(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Pentagon Papers"

Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



/ 



V.B Justification of the War d! Vols.) 

Internal Documents (9 Vols.) 

4. The Kennedy Administration: (2 Vols.) 

Book I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECR 



SENSITIVE 



UNITED STATES - VIETNAM RELATIONS 



NAM 



OFFICE OF THE S 



K FORCE 

ETARY OF 



5* 



& 



TOP SECRET ■ SENSITIVE 



N 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



) TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



/' ■ 









V.B.4. 

U.S. IWOLWMHNT IN THE WAR 
- INTERNAL DOCUK .""-" 



•P*^%^» 



The Kennedy Administration : 
• :> ^/ January 1961 - November 19^3 



BOOK I 






0295 

Sec Daf Coat Br. X- «.a-*< 

TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



V.B.U. 



U*S. INVOLVEMENT IN THE WAR -- INTERNAL DOCUMENTS 



The Kennedy Administration: January 1961 - November 1963 



Foreword 



This volume contains a collection of Internal U.S. Government docu- 
ments and position papers regarding U.S. policy toward Vietnam* The 
volume of materials for this period is so large as to preclude the 
inclusion in such a collection of more than a sample of the docu- 
ments in the files. Those classified materials that are included, 
however, were circulated at the highest levels of the Government and 
either bore directly on the process of policy formation or were 
decision -making instruments* The collection is organized chrono- 
logically and devoted exclusively to the Kennedy years. A separate 
volume covers the Johnson Administration. 



BOOK I : January thru December 1961 
BOOK II : January 1962 thru October 1963 






TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



. > 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 




Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number; NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET - Sensitive 






V.B.1+. 



U.S. IMVDLVEMEKT IN THE WAR ~- INTERNAL DOCUMENTS 



The Kennedy Administration: January 1961 - Hovember 19^3 



Contents and 



Chronological List of Documents 



1. 



2. 



l 



h 



5 



1961 Page 

General Lansdale reports on his January visit to Vietnam: 
"The U.S. should recognise that Vietnam is in a critical 
condition and should treat it as a combat area of the cold 
war # , :# " He recommends strong support for Diem personally 
as the best available South Vietnamese leader, and the 
prompt transfer of Ambassador Durbrow, whose relations with 
Diem .are poor. Memo for Secretary of Defense, IT January 

196l s . 1 

Embassy Saigon is advised that Kennedy lias approved Counter - 

Insurgency Plan (prepared by previous Administration) 

calling for increases in U.S. support for Vietnamese armed 

forces, contingent on reforms by Diem. State to Saigon 

105^, 3 February 196] i-h 

The President requests the SecDef to examine means for 
placing more emphasis on the development of counter guer- 
rilla forces. NSAM 2, 3 February 1961 17 

The Secretary of Defense is instructed to report his views 
on actions in the near future to launch guerrilla opera- 
tions in Viet Minh territory. HSAM 28, 9 March 1961 18 

The JCS comment on the recommendations of Lt Gen Trapnell. 
In addition to the Trapnell recommendations, the JCS suggest 
that the U.S. provide Defense support funds on the same 
basis for 170,000 forces as for 150,000; that the U.S. pro- 
vide MAP support for the entire 68, 000 -man Civil Guard; and 
that the U.S. exploit these contributions to induce the GVK to 
accept the Counter Insurgency Plan. Memorandum reflects 
conflict of views between MAAG and Embassy in Saigon. JCS 
Memorandum for Secretary of Defense, JCSM 228-61, 11 April 
1961 * . . • ........ % 19 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









rr> 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Page 



6. Unsigned paper, apparently by Lansdale, proposes a Presi- 
dential directive organizing a Task Force to come up -with an 
approved plan of action in Vietnam. The goals of U.S. policy 
in Vietnam fall into three interrelated parts: (l) pacifi- 
cation, (2) stabilization and (3) unification of Vietnam 
under ant i -communist government. Tasks axe outlined in this 
memorandum to accomplish these three goals. Paper in Deputy 
Secretary of Defense Task Force file, 19 April 1961 22 

7. General Lansdale provides a detailed description of Presi- 
dent Diem and his family apparently intended for Vice 
President Johnson's use. Lansdale first met Diem in Saigon 
in 195^- • "Here is our toughest ally... a 60-year old bache- 
lor who gave up romance with his childhood sweetheart ... to 
devote his life to his country." Lansdale Memorandum for 

Deputy Secretary of Defense, 25 April 1961 36 

8. In view of the serious military deterioration within South 
Vietnam, and in order to accomplish the U.S. objective of 
preventing communist domination of the South, this first 
draft of the Vietnam Task Force report calls for a compre- 
hensive political, economic and military program of U.S. 
support. Among other recommendations are an increase in 
MAAG and MAP and a visit by the Vice President in the near 
future. Task Force Draft "Program of Action," 26 April 
1961. . * . . . * ••*«.. 



hz 



9 # The effect of a political settlement in Laos would be (l) to 
inhibit U.S. assistance in preventing a communist take-over 
in SVN; and (2) to permit an expansion of the VC effort in 
SW owing to the greater possibilities for uninhibited in- 
filtration; and (3) give complete control to the North 
Vietnamese of the three passes through the Annamite Moun- 
tains. With an expanded training program in SVN, however, 
the GW .should be able to defend itself even in the event 
of a Laotian settlement. Second Draft "Laos Annex" to Task 
Force report, 28 April 1961 58 

10. Attorney General Kennedy asks the question "Whe re would be 

the best place to stand and fight in SKA — where "to draw the 
line?" Secretary Melfemara thinks the best place to take a 
stand is in Thailand and SVN. General Decker thinks there is 
no good place to fight in SEA. State Department Memorandum 
of Conversation, 29 April 1961 

11 # Secretary Rusk decides at this meeting at the State Depart- 
ment that "We should not place combat forces in SVN at this 
time." Colonel Robert M. Levy Memorandum for Record, 5 May 1 
1961 * 



67 



ii TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



12 



13-' 



lU. 



15. 



l6« 



17. 



Final Draft of the Task Force Report recommends sending 
U.S. Battle Groups and an Engineer Battalion for train- 
ing purposes; the assignment of coastal patrol missions 
to Cli'CPACFLT; and the air surveillance and close-support 
role to CDICPACAF. It also recommends the Vice-Presi- 
dential trip, a letter to Diem from Kennedy, increased 
MAP and other assistance, and a general U.S. commitment to 
support of Diem. Final Draft Task Force Report "A Program 
of Action, " 6 May 1961 . . . . , 

OSD requests the JCS to review and study the military 
advisability of possible commitment of U.S. forces to SVN. 
Deputy Secretary of Defense Memorandum for Chairman, JCS, 
8 May 196i mmmi 



c * • . 



President Kennedy provides Vice President Johnson with a 
personal letter to present to President Diem. Kennedy sug- 
gests that, in addition to actions in the Counter-Insur- 
gency Plan, the U.S. is prepared to; (l) augment the 
personnel of MA AG, (2) expand MAAG's duties, (3) provide 
MAP support for the Civil Guard, and (h) provide support 
for the Vietnamese Junk Force. President Kennedy letter 
to President Diem, 8 May 1961.. 



. o • a . a C 



. * . # . C . 



.fl.ee 



e * a . 



The President makes the following decisions: (l) the U.S. 
objective is to prevent communist domination of SVTJ and to 
create in that country a viable and increasingly democratic 
society, (2) the President directs full examination of the 
size and composition of forces which would be desirable in 
the case of a possible commitment of U.S. forces to Viet- 
nam, (3) finally, the President approves continuation of 
the special Task Force on Vietnam. The decisions of this 
KSAil are based on the report "A Program of Axtion to Pre- 
vent Communist Domination of SVff." NSAM 52, 11 May 1961, 



*> o . 



President Diem asserts that the recent developments in Laos 
emphasize the grave Vietnamese concern for the security of 
their country with its long end vulnerable frontiers. 
President Diem states that "as a small net ion we cannot hope 
to meet all of our defense needs alone.. . " and expresses 
confidence that the Vietnamese needs will be given consider- 
ation in Washington. President Diem letter to President 
Kennedy, 15 May I96L 



o c 



Lansdale summarizes information on the possible deployment 

of U.S. combat forces in TO. He refers to a conversation 
between Diem and Vice President Johnson on the subject. 



Page 



69. 



131 



132 



136 



155 



111 



TOP SSCH3I - Sensitive 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Page 



18. 



19. 



20. 



21. 



"Much of the thinking has been on stationing U.S. combat 
forces in the high plateau. . .however, General Williams 
has written a brief memorandum to me recommending such 
U.S. forces to be stationed on the coast..." Lansdale 
Memorandum for Deputy Secretary Gilpatric, l8 May I96I. 



The Vice President reports on his mission to SEA. Johnson 
feels , on the basis of his visit, that the situation in Laos 
has created doubt and concern about U.S. intentions through- 
out all of SEA. "No amount of success at Geneva can, of 
itself, erase this." It is Johnson 1 s impression that his 
mission arrested the decline of confidence in the U.S. "We 
didn't buy time — we were given it. If these men I saw 
at your request were bankers, I would know — without 
bothering to ask — that there would be no further exten- 
sions of my note." The fundamental decision required of 
the U.S. is whether we are to attempt a major effort in 
support of the forces of freedom in the area or "throw in 
the towel." Johnson recommends "we proceed with a clear- 
cut and strong program of action." Vice President Johnson 
Memorandum to President Kennedy, 23 May 1961. 



157 



159 



President Diem sends the U.S. a study on Vietnamese needs 
to meet the insurgency situation in the South, Diem sug- 
gests that, in light of the current situation, an addi- 
tional 100,000 men above the new force level of lTO^OOO 
will be required to counter the threat of communist domi- 
nation. Diem recommends a considerable expansion of the 
U.S. Military Advisory Group in SVN as an essential require- 
ment, and, finals, Diem expresses his mistrust of 
Sihanouk T s communist sympathies and antagonism of SW. 
President Diem letter to President Kennedy, % June 1961.... x&J 

President Kennedy requests that the Secretary of Defense 
estimate requirements and make recommendations with respect 
to the anticipated future U.S. needs in the field of un- 
conventional warfare and paramilitary operations. HSAM 56, 

28 June 1961 nk 

Lansdale relates a conversation between Vice President Tho 
and Colonel Black. In discussing the Staley Mission, Tho 
concedes that it is impossible for the U.S. to provide SW 
with piastres. The GVN feels an increase in piastre return 
per dollar would cause inflation and, in turn, an inevitable 
demand for wage increases. Tho further concedes that the 
basic problem in VH is more political than economic. Tho's 
impression of the current situation in SVfr is more pessimistic 



IV 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET - Sensitive 

^~ ■— *■ - — — ^—^—ii . — - 

Page 

than that of the Americans. Lansdale Memorandum for 

Deputy Secretary Gilpatric, 12 July 1961 jj5 

22. Mr, William P. Bun dy' forwards the joint action program pro- 
posed by the GVlf-US Special Financial Group to the I 
Assistant Secretary of Defense. The report prepared by 

Dr. Eugene Staley, Chairman of the Group , has been submit- 
ted to President Hgo Diem and President John F. Kennedy, 
and includes the fiscal and economic implications of in- 
creasing the Vietnamese armed forces to 200,000 strength. 
The military portions, in addition to the requirements 
already planned, would require approximately $1*2 million, 
during the 18-month period, July 6l -December 62. Bundy 
Memorandum to Gilpatric, 25 July 1961, (Staley Report 
attached) . .,...,... 177 

23. General Lionel C. McGarr, Chief, MAAG-Vietnam, reviews the 
military situation and offers recommendations for continued 
improvement of the situation in SVN to President Diem. Among 
the recommendations made by McGarr are: (l) that a national 
internal security council be established to prepare and 
execute the Vietnamese National Counter Insurgency Plan; 

(2) that effective border and coastal surveillance capa- 
bilities be initiated; (3) that U.S. advisers be more 
effectively utilized by accompanying ARVN units on combat 
operations; and (k) finally, that the reorganization of the 
military command structure and establishment of* a single 
chain of command be implemented as recommended in the 
Counter Insurgency Plan. Aide -Memo ire for President Diem, 
received Secretary of Defense, 2 August 1961. ............. . 227 

24. The JCS do not believe that an alternate force of 270,000 
would be required to enable the HVMAF to conduct counter - 
insurgency operations and, concurrently, be prepared to 
meet overt aggression. They recommend that the strategic 
force objectives for W remain at the 9 division level 
(200,000) subject to further assessment. JCS Memorandum for 
Secretary of Defense, JCSM 518-61, 3 August 1961 mmmm 239 

25„ The President approves the Staley recommendations and decides 
that the U.S. will provide equipment and training assistance 
for an increased RVNAF from 170,000 to 200,000. It is hoped 
that President Diem will get the maximum mileage in terms of 
internal political support from this new commitment, and 
that he will involve more elements of the non-communist 
political opposition in the civic action program, NSAM 65, 
11 August 196l 2^1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET - Sensitive 






Page 

26. The situation in Worth and South VN is analyzed and the 
scope of the communist threat to SVN is estimated for 
the following year. The analysis concludes that the 
DRV is in thorough political control in Worth VN and 
"when Ho is no longer active, there will probably be a 

I struggle for power between the Moscow-oriented and the 

I t Peking -oriented elements of the Party." Dissatisfaction 

continues in South VN with Diem's leadership. The Array 
continues to be a major factor in future political devel- 
opments in the South. The outlook is for a prolonged and 
difficult struggle between the VC insurgents and the GVN. 
HIE lU. 3/53-61, 15 August 1961 21*5 

27. The President approves the following actions: (l) inten- 
sification of diplomatic efforts to achieve Souvanna's 
agreement to the Paris proposals; (2) authorization to 
undertake conversations with SEATO allies on an enlarge- 
ment of the concept' of SEATO Plan 5* an ^ (3) an increase 
in U.S # advisors in Laos. NSAM 80, 29 August 1961......... 2k*J 

28. The JCS sends the Secretary of Defense a draft memorandum 
for the President on military 'intervention in Laos. The 
JCS suggests that if the President decides that U.S. forces 
should be employed in Laos, that SEATO Plan 5 is the 
proper basic vehicle for the contemplated action. The 
political objective of the intervention is to confront the 
Sino -Soviet Bloc with a military force of Asian and West- 
ern powers capable of stopping the communist advance. JCS 
Memorandum for Secretary of Defense, JCSM 661-61, 20 Septem- 

t ber, I96I 2k$ 

29. The Bureau of Intelligence and Research assesses the crisis 
in South VN and analyzes the short term prospects. The 
study recognizes that communist progress toward its objec- 
tive of overthrowing President Diem has been substantial. 
Since I960, more than 6,500 civilians, officers, and 
military personnel have been killed or kidnapped. Recent 
U.S. support has raised Diem's political stature, but there 
has been no conclusive, reversal of deteriorating trends. 
The security situation remains unimproved. However, the 
Government's comprehensive CIP, supported by U.S aid, is 
beginning to show favorable results. Over the next year, 
developments in Laos may have more influence on VN than any 
improvement in the Diem Government. Department of State 
Research Memorandum RFE-1, 29 September 1961 258 

30. It is estimated that present armed, full-time VC strength 
is about 16,000, an increase of 12,000 since April of i960, 







vi TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



and of 1+,000 in the past three months. While only 10-20$ 
of this strength consists of cadres infiltrated from North' 
VN, the remaining 80-90$ includes remnants of the approxi- 
mately 10,000 stay -behind personnel who went underground 
during the 195^-^1955 regroupment and evacuation of Viet- 
namese communist army units following the Indo-China War. 
Though some weapons and equipment have been infiltrated 
into South W, there has been no positive identification 
of Communist Bloc -manufactured military equipment in South 
W. SNIE 53-2-61, 5 October 1961 

31. The JCS feel the time is now past when actions short of in- 
tervention by outside forces can reverse the rapidly 
worsening situation in Southeast Asia. They consider the 
execution of SEATO Plan % or a suitable variation thereof, 
to be the military minimum commensurate with the situation. 
JCS Memorandum for Secretary of Defense, JCSM 704-6l, 5 
October 1961 

32. It is the opinion of the JCS that the use of SEATO forces 
at the greatest possible number of entry points along the 
whole South Vitf border, i.e., over several hundred miles, is 
not feasible. Further, the alternative of using SEATO 
forces to cover solely the 17th parallel is militarily un- 
sound. "What is needed is not the spreading out of our 
forces throughout SEA, but rather a consolidated effort in 
Laos where a firm stand can be taken..." A limited interim 
course of action is provided herewith in the event SEATO 
Plan 5 i s considered politically unacceptable. JCS Memo- 
randum for Secretary of Defense, JCSM 716-61, 9 October 
1961. 

33. "For what one man's feel is worth, mine — based on very- 
close touch with Indo -China in the 195^ war and civil war 
afterwards until Diem took hold — is that it i£ really 
now or never if we are to arrest the gains being made by 
the Vietcong." Bundy suggests that an early, hard-hitting 
operation has a 70$ chance of success. "The 30$ is that we 
would wind up like the 'French in 195^; white men can't win 
this kind of fight. On a 70-30 basis, I would, myself, • 
favor going in." Bundy memorandum for Secretary McFamara, 
10 October 1961 

3^-. It is estimated that the Communist Bloc would not commit 
North Vietnamese or Chinese Communist forces to a large- 
scale military attack against South VW or Laos in response 
to an assumed SEATO action to patrol the GVN coast 



Page 



291 



295 



297 



312 



t 



vxi 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



and secure the border involving about 25,000 men. Neutral- 
ist governments in SEA would be most concerned at the 
increased tension and danger of general hostilities. 
Nationalist China would be elated with the SEATO action. 
SHIE 10-3-6, 10 October 1961 . 313 

35 •' At a meeting with President Kennedy, the following actions 
were agreed upon: (l) the Defense Department is authorized 
to send the Air Force Jungle Jim Squadron to VN; (2) Gen- 
eral Maxwell Taylor will leave for SVN on a Presidential 
mission; and (3) the State Department will pursue specific 
political. actions, i.e., protest to the ICC on North VN 
support of the VC; table a White Paper at the UN; and con- 
sult with our SEATO allies regarding support in VN. Gil- 
patric Memorandum for Record, 11 October 1961 322 

36. "With respect to training the Vietnamese Array for the 'wrong 
war 1 , it seems clear that in recent months the insurgency in 
South Vietnam has developed far beyond the capacity of police 
control. All of the Vietnamese Army successes this past 
summer have met Viet Cong opposition in organized battalion 
strength. . .This change in the situation has not been fully 
understood by many U.S. officials. In this regard, there is 
some concern that the Thompson Mission may try to sell the 
Malayan concept of police control without making a suffi- 
ciently careful evaluation of conditions in South Vietnam." 
JCS Memorandum for General Taylor, CM-390-61, 12 October 

I96I. 32^ 

37 . The President requests that General Taylor proceed to 
Saigon to appraise the situation in South Vietnam and to 
report his views on the courses of action which the U.S. 
might take to avoid further deterioration in the situation 
and eventually to eliminate the threat to the independence 
of South Vietnam. President Kennedy letter to General 

Taylor, 13 October I96I. <>* 32? 

38. The President directs the following actions be taken: (l) 
make preparations for the publication of the White Paper on 
North Vietnamese aggression; (2) develop plans for presen- 
tation of the VN case In the UN; (3) introduce the Jungle 
Jim Squadron into SVN for the purpose of training Vietnamese 
forces - He indicates that General Taylor should undertake 

a mission to Saigon. NSAM 10^, 13 October 1961 323 

39- It is the conclusion of the HoD General Counseltliat the pro- 
posed introduction of U.S. combat and logistic forces into 
VN would constitute violations of Articles l6 and 17 of the 



viii TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 J 6. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Page 



Geneva Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities in TO of 
July 20, 195^- Introduction of U.S. troops even for pur- 
poses of flood control would still constitute a violation 
of the Geneva Accords by the Government of TO. If a deci- 
sion is made to send U.S. troops into TO, the U.S. should 
justify it on the ground of collective self-defense. 
"Nothing in the Geneva Accords should be read as abridging 
the inherent right of Vietnam and the United States to 
take actions in collective self-defense." DoD General 
Counsel Memorandum for Mr. Hadyn Williams, 26 October 1961.. 329 

kO. General Taylor summarizes the fundamental conclusions of 
his group and his personal recommendations. Taylor con- 
cludes there is a double crisis in confidence: doubt that 
the U.S. is determined to save SEA, and doubt that . 
Diem's methods can defeat the Communist purposes and 
methods. Taylor recommends that the U.S. Government join 
with the GTO in a massive joint effort as part of a total 
mobilization of GTO resources to cope with both the VC and 
the ravages of the flood. Specifically, the U.S. Govern- 
ment will provide individual administrators, conduct a joint 
survey of conditions in the provinces, assist the GTO in 
effecting surveillance and control over the coastal waters, 
and finally, offer to introduce into South TO a military 
Task Force to operate under U.S. military control* General 
Taylor telegram (cite BAGI00005) for President Kennedy, 
1 November 1961 331 

Jfl. Taylor presents his reasons for recommending the introduc- 
* tion of a U.S. military force into South Vietnam. "I have 

reached the conclusion that this is an essential action if 
we are to reverse the present downward trend of events... 
there can be no action so convincing of U.S. seriousness 
of purpose and hence so reassuring to the people and govern- 
ment of STO and to our other friends and allies in SEA as 
the introduction of U.S. forces into STO. 1 ' Taylor suggests 
that the stx^ategic reserve of U.S. forces is seriously weak 
1 and that U.S. prestige would be more heavily engaged in 
I I STO by this action. However, the size of the U.S. force 
J J introduced need not be great to provide the military pres- 
ence necessary to produce the desired effect. General 
Taylor telegram (cite BAGI00006) for President Kennedy, 
1 November 1961 337 

k2 m The JCS and Secretary McNamara do not believe major units 
of U.S. forces should be introduced in STO unless the U.S. 
is willing to commit itself to the clear objective of pre- 
venting the fall of STO to communism and to support this 



ix TOP SECRET - Sensitive 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



-ge 



commitment by military action, and preparation for pos- 
sible later action. They recommend that the U.S commit 
itself to this objective and support the recommendations 
of General Taylor toward its fulfillment. Secretary of 
Defense Memorandum for the President. 8 November 1961 3**3 

43. The head of the British Advisory Mission submits to Diem 
his plan for clearing the VC from the Delta, The central 
idea is the creation of a network of "strategic hamlets 1 ' akin 
to those employed successfully by Thompson in defeating the 
communist guerillas in Malaya, R.G.K. Thompson letter to 

Diem, 11 November 1961 , . . . , . 3I+5 

I 

k^ Reversing the November 8 Defense recommendation for a com- 
mitment of substantial U.S. ground forces to South Vietnam 
this November 11 Rusk-McNamara memorandum to the President 
(perhaps prepared at Kennedy's specific direction) escalates 
the rhetoric regarding U.S, interest in a free South Viet- 
nam, but restricts the military recommendation: (a) employ 
only support forces now; (b) defer any decision to send 
"larger organized units with actual or potential direct mil- 
itary missions, 11 Whether Kennedy fully accepted the high- 
1 blown statements of U.S. interest and commitment to the 

GVN is not known. State/Defense Memorandum to the President, 

11 November 1961 359 

1*5. The Joint Staff submits to the Chairman, JCS, briefs of the 
military actions contained in the draft National Security 
Action Memorandum resulting from the Taylor Mission Report, 
The military actions indexed pertain to the use of signifi- 
cant and/or substantial U.S. forces, provision of increased 
airlift, provision of additional equipment and U.S. per- 
sonnel, provision of training and equipment for the Civil 
Guard and SDC, and finally, overhaul of the GVN military . 
establishment and command structure. In connection with the 
draft memorandum, the Joint Staff considersit militarily 
desirable to pre-position forces and equipment and is cur- 
rently considering augmentation of U.S. Army Forces Pacific, 
with one infantry division plus appropriate logistic and 
combat support units. Joint Staff Memorandum for the Chair- 
man of the JCS, 14 November 1961 368 

1+6. Rusk instructs Ambassador Nolting to seek an immediate ap- 
pointment with President Diem to inform him that President 
Kennedy has decided that the Government of the U.S. is pre- 
pared to join the Government of VN in a sharply increased 
joint effort to avoid further deterioration in the situation 
of SVN. The joint effort requires certain undertakings by k 






x TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 i 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



hi 









k8. 



. 






Pel 



both governments. On Its part, the U.S. would immediately 
support the GVN with increased airlift, additional equip- 
ment , U.S. personnel, expedited training and equipping of 
the Civil Guard and increased economic aid. The GVTI, how- 
ever, would Have to initiate the following actions: (l) begin 
prompt legislative and administrative action to put the 
nation on a wartime footing to mobilise its resources; 
(2) give governmental wartime agencies adequate authority 
to perform their functions effectively; and (3) overhaul 
the military establishment and command structure to create 
an effective military organization. "President Kennedy con- 
templates an immediate strong affirmative reply to satis- 
factory letter along indicated lines from President Diem, 
which will simultaneously be made public. " Rusk NIACT 619 
to Saigon, 15 November 1961 

After three days of talks in Saigon, Ambassador Galbraith 
feels there Is scarcely "the slightest practical chance 
that the administrative and political reforms being pressed 
upon Diem will result in real change." Gailbraith sees a 
comparatively well equipped army of a quarter million men 
facing 15 to 18,000 lightly armed men. "...there is no 
solution that does not involve a change of government,., 
to say there is no alternative (to Diem) is nonsense." 
Ambassador Gailbralth Memorandum for the President, 20 
November 1961. . . . • . . * . . 

"The key and inescapable point then is the Ineffectual! ty 
(abetted debatably by the unpopularity) of the Diem Govern- 
ment. This is the strategic factor. Ifor can anyone 
accept the statement of those who have been either too long 
or too little in Asia that it is the Inevitable posture of 
the Asian mandarin. For one thing, it isn't true, but 
were it so, the only possible conclusion would be that there 
is no future for mandarins. The communists don't favor 
them." Gailbraith feels that it is politically naive to 
expect that Diem will reform either administratively or 
politically in any effective way. "However, having 
started on this hopeless game, we have no alternative but 
to play it out for a minimum time. . .since there is no 
chance of success we must do two things to protect our 
situation. One is to make clear that our commitment is to 
results and not to promises. , .and we can press hardest in 
the area of Army reform where the needed changes are most 
specific and most urgent." It follows from Gailbraith 1 s 
reasoning that the only solution must be to drop Diem, and 
we should not be alarmed by the Army as an alternative. 
Gailbraith New Delhi 99^1 for President Kennedy, 21 Novera- 



1*00 



Uoe 



& 



ber 1961 



klO 



XI 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 






Jj-9. The U.S. is prepared to join the VII Government in a sharply- 
increased joint effort to avoid a further deterioration in 
the situation in SVN. This joint effort is contingent 
upon initiation of certain actions on the part of the GVN 
and consists of increased economic and military support by 
the U.S., based on recommendations of the Taylor Report. 
N3AM 111, 22 November 1961 . 

50. Bundy comments on the command arrangements for VN and recom- 
mends that General McGarr be elevated to the new position or 
that a replacement be found. He also recommends sending 
Lansdale back as Diem has requested. Bundy Memorandum for 
the Secretary of Defense, 25 November 1961.... . .♦.. 

51 - General Taylor relates a list of questions proposed by 
President Kennedy to be used at a meeting of his key ad- 
visors. Among the questions are: (l) what is the situa- 
tion with regard to Diem as reported by Ambassador Holting; 

(2) can we delay longer in obtaining an answer from Diem; 

(3) what are the views of the JCS on the military organi- 
zation required to support the new program; (h) what is our 
plan for flood relief; (5) who should the President regard 
as personally responsible for the effectiveness of the 
Washington end of this operation? General Taylor Memo- 
randum for Secretary McNamara, 2J November 1961. 

52. The President approves U.S. participation in a selective and 
carefully controlled joint program of defoliant operations 
in VN starting with the clearance of key routes and proceed- 
ing thereafter to food denial. TISAM 115, 30 November 
1961 

53- McNamara confirms to Rusk the command arrangements under 
which the senior U.S. military commander in Vietnam will 
have the title "Commander, U.S. Military Assistance Forces - 
Vietnam" and will have equivalent rank to the Ambassador, 
reporting through CINCPAC to the JCS. Secretary of Defense 
Memorandum for the Secretary of State, 18 December 1961 

54. Diem is apprehensive about giving control authority to 

Big Minh as military field commander because of his fear of 
a coup. While U.S. policy is to support Diem and he has 
been so informed by the President, we must find a way to 
reassure him about a coup. "It is the basis for his real 
reluctance to do what the Americans want him to do and this 
basic point needs resolving. . .what realistic assurances 
can we give Diem that the action he fears won't take place?" 
Lansdale Memorandum for the CJCS, 27 December 1961 



Page 



U19 



422 



h23 



425 



426 



427 



11 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 






a a 



Page 



1962 

55. The Chairman of the JCS summarizes the current situation 
in VN, methods of VC operations, routes of infiltration 
and supply } relative strengths, and discusses U.S. mili- 
tary units in place or enroute to VN. "The objectives 
of the Diem Government in SVU include not only survival 
against the communists, but also improvement of the 
national economy, enhancement of SVN f s position among 
Southeast Asian nations, creations of an effective armed 
force, and preservation of a pro-Western orientation. 
"Policies directed toward the achievement of these ob- 
jectives suffer from the concentration of power in the 
hands of the President, Mgo Dinh Diem, and a small 
clique headed by his extremely influential and power- 
ful brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu." Chairman JCS Talking Paper 
for Brief ing President Kennedy, 9 January 19&2. ............ ^28 

56. The JCS agree that the basic issue of Diem ! s apprehen- 
sion about a coup needs to be resolved. "I don T t be- 
lieve there is any finite answer to the question you 
pose as to how to convince Diem he must delegate 
authority to subordinates he doesn't fully trust." JCS 
Memorandum for General Lansdale, CM-^91-62, l8 January 
1962, 



hkO 



57. The President establishes a Special Group (Counter Insur- 
gency), the functions of which are as follows: (l) to 
insure proper recognition throughout the U.S. Government 
that subversive insurgency ("wars of liberation") is a 
major form of politico -military conflict equal in impor- 
tance to conventional warfare; (2) to insure that such 
recognition is reflected in the organization, training, 
equipment and doctrine of the U.S. armed forces and other 
U.S. agencies; (3) to continually review the adequacy of 
U.S. resources to deal with insurgency; and (k) to insure 
the development of adequate programs aimed at preventing 

or defeating insurgency. HSAM 12^, 18 January I962. 1*42 

* 

58. State Department agrees that an increase in the Vietnamese 
armed forces to the 200,000 man level should be supported 
provided the following factors are considered: (l) that 
U.S. military advisors and the Vietnamese authorities 
continue to set valid tactical and strategic plans; (2) the 

rate of increase should consider the ability of the Army , i 

to absorb and train the additional men and the manpower j ; 

resources of SVN; (3) that the armed forces should level 1 

off at 200,000 and further efforts should be devoted to » ! 



t 



xiii TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



59.' 






60. 



6l 



u 



62 . 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



strengthening the Civil Guard and Sell 1 -Defense Corps; 
and (k) that our training programs for ARVM be based on the 
concept that the Vietnamese Amy will start winning when it 
has the confidence of the Vietnamese populace. U. Alexis 
Johnson letter to Mr. Gilpatric, 26 January 1962 \ 



Secretaiy McNamara forwards a JCS Memorandum to the Presi- 
dent with the comment, "I am not prepared to endorse the 
views of the Chiefs until we have had more experience with 
our present program in SVN." The JCS Memorandum recommends 
that if, with Diem's full cooperation and the effective 
employment of SVN armed forces, the VC is not brought under 
control, then a decision should be made to deploy suitable 
U.S. military combat forces to SVN sufficient to achieve 
desired objectives. Secretary of Defense Memorandum for 
the President, 27 January 1962 ( JCSM-33-62, 13 January 1962, 
attached) . 



0.00 



The President requests that AID review carefully its role in 
the support of local police forces for internal security and 
counter -insurgency purposes^ and recommend to him through 
the Special Group (Counter Insurgency) what new or renewed 
emphases are desirable. WSAM 132, 19 Februaiy 1962 

The President approves training objectives for personnel 
who may have a role to play in counter insurgency programs 
as well as in the entire range of problems involved in the 
modernization of developing countries. The training objec- 
tives include the study of: the historical background of 
counter Insurgency, departmental tactics and techniques to 
counter subversive Insurgency, instruction In counter 
insurgency program planning, specialised preparations for 
service in underdeveloped areas. Training of foreign 
nationals will also be Included in the program* The Presi- 
dent desires that current counter insurgency training be 
examined to ascertain if it meets the above training objec- 
tives. NSAM 331, 13 March 1962. .»•«.•*•••• •«*••«< 



o a o a 



The President forwards* a memorandum on the subject of VN from 
Ambassador Galbralth and requests Department cf Defense com- 
ments. The Gailbraith Memorandum (h April 62) asserts that 
the UoSo is backing a weak and Ineffectual government In SVN 
and that "there Is a consequent danger that we shall replace 
the French as the colonial force in the area and bleed as 
the French did." Gailbraith urges that U e 3„ policy keep 
open the door for political solution, attempt to involve 
other countries and world opinion in a settlement, and 
reduce our commitment tr e present leadership of GVN. In 



Page 



U5 



kkj 



^55 



If 57 



* 



xiv 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



ao«ooo0O**oooa*ooao*«**oo*aoo«oo#ooio«a0o#o*«*ao#Q 



Page 



addition to recommended specific actions, Gailbraith sug- 
gests the U.S. should resist aXL steps to coimit American 
troops to combat action and dissociate itself from pro- 
grams which are directed at the villagers, such as the re- 
settlement programs . White House Memorandum for Secretary 
of Defense, 7 April 1962 (Galbraith Memorandum attached). .. 460 

■ 

63 . The JCS comment on Ambassador Galbraith' s Memorandum to 
., President Kennedy. The JCS cite the Kennedy letter of l4 
December 1961 to President Diem as a public affirmation 
of the intention of the U.S. Government to support Presi- 
dent Diem to whatever extent necessary to eliminate the 
VC threat o In sum, it is the JCS opinion that the present 
U.S. policy toward SV3S" as announced by the President "be 
pursued vigorously to a successful conclusion. IT JCS Memo- 
randum for the Secretary of Defense, JCSM 282-62, 13 April 
1962 



464 



64 . ISA discusses the circumstances surrounding the Defense reply 
to Galbraith* s Memorandum and notes the absence of formal 
staffing by the State Department . In a penciled note "Secre- 
tary of Defense has talked to Ambassador Galbraith and feels 
no reply needed. Mr. Forrestal informed this date that none 
would be sent." ISA Memorandum to Secretary of Defense, 

65. The President requests contingency planning in the event of 
a breakdown of the cease -fire in Laos for action in two 
major areas: (l) the holding by Thai forces with U.S. back- 

! * up of that portion of northern Laos west of the Mekong River; 

and (2) the holding and recapture of the panhandle of Laos 
from Thakhek to the southern frontier with Thai, Vietnamese 
or U„S. forces o Kennedy indicates that he contemplates keep- 
ing U.So forces in Thailand during the period of the nego- 
tiations by the three Princes and the early days of the 
government of national union. NSAM 157, 29 May 1962. 467 

66 9 In an evaluation of the first three months of systematic 

counter -insurgency, Hilsman of State's IHR reports some prog- 
ress and reason for modest optimism although acknowledging 
the great amount yet to be done. State Department IHR 
Research Memorandum REE-27j 18 June 1962 . O .«.oao. e9a «. e9 «.» 469 

67. The President approves assignments of responsibilities in 
the development of U.S. and indigenous police ? par amilitaryj 
and military resources to various agences as recommended by 
the Special Group on Counter Insurgency. Deficiencies 
revealed in the study pursuant to NSAM 56 Include: country 1 



xv TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Page 



internal defense plans, improvement of personnel programs 
of agencies concerned with unconventional warfare, orienta- 
tion of personnel, deployment of counter insurgency person- 
nel^ support of covert paramilitary operations, increased 
use of third-country personnel, exploitation of minorities, 
improvement of indigenous intelligence organizations, and 
research and development for counter insurgency* KSAM l62, 
19 June 1962 e . . . . . . D . . ^1 

68. The President approves a national counter insurgency doctrine 
for the use of U.S. departments and agencies concerned with 
the internal defense of overseas areas threatened by sub- ' 
versive insurgency. KSAM 182, 2k August 1962 •••••*««** ^5 

69* In a year -end summary of the Vietnamese situation and prog- 
nosis, Hilsman (State 1KB) concludes that at best the rate 
of deterioration has been decreased. GVN control of the 
countryside, the Strategic. Hamlet Program notwithstanding, 
has increased only slightly. State Department IMR Research 
Memorandum RFE-59, 3 December 1961. ...... o ................ . ^7 

I963 

70. A national Intelligence Estimate states that "Communist 
progress has been blunted and that the situation is im- 
proving. Strengthened South Vietnamese capabilities and 
effectiveness, and particularly U.S. involvement, are 
causing the Viet Cong increased difficulty, although there 
are as yet no persuasive indications that the Communists 
have been grievously hurt." The VC will continue to wage a 
war of attrition and there is no threat of overt attack from 
the North. On the basis of the last year's progress the VC 
can be contained but it is impossible "to project "the 
future course of the war with any confidence. Decisive 
campaigns have yet to be fought and no quick and easy end 
to the war is in sight." NIE 53-63, "Prospects in South 
Vietnam," 17 April 1963 • *. 5^2 

71 • Ike President approves and directs certain actions outlined 
in the Department of State Memorandum of 17 June 1*963* rel- 
ative to Laos planning. The President wishes to obtain 
suggestions for actions in Laos in light of the deteriora- 
ting situation and from the British and the French before 
initiating any action under the Memorandum. Kennedy asks 
about additional U.S. actions to be taken in Laos before 
any action directed against NVN. KSAM 2^9, 25 June 1963... 525 

72. The President is briefed on developments in Indonesia, Laos i 

and W. Specifically, onSVI^ discussions cover the possibility 






xvi TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



of getting rid of the Nhus (the combined judgment was 
that it would not be possible), pressure on Diem to take 
political actions, possible results of a coup, and the 
replacement of Ambassador Nolting with Ambassador Lodge, 
Department of State Memorandum of Conversation, 1+ July 
1963... 



oo.e.«.«06.* 






75* U.S. policy with respect to a coup is defined in more detail 
for Lodge and Harkins as a result of an NSC meeting with the 
President. ir The USG will support a coup which has good chance 
of succeeding but plans no direct involvement of U.S. armed 
forces e Harkins should state (to the generals) that he is 
prepared to establish liaison with the coup planners and to 
review plans, but will not engage directly in joint coup plan- 
ning." Lodge is authorized to suspend aid if he thinks it 
will enhance the chances of a successful coup. State Depart- 
ment Message 2J2, State to Lodge and Harkins, 29 August 

1963.. 



Page 



o * * o a o 



76 # Rusk raises with Lodge the possibility of a last approach to 
Diem about removing Nhu before going ahead with the coup. 
He notes that General Harkins favors such an attempt. Rusk 






526 



73- A Special National Intelligence Estimate evaluates the 

political crisis in South Vietnam arising from the Buddhist 
protest. It concludes that if Diem does not seek to con- 
ciliate the Buddhists new disorders are likely and there 
will be better than even chances of coup or assassination 
attempts. U.S-GVN relations have deteriorated as a func- 
tion of Diem ! s distrust of U.S. motives in the Buddhist 
affair and he may seek to reduce the U.S. presence in Viet- 
nam. The Communists have thus far not exploited the 
Buddhist crisis and they would not necessarily profit from 
a non -Communist overthrow. A successor regime with con- 
tinued U.S. support would have good chances of effectively 
pursuing the war. SNIE 53-2-63, "The Situation in South 
Vietnam, " 10 July 1963. 529 

jh. In a subsequently controversial cable, State informs Lodge 
that if Diem is unwilling or unable to remove Nhu from the 
government, that the U.S. will have to prepare for alterna- 
tives. Lodge is authorized to inform the Vietnamese generals 
plotting a coup that if Nhu is not removed we will be pre- 
pared to discontinue economic and military aid, to accept a 
change of government and to offer support in any period of 
interim breakdown of the central government mechanism. State 
Department Message to Saigon 2^3> State to Lodge, 2^ August 
1963 



536 



538 



xvii TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Page 



feels that if accompanied by the threat of a real sanction -- 
i.e., the withdrawal of U.S. support — such an approach 
1 could he timed to coincide with the readiness of the generals 

( to make their move and might, therefore, offer some promise 

of getting Diem to act. State Department Message 279, State 
to Lodge, 29 August 1963. •••*«•••., . . 539 

77* Vice President Johnson presides over a meeting at the State 
1 Department on the subject of ST?E. The generals 1 plot having 

1 aborted, Rusk asks what in the situation "lead us to think 

; well of a coup," Farther, Rusk feels that it is unrealistic 

now "to start off by saying that Nhu has to go." McNamara 
approves Rusk's remarks. Hilsman presents four basic factors 
bearing on the current situation: (l) the restive mood of 
the South Vietnamese population; (2) the effect on U.S. pro- 
I grams elsewhere in Asia of the current GVH policy against the 

I Buddhists; (3) the personality and policies of Hhu; and (h) 

U*S. and world opinion. Vice President has great reserva- 
tions about a coup because he sees no genuine alternative 
to Diem. General Krulak Memorandum for the Record, 31 
August 1963 i-. ...-♦.,• • = 

. 780 Lodge is instructed by the White House that since there is no 

longer any prospect of a coup,pressure must be applied to Diem 
to get him to adopt an extensive list of reforms. In particu- 
| lar Lodge is authorized to hold up any aid program if he thinks 

such action will give him useful leverage in dealing with 
Diem. CAP Message 63516, White House to Lodge, 17 September 
1963. 






5U0 



O o ■ • a 



5^5 



79. The President explains to Lodge his urgent need for the 
McNamar a -Taylor assessment of the situation.. 
The visit is not designed to be a reconciliation with Diem, 
rather he expects McNamara will speak frankly to him about 
the military consequences of the political crisis. State 
Department Message ^31, The President to Lodge, 18 September 

1963.*.. 



0000 



5'48 



80 • Lodge's reply to the White House CAP Message 63516^ indicates 
agreement that a coup is no longer in the offing, but opposes 
both an approach to Diem on reforms or the use of an aid 
suspension as a lever. He regards both as likely to be un- 
productive or worse. Embassy Saigon Message 5^S Lodge to 
State for President Only, 19 September 19630 .......<> - - . 5^9 

81. President Kennedy outlines his reasons for sending McNamara 
and Taylor to VH: "I am asking you to go because of my 
desire to have the best possible on-the-spot appraisal of 



xviii TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Page 



the military and paramilitary effort to defeat the VC." 
While the results from programs developed after Taylor's 
Mission in 1961 were heartening , the serious events in the 
South since May 1963 have prompted the President to ask 
Mclfemara to make a fresh, first-hand appraisal of the situa- 
tion. "In my judgement the question of the progress of the 
contest in SW is of the first importance. ." President 
Kennedy Memorandum for Secretary of Defense, 21 September 



551 



» 



82. Pending McWamara's visit and the subsequent review of policy, 
Lodge is given the following interim guidance: "(l) The 
United States intends to continue its efforts to assist the 
Vietnamese people in their struggle against the Viet Cong. 
(2) Recent events have put in question the possibility of 
success in these efforts unless there can be important im- 
provements in the government of South Vietnam* (3) It is 
the policy of the United States to bring about such improve- 
ment," State Department Message ^58, Eyes Only for Lodge 
from Ball, 22 September 1963. . 090 . . «, e 553 



83* The McNamara-Taylor Mission Report concludes that the mili- 
tary campaign has made great progress, and, vhile the 
political crisis in Saigon is serious, "there is no solid 
evidence of the possibility of a successful coup..," The 
Report recommends against promoting a coup and, although it 
is not clear that U.S. pressure will move Diem to the modera- 
tions and reforms we desire, nevertheless, as the only course 
of action with any prospect of producing results, the report 
recommends the application of selective economic sanctions, 
including a suspension of funds for the commodity import 
program. The Mission further recommends a shift of military 
emphasis to the Delta and a consolidation of the Strategic 
Hamlet Program. In addition, it is recommended that a 
training program be established for HVHAF such that the bulk 
of U.S. personnel may be withdrawn by the end of 1965* In 
conjunction with this program, the U e S. should announce plans 
to withdraw 1, 000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963.. 55^ 

8k 9 Lodge is advised that as a result of the policy review just 
completed, the "President today approved recommendation that 
no initiative should now be taken to give any active covert 
encouragement to a coup*" Efforts to build and maintain con- 
tacts with "alternative leadership" is authorized, however, 
CAP Message 63560, to Lodge via CAS channel, 5 October 



57^ 1 






85, Contact has been renewed by the generals with a CAS agent who 
has been apprised of the reactivation of plotting. In the 



xix TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 






Page 



meeting, General Minh states that he must know the U.S. 
position on a coup. He stresses that a coup is urgently 
needed to prevent the loss of the war to the VC. The U.S. 
contact is noneommital. CAS Saigon Message 14^5, Lodge 
H to State, 5 October 1963 575 

86. Washington reaffirms Lodge's guidance that he is not to 
promote a coup. Neither, however, is he to thwart one. He 
should try to obtain as much information as possible from 
the plotters about their plans on which to base an American 
judgement about their likelihood of success. CIA Message 
7^228, 6 October 1963. • o ..*... * . . . . . 577 

87. The President approves the detailed military recommendations 
contained in the McNamara-Taylor Report, but directs that no 
announcement of the implementation of the 1,000-man with- 
drawal plan be made. NSAM 263, 11 October I963..00 578 

• 

88. A Department of State Research Memorandum contends that the 
statistical indicators on the war in Vietnam reveal "that 
the military position of the Vietnam Government may have 
reverted to the point it had reached six months to a year 
ago." The analysis angers the JCS and Rusk subsequently 
apologizes to McNamara. Department of State, 1KB Research 
Memorandum REE-90, 22 October 1963, 579 

89 • With the coup plotting now far advanced and the U.S. clearly 
committed to the generals 1 attempt, Lodge seeks to calm 
Washington's anxieties about the lack of detailed informa- 
tion on the generals 1 plans. He is at pains to oppose any 
thought of thwarting the coup because he thinks the mili- 
tary will create a government with better potential for 
carrying on the war, and because it would constitute undue 
meddling in Vietnamese affairs. Embassy Saigon Message 
196^, Lodge to McGeorge Bundy, 25 October 1963 0*. 590 

90. While thanking Lodge for his views, the White House indi- 
cates that short of thwarting a coup we should retain the 
prerogative of reviewing the plans and discouraging any 
attempt with poor prospects of success. CAP Message 63590* 
McGeorge Bundy to Lodge, 25 October I963 592 

91. The White House instructs Lodge to bring General Harkins 
completely up to date on the coup plotting, and asks that * 
Harkins, Lodge and the CIA Station Chief provide a com- 
bined assessment of the prospects of the plotters. Indi- 
vidual comments are to be sent if desired. With these 
assessments, a decision can be made telling the generals: 






xx TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Page 



(a) we will maintain a hands -off policy, (b) we will posi 
tively encourage the coup, or (c) we will discourage it. 
More detailed military plans should be sought from Minh. 
CAS Message 79109, McGeorge Bundy to Lodge, 30 October 
1963 - ».-., 



O C • • * D 6 



c tt 



95. Taking note of the difference of opinion on the advisa- 
bility of a coup between Lodge and Harkins, the White House 
specifically informs Lodge that he is to discourage the 
generals from any attempt that in his judgement has a poor 
prospect of success. Lodge is given full authority for 
country team actions in the event of a coup; if he has left 
for Washington, Harkins will have charge. In the event of 
a coup, U.S. policy will be: (a) to reject appeals for 
direct intervention from either side; (b) if the contest is 
indecisive, U.S. authorities may perform any actions agreed 



593 



92. After complaining about Lodge's failure to keep him in- 
formed about the coup planning, General Harkins opposes the 
proposed coup against Diem. He does not see an alterna- 
tive leadership with Diem's strength of character, espe- 
cially not among the generals. The war continues to go 
well. MACV Message 2028, Harkins to Taylor, 30 October 595 

1963 

93* General Harkins takes detailed exception to the interpreta- 
tions of a deteriorating war effort that Lodge has been 
transmitting throughout October He offers an optimistic 
appraisal of the trend of the war and sees the political 
crisis as having only a marginal effect on troop morale 
and military effectiveness MACV Message 2033, Harkins 
to Taylor, 30 October I963 . Q , e . o • ....*.. *» 6 . 597 

$h m Lodge argues forcefully for the coup. "It is theoretically 
possible for us to turn over the information which has been 
given to us in confidence to Diem and this would undoubtedly 
stop the coup and would make traitors out of us Eor practi- 
cal purposes, therefore, I would say that we have very 
little influence on what is essentially a Vietnamese affair," 
In the event the coup fails, he believes we should do what 
we can to help evacuate the generals 1 dependents. Lodge 
believes the generals are all taking enormous risks for the 
sake of their country and their good faith is not to be 
questioned. "Heartily agree that a miscalculation could 
jeopardize position in Southeast Asia, We also run tremen- 
dous risks by doing nothing." General Harkins did not 
concur in the cable. CAS Saigon Message 2063, 30 October 

1963 



600 



xxi TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Page 



to by "both sides; (c) in the event the coup fails^ asylum 

iTiay be offered to anyone to whom ve have an obligation; but 

(d) once the coup has started^ it is in our interests to 

see that it succeeds. CAS Washington Message 79^07, 30 

October 1963. . • ' €Ch 



xxii TOP SECRET - Sensitive 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



) 









> 






I 



T 



V 



I 



[ 



[ 

■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 



JAU 






[ 

[ 

L ■ As desired by you, 1 visited Vietnam 2-14 January 1961. After 

twelve days of intensive looking and listening over some old familiar N ^ 

r- ground, I have come to the following personal convictions: *"* 



MEMORANDUM FOR SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 

DEPUTY SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 

i. * 

From; BrigGen Lansdale, OSO/OSD . 

"' Subj: Vietnam 

t 



a. 1961 promises to be a fateful year for Vietnam, 



4 * 

SEC IOET • " 






p 



■ » ■"•*•.. 



.^' 







.IE " : 






*--.. 



b. The Communist Viet Cong hope to win back Vietnam south 
of the 17th Parallel this year, if at all possible, and are much further 
along towards accomplishing this objective than I had realized from 
reading the reports received in Washington, £3 



% 



^O 



c. The free Vietnamese, and their government, probably will 
be able to do no more than postpone eventual defeat - - unless they 
find a Vietnamese way of mobilizing their total resources and then 

utilizing them with spirit, 

■ 

d. The U, S. team in Vietnam will be unable to help the Viet- 
namese with real effectiveness, unless the U,S. system of their 
operation is changed sufficiently to free these Americans to do the " * 
job that needs doing, and unless they do it with sensitive understanding 

and wisdom, 

t 

■ . 

e. If Free Vietnam is won by the Communists, the remainder 
of Southeast Asia -will be easy pickings for our en^my, because the 
toughest local force on our side will be gone, A Communist victory 
also would be a major blow to U. S. prestige and influence., not only 

in Asia but throughout the world, since the world believes that Vietnam 
. has remained free only through U,S„he,lp, . "Such a victory would tell 
leaders of other governments that it doesivt pay to be a friend of the * 
U, S. , and would be an even more marked lesson than Laos, . \* 






f, Vietnam can be kept free, but it will require a changed 
U*S. attitude., plenty of hard work and patience, and a new spirit by 
the Vietnamese, The Viet Cong have been pushing too hard militarily 
to get their roots down firmly and can be defeated by an inspired and • y 

determined effort. ■ . . . 






X 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



[ 



r 



; 






L 



[ 



v 



* 



[ 



SEC RET 



g, Ngo Dinh Diem is still the only Vietnamese with executive 
ability and the required determination to be an effective President. I 
believe there will be another attempt to get rid of him soon, unless the 
U.S. makes it clear that we are backing him as the elected top man. 
If the 11 November coup had been successful, I believe that a number 
of highly selfish and mediocre people would be squabbling among them- 
selves for power while the Communists took over. The Communists 
will be more alert to exploit the next coup attempt. At present, most 
Vietnamese oppositionists believe that the U. S. would look favorably 
upon a successful coup. i 



Vietnam has progressed faster in material things than it has 
spiritually. The people have more possessions but are ,. tarting to lose 
the will to protect their liberty. ' There is a big lesson here to be learned 
about the U.S. aid program which needs some most serious study. 

■ 

Recommendations 

|M .. | m M || Mill «|| Ml ■ -_— - _■ - 

Before I left Saigon, I discussed my impressions with Ambassador 
Durbrow who was most gracious towards me during the visit. Included 
in these impressions was my feeling that many of the Americans in 
Saigon perhaps subconciously believed in defeat, probably had spent too 
much time and energy on the politic?.! situation in Saigon Instead of on 
the very real Viet Cong menace, and were in need of some bolstering 
up by the Chief of Mission. In this feeling of defeat, I would have to 
except the Chief of MAAG and the local CIA Chief who believe we can 
win. Ambassador Durbrow told me of the memo he had issued to all 
Americans in Saigon after the 11 November coiip attempt. I said this 
was a good move, but much, more than writing a paper was needed. 

* * 

He asked me what suggestions I had. I said that I didn't have . * 
much immediately, and would have to do a lot of thinking about it. The 
situation in Vietnam is not black and white, but a most complex one in 
all shades of gray. Many Americans and Vietnamese expected me to 
come up with some sort of a miracle, to turn Ngo Dinh Diern into an 
Americanized modern version of the ancient. Vietnamese leader Jje Loi, 
However, the task requires more than a gimmick or some simple 
answer. It will take a lot of hard work and follow- through. In 12 
days, all I could do was learn as much as I could and to "plant a seed 
or two 11 with Ngo Dinh Diem and other Vietnamese leaders who know 
that I speak out of deep affection for the free Vietnamese. 



.■ 



SECRET 



2 






- 









_ 



V 



m I * 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 20! I 



SECRET 



s 



Since leaving Vietnam, I have spent many hours thinking about the 
ituation there* I am far from having a complete proposal to solve the 
situation. However, I do have some recommendations now for steps 
which should be taken to start remedying the downhill and dangerous 
trend in Vietnam. They are: ■ . 

«a. The U. S, should recognize that Vietnam is in a critical con- 
dition and should treat it as a combat area of the cold' war, as an area 
requiring emergency treatment. 

b. When there is an emergency, the wise thing to do is to pick 
the best people you have, people who are experienced in dealing with 
this precise type of emergency, and send them to the spot with orders 
to remedy the situation. When yout get the people in petition and free 
them to work, you should then back them up in every practical way you 
can. The real decisions will be made in little daily actions in Vietnam, 
not in Washington. That ! s why the best are needed on the spot. 

c. Our U.S. team in Vietnam should have a hard core of experi- 
enced Americans who know and really like Asia and the Asians, dedicated 
people who are willing to risk their lives for the ideals of freedom, and 
who will try to influence and guide the Vietnamese towards U.S. policy 
objectives with the warm friendships and affection which our close 
alliance deserves. We should break the rules of personnel assignment, . 
if necessary, to get such U.S. military and civilians to Vietnam. 

■ 

d. Under emergency conditions, our aid to Vietnam should be 
treated as contingency business and be given expedited priority handling 
until we can afford to take a breathing spell. 

e. Ambassador Durbrow should be transferred in the immediate 
future. He has been in the "forest of tigers* 1 which is Vietnam for 
nearly four years now and I doubt that he himself realizes how tired he 
has become or how close he is to individual trees in this big woods. 
Correctly or not, the recognized government of Vietnam does not look 
upon him, as a friend, believing that he sympathized strongly with the 

■ -coup leaders" of f% November. , . * . fc - . , , * -. 

* " " £. The new Ambassador should arrive as many weeks as possible 
before the April elections, for which the Communists are now actively 

L preparing with their "political struggle" tactics almost unhindered. The 

new Ambassador should be a person with marked leadership talents who 

■ * 

can make the Country Team function harmoniously and spiritually, who 



* 



;. S'ECRET 







. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 



can influence Asians through understanding them sympathetically, and 
who is alert to the power of the Mao Tse Tung tactics now being em- 
ployed to capture Vietnam and who is dedicated to feasible and practical 
democratic -means to defeat these Communist tactics. 



c 



J 






c 

r. 



. 



- 






g. Serious consideration should be given to replacing USOM 
Chief Gardiner* A number of Vietnamese pointedly answered my ques- 
tions about .Gar diner by talking about his deputy, Coster, while admitting 
that "Gardiner seems to be a nice man who has fallen asleep in our 
r* imate. ri 

h. U.S. military men in Vietnam should be freed to work in the 
combat areas. Our MAAG has a far greater potential than is now being 
utilized. U.S. military men are hardly in a position to be listened to 
when they are snug in rear areas and give advice to* Vietnamese officers 
who have attended the same U.S. military schools and who are now in 
a combat in which few Americans are experienced. MAAG personnel 
from General McGarr on down expressed desire to get more into real 
field work; let's give them what they want as far as U.S. permission 
is concerned and let them earn their way into positions of greater 
influence with the Vietnamese military in the field. 

i. A mature American, with much the same qualifications as 
those given above for the selection of the next Ambassador, should be 
assigned to Vietnam for political operations which will start creating 
J a Vietnamese-style foundation for more democratic government with- 
jjout weakening the strong leadership required to bring about the defeat of 
i the Communists, This must F_ot be a "clever" type who is out to gain a 
reputation as a "manipulator* 1 or a word- smith who is more concerned 
about the way his reports will look in Washington than in implementing 

U.S. policy in Vietnam. 

- 

j j. We must support Ngo Dinh Diem until another strong execu- - 

] tive can replace him legally. President Diem feels that" Ams ricans 
: have attacked him almost as viciously as the Communists, and he has 
! withdrawn into a shell for self-protection. We have to show him by 
deeds, not words alone, that we are his friend. This will make our 

*■•*-»„ * 

■influence effective again, 

K. We must do much, much more constructive work with the 
oppositionists, I suspect that the U.S. has taught them to be carping 
critics and disloyal citizens by our encouragement of these traits. 
! They need to put together a constructive program which can save. 



SECRET 



% 



'A r - 



-** 



» 
* 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



[ 

[ 

[ 

C 



SECRET 



I 









I 

m 



1 Vietnam from the Communists by building something worth a man's 

j life to prese-rve, If it's a good program, we should encourage one 

; strong political opposition to emerge, without endangering the national 

security. Here is where out political skill needs to' be used. This 

political work is needed as a m?vtter of grave urgency. Unless a con- 
. structive outlet 'is found quickly, the opposition in Saigon is going to 

explode in violence again and the Viet Cong are wide awake to exploit 

i f this time* 

The Communist Threat 



It was a shock to me to look over maps of the estimated situation 
with U.S. and Vietnamese intelligence personnel, as well as with 
President Diem who held similar grim views. The Communist Viet 
Cong now dominate much of the 1st and 5th Military Regions, as well 
as being active in spots in other regions, according to these estimates, 
The probable strength of the Communist armed forces in South Vietnam 
was given to me in various guesses from 3, 000 to 15, 000, My guess is 
that the strength is now closer to the latter figure and that only Hanoi 
knows accurately. ■ « 

This strength estimate by itself isn't what shocked me. The 
shocking part was to realize that the thousands of disciplined and trained 
Communist graduates of "proletarian military science 11 had been able 
to infiltrate the most productive area of South Vietnam and to gain con- 
trol of nearly all of it except for narrow corridors protected by military 
actions and for a few highly -localized spots v/here loyal paramilitary 
forces (Civil Guards and Self-Defnese Corps) have undertaken inspired 
counter- guerrilla actions or where villagers work closely with the 
military. 

The Viet Cong have the initiative and most o"f the control over 

the region from the jungled foothills of the High Plateau north of Saigon 

all the way south down to the Gulf of Siam, excluding the big city area 

of Saigon.- Cholon. This is "Vietnam's n brea.d-basket ,r where most of 
• * • ■ * 

its rice and rubber are grown. 

Unlike the Philippines or Malaya, the Communists cannot be 
cordoned off at the country's borders and then dealt with as an internal 

■ 

security problem alone. The borders of Vietnam are long and include 
some of the most difficult terrain in the world to patrol. It is apparent 
that many of the Viet Cong infiltrate from Cambodia, particularly from 
Svayrieng Province, Also, southeastern Laos has a reported Communist - 



\ "V 






<** ~^ r* *£> TT 1 T 

m m 

5 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



I 



SECRET 



build-up, with RLG forces committed elsewhere, and increasing 
infiltration into Vietnam is reported, 



[ 

t 
[ 






u 



[ 
[ 



[ 

... 



mi 



There is an intense psychological attack being waged against 
Free Vietnam by the Communists. This not only includes an almost 
constant barrage from powerful Radio Hanoi, which is reportedly 
relayed from Cambodia and is received as a loud ?,nd clear signal 
in South Vietnam, but also a heavy campaign by on-the-spot agitprop 
agents. A part of the psychological attack is directed against Ameri- 
cans, particularly against U.S. MAAGf personnel, along the lines of 
the Chinese Communist n hate America" campaign. 1 did not have 
the time or means to assess the effect of this psychological attack 
which has been going on for years. 

The big city area of Saigon-Cholon undoubtedly is a target of 
Communist operations, although I was able to find out little about 
either the Communist organization or its operations in this city area. 
U.S. intelligence personnel believed that Vietnamese counter-intelli- 
gence organizations were so actively ri hustling rr so. many suspects 
that the Communists have been unable to institute much of an organi- 
zation, president Diem believed that the Communists were concentrating 
their work elsewhere, following the dictum: n first the mountains, then 
the countryside, and then the city. 1 ' The attitude of Vietnamese and 
U.S. officials reminded me of the French and Vietnamese officials in 
Hanoi in 1953-54, who were so surprised later to discover that a 
complete, block-by-block clandestine Communist apparatus existed 
there. Ox, of Filipinos and Afnericans .who believed the Huks were 
in central Luzon in 195 and were so surprised when an, entire 
Communist politburo was captured in the city of Manila. I believe 
that the people in Saigon-Cholon have been the target of considerable 
subversive effort by the Communists and that it takes an in -place 
organization. tQ. carry this out. ... 

Communist strength figures are difficult to determine due in 
part to the different categories of personnel. I was able to get no 
estimate ■on the number of.Comnvunist political-psychological operators, 
although the DRV reportedly have trained many for work in the south. 
Also, the Communist military personnel include regulars who have 
infiltrated from the north, plus territorial forces and guerrillas who 
apparently are recruited locally. Colonel Tranh Thien Khiem, who 
commands the 5th Military Region, broke his estimate of some 7, 000 
Viet Cong military in his region into 3,320 regulars, 1, 170 territorials, 
and 2,590 guerrDlas. When the Vietminh troops were transferred to 
the north in 1954-55 under the Geneva Agreemr . ma^y b»ft *=irnUes. 



--■»■■ .-..'• . .--,.. -*■ - .** .,*• ,*--- 



0LUi\LI ft 






. * 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



i 

L 
[ 

E 

1 






I 









f 

I 

I 
[ 

! 



SECRET 



behind in the south, along with stay -behind organizations and arms, 
caches. Although the pacification campaigns of 1955-56 cleaned up 
v/Jiat the Communists had left behind to sornq extent, there were remnants 
remaining which the Viet Cong have since exploited and augmented** 
greatly over the past 5 years. - 

President Ngo Dinh Diem 

President Diem and I are friends". Also, he is a man who put 
other Vietnamese friends of mine in jail or exiled them. It is hardly 
a blind friendship. 

Prior to my departure from Y/ashmgton, Jeff Pardons asked if 
I would please size-up President Diem carefully to see if he had changed 
much from when I had worked with him so closely in 1954-56. In our 
first meeting, he was a bit cautious with me. I suspected that he was 
waiting for me to drop Y/ashington's other shoe as a follow-up to the 
Ambassador's demands that he reform his ways. So, I reminisced on 
what we had been through together in the past and he joined in, adding 
the story of the 11 November coup as he saw it. Our meetings" from 
then on became more like the. old days, with plenty of give and take, .- , " 
but only after I convinced him that I still had affection for the Viet- 



namese people and was trying to understand their problems before 



c 



. sounding off. 

» 

He seems to have a better grasp of economic matters than formerly. 
Also, I believe he sincerely wants to pass some of his daily burden of 
work to others. He said that he had found this extremely hard to do, 
since too many others were soft in carrying out responsibilities or else 
were too vain to knuckle -down to hard work. This has forced him to 
over-burden Nguyen Dinh Thuan, Secretary of State for the Presidency, 
wlio doesn't hesitate to make tou^h decisions when needed, who has had 
to act as hatchet-man when others were too soft to get rid of incompe- - 
tents, and who has been loyal to his boss (although he* speaks right up 
for his own views). Vice President Tho is so soft-hearted that he 

; really never takes corrective action against wrong doers. Vu Van Thai 
is a n blackmailer rr by threatening to resign after convincing the Americans 
that he is the most "brilliant Vietnamese in economic matters, although 
he is a poor executive whose work is in bad shape; if Diem accepted 
Thai's resignation, the Americans would feel that the Vietnamese Gov- 
ernment v/as going to hell. (Unfortunately, there's some truth in these 

.feelings of Diem T s about Tho and Thai). 



SECRET 



^ 






7 

7 







I 



[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



'SECRET 



I believe President Diem Is more screened in by his "palace 
guard' 1 than he realizes - - but then much the same could be said of 
other leaders elsewhere. I noted that he still has a personal informant 
- net and I managed to talk to soitxc of them privately. The largest influence, 

rbut not the only one, is wielded by his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu. However, 
I found President Diem unusually well informed on the situation in Vietnam, 
• including the bad aspects - - better informed than any ether Vietnamese 
among the many with whom I talked. 



In reflecting on our conversations, I have concluded that most folks 

Uv/ho talk to him have little empathy for, or sensitve understanding of, 
him. They fait to realize that Diem is human and doesn't like the idea 
of people trying to kill hirn out of hatred; the coup attempt of 11 November, 
opened at 3 a.m, by bursts of heavy machine gun fire into his bedroom 
[ in an obvious try at liquidating him in his bed. On top of this, he has 

no;. r had nearly 7 years of venomous attack by the Communists who know 

Lthat he is a major obstacle which must be destroyed before they can win. 
This is a daily psychological attack on hirn in his own country, in his' 
own language, and listened to by his own people. The only way he 

f could shut this off today would be to give up what he, and we, believe in. 

On top of this, he has criticism heaped on him by many who are simply 
being destructive, he has administrators who are disloyal or whose 
vanity is expressed in talking a better job of work than in doing it. And 
then, to cap the criticisms, he feels that n\any Americans have con- 
tempt for him - - that the .IT, S 4 which sould be Vietnam's staunchest 

P i frit ad is somehow taking the same psychological line with him as do 

the Coinmanists, that somehow our nobly -expressed policies get carried 
out with much pettiness in actual practice. ■ 



* 




If the next American official to talk to President Diem would have 
the good sense to see him as a human being who has been through a lot 
of hell for years -- and not as an opponent to be beaten to his knees -- 
we would start regaining our influence with him in a healthy way. .Y/hat- 
fcvftr else we might think of him, he has been unselfish in devoting his 
life to his country and has little in personal belongings to show for it. 
If we don't like the- heavy influence "of Brother Nhu, then "let's move . 
someone of curs in clone. This someone, however, must be able to 
look, at problems with understanding, suggest better solutions than 
does Nhu, earn a position of influence. 

The next time we become "holier than thou", we might find it 
ottering to reflect on the DRV, Do the Soviets and the Chinese Com- 
munists give Ho Chi \iinh a similar hard time, or do they aid and 
*hot hirn? 



■ 



? - ■ ■: ,- r i ■ t 

\ - "---■' J 



8 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 










[ 

[ 
[ 






SECRET 



U. 5. Political Efforts 

The United States has been the main forearm political mentor for • 
Free Vietnam since it became an independent nation, Of course other 
nations have had their influence. But we were the ones who have spoken 
with authority, who have held the purse- strings, who trained and advised 
the government personnel, and to whom most Vietnamese in political 
life have looked for guidance. It is only human to want to find someone 
else to blame for what has gone wrong* But, we won't be able to start '". 
doing effective political work until we admit that our own actions carry 
responsibilities with them. There are plenty of Aaron Burr's, a few 
Alexander Hamilton's and practically no George Yfashir ^ton's, Tom 
JeffersonJc or Tom Paine 's in Saigon today , . , largely as a result 
of our U.S. political influence, This certainly is not the U.S. policy 
we had hoped to implement. 

Ambassador Durbrow seemed genuinely surprised when I told 
him that the Can Lao. Party in Vietnam was originally promoted by 
the U„S, State Department and was largely the brain-child of a highly- 
respected, senior U.S. Foreign Service professional. Several weeks 
after this action was undertaken originally, I learned of it and warned 
that the benefits were extremely short-term and that great lasting 
harm could result by a favored party forcing older parties to go under- 
ground. However, the decision had been made, the Can Lao party had 
been started, and we had to start working from that reality. We cannot 
go back to living in the past and must keep moving ahead, but that 
doesn't mean that we have to pay forever for our mistakes. 

However, the real point is that we don't seem to have very long 
memories or enough solid feeling of responsibility for out acts/ Many 
U,S, Foreign Service officials leap into attacks on the Can Lao Party. 
I agree with their reasons. Any thinking American would. But I sure 
would feel better about it if they could only remember the consequences 
of their own actions for a few short years - and learn from that memory. 
I cannot. truly sy rnpa th'i z e v/ith Americans who help promote a fascistic 
state and then" get angry when it doesn't act like a democracy, 

■ 

So, what should we do about it? I have a concrete recommenda- 
tion, V/e need an American in Saigon who can work, with real skill, 
with great sensitivity to Vietnamese feelings, and with a fine sense of 
the dangerous limits of Vietnamese national security in a time of 
emergency. This upusual American should be given the task of creating 

> * * 

SECRET 

v.' - 



■ 



^ -J- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



I 






[ 

I 
[ 
( 

i 

i 



[.-■ ■ ■ ■ ' 

SECRET 

r 

• ■ 

^ X an opposition party Which would coalesce the majority of the opposition 

into one organisation, of helping this new party adopt a platform which 

contains sound ideas for building national entities which the Vietnamese 

people v/ould find worth defending against the Communists, and of 

strongly influencing it to play the role of loyal opposition while President 

•• . Diem is in "power and the nation is in such great danger. 



r This* work with the opposition is a matter of grave urgency , 

f i Unless the energies of the malcontents, the frustrated, the patriots on 
the outs are quickly channeled into constructive political works, they 
are going to explode into de s t r ue live political"wo rk . This opposition 
situation in Saigon-Cholon is at the bursting point, and there is no 

• safety valve. Y/hen it next blows, and if Diem cannot cope with it, 

\ the Siagon political scene has all the makings of turning into anarchy. 

j It can happen, and soon. 



1 saw a number of opposition people, officials of various' parties, 
members of the National Assembly, and disgruntled members of 
President Diem's administration. They eagerly told rne how they were 
criticizing Diem's actions more and more openly. I asked them what 
their own program was, other than to seize power for themselves oar 
to have me pat them on the head for being critics. Few of them had 
I any sensible ideas. I told them they'd better get busy scratching for 

a better program themselves or else I could only assume that they 

C l were being disloyal or treasonous in a time of great national danger, 

1 trust that other Americans 'calking to these oppositionists will do the 
same or we will be inviting disaster by listening to this and keeping 
| mum when we should be working like beavers to turn it into constric- 

tive channels. 



. If we c3.11 get most of the oppositionists meeting with cadi other 
- to try to put together a platform they can all agree on, and can pro- 
tect such work so that it can be done fairly openly, we will have an 
extremely useful political action in motion. It will absorb months 
!of political energies which otherwise will -go towards the solution of 
■ armed overthrow, A major opposition party, once it starts becoming 
*a reality,, will tend to make the several governmental groupings such 
jas the Can Lao, MNR, and Nhu's labor organizations start coalescing 
/into one stronger group. In this way, we can help promote a two-party 
I system which can afford to be surfaced, end much of the present 
j clandestine political structures, and give sound encouragement to 
; the development of new political leaders. There are many fine younger 
^ ^>atr?-*ts who need this sort 0/ a healthy political atmosphere to develop 
\ ia, ii v/s"evcr expect Vietnam to have a real future. 



v. . -.* • „ 



-SACHET 

1 n 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






[ 



SECRET 



Cojnmcntfl 






[ 



: • 



[ 

r 



* 
* 



Hcrti are some addition?.! thoughts; 



' a. President Diem said that if it hadn't been for the dedicated 
an ti- communism of about a million Catholics, Vietnam could never 
have kept going this long. Yet his brother, Archbishop Thuc, told 
me that the refugees from the north (including many Catholics) had 
been settled into such remunerative new lives in the south that they 
had gone soft, no longer wanted to fight, and criticised the govern- 
ment for wanting to continue the war. Also, the Saigon -Choi on area is 
seething with political discontent while the people are f?,r better off 
in material possessions than ever before, The shops are full of goods 
for Tet and the people are buying heavily « Somehow, the U, S, has 1 
filled their bellies but has neglected their spirit. 

b. Many of the Vietnamese in the countryside who v/cjre right 
xip against the Viet Cong terror were full of patriotic spirit, Those 
who seemed to be in the hardest circumstances, fighting barefoot 
and with makeshift weapons, had the highest morale. They still can 
lick the Viet Cong with a little help. There's a lesson here on our 
giving aid. Maybe we should learn that our funds cannot buy friends 
or a patriotic spirit by mere materialistic giving. Perhaps we should 
help those who help themselves, and not have a lot of strings on that 
help. 

* j. m ■ 

c. The Viet Cong crowded a lot of action into the year I960, 
They infiltrated thousands of armed forces into South Vietnam, 
recruited local levies of military territorials and guerrillas, and 
undertook large scale guerrilla and terroristic operations, In so 
doing ..they neglected doing sound political work at the grass roots 
level and broke one of Mao Tse Tung's cardinal rules. Many people - 
in the south now under their thumb are unhappy about it, but too 
terrified to act against these new rulers. The Viet Cong apparently 
havc'been working hard recently, to- rectify this error, and now have 
political cadres in the field, Y/e still have a chance of beating them 
if-wc can give the people some fighting chance of gaining security 
and some political b?,sis of action, Since both of these actions will 
have to be carried out by Vietnamese forces in their Defense estab- 
lishment, it is worthwhile to make U.S. help to the Vietnamese in 
the contested provinces along these sorely needed lines a priority 
mission of the U.S. military in Vietnam, The political actions should 
,}e ^tve implementing of Vietnamese governmental policy W V5.e*ii>me5e 



v ' 



* 



•J 















r 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 



rce commanders, aided by Vietnamese psychological warfare units. 
If the U, S, military doesn't ride herd'on this, it is apt to be neglected 
and is too vital to keeping Vietnam free to be made a secondary work. 

• d, I am passing a copy of this to Admiral Felt at CINCPAC- 
Suggest that copies be passed also to selected persons in Defense, 
State, and CIA, ' 



1 G, \/J)ja &LvJU. 

Edward G. LANSDALE 
Brigadier General, U. S. j 



.F.. 



i 



L 



[. .. 



■ • 



L 

i 



' * 



4 * 



1 " 



.-_ - -V 



SI 


SECRET 


' . ~ - - - 


- 


• 








Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



SECRET 



THE WHITE HOUSE 

Washington 



January 30 s 196l 



MEMORiUftDUM FOR: The Secretary of State 

The Secretary of Defense 



You should understand that as a result of our meeting on 
Saturday morning, January 28 ? I authorize an increase of 
expenditure of $28 .k million to expand the Viet-Nam force level 
by 20,000; and an increase in expenditure of $12.7 million for 
a program to improve the quality of the Viet-Nam civil guard. 






i 



Initialed/j.F.K. 



SECRET 



13 



SecDef Cont Wo. 188 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






OUTGOING TELEGRAM DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



•SECRET 



SENT TO: AMEMBASSY SAIGON PRIORITY 10 k 



RPTD INFO: CINCPAC POLAD AMEMBASSY VIETINNE 

AMEMBASSY BANGKOK llh6 AMEMBASSY LONDON 
AMEMBASSY PHQM PHEN AMEMBASSY PARIS 

JOINT STATE -DEFENSE- ISA MESSAGE 

■ 

2761 

(nvnaf) 

i Counterinsurgeney Plan, including 20,000 men increase VN armed forces/and 
provision training and equipment 32,000 Civil Guard, approved on basis following 
FY 6l funding: $28. 1+ million MAP for expanded NVNAF and $12.7 million MAP for 
Civil Guard. $660,000 as proposed for psychological operations and com- 
munications equipment also approved. 

Highly command Ambassador, Country Team and staffs. Recognize Plan allows 
considerable latitude for changes and refinements as implementation worked out 

* 

with GVN and as situation requires. However , U S„ would as Plan provdes 
expect GVN absorb local currency costs these increases aid does not contemplate 
farther US dollar grants to generate additional local currency for this purpose. 

- 

preparation abridged version plan suitable for use Ambassador and 
in presenting plan to Diem. In presenting plan to Diem recommend you 
emphasize implementation will require extraordinary effort US -GVN cooperation, 
but that if implemented promptly and vigorously, we believe it will give GVN 

1 

means turn tide against VC and at same time improve GVN capacity resist evert 
aggression. Immediate purpose Plan is to enable GVN defeat insurgency, but 
Plan also envisages that GVN must move on political front towards liberalization 



FE;SEA;CTWood;tha;erc 2/3/61 The Secretary 

SEA - Mr. Anderson FE - Mr. Parsons BOD - Adm Rainz 

ICA - Mr. Sheppard C/MBC - Mr. Ball 
S/S - Mr. Seip (in substance) 

SECRET , 
Ik 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Page 2 of telegram to AMEMBASSX SAIGON 



SECRET 



to retain necessary popular cooperation; that various economic steps be 

■ 

taken j and that there be adequate cooperation with KKG on frontier control. 
It considered US view that success requires implementation entire plan. 

Should make clear our present commitment to support Counter insurgency 
Plan is only for FY 6l part of program. Future funding will require 
Congressional approval. Views Congress likely be influenced by developments 
in political as well as security situation. FY 6l component represents 
large increase in US support Viet -Nam. If GVN willing to accept the 
obligations involved in its implementation, the US is ready give full and 
immediate support in carrying it out. 

Suggest proposeing to Diem that members US Missions ready confer with 
GVN opposite numbers work out agreed version Plan within, say, two week time 
limit. Urge changes be kept minimal to avoid necessity referred CINCPAC. 
and Washington. 

In implementing Plan recommend that Country Team: 

a) Conduct annual or more frequent review question balance as between 
forces committed primarily against VC and those intended primarily resist 
external aggression. 

b) Emphasize importance GVN-KKG border control. 

c) Urge GVN improve treatment VC prisoners, as done by Magaaysay, to 
encourage desertions. 

d) Urge GVN increase efforts to infiltrate VC in SVN. 

In view Congressional interest monetary reform advise whether GVN should 
be pressed for early establishment unitary rate or whether additional costs 

SECRET 

15 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Page 3 of telegram to AMEMBASSY SAIGON 105^ 



SECRET 



imposed on GVTJ by Plan will have same affect <, 

If Ambassador considers GVltf does not provide necessary cooperation^ 
he should inform Washington with recommendations which may include suspension 

r 

US contribution. 



RUSK 






Pouched by DCT 



SECRET 



16 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






THE WHITE HOUSE 

Washington 



February 3j 196l 



TOP SECRET 



NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 2 



: The Secretary of Defense 



SUB JE CT : Development of Counter- guerrilla Forces 



At the National Security Council meeting on February 1, 1961, 
the President requested that the Secretary of Defense , in 
consultation with other interested agencies > should examine 
means for placing more emphasis on the development of 
counter- guerrilla forces. 

Accordingly, it is requested that the Department of Defense 
take action on this request and inform this office promptly 
of the measures which it proposes to take. 



Copy 1 of h 



(Signed) 

McGeorge Bundy 
Special Assistant to the President 
for National Security Affairs 



TOP SECRET 



v 



17 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






■■■■■■:■ 

* 

■ 



C 
[ 

[ 



[ 






THE WHITE HOUSE 



WA SHINGTON 



. 1961 MAR 10 m r 05 



OFFICE OF ?i€ 
SECRETARY 0" DEFENSE 



TOP SECRET 



March 9, 1961 



NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 28 

^ ■ -' ■■ ■ ■ ■ - ■ ' i — ■ — ■ — — — i ■ ■ — ■ — i ■ — »- — ^— ■ - — — — 

TO:VTHE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 

THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE 

- 

Subject: Guerr illa Operation s in Viet-Minh Territory 



In view of the President's instruction that we make every 
possible effort to launch guerrilla operations in Viet-Minh 
territory at the earliest possible time, would you report to 
the President as soon as feasible your views on what actions 
might be undertaken in the near future and what steps might 
be taken to expand operations in the longer future. 



J 



[ 



CC: The Secretary of State 



McGeorge Bundy 



* * 



C 
I 






P 



9- 



TOP SECRET 



Copy 1 , 



f 



f5C*L& 



£M<t/t('9* / 



18 



*%. ! 



s 









:o. f%{ 



V 

h 
C 

x 






Ik-classified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 I 




[ 












3&5^ - 








1&UPR II PMT^E^TpiNT CHIEFS QF STAFF 

WASHINGTON 25, D. C, 

^ OFFICE OF THE - * n c^X'^ 

SECRETARY OF DEFENSE . f - VjfiA C'U- 1 v ' 



5 * •! % r n « c I 



15 



n /-■ 



JCSM- 223-61 



1 1 APR 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY 0? DEFENSE 



Subject: Recoiisnendations on South Vietnam (u) 



l t On 2o March ISol, .Lieutenant General T. J. H. Trapnell- ■• 
submitted to the Joint Chiefs of Staff a report anci ten recom- 
mendations on the situation in South Vietnam, These reco:r- : ;enda 
tiohs v/ere: 

a c US should support Countering urgency Plan and promote 
Its acceptance by the Government ' of Vietnam. 

b. Decide and direct military matters through military 
rather than Country Team channels* 

c # Avoid reduction in MA AG strength* 



C 






■ 



C. 

c 

* 

■ 

[ 



,• 



Copy 



of 



L 



d. Provide Defense Support funds on same basis for 
170,000 force as for 150'OQO* 

* m 

c. Provide MAP support for entire 68,000 Civil Guard, 
f . Provide MAP POL support for Civil Guard. 

^g. Provide MAP support for British-inaka personnel ■ 
carriers and scout cars. . - 

* 

^— -h. Expedite insnediate shipment by air of 12,000 Ml 
carbines, • ■ . . 



i. Expedite shipment of 625 AN/GRC-9 and 2245 AN/PRC-10 
radios; 80 ■ RS-6 radios end 80 GN-43 generators. 

j # Expedite shipment of 3000 Claymore anti-personnel 



I'! Ami it >J * 



\ 



■•■?• 



of f 

pages sz'Aoz 



Co 



Dic>s eccii 



\ 







/? 



-• 



13 



c«. 



• ^ 






'"\ 



N 




Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 












n 









r-rr* 



i\ 



* 
% 



a? Ms V _ a t.1 3 



[ 
[ 






I 

( 









[ 

I 



ij 



2, .On 31 March 1961, the Joint Chiefs of Staff approved the 
recon^endations listed in subparagraphs la, b and c above and 
requested the Secretary of Defense. to take action deemed- appro- 
priate. The recc;r/::iendations listed in subnarag:raphs 1 & a e \ . f 
and g above were forwarded to CI__G?AC for c cffifinent and recom- 
mendation. The recommendations listed in subparagraphs 1 h- .. 
and j above were referred to CtllGTkC for action deemed aoor-o- 
priate, with advice to the Joint Chiefs of Staff of action 
taken, and of requirements for further assistance on such action 

3. The Joint Chiefs of Staff have received ana considered 
the coirrr.ents of C_C_IC?AC. and his reports on action taken. The 
Joint Chiefs of Staff approve the Trapncll recoi-Mendations 
below subject to the following considerations: 

a. Provide Defense Support funds on same basis for 
170,000 force as for 1$0,000, /The Joint Chiefs of Staff 
have taken clue cognisance of _3ia primary functions and 
responsibilities assigned to the State Department ana ICA 
in determining the source and allocation of Defence Support . 
funds. However 1 j the Government of Vietnam apparently feels 
it cannot provide the financial support required in the 
Coimterinsurgsncy Plan* Furthermore, the Joint Chiefs of 
- Staff feel that prompt acceptance of the Counterin^ursency . 
Plan by the Goverarasnt of Vietnam is a natter of overriding 
concern In that country's present critical situation. 
Therefore^ the Joint Chiefs of Staff request the Secretary 
of Defense to take action to the end that Defense Sunoort 
funds are provided for a 170,000 _san force on the sane 
basis as that nov; provided for 150,000. | ' ' ' 



b. Provide FAP support for entire 68*000 Civil Guard* 

■"_-_. _• . __ J. _»*t?_ _*__-»_. rt «-» .r. _ -_ ■_ _ _ _ _. _._,___! . -» _____ _ , »___._» 



(1) 




mately $20 million be adde 
ceiling* -to support this. . 



c, Provide MAP FOL. support for Civil Guard. ' 
Chiefs of Staff recommend approval for provision 
to the Civil Guard. ' . 

. * I * : . i 



The Joint 
of MA? ?0L 



, i - 
_r « 



*\ 



Or 







Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 












f - 



c 



cU Provide MA? support for British-make personnel carriers 
and scout cars. The Joint Chiefs of Staff re contend approval 
for MA? support of British vehicles in Vietnam to the extent 
only of providing general supply and repair- parts of iteiss 



/ 



j. 



j- 



conL'non co cne wait. 



i 



4 . The. Joint Chiefs of Staff recommend that the increased 
US contributions to the Government of Vietnacij proposed abovej 

be appropriately exploited by US representatives in Vietnam to 



i induce that government ?s acceptance of the Counter ins urgency 

1 Plan 



1!J 



5. The Joint Chiefs of Staff 
appropriate action to implement 
Trapnell: 



note that OIKCPAC has taken 
the recommendations of General 



ZJ 



r 



*«* 



r 

> 






t. 



a. To airlift 12,000 carbines, 

b. To expedite shipment of needed radios and generators.. 

c. To expedite shipment of Claymore mines. 

For the Joint Chiefs of Staff: 



* ■• 



f r-r 



V -V; v r } 



1. 



£^^> T/ 



L." L* H5MHITZEH 

Chairman 

int Chiefs of St 



i' ii — # 




-x-' 



/■■ 



U~t *+- 






[ 

[ 



J T 



* • 



- 



[ 

r 



- 









E 
[ 



& 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



. * 






19 April 1961 



VIETNAM 



1. Background 



Vietnam today is largely the child of the 1954 Geneva 
Agreement. 

The Geneva Agreement was billed as a "cease-fire 11 between 
the French and Vietminh armed forces for all of Indo- China, and was 
forged in the gloom of the French disaster at Dicn-Bien-Phu. The 
British and Soviets were its sponsors. The U.S. was an observer, 
not a signatory. 

The political portions introduced into the agreement by the 
Communists should be noted carefully. Among these are the 
temporary partition of Vietnam with provision for a plebiscite, the 
establishing of an international inspection commission, and a proviso 
for keeping a military status quo in weaponry. 

Vietnam was partitioned at the 17th Parallel. This gave the 
Communist North the majority of the population (estimated then at 
* 14 million) and its most important industries (including coal and 
cement}. The Free South had an estimated 12 million people and an 
export potential of rice and rubber. 

The plebiscite was to be held in 1956, to determine whether 
Vietnam was to be Free or Communist. Communist control over 
the majority of the population seemed to make the outcome plain to 
predict. However, the vigor of the Ngo Dinh Diem government in 
making Free Vietnam a viable state, plus the movement of nearly 
a million refugees from the Communist North to the Free South, 
changed the political climate strongly by the end of 1955. The Soviet 
and British sponsors of the agreement then decided that the plebiscite 
should be postponed indefinitely.' '•*"■•.* 



i 



/ 



ii fv-pnn 



' 1*7 i * 

i in 






• V 



.1 



'■ ■''■ 99 



(^ 






C 






* 



■ 



1 






i; 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



C 



E 

[ 









[ 
[ 

[ 



[ 
[ 



* ■ 

The International Control Commission was established, with 
Polish, Indian, and Canadian members. It is still in "being* a 
monument to the ineffectiveness and dangers of such an international 
body; the. Free South is observed far more closely than the Communist 
North, because we play the game legally. 

As to the military status quo there were two points: a 
prohibition on introducing new weapons into Vietnam and a ceiling 
on foreign military personnel in the country {the number to be no 
more than were in Vietnam at the time of the "cease-f re"). There 
were some 400 U.S. military in Vietnam at that time, plus the many 
thousands of French military . No foreign communists were reported, 
and the Vietminh had no aircraft at the time. 

II. Today 

• 

In the North is the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Its 
Constitution in key provisions makes it into a Communist state in 
the image of the Soviet Union. In January 1961, its population was 
estimated at 16, 375, 000. Its armed forces total around 300, 000, 
with reported heavy fire power capability in new artillery and tanks. 
Also, aircraft have been reported, not only transports, but jet 
.fighters. In March I960, it was estimated that there were 6 to 10 
/ thousand Bloc personnel in the North, most of whom were advisors 
• to the Vietnamese. About two-thirds were Chinese, the remainder 
I being mostly Soviets, East Germans, .and Czechs. 

In the South is the Republic of Vietnam, with a government 
somewhat patterned on ours. In January 19&Lj its population was 
. estimated at 14, 300, 000. Its armed forces total* about 150, 000, not 
counting 64, 000 in the Civil Guard (similar to a state constabulary) 
or the 40, 000 in the Self Defense Corps, which is the ill-equipped 
I and untrained .village militia. Official Americans in Vietnam are: 
| 98 in "the Embassy, 685 in MAAG, 230 in USOM (ICA), and 30 in 
i US1S. There are more than a thousand other Americans, dependents 
of officials, business people, and missionaries. Only a few French 
and British remain in Vietnam. U.S. aid to the South, in millions 
of dollars, is indicated as: 






s- 



. t 



23 



[■•' • 



E 

C 
[ 

r 






C 



[ 

r 



. * I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SlCKcJ. 



Cm— ' » * 



t 



» i 



In local piastres (for 
Defense Support, etc) 

n U.S. currency (for 
technical services, etc.) 



FY I960 



156 



FY 1961 



% ■ m ■ 



••— 



160 



% 



3.8 



3.8 



73.9 



65. 



M 



233.7 



228.8 



\ 



. Since 80% of the population in the South is employed in 

agriculture, much of the U.S. aid to South Vietnam in the years 
right after 1954, (estimated at over $l-billion), went to rehabilitate 
the agrarian economy and to settle some 900,000 refugees. The 
ever-present threat of invasion from the North, and large scale 
subversive activities has required continued expenditure by the 
new government to give unusually heavy support to its national 
security forces. The South now is self-sufficient in basic food- 
stuffs, but has no heavy industry. 

III. Situation Analysis 

* 

. . . 

The situation map at MAAG in Saigon early this month shows 
the South's major current problem at a glance; the Communist 
'internal security threat. (Map attached) 

The Communist f, National Liberation Front 11 claims that the 
Communists will 'liberate 1 ' the South in 1961. The main reliance 
: is on Communist armed forces, now estimated at about 10, 000, who 
; have been infiltrated into the South from the North (overland through 
Cambodia ciad L/aos, or by sea in coastal junks), and who fight as 



m --%. 



j*- 



'4 



— / <^ 



guerrillas. These are the Viet Cong, * 

m M 

■ 

As the Free Vietnamese become more effective at countering 
these Communist guerrillas, (in January and February, the govern- 
ment initiated 529 attacks on the guerrillas, compared to 310. attacks 
initiated by the Viet Cong), the Communists have been forced to 
consider further means for winning. Current Communist plans include: 



^ 



* ■' 1 

• -' 



Or 



*• 



* *L 



;.' 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



c 



■ 

c 

If 
c 



c 







[ 
[ 
[ ■ ■ 



» I • 



I 

r 



,-n. 



SECRET 



a. Readiness to exploit any future coup d'etat 
attempts in the South* (The Communists were caught unprepared 

in last November's attempt at a no3i-Comimmist coup in ^ai^on). 

» 

■ 

% , ? b. Use the proposed forthcoming 14 nation 

conference on Laos as a forvxm to gain political agreement to a 
j \ew partition of Vietnam at the 13th Parallel. 

c. Possibly establish an enclave in the Kuntum area 
>f South Vietnam, using forces from Attopen in Laos to do this, and 
start a revolutionary government there* 

■ 
Meanwhile, Free Vietnam has just completed a successful 

Presidential election, returning Ngo Dinh Diem to office, with 

Nguyen Ngoc Tho as Vice-President, The U.S. Country Team has 

taken up with Diem f s government a Counter -Insurgency Vlan, mostly 

written by Americans in Vietnam last year* It is hoped that the 

implementation of this plan will solve the Viet Cong internal threat. 

In addition, MAAG- Vietnam has produced a work, "Tactics and 

Techniques of Counter -Insurgent Operations, tr which is being 

translated for use in Vietnamese military manuals and texts. 

The Counter -Insurgency Plan calls for better-integrated 
control of the military-economic -political effort against the Viet , 
Cong, a more effective chain-of-command, improvement of military 
strength and structure, coordinating and unifying the intelligence 
effort, gaining more popular support, changing some of the political 
' structure, and increasing the Vietnamese contribution to the 
economic support of the struggle* The Vietnamese have adopted a 
number of these proposals, have changed some to more acceptable 
j Vietnamese forms, and balked at part of the political proposals (the 
! inclusion of opposition politicians in the Cabinet and elimination of 
: the Can Lao party which has supported President Diem). 

- • ■ -•.**■♦ , ■ •.. * ' . 

Diem ! s actions to achieve objectives of the Counter-Insurgency 

Plan include: . . 

■ 

a. The Civil Guard (constabulary) was transferred 
from the Department of interior to Department of Defence* 32, 000 



Vj: 



SFPon 



* 



■ 



>T. 



V f*> f"" * 

y > 



f '* ' 






f— 



L 



~i 



[ 



c 

[ 

[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■" ' ..-■• ••■<■• SECRET; 



of the Civil Guard are now being trained and equipped by the Army. 
Since the "Vietnamese are hard put to pay the cost of the increased 
burden, U.S. Defense officials suggest that we train and equip the 
remaining 3 6, 000 Civil Guard immediately. They figure that 
$20 -million would cover the initial equipment and first year costs. 
We could start training and equipping the best of the remaining 
36, 000 from FY 61 funds. 

b. Control and power of the Joint General Staff has 
been improved, with U.S. advisors in a more favorable position 
to assist. The Director of the Civil Guard is now subordinate to 
the Chief of Staff. Time las between alert and air strike has been 
shortened considerably. Logistical methods are being improved. 



c. The Internal Security Council was founded and 
now meets weekly. Other structural changes of the government, 
i (such as having "super-Secretaries n in charge of a group of 

related Departments), have been announced but await implementation. 
• - The Vietnamese agreed to having a national planning system, as 
recommended in the U.S. Plan, and progress is reported. 

"■ ' 
i 



* i * 



d. The Vietnamese government published a decree 
$ on the tactical zone organization, although not as complete as in 

the U.S. Plan. At the same time, the" Vietnamese have accepted, 
de facto, closer MAAG help at the tactical level; U.S. military 
are now actually visiting small tactical units on operations, 

e. The Vietnamese have agreed to Chief MAAG's 

*) proposed 20,000 additional troops, as in the Plan, Implementation 

of tliis increase is tied-up with discussions on the Plan in Saigon. 
Our Ambassador wants the Vietnamese to accept responsibility for 
pay and allowances of this increase; U.S. Defense officials propose 
that the inqrease be supported the same as other MAP forces. 

On top of the problem of the Viet Cong actions, and getting 
the Counter-Insurgency Plan implemented, there still remains 
the continuing threat of a coup against President Diem. Much of 
this is still parlor talk in Saigon and other urban areas, but there 
reportedly are groups seriously plotting. Some plain, private 






* , . -- -/ ' 28 



t •- 



• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



r 






L 

c 

[ 



- 



talk with key Vietnamese leaders by a responsible U,S» official 
would end this plotting, especially if the political oppositionists 
had another outlet for their energies. A small start on providing 
another use of political energies has been made by the younger 
leaders of the Northern Dai Viets, who have started trying to 
coalesce ^Lll the non-Communist opposition parties in a "Front 
cor Democratization, ft 

In the propaganda field, the Communists are way out in 
front. They have made this a major effort, while we have done 
too little, too late. Radio facilities in the South are still inade- 
quate, with Radio Hanoi coming in more powerfully to many areas 
than do Free Vietnamese broadcasts. The Communists reportedly 
have ten transmitters in the Hanoi area, all 100 KW medium and 
short-wave; relay transmitters built by Chinese Communists in 
Cambodia apparently give Ra,dio Hanoi strong broadcast coverage 
of the South, The South has 15 transmitters listed, with 9 in the 
Saigon area; 4 are medium wave (IKY/ to 5KW), 5 short-wave 
(12 KW and 25 KW); the remainder are l'KW transmitters scattered 
around the country. 






[ 



; 



,*«* 

■ 



In this connection, Vietnam is the Asian counterpart of 
Germany, as far as being a showplace of direct competition between 
the Free World and the Bloc is concerned, Americans in Vietnam 
too often forget that they haye Bloc opposite numbers just to the 
North of them, working like beavers to make the place get ahead of 
us or at least appear that way, 

a. fr 

* a 

One of the customary working groups in Washington is -being 
called together next week by John Steeves, Acting Assistant 
Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs. It Will be composed 
of "desk" personnel handling Vietnam's daily problems in State, 
Defense, ICA and CIA. It will address itself to some of the current 
questions arising out of the U.S. formulated Counter-Insurgency Plan. 






£ ' 



* 



+ '4 



- -r 
I 






^ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 









SEC m; 



\\L 



IV. Action Proposed 



[ 
[ 

[ 



r 



[ 
[ 

[ r 



\ 



The President should at once determine that conditions- in 
Vietnam are critical and establish a Washington task force for that 
country. This will permit the task force to come up with an approved 
1 plan of action prior to sending a new U.S. Ambassador to Vietnam, 
so that he can start moving towards U.S. goals upon arrival. 

Initial Actions 

^ - . . . ,..■- — _ — . .. . _ _. — - — 

1. A Presidential directive should name a Director and provide 
for members of a Vietnam Task Force from Defense, State, CIA, ICA, 
and USIA. The organization providing the Director will support the 
Task Force administratively. 

2. The Task Force will submit a statement of U. S. goals and 
implementing planning to the President for approval by 21 April. 

3. The Task Force will prepare a list of candidates for a 
special three- man staff for the Ambassador (plans officer, opera- 
tions officer, fiscal officer), and will have this staff selected and 
appointed with the Ambassador 1 s approval. 

4. The Task Force will brine? the Ambassador a,nd his three- 
man staff together in Y/ashington, "marry 11 them, and present them 
to the President for his instructions. - * 

« 

5. The Task Force will then supervise and coordinate the 
activities of every U.S. agency carrying out operations pursuant 

to the plan in Vietnam to insure success of the approved plan, until 
the contingency in Vietnam is determined to have been overcome 
and that U. S. goals can be'achicved by normal procedures. 

Goals 



- » « 



•• 



Present U.S. policy objectives are now stated In general terms. 
Detailed plans, such as the Counter-Insurgency Plan, only cover part - 
of the actions needed to reach U.S. goals. A fresh statement of goals 
and tasks, making use of work now underway, would provide firmer 
purpose to U.S. efforts. True objectives in Vietnam seem to fall into 
three inter-related parts: - * - _ 



• • 



* 



* 



»«. . 



. r 



I 1 1 - J 



no 



_ > 



• • 



r 

v 

[ 












[ 

•r 

L 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 



1. Pacification - to end the internal Communist threat in South 
Vietnam. 






/ 



« 



J 2. Stabilization - to promote the growth of hoilthy democracy 
in South Vietnam. 

■ 

3. Unification - to provide a favorable climate for a free choice 
b, the Vietnamese to unify their country, and then to give thern the 
opportunity to make that choice. 



Tasks 



Pacification 



i 



- Assign top priority to the defeat of Viet- Cong forces and the 
denial of South Vietnam to further entry of Communist para-military 
and subversive forces. 



" Aggressively implement the Counter-Insurgency Plan, while 
recognizing that it probably requires adjustment to fit both native 
Vietnamese needs and the newest U.S. military techniques and hardware. 

- Give Vietnam stronger U.S. psychological-political support. 
The Vice President might visit Saigon and announce U.S. determina- 
tion to support Vietnam's desire to remain free. 

^ Concentrate U.S. military research and development to 
develop better military equipment for use in resolving insurgency 
problems in Vietnam, The area should be treated as a laboratory 
and proving ground, as far as this is politically feasible, 

- Eliminate artificial restrictions imposed by the strict U.S. 

Interpretation Of the Geneva Agreement so to permit as many U. S, 

personnel in Vietnam as are needed to help the Vietnamese help them- 

selves effectively, 

« 

• - -'"Use the force of world opinion to stop Viet-Cong transit 
of Cambodia, A task force of journalists should visit Cambodia 
to report on activities in border provinces such as Svayrieng 
and on policies being implemented by Sihanouk and other officials. 



v , * t ■ ' - 2 

V* i- ;..< i -, .- ^ ; 



IV 



'^ V 



1 - 



r 






■ 






* . 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 J 6. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



[ 
[ 

[ 

| 



SECRE 



- 






i • i » 



Stabilizati o n 

■ 

I - Good public administration should % follow the troops, moving 
immediately into pacified areas. The U. S. Peace Corps can be used 
dynamically to assist in this, particularly in fields of public health, 
•education, and agriculture. Community development -in the democratic 
jt r idition can be undertaken by combined teams of U.S. Peace Corps, 

Vietnamese Civic Action, and Filipino Operation Brotherhood. 

i 

« 

~ With the agreement of the Vietnamese government, the U. S. 
should use its "good offices 11 to bring out all political parties, to help 
them define party platforms for the national good, to encourage the 
coalescing into two major political groupings, and to redefine political 

crimes in realistic objective, rather than subjective terms. 

* 

- Communications and transport should be expanded rapidly to 
knit national unity. Light aircraft capabilities should be improved. 
Government officials should be induced to get away frequently from 
their desks in Saigon for more direct actions in the field. The 
President should be encouraged to hold occasional Cabinet meetings 
in the provinces, particularly in newly pacified areas. 

i 

m 

- The Washington Task Force should send into Vietnam a 
practical economic team, which should include representatives of 
U.S. business, to work out with the Vietnamese effective plans to 
speed up national development, give Vietnam a better tax structure, 
and establish a sound basis for foreign investment. The numerous 
U.S. and other economic plans for Vietnam should be re-examined 
for sound ideas to be incorporated into a firm new pla„n. 

/ • -• Viet-Cong prisoners should be rehabilitated along the lines 
! of experiences with Communist prisoners in Greece and in EDCOR 

in the Philippines. U.S. teams, headed by U.S. military, should 

assist the Vietnamese in this work, 

• " ■ '* . m * 

Unification 



- Communist North Vietnam should be subjected immediately 
to a heavy and sustained psychological campaign; a first step would 
be to beef up radio broadcast capabilities beamed to the North. 






v,' 



*.. ■ 



-,>;-■' ■ 



C: 

w 



. '■ 



- - * i- ' 



.- 



o 







Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



r 



Si 



-XKtl 



! 



[ 



- Areas just south of the 17th Parallel in Free Vietnam should 
be developed as show-places, particularly in agricultural improve- 
ments. News about n fish-ponds n built in Vietnam by Filipinds of 
Operation Brotherhood travelled throughout the north rapidly, giving 
a highly desirable contrast between the methods of free men and 

.' those of the "Chinese Communist agricultural advisors. 

i - Introduce teams of Free Vietnamese into the North to create 

1 the means for the people to liberate themselves from Communist 
controls and coercion. Related actions could be undertaken by 
Chinese Nationalists in Southern China. Hope could be awakened by 
taking initial actions against symbols of Communist power; the rail- 

i road, the cement plant, and the large modern printing plan in Hanoi 

: (which the Viet-Minh took in 1955). 

- Encourage again the movement of refugees into the South by 
stimulating the desire to do so among the people in the North, by 
establishing better means of ingress to the South, and by re-estab- 
lishing the highly successful refugee settlement program. Sustained 
world opinion should be focused on the plight of the Northern people 
in order to bring pressure on the International Control Commission 

; to assist the "movement of refugees. The goal should be a million 
J refugees, , - - 

• - An internal liberation movement "should be created in the 

' North, organized along lines of political- revolution,' with the goal 
I of freeing the North of Communist control and eventually unifying 

a Free North with a Free South. The movement should be affiliated 

with the government of South Vietnam. 

--When a' clear majority can be counted upon* to vote for free- 
dom, and election machinery can be set up to protect a free vote, 
the sponsors of the Geneva Agreement of 1954 should be induced to 
hold the plebiscite promised in that document. It was written to 
■accommodate the then-known control of "the -electorate by the Com- 
munists, but there is no reason why the Free World should not turn 
the table when it is able to do so. 



• 
■ 









4 






<: 1 . 



. ' 






6X 



^- 



^> 



I K*y- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









SECRET 




c 



E 



I 



V. Immediate Steps 

* 

Fullest use should be made of the existing position of 
personal 'confidence and understanding which General Lansdale 
holds with President Diem and other key Vietnamese. In 
addition to giving a major assist to the new Presidential Task 
Force for Vietnam in Washington, General Lansdale should 
accompany the new U.S. Ambassador to Saigon to facilitate 
good working relations with the Vietnamese Government from 
\ the earliest moment and to be in command of the initial imple- 
mentation of President Kennedy's Task Force Plan for Vietnam. • 
This would speed early actions in the field and assure, upon 
Lansdale 's return to Washington, that the Task Force in 
Washington applied itself to practical priorities to win this one. 

' While in Vietnam, Lansdale also could obtain President 

Dierr^s permission and then call non -Communist political 
opposition leaders together and encourage them to rely on legal 
means of opposition, to help in the fight against the Communist 
Viet Cong, and to cease scheming coup d f etats. 

Other actions he could take while in Vietnam include; . 

a. Confer with President Diem on expediting of . 
obtaining a popular base through such means as a "Presidential 
Complaints and Action Commission. n This would fit appropriately 
into the tasks of the Secretary of State for the Presidency, where 
President Diem now has one of his ablest executives, Nguyen Dinh 
Thuan. The Filipino expert on this subject, Frisco Johnny San 
Juan, who assisted Mags ays ay and who is favorably known to 
President Diem, could be brought to Saigon to help establish this. 
It would give the i^eople an immediate feeling of personal 
connection, with a responsive government", . ' • 

b. Visit the Hue area, just south of the demarcation 
line of the 17th Parallel/ to see what might be done to dramatize 
the benefits of U.S. -Vietnam friendship. The Communists are 
highly aware of what goes on in this region. If American youth 
from the Peace Corps worked side by side with Vietnamese on 



■ 



; . 






I ip 



% > 



i r 



- i _* 






'3 



32 



/ - 















Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



SECRtl 






• • 



L 









[•• 



. % i • 



r 



^. 



■r* 



• 



» • 



* • 

some dramatic agrarian projects, in this area, word of tins would 
spread among the farmers throughout the Communist North and 
offer a sharp contrast to the Chinese advisors on the land there. 
This could be strengthened quickly by adding a team of Filipinos 
from Ope ration Brotherhood to work side by side with Americans 
and Vietnamese 

c. Radio broadcasts should be surveyed realistically, 
for facilities and content, to be certain that the word of what free 

men are doing in Vietnam is heard loudly and acceptably by Vietnamese 
who are staking their lives on freedom's cause in the South, by 
Vietnamese ^vho dream of lost freedom in the Communist North, and 
by neighbors in Cambodia and Laos. Any mobile radio broadcasting 
equipment and staffs available to the U.S. should be brought in to 
action here as a priority matter. 

d. A small R&tD section could be established in the 
Vietnamese Army, to work closely with a small team from U.S. 
Defense, which could be attached to MAAG. This R&D section 
would actually produce locally materiel for use in the fight against 
the Viet Cong, as well as offer a Vietnamese means of introducing 
improved American techniques and materiel . A similar section 
in the Philippine Army produced- faulty ammunition and booby- 
trapped grenades which were sold secretly to the Huks; it was a 
highly effective operation. 

All available Americans who played key action roles in helping 
the Vietnamese in the 1954-55 birth of their nation should be mustered 
to assist Lansdale both in South Vietnam and in appropriate North 
Vietnam operations. This could include members of Lans dale's 
1954'- 56 team as well as Generals O'Daniel and Williams. Also, other 
selected personnel with practical experience in the fields of work 
required could be listed by Lansdale and assigned on a priority basis.- 

' * A special economic -trade mission of- highly- regarded American * 
leaders, to include Dean James Landis if possible, shouJd visit Vietnam. 
"This mission would step-up existing projects and to demonstrate the 

strong, new U.S. initiative in support of the Vietnamese government 

■ 

under Diem. 






• *~* 



v^-- 



Jo 



4 * 



• 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



r 



I 



SECRET 



I 



C 



Dramatic visits by Americans who would capture .world head 
lines should be scheduled. The proposed visit to Vietnam by Vice 
President Johnson is a case in point. If other duties prevent this, 
then consideration should be given to the possibility of Eisenhower 
or Nixon visiting Vietnam for President Kennedy. 






r 



r 



•. 



i 



. . -%. 






stcatf 



4 * 

* 



~\ 



• _ . 




. ."* 



<.• - 



*\ * 



m 



o 



• » 



--* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 




* . » 



- 



v.. - 






\ * 



r\ 



oO - 



. V 



4 " 4 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






C 



||jt^^#l||, OFFICE Of 7I|!? FFICE ° F THE SECRETARY Or 

;A'i ^ ' : /U ,v "aCR ETA RY Or DEFENSE Washington 2S,iJ.c. 



DEFENSE- 



V- 






[ 



[ 






r; 






•" ** 



25 April 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR DEPUTY SECRETARY GILPATRIC 



Frpm: Brig. Gen, Lansdale^<Jl 



Subject: Ngo Dinli Diem 



- 
Few people outside Vietnam really know the man who was re- 

l - elected President of the Republic of Vietnam earlier this month. 

With your new responsibilities towards Vietnam for President 

Kennedy, you might find it useful to have an insight about this 

dedicated man drawn from my close association with him.. Also, 

you might like to pass this along to Vice President Johnson prior 

to his trip. 



It takes a perceptive eye to see Diem's true character when 
C~ , meeting him. He is short and round and f, mild- spoken. n Many 

people miss his "snapping" black eyes by noting, instead, that his 

feet seem barely to reach the floor when he is seated. However 
] he is not defensive about his short stature and is at ease around tall 

. Americans. He has a very positive approach to. Westerners, not the 

least bit concerned about differences such as Asian~Cauca.sian back- 
1 . ground. When the Vice President sees him, he v/ill find him as in- 

♦terested in cattle as any Texan and as interested in freedom as Sam 

Houston. 




? 



\ 



—j First of all, there is his name, Ngo Dinh Diem is pronounced ^ 

as "No Din Zee'em. " He is properly addressed as "President Ngo," 
although most Americans, including myself, think of him as "Presi- 
dent Diem. " The family name is Ngo. Diem is his given name and 

/ it is customary for Vietnamese to be called by their given names. 

* 

Vice President Nguyen Ngoc Tho is "Vice President Tho, " (pro- 
\ * nounced as "Tuh"). Secretary of State for the Presidency Nguyen 

Dinh Thuan is "Mr. Thuan, " (pronounced as "Twan"). The use of 
"President Ngo" is a formal mark of respect. Since I think of him 
as "Diem, " I will call him that to make 'the remarks come easier. 



5 






... 












» 



iV * . ' oo 



GUrtflUtNllAf 



» 






V. 



SecDef Cent. Ho. Sj* <f~ 7 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



F 

c 



i ] \ :- i J J- ft P 









* 

At the* table, he shows that he enjoys eating (and usually has 
a good appetite). His smile is shy and infrequent. Usually he is 
serious and becomes passionately so when lie talks about his true 
lojve, Vietnam. Age lines show around his eyes, particularly on 
those mornings when he has stayed up most of the night reading, 
which is often. He reads in English, French, and Vietnamese. 
While he speaks and understands English rather well, he is em- 
ir rrassed over his pronunciation and is reluctant to use it. In 
his official contacts with Americans, he uses French. 

Diem was born in Hue, the ancient capital in central Vietnam, 
oa 3 January 1901. His 60 years have been full of sharp tests of " 
his moral courage, of devotion to a highly-principled ideal of 
patriotism. This is worth understanding, particularly since the 
truth has been hidden by decades of "character assassination 11 by 
his bitterest enemies, the Communists and the French colonialists 
Much false information has stuck, by sheer repetition. The truth 
is eyen more interesting. 
i 

For example , in the Spring of 1955 the Presidential Palace 
was under artillery fire from the Binh Xuyen forces, who opened 
up on his bedroom wing with Sl-mm. mortars at midnight. The 
French colons in the Saigon bars told a story with great glee of 
how Diem had hidden under his bed quivering with fear. What he 
actually did was typically different. He went out in his night- shirt 
into the Palace grounds where some of the Guard Battalion had 
abandoned their artillery to take cover, and drove them back to 
their guns with a tongue-lashing while paddling around the yard in 
a pair of old slippers. 



. 



[ 

[ 



• « 



« 



.When someone describes him as an aloof mandarin, I recall 
how he cried on my shoulder when our close friend, Trinh Minh The, 
v/as killed, his anguish over the loss of Phat Diem province in the 
North to the Communists, and the agony he went through in his final 
break .with Chief of State Bao Dai. IJe -simply doesn't parade hi$ 
feelings for everyone to see, particularly when things are going wrong. 

* ■ 

President Diem has been criticized for his "family," meaning 
primarily the influence of his younger brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu (pro- 
c^ nounced as "No Din New"), and Madame Nhu. This younger brother 



-• 



■ - 1 - 



. V 



>i 



- 



' , •* 



.*.* 



6 1 



x 



CONFIDENTS 



+ '4 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









CONFiDENTlAi 



t 

r 

r. 

r 

[ 
[ 



i 



i 






handles many of the more sensitive political party and intelligence 
"special operations" for President Diem, as v/cll as helping him 
privately, with speeches, planning, and family affairs. Some 
• Americans have been strongly critical of brother Nhu, seeing in 
him a continuing influence towards a Diem dictatorial regime, with 
control of the press, arrests of political dissenters, etc. Actually, 
brother Nhu-is a whole complex subject in himself, as is Madame 
Nhu in herself. Both have been defamed maliciously. There is a 
grain of truth in some of the stories about them. But, the reality 
is that Diem trusts Nhu for certain activities which he cannot 
entrust to anyone else, and needs him. We will hardly help Diem 
be the strong leader we desire by insisting that he get rid of his 
trusted right-hand man; we would do better to influence that right- 
hand man more effectively. Incidentally, Madame Nhu is the 
daughter of Tran Van Chuong, the Vietnamese Ambassador in 
Washington. 

The Ngo family needs mention further. Diem ! s father was 
Grand Chamberlain of the old Imperial Court at Hue, in central 
Vietnam. He spent his life striving to maintain some semblance 
of Vietnamese rule under French control -- and brought up his sons 
to carry on the fight for eventual Vietnamese independence. In 
effect, it was a family organized for revolution. The sons are: 

Ngo Dinh Khoi - killed by the Communists 

Ngo Dinh Thuc - ("Took") - Catholic Archbishop 

Ngo Dinh Diem - President . 

Ngo Dinh Nhu - Presidential Adviser 

Ngo Dinh Luyen - Ambassador in London 

Ngo Dinh Canh - At family home, Hue - in local politics there. 

In Vietnamese family style, each brother is responsible for his 
next younger brother. Thus, Archbishop Thuc feels a heavy res- 
ponsibility for President Diem (and is well-worth talking to about his 
brother's problems), and President Diem feels a heavy responsibility 

for brother- Nhu. 

•• . •. * . * 

Diem was educated at Hue, in the Vietnamese equivalent of legal 
training:. He was the honor graduate of the last Government class 






.* 



;- *r "V 



• i » 



- 



. .: i 



o 



IS 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NKD Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



[ 

r 



r 






L 












. * 



I 






hr*ftinn r MTl/\ 1 



before the French stopped the training. Diem concentrated on tribal 
.law, becoming the outstanding expert on the subject through an, ex- 
haustive study of all books and manuscripts in the Imperial library. 
His real bent was towards engineering, evidenced today in his love 
. for mechanical gadgets and plans for public works. 

At 25, he was appointed as a Province Chief, and served from 

* 1926 to 1932 as such, governing Phan Rang and Phan Thiet in central 
Vietnam. At the time, these provinces had large French plantations 
which were practically feudal worlds into themselves. Diem, making 
use of tribal laws, opened lands for Vietnamese settlers. When 
workers started leaving plantations for land of their own, Diem 
became a hero among his people -- and earned some French hatred 
which still has remnants today. 

During these same early years, Diem came up against the Com-* 
munists and started fighting them.. The French brought in Chinese 
coolies from Singapore to build plantation railroads; the Chinese 
brought in Communist pamphlets and distributed them to Vietnamese 
plantation labor. Diem argued forcibly against this dangerous 
practice, but wasn f t heeded by the plantation owners. He then started 
working directly with the Vietnamese against Communist influence, 
(In other words, he has been actively up against all forms of Communist 
operations for 30 years now. ) 

In 1933, he had become such an outstanding leader aiiong the Viet- . 
namese that he v/as made Prime Minister. After 6 months in office, 
the French proposed government "reforms. 11 It actually meant the 
final form of Vietnamese abdication of all political rights. Diem 
defied the French openly on this issue, finally resigned and returned 
all French honors (including their helpful remuneration), He became 
a real hero to the Vietnamese. 

- 

* . The family went through some hard times then. Diem , s father 

was forced out of his position in 1940 for actions against the Communists, 
, and for returning tribal lands to .the Vietnamese. They lived for a time 
" on the family farm, with Diem helping with plowing and chores. However, 
the family spent every spare moment working for Vietnamese freedom. 
•Brother Nhu handled the funds. They fought a long, secret war against \ 
both the French and the Communists. 

•r * 









33 



,_» 



, . — .. 



■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



[ 
[ 

L 



r 



L 



[ 



* * 










t In 1950-53, Diem came to the U.S. , staying at Maryknoll, N.J* 
He lectured at several U.S. universities, studied, triedto interest 
Americans in helping Vietnam, and had a book published. The book 
was about the meaning of democracy in Vietnam, pointing out 
similarities between U.S. and Vietnamese "checks and balances' 1 in 
government powers. 

Diem then went to Belgium (where he met a number of German 
industrialists and engineers who impressed him). In 1954, as the 
Geneva Agreement was bringing a "cease fire 11 to the Franco- Vietminh 
War after the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu, Chief . of Ftate Bao Dai 
asked Diem to return to Vietnam to form a government. He arrived 
as half of his country was given away at Geneva and as French troops 
pulled back into smaller perimeters, abandoning the countryside to 
the Communist Vietminh. 

I first met him when he came to Saigon in 1954.- The situation 
for the free Vietnamese was disastrous, so I jotted down some sug- 
gestions for vigorous actions by the new Prime Minister to start 
remedying the situation, had them approved by our Ambassador and 
MAAG Chief, and then went to the Palace and introduced myself. This 
started a working relationship which gradually grew into one of trust 
and respect, despite the fact that such Vietnamese enemies as General 
Hinh (Chief of Staff of the Vietnamese Army who plotted to overthrow 
Diem) were friends of mine. Diem and 1 they knew that I, as an 
American, was honestly trying to help bring unity and stability out 
of chaos to give the free Vietnamese a chance at life. I came to see 
him almost daily as we moved refugees from the Communist North, 
pacified the South as the Communists withdrew regular forces, 
fought down a rebellion by gangster sects, established government 
administration throughout the South, went through two serious coup 
attempts, brought the independent religious sect armies into the 
regular army, held a plebiscite to choose a Chief of State, elected 
a Constituent Assembly, and finally wrote a Constitution for the new 
country. They were 2-1/2 tough years, with plenty of give and take. 

■ 

As the leader of a modern nation which has just been governing 
itself for 5 years, Diem has worked extremely long hours daily. For 
a long time, he was really the only competent executive in the govern- 
ment and had to check on infinite details of administration. He has a 



w ; t& , ^-v- <r -» 



- ^ 






/""- r"-» " r r^ *-•>'-: tl i' s-a awe 

l r * -" *'" ' 1 



v»- 



*w» t T.--.:. - 



- *v -v- 






no 



* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



A; 



vi t— ■! 7-v r- 



II * 










[ 



{ 



phenomenal memory for details, dates, places, and personal 
biographies ~- and is short-tempered with Ministers who know 
less about the current work in their Departments than he does. 
(U Nu of Burma shocked him once by not knowing the strength 
of the Burmese Army; Diem not only knows the strength and 
location of Vietnamese Armed Forces units, but also the names 
and family background of practically all the officers}. Re now is 
starting to get a few competent executives. As he gets them, he 
gives them all the responsibility and authority needed to do the 
work. Few can stand the burden. 

So, here is our toughest ally against Communism in South- 
east Asia, A 60-year-old bachelor who gave up romance with 
his childhood sweetheart {she remains a spinster in Hue) to 
devote his life to his country. He is a person of immense moral 
courage and of demonstrated physical courage. He is intensely 
honest. And, despite seeing hundreds of people daily and visiting 
frequently all over the country, he is essentially a lonely man. 
He is hungry for the understanding friendship of responsible 
Americans. 



c 

[ 



r 



c 

* 



cc: Secretary of Defense 



f 






c 



" « 



., * 



» 



[ 






.-■ -— 



' P ■'-' " - ■'-■■- 



r% - 
• s 






+ * 4 



*■,'•. »" '.■ ■ ~.~ 



1 i 



41 



- . • • - 

- 

J 



r**- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






"If O P S E C R E T 



■ 4 



•' TASK FORCE .DRAFT 

• 26 April 1961 



» 



I 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT 



SUBJECT: Vietnam 



I 






* - 



-- A 



c 

c 



I . 



Pursuant to your decision at the Cabinet meeting on April 20, 
1961/ I am submitting for consideration by the National Security Council 
a program of action to prevent Communist domination of South Vietnam, 

This program was prepared by an inter -departmental Task Force 
consisting of representatives from the Departments of State and Defense, 
CIA, ICA f USIA and the Office of the President, In addition, the Task 
Force had the benefit of advice from the Joint Staff, CINCPAC and the 
# Chief f MA AG, Vietnam. 

In the short time available to the Task Force, it was not possible 
to develop the progr?mi in complete detail. However, there has been pre- 
pared a plan for mutually supporting actions of a political, military, 
economic j psychological and covert character which can be refined 

■ 

periodically on the basis of further recommendations from the field, 

■ ■ * 

■ 

Toward this end, Brigadier General JE* G«- Liansdale, USAF, who - 
has bce'n designated Operations Officer for the Task Force, will proceed 
to Viutn?-rn immediately after the program receives Presidential approval. 
Following "on-the-spot discussions with U.S. and Vietnamese officials, 
he will forward to the -Director/- o£< the: Task Force specific recommenda- 
tions for action in support of the attached program. 

* ., ,-Y'OU .v/ill be advised of any changes as this .program proceeds and • 

be provided a status, of actions as appropriate. 



Roswell L. Gilpatric 



I] O 



TOP SBCRBT 



Copy . 5 of 20 



copi 



* * 






CV 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






■ 



TOP SECRET 



TASK FORCE DRAFT 
.' 26 April 1961 






A Program of Action 









[■ 



r 

I- . 



• » 






[ 
[ 






To Prevent Communist Domination of South Vietnam 



Appraisal of the Situation: After a meeting in Hanoi on 13 Ivlay 1959, the 
Central Committee of the North Vietnamese Communist Party publicly 

■ 

announced its intention' n to smash 1 ' the government of President Diem* 

* ■ ■ 

Following this decision, the Viet Cong have significantly increased their 
program of infiltration, subversion, sabotage and assassination designed 
to achieve this end. 

* + 

* ■ 

At the North Vietnamese Communist Party Congress in September, 
I960, the earlier declaration of underground war by the Party's Control 
Committee was re-affirmed. This action by the Party Congress took place 
only a month after Kong Le's coup in Laos. Scarcely two months later there 



.«. ^ 



C flu&^-c! 



was.?. la-rge"seale military uprising in Saigon. The turmoil ^otod throughout 



e * 



the area by this rapid succession of events provides an ideal environment for 



the Communist "master plan" to take over all of Southeast Asia. 

■ 

Since : tli at time, * as cairbe seen from the attached map, the internal 

■ 

security situation in South Vietnam has become critical. What amounts to 
a state of active guerrilla warfare now exists throughout the country. The 
number of Viet Conn hard-core Communists has increased from 4400 in 



o 



early I960 to an estimated 12, 000 today. The number of violent incidents 

• ' ■'"' ' "' TOP SECRET"' 

_ • 



c 



► ^,« 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



top sec nil r , 



per month now averages 650, Casualties on both sides totaled more than 



[ 

r 

- 

[ 



J-- 



i 



r 



E 

* 

[ 

[ 

If 
I 

t 



"- 



4500 during the first three months of this year. 58% of the country is 
under some degree of Communist control, ranging from harassment 
and night raids to almost complete administrative jurisdiction in the 
Communist "secure areas, n 

The Viet Cong over the past two years have succeeded in stepping 
up the pace and intensity of their attacks to the point where South Vietnam 
is nearing the decisive phase in its battle for survival. If the situation 
Continues to deteriorate, the Communists will be able to press on to 
their strategic goal of establishing a rival "National Liberation Front" 

■ 

government in one of these "secure areas, " thereby plunging the nation 
into open civil war. They have publicly announced that they will "take 

* * 

over the country before the end of 1961. " 

In short, the situation in South Vietnam* has reached the point where, 



h 



1s^^-f 



'^i 



j£s^@<U^x*Jlrt s-S,K'0~»^~/l £z^ fc**5f" c>i*i 



at least for the .time being, a solution to the internal security problem 




O^^L^Ur-^ *-/£&* 



« * 



niv>t take priority over other programs directed towards the political or . . 



. e c or-bniic' f i eld s , 



h \ 



The U.S. Objective: . To prevent Communist domination of South Vietnam. 

• ■ 

# ■ 

Concept of 0p6 rations.: To initiate, on an accelerated basis, a series of 

■ 

mutually supporting actions of a military, political, economic, psycholog- 

* ■ * w • .. ' 

r m m 

ical and covert character designed to achieve this objective. In so doing/ 
it is intended to use, and where appropriate extend, expedite or build 



TOP SECRET 



■I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



- .* 



■ TOP SECRL1" 



c 



L 



[ 
[ 
[ 

i 



[ 



* - •, 



upon the existing U.S. and Government of Viet Nam (G. V. N.) programs 
already underway in South Vietnam. There is neither the tim.e available 



• ■ 



nor any sound justification for "starting from scratch. M Rather the need 

■* 
is to focus the U.S. effort in South Vietnam on the immediate internal 

security problem; to infuse it with a sense of urgency and a dedication 

" ' It 

to the over -all U.S. objective /rather than to the success of individual 

agency programs; to achieve! through cooperative inter -departmental' 

/ 

- 

support both in the field and in Washington, the operational flexibility 
r 

needed to apply the available U.S. assets in a manner best calculated 



to achieve our national goal; and, finally, to impress on our friends, 
the Vietnamese, and on our foes, the Viet Cong, that come what may', 

■ 

the Uaiitcd States intends to win this battle. 






Progr am of Action: 



m 

1, G eneral: The most significant step taken to date to counter Com- 
munis t subversion in South Vietnam has been the development of the Counter 
Insurgency Plan. . This Plan, which has been fully, coordinated within 



• ♦ 



the U.S. government, has been fowarded to President Diem. Those 

portLons bfthe Plan which- arc agreed to by .the G. V. N. will be implemented 
■ 

as rapidly as possible. 



« 



As part of the over-all program, it is proposed that Vice President 
Johnson visit Vietnam at an early date. 



TOP' SECRET 



M 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



- 

[ 
[ 

C. 

t 

c 



[ 



* 






[ 
[ 

[ 



« 



t 



TOP SKCR..T 



2, Political: 



fu Assist the G.V.N, to develop within the co\mtry a healthy $ non- 




Communist political party structure, guiding this development as 



M^A«y 



appropriate toward the ultimate formation of a two-party system. 
b. Assist the G.V.N, to develop techniques to make it more 
■ asponsiue to the needs of the people, including, if agreeable to the 



President, a ''Presidential Complaints and Action Commission. n 

i 

• c. Obtain the political agreements needed to permit the prompt 

implementation of SEATO contingency plans providing for military 

intervention in South Vietnam should this become necessary to 

prevent the loss of the country to Communism,, 

d. Obtain the cooperation of other free nations in the area in 

support of regional measures designed to inhibit the transit or 

• ■ * * . 

safe haven of Communist subversive or guerrilla fo'rees operating 

* 

* 

in South Vietnam* In particular, secure the cooperation of Cambodia 



and Laos in the implementation of appropriate military and civil . 



* * 



4 

measures to prevent the use of their territory for the infiltration 

of Communist personnel or supplies into South Vietnam. y^^^^^.^^^^^^ * 

■ ■ * - 

e. Assist the Vietnamese to become the polarizing spirit against 
Communism in the Southeast Asia region. Encourage closer working 



• * 



liaison with other anti -Communist Asian nations* Step-up the exchange 



m " 



of visits of political, cultural, civic, "military, veterans,' youth, 



TOP 

" * he 



P rf ' JiT) IP' *¥ 

iuj (L* K 1& A 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






» .» . 



TOP SECR. T 









c 






* 









c 



and labor groups between VrctnaYn and her neighbors. Increase and 

■ 

systematize existing exchanges of information on Communist agents, 
couriers, and terrorists between national governments" throughout 

i 
- 

the region, 

f, Vi r here restrictions on U.S. operations exist as a result of the 
1954 Geneva Agreement, take such measures as may be necessary 
to prevent them from interfering with the implementation of this 



■ 
1 



pro grain. 



3. Military 



G. • 



; 



a. Increase the MAAG as necessary to insure the effective imple- 

* 

mentation of the military portion of the program. Initial appraisal of 
new. tasks assigned CHMAAG indicate that approximately 100 additional 
.'military personnel will be required immediately, 

b. Expand MAAG responsibilities to include authority to provide 

m * • • . " * • • » _ 

support and advice to the Self Defense Corps, 

c. Authorize MAP support for the entire Civil Guard force of 68, 000, 

■ 

• • . . . . 

(MAP support is now authorized for 32, 000). • - 

d. Install as a matter of priority a radar surveillance capability % 
which will enable the GVN to obtain warning of Communist overflights 






f 






being conducted for intelligence or clandestine air supply purposes. 



» * 



Initially, this capability should be provided from U.S. mobile radar 

■ t\J 

capability, with permanent AC&p installations established as* rapidly 



as practicable 



TOP SECRET 



; i-7 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









[ 

r. 

[ 



• . • • 



top secr: t 



e. Provide MAP support for. the Vietnamese Junk Force as a means of 
preventing Vict- Cong clandestine supply and infiltration into- South Vietnam 
by water, (MAP support, which was not provided in the Counter Insurgency 



. * 




Plan, will include training of junk crews in Vietnam or at U.S. bases by 
US Navy personnel). ? 

f. Assist the G.V.N, to establish a Combat Development and Test 
Center in South Vietnam to develop, with the help of modern technology, 

■ 

new techniques for use against the Viet Cong forces. , 
4. Economic; ' * 

m 

a. Until further notice, defense support of approved regular and para- 

military forces should be given primacy over the important, but less 

- 

urgent need to rectify the growing gold and dollar reserve position of 
i the G. V.N. and the need to avoid serious inflation.* .(The precise level 

of U.S. defense support shall be determined through appropriate negotiations, 



[ 

c 




, * State.-* ICA versions: That the United States at present hold firm against 

m ■■ 

* ■ ■ * _ " 

the provision of additional aid to cover piaster requirements, but at the 

i 

same time-assure, the G. V. N. at the highest level that it need feel no con- 

* • • • * 

corn over U.S. willingness to provide resources if they prove necessary 

• * 

in the future. Early monetary reform should be strongly urged, §.s 

another source of revenue. At the same time the G.V.N, should be assured 

that we are prepared to help if the reform produces unsatisfactory results. 



T 1? § E C R E T 

' -48- ' 



«, 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET 






but the guiding principle in these negotiations shall be to insure that the 

- 

confidence, of President Diem in the wholehearted U.S. support of the 
.. . m cpunter-insurgency program is not, prejudiced. V/ithin these guide- 
lines, the Country Team should study and recommend realistic steps 







c 

— 

[ 



to ameliorate the adverse economic effects of more generous defense 

- 

support. } * - 

b.* Liberalize current ICA procedures- to pemit USOM to send into 

pacified areas complete, /functional field teams composed of public 

administrators, public health officials, educators, agricultural experts, 

etc. , organized functionally to meet the specific needs of the G. V.N. 

■ ■ 

• c, Review the Buy-American Act to determine whether it would be 
in the mutual interest of both countries for the President to make an 

- 

- 

exception in the case of Vietnam. 



• i 



t t 



* . <* 



c 



. ■• • 



«* 



*— - 






TOP SECRET 



Fr 



13 




[ 



I 



r 



[ 



[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



, ■ - 



^* Psy chological 

a. Encourage the GVN to continue liberalizing its public information 

* 

policies to help develop a broad public understanding of the actions required 



to corribat Communist- insurgents and to build public confidence in the GYN's 
determination and capability to deal with the problem . 
* " • b. Assist the GVN to develop and improve the USOM -supported 

ra<? o network for the country, to include the prompt establishment of 

■■ * . . . . " ■ . , 

' ■' . • 

the presently planned new stations at Soc Trang, Banmethout and Quang Ngai ; . 

■ 

and the installation of the more powerful, new transmitters now on USOM 

■ 

order for Saigon and Hue* 

I 

■ 

c. Assist the GVN to initiate a training program for information 
and press attaches in the various ministries and directorates. 



* 



. 



* 



, i •*« 



d. Assist. the GVN to establish a Press Institute for the training of 

i 

: selected young people for careers in journalism, 

e. In cooperation with the MAAG and the Ministry of Defense, make 

. < : 

use of the troop information and education program of the GVN armed 
■ forces as a channel of communication between the Government and the 
people in the rural areas, 

■ * 

f. Encourage President Diem' to" continue the effective "fireside 



• ■# 






* 

i 
* ^ i > 

coverage for such appearances. k ur . 

g. Reorient the curr entUlSISsprograrn^n South Vietnam by 



chat 11 and other getting-to -the -people techniques which were begun during the 

* 

„ * 

» • 

recent election campaign. Provide maximum press, film, and radio 



•J 



con; sting the existing hi -national center si into training centers for 

" 50 



rural information and educational cadres. 



* 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






r 

c 

c 

r 

r 



■ 



• 



c 



TOP SECRE J 



• 



* - . 



, h. In coordination with the MAAG, CIA, and the GVN Ministry 

■ 

- 

of Defense, compile and declassify for vise of rnedir- representatives 

in.South Vietnam and throughout the world, documented facts 

c mcerning Communist terrorists ^activities and the measures being 

'I / 

a. 

taken by the GVN to counter such attacks. 

i ■ 

a * 

i. In coordination with CIA and the appropriate GVN Ministry, 



/ 



> * 

increase the flow of information to media representatives of the * ' 

unsatisfactory living conditions in North Vietnam. 

m * 

j. Develop agricultural "show -places ff throughout the country, with 
a view toward exploiting their beneficial psychological effects. This 

* ■ 

■ ■ 

project would be accomplished by combined teams of Vietnamese 

* 

m 

(Civic Action personnel) , Americans (Peace Corps), Filipinos 

* 

(Operation Brotherhood), and other Free World nationals. " 

- * . 

k. Exploit as a part of a planned psychological campaign the 

i a 

rehabilitation of Communist Viet Cong prisoners now held in South 
Vietnam. Testimony of rehabilitated prisoners stressing the errors 
of Communism should be beamed to Communist-held areas, including 

■ ft . 

North' Vietnam, to induce defections. This rehabilitation program 



would be assisted by a team of U.S. personnel, including U.S. Army. 

■ ■ u * 

(Civil Affairs, Psychological Warfare, and Counter-intelligence), 
USIS, and USOM experts.* 



.. 



T0P -SECRET 









c 

r. 
c 



"> 



c 






L 



r. 



I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



. TOP SECRE.' 



^* Cov ert A cti ons: . ' * 

i 

a. Intellig e nce: Expand current positive and* counter-intelligence ■ 

« ■ * 

operations against Communist forces in South Vietnam and against North 

» *« .. 

Vietnam. These include penetration of the Vietnamese Communist 

■ ■ 

mechanism, dispatch of agents to North Vietnam and strengthening 
Vietnamese internal security services. Authorization should be given 



for. the use in North Vietnam operations of civilian aircrews of American 
■ .and other nationality, as appropriate, in addition to Vietnamese. 

b. Communications Intelligence: Expand the "current program of 
interception and direction finding covering Vietnamese Communist 

■ 

- communications activities in South Vietnam, as well as North Vietnam 

■ 

targets. Obtain USIB authority! to conduct these operations on a fully 

■ 

joint basis, permitting the sharing of results of interception, direction 
finding, traffic analysis and cryptographic analysis by American 

* ■ 

¥ ■ 

agencies with the Vietnamese to the extent needed to launch rapid attacks 
on Vietnamese. Communist communications and command installations. 

This program should be supplemented by a program, duly 

■ 

; ; . coordinated, of -training additional Vietnamese Army units in intercept 



..•<» 



and direction finding by U.S. Army Security Agency. Also, U.S. Army 
• Security Agency teams could be sent to Vietnam for direct operations, 
coordinated in the same manner. 



■ 



* 



i 






• • 



5U 
1TOP S&frftET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



L 
[ 

[ 
[ 

[ 






[ 
[ 

[ 

[ 
i 
[ 



i 



' r "" ' ■« TOP SECIUL-* 

L ' ■ ' ■ * 



c. Unconventional Warfare: 

w — ■ 

Expand present operations of the First Observation Battalion in 
guerrilla areas of South Vietnam, under joint MAAG-GIA'sponsorship and 
direction. This should be in full operational collaboration with the 
Vietnamese j using Vietnamese civilians recruited with CIA aid. " 

■ + 

, In Laos, infiltrate teams under light civilian cover to Southeast 
Laos to locate and attack Vietnamese Communist bases and lines of 
communications. These teams should be supported by assault units of 
100 to 150 men for use on targets beyond capability of teams. Training 






of teams could be a combined operation by CIA and US Army Special 
Forces. These operations should continue despite a possible cease- 
fire in Laos. 

*• 

In North Vietnam, vising the foundation established by 

r 

intelligence operations, form networks of resistance, covert bases 
and teams for sabotage and light harassment. A capability should 
be created by MAAG in the South Vietnamese Army to conduct Ranger 
raids and similar military actions in North Vietnam as might prove 

* 

necessary or appropriate. Such actions should try to avoid" any 



..'A 



outbreak of extensive resistance or insurrection which could not be 
supported to the extent necessary to stave off repression. 

Conduct over-flights for dropping of leaflets to harass the 
communists and to maintain morale of North Vietnamese population 



r^-' ■■ ■ TOP SECRET • i 

I 
- 



' 



r- 2 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number; NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 2011 



i 

r 



c 



r 



C 

[ 



r 



* 



V _ . * 

[ 

* 

I 



T P S E C R E . 



* and increase gray broadcasts to North Vietnam for the same 
purposes. . ■ ■•*•... ^ 

# , d.. Internal South Vietnam: 

— *— - * * . , 

* ♦ 

r 

Effect operations to penetrate political forces, government, 
armed services and opj>osition elements to measure support of 
government, provide warning of any coup plans, and identify indi- 
vi duals with potentiality of providing leadership in event of * ; 

disappearance of President Diem, 

* 

Build up an increase in the population's participation in and 
loyalty to free government in Vietnam, through improved communication 

*■ * 

etween the government and the people, and by strengthening independent j 

■ 

or quasi-independent organizations of political, syndical, or professional 



character. Support covertly the GVN in allied and neutral countries, 

* 

* r * • * 

with special emphasis on bringing out GVN accomplishments, to counter- 

* 

■ act tendencies towards a "political solution" while the Communists are 
attacking GVN. Effect, in support, a psychological program in 
Vietnam and elsewhere exploiting Communist brutality and aggression 

* 

..-in North Viqtiiam.: • • .,>.; 



# 



' e ' The expan ded p rog ram outlined above will require an additional 

4 

40 personnel for the CIA station and an increase in the CIA outlay for 
Vietnam of approximately $1, 500, 000 for FY 62, partly compensated 

* 

by withdrawal of personnel from other areas. The US Army Security 



. .*» 



TOP SE'CftBT 






e- 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



r. 

L ■ ' 



r 
[ 



*TT1 



. 



■ • * 



Ji 




% 




i \ 




P 



ETP5 



../t 



. Agency actions to supplement communications intelligence will require 

m 

* 

■ 

78 personnel and approximately $1. 2 million in equipment. 



7, Funding 



Direct that $4? million from the FY 62 Contingency Fund be added 



- 



to the current FY 62 Military Assistance Program for VN to meet this 



/-, 



mergency. The current military assistance program for VN of 



- 

[ 
[ 









[ 



i 



c c 



^$60.8 million in FY 62 provides only minimum funds required to 
i 

m » 

* ■ 

maintain existing GVN armed forces of 170, 000 and 32, 000 of the Civil 
Guard, In order to provide necessary new equipment, training and 
other support required for GVN armed forces of 170,000, a Civil 
Guard of 68, 000, and Self Defense Corps of 40, 000, an additional 
$49 million for MAP is required in FY 62 for a total of about $110' 

.million* Additional fun'ds may be required for Defense Support to 

* 

-meet the local currency for .the GVN .military budget* • • • 

* 

Estimates to cover the use of the Peace Corps and Operations 

i * * 

pa * I 

* ■ ■ v • * 

Brotherhood are being developed. 



[ 



• . 






• • 



r 



L 



»■ 



f-- . 



>* 









i 
[ 

[ 

[ 

[ 



[ 
C 
[ 
[ 
[ 
[ 

c 



[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number. NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



top secret: 






8. Follow on Actions 

i 

a. Hold a Counter-Insurgency Conference in Saigon of MAAG Chiefs 
from Southeast Asia countries for the purpose of developing best methods 
and procedures for mutual support on a regional basis, 

■ 

b. Authorize U.S. Army engineers to complete construction of a 

* 
highway from the Vietnam Coast through Laos to the Mekong as an inter- 
national "Peace Highway 11 for the economical betterment of Southeast 
Asia. Publicly announce plans to eventually extend this "Peace Highway" 
to Rangoon. ' ■ . 



v.- 



c. Determine the feasibility of an appeal by Vietnam to the U.N. 



to provide ground observers to help control subversion and infiltration 

L 

of South Vietnam by the Communists. 

■ . .. 

i. d f Study the need for further possible increases in Vietnamese 



military strength to meet the growing threat to the security of the 

G. V. N. ■ ~ .: • 

■ 

e. Encourage other Free World countries to assist the G. V, N. in 
achieving its goal of preventing Communist domination of Vietnam. 

f. Provide adequate funds for an impressive U« SV participation 

* 

* - 

an the Saigon Trade Fair of 1962. 

g. Sponsor the visit of a practical U.S. economic team, drawing 
heavily on U, S. private industry, to South Vietnam to work out with the 
Vietnamese effective plans to speed up national development, to give 



TOP §1€S El 



5 



5 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



■ ■ 



r. 
[ 

[ 



} i 






c 

[ 



i 



* 



« 






* B 



TOP SECRET 



Vietnam a better tax structure, to establish a sound basis for foreign 

v 



• * 



investment, and to institute specific programs designed to have an 

early impact upon agricultural areas now 'vulnerable to Communist 

» ■ 

take -over. 

h. Develop a long-range plan for the economic development of 

- 
■ 

southeast Asia on a regional basis, allocating priority of funds and 

■',-.- 

technical assistance to South Vietnam. 

* 
^' Or ganizational Ar rangements : " 

For purposes of U. S. actions in support of this program, the 
President hereby declares that Vietnam is a critical area and ap- 

ft 

proves the organizational concept whereby over-all direction, inter- 
agency coordination and support of the program will be effected 
through a Presidential Task Force constituted as follows: 



• 



Director: 
Operations 

Officer: 
Executive: 
Liaison: 
Defense: 
JCS: 
State: 



;IGA:. . ■ . ■ . 
"CIA: 

USIA: . 

Office of 
the President 



Deputy Secretary of Defense Gilpatric 

Brig. Gen. Lansdale 

Col. Black - * 

Mr. Frank Hand 

Assistant Secretary (ISA), Mr, Nitze 

Gen, Bone steel and Col.. Levy . 

Deputy Under Secretary Alexis Johnson 

(or Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern 

Affairs, Mr, McConaughy) 
Mr.' V/yiiam Sheppard . , t 

Chief, Far East Division, Mr. Fitzgerald 
Deputy Director, Mr. Sorcnson 

Mr. Rostow. 



i 



[ 



■ 

In carrying out his duties while in the field, the Operations Officer of 

the Task Force will cooperate with and will have the full support of the 

* 

Ambassador and the Country Team. 

TOP SECRET 

Ob * 



* 



■ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






[ 
[ 

a 

[ 



I 






: 

r. 

I 

[ 

[ 



V I E X N A M 



I 



DEMARCATION 






GULF O I-' 



T ONK1 N 



THAILAND 

• t 




LAOS 



*'&'&&&£&», Xs;-' Tour an < 
^/■.■■■■■'.■■•.■■'.••.\-\ *\ 



r***v*** 




. » *r • . ■ ♦ 




!' 



[■*'•* 




H 



h • ' * * " 



to CAMBODIA 



|/\ 




V 



jr? 





r 



r- 



<.— ' 



Tay Ninh 







# * # ■ ** ■ •■ ■ * J 
"■**•.•■■■**/ 

<&:£* '.Trang 
V 1 1- T NV;:^ 



^— ..„„.« 






/ I I • 




[ 

I 



'" 



nccjues 






/^ 1^ "' l' l> ■• ■'%' I* l'l V >^ 



■10- 




SOUTH C h l t< A SEA 
Ljj Communist dominated 

i . ' 

Communist controlled 
mostly at night 



I ■ t r • • ■ 
• 1 I I * t < 
*« »l * f I 



^ 



JE. 



JC3 
.j 



57 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 



SECOND DRAFT 
Col. E. F. Black 

28 A-oril 



EFFECT OF A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT IN LAOS ON THE PROPOSED 



PROGRAM OF ACTION FOR VIETNAM 



If agreement is reached on a cease fire, political negotiations on 
the future of Laos will begin on May 12 at the Fo-urteen Power Conference 
, in Geneva* However, the April 26th statement onLaos by the Chinese 
, Communist indicates that the Communist members of that conference 

■ 

intend to expand the negotiations to include other areas of Southeast 
Asia, As a result, it can be expected that the Fourteen Power Conference 
will be prolonged, covering several months or more. 

The effect of these negotiations on the Proposed Program of Action 
for Vietnam are threefold: 

First , the very fact that the Fourteen Powers are meeting 
under essentially the same ground rules as the 195^ Geneva Accords, 
including the concept of an ICC mechanism in Laos, Vietnam and Cam- 
bodia, could have a politically inhibiting effect on any significant 
measures which the U.S. might undertake to prevent a Communist 
take-over in South Vietnam. 

Second , as has been their practice in the past, the Com- 
munists can be expected to use the cover of an international negotiation 
to expand their subversive activities. In this case, close coordination 

SECRET 
53 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



of their efforts In southern Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam can be expected. 
The 250 mile border between South Vietnam and Laos, while never . 

t 

effectively sealed in the past, will now be deprived of even the semblance 
of protection which the friendly, pro-western Laos offers. 

Third, the three principal passes through the Annamite 
Mountains (the Nape Pass, Mugia Gap, and Lao Bao Pass) lie in 

w 

I 

Southern Laos. These passes control three key military avenues of 

advance from North Vietnam through Laos into the open Mekong valley * 

leading to Thailand and South Vietnam. A Lao political settlement that 

! would afford the Communists an opportunity to maintain any sort of 

control, covertly or otherwise, of these mountain passes would make 

them gate keepers to the primary inland invasion route leading to Saigon 

and flanking the most Important defensive terrain in the northern area 

of South Vietnam. 

The first Is of little significance since this government has already 

indicated that we will not consider ourselves bound by any limitations 

imposed by the 195^ Geneva Agreements. 

As to the second, the neutralization or loss of Laos to the Free 

World will, of course, compound the problems which the G.V.N, faces 

in maintaining the security of their border with Laos. It will also improve 

the Communist capabilities to infiltrate personnel and equipment into 

Southern Vietnam through Cajr-.bodia. The extremely rugged nature of 



59 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 1 6. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






the terrain along the Laos-G*V.M. boundary makes it almost impossible 
to establish a "water-tight" border. However, this same rugged terrain 
limits the smuggling routes to one principal road, (the east-west highway 
from Savannahhet to Tchopone to Quang Tri) and to some 12-15 reasonably 
passable trails. With the reinforcement of the G. V. N. Army in. 
the Konium plateau region; with the establishment of a thoroughly effective 
intelligence and patrol system using the most modern communications 
equipment; with regular aerial surveillance of the entire border region; 
and with the application of new technological area-denial techniques 
(e.g., GW, BW, ligh plastic, air-droppable landmines, fluorescent 
materials, etc.); it should be possible to hold the flow of Communist 
agents and supplies to the current levels. As these measures are applied 
the efficiency of the border patrol system can be expected to increase 

■ 

and it is not unreasonable to expect that the flow of Communist aid to the 
Viet Cong might even be reduced somewhat. 

The third, however, poses a direct and serious military threat to 
the entire western flank of South Vietnam. It cannot be met within the 
dimensions of our internal security program alone. It requires the prompt 
organization of two new G.V.N, divisions and a vastly accelerated U.S. 
training program for the entire G.V.N, army. This cannot be conceived 
of in terms of regular MAAG training, as its success depends upon raising 
the combat effectiveness of the South Vietnamese forces by an entire order 



» 



60 



( 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



of magnitude within a matter of 6-8 months. To meet this new situation 
j it will be necessary to augment the MAAG with two U.S. training com- 
mands, each capable of establishing a divisional field training area. 
One camp would be established in the vicinity of Kontum; the other, 

near Ban Me Thuot. Each of these training commands would require 
I 

approximately 1600 U.S- soldiers drawn from Army or Marine Corps sources. 

In addition to the regular divisional training program, a major step-up 



of special Forces training is indicated to assist the G. V. N. forces 
counter the increased move level of Viet Cong guerrilla activity which 
can be expected to follow a cease fire in Laos, This will require a further 
MAAG augmentation of a Special Forces Group. To meet the urgency of the 
situation, the 1st Special Forces Group now stationed in Okinawa should 
be deployed at once to Hha Trang for this purpose. 

In summary , the most effect of a political settlement in Laos, while 
complicating one important aspect of the problem of the defense of South 
Vietnam, will not make the over-all task impossible or even impracticable. 

Specifically, force levels for the G. V, K. Army will have to be 
increased by two divisions; modern equipment, primarily of the communication 
and reconnaissance types, will have to be provided to assist t|$e Go V. N. 
in setting up and operating an effective border control system; and the 
MAAG will have to be augmented by the addition of two U.S. divisional 
training commands (l,600 U.S. military personnel each) and one Special 
Forces Group (kOO U.S. military personnel). 



61 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 
LIMIT DISTRIBUTION 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



MEMORANDUM OF CONVERSATION 



DATE: April 29, I96I 



SUBJECT: Laos 



PARTICIPANTS: 



Copies to: S/S 



The Secretary 
Secretary McNamara 
Attorney General Kennedy 
The Under Secretary 
General C.E. Le May 
General David M. Shoup 



Admiral Arleigh Burke 
Mr. McGeorge Bundy 
Assistant Secy McConaughy 
Deputy Asst. Secy Steeves 
Mr. Charles E. Bohlen 
Mr. Daniel V. Anderson 
Ambassador Kenneth Young 
Mr, G. Edward Reynolds, Lao 



C-Mr. Johnson Desk Officer 
S/P Mr. McGhee EUR-Mr. Kohler DOD-Secy McNamera 
FE-Mr. McConaughy IO-Mr. Cleveland Wri-Mr. McGeorge Bundy 
S/B Mr. Rohlen IN/'C-2 



The Secretary observed that the principal change on the 
ground had been that forces had moved from such points as Muong 
Kassy and Tha Thorn However, there had been no major change 
that would in itself make the difference between our carrying out 
Plan 5 today and three weeks ago. 

Mr. McNamara said that the real question was whether we could 
land forces in Vientiane because of the danger of Chinese air 
retaliation local sabotage and the action by PL guerrillas who 
could move into Vientiane at any time. The Secretary observed 
that the presence of these guerrillas had been noted for weeks. 

General Le May observed that there had been a large build-up 
of supplies by the Pathet Lao side. 

Admiral Burke said that we were faced with the "folding" of 
the FAB, which was not fighting. 

The Secretary asked to what extent we were influenced by the 
movement of Chinese Communist fighter bombers and pointed out 
that this capability certainly existed three weeks ago. 

General Le May 



v 



62 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



J 



L 



TOP SECRET 

sit msr2inun.on 

- 2 - 



'I 



I 












[ 

L 



* 



i 



General Le May said that these aircraft could always be 
moved in to scare us 'off . 



The Secretary ne::t sslced to what o::tcnt the Defense Depart- 
ment had been Influenced by tho danger of escalation. K&d thl3 
made any considerable difference? Mr. uc^Tamra replied that it 
would be easy for the PL or Chinese Cc:zr;,unists to prevent suc- 
cessful landings at Vientiane or Scr.o. i ' 

Admiral Burke said that tho situation had deteriorated quite 
a bit but he still thought it possible to go in. ( War is dangerous ,, 
he said. If pushed vje could retreat across the river,, reinforce 
from Jdorn and go back and fight, r, • ' ...»•• 

When the Secretary asked whether i;o could send in troops to 
secure the airfield $ Admiral Burke said that would be a first 
task. Br. McHamara said it would be easy for the enemy to deny 
us the airfield as we would neod thirty-six sorties a day to get 
US troops into Vientiane , 

Mr. Bundy said that if we took tills action we would be doing 
something which most countries would not appreciate. 

5he Attorney General ask6d where would be the best place to 
stand and fight in Southeast Asia,, where to draw the line. 



Mr. MeUamara said he thought we would take a stand in Thailand 
raid South Viet -Mam. The Attorney General asked whether we v/ould 
save any of Laos, but the major question- was whether we would 
stand up and fip:ht. 



O' 



Adrairal Burke said that we could hold /j?ciirane, and General 
Le May observed that we could use our air lowerback as far as 
necessary , letting the enemy have all of the countryside but that 
J i the PL could be stopped by air power, : 






Mr* HclSfamara said that we v/ould have to attack the D3V if 



wo gave up Laos . . . 

The Secretary suggested that- the part of Laos from the 17th 
Parallel across" to the Mekong mlkht be easier to hold than tho 
en t ire c ount ry . 



o J 



• General Decker thought that there was no good place to fight 
I in 'Southeast Asia but we must hold as much as x;e can of Vict-^Ia^ 
1 Cambodia and Laos. At this point the Secretary said that we had 
; missed having government troops who were veiling to fight. 



S?. Steevas 






»*- 



£0P SECES? 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 
LIMIT DISTRIBUTION 

Mr. Steevea pointed out that we had always argued that we 
would not give up Laos and that it was on the pleas of our 
military that we had supported Phoumi; that we had reiterated 
in the press and to the public what Laos meant to us. If this 
problem is unsolvable then the problem of Viet -Ham would be 
unsolvable. If we decided that this was untenable then we were 
writing the first chapter in the defeat of Southeast Asia. 
Mr. McNamara said the situation was not as bad five weeks ago as 
it was now. 



Admiral Burke pointed out that each time you giv^ ground it 
is harder to stand next time. 1 If we give up Laos we would have 
to put US forces into Viet-Nam and Thailand. We would have to 
throw enough in to win — perhaps the "works". It would be easier 
to hold now than later. The thing to do was to land now and hold 
as much as we can and make clear that we were not going to be 
pushed out of Southeast Asia. We were fighting for the rest of 
Asia. 



Mr. McNamara wondered whether more VietCong would necessarily 
enter South Viet-Nam if Laos went down the drain. He mentioned 
that some 12,000 Viet Cong had entered South Viet-Nam under present 
conditions and that the Communists held the area south of the 17th 
Parallel to a depth of twenty- five miles with a supposedly friendly 
government in South Viet-Nara. (Several of those present questioned 
the accuracy of the figure of 12,000.) 

Turning to the question of the morale of the Southeast Asians, 
the Secretary recalled that the Thai Foreign Minister had told him 
during the recent SEATO conference that Thailand was like a "golden 
bell 11 which had to be protected from outside. The Secretary said he 
was not sure the Foreign Minister was wrong. He added that he 
was less worried about escalation than he was about infectious 
slackness. He said he would not give a cent for what the Persians 
would think of us if we did not defend Laos. 

General Decker thought that we should have stood last August 
and wondered what would happen if we got "licked". The Secretary 
suggested that Thai and US troops might be placed together in 
Vientiene and, if they could not hold, be removed by helicopter. 
Even if they were defeated they would be defeated together and this 
would be better than sitting back and doing nothing. General Decker 
said we cannot win a conventional war in Southeast Asia; if we go in, 
we should go in to win, and that means bombing Hanoi, China, and 
maybe even using nuclear bombs. He pointed out that all the advan- 
tage we have in he'avy equipment would be lost in the difficult 
terrain of Laos where we would be at the mercy of the querrillas. 
The Secretary pointed out that this fact was also true at the time 
of the Bangkok Resolution but that we had gone ahead with the 

resolution anyway and had issued statements indicating that we would 

6k 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 
LIMIT DISTRIBUTION 
-fc- 



would back up our words with deeds. Mr. McNamara repeated that the 
situation is now worse than it was five weeks ago. Mr. Steeves 
pointed out that the same problems existed in South Viet-Nam, but 
Admiral Burke thought that South Viet-Nam could be more easily 
controlled. 



m 



General Becker then suggested that troops be moved into Thailand 
and South Viet-Nam to see whether such action would not produce a 
cease-fire. Admiral Burke asked what happens if there is still no 
cease-fire. General Decker said then we would be ready to go ahead. 

Mr. Kennedy said we would look sillier than we do now if we 
got troops in there and then backed down. He reiterated the ques- 
tion whether we are ready to go the distance. 

■ 

The Secretary said that we would want to get the United Nations 
"mixed up 1 ' in this. 

Mr. Behlen said he saw no need for a fixation on the possi- 
bility of a reaction by the Chinese Communists. He said we had no 
evidence that they want to face the brink of nuclear war. He 
said that he was more concerned about the objectives we would seek 
if we took military action. 

There followed a discussion about the possibility of restor- 
ing the kingdom of Champassak where Boun Oum relinquished the throne 
and where he is popular. It was thought that Sihanouk would support 
a partition of Laos. General Decker thought that if a cease-fire 
could be effected now, it would be possible to secure southern Laos. 

General Le May did not believe that it would be possible to 
get a cease-fire without military action. He admitted that he did 
not know what US policy is in Laos. He knew what the President had 
said but he also pointed out that the military had been unable to 
back up the President's statements. He then enumerated a number 
of possibilities: l) do nothing and lose Laos; 2) ;ase B-26's and 
slow up the enemy; 3) use more sophisticated bombers and stop 
supplies and then perhaps Phoumi's forces could be brought up to 
where they could fight; *i) implement Plan 5> backing up troops 
with air. General Le May did not think the Chinese would escalate 
but believed on the contrary that a cease-fire would then be 
brought about. He added that he believed we should go to work on 
China itself and let Chiang take Hainan Island. He thought Chiang 
had a good air force. 



General Shoup 



65 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 
LIMIT DISTRIBUTION 

General Shoup suggested that B-26 ! s should be used before 
troops are landed. He felt that It might then be possible to 
obtain a cease-fire and get the panhandle of Laos. Mr, Kennedy- 
asked if any appreciable dent could be made on the guerrillas with 
B-26 1 s. General Le May said it would be possible to "knock out a 
big wad of supplies with B~26 f s and 100' s. Mr. Kennedy asked what 
would be the next step. The Secretary said it would be necessary 
to get the UN in quickly. Mr. Kennedy asked what the others would 
do then. General Le May said the worst that could happen would be 
that the Chinese Communists would come in. Mr. Kennedy asked if 
It could all be done by air. General Le May said it could. 
Mr. McNamara said you would have to use nuclear weapons. Mr. 
Kennedy asked if South Viet-Nam and Thailand could be held if Laos 
were lost. The Secretary and Admiral Burke agreed that It would 
take a greater effort to hold them after Laos had been lost and 
Mr. Johnson pointed out that Thailand had to be defended from the 
other bank. 

Mr. Steeves felt that the prize to be focused on was South- 
east Asia. The question to be faced, he thought, was whether we 
could afford to lose Southeast Asia. 

The Secretary thought that if a cease-fire is not brought 
about quickly j then It would be necessary to get the UN to come in 
with the SEATO forces committed in a Plan 5 action* He thought that 
a majority could be found in the UN for such action if the cost is 
not distributed. Mr, McNamara and Admiral Burke thought that more 
than two weeks would be required for UN action. Admiral Burke said 
that only the United States could pull its own chestnuts out of the 
fire. (There followed a general discussion on the extent to which 
others would support us. It was agreed that the Pakistani could be 
relied upon if we paid for them and that a few Malays, New Zealanders 
and others would help . ) 

Ambassador Young suggested the possibility of training 50 to 
60,000 Vietnamese. He pointed to the ready access to ports in the 
area of the Lao border and to the fact that the terrain in the area 
is not too bad. 

Mr. Bowles said he thought the main question to be faced was 
the fact that we were going to have to fight the Chinese anyway in 
2, 3? 5 or 10 years and that it was just a question of where, when 
and how. He thought that a major war would be difficult to avoid. 
General Le May said that, in that case, we should fight soon since 
the Chinese would have nuclear weapons within one or two years. 

Mr. McNamara said that the situation was worsening by the hour 
and that if we were going to commit ourselves, then we must do so 
sooner rather than later. 

The Secretary then adjourned the meeting saying he would like 

to consider the matter further. 

66 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 




THE JOINT STAFF 









2= v . 

- t ' f 



* ..-„-.* **»a 



THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF 

WASHINGTON 25. D.C. 



* » 



"S 



5 May 1961 



.'t 






[ 
■ 



t 






1 1 



• 



[ 

[ 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD 

Subject: 5 May 1961 Meeting at State 



Secretary of State Rusk posed the question of the' intro- 
duction of US forces into Vietnam prior to the beginning 
of the Geneva Conference ., .A discussion (ensued between 
Secretary Rust-:, Secretary Gilpatric, Mr. Steeves, Ambassa- 
dors Johnson , Young and others present. The following 
points were dominant: * I 

* * » • 

H 

- Should we place combat; troops in South Vietnam - if 
so, should it be prior to l£ May? 

" . - The size of the forces and the mission or objectives. 



- North Vietnamese violations of the Geneva Accords - 
and the extent of proof the US can provide.* 

- UK's expressed caution against any military buildup 
in Vietnam prior to the Geneva Conference and during its 
early phase.. i , . . 

- US privilege to make counter moves at least to the 
extent of the North Vietnam violations. 

- Augmentation of the MAAG and to what extent. 
* « 

Secretary Rusk decided that: 



-r* _. .» 



a. We should not place combat forces in South Vietnam 
at this "time. 

b. Vie should proceed to augment the MAAG, in small 
" increments, with up to 100 additional military personnel. 

and not discuss it with- the UK of ICC..,' He recommended * 
that these personnel be placed In varied locations to 
avoid attention. ; 



^ 



r 



f* 



v 



07 



3 



>.. 









* * 1 '_,.'-■' 



-**.# •*-« 



DECLASSIFY S3. 5 \: »'.■ " ' ,j ! 



f 






c 
r 
[ 
[ 
c 



i" 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



,'* 



i% • • • » 



# 



t* v." 






should 



c. The 78 military for COMINT purposes 
proceed to South Vietnam* 



It was agreed that the deployment of additional US 
forces should receive further study and consideration. 




a/7/1 

ROBERT M. LEVY ) 
Colonel, USAP y 
JCS Representative 







» 



A 






J 



[ 



Distribution: 
Mr. Gilpatric ■ 
Admiral Burke 
Lt- Gen Wheeler 

• Ma j Gen Dean 

Ma j Gen Bone steel 
Brig Gen Lansdale 



i 



E 
[ 



• ■ a 



r 

L 



G3 



> 






r 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



i — *» 



! * 

- * 



TOP SECRET 



r 
[ 

[ 

[ 

r 



■ 






SENSITIVE 






« f 



1 

[ 

[ 



1 







May 8, 1961 



MEMORANDUM 



SUBJECT: Program of Action for Vietnam 



Transmitted herewith is one copy of M A Program of Action 
to Prevent Communist Domination of South Vietnam, !l A n final 
draft form based largely upon the Department of State paper. 
There are 7 annexes which are now being produced and which 
will be delivered later today. 

Deputy Secretary Gilpatric desires that this paper be com* 
piled in final form for presentation to the NSC without further 
formal meetings of the Task Force on Vietnam, if possible. 
Thus, yovir comments on this final draft and its annexes are 
requested by 1430 hours to morrow, Tu esda y, May 9 . 

- 

Comments should be given to my office, room 3E-947, the 
Pentagon, Telephone extensions are: 57742, 57786, and 57792 



EDWARD G. LANSDALE 
Brigadier General, USAF 
Assistant to the 
, Secretary of Defense 



Attachment 



GS 



TOP SECRET 



i. 



-; 



f ■> 



-,: 






■ 



-:- 






S 



V 



.-» 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



l. 



[ 

[ 



L . 









• i 



[ 



t 



■ 



TOP SECRET 



SENSITIVE 



DRAFT 
6.May 1961 



A Program of Action 



To Prevent Communist Domination of South Vietnam 



Appraisal of the Situation: The internal security situation in 

^■—' ' ^ " »M l'"S» N I I ■■—— Hi ■ ■!!■ .| IM ■■ <W^ ■■ . _. _ 

South Vietnam has become critical, as can be seen on thr attached 
map, with an estimated 12, 000 Viet Cong Communists waging 
guerrilla warfare inside the country. The strongly anti- Communist, 
pro-American government of South Vietnam, with American aid, is 
increasing its capabilities to fight its attackers. Should the Com- 
munist effort increase, either directly or as a result of a collapse 

> 

of Laos, additional measures beyond those. proposed herein may be 
necessary, (Details in Annex 1. ) 
1 The U.S. Objective: To prevent Communist domination of South 

+ 

Vietnam and to create in that country a viable and increasingly 



democratic society. 



J 



* 

Concept of Operations: To initiate, on an accelerated basis, a 



•■ , . . * 



series of mutually supporting actions of a military, political, economic, 

■ 

psychological and covert character designed to achieve this objective. 



[ 

[ 



In so doing, it is intended to use, and where appropriate extend, 
expedite or build upon the existing U.S. and Government of Vietnam 



Ibis document contains. P a ^ JO 

Cony Bo. of copies- Series 



.*] 



f 
t 



TOP SECRET 



EXCLUDED PKO'd MffOU&TXC 
7fl | REGBADIBG; DOD DIH 5200.10 

cons bo? tsvvt 



ru 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SEC MET 



[ 












[ 

[ 

c 

[ 
[ 



r 



(G. V. N. ) programs, including as much of the Counter-Insurgency 

■ 

- 

Plan (CIP), as can.be agreed by both governments, already uncler- 
way -in South .Vietnam, There is neither the time available nor any 
sound justification for "starting from scratch, " Rather the need is 
to focus the U, S. effort in South Vietnam on the immediate internal 
se urity problem; to infuse it with a sense of urgency and a dedica- 



• 



« 



tion to the overall U.S. objective; to achieve, through cooperative 
inter- departmental support both in the field and in Washington, the 
operational flexibility needed to apply the available U.S. assets in 
a' manner best calculated to achieve our objective in Vietnam; to 
give the U.S. Ambassador and the U.S. team under his leadership 

* - 

general authority to undertake a series of accelerated measures 
as noted below; and finally, to impress on our friends, the Viet- 
namese, and on our foes, the Communists, that come what may, 

- 

the U.S. intends to win this battle. 

■ 

Program of Action: ■ - 

I- 

1. General : The situation in South Vietnam has reached 

r 

the point where., 'at least for the time being, "primary emphasis must 

be placed on providing a solxition to the internal security problem, 

A significant step which has already been taken by the Country Team 

to counter Communist subversion in South Vietnam has been the' 

development of the Counter-Insurgency Plan (CIP}. Those portions 

r ' 7*1 

TOP SECRET 



■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 







TOE 



s 



SCRET 



[ 



[ 



[ 









[ 

[ 
[ 

[ 



f 



* 



ft. I I 






of the CIP which are agreed to by the G. V.N. will be implemented 
as rapidly as possible. 

- * 
■ * 

Communist domination of South Vietnam needs more than rnili- 
tary measures alone to be stopped. Our military program must be 
accompanied and supplemented by a strong, positive political- 
economic program. 

- 

2. Military: 

a. The following military actions were approved by 
the President at the NSC meeting of 29 April 1961: 

(1) Increase the MAAG as necessary to insure the 
effective implementation of the military portion of the program in- 
cluding the training of a 20, 000 -man addition to the present G. V. N. 

armed forces of 150, 000. Initial appraisal- of new tasks assigned 

• • • 

CHMAAG indicate that approximately 100 additional military person- 

Pi » 

nel will be required immediately in addition to the present complement 



of 685.- 



[2)° Expand MAAG responsibilities to include 



authority to -provide support and advice to. the Self Defense Corps 
with a strength of approximately 40, 000. 

(3) Authorize MAP support for the entire Civil 
Guard force of 68, 000. MAP support is now authorized for 32, 000; 
the remaining 36,000 are not now adequately trained and equipped. 



. _ • 



-. ■ 



* /. 



TOP SECEET 



. ■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 






TOIP SECRET 



[ 



[ 
[ 



! 



I 

I 



. 



\ 



(4) Install as a matter of priority a radar sur- 

• • • 

veillance capability which will enable the G. V.N. to obtain warning 
of Communist over -flights being conducted for intelligence or 

clandestine air supply purposes. Initially, this capability should 

■ 

be provided from U.S. mobile radar capability. 

(5) Provide MAP support for the Vietnamese 
Junk Force as a means of preventing Viet Cong clandestine supply 
and infiltration into South Vietnam by water. MAP support, which 

■ 

was not provided in the Counter- Insurgency Plan, will include train- 
ing of junk crews in Vietnam or at U. S. bases by U, S. Navy personnel. 

b. The following additional actions are considered neces- 
sary to assist the G. V. N. in meeting the increased security threat 
resulting from the new situation along the Laos-G. V.N. frontier: 

(1) Assist. the G.V.N, armed forces to increase 
their border patrol and insurgency suppression capabilities by cstab- 



• * 



lishing an effective border intelligence and patrol system, by institut- 
ing regular aerial surveillance over the entire frontier area, and by 

■ * * 

■ "* • • ■ " • • ■ 

applying modern technological area-denial techniques to control the 

roads and trails along Vietnam's borders. A special staff element 

(approximately 6 U.S. personnel), to concentrate upon solutions to 

the unique problems of Vietnam's borders, will be activated in MAAG, 

Vietnam, to assist a similar special unit in the RVNAF which the 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET 



[ 

c 

[ 
[ 

r 






c 
c- 

[ 



* * 



G, V.N. will be encouraged to establish; these two elements working 
as an integrated team will help the G, V.N. gain the support of nomadic 
tribes and other border inhabitants, as well as introduce advanced 
techniques and equipment to strengthen the security of South Vietnam's 



frontiers. 



(2) Assist the G. V.N. to establish a Combat Develop- 



ment and Test Center in South Vietnam to develop, with the help of 
modern technology, new techniques for use against the Viet Cong 
forces. (Approximately 4 U.S. personnel.) 

(3) Assist the G. V.N. forces with health, welfare 
and public work projects by providing U.S. Army civic action mobile 
training teams, coordinated with the similar civilian effort. (Approxi- 
mately 14 U. S. personnel. ) * . 

(4) Deploy a Special Forces Group (approximately 

> 

400 personnel) to Nha Trang in order to accelerate G. V.N. Special 



■ » 



Forces training. The first increment, for immediate deployment to 
Vietnam, should be a Special Forces company (52 personnel). 



• • v 



(5) Instruct JCS, CINCPAC, and MAAG to undertake 

* m 

an assessment of the military utility of a further increase in the G. V.N 

forces from 170, 000 to 200, 000 in order to create two new division 

- 

equivalents for deployment to the northwest border region. The 
parallel political and fiscal implications should be assessed. 



*i 






TOP SECRET 



j ,,,». - 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 

NM) Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Dale: 201 1 






[ 

[ 
[ 



Li 



[ 
[ 



L 









T O P 



!? 




^, 



R E T 



c. / In preparation for possible commitment of U. S. forces 
to Vietnam^ which might result from an NSC decision following discus- 

sions between Vice President Johnson and President Diem, Defense is 

■ 

undertaking an immediate study of the size and composition of U.S. 



V 



forces required to: 



\ 




- provide maximum psychological impact in deterrence 



■ 



of further Communist aggression from North Vietnam, China, or the 
Soviet Union, while rallying the morale of the Vietnamese and encourag- 
ing the support of SEATO and neutral nations for Vietnam's defense; 

- 

- release Vietnamese forces from advanced and static 
defense positions to permit their fuller commitment to counter-insurgency 



actions; 



; 



- provide maximum training to approved Vietnamese 



forces; and 



- provide significant military resistance to potential 



North Vietnam Communist and/or Chinese Communist action, 



The following. possible actions ptre being considered in. this Defense 



study; 



(1) Deploy to South Vietnam two U.S. battle groups 



(with necessary command and logistics units), plus an engineer (con- 
struction-combat) battalion. These units would be located in the 

— 

TOP SECRET - 



* » 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



— 

[ 



C 



rj 






TOP SECRET 



f, high plateau" region, remote from the major population center of 

■ * * * ■ 

Saigon- Cholon, under the command of the Chief, MAAG. To help 

accelerate the training of the G. V.N. army, they would establish 

two divisional field training areas. The engineer battalion would 

undertake construction of roads, air-landing strips, and other' 

facilities essential to the logistical support of the U.S. and Viet- 

* > 

4 

namese forces there, 

(2) Assign thfe Naval component of CINCPAC the 
responsibility for coastal patrol activities, employing minimal U.S. 
Naval forces in conjunction v/ith Vietnamese forces, to prevent the 
seaborne infiltration of Viet Cong personnel and material into South 
Vietnam. 



t 



• 



[ 
[ 



(3) Assign the air component of CINCPAC the 

■ 

responsibility for border surveillance and close- support of G.V.N. 



ground forces in counter-insurgency actions, employing minimal 
U.S.* Air Force means in conjunction with Vietnamese forces, to 
help seal the Vietnamese borders and to defeat the Communist 
• • • guerrillas- within those borders, , . .. - 



(An Appraisal of the Military Concept is given in Annex 2. ) 



i o 



TOP SECRET 






r 
[ 

[ 
[ 



P 



[ 



f. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 




i<? 



5CRET 



3. Political: 




,'\ 



I I. Objective: . Develop political and economic conditions 

which will create a solid and widespread support among the key political 
group and the general population for a Vietnam which has the will to 
resist Communist encroachment and which in turn stems from a stake 
in a fieer and more democratic society. ' 

i a. Increase the confidence of President Diem and his 

government in the United States, by the following actions: 

* 

(1) A message has been dispatched to President 
i 
Diem informing him of your personal support for his courageous leader- 
ship in the struggle against communism and of Vice President Johnson's 

- 

trip, indicating that Vice President Johnson v/ill be carrying a more 
detailed expression of your thoughts on a broad range of proposals for 



joint action between our two countries* 

(2) A letter from you to President Diem has been 

* - 

prepared for Vice President Johnson identifying the key objectives con- 

- 

tained in this Task Force report which we propose as a joint U.S. - 



J 



4 



Vietnamese address 'to the existing threat to Vietnam's freedom, stability 
and security, seeking an expression of Diem ! s support for this joint, effort. 



•TL . 



...:■ 



.} 



£6 



-t 



• 



(3) Vice President Johnson's trip to Vietnam should 






be focused on obtaining broad agreement on how the U.S. and Vietnam 



fm 



Jl 




SECRET 



c 



[ 






L 



[ 



i. 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



[ 
[ 



J freedom and integrity of that country. 



view the problem confronting Vietnam's security including the range of 
political, economic and military actions required to preserve the * 



b. Strengthen President Diem's j^opular support 
within Vietnam, by the following actions: | 

1 i 

(1) Instruct Ambassador Nolting to reappraise 

[■ ' ■ 

the political situation and undertake to obtain agreement of the G, V.N. 



on an urgent basis for a realistic political program along the lines 
indicated in the CIP. The objective of the program would be to seek 
to produce favorable attitudes and active popular cooperation against 
the VC. While the Ambassador's recommendations might well include 
actions directed toward fiscal and monetary reform measures, it is 
presumed that the major recommendations in this area will be developed 
by the Ambassador in conjunction with the special team of U.S. economic 
experts which it is proposed be dispatched to Vietnam for this purpose 



1 . (in Economic. sectiori following), 



(2) As a part of this initial assessment, the 
. Ambassador should also consider such special arrangements within 
J the field organization as he may deem required to assure a capability 



for rapid Country Team response to evolving problems. This should 

* 

include an assessment of staff requirements, both with a view to request- 

ing such additional personnel as required and to reviewing the employment 



73 



TOP SECRET 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 J 6. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 






[" 

C 

c 

c 

■« 

[ 

- 



V 



of existing field staff to assure the most efficient application of available 

* 

personnel to major objectives to be accomplished. 

II. Objective: Improve Vietnam's relationships with other 
countries and its status in world opinion. 

a. Improve relations with Cambodia leading to full 
border control cooperation, by the following actions: 

" ■ (1) Instruct our Ambassadors in Phnorn Penh and 

Saigon to urge host governments to enter promptly into renewed border 
control negotiations. In order to secure Cambodian cooperation, the 
Cambodian government should be informed that requests for additional 
military assistance will be sympathetically considered. It also should 
be informed immediately of the approval of its recent request for four 



T-3 7 aircraft. 



; 



b. Call for. United Nations observers to observe 



externally supported Communist actions of subversion, infiltration and- 

i ■ 

oilier violations of Vietnam's sovereignty, by the following action: 

(1) Instruct our Ambassador in Saigon to consider 
discussing this matter with the G. V.N. Ambassador Stevenson might 

■ ■ 

• * ■*■.• # . ■ ■ 

later be asked to explore informally the idea with Mr. Hammarskjold 

■ 

and friendly foreign representatives in New York. 

c. Accept contributions of other free world countries 

< 

toward meeting the Communist guerrilla threat in Vietnam as a means 



t O 



tTr^ 



FOP SECRET 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 




[ 




c 






[ 

[ 

[ 



L 



of bringing a wider allied support to the effort to assist Vietnam, by the 



following action: 



(1) Instruct our representatives in Saigon to pre- 



pare, in consultation with the Vietnamese, proposals providing for the 
use of third country contributions, particularly that already offered by 
the British, to the training of Vietnam's forces and counter- guerrilla 



efforts. 



/ 

III, Objective: Undertake military security arrangements 
which emjDhasize the U.S. intention to stand behind Vietnam's resistance 
to Communist aggression. 

a. Undertake a new bilateral arrangement with Vietnam, 



by the following action: 



; (1) On the grounds that the Geneva Accords have 

placed inhibitions upon free world action while at the same time placing 
no restrictions upon the Communists, Ambassador Nolting should be. 

'instructed to- enter- into preliminary discussions- with Diem regarding the 
possibility of a defensive security alliance despite the inconsistency of 

,such action. with the Geneva Accords,* This. action would be based on the 
premise that such an undertaking is justified in international law as 

> 
■ * • 

representing a refusal to be bound by the Accords in a degree and manner 
beyond that which the other party to the Accords has shown a willingness 
to honor. Communist violations, therefore, justify the establishment 

en 




c 



U 



TOP SECRET 









[ 






1 






[ 

E 

- 

I 

I 



r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



r- ■ 



TOP SECRET 



of the security arrangement herein recommended. Concurrently, Defense 

should study the military advisability of committing U.S. 'forces in' Vietnam 

(as <noted in Military section above). * 

(Political details in Annex 3.) 

4. Economic: 






I, Objective: Undertake economic programs having both a 



short- arm immediate impact as well as ones which contribute to the 



longer range economic viability of the country. 

i 

\ a. Undertake a series of economic projects designed to 

accompany the counter-insurgency effort, by the following action: 



(1) Grant to ICA the authority and funds to move into 
a rural development- civic action program. Such a program would include 

short-range, simple, impact projects which would be undertaken by teams 

t 

working in cooperation with local communities. This might cost roug?ily 

m ■■ , 

I 

$3 to $5 million, mostly in local currency- Directors of field teams 
should be given authority with respect to the expenditure of funds including 
use of dollar" instruments to purchase local currency oji the spot. 

. b. Assist Vietnam to make the best use of all available 

■ ■ « 

'economic resources', by the following action: .".,•.. 

(1) Having in mind that our chief objective is obtain- 
ing a full and enthusiastic support by the G, V.N. in its fight against the 
Communists, a high level team, preferably headed by Assistant Secretary 



81 






TOP SECRET 



t V 



- 



9 is 



* 






I 



[ 

r 



! 



ri 



r 

L 



[•• 



• i 






L • 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



f of the Treasury John Leddy, with State and ICA members, should be 

dispatched to Saigon to work out in. conjunction with the Ambassador 



a plan whereby combined U.S. and Vietnamese financial resources can 
best be utilized. This group's terms of reference should cover the 
broad range of fiscal and economic problems. Authority should be 
given to make concessions necessary to achieve our objectives and to 

i 

soften the blow of monetary reform.' Ambassador Nolting and perhaps 
the Vice President should notify Diem of the proposed visit of this 
group stressing that their objective is clearly to maximize the joint 
n^ effort rather than to force the Vietnamese into inequitable and unpalat- 



able actions. 



{?,) As a part of the foregoing effort, an assess- 



ment should be undertaken of the fiscal and other economic implications 
of a further force increase from 170, 000 to 200, 000 (as noted in the 

■ 

Military section above). 

■ 

c. Undertake the development of a long-range economic 
development program as a means of demonstrating U. S. confidence in the 

> 

economic' and. pglitical future of the country by the following action: 

(1) Authorize Ambassador Nolting to inform the 

■ - 

G. V.N, that the U.S. is prepared to discuss a long-range joint five year 



development program which would involve contributions and undertakings 

f 

L. by both parties. 

. (Economic details in Annex 4. ) 



C2 



TOP SECRET 












Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









r 
[ 









L 

[ 

I 
i 



. 



TOP 1 SECRET 



5. Psychological : 

a. Assist tlie G. V.N. to accelerate its public information 

r 

program to help develop a broad public understanding of the actions re- 

■ 

quired to combat the Communist insurgents and to build public confidence 
in the G. V.N. T s determination and ability to deal with the Communist 
threat. (Details in Annex 5. ) 

b. The U. S. Country Team, in coordination with the G, V.N. 
Ministry of Defense, should compile and declassify for use of media re- 
presentatives in South Vietnam and throughout the world, documented 

■ 

facts concerning Communist infiltration and terrorists' activities and 
the measures being taken by the G. V.N, to counter such attacks. 

c. In coordination with CIA and the appropriate G, V.N. 
Ministry, USIS v/ill increase the flow of information about unfavorable 
conditions in North Vietnam to media representatives. ' 

d. Develop agricultural pilot-projects throughout the 

- 

country, with a view toward exploiting their beneficial psychological 
effects. This project would be accomplished by combined teams of 
Vietnamese Civic Action personnel, Americans in the Peace Corps, 



* « 



■» < 



[ 



Filipinos in Operation Brotherhood, and other Free World nationals. 

e. Exploit as a part of a planned psychological campaign 
the rehabilitation of Communist Viet Cong prisoners now held in South 
Vietnam. Testimony of rehabilitated prisoners, stressing the errors 

03 

TOP SECRET ■ 



• <■»' 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 







F 









l 



I 
I 

t 

[ 



L 

[ 



TOP SECRET 



of Communism, should be broadcast to Communist-held areas, includ- 
ing North Vietnam, to induce defections. This rehabilitation program 
would be assisted by a team of U. S. personnel including U. S. Army 
(Civil Affairs, Psychological Warfare, and Counter-intelligence), USIS, 
and USOM experts. 

f. Provide adequate funds for an impressive U.S. partici- 
pation in the Saigon Trade Fair of 1962. 

6. Covert Actions: 

■ I ■ in I ■*"— — ^^l^iM I ■ !■■■ i ■ — ^f»-^— m 

a. Expand present operations in the field of intelligence, 

i 

unconventional warfare, and political -psychological activities to support 
the U.S. objective as stated. 

b. Initiate the communications intelligence actions, CIA 



t 



and ASA personnel increases, and funding which were approved by the 
President at the NSC meeting of 29 April 1961. 



c. Expand the communications intelligence actions by 



« f 



]■ elusion of 15 additional Army Security Agency personnel to train the 
Vietnamese Army in tactical COMINT operations. 






, * 



(Details of covert actions are given in Annex 6. ) 



7. Funding : 

a. As spelled out in the funding annex, the funding of the 

# 

counter-insurgency plan and the other actions recommended in this 

• 31 • ■ ; . 

TOP S R <T! H8 U?. IP 



! 






(. 



i 



E 
[ 



I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECfeEl 



program might necessitate increases in U.S. support of the G, V. N. 

* a 

budget for FY 61 of as much as $58 million, making up to a total of 
$192 million compared to $155 million for FY 60. The U.S. contribu- 
lion for the G. V.N. Defense budget in FY 62 as presently estimated 
would total $161 million plus any deficiency in that Budget which the 



J G. V.N. might be unable to finance. The exact amount of U, S. con- 



tributions to the G. V.N. Defense budgets for FY 61 and FY 62 are 
subject to negotiation between the U, S. and the G. V.N. 

b. U.S. military assistance to G. V.N. , in order to 



provide .the support contemplated by the proposed program would 
total $140 million, or $71 million more than now programmed for 
Vietnam in the U.S. current MAP budget for FY 62, 






(Details are given in Annex 7. ) 



8. Organisational Arrangements: 

a. Because of the critical nature of the situation in 
Vietnam, and the need for accelerated action, the direction, coordizia- 
tion, and support of, the program will be effected through a special 
Task Force on Vietnam, established in and directed by the Department 
of State, constituted as follows: 



Or 






T P S E C R E T 



• • 



' 



c 
[ 






r 

L 



[ 
I 



t 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



Director: Sterling J. Cottrell 



Executive Officer: Chalmers B* -Wood 



Members: 



Defense: 



Treasury: 



BOB: 



ICA: 



USIA: 



CIA: 



Office of the President; 



b. It shall be the responsibility of the Director and the 



Deputy Director of the Task Force: 

\ 



(1) To see that the action program as approved is 



carried out; 



E{2) To keep under continual review the adequacy of 
i a 



the action program to meet its objectives; and 



(3) To bring to the attention of the Secretary and 
the Under Secretary of State and to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary 






of Defense the need for any changes in or additions to the action program 

■ 

* ■ 

to meet its objectives. 



1 



GO 



j > 



TOP SECRET 



■ 






[ 



r 
I 

t 



I 



[ 
i 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



VIETNAM j 

DEMARCATION 

UNL 



GULF 



TONKIN 



■ 




p GL Jacquea 



s'o U T tt CHIN* SEA 

[ j Communist dominated 

,':•:•:'>>: C ommuni at c ontr oiled 

faltiiix 

mostly at night 






O 



7 



i \ 



- 



ics 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 












' 



IT* /Tft l r> > IT? /H 1JT> If? nr* 



SENSITIVE 



* 



. 8 May 19 61 



MEMORANDUM 



SUBJECT: Annexes to a Program' of Action for South 

Vietnam 






Transmitted herewith are o Annexes to the final 
l draft of the "Program of Action to Prevent Communist 
Domination of South Vietnam 11 delivered to you earlier 
today. Your comments on these annexes are invited, 
at the same time as those on the main paper* 






c- 



The-annexon "Covert ActionsV has -been withheld- 
from this distribution, -since there were no "substantive 
changes from the initial concept-. 



Attachments 



■ , * 



d 



~\ 



• 



r 

[ 

* 



i . /y/y . 

This Hocuaent contains /Z^P^g 63 " ^ -£C 

Copy Ho. /7 of UO • c opies.. S&ri&8^2£) 



EDWARD G. LANSDAEE 
Brigadier General, USAF 
Assistant to the 
Secretary of Defense 



Excluded from Automatic 
Downgrading: DOD DIR 5200.10 
Does Not Apply 



x . -^ 



88 



TOP SECRET 










[ 



■ 






* i 



E 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TOP SECRET 



r . • 

ANNEX 1 



Appraisal of the Situation 



* 



After a meeting in Hanoi on 13 May 1959, the Central Committee 
of the North Vietnamese Communist Party publicly announced its 
intention "to smash" the government of President Ngo Dinh Diem. 

Following this decision, the Viet Cong have significantly increased 

■ 
their program of infiltration, subversion, sabotage and assassination 

designed to achieve this end. 

i 

At the North Vietnamese Communist Party Congress in September, 
I960, the earlier declaration of underground war by the Party's Control 
Committee was rc-affirmed. ■ This action by the Party Congress took 
place only a month after Kong he's coup in Laos. Scarcely two months 
later there was a military uprising in Saigon. The turmoil created 

■ 

■ 

throughout the area by this rapid succession of events provides an ideal 
environment for the Communist "master plan" to take over all of 
Southeast Asia. 

■ 

Since that time, as can be seen from the attached map, the internal 

-* 

security situation in South Vietnam has become critical. What amounts 
...» ■ ■ 



• » >. 



to a state of active guerrilla warfare now exists throughout the country. 

» ■ * * 

Despite greatly stepped up efforts by South Vietnamese, the number of 

■ - 

Viet Cong hard-core Communists has increased from 4400 in early 



- " ' oq 



T O P S E C R E T 












Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






[ 

[ 
[ 



r 



. 



. 






I 
[ 



r 



TOP SECRET 



I960 to an estimated 12, 000 today. The number of violent incidents per 

•month now averages 650; casualties on both sides totaled more than 

■ 

4500 during the first three months of this year. These figures, while 

* 

alarming, are also a reflection 01 increased efforts by South Vietnamese 
forces. 58% of the country is under some degree of Communist control, 
ranging from harrassment and night raids to almost complete administra- 
tive jurisdiction in the Communist "secure areas." - - 

* a 

The Viet Cong over the past two years have succeeded in stepping up 
the pace and intensity of their attacks to the point where South Vietnam 
is nearing the decisive phase in its battle for survival. If the situation 
continues to deteriorate, the Communists will be able to press on to 
their strategic goal of establishing a rival "National Liberation Front" 
government in one of these "secure areas, " thereby plunging the nation 
into open civil war. They have publicly announced that they will "take 

■m 

over the country before the end of 19 61. " 

* » 

■ 

T • 

If agreement is reached on a cease fire in Laos, political negotia- 

• ■ . * ♦ , - 

ti'ons on the future of that country will begin on May 12 at the Fourteen 

-* 
Power Conference in Geneva., However, the April 26 statement on Laos 

by the Peiping government indicates that the Communist members of that 

■ ■ ■ 

conference intend to expand the negotiations to include other areas of 
Southeast Asia, As a result, it can be expected that the Fourteen Power 



meeting will 



be prolonged, covering several months or more. 



"•• 30" 

TOP SECRET 






r 

r 

[ 
[ 









, * i. • 






i 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



The effect of these negotiations on the situation in Vietnam will be 



threefold: 

First, the very fact that the Fourteen Powers are meeting under 
essentially the same ground rules as the 1954 Geneva Accords, including 
the concept of an ICC mechanism in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia, could 
have a politically inhibiting effect on any significant measures which the 
U.S. might undertake to prevent a Communist take-over in South Vietnam. 

t 

Second, as has been their practice in the past, the Communists can 
be expected to use the cover of an international negotiation to expand 
their subversive activities* In this case, close coordination of their 

; 

■ 

t efforts in Southern Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam can be expected. The 

250 mile border between South Vietnam and Laos, while never effectively 



sealed in the past, will now be deprived of even the semblance of pro- 

* 

■ 

tection which the friendly, pro -we stern Laos offers. 

Third, the three principal passes through the Annamite Mountains - 

» 

the Nape Pass, Mugia Gap, and the pass that controls the road from 

Quang Tri to Savanakhet - lie in Southern Laos. These passes control 

* 

[ three key military avenues of advance from North Vietnam through Laos 

■■ 



into the opening Mekong valley leading to Thailand and South Vietnam. 
A Lao political settlement that would afford the Communists an opportunity 
to maintain any sort of control, covertly or otherwise, of these mountain 
passes would make them gate keepers to the primary inland invasion 



i 



y± 



TOP i ;CRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



" 






[ 












* 



TOP SECRET 



route leading to Saigon and flanking the most important defensive 



# 



terrain in the northern area of South Vietnam. 

■ 
* » " 

Thus, the situation is critical but not hopeless. The South 
Vietnamese Government, with American aid, . is increasing its capa- 

■ 

bilities to fight its attackers. It provides a strong anti- Communist 
government and generally pro-American population as a base upon 
which the necessary additional effort can be founded to defeat the 
Communist attack. Should the Communist effort increase, either 
directly or as a result of a collapse of Laos, additional measures 
may be necessary. 



i 



■ 



L 



r 




C c 



* 



82 



TOP SECKET 












: 

[ 






. 



: 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NMD 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



•'•'"■•' TOP SECRET 



ANNEX 2 



Military Concept 



1. The military considerations involved in a national program of 
actio i designed to prevent Communist domination of South Vietnam and to 

■ 

create in that country a viable, increasingly democratic society are com- 

plica .ed by: 

* . * 

a. The Post Cease-fire Situation in Laos: 



—, ■.- - — 



Indications are that the Communists are attempting to use the 
post cease-fire period to consolidate their control over the areas in which 
the Pathet Lao forces have been operating. If they are successful, this will 

■ 

(1) Greatly increase the problem of guarding the G.V.N, -Laos 
border against the infiltration of Communist terrorists and supplies, and 

(2) Allow the Communists to gain control over the three princi- 

/ ■ 

pal passes through the Annamite Mountains, which lie along the frontier 

- / * 

between Vietnam and Laos. These passes (The Nape Pass, Mugia Gap, and 

[ £"*.: pa*ss that controls the road from Quang Tri to Savannakhet) are located • 

in Southern Laos and control the three key military avenues of advance 

• - • 

i from North Vietnam through Laos into the open Mekong Valley leading to 

" Thailand and South Vietnam. Ability to use these internal lines of advance 

Would enable an attacker from the North to avoid the coastal road which is 

■ 

vulnerable to interdiction by naval gunfire or demolitions and to flank the 
most defensive terrain in the northern area of South Vietnam. 



T O F S E GJl E T 



w o 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 633 16. By: NWD Dale: 201 1 



[' 



[ 
[ 



L 

[ 
[ 



TOP SECRET 



b. The Forthcoming Fourteen- Power Conference: 

The very fact thai the Fourteen Powers are meeting under 
essentially the same ground rules as the 1954 Geneva Agreements, 



i 



including the concept of an ICC mechanism in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia* 
could have a politically inhibiting effect on any significant measures which 

the "U.S. might undertake to prevent a Communist take-over in South Vietnam 

■ 
i 

c. SEATO Responsibilities under the Manila Pact: 



Responsibility for the defense of South Vietnam, both against 



external aggression and internal subversion, was assumed by the SEATO 
powers under the protocol to the Manila Pact. The unanimity principle 

governing SEATO action has prevented that organization from taking any 

- 
measures to resist Communist advances to date. Yet the very existence 

of SEATO makes it politically desirable that any military operations in 

Southeast Asia be conducted under its aegis. This in turn inhibits, to a 

certain degree, U*S. unilateral military actions. 

d. The Morale Problem within South Vietnam: 

fc , , — T-, ., ... I ■ — ^ . ■ - 1^1 ■! ~ - - M , M,^^ !■ ||. M "I IM^^^i^M I I JI I 'I ~ - - I ■»■■ ■ ~ 1 

The failure of SEATO to take any action to .halt the Communist 
actions in Laos has in large measure impaired the credibility of that 
organization insofar, as, providing collective assistance in the. defense of 
any nation in the area. Similarly, the U.S. reluctance to play a more 

■ 

active leadership role in SEATO has also contributed to a general lowering 
of morale among the G.V.N. governmental officials and intelligentsia. 



Meanwhile the Communist terrorist -campaign has been stepped up 

yj-'i 



thereby 






TOP SEC1 



VJ^* JiS\ ills 11 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



[ 
[ 
[ 

C 
[ 

r 

r 

L 






r 

L 

[ 



r 



Hrt 



FOP SECRET 

* 
■ 

increasing the sense of uncertainty and fear throughout the official govern- 
ment of South Vietnam, 

2. Taking these military considerations into accounts the problem of 
preventing Communist domination of South Vietnam can be broken down into: 

■ 

a. Internal Security Measures: 

— ■ ■ ■ ■ - - * — _ 

l 
These have been carefully worked out and coordinated within 

the U.S. Government in the form of a counter -insurgency pi' n {CIP} for 

Vietnam. This plan has been presented to President Diem and is to be 

implemented as rapidly as possible as he approves the various specific 

elements of the plan. In support of the CIP, the President at the NSC 

Meeting of 29 April 1961 approved the actions listed under Part I of the 

■ ■ 

Military Section of the proposed Program, 

b. Protection of the Land Border of South Vietnam: 

" i » ■ ■ 1 1 ■ .— .. . -i . . I i n I, -- — H i i — i — — > — — — — ■ — ■ — - — — ■ 

Communist capabilities to infiltrate personnel and equipment 
into South Vietnam across either the Lao or the Cambodia border will 



be facilitated by the cover provided by the cease-fire and the forthcoming 

> . * ■■ • ■ • -• 

Fourteen-Power Conference. Along the Laos-G.V.N. boundary, the 

extremely rugged nature of the terrain makes it almost impossible to 



t 



% 



-• 



♦ » 



establish a "water-tight" border. However, this same rugged terrain 

4 

limits the smuggling routes to one principal road 5 (the east-west highway . 
from Savannakhet to Tchepone to Quang Tri) and to some 12-15 reasonably 

* 

passable trails* 






t :,-} 



FOF SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 i 



[ 

E 









[ 



TOP SECRET 



Barring a significant increase in the present level of guerrilla 
infiltration and military aggression, the G.V.N, armed forces (170,000) 
and the Civil Guard (68, 000) bolstered by the establishment of an effective 
intelligence and patrol system, regular aerial border surveillance and the 
application of technological a,rea-denial techniques (e.g., CW, BW, light 
plastic, air-droppable landmines, fluorescent materials, etc.), have the 

I' 4. « 

capability of continuing the suppression of the insurgency and even making 
considerable headway against it. This capability will, of course, depend 
on a major acceleration of the present retraining program. Given the aug- 



1 



mentation and strengthening of the G.V.N, armed forces now being proposed, 
it is considered an acceptable military risk that South Vietnam can cope 
successfully with the Laos border problem. 



i 



Similar considerations apply to the frontier between South 

■ 

Vietnam and Cambodia. It is hoped, however, that a realization of the 
increased threat to their own security posed by Communist advances into 






l 



Laos would persuade the G.V.N, and Cambodia Governments to cooperate 
more effectively in the maintenance of adequate border security between 

■ ■ 

the two countries. , ■ - 



* . * 



In furtherance of these efforts, a special staff element (approxi- 

* ■ 

mately 6 U.S. personnel), to concentrate upon solutions to the unique prob- 
lems of Vietnam's broders, will be activated in MAAG, Vietnam, to assist 



a similar special unit in the RVNAF which the G. V 



.N. will be encouraged 



o r* 



. k \jO 



TOP SECE1I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






r 

[ 

t 






r 









. 










i j m 



FOP SECRET 



to establish; these two elements working as an integrated team will help 
* ■ 

the G.V.N, gain, the support of nomadic tribes and other border inhabitants, 

* 

as well as introduce advanced techniques and equipment to strengthen the 



security of South Vietnam's frontiers. 

Additionally, there will be established a combined U.S. -Viet- 
namese Combat Development and Test Center in South Vietnam which will 
assis the G.V.N, to develop, with the help of modern technology, new 



techniques for use against Communist terrorists and subversive activijfes 
throughout the country. The Center will seek to devise practical appli- 
cations of the latest scientific techniques to the conditions of the sub -limited 
warfare now being waged throughout Southeast Asia, taking into account 
particularly the local terrain, the level of training of the Vietnamese 
population, and the possibilities of local production of any new weapons 
*or equipment which may be developed. 

c. Protec t ion Against Infiltrati on b y Sea : 

* • 

The provision of MAP support for the Vietnamese Junk Force 
! (/rflrea'dy approved by the President) will greatly improve that Force's 
capabilities in preventing clandestine supply and infiltration from the 



sea 



Additionally, "however, it will be necessary for CINCPAC's naval . 



component to assume an active responsibility jointly with the Vietnamese 

■ 

navy for coastal patrol activities from the Cambodian border to the mouth 
of the Mekong River. In conjunction with the Junk Force, these naval 



O 7 



TOP SECRET 



i *-« 









I 
[ 



c 






[ 



c 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date. 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



forces can be expected to substantially reduce the quantity of Communist 

supplies and personnel currently reaching the southern delta area of Vietnam. 

■ > 

d. Training the G. V.N. Armed Forces for Combat: 

■ - *■ ■■ ■ ■ T I ■ ^^ I - I I ■ , -■■_.- | | | ■ - ~t III I ■-. I . , MB » 

The chamged military situation in South Vietnam resulting from 
the Communist successes in Laos poses a direct and serious military threat 
to the entire western fla.nk of South Vietnam which cannot be met within the 
dimensions of our internal security program alone. This uw threat requires 

■ 

the prompt organization of two new G.V.N, divisions and a vastly accelerated 

m 

U.S. training program for the entire G.V.N, army. Because of the shortage 
of trained officers and non-commissioned officers cadres, the success of 
such a program depends upon raising the combat effectiveness of the South 
Vietnamese forces by an entire order of magnitude within a matter of 6-8 
months. To meet this new situation, it will be necessary to process the 
entire G.V.N, army through a greatly intensified divisional training pro- 
gram as rapidly as possible. A task of this magnitude is well beyond the 
capabilities of the existing MAAG and will require the augmentation of the 



» ■ 



U.S. Advisory Group with as much as two U.S. training commands, each 
capable of establishing a divisional field training area in the "high plateau" 



- * * 



•* 



area of South Vietnam. These training areas, established in remote locations 
•away from population centers and organized on a completely austere basis, 
simulating to the maximum extent combat conditions in the country, would ! 
each be able to process an entire G.V.N, division every ten weeks. 

)8 ' 






TOP SECRET 









[ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



U.S. personnel required to establish these training commands won 
* 

be introduced into South Vietnam in phased increments through northern 
ports, such as- Tourane and Nha Trang in a manner calculated to minimize, 
as much as possible, public attention to these MAAG augmentations. Pre- 
liminary estimates indicate that in order to process the existing 7 Viet- 

■ 

namese divisions through this intensified combat training program in the 

i ■ ■ 

short time available, each of these U.S. training commands would require 
approximately 1600 U.S. instructors from Army or Marine Corps sources. 
In addition to the regular divisional training program, an acceleration 



of Special Forces training is indicated to assist the G # V.N. forces counter 
the increased level of Viet Cong guerrilla activity which can be expected to 

■ 

follow a cease -fire in Laog. This will require a further MAAG augmentation 
* of a Special Forces Group. To meet the urgency of the situation, a Special 

Forces Group (approximately 400 military personnel) should be deployed at 
** phased increments to Nha Trang for this purpose. Initially a Special Forces 

j • * Company (52 personnel) would be sent at once to prepare for the arrival of 



> > 



the remainder of the Group. 

.e* Po s sible • Introduction of U.S. Flag Forces into Vietnam: 



■— I — !■■ — 



Should the situation in South -Vietnam deteriorate to the point • 

_ 

where the measures outlined above are not adequate to. prevent the Com- 

■ 

muni st domination of the country, it may be necessary to introduce U.S. 



, * 






TOP SECRET 



. 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



r 






[ 



' flag forces either as a part of a bi-laterg.1 U.S. -G.V.N, defense agreement 
or as a fulfillment of U.S. -SEA TO obligation^. In this event, .it is con- 



sidered desirable to deploy to either Tourane or Nha Trang a tailored, com- 






■ » i » 



r 



[ 

L 



i 

posite joint task force specially designed for carrying out a counter guerrilla- 
civic action -limited war mission in South Vietnam, In the absence of intelli- 
gence indications of an overt attack on the G.V.N. , it is contemplated that 

■ 

* 
this composite force would be deployed throughout the country in small 

"task force" units on specific mission assignments of a counter -guerrilla 
or civic action nature. For example, combat engineer troops would under- 
take priority road and airfield construction in preparation for their possible 
military use by U.S. or other allied forces, but which would also be of long 
term benefit to the Vietnamese economy. Similarly, mobile medical teams 
, would travel throughout the area providing help and assistance to rural 

■ 

G.V.N, villages and to the mountain tribes. As needed, truck-borne water 
purification units will assist in areas where water pollution presents a serious 
health problem. These small specialized "task forces" working jointly with 
similar units in the Vietnam armed forces would not only give concrete 
evidence of U, S.; willingness to commit its military strength in a combined 
effort with the G.V.N, to defend South Vietnam against Communist domination, 

but would also demonstrate that while in the country, they will make a positive 

t 
contribution to the civil and economic needs of the local population." 



' 100. 

TOP SECRET 



. 



r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TO IP SECRET 



[ 



ANNEX 3 
. Political 



General Objectives 



1. 



In order to develop the political and economic -conditions for 



[ 

L 









c 



; 



solid and widespread support of the GVN by key political groups and 
the general population which will enable it to continue to resist 

■ 

r 

Communist enchroachment, we must continue to work through and 
support the present Vietnamese government despite its acknowledged 
weaknesses. No other even remotely feasible alternative exists at 
this point in time which does not involve an unacceptable degree of 
risk. At the same time, we do not underestimate the difficulties 
inherent in attempting to effect a major alteration in the present 
governmental structure or in its objectives*. To accomplish this 
will require very astute dealing between US government personnel and 



[ 



the Vietnamese, However, we believe that we have the combination of 

■ > 

positive inducements plus points at which discreet pressure can be 



• i • 



exercised which will permit accomplishment of this objective. 



. • * 



US Support for Diem 



2. President Diem is not now fully confident of United States support. 



This confidence has been undermined partly by our vigorous efforts to 












get him to mend his ways politically, and partly by the equivocal attitude 



' 101 •• 
FOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



I 

C 






TOP SECRET 






he is convinced we took at the time of the November 11, I960, attempted 
coup. It is essential that President Diem f s full confidence in and 
communication with the United States be restored promptly. 
3. Increasing the confidence of President Diem and his government 

in the United States must be the starting point of our new approach to 
Vietnam. Fortunately a number of circumstances are favorable; a new 

administration in the United States, a new ambassador going to Vietnam, 

- 

and the fact that President Diem has received a new mandate. Nevertheless, 
the going will not be easy. Given Diem's personality and character and the 
abrasive nature of our recent relationships, success or failure in thds 
regard will depend very heavily on Ambassador Nolting's ability to get on 

+ 

the same wave -length with Diem. 



4. 



A series of Presidential Communications have been recommended and 



several have been sent. The President sent President Diem a short oral 



■ 

: 



r 



i 



r 



e * 



message on his election, aid a warm public message on the occasion of 

• ■ ■ • 

his inauguration on April 29. A classified brief personal message has been 

* 

sent saying that Ambassador Nolting is on his, wey with new proposals for 



•. * 



joint actions to defeat the Communist insurgents. Messages relating to 

■ 

the Vice President's visit have also been sent, Amother message from the 
President is in preparation laying out the broad outline of the Task Force 
program seeking Diem's cooperation and endorsement and proposing, in 



effect, that this become a Joint Presidential Plan, 

-7 r 



32 



TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 i 






[ . 

[ 



TOP SECRET 



5, The Vice Presidents visit will provide the "added incentive needed 



[ 

c 
[ 

r , . Communist encroachment in S.E. Asia. . These meetings will also serve 

( 

to get across to President Diem our confidence in him as man of great 
I stature and as one of the strong figures in S.E. Asia on whom we are 

tm placing our reliance, / At the same time, these conferences should impress 

- 
Diem with the degree of importance we attach to certain political and 

economic reforms in Vietnam which are an essential element in f rus - 



to give the GVN the motivation and confidence it needs to carry on the 

struggle. We believe that meetings between the Vice President and 

President Diem will act as a catalytic agent to produce broad agreement 
i 

on he need for accelerated joint Vietnamese -US actions to resist 



trating Communist encroachments. Recognizing the difficulties we have had 



. 



in the past in persuading Diem to take effective action on such reforms, as 
specific an understanding as possible should be solicited from Diem on 
this point. A Finally it might be possible for the Vice President to return 
to Washington with a letter from Diem to the President replying to the 

■ 

t . letter referred to in Paragraph c4 above. 

» * ■■•"•.;"* . ~ — , 

Internal Sup port 

* ■ 

■ 6, Despite his recent success at the polls, President Diem lacks adequate 

support of a large proportion of opinion -making elezments in Vietnam. He 
also needs more understanding and support of the mass of people. His 



iu3 



TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



C 






TOP SECRET 



[ 

[ 






[ 
[ 

I. 

m 

¥ 

L 



r 

L 



autocratic methods and his lack of communication with the Vietnamese 



people are a continuing cause of concern, 

7» The chief threat to the viability of President Diem's administration 

is, -without a doubt, the fact of Communist insurgency and the government': 

: 

inal lity to protect its own people- Thus military measures must have the 



highest priority. There is , nevertheless, strong discontent with the* 
government among not only the elite but among peasants, labor and 

business. Criticism focuses on the dynastic aspects of the Diem rule, on 

i 

its clandestine political apparatus and on the methods through which the 
President exercises his leadership. This is aggravated by Communist 
subversive attempts to discredit the President and weaken his government's 
authority. All this is made the easier because of a communication void 
existing between the government and the people. For many months United 
States efforts have been directed toward persuading Diem to adopt 
c ( -olitical, social, and economic changes designed to correct this serious 
defect. Many of these changes are included in the Counter -Insurgency 



-Plan. Our success, has been only partial. There are those who consider 

that Diem will not succeed in the battle to win men's minds in Vietnam. 

■ 

Thus in giving priority emphasis to the need for internal security, 
we must not relax in our efforts to persuade Diem of the need for political, 
social and economic, progress. If his efforts are inadequate in this 



t- 



J.U 



T 



rm 



fop sec 



e is /r 



■rj i'.w i:^ 



\i HfJ 



a 






[ 
I 

1 u 



r 



[ 
[ 



j 



[ 

[ 

C 

i 

[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



field, our overall objective could be seriously endangered and \vc might 

• • • 

once more find ourselves in the position of shoring up a leader who had 



lost the support of his people. 



^ 



■ ^ «• 



r c 



7 



» 



8. Next to specifying the means, the cost and the resources for inter- 

dicting Viet-Cong access to South Vietnam and reducing Viet-Cong operations 
tQazxdfiimun?, the tasks q£ rallying the peopl'e to the government and 
improving the government's relations with the people are the most urgent. 
A new type of political development is long overdue in Vietnama. to spark 
a new spirit. This should be something much broader and more relevant 
than the so-called "liberalization 11 program. The government's rapport 
and acceptability must be strengthened with the following key elements of 

i 

the population: 

(a) The young professional intelligentsia in the civil service, 
private organizations, and the faculties, 

(b) The provincial, district and village administrators who must 

■ * 

be replaced or reoriented for democratic, humane, modern style handling 
of the little people. 

(c) Village youth leaders, village councilors, farm family heads, 

and teachers. . ....'■ 

These key groups could reach the general population in rural and 
urban areas on a personal! basis; new means of mass media can reach 



- 

the population on a quantitative basis. 



** U \.j 



TOE 5 SECRET 



I 



* 






i 



t 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



t 
I 
[ 



TOP SECRET 









L 



I . 



> » i • 



r 

i - 



9. A realistic political program would seek to produce favorable 

* 

attitudes, active popular cooperation against the Viet-Cong, and cadres 

« 

to execute the government's programs intelligently* For example, the 
program could include establishment of: 

(a) A professional and young Community Development Corps for 
the whole country, 

i 

(b) Political training schools, 

(c) A trained administrative corps, 

(d) A mas.s radio and television system for political communication, 
(c) Training for teams of young Vietnamese professionals for 

important longer-range projects in the economic electric power, and 
educational fields. 

It may prove desirable to provide the* Ambassador with the assistance 
of one of more experts in Asian political development to assist him in 
developing and explaining a political communications program. 
External Relations 



10, While it is vital that Vietnam's internal political situation be 

• • • * . . . • 

improved it is also important that its external political relations with 

its neighbors and with the world community similarly be improved. 

Vietnam's relationships with its neighbor Cambodia are generally bad, 

nevertheless, defeat of the Communist insurgents requires close 



\ 









TOP SECRET 



• 






4^ 












[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



cooperation with Cambodia on border control. This .will- require a 



major effort of reconciliation. Other free world countries should be 
asked to assist or at least support Vietnam in its struggle, Vietnam 
is a Free World problem, not just a United States problem. 



11 Cooperation between Cambodia and Vietnam on hoarder (control 



is an essential means of combating the Communists. Vietnam and 

Cambodia have always had difficulty in negotiation on any issue, 
i 

especially a complex and politically-charged problem like border- 
control. In 19^0, Cambodia made a major request for military as sis- 
tance to which we made only a token response. We should endeavor 
to obtain better Cambodian cooperation* using a step up of military 

assistance as "quid pro quo, M To maximize the benefit to be derived 

• » ' ■ * * 

from provision of additional military assistance we should specifically 

agree" to provide 4 jet trainers requested by the Cambodians thereby 

precluding provision of these aircraft by Czechoslovakia which has 

> 
* 

already offered to make the aircraft available to the Cambodians. This 

would forestall further Communist penetration in this area. 

12, Because of the failure of the ICC to control subversion and 

r — — 

■t 

infiltration it has been suggested that Vietnam appeal to the United 
Nations Security Council for ground observers in both North and Sou 



' ' 107 

TOP SECRET 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



I 
i 

! 






I 

c 



t 



TOIP SECRET 



Vietnam. The Soviets would probably veto any such action, and action 
in the General Assembly would be required. Not only does the provision 
of United Nations Observers have intrinsic merit but in any event, 
United Nations consideration would have the value of focusing world 
opinion on Communist actions in Vietnam. ' 

13. An appeal by Vietnam to the United Nations for the dispatch of 

■ ■ 

ground observers to supplement the work of the ICC in patrolling against 
the infiltration of arms and armed personnel into Vietnam would normally 
be dealth with first in the Security Council and, if a veto by a permanent 
member prevented the Security Council from acting the appeal could then 
be taken up by the General Assembly. There are various reasons for 
concluding that such an appeal ought to be dealth with first in the 
Security Council rather than in the General Assembly: 



(a) The Security Council, under Article 24, has primary respon- 

■ 

ibility under the Charter for the maintenance of international peace and 



s 



security. ' * 

(b) A similar call for assistance by Lebanon during the summer of 

* 

1958 -was handled by the Security Council, - - ■ .. 

(c) An attempt to deal with such an appeal in the General Assembly 

. r ■* ■ - 

in the first instance, without having gone to the Security Council, might 



* 



1 HA 

iUo 



TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 i 



[ 
i 



TOP SECRET 



c 



c 






[ 

C 

- 

[ 

[ 
I 



meet resistance in the General Assembly, perhaps led by such perma- 
nent members of the Security Council as France and the Soviet Union. 

(d) Proceedings in the Council are more manageable, and it would 

» 

be relatively easier to secure majority agreement on a satisfactory text. 
If the USSR should veto, thi$ sam- text could then be introduced in the 
Assembly, with probable avoidance of a difficult many-powered negotiation. 
14_. A resolution providing for the dispatch of a United Nations observer 
group would be likely to receive the support of seven or more members of 
the Security Council. Nevertheless, its passage could be prevented by 
the negative vote of one of the permanent members of the Council. The 
Soviet Union would be likely to veto such a resolution. Then the processes 
of the General Assembly could be invoked to deal with the question, pursuant 
to the Uniting for Peace Resolution. Action in the Assembly would presum- 
ably be undertaken on the basis of the draft resblution which failed of 
adoption in the Security Council. Under Article 18 (2) of the Charter, - 
questions involving recommendations with respect to the maintenance of 
peace and security are important questions requiring a two-thirds majority 
of the members present and voting in the General Assembly. In the case 



* •» 



• • 



of a request by Vietnam for United Nations observers, such a majority 

i 

could probably be secured in support of a^resolution providing for the 
dispatch of a United Nations Observer Group. 

+ 

\ ■ \ m 



/ 



L 



ffrJ 



FOP SECRE'I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 2011 



t 

i 



TOP SECRET 






C 






[ 



• i 






L 



15. The presence of United Nations observers would stimulate the 

* * 

* 

(...„■ 
Indian and Canadian members of the ICC to step up their surveillances, 

• * 

Infiltration would be exposed to a much greater extent than is now the 

case and hence might be deterred; South Vietnam would be strengthened 

by the presence of United Nations observers. The prestige and political 

influence of the General Assembly and of its members would be brought 

into play in support of a position designed to prevent the infiltration of 

arms and men. into Vietnam. 

i 

16. The United Kingdom has already expressed a strong interest in 
cooperating to help the Vietnamese stop the Communists. It has 
offered 1 to provide training personnel with years of experience in Malay, 
It has also offered financial support. Other like-minded countries, 

■ 
■ 

notably, the Philippines, and Australia have a capability and a possible 

■ 

interest in this regard. While the use of third 'country personnel may 

■ 

create some administrative problems for us and the GVN. it is of 
overriding importance that others share with us the responsibility for 
helping Vietnam win its struggle. Particularly as we can obtain a 



* ft e 



British participation we will maximize the political benefits to be 

■ 

obtained within the western alliance by sharing responsibility for this 
difficult problem. 



'.:U .. 



T©P SECRET 









[ 

[ 






( 



. 



[ 
c, 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



• * 



Civic Action 

g— — ■ ^ ■ — — ■ — fc ■-» JJ .i i ■ m 

17_. The anti -guerrilla effort should be accompanied and followed up 

» 

♦ by economic and political consolidation. Abroad range of community 
development activities both in the politic alaid economic field should 
be pressed forward. Not only should roads, wells, schools, etc., be 
pushed forward, but village political councils should be created and an 
imaginative communications system should be established, geared to 
bring the rural people of Vietnam into the body politic. 



Improved Security Arrangements 



18. It is doubtful whether the Vietnamese government could weather 



the pressure which would be generated if Laos were lost, without 



; prompt and dramatic support for its security from the U.S. Similarly,- 
the extent to which the remainder of the S.E. Asian countries would be 
prepared to go "in resisting Bloc pressures or in withstanding local 
t c > Communist threats would depend on whether they still assessed that 

the U.S. could stem further Communist expansion in the area. Although 

i 

i 

- 
'< .they would bo disillusioned regarding U.S. resolution after the loss or 

division of Laos, they would nonetheless welcome demonstrations of U.S, 

firmness, aid might, in response, modify their appraisal of their own 

future in due course. ,r (NIE of March 28, Outlook in Mainland S.E. Asia) 

■ — ' — ■ - • — - * 






Thus to futher strengthen and* improve the internal and external political 

* 

I i ' 

TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



r 



FOP SECRET 



i. 
F 






• 






L 



.position of Vietnam described above, and as a complementary action 
to the economic undertakings described above, the U.S. should endeavor 
to develop various strengthened security arrangements, 

19* The Geneva Accords have beeen totally inadequate in protecting South 
Vietnam against Communist infiltration and insurgency. Moreover, with 
increased Communist success in Laos dramatic U.S.. actions in stiffening 
up its physical support of Vietnam and the remainder of Southeast Asia 
may be needed to bolster the will to continue to resist the Cominunists , 
The inhibitions imposed on such action by certain parts of the Geneva 
Accords, which have be en violated with impunity by the Communists, should 
not prevent our action. We should consider joining with the Vietnamese 
in a clear cut defensive alliance which might include stationing of U.S. 
forces on Vietnamese soil. As* a variant of this arrangement certain 
SEATO troops might also be employed. 

■ * 

20, Bilateral military assistance by the United States pursuant to a 






* * 



request by South Vietnam along the lines of that undertaken during 1958 



. * 



t 



i 



t 






in response to the request by Lebanon for military assistance, would be 
in keeping with international law and treaty provisions. The provisions 
of the Geneva Accords of 1954, which prohibited the introduction of 
additional military arms and personnel into Vietnam, would not be a 

■ 

bar to the measures contemplated. The obvious, large-scale and 

r 

" '119 



• 



- .*- (w 



TOP SECKET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number; NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 2011 



[ 

f 



TOP SECRET 



l. 




[ 



[ 

c 



c 

i 

i 

[ 



continuous vi'QlQtio» of these provisions of the Geneva Accords by 
North Vietnam in introducing large numbers of armed guerrillas 

i 

into South Vietnam would justify the corresponding non-observance 
ol hese provisions by South Vietnam, Indeed, authorization for_\ 
changing PEO Laosanto an ordinary MAAG was justified on this 

legal theory. It should be recognized that the foregoing proposals 

j 
require careful and detailed consideration and preparation particularly 

■ 
with regard to the .precise mission of U.S. forces used, 

[ 
21. In addition to the previously cited advantages such an action might 

i 
have at least two other important political and military advantages: 

(a) It could release a portion of the ARVN from relatively static 
military functions to pursue the war against the insurgents and 

(b) It would place the Sirio -Soviet Bloc in the position of risking 
direct intervention in a situation where U.S. forces were already in 
place, accepting the cons equ ens e- of such action. This is in direct 



■ * 



contrast to the current situation in Laos. - 

22. Alternatively, there are several potential political and military 

-■-..•. " ■■ 

._ ■ > » » ■ 

>*■»■ »., - ■ > * ■ . 

* ■* » 

disadvantages to such an action, principal among these being: 

■ 

(a) Some of the neutrals, notably India might well be opposed - 

I i ■ ¥ 

the .attitudes of the U.K. and France is uncertain. 

V 

(b) This would provide the Communists with a major propaganda 



* 



opportunity. 






TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



■ 



TOP SECRET 



► 






[ 



(c) The danger that a troop contribution would provoke a DRV- 
•CHICOM reaction with the risk of involving a significant commitment 
of U.S. force in the Pacific to the Asian mainland. The French tied 
up some 200, 000 troops during the unsuccessful Indo -China effort. 

This might significantly weaken the Diem regime in the long 

i 

run, having in mind the parallel of Rhee in Korea* 



[ 



n 









! 



t 



• ■ 



[ 
[ 



•. •* 



• 



& 



{ 



r 
L 



11* 



c-n* 



TOP SECRE1 



r 






. 



C 
[ 



L 






k 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TOP SECRET 



ANNEX 4 ■ 
Economic 



Best Use of Resources 

1. Our capability to assist Vietnam is hampered by its own inability 
to make the best use of its available resources. Abroad range of 
agreement between our governments on fiscal and monetary measures 
to correct this situation is urgently needed. 

2. In spite of the increased insurgency, Vietnam has been making 
good economic progress. It has increased production and its exports 
have been increasing rapidly. Despite a steady decrease in economic 
aid, its foreign exchange reserves have been going up and are now in 
excess of its normal needs. On the other hand, GVN revenues are now 
inadequate, in GVN opinion, to meet the increased local currency costs 

^ * of further anti-insurgency measures. This presents the US with a 

L difficult delimma. On the one hand, the enthusiastic .cooperation of 

. . . ■••••■• ■ ■ • 

the GVN in moving forward against the Communists is essential, but 

r 

w 

I 

- 

TOP SECRET 



on the other hand, if we give in to their request for more aid in support 
of the military budget, this might not only fail to produce additional 

* 

local currency, but could provide a serious disincentive to GVN efforts 
to find more resources. More importantly, coming after a protracted 



< A 



lo 



»- 






■ « 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






L 



* 



FOP. SECRET 



• 



[ 




[ 

t. 

* 

c 

i 



( 



* 



US effort to obtain an increased Vietnamese financial contribution 

■ 

which has recently gained a limited Vietnamese agreement (the 

■ ■ 

Vietnamese have agreed to meet the FY 61 local currency costs of 

the CIP) a relaxation in our previous position might well be inter- 

■ 
preted as an acceptance by the US that the problem is of greater 

concern to it than to Vietnam. Such an attitude could be highly 

disruptive to an effective joint US -Vietnamese effort. They have 

* 

the means to raise more revenue, including increased taxation and 

monetary reform, but both of these solutions, particularly the latter, 

are unpalatable in the extreme- to President Diem. However, one 

* 

thing is certain, payment of Vietnamese troops will receive first 

■ 

priority in the Vietnamese budget and US failure to provide additional 
defense support aid will not affect the ability or willingness of Vietnam 



to carry out necessary military actions, 

3, Vietnam is essentially a "have 11 rather than a M have not" country. 

\ It has Xand, resources, and an able and. energetic people." If it were 

■* . * * ' • . ■ - . 

not for the Communists, Vietnam would probably be, like Thailand, 
economically viable today. We should help it move ahead with a long 
range development program against the day when the Communist menace 
has been brought under control and it can press ahead into an era of 



self-sustaining economic growth. 



■ i 

►-— »-*-> >-' 



Fir* rf*fc Yl\ (CI TTJ3 &% IFfc TT3 W 



..,.* 






- 



[ 
[ 



r* 






[ 
[ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



4. • Perhaps the most effective means of establishing Vietnaimese 
confidence in the political and economic future of their country would 
be for the US to commit itself to a long range economic development 
program. Under peaceful circumstances, Vietnam would unquestionably 

- 
* * ■ 

be one of the most rapidly developing countries in the area, having J;hej 
resources, both human and natural, to bring this about. Substantial 
amounts of additional US development grant assistance for long range 



projects can be effectively employed in Vietnam. The additional amounts 



would supplement current programs as well as those contemplated for 



• 



FY 1962. They should in their aggregate serve to significantly accelerate 



the overall development of the Vietnamese economy and provide some 

* * 

additional social and physical infrastructure support, 

- ■ 
5v While the following does not pretend to be a comprehensive long 

J * range development program, it unquestionably includes priority compo- 
nents of any sound long range program. Contingent upon the Vietnamese 
- * .cooperation,' assistance could, be directed into the following areas: ■ ' 
■ (a) Agriculture - A 20 per cent increase of agricultural output is 



i I I ■' ^*^^w^^^ 



a feasible 5~year goal. Expanded extension service, additional agrisul- 

■ 

tural credit facilities and greater use of fertilizer are called to meet 

i 

this objective, 

if 

I ■ ■ 

I 

• • TOP SEC1RET • ' 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECMET 












r 



**-* 



C 
C 

I, 



t 



(b) Health Services - Present deficient facilities should be 
expanded through training of additional physicians, nurses, and technicians 

« 

to i ovide for staffing of hospitals and local health centers. 

i (c) Education - Priority should be accorded to accelerated 

teacher-training programs with an augmented technical -vocational edu- 

i 
cation program, 

(d) Fishing - The deficient protein content of the Vietnamese diet 



can be inexpensively augmented by the provision of additional larger and 



specially equipped fishing boats to provide for greater range and more 
efficient processing of cath. 

(e) Roads - There exists an urgent need for further development 
of secondary road systems in the rural areas to permit imor.e efficient 
marketing of agriculture products as well as to assist in exploitation of 
presently untapped forestry resources* 

(f) Public Admini s t r ation - To obtain effective government 
direction of essential public services, public administration training 



.» 



- - • - t . •- * 

should be augmented at the national, provincial,* and local levels; 

(g) Industrial Development - The present Industrial Development 
Center could be used to expand light industry, through the provision of 
additional resources and the improvement of managerial, entre-preneurial 



and technical skills. 



*" ■« 



1 



TOP SRf!BtRT 






[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOil 



3) 



CEET 






l 

c 









t 



m 

[ 






; 



6. In order to help strengthen the will of the people to resist the 

incursions of the Viet Cong, the United States chould begin immediately 
to assist' the GVN undertake concentrated work in those rural areas 



« c 



currently subject to intensive Viet Cong activites. A number of Task 

i . 

Force teams should be organized which would undertake, in cooperation 

i 

< 

with local communities, a series of short-range, simple, inexpensive 
projects, the benefits of which can be readily recognized. Examples of 
projects to be undertaken are: 

(a) well digging 

(b) construction of inexpensive schools using local materiel 

(c) construction of markets 

(d) iiit reduction of medical dispensaries 

■ 

(e) construction of simple irrigation ditches . 

* 

(f) agricultural extension services 

(g) veterinary services 

(h) strengthening of rural agricultural cooperatives 



* . * 



• 7. 



(i) construction of local roads, etc. 

a • 

■ 

The above and related actions --which would incorporate a 



maximum of eelf-help operations --could be initiated on a crash basis. 
They should be addressed to meeting the*n.eeds of the village communities. 



113 



a t-n-l 



TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET 






C 



• 



L 



[ 






f 

r 

[ 






* 



- 



It is proposed that the "Task Force 11 pattern of operations of USOM/ 

■ 

Laos be adopted. This program was designed to accommodate to the 
disorganized conditions after the Battle of Vientiane. The objective 
of the Task Force concept was to provide relief to non-infiltrated 
ind liberated areas and to accelerate self-help in rural development 

* ■ ■ 

'activities. This program, despite numerous difficulties, has 



achieved satisfactory results to date and presents itself as a most 
convenient and realistic mechanism for the Presidential Task Force 



program for Vietnam. 

In carrying out the foregoing, the cooperation of existing 
Vietnamese organizations should be utilized to the maximum. In 
particular the full cooperation of the military would be required. 



<• 



* ■* 






SO 



TOP SECRB1 



■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



ANNEX 5 



Ps ychological 



■ 



c 



[ 



The following are the types of actions envisioned to help the 
GV. accelerate its public information program with the objectives 

■ 

of gaining broad public understanding of the actions required to 

combat the Communist insurgents and to build public confidence in 
i 

i 

the GVN's determination and ability to deal with the Communist 

i 
threat: 



a. Assist the GVN to develop and improve the USOM- supported 

l ■ 

radio network for the country, to include the prompt establishment 
of the presently planned new stations at Soc Tra,ng, Banmethout and 
Quang Ngai and the installation of the more powerful, new transmitters 
now on USOM order for Saigon and Hue. - - * 

b, Assist the GVN to initiate a training program for information 






■ 



[ 



and press attaches in the various ministries and directorates. 



■ • 



a ■ 

c. Assist the GVN to establish a Press Institute for the training 
of selected young people for careers in journalism. 



•* 



d. In cooperation with the MAAG and the Ministry of Defense, 
make use of the troop information and education program of the GVN 



* 






armed forces as a channel of communication between the Government 
and the people in the rural areas, 

1 2*1 

».*• IV* .-■.- 



TOP SECRET 



. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






[ 







CI 



--. 



TOP SECRET 



e. Encourage President Diem to continue the effective "fireside 



ii 



chat 11 and other getting-to-the-people techniques which were begun 
during the recent election campaign. Provide maximum* press , film, 
and adio coverage for such appearances. 

f. Reorient the programming of the existing USIS bi- national 
centers so that they can serve as training, centers for rural info r ma- 

■ 

i 
tion and educational cadres. 



• 
* 



• 






[ . 



• i 



.* 



[ 






12 9 



*— 



V*3 C-7f* 



TOP SE.CRE1 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET 



[ 

[ 









C 

[ 



ANNEX 6 



Covert Actions 



a. Intelligence : Expand current positive and counter-intelligence 
operations against Communist forces in South Vietnam and against North 
Vietnam. These include penetration of the Vietnamese Communist 
mechanism, dispatch of agents to North Vietnam and strengthening 
Vietnamese internal security services. Authorization should be given t 

subject to existing procedures, for the use in North Vietnam operations 

■ 

of civilian air crews of American and other nationality, as appropriate, 
in addition to Vietnamese, Consideration should be given for over- 
flights of North Vietnam for photographic intelligence coverage, using 
American or Chinese Nationalists crews and equipment as necessary. 
^b. Co mm u.uca t io»s mteU^nce: Expands current program of . 
interception and direction finding covering Vietnamese Communist 



communications activities in South Vietnam, as well as North Vietnam 



«■ t 



. 



targets. Obtain further USIB authority to conduct these operations on Q £2^L~ 

a fully joint basis, permitting the sharing of results of interception, 

* * * • * • * * • . . 

direction finding, traffic analysis and cryptographic analysis by American 

■ w * 

agencies with the Vietnamese to the extent needed to launch rapid - 

r 

attacks on Vietnamese Communist communications and command 
installations. 



i 






v 




•r *\ 



123 



FOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



» * 



' 



TOP SECEET 



I 




[ 

[ 









[ 

C. 

— 

r 



This program should be supplemented by a program, duly 
coordinated, of training additional Vietnamese Arrny ..units in inter- 
cept and direction finding by the US Army Security Agency. Also, 
US rmy Security Agency teams could be sent to Vietnam for direct 
operations, coordinated in the same manner -- Approved by the 

President at the NSC meeting of 29 April 1961. 

* 

i 
c, Unconventional Warfare : Expand present operations of the 

First Observation Battalion in guerrilla areas of South Vietnam, 

under joint MAAG-CIA sponsorship and direction. This should be 

i 
in full operational collaboration with the Vietnamese, using Viet- 

namese civilians recruited with CIA aid. 

. In Laos, infiltrate teams under light civilian cover to 

Southeast Laos to locate and attack Vietnamese Communist bases 

and lines of communications. These teams should be supported by 

■ 

assault units of 100 to 150 Vietnamese for use on targets beyond 



* c- 



capability of teams - . Training of teams could be a combined opera- 
tion by CIA and US Army Special Forces. 

■ 

■ " • ■ ' 

In North* Vietnam, using the foundation established by -. 

intelligence operations, form networks of resistance, covert bases 

and teams for sabotage and light harassment, A caxDability should 

■ 
be created by MAAG in the South Vietnamese Army to conduct 



-J Oh 



IT 3 fiT* 



TOP SEC RE 'I 















r 
[ 



r 

[ 



' * I 



[ 
[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 20 1 1 



TOP SECRET 



Ranger raids and similar military actions in North Vietnam a's ■ 



[■■■ 



might prove necessary or appropriate* Such actions should try 

» 

to avcd any outbreak of extensive resistance or insurrection 
which could not be supported to the extent necessary to stave off 
repression. 



Conduct over-flights for dropping of leaflets to harass 
the Communists and to maintain morale of North Vietnamese 
population, and increase gray broadcasts to North Vietnam for 
e same purposes, 

d- Internal South Vietnam: Effect operations to penetrate 

/ 

political forces, government, armed services and opposition 

> 
elements to measure support of. government, provide warning of 

» 
any coup plans, and identify individuals with potentiality of provid- 

ing leadership in event of disappearance of President Diem. 

* Build up an increase in the population's participation in 

and loyalty to free government in Vietnam, through improved 

communication' between the government and the people, and by 

strengthening independent or quasi- independent organizations of 

■ ■ 

political, syndical, or professional character. Support covertly 
the GVN in allied and neutral countries, with special emphasis 
on bringing out GVN accomplishments, to counteract tendencies 



19~ 

S .- VJ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






r 



. * 




c 
c 



[ 

[ 
[ 

- * 

c 

[ 

[ 



TOP SECRET 



towards a "political solution 11 while- the Communists are attacking 
GVN. Effect, in support, a psychological program in Vietnam and 

elsewhere exploiting Communist brutality and aggression in North 

■ 

Vietnam, 

3. The expanded prog ram outlined above was estimated to 
require an additional 40 personnel for the CIA station and an increase 
in the CIA outlay for Vietnam of approximately $1. 5 million for FY 62, 
partly compensated by withdrawal of personnel from other areas. The 
US Army Security Agency actions to supplement communications 

intelligence will require 78 personnel and approximately $1.2 million 

s 

in equipment. The personnel and fund augmentations in this paragraph 
were approved by the President at the NSC meeting of 29 April 1961. 
1 £• In order adequately to train the Vietnamese Army in tactical 
COMIT operations, the Army Security Agency estimates that an 
additional 15 personnel are required. This action has been approved 

* ■ 

by the US Intelligence Board. 



. * 






F* nr* 



TOP SECRE1 



* » 






n 






[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



ANNEX 7 



Funding 



This funding program is discussed under two headings: (a) GVN 

Defense Budget (local currency) and (b) MAP. It is understood that 

< 

these are estimated figures and that the Task Force will attempt 

- 

more detailed estimates as programs are approved. 

a. Defens e Budget: (Local currency GVN defense budget re- 



A 



i 

i 

\ 

r 



r 






[■ 



[ 



quirements in millions of dollars. } 

1 # To provide for defense against increased Communist in- 
surgency, the GVN defense budget has had to be increased materially 
over the past two years. The GVN defense budget is mutually agreed 
upon by the GVN and MAAG/ The budget for FY 60 and our present 
estimate for FY 61 and for FY 62 GVN defense budget are in dollars 



(Vietnamese FY is also CY): 



FY 60 



■ • 



168.0 



FY 61 



212.0 



FY 62 



247.0 



The figures for FY 62 include the increased costs for the already 






f 



approved (but not funded) actions as well as the additional actions 

a 

^ 

.recommended in this program. ■ . . 

a 

2. Funding of budget: Funding of its defense budget is accom- 



plished by GVN, with the US providing imported commodities which are 



r 






7 



.' TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 



TOP SECRET 



L 



- 



L 



sold for local currency. The agreed budget and financing for FY 60 



i. 

[ 

: 
: 

> 

[ 



was as follows: 



US Contribution 



GVN Contribution 



TOL GVN Defense Budget 



FY 60 



155.5 



12.5 



168.0 



Prior to the initiation of the CIP, the GVN proposed a defense 
budget of $177 for FY 61, No agreement has been reached between the 



USG and GVN as to provisions of funds for this budget. Prior to the 
development of the Program of Action for Vietnam anticipated expenses 
associated with the implementation of the Counter-Insurgency Plan, and 
other requirements, made it necessary to increase the earlier estimate 
of GVN Defense Budget for FY 61 to $212. 0, The status of funding of 

m 

this amount is as follows: ICA has agreed to provide $134. and GVN 
has agreed to provide $20. leaving a short-fall of $58. 0. The Country 

* 

Team has. recommended that US contribute an additional $19. 0. If 
« 

this were approved, it would raise the total FY 61 US contribution to - 
$153, million, but would still leave a short -fall of $39* million. 
Mr. Thuan (GVN Secretary of State for the Presidency and Minister 
of Defense) stated on 24 March 1961 that the GVN would like to receive 

■ 

more American aid, but if this were not possible the GVN will have to 
choose between the Communist danger and the danger of inflation. The 



"■ : i* 



28 



TOE 9 SECRET 



t ,.*** 



I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-• 



fiTl 



FOP 



3 



C fe E 1 







L 









[ 



QVN in this case,, of course, would choose to risk the danger of 
inflation and could meet the financial burden of the Counter- 
Insurgency Plan in 1961. Secretary Thuan, however, expressed 

considerable concern regarding the prospects for 1962** 

! 

While recognizing that the final levels of both US and Viet- 
namese contributions to the FY 61 defense budget are still under 

I 

negotiation, it must be kept in mind that in order to be certain that 
the 20, 000 additional soldiers now authorized for the GVN Army 
are brought into the troop basis promptly, it may be necessary 
for the US to increase FY 61 contribution by the amount of the 
short-fall of $58 million to insure the success of the Counter- 
Insurgency Plan* 

■ 

In order to implement 'items in the Counter-Insurgency Plan 



* 



which are agreed to by the GVN and to carry out the additional 






t t 



measures recommended herein, the GVN defense budget for FY 62 

■ . •* . 

• ■ 

might be in the order of $247. This budget would include, if 
mutually agreed upon, a US contribution of $161. million and a 
Vietnamese contribution of $86.0 million. This would provide the 



c 



L 



i 

.local currency needed to carry out this program of action for Vietnam. 

■ 

The Task Force points out that this level requires a four-fold increase 



* See Foreign Service Dispatch 456. 



1 90 



hT> /Tfc TT*. (3 \T? fP* TO T7 *if> 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






* 



- 



[ 
[ 
[ 
[ 
[ 



[ 



K 



[ 



[ . 
I 

[ . 



T©P SECRET 



over the FY 61 GVN contribution. If the Vietnamese are unable to 

■r 

provide this level of funds, there will again be a substantial short-fall 

> 

which the US might have to meet if the program as outlined is to be 

■ 

mounted. » 

b, MAP: In order to provide the necessary equipment, training 

■ * i ■ 

t 

and other support required for a GVN armed force of 200, 000, a 
Civil Guard of 68, 000, Self Defense Corps of 40, 000 and those portions 
of para. 2 above properly chargeable to military assistance, a total 
of $140 million is required for Military Assistance in FY 62 for 
Vietnam. This amount is $71 million more than is currently programmed 
for Vietnam within the current World Wide FY 62 MAP of $1. 6 billion, 
which is a holding program pending results of an Executive Branch 
study of the Military Assistance Program now underway, 

— 

■ It is necessary, therefore, that this additional $71 million required 

i 

t e for .the Vietnam Military Assistance Program be provided by supple- 
mental appropriations over and above the presently contemplated World 
, '- Wide FY 62 .$1,6 billion progr.am. , " -. . ■ . 



130 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



May 8, 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE CHAIRMAN, JCS 
SUBJECT: U. S. Forces for South Vietnam 



In preparation for the possible commitment of U. S. 
forces to Vietnam, it is desired that you give further 
review and study of the military advisability of such an 
action, as well as to the size and composition of such 
U. S. forces. Your views, which I hope could include 
some expression from GINCPAC, would be valuable 
for consideration prior to the NSC meeting this week 
(currently scheduled for Friday, May 12.) 

The missions for such U.S. forces, and preliminary 
concepts of size and composition, are given in section 2c 
of the May 6 draft of ir A Program of Action to Prevent 
Communist Domination of South Vietnam, 11 JCS members 
of the Presidential Task Force participated in formulat- 
ing the thinking on these. With this guidance, and with 
the other studies which I appreciate you have undertaken 
already on this area, it is my hope that you will be able 
to provide me with a recommendation which will assist 
the NSC discussion of this subject. 



s/Ro swell Gilpatric 
Deputy 



BGen. E. G. Lansdale 
577^2 3^-9^7 8 May6l 



131 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 J 6. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






[ 

[ 

r 

I" 
[ 






r 



I. 

c 

I 

E 

i 

[ 



May 8, 19 61 



TOP SECRET 



Dear Mr. President: 

- 

- 

I have asked Vice President Johnson to go to Viet-Nam on my 
behalf to visit you personally, to give you my warmest greetings, 
to witness the valiant struggle of your people against Communist 
aggression, and to assure you that my message of April 27 was 
more than an expression of moral support. 

Since I took office my colleagues and I have watched develop- 
ments in Viet-Nam with attention and concern. We have been 
urgently considering ways in which our help could be made more 
effective. I can now tell you that, for our part, we are ready to 
join v/ith you in an intensified endeavor to win the struggle against 
Communism and to further the social and economic advancement 
of Viet-Nam. Because of the great importance we attach to this 
matter, I have asked Vice President Johnson and Ambassador 
Nolting to discuss it fully with you. 

. ■ 

If such an expanded joint effort meets with your approval, we are 
prepared to initiate in collaboration v/ith your government a series 
of joint, mutually supporting actions in the military, political, 
economic and other fields; We would. propose to extend and build 
on our existing programs including the Counterinsurgency Plan 
and infuse into our actions a high sense of urgency and dedication. 

# 

m " 

It is my understanding that certain of the proposals in the 
c Counterinsurgency Plan may not entirely reflect your own judg- 
ment. However, I hope you would feel free to discuss any issues 
frankly with Ambassador Nolting so that we may find a common 
viewpoint. I am happy to tell you, however, that the steps already 
taken to implement' the Plan have niade* it possible for us to have 
approved Military Assistance Program support of the 20, 000 
increase of your regular forces. * ' - 



TOP SECRET 



■ y 



:\ 






V* 



*\ *\ 



i o / 



•x 



r 



r 



c 
[ 



V 

I: 
[ 
[ 

E. 

[ 

■ 

[ 
£ 

[ ■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



2 



TOP SECRET 



I spciak first of military measures. But I fully share your view 
that Pommunism cannot be stopped by such measures alone. 
Parallel political and economic action is of equal importance. I 
• believe we are in agreement that the military actions proposed 
in the Counterinsurgency Plan for controlling and defeating the 
Viet Cong are soundly conceived and should be taken. However, 
in light of current conditions, these measures may no longer be 
sufficient. Therefore, in addition to actions in the Counter- 
insurgency Plan, we would be prepared to: 

■ 

1, Augment the personnel of the MAAG to enable it to 
carry out increased duties. 

2. Expand the MAAG's duties to include supporting and 
advising the Self Defense Corps. 

- 

I 3, Provide Military Assistance Program support for 

the entire Civil Guard force of 68, 000. 

4. Provide material support for the Vietnamese Junk 

Force to help it prevent clandestine supply and infiltration of the 
Viet Cong. m , 

■ 

We would also be prepared to consider carefully with you, if 
developments should warrant, the case for a further increase in . 
the strength of your forces beyond the 170, 000 limit now con- 
templated, - 

f T'also believe that the problem of Viet~Nam ! s borders requires 
our further urgent joint study to develop techniques whereby 
crossing of these borders by unfriendly elements can be more 
effectively controlled. 



* « 



• 



I believe we should consider the establishment in Southeast Asia 
of a facility to develop and test, using the tools of modern 
technology, new techniques to help us in our joint campaign 
against the Communists. " * ""_--•' 



TOP SECRET 






[ 

[ 
[ 
[ 
c 



c 



I. 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



We would be prepared to collaborate with your Government in 
the use of certain military specialists to assist and work with 
your jarmed forces in health, welfare and public v/orks 
activities in the villages. We can also offer additional Special 
Forces training to assist your government in accelerating the 
training of its Special Forces. 

• 

In the political field, in addition to the steps contemplated in I 
the Counterinsurgency Plan, I feel you will agree that the 
strengthening of border control arrangements, particularly with 
Cambodia, is perhaps the most important element. Whil_ I 
fully recognize the difficulty and delicacy of this problem, I urge 
you to authorize the renewal of negotiations on this subject with 
the Royal Khmer Government. If you concur, we will use our 
best efforts with the Cambodians to facilitate these discussions. 

Other governments have shown an interest in assisting Viet-Nam 
in its actions against the guerrillas and have indicated that 
certain expert personnel with long experience, e. g. , in Malaya, 
might be made available to help. "We would be glad to cooperate 
with your government in planning the most effective use of this 
welcome assistance. 

Turning to the economic aspects, I am aware of the increased 
burden that an increase in your military forces will place -on 
your internal budget. However, budgetary problems must not 
be permitted to interfere with the successful prosecution of our 
joint effort against the Communists. It seems to us that the. chief 
problem is how to make the best possible use of all available 
e es-ources*. This is a complex problem which taxes the ability 
of the best experts and we feel must be attaxked by the best 
talent we both can muster. If you concur, I will send to Viet-Nam 
a group of highly qualified economic and fiscal experts who would 
meet with your experts and v/ork out a financial plan on which our 
joint efforts can be based. 

. I wish to assure you of our continued interest in the social advance 
ment and economic betterment of your people. Various joint 
programs are under way and much has been accomplished. These 
will be continued and improved. 



• 






TOP SECRET 



a. o l > 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






.• 



[ 



[ 
[ 



n 



' 



[ 
[ 

[ 

* 

[ 



f 



4 



*T» 



TOP SECRET 



In addition, Ambassador Nolting will be prepared to discuss new 
economic and social measures in rural areas to accompany the 
anti-guerrilla effort in which the U. S. can provide direct assist- 
_ ance, if desired. Such programs, we feel, can be organized, in 
close cooperation with military operations and with maximum 
mobility, speed and flexibility. Funds for expanded efforts 
along these lines can be allocated. \ 

We have great confidence in the long-range political and economic 
future of Viet-Nam. Therefore, I am certain you will ag :ee that, 
despite our present focus on the immediate Viet Cong problem, it 
would be good for us to work together toward a longer range 
economic development program, including increased assistance 
on our part in the fields of agriculture, health, education, 
fisheries, highways, public administration and industrial develop- 
ment. I have authorized Ambassador Nolting to enter into pre- 
liminary discussions with members of your government concerning 
the best ways of moving forward with a program whose eventual 
goal would be a Viet-Nam capable of self-sustaining economic 
growth. 

This, Mr. President, is the broad outline of our thinking on how 
we can help you and your brave countrymen to help themselves in 
their determined struggle to defeat the Communists and find a 
better way of life. I am confident of your success. I look forward 
with great interest to Vice President Johnson T s report on his talks 
with you, and I would be especially happy to hear from you „ 
personally. 

i • • * . . • • . 

Please accept again, Mr. President, the expression of my warmest 
friendship and respect. 



' • 



Sincerely; 



His Excellency 
Ngo Dinh Diem 
President of the 
Republic of Viet-Nanl 



TOP SECRET 






- 



[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



19*1 WOf II 18 01 



■ . 



OFF SECY CF DEFENSE 



* * 



■ i I , ■• . '— I ■ » " : - r * • 



-•r 



C 

r 



the: white house 

WA SH.NGTON 

* 

May 11, 1961 



fci 



NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 52 









1 



* 



[ 



* 



[ 

[ 

[ . 

• • • 



The Secretary bf State 




next meeting of the National Security Council, now scheduled lor May 19, 
the President has made the following decisions on the basis of this report: 

1. The U. S. objective and cone cot 01 operations sis tec in the 

report are approved: to prevent Communist domination c: South Vietnam; 
to create in that country a viable and increasingly democratic gocietv* 
and to initiate, on an accelerated basis, a series of mutually supporting 
auctions of a military, political, economic, psychological and covert 
character designee to achieve this objective. • 









t% : ' sV 2. The approval given for specific military actions by the 

^v President at the National Security Counci; meeting on April 2 9, 1961, * 
is confirmed. * - * 

3. Additional actions listed at pages 4 and 5 of the Task Force 
Report are authorized, with the objective of meeting the increased security 
threat resulting from the new situation along the frontier between Laos, 
and Vietnam, In particular, the President directs an assessment of the . 
military utility of a further increase in G. V. N, forces from 170,000 to 
200, 000, together with an assessment of the parallel political and 
fi^c^l irhpii'CatiQns. 



i 






4, The President directs full examination by the Defense 
Department, under the guidance of the Director of the continuing Task 
Force on Vietnam, of the size and composition of forces which would be 
desirable in the case of a possible commitment of U- S. forces to Vietnam. 
The diplomatic setting within which this action might be taker! should also 
be examined. 



'i 



'7 i £""■•'" r* 

1 . ■ 

* - * 



if- L^X. 



t : 



*• 1* 



Qov&*JS-J--Qt~-*l~*.. 



copies 



.1 o O 






J / o ; /- * £ 



L 



: 















t 



Declassified per Executi ve Order 1352*5 W; * * 
NND It*. N„ mb e r: NND tt^lSKS 20, , 









[ 
[ 

[ 

[ 



c 
[ 

I • 

■ 

» 



- 2 - 



5, The U. S. will seek to increase the confidence of President 
Diem and his government in the United States by a scries of actions and 
messages relating to the trip of Vice President Johnson/ The U. S* will 
attempt to strengthen President Diem l s popular support within Vietnam by 
reappraisal and negotiation, under the direction of Ambassador Nolting. 
Ambassador Molting is also requested to recommend any necessary 
reorganization of the Country Team for these purposes, 

■ 

6. The U. S. will negotiate in appropriate ways to improve 
Vietnam's relationship with other countries, especially Cambodia, and 

its standing in world opinion. 

■ 

7* The Ambassador is authorised to begin negotiations 
looking toward a new bilateral arrangement with Vietnam, but no firm 
. commitment will be made to such an arrangement without further review 
by the President. 

S. The U, S. will undertake economic brograms in Vietnam 
with a view to both short term immediate impact and a contribution to 

the longer range economic viability of the country, and the specific 
actions oroooscd on pages 12 and 13 of the Task Force Reoert are 
authorized. 

r 

9. The U. S. will strengthen its efforts in the psychological 

field as recommended on pages 14 and 15 of the Task Force Report. 

■ 

10 4 The urogram for covert actions outlined on pa<*e 15 of 
the Task Force Report is aporoved. 



9 



*■ * 



11, These decisions will be supported by appropriate budgetary 
action, but the President reserves judgment on the levels of funding pro-, 
posed on pages 15 and 16 of the Task Force Report and in the funding aruie>:* 

■ ■ - # .* 

12\ Finally, the President approves the continuation of a sp^c'I^l 

T.ask Force on Vietnam, established in and directed by the Department oC 

State under Sterling J. Cotirell as Director, and Chalmers E. Wood as 

Executive Officer. * .. 

%4^ <M 



* * 



T> 



AiCUeorge mm ay 



Information copies to 

Defense *""* 
CIA 



<*IA 



t3 r 



-A- 



i r easury 






a! ufu-i 



* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



I 

[ 



* * 



[ 

I 



: 



c 



. 



» * 



c 

r 

i. 



TOP SECRET 



SENSITIVE 



DRAFT 
6 May 1961 



* ■ ■ 



A Program of Action 



To Prevent Communist Domination of South Vietnam 



Ap praisal of the Situatio n: The internal security situation in 
South Vietnam has become critical, as can be seen on the attache 
map, with an estimated 12, 000 Viet Cong Communists waging 

■ 
* 

guerrilla warfare inside the country. The strongly anti- Communist, 
pro-American government of South Vietnam, with American aid, is 

- 

increasing its capabilities to fight its attackers. Should the Com- 
munist effort increase, cither directly or as a result of a collapse 
of Laos, additional measures beyond those proposed herein may be 
necessary. (Details in Annex 1. ) , . 

The U.S. Objective: To prevent Communist domination of South 

Vietnam and to create in that country a viable and increasingly 

- ■ 

democratic society. ., 

Conce pt of O perations: To initiate, on an accelerated basis, a 

• * ■ 

* « • * * 

series of mutually supporting actions of a military, political, economic, 
psychological and covert character designed to achieve this objective. 

* • 

> 

■ 

In so doing, it is intended to use, and where appropriate extend, 
expedite or build upon the existing U. S. and Government of Vietnam 






/*7 



■•? ,>.-■- 



*"" 



, . , i 



■ 



TOP SECRET 






I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



FOP SECRET 



(G. V.N.) programs, including as much of the Counter-Insurgency 



* 



Plan (CIP), as can be agreed by both governments, already under 



[ 



[ 



; 






[' 



c r 



■ 

i 
I 

[ 

i 

[ 



way in South Vietnam. There is neither the time available nor any ' 

■ 

sound justification for IT starting from scratch. n Rather the need is 
to focus the U.S. effort in South Vietnam on the immediate internal 
security problem; to infuse it with a sense of urgency and a dedica- 

* 

tion.to the overall U.S. objective; to achieve, through cooperative 
inter- departmental support both in the field and in Y/ashingtcrij the 
operational flexibility needed to apply the available U.S. assets in 
a manner best calculated to achieve our objective in Vietnam; to 
give the U.S. Ambassador and the U.S. team under his leadership 
general authority to undertake a series of accelerated measures 

as noted below; and finally, to impress on our friends, the Viet- 

* - 

namese, and en our foes, the Communists, that come what may, 

M 

* 

the U.S. intends to win this battle. 

■ 

* 

- Pro gram of Action: 

* ■ 

1. General: The situation in South Vietnam has reached 
the point where, at least for the time being, primary emphasis must 



• 



be placed on providing a solution to the internal security problem. 

* . 

A significant step which has already been taken by the Country Team 
to counter Communist subversion in. South Vietnam has been the 
development of the Counter-Insurgency Plan (CIP). Those portions 



S i". 



»i. 



3 



TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



f 
c 



TOP SEC 'MET 



• ■ of the -CIP which are agreed to by the G. V.N. will be implemented 



as rapidly as possible. 



* 



Communist domination of South Vietnam needs more than mili- 



• 



c 



tary measures alone to be stopped. Our military program must be 

■ 
accompanied and supplemented by a strong, positive political- 



er -momic program 



[ 



t~ 






c 

[ 

I 

[ 

[ 



I 



2, Military: 



\ 



a. The following military actions were approved by 



the President at the NSC meeting of 29 April 1961: 



••— ,.»»••. 



i (1) Increase the MAAG as necessary to insure the 

effective implementation of the military portion of the program in- 
eluding the training of a 20, 000 -man addition to the present G. V. N. 

■ 

armed forces of 150, 000. Initial appraisal- of new tasks assigned 

• * 

CHMAAG indicate that approximately 100 additional military person- 
nel will be required immediately in addition to the present complement 



of 6S5, 



(2) Expand MAAG responsibilities to include 



. authority to provide support and advice to the Self Defense Corps . 
'*•»■■ ', m ' • • « • . - »• 

with a strength of approximately 40, 000, 

- * • 

■ b t 

(3) Authorize MAP support for the entire Civil 

- 

* 

Guard force of 68, 000. MAP support is now authorized for 32, 000; 
the remaining 36,000 are not now adequately trained and equipped. 

^ -« u 



■"> c-iTfl 



r o r § e c 1 1 1 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



( 
I 
[ 

■ 



E 



E 

[ . 



TOP SECRET 



(4) Install as a, matter of priority a radar sur- 
veillance capability which will enable the G. V.N. to obtain warning 
of Communist over -flights being conducted for intelligence or 
clandestine air supply purposes. Initially, this capability should 
b provided from U.S. mobile radar capability. 



i (5) Provide MAP support for the Vietnamese 

Junk Force as a means of preventing Viet Cong clandestine supply 

and infiltration into South Vietnam by water. MAP support, which 

i 
was not provided in the Counter-Insurgency Plan, will include train- 
ing of junk crews in Vietnam or at U.S. bases by U. S. Navy personnel. 

b. The following additional actions are considered neces- 
sary to assist the G. V.N. in meeting the increased security threat 






— • * •*!% WH-k— 



*-*rt» '.... .i.„_ ,. ., j.j* • £, 



* c 



resulting from the new situation along the L-aos-G. V.N. frontier: 

- (1) Assist the G.V.N, armed forces to, increase 

■ 

their border patrol and insurgency suppression capabilities by estab- 

- 

lishing an effective border intelligence and patrol system, by institute 

ing regular aerial surveillance over the entire frontier area, and by 
applying modern technological area- denial techniques to control the 



... * 



roads and trails along Vietnam T s borders. A special staff element 

■ 

■ m 

(approximately 6 U.S. personnel), to concentrate upon solutions to 






the unique problems of Vietnam's borders, will be activated in.MAAG, 
Vietnam, to assist a similar special unit in the RVNAF which the 



TOP SECRET 



[ 
[ 
[ 

c 






I 
I 



[ 



, * I 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NMD Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 




P SECRET 



G. V.N, will be encouraged to establish; these two elements working 
as an integrated team will help the G. V.N/ gain the support of nomadic 



tribes and other border inhabitants, as well as introduce advanced 
techniques and equipment to strengthen the security of South Vietnam's 



frontiers. 



(Z). Assist the G.V.N, to establish a Combat Develop- 



ment and Test Center in South, Vietnam to develop, with the help of 

i 

modern technology, new techniques for use against the Viet Cong 

**- 

forces. (Approximately 4 U. S. personnel.) 



-»*-•«».' 



1 (3) Assist the G.V.N, forces with health, welfare 



and public work projects by providing U.S. Army civic action mobile 
Li training teams, coordinated with the similar civilian effort. (Approxi- 

t » 

mately 14 U.S. personnel.) ' #* / /,; : - *•-'- '' C(.< * 









(4) Deploy a Special Forces Group (approximately - 7/ 0> . 

i 

400 personnel) to Nha Trang in order to accelerate G. V.N. S]Decial -" ' ' •■ '&M 



, \ m Forces training. The first increment, for immediate deployment to 



Vietnam, should be a Special Forces company (52 personnel). 



»-- <_ > ».•»! 



» • * ■ * i 



(5) Instruct JCS, CINCPAC, and MAAG to undertake 



, an assessment of the military utility of a further increase in the G. V,N 
■ 

* ■ 

p forces from 170, 000 to 200,000 in order to create two new division 

L • . 

equivalents for deployment to the northwest border region. The 



parallel political and fiscal implications should be assessed. 



r\ 



-^S 



T©F SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



c 
t 

[ 



i 

Li 



E. 



r 



TOP SECRET 



♦ t 



c. In preparation for possible commitment of U, S, forces 



■* * ■ ■ "-* " -•—-**— .«....,. 



to Vietnam, which might result from an NSC decision following discus- 

* 

sions between Vice President Johnson and President Diem, Defense is 



•V ■■-■■•"• «A •- 



undertaking an immediate study of the size and composition of U, S. 



—. * . »* *..'.. _ 



*■»•■» * 



forces required to: 

- provide maximum psychological impact in deterrence 
of further Communist aggression from North Vietnam, China, or the 



oo 



Soviet Union, while rallying the morale of the Vietnamese and encourag- 

■ 
ing the support of SEATO and neutral nations for Vietnam 1 s defense; 

- 

- release Vietnamese forces from advanced and static 

» 

defense positions to permit their fuller commitment to counter -insurgency 



actions; 



- provide maximum training to approved Vietnamese 



.forces; and 



- provide significant military resistance to potential 

* I 

«■ 

I * 

North Vietnam Communist and/or Chinese Communist action. 



« t 



The following possible actions are being considered in this Defense 



■ • 



* « 



- 






study: 



(1) Deploy to South Vietnam two U,S. battle groups 



(with necessary command and logistics units), plus an engineer (con- 
struction- combat ^ battalion. These units would be located in the 



■*■ * 



h 






TOP SECRET 






[ 

# 

[ 

r 

[ 
[ 



E 
[ 

[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TOP SECRET 



It 



high plateau" region, remote from the major population center of 



Saigon- Cholon, under the command of the Chief, MAAG. To help 
accelerate the training of the G, V.N. army, they would establish 
two divisional field training areas. The engineer battalion would 
undertake construction of roads, air-landing strips, and other 
facilities essential to the logistical supx^ort of the U.S. and Viet- 

* r 

namese forces there. * - ■ 

(2) Assign the Naval component of CINCPAC the 
responsibility for coastal patrol activities, employing minimal U.S 
Naval forces in conjunction with Vietnamese forces, to prevent the 



s 



eaborne infiltration of Viet Cong personnel and material into South 



Vietnam. 

(3) Assign the air component of CINCPAC the 

■ 

responsibility for border surveillance and close-support of G.V.N. 



* ■ 

(An Appraisal of the Military Concept is given in Annex 2. ) 



ground forces in counter-insurgency actions, emj^loying minimal .^-% i^C^vJ^{ 
1 UvS~-Ai-r^l*loJLce. means in conjunction with Vietnamese forces, to 
, * help seal the Vietnamese borders and to defeat the Communist 

guerrillas within those borders. 



•1 |? *i 



L . - ■. TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






r 
[ 

[ 

[ 



r n 



FOP SECRET. 



3. Political: 



A 



I, Objective: Develop political and economic conditions 



which will create a solid and widespread support among the key political 

groqps and the general population for a Vietnam which has the will to 

resist Communist encroachment and which in turn stems from a stake 

in a freer and more democratic society- 

a. Increase the confidence of President Diem and his 
* * 

» 

government in the United States, by the following actions: 

(1) A message has been dispatched to President 
Diem informing him of your personal support for his courageous leader- 



ship in the struggle against communism and of Vice President Johnson's 



r 



trip, indicating that Vice President Johnson will be carrying a more 

detailed expression of your thoughts on a broad range of proposals for 

* 

joint action between our two countries, 

(2) A letter from you to President Diem has been 
prepared for Vice President Johnson identifying the key objectives con- 



. 



• « 



[ 



L 



taincd in this Task Force report which we propose as a joint U. S. - 

Vietnamese address to the existing threat to Vietnam's freedom, stability 

■ ■■ j" 

■ * - P * 

and security, seeking an expression of Diem's support for this joint effort, 

* » ■ 

. (3) Vice President Johnson's trip to Vietnam should 



be focused on obtaining broad agreement on how the U. S. and Vietnam 



o 



o 



■*! it r* 

JL H O 



• 



TOP SEeKET 



<t 



r 
r 



i 



[ 
[ 



r. 



[ 



% 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■ T © P S IS € ft E T 



view the problem confronting Vietnam's security including the range of 

political, economic and military actions required to preserve the 

• * 

"I 
freedom and integrity of that country. 

1 

I . b. Strengthen President Diem's popular support 

within Vietnam, by the following actions: 

(1) Instruct Ambassador Nolting to reappraise 

the political situation and undertake to obtain agreement of the G. V. N. 

_ ■ 

• ■ 

on an urgent basis for a realistic political program along the lines 
indicated in the CIP. The objective of the program would be to seek 
to produce favorable attitudes and active popular cooperation against 



the VC. While, the Ambassador's recommendations might well include 



actions directed toward fiscal and monetary reform measures, it is 

presumed that the major recommendations in this area will be developed 

by the Ambassador in conjunction with the special team of U.S. economic 

* 

experts which it is proposed be dispatched to Vietnam for this purpose 

r — 

* ■ 

(in Economic section following)". 

■ 

. • " ■ . * (2) As a part of this initial assessment, the 

Ambassador should also consider such special arrangements within 
* the field organization as he may deem required to assure a capability 

■ 

for rapid Country Team response to evolving problems. This should 

i 
include an assessment of staff requirements, both with a view to request- 
ing such additional personnel as required and to reviewing the employment 






TOP SECRET 



\ • 



L 



C 

c 

[ 

c 






r 1 

r 
E 



[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



£TrJ 



FOP SECRET 

of existing field staff to assure the most efficient application of available 
• personnel to major objectives to be accomplished, 

.II. Objective: Improve Vietrfam f s relationships with other 

I 
countries and its status in world opinion. 

a. Improve relations' with Cambodia leading to full 
border control cooperation, by the following actions: 

(1) Instruct our Ambassadors in Phnom Penh and 

i ■ . • ■ - • 

Saigon to urge host governments to enter promptly into renewed border 
control negotiations. In order to secure Cambodian cooperation, the 
Cambodian government should be informed that requests for additional 

■ 

military assistance will be sympathetically considered. It also should * 

m 

be informed immediately of the approval of its recent request for four 



T-37 aircraft 

- 



i * b. Call for .United Nations observers to observe 

' . . . 

externally supported Communist actions of subversion, infiltration and 

other violations of Vietnam's sovereignty, by the following action: 

. (1) Instruct our Ambassador in Saigon to consider 

* 

- 

discussing this matter with the G. V.N. Ambassador Stevenson might 
.later be* asked to explore informally the idea with.' Mr. Hammarskjord 
and friendly foreign representatives in New York. 

* 

c. Accept contributions of other free world countries 
toward meeting the Communist guerrilla threat in Vietnam as a means 









Ui'f 

- ■ 

TOP SECRET 












■ 



[ 



• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



id3 il 



of bringing a wider allied support to the effort to assist Vietnam, by the 



following action: 



(1) Instruct our representatives in Saigon to pre- 



pare, in consultation with the Vietnamese, proposals providing for the 
use of third country contributions, particularly that already offered by 



the British, to the training of Vietnam's forces and counter- guerrilla 



efforts , 



III. Objective: Undertake military security arrangements 



.which emphasize the U.S. intention to stand behind Vietnam's resistance 
to Communist aggression. 



a 

♦ a. Undertake a new bilateral arrangement with Vietnam, 



by the following action: 



(1) Qn the grounds that the Geneva Accords have 
placed inhibitions upon free world action while at the same time placing 
no restrictions upon the Communists, Ambassador Nolting should be 
instructed to enter into preliminary discussions with Diem regarding the 



• ( 



L 

[ 

L 

[ . 
[ 

* 

[ 

' Iks 

TOP SECRET' 






possibility of a defensive security alliance despite the inconsistency of 

such action with the Geneva Accords. This action would be based on the 

■ * 

premise that such an undertaking is justified in international law as 
representing a refusal to be bound by the Accords in a degree and manner 
beyond that which the other party to the Accords has shown a willingness 

> 

to honor. Communist violations, therefore, justify the establishment 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



[ 

[ 

[ 

C 

[ 

c 



I 

( 



[. 



TOP SECRET 



of the security arrangement herein recommended. Concurrently, Defense 

T i 

should study the military advisability of committing U.S. forces in Vietnam 

■ a ■ a 

'(as noted in Military section above). 

(Political details in Annex 3. ) 

4, Econo mic: 

■ 

I* Objective; Undertake economic programs having both a 
short-term immediate impact as well as ones which contribute to the # 
longer range economic viability of the country. 

• * ■ 

a. Undertake a series of economic projects designed to 
accompany the counter-insurgency effort, by the following action: 

■ 

(1) Grant to ICA the authority and funds to move into 

■ 

a rural development- civic action program. Such a program would include 



short-range, simple, impact projects which would be undertaken by teams 

■ 

working in cooperation with local communities. This might cost roughly 



1 $3 to $5 million, mostly in local currency. Directors of field teams 

should be given authority with respect to the expenditure of funds including 

i i * 

use of dollar instruments to purchase local currency on the "spot. 
« * • • ■* b. Assist Vietnam to make the best use of all available 

economic resources, by the following action: : 

■ , a ■ 

. * -. ■ •' -/ ' (1) Halving in mind that our chief objective is obtain- 

ing a' full and enthusiastic support by the G. V.N. in its fight against the 

a 

Communists, a high level team, preferably headed by Assistant Secretary 



^-3 

TOP SECRET 



* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



: 

i. 
[ 
i 

[ 



[ 



E 

[ 
[ 



i 



TOP SECRET 



of the Treasury John Leddy, with State and ICA members, should be 
dispatched to Saigon to work out in conjunction with the Ambassador 

■" \ • : " • • ■ • 

a plan whereby combined U.S. and Vietnamese financial resources can. 



. i 



best be utilized. This group's terms of reference should cover the 

■ 

br ad range of fiscal and economic problems. Authority should be 
given to make concessions necessary to achieve our objectives and to 
so.ten the blow of monetary reform. Ambassador Nolting and perhaps 
the Vice President should notify Diem of the proposed visit of this 
group stressing that their objective is clearly to maximize the joint 
effort rather than to force the Vietnamese into inequitable and unpalat- 



able actions . 



(2) As a part of the foregoing effort, an assess 



ment should be undertaken of the fiscal and other economic implications 
of a further force increase from 170, 000 ^to 200,. 000 (as noted in the. 

Military section above). 

* • 

c. Undertake the development of a long-range economic 

• . ■ • ■■ 

development program as a means of demonstrating U. S. confiden.ee in the 

economic and political future of the country by the following action: 






," * (1) Authorize Ambassador Nolting to inform the 
G.V.N, that the U.S. is prepared to discuss a long-range joint five year 

■ 

development program which would involve contributions and undertakings 

by both parties. 

(Economic details in Annex 4.) 

'y 150 

TOP SECRET : 



Declassified per Executive Order J 3526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






! 

E 



I 
[ 
[ 



n 






r 



* 



E 

[ 



T CD P S E C R E T 



5, Psychological: 

^ ■■ ■ »■-■ ■ *■ -■ ■ ■ ■ — i »!,■■■ ■— ■ %!-■ — .-*#* 

a. Assist the G. V.N. to accelerate its. public information 
program to help develop a broad public understanding of the actions re- 
quired to combat the Communist insurgents and to build public confidence 
in the G. V.N. ' s determination and ability to deal with the Communist 
threat. (Details in .Annex 5. ) 

- 

b. The U. S. Country Team, in coordination with the G f V. N. 
Ministry of Defense, should compile and declassify for use of media re- 
presentatives in South Vietnam and throughout the world, documented 
facts concerning Communist infiltration and terrorists 1 activities and 

* 
* 

tlie measures being taken by the G, V.N. to counter such attacks. 

■ 

c. In coordination with CIA and the appropriate G.V.N. 

* 

Ministry, USIS will increase the flow of information about unfavorable 

conditions in North Vietnam to media representatives. 

» ■ 

d. Develop agricultural pilot-projects throughout the 

• + 

country, with a- view toward exploiting their beneficial psychological 

- 

effects. This project would be accomplished by combined teams of 

* 

-Vietnamese "Civic. Action personnel, Americans in the Peace Corps, 

Filipinos in Operation Brotherhood, and other Free World nationals. 

■ ■ 
e„ Exploit as a part of a planned psychological campaign 

the rehabilitation of Communist Viet Cong prisoners now held in South 

# 

Vietnam. Testimony of rehabilitated prisoners, stressing the errors 

r 

' ■ " 151 

TOP SECKET 



• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NM) Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






TOP SIC It ET 



of Communism, should be broadcast to Communist-held areas, includ 






. 



r 



[ 

E 



ing North Vietnam, to induce defections. This rehabilitation program 

\ . . ■ ■ ■ • ■ . . ■•• 

would be assisted by a team of U. S. personnel including U. S. Army 
. (Civil Affairs, Psychological Warfare, and Counter-intelligence), USIS, 

■ 

aid USOM experts. 

• - 
f. Provide adequate funds for an impressive U.S. partici- 
pation in the Saigon Trade Fair of 1962. ' . . ; 

. ! • . 

6. Covert Actions: 

rr - — ■ i i i ■ ii ■ ii | j. 

- 

• a. Expand present operations in the field of intelligence, 

unconventional warfare, and political-psychological activities to support 

* 

the U.S. objective as stated. . •. 

b. Initiate the communications intelligence actions, CIA 



and ASA personnel increases, and funding which were approved by the 
President at the NSC meeting of 29 April 1961. . ' « 

c # Expand the communications intelligence actions by 
inclusion of 15 additional Army Security Agency personnel to train the 



- 



t c 



k » 



Vietnamese Army in tactical COMINT operations. 



• 



(Details of covert actions are given in Annex 6. ) 



[ 



7. Funding: ■ * 

* 

a. As spelled out in the funding annex, the funding of the 

counter -^insurgency plan and the other actions recommended in this 

* 

"i r\ ' 
.*>. \j t— 

• ' TOP SECRET -•'... 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






L 



TOP SECRET 



[ 

E 
C 
[ 

[ 
[ 



n 



[ 

C 
C 



[ 



program might necessitate increases in U, S. support of the G, V.N. 
budget for FY 61 of as much as $58 ipillion, making up to a total of 
$192 million compared to $155 million for FY 60. The. U.S. contribu- 



o £ 



->. 



tion for the G, V.N. Defense budget in FY 62 as presently estimated 
would total $161 million plus any deficiency in that Budget which the 
G. V.N. might be unable to finance. The exact amount of U. S. con- 
tributions to the G. V.N. Defense budgets for FY 61 and FY 62 are 
subject to negotiation between the U. S. and the G. V. N, 

b. U.S. military assistance to G. V. N. , in order to 



r ' 



provide the support contemplated by the proposed program would 
total $140 million, or $71 million more than now programmed for 
Vietnam in the U. S. current. MAP budget for FY 62. 



(Details are given in Annex 7. ) 



8. Organizational Arrangements: 

a. Because of the critical nature of the situation in 



» 



Vietnam, and the need for, accelerated action, the direction, coordina- 
tion, and support of the program will be effected through a special 



** ■> 



Task Force on Vietnam, established in and directed by the Department 

* 

■ 

R * 

of State, constituted as follows: 



.LOO 



» * 



TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



r 



c 



t 

I. 



r 



r 



E. 

[ 



9 



TOP SECRET 



Director 



Sterling J. Cottrell 



Executive Officer: Chalmers B. Y/ood 



Members: 



Defense: 



Treasury: 



BOB: 



ICA: 



USIA: 



CIA: 



Office of the President: 



b. It shall be the responsibility of the Director and the 



Deputy Director of the Ta&k Force: 



(1) To See that the action program as approved is 



carried out; 



(2) To keep under continual review the adequacy of 



* 



the action program to meet its objectives; and 

" (3) To bring to the attention of the Secretary and 
■ # . . . * 

the Under Secretary of State and to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary 

of Defense the need for any changes in or additions to the action program ■ 



to meet its objectives. 



r 






*3! /Tb ina £? \rj sr-i rr* w w 






- 



c 



[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■* /-& c* ?/":* * 



M? bSbSfc! 



-, /r .s> 



/'<■/ 






4?' / •' //'•' 

- s/f/s f s>/t t y -r tft/t/tff 

t * r * 



May 15 , 1961 



I 



r 
r 






[ 

r 



» 



I 
E 



* 



Dear Mr, President : 

The gracious visit of Vice -President of the United States and Mrs. 
Johnson to Vietnam has brought to us an even wanner feeling of 
friendship for the American people and strengthened the bends of 
friendship which had existed between our two countries since thie 
birth of the Republic of Vietnam, The presence of your brother-in- 
law and your charming caster , Mr, and Mrs. Stephen Smith, brought 
to the Vietnamese people a warm feeling of your own personal 
interest in Vietnam, an interest which you may be sure vail be long 
remembered, 

Your thoughtful and understanding letter of May 8th, 19 61, which was 
handed to me by Vice-President Johnson , contains wise and far- 
sighted proposals , many of which I myself have advocated for four 
years or more, I was accordingly glad to tell Vice-President 
Johnson without hesitation that the Government of Vietnam accepts 
the proposals in your letter to initiate, in collaboration with the 
Government of the United States t the series cf joint, mutually 
supporting actions to win the stru^le against communism in 
Vietnam and further the advancement o: our country* Cur agreement 
to these proposals was made public in the joint communique which 
was released to the press on Saturday morning 13th f just before 
Vice-President Johnson's departure from Saigon* 

In the course of our frank and fruitful conversations, Vice-President 

* ■ 

Johnson graciously asked for my own suggestions as to the most 
urgent needs as we see them to save our country- from the vicious 
communist aggression being waged against us, both within our borders 
and from every side today. I was most deeply gratified by this gracious 
gesture by your distinguished Vice-President, particularly as we have 
not become accustomed to being asked for our own views as to our 
needs. The recent developments in Laos have emphasized our grave 
concern for the security of our country with its long and vulnerable 
frontiers. 



[ 



r 



(SECDEF 



HAS SEEN) 






b 



Declassified per Executive Order I w* * 
NND P roj „ Numter; NND 6 .°,t^^™ » 



■;w-> 




i 



Op K$P9hT\ 



With the very real possibility that we may find, ourselves faced with 
communist military forcer, pressing our borders not only from the 
north of the 17th parallel but from a possibly coilirhuaist dominated 
Laos and a communist or neutral Cambodia on the west as well, we 
have undertaken urgent plans to determine the needs to save our 
country. These studies will be completed in preliminary form in 
about a week. 



[ 









c 

( 



* * 









\7e now know that as a small nation we cannot hope to meet all of our 
defense needs alone and from cur own resources. We are prepared 
to make the sacrifices in blood and manpower to save our country 
and I know that we can count on the material support from your 
great country which will be so essential to achieving final victory. 

I was deeply gratified at Vice-President Johnson f s assurances that 
our needs will be given careful consideration in Washington, An 
estimate of these needs as we see them will accordingly be furnished 
to you in a second letter which I shall write in about a week. The 
"Government and peopled Vietnam have been greatly heartened by 
the encouraging visit of your distinguished Vice-President and the 
members of his official party * I now feel confident that in the mutual 
interest of our two countries tha- sacrifices the Vietnamese people 
are prepared to make will, find full support from the United States in 
our joint effort to save Vietnam and consequently Southeast Asia 
from being overwhelmed by communist aggression. 

■ 
Please accept, Mr, President, this expression of my deep respect 
and friendship. 

Sincerely, 



KrAjt KJ^ 



„• 







His Excellency 

JOHN F. KENNEDY 

President of the United States of America 












! 






■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



'■ ' 'Ohl IVY 1^ TO -*£ TY\n nrnrnT 







V SECY OF CEFEDKfiCE of the secretary of defense 



\V v^. V- 




c 






E 



t 



. * • 



[.-:■ 




V/ASMINGTON 2 l J. D. C. 



. . i 



May 18, 19 61 



# * 



[ . 
[ 

[ 

r ' 

Use: 



MEMORANDUM FOR DEPUTY SECRETARY G1DPATR1C 
From: Brig. Gen. Lansdale r ":"rl 

< • 

Subject: U.S. Combat Forces for Vietnam 



The following sums up the information made available to me 

r 

on the possible deployment of U.S. combat forces in Vietnam, 



On 10 May, the JCS recommended that President Diem be 

encouraged to request that the U.S. fulfill its SEATO obligation, ?X "* 

in view of the new threat imposed by the Laotian situation, by the '.* - % \ x 

immediate deployment of appropriate U.S. forces to South Vietnam. '■ ' *l 

Details of size and composition of suitable forces were awaiting ; ^\ | 

the views of C1NCPAC and CHMAAG. . i ' :\ 

1 i 

Oil 12 May, this subject v/as discussed" by President Diem and - * V 



i 



N 



Vice President Johr r g<yft in Saigon. Ambassador Nolting reported v 

this discussion, noting that President Diem would desire U.S. ^ 

(or SEATO) combat forces only in case of overt aggression. The 
introduction of foreign combat forces would contravene and signify 
the end of the Geneva accord. (General Williams, former MAAG 
Chief, agrees that this is in line with previous thinking by President 
Diem. ) 



Ambassador Nolting added that President Diem would welcome * 
as many U.S. military personnel as needed for training and advising 
Vietnamese forcqs. General McGarr, Chief of MAAG who was pre- \J 

'Sent at this ''discussion also, rep6rted that while President Diem 
would not want U.S. combat forces for the purpose of fighting Com- 
munists in South Vietnam, he would accept deployment of U.S. com- 
bat forces as trainers for the Vietnamese forces at any time. 



v 



•v? 



> 









r 



f "* — ' **f'" 




■ 


.-..-* 


1 -.** + -' ■ 


"- ^ 

* 


"" 






•* V "f 




* 


■■ — --— • ., - -t 






• 


xo I 




- 


*■- ** 


■ *' w 




» 


r 




a 




* 
• 






V 1 , *: ? . j 




This 




1 




1**1 






C':t; 


So - / ' of 







Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



L ' 



*vr 



-'-•, 






» - 









, 



L 

[ ., 
[.'■■■ 

[ 

r 

5^* 






Size and c omposition: 

There has been considerable study of the size and composition 
of U.S. combat forces for possible deployment to Vietnam. The 
latest I have seen were CINCPAC's tentative views, after refine- 
ment. A U% S, Army infantry division to the High Plateau region, 
reinforced with Army Aviation, Engineers, Artillery, etc. The 
Seventh Fleet would relieve the Vietnamese need for readiness to- 
re sist large scale invasion by sea. A minimum number of U. S. 
Navy patrol craft to help develop and train the Vietnamese Junk 
Forces, while initially supplementing the efforts. The air effort 
would be based near Saigon, with eight B57's (later relieved by 
F100 squadron) for border surveillance, four F102 r s for possible 
air defense, two or three TAG recce aircraft, and provisional 
C47 squadron. 

Location: 

Much of the thinking has been on stationing U.S. combat forces 
in the High Plateau, where they would be well located in relation 
to borders vulnerable to overt Communist aggression. However, 
General Williams has written a brief memo for me, recommending 
such U.S. forces be stationed on the coast, at Da Nang (Tourane), 
Nha Trang, and Phan Thiet, where sea, road, rail, and air facilities 
would permit further deployment as necessary in a contingency. 

* 
Any of the above locations would permit the relief of Vietnamese 

forces for training or operations against the Viet Cong. Also, any 

of the above locations have good areas for training of Vietnamese 

forces, if this were to be a mission of the U.S. forces. 

Recommendation s: 

* 
Since the deployment of U.S. combat forces in Vietnam is pre- 
dicated on- the request for them by the Government of Vietnam, 
since this request hasn't been made yet, and since President Diem 
is sending, Nguyen Dinli Thuan (Secretary of Security, Defense, Interior, 
etc. ) to Washington next week to bring us Vietnam's ,f definitive military 
needs, n it is recommended that you explore this subject with Secretary 
Thuan towards getting a precise definition of the use of U. S. forces in • 
Vietnam. With concrete information, you v/ill then have a firm position 
for further decisions. 



v 



^ .. 



tc: L-c/crcta.ry McNamara 
;;--„;-:■ :, General iemnitzer 



V 



s 



t m m » 



Assistant Secretary Nitze -- " ; ; ; " ^ f~tt ' -' ■ 



* 

"4 



« ; j? 






% r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



May 23 , 196l 



MEMORANDUM 






TO: The President 



FROM: The Vice President 



SUBJECT :Mission to Southeast Asia, India and Pakistan 






The mission undertaken May 9 ? 196l 5 at your request , was 
informative and illuminating far beyond my expectations. Unusual 
candor — as well as unusual length — marked exchanges in each 
country. Each leader "bisited sel corned and sought to take full ad* 
vantage of my presence as a means of transmitting to uou their 
strongly held personal views on many matters. 

The purpose of this memorandum is to convey such of my own 
impressions and evaluations as seem most pertinent to decisions 
now under your consideration. It would he unrealistic to assume 
that such limited visits afford a basis for detailed substantive policy 
judgments. It would be equally unrealistic not to recognize that the 
circumstances and timing of this mission elicited a depth and sub- 
stance of expression not normally present in exchanges through 
casual channels. My purpose is to offer perspective -- not, I wish 
to emphasize, to propose details of policy. 

The Impact of Laos 

There is no mistaking the deep - and long lasting — impact of 
recent developments in Laos. 

Country to country , the degree differs but Laos- has created 
doubt and concern about intentions of the United States throughout 
Southeast Asia. No amount of success at Geneva can, of itself, erase 
this. The independent Asians do not wish to have their own status 
resolved in like manner in Geneva. 



Leaders 



159 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



♦ 



SECHKT 



. Z - 



* 



[ 
[ 
[ 

[ 
[ 

C 



E 

i 

« 



j Leaders such as Diem, Chiang, Sarit and Ayub more or less' 

' accept that we are making ll thc best of a bad bargain" at Geneva. 

Their charity extends no farther. ; 

■ 
* 

» 
The Impact of the Mission 

m~ ■ i ii —»■—.. ■■' ' '■ ii ■■■ ■ —■ ! — .i ■ ■—— - i.i ■ ■ 

Beyond question, your judgment about the timing of our mission 
was correct. Each leader -- except Nehru -- publicly congratulated 
you on the "timing" of this mission. Chiang said -- and all others 
privately concurred — that the mission had the effect of "stabilizing 11 
the situation in the Southeast Asian nations. 



What happened, I believe, was this: the leaders visited want -* 
as long as they can — to remain as friends or allies of the United 
States. The public, or, more precisely, the political, reaction to 
Laos had drastically weakened the ability to maintain any strongly- 
pro-US orientation. Neutralism, in Thailand, collapse in Vietnam, 
anti-American election demagoguery in the Philippines were all - 
developing prior to our visit. The show of strength and sincerity «- 
partly because you had sent the Vice President and partly, to a 
greater extent than you may believe, because you had sent your 
sister -- gave the friendly leaders something to "hang their hats 
on" for a while longer, « 

■ 

Our mission arrested the decline of confidence in the United 
States, It did not -- in my judgment -- restore any confidence already 
lost. The leaders were as explicit, as courteous and cour-tly as men 
could be in making it clear that deeds must follow words -- soon. 



. * i 



forTrnvjnote,! . ■ . •.•':....-:,* 

\~ r --— .--^-- ** — r - j m . * . * 



• 




r * 


■ = ■ ■• :j *\ -/ 




*-■*■■.,'• 




■ -■ ■ ' -. - ' : 


- 


.'-,'..-.,. > w .;.,• 


* 


- - - -' '■ :v *:, r c - • ; 




"- '""..' E*-'-r*- 


1 


■••'. . * ' • i. r : 




■ '».*,!'- "■■ 


SECRE 


1 •■>.>; 


■■■■' ■'•■" 


— • 1 t , . 

* 




• • 

■ * 
* 



The purpose 



■- * 



- 






c 

r 

i 

r 



] 



i 

E 



t 



* 
■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 

m . . . . 

- 3 - 



The Purpose of Joint Communiques 

■ l l ■ ll ll ■ ■ — — ^ — — — ^^» | ■- ■■ ■ | |l ■, ■,■ ■ ■ ■- I ■ | i ll mm l i# -■■ ■ ■■T'.fc*** 

„ 

j Starting with President Diem at Saigon, it was my conclusion 

fha-f the interests of the United States would be served -- and protected -- 
by the issuan.ee of joint communiques. My purpose was this: to attach the 
signature and the name of each of the leaders to a joint public statement 
e. bodying their acceptance of an agreement with the details of your 
letters which I delivered in your behalf. Without such statements in writing, 
it was clear that the United States would be victimized later" by self- serving 
st tements that you ~- and the Administration -- bad offered "nothing" or 
"too little, ,T etc. 



As you recognized, the joint communiques followed item by item the 
statements in your letters. In most instances, where substantive pledges 
and policies were involved, the communiques were cleared through 
Washington before issuance. The extensive, important and almost 
unprecedented communique with Nehru largely reflects the high regard 
the Indian Government holds for Ambassador Galbraith. 

I should make these two points clear: assurances I gave were those, 
you sent me to convey, and no commitments were asked and none were 
given beyond those authorized in your letters. In some instances, for 
various reasons, I did not, express all the commitments or proposals 
authorized in the State position papers. 



, . .•• 



The Importance of Follow- Through 

I 

a 
■ 

I cannot stress too strongly the extreme importance of following up 
i this mission with other measures, other actions, and other efforts. At 
the moment — because of Laos -•- these nations are hypersensitive to 
the possibility of American hypocrisy toward Asia, Considering the 
Vienna talks with Khrushchev -- which, to the Asian mind, emphasize 
: Western rather than Asian concerns — and considering the negative line 

of varjous domestic -American editorials about this mission, I strongly 
j believe it is of first importance that this trip bear fruit immediately. 

y Personal Conclusions 



SECRET 



■ ■ — 






J.OJL 



r 






> 






Declassified per Executive Order 13326, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 



- 4 - 




Z? 









[ 

L 

[ 






Personal Conclusions from the Mission 



_ _■_ * ^* 



I look to Southeast Asia some basic convictions about the problems 
faced there. I have come away from the mission there -- and to India 
and Pakistan ~- with many of those convictions sharpened and deepened 
by what I saw and learned, I have also reached certain other conclusions 
which I believe may be of value as guidance for those responsible in 
formulating policies. 



«W 



rhese conclusions are as follows: 



1 



2. 



3. 



4 






The 'battle against'Communism-imisfc be'joiriedfin Southeast Asial3 
• /with strength and determination to achieve success there --or *j 
tthe United State s t . inevitably, must'surrender the Pacific "and take 
aid our dcicnsc's on our. own shorc^ Asian Communism is compromised 

and contained by the maintenance of free nations on the subcontinent. 

Without this inhibitory influence, the island outposts -- Philippines, 

Japan, Taiwan -- have no security and the vast Pacific becomes a 

Red Sea. " * 

» 

C r h e " s t r u g g 1 e i s" f af~l r oirTl 6 's \"in' S ou the a"s t" "A sia"an d"i" t*i s o y\ no_ Ji 
itffean's inevitable that it niust.be lost. In each country it is possible 
to build a sound structure capable of withstanding and turning the 
Communist surge. The will to resist -- while now the target^of 
subversive attack --is there. The key to what is done by Asians 
in defense of Southeast Asia>; freedom is confidence in the United 
States. 



rk . -. .- 3 - - 



fc 



;r>.creTs^nrj.,a Iter native to United States le'ader ^s hi p"in "Southeast" A ;sia-^ 
Leadership in individual countries --or the regional leadership and 
cooperation so appealing to Asians -- rests on the knowledge and faith 
in United States power, will and understanding. 

^ST; A* T O Ts~ n o r ri o w ~a7rf 
British.and French unwillingness to^support decisive action* Asian 
distrust of the" British and 'French is outspoken. Success at Geneva 
would prolong SEATO's role. Failure at Geneva would terminate 

- 

SEATO's meaningfulness, In the latter event, we must be ready with 
a new approach to collective security in the area. -^ 

r 

We s'hould 






SECRET 



7 * / 



i ■ 



« 
■ 



* 

V 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



• • 



■ 

r 

c 

c 



, i 









[ 



['■•.- 

I ; 

*■ 



* i 



[ 

[ - 




SECRET 



- 5 - 



V£3. .? h py Id c o n s i SeiFaBralH ance'of a~l 1" th" <T~f re & "nS ; t i "dns"o£ thtflZZ 
P^qila^anff T£s i a. y/h o.are. wi Hi n g .to j oi n for c'cs " InTdefe nsV ~o f . Jt5i ei25* 
freedom* Such an organization should: 



a) have^a^crcar-cut^.coii-irnand authority 



.,-J^ i_^- -■"'■"' ' " -— " 

b) also devoteattcntipyfCtoTmeasures-and programs-of-^j 
Is o cial- jus Lice!- housing; -land rcf or rn,"e$c. 



5. 



AsaarL leaders'^ --at .this time — do not" wan tf""A me ri can troops 'j 
iiivoly ed Tn "Southea s t A sia other" than' on "training ~m. s si on s . > American 
combat troop involvement is not only not required, it is not desirable. 
Possibly Americans -- fail to appreciate fully the subtlety that 
recently-colonial peoples would not look with favor upon governments 
which invited or accepted the return this soon of Western troops. To 
the extent that fear of ground troop involvement dominates our political 
responses to Asia in Congress or elsewhere, it seems most desirable 
to me to allay those paralyzing fears in confidence, on the strength of 
the individual statements made by leaders consulted on this trip, ^Thi^jf 
^cTcsTno t jmiYumiz p ■ ~o r ~di s'r c"ga~r dTthejpi? obability ■ tha t "open "aTt a c k~ would j 
fbKhg""calls"*for'U.' S. 'combat troops, i But the present probability of ■ 
open attack seems scant, and we might gain much needed flexibility 
in our policies if the spectre of combat troop commitment could be 
lessened domestically, " - 



t 



* 



6. 



A~ny~He"Ip --^ccon omic as well as military ^-3VS^ivCT1^7?^^^^§2 
natiojis3ol.sec_ure and maintain their ^freedom^m_ust_be'a""part of 'a"7j 
jTmuSial 'effort A These nations cannot be saved by United States help 
alone. To the extent the Southeast Asian nations are prepared to 
take the necessary measures to make our aid effective, we can be -- 
and must be -- unstinting in our assistance. It would be useful to 
enunciate more clearly than we have — for the guidance of these 
young and unsophisticated nations -- wha.t we expect or require of 






em* 



7. 



In large measure, tTie ereatest'TlaTigeVIS'outheast-A.cia- offers to 
nations like the United States is not the momentary threat of 
Communism itself, rather that dari£er~s'tcrrfs~irorii Hunger, igno'fance^ 
^6V.e'i 1 Ly'and"dis'Ccrs'eTl3^ r ^ must «•- whatever strategies we evolve -- 
keep these enemies the point of our attack, and make imaginative 
use of our scientific and technological capability in such enterprises. 






SECRET 



Vietnam 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



[ 

( 
E 



L 



m 






X 

i 



SECRET 



- 6 - 



8. Vietnam and Thailand are the immediate- and most important - 
tr* able .spots, critical - to the U.S. These areas require* the" attention 
of our very best talents -- under the very closest Washington direction 
on matters economic, military and political. 



^ 



^■*— *— 






T 1 cT"ba sic~d c c i s ion'in ~ So uth c a s t~ A'sTa i s /he r erT We"musTT dec i d c" 
*Clv;*^her to help these countries to the best of our ability "or throw~iii'~~3 
"vJTcT.towel in- the area and pull back our defenses to San Francisco andj?j 
S.- ■■ Tor'-.-css Amcrica ,r conceoL*\ More important, we would say to the 
^•/orld ,n this case that v/e don't live up to treaties and don't standby 

jut friends. This is not my concept* 1 recommend that -we move 
forward promptly with a major effort to help these countries defend 

hemsclves. I consider the key here is to get our best MAAG people 

o control, plan, direct and exact results from our military aid program. 

n Vietnam and Thailand, we must move forward together. 



' a. In Vietnam, Diem is a complex figure beset by many problems, 
e has admirable qualities, but he is remote from the people, is sur- 
rounded by persons, less admirable and capable than he. The country can 

e saved --if we move quickly and wisely. We must decide whether to 
[support Diem --or let Vietnam fall. We must have coordination of 
purpose in our country team, diplomatic and military. The Saigon 
Embassy, USIS, MAAG and related operations leave much to be desired. 
They should be brought up to maximum efficiency. The most important 
thing is imaginative, creative, American management of our military 
aid program. The Vietnamese and our MAAG estimate that $50 million 
of U. S. military and economic assistance will be needed if we decide to 
support Vietnam. This is the best information available to us at the 
present time and if it is confirmed by the best Washington military . 
judgment it should be supported. Since you proposed and Diem agreed 
to a joint economic mission, it should be appointed and proceed forthwith, % 



i 







v. 



* 



b. In Thailand, the Thais and our own MAAG estimate probably 
&£ much is needed as in Vietnam — about $50 million of military and ■ 
- economic assistance. Again, should our best military judgment concur, 
I believe we should support such a program. Sarit is more strongly and 
staunchly pro-Western than many of his people. He is and must be deeply 
concerned at the consequence to his country of a communist-controlled 
£ Laos. If Sarit is to stand firm against neutralism, he must have -- soon -- 
concrete evidence to show his people of United States military and economic 
support. He believes that his armed forces should "be increased to 150,000. 
His Defense Minister is coming to Washington to discuss aid matters. 



I 



I 



> 



N 



SECRET 



7H }y /* 

.Lb 4 



\ 



t \ 



9.- The 

\ 

* * 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16, By: NWD Date: 201 1 






[ 



r - 



C 

L 



SECRET 



- 7 



r 



9. The Republic of • China on Taiwan was a pleasant surprise to 
ms. . I had been long aware of the criticisms against Chiang Kai-shek 
and his governmen£\and cognizant of the deep emotional American 
feelings in some quarters against him. I know these feelings influence 
our US policy, 

r hatever the causeAa progressive attitude is emerging there* 
Our conversations with Chiang and Mme. Chiang were dominated by * 

discussions of measures of social progress, to my unexpected but 
grati ied surprise. As with the Republic of Germany in Western 

Europe, so I believe we might profitably and wisely encourage the t . ♦ 

Republic of China in. Asia to export talents, skills, and resources to • 



other Asian lands to assist in programs of progress* 

\ 

* 10, I was assured that there were no problems for the U.S. in 

| the Philippines. There is a greatvreservoir of good feeling toward « 

America among Filipinos, with many of the usual Latin qualifications. 
• But a widespread belief that corruption exists is sapping the effective- 
ness of the government. Remoteness^of the leadership from the people 
seems a problem. 

11, India could well be the subject of an entire report. Nehru, 
dur ing'our visit, was clearly M neut,ral H imfavor of the West, This 

* Administration is highly regarded and welfr received in India. Only 
part of this flows out of hope or expectation of aid. Mainly, there is an 
intellectual affinity, or^an affinity of spirit. \J\ : his J cin v my-judgment,' - 
^.oYiVd'VtT" exploited not with the. hope of drawing India into our sphere-- "^"\ 

/vvV;v_h might be as^unne'ees'sary as it would be improbable - —' but,-"chiefly '\ 

\\vT:*h;the hope'of cementirigunder NehrlFlmTn'dia-U. S. .friendship . which _-i 

r\vc-cVd T ensure beyond any. transition "of Dower irTlndia* 



V 



\ 



i .a I * 



12. President Ayub in Pakistan is the singularly most impressive 
and, in his way, responsible head of state encountered on the trip. He 
is seasoned as a'.leader where. others are mot; confident, straightforward 
and I would judge, dependable. He is frank about his t belief, offensive as 
it is tq us, that the for ins of representative government would only open" 
his country to "Communist take-over at this time. Nonetheless, Ayub 
understands -- and is in agreement with — the aims of 'eradicating 
poverty, ignorance and disease. We can have great influence and — 
because of his administrative organization -- achieve dramatic success 
by supporting Pakistan's needs. Our military should sec how to improve 
the effectiveness and achieve modernization of Pakistan's army. Ayub 
is wisely aware of Pakistan 1 s strategic position, wants to ma^e his 
forces more modern, and wants to resolve the Kashmir dispute to 

SECRET , release 



■t 

■ 









r 



£ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Release Indian and Pakistani troops to deter the Chinese rather than 
each other. He spells out the fact that U.S. leadership rests on our 
own self-confidence and confidence we permit Asians to have in us. 

To recapitulate ? these are the main impressions I have brought 
back from my trip. 

The fundamental decision required of the United States -- and time 
of the greatest importance -- is whether we are to attempt to meet 
the challenge of Communist expansion now in Southeast Asia by a major 
effort in support of the forces of freedom in the area or throw in the 
towel. This decision must be made In a full realization of the very heavy 
and continuing costs involved in terms of money, of effort and of United 
States prestige. It must be made with the knowledge that at some point 
we may be faced with the further decision of whether we commit major * 
United States forces to the area or cut our losses and withdraw should 
our other efforts fail. We must remain master in this decision. What 
we do in Southeast Asia should be part of a rational program to meet the 
threat we face in the region as a whole. It should include a clear-cut 
pattern of specific contributions to be expected by each partner according 
to his ability and resources. I recommend we proceed with a clear-cut 
and strong program of action. 

I believe that the mission « as you conceived it -- was a success. 
I am grateful to the many who labored to make it so. 



Lyndon B. Johnson 



166 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






- 



*- 

♦■*• 



•m • 



iyr aausis." 



! 
[ 

t 

r 

[ 
i 



a^s'A )«,// ( .rvy-sAWsr Saig«m , the 9th of Juiac ,1961 






f- 









s document consists of £~~ -**«**; 

•H nf /.Xcooies, Series !/■* 



1 



l>sar My, Pfcosfdegf : This document consists^ - ^ ^— — "*£»°%7 ' vr 

Number 



**<*: ^ % 



f 



Jr. reference to my letter dated 15 May 1961 and in reply to the, 
invitation ta^t was mads io mc in ycur name by Vice President 
John acta* I h&ve t)*e honor to send you a study on our needs to meet ' \ 

the new situation . C 

ro 
As I expressed verbally to your eminent reprcoentative, it pertains XiL 

to a situation which has become very much more perilous following \ ! 

the events 5.ji Laos, the more and more equivocal attitude of \ 

Cambodia and the intensification of the activities of agjgreeaioa of - [ 

international communism which wants to take the maximum advantage { 

erx to accelerate the conquest of Southeast Asia. It is apparent that one f 

t of the nvijor obstacles to the communist expansion on t}ii 3 area of *f 

the globe i f s Free Vietnam because with your firm support, we arc \ 

V\ . resolved to oppose it with all our energies •Consequently! now and 

\^j .henceforth, we constitute the first target for the communists to 

overthrow at any cost* The enornous accumulation cf Russian war 

C'- material in North Vietnam is aimed, in the judgement of foreign' 
observers, more at South Victo-arn than at X*aos a V/c clearly realize 
this dangerous situation but I want to reiterate to you here, in rny 
[" personal name and in the name of the entire Vietnamese people, our 

*~ ' indomitable will to win s * - . p 



j * * On the second of Hay, my council of generals met to evaluate the 

current situation and to determine the needs of the Republic of 

C Vietnam to meet this situation. Their, objective evaluation shows 

that the military situation at present is to the advantage cf the 
. : ; . corrirjnu^URts and that moit.of the Vietnamese Armed Forces are 
r already committed to internal security and the protection of oar 

j • 12 million inhabitants. For many months the corruruLnist-m^pired , 

fratricidal war has takon nearly one thousand casualties a month en 
r both sides. Documents obtained in a recent operation , along' route 

[^ No, 9 which runs from Laos to Vietnam j contain definite proof that 

2,860 armed agents have infiltrated amcn£ U6 in tb<3 course of the 
last four months. It -is certain that this number rises each &zy . 
-■-.->; . v-^?*^ th'/Uctname^e people arc showing the world th<ii they 4> -- \ V 

1 "■ * 




j 



> " 









1 B. " * — J. — 



ri - %-'.'.' l'>r~ r 



* -" •" """« •* » "* _r. r * ,-- t-^ * 



.. '» - -. ■ ' —- Z— - "! .V-^- — ~ ~1 V 



»F/Ma ^:s t> ' ..TLs/ V ^^ 



> Is f ,-, / / , j 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



are willing to fight and die for their freedom, not withstanding the 
temptations to neutralism and its false promises of peace being 
drummed into their ears daily by the communists. 

In the light of this situation, the council of generals concluded. that 
additional forces numbering slightly over 100,000 more than our 
new' force level of 170,000 will be required to counter the ominous 
threat of communist domination. The 100,000 reservists to be called 
up according to the plan of my council of generals were to meet the 
requirement for an augmentation of the Vietnamese Army by nine 
infantry divisions plus modest naval and air force increases. First 
priority called for one division to reinforce each of the three Army 
Corps in Vietnam plus a two divisional general reserve for a total 
of five divisions. In second priority, an additional division for each 
of the three Army Corps plus one in general reserve brought the 
total to nine new divisions. With the seven existing ai visions, 
fragmented in anti -guerilla operations, the Army of Vietnam would 
thus have a strength of 16 divisions of slightly less than 10,000 men 
each plus appropriate combat and logistic support units. 

We have now had an opportunity to review this initial force requirement 
with General McGarr and the MAAG staff who have recommended 
certain modifications which are basically in consonance with our 

plan and with which we agree. 

After considering the recommendations of our generals and consulting 
with our American military advisors, we now conclude that to 
provide even minimum initial resistance to the threat, two new 
divisions of approximately 10,000 strength each are required to be 
activated at the earliest possible date. Our lightly held defensive 
positions along the demilitarized zone at our Northern border is 
even today being outflanked by communist forces which have defeated 
the Royal Laotian Army garrisons in Tchepone and other cities in 
Southern Laos. Our ARVN forces are so throughly committed to 
internal anti-guerilla operations that we have no effective forces 
with which to counter this threat from Southern Laos. Thus, we need 
immediately one division for the First Army Corps and one for the 
Second Army Corps to provide at least some token resistance to the 
sizeable forces the communists are capable of bringing to bear 
against our Laotian frontier. Failing this, we would have no recourse 
but to withdraw our forces southward from the demilitarized zone 
and sacrifice progressively greater areas of our country to the 
communists. These divisions should be mobilized and equipped, 
together with initial logistic support units immediately after 



168 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 









completion of activation of the presently contemplated increase of 
20,000 which you have offered to support, 

• 
Following the activation of these units, which should "begin in about 
five months, we must carry on the program of activation of additional 
units until over a period of two years we will have achieved a force 
of Ik infantry divisions, an expanded airborne "brigade of approximately 
division strength and accompanying supporting elements of logistical, 
naval and air units. In other words, our present needs as worked out 
with General McGarr's advice and assistance call for a total force 
of 15 divisional equivalents plus combat and logistic support units 
instead of our original plan for a 16 division force. The strategic 
concept and mission of this total 270,000 man force remains the 
sajTie, najnely, to overcome the insurgency which has risen to the 
scale of a bloody, communist-inspired civil war within our borders 
and to provide initial resistance to overt, external aggression until 
free world forces under the SEAT0 agreement can come to our aid. 
The question naturally arises as to how long we shall have to carry 
the burden of so sizeable a military force. Unfortunately, I can see 
no early prospects for the reduction of such a force once it has 
been established, for even though we may be successful in liquidating 
the insurgency within our borders, communist pressure in Southeast 
Asia and the external military threat to our country must be expected 
to increase, I fear, before it diminishes. This means that we must 
be prepared to maintain a strong defensive military posture for at 
least the foreseeable future in order that we may not become one 
of the so-called "soft spots" which traditionally have attracted 
communist aggression. We shall therefore continue to need material 
support to maintain this force whose requirements far exceed the 
capacity of our economy to support. 

To accomplish this 100,000 man expansion of our military forces 
which is perfectly feasible from a manpower viewpoint will require 
a great intensification of our training programs in order to produce, 
in the minimum of time, those qualified combat leaders and 
technical specialists needed to fill the new units and to provide to 
them the technical and logistic support required to insure their 
complete effectiveness. For this purpose a considerable expansion 
of the United States Military Advisory Group is an essential 
requirement. Such an expansion, in the form of selected elements 
of the American Armed Forces to establish training centers for 
the Vietnamese Armed Forces, would serve the dual purpose of 
providing an expression of the United States 1 determination to halt 
the tide of communist aggression and of preparing our forces in the 



169 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



minimum of time. 

While the Government and people of Vietnam are prepared to carry 
the heavy manpower burden required to save our country, we must 
know that we cannot affort to pay, equip, train and maintain such 
forces as I have described. To make this effort possible, we would 
need to have assurances that this needed material support would be 
provided. I have drawn on our past experience of United States 
support we have received to make some extremely rough estimates 
of the costs of these proposals. 

The costs of providing essential initial equipment to the added forces 
under the Military Assistance Program would probably be in the 
neighborhood of $175*000,000 with deliveries to be distributed over 
the next two and one-half years as units can be activated. If the 
United States assumes the task of providing this initial equipment 
for the additional forces, I understand that the annual Military 
Assistance Program for force maintenance will increase by about 
$20 million above the level of MAP support for the presently 
authorized 170,000 force. 

The Vietnamese Military Budget, which includes piaster requirements, 

must also be supplemented. As you know, Vietnam contributes to 

this budget to its fullest .capability now with respect to existing forces. 

Despite our best efforts, your Government has largely supported 

this budget through Defense Support Assistance. Although we have made • 

significant progress in developing our economy in the last four years. 

the support of even the inadequate armed forces we have has far 

exceeded the modest capabilities of the economy of our small 

country. In order to carry out the expansion of forces, the piaster 

military budget now averaging nearly 7-0 billion piasters a year 

will have to be supplemented. As I see it, the annual maintenance 

cost will increase gradually during the force implementation and 

will ultimately level off at approximately 10.60 billion piasters. 

This program, I realize, will be expensive in money, equipment 

and personnel. The benefits to be gained, however, in preventing 

the subjugation of our free people and in establishing a solid obstacle 

to the advance of communism, I know you will agree, "far outweigh 

the cost. With your support, we stnad determined to survive in 

independence and freedom. 

It goes ^without saying that in the face of the extremely serious 
situation created by the communist aggressor, we must temporarily 



170 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526 Winn - - 
NND P r „ M Nllmber: NND 6 , 316 ™JJg| " , 



[ 
[ 



; 









r 



[ 







- - 1 



vt. 



tf 1 S*. 



„ <; 



•a 






., .. „. j 



accord priority to the military problems, However, my Government 
^ doa* net attach less importance to economic, political and social 
problems / At this point the doctrinal position which pertains to 
South VtetiAsn is clear ?.nr clean. It was expressed in a free and 
sincere m«nn«r in my message to the Ai^er.icaa Congress j n April 
1957. It has not varied since. Neither did it vary durin^'thc recent 
preeldatJtia! campaign when I was elected by a very large majority. 

Presently, it is necessary not to be maneuvered by the communists , 
who exploit our tendency to consider military efforts as reactionary 
and fruitlefts, to divert our effective action, which is necessitated 

by the raortAl communist attacks, toward a long range project of 
economic and social improvement, and which, of course, supposes 
that we ai*c still alive, Y/e sec for the army £n econom'c and social 
'UTiiiiion along with military role, a conception which rationally 
responds to the double challenge which the newly independent 
countries of Africa and Asia have had to face : underdevelopment 
and communist subversive war.* It is aloilg this line that, since my 
taking office in July l?5i, I have undertaken to create an economic 
infrastructure throughout the country, including the least inhabited 
regions ; to develop the lines of communication with the double 
purpose of facilitating intercourse and facilitating the mobility of 
our troops ; to increase and diversify the agricultural production ; 
to give each family a tract of land which will belong to them ; to 
create each day more employment by industrializing the country ; in 
brief to open new horizons to the rural masses, the determining 
factor in the struggle against communism. It is sufficient to consider 
the product of our exportation these last two years, the reduction 
of our importation program, to count the factory chimneys which 
-make their appearance to realize the progress already made # On 
the other hand, in spite of its lack of resources, the Government 
increases the social investments to respond to the diversified needs 
of a population which increases at the rate of 3°/o per year : hospitals 
in the towns, dispensaries in the villages, primary schools in each 
commune, secondary schools in each city of whatever importance # 
Education is developing at the annual rate of ZOo/o while in the 
doma.in'of' publi c health, we haye a hospital bed available for each 
thousand inhabitants. We want to progress more rapidly but," in 
addition to the budgetary Limitations which constitute a primary 
obstacle, the lack of trained personnel has made itself felt deaoite 
our accelerated training programs , The agrovilles, which I have 
built in the last year, are another proof of the Government's efforts : 
These are agricultural communities located between two urban 
centers to give the rural population the benefits of the commodities 
of modern life and to correct the extreme dispersion of the 



^*!-~ .. 



»-■#-*. 



-_-,». *.^ , r i.^. T . ,.„■_.,. 



*'-~-~ 



I. 



'tf'" 






■ — * 



ii'iLw 



> 



4 ' 



* 
»»•%.. 



..:-"•! \ 






- 



. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



population. All foreign observers who travel in the country are 
struck by the standard of living enjoyed by the mass of peasants: 
sewing machine, bicycle, transistor radio for each family in more 
or less comfortable circumstances , theater, movies in the most 
backward areas , motor boats on the inumerable canals, tricycle 
busses on all passable roads. And it is precisely in order not 
to interrupt this development program that we ask for supplementary 
aid to finance our war effort j otherwise we will be forced to make 
the tragic decision to abruptly cease all our social and economic 
programs . 

i 

Concerning Cambodia, our diplomatic efforts would have results 
only if we recognize our adversary. 

The idea of Cambodia being afraid of Vietnam is a myth. For 7 
years, Sihanouk has not missed one chance to provoke South Vietnam, 
of which he has militarily occupied six islands. Having no reason 
to fear a Vietnam, divided and weakened by the subversive communist 
war, Sihanouk has nothing to fear at all. However, this idea would 
be pleasing to those who would seek to arbitrate between Cambodia 
and South Vietnam. It would also be pleasing to certain Vietnamese 
because this idea is flattering to their vanity and to their infantilism 
which consists of minimizing the difficulties and proposing any 
solutions. It would also be pleasing to Sihanouk vho has a need to 
give substance to another myth that of encirclement which he 
needs to excuse his internal failures in order to justify his presence * 
in power, to accuse the Americans and to court the communists. 
In reality, Sihanouk is committed intellectually and morally to 
communism, which he considers the stronger party and the 
inevitable victor in the future. In spite of the aid which he receives 
from America, has Sihanouk ever aided the US in the battle with 
the communists? He always takes positions favorable to the 
communists against the USA. His conduct in the Laotian affair is 
clear. Not only does he serve the communists, but he is proud to 
serve a stronger master. On the other hand, Cambodia, like Laos, 
is unable to ensure the security of her territory from the communist 
guerillas because he will not or does not wish to make the appropriate 
efforts. It is for this reason that he takes refuge in communist 
servitude under the guise of a neutralist. It is also for that reason 
that he has always refused to accept any arrangement for the 
effective control of the Cambodian- Vietnamese border under the 
fallacious pretext of neutrality. 



From the political point of view, the reforms that I have anticipated, 



172 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






r 



[ 

! 

[ 



. 






thxii fro to say the elective system tfstablinhcd at the village: level, 
fha crcafitoa cS tho provincial councils f the institution of a High 
32co*no;:nIc Council,, of a National ?.nd Social CcuhcU - all these 
msajfmrea.arcj ten&ihg to assure more ;~n£ mors active participation- 
by the population in public affairs, in the dramatic situation of an 
underdeveloped country, divided and mortally menaced by cemmumsm. 



*• a regime 



Sn i is the direction of my efforts and such in our regime 
op?n to progress and not a closed system* I am convinced that 
v/Ath your support and go generously aided by your great, friendly 
x.i£l'rci, I Trill manage to reestablish lav/ and order in o-ir provinces, 
in cur villages, to accelerata progress in all ether areas for the 
edification of a society of free men, happy and prosperous* Vietnam 
thus constitutes a pole of attraction for the countries of Southeast 
Asia j for those who fight communism a: v/all as for those v/ho still 
doubt the future of the free world . 

I wish to assure you, Mr, President, of the sincerity of my 
sentiments and most cordial wishes , 

■ 




-W>A^ 




hjK^JULM^ 






.' T- 



^.KI^Excsllency JOHN Fr KENNEDY 



* '4 



■TV -.-*.* -,-t., .„ 






Uniicu ocac;-^ or ^TTCTrca- — 



^- »-,♦ 






W* shins* ton i>.C* 






* -* t - 



• 



t "Si . y vii -* , ad 

- i! 2 ii »* .- ^¥-*V 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






[ 

[ 

[ 

E 



a 



* 



I 



C 



"f%i m 



i 29 



16 53 






. °/ : 



L 






OFF SECY CF DEFENSE 



THE WHITE HOUSE 7? 

WASHINGTON 




SECRET 



— 7 

June 28, 1961 >j$^> 



^r., Cilpxtrl* p 



NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 56 



TO: 



SUBJECT: 



The Secretary of Defense 

Evaluation of Paramilitary Requirements 



The President has approved the following paragraph: 

"It is important that we anticipate now our possible future 
requirements in the field of unconventional warfare and 
paramilitary operations. A first step would be to inventory 
the paramilitary assets we have in the United States Armed 
Forces, consider various areas in the world where the 
implementation of our policy may require indigenous para- 
military forces, and thus arrive at a determination of the 
goals which we should set in this field* Having determined 
the assets and the possible requirements, it would then be- 
come a matter of developing a plan to meet the deficit*- 1 / 

The President requests that the Secretary of Defense, in coordina- 
tion with the Department of State and the CIA, .make such an 
estimate of requirements and recommend ways and means to meet 
these requirements. 



\\ 



* 



\ 




V) r V 

4r 



4 






• ; 



[ 



j » 



[ 

L 



r 






cc: Secretary of State 
Director, CIA 
General Maxwell D. Taylor 



■/— *— 






( 



McGeorge Bundy 



SECRET 



$r/ c^h**'*§ 



Lu 



t^\ 



A / f -•* 



!■> 










\3 

.1 

■ ■ 

t 



i 



£' W-> : 7 



_ / V'/ 



< .* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






[ 

[ 
[ 
[ 
t 

[ 

1 
[ 

I 

[ 

[ 

4 • 

[ 
[ 
[ 

r 

L 



^K^^^M OFFICE of the: secretary of defense 

c ^ - : Vi Y / Orr SwC x or Lju^l Washington zs. d.c 



/:'. /■ f 










£. 



'» 



y^« 






.- - » '> 



.v** 



12 July 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR DEPUTY SECRETARY GILPATRIC 



From: 



l 



Brig Gen Lansdale*S>V^ 



Subject: .Comments by Vietnamese Officials 



The following information has been received from Colonel Ed 
Black: 



I 



/ 



■ 



Following is memo of my conversation with Vice President 
Tho on 10 July prepared for the Ambassador at his request. Mr. Tho 
invited me to his office as a result of a note of introduction from 
General Lansdale. 

Taking advantage of the opportunity I reviewed briefly the 
presentation which Staley-Thuc were preparing to make to President. 
Diem stressing the "breakthrough concept, rr the need to mobilise 
Vietnam's full effort to meet the current crisis, and the principle of 
a complete joint approach on the part of both VN and US Governments 
to the emergency. Mr. Tho appeared to be already briefed on this ; 
subject. He freely "conceded that it was impossible for the US to '. 
provide Vietnam with piasters. Fie acknowledged that the main source 
of piaster revenues was for the GVN to provide for- a higher piaster 
return per dollar of US economic aid imports. The problem which 
troubled the GVN was their fear that such an increase in piaster 
return per dollar of US economic aid would cause a rise in prices 
and thus, in turn, would create an irresistible demand for broad- 
based wage increases. Thus the GVN might find itself involved in a 
wage -price spiral which it would be unable to control. He conceded, 
however, that 1 the' basic problem was -more political than economic- 



* * ' Turning to more general subjects, Tho pressed me for my 
opinion of the current situation in VN. I replied that based on my 
observations made during my last visit in 1956, the country had achieved 
tremendous progress. Tho agreed, but still left me with the; impression 
t that he held a more pessimistic view of the situation. r 

V 



- i 

■\ ■ 



\ 










r a« 



X i 



ft ^Vt! I p»j r-v iM* ft « mjj ? * «* 



SfeOeg Cor.t. Eo-<"|)-7/ b<l 






fc^tiJU^t*-* 



i y*** 



i j*i 



4 -> f\ ."Si ,~ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 J 6, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



CONFIDENTIAL 






I 



' |Tho then said he wished to speak frankly concerning" the under- 
lying corxern throughout VN, at all levels, that if the GVN were invaded 
by communist forces, the US might not repeat not respond. In this 
regard, he cited the developments in Laos, which he said were uppermost 



in the minds of people throughout SE Asia, and which had added fuel to 
these fears. He noted that if the communists did attack it would probably 
be in conjunction with a well-planned, general Viet Cong uprising 
throughout South Vietnam. He indicated there were two ways in which 
the US might provide tangible reassurances, but that both of those 
presented political obstacles. The first was the stationing of token US 
combat units in the country. This was impracticable at this time as 
it left the GVN open to the highly-exploitable communist charge that the 
government was merely substituting the US for France as a colonial, 
occupying power. The second was a mutual defense treaty with the US. 
This also appeared to be impractical since it would constitute an open 
repudiation of the Geneva Agreements of 1954, \ 

* 

Concerning the internal security situation, Tho stressed the 
importance of providing the self defense forces with modern weapons. 
Today 30 percent of their weapons and ammunition are unusable. He 
pled for early distribution of up-to-date individual weapons to the self 
defense forces as one of the most effective means of getting on top of 
the Viet Cong terrorist campaign. He strongly recommended that the 
weapon needed by these forces was the light weight carbine, not the I 
larger, heavy M~l. ■ - I 




to 










Referring to the emergency program, recommended in the 
Staley-Thuc economic report, I asked Tho if he thought the GVN had 
the administrative and managerial resources to complete 100 new l 
ngrovilles- in 18 mpnths. He said he believed it could be done provi ed 
it were handled in a manner which did not antagonize the pejo-ole. I , 
told him the cost estimates in the report included funds to pay the 
villagers reasonable wages for their labor in constructing the new 
agrovilies. .Tho -was greatly relieved to hear this and indicated tha. 
this being the case he was reasonably confident the agroville program' 
could be completed on schedule. » 



New subject. President briefed on joint economic program of 
action from 4:30 to 8:00 PM 11 July. Staley-Thuc made joint presentation. 



1 ! C 



pA?,H;|y\^jTf|\r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



• * * i - I I « I ? I I- 7 






1 



r 



Problem of more realistic realization of piasters from US commercial 
aid was outlined in detail. President and senior .members GVN who 
were present now have full picture of this key element of economic 
equation. President allowed Thuan to state current GVN position. For 

1 their part in 18 month crash program, GVN will institute tax reforms, 
float victory bond issue, take measures to insure realization of 60 
piasters per dollar US commercial aid, and borrow from Central Bank 
up to legal limit * These measures v/ill provide about half estimated 6* 5 

■ billion piasters needed to finance crash program of action) recommended 
in Staley-Thuc report. They hope that in addition to increased MAP of 
42 million US for its part v/ill provide commercial imports 0^169 million 
in FY62 and 190 million in FY63, exclusive of PL 480. Will -report 
further in subsequent message. 






t 






i 

i 



r 






cc: 



Secretary McNamara 

Admiral Heinz /Colonel Kent, ISA 

Colonel Levy, JCS 






■ . 



t . ■ . 



■ ■-. 






I 






3 -; 7 7 



f *- I * ' \ I I * J 111 i J ft ' 



i 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



. - • 



* 



[ 
[ 

C 




1961 JUL 26 16 34 



OFF SECY OF DE^§§ TANT secretary of defense 

WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 



SECRET 



vR2 8 j?Sl 



INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS 



[ 



[ 

[ 

[ 

c 

■ 

[ 



I 



1-15565/61 



MEMORANDUM FOR MR. GTJLPATRIC 

SUBJECT: Joint Action Program Proposed by the Vietnam - 

United States Special Financial Groups 



1. In the report, subject as above, submitted by Dr. Eugene . . 
Staley, Chairman of the U.S. Special Financial Group, to Presidents 
Ngo Dinh Diem and John F. Kennedy, the fiscal and economic impli- 
cations of increasing the Vietnamese Armed Forces to 200, 000 have 
been described* A rough, order-of-magnitude estimate of the dollar 
costs of this force level was made by the Special Financial Group, 
The report indicates that approximately $42,000,000 in addition to 
requirements already planned would be required for the military 
portions (including the increase to 200,000 force level) of the overall 
program of joint action proposed during the 18-month period 1 July 6l 
31 December 62. (/e.^ty f*+. l^&tjw ^ fVht) 



.2. V/ith favorable action by the Congress on the FY-62 MAP 
submission, and necessary decisions to adjust priorities of other 
requirements, funds can be made available to meet these additional 

■ - * 

requirements. 

■ 
■ . ■ • 

■* William V. Bunay 

Acting Assistant Secretary 



/Ls f'f '?' 



V 



\ > 






£1 



& 






* ■ 



^ 



:> 

Hi 

<■ 

•v 



i/aT 



^ 



■ -^/yi tuSKj-* . ^ 4*^1 



L 



At 






/5s 






X 
^ 









A/ill &^ tot 






&IS~ 



:Kc</ " 



&T1+-4C 



JK. . 






^ 1# • ! 



7k 



m*JL *L 









i^li5L^LQ"-L .-.■'. 



■ 



riff £7* f 



■m 



x f o 



j* r —- ■ 






•^».1»^ '. *# 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 




oom^miM 



i 



OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 

WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 



£' 



25 July 1961 






MSMORAIIKJM FOR MR . GILPATRIC 



SUBJECT: The Steley Report . 



Attached is the Joint Action Program Proposed by the Vietnara-U.S. 
Special Financial Groups" which has been submitted to both President 
Kennedy end President Diem, The latter read, the report very carefully 
before ve left Saigon end ve understand has approved it insofar as his 
country is concerned* I recorsnend you reodj as a rainim^ the covering 
letter ^ paragraph 6 and sections III and IV (these are marked with paper- 
clips)- . 

In Vietnam^ as in nany other areas of the vorld where the fight with 
the Communists is joined; the difference between success. or failure vill 
be determined not so much by the amount of the money ve spends but by 
the speed with vhich t r e r.ct. The critical factor is time . " ' 

The amount of additional U.S. funds recommended by the Staley group 
over end. above the current level of U.S. effort in Vietnam comes to the 
modest sun of $85-5 ntillion^ for the next eighteen Months^ of vhich §1*2 
Billion is MAP. 



You vill note that virile the U.S* is making this contribution, the 
Vietnamese vill also "be contributing $6-5 billion piasters (approximately 
$103 million at 60 piasters per/ dollar) •• - In other wbrdsj the attached 
program is tru^ly, as its title indicates,, a joint action program by, 
both the Vietnamese and the U.S. Government! 



s , 






Prom the standpoint of maintaining impetus behind the current counter- 
insurgency progran vxfchin Vietnam, and to insure that the U«S. Government 
takes prompt action on the Staley report, it* is retforanended that yo : 

- 

a. Invite Dr. Staley to brief the JCS on his report at your next 

meeting with the JCS. Mr. Nitze should be invited to atter»dj 

♦■•,.. * 

.-.-•■,-.. ■ . • . ♦ - 

b. Approve the report in- principle and so notify the Secretary of 

State (draft letter attached; 

■ * 

c. Have the report considered at an early NSC meeting to obtain 
formal Presidential approval of the "Joint -Action Program" and 
the general order of magnitude of the additional U.S. assistance 
to Vietnam viiieh is recommended; 






*•***- '^^^ 



•- V 
y > 



f— 



: " '-.'173 






.1 - 



^ "- 



- -V > 






-* . ■ J 



- -, 



" ,1 l ' 



I i II 



.*• -= * ~* 



• 









I 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



f 






d. Have President Diem informed; through appropriate channels j that 
the proposed force level of 200^000 men by the end of CY '62 is 
approved^ subject only to the Vietnamese ability to build its 
; forces up to this level vithin that time. 






■ > 



. -* 






BL-j 



I 



SOvlQ, F. Black 
Colonel^ U.S.Arrr.y 



f. 






. • • ■ 



■ 



• ■ 






w- 



\ 



V* «• 



. !■-- , 



L 



4 ■ * **'lb\j 






• 



*. 



*. •* ■ r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






» 



PO M PI 7*. *""a !*7"S 1 I ' 



. DRAPX 



• 



. * i 



Dear Dean: 

- 

The Department of Defense has reviewed the "Joint Action Program 

■ 

Proposed by .the Vietneia-U.S. Special Financial Groups" (The Staley 
Report) said considers it a well-conceived, realistic program for meeting 

* ■ 

the stepped-up level of Communist activities in south Vietnam. The 

* 

Department of Defense concurs in the recommendations contained in the 






"Joint Action Program", including the proposed force level of 200,000 
men for the regular forces by the end of CY 19&2 • 



7 









I suggest that the report he forwarded to the Rational Security 
Council for approval, with the understanding that the cost figures 
end details of the broad programs outlined therein are subject to 

refinement and adjustment by the appropriate U.S. Government agencies 

* - i 

in Vietnam, acting jointly with their Vietnamese counterparts under the 

♦ • ■ 

guidance of the U.S. Ambassador. * ; . 



* 



■ j 



Honorable Dean Rusk 
Secretary of State 



v-' 






■ *l 



* -r- 



< Q1 • 









*_» 



K 



' 1 



"" *■ I ^ *« ** m h ■* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SBCISa 



-.SEVRES ••■ 



JDIHT ACTIC2I PEOGSJiM PROPOSED Yi EE3 
VWj? NAM - TJHXTKD STATES SPBCI&Ii KBttHCIit EBCgPS 



y^^, 



If 6/ 



f 



- 'til 



1 



20 



- 



President Hgo Dinh Dices 



• President John Fo Kennedy 



Ths Viot Nam and United States Spooial ^Baneial feaups cl lapsed vith 



7 

; 



' K 






considering the raeana of ftethes* oooposatlon tettreen thaib? two counties foi* 

■ « * ■ « 

niutually shaded pa^posoo have the hOnos? to propose to theirc ^ospeotivo 

- 
govornnients the attachod Joint program of eoticno 

* * 

Vict Nam £a to-day trader attack in a tdttei^ total atmiggle which $xm>Jvos 
its survival as a £1*00 nation Its oneisyj, the Viot Cpngp 5,8 ruthless p 
resourceful ^ and oluGivo* 'Biis ensspty is supplied poinforeod^ and centrally 
directed fcy tho intor^iivtio^al Communist apparatus operating thorough Hanoi o 
To defeat it ratmlses. tho raboiK^ation of tho ©ntSbya economic* military 

« _. — — I .* - ■ - HI J — — 

* ft 

■ psychological ^ and social xesot&ttes of tho coijntay and vigorou.a , support from 

• ■ ■ 

1. .•■■■• 

' tha United States. : 



* 

Tho lons^torvYa economic SvUtusa of Viet Nam is" bvighto Sh fact* tho 
• f jro^loing ©tart already ©ado toward improvement in tho living conditions of 

■ 

its people appaa^ v a to b crsj of tho factors which precipitated tho £OC£nt 
intensification of Coijnsaiiist presstprQo $ba contrast hotvroen tho achievements 
of recent years in South Viot Ham a^d the baajdBhipa and fading in Coaumaiist 

■ + 

.North Vict Sum was brewing too glaring* Given tho mesns to throw hack tho 

• a * 

■ * 1 - 

Cormmmict attack and to $®&wm ita insy©h of economic^ social^ end political 



NV 



S 









^ .■* 



. J. u ,1 



SecD 



ef Cont. Ho, J ' (l 



■ -v 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



f 



! 






SJ2CKB1' 



t 



2 - 



* t 






■ 



a 






prosrooSft Vict Ham can bo an crural© in Sesxthdast Asia for tho p^cs^flD^vo ■ 
potentialities of men vho asa flatassnisaod to smaln feOo V/o Btroaa^iy tfi*Ep3 
that car tvro govsnosients mak® this tho purpose of their contiiT.iGd cooperation* 

* 

At the mcmontg hovavo:^ the .prisiaiy psToblcra Is tha restoration of 



feteEaaal oeci^ity in tha face of tou^h^ \rfMBpg&g& 9 ozfezrally cidcd C: 



*-^k* 



crams t ga©3Krilla wa&faro and oxibvu^aieao Co moot this problem TOc^feoa 
■'ctoppad^p military and policing etttdcn*. Tat th@ j^c/blcra is no^e $tea a 
military probleau Its soltttioa also demands stopped-ap economic -cad CGoin-l 
action? especially to sa^al axesD^ closely intonated idLth tha nil&tcay 

aot5-OUo Fes? o;:ample 5 one of tha eiol*o promising comxtoi^uo^rilla rzothodo " 



f 

i 



3 

j teiod up to this fefca© IbvoI^tos s^groupS^ Beatteved pural popalatio&a into 



!• 



^ more readily defensible cOBEauaitioB do designed and as sin tod aa also' to offe^ 
improved opportunities fes? livelihood 

fe cognizing this oloso interdependence of the military and tho cconcaio* 

■ 

■ • 

eocial problenop wo have baaed cur TOcoaaaendations on tha follc-rlng thrao 
contra! considerations: . 



lo Eis military-internal security retirements must for the tii^a boin^ 
have first call on Viot Nan's manpower and economic resources and or U S 









assistance c Eiia is a ehort«torai but easential requirement© 
• ♦. 2# At the- same tissa the- degree to which the militaiy-intemal security 

operations achieve lasting success vill$ in large measttre e depend en tha 
•epeed and effectiveness vith vhich the recoirjnendad emergency economic and 

social program are applied 

* * * ■ 

3» The ultimate objeotiVB of those economic and social programs and of 

* 
tho lorj^or-ranse dovoloi^ont planning vhich wo alco recor-nnend is to hasten 

tho day v/hon Viot Xani will bo a e3lf-Gustainins cconciy and a poaceful 9 fz^ao 

123 . 



*- n ^ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 20! I 



/ ".. 



' - 


















-2 



eooioty* 35his is. desired by the YietnaKssog who want to be jjidopsBdorA In 
the fullest sons a p and Isy th3 /tfiericans? who conceive their aid as helping 

people "So help thsraselvos toward a condition where tfasy can continue to pro- 

* 

%2?®O0 by their own efforts* 

The recommendations which cor two groups $ wording Jointly together;, have 



» > 



thus prepared call, for major increases in tfas level of effort of both 



Yiot Kaai and the United State 






These increases reflect our sincere conviction that tha subversive D 

• ■ 

- 

intensive ^xrfar© being waged today in South Viot Kara can be brought to a 

- .. .... 

successful conclusion enly by tha prompt application of effect ive military 

power p coupled with large-scale economic and social action reaching every 

* » ■ 

part of the Coventry ^ especially the rural areas* From, the financial stand- 

r • - ' n 

* i -• 

point 9 wo beliovo it far less costly to provide fully adequate resources 



■ 



today than to attempt to match Ccamuiis'i initiatives with Jnot enough 
strength to moot each new threat o Tho first course off era a real posal- 



• ■ 
r 



. 



bility of early victory and thus ezi end to the tragic waste of human life 

m m ■ 

and of the material assets so oorely needed for the economic development of 
; the country* . Tim second ? 'while less costly in terms of current budgets P 

will not provide sufficient resources to achieve a decisive defeat of tna 
"Viet Cong organisation and therefore will p in the long run ? prove more ' '.. 

• expensive as the war drags on with increased Intensity year after year, 

■ ■ 

Accordingly 9 tho intensified ijrogram which we recommend "our two 

■ 

countries adopt as a basis for mutual actions over the next several years 



.-? 



! 






SSCES? 






M^ ClaSS " led Pe '" Executive ° r der 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



4 4 



•- 

i 



I. 



-4 - 






. 



is deDigned not ^xxst to hold th3 line tut to achieve a* real b reak through* 

■ 

Oar ;Joiiit efforts mast eitrpass the critical threshold of the enemy f s 

-■-.■■ 

resistance 9 thereby pattittj an one! to his destructive attacks t'anft at tha 









eama time we nru8t mako a doeioiva topact on the economic ^ social* and 



ideological £ront« 



» 






Respectfully 5 



■ - 



- • • 







Vu Quoo Thucp Chaiman 



Duong Tan Tai 



Diiih Quasig Chiou 



Euynh Van Diem 



■ 

. - 
■ • ■ 






., . . 



■ 



tUS* Special Rinp.Tifi r'.al G^mri 



■ • . . BugcSxo Staley$> CShaissaaii 



+ 






• 



■ 



Colonel Edwin P. Etac& 

B k 

William V/c Diehi 



Paxil I\ Geron 







■ 



• . " 



liuu Van 5?inh 



Jfessaatt Kleino 






Bin Koan 












• 



■ 



- • 



. . 



• * lift •*.•# ■ ' •» * • 

* ». - « 



* * 



- 
-. 



■_ 



» 



■ * 






-• 



■ * 



l . 



. - 



• . '• ■ • ' ' " ' 



l " 



- 



« - 

- 
.• - 

* 






' - '. 






Wa3n?en Ao Sllvor 



»- 



•■ 



• • 



• . ■• ■. 



••, •■■ 






» . 






■• 






.•.- 



, ■. ■ • • ■ 

■ - - : 



■ -.. • 



• ■ • 



i 



m 



' 



■ , .- 



■ ■■ | ■ , 



* * 



, « . ... *J yj 



■ 
- f 



r - 















>■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



SECKE3? • "'. 



I. " 3n.n?nop pcQ?iQtT ' 

.Conscious of the serious problems created throughout Southeast Asia by 
the, accelerated Ctor&tuiiist campaign of subversion and creeping aggression in 

* ■ 

Lsos and in Viet Nam* President John Po Kennedy* in response to an invitation 
of the Government of Viet llam$ sent Vico President lyn&on Bo Johnson to Saigon 

■ *■ 

to discus a with President Ngo Dinh Diem varioua mea^uroa which might be under-* 

'taken by both their govemsients to proaerve the freedom and security of 

* 

Viet Kamo One of the consequences of these tallis was an agreement to send a 

■ 

■ 

. Special Financial Group composed of UoS* experts to Saigon to explore vrith 



t 



their Vietnamese counterparts the economic mid financial implications of a 

4 4 

y 

plan of action in which* tha two governmento could cooperato in mooting tho 

- 

emergency situations . ■ 

■ i - *■ 

- 

President NgoDinh Diem appointed a similar group of experte to represent 
the Government of Viet Ham* At their first meeting* the Vietnamese arid \J C S 



cwo 



chaiimon decided that any report or recoirtinon&ations which thay would submit 
should be prepared cm a joint basis,, emphasising thereby the close partnership . 

■ - . , - , ■ 

i 

■ 

in which tho two governments desire to approach the problem* Accordingly ? 

* ■ 
they jaarged their two groups into one and ;x>nducted all their business as a 

completely integrated committee* The following is the special action program 

.--.......•■ "- - f. • 

which they recommend to the Presidents of Viet Earn 'and the United S-fcateo f ■ 

- • " •■" ; - " . . ....*. , ' ■ 

'This program is 'raised on tho concept that the two governments rust together 

"- . 
do what is "necessary to achieve a "breakthrough" simultaneously on the 

■ 

..milits>:,-y-into^pial security front and on the economic-social front- At tho 
same time* the economic-social action should bo so planned as to help Viet Mam 
move toward its objective of a free society wi tif a growing and self-sustaining 
economy* The spirit of po^tnorship which animated the wor^c of the "joint rrouos 
is considered as a guiding principle, in the implementation of the special 
action progranu 



• 



loo 



- 



' 



* 



!■ 



i 



f 



L 



*[ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 i 



- 2 - 



SBGRHX 



,—, - ■ . 



II „ SPECIAL ACTION 3PR0GBAM 



A. MILI2Airy„jlJ!K3RKAL SEGffilOT AGPICGT 



1. Sis S4toa*&S& 



25io Cc^unist«in£pired insurgency in Viet Kem p v&Jch io aisied at the Sg< 
struotion of the authority &$id prestige of the establiohod government p is 






aeaoned to be a prelude to fuyttes? att©apted lusfoafis designed ultimately to * 

■ « 

absorb tho es*tl29 country into ths Colonist Bloo* Hprth of tho 17th parallel* 
Ihe Coimniinist-led Democratic Republic of Viet Nan (DOT) vdth fcba help of inter- 
national Cararaailom hao tks capability of overtly defeating the present military 

» 

forces of Laos & Cs-nbodiap ami Viet Nam ? either singly or in combination* It ia 
the primary source of support" and caftans ' £tt? the Viot Cor\g of foists to gain 

( 
• t i ■ 

control of Viot Ham. Current intelligence estimates indicate that, rather 
than y?& sorting to overt attaofcp ths Co^uromiot Bloo probably will continue p 

- * : • » . 

through the DHVp to exploit tho uoc of insurgent forces &a long as it appears 

■ 

to them that such action might ^icco'eft in bringing about the downfall of tho 

. . ... 
GVff. ' '■•-.;•. • ■■ ;"_•-*-• ■■ - , . . . 

Although tho throat of overt attack by DE7 foree3 presently exists (and, . * 

Mill py ofc afely 5*i c^e as e^ j;^ J3g w ffiffl, jgs t p.b?A r J^^ fit : ^^X^ . -Cftftfoy* \ wfoft ^3 ^gj^.y^n) p 
tfcs most pressing problem from a military viewpoint p is the destruction and 
elimination of the apps?esSmat03y 12 5 0C0 DRV supported and inspired VJet Cong 



- V 



gaorrillao presently conducting insturgeiisy operations vzithin the borders o: 






Viet Bern* The increase in Viot Cong strength and aot;lvitioD sin 



] p 



JLctt 



1959 



h$s resulted in. tho conuaitsient of approximately $0 per cent of the combat * 






* * • * 

i forces of ths RYKAF to cQunte:<>>inFAirgenoy operations* This heavy commitment has 
onabled the RYEAP to bogin to take the offensive 5 but moro military forces are 



,., 



* 



• 



■"■•:'•! •. :. : siooRST.: 


. ■ 


•\ ... : -. ■ * ' . %; - ***** 

- " ■ 


* 

H 


n- " . rf . •» T; "T 


, 



r 

■ 



. 



.LOj i 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



' • 



• i 



•5- 



SECES? 



needed to hring ths Viot Cong undoi' effective control « 






, 



Ei3. tu^rn ,of events in tsos has oraated ifurthe? Berloii3. problems with 
regard to th* malntcnanoo of the GTtf as a fx'eo and sovoroign non«- Communis t nation* 

■ 

In partldulaa?^ the imoovoring of tho 3^aoti8»*Viot Haa to3c$MP to DRV or DRV- 
supported fQa^&'ore&tQS a Der&©na throat of Ssuxsaaded. GOT&rt infiltration of 

- 

I personnel Buppl£©s f and equipment to tho Viet Co$g© With &v.ch Increased l 

support c tho Viet Gong tajdoufctedly hops to seize firm military control of a geo<> 
graphic area and ansooxmce ■ tha ©Bt&lJlielfaent therein of a ,r roho!' f government 
for South Viet Han which would thon bo 2{®G©g3a&8©& by end raoeivo &HitaEy Bttp« 
pert from the BRIT j Cbraamief Ghina p and Soviet Rtadete-* (Example: The present 
situation in Laos*) 

- ■ ■ . * ■ ' .: . 

Confronted with this combination of an intensified Communis t~d ire ctcd 






insurgonoy campaign within the oountry aftd an evar^2nor@asine danger frora overt 
military aggression by superior forces from tho North? the EVK&F has taken tho 
calculated risk of deploying almost its entire regular forces -against the 

■ ■ ■ • 

Viet Cong guerrillas <> The present conditions of internal subversion require 

■* 

* B 

* the* massive and widespread application of military power by highly-trained > 



t » i 



disciplined forces* %" thus providing fully adequate strength to do th$ job 



B 



it is intended to reduce the current insurgency situation rapidly to manageable 

i • . 

proportions, whore it can then be maintained by the normaj internal security. 



.* 



f OTC03 o 



2 GVH 

' &« Iho major clo-BQnts of ARVM under ths 150^000 force structure wore the 

■ • ■ • 

Joint Genoral Staff ? a Field Command Headquarters ; thrao Corps Headquarters; 



- . - 



• BUCKET 



"J- L-„ 



. ' % 



■ 






,v (J o 



. 



r 












V 



I 



* 



i 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



- 4 ~ 



SECHKP 






seven' reduced strength ftifontry Divisions; fTvo coparat© Infantry Battalions; 

•' one Airborne Brigade (five Battalions); £ our Armored Rogiiaents; eight ncn- 

:■-■.•-.. 

divisional Artillery Battalions; si>r!;y~five Banger Companies; and subminimal 

■ -* . 
logiotio support units* \ "..- ' ; 

b© The VH Navy and Marines consisted" of a small Navy HaaAqua^$ro end Shore 

i 
Eatsbltehmentft a email Sea Force of about 27 vosselq* a ©mall River Itorc-o* £n& 

- 
three .Marine Battalions* She major units of the email VK Air Force were cno 

Transport Croup (P~47)» one Eight or Squadron (AD-45) ? one Special Air Kis&lca 

■ * 

Squadron p two Li&ison Squadrons (1^*19)* Qfce Koliccptor Squadron (S*X$/B»34) BBS 
eosontial base and rtiaintenanee support elements* 

■ 
■ 

Co Under tho 20*000 force increase srocoiamendoa and subs e quo ntly approved . 
. undor tho couxiter-insiLrgenci/ plan 8 the RVNAJ? gained tho following additional 
major elements* three separate £n£ antsy Kcgimontaj twenty-one Kangor Companies j 

■ 

one Military Intelligence Battalion; one' Engineer Coaicat Battalion; ono-Eavy 



'. 



Shallow Draft Boat Group j one Kcrine Battalion; one Airforce Helicopter Squadron; 
and selected logistic support units imd augmentations to help -correct tho orlti- 

• m 

' '• 

■ . a • * 

• f 

cal imbalance previcunly existing in 'the S7NAP . . - • ' 

i , if . - ■- • • :..*>• f 

do Tho throe- Infantzy Regiments were activated on 10 May 196lo Acti- 

• ., ■ 



vation of the tvonty-one Hanger Coniprinios bogan on 1 Hay IJolo A recant RYHAF 

* ■ . * ■-. .■ *■ . . * - ■ ♦ 

estimate indicates that the 170o0C0 force* level should be reattheft prior "to the 

■ . "■■ ■ 

end of' CT ISS'J. 






.1' 



Om r fhe developing situation in Izov ha£J f houaver, indicated an urgent 
roq.uirer.iont for a further increase in the ETOAJ? force structure/ 3?hera exists 
a requirement fox- an additional forse increase of approximately 103^000 over a 



1 



-1 "f!Q 



t 












I 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Dale: 201 1 



.•■ . 



- 5 - 



SECRET 



■ 

period of tha next 5~l/2 years, v/ith an immediate rcquireiaent for tv/o additional 

Infantry Divisions and Bpaeatial supporting forces*. SBbe two additicmal Infanticy 

• #> 

Divisions are considered essential to bolstox* present forces in Northern and 
Central Viet ifeffl due to tho continuing deterioration of tha situation in l-aos* 



Current authorized strength for the Civil Guard is 6S P 000« It io organised 
into companies and battalions » Each province' has a battalion composed of four 

m 

or five companies* Its primary mission is to complete training and to a££ra&8 

the bulk of the scsii-staticr security missions in Viet Nani 9 thus freeing tha ma- 

■ ■ . * 

;Jority of Rangers and regulaa? A3tl?H units for offensive operations end training* 

In vievr of the critical throat posed by the insurgency 5 control of the Civil 



. 



Guard was transferred on J December \$$0 from tho Department of the Interior to 
the Department of Defense » draining of Civil Guard is now conducted by AKWI 

a ' * il 

''■,.■'■' -• 

Civil Guard units have been equipped or eare in the process of being e^iaipped 
with vehicles s weapons* radios P and other essential items. 



* 



A short supply situation has necessitated suspension of equipment issue to 
all units except those separate oompanies ©ntering unit training at tho Song Mao 
Civil Guard Training Center* This suspension v:Lll be lifted v/hen moror material 



■ ■ 



arrives in Viet Ham*. A significant quantity and variety of equipment should be 

« 

on hand before the end of CY 1961 to complete the equipping of the first ;52 p OOQ 



■ 



civil guardsmen u. e It is estimated t'cat all of. the 70*000 Civil Guard force will 
be completely equipped by the end oi* CY 1$£2« . * 

■ 
* * 

4* The Self ^"Defense Corps - - ■ ; . ' ' .. 

t ' ■* 

* 

. a 

?ho Self Defence Corps (SDC) is a para-military 'Village militia" 



type 



■• 



' 



S8CS32 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 






•• 



6 - 



SSCRBT 



orgo2ii%ation which io responsible to the Department of the Interior* The SDC 
has oil authorized strength of 58 „ 000 during CY 1961 o 

* 

r tfho missions of the SDC are: To protect the village committee; to maintain 

■ 

r 

■ 

order and security In the village; to oppose subversion and terrorist activities $ 

* > 

« 

* to protect public buildin£3 and public works j and to assist the public during 
disasters* 



* 



At present 7 the SDC is a relatively im trained $ poorly equipped 9 arid poorly 
paid fores o The SDC has no trained officer or NCQ's but depend b on tha Civil 
i ' Guard or AKVH for leadership* The general level of individual training is* low* 
Equipment consists primarily of individual weapons and ammunition* Thero is 

* ■ * * ■ * 

no communications equipment* Available weapons consist of a collection of 









f 



■ ■ ■ 

French^ British 8 German* Indochinose and American r5.fles 9 pistole 9 and some 

i • * 

automatic weapons* Ammunition is old$ unreliable $ and in short supply* 

At present the SDC ie purely, a defensive organization* To date "because of 

■ - ■ • 

* f ■ 

training deficiencies SDC operations are not veil conducted,, The SDC h?,ve been 

. i 

i 

e chief target of Viet Cong attacks and almost invariably suffer dispro- 



portionately heavy losses 9 often losing weapons and ammunition to the Viot Congo 

s ■ 

! * During the past year the GTO baa angled in a ncijor effort to mobilise the. 
ycafch of the country for tlia purpose of supporting the government and combatting 
* Co^mnism* It is an indirect way to commit the population in the struggle 



f . * 



.* 



t ■ ■ * ■ 

against the Coi^immists* Tjne most important youth group in Viet Nan today is 
the. Republican Youth Movement (K3I) which has approximately 1*7 million members 



, • 



and is olcsely identified with .the present regime*, 






■ 
The IQQ-1 has fcaeome the Ria^oy.GVK effort to organize tho yountfor elements 



i 






• • . 



. ■ ■ . 



• - 



■ 



■ 



sscnraT 



.*»<- 



J*' ' 



\ M i 

v \, V-/ »ft. 















t » 



* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SE GEES 



of ths Viotn-sisnoBa population and to nso tho organization to inci a oa£G fcfea c»v/aro- 

■ 
i 

nesG of people* of tfas true nature of Vict 2fera*e> fight for Girarf-val aoainat 

r * | 

■ - • Co:nmim&ot £a3ux 4 goncy and torroriot taolaiiqjBSa* 

6 * Financial femlAcal&OBffi 
5!he joint V1MJS group doer* not consider itsolf coripotont to ztu&o apscifia 

* m 

reeoimitendationc aa to desired forca levels for tho defense of Viet Ham© Thay 

■ •*•■ 

havo^ howEcrasPf &£tor consultation with their r-esp3Ct:l% r e military authorities fi 

> 
.. . • . . „ 

adopted for economic pl&airSjag proposes certain estimated strength figures for 
tho CT1I amed for ceo under trad altom&tiva fcStfUBrpti<ms „ /J^ ^g ^irity^ ,A osswaett 

« * ■ 

that tho Cc:imiimist-led insurgency pffort robins at apjsroadinately its pro cent 

levol of intensity and that the Qovarxsraont of laos maintains sufficient inde« 

.penfts&oa &can the ftxosEaaiet Bloc to dony authority for the transit of DVH or 

* ■ -- ■. * 

• . ■ 

\ *Oo!nnamiGt Chinese . troops acroos its borders* ^Itejtti jvfcfoQ l B assumes that tho 

* * ■ 

Viet Cong aro &blo to significantly Increase their insurgency campai{pa v/ithra 

Viet Kom and that tlia situation in laoa contimoa to deteriorate to the point 

."":'''-"--"■ 
v/hore tho CorninunistG gain ^ ffi yjft? control of that country* 

• Unrler those alternative assumptions? the following force levels and costs 

,.,*'■- - • ' - 

havft been assumed iii the preparation of thin report and its to commendations; 

, . 'FOPXS ZEVSIS i 



+.m-*-+r- 3**%t~*i *•— ». irf* ik«n ■••« 



A, d 



2$£<£ 



IMS, 



■ 

(l) Alternative A 



170 P C00 



(2) AjtoaM^suJ 170,000 ■ 

Ci^i;duqkt' > '• ' '" 6'/* 500' 

Meal Mm^ Itosa 50 , 000 . 






XaaJSlLiSt'CKi. 



?oo,coo 



200,000 

'70VO0O 

60,000 

103,000 



200,000 
230,000 

70 , 0O0 

60,000 



100,000 



200,000 



200,000 



260,000 278.000.* 



70 ,000 
60,000 



70,o;>J 
Co ,000 



103,000 108, .000 



1 



* ?o be. r^V.chWi taring tl^ first ninths of 19^3, 



■ 



? 



1 qO 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-Tl 



i ■ ■ 









1 









■ 



» I 



L 



SECRE1 



- . 

* - 



VXETN&KESE COSTS # 
(in millions of piasters; 



■ 



1961 



1962 



i!>63 



Regular Forces: 



(1) Alternative A 

* 

(2) 'Alternative 3 



,-* 



*«*j«ssT=»fc-^» ■-*» 



Civil Guard . *':.'■ 
Local Itefenso Forces 



6,700 


7,800 


8,200 


6,700 


* ■ 

7,8oo 

■ 4 




1,1*3* 




■ 


322 


681* ' 


601* 



. 



' 



.'„. 



Youlh Corps 



• 1*8 



$9$ 



600 



# Do not include military equip-nont,.. transport, or PbO.L, 






. . . 

% .- - - . 

■ ' 



.• 



:r : U.S.. COSTS * 









(in millions of dollars) 
1961 1962 l:?63 



■ -■-. 



Regular Forcosj 

* 

(l) Alternative A 



- • 

. r. 



n 
■' ■ 

r 






■•' 



• . 



• •■ ' * 



(2) Al 

Civil Guard 



tor native B 



62 
■ 62 



11 



120 



120'. 



20 



71 

u* 



1961* 



196^ 



8,300 8 f l*oo 



11-200 



10 4 200 



1,600 1,600 



■68U' 

6$o 



681* 
600 



j . . 



- 



- 



1961* 



1965 






66 

136 



66 
83 



12 



* Do not include- coots to U.S of MAA0 operations" (salaries, subsistences 
adrninistrativo costs) estimated at $12 million a yoar« 

To Civic Action . 



rJV w w n wn »tf*%m •»» 



Ona of tho proquisitDS of successful military action as&ins'c Insisrg^ncy ox* 

■ ■ 
gUQjcrtlls ftttaok ic- for the soldier to convince tho population that ha is a 

■ r 

brother of tho pooplo* &o veil ao their protector* Tha Coiarnunistg clelra an 



1 


. < & - 




■ .' : 


■ 






' 




m 


V 










■ ■ . 


- 


* . 








B 


'■'.■■'■ ' 


•" -' 


•r.. • . 










• 


■-V : ' - 


- 


• 






* 

■* 


• 




SECRET 










' . 




*fc&* fcArfl.*** tyftl 












- 


* 






■ 


■ 


I . « - 


■. « - 


- - . ■ 


■ 








■ ' " ■ 


- 










^ 


* " 


■ * .... - 


- : 


1 

- 


• 






■ • 




■ 






t 


11 




' 






' 


- 


' - 




* 

* * 


P&. O v^ 


• 

a • 






, ^ ' 


, > . 


.♦«.-■« 


. 








• ■« 


' . 


- 




. 






,- 


* v.. *■ . " 


»- •• ■ 


- ■ - 




• 




• . 


■ 

*» 


* 


+ 









- 






- '• 



: • ■ 



■ 



* 



r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






■ 



- 10 - 



SECIKT 



i } 






i ;* 






i * 









* 



B« .EiffiRGENCY ECONOMIC AliD S0C11L ACT10K 

The major problem now confronting Viet Nam is that of internal security* 

Bat the joint groups were in emphatic agreement that this problem cannot be 

* 
eolvp-d by military means alone* Th&y therefore considered the nature and the 

costs of economic and social measures which can be undertaken or escpanded in 



-,« , 



order to give direct and early support to tho solution of the internal security 
problem* _ .-. 

Tho following activity areas are those which deserve highest priority* 

Hough cost estimates are shown whs^a majjor additional piaster and dollar outlays 

* 
are re quired • • ■ 

• 1* JOcfoi^stion and cgpmnicaticms 

T 
* . 

Ka&suros now underway to establish communication facilities arc well do- 

* ■ * " 

signed and oriented* All possible steps should be taken to speed up tho jmpls~ 

1 . • ■ 

mentation of those programs* The joint Groups believe $ however, that at tho 

■ 

eatae time a re -semination of thie program is novr in order with special vedfexK 
ence to (l) increasing the broad cast power and coverage of radio stations * 

■ 

and (2) possible initiation of a television syotem The latter would be a 

■ - 

• * ** 

dramatic and unprecedented attack on the* problem of national unification* It 
would undoubtedly require phasing as to area and programndflg*. 

Of particular interest are the programs to increase the number of tran- 
•sis tor receivers £n the rural areas 9 and to expani the inter- village com-* * . 



• 1 % 



•muni cat ions system* 

...•'■»* 

Ehe importance is underscored of adequate programing to achieve the 

desired results from the physical cc^uii cations facilities now being estab- 

■ • • 

liohedt, "This programming should give attention to making available useful 

■ 

■ 
information to rural listeners 5n ouch fields as agricultural and health oducati 



* 



Wnu SECRET 



r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 

- 9 ~ 



* 



«. ■ 



SEGBES? 



. 









I 



I 






• 



"- 



■ r 



I 



. 



L 



ideological ox 1 dogmatic kinship to the people so as to gain their support and to 
be able to hide among thenu Kie soldier must tea^oraxlJy hatfe to provide train- 
ins to the villagers, to help them gat stewed in their piemeering resettlement 
efforts 6 .Araiy personnel may find it necessary to show the pooplo how to build 
a coeounity house, a sohoolj, a market * a simple first aid station. Ehay may be 
needed to give on-the-dob training to volunteers in teaching, village adminio*- 

* 

tration, sanitation, elementary public wo xfcs and simple agricultural tochniqnos o 
5?he joint groups uooimend the GYM* aasaed forces for their outotandintf 

- ■ * 

« ■ * ■ * 

achievements* in civio erstion in the past and for tho work thoy are doing through- 

■ 

out tho country todcy The U<,S« is making a, special effort to help, "by sending, 
to Viet ITem several email tesms of civil affairs technicians who will be avail" 

■ • - _ - _ 

- , 

able to wozfe with the G-71T militasy authorities in the furtherance of an expanded 

''•'-•...■ -• '.": . .. ■ ' ■■ .\ ■ '■" • 

civic action campaign on a national ocale. 

. . - - ■• * .* • 

-■ * ■ 

Such a campaign will enable the GVK Army to contribute materially to the 

- 

« ' . 

success of tho closely related "crash" program of economic and coeial develop- 
ment outlined "below* 'Similarly * the rapid implementation of the economic and 

- - r *■ . T • ' 

social program will strengthen popular support and help to instill a sense of 
confidence in ultimata victory which cannot but be sefleoted in the morale and 
fighting sp.irit of tho Vietnamese armed forces . " . - 



.• 



COS? Sltt-tt-IARY 



, * Tho following ie a rough,,, order-of-^agi iitu.de estimate of additional costs 

■ • . 

- - m 9 4 

for the military program P from July 19&1 though December 1S62, Bering this 

• , * » > ■ • . »• 

. ■ • i ■ • 

period the coots are '';he seme for either alternative force level. 

Piaeter costs,..**..*.*** 3«7CO million 



dollar costs,. 



«u<b#.t«eev 



42 million 



1 ^ i ^ 



' 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



- / 



- 



-•12 



SECRET 



-♦ 



Without awaiting tho ro^oxojaination oufigested above 9 measures already 

■ 
* ■ ■ 

underlay to increase tho output of tho Saigon lisosftcastiag station should bo 

■ i 

intens if ie&o 



' * 



Piaster cost • » + <>«»•• 



f> !-■ n • O 



10 trillion 



Dollar? cost 



© O « O C C o » 



< ? *>»o©«6o5 million 



a a ™ v 

Agrovillos and land development projects contribute materially to the cc~ 
lution Ox security problem* in the rural oasaaeu All possible of fort should b3 

■ - i- 

f made to speed up these programs . An important element of those progrsng 

■ . ■-• . • . • : 

- ■ » 

I should ba the conn tract i<ti of villas© roade with heavy use of local laburp-and 

of self-help housing « with aid « maaclmiss&ng use of local materials and Jacor* 

* « - 

It is difficult to foredas'i with preoicion the coats for the proposed VK target 

of 100 additional asrovil5oo ovor tho next eighteen months* Tho following* 

estimate represents a roujh orders of magnitude* 25ie real figures will depend 

on (a) actual mobilisation of skilled nanpowar to organize and manage tho 



program* and (b) rafir/.-d costing on an austere 9 Emergency basis o lis piaster 
estimate covers local cost 3 while tho dollav estfoi&te covers the equipment and 
supplies not domestiuil3.y available* 



■ i, 



4 • 



, , • 



• " 



Piaster oogi###»««»*fo**0l$fK& million 

* * ■ 

■ . ■- 

Dollar C03tfi*#o 09*0 r*# mop Jo5 million 



• 



•3* '-Rrcal Ked foal .gaaaasgaa 



3 



: 



■ Adequate care of the wounded, both civilian and military ^ is essential for 

* •' . ■ : 

psychological as vnll &3 for oWicuV fcjzaa iia treasons* Civilian and military 

authorities* mast confer on an urgent bavis to determine how beat to make use of 

» 

the available radically trained manpower in Viet Bern* To maximize the use of . 






■• 









r 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



— 12 - A 

• « ■ 

T' > •'" ' * "gem " •*■" , 

» • 

... - 

the limited trained medical manpower la V&>t FaH p rogram fl should ha initiated 

to develop an effective evacuation system for ths seriously iajured* Specific 

programs that should fca further considered to assure the best use of available 
■ 

medical personnel in caring- for casu&lities "would be the creation of ciobile 
medical teams mid the provision of needed equipment and mGdical supplies in 

* 

existing hospital end. medical facilities* A rough estimate of the coots of 

■ 

. •- > « 

- this typa of program xoi 

* > 

Piaster co3t»«»«»«»**«**«*»o 8 million 
. " Dollar CO€t»».**« Q +* ••*•*• 3*5 million 

u. * 

4* SreJJnirfir. of c:lv 5 J._ . edn it>igtrato r3 In _tb^ lover and middle .3.o vo3n« ■ 
Good relations /between civil administrators and tho pooplo are of paramount 



importance t as is the making known of the needs and wants of tho population tcV 






4. 






tho Govommonto Further consideration should, therefore, he given to tho esteTc- 



i lishment of a system of reporting of complaints and surest ions by oitisona 

*- • s ■ * . . ■ 

to the highest government authorities for appropriate study and investigation 



"t 



Urgent attention should ba given to the acceleration and intensification 

• • • 

of the training of civil administrators in tho lower and middle levele ; serving 

* .■ . ■ * * • 

- • 

in the rural areas « 



• -- • - 



5 * J graJ ni ng of. tha. You th Ca roa 



? 



» 



* mm 



As the Vietnamese Government proceeds with the expansion of the Youth •■ 
"Corps 9 the contribution of Youth Corps members to the national effort can be 



greatly enhanced by txsing their services in economic "and social fields, 

- . ■ * 

* • _ - h 

s Planning should p therefore 9 be initiated for training Youth Corps members in 

- "" ' ■ " ; '■ ■ •' ' "• • 

. appropriate health^ agricultural > medical ? small public works 9 and communication 



' • -. - . • :*. • ' 

" * ' ■- - • . ' 

L 



■::..-■ '. sbcfst 



» 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






. •' 



, ' 



- . 






- 



: 



* 



-15 



% 



m 



SE0B5BE 



■■■ 



(radio) activities „ Eho last activity -would eorva the neoded Intosvvillsga 



. 



couiamnication requirement 



■.. • • 



COST SUMKMST 












ffiae following is a rough ^ estimate of cost a for tho emergency oconciailG 
social program from July 1961 through Itecorahor 1952 s , ; 

- • * 

- _ a ' • 

■ 

■ . ... 



15 &5 Billion 



. ;.■ 

- 



i 



1 ■ • 



- 

1 . 



- - I',' » 
•- 



■ . ■ 









4 -' 



. ' • 



•- - • ■ 

'-•■"• > . ■ ■ 



A. 



■ 



... 



..'•■; ■•■ -i .. 



- , 



■ - 



» 
- 



.-•-. 



■, - . ■. - >* • \ ■ -t ■■ . • » 

-r 1 ■ i —j - . - * • ■ 

■ . - -.....- > . - ■•..... „ , 

; . * -\ >.. '■ • '■ . ..■•..■■ 

. ■ . . . ■--■>..*■■'.■' • 

•-.'-> - :■••<: ' •: ' '. '■ v -.-.... / ■ ' ■ 

■ ■ • . • . " . - * • ■* • ...'".',. ' .. , 

• -- . - - : '• . • •• • < ' - ■ - ^ -..-- ■ ;„'... 



. • . 



, 



• ' 



. 



.• -■ 



■ 




: . 






* 



". •» 



>■ .* 



, .. . ■ ■ • ■■•-.■■.-..-;•■•. 

' ■ . ■ •"•. ■ .*'.., ■- ■• - ; ■■ ■ • ■ ■■•.•♦. « * 

• * „■ '. .' -. .. ■ -.-■.•••■■■-• ■■.'-■ ■■* ■ • ' ".' •• • , 

■ •-. - ■ . - - - -- : - •.•.' . • -.. 

.-■'■.- -■• . - >i ■■.'--: - - . v- • i, •> ■; -- 

• • ' ' ■ . . . ....... „ . . 1. . 

■ -■ '*,-'•••• .•'-.. ... . "... • . ■ : •.. • . 

•■-■•".. - • ■ *&!< • :\; >- n , v ■> -■■ ■ - - 

■ '■ - • ; » ..•'-■•'.■•-. . . - * 

■■•* .* _ ,* .- "»■»'■*«■' ... ■ * 

...-•••• - -• •; " ■ • ■ • ■ - - ■ 



1 



* ': 



■' 






."'--' ■•■ 



■ 



,»i 



-- ■ 






< 



i - - 

- • 



. •■- - 



i." " 

■ 









. 






sscis-'i' 



< * a*m 



• 






1 • 



• -; c 



IP 



1 ■ 



1-" 



( 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number. NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■ i 



- 14 - 



SBCHE3 



• 



C. IXJHGER RfiHGE rnmJOSfiEffS SOIifAIH) S3LP.SIJSTAXHIRG ECGNG-nC . . . 

■ m p » 

■ ■ ■ * 

i. .terras, xspm^ft 

The earliest possible consideration of the emergency pro^eots mentioned \ 
above io essential? in connection with military-security efforts 3 but the car» 
rent succassffcil programs in the econcmio and oocial areas saxat. be continued* 



• a© Tr^proy^i^T\t of Bflpgt cs dtwcsaj t, Tflgo&MraxvaHfaE „ 

The Vietnamese econoay is based on its agxicblture* Wiis heavy roll- 
anco will undoubtedly continue* 5?o improve the productivity of Viet Nam's 
egrlcultural resources f ftothsr efforts should ba encouraged in training of . 



agricraltural personnels research^ diversification of orops, more intensive use 
of fertilizers i end the provision of adequate a^Tici&tural credit facilities. 

Particularly premising are the possibilities in the development of livestock 

«• - . 

* 

and fisheries and complementary processing activities « . ; .. 

* * * 






* 
b* Eeonomle and social servic es to rura l, /popula tion 



- 



• - 

While the asroville-lanrl development program merits special action on 
a more immediate baeie & the build-up of economic and social services to the 
great mass of the rural population not encompassed by the agroville-lana 
C | ;elQpmont program uiust be continued* Such Jir.prdved services e# exte' 3 ion 
education* agrarian reform^ past control 9 and foreiers 1 cooperatives and pro- 
duction credit can yield considerable economic and social benefits in ; turn 
for relatively limited investment* 



o* Creation of a stronge r indas trial base 

~ t- ir- J -r- f l il 1- - t« ii ~ ' f~ | 1 - -. x i Q II H'- ■ ' >-| liil r — -i r - -n p— ^- |i(->i-i i r i -■ - -t 

* • • ■ 

* ■ 

Caking into account the anticipated population increases, the future 

■■ . y 

of Viet Nan vill$ however demand a reorientation of its economy toward one 



» ,.. 









with stronger reliance on a fSxat* viable industrial base* To achieve this 






19 






I 

■ 









■ 












Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SB (SEE 



mmtm 



development with tiinisrun loss and bast uc3 of resources, additional efforts 
aro rocor.smonded» (l) in the planning aroa & including manpower 9 and (2) to 

• ■ 

encGUTaf^>- tha usa of domestic cavities for local investment and to attract 



"0 V W-*" «wrw «^-_ **V^-- ^ V— , V *rffc*« *-U U > 






foreign capital g toy iEsjEJOViEg tha local climate and procedurec for invoatmemto 

■ 

r * B 

In addition to tho current econoruic and social program of longer are#®3 

■ ■ 

development p including those siligled cut abovoy there vxo gonsral considerations 

• -» * « 

* , 

underlying acceleration toward a ■ GQlf~3untaining economy that the joint Groups 






•.• 



tooliove warrant special attention* 

»" ■ . Hul l ^«*«i» f» .Mt*»I-»l^ iw ^. I MUMJH fcm.^Mfc 

Iho joint Groups re contend a str&n^haaiaag of the planntog.inQehanisino 

. . . m 

'This would make possible tho preparation of an integrated plan? on tha basis of 

tho statement by national loaders of tho country *a goals covering a pariod of 

. • . ■ , - 

l . " 

four or fivo or eight yaarn* The plan woxild also indicate tho #Dverument pro- 

f ■ 

grams that v/ill be necessary^ tho expansion of private activity that is antici- 



pated mid the results that will bo obtained* Such a plan is a useful fpzz.z 
work for year-to-year budgeting of specific government programs f but it may 



*^» 



also solve a toreador purpose© Eie nation f B IcoAoxz csn 9 through tho vehicle 

■ 

of tho' plan » combine these ooctor QQalB into a concrete statement of tho nation ! o 

■ * 

r 

! . f ;as^3 and philosophy ained at capturing tho public 1 a imagination* 



i 



b© Private inw» fitment 






•»lr-»l» » ^ *» ■A.'"-** ».-- 



■ " 



* 4 

• L \ In marshalling its resources to meet immediate and longer-tern 

•. • . * ■• * • , . « 

■ * 

economic problems* the VietnaJiieoo Government recognises the importance of tho 

m 

* ■ 

potential contribution by 'She private sector of the oconOuiy* This contribution 



can bo maximized by governmental meaeuroG to assure tho potential domestic and 



i 






■ 



. 



■ ■ • 

i • ■-.■'■• ;. / 



se c:-et 



"00 


















1 



I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






-16 - 






foreign investor thai his capital and? semetiaes even more important, hirj 
.technical and mo;a't£orial laxow-how are baing eoiigjit© to active and dete^inod 
carapaigrip well publicized., would help to dsnOQO-teato to the whole world that 
'Viet !Tam fucas the future with resolution end confidence o 

* 

Ox conrae s a w&$ov obstacle in the stimulation of private invest-. 

j. 

> 

a ■ 

mont ic the security situation© However,* despite its seriousness there have 
^ been now investments both local iflad foreign© 3?hio impetus Dhould continuo and 

accelerate© Sana measures in thin direction that should ba considered BS8I 

■ 

(l) Ifc^Mtmeftt Ipifo Enactment of an investment law to provide : 

1 guidance and policy to public officials and to investors would help establish 



* 



*o 



a legal framax/ork of rights p privileges 9 and obligations of the Investor 

' (2) Iwfagfacial DeveX oTOient Canter re or&ari nation: Establishment of 

en effective agency to provJ.de leadership* direction^ coordination^ and oper 



ational personnel to formulate and effect a program for encouraging private 



,. - - . - . . 
investment is recoisriiended* Ete TnduBtrial Development .Cantor ece&n a logical 

r - * • V .« 

institution to serve thio need© It iiltt&t to re~or£anisod to hecomo an invest- 
Rent promotion center rather tlien a financial support agency. Ito ootiyity 



. 



should be devoted m principally to: '. ' V - .* . . ' . 

■ * - l 

•r • -* 1 

■ 1 ^ 

+ '■;■""■*■ Btimulating' creation of new indue trice 

■ • 

- encouraging expansion of existing industries 






- craatiAS a jroductlvity *v>onoy ' : : ' 

• • • 

- 

Eie Industrial Development Gbjerfrr ehould be able to give to investors all infor- 



mation they need on the fionoral economy of the country? procedureo for e-stab 

■ 

lislvnent of their industries fiocal advantages 5 labor $ cto© 

(?) J&B^A^SS^i^S&f Improved facilities with novo adequate 

■ ■ * a 

* ■ . . . 

•rlU.L 



SECSjfrl' 






• - 

> 



1 



• • » 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



^ • 



* 



-17 - 



SKCRET 






■ 
I 



resources to provide ate&itsa &nft lons-terri credit to neet needs for industrial 

f ' • . 

development is considered desir^b'J.Co 

■ 

■ 

(4) M.VJj££$dy Initiation of an effective rosoarch' program applying 

■ 

Ijrofessionil techniques and practices to identify and promote investment oppor- 
tunities ie rIejo suggest ecu .-. • / 

If" private inventors nasi h& attracted to tho priority industries, " 

■ 

the groat bulk of pxofSts can Tx-codg government revenue or private savings o 

a 1 

^ comparison^ lazega public eec*.or investments that do not produce comparable 

Burpitisca clearly do not provide the saras kind of help for sustained development 

• ■ r * > 

■ rt - , 

■ • ■ 

1 

Public Boetor iirvcsimfcnt m&y bo undertaken for a variety of reasons » 
For example private capital naj' b? imwillins to invest its limited savings 
lii projects that require cwroral years to complete said that sometimes offer 
uncertain business proapscto ther.opJFter* It hafi been found that public sector 

* 

investment often stiinulates private investment., V/ithin limits., the one complex 

' - ■ •■ * 

1 ■■■ 1 

ments iha other « Bat public investments in product5,ve enterprises will servo 
Uaa co Hioioy'less satisfactorily than privato enterprise unless prices ore set 



,» . 



to cover full costa and produce conrparable mirplusoSo 



■ 



Where public investment is necessary to initiate or px*omote produce 
tiv©' enterprise* such investment chould as public policy bo on cox interim basis 

At tho earliest practical t5zno, public investment shoujd bo converted to 

p ■ 1 ■ - 

private " i:\TODfeiento 



I r 



«. 









rv n r\ 



iU 



. 1 



■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



- 18 



« 



8ECHE2 



CCS? SffiSH&Kg 



The following estimate is offered for additional development pro^act£J p 

B t 

bayond those already progic^-^e-dj during tha eighteen month povicd July X9ol 
through Dee 37ator 1952 s "V 



'. 






( 






■ 



Piaster oosi&*« 

■ > La 

Dollar coots 



- - r- ' - T" 

yoi-tocotc C(je« BOO 












■. 



4 






,-'■.-•- •' ' .• ".. . 

■,■■■'■■•..---■ 



1*000 million 



JO Million 






■ ■ 



- 



■ - ■■• 
... - 



••• -.":-.-■■■. 



• 



. - * - 



■ » » 



.», 



• . ' - 



7 - 






■ 



- , • - - 



- 

* 



' 



t . 



, i .r - « 



- ' * 



. - 



• 



■■ 



* 



■ ■ 



.-. 






' - .- 

- - ■ 



- 



• 



. 



• 



' 



• ' •■ 



• 



■»- - 



■ n 



■ m * 



■■ 



- 



■' 



t 



I 

"*1 * 



■ 



" 



. 






« 



- -■ 
* < 



* • ■ 



- 



1 ■ , 



• 






■ 



. 



•a % — - 



' 1 v. . 



i : 



'.' 



: . ' 



■ • 



.... 



* . ■' 



' - 






1 



• • 



- ■ 

- 


• ■ 

- 

1 * 

a 

i 
■ 


1 


* 
-- 

* 

■ 

• 


■». 


- - ' 


2u 3 

r ■ 


• 


I 


. 










• * 



' t 

* • 






- 



f 



. ' 



- 
m ' 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-19- 
1SCRST 



III. FIUAIICIAX. n- ft n S3 &JZEQ2X THIS SOCIAL ACTIOI! FE0(ffifiH 



■. n i i i i 



. i ■ i ■ i 



Once the ceeurity problem to in hand end the nation's renourcco can b3 do- 
voted to peaceful purcuitflf Viot Haa v/ili novo rapidly toward" a viable t prenparcuo 
econoay uitti a progressively highor ctandard of living. In order to attain thio 
dacirod citu&tion, the present emergency requirements - oilitary, econo-mic, cocial 
and financial - must bo net by rabilizing and cosibiriing domestic and external 
resources norc effectively. 



i 



The following table, based on the action program set forth in Section ll t 

* 

indicates the financial magnitudes involved, 

Sumstary of Additional Coots for Pro f ^raxia^ 



(July 1961 - December 1962) 



Military-Security 
Emergency Economic -Social 



(millions ) 
42. 



13*5 



VII Plactera 
(billions) 

3.7 
1.8 



Longer-range Eevelopisent 



30. 



1.0 



Total 



85.5 



6.5 



^Thece ectiiaatfcG ate cubject to further ctudy to dctcroine technical feasibility 
end prccice crcountc. 



• 



.. 



A. EXTERNAL REQUIREMENTS * ' 

The domestic resources which are immediately available are in themselves 
inadequate to neet and overcome the Communist threat, Supplementary external 
support directly keyed to the phased utilisation of local resources rr.uot there- 
fore be provided to enhance the effectiveness of the Joint action. Funding of 









thio input bar. a tsajor impact on the problem of generating piasters t 



or n 



ma^r 



■-*-*•- «-- ■ -- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



m 2J - - 

SECRET 



Ag the requirement for import of goods, material, equipment, and technical . : 

training rises. It will be met largely in the form of direct grant aid Li physical cerniSi 

* * * 4 

will go directly Into the government sector, and therefore will not generate piasters. 

*- . " « * 

* a * 

Extraordinary aid in (fee form of imports to be sold for economic and social objectives 
in the program will servo to etireagthea the economy siig will also generate piasters 



-.• 



for uee by the government. • '-"."■ • *■• • 

The Import program; as a matter of policy, should be governed by the following 



criteria: 



■ 



, - 



• 



1. The program should be viewed as a whole, and the portion 'supplied by American 

•" . * - ■ ■ 

. aid integrated with the total import program. Tills requires jointly keeping the eligibility 

list under review. It Is also desirable to increase the emphasis on capital goods 

■ ■ 

2. Tine long term goal in a self * sustaining economy with a rising level of Jivuj;;; 



• *,* 



. 



but in the present emergency the objective is to prevent a rise In per capita consumption 

£nd mobilize xeeources for urgent purposes. * . • 

• ■ i 

3, The foreign exchange reserves of Vist Nam should be held in the region cf £200 



million. 



. i 



■ 



* 



4. * Aid should, over the next several years, be equal roughly to the- estimated 



difference between the foreign exchange receipts snd the foreign exchange payments of 



VN economy. : 



• • 



■ r 






.* 



- 



J 5. Imports should b3 regulated with a view to protecting sound infant "induet ties 

, • - > •>•'.•. ■*•*•■ 

• " ■*.-.*. 

• . . '....■/ 

and encouraging private investment on the pao hand while on the other protecting rJie 






*■ * 



Vietnamese consumer against undesirable clses id prices. 



. . - 



j 



• * 



- . - , 



■■'....■. •. ' .■ SECRET 



• i ■ - 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



* * ' 



!- ii - 

■ SECRET 



• 



* 

6. Import of luxury goods to s& extent that v/ould widen, the gap between the rich 

r 

snd tine other economic ^roupc should not be allowed, and the means of controlling audi 
luxury imports should J>o taxation,' . " . " ; 

7» To the extent consistent with other criteria, imports should be employed to 



promote genera] orderliness of markets gn£ to avoid disruptive speculation 



: '.* 



The Vietnamese experts estimate the appropriate level of commercial aid imports to 



bo go follows: 



<US> FY 1962 - annual rate of $169 million (excluding P. L, 480) 
(US) FY 1963 - annual rate of $193 mijlioa (excluding P.. L. 4SG) 






. 



* 



It is recommended chat the parallel committees proposed In Section IV, working 



-* 






« 



• 



I 



togetiier, examine at an early d<-itc the apfilcatioa of the alcove criteria hi order to arrive '"' 

• , * ■ - ■ ■ -.*+*- 

f tu. ea agreed estimate for the next' six mouths and then for the rest uf PV 1962 and 

r 

-- •" .' - •*' 

"■ ■ , 

^ibsequesct periods h and that they jointly keep under review cue uend of imports, exports, 
commodity stocks, foreign exchange reserves, and markets. It is also desirable that 
they jointly consider possible Improvements to procedures. 

a a .a 

1 . Looking to the future in terms of medium arid longer tejm economic development, 

- 

*xs v v.- 1 financing does not appear to be a limiting factor for programs ano pro] act i 

."'■.'- ' I * 

„ which are tested and approved vn the oasis of mutually accepted criteria. Private capital, 

■ " ■ 

fi&i fropi other friendly governments , The International Development Association a ,d 






' 



The Development Loan Fund afford Varied end substantial funds for capital project a. 

•■ ' ■ ' ; • '...-■ • ' •' ■ ■ . I ' . 

The vaticzy of terras currently available will be broadened still further If the recommendations 

* • ■ • « 

made by the Executive to The United Stares Congress on foreign eld are Accepted , • * 



* 



■» 4 






-- ■ • 



. * 



♦ • 









• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number. NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






SECRET 



Such financing could Involve grace periods in which no Interest is paid, interest ra'^cs 

ac low as cac per cent annually; arid amortization periods as long as fifty years. 

"'■••- . • •■ 

Evea though the security problem la not yat completely solved, capital Js flowing 

izZq Viet Kara, end this Hoy; may be substantially increased, The jomt group, ericforadai 

thz view that Viet Nam has tremendouo potential for economic progress and development 

* ■* . '. . • • 

Plans already underway or iti a .preliminary 'stage for agriculture, voter works-. 



* 



■ ■ 



v*. 



( sibling, fich&ry, forestxy, small ladustrise, steeJi textiles, and augur reflniog could 






utilise $60 to $70 million aiinualiy - a total of ?300 to $350 million' a*er ?t five yenr period, 

. '■-•:"■ - . ' v. • ;■ ■, ■ ■•■" . • ■*' ' '- '. : 

B. B^ERNAL RB0UI&EMENT3 ... 

- * ■ - .» ■ 

i t ■ ' 

To cover the resource requirements of the special action program, domestic * es purees 

• - i * ■ - 

must ba fully utilised so as to effectively transfer and compensate manpower while increasing 
domestic production and avoiding disruptive effects on the civilian s^ctoc of the tc'conotny." 
_ The physical resources available, supplemented by external support, are sufficl^u.' tc 
sustain the action program. Hitsre remains the rsGulrcmear for tn &ddition&l supply of 
local currency to cover the increase in piaster expend it ares . " * 



* 



i. 



- , 

* This Increase should ba met by; 1) t>x reform, designed to icstrilb any iacreme&r 



- - 



. . . . 

la consumption per capita* to encourage production* sjio to more equitably recIhftrUxilc 

the sacrifice imposed by military efforts; 2) exchange refoxin, which ttUna at ubscrbmg 

cay vnndj&ll profit created by some present unrealistic rates o? exchange; 3) by & savings 



-r- - -■• * 



* % * • ', . 



- 



rxd victory bond campaign to provide additional revenues for the governors* and to 



provide opportunity to &H cit&eas to participate with tlif: government in Its security effort; 

. i ■ a 



■ '0 : .: :' ; ■ ■ .*■ ~ .;• .; 

SECRET 

. ► ■ 

.: ; .! • ■ .' . . 

■ 



r • * 



fcUi 



■ ■ - :■ - 



'• I- 



i 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



*■ 



• 23 - 
SECRET 



4) by oalco of goods dorivad £rc3 additional ostornnl roccurc£0, to tha account compatible 

... 
with a cound policy on tha bclarxo of paymnts; 5) by borrowing as. necessary from the 

National Bank, limited only by tha danger of ricaa in prico which should be Itont within 

nanagcab'io limits, fined temporarily at 5 per cant par year, , 

* • 

■ 

With respect to the realisation of additional piasters from cale of CAP imnortc, tho 
following observations arts made: 

t« There is complete agreement in the joint groups on the desirability of simplifying 
end unifying the Vietnamese cyotem of exchange. In other terms, the principle of a single 
and realiotic exchange rate instead of the present multiple rate cyotem is recommended. 

2, The Vietnamese experts eoteera that an open exchange reform cannot take niece 
in present circumstances , but that tha same results may be obtained through a revised 

i F~rra of taxation, especially taxation of imports. 

3. The .American experts, agreeing with their Vietnamese colleagues on the objectives, 
are of the opinion that it would be more desirable to have a clcarcut operation that vould 



tot a defensible rate of exchange, produce immediately a larger cuoply of oiastcrs, avoid 

■ 

! 
the necessity of a complicated system of subsidies on exports and taxes on imports. 

jncoiirage new investment, and remove incentives to capital flight or speculation agninot 



he piaster by removing the fear that still further adjustments in. the value * E the piaster 
would be forced in the future. However, they recognize that political and psychological 

, actors which they are not in a position to evaluate must influence any decis *n of the 

* ■ • 



■ * 



, Government of Viet Nam, and they agree with their Vietnamese colleagues in urging a 
i 

» m. * 

s uick step as far as seems possible in the direction above indicated. [ 

' ' . : 

SECRET 



20 







Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






- i 



SECRET 



IV. IMPROVED QRGAHEiAIICSAL PROCEDURES FOR MORE EFFECTIVE ACTION 



'■ m *» i i a **v»* —»**->•-* 



ll rp ■«»!■■ *■< * 



• ' 



The ;Jaint Groups a?@0oa®@att that for the implementation of the spsoJal 
.action program It is deoirahlQ to adopt a form of parallel committees? irhlch 
vill meat together from time tn tinus* as shown on tho following chart* 



• 






■ ._ . i 



.. 



SUGGESTED OliGANIZATION FOR 
.PARALLEL PLARHING AM) ACTION 

•fit* mi *-j— ^— m-jK<*» »i*r»^— » v» > »i ■**•-»***■' 



• . 



u.s 



. U.S. COMMITTEE FOR 
SPECIAL ACTION PROGRAM 




GVN 



■ m^ ii 



V,N» COMMITTEE FOR 
SPECIAL ACTION PROGRAM 



(l) toBOOHtOSESQE FOR 

MILITARY ACTION 



(2) SQB&WOWEBB FOR 




ez* *i 



ii,.JW»»3lO, 



(l) STCBGEMMlXttEB FOR 



. . . . 



; 



• ■ 



MILITARY ACTIOS 



ECONOMIC & SOCIAL ACTION 




#*w 



A (?) 'subggkotee pdr 

^- r ECONOMIC & SOCIAL ACSfftH 



M*V-'* 



k< 






L 









LIAISON 0FFIC3R 






*<%*jji'> i '■ «*.> »*> 




LIAISON OFFICES 



• 



: 



All U oS „ SERVIG3S 






-■ ■ • ■ 



>. ■ 



s4^ 

■ a | 

ALL'VoN. 3S3pAR3MEiraS 



r- 



• ' 



• l 









■ • " 






-, • • ■-•;•• 



* ' Within the constitution and legal procedures of their rrespootlve govern- 

- ■ ■ . • 

* ments each of tho tvro eeta of oonnaittoes ehovm above should T>o dele gat X luasiiiitJLEi 



■ •■ , • • •■ ■ 

% potior to" take rapid and flexible action in tho following rcopeovat 



• 



• • 



■ a 

!• Co initiate follow-up .action for tho implementation orc\ the* GpooSal' 



action pro-am 



• ■* 



2* To approve necessary modifications in tho iv>icial action pro^ttsi • 

i 

5* To recorcmend fipGAfittXea "^o improve and adapt the special action program. 



as tho oituatiora chan^aau 






.-. 



r 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



x- - *.-- i . , ii I . 11 ■ I 



» « 4 ., 



I. 




*m€Y 



im 



h JOINT VM-yS-lMEK 

SRAM Mm ITS Fi^AMCli^ 






D 



\h 



SI 




U 



THE RECQFATMNPEP APPROACH . 

o 

THE' RECOMMENDED PROGRAM AIID ESTIMATES 
OF ADDITIONAL RESOURCES NEE&E0. 

y?. MILITARY-INTERNAL SECURITY ACTLQPJ. 



. EMERGENCY ("CRASH") ECONOMIC AfJP 
SOCIAL ACTION. 




ft 



£Z LONGER RANGE DEVELOPMENT TOWARD 
SELF-SUSTAINING ECONOMY. 

o 

/<?#?/ APDITIONAL FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS 

J. DOLLAR FINANCING. . . 

J3. PLASTER* FINANCING 



• ■ 



RECOMMENDATIONS ON ORGANIZATION 

EOj? MORE EFFECTIVE JOINT PLANNING Am ACTION 



, « •* 







FT"-— — "* ? *■ ' ■■ I ■ » ■ — j 



— - — T*~'»* 



SeoDaf cent. JJo.$ A ?? >' 



ar 



-? .. ■■■■ »n ; ■. i - 



U T^ P r.. »' -P ■-- _ Tr - ^— , -,-, I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






i -■"•. <* 



.f 






/ 



' 



lJ\\b 




liHiN 




ra fits 




F?'/rv 



0p» 







CT£,-* 








W ECONOMIC -SOCIAL PBQMEM. 







J Pa a 




nV 



/7/t OC 



Mf, 




/i^ 



/0 M# 





KtdOiUCClb fUK " mt 







Dill I UhlLi/ 



« * 





fit 







mm**.- v-^mrJiZ>9 






• 



^ t . 



-i ■ 



* \- i 






/. i ,»"jii '. 



..,»,■■.,„ „■ . , , 



-r**>-*-» J' I 'Jf .1 i, 'I l 4 . ,,l»- 



Ml J . jl »• )». 



*- =■ *" 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



r 



'• 















<n 



o 










■• 



r r r 



'•* *. 



i 



^ 



ini ■ ni 



r~\3 




r: 3r^i 



B^tfis- 




con 



C~JV\A 



U 




?rr 







m 









:0 





■ 



j"v\,i v 




r. '. 'j 



±T 





/#<S5. 





£/_ mr/9 



W~Ml 



'i^o 





U/& 



•^ — 







#? 




i 



•• % 






ca 





?/pn/? 



i^j\^ 



V 




1^ ..-, ^ 



■* 



- t 



JL V- 



■ ■ w 



- % ^ r *-~-m -t* 



■ 1 ■ ,■ : -V"H ' 



r» » - > —'■ ■ ,; 



. - ' p i. ip. [fc — . , ,,» ■ 



'•' " ' ' » 



■^r 



TBT 



'* **• . « ->- »- 



7— 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



. 



* » - 



/•"* r-" 3 



C f 7 V) U? ; j '-a 



p p- 



1 - ■ 



•a 




7 k L s> 



»#. 



■*■ -- 



REGULAR FORCES - 

(l) ALTERNATIVE A 
(Z) ALTERNATIVE B 

CIVIL GUARD 
LOCAL DEFEfJSE FORCES 
YOUTH CORPS 



196S IS6, 



ISSS 1064 £965 



'ffiLGOD 200,000 
1FO.GOD 200.009 



67,500 

50.000 



W.GOD 
tiS.OGv 

100.000 



200.000 
230.009 



70.000 

59.009 
10$. 000 



200.000 

209M09. 



W.GOD 

^ : 5 ovo 

100.009 



200O0D 



/i7& m €BO 



* 



W.GC9 



ri 



-* * 



SO^CDD 



'Ik\ 



lA- 



* 



70 B£ REACHED DVZW& WE FffiST MONTHS 
OF IOCS 



\V/ *ti -I ^i/v -^ IivnS 



a 



F £3 /?% ffi n &$ 



pp? 



(IN! MILLIONS OF PIASTERS) 



REGULAR FORCES , 

- 

• f/J ALTERNATIVE A 
(2) ALTERNATIVE B 

C/V/l GUARD 
IGSFIL DEFEASE FORCES 
YOUTH CORPS 



I 






6.700 

1.435 

322 



4S 



1962 ISS3 1964 f96S 

- - - ■■■« ■ ' ■ ' * ■ — ■ ■ 

■ 

1.000 
7.000 

IfiQO 






595 



8.200 


8.300 




9.000 


10.200 




1.559 


i.eoo 


1609 




M £% 


o ** **\ 


600 


650 


6ao 



# 



oottorwauoE military equipment. 

TRANSPORT, OR GASOLINE AW Uf&MCAUTS, 



. (in millions of dollars) 



* 



REGULAR FORCES.- 

(1) ALTERNATIVE .A 

• * * * . 

' " (2) AL TERN A Tt VE 3 

CIVIL GUARD 




I ISSS 1953 1954 1965 



62 

62 
■It 



120 

120 

20 



. 7/ 
IBS 



14 



66 
136 



<4 



• && 






12 






- 



L V- 



* DO HOT INCLUDE COSTS TO US OF MAA& 

OPERATIONS (SALARIES, SUBSISTENCE , 
AMJNISTRAT/VE COSTS) ESTi/AATEb 
AT '12 /ML LION/TEAR . ' ■ 






-*^-> ' ■ * I i ■ ti ■ i i i i rr% 



IT T* 



^-•"•r m -mm ** +n l « ■' ■ ■ i-» -i-r . '. ■ -» . -, r t . 



■ -■.- -• 



■ ' ■ ■ i . — ? ^ - 



r ■' ' ' ■ i. .»- 



: 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



»JJ trjjjui**'*'- -i-*- 



■■ . -«»«s£pCiA.v;.; ^i*-j 



■ ■»"*n « 



*\ 



■ 



K n 



D 



n r'A/i rv/ 




D 



^\/7 



M i j\\ u 






}/x.iWllJ y iJ U I. 




vJkJ L.i * 




V/ft\ (XD C TT^P 

wn)j urn. 



/. 





n n 



t _,f L . 



■.:«v. 








in 

Ul/ i U\s/j 




\p 




'Ml 



I Mill 





I 



< ■ 






<- 



« ( 







<s 











'BILUOh 



t 



» * 






., i is 

1 , - ' * 






^ 

* 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 20 11 



WuuLbL !j/,s\L^. if cJ^U u 






r\ ysar-^n 



u^ MOIOiM 




/ f 



\^i 










V\ 




;MA 



U fill* It If ffOMfS 



fcXEi*: 3 - SaKaEaQHEZJa^tflAtl iJUBB"! 



. 



JBES U5 /be&05 S, -Err 2 

CIVIL POPULATION 




I 



i 



..^*:ku«MK.(. 






J ii &- /. 



/. PROVi "A!- ( ' 

m a an s 

* 

<S« KLtmi /ill iJUi KUAdJ3,nJiIL 

ROADS/.: )t X3ES . ' 

JB ^efif^: FACILITIES'.. Le. 

sen s. w a riz 



«s. 



f • I 






< '" **:T" 




M 



- 



.■.^j.^.^. - ,— ■--- »— r — yt aJ . ■ 




. I 



► • 



■.r ;.i: \3,OF-F0ODMDCi 

f/ : & SAD 

7 I m J 

: ; 



r « 
if- J- ..^/ 









■--,.. . 






-■• 



Declassified per Executive Order J 3526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 




l 



jj 



;\v'/ 













I R// 



;:j iO (O, r 







\Rffj\ KAPHAS M 



..... 
I 



\ 



\M 






1 i 03 D COM ML S A/J. 



wj U nATJO/J Pxl 

RADIOL Wj WMSTWG 



T V ? 



Cl 



VILLAGER S 

RADIO lim<A6E0'f VILLAGES (YOUTH CORPS) 

CO/JTEIJT OF LVFORf > f \M 

O 



£// *U/ ^ 






TASKS: EAR. YW&COjVSTRLIC \ . 

ffiO T/OSMZ >liw //J CENTERS, C >IfS f 

SU5SLDI LEMEiJT, ETC. ■ 

EQUIi ; . 5P;Z>J T DGES, BULLDOZERS, 

TRACTORS, GEMi 'AM? SETS, ETC. 



♦ 






v. 



ro f ^ ?*■■?.? *c /^sr ^ 



ii 



,H 







'A/A /, .. jL/ * a^' 

D 1 //*/!/ //i> 






'*&' L **>'<!» f P fe. 






o 



*ffQ4 



D TxAh , ; Or YOlh Cu . . HJ ( 

i -- l i i 

/ ' ' ., \fJMJ, 







■ ■ ■ 



, 



■ 



•"■■■' 



, ,!.U 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



7VU 









0)( !f]AP f M^Aftfl 



>/7 lIJ->. 







] CU^ PltlsjlJi/IIljislf'Jt . 





pm imms 





f%£»UVl 



t 




c::? 



J/ 'f~ ({ / **¥ih% 




o 






£A 



7* 



tmiua P 




%MMflHf\ 

,' < / 1 * / ( ft I' ■ / 




' 7 j 




*5> A f™ ' 







ol6 









4 ; -v :/ 




a /w 



#* 



"7 ^ 



v 5 







< 



c 








> 






i "■ 











., i^i * t! : 





/ t: i()0 

Q « <«*.> VV< U^ : , 




P 



••--, 



I *X*JW1 






■ 









< 






''"'1 






o 



MR* 



■ ",- , . _ 












-■! * ■ - r 



■ 



' / 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 20 11 



A 






! 

- 



LUiiwKl^ ' :■'•■- • - > v >W" l" ! ,|V!U 



« »J «» 1 



■Li NT PLMIU. i)S 



y o 




E 5 YEAR I WA h 



Ji Civ Hi 

mmim ptMum mghimks 




"A 9 PA '^SP 



x tX/EC JS 

















,4 tfOtffl ; 
/AM 

w newt 



L 



EN. ME i WA 'VB.C WAL 
I Wl/B MEMT-LC A. 








m APVANl Of 

M o, WOi i WG-1ERM, 



\ 



■ * • - -t 






f • f\ 

■ J ci 



J 



< 



---» » T ,—— * ^ . 



■*▼*■' — **f **■«■- .. ' ■' ^W **• -* T*V »t*-- 



. 



■ *•"■ — .'■*- --» -_ — +.• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



r 



i 






fa 



m 




p, ? >' 







-v /'.M n l\ v ! i i 




uuC 



J iiV\[] 






rcr\ ni'. 'J 



FffiMPi ifWAi :\^ftii ■ H SOT 









/#|/ l#;7 ; 'Z^/ 



t 



n 



V4- 













■ ■ 







m 








f 



o 








/ wm ' / '* 










C) 




M 




! « 



) 










\iiAi 



u 



$MA II 



■ 



O 



,' ' 






- ._ . 



'■ 'I ! 1, 






._, a.i ■_ i ■ 






* 



w^fff . I I » i w i t - 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



» */.*i>i V.iJt. '. WUb "tw;-«*^- 



L~3 VL^x Li V4 









J \J .1 



EST 








/ L 



HWMTMM I 







/// 1 ay 









r 




r ^2? 






K 



c- 







'I BIT 




U £ ,-, 



i 






• 






/ 




• - 



-'■ 



V £L 



? 



COSTS 







m> 




Pa 



W. IS, 





'■ ') 

* *' ■ ' 



f\ r> 



u 



- 1 ■*■ **•■*»•, ■*•(,% - 



t — — — yy 






- 



• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



to AmJi w hi Im ml 




uim 



ii li^.>"vVi i \\: , -'\\,']VlUj 



'/"* 



'... ' 






I- 



t ? 



\" " - ■* 



a 






196 





ili/c 







//¥ , . 



ifS 






mciJJjjdlLy 







.;■' 







tmciiim J 



Kt/iL 



' /3, 



(0> 

L0 







Ifj'T vf Ii V (ft i ■ 




M 



e 



r) 



O 



t lessen seesesbi 



t> 



» * 








O^' 



t CX 



• 



»,-- 



-<« ' , , * i . ••-*+-- 



• 



-». . i im w 



■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



- -■- -*",■"■ 



- — . _ . 






lira 



! 

i 

Li 










*~ r 



TIM^DJI 



Maoy 



n i 



I - 



d I 



o 



INJbl -''J 






* 





■ 



ESTIMATED 
18 MONTHS GAIN 



CttfiiaKeaT^vrcss:- . 












IMP OJOfl 






r 






■ ■ \ Fl ff ■ '■■■■ 



i, 







( w 












^ 




£t-> r*' 



9 



I 







* 



9 



/ 




// 




i ^ 



J 




. J? ©J/1 ; T/:; 



/; . ] *6.5) 



r* : 



r- ,-\ 



.' 



r 






• - - ■ 



-- -.-•-. 



,-..„. 



- - 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






• 



« & 




JllV.^JU^Jai/ 






1 M 

- 

y 



2 

i 

J 

i 



;'i £ 



51 




. ■- 



Li 










))■ ;.V| ; ij ; 



i m 






n-m ! mv^avi 



par\A 



1 fl 



-.' 




o 



o 









'v? 



1 




t '- n 






I 





Si 



(i * 





S sCei, Wi/l/d is 



P / ' Ul M* 9/ H M ft ID f : ^Ml 



o *\ 



t ) 



(®;>?/ 'Y{c n 




C: 



hrit 8 eir'U 







>-•■ 



i ■ i o 



VI L/u lri< 10 




■ 






/ 







-■ffc 



r y r ) 

.- / 

. • ■ - • - 






■ IK 1 _• - 



" x * - Jl""-— — J" '" - — ,- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 








• 



C¥ 



\1 




-• 



r~a 



P 3 t-tn p r 
P\9H\ fr\ 



I ; 







r 

i 



OV; 



i^' / ^fO) 1 : 




\ 



IN 



^/p /Vj 




PROGRAM SHOULD BE VIEWED 

m i wmif ; 7 i ' as aid pom- ion 

Ik WmTEDM / TOl ' • ' 



/7 i ^ 






■*• 



j >°^> 



£* 






r*-— f 



■/r 






p?98f> 75/ r^ ? ' f C " 




ffzAL-fy ~rt/j\£.f%Jjf* HA^.J^ 'L. f\d Citj 






•T— IT .-- — *-^» 



i ■* ~ j , ■ ■■! ■» ■ ■ » ■« ' ■ — ■ ■ "»••■*- 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 




'■;-, 



rwJs 



'0 



! :K USjtZJ-ill cJC-\:< (Ll. 




J (.-■/ cJ 



} IV EO I FOR 'S. 

EXCW. ' PAVME > l£ 

« 







/M, Ji b h i y 




^ 







£ 



dOt/tf/) / NT // ^ -ci 

B ' F U. -i H/ESTffl % 

fii'lU i uf£( j LUIjoI /en /. V 
f/J, . Zc i ! fc #/« t£. 





t 

* 




few ujiJd£. bwjM .- %3r*lt iPCi brfVLh 










J 



i"^ L> 







:tow 



£ .; 








k/i ft 







! P»>-<| 




V 






PA ' h 

SPEC .K ' . ■ 



-- — 



/ - • 






**%"^ "T, "^# 



- --H 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



r 



•*- ■ * — — 







■ 



pcssxbmj c ' s ib pistes hessifts prom 

US COI-Sffi 3IAL /JO PEOSRAH A2 5EV.'0 LKVELS 
OP /ill) 3RDPOH3S AKD VABIGUS ): I Op 
PIASff EK HE&UZJ SB 30OJ 



1 CAP Import Lsvelt pS* 114*5 ra l- lovel* FT l$6l) 



(billions) 



Gain Oror Cora o Rocaipt 
(W.'Jl'Jxmz of Pi ' >) 



«b0am£wij — "p- -r-^. 



t« cm ■•< ji rf ■ l JJVI.H 



Per yei 



Staring 18 ft\ 



i B. < «^ « i a a » 



!'.'.. --.-.-••' '.'-vv-.r:-.,- V.. Lvil." -V- L- -,.,...-. ."= V---- -1--:.' •. >-.. 



5 



4/l y*elda 



60/l yields 
75«5/l yielda 
lOO/l yiolda 



6*2 

6o9 

11.5 







.7 

2»2 










X o .'. 



5*5 



0.0 



t 



C- 



'2. ■ CAP Saport LsvoIj U5§ 150 a 



... ---,-•--•■ - ■■■■• - ■ - ■•,■:'■-■-■., ' _---.■.' 



»**»»-* v; - ti"^j »■*,-*;>> T ^jt>» THgo'K-^»«Hi — 



t 



54/1 -yl«.ld»-. 
60/l yields 
•75*5/1 yiolda 
lOO/l yields 



0„1 



9*0 



11.0 



15*0 



.9 



2*8 



4.8 



.' 2o9 
7.2 



13*2 



^* ?"' O 









u 



^ 

s 



-i M 



16 



'•S E C R E T 



.• • ■: 






TV 07 i ; - ■■=•-■- 



... .V 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 20 11 



/ 



AIK I FOR PRESIDENT DIEM 



RV . ; OF m) : ID 

RECOlfE©?. EI FOR COi & 






J&u Gilpairic, ; 

2 is, 



Mr. .President, as your American military advisor, I feel this is, 
again, an apprs Late time to review the Military situation. I know you 
also feel that v: are at a decisive iod in the military history of Viet- 
nam, which is today in the v tgu&rd of the Free tibrld's : against 

Co: inism. Events are moving so fast that it "behooves us from time to 
time to j view the events of the recent past so that we nay give letter 
direction to our pre: fc and future activities. 

Largely "because of your keen understanding end assistance , we can 
point t/ith mutual pride to the aecoaiplishrnents of the past few months- 
Although the urgency is g fc and there is still much to do, 1 am particular? \ 
hear i d by the following actions. 



r 



* 



Your a] 1 of the Ar Forces reo; ' Ltion portion of the 
Counter-Insurgency /Ian has established a single" chain of conscand i; m 
JGS through Field Commend to the c aiing units. The most inpo nt 
imple... Lation phase of this reo: ' .n, which I shall later discuss 

at greater length, is now i r way. 

As you know, the actual build up of the 20,000 man increase in the 
RVHAF force structure is now in process with the ati at budgetary 
problems apparently on the way to resolution. At your direction^ certain 
.of these units are now being activated and equipment is beginning to arrive 

for them in significant quantities; 

m 

Also, 1 feel we can both be well pie d with the progress made in 
the overall Civil Guard Program since transfer was effected to the DOD. 

Your establishment of the Central Intelligence Organisation is a- . 
nother improvement which, when it becoi b fully operational,- will, to- 
gether with Military Intelligence improve* , contribute -: atly to the 
counter-insurgency campaign by ensurii g improved Operational Intelli- 
gence to the Armed Foixes. 

Ihe Combat Development t Test Center, discussed with you by 
Mr, Godel and myself, and which you. have authori: also holds great 
•promise of assisting in trie overall Counter-Insurgency effort. 









S E C R E T 




• v 



- 



N 






jj/^ j 



;-'7r j -» 'JO r ! . i ■■-..-; 



*v 



1 - ' 

Mil - 



IV . ..' "... : cf Pases 



* _, 






- c 



7.21 s ■ ■ £&-zL>- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 



Ihese organisational type improvements have been accompanied by 
what I feel is equally ha rtening progress in the long delayed tral id g of 
"RVIIAF forces and the Civil G a.. All fcrai •; programs, ^ both .in- country 
and off-shore,, have "been re~e; \ lined and revised to place addition"! St: 3s 
on anti7gaerrilla tactics and techniques, Many training courses are nov 
. being conducted under the revised programs and results are beginning to 
be felt. 

Immediately folio- " g the transfer of the Civil d to the Depart- 
ment of 3)efcnse ; ve developed a concept of envolo, it for Civil Guard 
units,, \-hich aow serves as the "basic for all Civil Guard training. This 
progr 3u dudes special leadership training as veil as individual unit 
training all oriented to.vrd anti -guerrilla combat. 3^500 of the Civil 
Guard have been trained to date, 6,000 are now undergoing 'dividual 
and unit training at Quang Trung and Song Mao. In addition j 65O are novr 
undergoing DCS and KCO training* 

She linger training program has continued to receive high priority 
and einphasis. As you knovz, a series of U.S. Special Forces teams were 
"brought to Vietnam,, one of lahich is still here, and J1AAG developed a 
prog: :• of instruction vhich was adopted "by KVHAF for Ranger Cadre 
Training, In this res; t^ your E Training Center at Hha 5?ra is 
outstanding. Additionally 3 an on-site unit training program has "been de- 
veloped to further train K lies in the vicinity of their actual 
operational areas using APOTI-US Mobile gaining Teams. 

Closely tied to improver in training is the work now being done 
"by the joint RV:TA* '- i:\AG study group on the MAAG paper/ "luetics and 
Technif of Counter-Insurgent? Operations. 11 This is an important pro- 
ject "because it vill establish ;■ ■ tactical doctrine in the Vietnamese 
Ian,; ge which vill be videly distributed to the Aimed Forces. Once re- 
fined and distributed^ 1 believe ,;:: can expect another significant increar 
in training improvement subsequently in operations. As you l:nov, 
however 1 certain of the concepts proposed in this study ^ because of their 
far reaching and comprehensive nature,, vill require, policy decisions at 
a very high governmental level before the full effect can be gained in the 
field. Hie timing and t diness of these decisions is most essential for 
. anti -guerrilla cor. fc to be successful. 



1 



"in the field of { :tical operations^ yon have authorized MAAC a&- 
\ visors to accc ny h b lion and company- si^e units i ,ed in 

erations^ with the understanding that they vill obs 5 and advise 



S 33 C K S 1 



m 






v 



■ ■ 



r- r\ C) 
*., £ U 



I 



SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



vill not actually participate in hot var activities, liAhG has arranged 
for the same authorisation from U.S. military authorities* In addition* 
HVHAF officers have been eneour< .1 to i . ' closely with U.S. advisors 
in the all important oper fcional p. 1 ning se vhich needs additional * 
emphasis. 



Lso in the field of op ationSj I am particularly pie 1 at the im- 
provements realized in Air-Ground operations . She reaction time on re- 
quests for air support and for ome forces has been signifii bly re- 
duced as a result of impr ■; operational procedures worked out; with 
MAAQ advice j between your Army and Air Force. In this r rd,, a con- 
cept has been developed empl g a specially trained force of company- 
size,, on constant airfield alerts with another company-sisse force equally 
trail d in K~3 J ':- helicopter operations^ on camp alert. This ready force, 
coupled with the airborne capability vill materially increase the ability 
of the KVHAF to counter widely dispersed guerrilla attacks, fhisj of 
course; requires that the primary use of these H~3^\s ^ operational and 
not administrative. 



t ■ 



Ihe foregoing^ Mr. President } are only sone of the achiev rts 
we have realised in the past fev; . ^nny result from close coop- 
eration between the KffiffAF and MkkG, It is this type of cooperation which 
ve both must re-emp] isiae in order to continue our progress toward vic- 
tory over the Viet Cong guerrillas. 

As you >Wj I am convinced > and I have repeatedly given assurances 
to my superiors that the GVJI'has the vill and determination as well as the 
ability to achieve victory if provided with. "required U.S. support and if 
GVS accepted and imp.") mtecl t" ■: militi y b A other supporting reeom- 
ndations contained in the Counter-Insurgency Plan, I am sure you will 

from recent events that the United States vill render the requi 1 
support. We both know that there is general acceptance of the Counter- 
Insurgency recommendations In principle on the part of the GVH« However, 
te are certain specifics re ling their military inzple] ttion vhich 
* would now like to take up with you^ together with sone other closely r 
lated MAAG recommendations* 



t\rn 



One of the major recommendi tions of the proposed Counter-Insurgency 
.Plan waa that a, national Internal Security Council be established to proatul- 
Cate the policy for and to coordinate the preparation and execution of a Vie' 
nasiese Hi 1 Gounter-Insur ncy Plan^ incor; : ; the political; 
economic; psychological, e military aspects or that plan. I realize the 



S E CRET 












* 



-*£? 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



; - \ ,\ »-% 



E C R E T 



co2nple>:ity of this task at the national level and am & e that although 
c bain existing agencies are capable of working in this fields it will take 
BQme time to ±m nt fully this co: rehensivo* but vitally ±m \nt 

toco: 'Mon. I r:erely wish to invito your attention to the u ( mt - 
need for expediting the full active tion and operation of such a Rational 
Agency, 

Another ssatter of urgency at the present tiuna is that of effective 
border and coastal surveillance capabilities for Vietnam. As pointed 
out in the Cou r-Insurgency Plan^ both of these ca; abilities require 
high level coordination arid vUl not be fully imple i A until a national 
agency such as the Internal Security Council is in operation, Ihore &ve } 
however j certain portions of the border and coastal surveillance concepts 
vhieh "can be initiated piecemeal. I know you will agrc : that any action 
uhidh can reduce the ability of the Viet Cong to make full use of the laud 
or sea frontier?! should be ta&en as soon as possible. Naturally j IIAAG 
fcands ready to work "with appropriate agencies of the ] to this end* 



s 






As you know; a portion of the 20 j 000 man force increase vas de- 
voted to the activation of three separate Infantry Regiments, In recom- 
mending these three units ; MAAG intended the creation of a badly ne 1 
rot bional training 1 se so that regiments from those Infantry Divisions 
vhich have,, of necessity,* boon coj.aoitted to hot \?ar operations for ex- 
tended periods of t " could be rotated for badly needed rest; rehabilita- 
tion and retraining in anti- guerrilla tactics » As you know, my superiors 
approved U.S. support of these Regiments^ primrily on my strong per- 
sonal conviction and consc. at recti Station that a rotational capa- 
bility by Regimental size units vas absolutely essential to the adequate 
and timely training of the K \F, SOhere vas ; 'and still ressainsj a crit- 
ical need for such a rotational training plan, especially in the three divi- 
sions in the III Corps area* Biese three nev regtments have, in fact 
been activated and are training toward operational readiness, However, 
I am informed that it is now* proposed to use them in security roles , one 
per Corps area. If so, 1 feel this should be rec< sidereft, Mr. Pre; : rfc, 



\n light of the most urge: 






need to i: >ve the combat effectiveness of 



the e at division:;, now cc Ltted to fighting the Viet Cong and especially 
as the approval of the increai to 170,000 "was made continent on this use 
of the forces, 

7 mentioned earlier v t U.S. advisors are -now authorized to ac~ . 
company / , units on operations &C to \ ttalion and separate company 
level. This is a sir ificant i; ; : ; ;er the fo r arrange snt, 
l advisors v : i at author! to accompany units into operational 



I 



S E C ' S T 



- . ' - • 



>-.— 



r— 



i - 



wOtJ 



r* 



'} 



m i 7 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



S K C R 3^ T 



areas except in exceptional circumstances* While I feel that this is a 
major step fo: rd in the wore effective utilisation of I-1AA0 advisors^ 
I an concerned that this forward looXing i ization is not being fully 

implemented. The ii . iting directive (HVHAF Keiaor* "' > num- 
ber 5^3/ . SA^ elated 5 May 1961) r. ds the decision as to 
vhether or not MAAG advisors are t raitted to aeco- ; u its, largely 
■to ARVI'I field 'command - "based on their est be of "security limits 
imposed by battlefield conditions." While I recognise and concur in t] 
concern of the GVil at all levels regard! \ the securit of U.S. ralitary 
'personnel; 1 feel that :e are often over zealous in their 

desire to insure the one hundred percent security of AG advisors in 
f operational i as - a condition which cannot be att '' . d ui " " % current 
: circumstances. Of course; I do not wish advisors to en; \ in actual 
combat except in self defense. However, 1 feel that lads of absolute 
security measures should not prec] them from, performing their mission. 
In tlie future ; 1 am hopeful that / commanders will avail them* " b 
more frequently of the professional competence available to them through 
MftAG advisory assistance in both the planning and. conduct of tactical 
operations . 

1 am convinced that the most fur; sfttal military recommendations 
contained in the Co\ r-Insu/gency Plan ; those pertaining to reorgani- 
sation of the co: structure and a single c] "n of command* As you, 
know; in my military assessment of the situation .last September; one of 
my basic conclusions was the absolute necessity for a single, inviolate 
chain of cc an&j which could imp] ment an integrated national plan for 
counter-insurgency. You will recall our numerous dir ns and con- 
ferences on this subject prior to your decree 9o/QP and the directives 
which were derived therefrom. In c nee, this import* decree re- 
sulted in elimination of Military Regions ! '1 placed the three '( ps -under 
an operational Field Co ,n&, charged with the conduct of military op- 
erations. Province Chiefs retained certain Eoilitary responsibilities; 
however; the DOD directive specifically placed them within the military ' 
chain of coam-and for miliv . rs. As you know, M AG was appre- 
hensive about the retention of Province Chiefs in the military chain of 
conniand/ I rex, we felt t : ; your decree represented a v :able 
solution : : I \jzre enthusiastic a"; t the opportunity for improves in 
this vital area. In recent weeks, he -er, during the detailed i?:rolementa- 
tion of these directives s< tendencies have developed which; if not 
checked, -.will ne?g ' .0 are both trying, to accomplish. I refer spe- 
cifically to sore ; s of violation of the officially establish 1 chain 
of co: 3 and to difficulties in isolating and defining \ : : of the 
Province Chief; as pertains to nil ry affairs. 



i 



SBC R E 

. - ■ I ■ - . 



" - 



K <~ 



*» 



V 



« - 



*"* *■- ,- 

rtOJ 



.. . _ , . - 



-' 



- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



B i! C R K T 



i *. it 



X am sure you agree that the military chain of c 1 ; to be 
effective; wist be r acted by all - both subordinates and superiors 
alike. Confidence in the cc and va.is fundaitiental to military 
operations arid X am convinced that a al plan for counter-insurgency 
cannot successfully be administered v it* Naturally* if cc ters 
are byp: . sd or tl -ir o; i rs counterman : ij they are unable to make ef- 
fective plans 1 it is most difficult to execute a essful operations vith 
in their ass3 ad areas of responsibility. 

Of course j unfor circumstanc vill often develop requiring 
the iiranediate cc • of security forces in a particular area. 3?ro« 
vided such a requirement is levied i&rough the no:... 1 chain of military 
cc andj the jaission can normally be accomplished with minimum dis- 
ruption of training^ security and operations against the Vict Cong* In th 
respect; I have received reports recently indicating that major c rid 
^elements have b bypassed; both up and dovn the chain of command. 

i 

In this regard; I must also report that in establishing the 
of military cc and^ in certain cases problems have bean encountered ±n 
'defining the role of the Province Chief within that chain* The directives 
are clear that the Provii e Chief; in his role of a military co: der^ is 
vithin the milii y chain of cc : i aid. However; above and beyond the 
nor/rial Civil Guard Force iSiich en t igned to each province ; the 
Province Chief should not automatically assume c and of all military 
units physically pi snt in his province but should do: 1 only those 
forces allocated to bin by his next h.igb military superior j no: ally the 
Division Taci lL gone Colander, This arrange it 1.d p of course,, par- 
allel to the system at the Corps level; vhich seems to be understood ^oy 
all. For (- plo; the Corps Cc r does not cc .end units of the 
General R serve me: ly becc ;> they are physically present in 
his Corps Tactical Zone. Rather; such units must be allocated by Field 
Cc tnd or JOS before the Corps Co; ncler e>:ercis co: or 
control. I feel it essential t the same principle p: /ail at Province 
level. While I fully unde and the dual capacity of Province Chiefs as 
military and civil leaders; I feel that tfaii dual position must be brought 
into harmony with the need for clear-cut c sis and unit 

assigj •■'■■■. ■ on the military side. Other,." ■;?; piecemeal ass/ . tent* as 
■already r.ted, of ARVU battalions .to- Province. Chiefs could veil result, 
xn the conduct of 37 miniature canpaigns ~ each one proceeding at its o\m 
.pace i 1 intensity; rather than a nati' al ca: : ,. against V Viet Cong 
►in accordance vith a cohesive; coordinated p3 ■■.. 



6 



S K C R E T 



} : . 



f- ,• 



■ o2 



1 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



S B C R E T 



Ano there area to vhich I must invite your attention has to do h the 
Utilisation of the H-3'.- helicopter squadron* This aire ift is not a si&gple 
item of equx ni, and I am fully aware of the complex problems involved ■■ 
having to do with maintenance and specialised pe: sonnel* However , it : 
potentially one of the most effective items of equip it in the hands of 
KVHAF for defeating the Viet Cong. The helicopter provides superior 
mobility over all types of terrain j and as you know guerrilla warfare is 
essentially mobile warfare- Increased effort is necessary to expedite the 
training of troop units in helicopter "borne operations* To accomplish this, 
priority utilization of these aircraft must he given to this training^ and to 
the subsequent use of helicop rs on their primary mission of combat 
operations. Daring ny inspection of the 21st Division Operation in Vinh 
Birih Province; 27 June, there were only tvo of the six operational H-3^ r s 
,de available for operations. As you kndwj these H»3^ ls vere delivered 
ahead of schedule by my government only upon wy insi stance that they were 
urgently required for actual hot var military operations. Although these 
aircraft are being used in important combat support missions, increased 
operational use of H-S'^'s is required to justify this earlier delivery. 

Also, during my inspection of the 21st Bivii. \ Operation mentiora d 
above, I noted an a rent lack of adequate prior planning and coordination 
between the civil i "nistrative functions of the Province and the military 
opera tion. On this seve: lay of the military operation, the Con&canding 
General, Field Command^ Cor .ding General, III Corps, the National , 
Delegate and the Province Chief were folding a meeting to coordinate and 
resolve problems of a combined politico-military nature. Ihese included 
the problems such as the mov it of villagers and civil control after 
completion of the military phase, As you recall^ the concept of prog save 
coordinated, phased clearing of the country, spelled out in the Counter- 
Insurgency Plan and the Tactics and Techniques paper, requires a high 
degree of civic-military coorci tion in all ar , and particularly in areas 
where actual fighting is taking place, ©lis is especially important not only 
prior to and during the operation, but following it. Active and positive 
cooperation between the Province administrative authorities and the mili- 
tary coi 3 is essential to ensure a coordinated. .pacification of the 
area plus the all important follow-up and lake over by the Province author- 
ities. Only in this vay can permanent results he obtained - by denying the 
Co ists re-entry into the area after the operation has been cample 
Trie overall concept of the Province Chief vlsIi the Civil Guard and Self 
Defense Corps to perform this mission is Gcur.d but requires close super- 
vision and coordination in each major clearance operation by KVHAF* , 



S E C R B T 



i 
- 



r-"- ■ 


, - »y- -. .- - .--,'.««...«.- i •- J . 1 '.. J .r _"» .. 




■v 








' - ' '" -:• 'j . 




' "v.. 



-' 



• - 



'-. ' •«. 



i. 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



S E C R E T 



Another element of RVHAF which hac a greater capability for ef- 
fective operations against the Viet Cong tHan v at. .present is the River 
Forces of the V3SH. Tvo {general pro! i an are currently preventing * 
more effective employment- ' 

Ifae first is the problem of joint planning. 1'ne operational com- 
mander of the River Perce is Coniraai ; General^ III Corps,, As an 
Arsay Coriander ; he cannot he expected to know the many details of how 
test to employ the potential combat and s port capabilities of these forces. 
I feel the solution lies in est hlishment of a joint planning section vith 
Naval representation on the Corps staff. Given proper tec" aical advice, 
the Corps Colander could then realize much more effectives from 
the River Forces, ■ ■ 



r ihe second problem area is sup i for the River Forces^ to in- 
clude additional draft ; "better priority for maintenance ^ increased com- 
i-and recc Lion and assistance vith some acute personnel problems to 
include officer shor ges and an equitable promotion policy within the VHN 
Military missions should also he coc :;ed vith civilian requirements 
for these craft. 



i i 



In addition^ as i? ifl .icated in the Virih Binh operation; hotter coordi- 
nation with respect to the Sea Forces in Joint Operations appears races- 
,sary. Ihis coordination should he accomplished at Joint General Si ff 
level. AH igfa s< p: ^planning was accc lished at Joint Staff levels 
difficulty was experienced in coordination vith the ground operation. 

.Another important progressive step was the establishment of three 
logistic commands; or^ in each of the three Corps areas- This is re- 
sulting in the coordination of the six technical services in the field and is 
producing mate Lally improved logistic sui rt for the combat forces 
assigned to the Army Co , A3 >; I am pleased to note that the KVHAF 
Deputy for Logistics; General To ; has "been given a degree of increased 
coordinating authority. However,, t": ire still remain i-r ray complicated 
delaying procedures vhieh : Lr the effectiveness of 1c : tic support to 
c at units, It at rs particularly desirable that some of the ABA 
fiscal functions he decentralized to permit prompter response to the needs 
of co hat units*" 

Another matter which I consider of sufficient irrpor' . to hrin^ to 
your p s onal att i is the 3 mediate i juirem-ent for additional civilian 
personnel in the technical service depots and other logistic installations. 



. 



SECRET 



■ - - - * 



• %. 



*— 



' - 



.A 



v » 



-v 



<:.*- 



,)-•;. 



• 



*V "V 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 J 6. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



S E C R E T 



As of * 31 May 19ol, tkere ^ ; -s a cumulative she gs of 568 civilian per- 
sonnel from the 1^821 authorized for the 1$0>000 RVKAF force level. Ko 
new c bhori^ations have been i le to provide the inc] ved capability re- , 
quired for .the 20*000 man incn i e and the MAP support of t 68,000 
Civil Guard force* Additional pe; pent as .11 as t : ry civilian 
personnel are most urgently needed so that the technical services will be 
able to properly receive^ account for* store^ issue j and maintain the 
significant tonnages of supplies and equipment scheduled to arrive on an 
accelerated basis begin: tag in mid-July. Although an interdepartmental 
commission Has been or' blished to solve this problem* little pro* - 3 
has been made in augmenting the e n technican force. The inability 
of your technical services to process these supplies could veil retard the 
entire training and supply program. As KMG has made the urgency of 
this program its main reason for b ry re commendations ^ this must 
not happen. 

I know that you share riy concern that the officers and n of Viet- 
nam's military and para-military forces shall be veil uniformed and 
equipped as individuals, Tne transfer of the military clothing factory 
from its present inade ate quarters on Dai Lo 9?ran Hung Eao to a more 
spacious facility in the Quartier Pasteur is a matter of the greatest urgency* 
5Ehe capacity of the existing uniform factory* 35; 000 cc at uniforms per 
month ^ is entirely inadequate to meet the demand - particularly since the 
supported forces basis has 1 tly increased - and the short: will 
become most critical by mid-July. Hew power sewing machines have T 1 
procured from the U.S. but the moc tion to the new facility will not be 
completed until seme time af,ter the arrival of these machines in Saigon. 
In addition to action already in process j I feel that we must take additional 
urgent action to solve this problem, as soon as possible. 



One final rcajor r or J would like to iaention has to do with the all 
important continv improvement of ARVIT tactical operations, As a re- 
sult of its responsibility for continuing a ysis of operations against f 
VC* my £ ff has developed a synthesis of what apj to be recurring 
£ hne.sses .in the preparation for* and the conduct of } tactical operations 

y GVil forces. 1 have disci d these f: time to tine with appropriate 
RVSFAF general officers and shall* of course, continue these discussions 
in the future. 1 have also furnish* neral Ty and General Minh with full 
. details of the MAAG analysis. There are seven general areas which re- 
' quire the continued attention of all concc- ■ -d in' order to achieve the de- 
sired iinpr ovesent . Briefly stated; they ar« : 



SECRET 



V 



*-- ■ 



y - - - - 









I, 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



S E C R E T 



COi: ID AKD COCTKOL: 

... 

'There appears to "be too icuch delegation of responsibility . and too 
little centralized control of tactical operations. Of course, decentrali- 
zation in tactical operations is go 3 pr* Ice, if sufficient centralized 
.control is maintained to ensure active supervision by higher cc re- 
, Such is not alv ; the case, however, "because of a somewhat natural 
\ tendency for higher cc anders to stay fixed in offices and C?'s instead 
;of gett out with subor&in* bes to vhom control has been delegated, to 
inspect j supervise, and give guidance needed to take advant of the 
developing tactical situation. In this regard., an essential adjunct to 
strengthening the chain of command is the establishment in the RVKAF of 
an effective inspection system- 

3IWBBQUATS 1 LXGEHCE ABD IffiCOIIITAXSSAHCE 

large forces, up to battalion size, are at times committed viihout 
sufficient knowledge of enemy locations- Consequently, these operations 
often produce negative results and are vast 1 of tine, energy and re- 
sources! Equally important, as they are non-productive, they are harm- 
ful to the morale and esprit of the officers i a. Better intelligence 
coordination bet. x civil and military intelligence agencies are indicated, 

IHCOMPISTE PL' IIHG: 

• 

In maoy ARVIF operations, the planning enphasis appears to be 
primarily 021 a scheme of usaneuver, with inadequate attention to sue!) 
other important aspects as sound coord:' tion, tea- ;jorh ; task organic 
zation, fire support, air support, communi cations, supply and resupply, 
and administration. Each phase must he thought through and planned for 
in detail, from the initial recoana:u ance to locate the enemy, to his final 
destruction. Appropriate pL Lng, units and resources must be allocated 
to each of these phases if ve are to be successful, 



USB OP -PROVISIONAL EftSK I 



3, 



Operations are too often conducted by makeshift, "provisoire, " task 
forces urder a provisional co: tider, v':. j there are available regular 
unite of appropri* t* size and cosiDOsition, A- co. .;;der vho finds a 
issaeclikte opportunity to gain a victory, "p erly c its everything at 
his disposal into battle - often with provisional organizations* Bais, how- 
ever, should be the exception, not the rule, Bie reason for units such as 



SECRE 5 






.\ 






, 






* 


■r ,- , . 

no 

* • 

r 




* - 

* 

* * 


' 




m 


#* 


■ . - 


.- j- 




** 




■ 


■vr * : 




r 




*% 






■ . 




C "; **' i {>,' 








Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET 



divisions* regiments and battalions is to provide a coordinated* smooth 
functioning testis c ; -ble of applying the oper degree of eosibat power 
to fit the specific situation. The colanders of such units,, %krc la " 
prior training exercises* have developed a 1 -i* they l-now their sub- 
ordinates per: lly « they understand the unit's capabilities and limiti 
tions. Such is not normally true with "provisoire" organisations, 

OVE- ! . 3XS OH EBRRAIH OBJECTIVES: 



Junior leaders tend to become "fixed 1 * upon a particular terrain 
objective and there have been instances vhere opportunities to destroy 
VC have been Iqst in order to occupy a terrain objective on schedule* 

I The solution lies in increased eiirphasis on the job of Jailing Viet Cong. 

\ Subordinate cc Landers must be constantly ^reminded that their primary" 

; mission is to destroy the Viet Cong who nonzBlly hit and then run to avoid 

! casualties. 



IMPROPER AHD INSUFFICIENT USB OF AIR AM) AETXIEEKE: 



c 



Air and Artillery support are weap the VC do not possess and 
cannot effectively counter, Their advani must be exploited to 
aaxl urn. In many instances cos anders do not adequately plan in 
advance for this support. Air sup] art of operations,, properly planned* 
coordinated with the ground force's* and timely executed* provides the 
I ground comma] '. r extremely effective support, Too often* ground 
! artillery support of operatipns lias been unobserved fire by i. is of nap 
•coordinates. This is the moat ineffective type of fire support and should 
^rarely be used. Artillery support* for isaxiraum effectiveness; i be . 
observed and adjusted by observers on the ground with the forces being 
supported or in the air and in consro dLcation with the ground forces, 
Artillery end air support* \:hc:re applicable* must be preplanned vnd 
integrated into the overall plan for all major operations, 

; 53SD FOE JW OFFENSIVE SPIBIT: . , 

Despite improves nt in this area* there is still too much reliance 
on defensive operations and reaction to Viet Cc initiative rather than 
taking the actual initiative ourselves. The ultr : solution does not lie in 
'defending against the guerilla* but in boldly and energetically attacking 
him. Anti -guerrilla filters imist gal nd maintain the initiative and 
truly -becc le the hunter rather than the hunted. The Viet Cong often re- 
tains the initiative* even t h we take the offensive This is because he 



- 



\ 



C R. .i 



si 



r> . v 



S 



\ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



E E C R E T 



• wm. **-« •»* --» «■* »•— 4^» -1* 



strikes unknown out of the jun. " s, swamps or mountains and then fades 
] amy again* To prevent this, the KVHAF must penetrate and control 
! these Viet Cong safe areas. Although the key to success is the spirit of 
the offensive j to permit the guerrilla to retain the initiative is to court 
ultimate defeat, 5he Viet- .■:■: : a Forces, to an ever increasing degree, 
must continue to c rry the fight to the enenjy, rather than permit him to 
select the time and place for battle. Larger guerrilla \ must "be hit 

in their assembly areas and smaller groups must "be hunted down and 
destroyed le;' they are able to accomplish their mission, This, of 
t course ; requires proved patrolling and training; a clii 'e of assist- 
ance "by trie population to ensure accurate, timely intelligence* the ulti- 
mate in offensive spirit together with tactical in ation at all levels, and 
the highest order of t 11 unit 1 rship. Our current training programs 
are oriented in this direction but much remains to "be done to c tre 
uaaximum results, 

Tiiis concludes jay discussion, Mr- President, Although we have 
previously tour i on many of these matters in our many discussions, I 
felt I should review the considerable accomplish! its we have made as 
a cooperative team, and highlight those ar< as in which I feel further cor- 
rections and improv leUts are reouired* 



I am co dent that, by continuing to work together we can build an 
efficient fightd force, led by colanders duly invested with adequate com- 

nd authority, and the fighting capabilities of the Armed Forces of Viet- 
nam will continue to improve. 



I £ 






SECRET 



\ *• 



r v 1 






f , 



x - 

*3 . 






r - q q 



v 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 




. **.* « r , » , - fc . 



TJ -III. JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF 

* 

WAS III N GTON 2S, D* C. 



prrnvcn 



11 59 



:• • i i 

li i: ■• ■»• 









' ■ ! 



;• 



.v V- 



/ fc - -Mr £ 



JCSM-518-6J 






MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF D ■: F 






Subject: Increase of GVN Armed Forces to 270, 10 (C) 



1, Reference is made to the moraoranclum by the Acting Assistai 
Secretary of Defense (ISA) dated. 10 July 19&Ij subject as abovo a ro- 
QuestiTiP.*thc Joint Chiefs of Stafi to submit rc-coniner ;jons on in*- 
creasi g the Republic of VJ An Forces (RVNAF) to 270, 000. 



( 



• 



2. The Joint Chiefs of Staff do not belie- ve that an ultimate for( 

■ 

of 270, 000 would be required to enable the RVNAF to conduct counU*r- 
insurgency operation ; and concurrc tlly be prepared to meet overt 



aggression 



3,- The Joint Chief:; of Staff are of the opinion that for the for; 
able future the fores objectives for Vietnam of a nine division equivalent 
force (200,000) is adequate, Ti\e Joint Chiefs of 11 con i u to 

assess the Gov, rrunont of Vietnam (GVN) and'RVNAF capabilities a no 
will b"7 prepared to recommend increases in the force objectives* for 
Vietnam should circumstances indicate there is a requirement. 



w 



x 






"4. The Joint C F of Staff recommend tl : 

a,. ,The str< tegic force objectives for Vietnam rr:nhin at the 
nine division ecuivalenl force level (200, GOO), subject to future 

as see sme tit. 



t • 






€ 



> ' - 






Cc 



/ cr .- • - -C-P- - nau 



C-- . 



.;/ 



« ■ 



. . - 



v* .-*•■- ■ r ', - ■ ■ • ' " 

or Jr. !'■-•'- - :; ■^'•" 



er, i--i •••■•■ ■'■'■ 



- 



..A. 



! -- 



I < V 



■ . 1 - *■* 



/■ '-■ ■ - .:. 



po: i ■ : 3- ■" ' ; °- L " 



j. ;,, ... u »-*»ij "• 






IFF. .■-. - F-.- ! t .< -' . • • -•» 

;;-;;■. . I 3 Dl£ S200.10 



•"■j 



— N"-* • 






5 I 



i 






r Gont. ] ';>. /JT33 i % 




y s 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



.. n 



*- . 



,i * >■ 



,-■ — "> f "\ T~\ r" 



• 



, . .... t, » » *h i£ 



b. Priority efforts be continued to enhance the capabilities 
of the already author izccl 20, 000 RVNAF augmentation, 1^8, 000 
Civil Guard (CG), 48, 000-52, 000 Self Defense Corps CSDC).anr] 
the rotation and retraining of existing forces, 



For the Joint; C ? ii Ts of Staff: 

kOJ)^0 /— 



V"; y ' -"i ^ jn s 



'\S 



Ix. I,. LEMNITZ3 

Chairman 
Joint Chiefs of St; 

I 




* 



! , 






% c 



,j t<% 



■ ' t ^ -- 



•1 



r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



THE WHITE HOUSE 
Washington 






£ 



August 11, IS 



NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION i : .13UM NO. 65 

(Supplement to National Security Action Memorandum K . [?2, 
dated May 11 1961) 

TO: The Secretary of State 

SUBJECT: Joint Program of Action with the Government of Viet-Nam 



Following his review of the "joint Act Program Proposed by 
the Viet -Nam-United States Spec:! 1 Financial Groups to President Ngo 
Dinh Diem and President John F. Kennedy," the President on August *4 
made the folio " g decisions: 

1. The President agrees with the three basic tenets on which 
the recommendations contained in the Joint Action Program 
are based , namely: 

a. Security requirements must, for the present, be 
given first priority. 

b. Military operations will not achieve lasting results 
unless economic and social programs are continued 
and accelerai 

c. It is in our joint interest to accelerate measures to 
achieve a self-; Lng economy and a free and 
peaceful society in Viet-Nam, 

2* The United States will provide equipment and at- iistance in 
training for an increase in the armed forces of Viet-Nam 
from 170,000 to 200,000 men. In order to make this in- 
crease as effective as possible, the United States and Viet- 
Ham should sati . themselves, before the time when th< 
level of 170,000 is reached, on the following points: 






2^1 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



a. That there then exists a mutually agreed upon geo- 
graphically phased strategic plan for bringing Viet- Cor., 
subversion in the Republic of Viet-Narn under control. 

b. That on the basis of such a plan there exists an under- 
standing on the training and use of those 30,000 addi- 
tional men, \ 

c. That the rate of increase from 170,000 to 200,000 will 
be regulated to per t the most efficient absorption 
and utilization of additional personnel and material in 
the Vietnamese armed forces h due regard to 

Viet-Nairt's resources. 

3. In view of the fact that the force level of 200,000 will probably 
not be reached until in 1963* a decision regarding the 
further increase above 200,000 will be postponed until next 
year when the question can be re-examined on the basis of the 
situation at that a. Meanwhile, the build-up in equipment 
and training of the Civil Guard and Self -Defense Corps within 
already agreed, levels should* be expedited. 

k* Within the limits of available funds, the United States will pro- 
vide the external resources required to implement the Joint 
Action Program, including commodity imports which can be 
justified and absorbed under the seven criteria of the J t 
Action Program (pp. 20-21). The parallel Committees of 
the United States and Viet-Nara will immediately cooperate in 
working out target estimates for an port program that will 
give the United States Government a basis for planning, 

5. In order to direct the resourc of Viet-Nam to the highest 
priority requirements, Viet-Ram shoitLd be strongly urged 

to undertake to generate piasters through the several means 
spelled out on pp. 22-23 of the Joint Action Program. 

6. Strongly u ■ ;e early implementation by the Vietn sse of the 
recommendation reg Lng tax rei m and the princr s of 

a single and realistic rate of exchange. 



2ll j 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



7. 'ie Ambassador should make c~ r to President Diem 

that if this is to be a truly Joint effective effort, action. „ 
by each country must be related to that by the other. In 
particu , the U.S. attaches g t importance to the 
reasonable implementation of the agj criteria governing 
imports; we also consider the gaining of the effective piaster 
rate applicable to U.S. commodity aid, to which it is under- 
stood President Diem has already agreed, to be an indispensable 
part of our effort. Action by Viet-Nam on both of these matters 
will be very closely related to the U.S. contribution to the 
over-all effort. The Ambassador is authorized to assure 
President Diem that increased piaster realization per 
dollars worth of imports Till not be used as a reason for 
reducing the U.S. share of our joint efforts. 

8. The President directs the Director of International Cooperation 
Administration to conduct through USQM Viet-Nam and in co- 
operation with app priate Vietnamese experts, a through 

and expeditious review of the new proposals for em eney 
social action outlined in Section B of the Joint Program and 
of p ady ui rway which these proposals are 

intended to suppler t. 

9. In order to derive long-r benefits from our joint efforts 
to win in the present emergency, Viet-Kam needs long-range 
planning. Accordingly, urge 1 Vietnamese to create more 

e< ctive planning m r inery to develop a lo ge plan and 
urge them to expedite the training of staff to carry on plar.ziing 
activities.* The Parallel C ittees should develop specific 
development projects in line with the general rec lations 
in the Joint Action Program. 

10. Make clear, to Diem that we hope that one consequence of our 

new joint efforts will be an effective projection to the nation, 
its friends and its enemies, of our confidence in a long-ran^ 



* Such planning activities should, inter alin , cover such particu] Ei 
as the use of medical manpower and teachers, for which Viet-Nana 
has cc Lag .civilian-military requi? bs< 



& 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



future for an Independent Viet-Nam. In this connection 
the Ambassador should seek discreetly to impress upon 
President Diem that he should use the total U.S. program 
for the greatest political effect in his achievement of maxi- 
mum appreciation of his government "by the people of 
Viet -Ham and the people of the world. (it is hoped that 
the Ambassador will continue his efforts to persuade Presi- 
dent Diem to er ore folly in his civic action program 
no n- Communist elements now in political opposition.) 

11, The Parallel Committee should be given a maximum delegation 
of authority to assure follow-up action, approve modifications 
of the program and rr reo aend measures to improve and 
adapt the Special Action Program as the situation changes." 
In this connection, the President has emphasized that the 
chief responsibility for the planning and execution of the 
U.S. share of the program will, more than 'ever, rest with 
the Ambassador and, under his direction, with MAAG and 
USOM. 

12 .The President shall be informed of matters arising in the 

implementation of this Joint Pr i requiring his attention 
so that they may receive his im Hate consideration. 



McGeorge Bundy 



Information Copies to: 

The Secretary of Defense 

The Director , Inter al Cooperation Administration 

The Director, United States Information Age . 

The S etary of the Treasury 

The Director, Bureau of the I ct 

The Director of Central Intelligence 



2^ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



S E C U E X 



Ave *y*y$j-&/ 



PROSPECTS FOR NORTH AND SOUTH VIETNAM 



— 



THE PROBIEM 

To assess the situations in North and South Vietnam, to analyze the nature and 
scope of the Communist threat to South Vietnam, and to estimate the prospects for 
the next year or so. 



CONCLUSIONS 



i 



t 



i 



■v..— 



1. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam 
(DRV) has thoroughly consolic d its 
political control in North Vietnam and, 
with extensive Bloc assistance, will prob- 
ably continue to make rapid economic 
progress. Regimental] on and food short- 
ages have increased public unrest and 
dissatisfaction and resulted in sonic 
slackening of discipline among local offi- 
cials. However, there is no significant 
organized opposition. The modera t i n g 
influence of the aged Ho Chi Minh has 
v vented policy differences among top 

'" / leaders from erupting into serious 
v iraparty strife. When Ho is no longer 

tive there will probably be a struggle 
for power between the Moscow-oriented 
and- the Pelping-oriertted elements of the 
party. (Paras. 13, 15, 21, 23-25) 

2. There is some dis tisf action in South 
Vietnam with Diem's leadership amo3 
members of the cabinet, t he bureaucracy, 
and the military, arising out of the serious 
internal security situation and irritatioj 

.i Die lem of family rule -Diem 



- 



- - - - - ■ 

■ 



has initiated a number of political reform 
measures, but probably will not relinquish 
his highly centralized method of govern- 
ment control. The degree of dissatisfac- 
tion will probably be directly related to 
the success or failure of the Government 
of Vietnam (GVK) efforts against Com- 
munist guerrilla and subversive activity. 
(Paras. 31, 34, 39) 

3. The army will continue to be a major 
factor in future political developments in 
South Vietnam, We helix that the 
chances of a military coup have been re- 
duced by recent manifestations of US 
support of the Diem government and by 
the substantial increase in US aid to help 
South Vietnam meet its internal security 
problems. Although there has been a d - 
crease in indications of coup-plotting 
within the military in recent months, cer- 
tain basic dissatisfactions with the na- 
tional leadership persist. If the fight 
the Viet Cong s poorly during 
the next year or the South Vietname 
Army suffers heavy casualties, -tl 






SECRET 



1 



;. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SEC R K T 



i chances of a military coup would substan- 
) lially increase. (Para. 37) 

4. A major Hanoi-directed Communist 
offensive against the Diem go it 

and directed toward reunification of Viet- 
nam under Communist control is uncle 
way. The Communist apparatus in 
South Vietnam, the Viet Cong, now prob- 
ably has more thi 12,000 hard-core 
members and s ral thousand supporters 
engaged in guerrilla warfare, terrorist 
operations, political and propaganda ac- 
tivity, sabotage arid intelligence ac 1 ivities. 
This campaign is intended to assert Com- 
munist authority over increasingly large 
parts of the countryside in anticipation 
of setting up fully "li!_3ral areas" in 
which GVN authority is effectively denied, 
or of so weakening the Diem government 
as to precipitate: its overthrow, or both. 
At present, more than half of the rural 
area in the productive and highly pop 
lated region south and southwest of Sai- 
gon, as well as several areas to the north- 
west of Saigon, are under extensive con- 
trol of the Communists. (Paras. 50-51) 



l K 



5. We believe that the Hanoi regime will 
increase the pace and scope of its para- 
military activity during the next ft 
months. South Vietnam's urban centers 

ill probably be subjected to mere Lng 
f-ct Coiig terrorism. • Further Vict Cong 

'/tempts to assassinate Diem are likely. 
However, we believe that with continued 
.high levels of US aid and a strenuous and 
effective GVN effort, the problem of Viet 



Cong control of large areas of the coun- 
tryside can in time be re 1. (Paras. 
58-60) 

6. Even if the GVN does reduce Viet Cong 
strength, it will require continued m - 
mum effort—military, political, and eco- 
nomic—to maintain its authority. South 
Vietnam will not be able to seal com- 
pletely its borders with th Vietnam, 
Laos, and Cambodia to the infiltration of 
material and personnel from North Viet- 
nam. (Paras. 60 61) 

7. Thus, the outlook in South Vietnam is 
for a prolonged and difficult struggle with 
the Viet Cong insurgents. At the same 
time that the government is prosecuting 
the military campaign in the war against 
the Communists, it will have to act to pre- 
vent internal weaknesses and strains from 
causing its collapse. Pathet Lao and 
North Vietnamese forces already control 
most of southern Laos except for towns 
along the Mekong, and if a Communist 
or leftist government comes to power in 
Laos the GVN struggle against the Viet 
Cong will take on new, more perilous di- 
mensions. If there is a serious disrup- 
tion of GVN leadership as a result of 
Diem\s death or as the result of a military 
coup any momentum GVN's coimterin- 
surgency efforts had achieved will be 
halted or reversed, at least for a time. 
The confusion and suspicion attending 
a coup effort could provide the Commu- 
nist an opportunity to se\ control of 
the government. (Paras. 61-62) ■ 



■ 






*-- ■ - ■•_ 



K-. 



^ 



s > 



-. .. 






• 



( 



- r 






■ h 



6 

■- ' * 

--' 
'■ 
\ 

4 ' 

- 
f . 

■ x ' * 

i 

* 

•t \ 



.4 



- N 



3 ■ 

_ - 



4 / 

* 

< • 



■ ■ - 
+ - 



P 



■ 



• 



r 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



; - \ 1961 /IS' 29 19 03 : TMB vvhitb i iousc 

'•■' . . * 'WASH I N GTO N 



« 



i . . " 






- ' CF? SECY Cr DEFEKSE 

NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMOR ANDUM NO, 80 

August 297 1961 



r 






I' 

4- 



■ ^■' *-** — .#■■- 



■I 



SECRET 



Dccisi.onB approved by the President at the Meeting on Southeast 
Asia j August 29, 19 61 



••-»-* .* t . - — 



Participants: . ■ 

The Secretary of Defense • Mr. Alexis Johnson ^" 

The Secretary of State Mr, John Sleeves - K \ 

The Attorney General Mr. Robert Johnson - » 

- 

Ambassador Harriman ' General Taylor * Z.: 

Mr. Allen Dulles Mr. Bundy' . v 2 

General Lemnitzer . ' < " : ' : 

Mr, Edward MurrOvv •'. :: 

The President approved the following actions; . V 



H ^ 



•vt 



- -% 



£- 

-*-■ -.• • 

v - ■ 

•>■ . . ■ 

■h : 

* %* - > 

•■ 

.*' . 

* -' . • 



1. An intensification of the diplomatic effort to achieve agree- 
ment to the Paris proposals on the part of Souvanna, especially by 
direct conversations between Ambassador Harriman and . I - Al 

Sow/anna* with an emphasis not only upon the interlocking ■ >■ 
importance of the Paris proposals* but also upon U* S. support — . 

of Souvarma in the event that lie accepts the Paris plan* 



«>.. 



-. . w •>• f 



2, Authorisation to undertake conversations with SEATO allies 
both bilaterally and with the SEATO Council, exploring the pos- 
sibility of an enlargement of the concept of SEATO Plan 5, It 
must be understood that this exploration was in the nature of con 
t-ingency planning and did not represent a flat commitment of the 
;••/"' . United Stateq lo participate in such an enlarged enterprise, 



*i 



3. An immediate increase in mobile training teams in Laos 
'to include advisers down to the level of the company j to a total 
U„, S.. strength in this, area of 500, "together with an. attempt to 
get Thai agreement to supply an equal amount of Thais for the 
same purpose* . ■ . 



* ■-■ 



, , A~' . , ■ SECRET' ....I 






". 



- ' - 



•, *' « 



* 



T • - 







I 1 - 

. i 






^ /^?. / •■'-'• \ ■■-•.. .-^:. 



■ l '." ■ ' 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 20! 1 



/, 






4, An immediate increaee of Z t 000 in the number of Mcos being 
supported to bring the total to a leva! of 11, 000. 



5. Authorization for photo-reconnaissance by Thai or sanitized 
aircraft over all of Laos. 



. i 



It re assumed that these actions will be carried out under the 
general direction of the Southeast Asia Task Force under the 
direction of Deputy Under Secretary Johnson. 



i 



/Signed/ McGeorge Bundy 



CORRECTED page to National Security Action Memorandum No. 80, 
August 29. 



* 



— . fc*V' 












i - 



■' * 






■ * 




5 v 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



- ■ 



THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAF 

WAS! . 1 NGTON 2.5, D.C. 






17 . 29 



CFF SECY OF DEFENSE 



* 



) 



• . j*- .. ■■■ * 



J in - . L ' r •■ ■"• v ■ 



><»>. 






JCSM-661-61 



V 



* 



MEMORANDUM )R THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 



Subject: Plan for Military Intervention in Lao? (C) 



1* Enclosed herewith is a proposed draft for a State-Dei se 
memorandum to the President concerning a plan for military intervention 
in Laos* 

2, The Joint Chiefs of Staff concur in the presentation of the memo- 
randutn to the President at an early date. 







Attachment 



For the Joint Chiefs of Staff; 



L. L. LEMNITZEB 

Chairman 
Joint Chiefs' of Std 








■ 



* % 

A 






\ 



r- 



r 






V - • r ■ * 



/ 



(7 



c? 



UAO 



(A', .:• 



Zl-of.^v^--- -Co;>ios each 

../"^ s soriea 



o 



It 



'■■-' »** -A ;: : 



, -. ( . | 



> j 



cl:? 'l •■ Kit 5 n v hole 



rt is prohibited except wiOi 






// .=.,...• r ... r f* / Vi i 4 -- r * - ' ■-■•-* n f f I f: ■ ; 




AW 



' / 1 



TclYPT.TFiV 




•« 



y&/ 



r : r 
t ' : I 



- 



JSXtfMBED Fro-! A live C 

MriiJG; MtD DIft : ) if) 
DOKS 



--T-, . . 



■ 



-- 



•-* 



X" 



z 



-' 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 33 
\M) Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Dale: 201 1 



EHCL0SU1 



DRAFT 



MEhSORAHjDUM FOR THE PRESIDE] 



Subject: Plan for Military Intervention -in Laos (c.) 

- 

The Secretaries of State and Defense have reviewed 
again the circumstances under which military Intervention 
in Laos might be undertaken j and the form of such action. 



ml 



Their conclusions are set forth below. 



The Intervention Plan 



It is the judgment of the two Secretaries that If the 



i . ■ 



President decides that US forces should be employed in Laos^ 
SEATO Plan Five, augmented with South Viet Mam and additional 
Thai forces ; i3 the proper basic vehicle for the contemplated 
action. Along with the initial deployments coordinated action 
with South Vietnamese^ Thai, and Lao forces wonld be taken 
to expand Royal Laos Government control over additional areas 



of Laos * 



Circumstances of Initiation 



.fc... ... 



1, The plan would be initiated upon resumption of obvious 
and determined Contuuriist offensive actions -above the scale of 
violation of the current cease fire, 

2. Initiation of the plan should be considered if large 



scale enemy military strength and logistic build-up clearly 

■ 

Indicates imminent resumption of hostilities. 

3. The Royal Laotian Government would have appealed to 

■ 

SEATO for assistance under the ]■:■ 11a Pact of 195 ; L 



t 






* 



: 



. 



I I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



4, An urgent .meeting of the .UN Security Council would have 
been requested, to apply pressure on the USSR to establish 
an effective cease-fire, A resolution would be introduced 
into the Security Council which would contain the following 
elements! 



a. Security Council endorsement of Lao neutrality and 
territorial integrity, ' ° 

b. A call to establish an effective cease-fire, 

c. The sending of small UN teams to Laos to be positioned 
at strategic points throughout Laos. 

* 

5. If such a resolution were vetoed by the USSR in the 
Security Council, a move into the UNGA would promptly be made, 

- 

6. Simultaneously with the initiation of United Nations 
action. SEATO would proceed with the necessary measures for 



» 



intervention. Thus, it would mean treating the United Nations 
action on the same basis as that at the time of the Lebanon 

crisis. It would not exclude public statements that SEATO 

'■ . . . * 

forces would be withdrawn if the United Rations reached agree- 
ment on appropriate measures. 

Political Objective 
To confront the Sino-Soviet Bloc with a military force 
of Free Asians and Western Powers capable of stopping the 



Co^ronuni st 'advance through Laos into South Viet Nam,, Thailand 
id "Cambodia by: * . . 



* 



• 



• 



« 



O v-,v 



t 



I 



-< 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



OP SECRET 



a„ Expanding Royal Lao Government control in the strategic 
"panhandle" of Laos, particularly along its border with 
South Viet Nam, to prevent the outflanking of the 17th 
para] 1 el <, 

m 

b c Preventing Communist advances to the border of 
Thailand where they could easily supply and step up their 
insurgency effort among the Vietnamese ethnic minority in 
Northern Thai 1 and. 

o. Bringing about a de fact o cessation of further 
Communist thrusts into the territory of the Royal Lao 
Government* 



It would be made clear publicly that the political objec- 
tive of this military intervention is to stop Communist expansion 
in Southeast Asia, (t would also be made clear that the forces 
involved would be authorized to take the required action to 
successfully accomplish this mission. Enemy military actions 
would not alter the political objective, but such actions could 
compel military responses not necessarily confined to Laos. 

MILITARY OBJECTIVES 



K To minimize United States military involvement by obtaining 
increased participation and coordination among the military forces 
Laos, Thailand and South Viet Nam, 

r 

2. To protect the borders of South Viet Nam, Thailand and 
Cambodi a. 



OP SEC T 



252 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■ 



* 



3# To restore Southern Laos to the complete control of the 
..Royal Laotian Government. 

4. To prevent further territorial loss In laps, 
5f To preserve and maintain, to the extent feasible the home- 
lands of the MEO tribesmen. 



Force Inv olvement 



■*• *•■ 



-. 



1, The combat forces In laos would number approximately 2^^100k 
men^ on a SEAT0~< ented basis, US forces In laos would be 
• , ' 5 , 500 4 The remainder of the SEATO forces of approxi tely 22,700, 
including 11*000 US air and logistics force s ; would be based in 



Thailand. This does not include US Naval forces which may be 
committed to support the operation and a SSATO General Re rve 



*. i. 



of c.,000 personnel; none of which is USj regained in the parent 
country, 

2 # The augmentation Indicated above consists of one Thai 

a. a 

division (11,'i-OO) less the units previously committed, (3,300) to 

i 

SBATO under Plan 5 and a minimum of one South Viet Mam regimental 



I 4 



combat team of 2 /J 00. 
■ 3* See the Appendix for total forces involved 

Areas of Action and Military Time Phasing 



* * 



--.< — ■ » — ■*-^*> 



_. .*.■.■ I , i 



1. Execute the current SEAT0 .Plan 5, augmented, 
* "2. The initial lift of SEATO' forces (other than Thai)' would be 
directly into laos from areas out.) Thailand, . 

4 

3. The areas to be occupied would initially Include key 



polnus 



E long the 



^kon^ River. U present circumstances 



t 



, 



V * . 



i .Jo 









J I 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 2011 



/ $ it t ■'■ 



this wpuld. mean as many as possible or the following; Vientiane* 

Paksane, Thakhek* Seno* Savannakhe'tj and Pakse. It is not con- 

» - ■ • 

tempi at cd that tlie forces would occupy any area held by 

opposition forces such as Xieng Khouang or the w Plaine des 



Jarre s. 



4* Upon the completion of the initial deployments of SEATO 

* 

Plan 5 military actions will be expanded as fallows: 

a. Thai augmentation forces Will operate in the Sayabouri 
Province area to include the town of Luang Prabang, 

b. South Vietnamese Forces of a minimum of a Regimental 
Combat Teem will operate in Laos along the common border 
between the two countries, 

c. SEATO forces occupying Mekong River areas will support 

and £0 3" st the Royal Lao Forces in cleaning Communist forces 

from the areas of Northern Laos bordering Thailand and from 
» 

al 1 of S ou fcb e r n Lao s ( p ai ) h an die)* 

Initial Rules of Engagement 



,~* — — ,.. 



1, Short of expanded Viet Minh or Chinese Communist inter- 
vention or a broad Pathet-Lao offensive, the forces employed 
in Laos would oceuoy and secure the selected areas together 



o 



■ ' 

With airfields and Mekong Riv'_ -r* crossing's in the vicinity, 



( 



Tney would take counter-guerrilla action as necessary to protect 
lines of communication,, would prevent harassing action against 
their position* and would resist any force attacking their 



A ■>- * 



positions 



..._.- . 



j l . 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



■ 

2. The SEATO force would furnish material and logistic 



- '- 



~ >--! 



support to Royal Laos Forces. 
' ' •' 3 . The SEATO Force would participate in offensive operations 
against the- insurgents by providing Hbyal Lao and- South Vietnamese 
Forces. assistance with air support, including combat air support, 
co^unication, psychological warfare and with other special 



operations • 



Enemv Forces 



* ■ 



1. I nsurgents now in Laos 

The insurgents now operating in Laos., 



consisting of 



about 31,100 (Kharo Guano/Kong Le forces - 12,000; Pathet Lao 
forces 15 > 900; Viet Minh technicians and troops ~ 3y200) 



would be capable of harassing, guerrilla- type operations 



^ 



against SEATO forces in Laos. These operations [would most 
likely be directed by Worth Vietnamese cadres ^wi* til ".North 

Vietnamese" technical and logistic support and Bloc airlift, 
Coirominist insurgent forces employed coiild vary from platoon- 
si:^e to several battalions, including medium artillery support, 
2 * Nor^h Viet Nam and Conmiunlst China 

a. Although the Con nist have iH North Vietn< bo; and". 
21 Chinese Divisions which could be employed in Southeast 
Asia j the geographic and logistic limitations of the 



• • 



terrain in Laos prevent the effective support of more th 
■ 

* 

eight divisions. Communist ground force capability in* 



* 



w 



■ ■ ^ 



-« 



,-* ?- r_ 



. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






Laos are limited by tonnage capacity* of road routes and 
air heads. The eight division capability, is based on a 

■ * 

120 short ton per day divisional requirement (12,500 men 
per division). This represents the maximum capability 
during the dry season. During the rainy season the 
Communist capability would be reduced to introducing approxi 
mately five light regimental units. Communist logistic air 

support would be limited by airfield capacities. - : 
b. The question of open counterintervention by Communist * 



Bloc forces is in large part dependent upon ..the manner and 



p 



the circumstances under which S3 forces are introduced in 






Laos, The communists might well react simply with a politic;:! 
and diplomatic c paign to force withdrawal of SEATO forces. 
If counterintervention did occur, the Communists would be 
unlikely j at least initially, to seek direct engagement of 



SEATO forces witn regular North Vietnamese or -Chinese 



o 



Communist forces > although there probably would be guerrilla 

p 

harassment using lt volunteers" or unacknowledged forces to 



sutoDleinent the in ;ents nov; in Laos, 






i-' i - -- 



• 



r > v " O 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



APPENDIX 



TOTAL FORCES JKV'O 5D 
SEATO AUGMENTED 



TW fcgCJ&KTf 






United States 



Thailand 

C o turn b n \>i e a 1 1 h 



Australia 

■ ■ 

Nevr Zealand 
Pakistan 
Philippine 3 

- 

South Vietnam 



TOTAL 



In Laos 



5,500 
11,1*00 

Moo 



United Kingdom (l/lOO) 



1,600) 



(1,>!00) 
1 , '100 



2,700 

m < i ' • ■ " i r ■ ' 

25,700 



Support and 
Reserves 



r ... -» . « 



11,000 

3,300 



3,5 



If, 700 



200 



22,700 



To ta 1 



16,500 

l J l-,700 

7,900 



6,100 



200 



2,700' 

>% « ^i ■ ■■■■>■■■■» .■ » ■» 

^{8,100 



$ 



. * i - 



ROYAL LAOS PORC}' 



Regular Army 



. MSO Forces 



* 



38,500 
11,000 



Other Defense Forces 29,800 



TOTAL Laos 



79,300 



GRAND ', 



; .• . 



, 



127,^00 









■ 



I ' 



I 












■ • 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



. . secret/;: Copy No 

r-«-JV. X^: :■■ . DEPARTMENT OP STATE 






■ 



ft 



»" 



I'f-r-f." 



35U, c' ;:\' : :s 4 Sv»-.c 



BUREAU OF INTELLIGENCE AND RESEARCH 



r) 

Ool 1'felSol Research t&rioranduia ^/^ 

4 . ;j RFJS-1, Sept r 2% 1961 




LpB/iU 



south vi :: crisis mb skg rqspects 1 NjlV* 



•'»-**.«■-■ - . -. . . ...,^.,1, ->.«-_,.-. r..- 



ABSTRACT . \' 

Since late 1959 the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) has bean 
faced with greatly accelerated, diversified, and unr emitting Cc tunist 
guerrilla and terrorist w are and subversion directed and supported by 
the: North Vietn . r.. regime. During this.] lod the ar 3 component of ths 
Coiamunist apparatus has grown from 3>C00 cadres to a well-organised, ade- 
" quately arieed, and inc singly aggressive gUerrilUa-terrorist force o£ 
about 17,000 as a result of ste] t-up infiltration and recruitment locally 
Although Conanuuist in ed operations arc concentrated in the rural areas of* 
the Mekong River delta , they have, spread to the once relatively quiescent 
central and northern provinces and have occurred increasinj closer to 
urban areas. The im Late Cowniunlst objectives arc to demoralize the 
peasantry, weaken and supplant government authority in the countryside,, 
, and discredit President Hgo Itinh Diem ! s leadership to the point of precipi- 
tating his overthrow, 

Ccirtmimist progress toward these objectives has been substantial* 
Kore than one-half of the entire countryside in the highly productive 
Mekong River delta, as well as some areas north of Sa5-gon and in the 
central provinces, have coma under varying e s of Cosmunist control* 
In many ox these and other areas f the GoimnuxiistSj have restricted the 
flow of rice to- the marketing centers > forced the curtailment of govern- 
ment agrarian and ot3 r rural programs, and gained control of xaany inland 
Waterways, thereby ar sely effect" the economy. Since the beginning 
of I960, Communist guerrillas and terrorists have killed or kidnapped 
more than 6,500 -civilians, local officials, and sec ity and military 
personnel, thus increasing the shortage of trained local ad dnistrators 
'. ' . and weakening morale partie axlj? a ag the security servicesand the 
local civil bureaucracy. Moreover, in the of the government's 
inability to provide adequate protection to the populi i in many r ■ 1 
areas, Cc unist reprisals and propaganda haw. a| gravated ] . sant 
diss ' iti<jn,.and have n:ade the peasantry relx" it to participate in 

local gov ' projects nd to assi! the security forces with vitally 
needed m intsllig . on the C ' sts. 



_.„,._ -j — i i i - -- ■ -— — " — -f- » — — —---->« — »«- r "■ '■» t n ^ m 



1* This j •;-:• is based on mat* Lai prepared as a contribution to 

NB 14.3/53/61 £ sts for ] 1_ South Vj r u At tst 15; 1961. 
It has been Lially : ' ' for j " tion at the present time. 



■ 






v ' 






. \ r 



'. ■? 



i 






! 






Do 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 J 6, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECBSa7MQ?0HK 

r, t 

The domestic political repercussions of the Coi aunist insurgency 
lave also t j severo^ Numerous officials at all levels of the govern-* 
roent and the military and security establish) its have criticised Dieiri J s 
handling of the security siti 'Ion and have serious!? questioned his m 
ability to lead the people during what 1 y rag : the most critics! 

period since the end of the Ina " L] a war* Their concern with tl 3 Cc .i~ 
nist threat;, ho-. ' &t s is almost inseparably entvined with an a ecu. ration 
of gric^.eaes principally over Dieat's failure to delegate responsibility*, 
the power exercised by members of Piem*s family, and Dien's methods of 
policing the attitudes and loyalty of the government bur) *aey« O3 n 
deprecation of Diesa's leadership on these and other g: und3 has also 
increased sharply among intellee-b_;al-*Glite circles and disgruntled ex** 
politicians in Saigon, largely a politically impotent however vocal lot, 
and to a lesser orient, among labor and business elements.* 



Recent de% r elopriients*— including Dion's outstanding success at the 
preaic ial polls !ast April and some mi st political reforms to date but, 
more importantly; strong US public manifestations of support and a substan^ 
tial increase in US military and economic aid— haw given Diem so:. ng of 
a political reprieve. However « th political situation regains fluid and^ 
as yet, there has teen no conclusive reversal of de" ; orating tie ;, 
Although reports of coup-plotting and of criticism of Dicra have dec sad in 
recent months, their persistence is indicative of the continuing and poten- 
tially explosive political situation in * Vietnam* Moreover, below tie 
surface of open c -tent, there i$ probably a growing and increar ly 



desperate element of dissenters who are silent either because of 
being suppressed or because of the realis Ion that there is lit 
can do legally to improve conditions. 



fe 



r* 



01 

they 






Neither has there been any conclusive 5 c e ant in the security 
situation although the governments comprehensive counterirsurgej e •;, j gra 
supported by substantial US aid, is beginning to show favc le results ♦ Th 
Qomimnists can I .cted to maintain a pressing and diversified campaign of 
guerrilla -terrorist and subversive fare, and there are strong ie v "u ns 
they will atl t a greater ar Tort after the end of the rainy season 
later this year; hour .. e, they may continue 'to avoid any large-scale ere ge- 
nt with the increasingly ressivo Viet: e a: , except in placee 
at til of their own choosing. In the short run, the Cc 1st a; - us 
does not apj r to have the capacity to foment a large-scale insurrection or 
to .sei^e control of the governreen-t without considerable assis ' f o:g Ik 
Vice a, which would necessarily 1 \ c " such 1 gnituda that it wou3 be ' ita- 
mount to overt r y aggression, Barring-such a development ' no given 
effective impl* trfcation of the couni . : e. e jy p! 1 TggcvES&iA should 
be able to ra t the level of G surds t 3 - gen . during ihe'n^::^ 

year or so and co h bly even re.. the trend a: ' -t the Communist* ; In 






the le - xLij Go: " ' inse: :. tially re :ed but the 

govee; nt r ■. t, within the fc .Me future^ elii ' it entirely, 

^rincix ally b of 1 nt T s 11 ' ility to real c Sou c 

vletn* ^fe-feontiers with HortlTVi &, Lao:'* and Cc. i !i£* 4 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Security prospects over the next year, 1 :ver 5 may well be influenced 
more by developments in neighboring Laos than by extent to which the 

Lem gover can Im] rove the effectiveness of its military and security 
forces* If Laos comes under predominantly mist control, C* 1st 
capabilities in South Vietnam would almost certainly be strengtl to a 
degree unprecdented since 195^. * Southern Laos could becca the most important 
base for amist ns Inst South Viet ■ In this event, the level 
of Communist insurger . ;ht assume the proportions of widespread guerrilla 
warfare and some areas would probably c ier complete C mist control, 
within which Hanoi raj ht attempt to establish a Communist but ostensibly 
independent government with both military and political support from the Bio 
Vietnam's agricultural economy would suffer further and urban centers prob? 
wo\ild be increasingly subjected to mist guerrilla and terrorist attacks 
designed to heighten anxiety in the centers of government power and spark a 
non- Communist coup effort. 

In the face of a Consmmist offensive of such proporti \ 9 South Viet: 
would be required to make a maximum military effort in order to survive. There 
juld be no imme ate collapse. In the long run, to «, the maintenance of 
South Vietnam's independence would rest principally on the nature and amount 
of US support and on a maxi; effort by the South Vietnamese Government to 
develop the political, psychology . and ee Lc programs required to gain 
and r ' ' in popular su] ) t- 

The stability of the gover- nt during the i jar or so, will depend 
principally on Diem's handling of the secur situation. If Diem can de 
strata a continuing improvement in security eonditii s, he should be able to 
strengthen his position, alle Late concern boost morale within his bureauc- 
racy and military establii snt, and lessen the urgency m h which many of tl 
members view the current situation. However, If the figh gainst the Comra 
goer, poorly or the South Viet ;e Army suffers heavy casualties, the chance 
of a coup would substantially inere . ] *over, a coup may be atterag i at 
any time. The odds favor a c if security declines appreciably further, 

ticularly if accompanied by a virtual Communist takeover of Laos, 

Any coup attempt during the next year or so is likely to be non-Co- L 
in leadership, involving army elements and civilian officials and perhaps some 
di oppositionists outside the gover r. ant* The -ticipating elements 

probably would be broader t the involved in the i960 attempt, would have 
greater popular pport* and would be better prepared to execute their plan 
guic r and successfully- Moreover, a maji lit . in the military le- 
ship does not appear likel, /: most of the generals probably Id elect to 
remain uric dtted i t the outset of the coup, as they ap] tly did in 
November 1 their tacit c active support to whatever side they 

judged 1" ly tc win, Ui e circumstances, a military coup ati pt 
. uld have better than an even chai ■ to succeed, 

Diem's removal — wl . - militi \ p, assassinate 1 

from accidental or natural causes- Ld consic st the p x 

of the military , The c I s appear a' b ov b amove led by 



260 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



secret/uofoj 



military junta or by Vice President Tho, with ' u ., playing a r if not 
the predominant role behind the scenes* On the one hand, the military might 
conclude that a military-lc vernment would be better able 1 maintain 
national unity and i t rt al political cohesion and, more import* Ly, to con- 
duct a determined and effective c aign Inst the mraunists. On the other 
hand, they might conclude that T . who has been on good terms with some of 
the present military leaders, would not disagree with their views on the 
manner of conducting the fight against the C mists and 1 his constitu- 
tional succession would legalize the change in government a avert a serious 
power struggle. / er important far ich would almost certainly enter 
into the calculations of the military would be the fortunes of the coup group 
in South Kc and the cc of US-ROK relations. In any event , a government 
led by the milit . -, by Tho, or by any ( sr civilian apprc 1 by the military 
would probably maintain Vietnam's pro-US orientation. 

If a military coup or Diem's death ser" "Ly disrupted government 
leadership, any momentum the gov : j nt T s countering! ;eney efforts had 
achieved probably would be halted and possibly reversed, at .1 east for a time. 
Moreover, the confusion and suspicion attending the -nipt ion would provide 
the Communists an opportui to stren en ; Lr position in the countryside, 
and they might even be embol tied to attempt to s Lze control of the govern- 
ment. Since a serious split within tb ilitary leadership does not appear 
likely, C Lst attempts to take oifer the government in Saigor Id probabJ 
fail. 



press 



In the ntiine, the Diem it will almost certainly eontJ i to 
for increased, aid, further expansion of the armed fore. . and a clear 
priority ( ilitary over political and ecc ic efforts to undercut the 
Coram.' ' rfc ii :y, 1' • will be adamant in his views as to how the anti- 
Corn; dst camp* should be waged and will tend to regard US differences with 
such views or criticism of his inner cir le as indications of Log U3 
confidence in him. In the event of another coup effort against him, he would 
probably € and s ; US public support- Diem will also continue 

to press the US for a strc i-cor 1st j rfcure in the Far East. If he 
ncludes that this posture is weaken! : ;. he will almost certainly e str 
protests and bee increasii ve and stubborn in his relations with 

the US. I ver, in the absence of any accej able alternative to US supp 
and assistance to S Vie is likely to avoid jeopardj zing seriousl; 

Lc US-South Vieti ties. In d probably sc to establis 

closer t with the US by sue 1 ns as a 1 defense treaty and poss y 
the st' of US forces in Couth Vietnam if, for e pie, the C .unists 
ta over Laos or* Communist China ach] s a nuclear car.' 'lity. Failure of 
current int Lonal effo to establish a neutral Laos or a resumption of 
all-out rebel military operations in Laos would great];; tempt Diem to in- 
e substantially fc forces i s in order to pr 

plete C ol of a; Diem would pr US-Thai 

participation as well as as: s that the US d^f .. nth Vieti i ' case 
such act" i aggress i by North Viet. .. pie \ id s 

be 1 t in another plot t ro dr 

ban the event the latter 1 too accc dat 
Coi 1st pressure in the area, 

51 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



bboret/bcfchm 

.... . . .5. 

I, GBHERAL FBJLSU3 ' 0? TBS C T ; ''. CCH 

t..u*-',i>-i.K-..T_'.. . - -■-.... ■:••.;. ---■ .«.-.■... 



■» ■• 



1- 



The past year and a half has witnessed a marked d ion in 

-the E&eurlty and political situations in the Republic of Vietnam (South 
Vietnam) j overshadowing all other internal deyel aits and breaking the 
reli ive stability and general surface calm that had prevailed since 
president Ngo BInh Diem consolidated his authority in 19$$*$6* She 
Communist clar bir apparatus • <-« maintained atxi directed by the Communist ; '■ 
regime to the north, the Democratic Republic of Vieti; (ERV) »** has stepped" 
up £ts gi.ertfilla^* • terrorist, and other subversive activities to levels 
ynprcccdonced since fee end of -the Indochina hostilities (19l*6~5&)« She 
gravity of the security situation in turn has generated serious critic i 
of Dieffl*e leadership both in and outside tha government bureaucracy^ in-" 
eluding the military establish] tent, and has aj ravated disco: t at among 
the traditionally politically apathetic peasantry! Eiesa trends were 
climaxed In an abortive anti-Diem coup in £ Lgon in November i960 by a 
small group of middle level and junior a: ratroop officers and civilian :- 



opp osition i s t s c 



■ • » 



As in the p ^ Dieri and his alc&e advisors te:xl to viciv virtually 
every problem besetting their country as caused directly or indirectly 
by thedual Cornnunlst threat of internal subversion ar.d r::U : 1 a c ion< 

In their pla< tl : cfore. they continue to give the absolute highest 

priority to military and secu y measures direc I toward x-tfiat they con- 
sider to ho their most urgent taskss 1) to defend against Communist en- 
croachment essentially by maintaining a larger and stronger military estab- 
lish nt (with substantial 1)8 aid); - z ^ ?\ to -maintain firm control over 
the bureaucs .cy and c- • the military and security establishments in order 
to prevent their use to dislodge Diem and his advisors fron pcifer and in 
order to organise the population to s^rxo t 'r programs* ' At the same 
tim§j the Vietnamese leadership is no less anxious" to keep the people Ted 
"and supplied at a level sufficient to i -i' serious unrest., - ' - ; 



'. . " 



- . In J)iem*s scale of values, democracy * in the sense of individual '* 

freedom, although it rcr s an ulV be goal, under present circv noes 
frequently ranksbelctf (and lias sometimes been inimical) to those urgent 
tasks* While eschewing tha systematic xc - ' mtatlon.end repression of the 
population cha;- pter'i : c of North Vietnam, Diem a?:d other governs lit- 
■lei Jers are Peeking to st:* late a I tf cfo) art by the * * 

people of South Vietnam than yet obtainse' Although attempting to do so 
viihin the i-v: :;. ■: of cc titutlonal [ ramentj arv conflict bet a 
the t;o is gel ally in favor of 1 tral authority* 

Accordingly Di 5 has been willing to r lutein the forms of repres l 
tive insti ions aiid the p: s of civil rights instituted whsa the 

Rcpi: c of Vietnam :, first est^ 'i at the coiutXy continues to 

be g rnsd in an ai " Dritari t&sq ] by Diem's patern? '• : -' Lc 

outlooka It is not c rtain t th - institutii 1 trgfamovk of g< rarn- ' - 
weni would survive the death or n - , d of Tr' ■/ : , its croc '. \ • ' \ 

• ' *' v. • 

r ' — ' . ■ ' ' 



,. . ■ 



- ' - . , . ■ • 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■ ■ ■ SBQEETytoORN 

6. 

. ShB deterioration of the security and political situations has 
contributed to sense deceleration in the pace of economic gro?rth, E: snsion 
in both the agricultural ai:d Industrial sectors has .continued j hefterop, and 
the South Vtetr people re&ainj if not prosperous at least relatively 

. il-off in tern- of Southeast Asian living standards, Nonetheless^ the 
economy Is stUl heavily dependent on US aid, and there is the grating fear 
that ! h of "the economic progress achieved *to date ray be undona by th; 



g 



jts whose efforts in this direction give testimo^.of a major obj^o 



* 7 



tiv e 



In foreign affairs, the South Vietnamese cover:/:, has sought to 
maintain its close ties with the US but. until recently, Biera and some of 
his top advisors have teen critic?.! and resentful of many urgent US recoi 
endations and oven doubtful of US political support for their regime. 



m 

During the past fe>i months, a clear and public reaffirmation of US supporl 
and increased US assistance, on the one hand, and on the other * Diem's 
willingness to push ahead more vigorously with expanded rr.e; ires to fight 
the Coaanunists have provided a basis for a continuing close relationship 
bet. i the US and South Vietnam, The South Vietnamese^ Government is most 
urgent concern, however, has bean with the crisis in neighboring Laos, 
Ct mist insurgent fore and capabilities in South Vietnam have been 
■appreciably strengthened by infiltration across the Lao frontier, and 
fee South Vietnamese Government is £■ sly alarmed at the prospects 

of a Communist takeover of Laos, In the South Vietnamese Government's 
view, CcHsmnist activities in Laos are part of a broader and coordinated 

woul 




encroachment. 



_ _.» 



C 



* 



r . * 



* 



H -V .•■• ' 



i 1 1 ; ■ , . 6 

VI I *: ■ 



^\ . * . 



- i 



. . < .' CO 



I 



r * I 



<..' 



- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



4 



SECRET/KOFCftt! 



■ 






■ V 



.II. THE C 1ST T} v r .< H - ' ; 

» * . 

Since the cessation of the Indochina hostilities and the partition v 
of Vietnam at the l?th parallel in 1954 by the Geneva Conference, the DM 
while holding ever the Republic of Tj > an implied threat of eventual 
invasion by-its numerically superior military forces, has used armed 
guerrilla and t 1st warfare, penetration; Sabotage," bluster, and pro- 
pagandaVin an effort to weaken and disrupt its rival and eventually extend 
Coiomunist control over all of Vietnaia, These activit s have been carried 
out by a covert Ooimmmist subversive apparatus of aimed cadres and political 
agents, c ..or^ h n as ifaft Viet Cong, left behind by the. DRV after it 
withdrew/ most of its military forces" to l: in 1954 and reinforced 
since then by infiltration from North Vietnam and by recruit: b locally*^ 
In the meantime ? the DRV has assiduously attempted to give the impression 
that it abides in every C bail "with the Geneva Accords and has urged the 
holding of Vietnam-wide elections (as provided for by the Geneva Accords) ' 
and the unification of the country* . . 

A, ^actios and Objectives * ■*' '-*"„' '' 



- ■ 



1. First Post-Ge va Phase: 195A-57 From 1954 to about 1957, 
Communist subversive activities in South Vietnam were largely non-viol* ^ 
in lino with the DRV l s new tactics of saaxirai zing the Apolitical" stm le 
and minimizing the "armed* 1 struggle- as* the means to brin^ about the .d i- 
fall of the p cariottsly weak Triors governments The Communist le lersbip 
in Hanoi probably viewed the future with c ?idence in view of the polit- \ 
ical chaos and economic dislocation prevailing in the South, However j ; 
the success of Ciem and his lieutenants in forgi; ;: a stable goveri at and . 
an effective armed force to withstand both -Columnist and non~C cruras t :• 
■6ub\ sivo pressures and in moving rapidly against critical economic 
problems (with considerable US assistance) and Diem's persistent refusal 
to enter into any political negotiations with the DRV (much less permit 
area-vide elections under conditions which would assure a Goi must 
Majority), contributed to a readjustment in Co&munist tactics. Other 
probable contributing factors were the concern of the TBV leadership over 
South Vietnam's .inc sin close alij nt with the 15 } consid 
p; is'bytho ©on st regime in consolidating its control in North 
Vietnam, and ths poor rrale of the hard-pressed Cos • Lst apparatus in 
South Vietnam i 



Viet Cc is the ) 3d by the South Viet . \se to refer 

to Viol. se Coaenunists, singularly or collecti &y. For all 
practical pur is, the Viet C ' is is an e>: I nsion of the 

th V:i re Oobcbi list P y; t! D ; Lao J~: ' r Viet y ; or i ely 
Ia.o ] . y ■ Lob also o] £ bes in Laosj.C; 3 other c :.". ies , \ 
with imj nt V;.ei ity i ivBi - — - -s ^"T ' 



;■ 



*> 



* 



•. 



3HM 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET/] : EH 
8. 



> [*'• 



however j 
a planned ■ 



2 °' §SKSSLE2i ! 1^.57-59, Communist armed activities 

01* all types began increasing in mid-1957* 'I gely of a terrorist type^ 
involving as: Laations, kidnappings j I binr-s, eto C j thess actions were . 
concenter >$ in remote parts of the sout] srn and southwestern provinces* 
or the former Coehinehina are&j were "carried out by a few or several 
armed cadres, and were aimed principally at local administrative officials } 
police and security personnel, and village leaders* Within a year, 
it was clear that the Qommunist 3 iership in Hanoi was conducting 
and increasingly diversified; although still low-level, armed c i^n in 
South Vietnam^ coordinated with stepped-up proper: : ' :1 wad other non-violent ■ . 
subversive activities and designed to weaken security and government authority 
in rural areas and da: IQ'ga 3 ;■ .; ■■■> thg peasantry 1 In addition to the continuing 
rise in terrorist incidents s the number of guerrilla raids against 'small secu- 
rity and army units and remote villages increased^ reflecting greater Communist 
armed c bilities and aggressiveness, Vic' -/■ c i diligence sources, 
however > est3 j the armed component of the Communist apparatus at Just over 
2,000 which included dome remnant armed bands of the once--; Dwerful One ?ai and 
: Sao religious sects and of the Binh Xuvon bandit organis ' ion. By the end 
ox 1959; estimated ( 1st armed strength reached 3*000, with a proportionate 

incj in the size of attacking guerrilla bands* Dicing this period , Commu- 
nist terrorists are believed to have assassinated or kidn ed a total of at 
least 1,100 persons, in addition to the number of military and security 
sonnel killed during armed or a tions t 2 * , 






Present Phase, Since the latter part of 19595 the Communist 



apparatus has waged an intensive and consid cably expanded terrorist-guerrilla 
offensive in South Vietnam j supported by increasingly eff ive proj »nda 
and intelligence operations* Terrorist acts against local officials and 
civilians and guerrilla raids against army and security units have in ed 
to levels unprecedented since the end 01 the Indochina war* The n \ of 
persons ass inated and kidnapped Sarins i960 alone is more than double the 
total for 1957-59;. Cc nist armed strength has more than quintripled, sub- 
stantial parts of the countryside have come under varying > of Cc nist 
control. and poli al influence! travel thourfiout most of the countryside has 
becoras extremely hazardous, ai orist acts in Saigon itself have increase 



2 t * These and other statistics on casualties inflicted by Go 1st' or 
goX'e'rnT.ient forces are rased on 'official Vietnamese sources/ are not 
fcomp'letsly Reliable 3 and should h conside: 3 essentially as .indicative 
of the order of magnitude of the fight: in South Vietnam, 






V • 



r '' 



V 






— , > 






* . t 



* 

- 



* - - - 



z.i/r. ? a;v 



■>--.. 



. ■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



' SOffij/WCFQ 



Because of geographic, logistical^ and other considerations* Coosai- 
nist .activities arc concentrated, as in the past, in the highly populai 
and productive forme? Coefainchink region. .The terrain, most of \?Moh is 
sv/ampj as in the Mekong River delta, or vi: Xly jungly as- along the - 
Cambodian frontier, has favored hit-and-run tactics and infiltration from 
(and regrou] sat in) Caaboctta., Since 'the latter part of I960, however, 
the Xfer mists have steppaa up substantially their i tied, operations in 
tlio once rolatj ly quiescent central and northern provinces, While this 
I iy he partly a tactical Lianuever to relieve incr casing government 
pr ure on Gonamuiist forces in the southern provinces, ths Communis t 
leadership may be in the process of rang a second major IJ front M in an 
area where the prospects of infiltrating c es from neighboring southern 
Laos have bece more favor, than ever before, In any event, the size 
of Co&rauhist forces in the central and nortl .has increased 

eatly, and Communist capabilities there are likely to :" ovc still 
further. Other infiltration routes are across the Demilitarized Zone 
along the 17th parallel and by junk landings along South Vietnam's long '* 

astline, ■ , * 



■•) 



Judging from their actions and f£o*n alleged secret directives from 
K ' : , the C LUnists appear to* be aiming at isolating as Much of the 
countryside as po sib] from urban centers (as they were able to do to a 
considerable extent during the Indochina' hostilities)) h ' ng to weaJ; 
the goveriEnent and utlimately precipitate its overthrow * The plan 
apparently has teen to build \rp sufficient armed strjspgth in relatively 
: inaccessible areas (including areas under Cc: rinist influence since 1954) . 
where, cadres, could rest, train; a: -roup and fr ch operations could 
bo launched c The Communists presumably hope that ths number and size of 
these- areas could be progressively increased and 'that they .could eventually 
become completely Cc unist- controlled and strong enough to resist attack 
hy E r t forces, By Columnist definition, they would then constitute 
"liberated' 1 areas, Sinae al it the aidcELe part of this year, however, 
Communist guerrilla and terror' t attacks have occurred closer to urban - 
areas than ever before, and provincial capitals have boon' attached and 
.-- held -i rily- - ■ ■ '■" -• - " ■ . . • , .. ; 






l£2 



..,-..:....:. The Cc mists, have also stepped up their propaganda and other 
non-violent subversive activities, particu rly during the past six months 

, In urban areas, they have ; Kt to exploit diss tisfaction with Diet's 
leaxlership v among'iion-*Coii^unist opposition and lal and youth groups and 
have urged cooperation in a popular f at against Diem, 1 y have announced 
the creation of a ^national liberation Front", reportedly c : d of 
various youth; viomens', labor, and < I r groups ai 3 equi; ; r with its n . 
news ag : ...y and mobile radio tr n . Lti , ostensibly to give the Cerrirrist 
conspiracy the facade of political 3 " . • y and broad political sir _ *t„ 
Efforts to p trate 1 gov snt serv: s and the military and security 



V 



> 



/ -. 






si:: 1 ' . ,- rq?a 



V 



( 



r n 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



esxsss/iMcea 



10 



B 



< 



e^tablisJMsnts have also incro & e In rural arcasj the CoiflsraniB-ts have 
attempted to subvert local government projects and insp' anti-govarams 

ttonstrations and have undertaken major c: is to gain control c r th; 

tribal minorities and to aggravate economic, conditions* ' * 

B« Gojnasunist Acer in] itr 



^ 

«* 






Ceramist successes since the hggi] rung of I960 have been high* 
Probably the most significant gain has been the spread of Gonmiaiist control 
and influence over Increasing sectors of the countrywide largely through 
organized coercion and terrorism* The number of Oo^iunist cadres and co ts 
is pro: Qy small in most villa; ^ but in tho absence of government forces 
sufficient to protect the- village against reprisals ; those inclined to sup; ri 
tho government and turn agai&st the OoMituhists are effectively contained. 
The high rate of assassinations of local officials and retaliatory i^x^oxs^ 
moreover $ is a continual reminder of the penalty ox noncooj:eration v;ith the 
local Cotnraunist forces t 

- 

Although the Coiamunist armed*-political apparatus does not appear to 
have succeeded in coraplel . supplanting the government over any ^X hie 
area, it Is believed that more than one-half of the entire rural region 
south and soul st of Saigon, as vxell as several areas just to the north 
and in the central p: inces, ma.y be under substantial C i;iist control 
by night ^ v/ith the government generally capable of maintaining its authority 
only by di x y t However , in r ?. of these areas (for ex pie, portions of the 
Ca Kau peninsula and of the swampy PI " e des Jones), the Ccswaun&sts have 
benefitted froin the extended al ace of sufficient goverj nt military and 
security forces and reportedly exercise considerable control by day as 
veil as by night. Moreover, these areas are believed, to be dangerously 
close to 1 ming "liberate ; areas , the Communists frequently being re- 
ported levying and collecting taxes, directing the harvesting and 
controlling the distribution of rice and other farm products, conducting 
indoctrination pro- s on the populace, conscripting cadres, and setting 
up overt party c Lions and provisional local government units similar 

to those established during the Indochina fighting t • 
, ..... 

Another highly nif leant gain by the Communist network has been 
the sharp increase in . m& in the armed Capability of its guerrilla- 
ierrorisl force* . Total armed str th is nw esii ed at about 17,000 
and the n of po* ical agents , all h* still unknown , probably has 
also increased. The bulk of the Coi list araied force is still distributed 
in the sout! n ; :;ion, ( ' the substantial increase of forces in the 
rest of the country* Trie total r rical increase in strength, .vrMch is 
due both to steppsd-up infilv; tion al I recruitment locally, enabled the 
Corn : i ts duri! . st of I960 to op te frequ ttly in large /bands and 
'on s6va": -1 occasions of sev al hundred armed personnel, e,g., during the . 
tack on an army r " al }.■ _■ rters in Tay Nia h In Ja; ry I960 









S i T/MCFU 



- • .— 



fc V 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



I :0KET/i - : 



ii 



( ». 



and the series of attacks against army and other £ t outpost; in 

the Koxrt Pleiku area in C ■ >or l?3£a Since the beginning of this 
year, GGrjaufiist guerrillas have generally oper in smaller bands, 

..king it more difficult for governs it forces to find s andj I® theft* 
Bov?ever, a series of attacks principally against aeeadty for this month 
has report; Ily involved about 1,000 C: 1st personnel* 
. • - -- 

. —: . She" capture of weapons and equij t has signifies y improved 
Cc .mist armed capability. Communist bands a] t to be acbqi ! ly arayga 
yith a variety of small weapons, frequently utilise light machine-guns and 



nor s and occasionally rocket la rs and reeoiH rifles, and are 

hecoamg increasingly adept in the r. otnre and use of land mx&& and 

other explo3J *• , During some engagements, Comt&inist.. guerrillas have 
toon reported veariag South Vista Uitary unifozaiSj Complete i/ith 

steel helmet^ utilising night flares, land vehicles, and motor-boats, 
and being aided by radio cc unications, 

• 

The casualties, inflicted by Col tUnist terrorists and guerrillas 
have been heavy. According to incomplete officii X Vietnamese statistics, 
Cc ianist terrorists a .ssifiated about 3,000 local, officials and civilians 
and kidnapped almost another 1,&00 iron January I960 through June 1961, 
while . Goiiimunist guerrillas killed about 2 ; 700 military and security 
personnel during ax 3 cngag saents from ifey I960 t] rough June 1961. In ; 
comparison, the goverment clai that about 19,000-20,000 Communists 
have been killed or t iptured dicing i960 and the first half of this y* c 9 
but this -estimate appears exaggerated. In any event, the ca Ities 
inflicted by the OoBnnunists have b: sufficient to aggravate the exist- 
ing shortage of exp* ' \ ed local government officials j weaken mor 
particularly among the local bureaucracy and the security sei " 3, and " ' 
foment peasant discontent '• • . • • * 



The effects of the Co 1st guerrilla -terrorist campaign in t3 
countryside has been severe in .other Respects* Government operations in 
many areas have 1 m constantly" hara i and in some instances h boon 
indefinitely z Hided, Per example, approximately 2C0 elerr iry 
schools in the south and southwest; affecting about &5j0C0 students and 
•800" teachers ^ had closed down last year } and it is nay believeo that the 
IB yr of schools inoperative because- of the insurgency is about 300 c \ 
Cert- rid development operations in the central pr< pinces have been 
re&uq ' fcy* 'almost "f if tj t, and Gomunisi '■ :>is to, disrupt the 
ceo ] to c i a shortage in the amount of rice available for export 
and have: c id to a rise in rj.ee prices*. Sabc ge has increased 
sub: ;'llyj by the first quarter of 1961, for c le, about 250 bridj s 
had bean jarti&lly or v I lly .(3 v 3 by ths Co; nists. Finally-, an 
increasing number of inlc i uaterways in-the J&kong delta area, particul&rl; 
minor canals Is = ling to raj or waterways have come under Dm 1st control^ 






* 






. Si 






1^ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



12 c 



t 



* 



I 



-,■% • - 



C» Government Couni &easu**as ■ * 

1 . ■: ' • 
Increased Gorsiunist activities have required the government to " 
adopt extraordinary int< al security measures vihich cons close to 
constituting a national emergency* V'he g at bull: of its militj /, 
security, and police forces las been employed directly or indirectly in 
counterinsurgeney operations since the beginning of I960, and these 
forces are being increased substantially J the 15^, OCX)- ran defense e b~ 
lishmest (with an army of about .140, DJ is being increased to 170,000 
and eventually to 200,000; the Civil Guard, in effect a paramilitary 
security and police force, has been ir ased iron /^,000 to about 6$, 
and eventually to about 70,000; and the Self -defense Corps, a village 
constabulary force, has been increased from about 40,000 to 51*000, 
regular police services, the Kunicii 1 Police and the National Su steV 



000 



The 



have remained at (lout their previous levels of 10,500 and 7,500 respec- 
tively, Assisting the military establishment and the security and polio 
services are a number of other croups each as the small Gendarmerie the 
Self -Defense Corps Youth, and the Republican Youth, the latter being 
essentially a political organization but recently armed for defensive 
purposes , 

With the help of US advisors and with increased IB aid, the South 
Vietn so Government has proceeded to Implement a broad and compre] ve 
countering ney plan designed to strengthen its military and seewity 
capabilities as well as improve related political, eoono tic, and social 
conditions. Among the many military-security i asurea already enacted 
(some of which had been implemented prior to the foririulatlon of the 
oounterin&urgency plan), the government has accelerai 3 signific ' ly a 
training program in attti-gu rrllla warfare for its military and security 
services, increased substantially the number ox army "ranger" units to 
be formed by the personnel trained under this program, reorg " 3 the 
army's tactical coi \ structure in order to increase the efj LVeness 
of field operations, improved military cosamuni cation and transportation 
-Ilities, centralized the intelligence functions of most If not all 
ncies, and creste'd a high-level advisory council for security affairs* 

5Phese measure have increased the effectiveness of the gover; [> ] s 
Llitary and security forces to the point that they have lean able since 
the first* part -of this year to v \ ere offensive action against Corsnunist 



JL 



guerrillas than ever before, rbreover, several unprecedented!/ large opera- 
tions, involving elements of the three military t .leer', have been launched 
since last June principally : : southern a F considerable Coj mist ■ 
armed stre bh- . While these operations have nificantly improved the 
ability of the military services to car y out c ?d±xi " 3 offensive: 1 , In 
only throe operations have the govern nt's ns sric&lly superior force- 
been able to i Let heavy casua] . * c -"'' 3 Co: 1st guerrillae. 



s 



J 



\ > 



r 



* 



\ * 



v „- - V 3 



f ' \. 



>-- 



BBGKBP/ilO*rt » 



; :-Jl 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



\ 



SE0RKT/i;0;\ 






I • 



i - , 



-V 



■ * . * ... 

South Vietnam 1 s military capabilities and other resources for 
fighting the Gosuadrdsts are considerable. The .military leadership i 
among the best in Southeast Asia and the xt arid file troops have the 
spirit and willingness to fight. The civilian bureaucratic leadership* 
is also strongly anti-Co " t^ bat its effective! ss is impeded by 
inadequate delegation of authority e There are no serious trends toward 
neutralism or toward a political accomodation with Hanoi, Finally ^ th 
Vieti teso p. ants, however politically apathetic and discontented, 
with the government* are by no means ready to surrenti ■' tt . elves to 
the Comiaujiists 5 given a greater effort by the government to protect] 
them from Communist intimidation* ... " ". • 



s 



: ■ 



— • 



i r 

-, ■ 



■4 



- 



+ - 



. 






- - . 
»' - #--•.■ 



* » 






* ♦ 



*. ' ■ '■ 1 



... i . -, 



':.->• --.-a - ' 

■- - ■ . • ■ 

... „ -, - , V . r « - . ; „ .■ . 

...» - ■ ...,". .• I . ■ ■ - , . 

.v ■ a . £•' a " * ; -: J -. '. r .a a . , * . - 

-», i- * r * - + 

I. * . * "- .■••'", .. ' ' " "' - " " ■ • J^ 



I 



' 



• . . . . . 

-»-•■'••»•- • , ' J '. - - * - .. «(-.' ~f - . *• - 

m *.. * 

. - . . " .- ■ .- • _ - - . , .■ " ■ _ * - fc * -. 



<' 






' » 



■ . . ;.,..- •■•■ a :.->•.- a;. ^; •.: ••. :> '-. ' u * 

- • • m -. a .-. - ^ • ■ .; - . - . ' ■ * 

• # * - f 

. . ■ - *. ' , * . ...... .' . . • - . - * 



t - - ■ * • . . ! . * . - - 



* " ■*•>■« 

^ • •• 

.'■ -*. .- •..-.. ^ . ■ 

. - ; . - s , . . , ( » ^ 



* ■■ ^ 



V; 






SPCUi^r 4ICPUHH 

■- ■ 






r* -/ f* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



smsm/mm 



H 



A 



III. THE J ; SITUATION! 



--- ■** ■- .... - _.* .-* _ .-«.•-- 



*"*^ ».**_* 



A '. stabin-t^f ibuasausssaQ 



f 



President Piem»s leadership and the stability of his government 
have besA more seriously questioned during the past year or so than at any 
tijae since he consolidated his authority in 1955-56/ Sinfee the beginning 
of 1/50 , criticism of Kiem has increased substantially in \ rious sectors 
of the Vietnamese society bat has been laore urgently artiovla d within 




have privately questioned Biem's handling of the internal security problem 
and his ability to rally and lead the people against the Co ists during 
v: ' tbey regard as the most critical period since the end of the Indochina 
war #> Their concern with the Caaaunist threat, he zv % is almost in arebl v 
entwined with an accumulation of grievances principally over piem*s failure 
to delegate responsibility^ the power .exercised by*so:^e of Diem ! s close 
advisors, particularly his brother Kgo Binh VBm 9 erid. the use of the Can lao t 
the government's semic overt political apparatu , to police the attitudes and 
loyalty of the government bureaucracy * This disc:- cujMneted in a near- 
■ successful Military coup effort in Saigon in fcove. r I960, 

Open deprecation of pi-can's leadership has increased sharply among 
iutelleetual-e] i te circles and disgruntled ex-politicians in Saigon^ the 
focal point of non-Coinmunist Apolitical opposition to Diem since 195&> and 
to a lesser extent ; arrong labor and business elements. They have consist- 
ently and; on occasion ; vociferously 6 led that Plea liberalize and 
reform the regime 5 lift restrictions on civil liberties 3 and permit an 
opposition to c be. These demands have been supported by a disparate 
Croup of anti-Die^ Vietnamese expatriates in Paris who have 1c advocated 
3 i ! s removal* There is little likelihood^ however j that the activities 
the Saigon opposition will contril 9 appreciably to any immediate 
tlitical crisis in* South Vietnam* Their leaders are largely opportunists 
end political idealists with political views covering a wide &j ^ . 
including neutralist. They are not I ' ved to have support within the 
upper echelon of the gover b^ have little i lar &pj 1 outside Saigon 
-arjtd expatriate Viotnfeese eonkenxt Lties*j and have beien consistently unable 
to maintain unity within their own ranks or to agree on a principal leader 
or spoke: a, A number of tl . vrere involved in coup att pt last y } 
but there is no reliable evidence that they had entered into g / close 
plann' or u tderstanding with the military coup 3 " .; f 






? 



Ntflu IT*... ' > 



l»— r 



t 



E 



•- i - ■ 



' ». 



* - 
V 






~i 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



' SJ&RBtfVtaCSl 



1.5. 



Until this period, fev high or middle level officials dared to 
.criticise Di-en or any member of the ruling family or to at v. £ thV*"Cg.ij 
feS ev ^ n privately ? while fton-Coiraunist anti-Die,, elem its outside the 
government had limited themselves almost entirely to guarded «x] ma . . 
of diss :t s Illca had heretofore not hesitated to remove any critical 
offici&l, including cabinet member s ■ and loiliiary leaders, or to use the 
governi it's varied resources to pressure and otherwise -silence grumblers 
outside the government. Fear of unfavorable reaction from the IS and of 




Unrest has. also increased among the peasantry principally because " 
of the governments inability to assure adequate protection frees tfepreda- 
tidns and t on by the Coimmist guerrillas and terrorists but partly 
because of the cimlative effort of excessive and roughshod iriethcds by * 
local security and ad istrativo officials* Although ais&atisfaei 'on in 
the countryside is difficult to measure because of ths peasantry's tradi- 
tional political c tthy a su s^pdeion of gov ;nt ? it does not appear 
to be widespread. It is probably limited to areas where the level of 
t Camuraat insurgency and the excesses of government control are highest, 
and would probably Id alleviated by a general improvement in the s pity 
situation arid by less gov^r nt coercion. Some recent reports indicate 
that a trend in this direction is already noticeable due to the increased 
effective a of military and security forces, suspension of forced labor 
practices^ and greater government effort to discipline and remove corrupt j 
harsh, and unpopular local officials. If these problem are not dealt 
\/ith effectively* rural discontent may in the long run develop as th 



, . -, 



principal source of political instability, In the short run, neither the 
government nor the Coiaauriists seem capable of building up a ground-swell 
of positive popular support among the r \ry or .using it extensively 
as a. militant force. 



' 



u 



* - 



* 



I 



The i ct of these developments on the Vietnamese i.dlit^ry 
establishment ? however/ appears to be much more serious* . From senior 
down through junior officer ranks j there has been a growing concern * over 
the course of the fighting against the Communists. Ibrale particularly 
among junior and middle grade officers and no n farads si oned pa el has 
suffered further ".'f roi.v c:- ttensive c .• ' it* without sufficient rotation in 
'the Ya.caiingly endless pursuit of the Cc mritsts under the most advert ;• 
conditions of g rilla "ere, A fairly rec unconfirmed v rt has 
alleged growing neutralist sonir :nt a rg the jn aior a: . officers, The 
concern of a significant s nt of the top military 3 a ship is f r 
aggravated by Diet's reluct i to permit them a greater rola in the 
planning of operations against the Co riLatSj by his fr it da a rd 
of the regular ch els of c \ 3 l^ the activities of ths Can Igo 



■ 



f-?- — ---^••-j-' — •— " -" 



. i » .. -i - ■ -■...- , . •■ 



__ * 






\ 






4 



■ 7 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET/;;a 

16. : 



within*tke military establisl a% 9 Kost of the top military leaders are 
considered by IB military observers to bo excellent professional officers, 
id { iter utilization of their talents would increase the effectiveness 
of 'the gov ant's couiiterins^jrgency proj t \ 

■ 

» • 

B, Diem's Attitud 



r 






President Diem ! s reaction toward the current crisis reflects both 
general optimise and serious concern. Dion's attitude a; ntly continues 
to be shaped by the basic premise that the overriding problem is the 
Communist threat which ho believes can be net virtually by military measure* 
alone. ^ Ke is inclined to view criticism of his system of rule, whether 
emanating from the bureaucracy or from the political opposition on the 
outside) as being substantially less important presumably because he feels 
that such criticism is either Goiaraunist-in spired or, to the decree that "IV 
is legitimate , is stimulated by cone n over the CoaUuunist da r which he 
seeras c dent he can counter with increased US aid. In addition, he 
probably feels conf: of his ability to forestall or suppress any ;ed 
coup attempt against him, 



Equally important, however 3 is ir r s basic impatience with demo- 
cratic processes which he considers useful as ultimate goals but liable 
in a co try such as South V: -am to bo wasteful and dangerous to political 
stability and public safety. Diem appears to hold, therefore, that Vic amese, 
with their national survival at stake, must learn to submit to a collective : 
discipline until they develop a better g tse of civic responsibility. For 
those and other n iB y' Diem «bas not only given low priority to expanding 

democratic processes but he has also I inful and even suspicious of 

most Vietna who have agitated for political reforms* fiiep's convictions 
of the correctness of his political views and of his approach to th current 
situation probably have been strengthened by a series of recent developments, 
including his e session of last year's revolt, his easy victory du: " the 
elections last April, and the strong IB public reaffirmations of support. 

■ 
e ♦ Below the surface of apparent optiraism, Diem and his lieute: ts 

v. Mbit considerable apprehension over the stability of their positions. 

During their actions against the co p plotters, t made it clear that 

f ture attempts of this type or of even strong public criticism of the 

iverns-ent leadership will be severely dealt with, ..Rhu has indicated to 
—' 'Do, yers that 'many of the ofi^icials criticising the government are 
eelf-ee." " ". 'that the ; : ; critics are r making more from a "lack 
of un&ersta " ! of ths political situation than fron political conviction* 
In the meantime, Die:.: has attempted to tighten his controls over the 

anient and the raiXJ 1 ; t gh the Can Lao and such 
] : as incres • police surviellance and removal and reassign Lent of 

wso: n 1, .He has, for oe i pie, c • " tl; used t] s t .binet reorganisation 



V* — r v 



S] 01 ] /RQ£i 



i ■ 



vir 



v > 



•- 



• ■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET/i\0?0HN 



3,7. 



i i I 



*.. 



of last !fey to remove some of its critical (but admittedly weak) mentors; 
he has increased -the authority of officials helpful to hi:* during tho 
I960 coup attempt, as in the case of Brig, 'Gen/: xyen Khanh; and ho hap 
established a "political ccnrndssar 11 system in ths ar&ed services ostensibly 
to conduct political indoctrination programs but probably also to sttfsngtheft 
Di&n's informant and control mechanism. According to re tit reports^ Pica 
has created a "Hilitary fes?v Force 1 ' of trusted military leaders and units 
which Mould, be prepared to move quickly agains b any attempted coup, 

. - 

At the same ti&e 5 Diero appears to" 'have realised that so: -liberal- 
ization of his pr evasive personal role in running the government is necessary* 
To date. Diet's political reforms have bean modest arc! appear to be motivated 
more by practical considerations # i,c f . persistent IB urging and increased 
IB aid; than by any change in his political convictions, A);:ong othdr things, 
ho has permitted the "election 11 of youth represent! Lives to village councils 
in a number of southern provinces } though the representatives cone from the 
governments Republican Youth Qrgani nation, He has sought to improve the 
quality of local government officials and has disciplined and removed (with 
adequate publicity) an increasing nunfoer of those guilty of graft 5 excessive 
harshness j and ineffectiveness in office* He has allowed (probably ordered) 
the Rational Assembly to indulge in slightly more open del: te of government- 
sponsored legislation and occasionally to question publicly cabinet members 
m on the operation of their departments* Restrictions over the press have 
been rel d somewhat and., with the exception of those involved in last 
year's coup attempt, the opposition had not been active t harassed, Finally, 
he has made a number of administrative' change s.vi thin the military e iablish- 
meni designed to improve its effectiveness and 'ostensibly to delegate greater 
authority to' its hierarchy* ' : ■:.♦.■*■ ... •. -■; •._'.-. - •; 



# 4 a 



C. Mem's System of RuJ 






- 



'3 



m - d 



s 



* ** '*' Diejii r s system of rule regains essentially unchanged. As before, his 
personal impress is upon almost every aspect of the government and he con- 
tinues to>make all important decisions as veil as many less important ones* 
What limited authority his" subordinates possess j from the secretaries of 
state heading cabinet dej tents down to middle-level operational personnel, 
is largely det^ by their personal standing with hini rather than hy 
.formal legal ri nts. Even his close advisers } including members of 
bis ov/n family, "are balanced a;;- i: t ekeh other and operate in relative " * 
obscurity 3 never bei&g permitted to shire the public spotlight f ocussd ,'on 
Mgo binh Diesii Thus, while r intains the forxa of constitutional 
gov^rntaentj he dire the fcu; iiicraey largely on a perse sis arid with" 
the help oi ft i; inner circle" of advisors, bound to bin by fa: ' y ties and 
personal loyalty^ operating largely outside the fo: I govers&ent structure, 
and* extend* g their controls thro'- ' the natioi^al and local bureaucracy » 



• 



r*" 



■ 



- », - -- 







- 




■*■ 


i 




'ff '■■- {„• . 


■ 


• 

*** 






* 










t * 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECREI/NCFC 
18, 



Changes in the composition of the inner circle have not 'been frequent,/ 
Its principal and consistent : c& have been. Diem f s own fairly: Ego Dinh 
Khu, who is officially political advisor to' Diem) Kgo Dinb Can, who has no 
official status but is the political boss of the central and northern * 
provinces; Kgo Dinh Thuc, who is one .of three Roman Catholic archbishops 
in South Vietnam but holds no official position in the governments and 
probably Madame Kgo Dinh Hhu, Bier's sister-in-law and a meiabsr of the 
National Assembly , whose influence is now difficult to judge in view of 
Diera ! s recent efforts to impress the government and the public with her 
absence from the inner circle in order to counter sharp criticism of her 
activities P Outside the Diem family, membership in the inner circle has 
changed from time to time and currently includes Nguyen Dinh Ihuan, 
Secre y of State for the Presidency j and Brig* Gen, Nguyen Khanh, Chief 
of Staff of the Army. Vice President Mguyen Kgoo Tho 1 s position within 
the inner circle is no longer clear in view of his known criticise of - 
Diem and the mutual dislike between hira and Hbu* 






Control over the implementation of policies' outside the inner 
circle ay_ rs to be maintained by the Cen Lso and by the largo bureaue- 
racy of local officials. Headed by Dion's brothers, hhu and Can ; the 
Can lap also serves as a surveillance mechanism both within and outside 
the government. Its trustee! and carefully selected members are placed at 
every echelon of government; including the military establishment and 
the police and security services, and frequently exercise greater authe 
than their non-party superiors* The power of the Can lao outside th 
government bureaucracy is further enhanced by its direction of the 
governments mass political party, the National Revolutionary Movement, 
by its influence over other pro-^govdrnment political organizations and 
labor > social, and cultural m groups , and by its illegal control of certain 
economic activities. The importance of the local government bureaucracy 
for controlling policy implementation is derived from the fact that 
practically all officials at all levels, from the region &o\m to the 
village j are appointed and removed directly or' indirectly by the central 
r ov en lment and frequently by Diem personally * These officials tend to 
operate essentially as Diem ! s personal agents, particularly the province' 
chiefs who continue to exere virtually unlimited powers over the 
people, despite efforts to inculcate in them a greater degree of public 
responsibility* - \ - * 



Lty 



. - 



- 1. 



I 



OK 









* ' 



> v ...... 



• v 



% 



Declassified per Executive Order 1 3526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET AiCFC&J 



19. 



" • '• 



m 

D. ■ 1 . ttiona and Cabinet Reorganisation ....."■ 

■ - 

.-.- President Mem and Vice President Tho \<;ere returned to office fo? 
another five years by an outsi aiding majority (S9 percelit) of the vote "- 
bast in the presidential and vice presic itial elections of April 9* 196l 5 
the first v. tw3 ar Vict; i f s constitution*! However ^ rather than constituting 
an accurate baroa&tes? of support for the national leadership^ Dieui's easy 
Victory at the polls wan duo largely to the ovari/lvO au- advantag \ 
accruing from his utiliaati* of the vast government bureaucracy j includ- \ 
ing the military and security establishments ? the virtual political 
nullity of the opposition candidates^ and the failure or inability of the 
CpHBttunists network to exercise its maximum ani and other subversive 
Capabilities during the brief electoral period* . t . - w 

* * ■ 

- ■ * 

There is no reliable evidence of extensive government interference 
in the actual voting or k lipulatiofl of the ballots j and Diem made con- 
siderable effort to give impression that the elections were free* Among 
other 'things $ he permitted extensive coverage and observation of the 
campaign and of the voting by foreign and Viet: aese correspondents^ 
ca] led extensively even in province^ where ConBEuniet activities. were 
fairly in' avo (partly in order to show that he was actively seeldng 
the office) ? . and reportedly instructed his officials and agents to con- 
centrate their efforts on an effective cs dgn and on providing .adequate 
internal security during the voting rather than on intimidating the oppo- 
sition candidates,, This nay have been due to Diem's expectation of an 
easy victory and to his desire to counter Western criticism of his author** 
itarian rule, Nevertheless j the elections were obviously closely controlled 
by the government* The national and local bureaucracy, including the airiest 
300^000 military , police^ and security personnel^ the equally large political 
party apparatus 9 and the prof anda media ? including the govern iVcontrollc 
radio and pressj were monopolized by the government in waging its c: Lgn, 
instructing the voters how and apparently for whom to vote and seeing to 
it that the voters actually voted t 



- » . . . 



• . 



a. 



•si 



.1*1- 



. _. .f .,-....— • .«-•- 



.«. — -. ■■ , 



Diem became president by deposing Eao Dai 5 the Chief of State^ in a 
referendum en October 23 > 1955 j which simply called upon the people to 
vote against Eao Dai and recognize Diesij then prime Minister j in his 
Stead* The vote for Diem was overwhelming oyer 9o percent of the 
vote cast,*a: on- October 2& 9 1955* Diem proclaimed a republic; with 
hh If as its first President, A little more than a year la > he 
appoii ted if- goc The as Vice Pr< . 3 : rrfc, in accor ce with 



special provisions in the constitution promulgated on October 2o ; 19: 



r v - 



> -- 



t~ 



:ci T/K( 



■ , i . » 
- \ - 



*\ + 



*\ V 



: 



r* -> r\ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 J 6. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



:cbbt/hq?cbk 






# 



c 

* 



The four opposition candidates (there were two opposition tickets j 
with two candidates, on each ticket) would have had little chance of 
winning even if the elections had been completely ' f ree » They had no 
notable popular appeal of their own in or outside official circles and 
were not among the most vocal* articulate j or we" known critics of the 
governs A nur : r of the latter were probably fearful of running or 
are still under arrest as a result "of their ailef involv t in the 
I960 abort:' ve. coup. Even in the Saigon area 5 where ^ the opposition* - * * : " 
candidates concentrated' their efforts and wh$r« they e&peqted to do W3llj ; 
the'"] m-Tho ticket got more than 70j5 of the vote cast* *■••**,.'" ■ 



The following month Diem raorg d his cabinet^ ostensibly to 
increase efficiency and liberalize the regime, The reorganisation created 
three new departments with "coordinating" but still vague responsibilities 
over all other departments } established another new department for agri- 
culture by merging the fuiv tons of two for: do] nents as vol! as 
other executive agencies concerned with agrarian aff Lrs^ and p&s&ced '"* *." 
under the existing depart ran of the functions formerly within 
the Office, of the Resident. 'While the "hew cabinet Members for the most ' 
part eeeio technically more competent' than their predecessors ; their." *"^ ?*•> 
effectiveness vail depend largely on the authority delegated to them by 
Diem — something which Diem has been reluctant to do and which has 
generated discontent within his official family, 

E. Political Retrieve for Dio:a 



1 M<-'<**l *-*,. . 



Recent developments appear to have given-- President Diem something 
of a political reprieve, Diem's outstanding success at the polls last 
April j however questionable^ probably deflated some of his critics, while 
the modest political reforms implemented to date ra&y have given others 
some hope of further liberalisation of the regime* However j what lessening 
c r the sense of urgency over the crisis in South Viet has taken place j 
there airiest certainly has been some, can be attributed principally 

■ strong US' public manifistations of sup. art for 'the Diem gover, :it ; 

olud.: : Vice President Johnson ! s visit* and to the substantial increase 
5n IB aid to help South Vietnam defeat the Coi.i-ramist insurgents, iMoreover^ 
the reorganisations within the iiiilit establishment a: 1 the deg e of 
: ctical -planning permitted the ©ilitstry leadership &pp to have all:- 
viated dissatisfaction somewhat within the upper echelon of the armed 
forces, while the recent large offensive operations against the C< 1st? 
have presumably improved morale among : : 1 Lc lie and lower echelon 






At best, however, the poli ' ' stl situation remains highly fluid 
and, as yet, there has 1 no conclusive reversal of deteriorating 
trends t Although reports of coup-plotting and of dissatisfact with 
Piem' l s leadership have deer* • ■ in ree* H 3, their persists] 3 is 



q tin 

SECHE'-f/i :1 • ' • 



j' ' 



* 



■• ■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SECRET/KaFOHN 



21 



disconcerting and indicative of the continuing and potentially explosive 
political situation in South Vietnam*' For example- soma military leaders 
fire still critical of Dieses handling of the internal security situation 
and of his reluctance to delegate responsibility and give sufficient 
attention to political; econozaicj and social pro grains as a necessary 
adjunct to miljitary operations against tha Concc^aist ins 'gents* Morale * 
in the security and police services and in the army. reportedly has been 
weakened further by the suspension or delay in the payment of pensions to 
widows of personnel killed by the Corenunists « Kgo Dirih Luyen, Diem's 
youngest brother currently in Saigon cazd Ambassador to the 0Kj has boon 
critical of some of Diem's policies,* and a number of other officials 
continue to be c satisfied with Dicing organisational changes within both 
the national and local government, structures and have little hope for 
meaningful political reforms. Moreover $ below the surface of open discon- 
tent $ there is probably a growing and increasingly dssp^ate clement of 
dissenters who are silent either , because of fear of being suppressed or 
because of the realisation that there is little they can do legally to 
improve conditions 









* . 



■■■• * 



#- ■■ 



m 



. • . 



_ ■ - 



".. 



-- 
■ 



* * 






- *■• *■ 



i ■ • 












**:.,•, 



r ■ 
* m 
% 



. •;*■ 






f 



* 



- 



•m 






r 



* 



"•- 1 



\ 



^ ... - - - 



S ** .» 'I t / " ■' ■ . , r ■ 






^ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






< . 



SIKRET/KQFOf 



22 



IV. voo: to CQgDITIGl© 



F *" " - f »- I.--*— ■ -**p*_ -— - . J. j 



• 






Having passed riod when e; y action was require d to 
meet critical economic problems, the * South Vi etnsaese government has 
since about 1959 given greater attention to future economic development* 
Frogrej this direction has been ta bio despite the continuing 
priority given to defense and security i is 3 tba effects of Ccr^unist 
insurgency in the countryside, and the precarious political situation. Th 



economy j vith about 80% of the people employed in agriculture, is self- 
sufficient in food, the population-land ratio is still relatively favor- 
able, and cultivable lands are still av Liable , Approximately 7 million 
acres (about 6 million acres in rice), 1755 of the natiopal area, are 
under pexroanegt cultivation, j i as much as an additional 20$ of the 
country is potentially productive, and the average peasant land-holding 
is about five acres , . 



Although the gov* nt'e outlook is influenced by a felt need to 
compete in economic an well as political terms with North Vietnam,, it has 
not been disposed to grant priority to lr. ■ ge prog: s of modernization, 
industrialization j and economic growth • Instead, it continues to regard 
economic improvements as feasible and desirable only to the exv t that 
they contribute to or at least do not detract from current defa 9 strength* 
The maintenance of the military and security establishment continues therefore 
to be accord I overriding imports; - in current eeo: tc programming followed] 
by what is rej irded as a political essential ~ the maintenance of the con- 
sumption standi rds of the people at 1; ge t All!, other programs requiring the 
expenditure of funds tend to be ranged in order of their pertinence to 
immediate defense and security needs. " - «•' - . ' ' 

• - The economy of South Vietnam was severely weakened by the years of 
recurrent warfare after 1940, particularly during the Indochina hostilities, 
and by the subsequent loss through partition of the mines and manufacturing 
industry of Korth Vietnam, Sources of s- ly and ; kets vera disrupted 
and. the economic balance of the region destroyed, In the countryside, vital 
water control works were damaged or neglected, Jarge areas of rice land were 
abandoned, and the livestock population was seriou pleted as farmers 
moved to urban areas in search of security* The influx of about 900*000 
refugees "from Korih Vietnam in 1954-55 further- burdened the economy* 

*• . - ■ 

Supported by heavy US assistance after 1955, South Vietnam' was able 
by 1959 to • ike s 1 notable economic achiev ■ nts. building 
up a modern military force and at rbing the refugees from the North 
(activities which thenaelves accounted for about 85 percent of the aid 
furnisl . 3 by the US), South Vietnam j >de progress in re] tiring its heavily 
damaged ti tal Ion network^ in restoring the productivity of its 
grieulture, in providing 1 nd to its 3- i iless pe< \ -ts (including the 



*v 



» # 



1 



. t 



■_ ' * ■ ■■■• 



" : 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number; NND 633 J 6. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SSGBES/SJQFOI 



■83- 



refugees) and in carrying out other agricultural refers , and in estab- 
lishing sane basis for induj "1 g ;[.}., For example, the recorisiiti .on 
of the principal railroad^ r; ting Tor aJinoat 760 miles along the coast 
• from Seigcn to just north of Hue, was co&pletedj the production of rico^ 
which supports most of the population* reached the estiical 3 prewar 
annual average of 3.5 million metric tons of paddy? about 340^000 1- -'." 
laps p ons were resettled in sparsely populated areas in the hi| Is 
and Kekoiig delta as ar. ter rn to counter. Gc mist infiltration as 
vol], as to relieve^ population pressures in the crowded coastal region; and 
construction or planning had 1 m on several raedii a-si&e a»nufacturing 
plants , principally in the textile industry* 



Despite the serious security and political situations during the 
past. year and a half, agricultural and indusi 1 output has increased antb ■ 
the main reconstruction .projs jts have been eo:;ipl- cL Patfry rice production 
in I960 (the 1959-60 crop) rose to over 5 million metric tonsj e:;c ding the 
prewar .level for the" first time^ and the i960 -6l crop, which began to cc 
on the market toward the end of I960, was slightly higher, By the end of 
I960, as a result of the governments agrarian reform and land distril on 
jarograsQj the n ': of landless peasants resettled in villages in the 
highlands and delta areas increased to more than 170 3 COO j F,n additional 
123*000 tenant farmers were able to pure]:: land bold s they formerly 
. worked or to establish bomest* s on : I • J nod lands, and some 44*000 other 
•''"peasants were resettled in 22 %gravilles ts j the highly controversial govorr 
. built villages in the delta area. Significant progress has been i e in the 
reconstruction and expansion of the road $y& 1 by completion of three princ:!- 
-pal projeotSj National Rout; 19 and 21 in the central part of the country an" 
the Saigon^Bien Ilea highway, and the appr< i*hing completion of work on other 
important" routes. Industrial expans 1 since the end of 1959 has teen ,gr- or 
. than at any tine since 1955. There has teen a sharp increase in the nu ber 
. of nu n ::U ; and small plants c £$ l); construction, or planned 
: for South Vj tnajn's light industry (which includes textiles^ fertilisers 
sugar ; glass, paper , etc*); coal production has risen appreciably and is 
sooii "expected to 'Supply all of South Vie; : U~ requirements; and construction 

is fcegun on a la3 1 orceloctrie plant at the .Da Jihiim river (financed 
through the Japanese re; .. ations program) which, when finally completed in 
19o5j is expected to more than double the pre? nt electric power capacity* 

m 

.Since the latter part of 19-0 > how ^ the effects on the economy 
■ of 0: i'st-ifcaur-g 3 of • '• . ble political conditions have become 

no 
e 
w 




■ 



*s "J 



■-'.' 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



T/JKFC 



24 



increased substantially^ a?5 the domestic pr5.ee of rico has risen* Since 
the .end of last year Saigon merchants have reported increasing difficulty 
in deliver:! ng thoir merchandise to the village 3 j and c tic co: e- 
has declined in part because of the .uncertainties of the political situa~. 
tier), Gaaa&unist sabotage of roads fend bri,dj ?s and Communist control of " 
certain areas 'have set back the government *s recons traction and agrarian 
reform and land distribution programs* Fi] ally, although thare has been 
an increase in the production of rubber s the leading source of foreign 
esechaj } rubl :■•:.■ plantations have coiae under increasing harassment by 
Communist terrorists o 



e 






v. 



South Vietnam's reliance on US grant aid has not lessened over th< 
past several years, Daring fiscal years 1955-60 total- economic aid 
amounted to about $1,4 billion, including several loans totalling about 
&S3 million. The continued high degree of dependence derives prircarily 
from the burden imposed on the economy by the ds: : se establish mt« KLli- 
tary and security costs alone were budgeted at about 5^B billion pias s 
(or eSxnit 0221 i Lior at the official rate of 35 to the dollar) in I960,, 
an amount which exceeds the total revenue which the government is currently 
extracting from the underdeveloped economy* 

r 
»■* * 

" Dependence on foreign assistance is also clearly reflected in the 
external tr< of South Vietnam. I ts in the period 1955-60 have 
covered only about 2B% of imports, aver, *ng £68 million per year co-pared 
with average annual imports of $244 million , In I960, rubber and rice 
furnished i of the export:; fey value, with rabbi ■ alone account for 
5?& Consumer goods make up a Significant portion of the ■ Imports „ reflect- 
ing the nee ity for increased * development of South Vietnam's domestic 
manufacturing capacity. About 11$ of all imports are financed by the US 
commodity import program whereby goods pure 1 cl with aid dollars are sold 
for Vietnamese piast and the proceeds used to r port the national 
budget and pay the piaster costs of economic assistance projects t France 
has remained South Vietnam's principal buyer and supplier, although its 
importance as a'su] Ler of im arts has de ad considerably since 1955, 
The GS is the' second leading buyer ana supplier while Japan is becoming 
increasingly important as ?. s' lier. 



* •* 



* •' .* 



i 






/.. 



SEC /: 



\ 



r ■ a 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63310. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



m - . ■ 






I I 



: lJ -'. J. 



o . 



» 



.. » 



.. • • ■ 



V 



t 



SJSORET/ 'CRN 

■ 

25. " 

FC ■,;■: AFFAIRS 



* 



_ ... * ». # 

. "In its overall foreign policy orientation^ the South Vietnamese 
Cover.- nt remains rigidly uncorrpremisin^ in its anti-Ccmunist stand 

:d is generally cento?}-, to follow US leadership on .v: or Id iss 5 re- ' 
mining consciously d&pendeht on the DS as itg r.ajor source' of assist- 
ance and protection and principal .international sponsor*, Governroojt 
leaders continue to play largely an ambivalent attitude toward 
France, which they admire as a cultural fount but still suspect of 
politic;! intrigue in South Viet/o o as well as in Laos and Canbcdia e 
Other current features of South Vietno:o?s for, in relations ares a) 
the -rent redaction of confidence in the Southeast Asia Treaty 
Organisation (rh/y ) to provide limited collective security; b) 
increased dissatisfaction with the failure of "the International Control 
C omission (ICC) to take effective action on r* ted strong South Viet- 
names© complaints of increased Cc t subversion and external inter* 

vent ion; and c) the expansion of relations with non-Corununlst countries 
in the Far East in order actively to ] icte anti-Corununifoi in the area 
and with countries in Africa, the Hiddlo it, and latin America in 
order to counter EHV diplomatic efforts and provide a tional support 
for the Diem govern t ! s international position as the legitimate govern- 
ment of Vietnam* -h -- 






t& 



\ 



. • 'j 



■ ■ 



4 * 



'•'■ Until recently, Diem and his close advisors have been exto sly 
neitive to urgent US recommendations, particularly those pertaining to 
Vietnam's relations Kith C: iia and to such domestic issues as corrup- 
tion and nepotism in government and -political reforms* Diem, Nhu, and 
some other leaders freqn t&y expressed (usually privately) resentment at 
what they considered US atteihots' to dicta ta to them and to restrict then-' 



they evidence 



freedom of action at home ana* abroad K At the same time 
'. apprehension c the extent of US political support of their ".regime, 
particularly in viei T of growing criticism of their leadership in and 
outside official circles, unfavorable puSliciiy of their r- m in the 
Western press, and their apparent suspicion that "the US suirpathized with 
the abortive coup in November i960* Moreover, their evaluation of US 
actions in Laos during the past year had led thorn to : ! ion the 
strategic objectives of the US in South Vietnam In r rit months, how- 
ever, the leadership l s apprehension over the extent of US support of 
the regime arxi over US offense coiooitiaents in South Vietnam has been 
allayed considerably by strong public US statements of support, Vice 
President Johnson's, visit, and increased. US aid* . * ■ ■- 4 

" r 

The governments most immediate source of anxiety is that the 
C .urdst inroads in neighbouring Lacs and C sella may result in a Co: mist 
encirclement of South Vietn^is, South Viet oh : ' tiens with Laos have 
generally been friendly, with South Vietnam coming to assume an a' t 
avuncular air and undertaking to influence Lao policies in geo 1 and 



f" r 



■T . - 



<f 






.' \ 



- 



4 



i' 



*- * 



r. 



f ■ 



• 



t 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SEGEEv/iIOFORN 



26. 



particularly those .policies that misfrt have dangerous Sjriplications for 
South Vietns ; tfecu'eitjr* South ¥iet22am*s concern has become acute 
since the Kong I:; coup in August. 1950 and "the ensuing rapid deteriora- 
tion in the Laotian security and political situations* South .VistEara 
reputedly advocated stronger: political support by the US for the Bonn * 
Oum-^ourai Nosj l governmsnt ( inst the Souvanna Phou:.: ■ Kong Le group 
and has favored armed intervention by S or the West sgainst the: 
Pathet L?,o-Koftg Le insurgancy which from the ontsst of the pres ' ) ao 
crisis the j m government has labelled as being clearly directed and 
assisted by the DS? e Concern over the security of its frontier with 
Laos has led the government to place its anned forces in the border- 
area under a continuing alert status^ to dispatch a small contingent 
of covert military personnel into southern Lacs ostensibly to carry out 
intelligence and reec Siissance operations^ and to c mi v into secret 
negotiations ffith the Lao Government for joint planning to defend southern 
Laos and the border area, Regarding the current international efforts to 
resolve the Laos situation, the Diem government has held that the ^neutra- 
lisation 1 * of Laos world inevit ' "y result in a Corfi.umist takeover enJ 
thereby aggravate greatly the already serious Conrnuiist threat to South 
ietnarru 



• i 



The strained relations with Cambodia since I9$h have been high- 
lighted by several serious arises and protracted exchanges of highly 
infla: iimatory propaganda* The persisting problems include border incideijtsj 

. territorial aiid financial claims^ and covert political conspiracies* She 
most serious crisis^ for c:: p].e^ occurred in the early part of 19^9 and 
centered around probable involvement by the Diem government in an abortive 
conspiracy against Chief of State (then prime minister) Prince Sihanouk* 
During the first half of l?6lj tensions were exacerbated by the capture 
of two Vietnamese fishing boats in Cambodian Haters and by the flight of 
some IjfTOQ Cambodian residents hi South Vietnam into Ganiftcdi&$ probably 
in eider to escape internecine fighting between Vietnam: ariay and 

■ security forces and Communist guerrillas* However, the basic factor in 

South Vietnamese-Carbcdian relations has been Diets 's and Sihanouk 7 s in tense 
dislike and distrust of each oihor, aj -avated by their essentially diverge 

international political orientations * For his part^ Diem seems convinced 
that Sihanouk is unstable and vieak, syi mthi^es with and possibly supports 
anti-Diem activities by Vietnamese Communist and non-C unists ; and c iot 
be relied upon to keep Cambodia out of Communist hands* 



<• 



■ «."w~3.ta. ••-..» ■, «-*.•'-->--* r «■»*--.» «.^m — . + ^-mH "•:-. - ■■ " .- ■ - -• - , »_-_ ;■ 



<*_r"%a*-*»-,a2_Vta. 4 •-- •*•-(.---- -. 



e C^bcdian or Khmer niin rity in South Vietnam has b m variously 
Dsti.-v;-i at 300jOOO~5COjOGO and is scattered throughout much of the 

" r, - 



kong delta a? and along the Cambodian frontie 



! - ----- 



« 



»— 



SECRET /N0?(BN 



. ' . 



\ ■■' 



•' 



'» '> 



" I 



£ ;1i 



■ 



K* 



. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



S33GRES/l?C5?(X 



27, 



J 9 Of 



Relations with Jhailandj strained someifhat in 19?9 oeo^m 
XbailandUe decision to repatriate its Vietnamese refugee minority to 
North Vietnam^ have improved largely because* of coiranon and overriding 
concern with increased Cbnsi&nist encroachment in Southeast Asia during 
the past year. South Viete&ia, nonetheless^ probably still continues 
to feel that the repatriation ( already more than 20,000 of the estimated 
YOj 000* *S0, 000 refugee Vietnamese have boon sent to Horth Vietnam) would 
strengthen DRV propaganda and diplomatic efforts for international 
recognition as the legitimate government of Vietnam c 



*. 



Since the latter part of 1959* DRV propaganda against South Vietnam^ 
in line with the step^up in Goruaunist subversive activities j has been 
laore aggressive p.iici provocative than at any tiros since the end of the 
Indochina hostilities, The persists is of bids to ^regularise 1 ' relations 
with the Diem government ^ an earlier important featiire of KV propaganda^ 
hay all but been replaced by blatant calls for intensification of the 
B people*s struggle 11 and for Dieiftts overthrow* Fo:^ its partj the Diem 
government has since 19J>9 ir- sased its efforts to counter DRV propaganda 
and diplomatic activities and has taken the initiative within the ICG to 
cite the IE? with subversive activities in the south and with violations ' 
of the 19>'i Geneva Accords « 



* 



■ ■ . 



I 









'I 



^ ^ *.•"•• f 



.■-..' : 't 



# . 



.. * - 



■ ■ * 



/ t > ' 



• 



.• 



* • 



" • v 






\-, 



'•■ 



\ 



. . 



>' 



ft-ByrbOT* famry M 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



secret/noforn 



VI . 0UTL0C 



A, Inter aal Security 

The Vietnamese Communist apparatus can be expected to maintain a 
pressing arid diversified campaign of guerrilla-terrorist and subversive - 
warfare in South Vietnam, The principal immediate Cc t objectives 
will continue to be the demoralization of the public , wealtenii and 
supplants ng of government authority in countryside, and precipitation of 
a no n- Communist coup effort. There arc strong indications that Communists 
will attempt a greater armed effort after the rainy season later this 
year although they may continue to avoid any large-scale engagement with 
the increasingly effective Vietnamese amy., except in places and at times 
of their own choosing. Statistics indicate that the total number of 
casualties among military- security personnel and local officials during 
I96I is likely to exceed the total for i960. In the meantime, the Communists 
will conti to place considerable importance on political, propaganda . 
and economic activities, in order to strengthen their controls in the 
countryside, enc urage a popular front opposition, and disrupt farther the 
economy. 



In the short run, the Communist apparatus in South Vietnam doc 3 not 
appear to have the capacity to foment a large-scale insurrection or to seize 
control of the government without considerable assistance from North 
Vietnam, which would necessarily be of such magnitude that it would be 
tantamount to overt military aggression. Barring such a development and 
given effective implement at ion of the government's counterinsurgency plans, 
reinforced by substantia! US aid, the government should be able to reduce 
somewhat the level of Communist insurgency during the next year or so and 
conceivably even reverse the trend against the Communists. In the longer 
run, Communist insurgency can be substantially reduced but the government 
probably cannot, within the foreseeable future, eliminate it entirely, 
principally because of the government's inability to seal cornpl- Ly 
South Vietnam's frontiers with North Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. 



Hov r 3 security prospects over the next year may well be influenced 
by developments in neighboring Laos than by the extent to which the 
Diem government can improve the effectiveness of its military and security 
forces. If Laos tes under predominantly Communist control, Communist 
capabilities in South Vietnam would almost certainly be strengthened to a 
degree unprecedented sir the end of the Indochina hostilities. Sou rtx 
Laos could be expected to become a major, if not the most important, base 
for directing, supplying, and expanding Communist operatic ns in South Vietnam 
In this event, the level of C t insurgency might assume the proportion 
of widespread srrilla 3 some 1 as (including portions of the 

central ] his . ] . old ~* bably come under plete Co; mist control 
within which Hi : might s fctempt to establish a Communist but ostensibly 
independent 3verra nt with both military and political support from the 
W , South Vie : urban cent pre . would be increasingly 
subjected to ist guerrilla 'ist acts insJ >fc 

anxiety i f . je centers of ent power and 1 Communist coup 



s 



285 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



0J?O] 



rfC / 6 



effort. The possibility of Co mnist attempt 6 to assassinate Diem would 
increase, and Americans would probably be singled out: cc special targets 
for terrorist attacks. 



i 



: 



V 

In the f< i ce of a Coiasiunist .offensive of such proportions* South 
Vietnam, would be required to makejEt maximum military effort in order to 
survive. SThere would be no in^ediate collapse". In the. long run, however, 
the maintenance of South Vietnam's independence would res?: principally 
on the nature and a at of US support end on a maxfarOTi effort oy the 
South Vietnamese government to develop the political, psychological, 
and economic programs required to gain and retain popular support* 

B. Domestic Political 



__,_ *.*«_■.• 



;.. : The stability of the government during the next year or so will 
depend principally on Biera's handling of the internal security situation. 
If Diera can demonstrate a continuing improvement in security conditions, 
he should be able to strengthen his position, alleviate concern and boost 
morale within his bureaucracy and military establishment, and lessen the 
urgency with which many of their members view the current', situation. Hot-f- 
ever* if the fight against the Communists goes poorly or the South Vietns 
Army suffers heavy casualties, the chances of a coup would substantially 
increase* Moreover, the possibility of a coup attejupi: at any time cannot 
be discounted, The odds favor a coup if security declines appreciably 
further, particularly if accompanied by what amounts to a Cotnmuniet 
takeover of Laos. : ... . ....... 



se 



* •. The Coipjcaunists vjould like to initiate and control a coup against 
Diem, and. their armed and subversive operations, including "united front*' 
propaganda among disaffected groups In South Vietnam, are directed toward 
this purpose* It is more likely , however, that any coup at tempi: which 
occurs during the next year or so would be ncm-Coirniunist in leadership, 
involving army .elements and civilian officials and perhaps soi::e disgruntled 
oppositionists outside the government. In any event, the participating 
eletstents probably would be broader than those involved, in the 1960 .attempt, 
vould have greater' pbpular support particularly among* 'the.. youth and labor 
groups; -and could- be expected to be.bette? prepared to execute their plan 
quickly and successfully. * Moreover,: while the role of the military leader- 
ship is by no means certain, a major -split .among the generals doer; not 
appear likely; Most of thani probably woul.d elect to _ regain .unco; mi .tiled 
at the outset of the coup, as they apparently did. in Hoveaber I960, adding 
•'their tacit or active support to whatever side appeared to have the best 
'chance of winning. Under these circumstances, a military coup attenpt 

would have better than an even chance of succeeding* * 

■ •■ -- . 

Diera f s removal — * whether by a military coup, assassination, or 
death from accidental or natural cau ■■ , — would considerably strengthen 
the power of the railitar.y. The odds appear about i ^ between a govs nt 



\ 



* . _WI 



>- V M 



\ 






* * 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



C '•* f* D »? 1* / M '"v >f\h I 1 

Dijv/ivi^^/ :,vc l-.u\ 



30, 



/ 



p 



n 



led by a military junta or by Vice President Tho, with the army playing 
i major if not the prede : : ::nt role behind the scenes. <fOn the one hand, 
ths military might conclude that a military- led- government would be bell 
able to maintain national unity and internal political cohesion and, more 
importantly, to conduct a determined .and effective campaign against the 
Coixiriuni-sts. On the other hand, they might: conclude that Kho, who 
apparently hr been on good terms with some of the present military 
leaders, would not disagree with their views on the aianner of conducting 
the fight against the Conuminists and that his constitutional succession 
would legalize the change in government end avert a serious power struggle. 
(Although Diera's brothers, Hhu and Can, would probably also be removed by 
a coup, they might attempt to retain reel political power in the event s 
Diem left the scene by weans other than a coup. ; However, the army would , 
probably act quickly to neutralise their efforts*) J Another- important 
factor which would almost certainly enter into the calculations of the 
military would be the fortunes of the coup group in South Korea and the 
course of US-ROK relations- {in any event, a government led by the military, 
by Tho, or by any other civilian approved by the military would probably 
maintain Vietnam's pro-US orientation/ - 



>*• 



< If there is a serious disruption of government leadership as a 

result of a military coup or as a result of Diem's death, any momentum the 

government's counterinsurgsney efforts had achieved would probably be 

halted and possibly reversed, at least for a time.^ Mor ;er^ the confusion 

and suspicion attending the disruption would provide the Communists an 

opportunity to strengthen their position in the countryside , and they might 

even be emboldened to attempt to sei&e control of the government* Since 

a serious split within the military leadership does not appear likely, 

Communist attempts to take over the government in Saigon would pre ly 
fail. . ■ , 



C. Economic 



. » i ♦ 



V ' 



Because of the greatly increased internal and external Communist 
threat,, improvement in South Vietnam s economic position during the next 
few years v?il 1 depend largely on developments in the security and defense 
fields, iloreover, if larger and more effective military and security 
forces are to bo maintained, South Vietnam is likely to remain increasingly 
dependent on- US .aid during this period, lite security situation also will 
continue' to 'ciff-ec t adversely the wil- ess of the govern t to undertake" 
fiscal reforms, urged by the US, ain* 3 at increasing tax revenues, 

i 
Agrarian reform and land distribution programs, as well as h ;ay 

and' canal reconstruction, will continue to suffer as long as the govern- 
ment's control of much of the countryside, particularly in the Mekong delta 
ar~ea, remains as tenuous as it is at present, Prolonged, unrelieved 
insecurity in the countryside would nit in a decline of agricultural 
output j e further decline in domestic c erce, and a lo " of business 



i b . 



*»* 



. . ... % < 



■' 






•■, » 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



s&Uitis'j:/ w own 



31 



C' 






Confidence in South Vietnam, The cumulative efface of all the 
developments could be inflation, particularly if the government ware to 
undertake large-scale deficit financing of 1 its budget. One of the 
encouraging factors in South Vietnam has.. beep the fact that the price 
level has not risen cr acurately with the money supply, reflecting 
increased .private holdings of piasters- Impairment of this confidence 
could bring out of hoarding 3 to 4 billion piasters which would create 
•serious inflation, * 



p 



% 






. , Unless the security and defei situations deteriorate appreciably 
further, development of South Vietnam's light industry, concentrated in 
the Saigon-Cholon area, probably will continue at about the present pace. 
Most of the effort, however, may be directed K trd the completion of 
plants currently under construction or in the planning stage, She £VN can 
also be expected to give high priority to the Da Nhiia hydroelectric project 
and to increasing coal production* *-. 

The security situation has thus far not prevented an increase in 
the export of rubber which, along with rice, is the mainstay of South 
Vietnam 1 s foreign trade, The trade gap, although at ill substantial, has 
been progressively narrowed in recent; years and can he further decreased 
in the short run only by maintaining the availability of rubber and rice 
for export. The short-run outlook js not bright, however, in view of the 
adverse effects of Ceramist insurgency on rice exports and increased 
/Communist harrass&ant of rubber plantations. In the long run South 
Vietnam will probably have to rely increasingly on agricultural diversi- 
fication which, as in the car.es of pork and kenaf, leads to new exports 
and on increased consumer goods production which, as in the cases of coal 
and textiles, replace imports or substitute the importation of raw materials 
for finished goods respectively,, In any event, South Vietnam will continue 
for the foreseeable future to require extensive US aid to finance its large 
balance of payments deficit, 






- 



**• Foreign Af Fairs 



■ «^-. ,#-— F*- * 



JReeerit increases in US assistance, a jointly agreed plan to combat 
Communist insurgency, and manifestations to Diem of 'US sympathy and 
backing, have provided a basis for a continuing close relationship between 
the US and South Vietnam. To a considerable extent, however. Diem and 
his advisors appear to regard recent US decisions toward South Vietnam as 
a vindication of the wisdom "of their basic approach to political and 
economic problems, as a recognition of their long-standing efforts to get 
special US consideration of their appraisal of the seriousne of the 
CoflEiutiist threat, and as a reward for South Vietnam 1 s steadfast support 
and anti~Cc nr«rauniat orientation ■ 'Che Vietnamese leaders, therefore, will 

- 

almost certainly continue to press for increased aid, further expansion 
of i i arrnad forces, and a clear priority of military over political a. 



econc iic efforts 

' ^ . . _ _■ 



t- 



to* undercut the Communists. 



Moreover, Diem will be 



\ *• 



v 

» * 



SKC !T/K(T .- 






* 



v 






.k » 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SKCSST/r10?0?vN 



32* 






:. i 






adamant in his vIghs as! to 'how the campaign against Gciaaiunist insurgency 
should beVagedj and he will tend i;o regard US differences with such 
vieus or criticism of his inner circle as indications of weakening DS 
Confidence in hivt. ■ , • 

'Diem probably still has sc:-:e -lingering suspicion of the extent of 
US confidence .in and support of bis leadership* resulting froa the abort !h 
coup attempt of November 1950 and urgent aruTpersisteat rep; fentations 
wade during that year for liberal political reforms* In the event of 
another coup effort against Diem, tin WQuld probably expect quick and 
strong 1)3 public support* and would feel that ho did not have US confidence 
if such support v;::rc not forthcoming* * " 



iem will also continue to press the US for a strong nuti-C ( .unist" 
posture in the far. East, particularly as it pertains to US policy Coward 
Laos, Nationalist China, and the issue of Chinese Communist representation 
in the UN. T.f he concludes that the US i^ weakening its aitti- Communist 
posture in the Far East, he will almost certainly^ make strong protests 
and become increasingly assertive and stubborn in his relations v h the 
US. However, in the absence of any acceptable alternative to US support 
and assistance to Vietnam, he is likely to avoid jeopardizing seriously basic 
US- South Vietnamese ties. Indeed, he v;ould probably seek to establish 
closer ties with the US by such means as a mutual defense treaty and 
possibly the stationing of US forces in South Vietnam if the Ce:<; 1st 
threat to the area increased substantially, as would be manifested;, for 
example j in a Communist takeover of Laos or in the achievement of nuclear- 
capability by Communist China. 

In the event of the failure of the international conference at 
Geneva to reach an effective and' satisfactory settle: t on Laos or a 
resumption of all-out military operations by the rebel forces in Laos, 
Diem would be greatly tempted to inert e substantially his covert forces 
in southern Laos and, in cooperation frith Lao government forces, ati ;t 
to prevent complete Communist control, of that area. Diem would probably 
seek US and Thai participation in a concerted armed effort in southern 
Laos as well as -assurances that the US would defend South Vietnam in case 
such action precipitated open DRV aggression. 

In South Vietnamese- & dian relations, the best that probably 
can be er.poeted from what no;? appears to be a temporary and ephemeral 
situation of mutual restraint by Diem r nd Sihanouk is the resolution of 
one or isore outstanding problem, Although this could probably lessen 
the chances of recurring crises and possibly strengthen the current 
political : 'c ase-fire," there is little prospect that cordial relations 
will develop so long as the present leaders of the two countries remain 
in pov/ar* i . r, if Sihanouk were to heccfi too accc associating to 
Communist pressure, particularly in the event the CciDtiunists gained a 
predominant position in Laos, 1 .. ciay be unable to r< . ist trie temptatlA ,- 



*S 



•y. 






' 



v 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









i . 






to involve his govermssnt again in a plot to overthrew Sihanouk (end 
Consequently,, at least in the tainds o£ the Cambodians; involve the US 

- 

The Diem government will continue its 'efforts to get* t he ICC to m 

consider its charges 'that the DRV is engaged in subversive activities 
south of. the 17th parallel. Hhile the government probably will not so 
as far as to renounce its policy of not blocking the implementation of 
the 1954 Geneva accords j it mey t?ell announce that it temporarily refuses 
to be bound by specific articles of the accords which restrict its; 
ability to defend itself against DllV subversion and armed intervention. 
In any event, the DRV v?ill maintain an increasingly threatening propaganda 
campaign against the Diem government and may zin\ov,nc<:i that its "national 
Liberation Front"* (probably under some other name) constitutes the 
legitimate "government 11 in South Vietnam ?- an net which would likely be 
followed by an intensive propaganda and diplomatic effort to achieve 
local and international recognition for its satellite. 



v 



•r. 



f 






*..> 






• * 



■ 



•v 



- ■ 



- 



/ 



"■ 


c- r, j 


X 

t 


4 - I : 


■ 




■ I// 


• 



,- ] 



'■* 1 



■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



om uiiics- ot 0IAAP-2A:- Bv 



-."') 



'ireciion^Chioi Coordination Group 



L 






f * 






SNIK 53-2-61 



S P if C i A L 



* 



N A T ! O N A L I N T E L L i G E N C If E S T ! M A T E 



NUMBER 53-2-61 



• 



H* i CM : H 5 ''- '^ ^ "" C ' J H «S ( ^ ?! " : >■ :v, : :■ :jV 

«■ ir-.-u ••-; \ ,-—.- t ■ r - - ■ II -Cry I 1 I!; »:..*• ■ - ' r -7 I ,-■'': '• ,'-',- HIT , > f \ I ". 

E-j i- kUkti /-\(*)r-\ \\\\h n r n . ; Gi ■■■ - ■■•- 



"1 



SiibwHtcd by the 

STfte following int 'genet orgai 'ions participated in ir 
preparation of this estimate: The Central inicUigence Agency 
and the intcUigei > wganimfions of the De t nts of 

State, the Army, the Navy t the Airl-'orcc, and The Joint Staff. 

Concurred in ou the 

I \ .*. J. Fi U SaAJ ilO I i i JL Sii La . V - -> . L J. - l> .* A . ".-> 

on 5 October J: :/. C-o?ic^r/'2;^ K?erc 2*/ic TMrector of Intelli- 
gence and Research, Department of State; the Assistant Chief 
of Staff for Intelligence, Department of the Armyj, the Assist- 
'ani Chief of Naval Operations {Intelligence A Depart: ;l of 
thejlavij; the / it Chief of Staff, Inicll g nee, USAP; 

the Director for Intelligence, Joint Si* ff; the A- ' ". nt to ift 
Secretary of Defense^ Special Operations; end the Director of 
■ the National Security Ag< ... The /' me Energy Commis* 
>:$ibn Represent U o to th* . l, and the /■ ■ ' lant Direcior t 
Federal Bureau of Investigation (>":>?■'■ '. -, the subject bei .. 

outside of their jwis&io •. 



~Jt 



1 : ■«* b*j«.a 



r 



r r 









*V TO 



i^' 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



SEC K ) : T 



BLOC SUPPORT OF THE COMMUNIST EF-FORT AGAINS" 

THE GOVERNMENT OF VIETNAM 



■ 



■..,'• THE PROBLEM 

To estimate the extent and nature of Bloc support of the Communist effort 
against South Vietnam, 1 , 



3 
I 
i 

r 



THE ESTIMATE 



1, The Communist subversive and guerrilla 
apparatus in South Vietnam, known as the 
Viet Corig, is an integral part of the North 
Vietnamese Communist Parly and it looks 
to Hanoi for political and military guidance 
and various forms of support, Hanoi is the 
implementing agency for Bloc activity in 
South Vietnam, and the Hanoi aulhoriti- 
are allowed considerable local freedom in con- 
ducting Viet Cong guerrilla and subversive ac- 
tivity. 'The Communist Bloc probably views 
the guerrilla and subversive campaigns in 
Laos and South Vietnam as two parts of a 
single broad political-military strategy,' and 
of the two, considers South "Vietnam as the 
more significant prize. ' * " - 

2. The Viet Cong are using Maoist tactics. A 
• large. part of the North Vietnam Army was 

trained in Communist China during the Indo- 
. china war ending, in 1954, and some of these 
'troops are* leading op fcions in South Viet- 
nam now. Each Bloc country lias supported 
the "struggle" in the South with propaganda, 
notably during Pham Van Dong's trip to other 
Bloc areas in Jim August, 19G1. 



'For a broader treatment of the situation and 
prospects in South XI am, see :;<••, 14,3/53-Bl, 
"Prospects for North and South Vietnam;" dated 
15 August 1W 



3. Since early 1980 a general Hanoi-directed 
political and paramilitary Communist offen- 
sive against President Diem and his govern- 
ment of Vietnam (GYN) has been underway, 
and during the past year this campaign ha 
taken on increased tempo and scale. The V: 
Cong apparatus has undergone rapid expan- 
sion, and the scope and area of operations of 
its guerrilla units have increase d significantly. 
More recently, the Viet Cong lias begun to op- 
crate in larger sized units (500-1,000 men) 
and they have extended large-scale attacks 
to include, for the first time, the plateau area 
jri the northern part of South Vietnam. 

4. Apparently in response to this direction 
from Hanoi, cadre personnel and many special 
items, such as' communications equipment, 
chemicals, medical supplies, and other items 
needed for guerrilla warfare not available in 
the countryside, are being infiltrated to-td 
South Vietnam via long established land and 
sea routes. Thousands of Junks which ply 
the coastal routes of the Indochina peninsula 
provide s means of infiltration extremely diffl*. 
cult to control. Mountain trails in southern 
Laos have been used freely by the Communists 
for years for movement of men and supplies 
between North and South Vietnam. Othei 
infiltration routes pass through ( ' 
Ncverth ss, the Vict Cong effort is still 



'■-1.',' 

BECE 



E T 



j- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






S E C ) I V. T 



2 



! 



■ 



■ 



■' 



; 



■ 

1 



* 
i 



largely a self-supporting operation in res] I 
to recruitment and supplies. The Viet Gong 
Ifve upon locally 'produced food which ,thcy 
cither grow themselves or levy upon villi 3. 
They meet most of their currency needs by 
taxing areas under' their control, by n 3ry, 
or by blackmail. Most of their arms and 
much of their ammunition have been locally' 
acquired or captured from GVN Army and 
security forces. 

5. We estimate present armed, full-time Viet 
Cong strength at about 10,000, an increase, 
despite substantial combat losses, of 12,000 
since April of I960 and of 4,000 in the past 
three months. About 10-20 percent of total 
Viet Cong Strength consists of cadres infil- 
trated from Nor Hi Vietnam mostly via moun- 
tain trails through southern Laos, Mo I of 
the remaining 80-80 percent of the Viet Cong- 
are local recruits, but they also include rem- 
nants of the approximately 10,000 stay-behind 
personnel who went underground during th 
1954-1 955 n -groupment and evacuation of 
Vietnamese Communist Army units following 
the ) idochina War, Approximately 90,000 
Vietnamese Communist troops were evacuate 'd 
io North Vietnam during this period, most of 
whom were from south and central Vietnam, 
It is from tins pool of experienced fighters 
that most of the guerrilla cadres bow oper- 
ating far South Vietnam are drawn, These 
hard-core guerrillas are augmented by sev- 
eral thousand supporters who, under the cover 
of normal civilian pursuits, join the organized 
insurgent bands to assist in intelligence, 
sabotage, prop mda, and terrorist opera- 
tions. In addition, local ifth ants in many 
areas provide the Vict Con- with recruits, 
food, refuge, and c J ionai support, in some 
cases voluntarily and in ethers as the result 
Of intimidation ore Srcion, 

6. As part of the buildup for their current 
campaign, the Viet Cong have i Wished 
an extensive co i imitations m I work. Much 
of the communications equipment in use is 
probably quite primitive and some of it i 
assembled in the field. Tin is e\v nee, 
hov/evcr, that in addition there arc subst; > 
tiaJ quantities of sophistic d cc . .iimlea- 



tions equipment and well-trained technicians 
serving the Viet Cong, Such equipment and 
the nc v :ry maintenance a operating per- 
sonnel were infiltrated into South Vietnam; 

7. There lias been no positive identification 
of Bloc manufactured military equip] ml in 
South Vietnam, Most of the arms and equip- 
ment now in use by the Viet Cpng is of US 
or French origin. Although weapons have 
been infiltrated from North Vietnam, most 
Viet Cong equipment is probably from caches 
established at the end of the Indochina War 
or is equipment captured from GVN armed 
forces or security forces. During 1960, over 
3,000 small arms were lost by GVN armed 
forces during combat. Some items, such as 
grenades, land mines, booby traps, and £ 11 
arms ammunition are locally manufactured 
by villi level Viet Cong "arsenals," from 
materials procured locally or imported from 
North Vietnam and Cambodia. Moreover, in 
view of the physical problems of infiltrating 
large amounts of arms and ammunition into 
South Vietnam, many Viet Cong operations 
are primarily for the purpose .of capturing 
arms, ammunition, medical supplies, and 
oilier equipment, A major buildup of Bloc 
equipment in South Vietnam is likely to await 
the improvement of lines of communication 
into and within. South Vietnam. 

8, Outlook. Viet Cong control of the Ca Man 
peninsula at the southern tip of South Viet- 
nam has been virtually complete for several 
years. During the dry season beginning in 
November* the Viet Cong will probably inten- 
sify the exploit al ion of GVN weaknesses in the 
plateau areas of the north and central parts 
of the country, seeking io establish another 
"liberated area" as a loj Ics base from which 
larger scale operations could be mounted. 
The creation of a second "lib \ area" in 
the plateau r djaccnt to southern Lao;; 
would enable the Viet Cong to. keep GVN 
for- :• split and j rent the concent- 

effort hi A either. Moreover, a strong Vi ' 
Cong ] . jiti w in the plateau area woul > 
ously threaten tin ' rDiem'strooj i 

along the di rnillii i h d ; 



SECKE' 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









■ 











- • 






SECRET 



3 



■ ■ 

9. To a considerable extent the ability of the 
Viet Cong to maintain this expanded effort 
will depend upon improved logistical support 
from the outside. It is probable that the Bloc 
intends to build up the eastern part of south 
Laos, Improving the roads, mountain trails, 
and airfields, as a major supply channel to 



* . 



support a stepped up Viet Cong campaign In 
north and central Vietnam, There lias al- 
ready been a considerable increase in Com- 
munist troop strength in south Laos, a sub- 
stantial supply buildup,- particularly east of 
Thakhckj and an increase in the Communist 
airlift into the are; 



i. 



V * • 



S E C R E T 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



H-l ^ t< ,_ 



m 












THE JO! N'T CHIEFS CT- STAFF 
WASHINGTON 25, D.C, 









i • 



e: ;-y 3 
v 



i 






i;b 









w if 



■I - *" ?\ \ • ,-• — ■ 



r< rrx.vr 



MEMORANDUM FOR'THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 



JC5;.;-70-- 

5 OCT 1961 
•'J ■ 

i 1 •'■>':' 1 •••• : 



f 



f. . % 



/ 



". I 



Subject: Planning for Southeast / a (U) ' 

/ 

1, Reference is made to the r norandum by the? Deputy Secretary of 
Defense, dated 3 October 19&lj subject as above. 

2, Over a period of time, the Joint Chiefs of Staff have exa ined 
various alternatives fo the solution of the problems of Laos and Southeast 
Asia, They have 'recommended certain military actions short of US 
intervention which might have had the desired effect and conld have 
altered trie situation to our adyaniaie. Hov ever, the* time is now past 
when actions shorl of intervention by outside forces could mvi:r:?c the 
rapidly worsening situation* They co : the execution of SKA TO 



N 



L 






- 



• - - 



Plan 5. or a suitable variation tl eof, to be the military mi lijrmim . 

.•■-*.. . . , . ... * - *■ 

commensurate with the situation,, It is the view o£ the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff that, lacking aa acceptable political settlement prior to [be re p~ 

tion of overt hostilities, there is no feasible military alter tive of lesser 

m 

magnitude which will prevent the loss of Laos, South Vietnam and ultimately 

Soudan st A sia. 



p- r 



.3, If this intervention causes escalation, additional mobilisation would 
be required in order .to maintain our str. ic reserve. The Joint Chiefs 
of Staff reaffirm their opinion that we cannot afford to be preoccupied with 
Berlin to tbe ca :t that we close oar eyes to the situation in Southeast 
Asia, which is now critical from a military view; ' it. 

i 



- 



V 



-. ^ 

u ■ 






X « 



Plamaiii --'by the Joint Chiefs of Staff has contemplated sirnu] ncous 



I 



coVxin's;: :cie' L\iM3crlin and South e« •' ."'. i: . "In sUch planning tbe Joint 
Chiefs of Staff have agreed t: t imp tion of SEATO Plan 5 would 

■ * 

provide a US initiated cc er to I . denial of access to Berlin. 



1 k {- «* 



y"\ \-ji «^>l r.-v * K • i 

v » ■: ' r ■: 



<£ 



__or 



_Conies c 



aj jn.. ,,,., serpen 



ii * *: 



1 



aaproductiorj of this fioci^et-.t It rhol(J 
or in pa-/c i^ prohiMtsd «:;-^r*t "^■- • 



- 



1 



I - 



. 'porulnsion of fcho ii '-'^ o.*;::'c. ■- 



181 3V/j : : Mb' , J b'b' .". ! 

ooj ' DEC! iSSi . :o, L:b Dili : - . • i ' , 

; / 



/-. -w* — 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 



V ■ 



* * 



ff** T"* ft \ w% i: 9i 



current build-up o( 'force-* will improve our military pohfriri to support 
action in'Southcast Asia in : Ition to that in Berlin* It is not a cru< 
of the desirability of having two Halted war situations going at lh<: same 
time. The fact of the matter is that wc may bc'f; ed with such a con- 
tingency. 



5 , In r e ! ) 1 y t o y ° u " j * tw o 1 c s s e r one s t i o as; 

a* Naval forces in support of SFATO Plan 5 operations would 
consist of one or two attack carrier strike groups with supporting 
forces. The employment of these units would not unacceptable 
reduce Scv< tth Fleet capabilities in other areas of the Western 

Pacific, In the event that overt Chinese Conirounist intervention 

* * 

required the deployment of additional Seventh Fleet forces to Southr 
Cc Asiaj First Fleet forces and elements of a Marine Division/ 
wing" team from the Eastern Pacific could be deployed to maintain 
the required level of naval capabilities in the ^Western Pacific, 
These actions are in consonance with currently approved military 
plans. 



b, The "massive del nt US air power 11 referred to in the 

paper was designed to provide the North Vietnamese with evidence 
of the bS i fcentj determination and capability. This "show of force 11 
exercise could be conducted by Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps 
aircraft deployed to Southeast Asia under SEATO Planj 5, USAF air- 
craft based at Clark AB* Philippines* other PACOM aircraft using 
air-to-air refueling, or by SAC training flights. This type of 
exercise would not dilute other deploymei ts and would serve the 
dual purpose of providing useful reconnaissance, both photo and 

* 

Visual/ The basic posture for nuclear strikes would not be affec 
sin.ee alert aircraft would not be used for the purpose of con g 

a show of force operation. 



-i %■ 



m *■ ■ * 



For the Joint Chiefs o[ Staff; 







A >.« 



i^'vV/i 



T T 7 ~-PV,%~ i T"7 

Chairman 
Join! Chiefs of Si aff 




r pn 



I 



- -. 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 




t ^\->e? • 






'^iccr 9 






1 



3 



34 



THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF 



,' f|" jl- f'M^'- vv ASMiN'GTOW 25, D.C. 



I W if 



r. , * » > «. l 






JCSM-716-61 



9 OCT 196 



»." 



vf 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 



s- 1 - 



'j 



u d ] e c i : 



Concept of Use of SEATO Forces in 
South Vi i a'am (C) 









1. Reference is macle to the memorandum by the Deputy Secretary 
of Defcviisej dated 5 October 1 9 6 1 j subject as above. The Joint Chiefs 
of Staff have considered the proposed concept for the use of SEATO 
forces in South Vietnam anJ. the suggested, two principal military possi- 
bilities for its implementation. 

2, It is their opinion that the use of S3 !ATO forces at the greatest 
possible number of entry points along th: whole South Vietnam hord-v, 
but excluding that part of the 17th parallel now held by the South 
Vietnamese Army itself, is not feasible for the following r ons: 

a. SEATO forces will be deployed over a border of several 
•hundred miles arse will be attacked piecemeal or by-passed at 
the Viet Cong's owe. choice. 



b. It may reduce but can 
personnel and material. 



lot stop infiltration c Viet Cong 









$1 



V 

♦ 

e 



* • * 



. .c. It deploys SEATO forces in the we: st 6j se points 
.... * •-. •* * . • ■ 

should DRV or CKICOM forces intervene. 



ch It .compounds the probl is of co aunications and logistical 

+ 

support. 



* 



•• • 






-. i* 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



i.. _ . 









3. Further^ the alternative possibility of using SJdATO forces to 

cover solely the 17th parallel, although consider ed feasible to a limited 

...... . "a- fV 

extent, is militarily unsound in view of the following considerations: 

a, The 17th parallel is not a main avenue Of approach being 
used by the Viet: Cong. 



b. North Vietnam may interpret seen SEATO action as prepara- 
tion for aggression against them, thus promoting the possibility of 
communist harassment and destruction oi friendly combat and 
logistic: forces concentrated near the parallel, if not escalation. 



4. € As stated in your memorandum* the proposed concept set for 
must be analyzed in the total context of the defense of Southeast Asia, 
Any concept which deals wit}-: the Ccfznze of Southeast Asia that does not 
includ 11 or a substantial portion of Laos is, from a military standpoint, 
unsound. To concede the majority of northern a:*id centra] L^os would 
leave three quarters of the border of Thailand exposed and thus invite 

an expansion of communist military action. To concede southern Laos 
would open the flanks of bot-i Th; nd and Scuth Vietnam as well as 
expose Cambodia, Any attempt to cornbat insurgency in South Vietnam, 
while holding areas in Laos essential to the defense of Thailand and 
South Vietnam and, at the same time* putting troops in Thailand, would 
require an effort on the part of the United States alone on the order of 
magnitude of at least three divisions plus supporting units. This would 
quire an additional two divisions from the United States, 

5, What is ne< oc6 is not the spreading out of our forces throughout 
Southeast Asia but rather a eor:e -ted effort in Laos where a firm 
stand can be taken saving all or substantially all of Laos which would* 

c i the same time, protect Thailand .-and protect the borders of South 
Vietnam* 



6, The over-all objective could best b% : the implementation 

of SEATO Plan 5/61, or a variation thereof, now. This would accompli s 
the objective of assisting to secure the Border of South Vietn< against 
the infiltration of pars'''.. : .. Later ial in support of the Viet Cong thus 

£re*eii , Vic i :se for< to conduct mors effective olfs ive operations 



■ ■ 






O 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



h 



:} 



[ ■ o r ; ■: * ?< 

f T ,1 t-' .' ,. .r 

v- [ v.5 ;-^ «... v, | j . 



4 " 



in South Vietnam, In addition, this action would stem further communist 

gains in Laos and, at the. same time, give concrete evidence of US deter- 
mination to stand firm against further communist -advances world-wide* 

t, 7, If implementation of SEATO -Plan 5, or a variation thereof, is 

\t,-i,^ r » .. „,..._... ' "" ■ ■-.-'•_■■. ■. '•- - -. 

considered a politically unacceptable "course of action at this time, there 
is provided herewith a possible limited inl rim course of action. This 
course of action, covered in the Appendices hereto, could provide a degrc 
of assistance to the Government of South Vietnam to regain control of its 
own territory, and could free certain South Vietnamese forces for offen- 
sive actions against the Viet Cong, While the Joint Chiefs of Staff agree 
that implementation of this limited course of action would not provide 
for the defence of Thailand or Laos, nor contribute substantially or 
permanently to solution of the over -all problem of defense of Southeast 
Asia, they consider the Plan preferable to either of the two military 
possiblities described in referenced memorandunfiu 



For the Joint Chiefs of Staff; 

)°7°/ J -u 

Chairman $ 
Joint Chiefs of t( 



A 



ttachm ent 




« < 



* 



' -. 






• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



*vv\ • 



xur D-bUJt'-Vr 



I 



J f> ■ ■■-1 -s 



n t<;* r i \V.~ *iV& i'.J *t 






POLITICO L OBJECT IVES 

I 

1. To enable the Government of Soith Vietnam to regain full 
control of its own territory and to eliminate the Viet Cong 
threat fr * . 

2* To defend Thailand and South Vietnam, holding Laos or 
areas thereof to the extent required as being essential to the 

■ 

defense of Thailand and South Vietnam. 

MILITARY OBJECTIVES 



■ #■ ^,^1 1^ , a^—m* —.- *-.. t - r* a«V* w'aa^^k^aB -*■» 



l f v?o assist by the use of SE/iTO forces in securing the borders 
of South Vietnam to the maximum extent possible against the in- 



filtration of personnel and material in support of the Viet Cong* 
2, To assist the Governs b of South Vietnam to regain full 



control of its own territory and to eliminate the Viet Cong threat 
by freeing South Vietnam forces for offensive action against the 
Viet Cons, 



3, To defend Thailand and South Vietnam, holding Laos or 



areas thereof essential to such defense. 
. . ASSUMPTIONS 



i * 



■ 



1. Forces available will be the British Commonwealth Brigade 3 
Pakistan, Philippine, and US forces and a limited amount of Thai 



fore* 



■ 



'" 2. The United States uill' provide for stationing in Thailar. 
one US Brigade Task Force Team. as suggested to Foreign Minister 

* 

Thanat by Deputy Undersecretary of State Johnson * 

3* South Viet? forces released by SKATO forces will 



conduct effective 



offensive 



. 



operations against the 



■IT-' ,- ■'- 



viet Congo 






d t • 1 1 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526. Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



» - .- 



*. ttxtau. possible use of SE)Vx . forcos ¥lu fce ^ ^ 

. .•rtWU. an effective co^unications network i„ as ffide an 

area as possible and to Derve a ' ' . 

a ] ' A ' uno J-or introducing new 

techniques : into fchp o rn /. K 1r .«./ * . 

1 UbC tnu ^caun Vietnamese Array* **' 



CONCEPT OP OPERATIONS 



1. SEATO ground and air forces will deploy to South 

Vietnam to assist in protecting the South Vietnam-Laos border* 

■ 

exclusive of that part of the 17th parallel now held in force 
by I Corps of the South Vietnamese Army (I Corps Tactical W 
Area) j southward to the Cambodian border. - 

2. SEATO ground forces of approximately one division 
strength (11,000) initially will deploy to the high plateau 
region of the Pleiku area* Securing this region with SEATO 
forces will free South Vietnamese forces to conduct effective 

offensive operations elsewhere- Further deployments to assist 

■ 

in interrupting the flow of personnel and material in support 
of the Viet Cong into South Vietnam will be at the discretion 
of the- SBATO Field Force Commander in light of the existing 



. * i 



tactical situation. Tne SEATO force will further assist South 
Vietnamese forces by the provision of air, communications and 



■ » 



logistic support, 

3- The additional command and control communications - 
electronics requirements for the support of this concept are 



s 



set forth in Appendix B to Enclosure B. 



r .. ---. /** 



■ 



- . - - ■ . -. 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



I : llu i " " 



■ Lf 



' - C01 mp ARRANGEMENTS 
^ . Command arrangement? .for this concept would* be as 
now provided for in SEATO Plan 5/6 1 except that the United 
States would have the responsibilities of the Appointed 

o 

i 

Nation- In addition* coordination between the SEATO forces 
and the Government of South Vietnam \*;ould be required. * 

FORCE INVOLVEMENT 



1. The forces involved in support of this concept would 
include those forces now committed to support. SEATO Plan 5/6l 

■ 

less both the Thai commitment and the US commitment to the Central 
Reserve. This force would be composed of approximately 9600 
combat forces, of which about 5000 would be US. Headquarters 
units, air component, logistic and other support units would 
total about 13*200. This would provide a total force of 
about 22,800. 

2. SEATO forces in South Vietnam would be approximately 



as follows: 



» 



a. Headquarters * 700 

b. Ground Component 

• Philippines • . - 20p 

Commonwe alth 4^00 

.. United States " . 5000 



9600 



c. Air Component 

Commonwealth 200 

United .States 85O 



- - ■ - 



■ - • , 

u fear -. ■ - - • 



3.030 



vVj..- 



> 






* > t 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



- , 









d . Reserve Component 
Pakistan \l\00 

e. Base Area Command 

■ • 

(Hq & Hq Det) ' 100 

* 

' Psy War Units * 150 ' • 

- 
1 

Common Service Log. 

Support Units ! 38OO 



Log. Units In Support 

of -j-tional Forces 6000 



10, 050 



Grand Total "22,800 1 



3. There are no US Navy forces assigned to the SEATO force, 
SEVENTH FLEET forces consisting of one or two attack carrier 
strike groups with supporting forces would operate in direct 
support of SEATO operations as required. Other units of 
the SEVENTH FLEET including patrol aircraft are available to' 

assist the South Vietnamese Navy Coastal Patrol Force 9 as 

• ... ♦ 

requested j in operations against Viet Cong sea infiltration. 
■ k: The source of US forces to support this concept would 
be from those forces now assigned to the Pacific Command. Our 
military posture is such that the employment of the SEATO 
forces would not adversely affect our capability to conduct 
planned operations in Europe relating to Berlin* 



- 






30.3> 



€ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






RULES OP ENGAGEMENT 



1. SEATO forces may take whatever action is, in the opinion 
of the commander, necessary to insure the security of the 

force itself, - ' . . . 

* 

2. Offensive actions by SEATO forces against the Viet Cong 
will be limited normally to those necessary to destroy such 
Viet Cong forces as pose a threat to either: 

a. The borders of South Vietnam* or 

b. The security of the SEATO force Itself, Such 

. ■ 

offensive action envisages the possibility of reasonably 
limited projection of SEATO air and/or ground forces 
beyond the borders of South Vietnam into Laos. 

3. Aerial reconnaissance by the SEATO Air Component will 
normally be confined to Laos and South Vietnam. 

4. SEATO forces villi be permitted to retaliate immediately 
against North Vietnam overt military intervention by launching 
air strikes against military targets in that country. 



r 1 



I 

![| r 



i . <-■■■<■■:. 



v - A 



<• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



l/UMMUXN XO J, i iJinvy J. j-V/is 



- — — — - - 



* • 



s *. ■ 



Bloc overt aggression to counter the movement of SEATO 
forces into South Vietnam is considered unlikely. The most 
/ provable course of action by the communists would be continued 



- j." 



use of insurgents and infiltration. However^ if the Bloc 

did decide to act overtly to counter the introduction of SEATO 

forces into the area,, this action Would probably follow* in * 
general, the pattern set forth below: 

a. jbasically an infantry invasion of South Vietnam and 
L%os and deployed in strength and direction as follows; 

(l) Five divisions on the North/South Vietnam border 
to Saigon along the coastal route via Dong Ha - Tourano ~ 



i < 



Binh Dinh. 



& 



(2) One division (light) to Vientiane via Xieng - 
Khouang - Paksane. 

(3) One division (light) to Thakhek and Savannekhet 
via Mugia Pass apd Keo Keua Pass. 

(4) A follow-up force of up to six divisions moving 
as follows: 

(a) Tito divisions to Saigon or Bangkok via Lao 
. Bao Pass - down the lower Mekong Valley along Route. 

■ # . ■ 

13 to Saigon or across the Mekong River to Bangkok. 
; * (b) Two divisions to Bangkok via Routes 7j 8 and 

• ■ - ■ . ♦ 

13 through Laos into Thailand and on to Bangkok. 

(c) Two divisions to be held in reserve along the 
North/South Vietnam border to be available to put 
additional mo: ntum along the coastal route , or to 

* 

effect a subsidiary effort in the Kontum-Pleiku 



Plateau , 



: 



'J o 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



c 



; % b; A secondary effort, or threat thereof, by about nine 
Chinese Communists divisions into Burma and Northern 
Thailand, which could be supported as follows: 

(l) Three- divisions , one lightly equipped, to 
northern Thailand via northvjes*; Burma. 



-f -—.-—■. 



I 



- 

(2) Six divisions toward Rangoon along the Burma Road 
and ' via -Myitkyina to -Kandalay,, then south in the internal 
trans p or* t system of Burma, 

- 

e* There would probably be a build-up in North Vietnam and 
possibly a build-up along the China-Burma border before any' 
invasion was initiated. The invasion would probably be on the 



j broadest possible front employing lightly equipped troops to 



infiltrate between defending forces and thereby minimizing 



: the effects of nuclear weapons against deployed ground troops. 

j These infiltrating forces would be supported by columns advancing 
quickly down main routes. Battalion-size or smaller airborne 
units might be used, chiefly to seize and hold key features . 



! 



such as bridges, airfields, critical road junctions. The 
communists would exploit to the fullest their ability to 

m 

t { 4 filtrate, through the most difficult country and would not 
\ cessarily be tied to the highways and roads. Large numbers 

■ 

of porters and pack animals would be available and jungle 

•* * • ■ . ' . » , 

trails would be used to a great extent, though this would 
restrict the -speed of attack and the weight of equipment 
that could be used. 






\ . 



- 



\ 















t 



D eel assified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Am ACTIONS 



(fi J'3 j : ■ • ..." * 
, . : ■ 
; ■•*: - ' "4 

ii K^ 'i v- . . . 



a. The Chinese Communis ts maintain,, on a routine basis,, 
appro;:.* tely 25 jet fighters in South China. These and other 
aircraft^ including jet light bombers,, could be rapidly deployed 
to. bases in Nort.b Vietnam and South China to conduct air opera- 
tions in support of the Communist objective. In the event of 
a ground invasion of the magnitude suggested above ^ it is well 
Within the CHICOM's capability to neutralize the air bases and 
port facilities in Thailand and South Vietnam in an attempt to 

deny their use by SEA TO forces. Such an operation could precede 

- 
or accompany the invasion of ground forces. * ■ 

* 

REACTION TO CONTINGENCIES 



' 1. If North Vietnamese forces overtly intervened,, the SEATO 
force would have to he inc.: seel from the equivalent of 

r approximately one division at the initiation of the' SEATO Plan 

f . 

' to twelve division^ seven Regimental Combat Teams and five 

battalions. In addition, the SEATO force would have air and 

■ 

naval superiority. Such a force is considered adequa te to defeat 
tfte North Vietnames.e_forces. . 

2. US force contribution to the enlarged SEATO force required 
to combat such DRV action would include two Army divisions, one 
Marine division/wing team and. five USAF tactical squadrons d.e- 
ployed in Thailand and South Vietnam. The US forces would be 
increased from 14,000 to a total of approximately 129,(X)0, not 

■ - ■ * 

including Navy forces. One division for this force must 



come from the continental United States. This could require 
the call up of one division plus other appropriate fore to 

■7 ' ■•, ' 



~4- 



maintain the US strategic reserve- 



01 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



3. The mission of the enlarged SEATO. force would be to defend 
Laos and South Vietnam against attack by forces of the Democratic 
Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and to inflict a quick and decisive 
defeat on the military forces of the DRV, The general concept 

m 

is to hold the enemy as far forward as possible, destroy his 

* • 

forces/ his lines of communication^ and those installations 
directly supporting his war making capability. When a] ropriate, 
SEATO forces would .mount a general offensive against the 
enemy. They would have a capability of conducting amphibious 
assault operations in North Vietnam in case the military 

■ 

situation so dictated 1 

h. If the Chinese Communists intervene , whether by regular 



or volunteer forces, political authorization for essential 
military actions must be anticipated since prompt counteractions- 
would be required. The ould be issues whether to attack 

selected targets in South China with conventional weapons and 
whether to initiate use of nuclear weapons against targets in 

■ * 

* 

m 

direct support of Chinese operations in Laos. 

• 5, In this event the SEATO force would be increased to 



■ »■ 



fifteen, divisions and eight RCTs (278,000) deployed in the 
defense of Southeast Asia. 



a , 



7 * I ■ 



■ 



-v - ■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



m* %. .' 



— 

6. The US contribution to this force would be three ground 
divisions deployed in Thailand and South Vietnam and one Marine 



.-♦Division/Ving Team* prepared for amphibious assault operation 



k_t 



against North Vietnam as the military situation dictated. Two 
divisions "and additional air forces would have to coine from the 
continental United States. This could require the call up of 
two additional divisions plus other appropriate forces to 

maintain the US strategic reserve. 

m 

7. The mission of the SKATO force would be expanded to defend 
Southeast Asia against attack by Chinese C'or.imunist forces and 

■ 

these of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The general con- 

.* 

cept of operation would be to launch air and naval attacks , to 
delay the enemy's advance with local forces and interdict his 
lines of com unications with air and naval forces* while 
conducting an unremitting air and naval offensive to destroy the 

■ 

enemy's war-making capacity. 



* 



* r ■ , s 

' . i -. • y 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



r^.' "r 



■> 



■ ■-..'..- 

1 
... - 



* .- .■» - 



* J 



■ 
I . - 

- 






i A'.-' - y * v • ' f-»i 



• v 



APPJSMDIX D 



COMMUNICATIGNS-EEECTRGNICS REQU! :TS FOR SUPPORT OF SEATO 

FORCE Itt SOUTH' VIETNAM (C 



1. Long Haul Gateway Communications 






xr • 



a. Long haul gateway communications now supporting the 
Southeast Asia area will require expansion and augmentation 

as follows: 

(1) Establish Saigon -Okinawa voice and record communi- 
cations system. 

(2) Establish Saigon-SEATO Force Headquarters voice 
and re c o rd c om nun i c a t i on s . 

(3) Expand Saigon-Bangkok system to provide voice and 
record channels. 

b. Provision or the above communications will involve the 
following actions: 

r 

(l) Saigon -Okinawa Sideband System - Expedite 



completion of the sideband equipment now in the process 

- 

of installation at Saigon, Okinawa installation has been 
completed. To fulfill this requirement pending completion 
of the present installation now in progress at Saigon, 

■* 

■ « a 

'* it would be necessary 'to move by" air one mobile AN/TSC-16 
radio equipment (contingency package) with operating 
personnel from Clark Air Base to Saigon. Operating 
personnel would be furnished initially from CCS STARCOM 
Station Clark AB. 



f -' • 



- ■-.- . 



■ - ■ 
« 






"^ .. 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



• -. r-s — 



» 



(2) Saigon-SEATO Force Headquarters - Move by a;ir two 
complete mobile radio relay equipments (h terminals > k 
relays with associated carrier , channel derivation 
switching- and terminal equipments) with operating personnel 



from- the US to Saigon. Mission will be to establish 

■■ 

voice and record communications between DCS station 
Saigon and SEATO Force Headquarters. 

(3) Saigon -Bangkok Expansion - Move by air two mobile 

AW/TSC-20 radio equipments (contingency packages) with 



I 



4 ■ 



operating teams from the US., one to Saigon and one to 



Bangkok . 



- 



-V * . 



XT 



2. SEATO Force Communications -Electronics to component Forces 
Headquarters, Subordinate Field Forces and National Forces 
Headquarters will be provided by CINCPAC, and National Forces 
initially^ utilizing resources currently available augmented 
by three mobile AN/TSC-20 equipments with operating teams air 
lifted from the US to locations designated by CIHCPAC. 



t e 



• » 












Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 
Washington , B.C. 



10 October 1961 



International Security Affairs 
Refer to: 1 19126/61 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY 



SUBJECT: Viet -Nam 



Even if the decision at tomorrow's meeting it only prelininary— 
to explore with Diem and the British, Australians., and New Zealanders 
would be my guess — it is clearly of the greatest possible importance. 
Above all, action must proceed fast. 

For what one man's feel is worth, mine — based on very close 
touch with Indochina in the 195^ war and civil war afterwards till 
Diem took hold --is that is i£ really now or never if we are to 
arrest the gains being made by the Viet Cong, Walt Rostovj made the 
point yesterday that the Viet Cong are about to move, by every indi- 
cation, from the small unit basis to a moderate battalion- size basis. 
Intelligence also suggests that they may try to set up a "provisional 
government" like Xieng Khuang (though less legitimate appearing) in 
the very Kontum area into which the present initial plan would move 
SEATO forces. If the Viet Cong movement "blooms" in this way, it will 
almost certainly attract all the back-the-vinner sentiment that under- 
standably prevails in such cases and that beat the French in early 195*+ 
and came within an ace of beating Diem in early 1955. 

An early and hard-hitting operation has a good chance (?0$ would 
be my guess) of arresting t hings and giving Diem a chance to do better 
and clean up. Even if we follow up hard, on the lines the JCS are working 
out after yesterday's meeting, however, the chances are not much better 
that we will in fact be able to clean up the situation. It all depends on 
Dien's effectiveness, which is very problematical. The 30$ chance is that 
we would wind up like the French in 195*1 ; white men can't win this kind 
of fight. 

On a 70-30 basis, I would myself favor going in. But if we let, 
say, a month go by before we move, the odds will slide (both short-term 
shock effect and long-term chance) down to 60-H0, 50-50, and so on. 
Leos under a Sc anna Phoi deal is more likely than not to go sour, 
and will moi^e and more make things difficult in South Viet-Nam, which 
again underscores the el it of time. 



lliam P. Bundy 



Acting 



Cy furnished: 

Deputy Secretary 



312 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



• • 



TOP SECRET 
LIMITED DI STRIBUTION 



I , 



TS# 1^1 2405- c 



. 



CENTRAL. I N T E L L I C- E N C E |*A GENX Y -j 



10 October I96I 



SUBJECT: SNIE 10-3-61: PROBABLE CC^aJNlST REACTIONS TO 

CERTAIN SEATO UNDERTAKINGS IN 
SOUTH VIETNAM 



THE PROBLEM 



To estimate probable Communist reactions to the use of 
SEATO forces in South Vietnam to prevent Communist incursions 
or infiltration from North Vietnam .-i 

I I 



i 



1/ Other National Estimates pertinent to this problem are 
SNIE 10-2-61, "Likelihood of Major Communist Military 
Intervention in Mainland Southeast Asia," dated 27 June 
• 1961; SNIE 58-2-61* "Probable; Reactions to Certain 
Courses of Action Concerning Laos, 11 dated 5 July 1961; 
HIE 14.3/53-61, "Prospects for North and South Vietnam, 11 
dated 15 August 196lj and SNIE 53-2-761, "Bloc Support of 
the bommuhist Effort Against the Government of Vietnam/ 1 

dated 5 October 1961. 

1 



TO? SECRET 
LIMITED DISTRIBUTION 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 
LIMITED DI STRIBUTION 



THE ASSUMPTION 



* 






For the purpose of this estimate it is assumed that in 
response to an appeal from the Government of Vietnam (GVW)^ 
SEATO ground, naval P and air forces numbering about 25*000 
are committed to patrol the GVN coast and to secure the GVN~ 
^Laotian border against incursions' or infiltration from the 

t 

Communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) in North 
Vietnam, The SEATO objective, -vhieh will be publicly an- 
nouncedj is to stop external Communist assistance to the Viet 
Cong Cc aunist guerrillas ^ while avoiding direct engagement 
by these troops in the conflict within South Vietnam, 



THE ESTIMATE ' 



) 



V % 



. 1. We believe that the Communist Bloc would not commit 
North Vietnamese or Chinese Communist forces to a large- scale 
military attack against South Vietnam or Laos in response to 

the as sumed-* SEATO action. The DRV would probably seek to 

.. . ' , , ■ . 

avoid having its regular units enter into a direct military 

r 

engagement with SEATO, and in particular US, forces. Hanoi, 



TOP SEC , 
LIMITED DISTRIBUTION 



4 



n .*.•■;< 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



♦ # 



TO? SECRET 
LIMITED E v:I3UTI0N 




Peiplngj and Moscow^ would almost certainly be concerned over 
the increased risks for- each of them of broadened hostilities ■ 
involving US Forces. Moreover, they are generally confident 
that their current low risk tactics of local subversion and 



supporting "national liberation" struggles will 



continue 



to be 



successful in Southeast Asia. 



■ 



- 2, Nevertheless , Peiping and 'Hanoi in particular vrould 
be highly concerned as to the intentions of the SEATO forces., 
particularly during the initial deployment- The presence of 
SEATO forces so near its border would be a source of const an 
unease to the DKV- Moreover, both Hanoi and Peiping would 
consider it a particularly urgent matter to prevent any in- 

* 
# 

vigoration or strengthening of S which could result from 



< 



2/ 



The Gossnunist guerrilla organizations In both Laos and 
South Vietnam (the Pathet Lao and the Viet Cong) are 
under the control of the Conmuniat Party of North Viet- 
nan and look to Hanoi for guidance arid support. We 
believe that Hanoi e; cises considerable local tactical 
latitude, in conducting the Oomsiu.nist s.tr. ;le in both 
countries. \fa.en the struggle is elevated to the inter- 
national level * as is now the case with Laos, the major 
Bloc partners play an increasingly important leadership 
role. It is also likely that the USSR exercises con- ' 
sidefable restraint on 'DRV or Chinese Communist decisions 
v/hich Would risk the broadening of hostilities and raise 
the issue of USSR or US participation. . " . 



TOP SECRET 
LIMITED DISTRIBUTE 

\* *\. W 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TO? sr;oRKT 

LIMITED DISTRIBUTION 



a successful SEATO operation* Both would seek by political 
means and by military means short of major overt attack, to 
frustrate the SEATO effort. 



3. In the situation assumed > we believe that the DRV 
would seek at first to test the seriousness and effectiveness 



of the SEATO effort by subjecting the SEATO forces and their 
land lines of communication to harassment * ambush j and guer- 
rilla attack. The Cc unists could not be expected to 
"recognize the announced intention of the SEATO forces to avoid 
J involvement in the internal struggle in South Vietnam* They 
would probably estimate that by using their Viet Cong appara- 

j tus in South Vietnam, by committing additional experienced 

i 

j guerrilla forces 



V 
j from North Vietnam^ t 



o ooeratio:;j. 



in terrl 



tory long familiar to them, and by exploiting the opportunities 

■ > * * 

* 

offered by the sizable junk traffic in coastal waters, they 



3/ 'Approximately 90 > 000 Vietnamese Communist troops, most 
of them from south and central Vietnam,, were evacuated 
to North Vietnam in the regroupment of forces following 
the Indochina War, ?ho DTOJ has maintained relatively 
• intact a' large part of this* pool "of manpower bxpcrlenced 
in guerrilla operations in South Vietnam j drawing upon" it 
for cadres to reinforce the Viet Cong, 



TOP SEC] ST 
LIMITED DXSTiilBUTIC 



CJ G 



■ 



T 



.• ► I * 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 
LIMITED DISTRIBUTION 






could harass the SEATO land forces and Infiltrate the SEATO 

■ 

blockade. The Communists would expect .worthwhile political 

and psychological rewards if their harassment and guerrilla 

I 

operations against SEATO forces \:ere successful-, including 
lowered GYN morale and increased tensions among some of the 

■ 

SEATO members, Whilte seeking to test the SEATO forces ^ the 
DRV would not relax Its Viet Cong campaign against the GW, 

■ > 

4. It is expected that the SEATO action would cause the 
DRV to try to gain "compensation 11 in "some*, manner > such as 
possibly declaring the 1954 Geneva Agreements, or pertain 
articles of the Agreements, abrogated. It might also begin 
to receive increasing military assistance from the Soviet 

! 

Union and Communist China openly and in unconcealed violation 
of the Agreements j and to buildup an air force which would 
Include jets. The Bloc would attempt to encourage and insti- 
gate Laos and Cambodia to protest to the UN If any SEATO 
forces crossed the South Vietnam border. 



5. If no agreement on Laos had been reached at Geneva 

■ 

prior to the assumed SEATO action, we believe that the Com- 

* 

■* » * 

raunists wotiTd *take steps to ha etc n their takeover- of Laos. 

F 
•They would into ify their 'efforts to achieve political con 



troli and they would step up military pressures against 



C -. 7- 



TOP SECRET 
LIMITED DISTRIBUTE 



^ 



- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



T OP S EC R 3 vT 
LIMITED DISTRIBUTION 



. Laotian Army, Communis t strength in south Laos would prob- 



ably be increased by forces from North Viet nam to guard 



against an effort to partition Laos or an attack against the 
Pathet Lao forces. The Soviet airlift would probably be in- 
creased with a heavier flow of military supply into south 
Laos, and the Communists would probably intensify their efforts 
to establish a secure route for motor traffic into the south* 
On , the other hand, if the SEATO action took place after the 

# 

establishment of a coalition government in Laos under Souvanna 
Phouma and the conclusion of an agreement at Geneva, the 
Communists would probably emphasize political rather than 






military measures to win control of the country. In either 






case, the scale of Communist infiltration of men and equipment 
from North to South Vietnam through Laos would probably not be 



significantly affected. 



■• t 



6. If the SEATO action appeared to be proving effective 



in reducing the present scale of infiltration the Communists 



o 



probably. wo\ild increas.e their use of the mountain trail system 

I 
through Cambodia, This is a longer and more difficult route 



? • t 



but its use could keep at least minimum support flowing to. the 



r * 



• * 



Viet Cong, At the same time, in order to reduce the apparent 

■ 
* * 

success of the SEATO action, they could intensify small unit 



( 



s* .< 



o 



^ J. o 



TOP SEC P .. 
LIMITED DISTRIFJTION 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■■ 



TOP SECRET 
LIMITED DI STKIBUTI ON 






attacks j assassinations ^ and local terrorism in South Vietnam; 
they could also commit more DRV irregular personnel for the 
harassment erf the SEATO forces. It' would probably be part of 
Communist tactics to play upon possible SEATO weariness over 
maintaining substantial forces and accepting losses in South 



Vietnam over a long period of time. 



7. With the introduction of SEATO troops into South 

4 

Vietnam,, Communist China might increase its ground and air 
forces in South China and strengthen its military posture 
opposite Taiwan* It might also announce various types of 



military assistance to the DRV to meet the imperialist threat 



+. ir 



from South Vietnam , possibly including the stationing of 
Chinese Communist air units in North Vietnam. Nevertheless, 



we do not believe Peiping would consider assignment of SEATO 
forces to South Vietnam as an immediate and direct threat to 
its own national security/ 



8. At the same time, 



the 



Communist powers would im- 



mediately launch a major propaganda and political camp Lgn 
% designed to label the SEATO action as aggression, as a" 
threat to the peace in the Far East, and as a disguised US 

■ > 

■ ■ * 

effort to re-establish colonial rule over Indochina . To in 



: 



crease the fears of war in the Far Eastj Hanoi and Peipir 



r 4\ r\ 

O JL\J 



TOP SECRET 
jIMXTED DISTRIBUTION 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






■ • 



i 



■ TOP SECRET 
LIMITED DISTR; 0TIOM 



would 



char. 



4- V> r> •'- 



the US, through SEATO, was preparing to 



attack the DRV and Communist China* The USSR would probably 

remind the world of its defense" commitments to both Peiping 

• * 

and Hanoi. 



9. The reaction to the assumed SEATO action among con- 



cerned non~ Communist governments would vary widely. The 
Asifm members of SEATO would find renewed confidence in the 
organization and the US,, if the plan were to go well. If, 
- on the other hand* the SEATO action were toj become costly, 

prolonged, or to involve heavy casualties, the Asian members 
I would soon become disenchanted and look to the US to do some- 
» thing to lessen the burden and to solve the problem. Ate: alia 
would probably go along with this action; New Zealand might 
also join in. The UK would be likely to oppose the assumed 

■ * 

SEATO action* and British reluctance to participate could be 
overcome only with great difficulty. Prance would also oppose 



the action and almost certainly would refuse to participate. 



10. The neutralist go vernm ts in the area would be 
most concerned at . the increased tension and da r of g^; ral 



■ * 

m 



hostilities. They would denounce the SEATO action and call 
for a peaceful solution. None of them 5 however, vrould be 



b 
t 



* 

■ 



s 



■;. !\: 

TO? I !RET 
LIMITED DISTHIBOTIC 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3 3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TO? SECRET 
LIMITED KCSTRI30TIC 



without some secret sympathy for the SEATO action for they all 

i 

have fears of Communist subversion and expansion. For example, 
Sihanouk has become increasingly • fearful of and disillusioned 
v/ith the DRV's subversive and guerrilla organizations in Laos 
and South Vietnam, both of whom have violated Cambodia f s 
borders. He has no desire to see Laos or South Vietnam under 
Communist domination. Despite his genuine &nd justifiable' 
fear of Communist China and North Vietnam, Sihanouk might co- 



operate, covertly, with the SEATO 



action. 



! 



11. Moscow" and Feiping would bring strong pressures 
against Jasan. Although the Jaoanese Government would be 



<^' 



'O 



1 



under strong leftist internal pressure, it would probably 



tolerate US logistic activities and would not officially op- 



! 



! 



; 






pose the SEATO effort. Nationalist China would be elated with 



the SEATO action. 



t 



* 



* ( 



* .. * 



* * . 



: I 



s 

t ^ 

TOP SECRET 
LIMITED DISTRIBUTK 



i 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



i THE DEPUTY SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 

Washington, D.C. 



i 

j 



October 11, 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR RECORD 



SUBJFCT: South Vietnam 



At this morning's meeting with the President 
the following course of action was agreed upon with relation 
to South Vietnam: 

1. The Defense Department is authorized to send the 
Air Force T s Jungle Jim Squadron into Vietnam to serve 
under the MAAG as a training mission and not for combat 
at the present time. 

2. General Maxwell Taylor accompanied by Dr. Rostov 
from the White House, General Lansdale, a representative of 
JCS, Mr. Cottrell from State and probably someone from ISA 
will leave for Vietnam over the weekend on a Presidential 
mission (to be announced by the President at this afternoon T s 
press conference as an economic survey) to look into the 
feasibility from both political and military standpoints of 
the following: 

(a) the plan for military intervention discussed 
at this morning's meeting on the basis of the Vietnam 
task force paper entitled "Concept for Intervention in 
Vietnam". 

(b) an alternative plan for stationing in Vietnam 
fewer U.S. combat forces than those called for under 
the plan referred to in (a) above and with a more 
limited objective than dealing with the Viet Cong; in 
other words, such a small force would probably go in 
at Tourane and possibly another southern port princi- 
pally for the purpose of establishing a U.S. "presence" 
in Vietnam; 



322 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



(c) other alternatives in lieu of putting any U.S. 
combat forces in Vietnam, i.e. stepping up U.S. assist- 
ance and training of Vietnam units, furnishing of more 
U.S. equipment, particularly helicopters and other 
light aircraft, trucks and other ground transport, etc. 

3. During the two or three weeks that will be required 
for the completion of General Taylor's mission, State will 
push ahead with the following political actions: 

(a) protest to the ICC on the step-up in North 
Vietnamese support of Viet Cong activities, 

(b) tabling at the UN a white paper based on Mr. 
William Jordan's report concerning Communist viola- 
tions of the Geneva Accords, and 

(c) consultation with our SEATO allies > princi- 
pally the British arid Australians, regarding SEATO 
actions., in support of the deteriorating situation in 
Victna 



Rosvell Kilpatric 



3?3 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF 
Washington 25 , D.C. 



CM-390-61 

18 October 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR GENERAL TAYLOR 



SUBJECT: Counter 1 n surge ncy Operations in South Vietnam 



1. You will recall that I recently had occasion to look into 
allegations that the United States is overtraining the Vietnamese 
Army for a Korea- type war with little or nothing being done to meet 
the terrorist problem in Vietnam. My inquiries have highlighted 
the following main points: 



a, The success of the counter-terrorist police organization 
in Malaya has had considerable impact* 

b. The concept of using local police force to combat local 
insurgency is politically and diplomatically attractive. 

2. I fully agree that we should make maximum use of these 
aspects of the British counter! nsurgency experience in Malaya which 
are pertinent to the situation in Vietnam. You will recognize, however, 
that there are major differences between the situations in Malaya and 
South Vietnam: 

a. Malayan borders were far more controllable in that 
Thailand cooperated in refusing the Communists an opera- 
tional safe haven, 

b. The racial characteristics of the Chinese insurgents 
in Malaya made identification and segregation a relatively 
simple matter as compared to the situation in Vietnam where 
the Viet Cong cannot be distinguished from the loyal citizen. 

c. The scarcity of food in Malaya versus the relative plenty 
in South Vietnam made the "denial of food to the Communist 
guerrillas a far more important and readily usable weapon in 
Malaya . 



32k 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



d. Most importantly , in Malaya the British were in actual 
command^ with all of the obvious advantages this entails , and 
used highly trained Commonwealth troops. 

c. Finally j it took the British nearly 12 years to defeat, an 

insurgency which was less strong than the one in South Vietnam. 

■ 

3. Furthermore , as you well know, the success of the counter- 
insurgency operations in Malaya is not unique. Major terrorist activ- 
ities have been defeated in both the Philippines and Burma, and in 
neither place was the police organization used as the framework for 
coordination and control. In the Philippine s 9 for example, the military 
framework used was highly successful. 

k. Closely associated with the allegation that the MAAG is 
"overtraining" the Vietnamese Army is the concern frequently expressed 
over the length of time required to train military officers and NCO's. 
No one knows better than you do that well-trained officers and NCO's 
are not produced in brief training programs, I am sure you will want 
to discuss this in detail with General McCarr when you visit Saigon, 
It is most important to note that the heaviest casualties in the Vietna 
insurgency have been suffered by the Civil Guard previously trained 
as police. Almost without exception, the Viet Cong have attacked the 
untrained Civil Guard rather than the better trained Array units. This 
has resulted in a heavy loss of weapons and equip t to the Viet Cong. 
Untrained Civil Guard units have, in fact, been an important source of 
weapons and supplies for the Viet Cong, and their known vulnerability 
has been an invitation for the Viet Con to attack. General McCarr 
believes that reversion of the Civil Guard to police control would set 
back the counter insurgency operation in South Vietnam by at least a 
year. 

5. With respect to training the Vietnamese Army for the "wrong 
war 1 ", it seems clear that in recent months the insurgency in South 
Vietnam has developed far beyond the capacity of police control. All 
of the Vietnamese Array successes this past summer have met Viet 
Cong opposition in organized battalion strength. Even larger Communist 
units were involved in the recent Viet Cong successes north of Kontum. 
This change in the situation has not been fully understood by many U.S. 
officials. 



325 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



6. In this regard 5 there is some concern that the Thompson 
Mission may try to sell the Malayan concept of police control without 
making a sufficiently careful evaluation of conditions in South Vietnam 
Additionaly \> there are some indications that the British, for political 
reasons, wish to increase their influence in this area and are using 
the Thompson mission as a vehicle. Consequently, your forthcoming 
trip to South Vietnam is most timely. Despite repeated urging, the 
Government of South Vietnam has not yet written an over-all national 
plan for counterinsurgency. The question of police or military 
organization for combatting Viet Cong insurgency should "be laid 
to rest in that plan. Your evaluation of this matter could have an 
important effect on the Governments of both South Vietnam and the 
United States. 



i 
J 



(Sgd) L.L. LEMNITZEB 



L.L. LEMNITZER 
Chairman 

Joint Chiefs of Staff 



c 



326 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






THE WHITE HOUSE 



WASHINGTON 



CONFIDENTIAL. 






Dear General Taylor: ^ ' 

I should like you to proceed to Saigon for thz purpose 
of appraising tho situation in South VI at ^Ham* par- 
ticularly an it concerno the threat to the internal 
oecurlty and defense of that country and adjacent 
areas, Aft©r you have conferred with ths approp?i&fra 
United States and South Viet~Naxn-3£e authorltieo, in« 
eluding th$ Comtnander-in-Chief, Pacific^ I would 
like your viov/o on th3 courses of action which our 
Government roijjht take at this juncture to avoid a 
further deterioration in ths situation in South Viot- 
N&m and eventually to contain and eliminate iho thro&t 
to itcj IndopcaiiSiicc. 

In your assoaamtrot you should boar in mind that ths 
Initial responsibility for th o effective maintenance of 
tho i&&apenclojn<cui ci South Vi&t-Nara roots with the 
people &id govornraan* of th&t ccuatry* Our efforts 
must h$ evaluated* and your recomme'o dationa 
forinulatodj with fcis fact in mind. 



Y/hile ths military part of thti prohl&rn io of groat 
import&ftto U, South Viet- Ham, its political* social, 
luid ecoaosrdc clon^; e equally Bignific&nt* and I 

oh&ll ir:^oct your appraisal and your recommondationa 

* i 

to taks full account of them* 



Gdn&ral 3 / rv?oH D. Taylor 
Th* White Ho t&ae 

Washington, 3X C* 



Since rely j 








CONFJ ' " NTW1 






.'. 1 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



** 



*.* .VJ . *-•-*•*- --'-i i 



/ 



THE WHITE HOUSE 

Washington 



■ « 



KATIOltfj; SECURITY ACTIO?! MSKORAIIDUM NO. 10k 



,/f 



October 3.3, 1963 



fi' 



r i : 0: 



SUBJECT: 



THE S" : 'ARY OF STATE 

THE SECRETARY 0? DEFENSE 

THE DIRECTOR OF CEiiTRAL IHTELLIG: 3HCE 

Southeast Asia 



- i 



The President on October 11, 1$/Slj directed that the following actions 
be taken: 



2. 






3- 



Make preparations for the publication of the white paper on 
North Vietnamese agression against South. Viet Hem which is 
now being drafted in the Department of State. 

Develop plans for possible action in the Viet Ham ICC based 
upon the white paper, preliminary to possible action i jt 

paragraph 3 below, - ' ? 

Develop plans for presentation of the Viet Mam case in the 
United Rations. 



h* Subject to agreement with the Government of Viet Ham which is 
now being sought, introduce the Air Force Jungle Jim Squadron 
into Viet Kam for the initial purpose of training Vietnamese 
forces. 



c 



5- Initiate guerrilla ground action , including use of U.S. 
advisers if necessary, against Co: .unist aeri resupply 
missions in the Tchepone area, 

6. General Taylor should undertake a mission to Saigon to explore 
• . ways in which assistance of all types might be more effective. 

( , The President also agreed that certain other, actions developed by the 

:; Force and concurred in by the agencies concerned, but which do not require 
soecific Presidential approval, should be imdertaken on an urgent basis. 



r 

• .. - • •*"••• • /s/ McGec Bundy 

Infer nation copies to: 

The Director } U.S. Information Agency 

The Military Representative of the President 

The Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff 

The Administrator; Agency for International Development 



i ' 



t • * * . 



'■* Q 



I 






I- - /c? * 



: . -- ■ , 



2.- ?- / i* 






« t 






■■V ? 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■ t .• 






c 



\ 



DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 

OFFICE OF Gi RAL COUNSEL 

WASHINGTON 2b, D. C. 



» j 



6 



:^7 



/? 



/" 



'<: <f ' -, 









> ^ 



I / 



26 October I96I 



MBMOKA^HBH FOR MR, HADYN WILLIAMS j 

iJECTs The Geneva Accords of 195*1- and the Introduction of 
* IT«S* Combat and Logistic Forces into Viet Nam 



* 



You have requested that I submit an opinion on the legal 
Question of the compatibility with the Geneva Accords of the 
actions proposed in Saigon's telegram 537 to the apartment 
of State c The pressure of time forces this opinion to be a 
preliminary ens. A full statement of my reasoning will 
follow as soon as it can be prepared* 

Yssf conclusion is that the* actions proposed in the above 
mentioned telegram would constitute violations of Articles 
16 and 17 of the Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities in 
Viet Nam of July 20 9 195 1 '* That conclusion is not affected 
by the reasons* ostensible or real, for the actions * 



of 



Article 16 prohibits "the introduction into Viet Nam 
my troop reinforcements and additional military personnel", 
The article does permit however* under strict conditions,, 
"the rotation of units and groups of personnel 11 , .Since there 
were 170*000 foreign troops in Viet Nam at the time of the ■ 
1954 Agreement* it can be argued that the United States 
could introduce up to 170*000 combat troops without causing 
a violation of that Agreement, That argument would of 
necessity be based upon the supposed rationale of a decision 
of the International Commission for Supervision and Control 
In 'View jftaffl* dated April 19*1960*. in which an increase in the 
MAAG was approved* The Commission gave no reasons for its 
ruling., and it is far from clear that it would extend its 
scope to cover combat troops/ It is difficult to contend that 
where *troc are - introduced to replace other troops, .which de- 
parted five to seven years previously there is a ^'rotation 11 

"rotation 11 defense in the present 
risks of an adverse ICC decision, 



of units. Reliance upon the 
circumstances would run grave 



u 



*._ 



RSPKODUCTlOn ft? »ixs BOSUMEaz 
IK WHOIK &B IS PAS? W FK0HI5 ; 

Exci??2 ivnH pssaissicji of rns 

tSSUlJIG Ci'i'JCK 



p 



n 



s 



/ . 



ff*< 7y 



/. 



.} 



ago tur Ko*-^ 






■ '■ "■ 



- 



[ 



s 



V » *— f-r 



) ! HOT AV:.. Y ' 



V L '■ • • "* ' 

■'■• * n \ -, - 



*> 

■r 



P 

\ 



^ 



<\ r (\ 









-9 ' 



' 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






Even if there were a IJGjOOQ troop "credit 11 which v T e could 
legally draw upon^ I doubt that the actions proposed in S&±gon ! s 
telegram 537 are compatible with the further limitations con- 
tained in Article 16, For example j no unit introduced could 
be larger than a battalion, and rotation Would have to be (l) 
on a man-for^sscn basis* (£; notified to the ICC two days in* 
advance ^ (3) carried on through certain listed entry point 
and (h) supervised and inspected by the ICC* 



S, 



s om 



o 



The provisions of Article 17 might prove even more burden- 
Entry of military equipment must take place at listed 



entry points under the supervision of the ICC and may only 
consist of replacement of "war material 3 arms and munitions 
which have been destroyed., damaged* worn out or used up after 
the cessation of hostilities * « , on the basis of piece -for- 
piece, of the same type and with similar characteristics* " 



It should be noted that the United States was not a party 
to the Geneva Accords^ but it did declare at the Conference in 
195^ that ft , * * it will refrain from the -threat or the use of 
force to disturb c . •" the Accords, Viet Nam, although it was 
not a signatory of the cease-fire Agreement in question, is^ 
on the other hand* bound by its terms* The Agreement was signed 
by the Commander in Chief of the French Union Forces (Viet Nam 
being part of the French Union) ^ and this signature was within 



• --., 



- the authority of the Commander in Chief, Thus* on the strictly 
legal plane we need be concerned only about a possible violation 
by the Government of Viet Nam of its obligations* 



As a final comment 'J would point out that the purpose of 
the introduction has no legal relevance; introduction of U«S. 
troops for purposes of flood control would still constitute 
a violation of the Geneva Accords by the Government of Viet Nam, 
I suggest that ^ if a decision is made to send U.So troops into 
Viet Nam,, we should justify their introduction on the ground 
of collective self-defense* Nothing in the Geneva Accords 
hould be read as abridging the interent right of Viet Nam 
X the United States to take actions in collective self-defen: 
If you wish j I shall prepare a memorandum on this point. 




i&tn** 




cc: Mr, VJm.McCormick 

Office 



GEORGE H t AL1.0:CH 
of the Assistant General Counsel 
In t e rn a t i on 2 1 A f f a ir s 



. - f ? 



r - 



i - 



v< 



■ ' v "> 



- 






- - ■ 



. - . - 

n i 



- - - ■ — • . . 



- 



• • 



V < I ! 



<7 *n* 



v , 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 20 i 1 



t 



/ 



_ _„ s*l <? ct FO H M 



8 iH 
E V J 



jjmc* ftg£flr ggygaygp for ccMxaxic vnos c/sHx 



L/jW^-fc *x~i •- 



■ * * ■•■ ■ 



FR£CSDE*4CS 



* 
V 

■ 
v 



$ ISFO 

I FROM: "~ 



TV?-: MfcG fCstcki 



\ i 

SOOX MILTI 5I.V5LC 



ACCOV f« .N'G 
SVMSOL 



C*H*. Ofc RCJ •■ -' :*J V3 



* 



- 
t 

- * 



.* 



-■ t\ 



TO: 



WHITE HOUSE 



f 



- , 



r* a 



TOP SECRET C/77 &A& Q <&&&£ . 



-t « -: r 




EYES ONLY FOR THE PRESIDENT FROM GENERAL TAYLOR, 
1* Transmitted herewith are a summary of the fundamental 



I c t' 



conclusions of my group and my personal recommendations a?r 



. i 



response to the letter of the President tome dated 13 October 
-.1961 . 1 At our meeting next Friday I hops to be allowed to 

m i. i mf^ m 



♦*-*9-T* 



' 



explain the thinking which lies behind them, At that time I shall 

transmit our entire report which will provide detailed support 

■ 

> 

for the recommendations and will serve as a working paper for 
the interested departments and agencies. 









\£i It is concluded that; . 



: 



V- - • ' 



• 



] a. 



Cbxxfmunist- strategy aims to gain control of Southeast 



Asia' by methods of subversion and guerrilla war which by-p 
convent] aI - tl."S«-;and indigenous strength on the ground, 






\ 



! 



SYMBOL 



Vf I TYP.tr> NAHS AND T>TLE fSt^tJSurg, if rttfst&fi} 

r\ ' - 

T i" 



Til t P ' 

pi — — 



I N J " 



n* r or o 



"CI? ft 1 TV CLA^SlrlC, 



;l 






:J * 1 - £ * - s * t* . 



R 

L 
E 
A 



3iGKATUH5 



/-S 



CI. AS SIFICATION 
OF RTFEHENGE 



Bl ECJAt. INSTRUCTION 



DATE 

1 



MONTH 

NOV 






TIME 



! y:as 

6i 



v. 






TYPt%D fV ■"••• •■."-•'V NAME AND TITLE 



T~" 



I 

/ 






R 



r\ FOr;' : -; *■•/ O 



k-' t way s:> 



/c 



f . 



• « • a 



: 



f?-PLAC£3 DD FOR2J 173, 1 CCV «3, WHICH *.V;LU BE USSO UNTIL EXMAU3TEO 



- • 



- — ■ ■ - - - 



*<* » ■ ■ *■* ^ i - - 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



The interim Communist goal -- en route to total take-over -- 

appears to be a neutral Southeast Asia, detached from U.S. pro- 

* 
tecticn. This strategy is well on the way to success in Vietnam. 

b, In Vietnam (and Southeast Asia) there is a double crisis 
in confidence: doubt that U.S. is determined to save Southeast 
Asia; doubt that Diem's methods can frustrate and defeat Com- 
munist purposes and methods. The Vietnamese (and Southeast 
Asians) will undoubtedly draw rightly or wrongly -- definitive 
conclusions in coming weeks and months concerning the probable 
outcome and will adjust their behaviour accordingly. What the U.S. 
does or fails to do will be decisive to the end result, 

c. Aside from the morale factor, the Vietnamese Govern- 
ment is caught in interlocking circles of bad tactics and bad 
administrative arrangements which pin their forces on the 
defensive in ways which permit a relatively small Viet-Cong force 
(about one tenth the size of the GVW regulars) to create conditions 
of frustration and terror certain to lead to a political crisis, if a 
positive turning point is not soon achieved. The following 
recommendations are designed to achieve that favorable turn, to 
avoid further deterioration in the situation in South Vietnam, and 
eventually to contain and eliminate the threat to its independence. 



Page 2 of 6 pages 



332 



Declassified per Executive Order 13<i">6 w , , 
NN D P„, ec , N™ ter; NND M.t'^Z: £ , 



„-W ,>3j>,.! 



I 



i ; 



j_-.lJ4rf-^7" 









* c 









- 



1 

;1 



. ■; 

ifc, 



1 3. It is recommended; 



* ■ 



G-ner^^ 



a. That upon request from the Government of-V ; **t"\~ fr,VX\ 
to come to its aid in resisting the increasing a"?rt? <.**.*-*• &* ••-* 



^> O 3 



Viet-Cong ?,nd in repairing the ravages of the Drlts rinrd .,-.'.-• 
combination, threaten the lives of its citizens arc! the security of 
the country, the U.S. Government offer to join the GVN in a 
massive joint effort as a part of a total mobilization of GV N 
resources to cope with both the Viet-Cong (VC) and the ravages of 

pf 

e flood. The U* S. representatives will participate actively in 

■ ■ 

-[his effort, particularly in the fields of government administration, 
military plans and operations, intelligence, and flood relief, 
going beyond the advisory role which they have observed in the past 



-. 



. 



Specific 



b. That in support of the foregoing broad commitment -to a 
joint effort with Diem, the following specific measures be under- 



; .aken; 
i 



• * 



(1) The U.S. Government v/ill be "prepared to provide 

a 

individual administrators for insertion into the governmental 



f 



machinery of South Vietnam in types and numbers to be worked out 



. 



with President Diem. 



- i 



(2) A joint effort will be made to improve the military 






I 






PA 
O. 



s:c •.■;,-]■ oa>:- :V"\ 



* 


















-V. f 









•* -. * 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






political intelligence system beginning at the provincial level and 
extending upward through the government and am 1 forces to the 
Central Intelligence Organization, 

(3) The U.S. Government will engage in a joint survey of 
the conditions in the provinces to assess the social^ political^ 
intelligence ? and military factors bearing on the prosecution of the 
counter- insurgency in order to reach a common estimate of these 
factors and a common determination of how to deal with them. As 
this survey will consume tirne^ it should not hold back the 
immediate actions which are clearly needed regardless of its 
outcome - 



('0 A joint effort will be made to free the Army for 
mobile 5 offensive operations. This effort will be based upon 
improving the training and equipping of the Civil Guard and the 
Self-Defense Corps ? relieving the regular Army of static missions, 
raising the level of the mobility of Army forces by the provision of 
considerably more helicopters and light aviation, and organizing 
a Border Ranger Force for a long-term campaign on the Laotian 
border against the Viet- Cong infiltrators. The U.S. Government 
will support this effort with equipment and with military units and 
personnel to do those tasks which the Armed Forces of Vietnam 
cannot perform in time. Such tasks include air reconnaissance and 



Page k of 6 pages 



33^ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



tfUti %J£ii .J 






t i 






photography, airlift (beyond the present capacity of SVN force*?) 



* 



special intelligence, and air-ground support techniques, 

(5) The U.S, Government will assist lh£ uVN in of incline 

- 

surveillance arid control over the coastal waters and inland water- 
ways, furnishing such advisors, operating personnel and small 
craft as may be necessary for quick and effective operations. 

(6) The MAAG, Vietnam, will be reorganized and 

a ■ 

increased in size as may be necessary by the implementation of 
these recommendations* 

(7) The U.S. Government will offer to introduce into 

/ fiouth .Vietnam a military Task Force to operate -under U.S. control 
for the following purposes: 

■ 

(a) Provide a U.S. military presence capable of 
raisins national morale and of showing to Southeast Asia the 



* i 






seriousness of the U. S. intent to resist a Communist take-over. 
. - • (b) Conduct logistical operations in support of mili 

taryand flood relief operations. 

a 

(c) Conduct such combat operations as are 



necessary fo„r s6l f-defen.se and {or the security of the area i 



n 



• * 



which they are stationed* 

(d) Provide an emergency reserve to back" 'Up tl 
, Armed Forces of the GVN in the case of a heightened military 



i : ■ I 
•> . .. 



I 



PAS* 



i. : C? 

PASES 
D 






i 1 



| y if 



L/iU 



«. _ 



■ ■ 

: - i 

S 4 V 



h f : o; 70 1 









c 



ism >■ > 



I 



OFFlCti ' 



■' 



rT 






i 



; "; /r\ is^ij v*wi 3 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






.-" 



^' 



SKI-?!]? CU 







■■*••<» ; \ ■ ] > 

o _ 


- 
--t * k - • f * * 












< 



17 



i 

i « 
i • 

f 



i 



1 

■: 






;j 



■ 



i 



si 



I 



C 2*153 3. 



'v 



< .: 

I* 

-- '. 

: ! 
! : 

■ J 

: 

•; 

: 



J' 






•' i 



- 



: 



• - - : ; • 



■ 
t 



. (e) Act as an zdvc\nce party of such, additional forces 
as may- be introduced if CINCPAC or SEATO co-.i- n r .. ->,„',„ 
invoked, • * . - ■ - ■ • \ 



(8) The U.S. Government will review its economic aid 

+ - * - 

program to takq into account the needs of flood relief and to r;ive 
priority to those projects in support of the expanded counter - 



nsurgency program, * 



-n. /9/ 



s 






- 



« r 



n * . » 



■ 



• . 



: • 



■ 

L 



. ■ ■ - 



- . « 



.■ 



, . 






•* i- • 



* 



k »y '.:■": 



n -i ■ i ri iini— m i w i w i « ' Mjnt.u j.».-mi 



rAse 

v s 

t i,1 



I 



P, 



»« I 2 I p \^ ; fc :■ 



ft FORM V/v 
L*£*l MAY 55 JU ^*A 



' 1 



6 I 6 

S ( . 
4 



3 



-A, 



UiJ V.i ;. 



■fc U, 5 GOVERNS! S EMC 



■ 1 



v 1 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






tiro RM 



ECOp.tt Y CLa 1 ;-..' ; 






i • 



'I 



1 



V 






a 



-. 



W -' vf-* 



v 3 : l 



JrMC* MtO^ £ES£Rf£P FOR COMMVStCATIvX ;""""* 



I 



J. 






fS 



i'* 






ACTION 
INFO 






J 



r 



s 



*r 



boOK 



sin :lk 



! 




, TO: WHXTE HOUSE 



■ 









i 

■ 

? 

i 

9 

* 



I 
t 

t 



t 

* 

t 

* 



I 



TOP SECRET Oi7;- PA<\l\ V. fv ■ :.-. f- 



Eyes Only for the President from General Taylor. 




CLASSIFICATION 
OF REFERENCE 



■f . 



I 

i 

4 

f 



l 



- .'TY.'-X; - Reference: Saigon to Stafe~337-- TO)' 1 iCR^T 

A ^ ana ' ' J ' ■- / 

* U ' -.' . ■ - 

1 in s m e s 3 a ge is i o r tfc e pu r p o s e ol p r e s e: it s n g my r e n s on s fo r 

.recommending t)\e introduction of a U, S. military force into 

South Vietnam (SYN)« I have reached the conclusion that this is 

m 

an essential action if we are to reverse the present downward 
trend of events in spite of a full recognition of the following dis- 
advantages: 

a* The strategic reserve of U.S* forces is presently so 

* 

weak that we can -ill afford any detachment of forces to ar 
peripheral area of the Communist bloc where they will be pinned 
down* for *a"h uncertain "duration. " ' -• 



1 1 



-n 



CPECtAL INSTRUCTIONS 



DATS 

1 



TIME 



NTH 

NOV 



> YEAR 



61 



vv 

R 



SYMBOL 



* 



TYPED NAME AND TJT1.E fSlxAJinr*, '/ rusitrtl) 



~'*QX1 



, '■ PA.C5 \ lilt, O^ / 

! v-. t ... - •— * ! m-:i O 



3 '1 I > / ,'-, A \ \ 



■-,/ - 



UJ-* 



>M B ^«I^Ua<#^> P-j ' 



, - » *,*- -.— «--• fr^*-W 



R 
r." 

L 

A 



r? 




TYPED (Sr sUm$id) NAME AND TITLE 



i 



*— ' ;-*■ l MAY Ba ' ' *-- 



RXPLACS3 DO FOHJ4 17^. 1 CCT. .<v t WHICH Y/Sii fc" USI UNTIL EXMAUSYEO 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



.v^tu^m* Mhyii^WMi 



_^>r« ' 









-r-r»s ■ ■- i •+•*-. t-. 



c eft «;-li ■ -~'--~> - ~- 



i a ?_f 



;■; 









a ** I k ■ -t 
jJjUJUXJLaJJL 



f~- 



- — — 

b. Although U.S. prestLgg is already engaged in SVN, it will 



i^ 



become more so by the Ending of troops. 



•*■ 



c. If the first 'contingent ts not enough to accomplish the 
[necessary results, it will be difficult to resist the pressure to 
reinforce. If the ultimate result sought is the closing of the 



{frontiers and the. clean-up of the insurgents within SVN, there is no 

jlimit to our possible commitment (unless v/e attach the source in 

- 



Hanoi) 



97^ 



A 




d. The introduction ofU.S. forces v/Hl/increase tensions and 
risk escalation into a major war in Asia, • 

- 

i On the other side of the argument, there can be no action so 

m m 

(convincing of U»S» seriousness of purpose and hence so 
reassuring to the people and Government of SVN and to our other 

■ ■ * 

friends and allies in SEA as the introduction of U. S. forces into SVN 



The views of indigenous and U, S. officials consulted on our trip 



j' 



a 



were unanimous on this point. I have just seen Saigon 5X5 to State 

■ 

3.n& sueeest that it be read in connection with this message. 



•7\ 



ZjZ> 



2 '*The size. of the UVS.- force introduced need not be great to pro 
vide the military presence necessary to produce the desired effect 

■ 

on national morale in SVN and on international opinion. A bare 



soke 



however , will not suffice; it must have a si Ificant value, 



1 she kinds of tasks which it mi^ht under' s which would have a 




U V C, 



iv%Ca 



K3 



2 



?3 Or 





_[_. 



- . 



? 



^ 

i 




4 






a 



^ 



,,\,il U.- . ■ -"-', t '.\i, __ 

. * - * j 

. .a > ; ~- 

$ - V 









• . ■ .... - - • • . - ■ •,, . . ■•_.-;---•■ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



1 . "'. C freer 






wswuiif c;as: ■' :-; • 



{ 






3 



'1 * * v 






j significant value are suggested in B*Ca f R*|*7 TV—, ■ . 



r 



(a) Provide j/tJS military presence capable of ra:*:n* 

.1? 

national morale gptS of showing to Southeast; Asia the" seriousness of 

* . 

the US intent- to resist a Communist take-over. 



(b) Conduct logistical operations in 

i 

and flood relief operations, ^ 



support of military 



(c) Conduct such combat operations as are necessary for 



self-defense and for the security of the area in which they 



t are 



stationed. 



■ 



(d) Provide an emergency reserve to back up the Armed 
^Forces of the GVN in the case of a heightened military crisis. 

(e) Act as an advance party of such additional forces as 
may be introduced if CINCPAC or SEATO contingency plans are 



invoked. 



» ^ 



It is noteworthy that this force is not proposed to clear the 
jungles and forestffof Viet Cong guerrillas. That should be the 



primary task .of the. Armed Forces of Vietnam for which* they should 
be specifically organized, trained, and stiffened with ample U.S. 

- 

advisors down-tp combat battalion levels. However, the U. S, 

* » 

troops may be called upon to engage in combat to protect them- 

> . 

selves, their working parties, and the area in which they live. As 
a general reserve, they might be thrown into action (with U.S, 









t*?v 



3 



pag's ■ % * r k - 1 . m . r ft J 






* V ^ 



J.M MAY 55 JliCKi 



•l • ' 

- - - 



2 









, - * 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






I b~i-a»*~* . 



/ agreement) against large, formed guerrilla bands which have 



i 



abandoned the. forests for attacks on major targets. But in 
general, our forces should not engage in small -scale, guerrilla 



operations in the jungle, 

* 

* 

As an area for the operations of U. S. troops 3 SVN is not an 



1 excessively difficult or unpleasant place to operate. While the 
border areas are rugged and heavily forested, Vno terrain is 

j comparable to parts of Korea where U.S. troops learned to live 

■ 

j 

I and work without too much effort. However, these border areas, 

■ 

for reasons stated above, are not the places to engage our force::. 
1 r Tn the High Plateau and in the coastal plain where U. S. troops 
would probably be stationed, these jungle -for est conditions do not 






exist to any great extent* The most unpleasant feature in the 
coastal areas would be the heat and, in the Delta, the mud left 



behind by the flood. The High Plateau offers no particular 
obstacle to the stationing of U« S. troops. .. - 

# 

The extent to which the Task Force would engage in flood 



CJ o 



relief activities in the Delta will depend upon further study of the 

j 
j 

j problem there. As reported in Saigon 537, I see considerable 

\ i 



■ m 



advantages in playing up this aspect of the Task Force mission* 
i am. presently inclined to favor a dual mission, initially help to 

i 

I the flood area and subsequently use in any other area of SVN where 



\ 



suJjEOL 



FA" . 

£ 



■- - 



■ 



• ■ > • -i r 



i ■ 



r i * • • : i i ; ■ 



r j> i w c 

4 

- - _ #D. Su GOVERNMENT FRINHNG CFFtCE; 

C I; p 



_ 



,:--5 J 



i 



jvj-j pp&w -17*3 -j 

;JJ MAY bi .:,:; 0**1 



: s ----- 






- * - , 



L>i\rvi i irro' v^rr iv^l" 



;r i 



- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






.* *» 



i — '-..' i I (. L»\j,\H*i ,'. liM« tf • ■ 



[1 



> 



a- 






- 



•!« .'• ■ 



■ . 



\JXa\Ja - --•- - 



fats resources can be used effectively to give tangible support in the 

truggle against the Viet Cong 4 However, the possibility of 

* ■ * 

emphasizing the humanitarian mission will wane if we wait long in * 

moving in ou«r forces or in linking our stated purpose with the 

' emergency conditions created by the flood, 

i 



The risks of baching into a major Asian war by way of SVN are 



[(present but are not impressive, NVN is extremely vulnerable t 

l V. • 



o 



conventional bombing, a weakness which should be exploited diplo- 
rnatically in' convincing Hanoi to lay off SVKo Both the D/?3f and 
the Chicoms would face severe logistical difficulties in trying to 
maintain strong forces in the field in SEA, difficulties which we 



5 



share but by no means to the same degree. There is no case for 
fearing a mass onslaught of Communist manpower into SVN and its 

i 

I neighboring. states, particularly if our airoower is allowed a free 



s 



hand against logistical targets. Finally, the starvation condition 
in China should discourage Communist leaders there from being 



militarily venturesome for some time to come* 

By the foregoing line of reasoning, I have reached the con- 

J - * 

elusion that the introduction of a U.S. military Task Force without 

% 

delay offers definitely more advantage than it creates risks and 
difficulties. Xh fact, I do not believe that our program to 'save SVN 



will succeed without it* If the concept is approved, the exact size 



\ *''S 

$! .'.JVC 



PAS' 

m 
5 



. -». *■ 



j-*^ 



. v . ,- - y*" f* 



v,„ 



e? 

PAS 

6 






■ 



e 



[HITULS 



JJiii MAY 55 -U^-J 



'" .' -. - <? U. S. COV .TI^COFPC": ] 

* d in 






■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-■ V 



,-^A-.. 






• -» -'•^, .-. _ a. 



H 3 .- .> 






Nj If * ti * ^ 






v. - 



i 






j and, composition of the force should be determined by the 
Secretary of Defense in consultation with the JCSj the- Chief MAAC, 

» * * 

* * m 

and CINCPAC. , My own feeling is that the initial size should not 

* • ! ;.- 

exceed about 8000, of which a preponderant number would be in 
logistical -type units. After acquiring experience in operating in 



1 

i 



SVM S this initial force will require reorganization and adjustment 

a 

to the local scene. * *■ 

■ 

As CINCPAC will point out, any forces "committed to SVN will 

need to be replaced by additional forces to his area from the 

* 

strategic reserve in the U.S. Also, any troops to SVN are in 



/ 



Edition to those which may be required to execute SEATC Plan 5 



! 



in I*ao.5. Both facts should he taken into account in current con- 
siderations of the FY 1963 budget which bear upon the permanent 

■m 

* 

increase which should be made in the U.S. military establishment 
to maintain our strategic position for fee long pull. ^fJ,.jJ 



8tf*s"W 



• 



.* 



— i *- . i ■ — 






- »■ 



" 



PAG: 

m 

6 



s 



: \ FORM '; 70 * 



-:.U £, GQV£J?NM£tf» ft :,Vi MS C?F;C . 






O 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 
Washington, B.C. 20301 

8 November 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT \ 
SUBJECT: South Vietnam 

The "basic issue framed by the Taylor Report is whether the U.S. 
shall: 

a. Commit itself to the clear objective of preventing the 
fall of South Vietnam to Communism, and 

b, Support this commitment by necessary immediate military 
actions &ad preparations for possible later actions. 

The Joint Chiefs, Mr. Gilpatric, and I have reached the following 
conclusions: 

1. The fall of South Vietnam to Communism would lead to the fairly 
raped extension of Communist control, or complete accommodation to 
Communism, in the rest of mainland Southeast Asia and in Indonesia. The 
strategic implications worldwide, particularly in the Orient, would be 
extremely serious. 

2. The chances are against, probably sharply against, preventing 
that fall by any measures short of the introduction of U.S. forces on 
a substantial scale. We accept General Taylor's judgment that the 
various measures proposed by him short of this are useful but will not 
in themselves do the job of restoring confidence and setting Diem on 
the way to winning his fight. 

3. The introduction of a U.S. force of the magnitude: of an initial 
8,000 men in a flood relief context will be of great help to Diem. However, 
it will not convince the other side (whether the shots are called from 
Moscow, Peiking, or Hanoi) that we mean business. Moreover, it probably 
will not tip the scales decisively. We would be almost certain to get 
increasingly mired down in an inconclusive struggle. 

k* The other side can be convinced we mean business only if we 
accompany the initial force introduction by a clear commitment to the 
fu>l objective stated above, accompanied by a warning through some 
cl lei to Hanoi that continued support of the Viet Com 111 lead to 

punitive retaliation against North Vietnam. 



3^3 



* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



5- }S- - v;i - ^et- lru_lhis_vay ^JUU£LJLill*iiR8xte*posciJbla--cxtont.^f our 
nuJUj^iry c^rajutment must be _ fncru. The stru(>;le piay.be. prolonged and 
■ Han^jLnd.J^eiDirJy "may intervene .overtly , _- In view of trie logistic 

difficulties faced bv' the other aide, I believe ve can assume that the " • 
maximum U.S. forced required on the ground in Southeast Asia will not * 
exceed" 6~ division, or. about..205,U00 men, (etBCPAC Vlmr'i'^y), -Phase: .1 V,) . 
Our 'military posture is, or, with the addition of morn Rationed. Guard 
or regular Army divisions, can bo nade, adequate to furnish these forces 
vithout serious interference with our present Berlin plan:;. 

^ 6, To accept the stated objective is of course a most serious 
decision. Military force is not the only element of what must be a 
most carefully coordinated set oi actions. . Success will depend on 
factors many of which are not within our control -- notably the conduct 
of Diem himself and other leaders in the area- Laos will remain a major 
problem. The domestic political implications of accepting the objective 
are also grave, although it is our feeling that the country will respond 
better to a firm initial position than to courses of action that load us 
in only gradually, and that in the meantime are sure to involve casualties* 
The over- all effect on Moscow and Peiping will need careful weighing and 

Lmay well be mixed; however t permitting .South Vietnam to fall can only 
strengthen and encourage them greatly. 



% 



7* In sum: 

a. We do not believe major units of IKS. forces should be 
introduced in South Vietnam unless we are willing to make an 
affirmative decision on the issue stated at the start of this 

* 

memorandum. 



Ve arc inclined to recommend that we do commit the U.S. 
to the clear objective of preventing the fall of South Vietnam 
to Coimnunisin and that we support this commitment by the necessary 
nil i t a ry a c t i on s . 

c. If such a commitment is agreed upon, we pupport the 
recofficicrt&atioris of General Taylor as the first steps toward its 
■fulfillment* 

... 0-y . 



■ . » 



• *■ 



Robert S. KcKaraara 



• 






- ** 



- - 



*~ 



»W-Sr- ' 



V 
1 



t - 






i - 



.v 



1 -v- '> 



t • 






• f 



■ ' 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



Enclosure No. 1 

Despauch No, 205 
From Saigon 



BRITISH ADVISORY MISSION, 
196, Cong Ly, 
Saigon 



t £- 



November 11 , 1961 



Your Excellency, 

As promised at my interview with Your Excellency last 
Wednesday, I now enclose a memorandum briefly outlining 
plan and the measures required for the clearance of the 
communists from the Delta area. 

As I explained to Your Excellency it will be much easier 
to make a start on these lines in one area and for this purpose 
the whole Delta area, south and west of Saigon, comprising the 
present 32nd and 33rd tactical zones, would appear to be the 
most promising starting point as compared with the area north of 
Saigon and the Highlands which require, at the present time, more 
specifically military measures. Arrangements have now just been 
made for my mission to visit the Highlands area and Central Viet- 
nam and we are leaving on Monday morning (November 13 ) and returning 
on Friday evening (November 17). This will enable us to get a 
clearer picture of the problems throughout the country as a whole, 

I also attach a short note by Mr, Palmer on intelligence, 
which is related to the organization mentioned in paragraphs 27 
and 28 of the memorandum, Mr. Palmer has attempted to provide 
Your Excellency with a number of examples showing how life can 
be breathed into the organization. He would, of course, be ready 
to discuss this further at any time convenient to Your Excellency. 

Your Excellency will also under stnad from the outline plan in 
the attached memorandum that it should lend by stages to a reorgan- 
isation of the Government machine for directing and co-ordinating 
all action against the communists and to the production of an over- 
all strategic operational plan for the country as a whole defining 
responsibilities 5 tasks and priorities. At the same time it will 
lead to the establishment of a static security frame. ; which can 



His Excellency 
- The President of the Republic of Vietr: 



3^5 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure No.l 
Despatch No. 205 
From Saigon 



o 



be developed eventually into a National Police force into which 
can be incorporated a single security intelligence organization 
for the direction and co-ordination of all intelligence activities 
against the communists. I agree with Your Excellency that it would 
be too disruptive at the present time to try to achieve these 
immediately and that they should be developed gradually. Using a 
medical analogy, the remedy should be clinical rather than surgical. 

I look forward to seeing Your Excellency again on my return. 



I have the honour to be^ with 
the highest consideration^ 

Your Excellency's obedient Servant y 



(R.G.K. Thompson) 



3^6 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure No, 2 
Despatch No. 205 
From Saigon 



MEMORANDUM 



The aim of this memorandum is to outline a plan and the measures 
required for the clearance of the communists from the Delta area. 

Overall aim 



The overall aim of any counter insurgency plan must be to win 
the people. The killing of communist terrorists will follow auto- 
matically from that. If the main emphasis is placed merely on killii 
terrorists there is a grave risk that more communists will be cre&bed 
than are killed. Winning the people must, therefore, be kept in the 
forefront of the minds of every single pwrson, whether military or 
civilian, who is engaged in anti- terrorist operations. 

Combined Headquarters 

■ 

3. There is a Very similar terrain throughout the whole area of 
rice fields and swamp, with mangrove on the coast. The area is at 
present divided into 12 provinces with two tactical zones (the seven 
southern provinces and five northern provinces) in each of which a 
military division is stationed. At the present time there is in- 
adequate direction and co-ordii ion of the campaign with the result 
that the 12 provinces are tending to fight separate battles and the 
communists are able to take advantage of the boundaries between the 
respective spheres of responsibility. 

k* We should therefore establish a Combined Headquarters for the 
area to direct and co-ordinate: 

(a) all anti-terrorist operations; 

(b) all civilian emergency measures: 

(c) all security intelligence; 

(d) information and propaganda; ;and 

(e) as a follow up, social improvement 






It is logical that these Headquarters should be the present 3rd 
Corps reinforced by Administrative, Civil Guard, Self -Defence Corps 

d Propaganda elements. There is great advantage in the fact 
that the Corps Headquarters itself is based in the Saigon area 
where the best facilities for control are available, 

5. This would make it desirable to relieve this headquarters of 
any responsibility for the 31st tactical zone and for the special 
zone of Saigon, and it is for consideration whether these two zones 
could best be handled by Field Ay Headquarters as a separate command 






3H7 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure No. 2 
Despatch No. 205 

From Saigon 



command or, perhaps , Incorporated into 2nd Corps. The Combined 
Headquarters at 3rd Corps should cease to be responsible to Field 
Army Headquarters (which can then concentrate on the area north 
of Saigon and the Highlands) , and should be directly responsible 
to the National Security Council presided over by His Excellency 
the President, The Corps and all i;ts military units would, however, 
continue to draw logistical support from the H.Q. A.R.V.N. 

The Tactical Zones 



6, Given this one Combined Headquarters for the whole area, the 
32nd and 33rd Tactical Zones as such are no longer necessary. Instead 
there would only be an operational dividing line between the two divi- 
sions but this would be changeable, depending both on the situation 
and on the operations planned. This will allow such greater flexi- 
bility with regard to the movement of military forces throu ut the 
whole area. 

Provinces 

7 • It follows from this that the chefs de Province will be directly 
responsible to the Combined Headquarters on all emergency matters 
(though they will continue to work to the Ministries concerned in 
respect of normal routine administration). The Chef de Province 
should remain responsible for the direction and co-ordination of all 
emergency measures in his Province and the District chefs should 
similarly remain responsible to their respective Chefs de Province, 
Bearing in mind that most of them are military officers this Is likely 
to be more satisfactory in the present circumstances than the Malayan 
District or Executive Committee system. This system should only be 
developed gradually as military Cfyefs de Province can be replaced by 
civil administrators. 

Command' Channels 

8. (a) The military chain of command will operate In the normal 
way, from the Military Corps staff at the Combined Head- 
quarters to the two Divisional Headquarters and thence to 
regiments and battalions. It may be desirable for Ranger 
Companies., specifically attached to a particular Province, 
to come under the operational command of the Chef de Province, 
but the latter should not command any army battalion or 
regiment operating In his province ■ He should, however, be 
responsible for co-ordinating operations with the col Ler 
of that battalion or regiment, as the case may be. 



/00 



The 



3 J i8 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 i 



Enclosure No. 2 
Despatch Wo. 205 
From Saigon 

(b) The Chef de Province will, however , be responsible for 
all civil emergency measures and their direction and, 
in that respect, will exercise command over the civil 
departments concerned. 

(c) Civil Guard and Self -Defence command channels are dis- 
cussed in paragraphs 17 and ik below. 

Civil Measures 

9. The basic units of population are the village and Hamlet, 
Although the sizes vary, there are normally about k to 5 Hamlets 
of 200-300 houses to each village. The main civil emergency 
measures required at this level are: 

(a) regrouping of hamlets round the perimeter i.e. along 
the Cambodian frontier and on the fringes of the 
mangrove swamp areas, particularly those which have 
become long established communist bases. These hamlets 
should be known as " defended Hamlets 11 ; and 

(b) the establishment of "strategic hamlets" in the 
remainder of the area. 

10. The establishment of a "Cordon Sanitaire" along this part of 
the frontier (or elsewhe on the perimeter) is not desirable, 
except possibly at special points, because: 

(a) it gives up ground; 

(b) it eliminates intelligence coverage; 

(c) it establishes a more or less permanent patrol commit- 
ment for either Civil Guard or Military forces; and 

(d) it still does not solve the problem of the populated 
areas wherever they may start. 

Regrouping of hamlets is likely to prove a better solution provided 
that they are of a convenient size for defence and control and the 
inhabitants are not moved too far from their normal work. Regrouped 
villages might be too big and unwieldy and cause too drastic a move 
of the population. The ideal size for a defended hamlet is about 
300 houses (8-10 to an acre). 

Control measures 

11. (a) Prohibited areas from which the population is totally 

excluded until further notice should be declared and 
all Government forces should have complete freedom to 
shoot on sight in such areas; 



/(b) Curfews, 



3*+9 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure Ho. 2 
Despatch No. 205 
From Saigon 

(b) Curfews 5 particularly at nighty should be introduced on 
certain roads and waterways , in areas surrounding defended 
hamlets and in such other areas as may be required. Anyone 
breaking the curfew should be liable to be shot on sight, 

(c) Identity cards should be issued to the whole population and 
the Delta area should be given priority for the new plastic 
cards. The inhabitants of each house should be recorded 
(as is being done in most strategic hamlets) and a photo- 
graph of the complete household should be pinned inside the 
house with duplicates available at district and province 
level (as in Vinh Binh province), 

(d) Check points should be established on all roads and waterways. 
There should also be surprise checks at other points. This 
will help to prevent the present freedom of movement enjoyed 
by communist agents and couriers. 

* 

(e) It may be possible to introduce a limited degree of food ' 
control (and of other supplies) particularly in the areas 
where defended hamlets are established. 

Self -Defence Corps 

12. I was very impressed with the good progress being made with the 
establishment of the self-Defence Corps jand Self -Defence Corps ■ posts 
(particularly in Kien Hoa, Vinh Binh and Vinh Long Provinces) based 

on strategic hamlets with a larger post at village level. The poten- 
tiality of this policy is tremendous and the Self -Defence Corps could 
be made the key to the whole situation. Although the pay is low and 
the equipment is still poor, the necessary spirit seems to be there 
and should be easily encouraged. If this is done successfully, the 
great advantage will lie in the fact that the people are defending 
themselves. Their local intelligence is good and provided that 'they 
are given sufficient confidence not to fear reprisals, they wil j_ pick 
off communist agents and supporters and small guerrilla units, (in 
one of the Provinces visited they have the highest score of kills 
over the last few months). 

■ 

13. The pay problem might be solved by making the permanent members 
more part-time on a roster basis so that they can still attend to 
some of their normal work. With regard to equipment I hope that 
carbines can soon be issued. Every post should, however, also have a 
grenade discharger. Other minor equipment and "better uniform would 
greatly improve morale • Each post should also have a Very pistol or 
at least a rocket. The drum seems to be very adequate for raising 
the alarm within the hamlet its.elf . 

- 

lU. Being essentially a force which operates only at the village 
and hamlet level no elaborate chain of command is required above 
that level. A very small staff is required at District level to 

3 50 /ensure 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure No, 2 
Despatch No. 205 
From Saigon 

ensure co-ordination between the villages and to the intelli- 
gence aspect and similarly at the Province level. Above that there 
should only be an inspectorate , the main purpose of which should be 
to visit posts as frequently as possible to find out their needs, 
stay with them and help them to understnad the importance of their 
mission. The Civil Guard at Province and District level shoiild be 
responsible for logistic and administrative support. 

15. A prerecuisit e for the establishment of Self-Defence Corps units , 
including their posts in strategic and defended hamlets, is that they 
can be adequately and rapidly supported by Civil Guard units in the 
event of an attack developing and, in turn, the Army should be respon- 
sible for dealing with any large concentration which may develop against 
such hamlets. It would be fatal to establish such units and posts 
before this support can be provided. Training is not a major problem 

as only a minimum is required and in many places there are a number of 
former soldiers. All peasants have a natural instinct for small scale 
guerrilla and anti- guerrilla operations. 

Civil Guard 

16. The Civil Guard should be organised to provide the permanent 
static framework of the Government's security forces within each 
Province. Their present organisation on a battalion and company 
basis is desirable only for the purpose of equipment and retraining. 
Their subsequent deployment requires that battalion Headquarters 
should be the provincial headquarters with company headquarters 
becoming the district headquarters. Provinces should then be re- 
inforced by additional companies as may be required particularly for 
mobile operations. As the security situation improves companies may 
be transferred elsewhere, except that a company headquarters must 
remain at district level even though the number of men in that particular 
cc ny may be reduced. This means that the total strength of the 
Civil Guard in a Province can vary considerably but that the headquarters 
framework at the Province and District level must always remain, 

17. The operational direction of the Civil Guard in a Province should 
rest with the Chef de Province through the battalion commander and at 
district level with the District Chief through the company coir_ der 
(when the Chef de Province and the Chef de District are military 
officers). In all other respects the command and administrative 
channel should .go direct from the battalion commander to the Civil 
Guard element at i Combined Headquarters, and thence to the main 
Civil Guard Headquarters in Saigon. As and when provinces are de- 
clared "white" and civil admicd rators are appointed as Chefs de 
Province, then the whole command chain will run direct from Civil 
Guard headquarters in Saigon through Combined Headquarters to the 
Battalion Headquarters at Province level and thence to its companies 






/it is 

35-1 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure Kb. 2 
Despatch No. 205 
From Saigon 

It is this organisation which should then gradually be developed 
into a national police force with the amalgamation of other suitable 
forces. 



•lilitary Units (including Rangers) 

■ 

18. The initial aim of military units should be to keep the main 
communist forces off balance while the whole framework of defended 
and strategic hamlets is being developed and consolidated and their 
main tasks will therefore be: 

(a) active patrolling and engagement of communist terrorists 
outside the populated areas; 

(b) prevention by planned operations of communist terrorist 
concentration j 

(c) support of defended hamlets in bad areas and rescue of 
them if attacked; 

(d) enforcement of control measures especially curfews and 
prohibited areas. 

19, As the framework is established, military units should gradually 
be relieved of all static duties , except in defence of their own 
establishments and, where any static duties remain, a mobile reserve 
should always be available. This will be the time when the communists 
will either have to concentrate to attack the framework or else will 
withdraw to their bases in the swamp. Planned military operations 
will be necessary to deal with both these eventualities, 

20, In so far as the Delta area is concerned it would be desirable 
gradually to withdraw Ranger Companies as they can be replaced by 
retrained Civil Guard companies in order that the E ■ Companies 
themselves can be retrained for their proper task in the jungle areas 
north of Saigon and in the Highlands. But, as already stated, where 
they must initially remain allocated to a Province they should be 
under the operational command of the Chef de Province (when a military 
officer) and used in much the same role as mobile Civil Guard companies. 

Air Force 

21. The main role of the Air Force should be to increase the mobility 
of the security forces in areas where other communi cations are lacking, 
It wil3 also have the normal tasks of reconnaissance and cc aications 
and, where a suitable tdrget presents irself, of ground attack. The 
priority task for helicopers should be the evacuation of wounded, 
including t; e from the Self-Defence Corps who should receive equally 
good treatment as the / ; and Civil Guard. 



/Navy 



352 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure No. 2 
Despatch No. 205 
From Saigon 



Navy 



22. The main task of the Navy must be to prevent the entry of 
supplies 5 reinforcements ^ agents and weapons "by sea into the area. 
Simultaneously the Navy should prevent all communist movement by 
water along the coasts. At the present time large communist units 
are able to move rapidly from island to island across the mouth of 
the Delta with impunity. Not only should these be stopped completely 
but ? if suitable craft are obtained and fitted with radar, there 
should be considerable slaughter on the first few occasions. The 
type of vessel required is a seaward defence motor launch , inshore 
mine sweeper ^ or sea-going customs launch (like the police P- craft 
as used in Malaya). They are all quite small with crews of between 
10 and 15 men but they must be fitted with radar, wireless, search 
light, at least one 20 mm. and machine guns. They should carry 
sufficient fuel and stores to stay at sea for about 7 days. 

Inland Waterways 

23- With regard to the Mekong itself and other inland waterways 
this should not be a naval task (although the Navy may be required 
to help for a specific period or operation). River patrol units 
are required in the Civil Guard (as in Kien Ho a Province). It is 
understood that small landing craft suitable for troop movement and 
patrolling of the Mekong are being provided. These should be very 
adequate bu, in addition, there will also be a requirement for 
smaller and faster boats, possibly fibre glass with outboard motor, 
capable of carrying about 6 men. In the initial stages these should 
be used, if based on static control points, to check traffic up and 
down the rivers and, in the later stages when security has improved, 
for patrolling and quick communications. 

Roads 

2H. Some Civil Guard battalions now have a road partol platoon at 
Provincial Headquarters using mainly former Malayan G.M.C.'s and 
Lynx scout cars. These are all very old and problems are arising 
with regard to spare parts and tyres. For the future it is con- 
sidered that a light armoured car to take the place of these vehicles 
is essential. As far as I know the only one being produced is the 
United Kingdom Ferret scout car and this is due to go out of produc- 
tion in I962. It may be possible to make a final order. Its cost 
is about h 15,000 excluding spares. If this cannot be done then the 
best solution is to devise a fairly simple system of armour plating 
jeeps and light trucks (as was in fact done in Malaya). 

W i r ele s s Commun i cat i o n 

— — — 1— — ■ — - — — — . _ i- - _ — . — . , — .— , — _ — _~ 

25. These will need to be gone into in some dei ail to see that they 
all tie in correctly. At the lowest level strategic hamlets may have 
to communicate with the village by courier, flare or rocket but at 
village level the Self-Defence Corps certainly needs a simple 

353 /transmitter/ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



*-.» 



*- 



-0 



I'ilClGSUl 1 ! 



trarisniit tor/re eel* and feitio ::iuy al&o be repaired in t?ie defended 



iiai;uei 









XiQl'H 






co a control not at *)z strict 



*%adou&rters next do or uo tha Civil rftard Coii-xtfiy sat t;j:io.i would 
thea be responsible far ralayin, ; ukv ueasucos; ta required to civil 
Gaard -^admaarterfc til; n.-ic *VovivicG lovely Jiie Civil i*uard Coauarr/ 
Headquarters at .Dis'sriOu level ^voult 1 also aroviue kae i&u;&oxi?u: 



Ixtik va 6l, ulVil 

tbe district. 






parrels rind aay other lUvil Uttf;rd poets within 




^tglli,;ence 

27* SeariMij in r^ind she VMcle fra -ev^ric vac- first roqai-e: A?at here 
vis to establish a joint; eoi:£:5i*tee in one 1*00*3 at distidot level with 
Irepresenoatiyse oi" Curate, caic uhe£ de i/iiyoricis Cxse ^eli^iJefenoo 

l Corps$ the Civil c-aard Bod* if raiiiiary miivo type op i_; in. the 



District, the ArMy uO } ' reiser*, ^:^ ::ost suzwiOAe »raon ctaon : these 



1 V 



" 



should be yl^ooS i*i charge Co direct 9 under the Chef do Jis1 Iet 3 
the into Ilx^eHoe effort in the *ii3triat* Afc fciis lavolp t'Ua elooesls 
contact :ii:3t be keps v;ich the *elf^**ej tence ^orpj* villa^oo szrA ii^i>- 
lets ciiich v/ill be urio aain & cures of i&relljbjeuco* #*t 1 v s -T-oviiioial 
level chc : &t-oul£ be a rinilur out larger Jain^ intelligence staff 
filr&CEinj and eC^jrdinaisia:; itikolli _;ehOis for t:tq ifipovinae && a tvkoie 
and undertaking iai-alliya^cu jcpojeeco v/iich &r*s beyoud tl~e ea^oMli-sy 
of t:ie i)iQtii a ic^* At uiia Conbiuad -oadcum^ory core EMpuld bo a 
siFdlar iu4ielli v ;oucG Bttiff diraotvr^-; iuoolli^o^as Tor sau aren as a 
v;;io3.e* as t tii; isyaco:i :b d^voloood i\: iill jittdualiy ^Uftj i-xo a 
security inteilijerioa or^'aaisafiiotj a«;d yvoatuall/^ if i:..o civil 

of *o!:e i^ibicnal Police .oroo. J;:cro can tilv*u t va jo c^^aqhed 10 it at 
any level an amy iiitalli^onea officer cu provide *^:ie ijjr:.y liiiko 

2S« Anoth3r inport;.?,:it ocurce of intelligence^ J;l:ou;;:i not always 
of isaediube tacyicnl inportauea 9 vlll oe J^^ J a (Jiere rider enai^y 
V&tsc b1) and cauttarsd d0ou?.ie?i&3» oftcta c;.onlu alleys be i/ite:/io ;atci 
at tie nearest IHswrxet **esaqimi a ters xn oa^e tliey Slave any tactical 

j^it^lliy' -s vaioh can to irr;£G lately exoloi^etU Jh©y should then 



i::ulc:i snoulo aaira a 
interrosated on eosj*» 

and oBher :>ari;iculara„ 
to j6 broLiTrlit buck fo; 



\)G seet'sriisc c-o iVovinoe -^aadnuarters each of 
sr^all interrogation o&n^ra tshsra Jlj?s can fos 
nuni&t or- of battlo s scursaa of supplies 

If of sufficient inporear.co the oaf may need 

fu?rtjier interrogation at t in Co^Jiined Corps ^eadnuaruers* iiyervtisir*- 
po ilble o T 'Oald be dona fco c:\{; .:ra^a Bi^rcaders a-:d all Lit a. in- 
dueling any eaptiires* siioiild bo yjeXl ci*aatsd as t*:oy uay bscc 
raat imporfe i for n'rops.jm-.da g»tirpoDO©o 



* 

c* 






/luforr-atj c 



. «■«. »^^-^ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure No* 2 
Despatch No, 205 

From Saigon 



Information and Propaganda 



29. A strong section must be established at the Corps Headquarters 
covering all fields of information and propaganda from the radio A 
downwards. It is essential that a common line should be taken 
throughout the whole area on every subject. In the field at provin- 
cial level 5 however 5 mobile units are required (both boats and jeeps) 
in order that every hamlet can be visited as frequently as possible. 
In addition each hamlet should have a receiving set (as already- 
supplied by Australia under the Colombo Plan). Greater use also 
needs to be made of leaflets to be dropped either by patrols or by 
aircraft and for this purpose the Combined Corps Headquarters should 
either have under its control, or should be able to call on, adequate 
printing resources. Voice aircraft would also be a tremendous asset 
particularly for exploiting successful action and any surrenders. 

Social improvements 

30. It may not be possible to introduce the necessary social im- 
provements simutaneously with the emergency measures already 
enumerated but they should follow as soon as possible particularly 
when an area becomes 'white 1 with emphasis on improved schools and 
medical facilities. Much good work to the effect Mas already being 
done in the provinces visited. Such measures should, however^ be 
undertaken in defended hamlets simultaneously with regrouping in 
order to demonstrate the advantages of such a measure. In defended 
hamlets it may also be desirable to install small generating sets 
capable of providing in the first instance perimeter and street 
lighting. The inhabitants should be informed that as soon as the 
Communists have been elimated these generating sets may then be 
used to provide house lighting in the hamlet. 

Civic Action 

■ 

31. There is great scope for Civic Action and Youth Corps cadres 

particularly in relation to the activities covered in the last two 
paragraphs. All this requires careful co-ordination so that the 
timing of all activities are properly related to the establisi nt 
of strategic and defended hamlets and to military operations. 

Compensation ^ Rewards and Subsidies 

32. Funds should be provided by the central Government at provincial 
level to pay immediate compensation to the libers or families of the 
Self -Defence Corps and any other innocent person who is wounded or 
killed by the communists. The present system tends to be too slow 

and the amounts may often be inadequate. Funds should also be available 

/for 



355 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure -Ho . 2 
Despatch No. 205 
From Saigon 

for the payment of rewards to members of the Self -Defence Corps and 
any other person (not a member of the security forces) for information 
leading to the killing of communists and the capture of weapons. It 
is desirable to produce a set "scale which should be uniform throughout 
the country. Subsidies may also be' necessary in cases where houses 
are regrouped into defended hamlets. A sum of about Piastres 2,500 
for each house which has to be moved would not be unreasonable 
particularly if roofing material was also supplied free* 

Summary of Material and Equipment Requirements 

33* (a) Coastal and river patrol craft; 

(b) Wireless communications; 

(c) Better equipment for the self-Defence Corps including 
carbines, grenade dischargers, uniforms, flare pistols 
(or rockets) ; 

(d) Helicopters; 

(e) Large quantities of barbed wire; (it is understood that 
Chefs de Province are having to buy barbed wire for this 
purpose from provincial funds in the open market. This 
should be a central Government commitment). 

(f) Mobile information units and small receiving sets; 

(g) Suitably packed medical supplies for defended and 
strategic 1 lets; 

(h) Roofing material - either corrugated iron, aluminum or 
asbestos (if regrouping is carried out on any scale 
this is bound to be a bottle neck and even supplies of 
nipah palm may not be available in the right places in 
sufficient quantity); 
(i) lyres for present Civil Guard scout cars and their 

eventual replacement either by ferrets or armour plated 
jeeps or land revers;and 
(-j) Small generating sets and perimeter lighting for 
defended- hamlets. 

Results 

3^. The main results of establishing a framework as proposed should 
be: 

(a) protection for the population; 

(b) increased mobility for the security forces particularly 
the Army; 

(c) greater flexibility in the use of forces where required 
at any given time in the whole area; 

(d) with mobility and flexibility and ii red communications 
there should also be greater ecc ;.y of force; 

(e) all this will instill greater confidence both in the 
population and in the security forces; 

/(f) this 
356 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



• 



Enclosure No, 2 
Despatch 205 
From Saigon 

(f) this, in turn j will lead to better intelligence; and 

(g) better intelligence will result in more kills. 

Protection., confidence , intelligence and "kills should become a 
sonstantly expanding circuit. \ 

Communist reaction 

35* The Communists will not be slow to react and will make a deter- 
mined effort to prevent the framework being established particularly 
at the village and hamlet level- This requires that there should be 
careful judgement and timing in its establishment. As it grows, so 
break it. That is the time for the security forces, and particularly 
the Army, to get them. Once the communist rank and file starts to 
break the leaders will attempt to withdraw, preferably over the 
frontier where they will be safe, but, if that is denied to them, 
then into the more inaccessible mangrove swamps in the coastal area 
where they can be steadily starved out and eliminated. 

Priority Areas 

36. Even within the Delta itself these measures cannot all be 
carried out simultaneously in every Province or District. First 
priority should be given to the Provinces along the Mekong with 
the intention of clearing a corridor through the middle of the 
whole area along its easiest axis. In fact regrouping should 
start there as soon as possible in order to take advantage of the 
damage caused by the floods. The luain intention in this area, 
however, would be initially to prevent further infiltration and 
subsequently to deny the frontier as a safe refuge. The final aim 
should be to push the communists back into the Mangrove swamps along 
the coast where they can do little harm and where they can then be 
starved out and eliminated. 



Summary of Expected Achievements 



37. (a) 

00 

(c) 

(a) 



The first achievement should be a cleared corridor along 
the line of the Mekong followed by 

the declaration of 'white* areas ir the provinces con- 
cerned which will raise the morale of the whole country; 
the safeguarding of the rice crop; 

the release of troops from the Delta area for the more 
specific military operations North of Saigon and in the 
Highlands; 

/(e) the 



357 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Enclosure No, 2 
Despatch No. 205 
From Saigon 

(e) the establishment of a solid security framework which 
It will be comparatively easy to maintain, and 

(f) a model for operations in the remaining parts of the 
country, particularly in the area immediately North 
and East of Saigon and along the coastal plain. 



British Advisory Mission, 
Saigon. 



November 13, 19&L • 






358 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 



November 11, 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE PRESIDENT 



Subject: South Viet -Nam 



lo United States National Interests in South Viet -Nam . 

The deteriorating situation in South Viet-Nam requires atten- 
tion to the nature and scope of United States national interests 
in that country. The loss of South Viet-Nam to Communism would 
involve the transfer of a nation of 20 million people from the 
free world to the Communist bloc. The loss of South Viet-Nam 
would make pointless any further discussion about the importance 
of Southeast Asia to the free world; we would have to face the 
near certainty that the remainder of Southeast Asia and Indonesia 
would move to a complete accommodation with Communism, if not formal 
incorporation within the Communist bloc. The United States , as a 
member of SEATO, has commitments with respect to South Viet-Nam 
under the Protocol to the SEATO Treaty. Additionally, in a formal 
statement at the conclusion session of the 195*+ Geneva Conference ^ 
the United States representative stated that the United States 
"would view any renewal of the aggression . • , with grave concern 
and as seriously threatening international peace and security." 



The loss of South Viet-Nam to Communism would not only destroy 
SEATO but would undermine the credibility of American commitments 
elsewhere. Further, loss of South Viet-Nam would stimulate bitter 
domestic controbersies in the United States and would be seized 
upon by extreme elements to divide the country and harass the Admin- 
istration. 



2o The Problem of Saving South Viet-Nam 

It seems, on the face of it, absurd to think that a nation of 
20 million people can be subverted by 15-20 thousand active guerrillas 



if 



TOP SECRET 



359 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-2- 



if the Government and people of "that country do not "wish to he 
subverted. South Viet-Nam is not, however, a highly organized 
society with an effective governing apparatus and a population 
accustomed to carrying civic responsibility. Public apathy is 
encouraged by the inability of most citizens to act directly as 
well as by the tactics of terror employed by the guerrillas through- 
out the countryside. Inept administration and the absence of a 
strong non- Communist political coalition have made it difficult to 
bring available resources to bear upon the guerrilla problem and 
to make the most effective use of available external aid. Under the 
best of conditions the threat posed by the presence of 15-20 thousand 
guerrillas, well disciplined under well-trained cadres , would be 
difficult to meet. 



3. The United States' Objective in South Viet -Warn 

The United States should commit itself to the clear objective 
of preventing the fall of South Viet-Nam to Communism . The basic 
means for accomplishing this objective must be to put the Government 
of South Viet- Nam into a position to win its own war against the 
guerrillas. We must insist that that Government itself take the 
measures necessary for that purpose in exchange for large-scale 
United States assistance in the military, economic and political 
fields. At the same time we must recognize that it will probably 
not be possible for the GVN to win this war as long as the flow of 
men and supplies from North Viet-Nam continues uncher i and the 
guerrillas enjoy a safe sanctuary in neighboring territory. 

We should be prepared to introduce United States combat forces 
if that should become necessary for success. Dependent upon the 
circumstances, it may also be necessary for United States forces to 
strike at the source of the aggression in North Viet-Nam. 

k. The Us e of United St ates Forces in Sout h Vie t-Nam, 

The commitment of United States forces to South Viet-Nam in- 
volves two different categories: (A) Units of modest size required 
for the direct support of South Vie : - :ainese military effort, such 
as communications, helicopter and other forms of airlift, reconnais- 
sance aircraft, naval patrols, intelligence units, etc., and (B) larger 
organized units with actual or potential direct rnilitai^y missions. 
Category (A) should be introduced a seedily as possible . Category (B) 
units pose a more serious problem in that they are much more signifi- 
cant from the point of view of domestic and international political 
factors and greatly increase the probabilities of Communist bloc 
escalation. Further, the employment of United States c forces 



(in 



TOP SECRET 



360 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-3- 



(in the absence of Coimnunist bloc escalation) involves a certain 
dilemma: if there is a strong South Viet-Hamese effort 3 they may 
not be needed; if there is not such an effort y United States forces 
could not accomplish their mission in the midst of an apathetic or 
hostile population. Under present circumstances 5 therefore 3 the 
question of injecting United States and SEATO combat forces should 
in large part be considered as a, contribution to the morale of the 
South Viet-Namese in their own effort to do the principal job them- 
selves. 

5. Probable Extent of the Commitment of United States Forces, 

— ... _ - _ 

If we commit Category (b) forces to South Viet-Nam 5 the ultimate 
possible extent of our military commitment in Southeast Asia must be 
faced. The struggle may be prolonged ^ and Hanoi and Peiping nay 
overtly intervene. It is the view of the Secretary of Defense and 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff that> in the light of the logistic diffi- 
culties faced by the other side> we can assume that the maximum 
United States forces required on the ground in Southeast Asia would 
not exceed six divisions y or about 205^000 men (CINCPAC Plan 32/59 
Phase IV), This would be in addition to local forces and such 
SEATO forces as may be engaged. It is also the view of the Secretary 
of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff that our military posture is> 
or,, with the addition of more National Guard or regular Army divisions^ 
can be made, adequate to furnish these forces and support them in 
action without serious interference with our p sent Berlin plans. 

6. Relation to Laos . 

It must be understood that the introduction of American combat 
forces into Viet -Nam prior to a Laotian settlement would run a con- 
siderable risk of stimulating a Communist breach of the cease fire 
and a resumption of hostilities in Laos, This could present us with 
a choice between the use of combat forces in Laos or an abandonment 
of that country to full Communist control. At the present time, there 
is at least a chance that a settlement can be reached in Laos on the 
basis of a weak and unsatisfactory Souvanna Fhouma Government. The 
prospective agreement on Laos includes a provision that Laos will not 
be used as a transit area or as a base for interfering in the affairs 
of other countries such as South Viet-Nam. After a Laotian settlement 
the introduction of United States forces into Viet-Eam could serve to 
stabilize the position both in Viet-Nam and in Laos by registering 
our determination to see to it that the Laotian settlement was as far 
as the United States would be willing to see Communist influence in 
Southeast Asia develop. 



7. The 



TOP SECRET 



361 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 I 



■4- 



7. The Need for Multilateral Action . 

From the political point of view, both domestic and international, 
it would seem important to involve forces from other nations along- 
side of United States Category (B) forces in Viet-Nam. It would be 
difficult to explain to our own people why no effort had been made tp 
invoke SEATO or why the United States undertook to carry this burden 
unilaterally. Our position would be greatly strengthened if the intro- 
duction of forces could be taken as a SEATO action, accompanied by 
units of other SEATO countries , with a full SEATO report to the United 
Nations of the purposes of the action itself. 

Apart from the armed forces, there would be political advantage 
in enlisting the interest of other nations, including neutrals , in 
the security and well-being of South Viet-Nam. This might be done 
by seeking such assistance as Malayan police officials (recently 
offered Diem by the Tumka) and by technical assistance personnel in 
other fields, either bilaterally or through international organizations 

8, Initial Diplomatic Action by the United States , 

If the recommendations , below/ are approved, the United States 
should consult intensively with other SEATO governments to obtain their 
full support of the course of action contemplated. At the appropriate 
stage , a direct approach should be made by the United States to Moscow, 
through normal or special channels, pointing out that we cannot accept 
the movement of cadres, arms and other supplies into South Viet-Kam 
in support of the guerrillas. We should also discuss the problem with 
neutral governments in the general area and get them to face up to 
their own interests in the security of South Viet-Kam; these govern- 
ments will be concerned about (a) the introduction of United States 
combat forces and (b) the withdrawal of United States support from 
Southeast Asia; their concern, therefore, might be usefully expressed 
either to Communist bloc countries or in politicaD. support for what 
may prove necessary in South Viet -Nam itself. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 



In the light of the foregoing, the Secretary of State and the 
Secretary of Defense recommend that: 

1. We now take the decision to commit ourselves to the objective 
of preventing the fall of South Viet-Nam to Communism and that, in 
doing so, we recognize that the introduction of United States and other 



SEATO 



TOP SECRET 



362 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



-5- 



SEATO forces may be necessary to achieve this objective. (However, 
if it is necessary to commit outside forces to achieve the fore- 
going objective , our decision to introduce United States forces 
should not be contingent upon unanimous SEATO agreement thereto.) 

2. The Department of Defense be prepared -with plans for the 
use of United States forces in South Viet-lTam under one or more of 

the following purposes: 



the 



(a) Use of a significant number of United States forces to 
signify United States determination to defend South Viet-Nam 
and to boost South Viet-Nam morale* 



(b) Use of substantial United States forces to assist in 
suppressing Viet Cong insurgency short of engaging in detailed 
counter-guerrilla operations but including relevant operations 
in North Viet-Nam. 

(c) Use of United States forces to deal with the situation 
if there is organized Communist military -inter vent ion. 



3. 
GVH: 



We immediately undertake, the following actions in support of 



(a) Provide increased air lift to the GVN forces, including 
helicopters , light aviation, and transport aircraft, manned to 
the extent necessary by United States uniformed personnel and 
under United States operational control. 

(b) Provide such additional equipment and United States uni- 
formed personnel as may be necessary for air reconnaissance, 
photography, instruction in and execution of air -ground support 
techniques, and for special intelligence. 

(c) Provide the GVN with small craft, including such United 
States uniformed advisers and operating personnel as may be 
necessary for quick and effective operations in effecting sur- 
veillance and control over coastal waters and inland waterways. 

(d) Provide expedited training and equipping of the civil 
guard and the self-defense corps with the objective of relieving 
the regular Arrny of static missions and freeing it for mobile 
offensive operations. 

(e) Provide such personnel and equipment as may be necessary 
to improve the military-political intelligence system beginning 



at 



TOP SECRET 



363 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-6- 



at the provincial level and extending upward through the 
Government and the armed forces to the Central Intelligence 
Organization. 

(f ) Provide such new terms of reference , reorganization 
and additional personnel for United States military forces as 
are required for increased United States participation in the 
direction and control of GVN military operations and to carry 
out the other increased responsibilities which accrue to MAAG 
under these recommendations. 

(g) Provide such increased economic aid as may he required 

to permit the GVN to pursue a vigorous flood relief and rehabili- 
tation program, to supply material in support of the security 
effort j and to give priority to projects in support of this 
expanded counter-insurgency program. (This could include in- 
creases in military pay, a full supply of a wide range of ma- 
terials such as food, medical supplies, transportation equip- 
ment, communications equipment, and any other items where 
material help could assist the GYM in winning the war against 
the Viet Cong. ) 

(h) Encourage and support (including financial support) 
a request by the GVN to the FAO or any other appropriate inter- 
national organization for multilateral assistance in the relief 
and rehabilitation of the flood area, 

(i) Provide individual administrators and advisers for 
insertion into the Governmental machinery of South Viet-Nam 
in types and numbers to be agreed upon by the two Governments. 

(j) Provide personnel for a joint survey with the GVN of 
conditions in each of the provinces to assess the social, 
political, intelligence, and military factors bearing on the 
prosecution of the counter -insurgency program in order to reach 
a common estimate of these factors and a common determination 
of how to deal with them, 

k* Ambassador Molting be instructed to make an immediate 
approach to President Diem to the effect that the Government of the 
United States is prepared to join the Government of Viet-Nam in a 
sharply increased joint effort to cope with the Viet Cong threat and 
the ravages of the flood as set forth under 3- 9 above, if, on its 
part, the Government of Viet-Nam is prepared to carry out an effective 
and total mobilization of its own resources, both material and human 
for the same end. Before setting in motion the United States proposals 



listed 



TOP SECR 



36k 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-7- 

■ 

listed above, the United States Government -would appreciate confirma- 
tion of their acceptability to the GVN, and an expression from the 
GVN of the undertakings it is prepared to make to insure the success 
of this joint effort. On the part of the United States, it would be 
expected that these GVN undertakings would include, in accordance 
with the detailed recommendations of the Taylor Mission and the 
Country Team: 

(a) Prompt and appropriate legislation and administrative 
action to put the nation on a wartime footing to mobilize its 
entire resources. (This would include a decentralization and 
broadening of the Government so as to realize the full potential 
of all non-Communist elements in the country willing to contribute 
to the common struggle *) 

(b) The establishment of appropriate Governmental wartime 
agencies with adequate authority to perform their functions 
effectively. 

(c) Overhaul of the military establishment and command 
structure n as to create an effective military organization 
for the prosecution of the war. 

5. Very shortly before the arrival in South Viet -Nam of the 
first increments of United States military personnel and equipment 
proposed under 3-j above, that would exceed the Geneva Accord 
ceilings, publish the "Jorden report" as a United States "white 
paper," transmitting it as simultaneously as possible to the Gov- 
ernments of all countries with which we have diplomatic relations, 
including the Communist states. 

6. Simultaneous with the publication of the "Jorden report," 
release an exchange of letters between Diem and the President, 

(a) Diem's letter would include; reference to the DRV 
violations of Geneva Accords as set forth in the October 2k 
GVN letter to the ICC and other documents; pertinent references 
to GVN statements with respect to its intent to observe the 
Geneva Accords; reference to its need for flood relief and 
rehabilitation; reference to previous United States aid and 
the compliance hitherto by both countries with the Geneva 
Accords; reference to the USG statement at the time the Geneva 
Accords were signed; the necessity now of exceeding some provi- 
sions of the Accords in view of the DRV violations thereof; 
the lack of aggressive intent with respect to the DRV: GVN 
intent to return to strict compliance with the Geneva Accords 

as 
TOP SECRET 



365 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-8- 



as soon as the DRV violations ceased; and request for additional 
United States assistance in framework foregoing policy. The 
letter should also set forth in appropriate genera], terms steps 
Diem has taken and is taking to reform Governmental structure. 

(b) The President's reply would he responsive to Diem's 
request for additional assistance and acknowledge and agree to 
Diem's statements on the intent promptly to return to strict 
compliance with the Geneva Accords as soon as DRV violations 
have ceased. 

7. Simultaneous with steps 5- and 6., above, make a private 
approach to the Soviet Union that would include: our determination 
to prevent the fall of South Viet -Nam to Communism by whatever means 
is necessary; our concern over dangers to peace presented by the 
aggressive DRV policy with respect to South Viet-Nam; our intent 

to return to full compliance with the Geneva Accords as soon as the 
DRV does so, the distinction we draw between Laos and South Viet -Ham; 
and our expectation that the Soviet Union will exercise its influence 
on the Chi corns and the DRV. 

8. A special diplomatic approach made to the United Kingdom 
in its role as co-Chairman of the Geneva Conference requesting that 
the United Kingdom seek the support of the Soviet co-Chairman for 

a cessation of DRV aggression against South Viet-Nam. 

9. A special diplomatic approach also to be made to India, 
both in its role as Chairman of the ICC and as a power having rela- 
tions with Peiping and Hanoi. This approach should be made immedi- 
ately prior to public release of the "Jorden report" and the exchange 
of letters between Diem and the President. 

10. Immediately prior to the release of the "Jorden report" 
and the exchange of letters between Diem and the President, special 
diplomatic approaches also to be made to Canada, as well as Burma, 
Indonesia, Cambodia, Ceylon, the UAR, and Yugoslavia. SEATO, NATO, 
and OAS members should be informed through these organizations, with 
selected members also informed individually. The possibility of some 
special approach to Poland as a member of the ICC should also be 
considered. 



TOP SECRET 



366 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






* 



e 



•t 



■ . i 



.-* -#j».- 



- •■ 



I 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Dale: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 






vr\\t . 



i _■ 



f"' 



53 



THE JOINT CHIEFS OP STAFF 
Washington 25, D. C. 






THE JOINT STAFF 



A 



.DJSM-1383-61 

14 November 1961 






MEMORANDUM FOR THE CHAIRMAN t JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF 
Subject: South Vietnam (u) 



1. Reference is made to the memorandum for the National 
Security Council, subject as above , dated 13 November 1961. 

2. Briefs of the military actions contained in the draft 
National Security Action Memorandum attached to the above 
referenced memorandum are enclosed. These briefs are indexed 
to relate directly to appropriate paragraphs of the draft 
memorandum, Because of the security classification involved 
;with the provision of additional equipment and United States 
uniformed personnel for special intelligence in South Vietnam, 
the brief for this item has been provided separately. 



3. In connection with paragraph 1 of the draft memorandum, 
the Joint Staff considers it militarily desirable to pre- 
position forces and equipment and is currently considering 
augmentation of US Army forces Pacific with one infantry 
division plus appropriate logistic and combat support units, 
CINCPAC has recommended that; in consideration of the require- 
ment to locate army forces in close proximity to Southeast 
Asia, this division be p repositioned in the Philippines. 
The Army has established a Pacific Forward Depot on Okinawa 
for prestocking essential non-air-transportable items of 
materiel required for a one division force. In addition, there 
are ammunition stocks in Japan. There are also limited p restocks 
of aviation fuel and ammunition in Thailand for use by the 
USAF. Prestocks have not been established in South Vietnam. 
CINCPAC has recommended and the Joint Chiefs of Staff have 
concurred in the additional prestocking of railroad rolling . 



t 



*•; 



< 
ft. 



\ 






DOWNGRADED AT 3 YEAR INTERVALS; 
DECLASSIFIED AFTER 12 YEARS. 
DOD DIRECTIVE 5200.10 .. »»' 



*► > 



-TOP SECRET, , / 

t t 









ur 



- I 



*"», ^ o 



/ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■ < 



V**5 \r'l) t\ |j? r^ -W W c ] ^ 






TOP SECRET 



stocky POL.,, ammunition^ heavy engineer equipment and other 
materiel in Southeast Asia for use. by US Forces in contin- 
gency actions. These recommendations are currently under 
consideration by the Department of Defense* If these 
recommendations are approved necessary country -to -country 
bilateral agreements with Thailand and South Vietnam will 
be required. 



EARLE G. WHEELER 
Director, Joint Staff 
Lieutenant General,, USA 






Enclosure 

Indes and Briefing Items 
on South Vietnam 



* 



r- 


r *-m. * - 


■ 


v*>~ -***#>■' > - 




■ 








- 




•j. v. *.'* k* Vv/i'.^'i. 


■ 




** ^ '- ■ ■ ■- ,tj * Mt —-'-'—*- 




- 




• 



f— 



4 tf 



1 * 

-T - 



.i 



' - *\r 



>- 



T- H 



•'369 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



.TOP SECRET 



• i-.,\ 






PARAGRAPH 



INDEX 



SUBJECT 













2. (a) 



2. (b) 





(3) 




2. (e) 
2. (f) 



3. (c) 



• 



Use of Significant US Forces 
Use of Substantial US Forces 
Use of US Forces in the Event of Organized 

Communist Military Intervention 
Provide Increased Air Lift to the GVN 

Forces by: 

Helicopters 

Light Aviation (L-20/L~23/T~28) 

Transport Aircraft 
Provide Additional Equipment and US 

Personnel for: 

Air Reconnaissance and Photography 

Instruction In and Execution of Air 
Ground Support Techniques 

Special Intelligence (Under separate 
cover) 
Provide the GVN with Small Craft 
Provide Expedited Training and Equipping 

of the Civil Guard and Self -Defense 

Corps 
Provide Personnel and Equipment to Improve 

Military Intelligence System 
Provide New Terras of Reference,, Reorgani- 
zation and Additional Personnel to 
, Support US Participation in Direction 

and Control of GVN Military Operations 

and Expanded HAAQ Functions 
Overhaul of GVN Military Establishment 

and Command Structure 



NOTE; 

The above paragraph designations are directly related to the 
subparagraphs under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3., of the draft National 
Security Action Memorandum. 



.-" 



- 
- 



■-.--* 



r " 



>;'- 



TOP' 'SECRET 



DOWNGRADED AT 3 YEAR INTERVALS: 
DECLASSIFIED AFTER 12 YEARS. 
DOD DIRECTIVE 5200.10 



> ' 



• 



\ 



* '* * 



370 



• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TO? SECRET 






Paragraph la, USE OF SIGNIFICANT US FORCES 



A Brigade Task Force of three battle groups from the 






Pacific area., and approximately 3*500 combat and logistic 



support units from CONUSj has been earmarked by the Army as 






■* 



. 



a force that could be deployed to South Vietnam. The deploy- 

» 

stent of this Task Force could meet the requirements set forth 
in .the related paragraph. If so deployed,, it would not only 
serve to signify United States determination to defend South 
Vietnam and to boost South Vietnam morale but would also serve 
to preposition forces which would be required in implementation 
of further plans. 



i 



.«-' P 






■**■' 



■ ; 



-_ * 



* * 



- 



* .- 



TOP SECRET 



0"M 

vJ t 1 



.* 
» 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






\ 



'i* ' 






TOP SECRST 



Paragraph 1 b. 



USE 0? SUBSTANTIAL US FORCES 



. » ' 



CINCPAC Operation Plan 32-59 Phase II, Counter-Insurgency 

. ■ 

Vietnam (approximately 1§ US divisions),, provides the basis for 
US military action to meet purposes of Paragraph lb. A SEATO 



[ 



Plan to provide for Counter-Insurgency Operations in Vietnam 
is being developed. 

The Joint Chiefs of Staff are not cognizant of relevant 
operations in North Vietnam j however, the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff have requested that the Central Intelligence Agency 
prepare plans for covert sabotage operations against Pathet 



. 



Lao and Viet -Cong in North Vietnam 



* 



-w 



' - 



?X?r- f&?*Z — '_-- 









i - 



-V ' 



r ' 



t 



70 



- 






^ -> 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



V v F % Vi!> k-i N '^ y-> " : ;" l :'-"' 



TOP SECRET 



Paragraph 1c. USE OF US FORCES IN THE EVENT OF 

ORGANIZED COI-H'IUNIST MILITARY INTERVENTION 









CINCPAC Operation Plan 32-59 Phase lit North Viet-Nam 
Aggression (3 US divisions in Southeast Asia, 1 US division in 
support),, and Phase IV, Chinese Communist Intervention (4 US 
divisions in Southeast Asia* 2 US divisions in support) 3 provide 



s 



for US military action to, meet purposes stated in paragraph 1c, 

SEATO Plan 6 and SEATO Plan 4 will provide for SEATO action 
against North Viet-Nam Aggression or Chinese Communist Inter- 
vention respectively. US force requirements for SEATO plans 
will parallel those for corresponding phases of CINCPAC Oper- 
ation Plan 32-59- 

It is estimated that the maximum US forces on the ground 
in Southeast Asia will not exceed six divisions or about 205,000 
men in implementing Phase IV CINCPAC Operation Plan 32-59. 






- - -— *- 



3? --';r .lEt- 



.i 



«?— 



V ' 



- ^ 

- f : 



• 

* i m 



.. 373 



f r 



N -> 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



'TOP SECRET 



Paragraph 2. a. (l) HELICOPTER SUPPORT 



PRESENT STATUS 



«Wf»> firtjtf ifftp »S? l £' 



a. Two H-21 helicopter packages will load and depart the 
est Coast on 20-22 November. The destination will 



be announced enroute. 



The USNS CORE and two com- 



mercial freighters will be used for lift. As of 14 November 
all equipment and baggage of both company packages (except 
H-21s from Fort Bragg) was at the West Coast port; the H-21s 
from .Fort Bragg are enroute to the West Coast; ETA 16 November 
Personnel , less air crev/s, to arrive port for loading on 
20 November. * . 

b. A third H-21 Helicopter package., located at Fort 

• ■ 

Deven, has been alerted for possible deployment overseas. 
This unit is a low priority unit and* villi require an estimated 
three weeks before readiness date is reached. Earliest 

* 

availability date of ocean shipping for Fort Deven package is 
15 December. 



FORCES AND EQUIPMENT 

^ — . — _ _ | 1 1 

I138 personnel 



hO H-21 helicopters 
4 H-I3 helicopters 



COST INVOLVED 



CONARC has been allocated $400^000 to cover packing, 



t ■ 



>.-. 



* 



c rating^ and movement of first two packages within GON7LS. 



Tn? JtafiRRT 



07J| 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



* 









TOP SECRET 



-r»x- 



Unit cost of airerait i- as follows: 



, i 



H-13 l 
H-21 



A/C 

| 38,500 

$250,000 (FY 56) 



S pare Parts and S pt 

- 

24£ of A/C cost 
24j& of A/C cost 



SCHEDULE OP EXECUTION 

^ 1 . - „. ■ , _ -< w— . —^— II - — — - ■ 

20-22 November Last increment to arrive West Coast 



w 



20-22 November USNS CORE and two freighters depart 



Vfest Coast ■- - 

11-13 December USNS CORE arrive Saigon. Freighters will 
probably arrive Saigon from 3 to 10 days after the CORE, 

Note: Departure of the CORE was delayed from 15 to 
20-22 November awaiting the arrival of other military cargo. 



-*■ 



•*^. 



«***■ 









■» 



S 



+ '« •* 



TO? S^CRST 



87-5 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 



r 






TOP SECRET 



Paragraph 2. a. (2) LIGHT AVIATION (L-20/L-28/T-28) 



PRESENT STATUS 



T-2S 



v_* 



The US Navy has provided 15 T-28C aircraft on loan basis 
to Vietnam. They will be shipped from the West Coast aboard 
the USNS CORE on 20-22 November. These aircraft will be 
replaced at a later time by 30 Navy combat configured T-28B air- 

- 

craft with armor plate and self -sealing tanks. 

L-20 
CTNCPAC has requested 9 additional L-20 light aircraft 

§ 
* 

be provided for expansion of KVNAF light observation capability. 



L-28 

L-28 aircraft are now being produced at the rate of a per 

• * 

month. CIA is taking the current production through December 
19ol. Beginning January 19o2j the US Air Force is planning to 
procure an additional 14 L-28. They" are presently conducting 
an evaluation of this aircraft for support of SAC missile 
operations . The evaluation report will be available about 30 
January I9S2. 
FORCES AMD EQUIPMENT 

15 T-28C aircraft (on loan basis from US Navy) 

30 T-28B aircraft (to replace the above) 

9 L-20 aircraft 

* 

lk L-23 aircraft 



«_■ 



• %*'" - y^" c 






v 
• » / 



* 



»J— - * l :- 



*B 



1O1O 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TOP SECRET 



>•*#*»>:>> (>i h> g* K> iv *if 



COST (ESTIMATED) 

15 T-23 on loan 



. mi 



• 

Spares and misc. equip, $989., 000 



Transportation 



Total 



1 05 . 000 



$1,094,000 



30 T-28B 

»■*■ ■ ■■ , ■ 1 1 

Spares 
Transportation 

Total 



9 L-20 Aircraft 
14 L-28 Aircraft 



$1,470,000 
617,000 

210^000 

$2,297,000 

$540,000 

$840,000 



SCHEDULE OP EXECUTION 



T-28 (on loan) depart San. Francisco, Calif. 20--22 Nov 
1961. ETA Saigon about 10 Dec. I96I. " 

T-28B replacement aircraft readiness as follows, 



29 December 1951 -2 
5 January 1962 -5 



12 January 
19 January 
31 January 



-8 
>8 

-7 



Depending upon urgency, planes can be shipped as they are 
made available. Add 30 days to above dates for ETA Saigon if 
shipping immediately available. 



- "~V 



' ■*" — .. .1- J 



'* 



I - 



ivF*~Sj?C.u5T 



- » 

r : 



«... 



?~>7. 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



.ft v. f K £?&v^frc ;-, M 



TOP ' SECRET 



/ 



L-20. OSA/ISA is now staffing an affirmative answer. 



Delivery will commence 3^d quarter FY 62 if this action is 

* 
approved . \ ' \ - 

L~28 Production could be increased to a rate of 1^ per 

month providing an order of sufficient magnitude were placed. 

Air. Force procurement of 14 will provide a lesser number for 

» 

operation in South Vietnam as a part of the Jungle Jim project. 
Air Force has requested DOD approval of a program to deploy 

■ 

3 Lr-28s to Vietnam in December 19S1 provided approval is 
received by 14 November I9S1* 



• 



• - 



TOP SECRET 






r 



jkl 



m 



- V ' 

- * 



\ 






* + 



37'P 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By; NWD Date: 201 1 






•:'•*#« Ss MV* ^Iti ;i?^ 



TOP SECRET 












• 












Paragraph 2 (a) (3) Transport Aircraft 

STATUS: USAF has requested RTJJrnPAO^viewo relative to augmenta- 

^ ' — — - . - ■* 

» 

ti.on nf p^nA-n transport capability with C-123 aircraft based on 
current situation in Vietnam. 

FORCE: The composition and number of personnel cannot be 
determined until specific requirements have been ascertained. 
EQUIPMENT : USAF tentative consideration of augmenting airlift 

capability for Vietnam is based on the use of C-123 aircraft. 

* 

USAF presently has five C-123 squadrons assigned to Tactical 

Air Command, CONUS. 

COST: Unknown. • 

SCHEDULE OF EXECUTION : Augmentation of airlift capability up to 

twelve aircraft could be in place in Vietnam within 25 days after 



deployment order is issued. These aircraft can be flown from 



CONUS to their overseas destination. 









TOP SECRET 



P 3£ .tr-S ***-" <~ * 












.V 



v/7 9 



.-* 



^'V 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






•TOP SECRET 



_ ■. 



Paragraph 2. (b) (l) Air Reconnaisance and Photography 

STATUS : There are 2 USAF Reconnaissance Task Forces (RTF) 
units presently established in Southeast Asia, Project "PIPE- 
STEM" consists of four RF-101 aircraft which were established 
at Tan Son Nhut Air Base, South Vietnam on 20 October 19S1 for 
aerial reconnaissance within the borders of South Vietnam. In 
addition, project ABLE MABLE, composed of four RF-101 aircraft 
was established at Don Huang Air Base, Thailand, on 6 November 
1961. Project ABLE MABLE was to replace project PIPESTEM and 
provide US aerial reconnaissance of Laos, as well as South 



Vietnam, Project PIPEoT&M was scheduled for termination on 
10 November 1961 but has been extended for a h week period, on 
request of CHMAAG, South Vietnam. 

FORCE: Each RTF consists of four RF-101 aircraft with necessarv 
* operations, maintenance, support, personnel and equipment and 
photo processing/interpretation capability* 

EQUIPM ENT: Eight RF-101 aircraft with associated camera, ground 
support equipment and two photo processing/interpretation vans . 
COST : Not available at this time. 
SCHEDULE OP EXECUTION: Currently operating. 






i.r.. 



fp ° T5 vSECRFX. 



O 



80 



* * A 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



I 






TOP SECRET 



Paragraph 2. (b) (2) - 



INSTRUCTION IN AND EXECUTION 0? 
AIR GROUND SUPPORT TECHNIQUES 






STATUS : PACAF, in coordination with, CIMCPAC and USAF, is 
presently studying the feasibility of establishing a limited 
Tactical Air Control System (TACS) in South Vietnam, TAGS 
has three objectives; (l) Teach and train Vietnamese; 

(2) Provide a structure to apply Vietnamese air capability; and 

(3) Establish framework for control of US air effort. Plan 
presently envisions that TACS would be under US command and 
control. It would provide a Joint Opperations Center (JOC), 

■k 

a Control and Reporting Center (CRC) at Tan Son Nhut, a Control 
and Reporting Point (CRP) at Tourane,, two Air Support Operations 
Centers (ASOC)^ and Forward Air Controllers, The two ASOCs 
would be co-located with the two northernmost Army corps. The 
southernmost corp would be directly supported by the JOC. 
A suitably modified course of instruction from the air/ground 
operations school would be deployed to furnish comprehensive 

> 

training for Vietnamese Army and Air Force Personnel. Vietnamese 
personnel would participate directly in system operation. The 
Jungle-Jim detachment could handle training of Vietnamese T-28 
pilots and indoctrination of these pilots in the air to ground 
support role. AD-6 pilot indoctrination is within the capability 
of the MAAG advisors now assigned to the AD squadron. 
FORCE : Personnel requirement for the TACS are estimated at 314 



in addition to the 67 nov; in. place at Tan Son Nhut. The Z&OOth 



1*— 



* 



x. 



Detachment at Bien Hoa consisting of eight T-28's, ,^nr SO-*!-? 1 * 



TOP SECRET 



r* /■> 4. 



\ t 



00 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






TOP SECRET 



and four RB-2o's with approximately 230 personnel would also 

■ 

be under TACS control. . In addition,., U3AP tactical fighter 

squadrons could be deployed to operate with and under control 

- 

of TACS. ' * 

EQ UIFMS MT: Radar and communications equipment necessary to 

establish a TACvS. U^OOth Detachment has necessary maintenance 

- 

and ground support equipment for its aircraft. 

COST : Not available at this time. 

SCHEDULE OF EXECUTION : TACS could be operational within 30 day3 

after receipt of implementation decision. 



. 



^t> 



1 - 



■* 



V ' 






\< U c. 



*v. *Y 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TOP SECRET 



a* t"\ H. :i'\ f.-,.; - ; i>) t ,--. 



Paragraph 2. (c) 



PROPOSED CONCEPT FOR COORDINATED 
VIETNAMESE NAVY OPERATIONS 



!• An effective naval command and control organization v/ould as 



• 



a minimum consist of: 



a. A naval planning group , closely associated with MAAG and 
with the JGS planning section. 

b. An operations con trol cent er at Naval Headquarters , with 
integral or adjacent naval in tel l igence center , and adequate 

communications to: ' 

* 

(1) Naval Coastal Di stri ct Opcon/Intel Centers 

(2) River Fo rce OpCon/Int el Center (includes Delta operations) 

(3) Civil Guard Ri ver Control Center (incorporated with, or 
in close liaison withj River Force Control) 

(4) RVNAF Headquarters (OpCon center when established) 

(5) Joint Intellig ence Croup (when established) 

(6) Oper ations Evaluation Center, Saigon. 
2* O perating Forces consisting of: 

a. Sailing Junks, motor junks, patrol and amphibious craft 

f J * 

for offshore operations. 

*b. Shallow draft small boats for river and Delta patrol, 
including offensive action against VC elements located. 

e. Troop transport craft (LCVP or equivalent) for patrol and ; 
counter VC troop operations, river and Delta area. 



~ : ::r * "- ■ " ■- " . >• 



4 '» :\ 



*• 



4 ' 4 



rv rS f} 

O b ^ 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



* ■ ■■ * * a* a. ** 1* ' . * * *.• .■■-.• ■ p 



I 



TOP SECRET 



» 

d. Coast watchers ("shore posts 11 ) - may be Army, Navy, or 
civil, preferably under Naval control, but at least tied in 
directly to naval communications reporting net, 

a ■ 

l 

3* Coord 1 na t i ng ( s upper ting) for 



rt o c< » 
v^ w O • 



a. Aircraft of RVj\ t AF available for reconnaissance and attack 
missions, coordinated at primary Opcon/Intel center. 

b, RVNAF or civil security forces to conduct investigations/ 
interrogations and to take action against VC suspects on craft 
brought to port. (important that intelligence gained be 
promptly fed into the Joint Intelligence Group) 

. c. Mobile RTOAF or civil security forces ashore to apprehend 
landing parties from craft sighted but not captured in time; 

* 

and responsive to intelligence of landings reported by coast 

■ 

vratehers , ; ' 

cL Civil control, inspection, and clearance (under procedures 
coordinated with Navy) of all maritime traffic at all ports, 
k 9 Operations concep t 

■ a. A barrier patrol of junks and patrol craft to identify 
and interdict VC traffic near 17th parallel and off the Delta, 

b. Sailing and motor junks to operate offshore for as complete 
coverage as possible along coast, and in concentrations of 
fishing junks for intelligence of traffic and interdiction as 
practicable. 

c. River and Delta operations not primarily .against infu- 



se 3 - 



--:> 



tration but in support of mobile offensive Army operations. 



\ '- 



**■' 



f— "% 



' V 



r- 



i " 






JL wji *-/ —J V -. fc — j _ 



, _*- , 



f 



;nii 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 

d. Any craft not following normal routes , or landing at other 
than controlled ports, to be considered suspect and reported/ 
investigated/destroyed, 

e. Land operations on coasts, rivers, and in Delta MUST 
include Naval planning and be jointly conducted to insure 
maximum results. - 

5* Problem areas recognized: 



— i- -'m ^w » ■ urn 



a. Reluctance of Vietnamese Wavy to accept US Navy advice 

b. Gaining acceptance of USN personnel as working and 



* _ 



advisory members in OpCon/lntel centers and aboard ship, 

c. Getting the Vietnamese Navy really accepted and written 
into RVKAF operations and intelligence plans in the Counter- 
Insurgency effort. 

d. Increasing rate at which the Vietnamese Navy can man and 
operate the craft and equipment which is now available and that 
can be made available. Problems are recruitment, training and 
increased personnel ceiling, 

e. Establishing effective command and control organization, 
with necessary coordination between the Vietnamese agencies 
necessary to make the concept work, (The ships, craft, and boats 
are only one element in the overall surveillance/interdiction 
operation c ) 

NOTE : Rear Admiral H. S. Persons, USN, and officers of CINCPAC 
Staff including a Coast Guard Officer, are now in Vietnam to 
assist in planning for the integration of the Vietnamese Navy 



385 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



il v •>;, i ;: ; J<- ■:K- k\? " ft 



TOP SECRET 



■ 



into the over-all plans for counter-insurgency. Detailed 



. - * 



* 

recommendations may be expected in the. near future. Appended 
' are briefing sheets for current and projected programs related 
to integrated Vietnamese naval operations in support of a 



GVN national effort. 






( 







■% 



TOP SECRET 












vQC 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



llj- Kover.ter 1961 



SECRET 



. 



Paragraph 2(c). Appendix 1 ..-•.•■ 
Provide the GVT; with small craft, m . . . 

Status: PCE (patrol fcraft Escort) and PGM (Patrol Gunboat) for 

Coastal patrol. 

Forces: PGM (100 ! ) - llonr.al complement 3 off leers j 2k enlisted- 

PCS (l80 f ) - Itonsal complement 9 officers; 90 enlisted. 
Vietnamese Navy now operating seven (7) patrol craft in 
coastal operations. 

Equ ipmen t : PCE and PGM tailored to requirement for coastal patrol. 

Advantages are cheaper operating costs, smaller personnel 
requirements and simplified training programs in eomparisc 
to larger patrol ships. They will add increased firepower , 
mobi3_ity and communications to the overall patrol effort. 



Costs : 






PCE - $325 ; 000 plus ^5 ; CC0 for concurrent spare parts to 

activate and convert fron MS? (removing mine sweep gear 
and installing guns on steel-hulled fleet minesweepers). 

PGM - $1*00,000 plus $20,000 for concurrent spare parts. Mev 
"construction only - delivery lead time 12 months. Hone 
in U.S. active or reserve fleets. 



Schedule of execution: 



FCE - Three (3) now scheduled for delivery with first of 
these on 29 November 1961 and another in April 1962. 
Last delivery date scheduled for January 1963« Cnly 
two (2) MSP are currently uncommitted out of kl MSF 
in the U.S. Reserve Fleet, These possibly could be 
made available to SVH and converted to FCEs. . 



PGM 



- 10 now funded with delivery dates of 3 in October I962, 
• 3 in November, 3 in December and 1 in January 1963. 
Delivery tines for both PCE and PGM could be expedited 
about two months at a cost premium of approximately 2C^* 



t ■ 






: . 



■- 



SECRET 






r 



\ 



i . * 



28 



i 



» 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Ik November 1961 



SECRET 



Paragraph 2(c) . Appendix 2 

Froviae the GVH vlth Saall Cr&ft. " '"' 

j • 1 > 

Status: Swimmer- Support Craft for river and ranger operations. 



i 















Forces: Up to 250 boats eventually to be required for mobility 

in delta end inland waterway operations, £s veil as for 
- i covert (ranger) operations. Plastic swimne r- support craft 
. ! carry 6-8 troops each* 

Equipment ; 50 plastic unsinkable svir.::.;er- support craft to be initially 

provided, each vith ^C H.P. commercial outboard motor 
fitted with a bronze weed less propeller. 
125 French manufactured 3 rubber inflatable "Zodiac" boats 
vith outboard motors also have been procured* 



Costs : 



4 

50 Swimmer- support craft - approximately $50,000 for boats, 
motors and fuel tanks (about $1700 each complete beat), 
"Zodiac" boat contract was approximately $80,852 (about 
$1500 each complete boat). 

m 

Schedul e of Execu tion : "20 plastic boats to be delivered in Vietnam 

early in January I962. Materials and equipment to fabricate 
30 boats in Vietnam plus a U.S. instructor to teach the 
Vietnamese have been funded by AREA and are to be delivered 
via the highest MATS priority. 

125 "Zodiac" boats have been procured. 90 have been delivered 
to Vietnam. 35 &^ e in the pipeline* 



\ 









SECRET 



-^' • .- 



*- -*-■' 






.. * 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 









* 



- 



\k November 19^1 



SECRET 



-> 
O 






Baragraph 2(c) . Appendix 

Frovicle the C-Vir with snail craft. . . 

Status: Provide LCVP (landing Craft } personnel) to Civil Guard 

boat platoons. 

Forces : HAAG has proposed formation of 17 Civil Guard boat platoons 

to free Vietnamese naval forces for direct support of Army 
operations. 

Equipment: 8 LCVP for each boat platoon,, total of 13 o required. 

Cost: Approximately $7,000 each - total of "$952,000 for 136 LCVP. 

Schedule of Execution : LCVP available in Norfolk and San Diego. 
~~~ First one could be available in 5 days, thereafter 20 per 

month fron Norfolk. 30 per month fron San Diego. 

NOTE: LCVP deliveries can be effected faster than the 
Vietnamese reportedly can be trained to use and 
maintain them. 



.-.-.-. -~*ji . 



■ % 



• * 



STORED \ ~ 



'* 



■-• 



I V 






** > 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



1'j- Ebveraber 19ol 



SECHET 



Para graph 2 (c). Aopendix ** 



Provide the GVH with Snail Craft. 



.1 



Forces 






Status r Expedite GVH Junk Petrol .Force Program. 

^____ 1|20 sailing junks; 63 motor junks are planned. 

80 sailing junks now operational in Teurane area. 
1 motor junk undergoing design modifications* 
Sailing junks have crew of 5, motor junks crew of 7. 
300 personnel now in training. 

Equipment: 60 H.P. Japanese diesels in motor junks; eventually 

10 H.Pi diesles in the sailing junks. Sailing junks are 
procured from indigenous commercial sources. Motor junks 
prototype being built and modified at Saigon Ilaval Shipyard. 

Navy is dependent on Vietnamese Amy sources for commun- 
ications equipment, small arms and certain other required 
equipage- Considerable difficulty experienced in filling 
these requirements. 

Costs : $800 for each sailing junk.. 

Cost data not yet available for motor junk. 

Commander , Vietnamese ITavy, has stated that he has been 

promised or provided sufficient funds from the GVH piastre 

budget for the entire junk force. 
• . Approximately $l8,0C0 per junk division (20 sailing, 

3 motor junks) for the communications gear, small arms^ 

etc. mentioned above in "Costs.". 

Schedule of Exec ution: 60 more sailing junks due to be operational 

by end of I96I- Motor junk prototype due for second sea 
trials in November 1961. 

Entire program scheduled for completion in 19£>3 • Program 
is to be expedited but to what degree is currently unknown. 

Accelerated procurement has a direct relationship to 
recruitment and training of the junk force personnel. The 
training cycle is approximately three (3) months and is 
conducted orally in South Vietnamese due to the illiteracy 
problem. 



fc=*-s« 



-j$ ^.^.^^ 



SECRET 



"V 






^1- 



-v -> 



•*-*■ 



> . > 



*"* /-\ ^\ 

a 3 u 



* j. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






1^ November 1961 



SECRET 


















• 



ferctgraph g(c) . Appendix 5 



- 1 



Provide the GVN with U.S. uniformed advisers arid operating personnel 

as may be necessary for .surveillance and control operations 
in coastal and inland waterways. 

■ 

Status : Provide U.S. uniformed advisors and operating personnel. 



Forces: The only advisors currently assigned are attached to HAAGj 

Vietnam. No U.S. operating personnel are assigned now to 
the Vietnamese Kavy. 

* 

The Seventh Fleet does conduct cn-bcard training of 
Vietnamese Navy personnel in U.S. ships of the sane or 
similar types as are in the Vietnamese IJavy inventory. 

Additional Ad vi SQrs_e,nd Ope ra t ing pe rsonnel . 

A realistic estimate of the numbers and employment of U.S. Eavy 
or Coast Guard Personnel, and tine phasing of their integration into 
the overall Vietnamese Kaval effort, must necessarily await the 
acceptance of an integrated concept of operations; including command 
and control. 

It is considered that U.S. personnel will be required in the 
Operations Control Centers, the Kaval intelligence effort and the 
operational communications network. Additionally, the U.S. per- 
sonnel could be assigned as advisors to the afloat forces. The 
augmentation of KAAG instructors will be dependent upon the success 
of efforts to increase the personnel strength of the Vietnamese Navy, 



■ 



'vr- 



,* 



Y 






SECRET 



9"' 



SQ1 



• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316, By: NWD Date: 201 1 



TOP SECRET 






Paragraph ?. (d) PROVIDE EXPEDITED DRAINING AMD EQUIPPING 

OP THE CIVIL GUARD AMD SELF DEFENSE CORPS 



STATUS " • ■ : 

a. Civil Guard: Increased effort in this basic task has 
been progressing since January IgoO when the Civil Guard v/as 
transferred to the GVN Department of Defense, Enlargement of 

■ 

this program is being actively pursued; acceleration time -wise 



to obtain tx^ained units is difficult., particularly in view of 
a shortage of trained leaders and priority requirements t or the 



AKVN . 






Additional training sites and input have been recently 



approved. Additional US advisors are enroute to assist in this 
training. Officer and NCO training has been stepped-up but 

# 

prospects for a short term leadership solution are not encouraging. 
Chief MAAG is currently working on providing additional inter- 

> 

preters to permit greater use of more US advisors, 

b. Self Defense Corps (SDC): Subject to the individual 

m 

desires of Province Chiefs, the SDC has achieved no real uni- 
formity of organization or training. However, these locally 
available citizens are being equipped j and additional US 
advisors are being made available during the next three months 
to take over training duties at the SDC training sites through-, 
out the country. 



/POP SECRET 



. . - • 



»*•«£.- ■■* * «■-«- .,.!■•■- •■ . 



; 



•_• 



•v 



•J t 






TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



T " » ft V.-* , ; t I ■ J i ),i. ., 






US carbines., ammunition, and communications equipment 
have been programmed for the entire SDC # 25^000 carbines are 

■m m 

now enroute to Vietnam. US HAAG advisors to the Civil Guard 



also have responsibilities for the SDC. Expansion of this 

program is developing as local resources allow* 

PORCSS 



a. Civil Guard: 



Authorized 68,000 
Actual 64,000 



Has only 37 per cent of officers and 55 V^ v cent of 
authorised NC0 strength. Consists of 303 separate companies (15 
have completed current training program; 2h are in training 
cycle). Approximately 1500 officers and enlisted personnel 
are in school. .' 

b. Self Defense Corps: Authorized 59,000 

Actual 53*000 

■ ■ 

Reportedly have only 76 officers/ Consists of locally 
recruited and organized citizens to defend their community. 
Administered by. Civil Guard personnel who are detailed to such 
duties . * 

c. US Advisors: Of the 72^ personnel augmentation 
approved for MAAG in October i 207 are specifically for super- 

- 

vision of training at nine Civil Guard Training Sites. 

■ 

EQUIPMENT 

m ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ _ • 

a. Civil Guard: Equipment being processed by US Army 
includes carbines , ammunition, vehicles, communications, F0L, 
medical, and clothing. Deliveries have commenced in S^ignvi ,. 









fas _• — - 



■**■**•+ 



• « 






V 



803 



. 



A, V 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






TOP SECRET 



Pending arrival of equipment,, units are equipped with ARVN 

■ ■ * 

stocks to extent possible* 

« ■ 

b. Self Defense Corps: Present equipment is a collection 

\ 

of unreliable French small arms and ammunition, US carbines 
and communications equipment have been programmed. AN/PRC-10 
radios and sound power phones are now expected to be delivered 
in 1962. 

COSg : Approximately $8.8 million has been funded in FY 6l and 
111. 2 million in FY 62. 






SCHEDULE OF EXECUTION: 

^ — , ■ 1 ■ 1 1 ■■ m, 1 ■ 1 , ■ >, . .,. .- ■■■■ ■■, ■ > ■ ' ■■ . 

- 

a. Training: A continuing project that may take up to 
two years for completion, 

b, Equipment: Some basic equipment can be made available 
faster than individuals and units can be trained to use and 
maintain it. Based on overall programming and priorities with 
ARVN, total equipping will probably extend over 18 months. 



y 



TOP SECRET 



^ 



# - 



•W-- v-~-. 



j 



" 9 






.- *V ~y 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



TOP SECRET 






Paragraph 2. e. PROVIDE PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT 

TO IMPROVE MILITARY-POLITICAL 
INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM. 



PRESENT STATUS 



The CIA representative on the Taylor Mission was responsible 

3 

for recommendations in the political intelligence field. The 

- 

status of those recommendations is not known. 

In the military intelligence field the Military Committee 
made the following three "basic recommendations: 

a. Establish a Joint US-GVN Military Intelligence Group, 
under the control of Chief KAAG, to direct the South Vietnamese 
national intelligence effort. This recommendation was also 
submitted by CINCPAC on Ik November 19S1 with a request for 
approximately 150 additional manpower spaces. This request is 
now being staffed by the Joint Staff. .- 

f 

b. Enlarge in size and scope the US Evaluations Center in 
Saigon to enable that agency to properly evaluate and disseminate 
all available intelligence bearing on the security of South 
Vietnam. This recommendation was, approved by the JCS and OSD on 

* 

9 November 196l. 

c. Increase the number of Intelligence Advisors in MA AG 
and provide intelligence advisors at the province level. This 

* 

recommendation was also submitted by CINCPAC on 14 November and 
is now being staffed by the Joint Staff. 



«w 






TOP SECRET 



* - 



1 



j^^m.^. -«-^».#— — •-• *m 



. r „(**■%. 



r ■ _—. 



. * 



1 . 



c?9b 



*■ .- = . '...-.- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






f 









k *t*ji ifife'-^K!^ ft 



TOP SECRET 



SCHEDULE 0? EXECUTION 

J-2 CINCPAC, G2 U3ARPAC, and J2 MAAG Saigon have been 

- * 

informally briefed on the recommendations but the Taylor 
Military Committee is not aware that they have been directed 
to implement dad- recommendations. 

It is not believed that the formulation of the necessary 

i 

plans by CINCPAC are far enough advanced to include firm 

■ a 

requisitions of specific personnel- The accomplishment of the 

* 

recommendations is limited only by the availability of qualified 

» rf 

personnel. 



•:• 



, v ' 



TOP SECRET 



,^*V-* *-^-~rr 1 ■ **•, 



•V* 
* ■ # 



<J V' V 



. * - f 



* 



,'■« 



» __ ^ 



> ■ . 






' r 



TOP SECRET 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



Paragraph 2f 



PROVIDE MEW TERMS OF REFERENCE, REORGANIZATION 
AND ADDITIONAL US PERSONNEL TO SUPPORT US PAR- 
TICIPATION IN DIRECTION AND CONTROL OF GVN 
MILITARY OPERATIONS AND EXPENDED KAAC FUNCTIONS 



STATUS : Under its present terms of reference, MAAG Vietnam is 
not directed to participate actively in operations , operational 
planning and intelligence activities. There are, currently, no 
MAAG advisors at any level of combat command solely responsible 
for intelligence. In addition, there is a requirement to pro- 
vide unit advisor -5 at battalion and selected company level 
throughout the RVNAF, the Civil Guard, and the Self Defense 
Corps, Under current directives, US advisors do not fully 
participate in planning for and conduct of operations. In 
order to be successful against the Viet Cong, operations must 
be careful3_y planned, coordinated, and energetically implemented, 
Vietnamese officers are not as well qualified in this area as 
available US military advisors who, by their e:xperience, 
schooling, and higher professional standings, could supply the 
much needed know-how, techniques, knowledge of joint and com- 
bined operations and the vigor required. If US personnel were 
working continuously in the various operations centers, CHMAAG 
would know the true situation at all times and keep abreast of 
new requirements as they arose. 
PERSONNEL : In order to provide for essential MAAG assistance 

to RVNAF in the operations, operational planning, unit advisor, 

< 
and intelligence fields, it is estimated that the authorized 

strength of MAAG Vietnam should be raised from the present 



397 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■■ 



is •;.". I - J w ri ^-> M 4 5. »"1 fe 



TOP SECRET 



- • 









■ 






figure of 1,573 to approximately 2,500, CIMCPAC has this date 
requested an increase of 320 in MAAG Vietnam strength which j 
when approved, would raise the authorised strength to 1,893. 
COST: Unknown • 
SCHEDULE OF EX ECUTION: Actions which must be taken as a matter 

of urgency: . 

- 

1. Amend the terms of reference to direct MAAG Vietnam 

to engage in operations, operational planning, and intelligence 
activities # , '* 

2. Expedite the request for and selection of personnel 
necessary to bring the MAAG Vietnam strength to approximately 

■ 

2,500, to accomplish the actions referred to in the above 
paragraph, and to provide advisors at battalion and selected 

i 

company level throughout the KVNAF, the Civil Guard, and the 
Self Defense Corps. 



. 







•_*- 






a • -* 



TOP SECRET 






m' 



> 
■ ■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



a V .,-., j>) W. fc* K ]i;r .!• 



TOP SECRET 



Paragraoh 3.(c) OVERHAUL OF GVN MILITARY 

•ESTABLISHMENT AND COMMAND STRUCTURE 



PRESENT STATUS . » . 

This Item is a proposal in which no implementing action 
has been taken. The proposal entai-ls f ive^actions as follows: 

•a. Designate one Intelligence Agency as a central control, 

b. Establish a single Inviolate chain of command and 
compel Diem to adhere to it« (Remove province chiefs from 
chain of command.) * 

c. Rework Vietnamese Joint General Staff Organization 

■ 

to provide for proportionate Service representation and member- 

■ 

ship of all Service Chiefs. 

d. Release 50^ of the ARVN troops from static duties ~- 

* 

■ 

place on comba.t duties* 

■ 

e. Organize to provide for participation of MAAG personnel 

• ■• 

at all planning levels in operations centers and as team members 
on a 2^1-hour basis during operations* 



«..- 






.TOP SECRET 






- M, ^. , p^ 



-» " ** 



* - r* 






1 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






«n> 



t. 1 4 i 



. * : /Jl?ij*:4?;ilf t!Efe«iy JsJtf^cUL Ul&A^X&i* \Mii y-Uti^ 

" tfJ?* 5 ? 1 ??..;;• : ' .. . . :• V r ' ' TOP S JXR3 T '■' ' ' '' Xf v ) 

. Cltfisi/icution is**^ iT 



>\ 






J' ' 
; _ 




_.ljli 



Wo-. 



\ 



6 ■: 









* 



i 



• * ■-- ■ - 

7 * - '' - 

V v - • ;.■ 

*• ■ *• . . - . 

.- • * * i : 

5 1 t -■ ,+.. -■ * ■ 4 , 

• ■ * ■ * . ; 

i . t -i 

... -•■ •! I 



ACTION: Araembassyj .SAIGON 

INFO: Aiaerabassy BAKGiC0X> 

1 - * CIKCPAC/POLAD 



:»*,* 



M1ACT- '6/9 .'. 'AyJ 
MAC'S .7V</. \C,-V ''^ 






i 
1 



i'- 






CD 



j 

3 



.» u v •♦. \ ' 



•> 



PRIO?aXY" rC 



-*K. 



A 



...■■. y 



^ 



FOR AMBASSADOR HOLTIHG 



) 







^ 

^ 




■• 



, 4 






LIMIT DISTRIBUTION 

f ■ ". * - , * * - ■ • .... , * z* y 

You are instructed to seek en irradiate appointment with President Die:: 

• • . . * •; - - • * ^: - ,.• " ' » 



hl 



• t 



. . ♦• - 



I >. 



■ • - 



** 



t - 



•^ : (r • * v •• • *. » 

:-. *'. • . •■ . * .- 

t -•'< *'~ : p * ,•: 

- v ,. ■ ■. ■ ! 

i *. - ** r 

• * * -. '■ J"- t 



. '■* -' 






■ ■ - 






■ - — ■ * 

• ■ -* 

** ■ ■% . « • j r, . 




and inform bin that/President Kans^cyi^&rter conferring with Gsr^ral Taylor 
and carefully considering his report, has decided that the Government of the 
United States is prepared to join the Government of Viet-Ha^ in a sharoly 
increased joint effort to avoid a further detericiratioti in the situation in' 
South Viet-Nan and eventually to contain and eliminate the "threat to its 



independence 



,_ ■, ' 



•:. 



• 

■ ■ - « ■ :*' 






A. 



The 



both gove 



joint effort we have in nind would require certain undertakings by 

• - . .**...*•■ * - • 

2rnc.ents s as outlined be lew: ■ • :«/.;. ; * ; •. 



l fl On its part, the U,S # would ir.tnediately take the following actions 
in support of the G'/N: -.; - , '-;-.; •; ■ ..;■.,.;- 



a 



ng 



--. ' .'-\ 



. Provide increased ain'ixxt to . the GVTf forces, includii 
helicooterSj light aviation > . and" "transport aircraft, manned to the extent 
necessary by United States uniformed personnel and other United States 



operational control 



•' * 



• . - 



» - -x 



- 



*"J >--i 






b a Provide 'such additional equipment and United States unifonaed 
■ __ ■ ■■■'' "^ -, ■ - * : '** personnel 

: f^>^ : 






■ \, \ 



v 

v 
f 

( 



« ■rv/S7f:SJCottfsll:rnb - 11/14/51 



.isjMpsis »Min;«?e« »rj S - Dsan Rusk yj^ ;'-**-*> 






T* 



fcrv; 



I 



' V - x ^ 1^^Kr,HcCoW.ugh ? r7 '^ W VVr/-.U.. Alexis Johnson . ^ ■ <- ^ 

. .. - "- ■*■■ - T #1 ^.-r- ,- t . , .., } : mfm . «, ... 

■ * 

L 1 i t n • ■ 



"- — . . • '- m ..»- . » — . 



- 



/ .•- v 

- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 






A P^e_J?—-of telegram to Am enbass y, SAI GOM ~ F PU AMI 'rA SSAOafr KOLTIMG 



TOP SECRET 



Clcssi fie alio 






personnel as m.ay be necessary for air reconnaissance, photography, instruction 

* 
* » 

in and execution of air-ground support techniques, and for special intelligence. 



i 



- 



c„ Provide the GTO With some small craft, including such United States 
uniformed advisers and operating personnel as may be necessary for operations in 
effecting surveillance and control over coastal waters and inland waterways* 

* - m 

' m m 

d a Provide expedited training and equipping of the civil guard and 

* * 

the self-defense corps with the objective of relieving the regular array of static 
missions and freeing it for mobile offensive operations* . , 



• * 



e« Provide such personnel and equipment as nay be necessary to improve 
the military-political intelligence system beginning at the provincial level and 



* ■- ' % 



extending upward through the Government and the armed forces to the Central 



Intelligence Organization 



. • • 






.* 



f « Provide such new terms of reference, reorganization and additional 

• m 

.* '* m m ~ * v - - 

personnel for United States military forces as are required for increased United' 

■ ■ - . - *• 

States military assistance in the operational collaboration with the GVN and 

• • • 

operational direction of U»S. forces, and to carry out the other increased respon- 

sibilities which accrue to the U e S« military authorities under these recommendations., 

* ■ 

L • 

g Provide such increased economic aid as may be required to permit 
the GVN to pursue a vigorous flood relief and rehabilitation program, to supply 
material in support of the' security efforts, and to give priority to projects 
in support of this expanded counter-insurgency program. (FYI # This could include 

r 

increases in military pay, a full supply of a wide range of materials such as 

* 

food, medical supplies, transportation equipment, communications equipment, and 

any 



\ >- 



— \ -> 



■- 5r,H'r;> 



• ■_ 



\*-»— 



K m ^ 



1 - 



T - 



1 ' 



*> 



,^-x T-a .■-**. ^-» --V 



' c urn 



- t=jv— r -. — ^-T^ce.-.*%*.-r.'i-.T • ■ - -—- 



r» 



-i 






* i 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number. NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



t 



■7 * . ' pao .? " 3 nf telegram to Amambassy, SAIGOM - FOR AMBASSADOR E OLTIMCL 



i ■ 



TOP SECRET 



• - 



Classification -. 



* 



• ■ 



- * * 






■ 



any other items where material help could assist the GVH in winning the v;ar against 



1 



■ 



the Viet Cong. END FYI) 



■k 

- 

. - • 



. ". 



* • * * h» Encourage and support (including financial support) a request by 
the GVN to the FAQ or any other appropriate international organization for multi« 



. i 



lateral assistance in the relief and rehabilitation of the flood area. (One ob- 



■ ■ 



jective here would be political objective of engaging widest possible multinational 
interest in and concern with GVN.) . *"-:• ' "■:-:* -, - /• . -^ . • .J , 

• - . - - r •■ .'••' ■: ■• -- '-, - ; - ■ •' . • ■ •- \, • 

: . io Provide individual administrators and advisers for the Governmental 



machinery of South Viet-Nam in types and numbers to be agreed upon by the two 



■ 



- 



• - 



Governments. 



• 



. - . ■ • r" * 






■ » 
i 






- . ■ 1 , 

"■ - 



. - 






j # Provide personnel for a joint survey with the GYM of conditions in 



■*■ 



: ? v. 



■- 



*v 



] each of the provinces to assess the social, political* intelligence and military 



-***. 



■r • 



factors bearing on the prosecution of the counter-insurgency program in order to 



< 



* ' 



reach a common estimate of these factors and a * common dete mi nation of how to deal 



- • 



- 



with them. 



- 



• 



•-. . 






* 



j 



z t- 



• * ;■- 



• - - . - - - • . 



. - 



- . 






* 
- 



-! 




* 2. On its part^ the GVN would initiate the following actions: 

- " : • ■".'.-".:..■• - - v " - ;■ -' , ' ., 

/ a. Prompt and appropriate legislative and administrative action to put 

the nation on a wartime . footing to mobilize its entire resources. (This would 

* 

. . • - - 

■» mm 

m m 

include a decentralization and broadening of the Government so as to realize the ' 
full potential cf all non-Coramunist elements in the country willing to contribute to 



s 



the common struggle.) J .-■ . * 

b. The vital ization of appropriate governmental wartime agencies with 



adequate authority to perform their functions effectively. 






— • — — *■ *»--- 



V ; — . *- 



. ' 



- ■" I, _ — %* — m -■ 



_*. fe.*j 



U 



■ - - - 

• * * ■ m-mrnm 



TOP S3 SET : 



Classification 






Overhaul 



j 



*. 



— » . 



• 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



- * , • ~ Pa*e_'A*„of telegram tn Amembassy, SAIGON" ~ FO R AMBASSADOR ,?iO LTIHG 

TOP SECRET 



m 1 ■ _ * 






Classification , . 












• 



• - 



c e Overhaul of the military establishment and command structure so j 






as to create en effective military organization for the prosecution of the war 



• J. * *. 



and assure a mobile offensive capability for the Army 



. -• 



,' V _• . • 



-- 

»- 



3* Before setting in motion the joint effort outlined above, the United States 






Government would need confirmation of its acceptability by the GVil, and an express 



... *. ■ ■- 



sion from the GVN of the measures it is prepared to take "under the broad headings 






listed in para 2 above in order to ensure the success of" this joint efforts The 



■ * 



* 



i 



• 



foregoing subheadings under para 2 are purposely broadly phrased so as to permit 



■■-• 



you to spell out specifics in manner you feel will be most effective. We realise 



.-"-■' - . - ■ - 



. i - 

that the U.S. cannot successfully dictate from here precisely what measures the GVN 






should take since they might be unworkable in the circumstances peculiar to South 



■ * 



"."•■- '-*,'"•.» ^ ■ - * ' 

" "■ * ■"** ". * ' * 

Viet-Kam and necessarily must leave these details and manner of their negotiation 



'-", • * # . 



with Diem to your judgment* However, it is most important that Diem come forth 



with changes which will be recognized as having real substance and meaning. Rightl 



or wrongly his regime is widely criticized abroad' and in the U.S., and if we are 

* ■ * - 



*- ' ■ * - ■ ~j ".,*"'• •**- 



to give our substantial support we must, be able to point to real administrative 






political and social reforms and a real effort to widen its base that will give 






» • 



t\ . . . - -_..., 



upon his response to this pint 






. - V 



I 



It i * . 



• 4. ■ - * 1 * * 

" ' ' 



--r ~ - m . '. " 



maximum confidence to the American people, as 'well as to world opinion that our 
efforts are not directed towards the support of an unpopular or ineffective regime 

• . * -■ - * 

but rather towards supporting the combined efforts of all the non-Communist peoole 

. ' "- '. - ' " 

--* • - 

•. 

of the GVN against a Communist take-over. You should make this quite clear, and 
indicate that the U.S. contribution to the proposed joint effort depends heavily ' 



4. it ' * 

-K'\ i v 1 .- v /: - . -* r . 









jr*-i 



- 



Classification ,". -:'-/y.-r : r y- " , 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



■ ;. 



Page- 



5- of telegram ff , Amembassy, SAIGON ~ F0?v AM3A3SA0DR. MOLTING 



TOP SECRET 



Classification 



■ - 



4. It is anticipated that one of the first questions President Diem will raise 



with you a£ter your presentation of the above joint proposals will be that of 

r " * 

introducing U C S, combat troops. You are authorized to remind him that the actions 



we already have in mind involve a substantial number of U,S,. military personnel for 

- " ■*.' • 

■ m 

■I 

operational duties in Viet-Mam and that we believe that these forces performing 



- -m- 

crucial missions can greatly increase the capacity of GVtl forces to win their war 



against the Viet Cong. You can also tell bin that we believe that the mission: 



being undertaken by our forces > under present circumstances y are more suitable for 



» * 



white foreign troops than garrison duty or missions involving the seeking out of 



Viet Cong personnel submerged in the Vietnam population. You can assure him that 



,\ 



the USG at highest levels will be in daily -contact with the situation in Viet -Nam 






* 



\ and will be In constant touch with him about requirements of the situation. 



.- 



■ ■ 

.5m You should inform Diem that s in our minds > the concept of the joint under 



- . 



taking envisages a much closer relationship than the present one of acting in an 
- advisory capacity only. We would expect to share in the decision«making processes 

* ■ 

■ » * m » 

- * 

in /the political^ economic and military fields as they affected the security 



• 



situation. 



! 



■ 



. ' 



T. 



6, You may inform Diem that concurrently with the commencement of the joint 
effort > we intend to make additional strong approaches to the Soviet Bloc designed 



to impress them with our determination to see that South Viet-Nam is not overrun 



and to deter them from continuing their aggression, - . .- \": 

- 

7o FYI, If Diem responds well to above demarche^ and outlines measures he 

m 
r 

. will take corresponding to para 3, which you and we regard as satisfactory, you 
' . . . . - .. - "should 



- 



■■ r • ' 



Jf*±*. 






» ^, . - * ■ 



,.'...->■ r. ? > 



■ . 



■'-' ' — ■ - — * • * ** — _ * — i *-*„*- -— * %j .* 



-.{:■ 



\-<- 



I 



-m4J " 



- ■*■- - „ jr 






t C.lcss^) nation 



% v- 



*Jt* 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



■ .< 



Pane 



'6 



of telegram to-. 



Amembassy, SAIGON -. FOR' AMBASSADOR MOLTING 



TOP SECRET 



■ * * 

* 



I " • * - 1 r _ r- 



• , - 



Classification 






• 






should then inform him that we wish to provide our aid in respo 



se to his written 



• * 



> ' 






re quest 3 to which we would plan to give wide .publicity* This^ combined with the 

* * , * ■*■..• 

.* . . • ... .-. - ■ 

•■••*.-...-.., 

Jprden Report^ would serve as the public base for^our" support* Consequently, -vcu 



. A ■ 



■ ' 



may at a time you consider suitable offer him the proposed draft letter from him to 
President Kennedy the text of which is supplied in the immediately following 



o 



, 






, ■ - A * *■■*■- 



telegram, When you give him the drafts you may indicate that we do not expect hi 



s 



letter to be a verbatim copy. 



■•• 




■■ 




* -■* 


> 


we 


hope 


it 


t:i 


-' 


■>* 


; -'V- 




t * 



. ■* 



- *. 



■ 



wise from the standpoint of world opinion to include the substantive points mentioned 



1 .* * • - • - 

the r e i n . ] -'&5EBS I3£5&3^&13gggial^p^ 

1_. i i • » 



^:-'-Z£L 



, •-_ 



**" — I " . - - -'■; ".. - *•' ' ' - : . ..": '■ ■ - 



—A 

KKapSKCdSa^^ shall keep.you advised concerning the handlin 






■-.'•• 



. »- 



-* * * ~ : :z * 



and timing of release of the Jorden Report and the letter from Diem. President 



■ ' - 






-t * * 

Kennedy contemplates immediate strong a affirmative reply to satisfactory letter 



t w ' *s 



* 4 

along indicated lines from President piem^ "which also will simultaneously be made 
public* 



5 



■? 




; £) / 






s 




■ •:> - - 



*r 



; t h j y - * , ■"*. ■•• .- 







.W, 



■ »■» ^ fc -^-i - B -^«"'« »_*r»_^ «■ ~K « . J— W «» 4 -C -"■. _* ■*. »^y-*** 



— . .».-.,_, 1<p _. 



-i — — «t& ' 



Classification 






"iw 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



To Director, CIA, From Bangkok, 20 November 1961 
For The President From Ambassador Galbraith 



I have just completed three intensive days in Saigon which, 
with CINCPAC talks, gives me a roach better feeling for this tangled 
situation. Tomorrow night I am sending you a full and, I trust rather 
close analysis which 1 pray you read at average speed. That concerns 
our longer course but meanwhile I must register conclusions on two 

■ - 

or three matters on which action niay be pending and I add a general 
thought or two, 

(l) There is scarcely the slightest practical chance that 
the administrative and political reforms now being pressed upon 
Diem will result in real change. They reckon without deeper political 
realities and insecurities of his position and the nature of 
politicians of this age. He will promise but he will not perform 
because it" is most unlikely that he can perform. Accordingly, it 
is important that in exchange of letters which I suppose now to be 
inevitable that our proposed aid be geared to demonstrated action 
not promises. This may slightly increase the effect. But mostly 
it will keep us from what otherwise will be a purely one-sided 
commitment to Diem. In the absence of fundamental reform, the 
help we are now proposing will not save the situation. 






uo6 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



(2) In my judgement, in the immediate situation there should 
be no > repeat no, change in either political or KAAG leadership. 
Political leadership is using accumulated capital to get whatever 
slight administrative and political improvement may result from this 
initiative, MAAG change would, in my judgement, set back whatever 
slight chance there is for military reforms and sensible counter- 

- 

insurgency action. 

(3) While situation is indubitablybad , military aspects seem 
to me out of perspective, A comparatively well-equipped army with 
para-military formations numbering a quarter million men is facing 

a maximum of fifteen to eighteen thousand lightly armed men. If 
this were equality, the United States would hardly be safe against 
the Sioux, I know the theories about this kind of warfare, 

(•+) The foregoing, among other things, leads me to believe 
that your decision against troop commitment was wholly sound and 
with full discount for rt^y high threshold on this matter. Decisive 
military factor is not manpower or even confidence but bad organi- 
zation, incompetent use and deployment of forces, inability to 
protect territory once cleared, and probably poor political base. 
American forces would not correct this. Their inability to do so 
would create a worse crisis of confidence as this became evident. 



1*07 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






(5) I note that problem of confidence is partly our making. 

■ 

There is a fashionable tendency ^ though not by most senior military 
and diplomatic figures , to depict your decision of last spring on Laos 
as a disaster without any reference to alternatives available. This 
flows over to local community. Word should be passed down that 
when we make the best of bad alternatives second guessing of this 
sort does no service. 

(6) As I will argue , there is no solution that does not involve 

- - 

a change of government. To say there is no alternative is nonsence 
for there never has seemed to be where one man has dominated the 
scene. So while we must play out the ineffective and hopeless course 
on which we are launched for a little while , we must look ahead very 
soon to a new government. On this more later. Given an even 
moderately effective government and putting the relative military 
power into perspective, I can't help thinking that the insurgency 
might very soon be settled. 

(7) As I shall argue more fully in my letter, the diplomatic 
initiative should of course go forward. But I am convinced that the 
insurrection has more internal material base and less to meet it than 

I had previously imagined. Accordingly > the calling off of or stopping 



1*03 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



of outside materiel support as distinct from encouragement and 
guidance might not make too much difference. 

Ambassador Galbraith requested CIA Chief of Station 5 
Bangkok forward this message via this channel as it is "faster and 



more secure. 



n 



For CIA Chief of Station,, New Delhi; Please hand carry to 
Ambassador utjoh his return. 



*i09 






1 • 



* • 



I 



' • + 



■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



— -- i 



»■*-*■ 



•J$? r SECRET 
[HP V; j ;, *:■■■ ' , , 

DATE: .21 NOV .61 ... ^ VltVi!is (i RECD:.N0V21 2 1 372 d1 

*• ■ - ' • . . • 

^91// ■ .OPERATIONAL IMMEDIATE 

■ ' ' • IN 25879 : 



* * 

: 


-i * 

FROM : 

* 


NEW DELHI 


• 

* 


TO : 

1 


DIRECTOR 


* 

• - 


■ • \ 


» * 

- 
• 



* > 



t 



■ * 



:'• . 



is- .-^^ 



FOR THE PRESIDENT FROM AMBASSADOR GALBRAITH . . - 

'J . • • • 

POLICY IN VIETNAM '• • • . . \ . " '-".*.-.-. 

FROM JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH " *• " . ■ •"'.'•. 

• • * 

1. HERE IS MY FULL ANALYSIS OF OUR PROBLEM AND COURSE IN SOUTH VIETNAM. 
FROM MY STAY THERE, TALKS AT CINCPAC AND BANGKOK, PREVIOUS READING OF THE 

» 

TRAFFIC AND EXPERIENCE OF THE REGION I FEEL REASONABLY SURE OF MY .GROUND. 

- * 

m r 

YOU WILL BE AWARE OF THE INTENSE THEOLOGICAL DISPUTES WHICH RAGE OVER SUCH 
ISSUES AS THE POLITICAL POSITION OF DIEM, THE SCOPE OF EXTERNAL SUPPORT TO 
THE' INSURRECTION AND OTHERS. WHERE A SOLUTION OF THESE .IS NOT RELEVANT. TO 

* 

A PRACTICAL COURSE OF ACTION I .HAVE NOT ENTERED THE DEBATE. I HAVE ALSO 
ENDEAVORED TO WORK FROM THE CIRCUMSTANCES TO THE ACTION RATHER THAN THE MORE 

■ 

CUSTOMARY PROCEDURE WHICH IS TO MOVE FROM THE PREFERRED COURSE OF ACTION BACK 
TO THE CIRCUMSTANCES. WHERE MY BIAS INTRUDES, AS IN THE CASE OF TROOP 
COMMITMENT, . I HAVE MADE IT CLEAR. ' .*•.'.' . • 

* > 

"2. .THE VIET CONG INSURRECTION IS STILL GROWING IN EFFECT. THE OUTBREAK " 
ON THE NORTHERN HIGHLANDS IS MATCHED BY A POTENTIALLY EVEN MORE DAMAGING 

■ - • 

IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY AND ESPECIALLY ON THE MOVEMENT OF RICE TO SAIGON.. 
. 3. IN THE .ABSENCE OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE ADMIXTURE OF TERROR AND ECONOMIC ' 

■ 

AND SOCIAL EVANGELISM WE HAD BEST ASSUME THAT IT IS EMPLOYING BOTH. WE MUST 

- 

NOT FOREVER BE GUIDED BY THOSE WHO MISUNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS OF REVOLUTION' 
AND IMAGINE THAT BECAUSE THE COMMUNISTS DO NOT APPEAL TO US THEY ARE ABHORRENT 
TO EVERYONE. ,' •' 

% k.. IN OUR ENTHUSIASM TQ PROVE OUTSIDE INTERVENTION BEFORE WORLD OPINION ' 

. - _ . - - ■ -- . ;, , v . . . . ..* — - , L4-T In 



I ' ' - ' ' TOP SECRET 






* 



I 



* 






? , 



- 

4 









**'* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






PAGE 2 OF 9 



•■" NEW DELHI 99Ul 

■ . 

- IN 25879 



. .* 



IN THE MAIN AREA OF INSURRECTION IN THE FAR SOUTH. THAT LEADERS AND RADIO *. 

. r ■ 

""'. GUIDANCE COME IN V.'E KNOW. BUT THE AMOUNT OF AMMUNITION AND WEAPONRY THAT A 

• MAN CAN CARRY ON HIS BACK FOR SEVERAL HUNDRED KILOMETERS OYER JUNGLE TRAILS 

' V/AS NOT .INCREASED APPRECIABLY BY MARX. ' NO MAJOR CONFLICT CAN DEPEND ON 

SUCH LOGISTIC SUPPORT, \ \- ' ' ' - 

5. A MAXIMUM OF 18,000 LIGHTLY ARMED MEM ARE INVOLVED IN THE INSURRECTION. 
- 

■-. THESE ARE GVN ESTIMATES AND THE FACTOR " OF EXAGGERATION IS UNQUESTIONABLY CONS ID- 
' ERA3LE. TEN THOUSAND IS MORE PROBABLE. V/HAT VE HAVE IN OPPOSITION INVOLVES A 



HEAVY THEOLOGICAL DISPUTE. DIEM IT IS SAID IS A GREAT BUT DEFAMED LEADER. IT 
■ . • " ' 

IS ALSO SAID HE HAS LOST TOUCH WITH THE MASSES, IS IN POLITICAL DISREPUTE AND . 

' •• • • - . : " . 

OTHERWISE NO GOOD. THIS DEBATE CAN BE BYPASSED BY AGREED POINTS. IT IS 

* ■ n 

AGREED THAT ADMINISTRATIVELY DIEM IS EXCEEDINGLY BAD. HE HOLDS FAR TOO MUCH 

* * * " . 

POWER IN HIS OWN HANDS, EMPLOYS HIS ARMY BADLY, HAS NO INTELLIGENCE ORGANIZATION 
V/ORTHY OF THE NAME, HAS ARBITRARY OR INCOMPETENT SUBORDINATES IN THE PROVINCES 
AND SOME ACHIEVEMENTS NOTWITHSTANDING, HAS A" POOR ECONOMIC POLICY. HE HAS ALSO 

. EFFECTIVELY RESISTED IMPROVEMENT FOR A LONG WHILE .IN FACE OF HEAVY DETERIORATION. 

.THIS IS ENOUGH. WHETHER HIS POLITICAL POSTURE IS NEPOTIC, DESPOTIC OUT OF " 

. . . - 

TOUCH WITH THE VILLAGERS AND HENCE DAMAGING OR WHETHER THIS DAMAGE IS THE 

* 

FTGMENT OF SAIGON INTELLECTUALS DOES NOT SEAR ON OUR IMMEDIATE POLICY AND MAY 

\ ■ .' * ' • ' •- 

BE BY-PASSED AT LEAST IN PART. * . '' ■ * * * ." 

r * ■ 

- • - 

6. THE-SVN ARMY NUMBERS 170,000 AND WITH PARAMILITARY UNITS OF THE CIVIL 

• .a * 

■ 

GUARD AND HOME DEFENSE FORCES A QUARTER OF A MILLION. WERE THIS WELL DEPLOYED 



1 -* JrT* *"*\ f\ ^^ ^ "^ *^ % 



_ •. *' 






- 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









- 



'. 



- 



? 



• 



- Ton n: 1 '''^'r ,: 

. . ... 






I 



PAGE 3 Of' 9 •' 



i 



NEW DELHI. 9$5;i 
IN 2p379 



% - 



f ON BEHALF OF AN EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT IT SHOULD BE OBVIOUS THAT THE VIET CONG WOULD 

* m 

'• ■ ! . - • " " 

HAVE NO CHANCE OF SUCCESS OR TAKEOVER. WASHINGTON IS CURRENTLY HAVING AN • • ' 

* » 

INTELLECTUAL ORGASM ON THE UNSEAT A3I L ITY OF GUERRILLA WAR. WERE GUERRILLAS 

* * 

EFFECTIVE IN A RATIO OF ONE TO FIFTEEN OR TWENTY-FIVE .IT IS 03VI0U3 THAT NO • \ 

* - ■ 

GOVERNMENT WOULD BE SAFE. THE VIET CONG, IT SHOULD BE NOTED, IS STRONGEST 

IN THE SOUTHERN DELTA WHICH IS NOT JUNGLE BUT OPEN RICE PADDY. • ' - •- 

7* THE FUNDAE'£NTAL DIFFICULTIES IN COUNTERING THE INSURGENCY, APART ' . 

m m 

FROM ABSENCE OF I NTELLIvENCE, ARE TWO-FOLD. FIRST IS THE POOR COMMAND, 

a * 

DEPLOYMENT, TRAINING, MORALE AND OTHER WEAKNESSES OF THE ARMY AND PARAMILITARY 

• * . " • . . • 

FORCES.' AND SECOND WHILE THEY CAN OPERATE - - SWEEP - - THROUGH ANY PART OF* 

* ■ 

- 

'THE COUNTRY AND CLEAR OUT ANY VISIBLE INSURGENTS, THEY CANNOT GUARANTEE *• • . 
SECURITY AFTERWARDS. THE VIET CONG COMES BACK AND PUTS THE ARM ON ALL WHO ' " : 
HAVE. COLLABORATED. THIS FACT IS VERY IMPORTANT IN RELATION TO REQUESTS FROM 

I m 

■ ■ m 

AMERICAN MANPOWER. OUR FORCES V/OULD CONDUCT THE ROUND-UP OPERATIONS WHICH 
THE RVN ARMY CAN ALREADY DO. WE COULDN'T CONCEIVABLY SEND ENOUGH MEN TO 

■ 

PROVIDE SAFETY FOR THE VILLAGES AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR AN EFFECTIVELY TRAINED • 

* * . * 

CIVIL GUARD AND 'HOME DEFENSE FORCE AND, PERHAPS, A POLITICALLY COOPERATIVE 






COMMUNITY. . . • " . ; 

* 

8. THE KEY AND INESCAPABLE POINT, THEN, IS THE INEFFECTUAL ITY (ABETTED 
DEBATA3LY BY THE UNPOPULARITY) OF THE DIEM GOVERNMENT. THIS IS THE STRATEGIC 
FACTOR. NOR CAN ANYONE ACCEPT THE STATEMENT OF THOSE WHO HAVE. BEEN EITHER 

■ ■ 

TOO LONG OR TOO LITTLE IN ASIA THAT HIS IS THE INEVITABLE POSTURE OF THE 

■ 






9SV* fl -~\ ?5 '*" E^ *""* ?F* **? 

•5 ; . . ; * 



. * 



■> 



. \ 



^ 



r-*i_ 



,♦ 



■ • - \ * 



. 






- I 



si. 2. 



■ 



.. 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






• 



i 



I 



. 



i 

: 



i 






PAGE i* or 9 



* I 



>& 



NEW DELHI 99'-;i 

IN 2p079' 



ASIAN MANDARIN. FOR ONE THING IT ISN'T TRUE, BUT WERE IT SO THE ONLY 



\ 



POSSIBLE CONCLUSION 1 WOULD BE THAT THERE IS NO FUTURE FOR MANDARINS. 
THE COMMUNISTS DON'T FAVOR THEM.- ,,* ' "' . . /• 

■■$. I COME NO.-/ TO A LESSER MISCALCULATION, THE ALLEGED WEAKEN I NG 

m 

EMPHASIS OF THE MEKONG FLOOD. FLOODS IN THIS PART OF " THE WORLD ARE AN 

> ■ 

OLD TRAP FOR WESTERN NON-AGRICULTURISTS. THEY ARE JUDGED BY WHAT THE 
HIO DOES TO ITS TOWNS. NOW AS THE FLOOD WATERS RECEDE IT IS ALREADY 



EVIDENT THAT THIS FLOOD CONFORMS TO THE ASIAN PATTERN, ONE REPEATED . . " 
EVERY YEAR IN INDIA.. THE MUD VILLAGES WILL SOON GROW AGAIN. SOME UPLAND ' ' ' 
RICE WAS DROWNED BECAUSE THE WATER ROSE TOO RAPIDLY. NEARER THE COAST THE 

* 

PRESSURE "ON THE BRACKISH WATER WILL PROBABLY BRING AN OFFSETTING IMPROVENENT. • 
NEXT YEAR'S CROP WILL BE MUCH BETTER FOR THE SILT. . ' 

- 

10. I COME NO.-/ TO POLICY, FIRST THE BOX WE ARE IN PARTLY AS THE 
RESULT OF RECENT MOVES AND SECOND HOW WE GET OUT WITHOUT A TAKEOVER. WE 
HAVE JUST PROPOSED TO HELP DIEM IN VARIOUS WAYS IN RETURN FOR A PROMISE 

* i • 

- 

■* 

OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL REFORMS. SINCE THE ADMINISTRATIVE (AND 
POSSIBLY .POLlTiCAL)l INEFFECTUAL I TY ARE THE STRATEGIC FACTORS FOR SUCCESS. 
THE ABILITY TO GET REFORMS IS DECISIVE. WITH THEM THE NEW AID AND GADGETRY* 

■ ■ 

w 

WILL BE USEFUL. WITHOUT THEM THE HELICOPTERS, PLANES AND ADVISER'S V/ON'T 
MAKE APPRECIABLE DIFFERENCE. 

■ 

" • . . > 

.' 11. IN MY COMPLETELY CONSIDERED VIEW, AS STATED YESTERDAY, DIEM ■ ; 

■ - 

WILL NOT REFORM EITHER ADMINISTRATIVELY OR POLITICALLY IN ANY EFFECTIVE 



.* 



N --- 



V^v^ 



***> 



r— 



**8 i2L5n\ • a 



■ w 






-; \ •"' 



'•- ** V 



***&u^h»a . 



r-W "«i.t. > 









it- - V *rJ.O 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






- 



- page: 5 of 9 



■ • 



NEW DELHI 99'-H 



WAY." THAT IS BECAUSE HE CANNOT. IT IS POLITICALLY NAIVE TO EXPECT IT. 

■ »■ ■ 41 

HE SENSES THAT HE CANNOT LET 'POWER GO BECAUSE HE V/OULD BE THROWN OUT. 

HE MAY DISGUISE THIS EVEN FROM HIMSELF WITH THE STATEMENT THAT HE LACKS 

■.'.. 

EFFECTIVE SUBORDINATES BUT THE CIRCUMSTANCE REMAINS UNCHANGED. HE 
PROBABLY SENSES THAT HIS GREATEST DANGER IS FROM THE ARMY. • HENCE THE 

m m 

* ■ 

t 

REFORM THAT WILL BRING EFFECTIVE USE OF HIS MANPOWER, THOUGH THE MOST 



*-..» 



■v - 






URGENT MAY BE THE MOST IMPROBABLE. 






* 



12. THE POLITICAL REFORMS ARE EVEN MORE UNLIKELY BUT THE ISSUE 
IS ACADEMIC. ONCE THE IMAGE OF A POLITICIAN IS FIXED, WHETHER AMONG 
OPPOSITION INTELLECTUALS OR PEASANTS, IT IS NOT CHANGED. NOR DO I 






POLITICIANS CHANGE THEMSELVES. D I EM'S IMAGE WOULD NOT BE CHANGED BY 
HIS TAKING rN OTHER NON-COMMUNISTS, INITIATING SOME SOCIAL REFORMS OR 

» ■ 

OTHERWISE MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS' OF OUR DEMARCHE. 

> ■ 

■* 

13. . HOWEVER HAVING STARTED ON THIS HOPELESS GAME WE HAVE NO 
ALTERNATIVE, BUT TO PLAY IT OUT FOR A MINIMUM TIME. THOSE WHO THINK 

" - 

"THERE IS HOPE OF REFORM WILL HAVE TO BE PERSUADED. SINCE THERE IS NO 
' CHANCE OF SUCCESS WE MUST DO TWO THINGS TO PROTECT OUR SITUATION. ONE' 

■ m -m m 

IS. TO MAKE CLEAR, AS I SUGGESTED PREVIOUSLY, THAT OUR COMMITTMENT IS 
TO RESULTS AND NOT TO PROMISES SINCE DIEM IS EXPERIENCED IN BOTH 

- 
m m 

a * 

m * 

PROMISING WITHOUT PERFORMING OR IN PROVIDING THE SHADOW WITHOUT THE 

- 

SUBSTANCE OF PERFORMANCE. AND WE CAM PRESS HARDEST IN THE AREA OF 

* - 

■ 1 
■ 

ARMY REFORM WHERE THE NEEDED CHANGES ARE MOST SPECIFIC AND MOST URGENT. 

• •• 

■ ■ 

• THE - LIKELIHOOD OF FUNDAMENTAL PROGRESS GIVEN D I EM'S SUSPICION OF THE 



• • 



* * 



^ 



M; il 1 1 I <-J - a ■ ^f t 



' '.■.*' -V- 1 ,- k .- £» ,~n,* 

•*vr ," r.- * j 



• * 



*_i 






. J**\ 



L t 



■ » 



* 












... .--■ 



r- 






i 



•H tlH* 



■ 



. 



* 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









-^ . 



- 



■i 



page G or 9 



. ^ 



A 



NEW DELHI 9Ql*1 



. :. . .'•.in 25S79 



• til. 'AMBASSADOR " NOLT I NG AMD GENERAL MCGARR, BOTH HEAVILY IDENTIFIED 

* - I : ' * * 

WITH THIS PRESSURE FOR REFORM SHOULD REMAIN TO PRESS THEIR CASE. THOUGH 
ACTING LOYALLY, NOLTING IS NOT HAPPY ABOUT" THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON 

* * . " 

DIEMi • HE BELIEVES RATHER- THAT V/E SHOULD LEND HIM OUR PRESTIGE AND POWER 



1 
* 



. -. 



IL'E WORKING MORE GRADUALLY FOR REFORM. THIS POLICY BY MY ANALYSIS 



WOULD MERELY CONFIRM DIEM IN HIS INADEQUACY A RISK WHICH MOLTING CONCEDES. 
IF OUR PRESTIGE WOULD HAVE' PROVIDED THE SECURITY FOR REFORM WE WOULD HAVE 



• 



HAD RESULTS' LONG BEFORE MOW. •. , .".,- 

- 

: 15. IT FOLLOWS FROM MY REASONING THAT THE ONLY SOLUTION MUST BE • 
TO DROP DIEM. KOREA REPRESENTS THE ONLY MODEL THAT HOLDS OUT ANY PROMISE 

i 

* ■ 

WHATEVER FOR US. WITHOUT D0U3T DIEMWAS A SIGNIFICANT FIGURE IN HIS DAY. 

* 

BUT HE HAS RUN HIS COURSE. HE CANNOT BE REHABILITATED. INCIDENTALLY 
THIS VIEW IS HELD INDEPENDENTLY BY THE SENIOR POLITICAL COUNSELLOR OF 
OUR EMBASSY, THE MAN WHO HAS BEEN LONGEST IN VIETNAM. ' ' - ".'•."■ 

l6. IN MY VIEW," AND THIS IS NECESSARILY SPECULATIVE, DROPPING DIEM 
WILL* NEITHER BE DIFFICULT NCR UNDULY DANGEROUS. THE VIET CONG ARE' IN 

■ » 

' * 

POSITION TO CAUSE TROUBLE WIDELY OVER THE COUNTRY. THAT IS FAR FROM 

• m 

MEANING THAT THEY ARE ABLE WITH THEIR SMALL NUMBER TO" TAKE OVER AND • 

. - 

CONTROL THE COUNTRY. ' THE ARMY IF INEFFECTIVE .IS THOUGHT TO BE NON-COMMUNIST. 



THE RUMORS OF COUPS ARE ENDEMIC. NOLTING WHILE NOT IN FAVOR HAS SAID THAT 



. • 



A -NOD FROM THE UNITED STATES WOULD BE INFLUENTIAL. AT THE EARLIEST MOMENT 

1 

THAT |T BECOMES EVIDENT THAT DIEM WILL NOT AND CANNOT IMPLEMENT IN ANY REAL 



-1 



** i 



'** r. 



A * 4 I* 



~--^ a-n- 



I* ^^ --'- 



* 



"r - — " 




±<±D 









- - J . ■■ •. * 



* **j*t a 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



- 



. - * 



** 



I ' 




- 



page 7 or 9 



•/' NEW DELHI S)2 ! H 



- WAY THE REFORMS WASHINGTON HAS REQUESTED WE SHOULD MAKE IT QUIETLY CLEAR 

■ *™ * * 1 

* * •" m * 

. THAT WE ARE WITHDRAWING OUR SUPPORT FROM HIM AS AM INDIVIDUAL. HIS DAY 

. ' ' -■-**•. ) 

WOULD THEN I BELIEVE BE OVER'. WHILE NO 0.\'E CAN PROMISE'' A SAFE TRANSITION 

."■WE" ARE NO.-/ MARRIED TO FAILURE. '• ' "• - : • • - 



17.- IT IS A CLICHE THAT THERE IS NO ALTERNATIVE TO DIEM'S REGIME. THIS 

* a. ■ 

IS POLITICALLY NAIVE. WHERE ONE MAN HAS DOMINATED THE SCENE FOR GOOD OR | LL 
'THERE NEVER SEEMS TO BE. NO ONE CONSIDERED TRUMAN AN ALTERNATIVE TO ROOSEVELT. 
' THERE .IS NONE FOR NEHRU. THERE WAS NONE I I MAG I NE FOR . RHEE . THIS IS AN OPTICAL 



ILLUSION ARISING FROM THE FACT THAT THE EYE IS FIXED ON THE VISIBLE FIGURES. 
IT IS A BETTER RULE THAT NOTHING SUCCEEDS LIKE SUCCESSORS, 

* ■ 

18. WE SHOULD NOT BE ALARMED BY THE ARMY AS AN ALTERNATIVE. IT WOULD 
■BUY TIME AND GET A FRESH DYNAMIC. IT IS NOT IDEAL; CIVILIAN RULE IS ORDINARILY 
MORE DURABLE AND MORE SALEABLE TO THE WORLD. BUT A CHANGE AND A NEW START IS OF THE 

* ■ - * - . 

ESSENCE AND IN CONSIDERING OPINION WE MAY NOTE THAT DIEM : S FLAVCR IS NOT 



MARKEDLY GOOD IN ASIA. 



»■ 



19: A TIME OF CRISIS IN OUR POLICY ON SOUTH VIETNAM WILL COME WHEN IT 

* . . 

BECOMES EVIDENT THAT THE REFORMS WE HAVE A*SKED HAVE NOT COME OFF AND THAT 

■ 

. * 

OUR PRESENTLY PROFERRED AID IS NOT ACCOMPLISHING ANYTHING. TROOPS WILL BE 

* 

URGED'TO BACK UP DIEM. IT WILL BE SUFFICIENTLY CLEAR THAT I THINK THIS MUST 

BE' RESISTED. , ' ' ' . 

would not deal with the vital weakness. 

OUR SOLDI UiSf^^S^^^^^^^SsB^^l^J^^ C0ULD PERPETUATE IT. THEY 
WOULD ENABLE DIEM TO CONTINUE TO CONCENTRATE ON PROTECTING HIS OWN POSITION • 



■ * 



*" f m a ■"" " ■"* ""?■*•■ ■ 



J- . J .H.-».|',.l H »t»H'iI, .- 



.* 



. - £ . ,_ - . 



J&l 



J 



■"iPiL.vroJV'v . r -. - ^ y . . 



* 



- 



:* -?• j 



« o^ w. 



3 



1 — i ■ 






• 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



. •• '.:■■■ • page 8 0fr 9 , ' .../;._ new delhi 99^ 

,'•'.'..'-- . - • ■• : in 25879 

■ 

AT THE EXPENSE OF COUNTERING THE INSURGENCY. LAST SPftJNSj FOLLOWING THE VICE-* 
PRESIDENT'S PROMISE OF MORE AID, PROPOSALS FOR INCREASED AND REFORM TAXt;s ^ICM 

V/ERE WELL -ADVANCED WERE PROMPTLY DROPPED. ". THE PARALLEL ON ADMINISTRATIVE AND* 



POLITICAL REFORM COULD BE CLOSE. . • ■ • •' 

20. IT WILL EE SAID THAT WE NEED TROOPS FOR A SHOW OF STRENGTH AND '' 
DETERMINATION IN THE AREA. SINCE THE TROOPS WILL NOT DEAL WITH FUNDAMENTAL 
FAULTS •- - SINCE THERE CAN'T BE ENOUGH OF THEM TO GIVE SECURITY TO THE COUNTRY 



** 



ACHESO.M KNEW HE COULD NOT INVEST MEN IN CHIANG. 

• 21. WE SHOULD PRESS FORWARD OM THE DIPLOMATIC FRONT TO GET ALL POSSIBLE 

P a • 

INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT fOR OUR POSITION AND TO RAISE THE BARRIER TO MORE 

• ' m 

OVERT HANOI INTERVENTION AS HIGH AS POSSIBLE. THIS WAS ALWAYS A LONG SHOT.. 

* > 

AS THE RESULT OF MY TRIP I THINK IT A LONGER ONE. THAT IS BECAUSE THE ACTUAL 

* * r 

m 

.MATERIAL SUPPORT IS SMALLER THAN OUR PROPAGANDA HAS' PERSUADED US TO BELIEVE. 

* ' * 

AND I DON'T SUPPOSE V/E CAN STOP THE MORAL SUPPORT AND LEADERSHIP WHICH THE 
INSURRECTION RECEIVES. HC-UVZR WE SHOULD MAKE ALL EFFORT. 

- 

22. IN THIS CONNECTION, IN ADDITION TO THE OTHER MOVES AT GENEVA, ON 

• • ■ 

•THE ICC AND THROUGH THE INDIANS TO HANOI AS DISCUSSED WE* SHOULD ASK OUR 

- 

NATO ALLY THE CANADIANS AND OUR SEATO ALLY THE AUSTRALIANS TO MAKE CLEAR TO 

a » 



SIDE « ~ THEIR FAILURE' TO PROVIDE SECURITY COULD CREATE A WORSE CRISIS OF CO"tiF(D"-?" 

- . 

ENCE. YQU WILL BE AWARE OF MY GENERAL RELUCTANCE TO MOVE IN TROOPS. ON THE 

••■•■• . ■ . 

' OTHER HAND I WOULD NOTE THAT IT IS THOSE .OF US WHO HAVE WORKED IN THE POLITICAL 

f 1 

_ 1 ■ 

m 

- VINEYARD AND WHO HAVE COMMITTED .OUR HEARTS MOST STRONGLY TO THE POLITICAL 

•' . ' . ' ' - - 

..FORTUNES OF THE NEW FRONTIER WHO WORRY MOST ABOUT ITS BRIGHT PROMISE BEING 

'■ ••"■' • • • " • - ' -• 

SUNK UNDER THE RICE FIELDS. DULLES IN 195't SAW THE DANGERS IN THIS AREA. DEAN * . 



* 



r 7 " 7- - • • 



1 - 



_ TffT!) np^y >»_ ^ mt 






* - 



- 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



* * 






. 



f 



PAGE 9 0F 9 



■NEW DELHI 99^ 



— O 



IN 25079 



THE CHINESE THE IMPORTANCE WE ATTACH TO PcACE IN TH1.S AREA. THERE CAM NO 

* * m ■ m - 

•LONGER BE ANY QUESTION THAT THE FOOD THESE". TV/0 ARE SUPPLYING IS OF NEARLY 

■ ■ 1 • ' • • ■ ■ . , • v-. ■ ' - , 

DESPERATE. IMPORTANCE TO THE CHINESE. I VERIFIED THE POINT FURTHER IN LONG TALKS 

! . * •■ 

IN HONG KONG. PROPERLY APPROACHED THE CANADIANS AND AUSTRALIANS WOULD SURELY 
■MAKE THE POINT FORCEFULLY, . - " " ■ * 

23 AS I HAVE SAID THE PRESENT GAME MUST BE PLAYED MOST WITH THE PRESENT 

• * * * ■ 

DIPLOMATIC AND MILITARY LEADERSHIP. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THERE BE 



• . * 






. ANY IMPAIRMENT OF THE CIVILIAN LEADERSHIP BY INTERPOSITION OF A NEW HIGH-RANKIN 

* * * . 

* . • 

.GENERAL. WHEN POLICY CHANGES ON DIEM IT WILL BE TIME TO CKANGEf.THE LEADERSHIP. 
IN THE NEXT FEW WEEKS ECONOMIC FACTORS WILL BECOME INCREASINGLY CRITICAL AND 

* ■ 

".THERE. IS NOW.?* ONE IN THE COUNTRY WITH AM ADEQUATE GRASP OF THESE ' ISSUES OR ' 

■ ■ 

THE POWER TO DEAL FIRMLY WITH WASHINGTON. ' SOMEONE OF UNDOUBTED ABILITY IN THIS 
FIELD - - EUGENE STALEY IF HE CAN BE DRAFTED OR JACK BELL- IF GUATEMALA CAM WAIT - - 
SHOULD BE SENT FORTHWITH. IN THE MILITARY FIELD WE WILL HAVE AN UP-TO-DATE 
PROGRAM OF REFORMS FOR PUTTING IN THE DAY DIEM GOES. WE ARE NOT AS WELL 
SITUATED ON THE ECONOMIC'AND SOCIAL SIDE AND THE, SITUATION HERE IS CHANGING RAPIDLY 

. * m 

' Zk. MY OVERALL FEELING IS THAT DESPITE THE ERROR IMPLICIT IN THIS LAST 

- 

MOVE AND THE SUPPOSITION THAT DIEM CAM BE REFORMED, THE SITUATION IS NOT 
• HOPELESS. IT IS ONLY HOPELESS IF WE MARRY OUR COURSE TO THAT OF A MAN WHO 

* 

MUST SPcND MORE TIME PROTECTING HIS OWN POSITION AND EXCLUDING THOSE WHO THREATEN 

■ » * 

IT THAW IN FIGHTING THE INSURGENCY. DIEM'S CALCULATION INSTINCTIVE OR DELIBERATE 

• * 

IS EVIDENT* HE HAS ALREADY BEEN DEPOSED ONCE AND NOT BY THE COMMUNISTS. HE 

■ ■ * 

CAN SEE HIS CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER AS WELL AS ANYONE. 



* 
- 



- 






- 



. 



" 



END OF MESSAGE 



" 



■- 

\ 



- fr- 






' 



5 9 ■■ * 



- 



.. 



fy * 



. ,*°'- 



- * 



418 






* m 



- - • ... -_ 






. - 









■ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 i 



THE WHITE HOUSE 

Washington 

TOP SECRET November 22, 196I 



RATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORAKDUM NO, 111 
TO: The Secretary of State 

SUBJECT: First Phase of Viet-Nam Program 

The President has authorized the Secretary of State to instruct our 
Ambassador to Viet -Nam to inform President Diem as follows: 

1. The U.S. Government is prepared to join the Viet -Nam 
Government in a sharply increased joint effort to avoid a further 
deterioration in the situation in South Viet-Nam. 

A 

2. This joint effort requires undertakings by both Governments 
as outlined below: 

a. On its part the U.S. would immediately undertake the fol~ 
actions in support of the GVN: 

(1) Provide increased air lift to the GVN forces, including 
helicopters, light aviation, and transport aircraft, manned to 
the extent necessary by United States uniformed personnel and 
under United States operational control. 

(2) Provide such additional equipment and United States 
uniformed personnel as may be necessary for air reconnaissance, 

• photography, instruction in and execution of air-ground support 
techniques, and for special Intelligence. 

(3) Provide the GVN with small craft , including such United 
States uniformed advisers and operating personnel as may be 
necessary for operations in effecting surveillance and control 
over coastal waters and inland waterways. 

(k) Provide expedited training and equipping of the civil 
guard and the self-defense corps with the objective of relieving 
the regular Army of static missions and freeing it for mobile 
offensive operations. 



TOP SECRET 



Ul9 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 633 16. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






. 



■ 






-2- 



* v 



(5) Provide each personnel and equip&ient an rcv.y be 
necessary to improve the miHtary^poIiiicgl iriSslIIjonce Gystern 
beginning at the provincial level and oRSsadia* upward through 
the Government and the armed forces to the Central Intelligence 
Organisation* 

{6} Provide each now terms of refer ence* reorganisation 

arid additional personnel for United Si?,tot military forces as 
are required for increased United States military assistance in, 
tho operational collaboration with the GVN and operational 
direction of U S« forces and to carry out the other increased - 
responsibilities v/aich accrue to tho U & S G military authorities 
under the&e recoi?imendation3* 



n 



(7) Provide ouch increased economic aid as may be required 
to permit the OV'Fi to pursue a vigorous flood relief and rehabili- 
tation prc^ramj to supply material in support of the securi ty 
efforts* and to gr.ve priority to projects in support o£ this e::panded 
counter-insurgency program,, (Thic could include increases 
in military pay* a full evipply of a v/He range of material d such aa 
focdj medical supplier transportation equipment* communications 
equipment* end any other items where material help could assist 
tho GVN in vvinning the war against the Viet Congo ) 



(8) Kncoura^e and support (includra^ financial support) 
a request by the GVN to the FAO or any other appropriate info 
national organisation for aniiltilatoral assistance in the relief 
and rehabilitation. of the flood area* 



2* V 



(9) Provide individual administrators and advisers for the 
Governmental machinery of South Vict~Naxn in typos and numbers 
to be agreed upon by tho two Governments 



^0 




'TAP ^prtJFT 






WO 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



-3- 



*p f^i O f\ T? **"* 'Q "JT* T 












b 



a 



. 



On its parti the GYN v/oald initiate tlio following actions; 

■ 

(I) Prompt and appropriate legislative and admini strative 
action to put the nation on a wartime footing to mobilise its entire 
resources* (This would include a decentralization and broadening 
of the Government so as to realise the full potential of all non- 
Communist elements in the country walling to contribute to the 
common st rustle* ) 



uo 



(2) The yiialization of appropriate Governmental wartime . 
agencies with adequate authority to perform their functions 
effectively* 

■ * 

(3) Overhaul of the military establishment and command 
structure co as to create an effective military organisation for 

the prosecution of the war raid assure a mobile offensive capability 
for the Army* - . 






McGoorge Bandy 



information Copies to: 

m 

The Secretary of Defense V 
Director of Central intelligence 
General Maxwell £>* Taylor 






.^ 



*. - 
i 



■ 



'i 



%21 









Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number; NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 






■&?>.. 






i,rx%|ril. r . • .« 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 

JC WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 



SNe«©?5^ 



L» *. < 



INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS 



25 November 1 361 






Refer to: 1-19366/61 






* » 



It* 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY 



r\ **• »^, „ 






SUBJECT: Command Arrangements for Vietnam 



* Mr. Ni tze and I have examined the JCS paper, and believe 
that it represents the best possible current solution. The 
following points may be noted; 

- 

a« The fact that we have parallel command arrangements in 
Korea, Taiwan, and Japan should remove most of the possible 
political disadvantage of having a US "commander 11 in a situation 
where Geneya calls for our having only an advisory role. 

i 

b. Under the President's letter of May 29, a US "commander 11 
becomes coequal with the Ambassador. (See page 6 of the JCS views 
for text distinguishing this from the MAAG.) 

I recommend that we either elevate General McGarr promptly 
to the new posi tion, or find a v replacement soonest. 

I Re General Lansdale, General McGarr has sent two messages 
■by special channels reporting disappointment by Diem that no de- 
icision has been made on Ed's coming back, (From these and other 
(indications, it is clear that McGarr himself would favor this.) 
tin spite of the importance of Ed's current assignment, I think 

! he belongs in Vietnam, where he i s of unique value. 

■ i 

■ The importance of both these points is underscored by Nol ting's 
I negative talks with both Diem and Thuan* V/e badly need something 
ito sweeten the mixture. You may have seen the report in today's 
•Post (page opposite the editorial page) that the Saigon controlled 

press has sharply criticized the US, a most novel and disturbing 
symptom. 



* 

r 
*. 

u 

> 
> 



&Ss»CSl« C? S31S w>cuas« 

..Xrrvv SIS! PJTJ2I3SI0S Oi *h& 



William P. 
Acting 



Bundy 






«, ■ • ■* T *"X? 



• r* 



s 



I - 



KTCJIGSADIZ) A 7 3 2 YSAK 
IKTST/ALS; HO? AUTOMATICALLY 



.. ... 

t »'- ''J 



Jtfifc 7 * he & j 



SeeTtef Cont. So 



Sfi 



tt ?CY3 



3 : 






Cop:,* 



y 



or __^f_^ Co^i^.-: 



»-it 



P« 



r- o 



/ 



ci' 



-_/__ P;".^ 



Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



e?F 






L-i-Li^i 



. WAS H I N GTON 



27 Kovesibsr 1961 



lEl;0!tMJ3U:i FOX: SL-CT-'TA-Tif }>u^:; 



SSCFS TAllY KCstfMAlU "^ 
MS. U. ALEXIS JOH-^SOiJ 
GEISBM. I£I£TIT2E?v 

Ml. KCGS0XG3 BU1DY 
MS. EAL2 RCS-VOV/ 



l 



S; 



i . • 






m * 






abject: 



Meeting on Southeast Asia, 
5:3D p«:ju, *bve^bor 27, 1961 



The President uirhes to use this meeting as a round-up of 
actions to date and of Slew decisions required zio'J or shortly. He 
vould lite the zollouias qcsstioas to serve as a framework for 

discussion. 

a* 8t*te 

*■ « 111' - ■ > —• 

( 

(1) lihut is the. situation with regard to Diea as reported by 
Ambassador lloltlnj? . • • 

(2) Can we delay longer in obtaining an answer fron Dierj? 

■ (3) Should ibltinj be called to Washington in order to ci-ipose 
him to our thinkisiS on the situation? • » 

> 

(4) What is the present plan for the use of the Jordan Report? 

> 

y (5) Are ue in danger of losing the psychological lnpact of" 

our new pro^rair t through its delayed and .piecez&al implement aticn? 

b. Defines 

(1) Khat in the stats of Defence actions in itipleaeatios tha 
ttev* projraci? 

(2) lihat is bein^ done to expedite delivery of river and 
coastal craft? . 

* 

(3) What 'about increasing the training and readiness of the 
Civil Guard and the Self Defense Corps? 




( 



V 






C :v:« 



^ 

6 - 



5o 



r 3 

V 



! 

SN 




423 




-* 












Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 33 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 



(4) Khat are the vie^s of the Joint Chiefc of Staff with 
regard to ths military organisation in Silicon required to 
support .the nz'j prQ3r^i? ". 

£,• A^"cy for Inter na . t i p'aal pavalorTaa nt 

(1) Ibvo tli 2 revis-sd requirements for. economic aid been forth' 
ccnins frcci Sni^on? Khat in our plan for flood roller? 

(2) f*h£t is bains done to meet these requirements? 

d. Or ^anisntlori in J?« shin;* fcofl 

(1) Save State-Befensa agreed upon the division of responsi- 
bilities for the ippleseatation of the new prosrem? 



for tl 



(2) libera should, the President resard cs personally responsible 

;or the effectiveness of the & ? ashin3ton end of this operation? 
(i;DK: "She President vishee a proposal to rsaaet this point, 
having in raind an individual to be identified with this presr^a 
as Kr* Kohler has be£n for Berlin.) 



H:\SS5aJL D. ^VYLO^ 



* 



1 






-( 






■ n 



li 



N 



. 



I 







Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 201 1 









jp q4 the white HOUSE 

WAS HINGTON 



OFF s-v-' 

vl I V 



'"• "l / * •*■ r ■• •■ " I I ^ -" 



November 30, 1961 



TOP SECRET 



NATIONAL SECURITY ACTION MEMORANDUM NO. 115 



i 



TO: 



The Secretary of State 
The Secretary of Defense V 



SUBJECT: Defoliant Operations in Viet Nam "" * 

The President has approved the recommendation of the Secretary 
of State and the Deputy Secretary of Defense to participate in a selec- 
tive and carefully controlled joint program of defoliant operations in 
Viet Nam starting with the clearance of key routes and proceeding 
thereafter to food denial only if the most careful basis of resettlement 
and alternative food supply has been created. Operations in Zone D 
and the border areas shall not be undertaken until there are realistic 
possibilities of immediate military exploitation. 



The President further agreed that there should be careful 
prior consideration and authorization by \Yashmgton of any plans 
developed by CINCPAC and the country team under this authority 
fore such olans are executed. 



be- 




«5 



McGeorge Eundy 



i 



/? 



Information Copies to: 

The Director of Central Intelligence 

m 

The Director, U. S. Information Agency 
■ The Director, Bureau of the Budget 
The Administrator, Agency for 

International Development 
The Military Representative of the President 

TO? SECRET 



/ 











c/p//i 



L < / 5 



Se^Dsf Control Wa. Xl&c:- ., 



A 
ft 



b 



- — -+ -9 < V — •• • 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3.3 
NND Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date: 2011 



l8 December 1961 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF STATE 



This will confirm our discussion of this morning in which we 
agreed that: 

1. The Senior U, S. Military Commander in South Vietnam will 
have the direct responsibility for all U. S. military operations 
in that country y and the authority to discuss both the U. S. and 
Vietnamese operations directly with Diem and the leaders of his 

government. 



ti 



2. The Senior U.S. Military Commander will have the title 
Commander. U. S. Military Assistance Forces - Vietnam, 11 



3. The Senior U.S. Military Commander will have direct access 
to CINCPAC and through him to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the 
Secretary of Defense on all military matters. 

k„ The U.S. Ambassador in Vietnam will be responsible for 
political and basic policy matters. 

5. The two U.S. representatives will keep each other informed 
of the operations within their respective spheres. 



SIGNED 






cc: Mr. Wm. P. Bundy 
Mr. Nitze 
DepSecDef 



Robert S. McNamara 






U26 






Declassified per Executive Order 13526, Section 3,3 
NMD Project Number: NND 63316. By: NWD Date; 201 1 



I UK StUKt 



M 



27 December 19ol 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE CHAIRMAN, JCS 






u 






o 

o • 

M 

a! W 
SI ID * 

J -3 PI i 






: 

» 



o o 



J ^ 1-4 

\ 



SUBJECT: Vietnamese Command Problem 

CINCPAC's message to you, 2321 37Z December 1961, out- 
lines the problem of President Diem giving control authority to 
Big Minh as his military field commander, when Diem is appre- 
hensive of a coup. CINCPAC then solicited your help to get State 
to direct Ambassador Nolting to make a concerted approach to 
Diem with General McGarr, 

In CINCPAC's proposal, as in other comments on this 
problem, I have yet to note anyone come up with an answer to 
Diem 1 s apprehension. It is the basis for his real reluctance to 
do what the Americans want him to do, and this basic point needs 
resolving. How are Nolting and McGarr to reassure him on this 
point? 

V„ Sc policy is to support Diem and he has been so informed 
by the President, We know that Big Minh has been outspoken 
about a coup. Diem certainly knows about the way Big Minh has 
been talking, also. Now we ask Diem to give practical control 
of his military force to a man who has talked about a coup. What 
realistic assurances can we give Diem that the action he fears 
won't take place? 

It would seem that the increased U D S military stake in Viet- 
nam should afford some means for stabilizing the political relation- 
ships within the Vietnamese Armed Forces long enough for all 
concerned to get on with the war. Armed with facts about such a 
political stability, Nolting and McGarr should have little trouble 
in getting Diem to play ball. 

SIGHS) 

EDWARD C. LANSDALE 

Brigadier General, USAF 

Assistant to the Secretary of Defense 

(Special Operations) 






427 



TOR SECRET.