^ 2 _ sx ,^ + CqVV
rearranged, this gives:
Co sin 2 + S cos 2 &X4 2 — W .
(114)
and, denoting:
Co sin 62 — S sin 2
S f
— = tan a,
Co '
X"
(115)
(116)
where a may be called the "speed angle," it is, substituted in
(115):
6X4 2  X\
tan (02 + <r) =
hence :
and:
X" 4
= constant;
02 + o = 7,
2 — y __ ffm
— r77 is a large quantity, hence 7 near 90°.
A 4
(117)
(118)
(119)
<r is also near 90° for all speeds, S, except very slow speeds, since
in (116) Co is a small quantity.
408
ELECTRICAL APPARA TUS
Hence Si is near zcru for all except very low speeds.
For very low spe.edu, a is small, and $2 thus large and positive.
That is, the voltage, £ 2 , impressed upon the compensating
circuit to get negligible commutation current, must l>e approxi
mately in phase with e for all except low speeds. At low speeds,
it must lag, the more, the lower the speed. Its absolute value
is very large at low speeds, but decreases rapidly with increasing
speed, to very low values.
For instance, let, as before:
X,  0.304  0.248 j,
c„ = 0.4,
fl, = for <t = 79°; hence, by (116), S„ = 2.02, or double syn
chronism. Above this speed, 2 is leading, but very small, since
the maximum leading value, for infinite speed, S = <* . is given
by d = 90°, as, : =  11°. Below the speed, So, 0i is positive,
or lagging;
for S = 1, it isff = 68°, S = +11°, hence still approximately
in phase;
for S = 0.4, it is o = 45", S = 34°; hence Et is still nearer in
phase than in quadrature to e.
The corresponding values of T = t' + t" are, from (112):
S  2.02, e 5 = 0, T = 0.197, t = 0.197,
B  \, 81 = +11°, T = 0.747 +0.140 j, I = 0.760,
S = 0.4, 2 = 34°, T = 3.00 2.00 j, ( = 3.61.
224. The introduction of a phase displacement between tW
compensating voltage, E 5 , and the total voltage, e, in general is
more complicated, and since for all but the lowest epeedfl tbt
required phase displacement, 0;, is small, it is usually sufficient
to employ a compensating voltage, e., in phase with e.
In this case, no value of / exists, which makes the commutation
current vanish entirely, except, at the speed, So.
The problem then is, to determine for any speed, S, that value
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 409
of the voltage ratio, t, which makes the commutation current, i 99
a minimum. This value is given by:
~dt = °» (120)
where i is given by equation (106).
Since equation (106) contains t only under the square root,
the minimum value of i u is given also by:
where :
K = [1  b\' A + Sib {S\' 4  c X" 4 )] 2 + [fcX" 4  Sib (c \'i + S\"<)]\
Carrying out this differentiation, and expanding, gives:
/ = S6\ 4 2 ~ S\'< + Co*"* = 1 L _ SX<  c X'^l mn
1 Sb\J (co 2 + S 2 ) Jco 2 + S 2 1 " S6X 4 2 " f u ;
This is the same value as the real component, t f , of the complex
voltage ratio, T h which caused the commutation current to
vanish entirely, and was given by equation (112).
It is, approximately:
'  cTW (122)
Substituting (121) into (105) gives the value of the minimum
commutation current, i 0% .
Since the expression is somewhat complicated, it is preferable
to introduce trigonometric functions, that is, substitute:
tan 6  *" 4 > (123)
A 4
where 6 is the phase angle of X4, and therefore:
J/ = J 4 " !' I (124)
X 4 =* X 4 cos 6, I
and also to introduce, as before, the speed angle (116):
S
tan a = ■>
Co
(125)
v  \/c« 2 »; ,
hence:
,S  7*111*, I (126)
Ct, «■ 7 com 0, J
410
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Substituting these trigonometric values into the expression
(121) of the voltage ratio for minimum commutation current,
it is:
1_ __ sin (a — 6)
r Sbq x< < 127)
Substituting (117) into (106) and expanding gives a relatively
simple value, since most terms eliminate:
Jg = e {[cos 2 (a — 6) + b\ (sin a sin (a — 6) — cos 6)]
+ j [ sin (a — 5) cos (a — 6) — 6X4 (sin a cos (cr — 6) — sin 6)]}
**o =
(128)
(129)
(130)
CoZ(l  C0X4, (c +JS)
and the absolute value:
e ( cos (<r — 6) — 6X 4 cos <r) .
coz [ 1  C0X4] Vc? + S* '
or, resubstituting for a and 5:
. eJSVV^Co (X 4 2 fe  X/) }
lf ° coz [1  CoX" 4 ] (co 2 + S 2 ) '
From (129) and (130) follows, that i g = 0, or the commutation
current vanishes, if:
cos (a — 6) — 6X 4 cos a = 0, (131)
or:
SX"4  co (X 4 2 fe  X' 4 ) = 0.
This gives, substituting, X" 4 = y/\f — XV, and expanding:
X 4
X , t =
Co 2 + S 2
cos (a — 6) =
From (131) follows:
{6X4C0 2 ± SVS 2 "co 2 "(fe 2 X4 2  1)),
&X4C0
Vco 2 + S 2
(132)
cos (<r — 6) = 6X4 cos <r.
Since cos (c — 6) must be less than one, this means:
6X4 cos<r < 1,
or
X 4 <
b cos
or:
or, inversely:
x ^VcV+S*'
A4 < y
Cob
S > Co V6 2 X4 2  1.
(133)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 411
That is:
The commutation current, i 0i can be made to vanish at any
speed, S, at given impedance factor, X 4 , by choosing the phase
angle of the impedance of the shortcircuited coil, 5, or the resist
ance component, X', provided that X 4 is sufficiently small, or the
speed, S, sufficiently high, to conform with equations (133).
From (132) follows as the minimum value of speed, S, at which
the commutation current can be made to vanish, at given X 4 :
Si = Co Vfe 2 x 4 2  1,
and:
v  1 
hence:
X". = ^  I •
For high values of speed, S, it is, approximately:
cos (<r — 5) = 0,
a  6 = 90°,
tan a = — ;
Co
hence: <r = 90°
6 = '
X 4 = X 4 .
That is, the shortcircuited coil under the brush contains no
inductive reactance, hence:
At low and medium speeds, some inductive reactance in the
shortcircuited coils is advantageous, but for high speeds it is
objectionable for good commutation.
225. As an example are shown, in Figs. 189 and 192, the char
acteristic curves of seriesrepulsion motors, for the constants:
Impressed voltage: e = 500 volts,
Exciting impedance, main field: Z = 0.25 + 3j ohms,
Exciting impedance, cross field: Z' = 0.25 +2.5 j ohms,
Selfinductive impedance, main
field : Z = 0. 1 + 0.3 j ohms,
Selfinductive impedance, cross
field : Z % = 0.025 + 0.075 j ohms,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
fc
1
■i
<
=r
3
1
s
■y
_


■
e500 VOLTS f»o
z o.;5* si Zi 002s + o.07sj
j!=0.IS+2.Sj ZJ0.O2S+ 0,075)
/
P
»
a
0.4 C • 0.04
<
=

1

1JL
/
1"
i
«
0L1
:■■
m
>
Z= 0.25+3 j Zi=0.025+0.075j
Z' 0.;S+2_5J Z,0.O:5 40.O75j
ZrO.1 + 0.3J Z,= 7.S + 1D)
n
n
l\" I 
»
*H:
",
1
J*£
n
^
!
H ;
n
K
/
... a
«
h
f
M
n
#

IN
u
i.
MM
/
<
C BOO VOLTS f = 0.5
/
I
0.25»3j Z, 0 025+0075.
>
D
^
'1
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_
/

»E
/
n.
••
*
.
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j
f
P
i
•"
\
;t 
a
H
'
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~~
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SPEED
Fig. 191. — Scries repulsion motor.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 413
Selfinductive impedance arma
ture: Zi= 0.025 + 0.075 j ohms,
Selfinductive impedance, brush
shortcircuit: Z A = 7.5 + lOjohms,
Reduction factor, main field: c„ = 0.4,
brush shortcircuit c* = 0.04;
that is, the same constants as used in the repulsion motor,
Fig. 188.
Curves are plotted for the voltage ratios;
t = 0: inductively compensated series motor, Fig. 189.
t = 0.2: series repulsion motor, highspeed, Fig. 190.
( = 0.5: series repulsion motor, mediumspeed, Fig. 191.
( = 1.0: repulsion motor with secondary excitation, lowspeed,
Fig. 192.
e
soo
■
Z'"0.!i*2.Sj Z,0025t0.07Sj
I
3
s v
C.  O.J C, 0.04
iir
]v
...
—
"n

"",
;>
*'
.._
—
r
— .
.
—
IT
,
'
"
IsV
■+.
s
IUL
7~,
*
V
«
•±>i
/
/
/
\
Mill
■
/
v
SPEED
Fig. 192— Rcpulsio
secondary excitation.
is, from above constants
Z 3 Zi + c»(Z»+Z)
 0.08 + 0.60 j.
i.5
 0.202  0.010}.
*5
 0.835  0.014 j.
*
 0.031  0.007 j.
x,   z 
' Q + Z,
 0.179 + 0.087 j.
b*
 10.
~
414 ELECTKICAL APPARATUS
Hence, substituting into the preceding equations:
(90) ZK = Z,  jSeoZ  X,CoZ (e,  jS) + X 3 Z'
= (0,160 + 0.975 S) +j {0.590  0.187 S),
(92) /, = £,  ^ US^icjS) + U\
= IR + ^iC° 031 + 0035 ' s  >i: '' s
 j" (  0.007 + 0.072 S + 0.087 #')  ,
(91) /, = /, (0.969 + 0.007 j) + et (0.010  0.096 j),
(93)
a (0.072 +0.035;)+ 3d [ (0.016  0.072 6')j0.045+ 0.035g) 
h =
ZK
226. Ah seen, these four curves are very similar to each other
and to those of the repulsion motor, with the exception of the
commutation current, i,, and commutation factor, k = ?
The commutation factor of the compensated series motor,
that is, the ratio of current change in the armature coil while
leaving the brushes, to total armature current, is constant in the
series motor, at all speeds. In the series repulsion motors, the
commutation factor, h, starts with the same value at standstill,
as the series motor, but decreases with increasing speed, thus
giving a superior commutation to that of the series motor, reaches
a minimum, and then increases again. Beyond the minimum
commutation factor, the efficiency, powerfactor, torque and out
put of the motor first slowly, then rapidly decrease, due to the
rapid increase of the commutation losses. These higher values,
however, are of little practical value, since the commutation is
bad.
The higher the voltage ratio, (, that is, the more voltage is
impressed upon the compensating circuit, and the less upon the
armature circuit, the lower is the speed at which the commuta
tion factor is a minimum, and the commutation so good or perfect.
That is, with ( = 1 , or the repulsion motor with secondary ex
citation, the commutation is best at 70 per cent, of synchronism,
and gets poor above synchronism. With t = 0.5, or a series
repulsion motor with half the voltage on the compensating, half
on the armature circuit, the commutation is best just above syn
chronism, with the motor constants chosen in this instance, and
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 415
gets poor at speeds above 150 per cent, of synchronism. With
t = 0.2, or only 20 per cent, of the voltage on the compensating
circuit, the commutation gets perfect at double synchronism.
Best commutation thus is secured by shifting the supply vol
tage with increasing speed from the compensating to the arma
ture circuit.
t > 1, or a reverse voltage, — ei, impressed upon the armature
circuit, so still further improves the commutation at very low
speeds.
For high values of t, however, the powerfactor of the motor
falls off somewhat.
The impedance of the shortcircuited armature coils, chosen
in the preceding example:
Z K = 7.5 + 10 j,
corresponds to fairly high resistance and inductive reactance in
the commutator leads, as frequently used in such motors.
227. As a further example are shown in Fig. 193 and Fig. 194
curves of a motor with lowresistance and lowreactance com
mutator leads, and high number of armature turns, that is, low
reduction factor of field to armature circuit, of the constants:
Z 4 = 4 + 2j;
hence :
X 4 = 0.373 + 0.267 j,
and:
Co = 0.3,
d = 0.03,
the other constants being the same as before.
Fig. 193 shows, with the speed as abscissae, the current, torque,
power output, powerfactor, efficiency and commutation current,
i 0f under such a condition of operation, that at low speeds t = 1.0,
that is, the motor is a repulsion motor with secondary excita
tion, and above the speed at which t = 1.0 gives best commuta
tion (90 per cent, of synchronism in this example), t is gradually
decreased, so as to maintain i g a minimum, that is, to maintain
best commutation.
As seen, at 10 per cent, above synchronism, i g drops below t,
that is, the commutation of the motor becomes superior to that
of a good directcurrent motor.
Fig. 194 then shows the commutation factors, fc = ?> of the
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
\
i i 1 1 i i i i i i 1 1
»
e SQO VOLTS
Z =0.25 +3 j OHM Z,0.O26 + 0.079 J0"»t
\ ,
m
so
m
c. 0.3
n
i
\p
mt
/
r
. i
goo
EM
,
>•>
■v
MS
H
V
\
p
=
,'
V
..
=^=
.v
f
J"*
VI
1 1
'
/
H
LK.
^
i
'
5svhv
\7
/
/
Z0J5
Lfl
<
/
/
3.00
'"
SA
7
z.
oo;5io.075yo»i
4IjOHM
V\
II!
b,
/
£:?:"
s'
a. 00

\ V
*
1.7B
\
\
■
.v
!\
\
/
'^f
V
/
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sj /"
v
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<o
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— ■
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4
"

~A
^
O.ffl 0.1O 0.60 0.80 l.Of
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 417
different motors, all under the assumption of the same constants:
Z = 0.25 + Sj,
Z' = 0.25 +2.5j,
Z = 0. 1 4 0.3 j,
Z 2 = 0.025 + 0.075 j,
Zi = 0.025 + 0.075 j,
Z 4 = 4 + 2 j,
Co = 0.3,
c 4 = 0.03.
Curve I gives the commutation factor of the motor as induct
ively compensated series motor (t = 0), as constant, k = 3.82,
that is, the current change at leaving the brushes is 3.82 times
the main current. Such condition, under continued operation,
would give destructive sparking.
Curve II shows the series repulsion motor, with 20 per cent, of
the voltage on the compensating winding, t = 0.2; and
Curve III with half the voltage on the compensating winding,
t = 0.5.
Curve IV corresponds to t = 1, or all the voltage on the com
pensating winding, and the armature circuit closed upon itself:
repulsion motor with secondary excitation.
Curve V corresponds to t = 2, or full voltage in reverse direction
impressed upon the armature, double voltage on the compen
sating winding.
Curve VI gives the minimum commutation factor, as derived
by varying t with the speed, in the manner discussed before.
For further comparison are given, for the same motor
constants:
Curve VII, the plain repulsion motor, showing its good com
mutation below synchronism, and poor commutation above
synchronism; and
Curve VIII, an overcompensated series motor, that is, con
ductively compensated series motor, in which the compensating
winding contains 20 per cent, more ampereturns than the arma
ture, so giving 20 per cent, overcompensation.
As seen, overcompensation does not appreciably improve
commutation at low speeds, and spoils it at higher speeds.
Fig. 194 also gives the two components of the compensating
e.m.f., E 2 , which are required to give perfect commutation, or
zero commutation current:
27
410
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Substituting these trigonometric values into the expression
(121) of the voltage ratio for minimum commutation current,
it is:
# _ _1 __ sin (a — b)
1 ~ .2
01 x ( 127 )
q* Sbq\t v
Substituting (117) into (106) and expanding gives a relatively
simple value, since most terms eliminate:
Jg = e {[cos 2 (a — 6) + b\ (sin a sin (a — 6) — cos 6)]
+ j [ sin (a — 6) cos (a — 5) — 6X4 (sin <r cos (a — 6) — sin 6)]}
(128)
(129)
(130)
CoZ (1  C0X4, (c + jS)
and the absolute value:
e ( cos (q — 6) — 6X4 cos <r) .
l '° = Coz[l  CoXjv^ +"£*"'
or, resubstituting for <r and 5:
. e{5X // 4c ( X4 2 feX4 / )}
*'° Coz [1  CoXJ (co 2 + S 2 ) "
From (129) and (130) follows, that i gQ = 0, or the commutation
current vanishes, if:
cos (<r — 6) — 6X 4 cos a = 0, (131)
or:
SX" 4  Co (X 4 2 fc  X\) = 0.
This gives, substituting, X" 4 = VX4 2 — XV, and expanding:
X,
X\  ^rjgi 1&W ± S VS 2  Co 2 (6 2 XV  1)},
6 X4C0
cos (,  I)  ^qrii'
From (131) follows:
cos (a — 6) = 6X4 cos cr.
Since cos (c — 8) must be less than one, this means:
6X 4 cos<r < 1,
(132)
or K
X 4 <
b cos
or:
or, inversely:
x ^Vc 2 + s 2 '
A4 < 1 >
c b
S > c V& 2 X 4 2  1.
(133)
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 411
That is:
The commutation current, i 0} can be made to vanish at any
speed, S y at given impedance factor, \ 4 , by choosing the phase
angle of the impedance of the shortcircuited coil, 5, or the resist
ance component, X', provided that X 4 is sufficiently small, or the
speed, S f sufficiently high, to conform with equations (133).
From (132) follows as the minimum value of speed, S, at which
the commutation current can be made to vanish, at given X 4 :
Si = Co V6 2 X 4 *  1,
and:
x « ~b'
hence:
x "<  V x *'  I
For high values of speed, S, it is, approximately:
cos (<r — 8) = 0,
<r  6 = 90°,
tan <r =  ;
Co
hence: a = 90°
X 4 = X4.
That is, the shortcircuited coil under the brush contains no
inductive reactance, hence:
At low and medium speeds, some inductive reactance in the
shortcircuited coils is advantageous, but for high speeds it is
objectionable for good commutation.
225. As an example are shown, in Figs. 189 and 192, the char
acteristic curves of seriesrepulsion motors, for the constants:
Impressed voltage: e = 500 volts,
Exciting impedance, main field : Z = 0.25 + 3j ohms,
Exciting impedance, cross field: Z'= 0.25 +2.5 j ohms,
Selfinductive impedance, main
field : Z = 0. 1 + 0.3 j ohms,
Selfinductive impedance, cross
field: Z 2 = 0.025 + 0.075 j ohms,
'!■
• I .11 . r .tii.i* * s
* * • . »" " .» .I*.". ^fn**r:irri n •>
•  ... •... r'STfiiiT 'irr^r^ i: ;.
. * *  ..'•"• *:;< iiicncr * 4 \t nft:. ■
. i j !"!.> ••XDi»nt*:i w :^i rni :
* • . ■ .  .• irr'UTt**: v ■ r:t* iTnn:'
 •  : v. : ; i> r: :i^rr::t";n^
'■r '!i;i»»*!>:iTii«r:. ■ r.u* 
 r • . !•.«*.. 1* .'4. J.* 1 ! .«
■ .". ^ if: : "»:inn"i *•■ ••::*r .
:•■• r* »i "rrtiiMi!'.! i!:^r:.»:;
v^ %%il
 :<:■:»■*".«•!] »i ■•iiiiiim:;!":.
• ■ •.'iir' 1 '* i 'fi:i!ni;';
• :.' i: :: i::u" "■•  je
" >• t:**:::i: I2*» ■•irrrr
■■\" .>*:•? i.;rr'x::iiar.»i
. • . " ■ rrv i. ::: 'hi t
•■ ■ " .. • '::..'■ ■ r " ■i.'iri;
* " .' ""•" ! i i iT »i .]" ■■'.r
■ • •
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 421
Choosing the e.m.f., E 2f impressed upon the compensating
winding in phase with, and its magnetic flux, therefore in quad
rature (approximately), behind the main field, gives a com
mutation in the repulsion and the series repulsion motor which
is better than that calculated from paragraphs 221 to 224, for all
speeds up to the speed of best commutation, but becomes in
ferior for speeds above this. Hence the commutation of the
repulsion motor and of the series repulsion motor, when con
sidering the selfinduction of commutation, is superior to the
calculated values below, inferior above the critical speed, that
is, the speed of minimum commutation current. The com
mutation of the overcompensated series motor is superior to the
values calculated in the preceding, though not of the same
magnitude as in the motors with quadrature commutating flux.
It also follows that an increase of the inductive reactance of the
armature coil increases the exponential and decreases the alter
nating term of e.m.f. and therewith the current in the short
circuited coil, and therefore requires a commutating flux earlier
in phase than that required by an armature coil of lower reac
tance, hence improves the commutation of the series repulsion
and the repulsion motor at low speeds, and spoils it at high
speeds, as seen from the phase angles of the commutating flux
calculated in paragraphs 221 to 224.
Causing the armature current to lag, by inserting external
inductive reactance into the armature circuit, has the same
effect as leading commutating flux: it improves commutation at
low, impairs it at high speeds. In consequence hereof the com
mutation of the repulsion motor with secondary excitation —
in which the inductive reactance of the main field circuit is in
the armature circuit — is usually superior, at moderate speeds,
to that of the repulsion motor with primary excitation, except
at very low speeds, where the angle of lag of the armature cur
rent is very large.
420
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
change of current in the armature coil when passing under the
brush, superimposes upon the e.m.f. generated in the short
circuited coil, and so on the shortcircuit current under the
brush, and modifies it. the more, the higher the speed, that is,
I lie [juicier the current change. Tiiis exponential term of e.m.f.
generated in the armature coil shortcircuited by the commutator
brush, is the socalled "e.m.f. of selfinduction of commutation."
It exists in directcurrent motors as well as in alternatingcurrent
motors, and is controlled by overcompensation, that is, hj i
oommutating field in phase with the main field, and approxi
mately proportional to the armature current.
The investigation of the exponential term of generated e.m.f.
and of shortcircuit current, the change of the commutation
current and commutation factor brought about thereby IBd
the study of the conimutating field required to control this
exponential term leads into the theory of transient phenomena.
that is, phenomena temporarily occurring during and immedi
ately after a change of circuit condition.'
The general conclusions are:
The control of the e.m.f. of selfinduction of commutsti I
the singlephase commutator motor requires a COmmutatlDf
field, that is, a field in quadrature position in space to the mam
field, approximately proportional to the armature current Ittd
in phase with the armature current, hence approximately in
phase with the main field.
Since the conimutating field required to control, in the arma
ture coil under the commutator brush, the e.m.f. of alternation
of the main field, is approximately in quadrature behind I he
main field — and usually larger than the field controlling the
e.m.f. of selfinduction of commutation — it follows thai Mm
total conimutating field, or the quadrature flux required to give
best commutation, must be ahead of the values derived in
paragraphs 221 to 224.
As the field required by the e.m.f. of alternation in the )i"ii
circuited coil was found to lag for speeds below the speed of brsl
commutation, and to lead above this speed, from the poatMl
in quadrature behind the main field, the total GOmmutatiag
field must lead this field controlling the e.m.f. of alternation,
and it follows:
'See "Theory ami Calculations of Transient Electric Phenomena and
Oscillations," Sections I and II,
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS 421
Choosing the e.m.f., E 2 , impressed upon the compensating
winding in phase with, and its magnetic flux, therefore in quad
rature (approximately), behind the main field, gives a com
mutation in the repulsion and the series repulsion motor which
is better than that calculated from paragraphs 221 to 224, for all
speeds up to the speed of best commutation, but becomes in
ferior for speeds above this. Hence the commutation of the
repulsion motor and of the series repulsion motor, when con
sidering the selfinduction of commutation, is superior to the
calculated values below, inferior above the critical speed, that
is, the speed of minimum commutation current. The com
mutation of the overcompensated series motor is superior to the
values calculated in the preceding, though not of the same
magnitude as in the motors with quadrature commutating flux.
It also follows that an increase of the inductive reactance of the
armature coil increases the exponential and decreases the alter
nating term of e.m.f. and therewith the current in the short
circuited coil, and therefore requires a commutating flux earlier
in phase than that required by an armature coil of lower reac
tance, hence improves the commutation of the series repulsion
and the repulsion motor at low speeds, and spoils it at high
speeds, as seen from the phase angles of the commutating flux
calculated in paragraphs 221 to 224.
Causing the armature current to lag, by inserting external
inductive reactance into the armature circuit, has the same
effect as leading commutating flux: it improves commutation at
low, impairs it at high speeds. In consequence hereof the com
mutation of the repulsion motor with secondary excitation —
in which the inductive reactance of the main field circuit is in
the armature circuit — is usually superior, at moderate speeds,
to that of the repulsion motor with primary excitation, except
at very low speeds, where the angle of lag of the armature cur
rent is very large.
CHAPTER XXI
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS
230. With a sine wave of alternating voltage, and the com
mutator brushes set at the magnetic neutral, that is, at right
angles to the resultant magnetic flux, the direct voltage of a syn
chronous converter is constant at constant impressed alternating
voltage. It equals the maximum value of the alternating voltaga
between two diametrically opposite points of the commutator,
or "diametrical voltage," and the diametrical voltage is twice
the voltage between alternating lead and neutral, or star or J
voltage of the polyphase system.
A change of the direct voltage, at constant, impressed alter
nating voltage (or inversely), can be produced:
Either by changing the position angle between the eiuimjuia
tor brushes and the resultant magnetic flux, so that the direct
voltage between the brushes is not the maximum diametrical
alternating voltage but only a part thereof.
Or by changing the maximum diametrical alternating voltage,
at constant effective impressed voltage, by waveshape distortion
by the superposition of liigher harmonics.
In the former case, only a reduction of the direct voltage lx*
low the normal value can lie produced, while in the latter case
an increase as well as a reduction can be produced, an increase
if the higher harmonies are in phase, and a reduction if the higher
harmonics are in opposition to the fundamental wave of the dia
metrical or Y voltage.
A. Variable Ratio by a Change of the Position Angle between
Commutator Brushes and Resultant Magnetic Flux
231. Let, in the commutating maclane shown diagrammatic
ally in Fig. 195, the potential difference, or alternating voltage
between one point, a, of the armature winding and the neutral,
(that is, the 1' voltage, or half the diametrical voltage) be repre
sented by the sine wave, Fig. 197. This potential difference is
a maximum, e, when a stands at the magnetic neutral, at A or Ji.
422
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS
423
If, therefore, the brushes are located at the magnetic neutral,
A and B, the voltage between the brushes is the potential differ
ence between A and B, or twice the maximum Y voltage, 2 c,
as indicated in Fig. 197. If now the brushes are shifted by an
angle, r, to position C and D, Fig. 196, the direct voltage between
s =
r N
Fig. 195. — Diagram of Fig. 196. — E.m.f. variation
com mutating machine by shifting the brushes,
with brushes in the mag
netic neutral.
the brushes is the potential difference between C and D f or 2 e
cos f with a sine wave. Thus, by shifting the brushes from the
position A, B, at right angles with the magnetic flux, to the posi
tion E, F, in line with the magnetic flux, any direct voltage be
Fig. 197. — Sine wave of e.m.f.
tween 2 e and can be produced, with the same wave of alter
nating volage, a.
As seen, this variation of direct voltage between its maximum
value and zero, at constant impressed alternating voltage, is in
424
EL ECTRIC A L A PPA RA T f '8
dependent of the wave shape, and thus run be produced whether
the alternating voltage is a sine wave or any other wave.
It is obvious that, instead of shifting the brushes on the com
mutator, the magnetic field poles may \k< shifted, in the opposite
direction, by the same angle, as shown in Fig. 198, A, B, C.
Instead of mechanically shifting the field poles, they can bt
shifted electrically, by having each field pole consist of a numUr
of sections, and successively reversing the polarity of these sec
tions, as shown in Fig. 199, A, B, C, D.
by mechanically shifting llie poles.
Instead of having a large number of field pole sections, obvi
ously two sections are sufficient, and the same gradual change
can be brought about by not merely reversing the sections but
reducing the excitation down to zero and bringing it up again In
opposite direction, as shown in Fig. 200, A, B, C, D, E.
Fin. 11)9.— E.in.f.
by electrically shifting the polos.
In this case, when reducing one section in polarity, the othtf
section must be increased by approximately the same amount]
to maintain the same alternating voltage.
When changing the direct voltage by mechanically shifting
the brushes, as soon as the brushes come under the field pole
faces, selfinductive sparking on the commutator would result
if the iron of the field poles were not kepi away from the brush
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS 425
position by having a slot in the field poles, as indicated in dotted
line in Fig. 196 and Fig. 198, B. With the arrangement in Figs.
196 and 198, this is not feasible mechanically, and these arrange
,f. variation by shiftingflux distribution.
ments are, therefore, unsuitable. It is feasible, however, as
shown in Figs. 199 and 200, that is, when shifting the resultant
magnetic flux electrically, to leave a commutating space between
Fio. 201. — Variable ratio or splitpole converter.
the polar projections of the field at the brushes, as shown in Fig.
200, and thus secure as good commutation as in any other com
mutating machine.
426 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Such a variableratio converter, then, comprises an armature
A, Fig. 201, with the brushes, H, B', in fixed position and field
poles, P,P', separated by inter polar spaces, C, C, of such width as
required for commutation. Each field pole consists of two parts,
P and Pi, usually of different relative size, separated by a narrow
space, DD', and provided with independent windings. By vary
ing, then, the relative excitation of the two polar sections, Pand
Pi, an effective shift of the resultant field flux and a corresponding
change of the direct voltage is produced.
As this method of voltage variation does not depend upon the
wave shape, by the design of the field pole faces and the pitch
of the armature winding the alternating voltage wave can 1*
made as near a sine wave as desired. Usually not much atten
tion is paid hereto, as experience shows that the usual distributed
winding of the commutating machine gives a sufficiently close
approach to sine shape.
Armature Reaction and Commutation
232. With the brushes in quadrature position to the resultant
magnetic flux, and at normal voltage ratio, the direct current
generator armature reaction of the converter equals the syn
chronousmotor armature reaction of the power component of
the alternating current, and at unity powerfaetor the converter
thus has no resultant armature reaction, while with a lagging
or leading current it has the magnetizing or demagnetizing re
action of the wattless component of the current.
If by a sliift of the resultant flux from quadrature position
with the brushes, by angle, t, the direct voltage is reduced by
factor cos r, the direct current and therewith the directcurrent
armature reaction are increased, by factor, . as by the law
of conservation of energy the directcurrent output must equal
the alternatingcurrent input (neglecting losses). The dueet
current armature reaction, ff, therefore ceases to be equal to the
armature reaction of the alternating energy current, 5F», but is
greater by factor, '■
The alternatingcurrent armature reaction, S u , at no 
placement, is in quadrature position with the magnetic flux.
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS 427
The directcurrent armature reaction, £, however, appears in the
position of the brushes, or shifted against quadrature position
by angle t; that is, the directcurrent armature reaction is not in
opposition to the alternatingcurrent Armature reaction, but
differs therefrom by angle t, and so can be resolved into two
components, a component in opposition to the alternatingcur
rent armature reaction, £0, that is, in quadrature position with
the resultant magnetic flux:
£" = $ cos T = $0,
that is, equal and opposite to the alternatingcurrent armature
reaction, and thus neutralizing the same; and a component in
quadrature position with the alternatingcurrent armature reac
tion, $0, or in phase with the resultant magnetic flux, that is,
magnetizing or demagnetizing:
$' = $ sin t = $0 tan r;
that is, in the variableratio converter the alternatingcurrent
armature reaction at unity powerfactor is neutralized by a
component of the directcurrent armature reaction, but a result
ant armature reaction, 5', remains, in the direction of the resultant
magnetic field, that is, shifted by angle (90 — r) against the
position of brushes. This armature reaction is magnetizing or
demagnetizing, depending on the direction of the shift of the
field, t.
It can be resolved into two components, one at right angles
with the brushes :
5'i = & cos t = $0 sin r,
and one, in line with the brushes:
$'2 = $' sin t = £ sin 2 r = $0 sin t tan t,
as shown diagrammatically in Figs. 202 and 203.
There exists thus a resultant armature reaction in the direc
tion of the brushes, and thus harmful for commutation, just as
in the directcurrent generator, except that this armature reac
tion in the direction of the brushes is only $' 2 = & sin 2 t, that is,
sin 2 t of the value of that of a directcurrent generator.
The value of 5' 2 can also be derived directly, as the difference
between the directcurrent armature reaction, (F, and the com
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Fig. 203. — Diagram of minis, in splitpole converter.
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS
IHiuciii of i hi alternatingcurrent armature reaction, in the direc
tion of the brushes, 5 cos r, that is:
ff'j ■
= ff (1 ■
COS ! t) ■
 Jo sin r ton r
233. The shift of the resultant magnetic flux, by angle r, gives
ii component of the m.m.f. of field excitation, 5"/ = S/sinr,
(where ;T, = m.m.f. of field excitation), in the direction of the
commutator brushes, and either in the direction of armature
reaction, thus interfering with commutation, or in opposition to
the armature reaction, thus improving commutation.
If the magnetic flux is slutted in the direction of armature
rotation, that is, that section of the field pole weakened toward
which the armature moves, as in Fig. 202, the component 5"/
of field excitation at the brushes is in the same direction as the
armature reaction, 3'j, thus adds itself thereto and impairs the
commutation, and such a converter is hardly operative. In this
case the component of armature reaction, 5', in the direction of
the field flux is magnetizing.
If the magnetic flux is shifted in opposite direction to the
armature reaction, that is, that section of the field pole weakened
which the armature conductor leaves, as in Fig. 203, the Com
ponent, it",, of field excitation at the brushes is in opposite direc
tum to the armature reaction, J'i, therefore reverses it, if suffi
ciently large, and gives a commutating or reversing flux, $„ that
, improves commutation so that this arrangement is used in
such converters. In this case, however, the component of arma
ture reaction, $', in the direction of the field flux is demagnet
izing, and with increasing load the field excitation has to be in
creased by ff* to maintain constant flux. Such a converter thus
requires compounding, as by a series field, to take care of the
demagnetizing armature reaction.
If the alternating current is not in phase with the field, but
lags or leads, the armature reaction of the lagging or leading
component of current superimposes upon the resultant armature
reaction, 5', and increases it — with lagging current in Fig. 202,
leading current in Fig. 203 — or decreases it — with lagging cur
rent in Fig. 203, leading current in Fig. 202 — anil with lag of the
alternating current, by phase angle, 6 = t, under the conditions
of Fig. 203, the total resultant armature reaction vanishes, that is,
the lagging component of synchronousmotor armature reaction
compensates for the component of the direct current reaction,
430
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
which is not compensated by the armature reaction of the power
component of the alternating current. It is interesting t<> note
that in this case, in regard to heating, output based (hereon, etc.,
the converter equals that of one of normal voltage ratio.
B. Variable Ratio by Change of Wave Shape of the Y Voltage
234. If in the converter shown diagranimatieally in Fig. 204
the magnetic flux disposition and the pitch of the armature
winding are such that the potential difference between the point,
a, of the armature and the neutral 0,
or the 1" voltage, is a sine wave, Fig,
205 A, then the voltage ratio is
normal. Assume, however, thai
the voltage curve, a, differs from
sine shape by the superposition of
some higher harmonics: the third
harmonic in Figs. 205 B and C.
the fifth harmonic in Figs. 20.5 D
and E. If, then, these higher
harmonics are in phase with the
fundamental, that is, their maxima
coincide, as in Figs. 205 B and D,
they increase the maximum of the
—Variable ratio con alternating voltage, and thereby the
s shape direct voltagc;andiflhescharmonics
are in opposition to the funda
mental, as in Figs. 205 C and E, they decrease the maximum
alternating and thereby the direct voltage, without Appreciably
affecting the effective value of the alternating voltage. For in
stance, a higher harmonic of 30 per cent, of the fundamental
increases or decreases the direct voltage by 30 per cent . bill
varies the effective alternating voltage only by y/i + 0.3' =
1.044, or 4.4 per cent.
The superposition of higher harmonics thus offers a DMUM '•>
increasing as well as decreasing the direct voltage, at iurist.mi
alternating voltage, and without shifting the angle between the
brush position and resultant magnetic flux.
Since, however, the terminal voltage of the converter does not
only depend on the generated e.m.f. of the converter, but also
on that of the generator, and is a resultant of the two e.m.fs. in
approximately inverse proportion to the impedances from the
converter terminals to the two respective generated e.mJs., hi
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS
431
varying the converter ratio only such higher harmonics can be
used which may exist in the Y voltage without appearing in the
converter terminal voltage or supply voltage.
In general, in an nphase system an nth harmonic existing in
the star or Y voltage does not appear in the ring or delta voltage,
Fig. 205. — Superposition of harmonics to change the e.m.f. ratio.
as the ring voltage is the combination of two star voltages dis
180
placed in phase by — degrees for the fundamental, and thus by
IV
180°, or in opposition, for the nth harmonic.
Thus, in a threephase system, the third harmonic can be in
troduced into the Y voltage of the converter, as in Figs. 205 B
and C, without affecting or appearing in the delta voltage, so
can be used for varying the directcurrent voltage, while the fifth
harmonic can not be used in this way, but would reappear and
432
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
cause a shortcircuit current in the supply voltage, hence should
be made sufficiently small to be harmless.
235. The third harmonic thus can be used for varying the
direct voltage in the threephase converter diagrammatically
shown in Fig. 206 A, and also in the sixphase converter with
Fio. 206. — Transformer connections for varying the e.m.f. ratio by super
position of the third harmonic.
doubledelta connection, as shown in Fig. 206 B, or double}'
connection, as shown in Fig. 206 C, since this consists of two sepa
rate threephase triangles of voltage supply, and neither of them
contains the third harmonic. In such a sixphase converter
with double Y connection, Fig. 206 C, the two neutrals, however,
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS
433
must not be connected together, as the third harmonic voltage
exists between the neutrals. In the sixphase converter with
diametrical connections, the third harmonic of the Y voltage ap
pears in the terminal voltage, as the diametrical voltage is twice
the Y voltage. In such a converter, if the primaries of the sup
Fig. 207. — Shelltype transformers.
ply transformers are connected in delta, as in Fig. 206 D, the
third harmonic is shortcircuited in the primary voltage triangle,
and thus produces excessive currents, which cause heating and
interfere with the voltage regulation, therefore, this arrangement
^
> f
TV
^i
n
tt
Fig. 208. — Coretype transformer.
is not permissible. If, however, the primaries are connected in
Y, as in Fig. 206 E, and either three separate singlephase trans
formers, or a threephase transformer with three independent
magnetic circuits, is used, as in Fig. 207, the triplefrequency
voltages in the primary are in phase with each other between
28
434
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the line and the neutral, and thus, with isolated neutral, can not
produce any current. With a threephase transformer as shown
in Fig. 208, that is, in which the magnetic circuit of the third
harmonic is open, triple frequency currents can exist in the sec
ondary and this arrangement therefore is not satisfactory.
In twophase converters, lugher harmonics can he used for
regulation only if the transformers are connected in such a man
ner that the regulating harmonic, which appears in the converter
terminal voltage, does not appear in the transformer terminals,
that is, by the connection analogous to Figs. 206 E and 207.
Since the directvoltage regulation of a threephase or sis
phase converter of this type is produced by the third harmonic,
Fig. 209.— V e.m.f. wa'
the problem is to design the magnetic circuit of the converter
so as to produce the maximum third harmonic, the minimum
fifth and seventh harmonics.
If q = interpolar space, thus (1 — q) = pole arc, as fraction
of pitch, the wave shape of the voltage generated between the
point, a, of a fullpitch distributed winding — as generally used
for commutating machines — and the neutral, or the induced Y
voltage of the system is a triangle with the top cut off for dis
tance q, as shown in Fig. 209, when neglecting magnetic spread
at the pole corners.
If then Co = voltage generated per armature turn while in
front of the field pole (which is proportional to the magnetic den
sity in the air gap), m = series turns from brush to brush, the
maximum voltage of thewave shown in Fig. 209 is:
E tt = ?nc (l  g);
developed into a Fourier series, tliis gives, as the equation of the
voltage wave a, Fig. 188:
(2» 1)^
*F ^ COS 2
(1 ?)t 5 i (2n  1)'
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS 435
or, substituting for 2? , and denoting:
A 8 tneo
A = — ^i
2n  1
 cos 2" &
e = A r (2WD' cos(2ri " x) •
f ir 1 ir 1 i*
= il  cos q s cos + q cos 3 g _ c <> s 3 + j cos 5 q = cos 5
1 ir
+ T« cos 7 ^ ^ cos 7 +
Thus the third harmonic is a positive maximum for q = 0, or
100 per cent, pole arc, and a negative maximum for q = % y or
33.3 per cent, pole arc.
For maximum direct voltage, q should therefore be made as
small, that is, the pole arc as large, as commutation permits.
In general, the minimum permissible value of q is about 0.15 to
0.20.
The fifth harmonic vanishes for q = 0.20 and q = 0.60, and
the seventh harmonic for q = 0.143, 0.429, and 0.714.
For small values of q, the sum of the fifth and seventh har
monics is a minimum for about q = 0.18, or 82 per cent, pole arc.
Then for q = 0.18, or 82 per cent, pole arc:
ei = A {0.960 cos + 0.0736 cos 3 6 + 0.0062 cos 5 6
 0.0081 cos 7 d + . . . }
= 0.960 A {cos 6 + 0.0766 cos 3 + 0.0065 cos 5
 0.0084 cos 7 + . . . } ;
that is, the third harmonic is less than 8 per cent., so that not
much voltage rise can be produced in this manner, while the
fifth and seventh harmonics together are only 1.3 per cent., thus
negligible.
236. Better results are given by reversing or at least lowering
the flux in the center of the field pole. Thus, dividing the pole
face into three equal sections, the middle section, of 27 per cent,
pole arc, gives the voltage curve, q = 0.73, thus:
e 2 = A {0.411 cos  0.1062 cos 3 + 0.0342 cos 5
0.0035 cos 7 . . .}
= 0.411 A {cos  0.258 cos 3 + 0.083 cos 5
0.0085 cos 7 . . .}•
The voltage curves given by reducing the pole center to one
436 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
hall intensity, to aero, reversing it to half intensity, to full in
tensity, anil to Btich intensity that the fundamental disappear*,
then are given 1 >y :
(1) full, e = e, = O.96OAcos0+O.O77cos30
+0.0065 cos 5 00.0084 cos 7 0. . ,
(2) 0.5, «■ = <>, 0.5c 2 = O.755A(cos0+O.168cos30
0.0144 cos 5 00.0085 cos 7 0. . . 
(3) 0, e = e,e, =0.549 ,4 {cos 0+0.328 cos 3
0.053 cos 5 00.084 cos 7 0. . .
(4) 0.5 e=«i1.5e, =0.344 A (cos 6 +0.680 cos 3 B
0.131 cos 5 00.0084 cos 7 0. . \
(5)  full, c = e,2<> 2 =0.138 A  cos 0+2.07 cos 30
0.45 cos 5 00.008 cos 7 0. . 
(6) 1.17, e = c,2.34e 2 = 0.322^jcos 3 00.227 cos 5 0. 
It is interesling tn note that in the last case the fundamental
frequency disappears and the machine is a generator of triple
frequency, that is, produces or consumes a frequency equal to
three times synchronous frequency. In this ease the sevmUl
harmonic also disappears, and only the fifth is appreciable. Iiut
could be greatly reduced by a different kind of pole inc. From
above table follows:
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) normal
MilMIIIHII: fuuiln
rocntal alter 0.960 0.755 0,549 0.344 0.138 0.960
n&ting voile . .
Direct volte 1.033 0.883 0.743 0.578 0.423 0.322 0.960
237. It is seen that a considerable increase of direel voltage
beyond the normal ratio involves a sacrifice of output, due to
the decrease or reversal of a part of the magnetic flux, whereby
the airgap section is not fully utilized. Thus it is not advisable
to go too far in tliis direction.
By the superposition of the third harmonic upon the funda
mental wave of the Y voltage, in a converter with three seetwni
per pole, thus an increase of direct voltage over its norma!
voltage can be produced by lowering the excitation of the middk
section and raising that of the outside sections of the field pole,
and also inversely a decrease of the direct voltage l>e!ow its
normal value by raising the excitation of the middl
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS 437
and decreasing that of the outside sections of the field poles;
that is, in the latter case making the magnetic flux distribution
at the armature periphery peaked, in the former case by making
the flux distribution flattopped or even doublepeaked.
Armature Reaction and Commutation
238. In such a splitpole converter let p equal ratio of direct
voltage to that voltage which it would have, with the same
alternating impressed voltage, at normal voltage ratio, where
p > 1 represents an overnormal, p < 1 a subnormal direct
voltage. The direct current, and thereby the directcurrent
armature reaction, then is changed from the value which it
would have at normal voltage ratio, by the factor — , as the
product of direct volts and amperes must be the same as at
normal voltage ratio, being equal to the alternating power
input minus losses.
With unity powerfactor, the directcurrent armature reac
tion, $, in a converter of normal voltage ratio is equal and opposite,
and thus neutralized by the alternatingcurrent armature reac
tion, $0, and at a change of voltage ratio from normal, by factor
p, and thus change of direct current by factor — The direct
current armature reaction thus is:
* = *•
V
hence, leaves an uncompensated resultant.
As the alternatingcurrent armature reaction at unity power
factor is in quadrature with the magnetic flux, and the direct
current armature reaction in line with the brushes, and with
this type of converter the brushes stand at the magnetic neutral,
that is, at right angles to the magnetic flux, the two armature
reactions are in the same direction in opposition with each other,
and thus leave the resultant, in the direction of the commutator
brushes:
5' = $  So
*(H
The converter thus has an armature reaction proportional to
the deviation of the voltage ratio from normal.
239. If p > 1, or overnormal direct voltage, the armature
438 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
reaction is negative, or motor reaction, and the magnetic Hux
produced by it at the commutator brushes thus a commutfttWfl,
flux. If p < I, or subnormal direct voltage, the armature
reaction is positive, that is, the same as in a directcumrii gen
erator, but less in intensity, and thus the magnetic flux of arma
ture reaction tends to impair commutation. In a directcurrent
generator, by shifting the brushes to the edge of the field poles,
the field flux is used as reversing flux to give commutation. In
this converter, however, decrease of direct voltage is produced by
lowering the outside sections of the field poles, and the edge of
the field may not have a sufficient flux density to give commuta
d . LHJ . UHLJ . L
Fio. 210. — Threesection pole tor variable ratio
tion, with a considerable decrease of voltage l)elow normal, and
thus a separate commutating pole is required. Preferably this
type of converter should be used only for raising the voltage,
for lowering the voltage the other type, which operates by a
shift of the resultant flux, and so gives a component of the main
field flux as commutating flux, should be used, or a combination
of both types.
With a polar construction consisting of three sections, thia
can be done by having the middle section at low, the nul.sicfe
sections at high excitation for maximum voltage, and, to de
crease the voltage, raise the excitation of the center section, but
instead of lowering both outside sections, leave the section in the
direction of the armature rotation unchanged, while lowering
the other outside section twice as much, and thus produce, in
addition to the change of wave shape, a shift of the flux, as
represented by the scheme Fig, 210.
Pole section . .
Max. voltage ,
Min. voltage .
Magnetic Density
3 1'
.+<B +<B
+&M +*:' 3+S
+63 +<B

+ > s<B 
'
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS 439
Where the required voltage range above normal is not greater
than can be produced by the third harmonic of a large pole arc
with uniform density, this combination of voltage regulation
by both methods can be carried out with two sections of the
field poles, of which the one (toward which the armature moves)
is greater than the other, as shown in Fig. 211, and the variation
then is as follows:
Magnetic Density
Pole section 1 2 1' 2'
Mat. voltage + <B+ (B — (B — (B
+ M« + i^(B  y 2 & 1J4®
1^(B 1^(B
Min. voltage  M® + 1?£(B + V 2 (R 1?£(B
Fio. 211. — Twosection pole for variableratio converter.
Heating and Rating
240. The distribution of current in the armature conductors
of the variableratio converter, the wave form of the actual
or differential current in the conductors, and the effect of the
wattless current thereon, are determined in the same manner as
in the standard converter, and from them are calculated the local
heating in the individual armature turns and the mean armature
heating.
In an nphase converter of normal voltage ratio, let E =
direct voltage; /<> = direct current; E° = alternating voltage
between adjacent collector rings (ring voltage), and J° = alter
nating current between adjacent collector rings (ring current);
then, as seen in the preceding:
£ sin
E° =
n
V2
(1)
and as by the law of conservation of energy, the output must
equal the input, when neglecting losses:
hV2
1° =
n sm
n
(2)
■140
F.LVJ ■ TRIt A L A PPA HA TUS
where I* is the power component of the current corresponding
In the duvet current output.
The voltage ratio of a converter can be varied:
(a) By the superposition of a third harmonic upon the
tar voltage, or diametrical voltage, which does not appear in
"he ring voltage, or voltage between the collector rings of lbs
converter.
(6) By shifting the direction of the magnetic flux.
(ii) can be used for raising the direct voltage as well as for
lowering it, but is used almost, always for the former purpose,
since when using this method for lowering the direct voltage
Commutation is impaired.
(b) can Ik* used only for lowering (he direct voltage.
It is possible, by proportioning (he relative amounts by which
the two methods contribute to the regulation of the voltage,
to maintain a proper commutating field at the brushes for all
loads and voltages. Where, however, this is not done, the
brushes are shifted to the edge of the next field pole, and into
the fringe of its field, thus deriving the commutating field.
241. In such a variableratio converter let, then, ( = intensity
of the third harmonic, or rather of that component of it which
is in line with the directcurrent brushes, and thus (hies the
voltage regulation, as fraction of the fundamental wave. / fa
chosen as positive if the third harmonic increases the maximum
of the fundamental wave (wide pole arc) and thus raises the
direct voltage, and negative when lowering the maximum of the
fundamental and therewith the direct voltage (narrow pole arc).
pi = loss of power in the converter, which is supplied by the
current (friction and core loss) as fraction of the alternating
input (assumed as 4 per cent, in the numerical example).
T,, = angle of brush shift on the commutator, counted positive
in the direction of rotation.
0i = angle of time lag of the alternating current (thus negative
for lead).
r„ = angle of shift of the resultant field from the position :>t
right angles to the mechanical neutral (or middle between the
pole corners of main poles and auxiliary poles), counted positive
in the direction opposite to the direction of armature rotation.
that is, positive in that direction in which the field flux has been
shifted to get good commutation, as discussed in the preceding
article.
HEGULATIXG POLE COXYERTERS 441
Due to the third harmonic, f, and the angle of shift of the field
flux, r a , the voltage ratio differs from the normal by the factor:
(1 + t) COST«,
and the ring voltage of the converter thus is:
E = r— r ~ — : (3)
(1 + /) COST*
hence, by (1):
E =
£ sin
n (4)
V2(l +/)eosr
and the power component of the ring current corresponding to
the direct current output thus is, when neglecting losses, from
(2):
J' = Jo(! +t ) COSTa
= IoV2(l+t)cos T a . (5)
T
n sin 
n
Due to the loss, pi, in the converter, this current is increased by
(1 + pi) in a direct converter, or decreased by the factor
(1 — pi) in an inverted converter.
The power camponent of the alternating current thus is:
/, = /'(!+ Vl )
T \/2(l+0 (1+P /) COS T a
= '0 t
(0)
n sin 
n
where pi may be considered as negative in an inverted converter.
With the angle of lag 0i, the reactive component of the current
is:
J 2 = I\ tan 0i,
and the total alternating ring current is:
z = _i v
cos 0t
_ JoV2(l+0 (l+p ( )cosT a (?)
n sin  cos 0i
n
a
t
442 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
or, introducing for simplicity the abbreviation:
t  (1 + 00 + PJW T.
(8)
(9)
242. Let, in Fig. 212, Il'OA represent the center line of the
magnetic field structure.
The resultant magnetic field flux, 0*, then leads OA by angle
*Oi = r a .
The resultant m.m.f.of the alternating power current,/], isO/i,
it
f \ \
1 v\
/ \1
h
* is
^L
s
/^*«
Fio. 212.— Diagram of variable ratio converter.
at right angles to 0$, and the resultant m.m.f . of the alternating
reactive current, h, is Olt, in opposition to 0* f while the total
alternating current, I, is 01, lagging by angle 6\ behind <)/,.
The m.m.f. of directcurrent armature reaction is in the direc
tion of the brushes, thus lagging by angle r» behind the position
OB, where BOA = 90°, and given by 0~lo
The angle by which the directcurrent m.m.f., O/ , lags in space
behind the total alternating m.m.f., 01, thus is, by Pig. 212:
r„ = Si  r„  r h . (10)
If the alternating m.m.f. in a converter coincides with the
directcurrent m.m.f., the alternating current and the direct cur
rent are in phase with each other in the armature coil midway
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS
443
between adjacent collector rings, and the current heating thus
a minimum in this coil.
Due to the lag in space, by angle t , of the directcurrent
m.m.f. behind the alternating current m.m.f., the reversal of the
direct current is reached in time before the reversal of the alter
nating current in the armature coil; that is, the alternating
current lags behind the direct current by angle, 6 — t , in the
Fig. 213. — Alternating and direct current in a coil midway between
adjacent collector leads.
armature coil midway between adjacent collector leads, as
shown by Fig. 213, and in an armature coil displaced by angle, t,
from the middle position between adjacent collector leads the
alternating current thus lags behind the direct current by angle
(r + O ), where t is counted positive in the direction of armature
rotation (Fig. 214).
Fig. 214. — Alternating and direct current in a coil at the angle t from the
middle position.
The alternating current in armature coil, t, thus can be ex
pressed by:
i = JV2sin(0  r  0«); (11)
hence, substituting (9):
i = sin(0r0o), (12)
nsin
n
and as the direct current in this armature coil is ~>and opposite
444
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
to the alternating current, i, the resultant current in the arma
ture coil, r, is:
io
to = l —
2
4fc
 sin (0  t  O )  1
7T
n sin 
n
(13)
and the ratio of heating, of the resultant current, io, compared
with the current, ^, of the same machine as directcurrent gen
erator of the same output, thus is:
io 2
h\ 2
©
4A:
w sin
sin(0  t  O )  1
n
•.
(14)
sin (0  r  O )  1 1 d$. (15)
n sin
Averaging (14) over one half wave gives the relative heating
of the armature coil, r, as:
Integrated, this gives:
8fc 2
n 2 sin 2 
n
n
16 k cos (r + O )
(16)
wn sm
n
243. Herefrom follows the local heating in any armature
coil, t, in the coils adjacent to the leads by substituting t = ±  ,
and also follows the average armature heating by averaging
7 T fromr = —  to t = H — •
n n
The average armature heating of the nphase converter there
fore is :
+ ~
r  V f >
n
or, integrated:
r = 
Sk'
+ 1 
16 k cos 0o
n 2 sin 2 
n
(17)
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS
445
This is the same expression as found for the average armature
heating of a converter of normal voltage ratio, when operating
with an angle of lag, O , of the alternating current, where k denotes
the ratio of the total alternating current to the alternating
power current corresponding to the directcurrent output.
In an nphase variable ratio converter (splitpole converter),
the average armature heating thus is given by:
8fc 2 . . 16fccos0 o
r =
n 2 sin 2 
n
+ 1 
(18)
where
h _ (1 + (1 + yi) cos t„
cos 0i '
(8)
0o = 0i  t«  r 6 ; (10)
and / = ratio of third harmonic to fundamental alternating
voltage wave; p t = ratio of loss to output; 0i = angle of lag of
alternating current; r = angle of shift of the resultant mag
netic field in opposition to the armature rotation, and n = angle
of shift of the brushes in the direction of the armature rotation.
244. For a threephase converter, equation (18) gives (n = 3):
qo k 2 1
T = 27 + 1  1621 k cos 0„
= 1.185 A* + 1  1.621 k cos O . J
For a sixphase converter, equation (18) gives (n = 6):
8fc 2
r =
9
+ 1  1.621 k cos O
= 0.889 k 2 + 1  1.621 k cos 0„.
For a converter of normal voltage ratio:
t = 0, r = 0,
using no brush shift :
(20)
n = 0;
when neglecting the losses:
Pi = 0,
it is:
1
: y
COS 0i
00 — 01,
446 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and equations (19) and (20) assume the form:
Threephase:
Sixphase :
r = i^f 0.621.
COS 2 0i
r = **»  0.621.
COS 2 0i
The equation (18) is the most general equation of the relative
heating of the synchronous converter, including phase displace
ment, 0i, losses, pi } shift of brushes, n y shift of the resultant mag
netic flux, t , and the third harmonic, t.
While in a converter of standard or normal ratio the armature
heating is a minimum for unity powerfactor, this is not in gen
eral the case, but the heating may be considerably less at same
lagging current, more at leading current, than at unity power
factor, and inversely.
245. It is interesting therefore to determine under which con
ditions of phase displacement the armature heating is a minimum
so as to use these conditions as far as possible and avoid con
ditions differing very greatly therefrom, as in the latter case
the armature heating may become excessive.
Substituting for A; and O from equations (8) and (10) into
equation (18) gives:
_ t ,8(1 +0 2 (1 + ? ><) 2 cos 2 t
n 2 sin 2  cos 2 0j
n
16 (1 + (1 + pi) cos r tt cos (0i  T a  n) . .
__«>s_ (19)
Substituting:
 sin  = m t (20)
which is a constant of the converter type, and is for a three
phase converter, w 3 = 0.744; for a sixphase converter, w 6 =
0.955; and rearranging, gives:
8(1+ 2 (1 + Pi) 2 COS 2 T a
r = i +
TT 2 W 2
1 P
  2 (1 + t) (1 + p t ) COS T a COS (t + T b )
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS 447
8 (1 + !)■ (1 + p,)» COB' r. tanl
it 2 ra 2
2 (1 + (1 + pi) cos r sin (t + r 6 ) tan B\. (21)
r is a minimum for the value, 0i, of the phase displacement
given by:
dr =0
d tan 0i '
and this gives, differentiated:
*« fb = ^J™ ( J ^^ (22)
(1 + (1 +Pl) C0ST o
Equation (22) gives the phase angle, 2 , for which, at given
r 0> T6, J and pi, the armature heating becomes a minimum.
Neglecting the losses, p/, if the brushes are not shifted, n = 0,
and no third harmonic exists, t = 0:
tan 0' 2 = ra 2 tan t
«l
where m 2 = 0.544 for a threephase, 0.912 for a sixphase
converter.
For a sixphase converter it thus is approximately B\ — r a ,
that is, the heating of the armature is a minimum if the alter
nating current lags by the same angle (or nearly the same angle)
as the magnetic flux is shifted for voltage regulation.
From equation (22) it follows that energy losses in the con
verter reduce the lag, 2 , required for minimum heating; brush
shift increases the required lag; a third harmonic, t y decreases
the required lag if additional, and increases it if subtractive.
Substituting (22) into (21) gives the minimum armature heat
ing of the converter, which can be produced by choosing the
proper phase angle, 2 , for the alternating current. It is then,
after some transpositions:
r.  i + £ { [^ + ° (1 + p,) c ° 8 T °]' 2(1 + 0(1 + pj •
= 1
cos r a cos (r + n) — m 2 sin 2 (r« + n)
8m 2 /, r(l +0 (1 + pi) cost,
7T 2
nl + t) (1 + pi) COS T a , , ,1 s ) /rtrtX
1 " L m 2 C0S (r ° + T6) J  (23)
The term To contains the constants /, p/, t , n only in the
square under the bracket and thus becomes a minimum if this
448
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
square vanishes, that is, if between the quantities (, p h i
relations exist thai :
CM)
246. Of the quantities I, p,, r a , r b ; p, and t„ are determined
by the machine design. ( and r„, however, are equivalent lo
each other, that is, the voltage regulation can be accomplished
either by the flux shift, r„, or by the third harmonic, (, or by both,
and in the latter ease can be divided between t u and / so as to
give any desired relations between them.
Equation (24) gives:
!■ cos r„ + n.)
J ■
(25)
(1 + p t COS T„)
and by choosing the third harmonic, (, as function of the angle of
flux shift r a , by equation (25), the converter heating becomes a
minimum, and is:
■ 1
8 m*
l2n
henci
i2M
Tu" — 0.551 for a threephase converter,
IV = 0.261 for a sixphase converter.
Substituting (25) into (22) gives:
tan 02 = tan (r„ + n);
hence:
fl 2 = u + n; (29)
or, in other words, the converter gives minimum heating IV if
the angle of lag, 2 , equals the sum of the angle of flux shift, r„ and
of brush shift, r t .
It follows herefrom that, regardless of the losses, /tj, of the
brush shift, t,„ and of the amount of voltage regulation required,
that is, at normal voltage ratio as well as any other ratio, the
same minimum converter heating IV can be secured by dividing
the voltage regulation between the angle of flux shift, r # , and
the third harmonic, 1, in the manner as given by equation [jMQi
and operating at a phase angle between alternating current and
voltage equal to the sum of the angles of flux shift, r„ and of bruh
shift, n; that, is, the heating of the splitpole Converter OSS !■<■
made the same as that of the standard converter of normal
voltage ratio.
(31)
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS 449
Choosing p t = 0.04, or 4 per cent, loss of current, equation
(25) gives, for the threephase and for the sixphase converter:
(a) no brush shift (n = 0) :
/ 3 ° = 0.467, 1 (30)
/ 6 ° = 0.123; J
that is, in the threephase converter this would require a third
harmonic of 46.7 per cent., which is hardly feasible; in the six
phase converter it requires a third harmonic of 12.3 per cent.,
which is quite feasible.
(6) 20° brush shift (r 6 = 20) :
#0 1 ftQQ COS ( T « + T *)
cos T a
< 6 <»=l0.877 CO8(T,, + Tfc) ;
COS T a
for r a = 0, or no flux shift, this gives:
*3 00 = 0.500, ) (
h 00 = 0.176./ K '
Since " —  < 1 for brush shift in the direction of
cos r a
armature rotation, it follows that shifting the brushes increases
the third harmonic required to carry out the voltage regulation
without increase of converter heating, and thus is undesirable.
It is seen that the third harmonic, t, does not change much
with the flux shift, r , but remains approximately constant, and
positive, that is, voltage xaising.
It follows herefrom that the most economical arrangement
regarding converter heating is to use in the sixphase converter
a third harmonic of about 17 to 18 per cent, for raising the vol
tage (that is, a very large pole arc), and then do the regulation
by shifting the flux, by the angle, r a , without greatly reducing the
third harmonic, that is, keep a wide pole arc excited.
As in a threephase converter the required third harmonic is
impracticably high, it follows that for variable voltage ratio the
sixphase converter is preferable, because its armature heating
can be maintained nearer the theoretical minimum by propor
tioning t and r a .
29
CHAPTER XXII
UNIPOLAR MACHINES
Homopolar or Acyclic Machines
247.. If a conductor, C, revolves around, one pole of a stationary
magnet shown as NS in Fig. 215, a continuous voltage is induced
in the conductor by its cutting of the lines of magnetic force of
the pole, N, and this voltage can be supplied to an external cir
cuit, D, by stationary brushes, Bi and B 2) bearing on the ends
of the revolving conductor, C.
The voltage is:
e = /$ 10 8 ,
where / is the number of revolutions per second, $ the magnetic
flux of the magnet, cut by the conductor, C.
N
Fig. 215. — Diagrammatic illustration of unipolar machine with two high
speed collectors.
Such a machine is called a unipolar machine, as the conductor
during its rotation traverses the same polarity, in distinction of
bipolar or multipolar machines, in which the conductor during
each revolution passes two or many poles. A more correct name
is homopolar machine,* signifying uniformity of polarity, or
acyclic machine, signifying absence of any cyclic change: in all
other electromagnetic machines, the voltage induced in a con
ductor changes cyclically, and the voltage in each turn is alter
nating, thus having a frequency, even if the terminal voltage
and current at the corjimutator are continuous.
450
UNIPOLAR MACHINES 451
By bringing the conductor, C, over the end of the magnet close
to the shaft, as shown in Fig. 216, the peripheral speed of motion
of brush, J3 2 , on its collector ring can be reduced. However, at
least one brush, J5i, in Fig. 216, must bear on a collector ring
(not shown in Figs. 215 and 216) at full conductor speed, because
the total magnetic flux cut by the conductor, C, must pass through
this collector ring on which Bi bears. Thus an essential char
acteristic of the unipolar machine is collection of the current from
the periphery of the revolving conductor, at its maximum speed.
It is the unsolved problem of satisfactory current collection from
highspeed collector rings, at speeds of two or more miles per
Fia. 216. — Diagrammatic illustration of unipolar machine with one high
speed collector.
minute, which has stood in the way of the commercial intro
duction of unipolar machines.
Electromagnetic induction is due to the relative motion of con
ductor and magnetic field, and every electromagnetic device is
thus reversible with regards to stationary and rotary elements.
Howeyer, the hope of eliminating highspeed collector rings in
the unipolar machine, by having the conductor standstill and
the magnet revolve, is a fallacy: in Figs. 215 and 216, the con
ductor, C, revolves, and the magnet, NS, and the external circuit,
D, stands still. The mechanical reversal thus would be, to have
the conductor, C, stand still, and the magnet, NS, and the external
circuit revolve, and this would leave highspeed current collection.
Whether the magnet, NS, stands still or revolves, is immaterial
in any case, and the question, whether the lines of force of the
magnet are stationary or revolve, if the magnet revolves around
its axis, is meaningless. If, with revolving conductor, C, and
stationary external circuit, D, the lines of force of the magnet
are assumed as stationary, the induction is in C, and the return
circuit in D; if the lines of force are assumed as revolving, the
452
ELECTRICAL APPARATl S
Induction is in D, and C is the return, but the voltage in the m
ouit, CD, is the same. If, (hen, V and D both stand still, citl.ir
there is no induction in either, or, assuming the lines of magnetic
force lo revolve, equal and opposite voltages are induced in (
and D, and the voltage in circuit, CD, is zero just the wum.
However, the question whether the lines of force of a revolving
magnet rotate or not, is meaningless for this reason: the lines <>i
force are a pictorial representation of the magnetic field in space.
The magnetic field at any point is characterized by an intensity
and a direction, and as long as intensity and direction at ;inv point
arc constant or stationary, the magnetic field is constant or sta
tionary. This is the case in Figs. 215 and 210, regardJesa vht&ht i
the magnet revolves around its axis or not, and the rotation o
the magnet thus has no effect whatsoever on the induction phe
nomena. The magnetic field is stationary at any point of space
outside of the magnet, and it is also stationary at any point dJ
space inside of the magnet, even if the niagncl revolves, and a4
the same time it is stationary also with regards to any efemetd
of the revolving magnet. lising then the pictorial representation
of the lines of magnetic force, we can assume these lines of force
as stationary in space, or as revolving with the rotating magnet,
whatever best suits the convenience of the problem at hand: but
whichever assumption we make, makes no difference on
tion of the problem, if we reason correctly from the assumption.
248. As in the unipolar machine each conductor (cot
ing to a half turn of the bipolar or multipolar machine) requires
a separate highspeed collector ring, many attempts have
been made fund arc still Ix'ing made) to design a coilwound
unipolar machine, that is, a machine connecting a number of
peripheral conductors in series, without going through collector
rings. This is an impossibility, and unipolar induction, that is,
continues induction of a unidirectional voltage, is possible 
in mi open conductor, but not in a coil or turn, as the voltage
electro magnetically induced in a coil or turn must alwi
alternating voltage,
The fundamental law of elect romagnetic induction i
indnced voltage is proportional to the rate of cutting of the con
ductor through the lines of force of the magnetic field. Applying
this to a closed circuit or turn; every line of magnetic fun, bbJ
by a turn must either go limn il utside to the inside, or from
the inside to the outside of the turn. This mean :
UNIPOLAR MACHINES
453
induced in a turn is proportional (or equal, in absolute units) to
the rate of change of the number of lines of magnetic force en
closed by the turn, and a decrease of the lines of force enclosed
by the turn, induces a voltage opposite to that induced by an
increase. As the number of lines of force enclosed by a turn can
not perpetually increase (or decrease), it follows, that a voltage
can not be induced perpetually in the same direction in a turn.
Every increase of lines of force enclosed by the turn, inducing
B
Fig. 217. — Mechanical an
alogy of bipolar induction.
Fig. 218. — Mechanical analogy of
unipolar induction.
a voltage in it, must sometime later be followed by an equal
decrease of the lines of force enclosed by the turn, which induces
an equal voltage in opposite direction. Thus, averaged over a
sufficiently long time, the total voltage induced in a turn must
always be zero, that is, the voltage, if periodical, must be alter
nating, regardless how the electromagnetic induction takes place,
whether the turn is stationary or moving, as a part of a machine,
transformer, reactor or any other electromagnetic induction
device. Thus continuousvoltage induction in a closed turn
is impossible, and the coilwound unipolar machine thus a
fallacy. Continuous induction in the unipolar machine is pos
sible only because the circuit is not a closed one, but consists of a
conductor or half turn, sliding over the other half turn. Mechan
ically the relation can be illustrated by Figs. 217 and 218. If
in Fig* 217 the carriage, C, moves along the straight track of
finite length — a closed turn of finite area — the area, A, in front of
C decreases, that B behind the carriage, C, increases, but this
decrease and increase can not go on indefinitely, but at some time
C reaches the end of the track, A has decreased to zero, B is a
454
ELECTRICAL A PPA MA TVS
Fig. 219. — Drum type of
unipolar machine with sta
tionary magnet core, section.
maximum, and any further change can only be an increase ol I
and decrease of H, by a motion of (' in opposite direction, repre
senting induction of a reverse voltage. On the endless circular
D track, Fig. 218, however, the carriage,
C, can continuously move in the same
direction, continuously reduce the
area, A, in front and increase that of
H behind C, corresponding to con
tinuous induction in the same direc
tion, in the unipolar machine.
249. In the industrial design of a
unipolar machine, naturally a closed
magnetic circuit would be used, and
the form, Fig. 216, would be exe
cuted as shown in length section in Fig. 219. N is the same
pole as in Fig. 216, but the magnetic return circuit is shown
by S, concentrically surrounding N. C is the cylindrical con
ductor, revolving in the cylindrical gap be
tween N and 8. B, and B% are the two sets
of brushes bearing on the collector rings at
the end of the conductor, C, and F is the
field exciting winding.
The construction, Fig. 219, has the me
chanical disadvantage of a relatively light
structure, (", revolving at high speed between
two stationary structures, N and S. As it is
immaterial whether the magnet is stationary
Of revolving, usually the inner core, iV, is re
volved with the conductor, as shown in
Figs. 221 and 222. This shortens the gap
between N and S, but introduces an aux
iliary gap, G. Fig. 221 has the disadvantage
of a magnetic end thrust, and thus the con
struction, Fig. 222, is generally used, or its
duplication, shown in Fig. 223.
The disk type of unipolar machine, shown
in section in Fig. 220, has been frequently proposed in fon&0
times, but is economically inferior to the construction of Figs.
221, 222 and 223. The limitation of the unipolar machine is the
high collector speed. In Fig. 220, the average conductor speed
is less than the collector speed, and the latter thus relatively
UNIPOLAR MACHINES 455
higher than in Figs. 221 to 223, where it equals the conductor
speed.
Higher voltages then can be given by a single conductor, are
Fig. 221. — Drum type of unipolar Fio. 222.— Drum type o/ unipolar
machine with revolving magnet core machine with revolving magnet core
and auxiliary end gap, section. and auxiliary cylinder gap, section.
derived in the unipolar machine by connecting a number of con
ductors in series. In this case, every series conductor obviously
• ;^.,^,:,& L,
q * n ro
Fio. 223. — Double drum type of unipolar machine, section,
requires a separate pair of collector rings. This is shown in Figs.
224 and 225, the crosssection and length section of the rotor of
Fig. 224. — Multi Fia. 225.— Mult i«inductor unipolar machine,
conductor unipolar length section.
machine, ■
a fourcircuit unipolar. As seen in Fig. 224, the cylindrical con
ductor is slotted into eight sections, and diametrically opposite
456
ELECT H1C Al. APPARATUS
sections, 1 and 1', 2 and 2', 3 and 3', 4 and 1', are connected in
multiple (to equalize the flux distribution) between four pairs of
collector rings, shown in Fig. 225 as 1 and 1, 2 anil 2j, 3 and 3i,
4 and 4i. The latter are connected in series. This machine.
Figs. 224 and 225, thus could also be used as a threewire or
fivewire machine, or as a directcurrent converter, bj
nut intermediary connections, from the collector rings 2, 3. 4.
250, As each conductor of the unipolar machine requires a
separate pair of collector rings, with a reasonably moderate
number of collector rings, unipolar machines of medium capacity
are suited for low voltages only, such as for electrolytic machines,
and have been built for this purpose to a limited extent, but in
general it has been found more economical by series connection
of the electrolytic cells to permit the use of higher voltages, and
then employ standard machines.
For commercial voltages, 250 or f>00, to keep the number of
collector rings reasonably moderate, unipolar machines miun
very large magnetic fluxes — that is, large units of capadl j and
very high peripheral speeds. The latter requirement made tin
machine type unsuitable during the days of theslowspe
connected steam engine, but when the highspeed steam turbttM
arrived, the study of the design of highpowered steamturbine
driven unipolars was undertaken, and a number of such machines
built and installed.
In the huge turboalternators of today, the largest lo— i the
core loss: hysteresis and eddies in the iron, which often is K
than all the other losses together. Theoretically, the Uni point
machine has no core loss, as the magnetic flux does not change
anywhere, and solid steel thus is used throughout — and has to
be used, due to the shape of the magnetic circuit. However.
with the enormous magnetic fluxes of these maclunes, in suinl
iron, the least variation of the magnetic circuit, such as caused
by small unequalities of the air gap, by the reaction of the :ir ma
ture currents, etc., causes enormous core losses, mostly addfaa,
and while theoretically the unipolar has no cove loss, designing
experience has shown, that it is a very difficult problem to keep
the core loss in such machines down to reasonable values. Fur
thermore, in and at the collector rings, the magnetic n
the armature currents is alternating or pulsating. Thus in Vfgt.
224 and 225, the point of entrance of the current from the arma
ture conductors into the collector rings revolves with the rotation
UNIPOLAR MACHINES 457
of the machine, anil from this point flows through the collector
ring, distributing between the next brushes. While this circular
flow of current in the collector ring represents effectively a frac
tion of a turn only, with thousands of amperes of current it
represents thousands of ampereturns m.m.f., causing high losses,
which in spite of careful distribution of the brushes to equalize
the current flow in the collector rings, can not be entirely
eliminated.
251. The unipolar machine is not free of armature reaction, as
often believed. The current in all the armature conductors
(Fig. 224) flows in the same direction, and thereby produces a
circular magnetization in the magnetic return circuit, S, shown
by the arrow in Fig. 224. While the armature conductor mag
netically represents one turn only, in the large machines it repre t
sents many thousand ampereturns. As an instance, assume a
peripheral speed of a steamturbinedriven unipolar machine, of
12,000 ft. per minute, at 1800 revolutions per minute. This
gives an armature circumference of 80 in. At }'i in. thickness
of the conductor, and 2500 amp. per
square inch, this gives 100,000 ampere
turns m.m.f. of armature reaction,
which probablyis sufficient to magnetic
ally saturate the iron in the pole faces, in
the direction of the arrow in Fig. 224.
At the greatly lowered permeability at
saturation, with constant field excita
tion the voltage of the machine greatly
drops, or, to maintain constant voltage, f, 220. — Multicon
a considerable increase of field excita ductor unipolar machine
.... it wit" compensating pole
turn under load is required. Large f ftce winding, erowwection.
unipolar machines thus are liable to
give poor voltage regulation and to require high compounding.
To overcome the circular armature reaction, a counter m.m.f.
may be arranged in the pole faces, by returning the current of
each collector ring 1,, 2i, 3i, 4,, of Fig. 225, to the collector rings
on the other end of the machine, 2, 3, 4 in Kg. 225, not through
an external circuit, but through conductors imbedded in the pole
face, as shown in Fig. 226 as 1', 2', 3', 4'.
The most serious problem of the unipolar machine, however,
is that of the highspeed collector rings, and this has not yet been
solved. Collecting very large currents by numerous collector
458
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
rings at Bpeeda of 10,000 bo 15,000 ft. per minute, leads to high
losses and correspondingly low machine efficiency, high tempero
ture rise, and rapid wear of the brushes and collector rings, and
this has probably been the main cause of abandoning the develop
ment of the unipolar machine for steamturbine drive.
A contributing cause was that, when the unipolar steamtur
bine generator was being developed, the days of the huge direct
current generator were over, and its place had been taken by
turboalternator and converter, and the unipolar machine offered
no advantage in reliability, or efficiency, but the disadvantage
of lesser flexibility, as it requires a greater concentration of direct
current generation in one place, than usually needed.
262. The unipolar machine may be used :i^ motor as well
as generator, and has found some application as motor meter.
The general principle of a unipolar meter may be illustrated by
Fig. 227.
The meter shaft, A , with counter, F, is pivoted at P, anil carries
the brake disk and conductor, a copper or aluminum disk. D, be
tween the two poles, N and S, of a circular magnet. The shaft, .4,
dips into a mercury cup, C, which is insulated and contains tbc
one terminal, while tiie other terminal goes to a circular mercury
trough, 67. An iron pin, B, projects from the disk, D, into this
mercury trough and completes the circuit.
CHAPTER XXIII
REVIEW
263. In reviewing the numerous types of apparatus, methods
of construction and of operation, discussed in the preceding,
an alphabetical list of them is given in the following, comprising
name, definition, principal characteristics, advantages and dis
advantages, and the paragraph in which they are discussed.
Alexanderson Highfrequency Inductor Alternator. — 159.
Comprises an inductor disk of very many teeth, revolving at very
high speed between two radial armatures. Used for producing
very high frequencies, from 20,000 to 200,000 cycles per second.
Amortisseur. — Squirrelcage winding in the pole faces of the
synchronous machine, proposed by Leblanc to oppose the hunt
ing tendency, and extensively used.
Amplifier. — 161. An apparatus to intensify telephone and
radio telephone currents. Highfrequency inductor alternator
excited by the telephone current, usually by armature reaction
through capacity. The generated current is then rectified, be
fore transmission in longdistance telephony, after transmission
in radio telephony.
Arc Machines. — 138. Constantcurrent generators, usually
directcurrent, with rectifying commutators. The last and most
extensively used arc machines were:
Brush Arc Machine. — 141144. A quarterphase constant
current alternator with rectifying commutators.
ThomsonHouston Arc Machine. — 141144. A threephase
Fconnected constantcurrent alternator with rectifying commu
tator.
The development of alternatingcurrent series arc lighting by
constantcurrent transformers greatly reduced the importance
of the arc machine, and when in the magnetite lamp arc
lighting returned to direct current, the development of the
mercuryarc rectifier superseded the arc machine.
Asynchronous Motor. — Name used for all those types of
alternatingcurrent (singlephase or polyphase) motors or motor
couples, which approach a definite synchronous speed at noload,
and slip below this speed with increasing load.
459
400
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Brush Arc Machine. — (Sec 1 "Are Machines.' 1 }
Compound Alternator. — 138. Alternator with rectifying com
mutator, connected in Beriea to the armature, either con
ductive!}, or inductively through transformer, and exciting a
scries field winding by the rectified current. The limitation of
l he power, which can be rectified, and the need of readjusting the
brushes with a change of the inductivity of the load, hasmade njGfl
compounding unsuitahie for the modern highpower altcrnu
ton.
Condenser Motor. — 77. Singlephase induction motor with
condenser in tertiary circuit on stator, for producing shirting
torque and high powerfactor. The space angle between pri
mary and tertiary stator circuit usually is 45° to 60°, and often a
threephase motor is used, with singlephase supply on one phase.
and condenser on a Becond phase. With the small amount of
capacity, sufficient for powerfactor compensation, usually the
starting torque is small, unless a starting resistance is used, Imi
the torque efficiency is high.
Concatenation. — III, 28. Chain connection, tandem connec
tion, cascade connection. Is the connection o the secondary nl
an induction machine with a second machine. The Bttt&d
machine may be:
1. An Induction Machine. — The couple then is asynchronous.
Hereto belong:
The induction frequency converter or genera] aUernai\
transformer, XII, 103. It transforms between alternatingear
rent systems of different frequency, and has over the indoetiOB
motor generator set the advantage of higher efficiency and lesser
capacity, but the disadvantage of not being standard.
The' concatenated couple of induction motors, 9, 28, 111. It
permits multispeed operation. It has the disadvantage against
the multispeed motor, that, two motors are required; but where
two or more motors are used, as in inductionmotor railroading,
it has the advantage of greater simplicity.
The internally concatenated motor {Hunt mtttt>r), 36. I' H
more efficient than the concatenated couple or the multispeed
motor, but limited in design to certain speeds and speed ratios.
2. A Synchronous Machine. — The couple then is synchronous.
Hereto belong:
The synchronous frequency converter, XII, 103. It has a defi
nite frequency ratio, while that of the induction frequi
REVIEW 461
verter slightly changes with the load, by the slip of the induction
machine.
Induction Motor with Lowfrequency Synchronous Exciter. — 47.
The synchronous exciter in this case is of small capacity, and
gives speed control and powerfactor compensation.
I nductionGenerator with Lowfrequency Exciter. — 110, 121. Syn
chronous induction generator. Stanley induction generator. In
this case, the lowfrequency exciter may be a synchronous or a
commutating machine or any other source of low frequency.
The phase rotation of the exciter may be in the reverse direc
tion of the main machine, or in the same direction. In the first
case, the couple may be considered as a frequency converter
driven backward at many times synchronous speed, the exciter
is motor, and the generated frequency less than the speed. In
the case of the same phase rotation of exciter and main machine,
the generated frequency is higher than the speed, and the
exciter also is generator. This synchronous induction generator
has peculiar regulation characteristics, as the armature reaction
of noninductive load is absent.
3. A Synchronous Commutating Machine. — 112. The couple
is synchronous, and called motor converter. It has the advantage
of lower frequency commutation, and permits phase control by
the internal reactance of the induction machine. It has higher
efficiency and smaller size than a motorgenerator set, but is
larger and less efficient than the synchronous converter, and
therefore has not been able to compete with the latter.
4. A directcurrent commutating machine, as exciter, 41. This
converts the induction machine into a synchronous machine
(Danielson motor). A good induction motor gives a poor syn
chronous motor, but a bad induction motor, of very low power
factor, gives a good synchronous motor, of good powerfactor,
etc.
5. An alternatingcurrent commutating machine, as lowfre
quency exciter, 52. The couple then is asynchronous. This
permits a wide range of powerfactor and speed control as motor.
As generator it is one form of the Stanley induction generator
discussed under (2).
6. A Condenser. — This permits powerfactor compensation,
55, and speed control, 11. The powerfactor compensation
gives good values with very bad induction motors, of low power
factor, but is uneconomical with good motors. Speed control
4(52
ELECTRICAL APPARA TUS
usually requires excessive amounts of capacity, and given rather
poor constants. The machine is asynchronous.
Danielson Motor. — 11. An induction motor converted to a
synchronous motor by directcurrent excitation. (8ee "COB
catenation (4).")
Deepbar Induction Motor. — 7. Induction motor with deep
and narrow rotor bars. At the low frequency near synchronism,
the secondary current traverses the entire rotor conductor, and
the secondary resistance thus is low. At high slips, u
ing, unequal current distribution in the rotor bars concentrates
the current in the top of the bars, thus gives a greatly increased
effective resistance, and thereby higher torque. However, the
high reactance of the deep bar somewhat impairs the power
factor. The effect is very closely the same as in the double
squirrel cage. (See "Double Squirrelcage Induction Motor. "I
Double Squirrelcage Induction Motor.— II, 18. Induction
motor having a highresistance lowreactance squirrel cage, plan
to the rotor surface, and a lowresistance highreactance squirrel
cage, embedded in the core. The latter gives torque at good
speed regulation near synchronism, but carries little current at
lower speeds, due to itst high reactance. The surface squirrel
cage gives high torque and good torque efficiency at Ion SpMdfl
and standstill, due to its high resistance, but little torque near
synchronism. The combination thus gives a uniformly high
torque over a wide speed range, but at some sacrifice of power
factor, due to the high reactance of the lower squirrel i
get close speed regulation near synchronism, together with high
torque over a very wide speed range, for instance, down to full
speed in reverse direction (motor brake), a triple sgt
may be used, one high resistance low reactance, one medium
resistance and reactance, and one very low resistance and high
reactance (24).
Double Synchronous Machine. — 110, 119. An induction ma
chine, in which the rotor, running at double synchronism, is
connected with the stator, either in series or in parallel, but with
reverse phase rotation of the rotor, so that the two rotating fields
coincide and drop into step at double synchronism. The machine
requires a supply of lagging current for excitation, just tike ;itr.
induction machine. It may be used as synchronous induction
generator, or as synchronous motor. As generator, the armature
reaction neutralizes at noninductive, but not at inductive load,
REVIEW 463
and thus gives peculiar regulation characteristics, similar as the
Stanley induction generator. It has been proposed for steam
turbine alternators, as it would permit higher turbine speed
(3000 revolutions at 25 cycles) but has not yet been used. As
motor it has the disadvantage that it is not selfstarting.
Eickemeyer Inductively Compensated Singlephase Series
Motor. — 193. Singlephase commutating machine with series
field and inductive compensating winding.
Eickemeyer Inductor Alternator. — 160. Inductor alternator
with field coils parallel to shaft, so that the magnetic flux disposi
tion is that of a bipolar or multipolar machine, in which the
multitooth inductor takes the place of the armature of the stand
ard machine. Voltage induction then takes place in armature
coils in the pole faces, and the magnetic flux in the inductor re
verses, with a frequency much lower than that of the induced
voltage. This type of inductor machine is specially adopted for
moderately high frequencies, 300 to 2000 cycles, and used in in
ductor alternators and inductor converters. In the latter, the in
ductor carries a lowfrequency closed circuit armature winding
connected to a commutator to receive direct current as motor.
Eickemeyer Rotary Terminal Induction Motor. — XI, 101.
Singlephase induction motor with closed circuit primary winding
connected to commutator. The brushes leading the supply cur
rent into the commutator stand still at full speed, but revolve
at lower speeds and in starting. This machine can give full maxi
mum torque at any speed down to standstill, depending on the
speed of the brushes, but its disadvantage is sparking at the com
mutator, which requires special consideration.
Frequency Converter or General Alternatingcurrent Trans
former. — XII, 103. Transforms a polyphase system into another
polyphase system of different frequency and where desired of differ
ent voltage and different number of phases. Consists of an induc
tion machine concatenated to a second machine, which may be
an induction machine or a synchronous machine, thus giving the
induction frequency converter and the synchronous frequency con
verter. (See "Concatenation.") In the synchronous frequency
converter the frequency ratio is rigidly constant, in the induction
frequency converter it varies slightly with the load, by the slip
of the induction machine. When increasing the frequency, the
second machine is motor, when decreasing the frequency, it is
generator. Above synchronism, both machines are generators
I(>l
ELECTRICAL Al'l'AHA Tl S
and the machine thus a synchronous induction generator. En
concatenation, the first machine always nets an Frequency con
verter. The frequency converter has the advantage "I [MM
machine capacity than the motor generator, but the disadvantage
of not being standard yet.
Heyland Motor. — 59, 210. Squirrelcage induction motor with
commutator for powerfactor compensation.
Hunt Motor. — 30. Internally concatenated induction motor.
(See "Concatenation (l).")
Hysteresis Motor. — X, 98. Motor with polyphase stain ud
laminated rotor of uniform reluctance in all directions, without
winding. Gives constant torque at all speeds, by the hystereBM
of the rotor, as motor below and as generatoi above HynchroDBSB,
while at synchronism it may be either. Poor powerfactor and
small output make it feasible only in very small BU6S, BUCt H
motor meters.
Inductor Machines. — XVII, 150. Synchronous machine, gen
erator or motor, in which field and armature coils stand still ami
the magnetic field flux is constant, and the voltage is induced b)
changing the flux path, that is, admitting and withdrawing the
flux from the armature coils by means of a revolving inductor.
The inducing Hux in the armature coils thus does not alternate,
but pulsates without reversal. For standard freqiirnrM. tin
inductor machine is less economical and little used, but it offers
great constructive advantages at high frequencies and is ll nlv
feasible type at extremely high frequencies. Excited by alter
naling currents, the inductor machine may be Used U amplilic:
(see "Amplifier"); excited by polyphase currents, ii a
(ton inductor frequency converter, 102; with a directcurrent wind
ing on the inductor, it is a directcurrent kighfrequi <>> .
(See "Eickemeyer Inductor Alternator.")
Leading current, powerfactor compensation and phase eontn I
can be produced by:
Condenser.
Polarisation cell.
Overexcited synchronous motor or synchronous col
Induction machine concatenated to condenser, to sj I
motor or to lowfrequency commutating machine.
Alternatingcurrent commutating machine with lagging field
excitation.
Leblanc'sPanchahuteur. — 145. Synchronous rectifier of many
REVIEW 465
phases, fed by polyphase transformer increasing the number of
phases, and driven by a synchronous motor having as many cir
cuits as the rectifier has phases, each synchronous motor circuit
being connected in shunt to the corresponding rectifier phase to
byepass the differential current and thereby reduce inductive
sparking. Can rectify materially more power than the standard
rectifier, but is inferior to the converter.
Magneto Commutation. — 163. Apparatus in which the induc
tion is varied, with stationary inducing (exciting) and induced
coils, by shifting or reversing the magnetic flux path by means
of a movable part of the magnetic circuit, the inductor. Applied
to stationary induction apparatus, as voltage regulators, and to
synchronous machines, as inductor alternator.
Monocyclic. — 127. A system of polyphase voltages with essen
tially singlephase flow of power. A system of polyphase vol
tages, in which one phase regulates for constant voltage, that is,
a voltage which does not materially drop within the range of
power considered, while the voltage in quadrature phase thereto
is of limited power, that is, rapidly drops with increase of load.
Monocyclic systems, as the square or the triangle, are derived
from singlephase supply by limited energy storage in inductance
or capacity, and used in those cases, as singlephase induction
motor starting, where the use of a phase converter would be
uneconomical.
Motor Converter. — 112. An induction machine concatenated
with a synchronous commutating machine. (See " Concatenation
(3).") The latter thus receives part of the power mechanically,
part electrically, at lower frequency, and thereby offers the ad
vantages incident to a lower frequency in a commutating machine.
It permits phase control by the internal reactance of the induc
tion machine. Smaller than a motorgenerator set, but larger
than a synchronous converter, and the latter therefore preferable
where it can be used.
Multiple Squirrelcage Induction Motor. — (See " Double
Squirrelcage Induction Motor.")
Multispeed Induction Motor. — 14. Polyphase Induction
Motor with the primary windings arranged so that by the opera
tion of a switch, the number of poles of the motor, and thereby
its speed can be changed. It is the most convenient method of
producing several economical speeds in an induction motor, and
therefore is extensively used. At the lower speed, the power
factor necessarily is lower.
30
466 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Permutator. — 146. Machine to convert polyphase alternating
to direct current, consisting of a stationary polyphase tean.
former with many secondary phases connected to a stationary
commutator, with a set of revolving brushes driven by a syn
chronous motor. Thus essentially a synchronous converter
with stationary armature and revolving field, but with two
armature windings, primary and secondary. The t of MCTl
objection is the use of revolving brushes, which do not permit
individual observation and adjustment during operation, and
thus are liable to sparking.
Phase Balancer.— 134. An apparatus producing a. polyphase
system of opposite phase rotation for insertion in series to I
polyphase system, to restore the voltage balance disturbed by a
singlephase load. It may be:
A stationary inductionphase balancer, consisting of an induc
tion regulator with reversed phase rotation of the series winding.
A synchronousphase balancer, consisting of a synchronous
machine of reversed phase rotation, having two sets of field wind
ings in quadrature. By varying, or reversing the excitation of the
latter, any phase relation of the balancer voltage with those of
the main polyphase system can be produced. The synchronous
phase balancer is mainly used, connected into the neutral of n
synchronous phase converter, to control the latter so as to make
the latter balance the load and voltage of a polypoM
with considerable singlephase load, such as that of a single
phase railway system.
Polyphase Commutator Motor. — Such motors may be shunt,
181, or series type, 187, for mtiltispeed, adjustablespeed and
varyingspeed service. In commutation, they tend to be inferior
to singlephase commutator motors, as their rotating field does
not leave any neutral direction, in which a commutating field
could be produced, such as is used in singlephase oommotttw
motors. Therefore, polyphase commutator motors have been
built with separate phases and neutral spaces between the phases,
for commutating fields: Scherbius motor..
Reaction Machines. — XVI, 147. .Synchronous machine, motor
or generator, in which the voltage is induced by pulsation of the
magnetic reluctance, that is, by make and break of the magnetic
circuit. It thus differs from the inductor machine, in that in
the latter the total field flux is constant, but is shifted with re
gards to the armature coils, while in the reaction machine the
REVIEW 467
total field flux pulsates. The reaction machine has low output
and low powerfactor, but the type is useful in small synchronous
motors, due to the simplicity resulting from the absence of direct
current field excitation.
Rectifiers. — XV, 138. Apparatus to convert alternating into
direct current by synchronously changing connections. Rec
tification may occur either by synchronously reversing connec
tions between alternatingcurrent and directcurrent circuit:
reversing rectifier, or by alternately making contact between the
directcurrent circuit and the alternatingcurrent circuit, when
the latter is of the right direction, and opening contact, when
of the reverse direction: contactmaking rectifier. Mechanical
rectifiers may be of either type. Arc rectifiers, such as the mer
curyarc rectifier, which use the unidirectional conduction of the
arc, necessarily are contactmaking rectifiers.
Fullwave rectifiers are those in which the directcurrent cir
cuit receives both half waves of alternating current; half wave
rectifiers those in which only alternate half waves are rectified,
the intermediate or reverse half waves suppressed. The latter
type is permissible only in small sizes, as the interrupted pul
sating current traverses both circuits, and produces in the alter
natingcurrent circuit a unidirectional magnetization, which
may give excessive losses and heating in induction apparatus.
The foremost objection to the mechanical rectifier is, that the
power which can be rectified without injurious inductive spark
ing, is limited, especially in singlephase rectifiers, but for small
amounts of power, as for battery charging and constantcurrent
arc lighting they are useful. However, even there the arc recti
fier is usually preferable. The brush arc machine and the
Thomson Houston arc machine were polyphase alternators with
rectifying commutators.
Regulating Pole Converter. — Variableratio converter. Split
pole converter, XXI, 230. A synchronous converter, in which
the ratio between directcurrent voltage and alternatingcurrent
voltage can be varied at will, over a considerable range, by shift
ing the direction of the resultant magnetic field flux so that the
voltage between the commutator brushes is less than maximum
alternatingcurrent voltage, and by changing, at constant im
pressed effective alternating voltage, the maximum alternating
current voltage and with it the directcurrent voltage, by the
superposition of a third harmonic produced in the converter in
468 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
such a manner, that this harmonic exists only in the local COB
verier circuit. This is done by separating the field pole into
two parts, a larger main pole, which has constant excitation,
anil a smaller regulating pole, in which the excitation is varied
and reversed. A resultant armature reaction exists in the
regulating pole converter, proportional to the deviation of the
voltage ratio from standard, and requires the use of a series Beld
Regulating pole converters are extensively used for adjltataHo
voltage service, as directcurrent distribution, storaja
charging, etc., due to their simplicity and wide voltage range at
practically unity powerfactor, white for automatic pottage
control under fluctuating load, as railway service, phase control
of the standard converter is usually preferred.
Repulsion Generator. — 217. Repulsion motor operated
generator.
Repulsion Motor.— 194, 208, 214. Singlephase commutator
motor in which the armature is shortcircuited and energised
fay induction from a stationary con pensa ting winding as primary.
Usually of varying speed or series characteristic. Gives betta
commutation than the series motor at moderate speeds,
Rotary Terminal Singlephase Induction Motor.— XI, 101
(See "Eickemeyer Rotary Terminal Induction Motor.")
Shading Coil. — 73. A shortcircuited turn surrounding i part
of the pole face of a singlephase induction motor with definite
poles, for the purpose of giving a phase displacement of I he
flux, and therehy a starting torque. It is the simplest ;iml cheap
est singlephase motorstarting device, but gives only low start
ing torque and low torque efficiency, thus is not well suited for
larger motors. It thus is very extensively used in small motors.
almost exclusively in alternatingcurrent fan motors.
Singlephase Commutator Motor. —XX, 189. Commutator
motor with alternatingcurrent field excitation, and such modi
fications of design, as result therefrom. Thai is. lamination of
the magnetic structure, high ratio of armature reaction to Geld
excitation, and compensation for armature reaction and self
induction, etc. Such motor thus comprises three circuits: the
armature circuit, the field circuit, and the compensating circuit
in quadrature, on the stator, to the field circuit. These cir
cuits may be energized by conduction, from the main current,
or by induction, as secondaries with the main current as pri
mary. If the armature receives the main current, the motor is
REVIEW 469
a series or shunt motor; if it is closed upon itself, directly or
through another circuit, the motor is called a repulsion motor.
A combination of both gives the series repulsion motor.
Singlephase commutator motors of series characteristic are
used for alternatingcurrent railroading, of shunt characteristic
as stationary motors, as for instance the induction repuhion
motor, either as constantspeed highstartingtorque motors, or
as adjustablespeed motors.
Lagging the field magnetism, as by shunted resistance, pro
duces a lead of the armature current. This can be used for
powerfactor compensation, and singlephase commutator motors
thereby built with very high powerfactors. Or the machine,
with lagging quadrature field excitation, can be used as effective
capacity. The singlephase commutator motor is the only type
which, with series field excitation, gives a varyingspeed motor
of seriesmotor characteristics, and with shunt excitation or its
equivalent, give speed variation and adjustment like that of the
directcurrent motor with field control,, and is therefore exten
sively used. Its disadvantage, however, is the difficulty and
limitation in design, resulting from the e.m.f . induced in the short
circuited coils under the brush, by the alternation of the main
field, which tends toward sparking at the commutator.
Singlephase Generation. — 135.
Speed Control of Polyphase Induction Motor. —
By resistance in the secondary, 8. Gives a speed varying
with the load.
By pyroelectric resista7ice in the secondary, 10. (lives good
speed regulation at any speed, but such pyroelectric conductors
tend toward instability.
By condenser in the secondary, 11. (lives good speed regula
tion, but rather poor powerfactor, and usually requires an un
economically large amount of capacity.
By commutator, 58. Gives good speed regulation and per
mits powerfactor control, but has the disadvantage and com
plication of an alternatingcurrent commutator.
By concatenation with a lowfrequency commutating machine
as exciter, 52. Has the disadvantage of complication.
Stanley Induction Generator. — 117. Induction machine with
lowfrequency exciter. (See "Concatenation (2).")
Stanley Inductor Alternator. — 150. Inductor machine with
two armatures and inductors, and a concentric field coil between
the same. (See "Inductor Machine. ,, )
470
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Starting Devices. — Polyphase induction motor:
Remittance of high temperature coefficient, 2. Gives good torque
curve at low speed and good regulation at speed, but requires
high temperature in the resistance.
Hysteresis device, 4. Gives good speed regulation and good
torque at low speed and in starting, but somewhat impairs the
powerfactor.
Eddycurrent device, 5; double and triple squirrelcage, 18. 20,
24; and deepbar rotor, 7. Give good speed regulation combined
with good torque at low speed and in starting, but somewhat
impairs I lie powerfactor. (See " Double Squirrelcage Induction
Motor" and "Deepbar Induction Motor."}
Singlephase induction motor:
Phasesplitting devices, 67. Resistance in one phase, 68. In
ductive devices, 72. Shading coil, 73. (See "Shading CoiL")
Monocyclic devices, 76. Resistancereactance device or mono
cyclic triangle. Condenser motor, 77. (See " Condenser Motor.")
Repulsionmotor starting.
Seriesmotor starting.
Synchronousinduction Generator.— XIII, 113. Induction
machine, in which the secondary is connected so as to Ba a definite
speed. This may be done:
1. By connecting the secondary, in reverse phase rotation, in
shunt or in series to the primary: double gynehrotUrUi
(See "Double Synchronous Machine.")
2. By connecting the secondary in shunt to the primary
through a commutator. In this ease, the resultant frequency is
fixed by speed antl ratio of primary to secondary turns.
3. By connecting the secondary to a source of constant low
frequency; Stanley induction generator. In this case, the low
frequency phase rotation impressed upon the secondary may l>c
in the same or in opposite direction to the speed. (See "Con*
catenation (2).")
Synchronousinduction Motor. — IX, 97. An induction motor
with singlephase secondary. Tends to {hop into step as syn
chronoue motor, and then becomes generator when driven by
power. Its low powerfactor makes it unsuitable except fur
small sixes, where the simplicity due to the absence of djreet
current excitation may make it convenient as selfstarling syn
chronous motor. As reaction machine, 150.
ThomsonHouston Arc Machine. — 141144. Threephase V
REVIEW 471
connected constantcurrent alternator with rectifying commu
tator.
Thomson Repulsion Motor. — 193. Singlephase compensated
commutating machine with armature energized by secondary
current, and field coil and compensating coil combined in one coil.
Unipolar Machines. — Unipolar or acyclic machine, XXII, 247.
Machine in which a continuous voltage is induced by the rotation
of a conductor through a constant and uniform magnetic field.
Such machines must have as many pairs of collector rings as there
are conductors, and the main magnetic flux of the machine must
pass through the collector rings, hence current collection occurs
from highspeed collector rings. Coil windings are impossible
in unipolar machines. Such machines either are of low voltage,
or of large size and high speed, thus had no application before
the development of the highspeed steam turbine, and now three
phase generation with conversion by synchronous converter has
eliminated the demand for very large directcurrent generating
units. The foremost disadvantage is the highspeed current
collection, which is still unsolved, and the liability to excessive
losses by eddy currents due to any asymmetry of the magnetic
field.
WinterEichberyLatour Motor. — 194. Singlephase compen
sated seriestype motor with armature excitation, that is, the
exciting current, instead of through the field, passes through the
armature by a set of auxiliary brushes in quadrature with the
main brushes. Its advantage is the higher powerfactor, due to
the elimination of the field inductance, but its disadvantage the
complication of an additional set of alternatingcurrent commu
tator brushes.
CHAPTER XXIV
CONCLUSION
254. Numerous apparatus, structural features and principles
have been invented and more or less developed, but have fOQMJ
a limited industrial application only, or arc not used at all, l>e
cause there is no industrial demand for them. Nevertheless B
knowledge of these apparatus is of (treat importance to the elec
trical engineer. They may bo considered as filling the storehouse
of electrical engineer inn, waiting until they are needed. Wry
often, in the development of the industry, a demand arises for
certain types of apparatus, which have been known for many
years, but not used, because they offered no material advan
tage, unlil with the change of the industrial conditions their
use became very advantageous and this led to their extrusive
application.
Thus for instance the com mutating pole ("interpole") in
directcurrent machines has been known since very many years,
has been discussed and recommended, but used very little, in
short was of practically no industrial importance, while now
practically all larger directcurrent machines and synchronous
converters use commutating poles. For many years, with tin
types of directcurrent machines in use, the advantage of tin
commutating pole did not appear sufficient to compensate to*
the disadvantage of the complication and resuliunt increase o4
size and cost. But when with the general introduction of tin
steamturbine highspeed machinery became popular, and lij(iliii 
speed designs were introduced in directcurrent machinery also,
with correspondingly higher armature reaction and greater Deed
of commutation control, the use of the commutating pole became
of material advantage in reducing size and cost of apparatus,
and its general introduction followed.
Similarly we have seen the threephase transformer find gen
eral introduction, after it had been unused for many years; so
also the alternatingcurrent commutator motor, etc.
Thus for a progressive engineer, it is dangerous not to be fjuuil
iar with the characteristics ^iiit! possibilities of the known but
472
CONCLUSION 473
unused types of apparatus, since at any time circumstances may
arise which lead to their extensive introduction.
255. With many of these known but unused or little used ap
paratus, we can see and anticipate the industrial condition which
will make their use economical or even necessary, and so lead to
their general introduction.
Thus, for instance, the induction generator is hardly used at all
today. However, we are only in the beginning of the water
power development, and thus far have considered only the largest
and most concentrated powers, and for these, as best adapted,
has been developed a certain type of generating station, compris
ing synchronous generators, with directcurrent exciting circuits,
switches, circuitbreakers, transformers and protective devices,
etc., and requiring continuous attendance of expert operating
engineers. This type of generating station is feasible only with
large water powers. As soon, however, as the large water powers
will be developed, the industry will be forced to proceed to the
development of the numerous scattered small powers. That is,
the problem will be, to collect from a large number of small
water powers the power into one large electric system, similar
as now we distribute the power of one large system into numer
ous small consumption places.
The new condition, of collecting numerous small powers —
from a few kilowatts to a few hundred kilowatts — into one sys
tem, will require the development of an entirely different type of
generating station: induction generators driven by small and
cheap waterwheels, at low voltage, and permanently connected
through stepup transformers to a collecting line, which is con
trolled from some central synchronous station. A cheap hy
draulic development, no regulation of waterwheel speed or gen
erator voltage, no attendance in the station beyond an occasional
inspection, in short an automatically operating induction gen
erator station controlled from the central receiving station.
In many cases, we can not anticipate what application an
unused type of apparatus may find, and when its use may be
economically demanded, or we can only in general realize, that
with the increasing use of electric power, and with the intro
duction of electricity as the general energy supply of modern
civilization, the operating requirements will become more diver
sified, and where today one single type of machine suffices — as
the squirrelcage induction motor — various modifications thereof
474
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
will become necessary, to suit the conditions of service, such :,s
the double squirrelcage induction' motor in ship propulsion sad
similar uses, the various types of concatenation of induction
machines with synchronous and commutating machines, etc
256. In general, a new design or new type of machine or
apparatus has economically no right of existence, if it. is only
jnst aa good as the existing one.
A new type, which offers only a slight advantage in efficiency,
size, coat of production or operation, etc., over the existing type,
is economically preferable only, if it can entirely supersede tfw
existing type; but if its advantage is limited to certain applica
tions, very often, even usually, the new type is economically
inferior, since the disadvantage of producing and operating two
different types of apparatus may !»■ greater than the advantage
of i he new type. Tims a standard type is economically superior
ami preferable to a special one, even if the latter has some small
superiority, unless, and until, the industry lias extended so far,
that both types can find such extensive application as in ju:tif>
the existence of two standard types. This, for instance, was the
reason which retarded the introduction of the threephase trans
former: its advantage was not sufficient to justify the dupli
cation of standards, until threephase systems had bet <■ my
numerous and widespread,
In other words, the advantage offered by a new type of appara
tus over existing standard types, must be very material, to
economically justify its industrial development.
The error most frequently made in modern engineering is m>t
the undue adherence to standards, but is the reverse. The
undue preference of special apparatus, sizes, methods, eic.
where standards would be almost a3 good in their characteristics,
and therefore would be economically preferable. It is the most
serious economic mistake, to use anything special, when' standard
can l>e made to serve satisfactorily, and this mistake i> the BitxA
frequent in modern electrical engineering, due In the innate.
individualism of the engineers.
267. However, while existing standard types of apparatus are
economically preferable wherever they can be used, it is ohvious
that with the rapid expansion of the industry, new types of
apparatus will be developed, introduced and become standard,
to meet new conditions, and for this reason, aa Btated above, I
knowledge of the entire known field of apparatus is
to the engineer.
CONCLUSION 475
Most of the lessknown and lessused types of apparatus have
been discussed in the preceding, and a comprehensive list of
them is given in Chapter XXIII, together with their definitions
and short characterization.
While electric machines are generally divided into induction
machines, synchronous machines and commutating machines,
this classification becomes difficult in considering all known
apparatus, as many of them fall in two or even all three classes,
or are intermediate, or their inclusion in one class depends on the
particular definition of this class.
Induction machines consist of a magnetic circuit inductively
related, that is, interlinked with two sets of electric circuits,
which are movable with regards to each other.
They thus differ from transformers or in general stationary
induction apparatus, in that the electric circuits of the latter are
stationary with regards to each other and to the magnetic circuit.
In the induction machines, the mechanical work thus is pro
duced — or consumed, in generators — by a disappearance or
appearance of electrical energy in the transformation between
the two sets of electric circuits, which are movable with regards
to each other, and of which one may be called the primary cir
cuit, the other the secondary circuit. The magnetic field of the
induction machine inherently must be an alternating field
(usually a polyphase rotating field) excited by alternating
currents.
Synchronous machines are machines in which the frequency of
rotation has a fixed and rigid relation to the frequency of the
supply voltage.
Usually the frequency of rotation is the same as the frequency
of the. supply voltage: in the standard synchronous machine,
with directcurrent field excitation.
The two frequencies, however, may be different: in the double
synchronous generator, the frequency of rotation is twice the
frequency of alternation; in the synchronousinduction machine,
it is a definite percentage thereof; so also it is in the induction
machine concatenated to a synchronous machine, etc.
Commutating machines are machines having a distributed
armature winding connected to a segmental commutator.
They may be directcurrent or alternatingcurrent machines.
Unipolar machines are machines in which the induction is
produced by the constant rotation of the conductor through a
constant and continuous magnetic field.
476 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The list of machine types and their definitions, given in
Chapter XXIII, shows numerous instances of machines belong
ing into several classes.
The most common of these double types is the converter, or
synchronous commutating machine.
Numerous also are the machines which combine induction
machine and synchronousmachine characteristics, as the double
synchronous generator, the synchronousinduction motor and
generator, etc. *
The synchronousinduction machine comprising a polyphase
stator and polyphase rotor connected in parallel with the stator
through a commutator, is an induction machine, as stator and
rotor are inductively related through one alternating magnetic
circuit; it is a synchronous machine, as its frequency is definitely
fixed by the speed (and ratio of turns of stator and rotor), and
it also is a commutating machine.
Thus it is an illustration of the impossibility of a rigid classi
fication of all the machine types.
INDEX
Also see alphabetical list of apparatus in Chapter XXIII.
Acyclic, see Unipolar.
Adjustable speed polyphase motor,
321, 378
Alcxanderson very high frequency
inductor alternator, 279
Amplifier, 281
Arc rectifier, 248
Armature reaction of regulating
pole converter, 426, 437
of unipolar machine, 457
B
Balancer, phase, 228
Battery charging rectifier, 244
Brush arc machine as quarterphase
rectifier, 244, 254
Capacity storing energy in phase
conversion, 212
Cascade control, see Concatenation.
Coil distribution giving harmonic
torque in induction motor,
151
Commutating e.m.f. in rectifier, 239
field, singlephase commutator
motor, 355, 359
machine, concatenation with in
duction motor, 55, 78
pole machine, 472
poles, singlephase commutator
motor, 358
Commutation current, repulsion
motor, 392
series repulsion motor, 400,
404
factor, repulsion motor, 392
Commutation factor of series repul
sion motor, 415
of regulating pole converter,
426, 437
of series repulsion motor, 403
of singlephase commutator
motor, 347
Commutator excitation of induction
motor, 54, 89
induction generator, 200
leads, singlephase commutator
motor, 351
motors, singlephase, 331
Compensated series motor, 372
Compensating winding, singlephase
commutator motor, 336,
338
Concatenation of induction motors,
14, 40
Condenser excitation of induction
motor secondary, 55, 84
singlephase induction motor,
120
speed control of induction
motor, 13, 16
Contact making rectifier, 245
Cumulative oscillation of synchro
nous machine, 299
D
Deep bar rotor of induction motor,
11
Delta connected roctifier, 251
Direct current in induction motor
secondary, 54, 57
Disc type of unipolar machine, 454
Double squirrel cage induction
motor, 29
Double synchronous induction gen
erator, 191, 199, 201
Drum type of unipolar machine, 454
477
478
lUfiEX
E
Eddy current starting device of in
duction motor, 8
in unipolar machine, 456
Eickemeyer high frequency inductor
alternator, 280
F
Flashing of rectifier, 249
Frequency converter, 176
pulsation, effect in induction
motor, 131
Full wave rectifier, 245
G
General alternating current motor,
300
Generator regulation affecting induc
tion motor stability, 137
H
Half wave rectifier, 245
Harmonic torque of induction motor,
144
Heyland motor, 92
Higher harmonic torques in induc
tion motor, 144
Homopolar, see Unipolar.
Hunt motor, 49
Hunting, see Surging.
Hysteresis generator, 169
motor, 168
starting device of induction
motor, 5
I
Independent phase rectifier, 251
Inductance storing energy in phase
conversion, 212
Inductive compensation of single
phase commutator motor,
343
devices starting singlephase in
duction motor, 97, 111
Inductive excitation of singlephase
commutator motor, 343
•Induction frequency converter, 191
generator, 473
motor inductor frequency con
verter, 284
phase balancer stationary, 228
phase converter, 220
Inductor machines, 274
Interlocking pole type of machine,
286
Internally concatenated induction
motor, 41, 49
Lead of current produced by lagging
field of singlephase com
mutator motor, 366
Leblanc's rectifier, 256
Load and stability of induction
motor, 132
Low frequency exciter of induction
generator, 199, 203
M
Magneto commutation, 285
inductor machine, 285
Mechanical starting of singlephase
induction motor, 96
Mercury arc rectifier, 247
Meter, unipolar, 458
Momentum storing energy in phase
conversion, 212
Monocyclic devices, 214
starting singlephase induction
motor, 98, 117
Motor converter, 192
Multiple speed induction motor, 14,
20
Multiple squirrel cage induction
motor, 11, 27
O
Open circuit rectifier, 237
Over compensation, singlephase com
mutator motor, 418
.«'
INDEX
479
Permutator, 257
Phase balancer, 228
control by polyphase shunt
motor, 324
by commutating machine
with lagging field flux, 370
conversion, 212
converter starting singlephase
induction motor, 98
splitting devices starting single
phase induction motor, 97,
103
Polyphase excitation of inductor
alternator, 283
induction motor, 307
rectifier, 250
series motor, 327
shunt motor, 319
Position angle of brushes affecting
converter ratio, 422
Power factor compensation by com
mutator motor, 379
of frequency converter, 178, 184
Pyroelectric speed control of induc
tion motor, 14
Q
Quart erphase rectifier, 251
R
Reaction converter, 264
machine, 260
Rectifier, synchronous, 234
Regulating pole converter, 422
Regulation coefficient of system and
induction motor stability,
140
of induction motor, 123
Regulator, voltage, magneto com
mutation, 285
Repulsion motor, 343, 373, 385
starting of singlephase induc
tion motor, 97
Resistance speed control of induc
tion motor, 12
Reversing rectifier, 245
Ring connected rectifier, 251
Rotary terminal singlephase induc
tion motor, 172
S
Secondary excitation of induction
* motor, 52
Self induction of commutation, 420
Semi inductor type of machine, 286
Series repulsion motor, 343, 374, 397
Shading coil starting device, 112
Short circuit rectifier, 237
Shunt resistance of rectifier, 235
and series motor starting of
singlephase induction
motor, 96
Singlephase commutator motor, 331
generation, 212, 229
induction motor, 93, 314
self starting by rotary ter
minals, 172
Sixphase rectifier, 253
regulating pole converter, 446
Split pole converter, see Regulating
pole converter.
Square, monocycle, 216
Stability coefficient of induction
motor, 138
of system containing induc
tion motor, 141
Stability of induction motor and
generator regulation, 137
limit of rectifier, 249
and load of induction motor, 132
Stanley inductor alternator, 275
Star connected rectifier, 251
Surging of synchronous machine, 288
Synchronizing induction motor on
common rheostat, 159
Synchronous exciter of induction
motor, 72
frequency converter, 191
induction generator, 191, 194
induction generator with low
frequency exciter, 199, 203
induction motor, 166
as reaction machine, 264
480
INDEX
Synchronous machines, surging, 288
motor, concatenation with in
duction motor, 54, 71
phase balancer, 228
phase converter, 227
rectifier, 234
U
Unipolar induction, 452
machines, 400
motor meter, 458
Tandem control, see Concatenation.
Temperature starting device of
induction motor, 2
Third harmonic wave controlling
converter ratio, 432
ThomsonHouston arc machine as
threephase rectifier, 244,
255
Threephase rectifier, 251
regulating pole converter, 445
transformer, 472
Transformer, general alternating, 176
Triangle, monocyclic, 216
Triple squirrel cage induction motor,
34
Variable ratio converter, see Regu
lating pole converter.
W
Wave shape affecting converter
ratio, 430
harmonics giving induction
motor torque, 145
WinterEichbcrg motor, 380
V connected rectifier, 251
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