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By J. Wright, St. John's Square, Clerkcnvell. 






THE brewing of malt liquors has hitherto 
been conducted by such vague traditional 
maxims, that an attempt to establish its 
practice on truer and more fixed principles 
must, like every new essay, be attended 
with difficulties. 

Your works, Sir, will be lasting monu- 
ments, not only of your great abilities, but 
also of your zeal for the improvement of 
the arts, manufactures, and commerce of 
your country. You will therefore permit 
me to place under your patronage this 
treatise, which, if it can boast no other 
merit, has that of having been undertaken 

and finished by your advice and counsel. 

* 15 ' 


Some favor, I hope, will be shewn for 
this distant endeavour to imitate the laud- 
able example you have set, and whatever 
be the success, I shall ever glory in the 
opporjjmity it has given me of professing 
myself publicly, 


Your most obedient, 
And most obliged humble Servant, 


Hampstead, Middlesex, 
December 15, 171. 






Explanation of technical terms, t I 

Of Fire, <...... 15 

Of Air, 1$ 

Of Water, 24 

Of Earth, 33 

Of Menstruums or Dissolvents, 34, 

Of the Thermometer, 39 

Of the Vine, its fruits, and juices, 50 

Of fermentation in general, .... 66 

Of artificial fermentation, ,.i * , 80 

Of the nature of Barley, , 89 


Of Malting ., .. 94 



Of the different Properties of Malt, and of the num- 
ber of its fermentable Parts, 113 

Observations on defective Malts, 131 


Of the heat of the Air, as it relates to the practical 

part of Brewing, 145 

Of Grinding, '. 157 

Of Extraction, 160 

Of the nature and properties of Hops, 201 


Of the lengths necessary to form malt liquors of the 

several denominations, 217 


Method of calculating the height in the Copper at 

which worts are to go out, 220 

Of Boiling, 224 


Of the quantity of Water wasted ; and of the appli- 
cation of the preceding rules to two different 
processes of Brewing, f 230 



Of the division of the Water for the respective 
Worts and Mashes, and of the heat adequate to 
each of these, 234 


An enquiry into the volume of Malt, in order to re- 
duce the Grist to liquid measure, ..... ...... 25S 


Of the proportion of cold Water to be added to 
that which is on the point of boiling, in order 
to obtain the desired heat in the extract, 271 

Of Mashing, 286 


Of the incidents, which cause the heat of the ex- 
tract to vary from the calculation, the allow- 
ances they require, and the means to obviate 
their effects, 289 


Of the disposition of the Worts when turned out of 
the Copper, the thickness they should be laid at 
in the Backs to cool, and the heat they should 
retain for fermentation, under the several cir- 
cumstances, 304 


Of Yeast, its nature and contents, and of the man- 
ner and quantities in which it is to be added to 
the Worts, , ,. 311 



Of practical fermentation, and the management of 
the several sorts of Malt liquors, to the period 
at which they are to be cleansed, or put into 
the casks, 318 


Of the signs generally directing the processes of 
Brewing, and their comparison with the forego- 
ing Theory and Practice, 327 


An enquiry, into what may be, at all times, a proper 
stock of Beer, and the management of it in the 
cellars, ,..: 331 


Of Precipitation, and other remedies, applicable to 

the diseases incident to Beers, 334 


Of Taste, :..: 342 

Appendix, 349 



THE difference that appears in the several processes of 
brewing, though executed with the same materials, by the 
same persons, and to the same intent, is generally ac- 
knowledged. The uneasiness this must occasion to those 
who are charged with the directive part of the business, 
cannot be small : and the more desirous they are of well 
executing the duty incumbent on them, the greater is 
their disappointment, whenfrustrated in their hopes. To 
remove this uncertainty, no method seems preferable to 
that of experiments, as it is by this means alone, any art 
whatever ca?i be established upon a solid foundation : but 
these require caution, perseverance, and expence-, they 
must be multiplied and varied both for the same and for 
different purposes. The operations of nature elude super- 
ficial enquiries, where we have few or no principles for 
our guides, many experiments are made, which tend only 
to confound or deceive. Effects seen, without a sufficient 
knowledge of their causes, often are neglected, or 
viewed in an improper light, seldom faithfully reported, 
and, for want of distinguishing the several circumstances 


that attend them, many times become the support of old 
prejudices, or the foundation of new ones. 

Whoever is attentive to the, practical part of brewing, 
will soon be convinced that heat, or fire, is the principal 
agent therein, as this element, used in a greater or less 
degree, or differently applied, is the occasion of the 
greatest part of the variety we perceive. It is but a few 
years since the thermometer has been found to be an in- 
strument sufficiently accurate for any purposes where the 
measure of heat is required. And, as it is the only one 
Kith which we are enabled to examine the processes of 
krcwing, and to account for the difference in the ef- 
fects, a theory of the art, founded on practice, must be of 
later date than the discovery of the instrument that guides, 
us to the principles. 

So long since as the year 1T4I , / began this research, 
and never neglected any opportunity to consult the artists 
of the trade, or to try such experiments as I conceived 
might be conducive to the purpose. It is needless, per- 
haps shameful, to mention their number, or to speak of 
the many disappointments I met with in this pursuit. 
Error admits of numberless combinations. Truth alone 
is simple, and confirmed by continuity. At last, flatter- 
ing myself with having collected the true theoiy, assisted 
and encouraged by men of abilities, I thought it jit the 
public should judge whether I had succeeded in my en- 


deavours; and in 1758 the Essay on Brewing was sub- 
mitted to them, either for their approbation, or that the 
errors therein might be pointed out. I have had no 
reason to repent of my temerity, though perhaps the no- 
velty, more than the merit of this performance, engaged 
the attention, I may add the favor and advice of some 
good judges. They have allowed my principles to be at 
least plausible, and their agreement with practice has 
since repeatedly convinced me they were not far from 

The Essay just mentioned, revised and corrected, na- 
turally forms the first part or theory of the present trea* 
tise. The second part is entirely practical, dfter giv- 
ing a short idea of the whole process, I resume its differ- 
ent branches in as many chapters, and endeavour in such 
manner to guide the practitioner, that he may, in every 
fart, at all times, and under a variety of circumstances, 
know what he is to do, and seldom, if ever, to be disap- 
pointed in his object. 

From the investigation of so extensive a business, some 
benefit, it is hoped, must accrue to the public ; from 
the process of brewing being carried on in a just and uni- 
form manner, our malt liquors, probably, will in time 
better deserve the name of wine. 

Boerhaave, Shaw, Macquer, and most of the great 
masters in chymistry are far from limiting that name to 


the liquors produced from the juice of the grape : they 
extend it to all fermented vegetable juices, which , on dis- 
tillation, yield an ardent spirit, and look on the strength 
and faculty wine has to cherish nature, and preserve it- 
self, to be in proportion to the quantity it possesses of this 
liquid, generally termed spirit of wine. This, when tho- 
roughly pure and dephlegmated, is one and the same, 
whatever different vegetable it is produced from. Barley 
wines possess the same spiritous principle, which is the 
preservative part of the most valuable foreign wines, with 
a power j)f being brewed superior or inferior to them in 
quality, and the other constituejit parts of beer, beside this 
ardent spirit, will not, I believe, be esteemed less whole- 
.wine than those which make up the whole of grape wine 
The reasons why Great Britain hath not hitherto fur* 
nished foreign nations with this part of her product, but 
more especially her seamen, are obvious. Our mariners, 
when at home, do not dislike beer, either as to their pa- 
lates, or its effects on their constitution ; but when abroad, 
spiritous liquors, or new wines, often the product of an 
enemy's country, are substituted in lieu thereof. The 
disuse of beers, on these occasions, has been owing to the un- 
certainty of the principles on which they were brewed; the 
maintaining them sound in long voyages and in hot cli- 
mates, could not sufficiently be depended upon ; and it has 
been supposed they could not be procured at so easy a rate 


<w >*', brandies, or rums, purchased abroad. The 
frst of these objections, the author hopes, by this toork, 
to remove ; and, were all the duties to be -allowed on what 
would be brewed for this purpose, our seamen might be 
furnished with beer stronger than Spanish wine, and at a 
less efpence, the mean price of malt and hops being taken 
for seven years. It is true that, in times of peace, the 
seamen in his Majesty's service are not very numerous, 
but the number of those then employed by merchants is 
considerable. I should not have 'presumed to mention 
this, but on account of the encouragement given to the 
exportation of corn, and to many manufactures of British 
growth or British labor. It is computed that, in Eng- 
land and Wales, are brewed three millions Jive hundred 
thousand quarters of malt yearly, for which purpose up- 
wards of one hundred and fifty thousand weight of hops 
Are used. The improvement of the brewery might be- 
come a means of increasing the consumption of the 
growth of our country, viz. of barley, to more than one 
hundred thousand quarters, and of hops to between four- 
teen and fifteen thousand weight annually. 

Whether this be an object deserving the attention of the 
legislative power, or of the landed interest, and what 
might be the proper means to put it successfully in prac- 
tice, are considerations which do not belong to this place ; 
it being sufficient here to point out, how universally bene- 


fcialit is to establish the art of brewing on true and inva- 
riable principles. 

This being the first attempt, that has been made, to re* 
duce this art to rules and principles, the Author hopes 
he has a just claim to the indulgence of the public, for 
any errors he unwillingly may have adopted ; far from 
believing that there is no room left for future improve- 
ments, he recommends it to those, who, blessed with supe- 
rior talents and more leisure than himself, may be in- 
clined to try their skill in the same field, to watch closely 
the steps of NATURE ; after the strictest enquiry made, it 
will be found, the success of brewing beers and ales wholly 
depends on a true imitation of the wines she forms. 

This second edition, it may be obsemed, in many re- 
spects, differs considerably from the first. I have en- 
deavoured to convert to use every advice, every opinion I 
received, and. having put these to the test of farther 
practice, fiat ter myself it will be found improved. 




/ HAVE, with pleasure and improvement, 
read over your manuscript ; and should be glad 
to see some other trades as justly reduced to 
rules as you have done that of brewing : which 
would not only be making a right application 
of philosophical knowledge, but, at the same 
time, accommodate human life, in many respects, 
wherein it is still deficient. Perhaps your ex- 
ample may excite some able men, to give us 
their respective trades, in the form of so many 
arts. For my own part, having long wished 
to see some attempts of this kind, for the good 
of society in general, I cannot but be particu- 
larly pleased with the nature, design, and exe- 
cution of your essay, and am, 
Dear Sir, 

Your obliged Friend, 
TV, n T . And humble, Servant, 

Pall-Mall, July 20, 






1 HE intent of every brewer, when he forms his drink, 
is to extract the fermentable parts of the malt, in the 
most perfect manner ; to add hops, in such proportion 
as experience teaches him will preserve and ameliorate 
the beer ; and to employ just so much yeast as is sufficient 
to obtain a complete fermentation. 

Perhaps it may be said, these particulars are already 
sufficiently understood, and that it would be a much 
more useful work to publish remedies for the imperfec- 
tions, or diseases, beer is naturally or accidentally sub- 
ject to, and which at present are deemed incurable. But 
if the designs just now mentioned be executed according 
to the rules of chymistry, such imperfections and such 
diseases not existing, the remedies will not be wanted ; 
for beer brewed upon true principles, is, neither natu- 
rally nor accidentally, subject to many disorders often 
perceived in it. Hence it is evident, that some know- 
ledge of chymistry is absolutely necessary to complete 
the brewer, as, without the informations acquired from 
that science, he must be unqualified to lay down rules 
for" his practice, and to secure to himself the favor of the 
public ; for which purpose, and to make this treatise useful 
to those concerned in the practical part of brewing, it has 


been thought adviseable to avoid, as much as possible, 
the technical terms of art, to prefix an explanation of 
those that necessarily occur, and, in as short a manner as 
possible, to trace the properties of fire, air, water, and 
earth, as far as they relate to the subject. 

ACIDS are all those things which taste sour, as vinegar, 
juice of lemons, spirit of nitre, spirit of salt, the oil and 
spirit of vitriol, &c. and are put in a violent agitation, by 
being mixed with certain earths, or the ashes of vege- 
tables. An acid enters, more or less, into the composi- 
tion of all plants, and is produced by, or rather is the last 
effect of, fermentation. Mixed in a due proportion with 
an alkali, it constitutes a neutral salt, that is, a salt where- 
in neither the acid nor alkali prevail. Acids are fre- 
quently termed acid salts, though generally they appear 
under a fluid form. 

ALKALIES, or alkaline salts, are of a nature directly- 
contrary to the acids, and generally manifest themselves 
by effervescing therewith : they have an urinous taste, 
and are produced from the ashes of vegetables, and by se- 
veral other means. They, as well as testaceous and cal- 
carious substances, are frequently made use of by cooperi, 
to absorb the acid parts of stale beer, by them called 

Am is a thin elastic fluid, surrounding the globe of the 
earth ; it is absolutely necessary to the preservation both 
of animal and vegetable life, and for the exciting and 
carrying on fermentation. 

ALCOHOL is the pure spirit of wine, generally supposed 
to be without the least particle of water or phlegm. 


ANIMALS are organized bodies, endued with sensation 
and life. Minerals are said to grow arid increase, plants 
to grow and lire, but animals only to have sensation. 
Animal substances cannot ferment so as to produce by 
themselves a vinous liquor; but there may be cases 
wherein some of their parts rather help than retard the 
act of fermentation.* 

ATMOSPHERE is that rast collection of air, with which 
the earth is surrounded to a considerable height. 

ATTRACTION is an indefinite term, applicable to all ac- 
tions whereby bodies tend towards one another, whether 
by virtue of their weight, magnetism, electricity, or any 
other power. It is not, therefore, the cause determining 
some bodies to approach one another, that is expressed 
by the word attraction, but the effect itself. The space, 
through which this power extends, is called the sphere 
of attraction. 

BLACKING is a technical term used by coopers, to de- 
note sugar that is calcined, until it obtains the colour that 
occasions the name. 

BREWING is the operation of preparing beers and ales 
from malt. 

BOILING may thus be accounted for. The minute par- 
ticles of fuel being by fire detached from each other, 
and becoming themselves fire, pass through the pores of 

* Vide Dr. Pringle's experiments in his book of observations oo the 
diseases of the army, p. 350, 351 & seq. 
A 2 


the vessel, and mix with the fluid. These, being perpe- 
tually in an active state, communicate their motion to 
the water : hence arises, at first, a small intestine mo- 
tion, and from a continued action in the first cause, the 
effect is increased, and the motion of the liquor continu- 
ally accelerated ; by degrees, it becomes sensibly agitated, 
but the particles of the fire, acting chiefly on the parti- 
cles that compose the lowest surface of the water, give 
them an impulse upwards, by rendering them specifi- 
cally lighter, so as to determine them to ascend, accord- 
ing to the laws of equilibrium. Hence there is a constant 
flux of water from the bottom to the top of the vessel, 
and reciprocally from the top to the bottom. This ap- 
pears to be the reason why water is hot at the top sooner 
than at the bottom, and why an equal heat cannot be 
distributed through the whole. The thermometer there- 
fore can be of little service, to determine immediately the 
degree of heat, especially in large vessels, on which ac- 
count it is better for brewers to heat a certain quantity 
just to the act of boiling, and to temper it, by adding a 
sufficient quantity of cold water. Boiling water is inca- 
pable of receiving any increase of heat, though acted on 
by ever so great a fire, unless the atmosphere becomes 
heavier, or the vapours of the water be confined. It oc- 
casions the mercury to rise, according to Farenheit's 
scale, to 212 degrees. 

CHARR. A body is said to be charred when, by fire, 
its volatile or most active parts are drove out ; its coarse 
oils, by the same means, placed chiefly on the external 
parts ; and so deprived of color as to be quite black. 

CLEANSING is the act of removing the beer from the 
ton, where it was first fermented, into the casks. 


CLOUDY is an epithet joined to such beers, which, from 
the violent heat given to the water that brewed them, 
are loaded with more oils than can be attenuated by 
fermentation, and incorporated with the water ; from 
Avhence a muddy and grey oil is seen floating on the sur- 
face of the liquor, though the body is often transparen- ; 
this oil is frequently extracted in such quantity as to ex- 
ceed the power of any known menstruum. 

COHESION is that action by which the particles of the 
same body adhere together, as if they were but one. 

COLD is a relative term in opposition to heat. Its 
greatest degree is not known, and it is supposed that the 
colder a body is, the less is the agitation of its internal 

COLOUR ; a greater or less degree of heat causes diffe- 
rent colours in most bodies, and from a due observation, 
of the colour of malt, we may determine what degree of 
heat it has been impressed with. 

DENSITY expresses the closeness, compactness, or near 
approach of the parts of a body to one another : the more 
a body weighs in proportion to its bulk, the greater is 
its density. Gold is the densest body in nature, because 
there is none known of the same bulk, which weighs so 

EARTH is that fossil matter or element, whereof our 
globe partly consists. 

EBULLITION is the boiling or bubbling of water, or any 
A 3 


other liquor, when the fire has forced itself a passage 
through it. Brewers suppose water to be just beginning 
to boil, when they perceive a small portion of it forced 
from the bottom upwards in a right line, so as to disturb 
the surface : when the liquor is in this state, they call it 
through, or upon the point of ebullition. The vulgar 
notion that the water is hotter at this time than when it 
boils, is without any foundation. i ^ii 

EFFERVESCENCE is a sudden agitation, arising in certain 
bodies upon mixing them together ; this agitation most 
commonly generates heat. 

ELASTICITY, or springiness, is that property of bodies, 
by which they restore themselves to their former figure, 
after any pressure or distension. 

EXPANSION is the swelling or increase of the bulk of 
bodies from heat, or any other cause. 

EXTRACT consists of the parts of a body separated from 
the rest, by cold or hot water. 

FERMENTATION is a sensible internal motion of the par- 
ticles of a mixture : by the continuance of this motion, 
the particles are gradually removed from their former 
situation, and, after some visible separation, joined toge- 
ther again in a different order and arrangement, so a.s 
to constitute a new compound. No liquors are capable 
of inebriating, except those that have been fermented. 

FIXED BODIES are those, which, consisting of grosser 
parts, cohering by a strong attraction, and by that means 


less susceptible of agitation, can neither be separated nor 
raised, without a strong heat, or perhaps not without 

FIRE is only known by its properties, of which the 
chief are to penetrate and dilate all solid and fluid 

FREEZING POINT is the degree of cold, at which water 
begins to be formed into ice, which, according to Faren- 
heit's scale, is expressed by 32. 

FOXED is a techical term, used by brewers, to indicate 
beers in a putrid state. 

GUMS are concreted vegetable juices, which transude 
through the bark of certain trees, and harden upon the 
surface ; they easily dissolve in water, and by that means 
distinguish themselves from balsams or resins. 

HERMETICALLY SEALED is a particular method of stop- 
ping the mouth of vessels, so close that the most subtil 
spirit cannot fly out, which is done by heating the neck 
of the -bottles, till it is just ready to melt, and then with 
hot pinchers twisting it close together. 

HOMOGENEOUS is an appellation given to such parts 
or subjects, which are similar or of the same nature and 

ISINGLASS is a preparation from a fish called huso, 
somewhat bigger than the sturgeon ; a solution of which 
in stale beer is used, to fine or precipitate other beers : 
A 3 


it is imported from Russia by the Dutch, and from them 
to us. 

LIGHT consists of particles of matter inconceivably 
small, capable of exciting in us the sensation of colours, 
by being reflected from every point of the surface of 
luminous bodies ; but, notwithstanding they are so ex- 
ceeding small, Sir Isaac Newton found means to divide 
a single ray into seven distinct parts, viz. red, orange, 
yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. 

MALT, in general, is any sort of grain, first germi- 
nated, and then dried, so as to prevent any future vege- 
tation : that generally used, is made of barley, which 
experience has found to be the fittest for the purpose of 

MEDIUM is that space, through which a body in mo- 
tion passes : air is the medium through which the bodies 
near the earth move ; water is the medium wherein fish 
live ; glass affords a medium or a free passage to light. 
This term is also made use of, to express the mean of 
two numbers, and sometimes the middle between several 

MUSTS are the unfermented juices of grapes, or of any 
other vegetable substances. 

MENSTRUUM is any fluid, which is capable of interpos- 
ing its parts between those of other bodies, and in this 
manner either dissolves them perfectly, or extracts some 
part of them. 


OIL is an unctuous, inflammable substance, drawn 
from several animal and vegetable substances. 

PRECIPITATION. Isinglass dissolved becomes a gluti- 
nous and heavy body ; this put into malt liquors intend- 
ed to be fined, carries down, by its weight, all those 
swimming particles, which prevent its transparency; 
and this act is called fining, or precipitation. 

REPULSION ; " Doctor Knight defines it to be that cause 
which makes bodies mutually endeavour to recede from 
each other, with different forces at different times." In 
this case they are placed beyond the sphere of each 
other's attraction or cohesion, and mutually fly from 
each other. 

RESINS, or balsams, are the oils of vegetables inspis- 
sated and combined with a proportion of the acid salts ; 
as well as they mix with any spirituous liquor, as little 
are they soluble in water ; but they become so, either by 
the intervention of gums or soaps, or by the attenuating 
virtue of fermentation. 

SALTS are substances sharp and pungent, which rea- 
dily dissolve in water, and from thence, by evaporation, 
crystallise and appear in a solid form. They easily 
unite together, and form different compounds. Thus 
salts, composed of acids and alkalies, partake of both, 
and are called neutral. 

SETT : a grist of malt is by brewers said to be sett, 
when, instead of separating for extraction, it runs in 
clods, increases, in heat, and coagulates. This accident 


is owing to the over quantity of fire in the water, ap- 
plied to any of the extractions. , The air included in the 
grist, which is a principal agent in resolving the malt, 
being thereby expelled, the mass remains inert, and its 
parts, adhering too closel^v together, are with difficulty 
separated. Though an immediate application of more 
cold water to the grist is the only remedy, yet, as the 
cohesion is speedy and strong, it seldom takes effect. 
New malts, which have not yet lost the heat they receiv- 
ed from the kiln, are most apt to lead the brewer into 
this error, and generally in the first part of the process. 

. SUGAR, or saccharine salts, are properly those that 
come from the sugar canes; many plants, fruits and 
grains give sweet juices reducible to the same form ; 
they are supposed to be acids smoothed over with oils ; 
all vegetable sweets are capable of fermenting sponta- 
neously when crude ; if boiled, they require an addition 
of yeast to make them perform that act. Malt, or it* 
extracts, have all the properties of saccharine salts. 

SULPHUR. Though by sulphur is commonly under- 
stood the mineral substance called brimstone, yet in chy- 
mistry it is frequently used to signify in general any oily 
substance, inflammable by fire, and, without some salina 
Addition, indissoluble in water. 

SOAP OR SAPONACEOUS JUICES. Common soap is made 
of oil mixed with alkaline salts : this mixture causes a 
froth on being agitated in water. The oils of vegetables 
are, in some degree, mixed with their salts ; and accord- 
ing to the nature of these salts, appear either resinous or 
saponaceous, that is, soluble or indissoluble in water. 


Sugar is a kind of soap, rendering oil miscible with 
water ; and therefore all bodies, from which saccharine 
salts are extracted, may be termed saponaceous, 

VEGETABLE is a term applied to plants, considered as 
capable of growth, having vessels and parts for this pur- 
pose, but generally supposed to be without sensation. 

VINEGAR is an acid penetrating liquor, prepared from 
wine, beer, cyder, or a must, which has been fermented 
as far as it was capable. 

VITRIOL is, in general, a metalline substance combined 
with the strongest acid salt known. This acid, being 
separated from the metal, differs in nothing from that 
which is extracted from alum or brimstone. It is impro- 
perly called spirit of vitriol, when diluted with water, 
and, with as little propriety, oil, when free from it. 

VOLATILE BODIES are those, which, either from their 
smallness or their form, do not cohere very strongly to- 
gether, and being most susceptible of those agitations, 
which keep liquors in a fluid state, are most easily sepa- 
rated and rarified into vapour, with a gentle heat, and 
on the contrary condensed and brought down with cold. 

WINE is a brisk, agreeable, spirituous, fluid cordial, 
formed from fermented vegetable bodies. In this sense 
beers and ales may be called, and really are, barley 

WORTS are the unfermented extracts of malt. 


YEAST is both the flowers and lees of a fermented 
wort, the former of these being elastic air enveloped in a 
subject less strong and less consistent than the latter. 






1 HOUGH fire is the chief cause and principle of al- 
most every change in bodies, and though persons un- 
taught in chymistry imagine they understand its nature, 
yet, certain it is, few subjects are so incomprehensible, 
or elude so much our nicest research. The senses are 
very inadequate judges of it ; the eye may be deceived, 
and suppose no fire in a bar of iron, because it does not 
appear red, though at the same time it may contain 
enough to generate pain : the touch is equally unfaith- 
ful, for a body, containing numberless particles of heat, 
will to us feel cold, if it is much more so than ourselves. 
The great and fundamental difference among philoso- 
phers, in respect to the nature of fire, is, whether it be 
originally such, formed by the Creator himself, at the 
beginning of things ; or whether it be mechanically pro- 
ducible in bodies, by inducing some alteration in the 
particles thereof. It is certain that heat may be gene- 
rated in a body, by attrition ; but whether it existed 


there before, or was caused immediately by the motion, 
is a matter of no great import to the art of brewing ; 
for the effects, with which we are alone concerned, are 
the same. 

Fire expands all bodies, both solid and fluid. If an iron 
rod just capable of passing through a ring of the same 
metal, is heated red-hot, it will be increased in length, 
and so much swelled as not to be able to pass through 
the ring, as before :* if a fluid is put into a bellied glass, 
with a long slender neck, and properly marked, the 
fluid, by being heated, will manifestly rise to a consi- 
derable height. 

The expansion of fluids, by heat, is different in diffe- 
rent fluids ; with some exceptions, it may be said to be 
in proportion to their density. Pure rain water, gradu- 
ally heated to ebullition, is expanded one 26th part of its 
bulk,f so that 27 gallons of boiling water, will, when 
cold, measure no more than 26, and 27 gallons of boil- 
ing wort will not yield so much, because worts contain 
many oily particles, which, though less dense than wa- 

* There is a very singular exception in regard to iron itself, in this 
respect. It is only a certain degree of heat that expands this metal; 
(and that much less than any other either more or less dense) when 
melted, it occupies a less space than when in a solid form. This 
ought to caution us against an entire dependence on general rules, hy 
which nature doth not appear to be wholly restricted. See Mem. d 
i'Acad. des Scienc. p. 273. 

* See Dr. Lewis's Philosophical Commerce of Arts, p. 42. 


ter, hare the property of being more expansible : hence 
\ve see the reason why a copper, containing a given num- 
ber of barrels of wort, when cold, is not capable to hold 
the same of beer, when boiling. 

Bodies are weakened or loosened in their texture by 

fire: the hardest, by an increased degree of heat, will 

liquify and run ; and vegetables are resolved and sepa- 
rated by it into their constituent parts. It must be owned 
vegetables seem at first, on being exposed to the fire, to 
become rigid or stiff; but this is owing to the evapora- 
tion of the aqueous particles, which prevented a closer 
adhesion of the solid matter. It is only in this manner 
fire strengthens some bodies which before were weak. 

That the texture of bodies should be loosened by fire, 
seems a consequence of expansion ; for a body cannot be 
expanded but by its particles receding farther from one 
another ; and if these be not able to regain the situation 
they had when cold, the body will remain looser in its 
texture than before it suffered the action of fire. This 
is the case of barley when malted. 

Fire may be conveyed through most bodies, as air, wa- 
ter, ashes, sand, &c. The effect seems to be different 
according to the different conveyances. A difference 
appears between boiling and roasting, yet they answer 
the same purpose, that of preserving the subject ; and 
this, in proportion to the degree of heat it has suffered^ 
A similar variety appears, even to our taste, from the 


different conveyance of fire to malt : for acids having a 
great tendency to unite with water, if this element does 
not naturally contain any itself, is the reason why a great 
heat is conveyed through water, and applied to extract 
the virtues of pale malt ; the water gaining from the grain 
some of these salts, or possessing them itself, the effect of 
this great aqueous heat is not to imprint on the palate a 
nauseous burnt taste, as is the case of great heats, when 
conveyed through air to the same grain. The salts the 
water has obtained, or perhaps had, being sheathed by 
the oils it draws from the malt, rather become saccha- 
rine, which cannot be the case when oils are acted upon 
by a strong heat, entirely void of any such property ; 
but malt, the more it is dried, the longer is it capable of 
maintaining itself in a sound state, and the liquor brewed 
with it will, in proportion to its dryness, keep the longer 
sound, the hotter the water is, applied to malt, provided 
its heat doth not exceed the highest extracted degree, 
the more durable and sound will the extract be. 

The last consideration of fire or heat, relative to brew- 
ing, is the knowledge of its different degrees, and how 
to regulate them. Till of late, chymists and all others, 
were much to seek in this respect ; they distinguished 
more or less fire in a very vague and indeterminate man- 
ner, as the first, second, third, andfourth degree of heat, 
meaning no precise heat, or heat measured by any stan- 
dard ; but, by the invention of the thermometer, we 


are enabled to regulate our fires with the utmost preci- 
sion. Thermometers are formed on different scales ; and 
therefore, when any degree of heat is mentioned, in order 
to avoid confusion, the scale made use of should be indi- 
cated. I have constantly employed Fahrenheit's, as it is 
the most perfect, and the most generally received. Ac- 
cording to this instrument,* by the author of it, an 
artificial cold was made so as the mercury stood at 72 
divisions below the first frost. The gentlemen of the French 
Academy, in the winter of the year 1736, observed, at 
Torneao, Latitude 65 51', the natural cold to be 33 de- 
grees below : these are proofs there are colds much 
more intense than the first frost, or 32 degrees, where 
water first begins to harden into ice ; from 32 to 90 de- 
grees are the limits of vegetation, according to the dif- 
ferent plants that receive those or the intermediate heats. 
The 40th degree is marked by Boerhaave as the first fer- 
mentable heat, and the 80th as the last : 47 degrees I 
have found to be generally the medium heat of London, 
throughout the year, in the shade ; 98 degrees is said to 
be that of our bodies when in health, as from 105 to 112 
are its degrees when in a fever. Hay stacked with too 
much moisture, when turned quite black, in the heart of 
the rick, indicated a heat of 165 degrees. At 175 the 
purest and highest-rectified spirits of wine boil, and at 

* See Marline's Dissertation on Heat. What the degree of cold 
was which fixed mercury at St. Petersburg, I do net recollect 



this degree I have found well-grown malts to charr, at 
212 degrees water boils, at 600 quicksilver and oil of vi- 
triol. Gold, silver, iron, and most other metals in fu- 
sion exceed this heat ; greater still than any known is 
the fire in the focus of the burning lens of Tschirnhausen, 
or of the concave mirror made by Villette ; they are 
said to volatilise metals and vitrify bricks. Thus far ex- 
periments have reached ; but how much more, or how 
much less, the power of this element extends, will pro- 
bably be for ever hid from mankind. 



JN ONE of the operations, either of nature or art, can 
be carried on without the action or assistance of air. It 
is a principal agent in fermentation ; and therefore brew- 
ers ought to be well acquainted with its principal pro- 
perties and powers. 

By air we mean a fluid, scarcely perceptible to our 
senses, and discovering itself only by the resistance it 
makes to bodies. We find it every where incumbent 
on the surface of the globe, rising to a considerable 
height, and commonly known by the name of atmos- 
phere. The weight of air is to that of water as 1 to 
850, and its gravitating force equal to that of a column 
of water of 33 feet high ; so that an area of one foot 
square receives, from air, a pressure equal to 2080 pounds 

Elasticity is a property belonging only to this element, 
and this quality varies in proportion to the compressing 
weights. We scarcely find this element, (any more than 
the others) in a pure state ; one thousandth part of com- 
mon air, says Boerhaave, consists of aqueous, spiritous, 
oily, saline, and other particles scattered through it. 
These are not, or but little, compressible, and in general 
prevent fermentation: consequently, where the air is 
B 2 


purest, fermentation is best carried on. The same au- 
thor suspects, that the ultimate particles of air cohere to- 
gether, so as not easily to insinuate themselves into the 
smallest pores, either of solids or fluids. Hence, those 
acquainted with brewing, easily account, why very hot 
water, which forces strong and pinguious particles from 
malt, forms at the same time extracts unfavourable for 
fermentation, as oils are an obstruction to the free en- 
trance of air ; and, from an analogous reason, extracts 
which are much less impressed with fire, in them fermen- 
tation is so much accelerated, that the whole soon be- 
comes sour. 

Air, like other bodies, is expanded and rarified by 
heat, and exerts its elasticity in proportion to the num- 
ber of degrees of fire it has received ; the hotter therefore 
the season is, the more active and violent will the fer- 
mentation be. 

Air abounds with water, and is perpetually penetrat- 
ing and insinuating itself into every thing capable of re- 
ceiving it. Its weight, or gravitating force, must neces- 
sarily produce numberless effects. The water contained 
in the air is rendered more active by its motion ; hence 
the saline, gummous, and saponaceous particles it meets 
with are loosened in their texture, and, in some degree, 
dissolved. As principles similar to these are the chief 
constituent parts of malt, the reason is obvious why 
such, which are old, or have lain a proper time exposed 


to the influence of the air, dissolve more readily, or, in 
other words, yield a more copious extract than others. 

All bodies in a passive state, remaining a sufficient 
time in the same place, become of the same degree of 
heat with the air itself. On this account the water, 
lying in the backs used by brewers, is nearly of the 
same degree of heat as the thermometer shews the open 
air in the shade to be. When this instrument indicates 
a cold below the freezing point, or 32 degrees, if the 
water does not then become ice, the reason is, because it 
has not been exposed long enough to be thoroughly af- 
fected by such a cold. For water does not immediately 
assume the same degree of temperature with the air, 
principally on account of its density, also from its being 
pumped out of deep and hot wells, from its being kept 
in motion, and from many other incidents. Under these 
circumstances, no great error can arise" to estimate its 
heat equal to 35 degrees. 

Air is not easily expelled from bodies, either solid or 
fluid. Water requires two hours boiling to be dis- 
charged of the greatest part of its air. That it may be 
thus expelled by heat appears from hence ; water, if 
boiled the space abovementioned, instead of having any 
air bubbles when it is froze, as ice commonly has, be- 
comes a solid mass like crystal. 

Worts or musts, as they contain great quantities of 
salts and oils, require a greater degree of heat to make 


them boil : consequently more air is expelled from boil- 
ing worts, than from boiling water in the same time ; 
and as air doth not instantaneously re-enter those bo- 
dies,* when cold, they would never ferment of them- 
selves. Were it not for the substitute of yeast, to sup- 
ply the deficiency of air lost by boiling, they would fox 
or putrify, for want of that internal elastic air, which is 
absolutely necessary to fermentation. 

As air joined to water contributes so powerfully to 
render that fluid more active, that water which has en- 
dured .fire" the least time, provided it be hot enough, will 
make the strongest extracts. 

Though there is air in every fluid, it differs in quan- 
tity in different fluids ; so that no rule can be laid down 
for the quantity of air, which worts should contain. 
Probably the quantity, sufficient to saturate one sort, will 
not be an adequate proportion for another. 

Air in this manner encompasses, is in contact with, 
confines, and compresses all bodies. It insinuates itself 
into their penetrable passages, exerts all its power either 
on solids, or fluids, and finding in bodies some elements 
to which it has a tendency, unites with them. By its 
weight and perpetual motion, it strongly agitates those 
parts of the bodies in which it is contained, rubs, and 
intermixes them intimately together. By disuniting 

* It requires seven or eight days. (See Dissertation sur la glace 
par MODS, de Mayran.) Paris edition, 1749. Page 191. 


some, and joining others, it produces very singular ef- 
fects, not easily accomplished by any other means. 
That this element has such surprising powers, is evident 
from the following experiment. " Fermentable parts 
" duly prepared and disposed in the vacuum of Mr. 
" Boyle's air-pump will not ferment^ though acted up- 
" on by a proper heat; but, discharging their air, re- 
" main unchanged." 





As water is perpetually an object of our senses, and made 
use of for most of the purposes of Hfe, it might be imagined 
the nature of this element was perfectly understood : but 
they who have enquired into it with the greatest care, 
find it very difficult to form a just idea of it. One reason 
of this difficulty is, water is not easily separated from 
other bodies, or other bodies from water. Hartshorn, 
after having been long dried, resists a file more than 
iron ; yet, on distillation, yields much water. I have 
already observed, that air is intimately mixed with, and 
possibly never entirely separated from it, but in a va- 
cuum ; how is it possible then ever to obtain water per- 
fectly pure ? 

In its most perfect state, we understand it to be a li- 
quor very fluid, inodorous, insipid, pellucid, and colour- 
less, which, in a certain degree of cold, freezes into a 
brittle, hard, glassy ice. 

Lightness is reckoned a perfection in \vater, that which 
weighs less being in general the purest. Hence the 
great difficulty of determining the standard weight it 
should have. Fountain, river, or well waters, by their 
admixture with saline, earthy, sulphureous, and vitriolic 
substances, are rendered much heavier than in their na- 


tural state ; on the other hand, an increase of heat, or an 
addition of air, by varying the expansion, diminishes the 
weight of water. A pint of rain-water, supposed to be 
the purest, is said to weigh 15 ounces, 1 drachm, and 50 
grains, but, for the reasons just now mentioned, this must 
differ in proportion as the seasons of the year do from 
each other. 

Another property of water, which it has in common 
Tvith other liquors, is its fluidity, which is so great, that a 
very small degree of heat, above the freezing point, 
makes it evaporate. Experiments to ascertain the pro- 
portion steemed away of the quantity of water used in 
brewing, is an object worthy of the artist's curiosity ; 
but the purer the water is, the more readily it evapo- 
rates. Sea-water, which is supposed to contain one for- 
tieth part of salt, more forcibly resists the power of fire, 
and wastes much less, than that which is pure. 

The ultimate particles of this element, Boerhaave be- 
lieved to be much less than those of air, as water passes 
through the pores and interstices of w r ood, which never 
transmit the least elastic air ; nor is there, says he, any 
known fluid, (fire excepted, which forces itself through 
erery subject) whose parts are more penetrating than 
those of water. Yet as water is not an universal dis- 
solver, there are vessels which will contain it, though 
they will let pass even the thick syrup of sugar, for su- 


gar makes its way by dissolving the tenacious and oily 
substance of the wood, which water cannot do. 

Water, when fully saturated by fire, is said to boil, 
and by the impulse of that element, comes under a strong 
ebullition. Just before this violent agitation takes 
place, I have already observed, it occupies one seventy- 
sixth more space than when cold : so the brewer who 
would be exact, when he intends to reduce his liquor to 
a certain degree of heat, must allow for this expansion, 
abating therefrom the quantity of steam exhaled. 

As water, by boiling, may be said to be filled or satu- 
rated with fire, so may it be with any other substance 
capable of being dissolved therein ; but, though it will 
dissolve only a given quantity of any particular substance, 
it may, at the same time, take in a certain proportion of 
some other. Four ounces of pure rain water will melt 
but one ounce of common salt, and after taking this as 
the utmost of its quantity, it will still receive two scru- 
ples of another kind of salt, viz. nitre. In like manner 
the strongest extract of malt is capable of receiving the 
properties belonging to hops: but in a limited pro- 
portion. This appears from the thin bitter pelicle, that 
often swims on the surface of the first wort of brown 
beers, which commonly are overcharged with hops, by 
putting the whole quantity of them at first therein ; the 
wort not being capable of suspending all that the heat 
dissolves, it no sooner cools but these parts rise on the 


top. This may serve as a hint to prevent this error, by 
suffering the first wort to have no more hops boiled 
therein than it can sustain : but as this incident must va- 
ry, in proportion to the heat of the extracts and quantity 
of water used, some few experiments are necessary to in- 
dicate the due proportion for the several sorts of drink. 
This however should always be extended to the utmost, 
for the first wort, which, from its nature and consituent 
parts, stands most in need of the preservative quality the 
hops impart. 

Water acts very differently, as a menstruum, accord- 
ing to the quantity of fire it contains : consequently its 
heat is a point of the utmost importance with regard to 
brewing, and should be properly varied according to 
the dryness and nature of the malt, according as it is 
applied either in the first or last mashes, and in pro-- 
portion also to the time the beer is intended to be kept. 
These ends, we hope to shew, are to be obtained to a 
degree of numerical certitude. 

Nutrition cannot be carried on without water, though 
likely water itself is not the matter of nourishment, but 
only the vehicle. 

Water is as necessary to fermentation as heat or air. 
The farmer, who stacks his hay or.corn before it is suf- 
ficiently dried, soon experiences the terrible effects of 
too much moisture, or water, residing therein : all vege- 
tables therefore intended to be long kept, ought to be 


well dried. The brewer should carefully avoid purchas- 
ing hops that are slack bagged, or kept in a moist place, 
or malt that has been sprinkled with water soon after it 
was taken from the kiln. By means of the moisture, an 
internal agitation is raised in the corn, which agitation, 
though soon stopped, for want of a sufficient quantity of 
air, yet, the heat thereby generated remaining, every 
adventitious seed, fallen from the air, and resting on the 
corn, begins to grow, and forms a moss, which dies, and 
leaves a putrid musty taste behind, always prevailing, 
more or less, in beer made from such grain. 

That water is by no means an universal solvent, as 
some people have believed, has been already observed. 
It certainly does not act as such on metals, gems, stones, 
and many other substances : it is not in itself capable of 
dissolving oils, but is miscible with highly rectified spi- 
rits of wine, or alchohol, which is the purest vegetable 
oil in nature. All saponaceous bodies, whether artificial 
or natural, fixed or volatile, readily melt therein ; and 
as man}' parts of the malt are dissoluble in it, they must 
either be, or become by heat, of the nature of soap, 
that is, equally miscible with oils and water. 

When a saponaceous substance is dissolved in water, 
it lathers, froths, and bears a head ; hence, in extracts of 
malt, we find these signs in the underback. Weak and 
slack liquors, which contain the salts of the malt without 
a sufficient quantity of the oils, yield no froth. Some- 


what like this happens, when the water for the extract 
is over-heated, for then as more oils are extracted than 
are sufficient to balance the salts, the extract comes 
down as before, with little or no froth or head. This 
sameness of appearance, from two causes directly oppo- 
site to each other, has many times misled the artist, and 
shews the necessity there is to employ means less liable 
to error. 

This might be a proper place to observe the diffe- 
rence between rain, spring, river, and pond waters ; but 
as the art of brewing is very little affected by the diffe- 
rence of waters, if they be equally soft, but rather de- 
pends on the due regulation of heat ; and as soft waters 
are found in most places, and become more alike, when 
heated to the degree necessary to form extracts from 
malt ; it is evident, that any sort of beer or ale may be 
brewed with equal success, where malt and hops can be 
procured proper for the respective purposes. If hither- 
to prejudice and interest have appropriated to some 
places a reputation for particular sort of drinks, it has 
arose from hence ; the principles of the art being totally 
unknown, the event depended on experience only, and 
lucky combinations were more frequent where the 
greatest practice was. Thus, for want of knowing the 
true reason of the different properties observed in the 
several drinks, the cause of their excellencies or defects 
was ignorantly attributed to the water made use of, and 


the inhabitants of particular places soon found an ad- 
vantage, in availing themselves of this local reputation. 
But just and true principles, followed by as just a prac- 
tice, must render the art more universal, and add dignity 
to the profession, by establishing the merit of our barley 
wines on knowledge, not on opinion void of judgment. 
To place this truth in a fuller light, and to communicate 
to the brewer the readiest means to examine any waters 
he may have occasion to use, I have extracted from 
Doctor Lucas's Essay on Waters, the experiments he 
made on the Thames, New River, and Hampstead com- 
pany's waters, but without closely adhering to the accu- 
racy this gentleman prescribed to himself ; such exact- 
ness much better suiting a man of his abilities : for the 
purposes of brewing it is not of absolute necessity. 

Experiments on the Thames, New River, and Hampstead JVaters, which in general are 
in use in the Cities of London and Westminster. 

Subject! em- 

Thames, at Somerset 

Inferences from the er 

Acw River. 



Quantity of insoluble 
matter in one pint, one 
grain and a half. 

periments on Thame 

Quantity of insoluble 
matter in one pint, one 
grain and a half. 

In 24 hours discharges 
air, lets some light se- 
diment fall, and grows 

Quan t ity of water used 

Quantity of water used 

Quantity of water used 

two ounces. 

two ounces. 

two ounces. 

Produced, 1st a se- 

Twenty drops 
rrup of violets. 

Prod uced -a sea-green. 

A small quantity of al 
kaline principle. 

Produced a paler green. 

.green ; upon standing, 
heiehtens; in 12 hours 

becomes yellowish. 

Infusion of cam- 
echy wood to a 
ark orange. 

A pink color 
heighten to crimson. 

A calcarious earth dis- 
solved in a marine acid 
perhaps something of a 
volatii alkaly, whence, 
the water appears unfit 

A paler pink 
but heightens as Thames 

A pink bloom; 

upon standing heightens ; 
alter faiies, and comes 
to the color of old Ca- 

for the scarlet dye. 

nary Wine. 

A pink bloom 

A very beau- 

1 grain of co- 
tiinelle, in pow- 

heightens to crimson ; 
fades to a pale muddy 
purple, letting fall ob- 

Confirms the preceding 

The same a? 
the Thames water. 

tiful crimson ; heightens 
upon standing; in 12 
hours surfers no diminu- 

scure green clouds. 

tion of color. 

Charged with terrinc 

Slight milky 

parts.disso^ve d by means 

cloud ; becomes milky 

of an acid ; at hizh wa.- 

' * 

Of alkaline Ive used 

Alcaline lye, 5 

all over; a light sedi- 
ment of pale earth coats 
the glass, and is found 

ter more acid in the wa- 
ter than at low, and the 
alkaline principle in this 

Less milky, 
rith less sediment. 

ten drops. Worked no 
sensible change in this 

at bottom. 

river more at low wattj 

than at high. 

Solution of Soap. 

A pearl-co- 
lored milkiness, but no 

Confirms the former 

Less milky ; 
no coagulation. 

Mixes smooth- 
ly, and causes a slight 

A diluted acid 

No percepti- 

Snews an alkaly not 

No sensible 

Upon standing 
shews some air bubbles. 

f vitriol. 

ble change. 

predominant. ' 


and seems somewhat 


Mercury subli- 
late dissolved in 
ure water, 10 

No change ; 
upon standing, a mother 
of pearl colored pellicle 
covered the surface ; the 
liquor beneath slightly 

The quantity of alkaly 

The same ap- 
jearance as Thames ; 
rather slighter precipita- 

The same ap- 
jearance, but rather 
slighter than any of the 
other two. 

Pale clouds 

Upon dropping 

A solution of 
lercury in the 
id of nitre. 

at every drop : 1st white 
and milky, theu yellow- 
ish ; four drops more got 
the same color all over ; 
upon standing, a slight 
pale pellicle arose, and 
a muddy ochre-colored 
sediment subsided. 

Shews some absorbent 
earth,- by means of an 
acid, suspended in the 

The same as 
Thames, but slighter. 

no change appears ; up*, 
on standing LTOWS milky, 
then to a pale yellow, 
with a slight pearl-co- 
ored pellicle ; shews no 
air nor sediment ; the 
glass slightly coated up- 
>n standing; precipita- 
ted fairly. 

A blight mil- 


cy cloud, which, grow- 

A solution of 

ng more opac and white, 

ad in distilled 
negar, at every 

subsided ; upon being 
stirred, had a milky opa- 

Confirms the prece- 
ding observation. 

The same as 

Thames, but in a lower 

The same is 
N>w River. 1 

rop as far as 4 

city all over ; upon 



standing, threw up a [.ale 

pellicle, and let tall 

white precipitate. 

Pale bluisfc 

A solution of 
Iver in the acid 
' nitre, 4 drops. 

Caused a 
pearled milkiness ; upon 
landing subsided a vio- 
et purple colored pre- 

Shews some portion ot 
sea-salt, ef which the 
Thames has more at high 
water than at lovr. 

The same ef- 
fects, but slighter; the 
precipitate of a pale vi- 
olet color. 

white clouds; the pre- 
cipitate, a bluish slate 
color, thinly covered the 
ill its and bottom of tl;- 


All these waters appear to be sufficiently pure for the 
common uses of life ; the difference between them is 
very trivial, if any : those of Hampstead approach near- 
est to the simple state this element is to be wished for. 
Although it cannot be said to have an immediate relation 
to this work, yet it may not, perhaps, be disagreeable or 
useless here to add the quantities of water the cities of 
London and Westminster, and the adjacent buildings, are 
daily supplied with. 

From the New River Company 57897 Tons per Day, 

London Bridge, 8500 

Chelsea, 1740 

Hampstead, 120O 

York Buildings, 49 

Hartshorn Lane, 205 

70391 Tons required 
every 24 hours. 



REGULARITY requires some notice should be taken 
of this element. The great writer on chymistry, so often 
mentioned, defines it to be a simple, hard, friable, fossil 
body, fixed in the fire, but not melting in it, nor disso- 
luble in water, air, alcohol, or oil. These are the cha- 
racters of pure earth, which, no more than any of the 
other elements, comes within our reach, free from ad- 
mixture. Though it is one of the component parts of 
all vegetables, yet as, designedly, it is never made use of 
in brewing, except sometimes for the purpose of preci- 
pitation ; it is unnecessary to say any thing more upon it : 
whoever desires to be farther informed concerning its 
properties may consult all, or any of the authors before 



menstruums is understood a body which, in a fluid 
or subtilised state, is capable of interposing its small 
parts betwixt the small parts of other bodies. This act 
so obviously relates to the art of brewing, especially 
where the extracting of the malt and the boiling of the 
hops are concerned, that it should not be passed un- 
heeded by. 

The doctrine of menstruums, as laid down by Boer- 
haave, seems most intelligible and applicable to our pur- 
pose. He says, the solutions of bodies in general are the 
effect only of attraction and repulsion, between the par- 
ticles of the menstruums and those of the body dissolved, 
the whole action depending on the relation between 
these two ; of consequence, there cannot be any body, 
natural or artificial, which, without distinction, will dis- 
solve all bodies whatsoever ; nor is the cause assignable 
why certain menstruums dissolve certain bodies : the 
effects of alcaline, acid, neutral, fixed, or volatile salts, 
any more than those of oils, water, alcohol, fire, or air, 
are not to be accounted for by any general rule, that 
universally holds true ; nor even, in many cases, doth the 
dissolution of a body depend on the purity or simplicity 


of the menstruum : the nearest path then to success, is 
cautiously to apply every menstruum we know of to 
the body whose solvent we want to discover. 

The elements of fire and air greatly promote the action 
and effect of menstruums, and in this light they are ad- 
mitted as such. Water dissolves most salts, all the na- 
tural sapos of plants, and the ripe juices of fruits ; for in 
these, the oils, salts, and spirit of the vegetables, are ac- 
curately mixed and concreted together, and malts, hav- 
ing the same constituent parts with them, this element 
becomes a proper menstruum to extract this grain: 
though malts, by being dried with heats which greatly 
exceed what is necessary to bring barley to a state of ma- 
turity, do, from hence, require greater, though de- 
terminate heats, yet inferior to that at which water boils ; 
but such heats must be applied in proportion to their 
dryness, to extract their necessary parts. Even earths, 
by t^e intervention of acids, dissolve in water ; but having 
treated of the four elements already, as far as we con- 
ceived was requisite for the art of brewing, we shall, in 
this chapter, confine ourselves to oils and salts, and view 
these acting as menstruums only. 

To the definition already given of oils, it may be ne- 
cessary to add, in general, they contain some water, and 
a volatile acid salt ; that they receive different appella- 
tions, and have different properties in proportion to their 
respective spissitudes. Oils from vegetables are obtain- 


ed by expression, infusion, and distillation ; in either of 
which methods, a too great heat is to be avoided, as this 
gives them a prejudicial rancidness, and where water 
does not interpose, alters their color until thereby they 
are turned black. 

In general oils unite with themselves, but, excepting 
alcohol, not with water, unless when combined with 
salts, for salts attract water, and so they do oils : hence 
arises many elegant preparations both natural and arti- 
ficial, from which wines are formed. 

The power of oils in dissolving bodies is in a propor- 
tion to their heat, and being capable, Avhen pure, of r^. 
ceiving a quantity of fire equal to 600 degrees, it is not 
surprising this liquid should mix with gums and with re- 
sinous bodies ; but the color of these, and of every sub- 
ject when thrown into boiling oils, changes in proportion 
to the impression made on them by heat, either to a yel- 
low, a red, or a black. Oils which are inspissated, or 
thickened by heat, are termed balsams. Do not the oils 
of malt, from the heat they have undergone, resemble 
these ? and from the circumstance of their having en- 
dured a heat superior to that necessary for putrefaction, 
may they not be suspected to possess a volatile alcaline 
salt ? Beyond doubt, the extracts from malt (though they 
boil at a heat of 218 degrees only) yet do they, in great 
measure, dissolve hops, which are gum resinous. 

Salt may well be denominated a menstruum, as it i 


easily diluted with water ; fixed alcaline salts we have 
already seen appear to be the produce of fire alone. 
Such are never distinguished in the composition of vege- 
tables in their natural state ; though a volatile alcalious 
salt (the effect of heat equal or superior to that necessary 
for putrefaction) is found in many, and especially in 
such as are putrified. 

The power of a fixed alcali as a solvent is great, ap- 
plied (says Boerhaave) to animal, vegetable, or fossil 
concretions, so far as they are oils, balsams, gummy, re- 
sinous, or of gummy resinous nature, and therefore con- 
creted from oily substances : these, this salt intimately 
opens, attenuates, and resolves : disposing them to be 
perfectly miscible with water : oils of alcohol leaving 
however the impression of taste naturally belonging 
to this salt. 

Vegetable acid salt dissolves animal, vegetable, fossil, 
and metalline substances, except mercury, silver, and 
gold. In most terrestrial vegetables this salt is evident ; 
ripe mealy corn has the least indication of it, yet extracts 
therefrom, when fermented, and sometimes before they 
are fermented, discover sensibly their acidity. Sea-plants 
in general have not their roots inserted in the earth at 
the bottom of the sea, and these in distillation yield an 
oily volatile alcali ; but more subtil than the native acids 
of vegetables, are the vinous acids produced by fermen- 
tation ; they dissolve equally most matters put into them, 
C 3 


and render the whole homogene. Into a must or wort, 
when under this act, by means of an elaeosaccharum, 
might be introduced the choicest flavors, and the aroma- 
tics of the Indies be applied to heighten the taste and 
flavor of our barley wines. The laws of England at 
present subsisting are indeed opposite to any improve- 
ment of this sort, from the apprehensions of abuse : but 
where elegance alone is intended, undoubtedly the merit 
of our beers and ales might thereby be increased. As 
such, this is a part of chymical knowledge well worth the 
enquiry and attention of the brewer. 

Neutral salts have already been mentioned ; these are 
very various, and very different when acting as men- 
struums. Resins and gum-resins are generally said to 
be most effectually dissolved by alcohol ; but Boerhaave 
informs us, that sal-amoniac (a very salutary subject and 
a neutral salt) if boiled with gums, resins, or the gum- 
resins of vegetables, intimately resolves, and disposes 
them to be conveniently mixed in aqueous and ferment- 
ing spiritous menstruums. Of this class of salts thus 
much is sufficient. This observation perhaps is of too 
much consequence to escape the notice of the artist. 




1 HIS instrument is designed for measuring the increase 
or decrease of heat. By doing it numerically, it fixes in 
our minds the quantity of fire, which any subject, at any 
time, is impregnated with. If different bodies are 
brought together, though each possesses a different de- 
gree of heat, it teaches us to discover what degree of 
heat they will arrive at when thoroughly mixed, sup- 
posing effervescence to produce no alteration in the mix- 

The inventor of this admirable instrument is not eer- 
tainly known, though the merit of the discovery has been 
ascribed to several great men, of different nations, in or- 
der to do them and their countries honor. It came to 
us from Italy, about the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The first inventors were far from bringing this 
instrument to its present degree of perfection. As it 
was not then hermetically sealed, the contained fluid 
was, at the same time, influenced by the weight of the 
air, and by the expansion of heat. The academy of 
Florence added this improvement to their thermometers, 
which soon made them more generally received ; .but, 
as the highest degree of heat of the instrument, con- 
C 4 


strutted by the Florentine gentlemen, was fixed by the 
action of the strongest rays of the sun in their country, 
this vague determination, varying in almost every place, 
and the want of a fixed universal scale, rendered all the 
observations made with such thermometers of little use 
to us. 

Boyle, Halley, Newton, and several other great men, 
thought this instrument highly worthy of their attention. 
They endeavoured to fix two invariable points to reckon 
from, and, by means of these, to establish a proper divi- 
sion. Monsieur des Amontons is said to have first made 
use of the degree of boiling water, for graduating his 
mercurial thermometers. Fahrenheit, indeed, found the 
pressure of the air, in its greatest latitude, would cause 
a variation of six degrees in that point ; he therefore con- 
cluded, a thermometer made at the time when the air 
is in its middle state, might be sufficiently exact for 
almost every purpose. Long before the heat of boiling 
water was settled as a permanent degree, many means 
were proposed to determine another. The degree of 
temperature ^in a deep cave or cellar, where no external 
air could reach, was imagined by many a proper one ; 
but what that degree truly was, and whether it was fixed 
and universal, was found too difficult to be determined. 
At last the freezing point of water was thought of, and 
though some doubts arose, with Dr. Halley and others, 
whether water constantly froze at the same degree of 


cold, Dr. Martine has since, by several experiments, 
proved this to be beyond all doubt, and this degree is 
now received for as fixed a point as that of boiling 

These two degrees being thus determined, the next 
business was the division of the intermediate space on 
some scale, that could be generally received. Though 
there seemed to be no difficulty in this, philosophers of 
different countries have not been uniform in their deter- 
minations, and that which is used in the thermometer at 
present the most common, and, in other respects, the 
most perfect, is far from being the simplest. 

The liquid wherewith thermometers were to be 
filled, became the object of another enquiry. Sir Isaac 
Newton employed, for this purpose, linseed oil j but 
this, being an unctuous body, is apt to adhere to the sides 
of the glass, and, when suddenly affected by cold, for 
want of the parts which thus stick to the sides, does not 
shew the true degree. 

Tinged water was employed by others ; but this freez- 
yig, when Fahrenheit's thermometer points 32 degrees, 
and boiling, when it rises to 212, was, from thence, in- 
capable of denoting any more intense cold or heat. 

Spirit of wine, which endures much cold without 
stagnating, was next made use of; but this liquor, 
being susceptible of no greater degree of heat than that 


which, in Fahrenheit's scale, is expressed by 175, could 
be of no service where boiling water was concerned. 

At last the properest fluid, to answer every purpose, 
was found to be mercury. This had never been knoAvn 
to freeze* ; and not to boil under a heat of 600 degrees, 
and is free from every inconveniency attending other 

As the instrument is entirely founded on this princi- 
ple, that heat or fire expands all bodies, as cold con- 
denses them, there was a necessity of employing a fluid 
easy to be dilated. A quantity of it is seated in one part 
in the bulb. This .being expanded by heat, is pushed 
forward into a fine tube, or capillary cylinder, so small, 
that the motion of the fluid in it is speedy and percep- 
tible. Some thermometers have been constructed with 
their reservoir composed of a larger cylinder ; but in ge- 
neral, at present, they are made globular. The smaller 
the bulb is, the sooner it is heated through, and the finer 
the tube, the greater will be the length of it, and the 
more distinct the degrees. It is scarcely possible that 
any glass cylinder, so very small, should be perfectly- 
regular ; the quicksilver, during the expansion, passing 
through some parts of the tube wider than others, the 

* Lately, indeed, by such intense cold as can only be procured 
with the greatest art, and in the coldest climates, mercury is said to 
have been stagnated, or fixed. 


degrees will be shorter in the first case, and longer in the 
latter. If the divisions, therefore, are made equal be- 
tween the boiling and freezing points, a thermometer, 
whose cylinder is irregular, cannot be true. To rectify 
this inconveniency, the ingenious Mr. Bird, of London, 
puts into the tube about the length of an inch of mercu- 
ry ; and measuring, with a pair of compasses, the true 
extent of this body of quicksilver in one place, he moves 
it from one end to the other, carefully observing where 
it increases or diminishes in length, thereby ascertaining 
the parts, and how much the degrees are to be varied. 
By this contrivance, his thermometers are perfectly ac- 
curate, and exceed all that were ever made before. 

I shall not trouble my reader with numerous calcula- 
tions that have been made, to express the quantity of 
particles of the liquor contained in the bulb, in order to 
determine how much it is dilated. This, Dr. Marline seems 
to think a more curious than useful enquiry. It is suffi- 
cient, for our purpose, to know how the best thermome- 
ters ought to be constructed : they who have leisure and 
inclination, may be agreeably entertained by the author 
last cited. 

By observing the rise of the mercury in the thermo- 
meter, during any given time, as, for instance, during 
the time of the day, we ascertain the degree and value 
of the heat of every part of the day, from whence may 


be fixed the medium of the whole time, or any part 
thereof. By repeated experiments, it appears, the me- 
dium heat of most days is usually indicated at eight 
o'clock in the morning, if the instrument is placed in 
the shade, in a northern situation, and out of the reach 
of any accidental heat. 

Though water is not so readily affected as air by heat 
and cold, yet, as all bodies long exposed in the same 
place, become of the same degree of heat with the air 
itself, DO great error can arise from estimating water, in 
general, to be of the same heat as the air, at eight o'clock 
in the morning, in the shade. 

The thermometer teaches us that the heat of boiling 
water is equal to 212 degrees, and by calculation we may 
kriow what quantity of cold water is necessary to bring 
it to any degree we choose ; so, notwithstanding the in- 
strument cannot be used in large vessels, where the wa- 
ter is heating, yet, by the power of numbers, the heat 
may be ascertained with the greatest accuracy. The 
rule is this: multiply 212, the heat of boiling water, by 
the number of barrels of water thus heated, (suppose 22} 
and the number of barrels of cold water to be added to 
the former, (suppose 10,) by the heat of the air at eight 
o'clock, (suppose 50,) add these two products together, 
and divide by the sum of the barrels ; the quotient shews 
the degree of heat of the water mixed togetJier. 


212 heat of boiling water. 
22 barrels to be made to boil. 

424 50 deg. heat of air at eight. 

424 10 barrel^ of cold water. 

22 4664 500 

10 500 

sum 32 ) 5 1 64( 1 6 1 1 degrees will be the heat of the water 
of barrels 32 when mixed together. 





The calculation may be extended to three or more 
bodies, provided they be brought to the same denomi- 
nation. Suppose 32 barrels of water to be used where 
there is a grist of 20 quarters of malt, if these 20 quar- 
ters of malt are of a volume or bulk equal to 1 1 barrels 
of water, and the malt, by having lain exposed to the air, 
is of the same degree of heat with the air, in order to 
know the heat of the mash, the calculation must be thus 


1 6 1 f heat of water 50 degrees of heat of malt 
32 barrels of water 1 1 barrels, volume of malt 

333 550 


32 water 5163 
11 malt 550 

43 ) 5713 ( 132 degrees, which will be the heat of 
43 the mash. 





We shall meet hereafter with some incidents, which oc- 
casion a difference in the calculations made for the pur- 
pose of brewing, but of these particular mention will be 
made in the practical part. 

The thermometer, by shewing the different degrees of 
heat of each part of the year, informs us, at the same 
time, how necessary it is the proportions of boiling water 
to cold should be varied to effect an imiform intent ; also 
that the heat of the extracts of small beer should differ 
proportionably as the heats of the seasons do : it assists us 


to fix the quantity of hops necessary to be used at diffe- 
rent times ; how much yeast is requisite, in each term of 
the year, to carry on a due fermentation ; and what va- 
riation is to be made in the length of time that worts 
ought to boil. Indeed, without this knowledge, beers, 
though brewed in their due season, cannot be regularly 
fermented, and whenever they prove good, so often may 
it be said fortune was on the brewer's side. 

,Beers are deposited in cellars, to prevent their being 
affected by the variations of heat and cold in the exter- 
nal air. By means of the thermometer, may be deter- 
mined the heat of these cellars, the temper the liquor is 
kept in, and whether it will sooner or later come for- 

The brewing season, and the reason why such season 
is fittest for brewing, can only be discovered by this in- 
strument. It points out likewise our chance for success, 
when necessity obliges us to brew in the summer months. 

As all vegetable fermentation is carried on in heats, 
between two settled points, we are, by this instrument, 
taught to put our worts together at such a temperature, 
as they shall neither be evaporated by too great a heat, 
nor retarded by too much cold. 

If curiosity should lead us so far, we might likewise 
determine, by it, the particular strength of each wort, or 
of every mash ; for if water boils at 212 degrees, oil at 
600, and worts be a composition of water, oil and salt, 


the more the heat of a boiling wort exceeds that of 
boiling water, the more oils and salts must it contain, or 
the stronger is the wort. 

A given quantity of hops, boiled in a given quantity 
of water, must have a similar effect, consequently the 
intrinsic value of this vegetable may, in the same man- 
ner, be ascertained. 

The more the malts are dried, the more do they alter 
in color, from a white to a light yellow, next to an am- 
ber, farther on to a brown, until the color becomes 
speckled with black ; in which state we frequently see it. 
If more fire or heat is continued, the grain will at last 
charr, and become intirely black. By observing the 
degrees of heat necessary to induce these alterations, we 
may, by the mere inspection of the malt, know with 
what degree of fire it has been dried ; and fixing upon 
such which best suits our purpose, direct, with the 
greatest accuracy, not only the heat of the first mash, 
but the mean heat the whole brewing should be impres- 
sed with to answer our intent, circumstances of the 
greatest consequence to the right management of the 

If I had not already said enough to convince the brew- 
er of the utility of this instrument, how curious he ought 
to be in the choice, and how well acquainted with the 
use of it, I should add the heat gained by the efferves- 
cing of malt, is to be determined by it alne ; the quan- 


tity of heat lost by mashing, by the water in its passage 
from the copper to the mash ton, and by the extract 
coming down into the underback, these can be found by 
no other method ; and, above all, that there is no other 
means to know with certainty the heat of every extract. 
I know very well good beers w r ere sometimes, perhaps 
often, made before the thermometer was known, and 
still is, by many who are entirely ignorant of it ; but this, 
if not wholly the effect of chance, cannot be said to be 
very distant from it. They who carry on this process, 
unassisted by principles and the use of the thermometer, 
must admit they are frequently unsuccessful, whereas 
did they carefully and with knowledge apply this in- 
strument, they certainly would not be disappointed. 
It is equally true, the breAving art, for a long space of 
time, has been governed by an ill-conveyed tradition 
alone ; if lucky combinations have sometimes flattered 
'the best practitioners, faulty drinks have as often made 
them feel the want of certain and well established rules. 
It is just as absurd for a brewer to refuse the use of the 
thermometer, as it would be for an architect to reject 
the informations of his plummet and rule, and to assert 
they were unserviceable because the first house, and pro*. 
>ably many others, were built without their assistance. 





AFTER these short accounts of the principles and in- 
strument necessary to the right understanding of the 
brewing art, we should now draw near to the particular 
object of this treatise, but as the most successful method 
to investigate it, must be first to inspect the great and 
similar example nature has set before us, our time will 
not be lost by making this enquiry. 

Any fermented liquor, that, in distillation, yields an in- 
flammable spirit miscible with water, may be called 
wine, whatever vegetable matter it is produced from. 
As beer and ales contain a spirit exactly answerable to 
this definition, brewing may justly be called the art of 
making wines from corn. Those, indeed, which are the 
produce of the grape, have a particular claim to the 
name, either because they are the most ancient and the 
most universal, or that a great part of their previous 
preparation is owing to the care of nature itself. By 
observing the agents she employs, and the circumstances 
under which she acts, we shall find ourselves enabled to 
follow her steps, and to imitate her operations. 

Most grapes contain juices, which, when fermented, 
become in time as light and pellucid as water, and are 


possessed of fine spiritous parts, sufficient to cherish, 
comfort, and even inebriate. But these properties of 
vinosity are observed not to be equally perfect in the 
fruits of all vines ; some of them are found less, others 
not at all proper for this purpose. It is therefore neces- 
sary to examine the circumstances which attend the 
forming and ripening of those grapes, whose juices pro- 
duce the finest liquors of the kind. 

All grapes, when they first bud forth, are austere and 
sour, therefore of a middle nature. And this can be no 
other than the effect of the autumnal remaining sap, 
mixed with the new raised vernal one, the consequence 
of which mixture will be found greatly to merit our in- 
quiry. As far as our senses can judge, at first, it appears 
that the juice, in this state, consists of somewhat more 
than an acid combined with a tasteless water. When 
the fruit is ripe, it becomes full of a rich, sweet, and 
highly flavoured juice. The color, consistency, and 
taste of which shew, that, by the power of heat, a con- 
siderable quantity of oil has been raised, and, sheathing 
the salts, is the reason of its saccharine taste and saccha- 
rine properties. 

In England, grapes are probably produced under th 
least heat they can be raised by. They discover them- 
selves in their first shape, about June, when the mediun) 
heat of the twenty-four hour's shade is 57,60. This, 
with what more should be added for the effect of the 


sim's beams, are the degrees of heat which first introduce 
the juices into this fruit. 

The highest degrees of heat, in the countries where 
grapes corne to perfect maturity, have been observed to 
be, in various parts of Italy, Spain, and Greece 100, and 
at Montpelier 88, in the shade; to which, according to 
Dr. Lining's observations, 20 degrees must be added 
for the effect of the sun's beams. The greatest heat in 
Italy will then amount to 120 degrees, and in the south 
of France to 108. These approach nearly to the 
strongest heats observed in the hottest climates, which, 
in Astracan, Syria, Senegal, and Carolina, were from 124 
to 126 degrees. 

Those countries, where the heat is greatest, in general 
produce the richest fruits, that is, the most impregnated 
with sweet, thick and oily juices. We are told, among the 
Tockay wine-hills, there is one which, directly fronting 
the south, and being the most exposed to the sun, yields 
the sweetest and rishest grapes. It is called the sugar- 
hill, and the delicious wines extracted from this parti- 
cular spot, are all deposited in the cellars of the impe- 
rial family. Those grapes, some in the Canaries, some 
in other places, being suffered to remain the longest on 
the tree, with their stems half cut through, by this means 
procure their juices to be highly concentrated, and pro- 
duce that species of sweet, oily, balmy wines, which > 


from this operation, are called sack, a derivation of the 
French word sec or dry< 

In all distillations of unfermented vegetables, water 
and acid salts rise first. A more considerable degree of 
fire is required for the elevation of oils, and a still greater 
one for the lixivial salts, which render those oils miscible 
with water. 

A plant, exposed to a very gentle heat, at first yields a 
water which contains the perfect smell of the vegetable 
blended with a subtile oil ; if more heat be added, an 
heavier oil will come over : from some a volatile alkali, 
from others a phlegm will rise, which gradually grows 
acid ;.and, last of all, with the farther assistance of fire, 
the black, thick, empyreumatic sulphur. Nature, in 
a less degree, may be said to place a like series of events 
before our eyes, in the forming and maturating of 
grapes, and it is by imitating what she does, that the in- 
habitants of different countries may improve the advan- 
tages of their soil and of their air. 

In order to illustrate the doctrine, that grapes are en- 
dued with various properties, in proportion to the heat 
of the air they have been exposed to, let us remember 
what Boerhaave has observed, that, in very hot wea- 
ther, the oleous corpuscles of the earth are carried up 
into the air, and, descending again, cause the showers 
and dews in summer to be very different from the pure 
snow of winter. The first are acrid, and disposed to 
D 3 


froth, the last is transparent and insipid. Hence sum- 
mer rain, or rain falling in hot seasons, is always fruitful, 
whereas in cold weather it is scarcely so at all. In win- 
ter the air abounds with acid parts, neither smoothed by 
oils nor rarined by heat : cold is the condensing power, as 
heat is the opener of nature. In summer, the air, dilat- 
ing itself, penetrates every where, and gives to the rain 
a disposition to froth, occasioned by the admixture of 
oleous and aerial particles. Thus the acid salts, either 
previously existing, or by the venial heat introduced into 
the grapes, and necessary to their preservation, are neu- 
tralized by coming in contact with the juices the fore- 
going autumn produced ; after which a hotter sun, cover- 
ing or blending these juices with oils, changes the whole 
into a saccharine form. In proportion as these acids are 
more or less sharp, and counterbalanced by a greater or 
Jesser quantity of oils, the juices of grapes approach 
more or less to the state of perfection, which fermenta- 
tion requires. 

There are many places, as Jamaica, Barbadoes, &c. 
in which experience shews the vine cannot be cultivated 
to advantage. By comparing the heat of these places 
with those in Italy and Montpelier, it appears this de- 
fect is not owing to excessive heats, but to their constan- 
cy and uniformity ; the temperature of the air of these 
countries seldom being so low as the degree necessary 
for the first production of the fruit. Whenever the cul- 


tivation of the vine is attempted in these parts of the 
West Indies, the grapes, on their first appearance, are 
shaded and skreened from the beams of the sun, which, 
in their infancy, they are not able to bear. 

Hence we learn, though nature employs both the au- 
tumnal and vernal seasons, yet there are lesser heats with 
which she prepares the first juice of grapes, a stronger power 
of the sun she requires to form the fruit, and a greater 
than either to ripen it. We have investigated the lowest 
degrees of heat, in which grapes are produced, and near- 
ly the highest they ever receive to ripen them. Let us 
call the first the germinating degrees, and the last those 
of maturation. If nearly 58 be the lowest of the one, 
and 1 26 the highest of the other, and if a certain power 
of acids is necessary for the germination of the grapes, 
which must be counterbalanced by an equal power of 
oils raised by the heat of the sun for their maturation, 
then the medium of these two numbers, or 92, may be 
said to be a degree at which this fruit cannot possibly 
be produced, and" inferior to that by which it should be 
maturated. At Panama the lowest degree of heat in the 
shade is 72, to which 20 being added, for the sun's 
beams, the sum will be 92, and consequently no grapes 
can grow there, except the vines be placed in the 

If we recollect that we can scarcely make wine, which 
will preserve itself, of grapes produced in England, we 


shall be induced to think, that the reason of this defect 
is the want of the high degrees of heat. Our sun sel- 
dom raises the thermometer to 100 degrees, and that but 
for a short continuance. Our medium heat is far infe- 
rior to 92, and hence we see, at several distant terms in 
summer, new germinated grapes, but seldom any per- 
fectly ripe. These observations, the use of which, in- 
brewing, we will endeavour to apply, likewise point out 
to us, what part of our plantations are fit to produce this* 
fruit, and to what degree of perfection. 

A research made for each constituent part forming 
grapes, as well as the proportion they bear to one ano- , 
ther, at first sight, appears to be an eligible method to 
discover the nature of wines ; but in every vegetable 
their parts are mixed and interwoven, and every degree 
of heat, acting on them, finds these so blended, as to- 
render their division too imperfect for such enquiry to- 
be made with sufficient accuracy, to deduce therefrom 
the rules of an art. In the producing, ripening, and 
fermenting the juice of the grapes, as well as in forming 
beers and ales, the element of fire so superlatively influ- 
ences and governs every progressive act, as to occasion 
some remarkable difference in their appearance : from, 
hence, then, we may expect the information we want,, 
and be enabled to discover the laws by which Nature 
forms her wines. 

When the constituent parts of a subject are to be esti- 


mated by heat alone, the* number of degrees compre- 
hended between the first heat which formed it, and the 
last which brought it to a perfect state, must express 
the whole of its constituent parts. Complete finished 
substances, must have been benefited by the whole lati- 
tude of degrees applicable thereto; and in proportion as 
part of the whole latitude is wanting, will their nature 
be different, and themselves less perfect. 

This variety is remarkable in the fruit we are now 
treating of. A country endued with the lowest germi- 
nating, and with the highest maturating degrees of heat 
for grapes, would produce them in the utmost perfec- 
tion ; that is, they would possess all the several proper- 
ties they could obtain from this circumstance ; con- 
sequently such are capable of forming wines that 
would preserve themselves a very long time, and would 
also become spontaneously fine. From the several 
heats we have observed that this fruit is capable of en- 
during, it is reasonable to believe the greatest number of 
degrees of heat employed to form all their constituent 
parts, must be where, during the whole space of vege- 
tation, the heat in the shade varies from 60 to 106 de- 
grees, and constitutes a difference of 46 degrees. So 
great a latitude, ordered by nature, most certainly de- 
notes the general utility of the plant. 

The climate of the southern part of France approaches 
nearest to this ; but Spanish wines are richer ; their grapes 


are formed by a warmer sun ; their vernal and maturating 
heats exceed those of France ; but, at the same time, 
their wines are more stubborn, and, to be made fine, re- 
quire the help of precipitation. This variety increases 
according to the heat of climates : thus we see wines 
which come from the coast of Africa, whose richness and 
stubbornness are beyond the reach of any menstruum 
employed to fine them. Let us endeavour to reduce this 
apparent inconstancy to rule, in order to assist our art. > 
If the lowest heat which forms the grape, in the southern 
parts of France, be 60 degrees, and if 88 degrees, in the 
shade, be the mean of their maturating heat, the diffe- 
rence between 60 and 88, or 28 degrees, is the mumber 
which includes the constituent parts of grapes in this 
country, as these degrees imply the whole space of their 
progress. If like juices were to be imitated by art, as 
in our hot-houses, it is clear half the number of the de- 
grees of heat which form the whole of the constituent 
parts, or 14, deducted from 74, the mean heat of their 
whole vegetation, would give 60, for the first heat to be 
employed, and this to be raised, for maturation, to 88, the 
greatest heat, nature in this case, permits, or 1 4 degrees 
to be added to the same whole mean. To liken the 
wines of Spain, where the autumnal and vernal heats are 
greater than in France, the heat forming the first juices 
must be more, as also the maturating heats ; but with 
such practice, the number of constituent degrees would 


be found to be fewer, and spontaneous brightness could 
no more be expected, than it is found, in their wines. 

A strict enquiry after the heats first and last applied 
to grapes, is of such consequence to ascertain the prin- 
ciples by which malt liquor should be formed, that, 
though grapes produced in England scarcely make wines 
which can maintain themselves sound, yet, as the rule 
is universal, even from them we shall be able to esta- 
blish not only its certainty, but also the application of 
the number of the degrees found between the heats which 
germinate the fruit, and those which ripen them. 
From twelve years observation, we have found 

the mean heat in the shade, from the 1st of 

June, to the 15th, when grapes with us first Deg. 

bud forth, to be 57.60 

Our greatest heat, under like circumstances, 

from the 15th to the 3Ist of July, to be 61.10 

Their difference, 3.5O 

Their medium, 59.35 

If, from their medium, 59.35, we subtract 1.75, half 
their difference, or half their constituent parts, we must 
have left 57.60 for the germinating heat ; and if to their 
medium, 59.35, we add 1.75, half the number of their 
constituent parts, we shall have 61.10, the highest mean 


heat, in the shade, at the time the richest juices of our 
grapes are formed. It is true, in July, nor even in the 
following months, when the heat continues nearly alike, 
our grapes are not ripe, nor gathered ; the properties 
raised by our greatest sunshine, as yet have not reached 
the fruit, and though the mean heat of the air in Septem- 
ber and October is less, yet it is sufficient to place in 
the grapes the juices raised by the preceding hot sun, 
which concentrate and grow richer, by remaining on the 
plant, though, for want of a sufficient heat, they do not 
reach that perfection obtained in warmer climates. 

The want of grapes in many parts both of America 
and Africa, and the reason we gave for this, (See page 
55,) warrants the truth of the division we have just now 
made, between the germinating and maturating heats ; 
and if the effects caused by a hot sun do not immediately 
benefit the fruit, by a parity of reason, after the grapes 
are gathered, the plant must possess, (and surely for 
some longer space, by a continued heat, equal, and of- 
ten superior, to the vernal sun,) juices which Nature 
is too frugal not usefully to apply ; these juices, we ap- 
prehend, assist in forming the embryo of the leaves 
which are fully to expand the ensuing year, and serve, 
b'y their oleaginous quality, to preserve these and the 
whole plant during the cold of the winter ; which cold, 
at the same time that it contracts the'pores of the vine, 
condenses and thickens these richer juices, from whence 


few, if any of them, are lost or expended by perspira- 
tion. The heat of the following spring renews their ac- 
tivity, when blending with those this season attracts, the 
leaves open, the flowers appear, and the fruit forms. 
Thus far we conceive the act of germination extends, 
provided for and assisted both by the autumnal and ver- 
nal heats, and which, in point of power, are nearly equal 
and uniform. 

The heat of the sun, during summer months, and if to 
this we add the more constant heat at the roots of the vine, 
retained there by the density of the earth ; these (though 
superior to the germinating heat) produce a like unifor- 
mity for maturating the fruit: thus nature, in order 
to implant in wines an original even taste, and to faci- 
litate the fermentable act, amidst the great variety that 
appears to us in the heat of the air, seems, upon the 
whole, to act by steady and equal motions ; 'or rather, 
perhaps, this is the best manner by which we can reduce 
to rule ; the inconstancy of the atmosphere. 

I am sensible these facts had been represented in a 
more natural light, had I observed the degrees of heat 
impressed on the vine in every season of the year; 
the difference of the sun's heat, in every hour of the day, 
a variety exceeding that in the shade; that between 
night and day ; the aspect of the plant ; the heat of the 
earth at its surface, as well as at the roots of the vine ; 
all these would have increased the circumstances to a 


prodigious extent ; which, though perhaps requisite to 
satisfy philosophic investigation, might, from their 
number and variety, have been the means rather to in- 
duce us to error, than to discover the general rules by 
which nature acts. 

From the above-related process we are taught, that na- 
ture, in forming wines, is not confined to a certain 
fixedn umber of degrees, but admits, for this act, of 
a considerable latitude, according to the extent of 
which the wines vary in taste and properties ; and that 
she affects an equality of heat in each period of vegeta- 
tion ; from whence the brewer is taught, if he form his 
malt-liquors with four mashes, as in the autumn and 
spring the vine is impressed with heats nearly uniform, 
so ought his two first mashes to be ; the third, in imitation 
of the high heat of summer, should be much hotter, and 
the heat of his last mash the same with this ; and this 
general rule has been found Universally true, for beers 
expected to preserve themselves sound a sufficient time ; 
and admits but of a proportional variation, when fewer 
or more mashes are employed, as the degrees of heat 
denominating the constituent parts of the grain, must be 
applied in proportion to the quantity of water used to 
each mash ; but in malt liquors speedily to be drank, or 
when we deviate greatly from the more perfect produc- 
tions of nature, we are then compelled to swerve froia 


her rules ; a practice never profitable, and which no- 
thing but necessity can justify. 

The nature of the soil proper for the vine, might, in 
another work, be a very useful enquiry. It will be suf- 
ficient here, barely to hint at the effect, which lixivia! 
soils produce in musts. The Portugueze, when they 
discovered the Island of Madeira in 1420, set fire to the 
forests, with which it was totally covered. It continued 
to burn for the space of seven years, after which the 
land was found extremely fruitful, and yielding such 
wines, as, at present, we have from thence, though in 
greater plenty. It is very difficult to fine these wines, 
.nd, though the climate of this island is more temperate 
than that of the Canaries, the wines are obliged to be 
carried to the Indies and the warmer parts of the globe, 
to be purged, shook, and attenuated, before they can 
arrive to an equal degree of fineness with other wines ; 
were the Portugueze acquainted with what may be term- 
ed the artificial method of exciting periodical fermenta- 
tion, much or the whole of this trouble might be avoided. 
Hence we see, that soils impregnated with alkaline salts 
will produce musts able to support themselves longer, 
and to resist acidity more, than other soils, under the same 
degree of heat. 

Grapes have the same constituent parts as other vege- 
tables. The difference between them, as to their tastes 
and properties, consists in the parts being mixed in dif- 


fercnt -proportions. This arises, either from their absor- 
bent vessels more readily attracting some juioes than 
others, or from their preparing them otherwise, under 
different heats and in different soils. 

We find, says Dr. Hales, by the chymical analysis of 
vegetables, that their substance is composed of sulphur, 
volatile salts, water, and earth, which principles are en- 
dued with mutual attracting powers. There enters like- 
wise in the composition, a large portion of air, which has 
a wonderful property of attracting in a fixed, or of re- 
pelling in an elastic state, with a power superior to vast 
compressing forces. It is by the infinite combinations, 
actions, and reactions of these principles, tha,tall the ope- 
rations in animal and vegetable bodies are effected. 
Boerhaave, who is somewhat more particular with regard 
to the constituent parts of vegetables, says, that they 
contain an oil mixed with a salt in form of a sapo, and 
that a saponaceous juice arises from the mixture of water 
with the former. 

Thus we see, from the composition of grapes, that 
they have all the necessary principles to form a most ex- 
quisite liquor, capable, by a gentle heat, to be greatly 
attenuated. They abound with elastic air, water, oils, 
acid, and neutral salts, and even saponaceous juices. 
The air contained in the interstices of fluids is more in 
quantity than is commonly apprehended. Sir Isaac New- 
ton has proved that water has forty times more pores. 


than solid parts ; and the proportion, likely, is not very 
different in vegetable juices. When the fruit is in its 
natural entire state, the viscidity of the juices, and their 
being enveloped by an outward skin, prevent the expan- 
sion of the inclosed air ; it lies as it were inactive. In 
this forced state, it causes no visible motion, nor are the 
principles, thus confined, either subjected to any appa- 
rent impressions of the external atmosphere, or so inti- 
mately blended as when they are expressed. A free 
communication of the external air, with that contained 
in the interstices of the liquor, is required to form a per- 
fect mixture. By what means this is effected, what alte- 
rations it produces, or, in general, in Avhat manner the 
juice of the grape becomes wines, must be the subject of 
our next inquiry. 

The process of a perfect fermentation is undoubtedly 
the same (where the due proportions of the constituent 
parts, forming the must, are exactly kept) whatever ve- 
getable juices it is excited in. For this reason, we will 
observe the progress of this act in beers and ales, these 
being subjects we are more accustomed to, and where the 
characters appear more distinct, in order to apply what 
may be learned from thence to our chief object, the busi- 
ness of the brewer. 



VEGETABLE fermentation is that act, by which oils 
and earth, naturally tenacious, by the interposition of 
salts and heats, are so much attenuated and divided, as to 
be made miscible with, and to be suspended in, an homo- 
geneous pellucid fluid ; which, by a due proportion of 
the different principles, is preserved from precipitation 
and evaporation. According to Boerhaave, a less heat 
than forty degrees leaves the mass in an inert state, and 
the particles fall to the bottom in proportion to their gra- 
vity ; a greater heat than eighty degrees disperses them 
too much, and leaves the residuum a rancid, acrimonious, 
putrid mass. 

It is certainly very difficult, if not impossible, to dis- 
cover the true and adequate cause of fermentation. But, 
by tracing its several stages, circumstances, and effects, 
we may perhaps perceive the agents and means employ- 
ed by nature to produce this singular change ; a de- 
gree of knowledge, which, we hope, is sufficient to an- 
swer our practical purposes. 

The must, when just pressed from the grapes, is a li- 
quid, composed of neutral and lixivial salts, oils of diffe- 
rent spissitude, water, earth, and elastic air. These, ir- 


regularly ranged, if I may be permitted the expres- 
sion, compose a chaos of wine. Soon after the liquor is 
settled, a number of air bubbles arise, and at first adhere 
to the sides of the containing vessel ; their magnitude in- 
creases as they augment in number, so that at last they 
cover the Avhofe surface of the must. 

It has been long suspected, and, if I mistake not, de- 
monstrated, that an acid, of which all others are but so 
many different species, is universally dispersed through, 
and continually circulating in, the air ; and that this is 
one of nature's principal agents in maturating and re- 
solving of bodies. Musts, like other bodies, being porous, 
the circulating acids very powerfully introduce them- 
selves therein by the pressure of the atmosphere, in pro- 
portion as the pores are more or less expanded by the 
heat they are exposed to. The particles of acids are 
supposed by Newton to be endued with a great attractive 
force, in which their activity consists. By this force, 
they rush towards other bodies, put the fluid in motion, 
excite heat, and violently separate some particles in such 
manner as to generate or expel air, and consequently 

From henee it appears that, as soon as the acid parti- 
cles of the air are admitted into the must, they act on 
the oils, and excite a motion somewhat like the efferves- 
cence generated, when acids and oils come in contact, 
though in a less degree. This motion is the Qause of 
E 2 


heat, by which the included elastic air, being rarefieo*, 
occasions the bubbles to ascend towards the surface. 
These, by the power of attraction, are drawn to the 
sides of the vessel ; at; first they are small and few, but in- 
crease, both in number and magnitude, as the effect of 
the air continues, till, at last, they spread over the whole 
surface. The first stage of vegetable fermentation shews 
itself to be a motion excited by the acids floating in the 
air, acting on the oleous parts of the liquor, which mo- 
tion gives an opportunity to the divided minute parts of 
air, dispersed throughout the whole, to collect themselves 
in masses : from hence they become capable to exert their 
elasticity, and to free themselves from the must. (See 
Arbutlmoton air p. U6.) It may, perhaps, be proper 
to observe, that all musts, which ferment spontaneously, 
contain for this purpose a large portion of elastic air. 

Bubbles still continue to rise after the must is entirely 
covered with them ; and a body of bladders is formed, 
called, by the brewers, the head of the drink ; as the bub- 
bles increase, the head rises in height, but the oils of the 
must, being as yet of different spissitudes, those which are 
least tenacious soon emit their air ; others, somewhat 
stronger, being rarefied by the fermenting heat, rise on 
the surface higher than the rest, while such aerial bub- 
bles as are more dense, take their place below them. 
From hence, and from the constituent parts of the drink 
not being as yet intimately mixed, the head takes an 


ttneven and irregular shape, and appears like a beautiful 
piece of rock work. After this, it requires some time, 
and it is by degrees, that the particles dispose themselves 
in their due order, to be farther attenuated by the act of 
fermentation, which, when effected, the saline, oily, and 
spiritous parts become perfectly miscible* with *the 
water. The head of the liquor then is more level ; hete- 
rogeneous bodies, as dirt, straw, corks, &c. assisted by 
bubbles of air adhering to them, are now buoyed on the 
surface, and should be skimmed off, lest, when the liquor 
becomes more light and spiritous, they should subside. 
About this time, such parts of the must as are too 
course to be absorbed in the wine (as they consist 
chiefly of pinguious oils, mixed with earth, though they 
strongly envelope much elastic air) from their weight, 
sink to the bottom, and form the lees. But the internal 
motion increasing, the air bubbles grow larger ; some, not 
formed of parts so strong as the others, which generally 
are the first, burst and strengthen the rest ; and thereby 
a heat is retained in the fermenting liquor, which carries 
the act on to a farther degree. The particles of the must 
become more pungent and spiritous, because more fine 
and more active; some of the most; volatile ones fly off; 
hence, that subtle and dangerous vapor, called gas, 
which extinguishes flame and suffocates animals. The 
wine, by these repeated acts, being greatly attenuated, 
is at last unable to support, on its surface, the weight of 


such a quantity of froth, rendered more dense by the- 
repeated explosions of the air bubbles. Now, lest the 
liquor should be fouled by the falling in of the froth, it is 
put in vessels having only a small aperture, where it 
continues to ferment, with a slower and less perceptible 
motion, which gradually diminishing until it reaches the 
period when it neither attracts or repels air, it admits of 
its communication with it to be cut off; not that thereby, 
in a strict sense, the fermentation can be said to be com- 
pletely ended : the least heat is sufficient to renew, or rather 
to continue the act, more especially if by any means the 
atmosphere can gain any admittance, however small. 

The alteration caused in the liquor, by the pressure 
of the external air, from the very first of its fermenting, 
not only occasions the particles of the must to form 
themselves in their due order, but also, by the weight and 
action of that element, grinds and reduces them into 
smaller parts. From hence they more intimately blend 
with each other, the wine becomes of an equal and even 
taste, and if the constituent parts of the must be in a per- 
fect proportion, it will continue to ferment, until, these 
being disposed and ranged in right lines, a fine and pel- 
lucid fluid is produced. 

That this operation subsists, even after the liquor be- 
comes fine, is evident ; for every fretting is a continu- 
ance of fermentation, though often almost imperceptible. 
Thus, the component parts of the liquor are continually 


reduced to a less volume, the oils become more attenuated, 
and less capable of retaining elastic air. As these fret- 
tings are often repeated, it is impossible to determine, by 
any rule, the exact state in which wine should be, in 
order to be perfect for use. It would seem, however, 
that the more minutely the parts are reduced, the more 
their pungency will appear, and the easier their passage 
be in the human frame. Both wines and beers, when 
new, possess more elastic air, than when meliorated by- 
age ; to be wholesome, they must be possessed of the 
whole of the fermentable principles. For these reasons, 
beers and ales, when substituted for wines in common, 
and more especially when given to the sick, should al- 
ways be brewed from entire malt : for the last extracts, 
possessing but the inferior virtues of the grain, have by 
so much less the power to become light, spiritous, and 

Wines never totally remain inactive ; fermentation in 
pome degree continues, and in time the oils, by being 
greatly attenuated, volatilise, fly off, and permit a readier 
admission of the external air into the drink. In propor- 
tion as this circumstance takes place, the latent acids of 
the liquor shw themselves, the wine becomes sour, and 
in this state is termed vinegar. 

Its last stage or termination is, when the remaining 
active principles, which the vinegar possessed, being eva- 
porated in the air, a pellicle forms itself on the- surface 


of the liquor, and dust and seeds, which always float 
in the atmosphere, depositing themselves thereon, 
strengthen this film into a crust, on which grows moss, 
and many other small plants. These vegetables, toge- 
ther with the air, exhaust the watery parts ; after which 
no signs of fermentable principles remain ;. but, like 
the rest of created beings, all their virtues being lost, 
what is left is a substance resembling common earth. 

Upon the whole, then, it appears, that a liquor fit for 
fermentation must be composed of water, acids smoothed 
over with oils, or saccharine salts, and a certain portion 
of elastic air ; the heat of the air the liquor is fermented 
in, must be in proportion to the density of its oils ; and 
lastly, that the pores are to be expanded by slow degrees, 
lest the air, by being admitted too hastily, should cause 
an effervescence rather than a fermentation, and occa- 
sion the whole to become sour. Wines, therefore, fer- 
mented in countries where the autumn* is hot, require 
their oils to be more pinguious, than where the season 
is cooler. For the same reason beers are best made, 
when the air is at forty degrees of heat, or below the 
first fermentable point, because the brewer, in this case, 
can put his wort to work, at a heat of his own chusing, 
which will not be increased by that of the air ; on the 
contrary, when, by its internal motion, the heat becomes 
gr* ater, it will again be abated and regulated by the co!4 
of the medium. 


The pores of a wort are expanded in proportion to the 
heat it is impressed with ; on which account common 
small beer, brewed in summer, when the air and acids 
more easily insinuate themselves into the liquor, ought 
to be enriched with oils obtained by hotter extracts, to 
sheath these salts ; and in winter -the contrary method 
must be pursued. 

From this history of fermentation, we can, with propri- 
ety, account for the many accidents and varieties that ac- 
company this act ; and a comparative review of some of 
them may not be unnecessary. 

A cold air, closing the pores of the liquor, always re- 
tards, and sometimes stops, fermentation ; heat, on the 
contrary, constantly forwards this act ; but, if carried 
too high, immediately prevents it. 

A must, loaded with oils, will ferment with more diffi- 
culty than one which abounds with acids ; it likewise is 
longer before it becomes perfectly fine ; but, when once 
so, will be more lasting. 

<* If the quantities of oil are increased, they will exceed 
the power both of the acids naturally contained in the 
must, and of those absorbed from the air in fermenting ; 
the liquor will therefore require a longer time before it 
becomes pellucid, unless assisted by precipitation : and 
there may be cases where even precipitation cannot fine' 

These considerations naturally lead us to a general dt- 


vision of wines into three classes : First, of such as 
soon grow fine, and soon become acid, being the growth 
of cold countries. Secondly, of those which, by a due 
proportion of heat, both when the grapes germinate, and 
when they come to maturity, form a perfect must, and 
not only preserve themselves, but, in due time, (more es- 
pecially when assisted by precipitation,) become trans- 
parent; and, thirdly, of such as, having taken their 
first form under the highest degrees of germination, (as I 
termed them) are replete with oils, disappoint the cooper, 
anc 1 render the application of menstruums useless, un- 
less in such quantities as to change the very nature of 
the wine. 

This remarkable difference in wines appears chiefly to 
arise from the climate; and it will confirm the observa- 
tion before made, that, as wines are neither naturally 
nor uniformly perfect, they must be subject to many 

All vegetable substances possess fermentable prin- 
ciples, though in a diversity of proportions ; for thosa H 
juices only, whose constituent parts approach to the 
proportion necessary for the act of fermentation, can be 
made into wines. I would not, however, from what I 
have attributed to a difference of heat in different cli- 
mates, be understood, as if I thought that vegetables 
are more or less acid, more or less sulphureous, or in 
general more or less fermentable, merely from the heat 


of the country they grow in. This, though likely OB* 
of the principal causes of their being so, is by no means 
the only one ; the form and constitution of the plant is 
another. In very hot climates, we find acid fruits, such 
as limes, tamarinds, lemons, and oranges; the propor- 
tions of fermentable principles in these fruits are such, 
as to render them incapable of making sound wines, 
though their juices may, in some degree, be susceptible 
*>f fermentation. In countries greatly favored by the 
sun, some vines and other fruit trees there are, which 
attract the acids from the air, and possibly from the 
farth, so greedily, that, when their juices are fermented, 
they soon become sour. On the contrary, in cold clir 
mates, we see warm aromatic vegetables grow, as hops, 
horse-raddish, camomile, wormwood, c. whose prin- 
ciples cannot, without difficulty, and perhaps not per- 
ceptibly, be brought to ferment. But these instances 
must be accounted the extremes on each sides ; for in 
cold, as well as in hot countries, fruits are produced 
Susceptible of a perfect natural fermentation : ^vith us, 
for example, apples ; some species of which are endued 
with such austere and aromatic qualities, that their ex- 
pressed juices ferment spontaneously, until they become 
pellucid, and are capable of remaining in a sound state 
many years. From hence it appears, that proper sub- 
jects, which will naturally ferment, for making wines, 
may be found in almost every climate. England, says 


Boerhaave, on this account, is remarkably happy : her 
fruits are capable of producing a great variety of wines, 
equal in goodness to many imported, were not our tastes 
but too often subservient, not to reason, but to custom 
and prejudice. 

A similar want of perfection to that observed in wines, 
may be noticed in our beers and ales, and it chiefly has 
its origin in the different degrees of heat the malt has 
been impressed with, both in drying and extracting; 
where, in the processes of malting and brewing, a suffi- 
cient heat has not been maintained, the liquor undoubt- 
edly must become acid ; in proportion as the contrary is 
the case, or that the beer is overcharged with hops, if 
this is in no great excess, it retains still a greater ten- 
dency to fermentation than to putrefaction, acids not 
being wanting, but only enveloped. In this case, time will 
get the better of the disease ; like to the wines made 
from the growth of too hot a sun, these liquors, at a 
certain period, sicken, smell rancid, and have a disagree- 
able taste, but, by long standing, they begin to fret, and, 
receiving more acids from the air, recover their former 
health, and improve in taste. 

But should the quantity of oils exceed this last pro- 
portion, in wines formed from corn, the must, instead 
of fermenting, would putrify, even though, by some 
means, elastic air has been driven into them. In this 
case, the over proportion of the oil, and its tenacity, 


prevents the entrance of the acids, the wort receives no 
enlivening principle from without, and the air, at first 
conveyed into it, is enveloped with oils so tenacious as 
to be incapable of action. Nothing so much accelerates 
putrefaction as heat, moisture, and a stagnating air ; 
and all substances corrupt, sooner or later, in proportion 
to the inactivity of the contained air, to the want of a 
proper vent, and to the closeness of their confinement. 
Besides these cases, beers and ales, as well as wines, 
sometimes are vapid and flat, without being sour ; this 
does not so much arise from the imbibing the air of the 
atmosphere, as from their fermenting, generating and 
casting off too much air of their own. To prevent this 
accident, they are best preserved in cool cellars, where 
their "active invigorating principles are kept within 
due bounds, and not suffered to fly off. These facts 
ought to convince us of the truth, deduced by Dr. Hales, 
from many experiments, that there is a great plenty of 
air incorporated in the substance of vegetables, which, 
by the action of fermentation, is roused into an elastic 
state, and is as instrumental to prpduce this act, as it is 
necessary to the life and being of animals. 

I should here close this short and imperfect account ; 
but as, in the art of brewing, there is no part so difficult,' 
and at the same time so important to be in some measure 
understood, as the cause and effects of fermentation ; and 
as the examination of this act, in all the different lights 


in which it offers itself to our notice, can hardly b 
thought uninteresting, these few detached thoughts 1 
hope will be allowed of. 

The effect of the act of fermentation on liquors is, so to 
attenuate the oils,' as to cause them to become spiritous, 
and easily inflammable. When a wine is dispossessed of 
such oils, which is nearly the case in vinegar, far from 
possessing a heating or inebriating quality, it refreshes 
and becomes a remedy against intoxication. The terra! 
of fermentation ought, perhaps, only to be applied, to 
that operation which occasions the expressed juices of 
vegetables to become wine : but as several acts have as- 
sumed the same name, it may not be improper here to 
notice the difference between them. 

Vegetation, one of them, is that operation of nature 
wherein more air is attracted than repelled. I believe 
all that has been said above, concerning the juice of 
grapes, is a convincing proof thereof. 

Fermentation is, where the communication of the ex- 
ternal and internal air of a must is open, and in a perfect 
state ; when the power of repelling, is equal to that of at- 
tracting, air. 

Putrefaction is when, by the power of strong oils, or 
Otherwise, the communication between the external and 
the internal air of the must is cut off, so that the liquor 
neither attracts the one nor repels the other, but, by 


an intestine motion, the united particles separate and 
tend to fly off. 

Effervescence is when, by the power of attraction, the 
particles of matter so hastily rush into contact, as to ge- 
nerate a heat which expels the enclosed air ; and this 
more or less in proportion to the motion excited. 



X>Y what has been said, it appears, that, though fer- 
mentation is brought on by uniform causes, and produc- 
tive of similar effects, it is subject to many varieties, both 
in respect to its circumstances and to its perfection. One 
difference is obvious, and seems to deserve our attention, 
as it furnishes a useful division between natural and ar- 
tificial fermentation. The first rises spontaneously, and 
requires nothing to answer all the necessary purposes, 
but the perfection of the juices, and the advantage of a 
proper heat. The other, at first sight less perfect, wants 
the assistance of ferments, or substitutes, without which 
the act could, either not at all, or very imperfectly, be 

There are undoubtedly liquors, which, though they 
have of themselves a tendency to fermentation, and are 
naturally brought to it, yet, from some defect in the 
proportions of their constituent parts, either do not ac- 
quire a proper transparency, or cannot maintain them- 
selves in a sound state for a sufficient time. These dis- 
advantages, inbred with them, can hardly ever be entirely 
removed ; they gain very little, especially the latter, from 
age, and therefore are really inferior to liquors, which 


require the assistance of substituted ferments, to become 
real wines. In some artificial fermentations, the ferments 
are so duly and properly supplied, and so intimately 
blended with the liquor, that in the end they approach 
very near to, and even vie with, the most perfect natu- 
ral wines. Were I to enter into a more minute detail, it 
might be shewn, that wines, when transported from a 
hot climate to a cold one, are often hurt and checked in 
the progress of the repeated frettings they require ; from 
whence they become or remain imperfect, unless racked 
off from their grosseV lees, or precipitated with strong 
menstruums ; whereas beers may be so brewed, as to be 
adapted either to a hot or a cold region, not only with- 
out any disadvantage, but with considerable improve- 

Hitherto I have considered grapes as a most pulpous 
fruit, sufficient to furnish the quantity of water necessary 
for extracting its other parts ; but the natives of the 
countries where this fruit abounds, in order to preserve 
them, as near as possible in their primitive state, after 
they are gathered, suspend them in barns, or place them 
in ovens, to dry. Thus, being in great measure divest- 
ed of their aqueous parts, these grapes remain almost 
inactive, and without juices sufficient to form wines. 

In all bodies, the various proportions of their consti- 
tuent parts produce different effects ; hence they remain 
more or less in a durable state, and tend either to in- 


action, fermentation, or putrefaction. Now, by a judi- 
cious substitution of such parts as shall be wanting, they 
are nearly, if not wholly, restored to their pristine nature, 
as may be proved by the observations and experiments 
communicated to the public by Dr. Pringle. Thus 
grapes, though dried and exported from their natural 
climate to another, by the addition of water only, fer- 
ment spontaneously, and form wines very near alike to 
such as they would have produced before. It may, with 
confidence, be said, that, when any considerable differ- 
ence appears, it arises from the injudicious manner in 
which the water is administered, from the fruit not being 
duly macerated, or from want of such heat being con- 
veyed to the water and fruit, as the juices would have 
had, if they had been expressed out of the grapes Avhen 
just gathered ; often from the whimsical mixture of 
other bodies therewith, and perhaps too from the quan- 
tity of brandy, which is always put to wines abroad, to 
prevent their fretting on board a-ship. Upon the whole ? 
though, from what just now has been observed, some 
small difference must take place, it rather proves than 
contradicts the fact, that, a due quantity of water being 
applied to dry raisins, an extract may be formed, which 
will be impregnated with all the necessary constituent 
parts the grapes had in them when ripe upon the vine, 
consequently will spontaneously ferment, and make a 
vinous liquor. Water then, in this case, becomes a sub- 


stitute, and the liquors produced in this manner may be 
accounted of the first class of artificial wines. 

Vegetables, in their original state, are divisible into 
the pulpous and farinaceous kinds, both possessing the 
same constituent parts, though in different proportions. 
If from the farinaceous such parts be taken away as they 
superabound in, and others be added, of which they are 
defective, these vegetables may, by such means, be 
brought to resemble, in the proportion of their parts, 
more especially in their musts, the natural wines I have 
before been treating of : and these being universally ac- 
knowledged to be the standard of wines, the nearer any 
fermented liquor approaches thereto, by its lightness, 
transparency, and taste, the greater must its perfection 

To enquire which of the pulpous or which of the fa- 
rinaceous kinds of vegetables are fittest for the purpose 
of wine-making, would here be an unnecessary digres- 
sion. Experience, the best guide, hath, on the one side, 
given the preference to the fruit of the vine, and on the 
other to barley. To make a vinous liquor from barley, 
having all the properties of that produced from the 
grape, is a task, which can only be compassed by ren- 
dering the wort of these, similar to the must of the 

As malt liquors require the addition of other substi- 
tutes, besides water, to become perfect wines, they can 


only be ranked in the second class of artificial fermenta- 
tion. These substitutes are properly called ferments, 
and merit the brewer's closest attention. 

Ferments, in general, such as yeast, flowers or lees of 
wine, honey, the expressed juices of ripe fruits, are sub- 
jects more or less replete with elastic air, and convey 
the same to musts, which stand in need thereof. Boer- 
haave has ranged these, and several others, in different 
classes, according to their different powers, or rather in 
proportion to the quantity of air they contain for this 

The juice of the grape, when fermented, forms more 
lees than the extracts of malt. May we not, from thence, 
infer that, in the fruit, the elastic air is both more abun- 
dant, and contained in a greater number of stronger, 
though smaller, vesicles, than it is in the malt ? The bar- 
ley, being first saturated with water, germinated only, 
and then dried with a heat far exceeding that which 
ripened it, or that which fermentation admits of, has its 
air in part driven out. The expulsion of air from 
the worts of beers and ales is still farther effected by the 
long boiling they undergo. Hence the necessity of re- 
placing the lost elastic air, in order that these extracts 
may become fermentable. This is effected by means of 
the yeast, which, consisting of a collection of small bub- 
bles, rilled with air, and ready to burst by a sufficient 


heat, becomes the ferment, which facilitates the change 
of the wort into a vinous liquor. 

The musts of rnalt generally produce two gallons of 
yeast from eight bushels of the grain, whereas, in the 
coldest fermentable weather, and for the speediest pur- 
pose, one gallon of yeast is sufficient to work this quanti- 
ty of malt. Much elastic air still remains in beer, or 
wine from corn, after the first part of the fermentation is 
over ; for the liquor, separated from the yeast above men- 
tioned, is, at the time of this separation, neither flat, 
vapid, nor sour; but as yeast, the lees and flowers of 
malt liquors are of a weaker texture than those of grapes, 
all artificial fermentations should be carried on in the 
coolest and slowest manner possible: and beers, but 
more especially such as are brewed from high-dried, 
brown malts, (the heat of whose extracts approaches 
much nearer to that which dried the grain, than is the 
case in brewing pale malt) ought not to be racked from 
their lees, as it is frequently practised for 'natural wines, 
unless, on account of some defect, they are to be blended 
with fresh worts under a new fermentation. 

As all ferments are liable to be tainted, great care 
ought to be taken in the choice of them, every imper- 
fection in the ferment being readily communicated to the 
must. It would not, therefore, be an improper question 
to be determined by physicians, whether, in a time of 
sickness, the use of those which have been made in in- 


fected places ought to be permitted, and whether, at all 
times, a drink fermented in a pure and wholesome air is 
not preferable to that which is made among fogs, smoke, 
and nauseous stenches.* 

Wines from corn are distinguished by two appella- 
tions, viz. those of ale and beer. As each of these li- 
quors have suffered in character, either from prejudice 
or want of a sufficient enquiry, it may be proper to levy 
the objections made against their use, before we enquire 
into the means of forming them. The most certain sign 
of the wholesomeness of wines is transparency and 
lightness ; yet some, which are rich, more especially ales, 
though perfectly fine, have been said to be viscid. . 
Transparency appears indeed in many wines, before the 
oils are attenuated to their highest perfection, and some 
viscidity may therefore be consistent with some degree 
of brightness. Where th power of the oils and the 
salts are equal, which is denoted by the transparency of 
the liquor, viscidity can only arise from the want of age : 
this cannot be said to be a defect in, but only misappli- 
cation of the liquor, by being used too soon. 

That beers retain igneous or fiery particles, seems 

* By Dr. Hales's experiments made for discovering the proportion 
f air generated from different bodies, it appears that raisin wine, ab- 
sorbed, in fermenting^ a quantity of air equal to nearly one third 
of its volume ; and ale, undor the like circumstances, absorbed on. 


equally a mistake. Malt dried to keep, has undoubtedly 
its particles removed by fire, so far as the cohesion of 
them is thereby destroyed, otherwise it would not be in 
a fit state to preserve itself sound, or readily to be ex- 
tracted. For this reason, when the grain comes in con- 
tact with the water, which is to resolve it, an effervescent 
heat is generated, which adds to the extracting power, and 
should be looked on by the brewer as an auxiliary help ; 
but it is impossible that the malt, or the must, should 
ever inclose and confine the whole or part of fire em- 
ployed to form them. Fire is of so subtile a nature, that 
its particles, when contained in a body, continually tend 
to fly off, and mix with the surrounding air ; so that 
only an equal degree, with what is in the atmosphere, 
can be continued in the grain, or any liquor whatever, 
after it has been, for some time, exposed thereto. 
Brown beers, made from maJt more dried than any other, 
from experience, are found to be less heating than li- 
quors brewed from pale malt ; which probably arises 
from hence, that brown beers contain a less quantity of 
elastic air than pale beers, as pale malt liquors contain 
less than wines, produced from vegetables in their natu- 
ral state : and as malt liquors contain their elastic air in 
bubbles of a weaker consistence than those made from 
the juices of the grape, the effect of beer, when taken in 
an over-abundant quantity, is neither of so long a con- 
tinuance, nor so powerful as that of wine, supposing the 


quality and quantity of each to be equal. This may ap- 
pear to some persons to be the effect of prejudice, yet it 
is but a justice due to the produce of my country, to 
add, that some physicians have given it as their opinion, 
that strong drinks from malt are less pernicious than 
those produced from grapes. As far as these gentlemen 
have, I hope I may advance, without being thought 
guilty of assuming too much, or countenancing debauch, 
by pointing out the wines that occasion the fewest dis- 



ii\.'f .fi'iOtl'",; "&>.'.> <J IflfTJ: llitf. {;.' .^j.:-r?' l -/U .T>7 AV J i ?' ' 

is a spicated, oblong, ventricose seed, 
pointed at each end, and marked Avith a longitudinal 
furrow. The essential constitution of the parts, in all 
plants, says Dr. Grew, is the same : thus this seed, 
like those which have lobes, is furnished with radical 
vessels, which, having a correspondence with the whole 
body of the corn, are always ready, when moistened, 
to ad minster support to the plume of the embryo, usually 
called the acrospire. These radical vessels, at first, re- 
ceive their nourishment from ^ great number of glandules 
dispersed almost every where in the grain, whose pulpous 
parts strain and refine this food, so as to fit it to enter 
the capillary tubes ; and such an abundant provision is 
made for the nourishment of the infant plant, that the 
same author says, these glandules take up more than 
nine tenths of the seed. 

Barley is sown about March, sooner or later, Beard- 
ing to the season or soil that is to receive it, and gene- 
rally housed from ten to twenty weeks after. Most plants, 
which so hastily perform the office of vegetation, are re- 
markable for having their vessels proportionably larger ; 
and that these may be thus formed, the seed must con- 


tain a greater quantity of tenacious oils, in proportion to 
those seeds, whose vessels being smaller, require more 
time to perform their growth and come to maturity. 
This grain, as may be observed, grows and ripens with 
the lower degrees of natural heat ; from whence, and 
from the largeness of the size of its absorbent vessels, it 
must receive a great portion of acid parts. It is said to 
be viscid, though, at the same time, a great cooler, wa- 
ter boiled with it being often drank as such ; and, how- 
ever it be prepared, it never heats the body when un- 

From these circumstances, of its being viscous and re- 
plete with acids, it would at first appear to be a most 
unfit vegetable, from which vinous liquors, to be long 
kept, should be made; and, indeed, the extracts from 
it, in its original state, are not only clammy, but soon 
become sour. 

When the grain is at full maturity, its constituent parts 
seem to be differently disposed than when in a state of 
vegetation. By germination alone all its principles are 
put in action ; the fibrous parts possess themselves of a 
great quantity of tenacious oils, leaving the glandules 
and finer vessels replete with water, salts, and the purest 
sulphur. If, in this state, the corn is placed in such a 
situation, that, by heat, the acid and watery parts may 
be evaporated, the more such heat is suffered to affect 
it, the more dry, and less acid, will the corn become ; 


its parts will be divided its viscidity removed ; its taste 
becomes saccharine, by the acids being sheathed or co- 
vered over with oils ; and these last be rendered more te- 
nacious in proportion to the greater quantity of heat 
they are made to endure. This process, regularly car- 
ried on, is termed malting, and will hereafter be ex- 
plained more at large. 

But, before we enter thereon, it is necessary to cen- 
sider the state of the grain as it comes from the field. 
When mowed, though, upon the whole, it may be said 
to be ripe, yet every individual part, or every corn, 
cannot be so. In some seasons, this inequality is so re- 
markable, as to be distinguished by the eye. The dif- 
ference in the situation, the soil, and the weather, ths 
changes of the winds, the shelter some parts of the field 
have had from such winds, are sufficient to account for 
this, and a much greater variety. When the greater 
part of the corn is supposed to have come to maturity, 
it is cut and stacked ; the ripest parts having the least 
moisture, and the fewest acids, as the greenest abound 
in both. In this state the unripe grains of the corn com- 
municate, to such as are more dry, their moisture and 
acid parts, which, coming in contact with their oils, an 
agitation ensues, more or less gentle, in proportion to 
the power of the acids and water ; and from hence is ge^ 
nerated a heat, the degree whereof is with difficulty de- 


When this sweating in the mow is kept within its pro- 
per limits, the whole heap of the corn, after this inter- 
nal emotion is over, becomes of one equable dryness, 
and is not discoloured ; but if the grain be put together 
too wet or too green, the effervescence occasioned there- 
by will produce such a violent intestine heat, as to charr 
and blacken the greatest part thereof, nay often make 
it burst into actual flame. 

The effect which a moderate and gentle heat has on 
the corn, is that of driving the oils towards the external 
parts of its vessels and skin : by this means, it becomes 
more capable to preserve itself against the injuries of the 
weather. The more it is in this state, the backwarder will 
it be to germinate, when used to this purpose ; and if 
this act is carried too far, or to somewhat like what we 
have just now mentioned, the plume and root of the en- 
closed embryo must be scorched, the corn become in- 
ert, and incapable of vegetation. This effect is pro- 
duced by a motion sufficient to remove the particles of 
the grain from each other beyond their sphere of attrac- 
tion ; and the heat, by which this motion is excited, has 
been found, in malted corn, to be at about 120 degrees. 

It is likely, that vegetables, in general, are susceptible 
of a large latitude in this respect, according to their dif- 
ferent textures. The degree of heat just now men- 
tioned may, perhaps, be applicable to barley alone ; 
the seeds of some grapes endure 1 26 degreees of heat, 


and may be capable of being impressed with more, and 
yet vegetate. But, with corn, if their oils have endured 
so great a heat, as thereby to be discolored, the seed 
can by no means be revived. The color of the grain 
properly indicates the' healthy state of the embryo, or 
future plant ; but this, more immediately, is the business 
of the farmer and maltster, than that of the brewer. 

Thus, though it may be disadvantageous to the malt- 
ster to steep grain which has not sweated in the mow, 
as, for want of this, it will not equally imbibe the water ; 
so barley, that is over-heated, or mow burnt, cannot be 
fit for his purpose. It is, in fact, scarcely possible that 
any large quantity of barley, from the same stack, should 
make equally perfect malt, as, on its being put together, 
the heat generated is always greatest in the centre of the 
rick, and considerably more there than in its exterior 



THIS process is intended to furnish proper means, for 
setting the constituent principles of the grain in motion : 
so that the oils, which before served to defend the seve* 
ral parts, may be enabled to take their proper stations. 
This is effected by steeping the barley in water, where 
it strongly attracts moisture, as all dry bodies do ;ibut it 
requires some time before the grain is fully saturated 
therewith.* Two or three days, more or less, are neces- 
sary, in proportion to the heat of the air ; for vegetables 
receive the water only, by its straining through the outv 
ward skin, and absorbent vessels, and their pores are so 

* In the northern part of England, the usual time of steeping bar- 
ley in the cistern is about 80 hours. 

40 bushels of barley wetted 1 hour, will guage then in the couch 40 bushels, thstt 
is, if drained from its exterior moisture. 

40 bushels 20 hours, 421 bushels. 

40 bushels 40 hours, - , 45 bushels. 

40 bushels 60 hours, 471 bushel.. 

40 bushels 80 hours, 50 bushels. 

Here the barley is supposed to be fully saturated with the water; and 
these 40 bushels of barley, guaged (after 80 hours wetting in the cis- 
tern) in the couch, will be 50 bushels; but when again guaged on the 
floor, from the effect of the roots, and sometimes the shoots, occa-i 
sioning the corn to lie hollow, here the 40 bushels of barley will she\r 
as 80 bushels. Vide Ramsbottom, page 113, &c. 


very fine, that they require this element to be reduced al- 
most to a vapor, before it can gain admittance. Heat 
hath not only the property of expanding these pores, but 
perhaps also that of adding to the water a power more 
effectually to insinuate itself. 

By the water gaining admittance into the corn, a great 
quantity of air is expelled from it, as appears from the 
number of bubbles which arise on its surface when in 
contact with the grain, though yet much remains there- 
in. A judgment is formed that the corn is fully saturat- 
ed, so as not to be able to imbibe any more water, from 
its turgidity and pulpousness, which occasions it readily 
to give way to an iron rod dropped perpendicularly 
therein. At this time the water is let to run, or drawn 
off, the grain taken out of the cistern, and laid in a regu- 
lar heap, in height about two feet. We have before ac- 
counted why moist vegetables, when stacked together, 
grow hot ; so doth this heap of barley. The heat, as- 
sisted by the moisture, puts in motion the acids, oils, 
and elastic air remaining in the corn, and these not only 
mollify and soften the radical vessels, but, with united 
power, force the juices from the glandular parts into the 
roots, which are thereby disposed to expand themselves, 
and impowered to convey nourishment to the embryo 
enveloped in the body of the grain. The corn in this 
heap, or couch, is however not suffered to acquire so 
great a degree of heat, as to carry on germination too 


fast, by which not only the finer but also the coarser 
oils would be raised and entangled together, and the 
malt when made become bitter and ill tasted ; but before 
the acrospire is perceived to lengthen, the barley is dis- 
persed in beds on the floor of the malt house, and, from 
being at first spread thin, gradually, as it dries, and as the 
germination is thereby checked in its progress, it is 
thrown into larger bodies ; so that, at the latter part of this 
operation, which generally employs two days, much of 
the moisture is evaporated, its fibres are spread, and the 
acrospire near coming through the outward skin of the 
barley. By these signs the malster is satisfied that every 
part of the barley has been put in motion and separated. 
It is of great consequence, in making of malt, that the 
grain be dried by a very slow and gradual heat : for this 
purpose it is now thrown into a large heap, and there 
suffered to grow sensibly hot, as it will in about 20 or 30 
hours : thus prepared for drying, in this lively and active 
condition, it is spread on the kiln ; where, meeting with 
a heat superior to that requisite for vegetation, its far- 
ther growth is stopped ; though, in all probability, from 
the gentleness of the first fire it ought to be exposed to, 
none of the finer vessels are, by this sudden change, rent 
01 torn, but, by drying, only the cohesion of its parts re- 
moved, rendered inactive, and put in a preservative state. 
Often, to a fault, the drying of a kiln of malt is performed 
in 6 or 8 hours : it would be to the advantage of the grain 


that more than double this time was employed for any 
intent whatever. It may here be observed, that those 
oils, which in part form the roots, being with them 
pushed out from the body of the corn, and dried by heat, 
are lost to any future wort, not being soluble in water ; 
which is likewise true of those oils which are contained 
in the shoot or plume ; so that the internal part of the 
malt has remaining in it a greater proportion of salts* to 
the oils than before, -consequently are less viscid, more 
saccharine, and easier to be extracted. 

Jn this process, the acid parts of the grain, though 
they are the most ponderous, yet being very attractive 
of water, become weaker, and, by the continued heat of 
the kiln, are volatilized and evaporated with the aqueous 
steam of the malt. Thus, by malting, the grain acquires 
new properties, and these vary at the different stages qf 
dryness ; in the first it resembles the fruits ripened by a 
weaker sun, and in the last those which are the growth of 
the hottest climates. 

When the whiteness of the barley has not been greatly 
changed by the heat it has been kept in, it is called pale 
malt, from its having retained its original color ; u,t 
when the fire in the Jdln has been made ,more vehement, 
or kept up a longer time, it affects both the oils and the 
salts of $he grain, in proportion to the degree of the heat, 
and to .the time it has been maintained, and thus occa- 
4ions ji con$i4erable alteration ir the cqlqr. Actual 


blackness seldom is, and ought never to be, suffered in 
malts ; but in proportion to the intenseness of the fire 
they have been exposed to, the nearer do they come to 
that tinge, and from the different brown they shew, re- 
ceive their several denominations. 

The condition the barley was gathered in, whether 
green or ripe, is also clearly discernible when it is malt- 
ed. If gathered green, it rather loses than gains in quan- 
tity ; for the stock of oils in unripe corn being small, the 
whole is spent in germination, from whence the malt be- 
comes of a smaller body, appears shrivelled, and is often 
unkindly, or hard. That, on the contrary, which hath 
come to full maturity, increases by malting, and if pro- 
perly carried through the process, appears plump, bright, 
clean, and, on being cracked, readily yields the fine mealy 
parts, so much desired by the brewer. 

The malts, when dried to the pitch intended by the 
maker, are removed from the kiln into a heap. Their 
heat gradually dimishes, and, from the known proper- 
ties of fire, flies off, and disperses itself in the ambient 
air, sooner or later, as the heap is more or less volumi- 
nous ; perhaps too in some proportion to the weight of 
the malt, and as the fire has caused it to be more or less 
tenacious. Nor can it be supposed that any of its parts 
are capable of retaining the fire in such a manner as not 
to suffer it to get away. So subtile an element cannot be 
confined, much less be kept in a state of inactivity, and 


imperceptible to our senses. Bars of iron, or brass, even 
of a considerable size, when heated red hot, cool and lose 
their fire, though their texture is undoubtedly much 
closer than that of malt or barley. The experiments 
made by Dr. Martine, on the heating and cooling of se- 
veral bodies, leave no room to doubt of this fact, which 
I should not be so particular about, nor in some measure 
repeat, was it not to explain the technical phrase used by 
brewers, when they say, malts are full of fire, or want 
fire. Hence a prejudice hath by some been conceived 
against drinks made from brown malts, though they have 
been many months off the kiln, and have no more heat in 
them, either whole or ground, than the air they are kept 
in. The truth of the matter is, that, in proportion as 
malts are dried, their particles are more or less separated 
from one another, their cohesion is thereby broke, and, 
coming in contact with another body, such as water, 
strongly attract from it the uniting particles they want. 
The more violent this intestine motion is, the greater is 
the heat just then generated, though not durable. An 
effect somewhat similar to w r hat happens on malt being 
united with water, must occur on the grain being masti- 
cated ; and the impression made on the palate most pro- 
bably gave rise to the technical expression just taken no- 
tice of. 

The minute circumstances of the process of malting 
will be more readily conceived from what will hereafter 


be said. The effects that fire will have, at several de- 
grees, on what, from having been barley, is now become 
malt, are more particularly the concern of the brewer ; 
and that these differ, both as to the color and properties, 
is certain. A determinate degree of heat produces, on 
every body, a certain alteration, and hence, as the action 
of fire is stronger or weaker, the effect will not be the 
same as what it would have been in any other degree. 

Barleys, at a medium, may be said to lose, by malting, 
ne fourth part of their weight, including what is sepa- 
rated from them by the roots being skreened off: but 
this proportion varies, according as they are more or less 

As the acrospire, and both the outward and inward 
skins of the grain are not dissoluble in water, the glandu- 
lar or mealy substance is certainly very inconsiderable in 
volume and weight : but as in this alone are contained 
the fermentable principles of the grain, it deserves our 
utmost attention. 

We have before seen, that wines, beers, and ales, after 
the first fermentation, are meliorated through age by the 
more refined and gentle agitations they undergo, and 
which often are not perceptible to our senses. To se- 
cure this favorable effect, we must form worts capable 
of maintaining themselves, for some time, in a sound 
state. This quality, however, if not originally in the 
malt, is not to be expected in the liquor. Some objec- 


tions have been raised against this method of arguing, 
and these aided by prejudices, often more powerful 
than the objections themselves. It is therefore necessa- 
ry, as malting maybe esteemed the foundation of all our 
future success, to enquire after the best and properest 
methods of succeeding in this process. Let us, for this 
purpose, reassume the consideration of the grain, as it 
comes from the mow, trace it to the kiln, and observe 
every change it undergoes by the action of the fire, 
from the time that it receives the first degree of preser- 
vation, to that when it is utterly altered and nearly de- 

Barley in the mow, though there its utmost heat should 
not much exceed 100 degrees, may be extracted or 
brewed without malting. This the distiller's practice 
daily evinces ; but then the extracts, made from this un- 
changed corn, are immediately put in the still after the 
first fermentation, else they would not long remain in a 
sound state. Nor is this method practicable in summer 
time, as the extracts would turn sour, before they were 
sufficiently cooled to ferment. It is true, by this means, 
all the charge of the malt duty is saved ; but our spirits 
thereby are greatly inferior to those of the French. 
Boerhaave recommends the practice of that nation, which 
is to let the wines ferment, subside, and be drawn off fine 
from the lees, before they are distilled. Was this rule 
observed in England, distillation would be attempted only- 
G 3 


from malted grain, which, if properly extracted for this- 
purpose, the difference in the spirit would soon shew 
how useful and necessary it is to give wines (either from 
grapes or corn) time to be softened, and to gain some 
degree of vinosity before they are used to this intent. 

But might not barleys be dried without being germi- 
nated ? Undoubtedly they might ; but as they abound 
with many acids and strong oils, they woul(i require a 
heat more intense than malt does, before they were suf- 
ficiently penetrated, and then the oleaginous parts would 
become so compact, and so resinous, as nearly to ac- 
quire the consistence of a varnish, scarcely to be molli- 
fied by the hottest water, and hardly ever to be entirely 
dissolved by that element. 

Barley then ungerminated, either in its natural state 
or when dried, is not fit for the pnrpose of making 
wines ; but when, by germination, the coarser oils are 
expelled, and the mealy parts of the grain become sac- 
charine, might not this suffice, and where is the neces- 
sity of the grain being dried by fire ? I shall not dwell 
on the impossibility of stopping germination at a proper 
period, without the assistance of fire, so that sufficient 
quantities of the grain, thus prepared, may always be 
provided for the purposes of brewing ; nor even insist 
upon the difficulty of grinding such grain, as, in this cases 
it would be spongy and tough. I think it sufficient to 
mention solely the vmfitness of this imperfect malt, for 


the purpose it is to be applied to, that of forming beers 
and ales capable of preserving themselves for some time. 
We should find so many acids blended with the water 
still remaining in the grain, that, in the most favorable 
seasons for brewing, they would often render all our en- 
deavors abortive, and, in summer time, make it im- 
practicable to obtain from them sound extracts in any 
manner whatever. 

I have heard of a project of germinating grain, and 
drying it by the heat of the sun, in summer time, in or- 
der, by this means, to save the expence of fuel. Though 
the hottest days in England may be thought sufficient for 
this act, as well as for making hay, yet, as barley and 
grass are not of equal densities, the effects would not be 
the same. This, however, is not the only objection : 
as the corn, after a sufficient germination, should be 
made inactive, this very hot season, favorable, in appear- 
ance, to one part of the process, would rather forward, 
than stop or retard, vegetation ; for the barley, by this 
heat, would shoot and come forward so fast as to entangle 
two much the constituent principles of the grain with one 
another, and drive the coarser ill-tasted oils among the 
finer s\veet mealy parts, which alone, in their utmost 
purity, are the subject required for such as would obtain 
good drinks. 

There often appears in mankind a strange disposition 
to -wish for the gifts of Providence, in a different man- 
G4 ' 


ncr than they have been allotted to us. The various 
schemes I have just now mentioned, if I mistake not, 
have sprung from the desire of having beers and ales of 
the same appearance with white wines. But as they are 
naturally more yellow or brown, when brewed from 
malts dried by heats equal or superior to that which con- 
stitutes them such, all such projects, by which we en- 
deavour to force some subjects to be of a like color with 
others, are but so many attempts against nature, and the 
prosecution of them must commonly be attended with dis- 
appointments. It is true, that though the germinated 
grain be dried slack, yet ; if they are speedily used, and 
brewed in the most proper season, they may make a to- 
lerable drink, which will preserve itself soiind for some 
time: but the proportion, which should be kept be- 
tween the heat which dried the malt, and that which is to 
extract it, cannot, in this case, be truly ascertained ; and, 
as the grain will be more replete with air, water, and 
acids, than it ought to be, the drink, even supposing 
the most fortunate success, and that it does not soon 
turn acid, will still be frothy, and therefore greatly 
wanting in salubrity ; for an excess in any of the fer- 
mentable principles must always be hurtful. 

Barley then, to be made fit for the purpose of brew- 
ing, must be malted ; that is, it must be made to sprout 
or germinate with degrees of heat nearly equal to those 
which the seed should be impressed with when sown in 


the ground ; and it must be dried with a heat superior 
to that of vegetation, and capable of checking it. How 
far germination should be carried on, we have already 
seen ; the law seems to be fixed universally, as to the 
extent of the acrospire : the degree of dryness admits of 
a larger latitude, the limits of which shall be the sub- 
ject of our next enquiry. 

Malt dried in so low a degree, as that the vegetative 
power is not entirely destroyed, on laying together in a 
heap, will generate a considerable degree of heat, ger- 
minate afresh, and send forth its plume or acrospire 
quite green. The ultimate parts of the nourishing prin- 
ciples are then within each other's power of acting, else 
this regermination could not take place ; and such grain 
cannot be said to be malted, or in a preservative state. 
Bodies, whose particles are removed, by heat, beyond 
their sphere of attraction, can no more germinate ; but, 
coming in contact with other bodies, as malt with water, 
they effervesce. The grain we are now speaking of first 
shews this act of effervescence, when it has been tho- 
roughly impressed with a heat of 120 degrees, and a 
little before its color, from a white, begins to incline to 
th-2 yellow. Such are the malts, which are cured in a 
manner to be able to maintain themselves sound, though 
in this state, and at this degree of dryness, they possess 
as much air, and as many acid and watery particles, as 
their present denomination can admit of. This there- 


fore may be termed the first or lowest degree of dry- 
ing this grain for malt. 

To discover the last or greatest degree of heat it is ca- 
pable of enduring, the circumstance to guide us to it, 
though equally true, is not so near at hand as efferves- 
cence, which helped us to the first. We must therefore 
have recourse to the observation of that heat, which 
wholly deprives the grain of its principal virtues. Dr. 
Shaw observes, alcohol is one of the most essential parts 
of wine ; when absent, the wine loses its nature, and, 
when properly diffused, it is a certain remedy for most 
diseases incident to wines, and keeps them sound aitd 
free from corruption ; from whence was derived the me- 
thod of preserving vegetable and animal substances. - 
The same excellent author had before this observed, 
that no subjects but those of the vegetable kingdom are 
found to produce this preserving spirit. Is alcohol, then, 
a new body, created by fermentation and distillation ; or 
did it originally, though latently, reside in the vege- 
table ? I have for a good while been satisfied, by cxpe* 
riments, says Boerhaavey that all other inflammable 
bodies are so only as they contain alcohol in them, or, at 
least, something that, on account of its fineness, is ex- 
ceedingly like it i the grosser parts thereof, that are left 
behind, after a separation of this subtile one, being no 
longer combustible. 


Now, as the same author has clearly proved* that fire, 
by burning combustible bodies, as well as by distilling 
them, separates their different inflammable principles, 
according to their various degrees of subtilty, the alcohol 
residing in the barley, when exposed to such a degree 
of heat as would cause it to boil, i. e. 175 degrees, must 
make great efforts to disengage itself from the grain. Is 
it not, thefefore, natural to conclude, that, in a body 
like malt, whose parts have! been made to recede from 
one another, (from whence it is porous, and easily affected 
by fire,) prepared for fermentation, or the making a 
vinous liquor, this event will probably happen at the same 
time when the .body of the grain has been ultimately 
divided by fire, or that malt charrs ? and if this is true, 
may not charring be termed the last degree of dryness, 
when, even somewhat before it takes place, the acid 
parts and finest oils, which are necessary for forming a 
fermentable must, fly off, and cannot be recovered. 
Charring seems to be a crisis in solid bodies, somewhat 
analogous to ebullition in fluids ; both being thereby per- 
fectly saturated with fire, their volatile and spiritous 
parts tend to fly off. In charring, the subject being ul- 
timately divided by fire, the constituent principles are 

* Boerhaave Elem. of Chym. Vol. I. p. 195-199. Exp. 8, 9, 
10, 11, 12, and 13. 


set at liberty, and escape in the atmosphere, in propor- 
tion to their several degrees of subtilty, and to the fife 
W;hjch urged them. In boiling they are equally divided, 
and incline to disperse ; but, even the more volatile, 
being surrounded with water, a medium much denser 
than themselves, they are caught up therein, and, by 
the violent motion caused in boiling, entangled with it, 
and with other parts it contains, so as not to be extri- 
cated or divided therefrom except by the act of fermen- 
,tation. Now, as liquors boil with a greater or less fire 
in proportion to their tenacity and gravity, solid bodies 
may likewise be charred by various proportions of heat. 
The whole body of the barley, as its different parts are 
of different texture, cannot, at the same instant, become 
black, nor, where any quantity of the grain is under 
similar circumstances, if not equally germinated, can 
the whole charr with the same degree. 

To the several reflections, before made, I thought pro- 
per to add the surer help of experience. I therefore 
made the following trial, with all the care I was capable 
of. If the effects of it appear satisfactory, by gaining 
two Jimited and distant degrees, we may determine and 
fix the properties of the intermediate spaces, in propor- 
tion to their expansion. 

In an earthen pan, of about two feet diameter, and 
three inches deep, I put as much of the palest malt, un- 
equally grown, as filled it on a level to the brim. This 


I placed over a little charcoal, lighted in a small stove, 
and kept continually stirring it from bottom to top. 

At first it did not feel so damp as it did about half an 
hour after. In about an hour more, it began to look of 
a bright orange color on the outside, and appeared more 
swelled than before. Every one is sensible that a long- 
continued custom makes us sufficient judges of colors, 
and this sense in a brewer is sufficiently exercised. Then 
I masticated some of the grain, and found them to be 
nearly such as are termed brown malts. On stirring, 
and making a heap of them, towards the middle, I placed 
therein, at about half depth, the bulb of my thermome- 
ter ; it rose to 140 degrees : the malt felt very damp, and 
had but little smell. 

At 165 degrees, I examined it in the same manner as 
before, and could perceive no damp ; the malt was very 
brown, and on being chewed, some few black specks ap- 

Many corns, nearest the bottom, were now become 
black, and burnt ; I placed my thermometer nearly there, 
and it rose to 175 degrees : but, as the particles of fire, 
ascending from the stove, act on the thermometer, in 
proportion to the distance of the situation it is placed in, 
through the whole experiment an abatement of five de- 
grees should be allowed, as near as I could estimate. 
Putting, a little after, my thermometer in the same posi- 
tion, where about half the corns were black, it shewed 


180 degrees. I now judged that the water was nearly 
evaporated, and observed the heap grew black apace. 

Again, in the centre of the heap, raised in the middle 
of the pan, I found the thermometer at 180 degrees; the 
corn tasted burnt, the surface appeared, about one half 
part a full brown, and the rest black. On being masti- 
cated, still some white specks appeared, which I ob- 
served to proceed from those barley-corns which had not 
been thoroughly germinated, and whose parts cohering 
more closely together, the fire, at this degree, had not 
penetrated. The thermometer was now more various, 
as it was nearer to, or farther from, the bottom ; and, in 
my opinion, all the true-made malt was charred, for 
their taste was insipid, they were brittle, and their skins 
parting from the kernel. 

I, nevertheless, continued the experiment, and, at 190 
degrees, still found some white specks on chewing the 
grain ; the acrospire always appearing of a deeper black, 
or brown, than the outward skin ; the corn, at this junc- 
ture, fried at the bottom of the pan. 

I still increased the fire ; and the thermometer, placed 
in the middle, between the bottom of the pan, and the. 
upper edge of the corn, shewed 210 degrees. The malt 
hissed, fried, and smoked abundantly. Though, during 
the whole process, the grain had been kept stirring, yet, 
on examination, the whole was not equally affected by 
the fire, A great part thereof was reduced to perfect 


cinders, easily crumbling to dust between the fingers, 
some of a very black hue, without gloss, some very 
black, with oil shining on the outside. Upon the whole, 
two thirds of the corn were perfectly black, and the rest 
of a deep brown, but more or less so, as the grains were 
hard, steely, or imperfectly germinated. This was ea- 
sily discovered by the length of the shoot : most of the 
grains seemed to have lost their cohesion, and had a taste 
resembling that of high-roasted coffee. 

In the last stage of charring the malt, I placed over it 
a wine glass inverted, into which arose a pinguious oily 
matter, and tasted very salt. It may, perhaps, not be 
unnecessary to say, that the length of time this experi- 
ment took up, was four hours, and that the effect it had, 
both on myself, and on the person who attended me, 
was such as greatly resembled that of inebriation. 

Though, from this experiment, the degree of heat at 
which malt charrs, is not fixed with the utmost, preci- 
sion, yet we see that black specks appeared, when the 
thermometer was at 165 degrees ; some of the corns were 
entirely black at 175, others at 180. In proportion as 
fire causes a deficiency of color, it must occasion a want 
of fermentable properties, the whole of which are cer- 
tainly dispersed, when the grain becomes of an absolute 
black. Thus we may conclude, with an exactness surely 
sufficient for the purposes of brewing, that true germi- 
nated malts are charred in heats, at about 175 degrees: 


as these correspond to the heat at which pure alcohol, or 
the finest spirit of the grain itself, boils, it seems to re- 
quire this heat, wholly to extricate itself from the more 
tenacious parts of the corn j which, when deprived of this 
etherial enlivening principle, remains inert, incapable of 
forming a fermentable must or wort, and indicates to us, 
that the constituent parts of vegetables may be resolved 
by heats, equal to those between the first degree which 
formed them, and the last, which ultimately destroys 
their properties ; though the extracts will possess differ- 
ent qualities or virtues, according to the determinate 
heat which is applied. 


\iU ' -' ~'i A 





'. *..': i'.J -' f ' ' ' 


J. HE consequences resulting from the before-mentioned 

experiment have already been hinted at. But it is ne- 
cessary to trace them farther, and to shew how much 
they tend to the information and use of the brewer. 

Germinated barleys, so little dried, as that their parti- 
cles remain within their sphere of attraction, are not in a 
preservative state, and therefore cannot properly be 
termed malts. 

The first degree of dryness, which constitutes them 
such, as we have seen before, is that which occasions 
them to cause some effervescence. This cannot be 
effected, when they are dried with less than 120 degrees 
of heat ; the highest that leaves them white. When urged 
by a fire of 115 degrees, they are charred, black, and to- 
tally void of fermentable principles. Now this difference 
of heat, being 55 degrees, and producing in the grain so 
great an alteration, as from white to black, the different 
shades or colors, belonging to the intermediate degrees, 
cannot, with a little practice, be easily mistaken. 

White, we know, from Sir Isaac Newton's experi- 


ments, is a composition of all colors, as black is owing 
to the absence of them. These two terms indicate the 
extremes of the dryness of malt. The color, which the 
medium heat impresses upon it, is brown, which, being 
compounded of yellow and red, the four tinges which 
shade malt differently, may be said to be white, yellow, 
red and black. The following table, constructed on 
these principles, will, on chewing the grain, readily in- 
form the practitioner of the degree to which his malts 
have been dried. It is true some doubts have arisen, whe- 
ther the increase of heat is by equal divisions (according 
to the scales marked on thermometers) or whether the 
degrees should not rather be in proportional parts : but if 
the effect of fire on bodies (as every experiment shews) 
is exactly corresponding to the expansion it is the cause 
of, this undetermined question in no wise affects the 


A TABLE of the different Degrees of the 
Dryness of Malt, with the Changes of Co- 
lor occasioned by each Increase of the De- 


119 White White 

124 W. W. Yellow White turning to a 

light Yellow. 

129 W. W. Y. Y Yellow. 

134 ; W. W. Y. Y. Red, High yellow. 

138 W. W. Y. Y. R. R Amber. 

143 W. Y. Y. R. R Light brown. 

148 Y. Y. R. R. Brown. 

152 Y. R. R. High brown. 

157 ...... Y. R. R. Black, Brown inclining to 


162 Y. R. R. B. B High brown, spec- 
kled with black. 

167 R. R. B. B Half brown, half 


171 R. B. B: Coffee color. 

176 Black, Black. 

N. B. The several letters against each degree, it is ap- 
prehended, will help in practice to fix the color. 
H 2 


The foregoing table not only enables us to judge of the 
dryness of the malt by its color, but also, when a grist is 
composed of several sorts of malt, to foresee the effect of 
the whole when blended together by extraction. Some 
small error may possibly occur in judgments thus formed 
upon the report of our senses ; but as malt occupies dif- 
ferent volumes, in proportion to its dryness, if, in the 
practice of brewing, upon mixing the water with the 
malt, the expected degree is observed, such parcel of 
malt may be said to have been judged of rightly, in re- 
gard to its dryness. So that the first trial either confirms 
or corrects our opinion thereof. 

Though malt, dried to 1 20 degrees, is in a preserva- 
tive state, yet is it the least so as malt : it then possesses 
the whole of its fermentable principles, which, if not im- 
peded in the extraction, would be very speedy and ac- 
tive: the duration of the worts to be formed from grain 
so low dried, must entirely depend on the power given to 
the water by heat, to draw from the malt, oils of such con- 
sistence as shall sheath and retard the hasty effects of the 
fermentable parts. By extraction, then, malted grain, 
even so low dried as this, may, with very hot waters, and 
with the farther assistance of hops, be made to produce 
beers, which for years will be capable of maintaining 
themselves sound, or for a long time to resist the effects of 
the hottest climates. They may also, by a less heat be- 
ing given to the extracting water, and blended with less 


hops, form drinks, which shall be fit for use iu so short a 
time as a week, and perhaps a term much shorter : hence 
we see the degree of heat which dried the malt, and the 
degree of heat given to the water to extract it. The 
mean of these numbers (making an allowance for the 
quantity of hops used ) is that which directs us to fix the 
properties and duration of the wort. In one sense, then, 
we may consider malt, so low dried as this, as being such 
as would in the shortest time furnish us with a fermented 
liquor, and in another, such as would yield the most de- 
licate and strongest drink. When malt charrs, and 
becomes black, its parts are ultimately divided ; it 
has lost the principles fit to form a fermentable wort, 
and which it once possessed. The degree of heat, 
prior to that which produces this effect, is the last 
which still retains any part of the fermentable proper- 
ties. In worts from malt thus highly impressed by 
fi re, fermentation would proceed with so slow and .re- 
luctant a pace, that, in this case, they might be 
said to be in the utmost state of preservation. No term 
can be fixed for their duration. A liquor of this sort, 
brewed with the greatest heat it would admit of, in the 
jextracting water, might keep many years, and become 
rather accommodated to the temperature of the place it 
was deposited in, than to its own constituent parts. Ex- 
perience has shewn, that drinks, impressed by the drying 
and extracting heat, with a medium of 148 degrees,. 
H 3 


with a proper addition of hops, at the end of eighteen 
months, have been found sound, and in a drinkable 
state ; and at this degree we find the middling brown. 
From these two extremes, and on these principles, the 
following table is formed, exhibiting the length of time 
drinks made from malt, impressed with each respective 
degree of heat, properly brewed, in the most favourable 
season, will require, before they come to their due per- 
fection to be used. 

Equally as with hot extracting waters, 4ow dried pale 
malt may be made to yield beers which will long conti- 
nue in a sound state ; so high dried malt, acted upon by 
cooler and low extracting water, may be made to furnish 
a wort soon fit for use, though less agreeable and more- 
inelegant. It might here be asked, why, then, at any 
time, is malt dried with heats exceeding 1 20 degrees ? 
In answer to this, it might justly be said, it would be 
very difficult for the malster exactly to hit this point of 
drying, without deviating from it either on the one side 
or on the other; and suppose this difficulty removed, 
still he could not be certain every individual grain was 
equally affected : if the drying was less than 1 20 degrees, 
the malt, by receiving the moist impressions of the air, 
would regerminate, and be spoiled. Before the use of 
hops, malt was high dried, as a means to keep the ex- 
tracts sound. To eradicate an ancient custom or preju- 
dice requires a long time. This, and the conveniency of 



keeping malts, was the reason why, for many years, it 
was in general dried to excess ; an error which for some 
time past has been losing ground, as no reason at 
present subsists, why malts should exceed in color a 
light amber. 

A TABLE, shewing the age beers will require, 
before being used, when brewed from malts, 
which, in drying and extracting, have been 
impressd with a medium heat corresponding 
to the following degrees. 



Shortest time with 
12 Ib. of hops. 

Longest time with 
12 Ib. of hops. 

Shortest time with the 
fewest quantity of 
hops possible. 

2 Weeks 

1 Month .... 3 Months ... -^ Brewed /"2 Weeks 

3 Months ... 6 Months ... / in the j 4 Weeks 

4 Months ... 9 Months ... f proper J 6 Weeks 
138 ... 6* Months... 12 Months .. J season ^6 Weeks 

143 .. 

. 7 Months 

...12 Months . 

,.. Wf :U U Weeks 

148 .. 

. 9 Months 

... 12 Months , 

... t insum -/2Weeks 
' mer ^ 

152 .. 

10 Months 

... 18 Months 

151 .. 

18 Months 

... 2 Years 

162 .. 

. 2 Years 




* When the medium heat of the dryness of the malt, and of the 
heat of the extracts, are so high as to reqtyre the liquors to be forced 


It must be observed, that the foregoing table is con- 
structed on the supposition, that these different sorts of 
malt are brewed, fermented with the utmost care, with 
waters heated to extract it, in proportion to the dryness 
of the grain, and to intent of time there set down, and 
with an adequate addition of hops ; an ingredient which 
shall be considered in its proper place. What is meant 
by the water being heated to extract malt in proportion 
to the dryness of the grain, may merit some explanation. 

Grapes, when ripe, carry with them the water they 
have received, both during their growing state, and that 
of their maturity. This quantity is sufficient to form 
their musts with. To dried grapes or raisins, water is 
added, to supply what they have lost ; and for the same 
reason it is requisite in regard to malt: but as grapes 
stand in no need of artificial fire, to give to their fermen- 
tative principles a due proportion, so what they produce 
themselves, or cold water applied to them, when dry, is 
a sufficient menstruum. But barleys, wanting the assist- 
ance of a great heat to bring their parts to the necessary 
proportion, require, when malt, a similar or rather a 
greater heat to resolve them : without which, experi- 
ment shews, the flour of the grain would come away un- 

or precipitated, in order to become pellucid, part of the oils which 
supported them sound, being carried down by the precipitant, they 
will be less capable of preserving themselves, after having been preci- 
pitated, th,an they were before. 


dissolved, and thus considerably impoverish the grist. * 
Should, on the other hand, too great a heat be applied, 
an equal loss would be sustained, from some of the finer 
parts being coagulated or blended with oils, tenacious 
beyond the power of fermentation to exhibit them. The 
proportioning therefore the heat of the water to the dry- 
ness of the malt, more especially to obtain from the grain 
the whole strength it is capable of yielding, as well as to 
cause the drink to preserve itself sound its intended time, 
is of real necessity. 

Well-brewed drinks should not only preserve them- 
selves sound their due space, in order to be meliorated 
by time ; they should likewise be fine and transparent, 
These circumstances prove the artist's skill and care, as 
well as the salubrity of the drink ; and are the surest 
signs of a well-formed must, and of a perfect fermenta- 
tion. If then the rules for obtaining these ends can be 
deduced from the foregoing principles and experiments, 
we may flatter ourselves with possessing a theory, which 
will answer our expectations in practice. 

According to the laws of nature discovered by Sir Isaac 
Newton, the spaces between the parts of opaque bodies 
are filled with mediums of different densities, and the 
discontinuity of parts, each in themselves transparent, is 
the principal cause of their opacity. Salts in powder, or 
infused in an improper medium, will intercept the light ; 
gums make a muddy compound, when joined to spirits ; 


and oils, unassisted by salts, refuse to be incorporated 
with water. Musts, therefore, whose constituent parts are 
not capable of being dissolved by water into one homo- 
geneous body, are not fit, either for a perfect fermenta- 
tion, or a pellucid drink. 

Length of time, which improves beers and wines, often 
rectifies our errors in this respect ; for the oils being, by 
various frettings, more attenuated, and more intimately 
mixed, the liquor is frequently restored, and becomes of 
itself pellucid. Yet I never found this to succeed, Avhere 
the error upon the whole of the dryness of the malt, and 
the heat of the extracts, exceeded the medium by 10 

Art has also, in some measure, concurred with nature 
to remedy this defect. When beers or wines have been 
suffered to stand, till they are rather in an attracting than 
in a repelling state, that is, when their fermentations and 
frettings apparently stand still ; then, if they do not be- 
come spontaneously fine, they may be precipitated, by 
mixing with them a more ponderous fluid. The floating 
particles, that occasioned the foulness, are, by this means, 
made to subside to the bottom, and leave a limpid wine : 
but the power of dissolved isinglass, the ingredient ge- 
nerally used for this purpose, seldom takes effect, when 
the error exceeds the medium, as before, by more than 10 

Other ingredients, indeed, have been used, which 


carry this power near 10 degrees farther. It is not my 
province to determine, whether such be salutary : un- 
doubtedly it would be better if there were no occasion for 
them. Beyond these limits, precipitation has no effect ; 
the liquor, which cannot be fined thereby, if attempted, 
by increasing the quantity of the precipitants, will be 
overpowered by the menstruum, and injured in its taste. 
How frequent this last case of cloudiness is, would answer 
no purpose in this place to enquire. The use of doubt- 
ful ingredients, and such errors as have been mentioned, 
need no longer blemish the art, when a constant and 
happy practice, will be both the effect and the proof of a 
solid and experimental theory. 

Beers which become bright of themselves, or by time 
alone, as well as those precipitated either by dissolved 
isinglass, or by more powerful means, each possess their 
respective properties in a certain latitude or number of 
degrees ; and as these effects arise wholly from the heats 
employed in drying the malts, and in forming the extracts, 
the following table will be of use to point out the limits, 
within which each drink may be obtained. 



A TABLE, shewing the tendency beers have t& 
become Jine, when the malt, in drying and ex- 
tracting, has been impressed with heats, the 
medium of which answers to the following 
degrees, supposed to be brewed and kept in 
the most eligible manner. 


119 White, ) V 

>Immedjately. j Latitude of 
124 Inclining to yellow, .._) f musts which 

129 Yellow, :.... 2 Months. f nne sponta- 

1 neously. 
134 High yellow, 4 Months. ) 

138 Amber, 6 Months. -\ T ;. . 

J Latitude of 

143 Light brown, 8 Months. f musts which 

148 Brown, .. 10 Months. i fine : b 3f P re - 

j cipitation. 

152 High brown, 12 Months < 

157 \ *"?> g | 14 Months. j ^itude of 

heats which 
cannot form 
musts, so as 
f to answer 

167 Half brown half black 18 Months. the intent 

171 Coffee color, .. ..^ of becoming 

(20 Months. wholesome 

176 Black, C j beer. 

The difference between the heat for forming grapes, 
and the greatest heat which ripened them, affords to us 
the number of degrees answerable to their constituent 
parts: the investigation of barley, in like manner, though 


less important to our purpose, yet may, with some pro- 
priety, be admitted. 

Upon examination it will be found, barley ears, and 
the new grain begins to forjn (being still in possession of 
its flower) about the same time with us as grapes do, in 
June ; when we found the mean heat of the air in the 
shade to be 51.60 degrees. 

Barleys in general are mowed from August to Sep- 
tember ; so that, in their growth, they are benefited 
by the whole of our summer's heat, and for like reasons 
as in page 59, we estimate this 61.10 degrees: 3.50 de- 
grees then would be the number of their constituent 
parts, taken from the degrees of heat in the shade, and 
which perhaps would be different if the actual sun-shine 
heat and what is reflected from the earth, were accounted 
for. Barleys are annuals, unbenefited by the whole of 
the autumn sun; but, after being mowed, they are 
stacked, retaining still much of their straw, leaves, and 
outward skins. In these heaps they heat, more or less, 
according to the condition in which they were housed ; 
and which heat may reach to 120 degrees or more, but 
in general is equal, or somewhat superior, to that of our 
bodies. The properties of the grain, by this means im- 
proved, ripen, and from hence are more capable of pre- 
serving themselves. This might be a reason why a far- 
ther allowance should be made to the number of degrees 
denoting their constituent parts : how much, by a very 


great number of observations, made from the germina- 
tion, ripening, to the stacking of the barley, in many 
years, and in many cases, might probably be ascertain- 
ed ; but the difficulty of doing this, and afterwards the 
impossibility of complying with the information such 
enquiries would afford , and the little need there is for it, 
as nature has allowed a considerable latitude for our de- 
viating from what may be styled perfection, without 
any sensible injury : these circumstances render such 
enquiries unnecessary, if not fruitless. 

Vegetables, but more particularly barley, from their 
first origin to such time as they might be ultimately sepa- 
rated by fire, may be divided into different periods, accord- 
ing to the distinct properties belonging to each, (and each 
of these require again a more exact enquiry.) Barley is 
under the act of germination, so long as the acrospire or 
stem is within the outward skin of the parent corn ; this 
excluded, it vegetates so long as it receives nourishment 
by the interposition of its roots. It may be said to be in 
a state of concentration, when receiving but little or no 
support from the earth, yet it is acted upon by such heats 
as do not exceed what it might bear in the vegetative 
period ; and in that of inaction, when, by the power of 
heat, it is placed in a passive state. Now malt is barley 
germinated, and, by a quick transition, is impressed with 
heats superior to those admitted in vegetation, and such 


as places the corn in a state of inaction. In the be- 
ginning of the process of malting, the more tenacious 
oils, together with some salts, are excluded from the 
body of the grain, to form the vessels requisite to for- 
ward the growth of the future plant. What remains in the 
parent grain (that choice food, at first necessary to the in- 
fant barley) are saccharine salts, alone applicable to the 
brewer's purpose, and of the nature and quantity of 
which, he ought to be well acquainted. To retain these, 
and prevent a waste thereof, the germinated corn is 
placed in such heat, as destroys the union between its 
parts, from whence it becomes inactive. When this 
intent is obtained by the least heat capable of effecting it, 
the malt retains both its color, and the whole of its pro- 

Vegetables, in no part of their growth, are ever affect- 
ed by heats so great as to disperse their constituent parts ; 
on the contrary, by natural heats, in general they are im- 
proved. The whole of their elements then, must be mea- 
sured from the first degrees which form them, to the last 
which procure their highest perfection ; and in climates 
where they are not benefited by the whole of such heat, 
their properties must be accounted only so many degrees, 
as in such places are between the extremes of their ger- 
mination and maturation. Alike with malt, their whole 
number of constituent parts, denoted by degrees of heat, 

must be so many as are comprehended between that de- 



which leaves it in possession of the whole of their 
elements, and the first heat which excludes a part ; for 
malt more dried than this, being less perfect, and losing 
some of its properties, fewer must remain. 

The degree of heat which in malt divides the period 
of germination from that of inaction, we have found to 
be 1 19 ; the grain then is perfectly white, and shews little 
if any sign of effervescence ; the first change, fire occa- 
sions therein, is to impress it with a light yellow color; 
this takes place at 129 degrees of heat, an alteration 
which can proceed from no other cause, but, m removing 
its original whiteness, to have expelled some of its pri- 
mitive parts. The difference then between these two 
numbers of 10, specifies, in degrees of Fahrenheit's scale, 
the number of properties constituting barley, malt. 

It must be confessed this is establishing a principle of 
the art of brewing, upon the uncertain report of our 
senses, as perhaps our sight may deceive us in fixing 
this change of color exactly at 129 degrees; but we 
know white and black to be the two extremes of the 
dry ness of malt, and that the middle color between them 
is brown, which being compounded of yellow and red, 
these four tinges, equally divided, as we have done in the 
foregoing tables, will corroborate our fixing the teint of 
yellow at this degree. The table shewing the tendency 
beers have to become fine, was formed from experiments 
made on brewing.*, whose governing medium heats were 


from 134 to 148, the proportion in point of time given 
by these, justifies the division between immediate pelluci- 
dity, at 119, and that taking place at two months, 
or 129 degrees. So from hence we may be satisfied, 
however an absolute perfection cannot be depended 
upon, yet this being the most exact division our senses 
afford, it approaches so near to truth, that if any mistake 
remains, it can be but trivial, compared to the latitude 
of errors, fermentation and time correct. But this num- 
ber, 10 degrees, denoting the quantity of fermentable 
parts, must lessen in proportion as a continued, or a 
greater heat deprives the grain of more properties. A 
speedy spontaneous pellucidity is the effect of the 
whole fermentable parts ; malt affected by heat, convey- 
ed either through air or Avater, or through both, (so the 
medium of these exceeds not 138 degrees,) if assisted by 
the acids gained to the drink by long standing, such will 
obtain transparency. Beers, then, intendedto be formed 
of themselves to become fine, in the calculations used to 
discover their elements, so many of the members of the 
constituent parts must be implied, as corresponds with 
the time the beer is intended to be kept ; but when 
beers are made intentionally to require precipitation to 
become fine, in such proportion as we purpose to impress" 
opacity on the drink, we must, in the calculations made 
to discover the temperature of the extracts, imply only 
so many of the constituent parts, as correspond to the 


medium heat which will occasion this foulness. These 
few observations shew the necessity of establishing this 
fundamental doctrine, the use of which will obviously 
appear in practice. 

Thus does the success of this art depend on the instru- 
ment so often mentioned, which, by indicating the ex- 
pansions caused by different heats, becomes a sure guide 
in our operations. I shall now close this account, by 
comparing with the principles here laid down, the de- 
fects which we, but too often, meet in barley when 




J.N the preceding enquiry, some of the defects of malt 
have been occasionally mentioned : but as a perfect 
knowledge of the grain, especially when it has under- 
gone this process, is a matter of no small concern to the 
brewer, I shall now bring such defects into distinct view, 
both to compare them with the foregoing principles, and 
that the knowledge of them may be more at hand, on 
every occasion, when wanted. 

Every different degree of heat acting on bodies causes 
a different effect: and this varies also, as such heat is 
more or less hastily applied. The growth of vegetables 
is in general submitted to these laws : but yet I conceive 
there is some difference between germination and vege- 
tation, which I beg leave to point out. The former 
seems to be the act caused by heat and moisture, while 
the plume or acrospire is still enveloped within the tegu- 
ments of the parent corn, and it is most perfectly per- 
formed by the gentlest action, and consequently by the 
least heat, that is capable of moving the different princi- 
ples in their due order. Vegetation, again, is that act 
which takes place when the plant issues forth, and, be- 
ing rendered stronger by the impressions of the air, be- 
I 2 


pomes capable of resisting its inclemencies, or the 
warmth of the sun-shine. Germination is the only act 
necessary for malting, the intention being solely to put 
in motion the principles of the grain, and not to rear up 
the embryo to a plant. Now, as this begins in barley at 
the degree where the water first becomes fluid, or nearly 
so, the cold season, when the thermometer shews from 
about 32 to 40 degrees, would seem the most proper for 
this purpose. How far its latitude may with propriety 
be extended, experience alone can determine. Malt- 
sters continue to work so long as they think the season 
permits, and leave off generally in May, when the heat 
of the water extends at a medium from 50 to 55 degrees. 
But the nearer they come to this medium, with the 
greater disadvantage must they malt: as, by such 
warmth, the vessels of the corn are much distended, the 
motion of the fluids violent, and the finer parts too apt 
to fly off. Thus the coarser oils gaining admittance, the 
glandular parts become filled with an impure and less 
delicate sulphur, which, instead of a sweet, inclines to a 
bitter, taste. This is so manifest, and so universally ex- 
perienced, that, in general, brewers carefully avoid pur- 
chasing what is termed latter-made malts. 

Malt, which has not had a sufficient time to shoot, so 
that its plume may have reached to the extent of the inward 
skin of the barley, remains overburthened with too large 
^ quantity of earth and oils, which otherwise would have 


been expended in the acrospire and radical vessels. All 
those parts of the corn which have not been separated j 
and put in motion by the act of germination, will, when 
laid on the kiln to dry, harden and glutinize : no greater 
part thereof -will be soluble in water, than so far as the 
stem or spire of the barley rises to, or very little farther, 
and as much as is wanting thereof will be lost to the 
strength of the drink. 

When malt is suffered to grow too much, or until the 
spire is shot through the skin of the barley, which is not 
often the case, though all that is left be malt, that is, con- 
taining salts dissoluble in water, yet as too large a por- 
tion of oils has been expended out of the grain, such 
malts cannot be fit to brew drinks for long keeping. 
There is, besides, a real loss of the substance of the cornj 
occasioned by its being overgrown. 

Malt, the germination of which has reached and been 
stopped- at the proper period^ and has been duly worked 
upon the floors, if not sufficiently dried on the kiln, even 
though the fire be excited to a proper heat, retains many 
watery parts; The corn, when laid together, will be apt 
to germinate afresh, perhaps to heat so as to take fire ; 
should not this extreme be the case, at least it must grow 
mouldy, and communicate an ill flavor to the drink. 

Malt, well grown, and worked as before, but over- 
dried, though with a proper degree of heat, will become 
of so tenacious a nature, as to require a long time before 


it can admit of the outward impressions of the air to 
relax or mellow it, that is, before it is fit to be 
brewed with all the advantages it otherwise would 
have ; and in proportion as it has black specks on be- 
ing masticated, so much of its parts being charred is a 
diminution to the strength of the liquor, besides impress- 
ing it with a burnt or nauseous taste. 

Malt, dried on akiln not suffielentlyheated,must require 
proportionably a longer time to receive the proper effect 
of the fire; the want of which will bring it into the 
same state as malt not thoroughly dried. 

If too quick or fierce a fire be employed, instead of 
gently evaporating the watery parts of the corn, it torri- 
fies the outward skin, divides it from the body of the 
grain, and so rarifies the inclosed air as to burst the ves- 
sels. Such is called blown malt, and, by the internal 
expansion, occupies a larger space than it ought. If 
the fire be continued, it causes its constituent parts to 
harden to the consistence of a varnish, or changes it 
into a brittle substance, from whence the malt is said to 
be steely and glassy : it dissolves but in a small propor- 
tion, is very troublesome and dangerous in brewing, 
and frequently occasions a total want of extraction ; by 
the brewery termed, setting the grist. 

Malt, just, or but lately, taken from the kiln, remains 
warm for a considerable time. Until the heap becomes 
equally cool with the surrounding air, it cannot be said 


to be mellow, or in a fit state ,to be brewed : its parts 
being harsh and brittle, the whole of its substance can- 
not be resolved, and the proper heat of the water, which 
should be applied to it for that purpose, is therefore 
more difficult to be ascertained. 

The practice of those maltsters, who sprinkle water on 
malt newly removed from the kiln, to make it appear as 
having been made a long space of time, or, as they say, 
to plump it, is a deceit which cannot too much be ex- 
posed. By this practice, the circumstance of the heat, 
and harshness of the malt, is only externally, and in ap- 
pearance, removed, and the purchaser grossly imposed 
on. The grain, by being moistened, occupies a greater 
volume, and, if not speedily used, soon grows mouldy, 
heats, and is greatly damaged. 

The direct contrary is the case of malt which has 
been made a long time : the dampness of the air has re- 
laxed it, and so much moisture has insinuated itself into 
the grain, that some doubt must arise how much hotter 
the mash should, for this reason, be. Yet, supposing no 
distemper, such as being mouldy, heated, or damaged 
by vermin, it is observed, malt, under this circumstance, 
may more certainly be helped in brewing, than those 
just abovementioned. 

From what has been said, it appears how necessary it 
is to procure malt which has been properly steeped, 
germinated to its true pitch, and dried bya gentle, mo- 


derate heat, so as the moisture of the corn be duly evapo- 
rated, then cured by just so much fire as to enable it to 
preserve itself a due time, without being blown or burnt. 
How easy it is to regulate this process in the cistern, in 
the couch, on the floors, and on the kiln, when the mal- 
ster, intends no artifice to save his excise, I need not 
say ; but with what certainty and ease the whole might 
be carried on by the help of the thermometer, I leave 
such to determine as are modest enough to think, that 
the art may be brought to more accurate rules than 
those of the bare report of our unassisted senses. As 
such rules may easily be deduced from the principles 
here laid down, I shall not be more particular in shewing 
their application, as not being my immediate purpose, 
nor my business as a brewer : nor have I leisure, or the 
conveniency of a malt house^to make experiments of this 
sort ; yet with truth it may be said, that such as would 
not be disappointed in their brewing, must take care 
not to be deceived in their malt. This, however, being 
but too frequently the case, we should constantly be on 
our guard against its defects, and know how to cor- 
rect them. If it is treated in the same manner as if it 
was perfect, the well-malted parts alone will be di- 
gested. If too slack dried, it may be corrected by 
an addition of heat, if over-dried, or injured by fire, 
it may proportionably be helped. By applying the 
thermometer to the extracts, more particularly to the 


first, the brewer thereby will be informed, to a sufficient 
degree of exactness, of the defects he can mend, and 
hardly be ever at a loss for the properest means to work 
the grain to the greatest advantage. 

As far as we have proceeded in our enquiry, though 
some satisfaction must arise from bur being enabled to ac- 
count for the greater part of the process of brewing, yet 
it may be observed, even with the assistance of the thermo- 
meter, as yet a geometrical exactness, in many respects, 
has not been attained ; but nature, when the interest and 
ncessities of mankind are the object, apparently has sup- 
plied our wants, and rectified our defects. In this art, 
fermentation, when allowed to display itself, corrects all 
our errors to a considerable latitude, though as yet, of 
this act, it may be said we scarcely conceive its cause, 
or properly discern its effects. 




BEFORE I enter upon the practical, and indeed most 
important, part of this work, it will not be improper to 
give a distinct, though general, view of the different 
parts it is to consist of. 

To extract from malt a liquor, which, by the help of 
fermentation, may acquire the properties of wine, is the 
general object of the brewer, and the rules of that art are 
the subject of these sheets. 

An art truly very simple, if, according to vulgar opi- 
nion, it consisted in nothing else than applying warm- 
water to malt, mashing these together, multiplying the 
taps at discretion, boiling the extracts with a few hops, 
suffering the worts to cool, adding yeast to make it fer- 
ment, and trusting to time, cellars, and nostrums, for 
its taste, brightness, and preservation ! 

A few notes jand observations, such as are too often, 
found to be foisted under the articles of beer and brew- 
ing, in some books of agriculture and others of cookery, 


might be sufficient, were the place and constitution of the 
air always the same, the materials and vessels employed 
Entirely similar, and lastty, the malt drinks intended for 
the same use and time ; but, as every one of these parti- 
culars is liable to variations, and can be complied with, 
only by the application of different determinate heats j 
was the artist to submit himself to loose, vague, and erro- 
neous directions, like those above mentioned, they would 
only serve to deceive him, and his case would be but little 
mended, if he trusted to indefinite signs, and insufficient 
maxims, in his deviation from them. 

A more certain foundation has been laid down in the 
first part of this treatise, and the principles there esta- 
blished will, I trust, in all cases, answer our ends, pro- 
vided we make use of proper means to settle their appli- 
cation. The most elegible means to effect this, must be 
to follow, as near as possible, such plan, which the ra- 
tional brewer would, in every particular circumstance, 
sketch to himself, before he proceeded to business. His 
first attention ought to be directed not only to the actual 
heat of the weather, but also to that which may be ex- 
pected in the season of the year he is in. The grinding 
of his malt must be his next object, and as the difference 
of the drinks greatly depends upon that of the extracts, 
he cannot but chuse to have distinct ideas of what may 
be expected from the amount of the heat of them. Hops, 
which are added as a preservative to the extracts form too 


important a part to be employed without a sufficient 
knowledge of their power. The strength of malt liquors 
depending principally on their quantity or lengths, it is 
necessary to ascertain the heights in the copper, to an- 
swer what, on this account, is intended. The difference 
in boiling, for different drinks or seasons ; the loss of 
water by evaporation ; the proper division of the whole 
quantity of this element employed, and, in proportion to 
such division, that of the heat to be given in each part of, 
the process ; the means to ascertain these degrees, by de- 
termining what quantity of cold water is to be added to 
that, which is at the point of ebullition, come afterwards 
under his consideration. The manner and time of mash- 
ing, the many expected incidents which must produce 
some small variations between the actual and the calcu- 
lated heat of his extracts, it will be incumbent upon him 
to make a proper estimation and allowance for. To dis- 
pose of the worts in such forms and at such depths, as may 
render the influence of the ambient air the easiest and 
most efficacious, and then, by the addition of yeast, to 
provide the drink with that internal and most powerful 
agent it had lost in boiling, are the next requisites. Fer- 
mentation, which follows, and which the brewer retards 
or forwards according to his intentions, completes the 
whole process ; after these necessary precautions, to com- 
pare his operations with those of the most approved prac- 


titioners in his art, and to find himself able to account for 
those signs and established customs, which before were 
loosely described, authoritatively dictated, and never suf- 
ficiently determined or explained, must be to him an ad- 
ditional satisfaction. As precipitation is requisite in cer- 
tain cases, the common methods for effecting it should be 
known, and likewise the means practised among coopers 
to correct the real or imagined errors of the brewer, in 
order to render the drink agreeable to the palate of the 
consumers, will naturally lead him to consider what true 
taste is, and by employing the means, by which it may 
safely be obtained and improved, he will have done all in 
his power, to answer his customers expectation, and to 
secure his success. 

This arrangement, which appears the most simple, i 
that, which the reader will find observed in the following 
sections. The proper illustrations of tables and exam- 
ples have not been omitted, and from the complete plans 
for brewing, under two forms of the most dissimilar kind, 
it will be found the rules are adapted to all circum- 
stances, and applicable to every purpose. 

I must here add somewhat in justification, for publish- 
ing what may be said to be the mysteries of an art, often 
too cautiously precluded from the sight and attention of 
the public ; but every art and science whatever have 
equally been laid open, and from such communication 


received greater improvements, and become more useful 
to mankind in general, and the professors of them in par- 
ticular. If attention is given to the rules and practice 
here laid down, it will be found that the brewer, from the 
large quantities he manwfactures, from repeated experi- 
ence, from the conveniency of his utensils, and more 
than all, from the interest he has to Be well acquainted 
with his business, is most likely to be successful, in pre- 
ference to any one else, and therefore can have no reason 
to be displeased on being presented with a theory and 
practice, which, far from being the sole right of the 
brewery, the discovery of the principles were certainly 
the property of the author and of his friends, whose names 
would do his work honor if mentioned. From the ap- 
plication of these principles, being convinced of their 
exactness and facility in practice, he offers his labor to a 
trade he esteems, with no other view than the hope he 
entertains of being of some service to it and to the 

If, notwithstanding repeated endeavours, some things, 
in this treatise, should appear out of their places ; others, 
in more than one ; if redundancies, chiefly occasioned by 
the natural temptation of accounting ' for particular ap- 
pearances, have not always been avoided j if inaccuracies 
should now and then have escaped me, let it be remem- 
bered (by the good-natured it certainly will) that, in 


new and intricate subjects, digressions and repetitions 
are in some measure allowable, that an over-fulness is pre- 
ferable to an affected and often obscure brevity, and that 
the improvement of the art, rather than the talent of 
writing, must be the brewer's merit, and was my only 
aim. * 





IN and about the city of London, the most intense cold 
that has been observed is 14 degrees, and the greatest 
heat has made the thermometer rise, in the shade, to 89, 
Within these limits are comprehended all the fermentable 
degrees, and consequently those necessary for carrying 
on the process of brewing. If the lowest degree proper 
for fermentation be 40, and the highest 80, the medium 
of these two would, at first sight, appear to be the fittest 
for this purpose ; but the internal motion, necessary to 
carry on fermentation, excites a heat superior to the ori- 
ginal state of the must by 10 degrees. Hence, if 60 de- 
grees be the highest eligible heat a fermenting must 
should arise to, 50 should be the highest for a wort to 
be let down at, to begin this act ; which heat can only 
be obtained, when that of the air is equal thereto, so that 
it denotes the highest natural heat for beers and ales to be 
properly fermented. With regard to the other extreme, 
or the lowest heat, however cold the air may be, as the 
worts, which form both beers.and ales, gain, by boiling, 
a degree greatly superior to any allowed of in fermenta. 
tion, it is constantly in the artist's power to adapt his 


worts to a proper state. The brewing season, then, may 
justly be esteemed all that part of the year in Avhich the- 
medium heat of the day is at or below 50 degrees : this, 
in our climate, is from the beginning of October to the 
middle of May, or 32 weeks; the most elegible period 
of time for brewing all kinds of beers. 

But, as many incidents often make it necessary to ex- 
tend these limits, the only time for venturing to comply 
therewith is, when the medium heat of the season is at 
55 degrees ; by which, six weeks more may be obtained. 
But, under these circumstances, the quantity of beer 
brewed should be less, that the worts may cool more rea- 
dily, by being thinner spread ; and, to gain more time, 
the brewing is best carried on with two worts only : 
taking these precautions, and beginning early in the 
morning, the first wort, by laying long enough in the 
coolers, will, towards evening, be brought to a heat of 
55 degrees. The night, in this season of the year, be- 
ing generally colder by 10 or 12 degrees than the me-' 
dium heat of the whole 24 hours, the second Avorts may 
be reduced to a cold of 43 degrees : the mean of 55 and 
43, being 49 degrees, would be the real heat of the worts 
in the ton ; and with 10 degrees more, (the heat gained 
by fermentation,) -still it would not reach 60 degrees, 
the highest fermentable heat, beers intended to preserve 
themselves long should arrive to ; but so near would it 
bfc to this, and so little is the uniformity of the heat of the 


air to be relied on, that necessity alone can justify the 
practice of brewing such drinks, when the heat of the 
air is so high as 55, consequently, where it exceeds this, 
it should never be attempted. 

As the extractions are made by heats far superior to 
any natural ones, though the actual temperature of the 
air neither adds to, nor diminishes from, their strength, 
yet it is to be known for the following reason. The 
proper heat given to the mash is by means of cold 
added to boiling water ; and cold water generally is 
of no other heat than that of the air itself. Indeed, 
when the cold is so intense, as to occasion a frost, and 
to change water into ice, that which is then used for 
brewing, being mostly drawn from deep wells, or places 
where frost never, or but seldom, takes place, may be 
estimated at 35 degrees, and this will be sufficiently 


The following table shews the temperature of the air 

for every season in the year, and confirms what I have 
just now said concerning the season proper for brewing, 
and the actual heat of the water. It was deduced from 
many years' observations, made with very accurate in- 
struments, at eight o'clock in the morning, the time in 
which the heat is supposed to be the medium of that of 
the whole day. 



A TABLE, shewing the medium heat, for every 
Season of the year, in and about London, de- 
duced from observations made from 1753 to 
\765, at eight o'clock each morning. 




l| 36 , 33 


l leaf 52 






31 1 34 ' 97 






J35' 51 

August . 

V59' 89" 

to . 



15 3 


(38' 11 
28 \ 


f 58' 48 

40 J 


March . 

(ST 99 


155' 17 




15 * 


139' 72 
31 > 


t54' 13 
30 1 


" j 


^43 y 13 


US' 66 


1 * -' 




1 46' 04 
30 1 


146' 72 
31 \ 

jv j 

Jl J 


[49' 05 


[42 26 


15 * 



to .... 


-53' 67 

31 \ 


\ 39' 40 
30 1 

June .,... 

" J 


^ j 

l&y 20 

> 38' 61 


J5 3 



[59' 14, 
to 30 ) 

to 31 J 


To ascertain the authority of this table, and to make it 
useful to several purposes, I have carried to decimals 
the mean numbers resulting from my observations. 
But such an exactness has been found, in the practice of 
brewing, to be more troublesome than necessary. I 
have therefore constructed another table, similar to the 
former, but where the fractions are omitted, and the 
whole numbers carried on from five to five. The heats 
of the latter end of October, and beginning of Novem- 
ber, have here been set down rather higher than they 
really are ; as, at this time of the year, the hops fit to 
brew with are old and weak, and I could not devise any 
means more easy to allow for their want of strength. 




A TABLE, shewing the medium heat of she air, 
in and about London, for every season of the 
year, applicable to practice. 

January 1 
to 15 




J 5 

} 1 


July .. 

. i 




' l \ 




15 < 

30 ) 


. 1 



30 J 



to 31 
February 1 

to 14 


August . 
to . i 

to 28 

to . 

March.... 1 
to 15 


to 31 

to. :.. 


April 1 
to.. .. 15 

to 30 


May 1 
to 15 


to 31 

to . . 

June 1 
to 15 





to 31 i 


As nothing is so inconstant as the heat of the air, we 
are not to be surprised when it deviates from the progres- 
sion specified in the table. The flowing *water used in 
the brewery, at the coldest seasons, we have fixed at 35 
degrees, and the highest heat in the air, to carry on the 
process for beers brewed for long keeping, at 55 degrees. 
The length proper to be drawn, or the quantity of beer 
to be made from each quarter of malt being fixed, the 
brewer, at any time, has it in his power to make calcu- 
lations for brewings, supposing the mean heat of the air 
to be at 35, at 40, at 45, at 50, and even at any degree 
of heat whatever, so as never to be unprovided for any 
season. Water, being a body more dense than air, re- 
quires some time to receive the impressions either of heat 
or cold, for which reason the medium heat of the shade of 
the preceding day, will most conveniently govern this 
part of the process, unless some very extraordinary 
change should happen in the atmosphere. This must 
make the business of the artist, in this respect, very easy, 
as, in the course of his practice, he will have only to cor- 
rect the little changes that occasional incidents give rise 
to ; and the calculations will answer all his purposes so 
long as the lengths of beer to be brewed from the same 
quantity of malt remain unaltered, and with very little 
variation and trouble, when the coppers employed, by 
being changed, are of different dimensions. 

The best method to know the true heat of cold water, 


would be to keep a very accurate and distinct thermo- 
meter, in the liquor back ; but as this, in every place, 
is not to be expected, and inaccuracies must arise from a 
change in the air, to prevent their consequences in prac- 
tice, we must have recourse to experience. This has 
taught us that a difference of 8 degrees, between the ac- 
tual heat of the water, and that from which the brewing 
was computed, will produce, in the first extract, a differ- 
ence of four degrees* 

Most brewers' coppers, though they vary in their di- 
mensions, are generally made in proportions nearly 
uniform ; the effect of one inch of cold water more or 
less) will therefore nearly answer alike, that is, it will 
alter the heat of the tap, by 4 degrees. But this will 
only hold good in such cases, where the water is in the 
same proportion to the volume of the grist. In brewing 
brown beers, or porter, three worts are generally made ; 
the extracts therefore must be of different lengths from 
what they are in beers brewed at two worts only. In 
this case, the quantity of water for the first wort, is less 
than it otherwise Avould be.; and what must be allowed 
for the first mash, to wet the malt, is so much as to oc- 
casion the second, or piece liquor, to be proportionably 
less also ; as it is of great consequence, if the first tap 
doth not answer to its proper degree, that the second 
should be brought to such a heat, as to make up the me- 
dium of the first and second extracts, the second, or piece 


liquor, by reason of its shortness, is more conveniently, 
and more exactly tempered in the little copper ; and one 
inch cooling in, is in this case found, both by calculation 
and experience, to occasion a difference of one degree 
of heat only in the mash. 

One of the principal attentions, in forming beers and 
ales of any sort whatever, is that they may come to their 
most perfect state, at the time they are intended to be 
used. Common small beer is required to be in order, 
from one to four weeks, and as it is impossible to pre- 
judge the accidental variations, as to heat and cold, that 
may happen in any one season of the } 7 ear, it is rational 
to act up to what a long experience has shown, is to be 
expected, and to mix such quantity of cold water with 
that, which is made to come to ebullition, as to bring 
the extract to the degree fixed for each- particular season, 
let the heat, at the time of brewing, vary therefrom, in 
any degree whatever. 

In treating on the subject of air, in the former part of 
this work, I observed the effect it had in penetrating the 
parts of the malt, or in the . technical term used by 
brewers, in slacking it. As such is the case, when the 
grain is entire and whole, it is more so when ground, and 
experience teaches us, that, when malt has been about 
24 hours from the mill, the dampness it has imbibed is 
equal to half an inch more of cold water added to that 
which is to be made to boil for the fh-st liquor, and pro- 


duces therefore a diminution of 4 degrees in the heat of 
the tap*. 

An effect, somewhat resembling this, is caused by 
the impression of the air on the utensils of a brewhouse, 
which are not daily used ; the heat received from a fore- 
going process has expanded their pores, and rendered 
them more susceptible of cold and moisture. From this 
circumstance, the heat of the first mash will be affected 
in a proportion equal to half an inch less cooling in, or 
in^the space of 24 hours, to 4 degrees of heat. 

The time of the day, in which the first extract is made* 
becomes another consideration ; for as 8 o'clock in the 
morning is the time of the medium heat in the whole 24 
hours, the other hours will give different degrees. When 
a first mash is made about 4 o'clock in the morning, the 
following table shews the difference between the heat at 
4 and 8 ; that of the other hours, in the like case, may be 
learned by observation. It has been observed, that, in 
the cold months, from the sun's power being less, the 
heat of the day and night are more uniform, and also 
that the coldest part of the 24 hours is about half an hour, 
or an hour before sun-rising. I have judged it convent 
ent to place, in the same table, the several incidents af- 
fecting the first extract. 

* I chose this manner of expressing the quantity of moisture receiv- 
ed in ground malt from the air, as it is the most easy for the direa- 
tion of the first extract. 


INCIDENTS occasioned by the air affecting the 
heat of the Jirst extract, to be noticed more 
particularly, when small beer is brewed, as 
the quantity of water is then greatest, and 
the mash more susceptible of its impressions. 

Morning at 4 o'clock Utensils, for want of be- 

January & in S used > in 24 hours 

.5 lose 4 degrees of heat, 

" ebruar y | equal tohalfaninch of 

March 2 6 co id AV ater. 


c Malt, which has been 

April 4 * ground 24 hours, im- 

rS bibes moisture equiva- 

^ a y- 6 "o lent to half an inch, 

June ,...-... 8 -It which lessens the heat 


"5 by 4 degrees. 

eg The difference between 

~ the actual heat of the 

J ul 7 10 g air, and that naturally 

August . 8 o 3 expected is to be al- 

September 6 |> lowed in proportion of 

g 8 degrees to one inch 
o cooling 'in. 

October 4 Malts, from having been 

^ long kept, or old, 
November 23 become considerably 

December slacked. 


Before we quit this subject, it may not be impreper to 
observe, that, in the hottest season, and in the hottest 
part of the day, the difference between the heat of the 
air in the shade, and that in the sun's beams in and about 
London, is nearly 16 degrees, and also that cellars or re- 
positories for beers, are, in winter, generally hotter by 
ten degrees, than the external air ; and in summer, 
colder, by five. 



MALT mast be ground, in order to facilitate the 
action of the water on the grain, which otherwise would 
be obstructed by the outward skins. Every corn should 
be cut, but not reduced to a flour or meal, for, in this 
state, the grist would not be easily penetrable. It is 
therefore sufficient that every grain be divided into two 
or three parts, nor is there any necessity for varying this, 
for one sort of drink more than another. In every brew- 
ing the intention of grinding is the same ; and the trans- 
parency of the liquor, mentioned by some on this occa- 
sion, depends, by no means, on the cut of the corn. 

It has been a question, whether the motion of the mill 
did not communicate some heat to the malt ; should this 
be the case, it can be but in a very small degree ; and, 
what may arise from hence, will be lost by shooting the 
grain out of the sacks, or uncasing the grist*nto the mash 
ton. Of late years it has been recommended, instead of 
grinding the malt, to bruise it between two iron cylin- 
ders : if, by this means, some of the fine mealy parts are 
prevented from being lost in air, it must be very incon- 
siderable, and, perhaps, not equal to the disadvantage 
of the water not coming in immediate contact with 


the flour of the grain. In brewing, not all, but only a 
certain portion of the constituent parts of the malt are 
requisite ; these, heated water alone is sufficient to pro- 
cure, so that, upon the whole, the difference between 
bruising and grinding the grain can be of no great con- 

We have before observed, malt, by being ground and 
exposed for some time to the air, more readily imbibes 
moisture than when whole, and the dampness, thus ab- 
sorbed, being in reality so much cpld Avater, a grist, that 
has been long ground, is capable of being impressed with 
hotter waters than otherwise it would require. In country 
places, where the quantity brewed consists only of a few 
bushels of malt, and make so small a volume as to be in- 
capable to maintain an uniform heat, where the people 
are ignorant, that a certain degree is necessary to form a 
proper extract with ; and where, instead of this, boiling 
water is indifferently applied, the effects of these errors 
are in some measure prevented, by grinding the malts a 
considerable time, as a month or six weeks before the 
brewing, and by the excess of fire readily escaping from 
so small a quantity. This method, from the inconstant 
state of the air, and from the impossibility of acting up. 
to rule, must be very uncertain and fortuitous, so that 
few or no arguments are necessary to explode it. The. 
truth is, the merit of country ales, so often mentioned, 

proceeds from the forbearing to use the drink, but whei^ 



it is in the fittest state. Thus time not only corrects the 
errors of the operators, but also gives them, in the eyes 
of the consumers, the credit of an extraordinary know- 
ledge and unmerited ability. 




.T IRE hnpressed on malt, either through air or water, it 
is true, has similar effects as to preservation, but the fact 
is not the same as to taste : the sweet, the burnt flavor, 
or the proportion of both, the malt originally had, sensi- 
bly appear in the extracts ; but water heated to excess 
will not, in extracting pale malt, communicate to the 
worts an empyreumatic taste; whether this proceeds 
from some acid parts, still residing in^the heated waters, 
which might help the attenuated oils to tend towards a 
sweet, or from other reasons, is not easily determinable ; 
certain it is, the foundation of taste in malt liquors is in 
the malt itself. 

The basis of all wines is a sweet : this circumstance 
for brewing beers agreeable to the palate must always be 
attended to. Next to this, it is required that the liquor 
should possess all the strength, it can fittingly be made 
susceptible of. Pale malt, as it retains the whole virtue 
of the grain, yields the strongest beers. The finest oils 
being fittest for fermentation, malt dried by fierce heats, 
in- a great measure loses these, and what remains are not 
only coarser oils, less miscible with water, but such as 
bring with them the impressed taste of fire. 


To answer the purposes of taste, strength, and preser- 
vation, from what has been said it appears, that the ex- 
tracting water must be of a heat superior to that which 
dried the malt ; no other rule appears to direct in this, 
than to make choice of malt of such dryness, the delicacy 
of which has not been removed by fire, and such as will, 
at the same time, admit of a sufficient number of supe- 
rior degrees of heat, to extract all its fermentable parts ; 
that is (see page 124) malt whose dryness is nearly 19 
degrees less than the mean of the drying and extracting 
heats applicable to the purpose intended. 

As 119 degrees, the first heat forming pale malt, and 
at which it possesses the whole of its sweetness and vir- 
tues, may be said to be the lowest degree of dryness in 
the grain to form keeping beers with, so 138 degrees, 
above which the native whiteness of the grain is so sub- 
dued, as to remain but in a very small proportion, is the 
highest dried mak fit to be used for any purpose ; from 
these premises the following table is formed, to shew the 
degree of dryness of malt, where taste and strength are 
equally consulted, to brew drinks capable of keeping 
themselves sound a long time, at any medium required. 

The proper choice of malt I thought necessary to 
point out, previous to entering more at large on the 
subject of extraction. This table, it must be observed, 
is in no wise directive for brewing common small beer, 
soon to be expended, that liquor depending on many 


other circumstances, of which notice will be taken im- 
mediately under that head. 

A TABLE, shewing the proper dry ness of 
Malt y applicable to the mean of the drying 
and extracting heats under which keeping 
malt liquors should be formed. 

Mean degrees of dryness of malt 
and heat of extracts. 


Color of matt expressed 
in degrees. 
1 19 






l o; > 




13O * 





155 . 


161 ... 

.. 138 

The subject to be resolved having been examined as 
to its dryness, we now come to the immediate matter for 
which this section was intended. 

Extraction is a solution of part, or the whole, of a 
body, made by means of a menstruum. In brewing, it 
is chiefly the mealy substance of the grain that is required 
to be resolved ; fire and water combined are sufficient to 


perform this act. Water properly is the receptacle of 
the parts dissolved, and fire the power, which conveys 
into it a greater or less proportion of them. 

When all the parts necessary to form a vinous liquor 
are not employed, or when more than are required for 
this purpose are extracted, the liquors must vary in their 
constituent parts, and consequently be different in their 
effects. This difference arises either from heat alone, or 
from the manner of applying it ; and the properties of 
beers and ales will admit of as many varieties as may be 
supposed in the quantity of the heat, and in its applica- 
tion. But as the useful differences are alone necessary 
to the brewer, they may be reduced to the four following 
modes of extraction . 

First, that which is most perfect, and for which malt 
is chose of such dryness, in which it with certainty pos- 
sesses the whole of its constituent parts, and the extracts 
are made with such heats, as to give the beer an oppor- 
tunity to be improved by time, and to become of itself 
fine and transparent. 

Secondly, that from which, in order to obtain every 
advantage of time, strength, and flavor, such extracts are 
produced as cannot become pellucid of themselves, but 
require precipitation. 

Thirdly, that which is intended soon to become in- 
tense, where soundness and transparency are for some 
short time expected, but not always obtained, because 
L 2 


brewed in every season of the year, and deprived of the 
advantages which age and better managements procure 
to the first. 

Fourthly, that where the advantages of strength and 
pellucidity are to be procured in a very short space. 

These four modes of resolving the grain, being the 
fundamental elements on which almost ever}' specie of 
drink is brewed, I must observe, the two first may be 
said to be an exact imitation of natural wines, in forming 
which, the principles we have laid down may fully be 
applied. The third is the effect of necessity, by which 
we are deprived of that time nature directs for properly 
producing fermented liquors, and where we are sub- 
jected to many disadvantageous circumstances ; to guard 
against the consequences of which, we must rely, in some 
measure, upon opinion formed from observation alone ; 
and the fourth may be said to be art too precipitately 
Carried on. Before I treat of them separately, it is re- 
quisite to mention a few general rules applicable to all. 

In the enquiry we made of the means which nature 
employs to form the juices of grapes, we found two re- 
markable circumstances : the first, a necessary lesser heat 
for the production of the fruit, and the second, a much 
greater for its maturation ; the former useful to incline 
the must to fermentation, the latter to raise therein such 
oils as should maintain it for some time in a sound state. 
But in all wines, an evenness of taste is requisite to affect 


the palate with an elegant sensation ; and it may be ob- 
served, the autumn and spring heats being nearly equal^ 
so the first juices of grapes are formed by almost, uni- 
form impressions ; the summer heats, though stronger j 
act upon the same principle ; for though the grapes re- 
main upon the vine some part of the autumn, perhaps in 
this space they gain little more than the juices prepared 
by the summer's sun : from whence the tastes of wine are 
more simple than otherwise they would be. Thus are 
we directed, that a first wort shall have the least share 
of heat of the whole brewing, and the last wort the 
greatest ; intermediate worts, if anyj must be propor- 
tioned to both, and if "several mashes or extracts are made 
to compose a wort, these must be equal as to their heat, 
being careful at the same time to preserve to the process 
the medium heat which is to govern the whole. By this 
means, AVC shall obtain our intended purpose^ and place 
into the drink one and the same smooth taste. 

In the table* shewing the different effects produced in 
ihe grain by the different degrees of heat, the numbers, 
with respect to beers, express^ not only the mean of the 
degrees of dryhess the malt had, with those also of heat 
in the extracting liquors, but also is implied the power 
communicated by the hops, that is, it imparts to us, the 
idea of the whole combination. 

'Part I. Sect XII. p. 124 


'As malt liquors are made with different views, so must 
the principles on which they are formed be varied. 
Beers intended long to be kept, inquire more, heat in their 
extracts, in order to produce such oils, or so many in 
quantity from the grain, as shall retard 'and delay the 
quick effects of fermentation ; and malt liquors, which are 
soon to be brought into use, claim an opposite manage- 
ment. This is imitating nature, for we have before ob- 
served*, the hotter the autumnal, the vernal and matu- 
rating heats are, with more power do the wines resist the 
impressions of time and the air ; and we traced the rule 
which governed this variety, by an enquiry into the num- 
ber of degrees required to form the juices of grapes, and 
applied their number to discover the first and last heats 
they were impressed with. In calculations to find out 
the heat to be given to water properly to resolve the malt, 
the same method must be followed, it being equally ne- 
cessary here to employ only such a proportion of the 
number of degrees which constitute the whole of the fer- 
mentable principles in malt that are needful to the pur- 
pose we would answer. We have said malts continue in 
possession of all their constituent parts' from their first 
degree of dry ness, 1 19 to 129. By age alone beers ob- 
tain spontaneous pcllucidity, when urged in the whole of 
their process with a heat so great as 138 degrees, prcci- 

* Sec page 56. 


pitation or art extends it to near 157 degrees, after 
which neither the acid parts furnished by the air, nor 
art avails: an obstinate foulness is the result; from 
whence it may be concluded, that at or beyond this heat, 
so great a part of the fermentable principles is dispersed, 
as what remains in the grain has not power sufficient to 
produce transparency. The following table, founded on 
these principles, will hereafter be found directive to fix 
the first and last heats to be given to the extracts of 


A TABLE, shewing the quantify of ferment- 
able principle* residing in malts at their seve- 
ral degrees of dry ness, or, the number of 
constituent parts which form beers in pro- 
portion to their properties*, specified in de- 
grees, and to be used in calculations^ made to 
ascertain the proper heats to be given to the 
first and last extracts of malt. 

iean degrees of heat 


affecting malt. 











, 7 


ir ....: 6 





157 , 




167 , 

.* 2 



175 .. 


For th |)roperti5 answerable to the degree*, see page 


Though beers and ales are divided into strong and 
small, this division regards only the proportion of the 
vehicle, and not that of the constituent parts. The same 
means, as to the heat of the extracts, must be employed, 
to form small beers, capable of preserving themselves 
sound fof some time, as are used to make strong drinks : 
for though a small liquor possesses more aqueous parts, 
the oils and salts of the malt are only more diluted, not 
altered in their proportions, and this causes but a very 
small difference in the duration of the liquor. 

It now remains to apply these rules, deduced from the 
theory, to the several sorts of malt liquors, which answer 
to the four modes of extraction, just before laid down. 

The first and most perfect is, when the malt is chosen 
of such dryness, and the extracts made with such heats, 
as give the beers an opportunity of being improved by 
time, and slow fermentations, to become spontaneously 
bright and transparent. Under this head, may be com- 
prehended all pale keeping strong, and all pale keeping 
small beers. 

From its name, regard must be had to the color of the 
malt, and such only used, as is dried the least, or by 
1 19* degrees of heat. 

* It may be observed that, in the first and last degrees for drying 
malt, sometimes we say one degree more, sometimes a degree less. 
The experiments we have made do not admit of a geometrical exact- 
ness, nor does the practice of brewing require it ; small errors i 


The hops should likewise be pale, and their quantity 
used in proportion to the time the drink is intended to 
be kept; suppose, in this case, it is 10 months, lOlb. of 
fine hops, for every quarter of malt, will be required. 

The highest degree of heat, or rather the medium of 
the highest dryness in malt, with the mean heat of the 
several extractions, to admit of spontaneous pellucidity, 
we have seen in the foregoing table (page 124) to be 
138 degrees, and this medium is chosen, as it answers 
not only the intent of long keeping, but of brightness 

From the medium degree of the malt's dryness, and of 
the heat of the extracts, to determine the heat of the first 
and the last extract, and the value in degrees of the 
quantity of hops to be used, for brewing pale strong and 
pale small beers, intended to be kept about ten months 
before they are used, and expected to become self- 

119 Malt's dryness. 

138 Mean of malt's dryness, heat of extracts,* and 

value of hops. 
3 Degrees, value of 10 Ib. of hops. 

135 Mean of malt's dryness and heat of extracts. 

effectually removed by age, and these variations have often been adopted 
in the tables, for the convenieucv ot" dividing into whole numbers. 


For the first liquor. 
135 As before. 

3-i Half the number of the constituent degrees, an- 
STrerable to 138 degrees, the mean heat of 
the whole process, to be subtracted*. 

1311 Degrees governing the first extracts. 

1 1 9 Malt's dryness. 

144 First rule to discover the heat of the first extract. 


131-1- As above. 

For the last liquor. 
135 As before. 
3| Half the number of the constituent degrees, to be 

added, to find 

138'- The degrees governing the last extract. 

119 Malt's dryness. 

158 First rule to discover the heat of last mash. 


1381 As above. 

* See p. 124. 


The elements for forming pale strong and pale small 
beers, intended to be kept, are therefore as follows : 

Malt's Value of Whole First Last 

dryness. hops. medium. heat. heat. 

119 3 138 .... 144 158 

2 2 heat lost at 

the time the extract separates from the grist. 
The proof of this is as follows : 
144 Heat of the first extract. 
158 Heat of last extract. 


151 Mean heat of extracts. 
119 Malt's dryness. 


135 Mean heat of Malt's dryness, and of heat of extracts. 
3 Value of hops. 

138 Whole mean given as above. 

It is necessary to add 2 degrees to the heat of every 
mash, such being the mean of 4 degrees, constantly lost 
in every extract, at the time they are separated from the 
grist, and exposed to the impressions of the air. 



The second mode of extraction is, that, in which every 
advantage which can be procured from the corn, from 
art, and from time is expected; this produces such 
drinks, as cannot become spontaneously pellucid, but re- 
quire the help of precipitation. 

The improvement, which every fermented liquor gains 
by long standing, is very considerable ; the parts of the 
grain, which give spirit to the wine, being, by repeated 
fermentations, constantly attenuated, not only become 
more light and pungent, but more wholesome. If, in 
order to give to beers more of the preservative quality, 
greater quantities of oils are extracted, in proportion to 
the salts, transparency cannot take place ; but, when the 
heat employed for this purpose does not exceed certain 
limits, this defect may easily be remedied, and the drink 
be fined by precipitation ; as time enables it to take up 
part of the very oils, which at first prevented its transpa- 
rency, it will, by long standing, and by precipitation, be- 
come both brighter and stronger. 

Where the demand for a liquor is constant and consi- 
derable, but the quantity required not absolutely certain, 
it ought to be brewed in such manner that time may in- 
crease its merit, and precipitation render it almost imme- 
diately ready for use. These circumstances distinguish 
this class of extraction, and justify the preference given 
to porter or broivn beer, which comes under the mode wo- 
are now treating of.. 


Though transparency in beers is a sure .sign of the 
sahs and oils being in an exact proportion, it is in no 
wise a proof of the justness of taste : for strong saks act- 
ing on strong oils may produce pellucidity, but the deli- 
cacy and pungency of taste, depend on the finer oils and 
the choicest salts being wholly preserved, these best ad-r 
mitting of fermentation, and most perfectly becoming 
miscibte with the liquor, the more volatile oils and salts 
of the grain if excluded, by the malt being too high 
dried, the consequence in the beer must be, an heavy 
and rancid taste. The less dried the malts are, which 
are brewed for beers to be long kept, the hotter are the 
extracts required to be, but this greater heat being com- 
mnnicated to the grain through water, an element eight 
hundred times more dense than air, the finer parts of the 
corn, though acted upon by an heat which in air would 
disperse them, by this means are retained. 

It appears, by the table (page 124) that drinks brew- 
ed from malts, affected by heats, whose medium is 148 
degrees, and with twelve pounds of hops to every quar- 
ter of malt, require from 6 to 12 months with precipita- 
tion to become bright ; this is the age generally appoint- 
ed forbrown beers to be drank at, and by the table, page 
133, we find the proper malts where the medium heat of 
the whole process is 148 degrees, must be such as have 
been dried with 130 degrees to 1'onii this liquor, whose 


color as yet is expected to be full or brown, without be- 
ing deprived of more valuable qualifications. 

In the drink before examined, the number of degrees 
which constitute the properties of malt, affected by a mean 
heat of 138 or 7 degrees, were employed, they being in- 
tended to become, in time, spontaneously bright ; but, 
as this quality in the present case is required only with 
the assistance of precipitation, the number 5, in the table, 
shewing the constituent parts remaining in the grain at 
every degree of dryness, (page 168) as this corresponds 
to the medium 148, is undoubtedly that which must an- 
swer our purpose, both as to the nature and to the time 
this liquor is in general made use of. These conditions 
being premised, the proper degrees of the first and last 
extract for porter will be found by the same rules as were 
used before. 

1 30 Degrees, malt's dryness. 

148 Degrees, whole medium intended. 

4 Degrees, value of hops, fractions omitted. 
144 Mean of malt's dryness and heat of extracts. 


For the first extract. 
144 As before. 

2J; Half the number of the constituent degrees to be 

141^ Mean of malt's dryness, and of the heat of the 
first extract. 

130 Malt's Dryness. 

153 Rule to discover the first heat. 


141| As above. 

For the last extract. 
144 As before. 

2|; Half the number of the constituent degrees to be 

1461 Mean of nialt's dryness, and of the heat of tht- 
last extract. 

130 Malt's dryness. 

163 Rule to discover the last heaK 


146^ As above. 


The elements for brewing brown strong beers, with 
two degrees added to the first and last extracts, for what 
Is lost at their parting from the malt, independent of its 
farther division into the respective mashes. 

Malt's Value of Medium heat of the First Last 

dryness. hops. extracts, malt's dry- heat. heat. 

ness, and value of 

130 4 148 155 ......... 165 

Brown beers, brewed with malt so low dried as 130 
degrees, twenty years since, would have appeared very 
extraordinary, and most likely, at that time, when a hea- 
viness and blackness in the drink formed its principal 
merit, Avould have been a sufficient reason to condemn 
the practice ; but strength and elegance being now more 
attended to, have justified the brewer, in making porter, 
to employ malt of such degree of dryness, as he shall 
think will best answer these purposes. 

As high liquors used to extract low dried malt will 
form a must capable to preserve itself equally a long time, 
as an adequate liquor used to high dried malt doth ; and 
the first of these methods having greatly the advantage 
of the other in point of taste, as 1 30 degrees of dryness in 
malt is one, from its change of colorj where part of its 
finer principles may be supposed to be evaporated. It 
may not be amiss to enquire if there be not reasons why 
malt, less affected by fire, should be used for manufac- 
turing this commodity. 



The medium of the malt's dryness, and of the heat of 
the extracts, together with the value of the hops which 
are to make porter, is 148 degrees. This, because pre- 
cipitation has been found convenient and necessary for 
this drink, yet, when at the proper age, it has undergone 
this last operation, it is supposed to shew itself in its best 
form ; bright, well-tasted, and strong ; that is, in such 
state as drink should be, which becomes spontaneously 
transparent, and is capable of preserving itself a long 
time, if from 148 degrees. 

The value of the oils yielded by the hops 
(See page 180) is deducted, 4 degrees. 

Will remain, 144 

And by table (page 162) we find a must under the 
mean of 144 degrees should be formed Avith malt dried to 
125 degrees, with this circumstance the elements of 
brewing porter will be as follows. 

1 25 Malt's dryness. 

148 Degrees, whole medium intended. 
4 Value of hops. 

144 Mean of malt's dryness, and heat of extracts. 


For the first extract. 
144 As before. 

21 Half the number of constituent parts, to be de- 

14 1| Mean, of malt's dry ness, and of the heat of the 
first extract. 

125 Malt's dryness. 

158 Rule to discover the first heat. 


1411- As above. 

For the last extract. 
144 As before. 
21 Half the number of constituent parts, to be added. 

1461 Mean of malt's dryness, and of the heat of the last 

1 25 Malt's dryness. 

168 Rule to discover the last 

i i . 


146i As above. . :"::';:> -'^ 



Elements for brewing porter with malt dried to 1 2> 
degrees, and two degrees added to the first and to the 
last extracts, for what heat is lost at their parting from the 

^* , 

malt, but this, independent of a farther allotment of this 
heat to the respective mashes. 

Malfs Value of Medium of the heat of First La3t 

dryness. hops. the extracts, malt's mash. mash. 

dryness, and value of 

125 4 148 160 1TO 

XVhether any attempt to improve this liquor, by using 
malt of less dryness than 125 degrees, may ever be put 
in practice, is very uncertain ; porter, if brewed with 
malts so low as 119 degrees, probably would succeed; 
for, in this case, the last mash, according to the forego- 
ing rules, would be at the 174th degree, at which the 
spirit of the grain could not be dispersed, and probably 
the result would be, a more delicate, more strong, and 
more vinous liquor. 

It may be observed, that 4 degrees are charged for the 
quantity of hops used ; as this number corresponds to the 
quantity proper to form beer of this denomination. A 
greater or a less proportion of hops is sometimes allowed 
to this drink, on account of its better, or inferior qua- 
lity, of the necessity there may be to render it fit for use 
in a shorter time than that which is commonly allowed 
from nine to twelve months, and, lastly, of old, stale, 
or otherwise defective drinks, Wended, with new 


guiles. In these cases, which cannot be too rare, the 
errors should be corrected only by the addition of hops, 
and no alteration be made, either in the dryness of the 
malts, or in the heat of the extracts. 

The third mode of extraction is that which intends 
spontaneous transparency, but not a durable liquor. 
Under this head is comprehended common small beer, 
soon to be drank. 

Common small beer is supposed 'to be ready for use, 
in winter, from two to six weeks, and in the heat of sum- 
mer, from one week to three. Its strength is regulated 
by the different prices of malt and of hops ; its chief in- 
tent is to quench thirst, and its most essential properties 
are, that in the winter it should be fine, and in the sum- 
mer sound. This liquor is chiefly used in and about 
great trading cities, such as London, where, for want of 
a sufficient quantity of cellar room, drinks cannot be 
stowed, which, by long and slow fermentations, would 
come to a greater degree of perfection. The duration 
of this kind of liquor being short, and there being a ne- 
cessity of brewing it in every season of the year, divid- 
ing it into very small quantities, easily affected in its con- 
veyance by the external heat : generally neglected, and 
placed in repositories influenced by every change of air, 
the incidents attending it, and the methods for carrying 
on the process must be more uncertain, various, and com- 
plicated, than those of any other liquor made from malt 


The incidents attending this specie of malt liquor are 
so many, so short .of existence, so contrary to one ano- 
ther, and often so <5merent from what should be expected 
in the different periods of the year, that an attempt to 
guard, in a just proportion, against every one of them, 
and against what may happen, and oftentimes does not, 
must be fruitless. After many endeavours of this sort, 
which terminated in a doubtful success, we have found it 
most eligible to form these drinks in proportion to the 
principal circumstances constantly attending them, and 
the result was more fortunate, as, in general, the drink 
was able to maintain itself against that variety of tempe- 
rature it met with in the places allotted to it. 

In proportion as it is brewed, in a hot or in a cold sea- 
son, we must employ every means, either to repel or to 
attract the acids circulating in the air ; for this purpose, 
the degree of dryness in the malt, the quantity of hops, 
the heat of the extracts, and the degree of temperature 
the wort is suffered to ferment with, must vary as such 
seasons do. The success, in brewing common small beer > 
greatly depends on its fermentation being retarded or ac- 
celerated, in proportion to the heat of the air, and ex- 
pansion being the principal effect of heat, was a wort of 
this sort suffered, in winter, to be so cold as 40 degrees, 
the air would, with difficulty, if at all, penetrate the 
must, or put it in action. This slow fermentation would 
not permit the beer to be ready at the time required. 


For these reasons, brewers let down their worts, in that 
season, at 60 degrees, whereas, in summer, the air of 
the night is made use of to get them as cold as pos- 
sible, by which means a part of them may be 12 de- 
grees colder than the medium of the heat of the day, and 
the whole of the worts nearly 5 degrees, in the space of 
24 hours. 

The choice of the malt, as to its dry ness and color, for 
brewing this liquor, should be varied in proportion to the 
several seasons, but custom requires it should be kept 
nearly to an uniform color. For this reason, when the 
air is so cold as the lowest fermentable degree, a greater 
dryness than 1 1 9 degrees is required ; but the dryness of 
malt forming only one part of the process, the proper 
medium directing the whole must be brought to its true 
degree, by the heat given to the extracts. In the height of 
summer, malt dried to 1 30 degrees seems to be the best, 
as it unites the properties of speedy readiness, preserva- 
tion, and transparency, and these several characters are, 
at that time, requisite in this liquor. 

To come as near as possible to the inclination of the 
consumers, or to maintain as near as may be an uniform 
color, if in the hottest season malt dried to 1 30 is best 
for this purpose, the mean between this and 1 1 9, the first 
degree that constitutes malt, must answer nearest every 
intent, when the heat of the air is at 40 degrees. Upon 
this footing, the following table will, from the proportion 


of these two extremes, shew the color of the grain for 
every season of the year. 

Heat in the Malt's Value of hops 
air dryness. in degrees. 

35 122 1 

40 124 1 

45 125 I 

50 127 1 

55 129 1 

60 130 2 

Jf common small beer was immediately to be used 
after being brewed and fermented, and it was free from 
the incidents, most of which we have just now enume- 
rated, no hops would be required, and the medium de- 
gree of the whole process would be that of the lowest 
dried malt, 119, to be employed when the heat of the air 
was at its first fermentable degree, or 40, as, with adequate 
malts, this would make the liquor that would be ready 
in the least space, and, at the same time, yield its con- 
stituent parts ; but if small beer was intended to be kept 
some short time, brewed without hops, and not liable to 
any accidents, and the process to be carried through, in a 
heat of air equal to the highest fermentable degree, or 
80, in this case the governing medium for the whole 
process must be the utmost heat the grain is able to en- 
ilure, where malt charrs, or 175 degrees. As malt Ii- 


quors are principally affected by heat, we will first pro- 
portion the medium heat, directive of each process, for 
every fermentable degree, without any regard had to 
;any incident whatever. 

Fermentable Mean heats to govern 

degrees the processes. 

''!.. inrj^l oi;J '!"! TO}iD2.i!HrvRro 
40 11Q 



ifiorf oHT 
F^kwr t $f9i* 


, 133 

55 , 

60 , 

* 147 

65 , 



.. . . 161 

75 t 



Now the principal heats affecting common small beer, 
with regard to its duration, are the degree of heat under 
which the beer is at first fermented, that of the air when, 
brewed, and when conveyed from place to place, and 
that of the cellar where it is deposited j let us, in regard 
to these heats, take the mean of the circumstances this 
drink is liable to, at the time when the air is at the first 
fermentable degree, and at the time when the season is 
hottest (taking for this the medium heat of the whole 24 
hours.) Having these two extremes, and making a fit 
allowance for the hops employed, we shall be ablq> from 


the above table, to fix the medium heat that should go- 
vern the several processes for making common small 
beer in every season of the year. 

I observed, in page 183, that when the heat of the air is 
40 degrees, brewers set the worts of common small beer 
to be fermented, at a heat of 60 ; add to this 10 degrees 
more heat, excited by the fermentable action, makes 10 

The heat of the air we fixed for the first ex- 
treme, was the first fermentable heat, 40 

In page 156, we said cellars in winter were ge- 
nerally ten degrees hotter than the air, but we 
observed, those employed for this use, were the 
worst of the kind, subjected to exterior impres- 
sions, or perhaps other defects, for which rea- 
son we here set this heat only at 46 

Divided by the number of circumstances 3 ) 156 


is the mean of the principal incidents affecting small beer 
in this season, and, by the foregoing table, this degree 
indicates a medium to govern the whole process 136, to 
which must be added, for preservative efiect bestowed 
by the hops used, 1 degree more, which makes it at this 
heat in the air 1 37 degrees. 

When the mean heat of the whole 24 hours is 60 de- 
grees, (see page 150) if, as in page 183, by the advan- 
tage of the evening and night to cool the wort, an abate- 


ment of 5 degrees is obtained, the whole of the heat is 
55 degrees, add to this only 8 degrees more, because at 
this time the beer is divided, and put in casks long be- 
fore the first fermentable act is compleated, and their 
real heat will be 

The medium heat of the air in the hottest 
season (page 150) CO 

In page 156 we say, the heat of the cellars in 
summer time is generally 5 degrees colder than 
the exterior air, but these being the worst of 
the kind, may certainly be thought somewhat 
more exposed, though not so much affected in 
summer as in winter, when there are fewer culi- 
nary fires, for this reason we fix their heat at 56 

Divided by the number of observations 3 ) 179 


is the mean of these incidents affecting the small beer at 
this season, and by the foregoing table it indicates a me- 
dium heat to govern the whole process 146 degrees, to 
which, if two degrees more be added, for the effect of the 
hops, (as experience teaches us six pounds of hops in 
summer scarcely are so powerful as three pounds in 
winter) it will give us for the mean of the heats drying 
the malt, those impressed in the extracts, together with 
the allowance made for the hops 148 degrees. 

Spontaneous pellucidity is always expected in this 


drink, although the time allotted to gain this in general 
is much too short ; to forward this intent as far as possi- 
ble, without hazarding the soundness of the drink, in the 
computations to determine the heats of the first and last 
extracts, the whole number of constituent parts of malt 
or 10 degrees are employed. 

.Having premised these rules, the heats for the first 
and last extracts are to be found by like operations be- 
fore made use of, an example of which we shall state ; 
and knowing the mean heats required for two distinct 
distant processes, in proportion to these I shall form a 
table, for brewing this drink in every season of the year. 

When the air is at 40, the degree of dryness fixed for 
malts to be used for common small beer is 124, the quan- 
tity of hops three pounds per quarter, the medium of 
their dryness and the heat of the extracts, together with 
the value of the hops added thereto, is 1 37 degrees. 

124 Malt's dryness. 
137 Medium intended. 
1 Value of hops. 

136 Mean of Malt's dryness, and heat of extracts. 


For the first extract. 
136 As before. 

5 Half the number of the whole constituent degrees, 
to be deducted. (See p. 168.) 


124 Malt's dryne&s* 

138 Rule to discover the first heat. 

..*.... . . 


131 As above. 

For the last extract. 
136 As before. 

5 Half the number of the whole constituent degrees, 
to be added. (See p. 168.) 


1 24 Malt's dryness. 

158 Rule to discover the last heat. 

4*^a." '.)' :. 


141 As above. 


The proof. 

138 Heat of the first extract. 
158 Heat of the last extract. 


148 Mean heat of extracts. 
124 Malt's dryness. 


,^, ;..: 

1 36 Mean of Malt's dryness and heat of extracts. 
1 Value of hops. 

137 Medium intended, as above. 

The elements for forming common small beer, when 
the heat of the air is at 40 degrees, independent of the 
proper division of this heat, adequate to each Mash. 

Malt's Value of Whole First Last 

dryness. hops. medium. heat. heat. 

124 1 137 138 . 158 

2 2 

The medium of the heat lost in the mash ton, amount- 
ing to two degrees, is added to the heat of the first and 
Jast mash, in the following table. 


A TABLE of the elements for forming common 
small beer, at every degree of heat in the air, 
with the allowance of two degrees of heat, in 
the first and last extractions. 



Value of 

Medium heat 



of air. 



of the pro- 





122 .. 

1 ... 





124 .. 

1 ... 





125 .. 

1 ... 





127 .. 

1 ... 





129 .. 





60 .. 

130 .. 

2 ... 




From due observation of this table, it appears, how 
necessary it is for brewers to be acquainted, not only 
with the daily temperature of the air, but also with the 
medium heat of such spaces of time, wherein a drink 
like this is expected to preserve itself. This I have esti- 
mated for every 14 days; (page 150) but as the event may 
not always exactly correspond with our expectations, an 
absolute perfection in this drink, as to its transparency 
and soundness, is not to be expected. It greatly depends 
on the care and attention given to it, and on the tempe- 
rature and quiescent state of the cellars it is placed in. 
The first of these circumstances is often neglected, and 
the other hardly ever obtained, as the places, where 



common small beer is kept, are generally the worst of 
the kind. 

In keeping beers, every circumstance is assistant t6 
form them so as to obtain elegance in taste, strength,, and 
pellucidity, either spontaneously or by precipitation, but 
in common small beer, from the shortness of its duration^ 
and from the many complicated incidents that occur^ 
only the medium of the effect of these can be attended 
to; which governing medium, in general, differs so much 
from those which form more exact fermentable propor- 
tions, that in these extracts, there cannot be expected 
that near resemblance to natural wines, which, under 
more favorable management, it is capable of. 

The fourth mode of extraction is that, which, by con- 
veying a heat, equal to what is practised for keeping 
pale strdng, and keeping pale small beers, to the liquors 
commonly known by the names of pale ale, amber, or 
twopenny j the softest and richest taste malt can possibly 
yield, and which makes them resemble wines formed 
from grapes ripened by the hottest sun, though by art- 
fully exciting periodical fermentations, they are, in a 
very short time, made to become transparent. 

As wines have, in general, been named from the town 
or city, in the neighbourhood of which the grapes, from 
which they are made, are found growing, this has, 
though with less reason, been the case, with our nu- 
merous class of soft beers and ales. These topical 


denominations can indeed constitute no real, at least no 
considerable difference, since the birth-place of any 
drink is the least of ah 1 distinctions, where the method of 
practice, the materials employed, and the heat of the cli- 
mate, are nearly the same. 

Ales are not required to keep a long time ; so the hops 
bestowed on them, though they should always be of the 
finest color, and best quality, are proportionably fewer 
in the winter than in the summer. The reason is, that 
the consumption made of this liquor in cold weather, is 
generally for purl*, whereas, in summer, as it is longer 
on draught, it requires a more preservative quality. 

The properties of this liquor are, that it should be 
pale ; its strength and taste principally depend on the 
malt, and its transparency should be the effect of fer- 
mentation, accelerated by every means, which will not 
be hurtful to it. Malt capable of yielding the strongest 
extracts, is such whose dry ness does not exceed 120 
degrees; and 138 we have seen to be the highest mean 
of the extracts, and of the dry ness of the malt to admit of 
pellucidity, without precipitation ; the hops used, being 
only so many as are necessary to resist the heat of the 
seasons the ale is brewed in, may in general be estimated 

* Purl, is pale ale, in which bitter aromatics, such as wormwood, 
orange peel, &c. are infused, used by the labouring people, chiefly in 
cold mornings, and a much better and wholesomer relief to them, than 
spiritous liquors. 



in value, one degree ; from these premises, the elements 
for brewing this drink, will be found by the same rules 
as before, where 10 degrees are supposed to be equal to 
the whole of the constituent parts, and the whole of these 
are employed to accelerate its coming to perfection. 

120 Degrees of malt's dryness. 

138 Degrees, whole medium intended. 
1 Value of hops. 

137 Mean of malt's drytiess, and heat of extracts. 

For the first extract. 
137 As before. 

5 Half the number of the whole constituent degrees 
to be deducted. 

132 Mean of malt's dryness, and of the heat of first 

120 Malt's dryness. 

144 Rule to discorer the first heat. 


132 As above. 


For the last extract; 
137 As before. 

5 Half the number of the whole constituent degrees 
to be added. 

142 Mean of malt's dry ness j and of the heat of last 

120 Malt's dryness. 

164 Rule to discover the last heat of last extract. 


1 42 As above. 

The elements for brewing pale ale or amber, with the 
allowance of 2 degrees for the heats lost in the extracts. 

Malt's Value of Medium of Heat of Heat of 

dryness. hops. the whole. first mash. last mash. 

120 1 138 146 166 

The time this liquor is intended to be kept, should en- 
tirely be governed by the quantity of hops used therein ; 
for this ale being required to become spontaneously fine, 
the medium of the whole, or 138 degrees, cannot be ex- 
ceeded. In and about London, and in some counties in 
England, these ales, by periodical fermentations, are 
made to become fine, sooner than naturally they would 
do, and often, in a shorter time than one week. The 
N 2 


means of doing this, by beating the yeast into the drink j 
as it is termed, has by some been greatly blamed, and 
thought to be an ill practice. An opinion that the yeast 
dissolved in the drink, and thereby made it unwholesome, 
prevailed ; and some brewers, erroneously led by this, 
and yet willing that their commodity should appear of 
equal strength with such as had undergone repeated fer- 
mentations, have been induced to add ingredients to their 
worts, if not of the most destructive nature, at least very 
unwholesome. The plain truth is, that, by returning the 
elastic air in the fermenting ale, the effects of long keep- 
ing arc greatly imitated, though with less advantage as 
to flavor and to strength ; but as this case relates to 
fermentation, we shall have hereafter an opportunity of 
explaining it more at large. 

It is under this class, that the famous Burton ale may 
be ranked, and, if I do not mistake, it will be found, that 
its qualities and intrinsic value will be the same, when 
judiciously brewed in London, or elsewhere, from 
whence it may be exported at much cheaper rates to 
Russia and other parts, than when it is increased in 
price by a long and chargeable land-carriage. 

When drinks are made so strong as these generally 
are, only two mashes can take place, by which the whole 
virtue of the malt not being expended, small beer is 
made after these ales. The purest and most essential 
parts of the grain being extracted, it is not to be expect- 


ed, from an impoverished grist, that beers can be" made 
to possess all their necessary constituent parts, or to keep 
so long, as where fresh malt is used ; but the sort of small 
beer, which answers best to the brewer, and is most salu- 
brious for the consumer, must be, by the addition of 
fresh hops, to form the remaining strength into keeping 
small beer, the greater quantity of hops necessary to be 
allowed, beside those boiled in the ale, is 2i pounds for 
every barrel intended to be made. As much more water 
must be employed, for this small beer, besides its length, 
as will steam away in two hours boiling, and .J. of a bar- 
rel per quarter of malt, for waste. The heat regulating 
the extract of small, will be found by the fpllowing 

138 Medium heat intended for keeping small beer. 
2 Value of hops, 

136 Mean of malt's dryness and heat of extract. 

1 20 Malt's dryness, 

152 *Heat of the mash for keeping small after amber, 
one mash, and one wort. 


136 As above. 

* 152, to which 2 degrees must be added, for what is lost in th 
extracts coming away, or 154 degrees, being the heat of the mash for 
keeping small beer, after amber; as this number is less than 16XJ d- 



All the hops after these two brewings, as those added 
for the keeping small beer have been boiled but in one 
wort, are in value, for the next guile of beer, equal to 
J^ of fresh hops. 

We should now put an end to this section, but, as 
other drinks are brewed besides those here particularly 
treated of, we shall just mention them, to shew how 
their different processes are reducible to the rules just 
laid down. 

Brown ale is a liquor, whose length is generally two bar- 
rels from one quarter of malt, and which is not intended 
for preservation. It is heavy, thick, foggy, and there- 
fore justly grown in disuse. The hops used in this, dif- 
fer in proportion to the heats of the season it 'is brewed 
in, but are generally nearly half the quantity of what is 
employed, at the same times, for common small beer. 
The system it ought to be brewed upon is not different 
from that of this last liquor ; the medium of the malt's 
dryness, and heat of the extracts, are the same for each 
degree of heat in the air, and it requires the same ma- 
nagement when under fermentation. But though com- 

grees, the last mash of the amber, consequently, in the computation 
made, to find how much of the quantity of the liquor used, is to be 
made to boil, to give the true degree of heat to the mash of small, the 
difference of heat required in this mash, 154, and the heat of the goods 
162 or 8, is to be multiplied by the volume of the goods, and the 
product in this case subtracted ; whereas, in the operations for brew- 
ing, whose heat gradually increased every mash, it is to be added. 


mon pale small beer and brown ale are so much alike in 
their theory, yet, from the difference of the dryness of 
the malt, which, for brown ale, is constantly so high as 
130 degrees, the practice will appear greatly different. 
Small beer is made after this ale, by the same rules as 
that made after pale ale or amber ; the malt must, in that 
case, be valued according to its original dryness, and 
the medium governing the process be the same as for 
small beer, and as if no extract had been taken from the 
grain. No small beer brewed after ales can ever be 
equal in goodness to such as are brewed from entire 
grists ; but that which is made after brown ale, from the 
grain being so highly dried, and nearly exhausted, is 
neither nourishing or fit to quench thirst. 

Brown stout is brewed with brown malt, as amber is 
with pale ; the system for brewing these liquors is the 
same, allowing for the difference in the dryness of the 
malt. The overstrength of this drink has been the rea- 
son of its being discontinued, especially since porter or 
brown beer has been brought to a greater perfection. 
That which is brewed with an intent of being long kept, 
should be hopped in proportion to the time proposed, or 
the climate it is to be conveyed to. 

Old hock requires the same proportion of hops as are 

used in keeping pale strong, or keeping pale small beer; 

but more or less, according to the time it is intended to 

be kept before it becomes fit for use. The length is 

N 4 


about two barrels, from a quarter of the palest and 
best malt. As spontaneous pellucidity is required, its 
whole medium must not exceed 138 degrees, for the dry- 
ing and extracting heat. The management of it, when 
fermenting, is under the same rules with keeping small 
beer, or those which are allowed a due time to become 
of themselves pellucid. 

Dorchester beers, both strong and small, range under 
the same head. They are brewed from barleys well 
germinated, but not dried to the denomination of malt. 
The rule of the whole 138 degrees for the governing 
jhedium, must, even with this grain, be observed to form 
these drinks ; but, from the slackness of the malt, and the 
quantities of salt and wheaten flour mixed with the liquor, 
when under fermentation, proceed its peculiar taste, its 
mantling, and its frothy property. 




1 HE constituent parts of malt, like those of all vege- 
table sweets, are so inclined to fermentation, that, when 
once put in motion, it is difficult to retard their pro- 
gress, retain their preservative qualities, and prevent 
their becoming acid. Among the many means put in 
practice, to check this forwardness of the malt, none 
promised so much success as blending with the extracts, 
the juices of such vegetables as, of themselves, are not 
easily brought to fermentation. Hops were selected for 
this purpose, and experience has confirmed their whole- 
someness and efficacy. 

Hops are an aromatic, grateful bitter, endued with an 
austere and astringent quality, and guarded by a strong 
resinous oil. The aromatic parts are volatile, and disen- 
gage themselves from the plant with a small heat. To 
preserve them, in the processes of brewing, the hops 
should be put into the copper as soon as possible, and be 
thoroughly wetted with the first extract, while the heat 
of the wort is at the least, and the fire under the copper 
has little or no effect thereon. Whoever will be at the 
trouble to see this performed, by the means of rakes, or 


otherwise, will be made sensible, that flavor is retained, 
which, when the wort comes to boil, is otherwise con- 
stantly dissipated in the air. 

The bitter is of a middle nature, or setnivolatile : it 
requires more fire to extract it, than the aromatic part, 
but not so much as the austere or astringent. Hence it 
is plain, that the principal virtues of this plant are best 
obtained by decoction, the austere parts not exhibiting 
themselves, but when urged by so violent and long con- 
tinued boiling, as is seldom, or never practised in the 
brewery. It would be greatly satisfactory to fix, from 
experiments, the degrees of heat, that first disperse the 
aromatic, next the bitter, and lastly the austere parts ; 
as it is likely, by this means, a more easy and certain 
method of judging of the true value and condition of 
hops, than any yet known, might be discovered. 

This vegetable is so far from being, by itself, capable 
of a regular and perfect fermentation, that, on the con- 
trary, its resinous parts retard the aptness which malt 
has to this act. Hops, from hence, keep barley-wines 
sound a longer space of time, and, by repeated and slow 
frettings, give an opportunity to the particles of the 
liquor to be more separated and comminuted. Fer- 
mented liquors acquire, by this means, a greater pun- 
gency, even though it was admitted they received no 
additional strength from this mixture, the direct contrary 
of which might easily be made to appear. Hops, then, 


are not only the occasion of an improvement of taste, 
but an increase of strength. >' M 

Dr. Grew seems to think the bitter of the hops may 
be increased by a greater degree of dryness ; but, per- 
haps, this is only one of the means of their retaining 
longer this quality, which undoubtedly decreases through 
age, in a proportion, as near as can be guessed, of from 
1 to 15 per cent, yearly. 

The varieties of the soils in which hops are planted, 
may have some share in the inequality we perceive in 
them. They seem to be much benefited by the sea air. 
Whoever will try similar processes with the* Worcester- 
shire and Kentish hops, will soon perceive the difference, 
and the general opinion strengthens this assertion, as the 
county of Kent alone produces nearly half the quantity 
of hops used in this kingdom. 

The sooner and the tighter hops are strained, after 
having been bagged, the better will they preserve them- 
selves. The opinion that they increase in weight, if 

* We had rather attribute to this cause, the inferior quality of the 
Worcestershire hops, than to what is reported. That some planters 
in that county suffer their hops to be so ripe on the poles, that they 
become very brown before they are gathered : to recover their color, 
on the fire of the kiln they strew brimstone, which brings them to a 
fine yellow ; the dryness and harshness this acid occasions, they cor- 
rect by sprinkling the hops with milk, from whence they bag closer, 
and require little straining, but two ingredients more pernicious to 
the forming good beers, perhaps, could not have been though^ of, than 
milk and brimstone. 


not strained until after Christmas, may he true, hut will 
not recommend the practice ; the hops imbibe the mois- 
ture of the winter air, which, when the weather grows 
drier, is lost again, together with some of the more spi- 
yitous parts. Nor is this the greatest damage occasion- 
ed by this delay, as hops, by being kept slack bagged in 
a damp season, too often become mouldy. 

Hops may be divided into ordinary and strong, and 
into old and new. The denomination of old is first given 
to them, one year after they have been bagged. New 
ordinary hops, when of equal dry-ness, are supposed to be 
nearly alike in quality, with old strong ones. 

The different teints, Avith which hops are affected from 
the fire of the kiln, afford in brewing the best rule for 
adapting their color to that of the malt ; in general the 
finest hops are the least, but the most carefully, dried. 

To extract the resinous parts of the hops, it is neces- 
sary they should be boiled. The method of disposing 
them is generally to put the whole quantity, in the first 
wort, which, being always made with waters leSs hot 
than the succeeding extracts, possesses the greatest share 
of acids, and is in want of the largest proportion of re- 
sins and bitters to defend it. The virtue of the hops is 
not entirely lost by once boiling, there remains still 
enough to bitter and preserve the second wort. But 
where the first wort is short of itself, and a large 
quantity of hops are required for the whole, it is need- 


less and wasteful to put more in at once than it can ab- 
sorb, the overplus of which appears by a thin bitter pel- 
licle floating on the wort when laid to cool in the backs. 
No particular rules can be given to avoid this inconve- 
niency, as the nature and quantity of the worts on one 
side, and the strength of the hops on the other, must oc- 
casion a difference in the management, easily determina- 
ble by experience. 

When waters, not sufficiently hot, have been used, 
the wort, for want of the proper quantity of oils, readily 
admits of the external impressions of the air, and is easi- 
ly excited to a strong and tumultuous fermentation, 
which disperses the bitter particlesj and diminishes the 
effects of the hops. The virtue of this plant is therefore 
retained in the drinks, in proportion to the heat of the 
extracts, and the slowness of the fermentation. 

But beers being a composition of malt, hops, and 
water, united by heat, and the properties of this combi- 
nation being judged of by the medium of the whole 
number of degrees of fire made use of in the process, as 
we brought the virtues of malt to this denomination, it is 
also essential to reduce those of hops. After many tedi- 
ous calculations and experiments, made with this view, 
and unnecessary here to mention, we were obliged to 
have recourse to a more simple and probable hypothesis, 
and confirm the truth thereof by repeated experiments, 
the relation of which, as it becomes here necessary, will 


shew the necessity we were under to take a general view 
of the whole process before we attempted to ascertain 
this point. 

In the table shewing the mean heat of the air applica- 
ble to practice, the greatest cold is 35 degrees, and in 
this season we observed, (page 156) the repositories of 
beers were more warm than this by 10 degrees, which 
makes the greatest cold of cellars to be 45 degrees ; in 
the same table the highest heat is 60, when cellars are 5 
degrees colder than the external airs, the utmost diffe- 
rence then in the temperature of cellars is 10 degrees, 
and this takes place in 6 months, so that the whole vari- 
ety of heat beers deposited for keeping undergo in one 
twelvemonth is 20 degrees. 

There is no specie of beer, in brewing of which it is 
requisite the artist should be more attentive to alter his 
process in proportion to the change of heat in the air, 
than common small beer, which, though brewed in every 
season, is constantly expected to be in an uniform order 
for use. In the preceding section, in the table directing 
this variety, we find a difference of five degrees of heat 
in the air, requires an alteration in medium heat of the 
whole process of 3 degrees, and as it is from the mean 
heat of the dryness of he malt, of the heat of the ex- 
tracts, and of the value of hops in degrees, that we are to 
discover the quantity of fire to be given to the extracts, 
this can be done only by deducting from such medium 


so much as it is affected by the properties of the hops. 
Just before we have seen, that the whole of the variety 
of heat beers deposited in cellars to keep twelve months 
undergo, amounts to 20 degrees, these, in a proportion of 
5 to 3, would be 12, without being scrupulously exact. 
Hops, with regard to their proportion in the whole pro- 
cess, must be admitted to be one third part thereof, and, 
in this case, of the proportion, 12, now found, only 4 
degrees would be what they contribute towards preserv- 
ing the drink 1 2 months : the quantity of hops necessary 
to maintain beers in a sound state this space of time, we 
have found to be twelve pounds ; this quantity then is 
equal to 4 degrees of the medium heat of the whole 
process. On these grounds we repeatedly tried the ex- 
periment in a variety of brewings made for different pur- 
poses, and never found any inconveniencies from the es- 
timating hops in such like proportion. 

Hops should be used in proportion to the time the 
liquors are intended to be kept, and to the heat of the 
air in which they are fermented. The quantity requi- 
site to preserve beers twelve months, experience has 
shewn to be * twelve pounds, of a good quality, joined 
to one quarter of malt, and when the heat of the air'is 

* This rule only takes place for such climates as are of the same heat 
with ours ; for when drinks are brewed to be expended in more southern 
countries, or to undergo long voyages, twenty pounds of hops to one 
quarter of malt have been used with success. 


at 40 degrees, three pounds to every quarter has been 
found sufficient to preserve drinks from four to six weeks, 
as six pounds are to keep them the same term when the 
thermometer is so high as 60 degrees. From these facts, 
founded on informations obtained from long practice, 
we shall hereafter ascertain the proper quantities to' 
be used in all cases. 

Having premised these observations, sufficiently accu- 
rate for the government of this art, the construction as 
well as utility of the following tables will be obvious. 

A TABLE of the value of the hops, expressed 
in degrees, to be added to the medium of the 
dryness of the malt, and of the heat of the 

Hops. New or strong. Pale, low dried, 

or old. 
ISlb. equal 5 3| 

12 4 3 

8 2 2 

4 ... .. 1 .- ,. 1 


A TABLE of the quantity of hops requisite 
for every quarter of Malt brewed for porter, 
supposed to be Jit for use from eight to 

twelve months. 

: wocl 

Old ordinary hops started over old beer, 14 per Qr. 

Ditto, neat guiles, 12JL 

Strong good old hops, when started over old 

beer, 121. 

Ditto, neat guiles, 12 

New strong hops, when started over old beer, 12 

Ditto, neat guiles, 11 

New ordinary hops started over old beer, .... 121. 
Ditto, neat guiles, 12 

N. B. The quantity of old beer to be blended with 
new is here supposed never to exceed one eighth part of 
the whole. 



A TABLE of the quantity of hops requisite for 
common small beer, for each quarter of malt, 
in every season. 

Heat in the air. New hops. Old hops. 

lb. oz. Ib. oz. 

35. ..28.. ..28 

40 ................... 3 ................. 3 

45 .................... 3 8 ................. 3 8 

50 ..... . .............. 4 4 ................ :. 4 8 

55 .................... 5 O .................. 5 8 

60 .................... 6 .................. 6 8 


65 ....... , ............ 6 12 

70 .................... 7 8 

75 .................... 8 4 

80 ......... .. 9 O 

The medium heat of the hottest days in England, in 
the shade, seldom, at any time, exceeds 60 degrees, but 
I continued the table proportionably, as what is here set 
down is from repeated experiments, and from thence it 
appears, at the lowest fermentable degree of heat, three 
pounds of hops are required for each quarter of malt ; 
at the highest, nine pounds of hops should be allowed for 
the same quantity ; this, in some measure, determines 
the effect of a greater activity in fermentation. 


A TABLE of the quantity of hops necessary to 
each quarter of malt> in brewing amber or 

Heat of the air. New hops. Old hops. 

Ib. oz. Ib. oz. 

35 ,.- 2 8 2 8 


40 3 3 

45 , 3 8 3 8 

I. >.(; -ft; 

50 4 4 4 

55 4 8 , 4 12 

..;o .ul 
60 5 5 4 

Amber is a liquor which, by repeated periodical fer- 
mentations, is 90 attenuated, as to be soon fit for use, 
and, by its strength, is supposed to resist the impres- 
sions of the air Longer than common small beer, especially 
in winter ; for this reason, it wants fewer hops than that 
drink does, and in the summer both require equal quan- 
tities, on account of the fermentation of amber being 
carried to a greater degree. 

The hops once boiled in amber, but used afterwards 
for small beer, may be estimated equal to one fourth of 
their original quality. 

When twelve shilling small beer is made after amber, 
the quality of the hops used should at least be equal in 
value to the quantity of ten pounds fresh hops to every 
five barrels of beer, when brewed from entire grists of 
malt for this purpose. 



A TABLE of the quantity of hops necessary 
for each quarter of malt, in brewing Burton 

This liquor requires fewer hops than such ales as are 
more diluted by water : as it is always brewed in the 
winter, the quantities here set down are for the number 
of months it is supposed to be kept, before it is drank or 

Months. Ib. oz. 

i :.:.: ...................... i o 

joivjq j 8 

>i ill r j Q 

i o 

4 ........................... Z o 

5 30 

6 ................... . ....... 3 8 

7 ........................... 4 

8 48 

9 ........................... 5 

10 ........................... 5 8 

11 ........................... 6 

12 ............................ 6 8 

Though common amber, keeping amber, and Burton 
ales require the same degree of heat to govern the whole 
of their processes, yet some small difference will be 
found in the heats of their extracts, on account of the 
different quantity of hops used. 


Besides the use of hops for keeping the musts of malt, 
they may also, with great propriety, be employed both 
to strengthen and preserve sound the extracts. One or 
two pounds, in a net suspended in the water the mash is 
to be formed with, are sufficient for this purpose. 

Though the purchasing the materials, used in manu- 
facture, does not immediately relate to its practical part, 
yet as, in this case, it is of great importance to the brew- 
er to know what stock it is prudent for him to keep, of 
an ingredient equally necessary and variable in its value, 
I hope the attempt of a calculation on this subject, will 
easily be pardoned. 

The amount of the duty upon hops, for sixteen years, 
from 1748 to 1765, was .1,171,227, which sum, esti- 
mating the duty at 2ls. per bag, gives 1,1 15,454 bags, 
used in that time. At the beginning and expiration of 
this interval, hops sold at such high prices, as no consi- 
derable stock can be supposed to have remained in 
hand, viz. from jC.S to .10 per hundred. If, there- 
fore, to the aforesaid quantity of 1,1 15,454 bags, which 
may be supposed to have served for the whole consump- 
tion during this period, we add what may have escaped 
paying duty*, the annual consumption of hops may be 

* If, of the whole quantity of hops grown in one year, one half is 
put into bags, whose tare is one tenth of their whole weight, and the 
other half is put in pockets, whose tare is one fortieth of their whole 
weight ; if the excise office allows one tenth for tare upon the whole, 
and the excise or weighing officers, are content with one ninth, as by 
their marks, and the weight when sold to the brewer, appears to be 



estimated at 70,000 bags, including what is exported to 
Ireland or elsewhere. From these premises, the follow- 
ing table was constructed, which, though not capable of 
absolute certainty, may be of some service to the brew- 
ers, in informing them of the quantities, that probably 
remain in band at any time, and the stock which prudence 
will suggest to them to lay in. 

the fact; then somewhat like one twentieth part more hops are 
grown, than what pays duty, or than the excise officers report to 
be the case. 


A TABLE, shewing the medium price Hops 
should bear, in proportion to the growth, 
and determining the quantity to be pur- 
chased, in proportion to the stock in hand. 

Prices of hops Stock of new and Quan 
at a medium*, old hops in the hops 
per cwt. whole kingdom, as ma: 
after the harvest. consu 

30 Shill 1 30000 hatr? 

tity of 
equal to 
ny weeks 

65 * 





50 ... 



100000 .. 





90000 . .. . 





75000 ... 

110 ... 

120 75000 20 

130 70000 16 

140 67000 12 

150 65000 8 

160 62000 4 

170 6000O 

180 57000 

190 55000 

200 52000 

* Forty shillings per hundred weight, are supposed to be the mean 
difference between new and old hops, and ought to be estimated in 
proportion to the quantity of old left in hand, and that of new hops 
grown, in order to ascertain the value of the last. 


This chapter should not be dismissed without remind- 
ing the brewery, of the gross imposition they submit to 
in purchasing hops. The tare which justice requires to 
be allowed in the sale of all packed merchandize, by the 
hop-factors is refused, who exact payment for the bag- 
ging, at the same price as for the commodity itself. If 
the consumption of hops, in England, is yearly 172,268 
cwt. and these be packed one half in bags and the other 
half in pockets, taking the mean price of hops to be 
3l. 1 4s. per cwt. in this case the consumers are defrauded 
at least of 39,834-1. per annum ; that, on a just regula^ 
tion of this matter, the commodity itself would rise in 
price, there is not the least foundation for. The present 
practice of monopolizing hops, by much too frequent, is 
a farther reason to induce the brewery to exert the influ- 
ence they ought to have with superior power, to obtain 
a right so justly due to them. 



r i\ i. f.feHftri; >' 

vv - 



.DY length, in the brewery, is understood the quantity 
of drink made from one quarter of malt. Beers and ales 
differ in this respect ; and the particular strength al- 
lowed to every sort of drink, varies also somewhat, ac- 
cording to the prices of the materials. This increase or 
abatement is, however, never such as to make the profits 
certain or uniform ; for the value of the grain being 
sometimes double of what it is at other times, a propor- 
tionable diminution in strength, can by no means take 

It might be expected to find here tables determining 
the differences in strength and quality of each drink, in 
proportion to their prices, and the expences of the brew- 
er. But this, for many reasons, would be inconvenient, 
and in some respects impracticable. He, who chuses to 
be at this trouble, ought not only to take into the ac- 
count, the prices of malt and hops, but the hazards in 
the manufacturing them, those of leakage, of bad cellars, 
and of careless management, the frequent returns, attend- 
ed with many losses, the wearing out of utensils, and es- 


pecially of casks, which last article, engrosses at least one 
fifth of the brewer's capital, the charges of servants, 
horses, and carriages, for the delivery of the drinks, the 
duties paid immediately to the government, without any 
security for the reimbursement, the large stock and 
credit necessary to carry on this trade, and many other 
incidents, hardly to be estimated with a sufficient accu- 
racy, and never alike to every brewer. In general it ap- 
pears, when malt and hops are sold at mean prices, the 
value of what is employed of these, is equal to the charge 
attending the manufacture, or of about half the value of 
the drinks. Hence this conclusion, sensibly felt by every 
honest trader, that, from change of circumstances, the 
reputation of the profits has outlived the reality of 
them, and that a trade, perhaps the most useful to the 
landed interest, to the government, and to the public, of 
any, seems distinguished from all, by greater hazards, 
and less encouragement. 

But, in a treatise like this, where only the rules upon 
which true brewing is founded, are laid down, I would 
avoid any thing that might, though undesignedly, give 
handle to invidious reflections, and ill-timed controversies. 
I therefore content myself with setting down the lati-r 
tudes of the lengths which should be made for drinks of 
every denomination. 

*o bns 
-# i>ic 



Lengths of beers, according to the excise 
gauges, observed within the bills of mortal'* 
ty, or the JTinchester measure. 

Lengths of common small beer. 
4^ Barrels to 5?, 

Lengths of keeping small beer. 
4 Barrels to 5i, 

Lengths of amber, or pale ale. 
li Barrel to If, 

Lengths of brown strong, or porter, 
2 Barrels to 2|, 

Lengths of Burton ale. 
1 Barrel to l 

from one quar- 
ter of malt. 



JL HE expected quantities, or lengths of beer and ale, 
can only be found by determining at what height in the 
copper the worts must be when turned out. 

Brewers have several methods of expressing to what 
part they would have the worts reduced by boiling. 
Brass, is the technical appellation for the upper rim of 
the copper ; it is a fixed point, from which the estimation 
generally takes place, either by inches, or by the nails, 
which rivet the parts of the copper together. These 
last are not very equal, either in the breadth of their 
heads, or their distances from each other. Inches then, 
though not specified on the copper, but determined by 
the application of a gauge, on which they are marked, 
claim the preference. The necessity of coppers being 
gauged, and the contents of what they contain on every 
inch, both above and below brass, must appear in a 
stronger light, the nearer \ve bring the art to exactness. 
The following tables will shew the most useful manner in 
which I conceive this gauging should be specified. 



Gauges of Coppers. 

Great Copper, set up Nov. 30, 
*B. F. 

17 15 3 






I I* 

P3 10 

I 3 

15 2 


14 2 

14 1 

13 3 

13 2 


12 3 

12 1 


11 2 


10 3 

10 1 


. 9 

Brass 9 1 

1 8 3 

2 8 2 

8 1 
7 2 
7 1 


4 Full 



6 -d 

2 I 

5 _2 

1 rt 
4 fe 

8 & 



6 O 
1 <o 

4 a 

u o 

6 3 
6 2 

Little Copper, set up Aug. 3, 

B. F. G. 
15 11 


1 6 

B. stands for Barrels, F. for Firkins, G. for Gallons. 


By the foregoing table, it is seen that my great cop- 
per holds nearly nine barrels of water to brass, and as the 
difference of the volume between boiling worts, of most 
denominations, and cold water, is nearly as 7 to 9, the 
quantity it will yield of boiling worts will be but seven 
barrels. The diameter of this copper, just above brass, 
is sixty-eight inches, at a medium, and at that mean it 
holds twelve gallons seven pints of cold water, or nearly 
eleven gallons of boiling worts, upon an inch. 

Hops macerated, by being twice boiled, take up for 
every six pound weight a volume, in the copper, equal 
to four gallons and a half of water, or a pin. 

In a copper, the' gauges of which have just been set 
down, it is required to know what number of inches a 
length of twenty-four barrels must go out at, with fif- 
teen pounds of hops, the guile of beer to be brewed at 

two worts. 

24 Barrels, length of beer. 
14 Barrels, for two full brass, 


34 Numbers of gallons to a barrel ac- 
counted by the excise, out of the 
bills of mortality. 

40 Hops twice put in 15lb. is 30 


6lb. [ 30 


Gallons of 22 

boiling wort - Equal to gallons 
upon an inch 11 [362 


33 Inches above brass, the two worts 
to go out togethe r. 


When three worts are boiled, the amount of three full 
brasses must be deducted from 'the length; and as the 
hops go into the copper three times, they become more 
macerated, and take up much less room. The propor- 
tion is then nearly thirteen or fourteen pounds of hops 
for each four gallons and a half. 

Thus in coppers, which have never been tried or used, 
we are able, by the gauges alone, to determine our 
lengths; but, as their circumferences are not always 
<xact, and the worts are of very different strengths, we 
should never neglect such trials as may bring us nearer 
to accuracy and truth. 



-qua < 
- -.' 




IT has been a question, whether boiling is necessary to a 
wort ; but as hops are of a resinous qualitv, the whole of 
their virtues are not yielded by extraction ; decoction or 
boiling is as needful as the plant itself, and is, together 
with extraction and fermentation, productive of that uni- 
formity of taste in the compound, which constitutes 
good beer. 

Worts are composed of oils, salts, water, and perhaps 
some small portion of earth, from both the malt and 
hops. Oils are capable of receiving a degree of heat 
much superior to salts, and these again surpass, in this 
respect, the power of water. Before a wort can be sup- 
posed to have received the whole of the fire it can ad- 
mit of, such a degree of heat must arise, as will be in a 
proportion to the quantity of the oils, the salts, and the 
water. \Vhen this happens, the wort may be said to be 
intimately mixed, and to have but one taste. The fire, 
made fiercer, would not increase the heat, or more ex- 
actly blend together the constituent parts ; this purpose 
once obtained, the boiling of the wort is completed. 

It follows from thence, that some worts will boil 
sooner than others, receive their heat in a less time, and 


be saturated with less fire ; but, as it is impossible, and, 
indeed, unnecessary, to estimate exactly the quantities 
of oils, salts, and water contained in each different wort, 
it is out of our power previously to fix, for any one, the 
degree of heat it is capable of. This renders the ther- 
mometer in this case useless, and obliges us to depend 
entirely on experiment, and to observe the signs which 
accompany the act of ebullition. 

Fire, as before has been mentioned, when acting upon 
bodies, endeavours to make its way through them in right 
lines. A wort set to boil, makes a resistance to the 
effort of fire, in proportion to the different parts it is com- 
posed of. The watery particles are, it is imagined, the 
first, which are saturated with fire, and becoming lighter 
in this manner, endeavour to rise above the whole. The 
salts are next, and last of all the oils. From this struggle 
proceeds the noise heard when the wort first boils, which 
proves how violently it is agitated, before the different 
principles are blended one with another. While this 
vehement ebullition lasts, we may be sure that the wort 
is not intimately mixed, but when the fire has penetrated 
and united the different parts, the noise abates, the wort 
boils smoother, the steam, instead of clouding promis- 
cuously as it did at first round the top of the copper, 
rises more upright, in consequence of the fire passing 
freely in direct lines through the drink, and when the 
fierceness of it drives any part of the drink from the body 


of the wort, the part so separated ascends perpendicu- 
larly. Such are the signs by which we may be satisfied 
the first wort, or the strongest part of the extracts, has 
been so affected by the fire, as to become nearly of one 
taste. If, at this time, it is turned out of the copper, it 
appears pellucid, and forms no considerable sediment. 

The proper time for the boiling of a wort hitherto has 
been determined, without any regard to these circum- 
stances ; hence the variety of opinions on this subject ; 
greater, perhaps, than on any other part of the process. 
While some brewers would confine boiling to so short a 
space as five minutes, there are others who believe two 
hours absolutely requisite. The first alledge, that the 
strength of the wort is lost by long boiling ; but this ar- 
gument will not hold good against the experiment of 
boiling a wort in a still, and examining the collected 
steam, which appears little else than mere water. Those 
who continue boiling the first wort a long time, do it in 
order to be satisfied that the fire has had its due effect, 
and that the hops have yielded the whole of their virtue. 
They judge of this by the wort curdling, and depositing 
flakes like snow. If a quantity of this sediment is col- 
lected, it will be found to the taste both sweet and bitter, 
and if boiled again in water, the decoction, when cold, 
will ferment, and yield a vinous liquor. These flakes, 
therefore, contain part of the strength of the wort ; they 
consist of the first and choicest principles of the malt 


and hops, and, by their subsiding, become of little or 
no use. 

It appears, from these circumstances, that boiling a 
first wort too short or too long a time, is equally detrU 
mental, that different worts require different times, and 
these times can only be fixed by observation. 

The first wort having received, by the assistance of 
the fire, a sufficient proportion of bitter from the hops, is 
separated therefrom. The hops, being deprived of part 
of their virtues, are, on the other hand, enriched with 
some of the glutinous particles of. the malt. They are 
afterwards, a second, and sometimes a third time, boiled 
with the following extractions, and thereby divested not 
only of what they had thus obtained, but also of the re- 
maining part of their preservative qualities. The thin- 
ness and fluidity of these last worts render them ex- 
tremely proper for this purpose. Their heat is never so 
intense as that of the first, when boiling ; for, as they 
consist of fewer oils, they are incapable of receiving so 
great a degree of heat. This deficiency can only be 
made up by doubling or tripling the space of time the 
first wort boiled, so that what is yranted in the intense- 
ness of heat, may be supplied from its continuance. 

The following table is constructed from observations 
made according to the foregoing rules. 


A TABLE shewing the time each wort re- 
quires to boil for the several sorts of beer, in 
every season. 

Brown beer, keeping 
pale strong and keep- 
ing small beer. 

Small beer. 





hourt hours hours. 

hours hours hours. 









J 35 1 24 

4r 2 






.3 40 I 24 

1 2 






8 45 1 24 

4. 2 



g 50 1 24 

2. 2 





55 24 






& 60 24 

14: 3 





^ 1 wort 2 wort* 3 wort 

1 wort 2 wort 3 wort. 

It may, perhaps, be objected, that, by a long boiling 
of the last worts, the rough and austere parts of the hops 
may be extracted, and give a disagreeable taste to the 
liquor; but it should be observed, this only happens, 
either in beers to be long kept, or in such as are brewed 
in very hot weather. In the first case the roughness 
-wears off by age, and grows into strength, and in the 
last, it is a check to the proneness musts have in such 
seasons to ferment. 

* When there are but two worts in brown strong, keeping strong, 
keeping pale small, or common "small, the boiling is to be observed as 
marked for the second and third wort?. 


One observation more is necessary under this head ; 
most coppers, especially such as are made in London, and 
set by proper workmen, "waste or steam away, by boil- 
ing, about three or four inches of the contained liquor, 
in each hour. The quantity wasted being found on 
trial, and knowing how much water the copper holds 
upon an inch, what is steamed away by boiling in each 
brewing, may easily be estimated. 




Of the Quantity of Water wasted ; and of the Appli- 
cation of the preceding Rules to two different processes 
of Brewing. 

WASTE water, in brewing, is that part which, though 
employed in the process, yet does not remain in the beers 
or ales when made. Under this head is comprehended 
the water steamed away in the boiling of the worts ; that 
which is lost by heating for the extracts ; that which 
the utensils imbibe when dry; that which necessarily 
remains in the pumps and underback ; and more than all, 
the water which is retained in the grist. The fixing to 
a minute exactness how much is thus expended, is both 
impossible and unnecessary. Every one of the articles 
just now mentioned varies in proportion to the grist, to the 
lengths made, to the construction and order of the uten- 
sils, and to the time employed in making the beer. To 
these different causes of the steam being lessened or in- 
creased, might be added every change in the atmosphere. 
However, as, upon the whole, the quantity of water lost 
varies from no reason so much, as from the age and 
dryness of the malt, experience is, in this case, our sole 
and surest guide. I have, in the following table, placed 
under every mode of brewing, how much I have found 


necessary to allow for these several wastes and evapora- 

Brown strong and pale strong beers. 

Barrels pins.* 

For old malts allow 1 5 per quarter. 

For newf malts 2 per quarter. 

Keeping small and common small beers. 
For either new or old malt allow .... 2 4 per quarter. 

Amber or pale ales. 
For either new or old malt allow .... 1 5 per quarter. 

Keeping small or common small after amber. 
Allow for waste 2 per quarter. 

It is now time to begin the account of two brewings, 
which admit of the greatest variety, both in themselves, 
and in the season of the year. The same processes will 
be carried on, in the sequel of this work, until they be 
completed. J 

* The small cask, called 9. pin, is one eighth part of a barrel. 

.' cgf ' 

f By new malt, I understand such, as has not lost the whole of the 
heat received on the kiln, and by old, such as is of equal heat with the 
;iir, or such which has laid a sufficient time to imbibe part of its 

J At the time when the first edition of this work was published, 
porter or brown beers were brewed with very high dried malts ; expe- 
rience has shewn to the generality of the trade and to the author, this 
practice to be erroneous, the reasons why have before, and perhaps 
hereafter will again, be spoken of. In compliance with tins improve- 
ment (though between |he two proposed brewings, so great u variety 


On the tenth of July a brewing for common small beer 
is to be made with 6 quarters of malt. 

By pagre 1 50 the medium heat of the air at ) , 
this time is } 60 de ^ ees - 

By page 184 the malt to be used for this ) , 
purpose should be in dryness at j L 

By page 210 the proper quantity of new hops is 6 
pounds per quarter. The length, according to the ex- 
cise gauge without the bills of mortality, may be rated 
at 5 barrels | per quarter, or from the whole grist at 30 
barrels . See page 219. 

By page 222, the inches required in the copper, to 
bring out this length, at 2 worts, will be, for coppers as 
gauged page 221, 56 inches in the 2 worts above brass. 

The state of this part of the brewing is, therefore, 
six quarters of malt dried to 1 30 degrees, 36 pounds of 
hops for 30 barrels | to go out at 56 inches above brass. 
30| Length 

/Boiling by page 228 
< 1 wort 1 hour ^ or 5 inches. 
5 v-2 wort 3 hours or 9 inches. 
1 5 waste water page 23 1 

5 1 barrels ; whole quantity of water 

to be used. 

And by page 191 we find the heat of the first extract 
to be 154 degrees, and the heat of the last 174 degrees. 
The other brewing, of which I purpose to lay down 

will not appear) I have founded my calculations for porter, on malts 
dried so as best will answer this purpose. 


the process in this treatise, is one for brown beer or 
porter of 1 1 quarters of malt, to be brewed on the 20th 
of February. 

By page 1 50 the medium heat of the air at ) . , 

130 degrees, 

By page 209 the quantity of hops is 12 pounds per 
quarter. The length I would fix for this liquor, accord- 
ing to the excise gauge without the bills of mortality, is 

2 barrels and 4 pins from a quarter, or from the Avhole 
grist 27 barrels i. See page 219. 

By page 222, the inches required, in a copper, such 
as I have specified page 221, to bring out this length at 

3 worts, are 31 above brass. 

The state of this brewing, so far as we have considered 
it, is therefore 11 quarters malt dried to 130 degrees, 132 
pounds of hops for 21 barrels i to go out at 31 inches 
above brass. 

27^ barrels the length, 
/ boiling by page 228, 
i 1 wort 1 hour or 4 inches. 
J 2 wort 2 hours or 6 inches. 
8? \3 wort 4 hours or 12 inches. 
18 waste water page 231 old 

malt 1| per quarter. 
54 barrels, whole quantity of water 

to be used. 

And by page 177 we find the heat of the first extract 
to be 155 degrees, and the heat of the last extract 165, 



Of the Division of the Water for the respective Worts 
and Mashes, and of the Heat adequate to each of these. 

1HAT the whole quantity of water, as well as that of 
heat required, ought not, in any brewing, at once to be 
applied to the grist, is obvious, both from reason, and 
from the example of nature, who, in forming the juice 
of the grape, divides the process, and iocreasing succes- 
sively both the moisture and the heat, gives time to each 
degree to have its complete effect. A division of the 
water and heat to form malt liquors is equally necessary, 
but previous to this division the following general rules 
may be laid down. 

The grist, if possible, is at no time to be left with less 
water than what will cover the malt, to put all its parts 
in action. In the first mashes for strong beer, an allow- 
ance is to be made for nearly as much water as the grist 
will imbibe ; and, lastly, the whole quantity of water 
used in brewing should be divided, in a proportion ana- 
logous to that of the degrees of heat. 

Processes for brewing are carried on either with one 
copper or with two. Though the first of these methods 
is almost out of use, it may be necessary to give an ex- 
ample or two of the division of the water used in this 


case, the doing which will point out the absurdity of this 

In brewing with one copper, scarcely more than three 
mashes can be made ; otherwise the time taken up in 
boiling the worts, and preparing the subsequent waters 
for extraction, would be so long, as to cause the grist to 
lose great part of its heat, and, in warm weather, per- 
haps, to become sour. The whole water required might 
naturally be divided into three equal parts, was it not for 
the quantity at first imbibed by the grist ; but as, in this 
way of brewing, the best management is to make the 
first wort of pne mash, and the second wort of the other 
two, it will be found necessary to allow, for the first ex- 
tracting water, four parts out of seven of the whole quan- 
tity required, and to divide the remainder equally for the 
other two mashes. Thus, if the whole quantity of wa- 
ter required was fifty-one barrels, the lengths of the 
extracting waters would be as follow : 

1 Liquor 2 Liquor 3 Liquor. 
29 1 1 1 1 Barrels. 

1 Wort. v v ' 

2 Wort. 

The water imbibed and retained by the malt is allowed 
for in this computation, which will be found just to every 
purpose, for small beer brewed in one copper only. 

But in strong beers and ales, with three mashes, whe- 
ther brewed at one, two, or three worts, the case will be 
somewhat different, as care should always be taken to 


reserve for every mash a sufficient quantity of water to 
apply to the grist. For this reason, no greater propor- 
tion ought to be used in the first mash than that of three 
parts out of seven, as the volume of the malt is in a 
greater proportion to the quantity of water than in the 
preceding case. If, therefore, the whole quantity of 
water used was thirty-five barrels, the length of the li- 
quors would be : 

1 Liquor 2 Liquor 3 Liquor. 
15 10 10 Barrels. 

Employing 1 only one copper, must from hence appear, 
and is allowed to be, bad management ; for$ in some part 
or other of the process, however well contrived, the bu- 
siness must stand still, and consequently the extracts be 
injured, by the air continually affecting them. The best 
and most usual practice, and that which here will be set 
in example, is to brew with two coppers. Other rules 
consequently are necessary to be observed, and I shall be 
more particular in the explanation of them. 

To preserve order, and to convey our ideas in the 
clearest manner, we shall make use of the four modes of 
brewing we mentioned, in the fourth section. 

The first of these, which implies keeping pale strong 
and keeping pale small beers to become spontaneously 
fine, are best brewed with two worts and four mashes, 
to allow for what is imbibed by the grist, and what is 
steamed away during the first part of the process, four 


sevenths of the whole of the water employed, and con- 
sequently a like proportion of the number of the degrees 
which constitute the difference between the first and last 
heats of the whole brewing, are required for the first 
wort, and the remainder to the last or second. The pro- 
portion as to the water is permanent, but having now 
only a division of heat in a progressive state, for the tem- 
perature to be given to the extracts, to put in practice 
the principles laid down in pages 64, 65 j the first wort, 
however, composed of several mashes, must be of one 
uniform heat, though less than that of the second, whose 
extracts, though more powerful, must, notwithstanding, 
be of equal heat among themselves. 

According to the rules laid down in section 8, the 
whole quantity of water requisite for a guile of keeping 
pale strong, or keeping pale small beer, is fifty-one bar- 
rels. In page Hi, we found, including the heat lost at 
the time the extract separates from the grist, the first 
heat to form this process to be 144 degrees, and the last 
158 degrees; the quantity of water, and the difference 
between these two degrees, are required to be divided in 
such proportions as are best applicable to the purpose 
we intend. 


Water 51 Barrels, multiplied by 


Divided by 7) 204 

Gives 29 Barrels for the first Wort, and 

this deducted from 5 1 , 

Leaves 22 Barrels for the second Wort. 

The twenty-nine barrels, equally divided between the 
two first mashes, is fourteen barrels and a half for each; 
and the twenty-two barrels, equally divided between the 
two last mashes, is eleven barrels for each. 

The last heat for pale keeping beers is 160 degrees. 

And the first is , 146 degrees. 

Their difference is 14 

This, as above, multiplied by 4 

And divided by 7) 56 

Leaves 8 degrees. 

the proportion to be allotted to the first wort, and 6 de- 
grees, the remainder, to the last, in a regular progressive 
state; the elements for this brewing would stand as 

Malt's Value of Whole First Second Third Fourth 
dryiiess. hops. medium, mash mash. mash. mash. 

Degrees 119 3 133 ... 146 ... 154 ... 157 ... 160 

Barrels. 14? 14| 11 11 


But more exactly to imitate the fermented liquors 
formed by nature, our first wort, answering to the ger- 
minating part of her processs, must be of one uniform 
heat in the extracts, as must likewise our second wort : 
(See page 165) the mean, then, of the progressive heats 
of the first wort will be that which must be applied both 
to the first and second mashes, and the mean of the pro- 
gressive heats of the second wort, that which must direct 
the third and fourth mashes ; from whence are deduced 

Elements for forming keeping pale strong and 
keeping pale small beers. 

Malt's Value Whole First Second Third Fourth 
dryness. ofhops. medium. Mash. Mash. Mash. mash. 

Degrees 119 3 138 .. 150 .... 150... 158-L .. 158^ 

Barrels 14j 14i 11 11 

First wort. Second wort. 

That this method of applying the heats to the mashes 
corresponds to the medium heat which is to govern the 
whole process, the circumstances required m page 165, 
the following operation will prove. 

29 Barrels, the first wort. 
Heated to 1 50 




22 Barrels, the second wort. 
Heated to 1 58 



Whole 3487 
quantity 4350 
of water, 

Barrels 51 )7837( 153 The mean heat of the 4 mashes. 
51 2 Deducted for the heat lost at the 


273 151 Heat of the tap's spending. 

255 119 Malt's dryness. 

187 270 


135 Mean heat of Malt's dryness and 

of the extracts. 
3 Value of hops. 

138 Mean heat of the whole process. 

Admitting of the necessary variations in the medium 
heats which are to govern processes for different pur- 


poses, and of those in the number of degrees forming the 
constituent parts of the must, in proportion as the drinks 
are to be formed, either to become spontaneously fine, 
or made so by precipitation, or intended for a longer or 
shorter duration. This rule will be found universally 
true, when beers are brewed with two worts : but when, 
for the benefit of the drink, or on account of the 
smallness of the utensils, as is often the case, when 
the second mode of extraction is put in practice, we are 
obliged to carry on the process with three worts, these 
proportions must necessarily be altered, and the follow- 
ing have, in this case, been found most advantageous. 

The first and second wort ought to have two thirds of 
the water ; the first wort two thirds of this quantity, the 
second the remainder of this, and the third wort one 
third part of the whole. 

Porter or brown beer is the sort of drink, in which 
this division is most commonly observed. Let the whole 
quantity of water to be used be that of the brewing, of 
which the elements have been laid down, (page 233) ov 
54 barrels. 



3) 108 


3) 72 

24 Barrels of water for the first wort, 
12 Barrels for the second wort. 
1 8 Barrels for the third wort. 


The last degree 

for this drink is, 

with malt dried 

to 130 degrees, 165 Degrees. 

The first, as per 

page 178 155 Degrees. 

Their difference 10 Degrees. 

3) 20 


5 Heat of first wort. 


Five degrees to be proportioned in the first wort, and 
these deducted from 7 degrees, the number allowed for 
the first and second wort, there remains two degrees for 
the second wort ; and seven degrees deducted from ten, 
the whole difference, leaves three degrees, to be propor- 
tioned in the third and last wort. 

A grist of eleven quarters of malt is too large, to ad- 
mit of the water allowed for the first wort to be equally 
divided between the first and second m#sh ; therefore, 
rather than use the whole 24^ barrels in one mash, a 
sufficient qtiantity only must be applied to the first 
mash, both to work it, and to get as much of the extract 
to come down, as will save the bottom of the copper it 
is to be pumped into. By this management, there will 
be enough left to form the second extract with, or what 
by the brewers is termed the piece liquor. The exact 
quantity of water the first mash should have, might be 
referred to the following section, but the order we have 
laid down, will excuse our anticipating thereon. 

It has been found, and will hereafter be proved, that a 
volume of eleven quarters of malt, dried to 130 degrees, 
is equal to 6,32 barrels of liquid measure, that malt in 
general requires twice its volume of water to wet it, and 
this quantity of water is retained after every tap is spent. 


6,32 Barrels, volume of the 1 1 quarters of 


12,64 Barrels of water imbibed by the grist, 
which, deducted from 

24,00 Whole quantity of water allowed for 
the first wort. 

Remains 3) 11,36 Extract, which will be yielded from 

the first and second mash. 
3,78 Length of the first piece, which is 
sufficient to save the copper. 

12,64 Quantity imbibed as above. 

16,42 Quantity of water for the first mash. 
7,58 Quantity of water for the second mash. 


The elements of this brewing, as we have them (page 
178) placed in a progressive state, will be as under, 
where the quantity of water allowed for the first wort is 


divided into two mashes, according to the circumstances 
just now taken notice of, where the second wort is 
formed by one entire mash, and the water allotted for 
the third wort is separated equally into two parts, for the 
two last mashes, and when the ten degrees of heat, tne 
difference between the first and last heats employed, are 
as near as possible proportioned to the lengths of the 

Malt's Value Whole First Second Third fourth Fifth, 
dryness. of hops, medium, mash. mash. mash. mash. mash. 

Deg. 130 ... 4 ... 148 ... 155 ... 16o-... 162 ... 164 .. 165. 

Barrels 16 ... 8 ... 12 ... d .. 9. 

But, for the reasons alledged in page 236, they admit 
of the following variation. 

Elements for brewing brown beer or porter* 

Malt's Value of Whole First Second Third Fourth Fifth 
dryness. hops. medium. mash. mash. mash. mash. mash. 

Deg. 130 ....4.... 148 ... 1514; - 15fi.. 162.. 164 .. 165 
Barrels 16 .. 8 .. 12.. 9.. 9 

1 wort 2 wort 3 wort. 

And, if proved as before, the same correspondence 
will be found with the medium governing heat. 

The third mode of extraction is intended for a drink 
which is soon to be ready for use, in which, in the coldest 
season of the year, transparency is expected, and, in the 
hottest months, soundness : to procure these intents, we 
have already shewn (page 191) it was necessary to vary 
Q 3 


the medium heats governing these several processes, in 
proportion as the seasons of the year differed as to heat 
and cold. Our present business is a proper division of 
the whole quantity of water necessary for brewing, into 
the respective worts and mashes, and to apply to each, 
the adequate degree of heat : one single example will 
suffice for the operation, and the whole variety this drink 
is subjected to, will be expressed in the table subjoined. 
The general practice to brew common small beer, and 
which is best, is to form it with two worts and four 
mashes, and, in this case, as was before practised for 
keeping pale beers, in order to allow for the water at 
first absorbed by the grist ; four sevenths of the whole 
quantity is required for the first wort, and the remainder 
for the second wort, dividing these quantities again into 
equal parts, for their respective mashes. As a speedy 
spontaneous pellucidity is expected in every season of 
the year, and as every means for producing this without 
affecting the soundness of the drink, must be put in 
practice, the whole number of constituent parts are not 
only applied, but likewise the progressive heats suffered 
to take place: for here, through necessity, we are com- 
pelled to forsake the rules nature pointed out, (as in 
pages 64, 65); the reasons why are obvious; this drink 
receives no benefit by the slow progress nature recom- 
mends, and therefore very little by the impressions of 


In page 232, we found the whole quantity of water to 
be used for the brewing there specified, fifty-one barrels, 
and in page 191, we find when the heat of the air is at 
60, the first heat is 154, the last 174 degrees. 
Water 5 1 Barrels, multiplied by 

Divided by 7) 204 

Gives 29 for the first Wort, and this de- 
ducted from 51, 

Leaves 22 for the second Wort. 
The twenty-nine barrels, divided into the first and 
second mashes, will be fourteen barrels and a half for 
each; and the twenty-two barrels, equally divided be- 
tween the third and fourth mashes, is eleven barrels 

The last heat for this brewing of common small beer 

is (see page 191) 174 degrees. 

The first heat, 154 degrees. 

Their difference .... 20 

Multiplied by ' 4 

And divided by 7) 80 

Leaves (to avoid fractions) nearly 12 degrees, 

Q 4 


to be proportioned in the first wort, and 8 degrees, 
the remainder of the 20, to the second wort, in a regular 
progressive state : the elements for this brewing are : 

Malt's Value of Whole First Second Third Fourth 
dryness. -hops. medium, masb mash. mash. mash. 

Degrees 130 ..... 2 ...... 148 ... 154 ... 166 ... 170 ... 174 

Barrels 14| 14^ 11 11 

First wort. Second wort. 

The quantity of water used for brewing small beer is 
in proportion to the largeness of the grist, and the price 
of the grain ; this admitting of almost an endless variety, 
it is needless to pursue it : but the dryness of the malt, 
the value of the hops, the medium governing the pro- 
cesses, and the heat of the extracts being fixed, and con- 
stant degrees of heat in proportion to that of the air, I 
have constructed the following table, which will be 
found useful to the practitioner in every season of the 

Heat of Malt's Value of Whole First Second Third Fourth, 
air. dryness. hops, medium, mash. mash. mash. mash. 

35 ... 122 .... 1 .... 135 .. 138 .. 150 .. 154 .. 158 

40 ... 124 .... 1 .... 137 .. 140 .. 152.. 156.. 160 

45 ... 125 .... 1 .... 140 .. 145 .. 157.. 161 .. 165 

50 ... 127 .... 1 .... 143 .. 149 .. 161 .. 165... 169 

55 ... 129 .... 1|... 146 .. 152 .. 164 .. 168 .. 172 

... 130 .... 2 .... US .. 154 .. 166 .. 170 .. 174 


The last business of this section is to divide the quan- 
tity of water requisite to brew pale ales or amber, and to 
apply to such divisions their necessary degrees of heat. 
This liquor is rather an effort of art, than an exact imi- 
tation of nature, as in it the greatest transparency, joined 
to the greatest strength, is expected in a very short 
time. To obtain these ends, the whole number of the 
constituent properties of malt and two mashes only are 
employed. In the first, in order to favor its pellucidity, 
the lowest adequate extracting degree must be used; 
and in the second, to cause the malt to yield the whole 
of its necessary parts, the highest fitting heat must be 
applied ; the whole of the process is, nevertheless, sub- 
jected to the governing medium heat of 138 degrees, the 
highest which admits of voluntary brightness. But where 
a drink is formed with two mashes only, and boiled off 
in one entire wort, to keep the due proportion between 
the quantity of water used, and the heat required in the 
extracts, and at the same time to allot the proper quan- 
tity for what is imbibed by the grist, the most conve- 
nient division found, will be three-fifths of the whole 
quantity of water to be applied to the first mash, and the 
remaining two -fifths to the other. I know to this, cus- 
tom may be objected, that the first mash for amber 
should be a stiff one, in order the better to retain the 
heat ; but this, in the division here proposed, may 
equally b<* obtained by a proper allowance made in the 


attemperating of the water, without affecting the pro- 
portion of the heats required, as otherwise must be the 

From 8 quarters of malt to make 13 barrels of fine ale. 
13 Length. 
i Boiling half hour. 

26 Whole water employed, multiplied by 

Divided by 5) 78 

Gives 1 6 Barrels for the first mash, and leaves 

10 Barrels for the second mash, 

the lowest heat being required in the first extract, and 
the highest in the last, according to page 194 ; for the 
16 barrels it will be 144, and for the 10 barrels it will 
contain 164 degrees. 

But as the heat of the air occasions a difference in the 
quantities of hops to be used, and as from hence the ex- 
tracts are somewhat varied : it has been judged conve- 
nient to add the following table : 


A TABLE of the elements for forming pale 
ale or amber, at every degree of heat in the 
air, with the allowance of two degrees of 
heat, in the first and last extractions. 

Heat of Malt's Value of Medium heat of the extracts. First Last 
air. drjness. hops. and of malt's dryness. heat, heat 

35 120.... 4; 138 147. 167 

40 120 .... | 138 146 . 167 

45 120.... 1 138 146. 166 

50 120 .... li 138 145 . 165 

55 120 .... li ...7.^.'..Z.... 138 145 . 165 

60 120 .... 2 138 144 . 164 

In summer time, it is sometimes thought better to 
brew this drink with malts more dried ; for conveniency 
sake, I here insert two examples. 

Heat of Malt's Value of Whole Heat of Heat of 
air. drvness. hops. Medium, first mash, last mash. 

60 122 2 138 142 162 

60 124 2 138 140 160 

For the management of small beer made after amber, 
see page 197. 

Thus having shewn how to ascertain the quantities of 

the malt, the hops, the water, and the heat to be used, 

and to proportion them to each other, as the good or 

bad properties of beers arise from the extracts, and fire 



is the governing agent, we must now seek the means 
to administer the right portion of heat, and so to tem- 
per the water that is to form the extracts, as not to be 
disappointed of our intentions. In the calculations made 
for this purpose, not only the water in the copper, but 
the value and effect of the grist, as to heat and cold, must 
be considered. 



An enquiry into the Volume of Malt, in order to reduce 
the Grist to liquid Measure. 

1 HE gallon, by which malt is measured, though less, 
is nearly of the same capacity with that, which is used 
for beer or water. The quarter of malt, contains 64- 
gallons of this measure, and the barrel, within the bills 
of mortality, according to the gauges used by the ex- 
cise, contains 36 gallons, but without the bills, 34; 
though the first quantity is the measure for sale through- 
out the kingdom. Hence it would appear, that propor- 
tioning the grain to the barrel of water would be no diffi- 
cult undertaking. This however is so far from being 
the case, that, after having made use of several calcula- 
tions to help us to the true proportions, we shall find, 
they want the corroborating proofs of actual experience, 
to be entirely depended upon. 

The ultimate parts of water are so very small, as to 
make this, as well as all other liquids, appear to the eye 
one continued uniform body, without any interstices. 
This cannot be said of malt laying together either whole 
or ground ; there are numbers of vacancies between the 
corns, when whole, and between the particles when 
ground, but for our present purpose the volume occupied 


by any quantity of malt is properly no more, than the 
space which would be occupied by every individual corn, 
either whole or cut asunder, were they as closelj- joined 
together as water. 

To determine, with precision, the quantity of cold 
water to be added to that, which is brought to the boil- 
ing point, (an act by the brewers called cooling in} 
it is necessary to know, what proportion a quarter of 
malt bears to the measure of a barrel of water. Several 
operations will be found requisite to come to this know- 
kdge ; viz. to take several gauges of different brewings, 
more especially in the first part of the process ; to be 
well acquainted with the degree of dryness of the malt 
used, the heat of the first extract, and the quantity of 
liquor the mash tun holds upon every inch ; to find out 
what degrees of expansion are produced by the different 
degrees of heat in the first mash, how much less water 
the mash tun holds upon an inch when hot, than it does 
when cold, what quantity of water is lost by evaporation, 
and in what proportion at the several terms of the pro- 
cess. In order to put this in practice, the gauges of the 
following brewings were taken. 

5 quarters of malt dried to 125 degrees. 

B * F. G. 

The quantity of water used for the first ) . 
masb was ) 

* B. stands for barrel', F. for firkins, G. for gallous, and the num- 


The malt and water gauged together in ^ 

the mash tun just before the tap was >25, 00 inches. 
set .................................................... ) 

Allowance for the space under the false ") 

bottom boards of the mash tun, as near > 0, 66 inches. 
as could be computed ...................... ) 

The goods gauged in the mash tun, after ) . , 

the first tap was spent ....................... f 15 ' 4 

B. F. G. 

First piece gauged in the copper .......... 802 

B. F. G. 

The water employed for the second mash ) 


The grist gauged with this water just be- j . , 

fore the tap was set j 6(J > 6 

And just after the tap was spent 15, 63 inches. 

B. F. G. 

The first wort consisting of these two) _. 
pieces gauged in the copper ,,.. j 

B. F. G. 

The water used for the third mash was ... 8 S 6 

Just before the tap was set the grist with ) , 
this gauged in the mash tun ?. | 24 ' 60 mches 

And just after the tap was spent 15, 20 inches. 

B. F. G. 

The water used for the fourth mash was 836 

hers past the comma, where the inches are expressed, for decimals; 
3 1 gallons are here allowed to the barrel, in compliance to the ex- 
cise gauging, as these calculations were made without th bills. 

The mash gauged just before the tap j Q ^ g 

And just after the tap was spent 15, 16 inches. 

The heat of the first extract was 136 degrees, to which 
adding two degrees, for what is lost by the tap spending, 
the true heat of the mash is 138 degrees. 

The first extract, before it is blended with hops, may 
be estimated to be nearly as strong as a first wort of 
common small beer. This, when under a strong ebulli- 
tion, raised the thermometer to 216 degrees, and seven 
barrels of such a wort, when boiling, occupied an equal 
space with nine barrels of cold water, at the mean tem- 
perature of 60 degrees. Now, if the degrees of expan- 
sion follow the proportion of those of heat, the following 
table, constructed upon this supposition, will shew how 
many barrels of cold water would be necessary to oc- 
cupy the same space with seven barrels of wort of diffe- 
rent heats. 

Degrees of heat 

Barrels of cold water. 

Barrels of vrf . 


9,00 , 






,. 8,75 



























The quantity of water evaporated in a brewing, whett 
not in immediate contact with fire, is more considerable 
than it is generally apprehended to be ; after repeated 
trials, I have found that what was lost in this manner 
amounted nearly to one fifth. 

Now since the heat of the first tap was 138 degrees, 
and my mash tun holds 20,2 gallons upon an inch, the 
following proportion may be deduced from the preceding 

If 8 - 7 - 20,25 


17,71 Gallons j 

and this is the true quantity contained in one inch, at a 
heat of 138 degrees. 

The quantity of water used for the first mash, was 
12 B. 2F. 3 G. or 428 gallons, of which one fifth is sup- 
posed to be steamed away, when the first liquor is gone 
through the whole process of the extraction : but as the 
gauges of the malt and water together are taken before 


the tap is set, ifi the beginning of the process, the whole 
evaporation ought not to be deduced, and onB sixth 
seems to be a sufficient allowance on this account. We 
may therefore suppose 357 gallons to be in the mash 
tun at the time of gauging, which number being divided 


by 17,71, will shew how many inches are taken up by 
the water at that heat. 




The mash gauged just before the tap was 

set, 25,00lnches. 

Allowed for the space under false bottoms, 0,66 

Deduct the inches taken up by the water, 20,15 

Remainder for the five quarters of malt, ... 5,51 Inches, 
or 1,10 inch for one quarter. This number being mul- 
tiplied by 17,71, the quantity of gallons contained upon 
one inch at this heat, will give 19,48 gallons for the vo- 
lume of one quarter of this malt. There now remains 
nothing but to bring a barrel of water of 34 gallons, 
under like circumstances, as to expansion and evapora- 
tion, with these 19,48 gallons, with this difference only, 
that as the proportion required is, at the time the water 
and malt first come in contact, and not after the mash 


has been worked, a less allowance for steaming will be 
sufficient, and may well, be fixed at one seventh. 

Gauge within the bills of Gauge without the bills of 

mortality. mortality. 

If 7,00 8,00 ,.,. 36 If 7,00 .... 8,00 .... 34 

36 34 

7,00)288,00 7,00)272,00 

5,87 Lost by steam. 


The barrel of water reduced ; and as 19,48 gallons, under 
the same circumstances, were found equal to one quarter 
of malt, the following division will shew the proportion 
"between them. 

19,48)35,2400(1,81 19,48)33,3000(1,70 

1948 1948 

15760 13820 

15584 13636 

1760 184 


Thus, in malt dried to 1 25 degrees, the quantity of 
1,70 quarters is required to make a volume equal to 34 
gallons, or a barrel of water, according to the excise 


gauging without the bills of mortality ; and the quantity 
of 1,81 quarters is required to make a volume equal to 
36 gallons, or a barrel of water, according to the excise 
guaging within the bills of mortality. 

The more the malt has been dried, the larger the in- 
terstices are between its parts ; the quantity of water it 
admits will consequently be greater than what is absorbed 
by such as is less dry* More of this last malt will be ne- 
cessary to make a volume, equal to that of the barrel of 
water ; and every different degree of dryness must cause 
a variety in this respect. It will therefore be proper to 
repeat the operation with a high-dried grist. 

Gauges of a brewing of eight quarters of malt dried to 

1 40 degrees. 

' . ., -ids 

B. F. G, 

) t JlBIfI 1C 

The water used for the first mash, ...... ... 11 2 4 

Malt and water gauged together in the ~l _ . r , 
mash, just before'the tap was set, ..... j 26 > 2 > Inche! - 

B. F. G. 
First piece gauged in the copper, ............ 5 

B. F. G. 

The water for the second mash was 11 24 

The mash gauged just before the tap was set, 35, 7Q Inches. 


Just after the tap was spent, v 22,19 Inches. 

B. F. G. 

The wort made of these two pieces | 
gauged in the copper, 

B. F. G. 

The water used for the third mash was .... 8 3 6 
The mash gauged just before the tap was set 31,10 Inches. 
And just after the tap was spent, 21,77 Inches. 

B. F. G. 

The water used for the fourth mash was ... 8 3 6 

The mash gauged just before the tap was set 30,50 Inches. 

And just after the tap was spent 21,60 Inches. 

The heat of the first extract was 142 degrees. Now, 
by the table of expansions (page 256). 

If 8,05 7,00 20,25 of cold water, upon 

700 an inch in mash tun. 

8,05)1417500(17,60 will be the real 
805 quantity of water 

upon an inch in the 

6 1 25 mash tun , when heat- 
5635 ed to 142 degrees. 


B. F. G. 
Quantity of water in the first mash, 11 24 






Deduction for the evaporation at this 

period, one sixth, 65,83 

329,17 true quantity 

of the water for the first mash, which must be divided 
by the real quantity of water contained upon an inch in 
the mash tun. 

17,60)329,1700(18,70 inches taken up 
1760 in the mash tun, by 

' the water used in 

15317 the first mash. 


12320 ' 



The mash gauged just before the tap 

was set 26,25 Inches. 

Allowed for the space under the false 
bottoms ,.. 0,66 

Inches taken up by the water of the 

first mash 18,70 

Space occupied by these 8 quarters of 
malt ..8) 8,21 Inches of 

mash tun. 

Space occupied by one quarter 1,02 



17,9520 Gallons of 

water equal in volume to one quarter of this malt. 
Excise gauge without the bills of mortality. 
If 7,00 8,05 34 



7,00) 273,70 

39,10 Expansion of the barrel of 
water, out of which yth, 5,58, is to be deducted for 


Remains, 33,52 for the barrel of water re- 
duced, which the quarter of malt, or 17,95, is to be com- 
pared to. 



Excise gauge within the bills of mortality. 

If 7,00 8,05 36 



7,00)289,80(41,44 Expansion of one barrel of 
2800 water, 

592 |th to be deducted for eva- 

980 poration. 

700 35,52 Barrel of water reduced, 
- rr which the quarter of malt, 

280O- or 17,95 is to be compared 

2800 to. 

17,95)33,5200(1,86 Quantity of malt dried to 140 de- 
1795 grees equal to one barrel of water. 



17,95)35,3700(1,97 Quantity of malt dried to 140 de^ 

1795 grees, equal to one barrel of 

water, according to the excise 

17420 gauge within the bills of mor- 

16155 tality. 



Having found the volume of malt at two distant terms 
of dryness, we might divide the intermediate degrees in 
the same manner as we have done before, could the cer- 
tainty of these calculations be entirely depended upon ; 
but as some allowances have been made without imme- 
diate proof, how near soever truth the result thereof may 
from experiments appear, it may be proper to point out 
what is wanting to make our suppositions satisfactory. 

Some part of the calculation depends on the quantity 
evaporated ; this, in the same space of time, may be 
more or less, as the fire under the water is brisk or slow, 
or as the weight of the atmosphere differs. The gauges 
are taken at the time the malt and water are in contact, 
and more or less water may be imbibed in proportion, 
both of the dryness and age of the malt ; water as a fluid, 
malt as a porous solid body, must differ in their expan- 
sion, but in what proportion is to me unknown ; effer- 
vescence may be another cause of want of exactness ; the 
different cut the malt has had in the mill, its being or 
not being truly prepared, and lastly the difference as to 
time, of the mashing or standing of the grist, prevent 
our relying wholly upon the calculation. It is, how- 
ever, not improbable that some of these incidents correct 
one another. Since 1 ,70 quarter of malt dried to 1 25 de- 
grees are equal to one barrel of water, and 1,86 quarter 
of malt dried to 140 have the same volume, the diffe- 
rence being but 16 parts out of 100, the whole of the 


error cannot be very great, and one quarter six bushels 
of malt may, at a medium, be estimated of the same vo- 
lume with one barrel of water. But, as experience is the 
surest guide, I have, from a very great number of diffe- 
rent brewings, collected the following proportions, and 
repeatedly found them to be true. I have added, in the 
table, the weight malt ought to have, at every degree of 


A TABLE shewing the quantity of malt of 
every degree of dryness, equal to the volume 
of one barrel of water, and of the mean 
weight of one quarter in proportion to its 

Excise gauge Excise gauge 
Degree of without the bills. within the bills. Weight in 

dryness. Volume of grain. Volume of grain. pounds. 

Barley 80 1,56 

. 1,59 


100 1,62 




1,62 ... 

, 1,67 ... 



1,65 .;, 

1,71 .. 






Malt 119 

1,68 .. 

1,79 .. 




1,83 ..: 
































2,15 . 










176 2,04 2,27 226 


With a table thus constructed, it is very easy to re- 
duce every grist to its proper volume of water. Sup- 
pose those of the brewings we have already mentioned ; 
that of the small beer consists of 6 quarters of malt dried 
to 130 degrees, the proportion of which in the table is as 
1,75 to 1. 

Quarter of malt Barrel of water. Malt. Water. 

If 1,75 1 6 3,42. 

These six quarters of malt occupy therefore an equal 
volume with 3,42 barrels of water. A brown beer grist 
of 1 1 quarters dried to 1 30 degrees ; the proportion of 
this in the table is as 1 ,74 to 1 . 

Malt. Water, Malt. Water. 

If 1,74 1 11 6,32 

The volume of these 1 1 quarters, of malt is therefore 
the same with that of 6, 3 2. barrels of water, and the whole 
being brought to one denomination, we are enabled to 
find the heat of the first mash ; but the effervescence oc- 
casioned by the union of the malt and water must prevent 
this calculation being strictly true, the consideration of 
which shall take place hereafter. 

The circumstances are different in the other mashes : 
the waters used for these, meet a grist already saturat- 
ed, and the volume is increased beyond the quantity 
found for dry malt. The quantity to be allowed for 
this increase cannot be determined by our former catcu- 


lations, and new trials are to be ittade^ in order to fix 
upon the true proportion. 

Gauging is undoubtedly the most certain method of 
proceeding in these researches ; but even this become* 
less sure, on account of the expansion, evaporation, 
effervescence, and other incidents already mentioned. 
Our errors however cannot be very considerable, when 
we deduce our conclusions from numerous and suffici- 
ently varied experiments. 

The volume of the grist of pale malt was found, after 
the parting of the first extract, to be 15,41 inches, 
though the space occupied by the malt, when dry, was 
only 5,51 inches: and the volume of the brown grist, 
at the same period, was 22,36 inches, though the dry 
malt filled only a space of 8,21 inches. The proportion 
in both these cases, and in all those which I have tried, 
answers nearly to one third, so that the volume of the 
grist, in the second and all subsequent mashes, may be 
estimated at three times the bulk of the malt when dry, 
and this is sufficiently accurate for the operations of 
brewing, in which, for conveniency sake, the applica- 
tion of whole numbers should be effected. 

As it is found, by the gauges, that the goods, after the 
several taps are spent, remain sensibly of the same vo- 
lume, or at least very little diminished ; may we not con- 
clude, the parts absorbed by the water, in which the vir- 
tue of the grain and the strength of the beer consist, 


are contained in an amazing small compass ? It is indeed 
true that hot waters and repeated mashes do swell some- 
what the hulls and skins of the malt, but no allowance 
made for this increase will be sufficient, to remove the 
cause of our surprise. 



Of the Proportion of cold Water to be added to that 
which is on the point of Boiling, in Order to obtain the 
desired heat in the Extract. 

1 HE degree of heat, which causes water to boil is de- 
termined, by Farenheit's scale, to 212. It is in our 
power to give to any part of the extracting water this 
degree of heat ; and by adding to it a sufficient propor- 
tion of water of an equal heat with that of the air, and 
blending these two quantities with the grist, to bring the 
whole to the required temperature. The rules for ob- 
taining this end are extremely simple, and cannot be 
unknown to those, who are skilled in arithmetical opera- 
tions. But as our view is to render this part of our 
work generally useful, we think it will be proper briefly 
to lay down these rules, and to illustrate them by the ex- 
amples of our two brewings. 

Rule to ascertain the heat of the first Mash. 

Let a express the degree of boiling water, b the actual 
heat of the air, c the required degree for the extract, 
m the whole quantity of water to be used, n the volume 
of the malt ; JT, that part of the water, which is to be made 

to boil, will be determined by the following equation. 


b x m + n 

The quantity of water used, added ( -f ) to the volume 
of the grist. 

Their sum (z) multiplied ( X ) by the heat required, 
less ( ) the heat of the air. rr , 

This produce divided (-f-) by the heat of boiling wa- 
te (212) less ( ) the heat of the air will quote how 
much is to be made to boil or brought through (212) 
that is how high the copper is to be charged, the re- 
mainder of the length of the whole liquor for this mash, 

. , . , , , . v-'J iJtjyrb -L 

is the quantity to be cooled in. 

jf dl oi Dlmfw 
The first example is that of a brewing of small beer, 

when the heat of the air is at 60, (see page 232.) The 
volume of the 6 quarters of malt was estimated at 3,42 
barrels, (see page 268 ;) the first liquor is 144; barrels, (see 
page 247) and the heat required for the first mash 154 
degrees, (seepage 247.) 

i -o\ rAv/iV 


First Mash. 

Hi r= 14,50 Barrels of water 
n 3,42 Volume of grist 

m + w= 17,92 c 154 Heat of the first 

94 b = 60 Heat of the air, 

(a) heat of c b 94 

boiling water, 212 7168 

b heat of the 

air, 60 16128 

a b r 152 ) 168448 (1108 barrels of water, to 

152 be made to boil out of 

the 14 -f -barrels which 

164 are allotted for the first 

152 mash. The incidents to 

be mentioned, are not 

1248 considered in this calcu- 

1216 lation. 

The next example of a brewing is that of a grist of 
eleven quarters of malt for porter or brown beer ; the 
medium heat of the air is forty degrees, the volume of 
the grist, 6,32 barrels, (see page 268) the first liquor to 
mash with sixteen barrels, (see page 245) and the heat 
' S 


expected in the mash, one hundred and fifty-seven and 
a half * degrees. (See page 245). 

First Mash of brown strong beer. . 

} 6,00 Barrels of water 
6,32 Volume of malt 

157 Heat required in the 

22,32 mash, vide page 247. 

117 40 Heat of the air. 

heat of boil- 15624 117 

ing water, 212 2232 
Heat of air, 40 2232 

172 ) 26 11 44 (15,18 barrels of water, to be 
172 made to boil out of the 

16 barrels. 


The half degree omitted in this mash will be added to the next. 


I will give one proof of the certainty of this rule, by 
setting down the state of this first mash from it. 

A. 3218,16 Number of degrees of heat in 14,66 barrels 

of boiling water. 

16,00 Barrels of water to first mash. 
15,18 Barrels made to boil. 

,82 Barrel to cool in. 
40 Heat ofcold water. 

B. 32,80 Number of degrees of heat in 1,34 barrels of 

eold water. 
15,18 Boiling water. 

,82 Cold water. 
6,32 Volume of grist. 

C. 22,32 Barrels, volume of the whole mash. 

6,32 Barrels, volume of the 11 quarters of 

,40 Heat of the grist. 

252,80 Number of degrees of heat in the 

32,80 B. 
3218,16 A. 

C. 22,32 ) 350376 (157 degrees of heat required in the 
2232 first mash, as above. 



S 2 


So long as the mixture consists only of two quantities 
of different heat, as is always the case of the first mash, 
the preceding solution takes place. But in the second 
and other mashes, where three bodies are concerned,. 
each of different heat, viz. the boiling water, the cold 
water, and the mash, are to be mixed, and brought to a 
determinate degree, the rule must be different ; yet, like 
the former, it is the same with what is used in similar 
cases of allaying, when different metals are to be melted 
down into a compound of a certain standard, or different 
ingredients of different value to be blended, in order to 
make a mixture of a determinate price. What the dif- 
ferent density of the metals, or the different value of the 
ingredients are, in these cases, the different degrees of 
heat of the boiling water, the grist, and the air, are in 

Rule to ascertain the heat of the second mash, 
and of the subsequent ones. 

Let the same letters stand for the things they signified 
before, and d express the actual heat of the grist, then 

c b xw+ c d x 
a b 


or in plain terms, the heat required less ( ) the heat of 
the air, multiplied ( x ) by the quantity of water used. 

The heat required less ( ) the heat of the goods, mul- 
tiplied ( X ) by the volume of the goods. 

Their sum (z) divided (-h) by the heat of boiling 
water, (212) less ( ) the heat of the air. 

Will quote the quantity to be made to boil, or to be 
brought through (212) the remainder part of the whole 
liquor for the mash is consequently the quantity to be 
cooled in. 

We may now collect the circumstances of the two 
brewings, and find the quantity of boiling water, required 
for their second and subsequent mashes, exclusively of 
the incidents which will hereafter be mentioned. 

The first mash for the six quarters of small beer, had 
154 degrees of heat, but this and every mash looses, in 
the time the extract is parting from it, 4 degrees, which 
reduces the heat to 150 degrees. The volume of this 
grist, in its dry state, was 3,42 barrels, but now, by being 
expanded, and having imbibed much water, it occupies 
three times that space, or 10,26 barrels; the air is sup- 
posed to continue in the same state of 60 degrees of 
heat. The length and heat to be given to the three re- 
maining mashes, are as follows. (See page 247.) 

Degrees of heat, 154 166 170 174 

Barrels of water, 14 14i 11 11 

Liquors, 1st 2d 3d 4th 

wort. 2 wort. 

S 3 


Second Mash for Small Beer, 
c zr 166 Heat required in the mash. 
d 150 Heat of the goods. 

c d= 16 

n = 1026 Volume of the goods, 


c d x W=: 16416 

c ~ 166 Heat required in the mash. 
6=60 Heat of the air. 

c b 106 
m := 1 450 Barrels of water. 


c b X m= 153700 
c dxn= 16416 

a 6 = 152)170116(11,19 Barrels of water to be made to 
1 52 boil out of the quantity allotted 

a 212 r for the second mash. 

l>= 60 181 

- 152 







Third Mash. 

170 Heat of mash. 170 Heat of 3rd mash. 

60 Heat of air. 162 Heat of goods* 


1 100 Barrels of water 
3d mash. 


1026 Volume of* grist. 


152)129208(8,50 Barrels to be made to boil out of the 
1216 quantity of water allowed for the 

third mash 


Fourth Mash. 

174 Heat of 4-th mash. 174 Heat of 4th mash, 

60 Heat of air. 166 Heat of goods. 

114 8 

1 1 ,00 Barrels of water 1026 Volume of goods, 
for 4th mash. -^ - 




152 ) 133608 ( 879 Barrels to be made to boil out of the 
1216 quantity of water allowed for the 

fourth mash. 





The liquors of this brewing of common small beer, 
when the mean heat of the air is 60 degrees, must there- 
fore be ordered in the following manner (the incidents 
hereafter to be noticed, excepted.) 

1 Liqr/ 2 Liqr. 3 Liqr. 4 Liqr. 

Lengths of liquors, 14|. 14| ...... 11 11 

Boiling water ; barrels, . 1 1 11-| 8i 8| 

Cold water; barrrels, ... 3^ 3| 24. 2 

14? 14^ 11 11 

The heat of the first mash for the 1 1 quarters of brown, 
beer, was 157 degrees, (see page 245) and after the 
parting of the extract from it) 153 ; the volume of the 
grist, in its dry state, was valued at 6,32 barrels of 
water, (see page 268) but, for the reasons before men r 
tioned, it now occupies three times that space, or 18,9S 
barrels. The air is supposed to continue at 40 degrees, 
and the length and heat to be given to the different 
mashes, were determined as follows: (see page 245.) 
Degree of heat, 157 .... 158 .... 162 .... 164 .... 165 
Barrels of water, 16 .... 8 .... 12 .... 9 .... 9 
JJquors, 1st... 2d.... 3d.... 4th.. 5th 

1 wort. 2 wort. 3 wort. 

Becond Mash of Porter, or brown strong, 

212 Boiling water. 
40 Heat of air. 


158 Heat of 2nd mash 

1 5 3 Heat of the grist or goods, 

1896 Volume of goods. 

- 158 Heat of 2nd mash 30 
40 Heat of air 45 


118 5 

8,00 Barrels of 

water. 9480 



172)103880(6,03 Barrels of water *o be to boil for 
1032 the second mash. 



Third Mash. 

21 2 Heat of boiling water. 
4O Heat of air. 

f 62 Heat of 3rd mash. 
40 Heat of air. 

1 62 Heat of 3rd 
154 Heat of goods 



12,00 Bar. of water. 



15168 i^ 


112)161568(9,45 Barrels of water to be made to boil for 
1548 third mash. 




Fourth Mash. 

164 Heat of 4th mash. 
158 Heat of goods. 

18,96 Volume of grist wetted. 

164 Heat of 4th mash. 

40 Heat of air. 36 

124 48 

9,00 Bars, of water. 6 

111600 11376 

172) 122976(7,14 Barrels of water to be made to boil for 
1204 the fourth mash. 





Fifth Mash. 

165 Heat of 5th Mash. 
160 Heat of Goods. 


1 65 Heat of 5th mash. 

40 Heat of air. 30 


125 40 

9,00 Barrels of water. 5 

114500 9480 


172) 123980(7,20 Barrels of water to be made to boil for 
1204 the 5th mash. 



The liquors of this brewing of brown beer must there- 
fore be ordered in the following manner : 

Barrels of boiling water, 15^ 6 ....... 9? 7 7 

Barrels of cold water, .... 2 2i 2 2 

16 8 12 99 

Liquors, ,.... 1st. 2nd. 3rd. 4th. 5th. 



What in the brewery is generally called cooling in, 
must be settled for this brewing according to the number 
of barrels of cold water specified as above, the incidents 
hereafter to be noticed excepted. 

Each of these calculations may be proved in the same 
manner as was done before. This method of discovering 
the proportion of water to be cooled in, deserves, on 
account of its plainness and utility, to be preferred to 
any other, which depend only upon the uncertain de- 
fermination of our senses. 



OF late years, great progress has been made towards 
perfecting the construction and disposition of brew-house 
utensils, which seem to admit of very little farther im- 
provement. The great copper, in which the waters for 
two of the extracts receive their temperature, is built 
very near the mash tun, so that the liquid may readily 
be conveyed to the ground malt, without losing any 
considerable heat. A cock is placed at the bottom 
of the copper, which being opened, lets the water have 
its course, through a trunk, to the real bottom of the 
mash tun. It soon fills the vacant space, forces- itself a 
passage through many holes made in a false bottom, 
which supports the grist, and, as the water increases in 
quantity, it buoys up the whole body of the corn. 

In order to blend together the water and the malt, 
rakes are first employed. By their horizontal motion, 
less violent than that of mashing, the finest parts of the 
flower are wetted, and prevented from being scattered 
about, or lost in the air. 

But as a more intimate penetration and mixture are 
necessary, oars are afterwards made use of. They move 
nearly perpendicularly, and by their beating, or mashing, 


the grains of the malt are bruised, and a thorough im*. 
bibition of the water procured, 

The time employed in this operation cannot be settle4 
with an absolute precision. It ought to be continued, 
till the malt is sufficiently incorporated with the water, 
but not so long as till the heat necessary to the grist b0 
lessened. As bodies cool more or less speedily, in pro* 
portion to their volume, and the cohesion of their parts, 
a mash which has but little water, commonly called a. 
stiff mash, requires a longer mashing to be sufficiency 
divided, and, frorn its tenacity, is less liable to lose jl$ 
heat. This accounts fpr the general rule, that the first 
mash ought always to be the longest. 

After mashing, the malt and water are suffered to stand 
together unmoved, generally for a space of time equal 
to that they were mashed in. Was the extract drawn 
from the grain as soon as the mashing is over, many of 
the particles of the malt would be brought away undis-r 
solved, and the liquor be turbid, though not rich. But, 
by leaving it some time in contact with the grain, withr 
out any external motion, many advantages are gained. 
The different parts of the extract acquire an uniform 
heat, the heaviest and most terrestrial subside, the pores 
being opened, by heat, imbibe more readily the water, 
and give Avay to the attenuation and dissolution of the 
oils. When the tap comes to be set, or the extract to 
be drawn from the grist, as the bottom of the mash U 


become more compact, the liquor is a longer time in its 
passage through it, is in a manner strained, and conse- 
quently extracts more strength from the malt, and be- 
comes more homogeneous and transparent. 

Such are the reasons why the grist should not only be 
mashed pretty long, but likewise be suffered to rest an 
equal time. It is the practice of most brewers, and ex- 
perience shews it is best, to rake the first mash half an 
hour, to mash it one hour more, and to suffer it to stand 
one hour and a half. The next extract is commonly 
mashed three quarters of an hour, and stands the same 
space of time ; the third, and all that follow, are allowed 
one half hour each, both for mashing and standing. 

The heat of the grist being in this manner equally 
spread, and the infusion, having received all the strength 
from the malt, which such a heat could give it, after 
every mashing and standing, is let out of the tun. This, 
undoubtedly, is the fittest time to observe whether our 
expectations have been answered. The thermometer is 
the only instrument proper for this purpose, and ought 
to be placed, or held, where the tap is set, adjoining to' 
the mouth of the underback cock. The observation is 
best madt, when the extract has run nearly half ; and as, 
by it, we are to judge with what success the process is 
carried on, it is necessary to examine every incident, 
which may cause a deviation from the calculated heat. 


*y><n-t- : itf^jpjjp-? .-- 


Of the Incidents, which cause the Heat of the Extract to 
vary from the Calculation, the allowances they require, 
and the means to obviate their effects. 

JjY incidents, I understand such causes as effect either 
the malt, the water, or the mash, during the time the 
brewing is carrying on, so as to occasion their heat to dif- 
fer from what is determined by calculation* As these 
might frequently be a reason of disappointment, an in- 
quiry into their number and effects will not only furnish 
means to prevent and rectify the errors they occasion, 
but also serve to confirm this practice. 

In our researches on the volume of malt, some notice 
was taken of the increase of bodies by heat, and the loss 
occasioned by evaporation. Water, when on the point 
of ebullition, occupies the largest space it is susceptible 
of; but contracting again, when cold water is added to 
it, the true volume of both, when mixed together, re- 
mains uncertain, and may cause a difference between the 
calculated and real degree of heat. This cause, however, 
producing an effect opposite to, and balanced in part by 
evaporation, becomes so inconsiderable, as hardly to de- 
serve any farther consideration. 

Water, just on the point of ebullition, may be esteem- 


ed heated to 212 degrees. Though, by the continuation 
of the fire, or by any other cause*, the heat never goes 
beyond this, yet was cold water added to that, which vio- 
lently boils, the degree expected from the mixture 
would be exceeded ; for the cold water absorbing the 
superfluous quantity of fire, which otherwise flies off, 
becomes hot itself, and frustrates the intent. The time, 
therefore, of adding the eold water to the hot is immedi- 
ately before the ebullition begins, or when it is just 
ended ; and in proportion as we deviate from this prac- 
tice, the heat in the extract will differ from the calcu- 
lated degree. 

The Water, for every mash, should, as near as possible, 
be got ready to boil, and be cooled in just before it is to 
be used. A liquor, which remains a long time after the 
ebullition is over, and the fire has been damped up, 
loses part of its heat, if cold water is applied to it, the 
effect cannot be the same as it would have been at first. 
On the contrary, if the liquor is got ready too soon, and 
cold water immediately added to it, in order to gain the 
proper degree of temperature, by leaving the mixture 
long together, though the fire is stopped up, more heat 

* Different quantities of water are differently affected by the same 
portion of fire ; when the ebullition is just over, and the surface of 
the liquor is become smooth ; if some of it is, by a cock, drawn from 
the bottom of the copper, where the coldest water always is, the re- 
maining part, having a greater proportion of fire than before, again 
begins to boil, though not affected by any increase of heat. 


than necessary will be received from the copper and 
brickwork, especially if the utensils are large. In both 
cases, the degree in the extract will not answer the 

The effect of effervescence next deserves our conside- 
ration, but this takes place only when the water first 
comes in contact with the malt. Germinated grains 
must, to become malt, be dried so, that their particles 
are made to recede from one another, thus deprived of 
the parts, to which their union was due, when they come 
in contact with other bodies, (as water) they strongly at- 
tract the unitive particles they want, and excite an in- 
testine motion, which generates heat. This motion and 
this heat are more active in proportion as the grain has 
more strongly been impressed by fire, and the extracting 
water is hotter. 

A large quantity of liquor applied to the grist is less 
heated than a small one, by the power of effervescence. 
The least quantity of water, necessary to shew that 
power, must be just so much as the malt requires to be 
saturated, which we have seen to be double the volume 
of the grain. When more water than this is applied to 
the grist, the real effervescing heat is by so much lessen- 
ed, being dispersed in more than a sufficient space. 

A table shewing the heat of effervescence for every de- 
gree of dryness in the malt, can only be formed from 
observations. To apply this table to practice, and to 


find out, for any quantity of water used in the first 
mash, the degrees of heat produced by effervescence, 
three times the volume of the grist must be multiplied by 
the number expressing the effervescing heat for malt of 
such a degree of dryness, and this produce be divided by 
the real volume of the whole mash. 

A TABL& shewing the heat occasioned by the 
effervescing of malt, for its several degrees 

of dryness. 

*/ j 

of malt. 

119 ..... 

Heat of 
' effervescence. 
, o 

124 ..... 

129 .... 


134 .... 


, 14 

143 ...., 

148 .... 


152 .... 


157 .... 


162 ..... 

, 3i 




176 , 



Malt dried only to 119 degrees, raises no efferves- 
cence, and the strongest is generated by malt dried to 
176 degrees; the beat produced by this amounts to 40 
degrees, but the number of effervescing degrees, in this 
or any other case, are reached but from success attend- 
ing our endeavours, ultimately to penetrate the malt by 
heated water, or not until the grist is perfectly saturated, 
which, in point of time, generally takes up the whole 
space of the first mashing and standing ; tfce air, there- 
fore, cannot cause any diminution of heat, an incident 
winch affects considerably every subsequent mash. 

The little copper being- more distant from the mash 
tun than the other, the water there prepared, in its pas 
sage to the goods, loses some part of its heat. And in 
proportion to the quantity of water used, to the number 
of the extracts that have been made, and according as 
the mashes have more or less consistency, in the same 
time do they part with more or less of their heat. Ob*- 
servations made separately upon strong and small beer, 
have shewn the proportions of this loss to he as follows r 

For strong beer. 

Mashes 2d 3d 4th ,5th 

Heat lost 8 ..... 12 8 8* 



For small beer. 

Mashes 2d 3d 4th 
Heat lost 8 16* 20 

A grist not perfectly malted, or one which contains many 
hard corns, disappoints the expectation of the computed 
degree, as the volume cannot be such as was estimated 
from an equal dryness of true germinated grain. It has 
been observed, that, in perfect malt, the shoot is very 
near pressing through the exterior skin. By so much as 
it is deficient in this particular, must it be accounted on! 7 
as dried barley, or hard corn. I know no better way of 
judging what proportion of the corn is hard to what is 
malted, than by putting some in water, the grains not 
sufficiently grown will sink to the bottom. Were this to 
be done in a glass cylinder, the proportion between the 
hard and malted corn might be found with exactness. 
The unmalted parts being estimated with regard to their 
volume, as barley, a quarter of them will be to the bar- 
rel of water as 1,56 to 1*. Supposing, therefore, that, 
in the brown beer grist, before mentioned, the proportion 
of hard corns is of two quarters out of eleven, to discover 
the true volume of such a grist, the following rule may 
be used. 

* See page 267. 


2 quarters of hard malt 
9 quarters of true malt 1,56 volume of 

1,74 volume at 130 of 1 quarter 

dryness 3,12 

3,12 volume of 2 quarters of hard corn 


numb. 11)18,78 (1,70 true volume of one quarter of this 
malt to one barrel of water, and consequently the eleven 
quarters will fill a space equal to that of 6,47 barrels. 

Bv means of this rule, we may find what increase of 
heat any proportion of hard corns will occasion, as will 
be seen in the following table. 

Proportions of hard corns | ^ | -^ ^ of the grist 
Greater heat of the mash 4 3 2 1 1 degrees. 

But the brewing of such malt ought to be avoided a* 

much as possible, as the hard parts afford no strength to. 

the extract. 

If a grist is not well and thoroughly mashed, the heat 
not being uniformly distributed in the different parts of 
the extract, the liquor of the thermometer, when placed 
in the running stream of the tap, will fluctuate, and, at 
different times, shew different degrees of heat. In this 
case, the, best way is to take the mean of several obser- 
vations, and to estimate that to be the true heat of the 
mash. T 4 


If the gauges of the coppers are not exactly taken, a 
variation must be expected. 

Though the small and hourly variations in the state of 
the atmosphere have but little influence upon our num- 
bers, a difference will be observed in any considerable 
and sudden changes either of the heat or of the weight of 
the air. Our instruments, and in particular the thermo- 
meter, are supposed to be well constructed and gradu- 
ated. If the water cooled in with is more or less hot 
than estimated, or if the time of mashing or standing is 
cither more or less than was allowed for, the computa- 
tion must be found to vary from the event. 

While the malt is new, if the fire it has received from 
the kiln has not sufficiently spent itself, this additional 
heat is not easily accounted for. This is likewise the 
case, when malt is laid against the hot brickwork of cop- 
pers ; and, on the contrary, a loss of dryness may be oc- 
casioned, if the store rooms are damp. 

The artist should be attentive to all these incidents ; 
the not pointing them out might appear neglectful ; enu- 
merating more would exceed the bounds of use. 

Small grists brewed in large utensils lose their heats 
more readily, by laying thin, and greatly exposed to the 
air ; and, on the contrary, a less allowance, for the loss 
of heat, is required in large grists, and to which the 
utensils are in proportion. 

This really is the only difference between brewings car- 


ried on in large public brewhouses, and those made in 
small private places, in other respects constructed upon 
the same plan, and with an equal care. Prejudice has 
propagated an idea, that where the grists are large, and 
the utensils in proportion, stronger extracts could be 
forced from the malt, in proportion to the quantity, and 
that more delicate beers could be made in smaller vessels 
less frequently used. These assertions, from what has 
been said, will, I hope, need no farther enquiry : the de- 
grees of heat for the extracts are fixed for every intent, 
and it cannot be advantageous, by any means, to deviate 
from them. Brewings will most probably succeed in all 
places, where the grist is not so large as to exceed the 
bounds of man's labour, and not so small as to prevent 
the heat from being uniformly maintained. The disad- 
vantages are great on all sides, when a due proportion is 
not observed between the utensils and the works carried 

It will now be proper to continue the delineation of 
our two brewings, and to put all the circumstances re- 
lating to them under one point of view. 
A brewing for porter or brown strong beer, computed 

for 40 degrees of heat in the air. 

1 1 quarters of malt, dried to 130 degrees, 132 pounds of 
hops for 27 barrels \, to go out at 3 worts, 31 Inches 
above brass. 


Volume of grist 6,32 

Water for first mash 16,00 


6,32 Volume of grist 6 effervescing degrees. 
3 3 degrees for hard corns. 

18,96 9 degrees equal to 2 

7 Effervescence, per inches^ less cooling 

table. in for the first mash, 

(see page 152.) 

22,32) 132,72 (6 degrees of heat gained in the first mash 
13392 by effervescence. 

Mashes 1st 


3d 4th 


Deg. of heat, 157 . 

. 158.. 

162.. 164 .. 


See p. 280. 

Barrels of 

water used, 16 ... 

..... 8 ... 

. 12 9 ... 

.... 9 

See p. 284. 


cooled in by 

calculation, .. 

2 ... 

2 2 


See p. 284. 


water by 

calculation ; 

barrels, 15^., 

6 ... 

. 9i 7... 


Allowances "} * 



L. C 

L. C. 

for inci- > fLess 2 inches^, more 2 in. more 3 in. more 2 in , 

dents, ) L. C. more 2 in. J J $ 


* G. C. stands for great copper, L. C. stands for little copper. 

f Deduction from the first mash for heat created by effervescence 
and hard corns. See the calculation above. 

J Additions to the mashes on account of heat lost, by the liquor com- 
ing from little copper, and by mashing and standing. See page 293, 



A brewing for common small beer, computed for 

degrees of heat in the air. 

6 quarters of malt dried to 130 degrees ; 36 pounds of 

30 barrels | to go out 56 inches above brass. 
Grist 3,42 

Water ) 14,50 

of grist 




7 effervescing degree 
for malt at 1 30 

(see table page 292.) 

17,92) 71,82 (4 degrees of heat 

7168 gained in the mash 

by effervescence. 


Mashes 1st 2d 3d 

Deg.ofheat.. 154 166 170 

Whole quan- 
tity of water 


4 for effervescence. 
1 for hard corns 
3 for new malt hot 

8 ( 

to be deduced 
from the first 
cooling in. 

.. 174 See p. 218. 

used, barrels .. 14 


.. 11 

... 11 Seep. 280. 

Quantity to 

be cooled in, 

barrels 3f 

3i . 

2* .... 

... 2i See p. 280, 

Boiling water 

by calcula- 


tion charged, 

barrels 11.. 


.. 8*.... 

... 8| See p. 280. 

Allowances for * 




incidents ; G. C. 


L. C. 


inches; less 2; 

more 2 ; 

more 4 ; 

more 5. 

* The charge of the first liquor is for 11 barrels, with a deduction 
of 2 inches, according to the gauges of the coppers, page 221. These 
two inches answer to the 8 degrees of heat for the effervescence, hard 
corns, and new malt. See computation above. 

t The second and following mashes are to be charged with as many 


These computations, perhaps, will appear more trou- 
blesome than they really are ; but, besides the facility 
which exercise always gives for operations of this kind, 
the satisfaction of proceeding upon known principles, 
will, I hope, encourage the practitioner to prefer certi- 
tude to doubt. One advantage must greatly recommend 
it, and at the same time secure the uniformity of our 
malt liquors ; tables for each sort and season may be 
made beforehand, and will serve as often as the circum- 
stances are the same. The trouble of the computations 
will by that means be saved, and by collecting together 
different brewings of the same kind, the artist will, at 
any time, have it in his power to see what effect the 
least deviation from his rules had upon his operations, 
and to what degree of precision he may hope to arrive. 

That nothing may be wanting in this work, to facili- 
tate the intelligence thereof, I shall insert the method of 
keeping the account of actual brewings, made accord- 
ing to the computations I have here successively traced 
down. The first column contains the charges of the 
coppers, and the numbers computed ; the next, the 
brewings made from these numbers, with their dates, 
and the degrees of heat found by observation ; the varia- 
tions occasioned by unforeseen incidents are supposed 

more inches of boiling water, as answer to the fourth part of the 
number of degrees of heat lost by the refrigeration of the mahes. 
See page 294. 


to be allowed for, at cooling in, by the artist, upon the 
principle, that each inch of cooling in answers to four 
degrees of heat. Noting in this manner the elements 
of every brewing we make, when the drink comes into 
a fit state for use, we are enabled to compare our prac- 
tice with the principles which directed it ; by this 
means, experiments constantly before our eyes will be 
the most certain and best foundation for improvement. 



Small Beer. Heat of air 60 Degrees. 6 quar- 
ters of Malt, 36/6. of Hops, for 30 Barrels - 

to go out 56 Inches above Brass. 







1st Liquor. Charge great copO 


t- c 

i? $j> 

<> > 


per, 2 inches | above brass ; cool 




in to 13 inches above brass, rake I 
*. hour, mash 1 hour, stand 1 hour j 






i, heat of the extract intended 

150 degrees. 

2d Liquor. Charge great cop-"j 

per 7 inches above brass, cool in 

to 13 inches i above brass, mash 

i hour, stand | hour, heat intend- 

ed 162 degrees 1 wort came in 






33 inches above brass, boiled 1 

hour 4:, went out 28 inches above 

brass. J 

3d Liquor. Charge little cop-~] 

per 8 inches \ above brass, cool J 

in to 13 inches above brass, mash > 






~ hour, stand ~ hour, heat expect- 

ed 166 degrees. J 

4th Liquor. Charge little cop- 

per 10 inches | above brass, cool 

in to 1 3 inches above brass, mash ^ 

hour, stand i hour, heat expect- > 






ed 170 degrees 2 wort came in j 

39 inches above brass, boiled 

down to 28 inches above brass. J 

Length 3 1 barrels. 



Porter. Heat of the Air 40 Degrees. 1 1 quar- 
ters of Malt, I32lb. of Hops for 27 Barrels -i, 
to go out at 5 WortS) 31 Inches above Brass. 




1st Liquor. Charge great cop-~\ 
per 1 3 inches above brass, cool in to / 

Xov. 20. 

Nov. 22. 

\ T ov .25. 

17 inches i above brass, rake i. hour, > 




mash 1 hour, stand 1 hour ^, ex- V 

tract expected 153 degrees. J 

2d Liquor. Charge little copper^ 

2 inches i below brass, cool in to 3 

inches above brass, mash | hour, 

stand | hour, heat expected at the I 
tap 1 54 degrees 1 wort came in i 




great copper 16 inches above brass, 

boiled 1 hour, went out 13 inches i 

above brass. J 

3d Liquor. Charge little copper"] 
10 inches above brass, cool in to 16 

'.'** ! 

inches above brass, mash i hour, 

stand i hour, the tap to come down I 




1 58 degrees 2 wort came in great i 

copper 1 1 inches above brass, boil- 

ed 2 hours, went out 5 inches above J 


4th Liquor. Charge little copper^ 

1 inch - above brass, cool in to 6 / 

inches \ above brass, mash ^ hour, V 




stand i hour, to come down 160 de- V 

grees. ) 

5th Liquor. Charge little copper"^ 
I inch \ above brass, cool in to 6 

inches \ above brass, mash ' hour, ! 

stand i hour, tap to come down at * 




161 degrees 3 wort came in 25 | 

inches above brass, went out 13 

inches above brass. 

Length 27 barrels |. 



Of the disposition of the Worts when turned out of the 
Copper, the thickness they should be laid at in the 
Backs to cool, and the heat they should retain for fer- 
mentation, under the several circumstances. 

W HEN a process of brewing is regularly carried on 
with two coppers, the worts come in course to boil, as 
the extracts which formed them are produced. It would 
be tedious and unnecessary to describe the minutest parts 
of the practice ; which, in some small degree, varies as 
brewing offices are differently constructed, or the uten- 
sils are differently arranged. Without the assistance of 
a brewhouse, it is perhaps impossible to convey to the 
imagination the entire application of the rules before 
laid down, but with one, I hope they need little, if any, 
farther explanation. 

The worts, when boiled, are musts possessing an in- 
tended proportion of all the fermentable principles, ex- 
cept air ; this was expelled by fire, and until their too 
great heat is removed, cannot be administered to them,. 

In musts, which spontaneously ferment, the external air 
excites in their oils an agitation, which, heating and open- 
ing the pores of the liquor, expands and puts in action 
the internal air they possess. The case is not exactly 


the same with regard to those musts which require fer- 
ments. The air wanted in boiled worts must be sup- 
plied by the means cf yeast. Was the heat of the 
wort such, as to occasion the immediate bursting of all 
the air bubbles contained in the yeast, an effervescence 
rather than a fermentation would ensue. Now a heat su- 
perior to 80 degrees has this effect, and is therefore one 
of the boundaries in artificial fermentation ; 40 degrees 
of heat, for want of being sufficient to free the air inclos- 
ed in the yeast bubbles, and to excite their action, is the 
other. Within these limits, must the wort be cooled to j 
and the precise degree, which varies according to the 
different circumstances they are in, and to the intent they 
are to be applied to, is, together with the means of pro- 
curing this heat, the purport of this section. 

Worts, when in the copper, boil at a heat somewhat 
superior to that of 212 degrees ; the more this is exceed- 
ed, the stronger the liquor is. The instant the wort is 
suffered to go out of the copper, it loses more heat than 
in any other equal space of time after it has been exposed 
to the air. In the course of the natural day, or in 24 
hours, the heat of the air varies sometimes, (especially in 
summer) as much as 20 degrees. If the wort, after hav- 
ing reached the lowest heat in this interval, was suffer- 
ed to remain in the coolers, till the return of a greater 
in the air, it would be influenced by this increase, cx- 


pand, and be put in action ; and, should: there be at this 
time any elastic air in any part of the coolers, which 
sometimes happens, either from the sediment of former 
worts, from the backs not being clean swept, or from the 
wood being old and spungy, the \vort supposed to be left 
to cool, will, by receiving the additional heat from the 
air, and blending with the incidental elastic air adhering 
to the coolers, bring on, in a lower degree, the act of 
fermentation ; an accident by the artist called the backs 
being set* 

For this reason, a wort should never be suffered to lay 
so long as to be exposed to the hazard of this injury, 
which generally may happen in somewhat more than 
twelve hours, Thus are we directed to spread or lay our 
worts so thin in the backs, as they may come to their 
due temperature within this space ; in summer it is suf- 
ficient if the backs be covered ; in winter a depth of two 
inches may oftentimes be allowed with safety. 

From the inclination of the coolers or backs to the place, 
where the worts run off, from their largeness, or from 
the wind and air warping them, a wort seldom, perhaps 
never, lays every where at an equal depth, and cannot 
therefore become uniformly cold m the same space of 
time. This renders the use of the thermometer difficult, 
though not impracticable. To supply the want of this 
instrument with some degree of certainty, the hand 
intended to feel the worts, is brought to the heat of the 


body, by placing it in the bosom, until it has fully re* 
ceived it. Then dipping the fingers into the liquor, we 
judge, by the sensation it occasions,' whether it is come 
to a proper degree of coolness to be fermented. As the 
external parts of our bodies are generally of about 90 
degrees of heat, some degree of cold must be felt, before 
the worts are ready for the purpose of fermentation. 
But that degree varies for different drinks, and in diffe- 
rent seasons. I will endeavour to point out the rules to 
form a judgment for the heat of small beer worts. A 
greater precision, both for that and for other drinks, will 
be found in the following table. 

In July and August, no other rule can be given, than 
that the worts be got as cold as possible. The same rule 
holds good in June and September, except the season is 
unnaturally cold. In May and October, worts should be 
let down nearly thirty degrees colder than the hand ; in 
April, November, and March, the worts should be about 
twenty degrees colder than the hand, and only ten in 
January, February and December. 

It may perhaps be thought that the heats here speci- 
fied are great, but worts cool as they run from the backs 
to the working tuns, they are also affected by the cold- 
ness of the tuns themselves, and perhaps these circum- 
stances are not so trivial, but that an allowance should 
be made for them. In general, the heat of no must 
should excee4 60 degrees, because fermentation increase? 
U 2 



this or any other degree, in proportion to that, under 
which this particular part of the process begins. To ren- 
der the thermometer more useful, and to suit it to our 
conveniency, AVC have before supposed every first mash for 
common small beer to be made at four o'clock in the 
morning : in this case, and where the worts are not laid 
to cool at more than one inch in depth, the fohWing 
table may be said to be a measure of time, the first and 
last worts for this drink should be let down at. 

A TABLE, shewing nearly the times thejirst 
and last worts of common small beers should 
be let down in the working tuns, supposing 
the Jirst mash of the brewing to be made at 
four o'clock in the morning, and no uncom- 
mon change happens in the heat of the air. 

Air. ] 

st Wort. 
3 o'clock 

2nd Wort. 
5 o'clock ^ 






. 4 1 









5 1 


.. II 1 



6 1 




' a" 

2 1 



2 1 



8 1 






, S 

80 .. 

. 9 >J 


, 4 


Small beer worts being nearly alike in consistency, the 
necessary variations from this table must be less frequent. 
It is true, some difference may happen from the exposi- 
tion of a brewhouse, or from other circumstances, ad- 
mitting more or less freely the intercourse of the air, and 
be such as might alter, upon the whole, the times set 
down in the preceding page. Brown beer worts, which 
are more thick and glutinous, and especially amber 
worts, which are stronger still, will require other and 
longer terms to come to their due temperature, to be fer- 
mented at ; but when once observed and noted, accord- 
ing to various degrees of heat in the air, at 8 o'clock each 
morning, the conveniency of these observations must be 
such, in this business, which requires long watchings and 
attendance, that no arguments are necessary to recom- 
mend what is rather indulgence than industry. 

A TABLE shewing the degrees of heat worts 
should be at> to be let down from the coolers 
into the working tuns, according to the 
several degrees of heat in the air. 

Heat of the air. Common small. All-keeping beers. Amber or ales. 

25 75 59 55 

30 10 56 54 

35 65 53 55 

40 60 50 53 

45 55 50 51 

50 50 50 50 

55 ) In these cases, when the medium heat of the air 

60 1 is greater than that which the worts should fer- 
U 3 


ment at, the cold of the night must be made use of, to 
bring them as near as possible to their temperature. It 
has been observed, that the coldest part of the natural 
day is about one hour before sun rising. 

The consequences of worts being set to ferment at, in 
an undue heat, are the following. In strong beers, or 
such as are intended for long keeping, if the worts be 
too cold, a longer time is required for their fermentation, 
and the drinks grow fine with more difficulty ; if, on the 
contrary, they are too hot, accidity, and a waste of some 
of the spiritous parts must ensue. Either of these dis- 
advantages appears more conspicuous in common small 
beer, as, in winter, this drink is seldom kept a sufficient 
time to correct the defect, and in summer, from being 
too hot, it becomes putrid, or, in the terms of the brew- 
ery, is hereby foxed. 



Of Yeast, its nature, and contents, and of the manner and 
quantities in u'hick it is to be added to the worts. 

JVlUSTS, or worts, though ever so rich, when unfer- 
mented, yield no spirit by distillation, nor inebriate, if 
drank in any quantity. The oils, as yet not sufficiently 
attenuated for this purpose, become so only by ferment- 
ation. Air is absolutely necessary for this process, in 
the course of which, some of the aerial parts mixing 
with, and being enveloped by, oils greatly thinned, are 
enclosed in vesicles not sufficiently strong to resist the 
force of elasticity, or prevent a bursting and explosion. 
In the progress of the act, the air joins with oils both 
coarser, and charged with earthy particles, a coat is 
formed capable of resisting its expansion, and if the bub- 
bles cannot come to a volume sufficient to be floated in 
and upon the liquor, they sink to the bottom, and take 
the appellation of lees of wine. 

Between these two extremes, there is another case, 
when the bubbles are sufficiently strong to hold the air, 
but not weighty enough to sink. After floating in, they 
emerge, and are buoyed upon the surface of the liquor, 
and there remaining entire, are termed the flowers of 
n'ine. Both lees and flowers are, therefore, vesicle" 


formed out of the must, filled with elastic air, and, either 
separately, or when mixed together, they obtain the ge- 
neral denomination of yeast. 

We have often mentioned the power of fire, in driving 
the air out of worts. Yeast, fraught with the principle 
now wanted for fermentation, is, therefore, the properest 
subject to be added to the must ; but its texture is vari- 
ous, in proportion to the different heats of the extracts it 
was formed from. Keeping drinks, extracted with hot- 
ter waters, yield yeast, the oils of which have a greater 
spissitude. It is consequently slower, more certain, and 
most fit to promote a cool and gentle fermentation. 
That, on the contrary, which is produced from small 
beer, being weak, and acting at once, is apt to excite a 
motion like that of effervescence ; such yeast ought, 
therefore, not to be used, but when there is no possibility 
to obtain the other. 

The longer wines or beers are under the first act of 
fermentation, the greater variety will be found in the 
texture of the bubbles, Avhich compose their flower and 
lees. Wines made out of grapes, in general, require a 
time somewhat longer than the worts of malt, before this 
first period is at an end ; and we have seen, that in them 
fermentation first brings forth air bubbles, whose consti- 
tuent parts are most tender, and afterwards some that 
are of a stronger texture. As malt liquors require a less 
time to ferment, their bubbles are more similar: on this 


account, the whole quantity of yeast necessary to a wort 
should not be applied at once, lest the air bladders, 
bursting nearly in the same time, should prevent that 
gradual action, which seems to be the aim of nature in 
all her operations. 

Keeping beers, formed from low dried malts, occasion 
the greatest variety of heat in the extracts, and from 
hence these musts form yeast, whose bubbles differ 
most in magnitude and strength. A drink, then, pro- 
perly made from pale malt, nearly resembles natural 
wines, especially when they are so brewed as to require 
precipitation to become transparent. 

Cleansing is dividing the drink into several casks ; this 
checks the motion occasioned by fermentation, and con- 
sequently retards it. To prevent this from being too 
sensibly felt, some yeast should be put to the drink, 
before it is removed into the casks. As the constituent 
parts, in strong beers, are more tenacious than in small, 
and require a greater motion to entertain the fermenta- 
tion, the drinks, before they be thus divided, should, be- 
sides the addition of the yeast, be well roused with a 
scoop, or by some other means, for one hour. This not 
only blends all the parts together, but attenuates and 
heats the liquor, and makes it more ready to begin to 
ferment again, when in the casks. One sixth part of the 
whole of the yeast used is generally reserved for this pur- 
pose ; and the remainder is equally divided as the worts 


are let down. It must be observed, that this stirring, 
though as necessary to small, as to strong drinks, is only 
to be continued for a space of time proportioned to their 

We have before seen, when a grist of malt is entirely 
extracted to form common small beer, soon to be ex- 
pended, one gallon of yeast to eight bushels of grain af- 
fords a sufficient supply of air to perfect the fermenta- 
tion. This takes place when the heat of the air is at 40 
degrees, but, at the highest fermentable degree, experi- 
ence shews, that half that quantity is as much as is neces- 
sary. For some ales, the whole virtue of the malt is not 
extracted, and what remains is appropriated to the mak- 
ing of small beer : the quantity of yeast used for these 
drinks must be only in proportion to the strength ex- 
tracted. From these premises, the following tables have 
been formed, exhibiting the quantity of yeast proper for 
the several sorts of drinks, at the different heats of the air. 



A TABLE shewing the quantities of yeast 
necessary for common small beer in every 

Heat of Pints of yeast to one 
the air. quarter of malt. 

35 ................ 9-\ 

40 ............... 8 ^The whole quantity of yeast to be 

45 ............... 8 C put into the first wort. 

50 ........... .. 1^ - - - 

55 ............... 7 i The first wort to have 

60 ............... 6 ) The second wort to have 

65 ............ ... 6 

70 5 I The first wort t6 have one half of the 

75 5 r whole quantity. 

80 , 4jThe second wort to have the re- 


A TABLE shewing the quantities of yeast ne- 
cessary for all keeping drinks, both brown 
and pale, small and strong. 

Heat of Pints of yeast t& 
the worts*. one quarter of malt. 








.... 6 


.... 6 


.... 5 



.... 4 


.... 3 


.. 3 


* In beers intended for long keeping, the fermentation is to be go- 
verned by the heat of the worts or musts, more than by that of the 
exterior air. 

f A must or wort, when under fermentation, from its internal mo- 
tion, increases in heat 10 degrees, and no keeping beers, -when under 
this act, should exceed a heat of 60 degrees ; for this reason, worts 
of this sort should at first be set to ferment at a heat of 50 degrees, 
and 50 degrees is nearly the mean of the heats these liquors are im- 
pressed with, when deposited in cellars, from the time of their being 
formed, to that of their coming into use. Their long continuance ia 
this state is the reason why six pints of yeast per quarter of malt is a 
sufficient quantity to be used when the heat of the air is at or below 
50 degrees. If, through necessity, processes of this soft are to be 
carried on when the mean heat of the natural day is more than this, 
the quantities indicated in the table will be the fittest rule. 


A TABLE shewing the quantities of yeast ne- 
cessary for amber and all sorts of a les, after 
which small beer is made. 

Heat Pints of yeast 

of the air. to one quarter of malt 

30 .......................... 7i 

35 .......................... 7 

40 .......................... 7 

45 ........................... 61 

50 .......................... 6 

55 .......................... 5i 

.......................... 5 

10 .......................... 4 

^5 .......................... 3i 

80 .......................... 3 ^.y 

This table is founded on the supposition that, the vir- 
tue or strength extracted from one quarter of malt for 
amber, is equal to { of the whole. In every heat of the 
air, the quantity of yeast to be used for common small 
beer made after ale, must be one fifth part of the quanti- 
ty which the ale required, the additional strength obtain- 
ed from rebelling the hops, requiring further proportion ; 
if, for keeping small beer, nearly in the proportion of six 
pints of yeast to five barrels of beer, this will be found 
to correspond with the rule delivered in the foregoing 



Of practical Fermentation, and the management of the 
several sorts of Malt Liquors, to the period, at which 
they are to be cleansed or put into the Casks. 

IHE laws of fermentation are universal and uniform ; 
and when it proceeds regularly, its different periods are 
known by the different appearances of the fermenting 
liquor. As a particular appellation is given to each 
of these, it may not be unnecessary here to describe 

1 . The first sign of a wort fermenting is a fine white 
line, composed of very small air bubbles, attached to the 
sides of the tun ; the wort is then said to have taken 

2. When these air bubbles are extended over the 
whole surface of the must, it is said to be creamed over. 

3. Bubbles continuing to rise, a thin crust is formed ; 
but as the fermentation advances rather faster near the 

. sides of the tun, than in the middle, this crust is continu- 
ally repelled ; from which arises the denomination of the 
wort parting from the tun side. 

4. When the surface becomes uneven, as if it \vere 
rock work, this stage of fermentation, which has no par- 
ticular use, is distinguished by its height. 


5. When the head becomes lighter, more open, more 
uniform, and of a greater depth, being round or higher 
in the middle, than in any other part, and seeming to 
have a tendency still to rise, the liquor is denominated to 
be of so many inches, head not fit to cleanse. 

6. This head having risen to its greatest height, be- 
gins to sink, to become hollow in the middle, and, at the 
same time, more solid, the colours changing to a stronger 
yellow or brown ; the wort is then said to be jit to 

After this, no farther distinctions are made ; if the fer- 
mentation is suffered to proceed in the tun, the head 
continues to sink, and the liquor is often injured. 

As the denominations and tastes of liquofs brewed 
from malt are numerous, it is impossible to specify each 
separate one ; we shall therefore only particularize such 
sorts of drinks, as were taken notice of in the section of 
extraction, they being most in use ; but, from what will 
be said concerning them, the method of managing any 
other malt liquor may easily be deduced. 

Spontaneous pellucidity arises from a due proportion 
of the oils to the salts, in the worts, but the advantage of 
long keeping depends not only on the quantity of oils 
and hops the musts possess, but also on the fermentation 
being carried on in a slow and cool manner. All drinks, 
intended long to be kept, are therefore best formed in 
cold weather, and made to receive their veast at such 


temperature, as is set forth in the table. The yeast is to 
be divided in proportion to the quantities of wort let 
down, until the whole, being mixed together, receives 
its allotted portion, except so much as is to be put in 
just before cleansing. Under these circumstances, 
drinks, which are brewed for keeping, are suffered to go 
through the first process of fermentation, till they are so 
attenuated, that the liquor becomes light, and the head, 
or the yeast, laying on the surface of the beer, begins to 
sink. When, or somewhat before, this head has fallen 
to nearly half the greatest height it reached to, a remark- 
able vinous smell is perceived, and the liquor, at this 
term, is to be put into casks, being first well roused with 
the remaining part of the yeast, in the manner mentioned 
in the preceding section. 

By the description given of the origin of yeast, it ap- 
pears that it is formed rather of the coarser oils of the 
worts. If the cleansing is not done when the head is sunk 
down to half the greatest height it rose to, by falling 
lower, some part of these coarser oils return into the 
beer, then under fermentation, and gives it a flat, greasy 
taste, technically termed yeast bitten. When, on the 
contrary, beers or ales are removed too soon from the 
first tumultuous fermentation, for want of having been 
sufficiently attenuated, and from not having deposited 
their lees, nor thrown up in flowers their coarser oils, 
they are less vinous, than otherwise they would have 


been, appear heavy, aley, and are said not to have their 
body sufficiently opened. 

The fermentation of common small beer isj through 
necessity, carried on so hastily, that it is hardly possible 
to wait for the signs, which direct the cleansing of other 
beers. This drink being generally brewed and ferment- 
ed within twenty four hours, its state, with regard to 
fermentation, is best judged of, by the quantity of its 
froth or head at the time of cleansing, which, in propor- 
tion to the heat of the air, may be determined by the fol- 
lowing table. 

A TABLE shewing the depth of head, which 
common small beer should have to be proper- 
ly cleansed, in every season of the year. 

Heat Head on the beer 

of the air. in the tun. 

25 Degrees .............. 6 inches. 

30 ................... . ...... 5 

35 .......................... 4| 

40 .......................... 3i 

45 .............. * ........... 2-1 

50 ....................... ;.. 2 

55 ..................... ..... li 

CO .......................... 1 

65 .......................... 

80 .......................... just taken. 



As it is chiefly by the action of the air that wines are 
formed, if we contrive to shift this powerful agent on the 
surface of a must under fermentation, and to convey it 
more forcibly and hastily into the wort, its efficacy will 
be renewed, the fermentation accelerated, the liquor 
quickly become ti'ansparent, and soon ba brought to the 
state of maturity age might slowly make it arrive at. 

Amber, or pale ales, require the hottest extracts pel- 
lucidity admits of to be made strong, and at the same 
time soft and smooth to the palate ; but, as ales do not 
admit of any large quantity of hops, which would alter 
their nature, there is a necessity to perform hastily the 
act of fermentation, and to carry it on to a higher degree 
than is common in other malt drinks. The method of 
exciting and conducting repeated fermentations, with 
success, is perhaps not only the most difficult, but the 
most curious, part of the process, I shall therefore con- 
clude, with an account of it, what I have to say with re- 
gard to the practice of fermentation. 

The amber wort being let down, at its proper degree 
of heat, into the fermenting tun, out of the whole quan- 
tity of yeast allowed for this drink, in the table, page 317, 
one seventh part must be kept to be used as hereafter 
shall be mentioned. Suppose the heat of the air is at 40 
degrees, and eight quarters of malt have been brewed 
for this purpose ; the whole of the yeast required is seven 


gallons, from which one is to be reserved.* Of the six 
remaining gallons^ one halfj or three, are to be put to 
the wort on its first coming down, when the whole must 
be well roused, or mixed, thoroughly to disperse the en- 
livening principle the yeast conveys, hereby to prevent 
putrefaction, or foxing in any partj and of the last thrct 
gallons, about three quarts must be added to the drink, 
every twelve hours, until it ferments to the highest pitch 
of the period mentioned in article 5, page 319. This 
successive putting in of yeast is called \ -feeding the drink ; 

* Though the air bubbles produced From rilalt liquors are more 
uniform, as to their size or consistence, than those of natural wines, 
yet they are not perfectly so ; for this reason, and because it requires 
a greater power td cause a wort or must of malt to ferment, than it 
does to keep this act continued, after it is once bgun, it is neces- 
iary, at first, to apply such a sufficient quantity of yeast as will obtain 
this purpose; therefore, one half of the remaining six gallon? of yeast 
is put to the wort on its first coming down. 

t The yeast or air bubbles produced from natural wines, vary not 
only in their consistence, but also in their volume ; so that, in their 
act of fermentation, a progressive effect is the consequence of this 
want of uniformity. The yeast or air bubbles of barley wines are more 
uniform; to imitate nature, it is necessary to apply this principle f 
fermentation by degrees, to cause a progressive effect only. Feeding 
bf drink is the only means to gain this end; thereby the newly ap- 
plied yeast maintains the drink in its required agitation, in a similar 
manner as the increased heat and action raised by fermentation causes 
the air bubbles in natural wines to act and explode, iu proportion to 
their consistence, and to the quantity of elastic air the bubbles con- 
tain ; and so requisite it is periodically to apply more yeast to this 
sort of liquor, or regularly to feed it with this enlivening principle, 
that, in very hot weather, when this, through carelessness, has been 


before and about the time the head is got to this height, 
all the dirt or foul yeast, that rises on the surface, must 
be carefully skimmed off; it is easily distinguished from 
the pure white froth, by its color, and by the sinking of 
the head occasioned by its weight. Length of time might 
attenuate some of these coarser oils, in a less artificial 
fermentation, but as this help is not to be waited for, 
and every obstacle to pellucidity must be removed, the 
brewer's attention to this point cannot be too great. 
The head of the drink having reached its utmost height, 
the reserved gallon of yeast is to be used, in order to 
give to the ale a sufficient power to bear the repeated fer- 
mentations it is to undergo, by being beat in, every two 
hours, with a jett or scoope, for one quarter of an hour, 
so that the head on the drink is each time to be reduced 
to the least height it is capable of. This striking in be- 
ing continued, the drink will periodically require it, 
and be damaged if it be neglected. After it has under- 
gone more or less of these fermentations, in proportion 
to the heats of the worts and of the air, the brewer is 
carefully to observe, when the head ceases to rise to its 
accustomed height, and then to examine the drink, by 

omitted, I have known this ale to besome foxed or putrefied, and eould 
attribute this accident to no other cause but to a neglect of this sort, 
as the worts had been regularly brewed, laid thin in the coolers, re- 
ceived all the cold the night could give them, and the tun in which the 
drink was worked wag perfectly clean. 


having the jett filled with it at the bottom, and brought 
through the whole body to the top, a small part of 
which being poured in a handgatherer, he will see whe- 
ther the lees form themselves in large white flakes, and 
readily subside, and be informed, by the taste, whether 
the sweet of the wort is gone oft', and the ale become vi- 
nous. If these two circumstances concur, the drink is to 
be beat in with the jett as before, but not roused as 
porter or other beers are ; for the lees, which in this 
drink arc in greater quantity, would, by this manage- 
ment, so intimately be mixed with it, as with difficulty 
to separate themselves again, if at all. It is then time 
to cleanse it ; but the casks, at all times, more espe- 
cially in summer, must be well filled up with clean 
drink, that is, part of the very drink, which was cleansed, 
avoiding that produced in the stillings, as this, for want 
of standing a sufficient time, is always yeasty, and the 
yeast, being greatly attenuated by the working of the 
drink, easily dissolves in the ale, and renders it foul and 

As the right forming of amber ales is looked upon to 
be the highest pitch of the art of pale beer brewing, I 
have dwelt longer on this article than otherwise it might 
seem necessary, to shew the connexion there is between 
every sort of malt liquors : but it should be observed, 
the same method of fermenting it, is to be practised both 
winter and summer, varying only the quantities of yeast 


in proportion to the season ; for where, in winter time, 
this drink is fed with three quarts of yeast every twelve 
hours, half a gallon will answer the same intent in sum-, 
met. Upon the whole, the process is contrived to ac- 
celerate fermentation, yet, the more cooll) r and gently 
it is performed, the better will the ales be. I have before 
hinted, jf Madeira wines were fermented in this manner, 
they would sooner become fit for use, more especially 
as they need no ferment to excite them. However, 
this method of forming drink to be soon fit for use, has, 
either through interest or prejudice, been taxed with 
being unwholesome, but upon what grounds, I must 
confess I could never yet discover, as no reason of any 
moment has ever been alled^ed for this assertion. 


-JV| -.! * 


Of the signs generally directing the processes of Brewing, 
and their comparison with the forgoing Theory and 

W E have now brought our barley wines into the casks, 
and this on principles, it is thought, agreeable and con- 
sonant to each other. As the charge of novelty may be 
alledged, to invalidate what has been offered, it is but 
just to pay so much regard to a long, and, upon the 
whole, successful practice, as to recite, if not all, at 
least the principal maxims and signs in brewing, which 
hitherto have guided the artist. By comparing these 
with the present method, they will not only illustrate 
each other, but perhaps cause both to be better under- 
stood ; and though, with respect to the art itself, this 
may be thought rather a curious than an instructive part, 
yet we may learn, from hence, that such practice, which 
long experience has proved to be right, will always cor- 
respond with true theory. 

1 . When a white ftour settles, either in the underback 
or copperback, which sometimes is the case of a first ex- 
tract, it is a sure sign such an extract has not been made 
sufficiently hot, or, in technical terms, that the liquor 
has been taken too slack. 

X 4 


Malt, when dried, has its oils made tenacious, in pro- 
portion to the power of heat it has been affected with ; 
the grain, though ground, if the water for the extrac- 
tion is not at least as hot as what occasioned this tenacious- 
ness, must remain in great measure undissolved in the 
first extract, and deposit itself as just now was men- 

2. The first extract should always have some froth or 

The oils and salts of the malt, being duly mixed, 
form a saponaceous body, the character of which is that, 
on being shook, it bears a froth on its surface. 

3. The head or froth in the underback appearing red, 
blue, purple, or fiery, shews the liquors to have been taken 
too hot. 

The hotter the water is, when applied to the malt, the 
more must the extract abound with oils, and conse- 
quently be more capable to reflect colors in a strong 
manner. But how precarious this method of estimating 
the quality of an extract is, in comparison to that which 
the thermometer affords, will appear from the following 
observation of Sir Isaac Newton : " Saponaceous bub- 
" bles will, for a while, appear tinged with a variety of 
" colors, which are agitated by the external air, and 
" those bubbles continue until such time as, growing ex- 
" cessive thin, by the water trickling down their sides, 
" and being no longer able to retain the enclosed air, 


*f they burst." Now as these bubbles vary in their den- 
sity, in proportion to their duration, the colors they rer 
fleet must continually change, and therefore it is not 
possible to form an accurate judgment of the condition 
and saponaceousness of the extracts, by the appearance 
of their froth. 

4. When the grist feds slippery, it generally is a sign 
that the liquors have been taken too high. 

This appearance proceeds from an over quantity of oil 
being extracted, and is the effect of too much heat. 

5. Beer ought always to work kind, out of the cask, 
'when cleansed, but the froth, in sinmner time, will be 
somewhat more open than in winter. 

The higher and hotter the extracting water is, the 
more oils doth it force into the must ; when a wort is 
full charged with oils, the fermentation is neither so 
strong nor so speedy, and consequently the froth, espe- 
cially the first, is thin, open, and weak. This improves 
as the liquor is more attenuated, and heat, which expands 
all bodies, must rarify the yeasty vesicles, the prin- 
cipal part of which is elastic air ; but this open head, 
even in summer time, improves to one more kind, as 
the first, the most active period of fermentation, draws 
nearer to its conclusion. 

.However vague and indeterminate these signs are, it 
would not be impossible to bring them to some degree 


of precision ; but, upon the whole, this method would 
increase our difficulties, and yet, as to certitude, be in- 
ferior to the rules we have endeavoured to establish, we 
think it unnecessary to pursue any farther a research 
most likely neither entertaining nor useful. 




V-. - -,...' :.. 

4n enquiry into what may be, at all times, a proper stpfk 
of Beer, and the management of it in tiie cellars. 

1 HE business of a brewer is not confined to the mere 
manufacture of his commodity ; his concerns, as a trader, 
Reserve no less regard, and, in a treatise like this, should 
not be entirely omitted. 

As it is a fault not to have a sufficient stock of beers 
it the cellars, to serve the customers, it is one also to have 
more than is needful. By the first of these errors, the 
freers would be generally new and ill disposed for preci- 
pitation ; by the other, quantities of stale beer must re- 
main, which, becoming hard, will at last turn stale, and 
be unfit for use, unless blended with new brewed beers, 
to their detriment. These faults, if continued, may ii> 
time affect a whole trade, and ought therefore carefully 
to be avoided. For these reasons, the whole quantity to 
be moved, or expected to be supplied from the brewer's 
store cellars, during the space of one twelvemonth, should 
be calculated, as near as possible; half this quantity 
ought to be the stock kept up from November to May 
inclusive, and nearly t one third part thereof be remaining 
in September. From hence a table may be formed, by 
which it will be easy, at one view, to know the quantity 



tbat should be maintained at every season of the year, 
and to avoid almost every inconveniency, which other- 
wise must arise. Suppose, for example, the number of 
casks expected to be moved in a year, to be 320 butts, 
and 249 puncheons, the store cellars ought to be sup- 
plied, as to time and quantity, in the following propor- 




160 , 

, 124 


160 . 



160 . 


April ....*..... 

160 . 


9& ai 


160 . 



146 . 






120 . 


September 107 82 

October 133 103 

November 160 124 

December 160 124 

After beers have been started in the cellars, the casks 
should be well and carefully stopped down, as soon as 
the repelling force of fermentation is so much lessened 1 , 
as not to be able to oppose this design. Otherwise the 
elastic air, which is the vivifying principle of the drink, 
being lost, it would become vapid, and flat ; and if left a 
long time in this condition, perhaps grow sour. 



It has already been observed, that cellars, in winter, 
are more hot than the exterior air by 10 degrees, and 
more cold in summer by 5 degrees. But besides this 
general difference, repositories of beer vary surprisingly 
in their temperature ; from the nature of the soil in 
which they are built, from their exposition to the sun, or 
from other incidental causes. As heat is a very power- 
ful agent in accelerating fermentation, it is by no means 
surprising, not only that some cellars do ripen drinks 
much sooner than others, but also that a difference is 
often perceived in the same cellar. The persons n^ 
trusted with the choice of beers, with Avhich the custom^ 
ers are to be served, should not be satisfied to send out 
their guiles in the progressive order in which they were 
brewed, but ought, on every occasion, to note any alt.e 
ration that happens in the drink, as this is doing justice 
both to the commodity, and to the consumer, who has 4 
.constant right to expect his beer in due order. 



Of Precipitation, and other remedies, applicable to the 
diseases incident to Beers. 

accident can be so detrimental as leaky or stinking 
casks, which lose or spoil the whole or part of the con- 
tained drink. The necessity of having, on these occasi- 
ons, a remedy at hand, was undoubtedly the reason, why 
coopers were first introduced in store cellars. Constant 
practice might have qualified their palates so as to make 
them competent judges of the tastes of wines and beers, 
and to enable them to know which were the fittest 
for immediate use. The preparing or forcing them for 
this service, was a matter, which the profit gained 
thereby made them ready enough to undertake. Chy- 
mists, whom they consulted on this occasion, gave them 
some informations, from whence the c6opers became the 
possessors of a few nostrums, the effects of which they were 
supposed to have experienced. But, ignorant of the causes 
of most, if not all the defects they undertake to remedy, 
and unacquainted with the constituent parts of beers, 
it is not to be expected that their success should be con- 
stant and uniform. The brewer, earnest to do his duty, 
and to excel, ought to keep a particular account of every 
brewing ; by this means he best can tell how he formed 


the drink, and ought consequently, in any disorder, to be 
prepared to direct th properest remedy. 

The intent of this treatise has been to discover the 
means by which errors may be avoided. Chymical ap- 
plications are intended to remedy thostf errors, which 
may be occasioned either by carelessness or accident. 
The wholesomeness or propriety of the applications, 
which will be indicated, must be left to the judgment of 
my readers ; it is most likely that there is sufficient room 
for improvement, and we might expect it from those, 
whose profession it is to study every thing, that may be 
conducive to the safety of mankind. 

Whatever vegetables wines are produced from, when- 
ever they deviate from the respective perfection, a well, 
conducted fermentation might have made them arrive at, 
they may be said to be distempered. Foulness, or want 
of transparency, is not the least evil, but, according to its 
degree, it obtains various appellations, and requires diffe- 
rent helps. From what has been said, nothing can be 
more plain, than that it is always in our power to form 
beers and ales, which will be bright. Yet porter or 
brown beer is constantly so brewed as to need precipita- 
tion : the reasons for this management have before been 
offered. Were we to wait till the liquor became transpa- 
rent by age, a more real disorder would ensue, that of 
acidity. Precipitation is then serviceable, especially when 
beers are to be removed from one cellar to another, a 


short space of time before they are to be used. By being 
shook, and the lees mixed with the liquor, a strong acid 
taste is conveyed therein, and the power of subsiding, 
which is wanted, renders the forcing them, in that case, 
of absolute necessity. In beers brewed with liquors suf- 
ficiently heated, no flatness is occasioned thereby ; as the 
case is, under like circumstances, with liquors produced 
by low extracts, from grain not sufficiently dried. The 
degree of foulness in porter should however be limited ; 
its bounds ought not to exceed the power of one gallon 
of dissolved isinglass, to a butt. Isinglass is dissolved in 
stale beer, and strained through a sieve, so as to be of 
the consistence of a jelly. The beer is set in motion 
with a stick, which reaches one third part down the cask, 
before and after this jelly is put in ; and a few hours 
should be sufficient to obtain the desired effect. We have 
before observed, that this quantity of jelly of isinglass is 
equal to a medium of 10 degrees dry ness in the malt, and 
heat of the extracts. When the opacity exceeds this, the 
liquor is termed stubborn ; the same quantity of dis- 
solved isinglass repeated, is often sufficient, if not, six 
ounces of the oil of vitriol are mixed with it. An effer- 
vescence is, by this addition, produced ; the oils of the 
drink become more attenuated, and the weight added to 
the precipitating matter, is a means to render it mose 
efficacious. Instead of the oil of vitriol, six or eight 


ounces of the concrete of vitriol, pounded and mixed 
with the isinglass, are sometimes used with success. 

A foulness in beer beyond that which is called stub- 
born, gives to the drink the denomination of grey beer. 
This arises from the oils which float upon the surface, 
and which the liquor has not been able to absorb. In 
this case, the same methods as before mentioned are 
repeated ; the quantity of dissolved isinglass is often in- 
creased to three gallons, that of vitriol to more than 1 2 
ounces, and sometimes a small quantity of aquafortis is 
added to these ingredients. 

The next stage of opacity is cloudiness ; when the cooper 
confesses that the distemper exceeds the power of his 
menstruums" and that his attempts extend no farther than 
to hide the evil, tournsol and cochineal, were they not so 
expensive, might in this case be used with success ; but 
what is less known, and would greatly answer the intent 
of hiding the dusky colour of the drink, is madder ; 
about three or four ounces of this is the proper quantity 
for a butt of beer. Calcined treacle, by the coopers 
called blacking, from its acidity, is of some small service, 
for, by coloring the drink, it somewhat lessens the grey 
hue thereon ; a quart is generally used in a butt ; and, 
to prevent the defect in the beer being noticed by the 
consumer, the practice is to put thereon what is called 
a good cauliflowered head. This might be done by 
using as much pounded salt of steel as will lay upon a 


shilling ; but the difference in price between this salt anc| 
copperas makes the last generally to be preferred. The 
strong froth on the top of the pot, and that which foams 
about it, together with somewhat of a yellow cast, are 
often mistaken for the signs of a superior merit and 
strength, though, in fact, they are those of deceit. A 
little reflection that the natural froth of beer cannot be 
yellow, nor continue a long time, especially if the liquor 
has some age, would soon cure mankind of this preju- 
dice. Cloudy beers, under these circumstances, though 
not cured, are generally consumed. 

Beers become sick, from their having so large a por- 
tion of oils, as to prevent the free admission of the exter- 
nal air into them. The want of this enlivefting element 
makes them appear flat, though not vapid. Such beers 
should not, if possible, be brought immediately into use, 
as age alone would effect their cure. But when this 
cannot be complied with, every means that will put the 
beer upon the fret, or under a new fermentation, must 
be of service. By pitching a butt head over head, the 
lees of the beer, which contain a large proportion of air, 
being mixed again with the drink, help to bring on this 
action, and to remove the sickness. 

Burnt hartshorn shavings, to the quantity of two- 
penny-worth, put into a butt, are often of use. 

Balls made with eight ounces of the finest flower, and 
kneaded with treacle, convey likewise air to the drink, 
and promote its briskness. 


Beers, by long standing, often acquire so powerful an 
acid, as to become disagreeable. The means of cor- 
recting this defect is by alkaline, or testaceous sob- 
stances, and in general by all those which have the pro- 
perty of absorbing acids. To a butt of beer in this con- 
dition, from four to eight ounces of calcined powder of 
oyster-shells may be put, or from six to eight ounces of 
salt of wormwood. Sometimes a penny-worth or two- of 
whiting is used, and often twenty or thirty stones of un- 
slacked lime ; these are better put in separately, than 
mixed with the isinglass. 

From two to six pounds of treacle used to one butt of 
beer, has a very powerful effect, not only to give a sweet 
fulness in the mouth, but to remove the acidity of the 
drink. Treacle is the refused sweet of the sugar baker, 
part of the large quantities "of lime used in refining su- 
gars, undoubtedly enter in its composition, and is the 
occasion of its softening beers. 

In proportion as beers are more or less forward, from 
two to four ounces of salt of wormwood and salt of tar- 
tar, together with one ounce of pounded ginger, are' 
successfully employed. All these substances absorb 
acids, but they leave a flatness in the liquor, which in 
some measure is removed by the use of ginger. 

Sometimes, in summer, when beer is wanted for use, 
we find it on the fret ; as it is then in a repelling state, 
it does not gire way to the finings, so as to precipitate, 
Y 2 


For this, about two ounces of cream of tartar are mixed 
with the isinglass, and if not sufficient, four ounces of oil 
of vitriol are added to the finings next used, in order to 
quiet the drink. 

Some coopers attempt to extend their art so far as to 
add strength to malt liquors; but let it be remembered, 
that the principal constituent parts of beer should be 
malt and hops. When strength is given to the liqugr by 
any other means, its nature is altered, and then it is not 
beer we drink. Treacle in large quantities, the berries 
of the Cocculus Indicus, the grains of paradise, or the In- 
dian ginger pounded fine, and mixed with a precipitat- 
ing substance, are said to produce this extraordinary 
strength. It would be well if the attempts made to ren- 
der beers strong by other means than by hops and malt, 
were to be imputed to none but coopers ; Cocculus Indi- 
ous, and such like ingredients, have been known to be 
boiled in worts, by brewers who were more ambitious to 
excel the rest of the trade, than to do justice to the con- 
sumers. Were it not that pointing out vice is often the 
means to forward the practice of it, I could add to this 
infamous catalogue, more ingredients, it were to be wished 
practitioners never knew either the name or nature of, 
for fining, softening, and strengthening. 

Formerly brown beers were required to be of a very 
dark brown, inclinable tq black. As this color could 
not be procured by malt properly dried, the juice of 


elder berries was frequently mixed with the isinglass. 
This juice afterwards gave way to calcined sugar ; both 
are needless, as time and knowledge remove our preju- 
dices, when the malt and hops have been properly chosen, 
and applied to their intended purpose. 

Such are the remedies chiefly made use of for brown 
beers. Drinks formed from pale malts are always sup- 
posed to become spontaneously fine, and when they are 
so, by being bottled, they are saved from any farther 
hazard. As it is impossible for any fermented liquor to 
be absolutely at rest, the reason of beers being preserved 
by this method, is, thereby they are deprived of a com- 
munication with the air, and, without risk, gain all the 
advantages which age, by slow degrees, procures, and 
which art can never imitate. Were we as curious in our 
ales and beers as we are in the liquors we import, did w 
give to the produce of our own country the same care 
and attendance which we bestow on foreign wines, we 
might enjoy them in a perfection at present scarcely 
known, and perhaps cause foreigners to give to our beers 
a preference to their own growth. 
Y 3 



DOCTOR GREW, who has treated of this matter, di- 
vides taste into simple and compound ; he mentions the 
different species of the first, and calculates the various 
combinations of the latter, the number of which exceeds 
what at first might be expected. Without entering into 
this detail, I think that the different tastes residing in 
the barleys, or formed by their being malted, and brewed 
with hops, may be reduced to the following ; the acid, 
which is a simple taste ; the sweet, which is an acid 
smoothed with oils ; the aromatic, which is the compound 
ofaspiritous acid, and a volatile sulphur; the bitter, 
which, according to our author, is produced by an oil 
well impregnated either with an alkaline or an acid salt, 
shackled with earth ; the austere, which is both astrin- 
gent and bitter; and, lastly, the nauseous and rank, 
which is, at least in part, sometimes found in beers, 

* I confess this chapter is rather a matter of curiosity, an effusion 
of fancy, than of any use to ine known ; if I have suffered it to re- 
main, it has been to shew that when we have long reflected upon a suln 
ject, our ideas often lead us beyond power of practice ; and with this 
farther view, that, perhaps, it tnay become of service in the hands of 
some more ingenious and more penetrating artist than myself. How- 
ever, if I trouble my reader with it, it may be said to be in imitation 
of an author far superior to myself in rank and knowledge. 


which have either been greatly affected by fire, or, by 
long age, have lost their volatile sulphurs; and have no- 
thing left but the thicker and coarser oils, resembling the 
empyreumatic dregs of distilled liquors not carefully 

The number of circumstances on which the taste of 
fermented liquors depends, are so various, that perhaps 
there never were any two brewings, or any two vintages, 
which produced drinks exactly similar. But as, in this 
case, as well as in many others, the varieties may be re- 
duced under some general classes ; the better to distin- 
guish them, let us enquire which taste belongs to differ- 
ent malt liquors, according to the several circumstances 
in which they are brewed. '' '^ 

In beers and ales, the acid prevails in proportion as the 
malt has been less dried, and heat \vas wanting in the 
extracting water. The sweet will be the effect of a ba- 
lance preserved between the acids and the oils. When, 
by the means of hotter waters, oils more tenacious are 
^xtracted from the grain, whereby the more volatile sul- 
phur is retained, the taste becomes higher in relish, or 
aromatic. If the heat is still increased, the acids, and 
the most volatile oils, will in part be dissipated, and in 
part be so enveloped with stronger oils, as the bitter of 
the hops appears more distinct. A greater degree of fire 
will impress the liquor with an austere, rough, or harsh 
taste ; and * heat beyond this so affects the oils of the 
Y 4 


grain, as to cause the extracts to be nauseous to the pa- 
late. Besides these, there may be other causes which 
produce some variation in taste ; as a' superior dryness 
in the hops ; an irregularity in the ordering of the heat 
of the extracts ; too great an impetuosity or slowness in 
the fermentation ; the difference of seasons in which the 
drink is kept ; but as these causes affect the liquor, in a 
low degree, in comparison to the drying and extracting 
heats of the grain, an enquiry into their consequences is 
not absolute!)- material. 

Beers or ales, formed of pale malt, in which a greater 
portion of acids is contained, with less tenacious oils, are 
not only more proper to allay thirst, but in general 
more aromatic than brown drinks. The oils of these 
last, being, by the effect of fire, rendered more compact, 
and more tenacious of the terrestrial parts raised with 
them, are attended with something of an austere and 
rank taste. This seems to be the reason why brown 
beers require more time, after they have been fermented, 
to come to their perfection. The air, by degrees, sof- 
tens and attenuates their oils, and, by causing the hete- 
rogeneous particles to subside, makes them at last, unless 
charring heats have been used, pleasing to the palate, 
whereas they were before austere, rank, and perhaps 

By means of the thermometer, we have endeavoured 
to fix the different colors of malt, the duration of the 


principal sorts of drink, and the tendency each has to 
become transparent. The same instrument cannot pro- 
bably have the same use, when applied to distinguish 
the different tastes, as these depend on a variety of 
causes not easy to be ascertained. Yet something of 
this nature may be attempted, upon the following prin- 

As the chief circumstance which produces a variety of 
tastes in malt liquors^ is fire or heat acting on the malt 
and hops, and the effect of the air, put in motion by the 
same element, the table here subjoined may point out 
what tastes are in general occasioned by the combination 
of these two causes. 

A TABLE determining the tastes of Malt 

Heat of 
the air. 

Dryness and 
extracting heat. 







Ac. ac. sweet. 



Ac. sw. 



Ac. sw. sw. bitter. 



Sw. sw. bitter. 



Sw. bit. 


..I.. 148 

Bit. bit. aromatic.. 

56 ,.. 

..... 152 

Bit. arom. 



Bit. arom. austere. 


..... 162 

Arom. aust, aust. 



Aust. aust. nauseous 


..w. 171 

Aust. nau. 

40 176 ....... Nauseous 


The first column of the table shews the fermentable 
degrees reversed, as the hotter the season is, the more 
fermented drinks tend to acidity, the direct contrary 
of which is the consequence of an increase in the heat, 
malt or hops are dried or extracted with. 

The assistance of this table, though small, ought per- 
haps not to be entirely slighted, as it seems at least to 
shew that the useful is seldom separated from the ele- 
gant, and that a medium betwee'n extremes is most 
agreeable both to the operations of nature, and the con- 
stitution of our organs. 

The impressions of tastes are less in proportion as 
the drinks are weak. The strongest wine yields the 
most acid vinegar. Time wears away this acidity much 
sooner, than it doth the nauseousness occasioned by ve- 
hement heats. This circumstance shews how necessary 
it is, in the beginning of the process of brewing, ta 
avoid extracts which are too weak, as from hence, in its 
conclusion, such would be required whose great heat 
-would render the drink rank and disagreeable. That 
proportion between the salts and the oils, which consti- 
tutes soundness and pellucidity, is most pleasing to the 
taste, and seems to be the utmost perfection of the art. 
As the sun never occasions a heat capable of charring 
the fruits of the vine, we never meet with wines endued 
with a taste resembling the empyreumatic, which we 


have here represented. This error, being inexcusable 
in any liquor, ought carefully to be guarded against, 
and, from what lias here been said, we should learn 
this important truth, that nature is the best guide, and 
that, by imitating, as near as possible, her operations, 
we shall never be disappointed in our ends. 


1 HOUGH this work has already been carried to a 
great length, I hope those of my readers, who may have 
done me the honor to go attentively through the whole 
of it, will pardon me the addition of a few incidental 
thoughts and queries. The chain of arts is so well con- 
nected, that researches originally intended for the illus- 
tration of any one of them, can hardly fail of throwing 
some light upon others. 

1. The seed of plants cannot be put in a fitter place, 
for perfect vegetation, than when buried under ground, 
at a depth sufficient to defend the young shoots from the 
vicissitudes of heat and cold, and the disadvantage of too 
much moisture. The manuring of the earth, and the 
steeping the seed into solutions of salts, have been found, 
in some cases, to increase the strength of the grain, to 
correct its original defects, and to prevent the noxious 
impressions of a vicious ground. Plants are made to 
germinate in water alone, and this experiment so suc- 
cessfully carried on every Avinter, in warm apartments, 
may still be improved by dissolving salts in the water. 
Could the barley used for malting be put in the ground, 
its growth would be more natural, and its oils becoming 
more miscible with water, by the saline nourishment de- 
rived from the earth, might yield more vinous, snore 


strong, and more lasting liquors. But as this method is 
impracticable, would it be impossible to increase the ef- 
ficacy of that which is used ? Consult Home on agricul- 
ture : might not either nitre or salt petre be added to the 
water, with Avhich the grain is moistened ? are they not 
used with success to manure land ? Are not solutions of 
them in water employed by the farmer to steep his sow- 
ing seed . ? I barely mention these as some of the sub- 
stances, that might be employed in the malting of barley, 
and am far from thinking there are none other. Perhaps 
different salts should be used, according to the nature of 
the soil, from which the corn was produced ; but a vari- 
ety of experiments seems to be required, in order to dis- 
cover how far art might in this case imitate and improve 

2. A smalt quantity of malt, at all times, but especial- 
ly when brewed in- large vessels, parts too readily with 
the heat which extraction requires ; and, on the contrary, 
if the quantity of malt be very great, the heat may not 
be uniformly spread. A forward beer inclinable to 
acidity is often the result of too short a grist ; a thick, 
stubborn, and rank liquor many times is produced from 
too large a one. Every advantage may be had in brewing, 
properly, five or six quarters of malt ; it is difficult to 
succeed if the number exceeds fifty. 

3. The strong pungent volatile spirit, which exhales 
from a must, when under full fermentation, has been 


supposed to be a loss, which might be prevented ; and 
accordingly attempts have been made to retain these fly- 
ing impetuous particles, by stopping the communication 
between the atmosphere and the fermenting drink. That 
there is a dispersion of spirits is beyond doubt, and that 
these exhaling vapors consist of the finest oils, which the, 
heat forces out of the must, is equally certain. But this 
loss seems to be abundantly repaid by the stronger oils, 
which the same degree of heat attenuates and substitutes, 
in a larger quantity, to the former. The last oils could 
never come under the form of a vinous liquor, but by a 
power, which sooner or later dissipates some of the first. 
Pale ales or amber not only lay, for many days, exposed 
to the open air, but surfer, by the periodical renewal of 
the action of the air, every two or four hours, a much 
more considerable loss of spirits, than when fermentation 
is carried on uniformly. Yet experience shews, that so. 
many oils are, by this method, attenuated, that the 
strength acquired greatly surpasses that which is lost. 

4. The practice of fermenting by compression, recom- 
mended to distillers, seems, on this account, less useful, 
than might be concluded from theory alone ; the intent 
of the distiller, as well as of the brewer, is to extract the 
greatest quantity of spiritous oils. It is impossible to 
ferment a must in vacuo ; air is absolutely necessary to 
carry on this operation, even a superabundant quantity 
of oils admitted into the must, by obstructing the free 


admission of the air, impedes fermentation, prevents the 
wine from reaching pellucidity, and sometimes is the oc- 
casion of its becoming putrid. 

5. When the purest spirit is intended to be drawn from 
the grain, the fermented wash ought to be suffered to 
settle, "till it becomes transparent. The dispatch, with 
which the. distillery is generally carried on, often prevents 
this useful circumstance taking place, and occasions a 
want of vinosity in the liquor. In many cases, the ex- 
traordinary charges of extracting the grist from malted 
corn, in the manner, which has been directed for drinks 
intended a short space to be kept, and of suffering the 
fermented wash to be meliorated by time, until it be- 
comes vinous and spontaneously transparent, might be 
abundantly repaid. Yet, ;f hurry must be a part of the 
distiller's business, he should at least make such extrac- 
tions as admit of the speediest fermentation and the rea- 
diest pellucidity. He cannot expect corn spirits to equal 
the brandies of France, unless his worts are similar to the 
wines distilled in that kingdom, where those used for this 
purpose are weak, fine, and tending to acidity.* He would 

* It must be observed, the wines of France in general make the 
best brandies, and of these, such which justly are termed green wines, 
(and soon would become acid) this leads us to the nature of the grain, 
and of the extractions to procure an equal, pure, nutty spirit.- Barley, 
dried scarcely to the denomination of malt, and extracted with the 
lowest medium, or perhaps one inferior to this, most likely would an- 
swer this purpose. I have tried the experiment in a very imperfect 
manner, and found it answer beyond expectation. 


therefore secure to himself the greatest probability of suc- 
cess, if he employed only malted corn in his grist, this of 
the best kind, well germinated to form a saccharine basis, 
slack dried, and resolved, with weak extracts', to preserve 
into the must a proper proportion of vinosity. If he in- 
tended this wash to be formed into a pure spirit, it should 
be allowed time to become transparent ; he might regu- 
late his extracts by such heats as have been fixed for 
common small beer, brewed when the heat of the air is 
at the lowest fermentable degree, though perhaps heats 
Jess than these, when dispatch is 'required, might better 
answer his purpose, especially as the length used in the 
distillery is nearly the same with that which brewers use 
for the liquor here referred to. With hot waters to at- 
tempt to force from the grain more strength or more oils, 
than such as will form a clean tasteless spirit, is, uTthe 
distillery, a real loss and a fundamental error. By too 
strong heats, more oils are forced into the must than can 
be converted in spirits ; and fermentation being, by this 
over charge, in some measure, clogged and impeded, a 
less yield is made, and the liquor obtained of a rank and 
often empyreumatic taste. 

6. Why are the brandies of Spain inferior to those 
prepared in France ? The wines of the last country are 
the growth of a weaker sun ; they contain no more oiis 
than can be assimilated by fermentation, and form a 
clean, dry, nutty spirit. The Spanish wines abounding 


with more oleaginous than acid parts, this over propor- 
tion becomes not only useless, but hurtful in the still, 
and produces the rankness observed in Spanish brandies. 
The cleanness of the spirit arises, in great measure, from 
the weakness of the must, and its vinosity from a less 
proportion of oils to the salts. This seems to be the 
reason why the most grateful spirits are produced from 
wines unable to bear the sea, or to be long kept. 

7. The native spirits of vegetables, says Boerhaave, 
are separated by heats between 94 degrees, and 212. 
To obtain the whole of these, the fire must be gradually 
increased ; for a superior heat dissipates the spirits raised 
by an inferior one. Such parts as might be obtained by 
100 degrees, are lost if the heat applied be much greater. 
It is true, the parts of vegetables immersed in water, 
cannot so easily be dissipated as if they were in open air, 
yet, by the rarefaction of the liquid, a proportional 
evaporation, however small, must ensue, or the oils raised 
by a greater heat may so effectually envelope the finer 
ones, as to make them hardly perceptible either to our 
smell or taste. Thus, though heated water is able to 
extract all the virtues residing in the vegetables, the dif- 
ferent application of the fire will alter not only their 
proportions, but their properties also, when we consi- 
der that pure spirit of wine boils at so low a heat as 175 
degrees. If the above principles be true, that surely 
must be the cleanest spirit which is brought over in the 


slowest and coolest manner ; and it is more than pro- 
bable, if the rules here laid down be put in practice, 
tfce grain of England will be found to yield spirits that 
may vie with the brandies of France, be more pure than 
those of the Indies, and excel those of Holland. 

8. The vinegar maker is equally concerned with the 
distiller in the brewing process. Vinegar is produced 
in the last stage of fermentation, when a gross, tartare- 
ous, unctous matter, consisting of the coarser oils ex- 
tracted either from the grain or the grapes, generally 
falls to the bottom of the liquor, and no longer prevents 
its acidity, or affects its flavor. Though the best vinegar 
proceeds either from the strongest wines or beers, this 
strength consists in the quantity of fermentable principles, 
and not in that of mere oleaginous parts. By properly 
adapting the extracting waters, this hurtful impediment 
may be removed, and the vinegar from malt liquors be- 
come as neat and as strong as that which is made from 

9. As the acid taste of vinegar is the effect of a conti- 
nued fermentation, many people have thought it imma- 
terial how speedily the first parts of the operation were 
carried on. But violent fermentations not only dissipate 
some of the fine oils, which should be retained in the 
vinegar, but also cause the must to tend towards putre- 
faction. Boerhaave, after he has directed a frequent 
transvasion of the liquor, observes that, whenever the 



weather or the workhouse is very hot, it is often neces- 
sary to fill the half emptied vessels every twelve hours, 
not only to procure a supply of acids from the air, igbt 
also to cool the wine, and check the too violent fermen- 
tation, which arising in the half full casks, might dissi- 
pate the volatile spirits, before they are properly 
secured and entangled by the acid. Hence the liquor 
might be sour indeed, but at the same time fiat, and 
would never become a sharp and strong vinegar. 

10. Application and uses have frequently been found 
for materials, Avhich before were supposed to be of no 
value. The grains, after the brewer has drawn his worts 
out of them, are generally used for the feeding of cattle ; 
but I do not know that hops, after boiling, have been 
employed to any purpose. Is there nothing more left in 
this vegetable, after it has imparted the virtue wanted to 
the beer ? All plants burnt in open air yield alkaline 
salts, though in a greater or less quantity, according to 
the quality of the plants. Boerhaave says that those 
which are austere, acid, or aromatic, yield in their ashes 
a great abundance of salts, and these being put in fusion, 
and mixed with flint or sand, run into glass. Hops 
thrown, after decoction, in no great quantity on the 
fire, cause the coals to vitrify, or as it is generally 
termed, to run into clinkers. If therefore the remains 
of the hops were burnt in open air, or in a proper 
furnace, it seems most likely that no inconsiderable 


quantity of somewhat like pot ashes might be obtained, 
and this, considering the many tun weight of hops em- 
ployed in large cities, and thrown away as useless, might 
become an object of private emolument to the brewer, 
and of public benefit to the kingdom. 






ACIDS, what 2 

Air, principal agent in fermentation 19, 23 

why it slacks malt 20 

is not easily expelled from bodies 21 

expelled from worts by long boiling 84 

heat of, relative to brewing 145 

Alcohol, what 2 

most effectually dissolves resins 38 

Algebraic rules of proportion for mixing cold and 

hot water 271 285 

Alkali, what 2 

its great power as a solvent 37 


Backs being set, reason , 306 

Barley, defined 89 

viscous and replete with acids 90 

consequence of its germinating 90 

its state in the field 91 

Effect of heating in the mow 92 

heat which destroys its vegetative power 92, 93 

mow-burned, unfit for malting 93 

how much it loses by malting 100 

may be dried M'itliout germinating 102 

Beers, why deposited in cellars ... 47 

best brewed in pure air 85, 86 

Bird, Mr. his thermometer ,.... 43 

Body of a wort not opened, what 320, 321 

Z 4 

360 INDEX. 


Boiling, how effected 3 

- necessary for worts, and management 224 

Brandies of France and Spain compared 353 

Brown ale, what 198 

stout, what 199 

Burton ale, what 196 

Cellars, temperature 156, 186 

management of beer 331 

Cleansing keeping beers 319. 

. common small 321 

amber 325 

Cloudy beer, how to be treated 337 

Cocculus Indicus, infamous practice of using it 340 

Cold greatest, at London 145 

Cooling-in explained 254 

Coppers, method of calculating heights 22Q 


Division of water for a brewing 235 239; 

Dorchester beer^ what 200 


Earths defined 33 

sometimes used in precipitation 33 

Effervescence, whence 79 

Elements, for forming pale beers 172 

brown do 177 

, porter 178, 180, 245 

small beer 190, 248 

. . purl 194 

INDEX. 361 

Elements for forming amber .,. 195, 251 

_ keeping small beer ...., 19? 

pale keeping strong and small 239 

Expansion, singular exception in 14 

differs in different fluids 1& 

of water just boiling ;.. 26 

Experiments on Thames, New River,and Hampstead 

waters 31 

Extraction defined , 160 

four different modes 163 

1st mode ., .. <. 169 

2 d ., ".. 173 

3d .'. 181 

4th 192 

Extracts under and over -heated shew similar signs . 29 


Feeding drink, what 32S 

Fermentation, what..... 6, 66 

its several stages 6673 

. its effects : 78 

. term too generally applied 78 

artificial, defined 8(5 

signs and effects : 518 

Ferments, what .: ^4 

Fining beers 336 

Fire, nature and properties 13 

expands all bodies ** 

how it strengthens some bodies I* 

loosens the texture of malt .......-.....* 15 

preserves bodies .....<*..*.. * ** 

how to regulate its degrees ., 16 

362 INDEX. 


Flowers of wine, what 311 

Foxed, what 7 


Germinating heats of France, Spain, &c 57 59 

England 59 

Grapes, their taste in different states 51 

under what heat produced and ripened 51, 55 

why not produced at Jamaica 54, 60 

how to discover their properties 64 

Grey beer, how to be treated 337 

Grinding malt ;. : :. 157 


Hard corns, heat they cause in mashes 295 

Heat, medium of London 17, 145, 148, 150 

dissolves more parts than water can contain ... 26 

difference in shade and sun 52, 156 

greatest at London, in the shade ;... 145 

Hops, nature and properties : 201 

whence difference of Worcestershire & Kentish 203 

useful in extraction 213 

calculation to- regulate purchasing 213 

imposition on purchasers 216 

volume estimated when boiled 222 

perhaps useful after being boiled 356 


Incidents causing heat of extracts to vary from cal- 
culation 289 

Isinglass, what 7 

use and application 336 

INDEX. 363 

L. Page 

Lees of wine, what : 311 

Lengths in brewing, explanation 211 


Malting, process 94, 126 

Malts, alter in color the more they are dried 48 

incapable of retaining more fire than is in ex- 
ternal air , *... 99 

cannot be made in hot weather 103 

first degree of heat that constitutes them 105 

degree which charrs them 107 

effect different degrees has upon them.. 108 112 

properties 113 

defective 131137 

their virtue in wort contained in amazing small 

space 270 

Mashes, four, their different heats 62 

last heat 293 

Mashing 286 

Maturating and germinating heats 57 59 

Menstruums, doctrine of 34 38 

water, oils, and salts, the principal in 

brewing 35 

Must from grapes, constituent parts 6S 


Oils, constituent principles ..., 35 

Old hock, what ,,~, 199 


Precipitation, what 9 

a remedy for diseased beer 334 

36* INDEX. 


Processes of two brewings computed 271 

reduced to one point of view 297 303 

Purl, what 193 

Putrefaction, whence , 78 


Rain, which most fruitful 53, 54 

Remedies for diseased beer 334 


Salts, a principal menstruum 36, 37 

their nature 37, 38 

Sealing hermetically, how performed 7 

Sick beers, how to be treated : 338 

Signs general, directing the processes in brewing .. 327 
Spirits pungent, exhaling from a fermenting must 350, 


of rnalt might equal those of wine * 352 

Spontaneous pellucidity, how produced 319 

Stale beers, how to be treated 339 

Steeping barley, how practised in the north 94 

Stock of beer proper 331 

Stubborn beers, how to be treated 337 


Table of changes of color in malt by heat 115 

shewing the age beers will require with me- 
dium heats 119 

shewing the tendency beers have to become 

fine 124 

shewing medium heat at London at eight in 

the morning : 148 


Table shewing medium heat of the air at London .. 150 

of incidents affecting heat in brewing 155 

shewing proper dryness of malt 1-62 

shewing the quantity of fermentable princi- 
ples residing in malt 168 

to determine heat of first and last extract ... HO 

ditto for porter 175 

shewing color of grain 184 

shewing medium heat of each process 185 

shewing heat of first and last extracts in 

common small beer 191 

shewing value of hops in degrees 208 

shewing the quantity of hops to a quarter of 

malt in porter ^. 209 

ditto common small beer 210 

amber ^^.. 211 

Burton ale 212 

shewing the medium price hops should bear 215 

of tengths 219 

of gauges of coppers 221 

of time of boiling each beer 228 

of volume of malt to reduce grist to liquid 

measure 254 

shewinggreat evaporation of water in brewing 256 

shewing volume of malt equal to one barrel 

of water 267 

of effervescence of malt 292 

shewing the times worts should be let down 308 

shewing/ieaf at which they should belet down 309 

shewing depth of head in cleansing small beer 321 

determining taste of malt liquors 34.5 

Taste, reason of the difference in malt liquors 342 

*6 INDEX. 


Technical terms explained 1 -12 

Thermometer, when first known in England 39 

its improvements 40 43 

assists to discover the heat of bodies 

when blended 45 

discovers the strengh of a wort ......... 41 

quality of hops 48 

absurdity of brewers to reject it 49 

Times proper for brewing 146 

Two brewings, circumstances relating to them 
brought into one point of view 297 303 


Vegetables, why fit for wines 74 76 

Vinegar of beer equal to that of wine 355 

best made from strongest liquors 355 


Waste water in brewing each beer 230 233 

Water, its expansion by boiling 14 

becomes of equal heat with the air 21 

at what degree it changes to ice , 21 

boiled, its appearance when froze 21 

which makes the strongest extracts 22 

being light, a good property 24 

great quantities evaporated in brewing 25 

its ultimate parts less than those of air, 25 

necessary to fermentation 27 

excellency of drinks too often attributed to 29 

how examined 30 

. ' '' its division into worts and mashes * 234 252 

INDEX. 367 

Water, boiling the proper state and time for cool- ' 

ing in 290 

Wines, general definition 50 

Tockay and Canary , 52 

Madeira 63 

the most certain signs of their wholesomeness 86 

their basis 160 

Worts, sometimes over-hopped 27 

height in coppers cast up to fix the length .. 223 

cooling-management 304 


Yeast, replaces the air lost by boiling worts 22 

heat at which it acts 305 

nature and contents 311 

quantity for small beer , 315 

strong beer and porter 316 

ales and amber 317 

bitten, what 320 

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