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Full text of "The rights of the Christian church asserted, against the Romish, and all other priests who claim an independent power over it : with a preface concerning the government of the Church of England, as by law establish'd. Part I"

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.*.. * - " 

Chriftian Church 


Againft the ROMISH, and 

allpther PRIESTS whoclaim 
an Independent Power over ic. 

WIT H; V " 

A P R E F A C E concerning the 
Government of the^ CHURCH of 
ENGLAND, t, jy Law EftablifhU 


Cfte CfjttD ffiWfion Co^retteu. 

No Man can fcnt two Mafters> Mat. 6. 24, 

A Kingdom divided in it felf cannot J\and t Mark 1 5 
Hlumani Juris & Natura lis Poteftatis unicui^ue qno4 
putavcrit colerc* Tcrtkl. 

^ Printed in the Year 1707, 




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Union Theological Seiinapy 



Columbia University Library . 
DEC 1 8 49ft- 





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> ; ..;. . , Vvj,,,rj ;. -,,"/ ; : ;.^/-, ;. -,- \i , 

k wore diftuteA at 
prefent) than who is the bejt 
Church man, both High and 
^ . Low Church laying claim to 
jt ; and therefore it can*t be doubted but * 
$oth will approve my Defigrt in fetting this 
Difpute in i fair Light, and fljewing 
what is meant v} the Church of England 
as bj Law vflabli&d:^ wherein I fbaH 
make it appear t I/at they who raife the 
great eft Noif& about the Danger of the 
Church, are the -grtateft Enemies to it, by 
averting fuch Notions as undermine both 
Church and State, and are in dirett oppofi- 
t ion to the Principles of the Reformation; 
*nd that thy- w$an *fom9 other Church ", v 
A ? beftdes " 

: > 

Jr - The \Prcface. 

beftdes the Church pf England, which fa 
^ ing eflabliflfd by dels of Parliament, is A. fer 
felt Creature of the Civil Power ; / me An 
the Polity And. Dijcifline of *>, and tis 
that which makes all the Contention: for 
* MS to the Dottrines exprcfs d in the Arti 
cle s> J don t find High Church to be in 
any manner of fain ; but they who lay 
claim to moft Orthodoxy can diftwguijb 
thtmfelves out of them.* . . 

2. Tho the 36 th Canon exprejlj com* 
wands the Clergy to frtyrikc the Art it In 
willingly and ex animo, and to acknow- 
Icdg all and tvery Article to be agree 
able to the Word of God ; and tho the 
ijthof Kliz. c. J2, ^obliges every Bene* 
fc d Clergyman to wake a Declaration of 
his unfeigned Afltnt; and the Title of 
the Amdes, which Jbews the Intent of 
the ImpoferS) / /, that they were agreed 
on in Convocation lor avoiding Divcr- 
firysof Opinions, and for eftablifhing 
Confent toughing true Religion : Tet 
for all this it has obtained with \Higb 
Churth) that thty are not Articles of Be* 
lief, tut of Ptace ; and that their fub~ 
fcribing *em is not to be cortfider*d as 4 
Dtdaration of their Opinion, but as 4 
bare Obligation to ^iltnce.^ which yet they 
break everyday with relation to the Art i^ 
-cles concerning Predejtination, EMiton^ 
&c. And $f Man of. ofpoftte Sentiments 
a can 



can fubfcrihe the fame Articles, they *re\ t 
as much at liberty as if there were none. - 
The late Bi/bop of Worceftcr affiims^ntic. ef 
that a Man might be very right in thc t! J 
Belief of an Article, tho miftaken in 
the Explication of it; which is fuppo* 
fi* if fufficient for Men to agree in 
Sounds, tho they ever fomuch differ about 
the Meaning of *em, And one wotfd 
think it was no fmall Crime with High 
Church to put any Meaning at all upon *er, 
ftnce they rail fo much at the Bffoop of 
Sarum for frefuming to write an Expo* , 
fition of W Theft Men treat the 1 
jlrticlet as they do the Oath of Allegiance , 
" which the) fay obliges "*em not attually to * 
tffifttht* Government^ hut to do nothing^ 
.againft it ; that iV, nothing that wou d 
bring em to the Gallows : So the Articles * 
are Efficiently kept^ if nothing is /aid .,. 
tgainft em, which endangers their -Pre* 

If then thefe Mens Zjal is chiefly if 
not wholly confind to the maintaining of 
the eflabliflfd Government and Polity of 
the(burch) tis to be hop*d they will not 
condemn me for /hewing that the Dotfrine 
of Two Independent Governments, one *- 
longing to the Clergy by Divine, the other ( 
to the Kjng and Parliament b) Human 
Right, is inconfiftent with the Confiitu* 

tion of the MablMd Church; Which 

-i . ~ . .*- * . ..._..- / 

A 2 

The Preface^ * 

before I attempt^ if mil be neceffaryto Jhei* > 
what is contained in the Idea of Govern* 

. . went. .-,, 

. : : j. Itwou*dbein vain for one InteUt* 
gent Being to pretend to Jet Rules to the: 
Actions of another i if he had it not in 
his power to reward the Compliance with, 
or punifl} the Deviations from his Ru/es^. 
by.fome Good^ or Evil, which is not the , 
vatural Confequence of thofe Affions\.. 
(Ince the forbid dine Men to do or forbear 

J A~t l 6l r i J r ** 

an Action on the account of that Lonve^\ 
nienceor Inconvenience which attends it^l 
whether he who forbids it will or*no^ can b% 
no more than Advice. All Government 
therefore fappopng A Legijlative Power,. 
. if the Clergj.have the Government of the. 
, . Church by Divine Right^ they muft have, t 
the fame Right to make what. Laws they. 
judg conducive to the Good of the Church^ 
in determining allfuch Matters as they judg , 
can*t conveniently remain undetermined ; or, - 
in other word*) flying the general Ru/es 
cf the Gojpel) as the Magi/Irate does tbofo^ 
of Nature, to particular Things atod Per* 
Jons : and consequently they mufl have <//; 
thafs neceffary to Legiflainre, as affe 

, fit t i 

bling when and where they pjeafi, fit t ing > 
as lo>ig as they think fit, .&c,. And *t\ 
they alone can make Ecclefiajlical Lawt^fa 
they alone can fufpend or repeal . *c#* r j 
a Pivine, Right tq> mak$ k 

, * 

. Vif 

, ijpd/fe ite fime Right to f tit *em fft VJCF- 
\uliofli **nd tonfequently bli that s necefftfj 
\}o?hat End. Jin A becaufe this Govern 
ment is to be continued from Age to Agt % , 
"Vhtyrriuft have* Right to convey to others, ^ .. jtj ^ 
the farm Porter they themfelves *tffy* * 
\ *And fine* tfof e three things are effentM,"\\ 
- %: to.Anj Government tbafs to toft above" da . 
f ^k f > "weffidl conpder.tht Constitution of . 
the National Church *s t& tacfc of ^em. 

.? ^4: F/V/; as to a Legislative Power , if 

. ;that belongs^ t\> the Clergy * fy Divine 

!RVj(to , ^ w/y)? ^ -rpfo r ^/?; are -affembled 

inConvacationt but the 25H. 8. c. 19. 

, f -fo 4 B^rr Vo any fuch Divine , Right, 

facAufe tti<ft Aft makes it, no lefs than ^ a, 

^frajmuftiffe for. them fo much as to meet 

, without Vbe Kjngs Writ ; and when they 

. w* Met, they are tfd up ;by the fame 

-Penalty from attempting to do any thing 

^without the Kjngs Licence frft .obtain* a j 

*nA afterwards no Refolatidn of theirs can 

have ^he force of a Canon, unlefs the 

$J*g ** th*s*t to confirm it ; nor is 

it even-then valid, if it be contrari^ 

ant to or repugnant to the Laws, Sta- 

, tutes, -and Cuftoms of this Realm, or , } 

be to the Damage or Hurt of the 

King s Prerogative Royal; And. confe- 

. * quently, if the Laws of the Land are L 

i . fybwA. Wtr fo often^ $ Canons are 

A 4. 

The Prcfac^ . 

utterly void which at Anytime An fount 
incQx/iJlent with them : And the Power of 
the Parliament reaches to the annulling of 
Canons, even in the mo ft Spiritual 
Things ; as when they en aft th At no Canon 
>Jball begjojj which is contrary to the Form 
they ejiabli/b for the Consecrating of Bi- V 
jhops. And if the Parliament can annul 
Eccltpafttcal Laws, they mujt be able to 
make y cm, jince no greater Power if re* 
quired for one than the other ; And confe* 
quently th? Convocation has no Power 
which is pot derived from and defended 
on them, which they can abridg, curtail 
And Annul as they think ft. 

Howotherwife cotfd they make all tke 

Atfs of A Convocation mere Nufatys, And 

the Clergy liable to the fevereft Penalties^ 

, if they do not obferve al{ thoje Forms And 

Methods they prefcribe *em in their Sitting ~ . 

and Aft ing ? And if the Parliament dtd 

. not think they had A Plenitude of Power 

in this watter^ they worfdnot have damned 

; i3Car.2,4/f the. Canons of 1640. nor declared no 

other Ecclefiaftical Laws or Canons to 

, be binding, not formerly confirmed, 

allowed, or enafted by Parliament, or 

. by the Eftablifh d Laws of the Land, 

as they flood in 1639. 

Tacitus dc 5. De Majoribus Omnes was A Fun* . 
Mor. Gcr. ^ mfn i A l amongft our Ancejtors long be- 
fort they Arrived in Great Britain, And 


The Preface: i. 

.Matters of Religion were ever reckoned * 
*wong their Ma jora : and all the LAWS in the 
Saxon And Britifh Times which concerned 
the whole Church, were, as our Hiftorians ? 
teflify, made by the, fame Power which 
matte the Temporal Laws, and pu$ in exe- * * 
cut ion by the fame Perfons. The tearing.;^ 
the Ecclejiaflical Power frcm the Civil 
was the curfed Root of Ahticbrilt ; thofe 
Powers were not diflinft till the See of 
Rome0f the Afcendant y and without that 
the Canon Law cou d never have broke in 
upon us: Then, and not till then, did the 
Clergy attempt to bind the Laity ty Laws 
they never confented to ; but their Defign 
was never brought to Perfection. For th 
the Eccleflaftical and Civil Courts were di 
uidcd in William the Conqueror s Time 9 
jet during his and fever at of fais StKcejfors - . 
,Reigns^as is/bownfrom undeniable Autho* 
ritjsby Mr. Wafbington, there were /wobfenr.on 
-Laws enatted concerning Religion, but by^^tf. 

i s* / r i is- j Tunfd. of 

the great Council oft he Kjngdom : naj^ 
determining who {boifd be acknome 
for Pope in the Schifms that happened in 
the Reigns of William Rufus, Henry II. 
*nd Richarid //. (which one wou*d think 
was purely Ecclejiaflical) was not left. to 
the Clergy, but fettPdbf Parliament, and 
Laws made to punifl) the Clergy who woiSd 
own the Parliamentary Popes. And 
tven faring tb* greatejt park- 

x The Preftce. 

eft *nd $up*rftition, 
/ . ibYtj) rktf no Man ought *o be -Abound 

fcy a Law he does not confentto; 
ftrongly engraven on our Ancestors 
that nothing cou^d efface it ^ and we 
*em often prottfting, that this and t* other 
Rot. Par!, thing does not bind efti, b.etaufe d6ne 
^" out ^heir Conferfc ; WM they woti^d 
not be bound by any Ordinances <>f the 
* Clergy without their Aflent J ib*t they 
^ no .more fubjeft themfelves ib 
the Clergy, than their AnVeAor-s had 
done, jtn d whe* by the Mifoingof the, 
fope s Power things fterc brought back 
to their tntient HhAnnet^thePArliamefiflt 
Right in making Ecc/ejiaJHcalL*w revived 
of courfe. *Ah& to fuppofe a Carion which 
the PArlixinent ha$ mt confirnf^ or which 
i)a? net >cbt Wtfd by long Vfe 9 can bfnd tfo 
People, it -to make * Canon obligatory <in 

defiance not only of Common and au 
Law, but of the verjConJlitut ion it felf ; 
of which from the very. Beginning it has 
if en A Fundamental, that the People arc 
bound to no Laws but of their own chuflng : 
An A Chriflianitj was never .depgrfd for 
the. fubverting of our Con/lifutfon, or de 
priving Engliuimen of their fo much 
valued Liberty^ in fubjttfing ^em to Laws 
they mver confented to, bj ihewjelves or 
Reprefentatives. And. that the People 
tre bound bj no Lws or Canons, which 


ta vf long Vfe 
is by tfa; 21. o/<H.8. c. ^i\\ declared 

dstxprefs Words atctti be. 


cotd tbt P*rJi*m*ti if i 

had a Divine .Ri&bt.\ to 
JLcctefuftfal. Law*) enMe both 
and Ed ward 6. to. Authorise thirty, two 

be us r d in all Ecclejia/lical 
thtt all othtr. Canons Jbotfd it tiuV 
voU? -.A tPwergr enter than ever w** ,3 - 
trufted, at ietfi fince the Reformation 
wtth any .Convocation. And is it not . 
toaClaTtfe. in tHe 2f o/ H. 8. c. 19. r^f 
all EctltftA/licat l*a#t now in ufs do ow* 

- their EJlablifbment? Afy, *fo : Ctotvo* 
.cation is fo far. from afting on the foot 
of A. Divine Right, tkattheKjngsln* y 

. junttions Have bew taken ever face thi 
Reformation to bind the ^Clergy t^uallj 

. with their ottw By-Laws w Canons: and 
Accordingly we fnd that Kjng ; -Henry, 
Kjng Edward, and Queen Elizabeth have 
enforced their Royal Injunctions bj no lefs 
Penalty s than Sufpenflon, Deprivation, and 
Incapacity. And the Bifkop of Sarum RcfMi 
flews tu that the Crown for above 140?"?, 
Tears has bten inpoffelJiofl of A K/g/tf TheRights 

aii The Preface. 

fettling MAtters of Religion without it; 
So thAt the (lergfs Power feems not to It 
fo great AS thtt of . every jetty CorforA~> 
tion\ for whom AS our Kjngs 

By-Law, fo what they make for them~ 
ft foes Are binding, tho not consented to by 
the Kjngt or without obferving thofe For* 
mAlitys the Convocation is vbligd to do. 
And the Par /lament, AS they wou*d not 
fufferthe Convocation to declare what is 

35 H. 8. when thej imfowerd Bijhops and Doflort 
l6t of LAW to make Ordinances concerning 
Religion And Faith , they limited "*em to 
, fuch AS were Agreeable to the LAWS of God. 
And the Nation ; which /hews, that AS All 
the Power which thefe Men had was from 
Them, fo they referrfd to themfelves and , 
their Miniflers A Right to judg of their 
Ordinances, whether they were agreeable to 
the Laws of God> AS weU AS to thofe of 
the JtfAtion. Nay, the Parliament de~ 
5$H. . cUreS) that it ftandeth with Natural 
ca Equity and Good Reafon, that the 
. King, Lords and Commons have full 
Power and Authority not onlyto^dif* 
penfe, hut to authorize fome elet Per* 
fon or Perfons to difpenfe with afl hu 
man Laws of this Realm and the faid 
Laws and every one of them to abro 

V . The f relate. \xlii 

gate, annul, amplify or dimiriifly as 
may to them feem meet and convenient, 
8fC. And this thy Affirm appears plat* 
and evident by divers jiffs of Parliament 
mud* in the time of H. 8V Progenitors, 
as mil MS in his own time : which is *s 
plain a Declaration MS can be, that thy * 
efieem Theirs the fole Leeijlatfoe Power, 
and that all other Power (that of the Con* 
vocation not excepttd) is derived from 
] tnd dependent on them. And the Parlia- 
nunfs.enaffing Laws concerning Faith, 
Worfbips Doffrines, Church~Qover* 
fnent % ordaining and* depriving Eifbops^ 
Priefts, &c. and concerning Rites, Cere- 
fnonjs, and all other Church*matters, fatty 
Jbews that thy did not think the making 
of Laws about tho/e things belong d by a 
Divine Right to another Legijlative Pow* 
<r. Nay, theClergj themjelves^ without 
difowning the Lawfulness of National 
. Churches^ muft come into this Notion^ 
becaufe it does not depend on the Clergy, 
but upon the Sovereign National Powers^ 
whether there fljall be a National Church 
Andconfequentl) the Legal Eflablifbment 
of the Faith , the Worfhip, the Doftrinal 
Articles, the Difcipline, the Rites and 
Ceremony s of the hat tonal Church , fnafl > 
be wholly owing to Them ; fence in all fuch 
matters, to which their Laws -do not ex* 
tend % no Church can be faid to be National 

-..,: ., r 

The Preface; 

.qn* and fa fa* at 
ftfagiftra te eftMfhes any thing, they 
fart of the Civil Conftitution. And *j 
abfurd to fappofe that the Clergy oft 
Rational Church hav^an. Independent* or . 
Legiflatiiie Power in fuch things as whoffy 
depend on the Will of the Legislators, n>b*i 
thtr they {ball belwg to the Conftitutio* 
of the National Churchy which in every 
Country is differently- framed according to 
the different Sentiments* of its Sovereigns. 
And our Convocation* tnuft be Creatures 
of tb& Legislators, unlefs it coif A be proved 
that Deans , Archdeacons, tfld Protfors for 
Chapters, who are 100 of the 138 ttMt . 
compofe the Lower Houfe of Convocation, t 
have b) Divine Right a Share in the 
making of the Laws of the National 
Church of England. And if a Convo* 
c At ion IQ mode I* d be of Divine Right, 
ours ouly can pretend to be fo, fince we 
have no, Inflance of any other National * 
or . Provincial Synod composed of twa 
diftintt Hdttfes, one of Bifiops, t other of 

6. This, I -think, is fufficient to {bow 
that by the Cwjlitution of our Church the 
Cttrgy are not fuffos^d to have an% -Di*. 
vine Legijlature, becaufe That tnuft be fu- 
ftrior to all Worldly Power : and the* the* 
Clergy might as well forbid the Partiamv nv r 
^ , bui when and wktM they fltafav , 


4iffotw< eifcts thy think 
r debate , 

out 4 frevMM\Licww from, the A*cb* 
bifbof i -nor allow.My, Law \to be valid ttil 
confirmed by hitt^ w* then beither if in* 
conpftent . with \ tfa Cuftoms or C anon* 
,, or .the jircbiepifcoptl Prcro* 

Perfow, -half Clergy^ .jo ex** ;, . ., 
mine the Lm*. of, th* LM^ find : abrogate " 
or cont iwi with t t bt Confext of the Jnh* 
bifhop. whtt Iws they think, fit* . This^ 
\. lfo> the Clergy, if Governors.. >of the 
Church bj Divi nt Right,\ might \ as mil 
dQwitkrelAtionto the titat*+ as the Civil 
,/; Governors do the fun*, witb.refptffi to the 
Church* Avd the onty reafon rvhj the. 
- Clergy, sattt do thts r is becaufe Civil Power 
.is not deriv^A from nor . dependent w*tm. J; 
^ 7. The next thing t.o be conflAer d is JIK . 
rifgiftion, which .it. infeparMj united to 
Legiflation, becaufe the Penalty is the 
: Santtion of. the Law\ which Sanft ion ^ 
* ipotfd be to NO purpofe, if they who en- 
4tfedthe Law had not a Power to execute 
, it, and confequently a Right to erefl Courts 
/ Jttdicttart, appoint Jjudges y andinvefk 
with 4 fufficient Power to fumrnon 
to.< do every thing elfene* 
Offenders^ in or- 


on > 

- .-, , . V 

xvi: The Prefecp. 

on *em. And whoever the Legijlaiori 
tntrujt with doing this 9 Are their Mi~ . 
*ijters 9 in putting their Witt, the Law, 
in execution : to which they CM have only 
4 free arious 1 Right ^ dependent on the Plea- 
fure of the Legiflttors, except where the 
Executive Power is lodged with one with- 

1 out whofe Confent no Law can be wade. 
But as no Bi/bop has a Negative, fo what* 
ever Jurtfdttfion any one of *em is in- 
trujted with, tnuft be derived from the 
Convocation, if the Legijlative Power of 
the Church is in Them ; . to which he ca* t 
have only a Precarious Right defending 
on the Win of the Bi/bops and Presbjters, " 
confider*d as two dt/lintJ Bodys that make 
up the Convocation : which not only puts 
the Presbyters upon a Parity with the 
Bi/bops in the highefl Aft of Church* 
Government, but likewife /hews that all 

, thejurifdiftion of the Bifljops i* as much 
derived from the Lower as from the 
. Vpper Houje ; fince their Share in the 
Legijltture, from whence all Jurifditfion - 
rejults, is equal. But we do not fnd any 
bifhop or other Ecclejia/tick pretend to 
have his Jurifdition 9 either immediately* 
or mediately, from the Provincial 5?- 
nods of Canterbury or York : and them 
there s no other Legijlature except that of 
Kjng and Parliament, from whence any 
Jurtfdiftion, either Ecclefiajtical or Civil, 

M , , 

be Aerh A. And as our Rjngs 

Parliament have tht file Legijlativt 
jfyrwr, ft they have trujted the Suprtmt 
Executive Power , In Eccle/lajticalsaf weA 
, as Civils, with the Kjng or Queen, AS ap* 
fears by fever at Atts made in the Reigns 
if H. 8. Edw. 6. andgj&lz. of which 
l only mention two or threes 
The jy.H. 8. c. ij. declares tbto 
chbjfoofs, Bifoops, drchdeacons., *nA 
otbtr Ecckflafticat Perfon^ have , 
wanner of yurifdifiiofi JLc 
c but ly and under the Kjng * 
ic - the only undoubted Sufreme Head t o 

* the Church of England, to whom ty 
^ Holy Scripture Power and Juthority it 
V given to hear And determine all manner 

* of Caufts Eccleftaflical) and to correlt 
. Vice and Sin whatforver, And to all fach 
,$erfons as the Kjngs Majejly Jhall a p* 
v ic .point thereunto ; and that , all Layme^ 
" .being Dottors of Law, &c. being cox* 

d Chancellors, &c. by. the Kjngl 
or Sttcceffors, or by any Arsh* 
B ft>op, & c - *0*J- Awfully ^a 
ercie and execute all manner of Jttrif* 

Cenfures and Coercions 
K ) /^ or in any wife 
Aching withal, /* that the^ Bifiof of 
, f Rome and his Adherents minding 





The Preface. 
t4 ///&, obfiure> and delete thit Power given 
"to the Princes of the Earth, that there- 
44 by they may gather and get to them- 
"felves the Government and Rule of the 
^ . , World) k had made divers Ordinances^ 
"that no Layman jbotfd or might exer* 
44 cife or occupy any Jurifditfion Ecclc* 
. , *> ftaftical, lefl^their falfe and wfurfd 
, 4 Power which they fretended and went 
t about to have tn Chrift s Church, {bou d 
4< decty, tiax vile^ and be of no Refatati- 
* <( on^ S^c. which being diretlly repugnant to 
V the Kings Maie fly as Supreme Head of 
V the Church ana Prerogative Royal } his 
4<> Grace bting a Layman, and albeit the 
35 H.8, ^ faid Ordinances are utterly aboliffrd, jet 
<c becaufe the contrary is not pw~ 
u tice y be it enatfed, &C. 

9. Tho the Clergy had own* d the Powers 
here mentioned to oe in the Kjng^ by re 
cognizing in their Convocations that he was 
jujllj and rightfully Supreme Head of the 
Church of England, /# fc fiffofA h *& 
H,8. c.i. yet that Parliament adds, u For 
4< Corroboration and Confirmation thereof, 
44 be it enatfed that tin Kjngs of this 
4< Realm {ball have full Power from time 
41 to time to reform and correft all Errors, 
41 Herefys, Enormity s, Offences t AbuftS) 
<4 Contempts i whatsoever thy be, which by 
44 any manner of Spiritual ^Authority or 
. " Jurifditfion ought or may lawfully be 
- >4< reorm ** 

1 i / 

The Preface. 

w reformed. And the CoriimifftoA id 
Cromwel, -who as the Kjng^s Vicegerent i\ H. 8. 
in ,Ecf(efiafticah was by Alt of Parlument c lQ * 
flafd Above the Archbishop \ of Canter- 
bury,, wot as full And Ample a* Words 
coifd make //,. And in the next Re ion ~ 
the Statute i Edw,6. c. 2. recites, that* 
all Authority of Jurifdiftion Spiritual / 
is drawn and- deduQcd from the King * 
Majefty, as Supreme Head of the. .. 
Churches of England and Ireland, and 
fo juftly acknowledged by the Clergy of v 
thefe Rcalms.^ And this Aft being. re+ 
a//i/V ly i Jac, i. c. 25. which repeals the 
Repealer i M. c. 2. may be reckoned 41 
jne iv Partiamtntarj. Acknowledgment of tht * 
Regal Supremacy in that Reign. AnJL 
tb? in Qyeen ElizabethV Time the Title. 
of Supreme Head was changed into that of* 
Supreme Governor, jef bj the frft Aft op 
for Re}gn 9 intitled, Ao Aft to reftora 
to the Crown the ancient Jurifdition 
over the State Ecclefiaftical and Spirit 
tuaI 9 .i>r eftablilb d.andenafftd, a That. } 
** fuch Jarifditfiontj Privileges, ,Sftpe*> 
" rioritys, and Prehetninenccs Spiritual , 
*\, and fcccleftaft teal) AS by any Spiritual o*) 
lc Eccfefiaftical. Pow<(r and Authority hav* . ; 

-> \.r 

r. 1*1 

a 2 <c th* 


x*!/ The Prefacer 

f the fame, and of all manner-* of ILrfoJL 

. , <y " Herefys , " Scbifms, Abufes, Qf**M 9 

\ ." Contempts and Enormity s, {ball for ever 

" bj Authority of this prefent Parliament^ 

<f be united and annexed to the Imperial 

* *A- Crown of tbit Realm. And fucb %eal 
did the Parliament fberv for -fettling theft 
Powers in the Crown, tbat thi* Cltufe is 
Avain repeated in 8 Eliz. c. i . And to tie 
the Clergy and all others to acknowledg tbi* 
Regal Spiritual Supremacy according tt> 
the Extent and Meaning of />, in i Hliz. 
c. f. it fc enatfed, fliat for the -bettet 
Obfcrvation and of this 
Aft, all that take Orders or Degrees t in 
the. Vniverfitys, and all $ hat have Any 
Office under the Government, arc to take 
the Oath of Supremacy , in rthicb they M* 
knowledge that the Qdeerfljirr Supreme. 
Governor in all Spiritual or lEcclefiaftic^I 
Things or Caufes, W/^4/ they will "ttf 
their Power affift and defend all Jiirift 
diftions; Privileges, Prehemin enees and 
Authorities granted or belonging- to thd 
Queen, .her Heirs and Succeflbrs, l or 
united or annexe to the Imperial Crowri 
of this Realm. And <u Queen Elizabeth 
was invefted with the fame. Power and Au^ 
thority her Brother and Father had^ Jo- the 
13 Car, **famc is continued down to this daj^ except it 
be that the Higb-CommijJion Court \ which 
made the Prince ^udg of ^Original 

C* 12. 

, The Prefate: i>xi 

wd theteby* prevented the Benefit "of dp* 
peals 9 \is amiflfd : which yet does not, as 
that Jiff, declares, abridgor diminifh the !*>"* 
King s Supremacy, or hinder but that nil 
Spiritual Caufes, which can be trfd bji 
any Bi/bop . or other Spiritual Perfonwhat* ; 
ever, are finally determined by judges de~ 
legated by the KJ n g> ko exercife all 
manner of JLcclefiaftical Cenfures, without 
having fo much as any Prieft to pronounce v c " 
their Sentence. For how cotSd the Arch* , ". .- t^- 
bi(hop himjelft or any by his Authority, - . 
pretend to pronounce a Sentence in a Ctufe 
which is appealed from him to a fuperior- 
Judg? And (bou d the Delegates fuffer 
this, they rvou*d betray the Authority by . 
which they aff. And tho Bijbops are fome* 
times joined in Corwniffion with the Com* 
won and Civil Lawyers^ yet they feldow 
concern fhemfelves till the final Sentence\\ 
all intermediate Affs being generally per- : - ^* 
fornfd by the Civilians , who excommu- . 
nicate for Non-appearance, or any other^ 
Contempt. And if the Kjng can revoke, 
any Spiritual Cenfures of the Bijhops or- 
Archbifoops, , or can excommunicate, ////- 
fend) or deprive them t or any other Eccle- . t 
fiajlical Perfons \ nay, can by his PrcclamA* 
tion pardon all Excomrnunication^and rejlord- 
People to the Communion of ^ the Church* + 
^ it Jpews that theris no Branch of Spiritual 
itfiop which is not vefted in him, ami 

aj that* . 

The Pfeface. 

that all the Jurifeliffion which the ArchT3p? J 
Bi/bops, or an} other inferior Ecclepaftical 
1 i 3 ! udgts have, it derived from him, Atyy 
10. Had our Governors in the Popijh 
Times thought that Bi/bops had a Divine * 
Right to exercife Eccleftaftical Jurifdic* 
tion, thfj wou*d never have f re] urn* d to 
^ exempt Places from their Power ; of which 
it wotfd be tedious to recite all the Injlan* 
ees. The My of Glaflenbury WAS ex- 
^emftedbj Kjnglm, that of St. Albans 
p?i42. "^;Offa > that of -Abington ly Kenulph 
Kjng of Mercia, that of St. Edmonds- 
bury by Kanute, and that of Battcl ky 
William the Conqueror: and all thofi 
Jlbbjs which were of the Kjngs Founaa* 
bavics tion, and all the Kjns Donatives, were 
& fubjett only to the Viptation of the Lor A , 
Chancellor^ or of fpecial Commifftoners ap 
pointed under the Great Seal. And if any 
m.frivate Per/on had the Kjngs Licence to 
found 4 free Chappel, it was exempted 
from EpifcopAl Jurifditfio*, unlefs tht 
founders otberwife directed: and tht 
Bi/bops who wou*d npt allow thofe Ex*\ 
emptions, have for their Prefumptio* 
been puniftfd by the Kjngs Temporal . 
Courts ; and tho the Clergy Jonte times got 
the Pope*s Bulls to confrm thefe Exewp- 
yet the) were never judicially at* 
hert\ nor cou*d any Per fan plead 
Wthgut davger; naj^ the fhaditg. 

.;.,<: vm 

The Preface. , jf yr xxm 
^Pope^s ^uUof ExcommunicAttonrvAs 4 4u Ed fr * 
judged no lejs than TreAjon by Common \>\ t ^* 
LAW, before &ny Statute made it Jo. .. 

II, When Religious Houfcs were dif* 
folv*d) theParltAment impower^d U.S. either 3 1 H. 8. 
to rejlore the Churches belonging to thofe c >3 
Houfes, to the Jurifd/tfioM of theBifljops ; 
or to beftoiv ^tm on Any other ; who fur fount ^ 
to that power delivered many of em to. Lay? 
men, who there exercife EcchfI*/!/cal Jurfi \ 

diftion. And none is thought uncap able of 
this Truft) who is capable of any other Pojl 
feffton ; it being, like all other Pojfefftons, 
And Inheritances^ trAnfrnitted and affigrfji 
according to the Rules of the Common LAW, 
As here none has A Right to exercife Any 
Atts of Eccle/iaffica l Power but the Lordj ; 
And under him his Steward ; /b in each of 
the Vniverfltys, the "Judg of the Court, who 

is ufually A Layman, And Atts in the ft ace of 
the Chancellory who often / /, And Always 
WAjbe A Layman,- as both Are now. 

1 2. As the Ecclefla/lical And Qhnl 
Courts were not diftintt till William the 
Conqueror ; fo till then the Clergy co^4 
not exercife any Independent Power. Aty, 
tillKjng JohnV Tinie^ all Appeals from 
the Archbtfhof were to the Kjng^s Court \ 
According to the StAtutes of Clarendon, 
which Are frequently called, Avitse Con- 
fuetiidines Regni. And whw thi Pope in 


The Preface. 

Jlenry 2*$ Time attempted to get 
jo himfelfc and the Kjng, as part of the 
penance he was to do for killing the Trai* 
for Becker, WAS fore* d to fubmit to it\ 
jfhe Nation wotfd not fuffer />, but re^ 
* -i ", tyiv dthe Jfftze of Clarendon, and they 
< * * \vho had appealed to Rome were to be ouf- 
fatv*d if they did not in a certain time flare 
. Juri in Curia Domini Regis. This 
* , Gervafius Dorobernenfis, who weflunder- 
Jlood it, tells w was but .renewing the Afli&e 
of Clarendon. And, the LAW has all along 
Jet the fame Bounds to the Ecclefiaftical 
its to the Civil Courts^ both as to Per font 
And Things^ and the T em foral Courts 
funiflSd an) Ecflcfiajtick who prefum*d ta 
Janus tog.exceed thtfe Bounds. The Bifljops cou y d 
Vl* fyt^-not for any caufe whatever excommurii- 
fate any of the JKjng s Officers or Tenants, 
who were very numerous \ without his i- 
cence ; or if they excommunicated any wha 
by peculiar Privileges were txewpt from. 
* Epij copal JurifcHtfion^orfor what the Com* 

rnon Lawyers judged to be a, Temporal Qaufe % 
the Courts of Jujlice were open to receive 
: the Complaints of thofe Perfons, whom 

under pretence of a legal Profecution they 
c Ve - f ji ^ WJw d And, there art many Pre- 
ja(i,d23. *cedevts of jndiffments prefer"* d tgainjt . 
Bifbofis on (his Account ^ who have been 
fore* A to mak$ fatisfatfion to the Perfons 

WVVj ^^ Wf LarvrqakcrS) iythedtr 1 - 

i .. 

v" : - .y 

The Preface.. , 

fjl Times of Popery, trujled the judging of , . V 
>Af mofl Spiritual Things with the Juftices 
p/ Peace find s)ffi*#* whom by ? H. 5. C. 7; . < 
theytirnPowefd to enquire of certain He, 
refys^ Errors, and Loll^rdies, which (hey 
fpeciffd, and to puni/h thofi: they found, 
guilty; by winch the. Parliament not only 
excluded the Clergy from judging n>b<it Pie- 
7$ was, butfitjerd em not to be Ivjiru* ^ 
went* in reforming what they had Pronounced > i, 
fuch ; fo (bat ttyy refused to fubmit^ them-, 
fehes and the People to the Laws of the^ 
Clergy, bvtfubjetfed th? Faith of the Clergy 
fo the Examination and Ce nfures df t Lay^ 4 
wen. They fufpeffed the Love of, Power^ . : 
natural to Churchmen, and their Holy lAr- 
; jifices to acquire and inlarge it beyond - dlk 
bounds ; and feared perhaps that if they 
trujhd "*em with the Execution of this Larv>- 
they wou*d ferjidioujl) abufe their Power td" 
the Opfreffion of thofe who gave it. r ewj of^ 
which they had as many Injlances^as the Cler^ 
gy had Trufls bejtorfd on em. And if, the 
^Parliament, wen in the very Height of^ 
Popery^reftrib d to the Ecclepaftical Courts^ 
t in what Caufes they fljou d aft, and againfi[ 
what Perfons, ana after what manner^ and * 
flafd an over-ruling Power in the Tem 
poral Courts to puntfo *em if they exceeded , 
thofe Bounds they fet *em ; /> {hews, they* 
were Authors of the Laws by which bdtb] 

nfffd. fines 

vi r The Preface., 

Power cad Jirelf, order or frejcrikefo t%* 

And if at the Reformation theParliament 
invejled the Kjng with the ExecutivePower 
ift ^11 Spiritual Matter s> muft not the whole 

Legijlaturebe in Them? And if the Cler 
gy have no Spiritual Jurifditfion Ihdepen* 
<lei of the Kjng^ they can have no Legifi 
hturt\ becaufe they who have no inherent 
Right to execute the Law, can hav* no 
Right to make the Laws. So on the con- 
tray, if they had 4 Divine Right to make 
JL*rpj, they mufl have the fame Right to 
execute "*tm % Ani if in ths Caufes of 
Wilts, Marriages^ and fuch-like % the Cler* 
1} j u ^^ h An ^Authority derived from 
tbe Laws of the Land; mujl they not 
from the fame derive their Power to in- 
fift Spiritual Cenfures in thefe Caufes f 

. ^ jtnd if the t 2 and j of Edw. 6. c i j. 
tnables tht Eccleftftical Judg to excom 
municate in a Cafe in which ne cou*d not 
Jo it before ; and if the 5 and 6 E. 6. make* 
it lawful in a certain Cafe for the Ordinary 
(which fuffdjes it was not fo before) ti> 
fufpend 4 Layman ab ingreflu Ecclcfijt, 
and 4 Clerk from Me Adminiftration ,of 
bis Office y the Parliament muji be able to 
grant him fuch A Power. Nay, we fnd 
the Parliament has takeri ufon^emto ex 
communicate : of which if the j Jac. i. - 
C. 5. which fays, that whoever is coriV 

The Preface/ - xxvii 

i * . \ 

via of Recufancy fhall ftand and be 
reputed to all intents and purpdfes dif- * 
abled, as a Perfon lawfully arid duly 
excommuhicated, as if he had been (o 
denounc d and excommunicated accor- . 

ding to the Laws of this Realm, be not 
4 full Proof; yet certainly the 5 and 13 
vf Edw. 6. c. 4. if 9 which enaffs, that 
tf any Perfon /bou*djtrike, or lay violent 
lands on another in the Church or Church* 
yard, then ipfo facto every one fp 
offending fliall be deern d excommuni 
cate, and be excluded from the Fellow- 
fhipand Company of Chrift s Congre- . 
gation ; and that every Perfon that 
draws a Weapon to Jttike Smother, be v 
and ftand ipfo faflo excommunicated. \ 
And if in tni* Cafe it has been thought 
neceffary there (botfd be a declarative Sen 
tence in the Spiritual Courts pur fu ant to 
this Statute, it alters irit the Cafe: for ~ 
that* s not from any Doubt of the Par- . 
liame fit s Power of ekcommunicatitog, but 
that the Offender might judicially appear to 
have been guilty of the raft. And whc 
by the Court he is found to be ft, they 
declare the Sentence of the P*rliainent*po 
it, and do not pronounce their own. 

To this 1 toigbt atid, that Detfis and . 
Archdeacons exercipng thehigheft A fits of 
Epifcopal yurifdittion, is ttholly incon\ , 
"fat with the modern Notion of "Bifbopt 

The Preface., 

king ty Divine Right Governors of th* f 
Church ; ^nd if the Jurifilitfjon of tht { 
former is but of A I Ate DAte^and a bu-j. 
man Conftiiutiod, it can be built on 
no other than A Parliamentary Founda* 
tion. , , 

13. If After -what has been faij, any 
fbotfd jet doubt whether by the Legal 
Conftitution of our Church the Clergy 
have *n Independent Power ^ , let him try, 
whether the Laifv cat* , have Any Civil 
Power, except what is derived from tbtf 
Clergy, fuppopng theft bwe the fume, 
in Civils AS the Kjng and PArliAmenfi 
JjAve in EcclefiAJlicAls. If it be long d to^ 
the Clergy to eftAblifb <t Civil, onjli t 
tut ion, And make LAWS in All in After /, 
ret At ing to it, ,even to the ordAining of 
Civil Officers; rvou*d not they who put, 
theft LAWS in execution be their Minifters^ 
Aft ing only by AH Authority derived from. 
them? And is not the Cafe the fAme, if 
the StAte mAkes LAWS with relation to Ec^ 
cleftAjticAl Officers, And Appoints, after what 
mAnner they /ball be wAde, And by 

and how thej Jbatl be qutliffd, and ttpo^ 
what terms they, /ball hold their Offices, anJ>^ 
who Jball fufpend And deprive ^em^ ,and^ 
for what Gaufis ? ^ Which brings me to 
that which is next to-be confided d, wbp- 
ther An Jn^fendent w Divine. Power , T 
tfa Chrej of wtkwg apd depriving 

... . . vi** ** J, ,> . **, ...,, ^ v *v\ J 

- V. l 

The^reftde; v. 

(> fiajtical Officers and Minijlers^ is }tdt V^j, 

- fCqnCiftent with the Laws. 
; 14. Jf todivide a National Church* in** 
toDiftritts and Pari/bes, and appoint EC* 
tleftajtical Officers for them, can* t be dont 
without & Legijtative Power, becaufe no 
thing lefs can give them^ exclusively of 
all others^ > a, Right to thoje . particular 
Di ft rifts and Parijhes^ and make it 4, 
Duty in all \v\j6 live within ^etn to own 
1 "em for their JLcclefiajlicat Officer s\ tfrefy 
this rnoft evidently appears with relation 
to Bifljops, becattfe all of *em, each in his, 
own DiJlricJ, are invefted with Power anc( 
Jurifdiffion, ^ which . none can be flow except 
the Legijlatpre, Now if thofe Bi]hops % 
>who happen to. be authorized by the KjrJg. 
\o confecrate Other JlifbopSi have no Lepii- 

f 7-* ^ r\ -<ia ^"^ o / * 

/> \ r s^ M (\\ 

deriv a .from the Convocation^ in whom 
the -Legtjlaturk viotfA be inve/led, if the\ 
Clerg) of the National Church had,fuc}^ 
VPorver i tbe^urifdiftion any Bijbop has^ 
*nd his Right to have a/bare in the[ 
waking of hcclejiaflical Canons^ and thp^ 
Power of constituting inferior , Minijfer^ " 
ftottjl be derived mediate Ij from *fhe Par** 
iiament, but iwwediAtelj from the Kjng^ 
at having th& Supreme .Executive - Potvtr^ 
Nor CAfrihttbe evaded by faying the $crip~ 
fart \ecpiirts Obedience to Bf/Spps^forf^. 
frfoes tfiJddges And Dottier Civil Officers \ 

* V * and. 


fc u 

The Preface; 

and jet none can have a Right to make 
s them, except he who is a Legislator himfelf y 
or atfsfy his Authority. So, u it not the 
fame to give this or tkat Perfon Eccle^ 
pajlical Jurifdttfion over, the Inhabitants 
of this or that Place ? There s no way of 
evading this t except by making the Church 
4 private Society, and allowing no more 
Power to belong to it than to other frfa 
vate Company s and Clubs ; and conje* 
quently y that all the Right anyone has to be 
*n Ecc left a/lie al Officer \ and the Power he is 
entrufledwitb) depends on the Confent of 
the Partjs concerned, and is no greater v 
than they can be/low. 

1 5. if the Clergy had a Divine Right 
to make the Bijbops of the National 
Church, *nd % which is wceffarily included 
in i>, to affign to each the Diftriff he was 
to govern ; the Magijlrate cou*d no more 
have a Right to name 7 em, or to affign to, 
each the Limits of his Jurifdiffion^ or } 
to deprive any of J em, even for * time 
wly, than the Clergy cou d do any of 
thefe things, with relation to thofe Qf- 
fcers who in their feveral Divtfions 
have Civil Jurifditfion. Bttf, our Par* 
liaments have from time to tim^ depriv*d^ 
4 i* Bi/bops as well as other Ecclefafticks ; wf)icf* t 
if 4 fufflcient Proof they thought, they 
ot their Bi/boprickf ty, a Divine " 
:/K -^ facflu/e they cou^no^mpr t e 


; The Preface; 

or wen fofpwd fab A 
than give it : And they might , for in* 
fiance , AS well have made drJ/ /M/Cam- 
pegUW DeChinuchii Bifbops 0/"Salif- 
bury And Worcefter, AS have watted, 
that their feveral Sees and Bifhopricks 
were utterly void. Anil there h<ts notn*. 
teen A Reign fince the ReformAtion, w^^t 
which the Par/iAment has not ntAde Lws 
for depriving EcclepAfticks. Were not 4 
greAt number deprived iy Parliament #po* 
tb* ReflorAtion? And. ftnce the Revolu 
tion, have they not deposed Bifbops as iveH^ 
*s of her Ecclefujlich ? My, have they* 
not trujled thU Power with our Pr incest 
And upon An Afpedl from the Archbifaop, 
whofe jurifdiftion extends to the depriving 
BifiofsMS well AS other Ee&ftfticits, doet 
. not the Supreme CovmzAnce in this matter 
belong to her MAJejtfs Delegates? NAJ, 
did not Quten Elizabeth deprive all the 
Popi/b. Bijbops, And WAS it not declared gooi 
4nd valid bf 29 Eliz. C. 8 ? And might 
not Charles /. // there haJ been jujt , 
CAufe, AS wS have deprived ArchbifboP 
Abbot AS fufpendedhim,? 

1 6. If the Legijtative Powers can dif- 
folve A, Bifhoprich AS they did that of 
Purham ty the j of Edw. 6 f they tnitjl fy 
tounbifbop A Man ; ftnci Bifopfs 

onti wtbgut.the other, 

.cA -vn^ TT-A^ *,; KVTJ 

^kii ,.:.-. .. ft rj fhc Preface. 

4/1 */ ii ;/fo? aonfolidate . 0* wk/ 

Bifiopricks into one, they wholly deprive 1 

one Bijbop of , *// /;/ / . Epifcopal Power* 

n tvtu. f nee he tan have no more Right to exerci/e 

. v i .( . " bis function in that Eifljoprick he .i* de. 

* * l \ ; J* friv*d of, fban in any other where the Sft? 

X.fti:. j|/ //v// f And had not the Parliament , 

*: : thought they had an Abfblute Power in 
i this matter ^ they, wou r d not have pretended 

jiH,t.c.$, to authorise Henry 8. to nominate fuel) 
number of Bi/bops, and Sees for llijhops, 
as be thought fit. And do not . the 
Si/bops of Oxford, Briftol, Glocefteri 
&:c. owq the Foundation of their Authority 
to the Civil Powers, who created thoje 
Places into Bijbopricks ? Nay, were not 
Wall the Archbijljofrich and .Bifbofriclcs 
founded by the Kjngs of theft Realms } 
And is not the Kjn^ the rightful Patto* 
of all of \m f And were not the Bifoops, 
till the Time <?/Hen. .r. as is plain from the 
Hijtor tans of thofi times, eletfedin Parlia,* 
ment f and did they not receive their Irt- 
vejliture from the Kjng, per dationenj 
Annuli & Baculi ? i 

17. In a word, if all the tiifoopricks 
tre .founded by the Kjng, or, wh^ch is.. alt 
one asfo this cafe, b) the Kjng and Par - 
liament, and they caniycreaje^or^difftitiifl} 
their Number as they pleafe ; Can the #i- 
/bops of thefeSees be, Independent of tien** 

when all their Power fttnds or Mis with . 

I. .- - __ _ -_ - - ,.___ .-._ . . 



"" the Preface;? , aoxui 
fwf/Bifioprlekti The ParJiameHt for 
pol* :jbeir, Pom in mtking &/bopi, *s 
grett . is *V Milling other Officers - whtch^ 
At ft ctrfi bedone without fame Former, > 
ether, jb they. AuthoriM Kjng Edw.<5.J&4>M; 
tifpptiittjtx Prelate}, *ttd fix other Per-, 
fonsto^twfe A form MMtnner ofmak 

rlL~*J. *!AI** **l*ti - jJrfJihithntoS, BtirJOpf 9 

Ttjt \AfJHTjilf > ; f^ /b * * r/ *tf *" f* "**">*" * ~~-j~- ~s 

* ti (in which: there might fa only one Pn* 
^&*Jv4ttt4| -if fit forth- under the ,Gre*t .s .ti ^ 

. (^l^i^M^ *^ Legifative Povtr jn 

&ft&tti.fWtftf t *$fo& $ffi t* n t fi* 
;,* ^?W, thQ.cotfdnot hive jMf.4*" ; Ptf 
> V.i Overs Ptrfow ty //^.iJ2?^V -Supreme 

* iS c ^ Authority htve been eltffed, *w*de r trtA 
, jonfarated$i/bop^ 

* *\$*fnmt Porter and Authority had Mf^, 

Wmferfetfiw^ *f. 

" i tr/^ co$dtf f it>t htetis of.thefrti St&* . 
\<. **#/,- /i^i ^ltheS^e^^n4Abfolt4^ 

# Authority of the gveen, and vhich fl}* 
",ht* ftfd in and about the Making and. 
jft ttofortfing t?/ //^ /iW Archbifiopff 

# Bijboff, , 8c(?, , irf.^ / ^ fig^ ^ ^^ x . 
; l ;;/ ( b *^rr , 




VWtjfo flam: that tfa^tfb 
fy the Qtieen in confrmtog 
itoficrAttiig of other Bib&t 
rhfy fy vinte tf h 
AM the\mAntier->of 
,M totfeluiing of Eift6f^ 
that the Gkvgy a& mwifie 
r Chaffer it^Migfcivithirt 

orfti o F*^** JVrV-^ .1 i 

25 H. B. f^onge d Iil:rC ; d/m / 

*C. 20. Vf >^;A7 A..-.O. " .- / ~r < r % >, 

fiifficient. [An&tfa ^rchb^bdf^dnd^ifljopt^ 

I.OiT .-l H^ t nh nng the- ffitHntt* 4?>YtVj?v***ktftM*^ Jjb 

fetted) as^ tkej^ Are cbttima ftdcd- ^ 
quir d to v x:6hfifrft the BlcfBonj. jfl^to 
invert and con fetratQ/th^VEf^Q^^kh oil] 
Speed aridc jC^rlty v> jyJ> *3i^?^i\^V^rtf : " 
Itinprm anjb ^orifecrdte ^he^ Eif} , wfi$b 

^kiiiuj-ii *i j/i^i**i*."Lii .^-// . .i / j . yVf ./, !. . ^ -."ty^ ll 

^^^afr^^e/l M wfi<$bty/wj^$} ~ 
vitit within fo "many rfi>/^^i^W ^i 
Pfemtlfiw^^ f ; ^- grtdter "P.Maltj*- 
Civil Mimfters jujftr. /^N " : 

*^.^ bs^ ntork yacrihgicftr + that* ^fvr % 

Vrhice to ccnnmAnA his Fct/tfiaftictt. 6>z/V 

feigns, otitb^gre*; 

- Death- -in ti matter 

. Govtnmunt of- >}he Church ytpbrifo * -aft 
where , fy thisSuppofnion, >kt> hWHotbify 

^ ^ < flMrf : 


. K 

^ The Preface. v 
.jfvrt to fa, fan to city the R#ter tfy 
fiijbops fefOfir\ hftp. -ii Should the B*/b(>(\ 
itretendto cqmtnitnd thus in Civ 1 " ^ ;: 

ft S r f ?/. .^ n*. .f 

tf *ht Fowr \of p 

to WV* 

*t owr o p - 


t^e^ QT a fagle Bi/bop ; be* 
in\ wfy appoint Any Arc blifljof* 
foftifboptf 0r4vjfourB//boj>s 9 
*.(. tfo $teft ft be GwfrmttfW 
" t tbeVicJrGensrAl, iphp 

V, if ffi Mrtjfy ^Lw 

" * % 

. Nor can ;> 


t that thofi whom the Kjttgcpm* 
tWJI** fpheretf fighti fi r \h*k 

he cot 

T .,. r ,^, ff ,^ T T an inherent Right to , , , t . 
jhe fame thipg .at the fywe tinw. An& 
fince ^fV impojjiltledbere footed be fevgrat 
Qrigiojil^of the feme thing* ,the P&ver of 
the fietetiP d Jftifb.bp tnujt Devolve to the A/^J 
tlwe, J ffldth? Bifbops cowwifftoft d by hint 
Wttft, dtfive $11 the Authority they exercifc 
in dijpQJiflg of thti J*o\ver to Anew. Bi/bpp^ 
front hjw whojommilfions "*ent to att Accor-; 

thttt All Sfiritutf \Powr & wfttA 
MA^ Md tbtt, whatever the 3/- ; 

*, O * ! \ 1 I t i V \ \ \\ J < ft * , . 

b a v /%/ 

.-<* .., , ,** . : , *<t 4 

*xxvi . ;. . The Preface}* 

fyppSor other 1t,cclefta(Hck$ haw if Jerityi 

i from him. And if the ftifbops are made 
tytheKjngs Author it j, Whatever Power 
they have of making Priefts and Deacons 
in the National Church mttft likewife be 
derived from hint) becaufe whence they de* 
rivt their Bifoopricks they muft derive all 
the Power which belongs to , *em. An A if 
Tithes and fir ft* fruits are paid t& Spiri 
tual Perfons as fuck, the Kjng or Queev 
is the wojt ^Spiritual Perfon, becaufe the 
Jbfiops thewfefoes pay him or her their 
Fir/.Fruiis and Tenths. Th^ltbink^ I 
have made it plain from the Laws which 
relate to the Church^ that , nothing is more * 
Jnconpjlent with J erx than an Empire wh 
, in an Empire, and that att the Power i 
Clergy have in the National Chufch is tie* 
riv dfolely from the Parliament ; and top* 
^s^uently that none can be for the Church 

,. 4s tis jettled byLaiv, who dorft. alhor all 
i Independent Poiver in the Clergy. 

19. jtjterwhat hasten her e^ (aid, it is 
xerifejs to ffjeiv the Senfe of the Clergy, 
ftnce their private Opinions cott^d not alter 
the Law y or Make the Church to t?t other- 
wife fettled than it is : and having all 
faorn to the Regal Supremacy^ we (ought 
no* to prtfume that they fuppofi tlwt 
[Supremacy iriconfijlent with an] lowers 
which they claim fy Divine Right ; and if 
, >%^, it only {hews that Interejt can get , ; 
i the 


The Preface: ; xxxyU 

the better of their Conferences. And how. 
great foever their Authority may be in * / 
Point which is again ft their Interefl, jet 
certainly it can be of t little weight^wben ti$ 
to gain over Princes anA^tates^ as w!L 
>as the rcfl of Mankind, anabfolute andun+ - 
controlable Power, of which onl) God can 
deprive *em. But fwce fo much flrefs is 
fUfd on the Opinions of the Rifhops . an& 
other leading Divines at the Reforniationy ? .\^ t \\\ 
which fome -endeavour to tnirreprejent to *v&yy 
the prejudice of .the EJl^ : IJA Church} . 
it mil be proper to give* at* , nt of their- 
\Sentiments. . And the 25 H. 8. ..19. 
% leing enatfed at the Requefl of the Clergy, 
land pen*d in the very Words of their Pc+ 
tition> there can be no greater Argument 
of their diforvning all Independent , Power. 
And as we fnd J em in the jirjl Tear of 
^/jjV^EdvvardV Reign humble Petitioners 
for the Kjngs Licence to authorize em 
to attempt, intreat, and commune ^ of Burnett 
fuch Matters, and therein truly to give "] 
their Confents, which other wife they n . 
couM not do ; fo * they* have never price 
attempted to wake any Canons % without the 
Kjngs l^icence frfl obtained to confer , de* 
bate, treat, coMer and consult: and the 
frfl Canon of thofe made in 164.3. declares, 
/ ( That* the .Power to call and. diffolve 
// Councils > both National and Provin- 
" ci/tL is the true Right of all Chriftia? 
h > " Kiriu 


^- - r " . 

The Preface, 
their own R^//fc/; ant 
when in the frfl times of CkHfi* 
" Cbrtch Prelates xSd this Power, two* 
" therefore only bicaufe in thofe days they 
* had tioCbrtflian J\Jngs. Which Sap* 
f option makes all Arguments fd? any $Qwer 
of the Clergy , built on the Practice of 
thofe Times, inconclusive. And agreeably , 
to this Notion of that Convocation, t the 
-Gr^Puffendbrf affirms, " Thatbecaufe 

Popcdom, Sovereigns did not at fr ft concern them- 
felves with * Welfare of the ChriJliaA 
" Religion, te Cbriftians therefore with- 
^ out their Affiftance conjlituted a Minijlry 
** v and an outward Church-Government 
* amongtt tbemfetves, which wa* main" 
* tairi*d by them as well as it cou d. 
j .20. All t be Bi/bops, upon the Cletgfs 
titining Hen. 8. to be Supreme Head of the 
Charib, took out Commifftons for we ex. 
trciftng of their Spiritual ^urifdition\ . 
\ Archbiftop Cranmer, as Anthony Earner. 

.;,>//, bas/beivn, leading the way. And upon Kjffg 
Edward / coming to the Throne, the re* 
vewing of thofe Commifftons was tbottgbt 
fo neceffary for carrying on the Refor 
mat/on, that one of the Jfrjl things or- 
dsr^d was, that the B/fbops fhou d take 
out new Comwiffions of the fame Form. 
And purfuant to this Order, Arcbbifbop^ 
CranmerV Commiffton bears date the jth 
vf February. 1547. and the King came \ 


ofrn . 

, M tC ^ w P 

?f ]S!i Wi&fy from the Regal Pow*, 
&4ftasWW i*i Sttfnw H**** and as * 
? : FoMt*in **d. Spring of^H Mwfaff 
ft withi* his orvrt Kjngdotn ; fW rtjf-rt <f 
^vkjwittfj this. Jtmflifto* formerly t 
l f? v b<iil.d<we it only precariO, -W /Atf 

p with g*eful Minds to ^ r x tv 
this Favour derived, from the- ,;; 
Liberality And Indulgence : and 6 , 
accordingly they ought to yield it up 
t *jng tbought\ ft to require 
Ant. among the Particulars 

^^.M, is that of ordaining Presbft 
ters, an<J of Ecclefiafticai CorreQion ; 
ar\d all this to laft no longer than the 
Ring s Pieafure. And theje things^ . 
, fad to foper & ultra* overbad Avte . 
what belongs to *em by Scripture 5 which . AT . 
fopfoRng that theft things d& not belong 
to-the Office of *, Bfoop fy Scripture : tut 
tho they did, jet fo long *s the Magijfrate 
gives qnea Right to that Office in the NA- 
*f tonal Church, he gives him a Right +to 
.til thofe* things iff which the Scripture Reforlcg . 

tntkes the Office to confift. v, And in that Anglic, dc 

_ . v; / /* /I / * ^^ ~ 

* Rt format ion- : of the c,cc it \iiiiticAi . 


Ecclefiafticai and Civil Jurifdiaion is? 
\ derivM from the King as from one and 
the fame Fountain. //> true, *,*H8V 
Time all the Divines did not tome into 
this Notidn^cr at leajt till after if 46* For 
at a Confult of the moft eminent of ew^ 
. held at Windfor, there were three who 
ww/lfePf **^ Daymen cou d not excommunicate, 
p. 240. wf f (if rtft Wr* unanimous that thy cou j d ; 
dW TCW? of *em faid it was given to the 
Church (taking it "in the fen/e in which our 
Articles exptain } it, the Congregation fc 
,ihe Faithful) and to fuch as the Church 
/ball injlttute. 

. 2 1 . / need not mention more Authoritjs 
on this head, fince nothing can be wore no* 
toriow than that the Kjngs Spiritual 
Supremacy as fettled ty Ms of Par** 
liament, was by our Divines madetheCha* 
ratferijlick of the Church of England 
tgainjl; Popery abd fanaticifrn*; jnd was . 
xot only the Means by which t^ Re< 
for mat ton was carrfdon ^ but the Ground 
\on which the whofe >was juttiffd. Nor 

->- - - Tf JtgfM J *^ 

blip d Lhurch againjl all Ofpofets> without 

,. %& $*& 4// * lj f< Poivers the Kjng and 
exmtfd in Church-matters. 

--V n , v,, ; And 

, r 

^4 w.fni the Canons as low ^nfyfKfa& 
JamesV Reign require the Clergy not only to 
{ pbfervethemfehe$) but to obhgefcll Others can. 37. 
to their utmoft to keep ancTobferve all 
, : and every one of the Statute$ arid Jjiws 
(hat ; were made for reftpnrig -to the , 
Crown the antient Jurifdiftion it had 
over the Ecclefiaftical State : And fhej. 

Tirm that thp 
liority in EC- 
idus Jewifti 

Princes and Chriftian Emperors had, .or 
; (ball endeavour to hurt or extenuate iti *,%i/i 
:as tis fettled by the -Laws of this King- - 
dom, is ipfojAttoi. excommunicated, and 
rpot to be reftor d but by the Archbifhop, 
-after he has publickly recanted thefe 
^impious: Errors, And Among the Jews 
sikeremre not /two- Independent. Powers to 
limit each other^Mthat High Church- 
VWai jMr.^ Thprndike <mw, ho frith? ; 
-That it only becomes the Wilfulnefs ofch. 17. of 
them who neither underftand the Scrip- ^EP|^ 

tures themfelves, -nor will learn themg C( J y c f * 
^ of others, tp. "imagine an Ecclefiafti- thcchurch 
cal Court diftinft from the Secular, 
Blinder the Law, in which the Priefts 

were the Judge ^. AndArchbifoop Ban- ^^ ^ 

- troft, in the. Articuli Cleri Jttiwffto the infli/oi; 
Kjng in the Nxme of aS the Clergy, owns, 

\ that tho heretofore the EcclefiAjTical and 
tyrfipQr4-^urifdittionwere^&^ faftp^ tho 


>* ,nO Itnftriki CrwbAof tkh 
lrcmcTC.7t ji ? 22 ; j! JDrj; Still iogfleetJ fwt.Wtd* \ it\ *fc 
fcar f \ kh*tibb.GMerAlit),of,Q(tr Diving . 


mAMbbfljop Whit- 

Wl )/? ft ^ c Aw^T^t it is the .Opinion of; the 
bcft Writers, ;that t!iere!s no one certain 
.. rbind of Government i in: the Church, 
which iihiuft, j be perpettfally obferv d.:; 

and, fa>*ddsj> that the Jurifdiaion of the 
.Chriftiin Magifttatajimplks a ;Gba0ge 


in thd firft kind of iGoyernrtient ii 
..L*.* M r.i fill tn the 


*Gov*rnrwnt was tbt reptitfd 
itbe Nttionj Clergy atbrnttAftltAiiJ, l\wK 

10 .^i , ft inov only mention ibaifirfil 

J1 r ( ! :; wW P4r/ww;;r (7/{ftkl! 

" fj? Jo . . . ti i n./r i 1i 

vr. >- r f0 i^A/cA 4// the Btjhpps fhert cvncurd^ 
none of tbe lMtj proteftedwtinft /f, 

< fl external Government*Mnd Polity of 
^* Church is inhis Mqeftj,And\his Sue- 
;^ 4 ceftors . *?* *\ Inhmnti Right t of - 
^ Crown ; Ji/;^ ^^^ ^j&fy JBij/ /^X 
i u and* limit. Jucb Conftitutions, . 
^^ Orders 

. Charles a. tn 

* """ :;** 

*tdo not find thAt High 

:>. >"! > N : if 


jjonal Church have no Indtfiimewt J?dw&^ r \\-J 
& fa, very phir* front the 3W} i)/ L ^ r ^ 

T^. / - > : V L ti t * 1 j >vli ?>! 2uf I J fv 

^Arid)thAi" All; which is* fretendeA Jo fife 
whir AY j is, that our tyfiriffito^ffijKb. 

)u 9 -fhat(w&r^ ^ 

.^jpifter the SacraMentf % fyt^ttjAt Ibe 
ws leave tbi* in the NAttondl Cbprtb 

*wbre Independent tt)An Lawyers* Pfyfaidns, 

^M Men of* other ^rofe^ons^nd.^^ ]^ 
*t6 phom tut. Lws Auoti tbe\fame Privi* * ^ 
lege : \ iut thy are, like aft otlMs,\l# 
If he Exercije tif their Funttiinsj fubjeft )o 

* i .* P I rt .> ,^ . . , . * \ 

*?hc LAWS wktcty the Supreme 
^cribe^em^ an^Are (%ffenaetlf clcptiv* d y , tir 
^ptberwifc fxniftfd *Jor the breach of tfo. 
ave .not the \Cot#nitopLarv ^fudges 

to determine wtiether v i : Mm 



Tfrc Preface. - 

. \..>-fji t v 
Ri&ht to, the Sacrament^ 4*4 

to * Per fon whom thy, 

h , *k* Pwfl r*fJi* i 
ences can nbmon 

yet tblit\ does not binder but a(l 
^ Civil derive 

t; from em : kni fihce they are 
f$ Ecctefiafiicks in their fiver d 
be term" 

. ^ 

-ftvffelf ^% fef? 7 ^.^/ ^ C/^r^ 
iatmftlvt$ % raftofes Paftor um, Epifcopi. 
Epifgpporum, Poatiiides ^Maximi. Vi- 

^^ Adherents, in excluding 

Eccle/ta/lic*t Ju~ 

t f & $ fal&$i 

; jjtft.get and gather to thcipfclycs the Rulo. 
ent of tlie World: W^/ 
of the Convocation of 1646 

[face that is nothing lefs< 
^the J/H. 8. c 17. and A , 
^jvhich empower Laymen to inflitt all Ecck- 
^.ftfticalCenfures, and is A dire ft fr iking 
., ( at the Regal Supremacy. For how can the 
,jKjng be the Supreme Jadg in Appeals 
\Jrpm the B/fbops, if the Goodnefs arid Fa- 
xfidiypf bis Sentence mujl be y 

W : 

fitj f And is not "this ^ w*ty#$M\F**fi* 

fond Mates. Marriages, &61 fo f belong 
w tic CleM ty ( Diviw ;%}&*** -fir * 

r-^V M^ 

Softer. l j^^ (^^V^ t ^^^ W 
fthicb .^"^?,^f ** r y**j^ C ^ 
zapce, : . ^/i/^5 i ; : Mttyridd ly * tM - Civil . 

ifrbiwix 41 . ^f^ /^ r^- /!^ ; tnougti what * > 3 * : ^ , 

defClergjMfy to f renounce the; ^Judgments 
Wade by Lyt^ (a s \ all* the Judge^of- the 

*^U,;f!>f,i AA 4)^/1/7 /if tlie -tfi/dfa saf- ibe 

r V li lr \rr* y* * r v * * I f ^% 

*tm\vith*Po}ver ; f /;/> -4^ tywgfwey 

*>S;fl*vi*/ l v Vn - J*rlMa>* &li/tt t:/tvmert 

immjiKiiM) in- aecmrtrfg wu*t ; *-/w^ 

*4t/e djafa d, **nd in ; ttt mArinfr tbty 
preferih. >{ <^ v ^ W : \?^ ;" 

Wr^ unfacountAvtetkw thai "ftif jfG roatf 

*pr foppofea 6V;;7//W, x i/;^; ffioifd b? read)* 
*tf "protfotincf anji Sefoettcc the TLtfjtftfg 
wfafcs to pic ft c i \vitbout "knowing any 
fyore of ] the Ca^/e v ihan <jf A if/;^ ( i4)v ? ,->*I,A 


. - 

^jf ;, ^ 

ce; >v hatoyer, ny , In 

Pptyfuv -either fypaj.or fq^l^ 

Office pK Kings, ^nd cuntiiingly to.pyer 
throw th^Sacred Ordip^c^whiqh Gp 

fonable againft Go4 
^, $fit^e 

i>t not \*s\ 

" IK 



whether, jh$\i$ti}Cww do$s not ^ /< 
j&Jj tint. tfnW. \fydeptna 
\94jkr jyq $udg. 
;. During tko/e Reigns, 

\natrtotjj ftnt, 

\ I i r V- * r sVtt * 

r^<fjf ^f/V til .tfiafiVAS pofftp/6 - 
rey -w/W/^ jR?//V/W 

pT 4 A\Jj\ \0 S^&li. . .^O . 


at P t pwer^; fyt tffer fbtfy 
\r?d tfyt fQurt had A 

3 : 

thaBraFacd^ Hlvfc 

. | "*/KKiKsJ > ILptJfte tO -V** JJC/C/K * rvi* MWVMI 

fatskdefcttOthi*gxgMflf* i^ + 

tec&mtyi&ftfy 1 tfebarffi\f}Jn &raltid of 

>&W^- v ; \^ * *^ vV( Vv V.^^^-AV v\\;a\fV^^ - 
/.^ -fi^W^^r ^ir^- M ^^/jQii 
tlk rct r J?W//?^^4w^*.Ch9^ncy*, .^toroteM . * i^p^ 
5 *)$tw{t in de fiwst of* V W Rvwffbu. RMtfffa " ; i ? f <( l t 

^v-t.i- ^4 P .V ?4 

I d ^ 

bfrthiChyrch of, Rome/, dberring //., 
to be A^true^Church^ And the Book was ^ 
Dedicated to * And Patromtfd ly the Afcfo, 
tijbop ; >fofar WAS Chowney from fofag 
, f unity d And queftion*d for this Doctrine. 

In the Cenfure , of Baft wick \ *tt the, 
Si/bops then jrefentdeny d openl) that thty 
had the ir Jar ifdiffion *t Bijbops fro 
Kjngi for which perhaps thtj\ might 
!.** Jtxbeen certfar d. themfehes fo Kjng 
II. AndKjng Edward HIV Times. 
(, , But they affirm* d, thejhad their ;<J#rifi , 
" - diftipn^from God alone :. ? which. Denial, of ^ 
the Supremacy \of the . Kjng , under? Qod % 
Kjng\ Harry VIII, w6t?d have taken vety 
i^ - and it may , be. mtfJi have emfateJIt 
r * % them by fa Kjngly Arguments & llegia * 
manu. Bttt<*thefe+ Bi/bops; .pubtickfy Jiff 
Avorfd . their\ Dependence >\ofr^theiRjngi ! 
. And .tfje.:drchbijbop maintained the Booh* 
of Chowney, and that tho Rowijb Church^ 
. wasAtrueQhurfh) Anderfdnotin+ftm- . 
lament Air. Thw fat Whitlock, \ x v \\*t$ 
\ This. Archbtfbop LaucJt.fV^ *ford:t& 
affirm of that Church , -in Ordtr**o derivt 
from thence. that Popijb Independent PomK 
be was fettingup here* ^And nothing gfa 
more *jefuitical than tihat\at his Trial &, 
faith in defence of this, and for expung* 
ing out of Books all Paffages -\vhich call or 
intimate the Pope to be Antichrijl ; \-j96j r 
that ht.wASf /a do him jt^ice^ for ad* 




the Prefab iclfc 

Pooler of th*\Pdp*?rt toW 
for tff Roftijb -Religion Wore\ thin fit 
*nj others ^ And this wo* necefftrjfo ntri 
to *ffert\ i& Order to derive from thence 
tbit Independent Porfet tibitb be And hit 
Adherents -were fetting ttp 


r \ <* f "" *T " I f ^ ? ? Q CI 

f0* L/OPS tf^thtLAnd, the Qdtb of Suprc** 
JftirgV- the. Principles of the, Reformation^ 
knd of tb* : burch hi fMMded fo much 
ZgAl /0n\ ^But his whole Deftgnrti AS to 
tdvahte the fcccle/ia/lical Power Above the 
LAW of tJje-Lana (one of the -Articles on Unfa 
which he uvtf irbpeackfd) and therefore* * P- 
while he wo* timing At A PAptilPower^ 
fefting to* k CAlFd His Holinefs And & 
Holy Father^ *s the Vtiverftj tf Ox- ^ 
ford in mAny of their Letters And AfcjfFf*^ 
dreffes ftiPd him, y tit no wonder if he weri 
nb Frientt to the Pbpe s SttpretrtAcy dr- 1ft* . ( ^ 
fAllibility* But for the other Pdpifo Doc** - II 
trifles which fertfA to Jet dp *n Englifh ^ ^ . 
Foptty, #c need go no further than hti 
Life written bj his own ChaptAtfl Dr. Hey- 
lin^ to fee how ready he wo* * 1 6 fAvotir alt 
who promoted r ert, And hdw (everclj he 
treAttd thofe who opposed *em: AnA ^ / J >: 
the Books of the rAnkeft Ptpi/ls oil theft 
Dottrines were either licensed by his C/ 
Uinsi^or Approved by himfelf\ An& 
enlj new Books A&Ainft Ptiper) here 
froth being ftnUi/b^ or cdll d tii$ 
Agdinft Poptrj, deleted 



fery ; <y they tvmft4i&4:&h*t diver* of, 
?>*n*Wi* to ? fa hwfo of .Purfo/Mrt fof. 
again ft, Popery, ^ tni that tbt Book* 

had. the file Mctnftng 
BOOKS.* (ji^/^^p^r^^^^r^Vvfr/^/J 
v, w tjwfe Partfjf Popcrj : rthich Atrtttly \ 

j tdupng that \cf, tfa 

ynn bf?F#k&*itiu draw* 

453"" We a link OU Mat, n. fafAWteA tfrefb. 
Hi s mtrod.4f bis CJwppel a( JUoibeth, . j Dr^ Hey lict. 

orppraf Preface of \the NttvrAt. 
Body of Chti]t\in the Evcbdrift t * and 

2. P. *$y^ r ;y from his ReA/ow for bowing to tbt 

Jb. j>. 38^^//4f, the Form of the SacrAment in the, 

Scotch Liturgy, &nA /;/> BthAVto#rin *** 

p t .j 7 e ; , wiving the Sacrament when Jit .confecr.Attd. 

i- M-^ Jj)/^ Church of. St. 1 Andrews. Thcfe, 

/ things, .together , with jbp -pompous Tbea* 

^ ^ \tricfil Wprfbipj And Certmvpys tending t& 

*-.- .ideate x.tippfirJIifioM Veneration for the, 

the foint > of \that 

\ And M* foil if thefi 
tbt Reafons why fome >Ad freten& 
hwt fo gredt 4 

were the Ptrfins who, contrary 
-of* the N Atlo^ >:intourAgdt 
& -promoted *AI*\ Independent* 
Power. :fo the Ckrgy \of. the NAtiond 
Church f J twill\ not be imftrtinent to men^ 
iion wh&.\Qfinhfl the greAt Lord Fa Ik- 
land (vhtf^ZjAl for the Chunk WAS nfr . 
toore qucjliotfd th AH his Ability: to defend* 
*/y And in whofe Praifr. 4 ^Ate Noble Hifto~ 
iAn fptndt three P Ages And A hAlf) hAd cj^ 
thefe Mex, rvhofe Spetck in PArliAment* 
Feb. 9. 1^40. witt give its the btft AC* 
count of fr." 

* ,. Mr.SpeAker, He fa A grtAt Strtn& 
4 f in Ifrael, who knows not thAt this Kjng- 4- P ^ 4< 
<c dorh hAth\long UboufA, under ntAny And 
^f great Oppfefftwt, both i* Religion *nd> 
" UbertjyAnd his AcquAintAnce her? is* 
*f not greAt)\or hi! Ingenuity lefs, tihtf 
not know And Atknovledg, thAt 

^ grtAt ^ if not A principal CAufe of both 
** thefe J hAtb been Come Bijbops And tlxif 
."Mcnnut c t "Mn 

T lii 


t v.$p fndthem to hAvebeen tht 
. of-. Vnity mndervfntenct * 

~ \ mty^to 

"^ And ScAndai under the Titles 

u \rence And 

*5. Chare h by v Adorning our* Gbur shto^ to* 

:have Jlacketfd the Striftmfs .of \ WA*\ 
u Vnion which WA$ formerly betwixt *. 
t^*nd thofe of our Religion beyond the Sea ; 
* w Aft ion AS unpolitich Asungodlj. ^ - i \ 
< -,^V As Sir Thomas Moor fAjs\ ofcifo 
HVCafuiftsy their Bufinefi pAfno* tolup* 
^ Men frori finning, but to inform theni. 
quam prope ac} peccatum fine peccato> 
^/lliceat acfcedere : So it feem d jtheif\ 
^ Work (meAning the Prelates) WAS /0i 
**tty how much of A Papijt might fa 
ht in without Popery, And to de* 
AS much AS they cou*d of thcGof~\ 
withotit> bringing themfelves into* 
er of being deftroy y d by LAW. . , ,?.v^l 
Mr. Speaker, to go jet farther^ 
them^hAvefo induftrioufly IA+ 
deduce themfelves from Rome^ 
.* thtt they have given great ^fajpttiorij 
^.-thtt in gratitude fhtf depre to return* 
*1\ thither, or - at le*Jl to meet it half way : 
":Somt have evidently laboured to bring 
H in an Englifh, tho not A Rbman P^ 
a \perj* 1 mean not the only 
44 And Drefs of it^ but equally 

The PrtfaTc; 
Hind iQbedience^f^ tta Tteoplctyon 

i . [elves j and have ofpofd, Papacy beyond 
t ," the $e&* that they mighf fettle one he* 
*&\jond the Water. Nay, common Fame is 
**? mort\tb*n ordinarily falfe> ,if none \of 
v.5? , them have found away to reconcile Me 
.%" Opinions of Rome to the Preferments of 
<. " England, and to befoabjolutely, diretlly, < 
,\?, and cordially Papifts y that it is all 1 500 L~ J T * 
v ^ per Ann. can do , /p ^w^ them from\^ ^ ^ 
s " conf effing it. : \ , * >; ^ - l 
*< iH 7 ^/^ /^/? PKW/ Bp Goodman, Dr. $ 
IBaily, Dr. Goff^ I?r.,Vane, &c. con- :: v 
< frm*dby Declaring for. the. Roman, when \$\ 
- they defpair d of eftablijbirig an Englifh 

^ Notion.mbich is for the In* 
of. the Eccltfiajticks,, if. once fuffer d, 
r \to take rooty will auickly grow and JprM. 
. \Atw find Ms of an Empire within ^an 
^Empire did in Ch. aV time ; yjy ^/i IrAe 
; .Reparation it .foon became an ejtabliflfd. 
i Principle with High-Church, that there 
; i were two Independent Governments in the 
; fame Nation r ;and thai, the Government 

of the Church was. by Divine Right in the 
\. Bi/bops:< and the \Lover ^Houfe.of Con* 
\ vocation not long .pnce was \ for having 
- the Eifhops acknowledged to be not only of 

Divine,^ but Pivine Apoftolical Right : 
V c. . . v 


v which imift mean cither A Divine* T>ivine 
.Right, or * Divine fJunaav Rights V\ - 
2#, In tnj fenall Riding I b#w\ Met 

#itb no Clergyman fitue^ibe Rejtorttfon, 
< $ m*n when .be .has tooiMteen writing 
\frofeffedly Again/t\\the Popf.r^r^for the 

JKjxg* Sufremflcy^who doewoi WAtnttifl 
r *n Empire within tn Emf(ve r txceft Dr. 
, Stillingflcet, whtjjt hi* Ireriicum^w/, 
B. |. e. * That the Clergy have no Lez*/lAtwePowr, 
4 - U *& * lja * *htrt ** no Lawof God which 
lodgu a Power in the Officers >of the 
, f 1 Gburcbiolinimw Cwfciences to their 
i**i Determipttioffs. * rito if- the M*gi~ 
\ # ft? Ate has no^ the fole Pim t er\io oblige^ 
> " rve rnuft irievitM) i run .into &tfi Ab- 
*< furditys: Firft, That there art twpSu* 
. ^ fre me Powers i& it Nation* 4^. the feme 
; ^ time. Secofldtj] That wMan* m*,j lie 
* under two different Obligations MS \to 
i " the fame thing.* \^ni \tb prov^ the 

JAaoiJlrate * Power . fufficient for all 
Churcb.fnatters, he quotes Peter Martyr 
i theft words : Nam quod ad Potcftatem 
Ecclefiafticam attinet, fatis eft Civilis 
Magiftratus; is enim .curare debct uc 

omne^ Officiura facient. . Bttt .bv sip* 
. fevdix, which came not out till tbs Second 

Edition^ * runs counter to this j and the 
whole Defgn of it if to maintain that Doc 
trine cf two . independent Powers which he 
; wusb exflodtAw the Book : and 
b"i t 1 i ; ^ / ?r i 1 * ^ there 


ia admitting w^mfcrium^ifo 1m 
and that- the Maglf 
mul&ivc, wnot privative. ,v ; 
v fa from thinking the 

Book>;jbttU asks" 
if to be \ don* in wtnj ^Qffexces i. i5. 

Agrinft the Lwtof^hrijlj* 
* twd to the. Dishonour, of thr* 
StMtfr which \th* Civil of* 
the. t Wwicipd: Lam tither do not: or* 
" w*y not take cogniz,v*c$ of ? and fays, v> 
**.$)(# thothtQ/ences .agunft >tbefe two * 
<t Society 4r*:for<th mo ft part the fone? 
\)tt tht CoflfaerAtion of, eat i^ different* 
^ iff the. Churab And CommovmAlth.>, But * 
ifatfy different ConfiderAtion tf( Mugs* 
mtkes different yurifditfion*r\fherisno-*^ 
tbingwbiehtbe Clergy, all thing* being in 
fame fenfc or other Sfiritualj mty-not p*c^ 
tend to jvdgofk.* 

29. And AS to the ILnttf ing Power ofi 

the Clergy^ AnA how f*r they rwu j d extend 

i(> none is more* proper ja.-fo. quoted that*. 

4 Bi/bop of the Church fefpecially when b* 

WtfA,Wthoughht0 fpealc. theiSenfe of 

Clergy) in hit Preface to tb^tticlts, 

qons.) &C. follefted tyhirn,.:* 

~,He f*ys> f lf,the ( Senfe of Faith 

< Holy Scripture is. ulPd i* 

*1 Church - w*j. ; *nA:> mJl: 

ttr.ylni* * C 4 

|vi ? The Preface! 

- *ttbat Sen/I if /be has receipt 

t^Cbrift and bk Apoflles, comman 
..:, -,-v $ under Penalty* and Cenfetres alt he] 
ffv Children to receive that Senfe y And to 
f? fwfefs it in fuch exprejfive Words and 
?.Torm at fpay direftly determine the ^ t 
i . Doubt.-*-*jind in Controverts About 
t( f ( Docffiwh where /be hts received no" 
* fuch .clttx Determination from Chrijt * 
f 4 *nd bu jipoftles, (be has Power to *e 
" clare her own Sen/i in the Contriver fi^ 
*t,*nd to determine which Part /ball be 
<\ received and profefs d for Truth fir 
V her Member j, and t^at under Eccte* 
*\fta/tical Cenfures and* Penalty !. The 
" Sentence /bad bind to Su^mi/fton, tbo 
? the Superiors may err in the Sentence: 
"fatter that Inferiors be bound to {land 
*\to fuch fallible *$ augment, tb an: that* 
*< every Man be fuffer*ti to v interpret Laivs 
f c avddgtermine Lontroverfjs. And tbii . 
Power he allows not only to General, but 
to Particular Councils. " 
I As the Church of Rome can*t carry 
a blind $ubmiff!on further than this Right 
Reverend Father, fo I think there was* 
then notoe that opposed him, or ratheff 
wbo fyd not affert the f anything. r 
30. The Expreffton which the Clergy 


they prafd for the Kjng 
fore tlcir Strmont, viz. That he is next 
r ftod iminediately to God and Chrift 

/ \ " * */ ; *- . Suprcinc 

The Prefaced 

Supreme Moderator and Governor, in 
all Caufes, and bver all Perfphs, as well" 
Ecclefiafttcal as Civil, : flfews that when 
this Form was frft contrived they thwghr 
no Ecclefiajlical^ Caufes exempt from hi* 
JarifdiftiOn.^ Yet has not this Form 
been droft by degrees ) and to it not now 
quite omitted f For which can there be 
any other rcafon, than that they think 
there** another- Supreme Governour for 
CAufes ? And while 

JLcclsfiaftical Caufes t An A while Men be* . 
lieve th^ it had been grofs Hrtocrijy for 
em to have continued *k* old Form of 
Prayer. Byt, 

* ji. The Parliament^ having, [without 
any regard to -thtfe Not ions ^ exercifi 
their Power in Spirituals bj depriving the 
Nonjuring Bifbops ; and the Sees being by , ? i . T j .1 , . 
the Kjngs Authority flPd again, it fos ^ 
taas d A Schifm tn High>Church : and 
they who adhere to the Bi/bops deprived by 
Parliament^ condemn tho/e who do not % 
AS *tting contrary to their common Prin 
ciple of Church and State being * under A 
^i ft in ft Government. Which Principle the 
others on the contrary are fo far from 
difowning, that they endeavour to recon- 

Treat ife y their CM ft injtead of defending 

V ,yv54 r/viii. .V,.. ;V^V^ . it, 


Contempt o tfair 4fa**f*ry^ gut, > j r ~ 


far Enenqs^mMwew condemn we 
tndiwouring lo twfutf tbpfe 
by which fak 4s sail tfamfifotis 
Chunk of England, ^tttm^^ 
, tht frtfent Church guilty $j cbifin 
Htrefy \> unlefi he h*A .rrtlw have 
Church thougvt&bifmtticafwd! ffere 
ibi* their jfrptifw fawn ta bf^ f*l/i t 
*Vpo the P.riwifle of two Jpdepwdent 
vtrwnents in the fame Society raifi dl 
ipe* with which they bitte? the 
we tbi$ .Principle A^ i^ 
4* bpth fides admit 9 tht 4ut ho* 
p. u, i2,*/ the Regale and Pontificatp wirV *f 
. I- in the, right i* fywg^ &$k*f for Kjng* 
** tohwetbe Nowi/iotto* <jf the^tft>op$ % 
^ u 4 betftyingof their^Tfuft w the Bi^ 
? /bops, Mom Qhrift has left the Gwer* 
-*J v von of the, Church ; jyd in , maktflg it 
twrywhit ArteAfoflMt) "tf 
f f Jbo^d k*v* th N orpin At iw and 

*n) thing 

+* ting to the Civil Gowrnwnt of 
^ Nation, without ^JLiw net qbtvifd foot*. 
#,.tbeJi/fiapf) nor enttt. ttiy thig but if* 
^\ th* Btjbpp* N*W **d. ,fy fbeir Autho* 
) at (bat the State footfA btve this 

" Pwer 

Jt tion of the one Pone r^antl giving it up to 
?f i^ 0/for :, andjvtiere the Choice > :of. the 
& Governors of. one Society is in the hands 
S*icf another Society that Society mufib* 
rff ^e^ndent, and fubjitf to thi fitbv*\ So MI .i 
i^ffMbe Power *of* the Church txttnds to , 
*; the nuking LAWS for tht Sfrte j* Ttm+~<. i -S-i 
\fV.f or thy or if the State .tnkke*\Lws 
*. binding the Church Spirl* 
\**\tttAbi then i< tb At Society Jritirelj fut 
^jett to the. other > ;A*l if one Sotiety 
v^, tAfft met pr convene together, without 
. > 4* . the Licence of the other Society -nor 
*&\ treat or entfl anj thing relating to their - ,/ 
\^ own Society without the Leave, and jlu* , 
\#*tkority of the other,, then is that So- ^ 
: .^-. titty in a manner diffoh^d^ <*nA fubjett 
^V^frecarioufytbthe tnsre Will^and Plea- 
tf fare ef the other. An& he Juffofes 

there it more to be faid on the Church s p r a o, s 
fide for her having the Choice of the KJng 

in her hand^ on pretence of Security tq 

-the Church , than for the kjngto have 

the Nomination of the<tht 

Churchy i( becauJetheKjflgathuCoro*. 1 ^ 

^ ^ nation furrenders hu Crown, Scepter and 

~ 4< Sword on the Altar, and receives *em 

-** thence again by the Hands of the Bijbops 

* ^ as the Minijten of Cbrijt, and repre- 
** fenting hit Perfin. And, fj 


,# The Preface: 

ttie Eraftiari Principle (the:Jenying\ttoo 
Indef indent Powers) has turrit the Gen 
try Deifts, and the Common People 
Diflentcrs; and talks of Deifts in Com- 
taittees of Religion. .And At he makes 
the Regale owing to Here]) i* other, placts, 
p. in. fo, ha Jays, * V/V /AeEffeft of Popery in 

# England ; and that all .Governments 
being abfolute and ttncontrolable 9 *\the 

Church can no more limit it felf than 
A c fta Parliament ; 4^ /^4/ /bff ^j not 
*f limited by any thing {be ha* done:. f aft 

i" the forver of recalling ; .and. that, it was 
" ^.Premunire that fyueezfd out the 
.S*htriffio of the Clergy, 25 H. 8, 
" & fic de cxteris : and that, it, u anlm- 
$ foffikility and a Contradiction for, any 
" Kjngdom or State >t* have Authority 
ft over the, Church within their Domi- 
*f nions in . Eccleftaftical Matters ; . and 
*. 1 that the Conference of.thismuftbe to 
r^; i^ 4/( Religion from off the face 
of the Earth. And the Re af on .he 
wfy if was fo hard to keep our 
Kjngs from running over to Pofery, not- 
withftanding the Depo(!ng Dotfrine, was+ 
Pi 32,155^ That they wotfd. \rathtr fubmit them- 
" felves, tho with the hazard of their 
il Crowns^ to a foreign Bi/btf, who af* 
" ferted a Superiority over *em both * 
<( , Spirituals and Temporal >, than to have 
ll to be fubjett wta, ever* 

i : c; 


*- .. 



/the Church; and } that 
/ the" Church rf Rome, for., . , 
i\tf faHin&into, the Regale Eraftiamfm j ? *^ * 
\dar(i.not*fufl>on *\ Reformation \\ and 
"^thAtthe WeJlern.ChurchSUJtt i/JT Mafc 
fytkf. wAscruciffd ktwte* the\ Vfitrp*> *, 
^tionpf\ the Pontificate on one^pd* a*4 
^. (the Regale on the .other. >. 

eqital*Entnys to EfifoPacj :?. in; 

*- Iif 

oice left to it WAS, who bou d 
its Executioner* *And if the French 
ep as clear :of* the Regale, their .Re* 
*JorinAtion will exceed ours,, which Gfl 
^ grant; and kt 7 em not take it ill that 
^ we warn em of the Rock on which 
*V tiff. r 4rf ^//V ; Er^ftianifm h 
^down like A Torretot from the RejorjnA^ 
V tion, and the Regale being wade, tho 
l \.verj. unjuftlj). the , Charaflerijtick . ** 
^gainjl Poperj and FanAticifm. Jnd fa 
condemns Charles I. for keeping the\EItc : 
t ion of Bi/bops in Scotland tohimfelf, jet 
fayt, He made, great amends after-jib.p.i3i f 
wards ; he -fet himfelf for the Refcue 
of the Church /rom the Encroachments 
of : the Secular Courts and Era/Han 
Laws; which was made a Handle by 
deCgning Men to ftir up the Rebellion 
againft him; and he is juftly enrol d 
among the Noble Army of Martyrs. 

To make the People fght for jhe Law/ 


Mi The 

, tidwKfcPrfa* (#hd has 

wording to LA#, v>hi6h\he\bKs f 
defend) enfawokr to defiroy r tm^ is* not* 

*:n.t . { \jh* llkeliejttoaj tomake ors* Mtftjr : tn 
the other Rebels j the it {hats what ihtfir 
High-fawn Blades wotfd put Kjngt \upwj 
if .they had Porter.* And * the nothing 
#&ti> is fo tommon AS tQ (*U the cppofag\of 
the Doftrine of two Independent Powr? 

.c 1 1 * t h Eraftian Her ef), ytt ^V*r plain fy \hf 
tetters wmxt to Eraftus / TreAtlfeofEx*- 

of t 

i that the ttleft of the fc 
were in hi4Seniim*nt*}4n * 
$clcf fat hat hire,* a* Mr* Selden fajt^fime of 
Syncd. Li. ifo gteateft among the Clergy, and whtf 
37. had the chief hand in managing the put- 
- tick J&ffairS) prevailed upon Eraftus?/-W7- 
Ao^ or her Husband Caflelvetro,^Vrf 
them h#w the CopfOfthdtEook, Ani 
by their dire ft ion and encouragement if 
to/u> *prjl printed at London, in 1589^ 
itod that ifr the 4ts of the Stationer* 
Company *tis regijtefd, that Ct)0tt1fl# 

- JKUolf enttcu fotftis Cbpp a CreatiW. 
Of 6omt1j3 CraflUSf, de Excommuni- 
catione, rrpojteft 1)? 69- .ffotfefcue td 
be altoto D lip tlje SJrcl)bi(ljcp of Canter 

bUtp. AnA Mr, Selden further fajfj 
that, there is reafon to believe that the 
jlrchbifiop had pngular regard to the pub 
lifting this Book ; and that not onlj he^ 
but fiver al otlrtr l<wrned and Piot* Men f 
* when* 

who wt^e?} frequently tilth ike V 

oh tyd-*#ith\ great Zfri etyotify* Irfo- 
#^/#fl*g^ *** 

w*iffi>fto^ Of* 

styvi*n\ fa Wty &/&* 
y. wnder the h*toe*of Ecclt* 

r ~ >, tht^ tyles of f^Engllfli Conftti 
tution^ thttifi tccordingit* futely^Hd^ 
wan L*to) And , firv*d to* foftifj the RtgA 
which for * longtime $ &A ofa 
-./- -rrW/, Wat be hti fcerfi 
Lambeth Libr^ tW 
lt> wtb *hife Words written in A 

i Intus quatn fixtra fbrmbfior, whtifc 

** %** * Vf* **AV/*4VSl *rfs + vi + 

.... tr*fittd to theArchbiftn^ 
-by. the fuklifber. ^And^tho it ^uvery^ 
likely \ this \ w<ti wrote by * the > Archbifhop 
himfelf (for* who {hould^prkftine >to write^ . 
ip hit Book ?J yet I own toy felfmiftaken in \ \ 
quoting Mr. Selden, a* I did in the firjl t 
Edition^ far ^ faying it tM writ by the - * 2 
JLrchbifljop himfetf j and therefore 1 freely < 

retraftjhatjas I/ball any thing T have 
fiid, Mifoon at I am convinc d it i$ a 
- Mtflake^ *tbo it foould not chance to be, & 
, tbb ti, purely incidental. And 1 beg leav} 

Archlifoop\s ^ -Approbation of thi* Book 
\plainly appears, which WM the end for %I : 

*bkh I wed Mr. Selden. ^ , 
^ <c 32. But 

fciv The Pre&ctf 

V ji. But *to teturn> Jo kigh Joes 
Author of :tbe Regale, $*. carry 
Authority <?/> the meAneft Ecctejta/lickfj 
>94* that he will allow no Layman tnore 

one Chaplain, becaufi no Man 

i;H.f. t m Majlersi tbo our L<to>, which is to[ 

detcrminc^wens Condition^ .caffs the 
trow of ChafUins their M/tfters. * Anl 
he will not Allow it f roper for * Lnymtn 

p. 182. to fay my Chaplain, otherwife than AS he 

** * fw my King or my God ; An A be toAkes 
it one of our modern Improvements/ 
that Dukes and Dutcbeffes, who only hAVts 

IU p. 221, Patents of: Honour from An earthly Kjng? 
fhou d be more eftimable and of higher/ 
Dignity than tbofe that have ChrifPt.. 
Conwitffion :. 4< For in our Forefathers 
"Time, And^ in AH Country* And Ages+ > 
"the Mitre food next to the Crown^ 
" even in the Civil Conjtitution ; And* 
* that not only on the He Ad of one Arch) 
. { " but of every Bi/bof. . And he fays y 

P. ?& " That the -Office afcriPd to Kjngs And 
cc Queens by the ^qth of Ifaiah, WAS A* 
* Office of Servitude, and not of Author 
i ritj : and that A Kjng is only the 
Churches FoJter-Father, that $sj Nurfe^ < 
Husband, whofe Office tis to carry the. 
Child in his Arms or on his Shoulders/ 
when there is occafion to travel, drc. 

P. aoi, But as >for the People, the bejl Ef>i* 
tbet if that of Beafts, trhith he is fo fond 

The Prefect Uxtr 

of, that fa repeats it in another "Di[iour 
which I think iith* only\Mfk #7* 
nuity in his Books,; fwct tis ft that hp before 
who is for ufng *en> # Beafts of B*fa,fg ~ , 
fbou y d let J em know what they aw to truft me nc of 
to. And a* for the Clergy, ht woSd Eu f<i>: -f 

^em be twenty times, more than they 
) Come of whom Are to be employ^ in 
Parliament, in Council, and the othe,- 
great Affairs of the Nation, and thofc riches, 
of lower Rank as Juftices of the Peace 2 3 2 > 2 
nd .other Officers for the Diftribution 
of Juftice. AnA 4* he complains our 
jKjngs exact the Tribute due to thie 
.Chief Paftor, Firft Fruiw and Tenths; R^c, 
fo he affirms, the BiDiop, ^s having no I?I * 
Superior, being the immediate Rfpnfe* 
tativeofChrift, is not under, the Tithe 
of Worfhip, for it muft end fomewhere. 
And as he arraigns the Lay-lmpropriator? 
AS guilty of Sacrilege, fo he. fajs, There 
Jies a heavy ,Curfe on this Nation, p 
whi<;hcan?t be removM. without Refti- 
tution of what we have rob d from 
<God : ahd& an Injtance of GofCs Judg* 
ments, he fys, To .much ,ha$the Crown P* 
^ gainMby.the Accqflion pf Sacrilegious 
Wealth, ,as;from tmpqrial Dignity, and 
^L propriety paramouptjn .all , the. Lands 
.of England , .to become an .Hpnourable 
cBeggar for jt? daily >Bread, This Re- 
flt ft i$t. Jtravge fywMtvth^ fys> 
t\ 1 that 

;tavi The Prefacd; 

D(ftf toi!^ ^ *" carfdalous and facrilegioo* Irti* 
Hi"h propriations of Tithes made by- the 
Popes, were worfe diverted by thole 
^ .who fhou d have reftorM em. 

In his Prefate to the Regale} he fays % 
P. 21. " The Secular Spirit which the Principles 
t<c of Eraftianifm have begot in the Cler* 
/ " ! " <?7t W./^ be exorcu dj and their poor 
V P fear of Temporal Powers. They ntuft 
,:,**" te brough t to believe at lajl that God 
" is flronger than the Devil, and Chrift 
" than all the Kjngs on Earth (a rare 

Pitture of 

they do nat 

the Clergy indeed, if at prefect 
believe it.) And he bids *em 9 
r>l f J i ;N c< ~oi to glare on Legal Eftablifhment, 
i but to affert their Divine Right in full 
P. 28. , i Tail*, leave not an Hoof of *tm be- 
: <;? ;: jf* hind who dare oppofe what they ackxoiv- 
*" ledg to be Divine. And upon fuppo* 
J fition that the Att of Submiffion forbids 
the Bifiopf to cenfure Books without L/- 
? V* i^cence of the Kjng, he fiys, " Here s a 
* c Pitture of the Regale wou d put a 
" Man in doubt of his Chriflianity^ and 
t that he has not been A Chrijlian or has 
-i .M-.f forgot it, who wotfd have the leaft he- 
" ptation or fcruple to damn the Al 9 if 
u taken in wi* Jenfe, to the place from 
<c whence it came, if there were ten thoufand 
^ other Afts of Parliament pitfd to the 
4< back of it. If any of the Shepherds 

, ^ have pleaded for the Aft of $ubmiffiofl 

The Preface. Ixi* 

fbotfdtyour Ecclefiajtical Hijtorian of the 
Reformation be proposed AS An exempt try 
Hero ; And that the licentious Principles $. 17, 
h inftird into Kjng Edward were de+. 
Jlruftive of All Religion, And , the wry, 
Fundamentals of the Church : but what. . 
he is mojl provoked At is, thAt this mojt , 
glorious Reformer And Martyr fuppofes (he 
Ceremony; of ConfecrAtion indifferent 
things, And thAt there"** no more Promije 
cf God (for fo Cranmer ^expreffes- it}, 
that Grace it given in committing the, 
t) th$n in committing the 

Office. Mr. Dodwel fuppofes the $*. 24,, 
premacywAs changed in Queen Eliza bet hY 
Time , notwithjlanding the Oath of Supre+. 
tnacj WAS enjoined for the better QbferyA? 
tjonjf I Eliz. in which the 17 H. 8. and 
the other Atfs renting to the Regal Su* 
fremacy were rwiv d y And consequently 
Became A Part thereof; becaufe the 5 Eliz/ 
c. i. declares, " ThAt the Oath of $u? 
" premacy fhAUbe taken and expounded i/i 
<c fuch form AS is Jet forth in her MA* 
< j e jty* Admonition ; thAt is to fay, tp 
4{ confefs^ and Acknowledg in her Majefly^ 
** her Heirs And Succeffors, none other 
" than that was challenged and lately f^A 
" by the Noble Kjng; H. 8. and Ed w f 6 f v \^\ 
<c AS in the faid ^Admonition more plainly 
"may appear. Vpon which Admonition 
Learned <Authpr thtu gravely deftants; 
da "I 

:*-. . ,C1 


IXK ,.. K , .>-,The Preface^ ._ 
$ 20 *.../ ^ */>/ to think, that the ,, 

*i comparing the Supremacy offum* d, by her 
" felf with fhjt whifh had been jbwengd 
** by her Father and Brother ^ does, not 
( Jp much imply that her Supremacy ^ was 
^ as bad as theirs, , but ttiat it was W 
^ worfe. But, 

"34. Ti* no wonder this Author rails fa 
fnuch at the Principles of the Reforma 
tion, yhen he affirm^ "that the Magiftrati 
" r rather lofes than gains bj hj* Converfaoy 
*f. to Chriftianity, becaufehe ^ admitted into 
" the Church on the Bifljop s Terms ^ and 
" 4* a private Perfon, and bound to obey 
<( (jhur(h Laws made by the Ecclejiafticks, 
Vindic. of u and fq fubmit to the Eifhop as Head of 
PC B s " *^ e d }urc J J i an ^ Supreme unappealable 
^54i57/ a j tt ^S *** Spirituals^ and therefore to, 
& ?? ^ abide his Sentence , which in fome cafes 
"^.miy proceed to Excommunication ,* 
? That every Bifljop is Supreme in his 
f* Dijlrict) and accountable to none but 
parincfis, " Qod : and that to jydg of a Bifbop or, 
p. ip^. if fa ft j s th e fa me & to prefume tO( 

" judg of God w Iw Chrift. Nay, h$ 

vindic. wirings in Philo reafoning as if God him* 

fup, $. H.filfwere the Pupil of the Clergy : <4 That 

-357> tl }e BrjboPs* are properly Priejls of 4 

4 8 49* 4 f more noble Orde, vhin the Aarpnical, md( 

** the Priefthoodti anointedwith anVnttiot} 

^ much greater and holier t\)&n the Regal : 

^ .^nd therefore *tis n? wonder +befays\that 

.^T* J WWW 

The Prefaci! fcrf 

V V# contrary to the Rules of Subordination 

* that the Sacerdotal Office /hou d be jub- 
jeft to the Regal. And thefe Powers of 

ir/tf Bifhop he wou^d have infer ted in our Pann, p. 
Catecbifms. *Tis no wonder a Man who*H> 
reafons thus {botfd* charge the Church of 

England, # he does in /w Defence of the 

Deprived Bps,*w/ Herefi as well** Schifm, 
-orfufpofe that the Magijtrate had no Power 
.over Synods or Diftritts^ he does all along 
<i# hit Vindications of the Deprived B/ftops. 
\ One wotfd be apt to think that 
\HighChurch) WomanMke, WAS pleased 
tejt with thofe who flatter mojt, and that 

nothing cou d bi too fuljbm or too grofs 

for her. For what other reafon can be 
-given why this Author \ was Jo much ad- > 

mir*d, nay almojl idolized by. High-Church, 
-than the extravagant Power he attributes 

to the Clergy, notwithftanding he has 
^faid fuel) things as the Funda* 

* mentals of Chrijlianity? And what can 
: be more fa than what he mentions in his 

Diflertations on Ireneus ? The Paffage: 1 z>i(T. i. f, 
\ need not mention, confidering it has. made * 39f 

fo & reA * a no tf e i an ^ * quoted in Latin *s 
iveU as Englifh in Amyntor ; -.where, in- 
> /lead of /hewing we have as. good a Proof 
for the Divine, Author itj^of, Bifbops as 

* we have for that of Scripture, he etii* . .,;;. 
favours to prove we have no better for i 

-fbt crifturetb*nfor Bifhops; and that 
\ d 4 

, * 

bcxii The Preface; 

they way both le fit 1 on * level ^ be 

the Authority of the New Teftament, by 
fret ending to {hew, that the immediate 
4ges after our Saviour , knd fb futcefi 
/ively down to Adrian^ Time^ did not 
diftinguifh between the geXuink .Rooks cf 
the New Teftament, and ihofe Mich are 
fpuriotu ; nay, that till that time the 
Canonical Writings lay concealed in the 
Coffers of private Churches or Per font y 
andrfhai if they had been publifl?d t they 
would have been overwhelmed under A 
multitude of \Apocryphal and Suppositions 
Books ; that A new Teftimony wou*d be 
wceffary to diftinguifh "*em frofo thofe 
which are falfe. Vfon which the Author 
of Amyntor put this Query, That if the 
immediate Difciples of the Jpoftles cou j d 
fi g ro fly Confound tne genuine Writings 
of , their Mafters with fuch as were faljly 
attributed to VHJ, and ftnce they fo very 
cjtrly were in the dark about thefe mat- 
<tcrs; how came fucb as followed *em by A 
. bstter Light ? But the learned Mr. Dod- 
wel, injlead of anfivering this and fuch 
like Queftions, publiflfd a Piece to jufti* 
. Jy Mufick in Churches ; 4s tho when he 
deftrofd >en> for better Vfes, ht wou d ftill 
emploj *em as places to fiddle in. Nay, in bis 
V/W, he 

lately publ/b r d, he affirms much 
the fame , where tho he fufpofes, that till 
at leap to An, 1 04. the B/Jbops of Jerufa- 



Icm weft the Popes ofChri(tenAom,from 
whom all JLcclejiaJlital Power wa$ deriv d^ 
4ndto whom all Churches were febjefl, and 
that tho there are not anj Foot/I eps of thf 
frefent Chufch-Difcipline in Scripture^ 
yet if we follow Reafon, we (ball, Jays he^.H^tj, 
be jurer of this new Difcipline eftablifod, , 
as he imagines ) by a College of \Apoflles . -\ 
about An. 106,4; }l$heus 9 thanofthe(?A+ 
nonit felf. To which may be added, that 
tho the Truth of the Ptpphecys of the.OU 
Teftament are a great Proof for the Truth 
of the New Te/tament, being what Chrifi 
*nd bif Apoftles upon all, occafwns appeal * 
to ; yet he puts *em on the fame foot 
with the Divinations of the Heathen^ and 
fays in his fecond Letter about going into 
Orders^ " That Divination was originally 
** ffeathenifrj*) and that the Means the ..^ 
y Jews had of underftanding their Pro* 
? phecys was according to the Principles of t 
" the Heathery to which they had been ^ 
"inured; nay^ that the Indulgence of 
. c< God in granting the Spirit of Prophecy , 

" WAS plainly accommodated to the Practice 
** of the fleatben Divination. .And he 
.pretends to fhew a Parity between *em, & 
" 4 that the Jewifh Prophecy by Dreams 
\* anfwefd the Heathen. Divination per 
, <c Somnium ; and that the Rules of the 
- <{ Heathen fir interpreting their Dtvina- 
-.* tionswa* the, proper means for under* - 

" {landing 


Ixxitr The Preface; 

: ** flatting the Profhecyf, which wbtfd 
. ** have tew for the moft fart unintelligi^ 
" tie without J em ; and that was foch a 
i fort of Learning as was folemnly ftu- 
" dfdby the Jewifh Candidates- for Pro* 
DC Jure " fhecy, -Nay he faith, tit manif eft that the 
" Jews made ttfe of Wine, among other 
"bodily Helps, to obtain the Prof he. 
* tick Spirit. And t ho his old Admirers 
may be diff leased with him for fbewing in 
hi* Ute Epiftolary Difcourfe how different 
the Theology of the Primitive Fathers if 
from that now in > vogue, particularly a s 
to thf Natural Mortality of the Soul ; yet 
no doubt they will forgive him for the 
great Power he bejtows on the Bijbofs, in 
juffofing that they, and they alone , canim- . 
mortalize it to eternal Rewards ; and that 
Dead, not excepting the Patriarchs, 
Prophets, Apoftles, Martyrs, and even 
the BlefTed Virgin her felf, are now in 
flavery to the Devil, and may be reliev d 
by the Prayers of the Living from- their 
Difquietudes. A Dottrine which may btim- 
frov*d to as good ufe ^as theRomijhPurgatory. 
55. T*r fomewhat Jt range, that t ho 
the Lower Houfc of Convocation, wh$ 
thought themfelves at liberty to cenfure 
"Books without a Royal Licence, complained 
of fever al> yet none of the Jacobite Books 
which condemn the Church as guilty of 
Schifm and Herejy, n#rc of the number : 



. , 

^. v The Preface; ; . , 

Najt.what notice wa? taken of a Bundle of 
Paper f dedicated Jp the Prolocutor, \ hnd^ 
AS the Author fays [in the Pojlfcrift, prirt ed 
tho not publiflfd except! for the Mfembers " 
of the Convocation^ xotwithJlAnding thefe 
Pafers affert that, the Oath of Supremacy # Q^ h of 
not, an Oath of Fidelity to the Kf#gr ^/ a/church on 
Vnfaithfulnefs to the Church, , andrecow-**^ 
fnend Proving for .the Dead, l affirming we 
have as good Proofoffhatasoffeverat Books 
tfScripture^and pretend to fbew the Necefft- 
tj of ret raft ing our mijlaken Reformation, 
which they ^//^Cranmerian Herefy, and 
" other opprobriow. Names, ? Was not the A^ 
thor tenderly ufd, when he was not fo much 
AS reproved for infer ibing fuch a Lib d to , 
Vw? The Dedication of which was never 
renounfd, nor any care taken to^remove 
the. Sufpiciqn of any pdrt\ of the Houfi 
being cQmcrrfa in fuch A puvlick Scandal, 
fho the riot dojng it has teen objeftttji to 
*em^ yiort than once in Print. Naf 9 was 
f here any notice taken of the Author of 
fbe Cafe of the Regale, when he propojes p. 26$. :_* 
fo *em tp enter into A Treaty with the 
hurcjies ^".France, in order to join Com- 
fpunioy ; and complains* that the Englifb 
Convocation, npt bting fufFerM . to fit 
while that ofFrwcc Jaftcd, renderM any 
^Treaty between em impra&icable ; and 

ferns to promift, that as the Iffue of that 
{sftfi Jffembty exceeded Exfe&ation, fo 

j-~-T- *- 

Ixxvi Tfic Preface. . 

there maybe a time when by the jiffijlance 
of 4 Reconciling Body 6i, Men^ who arc 
cotagainfta Peace witn Francs in thi$ 
great Work, a moft glorious Step may 
be made by that King whom Goa fhall 
infpire to take his Regale out of the wajr 
from obftru&ing fuch mighty Ends as 
thefe proposed, by which he wouM de- 
ferve the Title of moft Chriftian, mod 
Catholick, and wou d be inf good ear?- 
neft the Defender of the Faith r 

$6. leafitj forefa it will be objefted id 
tnejhut Ikwe been too long And too^tr* 
ticuUr in my Preface, in defer ibing what 
the Prof eft Enemjs of the Constitution of 
the Church after t> a* well a* anfaering in tb* 
Book the Arguments by which they endea 
vour to render her guilty of Schifm and He- 
refj. To which I haw nothing to plead, 
except the Zjal I bav* for the Church of 
England : *ti& that which makes me think 
not mngtOQ long which any ways makes fof 
her Defence* and that it may be feen whe 
ther they who concur with the Jacobite* in 
thofe Principles by which they oppofe. the 
Church^ or I who endeavour to confute 
them) are the be ft Churchmen. <4fld that 
there are too many who fret end to be of 
the Church eflabltflfd by Law, who talk 
much after the fame rate, I mean as far 
M they durft without hazArding their Pre 

ferments, is too notorious a Truth to bt 
" * j j * 


>. . . ; ; : 
The Preface; 

bnd therefore I {baB fa/lane* in , f? v 
one or two. 

The Learned Author *of the Munici. 
plum Ecclefiafticum, for in fiance, thro- 
gut his whole Book, fuppofes the C hutch in 
it Jt ate of Slavery y by reafon of the Regal 
Supremacy \ fpeaking of which he faith)?* M+ 
Can a Claim of an oppreffive Supremacy 
^ bedeenfd AgforiowjeweljnaChriJlian 
i Crown, which if exercifd, muftofne- 
" cefftty forfeit the Kjngs Salvation f 
tt And is it not a dangerous Cqmplaifance 
* in Priejls to plead for fuch an Am!>i- 
*** tion as may end in the Ruin of the 
. i Church, the friejthood, and the Soul of 
a the Prince? We only (viz. tte Cler^p. 119, t 
* BY) Are the poor >m t awe, difpirited^drowfy 
* Body y that are in love with our own 
- * Fetters : and this, is the only fcandalouf 
"Part of our Pajfive Qltdiince^ to 1$ 
** toot only plent, but content with an 
Qc- -n of our P rs, which art 
not forfeit able to any worldly Powers, 
4i whatever. And here by the way of Ri-i 
diculehe fays in the Margin, be fure tft 
except the Churqh of England : and he . t f 
catlj Dr. Wake y A \ujlifying .the KJngs 
Power >over, ErttejtajlicAl Synods. WerjfP.$$*, * 
Having Hypothefis;; and fays, u lift not 
4C poffible to make anjtrue anci fignal t^^R-i^i/p* 
44 verfons to fht bitter, . fa there s * { 
f< a comrxen Slavery tip6nthenierarchicat^,^^i^ 

M Powers: 

foxviii The Preface: 

" fywrs ; and that the t .not>, defending 
in f ifle Divin ^ Right of Synods, wjlj be the 
Q utter Extirpation of- all, Religion out/ of 
the World, and therewith an E 
tion of .the Prieftfiood. So thai 
gtori feems to be inftituted .for 
^.^the Priesthood) face the reafanwhy i 
Extirpation of -Religion is ft much to ^ ^ / 
fear*d> is becAufe it comes with the Lofs of 
ihePriefthood. ( , ^ 

"57. The Author of the Charafter of 
a Low Churchman: lays, "That what 
i our Authority calls tbe\ Jujl Prerogative 
<c of the Crow* % vw no farf of the Pff?* 
" rogative before the 25 of H. %, *nd , - 
C therefore u no effential PrerogAtive^ of 
" the Crow, but adventitious bj Ati of 
" Parliament^ and by Aft of Parli*+ 
4< went, without any Hurt or . Difberifoi* * 
V of the Crown, may be taken away. AnJL 
* *ti* fuffciently known how the Church , 
<* hat groaned under this Prerogative 4& 
iC of t))e Letter Miffive even the^ bejt 
" Churchmen ever fince have Complained 
i of it as a mighty Grievance and Bur+ t 

Eccl. Syn. . Dr. Kennqt think* he can t expofe,bi* 
P 8 5- Adverfay ft ho he carries the Independent 
Rights of Power of the Ecclefiafticks as high as any) 

More J ha * make hir * f a J> the Aft f 
Subrmffion is no Grievance ; of whom 
, Syn. b e jfapifi comPluM* That he quotes not 

/fbfe Preface; Jxxfjt 

fcne Text for the,Divine Right of C0u< 
cils, he propofes no one Reafon for the 
Neceflity of fuch an inherent and ori 
ginal Power in the Church \\he\does not 
K labour to prove that a Chriftian MagU , * 
-ftrate can t retraft, nor a National Cler 
gy recede from antecedent Rights a4 * 
/- vetdds (as if thefe two are inconfiftent) 
he waves the , Ghriftian, and x afts . only s 
the Englidiman, v ,\ v ; -,,;, 
J.8. / wry/ defire thefe Gentlemen, who 
againft the Aft of Sybmiffion as in* 
font with the Divine Right of Synods^ 
* to. reconcile their Notion with the L iith of 
>Kjng JamesV Canons ^ which declares, 
That whofoever fhall affirm that it s 
.lawful for the Order either of Minifters 
orLaicks (for the Words are Miniftro* , 

-rufti aur Laicorum Ordini) to make 
Ganons, Decrees or Conftitutions in EC- 
clefiaftical Matters without the King s 
Authority, and to fubmit themfelves to 
begovern d by them, are \ipfo fatfo ex 
communicated, and not to be abfolv d , 
. before they have repented, and publick- 
ly renounced thefe Ana])aptiftical Erroq. 
.But this is not the only Canon y by a great 
tnanj, which excommunicates the Claimtrs 
of Independency. * 

- . JTu-ftrtnge that this Notion of an ln< 
dependent Power in the Ecclefujlicks 


tax The Preface. 

Reformers, And to All the left Lights tf 
the Church After* Ards, to the Pr Alt ice of 
the EccleftaJticAl Courts, to the Ctnont, 
Articles, LAW, And the very Oath of 
Supremacy, in A fbort time Jo f rev Ait, 
that they whoje Principles are MAW to 
the Church of Rome than to th*t of Eng 
land, fborfd be refrefented as the onli 
Churchmen ; while others, hecaufe of thetr 
iwfhaken Zjal for the Church AS by LAW 
ejtabl/fb d, which they efteem the greAt 
Bulwark AgAinft Alt EcclefiAJlicAl TyrAnnj, \ 
either Papal or PresbyteriAn^ Are repre~ 
fettted AS Enemy* to it. And this is tht 
true ground, whatever /barn ReAfons may 
be fretended, of the Hatred fome Men 
have for the Whigs j while the Jacobites 
And Papijts, the great After tors of two 
Independent Powers, are carefs*d : tho it 
be notorious that the Mark the Papifts A!* 
rvajfs have, And always will aim at, is the 
v Dejlruttion of the National Church, AS 
being the moft confiderablt for its Number ; 
Quality, Power and Riches. And not* 
withftanding this, do not they and High* 
Church ip all Elections join their Forces 
together ? Ha vethey not the fame Friends 
and the fame Enemy s ? And do they not con 
cur in, the fame Defigns ? If there is apy 
\dijfe*ence y it r it that the latter Ar* bitterer 
Enemy s to their own Biflyops^whom they 
ridicule for the hazard they ran waiting 


f . 

The. Preface. ;Uxx( 

tgAinfl- Pop&ry i And how well they 
olefd their Bi/fjofi Orders, in giving } em ..; : [ 
an account of the Papijls within their PV 
rifles, is worth the Reader s Enquiry. But 
to return. \ ^ v> u i 

*, 39 Nothing, cotfi more fljew her MA* 
jefty*s Goodneft and Tender nefs y thanbetfr 
ing fo long . with fo many repeated Affronts 
to her Ecclefiaflicat Authority. And it 
was highly nee fjjary at laft.for her Majeflj / 
to declare, as foe h as now done t her frejo- f 

lution to maintain her Supremacy,, as,\a Her MalcJ 
Fundamental Part of the Conftitution ft y sLcttcr 
of the Church of England as by Law Rh?f* 
cftablifh d. \>*And *tM not only the D/^iyoi. 
but the Intereft of the Laity, to ajfijt t het 
Majefly in defending the, Church of. Eng 
land AS by Law \ eftablifly d, and particu 
larly .the Reg*l Prerogative, in Spiritual 
Matters. L Far /horfd the \Clergy, , by the 
-Repeal of, the zyhof H. 8; c. 19. (which 
fome have fo much laboured, at) come to 
aft AS independently AS their. Popifb , Pre- 
tdecejfors, the Laity \will quickly ,fnd 
themfelvcj Bunder as in fuppor table TyrAn* 
ny AS ever ( their Ante/tors were,. , nay 
much greater^ if fome were to have their 
Wills, who look on feveral Privileges the 
l*Aity en$ofd under Popery^ by Agreement 
bttweerf: Popes And Princes^as, injurious to 
.the Divine Rights of the < Clergy ; 4 AnA 
therefor* v fomflain : of, thur.bnng cruih d 
^tn^uv ^ ei- between 

* * v " 

IxXxii , The Preface; 

between the Upper and Nether Mitt- 

Reg.Mia^ oncSi 4ndif t .forjnftawe, *he 

Nominations to Bi/boprickf be an Effect 
of Popuy, will not Lajmens Nominations 
to other Ecclefaflieal Preferments be the 
fame ? And will not.thefe Men fo far 
-fbew their fyal againfl Popery, as to de- 
fire at leaf that this Effeff of it be 
removed ? Men might in the worfl Times 
yf Popery marry without the Confent of 
but now we are told that Mar- 
ought not to be made without ii\ 
y ;; <^3 to be -fare* this muftbe^fo^fwce 
^( lifttbirft a ^ery ant ient ]? *mffjipthtjl#* 
\*-l -* fhor of //^ Regale does not mifreprejent 
liim, who affirms it. 

~r 40. Becaafe I (ball in the following 
-Difcourfe f hew that an Independent Power 
in our own Ecclefiajlicks mufl probably^ be 
more fatal than that which the Popes for~ 
rnerty fixerctfd^ I will^noyvnl) dad^ that 
face the Laity muft lofe what the Clergy 
-gain^ it can t be an #nnecejfaiy Caution 
i/o \em to be upon their guard; .tfftcially 
pnc^both Hof/fes of the /a/I Convocatic 
Agreed (and ?tis the only thing in which of 
-fate-years they have agreed} in <addrcffing 
the c.Queen^ That whatever may be 
wanting to) teftore our Church- to its 
cdue. Rights and Privileges, hpr^ Majefty 
^may have the- Glory of doing, - and Te 
lexing it toPofterity : whifh : <is*intffe{l 
.nr. ;/:.-. fv charging 



.. , 

the Queers Ancejtots^ At letfl 
^ from the Reformat ion y AS well Atbcrjelf 
(face /bee I Aims no Power in Eccleji Aft teat 
Matters which the) did not enjoy) with 
AetAining from * em feme of their. Divide 
-Rights And Privileges. In fetch a Charge 
as this they ought tohAtie decked what 
toofe Rights And Privileges arc, which 
the Church wants to be reftor d to. But, *" 
v "!/r her Majeftyhas no Power* in Etc left* . 

s except by the LAWS of the LAnd 9 and 
*t divejl her felf of Any part of it with- 
*out Consent of Parliament ; Jo loth mujt 
be equally concern^ in this Charge, which 
Amount $ to no lefs than Sacrilege, in de- 
tafning from the Church fome of thofe 
Rights . And Privileges which /be claims _ 
\s given\her by God. For what the LAW 

* Allows, Are not fret ended to be wanting ; 
: And I hofe things are not brought to 
fhat pafs yet, that A Man /ball run any 
hazard for endeavouring to vindicate the 
Queen And Parliament from fo heavy a 
Charge. And the CleSgy, who fret end 

* to be Jo zealous for the Church , muft^ 
one wotfd think) be f leased to find that 
the Church, as wanting none of its due 
Rights and Privileges, /> more perfett 
and comfleat even than they refrefent 
it ; At leaft they will not be angry, with . 
toe for thinking better of the Church 
than they do^ tfftcially ftnce they lead me 

e 2 into 

iv The Preface. 

into this Opinion, .by conftantly reprc- 
. fenting it as the mofl f erf ect, \woft com- 
, fie At, and beft conflituted Church > when* 
\as if the Government of it t did belong 
^to the Clergy by a Divine (Right, as . 
r their Addrejs feems to inpnuaic, it mtlfi 
be, as every one may Aifcern t as to iff Go- 
%efnment and Difcipline the iporjt conjti* 
^fitted Church in the World. , ^ 

4 1. And now 1 havt . nothing fur 
^ther fo add, than to deftre the Reader to 
take notice, that tho in the following Dif- 
courfe I ufe the word Clergy in general, 
t you* d Hot be under ft ood to mean tbojc 
rvho maintain the Principles of our EJta* 
bUflfd Church : But the Popi/b, Eafi 
tern, Presbyterian^ and Jacobite Clergy^ 
1 \(\v(jo *are infinitely the Majority) as 
well as too m uny who pretend ^ to be t of 
the Church of Enghnd, falling into No 
tions inconfiftent with our Legal Ejlablifb* 
went, 1 was obliged to make ufe of that 
Word generally ,- to avoid Circumlocutions 
,or perpetual Exceptions. And I likewife 
de fire the Reader to take notice, that when 
1 fay fuch Powers, > Privileges, &c. do 
not belong to the Clergy, 1 do not mean 
bj the Law of the Land, but, as the 
Thred of the Difcourfe {bows, by Divine 
Rieht. , ,/ 

O . -A . , ( 

/ muft likeivife put the Reader in mind, 
that tho I endeavour to prove there art 


The Preface. 

not two Independent Powers in tie Jam*. 
1 Society^ and that the Magi/Irate has all 
i& Religious Matters which Man is capable ^ 
df 1 do not deftgn to carry this Power* 
jo far as to make void the Principle on> 
which the Reformation .u built, viz. the 
Right every one has of judging for him-~~ 
fey, and of afting according to hit judg 
ment in all thofe things which relate only 
to God and his own Conference : and if the 
Magi fir Ate can t extend his Power to, 
theje things, *tif not becaufe it woifd be 
1 njttrping an Authority which belongs to\ an 
Independent Ecclefiaftical Magijlrate^ but 
becaufe they are thofe Natural Right? of , 
, Mankind which can*t be made over to > 
^ Prince or Prieft. Which Rights, after I 
have once cleared up in the Introduction^ 
1 need not afterwards nicely diftinguiflj 
between thofe they can make over and 
thofe they cannot : or if 1 fbotfd chance 
. fometimes to ufe the words People, Sove 
reign, Reprefentative, : or Magiftrate 
promifcuoufly^ it cannot be material as to 
this Controversy, if I prove that the 
Clergy have no Power which it not derived 
from one or other. < " ." 

^42. Jf any Member of the Church of 
England as by Law ejtablffid thinks ft 
to write again ft me, I hope he will takf 
care not to wound the Church thro my 
es.) but will juflify thofe Laws relating 
e J to 

The Preface. 

to it which its Emmy s condemn* at 
", ftian, and which, they fay, render 
Qath of Supremacy extravagant and 
. fiow, or at leafl t that i# endeavouring^ 
tQ evade the true Sen/e of *em, he will no t\ 
#fi Jutf Dijlintfwns as muft mah all 
JL/irvx, Divine and Human, vfdefs and, 
jnfynificant ; or will not fo interpret the\ 
Qath of Supremacy, as may make it con* 
ft/lent with the Spiritual ^Authority the* 
Sope claims over the Nation ; For if the 
Kjns Power extends only to the Tern* 
f orals annext to Spirituals, as all the, . 
Highfliers maintain, they may as well af- 
frm, that the Pope s Supremacy in Tem^ 
Corals aunext to Spirituals^ is only taken 
away ; fince the Words are no fuller in on?<, 
Caje than the other. But, , 

If my Adversary writes^ as the Author 
prcf. to of the Municipium Ecclcfiafticum .A-/ 
Ami he does, that the Pubjick may tafte 
occafion to icview thole Laws thro 
which the Church is, as he faith, fallen 
under her prefent Impotcncy ; all / 
depre of him is not to play the Hyfo\ 
crite fo far as to pretend he writes for. 
the Church e/lablifb d by Law, or to cen 
fure me for taking the fame liberty in 
defending tbt I+aws t whifh he< does in oPpo* 
(ing *em ; and that, he will explain thoje 
Words whiah principally relate to tbiA\ 
*s Ordination, Confecra^ 

tloiv the Power of the Keys, of -Bind 
ing and Lpofing, of retaining and re* 
mitting Sins, ? the Giving the Holy 
Ghoft, Excommunication, and, fitch* 
like : and that fa will, unlefs when he 
flee lares the contrary, con ft ant ly apply the 
fame Ideas to *eM\ but above all, that he 
will tell w in what fenfe he ufes the 
word Church : for then it vill a f pear 
whether what he or I write is tnojt for 
the Beneft< vf the Church taken in the 
fenje of the Scripture^ in which it always 
Jignifet the Chriftian People, fbmetimef 
with, and tbmetimes without .their Mr- 
flifters : whereas Divine J, tho contrary to 
the Articles^ which define the Church to 
be a Congregation of the Faithful, 
have induflrioufy labour *d to have if 
fghify the Clergy > \exclupvelj of thePeo* 
fiey for no oiher reafon that 1 can fee, 
than to deprive *em of thofe glorious 
Privileges and, Powers which the Scrip- 
jure declares to be thetr Right, and 
thereby to give depgnirig Men A Pre* 
* text to injult and domineer over tyt 
Church. An A as the misapplying of the 
word Church in, the Popifh Country* % 
has given the Priejls an opportunity to 
pnjlave the People; fo others follow the 
Copy they have Jet em fo exattly, Ibat 
they never fail to represent any one who 
fas the Courage to wdetwur to refcue 
~~ "~ 

* The Prefaced 

the Church of Chrift from EeckjiaJHtal ; 
Tyranny, as An Enemy to the Churchy 
even from thofe Texts which wake, fort 
the Authority of .the People over .their 
, * Minijters. And, when thtfe Clergymen 
tjfume , that venerable Name to > them- 
felves, nothing can <be too great, and 
glorious for Tbem % or too mean and fer~ , 
vile for the. People; then Kings and * 
Reg. p. 25. Queens mud bow down to them, 
with their Face towards the Earth, 
and lick up the Duft of their Feet. 
To fy this . of themfelves under the 
Nwe of the Church, when they rvotfl 
not venture to faji it under an) other, 
if errant Prieft craft, and , as ridiculous 
of if the Drummers and Trumpeters, 
. i f)ou*d call themfehes the Army exclu* 
Jive of all others^ and by means, of that, 
endeavour to get the whole Power of it 
into their hands y and reprefent every one 
44 An Enemy to the Armj> who will not 
come into the Cheat. . But, 

Now V& more than time to conclude the 
Preface, wijbing the Reader fo kind to 
himfelf at mil & the Author, . as to exa 
mine this Difcourfe, for the fake of the 
Importance of the Subject, without Pre 
judice or Partiality. And tho I can t b$ 
fo little a Proteflant as to fay ^ according 
to the ufual Cant, I fubtnit all to Mother, 
Church ; y AS the Pa,rt 1 ttke in thti 

The Preface. 

Contwverfy demonftrates I cotfd have no 

Dejign but the promoting of Truth, fo if 

Any {hall convince me of a Miftake, tho 

in doing it he treats we ever fo roughly^ 

1 {ball be proud of giving an uncommon 

Mark of Love to Truth, in publickly 

owning and retracing my Error. 

t If 1 have any Adverfary who has fo 

. * ypuch Charity as to (bew in printf where 1 

am in an Error > I defre he will make ufe 

of this Edition, as being more correff. 

.,;? :Kr; t \ ,, .\ ,:. .-;U 31V^ " 


, ,t>/r/; , . : j \ , r\ 



/ \^l V. . .( .. i -I . V . . . 1 ./ j -. ^ 

M, , r S V- r . ; , 

yV l\V -U - : A* " . : . .; . <\\^ - V/^ ^,* 
.^ - ," -^ - 

iT i r v t! , , >i < TT TJ " 

.; w^\-;v v ,l -yuttft^ ^, ;.\:yJ\ u 1HE 

.- ;i 

tt, v . -; \^. . -i 

* 1 i ^" i -^^ 

,-. ;> 

. . ... 


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vftu V^y* \ ir.v * 


"V i*.i .." - 

*Nr." n 

Introdultion. Page i; 

Chap. i. TA^ rifff w^^ fa wo lit- 
% defendtnt Powers in the fame Society* 


Chap. 2. Thtt the SpirituAlltjs which 

Clergymen claim, are either fuch *t 

*re feculiar to the Divine Nature, of 

^ tlfe were only beftotfd on the Apojtles : 

< And, that both thefe ferve J e?n as A 

Pretence for invading the Rights of 

the People, and of their Represent*- 

lives. 65, 

, Chap. j. That the Clergy s pretending to 

Y have a Right to exclude People from 

the Church of Chrift, is as abferd, as 

their claiming a Power to debar em 

from the publick W or {hip if uncharita 

ble: And that this Cuftom was bor 

rorfd from the Heathen Priefls, par* 

tiwlarlj the Druids. Of the Jdvan* 


v< - 



Mlty gun d by it. 
. . That *ti 

Chap. 4. That *tis inconfi/tent with the 
Reafon> Defign and End of Eccleftajlical 
pifcipline, *b*t there fhou ds be<**nj 
particular Immutable Form -. ofojt, or 
*ny Set of Per fins with An Until cubic 
Right to manage it : but that Men are 
, ^%X according to the -Circumft wees 

& they are under, to alter and vary all 
things relating /0V>> 4s they judg moft 
conducing to the End for which that 
was injlitutcd. 122. 

Chap, 5. TheClergfsindeavouring at an 
^Independent -Power y not only prevents 

Vi \ the further ff reading of the Gofpel^ but 
is the caufe of its having already fojl fa 
much ground. 180** 

Chap. 6. That the Clergfs claiming an 
Independent Power, is of all things 
the mo[t dejlruttivc to the Intereft of 

^eligion> and is the Caufe of t thofeCor- 

r ruptions under which Christianity la* 
bours. 190. 

Chap. 7. That this Hypothecs of an Inde 
pendent Power in any Set of: Clergymen, 

\^piakes all Reformation unlawful, except. 

^ where they mho are [uppos^d to have this 
Power, doconfent. 2 $2. 

Chap. 8. That the Clergfs Pretending to 
an Independent Power has been the Occa- 
fionof infinite Mifchief to the Chrijlia~ 
and is utterly incoflfi/tent with 




r, - 

c ii The Contents-; 

* the Happinefs of Human Society* 244, 
Chap. 9. . T/uf *4/V Hypothecs, of, none 
. being cApabU of governing the Church 
except "Si/bops, and that rion* can tyfij 
Bi/hops exceft^thofc who derive .their ! , 
i t rpjwefty4contiw f d*>td uninterrupted 
Succeffiontn iheCatholick Church from 
the ^pofrles, deflrojs. the verj Being of- 
theChurch, . 3> 

Chap. 10. That the Cttholtck Church con- 
v lifts of fever al Bofys independent on 

each other ; and that none of thefe have ^ 
Power to >iriake- Clergjnten- except for 
themfelves ; and. that the contrary Qfi* 
nion ntseffarilj/fuppofes a Vmverfat .^J 
Bijbop.or Pope. \ 3?8. 

t /- 

. i>: . .* ,- <x .. . 


V) I . i-> Y^ 

fcr I S 

-. -. - , . 


f > 



., i Vi 

: . 

> . 


*V( l l -I 

Rights of the 
Chriflian Church 9 ~ 



* v*_ oil* 

* s ;j -> - 
, : ! 

. . 

T can t be denyM by thofe who have 
. examined into either the palt or 
tprefent Condition of Human So- 
. cietys, that the Grievances and 
Miferys they labour under are chiefly, if not ^^ , 
wholly owing to the Abufc of Power, by 
their Governors either extending it to fuch 
things as they were not, or cotfd not be 
intruded with ; or elfe imploying it, tho in ^ 
things belonging to their Cognizance, con 
trary to the End for which they were 
entrufted : and that Chriftians, befides ha 
ving their Share in thefe common Cala 
mity s, have been miferably harafs d by a 
new Pretence of two Independent Powers - 
in the fame Society. A Doftrine which 
has not only occafiond a prodigious number^: ^ 
of Quarrels between Princes and Priefts/ :^ ; 
B but 

The <%$>ts o/ the 

but the Clergy themfelves have been in^ 
finitely embroii d with one another abou 
ir?~Hiftbry being fuIPoT thelr Cohten- 
" tcad. ""And "dt this very 

day the Clergy, not to mention many 
other Difputes, are ft Ih^l? agreed in 
t$\M the Indepcnclplif \JPpVct in^Ccle- 
fiafticals isJ^dgd ^ that t;he. Pope^ the Bi- 
flippY t^ IfV^sljy tern ^c^^laii^ ik {ojthem* 
itlves exclufivelyof othersV is well as of the 
Church or Chriftian People^ %^v% that 
Word in Scripture, as I fhall pnrfc here 
after, always fignifies. 

2. The Defign of this Difcourfe i& -firfb 
briefly to fhew what things the Magi- 
ftrate s Powqr 9xtwds v to,(and by theMa- 
giltrate I meaii Him ^or" Them who have 
the Supreme or Legiilatiye Power) and ia 
what .things Men are ftill in a State of 
tibeiil^ or r Nature, >fubjet only -to! pod 
aiui their QWU Confcknces; andjth^j to 
Examine all the Arguments fronb Rtafon 
ncl Spripturc which are fuppo$M to, iriak6 
ifor fi-n ludep^udcnt Power in theGlergy/>;;v/ 
3* It being agreed Ort all handsj -that 
the Scripture neither adds , to,* or.takej 
fi;oin th<? Governor^ , of Mankind -any 
Powe^j and that thereY no Divine Com* 
inifllon which parcels the Earth into .par* 
ticular Governments, or any Family ;or 
Per fgn th^t has an -immediate Commiflion 
ft*om Heaven to rule ;;the. Whole ioj- , any 
Part , of j it *, confequently ; all the Power 
the Magiftrate can claim muft be only 
Mediately from God, but Immediately 
from the People; and therefore to know 
f the 


thf ..atlfc, Eeijt l([ of rJ 

tk 9*: ne 

syill ^. 

proper fff(t 

wpea Creature^ of thp 

pVA AO ?\\ ; 
( thq , ufe ;of. 

tF^cuitie?, thpre iptjlt be a?t Bq^lity ^ 
Bi i.l\opje. caa^jhay^ ^n -fmpifQ power v 
pver - 

^ of JguaUty Vl thp bom- tp it^ fpir till; they 

are to be govern d by the Reafbn of their 
Psfeftts^r.wflp |f thy Jt$f$ l^he X^fer of ^heir 
own, Ro^ft^i #re #, ^n|u^lj to , bet H]j 4 by 

year$ ;pfii)ifcretipn. : ^a :: that the 
ExercifeLOf .A ea l<>^ yffeciv W&fai tl 
ther iftijjFreeman^ ;niak^, .the, 6b^dLi. 
wliQ/^Jie^^ ha$ 9, fell liberty within" the 
Boqndfc -pf! < the l4w (pf N^t^e/ to dif* 
pofei off hijnfelf a^d. ;)?i?.9^yn A^ions,, as 
feems^beft tPr hitn/ iiV }f, jt \yeve. for; f f rip 

that j innate: Priociple , pf r loving , ( h|mfelf 
belt, and cortfequeaUyrprtferring bis f own 
Good <before another ?, ^ Right, he^ cannot; 
diveA himfelf of as Ipng as Self is Sclfy 
and being obliged to pr^rve his own,JLife 
o B 2 and 

The $(!$* *f 

and Limbs, and fubfift as happily as his 
Nature will permit, he cannot allow his 
Father or any other an abfolute Pominion 
over his Life, or what is neceflary to prc-, 
ferve if. But becaufe the Abetters of Ar* 
bitrary Power (no fmall Party even vender 
a Conftitution which abhors any fuch No 
tion) affirm that < Men were fo far from 
ever being in a State of Equality ot Free 
dom, that they were born Slaves by their 
Fathers having an- abfolute Dominion over 
their Lives*, and that Kingly Go vernment^ 
the, only lawful Form as founded* on the 
Paternal) is as unlimited and uncontrbla- 
ble: 1 fhall beg leave to ask thofe Gentle 
men, whether Lewi* XIV. has fuch a Power 
over Philip V. fince both being Heads of 
Independent Nations, are with* refpcft 
to one another in a State of Nature? 

<j. A Father is fo \far from acquiring 
fuch an Arbitrary Power over his Child,- 
by being inftrumcntal in giving him Ljfe, 
that he feems to be more reftrain d from 
hurting him than any other, as* being more 
bound to fupport and preferve him : and 
there^ nothing m the State i of Nature 
that could give him a Power over the Life 
or Property of his Child (whom he is to 
confider not as his own, but the Almighty s 
Workmanfhip) which wou d n6t give him 
the fame Power over any othery or any 
other, even his own Child, the fame over 
him* If a Child, .when grown to years 
of Difcretion, lives with nis Father, he, 
muft, like others, in things relating to 
^ the 


the family, be fubjeft to its Matter; or 
if he expeds an Eftate from his Father, 
that will be a prudential Motive to be go- 
vern d by him, in all fuch things as will not 
prove a greater Prejudice to him than the 
Eftate an Advantage. But bating thefe 
,and fuch-like Confiderations, all that is 
due from a Child to his Father, is Refpeft, 
Honour, Gratitude, and, if need be, Af- 
fiftance and Support : and if this is all 
that s owing to the Mother, and is like- 
wife due to Fofter-Parents from an ex- 
pos d Qild, what pretence can the Father 
have to abfolute Power, which if the Law 
of Nature gave him, he cou d no more be 
depriv d o than of the Honour or R^fpeft 
which is due to him by that Law, and 
confequently all Government except Pater 
nal wou d be unlawful? And as Fathers only 
v were capable of having Subje&s, fo none 
cou d have more than he begot, and all by 
the Death of their Fathers wou d be freed 
from this vile Subjeftion: becaufe this Power 
being Perfonal, cou d. no more be difpos d 
of by Gift or Will, than the Fatherhood it 
felfj and confequently thqy wou d he equal 
among themfelves, and in a State of Ka- 
ture, till Confent ha<J made efq otherwife. 
To which may be acjded, that they who 
have Children, if their .own Parents were 
alive, cou d not be capable by this Hypo- 
thefis of poflelTing- any thing in their own 
Rigjht, jnuch lefs an abfolute Dominion over 
their own Children, who Uke all that are 
begotten by Slaves wou d be in the fame 
hands asi ^heir Parents arc. 

B 3 6. Be- 

t > rf; TJeti&sy If ? tfhrf xSbver ftmcfft 
wholfc Earth -was glvth lo yfcf*?* BOk? infi 
Jhtt! to : the eideft Son of tW - ^ldelt 
idty as the MakeH -of this Hy WthcCs 
t^-tMs Ainft not ;oftly deftroy tH^SjO> 
vereigA 1 Power of Parents, but fliow 1 : that 
whate^er ^ provifional Governments We 
inadd 1 by Mankind 1 t ill this UnWe^fa) " 
Heir rj li/fiHJnd outy vituift be Win^ ,to 
the ^Cpnfent of Meri ; Denial among thein- 
felves; ; - ! ./ : - "^ * * . av - , Ji . ;n 
7. In : a vrbrd; if People owe .the fame 
Duty to ! their ParditSi fince, as^thb^did 
before Political Goycfriment war tfefted ? 
as there s Nothing froih Reafon oi; Scrip 
ture to* the tontrafy ;7 !i the;Power-of ^ FJitlw 
ovei* ; his t Ifildf en ; wd^ always the fame , 
and evcr^ one mufb lire the diiicrerice t>e- 
tWeen Pblitical and Pat^nal Power, Who 
coniid^fs that t;he r itioft abfoliito Princd 
owes the f fame Duty to his Father, thptis 
subjcft, ^ s .a private Perfon does, to 1 his, 
tho a Sovereign. - 

1 9. If then Men are naturally ^} -tvith 
no Pow ; cr over one another except what^s 
recipi-ocal, they cannot lofe this Equality 
without, their own Confcnt, irj forming 
themfclvcs into Bodys Politick : which cou d 
ho othcrwife be done, than by agreeing t6 
be detcrmin d by a Majority } bcciiufe a So 
ciety can .have only one Mind, that of thq 
greater Number, who having the greater 
Force, ,muft make the Body Politick movq 
as they plcafc^ and they who do not go 
with them, cut themfelves off froni it, 
And confcquently all Power, by the exprefs 1 
: or 

, t>,,lhe Pattys- 
imuft ifcevat . firft, lodg d in the Majority, 
.who may**, where the greatneftof the Num- 
.berdoes not; hinder, >Kej> it in their. Own 
Jiandvor elfe intruft it with whom they 
think fit y who, as , their ,Rcprefontative5, 
are to be obey d as long as they aft agtee- 
ably to .the, End for which they vyerenoon- 
ftitutedv but when they aft contrary to it, 
of which .they who deputed em .mult 
needs have a Right to judg, the Power 
naturally returns to: the Body of : the 
People.^! " ,-,;.-.. i ;;> ..- >r co : -r/;"* ,r. 
- . / 9. A^ GoYcrnmeat at; firft was i foimd^ 
on tlie Confent of the Partys conccrti d, 
fot ititftilKoAtinues on the fame foot * for 
the Powcs> of the firft Governors dying 
with iferii, :>the Laivs jnuft owe their Au- 
.thbrity to the prefent Government! whofe 
prefum d Will 1 it is, that they fhould bind., 4 
till . they declare the ; ;contrary. Were it 
other wifey no Laws ( could be abrogated or 
alter d except: by tlie Perfons who made 
? em. And as the Laws: derive their Au 
thority from the prefent Government, fo 
this owes its obliging Power not to any 
Compafts of -the People in former Ages, 
but to the Confent of the prefent Gene 
ration, fufficiently exptefs d by their be 
ing willing .to be protefted by it in their 
Perfons, Liberty and Property, and con- 
fequently to allow it all .that is neceflary 
for that end , the only Method the Gene 
rality in all Country s haya from time to 
.time taken to fignify their confenting to 
.(Government, "And tis this which makes 
B 4 every 

every one a Subjeft, during his ftay, to the 
Government where he refidcs. So that all 
Government, the prefen* as well as the 
pad, has no other Origin than the Con- 
lent of the Partys concerned ; all exprefly 
or tacitly, colleftively or fingjy agreeing 
to it. 

10. There is nothing in that Objeftioir, 
That Government could not at firft conic 
from Confent, becaufe tis not to be pre- 
fum d that all the Partys met to give an 
exprefs Confent; fince if a few at firft 
agreed on a common Umpire, twas fuf- 
ficient if others by their Aftions acknow- 
ledg d an Authority fo advantageous to 
them. And why People Ihou d not have 
taken this way to come out of the State 
of Nature at firft, as they have done ever 
fince, there can be no manner of reafon. 
And they who make this Objeftion, may 
as well argue that no Language tou d be 
of human Initiation, becaufe Wbrds not 
iignifying any thing naturally, we cannot 
imagine that all fliould meet together, to 
agree that fuch Sounds fhou d nave fuch 
Ideas annex d to them: and yet this de- 
.pcnds not only on the Agreement of thofe 
who fpoke any Language at firft, but of 
thofe who have done it fince } becaufe no 
Alterations or Additions cou d be made to 
it, without the exjprefs or tacit Confent of 
thofe that ufe it. ... 

n. Befides, they who make this Ob 
jeftion, in owning that Kingly Govern 
ment, ti^Jcen in the moft abfolute fenfe, 
is only from God, do in efTeft acknowledg 


, Sec. 

that all other Governments are owing to 
Compaft and Agreement, tho at the fame 
time they affirm, that no Government cou d 
be form d by that Method. And, 

12. They who fay that molt, if not all, 
Governments at prefent owe their Being 
to Cpnqueflr, and not to Confent, fuppofe 
fuch a wonderful -Merit and Virtue in de- 
ftroying a Country, burning of Towns, 
and barbaroufly ufing the Inhabitants, 
that it frees Men from all .Allegiance to 
their former Governors, for endeavouring 
to defend em from this Ufage } and 
bakes them and their Pofterity, as thcfe 
Men affirm, Slaves to the Conqueror, 
But if this be abfurd, .the only Right a 
Conqueror has, is built on the Confent of 
thpfe, who by their former Governor s 
being no longer able to proted em, were 
reduc d to a State of Nature, and confe- 
quently at liberty to pay Obedience to the 
Conqueror, upon his taking em into his Pro- 
teftionv and accordingly Frontier Towns 
change Governors more than once in a, 
Campaign. , 

13* As tis evident that all thofe Nations 
of whofe Origin we have any account, the 
Jem theinfelves, as I fhall (hew hereafter, 
not excepted, fram d thcmfclvcs into Bo- 
dys Politick by the Confent of the Par- 
tys concern d : fo tis as certain, that th$ 
Alterations which from time to time have 
been made, in Government, were whol 
ly built on it;} and confequently if all 
Governments were at firft fram d after the 
fame manner as they have been fincc 


6f *etti cou d 

Power than the People ^ 
drafting y em with. ; Now^ c rnnht r , !? 
r 14. Men hiving no Powir 6ter then? 
own Lives or Limbs, Government cou v d 
not flow from heike; but mult- be deriv 4 
from the Power they had over .-one ano4 
ther-, founded on the inherent" Right they 
have of prcferving themfelves, and pre* 
ferring their own Good to that of others; 
For, * ;> U i) 

15. God |by implanting in - Man that 
only innate and infeparable Principle of 
feeking his own Happinefs, and endea* 
vou ring to fubfift as conveniently as his 
Nahire permits, has given him a Righb, 
6r rather has made it his Duty to do all 
that s neceffary to that End \ which in 
cludes a Right not only of feeking Repa 
ration for any Injury done to himfelf, but 
of punifhing the Perfon who did it, in order 
to prevent the like for the future. And 
Mcns mutual Security, as well as the com 
mon Tyes of Humanity, obliging em to 
allitb one another, they had a Right to 
take fuch Methods, as they thought moft 
cflcftual to this End ; which was to agree 
to be governed by known and ftated Laws, 
and to appoint a common Umpire to de* 
tcrmine all Differences by them, and to 
bind themfelves to afllfb him with their 
, Force in all fuch things as make for their 
jrmtual Defence and Security. So that 
the Power every one had by the Law of 
Kature, is by their receding from It folely 
in the Magiftrate \ whofe Right of pur 

tiifliing dnnoi/reitwid ffortfierf*hairtheh* 
did in the Stiate 0f vjflhtiiTev hi ivhich e*e* 
ry fone was abtig d^to <I6 t alHie coitvfr 
nierttly rWf& tiot i the PixfttVation of fche 
Life, liberty, -Lfrtibi and l Go6ds of atun 
th ef, vttfhett Ms\ ctoii (V vva? foot iA dangcn 
Anvl GoTcffimcht is fb far from taking off 
this Obligation that the chief End of it 
is to protect ^Meh in all ^fuch Aftions a> 
miy ,be do rtejWididut Pfejudkc or InjAtV 
to (bne-anotli^r^ and conreqtiently hx itt 
fach^ ^Men are ftift in the;State Of Katur^ 
or Liberty. So that it is not any-Oiitiv 
pafts^ Agreements : 6r f Aflbeiatioris which 
they enter iritb with one", another vabOut 
fuch things,- 1 that; "jmt* th^rti ^ out of ktib 
State of Ndttre^tbt that 1 F6llti^ill Union 
only which they Engage i^for defence of 
th^rnfelves arid -Prbpertys, and " * here tliey 
oblige themfelves. to" afllfb the^Magiftrate In 
pnniihing all fueh- Injuries, a^ ; theGoodof 
the" Whole Will not permit - to go unpii- 
4ift\M. And therefore the StSifc bf Nature 
is x much wider than is generally imagined, 
fince not only whole Katipns with refpcft 
to one another are ftill in it, and every 
1 I n the fame Society, wheii the Danger 
too fudden to have recourfe to theMa- 
tc, but all 1 Meii are born in it, and 
always continue to be fo in all fuch things 
^s they .may praftife without injuring one 

V; 1 !^ Th e next thing to bd ejri^uirM into; 
js what Power this gives the- Migiftrate 
|H Matters of Religion? And Here none 

doubt that he is fully authored 
i /; to 

to punifh the Evil, the Immoral, the Vi 
cious, and reward the Good, the Moral, 
the Virtuous j fince tis promoting or pre 
judicing the GOod of the Society, or in 
other words, fuch Afti6ns whereby Men 
receive Advantage or Difadvantage, that 
denominates the Doers of them either one 
or the other:. And if there s any diffe 
rence between Immorality and fuchSuperr 
ftition as is injurious to the Publick, the 
Magiftrate, as .Guardian of the Society, is 
to.reftrain the Effete of that likewife by 
Force. : "< i --o 

f 17* If he can punifh one >who does an 
Injury to a finale Perfon, lie muft certain 
ly have as gre? . a Right to punilh him who 
injures the whole Society, by denying the 
Being of a God, or that he concerns him* 
Jelf with the Affairs of Mankind,- in rc T 
warding thpfe \yho aft for, and punifhing 
thofe who aft againfb the general Good: 
Since fuch a one may be juftly reckon d 
^n Enemy to the whole Race or Mankind, 
as fubverting that Foundation on which 
jtjieir Pref<?rvation and Happinefs is mainly 
built , and as fuch might )uftly be punifh d 
by every one in the State of Nature ; 
And confequcntly the Magiftrate muft 
Jhave a Right to punifti npt only the Der 
niers of a, Divine Being, but all who 
inake the potion ufelefs, by difowning 
his providential Care of Mankind, or in- 
eflcaual by ^ not, honouring or adoring 
him, or who are guilty or formal Blaf- 
phemy, Profanenefs, Perjury, and common 

1 8. In 

(Jiriflian Church, <fcc? f 1 j 

1 8* In a word* Religion is fo vdry ne* 
ceflfary for . the Support of human Socictys 
that tis impoffible, asis ownM by Hea 
thens as well as Chriftians, they can 
fubfift without acknowledging fome in* 
vifible Power that concerns himfelf with 
human Affairs , and that the Awe and Re 
verence of the Divinity .makes Men more 
cfieftually obferye thofe Dutys in which 
their mutual jiappinefs confifts, than all 
the Rods and A*es of the Magiftrate; 
And this is fo very obvious, that Atheifts , 
know not how to deny it, and therefore 
fuppofe Religion to be a Politick Device, 
cojjtriv d on purpofe for the better regur 
lating of human Society*. And the Storys 
of certain Nations being fo Tery barbarous 
as to entertain no Religion, are either con- 
tradifted by later and better Obfervations^ 
or elfe they are not link d together in So 
ciety, or are fcarce above Brutes in Under- 
ftanding : So that Men when they alfociated 
on a Civil, were oblig d to do the fame on 
a Religious Account, one being neceffary for 
the Support of the other. : Hence it is plain 
how ablurdly Tome Men argue, when to gain 
an Independent Power in Religious Matters, 
they wou d exclude the Magiftrate from 
any Power therein, on I pretence that the 
Welfare of the Civil Society is his only 
Province-, fince; that obliges him to con 
cern himfelf -with all fuch, as conduce 
to the Happiriefs of Human Societys; 
which tboutney< are the moft fubftaatial 
Parts of Religion, yet I fliall fo far com 
ply with Cuftom, as to. call them Qvil 


into -their 
me Points . 
fhip* with i certain 

divided about , ietn^ 
Gbdntryiwhichas not as 
by fome things >pequliai?;-ifl. tbpfe>. 
its;, Situation:: the (Jueftion is 1; whether -tie 
Migiitratc ha^ any Power- herqi which, jca^i 
only/rbkj . kaowri by examining 
jVten had janyr-in.; the St^t,e ( pf fcJaturq 
their own xir others Aftioos vi^u 
Urs*lr:->i!i hnA .:, - iuiim u : )-- 
, * -i.9.. NotWuig . :at firft . 
obvious, thau; i^iat; all b 
^ifpenfable jQbligation jtq 
after the maiiDor ithey.thi^ rnpft 
able: to iusuWiH^ind in 
ters ; wliatcver ,- to ^ /follow; the 
their Coafcienops, /none qpu d 
the Right of =? judging . for*, bwfclf, : .fi.nqj 
ihdt; wou ? d caufe.hil Religioa 
folutely at the difpofal .o^another;. i 
asr > none has ftich a ; iw/!w. hit i 
Perfon, as ; to.-lbe ! able tQ: Author izeyth? 
Magiftrate (were; it poflibte;ftny . cou dyfce 
fo mad as to defire iitX^o fvfe him. ilLfor 
worfhipping God^las :he: ; thought? xnoih-ft 
greeable to his:WilU fo Jbe.can as ILttltt 
impower himito\ufe another ill upon: that 
account^ becaufe none in worfliippingl Gbd 
accordiiig<to hisConfcieijce^ Or ia believing 
^ pTofeffing > fuch fpeculative Matters a> 


See. Ty 

tie ithihte true, -docs* anotbei j J any ; Injury \ 
the only thing *vhich in a State of 

gite one^a r *Ri&ht to punifli another. 
_,_,, J m that-&ate fhouM any have a$- 
tdnipted Tuck an abfurd thing himfelf; or 
intic d others to dp fo, he might have bee h 
Jdftly treated as a common Difturber and 
Enemy % aM confcquently they who by t;hb 
command of ^ariy perfecutjng Magiftrate dey 
prive-one of his Life, Liberty or Property 
oiu this account, 1 are guilty of as great ^ 
Crime as if they had done it of themfelves 
without any Commiflion from him , becauft 
&4 to thefe matters Men are ftill in a State of 
Nature 1 , withbut any Sovereign Keprefcnta- 
tivb to determine^ for theni what they ftiall 
believe of profefs : And tis impoflible tha,t 
Men-fliould ever fubmit to Government, ;biit 
with an Intent of being protefted in fo ne- 
cefiaf y aputy as wor (hipping Gpd according 
to Gonfcience, r as well as in any other mat 
ter- whatever. J 

20. /Tis a grand miftake to fuppoft 
the : Ma gift rate s Power extends to in 
different things v for then he might de 
prive Men of all Liberty, .and rendet 
his; Power infupportable, in hindering 
them from 1 managing their Private ana 
Family-Concerns as they pleafe } whicfi 
they 4 have riot ;only a Rignt to do, but, 
t*d ;fbfm i what Clubs, Companys or Meet-y 
. fngs ! they thiak fit,- cither fttf Bufmefs ot 
Pleafure^ ^whicb the Magiftrate, as long a 
the- Public^ fufta,ins no Damage, -cann^ 
hiiiler withoutmanifeft Injuftice, aiidaftip^ 
coujtrary- to the triaih End for \vhich he was 
. - VViV *. intrufted 

iijtrufted with Power, the Prefervation of 
Mens Libertys in all fuch things as cou d 
be done without detriment to the Pub- 
lick. And therefore the Magiftrate s 
Power, the End of Government being the 
true Meafure of its Extent, reaches not 
to indifferent Matters, but to fuch only 
as are for the Publick Intereft ; under 
which 1 reckon the determining of all 
thofe things, which the Good of the Socie 
ty will not permit to remain uncertain. 
And therefore if Confcience was not con* 
cern d about the manner of worfhipping 
God, the Magiftrate cou d have no Right 
to abridg Men of their Liberty, but is as 
much obliged to proteft em in the way they 
chufeof worfhipping him, as in any other in 
different matter. But becaufe the Do&rinc 
of Perfecution, notwithftanding this and 
all the Pleas of Confcience, is hotly main- 
tain d by felf-interefted and defigning Men, 
I fhall take leave to add a little more on this 

21. Tis contrary to the Honour of God, 
as well as the Good of Mankind, that any 
Human Power fhou d exceed thefe Bounds j 
fince all which God, who commands not 
Impoffibilities, requires of us, is an impar 
tial Examination-, and consequently that 
alone, provided we aft agreeably, makes 
us acceptable to him, and therefore ought 
$o render us fo to Men, who can have 
no Right to fix Rewards and Punifliments 
to things which are not of a moral Na* 
ture, becaufe they tend to hinder the 
grand Duty of Confideration. For Men, 



Cbrifian Ckurcb, tic. 

when the7 become capable of chufing their 
Religion, will be diuxmrag d from impar 
tially examining thofe Opinions to which 
Preferments are annex d, for fear of find 
ing em Falfe-, and frighten d from con- 
fidering thofe to which Punifhments are 
afKx d, left they find em True. And there 
fore all Awes and Bribes are religioufly to 
be avoided, and the Magiftrate to treat all 
his Subjefts alike, how much foever they 
differ from him or one another in thefe 
Matters: ,flnce, as the contrary Method 
can only ferye to prejudice thofe who arc 
to chufe their Religion, fo it can have no 
ffeft on thofe who have already made 
their choice (which for the moft part* 
were it not for thefe Impediments, wou d 
be impartially done) except to make them 
Hypocrites even in the moft folemn Ads of 
Devotion. And how great an Affront that 
is to God, I need not fhowj and tis no 
lefs injurious to Man, fmce the Ties of 
Confcience being broken by a perpetual 
Diflimulation, Men are ready to perpe* 
trate the greateft Villanys: And where 
this Effeft does not follow, it makes 
thofe, whom tis the Intereft of the Com 
monwealth chiefly to proteft, the Con-* 
fcientious, to fuffer } or elfe it forces Men 
to defend by Arms thofe Natural Rights^ 
of which no Human Power can have a 
Right to deprive em* So that Violence, 
which is only to be us d in prevention of 
21 greater Inconvenience to the Publick thajft 
it felf, muft in this cafe have moft fatal Con- 

(j i 

1 8 .-The fl^jto* o/ tfre , 

\ai* To prevent which the 
may punifh thbfe who! preach up Perfe* 
^ cation, as juftly :*s If they had preach d , 
" up Robbery, Murder; or any other Crime $ 
bccaufe it is the moft confummate Vil- 
lany, in -making Men fuffer for doing the 
belt things they are capable of, arid with 
out which they can neither be good Sub- 
je&s to God or, the Magiftrate. And 
Perltcutors alone, unmov d by Pity 
or any other Confideration, which frc- 
cUiently difarms othdr Criminals, continue 
tneir Crueltys, till they make Men not only 
become Villains by deftroying ail Con- 
fcience, the greateft Security, one Man 
can have from another, but blafpheme^ 
dffront and outrage* God himfelf by a hor* 
rid Difllmulation. So that Perfecution h 
the moft comprehenfive of all Crimes, in 
defttoying the End and Defign of all Re* 
ligiofy the Honour of God, and the Good 
Of Mankind, Future: as. well as Prefent: 
And confcquently the Magiftrate ought 
not only to punifh all who teach this moft 
pernicious Dadtorine, but to fufler none to 
enjoy any Employment either Ecclefiaftical 
or Civil, who will not in exprt-fs Terms 
renounce it. 

But here it may be demanded, If a M<*n t 
Conference makes him do fuch jAfts^ as tkt 
Good of the Society^ all things confder^d^ rp- 
quires a ftep to be put to by force, whether tht 
Sacrednejs of Confidence ought to tie uf the 
Mtt&iftratts Hand ? < 
: 23. As all Atheiftical Principles deftroy 
Confcieace, fo they cannot plead a Right 


to a: Toleration upon the account of Con- 
fcience: And it being the Doftrine of Per* 
fecutidn alofte which makes Men play the 
Devil for God s fake, I cannot fee, wen* 
it not for that, hbw any fuch Cafe cou d 
happen ; but if it ihould, the Magiftratd 
no doubt is to make ufe of his reftrain* 
ing Power, bccaufe as Men in the State 
Of Nature had a Right, nay were inCon- 
fcience bound to defend themfelves againft 
an Invader, tho he pretended Confcience^ 
fo either they had a Right to intruft the 
Magiftrate with this Power, or elfe with 
none at all*, fince otherwife all Crimi 
nals wou 1 d be fure to plead it: not but, 
that fuch a Gonfcience, upon fuppofition 
it had done its belt to be rightly inform d^ 
wou d be innocent before God, yet that 
wou d not hinder the Magiftrate from dif* 
Charging his Duty in protecting his Subjefts; 
But if he has no pretence to ule Force 
when no Perlbri is injur d, tho Confclence 
were not concern d* much lefs ought he, for 
Reafons already mention dj to do it whea 
Confcieiice is concerned ^ and confequently 
his Power is confin d to fuch Religious Mat* 
ters as are Hkewife Civil, that is, where the 
Publick has an Intcrelh 

24. To go further than this, and to 
fiippofe the Magiftrate has a Right to ufe 
Force for the promoting of Truth in his 
Dominions* muft fuppofe he has a Right to 
judg for his Subjects what is Truth, and 
that they arc bound to ad dccof ding to his 
Determinations: fince a Right to punifli 
Pfcople for not afting according to his D^ter- 
G 2 urination?* 

to " V:3$e Qtylts 

minations, necefiarily fuppofes he has a 
Right to determine for them. : , /, , . 

25. There s no need of any more Power 
than what 1 have laid down, to anfwer all 
the Ends of Government; fmce this gives 
the Magiftrate a Right, when the Qopd of 
, the Society requires it, to cut off any. one, 
whether Lay or Clergy, from all Church- 
Communion, by Banilhment, Imprifon- 
ment, or Death. And by virtue of this 
Power he can oblige any of his Subje&s 
toferve his Country, tho that Service con 
fine him to Places which have no Chriftian 
Church,, or none he can communicate 
with; nay, to fight for the Safety of his 
Country againft Men of his own Church 
and Religion: which fhows that the Good 
of the Society is the fupreme Law, and 
that , all Church-Confiderations, as well 
as every thing elfc, muft give place to it ; 
and that no Perfon, on any Church-pretence 
whatever, can be exempt from the Magi- 
ftrate s Jurifdiftion, and confequently that 
there cannot be two Independent Powers in 
the fame Society ; but that he has the fame 
power over Men when met together for 
the Worfhipof God, as when met together 
upon other accounts ; whom he is then fo 
far from having a Right to difturb, that he 
isoblig d to fecure em from all manner of 
harm, as long as they do nothing prejudicial 
to the Publick, but much more fo, if their 
Meetings tend to promote the general Good, 
as Mens aflembling to worfhip God accord 
ing to their Coniciences does. 
25. In fome fenfe the Magiftrate s Power 


Qhriftian Church ,* Sc c. 

Teenisto be greater in relation to the Church 
than to other Societys, fince he requires no 
more of em than that they entertain no 
Principles d^ftru&ive of the Publick Good : 
but here he is to fee that all Do&rines which 
make for it are to theutmoft inculcated *, and 
for that end may ordain or authorize Mini- 
flers, publickly to inftrud his Subje&s to a- 
void all fuch things as he has a Right to rc- 
ftrain by preventing Force, and to praftife 
all fuch as he ought to encourage by finable 
Rewards i fince this is a lefs Power than 
t other, and tends to the fame End. And 
nothing can be more abfurd, than to exclude 
him from a Right of authorizing Perfons 
publickly to mind him of what he owes to 
his Subjects, and them of thofe Dutys they 
are to render to him and one another, and 
the Motives and Reafons on which they arc 
founded , and to place this in Perfons who 
have no Jurifdidion in fuch Matters. And 
as he may fet Minifters apart for this End, fo> 
he may deprive, depofe, orlilencethcm, if 
jthey negleft this Duty, or aft contrary to it. 
And if the Minifters have acquired greater 
Riches, than tis the Intercft of the Com 
monwealth they fhou d (as certainly there 
may bean exccfsthat way) he has a Right 
to reftify this Abufci becaufc Mens cutnng 
into Political Socictys, nccdlarily fubjccts 
their Property to fuchLaws, as for the Pub- 
lick Good their Rulers (hall make about, it : 
And confequently they can Hinder Men not 
only from difpofingof their Property to the 
prejudice of the Publick, but make any Dif- 
pofition void, which is found to be (b : And 
G 3 the 

Jke %to of 

the fame Reafon which obliges them to make 
Statutes of Mortmain and other Laws againft 
the Peoples giving Eftates to the Clergy, wijl 
equally hold for their taking them away wh,en 
given. But the Good of the Society being 
the only reafon of the Magiftrate s having any 
power over Mens Prppertys, 1 can t fee why 
he ihou d deprive his Subjefts of any part 
thereof, for the maintenance of fuch Opinions 
as have no tendency that way : for as no Man, 
upon his entring into Civil Society, cou d be 
.prefum d willing to give the Magiftratea pow* 
cr to deprive him of any part or his Property, 
for the maintenance of fuch Opinions as no 
ways contribute to the Publick Good,but are, 
as he judges, prejudicial to his Soul , fo no one 
having power over the Property of others on 
any fuch account, cou d give their Reprefen-f 
tatives a greater Power than themfelves had, 
for my part, I muft own 1 know not how to 
pnfwer their Arguments, who fay that Men 
might as well be prefum d to have empower d 
the Legislature tochufe Speculative Opinions 
for em, as to takefrom em any partof their 
Property for the Support of thofe Opinions: 
and that if it be the higheft Injuftice to force 
Men to profefs fuch Speculative Opinions as 
they don t believe,it can t favour much of Juf- 
tice to make em contribute to theSupportof 
*em ^ efpecially confidering it can have no o* 
ther effeft than advancing Superftition, if not 
in all, yet in moft parts of the World, And 
therefore they conclude People are injur d, 
when they areforc d to labour and toil, not 
for their common Benefit, but for maintain 
ing fuch Notions as the Publick receive no 
advantage by. Befides, 27. The 

) &CC. 

27. The tacking the Priefts Preferments 
to fuch Opinions, not only makes cm 
inmoft Nations, right or wrong, toefpoufc 
them, and to invent a thoufand fophifticaj 
and knavifh Methods of defending era 
to the infinite Prejudice of Truth ; hut is 
the occalion that Humanity is in a manner 
extinft among thofe Chriftians, who by 
reafon of fuch Articles are divided into 
different Sefts: their Priefts burning with 
implacable Hatred, and ftirring up the fame 
Paflions in all they can influence, againil the 
Oppofers of fuch Opinions. 

That this is the Caufe of Chriftians 
treating one another with fo much Barba-r 
rity, is evident from this one Confidera- 
tion, That no fuch Effe&s follow by Mens 
differing in fuch Opinions, wherein the 
Clergy have no Intercity but here their 
very Livelihoods and Subfiftence are at 

28. As this is all the Power Men cou d 
inveft the Magiftrate with in Religious 
Matters, fo where this does not reach, 
they can be under no other Human Power, 
but remain Hill in a natural State, fubjcft 
to God and their own Conferences only; 
tince no Man s Religion, like his Lands, 
defcends from Father .to Son, but every 
one, when capable, is to chufe his own 
Church. And the only Motive thai is to 
determine him is the faviug hisownSoul: 
for as he is oblig d, tho all Human Power 
commands the contrary, to join himfelf 
with that Church which he judges will beft 
conduce to if, fo. the fame Reafon, as 

C 4 often 

often as it occurs, will oblige him to 
leave that Church t and confequentiy he 
has an inherent Right, which cannot on any 
pretence whatfoever be delegated, to judg 
of the Terms of Communion in any 
Church, before he makes himfelf a Mem 
ber of it. And tis not his joining to it 
yefterday, which obliges him to continue 
in it to day, but a conftant perfonal 
liking } unlefs you fuppofe Churches made 
like Traps, eafy to admit one, but when 
once he js in, there he muft always flick 
either for the pleafure or profit of the 
Trapfctters. So that all Men in forming 
themfelves into Societys for the Worfhip 
of God, are in a natural State, neither 
Prince nor Prieft having any more Power 
over the Peafant, than he has over either of 
them i but all are to be govern d by the fame 
Motives. And tho no Church, more than 
any other voluntary Society, can hold toge* 
ther, except the Members agree on fome 
Place, on the Perfons to officiate, and fuch- 
like Circumftances } yet none has a Right 
to prefcribe to another, but every one has 
for himfelf a Negative ; So that here s a 
perfeft Equality, for no Man has any more 
power over another, than another lias over 
him \ and as no man is capable of being re- 
prefented by another, every one muft judg 
tor .himfelf of the Forms and Modes 
of Worfhip, the Doftrines, Rites and 
Ceremonys of any Church, not only be* 
fore he joins himfelf to it, but after? 
wards. And therefore if the determining 
pf fuch things, as are neceflary tq bq .agreed 

hriftian Church^ Sec. 

on in order to form a Congregation for 
the Worfhip of God, is to be call d Church* 
Government, tis impoflible any Govern* 
ment can be more popular, becaqfe none 
are oblig d even by a Majority ; but thofe 
who cannot go with em, are to form 
themfelves into a Church after the beft 
manner they can; and two or three thus 
gathered together in the Name of our St- 
viour, have the Promife of hu being with 
them. Nor can this be otherwife, without 
deftroying the very Being of a Church: 
becaufe when People meet together upon 
any other Motive, than worlhipping God 
according to that Method they judg mofb 
agreeable to his Will, they cannot de- 
ferve the Name of a Church ; but are met 
together rather for the affronting than 
worfhipping of him. 

29. What has not a little contributed 
to make Men fuppofe there are Umpires, 
Judges or Governors in Religious as well 
as Civil Matters, is the Magiftrate s an 
nexing Profits and Privileges to the Teach 
ers of his own Religion, exclufively of 
others ; and determining who fhall licenfe 
thofe that arc to have thefe Advantages, 
and on what Qualifications } and who (hall 
deprive em, and for what caufes, and 
fuch-like. And the chief of the Clergy 
being the Magiftrate s Deputy* in this 
matter, and all of em in molt Countrys 
being, generally fpeaking, of the Reli 
gion to which they fi>nd Preferments an- 
nex d, do, in order to bring others right 
or wrong into the fame Sentimen;s ? call 


^6 The Oughts tf.tfa } 

this Eftablifiing their Religion #tft Church 
ky L*WI and make it Scmfm, and confe^ 
qucntly * Damnation* not to be of the 
Church eftablifh d by Law : which not* 
withftanding all the noife and din the 
Clergy make about it, ought not to biaft 
Men, much lefs take from em their na 
tural Right of judging for themfelves in 
matters of Religion, unlefs they ought 
to be in all Countrys of that Religion to 
which they find thefe Emoluments annex d. 
For if one Magiftrate has a right to judg 
to what Religion he will affix thefe \ all 
Magiftrates, Supreme Power being every 
where the fame, wou d have an equal 
Right-, and confequently this, no more in 
one Country than another^ ought to be a 
Motive to determine Men in the choice of 
their Religion or Church. 

30. By what s faid, tis plain bow hap 
py Human Societys wou d be, did not 
their Rulers ufurp more Power than they 
cou d be inverted with by their Subjedh} 
who cou d not oblige themfelves to affift 
cm with their Force, except in fuch cafes 
only as themfelves hadu right to ufe it in 
the State of Mature : and what thofe Cafes 
are they cannot well be miftaken in \ and 
confequently the Commands of a Tyrant 
are fo far from juftifying or excufing their 
aflTifting him either in unjuftly invading 
their Neighbours, or injuring their Fel 
low-Citizens, that they are oblig d by the 
common Ties of Humanity to affift one 
another in oppofing Tyrants, who by be 
traying the higheft Trait/ become the 


Cbnrd> % Sec. % p 

greateft and bafeft of Traitors. And had 
Men, inftead of becoming the curftd In- 
ftruments of Tyranny, aflifted one another t 
In defending their natural Rights by whom- 
foever invaded, as by the Law or Nature 
they were oblig d, the greateft part, of 
Mankind wou d not for fo many Ages have 
groan d under an infupportable Slavery ; 
nor thofe few, but brave Nations, which 
are fo happy as yet to be free, have been at 
fo great Expence of Blood and Treafure 
in maintaining their Libertys, for which 
thofe who at prefent reap the mighty Ad- 
vantage, cannot without monftrous Ingrar 
titude condemn the Conduft of their An- 
ceftors, or the noble Principles which thus 
animated them. 

3 1 . The Benefit wou d be as great upon 
an Ecclefiaftical as Civil account, if So 
vereigns did not endeavour to extend their 
Power further than their People cou d 
authorize em*, for then all Perfecution, 
and all thofe other innumerable Mifchiefs 
both to the Souls and Bodys of Men, 
which have been occafion d by not fuf- 
fering em to worfhip God according to 
the Dictates of their Confciences, wou d 
have been avoided, But of this fully, when 
I treat of the Method the firft Chriltiaii 
Emperors fhou d have taken to pre- 
.vent Ecclefiaftical Tyranny and Pneft- 
craft, and to m^ke the Clergy as ufe- 
ful both to State and Church, as for want 
of it they have in moft places been pre 
judicial to both, i What s premis d con- 
^erning tli? JN^ural -Rights of .Mankind, 


was neceflaryj left when I fhow that there 
cannot be two Independent Powers in the 
fame Society, and that the Magiftrate has 
all the Power relating to Religion which 
Man Is capable of, I might feem to ,giye 
him as great a Power as Hobbs comple 
mented him withj between whom and 
thofe who claim an Independent Power in 
Church-matters, how much foever they 
may rail at him, there s no other difference, 
than that he will have the Magiftrate 
to judg for the People as well as himfelf, 
but they wou d have both blindly follow 

32. There s no Argument the Clergy can 
ufe to exclude the Magiftrate from Power 
in Church-matters, which will not hold 
as much for Mens Natural Rights againft 
them. For will not their having a Right 
to prefcribe Terms of Communion for the 
People, make their Religion to be at their 
difpofal, as much as it wou d be at the 
Magiftrate s, if he had fuch a Power? 
And if a Right in him to oblige the 
People to acquiefce in his Interpretation 
of Scripture, wou d be the fame as a 
Right to make Scripture, can any fallible 
Set of Priefts be fovereign Interpreters 
of it? 

33- In fhort, Men cannot have a Right 
to the End, but they muft likewife 
have to the Means } and confequently if 
they are oblig d to worfhip God as they 
think moft agreeable to his Will, they 
muft have an inherent Right of ordering 
all fuch things as they judg neceflary to 


briftian Church, * 

the; End y otherwife they muft cither be 
oblig d to worfhip God in a manner they 
judg he condemns, when their pretended 
Jwc Divino Governors command em fo 
to do, or elfe to remain without any 
Wprfliip at all, if thefe Governors will 
not fettle thofe things, without a fpe- 
cial Determination of which no Relin 
gious Worlhip can be perform d. Nor 
can ft. be pretended, that tho the Right 
is; in the Prieft, yet that in fuch cafes 
it, reverts to the People; becaufe nothing 
can .revert to them, which was not at 
firft deriv d from them: which tho the 
Magiftrate might plead, the Priefts can* 
not,; becaufe they do not fo much as pre 
tend to derive their Power from the 

34. Nothing can be more abfurd than 
maintaining there muft be. two Indepen 
dent Powers in the fame Society , other- 
wife the Chriftian Religion cou dnot have 
fubflfted when the Magiftrate was not of 
it : Since till the coming of Chrift, all Re 
ligious Societys which were not of the 
Magiftrate s Perfuafion (and I may add 
thofe that were, except they were fo be 
caufe it was his) did fubfift by this Na 
tural Right, without ever dreaming of an 
Imfcrium in Imperio. - And there can be no 
manner of pretence why thofe Chriftian 
Religious Aflemblys which are not of the. 
Magiftrate s Perfuafion, may not maintain 
themfelves by that Natural Right by which 
all others have done it^ from their firft ExU 
ftenceto this very day. 

35. And 


o :i3j4 Aad tho tpany Prieftslay their matrt 
ftrefs on this Argument, which they after 
in upon all Occafions with all the pompous 
Solemnity imaginable, and mumph in it 
as a demonftrative Proof of their Inde* 
pendent . Power } yet alas the only -thing 
it .demonftrates, is, that they are either 
the tnoft ignorant of all Mankind, in hot 
feeing -what the Light of Nature made 
plain to Men of all other Religions, of 
elfe the moft ambitious, in endeavouring 
knowingly and defignedly to impofe on 
the People in a thing of the greateft con* 
fequence. But, to do em all the right 1 
can, I ftitll now fet down what Power 
tis they claim, as belonging to em by 
Divine Right, and then confider tbeitf 
Arguments both from Reafon and Scrip* 

3$. The Clergy, generally fpeaking, afc 
firm that God has appointed for every 
Chriftian Nation two Governments in<Je-* 
pendent of each other, one for Ecckfiaftf 
cal, t other. for Civil Matters-, and that 
both have, as without which no Govern^ 
tncnt can fubfift, a Legiflative and Execa-t 
tive Power ^ and that one of thefe Govfcrh* 
Hients, to wit of the Church, belongs w 
them by a Divine unalterable Right, con^ 
vey d from Chrift and his Apoftles, who 
cmpower d em to rule the Church to? 
the end of the World \ and that by vir* 
tue of tliis Spiritual Empire, they have a 
right to make Laws not only about indifr 
ferent Matters, as Rites and CeremonySf 
but that their Authority likewife extends 
: " -; : , to 

Church, See. f f 

td) Matters 6f Faith, that Is/ according t6 
thePrafticeof all Synods, to determine fotf 
the People what they ftjall believe and pro^ 
feft 5 and thfct they have : a right to enforce 
Obedience to their Ecclefiaftical Decrees by 
Spiritual Ctnfures, the EfFe&s of which 
arc, fay they, infinitely more tx> be dreaded 
than any the Civil Power dm inflift, fmce 
tis no lefs than- Ihutting Heaven s Gates, 
and a delivering over to Satan : all who 
are fo unhappy as to fall under em: And 
that as none cart, be admitted into the 
Church except by their means, fo they have 
not only a difcretionafy Power either to 
admit or liot admit, but likewife to J>u^ );/ 
nifh thofe: they have admitted, not only 
by rebuking and reproving em, but by 
turning em out of the ^ Church, and 
obliging all Perfons to fhuri and avoid 
y tm $ and that for all manner of Sins, for 
the breach of the Commandments of the 
fecond^ as well as of the fir ft Table : And 
that the better to do this, they, like all 
ether Independent Powers, have a right to 
ereft Courts of Judicature, fummon Wit- 
nefles, and to do whatfoever they judg 
neceflavy for the Support of their inde* 
pendeitt Jurifdidion^ of the Extent of 
which, themfelves, under God, arethefole 
Judges, and confequently can excommu 
nicate their Spiritual Subjefts for whateve^ 
they fliall^judgto be Contempt, Contumu^ 
cy and Difobedicnce : And that they havfc 
this great Advantage above the Laity, that 
they are capable of the higheft Civil a$ 
\vcll as Ecclefialtical Power-, but that tU 


impious Ufurpation and horrid Sacri 
lege in all, except thofe to whom the true 
Succeflbrs of the Apoftles have by laying on 
of Hands given the Holy Ghoft$ to ex- 
ercife any Ecclefiaftical Jurifdi&ion, Office 
or Employ^ and that whatfoever^ they 
attempt or this nature, is null and void, 
for want of a Commiflfion, which none 
are authored to beftow, except thofe who 
derive their Power from God in adireft 
Succeffion from the Apoftles. The Con- 
fequence of which is, that theirs is the 
molt abfolute, arbitrary, unlimited, un- 
controlable Power in the World \ becaufe 
having it without any Intervention of the 
People, or their Reprefentatives, they can 
not be accountable to them for any Male- 
adminiftration, but to God alone, from 
whom they rcceiv d their Power. 

As thefe are the Powers which the ge 
nerality of the Clergy claim for them- 
felves as Governors of the Church by 
Divine Right (of which none who is 
the leaft converfant in their Writings 
can be ignorant) fo thofe amongft em^ 
who woird not be thought to abet thefe 
Notions, muft needs countenance and 
commend my Defign, in endeavouring to 
confute an Error which has fo univerfally 
obtain d. 

In order to the doing of which* the 
firft thing 1 fhall examine into, is the 
Poffibility of two Independent Powers in 
the fame Society ^ becaufe if that proves 
to be repugnant to the nature of things^ 
the whole Hierarchy, as built on it, muft 
r . ne- 


ncceflarily fall to the ground, and great frill Clia> tJ 
be the.Fall of this Spiritual Babylon. : / - . txvM 

; r " i.v ::.. .. :; -! :: . -. :i -:;:, , 
CHAP. I. , 

. ) .-. * ; , 

1 tltrt cannot be two Independent 
in the fame Society* 

1 i * j " , v . * . . 

i. ALL Independent Power muft 

\ preme, becaufe what is not fo mufl* 
be dependent ; and no Power can be Su-* 
preme, which does not neceffarily carry 1^^ 
giflation with it. Now there cannot be two 
fuch Powers at the fame time, either about 
the fame .or different things. About the 
lame tis imppflible, becaufe by one Powet 
a Man may be oblig d to do a thing> by 
t ? other forbid to, do iti fo that the fame 
Adion wou d be a Duty .and a Sin ; a Duty 
in obeying one, and a Sin in difobeying 
the? :other. Nor is it more poflible there 
fhou d, be two fuch Powers about different 
things, becaufe a Man can be no more at 
the fame time under different Obligations* 
than at different Places j fince he may be 
bound to be at a Camp and at a Church, 0? 
before an Ecclefiaftical and a Civil Tribunal, 
at the fame time : Nay, he may be oblig d 
to do not only different, but oppofite and 
contrary things- 

2- For one Power msiy coriirtland haft 
to keep Holy*day upoa an 

the Independent Kirk commanding a Faft 
on the fame day the King had oblig d the 
Citizens to tyeat.the^TJmbafladors of the 
French King at a fplendid Dinner. The 
Ecclefiaftica\ Power may oblige a, Perfpn jto 
exercife his Spiritual tdn&ioii, in this i>f 
that placei, the Civil Power (fpr \reafons 
relating to the State) may command him 
from thence: So one Power may, upon an 
Ecclefmftical Account y eXcommuhitatQ -a 
Perfon^ and theriby oblige People; to flum 
and^ avoid him-, the other may, Upon a 
.Civilj make it neceffary for era to have 
frequent Communion with- him; -So th$ 
Mttglfti ate may forbid his&ubjcds to v -harc 
any Correfpondencfc with fuch a Perfony 
oti tho contrary, the Clergy may put him 
in fuch a Poft in the Church, is muft make 
it nccefHiry for their Spiritual Subjcfts to 
conVcrfe with him. In (hort, a thoufand. 
things of this nature Will occur. Nor can 
the nrft Abfurdity be avoided, -of thefe 
Powers being converfant ibout the fame 
things:" For if the Magiftmc is to judg 1 . 
what is Civil, he muft unavoidably )udg> 
what is Ecclefiaftical, bccaufe Civil includes 
all that is not fo ^ and if the Prieft be allow d 
to determine what is Ecclefiaftical, he muft 
(there being no Medium) determine whatt 
is Civil: Wnich is fuppofirig two Indepen 
dent Powers judging at the fa iM? time, 
with relation to the fame Perfons, 1 con 
cerning all things whatfoever ^ bcca.ufe all 



%Hn$v iffe 1 Wit* Civil Or ! , Ec^ftalttqd. Chap, t J 
A^hb if thete t6 judg between ?tf itr thofc L/VV 

fcltooflr infinit^ Particulars which reqttjfe a 
Extermination ? How tafn. thq tbrt 


ittbii Sflbjeft at the famfe time .obey both, 
Wh&k both. woti^. be own d f as Supreme 
in the fame things? And fup- 
pbs dj that God (dho % the G ?4 $ dM^ 
and toot [ of Confufion) wouM evet involve us 
In fuch 1 jinextricable Difficult ys, , ! as to fub- 
jeft ti* to two Powers, which arfe either 
apt to clafh and interfere contiriually about 
tht fttiie things, of elfe to comriiaiid, i( 
ftot Contrary, yet different things $t the 
totifo timi? 

3. In ihort, they ttho pretend tofetiiji 
two fadi Powers, do In efTc ft confound 
both; becaufe thtir Commands /being 
fcqual, they muff deftrby each other s Force 
and Virtue, and . confcduently ffee Men 
frotn tfe Obligatioii tb both. To avoid 
which if you fuppofe one muft be forc d 
to give Way, fhat which dofcs fo tatinot 
be independent, but by virtad of thit 
Obligation is fubjedfed tb the -otheiiv 
And a Powet to null an Obligation, does 

infer ji Right to make one \ bccarure 116 
greater Power is required for the one thatt 
for the other. 
4 v Tb imagind twb fuch PoWeti 

,thc B6d| Politick, is a^ abfurd as to 
J>ofe two Souls independent of dn^ a 
ther to 1 govern the Body Natural* , 

t Heads to tile fanle lB6dy, Whether Natdfal 
br PolirkaL can fcrVe to no other ufe 
to ffiak^ a Mbnfter of it. 

D 2 S 


* . 

- . , 

v: 7V 

:. 5.. This Suppofition of twp Independent 
/Powers, tends to deftroy the proof of one 
Supreme Governor of the Univerfe. For 
if there may be two fuch in every Society 
on Earth, why may there not be more 
than one in Heaven? Bat Jhis fcemM (b 
abfard to the primitive Chriftians, that 
from the ImpofliDility of it, they confuted 
the Multiplicity of the Heathen Gods; 
which had been no very good Argument in 
them, had they imagin d two fuch Powers 
in every Society on Earth, who certainly 
are more apt to ciafh with one another. 
So that this Notion, inftead of being 
founded in Chriftianity, favours moft grofly 
of Heathenifh Divinity* 

6. And if you allow more than one Pow* 
er in every Society, there s no reafon to 
Hop at two j but you muft multiply 
them, till all, or at leaft all neceflary 
Societys have a diftind Independent Head, 

7. If it be contrary to the nature of 
things, t that there fhou d be more than one 
Power in a Family, every one fees that the 
fame invincible Reafon forbids more than 
one in a Society, made up of feveral Fa- 
jnilys ; for the greater the Community, the 
greater Diforder and Confufion will the 
Attempt of introducing more create. To 
avoid which, it was neceflary that the 
Father and Husband, tho both have their 
Power from God, fliou d be fubjeft to the 
Son x and Wife, when entrufted by the 
People with the Government } by which 
they are empower d not only to command 


,, ".; @ri/lian fe &c. _ 

both, but for jolt reafons to put them to Chap, il 
death. ; . < 

- What has been : here faid, proves, that 
all Supreme or Independent Power inuft be : 
indivifible ; and that he who has any fuch 
in Ecclefiafticals, muft have the 1 fame in 
Civils, and confequentty all Power What- 
foever. But becaufe the Clergy pretend , 
that their Ecclefiaftical Power may be di 
vided from, and no ways interfere with 
the Magiftrate s Civil Power ; I fhall now 
fhow the contrary, even in.thofe things- 
they imagin the moft unlikely to clam 
with it, viz.. an independent Right of 
making and depriving Ecclefiafticks, and of 

8. As to the firft, this wholly excludes 
the Magiftrate from having a Right to put 
a Clergyman to death; becaufe in Depri 
vation of Life is included Deprivation of 
all Offices and Employs whatfoever: and 
confequently without having the lefs, he 
cou d not have the greater, in which that 
is cont^in d. And if the Clergy hold; 
their Offices by a Divine Commiflion, the 
Magiftrate can have no more Right to de 
bar or hinder their executing them, than 
to fufpend or fuperfede fuch a Com- 
miflion. And a Divine Independent Right 
in any one to an Office, ncceflarily fuppo- 
fes the fame Right to the Place where he 
is to exercife it, and. to the Perfons on 
whom he is to exercife it : and confe- 
quently the Magiftrate can, upon no pre 
tence whatfoever, banifli, imprifon, re- 
move, 6r any way hinder a Perfon from 
D 3 cxcr- 

..Place, where the governing Clergy, 
otylig d ; hiin, to tel^de v piuchr Ipifyincapaci- 
t%te hitfl by aay PunUnincntj frpifyperfyrmiv 
ing it ^t; a)^ And .qy the fqjfle r^lpn, he -f 
has asrtyttk power pyer a Laymaq ^ becauf$ ; 
if he put?, hini to c^atli^ baiiifhfs,Jnjprir, 
fotis, ptj removes him from the I)}ftr$t he 
belongs to, .he deprWes the Governor of 
that Diftrid of a Subjeft, to whoft 
ritual Obedience hei ^ia? an. 

9, A^/t^ thp feco|)d, ( if thq Power pf 
Excommunication belpngs independently* tpt 
th^ Clergy, the Magistrate cou d no irjorfc 
do that which neceffarily deprives, one o^ 
tbe Communion of , the Churcl?,, tbarj, a 
. Prieft can that whereby one s Death una^ t 
voidably follows -, becaufe if the Govem-i 
ments are equal, by being, bothi IndepeOf 
dcat, the M agiftrate can have no more 
Power over Men direftly or indireftly in , 
Ecclefiafticals, than the Prieft has in Ci^ , 
vils} and confequently he cou d no more 
By Banifliment, Imprifonment or Dieath^ 
hinder onq from communicating with his, 
own Church, much lefs with all the CJhur- 
ches in the World (as by thelaft hemoft 
. efTedually does) than the Prieft cou d d<* 
anything, whereby Deprivation of Country, 
Eftatc, Liberty or Mfe, i^ the necefftry 

But this is not all} for; the Power of 
Excdmpiunication in the Priefts, takes, 
from the Magiftrate the Right of depriving , 
ouc of the Exercife of any Profeflion, Cal- 



ttng i ! Employ^ ; brwTiakle: whatfoevet 51 ifihce Chap, i 
none.\iait ctercife^tm^Jiwho is to bd (hiin d vxV%J 
bji all People. vAftd f 3fj;the Clergyic^w ob- 
.lige;, : :eYery fwdylltq ; flmn : * thofe they r di- 
jcominunicate ^ ; they J mufti confeovlentl^ fee 
tol deprive whom! they pleafe of their 
i^Ano ., <*r whicbimui b debalr the Mi- 

.giftratci ofi-.dQiag the .fame, ; fined both 

.to- the\famc ( Po<t- 

.; fame f ttirac^^ NayJJ confiderlrig 
*nb - Perfop. r cda ! long fubfift witjiout the 
aKicG ; of othcte v which > :cimv>t be 
\\ivbere i People: arc vobiig d : to 


d .Senterice ;of .Excommunication^ . 

lyi iput^ iilLGxectvtidni >:^ou, d not ohly 
loae, ..of/iah^v Employ ^hatfo 
ahde. Mm fonirfi>tne> Dimer ta;leitd a 
mure to, b; dreadea tli^n j)eath !t 

r to^perifh moft c triiferably: 

s "Independent tower 

ofi Uffe.M. and- DeaithrVtoi^d beloiig T to v tfie 
&n& thnte is! nd Pcrfon -wluifoever 
bi&*Puaafhment, no nat th*e 
finccihe -ii their Edcte ftdftical 
may be reduc d to this mite- 
lor^.Gondttiorr^lbyj.thc Cler- 
gyiV.l<d?Wting rthctt Spiritual ; Sword (a s 
tlis.Ccafiire^ againft all of IMS 
ier^-ant) othcirsviand obligtng 
* -ta- avoid ^ . ihdn-^ and confcquently 
d^fert> Wm y on r paia- of having Heaven s 
Catcal ^iut agadmh em, and being deli- 
yer d owr to Sataj-u And M^H certainly 
In commba Prudence will be firt e to com 
ply with tbofc who have : t)m Power over 
D 4 their 


. . . their Sow//, rather than with the Magiftratei 
who has Power only, over their Bodysj*^, 
. IQ..K It. be faid,, . they . have n6t this 
-Power over the Magiftrate, becaufe* tis 
inconfiftent with his Civil Rights j will ; not 
the Argument hold: as to the People?: For 
i$ he not in Ecclefiafticals as much .a 1 pri 
vate Perfon as anyjof cm*, and in Givlls 
has he , any Rights .except what they give 
him for their own. fakes, being* their 
Cfeatitre^ as St. Peter* calls him, madefy 
them, as well as for them? And does! foot 
every one, as well as he, fufler by this 
Punifhment, in his Civil and Natural Ca* 
parity? fince the Converfation of his Pel- 

. lowrCitixens is abfojutely neceflary to his 
Well-being here, to which, unlefs^ he afts 
.contrary to the common Rules of ifocia- 

. We and rational Creatures, he has a natuV 
oral Right, built on the k neceflity Men are 
in of one another s Affiftance , each Per- 
fon s Infufficiency for himfelf being* the 
Foundation of all the mutual Dutys- be- 

. tween Man and Man. And he that s in the 
right in fpeculative Notions, can -as little 

,live without the Concurrence of others, 
as he that ? s in the wrong : and whofoever 
will not be fhun d for the fake of his 
Opinions, ought to obferve the fame mea- 
fure with refppd to others, who have the 
fame Privilege of judging for themfelves. 
The contrary Treatment, fince it can no 
ways Convince the Underflanding, but is 
&pt to produce Hatred and Diflimulation, 
ought only to be us d for breaking thofe 
Rules, by which Mankind fubfift 


if the Clergy claim a Chap, i; 
judicial Power in thcfe Matters, what can l/VNI 
be exempted froth their Jurifdiftion ? , 
j; By what s here briefly touch d at, tis 
plain that an independent Right in the 
Clergy, of : Deprivation, and of Excom 
munication^ does j not only clalh, but iir 
wholly inconfiftent with the Magiftrate s 
Civil Power. However, let us a little 
moire fully confider, what effeft an hide-*: 
pendent Right in the Clergy to Excom 
munication win have on Mankind. 

ii . If he, who has power bver Mem 
Lives, muft needs command their Proper-* 
tys : , "becaufe they wou d willingly part 
with one to preferve t other ^ how great 
muft their Power be, who can exclude Men 
from everlafting Life? Nothing lefs thaii 
that being, as the Priefts pretend^ the Conni 
fequence of their Excommunication^ Men 
wou d be moft notorious Fools, not to let: / 

all in this World, their Lives as well as 
Properties, beat their difpofal, 1 to prevent 
or take off this infinitely great Punilhment. 
But the temporal Effed of it, without the 
afliftance of its fpiritual Force, is fufficient 
to enflave Mankind ? fince the depriving one 
of all Converfe muft needs be infupportablev 
to ! lb fociable a Creature as Man: for who 1 
Can indure to be fhun d as a frightful or in- 
fedious Animal, and to be left alone and 
folitary in the midft of Mankind? This 
fingly, tho one was able to fubfift without > 
th^ Concurrence of others, being too much , 
for human Mature to fupport} what wou d . 
not Men do or fufFcr to avoid it? 



fevere ^ fmfei! fort (if i ifclbstaflgs i to, rth$m td 
pcfthibit B^opkApm CQnyjerfing with/ whom 
tfaoy pleafby,.it.\muft like&vift, belong! to 

Aefar iCo$nhanCc?) 

of the Prohibit ion r 
they extend it -to . the utn^fty 

an >raartner , of 
are obliged to obey them^ .{ 
13. Thft iturning(OUit:0f the 

;tho Jews :(*),, tho .it did i not 
debar^one : from the Legal Worfhip> .: 
wholly exclude him feom all Copyeyfe, c 
ocdy oblig d him to, keep > Certain 
y/eti .wijs: thought fo feyere a 
that tbeiRabbys^ and other great 
vray v of Commutation, had. the favg^^ .Of 
kcirtg fondly? beaten (tho,fotue 
tl<ir, thaa Jpyvs t have manag d, :! ( 
tious more .t^ thebr iO f wn< 
cntkhiug therafelves,, .^nd bcggerfng >c - r if 
Earner be, not aLiair^ rmwy an hoc(t Dif, 
fcnbtep)? and the Jews now chufe (k) tQ 
fijbmit not only to Stripes,, but to Banilbr 
nient ttatbor than to it. Among the fr 
firtes (c)i thic- ftrifteft Sedi: . qf .the jev^, 
4C Excommunication w^ fo terrible, thaf 
- : they who: ineur d 1 that Sentjeace^ cara^ 
* probablyllo f a miferable End,, being drivert 

(aj Selden de Syncdriis* 
(bj Grocius de Irrfpcrlo lumraarum potcftawm 
ficra, cap. 9. . ie. 
TO Jofcphus di Bella Judaio>> lih aw c 4jt, 7; ;. :r* 


&t. 4$ 

f tQ;gi?att* Uk^fleafts till t|he;Fle& rotted Chap. i2 

^;qiety,.h44 T)f lbmeitijpaea the Charity^ 

* they w.sre ^ the point of deatjx, to re 

," ceive . em,, agjjfo. i Thefe* tis true, qb* 

fer ? d ; bat wpi^diii^Qt be as bad if all w^rfc 
bound not to offer it? 

l^ ,The antient Carman* (d) thought IJx- 
cpjnmunication fq in jRipportable^ tfikt m^-t 
ay laid violent ha^ds on themfelves, rather 
th^n, j^pdure it : Aad npt without ( goods 
reafoa for w.ho> you d aot be. kiltd OMt-* 
right^ rathen : than be. oblig ? d to. fuftaiaLife 
in an , vuuahabited Place,?, And the being a^ 
inojagft Men,, wJien. they agrcejto have na 
Communication with, him^ is; far from mak^ 
ipg; his Condition more eligible- 
t : i$ f \ The- Rmids (ty, w^o got the fole, 
power of Excommunication to themfelves^ 
bjj virtue of it governed, all. things, v and 
Kings, were only their Minifters to, execute? 
their Sentences. And have not theChriC-, 
tian Druids^ by pretending an independent 
Right to it, riiljd the Chriftian World. as> 
they pleas d ^ efpecially in the moft ignoc-. 
rant times, whea the Pope, as Head of ther 
Church, infulted and, lorded; it over both* 
Kings and People-, who (as the Indians do. 
the Devil), ^dor d him^ out of fear, fo ap-* 
prehenfive were they of the Thunder of his* 
. Excommunications? 

Tacira? dc moribas Germanorum. 
Dion ChryipJbm, Orat. 4% 

id. Of * 

: . 


44 ;, 

r^-^/.pfc this had not the Nation been* 
7 % fenfible, they.wouM not have declar d tfj 
tt That the Retfon why tlie Pope and ms 
" Adherents hinder d Laymen from ex-* 
u crcifing Ecclefiaftical Jurifdiftion, was, 
," that they might gather and get to them- 
" felves the Rule and Government of the 
World. . ,, 

17. If this Cenfure. does not now-a-days 
ftrike every where fuch a Terror into Men ; } 
tis not becaufe it does not naturally pro-| 
duce it, but becaufe they do not ftriftly 
and religioufly avoid all Converfe with the 
Excommunicated , whom they cannot 
think to be in a very defperate Condition 1 
, With refpeft to t other World, when they 
Confider the trifling Caufes for which that^ 
Penalty is commonly inflifted. Befides, 
where there are feveral Churches, being 
cenfur*d by one of them, feldom makes a; 
; , Man lefs efteem d by the reft \ which poflibly 
is one reafon why the Clergy make what they 
call Scbifin to be fo heinous a Sin. 
J \2. Can any fay the Magiftrate has all 
the Power neceflfary for the Protection of 
his Subjefts, if Excommunication belongs 
by Divine Right to the Clergy ? For then f r 
tho by the Terror of this dreadful Pu-* 
niftiment they drive the moft ufefu) Citi- 
7ens and their Trades into Foren Parts, 
to the ruin of the Commonwealth 5 or 
any other way, by virtue of it, opprefs his 
Subje&s ^ he is fo far from having a Right, 

(f) 37 / Henry VUI. dfa 17- 




to hinder it, that the attempt in him Chap, i : 
IwouM be no lefs than Spiritual Rebellion. W NJ 
, And what can more difcourage him from 

, , .afting for the good of the Commonwealth, 

when contrary to the Intercft or Defigns of 

"the Clergy, than his being fubjeft to this 

Punifhment ? And tho his own Perfon > 

were exempt, yet that would fignify little* 

fo, long as .thofe he afts by are liable to it, 

But tho both the Magiftrate and Minifters 

t wicre ever fo willing to proted the People* 

yet they are . deprived of the Means, be* 

caufe * 

. 1 9. The Cognizance almoftof all Caufes 

/jnuftbeloni to the Clergy } fince whofo-* 

ever offcnos, or injures his Brother, com* . 

mits a Sin: and the Arguments they ufc 

* for their fpiritual Jurifaiftion, fuch as 
Reformation of Manners^ the Good of Aftnt 
Souls , Avoiding Scandal , &c. give them a 
right to excommunicate for one Sin as well 
as another } and confequently for Invafion 
of Property, no fmall Sin. And whofoever^ 
puniflies for this, muft* if he be not a 
jncre Executioner of another s Sentence* 
judg concerning the Matter of Fad, whe 
ther the Defendant has injur d the Plantifi* 
^c. and Judgments would be in vain, if 
People were not to fubmit to the Determi 
nation of the Judges. By the famereafon, 
the Clergy muft have a right to excommu-. 
nicate for all Crimes againft the publick 
Good, thefe being Sins of the h>ft Magni 
tude: And, to inftance in Rebellion, the/ 
cannot have a Power to cenfure Men for it,f 
without a right of judging to whom Alle-i 


J^O .: " ~N<b I * 

-: ; : "> gfafacei iidao V fo that all pablidk : ^ 
X w .vate -Right feiftibjeft to -theft De?eht 

J io. And considering the farrie thing* 1 life 
toth Civil and Religiou^ and there** no 
thing relating; to one s felt, 6tie?s Neighbor, 
or the Publicky but where Religion is; J ot 
may be coiicernM, and where the Clef gy, 
as a matter of Confcience, are to advife; , 
this wou d give them, if they have a Ju- 
rildiftion as well as a Right to advife, k 
Power in ; all things whatfofcVer, excluftvety 
of all others, were it for no other reafon, 
than that Men -ciannot obey contrary Judg* 
Bients; tho another may be added, that; 
Oaths being neceflary for the determining 
of Controverfys, Thefe, as fpiritual things, 
wou d belong only to the Clergy to adrtn- 
nifter or juclg of, or puniih for the breach 
of cm. 

i ii. If it be faid, that thefe two Inde* 
pendent Pdwers may judg concerning thfc 
fame Crimes ^ becaufe one punifhes on ac- , 
count of the State, t other of the Church t 
This, befide the Abfurdity of two Inde^ 
pendent Powefs judging about the famd 
things, is manifeftly unjuft, in fubjeding 
the fame Perfons to undergo two Trials, 
and to be punifh d twice for the famd 
Crime. And the end of all Punifhment ; 
being to deter Men from committing thofe 
Crimes for which the Criminal fuffers, 
takes in all Pretences either from the Good 

, of the Church Or State, or whatever el$ 
may be fuggefted} and confequently be^ ; 

v, , ing puniflt d by one Independent Power \4 


* . v , . . 

tb anfvf er atti tbb fend&of Pmdfti- Chap, i; 

alight to -- 

. World (Ja 

Where knitted not long 1 finee) : 
M tat, 1 1 und wtoctt" Aot -, 1 feti d lean 
th<jf pUafc>fotfcid^tHe ufe of Hefli^ 
the Taj)ifi:^ v are fpr dtic third of 1 the 
e^b mm^icatc -dll^Whtf difobct 
( !m9V ; they ix)t fi ailtime the f^ne 
Pdwer ; about Dvinki or Glbtihe^ the tirtnefr 
6|f Riiing 61^ Gbing* ttx Bed, -dt 6f W<5rkih^ 
6^ J nbt ! woricing (which jiindudcd in ttre 
power of appofrtting Holy-^ays) and get 
Mbriy. for Difl>eniations in thefe matters? 
for one cannot be accounted a more infolentf 
Inij)ofitiori 6n the Liberties of Mankind. 
than : the othcri: And they who can afTumc 
fiith ^ Powct to themfclves,, what will thef 
not) vmleft fufficiently curb d, pretend to^ 
and, which h infinitely worfe, by virtue of 
Excodtmunication and fpiritual Anathema s 

1 about ? 

To this may be added, that not only 
independent Power of Excoitimunica- 
but of Ordination in the . Clergy, h 
with the Ma^iftrate s Right to 
protect the Commonwealth y becaufe then 
they n^ay pint not only Men of the bell 
Abilities to ferve the Gomi^okiWeiiUh, but 
fiich great Numbers into Order*, the bdtter 
to carry on their common Interelt (which 
we fee actually done ii-t Popifh Countrys) a* 
may tend to the tofinite prejudice of the 
;;, : 24. In 


48 tZke.^tot of the 

i . 14. In a word, there s nothing,* if tho 
^~\. Ckrgy wereGovernors of the Church, whictf 
would not belong to their judicial Cogni- 
7ance : as for inftance, they would haver a 
Rieht to judg concerning all Laws, Leagues 
and Contracts ; and when they find them 
prejudicial to tne Church (of which they arc 
the proper and fole Judges) to declare em 
voicf and null* So their Power on a Church-* 
account would extend to all that Trade and 
Commerce which is carry donby People of 
different Religions and Perfuafions \ becaufe 
thofe who are in the right cannot deal with 
thofe in the wrong, without converting with 
em } and fo the Church muft be infe&ed, 
which its Governors muft have a right to 

1 prevent. 

25. If the Clergy dre Governors of the 
Church by an independent Right, they muft 
have the fame Right to every thing neceflary 
for the Support of the Government } becaufe 
that, without which the Government can 
not fubfift, cannot be feparated from the 
v , Government} with which the Clergy being 
inverted, of courfe they muft have an inde 
pendent right to lay on their Subjefts what 
Taxes they judg neceflary for maintaining the 
Ecclcfiaftical State, its Officers and Minifters, , 
and for the Building and Repairing of Chur 
ches, and all other Ecclefiaftical Edifices: 
And therefore the Magiftrate cannot, by de 
priving a Man of his Limbs and Libertys, or 
by burdening him with Civil Taxes or pther 
ways, difable him from paying his Quota o 
thofe fpiritual Afleflments his EccleliafUcai 
Governors fhall impofe. 

26. tf 


: If the ; fame, Peoplerare to r ,be binder Chap 
different: Cover dor s > independent of. each 
V . the Civil Governor can have no 
power on a -Civil Account over the 
Subjeft, than the other on an Ec- 
clefiaftical ; nor cari they hinder one another 
of : t|je. Obedience due to each: and confe- 
quently the Magiftrate , cannot deprive one 
of his Life or Liberty, or ufe any other re- 
ftraining method-, becaufethis muft either 
forever,, or for a time, rob. the Ecclefi- 
aftjcal Governor of a Subjeft, to whom he 
has at-all times an independent Right. And 
by the fame reafony he cannot remove him 
from -the Diftrift of his fpiritual Gover- 
v ndr, or indeed from hisPariih^ becaufe he 
cannot deftroy the Relation between him 
and his Parifli-Prieft, nor lay any Com 
mands on him,- which are either as to mat 
ter or time inconfiftent with thofc of his 
other Governor. Then as for the Ecde(I- 
afticks themfelves, the Magistrates can ob 
lige em to nothing that will in the leaft 
divert em from attending the feveral Sta 
tions in which they are plac d by the Go 
vernors of the Church. 

27. Qn the contrary, the Ecclefiaftical 
Governors cannot oblige People to avoid 
and fliun a Man, becaufe tney have no 
Right to hinder them from converting a- 
bout Civil Matters, thefe beijig under the 
Cognizance of the Civil Magiftrate: And 
the common Subjeft will find it a pretty 
difficult bufinefs to give his Neighbor the 
Right he has to his Converfation on a 
Civil Account, and yet wholly to fepa- 
E rate 

Tie (tyhsof the 

rate from him upon an Ecclefjaftical. 

28. In brief, as the Civil Magiftrate can 
not command or punifh his Civil Subjed, 
without commanding or punifhing the Sub- 
jeft of the Ecclefiaftical Magiftrate-, fo tis 
the fame vice verfa and confequently they 
muft needs deftroy each other s Power, and 
free Men from all Subjeftion to either. 

2.p. Then as to the Governors themfelves, 
what can be more abfurd, than to imagine 
that one can be Subjeft to, and Sovereign 
of the fame Perfbn, and be oblig d to pu 
nifh him for Rebellion, and yet in fo do* 
ing be guilty of the fame Crime againft 
him, as the Magiftrate plainly is, when he 
puts his Ecclefiaftical Governor to death ? 
fince diflblving the Relation between the 
Sovereign and his Ecclefiaftical Subjefts, 
if done by one of em, is nothing lefs 
than a fpiritual Rebellion. If on one 
hand tis faid that no Governor of a com* 
pleat Body Politick can want what s necef- 
fary for its Prefervation *, and confequent 
ly the Magiftrate, on that account, has 
a Right to put any of his Subjeds to 
death : On the other fide it will be re- 
ply d, that the Church, by reafon of its 
Divine Inftitution, is the moft compleat 
Body Politick*, and therefore its Gover 
nors (as no fuch Body can be without it) 
muft have a Right to meet, when and 
where they pleafe, fit as often and as long 
as they think fif, which is inconfiftent 
with a Right in the Magiftrate to put em 
to death, or by Punifliment or any other 
way ta hinder em from exercifmg this 


tyri/l tan Church, &c. j i . 

Power, becaufe then they wou d be de-Chap. i5 
pendent on him in the higheft and molt L/VN) 
eflential part of Government, that of Le- 
giflation. But we are not to ftop herej 
for \ 

30. This Hypothefis gives the EccleC* 
aftical Governors, whenever the Safety of 
the Church, the fupreme Law, requires it, 
of which they are the Judges, a Power 
over the temporal Sovereign \ for the lefs 
Noble muft give place to the more Noble, 
the Temporal yield to the Spiritual, and 
the Church be prefer d before the State. 
And therefore tis no wonder 4C that not 
4i only Popes (g) and Councils have afler- 
44 ted the depofmg Do&rine, but that the 
44 Chriftian World for more than fix hun- 
44 dred years did acquiefce in it , and that 
44 during that whole time not fo much as 
44 one Divine, Civilian, Canonift or Ca- 
44 fuift, writagainftit: and thofe Writers 
44 the depos d Princes got to undertake 
44 their Defence, do not in any of their 
" Books pretend to call the Do&rine in 
44 general in queftion. And twas not the 
Pope only, but other Bifhops wtio took 
upon *em to depofe their Sovereigns } as 
nothing was more folemn than the Prench 
Bifliops, Anno 833. depofing the Emperor 
Ludovictu Pint) which in their condemna 
tory Sentence they declare done by the Coun 
cil of Ood and the .Authority of the Church j 
and apply all thofe Arguments of the Good 

Cl ) BifiV of SarumV Expof. of tbt i ytb Article* 

E 2 of 

of Mens Souls, <-c. made ufeof fof in 
dependent Power, to jijftify their Conduft; 
and to prevent his being reftor d, they firib 
force him to take the Habit of a Penitent, 
and then declare that no Man after fuch a 
Penance ought to return to a Secular Mi 

31. By what has been here urg d, - tis 
very plain, that there cannot be more than 
one Independent Power : and if that belongs 
to the Magiltrate, the Clergy can have 
none, except it be deriv d from him, as all 
dependent Power mud be. But if this is in 
the Clergy, the Magiftrate can be no more 
than their Subjeft in Civils, as well as in 
Ecclefiafticals } and therefore they who are 
for fuch a Power in the Clergy, however they 
inay complement the Magiltrate, deal with 
him, as the Epicureans did of old with God, 
f^erbis ponere^ re tollere* 

32. It may be faid, no Clergymen own all 
thefe Confequences : the Popifh Priefts own 
as many as ferve to exempt themfelves (tho 
the Reafon holds as ftrongly for the Lai* 
ty) and all that belongs to em from the 
Magiftrate s Power, and to make him no 
better than their Executioner 5 and upon 
refofing that noble Office, to forfeit his 
Dominions. Nay Bellarmine (h) goes fo faf 
as to afTert that tis no lefs than Herefy to 
deny that the Pope has it in his Power to difpofe 
of all private Mens Eftates y as well as the Dia- 

(h) BcllarmincVr Anfwr to Barclay, of the Temporal 
Power of the Pope. 


iJKan Church*, & ft: 

tttms of Kings^ if He fee it food and froftable Chap. I 
for the Holy Church.i And it cannot be ima- 
gin d, that thofe of the Proteftant Clergy 
who maintain the Uo&rine of their Indepen 
dency, do it barely as a fpeculative Opinion \ 
but for the fake of its advantageous Confe- 
quences, which fhou d they pretend to all at 
once, they would be fo far from gaining 
their Point, that they wou d make Men fee 
the Abfurdity of that Principle, whence f<? 
many enilaying Do&rines follow. 
33; Their way is to get one thing by 
it firlt, then another, next a third} till at 
laft every new Step being made a new Ar 
gument, it will be too late to -deny them 
any- thing. It was by this method (for* 
Rome was not built in a day ) that formerly - 
the Prielthood by degrees advanced it felf 
to fo prodigious a height } tho there are - 
fome now, who with too general an appro-, 
bation have, by virtue of this Principle, 1 
tho contrary to the Laws of the Church 
and State, and their very Oaths, fet up 
for more Power of late, than in former 
times was claim d in fome Centurys. And 
if the Ecclefiafticks, -when they were open 
ly debauch d, and fcandaloufly ignorant, 
and therefore not fo much in Credit with 
the Laity, could carry things fo high, 
there s no reafon to think, but thatnovy, 
fince the reftor d Learning of Europe is 
r principally lodg d with ? em, and they do 
not appear fo diflblute in their Manners, 
and confequently have a greater influence 
oiVthePeople, they will be able by degrees 
to make cm, if they are once fo foolifhas 
3 to 

-Tie (Rgtoi o/ ffo } 

t6 allow the Premifes^ fee and feel too the 
,Conclufion $. efpccially if ever they come 
to be better united among themfelves,, 
and agree where to place this Power./ 
Twill then be in vain to have recourfe to 
Laws and Statutes; all human Conftitu- 
tions muft be only waft Paper, when incon- ? 
fiftent with a Divine Right. As for in- 
ftance, let it once be allow d that the Cler- r 
gy are independent in the Exercife of their < 
Offices, it cannot be deny d em to be as 
independent in every thing that s neceflfary 
for it; .and if the Magiftrate cannot de 
prive em, he cannot put em to death, 
fmce one is unavoidably included in the 
other. Allowing the Magiftrate a power 
of putting a Prieft to death, and denying . 
him that of a bare Deprivation, is not for 
the advantage of the Clergy *, fmce then he 
will be forc d to deprive em of their 
Lives, whenever he finds it neceflfary to 
remove em from their Office. And if the 
Legiflative Power had done fo by the Non- 
fwearing Bilhops, all the Schifm and the 
other moft dreadful Confequences which 
Mr. Dodwd fuppofes to flow from their 
being barely depriv d, wou d have been 

34. To affirm, as the Nonjurors do, 
that the Magiftrate cannot deprive a Bifhop 
but by taking away his Life, is to fay, he 
cannot remove fome part of the Punifh- 
ment, which he might juftly exaft, with 
out remitting the whole - 7 and may provoke 
him to proceed to Extremity in order to 
make his Sentence of Deprivation take ef- 


Q)riftian Church, Sec: 

5 4 /We 

V Jurifdiftion, why not all? Which* muft tar- 

. > elude the Magiftrate, fmce both i cannot 

have a I^ight to judg concerning the. fame 

Matters. But if in thefe Civil Caufes, 

they judg by a Power deriv d from him, 

they are no more than his Deputy*- and 
Minifters; and confequently have no Right 

to judg, or inflift any Punifhment, which 
he, by whofe Authority they aft, beftows 
jiot on em. And therefore if the Power 
of Excommunication did not belong to him, 
he cou d not give them a Right to ufe it. 
And tis plain they have none of their own 
in thefe Matters, becaufe where they have 
no Right to cxercife a judicial Power, they 
can have none, to excommunicate, or inflift 

.any other Punifhment : And therefore it ne- 

.ceilarily follows, that whence they derive 

, the one, they muft the other. 

3<5. Again, the Magiftrate can -have no 
Right to ufe Force, except as he has the 
Supreme Power: for where that belongs to 
the Priefls, he can be no more than their 
Deputy, or rather (fince they allow no Lay 
man capable of that^ their Executioner } 
but they having no Right to Force, cannot 
im power him to ufe it. Therefore, with- 

.oiit difowning he has any fuch Power in Ec- 
clcfiafticals, as well as a Right to authorise 

1 them to excommunicate in Civils, they can- 

;iiot deny his Supremacy in both v and confe 
quently that they have no Power in the Na 
tional Church not deriv d from him. 

37- Obj. It may be faid, That tho God 
L**s given the Clergy the Government of the 
Church^ yet he bo* obliged the Mtgiftrate 

Qiriflhn * Church, v &c. 5 jp 

tffift em in putting their Dccrccfrin -r AYC& Chap. I 
fa*, &C. But,"/ PC .iif)!; !?:A. vil n^rfrC/W 
oiudf/w. If thesMagiftratc Is to jafUft rtlio 
Governors of the Church, as the Clergy call 
themfelves, it can be in thofe Matters quly 
to i which his Power ^ extends , for as to any* 
other he is -no more thaii a private Pert? 
fon, ; and therefore can have 1 no Right to 
iflue out Writs de excommunicato cafitndot 
or any othcrwife to punifll a Perfon for 
being cenfur d by the Clergy: fince. hU 
Power reaches not to Excommunication, 1 
nor to the Caufes for which they infiiit 
it -j and confequently in jpunilhing for theft 
things, if they belong not t6 his Cogni 
sance, he puniflies unjuftly. And therci- 
fore the Clergy in Scotland ad now very 
confiftcntly, in not fuflering the Magiftrate 
to back their Spiritual Excommunication 
with any Temporal Force. To go further 
than this, and affirm that the Publick is 
bound to employ their Force in executing 
the Decrees of the Clergy, neceflarily fupr 
pofes they have a Right to command it^ 
and that the Magiftrate, as well as the 
reft of the Laity, is only their Executioner, 
being oblig d right or wrong to enforce 
their Commands : For the Magiftrate muft 
aft minifterially, if he executes not his 
Own but Another s Laws, and can have no 
more Power than what he derives from 
that Legiflature. But if you fay it is his 
own Laws he executes, then the Clergy, 
like other private Perfons, can offer Adr 
yice only^ of which he is to juig, and 
or not enaft according to Difcretion. 


If you fay, he is not to judg but enforce, 
then the Abfurdity you wou d avoid will 
return, that the Clergy have a Right to 
command the force ot the Society, and 
that the Magiftrate ads as their Minifter 
only, and can have no Right to ufe Force 
nnlefs they cou d give it Trim. The Po* 
pifh Clergy fpeak plain in this Matter, 
and declare, that if the Magiftrate docs 
not obey the Commands of the Church in 
extirpating all thofe they judg to be Here- 
ticks, he forfeits his Dominions. But others 
jnoft grofly contradid themfelves: for 
firft they fay, that all Ecclefiaftical Mat 
ters belong by Divine Right to their judi 
cial Cognizance, as they are Governors of ,- 
the Church, (and that the Magiftrate can 
not meddle with em without Sacrilege-, 
and yet at the fame time they tell him it s 
his Duty to make Laws, and put thofe Laws 
in execution, in all Ecclefiaftical Matters 
whatever. But if one Prince fhou d de- 
fire another to come into his Country, and 
there execute a Legiflative and Executive 
Power in all things belonging to his Cogni- 
7ance ^ this wou d not be demanding his 
Afliftance, but giving up his whole Power: 
and he wou d be guilty of the jnoft appa 
rent Contradiction, if he fhou d afterwards 
&y that the Prince he has thus empower d 
was only a private Perfon, and his Subject \ 
and cou d not without Sacrilege 1 meddle 
with any thing which belonged to his Cog 
nizance. And is not this the very fame 
which too many of the Proteftant Clergy 

38. The 

Church, &c 

38. The Diftinftion they have recourfe Chap. ii 
tOj as they never want one on occafion, is, 
That the Magiftrate* tho he- has no Ecdc- 
faftictl Power, has all Civil Power in Eccle-r> 
fiafticals. But, 

If the word Civil had been omitted, it 
had been a direft Contradiction } and if 
adding that makes any Alteration, it mult 
be becaufe Civil is oppos d to EcclefialUcal \. 
and then tis as good Senfe as if they ha<L 
talk d of his Maritime Power in Ecclefi- 
afticals. What they aim at by this fenfe- 
lefs Diftin&ion, is, that they would en* 
grofsthe whole Power to themfelves : but 
becaufe they cannot come diredtly at Force, 
the Magiilrate (hall promulgate, but they, 
fhall firlb decree*, he fhall enforce, but it 
mult be their Determinations. So that 
the Civil Supremacy they complement him 
with, is to be their Tool, and Inftru- 
ment to execute, on pain of their Ecclc- 
fialtical Difpleafure, whatever they com* 
mand. This, as (a) James the Firft juftly 
expreflcs it, is to transfer the King (and I 
may add Parliament too ) into a banding 
Image ^ yea, to bring him down to the bafcft 
Condition^ to become only the Executioner , 
and (what I fcorn to fpeak) the unhappy 
Hangman of the Clergy s Will. And in truth, 
after the extravagant Complements they 
ufually beftow on Sovereign Princes, to 
deal thus with em, is fo great a Mock-- 
cry, that it was never outdone by any, 

(A) King James / Worlds, p. 4*8. 


fr,fi.>x&ptthejewini Pricfts 1 , when they bowM 
the Knee, and worfhip d our Saviour, cry- 
ing, Hail King of the Jfaw, and then cru-" 
cify d him. i , - 

39* It pofRbly will be faid, I have all 
this while been doing thefe Gentlemen 1 a 
great deal of wrong , fince it evidently *p- - 
fetrs they Are fo far flom fitting vf two Jn-> 
dependent Powers in the fame Kingdom^ that 
they woud have no manner of Power Independent^- 
except their own. 

I anfwer, J Tis very true, they as little 
believe fuch a Syftem prafticable, as they 
defire it fhou d be fo. But they think it 
the belt Policy, as things now ftand, to. 
complement the Civil Government with a 
Power, which in fpite of em it aftually 
exercifes and enjoys } and at the fame 
time to keep up the continual Claim and 
Pretence of fuch a Power in themfelves. 
So that till they can recover their Pri 
vileges in as ample a manner as in fome 
neighbouring Countrys, they are graci- 
oufly pleas d in the mean time to banter 
the Magiftrate with the fame Conditions 
which TrincaU allow d his Competitor Stc- 
phano, when he told him, You (hall indeed 
be Viceroy , provided 1 be Viceroy over 

My Defign therefore is to expofe the 
Weaknefs and Vanity of this idle Shift 
and wretched Subterfuge, to which they 
only have recourfe as a Shelter in ftormy 
Weather, and are fare to throw off, as 
foon as the glorious Sunfhine of their JM 
adminifters not only means of 


Safety^ biit matter of Triumph .for tin AoChap. i 
appear without difguife, Then will it-bcVXVNJ 
th^ir proper turn, to fhew the Abfurdity 
,q{ ; two Independent Powers, and to de- 
.jnonftrate the Impofiibility of a Penetra^ 
;tion (if I may fo call it) of Bodys Poll*- 
tick.. Then will they tell us, that they 
admitted this Notion only for the Hard* 
nefs of our Hearts, and to comply with 
.the Neceflities of the Times, and theUfur- 
pations of aji Apoftate and Degenerate Age, 

40. Tho it Jhou d be allow d, that the Clergy 
have no Ltg\ flative, Independent, or Supreme 
Power, pnce there cannot be two Legiflators in 
the fame Society ; yet may they not have a Jy~ 
rifdiftion or coercive Power, which they derive 
not from the Society, nor their Reprefentatives 9 
tut from God, hint] elf f 

Anfo. If the Clergy have no Legiflative 
Power, they cannot be Governors of the 
Church ^ becaufe there can be no Govern 
ment without it, to which all Jurifdiftion 
neceflarily adheres. For whoever has any 
coercive Power, muft be either a Legifla- 
tor himfelf, or elfe aft by virtue of a 
Power deriv d from him whofe Miniftet 
he then is, and whofe Will he executes 5 
for the doing of which he can have no 
more than a precarious Right, dependent 
on the Pleafure of the Legiflator. So that 
if the Clergy have no Legiflation, tis im- 
pofllble they fhou d have any Jurifdiftion, : < 
except, like others, they derive it from 
the Legiflatorsj fince a Right to inflifr 
Punilhment can only accrue to a Legiflatort 
* on 

The %ig1>t$ of the 

on the Breach of his Laws, of which he 
iftay either judg in Perfon, or by a De 
puty: but without this no Man is capable 
of Jurifdidion, becaufe where there is no 
Power to make Laws, there can be no Pre 
tence to punifh for Breach of Laws. And 
therefore not only the Magiftrate s, but 
even God s Right to inflift Punifhment is 
built on his Right to Legiflation ; and all 
Sin or Guilt, and confequently all Punifh 
ment, fuppofes Breach of Law. But what 
Breach of Law, Difobedience, Contempt 
or Contumacy (the ufual Pretence for Ex 
communication) is there in not fubmitting 
to the Decrees of the Clergy, when their 
very pretending to Legiflation is Treafon 
againft their Sovereign, and a grofsUfur- 
pation on the Rights of their Fellow-Sub- 

41. And yet without this Power tis 
impoflible they fhou d be able to beftow 
any Ecclefiaftical Office, even where there 
is no Jurifdi&ion annexM to it} becaufe 
as that is commanding the Perfon who 
has it to exercife it, fo tis forbidding 
all others : And what is Commanding or 
Forbidding, except Legiflation? The fame 
jnay be faid of Deprivation *, becaufe by it 
they render the Exercife of that Office, 
which before they had made a Duty, un 
lawful. And in giving or depriving one 
of an Ecclefiaftical Office, they make it 
Xiot only a Duty in the Perfon to execute 
or not execute it, but in others to join 
or not join with him. And what can 
Legiflation do more than make a thing 


Churchy Sec. 6 3 

inbrally neceffary or morally impoffible? Chap, i 
42. The fame may be faid\ of Excom/v/ (l VXJ 
munication ; for what can cariy more xff 
Legiflation than the commanding every one 
of the Society to be the Executioners of 
their Sentence, by obliging em to fhun and 
avoid the Perfon they excommunicate, on 
pain of the fame Punifhment ? 

43. To evade this tis faid, That the? to- 
fie are bound to wold the Converfation of itt 
Men^ and that the Clergy by their Excommu 
nication only declare this* 

Anfo. If a Power in general to declare 
an ill Man is to be avoided, were all to 
which they pretend, every Lay and Pri 
vate Perfon, who is oblig d, as often as 
he fees occafion, to declare as much, might 
excommunicate. But this can be no man 
ner of Pretence for erefting Courts of Ju 
dicature, and puniftiing Perfons for Non- 
appearance, and all other Contempts of 
their Independent Jurifdi&ion, and Judi 
cially pronouncing a Sentence of Excom 
munication againjt this or that Perfon, 
and by virtue of it obliging every one to 
fhun all Converfe with him, till they are 
pleas d to abfolve him } without giving em 
kaye to judg whether he is guilty of the 
Crime for which they condemn him, or if 
guilty, whether he has fufficicntly repented 
pf it. 

44. In a word, if the Clergy have no 
Legiflative Power, nor are entrufted to 
put the Will of the Legiflator in execu 
tion, they can only have a Right toadvifej 
there being no Medium between that and . 


6 4 ; 

/i . i ; Lcgiflatiort:, Nor can they pretend to 

. 1 in thofe things Where there, can be no Le~ 
giflatlve Power,:,. but $very one is to jucjg 
for himfelf^ and confequently in thermae 
king Ecclefiaftical Laws or Pcrfons, or iu r 
fli&ing Ecclefialtical Cenfores, or in the 
managing any other Ecelefiaftical Matters, 
they can claim no more Power by Divine 
Right than any other Members of the 
Church.... ,. , 

Thus haying prov d in this Chapter, that 
the Clergy, for want of Legiilation, have 
no Temporal or External coercive jPower; 
I /hall ihow in the next, that they have no 
Iwtrnal or Spiritual Jurifdiftion given 7 em 
by God- 

!" ; . 

/ C H A P* 

, . -.. jiVJ 


>; . -. 
QJ ^ . -. ,\l 

" ! *. i .. I , 1 

(u;V." s vi jd^j / ; . 

J^ >J. r t . < . ; 


Chriftian Church, Sec. 

t r >(!; i - c. i.w/-:: .: ; ":...;.-.; Chap.2. 


> \Spiritualitys (claim* J by the 
Clergy who Jet up for an Indepen 
dency , are cither juch a$ are peculiar 
to the Divine- Nature, or el ft were 
mly bejlowd on -tie Apofllcs >- and 
>that$otli thefe jtrVe cm as a Pre 
tence for mVadlng the Rights of the 
People, and of their 

i. VTpT- to infifb on what I have already 
1^1 prov d, that : if the Clergy have no 
.Legiflation, they have no JurifUiftion of 
any -fort whatfoeVer ; I fay, that thei* 
alTuming to themfelves a Jurifdi&ion, and 
terming it Internal) in contradiftinftion 
to the Magiftrate s, -which they call^*- 
tertiftly -is only amufirig the People with 
Words, and a Blind to make Men be 
lieve a Difference where there s none,, in 
order to ufurp a Power which belongs not 
to *em. j j For the Church being a viffble 
Society,- the Aftions of the Governors 
of it, when they ufe a coercive Power, 
muft be as vifible : and external as any 
relating to the Commonwealth. As for 
inftarictf V; is not Excommunication as ex 
ternal as Outlawry ? and Deprivation of 
F o 

r ;; Ecclcfiaftical) as external as that of* Civil 
. - v Offices? -Now as much as any human Pnm mV 
ment can be fuppos d to be invifible and in 
ternal, fo much it Icffes of its chiefeft Defign, 
the terrifying others from committing the 
like , for, which reafoji all Punifhment<> at;e 
made as publick as can be. . 

* ~ l\ But they fay, ffleir* is Jnnrn^l^ btfiaujc 
ft binds the inward J^fan^ > and is obligatory in 
for6 Cpnfcieritifc. " . 

How this can ftrve to diflinguiJh their 
Power from the Magiftrate s, 1 cannot.un- 
derftan^i unlefs th^y deftroy -all Obliga 
tion- to him on the account of Cdnfcience , 
and, co^ifvarjr to the Apoftje s. Kulo, fub- 
mit to h nti for fear opiy, and fo make no 
Pdwfcr ekcept their bwn o bliging in Con- 
fcience, knowing two fuch are a Contra- 
didtioq. As taking it, in this fenfei? inva- 
ping, the .frights of the Magiftrate-,|fo, if 
tl)ey t mean by it ^ Power over the Confcience 
^ Mine} or r Man, tis no lefs than iifurp- 
jng upon the. Prerogative of God 4rimfelfj 
Io:j^cffe.liands alone :\ are the Hearts of 
Man jtjo^ wind and turn as he pleafes*, in 
tlu^nef^p^points -none ,to be his Deputy or 
VicegeViOtit : here Man can only aft minifte- 
rially ? ^ ;in trying to ;perfuade b,y Reafons 

* und c Arguments^ -neither Excpn^munica- 
iion, nor any other Punifhment can reach 
the ynderftanilingf , And Men, when they 
moll impioiifly endeavour ,tb;aflume ; a tower 
over Coufcicnce, the molt they can; clo, is 
to make Hypocrites.,!, . oj ,- u f n 

. 3. Tis laid, The Ptwjhmtnt, the^ Cltrgy 
^^ i vflitt if not tfithe jam? , nature, Vfiih : that of 


rr&, : &c. 

kufe, tho the Sept en f 8 is Chap* * 
fronounc d in this ife^ yet Men chiefly find 
the tffe&s of it in the next J find for that r e*~ 
fort they c tilth Spiritual. 

All Pttoifhpent mult be either Eternal 
or Temporal \ . the - firft can only belong 
to God ; himfelf (uppn whom all things for 
sheir Duration depend) he alone knows 
%vhp deferves it, and in what degree: So 
that hp Man can have jhe Power 1 to punifh 
one eternally, or by any Aftion of his 
cayfe pod to do fo^ becaufe none can fuf- 
fer in the next World, unlefs for breaking 
God s Laws, that is ? by doing what God 
"has forbid, or omitting what ne lias com 
manded. 1 And therefpre we need fear no 
Punifhmqnt hereafter on account of any 
Aftions of .the Prieft , and cohf^quently 
liis Prxcom^nicating, Cur fing, pirn ning, 
:Anathen]athing, &c. cannot render a 
Man ? s Gondition, as to the next World, 

. Wrfe than his own Adions, by;which he v 
muft Hand or fall, will make it : much lefs 
have the Glergy a Power to deliver any 
over to Satan, or fhut Heaven s Gates a- 
gainft him, when his Aft ions do not de- 
lerye it -j and vvhen thefe do, they alone, 
: not : any of thePriefts, do make him fuffer. 

. The ^more one is put in mind of his Duty, a Lay or Clergyman, the great 
er, ftjs certain, his Punifhment will be for 
toot obferving it : -Yet then tis not another s 
putting him in mind of his Duty, but his 
own Ncgleft ^a not following it, which is 

the caufc of % it. 

f. .vfn V. 1 , * 

t\w.+* p a ; 4. In 

4, In fliort, fince; tis moft evident, that 
God will either reward or punifli Men as 
their Aftions deferve, the Clergy, with re- 
fpeft to Bother World, can only have a 
Declarative Power, to allure em that Cod 
will deal with em as they have or have 
not obferv d his Laws: wnich is no more 
than what they (hare in common with the 
reft of Mankind, who, as they fee occa- 
fion, are to remind one another of theCon- 
fequenceof good and bad Aft ions ^ tho tis a 
Clergyman s more peculiar Bufinefs* as fet 
apart and maintain d by the Society for that . 
end. ., , 

5. If the Clergy have a greater - Power 
than this, it muft be Judicial \ fince be- 
tweeen that and Declaratory there s no Me 
dium: for where they cannot themfelves 
judg, they can only declare the Judgment 
of another. If there be then a Judicial * 
Power, they can favc or damn as they think 
fip, and God is bound to execute their Sen 
tences, tho they condemn a Good and ab- 
folve an /// Man \ becaufe a Sentence pro^ 
jiounc d by a competent Authority is fk- 
7iW, tho tis not Right ; and confcquently 
it wou d be no great matter how People 
liv d, cou d they at laft obtain abfolution . 
from theft Judges, to whom (on this Sup^ 
pofition) Men ought to pay Divine Wor- 
ftiip ratfier than to God himfelf; fince 
% the Power of Damning and Saving is in 
them, ! and God himfelt is no more than 
their Executioner. , ... * 

)5. By what s faid, tis plain, that if , by 
Internal or Spiritual, the Clergy mean 
:.I ;. ti -I 



li theycarinbt without the niofthor-Chap.z 
rid Blafphemy pretend to fuch a coercive 
Power; and to let up for any External or 
Temporal Power, wou d be to ccmtradift 
themfelves, fince by their own Confeflion 
this belongs to the" Magiftrate. But, if 
they can find any Punifhment which is 
neither Temporal or Eternal, neither in- 
flifted in this or the next Life, let em 
with all my heart manage it as indepen 
dently as they pleafe, and under what Titles 
they think fit, provided they leave Eternal 
Punifhment to God himfelf, and Temporal 
to thofe the People have entrufted with that 
Power. But, 

, 7, If Men fcrupie not thus to invade the 
Sacred .and Incommunicable Power of Godj 
tis not to be wonder d that they encroach 
ph the Natural Rights of the Ptopl^ as 
well as the MagiftratSs Prerogatives, and 
make oneUfurpationa Pjretence for Mother, 
^is they moft manifeftly do in this cafej 
fince they exclude lioth from having any 
thing in the ordering of Church-Matters, 
and from the Incapacity of executing any 
Ecclefiaftical GiEce : or Employ, becaufe 
they have not, fay they, 4 the Power 
of the Keys: By which tis plain they 
do not mean a Declarative Power, be 
caufe that being common to all, cou d 
te no Pretence for excluding them. Be- 
fid^s, if they n}eant only that, why do , 
they a(Tert upon all occafions, % that the Pu 
nifhment they caufe to beinflidted by their 
Excommunication, as far exceeds the fe- 
vereft the Magiftrate can make ip$n j 
F 3 

as thf Torments of the .next World do 
thofe of thi$ ? < And to perfuade Pqople 
theft are, .the Effeds, of it, : they wilt fuller 
none, who \ diq undep this Genfure^ to 
have a Chvi(H*i>i Bw MU ; nay^ it was not former times, to inflid.Spi* 
ritual GenfWcs on depd Perfons, and, there 
have be<in,Syqods\ < whicii i have declard irk 
particular wfio are liable to ,be fo 
as thdt (/i) Synod of CWr//;^, wni^h 
.thematira, a Biiliop after tnis d 
making an Infidel ot.I^erctick^t 
jicarof kini his Heir* luAivV; .^ f ;;;-;, 
S. . Ti^ plain^ tha^ j tis 4 Jadiqal Powe 
they pretend to, by the ieveral JForuis of 
Excomi^uVikation which have from time 
to tinjie -be^n-us d in the Church ^ of which 
yve hay^p good ftpcf/wj^jf^ 
faHs) efpccially Lil>.,i, : cfip.iio. to inftguqe 
pplyinone, and that ( cftablifh dbya CQUU- 
cil at Roan, mention ^, by /^c, , ana, J^wcWt 
fat which runs thus:;^ (t) By the Power 
* and Authority which God has committed 
" to ourJ\lcannefs, to;bind and toofCvSpth 
V in Heaven and in fearth, we fat^MJJtf* 
** put;of the Pale ${ t;he Church^ as well 
** in Heaven as in ^rth^ and decree ,Hm 

i -U r. 

U ab *$ f Qlfcfl 1 . t , r 
! Mediocriuti$ .authoritatc $c 
nobis -divinitus , coll^ta, Uganai 5i folven ^i -In jcdt-lo $ 
; ih tCTH5 x a 1imit?bus fan^ta Hi^th Ecckfae \h ottlo ^ 

; effe dccemihius, fie . -damnatum 

rjus, &: omnibus K< 

& c - , i , ..:.;;.-. 

- n 

* &fc: 

M Excommunicated and AnathemathM, and Chap. i. 
44 fentcncc him to be damn d with the Devil <cXVN^ 
V and his Angels, and all wicked Men iA 
w Hell-fire to all Eternity. Tisby virtue , 
of this Judicial Power, that the Clergy exalt >; ; 
the meaneft Prieft as -much above the greatefb 
Prince,, ai Heaven is above Earth. The 
Learned, Mr. Dodml^ as he affirms 44 that?ar* 
-, both the Greek and Z<if/ Churches didSchifm. 

44 agree in making the Bifhops fuperior to ^ n |!! c 
44 Kings , fo he fays, They laid the Founds * : 
ct tion of their Superiority on the Authprity 
" they had of finding ipthe next World \ 
* 4 : and that it was by virtue of this Power 
** that Sfc Av&rofc drove the Emperor Thto 
44 dofttu the Great from the Chancel of the 
44 Clergy (with whom it feems he was fo 
prefumptuous as to pretend to fit.) 4t And 
44 he thinks that all indifferent Judges mult 
" prefer the Power of obliging God to open 
44 and fhut Heaven &Gates, according to the 
44 Sentence; of the pifhop, before a thoufand 
44 Kingdoms, . . .... v ., , 

p. The moft Celebrated St. Ckryfiftm (to 
mention no otherY fays, 44 Earthly Princes Lib. 3. 4 
44 have power indeed to bind, but tis our Saccrdofc 
44 Bodys only 5 but the JPower pf Priefts 
44 touches ^tfo our very Soujs, yea it reaches 
44 even to HeaYen it felf, ia fuch fort, as 
44 whatfoever they determine here beneath, 
* 4 that God does ratify above, confirming the 
44 Sentence of his Servants on Earth, And 
* 4 what will you fay then, of this, buttl^atall 
44 Heav r enly Power is granted to the Priefts 
44 in this World? And in another place, Homil. 
J 4 The Lord follows the Servant, Heaven 
F 4 u waits 


ct waits ;and expc&s;,thc prieftV Sentence. 
BjSpar- Butimore Authoritys of this kind are t6 
row r 5 " be found in a late reprinted Sermon^ which, 
grccably to this.D6trine, cenfures the t)if- 
neon, of Auricular Gonjfcflion. : Arid in fbde* 
|itfivffc-fpcrate a Condition do the Priefts; -fuppofe 
the one bound by them to be, that they.reckoA 
* lt nrilawful, not only to pray with hirrf, 

but fot hihl Wh f ch W U d bc % a . inft a11 
thcrJlules of Charity, were he nor in fuch 

a State as made all Prayers for him to r no 
purpofe. . So that tis plain they claim a 
Judicial Power, and by virtue of it the Go 
vernment of the Church, and t hereby f (par* 
don the Exprefllon) become Traitors both 

to .God and Man. r , " ::i" \\l\\<k. 

. TO. Some fay that the natural Idea of 
th<!fc : words, y Authority committed vnw, 
<&C.: ^abfolvf the c from thy 5;W, fe, that 
the Priefb has a Power -of pardoning = em 5 . 
And r what helps to -confirm *(5rn. ! :ih thii 
Opinion is, as-thpy- fay, -that tis not per 
mitted to a Deacon, who is allow d to navt 
Authority enough for the reft of "the Pray- 
ers, to pronounce v this, or any other "Form 
of- Absolution * . . Mr. Johnfin upon the 

* The Bp of $aram frppofes, that tho tit Idea natural/; 
trifftg fiom thefe words; I abfolve thee, &c. if, that the 
Pr uft par Jens Sins, yet we of t hit Church unforftand by ft 
pnlj.thff full Peace and Pardon of the Cbunh \\nnd that 
thit f^m > fcarce tyown till the i^th Century, became in 
Jit tie more than fxty years the un mrfal Prattice of the 
#hok Latin Church. So fire a thlng^ adds he. h "Iradl* 
r/on, arid fo itnpo flible to be chang d, as the Papiftspreten^ 
that within the cowpafs of one Ays the new form, I abfolve 
thec, w# not >fa much as generally f^nown 5 and before the 
tndof it, the old Form of doing it in a Prayer w tthfmpo/ir 
fioii </f Hands jcr>as i/rife worn wtf, Exp.of Artic.t>.28?,284. 
. "v v >; , Meflieurs 

Qtnftian Chnfcbj Sec. jr 5 

Meflleur? of firt-rtytl faying on this Text, Chap. 
Prov. 28. 15. An * rdtring Lion -><irid * 
wgirtg Betr, fo is A nicked Ruler over th* 
poor , People, iln> appartirient r que de .Diet* 
dire des veritcs fi etonantes^ -replies, 
<<! That God; is fo good Authority, thafc 
f* any Man may fafely fay fuch aftpnifhing 
, a Truths after 1 him. -Which I may apply 
to this Point; and fay, that ;if the Clergy 
mean by their Abfolving Power, only a de* 
daring that God will pardon a penitent 
Sinner* God is certainly fo good an Autho-r 
rity, that any one, as well as a Prieft, may 
venture to affirm fuch a Comforting Truth 
after him. \ r. j i t liitr .fo 

[ Clergymen, when they are prefs d hard 
with the Abfurditys of a Judicial Power^ 
acknowledg that - an unjuft Judgment of 
theirs has ho cfTeft; yet then v they/fayi, 
tis not for want of fuch a Power, but, be* 
taufe the Sentence was prtnounc d, cUvt 
Itrrdntfy as : they phrafe it. But if God 
iyill not reward a Good, or punifli an III 
TVlah, nipr briefs for their Decrees ; what 
can be more abfurd than to call that a Ju 
dicial Power, 1 which has ho manner of Effeft 
^or Operation? Who is there that might not 
as well pretend to fuch a Power with re 
lation to this World v and upon gueffing 
at;ttte D6om of 4 Prifoner, tho he cou d 
iib ways alter it, cry, that he either judg d 
clave err ante or "rum err<inte? But if a Man,, 
Who oh no better Pretence than this, in 
vaded the . Rights of the Magiftrate and of 
his Fellow-SubJeds, ought : to be punifli das 
Ja fenflefs uiipudeAt Impoftor^ what muft 
*" he 

dcfcrre, who does the fljuic thing on 
jnoft impious Pretence which, can, be,. thaj; 
of claiming a Judicial Power with refp<$j 
to the next World ? : r 1 ; , - ., 


f In fhort, the Clergy have np 
tcnoe for claiming an Independent Jurif* 
di&ion, which 6 not either invading 
the- Inowniimiucable Rights of God, \ o# 
dfe. aflumihg Cic^ a. Miraculous ,Ppwei; 
as belong 4 to the Ap^ftles^ h of wihich.,1 
ftiaH giveanlnfbaja^e or two..) The People, 
feytheyj cannot -viakt ft Clergyman, becaufe 
they cannot give .the ffoljifhefti this^ being 
t -Privilege peculiar/. tQ fhpmf^lves^ a,na 
eflential to the Being of a Clergyman f ll 
woo d gladly ikixovr of thefe Gentlemen 
what they ifte^n -by Giving the Holy Ghoftj 
His Perfon^l Jlippofe^ they wiU not pr^;- 
tend to , dilpofe jpf ; : and, .then . they caa 
only- mean his (7^ either Extraordinary 
cxr Ordinary*., Iffthe. firftifhen they 

beftow the Gift] of Miracles, fqch as 
phefying, peaking with Tongue^ 
ring the Blind or Lamey ; a^d airing 
tempers with & Touch or Word s 
&c> As to tht; feco^d> if.i tjiey 

the ordinary Gifts, as .M^kn^fs, Patience^ 
Love, /Charity , Moderation, Humility^ 
;c^c. no Clergyman wou d, be; without thefq, 
Jlince all have, the ffoly ffhjt^ given ?ejji. 
IPlainly the Clergy .cannot pow pretend > 
.Right to the difpofing of ,the Extvaordi- 
; cary Gifts 4f tte.Holy Spirit, unlefsthejr 
: Jhad a Power equal to that of the Apoftlcs 
(who beftow d cm alike; ; on the 
"ivcll as on the Clergy) nor to the Ordinary* 

- 1 withf 

Qyrlftitn Church, ficc. 7 j 

without afluming a Power greater than Chap, 
theirs; Thefe bdng the Gifts /of God t 
alone, referv d f for thofe who by their 
Lives and Conversions make themfelves 
meet to receivci era. But if by giving the 
fioly fihoft be here, only irieant giving a 
JUght t6 Ecclefiaftical Office; 
to fay no others -can give fuch a Right 
becaufe they cannot beftow the Holy Ghoft f 
Is only faying they cannot give a Right 
becaujf they cannot, both fignifying the 
fanie thing; And, if they meai^ any thing 
more by giving the Holy, Ghoft,, as necefr 
farj "to the Being of a Clergyniah, there 
has "been none unce the Anoftles time, 
.And tjiereforo I fhou d be glad to fee fome- 
good Reafon aflign d, why Ordaining a 
Clergyman Is by fomcr call d Giving the 
Jldly Ghw^ fure it cannot be in ordcf to 
cheat the People of their, and create 
inme;is Minds a Venerati6ri for the Clergy 
at prefent, equal to what they have for 
the Apoftles. The Bifhop of (g) Sarvnt 9 
"thb-he cbnfefTes u that the Uft of the 
** Porm of giving Orders by thefe words, 
u .Rtceivc ; yd tbc Holy Ghoft^is ..not above 
J\ joo.Vears old, ana is taken from Words 
#. of biir .?aviour r which the Church in her 
!belt Times thought were not apply d 
V. to ;thi$> tho pfoper for Him to ufe who 
^ Hai the Pujnefs of the Spirit to give 
t f jDleafure j . and therefore feems to 
aV0 a Sound too bold aftd tooafiuming, 

.{*J Efpojitlon of Mt tWArC 


. o 

J. . 

. faQt&tiivf tk* 

/* as if we cou d convey the Holy ChpfP 
Tho he ? I fay, grants this, yet he ehdea-* 
vours to juftify this Form, and fuppofes it 
to be in the nature of a Wilh or Prayer : 
but no Man * \Vifties or Prayers that aiio- ! 
ther may receive the Holy Ghoft, dan 
a reafon to debar thofe to whom it o 
courfe belongs from making of Clergymen j 
and I hope the Magiftrate, or any one elfe^ 
without being guilty of Sacrilege, may. 
pretend to beftow the Holy Spirit, if no 
thing elfe is meant by that folemri Ex-^ 
prefhon, Receive ye the Holy Ghofl^ befides 
tyiftring the Clergy to be better than they 

13. The fame maybe faid of Cwfecra* 
f/V/f 3 Bifhop j for if by it they mean^ they 
can .beftow any Holinefs on hirp, pr give 
any Gifts of the Spirit, either Ordinary or 
Extraordinary, nothing can be more fatfe: 
But if they pretend only to pray to God 
that he, will give the Bifhop fufficient HoU- 
jicfs to execute his Office rightly, that can be 
110 reafon for them to engrofs the making 
Jum to them.felves. 

^ Aj . Aiid here I (Cannot but pbferve, 
iliat -the Popifh Clergy make very bold 
with the three Perftn$ .of " the SacrecJ 
trinity., The Firlt they employ a* their 
.Executioners, to put their Judicial Sen 
tences in force. The Second they pake 
out pf a bit qf Bread, and then eat hinrj (tho 
there are others who allow ttus Privilege 
to the Teeth of the Faithful only.) The 
Third they very freely difpofe of, at leafb 
to all they lay hands oh ; tho" there; 

r * . * 


are fome who fay, that if the- PopifhChap.2 
Priefts have any Spirit beftow d on era in VVN 
their going into Orders,, tis that of the 
Prieft of jtfolh) when full of the God he 
cry d, 

Jam fwror \ium*nvm noflro de pectore fenfum 
lt) & totum fflrant pr*cordia Pbtebttm. 

And that what (hare foever they might 
have of the Holy Spirit before Ordination, 
they then are poflefs d of up other Spirit 
than that of Pride, Ambition, Covetouf. 
nefs f Uncharitablenefs, Impofition, Malice f 
Revenge, Perfection, &c. And they fay 
this is no wonder, when in fb ferious a Con 
cern as making of Bifhops and Priefts, both 
the Ordain d and the Ordainers in that 
Church aft with fo folemn a Mockery, one 
in pretending a Call from, and the other in 
giving the Holy Ghoft. 
1 As this by no means ought to be ob- 
jefted to the Clergy of the Church of Eng- 
land) fo I hope that which fome of em 
aft at the Eleftion of a Bifliop, is no man 
ner of kin to this Holy Farce of the Pa- 
pifts, in imploring the Direftion of the 
Holy Ghoft to chufe a fit Perfon, tho 
they are refolv d beforehand to proceed 
according to the Direftion of the Cong* , 
fellre^ and name only him whom they are 
bound to take by that Writ. And agree- 
able with this was the Bilhop Eleft s fo- 
lemnly declaring three times (a Cuftom 
now difcontinu d) Nolo eflfcopari^ nofmall 
piece of Hypocrify^ except he fpoke it 


- The 

Vr ith relation to the Duty, and not tpth<* 
* v Honor or Profit of the Place , for hereto 
he was top often as good as his word. $ut 

14. A Clergy-man, tis faid, is God** 
Egibaflador, therefore the People neither 
Colle&ive or Reprefentativc can make one, 
becaufe they have no power to fend Bm- 
bafladors from Heaven. But taking m- 
bafladors in that fenfe, it will, I ? m : afraid ? 
prove there are now ;io Clergy-men ^ (ince 
they who pretend to the fble Power of 
making em, can as little fend an EmbaJTa* 
dor from God, who alone chufes his own 

Chrilt, and his Apoftles, as they were 
commiiTion d b^God, fo they brought their 
Credentials with em vifible to Marikind. 
t/; *,. the Power of wprKing Miracles-: But 
^hat Credential, or what Million can 
thefe Gentlemen pretend to ? or whatGo 
pel, never before known to the World, 
are they to difcover ? Are they not at the 
bell only Cormnentatprs, Note-makers, or 
Sermon-makers on thofe po&rines which 
the Embafladors of Qod once delivc r\d to the 
Stints ? which many of em -have render d 
hy their abfi;rd QlofTes and falfe Comments 
iTo perplext and -ijitrkate, that only a new 
Commifllon from Heaven -feems abletbfet 
f ^em in -their due Light \ yet they do not 
feniple to call their Pulpit-Speeches, th* 
Word ofGod-t * n d ^pply thofe.Text? tothem- 
ftlv^s, -Which belong only jto jthe ERiUfla* 

dprsof God. o 

:. _. r;(,; . v ./; v..,^ 

15. But 



I;. t5.But let them confider, if hc ivhdChap.*; 
feigns a Corhmiflion from an Earthly King> \XVVJ 
and aftsas his EmbafTador without having 
Authority from him, dcferves a fevere Pu- 
nifhmenf, vrhat mult they expeft, who 
felfly .pretend a Commiflion from Heaven* 
and to be no lefs than the Embafladors of 
God to Mankind? on whofe Wifdona tis 
no fmall Reflexion, to imagine he has cho- 
fen fuch Perfons to reprcfent him. Ifho 
if we will take one of tne Treafon-abfolv- 
ing Prieft s words for it, (h) -Every Priejt 
is one of the principal Mtnifters in God s 
Kingdom^ to prf/ide in hit Worfiif) publifi his 
Laws, ptfs hi<t Pardons^ and refrefent his Per* 
fin. I do not wonder that Men fo ian- 
guine, as to think thus of themfelves, are 
pufPd up with intolerable Pride and Info- 
lence \ and that they look down with Scorn 
and Contempt on the fimple Laity, who 
(poor Men) can hope for no Abfolution, if 
fome of thefe principal Minifters in God s 
Kingdom will not vouchfafe -to pafs their v v 

. And in truth, a Man cannot well help , 
being .ftrangely elated in his Thoughts, to 
find himfelf exalted he knows not how; 
(perhaps from a poor Servitor, and run-^ 
mng on College-Errants) to fo great ;and 
glorious Preferment, as to be a prime Mi- 
nifter in -God s Kingdom, to rcprefent no 
lefs (than the Perfon of the Omniprefent 
Being, to be able to difpofe of the Holy 

.,!.- l\ 

fhj Collier V View of the Immobility of the 
f, 127,128. 

-. :.-j Ghoft, 

8o \~Wt\%ths of 

;;. Ghoft !to have the Keys of Heaven and 
. x; Hell :at his Girdle : and as a Gonfcquenc$ 
of this, to have Kings and Emperors, as 
well, as the Mafs of Mankind, render 
him Spiritual Obedience. So great, fo 
miraculous a Power confer d by the for 
mality of laying hand over head on a 
Man, tho ever fo vile ;and unworthy, is 
fufficient to make him, if weak enough 
to -believe it, vain, giddy and infolent. 
But, . 

Were it not for thefe extravagant, wild 
and profane Notions (which fome call their 
Spiritualitys) nothing can be plainer than 
that all Ecclefiaftical Power has no other 
Foundation than the Confent of the So 
ciety. To inftance in the two chief Points, 
the making of Clergymen, and Excommu 
nication. As to the firft; ? ,. i 
. 1 6. What s more requir d to give one a 
Right to exercife the Office of a Minifter 
, in any particular Congregation, than an 
Agreement among them to chufe a Perfon 
capable, and willing to take upon him that 
Function, and confent to hear him fay 
Prayers, preach, and adminifter the Sacra- 
ments ? And what is depriving or depo- 
Cng him, except agreeing not to hear hint 
any longer, or own him any more for their 
Minifter ? And this private Churches may 
do by a Right natural to all Societys what- 
foever, fince tis only a Liberty of their 
own Aftions in hearing, or not hearing fuch 
a Perfon pray or preach, or in receiving or 
hot receiving the Sacraments from . him. 
And this they mult have had a Right to do, 


before National Churches came in ufe^ fot-Chap 
till then, as no Minifter natn d his Succeflor, 
fo each Congr6gation being independent of 
another, and the Magifbrate not interpo^ 
ling, rimft have had a Right of conflicting 
their own Minifters, and of ordering all 
othet Church-matters-, and no other cou d 
be concerned than by their Confent and Ap 
probation. So that here s no room for the 
independent Power of any Set of Priefts: 
And as little is there for it in a National 
Church* which only the Leglflafure of that 
Nation can conilitute j and confequently 
one cannot fuppofe a National Churchy 
without allowing the Magiftrate the Power 
of dividing it into Parifhes, Dioceffes, Pr6- 
vinces, or 6therwife modelling it as hd 
thinks, fit, and of determining the Forni of 
Ecclefiaftical Governriient, ^nd ih6 QualU 
fications of fuch as ate to be admitted in^ 
to any Ecclefiaftical Benefices under that 
Form} and upon wMt Terms they ffiali 
hold their Livings, and who fliall have thd 
Power of depriving *emj ^ and putting o^ 
thers in their room ; and likewifej of mak 
ing Laws about all other matters relating 
to the National Church, and appointing 
Who (hall but their Lavfrs In Execution; 
And therefore the Clergy; Who contend, 
not only for the L^wfulnefs but NecefTity of 
National Churched,- give up all their Pre 
tences to dn Independent Power in every 
thin^ relating to em, even in the ihbft fpeV 
culative and myftcrious Points : fot If they 
allow that the Magiftrate can enaft, <htft hi 
Petfbn ftall enjby any Preferment in the 

. ;oa p r ,, got? profeft. 
or fucfy Articles, . thqri.pnnptafriX; 
fpweri to deprive ajiyj wlip fhal), difo\vn, 
jfyecaufe ti* only putting tl?ofc/LavfX 
acknowkdg he 
ticw*. an . 
iw ^ Uy : ou Clergy, 

^; aa 

And; ri^rie, qm> dpubt^pf tJus, , w}io, gpri 
that; tj$ only, the different Seh^ffriejitis.Q 
thp S^promQPowerjs ijiVvery, j^a tiph,, -whit], 
niaKe/tlie National /Churches^" or, Religions 
ejB^bJiflyM; by Layj, \tb.bc. fo, infinite! y~,aifS,-, 
rent/: and by the r/eafqiypg pif tti^ ; Ge 
lity^of the Clergy,, every M^n,is,6))li| 
ho of ^e National, Churcli, beca\ife. 
cveryj r where , plead,, fqr the Magiftr^te s 
having ^ Right to, puiufh all hii; Subjeft^ 
.a^ Sdiifmaticks who/are/not of it, Ani 
tj|! a-fprry. evafion to ,fay . the Magiftrate.h^i 
this -5 Right oAly, when the National Churclv 
i "the true Church ^ becaufe Trite Church j 
tjl) apply d to ibme particularf Church, is 
only f an\abfl:radi:ed Notion r which if ; every r 
one i$ ; tp /apply for Jiimfelf, v the Magiftrate. 
hai; no ; more, power in tjiis cafe! than aivy> 
oth^r ; but if he has the applying it 
for his SubJcSs, then a Right to, pupiih 
cm for not being of the True Church, or. 
of the Cjhurch he judges to be TVUQ, is the 
fame thing} and consequently, muj* eVery. 
\\ hcre ali Ke oblige People to be of the Na 
tional Church, or every where alike fub- 
jed em to. Punifhment ? and accordingly, 
we. f^p/tU every where urg d by the.Pricfts. 
, .,; I -who* 



w!fo:ai*f,uppernlolK But to return Chap.i* 

17. The Point next to be confided is/ 
thb : IJoWor of Excommunicaticfiv which 
the Clergy pretend gives em* a* Right to 
debar ;Mert not pnly from the Churcti^ but 
from f fell Civil Converfe and Society. Yet? 
Men<ia> the ftate of. Nature, a* they hada 
Right, of keeping, , or not keeping company 
with whom they/ thoughtfit (this -being orfr 
ly! a^liibcftyof their own AftionsYfo upon 
t heir changing that State^ they had the 
Right t)fr inveftingjtbe Ma^iftrate with 
power of reflrainirtg this as- Well a$ 
otheft tibertjn ^ and of* obliging them for 
jvft Reafons to avoid -Converfe with this>0f( 
that PCrfon. And I can fee no Gauftf w ^ 
the Clergy may not as well < pretend to ;uutf 
Force^ as to- exclude whom r they, think) fit-? 
from converfing with the reft of the So*/ 
ciety^. as they^ da even, abpnt r Civil- anfd/ 
Temporal, Affairs^, becaufe a; liberty of> 
Mens Aftions in Gonverfing or not Conver- 
ling, was certainly as much in their Power^ 
as a- Right to ufe Force on others ; and 
confequently, when they form d themfelves 
into a- Body Politick, they cou d entrufb.^ 
the, Magiftrate with one as well - as ther 
other* > 

18. But lincethe- Magiftrate cannot pre- 
Icribe. to all Men what Company they^ 
fhall keep, or avoid^, they will ftill retain* 
fo much Liberty as to have that, inallthofe, 
Gafes Where he does not interpofe, in their, 
own difpolal ^ as tis plain from the prac-, 
tice- of all ^private Societys, Companys 
and Clubs, who daily- exclude thofe Memf^ 
G 2 ber 

r o/f&f -\ 

bers who aft not conformably to the Rules 
they have agreed on. 

19. And it was by this Natural Right 
that the Primitive Chriftians afted ; fince 
at firft for fome Centurys, the Confent of 

^^ the whole Congregation was requir d, and 
every Member had a Vote in Excommuni 
cation: and this is naturally fo veiled in 
the Community, that he who goes about 
to excommunicate them or a Majority, is 
himfelf the Sufferer. And here it ought to 

, be remember d, that there is an infinite 

difference between private Men agreeing 
among themfelves to refufe their Fellow- 
; fhip to any Member of their Society for 
breaking their common Rules, and one s 
having an arbitrary Power to exclude from 
all Communion Ecrlefiaftical and Civil of a 
whole Nation, not to fay of all Chriftendont, 
whom he pleafes, and as long as he pleafes ^ 
every one fees this wou d be dividing the 
Sovereignty, and by degrees fubjcding all to 

20. All that can be faid for the Clergy s 
having this Power, is, that tis neceflarily 
annex d to the Right they have of turning 
Men out of the Church of Chrift, the or 
dinary way of Salvation, and of delivering 
em over to Satan } becaufe it muft needs be 
an impious thing in the Laity, to coun 
tenance with their Converfation, Men fo 
dealt with j fince converfing with em is a, 
Crime next to keeping company with Satan 
himfelf. But, 

21. Having already prov d that the 
Clergy have no Power in relation to the- 


Church, &c. 8y 

next World, I fliall only farther add, that Chap. 2 
the^efign of all Ecclefiaftical Punifliment VXW 

. was, as I thought, to bring Men into, and 
not turn them out of the ordinary way of 

. Salvation : This an ill Man is apt to do of 
himfclf, without the affiftance of a Prieft. 
That a Minifter of Satan (hou d be zealous 
for his Matter s Service, and endeavour . 
to put; into his Clutches as many as he 
cou d, is no wonder \ but that they who 
pretend to be the Minifters of Chrift, and 

- whofe bufinefs it is to free Men from his 
Power, fhou d claim no lefs than a Divine 
Right to do this, is wholly aftonifhing: 
Which attempt of theirs, tho it certainly 
can have no effeft on others, yet how * 
,it will, operate on thcmfelves, I will not 
further determine, than by putting em m 
mind, that the Scripture allures us, Men 
Jlja/l be judgd as they judg^ and the meafurc 
they mete to others jlntll be meafur d to them 
again, .\ But however this may affeft em 
hereafter, it mufb (cou d they once get it 
firmly believ d) make all things here their 
. own } for Men wou d be glad to compound 
for all they have in this World (efpecially- 
when they are going to leave it) not to be 
debarM tne Happinefs of the next. 

22. Obj. Perhaps it may be faid, Tho tht 
Clergy have no Spiritual Coercive Power (if 
by that be meant a Power which extends to tbc 
next World) yet may they not be able . in this 
Life to inflift a Spiritual Punifoment ? i 

jinfw. Tho wnat has been already . faid 
is fufficient to prove they have no Coercive 
Power at allj yet left they ihould amufe 

G 3 , Peo- " , 


People with Words, and claim what Power 
they have a mind to, by calling it Spirit 
tual; I -fay, no Puniihment can be,oj;hei> 
wife Spiritual, than as it tends ito (hinder 
Wickednefs: and if this did belong to the 
Clergy, they wou d have a Right not only 
to punifh -for all Crimes whatfoever, ,but 
to ufe the moil forcible Means: becaufc 
Puniihment, having no tendency to con 
vince the Underftantfing, but to curb the 
Paffions only, what is molt powerful to 
that end, mult be molt Spiritual ^ that 
being the only reafon why any Puniihment 
can be call d To : and .consequently, if any 
other Punifhment be more effe&ual to thftt 
end than Excommunication, it mud be 
more Spiritual, If the killing Ananias^ 
.putting out EllmM\ Eyes, and tne ca ufing 
People to be -tormented in their Bodys, 
which in Scripture is calFd delivering over to 
Satan, were then Spiritual Puni&ments v 
there s no reafon they are not fo now, if 
infixed for the fame or as proper ends : 
for its being by an Ordinary or Extraorcli- 
nary Power does not alter the nature of the 
Punifhment. Chrift s whipping the Buyers 
and Sellers out of the Temple, was truly 
a fpiritual Puni/hment ; but the Jewilh 
friefts excommunicating thofe whobeliev d 
in him was far from being fo, except it 
may deferve that name for -advancing ,thc 
fpiritual Kingdom of Darknefs; to t which 
Excommunication, ever fince the^ Clergy 
have claim d an independent Right to it t 
been molt inftrumcntaj. .-(, ( 

* The 

\ 23. The Clergy affirm, that if they had Chap. 2. 
to mtiide MefTfrorff tfie 

Church, its Unity cou d not be preferv d, 
nor DivifiQiIs or Scffjifnjs jir^Vented : which 
is in efFeft to fay that the way to keep Men 
in the Church, and thereby preferve its 

r Unity, cif to Divide t;he Church, by^ turning 
*em,ou;t of it y and that the feparating Men 

: from thie Church is a proper Courfeto pre- 
Vent Schifm in it: Juft as good fenfe, as 

!to atenn, that the putting Men out of the 
(Common rbad of Salvation, is tfte way to 

-fave feta^ 1 ^ - ;-j-iiv .. - : - \ 


;fr ovvni,- ; "i ^ ^-1 - f 

. in/ Oii /-. - -." 

. . ; 
/i, . . 


W-j ;,;i!. iJoj . ". Vl .:oih.^I ; ^ ^) .. ^n 

. . . USJ Sjd isjJ V^t:i V-* 

.vi :*i^ ^ ; .:--- ^-- - -- ^^ * a - 

llotr* :v\, - .-, K. 

; fl ; ; / . I . - -, - .: ; - 


f , . ",. . ; r 

. - . f : ,0 Y i 


.. . -. .1 f x l , f -:: ;,\ I 

. r - ! " - r-kVviir .l ? 

^ pretending to baVe a 

k ; i ; , . v Oyi Jf< . O " --4 . 

|)ivme (Z^fct f o epcc/ Je People from 
the Church of tyrift u as abfurJ, 
as their flaiiping q Potptr to debar , 
fem from the <Publick Worfhip is ttn- 
fharitable: And that this (luflom 
pa$ farroitfd from the Eleathen 
.Pritftfi particularly the Druids. 
O/ the Advantages they gaind by 

j% Cannot . fee but it is contrary to th$ 
1 Rules of Charity to exclude Men 
from the Church, if that be, as the Cler 
gy contend, depriving em of the means 
of eternal Happinefij iince they affirm 
that fhey, who are not in Communion 
with em, are out of the Pale of thq 
Church, and out of that there s no vifiblq 
jneans of Salvation. If fo, nothing can 
be more uncharitable than depriving Peo 
ie of ftU the known Means of being 

^. But fince Men cannot be turn d out of 
Church, for fuch matters of Dodrine 


&<:. 8p 

pr Difcipliije as arc no Terms of Commu>Chap.3v 
aion j and for thofe which are, as foon as 
cine is convinced they are unlawful,- if he 
a&s confcientioufly, he will voluntarily re- 
pounce all Communion with that Church: 
and tho nothing can be more common, or 
more ridiculous, than to pretend by Ex 
communication to turn ^out of a Church 
thofe who never were of it, or have left it ; 
yet none can properly be faid to be excluded 
from any Church, except he who approves 
its Terms of Communion, and is willing to 
Continue a Member of it: and therefore it 
can only be for wicked and immoral Actions 
that one can be hindredfrom joining with 
the Church in the Publick Wor Ihip of God. 

3. ^ What can be more unaccountable, than 
to hindef a Man from performing one part 
<of his Duty (efpecially fo great a one as the 
Publick Worfhip of God) becaufe he has 
fail d in another ? or if he has offended God 
publickly, what can be more abfurd than to 
debar him from as publickly defiring his 
Pardon? But if the not doing one Duty can 
make amends for the breach of another, he 
who neglefts the Divine Service, ought to be 
(debar d from doing his Duty to his Neigh 
bour, and fo vice vtrfa \ fo that a Man by p- 
mitting the Laws ofeither Table, wou d be 
oblig d to obferve neither. But the greater 
Sinner one is, there s the Ids reafon to de 
bar him from hearing fuch 3ermons, as are 
made up of Reafons to perfuade him to his 
Puty both to God and Man, And he ought 
jo be frequently told> that till he repents he 


. IMftSfekf WorMp t j ..Wbcr&s 
^.. _, , "is ! njiich a s he h peVfliidcd 
feinl !ptfni ] fti*ii -tt. ^ 6 n ?* World defends 

t ri the iCifr^yy judicially txfcliidirtg hhii 
dWrdi, fp mbch it.lclfcns his Belief df 
tl$ hfe}n6uihtft o Siti, knd tttnpts Wni ^ 
corttrive, not hoWtfoavoi dtheSin., but hbiy 
to : fin in private \ or clfe fo-td ingratiate 
hiMelf with the Clergy, a$ not to be turn 7 4 
ogt of the Church: Which & it wouM ifhakc 
it their Ihtereft that .Meh ftiod cirmiriabiriiA 
^an^e, tiecaiife then ;thiy -WOuM have em at 
thelf mercy, and lit a manner ^be imder 1 ^ 
hefcefllty of tomplying With cmi n all thing^ 
To It W0u\l entourage Pebple, efpecially theijr 
jP^vorites, to gratify all their loofe Pefircs ^ 
jinA r consequently this tJdtion, infteacf of 
Religion, is a moil admiraH| 
tofpoil bb1 

tofppil t)bth frbft a 

llt i TiiiM > -. 

4! Wtat Detente cafi there be for lilh 
4brihg a Sintietfrom publtddy praying ;t 
t5od to have his Sins forgiven, and to 
Cabled by his Grace to perform tho fe 
%ys he is fo apt to fail i nT If he is- to ; 
this in private (nay the greater the 

*** ** W~ * **y*r *9^ " - ^J r 

is* the m ore rcafonhe has to do it) wht 
^jipt In publick? iince that is owhM to.b^ 
a greater DUty, and more likely to prevail 
xv i th God. So, .v^hy may hot hd pr^ife Gbd 
Tn ^ublick for the Mercys he receives hert^ 
itid /nay hereafter, if he ob fette^this a!S; 
^Vcll as other Dutys ? Or why tftay not he 
rmblickly c^prefs his Gratitude to Chrift^ 
>y tomitlenioratitig his Dtath, .fince our 


Saviour defign d Ubatatt, wore it jaot their Chap. 3; 

oiffiir fault, ^ftum dreap the Fruit, and 

the not doing it will add to their Sins ? . ; 

, 5. But tho-.the Right of debarring People 

froriifthe Lord s -Supper, .< is what, the Clergy 

chiefly infift .on, yet they generally talk 

very inconfiflently about it ; for fometimos 

they will tell you, tis the >moft dreadful 

Punilhment that can be, infinitely greater 

than any the Magiftrate can inflift } yet :at 

t other times they are fo far fronMjiaking it 

ttPunifhment, -that they fay, tis ,a greater 

tfdndnefs than denying a mad .Man a .Sword 

to kill himfelf, for one wou d ojnly de- 

dlroy his Body r but t other his Spu] *, and 

,God forbid they jDiou dibe .any ways infbi*a- 

ihental. . > 

.h <6. In fhort, Meii muftbeinfiichCircum- 

ftances as make their receiving either^ 

,Crime^ or a Duty, or a thing indifTerent. 

-If the Firft, the Clergy s Refiifal can ha\jc 

<nothing of Puhifliment in it, becaufc tis 

-only refufing to contribute to another s Sin, 

which is every one s Duty to avoid as well 

<as a Clergyman s./ If. the Second, the 

Clergy can never have & Right to hinder a 

Man from doing his Duty ; nay, the fup- 

pofing it his Duty neceflarily fuppofcs him, 

;who cannot be fqrc d to Jnipoflibilitys, ob- 

lig d to receive it, upon their rerufal to 

;adminifter it, .without em^ for the End 

,-cannot be a Duty, but the Means necefiary 

to it < muft be fo too. If the Third, then 

the Clergy only ; ufe a Libertyf of their own 

.Aftions, in nojt doing what was; in th<?ir 

Power either to dp of Trfufc,f aa&by which 

bt none 

jpi -7hc tij&bts of tbt 

i riorie Is prejudic d : fo that in none of thefc 
Cafes is there any room or pretence for their 

having any Jurifdiftion. i 

7. Another thing as little accountable, 
is, that the Clergy, tho they pretend tis 
their JDuty to exclude from the Sacrament 
thofe they judg unworthy, yet at the fame 
.time are for obliging all by Penal Laws to 
receive it, and for having none qualify d 
for .Preferment, who take it not of them: 
Which is either contradi&ing themfclves, 
and owning none ought to be excluded from 
it ; or elfe a Defign to make whom they 
pleafe to be punifh d, and likewife incapa 
ble of Preferment. The laft of which 
High Church would fain, at prefent fet 
on foot, to fupply the place of a Perfe- , 
-cuting Bill which has happily mifcarry d. . 

8. Tho an immoral Perfon may be 
j)unifh d by Peoples fhunning his Com 
pany and Converfation , becaufe he who 
-is governed by his brutal Pafllons, and re- 
: fufes to live according to the common 
Law of Reafon, has forfeited his Right to 
the Society of rational Creatures : Yet tis 
contrary to the Rules of Charity, to hin 
der him from coming to Church} becaufe 
by hearing good Sermons he may meet 
Vfith ftrong and powerful Motives to per- 
fuade him to leave his wicked Oourfes; 
and by feeing the real and fervent Devotion 
of good Chriftians, he wou d be excited to 
the fame himfelf \ which, in my poor Judg- 

ment, is a likelier way to reclaim him, 
than the excluding him from the Means de- 

fign d 


iign d-to render Men wjfer and better; 
want of which can only harden a Man in his VXV^O 
Impenitence, and by degrees take from 
him all fenfe of Religion. And People s 
ftunning as much as poflible the Converfa- 
tion of an ill Man, Efficiently (hows they 
do not countenance him in his immoral 
Praftices : fo that there s no need to ex 
clude him from Divine Service on that ac 
count. And tis thus treating him that s fo 
grievous to him v for he who wou d be well 
enough pleas d to be difpens d with from 
goin^ to Church, cou d not be much affe&ed 
in being depriv d of a Liberty he feldom or 
never us d. 

9. In brief, nothing can be a feverer Rc- 
fleftion than what many of the Clergy call 
on themfelves, and their own Profeffion ; in 
fuppofing the beft way to make a notorious 
Offender turn from his evil ourfes, is to 
have nothing to do with their Miniftry ;. 
and therefore he is to be hinder d from 
hearing their Sermons, receiving the Sa 
crament from their hands, or coming near 
the Church where they officiate, left by fo 
doing he fhould be harden d in his wicked 
and impenitent Condition , but inftead of 
ft, he is to be deliver d over to Satan, as 
a fitter and properer Minifter for his Con- 
veriion: Whereas fince the Sick -and not 
1 the Whole need the Phyfician, the Clergy 
ihou d^ like our * Saviour who frequently 
convers d with Sinners, apply their Miniftry 
chiefly to fuch. But, 
,10. The Clergy were fo fond of the con-i 
trary Method, that they have forbid not 


/T. !~only fingk Perfons : andEamUysj 

. Provinces and Kingdoms, to.worfhip* Go.d/ 
publickly* > This JSation, .for inftancey 
for aboveifix Years : together) under an 
tcrdift in King John s Tim<J,> which was; 
kens ofT upon- no other Terms than his fubr* 
fitting; the! Crown, and Kingdom to th> 
Pppe v asHeadof the Church^ and becomingl 
his,- Vaflal and Tributary. . jrj 
f u, To have the Doors of Churches? 
fhut, when tis to prevent the Worfhip-of> 
God . from, being performed in em^ andi 
yet to have em open as a^Sanftuary for alb 
forts > of Rogues and 1 Villains^ gives a true* 
tho faint Idea of the ufe the Priefts^ 
whero they ac , independently, make of 
tjleir pretended Spiritual Power, atid of the} 
Rights and Immunities of. Holy\ Mother* > 
Church. And what heighten^ the Idea^ , is^ , * 
to confider how they, have, on pretence that* 
Oaths are fpiritual things, and fo belong to 
their Jurifdiftion, incourag d Perjury in the 
World}, by abfolving Subjeds from their 
Oaths to their Sovereigns ^ and Sovereigns) 
from* theirs to one .another, and to their! 
SubjeAs v as the Pope in this Cafe did King> 
yehni who at the lame time gave his Sub* 
jcAs to the Devil, for infilling on their jufb 
Rights and Privileges. 

12. It may be here demanded, Why the; 
Clergy introduced fo unaccountable 4 Cuftom+t 
and which at fir ft fight feems fo little for their \ 
Honour ?.-.-, >. 

. For the fame reafon, in all probability,> 
that other Abfurditys crept into Religion, 
advance their Intereft and, Power. For : 
> had 


in, avoiding f ihft.^njrpr^hpn^ or/an/ ffl 
JManfc anc\, pcj]l) l ;iciu:ii W Ut) fii 

kwce from, the, ,n$; of ; the -^opgrcga tiop> 
a$ the IJATqmpuiiicatcd ^erp, among tit? 
Jjws,, the : Clergy couhji npt/YcJlawtcnd 
apy; : ipore Rovveij in-t^hi 

agreeable ;t 


jhorefcnje; : thry, made, i^diefr.bii^nef^ tQ 

Crfuade the People," that "receiving the 
jrdY Sppp^r, \yas v ncfeflary, to : Salvappn, 


IS .apppintxrd-by Gpd,tlieifole,.Jfidge^ 
,h Rdan, lWlriQt coramu 


oite,; which, was. no, . IfefsjUun. claiming: 
Power, of putting wjiom. they pleas -d p f 
ftatp,of Damnaiojiv And/ the niore 

cline People, to \think fq, . they pretended a 
Uight not -only, to. exclude, :en^ from tlk 
Sacraj(nents v but from all ChurdirDu tW.^ 
< which, they, declared, was turning , Men .out 
of the Church -of Chrift,; the ordinary Svayl 
qf, Salvation. But not content with. tjii?,. 
which, one wou d think (bou d^fatisfy. t^i; 
n?oil ambitious, (fmce it was, claiming .a; 
Divine Power, and fetting themfelves- K 
the place of God), they deckr d thofe they 
excommunicated ought to be, fhun d and, 
avoided by every one ; becaufe they, ought 
not to converfe with thofe the Divine Goodt, 
i>efs does abhor^ butlhut em.out of theirj 
Company, againft whom, they hud, ihutj 
Heaven s Gatef : t which- was alfiimingi to f 
themfelves a Power of making People, molt, 

6 The Rights of the] 

jniferable here, as well as hereafter; & 
ther of which is fufficient to enflave thi 
World, but both are intolerable* Yet the 
Clergy did not fcruple to keep Men under 
this Bondage for five or ten Years, and 
fometimes tor their whole Life \ nor did 
they always abfolve*em at the time of their 
Death, tho they affirm d nothing lefs than 
Damnation was the Portioji of thofe who 
dy d excommunicated, to whom for that 
reafon they wou d not allow Chriftian Bu* 

13. This was all they cou d pretend to, 
before the Empire turn d Chriftian 5 but 
then they oblig d the Magiftrate to deny 
em Juftice, and to put em out of his Pro- 
teftion : nor were the Clergy content with 

this, but in exprefs Terms they declared,- 
* Decree, that he who remained * excommunicated a 
deHserec. Year was an Heretick, who had no Right, 
13- to Truth, Property, Liberty or Life} and 
uu. therefore among Proteftants as well as Pa- 
pifts, Hereticks were every wherfc, trll of 
late, put to death. And at this very day 
x an excommunicated Perfbn is out of the 
Proteftion of the Law, fo that Men are 
under no legal Obligation of keeping Faith" 
with him. 

14. The excluding all thofe the Clergy 1 
diQik d from the Publick Worfhip, was 
Do&rine, which had not fo eafily gone 
down with the People, had they not before 1 

. their Converfidn been made familiar to fuch 
Pra&ices by the Heathen Prieftsj who ( 
us d to drive out of their Temples atf 
who were not initiated t as ptofane Per-" 


Ctoiftian dutch, 

ions; when they celebrated their impioiis Chap. 4 
and abominable Myfterys: And another LOT^l 
Set of Pf lefts, that they might have the 
better Pretence to exclude People from the 
Lord s Supper, not only reprefented (a* 
appears by their Letters .to one another) 
that moft plain and fimpie Inftitution as a 
moft Horrible, moft Dreadful, and Vnutte* 
ralte Myflery, but made it a Crime of thg 
firft Magnitude to entruft the Secret^ not . 
only with the Heathen, but with Chrifti* 
ans of the loweft Form, the CatcchuMcns* 
And as the Uninitiated among the Heathens 
tvere bid to turn out of the Temple of thd 
God, whofe Myfterys were to be celebra 
ted; fo the. others were commanded by 
the Deacons to quit the Church, when thg 
Myftery (or Mafs of the Faithful, as it 
was ufually call d) was to be laid; By 
which they reflefted the greateft Diflio^ 
npur imaginable on the Chriftian Reli 
gion, as if it wou d not bear the Teft j 
and therefore a principal part of it was not 
fo much as to be mentioned, except td 
thofe who were ingag d in a manner paft 
retreat. And tho this ridiculous Referved* 
nefs gaVe occafion to thofe vile Storys thtf 
Heathen raised of what was pra&is d at 
their private Meetings ^ yet itcou d not hin* 
der the Clergy from aftlng like the Priefts 
of Ceres or Bacchu^ fince by it they got 
the fame Power of excluding from their 
Myfterys thofe whom they declar ? d to be un* 
tvorthy^ And therefore TertulltWi when thg 
Secrecy 6f the Myfterys of the ChriftidnS 
tvas obkS^d ta thfeift, endeavours to jvi& 
H iif/ 

its Of tti i 

tify it, in faying, * :> 7?/ the wryNtturt of 
Myfterys to be conceaVd, as CeresV were in 
$*mothracia. How differently from this do 
the great Pretenders to Primitive Praftice 
aft, when upon all occafions they publickly 
carry the Hoft in Proceflion ? 

1 5. None among the Jews were excluded 
from the Paflbver, Temple, or Synagogue, 
for any Moral Uncleannefs : and Mr. Seldcn 
in his Syncdriis has by many Arguments as 
well as Authority*, prov d that the Chriftian 
Priefts borrowed this Cuftom from the Hea 
thens } and it was very well worth their 
while, fincethey faw what Advantage their 
Clergy made of it, particularly the Druids^ 
who by excluding from the Sacrifices whom 
they pleas d, got all Power into their hands. 

16. The Account which C<tfar gives of 
the Druids* (hows that they have been pretty 
well copy d. 

" 0.0 CO TheDrmVk, fays he, manage 
44 Divine Matters, give Orders concerning 
44 publick and private Sacrifices, and arc 
44 Interpreters of Religion. 
: " (2.) They determine all Controverfys 
44 both publick and private. 
" (3-) If any private Man, or State, do 

44 not 

; (t) De Bcllo Gall. lib. 6. 

1. Uli rebus divinis intcrfunc, facrificia publica & 
privata procurant, Rcligioncs intcrprecantur, 

2. De omnibus Concrovcrfiis publicis privatifque con-, 

. 3. Si quisprivatus, aut populus, corum dccrctis non 
llctic, Sicrificiii imerdicuat > haec poena apud cos gra- 
\ 4. Quibus 

U n6tr : fubmit to .their Decrees, they put chap. 3? 
* c ; em under a religious Intefdift; and L/WJ 
^ this they account thfc grcateft of Punifh- 
* 4 ments. 

" (4.) Such as are thus interdiftedi are 
u reckoned in the number of wicked and 
u impious Men } none will fpeak to em or 
" meet em, but all fly from em as infec- 
" tious. t 

" (50 Neithet HaVe they Juftiee when 
<c they require itj not any Refpeft or Ho-* 
* c nour which is due to em. 

u (6.) The Druids are exempt from 
u War, and free frotn Taxes. 

17. The Cuftom of facrificiog Men a* 
>morig the Heathens was owing, to their 
Prielts, efpecially the bruids (it prevail 
ing wherever they did) who by the I*ower 
they had of appointing the human Offer- 
ings, kept every one in d molt miferable 
dread of em. And the iacrifidng of 
Chriftians upon account o f their religious 
Tenets (for which Millions have fuffer d) 
was introduced for no other, reafon than that 
the Clergy*, who took upon *em to be the 
fole Judges of Religion, might, without 
controul, impofe what felfifli Do&rines they 
jpleas d. 

4, Quibus ica eft interdiftum, ii numcro irftpiorum 
GL fcelcr^orum habcntur 5 ah his omnes dccedunt, adl- 
futo cprum Scrmorrertl^v dcfugiunr, nc quid cfc coau- 
gionc incommodi accipianc. 

5. Ncq; iis pcccntibUs jus rcddicur, ncq-, honos ullw 

$. Druidcs a bcllo abcffcconfucvcrant, ncq; tributa 
cum rcliquis pcndunt. 

Hi 1 8. The 

The .Qfylts of the \ 

I 1 8. The moft material Difference be* 
tween thefe Chriftian and thofe JKeathen 
Druids^ is, that one facrific d Men to the 
Deity, but t other to the Devil } and by 
burning em alive, make em as far as they 
can taft of Hell, before they fend em 
thither: of which to perfuade the Spec* * 
tators, they drefs em up in a San-bemto f 
or a Coat all painted with Devils and 
Flames ^ and they take their leave of each 
Sufferer with this moft charitable Expref- 
fion, Jam animam tvam tradimiu Diabolo. 
And their Truth and Mercy equal their 
Charity : for when they deliver over the 
condemn d Perfons to the Secular Powers, 
tho they do it with no other intent than 
to have them put to the moft cruel Death ; 
yet they moft earneftly conjure em by the 
M treys >/ God, and the flowels of Jeftu 
Chrijf, to touch neither Life nor Limb: 
Which grofs DifiiMulatiott) fays a moft wor 
thy Prelate (b)^ we are put in mind cf 
by the Preamble to a late Bill. But to re 

19. The Priefts, after they had prevail d 
on the People to let em debar from the 
Publick AVorihip whom, they thought fit, 
told feveral Storys of the Excluded being 
poflefs d with the Devil j as Silicon s Scribe 
upon Amlrofc^ excommunicating him: 
And the Eaftern Clergy at prefent, to make 
the fimple Laity ftand more in awe ; of 

fbj Biflxp fff SariunV Speech on the Bill agahjl Oc 
caftonal Conformity, 


- , . , 

briftian Cfiurcl, See. i o i 

their Excommunication, perfuade em that Chap. 3- 
the Bodys of thofe who die under this L/WJ 
Cenfure, do notconfume, but remain black 
and fwoln, till they are taken up and ab- 
folv d. Several Instances you have of. this 
in Malaxtu and Cruciufs Twcc-Grccia^ and 
a great many more in Selden *, who fays,*L.i.c,io. 
the Clergy mention it in their InftrumentsdcSyncd. 
of Excommunication } . and relates a Corn- 
mi nation of Cyril Patriarch of Alexandria^ 
in which are thefe words, (c) Tl)e Excom^ 
municated remain after death bound avd undif* 
foiled both here and hereafter^ and ftretctfd 
like A Drum. By virtue of thefe and fuch 
like Pretences, the Bifliops did more tyran 
nise over thefe poor Chriftians than the 
Turks themfelves. 

20. 1 cannot here avoid obferv ing the great 
Difference between the Creek and Latin 
Churches as to this matter ; for one makes 
the Body of an inter d Perfoii remaining a 
conllderable time intire, a Mark of his being 
a Saint, and the other of his being a Devil. 

21. Kothing wpu d expofe Prieftcraft 
more, than an Hiftorical Account, how, 
and upon what Motives the Clergy vary d 
in their Kotions and Praftices concerning 
the Lord s Supper: As firft, how they 
made it a Myftery in the Heathenifh fenfe x 
of that word, and for Heathenilh Reafons, 
that they might have the fame Power as the 
Prieftsof Idols had, to exclude whom they 


yJ* UU wn 

H 3 were 

of tkt \ 

were pleas d to term Unworthy.. Which 
Power, jvhcn they had by this means fuf- 
ficiently fettled, nothing lefs wou d fprve 
cm, in order to magnify their Copfecra-r 
tion, than that it produc d the Real Pre- 
fence of the Body and Blood of Chrift 
(tho the Modi** of it they did not prefumq 
to determine till afterward) and made it; 
a Real Sacrifice, and the IVliniJflers Real 
priefts, and the Communion-Table an Al 
tar \ which placing in the Eaft, they maae 
profou nd Bows and Cringes towards it, 
So that the I-Jeathen cou d no longer fay, 
as they did at firft, tjiat t)ie Chriftians had 
no Priefts, no Altars, no &iq; ifice ; for no- 
thing then did more frequently occur ia 
the Waitings of the Fathers than thofp 
Terms*, and they made not only the Sa 
crament, but almoft every thing clfe re^ 
lilting to Religion, a Sacrifice, and them-j 
fcivcs to bp furc phe only agvificers. And 
, fhc better to carry on thcjr Dcfigns, they 
entcr cl into a Confederacy afiiong thenv 
felves, not to fuller any who was. excom- 
^nunicated by one Bifhop, to be receiv d into 
Communion by the reft: So thai they were 
rcfolv d, right or wrong, to juftfiy one 

anothcr?s Proceedings^ and no 
unlefs he had a Certificate from 
pf his own Church, \Y^tev^r occafion 
had to remove, ,was to bp admitted to 
Communicate with an v otjier j nay^ if one s 
podw. own * Bifhop was for excluding a Perfbri 
Schif. for 1 ever from the Church, others, tho this 
>g P fra&ice vyas contrary to their Sentipients, 
5 * : obliged themfelves pever to admit him to 

Qmftian Churc^ &.c. ,105 

Communion* So if a Bifhop did believe Chap. 3, 
the Baptifm of Hcreticks to be null and <-/~v^O 
; void, - as Cyprian and .the other djrican Bi- 
.fhopsdid, yet he was to admit one fo bap- .- , 
ciz d to -Communion v but on the contrary 
liewasixotto admit him.,, if his own Bifhop 
-.did not think his Baptifm valid,- tho himfelf 
\did. And, 

22. After they had thus agreed among 
.themfelves, they ideclar d, in order to 
;jnake People ftand the more in awe of their 
Excpmmunication, . that the receiving of " \ ;^ *-. 
the^Body and Blood of Chrift^ was abfo- ".";* 7? 
ilutely neceflary to the Salvation of all, In 
fants ! (whofe Throats they thrult it down) 
not excepted , and this Praftice coritinuM 
intheChurch * for above fix hundred years, * Maldon. 
And then nothing lefs wou d fatisfy em in I oh ^ 
.than making the Great God, who made all ** 
thine;*; and as he made the World by his 
Word) fq they wou d Hini by Theirs. And 
to magiTiify the Sacrcdncfs of the Priefts, 
all others were cxqludcd from the Privilege 
of the Cup, and only adult Perfons to eat 
the Bread, yet not till they had ador d it 
as the molt High God. And what couM 
.the, jnoft extravagantly Ambitious defire 
.more, than to have Mankind proftrate at 
.their Feet, begging Abfolution , and their 
God in their hands, diftributing him as they 
pleasM ? And if they cou d maJke him, tis s 
.not to be queftion d but they had an abfolutc 
Power of difpofing of their own Creature- 
God. -. . .i: ;i 
Here one s at a ftand which to adr 
molt, the mad Infolence and daring " 

Jmplety of the Clergy, or the w 
dity and wretched Abjeftnefs of the Laity ^ 
one in thus impofmg, and t other in being 
thus impos d on. 

23. At the Reformation we were fo far 
from countenancing thefe Notions, that by 
the Articles of Edward the Sixth the Real 
frtfinct is .exprefly condemned, and by 
this invincible Argument, the Impoffibility 
0f two Bodys being in the fame place t 
Put in a (hort time after, that Paragraph 
* was left out by the Convocation, on 
pretence of not giving Offence to the 
Adorers of a Corporeal Prefence } and 
another put in its room, fo worded, that 
the Papifts Ihou d not fcruple it. Which 
piece of extraordinary Complaifance had 
up other effeft than to make the Papifts 
jnore obftinate, and poflibly was no fmall 
pccafion that a Man cou d fcarce be thought 
a true genuine Son of the Church, without 
felieving the Real Prefence-, and by degrees, 
Sacrifice, Altar, c#-c. were again 

To conclude: ,Tho the Priefts afr 
(hme to themftlves an Arbitrary Power of 
pxcluding Men frojn the Lord s Supper j 
.yet the Scriptures no where make the 
Deceiving it firoin the Hands of a Prieft, 
n^ceflary: nay, not one Inftance of the 
City s r^eiving if fa can be pro- 
fhuty from thence t The Paflbver^ and 
pther. feftivals among the Jews were 
p?ver Celebrated in the Templp or Syna 
gogues, t>ut ia their private Jioufts, 

tyri/Kan Cbwcb, Sec. S d f 

whither, as 0*) (7r<* /w/ obferves, they invi* Chaj>, 
ted their Kindred, Friends and Neighbors, 
to the number of above ten, but under 
twenty ^ which Jofcphus calls a Fraternity / 
.and at the clofe of the Supper, the great 
Meal with them, the Mafrer of the Feaft 
diftributed among his Guefts fmall Pieces 
of the finefl Bread ; and having, firft drank 
of the Grace-Cup, deliver d it to be 
handed about. All this was accompany d 
with Thanks to God for having created 
Bread and Wine, which was follow d by 
fome Relation futable to the Feftival, arid 
the Eucharifty or Hymn of Thankfgiving; 
to which Chrift, who inftitutcd no new 
Rites, fuperadded the Remembrance of 
his Sufferings, and directs his Difciples as 
often as they did this, that is, celebrate 
fuch Feftivals, and clofe them with the 
Poftcaniuvt) to commemorate him after this 
-manner. And this fame Author ihows, / 
from the Inftitutions of Cltmens^ from 
Juftini Irwtus and Qrigtn, that the an- 
-tient Chriftians began their Eucharift 
with Praifes to God for Creation of the 
World, particularly of Bread and Winej 
and then proceeded to commemorate our 
Saviour s Death. And tho among the 
Gentiles, where the Rich according to an- 
tient Cuftom entertained. the Poor, there 
were, by reafon of tbeir Numbers, great 
Diforders in their JLove-Feafts, whefc 

Oi, , 

fa} In his Vifuwfo An fit fcippcr communicandum ;1 
,|)cr Symbola . 



" ,- 



of the \ 

: after the fame manner they remember d 
our Saviour s Suffering ; yet the Apoflle no 
, where declares, that for prevention of the 
like, none for the future fhou d prefume to 
take any Bread and Wine, except from the 
Hand of a Prieft , but only that every one . 
ihouM examine himfelf, which is not only 
. overlooking the Prkft s pretended Power,- 
but is wholly inconfiftent with it. And if 
St. Paitl^ notwithftanding thefe Excefles, 
deny d none this Liberty, nor have we an . 
inftance of any Perfon, no not JudM hinu 
felf, excluded from it-, ,what Pretence can, 
there be for the Clergy to be Sovereign 
-Judges who fhou d be admitted, and who 
toot? which at firft they couM not, except 
.they were neceflarily to be invited to all 
thofe Meals, intheClofeof which our Savir 
<our s Death was to be commemorated, and 
,had likewife a Power to forbid theGuefts 
i ( they did not like, And if this Sacrament, 
&s. the Name of the Lord s Supper fliews, 
was firft .celebrated at Meal- time, either 
the People who fat or lay down at Supper, 
-rhufthand the Bread and W T ineto one ano- 
;.ther ^ or elfe fome muft wait at Table for 
\thkpurpofe, an Office the Clergy wou d not 
be fo fond of, as of the prefent Cuftom of the 
-whole Congregation s attending the Prieft 
at the Rails or the Altar, and there kneel 
ing at his Feet, humbly to wait till he diftri- 
tbutes tq them the Bread and Wine from 
within the Rails, a Place it feems too too 
Holy for the profane and Vile Laity tobead- 
;piitted jnto; and therefore the Prieft, clad 
in his pompous Formalitys, is to ftand therp 

fyriftiw Church, &c. 107 

fclone. f 7Vr;^/not only owns the re? Chap. 3; 
ceiving the Eucharift from the hands 
-the Bilhop in the Aflejnblys which met 
fore fcreak of day, to #5 an Innovation* 
but alfo fays ? that by pur Lord it was com- 
t nit ted to AH) and fit Meal-times^ and con- 
fcquently the whole pifdpline that s built 
"on it muft be an Jnnovation. And if the 
JPriefts have fo grofly imposed on the Chri- 
Jlian World in this matter, there can be, 
j\o reafon ito depend on their Authority, or 
to take any thing to appertain to em^ tho, 
it has ever fo long or univerfally obtained, 9 
jpxcept they can fhow a fuificient Proof from 
Scripture for it- And confidering this, it 
pin t be thought ftrange that that ex 
cellent Man who firft fow d the Seeds of the 
-Troteftant Religion here, the > famous * Fafdcut 
WteWfi ihou d ; maintain that the ^ 
[Comfort of the Faithful ^ that Excommuni- 
fat ion and Sufpenfion^ and fuch?likf Ccvfures, 4r t. 
#re not founded in the Law of Chrifi) but cunt 
yingly invented by Jntickrift. 

2 5. The Proteftant Canons carry d the 
Reformation the furtheft of any in this 
point, and wou d not allow that excluding 
jVlen from the Sacrament was any part of 
Ecclefiaftical Difcipline, or that th^ Priefts 
,,Jiad any Authority in it: in defence of 
which the Great Eraftttt wrote nis excel 
lent Treatife printed here, ^nfl JicensM, as 
Mr. $dden * hak inade evident, by Arch-* DC Syne. 
bift)6p Whitgtffi own Hand. Kor do we^f. f? 1 ? 
or any opher Proteft arit Nation allow the 
*Clprgy an Independent Power In this mat- 
tcr; which -is" a 1 fufEcient Proof that they 


ibS Tlx^tgUs of the 

dp not believe it belongs to them by Di 
vine Right 

26. Tis ufuatly faid, That PeopU 

tale the Sacrament without a Prieft, becaufe he 
enly can confecrate the Elements. 

Among Chriftians, one no more than ano 
ther can be reckon d a Prieft from Scripture, 
becaufe the only Sacrifices of our Relkion 
arePr^r/, Praifes&R.&Th4nkJgwitigj*i which 
every one of the Congregation offers up 
for himfelf: and there s no more reafon tp 
affirm that the Minifter offers up the ?eo* 

Eles Prayers, than they his} unlefs it can 
e fuppos d that God hears him only who 
talks the loudeft, in that he s the Servant 
of the Congregation, being imploy d by 
*em to fpeak with an audible Voice, that 
all may join together in offering up the fame 
Prayers. And the Clerk has as good a Ti 
tie to the Priefthood as the Parfon^ fince 
the People join with him in offering up their 
Sacrifices of Spiritual Songs, Hymns, and 
Thankfgivings. To make this pertinent 
to the prefent purpofe^ Does not every 
one as well as the Minifter equally apply 
the Bread and Wine to the fame Holy and 
Spiritual Ufe, in commemorating the Be 
nefits receiv d by our Saviour, and in of- 
^ fering up the fame Prayers, and defiring 
the fame Bleflings ? And whoever does 
?*i : - .^k w ^^ a ^ ue Application of Mind, right- 
* ,\ ly confecrates the Elements for himfelf, 
fiace this is the only Confecration they 
are, capable of: Any thing further than 
this may rather be call d Conjuration than 


> .; 

Sec. 109 

But defigning to treat of all this Mat- Chap. 3 

ter more fully hereafter, I fliall now only 
add, that a Pretence to a Priefthood, or 
Sacrificing, not in common to all Chriftians, 
is no fmall piece of Prieftcraft; to prevent 
which, the New Teftament, when it applies 
Tritft or Sacrifice? to Chriftians, which is 
not above twice, applies it to ? em in gene- iP.a.$. 
ral, as being all alike concerned in offering R*M%ip. 
up the Sacrifices of the Chriftian Religion. 
And yet what abfurd and fenfiefs Notions 
do not only the Popifh, but other High- 
Churchmen maintain about this plain and 
fimple Iiiftitution, in order to make them- 
felves Priefts in a peculiar and real manner ? 
// As I have fhown how little reafon there 
is for the Clergy to pretend an Indepcn* 
dent Right to exclude from the Church 
and all publick Worlhip whom they pleafe ; 
fo I muft now obferve how they claim, as 
peculiar to themfelves, and as a part of their 
Divine Jurifdiftion, the reproving or rebuk 
ing of People. But, 

27. Nothing can be weaker, than pre 
tending that this is peculiar to themfelves, 
or a part of Jurifdi&ion : fince tis in com 
mon to thofewho have no Jurifdi&ion, as ii 

well as thofe who have , and not only E- 
quals, but Inferiors obferving the Rules of 
Decency, have a right, nay are bound, as 
they have opportunity, to reprove their 
Superiors: for inftance, I, tho with all 
Humility, rebuke the Clergy for thus 
grofly impofing on the Laity 9 and this I* 
am bound to do, according to the Divine 
Precept, which fays, Thou fwlt in any wife; 
t : rcwki 

-Tie ti(tgit* of ike 

rebuke thy Brother^ and not fiffer Sitivfon 
him; and yet I pretend no Jurifdiftjori 
over them, but to fct this matter in a due 

28. Men, tho they refign d to the PulP 
lick the difpofmg of their Force, yet Itilt 
retain a Power or approving of difapprov- 
ing the Aftions of thofe they live amongfl * 
and confequently the Clergy, if they can- 
not punifh or reward Men for thofe Aftiontf 
they commend or condemn, by foriie Good 
or Evil which is not the Conference of 
the Aftions themfelves, which Operate 
whether they will or no, can pretend to no 
more Power than what belongs in com** 
ttion to the reft of the People, whofe O-x 
pinions muft have a great Influence oh 
mens Aftions : except it can be imagin d 
that being Efteem d, Honoured* Adrtiir d* 
Lov d, Courted and Carefs d j 1 or being 
Slighted, Difgrac d, Defpis d, Hated and 
Abhor d, are not ftrong Motives to a Man 
to accommodate himfelf to the Sentiments 
of thofe he converfes with. There s not 
one in ten thoufand able to bear the conftant 
JDiHike and Condemnation of his own So 
ciety, nor can live in perpetual Difrepute 
| ; and pifgrace with thofe he converfes withy 
much lefsr can he indure the Thoughts of 
being fo abhor d by everyone^ as that they 
fliall confpire to fhun all Converfation with 

,29. Of this the Clergy are fenfible, and 
therefore pretend they have a Divine 
Right to command the Opinion and Affec 
tions of the People, by obliging all to hold. 



(liofe they excommunicate, or declare to Chap. 3. 
be guilty of Schifm or Herefy, in fo great ^"^ * 
a deteftation, as to avoid converfing with 
em. And when Men are once perluadedj 
that the Clergy are Judges in Religious 
Matters, and that God ib much abhors 
thofe they pronounce Heterodox, as to 
damn them eternally, and : that he loves 
others as much for holding what they de 
clare to be Orthodox 5 there needs not 
much perfuading em that tis their duty 
to imitate God in loving thofe he loves, 
and hating thofe he hates, And if thofe 
the Clergy turn out of the Church, are to 
be fhun d by every body, on the Penalty, 
of being condemned to fuller the fame,, 
there can be no reafon why thofe who by 
Schifm or Herefy turn themfelves out of 
the Church, fhou d be us d after a better;, 
manner. And the Clergy need not take, 
niuch pains to perfuade Men to ufe thoft 
ill in this Life, whom God will eternally 
damn in the next. No pity for fuchPcr- 
fons can hinder em from thinking any. 
Method too fevere for preventing the.. 
Propagation of damnable Do&rines, This, 
Charity to the Souls of Mankind in gene- 
tal, were not their Children, Friends, and 
Relations concern d, wou d oblige em to 
do: and as they cannot fuppofe the Clergy 
can have too great a Power to inquire into 
fufpefted Perfons, fo they likewise will be, 
for putting all the Hardfhips imaginable 
on excommunicated Pcrfons, in order to 
force em to fubmit to the Terms the Cler- y 
gy require for their Admiflioa into the; 1 



Chitfcfo And when fuch Notions as theft 
once prevail, it will not be fafe for the 
Magiftrate to proteft thofe the Clergy have 
thus reprefented to the People* But did 
not this Method neceflarily deftfoy all man 
ner of Kindnefs and Friendihip, and intro 
duce immortal Hatred for unavoidable Dif 
ferences in Opinion j yet things being good 
or evil on account or their EfFeSsj that 
which produces the fame Confequences as 
Hatred does, is every whit as bad: and I 
fuppofe tis all one to the poor People who 

are burnt by the Inquifitors, what Prin 
ciples they are afted by } and every one 
fees that thefe Notions naturally end in art 

I Inquifition. 

36. Nothing can tend mote to tlie dir 
couragement of all Virtue and Morality^ 
and the utter confounding of all thofe Du- 
tys which Men owe one another, than thfo 
pretended Power of the Prieft : for if 1 
muft look on a Man, tho ever fo moral, 
or tho 1 were ever fo much oblig d by 
him, or ftand in the neareft relation ta 
him, as one abhor d by God on the ac* 
count of his Opinions, and to be fhun d 
as fome noxious Animal * how can I 
treat him with that Kindnefs , which is 
due to his Virtue, or as Gratitude^ or thd 
Relation 1 have to him requires of me? 
Nay, fo deftruftive is this Notion of Mo- 
arality, that the more moral a Man is^ 
the worfe he is to be us d, becaufe ther 
greater is the Danger of his making his 
Heterodoxy to fpread and obtain- So th 
fame Reafon will oblige People to treat an 

- ; ? J - immnral 

hri/lian Chunk; 

Immoral Orthodox Man with all the Kind- Chap. $7 
nefs imaginable } nay, the worfe lie i^< the 
better he is to be us d, if a different 
Treatment brings the leaft prejudice td 
Orthodoxy. But the reafoii of Mens 
mutual Efteetn or Difefteem, Kindnefs or 
Unkindnefs, is built on a quite different 
Foundation than Orthodoxy or Hetcro-- 
doxy. For, 

31. Man being a Creature not able to 
iiibfift without the Afliftance of others; 
whoever .expefts they wou d not put the! 
leaft Inconvenience on him, or love or 
efteein him the lefs for the fake of his Opi 
nions, ought to ufe thofe who differ front 
him aftef the fame manner v and confe- 
quently all Good and Moral Men, whether 
Schifmaticks, Hereticks, Turks, Jews or 
Gentiles, have a Right to be treated by the 
Orthodox as they expeft to be treated by 
them, dr in other words, as the itiutiial 
Good of Mankind obliges *em to treat 11 
\ moral and vixtuoos Perfons, without regard 
to Orthodoxy, which every Seft confine to 
themfelves. On the contrary, they Who 
live not up to the common Rules of Hu-< 
inanity, but Indulge their brutal Paffions to 
the prejudice of their o ton Kind, have no 
right, notwithftanding they are Orthodox* 
Wonderfully Orthodox, to the Efteem 6r 
" Friendfhlp of rational Beings 5 but iiiay 
be Ihun d and avoided by them as ferni-< 
tious Creatures of an inferiour Rank^ with 
whqift their renouncing the common 
fef Rcafon has levei d them. 


, i .. 32. There s no Man who jived : IK, a 
"Country where th .Religion is< different 
from his own, who fees not th$ abfolute 
Neceffity of this Conduft, and ciirfcs the 
Bigotry of the People for being foinflu- 
enc d by their Priefts, as to make him fufter 
in his Perfon, Goods, or Reputation, for 
the fake of fuch Opinions as ; they tt- 
ccive no Prejudice by,: And he, will be apt 
to confider, that tho God had impldnted 

,in our Natures a Senfe of Pity, and a De- 

ilre.of being belov d, in order to oblige 

.. Mankind to treat one another kindly , and 

has not only made it their mutual t lutereit, 

but oblig d em to it by the Ties of future 

. Rewards and Punifhments } yet ,the Priefts 

\haye perverted all this, and made Religion 
the great Incentive for Men to ufe one ano- 
.theriil, without regard to Intereft, Repu 
tation or Pity. Which laft is reprefented 
,as a Suggeftion of the Devil in favour of 
Heterodoxy : and the crueller Men are on 
this account, the greater Reputation they 
get. Thus he perceives that Religion is 
render d much worfe than Atheifm it felf j 

.. for as that affords Men no Motives from 
another World to ufe one another ill, fo it 
, . takes away none they have from this to 
, ufe one another well, or any way hinders 

. em from giving that Efteem and Repu 
tation to Virtuous and Moral Men, which 

. the moft immoral, in regard to their own 

. Intereft, are ready to pay them. Tho 
Men reafon thus, when themfelvcs are ill 
treated on the fcore of Religion } yet alas, 
how few can make the fame Reflection 


ihe (Tables ate turn d? Men tliety 
fo m\ich are they impos d on by their own 
f Hefts, eoiiunit .the very fame Grimes they 
abhotfd }n others, and on the fanle Pre* 
tenets 5 fince the Honour of God and the 
Good of Mens Souls are alike pleaded by all 
Pattys* and alike ferve as a Pretext fordoing 
allthcMifchicf the molt PiaboUcal Malutf 
can produce. 

:33* ACommifllon front God; dutfiofhing 
Prieft to punifli People by Ecclefiaftical 
Cenfures, for things in which a third Perfou 
ha s-np Intereft, and which only relate to 
God -and a lean s own Confcience, nccefla? 
tily fuppofes Qiialifications fufEcient fof 
the : c^ccuting of itj and confequently 
that his CenTures have a power to changd 
the ,Mind, otherwife ? tis punifhing to not 
purpofe* or worfe than none^ the making 
Hypocrites, and that -he is infallible^ ell 
the Change may be for the worfe $ nay^ 
that he is -Omnifcient, and can judg of 
Mens. Hearts, otherwife he inay punirfi d 

Man for that which is no Offence beforcf 
God: hecaufe to make any thing Except 
infincerity a^Sin, is to make (pod himfelf 
the Author of Sin, in fo framing our Ufl* 
derftanding, that after we have donfe all We 
can to dvoid it, we necefTarily fall into iD 
But had, any PrieftS fuch Qvialifications^ 
Th^lt alone wou d not prove they were to 
feprefent God^ and punifli in his ftead^ 

iinlefs God. had given J em fuch ^ Gommif- 
<fion, which cou d not. aippear if, their 

/Narries Were not writ in it,< or their Pet** 
fo dcfcrib d as every one iijifiht find 

*tte Rights of *t 

em out ; fince what is in common with 
others, who equally pretend to this Com- 
miflion, cou d never do it. Without this 
Power, whatever Prieft takes upon him 
to punifh Men for worfhipping God ac 
cording to Confidence, not only depofes 
God, as far as he is able, from his Empire 
over Confidence, but makes the not a& 
fronting him by a grofs Diffimulation, a 
Crime, for which a Man is not only to be 
deprived of the Converfation of his Fel 
low-Creatures, but to be eternally damn d. 
A Sin greater than that of Lucifer^ who 
fell not for claiming a Superiority over, 
but only an Equality with his Maker. , But 
here the Prieft difputes the Dominion 
with the Almighty: for God commands 
Men, on pain of eternal Punifhment, to 
follow the Di&ates of their Conferences j 
but the Prieft, without any regard to 
this, pretends to a Power, not only of 
making Men miferable in this Life, but of 
damning em eternally, if they thus prefer 
obeying God before what he requires of 
em. But, 

34. If Sincerity be our Duty, Infince- 
rity muft be a Crime , and confequently 
being in the right, if occafion d by a blind 
Submifllon to the Prieft, or any other Ac 
cident, will not make amends for the neg- 
left of the grand Duty of Confideration, 
with which Ecclefiaftical Cenfures are as 
inconfiftent as any other perfecuting Me 
thod i and can only tend to create new, 
and eftablifh old Prejudices, fince Gentle- 
iiefs aud Kindaefs are the .Qnly way to 


(%riftidn Church, &cl 

remove em ,: for whatever is proposed Chap. 3 
with Heat, makes Arguments, as every one V- 
may find by himfelf, lofe fomewhat .of their 
Efficacy y and therefore whoever wou d 
perfuade, ufes all the kind, all the oblig 
ing, all the infmuating Methods to difpofe 

People for the more favourable reception 
of his Arguments. And St. Paul, tho no- , 
thing cou d more efFedually remove Preju 
dices than his power 4 " of doing Miracles, 

.yet not content with that, became all 
things to all Mcn^ that he might gain fame. 

.And if the Clergy, who cannot pretend 
to a power of working Miracles, inftead 
of obferving the fame method, are for 
endeavouring to make thofc who differ 
from em fall under the Contempt, Dif- 
grace and Hatred Of the People, and threa 
ten em with no lefs than Damnation , tis 
a preemption, they do not dcfign to con 
vince, but to fright Men into a compliance 

; with fome villanous Doftrine, which they 

are fenfible will not bear the Teft of Exa 

35. Tis an amazing thing to cpnfidcr^ 
that tho Chrift and his Apoftlcs inculca 
ted nothing fo much as Umverfal Charity, 
ajid cnjoin d their Difcipics to treat, not 
only one another notwithftanding their Dif 
ferences, but even Jews and Gentiles with 
all the kindnefs imaginable, yet that their 
pretended Succedbrs fliould make it their 
. bufinefs to teach fuch .Doftrines as deftroy 
all Love and Friendfhip among People of 
different Perfuafions v and that with fo 
good Saccefs, that never did Mortals hate, 
1 3 

abhor and damn one another more heartU 
ly, or are readier to do one another more 
Mifchfef, than the different Setts of Chrif? 
tians Human Mature, God be; thank d, 
if left to it fclf, wouM not be fo de* 
prav d : for then Men wou d as kindly rer 
peive Arguments ofTer d to their Confidera* 
tion in Religious as in Philofophical mat 
ters v and love and efteem People for fetr 
ting em fo good a Precedent as worfhipping 
God according to Confcience, Opinions, 
jvhich each $ide may hold without the leaft 
prejudice to the other, are not in their 
pwn nature apter to create Unkindnefs, 
th^n different Features and Tafts : And of 
this we may be convinc d by the Conduct 
pf |:he World, even when it lay for fo ma^- 
jiy Ages together, as the greateft part at 
J>refent docs, under Heathen Darknefs ^ for 
there were no fuch Feuds and Animofitys 
pn this account among them, tho their Dif- 
JEerencps were more and greater. Which 
Jhows, that thi :eft Religion has had the 
jrusfortune to have the worft Priefts^ and 
if the fleathen World was, as Divines 
tell us, under the Power of Satan, I fhou d 
pe glad to fee how they avoid this Confe* 
quence of Nature s not being fo much.per- 
^ferted then, as fince under the Govern- 
pient of certain Priefts, who are no better 
than fpiritual Make-baits, Bareters, Beau- 
:efeus and Jncendiarys, and who make 
Ihurches ferve to worfe-purpofes than 
Bear-gardens, where Beads are only the 
Combatants ^ but here Chriftians are ha- 
ooMpnto worry nnd devour onaar^other, 


>> &c, 

and all in.defiance of the Scriptures, which Chaj% 
teach the forgiving even of the gfeatelt 
Injuries^ while they require People to treat: 
thofe yf ho have not done em theleaft Injury, 
after the moft barb^rpus ina nner. 

36* If in the time of that wife Heathen 
jAmmjanH* MarceltinM^ the Chriftians bore 
fuch Hatred to one another, that, as he < 
complains, (a) No Beafts were fuch deadly 
Enemy s. to fifen^ as the more fay age Ckriftians 
were generally to one another: What wou d 
he, it, now alive, fay of them, when in the" 

, Popifli Countrys he beheld their Princes and 
Nobles proud of ferving the Inquifition in^ 
the vileft . Offices; as Carrying . the holy 
Faggots for burning* of Hereticks \ and- 
thq .Commonalty, .\yithout the leaft fenfe f 
of pity, teftifying " their Joy with the 
loudeft Acclamations at the infuppor ta- 
ble Ago uys of thofe tormented- Wretches!^ 
Kpr .wpu d he think this the Spirit of Po- 
pe^y pri|y,, when he perceiv d Proteftants, 
thQ^liovyin^ private Judgment, nay tho) 
budding. f their Separation from Rome upon. 1 
it, Ze^us for burning Hereticks, and treat- 1 
ing <6(ne another with theutmoft Inhumanity 
for m<xe Trifles, things own d by the Per- 

ftcutprs themfelves to be indifferent. But 
moftj bf ;all wou d he be furpriz d at th(? 
" " ^Cionduft piF fome, ! and thofe none of 
meanelt among our felves, The, fatal 
eft?. of { whofc ynrjafonablc. Humour 

1 fa 


1 faj Niillas infeflas hominibus bcflias ut fine 
plcri^uc Chriftianorum; Lib. 22. 

of tfce .- r 

toe havt 9 as we are told frojn the 
( Throne, /0 narrowly efctfd, 

37. In a word, thefe Mifchiefs are una- 
voidable, as long as any befides Moral Cau. 
fes are allowed to be fubjeft to the judicial 
Gogniiance of Human Powers, or as long as 
the Clergy, by Excommunication or other- 
wife, can oblige the Magiftrate or any of his 
Subjefts to treat thofe who differ from em ? 
in what relates only to God and their own 
Confidences, with the Icalt Unkindnefs or 
Partiality, And tho only an infpir d Wri- 1 
tcr cou d exprefs Jiow happy, upon the re* ; 
moval of thefe curfed Effefts of prieftcraft* " 
the reviv d Spirit pf Chriftianity wou d 
render its numerous Votarys ; yet every J 
one^ who knows ^ny thing of that great [ 
l^ove, Benevblence, Gentlenefs, Meeknefs, ? 
Moderation, and all fuch Jike Vertues,V 
tvhjfh our Religion fo pathetically recom- ; 
XDdnds, muft needs perceive that theif flap* \ 
pinefs wou d be as compleat as H^ni^ri Na- [ 
ture t exajtfd to the higheft Pitch of Per- 

was capable of j and fb much thd ! 
greater, as }t freed em from that extrera e ! 
Slifery, to whicfi Prieftcraft in jnoft placet; 
had fo long fubje^ed em. . / r f 

38. A$Jn this Chapter I have prpv d tllat " t 
th^ Pretences on which thff Clergy wou d c , 
build their Independent Power, are lb far. 
from having any Foundation in Religion or/ 
Jleafonj that they are Abfurd and Impious V 
I fhall in the following part of my Difcourfe 
#iQW th^t this Ppftrine is fo far froiji fervhig 

Q>r iftian Church, &c , iif 

(i.) It, not only prevents the further Chap. 3! 
Jpreading of the Gofpel, but is the Caufe of ^-v>^ 
its having already loft fo much ground. 

(2.) That it is jnoft d eftruftive to the 
Jntereft of Religion, and is the Caufe of 
thofe Corruptions under which Chriftianity 

(3.) That it neceflarily hinders all Refor 
mation, except where thofe Perfons who are 
fupposM to have this Independent Power do 

, (4.) That it has been the occafion of infi 
nite Mifchiefs to the Chriftian World, and * 
fras, wherever it prevailed, rendered the 
Community moft miferable. And befides 
this, I fhall prove, 

ift. That- tis inconfiftent with the De- 
fign and End of Ecclefiaftical Government, 
that there ftiould be any particular Immuta 
ble Form of it, or that any Set of Perfons 
. ftiould have ah Unalterable Rieht to it*, but 
that every Community is obliged, according 
to the Circumftances they are under, to alter 
and vary all things relating to it, as they 
}udg moft conducing to the End for which 
that was inftituted. 

2W/y, That this Hypothefis, of none being 
capable of governing the Church except 
Biihops (and. the Reafon equally holds as to 
Presbyters) and that none can be Biihops 
except fuclv as derive their Power by a 
tontmu d unintettupted Succeflion from the 
Apoftles, deftroys the very Being not on* 
ly of ; all 1 Proteftant, but biF all Churches 
whatfoeVen i r r >ii. ;.L 

,^V) ^ uv.wiVV, orfi (v. - 1 y;/f 
il - >J CHAP. 

jUUTiiwr >us ,i juu t > 

: i , i 

C H A R;:.lV^r ( 

Vii inconfiftent with the 
- . Defign and End of Ret 
^ffiifitplinej that tbtre (hwd be any! 
f articular Immutable Form of ^ fj 
.: 6r any Set of (perfons with tin U** , 

4i( f ; t ?* f f * / lf * * * * * X 

ni filter able ^ight to manage itf vut\ 
^ that Men are obliged, according* to* 

-r>< f ;e Q r ^^ft ances thy a ? e un ^ er 9\ t tf 

palter and Iwry all things relating t 
^jK^ ii 1 they judg moft conducing fy 

-" : i) Ot ./V.;^ ; ^ ;;i r ^ - : : f;r ft 

t ^-A LL things rekting to Religion ajo 
JL\ either Means op ffifa* { the ,Laltj 

^carrying rqal. Worth , ,\yit;h ^m, are. to 
t>9 erabrac d oa; .their owi>, account ; b^ii; 
the Firft, ^-toving np fvicl\ ;t %cellency f 
are obligatory ^pr the faHe ojf fljp Jaft only ? 
an4: confcquerttly are to be qontinu d pi; 
diang d, as ftryesbeft to promote thqfe En^ 
for which they yere inftitutedv > ; > . ; / 
2. The Ends for the/.feke pf whic|> ajl 
Means are ordain d, are only tvyo. (in effea 
the fame) the Honour of God, and the 

(3 tod of Mankind-? but the Means to Theft Chap. 4? 
are as many and various, as the Circum 
ftances Men are under} and therefore all 
Ecclefiaftical Difcipline, that is, all Things 
relating to the Government and Policy of 
the Church, which all own to be Means 
only, ought not to be continually the fame ? 
but to undergo from time to time fuch Al 
terations as are belt futed to the Ends it 
was inftituted for. And it mull needs fre-? 

3uently happen, efpecially in a Religion 
efign d to laft to the End, as well as to 
reach to the utmoft Bounds of the World, 
that no particular Form of Ecclefiaftical 
Difcipline can be fo proper at all times and 
places as fome other : and then not to al~ 
ter that which is lefs conducive, nay per 
haps prejudicial, is to make Ends give 
place to Means , and confequently the only 
way to prove this or that Form of Eccle* 
fiaftical Difcipline, in this or that Place, 
to be Divine, is to ihew that tis there the 
fitteft for the End it was defign d to pro^ 
< mote. For when any Circumftances hap* 
pen, which caufe Means to lofe the Fitnefs 
they had before, God by caufing thofe Al* 
terations does as much take off their Ob* 
Jigation, as if he had exprefly declar d it $ 
fince Adh do as fully exprefs the Mind as 
Words. And if God himfelf did not 
.command whatfoever thofe Circumftances, 
he has pkc d us. in, require, it wou d be 
impoflible to pfov^ there was any fijch Law 

- ias that of Nature: fince that^confifts in 
! nothing elfe thanafting according to thofe 

Circumftances Men arc in, \yitli relation to 



.! God arid one another; andconfequently/to 
bd unalterably ty d up to any particular 
form of Ecclefiajlical Difcipline, is incon- 
fiftent wit;h the Law of Nature, and the 
infinite Wifdom of God, 1 which requir d 
Means moft adapted to the Ends they are 
defign d to promote. J 

3. The firft Chriftians cou d not be con- 
fm d to any one Form of Difcipline, efpe- 
cially when under Perfecution, becaufe that 
muft have fubjc&ed em to innumerable In 
conveniences. How eafily cou d the Roman 
JLmperors have deflroy d the Church, if 
the Bifhops, for inltance, were only capa 
ble of governing it, by feizing em all at 
once? Or what a Confufion muft it have 
caus d, to have only imprifon d 7 em, or 
the greateft part of em, confidering they 
ftill retain d a Right to that Power they 
were incapacitated from exercifing? In all 
fuch Cafes no Church can be fafe, without 
being at liberty to ad in Things of this 
nature as they fee occafipn. 

4. The Circumftances of a few private 
Chriftians, form d into particular Congre- 
gations, independent of one another, as 
at firft, and thofe of the now National 
Churches, being fo very different, muft rc- 
cjuire a very different Polity. 

, The fame Garment may as well ferve 
Children and Men, as the fame Regimen 
can fit People for all Times and Circum 
ftances. Clothes made of Beafts-skins may 
cow as well be pretended to be of Divine 
Obligation, becaufe God himfelf fo cloth d 
,our Brft Parents, as any particular Difci- 


pline be now binding, becauft Religion was Chap. 4; 
at firft cloth d with it, . , ; . v -- 

5. God, , tho he wou d natfe Gofpcl- 
Churches in all Countrys, yet does not de- 
iign they fhould in the leaft be prejudicial 
to the Civil Polity, which woud be un 
avoidable, if upon fuppofition of a Na 
tional Church, the Form of its Govern 
ment was not to be fitted and accommo 
dated to the Model of the Civil Govern 

6. Moft Nations, as Experience fhows, 
do prefer one fort of Ecclefiaftical Govern- 

x ment before another , and therefore t6 
force em to live under any other, perhaps 
.one they are prejudiced againft, muft be 
contrary to their Spiritual as well as Tem 
poral Intereft, efpecially when it has be- . 
.fore been turn d to the prejudice of Reli 
gion, and to advance the immoderate Power 
of the Clergy. 

Therefore twas in feveral places pru 
dently done of the Reformers, knowing 
how the People were fet againft Bifbops by 
reafon of their Tyranny, to alter the Form 
of Church-Government; .Had they not 
done this, they wou d have given occa- 
Con to the People to think they only found 
fruit with their Bifhops, to get into their 

7. We find that the Chriftians at firft 
comply d with the Model .which obtain d 
among the Jews, in order to bring them 
over to Chnftiapityj and Churches were 

form d, as they who have examin d this 
matter acknowledg, after the m^after of 

Y thc 

the Synagogue^ with no other difference 
than that one Party believ d the Meflks 
already come, and the other expeded his 

8. Kay, for a long time theDifciptes, a* 
their Matter dicUll his Life, ^frequented thfc 
Jewifi Synagogues, which they couM not do 
without fubmittiug to their Government % 
but then defpairing of the Jews^ the Al* 
terations " afterward made m Matters of 
Difcipline, were defignM to bring the Hea 
thens into the Church; and fo were ac 
commodated as much as cou d be to their 
Cuftoms, and the Model of their Civil Po^ 
lity; which fome Men, who frankly own 
this, wou d yet obtrude on us as of an E* 

N ternal Obligation^ And ought not all o*- 
thers to aft after the fame manner, and 
not prejudice any Nation againft theChrif- 
tian Religion, by endeavoring to obtrude 
on them a Church-Government to which 
they are averfe ? Nor can that among 
Chriftians, which is forc d on People, dor 
fo much good, as one they have a Kindnefs 

9. If People , cannot deterrtiine, who 
ftall exercife all Ecclefiaftical Offices, but 
J this by a Divine Right belongs folely to a 
particular Set of Men, and whom they 
adopt into their Body } twould be no left 
than Sacrilege in ojhers to preach the Gofpel 
jto Heathens, or to form em into a Church: 
nay, it wouM be a Sin in Infidels to incou-< 

fuch facrilegious Attempts, by being 
baptiz d by enu 

ioV B/ 

>l fto; ( By; ; tiii> ; toofirlHc 4 btf d a i>driel (if Chap. 
"pay-Chriftians b e caft ,oir ^and, which 
5kil no, OotoMniedtion J/rah "ahy Chrifthh 
^untry ; /t^bu d be. unlawful for eri* not 
Jfcnly to Breach the ;Gofpel to the Infidcl$, 
iAit J to ^torth thejiiBves into a Church ^ 
%edaiife h6rte : arnbttg em hasa RFght pub- 

em has o a Right pub- 
"Jickly tp fay ?rayers, ftr adhiiiiifteV the 
j acrairients, thfe very jAtfttotik . Wing a 
TtofanatiOh J of ihe Holy brcliifaiites,. JSliy, 
J th6 they had Trieits /among, theto, if 6iily 
"B^ihops Cah naake Pricfts, they upon their 
""death hm ft ceafe tobea Church: rior/cciuM 
4 their 1 Childi en be entitl d tb any of the Ad- 
,yantages of Chriftianity; tlio they liv d ever 
J fo| r eligioufly. 

; iii. If it tie granted, that m fuch Cafes 
^JLaymen./iriay/exercife the Ecclefiallkal 
. Fiifidipn, foffumtfotfvf arid Je^efal otlferis, 
c r y/ith f he i\$pr6batioh 6f the Catholick 
1 Church, have done, it proves there s no 
thing in that Fundion, of which* every 
*Chriftian, provided of Abilitys^ is not 
"Capable: fince a mere Negative, theabfenie 
; of Priefts, c-inhot create a new Right. Wit 
, calls People to the Exercifc of a Right which 
1 was in them before. 

; 12. We need not put extraordinary CaJTes,- 

; becaufe if any Set of Eccle fialticks (fuppbfe 

of Bllhops) are neccflary to the Being of 

^a Church, A!! .that arc .Without em niulc be 

uricluirch d. . . . - 

To fay, the Pureft Faith, the Soundeft 

. Doftrine, and the moft Exemplary Life, 

avail not to the health of Mens Souls 

without this or that Set of Ecclefiafticlcs, 


1 1 8 76* f^gkf of t}*t 

is as abfurd, as to fuppofe the moft whole-* 
fom Meat will not nourifh the Body, be-; 
caufe the Cook who drefs d it, was not 
made one with fuch Formal! tys} but that 
for the fake of thefe, another Cook, tho 
he mingles Poifon with the Meat, is to be 
prefer d. And what elfe do they fay, who 
allow the Romifh Church, which in cook 
ing up the Heavenly Food, mingles Poifon 
of her own, to be a true Church ^ and yet 
deny a great part of the ReformM, where 
the Food of Life is to be had pure and un- 
jnixt, to be a Church, becaufe their Spiri 
tual Cooks are not made with fuch or fuch 
Formalitys? But, 

13. As the fole End and Defign of the 
Miniftry is the Propagation of the true 
Faith, and wholefom Doftf ine \ fo where 
thefe are taught and preach d, there ttiult 
be a true Miniftry, and a true Churchy 
\vhich the Food of Life will nourifh, from 
what Hand focvcr it comes. 

As every Church, all implicit Faith be 
ing forbid, muft judg whether their Mi- 
nifters preach agreeably to the Scripture ; 
fo they muft have a Right to conftitute 
fuch for that End, as they judg will do fo, 
tho no Biihop or other Eccleilaftick will 
lay hands on em^ and to remove thofe 
they Judg do not their Duty, tho they had ( 
Hands laid on with all the Formalitys ima 
ginable. And therefore, tho it be cufto- 
mary to admit none to the Miniftry, who 
have not the Approbation of the Cler- 
yet that is only a Truit they receive 
the Church, which flic is bound to 


Church, &c. 119 

freaflum?, when flic, finds they betray theft Chap. 4. 
Truft, and will only ordain Enenlys to the.L/WJ 
Truth^ unlefs;that mult give place to a 
Thing,; which ; pu d be inftituted for no 
other end than the : prefer vat ion of Truths 
And therefore thcfe Priefts who make tho 
Church, to depend on the Miniftry, by 
Chriftianity mean Only Thcmfelves,- and 
their own Power. But if Means muft 
give place to Ends, and Religion and the. 
Gopd of the Church be prefcr d before 
the Power of any Set of Ecclefiafticks. the 
People muft have a Right to make ana un- 
joake Minifters as they judg molt conve 
nient for the End the Miniftry ^ was de- 
Jign d. And if the End ot the Miniftry is 
the Good of the Church or People, that 
necelTarily infers they have a Right to judg 
when they aft for their good; which 
wou d be to no purpofe, if they had not a 
Power, . as in all fuch Cafes, to place or 
difplacc. 5 em, as they judg their own Good 
requires. And nothing can be more incon- 
fiftent with the Good of the Church, than 
to fuppofe their Minifters aft independent 
ly } fmce then they have no hopes of any 
Redrefs, unlefs they, whofe Temporal In-^ 
tereft chiefly confifts in lording and domi 
neering over God s Heritage, will rectify 
the Abufes thev have introduc d into the 
thurch for the fake of their own Advantage* 

14. Nothing can be more evident^ tfcari 

that too many of the Clergy prefer their 

ciwn Temporal Intereft before the Eternal 

<j06d of Men* S6uls i fince when the Dif* 

K pute 

fl$ cfee iftnotftef In thdfe DutyS tneV Chap, 4 
- rj which fcvery 
, i& bbllg d t6 

do : and that fome have more convenience 

6ri the Ptfo jleV al- 
MdiriteMnce 1 Wholly 
M that Erid; Every Chriftiaii is 
rtM^^^uke y tdmotifa exhort 
r $tit kA6&&^anA hothirig can be 
thatt that? thetc negle&ing to do 
W ioTf BrctfhdrV thd a Clergyfnan, if he 
VfclR d diforderl^ -atttt avoiding, if f he wds 
Sot fedaimMjj ^i faf/as conveniently they 
t&W^aft CoriVtt-fe With him, has riot a 
little j ;ddntritutea : td ^he Imm6rality and 
d^ei^ fo cofriftidn among *emy ei]pd-; 
to the Pride and Haaghtine.fs of the 
V Wo 1 WO^d; think thcmfelves af- 
fr6ntedi fliou d tfi^Ldty prefum6 to deal 
thu* vWthMcn 6f tjleif Charader. --And tis 
ia WoriSer th^re hks^^en fuch a N^left iii 

Wcre riiakle Co be 1 -. 
Clefg^ afe; fcrf t of 

thH ma ttcfy-fince People Were makle Co be 1 -, 
lietffc this-bel bng d r; t.o the Clet g^V t& fyztt of 
ihdr Spiritual lufifdidioriv t6 meddle with 
WhicSu they vWef tdld Was no -left thati Si- 
.Wtege, ; : 

.) fcn* Jtf \a V/6rd, 1 tfVery 60e !i bound fo 
iffp aff K^ can for the faviog another s Soul,- 
#rid tHiifrfdit ittbfl: things which the Clef-. 
g^ 1 at^bbligM t6 perform are the Dtfty of 
pet y M^n J ahd ^ho tliere ftiouid bfc fome 
thirigi^^hichy confidering the prcfent 
fci^catriltancesy ctofa d not conveniently be 
feft v iri coirimftn* yet tha;t s for Ofdcr-; 
aWf pnlyv and, not on the account of 
"peculirf Spirit tiat Power or Privileges 


,r, might :broach what Dofitrwe 
^vithout any of the Brethren during to < 
tradfft hirp, the People fcecaraq /negligent 
and ignorant, and the Clergy had it ia 
\ heir Power to impofe what felfifh PQC* 
irines they, pleas cu .whereas if afty;>;of 
? em before, , . had offered ; .1 at an Ihriovati> 
on, h$ wou d haYe, ; becn pppos d by; the 
whoje Congregation v^nd ir he wou d laot 
have ;<}cfifted, they wou d not only have 
lyfth.cjrawn their voluntary Contributions, 
by \vhich he fubfifted> but have ihuri d hini 
as a falfc Tfacber , Seducer and Decpvcr \ 
Vvhicfi inufl: have preferv d Religion, in: its 
prijTiitiye jPurity, the Peoples Temporal as 
^ell as Spiritual Intereft obliging cm to be 
ftri^ .Guardians of it againft all fuch as 
had np >yays of JLording it over God s Her 
fitago^unlefs by pervertihgit. And if notr 
i.i.r.iui.-withft^ildipg all this,; things are foalter d, 
that there are now Tufficient Reafons, as; 
no Clergyman will I fuppofe. deny 1 , to for- 

.-roilpid all e,K<pept , himftlf ; fpeaking }n ; the 
: Churchy how can. he pretend thcre ? s\anjr 

! .ivj ^thing relating to. Eccle.fiafl:icar Difcij^line 
imjp^tabjy fix?> Jinc?; there s nothing more 
pofitiycly ; ,rpquir d, laftd .upon ftronger 

gious A^P)bJy$ from tbe brethren.?! And 
what cflnj ,onq . thiflJt/ of ; thpfe MenV who 
<J^re affirm t That ,tho Brethren are either 
forbid to ipeak i(\ ( the Congregation by 
-the L(ivv orChuft,/or that they. /are riot 
.capable, of it for w^nf of the Gift of -the 
-. : - Jioly Spitit, wbic,h they, alone are, em- 
tf. fl to bqftpw ;-on , thofe they authori 70 


Churcb, & c. 1 .3 y 

to preach? Some fay, that the Laity haveChapn 
power to preach Charitatively, hut not Au ? 
thoritatively : and one wou d think they 
put a great ftrefs on this Diftin&ion, and ; 
therefore feem re&lv d not to preach Cha* 
ritatively, left it look like Lay-Preaching ; 
for which if the Brethren are fufficiently 
authoriz d, tis no great matter if they are 
not qualify d for any Preaching which is 
riot fo.. , , 

M26k The fame Argument may be urg <J 
for .the Laity s .Baptizng^ the Command 
given to the Apoftlcs no more excluding 
? em from that, than from Preaching or Re 
ceiving the Sacrament. But the Apoftles, 
as the Perfons > then alone prefent, and,5 
who alone were either willing, or knew 
how to execute the Commiflion, were bid to \ 
profelyte People, by Teaching, and thea 
Baptizing em : But after they had publift d 
the Glad Tidings of Salvation, , it became 
the- Duty of the -new Converts, according 
to., their Abilitys and Opportunitys, to 
intreafe cthc Number of Chriftians^ and 
tl^erefore, as that very antient Author 
Pfeudo-Ambtofe *.i obferves, all at firfK 
taught and baptiz d. And theCommand ia i )h ^ 
given to tjie Apoftles to Baptize, did not 
oblige *em to do it theihfelves, but only 
to caufe it to be done -, and therefore 
St. Peter does not baptize Cornctin* and his 
Houfliold himfelf, but only commands it 
and which muft be perforra d by fome of 
the Brethren, becaufe the. Text. Cuth 
there were none with him except cer 
tain Brethren. So that here even Lay- 
* K 4 men 

men baptiz d the firft Fruits of the Gen 
tiles, tho the Chief of the Apoftles was 
prefent. And .there were great Nura-i 

z.bert in Samaria , who upon Philip s 
Preaching were baptiz d } which, if done 
by hinij cou d be by no other Right than 
what was common to all Chrift ians, bc- 
caufe no fuch Power was included in his 
CommilTion of looking after the Poor ; 
and twas that alone which diftinguifhM 
him from other Chriftians. And if it 
was done by others, the Converts muft 
baptize one another $ at leaft, the Apo* 
ftles being all at Jerufalemj there, cou d 
be none except Brethren to perform it, 
9.i9.And as it was a Layman who baptiz d 
the Great Apoftle of the Gentiles } fo he 
Cor,i,i7.declares he was not fent by Chrift to baptize 
but to y reach: the meaning of which muft; 
be (his Commiffiori no doubt being the; 
fame with the other Apoftles) That tho 
he was fent to preach the Chriftian Re- 
ligion, and to teach em to make a pub-r 
lick Profeffion of it by Baptifm^ yet he 
was under no Obligation of doing it with 

i.his own Hands, any more than Jojhua^ 
who tho bid to circumcife the Ifraelftes^ 
was not oblig d to perform the Operation, 
himfelf. And in all probability, the fervile 
Office of wufliing the Filth of the FUJh, .was 
left to the Meaneft and Loweft i and there- 

* fore our Saviour baptiz d none himfelf; but 
left it to the Difdples^ as Peter did .the 
Baptizingot Cornelius to the Brethren.: And 
when the 3000 TO re convened and added tq 
the Church the fame day^ the Apoftles ajon. 

cou d 

(Jhriftitn Churc^ &c. 137 

eou f d not baptize in fo ihort a time fo Chap. 4, 
many, confTdcring the way then was goin^^VXJ 
down into the Water with the Petfon to: 
be baptizM,. and wafhing him all over. 
But 1 need not infift on the Power the 
Laity have to baptize from Scripture, fince 
the Clergy have all along allow d the Va 
lidity of the Baptifm not only of Laymen 
who were within the Church, but even 
of Schifmaticks and Hereticks who were 
out of the Church: Nay, they have own d 
that of Boys, thp done in fport and jeft, 
to be good; witnefs the famous Story 
which Sowmcn declares of jAthanafitUj ThatLib.wr.i7, 
when a Boy, and at play with other Lads, 
he baptiz d feveral or his Play-fellows, 
which upon a folemn Debate was efteem d 
valid by the Bifhop of Alexandria and his 
Clergy. And the Papifts themfelves, tho 
they will not allow the other Sacrament 
can be validly performed by any befides a 
Prieft ; yet they own that the Baptizing 
by Women is valid. So that the Altera 
tion from the primitive Pra&ice of every 
one s baptizing, can only be on the pre-< 
tence of Order. And if every Chriftian 
is. capable of performing the Snbftantials 
of Religion, which confift in offering up 
Prayers and Praifes to God, and receiving 
both the Sacranients ; tis abfurd to imagine 
he is not capable of fuch Circumftances, as 
Pi-aying aloud, ; diftributing the Bread and 
Wine (of which I have already fpokcn) or 
according to the prefent Mode, of fprink- 
ling an Infant,i and .repeating a fetFormof 

* * i * i 

air If 


If it be a foolifh and wicked Ob 
ix"W ftiriacy to i occafion the Deftruftion of 
the Church for the fake of the Power of 
any peculiar Perfons, which can be of no 
value or ufe, unlefs as tis for the Service 
of the Church v no Set of Eccledafticks 
can have an Independent Power by Divine 
Right-, becaufe it they had, Menwta mufl 
not: Jo Evil th*t Good may come of it r wou d 
be bound to adhere to them, tho it be in 
fuch Circumftances that the inevitable Ruin 
pf the Church wou d attend it. -1 1 

,22. No wife Man can doubt, that the 
s.o.uiiJChriftians in the Mahometan Empire have 
all along a&cd very difcreetly in fubmitting, 
upon being allow d Liberty of Religion; 
to the Government s putting in and turn*- 
ing out their Bifhops;^ fmce fliou d they 
have done otherwife, in -all probability 
they wou d have provok d the Infidels to 

deftroy the Church (as they have aftually 
done in their African Terr itorys) within 
their Dominions : To this the Good of thfc 
Church, and not any Power the Infidels 
have in thcfe- Matters,- obliges them -to 
fobmit. So the Reform d in France did - 
very well in acquiefcing in a Presbyterian 
]<orm of Church-Government, what Kind- 
ncfs foevcr they might h&ve for Biihops^ 
if upon thofe Terms only* as fome fay, 
they were to be allow d a Toleration. 

2-3 Tis no wonder, that all things re* 
latiug to Church-Difcipline are to be aU 
ter d according to Circumftances^ fince 
ihofc fomccimes take off" all Obligation to 
Church-Communion; as fuppofe one in a 
T ]I "- Country, 


Country,. where theteVao phrytiaiu by Chap, 4; 
reading the Bible: ? or ptberwife convinced t^VV 
of the Truth of Chriftianity i ia ,that -Qjfe M r,v: 
he U not bound by the Uwa;of,<Jhnft, 
\yhicki make no v Alteration in; j Ws : Qvft 
State* to leaVe r his prienda, \ReUtiops ajj4 
Country, in order to be teptiz ci and joiri 
himfelfto any, Church-,, and <;pnfequently 
he may be a good Chriftiarif without beri 
ing a Churchman. And confid^rlpg wh^t 
is generally )nieant by that Word, a Good 
Cfoiftian and; a Good Clwrchm<m:?$e, I an^ 
afraid,, very inconfiftenft. ISay^ fuch may 
a Man s Circumftances be, $s to : be bound to 
leave all Church-Communion-, r as au Em* 
balTadpr from an Infidel, who, during hi$ 
^mbaJTy becomes; a Chriftian, i^oblig dtQ 
retuf n, and remain at home, if the Service of 
his Country requires it, tho he cannot there 
have any Church-Communion. The rfV 
*M* Eunuch no doubt was a good Chrif-r 
tian, tho he return d to his own Country, 
where thprp was no Church or Chriftiaa 
bcfides himfelf, even before he had corar 
municated \vith any Church whatever. 
. And,- - -.; j* ; , m . 

24! There are other .Rqafons why 9 
Man may be of ifo Church \ as if that where 
lie lives lmpofes r the Profcflion of fuch 
Opinions, as neccflary to Communion, 
which he in Confcience cannot confent to; 
which, confidering the impofing Temper 
bf Churches, muft needs frequently happen 
to ; a thinking Perfon. In this cafe, as he 
is f bound not to communicate with, that 
Church \ " fo hev is not oblig 4 to forfake, 
v " ; r i his 

ljpflPMi Country t6 join with another, a^tf*? 
**tifc- * $ives tWtfi athcf Reafohs: for : abftairiingr 

An flc frdm CommimiOiiV^i,v : 7r!3 -}o r ; r;rrT aril io 
^rft, when ic nia Je a Tcft and a Martf 
if ESftinaion fora Party r-and a Faftioriv 

per Sym- and we are by ,it to fignify, .that we rejcft- 
^nd difpwn other good Chriftians, who a*"- 
gree with us in the Fundamentals of<:Rc-I 
ligion, arid live as pioufly as our felves;! 
Whkh fuppofes -that the . Famous \ Grotfysi 
was not , only- for OccafionaL;Gbtmnunipni 
himfelf,- but thought nbne wcrtto be cpni^ 
^lunicated with, who did not approv,e that, 
charitable Principle. a dliW.MiJ ^rirj M R 
- Secondly, when a Perfon-by )nbt cotrin 
ipunicating, where there are: Pattys, withf 
either fide,- may be inj.a ; better ! Capatitji 
to exercife his Charity towards all. c ;,Thisr 
he makes to be the Reafom whyiSt.^Cfcry^ 
foftom for fevcrai years, refusal to commurj 
nicate with the Partys, where he livM~y 
whofe Examplej he fays, , was afterwards 
fpllow d by great; numbers in Egyjt .and thQ 
Baft.* "> i: " ;:,v> f ]/J.u;i I f^biijJ 

. .-25.- So that; it is the ; greater Good 
which is to determine Men in this Ppint^ 
and the Generality may fafer venture to. go 
to Pefthoufes th^n to fuch Churches, . whcr^ 
Charity, Moderation, and other Chriltiart 
Virtues, fo neceflary to our future as well 
AS prefent Happinefs, areprcach d ^gainffc^ 
an^Men are taught, on pretence of Zeal 
to Rcligibn, .-to extirpate natural Pity,, and 
to hate .aud !.ruokft innocent .Pcrfpns/fpr 
nnavoidable differences of; Opinion, . Cf <ji> 
thoi.thofu Diifcreacej are r \ jfo :j e, 

, :Pqorfc v ;J\ave ft , foft Chap. 4 ; 


a elfe, thafy^o r ha^e r withr 
their !-J?arfons i rail at., r But.^npt ;.>, di- 

J7 ? . . .., T ^.U TTT f 7,l(; , "> /O ,JJJ.1 ilj 

" eft! - - 

Jf orms 
tng to n 
t llo^; jby, 
which : ^r^ipnly Meaiistd 
of a r njiitaWe.pat.ure, van4 t to. 
by. the Partiys cojicqrn d; jas 

once grafitQ<l,- ( w5 


p^ Forms, Methods, *> and 
cj of adm^niftring Juftlce^. or any o,tlier 
l^ffairij/And, were the^ ; Clergy, .IjiKe 
jf^fjiv ,^>f othprJPrbfeflions, Content to claini 
no , Jljght , to , their Employs, or to any 
Privileges, \ .not in common with 
Chriftians/^fidjes what they .deriv d from 
Human Content;} not only fr thpfe ihame^ 
fqt jQuarrels .which 1 divide ^he/Proteftant^ 
jibiQut, the Divipe: ;Right of ttic . Epifco pa- 
rian;,, : Presbyterian, jlndependerit Forms 6^ 
Ghiych^Government, rWOu d ,fall tp " the. 
ground, !but .the, Pope s Supremacy, , a;n4 
the whole, Pneftcraft of, the Romifli r as: 
3^11,3$ of a)^ other: Churjthqs, jnuft ineyi-, 
tably Hale. . .f/Ai this- WpwMj , prevent- all 
(Sqhifm on tlif , account of* Ivcclefiaftical 
pjf^ipHne, . fo" did not Priefts/fet them* 
ielves rnith^place^of God^and impiouflyi > 

r : : f f&mre a Jiivl^e Faith [ to be feiv^n ib tWlt 
" duoious Inferences and "iiiidertain ; G6fttlti- 
liottsj and as filch impofe em on the Pdlfc 
as neceflarfTferrtis of Comniunioh, inftfeid 
of letting every one, as the LaW of Odd 
requires, judg for lumfelf , there couM bt 
noHerefy on the account bf Ojpinipni nor 
room for any UnchariWblenefs, Hatf&f, 
ot Perfecutipn ; but the Chriftian Religltui 
tfou d, as it was defigfl d, render all its 
Vttarys wonderfully happy? Theti , JJ &hA 
l^Ot till then, Will the Ctmttdtiniofl of S/ittfr 
be praftiwblc : , ^to which; thd Principle^ 6P 
all Partys^ tht Occafional G>nformJft^ r ddly 
^c<5pted, v ther they all make it ah AtUtJi 
bftheir C^ecd, ftand in dlt^eflt oppohtftiiii 11 
. 17. That which is fo much for the O6b.d 
if the Church, the only 1 Reafon of r djl 
Church-Polity, cannot be ^ntrary to tHe 
Will of God, Who ha* bblig d Manfeirld bj 
the Law of Nature to aft accbrdingto dif* 
cretiou in. all things which ai^e only Mtai$J 
And catt it be prefunl d, That GcW b^^ 
^ame fuch ail Enemy ta the Chtlffiiari 
Church, ai to 1 occafiort, ; by depriviiig ; etA 
of their JSJatiiM Liber ty, Jl fo great a Trii ii 
of- Mifchiefsf ; No, this cannot be- fiid . 
6f aii j4M-wd" and an *j4lt-Tbifc . Bciii^i- 
^nd confequektly thcfe oWe their ^i- 
ginal to the Ambition of r fuch Men^ 
tyhom nbthirlg* wou d fatisfy befides r gb- 
yetning the People arbitrarily and uncon^ 
( trolably, and 1 who have made no .betfe^ 
, wife. of their P6wer than to enflave all iyhty 
" ,to it, and to render thotefrll(e- 
*^* A nototfrfiti And, 1 J - i:i 

28,- They 

v 2%. They fo ntenag d the Credulty dtidChap.4; 
Simplicity of, the poor Laity, as to make^ 
em fight their Battels, and rob and de^ 
ftroy one another, upon this Tingle QueiV 
tioti, Whether; they fhou d be SlaVes* (the. 
neceflfary Coiifequeace of a Divine unalte 
rable Power) tio : this or that Set ttf Eccte- 
fiaftick*. V 

~ How, fbrlnftanct, 1 has bur unhappy, ^. 
tajid or late Years been . harafs d upon a 
Point of no greater importaiKe, than, 
Whether the fame . Ecclefiaftical. Power 
fhoaM be itt the hands of a fmgle Perfon% 
or - .bf fevcraiyin a Biihop, or A Bench of 
Presbyters? i<3ood God! with what XJn-- 
charitableneft, Malice, Fury and Rage^ 
did the People,, at the Inftigation of ,tha 
Priefts, treat- oric another! From Pe.tfe- 
cuting they : felV to 1 Civil Wafs; and then ,t<)j 
Eerfecutions again, .which mult have ,dcw 
ftl-oyM the .very Church they quarrdM a- 
bout, had not our Legiflators, then fuf-^ 
fidently fenfible of the Folly of being in- 
fiuencM by a Pdck of defigning/elf-inte- 
rclted Men, , put a flop to thefe unchriftian 
Pradkes, by a Law, worth all that the, 
Revolution, as dear as it has been bought^ 
h as, .colt the Nation: and fince that time 
the People , notwithftanding , their going 
to ! different 1 Churches on Sundays, have 
treated ono another like Brethren all the > 
Week after-,; tho the HighHiers, who think, 
themfclves ih ; a 3tate of Perfecution, while 
tiiey are ty d lip from perfecudng others^, 
have ever ftncethe Dedth of the lat 

affifted by the profefs d Jacobites and Pa- 


M4 , 

pifts, done their utmoft to difturb the grow- 
/7^ l ; ; fng Quiet of the Nation, and toilet all things 
. in confufion, in hopes ^or breaking in ori the 
Sacred Aft of Toleration. . ., . 

.,-29 Which is not fb much to be wonder d 
at, fi nee the Generality of the Ecclefiafticks 
in* moft Places, by the Church feem to mean 
only Themfelves, and by Religion only their 
own Power and Dominion; and look on e- 
very thing elfe as of a mutable nature, either 
Good or Bad, as it makes for or againft this" 

\ The Caufe of the Church, taking it in this 
fenfe, fhall fan&ify all manner of Calumnys, 
Lyes and Frauds, as well as all oppreffive and 
violent Methods. 

To this the Peace, Quiet and Welfare of 
their Country mall be facrific d : For this 
Charity, Benevolence, Moderation, Mutual 
Forbearance, and all other Chriftian Virtues 
Hull be ridicul d, and their Contrarys cry\T 
up as the only Virtues : For this the Chriftian ; 
World has in a manner been perpetually en- 
gag d in Wars, ever fmce it had the Power, 
of the Sword. 

30. Twas by thefe Methods that fopery, 
which is High-Church with a vengeance, 
fo far prevail d as to fwallowup all Reli 
gion j and twas the Bufmefs of the Re 
formation to refcue Religion from the; 
all-devouring Jaws of that High-Church. \ 
Our firft Reformers were as Low ^ fof 
Church, as they*were High fof Religion i 
And as they own d all for their Brethren^ , 
who feparated from the Errors of Popery, : 
how much foeVer they differed from *em ; 


&" . I rcL 

T ~T t 

EccleGaftical Qovern-Chap. 4 
Bient ; fofthey did what was poffible to rpqt 
6ut,ali.paim in the, Clergy to an Indepen* 
dent power. ,",And tis the Laws made to 
this end, y/hicti the Highfliers now rail at 
as deftruclive of the Rights of the Church; 
nd treat not only the,pre{ent :Sifh6ps, but 
Archbifhop Cr^nmer^ and the reft of the 
ReforBicrs, with as much Bitternefs as th 
Jefuits thVtfifeives flo* But, t 
^ ? Tis no wonder, the Highfliers treat *erii 
To, fince in all their Notions concerning the 
fov/er of ; the Clergy, ;, they are .too High 
fof. the Reformation^ as they are too JLovr 
in Matters of Morality : tho. ioind fay,; 
that tlicir Lives .liiigtit ferve for a very 
good Rule, if Men >ou d ak quite con- 
trary to them; for then there s no 

tian ; Virtue wliich they couM fail, of 6b!-" 
fervingj- , . ; .7.. ., . ; . ,, . , 

3^ 4na feere I inaft take notice, thai 
never did any Men ; more grofly and noto^ 
rioufly fcpiifice the Eiids^dt feoth Givjl ana 
EcclefiaMcal Governriien^ to very IJ^nfif , or 
rather No Means, than thofc Prbteflants 
who were in the Intereft of the Abdicated 
King; and arc npw in, that 6f his Pfer 
terif&d $Pfi, hiirsM up in Popery, Jrtncti 
Tyranny, and a fettled IJatred to the* 
Ewljjh Katioii; and .wnofe Goofing .inf. 
(which Cod, avert) as it muli be attendee! 
yrith a Givit .War, fo it wi}l 
introduce both Popery dnd Slavery; . ^ 
!. It fhows t6 what a degree of Foil/ 
Madnefs liien nurs d in Bigotry art t o 
they flialt not only fcjoictf 


PcdpleV ifpe ti^lf t hofe Who ftcuAt 
Crown, fo inhumajily.? A thfa%cy Wei 
#ortli! the* Tforys CoiifidQralibiii .. 

iis 1 Conclude Slight! .tb ! bef lefe Won- 

Ciidrbh-nian : ( and .therefore rlonc ;pf 
cWd be brought to ; . ackhowled^ it lawful 
upon l atiy account tytti^tdrcr tp eMud^ 1 th d 
Dukfe ,t)f r^Jt front tfe Sut ceffiori; ; I3ut 

Ecclcfiaftical Polity* . Uiifl the Ntt$fity of fttf 
Coitimutiitys having^a , Right to. vaty; sthd v . 
iitct it 1 as tficy fee pCcafiori f : are. as tfla^J / 
riy, as the CirciriiiitknceSj Conditions^ lit-.; ,^\ 
clidation^, Tempers : and Prejudices: of VA ^ 
Mankind , are ta ribuV. And 1 all thingi ? ^ 
tvliich are ority AlenAs tci an End; are tot 
be dealt with as the Bf^en Sefpent jtfhongj 
the Jfftdltcs ^ .which when of tife tcr 
cure Diftertipei^s, 1 vtas ! )uftly rfcVereiic d bV 
ihem , bitt \vhert It prov d the otoflon of . 
Sutierflition,. the good Ufe it had before^ 
. hindet d it not ^ from being ftairip d td 

If a I hyficiail v;me Ms Medicines^ a? 
*+ $rid& the Conftitutiori of hii Patient aP 
i, why ihuft not the fame be obferv c! 
f elation to the Mind; and the Body 


The ^jgbtsof the ] 

Politick, whether Ecclefiaftical or Civil* 
..... dealt with after the fame manlier as the 
v Body Katural. 

35. We find all wife Legiflators, in the 
framing of their Laws, have had fpecial 
regard to the Tempers, Inclinations, and 
Prejudices, as well as to the Circumftances 
under which their Subjefts lay } and from 
time to time made fuch Alterations relating 
to the Polity of the Church and State, as 
the Pofture of Affairs requirM. 

So our late Pious King, at the Requelt 
of his Subie&s in Scotland, reftortt Pref- 
bytery, tne Perfecution which the Epif- 
cpparians had been guilty of, at the iinftiga- 
tion of the Papifts, having given th? Peo 
ple a general Diflatisfa&ion. And our 
moft Gracious Queen promifes to maintain 
the Presbyterian Discipline in ScotUnd, 
not that fhe thinks Epifcopacy, as the Law 
i<L imf made by her Grandfather for abolifhing it 
i :larcn- in that Kingdom declares, RcpurnAnt to tht 
"Word of God ; but ads herein upon ^thc 
fame Motive as the late King of Glorious 
Memory. And we can t enough admire 
244. her Majefty s great Wifdom, who confiders 
Difcipline as made for the Church, and not 
the Church for That ^ and therefore is not 
for forcing any particular Form on the 
Churches within her Dominions, difa- 
greeable to them ; but as fhe is for main 
taining Epifcopacy in England^ yet al 
lowing a Toleration to fuch as cant com 
ply with it, fo fhe is for Presbytery in 
Scotland. Her Majefty s a&ing after this 
moft prudent manner, being fo much for the 


, Qnftun Cl^d, Sect 

- general : Good of her Subjefts, they can t Chap. 4; 

too gratefully acknowledg it; efpedally * 

4 cpnfidering not only how much thefe Na 
tions have fuffer d by a contrary Method, 
but how impoflible it -is, that duringfo ex- 

"penfive a War they othefwife couM fubfift; 

- and that the only way to keep the Ecclefia- 
flicks, of any fort whatever, within tole 
rable Bounds, is to have em thus on their 
Good Behaviour. But, 

* 36. I need not infill on the Conduit even 
of the wifeft of human Governors*, fincc 

[ God himfelf, when he condefcended to ad 
as King of the Jms y had in enacting their 
Laws, e fpecially the Ecclefiaftical, great 
"regard not only to the Circumftances the 
Jews were in with relation to other Nati- 
ons, but to their own unaccountabe Preju 
dices, grofs Ignorance, profound Stupidity, 
and Hardnefs of Heart. , . 

37- Since Infinite Wifdom can t but 
-contrive the beft, the Jcwfi Laws, how 
.odd foever they may fecm at this diftance f 
.were no doubt the beft for the^n* when 
they were fram d, as moft adapted to 
.their Circumftances. What Solon faith qf 
the Athenian Laws* That tho they were 
not abfolutely thejBeft, yet they were the 
-Beft that People couM bear, may be very 
well apply d to the Laws given to the Jens ; 
fincc it can t be fuppos d, that a^ any time 
they were the beft for otber ISJations, or 
for thejfw/ themfelvesin all Circumftan* 
ccs: for then Peter wou d not have callM 
them, A Toke which neither we nor cur F*- 
cou 4 tw. And were it not for 
L 3 this 

that Law by #fffa and the tfalnuft 
d be ptterly inconfiftent ,with what js 
laid of it by the Prpphets and in the Ncyv 
;7eftament. And. >; .,-,, r i ; 

38. If among the Jws there was. a frc* 
!quent Keoeffity of Change, and God as 
.their King, to whom they might on .oc- 
cafion appeal ? not only direfted cm ,what 
to do in doubtful Cafes, but when any 
,J-aw by alteration of (Jircumftan^e? hap- 
pen be inconvenient, difpens d wit^i 
.the Observation of it, in preferring Mercy 
before Sacrifice j anfl yet their Body pf 
laws became an intolqrable Burden^ pr in 
iiefcto. ^ e ^ r P^ et?s words, .X^ITJ that ,wre n& 
Jpoojj ^nd Judgments by which they w& t*t 
Jivcy infomucrt that God thought it nq-* 
ceflary, for the Good of that People 
wholly to abrogate em, even tho he had 
d^cla^ d piqre tnan once they fhou d laft 
/or -ever; I may add v that had <3od aited 
as King of any Bother Nation^ their fLaws, 
Whether- relating : to Ecclefiafticals or Civils, 
wou d have as much d^iffer d frpjn thefe of 
-the Jws as their ,Circumftances.$ and that 
they wou d have been alter d by him from 
.time to .titne as ttieir Condition,. required, 
v^s tis pr^ftis d.j ifi^^ll o,t^r -Govern- 
jnen,t;s, .Theft things,, I fay, ; plainly fhow, 
"Th^t where Gpd aty ,pot ;as 4 ,a , Political 
jprince la. makii|g Alterations .fropbtiiqe ? to 


.) for Edification,. ) 
,, &;c. t an<jl -that Men are ,^tO, alter ^/V> 
ry; all JMea ps r 35 ^ems.beft, t:o .that 
Difcmion God has, given them for ith^ 
End ^ and .that this ^muft be neceflarily 
fo, where a Religion is not only to 
the Ervl of the World, but in time to 
extend to all the Nations . of it> ., Aqd 
considering how widely different Nations 
are iq. all Circumftapces and Refpe<3:s, there 
can be no particular Form of Church-Polity 
whiclv rnpft not fb^ew^ere o^ other ; be 
prejudicial to the End it was inftjtuted 
for* \ , , 

59. , Ope grand Caufe of Miftaie in this 
Matter is, npt confidering when God aft? 
as Governor of the Univerfe, an4 when a^s 
Prince <of a particular Ration. The Jervs 9 
when they came put of the Land of jBp n- 
dage^, w^re lender no fettled Government, 
till God, was ple^s d to. offer hinifelf to ty 
their Ring, to y/hich all the People ex- Exod.ij 
prefly <;pji(ented ; and upon the Covenant ? 
being ratify d after the moft folemn man-Dcuc.j. 
|ier which cou d be, God gave em thofe 
J^avys which bound np Nation except thofe 
that had agreed to the Horeb Contraft/ JBut 
were thefe that are now Chriftians,| withf 
out any Government upon Chrifl s coming 
into the World? Or did God by Chrilt 
make any fuch , Contraft as that of Horeb 
with them? OrdidChri(t aft, like Mofes^ 
as God s Viceroy? No, he came as a pri 
vate Perfon, whoft %ingdom is not of this 
World) to N give not one Nation o/ily, but all 
^Mankind, Precept? relating to oi^r Duty 
L 4 to 

to one another as well as to God, w!thou 
depriving any of the Right they were in* 
vefted with: and cpnfequently in \Mofe 
hands the determining of Civil or Eccle- 
fiaftical Matters were before his Coming, in 
thofe 1 he left them. And, 

46. All we are to learn from theDifci- 
pline of the Primitive ChriftianS, or the 
Directions they receiv d from infpir d Per- 
fons, is not that we are oblig d to obferve 
the fame, but that like them we aft agree* 
ably to the Cireumftances we are in. Twas 
this Confideration which quickly caus d 
{he Apoftolick Command or Saluting mth 
* HolyKifs) to be laid afide} and the fame 
Reafon abrogated the whole Order of 
Deaconefles, and imployM Deacons to o- 
ther JPurpofes than lerving of Tables, the 
brily Reafon of their Inftitution. So that 
Deaconfhip, when it was no longer im^ 
ploy d in looking after the Poor, became 
^ new Office under ah old Name: andEpifr 
cppacy it felf, as diftinft from, and fupe* 
rior to Presbytery, mult likewife be reci 
kon d a new Office } fince Presbyter and 
$ipjop in the Mew Teftanient are always 
6s d fynonymoufly : there being no Elec 
tion or Ordination, Charafter, or any 
thing elfe to diftingiiifh em ^ but the Office 
of both is piarfe to confift in doing the 
fame things. 1 " So that all the Skill of the 
Prelatifts is not able to difcoyer the leaft 
diftinftion ; and tis impoffible tHe Apoftles 
Jhou d conftitute diftinft Offices, and yet 
fa where diftinguiih ? em, but on the 
-every where represent em 

(Jbriftiah Churc^ Sec. 1 5 f 

as if it were oh purpofe to confound thofe Chap. 4? 
Funftions in the Church, the diftinguifh* 
ing of which is generally fujjpos d eflenti^l 
to its Being. How unlike is this to the 
Cafe of the -Tewiih economy, where even 
the minuted Matters are defcrib d with the 
.niceft Exaftnefs? 

41, If Things which are not of a Moral 
Nature, oblige us now by virtue of the 
Commands given to the nrft Chriftians, 
why are not the Ski anointed with Oil? and 
why do not Men abftain from Blood and 
Thing* fir angled, forbid with the grcateft 
Solemnity imaginable? What can be more 
ftriftly required than to wafli one another s 
Feet? one of thelaft Commands of our dy 
ing Lord; which the more to enforce, he 
not only lets his Difciples a Precedent, but 
declares that He who is not rbaflfd \i*s no 
in him. 

* 42. If there are feveral Things not ob 
ligatory to r iis now, tho injoin d the fir (I 
Chriftians even in the fame Precept with 
thofe which are, as Oil with Prayers, Blood 
and Things ftrangted with Fornication } 
what other way can we diftinguifh em, 
than that Moral things being on their own 
Account eternally obligatory, " muft bind us 
as well as them^ but that other Things, 
which by reafon of their Circumftances ob* 
lig d them, do not bind us? For whatever 
obliges all Mankind, and at all Times, 
mult be declared to do fo, either by Reafon 
or Scripture. Now it cannot be pretended 
that by Reafon any but Moral Things are 
obligatpry, under which I reckon thoie gene-. 



j. . ]f rfD-ftlrfMtefr -Tdating to -Ec$? Gaftiqa) Poljty^ 
x v-\ gfafm tQ ;no -pwrpofe, if the, Party $ ^0,11- 
1 jgrji d, jhftd not ;a-ppiyer^to: apply/ em a> 
$hey. faw.oecafion; Kor can it-he faiditfvrt 
y/ Scriptur^y , rThings .which; are , not -of a 
-Mpral mature bifid, all Mankind in all Ages-, 
becaufe, there are no Texts relating to ern^ 
fp vaQnfive* as to reach future Generations : 
and if things by being barely, enjoin d the 
^irft Difciples, afTefted Pofterity, iall things 
requir d Of em equally wouU- : And fincje 
it r.muft. happen ,-that particular Praftices 
will be inconfiftent with 1 .general Rule?, 
there s a neceflity that on muft give plac^ 
,to the other y.and which Ihou d^ I need not 

! 43. The Clergy pretend it ,was necefTarjr 

&>t the Being of the Church, *iiat the A- 

i .fo\ ^ppftles Jhou d have,a Right to govern thofc 

"they converted, antecedent to their ,<Jojv- 

jyerfion ; and tha,t for the, continuance of .the 

.-Churqh,- they Wojre to convey this. Power. tp 

/c.thprs, and they again, On to 

Ithe World. But, 

* This is moft certain, that where 
^Squires Things to be do^e, and appoints 
,jipt any certain Perfons to do em, or 
.orders who ftall, of common .Right it 
^belongs to the Partys cpncern d to deterr 
JTUme amp^g thejnielves who fhall have.the 
dping^fr cmi and therefore the Apoftles 
^having a Divide Commiffion to convert 
to Chriftiai^ity, did not hinder their 

(Converts from having a Right to order all 
.Things, which requif cl.a fpccial Determi- 
- cation^ accpidicgjto tliofe Rules they taught 
til em. 

SO Ahlt 
at; ^Bt 

nd?y r et no; Perfori$>have any 
, Accept wbafcotoas derived from.tbe P 

pie. i ,>-. :( i>. : .:.r InA - : * 

/ 44. If ouc -might teach M^n -to form 
^exmfclves into ja iCivil Society, without 
thereby acquiring a Right to (govern , coi^ 
tho ;he aded by a Divine ; Gomminion> 
there can be no pretence, why it might not 
be , the ianic: in relation to forming Mea 
into an Ecclefiaftical Society. And the 
Apoftles requiring People to obferve cer 
tain Rules in their A/Tembling .to worfhip 
God, and to have, Minifters fo and fo qul^ 
lify d, neceflarily fuppofes the Power re^ 
lating to thefe Things to bq fofidamcntally 
lodg d in the People; other wife they may 
cither be.oblig d to be without any Worr 
fhipi .or go contrary to thefe Rules, .and 
fubmit to Minifters who have npt the ApoC- 
folick Qualifications, as they do v at prefenf 
in almoft all places where the Priefts .aft 
independently. 1 Shou d any Milfionarys 

now^a-days convert Rations of Infidels, 
tho that wou d not give ?em $ Right -to 
govern ?emV yet their Converts wou d ho 
doubt be willing to be direfted by em ia 

. ^the . management of .their Ecclefiaftical 
Concerns, as thqfe the Apoftles converted 
were by .them \ who having the Power of 
-difcerhing Spirits, and bellowing, extraor^ 
Binary Qiialifications for^the difcharge of 
*hev Minifterijil iFun&ion, were in duty 
hound to r<x:oniniend Minifters, and thd 
40 Deceive em, ijot for 0ny> 
v Domi- 

Dominion or Power the Apoftles had over 
cm, but for the Good of their Souls; a* 
for the Good of their Bodys, they are to 
fubmit to the Prefcription of able Phyfi- 
cians. And had any now-a-days the Power 
of bellowing extraordinary Qualifications 
for the difcharge of the Civil Miniftry, 
the State no douot wouM be bound for- its 
own Good to imploy fuch as had thofe 
Qualifications given *em; and yet that 
wou d not hinder but the whole Power 
wou d be ftill in the Sta^e. 

45. Tis not therefore enough for thofe 
who affirm the People are diverted of the 
Power of managing their Ecclefialtical 
Concerns, according to the general , Rules 
of the Gofpel, to (now that the Govern 
ment they contend for was of the Apof- 
tolick Age, or that there are Commands of 
fubmitting to it, for fo there are to the 
Roman Emperors. No, they ought to 
produce fome pofitive Depriving Law, 
reaching to all Chriftians in all Ages, as 
plain and exprefs as the Law of Nature 
which gives the People this Right } and it 
ought as plainly to appear in what Set of 
Men this Power is immutably inverted. 

4<*. Whofoever without prejudice looks 
into the New Teftament, will be fo far 
from finding any fuch Law, that he mufl 
perceive, especially by the General Epi- 
ftles, that as each Church was without any 
Subordination or Dependence on any o- 
ther, fo all things relating to Decency, Or 
der, Peace, Edification, the Supprcffiou 


Qtriftian . Church^ < &cl JL 57 

of Scripture^Schifms, or .any other point Chap. 4; 

,Q Difcipline, belonged to, the People, or^^^^rx^, 

in, other words the Brethren, the Faithful, 

the Beloved of God, the Elett, the Saints, 

to whom thefe Epiftles were ( addrefsM. 

As God u to jitdg thofe without, fo they *r*,iCor. $. 

to judg thofe within* or ..their own Mem- 12, 13. 

bers. Tis they, as the. Apoftle tells the! 

eople of Corinth* who.*r* to purge the oldVcr.j. 

Leven, and to pj/r away the wicked Perfon?. *3 

and therefore, he blames em for not cenfur* , 

ing, when they were gathered together, the ,\ct. 4,5. 

incefluous Corinthian-, which Cenfure of 

theirs he afterwards calls the PvviJljrnent*Cot,2.6 f 

, inflifted / the Many. * And as the Brethren, 
tne Spiritual Brethren, arc to reftore one Gal. 6. i; 
taken in a Faulty fo they are to warn tk 
Vnruly, and to fee that none, render Evil ft 
Evil, and to mark thofe who caufe Ojfcnce*, 
and avoid them , and not to keep Company ^ 

% with a Brother that s covetow, or a Drvn* 
hard, Railer, Fornicator, &c. And Cle* 
mens Romanw, whom I mention with the| , : i-. A 
Apoftles, becaufe he was, as (*) Bifhopj 
Fell, one of the Editors of his Epiltle tp ., , ,- A 
t\[Corinthiansj fays, an Author anti enter than 
fome of the Writing* even of the New Teftament, 
and read with cm publickly in the Churches, * rJ ,! 

being by moft efieenfd as a Pcrfon infpir*d by 

God* He, I fay, calls the Cenfures of 
- Church^ Things commanded by the People. Co * m ** 1 


faj Author novi Tcftamcnti ipfius fcriptis nonnul- r , .-, * 
Its antiquiorj 6c ia Ecclcfiis una cum ipfis publicc Ice- r > , , o 
w? f 8f, tan^uam fofanw * plcrifquc habitui, , 

I And 

who fb faj- afk&ed Pre-eminenc^ 
. s to.*pi-efump r l by his 1 finale Authority to 1 
Chfow MeA out 6F the Church : and it wou rf 
bt tranfct^biiig> .great part of the? Epi 
.?**O fb fhow h6w all .things relating 

to Edifice 
* 1 fi6b , P&&J 6rd&r, Decency,, are refef d t6 

the People; A Aiid tho the Epiftle to the 

Tmean in dud order after tJi^Pe6pie ? vfe. ta 
ffiSatit^diWtfoft B$*$ and Peaces] ^et 
there ? s nothing .in partidilaf addrefs d t6 v 
Them, but theri W well aV^Vefy \vh^ cDS* 
-at is to the Body of the-^opl e. Anct;^ 
ti^ plain; by the General fi^iftics^ that alf 
1 b I T Li C^rch-Pdwcr was in the Peopley fo we find 
" IVT^r^for^thefe were Written, exerciling 
; \ f no>ithiSs Powet;: for they voted^ fiot only in th^ 
$riEleftioh ofp6acons, but ^yt^ itfthe making 
^i Apoftk, they firft appointed out of theh? 
Namber two as Candidates for the Apoflle-* 
fhip ; ^ and then, accordirig tb thejewilh Cilf- 
i. 22. tort, detertnin^d thd Perfo4 by giving forth 
their Lots 1 . So it was they who fent forth 
u. RArnabAS) and they appointed Companions an 
iWiftann for the Apoftle pjut in his Travels v 
tior. 8. Whom he terms the Avoftles of the Churches 

: tiling 

r/ ry : and therefore tho the Apoftles, as chief 
Directors, are faid to ordain ? yet it was, a$ 
E (had their Cotemporary Clemens fymarJtu afluresf 
P5)7 U^ with tbc.Corifent of the whole Church y or as 
the old Translation juftly renders the Text^ 
t : v by 

tirual Hvay ; 6i exprWIihg ^r\C^^t^A^ 
ni e ;: fanioja s .CouhcU of Jcwfatemi iht\tt)fe- ? . 
Sfeti w^ ^oticernM as well as, the Apoilles A&iV 
icl Elder^ ? ;afrd c the Letters VV&& Written in J3; 
v&f iartie; of . thfefS rtrf ee Onjer^and as tb 
iii^the )th\irchV which in 3fctif)tWe.alw^y^ 
JTgdliies^th^iPeople, that oat Si vioiir place? Mat. 18.17, 

th^l^iyes.^thjirtk jt:. their Duty to ^ . 
^i^account o^ thei^ to therii , as fft<r Afa 11.4; 

did in y ,the Cafd of Cornell^ /Ahd, 

? ;4r The A^ftl^, as a^p ^s by^tfieii;, , RM 
C^ilirfiiftioii^ ^hadl l-iio Power ^befides ^wfiat - *^ 
\fraV ^ niira cuto vi^J except to dbclar^- his- 

_ W J.JJ* k , \ " >A V<\\ : V * 1 1 - - ^A > . i I 

antf ivli^re pdy 1 do not ad as his Meflerigers^ 
M#ud_iSd \-. ^ retcnc i ^y to offer 

of ^Perdlt ion-k the Advcrfafyy rbbo exalt j htw- * 4. 
fci }tbbye[rtllthrtt- is cttlCdGod^or Tvorfiljfd;} 
he M God fitting in tbcTemfte bf^od^ Jhoiv*^ 
inrb tmfelfthat he is God- ,Wh|ch Cha&c- : 
t<ff ? ;as. it tafnt bc{o ng tbi ity Heathen, fcc^ 

TfeW 6f^3d!t ( fb npfctirirtian Layrtiari, 1 
o^;this ! pWcntcS^ cial^s - fflmfclf above/all ! 
- So^ctcigiVfPdW^fs, . wW in Scripture a^f 
ffil d Go<J^; and -qohftqiteytly it muft de-: 
itfnjeW Ec^tiaftick, wfip on preterice-6f 
Sitting (it : >V6rd: ltgnifyirig Authority) ii 7 i! 
" df Gbdi daim^WV 

160 We Height* of 

Goyeranient of the Church toMmfeUy an< 

".^ confe^uently Power over thefe Gods 6f the 
v " Earth, as his Subjects in Eccleliafticals : and! 
this he brings abbut by the e/cttual Working 
of Satan, with all his Power, and Signs, an 
lying Wonders, and in all the *Undecci vableneft\ 
of Vnrlghteoufhefs : of , in other words, by 
holy Cheats, mam! Miracles, apd all man 
ner of Lies and Forgrys $ fuch as claiming: 
A judicial Power of Binding and Loofing, 
a Power of giving the Holy Ohoft, con- 1 
ferring Grace, #c. And this is agreeable 
to what our Saviour declares, That ihcrt 
lit. 24. Jfialt arife falfeChrifts and falfe Prophets, and^ 
\* jhall Jhew great Signs and Wonders , fo that,. 
^ if it were pofiibte, they fhall deceive the very, 

. * Elett. And tho Antichrift in the Pfophe- r . 

tick Stile, is.defcrib d as a finglc Perfon.^ 

^ yet his Name is Legion, fince all are more 

or lefs concerned!, who claim an Independent: 

Power, and by virtue of it exalt the Churcri^ 

^2 above the State, and the Clergy above, 
the Laity. But tis not ftrange this My-;. 

;, v, ; ji^y O f Jniauity fhou d have fpread it felf* 
far and wide, finCe it was working even irt 
the Apoflles time- But of this more here-, 

48. What s chiefly urg d to encounter ; 
thefe and a great number of other Pfobfs^ 
to be mention d hereafter, are either Texts 
of the Old Teftament relating to the Jew- 
ifli Government, which every body rhaf , 
fee are foren to the Matter-, or elfe figura 
tive Exprefllons of Binding and Loofipgy 
which did they belong to the Minifters in a 
jJecuUar manner, as tis plain front Scrip-? 


Chiflkn Church, Sec. *.6j 

ture,they do not} yet they who urge em Chap. 4. 
dare not Hand by fuch a Senfe as gives Vm o^TX) 
, a Judicial Power : or elfe they are fuch, 
Phrafes as Know them who labour among you^ i ThdCu 
And are your Leaders in the Lord y or as we I2 
tranflate it, are over ( you in the Lord^ or, 
Remember your , Guides who have fpoken to Hcb. i 3, 7; 
y ou the Words of the Lord :> or, Be 

by your Guides^ which we render,* Obey thofe 

who have the Rule over you^ tho the word 

7ff3t<$, as often as it occurs, is never tran- 

flated fo in any other Place. And tho ^tis 

faid in the fame Verfe, Submit to them j yet - f, .->, j j 

fo are ^ the Younger bid to do to t!pe> Elder: iPcfc$J52 

nay which is more, ,alj are commanded to *-* 

be fubje ft to one another. A$ thefe- Texts 

interpret one another, fo to take em ii^ 

a ftrid fenfe is not pnly contrary; to Re^a- 

fon, but to a great Dumber of plain T^Xts, 

^which oblige Men to try, examine^ r anc^ 

judgthe Dodrine of their Guides v and if 

they take em to .be. . Seducer s^ Deceiver s^ or 

falf? .Teachers, to avoid and fly, frpni em. 

And if they arc to treat em thus, , not 

only on account of their Do&rines, but 

Lives, as the Rule extends to all immoral 

Men without the leaft exception they 

have all the Power over their Gui4es which 

, tis poflible for Men to have on a Church- 

Account : Since feparating from ( em for 

any of thefe Reafohs, and owning em flill 

for Guides, are inconfiftent. And this 

laft is fo much the Right of the People, 

that we find as late as the third Century, 

i Council where. St. Cyprian was Prefident, 1 

applauding the People of Sjtin for depofing 

;* M a 

a Couple of ill Bi(hops t and chufiitg btheri 
in their (*) Places* And in their Synodi- 
cal Epiftle they tell em, u That what 
tc they did was according to Divine Laws^ 
4C and that if they had continued to com* 
44 municate with em/ they had been accef- 
44 fary to their Guilt, and offended againft 
44 thofe Commands which oblige Men to 
* 4 feparate from a Prieft who is a Sinner $ 
** and that it principally belong d to them 
44 to chule Worthy, and rejed Unworthy 
44 Prices. And after the fame planner St. 
. c. 44. Irendtui declares him felf . But, 

49. I can t omit the Texts* which the 
Clergy fuppofe gave the Apoftlcs a Right, 
hot only to govern the Church themfclves, 
bat upon their Deceafe to appoint Succef- 
fors, with an Authority for them to najne 
theirs, fothat the Succeffion might be con- 
linu d to the end of the World } and they 
are a piece of a Verfe in John the 2ctb, As 
my Father Jent me, fofad I you ^ join d with 
a part or a Verfe in the lafl or Matthew^ 
Lo I^arit with you to the End tf the WorlA* 


Chr iff, l as appea*fs by the foregoing 
Verfe, tho he had all Power given him 
after Ms Refurreftion, yet he gives, none 
to his Pifdples further than authorizing, 
or rather requiring em to teach Nations 
to obferve all things, whatfoever he had 
commanded em. So that the Senfe in which 

* (<t) Epift. ^8. . 1 58. p. 200. Cyprian. Opcr. Fat 

Edit, Sim. Goulunct. apudjohan.le^cux. 155)3. 

-? j i the 

Cbriftian Cbmb, Sec. \6j 

the Apoftles were fent by Chrift, as he was Chap. 4 
by (Sod, was not to do Jheir own Will, but 
his who fent em, or, as St. John explains 
it, 7> declare what they had fccn and heard f 
jn the doing of which Chrift: promifes to 
be with em all the days even to the end of 
the Aee, for fo it is in the Original. Now 
if it pe unnatural to extend to other Per- 
JTons a Proraife given to the Apoitles, to en 
able em to execute" what they alone were 
intmfted to do, and in performing which 
they cou d have no SuccefTors; all the 
Power the Clergy claim by thefe Texts falls 
to the ground t and if for ever, tilt the 
Coming of the Lord, and fuch like Expreffi- 
pns which occur in Scripture, extend no 
further than the Perfons they are fpokento, 
tho they do not live for ever, or till the 
Coming of the Lord - 7 there can be no pre 
tence why this Promife Ihou d reach further 
than the Apoftles, and the Age they were 
to live and fpend in that Employ, for the 
fake ; of 1 which the Promife was given. But 
,if it mntt; extend to all other Ages, what 
Reafop/cari. there be for this grofs Partia- 
lity of confining it to the Clergy, and not 
letting -it mend to the Church or Body 
. tyf Chriftians, who in all Nations, by means 
.of -the Apofbles, were to be converted ? 
: Are -, they not juft mention d before^ and 
are riot they the Body which Chrifl: as the 
Head isconftantly with? and have not the 
Lay as well as the Clergy the Promife of the 
Spirit ? Or does it appear by the Condud 
of the Clergy, that Chrift h tnore with 
them than with the Laity ? But fuppofe the 
M 2 Pro- 

- The 


Promife was made to the Clergyalone, they 

cannot pretend that Chrift is with them as 
.he was with the A pottles, or that ( he faid, 
^s I fend you, fo fend you others^ and they 
on to the end of the World, ortHatthefe 
Words immediately follow d one another. 
So that tho it be taken for granted that the 
Government of the Church was in the 1 A- 
ipoftles, and the Promife was made ; to the 
Clergy exclufively of all others, the Qiief- 
,tion will be, whether Chrift s faying, / am 
with .you to the end, of^the World, ilgnifies any 
jnore.than walking with them, never leaving 
or forfMng them, being in the midfi- of ctn, 
)Phrafes which import God^ peculiar 
Care and watchful Providence over them. 
Does ChriH, when he fays, Hi will be in 
the mid ft of two or three gathered, together in 
kit Name, give ejn the Government of thi 
,Church r with power to appoint their Suc- 
ceflbrs? And they who think that a 1 Right 
to govern the Church by way of Succeflion. 
from the Apoftles,;\vith a power t6 () com- 
"municate it to others, muft be iriclddcd in 
this i Exprcffion of thrift s being : mth them y 
muft either think there s no other way of 
.his being with em, than by giving ? em 
Power over the Church y or that when 
ever they get thi^ Power, God is wifh em. 
And one would be apt to fufpeft that -this 

.was^the Senfeof/too many of the. Clergy 
in rnoft; Ages, flnce that has been their 

fole Aim, and they have equally- embrac d 
all ". means which ferv d to promote it. 
But what mainly contributed td rob the 
Body of k the Faithful of thefe glorious Pri- 

f viieges 


, tyriftian Church, &c.~ 

vileges and Powers, which by Scripture be- Chap. 4, 
long to em under 4 the name of the Church, <* 
is the Clergy s applying that Word to them-i 
felves, .exclufively of all others. And tho 
the Method of retaining Names .when 
Things are alter d, is what Tyrannys gene?- 
rally praftife, in order to make the Change* 
more eafily go doum with the unthinking 
Multitude^ yet this has been no where 
praftis d with fuch Succefs as iri Ecclefi* 
aftical Matters, and, the Chriftian World * 
has been infinitely abus d by new Senfes being 
put, on,- the words Cbvrcb^SchlJm^fftrf/y^ 
and fuch like. 

50. What I have mentioned here con-; A 
cerning the Government of the Church . , 
from Scripture, is to prevent the Reader . , 
^om being fo intirely poflefsM with a Be- 
lief of the Clergy s having a Divine Right, as to be. deaf to all the Arguments 
from Reafon to the contrary. And left he 
fliou d imagine that Things relating to Ec-j 
clcfiaftical . Difcipline were always as at pre- 
fent they are, I fhall beg leave to hint at the 
great Remains of ;the,Primitiv9 Democra-! 
tical Form even ini the third Century , and 
1 to that -end lhall only quote the famous 1 
Qj>ny,who flbiirilh d . in the -middle of it, 
trie rather becaufe he -fays, . tis a dangerous 

for any in Divtpe JMfltttrs. to reccds E P- 73* 
from his full Power" M j4wtior!ty. :.And^ 
therefore it cannot be prefum ff, had he 
thought the Government of the Church 
by Divine, Right bclong d to the Clergy, 
but he wou d have forbid the Laity from 
facrilegioufly meddling with. if.l; But he, 
M 3 good 

good Man, qn\the contrary declares,, Tti*t 
.j, ht WAS refolv d to do nothing by his onnjri Vatt 
Judgment withou? the Confent, of the Petjlc, 
iff his Diftritt I and that all Affairs j as their 
mutual flonovr required,, jhoud be debated in 
Common. And accordingly/tie profefTes him- 
felf notfufficient to judgof the Mifdemea- 
28..a. nors of two Subdeacons and an Acolyth, 
but fays, {hey ought (o be trf.d, by all the Pec fie* 
:p-4o..i. So fie declares the S^hifm of Feliciffirnnt was 
94 to be judg d according to the j4rbitr intent an 4 
common Covnfet of the People? and th^t the 
.ic^LapsM were not to be aofolv^d, tho in 3 
! 3 time of Perfection, till Peace was feftor d 
^pj ** to the Church^ that they might jfead their 
? Cwfebefore all the People, ^o he afhrms, that 
Mo.,i.whofoever was excommunicated, it was by 
* 2 - thp Suffrages of the People. And as * 

h vira his Deacon fays, That he was made Bifliop 
prian. by the Grace of pod y and the Favour ef the 
.i$ t ii,Peofle\ fohe himfelf in feveval Epiftle$ ac 
knowledges he ows his Advancement to 

94. them i and not only declares that in all Or 
dinations he aded by their common Counfel, 

*? but makes it a General Pratticc^ and of j4pof+ 
tolifk Ob few at ion ) and of Divine Inflitvtion^ 
for the Bifliop to be chofen by fhe Suftragcs 
pf the Pepple ? to which he adds the Judg 
ment and Advice of the neighbouring BIT 
(hop s : not that we can fuppofe he though^ 
they had ah pqual Authority with the People 
jn this jyiatter, becaufe that wouM be 5ncoxl* v 
njleiit with what both he arid thefe Bifhops 
had declared in their Synodical Epiftle be 
fore quoted,that Plcbsmaxlmc habet Poteftatcni 
yd eligendi dignos Sacer -dotes "jet ind tgn 
fwdi, t 

Qari/Kin Church, &c. \ 67 

/And twas not in Matters of. thtf Chap. 4. 
greateft moment, but in all others, as he^v^O 
owns, that the People were concern d : as ?<* $$ 
for inftance, a Letter cou d not be fent toP- l 7- 
a foren Church before the Brotherhood a-Ep. 5 8., 2 ; 
greed to it, nor one receiv d before it was p . i$ 3 . 
read to them all; whom he treats with Ep . 55 .$, 
the higheft Refpeft, as may be feen by the 21. w* 
Titles he beftows on them, as that tis 
againft the (*t) Faithful and Uncorrufttd 
Majefty of the People for any who aro i 

without to judg of their Bifhops. And as 
he gives no Icfs Epithet to thefrtr/of the 
.People in Excommunication than (fr) Diving 
fo he terms their Perfons (c) Moft Holy. 
And indeed nothing was more common* 
than to beftow the higheft Title, fuch as 
the Pope and other great Church-Dons 
now referve to themfelves, on the People : 
\ and the higher you go, the greater Vene 
ration will you find paid them. St. Ignar 
tius tells Polycarf, That he was not only p*r- Ep.idPo 
fondly to know his Mole Flccky but to carry Iycar.p.1* 
kitnjtlf with all Humility to fcruing-Mcn and 
Maids. And the Divine Clemens Romanus pro* 
fcffe:; fo high a Refpeft for the People, that he Ep. i. rf 
wouM have every one fay, that to avoid all Cor. p,fy 
Contefton his account he was ready to depart, 
and got wherever the People fleafe^ and t* do 
whatever they full enjoin him. And where hfc 

. , : : r rt 

(a) PIcbis intus pofita? fidclis atqnc incorrupu Mai- 
jcfhs. Sp.&p.i&. 0*.&fa : 
(*) Sccundum vcftra Piviiu Judicia con;urau. 

tp. 40. . i. p. 9* . 

* H>. ^5- A J 44; 

M 4 blamc-s 

*The G[igkis of tie 

blames em, tis not for aflumlng a Power 
not belonging to ? em, . but for, making a 
wrong ufe of it, in turning out fuch Bijhofs as 
they tnemfdves had chofcn, and who fcrtfd the 
Flock of Chrift with all jkumility, &c. And 
therefore he compares em to thofe who a- 
bus d a rightful Power in punilhing Daniel, 
&c. And herein thefe Perfons fay nothing 
<lifagreeabletotheSenfeof St. Paul, who as 
he forbids the People to glory in their Tea- 

Cor. 3. chers, tho Apoftles, fo he fays, That They 
11*22,23. and all Things (meaning all they could do) 
are yours^ find ye are ChrljPs^ and Chrift is 
Gods. Had there been any fuch Climax 
fpdken concerning the Clergy, that the Peo 
ple nd all things are theirs, and they are 
Chrift s, and Chrift is God s , we fhould 
have had perpetual Harangues about it, ef- 
pecially from our Modern Divines. 

52- The moft antient Fathers acknow- 
ledg that they owe all unto and. receive 
all from the Church or People; .; Hence 
Trrtttlltttn takes it, in building Arguments 

rdfti- on it, for a recciv d and unqueftionablO 
Truth, " That the Diftindion between the 
a Laity and Clergy was owing to the 
" Church } 1 hat otherwife Laymen might 
t* exercife the Prieftly Office, Chrift hav* 
<c ing made us all Priefts to God j and 
-". that where three are gather d together 
<c in Chrift s Name, there s a Church, tho 
ct three Laymen , it being the Will of 
";:God, that at all times we fhou d : be ca- 
<c pable of the Sacraments- And tis plain 
from this Father, That the Heterodox not 
only., allow d Laymeijto be capable of ex- 
r . c 1 1 -i erciflng 

Church, c. 

ercifsng Eccleflaftical Functions, but en-Chap.^*" 
join d em fo to do : and therefore as to 
the Capacity of the Laity for thefe Funfti-; 
6ns, the whole Chriftian World was agreed, 
tho the Heterodox were more on their guard 
againft Prieftcraft, fince to prevent it, they 
had a fort of Rotation of Ecclefiaftical Offi 
ces -j for Tcrtullian fays, " With them one.Hd- 
" to day is a Bifhop, to morrpw another ^ 
<c a Deacon this day becomes a Reader the 
Cl next , a Presbyter to day, is to morrow 
*. fc a" Layman. But had there been at firft . 
fo great a Diftin&ion between the Clergy 
and the Laity as obtain d afterward, there 
can be no doubt, feeing they have every 
where grown on the Laity, but they wou d 
have been able to hinder em from ufurping 
on their Divine Rights. And therefore 
whatever Privileges or Powers they enjoy d, 
efpecially fo early as this, we may juftly 
conclude they had from the Beginning of 
, Chriftianity. 

53- Had the Scripture been filent, the 
Preemption wou d have been, That the 
firft Chriftians in ^their feveral Congrega 
tions manag d their Concerns by a Majori 
ty } as all private voluntary Societys, where 
the Members are independent of one ano 
ther, at firft do, till either the Greatnefs 
of the Kumbers, or the Deflgns of the 
leading Men, make em alter this Method. 
,And this Preemption is the more reafo- 
pable, fince the Places where the Gofpel 
jvas at firft preach d, were petty Com- 
.monwealths, which manag d not only their 
JELcclefiaftical but Civil Affairs, I mean what 


170 The Qtfgbts of 


the Jtotnafts left to em, after a Popular 
manner. And tho the Account we have 
f-om Antiquity is obfcure, and perhaps 
fometimes purpofely fo; yet fo far tis 
plain, That in the Ecclefiaftical AfTembly* 
of the firft Chriftians, all the People had 
Votes, and that one of their Presbyters 
was the Prefident, who by degrees, tho not 
till after /r^^w/ s time, appropriated the, 
Kame of Bifhop to himfelf (wnich yet no 
jnore made him of a diftinft Order, thaa 
a Prolocutor wou d be, if he had that 
J^amc given him) and the reft of thePref? 
byters were a Handing Committee to pre 
pare Matters for the Grand Aflcmbly of 
the People. But when by the Largcncf$ 
of the Diftrifts, and the Multitude of Con 
verts belonging to em, this Metho.d be 
came impracticable, the Clergy made their 
, Advantage of it, in getting tl^e Manage 
ment of all Ecclefiaftical Affairs into their 
own hands, except the Right of chufing 
3 ifhops, which the People preferv d for a 
confiderable time longer. And a$ the. 
JPresbytcrs got all the Power from the 
People, fo the Prefident or Bifhop extend-* 
cd his Power over both \ which the Pref- 
byters bore the more contentedly, ^becaufe^ 
fcefides the Profpcft of being advanced to 
that high Office, the greatncfs of which 
in fome meafure redounded to all their 
Honour, they cou d, by being united to. 
their Bifhop as their Head, keep the Peo-v 
pie better in fubjeftion. Nay, there was: 
* Ncccfllty in the greater Diftrifts, where 
the Clergy vyerc too numerous, and at 

: M 


Qriftian Churcl, Sec. i?ir 

too great a diftance to afiemble Upon \aflChap. 4* 
occafions, to place a great .Power in the < 
Bifhop s hands, which they very well knew 
how to improve ; and the Other Biftiop$ 
were without qucftionirery fond of copying 
after fuch Precxxjents. And as tis not unu- 
fual for fuch as in the beginning are left more 
at liberty to work themfelves into a ftrifter 
and precifef Form of Government, each 
Officer, tho under the fame Jvfame, endear 
vouring to enlarge and aggrandizethe Power 
of his Office-, fo we mult allow, that by this 
or fome fuch Method the Bifhops obtain 4 
their Power over their Fellow^Presbyters^ 
and both over the People ; fince the Gofpcl 
f s fo far from bellowing on either fuch Po wer f 
that its whole Tenor is diredly contrary to 

5^4. ? Tis eafy to obferve, That as great 
Changes happen in the World in a lefs 
fpace of time, where the People are more 
wary, more careful in watching, and more 
Jnclin d to oppofe Changes, than they. 
were at the beginning of Chriftianity, 
when the People being generally new jCon- 
vert^ intending only the Salvation of their 
Souls, and having a fuperftitious Venera-r 
tion for their Guides, who they believ 4 
wou d lead cm to everbfting Happinefs, 
intirely fubmitted to them, never quefti T 
bning that: what they did was for their 
Good j or if you will, according to Mr, 
/aW, * Tbat thro Sloth and blind. Ob^ 
* dienceMen examin d not the things they 
^ were taught, but like Beafts of Burden 
f 4 patently couch d down, andindifferent- 


s of ike, \ 

" ly underwent whatfoever their Superior^ 

Churches correfpond^ 

irig together, and endeavouring to fqtfim 
themfelves t6- one Model, - tis not ftrange. 
that That by degrees prevailed, where ther 
Prefidents got fo much Power. . 
^"55. If we may take St. Cyfrianh as well 
as St. Jerom s -Word for it, the Preferva-; 
tion of the Peace and Unity of the Church, . 
and not any-Divine Right, was the reafon* 
of eftablilhing $ Superiority in one of the- 
Presbyters 6ver the reft - r otherwife there 
won d, as they fay, have been as many* 
Schifmaticks as Presbyters (no great Com- 
plement to the Clergy of thofe days) And; 
this Argument by degrees was carry d toi 
its utmbft j extent, for it ; not only de- 
ftroy d that Equality which was at firft, 
among the Presbyters, but that which 
afterwards ^was among the Bifhops, by 
fetting Archbifhops over the Bifhops, and 
then Patriarchs over them , and at laft, 
according to, its neceflary Confequence, it; 
nded in one "(Ingle Supremacy over the 
whole Church. So that Ecclefiaftical Go 
vernment has undergone as great an Alte 
ration as any other, having been chang d 
frpmU Dcmocratical to an Ariftocratical, 
arid then to a Monarchical Form: an d now 
itiaily Places differ from others as much in 
if He Diodes of their Ecclefiaftical as Civil 
., G6vcniment.- f - . ; ;,- 

; / r 5<5.The Emperors, after they Became 
CWiftlanJJ concerning themfelves witlj all 
(EcclefiaRical Matters, made a great Alte 
ration hi. the Government of the Church , 
\t !: fince 

Church; &c 17 J 

finc e then the Affairs of it, ( as Socrattt ob- Chap. 
ferves; depended upon them . ^ ^^ 

c If" any, Form of Church-rGovernment 
was immutably eftablifh d by Chrift, it 
wou d have been at its firft Settlement per- 
fe&and compleat, and all things neceffary 
to its Well-being plac d in proper Harids 
ivhich muft exclude the Magiftrate frbrn 
meddling in the leaft with it, fince it wa^ 
not" only fettled without him, but took 
root, grew up, : aild flourifh d for the firft 
three hundred years in oppofition to hiin: 
and confequently he cou d not exercife the 
leaft Power in it, as he does now the great- 
ceft in all National Churches; nay he cou d 
riot meddle with the Maintenance of the 
Clergy, which inuft have been fettl d at firlt, 
as well as any other matter whatever^ 
and that for the firft three hundred Years 
was only the voluntary Contributions of the 
People. * 

57. Upon this Hypothecs, how can the 
Clergy juilify the Magiftrate in making Laws 
for Uniformity, : for fettling the Limits of 
Tarilhes and Diftrifts, for Building, Repair- 
<ing and Endowing Churches^ or for ap 
pointing the leaft Circumftance or Ceremo- 
*ny relating to Publick Worfhip; for the 
Calling, Prefiding over, and Diflblving >of 
Synods, with an infinite number of other 
things, which the Primitive Chriftians ma- 
^jiag d without him ? 

^Upon rthis : Suppofition, ours of all 
J Ghurches^i not only by reafon of the great 
^Extent of the - Regal Supremacy, but oh 
Other accounts, is leaft to be defended : 
to A for 

? for if the Government of the Chitftfi wa< 
fettled by God in a Presby.terian Parity, 
having a Superior Order muft be unlawful? 
or if in an Order fuperior to them, then 
j&he Supreme Power of making Laws for 
the Church muft be in the Bilhops alone: 
-nor cou d Deans, Archdeacons, and other 
^Presbyters exercife Epifcopal Jurifdidion : 
nor cou d there be the lead Pretence for JEot - 
$mpt Places, and Laymen , exercifing all 
Ecclefiaftical Jurifdiftion in them j or for 
: the Power of Lay-Chancellors* who .if* 
; jnoft things aft independently of the ft\~ 
Jfhops; or for the Univerfitys excommuni- 
icating and authorizing People to preach j 
and feveral other things not to beparal- 
^lelM in any antient, nor I think modern 

58. The better part of Proteftant Wrw 
as Bifhop Sti/Hngflcet has fliown in his 
Jremcwtti acknowledg there s no particular 
Form of Church Government of Divine 
.Appointment, but that tis of a mutable 
.nature, and ought to be chang d accor- 
.ding to arcumftanccs : The Confcquencc 
.of which is, That no portieulir Set of 
.Men can have a Divine Right, to it, be-* 
jeaufe that muft be under fome Form or 
other ^ but there being no fuch of Divine 
Institution, it belongs of courfe to the 
-Partys concern d to appoint what Form 
they think beft ^ and confequently r they 
Who officiate under that Form, can have 
no Power unlefs by virtue of if f nor can 
their Power laft longer than that does, 
is diffiblvable by thoJc who fet it np- 


Q>ri/Kavi Church, &c. vf 7^ 

And they who do not in exprefs Terms Chap. 4. 
fay, Ecclefiaftical Government is of a mu-L/ VNJ 
table nature, do in effeft own fo much, by 
fuppofmg it was modell d according to 
the Pattern of the Roman Civil Govern 

59. If what Mr. Dodwel fays over and 
over in his Par&nefis ad Extents be true, 
that the Difcipline of the Church Is not 
to be found in the New Teftament, being 
much later than That , and that for the firlt 
"hundred years there were but two ordinary 
Orders in the Church, Presbyters and Dea- .; v 
cons, and that the Presbyters had no Ju- . 
rifdidion ; and appeals to the Scripture 
for any one Aft of it done by them : and 
in another place fays, that the Clergy then DC Jure 
cou d have no Power to exclude People Sacerdoc 
from the Sacrament, that being admini- Lacorv 
fter d by the Gifted Laity. If thefc things, 
I fay, be true (none of our Divines having 
thought fit to anfwer his ParAncfa tho pub- 
lifh d in EngHJh as well as Latin) it fliows 
how mucK in the wrong the Clergy ate* in 
having rccourfe to Scripture for proof of 
their Power and Authority, 

The ever-memorable Mr. Hales is fo can 
did as to own, u That they do but abufc 
** ttoemfelves and others, who wouM per 4 - 

* fuade us that Bifhops by Chrift s Infti- 
& tution have any Superiority over other 

* Men} for we have belicv d him who 
/ ^ told us, that in Jefus Chrift there s nei- 

,^ ther High nor Low, and that in giving 
** Honour wery Man ficru d be ready fo 
$ prefer another before himftlf\ which Say- 
"Sw ? ing 


" ing muft certainly cut off all Cteim to 
"Superiority by Title of Chriitianity, 
u except Men can think thefe things were 
u fpoken to poor and private Men. Nar 
" ture and Religion agree in this, that 
" neither of them had a hand in this He- 
u raldry of Secundum^ Sub & Supra ; all 
^ this conies from Compofition and A* 
, a greement of Men among - themfelves. 
And Father Paul, tho a Papift, yet being a 
Perfon of great Ingenuity as well as Judg 
ment, not only affirms in his Treatife of 
Beneficiary Matters (a Difcourfe fit for eve 
ry one to read, who wou d be Matter of 
this Controverfy) that in the Beginning the 
Government of the Holy Church had al- 
r , .together a Democratical Form, but gives a 

4 - large Account how by degrees it came to be 

,/- i alter d. 

, <^o. If any thing was 1 particularly deter- 

min din Scripture, relating to Ecclefiaftical 

-Government, there can be no reafom to 

imagine that the Perfon or Perfons, who 

fhou d have the naming of the fuppos d 

Jure Divivo Governors of the Churchy the 

Bilhops, wou d be omitted. To fay this 

.belongs to the Bifhops themfelves, con- 

.demns the conftant Pradice of the Church 

.for feveral of the firft Centurys, -when the 

.People chofe em, and of all Princes and 

other Laymen, who have fince prefum d to 

.name them } and of all thofe Presbyters who 

.;n their feveral Chapters have chofen their 

^Bifhops: and if thofe Eleftions were void; 

as not made by a competent Power, all 

.Confecrations built on them, muft be fo 


(Jhriftian Churchy \ &c. fl 77 

tooi .If it be faid that this Right be- Chap. 4: 
longs either to People, Prince or Presby- 
ters, by a Divine Authority, the fame Ab- 
furdity will follow: fo that there s a ne- 
ceflity of owning that the Scripture has de- 
termin d nothing about it} and confe- 
quentjy, that of courfe it belongs to the 
Partys concern d, as every thing muft, 
which is not by fome pofitive Text takea 
from them. 

61. Jf their chufing a Perfon to execute 
ail Ecclefiaftical Office, be not fufficient to 
give him a foil Right to it } it muft be ei 
ther becaufe God by fome pofitive Law has 
declar d none to be capable of fuch an 
Office, who has not fome fupernatural 
Powers or Ql^lifications beftow d on him 
by certain Ecclefiafticks 5 or elfe there muft 
be fome Text produc d, which in part de 
prives the People of the Power of making 
their Minifters, and divides it between them 
^nd tte Clergy, where one is to chufe, and 
t other to approve. But, 

As to tne Firft, tho pretending to be- 
ftow fuch Qualifications now, be as grofs a 
Cheat as Tranfubftantiation it fel^ fmce 
there s no more Change wrought in the 
Man in the one cafe, than in the Bread in 
the other-, yet the making and unmaking 
Ecclefiaftical Officers wou d ftill be in the 
People, without any other Obligation upon 
. em than to pitch on a Perfon who had thefe 
fupernatural Qualifications beftow d on him. 
And, .. . 

As no Text can be fhown for the Se 
cond, fo it fuppofcs the fufpeudbg or 
" " 

7 8 < The fl^biuf \ifi) 

depriving of a Clergy mail cannot be donfe 
without the joint Concurrence of the Laity 
and Clergy^ becaufe the Poweif of Uiimak- 
ing muft be divided between them fts lweH as 
the Power of Makings ! But if there s* no 
ground for neither of thefe Pretences j 1 the 
People s chufing a Peffon to execute Jan EC- 
clefiaftical Office is fiifficWntto give him a 
Right thereunto. : j 

62. That great Reformer and jpjldlidus 
Martyr,; Archbilhop Cfarimcr -(it Ha Con- 
fult of the moffc eminent t)ivines ! 4f the 
Nation in 1 540. ( where to avoid the Iii- 
convenibnces of verbilDifputes, they "gave 
their Opinions in writing) affirms, ** That 
w the ; Ceremonys and Solemnity^ u^M in 
w admitting Bifhops and -Meftsi are n6 t 
u of necefTity^ but only for good Border 
44 and feemly Fafhion^ and that there s 
u no more Promife of God that Grace is 
n given in committing of the Ecclefiaftical 

** than Civil Office He that s appoint- 

" ed to be a Bifhop or Prieft < between 
whom, he fays, at nrft there was no ^if- 
tinftion )* needs no Confecration 1< by f the 
44 Scripture , for Eleftion or Appointing 
ct thereunto is fufficient. What the-pro- 
f the Se- found Mr. Dodrvell fays, agrees very well 
* f with this ; ct That as only the Society it 
buTcbft, it jyf can make a va ii<i Conveyance of 

" 22 5 2 3 . cc its Right, fo tis not conceivable ho^r 
" the Society can do it but by*k^dvra 
44 Ad: and whenfoever a Perfoh is in- 
4C vefted with Supreme Power, it rffluft 
44 be by them, unlefs by his Predeceflbr, 
^ which no Society can depend on for a 

44 con* 

a conftant Rule of Succeflion. I am 
<c to think this muft have been the way 
** obferv d at firfl in making Bilhops : 
<c This feeinsbeftfo agree with the Abfo- 
Ct lutenefs of particular kjhntfches, before 
" they had by Compaft united themfelves 
.V under Metrot>plitan$ and Exarchs, into 
<c "Provincial and I)iocefan Churches. And 
H thi3 feem dto tie -fitted to the frequent 
f* peiife^utions of thofe earlier Age$ ? jwhen 
f every,Church was ^ble to fecure its own 
44 . Sdcceflibil f < without dependirig on the 
4t Meeting of the Biihops of the whole 
a Province; and the Alteration of this, in 
cc .giving the Bilhops of the Province an 
4C -InteVelt in the Choice of every partial- 
u lar Collegue 1 , feems not to have been for 
4i Want r bf Power in the particular Chur- 
44 dies to do it, &c. This is a fufEcient 
Acknowledgment that Bilhops may be made 
without ? ( the Confccr^tion or Concurrence 
of ariy Bilhopv fihde- every particular 
Church had at firft a- .Right or making its 
own Bifhop, ory as he terms it, of fecu- 
ring its own Succeflion -, and that whatever 
"Right the Bilhops of the Province came to 
have afterwards, was derived from the 
Confent of particular ; Congregations- or 
Churches } and that it ? Wa$ to their tom- 
pafts that Diocefan Epifcopacy owed its 


^* . i i > . \ f , 

4-:n :; !.) , ; .: i T / ;-j ! 


t . -tivV .. ! : 

: > 


, > 

/, The 

- W 1 , ! i i 

Qtyhts of \ the } 

i~ \\ ^ ^ I t l 1 



Clergy s endeavouring dt an IriJe* 
pendent Power % not, only prevents the 
further ffireadingof the Qofptlj lut 
is the (aufe of its haying already loft 
fo much Ground. % 

.I.1WTOTHING can gtY6 ; UAbelieving 
X^j Princes a greater Prejudice >againft 
. f he Chriftian Religion, than that if it pre 
vails, they muft tecppie fubjeft cither to 
Strangers or to their own Subjeds, not 
only in all things they pleafe to call EC- 
clefiaftical, Spiritual or Sacred, - but indi- 
.reftly, CT- in crdine *d Spiritualist^ in all matr 
tcrs whatfoever. Princes are naturally very 
jealous ,of new Doftrines, left they ; creatc 
Difturbances, or any ways dimimfh their 
Prerogative; and confcquently mull needs 
be cnrag d, when they find their Power fo 
niuch ftraitned and limited by a new Rcli 
gion : and prefently conclude thofe Impo- 
ftors who preach it, fincethey deiign to g^t 
for themfelves no lefs than an Independent 
Power over them. 

2. Tis no wonder therefore that feveral 
Rations who at firft tolerated Chriftianity, 
did afterward, when they found what the 



Clergy aim d at, extirpate it with Fire and Chap. 5, 
Sword $ tho at the fame time they allow dy 
of other Religions every whit as different 
from theirs : Nor cou d the Romifh Priefts, r 
the only Perfons who make it their bufinefs i 
to convert Infidels, expedt any where better 
Treatment, did they not at firffc diilemblc 
(at which they are very dextrous,) this part 
of their Doftrines. 

3. Had thofe whd firft propagated the 
Chriftiah Religion, made fuch a felfifh 
Scheme of it, as that it exalted em from . 
the meaneft Condition, to be no lefs than 
Ecclefiaftical Moaarchs} and that it gave 
them, and whensoever they laid hands on, 
an Independent power over the whole. 
World in all things they pleas d to de 
clare of an Eccleftaltical nature } and that 
they had a Power to punifh whom they 
thought fit, not only in -this Life, by ob- - 
liging People to avoid all Converfe with 
7 em (a thing infupportable to human Ma 
ture) but inthe next with eternal Torments, * 
nothing Jcfs than that Iwing the EfTcfts of 
their Excommunication : Had they, I fay, 
pretended to fuch Powers, inftead of gain 
ing Pvofclytcs, they wou d have been look d 
on as impudent Cheats and Importers. 
But where do we find, they ever told 
the Emperors, that, tho it were true, till 
the Times of Chriftianity there were not 
two Independent Powers in the fame So 
ciety, -yet that God, the Immutable God, 
was then pleas d to change his Mind, and 
made the Emperors, as well as the People, 
abfoju-te Slaves to thofe who before were 
N 3 their 

. Ckurch, &c; 1 8 j 

went for the Truth of it ? or how couM Chap. 5. 
they have added, That thofq who fuq-^ 
ceeded em, as having no Temporal Advan 
tage to carry on by it, ought to be look d 
on. as, competent Witnefles, whea they 
fuppos d it gave qnx fueh Powers, Jurif- 
di&ions, Honours, -Privileges, Preeminen 
ces? <2r, 

- To inftance only in one Particular of 
their Claims, and that a fmall one in com- 
parifon. of the reft, and which I have not 
yet mcatfon d, viz*, their having a Right to 
the Tenth Part not only of Mens Lands, but . 
what far exceeds it, of the Produd of their 
Labour and Induftry ; which, confidering 
what the neat Produce in every Nation 
amounts to, muft have given *em immenfc 
Riches, and confequently wouM not on 
ly have fpoil d their Plea of Difinte-* 
reftednefs, but made both Emperors and 
People fee, that Chrift s Kingdom, not- 
withftanding his Difciples pretended the 
contrary, was of this \Vorld , and that he 
made a great Alteration in Mens Civil Pro- 
pertys, not only by depriving em of the 
Right they had by the Law of Nature, 
of judging what was moft convenient for the 
Support of their Ecclefiafticks, but of the 
Tenth of all their Eftates ^ nay, which is 
more, what the Clergy wou d pleafe to call 
fo, fmce thcfe being of an Ecclefiaftical na 
ture, and Spiritual things, mult bel^ig to 
their Cognizance. 

5. The greateft Glory Mortals are capa 
ble of r is to be thought the peculiar Favo- 
ritjs of Heaven, and to hold Communica-. 
N 4 tioa 


tion with God, and to be authored by 
him to promulgate his Will to the whole 
World , for then they are to be hearkenM 
to by all Mankind with the fame Submiflion 
and Deference as God himfelf is : fince tis 
He whofpeaksinthem, and what they de 
clare is no lefs than the Dilates of his 
Infallible Spirit. Therefore tis no wonder 
that in all Ages fome have fet up for Pro 
phets, and pretended to Divine Dreams, k 
Vifions, and Revelations. But if the Re 
velation be fuch that it gives the Revealers 
Power and Jurifdiftion, independent of any 
but God himfelf, in all things they are 
pleas d to term Spiritual*, how can it be 
laid that thefe Revealers are difmterefted, 
or that they, who wou d be thought to re 
ceive this Power from them, are competent 
WitnefTes ? when no Court of Judicature 
allows thofe who have fuch Intereft, in any 
Cafe to give their Teftimony. And certain 
ly the Evidence ought to be as difintercfted 
in a Caufc of this confequence, as in any of 
lefs moment. 

6. Mens fuffering for fuch Opinions is 
not fufficient to fupport the Weight of 
em. For do we not daily fee People in 
Duels run the hazard of Death, nay of 
Damnation too, for a miftaken Point of 
Honour, or a mere Punftilio? And Wo 
men in the Indies^ notwithftanding the 
Difcouragement they meet with from the 
Government, voluntarily leap into thofe 
Flames whkh confume their dead Husbands 
Bodys, And have not even Atheifts, fuch 
as Vaninw and Effendii dy d Martyrs fan 


Cburd] &c. 1 85 j 

their Opinions ^ or, more properly fpeaking, Chap. 5: 
rather than be thought capable of to much V 
Weaknefs, as for the fake of their Lives 
to difown what they made the World be- 1 
lieve they thought a Truth? Therefore 
we may conclude, that tis not impoflible 
but fome Men, tho left ambitious than 
Entfedodes (who threw himfelf, as tisfaid, 
into a burning Mountain, to be efteem d a 
God after his Death) will venture any thing 
to be reverenc d as Gods while alive, efpe- 
cially when fo much Power is join d with 
the Honour: And when the darling Pro- 
Ipeft has once engag d Men in fuch an Af- 
fair as this, they will die a thoufand times, 
rather than own themfelves Cheats and 

7. What Archbifhop Ttllotfin fays of 
Tranfubftantiation, That tis a Milftone 
hung about the Neck of Popery, which will 
fink it at laft, I will not apply to this In 
dependent Power with relation to Chrif- 
tianity. and fay it is a Burden even too 
great for That to fupport : But this I may 
affirm, that the Priefts, by hanging about 
the Neck of it fuch a heavy and monftrous 
Weight, do the moft that in them lies to 
fink it. For, 

It not only prejudices all Infidels againfl 
Chriftianity, but is the chief reafon that na 
fmall Number have left it, contenting them 
felves with Natural Religion, as the Ingeni 
ous Author of the Growth of Dcifm juftly 

8. And the Bifhop of Samm . , 
" That he having had much free Converfa-, a 

" tioa 


that Chriftianity r Wft; fo many -fiif Protm- Chap. 5 
ces it once poffefs d : For nothing can bevxvx 
plaincr than that all the. numberlefs DUV. 
orders, Tumults, Commotidn^ . Wars* 
Pcrfecutions x Maflacres, &c\ wWch ; harer 
happen d to Ghriftiaris on the pretence of 
Religion, ar^ wholly bwin&t&thfe Qergy ? $ 
requiring a blind Submiffioin .to their De-* 
crees in order to advance this, Power, Aid 
tis as plain, that thefeifo vfeakol d .the Ifa-i 
man Empire, r by. . ruining an4 deftroyin;g> 
great Numbers^ >and by difccmraging and; 
tiflieartning of more (none being fure that? 

it might not be his turn to bei perfecutedl^ 
if the Emperor happened to f be ihftuenc A 
by Clergymen of a, different :Pcrfua#on) 
that it became an eafy Pre^r to the barn 
barous Nations v and made the Conquered 
fubmittothe Religion of the Gonqueroify 
where they cou d not fee more AbliirdityS 
than the Clergy for the fake of their Jnte- 
reft had brought into Chriftianity. .. Ami 
the Ambition of the Bilhpps in continual!^ 
fighting againft one another for Dominion^ 
with their pretended Spiritual Weapons of 
Anathemas and Excommunications, did not 
a little contribute to it ; fince that gave in* 
finite Scandal, and fo diftraftcd Cbr^lendom^ 
that too many were ready fot any Change; 
Without this, fo: fenflefs a Religion as that 
of the Alcoran cou d never have taken fuch 
deep Root, or fprcad it felf fo far and wide 

10. Tis very remarkable, and helps to 
confirm this Motion, what Dr. Gcdfas 
obferves in his ffiftory of the Exfutfio* 9$ 



. . I: to* ? Morifcbcs out t>f Spain, v That moft of i 
*^ the MahomttanS) fo very numerous there, > 
wcrd the Dependents of apoftatte d Chrifvr 
tians ; and that in the City of Granada arid "> 
the Kingdom of Arragon only y of 200000 \ 
Mahometan* (as JJfofei King Ql>Arragon af- ; 
firms in a Letter to the Council of Vitn \ in ! 
1311.) there were not above five hundred? 
riojt thus defcended. And yet this mighty* 
Change, the Chriftians enjoying Liberty^ 
of Conscience, was not owing c to Compul-r<; 
fion; But when Spain was conquered by the : 
Chriftians, notwithftandingthey fpar d nei^ 1 
their fair nor foul means, Theycou d not^r 
as he obferves, make one real Convert a-< i 
ipong the Moors. Such an Averfion had 
the Corruptions introduced by the Clergy 
caus d in thofe Infidels, tho defcendedfrom 
Chriftian Anceltors, againft the Chriftian 
Religion. / 

) 1 1 . As this Independent Power occa^r 
fion d Mahometifm in the */?, fo it pro-^ 
duc d Popery in t]ie Weft, which tho it ftill; 
retains the name of Chriftianity, is yet a v 
greater Corruption of it; which at the; 
time of .the Reformation had been every 
where intirely extirpated, if too many of the 
Proteftant Clergy (who at firft difownM any 
Independent Power, and thereby very much: 
contributed to the Encouragement they re -r 
ceiv d from. Princes as well as People), had 
not put aftop to it by claiming (the Pref- 
byterians leading the Van) fuch a Power. 
themfelves. This made Princes begin to 
think it not only more honourable, but lefs 
liazardous (as p rocul a Jwt, frocvl a Fid* 
*<\\ mine) 

tf &cl /i 8? 

mint) to fubmit to the Wcftcrn Patriarch Chaip. j 

then not ~a little- humbrd,-and living at 

fuch a diftance as Rome, than to let their 

own Subjects become their- Ecclefiaftical 

Sovereigns 4 } who, asbeirig nearer at hand, 

might not only be more troublefom, but by 

degrees^ having better Opportunitys, catty 

tfheir Power further than the Popes them- 

felv^did $ lince they couM ^rce claim any, 

tho ever fo extravagant, which this Doarine 

wou dnot juftify. * ^. t \\.\> ^ 

V ,;.i2. Ina v/ox4,\if- Love, v db^rlty, Meek* 

hefs, Benevolence, Moderation, CoD.defcen- 

fipn, and fuch like Virtues, be ellential ^to a 

Chriftian Church, I fhou d be glad to fee a 

Church evcji^ among the Reformed, wher<e 

tl?efe are, not in 1 a great meafure deljroy d 

jby/the Hatred land Animofity the Clergy 

have fowu, ^nd the Fpuds, Quarrels and Perj- 

JTccutions,they;liaye occafion d aibput, their Inf 

Dependent v . Ecclefiaftical Powcn But 

, r . , , \. t . r 

Ol> ^iu y.f Jlfl l. ) II !r:t, , [ fir.jji.i : /I jV^ 

/iyj)IVi - !; -.-/.-.r-;,,-; .; f- : j f; -j-j, ^J -, ; -V/,,.^ 

-:/> ii fi) o; :-c! [f.//n < I .Jv^ /, ;,"- i 10 

- f /iv. ij ,!; ; l^O J j;|j.r: . rrl ll 

r vu 

f/; c : f::\ : ;o T /l o;; -:-/r 
: i Ji orij ^y:^: V M; o? jVjfv 

! A. 

<^ Jii 

OljWiJ . : 

an\ indepcnf 
dtnt \oer is s of all Things tkt 

l Wftntivt tp; $# Inttrifo A 

L J - - -- y. -"/. v i r 
LetUjeof tbojt 

s ^folktely neceflit yv for tde. 
b yo n| fe^vatiori 1 of Rdigioh In- Its 

r *nd Sifnplicitf, that Wlihe -Power IVlan 
i^ capable of, fWd belong t6 tht ( Lftit/, 
tecaufe they can have no Mothte; noTtoip- 
tatioa to abufeit, by corrupting Religion, 
to advance their Temporal Intereftriincfc 
every Deviation from it (That being de- 
fign d to fecure and promote the Happinefs 
ot Human Societys) mufl be to their de 
triment , and confequently their Temporal 
Jntereft obliges- em to take care, that Re 
ligion be preferv d in its native Purity and 

2. But tis the Clergy s Intereft on the 
contrary to have it corrupted^ becaufe 
they, as fuch, have no other way to gain 
a Power of Lording it over their Brethren. 
And there s no Notion fo abfurd but what s 
their Intereft to advance, tho it feems to 
have no direft tendency that way ; fmcc, 

when once believM, it will fcrve to draw Chap. 61 
Oii others which hare. LctReafon beba& v - " v NJ 
fled in one point, and you can never plead 
her Sovereignty in another: Vno *b fordo 
datO) millc fiqmntur* And a Rational Re- 
ligidn will not make- Men depend much on 
th(T Authority of the Priefts , becaufe 
theirtfelves can ludgbf that by its own Evi 
denced But the mcfre Unaccountable, Uu- 
tdrtain, Obfcurey Perplexed, andUnintelli- , j 
gible Religion i^ the more? tis/above their 
Uhderftaftding - and Capacity> and the 
rtlctf e ; they muft pay a blind Deference and 
Stibmiflion to the Di&afes of the Priefts. 
Ahd ^therefore - tis no Wonder^ if Religion 
has been more or lefs confounded, as they 
have been mote Oi*kfs tnilt^d with Power : 
And tis naUir^liyi Jnipofribledt^ihou d be 
Otherwife ^ fiftce -to be lure^fome will be 
always attempting^ tho ever fb much to 
the prejudice , of - Religion, ; to introduce 
fiich Opinions asr ate for their ^Intereft, and 
ftrve to tender their Perfons facfedi, and raifc 
their Characters ; which Opinions need not 
very ftrpng Arguments to g<b dovVn with the 
G^iierality of ertiJt^ nd thofe ^hooppos d 
Vttt (as fomc fttlfifft might) wbu d not do 
ft^Very heat tily, -atid 1 tho -they did, muft 
cfoicfcl >e ov ^rdwerM : ! an* tdnfeuentl 


wc!f Opinions -tiluft *y degrets^become Cuf- 
fftit femon the; tl^rgy V Vvhich- then they 
to f Fmpofe dh- the People by 

their own Authority, efpecially when aF- 
ftiftbl^in a isyfib^y fot then tis only Ex- 

, toil .ft* tall c p itfiibili ; t6Tpeak sgainft their 

Jfa $($>* rf 

Determinations, and (if they are fo favou* 
rablc to let the Perfons efcape) judicially 
Condemning their Adverfarys Writings, to 
the Flames, as the molt expeditious way of 
confuting em. 

j-. 3. And this certainly is no more than 
,-what they ought to do, if they have a 
Right to oblige People to fubmit tp their 
Determinations in all disputable Points, 
which in effed is in all: for if the Laity 
fwallow what they impofe, they have their 
End 5 but if they queftion and difpute it f 
.then that very thing eives em a Right 
to decide it } fince it belongs to Them, 
in all difputable Points, to judg for the 
: And this all Councils and Synods in fa& 

. do, when they determine Controverfys, 
and oblige People to fubmit to whatever- 

, Side they declare for ; fo that by this jneans 
Intereft become* the Father tf ,Reli^ion^ and 
fgnoranci ( the Confequence or an jmT 
.plicit Submiflion) the Mother of Devotion. 
But, . 

; 4. What a Folly and Madnefs is it, ^to 
- take the Clergy s word in Things relating 
o their own Power and Jurifdiaion ^ and 
fuller em to judg in their own Caufe, and 
decide where their own lAtereft is concern d, 
jas they muft if they are Judges in Matters 
<>f Religion? Then to be fure* their OWA 
Independent Power ftiall be a fundampntal 
-Article. . i! ;r 

.v, There never was a Council, fincc thc 
/times of the Anoftolick Purity, that. )ia$ 
99| determined iomethi^g or other in prer 
.:., judicc 

- - *1 

|tjdide |of the true Religion, which ; was cor- chap. A 
ruptedtptoportlonably to the fniqu ency ofcxv\l 
Synods; wherfc no Doftrine, ,tho ever fo 
fcbfurd,; and which Men fingly , perhaps 
iWou d have been afham d to maintain, Was 
not long boggl d at^ provided it was fuf* 
ficiently adapted to their Intereft* witnefs 
all the Popifh Tenets, fo very Unaccounta 
ble, that the Clergy, except they had been 
affernbrd in Council, Where Numbers coun 
tenance one another, and where they have 
the Pretence of the Spirit to fanftify what* 
per; they do, durft not have attempted to 
impofe them oh the People. 
^ 5J. Tis n6 wonder that the Clergy mag 
nify: Synods at fo great a rate, fince there 
were no Dodrines which advanc d the 
Power Ecclefiaftical, or created a Reverence 
to the Clergy, the Contradiftion whereof 
Was ; not made Herefy by fome Council 
or othdr, and the Emperors oblig d to 
punifh the Hercticks with Delth or B&+ 
riifhment. And at laft it came to that pafs t 
that Princes and States, unlefs they purg d 
their Dominions of all the Clergy call d 
Hereticks, were excommunicated and in* * 
terdidied^ and their Subjects let loofe upoa 
em: Infomuch that to a ftriou^ andcOnfi* 
dering.Perfon there was nothing fo dange^ 
roiis as to en^ui^e concerning his own Sal 
tation of the Holy Scripture^ the carelefs 
cold Ghfiftian was fate, and the skilful Hy 
pocrite a Saint* 

r 6* If any thirfk this partial^ let eiri Only 
confrder, That the greatcft part of Man- , * 
1, in their feveral Callings and Profel* 

(ions, are too- apt to prefer their private 
Intereft before any Motive whatfoever, 
especially when they aft ,in Bodys t for 
then Reputation and Honour, Shame and 
Diferace, which frequently influence fingle 
Perfons, quite lofe their Force y and no 
Good can be expefted from em, where the 
publick Intereft and their own are not the 
lame. 1 And- confequently, what jcan,be 
hop d from Aflemblys of Priefts, : whofe 
private Intereft, as it is . dimctrically op* 
polite to that of the People, fo their Sy 
nods have been, generally fpeaking, 1 com* 
pos d of the moft Ambitious, the moft 
Crafty, and moft Defigning^ better vers d 
in the Arts of Flattering and Fawning on 
great Men, than in the Knowledg of Re* 
ligion ? , : 1 

7. By the account the Orthodox give of 
the many Ariun Councils, one wou d think 
they were fpeaking of Devils and not of 
Men } and by what remains of the^riViv 
Writers, tis plain they are not behind with 
the others. . 1 1 :i.... 

But there s no need of having recourfc 
to them*, for the moft partial Hiftorians 
of their own fide give fuch a Relation of 
their Conduft (too notorious it feems to be 
concealed, and too foul to be difguis d) as 
makes em appear not much better. . - : 

8. That- tis poflible for Councils to aft 
after this manner, we have the Confeflion 
of an Englljl) Synod, who acknowlcdg, as 

ff. o/H. taught by Experience, u That there is not, 

f. 417." nor can beany thing in the World more 

c< peftilent or pernicious to the .Commonr 

" wealth 

* Wealth bf Chriffiendom, or whereby the Chap. 

<c Truth of Goers Word hath in tirtles VXVV 

41 paffy or hereafter , may be foOner de- 

<c we d and fubverted, or whereof may* 

44 enfue more Contention of Bifcbrd, "or" 

u other Devilifh Effeds, than when Ge-> 

" . neral- Councits have, or (hall hereafter ( 

**; be; aflembled, not Chriftianly nor Cha- 

44 ritably, ! but for and updn private Malice 

"and Ambition, dr other worldly or* car- 1 

<c ,nal ConfideratiohS. : 

And this Opinion they tonfirm by, the , 
Authority of St. Gregory jNa&driienj who ; 
in his Letter to Procopiut tell? him, Tod ti 
" That he fled all Alfertiblys 6f Biftiops, E P- 4* 
C< A becaufb he never faw ^ good and happy 
44 End of any Council, but that they did 
u rather increafe than lefTen the Evil ; that J 
ct the LbVe .of Contention and Ambition 
a always overcome^ their ] Reafon; Nazji* 
anzcrfs Judgment is the mor^tobe fega rd- 
ed, becaufe twas the Rfefult of frequent" 
Trial and long Experience i for he had 
been at feveral Councils, particularly at the 
General and Creed-making one of Confan-^ 

And that this was hh fixt Opinion, is 1 
plain from his fo very frequently fepea tingf 
it, aS he does ^ in leveral of his Letters, igtkf j ^ 
and in his Poetick Pieces, where he a^ain?^ 74; 
declares his Refolution u of never going to fcg to* 
44 any Council, becaufe nothing is to be 
* 4 heard there but Geefe and Cranes, who 
u fight Without underftanding one ano^. 
44 then There one inay fee Divifions, 
Qitarrels, and fhameful THings/ which 
O l 4I 


4t were hid before^ and are .collected into 
u one place with cruel Men- x-, 

p. If there ever was a Couqql which 
afted upon oth(;r Principles, there is little 
doubt it was /the, Firft and Qecumenl* 
cal one of Nici: " W^ich yet, -as Mr. 
Mtrutl juftly bbferves, u was a pitiful 
u human Bufinefs, attended with all the 
** ill Ciroimftances.of other . worldly AfX 
" fairs, conduced by. a Spirit -,bf AmbL* 
<c tion and Contention; the firft, and fo 
" the gtpteft Oecumenkal ?l,ow, that by 
4t Chriftians was given to Chriftigins." It 

,: . c S;Was, fays he ? their Impofitibn of a^ new; 
.^^ Article or Creed upon t;he t Cl?nftiaa 
" v World, not bqng contain^ in exprefa 
cc , ..Words of Scripture, to ; be bejiev d 
u t jWitH Divine Faith, .under Spiritual and 
U Civil Penaltys ? V contrary to the Priyi-, 
*1 leges of Religion ; and their /making a 
^.Precedent, follow d- ; and improvM by all 
c V,fucceeding Ages, for moft cruel Perfecu- 
cc tions, which only cou d , animate, mq. 
"Jn, digging thus for a new, Deduction, 
cc .,they undermin d the Fabrick , of Chrifli- 
ct an n *ty: To frame a particular Doftrine> 
" they departed frpnrthe general Rule of 
ct their Religion, and violated bur Saviour s 
v i, i firft Inftitution of a Church, not fubjeft 
ct to any Additions in matters .cf 

. . * c nor liable to Compulfion, , , ! . ... 
..ID. ; T^p which mav be, added, TJiat 
Dodtrine ,of thofe lathers was inoi^ thaft 
there s only one piyine EfTence in Kumr 
ber, but in Kind; as is mofteyidentj troiu 
CvrctlltWj Cudworth) & Glerc^ 


tt% ? ^, and feveraif others , ^n^ tiii a Chap. 6. 
word,, the fame which . the Heads , of ;tne 
Univerfity of Oxford not. long tfnce <fon- 
dednM as ,Falfe, Impious and Heretical* 
Tho this muft be faid for that Synod, that 
in all probability they had riot declared them- 
felves of this Opinion, had they not been 
cto feted by , the Emperor^ who, as Eufe- 
Hits fays, cbnfcr d .with them apart, cwrt 

cufly and mildly ttllirir ern whatrvas bis 
-~ J ./.. />! *., A v i ii . 
Opinion of the Matter^ after he had pati- 

ently lijlen d to every one^ and took every one*s 
Ofimon without the Acnrhony "frith which it 
TDM Deliver* d\ helping each Party where they 
di (agreed, and reconciling *em hy^ degree^ 
when they were in the fierccft Contention, A nd 
jn all likelihood, tne great Pains he ibolk 
both in publick and private to brin^ eiti to 
his Sentiments (not to 1 mention the noble 
Entertainment he gave em all 1 the; while) 
liad no fmall Influence upon em. And this 
ought the rather to be belicv d, becaufe 
when left to themfelvesj they were of a 
different Opinion \ as at the Syiiod of By- 
ihiniaj held fome time before the Council 
of Nice^ and at Antiocti in the yeai" 325^. 
and at Tyre 334. where no fmall number 
of Bilhops from Egypt^ lybiaj A fa and 
Europe^ were aflembld. And with thefc 
agreed the Bifhops who met zijerufalcmj 
and afterward at Conftantinoplc, where they 
were preparing a Council to examine a- 
frefh the Matter agitated at Nice J and 
had appointed a Pay. to. difcourfe of it, 
and to conduft Arim into the Church, 
.having before depos d AthanapM , and 
O 3 caus d 

Tfc fl&lto of the . 

pau$tt the Emperor to banilh hip to 

If he Nlcene Father^ did not fubfcribe 
the Creed out of Complement to the Erjipc- 

1 for, but becaufe they underftood what they 

.did ; what made them fall fo foul upon one 
janother $bout the meaning of it, parti 
cularly of the word Confubfttntlal? Whofe 
flecrattt, Quarrels, the Hiftorian fays, did no ill re- 
. ( * c. a. ftmble a Combat in the dark, where they be- 
fpatter d one another with Calumnys, whe- 

, tner they had caufe or not, 

ii. But were this fo or no, tis certain 
J;hey gave up their Creed not long after 5 

v ami at the Council of Ariminum (double 
jn number to that of Nice) they all fign d 
the Arlan Confeffion; fo much did they 
value their Ejifhopricks above their Faith : 
tho at ffice there were feventeen who took 
a contrary Method, and chofe rather to 
fart with their Preferments than Confci- 
ences. Which, confidering their ConduQ: 
jn thofe days, feems to b^ almoft Incredi 
ble f for tho they were jnoft pbftinate as 
to Pow?r, they were moft flexible as fo 
Faith, and in their Councils complemented 
the Emperors with whatfoever Creeds they 
had a mind to, and never fcrupl d to re 
cant what they had before enafted, or to 
re-rendft what before they had recanted. 
Nay, fb very variable were they, that St. 
Hilary Bilhop of PoiEFicr* fays ( as Mr. 
Marvel obfefves) tc Thai fince the Niccne 
** Synod we do nbthing but write Creeds ; 
* 4 that while we fight about Words, while 
J we taife Queftions about ISJoveltys, while 

ffiiftian Church j &c, tpp 

" we quarrel about things doubtful, andChap/<f. 
" about Authors, while we contend in Par- c/y VJ 1 ) 
" tys, there s almoft none that s Chrift s. 
" We decree every year of the Lord a new 
".Creed concerning God , nay, every- 
44 Change of the Moon our Faith is ai- ; 
" ter d. We repent of our Decrees, we , 
44 defend thofe who have repented of them , J 
" we anathematize thofe we defended-: or 
"while we condemn other Mens Opinions: 
44 in our own, or our own in thofe of other . 
" Men, and bite at one another, we are all 
14 of us torn to -pieces. 
,12. Mr. Le Clerc^ than whom- there he-- 
ver was a more impartial or abler Judg, < ir.i ;, 
gives us a fhort yet lively pidure of theie .mt*V-y 
times: 4C Weak Princes, as far from being Arstrjtic. 
" Good as Wife, aflTembl da.pack of pal-ap/S^* tJ 
" try Greets, who had fpent their Lives 
44 in the Art of Cavilling about Ayords, 
w - without the leaft knowledg in Things *, 
C4 fo very fond of wrangling, , that they ^ 

" we re eternally in - Feuds among them- 
" felves. To thefe were added fome few 
14 front the Wcft^ more ftupid and ignorant 
"indeed, but not a whit more honeft^ 
" who-after much fcandalous Quarrelling, /-..i ;/ 
44 did at laft by their own Authority efta- J - * 
44 blifh certain unintelligible Propofitions, 
i in fuch Terms as were for the moftf 
a part very improper, which the Vulgar 
u implicitly reverenc d as moft Heavenly 
C Truths. This, as fevere as it feems t 
is fofter than what the great. Epifiopius 
fays of thofe Councils, that they were 
kd on by Fvry t FattlonnnAAfadflcfs.. And 
O 4 what 

too Ik fl&ift of 

We <f what Dr. Tifotfin fays pf that Counpll 
Fdtb, p. w hi c h the Papifts call the feventh General 
* $* * One, Tlta* if ^ Central Council of jltheifts 
had nut together, with 4 Defign to afofff Reli 
gion, by talking ridicvloujly concerning *V, they 
coud not have done i> more effectually^ may 
be apply d not to a few other Councils even 
long before that time. 

13.1 have been the longer on this point, 

becaufe fojne Men think they cannot pay 

too great a difference to the Authority of 

the Holy Synods of thofe times; tho in 

truth there s fcarce any thing (as the ju- 

dicious Dr. Wake obferves) in Antiquity, 

r 4**lnrty * which either more cxpos d our Chriftian 

rfcbrift, " Profeffion heretofore, or may more de-< 

frmcet, u f erve our f er } ous Confideration at this 

f Wv 4 Vday, than the Violence, the Paffion, the 

<c Malice, the Falfenefs, and the Oppref- 

<c lion, which reign d in moft of thofe Sy- 

* nods held by Conftant ine firft, and after 

* him by the following Emperors- upon 

u the occafion of the Arian Gontroverfy% 

c f Bitter are the Complaints which we are 

u told that great Emperor made of them* 

? The Barbarians^ fays he in a Letter. tQ 

$owmcn, ct one of them, for foar of us,; w^rfliip 

t ?,c.a?.^ God^ but we mind- what oj^iy tnds> to 

4C Hatred^ .to piiTeniion, in, on<? word, to 

u ,-thc Dcftrnftioa o Ma,nkiud. An4 if 

thofe Acdufations a l nd . Libels, which .th 

?ifliops;at f thc Couucil. of Nice gav^iin of 

one another to the Emperor, were { pow 

extant, in all probability we fhould have 

fuch Rolls of Scandal, that none wou 4 

have much reafon to boaft of the firft Qe r 

. " . cumcnical 

oun?niil Council^ where with fuch 
Paffton and Fury, the Bifliopsfell foul 
one, another iafomuch that had not the> 
Emperor by a triqk; burnt; their Church*. 
McfWrirthi probably, they muft have broke* 
up, in Confufion. And after that; Council* 
was over, thq Bifhops made fo great a> 
buttle, and difturbance, and were fo unrujy^> 
that the good Emperor was fojxfd to 
? euk a That if they wou d. not : be more ittC <", 
ct quiet and peaceable- for the future ? 
^cotfd; no longer continue; hi$ Expedi 
^ againft the Infidels, but xnult \a nwcfy 
<c . more difficult Task) return to keep then$ 
ct ..i|i Order. And indeed the Confufjori 
an<i Diforder was fo great amongf^ em, e& 
pecia,fly in their Synods, thatit : fometimcs 
came, to Blows ^ as for inftance, IXofcwtu 
^ilhop of Alexandria, cufid and kick d 
FLtpiartw Patriarch of Conftantlnoflc (at 
the fecond Synod of Efhcfut) with that 
Fury, that within three days .aftsr h* 
dy d M. 

14. " The Writers of the fourth and 
ct fifth Centurys, as the Biftop of (b) Sarum 
acknowledges, u give us difmal Reprefen* 
tations of the Corruptions of their times ^ 
< c j^nd the fcandalous Inconftancy of the 
^ Councils of thofe Ages is too evident a 

; ftj Flavianum ad Apoflolicam fedem provocan^ 
tern Diofcorus faftus ex Epifcopo carnifcx, tot pugnij 
calcibufque contundit, uc pofl criduum in cxilio gra? 
yifTtmo pbgarum dolorc confliftatus obierit. L Abv. 
Condi. T. 4. Col. 5. 

; ffj\ -toffitim tf tfo *ttkJrtfd*t jjag, 535? , . ; 1 

44 Proof 

aofc - The Qtjgktt of the 

"* Proof bf what we find fiid by the go6d 
44 Men of thofe days. But things fell lower- 
** and lower in the fucceeding Ages : it was 
4 < an amazing thing, in the very Office of 
confecrating Bilhops, Examinations are 
44 order d concerning thofe Crimes^ the very 
44 mention of which gives Horror $ Dccoitu . 
44 nun Mdfculo^ Cfr* cunt Qvadrvffdibw. 
Wf i: i<. If the early Councils were none of ; 
"*! f , l [ ,|the belt, thofe which fucceeded em became j 
. - v worfc, and never left undermining the* 
Chriftian Religion, till by degrees they de-^ 
ftroy d the Eflence of it, and in its place 
introduced Popery; which cannot be de- 1 
ny d to be all Prieftcraft, from the Be- J 
ginning to the End : or (to make ule : 
of Andrew Maw eft words) r u Popery) 
4C is the moft iufolent Attempt upon the; 
" Credulity of Mankind ; an Abftradt of 
** whatfoever is fjjoft ridiculous and -im- 
" pious in other Religions, incorporated 1 " 
ic with peculiar Abfurditys of its own ; 
44 and all this deliberately contriv d, know- 
44 ingly carry d on by bold Impofition of 
44 Pnefts, and under the name of Chriftia- 
44 nity. 

1.6. Had Councils been as frequent with 
Proteftants, and the Clergy trufted with 
as much Power as among the Papifts, we 
fhould in.. all probability have very little 
to objeft to them. And tis ftrange that - 
Proteftants, when they fo evidently faw 
that the Chriftian Religion was abomina 
bly deprav d by felf-interefted Pcrfohs af- 
fembl d in Synods, did not forbid all fuch 
Meetings i efpecially fince the chief pre- 


tyriftian Church, &c. i pj 

$ence for convening em feems to be Popift, Chap. 6. 
. v/i. tojudgof religious Matters, not eve- <- -VN- 
t y one for himfelf, but (as tho Truth were, 
to be found out by a Poll) the Majority for 
the whole Aflembly, nay for the whole Na 
tion : and their Buiinefs is not to convince 
Mens Judgmens, by offering Reafons for 
or againft Opinions (for that they might 
better do by Writing, without being af- 
fembl d) but Authoritatively and Judicially 
to approve or condemn them, and to ex 
communicate thole who will not fubmit to 
their Determinations. 

17. Tho fuch Aflemblys were not abo- 
lifh d in England upon the Reformation , 
and perhaps the only Reafon was the Cler 
gy s taxing themfelves in Convocation , 
yet their Power was fo curtail d by A& ofa$H.t. 
Parliament, that they could not attempt 
any thing without the King s Licence firfb 
obtainM : And whether fome Attempts of 
late, without fuch a Licence, have not in- 
yolv d certain Pcrfons in a Prefflunire, is 
not my bufinefs to inquire. And yet as 
much as their Power is cramp d, no fmall 
number of the moft eminent of em very 
ingenuoufly confefs, That fuch Aflemblys 
are not much for the Advantage of Reli 
gion. That the late excellent Archbifhop 
was of this Opinion, the Author of the 
Letter to the Convocation-man will bear me Pag. 8. 
tvitnefs ; and the prefent Bifliops are cen- 
fur d by the High Fliers as concurring in 
the fame Sentiments. And Dr. Wake ( 
by his exemplary Life fliows his Zeal 
Religion, and for the Church by his excel- &c - 

*< i . -, r !,!: I 

ioi y^^i^^/V^^ 

>.,,.Ieni Defence 6F it againft Popery iiTths 
moft dangerous Times) exprefly declares^ 
" That nothing at this day preferves us 
<fc from Ruin and Defolation, but that we 
u (the Clergy) have not Power of our felve* 
c< to do the Church a Mifchief , and the 
u Prince who fees too much of our Tern? 
ct per, is too Gracious to us, and has too 
u great a Concern for the Church s Good ? 
u to fuffer us to do it. And this is no 
Eec!.Po!it. more than what Bifhop Parker affirms, of 
p, 53. former Councils, in faying, " Had it not 
" been for Chriftian Princes, Chriftianity 
" in all human probability had been de- 
" ftroy d by its own Tumults and Sedi- 
4C tions. 

jn 1 8. Had a Prince a mind to ruin a Church 
unperceiv d, nay to be thank d into the 
bargain, tis only allowing a Convocation 
liberty to fit as long as they pleafe, an(J 
to make what Articles they think fit: 
For tho,. like my Lord Tvmonfs Cocks, 
they might at firft feem all of a fide, yet 
no fooner can they be put together, than 
they will fpur at one another j and, being 
infinitely fond of their own Conceits, 
frame them into Articles, and To divide 
and fubdivide a Church till it crumbles at- 
moft into nothing. This, with their ex 
traordinary Conduft, which the difFerent 
Partys will not fail to expofe to the 
World, will in all probability conipleat its 
Ruin. And whether fome Mens Zeal in 
the late Reign for the Convocation to ft 
,, and do Bufinefs, did proceed from any fuch 
Motive, I JhaU not determine-, tho they 



Were the mpft <Ufa0e&ed;;t$:the 
tion, who, made, the greateft; noife; about 
it;. What; Gopd can be expcfted from the 
Meeting pf ;Mco, < c when; their 
"are, as an, Author juft now cited 
/* let looie, and their Minds 
4 < when their Ijntereft and Defigns, their 
** Friends- and their Partys,> nay their very 
* Judgments and Principles, lead em difiei 
& rent ways,, and they agree , in no thing Ib 
^5 much ^s Wng, very peevilh and very an^ 
c * gry with one another ? when their very 
c ^ Reafon i$ deprav d, and they judg. not 
c ^ According to, Truth and Evidence, but 
C 5 with refped to Perfonsvand everyone 
.* oppofes what another of a different Per* 
*V fuafion moves or approves of? 

( ip t AjS { .tp ( tb5 Pretence of Synods being 
ijifjuenc d by the Holy Spirit, I need only 
&y, That th^ir Conduft is a fufficient De* 
monftraUpn to the contrary, fince thofe 
Benign which are the Produdl of 
that Spirit, are likelier to be found any 
where el fe .than in fuch Aflemblys^.-and 
twou d be ftrange if Divinity (hou d chufe 
to dwell where Humanity was feldom to be 
found. Can the Holy Spirit be fuppos d 
t;o influence Councils, which contradid 
on^. another fo much, that there have; been 
tpw or no Queftions of any moment (ba^ 
ting what; they fay of their own Power) 
Agitated irv them, which have not rccciv d 
oppofite.pc.tqvpiinatioos,? This is fo no^ 
, torious, v^h^t-A nous > who is the leaft ac- 
1 . ; w,|th : Church-Hiftory, but. muft 
, Cl ifee plain-* 

^ */ 

io* : The 

Of the to, fy f and with my own Eyes, that thertf 
/Jg/onof tc are popes againft Popes, Councils againlt 
dul &, <* " Councils, fome Fathers againft others, 
the fame Fathers againft themfelves, a 
" Confent of the Fathers of one Age a- 
. < ".gainft the Confent of the Fathers of 
<c another Age, the Church of one Age 
u againft the Church of another Age. Is| 
it not the way to have a Curfed Church", 4 
if the Clergy, for inftance, in one Council 
fliall curfe and anathematize all who wor- 
ihip Images, and quickly after in anothef 
curfe all who will not worfhip *em ? How 
did ^he Clergy curfe themfelves at the 
Council of Ctlcedon for what they did at 
the Council of fphefus ? And after thaV 
how frequently did they declare for ana 
againft the Council of Calcedon^ and feldom, 
without bitterly curfing themfelves? Scv 
that the Religion of the Clergy of that Age^ 
feems moftly to have confided in Curling : 
and tis well if it had been of that AgeonlyV 
fince there s fcarce a Man in being, Who is- 
not under the Anathema of fome Canon of. 

20. Can the Holy Spirit be fupposM to 
dwell with thofe, who, as in the Cafe of 
Evtyches and Neftorius^ for different Terms* 
only, fet the Chriftian World in flames, 
and made fuch a Division as remains to 
this very day ? Tho tis much the laft 
fhou d be treated as a Heretick, after his 
Orthodox Zeal had made him fay to Thco- 
Socwtlib. dofiu* the Younger,- Give me^ O Empe* 
7. c. 29. rrr, the Earth weeded from HereflckS) and / 
in my turn will give you Hwvtni deftroj 


me the f/tretich, and JwifcJeJhny ffoChap. 
Perfiahs with ydui ; Have not Councils been 1/v 
either Imf trial. Engines Or Papal Machines ? 
And had: they ^hot all along as gteat a De* 
ference ,for thofc >who cou d rewahl em V 1 
belly as the Synod Bifhop-7dy/<r mertf 
lions had fori their Prefidents, who haV 
ing at the upper end pronounc d I)Arnn*mw\ 
f they at the lower end waking at the Noife; 
heard tjie latter part of the Word, and con- 
cur d^as far i&mnamM went? which, fays 
he, was as good as Damn*mtv:;for if theji^ . 
had been, awake at; pronouncing the whole 
jWord, they wou d have given 5 entenceac-; 
- cordingly. i;i-:- J - - - : t :J - <: 
: 21 1 What) can ive think of the Com- 
plaifance of -a Synod at Alexandria to StJ 
tfketphfluf their Patriarchy who not only 
aflifted ; the Antrhopotnorphite Monks in Socrat. lib. 
,murd ering all their Brcthreri-whb deny d God 6. c. 7, . 
had a Booy-and Human Shape, biit got thisf 
Couiicil to condemn Orige*^ who lield thc^ 1 1 ^ 
contrary Opinion, 200 years after his death? 
and all this contrary to his own Senti 
ments, only to gratify his Malice on fomc 
innocent Monks who never did him the 
leaft. Injury.- 1 . So that Men are not always 
condemn d for the fake of Opinions, but 
Opinions fometimes for the fake of Men, . :JT , 
and poflibly much oftnefthan is imagined : ;, , 
and there s no fmall Party now who have . v 
conceiv d fuch an Antipathy to a certain 
Bifhop,.that in all probability they wou d - ua " 
1 not fcruple to condemn him, tho he ha4 
made the Articles, inftead of writing an 
Expofition upon them. ot { 

M. If 

; . 22. If Council* had teea .govef nM by the 
Holy Spirit, the more they were left tb 
themfclves, the lefs Diforder and Gpafu- 
fion wou d happen amongft em: .biitthe 
S^uf Pv/endsrf amoAg others fays, u That 
PQJ+* the Direftkm and Pirefidentfliip of Ectld- 
fiaftical Afleriiblys muft belorig to the 
? \ *V Magiftrate, that extravagant Heats, and 
ic immoderate Paffions > may be abated; 
" and Matters Hot ftrctch d ,too far, out df 
<c , a Foridnefs ;of Contradiftion ; nor any 
" one by a -malicious Intefpretation of hte 
^ Ci Words or Opinions fall into Slanders ofr 
*< Cenfures : and that the firft Chriftian 
<c Emperors, in not exercifing this their 
. *> Right, , cccafionM great Gonfiifion in 
*C.ibme (jouncils. Bilt .the eternal Wran>- 
cling of the Bifhop? .tvas fufEcient to 
,, ;7 . . Alright more . patient Perfons than the Em* 
^ Aperors or thqir Deputys from attending 
on that Affair } and therefore twas not 
5ocwt.Hb.fl:range that-Lwfctt,. who reprefented the 
P. 0.48. Emperor Conftans^ bid the Bilhops, upon 
(heir defiring him to return to the Aflem- 
bly, go fTAte And trifle in the Church without 

23. To fay all on this Head which cou d 
be faid, wou d be to write a Hiftory of 
Councils, and tranfcribe their Canons-, one 
Adrian / O f w hj c h J^ That no Man ought to receive 
^JfcSS!*** Teflimovy of a Layman againfl * Clergy* 
Vtbllflfdly***** 1 c u d not fay lefs, fmce even a* 
Canefms. loong. thofe who in words deny the Infalli* 
fcility of Councils, there are too many who 
ia faft ow/n it, by endeavouring to im* 
pofe oa us things which have no JEtounda* 
: tion 

tyriftian ;Cbtttc1>j &c. jop 

lion cither in Scripture or Reafonj nay are Chap. 6* 
ifometimes contrary to both, on their bare L/*v%J. 
Authority , which ferv d formerly as an An- 
fwer to all Objections. It was this made 
Jccrattt fay, That tho ; the Fathers at Nice Eccf. HifK 
Jwcre *$ fimple and ignorant as the Bifltop o/He- 
raclca reprefented 9 em } yet being guidetl vy the 
Light of Grace^ they corfd not depart from 
Truth; and the Monks at Jcrufalcrft m theNiccphor; 
Reign of, AntftafiM Diconu declare^ ^ That Ex:d. Hid. 
u th^ four Councils were to be join d with 
<c the Sacred Books; and they pronounce 
4t . an Aaathejma againft all who equal em 
. c< > ixot with the four Evangelifts \ and tell 
u the Emperor, that for that caufe they 
u will contend even to Blood. 
/ 24. How ; fhall we know which Sicfe the 
Holy .Ghoft chufes^ when .Councils com- 
pos d, as with us, of diftinft Bodys, differ 
among themfelves? And fuch a Queftion 
may properly enough be ask d, fince we 
have no reafon to think that Synods now 
are not as much guided by the Light of 
Grace as formerly : For tho the Clergy at 
prefent, for Reafons obvious enough, ex 
tol the Councils of antient Times above any 
now-a-days in this degenerate Age ot the 
Church, as they call it j yet he who confi- 
. ders one as well as t other,- will fee little 
Reafon for this mighty Preference, and upon 
the whole be induc d to think that tho Reli 
gion may have undergone a great many 
Changes, yet the Spirit and Temper of the 
Clergy, whether in or out of Convocations, 
generally (peaking* is ; to their immortal 
, Honour ftiil the fame. 

P *5< A 


iio The ^btsof 

Oj the true 35. A Learned and Judicious Author 
off tt It was not unnatura i i n the Begin- 

r " nin s 8 of !** Rei s n -f ***** VI - and 

<c Queen Elizabeth, to think the Lords and 
" Commons were better Judges of Reli-. 
u gion than the Bifhops and Convocation- 
w houfe. And the Reafon he gives for it 
is, cc That the whole Body can have no 
" finifter End or Intereft to blind em^ 
ct but the whole Clergy, which is but a 
44 Part of the whole Body, may: and 
cc therefore the whole Body is to judg 6f 
"this. But this Reafon will make the 
<c Parliament, not only then but always, 
u better Judges of Religion. Nay, what 
he adds, will make the meaneft Layman as 
good a Judg as the greateft JPrieft : for he 
fays, "the meaneft Man is as much intc- 
tt retted and concerned in the Truth of 
" Religion, as the greateft Prieft j for tho 
u his Knowledg thereof be not in all re- 
u fpeds equally eafy, yet in fome refpefts it 
< cc may becafier. For want of Learning does 
cc not fo much hinder the Light of the 
cc Layman, as worldly Advantage and Fac- 
" u tion fometimes does the Priefts \ and the 
"Examples of thefe are infinite -(which 
fhows tis more than fometimes) " Cor- 
cc Tuption in the Church before our Saviour, 
ct and in our Saviour s Days and ever fince, 
"* c has oftner begun among the greateft 
*" Priefts, Rabbies and Bifhops, than among 
cc - the meaneft Laity. 

( 26. To this let ine add, .that had Synods 
: bcen compos d ofLaymen, ftOAevof^hofe 
Corruptions which favour of ! PHeftcraft, 

(A ^ A * 

^ !* v and 

(Jhriftian Church, &c. ill 

and, tend to advance the Intereft of the Chap. 6*- 
Clergy, and to deprefs that of the People, 
wou d have been brought into the Church. 
And what Depravation is there eftabiifh d 
in any Church whatfoever, which does not 
do this, either directly or indirectly, im 
mediately or mediately? And what other 
Jleafpn is there why the Church of England 
is fo jure, than that the Laity had the chief 
hand m Reforming it ? 
" 27. A the Clergy, tho few in compare 
fon of the Laity, were the Inventers, Con 
trivers, and firft Broachers of Corruptions; 
fo op. the contrary, wherefoever any Re 
formations have happen d, they have been 
carry d on ty the Laity in oppofition to 
the Body of the Clergy : For tho perhaps 
there, were here and there a fewfo honeft 
as to prefer the Truth before their Inte 
reft "j yet the Majority of the Qlergy have 
always been agaihft all Alterations for the 
better- . And if a JVtan examines the State 
ofjChriftenflflw, he will find that the more 
they .have in any .Nation abounded irr 
Number, Power, and Riches, the more 
Religion Jhas .been deprav dV and. on. the 
contrary, the lets Power and Riches they 
Jujye had, and the fewer their Numbers 
jiave been, the more )t has been prejTery d 
pure and intire: ^ts if io keep it fo, : no.- 
tfijine- jnore had .been requir d, than not 
to ajjoyir the Priefts fufEcient Cleans to ,cor- 

lit ; 77* <%igbtr of t\>t ) 

Number, Power and Riches of the Clergy 
are greater there ? And this you will .find 
vifibly true, hi comparing era one with a- 

28. And as there is a vaft Difpropor* 
tion in thefe refpefts between the Popifh 
and Proteftant Clergy, fo Religion in the 
lalt is proportionably purer. And will 
not the fame hold in comparing Proteftant 
Countrys one with another ? For can it 
be denyM, that where the Power, Intereft, 
and Authority of the Clergy is at the 
lowcft ebb, there is not only lefs of thofc 
Diabolical Vices, Hatred, Malice, Anim6- 
fity, Perfecution, e^c. and in the room of 
thefe, more of the Angelical Virtues of 
Love, Charity, Friendfliip, Benignity, <#T; 
but Men are lefs Immoral, Leud, Vicious, 
JDebauch d, and Irreligious \ and have more 
of Sobriety, Frugality, Induftry, and all 
other moral and focial Virtues? 

25;. And tis no wonder, becaufe too ma 
ny, in order to advance their Intereft, 
.teach Men to layfo much ftrefs on things 
which no ways influence a goo.d Life ; to 
which. Impertinences the more regard Men 
have, the lefs they attend the Dutys of 
Morality : and therefore the great Keg- 
led of it among the Heathens as well as 
Chriftians, muft be imputed to their 
Priefts, in perfuading em to place Religion 
in Rites, Shows, Ceremonys, and other 
indifferent Things ; which iince Men can 
pra&ife without controuling their darling 
Paflions, they will be fure religioufly to 
obfejye, to make amends for indulging 
4 them* 

y &c I 

the-mfelves in their belov.ed Vices,- 
daily if they arc perfuaded fuch things are 
expiatory or Sins: and therefore tlie mod 
Superfluous Nations have always been the 
moft Immoral, Andonewou d think they 
had no other potion of Religion than 
that it was, as defia d by a late Author, 
<An Expedient which Men had found out tp 
faisfy thcvtfelves that Godwai faitffA with 
fhcm^ tho , they ncglcttcd the common arid fLiin 
-putys of Morality. 4 , , * -j 

30, And if it were not fo nowadays 
.with too many, what s the reafon, that if a 
Man, tho ever fo vicious, be but a great 
.Stickler , for the Church in fafhion^ that 
good Quality alone fhall (like Charity) not 
only hide a multitude or Faults^, .but too 
often fan^ify the greateft Villanys>n4 
Jmpletys? Therefore your immoral Mea 
feldom fail to pretend a great Zeal for the 
Church, to atone for their realfinmity to 
.Religioa: And tis not ftrange, that Men 
under. i?9rfecution cou d not forbear com- 
plaking ? that they had f}Qt fo much Liberty 
toferve Gad^ as tlie Church s Friends had 
to ferve the Devil, . . f 

3-i... Tis Sir VfiKmfi^Tmflf* Obferva- 
. tion, That Religion, or rather the Pretence 
.to it, does the leaft mifchicf \^HolUnA\ 
. and the reafon is, becaiife the Clergy have 
lefs Power and Authority there, tna.n a,ny 
where elfe: Tho even tnere, whcivthpy 
had an Influence on the People ? anfl the 
,tates were guilty of fo much Imprudence 
as to call a Synod at Dort, ^hen Bitter- 
pcfs, Rancoir and Malice were infus d into 
P 3 meas 


mcns Minds, and by confequchce Difoiv 
ders and Tumults did abound, which had 
like to have intirelyr fubverted their Li- 
bertys: but by their fuffering no more 
Synods,, and carrying a ftrid hand ovef 
their Clergy, thefe by degrees wore off , 
(nothing being found more efTe&ual to keep 
a pragmatical Prieft- Within fome bounds, 
than the apprehenfioh .of having a Staff 
and a pair of Shoos laid at his door) So 
that now more Charity and Candour 
is to be found among Perfons of different 
Perfuafions there, than . any where be- 

32. The Synod of Tlort, tho call d be- 
Fore the Spirit of Reformation ran fo low, 
Jhows What little Good is to be expected 
From, fuch Meetings of Clergymen-, fince it 
only ferv dto increafe the Uncharitablenefs, 
Animofitys, and other Mifchiefs it was call d 
to prevent. 

And as the great Schifm about the Pre- 
^deftinarian Points, which has caus d fo 
jnuch Mifchief in the Vnited Provinces^ 
iand which was made ufe of by fome Men 
as a Handle to do more here, was whol 
ly owing to that Impofmg Synod ; fo all 
other Divifions on the account of Diffe 
rence in Opinions, which 1 go under the name 
of Schifmsand Hcrefys, flow from the fame 
dufe, the Clergy s jputting themfelves in 
the place of God, and requiring the fame 
Faith to their uncertain Inferences and du- 
bious Conclufions, as to the Divine Word 
it fclf. But> 

33- To 

tyriftian Church, &c: . , 115 

. 33: To look at home, nothing made fo Chap. 6. 
much way for the Reformation, as Henry <-^V>J 
Vlll s depriving the Clergy of fo great a 
Part of their Power and Riches. For as 
it was their abounding in thefe which k 
enabled /em to corrupt Religion, foit was 
their being ftript of them, which difabled 
em from continuing the Corruptions, or 
opppfing the Lay-Reformation. 
V Mr. Fox very juftly obferves, " That P. 97** 
a fhortly after the Overthrow of the 
" Pope, begun by little and little the 
u Ruin of Abbys and Religious Houfes in 
<c EngUnd, in a right Order and Method, 
c ; * ; by Qod s Providence : for neither cou d ( 
<c the Fall of Monaftcrys have followed af- 
** t^r, unlefs the SuppretTion of the Pope 
u had gone before; neither cou d any true* 
V Reformation or the Church have been 
4C attempted, unlefs - the Subverfion of the 
" Superftitious Houfes had been join d 
" therewith. And vet we have.thpfe of 
Jligh-Church, who fcruple not to condemn 
not pnly Henry VIII. for depriving the 
Clergy pf thefe Eftates,- but thofe who at 
prefeat poflcfs them, as guilty of Sacri 
lege for with-holding them from the 
Church ; tho taking Church in the Scrip* 
ture-Senfe, they are now in the hands of 
the Church, and have (ever fince the 
Church or People were poflefs d of *em) 
been a great Bulwark, againft Popery : 
but whilft the Clergy had em, they were 
a great Caufe of promoting and continuing 
.it} and confequently they who gave the 
JLflates to, rather than they who took 1 

P 4 cni * * 

(gM of the 

cm from the Clergy, were guilty of Sa 
crilege. And tis the Intereft of thoffc 
who now enjoy em, to oppofe ftch high 
Kotions, finceif thefe prevail, they are ia 
danger of lofirig thofe Eftates, and with 
em their Religion , which, as there s no 
Inftance of, fp tis impoflible it fhou d be 
preferv d uncorhipted in any !SIation 1 
where the Clergy have fuch powerful 
Means of ruining it. Therefore our Wick- 
cli/j and all others ferioufly aiming at a 
Reformation, have conftantly endeavour d 
to difarm the Clergy of thefe, as finding 
it abfolutely ncceflary to carry on their; 
pious Defigns ; in which if Luther abroad 
and our Reformers at home were mor6 
happy than others, it was becaufe they 
did not, like them, mifcarry in this Point. 
v This enabl d ? em to ftrike at the Foundation , 

of Popery and Prieftpraft, the Independen 
cy of t;he Clergy. 

34. Which thofe at the Helm here took 

all pofllble care to root out } and had 

they not done fo, twas impoflible the 

Reformation fhou d have been carry d on f 

fince the Clergy, generally fpeaking, were 

Enemys to it. And in the Beginning of 

Quepn Elizabeth s Reign, the Sees being full 

o~f Popifli Bifhops, and the Convocation, 

with Bcnnerat the head of it, oppofing all 

Alteration, the Reformation, to the greaf 

Scandal of the Papifts and High-Church ? 

may juftly be call d Lay or Parliamentary. 

Lfttci j 04 Had Men rcafon d at that time as fome 

Convoctth c ^ now-a-days, ct T ha tall Religious Doc- 

w-m^ " trmcs and Opinions ought to be left to 

P. 8. u thc 

JKJftitn Church, v &c. f r/ 

?* the Cb^o^tiorTas the, proper Judges vChap.rf* 
ic W that :CoUntry-Gei)tlemen, Lawyers, vXVNJ 
M ; M^rcha^ts,<^c. alTembledin Parliament} 
4>i bueht nb,t to prefunie to meddle 1 - witi 
t<r thofe Matters, 1 for want of a competent 
" Skill in Councils, Father^- Church-Hifi 
t;ory, ( Languages, e^c. irifteid of get 
ting clear, we muft have ftuek the fafte? -^ rt 
and deeper in the Mud ; #nd Filth of Po- * / 
pery. >i v>; v - n: >-.. o ^;;-y\ ; * 

- " 

35. Kot only in King Edvi^rf^ but - For -,- - -.. 
fome confiderable.tiine in Qi^en Elizabeth** ^ ^ - 
Reign, till. the Reformation was thorowly < " 
fettled, the Laity were very little influenced 
. by the Clergy, as having a very mean Opi* 
nion of their Learning, as well as Difcre- 
tipn^ and that not without good reafon, 
as appears by. the Queen s Injun&ions, 
which declare, That in thefe latter Days hjunS^j, 
vnapy were mtde Pricfts^ being Children^ and 
tthfrwlfe utterly unlearned } that they cotid 
not read: and that Mlmflers might read t* 
the better -underftanding of the People, they 
are all of 9 etn charged to read leifurely, plainly, 
and diftinftly. And fuch as are only mean 
Readers, are to perufc over before, once Injitnfi.t}. 
cr twice, the Chapters and Homilies. As 
to the Difcretionof the Clergy, the People 
muft needs have a mean Opinion of that, 
-when to prevent the Offence and Slander, 
which many Minifters caus d to the Church, 
both in chufing their Wives, and indif- 
creet living with em, it was thought very 
neceflary, under no lefs Penalty than an 
iitter Incapacity, That no manner of Prieft //ijwjff.a?; 
take to his Wife any manner of Woman, 
* without 


tbt Good Will of her Relations] or> 
\ JMafter *nd Mtftrefs where Jhe Jerves ) and 
tlfo the Advice and Allowance $rft had iff on 
rood Examination by the Bifiof and two neigh* 
pouring Jufticcs ; nor cou d the Bifhops them* 
felves marry without the Approbation of the 
Metropolitan and the Queen s Cpmmiflio* 
Dr. Lang- ners. And fo contemptible an Opinion had 
. the Nation of Academick Learning, that the 

* ^Vnivcrpties were in a, manner dcftitute^ the 

True Sub- Publick Schools being converted into private 

jcft to ^Garden-Plots. 

Rebel* 35. If under thefe Circumftances (for 
things were much the fame abroad as at 
home) the Proteftant Religion got the Af- 
cendant, one wou d have thought that 
popery mult have been quite extirpated, 
when the Proteftant Clergy came to be 

. * /profoundly learned in Fathers, Councils, 
Church-Hiftory, and to get an Influence 
and Authority over the Laity. But alas, 
the thing was quite otherwife-, for the 
Reformation, which like a mighty Torrent 
bore down every thing that Hood in its 
way, had not only its Current then fud- 
, ; \ denly check d, but it loft ground in feveral 
.Places, and in others it maintain d it fclf 
with great difficulty. And this great Turn 
t was owing to thofe abfurd Notions, which 
*tho difclaim d by. the firft Reformers, 
\vere by decrees, under the flicker of the 
! Authority or Fathers and Councils, intro- 
>duc?d again in favour of an Independent 
power, the Foundation on which the Great- 
nefs of Anticimftian Rome is wholly builp 
And therefore tis no wonder, that, conii- 


deriiig the Danger 1 of Popery has incte^d Chap. 
in proportion ico the Advancement of theft VXW> 
potions, tfrerc has all along been fo good 
an Uhderftanding, , tho at prefent greatci- 
thapever, between the Papifts and .High* , 
fliers. j" 

37. Let us from the Beginniiig of the Re- 
f6rmation afcend to that of Chriftiahity^ 
and fed how things were then mailagM. :> 
Then Churches by the Uws of the nf- 
pVe were incapable of poflefeig Lands Of 
Inheritances,aticl the Clergy,as they fubfiftcd 
by the Alms of the People, fbthey were in 
"all ither Maters, as I (hall fully ^oVe here- 

; When the^ nb longer dejieild^d on thdt 

t!H6ice, or tReir Alms, butdanrte to be n6- 

Jmiiiated by one Another, and to have Kei- 

Venues and Pbfleffiohs of their o\vn, which 

ietceffarity gaVc.-them Authbfity and Powcfr 

ih v jjroportibft t6 ? em, then Religion went 

"t6. Wj eck, arfd : they~abouncted with allman- 

J n er of Vices^ "Men running into Orders 

for the^fafe of Worldly Grandetor : andtdo 

. .many of ^emMd no regard to Religioi 1 ! , as 

j adivine!and exceBeht-Sciencey arid of real 

Benefit ,to Mankind, bothfingly, and in S6- 

^cletys, but th^y. ^Vthey ifrade it -a -Trade 

f( tb enrich tWmftlves and infatuate the 

-Vulgar./ *; 

38. Arid^the^Hron^hy in fomebaVr^ 
* " 

fome baVr^n 

"jP laces of * l>r t tfieh4kJBi Refiftioi^ not With- 
c< ihTidirie the. Ig fi^rauce of ^He People, -W^s 
!%tifc fo much aipt f av 7 d as fj ift -happier "GR- 
^ ;1L - - mates, 

c/rk >, 

; j - f . ) irtates, is bccaufe thofe Country s couM np<; 
fupport any great number of priefts, noj-be- 
ftow any .great Revenues on the tew they 
had $ and coafequ,ently thq Clergy Were not; 
*ble (nor was it fo much worth their while) 
to introduce or keep up Corruptions here 
-as elfewhere.- 

r Bcftdes, their Poverty was a further r Se T 
curity to em, byhindring ern frpm having 
Sufficient leifure to attend the v^iu and 
groundlefs, tho amufing and fubtle Diftinc- 
tions the Priefts coin in favour of an lade- 
pendent Power. And . therefore tis no 
.wonder that the greateft part pf 
Cbriftcndom had uioft fcandajoufly ^pprav i 
Religion, thofe who were term d the 
Poor Men of Lyons^ Waldenfes^ Atioigenfes^ 
&c. preferv d it in fomp tolerable degree of 
Purity. And they were fo far from fetting 
-up two Independent Powers, that they who 

i .officiated amongft em (as I ihall prove 

hereafter) were fuch as we term Laymen, 

.and generally of fome fecular Imployment, 

-fo that they were no burden to the Comma- 

nity. I do not therefore wonder that fuch a 

Precedent was fufficient to alarm the Pope 

and all his Adherents, andraife a Croifadp 

in order to extirpate this generation of 


3p. Had the Clergy been fuch every 
t where elf^, Religion (which is fliort, plain, 
andcafyin it felf, as adapted to the apa- 
r-city of the Generality of Mankind, the 
Simple and Unlearned) had not been ren- 
der^d fo obfcure, perplex d an<J intricate, 
^ nor mixt and blenoed with fo many pro 


found and ufelefs Metaphyfical Notions, Chap.*, 
and abftrufe^ nice and needlefs Specula- < 
tions , the Introduftion of which requir d 
a great deal of Labour and Pains, Art and 
Skill, rind cou d not be contriv d by plain 
fimple Men, who had other Callings to 
mind, but mult be the Work of thofe who 
liv d at cafe, and were matters of their 
whole time-, who faw how much it was 
their Intereft to render Chriftianity Per* 
plex d and Unintelligible, that the Laity 
might not only admire em for their deep 
Knowledg in Religion, but likewife leave 
it wholly to their Management, as being in* 
finitely above their poor Capacitys, and ber 
yond their weak Apprehenftons. 

40. Which Defign fucceeded accordingly f 
and thefe profound Theologues impos d on 
the eafy People what felfilh Doftrines they 
pleas d. 

And to prevent their perceiving how 
groflythey were abus d, on pretence of in-, 
forming their Underftanding, they indu- 
ftrioufly kept em in ignorance, by amu- 
fing em with artificial Cant and learned 
Gibberifh, made up of obfcure, doubtful, 
and undefin d Words: by virtue of which 
they can defend any advantageous Doftrine, 
thoever fbabfurd^ fince it ferves cm to 
confound, not only the Ignorant and Men 
of Bufinefswith hard Words, but to im- 
ploy the Ingenious and Inquifitive in intri 
cate Difputes, upon unintelligible Terms, 
and hold them perpetually entangl d in an 
cndlefs Labyrinth of Words. And there 
fore tis ao woadcr that fuch Learfting (if 


Ill .Tie Qttgfa of 

it may deftrve that najne) is pot only 
taught every where in the Schools (none 
being capable of taking a Degre? in the 
Univerfitys without a competent Skill in 
it) but that Tutors read it to young Gen** 
tlemen ^ who if they apply themfelves ii^ 
carneft to the ftudy of it, have their Brainy 
generally fo confounded by this Jargon, 
that they are in great danger of never un- 
derftanding Things clearly ; but the molt 
they can cxpeft,* after great Labour and In-> 
duftry (befidesan Air of Pedantry, a Kar ? 
rownefs of Mind, and Obftinacy in Opi 
nion) is to arrive at the Art of Thinking 
confufedly, Reafoning wrongly, and WrangT 
ling eternally. 

41. But if the Crabbednefs and Barren- 
nefsof this Study gives em an Averfion to 
Learning, .then they confine their time in 
Idlenefs, and confequently in Debauchery j 
and fuch a Habit once contracted, is feldom 
or never remov d. . 

By m.eans fopie Men equally 
gain their Ends }, finee l?y bpth, they^equah 
ly keep .People in Ignorance, and confe - 
quently can. influence em as. they ple^fe; 
Tho the lalb mention d Gentlepien, as being 
molt in number, .make the greatest JSIpife, 
and every where baul tlje Ipudeft for Higl) 
Churchy and are the dbief Tppte wjtjh 
which thefe fubtle; (pkrgynwa wprjc Jfieir 
Defigns, who lately 
Job for thjen?y .as, ha,d the, 
witk it thc 
N : i :.irxl ff-vi: : f J J ;!^!ov/ CM A? virt 

42. And 


(VifKm Cburcby &c. &%% 

42. And lince Ignorance is the Mother Chap. 6. 
of Devotion, tho not to God, yet to the 
Priefts, who are in a manner ador d where 
the People ate thorowly ignorant } tis uiif 
reafonable to exped that they fhou d in 
carneft endeavour to make thofe, whofc 
Education is intrufted with em, fo learned 
or wife, as to be above Prieftcraft. 

No, infteadof that they made em, even 
in Philofophy, the better to prepare em for 
it in Religion, jvrare in vcrba Magiftri* 
For as no other Philofophy except that of 
Ariftotlc was to be taught, fo his ipfe dixit 
was fufficient for a blind Submiflion : And 
4 his obfcure Metaphyfical Notions, calcu- 
lated as it were for the defence of their 
abfurd felMnterefted Dodrines, quickly 
became the fundamental Laws, not only of 
Philofophy -but - Divinity. And a great 
Cardinal (*) has not acknowletfg, 
That without J)is > help TDC fioi?d>have wanted 
many Articles of Faith $ for 1 which Reafon 
the Magifhrate- was boijnd to ufe the Secu?- 
lar Aid in proteding his; Writings, .and * 

the* Courts ; of Judicature .to intereft 
themfelves ih . ; his Defence. And the 
parliament- of Paris^ forinfbance, in 1629 
made an Arireft againfrfoine Chymifts who ,M r * 
were too free with him, upon Information . . . \ 
from; the r Sorbonifts, that., his -Principles 
couMmot be-writ againft or. JefTenM, .withr 
out prejudicing the receiv d Divinity \ of 

V;C .- > !i < ^ ^ |I: - ^ r .- . 5 .V-.-A\nl 

-T I ! v;/./ ry ,;-;.v,, "J r/i; Mi ;rn:-- ^- .V.VA rt 

bdi iniincavarcmo ihoIciArricolS "^ * 
^S 1 

/r.r- , < 

I i , , . . 


214 . 

; -the- -Schools.--* Nay, his: Dodrines .were 
held in fnch Religious Veneration* ,that 
twas nothing;, lefs than Herefy to oppOJfe 
them$ which poor Ram** .found to hi* 
Colt, who fob making forae Obfervation* 
tending to dimmilh their Credit, was mur- 
der d at the Maflacre.of P*nV, with the 
fame Zeal as the Calvimfts*. were. And 
#* Apol. Laurentiw Pulla, for Herefy agaialt the ten 
/ Pope Predicaments, and fome fuch ,like Opini^ 
Eugcnius ons, had it . not been for the powerful la* 
9 lv * tercefllon^ of Alvkonfa King of Naflcs^ had 
been opprefsM oy the Inquifition. Upon 
the firft Difcovcry of jtriftotle s Works 
the Scene was quite different, :.the Clergy 
being then in a terrible Apprchenfion about 
them , and not only a Pope, but a Council 
at Paris, forbad the reading em on pain of 
Excommunication: and fevcral, as Mew- 
ray faith, were, for the fake of his Opini* 
ons (the countenancing thereof .being the 
chief Crime objefted to *enl) burnt for He- 
ret icks. In a word, till they found thofe 
Parts of his Writings, fo much afterwards 
in Repute with the Schools, full of that 
vain babling Philofophy St. Paul condemns, 
they were as apprehenfive of em as fomc 
* Mr. Men are of the Works of a * late Philofo- 
locke. pher j which they are afraid will let too 
much Light into the World, and improve 
Hunun Vnderflanding more than is for their 

JitoAA ^ 43, The Sieur Puffendorfi in mowing how 
$9 ffi(i. inflrumental the Uaiverutys were in pro* 
mating the Power of the Pope, faith, 
U That the Divinity and Philofophy prd* 

.7;; r fcfs d 

s ^ f 

1(14 ftj5*d r: jthefe, c Weirs 1 Jifot taught^iW an Chap. 6- 
* Irttrenffon to itiakc Students mo^e% cafried 
*7 bV ^rttferftandin g, ( hiit that i^hii .-fcge- 
** nrc/Wf fey thefe tonfus d and idle^Tc/nis 
" mi&ht be. diverted from thorovyly iiivef- 
* " tigatitfg . thofe W^tte rs, Which wou d 
<t; hav6 ! fed Vm td[ th^V/hdfe Ditovery of 
** the v Popifh Intr?g;nes. . Their Sbho laitick 
" ;p^i,nity is for the, mod part intangTd 
"^ in ulfeler^QiieIfion8 ? : Invented diicffy by 
^ *Lo\n])(ir<l-> Scotiu r and other "Patriarchs 
^ ot Pedi iiyfy. And what they/ call Phi- 
; H lofoplV, 1 i<i notlun^ elfe than a Colledioa 
^ pf fooWih Chhiiei\i^, ttrtpty. Terms, and 
" very, hdA Latin. With thefe Trumpe* 
"** rys ,tTi^ Univerlltys Were not Only over- 
" * c rna dJring the former barbarous Tjmes, 
ic bnt even continue to this very day ^ and 
. u tho ffi oil Sciences are fo much improved, 
44 the old Leven is with , reat rnduftry. pre- 
4t ftrv*d r and propagated. If this method 
of teaming booty Was, as lie pbferves, 
" contrive that tl\e l Popifh Priefts might 
cc not want means to domineer .over the 
Layihens Confcieilces, and to entangle 
. em with fo many dubious and! , d oublc- 
meaning lufinuations, that ttiey are 
thereby rendei d incapable to*, examine 
u ; and rule their Actions accorcfing to folid 
<fi Principles, but are oblig d to be guided 
u blindfold according to the Pleaiure of 
ct their Father-Confcltprs, If this, -as he 
fays, was what the Pdpifh Clergy aim d at, 
will not the Ill-natura b e too apt to fuf- 
peft that others, if tliey fall into the 
fettte methods, havV the- fame Defigns of 




ll 6 The <%t$t$ of the 

Domineering over the Confciences of 
the Laity*, and that couM they, like the 
Popilh Priefts, add to this a Reftraint on the 
Prefs, their Bufinefs wou d be efFeaually 

44. It may be worth obferving, that the 
Clergy, before they contriv d this Jargon 
of the Schools, did not only endeavour to 
infufc into their Auditors an Averfion to 
all Books of Human Philofophy and Learn 
ing, on account of their being y written by 
the Heathens, but took em away from the 
Students committed to their Care. Nay, 
even the Bifhops themfelves at the Council 
of Carthage, about the year 400, were for 
bad reading Heathen Authors , and St^Jf- 

* rom, as tis faid, was whip d with Rods by 
an Angel for reading C/c^ro s Works. Which 
no doubt occafion d the Lofs of many ex 
cellent Works, to the unfpeakable damage of 
the Commonwealth of Letters. But when 
fome Nations cou d be no longer kept from 
prying into Learning, this miserable Gibber 
rifh of the Schools was contriv d. 

To which had it been confin d, the Mif- 
chief had not been fo confiderable : but it has 
unhappily invaded the chief Concernments 
of human Life, and Society, obfcur d and 
pcrplcx d the material Truths of Law and 
Divinity \ brought Confufion, Diforder, 
and Uncertainty into the AfTairs of Man 
kind } aad in a great meafurc rcndcr d ufclefs 
the Rules of Religion and Juftice. 1 

45. A Clergyman by the help of this 
profound Learning, th6"hc had taken the 
Oath of Suprejnacy 1( nay tho he had before 


Ids Sersibn pray d for the King as Supreme Chap, rfj 
Head and Governor of the Church next LXV%> 
and immediately under Chrift, yet cou d iii 
his Sermon eafilydiftinguifh this away $ and 
place the Government of the Church in his 
own Tribe next and immediately under 
Chrift, independent of all Human Powers 

To which let me add, that as nothing 
cou d be more contrary to High-Church 
Notions in relation to Civil Government, 
than the Oath of Allegiance upon the Revo* 
lution, fo Men could not change their 
Sentiments on a fudden ; and confequently* 
too many either difTembl d, when in the 
former Reigns they preach d up their en- 
flavingDottrines, or elfe in the late Reign 
they took the Oath againft their Confcience ) 
unlefs fuch Diftin&ions cou d help em out- 
as muft deftroy the force of any Oath what- 
foever. And poflibly it was by the Aflifr 
tance 6f (i thefe, that they never thought 
thcmfelves better imploy d than in doing 
fomething or other,- which lefs fubtle Men 
wou d conclude was 1 direftly contrary to* 
and in defiance of their Oath; 
46; As fome Men are fo very Learned 
that no Oath can bind em, of which tneir , 
diftinguifhing away one fo flilly exprefs d 
as the Oath of Supremacy, is a fufficient 
Proof^ fo. their Kn6wledgis fovery pro 
found, that they can evade any Precept of 
Morality,: as ror inftanccj the Rule of do 
ing to others as you wou d be done unto^ 
obliges Men to allow one another the Liber 
ty of judging for themfelve* which is the 

,tw.. Religion, and, liketflfe of 
cording to their. Judgment $ fi rice this la 
the .very, Came thing they expeft fromalHo^ 
tbers^ And yet ho vy many arethere^ who 
by the help of their, tranfcendent MefcU- 
phy licks, have invented a thoufand IDiltino 
tJQAS to evade this plain Rule? And they 
who have Learning enough to . make this 
great L&w infignifieant, ftrike in, a manner 
q i the foundation of all Morality* ! .> V 
,. 47, ISIpne aft more abfurdly than your 
High . Fliers, whOi wou d confound this 
grand -Duty of Moderation on no tetter 
pretejice, , than bec^ufe tis noCommenda* 
tion to b^modqr^tely /(meaning indiflerent- 
ly) hpneft ;or wife- ^A Charader yet too 
Ijigh for fiich as on la gvofs a Fallacy en-* 
<ie>iYQt to divert People from . treating 
thpfe of differing Sentiments with GhriC 
tijiA Moderation." Men.muft either be ve* 
ry iWC^k the^mfelvesviOf elfe believe Peoples 
Underftanding no better . than their own 
Hopqjty, if they .hope- to impofe .on em , 
by fliciv trifling Sophiftry, But the Author 
of :AIpdfr(ttiw difplqftl is very, free with 
this Chriftian Virtue, and makes it, infpite 
qf the Bible, to derive its Original from 
Hell ,aud its Fiends , tho one wou d think 
the Heat of that Place, .and the Gnafhing 
of Tcetli there, fiem more naturally to de- 
fcribe the Enemy s of Moderation.* s But to 
return. fi - ,. t;.w \- ;:TfiT c bra ; : 

48, I need : npt mention any :more In^ 
Dances ;of this, nature, fii[ice there^ are as 
many fixjimples of it, as thcfc Gentlemen 
have By-inU refts to ferve. And \vhofo^ 


Qiriflian Chutc^ &c: 3 1 Jt p 

ever will give himfelf the 1 trouble to read Chajv 
their Syftems of Divinity, will find them 
full of mere verbal Diftin&ions and Words, 
of none, or at Ifcaft no certain Significa 
tion 5 but fometimes 1 taking em in one, 
fometimes In another fenfe, juft as tis for 
their turn ; very well knowing that Error 
being unacceptable to the Mind of Man, 
there s no other defence for Abfurdity Chan 
Obfcurity, and that the only way for 
ftrange and fcnfelefs Doftrines to gain Ad 
mittance, is to guard em round with Le 
gions "of obfcure, doubtful, and undcfin d 

49. And had it not been the Defign of 
the Clergy, by thefe and fuch like Artifices, 
to keep the Laity in Ignorance and Super- 
ftition , what s the Reafon that thofe pre^ 
vail, according as the Ecclefiafticks; advance 
in Power, Influence and Intereft > As for 
inftance, are not the People more ignorant 
and fuperftitious in Sfaln or Portugal, than 
in Venice^ or lately in frtwe ? And what 
other account can be given of it, than that 
the Authority, Power and Influence of the 
.Clergy is fo much greater? And now iiv 
France do not Ignorance and Supcrftition 
propOrtionabl^ incrcafe, according to the 
large Steps which Prieftcraft (by their King s 
growing a Bigot and Pcrfecutor) takes 
there-, which are fuch, that in a fhort time 
they will have little to object to Sp<tin upon 
this account? But, 

50. Does not this hold in Protcflwt as 
\vell as Popifl) Countrys ? Arc not People 
Ignorant and Superftitious ia- Sweden 
0-3 or 



i or Denmark than in Holland or 

Have not the Clergy in thofe Places fo great 
an Authority, that they hinder all Liber 
ty of Confcience ? And do not the People 
pay them now as blind and implicit Sub- 
jniffion, as they did to their Popifh Prede* 
ceflbrs? But in thefe freer Countrys, as 
the Clergy have lefs Power, Authority arid 
Intereft ^ fo Religion is better undeirftood, 
and more ufeful and excellent Difcourfesare 
inade on that Subjcdt, than in all the World 

And if you compare the Parts of Great 
Britain y you will find that the Clergy have 
a greater Afcendent over the People in 
Scotland than in England ^ and are they not 
accordingly more Ignorant, Bigotted and 
^Uncharitable ? 

51. Asi&\M England j are not thofe whom 
the Papiftscarefsas fit Tools to bring about 
their wiqked Defigns, Ignorant, Bigotted, 
frieftridden Wretches? Tisnotthe mode^ 
^ffCnurchmen who join with ihejtcobitit 
and Paflfts in all Eleftions, and other De- 
Jigns ^ ^tis not they who ar$ fo infeparably 
united to em, as to have the fame Friends 
^nd Enemys. 

If the Church of England is the Bulwark 
againft Popery, it cannot belong to them 
(tho they would engrofs the Name of the 
Church to themfelves) whom the Papifts 
^nd Jacobites aflifbin all their pious Defigns, 
and in none more than oppofing the Bilhops 

d moderate Churchmen. 

52. There s no need to inftance in any 
p^rtkutyr Countrys, tho it holds in 


Cbriftian Church^ &c i 1 1 : 

all without exception; when tis 
ous that in thole Ages which are"ib~in-l/W) 
famous for the Univerfal Ignorance and 
Barbarity which theQ- overfpread the Face 
of Chriftcndom, the Clergy prodigioufly 
abounded in lumber, Power, and Ri- > 
ches ; and Prieftcraft arriv dat itsgreateft 
height. And tis as evident, that as this 
palpable Darknefs vanifh d in any place, 
and the true Light of the Gofpel (hone 
forth, fo the Clergy have decreas d in 
Number, Power, Riches and Credit: So 
certain is it that Church, taking the word 
inthefenfeof the High-fliers, and Religion 
can never flourifh together, but as one rifes 
t other falls. 


. . i < . ... " ; 

Q.4 CHAP. 

, . : 



I-*.. : > % 

: - 

"I i" 

, i t *J . i ;:fjv>;,,: I 

tki* HypQtbefa of an Incjepen- 
dent Power m any Set of Cltr* 
^jmeM, makes jfl Reformation itri+ 
lawful, wcept where t1?ofe wfo 
are fuppoi d t p bate t hit Popcr , d* 

Vi ! Hi, 
It !!!..> 

i. \ N Independent Power hrthcClcr^ r 

JLJL gy is a certain way, not only to 
have Corrupt ions get into the Church, but 
to perpetuate em } except the Clergy, the 
firft Introducers of em, and whofe Tejn* 
poral I liter eft tis to have cm continu d, 
do confent : for if the People without their 
Ecclcfiailical Governors can reform thefc 
Corruptions, there s an end of their Inde 
pendent Ecclefiaftical Government , lince 
that is a difowning all their Spiritual Ju- 
rifdivf\ipn, and letting up a Church-Go^ 
verhrhcnt In oppoiition to them. So that 
tis neceflary to own, that cither their 
Power depends on the People, or clfe that 
thefe are oblig d to fubmit to whatfoever 
Terms of Communion thofe are pleas d to 
impofe: for if they have the Government, 
not from them, but from God, then, as he 
alone gave it em, fo he alone can take it 
awajr; and confcfjuently, till God makes it 


appear by fome new , Revelation that he has Chap. 7; 
dcprivM em.of it,, their Sub jcfts are oblig d VXVNJ 
to own them as their Spiritual Governors. 
But fince. nothing >of this nature is now to 
be cxpe&ed, Men nrnft for ever pay Ecclefi- 
aftical Obedience to thofe Governors, tho . 
they teach ; ever fo falfe and heretical Doc 
trines, or require ever fo wicked or impious 
Terras of Communion. 

2. To fay that the People, if they judg 
they require fuch Terms, or think they 
teach fuch Doftrines, can difown em, and i 
chufe others to manage their Church-Af- 
fairs, makes em not only dependent in the 
management ; of their Ecclefiaftical Env^ 
ploys, but fuppofesall the Right they have 
to cm deriv d from the People, becaufe upon 
their judging. them guilty of Male-AdmU > 
niftration thpy may deprive em of this 
Right, which cou d not be, did it not at 
firft flow from them. 

3. The reafon why the People may upon 
juft grounds withdraw their Allegiance ;. 
from the Civil Magiftrate, is, becauie all 
the Power he has is given him by them 
in order to ad for their Good , and they 
wha depute him, mult . -needs referve to 
then^fclves a Power to judg -whether their 
Deputy ads according to the Tnilt lodg d in f 

- But had he not his Power from the Peo 
ple, but immediately from God, he cou d 
never forfeit his Right, or be accountable 
to any befidesGod^ and only the Divine > 
Power which gave- it him cou d take it 

* By 


of the. 

4* By this Argument, the fawning flat 
tering Priefts in former Reigns cndeavour d 
to eftablilh an abfolute arbitrary Power in 
the King, which they very well law was an 
unavoidable Confequence of a Divine Right. 

If God has not plac d Mankind in re- 
fpeft to Civil Matters (as thefe defigning 
Men wou d perfuadc the World) under an 
abfolute Power, upon no account to be re- 
fifted, but has permitted em in every So- ; 
ciety to aft as they judg beft for their own 
Safety, and to that end has given em a 
Right of forming what fort of Govern 
ment they pleafe, and^ to intruft it with 
what Perfons they think fit , and of re* , 
fufing to fubmit to them when they aft 
contrary to the End for which they were 
constituted: If God has, I fay, allow dthe 
Civil Society thefe Privileges \ can we fup- 
poic he has lefs kindnefs for his Church, 
which if dcpriv d of this Liberty, might 
not only lofe the Power of adting as free 
ly for the advantage of the True as o- 
thers of a Falfe Religion, but be likewife 
oblig d to fubmit to whatfoever Terms 
of Communion (tho ever fo falfe and 
wicked) a few Ecclefiafticks fhall impofe 
upon em ? 

5. There s more to be pleaded for fuch: 
a Power in Ecclefiaftical than in Civil Mat 
ters \ because Men may refufe Communion 
with thofe. Clergymen who pretend to have 
the Government in Ecclellafticals, without 
drawing oa enj any of thofe Diforders 
which too often attend Peoples defending 


Cbriftian Church} &(% 

their Civil Rights, Befides, a Man 
-pay external Obedience in Civil Matters to L/"v^o 
the Determinations of the Magiftrate, tho 
he does not believe em juft : but in Eccle- 
fiafticals all Compliance which is not inter 
nal, is unlawful } becaufe a Man has not the 
fame Power over his Faith or Religion, as 
he has over his Eftate. , 

6. Therefore as much as Mens Eternal 
Happinefs is to be prefer d before their 
Temporal, fo much is the claiming a Power 
Hot deriv d from the People in Religious 
Matters, of more fatal confequence than 
in Ciyil , tho they who are for it in either, 
are Enemys to the Rights and Libertys of 
Mankind, and candefign nothing lefs than 
making em Slaves to Priefts or Princes. 

7. This cursM Hypothecs had perhaps 
never been thought on with relation to Ci- 
vils, had not the Clergy (who have an in- 
cxhauftible Magazine of opprefllve Doc- 
trines) contrived it firft in Ecclefiafticals, 
to gratify their infupportable itch of Ty 
rannizing over the Laity, and over one 
another : for it as much inflaves the Ge 
nerality of themfelves, fince thofe few who 
have the Government of the Church by 
Divine Right, enjoy it as independently of 
them as of the Laity , which muft prevent 
all Reformation, except a Majority of the 
Governing Clergy chance to reform all to 
gether (which nothing lefs than a Miracle 
tan bring about) and the Attempt in all o- 
ther Clergy men muft be unlawful, becaufe it 
cannot be done without difowning their 
Spiritual Governors, in refpedt or whom 


they are only private PeHons, and may be 
( iyholly reduc d to a ^ay-State by them, : 
( becauie a Sentence protfounc d by a compe- 
.tent Authority is valid, tho not right; 
and thofe who have fufEcient Power to 
make, muft have the fame to unmake Cler 
gymen. Therefore in order to ferve them 
(tho I expeft little Thanks for my La* 
bour) I fhall add fomewhat more on this 

8. The Light of Nature, as well as the 
Gofpel, obliges People to judg of them* 
fclveSj afld to take heed to what they hear y 
to try the Spirits, to avoid and flee falfe 
TrophctSy Seducers, and Deceivers, and blind 
Guides, &c. And if Men are to avoid 
fuch, they are to judg who they are, elfe 
the Command wbu d be to no purpofe ; 
which is inconfiftent with continuing 
thofe in the Station of Spiritual Guides 
whpm they judg to be falfe Teachers. 
And as they are oblig d to rejcft em, 
fo they are bound (unlefs they mult re* 
main without any Ecclefiaftical Officers^ 
to take thofe they jndg Honefl and Sincere, 
and who will preach the Truth. And 
how docs this differ from a Right to make, 
or deprive their Ecclefiaftical Minifters ? 
To own they can unmake, or deprive em, 
by thus feparating from em, and to deny 
they can make or ordain others, is abfurd ^ 
fince no more Power is requir d for the 
one than the other : Cujiu eft deflruere ejut 
efl condfre, and fo vice verfa is a certain 
Maxim. But if they cou d not thus de^ 
privethern, ail thofe Commands of fleeing 


tyriftitn -Charty &c2 

felfe Prophets, Seducers, &c. wbu dbeim-Chap.?. 
poflible, fince whatever they judg of theii* 
ficclefiallical Guides, they are ftill obligM to 
communicate with em as fuch. And there* 
fore upon this Suppofition, the Popifh Cler 
gy are in the right, when in exprefs Terms 
they forbid the People to .judg for them- 
&lvcs, but implicitly fubmit to their DC** 

9. In a word* it can belong only to thd 
People to appoint their own Ecclefialtical 
OfHcers , fince tis for their fake that any 
Officers of that nature are instituted, and 
tis their Jntereft alone which is concern^ 
and their Good or 111 which depends on 
the Chpice of their Minifters : and confe- 
quently, that any ftiou d have a Right of 
obtruding whom they pleafe on them, is 
rnoft unnatural, and contrary to the re* 
ceiv d Rule -of having that which concerns 
All apprqv d by All. And therefore there s 
no need of any particular Texts of Scrip*, 
ture to prove this Power belongs to the 
Church, lince tis an inherent fundamental 
Right of all Communitys. 1 The contrary 
Notion not only makes the Church to be 
founded for the fake of its Minifters, who 
may rule and domineer as uncontroulably 
as they pleafe, fince the Faithful can never 
difownthem, tho they aft ever fo arbitra- 
rily, and J tyrannize ever fo barbarouflyl 
but it neceHIirily fuppofes (provided there 
inuft be Church-Officers) that God either 
prefers an 1 abfoWte Obedience to the Will 
of the Priefts before the Salvation of Main 
kind, ahd therefore wou d have em fubmit 

4fc tO 


to the moft impious Dodrrines thofc dare 
to impofe, rather than throw em dff^ and 
put others in their places ^ or elfe there s 
no fuch thing as Truth and Falfhood, Vir 
tue and Vice, Piety and Impiety, but all Re 
ligion confifts in paying a blind Obedience 
to them, without any regard to the Ma 
ture of the things which they impofe as 
neceflary Terms of Communion. Nay, 
this Hypothefis makes it to depend on 
the Clergy whether there ihall be any Re* 
ligious Worihip or not j flnce they may, 
as has been adually done in feveral places, 
put People under an Interdift} and this 
may be done by the . Caprice, if not of 
a Pope or Patriarch, yet of the governing 
Clergy, who are few in comparifon of 
the reft, and who may fufpend, deprive 
or degrade the Inferior Clergy, if they 
prefume ,to be cUfobedient : to their Com 

10. But if thefc things are too abfurd to 
be Admitted, the Church cannot be depriv d 
of; their fundamental Right of making* 
and unmaking their Ministers, and of re-; 
gulating all Church-matters, as they judg 
mpfb conducive to the Advantage of their, 
Spiritual Intereft. And the Scripture ift 
recommending to the Faithful the taking 
diligent heed to the Prefcrvationand Com 
firipation of their Faith, and to propa 
gate it to their Children, - gives *em( by 
that very thing a fufficient Right to make 
ufe of all proper Means in order to that 
End. And if it be allowM, that the Mi* 
nijtry is one of thofe means, the Obliga*. 


(lurch, &c. 1 .ijji 

tion the Faithful are under to preferveChap.?. 
and propagate the Faith, includes creating L/VNJ 
their own Minifters. And therefore tho 
it be cuftomary to admit none to the Mi- 
niftry who are not approv d by the Bilhops 
or other Priefts, yet that is onlyaTruft 
they receive from the Church, which they 
are bound to reaflume when tis abus d by 
laying hands on fuch as have not - ncceflary 
. Qualifications, or are Enemys to the Truth, 
of which every Church (all implicit Faith 
being forbid) muft judg. Nay, if every 
one has not an inherent Right to chufe his 
"own Guide or Paftor, but others are to do 
it for him,, then a Man muft either be of 
the Religion of his Guide, orelfebe bound 
to continue him in that Employ, tho he 
believes the Path he diredts him in leads to 
Hell. But none will fay, for inftance^ 
thataProteftant is oblig d to take a Papift 
for his Guide, tho Popery was the Efta-: 
blifti d Religion, and a Popifh Patron had a 
fegal Right to prefent to hisPariflr, or on 
the contrary, that a Papift, as long as he 
continu d fuch, was oblig d to take a Pro- 
teftant Guide, or that any Man was to con 
tinue his Guide ? if either of 7 em fliould 
change his Religion, And the fame Reafon 
which obliges a Man not to take a Paftor of 
a different Religion, equally obliges him to 
chufe among them of his owji Perfuafion 
whom he thinks molt likely to promote lus 
Eternal Happincfs.j 

As every one can beft judg what tends 
moft to his Edification, fo he can beft tell 
what Guide edifies hiaifl}oft 2 as beipg alone 
ij.rr able 

-iffiilc to difcovef who fpeaks moft futabty^fo 
his Apprehenfion, or moft raifcs his Affec 
tions to Heavenly ThingV or any otlicr 
-way beft advances his Spiritual Inteteft. ; j l 
1 1 . ^Jone pretcnd to impofe a Conduftbr 
or Dire&ororf another in temporal -Affairs, 
but every one is left to manage cm as he 
thinks belt for his own Intereft, as being 
prefumM to underftand it better 1 than am>- 
ther; and therefore is to clmfe his 6wh 
Lawyer, Phyfician, Brewer, Baker, c^c- 
And by the faine- reafon he ought to clime 
his own Spiritual Condudor ^ nor can he, 
if he has any Concern for his -Soul, which 
pmft be fuppos d to be dearer to him than tb 
tiny other, leave to another a thing of fuch 
vaft Confeuence to himfelf. 

any contend for it, were it not to gratify 
a temporal Intereft ; and ^is mofl 1 

tural to think that they of all JVlen arc to 
chufe Guides for the People, who have no 
other way to arrive at immerife Hpnotrtl 
Power and Riches, than by nominating fuch 
as will pervert Religion for the fake of 

12. Not only the Popifh Clergy, but toof 
many who wou d be thought Proteftant$, r 
inftead of fuppofinga Man is to chufe hii 
own Guide, as a necefTary Confequence of 
cliufmg his own Religion, affirm the Laity- 
are bound to fubmit to whatever Terms of 
Communion the Clergy require of, em irt 
^ their Provincial Synods ^ except thofc Terms 4 
are condemned by a General Council j and 
then they are not to vary from what; that 
requires.- <,.. 

13. This 

Qriftim Church, Scci 141 v 

13 j This is fuch an abfolute blind Obe- Chap. 7* 
diencfc, that thefe Wfen, tho they pretend cX 
the contrary, Will not ftand by it. For 
tho they require fuch an intire Sub- 
miflion to thofe Councils which they ap 
prove, yet they fcruple not to condemn 
and rejeft others composed of a greater 
Number of Bilhojps, and fent from more 
Nations; and in exprefs terms fay, no 
Council has Authority which is not Ortho 
dox. But this i* fubjeding the Authority 
of Councils to the Reafon of every pri 
vate Perfon: for as that obliges him to ap 
prove fuch Councils, becaufe it tells him 
they judged aright, fo it wouM have made 
him condemn them had they determin d 
otherwife^ and by confequence, he Is ob- 
Hg d to ad contrary to all of em, whe 
ther. Provincial or General, if his Reafon, 
by which he is to judg of em, informs 
him they are all in the wrong. And ac- \ 
cordingly we find the Reformers did not 
think themfelves bound bythepopifli Doc- 
trines, tho feveral of em had been con- 
firmM not only by National, but (if there 
vyere ever any fuch) by General Councils. 
So that this is a miferable Subterfuge, 
which, inftead of fupporting, deftroysthe 
Independency of the Clergy, and fup- , 
pofes a Power in the P v eople to rejed them 
and their Authority, when they require 
fuch Terms of Communion as they judg 
unlawful. If it had been otherwife, the . 
People cou d not have feparated from Paulm ^ , 
Samofatcnu!, Ariw r <x any other Heretick/ 
till tome Council, either Ocneral or Pro- 
R vincial, 

vincial, had declar d <ejn.fp<. But, if tji^y 
m^y fepai ate from their Ecclefi^ck^fQi?; 
fpcculative Qpinions.p there s $0 ji^tea , 
why they -may not dp the faihe for falfp 
Dofl;rine$." When the Clergy are^pjrefs^ 
hard on this point, the laft Shift they nave 1 ; 
recourfe to is, that the People,- when- tjietr 1 
Ecclefiafticil Governors require iirifcwiuV 
Terms of Communion, 1 are freed ftofrTall! 
Subjection to em ^ yet that infers lip l)e^ 
privirig Power in them, but that CoS firftV 
interpofes, arid deprives eni himfelf,/ which ^ 
makes it ;then lawnil for tl\q ?^6ple ( to leav ?. 
cin. But^ 

1 4. Since the PeopkYRight of def^rtin^, 
the CpmhuiriiOii of tlic Cl^frg^ J depends pri f { 
their judging of their l)6ftn^es, and\ k con-f 
feqiiently they are ; as niucli bound to diP ; 
own thdfe they judg to be fajfe Teachers, " l 
as if they were really ft; $s the faipe thing \"> 
whether yoii fay God or the People de-j 
prives them, finte they will be depriy d 
whenevef.j:!^ People think they are bbund^ 
in Confclehce to feparate from em. " Some 
who love to raife a Mift; abput every thing, J 
quefti6n|iyh ; cther they are oblig d. toTpl- 
lo w their tpufciences when erroneous^ 
but that. is the fame thing as to qiieft^on . 
whether; they are oblig d to follow their 
Conferences at all: becaufe as long vis 
one in Cohfcience is perfuaded . of .any 
thing* he cannot think itjm Error ^"ahd" 
it muft^-de^by all Cpnlcience, if- M^ii 4 
were obligM not to follow it, left it miglit^ 
le^d em Into Error ; and confequ ently, as c 
long a,s tl^c f eopk $ Coflfciences tell em their \ 


Cktyian Cfafy Sec. 

Ecclefiafticks require unlawful Terms of Chap. 7 
Communion, or are falfe Teachers, Sedu- 
cers, Deceiver?,, #ev: they- are^oblig d to 
renounce em. To fuppofe 1 that God by 
an antecedent Deprivation diflblv ^s the pi- 
ritual Relation betweeni era, , is tp fay that 
God, deprives the Ecclefijjfticks of. the Power 
he gave em, tho they^ ftand up for the 
Tx;uth, whenever the People think em in the 
wrong; and that he continues the Divine 
Commiflibn to the molt Heretical, 1 if the 
P.eople think em in the right. And fhou d 
ony one fay this, it wou d no more preju 
dice the People s Power; than it wou dnhe 
Magiftrate s, if any had a mind to banter, 
and fay he cou d not deprive one of any 
Civil Employ, but that God alone cou d do 
it, and that he always did fo, whenever the 
Magijf rate wou d have him remov d. 

i J., Here I can t avoid obferving hovr 
abfur<J ; it. is- for Prptcftantsv to infift fo 
much;on the Authority Of Councils ; when 
(if it; be nor unlawful j to fpeak Truth con* 
cerning-em) there wa$ -fcarce any, 1 which, 
as they ^ had an oppprtunity, m^def not 1 
their market of Religion, 1 and fold it to th^ 
feireft Chapman j and wej^e fo fubjeft, either 1 
out; -of Defign or Ignorance, to be in the ; 
wrong, ,that tis forty to one that every one 
of, em, taking one with another, was foo 
this be deny d withput giving *up 

/"L ^ L* A-. T> 1 I i . _ *f? _-. -, . /*^ " * I ^ - - * 


*44 The tyfitt of the 


That the Qergy s pretending to an Inde* 

: pendent Power ba$ been the Occafion 

of Infinite Mif chief to the Cbrijtian 

tforld, and is utterly inconjiflent with 

tie Happinefs of Human Society. , 

i.^TpH E Clergy f who can t deny that 
X. tis abfolutcly rieceflary for Order 
and Government , that all others in their 
feveral Profefllons and Employs fliou d be 1 
fubjeft to the Ma^iftratev yet- make an 
Exception for their Dear Selves, and 
wou d not only be Independent in the Ex- 
crcife of their Profefllon, but as the Con- 
fequence of it, have him Dependent on 
them in all things relating to their Office, 
viz.. all Ecclefiaftical Matters. But no 
other Order of Men, fhou d they, pretend 
to an Independent Power, are capable of 
doing fo imich mifchief to the Publickias 
the Ecclefiafticks -, becaufe they have, by 
the Education of. Youth being entrufted to 
em, the opportunity of ftamping on their 
early Minds, capable then of any Impref- 
fion, what Notions they pleafe.y tvhich,. 
tho ever fo abfurd, fuch is the Power of. 
Education, are feldom after to be. rooted 1 
out. And they are fo poftedi ia every 
Parifli, that they can harangue hi publick 
the Body of the People, at leaft twice a 


; and in private, and in : the ten- Chap. . 
dereft Seafon. inculcate what they have L^V>J 
a mind to ; And/the Multitude, ai Cretins 
very well remarks from Curtiw, ", is more ^ i mp . 
ct apt to be govcrn d by their Priefts rio fum- 
44 than Princes. And he adds, " That mar. Po- 
44 the Kings and Emperors of.jlfi* and c ? fti 
44 Eurofe have learn d this at .their own cira 
14 coft, infomuch that to prodi^e the -Ex- cra> 
44 amples of this kind wou d be\in a man- 
44 ner to tranfcribe the Hiftory of all 
44 Nations. And confidering there s -no 
Doftrine that advances the Intereft of any 
Clergyman as fuch, which does not e- 
qually promote that-of all others of the 
fame Order \ tis no wonder if Men be 
unanimous in preaching thofe po&rinesy 
tho ever fo much to the prejudice of the 
State. And what might not Men of their 
Learning and Abilitys by degrees intro-, ^ 
duce among the Ignorant and Unlearned, 
if they had liberty to preach what they 
had a mind to, without the leafb Controul, 
as they muft, if they are Independent in 
their Ecclefiaftical Offices ? and confequent- 
ly the Magiftrate is oblig d to have a more 
watchful eye, and a ftrider hand over them, 
than over others-, efpecially if they at 
tempt to perfuade the People that in 
obeying the Magiftrate they only obey 
Manj but in obeying them they obey Qod\ 
and therefore apply to themfelves fuch 
Texts as, Tis better to obey God than Man , 
Render itnto God the tbints which are GftCj* 

R 3 2. Can 

i > 

. a., Can, the Magiftr^tc allow them aalp- 
, dependent Power over pthers, in things of 
ever fo much an Ecclefiaftical nature,without 
the greateft danger to the Commonwealth; 
as tor inftance, If the admitting into, and 
turning out of the Church, did , Indepen 
dently belong to them, they might make, 
fuch Dofti;ines neceflary Terms of Commu- 
. nion, aswou d (either direftly or indirect 
ly) caufe People s Propertys, if not their 
Lives, to be at their Difpofal. ! K 

3. JSJay fuch a Power, tho in the moft 
indifferent things relating to the Church, 
cannot, without the greateft hazard ima 
ginable, be allow d em } fmce the intro- 

* ducing new;, or retaining old Ceremonys, 
when contrary to the Inclination of the Peo 
ple, may and frequently have produced fatal 

Iremcoo, Bifhop Stillingflett very well obferves, 
Boo% i. ct That the leaft Peg fcrew d up too high in 
*ba$ t a. the Church, caufcs a great Difcord in the 
<c State, and quickly puts mens Spirits out 
u of tune , whereas many Irregularity srpay 
u happen in the State, an<J yet they live in 
" Quietnefs and Peace v . For we have found 
* c by doleful Experience, that if AarQr?% 
Bells ring backward, and a Fir$, once 
catches t^e Church, ., the whole] Stat? is 
fuddenly put into danger \ -if Pfaitons 
" drive the Chariot of the Sun, the r WorJd 
a will foon be on fire. .: , 

4. As all Monopoly^ ^re 
the State, fo moft of , all are^ 

and it cannot be doubted, tHat if. $ -Set ., of 
Men were able to perfuade the World, 



that , no Bfiptiffn Wd /be-Valid^unkfi ad-Chap. 8 
mrmfterM\vith fdch.a Water as-thcy- alone ^ 
hadlhc Secret to compofe -, <pr that -ho 
Bfcjad- and Wine coiiM. fervq fbr^the Sa 
crament^ which \vds riot to be had from 
them: If they, I fay,- .Cou d get thefe 
tHirig? t>eliev d, might they not fet what 
value they pieasM ( tipoii ? em, to the infi- - 
nitely . erir\chirig of. themfclves, -a tid impo* 
yefiming ^nd confefc[uently enflaving- all o- 
thers ? ; Fpr wou d : -rk)t they, whd thought 
thtfr SdWation d(ipencled ( on having this 
Wat^r or- this Breac}, give all they- had in 
thfc, V^fcirld, efpecially when ready to leave 
ity:; rather <than be*/ Without ? em.? And 
Why Will hot the fame Conferences hajv 
fe$ Ff ii be ohcfailow d, that only fuch 
Men, * ;an^l whom they fliall admit into, 
theft )^ Right not 

only* of adminiftring tHe Sacraments,- but, 
^n; Arbitrary ]?ower -of rcfufing em to 
wh^m^hey.jplea fe.?. ;D(P p hbt i the 6W<?* and 
firmcnitri patriarchs get infmite Profit by 
claiming the fole Po\vci> of making Hily 
dil ^ they pretend mult neceflarily 
beiii d m giving of Oidefs, in Chriftnings, 
in Sicknefs, and, if I am not miftaken, in 
Marriages? By which means, as they pii- 
lage : the Clergy, fo thefe make Reprisals on 
the.Laity, by pqtting.what Price they pleafe . 
on this meftimable- liquor. ^ -, 
. 5. In a word^ -nothing is plainer, thaa 
that whqri a Set; of Men can perfliade 
, . People they are necelTary to their eternal 
Salvation,, they jnay fo eafily work on 
"their Fears and Superstitions, as by de- 

R 4 g rees 

148 Weighs of. the \\ 

grecs to be Matters of whatever they 
fefs } efpecially if they are capable of Re 
ceiving every Mug, and Parting with nothing) 
and have frequent Opportunity*, not only 
itt publick but in private, even when 
Men are a dyipg, to perfuade era that 
what is given to the Church (meaning 
themfelves) is given to God, and is the 
likelieft way to atone for their Sins: And 
confequently the confining the Adminiftra- 
tion of Ecclefiaftical Affairs to a particular 
Set of Men, who difclaim receiving their 
Authority from the Community either Col- 
la&ive or Reprefentative, is theworft and 
molt grievous of all Monopolys, and which 
muft render us the Laity what we are fup- 
pos d to be in SciopptM 9 * Definition of a 
Church, A Stall, or Herd^ or Multitude of 
JBeajh and Affcs ; and that they (the Priefts) 
bridle #/, they faddle /, they harnefs w y they 
ffitr My they lay Tokes and Burdens -upon tu* 

6. The Romifh Clergy, feeing what Ad 
vantages are to be got by fuch Ecclefia 
ftical Monopolys, have not only increas d 
the Number of the Sacraments, and inade 
their Validity to depend on their being 
adjniniftet- jd by one of the Monopolisers; 
.but to create a greater Reverence for "him, 
fuppofc his very Intention neceflary : and 
knowing that increafing their Fraternity 
is lifting Soldiers againft the State, as hav 
ing the fame common Intereft of enflaving 
the People, they raife infinite Numbers of 
? em, to the unfpeakable Opprefliori.of th e 
Commonwealth, which the Magiftrate 
knows not how to hinder^ having foolifhly 

Church, &c. 

?llpwM em aiv Independent Power in. or- Chap. 8. 
coining Ecclefiafticks : A Cure Foundation, c/*v^o 
for carrying their Authority to the highelt 
pitch, having it then in their power to or*, 
dain thofe who fhou d be for aggrandizing- , 
their own Order, to the Oppreffion of the 
Civil as well as Religion^ Libertys of the 
people. And what cannot a continu d Sue* 
cefljon of fuch Men bring about on a Super* 
ftitious Laity, ready to receive whatever^ 
they tell cm relating to their own Power, 
for Heavenly Truths ? 
, ? How certain a Method to enflave the 
State a Monopoly of the Power of Ex-, 
communication is, I need not here men 
tion, having already fpoken fufficiently oa 
that Head: and it can be as little douoted. 
that the believing the Abfolution of. a, 
Prieft neceflary to the obtaining Pardon of 
Sin, muft have the fame effed. Our King 
Henry cou d not obtain Abfolution for the. 
Murder of Bedtt^ tho own d to be done 
without his Privity, but by abfolutely difan- 
nulling, according to the Cant of thofe % 
Times, the wicked Statutes of Clarendon^ 
and all other ill Cultoms obtruded on God s 
Holy Church. The late King of Spain, ai 
tis faid, being forc d by Cardinal Ponoc^rero^ 
on pain of having Abfolution deny d him, to 
fignaWill, as contrary to his Inclinations, 
as it was to the Intereft of Sfain^ and to all 
Juftice and Equity, is a fatal Proof of this * 
and which alone one wou d think fufficient, 
if not to open the Eyes of the Popifh Laity,, 
yet to hinder Proteftants from believing, 
any fuch Power in their Priejts, . 

~ ^ 1 v 

* J o Tie %# <?/ . VTfe * 

Property* "as v 

Perfbns, and by degrees fobfcft^b 
-Them^ firice it wou d be "eafy for eitii 
not only to impofe fuch Peftanc e as People 
woii d be glad to commute for Mony x r biit! 
fuch as dire&ly : affefts their Property s] 
Artotable Inftance we have of this in the 
French , Bifhops forbidding Lcwx "ffcf GoAl^ 
jintio 833. by way of Penance, to meddle 
again with Secular Affairs, that h, td re- 
afTume the Crown they had depriv d hini 
of, c^c. . . 

p. I need not infill on Particulars , "tb 
prove how deftruftive tis/to the Co ffi-* 
monwealth for. the Clergy tp pretend;^ 
any Privileges . or Powers they receive, not 
from the People or their Representatives \ 

Tx rk ^- /- t fT *+ r* * ^ ^.f < C++**. WA O^%*! v*4i^* ^ .-< r<-lT 

whci arefbr fettjng up lAore than one. In- 
dfcp endent Power (the only. wajr a Kiftgi 
dom cin be divided) do /endeavour itfe 
T^uiri . and Dcftriiftion, arid therefore oi^^ht 
to be treated as Publick Enemies; Nor will 
the DilUnftiori of Civil and Ecclefiaftical 
at All mend ,thc, Mattery fince two fuch So-^ 
tercmns muft; ^s has been already prov di 

i": ( ^? ., *V< I t - .\ * M I 1 " 

netfcltarily clafti with one another, add tic 
ftroy the Society by confounding each 
other s Power., How fatal the Clergy s 
endeavouring at art Independent Power isj 
the Hiftorys of thofe Places, where they 
have null prevailed, make very evident : 





ofir. , ,,,., 

M 1 2., ; And the Author of the Supplement 

to Dr. Burnett Letters tells us,. <* That the 

*VPriefts have a -Secret to make the 

miferabley ia. fpite of that 
dance isature> Ijas ftirnifh d em with r 
ic And that thiss. is obvioua, to the 4 Ma% : 
u tivcs themfclves, whq wiUvHOt ftic%tflf 
r-iQ .;r fi fay, 

al 7k Gfatot ef th V- 

^ , ^^3 , 4 

* c &y, that the reafoa why the Inhabi- 
4 : tants of that Country are rcduc d to fuch 
44 a degree of Mifery in fyite of all the 
44 Bounty of Nature, is from the (hare the 
44 Priefts have in the Government ,. and 
44 that not only in the Pope s Territory*, 
44 but in all the other Courts of Italy^ 
44 . where they have the main ftroke. They 
44 will tell you, That Priefts have not 
44 Souls big enough for Government ; That 
u they have both a Narrownefs of Spi-" 
44 rit, and aSournefsof Mind, which does 
44 not agree with the Principles of human 
44 Society: nor have they thofe Compaf- 
44 fions for the Miferable with which 
44 -wife Governors ought to temper their; 
ct Counfels} and that Unrelentingnefs of 
4C Heart feems to belong to that fort of 
44 Men. 

13. This Charaftcr too well agreeing 
with High-Church of all Denominations, 
Bjuft chiefly be imputed to the Thoughts 
they entertain of their own Spiritual Pri-; 
vileges and Powers -, which make em look 
down with Contempt on the Laity, whom 
they cannot think to be more above Brutes 
by their Reafon^ than they are above them 
by their Spiritit/tlitys : and therefore tis no 
wonder (Spiritual Pride filling em within- 
^ fupportable Infolence) that they ufe the Peo 
ple as Animals of an inferior Rank, and have 
no other regard for them than to make em, 
as they are lomctimes freely call d, Afni ad 
c*jeoftbct ortafj da oner* Clericorum y or according to 
> ift the Phrafe of a late Celebrated Author, the 
if tht P<oflc. 

14. Dr. 

Qrifllto tyurcb, &cl i j j 

14, Dr* Bvtntt obferves in how much Chap. 8. 
better Condition the Subjefts of the 

lick of Venice are than thofc in moft other 
Popifh Places: bat then he likewife re- - 
marks, That, the Senate is as really the Su 
preme Governor over Ecclefiaftical Perfons, 
as the Kings of England have pretended ta 
be in their Dominions fince the Reforma 
tion; and the very Patriarch of St. Mark. 
has no more Power than the Senate is pkas d, 
tp allow him. 

An excellent Author, makes the 
Remarks on the other Republicks in Italy, Account 
and fays, " The Reafon why they havc of &* 
44 fo well preferv d their Liberty is, that "^ 
u they keep their Ecclefiafticks within 
<c bounds, and make ufe of that natural 
<l Wit, which Providence and a happy CU- 
4< mate have given cm, to curb thofe, who 
44 if they had Power, wou d curb the whole 
44 World. 

1 5. To which let me add, that the only 
Reafon why the Regular Clergy are more 
dangerous to any Society than the Secular 
(which thinking Men among the Papifts as 
well as Proteftants own) is upon the account 
of being lefs dependent, on the State, and 
confequently readier upon all occafions to. 
aft againft it. , 

itf. The great Advantage the Proteftant 
have above Popilh Kations is, That the 
Power of, the Clergy is more reduced a- 
mong eniv by which jneans, and not by 
any difference in Speculative Matters, they* 
are in proportion more Rich and Populous^ 
!ti$ evident, their Happiriefs, in com-, 
~i paring 

Is not //Jto#, from- being one 
ofb beggarly Provinces in thtfV^brld, be* 
come the mbft flourifhing and molt ptfpiut 
lousSpot upon- Earth?V And there -we Tee; 
the* Power of the Clergy at (a low ah ebb^ 
that they are not able to 1 fetori foot Perle-- 
^ cution, or any other of their darling Me* 
thods, by which a Nation is rehder d thinV 
poor and miferable. 

^M i7k Next to Holland and the other VnitcJk 
; | Provinces^ may not England be reckonM in 
the belt and moft fiourifhing Condition? 
And have they noty next to them, the Clergy 
mpft in fubjcdion, having always been moft 
jealous ,of the Clerical Usurpations? 
r And not without good reafon, fmce the 
Danger of lofing their Libertys has been y 
greater or lefs, according as the Clergy 
have had more or lefs Power; for which 
reafon, upon the Reformation, the W if* 
dom of the Nation did all j that was : 
pofTible to hinder them from pretending 
to an Independency: eafily forefeeing, if 
that obtain d, the Nation wou d quickly be 
in as great, if not a greater degree of Ec- 1 
clefiajtical Slavery, than when under the- 
Popes, who living at fo great a diftance,. 
cou (J.not carry on their Defigns fo well, as 
if on the Spot } and their Power might be 
more eafily evaded. And accordingly we* 
fee their Legates, frequently prevented frpnr 
coming, over^. and tneir -. Bulls fixmi> . being 
ptib]ilff<!^ IJ ? - 

Z"-n 18. The 

* 5 5 

The 5^n^^:obfervcs (and.Chap.8. 
tis well worth cpnfideringV ^ That itV X V 
HrWw oBiof i fear of , the JSifliops Burning*? " 
c ^mpre Power than .tbc. Popes, that the 
cc ^Pj-incespf . Ewfe an^Agreement . 
ce with em in to for 

c ^ v upo$ ; thyir : being Jong, at Avignon? and; 
c ^tne great Schifms after wards, at Rome* 
<C L the Councils tegan. tp. pretend that the, 
u . Power "of j governing . the Church was in; 
" .them : and they .d^clar d , that both Popes 
"~ ; and Princes, whp.Qiou d attempt to hin- 
u ^derf heir frequent Meetings, wqre fallen 
". from Xheir. Dignity; and theycarry d it) 
*v fo ,fer, as to niake .themfelvcs Indepen-^ 
u , ,dent of the Civil Authority, particularly. 
"^19 the Points of , letions. This dii- 
"jpo^d Princes generally to enter into, A- 
u jgreemejats ;witp the Popes, and they 
4 Cyi^l4ed a great. deal to be protected in 
u what they had jefcrv d to themfel ves. r 
v^hi^ fliows to wKat a height Prieftcraft 
wa?.carry 7 d,.wher^ the Supreme. Powers had 
np, way to efcape the heavier Opprefllons,- 
and>, n\ore infuppprtabie Ufurpations of 
th^ir own Clergy, ; than by fubmitting to 
the, Pope s milder Yoke and gentler Au- 

-i p. If the Laity, are not now as much 
under the Domination of .the Clergy as 
formerly,, it . mult be ..either bccauf? the* 
Clergy. OAvJiich th,ey. ..have . given us no: 
cauie i.-tp-Tyfpcay.are. become ,lefs fond of 
Pwer*. or . ; that; , thQ , . Laity . ( Experience- 
haying : TOd$ Jem^.vyiftr ) .ftand more otf- 
their guard : which they doing mor^ ii^ 
:r fomc 

156 The Rights of 

fome places than in^ others, Is the true 
reafon they are not in all places alike im- 
pos d on, even tho under the lame Form 
of Ecclefiaftical Government. Tis that. ? 
for inftance, which makes the Hollanders^ 
a wife and jealous People, lefs Prieftridderi [ 
than they are in other Presbyterian Go* 
vernments. And if the Clergy are rtiore 
dependent in England than in fome o- 
ther Epifcopal Places, it is the fole EfTeS: 
of thofe Laws, which the Wifdom of the 
Nation made at the Reformation (when 
what they had fufier d before was frefh in 
their Minds) to reftrain and curb the In- 
folence of the Priefts. Of which Laws 
fome now not only heavily complain as 
a Violation of the Divine Rights of the 
* Ecclefiaftkks, but (as may be feen in the 
Preface) demand for themfelves, in the" 
Kanie of the Lord, greater Powers than " 
the .Popes were in pofleffion of-, nay f 
make it owing to Popery (and probably 
what they molt diflike in it) that the 
Lay Powers meddle with the Eiedion of 
Bifhops; which mulb make the People 
again, if thefe Men had their Will, have 
recourfe to the Pope to be skreen d from 
the more intolerable Tyranny of their 
own Priefts. But tis to be hopM, that 
God will be fo gracious to this Nation 
(which has hitherto better than moft others 
preferv d it felf againft Sacerdotal In- 
croachmcnts) as to prevent their being fo 
blinded by the Artifices of defigning Men,* 
as not to perceive their Danger before it be 
vj.ii. l ao. This 

. 157 

rTM* /Warning I think highly ne-Chap. 8; 
i-fincertlt fuch. poftrines as favour 
ties Jrt4epeQcfency I(( of th<? Clergy, muft, if 
at L , alj,< : foe;,.fupprefs^ very , early/ Tis too 
late,, when once they have been fuffer d to 
take root, as thpfe Princes have found to 
their ,coft, who j have been infulted, ill 
us d, and fometimes depps d, for endea 
vouring #> reduce -their Clergy to their 
Puty^when by the Folly! and Bigotry of< 
their .Prieftridden Anceltors ,the Belief of 
^ an ..Independent, Ecclefiaftical Government 
liadonce obtain d. . y ,- [j 

if ; If f Father Paul wa? fo long iin ce fen- 
fible; of \theDanger thi^ Nation was in of En 8 Iift > 
being ; again Prieftridden, and thereifore * 
cxprefles . himfelf , after this manner : 
u For, ( the Englfy \ am in fear 5, the 
c great Power the, Bifhops have, tho un- 
<t .der a King, make* me very jealousy for 
*Vj(hould they .have ,an e^fy- Prince, or an 
*5 Archbilhop of a /high. Spirit, the Kingly 
u Power: muft fink by tip pifhop s , afpiring 
ct to an Abfolute : Dominion./ Methinks I 
<c -fee in England the Horfe: bridled and fad- 
ct ^dled^und the old Rider, a$ I guefs, will 
c f- quickly, get upon rhis Back : but, Divine 
** Providence over-rules all things* _, I fay, 
if that good Father were in fuch Fears 
then, what, if now living, wou d his Ap- 
prehenfions be? And how wou d he adore 
the Divine Providence, which has given fuch 
a Chriftian Spirit to the prefent Archbifhop 
and ijioft or the Bifhops, who inftead of 
joining with the Laudcan Fadion in Eccle 
fiaftical. Incroachments, dare provoke the 
S Malic* 

158 The Qfyknif the] 

Malice of a Rampant High-Church Party; 
by fignalizing themfelves m the Defence of 
Liberty ? The very Apprehenfion of thofe 
fetal Confcquences which their afting a con 
trary part wou d have produc d to the Pro* 
tcftant Religion and the Lfeertys of Europe^ 
are enough to make one tremble who feri* 
oufly co nuders it. 

22. There s nothing all good Governors 
ought to be more apprehenfive of, than 
the Kotion of two Independent Powers. 
For if no Man can ferve two Matters^ 
but he will hate the one and cleave to the 
other, tis eafy to determine which of 
their Independent Sovereigns Men of thefe 
Principles will cleave to. They will coii- 
cludeno doubt, as we fee they always dc* f 
that the Temporal Empire mult give place 
to the Spiritual, the Profane to the Sa 
cred ^ and that they who rule the Body 
only, and whofe Province reaches to Earthly 
Things alone, cannot come into compe 
tition with thofe who govern the Soul, and 
whofe Power extends to Heavenly Matters: 
which in effeft is no lefs than declaring 
that upon all occafions they are ready to 
facrifice the Good of the Community to 
the Intereft of this or thatuSet of Eccle- 
flafticks. And when Men think they are- 
bound to play the Devil for God s fake, r 
and their Church-Principles oblige em to> 
ad againft the State, there can bendqueP 
tion they will be fufficiently aftive, and 
ftick at nothing, - thd; ever fo fatal to the 
Commonwealth, wheh v - tis for the fake of! 
/ that Church-Government, which - having, ; 


(Jhfiftiati fcWcfc, &c. i f p 

fuppbfe, ah Eftablifhment purely Chap. 8* 
Divirie, mult on no account whatever un- 
dcrgo any Diminution or Alteration t and 
consequently, Men muft be depriv d of all 
Human Rights, rather than the Clergy 
lofe one jot of their Divine Power which 
rieceflarily brings in Perfecution, than which 
nothing can be more prejudicial to the Com-* 
thonwealth; fincc, 

2,3. It makes a Country defolate, by 
rendring Property uncertain, by deftroy- 
ing Induftry, by driving out the Inha 
bitants * is fure to ruin the beft Subjefts, 
the mofb Confcientious, and to change o- 
thers into the worft, and make em ready 
to perpetrate, when the Ties of Coafcn 
cnce are once broken, all manner of Vil- 
lanys, tho ever fo dcftruftive to the Pub- 
lick. Yet theft falfc Priefts, and thpfe 
they govern, are every where for forcing 
all People to fubmit to their Independent. 
Power : And Perfecution prevails accor 
ding to the Influence they have in a Na 
tion j and wntrc this is the greateft, there 
they carry that to the higheft degree of 
Cruelty upon all who dillent from *em- 
And by theit Principles they dre oblig d 
to make no difference, becaufc they hold 
that all who fcruple to communicate with 
them are out of the ordinary way of 
Salvation, the utrhoft they can fay or the 
greatcft Hereticks or Infidels* And the 
Reafon is, becaufe all alike by Separation 
dlfown the Clergy s Power and Government, 
the TejEl it ftems by which all Offences arc 
S * try di 

.The <%tbt$pf the 

try d : and therefore whenever they pretend 
tp indulge one fort of Di (Tenters rather than 
.others, ; tis pure Defign, the better to hin 
der em from joining all together for their 
comnjon Safety : and I am glad to find the 
, Queers now, fenfible of this. , . 
,; (14. , And here I can t but take notice 
.that tho the Heathens were more divided 
among themfelves than the Chriftians, yet 
that did not make em perfecute one ano 
ther-, nay, we find em perfuading Chrif- 
..tiai>s to a mutual Forbearance: as for in- 
ftance, Thcwlflitu a Heathen Philofopher, 
"out of Concern for the. Good of Mankind, 
offer d, ,fuch convincing Arguments ; to V*- 
Jcns th,c lynperor againft Perfecution, ^ that 
.it made him,, in fpite of all the SolHcita- 
tions of his own Clergy, put a ftop for 
.fome time to his Crueltys. This is the 
. fame Heathen who in his Confular Ora* 
tion celebrates Jovian for giving a Toleration 
.in the Chriftian Religion, thereby defeating 
.the flattering SiJIiofs \ a fort of Men, adds 
he, who do not. worfiip God, but the .Imperial 

25. As the Heathens did not perfecute 

one another, fo they had no Wars on a 

Thucydi- Religious account. For iho fome, City s , in 

dcs,lib.2. Greece^ in making War upon the Viola 

tion or Ufurpation of fome Tempi?, or 

rather the Treafure cpntain d therein, 

have call d it a Holy War, becaufe that 

was Sacred or Holy^ i.e. fet apart for the 

common Kcccfiitys of Greece, whereof the 

Temple was only the Repofitory , yet that 

. happening on Matters of Faft, and not of 


Qtrifttm Church^ &e; \6f 

Faith; in which every one was free, ought Chapl 81* 
not to be efteem d warring for the fake of 
Religion. But when the Chriftian Clergy 
came to govern the Confciences and Coun- 
cils of Princes, there was nothing more 
frequent than Holy and Religious Wars. 
It muft be a melancholy Profpeft, to one fc- 
rioully conccrn d for Religion, to confider 1 
how from ConftaminSs time downward,- 
Chrifttndom has been the Scene of perpetual 
Wars, Maflacres, Murders, Persecutions, 
tnd all manner of Violence and Villany, on 
pretence of extirpating Schifmaticks and 
Hcreticks, Men it feems fo prefumptuous 
as not to pay an implicit Faith to the Priefh 
who were uppermoft, but who dar d to 
difient from em when they faw Rcafon for* 
it. And the Clergy were not content 
only to embroil Chriftians with Chriftians, 
but the moft aftive Princes were fent to } 
fight againft the Saricew, that they might 
be diverted from putting a flop to their 1 
Incroachments, who by this means gain d 
an Opportunity of confounding all Things, ; 
whether Sacred or Civil, which flood in their 
way to Dominion. 

26. Of all the numerous Wars in which 
the Clergy have ingag d the World, the 
beft Excufe they had for any, was in Henry 
the Vth s time, when it was necelTary not 
for the gettingof more Riches, butprefcrv- 1 
ing what -they had already got. For as a 
Parliament call d by Henry IV. was for im- 
ploying the Revenues of the Church to 
ferve the Neceflity of the State ; and in ano- ? hichc ; y> 
ther which met fix years after, a Bill wa<i p 1 * 
S 3 brought 

161 7be ftgfcfi of the 

IbllChfon. brought in to the fame purpofe, the Com-* 
& 1 I 6 * mons again remonftrating that what the 

7. PbW Cler 8 v fy 1 in Wfcnefs an <l Luxury, wou d 
39 be fufficient to make up the Deficiency of 
thepublickTreafure; fo in his Son s time 
they continu d in the fame mind ; and in 
the fecond year of his Reign they prefs d the 
depriving of the Clergy of their Revenues, 
more eagerly than ever : Which firm and 
conftant Refolution of the Commons, put 
the Clergy in a terrible Confirmation j 
and therefore to divert the young Prince 
from cloiing with the Commons, they put 
him on a War with France. This fhows 
what a Spirit there was in the Commons, 
and how unlikely fuch Men were, if now in 
being, to repeal the Statutes of Mortmain^ 
or any Part thereof. But to return, 

27, The Clergy were not content to fa- 
crifice fomany Millions on pretence of re 
covering the Holy Land, but they engag d 
the Secular Powers to extirpate with Fire 
and Svvord the only Remains of genuine 
Chriftianity, the jjlbigenfes and Waldcnhs \ 
who fcal d with their Blood their Abhor 
rence of all the Sacerdotal Ufurpations 
then on foot: for the Rooting out of 
whom the Priefls were fo icaious, that they 
were for murdering the Catholicks mixt; 
among thofe Hercticks, rather than any 
of cm fhou d efcape. And to incourage 
the fcrupulous Soldiers, they told era, 
that tho they made no diftinftion, yet 
\vouM know his own at the laft day. 
fo zealous were our Clergy for burning 

j that the Statute made in tne fe- 


tyriftian Church, &c: 

cond Year of Henry the Fourth for burning Chap. 8. 
Hereticks, is call d in the Rolls, rtMio 
Cleri contra H*rtticos. What Wars, Maf- 
{acres and monftrous Crueltys have hap- 
pen d fince on the Pretence of Religion, 
tho in reality for the fake of the Indepen 
dent Power of this or that Set of Eccle- 
fiafticks, is as endlefs to recount, as tis 
melancholy to confider that there s no 
likelihood of preventing em, till the Laity 
ceafe to be govern d by the Clergy, or 
the Clergy renounce their Pretences to fuch 
a Power } the promoting of which has 
>done more Mifchief to Human Societys, 
than all the grofs Superftitions of the Hea 
thens, who were no where ever fo ftupid 
as to entertain fuch a monftrous Contra- 
diftion as two Independent Powers in the 
fame Society , and confcquently their Priefts 
were notcapablcof doing fo much Mifchief 
to the Commonwealth as fome fince have 

z8. What can be more deftruftive to 
the Publick Intereft, than prohibiting fuch 
Numbers as thofc they call Religious in 
molt places are, from marrying ? which 
was chiefly done for thefe two Reafons, 
that whatever Riches were got by any of 
their Number, might be continu d amongft 
em, and that the State might have no 
Pledges of their Fidelity, as Wife and 
Children are the only remaining Pledges, 
where the Perfon and Eftate are exempt: 
Which made unnatural Lulls fo frequent 
and publick, that St. Bernard in a Sermon BurnctV 
preach d to the Clergy of FrtncC) affir 

S 4 " Sodomy 

a<$4 Ik Qtigto* of tie 

Sodomy to be fo common in his time, that 
Bifhops with Bifhops liv d in it. 

29. That Men fhou d think there was 
a mighty Holinefs in their Celibacy, they 
perfuadcd em that the Height of Spiri 
tual Perfe&ion confifted not in regulating, 
but extinguifhing their natural Inclina 
tions : whereas the Defire of propagating 
the Species being by the Divine Wifdom 
the moft ftrongly implanted in Man, next 
to that of his own Prefervation, abftain- 
ing from it muft be fuch 3 Crime as is 
exceeded only by refuting to preferve one s 
own Being } and on fome Confederations 
greater, fince This prevents the Exifknce 
of an Immortal Soul, That only diflblves 
the Union between it and the Body , and 
both equally wou d, with a few years dif 
ference only, put an End to the Race of 
Mankind , the only Reafons of the moral 
Turpitude of unnatural Lufts. And yet 
notwithftanding thefe and all other Rea 
fons for increafing the Number of Inhabi 
tants in every Nation, the Clergy did 
ftrongly difcourage Matrimony, by repre- 
fenti ng a fingle State infinitely more accep 
table to God , nay, madefecond Marriages 
little better than Adultery, fince they who 
were guilty of em were not only to do 
Penance, but to be for a time excluded from 
Communion. And one of the Councils of 
Toledo declares, " That 1 whofoever fhou d 
" prefumeto violate their Decree r againft 
cc fecond Marriages, tho a King, i fhou d be 
cc cut off from all Communion witH Chrif- 
u tians, and be deliver d up to be burjit 
- - " in 

Qirifitan Church^ &c. 1 6 j 

a in a Fire of Brimltone in Hell with the Chap. 8. 
"/Devil. And, \^W-> 

; ; The Clergy had been bound as early as 
the Council of Nice to part with their 
Wives, had not P/i^wttf/wpreyairdonthatSocrat.!.i. 
Synod to change their Sentiments: and * " 
Conflantlnc who was intirely govern d by the Ibid. 
Bifhops, not only repeal d thofe excellent 
Laws made by the Commonwealth in favour 
of Matrimony, but gave no final! Privilege 
to Celibacy. 

30. A State fuffers not fo much by the 
lofs of a Member, as by his. living idly; 
becaufe he .then is not only ufelefs, but a 
Burden. For one to contribute nothing 
to theSubfiftenceof others, and yet expect 
they fhould maintain him, is contrary to 
the Rule of doing as one wou d be done 
unto, and a very grofs Immorality. And 
yet the Clergy represented nothing fo me- v 
ritorious as fuch a Life, on pretence of 
retiring from the World, and dedicating 
one s felf to the Service of Gcd \ whereas 
we can no otherwife ferve God, who 
wants nothing, than as we aflift one ano 
ther : And Religion, properly fpeaking, 
was -not made for God, who being infi 
nitely happy in Himfelf, receives no Ad 
vantage or Difadvantage by what we do, 
but for our felves, to oblige us to do all 
thofe Dutys in which our common Happi- 
nefs confifts. And tis not Solitude, but 
Converfation which civilizes Men, and 
teaches em to fubdne their Pafllons, which 
in Monafticjcs and reclufe Perfons are molt 
ft.rong.and violent} and they are generally 
" " . - 1 . as 

166 The %lgl)ti of tie 

as great Burden to themfelves asrto 
the Publick, and frequently do that Juftice 
on themfeives which fuch 3 Life deferves. 
And yet how quickly was the Empire 
overrun with prodigious Numbers of thefc 
idle Drones, who the better to cheat the 
World, took to themfelves the Name of 
Rtligiom ? But had the Empire maintajn d 
only the tenth part of fo many difciplin d 
Troops, as it did of Religious of both 
Sexes, it might eafily have fubdu d all its 
Enemys. But while the People were conti 
nually harafs d by Perfections, and by 
maintaining fuch Numbers of lazy Ecclefiaf- 
ticks, and were oblig d, on pretence of ho 
nouring dead Folks, to fpend a great many 
days in Idlenefs j and Marriages were not 
only forbid the Clergy and Religious, but 
difcountenanc d in the Laity j and Superr 
ftitions, injurious to the Publick, daily in- 
creas d*, tis no wonder that the Empire 
became an eafy Prey to the Barbjriansj a,$ 
little acquainted with the Rules of War, 
or tme Military Difcipline, as they were 
with Civil Arts and Sciences. 

31. Other falfe Religions were generally 
fet up by fome Politick Legiflators, for 
the Support of their Government : but 
the Superftition which upon the Ruin of 
Chriftianlty was brought in by Popes and 
Prelates in favour of their Independency, 
has fufTer d no Orders or Maxims to take 
place, which might make^ a Nation wile, 
honeft or wealthy j but has in a manner de- 
ftroy d all the good Principles and Morality 
left us by the Heathens, and introduc d 


(> i/ftm Ckrcfc, &c. j 67 

impoliticly fordid and wicked Notion*, Chap. 8. 
by which they fubjefted the Chriftwn 
World to thcmfelves. It wou d almoft 
aftonifh a wife Man to imagine how thefe 
Men fhou d acquire a Power fy deftruftive 
of the Chriftian Religion, and pernkUw 
to the Iqtereft of Mankind, did be not 
confider, that for many Ages together they 
have been on the Catch, and were a fprnra 
united Party againft the Purity of Religion, 
and the Intereft of Civil Societys, which 
are infeparable *, and likewife the ufe they 
made of the blind Devotions of the People, 
especially of the Northern Nations, and. 
or the Avarice and Ambition of Chriftiau, 

32,. What is it has made the Doftrine of 
unconditional Obedience to the Will of a 
fingle Perfon, which on no account whatever 
may be refilled, to be preach d up fo much of 
late, unlefs that Arbitrary Power renders 
Men very ignorant and very fuperftitious ; 
and gives em mean and abjeft Thoughts } 
and confequently makes ^m ready to fub- 
mit to whatever the Ecclefialticks^ are 
pleas d to impofe upon *em ? Nor is it in, 
the nature of things to be otherwife : for 
where People are fo prefs d in their Cir- 
^umftances, that they have little leifure to 
examine Matters of Religion in private, 
nor dare debate em freely in Converfation, 
much lefs publifli their Thoughts , and the 
Pulpits ring with nothing fo much as In> 
plicit Belief and Obediente : There, 1 fay, 
tis impoilible but Mens Underftandings 
be debas d to fuch a degree, as to 


168 Tie ^igtti of the 

be reiady to embrace the moft abfurd : Opi 
nions for Divine Truths, whenever a : 
defigriing Priefthood (hall pronounce em 

And therefore tis no wonder that the In-, 
dependent Power of the Clergy (Slavery of 
Body and Mind being infeparable) increafcs 
proportionably to the Civil Tyranny the 
People groan under. 

33. Nature makes not a greater diffe 
rence between Man and Brute, than Go 
vernment does between Man and Man; 
That which is free, always caufes Light 
and Knowledg in the World ; which muft 
confound Prieftcraft, a Bird of Night 
which flees the open day. On the con 
trary, that which is arbitrary, fo cramps 
Peoples Underflanding, that as it never 
did, fo it never can ferve to any other ufe 
in Religion than to produce Superftition and 
Prieftcraft in abundance. 

And as Men are moft ignorant under 
fuch a Government, fo the blind Deference 
they pay the Priefts, is in exaft pro 
portion to the Ignorance they labour 

Of this the old Lord Hallifax was not 
infenfible, when he told Dr. Eclmrd^ 
" That he had not in his Book of the 
cc Contempt of the Clergy hit on the true 
u Reafon of it, viz.. the Knowledg of the 
a Laity : To which the Do&or, as tis faid, 
readily reply d, " That, God be thank d, 
" there was Ignorance enough ftill among 
u the Laity to fupport the Authority of 
" the Clergy. . . : 


n , Church, 6tc* $ 69 

34. Tis not! without caufe, .that n}a* Chap. 8. 
jiy JPriefts have fuc)\ an Averfion to Fre$ v - 
Governments, fince all ufefuf Learning and 
Knowledg is derived from,t;hem. Twas 
this that made all . ingenious Arts and Sci 
ences flourifli \ fp wpnderfully in Grecct 
and Rtmt* , But ,as! Arbitrary, ^ower pre* 
.vail jd, thefCj decreased, and Ignorance and 
Barbarity increas d ^ of which ; the ( Wrir 
tings of the Fathers are a fufficient Demon* 
ft ration*. An$ t^sin fome pieafure due to 
the Tyranny ; they liv d under, that they ^are 
full of fo many abfurd Notions, and ritficu; 
IpusSuperftitions. .;, ; -, 

*"i 35." T^e, Slavery ;under. which r the Jews 
werc.bred in Egyvh, made ^em fo prone to 
Idolatry, and all manner of Superftition, 
that a continu d ; Series of Miracles was 
;fcarce able to reclaim em. And their Un- 
derftandings were deprav d to fnch a degree 
on their coming out of the Land of Bon 
dage, that they were not capable of a Spi 
ritual Religion ^ fo that the Laws God 
gave em, were in a great meafure accom 
modated to their grofs and carnal Appre- 

36. If the Clergy do not find their In^ 
tereft in promoting Tyranny, what s the 
reafon that if a Prince is fo very weak as 
to be govern d by them, they put him ori 
violent and arbitrary Methods, till he ei 
ther ruins himfelf, or, which is worfe, his 
Country ? And we need not go abroad for 
Examples^ finse. ", this unhappy Nation ig 
.the memory of ]\lah has felt two fatal Xfv 
ftancesof it, by the Court s being bigotte^ 


of t\x 

ttf fitch a degree in the Reigns of both Fa* 
ther and Son, as to endeavour to fubv&t 
the Civil Conftitution for the fake of 
Church, tho each Court meant a different 
Chutch. So that tis all one of what Per* 
fuafion they are, whether a Laud or a Peters^ 
who have the Management of the Bigotted 
prince, fince the People as well as the Prince 
are in like danger of being undone. 

37. That this was the Ruin of King 
5*mc?i is frefli enough in our Memory } 
and we need go no nirther to prove this 
the chief caufe of his Father s unhappy 
Suffering, than a Book lately pubjifh d in 
his Vindication : which ( tho printed fo 
temy years after, and in all likelihood 
with more Partiality than the Author him* 
felf was guilty of) plainly enough difco- 
vers that thofe unnatural Wars were occa- 
fion d by the Usurpations of High Church \ 
who to maintain the Pomp and Power of 
their Hierarchy, put the Court upon fuch 
Opprefllve and arbitrary Meafures as were 
inuipportable to the beft-natur d People in 
the World. 

From this Conduft of the Hieh-flown 
Clergy, fbme have taken the Lioerty to 
compare a High-Church Pricft in Politicks 
to a Monkey in a Glafs-fhop, whereas he can 
do no good, fo he never fails of doing Mif- 
chief enough. 

38. The more inclinM Princes are to Re 
ligion, the greater is the Danger, if thef 
if e not able t6 diftinguifh between That 2nd 
Superftition, of their being influenc d by tht 
Clergy to ^ft igain ft the Publick Good. 


Church, &cl 

( What a contemptible vaeCharaftcf hASChap.8. 
the Popilh Qpeen Mary, and how odiotrt 
is her Memory to the Nation! And yet 
fhe was very good-natur d in her fejf, as 
well as extremely devout : but not being 
able to fee thro Prieftcraft, and delivering 
Jhcr fclf up to the Conduft of her Clergy* 
they quickly made her put off the Tender- 
nefs of her Sex, and become cruel and 
bloody, as well as ungrateful and falfe to 
thofe who were moft inftrumental in 
placing the Crown on her Head.. Where - 
as her Sifter, as fhe was no Bigot herfelf, 
fo none of her Counfellors were that way 
inclin d. And how Happy, Great and Glo 
rious was Enrlttnd made by her Coriduft ! 
which reduced thp Power of Sfafa fo low, 
that fhe became abfolute Sovereign of the 
Seas-, the Dutch, tho increafing in Trade, ; 
being fufficiently bridl d by thofe Towns 
^ie had in the Heart of their Country, 
and the French not fo much as daring to 
build a Man of War in the Ocean without 
her leave. So that She left the Nation in a 
Condition of being Mafters of the Trade 
and Riches of the Univerfe, and of giving- 
what Laws they pleas d to the remotelt- 
Shores ; for f \vhich nothing .is dearer to a 
grateful People than her Immortal Memo 
ry : Whilft fome Priefts, tho they think no 
Cdiiimendation too large for thofe, who ; 
by their Bigotry and Folly have hazarded 
the. very Btjng of the Nation, will fcarce 
afllbwM-a gb oM Word j becaufe ihe wou*d 
not indulge their Independency, but rbblft 
f fupportingit, ti& # 


*7* 4 .fkt, Oughts ofr the. ; 

t :\ jgr$at,part of thofe Church-Lands which 
were fpar d; by n her Father and Jkother ^ i# 
the latter of whofe Reigns, tho Popery was 
^bolilh d, and; the true Religion eftabUfh d, 
, yet^the famous ffcylin upon the fame Rear, 
fons reprefents t)is Death as a feafonable 
Mercy to the Church, fo much does he prefer 
1rhat to Religion. -i ; J : -. 

i.i.J9 .In Queen Elizabeth * Reign the is 
was no Notion of Paflive Obedience, ,tp; 
lender her from affording h^r Afliftarice tcv 
the French Protcftants, who took Arms in 
Defence of their Religion and Libertys ; or: 
ffornproteftingthe Infant States of Hollan^ 
againft the Tyranny of Spain. , But by the^ 
Preyaiency of; Folly and- Bigotry we had r 

, vtcen fince reducM to the lalt- Extremity^ 
fiacj it, not been for the late happy Revo-!, 
Iup9n v which, refcu d us from Tyranny, 
and Prieftcrart, \and among .other innumer/ 
rafcie Blefllngs, has given u? a Queen, who! 
t;rads in the ftepsof that Glorious Princefs j. 
who is now the Support and Protedrefs/ 
of diftrefs d Princes and diftrpfsd Subjects ^ 
who by extending her Fayour^to all "her-, 
People, is as happy in her Government at , 
home, as fuccefsful in her Conquefts abroad j ; 
who can diftinguifh True- Religion from 
Prieftcraft, and will not fuffer her Power to", 
be made fubfcrvient to the ill Purpofesof a; 
Party, whofe reftlefs Malice, is never tO; 
be fatisfy d, without treading on the 
Necjcs of all who are not as bigotted as, 
themfelves. With what Zeal did this 
Party come in to all the Meafures thofe, 
i^,,-^ which aim d at Arbitrary Power! 


, &c. 

Itftf jjWy ? But fihce the pre fent Court Chap. 8; 
xia^ nothing fo much 1 at heart as- Rearing L/*V 
thsEnglifi Liberty* and Proteftan Religion 
againft: .the Power of the French Tyrant, 
grown fo formidable : by ; means or that 
Prince whom thelb JMen in a manner ador d, 
they take all fly in the ; Faceof /vv-,. . 
the Government. So that the ^reat Strug-* ..,-.. >. 
gle at pfefent is for Liberty and the Pro- 
teftant Religion, againft French Tyranny, 
a Popifll Succcflbr, and Popery it. feif : On 
one fide are the Queen 1 , .Lords and 1 Com- 
jrioiis, and all the fober and fenfible Part of 
the Nation-, on the other fide, thpft who 
have been poifon d with wicked Principles 
in , their Education-, or in other words, 
tHofe whom the Wifdom of the Natioa 
declares, to be mallcioits Incendlarys^ fateful 
<inJ-d(trtgereiis Enemy? to the Church and State ^ 
and why to coveYtheiir own Difajfettion to the 
vrefenf Eftablifotitttit and . Admin! ftr at /<?#, en- 
dtavoutto diftratt the Peofle with urireafinable 
and grbithdlefs DLftYuftsdnd Jedoufy*. 

41. The Papifts. iare not fo .blind as 
in feveral places ndt to perceive how^ 
deftruaive the Principles of the Prielts . 
are to : Governme nt, and therefore do what 
they can to fence againft- it. . The renetians^ Burncty 
for inftance, are fo very, jealous of all Church- ^^5 
men getting into their Publick Council^ that at 
a Jtfoblc Venetian by going into Orders lofcs 
kif Right of votirfg in the Pnbtlck Councils^ 
f(> when any of them are made Cardinals^ the 

v>hotc Kindred and Family mnft^ during their 
Lives j withdraw from the Great Council , an% 
*rc incapable of all Preferments. By fuch 
T means 

TAe Oughts of the 

means as thefe this wife State has longer 
preferv d, it felf than any ever yet did. 

42. Their Jealoufy of Ecclefiafticks does 
not carry them fo far as it does the little Re- 
publick of Norcia^ which the more eHeftu- 

al *X tO * ut OU . t the ^ r ^ c ^ s ^ rom hav ^ n g a ny 
thing to do in their Government,, makes 

every one who can write or read incapable 
of having a fhare in it. 

By this extraordinary Caution, which 
they moll religioufly obferve > tho they live 
in the Pope s Territories, and within twenty 
five Miles of Rome, they prefer ve the Power 
of making Laws, and of chufing their own 

43. Tis not Popery as fudy but the 
Doftrineof a blind Obedience, in wha tfo- 
cver Religion found, .which is the Deftnic- 
tiou of the Liberty, and confequently of the 
Happincfs of any Nation. And he who 
takes a View of the Proteftant Cpuntrys 
abroad, which have loft their Libertys even 
iince they chahg d their Religion for a better, 
will be convinced of this. 

In the Proteftant Countrysof the North, 
as the Author of the Account of Denmark 
(a Book much the beft of its kind which 
has been written for many Ages ^ ob- 
ferves, a the Principles and Doftnne of 
<4 the Clergy are thofe of Unlimited Obe- 
u dience^ and thro the Authority they 
a have with the common People, Slavery 
ct feems to be more abfolutely eftablifh d 
ct there than in Franc e it fclf, and in effect 
J c is more pra&isM. 

44. And 

Church, Sec. 

44; And tis not only flnce thofe Princes Chap. 8i 
became Abfolute, that thefe Do&rines have C 
been preach d, but it was chiefly owing 
(as this Author obfervcs) to the Clergy, 
that they became fo, as well as that they 
are like to continue fo. And he .makes 
the fame Remark concerning Mufcwy y 
" That as the Government is as Tyranni- 
u cal as in any of the Eaftern Monarchys, 
<c fo tis the Priefts who have very much 
ct contributed, not only. to the keeping, 
* c but to the making it fo. 

45. And if thefe Proteftant Kingdoms 
have yet preferv d their Libcrtys when all 
others are enflav d, tis not owing to thofe 
Clergymen who did their utmoft to deftroy 
the beft Conftitution in the World, by 
preaching up Unlimited Obedience to the 
Will of a Limited Monarch, and who by 
the Influence they had over the Minds of 
the People, had fo prepared em for Sla 
very, that had King Charles been fuffer d to 
livej or had not his Brother tolerated the 
Diflenters, in all probability we ihou d have 
been in no better Condition than the Pro- 
tcftants in the North. 

46. If one confiders by what means w- 
rofc, which not long ft nee was for the molt 
part free, loft its Liberty, he will find that 
the enflaving People s Minds made way 
for that of their Bodys ; the Education of 
Youth, on which is laid the very Founda 
tion-Stones of Liberty, being committed 
to the^ fole Management of iuch as made 
it their bufmefs to undermine it. And 
as Printing and fome other Accidents occa- 
T 2 fionTd 

176 The <%i$tt 

fioh d in the Laity Li$it and 
1 always fatal to Prieftcraft y To ttie- EcclHia- 
fticks dpubl d their Force for eftabji/hing 
Tyrkriny, as moft effeQJtial -t& teducfe j ein 
to their : .priftine Ignorance and Stvjier- 
ftition: not that they tjhemfelves b^Hev d 

oi>e tittle of thelr enflaving 

fince there are. few of. em who krajihof 

upon bccafioh as uhanimoufly ^veacli them 
down, as ever they rjreach d/em.up i and 
wheii they find a Pdncb becomes the COWL-* 
mon Parent of all his Subje9;s, ^nd : ^refer*s 
the Good of his Gbuntry before thdr fepa-. 
rate Intcrcft, then they can mil Frdm-^nc 
Extreme to anothcri j afid 1 hive ho more 
regard for his Prejrbgativd. thail another 
times 1 for the Peoples "Liberty s V thinking j 
by breaking the Bulbhcp of the Goriftitu- 
tion , to bring things into Anarchy ar^d Cou- 
fulioii, which piiturally ends in tne Tyran 
ny of a fingle Perfon. In other cafes, theif 
Intereft obliges em direftly to promote Ty 
ranny, as the likelieft way to lord it over 
the Laity. 

47. -Tyrants are alvyays fo advantageous 
to an Ambitious Priefthood, that they 
even know how to turn their Qualms of 
Confcience ( which the greatefi arc not 
fometimes without) to tlie detriment of 
the Publick. For thp they Will nqt fail 
to perfuade 1 enr, ^bAt if jfhey aft j for the 
Good of the Ghiirchj by increafihg their 
Powet 1 and Riches, aiid by perfccutfng all 
Schifmaticks and Hereticks (vi& all who 
dare ufc their- R^afon 1 , and not : -Blihdly 
- - - i; * ; fijbmit 

lubmlt to them) .they lhall not only . atone Chap. 8. 
for all. their ,Crimes, J)ui; nlerit Heaven by 
thofe glorious Aftions, .. <w And Perfecutiou 
agreeing with their vlplent Tempers, they 
will, eafily comply with it Qefpeqally 
when they are to -partake ,in the Spoil) 
"by which means.- ttyey become ten times 
greater Devils than, otherwife they wou d 
be, ,.. 

Of this the Tyrant of France is too fignal 
an Example, whofe fingle Bigotry> by the 
dextrous Management of the Pricfts, has 
.made him^fo great a Monfter of Cruelty and 

48. And Hiflory informs us, that no 
Princes have been more infupportable, and 
done ( ; greater Violence to the Common- 
wealth, than thofe the Clergy have ho- 
nour d for ; Saints,and Tv^artyrs-, who after 
they had vob d qther People, thought to 
make amends by letting the Church fhare in 
.the Spoil. And tis from fuch Benefadlors 
the Priefts have got the greatcft part of 
their Riches. . ( ,- 

i On ,the contrary, the greatcft Patriots 

who oppos d their Incroachments, have 

been reprefented as the worft of Men, and 

^traduc dbya thoufand Lyes and Calumnys. 

^So that one may ta pretty certain that 

<thofc Pcrfons they rail at moft, have more 

"than an ordinary Stock of Merit, and thofe 

they commend jpolt ^to fay no worfe) no 

, pretence at all to it. 

( 49. The Mifcliicfs which have all along 

.Attended this Dodrinc of the Independent 

T , Power 

178 Me Vtyfa of th 

Power of the Clergy, are fo very nume-- 
rous, and fo very great, that [what Amos 
the Prophet in another fenfe fpeaks of 
the Lord ? may be fitly enough apply d 
to them, // there any Evil in the City, 
and have they not done if*/ there being 
no Chriftian Nation which has not been 
frequently embroil d upon this occafion. 
Innumerable have been the Quarrels of the 
. reftlefs Clergy with Kings and Emperors 
about the Right of Inveftiture^ the Exemption 
of Clerks^ the Protection of SanttuaryS) the 
Cognizance of Civil as well as Ecclefiaftical 
Caufesj and fuch-Hke, all occafibp d by a 
Pretence to an Independent Hierarchy; 
for the promoting of which, they have 
not boggl d at any Means, tho ever fo vile, 
till by degrees (for what cannot fucli a 
Confederacy do?) they made the Chriftian 
World fubmit to them. Yet then tKey 
cou d not agree among themfelves about 
fharing their Ufurpations, but at laft the 
Bifhop of Rome prevail d over the reft, 
and became the Head of this Independent 
Society , and then the Civil Powers had 
fcarce any thing left em, except the Ho* 
nour of facing his Executioners^ in mur 
dering all who wou d not own his Supre- 
, macy, with dll the other Pickpocket Doc^ 
trinesof Popery. And to what a v miferable 
Condition Chriflendom was then reducM, is 
too notorious to be here mentioned. 

50. Nor have things fucceeded much 
better fince the Breach with Rome : for no 
fooner was the Pope thrown off, than too 


1 , T r > 

Chnftian Church, &c. 

many of the Proteftant Clergy fet up for an Chap. 8. 
Independent Power ^ andquarrel das fiercely i^ 
about it, as ever the Patriarchs of Rome and 
Confttwtinoflc did. 

To go no further than this Ifland, have 
not the People by turns been harafsM and 
perfccutcd, both by the Epifcoparians and 
Presbyterians; too many of the Clergy of 
both forts, as they had Power, endea 
vouring to get all DifTenters treated with 
the utmoft Rigor? And how much that 
Per fecu ting Spirit in one of em contri 
buted to the Civil Wars, is too well 
known to be here mention d. And after 
the Reftoration, no Experience making 
feme Men wifer, I defire to know whether 
the Conduft of the Clergy was any ways 
altered for the better, or their perfecuting 
Humour abated, tho by it they became 
Tools to the Papifts j of which they were 
fo fenfiblc in the Day of Diftrefs, that the 
molt Eminent among em, with the gc- 
neral Approbation of the reft, made fo- 
lemn Declarations of eafing their Prote 
ftant Brethren, when Providence fhou d put 
it in their power. Yet when the Convo 
cation in 89 had by the Favour of Heaven 
an^ Opportunity ot performing thofe Pro- 
mifes j was there not a Party among em 
who rcfolv d to keep Faith as little with 
Schifmaticks, as fome former Councils 
with Hereticks ? And therefore with fcorn 
they re jetted all Terms of Accommodation, 
and thought the very recommending to 
em fuch Alterations in Things Indiffe- 
T 4 rent. 

2,80. Jbe Qtjgbts } of the V j 

rent, .as wou d make conforming -to the 
Church fo eafy as feiv JProteftant* either 
" at home or abroad fhou d fcruple, an 
Affront never to be forgiven \ Which was 
the Foundation. of the inveterate Malice 
\vith which that Glorious Prince, to whom. 
we owe our Religion and Church, was to* 
the laft perfecuted : Nor cou d the Rifhops, 
even thofe who had fignaliz d themfelves 
in defence of the Church, receive better 

5.1. It may be worth inquiring, whether 
the Difference between the feveral Setts in 
England has not hinder d the Clergy from 
making the belt of a Doftrine, which, if 
carry d to the height^ gives em greater 
Power than the Popifh Prjefts enjoy, and 
if by their united Force Slavery had been 
brought into the Church, whether the State 
cou d long remain free. 

52. Some go further, and queftion whe 
ther our Religion and Civil Libertys wou d 
have been fife, if there had been a better 
Underftanding even between the Clergy of 
the fame Church } that is, if the Bifhops 
and Moderate Churchmen wou d have join d 
In the Methods of High-Church. If fo, it 
affords a very melancholy Confideration, 
Tlmt in the be ft -constituted Church things arc 
brovght to tb<it />*/}, that the greateft Good 
which csin be expetted of the EcdefitJIicks 
is from their Divi/ions. .This is cei taiiily fo, 
where nothing lefs than an Independent 
Power will fatisfy cm, for then a Union 
ainon^ft cm is the Icaft dcfirablc tl)ing ia 


(Jhriftity Church, &c. 

the V^orld : ,and , they , wlio wpu d compats hap. 8. 


Rpdsfor thcmfeLves and Pofterity ; becauie 
as People have tieen, f f6, the! f*refumpttbj\, 
is, they always \vill be riiiferably ridden by 
the Frieftv when they are cjofely link 4 r 
tpgether! in prorriotipg their Ihdepe/ideht 
Power. r . , -; ;/; 

53 The Jefuits, teach ps wliat a fmalf 
number (for fo ; tliey are in comparifon of 
the whole Body of the Eccleflafticks) by 
being ftriftly 1 united among j themfelves, caa 
effeft? for.tho, they are hated in all JPJacesi 
of their own Religion, yet they govern in 
all. .; 

54. If the Clergy from To low ^ Rife as 
fubfifling on the ^Ims of the People, cpu ij 
pofTefs tnemfelyes of immenfe Riches an4 
Power, and notwithftanding fo many.DU 
vine Prohibitions, lord it over their Bre 
thren as they had a mind tov are they now 
fo low, that they cannot, unlefs hinderM 
by one another, become as formidable as 

What cannot fuoh a Confederacy, 6ii 
pretence of Religion, bring about, when 
jnoft pay a blind Deference to what they 
teach f And of thofe few who do not, 
who is there fo regardlefs of his own 
Safety, as by oppofmg their felf-interefted 
Bodrines to create to himfelf fuch a num 
ber of relentlefs Enemys, to whom the 
Motto of Nemo me imfunc Ucefllt does molt 
properly belong ? And therefore thofe Di- 
yilions which are amongft em cannot be 

of the 

to the prejudice of Mens Civil or Religious 
Liberty s. 

5J. The Laity of the Romilh Religion 
have received no finall Benefit by the Pro- 
teftants feparating from the Church of, 
Romfi in caufing their Priefts to retrench. 
a great deal of an exorbitant Power, which 
was daily increafing, and mult long be 
fore now have grown to fuch a height, 
as to have diverted the Laity of all Pro- 1 
perty, and made em no better than 
Hnpcrs of Wood and Drawers of Water to 
their Clergy-Landlords, and which mult 
inevitably nappen, if ever the Clergy are 
again united under one Head. So that tis 
thelntereft of Popifli Princes, if they have 
no mind to be in greater fubjeftion to their 
Priefts, not to endeavour to deltroy Prote- 
ftantifm. . 

56. Among the different Sedts, who are 
there fo blind as not to fee that all Priefts 
befldes their own are for enflaving the Peo 
ple; and never fail to do it, when they have 
got Power enough in their Hands ? And yet 
how few are there who are not for giving 
their own Priefts all the Power they can ; 
as if the Quarrel had not bet:n againft being 
Prieftridden, but only againlt being fp by 
this or that Set of Ecclefiafticks ? And we 
have not a few Inftances of Men \yho have 
left the Presbyterian way they were bred in, 
and rail at the Tyrannical Power of ClalTes 
and Synods *, and yet at the fame time come 
into all the extravagant Notions of High* 
Church-, which is running from one Phana- 
ticifm to another. 

57* As 

Cbriftian Church, &cl 18 j 

57. As the HighrChurchmen of any Se, Chap. 9. 
if a Prince has a mind to trample on thacxv^o 
Laws and Libertys of the People, will al 
ways be ready to join with him, provided 
he can majce them believe he will fet up 
their pretended Jure Dlvino Church-Go 
vernment; fo tis impoflible they fhou d 
love a Prince who makes the general Good 
of his Country his Care, and will hot al 
low one Seft to put Hardfhips on another. 
Then to be fure he lhall be reprefented as 
one who has no regard to Religion, or Kind- , 
nefs to the Eftablifh d Church ; tho both 
owe their Prefervation to him, or tho he 
has given no inconfiderable Part of his 
Revenue for the Support of the Clergy in 
it. Which tho her Majefty has been gra- 
cioufly plcas d to do, yet, as fhe aflures 
us from the Throne, there have not been 
wanting fome fo very malicious as to fufpedl , 
her Affections to the Church, and to re- , 
prefent it in great Danger under her Go 
vernment; and Prayers have been made 
from the Pulpit in the Loyal Univerfity of Mather s 
Oxford^ to continue the Throne, free jromScrm. on 
the Contagion of Schifm. And tho the Ma ? *9 
late King fo feafonably refcu d the Church 17 $ 
from the all-devouring Jaws of Popery, and 
took fuch care of it afterwards as to pre 
fer thofe Men to the molt confiderable Sta 
tions, who in former Reigns had fignaliz d 
themfelves in its Defence, none being ad- 
vanc dbyhim, except a Monfter or two of 
^ngratitude, who wou d not have deferv d 
their Pofts in the molt Primitive Times; and 
tho his indefatigable Zeal was not fatisfy d 


witb this,but he refolv d to fecure the-Church 
* - / v from all Panger for the future, and therefore 
not only^gave his Royal Afient to a Law fo? 
excluding allPopifh Princes from the Throne 
jfor ever^ butlikewife provided that the Fro* 
teftant SucceiTors fhou d be Members of th$ 
Eftablifh d Church c yet thefe and feveral o* 
ther I^tws for its Advantage, he having done 
more for it than any Prince before did, can t 
hinder the Highfliers from bafely reviling hi$ 
Sacred Memory, and reprefenting him as-aji 
Enemy to the Church. 

- : 58. If other Princes, according to the 
Pattern lately fet em by ours, wou d en 
deavour to hinder all Usurpations over" the 
Minds and Confciences of the People (the 
K. willi- conftant Prayer as well as Praftice or the late 
amVFr*!/- King) they wou d make Mankind much hap- 

/i/5/^y" J^ er t ^ lan a ^ P re ^ ent ^ e y are ^ ut tn ^ s can 

tleB/of never be expeded, while thq Clergy who 
Norwich, claim an Independent Power, have fo great 
an Influence over em ; becaufe their inte- 
relt and that of the People being as oppo- 
fite as Light and Parknefs, Knowledg and 
Ignorance, Religion and Supcrltition, Free 
dom and Slavery, Plenty and Poverty, they 
will continually be carrying on a uniform 
and fteddy .Defign againft the Libertys and 
Underftandings of the People, whom they 
can t render too low, abjed and wretched 
for their impofing Purpofes. And the fame 
Reafon which makes em to be , for Arbitrary 
Power and Perfecution, things fo infinitely 
to the Difad vantage of the Commonwealth, 
will engage em to oppofe every thing that s 
for its luterclh 

S* If 

pyj. If DiteritcrlbdingcoiicernM in fcotr- ; Chap. 8: 
pdratfojis for : t?he Poor, wh,eh all they get L/WJ 
by- it is beftbwing their Time and Mony 
in < fo necefftf f a Charity, j ii ; upon th0 
Church s accbuhj: to be hfficjlred by Law, 
as was not long fi nee attempted, what is 
theri whicrr the Church may n y t. be pleaded 
ifr bar of?- * ; 

- Some indeed fay f( ? tis !nb VoWer if Hikh 
Church are no^fo,nd of Cprporations for 
employing th^ Poor, bfecaufe^as the Ma 
nagement of Ibl troublefom and expenflve 
a -Bufinefs- will fall to, the Sober and Induf- 
trious, whom they defpa,ir to bring over 
to their IntirtK^ fo they think that will 
be apt to give ;? em in all Places where thefe 
a^eereded, too great an Intereft. Of this 
JSriflbl is a remarkable Inftance ^ and the 
publifhing. an Account how differently 
Things are there now manag d, from what 
they were < when in the Hands of Torys, 
might not a little .contribute to fhow the 
molt prejudiced, how unlikely any Place is 
to thrive, where High Church prevails, 
Which in former Reigns was for deftroying 
Trade it felf, as prejudicial ; to , its Inter eft : 
and there are. many leud Harangues in P*r- 
Itcr, Goodman, arid other fuch like Authors, 1 
ou that Siibjed. 

60. What can be more for our Advan^ 
tage thaii rv a General Naturalization of all. 
at lead of the Reform d Religion ? And is 
fot CKMb thfe main Obflacle^ this? And 
is thei^e ribt ! the fame Objeftion agaiijft um* 
tihgall hbf Alajdty s Subjefts under one- ]L^ 
gtflature? -Nay, is not this made ufe of as 

186 -The <%igbt$ of tfo 

f , an Argument to hinder even the Northern 
v Countys from being put into a JPofture 

"of Defence ; tho arming and difciplining 
the People in the adjacent Kingdom makes 
their being on their Guard highly ne- 
ceflary ? And if High-Church is in deep 
Apprehenfion that the ^ Church of Eng* 
land as well as the State is in danger from 
Arms being put into the hands of the Peo 
ple of Scotland, it muft be fome ftrange 
Myftery indeed which hinders em from 
being willing that the Englifr People Jhou d 
be put in a Pofture of Defence, in order 
to prevent and repel thofe Dangers. And 
is not the fame Plea urg d with the utmolt 
Violence againft a better Union of her Ma-, 
jcfty s Subje&s at home, by allowing all who 
hold no Opinions prejudicial to the State, 
and contribute equally with their Fellow* 
Subj^&s to its Support, equal Privileges in 
it, and thereby making it their equal Intereft 

rfi. Do not Juftice and Righteoufnefs, by 
Vhich Kingdoms flour ilh, demand that 
they who .alike contribute to the Bur- 
dcn^ fhou d alike receive the Advantage? 
"A natural Right of which Christianity is fo 
far from depriving Men, that no Party 
r can do it without breaking in on the 
grand Rule of doing as they wou d be 
done unto. How can a Government^ 
*which is willing to aft for the general 
Good of all the People, put Hardlhips 
"on any part of them, efpecially if they 
are very numerous, for doing that without 
which they canY be good Subjects or Citi 

QriJKm .(bttrcb, &cJ 187 

Zens, vi*,. the worfhipping GodacrordingChap.8. 
to Conference ? And the Good of the Na- L/VNJ 
tional Church, ^where different Se&s are 
tolerated, requires this Treatment; be- 
.caufe then if one of cm attempts any 
thing to its prejudice, all the reft in In- 
1 tereft will be bound tooppofeit ; efpecially 
with us, where none of the Sedts, the 
Presbyterians only excepted, are by their 
Constitution capable of becoming the 
National Church: So that all they can 
.delire is to be on a level in, Civil Mat- 
, ^ters. And as no Church was ever ru- 
; intt by taking gentle Methods, fo the 
contrary Courfe, by uniting the Seftarys, 
which that alone can do, has within the 
Ivtcmory of Man more than once deftroy d ; 
the National Churches both of England and 

, 62. Suppofing the Good of the State is 
the fupreme Law, 1 can, with .fubmiffion; 
fee no necefiity for a Religidus Teft in Ci 
vil Imploys (a thing unheard of till the 
times of Popery) if it not only debars the 
Government of the Affiftance pt all its Sub- 
jcfts, the the Occafion be ever fo great, but 
tends to alienate the Affeftions of thofe who 
, are put under this Incapacity, fmce, befidcs 
other Inconveniencys, it reprefents em as 
Enemysto their Country, and is a mark of v 
. pifgrace and Infamy, as well as a badg of 
Servitude. And if a State is fecure, as 
there s no inftance to the contrary, where 
Juftice is fairly and impartially adminiftred, 
there can be no Alteration in the eftablifh d 
Mode of CliUith-Difcipline, which is not 
; ,; made 

as js aireafl^ proV d, 
nature* v QugKt .alwayy ! ta itridergq ] f 
Q anfees. /^s are 4veeabl4 td ^h^ 
brtjip .jpeopl 6; whicfr . 
to Keep tlie.Cjef^ 

p, bounds; a,,ihiiig on. vvhichvithe &ct\ritj > 
of ,th e Ctiurcn l highly\depehds ; , fince !ohly 
tfie V io^flce a.rtd If uf y of, the High-fliei^ car; 
prejudice lt. r . ( ; } < ^" \^ J .. . ,/ 

163* if ,t^e ( JPr0fervatlori br/ ^riy Ebfrtf : of 
Ecclefiaftical ^ifcipline is the gra rid tawV 
and that i^ fecur q by Perfecutk)fi ? ,as v 
every thiag Is P erfecuti^n which upbn$jife 
account pi^ts a. Man in a/Worfe ConditioJrf. 
than his JCsIeighbours j nptliing lefs thaii|BaV 
nifliment of Death ought, to. be the Fate of 
all DifTenters, fince any Hardfhlp below this 
muft turn to the prejudice of thq Rational 
Chuvch. ., ! .|, : \, ., Y ."! , > > 

1 64. If the great Advantage, as well as Sei- 
curity, which both Church and State have 
eot by the Kindnefs already fliown . tci Difr 
ienters, will not teach us to make it cbni- 
pleaf, yet we might learn from our Ejie* 
mys not to keep Diftinftions among Prote^- 
ftants, fince tis that by which thePapifts 
have all along endeavour d to ruin us; and 
our more reftlefs Enemys the Jacobites have 
appear d, To zealous for the Qccafional Con- 
formity-Bill) that there s fcarceany.of em 
capable of S cribling, who have 

lilh ci fomethlng on its behalf. ...,\V 

V .(f>5, This ^rand Law, the Good oftte 
Qhurch, .poflcfs d the Papifts at a grange 
rot*, yfaft j t cou >d bnjjg > em i ftt o a G ull i 


CWcfc, Sec. 

poudcr Plot: Which in probability. mult Chap". 8. 
i^ve/jeiidcd in their own Ruiri, at leaft itc/VNJ 
was not likely to be fo fatal as thc7*fj 
which if it had fuccepded in the manner as 
fom e Men wifh d, muft have endangered the 
Liberty of all .Eurofc^ as well as the Pro- 
teltaat jReligtpn bpth at Home and Abroad. . 

. There cou d be no Colour for a thou- 
f fand Things which, obtain in molt Places, 
direftly contrary to the Publick Good, op 
pretence of fiipporting this or that Form 
-of EcclefiafticalGovjernment, if Bigots did 
not 1 blafpheme the infinite WiWom ^s 
well aV Goodnefs r of God, by fuppofing 
"his" two Grand r Ldws inconfiftent 5 and 
^therefore are .perpetually afting againft 
^he Pubjick Qood on pretence of advancing 
the Honour of God: which is fo far fropi 
peing oppofite to tl]e Good of Man^ tha^t 
jis in effed the fame, fmce the Happier 
Mejx.are, theynore Reafon they ;ha veto ho- 
*no^rHiniwhomade em fo^ anli the more 
-jjbey do that, the njipre will they obferve 
thpfeDutys in which their mutual Happinets 

Religion, prpnerly fpeaking^v was 
ain^d For God s a ^ e , whp ,w?nts 
,npjthipg;, ;but fo^ our xpwn , in ordeirjtb make 
iis do all thofe Things which f ire"for our 
. geperal Good : Or Jin other words, fo In- 
finite is ,God s .Gpodnefs, tliat (as 1 Ihall 
jfi\l1^ demouftrate "iiji ! the next .Part), h ere- 
ira ^ipthin^to ^ualjify Mankind fpr their 
docs^pt ^epd^to- their pre- 


-Vx Coming pf Ohrift requjrMpnly m.ora 

iifiojtions for- People w. pub^ck .Pofts, To 
Chrift ^ver defign d ^the Hoty ^acraihent? 
fiiou d be,"proftituted to ferve- a Party^, ; or 
.that promoting his dwell fliQu made 
a mtehce to Deprive People of /anyToyjr 
legeV to which otnerwife they wbii d have^a 
Right^ and that P9pplp fliou d be,,bribtf by 
a Pliee.tA receive unworthily ^ . ot; fthat ft^h 
Stumbling-blocks, to. tfye great Jncr^afe of 
Irreligioa and Hypocrify; r mou d be laid . . ( ia 
Men? .ways pn a, Church-account. - .Bu^ -^ 
r -While Bigots think any ohe Fbrnpubf 
,pf pivirie 

t/t/ie, Regard to.! thaf^" and 
.the Cler ! claim, p 

crs .te Clergy , 

,will,inflije6,qe em ih all ti^eir Adipns - r and 
.they !>vjl^%; for preferring Men "to; Qvil 
. Pofts, , not according to, their Integrity and 
Capatity toj lerve thcPublick, but for their 
Zeal to the Church, which fliall not ,orily 
recommenjd the molt Unqualify d; but ( fup- 
port r > erij|.j,jji r tlieir Employs, tho they behave 
themfejye$ r ever, fo ill, and are guilty, of 
Cowardice or Treachery, eveii in fuch Ex- 
.peditions-as the Safety. of the Nation de-, 
v f>ends pn .^ while others, tho ever fo Brave 
ahd Honeft, fliall. either not be imployM 
,,atall, or upon frivolous Pretences be laid 

. . , i. . v . 

. Bigotry being blind to the faults of 
its. Votary s, tliofe vyho are in the French or 
Jacobitifh Inter eft will endeavour to dif- 

fuifc their t curs d Deligns on pretence of 
_, eiug for the Church : for then examining 
J their former A&iojis* or prying too nar- 
f rowly 

fylflim Church, &c. 

rowlfih to their prefent Conduft, Ihall 
Interpreted Envy to the Church } and on- 
tier a ftcming : Zeal for That, they fhall not 
tmly recommend any thing which tends to 
divide and embroil the Nation, but attempt 
to ruin.tholej whofe Principles make erii 
true Friends to the Government, and who 
dare oppole their pernicious Defigns. So 
that amohgft others befides pro fed Papifts* 
the Church now becomes^ and in the Very 
worft way too, a San&uary for 111 Mdn and 
111 Practices. And, / 
; 70. If at laft the Eyes of the Govern^ 
ment are open, and it is refolv d to em 
ploy -nonej notwithftanding theit* Church- 
pretences, who betray Counfels^ who en 
deavour to render all Defigns for the Pub- 
lick Good abortive^ who oppofe evet y 
thing tending to ; reduce the nemy, 

ftre^ngthen the Allys^ or linite the People ^ 
then the r Church, if we may believe the 
Me mortal which gos under its Name^ if in 
great hunger ^ and its J Nature being very aft 
to rebel, the odds, it fays, arc waft on Na 
ture* s fide : and thofc Enemy s Its Nature it 

. to be routd againft, are they who haVe con 
tributed molt to the Safety of the State ^ 
as if beating the French at Hothftet-, and 
managing the Revenue after a nioft frugal 

and prudent manner^ were fuch EcclefiaftU 
cal Crimes as are never to be forgiven* 

71. High-Church cdn, it feems^ work 
~ Miracles, and has a fort of Tfanfubftan^ 
1 tiating Power, which on a fudden cpn- 
" .Verts a Villain into a Patriot^ a French P en- 

U 2 fioner 

The <Jty\>t$ of the 

fioner into a true JE0///b*man, an Atheift 
into a Saint} and it makes one who never 
did a good A&ion, or ever was thought 
to have one good Quality (except his great 
Humility in condefcending to the meanefb 
Cheats, may be reckon d fuchj the firft 
Man in the foremoft Rank of High-Church 
Champions: and it can turn a formal 
Blockhead into a deep Statefman, and 
qualify even the Author of the Grand Tour 
for the Grand Chair , and can reconcile 
Paffive-Obedience Principles to a Revolu 
tion-Government, and the Unalterable 
Right of the Lineal Succefion with the Ab 
juration Oath, and calling over the Princefs 
Sophia : Nay, it can make fuch as ridicule 
the Dangers of Popery, even on a Day fet 
apart by Law to Ihew the juft Apprehen- 
fions of it, thebeftProteftants, and qualify 
one of em, notwithftanding he madeXt/r/- 

/<r s Rebellion againft God a lefs Crime 
than that againft King Charles^ and putting 
him to death worfe than murdering our 
Saviour, to be Prolocutor of the Lower 
Houfe of Convocation. High-Church 
can make the Peers Commonwealths-men, 
the Bifhops Presbyterians, and the Lower 
Houfe, which fets up for a Presbyterian 
Parity, and claims a Co-ordinate Power 
with the Bifhops, the only Men for Epif- 
copacy. JS T ay, what can it not do, fmpc 
it can make a drawn Battel equal to the 

CpmpleateftViAory, and one voted by >Par- 

. liament an Enemy to the King and King 
dom, one who with other High-Church 

, Champions was in Fung J*wf$\ High Com- 


Cbriftian Cbtircb, &ci 

million to deftroy the Church, and for fe-Chap.8. 
cret Services had not only a Sum of Mony L 
but an extravagant Penfion for Life, one 
who ifTu d out Orders for levying Cuftoms 
without Confent of Parliament (and how 
fairly his Accounts were kept, the Hearth* 
mony-book is a fufficient Proof) one who 
oppos d the Abdication, the Recognition, 
and all thofe Methods which brought the 
Queen to the Throne , one who was againfb 
a War with France, and kept it off fo long 
till the French King fettFd himfelf in his 
new Acquifitions : Yet he, even he, I fay, 
fuch is the wonder-working Power of High 
Church, is the only fit Man to be Prime 
M -r-r and T , r. And if ano 
ther Great Perfon, as the Torys wou d infi- 
nuate, was once in the Intcreftof the Fami 
ly at St. GermainS) their railing at him now 
with fo great bitternefs is a Demonftratioa 
that he quitted it, fince as long as they fup- 
pos d heefpous dit, none was more carefs d 
by em. 

72. As twou d be endlefs to reckon up 
all the Miracles of thjs nature, fo there 
has been a time, when the belt Friends to 
the Confutation both in Church and State, 
for not coming up to the extravagant No 
tions of High-Church, were reprefented 
by thofe who were undermining both, as 
Fanaticks and Commonwealths-men. Then 
Jurys and Judges too had more regard to 
the Character of High-Church, than any 
other Confideration , and the Queftion 
feem dnot to be, who had the Right, but 
vrho was a right Churchman. And fo in- 
y 3 toxicated 

f/ of tie 

toxlcated were the People with the High* 
flown DoArines of thofe times, that our , 
Libertys and Religion were within an ace of 

If Men make no better ufe of fo won 
derful a Deliverance than to be drawn into 
the fame Danger on the very fame Pre- 
t<;nces, and by the very fame Men, they 
have little rcafon to imagine Providence 
will interpofe again in fo extraordinary a 

73, Thefeabfurd potions, relatingto the 
Independent Power of the Clergy, had not 
prevail d on fo many, but for the Prejudice- 
of Education, at a time when the Mind is 
capable of having any Impreflion fo ftrong- 
ly flampt on it, that tis very feldom or ever 
after worn out. And therefore they who 
have any regard for the Publick, or any 
Concern for their own Offspring, fhou d 
not truft their Education with fuch, as jn- 
ftead of inftilling Noble and Generous Prin 
ciples into them, and teaching cm to make 
the Publick Good the chief Defign of their 
Lives, infufc in em a blind Zeal for the 
Power of the Church, as the Clergy who 
are uppermoft call themfelves-, and per* 
fuade 7 em to facrifice the Good of their 
Country, the Libertys of the People, and 
every thing elfp which is valuable, to that 
Idol. . 

A Ma^n who imbibes fuch Principles, 
muft, as. has been already mown, in a 
thoufand Inftances aft like an Enemy to his 
Country. And the reafon why the middle 
fort of Peppl^ regain fo much of their an- 


Cbriftian Chard, &c \$^ 

tient Virtue,, and are intirely in the Intercft Chap.*. 
o the Nation, is becaufe no fuch pernicious\/W^ 
Notions are the Ingredients of their Educa 
tion , which tis a Vign are infinitely abfurd, 
when fo many of the Gentry and Nobility 
can, notwithftanding their Prepoflifllon, 
get clear of em. 

74. The Greek and Roman Citizens, as 
they were the molt pafTionate Lovers of 
their Country, and ready on all occailons 
to facrifice their Lives and Fortunes For 
its Intereft } fo that was owing to the Hap- 
pinefs of th^ir Education, in having fuch 
Tutors, as made it their principal bufinefs 
to infpire their Youth with truly Noble 
and Generous Notions*, which being early 
inculcated, made fuch deep Impre(Tions 7 
that they were (leddily influenced by them 
as long as they Tiv d. They were fo far 
from being perfuadcd, that there was an 
Intereft diftinft and feparate from the 
State, and to be prefer d before ir, that 
they were taught, that the bed and chiefeft 
part of Religion confifted in promoting 
thePublick Good (*), and that thofe who 
were fignally inftrumental in it, fhou d en 
joy hereafter the greateft Share of llappi- 
nefs. And therefore tis no wonder, that 
fuch different Education has created in 

fdj Omnibus qui Patrlam confewrint, adiuycrinc, 
auxcrint, ccrtum clTc in coclp locum ubi beati *vo 
fcmpiterno fruantur. Nihil cnim illi Principi Deo qu\ 
omnem hunc mundum regie, quod quidcm in tcrris 
fiat acceptius quam Concilia Cxtufque hominum jure 
focuti, quse Civkatcs appclhntur. Sown. Sctybnfri 

; U 4 mens 

The Writs of tit 

7^ . , t j JiV .?;; 

men* Minds fuch different Sentiments with 4 
relation to the Publick, Had Men now-a- 
days the fame Notions early infus d into 
em, there s no doubt it; wou d make the 
fame lafting Impreflions, and produce the 
fame generous Effe&s. 

75. But if New Rome (to mention no 
other Place) has fo prodigioufly degene- 
. rated, as to have few or none of.thofe 
Noble or Social Virtues which fo adorn d 
the Oldy it can be imputed to nothing (the 
Climate being ftill the fame) except the 
different Notions which are infus d into 
People in their Educations. And Prieft- 
craft is fo rank a Weed, that it will not 
fuffer a Plant of any Virtue to grow near ~ 
it. And yet who wou d not have pre- 
fum d, but that New Rome fhou d have ex- 
cel d the Old in all manner of Virtues $ 
ilnce one has the Light of the Gofpel, and 
an infinite Number of Clergymen to make 
it fhine the brighter, and the other was in 
Heathenilh Darknefs ? And yet, notwith- 
ftandingthis Heathenilh Darknefs, the.E- 
ducation of their Youth was fuch, that 
(to ufe the words 6f an Author, whofe 
Love to his Country equals any of the Ro- 
PrtfJo tbe mans) " it tended to make em as ufeful to 
Account " the Society they liv d in as poffible. 
of Den- u xhere they were train d up toExercife 
" and Labour, to accuftom themfelves to 
" an aftive Life } no Vice was more infa- 
tc mous than Sloth, nor any Man more 
ct contemptible than him who was too 
" lazy to do all the Cood he cou d. 
tc The Lectures of their Philofbphers 

" ferv d 

J I J ,. * \ I ^ , 

, < ChrtftlM* Church^ &<E . 197 

<c fervid to quieten em up , to this; theyChap^S. 

<c recommended above all things the Duty ^ ~ 

44 to their Country, the Prefervation of 

44 the Laws, and. Publick Liberty } fubfer- 

44 vient to which they preach d up Moral 

4 * Virtues, fuchas Fortitude, Temperance, 

44 Juftice, a Contempt of Death, tfr. 

44 They taught their Youth how, and 

4i when to {peak pertinently, how to at 

44 like Men, to fubdue their PaiTions, to be 

44 publkk fpirited, to defpife Death, Tor- 

44 ments and Reproach, Riches, and the 

44 Smiles of Princes as well as their 

44 Frowns, if they flood between them 

44 and their Duty. This manner of Edu- 

44 cation prbduc d Men of another ftamn 

"^ than appears now upon the Theatre of 

44 the World) fuch as We are fcarce wor- 

4C thy to mention, and mult never think 

44 to imitate, till the ^like manner of In- 

44 ftitution grows again into Reputation^ 

^ 4 which in enflav d Countrys tis never like 

44 to do, as long as the Ecclefiafticks, who 

44 have an oppollte Intereft, kceh not only 

44 the Education of Youth, but the. Confci- 

44 enccs of old Men in their hands. 

76. How wou dtheantient Philofophers, 
who by their Examples as well as Precepts 
inftru&ed the Youth committed to their 
Care to facrifice even their Lives for the 
.Prefervation of Publick Liberty -, how, I 
Jay, wou d they have been furprizMj cou d 
.they have forefeen the Condu&of our mo 
dern Philofophcrs ? who not content in 
being the vilcft Flatterers of Arbitrary 
Power themfelves, taught their Pupils, 


f ^ of tie t ^ 

, that It was an indifpenfable .Duty to fub-, 
;, ;Vj mit to Slavery and Death, rather thaa, 
preferve Liberty and Life by oppofing, 
Tyranny. ... 

The infamous School-matter, who de* 
coyM the chief Youth of the Falifcl his, 
Scholars into CamilluSs Camp, thefe Philo 
fophers wou d not have condemn d guilty \ 
of fo bafc a Treachery, as they wou d 
Oxford llioft, who by a Decree which they folemn- 
Vecret, ly ena&ed, betray d their Pupils, the young 
s$8j. Kobility and Gentry, into a Belief, That 
Men were Slaves by Nature, and that 
they cou d not free themfelves, how 
rnuch foever they fuffcr d from the Info- 
lence of Tyrants (which by the En 
couragement of this Doftrine grew daily 
more infupportable) without running in 
to the only worfe State, that of Dam 

* 77. Thofc Philofophers wou d have 
thought the Afiertors of this Doftrinc, 
whicn they pretended was to prevent all 
Rebellion, guilty of the greateft ; fince it 
broke down all the legal Fences, fubverted 
the whole Conftitution, in making an Ab- 
folute and Unlimited Obedience due to 
the Arbitrary Will of One, who had no 
Power to fufpcnd, repeal, or make Laws, 
but only put thofe already made in execu 

Thofe Philofophers wouM have conclu 
ded, that they had no more regard to Re^ 
"ligion than Liberty, to the Church than 
the State, who made it a. damnable Doc- 
IWd. trine to aflert the Lawfuljiefs of precluding 
- the 

Cbriftiari Church, &ci % 95? 

the next Heir from the Right of Succefllon Chap. 8. 
to- the Crown, tho they knew him to betf 
of a Church which oblig d him to extir- .. 
pate all Proteftants, who were ty d 
up by this Decree from making the leaft,; 

78. I fhouM not h^ve faid fo much of 
this Doftrine, were it not almoft; as cur- 
rent now, as when an abfolutc unconcU- 
tional Obedience to King James was dcclar d -james 8$; 
by that Uniycrfity as the Doftrine of the before t heir 
Church, which they were bound to abide congratu- 
by } infomuch that the publick Orator be-/* "/ v ?*~> 
gun his Complement to the Queen after "* 
this manner : Cum Princifibn* ctia,m Tyrannuf^m^ 
nee in Subditorum falutcm, fed exitium natis^ C1 . on Oxo " 
quanrvis ab Us male merit urn ^ Obfequium ta- 
men paratijfimum debeamta prtftarfj & $M. 
deofculari mantt) a cpiibm laceranwr* And 
the famous Author of the Character of a 
Low Churchman makes an unconditional abfo- Pt ia, 
lute Paffive Obfdience^ without any Limitation 
cr Exceftion, an eternal and indifpenfablc 
Truth \ and laughs at allying it only to Le 
gal Governments and Legal Methods^ at a 
filly time-ferving rebellion* Diftinttion of Low-? 
Church, f rimming Villains, who are not, tw4?. 2li 
by their Principles are oblig d not to be, Chri- 

jtians. And as he makes Sir J. P n 

a Hero for his Steddinefs to High-Church P. 2tf, 
Principles, fo to recommend him the more 
effe&ually, he fuppofes his Adverfary will 
* fc allow that the Character he has, and de- 
* c ferves in his Country, is, that he is an 
* c Enemy to all Accommodations, Com- 
prehenfiojis, Moderation \ and that he 


300 * 7Arfl&itt of the 

u is High for the uninterrufted SncceflioiW 
x But if this be the Pifture of a High-: 
Churchman, his Principles will no moro > 
preferve us from a Popifh Succeflbr, than \ 
from Slavery : and this Author muft be 
well acquainted with High-Church Prin- v 
. . ciples, being cull d out for this Performance 
as the Champion of his Party, and go fault 
, found with this his admir d piece, except 
that there was not Gall enough mixt with 
his Ink. 

I never heard that the Univerfity, 
Oxford ., which decreed it Damnation to exclude the 
Dfrfw>a3hext Heir, recanted that wicked Decree, 
tho it condemns all Self-defence, and is 
inconfiflent with their Oaths to K. William 
and Q. Amt, as well as the Abjuration 
Oath, and the Sncceffion of the Houfe of 
Hanover. Kay, does it not hang up ftill, 
or at leaft very lately did (not to mention 
* other Houfes) at the upper end of Ch 
Ch- Hall, not far from the Dean s 
Chair? which fome lay, if the Cuts of 
the Oxford Almanack had wanted explain 
ing, wou d have ferv d for a Key, tho not 
I hope to unlock any of thofe Reafons which 
influenc d the late lower Houfe of Convoca 
tion in the Choice of a Prolocutor. And 
/>ij?. DJ. does not Dr.S th fay, that Decree is fo juftly 
to Trithc- to thf Credit of that Vniverfty ? If Mens Adti- 
ifm * ons belt befpeak their Minds, and it appears 
thereby that Tome think none fo fit to re- 
v prefent em, as they who agreeably to this 
Decree appeared moft ?.<?alous againft the 
"Revolution-Principles, byoppo(ii>g the Va- 
of the Throne, the Recognition, the 


3 01 

Aflbciation, the Abjuration,} , will -not : the Chap. 8. 
ill-natur d World entertain fome Sufpicion <-/VNJ 
that this pecree influences em ftill, efpo- 
fcially when they fee fuch things printed ip 
the Efinlcion Qxonienfa as reflect on the 
late King s Title to the Crown? Was a 
JBook with fuch Expteffions relating to the 
late King, as Bubiiqut Tyranni * inflabiic* Titftld 
Jmftrium, a fit Prefent for his Succeflbr, ***Epi*kt 
whofc Right /to the Crown is on the fame **fifl* 
foundation? j fiirtlvuni - 

79. This Conduft will be apt, I fay, to 
rmake Men think that fome as much a,d- 
iliere to this Dodrine, as they do to that 
of Perfecution } for which even while 
they endeavour to perfuade the Difleaters 
they are for preferving the Toleration in- 
.violable, they can t forbear to talk, prsacb, 
r and write..; Is there any ^Bifcourfe 5~-r/ 
*>has printed, which does not; declare for it? 
/Does not 7V-^y ,in a -Scrpon preach d -bc- 
( fore the yniveriity, fay, That ^ Scf*r(itiwThe 30^ 
font- our Church Wight to *bc condemn d Andf J ao * 
ifwjjISd ? And whether it be Diffenters only 1 7 4 * 
lor even forae of the Bilhops whom l]e 

wou cl havc;7//?;j5/ ^/i/^rr/;eScotifh74w, 
. the Reader may eaiily judg, -as -well as what 
/Principles and what Oaths he means, whan 
,tc;fuppofes the Danger the Church is in ^o 
> flaw from our.owg ^from^ur old Printi- jffi^ Ser ^ 

with W Q>/ffiifncfSj>6urpre t xch <t 
with Oaths i <tnd bringing ddwn tJiekfa* the 


tfts. , And are pot thefo.the Men ^o 1705. 
ichojfeu rtp ,<dp,. f -ftojigur . to i -a -certain 
. r UlU- 

joi I M f i\^?rj of* tit 

Univerfity on folemn occafions? And 

not 1 the Author who ajifwer d Mr. Lock s 

Letters of Toleration, thought fit lately / 

to publifh, after fourteen years filence, 

another Letter for laying Penaltys on the 

DifTenters? t And indeed the pains the 

High-Church are at to find fome flaw in 

, the Ad of Toleration, and the taking all 

opportunity* of profecuting thofe they iraat- 

,,,.,; gine have made the leaft Ilip in bbferving 

that Ad, with the immoderate Hatred of 

all their Brethren who are for treating the 

Dilfenters with Moderation* give fhreud 

Sufpicions that this abfurd Dodrine is ftill 

their Favourite. 

80. As the belt things^ if corrupted, 
* become the worft , fo the Univerfitys can 
not have too great Encouragement^ while 
they inftrud the Youth in fuch Principles 
as are for the Good of All her Majefty s 
. * Subjeds : but if they take a quite con- 
"V trary Method, and teach fuch Dodrines 
. \ as are for the Good of none of her Ma- 
jefty s Subjeds except themfelves, nothing 
can be more to the prejudice of the Pub- 

What can fave the Nation, if the No 
bility and Gentry fhou d again be infcdcd 
with the wicked Dodrines of Perfection* 
and of Kingly Power, taken in the molt 
abfolute fenfe, being of Divine Right * 
and that it can only be tranfmitted in a 
Defcent in the Right Line} and when To 
^Y v i4 j tranfmitted, there can be no Abufe in its 
s .\cv* Bxercife, for which the King can be ac- 
> countable, or which the People ought not 
-iAi quietly 

.. , And ti 

e. men;iiave chang d 

?g aftei a- different 

jwJjK) tod no fucfy percent;. ^-/v^rA ) r -o 

jO^epf and ^ar got the, better or 
Ithc/r , Principles, as then to .appear^ fond of 
Yd ^eJXaws .which limited the^jPjre ro^atiye \ 
^ only Chews that t;hofe PafTjous , which arc 
^pft JDiabolical in .others, -are the only 
ftlungs ; wtyidi; have the leafE -RlefemblajQce or 

contrary ,tp tVieir knowji 
iqsi, to /gratify thdfe predpmin^np 
Taflons of :Mgtiee.and Revenge , what^ will 
the^^tjayprdb/ when in purluitpf epi 
. r tbey^ ,T)iuVe a prpfped of .confounding aU 
. WKig^, .and Whiggifh Notions of Liberty > 
iig theii is to be done, every thing tp 

, rather than thefefhouM prevail 
But, \: } . , , 

s ( it. was to defend 1 the Church of 
:/gai^(t the Papifts, Jacobites, and 
Bother High-fliers, that caus di me to engage 
in this .Controverfy i fo none can have 9 
Jufter; Eftecm for all her Clergy, who, ac- 
.Cpfdlng to the Doftrineof the . bcft-confti- 
;tutcd Church, difown all Independency .j 
T and as for them who dp not, I cannot do 
. em a greater Kmdnefs thai) to fhow er^i 
; ,the pernicipus Confequences of their Error,, 
^nd how ."it jjeceflarily makes all who are 
r govern d "guilty of ,the mpftyillano^s 
^radices. , A .Method, which as cis tjic 
^mpft proper in it felf^fo tis what all o^r 
v pivines ofe, when they write againlt cer^ 
s v tain 


tain Dpftrines of the C^huVch of fiomt 
But I need not labour to juftify niy felt 
Jince none can cenfure me, who don t 
withal condemn the moft Approved of 
our Clergy as well as I^aity. However 1 
Jhall mention only two or three, arid the 
firft fliall be that great Man, my Lord Cljt* 
rendon^ who tis not doubted was the Pei;- 
Ibn of JJoripur who writ Animadqerfions 
ttpan CrelTyV Fanaticifm fanatically imputetl 
to the Catholick Church: He faith, " That 
F. 130. "that nnreafonable, inconvenient, \anL 
u mifchievous Diftindion of Ecclcfiaftic al 
u and Temporal, as it exempts Things an$ 
ic Perfons from the Civil Jufticc andlthjc 
" Sovereign Authority, and as it ereds,a- 
, a nother Tribunal, and fets up anot^r 
4 4i diftind Sovereign Jurifdiftion Super^^Qr 
46 and Independent on the other, has cqft 
. <c the Chriitia^n World very dear in TreV 
tc fure and in Blood, and has almoft heav d 
a the Government {which ought td pre- 
a ferve the Peace and Order, of fhrjftcv- 
a dom) off its Hinges. That there 4te 
tc Offences and Crimes of an Ecclefia^ical 
<fc and Spiritual nature, according to jtHe 
<c Manner and Cuftom of fpeaking^ and 
<c Perfons, who by their Euniftions to ( whic;h 
%cc they are aflign d properly fijll under, the 
ct fame Diftihdions , i$ very, true and Very 
" reafonaWe: but that ; any ibch .difterepge 
* c< in the Appellation fhou d .create a 3c{iifm 
u in the Government j .that .the .Civil 
; ct .r/ce of the Kingdom : fobu j} not have 
; u full Cognisance of .either r and "both, 

ti that another Supreme M$ fcw^Bl 

^ ritt 

. , 

examine and determine Chap. 
, and hav.e the only Auitho^ v/ 
,r|ty <lp -regulate, reform and punifh thofe j 
<c Perfpns, is fuch a Solecifm, fuch a Con- 
44 tradidion, indeed, fuch a Diflplutipn of 
", all .the Principles and fubftantial Frame- 
<c of Government, that there s not where- 
<c with left to prevent the.higheft and 
<c molt difmal Confuilon that can be ima- ; 
" ginM.-. . : 

S^. The next Author I fhali mention, is 
the , Excellent Dr. Barrow^ who affirms, -Of tie 
"That fuppofmg two Powers (Spiritual Fv 
ct an^ .Temporal) to be Co-ordinate and 
44 Indeperident each of other, then mufl 
ct all Chriftiansbe put into that perplexed 
" State of repugnant and incompatible 
cc Obligations, concerning which our Lord 
* c faith, .Wo man can fervc two Maftcrs^ for 
u either he will hate the one and love the other," 
44 or dfe he will hold to the one and defpifc 
44 the other. They will often, draw feveral 
44 ways, and clafh in their Defigns, in 
44 their Laws, in their Decifions \ .one 
44 willing and commanding that which the 
44 other jdifliketh and. prohibiteth : it will - 
44 be impoilible,by any certain Bounds to > 
44 diftinguifh their Jurifdidion, fo as to 
44 prevent Conteft between them. All 
44 Temporal Matters being in fome refpeft 
4t Spiritual (as being referable to Spiritual 
44 Ends, and in fome manner ally d to 
4C Religion) and all Spiritual Things be- 
44 icoming Temporal, as they conduce to >< 
44 the fecular Peace and Profperity of 
44 State, there is nothing which each of 

X " thefc 


" thefe Powers will 1 not hook wUMn.the, 
Ci Verge of its Cognizance and Jiiiriidkx 
44 tion; each will claim a Right to liwd^ 
44 die in all things V one pretending thereby, 
44 to farther the Good of the Church, the, 
44 other to fecure the Intereft of f the State,, 
41 And what End or Remedy can there, bc ; 
44 of the Differences hence arifing, . there, 
44 being no third Power to arbitrate 6r itio-;, 
44 derate between them ? 

" Each will profecute t its Caufe { by its 
" Advantages, the one by Inftruments of r 
4C Temporal Power, the other by SpifijtuaV, 
" Arms of Cenfures arid Curfes. Andin,, 
cc what a cafe muft the poor People then., 
u be ? How diftraded in their .Comcien-^ 
44 ces, how divided in their Affedion.s r , 
ic how difcordant iq. their Praftices, ac- 
14 cording as each Pr.etence has influence, 
44 upon them by its different Arguments,, 
44 or peculiar Advantages ? 

44 How can any Man fatisfy himfelf in 
ct performing or refufing Obedience to % , 
44 either ? How many (by the Intricacy 
" of the Point, and. contrary pulling) will j. 
44 be withdrawn from yielding. due Cpm-., 
44 pliance on the one hand or the other ?, 
cc What (hall a Man do, while one, in,.. 
" a Cafe of Difobedience to r his Com-^. 
44 mands," doth braadifh a Sword, the^ 
44 other thunders out a Curfq agaihfthim j 
44 one threatneth Death, the other fexci-, 
44 fion from the Church, both denounce : 
" Damnation ? What ; Animofitys: and , 
44 Contentions, what Difcompofures and 5 , 
J 4 .Cotfufions muft this Conftitution of ? . 

44 Things 

rtiwJ"" - " 

a ThirigV breed ia every place ? and how Chap. 8* 
44 can^a .Kingdom fo divided in it felf L/VNJI 
4 *~ftandy or not come into Defolation? 

) 44 It is, indeed impoffible that a Co-ordi- 
c nation of thefe. Powers fhou d fubfift-, 
44 for each will be continually encroaching 
".pri. the, other, each for its own Defence 
44 ; and| Support will , be continually ftrug- 
44 gling and clambering to get above the 
4C other j th9re will be never any Quiet till 
44 one comes to fubfide and truckle under 
44 the other, whereby the Sovereignty of 
44 \ the one or other will be deftroy d ^ each 
44 ofihem will foon come to claim a Su- 
44 premacy in all Caufes, and the Power of 
44 both; Swords v and one Side will carry 
44 it. . It is indeed neceffary that, Men for 
44 a tibae continuing poflefs d with a Re- 
44 / ..yercnce. to the Ecclefiaftical Authority 
44 as. Independent and Incontroulable, it 
44 fhou d at laft overthrow the Temporal,- 
cc ;-by:- ; rcafon of its great- Advantages a- 
4C For,, 

4t The Spiritual Power doth pretend an 
44 Eftabliihment purely Divine, which can- 
44 not by any Accidents undergo any 
44> Change, Diminutions, or Tranilations, 
44 to which Temporal Dominions are fub- 
44 jeft c Its Power therefore being perpetual, 
44 irreverfible, depending immediately oa 
4 V God^ can hardly be checked, can never be 
44 conquer d, 

44 It fights with Tongues and Pens, 
u which are the moft perillous Weapons. 

, 44 It can .never be difarm d, fighting , 
** with i Weapons that cannot be taken 
X 2 " away, 


cc away, or depriv d of their Edge and Vi 
et g 0ur ; . : %3U ^ 

" It works by rnofF powerful tohfide- 
ci rations upon the Confciences and A flec- 
<c tions of Men upon pain of Damnation, 
u promifing Heaven and threatnirig Hell} 
<c which upon fomeMen have an infinite 
" Sway, upon all Men a confidence In- 
<4 flucnce, and thereby will be top hard. 
u for thofc who only can grant Temporal 
u Rewards, or infiift Temporal/ Punifh- 
tc ments. It hath continual Opportunity* 
ic of convcrfing with Men, and thereby 
u can infinuate and fuggeft the Obligation , 
a to obey it with greateft Advantage, in 
" Secrecy, in the tendereft Sealbns. 

ic It claimeth a Power to have its In- 
** ftriidttons admitted with Aflent-, and \ 
u will it not inftruft them for its own 
^.advantage? All its Aflertions muft be 
* l believ d-, is not this an infinite Advan-^ 
^ tage? 

"By fuch Advantages the Spiritual 
cl Power (if admitted for fuch as itpre-" 
Cl tendeth) will fwallow and devour the 
u Temporal, which will be an extreme 
4C Mifchief to the World. 

84. Foreign Divines have not fcrupled 
to own that this Dodrine of two Inder 
pendent Powers is Antichriftian, and the 
Spawn of Popery : the judicious Gornarttt 
In Com- for infta nee faith, u -That the Papifts ac- " 
monic. P. tc knowledg two Supreme Powers, one not 
16. u fubjed to the other ^ but the true 
u Preachers of the Divine Word account 
4C it as a Mark of Antichrift, who exalts 

; -" himfclf 1 

4 / ... "^ 

Ckufch^ &cS ?f ^ ?> 30*9 

. --, ,uo*w above all that is-talKtiCocJ* 
- And the ; famous GualterM makes; i the af- 
.fertirig two fuch Powers to flow/ ifro m Po 
pery. And with them do our Di vjiies agree* 
.when they undertake the pefence?of -the 
.Regal Supremacy.:-, then, either// with: : the 
Bifhop of ~&rifi,they- affirm,: >"-;That all Expof.Art. 
. cc Mankind muft/be under one Obediences?. 
. cc , and one Authority,? or elfe they J fa y^ as 
Dr. Scot does, " That before : the -com ing cMjiian 
." , of .Chrift the Authority of JMiices was Lijt, vof. 
", <c bounded by no: Law -but thatuof Na- 2 * ?. 
. cc ;ture; and that the Chriftian .Religion is 
tc ;jTo -far from retrenching r their Power, 
-U that; it abundantly ratifies and .confirms 
u it. : And tis to the Law of Nature, that 
Mr*, Hooier refers us, in fuppafihg = * c : That EccUfM, 
: what^pwer foevqr Kings and Stdtes* had M 9. 
" in Religious ; patters befor9. f th^/ coming 
tc of -.(Shrift,, they, are, fully authojiz d by 
" ,the: Gofpel ,to. .exercife the fame in all 
u Affairs, .pertinent t;o -.the State/ of the 
" true* Chriftian Religion. Now by the 
Law., of, , Nature there were not ( two Inde 
pendent Powers in the fame Society to li*. .iv.vv.-x 
mit one, another ^ and whenever the Mad-^ X; ^- 
ftrate did exceed the Bounds of hi? Audio- A *^- 
rity,jtwas not by invading: the Right of 
any Eccleflafhcal Magiftrate, who had ad 
Independent Power from Heaven, but by 
ufurpmg on thofe Natural Rights of the 
People, which they cou d not make over 
to any one, whether King or Priefl : and 
what thofe Rights are, has been fhown in 
the Introduction. 

X 3 85. Shou d 

I fa Oughts of tie. \ 

85. ShouM the Clergy condemn W, for 

>:.;( afTefrting thofe very DoArines they fcjieni- 

Yelves maintain againft the Papifts, they 

.V, Ji ; -wou d give the World too juft ground to 

.conclude that tis only for, being ^onfiftciit 

with my.felf, in riot J approving \n any 

Church, what they as well as I condemn in 

the Papifts \ in whom (cbnfideririg the ma- 

, ny Engagements we lie. under to renounce 

any fuch doftrinc) the Fault is not quite 

^ j 1 ^ . , i jj -\- , ^ 

m.; f i;, unpardonable. . l . J ,\ 

I"- ,H^ And indeed none is qualify d/tp believe 
":" two Independent Powers, who has not 
Faith enough for Tranfubftantiation V fince 
,it neceffariiy, as has been already fhpwn, 
.fuppofes a Body may b^ infeveral places a^t 
once, andabont different Aftidnsatj the fame 

s - time; and iall Mankind, who hiyc>" A; * >fl 

.!) that ^the Body Politicfc con d. nptr, move 
different? faays at the ! lam^tjme > ! haYepWn d 
that the Supreme . Powef w^s .jridivi^? : 
and theref6re I fta ti otrly qu ote one . Aathp- 
rity more;; that of <a- Papift^ .and; no lefs a 
Man than Father Ptitl o f Pcmc^ ta ftame, 
if polfibk, thofe Proteftants who maiatain 
Lctteri, two Independent Powers : he fays, u ^his 
Engl.7V4R-c4 opinion makes a Monfter of Goveru- 
W. meftt; and that thp ^bfurdity will not 

<4 be dcclin d in faying they are co-or- 
<4 dinate and link d together by mutual 
tc Helps, as fo many Bonds } fo that the 
4 * Primate has power over . the King in 
<c Cenfures, and the King over him in 
^ 4 Punifhment. For what if the King and 
Primate fhou d both take the fame to 
" themfelves, wou d not the Common- 

4t wealth 

(Jkriftiah Church, &c. ; i i 

44 wealth bedifturb d at this?. As for. in- Chap. 8. 
44 ftarice in the Venetian Controverfy: The 
44 King faith that Churchmen have too 
44 much Lands already,/ ,and that tis not 
44 for the Good of the Commonwealth 
44 that they get any more. -The Primate 
44 by his Cenlure s will have the King revoke 
44 this Edifr: What if the King fliou d 
ct take, from the Primate his Life, and 
44 Eftate ? Thu^ you fee the monftrous 
44 Form 6f fuch a Commonwealth. So that 
44 thofe Powers cannot be link d together 
44 by any Bonds or Ties, unlefs one of .the 
" two be wholly arid in all things fubjeft to 
44 the other. - \ > 

4 For divide the , Offices of the Com- 
44 monWealth into a thoufand Parts, and 
44 give the King nine hundred of them ^ 
44 and yet make the King inferior to the 
44 Primate jin the odd hundred ^ and with 
44 that lail tenth Part he will, r be, able to 
44 trample pn the)ihg, and get into his 
41 hind* all the other nine. 

. . ; 1 1 . 

3 it Tke^ttof t 

- I" - " ^ - ;; - 1 - 

.- , .7! i. : .; - 

CHAP, IX. -.- f!jl " 

That l ikis Hjpoibifa o/ 
: t capattc. of Governing tbti fyltrch 

except fli/bopS) and tbat l tyne { i(aii 
.. be Bifiops except tbofe wbo Derive 
i. tbeirWomr by a continud and - 

interrupted Succfffioh in the , CI$<H 

lick Qiurcb from the. Apoftlesi 
f Jtflroys the Very Being of , the 

iJ TrH a Diving Wifdom / neiljcr.. i, 
JL vainly or unneceflarily, nor intetv 
pofcs miraculoufly, unlefs where the, P.nH* - 
nary Means arenotfufficient. And there 
fore he who pretends to prove that all 
things relating to Ecclefiaftical Polity are 
not left to Mankind to determine as they 
think fit, ought likewife to prove that 
\vherr~they~were dc prlvM of this Power 
(which they enjoy d for above four thou-; 
fand years together, God not miraculoufly 
interpofing even among die Jews till they 
had chofe nijn for their King) they becams 
left capable of managing it than before; 
for- Which reafon they were for ever to be 
deprivM of their Rights, and ChurchrGo-r 


(Mfttin Church, , &c. 

V^rntnent ; .was $o : be, , independently. ^^ Chap, 
unalterably: -plac d in- ai/fevv, jEcc^fiaf? VX 

and t by them to be 
lininterrupted.Succeflion tp the, 
World. He, I fay, who intends , to prove 
this, is objig d not only- to anfvy(jr : ,tnQ 
Abfurditys; .which Jin general ; attend this 
iHypothefis, 1 but thofe in, particular alfq 
which follow from his applying it to this or 
that: -Set of ;Epclefiafticks, .with, whom; he 
fuppofes this Government of the Church j.p 
l?e $y Clod intrufted, And,.;,j r , , V. ii""^ 

^i Becaufc tis the prevailing .pjpiniq^ 
that Bifliops are by DivinejApppintnjeiiC 
Governors ,p f ; t;he Ghriftian , Church, #n4 
tfi^ t , noi one is capable of I being of that 
number who derives aot, his Right by, an. 
iininierrupted $ucceffion of Bifhops in;.thc 
Caf;holick Church, I .will now ftiow, jTomc.of. 
the numerous Abfurditys of j this fiypot{jic*. 
Us. But, V ; , V;:J;-:-. jj --v.vr; 

3. ^Firft, as. to the pofm of Govern^ 
ment it .felf : If the making of Laws and^ 
the executing of em (without both .which,, 
there can be no Government) be. in the, 
hands, of the- fame Perfons, the Biihops, 
they will l|ie under a Temptation to make, 
fuch 35 more regard their Vown feparate^ 
interel}: jth^n the Good of the Church \ 
^nd haying the Executive Power, they may 
abufe it without the leaft Controul, there 
being no Appeal: from them, nor can the 
People (which cannot happen in a Govern* 
men): founded by them) have any Right 
to redrefs themfelves. This being a Qoi 
yernmen* fo Tyrannical in its Frame arj4 
.. ,.:. Con* 

5 i 4 The $}$t$ of W j 

l 1 ^ CXtoftitution, dan we fyppofe ; the l>ivliit 
Goodnefs wou d miraculoufly interfere t6 
impofc it on the Church fbr ever ? TKe . 
thing it felfj without any other Prbof ? is/ 
fc fufficient Demonftratiori 6f its being a 
Contrivance of the Eccldfiafticks. 

, By this Hypbthefis of the Biflib ps 
being Goverh6rs .of the .Chdrch by Divine 
Right, no Religious Society" 1 . which his iio t 

-.- * X^ ^ IA_ I V1L) ! , 5 tt Ltl- , 

That no more than any other Society .can 
fubiift without Government^ of which^ if 
iifhops only are capable, all that the Re- 
form d wh0 want em have got by their 
Separation from the Church ^of Romtj is to 
Unchurch themfclves, by thrbwing off 4 
Government which }s ^flential to t^q 
Church of Chrift-, Blflibp^oiily having. 4 
Power to authorize Men to preach, admi- 
nifter thq Sactamentsj !dr r perform any 
other Ecdefidftica,! OJEdd^. /And therefore 
dv0f fince. thi^ : islotion; iVas^rcVail d, XVQ 
cbhftahtly re-brdain thbte ( iVhb ,comb byer 
to us from all Churches yi/hicli .want fepif- 
cbbacy , whilft -^ereligiblijiiy Altain from 
dolii^ the famti^ thofe who leave the 
Romifh Commit^iibn, as |navirig alrfead^ 
"Sands laid brt *em by, Biffiqps: \ Sb that i .ltj 
fe<-rris we efteem! the Want bfTli^t al^iic 
irioTc 1 deftrdaire tirttt l^ti%b d Cfiriftiaa 
Chlirch, than all the immot aj, rmpious^ 
and idolatrous .T^ricts of tKc, Rbmariifts ; 
and therefore, if ive aft iigirewbly, to 
this Kotioji, we? are is much oblig d to 


.prefer their jilntcr^ft l)efQrerall PrbteftantChap.p- 
Churches whi 

ich want Epilcopacy, as 
are , a Chriftiap , (before ; a No-Chriftiah 
And, ,;; , ,-.>.,: 

t here are too E$nf Kafting?*- 
tfl| this Principle, j* fo apparent 
as ; npt; ;to he \4< n y ^ > and .v/ho havfe not 
Icriii^ed tp pwn they have more favourable 
"Thoughts of Ae : Papifts, jWbOm they . rer 
ver,eince as ,. a, . tru^ Church, j than or the 
jprjoteftant biflenters, \vhom they rcckoii 
pp other than (the vileft thing in their 
eyes) a mere Lay-Mob. 
, : ^, How, much this Hypothefis weakens 
the froteftant Caufe, and what Advan-^ 
tage , f 1 1 gives - to the common Enemy^ 
canijptjW.eii l?q imaginM, without conn* 
1 deririg the daily Increafe artd growing In- 
tereft of Popery, which tho nothing ex^ 
cept the late happy Revolution hinder d 
from being the Eilabljfh d Religion, not 
only of thefe Kingdoms, butof all Ewtfo 
yet thofe. wjio , are for Epifcopacy being 
Jure Divirtoi if tjhey aft confiftently with 
their Principles^ can have jio! favourable 
Thoughts of it a r fince it was ,the occafion 
by which People \ti England are permitted 
to join with thofe Seftarysf who for want 
of Bilhops cannot pretend ;toi the Name 
of a, Church^ and whereby in, Scotland the 
true Church by the Abolition df Epifcb* 
pacy has been deftroy d. :>. And therefore 
awou d be no wonder if -the Highfliers 
here rail at the. Re volution, and- 1 the Epif- 
<?opals there have fo. much Charity for 
unchurch d ^Nation, as: to endeavour 


.o.r>;.;r) retunitirig^m fttthe tru^Church; .tli(?, lfc 
L -^v-^ > be by returning to R^nte^ an4 for that rea- 
foil be 1 intirely-in the Intei;eft A of the St. 
Germans Family, as the only Means to 
brinjj it about. 1 How well,hlen of, thefe 
Sentiment^ are qualify d to Join with the 
Butch arid the reft of our Presbyterian ^Al* 
lids, a gainft Popery accompariy d with ,Br 
-pifcopacy, lef-the Reader judg. 
r. Irj* i If I- were ^ worthy-" to 1 advife f6ni 
People, v I (fhoxi d defire em riot to aft like 
the Executioners of the thrcfe Children, in 
venturing to burn -themfclvcs, that the./ 
jnight be fure to throw others far enoifgh 
into the :Fire^and that they . vvoq d no 
jnore attack the Diflenters oti fuch PriricU 
pies as unchurch all who departed from 
Runt* thofe who have, as /well as thofc 
who have not Bifhops. 
, In order to prove this the : Confequence of 
their Principles,! here demand ,If the Church 
pfChriftbe Tas they affirm) but One, and 
that thofe wno refufe Communion wih it^ 
c;ut themfelves off from it ^ Whether (the 
Romifh Bifliops were at the time of the 
lieformation Bifhops of this Church or 
not ? If they were, the Proteftants . by 
feparating from em, and fetting up a 
Communion in oppofitionto em, became 
Schifmaticks, and thereby cut themfelves 
ofTfrom this One Church*, fmce two op- 
pofite Communions, as the Clergy on aU 
Jides hold, can t be both Members of the 
. fame Church : and if one is a Member of 
the true Church, the other can t be fp 
too i and a falfe Church is no Church, at 


leafl: of Chrifbv>nd jConfeqvtfntly the Pro- Chap.p: 
teftant Bifhbps/caift .be Governors in thc 
Church of, Gnrifly, becauie v Ecclefiaftical; 
Headfhip fuppofes a Un^pn yithjthe t Bo*> 
dy, and they who break., tKat; v tjnion mulL 
deftroy any .Headlhip, Power, , or Autho-- 
rity they had 1 : before over the Body, or. 
any Part of ii,/fmce by their Schifm they 
ceafe to belong to. the Body. , " ,- .-:;,; ,v 
/ On the contrary, if the Romifh Church 
at; any time . before .the V Reformation , 
ceas^ to be a true Church, they, ceasU : 
to have a Right to thofe Privileges be-,, 
longing to it ? of which the receiving and f 
conveying Spiritual Power or Government; 
is on all fides, .allow d to be one} and,; 
confequently they were uncapable of tie* } 
flowing any on the Proteftant Bifhops. 

8, What can be more abfurd than to 
fuppofe that a Man may be united to , 
Chrift, by being in Union with fuch Bi- - 
Ihops as are cut off from Chrift^ or that 
thofe Bifhops have a Right to govern the 
Church, who have no Right to the Church " 
or any of its Privileges ? For how can 
there be a Power to ordain,, or admi- , 
nifter the. Sacraments, where there s no , 
Miniftry nor Sacraments? Or how can 
they who are themfelves excluded the . 
Church, admit People into or turn em 
out of the Church ? As they cannot Bind, 
fo" they cannot Loofe-, and as they de- [ 
ftroy the , ynity of the ; Spirit, fo they ^ 
canhave no : liiMht to the difpo fing of the -* 

T T I f^ L fl. -LI i> * J V - W , 1 * 

Holy .9hoft, :il .., TT . L ;>A ,;,,,;.,,, , , !ili; 

Cohtequence of 
that if the. Proteftants- by;fepat*ting, from; 
the Church of Rome were j guilty of SchifJn, 
they can have amongft ern. none of that 
Spiritual Power or Government 1 which c i* 
derived. from r the A poftles fry; way : of Sac* 1 
ceflion int^eCdthblick Church; . 

Oh the 1 contrary,; if- the< Papifts were 
Schifmaticks, there cou d tiv no ; Metliuih 
f6r Apoftolical Succefllon, as* not being 
capable of , receiving or conveying thoft : 
Spiritual Powers which the. Clergy/ oft! 
al] fides fuppofe nqceflar y to the Ex- ! 
iftenceof a true Church; : and j which can 
be no othertvifd obtain d than 1 by an^un-- 
interruptcd .Succeflion from, th^ Apoftles 1 
ill the v truly Anoftolicki and Catholic^ 

p. So that there never v^as fo unlucky^ 
ari-Hypothefi^V f6r whether you allow the^ 
Papifts to be, .or, hot to , be a true Chut ch^ | 
it rriuft hinder : the, Proteftant$ from b^iig" 
fa r ^ for if the^ were no true Cliurch,, they-, 
cou d not ( c6nvey/to other$| that Spirit uaJT 
Power which is neceflary to;th.e"Being of a,.| 
true Churdi ^ or if they were, the Pro teftaat! 1 
Bifh ops, witli thofi? who adher d to env 
cou d not 1 be fuch a, Church, , as being. gyilf^ 
ty of, an un.neccfary Separation. But if the-v 
Separation was necef&ry, the" n the Church. 
of Rome cou d not be a truq Churc^ for/ 
that certainly cannot be fuch a Church^ 
if 1 it be not lawful to join with her; and^ 
Men, as they j become convinced of the 
Unreafonablenefs of her Terms of Com- 
xnunion> are bound to feparate from her, 


as ti\t Greek and jEaftera Churches did] ;longhap. 9* 
before our^ Reformation, r,/,^ f: ;,> !. ; .i -j UXYNJ 

ib. To me tis very ftrange, tbat-thofq. 
vyho have,, fubfcrib d the Articles of. -our 
Church^ fhouM allow the Papifts to be a> 
part of, the yifible. Church of f Chrift, which^ 
ty the 29th Artieje, is defin d to be A Cen~. . 
gregajion of, Faithful Men^ in f Tt>h(cb the furc i 
Wordof GQ&is freactfdy and the Sacraments, 
dvty : adminifterd according to thrift s Ordi*; 
nance ^ in all that of ncccjfity arc t requisite to > 
the fame. Can our Churchmen apply this,.; 
Definition to the Papifts, when they affirm v 
that; among them the Word of c God is fo. 
far /froin being preach d pure^ that tis- " Xl 
mix d with, a prodigious, number of ab^, 
fnird Traditions.? Or can our Church, 
whi^li affirms the , Wine to .be. ,an eflential j 
Part of the Lord s Supper, fay that that > 
Sacrament is duly, adminifterM ,/iu theRo- 
m^fh^ Church ? according to Chrift s Ordi- 
nance, in all things which ofVneccfllty are^ 
requifite to .the, fame, when.the Cup is al- 
low d ,only to the Pneft ? , Or, 

1 1 . Can that be a truq Church, which not 
only oMigqs all.her Members, to maintain a - 
Slafphcmot^ Fable, (as all who have fub/ i 
fcnb d the thirty , firft. Article muft own-i 
their; Dodrine of the : Sacrifice of the - 
M^to be)" but is likewifc guilty of Ido* 
latfy, fince. th^t Article affirms, that the Ho- ^ v 
mify$, which .cfiarge her upon a great many 
accounts with/it, contain a , godly and 1 * 
wholefom Doftiuae ? Which, were not- ( 
the, Charge true, , wou d be fo far from . 
...I j-j con* 


r . i^ * { i ..,, * \ - - 

i ~c&ntaining fach a Dodrhif i ! thatjhey i/youUr 

t^v-Vbefullof an unjuft Cehfurt.bffo great r 
Body of Chriftiaris. : ;. [ ] f r r 1 ; . ; , \ 
12. -At the f Reformatibn :6ur ; bivmifs 
every where chafg d the "Pope. With being; 
Antichrift^ : arid ^made tiomc th,e : SJ^irit^l ;, 
Bjfyloti\ -*n& with fucji clcif Proof s ^ai 1 
converted mdrfe than- any oi^e .Topiek/; 
whatever.- They did not fcruple then v to" 
charge her with Idolatry,- and other md n- 
. ftrous Crimes* left by proving her ;ho,\ 
Church, they cou d not make out their ; 
own Title to the True Church. They did;; 
Weights not believe, like ^Ar. Thorndike (the Oracle j 
nd MM. O f High-Church) that they were guilty, of ; t 
HreSt Schifm, who feparated from the Church of: 1 
Rome as an idolatrous Church; nor did 
they refufe to licenfe the Books the Dif- 
fenters wrote againft Rome^ becaufe they 
charg d her with fuch Sentiments as prove ; 
her to be no Church, and then rail at em 
for not writing againft Popery. 

.13. In a word, if Blafphemy againft; 
God, or Tyranny over Men \ if defacing * 
the Ideas of the Deity, if corrupting the 
Principles of Virtue and moral Honefty V? 
if fubverting the Foundations of natural" 
Religion, or overthrowing the cflential/ 
Articles of the Chriftian Faith , if the 
moft avow d or bold Affronts offer d to 
Heaven, and the bloodieft and moft brutal 
Outrages executed on the beft of Men : 
If all thefe, I fay, are fufficient to ex- ; " ( 
elude Men from being a Part of the truly 
Catholick and Apoftolick Church, the Ro- 
manifts can have no pretence to it. And, 

14. No- 

tA;l^oti;ng\|befides an extreme Pond- Ctjapi ?\ 
tfefs, , tp % , aii Hypotiiefis^ can make 4 ay tun- . </VV.! 
pofe ttnat the C?hurch^of Rome^ not with-_ 
ftanding her grofsand<^ot9rious Idp^atry^ 
and t her Bother - DoSirfne^ fo derogatory to 
the lilerjts of ! our, "S,wo\ir, and To ;de- 
ftraftiv^of .4 ! g dUFe^ lp oppp(ItQ;to tlie 
Hjapp^p^jfe.of Huma n-Societys, and fo ,in- 
cb.nfifteiit vhth the Dutys weowe ; both to 
Gpd J an-^ Waa, Is a True Church :." and. her 
claiming the ^ ^a me : of Cjhpflian, while ihe 
acl:s fo XJnchrift iahl^ 1 , ;;muft needs -heighten 
her G^iit,;and make, her appear t the more, 


h hlay,wit:h, a, better, 
Grace , pretend to be Va true (phurch : for . 
they do ^ pot fo abominably cor r up.t the Old, 
and New Tcftament, by adding the Sc.ati- 
meotsof .Afakowtr as -the others by. their* 
OraVTnduioixs, and the Decrees of their.- 
Infallibly Church ; -which maintains, befides 
whatever is. ridicujouslri other Religions^ 
peculiar Abfijrditys more grofs, than .were 
ever known among the moil Barbarous of 
Mankind.-^ ,. . I 

16. The Mahometan s cannot be charged 
with any rting tending to Idolatry, as the 
Papifts. jiiltly are with the fouled-, nor do 
thofe j allow- of any . fuch Doftrine as not 
keeping Faith w ith." Here ticks-, . nor does 
the Mufti, like the pope, pretend to ab- 
folve People from theic Oaths , nor do the 
Followers of Maliomtt perfecute like the 
Papifts, who think it meritorious to mur 
der all who differ from em, which renders. 
a Religion more pernicious than Atheifm it 
Y felf : 

The Oughts of tU * 

felf : nor are thofe fo uncharitable as to 
Alchoran damn all Diflenters, but acknowledg that; 
2. all, whether Tews or Chriftians, &c. who 
adore God and do Good, fhall undoubtedly 
obtain the Love of God. 

1 7. In ihort, thofe who allow the Church: 
of Rome to be a true Church, do it fof 
no other reafon, than becaufe by their; 
Hypothefls of EcdeGaftical Government^ 
they find it neceflary for the Support off 
their own. But certainly the lefs the 
Papifts appear to be a true Church, the 
greater ground there is to account thofe 
\vho oppofe her Corruptions to be fo; 
and that tis a molt fenflefs Hypothefis, 
which cannot allow them who juftly fepa* 
rate from a Church, to be a true Church; 
except that which they feparated from is G> 

1 8. It muft he no finall Diversion to the 
Papifts, to fee their Adverfarys labour tq 
do their bufinefs, by ftriving to prove ^em; 
a true Church, as a thing abfoliitely ne 
ceflary to make their own fb 5 while with-* 
out any refped to this kind Ufage the^ 
treat our Church, as fhe does the Diflen- 
ters, like a mere Lay-Mob. And thcfe are 
the Notions which caufe the Papifts to flat* 
ter themfelves, that thofe Perfons can have 
no great Averfion for their Church, who 
own it to be a true Church of Chrift r 
even tho they deny any Heretical or Schifc 
matical . Church to be fo : and then they 
think tis eafy to. judg who. were the Schifr 
inaticks at the Separation. And they do 
not defpair that the Sticklers .for thcfe 



ibay fcfe- brought foihc tiffle 6rGhap.p* 
other to aft aghieably to their bWn Prin* 
ciples, and that they will at fome critical 
Juntofe, t7hen there s no great hazard 
in It, retmitc themfelves to that True 
Church froth whence their Aixccflors fepa* 
fated npoa Principles which will not pafs 
mutter now* Ana as the Deltruftion of 
the National Church, let it be Eplfcopat 
6r Presbyterian, by reafon of her Num* 
bers, Power and Riches, is the chief Aim of 
thePapifts; fo were they to form Prlnci-* 
pies for her in order to profelyte her^ the ^ 
cou d not contrive better : and tis too evi* 
dent In fafy that as thefe have increased* 
the Danger of Popery has increas d with 

ip, Thowe fappofe the Church 6r &om* 
a true Church* and that out Church by 
ftparating from her is not guilty of Schifm } 
and confequently that- two oppofite Com-* 
ftmnions nlay be both Members of thd 
true Catholick Church i yet did not thofi 
Bllhops who renounced hcfr Coirlmunioni 
thereby quit ail the Ecclefiaftical Power 
^nd- Jurifdidion they got by being: in that 
Church? In any other Body Politick, a 
Man by leaving it lofes all the Powers he 
Had -by being of it , and there s no reafon 
Why tis not the fame in an Ecclefiaftical 
Society y and confeqaeritly all the Church^ 
Powers the Proteftant Bifliops cou d have^ 
intilb bederiv d froiri the Members of the 
new Church they then joinM themfeltt? 

Ik* /I- - 20. If a Bidiop by- Wavingthe Church-bf 
" -" 0>tf* did^not by that Ad lofeall thfc fijfift 
copal Power he had when he ;was .one pf jltjie 
Governors of that Churchf ^efpeci 
fidering no (CommilTion . Itan. f weUr 
tended to authorise the >oppofing li 
beftow d it, yet the Pbpilh BUliops -had) !as: 
much Power to deprive or, degrade ihurij^as 
to ordain him : fi nee a Sentence is valid, thb 
not right, when done by a competent iAuH 
thoricyij and confequently j the ,Popifli f -Bi4 
(hops in the : time or Queen -Miry-0? .Qjaeeh 1 
Eli&ibfth had as much Rifebt to unirrake,- a^ 
they had to make a Bifliop in; their Father s 
or Grandfather s time. ,- ::-;;? r "-.,i ;i; ;irjb 
. This^tlio. ho more -were faid^npliialyi 
fhows that the Hypothefis of Ecclefiaftical 
Government . belonging to- fuch Bifliops on 
ly, as derive their Power by way of iSuccef-?: 
lion from Cutholick and -A{)oftolick Preden 
ceflbrs, unchurches not only all the Reform d. 
who arc without Bifliops, but all the Epif- 
copalians likewife. !;.-; r 

21. To which we may add another.Argu-^. 
ment with . relation to the Church of 

to fliew that her Bifhops have no Power, 
by way of Succefllon. - For, 

The Popifh Bi (hops in Queen //X*M> s. 
Reign either had or had not any Spiritual. 
Power dcriv d by way of Succeflion from- 
the Apoftlcs: If they had not, the Pro- , 
teltant Bifhops cannot pretend to receive 
any fuch Power from em v if they had, no 
Lay Powers cou d deprive em of what be- 
long d to em by a Divine Right, and 
confequently they retain d their Spirituali 



$S -So that all which - thefe who- were put fchap. 9 
kite i their -Places cou d poflefsj were their 
Temporality* only ; and they cou d beftow 
, no more on their Succeflbrs than they had* 

"&!.. Becaufe Mr 1 . Dodml endeavours upon- 
theft Principles to. maintain the Validity-; 
ef the Deprivation of the Popifh Bifhops 1 
by Queen Elizabeth, 1 fhall now examine his 

-. ! The {iritis, that the Popidi Bifhops 
^ taking out Commiflions from //. 8. for 
*v their Spiritual Power, was a fufficient 
" Reafon for the Validity of the Queen s 
cc Deprivation; bccaufe in taking out thefc pendency of 
V. Commiflions, they might inLuwbe fup-^ c ^ 
^r.pos d. to renounce the better Title they to ** 2 
ffihad from Chrift and his Apoltles ; fince 
**.. there cannot be. two Originals of the 
44 .fame Power, and therefore the taking 
u : one from the Magiftrate muft be rcnoun- 
" cing any other. 

Ifnhis in the Popifh Bifhops was a re- 
iiouncing their ; better. Title; the Prote- 
ilant Bifhops renounc d theirs too, fince 
they, as he owns, did.the fame. And tis 
notorious, that they not only took out the 
fame in H. 8 s time, but renew d them upon 
his Son s coming to the Crown, as neceflary 

."to enable em to exercife their Epifcopal Au- 
t t.hority ; and confequently this is a farther 
Proof that the < Bifhops . have no Divine 

23. His next Argument is, i" That the ..2^, 
, C4 .Deprivation of the Popifh Bifhops was 
J.only of their Temporalitys ; their Sees^ 

[ : Y 3 ic 


V / 

TJr fl&fcf * / (if 

f* as to their Spirituality^ being before 
** vacant* thp Proteftants owing em n$ 
<* Duty even in Conference before J>q>rlva* 

If thofe Bijhops were npt Bif&ops.of 
froteftants before their Deprivation,. 
they had o Bijhops, and cpnfequently by 
his own Principles no Priefts, no .Sacra* 
jnents, no Chriftian Church , and if they 
vrere not obliging in Confciencc beforQ 
Deprivation, it was becaufe the People 
judging eiji guilty of grofs Errors, had by 
renouncing all Communion with cm with-* 
drawn their Obedience from em, and de* 
priv d ? em of all the Spiritual Jurifdidlon 
they had over em : which, contrary to the 
whole prift and Defignof his Book, proves 
that the Bifhop s Power is deriv d from and 
dependent on the People ^ and what they 
ou d do thus themfelves by a tacit Agree* 
jnent f they might authorise the Queen to 
do foleinnly and formally ; or rather the 
IPeople haying, by renouncing their Com^ 
xnunion, deprived em of all the Spiritual 
Power and Authority they cou d pretend 
to over em, the Queen took from em 
all thofc legal Powers and Privileges the 
Law had inverted em w jth. 

24. His third Argument is, *f Thattho 
f* the fopilh Bilhops upon the account of 
< c the Invalidity of their Layrbepriva^ion^ 
f c (till retained a Right in Confidence over 
** the Profeftants , yet thp Duty to em 
f c ceas d with their Uves, and became diiip 
to ^hejr Proteftant Succeflbrs, tho it was 
g la tfi$if power to Jiaye perpetuated the 

Church, &ci 

Invalidity of our Succefiion, by keeping Chap. 9. 
** up one of their own down to our 
* Times. 

Upon this I cannot avoid remarking 
thefe four things. 

Firft, That the Proteftants who fepara- 
ted from the Church of Rome , by fo doing 
were guilty of Schifm, and continued fo 
during the Lives of the Popifh Biftiops. 

Secondly, That if the Popifh Bifhops, not- 
withftanding their Errors, retained a Right 
inConfciencetothe Obedience of the Pro 
teftants ; then there arc no Errors which 
can juftify a Reformation in any Nation, 
when they cannot do it without difowning 
their erroneous Bifhops. 

Thirdly, That the very Being of our 
Church fubfifts by a mere Accident, the 
Kegled of the Papifts in continuing the Sue- 
ceffion of their own Bifliops down to our 
Times: thofomefay the matter of Faft is 
otherwife; and that they have, at leaft in 
Ireland , molt religioufly kept up the Succef- 
iionj and confequently, thePopifh Bifhops 
there have ftill a Right to oblige the Con- 
fciences of Men of thefe Principles. 

Fourthly, Whether the Papifts have or 
have not done this, the Englifi Church by 
Ins own Reafoning muft be without Bi 
fhops, becaufe they who are ordain d to 
Sees already full, are, as he aflcrts in at 
leaft forty places, no Biihops , and their 
Confecrations null and void: And ic \t 
14 was, as he faith, a Principle univerfally the Defence 
u receiv d in tjie Catholick Church, as an-^/** 1 * 
2 tient as thePraftice of two pretending *** 
Y 4 " 


to the- fame \BUhoprick, that, the 3* 
wdw was always lookM on as JW/< 
forts alicm^ fo far from being a Bjfhop- 
< O f jthf Chiircl). that the; Attempt divi 
ded him from it. And this, IIQ ; faith, 
is as evident from Reafon as from Au- 
thonty, becaufe no Man can , convey 
the fame thing twice- and therefore in 
all Monarchical Qiftria*, none can 
fuppofe an Antimonarch s Title good 
c till he has mown the fir ft Monarch s 
1 Hie is not fo. And confequently, 
the Attempt to make Proteftants Bifhops 
pt tliofc Sees which were full of others, 
mult be null and void r . and if, they 
were not Bifhops of thofe Places to 
which they were ordain d, they were 
Biihops of no others, and therefore no 
Bifhops at all ^ fmce none, as he owns, 
can be a Bifhop of the Catholick Church, 
othcrwjfe than by king Bifhop of fome 
particular Diftrift. : Kor cou d the Dcatl^ 
ot the PopiHi Bifhops make thofe who 
were not fo much as Members of. the 
Catholick Church, to become Bifhops 
of it. Had he fuppos d em trae Bifhops, 
and only hmcler d from exercifing their 
Power as long as the Popifh Bifhops 
livd, their Death wou d have let em 
into a full Exercifc of their ; Epifcopal 
Authority : and if their Confe,crations 
were -from the beginning null, the 
Death of the Popilh Bifhops cou d no 
more make cm become Bifhpps, than 
ir they had no Confecration , fmce 
there s no difference between that and 


a Confecration which > has,; ftp e/Teft ; jnpr hap. p. 
cou d they j who, |Wfir^oPO ; ,gifh9ps J ^b^mT?.X 
fe)ves, .make.;,. others : fp i- and /cojifor 
queritly the Church of EjigiarHd^ ;: by.pur \Au?.- 
thor s own Reafoning, has bccj-n ever; frnce 
Queen Elizabeth s ;Time without Bifliops,r 
if they are not to , be - reckon cr fuch 
who have no other Right to their Power,, 
than what thsy derive from Human Auth o- . 
rity. . , 

25. The Excnfe given for the High 
fliers carefimg the profefs d Enemys of 
Church and State, the Nonjiirors, while-, 
they Ihcvv fuch Bitternefs to thofe who. 
dilTent only on a Church-account, is, that 
the ChurchrSchifm will be heal d by the 
Death of the JSIonjuring Bifliops, and that! 
then they will all come into the Church.. 
But this Reafon, as poor as it is, will not 
hold, fi nee the two Defences of the Do 
frivd Eifiops, which contain the Reafons 
of their Separation, and which they are 
not a little proud of, upon all occafions 
referring to cm, make the prefent 
Church of England guilty of the greateft 
Herefy, as ftriking at what is fundamen- 
tal in the higheft degree, . as being funda 
mental to other Fundamentals, the Sue- 
cefllon of Bifliops, without which the 
Church can t fublift. And on this Head 
tragical Declamations are made of the 
great Danger the Church is in } for which 
there cou d not be the leaft ground, were 
the prefent Pofleflbrs of the Sees fuppos d to 
be true Bifliops, and confequcntly capable 
of continuing the Succeflion., So that ihqu d 


Tfo Digits */ the 

thedepriv d Bifhops die without Confecrat- 
ing others, the Nonjurors wouM by thefe 
Principles be as far from owning the pre- 
fent Church as State. 

If feme Men wou d fpeak out, they 
might upon thefe Principles better excufe 
their Treatment of the prefent Bifliops 
than any yet they have offer d, becaufe they 
who are plac d in the Sees of the Bifliops 
depriv d by Parliament, can only plead a 
Human Right. For, 

If the Spiritual Relation their Predece 
fors had to their feveral Diftri&s was derived 
from God, no Human Powers cou d diflblve 
it } and the fame regard mult be had to their 
Authority after as before a Lay-Depriva 
tion: therefore one wouM think thofe who 
undertook to juftify the prefent Bifliops, 
wou d not, unlefs they had a mind to be 
tray the Caufe they pretended to defend, 
a(Tert an Independent Power in the Bi- 

26. But the molt Learned Doftor, who 
fignaliz d liimfclf in this Controverfy, 
loth to deny the Bifliops fuch a Power, 
and as unwilling to own himfelf and the 
reft of the Clergy Schifmaticks, took a 
middle way to juftify them, by bringing 
a number of Precedents, where the Clergy 
and the People deferted the Communion 
of Bifliops depriv d by Lay-Powers, and 
adher d to others put in their Places: 
which muft fliow, that either they thought 
the Bifliops had no Independent Power, 
or that they afted contrary to their own 
Confidences. And of what Authority are 

men s 


friens Praaices, when they contradifl: their Chap 
Principles? v "" 

27. To yield that Lay-Deprivations are 
unjuft and invalid, and at the fame time 
to argue for our Compliance with *em, 
gives the Author of the RegAlc* and the 
other Enemys of the Church of England 
too great caufe to infult and triumph, 
and cry up their Champions of the De- 
priv d Bifhops, as if they had unanfwera- 
bly p m d down Schifrn on the Church* 
And they are not fo much in the wrong, 
if nothing elfe cou d be faid to juftify 
the Church, befides what this, and another 
as Learned Author, the Writer of two 
fmall Pamphlets to clear the Church from 
the Guilt of Schifxn and Hercfy (the only 
Perfons who have exprefly undertaken her 
Defence) have urg d in her behalf againft 
thofe numerous Pamphlets which upon 
thefe common Principles have charg d ner 

This laft Author^ as much as the other,* 
owns the Power or the Bifhops to be Jure 
pivino j and as a Confequence of that, will 
hot allow the Magiftrate to deprive em of 
*my of their Spiritual Rights: yet to juftL- 
fy the Church for renouncing em upon a 
Lay-Deprivation, he makes a Biflioprick 
to be a Temporal thing $ and that as 
fuch the Magiftrate, he owns, can lawful 
ly deprive him of it ; yet hi? Spiritualitys 
arc untouched, and he remains, juft as he 
was before, a BUhop of the Catholkk; 
phurch. Buir, 

a8. No. 

; rv>;a8 Npt;hing can be more fenflefs; ? than: 
x.4nc Notion of a Bifhop without a ; Bi-i 
ihoprickj {tfcaufe that carrys Spiritual 
Power, and-; Jurifdiftion with, it, , : whiclv 
fuppofes pb^dience amTSubjeftion, They, 
therefore who owe this to any Bifhop are 
his Subjefts, and within his Bifhoprickui 
fo that -a r Bifl]op and a Bifhoprick, Dif- 
trift,. or Diocefs, are Relatives , and;.a^s 
tis impojlibfe there can bp a Bifhop wit;h- 
out a Bifhoprick, fo tis as impofTible.twcx. 
can have the fame, or a Right to the fame. 
And if one Bifhop s Diftrift was as large 
as the whole Church, there cou d be only 
one Bifhop, and the whole Church his Dio-> ( 
ccfs *, and confequently, to fuppofe each 
to be Bifhop, not of a -Part only, but 
of, the whole Catholick Church, is to make 
as many Contradi&ions, faveone,asBifhops. 

29. Tis worfe to fuppofe that thofc 
who have no Bifhopricks, as being law fully 
depriv d of em, are -ftill Bifhops, - and 
each of cm a Bifhop ,of the Catholick; 
Church : wjiich is as abfurd as to fay t 
that there may be Kings without any King r 
doms, or a Right to any, yet each is a 
King of the whole World, and can make 
as many fuch Kings as he .pleafes } there 
being nothing by this hin 
der the depriv d Bifhops from making 
every Man in the Nation as ^good a Bifhop 
to all intents and purpofes as any of them- 
felves. Men durfb not vent fuch Abf!n> 
ditys, when they talk of Civil Gov^rn? 
nlent j but Konfcnfe feems facred, when 

apply d 

Blun der- as- -thh is^ yet tistt 

4i T.r^_/ - t -l^J- *.^. ^ AU1 " ^VJ/i f~\ 

Author 1 has- to- imi : th e ^dliltrdV of ;- 
/irf:frtm Jtbc- iG uilt -of Schifm f [;and He^> 
ffjy.oioJ)70jlJ l>n:s c J . - * 1< ; i ->iJ^ - 
< - j$/| Had this Atithor coilfid^rM^ that, tiii- 1 
kfs- ^^vJBi(hb b^ Pbwer i w as J Hrtilted h to^l 

pa Alculw ^Di 

fafi art dnd iDifdrder; muft happen; the Peo-*} 
pic not kn owing - WHorti to otxiyi fen account^ 
of .the) iMultipliekf and 1 Gonttaf idy- ^R 
Orders V he wouM -Confequeiitly have 
b8thi-7wrf Dwinoi or both^^^[ ( 7/ 
And , if- f a : -Diteift^fec only Human, 
Right ya- ; Bltiloj)rhas to- it can t be Divine ?* 
but both * the Relatives, .which--cah t fublili^ 
wichoub each other> "muft have the fame O* 
rigin. And, -"bv, > < v, -^J /: 

Author "certainly r wa^ hot in- the 
in fuppofing Diltrifts ; to be onlyl 
n Rightv except he- cou d havef 
fpund i but the particular Biftiops who had* 
a -Divine Authority to divide the Chriftiaiv 
World ; into Parifhes, Diftri^s, Provinces^ 
&c.) But if every Ration cdn appoint^ the" 
Number of it s own Diftrifts,* and dimkf 
nifh and -enlarge em as they pleafe, tis^ 
plain all the Power the Bi (hops have is deJ 
riv d>from the People , fince : they cannot* 
only i appoint what Kumber they think 
IJty- and enlarge or diminifh a BifhopY 
Power with his Diftrift, but by confoli^ 
dating or turning two Diftrifts into ono 
they wholly .deprive one Bifhop of hisJ 
Power, and beltow it on another: andi 
then he carft pretend to . do any Epif^ 
* copal 

. ty* fights 

copal A& there, without ufurping, upoff Ml 
Right to whom the Diftrlft is given. 
. 3t. Thus it is, that thefeMen,for the faka 
Of an Independent Power, betray the Church 
inftead of defending it j and thetefbre thd 
Clergy, as one inreafon ought to Iiippofe, 
fliowcl pardon a Layman who clears the" 
Church from 1 fo heavy a Charge as Schifnt 
and Herefjv tho he does it upon Principles 
inconfiftent with their Independency. Yet 
Ihou d they not forgive my attempting to 
prove them neither Hereticks or Schifma* 
ticks, I hope the Laity will not take it antif% 
that upon folid and rational Principles, and 
fp much to their Advantage^ I vindi^tc *em 
fifom any fuch Guilt, as- well as juftify the 
Reformation in all its Steps* which the con* 
trary Notions can never do. 
32. If the Biihops in England flnCe thd 
Reformation (and the Reafons equally 
hold fbr the Proteftant, Bifhops abroad^ 
tfto they had been confecrated by Bifhops) 
can claim no- Power deriv*d^ by Succeffioa 
fcrom-the Apoftles^ the Presbyterians (tho 
twere, granted this Power might bt con- 
Vey/d^ by Presbyters as- well; as Bifhopsji 
can have no Right at all to it, becatife 
they don t pretend the Ordination* of the 
Romifh Church are Valid *, and therefore 
when; any of tHeir Prtefts Come over to- 
*etn, they hstve Hands laid on em anew^ 
before they will permit em to cxercilfc 
th^Minifterial Office, reckoning all^ done 
before null -and yoid v as done by an Idot* 
Iktrous Antichriftian Church, which is un* 
tcapable of< conveying any SpirituaJ Ptowetv 



Icannot fee therefore why the Presbyterians Chap, p 
ihou d cenfurethe Anabaptifts and Indepen- tXVVI 
dents for having Lay-MinifterSj or fucn as- 
have no Right to their Office, except what 
they derive from their Congregations.. 

33, At the famous Conference at 
between the Papifts and Proteftants, when 
want of a Call and Authority was objec-p, 45. 
ted to the Reformed Minifters, Bcz* de* 
clare, u That to a Legitimate Call, Impo- 
" iition of Hands was not Aeceflary v but 
" that the chief and fubftantial Tokens 
<4 thereof were a good Life, found Doftrine, 
44 and Elcdion (meaning of the People) 
u nor was it to be wonder d at, if they 
<* had not received Impofition of Hands 
, c from them, whofe corrupt Life, Super- 
u ftition, and falfe Dodhrine they were to 
" reprove* Or how cou d it be expeAed 
* they ihou d ever be allowed of by them^ 
u who were Enemys to the Truth they de- 
<x fended ? And after the fame manner does 
the excellent Monfieur Claude and other Hu* 
gonot Divines write. Nay, none can be ig* 
norant, who has read any thing of the Re* 
formation abroad, that the Miniflry wa$ 
generally chofen out of theLaicks, the No 
blemen not difdainijig to devote their Gifts 
to.that Service, as the Prince of Halnault^ 
.pupUJps, Stidfdj aud others. And they 
were jTo. far from pretending to any Power 
by virtue of an uninterrupted Succefllou, 
that they maintain d, wherever the true 
Faith and Do&rine were, there was the 
true Church - y which could .not . be, except 
the Miniftry depended on the Church or 
-If faithful 

:, . | trtOfSBt^F^OierJ i ritf nft ; tte ? Church W 
be Vocft. them .> " Knd< ; jmliMr &W<y/ ftiows by very weighty Realoris ftal: ! iferfohal Saccefiioa 
Op.Fol. .., > being neccflafy;v ; that it IV 
able lr is -rcqiilfitei 1 and hc : 

- the P^in^Ordinations to be null,. 

pretended SucccJTioh to be inter- 

v.34 * Tho Rtff6tmM 4 Cle r^y Jiid\no *,~ 
tiorf that the^Minifters of Chrift muftjrc^ 
ceive< thfcir ; PoV\rer and Authority ff6ni 
Antielirirt i 7 b<r4httt his Holy Church cou d 
not fubfift ot.heFwife tha.h by .virtue of a* 
Pdw<>r i deriv c] ^ff 6m the Man; of ; Sin; the 
Sorit of Perdition^ who lias %ceh fo f^er 
qUently J drunk ; Mtli thq Bibod of -the 
Siiqts. -TlTe^ r *th6n^ht : :that owning a, 
Ghara^erVto^be, given them *by - the Beaft^ 
ivho ; pretended to give ; an Ipdeiible one A 
^as-i too much* like receiving hh Mafic L 
arid ^ therefore that great : ^pbftle LMer- 
proud of being- ; degraded ; by the! RomiflT 
Church, abfolutely difa vows and difclaims 
alii Popifli Ordinations , and ;irt :his Trea- 
life of the Miniftry declares ofie ought to 1 
fuffer any thing rather than be, [ ordain d 
by--:Papilts. As thefe were : the Notions 
.whichprevairdat the Reformation, fo- tis^ 
jmpoflible that without em, a.ny Separa^ 
tioacan be made from a cforrupt Church; 
which might reduce any Ecclefiaftick, who 
Jhou d pretend to innovate, to that Lay-* 
State they took him from at firft. And I 
do. not fee how this can be dehy d em, fmce 
no, greater Power is requir d for one tharf 

l^dvia 3S . The 


35. The, Church of. England was fo far Chap. 9* 
from thinking a Succe ffion of Bifhops ne- ^V^O 
ceflary to her Being, that (he did not be* 
lievc Epifcopacyto be of Divine Appoint 
ment : for the Book intjtled, The Inftitu- 
tlon of 4 Chriftian- Mun^ fubfcrib d by the 
Clergy in Convocation, and confirm d by- 
Parliament, owns Bifhops and Presbyters 
by Scripture to be the fame \ and yet 
the Nation thought tfiemfclves at Ik 
berty to have an Order ^ fuperior to 1 
that of Presbyters: a fufficient Acknow 
ledgment that they thought no Form o^ 
Government fix d by Chrift* And what 
the Senfe of our Church was in .rtfio* 
i^ plain from Archbifhop Bancroft^ and the^5/>Spotfl 
reft, of the Bifhops owning the Ordination wood*/ 
of Presbyters to be valid, and therefore ^W*5 ! 4* 
fefufing to re-ordain thtScotifi Presbyters 
who were then to be niade Bifhops j de* 
claring .withal, that to doubt it was to . , : . 
doubt whether there was any lawful loca 
tion in mofi of the Referred Churches ; , , .> 
And even till after the Reftoration this 
Notion generally obtain d, it being de- 
clar d 12 Car. 2. 77?^^ every Ecclejtafticat 
t erf on or Mini ft er being ordain* d by any Ec^ 
defiaftical Per fans before the 1 ift of December 
faftj WM * enjoy his Benefice^ if he earns intt 
/i vacant one : which tis to be prefum d \ . 
wou 4 never have been allow d, if Ordi-* 
nation by Bifhops had been thought necef- 
fary. ; And even .at this day Presbyters 
Witlv l u^ not only exQrcife all manner of 
j&pilcp v pal \Jurifdiaion, but have equally 
yitli the^BiJhops a neceflary Vote in the* 
Z Supreme 

33* Tie %/;/;< /"rie * 

Supreme Aflts of Church-Qovernment, the 
making 9 f Ecclefiaftical taws. And before 
the Adt of Uniformity there was nothing 
I know of to hinder Perfons ordain d by 
Presbyters from being capable of Church- 
Preferments ; Travers, Walter of ,the Tem 
ple, having no other; and Bifho p Morton 
lent o&e.CalcnJrini, who was unknown to 
him, to the Minifters of the WtStonChvrch 
in London for Ordination ^ who being met 
in a Colloque or Synod, did ordain him, 
and he had a Brotherfliip oftheSwy con- 
fer d on him as a Miiiitter of the. Church- 
of England^ the Account, of which may be 
fecn at large in the Records of the Walloon 
1 ,. { /:< v ..Churdi in London. And this ought not 
to bethought ftrange, fince the Vapifts at 
this day allow the Ordinations of Abbots 
Sovereign* who are only Presbyters, to be 
Eutych. valid and regular : and the famous jffix^ 
Annah, aJrfa Church for ,the firlt 235 years had 
.M28. no Bifh P s > b "t who had Hands laid, ou 
Jcr 1110 " 1 b Y Presbyters only. And tis- very . 
Evagr. probable that thofe Bifhops who converted 
^85- fp many of our Northern Parts to Chrif- 
tianity, were ordain d by the Abbot of f/ 3 
Bed. Feel. a. Presbyter, to whofe Ecclefiaftical Jurifr. 
] 3- diftion Scotland was fubjea.j. altho fome, 
liflcr.dc who ca nt t agree about the Perfon, fuppofe, 
Eccl. Brit. "? ^ ac ^ a Journyman Bilhop to ordain for 

Primord. him. j f , 

^ 707* $6. The twenty third Article is fo far 
from confining the Power, of making Mi* 
Jiiflers to Biflinps, that it only in general 
Terms Declares, JMwfrers are . te be ftnt 
ty thoft who have fublick 

(Jhriftian Church, &C? 

out; determining ; who they are ,y -becaufe Chap". 9! 
the Church, as thq Bijfhop of Santm ^ E ^^C 
ferves,; " fuppofe they might be different a ? 
f c in different .places, and : therefore air 
" low d all Proteftants who ferjarated 
* frorfl tymc, tho ever fo widely differ* 
cc ing in their Notions of Ghurch-Goyern- 
u ment v and the- Power of Ordination, 
">to be .true Churches. And he , adds, 
( 4C that neither, the Reformers nor their 
r u SuccefTors, for near .eighty Tears after 
5 C ^hcfef Articles .were r publilh d, did ever 
*- c qucftion the Conftitution of fuch Chur^ 
<c dies,, where. Princes, wou d j; not fuffer 
^ th^ir Subjedlts to- gQ out of* ,the ; Kingf 
<Cj dom^!;tho to, be regularly/.ordainU 
Nay; ^-a/Hrms, a ,that if ( a Company oif 
c Ghriftiajis* tho ,no , Clergy mer; join, with 
*f v ejnj.jjeparate frorn, fuch a defil diWor* 
* ihjpt aSj hey in Coiilxience can t -comply 
** .wit,b>; .and chufe flprne of theiqown Num-* . n ,, 
l c : .ber, t.Q/ minifter .tp/?cru in K^oly ( ^l]ings t , 
" .this; j,s not- annur^, or condcniu 4 , by -i - 
ic thisc Article ; and , jhat; whate v^v fqme ; 

u : tinie,,; ,yet? we ; are ;;inre , that 

ly of yth^, XJhu.rch, fpp ^abo vo 
5; f aft^r^/rijTdy -didf?} 


^ ledgi for^ri Churrjhe^ fo ( -cqjnftij:ii5ed tjo be 
ft true jGtorcheV; Jfj- % ; .^tis, .jjlain .-jt hey 

ow on 
;/.. w 
, *f la 

f"J4- "- -ne 

. * ~~ * * ^ 

TV 37- T* s certain, the Opinion of BifhopS 

,. ,, v. { being neceflary to the Church did not pre- 

.; vail, even with the Clergy, till the Treatys 

of Marriage with Spain and France : but then 

fuch unhappy Notions generally obtain d, 

as tended to difunite Proteftants, : advance 

Popery, "and eftablifh Slavery. ; M - 

And when our EmbafTadortf went no 
longer to Chttrentori, and other fuch Meet 
ings, and the LaudcM Faction wou d 1 no 
longer. owp cm for Churches r of Chrifrj 
twas then 1 no wonder they fuffer d; Perfe- 
cutioh I Tor with what Grace cou d we 
quarrel* with the Papifts whom we. own d 
to be a true Church,: for their fake -whom 
we accounted no Church ? And how fa 
tal our breaking off Communion- with the 
Reform d Churches was ta thdicomn)ori 
Proteftant-Catife^ .we^-may learrii -firom bur" 
late Famolis /Hiflor-ian, - who gives ; fii ! : ac- 
Clarcn- 1 toui)t, :4C That .in the Reign oiEdmrdVl; 
don*/ ////?. u w lien v the Reform d Churche* were per- 
Vol. 2. p. fccuted abroad, 1 great numbers of Fttnctii 
74i75 ii.ijy^^-jjjnd WafoohsjjCSmk overdo Eng- 
44 l\tnd \yfth their Familys, and fettled ma- 
a ny -ufeful Mannfadlures herei ;how that 
44 King with great Piety, and Policy granted 
44< 7 cm rnany. Immunity^, 5 ihc freei fixer* 
44 dfe; c bf their Rdigi 6ri, f ; arid CKurClics iri 
44 Lonfon^ Norwich 7arid C/tnfA-bvjyflvilitre* 
44 by 7 tjl^ Wealth^ ! of thofe Places rnbrve- 
44 loufljr increasU"- tfe adds, "that |Queeri 
44 Elizabeth ^ enlarg*cl their : Privileges^ and 
44 made great- ufe ^6f -thefe Ttfo^le in her 
44 Transactions J v&t\f France ahu vj Holland^ 

^ and by their means kept- Up- aa ufeful 
f s .\ latereft 

(Iriftian Ckurd, &c; 3 4 

* Intereflr in all foren Dominions, where Chajvp, 
!" the prqteftant Religion was tolerated. < 

, He, then goes on and fays, 4 * That 
" Tome years before- the Troubles, >vhca 
" the Power of the Churchmen grew, more 
tranfcendent, and indeed the Faculty* 
" and Underftandingsof the Liy-Counfelr 
" lors more dull, lazy, and unadive (for 
" without the, laft the firft cou d have 
" done no hurr.) the Church grew jealous 
".that the countenancing of another Dif- 
" cipline here by Order of the State wou d 
" at lead diminifh the Reputation and 
K Dignity of the Epifcopal Government, 
u and give fome countenance to the fac- 
41 tious and fchifmitical Party here to ex- 
4t pedt fuch a Toleration. And therefore 
the State conniving, or not interpodng, 
the: Bifhops proceeded againft em ^ Ib 
that many left the Kingdom, to the.lef- 
jfening th? : wealthy .Manufa&ure then of 
Kerfeys and Marrow Cloths*, and what was 
worfe ? the tranfporting the Myftcry intQ 
foren Parts. 

He farther (hews, that whereas our Em-? 
^aOTadors and foreign Minifters, in any Parts 
where the Reformed Reli^ioa was exercise!, 

frequented their Churches, give all pouible 

Countenance to their ProfctTion \ and par 
ticularly the EmbaQIidor at Paris had con- 
ftantly frequented the Church at Charcnton, 
whereby, he had kept a neceiTary Corre- 
fpondence with the molt aftive and pow 
erful Pcrfons of that Perfuafion, to the 
great Benefit of this Kingdom, by being 
^9;. into .their Secrets of State, and de- 

Z 3 riving 

tk ) 

Driving all necfflary Intelligence from them ; 
the contrary to all this was then praC* 
tis d, and fome Advertifemcnts, if not In- 
fhuftions, given to the Embafiadors there, 
to forbear any extraordinary Commerce 
with Men of that Profeffion ; and the Lord 
then Embaflfador, not only de- 
going to Charttiton^ but furnifh d his 
Own Chappel with fuch Ornaments (to 
wit, Candles on the Communion-Table, 
and the like) as gave great Offen ce and 
\Jmbrage tothofe of the Reformation there, 
who had not feen the like , befides, he was 
careful to publifh that the Church of England 
look d not on the Hugomu as part of their 
Communion, which my Lord Clarendon fays 
was too much and too indultrioufly difr 
^rours d at home. 

38, And this Favourite Author of High* 
Church, thro the whole Courfe of his HifV 
tory, can t forbear owning, that almoft 
the whole Body of the People, as well as 
the inferior Clergy, were fcandaliz d and 
pfFended at the Behaviour of the Bilhops 
and their few Followers, which was ^hen. 
thought to have a Tendency to Popery, 
cfpecially the worlt part of it, the Domi 
nation and Tyranny of the Clergy : and it 
was this which drew fo many Petitions 
$nd Remonftrances from feveral Parlia 
ments both in England and Scotland^ all 
aloud complaining that Popery was fo* 
mented and encourag d, and the Prote* 
ftants perfecuted and opprefs d by i thofc 
very Laws defign d againft the Papifts. 1 
Mor was this the Opinion only of -the 


tyriflian Church, &c: 

at home,, but of the Proteftant chap. 9." 
Churches abroad, who all took pan a- 
gainft the King on that account. . And my 
Lord Clarendon, notwithftanding all his 
palliating, is forc d to own that the Bi- 
fhops by this extraordinary Conduft of 
perfccuting the Proteftant Churches at 
home, and by feparating from the Prote 
ftant Churches abroad, did it with a defign, 
if not to -unite with the common j4dverfary, 
yet to Ihow their good Inclinations. And 
thofe ridiculous Innovations brought into 
the Church by Laud, cou d have no other 
End than to make our Separation greater 
from other Proteftants, and to bring us to 
a nearer Conformity to the Church of Rome: 
but the People not enduring thofe Innova 
tions, it put a (top to further Attempts of 
that kind. 

39. The Church Is indebted to the State 
fome Millions, not only for being the oc- 
cafion of fending fo" many of her People 
and Manufactures into Foreign Parts, but 
by "hindring others from coming over and 
fettling here and in Ireland, as the poor 
perfecuted Proteftants of Savoy dclignd in 
Charles H s time. And I cou d never meet 
with any other reafon, than the Interclt of 
the. Church, why the Bill for 
the Proteftants ot Orange did not pafs both 
Houfes n an.d there can be no doubt that the 
Troteftantsof both thofe Places wou d have 
( improved the Linen Manufacture, as much 
as. the french Refugees have feveral others, 
;to , the infinite Gain of the Nation. But to 

24 40. 1 

344 . Ibe ftigfcfi of 

40. I can t fee but that thofe of ,our 
Church, who refufe all Communion, with 
otner Reformed Churches, are upon their 
own Principles guilty of Schifm, becaufe 
they affirm that Churches, tho erroneous, 

if they impofe not things unlawful, have 
a Right to Catholick Communion : and 
this, I fuppofe, they build on the Pra&ice 
of the Apoftles, who communicated not 
only with the converted Gentiles and be 
lieving Jews, but the unbelieving alfo ^ 
each of which muft be re^kon d different 
Communions, if feparate Meetings, diftinft 
Teachers, Difcipline and Government, as 
well as different and oppofite Dodrines, 
pn make Men fo, And it the unbelieving 
Jews and believing Gentiles can be rec- 
Kon d the fame Church, there can be no 
fuch thing as diftind Communions: nay, 
the believing Jews themfelves, becaufe the 
Gentiles cou d not comply with their Rite,s 
and Ceremonys, wou d fcarce endure any 
vivil Converfe with em, much lefs join 
with em upon any occallon in their Pub- 
lick Worfhip, Whi(?h Miftakes, as the 
Apoftle Paul labours to reftify, fo he elteejns 
Ocxafional Communion fo much a Duty, 
that he highly blames the great Apoftle 
of the Circumcifion for refufing it, out 
of fear of the Jews, to the Noncxmforming 
Gentiles : but had our pighfliers been to 
Judg, St. Paul muft h^ve pafs d for th^ 

41. At the Reformation the Proteftants^ 
tho they differ d about Modes of Church- 
Plfcipline, did not therefore forbear com* 



, . ^ tp be lifting Kimfelf linder their, Banner, 
to oppofe not the Flclh, the World, and 
the Devil, !btit all other Churches, and that 
too often by carnal, worlclly, and deviliih 
Means. And they who are for tiifcouraging 
this Praftice of Occafional Communion, may 
talk of Unity, but tis too plain they aim 
at Tyranny, and will have no Peace, except 
". With their Vaflals and Slaves. Twas by 
w , " virtue of this Communion of Saints which 
. obtained among the ReformM, that they fo 
juftly cenfur d the Uncharitablenefs of the 
Papifts. But are the Highfliers, who con- 
Tine the Church of Chrift to a fmaller num 
ber, and arc? fo far from communicating 
with other ReformM Churches either at 
home or abroad, that they damnthofe who 
dp fo as Schifhu ticks and Hypocrites, more 
charitable ? Is not this aftingin defiance of 
the Apoftles Greed, which requires Com- 
jnunion of Saints \ unlefs they fuppofe the 
Catholick Church in fo deplorable a Con 
dition, as that there are no Saints, except 
among them felves? 

.43. As much as the Eccleflafticks con 
demn Schifm, yet they thernfelves have 
all along narrow d the Therms of Commu 
nion, to get the Preferments into fewer 
Hands. .And no fboiier dicj the Empire 
become Chriftlnn, tha d they divided the 
Church, each. Party in. their turn, by iro- 
poling their own Explication of thofe Myt 
terys which- themfelves own,M to be inex- 
.plicable. And when they found their 
Adver/arys cou d bring their fupple Con* 
fences to comply with thofe Terms, 


t v JL... Ti -,. 


then, fbf u.^j t - r . - -, 
they wou d dideavour to 

uiui u. tvj uiv v/iiw j 

throw the oppqfite Party- o.ut o the Sad 
dle. And have they not ever fince us d the 
fame Method, and contriV to pin down 
on People thofe things they molt fcrupld ? 
Did not the Epifcopalians ad after this 
manner with the Presbyterians at the Re- 
ftoration, when , theft 1aft proppsd the 
Terms on which they were ready to u- 
nite? One wou d be apt to wonder, as 
fully fays of the Augurs, how the High 
flying Priefts can keep their Countenance 
when they meet, snd forbear downright 
laughing, to fee what wretched Tools 
they make of the poor Uity, when they 
engage em to harafs, ruin snddeftroy one 
another, to gratify their impofing Tem-r 
per. But all I lhall fay mpre on this Head, 
is, If Men will take upon em to judg cf 
the Heart, and make Laws againft HypO" 
crify, tis ftrange they xnuft only fufftry 
who by their known Principles rnuft be 
Hypocrites, if they are not Occafional 
Conformifts/ Or\can that Law be proper 
to prevent Hypocrify, wjiich, unlefs the 
piflenters are honeft Men,, qui have no 
other efieft than to Incf^afe it ? For 
whofoever is To much a Hypocrite as. to 
take the Sagrainent contrary- , to . his Con^ 
fcience for a- Pla;ce; ; will h^ : not be, tempN 
ed, for PreferVaiion of it,V to) continue tu* 
Hypoqrify ? I do not ?nean by going 



*5* in * thc Political Chnrcii; for Chat the 
Bin did not oblige him to, bat in riot 
going to a Diflenting Church } which is 
the readied way to make him go to no 
Church, becaufe .one is contrary to his 
Confcience, and any of the others contra 
ry to his Intereft. So that the Bill had 
no Tendency to prevent Occaflonal Con 
formity, but Occafional Nonconformity i 
and poiUbly might do a knavifli DifTenter 
to much Service, as to make .him pafs for 
one of High-Church, who oppos d the ob 
liging all in Offices to receive the Sacrament 
four times a year with fuch Arguments, 
as were they confident with themfelves, 
wou d make em endeavour a Repeal of all 
Sacramental Tefts. 

44- Nothing can be more odd, than 
that the Univerfitys fliou d come in* 
to this new Notion of Epifcopacy, as 
neccfTary to the Being of a Chriftian 
Church-, or in other words, that Men 
can t be united to Chrifl unlefs they are 
in Uaioa with 3 Bifhop ; becaufe they as 
well as all other exempt Places are united 
to no Bifhop; being only fubjeft to the 
Ecclefhftical Jurifdiftion of the Deputy of 
a Lay-Chancellor ; who. tho generally a 
Presbyter, may be, and fometimes is in 
one of em a Layman, and might have 
.beenfo in t other, had not Laud alter d 
it : and yet this Deputy of a Layman 
may ^excommunicate evea thofe Bifho ps 
.within whofeDiftrifts the yniyerfitys are, 
.as well as other : Bifhops, 1 If by refiding 
there, or by having a Coateft with any 


I r/f Mr *** / f * * 

Meftber of ; thofc ! Bodys, they become fub- chapv?. 
IS hh Spittai >&*.; .Nay, ~ 
&ch<>f thc^Umverfitys^h.Mnifpiteof . 

thfr Bithops ; 6f both Provinces authoriie 
a Man to preach all over <EkjP*tt An* 
fevefal Colleges oblige Mafters^of Arts, 
whether in Orders or noty tdtake a- Te^t^ 
and formally to .preach "on it an- tneir 
ehapp ei 

M^% * 

^e&AM It was : fo aittle though^ 
Grim e fo^L^men : tO;preaCiV;,the ;Uni^ 
fitVs in ! QiieCtX Jiiitxhflfi: time,; tnat^. 

1 J C ... *.. % If " i^.^t-.^^*- -^r 

VCi ItV" *** \yiav*vi* ^-.t-*.rv g_ . r 

wttiLtoAittiV and Mr. Ff/^r report, the 

** ** *~^ , & ^ (kM \ _ -A .-,-* > j<r * r .1 * .. 1 J 


Witlvhis ! OoVd Chaiivabout his Mctk arid hlS 
S rdrd by ! hW ! fide, pWacH d befote tSe 

6f .. . 

did -not out of pftchtation^ 

Charity -<o-di c^ch6lar.s." i S0 1 th at the 

* ?^zi- ^.^irt^/ u .*!-!<> 

:th in g\ 

VJ L ^rilll JlliLl V>Uiiiv iiiiiltS VYl t H Lilvy 

ukate wltli ^Oliirche i" j fubjed ( to Bilhops* - 
-. : ,..(. --^"^--t<Ji*- I fiio\y th6 Seniepf 

_ Thiic^ ^ai to thef^ 

rinteJ^fe^tfdaTttg tlfti Uiiiverfitys after* 
s iftSfiildy ^ c:ir;0 r^^^obb.^^vi-Ki 

the eai>* 

tKfe Line v^^iriiire -, . whilc : 
we at fq great a diftance ca& iiiicet with? 
nfctftn^%a^t r U^ 

iW& fl Majority oP 
[ , r tfii Simple and\Un-t 


, ; ^I^^^M^jW^atAi^I^^s ^u^^ 

* - - . \yhe,n not,?,: jWhat can ,;t>p, ;> more abfurd 
tihan^QTond enxtp Fathers* Councils, and) 
ChuxcKrHiftory,: % .-tfciw ^Information \ 
Jf there was a particular Set of \ Mqn, , who. 
under a certain. Form , were to, . govern thq 
Cliurch,- anxiithis was neceflary to it?; Be- 
ing^i) Infinite fl .Goodnefs wou^d f no dop|)t;. 
have ma-dejt;moft coafpicuous/ to the Bulfo 
of .Mankind Tyho.they are. f( \ Bujt-what qthcir 
Jud^ment^i^ipon. .this-HypothQiis,- canrth^ 
inoft J^nowing m^kcj than that tis pla 
cing the. .Government of the Church OIT 
lu^Jiia; foot ;.as muft del]:royj;he Chui^i; {% 
felfi? .^s .Lfliall ,now fhcw* anci the rfithery 
bpcaufe: the JPapifts, : who, fp ^nuch boafto| 
this UninterriTptcdJLi^pf .Sucqcffioiiymftyv , 
iw.e jiQ tjeafpnitp jnfult ; any pf ; ^e t Refprm 4) 

^.45. But/; I - Jhall, fir{t ex^min^ tl^c , PQW 
piih Whimfy/ o^,^in Incjcliyle] Chara<5er f 
which, they urge to fupppr): IbqiGMmerajpl 
aq Uninterrupted Succc? (T^. 3 , jjjey ftpppfo 
that a Bijfhop can neitjieir p^)with y forfeit^ 
npr be depriv d gfj the : Power; of j .ordaining 
Bifhopsand Prielis;v an^ cp^cquentiy^ thaft 

priv d and degraded, or tho he is, guilty si 
Schifpi, ; Herefy^ J nfidelity x / Pir./ieven, Atjie- 
y^t th^jt Spiritual jPpvjer fiins as, clearly 
his ; Finge^jends, intp; /he i Nqddle. ,pg 



f v47v iShoud r wei ; allpw 

JfOT^iiT^ tfe 


1 that tis- next to> impoflible they 
have !beeh always , regularly, perform d,a 

v niongft cnv !, But not, t9 .X4, on W 
tiling which they v mote: thaa others, 
fuppofe the obtaining of ao, 
Indelible Charafter; I fay, that m cafe of 
Schifm, where two pretend to the fame, 

See the Schijmatick cannot be Bimop.ot . 
, a See which be.f6re,was fiH d w.ith another.; 

and if not of that he pretends to, miK& 
lefs of any other,;, and if fie .\vere not, a 
Bilhop before fthQ..Tranaatii>n > ,6f Bilhopai 
being a modern Praftke, and, contrary, 
to -"the antient ; Canons of ths Church), 
he was never in. pofleflion ,of f the Inde* r 
Uble Charaaer,; ( and coalcqucntiy wa^j 
not capable of .conveying Jt : ,to. another ^ 
which in thp. Church, of faye. mult be a,, 
bar: to the. rAjjoftjiUcal :Su<;ce(UpiH ...finflfj 

there have been, * as their "own Hiftorian> 
Onvpbriw proves, at leaft thirty , Schifm s 
occafionM by feveral, no :iefs.,f6mctimesr> 
than five or v fix pretending to ^the .Pppe^) 
dotri at once : arid one of their Schifm^ t . 
Med.more thari ( fifty years rj when,oric f . 
Pope fat atXtfwr, and t other: Vjat.^v/pwiiyj 
thundring out : all. forts of $$$< and C^i 
fures againft each other. ... ( ,. .; . ; , ^< w 

\ 4S. t If Ap6ftolical powei; 1 be, Onlj r tQ pe- r 
found in the , Apbffiolick , G^itpes. , tn^y { 
who by Schifmar^cut off from ,t^ie .Church^ 
qultjalfo ber cut.bff froca -.^r Apoftolic^lj 
pwcrV and , consequently ^,no part of that, 
indelibjly/; fiXt ; in .any 
there s u 




f . .;., -X^ / % . 

govern the Church by Apoftolical Succef- 
fion, and yet no Rkht to the Church or any 
of its Privileges, (the Power which is the 1 
Adjunft, without the Church "which is the 
Subjeft) is an Abfurdity which equals Tran- 1 
iubftantiation ; and therefore one wou d* 
think that nd, Church which feparated from 
Rome upon .the account of her Abfurditys, 
wouM maintain fo great a one as that of an 
Indelible Charafter. 

If Schifm deftroys (as has been fully 
fhown in this Chapter) all Apoftolical, 
Power and Succeflion, there can be no 
doubt that Herefy, Infidelity, and A- r 
theifm, do it as effeftually : and they 
muft be very fond of an Hypothefis, who 
can believe that iMcn, who are guilty 
of thefe, are capable of receiving or con-; 
tinuing Apoftolical Power in the Catholick 

49. In a word, nothing can be more 
fenflefs thun this Notion of an Indelible 
Cliarafter, becaufe all Power^ of what na- 
ture foever, convcyM by Meir, is a Truft, ; 
and asfuch may be taken away, when the 
Perfons intrufted with it aft contrary to the 
Ends for which they were intruded} of 
which thofe who intrufted em, muft needs 
retain a Right to judg: and confequently. 
Priefts and Bifhops may be reduced to 
the Lay-State they were at firft in. And 
the Praftice -of the Clergy Ihows, that;; 
whatever they ! pretend, they themfelves" 
do not believe any Character beftdw d by j 
them to be ; indelible : ; for ^vhat elfe is 
the meanine of Degradation ? Caa 


. Qirifidn Ckurd, 
be degraded from the Degree or -Or dbrChap.p: 
bf a Prieft" or Bilhop, and yet conti- ^^T^ 

-Hue in thai; Ordei: ? If fo, to whdt end 

.did the Papifts degrade John f&fii J rotit 
of JVvgtrr, Luther ^Cranmtrt &C. And why 
did fome modern Bifhops and other Di- . 
vines degrade the late Worthy Mr. Samuel- 
Joknfofi? And why do fome boaft that a 
Clergyman is never executed, being be 
fore reduced to a Lky-State by Degrade- f 
tion ? Why too ihahy of the Clergy m this , 

matter declare one thing, and.praftifethe 
contrary, h, becaufc the Cuftom of de- 

i grading or reducing Ecclefiafticks to ^ 

Lay-Communion, was. in ufe many Ages 
before this Notion of t know not what pc- 
tuliar and indelible Charafter was thought 
of, and fo cbu d not well be difcontinu d af 
terwards. Andthoin the primitive Times v 4 
we hive many Inllances of Bifhops, wh6 
Were wholly depriv d of their Office, and f* ^ 

, duly admitted to .Lay-Communion^ yet 
that Favour was not always allowM* Fot* - ., ; ;.; ^; 
to inflance in Btflitleti he wou d have been Cypr.tplfc 
extremely glad if the, Church had pef-- $?. 
Inittcd him to Coihinanicate only as a ^ ^ 
Layman: And .at Rome it felf the Clergy 
tyere fo far from thinking Orders indelibly 

, Wac d on any, that the Council of ft* - 
fenci* under Pope .D*m*Jtu injoinM that <?** 
all, v/hcther of the Order of Deacon, 
fresbyter* or Bifiiop, convift of dendfy 
Sin, fhou d be removed frorfi theit Order;* 

V And there are a great number of other 
eariorl3 9 which for feveral Crimes made 
Ordm^tioas noil and void? a^s when at 

<354 ; The Oughts of the* 

:* Man gets into an Ecclefiaftical, Office by 

Simony, -or other corrupt means. And 
do t not the Popifh Hiftorians confefs, 
that for fome Ages there was fcarce a Pope 
made without moll wicked and uncanonical 
DrBumct Methods? Was not fm>with ;feveral 

L others notorioufl y guilty of Simony, altho 
the Second Council of Nice declared the 
.Orders -of all Simoniacks to be void ? 
.And tis plain that in Pope Stephen s Time 
this Notion of Orders being Indelible did 
not obtain } for he nuITd the Ordinations 
of^Confitntinti who from a Layman was 
chofen. Pope, not flaying fo long in the 
intermediate Degrees as ,the Canons re- 
cjtiir d. , Nor did this Opinion prevail even 
in Stephen the Sixth s Time, fince upon the 
account of fome Irregularitys he annull d 
the Orders given by Pope Formofus , and 
after that, as PUtina obfcrvcs, it became 

* . cuftomary for the following infallible Popes 

* , . to undo the Adts of their Predecellprs. So 

that Btfarminti who is not often guilty of 

^ any thing which tends to the Disadvantage 

of the Roman See, is forc d to acknow- 

leclg, That for above eighty Years to- 

c gethcr, the Church, for want of a law- 

c tul i^ope, had no other Head than what 

<4 .wasin Heaven. Which whether it de^ 

ftroys the Uninterrupted Succeffion of a 

vifiblcHcad, let our as well as their Cler- 

gy confidcr. And does not Baronius talk 

.jnuch to the fame purpofc, in faying ; 

Tom. 10, u How i deform d -was the Roman Church, 

Ann. poo. ct when Whores, no lefs powerful than 
> c vile, b9re the chicf *fwa;y at Rmt, an^i 

* atf 

n- Chittd, &c. 

"at their pleafure chang d Sees, and ap- chap 9? 

pointed Bilhops j and, which is horrible o^N^vJ 

" to mention, did thruft into St. Peter 9 * 

"See their own -Gallants, falfe Popes? 

" Chrift was then, it feems, in a very 

" deep Sleep , and, which was worfe, 

" when the Lord was thus afleep, there 

ic were no Difciples to awaken him, being 

* themfelves all laft afleep. . What kind of 

44 Cardinals can we think were chofcn by 

" thofe Monfters ? &c. 

50. One of the Learned and Judicious * 
Examiners of SelLtrmlnis >Jotes of the 
Church, faith, " Tis probable that the 
tc Roman Church wants a Head, and that 
u there is now no true Pope, nor has been 
c * for many Ages, for that Church to be . 
<c united to : for by their own Confeflion 
^ cc a Pope Simoniacally chofen, a Pope in- 
ct truded by Violence, a Hcretick, and 
u therefore fure an Athcift or an Infidel^ 
" is no true Pope : and many fuch there 
" have been of one fort or other, whofe 
ct Afts in creating Cardinals, c^c. (which 
&c. includes Bifliops and Priefts, and all 
-other Orders) " being invalid, tis ex- 
u ceeding probable that the whole Sue- 
* c ceftlon has upon this account fail d long 
. * ago, c^c. If ^fo ? let this Author fup- 
Vpbrt. the Succeffion of his own Church if 
~he can. , 

> 51. If any Chrlftian, as has been .already 
>prov d, may exercife any Ecclefiaftical 
iFunftionii if- fet ^ipart by the People for 
purpofc} -and infinite Abfnrditys . 
-not Allowing . em the liberty 
A a a of 

of rtaking and unmaking their own MU 
nifters, the Cuflom of their having the 
Approbation of fome Bifhops before they 
are admitted to the Exercife of their Of* 
fice, can t be of Divine Appointment; 
much lefs can the Power of making Bilhops 
and Priefts be indelibly fixt in all or any 
of them. But it being a Cuftom /among 
1 the firft Chriftians, which they borrow d 
of ^ the Jews, when a Requeft was .o& 
fer d to God in behalf of any one of the 
Congregation, for thofe only who offi 
ciated to lay Hands upon him (it being 
inconvenient for the whole Number to 
do it) and this being obferv d when a 
Perfon was fet apart by the People for 
. the Miniftry, the Clergy, becaufe they laid 
v Hands on him, when the Congregation 
pray d that God wou d affift him in the 
Difcharge of his Office, wou d have their 
, performing that Ceremony, (which cou d 
not fignify their then conftituting an Ec- 
clefiafhcal Officer^ but that he was alrea* 
dy cqnftituted) a Pretence for claiming the 
fole Power of making him, and that they 
gave him, as the ApofUes did by , laying 
on of Hands, 4 certain Spiritual Graces and 
Gifts, which they wou d have thought jae- 
cefTary to qualify him for adminiftring ia 
Holy Things. And this they call d gMng 
Orders^ Ordination, Ordinating, and Or* 
\daining ^ which Words may be apply d to 
Lawyers, Phyficians, or Men of any other 
Rank or Order, as well as to them : for 
Order fignify d nothing more at firft than 
that when any was fet apart by the Faith 

n Church, &tc: 

fol for the Miniftry, he then was reckon s d Chap.9. 
of the Rank or Order of the Clergy, as he \^r*J 
was before of the Order of the Laity , botn 
which Orders are mentioned by antient 
Writers. But the Bi (hops, to create a higher 
Reverence and Authority for themfdves,prer 
tended to the fame Divine Power that the 
Apoftles had ^ and becaufc thefe laid Hands 
on the BaptiVd, that they mie;ht receive Afts 9,27. 
the Holy Ghoft, the Bifliops did the fame 
firft at the time of Baptifm, butnowfift 
teen or twenty Years after : and this the 
Papifts call the Sacramenf of Confirmation, 
and make it not only peculiar to a Bifhopi 
but part of his Indelible Character, But the 
Popifh Bifliops might, by putting Clay and 
Spittle on the eyes of the Blind, aswellpre-r 
tend to open them as Chrift did, as toima-* 
gincthey can, like the Apoftles, beftowthe 
Holy Ghoft by laying on of Hands. So be- 
caufe the Apoftles had the Power of cafting 
out Devils, nothing was more frequent with 
*em than the exorcifing of evil Spirits *, and 
there was a peculiar Order in the Church 
callM Exorcijlsj which the Papifts, the great 
Followers of Antiquity, keep up to this day. 
And therefore tis no wonder the People, 
when made to believe that theBifhops by- 
laying on of Hands cou d beftow fuch Spi ? 
ritual Qualifications as they pretended to 
give, fhou d think it unlawful to admit any 
to officiate, who had not Hands laid ori 
him*, and at laft that the Bifliops fhou d get 
the fole Power to themfelves of making EC- 
clefiafticks, on pretence that it belongs 1 to . 
them to ordain, cm , nay, that the Power 
A a 3 "<> 


of doing this was a Charafter indelibly fixt 
in every one of em. But they abus d the 
People as much with relation to Excommu* 
nication ; and from being the Mouth of .the 
Congregation only, in declaring their Judg-. 
rnents, and pronouncing their Sentences, 
by degrees tlieyalliim d the folc Power of 
Excommunication., So becaufe they were 
fometimcs confulted about Queft ions relat 
ing to Kearnefs of Blood, and to Marria* 
ges, they made that a Handle to fulw 
ject to themfelves all Matters of Divor* 
ces, of Nullity*, and all other Matrimonial 
paufes: by which means they brought things 
of the greateft coufequence, fuch as, Inheri 
tances of Princes as well as private Pcrfons, 
under their power ; and were wonderfully 
courted for difpenfing with thofe Degrees 
which they themfelves had on purpofe pro* 
hlbited. So from being Arbitrators, when 
it was thought not convenient to go to Law 
before the Heathen, they claim d a formal 
Judicial Power in other matters. . And fo 
h om being fometimcs advis d with about a 
proper Method for lubduing inordinate -De* 
iircs, they claim d a Right to inflift Penan* 
ces : and when they had once obtain d Pow-r 
crby fuch means as thefe, they . tortur d a 
great many ftubborn Texts, to make em 
pnrefs a Divine Right. 

52- We no more read in Scripture of 
tvvo diftina Ads, as Eledion by the 
.Church, and Ordination by the Clergy, 
for making of Elders, than we read of 
two forts of em v but only of the Apo. 
ftles conftituting of Elders by the Suffrages 

* Cbriftian Church, 8cc. 359* 

of the People: which, as it is the genuine Chap. 9- \ 
Signification of the Greek Word, fo it is<^W-^ 
accordingly interpreted by Erafmus, Sena, 
Diodati, and thofe who tranflated the , : 

Svitz.. French, Italian, Belgick, and even 
ffiffllfh Bibles till the Epifcopal Correction, 
which leaves out the words by EleEHon, as ; 
well as the Marginal Notes, which affirm, 1 ^ 
That the Apofllcs did not thru ft P aft or 5 into 
the Church thro a Lordly Superiority, but 
chofe and ftac d 9 em by the Mice of the 
Congregation. Of the Truth of this Cle-Kp.i. ad 
wens Romans, a Cotemporary, if not Com- Car* 57. 
panion of the Apoftles, is a Witnefs : and . 
Pope Anactetus, who liv d not long atter, ? 
affirms this Right belongs to the Sp/n- 
tual People, and good Priefts. And there s 
nolnftance in the firft three Centurys of 
any one being made a Bimop, except by. j 
the Eleftion of the whole Church. And 
this Pradice? continued, with Httle or no; 
interruption, for ;nany Ages after , and KI. Paul 
even in Rope it felf the People- till 47f *""** 
clcded their Bifhop: and the famous Coun -^^ 
cilof Nice, in a Synodical Epiftle to the Jl>Ct8<p< 
Church of Alexandria, forbids any to be $47 .^ It 
ordain d Bilhop without the Eledion of the 
People: arid the Council of Con ft antinomic- 
382. in an Epiftle to Damafa and others, t 

fay that they ordain d Netlarius cuntta dc- "^ | ^ 
\cernente Civitate, and Flavianus omnl E / cl ^ c . ^ p/ 
decernente. And the firft Canon ot the , 45f 

fourth Council of Carthage 394 . 

Bilhop is to be ordain d cum omnl ,corijcnju concil. 

Clericorum & Laicorum. And another. Cabilon. 

Council^ even in $50.- make the Ordination Simond. 


A a 4 

The High* of 

of a Bilhop to be void, where he is not ; 
ele&ed by the People. And Father Pavl? 
f>f Btncfc. faith, " That Pope Leo ihews amply that 
<c t he Ordination of a Bifhop cou d not be 

** lawful or valid, which was not; required 
ff or fought for by the People, and by 
f c them approy dof^ which is faid by all 
" the Saints of thofe Times : and St. CV*- 
tc gory thought Conftancc cou d not be con? 
c * fecrated Bifhop of Milan^ b^iug pleftedl 
u by the Clergy without the Confeat oif 
f c the Citizens, who by re^fon pf Pe^fe- 
* c cution retir d to Gew*: an^l he prevaii 4 
<c that they Ihop d be firli fent unp ;q 
". know their Will ; a thing worthy to be 
* l potcd in our days, when that Eleftion 
<( : is declar d to be illegitimate and null, in 
" which the People h^ve any (hare. Thu$ 
f c things are chang fl and pafs d ;nto a. 
a quite contrary Cuftom, calling that Law- 
u ful which then was accoun,te4 Wicked^ 
f c and that Unjuft which then was reputed 
" Holy. This, I thinkj makes it plaia 
that the Bi.fhops themfelves did not for 
feveral Ccnturys imagine that the Right 
of making Bifhops was Appropriated by 
Cod to them, much lefs that this was, 
aji Indelible Charafter imprinted on them, 
when we fee that they thought all they* 
aid in this matter was null, except wher^ 
there was a previous Election of the Peo 
ple } which, if the Qrdaining (taking that 
\Vordfor Conftituting or Appointing) Bi- 
fhops ha(i by Divine Right belong 4 
only to that Order, wou d be fo far fronv 
being necefl^ry, fh;jt it vyou cl be 

(JhvJKm Church? &c 

leffc in the People to meddle with it. But Chap. 9. 
if the Power of chufing Ecclefiaftical Officers v/W> 
does naturally or of courfe belong to the Pco* 
pie, their Choice alone is all that s ncceflary, P. , 54f 
as has been already prov d, except there s i$<> 15*. 
fomeLawof God which divides the Power ?* 177. 
of making Ecclefiafticks. between them 1 ? 
and the Biftiops. And had the Apoftler 
beea charg d to declare to Mankind that 
God had depnv d the People of thofe 
Rights, either in whole or in part, which 
the permiflive Law of Nature allow\Teny 
they wou d no doubt have declar d it ia 
fuch Terms as fhou d have made it as plain 
to all fucceeding Generations that they 
. had loft thofe Rights, as that once they had 
em. The utmoft which Precedents can do, 
i$ tofliewthat if we were in the fameCir- 
cumftances with the primitive Chriftians t k 
it was lawful or expedient, but not necef- 
fary, to aft as they did : and tis as ri- 
diculous to fuppofe we are more oblig d 
to take Crete or Epbefafor a Pattern in ma 
naging our Ecclefiaftical than our Civil 
Affairs, unlefs there s fome Law which 
commands it : and then no doubt wo 
fhou d have had an exaft Deftription of 
their Praftice, And tho the manner of 
making Deacons or Overfeers of the Poor 
is more particularly declar d with all its 
Circumftances, than can be pretended for 
the making of Elders , yet none think we 
are any more oblig d to take that Method 
in providing for the Poor, than we are to 
have a Community of Goods, becaufe it 
was praftis d by the firft hrUtians^ bqt 

The <%tghs of the. l \ 

that People may, notwithftandingany thing-! 
faid there, appoint what Deacons or Over- 
feers they think fit for the Poor, and make 
em after what manner they pleafe, no EC* r . 
clefiafHck having more Power from God than 
any other. And the Right of appointing 

Clergymen wou d be as little difputed as 
the making Over feers for the Poor, if no- 
more was to be got by it. 

53. It is faid the People are to attac* 1 
cording to Difcretion in pr6viding for the : 
Poor, and appointing what Officers they- 
pleafe to look after them, becaufe they have r 
the Power of difpofing their Alms as they i 
think fit. But wou d not this have given ? em 
as great a Power with relation to their Ecde- 1 
fiaftical Minifters, fince they alike fubfifted 
by their Alms? And this is fo notorious,- 
that in the antient Rom MiflTals the Prieft 
Per. Sim. faid, Remember^ Lord, thy Servants and 
of Handmaids^ who m.ike me fubpft by their- 
was daily deliver d out to *em 

Ecclef. Re- jn m ^ which 

p.T^ in Foodt And Father P " ul obferves that} 
Beneficiary the altering that Method, and giving 

Mittterf, their feparjtf Proportion in Many every 
P* M or for A month together or longer ^ WAS dec tin* 
ing from the primitive Perfection. 

54. Tho the laying on of Hands was us d 

in the Old Teftament, when General Jofiua 

and other Civil Officers were made } yet we 

do not find the Levites ordain d with that 

Ceremony, unlefs we fay they were ordain d 

by the People when the Lord faid to Mofes^ 

Numb. 8. Thou flialt gather the whole ^Jfembly of the 

9 - 12. Children of Ifrael together, and bring the Le 

iiites before the Lord ; and the. Children of Ifrael 



f fw tkeir Hands &f on the Levites^ " and Chap. p. 
Aaron flail offer the Levitts before the 

, for an Offering of the Children of Ifrael, that 
they may execute the Service of the Lord\ and } 
the- Levites fidl lay their Hands uyon the- 
JHeadsof the Bullocks. So that the Levites- 
were not qualify d to lay Handson the Beafts 
that were to be Tacrifk d, before they had- 1 
Hands laid on them by the Laity: and the 
Levites by being the Offering of the People- 
to the Lord, became con fecrated or quali-< 
fy d to execute the Service of the Lord.^ 
And Brother j4n>mias laying Hands on Paul 
rnay as well be urg d for Laymens 1 laying 
Hands on a Bifhop, as P*w/ s laying Hands 
onTitiothy may be- urg r d for Bilhops per 
forming that Ceremony ^ which Ceremony, r 
no Law enjoining it, afc the Church was at? 
liberty to continue or not, ^fo whatfocver 
Power thctlcrgy more than others had ia 
the 1 making of Elders, there being no Di^ 

t Vine Law which -determines any thing in 
this matter, mult come from the Confent 
6f the Partys concorn d. Nor have we, as 
I think, any Inftances for the firft three 
Centiirys of the Clergy s refilling to lay 
Hands on any the Church had chofent and 
when Princes to6k updn em to name to the 
Vacant Sees, they thought the Bifhops were 
oblig d to cpnfedrate thofe they nam d. 
JSIor did the Bifhops themfehres tefufe ; 
brid the Emperors for a- long time together, 
s ; ;Dr. Burnet prdVes, exercis d the fame D//c 
Bovver in making -Popes, as our Kings- do In Ordination, 
rnakihg Bifhops," where thofe they autho* 
j:ize : to perform the Geremoriy-of : ConTe* 

cration ? 

of tit 

cration, a minifterially, and by virtue of 
the Royal Mandate. 

55. How comes a Bifliop s Power of Or* 
dination to be more indelible than the 
Share of Legiflation, or the Jurifdiftion 
he claims, if they are alike of Divine Ori 
ginal ? In what Law of God is this Dif* 
tin&ion to be found? And if it be by 
virtue of his Bifhoprick he has this as well 
as the reft of his Power, muft not the Lofs 
of that deprive him of one as well as of the 
Other ? How can a depriv d Bifhop convey 
to others that Government or Jurifdi&ion 
which he himfdf can t pretend to have? 
Or how can the Canons forbid a Bifhop, 
whether depriv d or not, to ordain in ano-* 
ther s Diocefs, if he has a Divine Right 
indelibly fixt in him to ordain over the 
whole Church? Which is fuppofing one. 
Bifhop to have fuch a Right as he himfelf 
can t part with, and yet that others can 
forbid him to exercife it. Divines ufually 
diftinguiih between a Right to an Office f 
and a Right to execute an Office: but 
what is a Right to execute an Office, if 
not to do thofe things in which the Office 
confifts ? And can a.ny have a Right to a^ 
Office without having a Right to do thofe 
things in which the Office confifts ? So that 
tis an Ecclefiaftical Figure, by Laymen 
commonly call d a Buttj to diftinguilh be? 
twcen em. And if the Prieftood too be an 
Indelible Charafter, no Prieft can be hin? 
der d, no not for a time, from doing thofe 
things in which the Priefthood confifts , and 
it jnujt deftroy all the gchemes pf Bcclefi^r 


ftical Governent which have been yet in Chap. p. 
the World. ^x-vx^ 

56. In a word^ no one can be appointed 
to govern a particular Diftridl, or to be a 
Paftor of any Congregation, if not by 
the Gonfent of the Partys concern d, ex* 

,cept by a Legiflative Power \ becaufe Le- 
giQation alone can make it a Duty in the 
People to acknowledg him for their Bifhop r i 
or Paftor. But as there can t be two Le- ; 
giflative Powers over the fame People, fo 
the Bilhops with us are allow d no other 
Power in this matter than that the Peo 
ple or Patron can t appoint any Pallor who 
is not firft licens d or approv d by fomc v : / 
one of em } which I will not deny may be 
proper enough to be permitted to Bifhops 
who are not depriv d. But nothing can 
be more ftrange than to allow this Licenfing 
Privilege to Popifh Bifhops, or to thofc 
who are thrown out or their Diftrifts 
for being in the Intereft of an Enemy , 
to our Religion and Government, and 
who condemn our Church as Schifmatical. 
But enough on this Head. And now I 
ihall, as I promis d, endeavour to prove 
that this Hypothefis, which fuppofes the 
Being of the Catholick Church depends up 
on a right Succeffion of true Bilhops, and 
that none can be a true Bifhop who de 
rives not his Power and Government in 
a Line of Succeffion from the Apoftle*, 
deftroys the very Being of the Catholick 

57. If info long a Procefsof time, as 
that from the Apoftles, there s no Civil 


366 -M* Wghs *f 

Government where the Succeflion has : been 
Preferv d intire , can it be imaginM that 
Eoclefiaftical Government has been better 
Jcept and not fo much as one Link in the 
whole Cham broken; efpecially confidering 
Succeffion of Dodrincsas well as Perfons 
neceflary, and that Schifm and Hereiy 
break this Chain? 

Tcl fi Mr * Dodmtt * wllom all mud allow to be 
Eogfcnd u S . wel1 7 ers ; d in ficcleilaftical Hiftory, as 
uHccnwg he is zealous for Epifcopal Succeffion, cou d 
the indc- not avoid owning, That in a Revolution 
f^encyoj of Ages, there s -no SuccefTion in the 
** euro, World, but has fome unjuftifiable Turn- 
Nor is there, fays he, any thing in the 
I nature of Ecclefiaftical Government, as 
tis a Government of external Bodys, 
manag d by Men of like Infirmitys with 
thofe who are engag d with Civil Go 
vernment, that can fccure i-.againft the 
; like Violences of ambitious and unrea- 
1 fonablc Men, who wou d judg too parti- 
* ally in their own Cafe. Such Violences 
on the Government may fomctimcs 
imkea Breach in the due Succeffion, and 
affeathediredt Conveyances of that Au- 
c thonty from God, which is requifite to 
; the giving a Title to thofe Spiritual Bene- 
, fits to Souls, which arc the great Deikn 
*>of EcclefialHcal Communion. 
, ; 5 8 - And if we needed another Confeffion 
tin fo clear a Cafe, thc Author of the Cafe 
-of the Regde, &c. a moft furious, Man for 
the Divine Right of Epifcopacy, . very 
p. 77 . -rnvikly owns, That it wou d be hard to 
Kd. i. * Ut ).bd a,Bilhop ; againft whom^cfome of 

" thcfe 

,**. thefe Objections (relating to Succeflion) Chaj^p. 
11 do not ,lie : for example, all the Bi- 
<4 fhops of the Reformation, as well in 

c England, as elfe where, are ftruck off at 

/*. one blpw} for they, all deriv d frora 

<c thofe, whom they now account to be, 

" and then to have been Hereticks/ And 

" the Ordinations of the Church of Rome 

6 mult go off too, efpecially fince the 

c Council of Confiance, that turn d out 
/ " all the Popes that were then in , the 
<c World,* which were three Antipopes 
lt contending one with another. And they 
" cannot fay of ,any of their Ordinations 
" at this day, that they are not deriv d 
"from fome of the Antipopes. Kay, all 

c the Churches, as far as the Arlan Hercfy 
<c reach d, may come under this Objec- 
<c tion : for many of their Ordinations 
cc were, deriv d from fome or other who 
44 were _ Jlrlans^ Semi-Ariansj &c. Kor 
are we to, flop here, fincc, ,as far as we 
have auy ^Ecclcfiafdcal .Hiftory, we find 
the Chriitians divided into a great number 
of. Sefts \ each pretending to be the true 
Succelfors . of the Apoftles, and excluding 
the reft from being Members of the Ca- 
tholick.. Church, cither as Hereticks or 
; Schifmaticks. And the nature of .Schifm is 
acknowledged by the Clergy to exten- 
five, thatnotpnly they who caufe the Breach, 
but thofe who communicate -.with em, or 
with thofe t hey communicate with, are guil 
ty of it. , , ., 

59 :- And whqn Princes became Chriftians, 

they te^ery; whare : depriy d. Bifhqps. -for 

/ Matters 

e g o 



Matters relating to State, as welt "99 
Church; whofe Deprivations being invalid, 
as by this Hypothefis they muft be, thofe 
who fucceeded em cou d be no Bifhops. 

To which it may be added, that great 
numbers have been made Bifhops who 
were not rightfully elected. And this muft 
needs be fo, fince Councils have deter* 
inin d contrary ways about the Right of 
Eleftion: And a Choice made by Perfons 
tvho have no Right to chufe^ is an Error 
of the firft Conception, not to be repaired. 
Some have been put into Sees, of which 
they were incapable by the Canons; others 
cmonically depriv d, have remained ifl 
their Sees; fornetura d out of the Church 
by Excommunication* have conthm d to 
exercife their . Epifcopal Funftion in the 
Church. And can fuch as thefe any more 
maintain the Succeflfion, than Perfons who 
are not validly baptiz d, both as to Matter 
and Form ? And if Women are not capa- 
ble of baptizing, fince the Chafch of Rome 
allows of it, That alone might have ftrange^ 
tfTeft on the Succeffion. 

60. If ^the Succefllon in the Church of 
Rome^ which pretends to have had fo great 
a Cure in the prefcrving it, has, as we have 
prov d in this Chapter, been deftroy d ; we, 
have no rcafon to think it intire in any 
other Church : And then, in what a mife- 
ruble Condition is the Chriltian World! 
For God himfelf cannot make a Succcffion 
which has been broke, not to have becii 
broke. A nd when once" thofe Spiritual 
Powers, fuppos d neceflary for the 0ciag oif 


Cnrtjlian Church^ 

& Chriftian Church have fail d for want of a Chap.- 
due Succefllonj itis the fame thing as if they 
never had been. This; inftead of building 
the Church on a Rbck* is placing it on a very 
fandy Foundation. 

61. AH that is. faid to help the poof 
Churclv in this lamentable condition; is 
urg d by the charitable Mr. Doirotll^ * 4 That 
41 this Breach of the SuecefTion is a Ne- ( 
44 ceffity of God s making* in conflicting^ 
44 his Church fuch a Body, when he 
44 might have made it otherwife. And be- 
44 ing a Necefllty of God s Contrivance, by 
44 M*n perfectly unavoidable* his Equity 
44 is more obliged to provide for the uon- 
44 fequence. And he makes as to this 
point no difference between Ecclefiaftical Defence of 
and Civii Government, but faith, " Both 
" are ufually chang d by Prefuription ^ 
44 which by the Laws of Nations* and with 
44 relation to the Good of Mankind, and* 
44 Government ia general, is in procefs of 
4t time fuffident to cxtinguifh aa Original 

" Rie,ht \ and make that Right j which ^at 
44 firft was no other than Invafioaa nd Vio- 
44 lence: aad that Nullity* iatraftof time 

<44 may be ia full force. But$ 

If God intended the Clergy fhou d hate 

,an Independent Power, aad that it fliou d 

be convey d by way of SuccciTion^ 1 de 
mand whether hedeilga d this aiicceilioa to 
laft to the end of the World, or for a time 
only? If to the end of ttie World* will 

!it not argue a Want of Forefight in God,- 
to contrive fuch a Medium for tho convey- 

i0g 0f this Power, as muft ia fomc ftiort 

B b i tinwf 

- , -i > 

v .- 

.370 . ^n 

time fatl? Orrather, is it not to thafe 
9& inconfiftently, and defign perfect Contra^ 
di&ions ? For what can be more fo, than to 
intend a Succeflion to continue to the End of 
the World , and at the fame time manage 
matters fo, that it muft in a (hprtti me fail, 
thro a Contrivance of God s own* by Man 
perfe&iy unavoidable ? But r <.;..-., 

If the SuccejTion was to continue only tor 
a time, is it not as ridiculous to in lift on it 
when the time is expir d as the only Title to* 
Church-Government, as tis to pretend the 
only Right to Civil Government is founded 
on being Adam\ Heir (about which fome 
even now keep fuch a mighty pother) when 
tis impofliblc to find out this Heir ? 

62. To be mort y nothing can be plainer 
/ (if that Power which was fuppos d to be 
li given by Revelation to certain Perfons and 
their Succeflbrs, for the Government of the 
Church, has failM for want of a due Succef- 
fion) than that the Church is either diflblv d 
for want of fuch Governors, or elfe the Peo 
ple have fufficiejit Power within themfelves 
xo manage their Church Affairs, and to give 
fome of their Body a Right to exercile all 
Ecclefiaftical Offices. And,, , ; 
.; ;.i If. Prefcription, as this Author owns^ 
can : make mere Kullitys to become good 
and valid, nay, caufe that to be .Right 
/.which at firft was Invafion and Violence* 
the JLaity may be capable of all manner of 
.Eccleiiaftical Power: fof their feifcing on 
*i|L can be only Violence and Invafion, and 
was! a;;mexe Nullity at, firft. And this lie 
acknowledges in the instances he gives of 

tt t\\^M[tictdoniatis, firft, and the ^ w 
* c ( afterwards, by Prefcnption acquiring k 

.j foght of making : and unmaking High 
f?;Pnefl;s at their pica fur e. And . thole 
made" by tlie laK we cannot.cloutit to be 
lawful and rightful,, fihce Chri(t ; Imnfclf 
communicated with ; em. .May, he fuppo- 

fes < the" Cafe to be the fame with the 
* c Greeks, >vho^ as he faith, ,are brought 
.^ jtp tjiat pafs nbwV thai their Tatria rchSi 
* c ;haye not their tower fot; their Llveg, 
f c but during .the pleafure of , the Infidel 
A fc jvlagiitra te. Which necellarily fuppofe^ 
the Clergy havfc no fupernutiiral powers or 
Privileges ) which 1 bping out bf the reach 
pf Force and Vioience^ the Magiftrate can 
never by fuch carnal Weapons gain a Right 
Iby.Prefcription to deprive any one of cm: 
,And if tlie unbelieving Magiftrat^s, have rio 
Spiritual f Powetsi. their" Greaturesi High- 

.Prieftsand Patriarchs; whom they make and 
can have as little as their 


6$. This Author wou d do. the World flrj 

.fiiiall kindnfefs in Jetting Vin > know-how 

Ipug Time is ne ceriary for Lay-Ptcfcriptida 

-in Spiri^ual Matters,; to? ^pafs intaa Rightj 

(bccaufcjtill then .^is Schifhl, anil as he faitl^ 

Herefy tobi not to "adh^rie to a Bifhop de- 

priv d J)y ^ay-Powers j j but thefaili rauft be 

I the. fame to Adhere to him. 

.3 , ^rf> this I demand ; the . rather, becaufc 

^(j^Cncq^Jie Reformation iur/Legiilators 

Jiftljr g dcpriy. d ^o th ,Bilhops add : Priefts, 

^nd-^jie .(jirpwn upon an Appeal is itti^ufled 

vrfv?th, f tfie Power of doing itv u>J Ajlci*if fo 

vtm&fj ^i^^.-a .. Jons 

Jong a Time is fufllcient ttf create a 
. fhen our Author, and the reft of the Meii 
of the true Church of England (as they tern} 
themfelves) are by their own Principles 
guilty of Schifm and Herefy, in Adhering to 
the late Bifhops. Nay r ^ 

^ This Author muft/ either acknowledg 
himfelf and the reft of the Non jurors 
Schifmaticks and Hereticks, or elfe o wa 
that the Jcwifr and Grcfk Churches were 
diflblv d by the Magiftrate s depriving 
their High-Priefts and Patriarchs: for if 
lie had not a Power to do this without 
, the help of Prefer iption, their Deprivation 
xnuft be at firft invalid, and they retained, 
as ftill obliging in Confcience, all theit 
Spiritual Power ; ^nd thofe who intruded 
into their Places were, (to ufe his Ex- 
prefllon) rittlli,fdr*f alisnl^ who, as they 
had no Title themfelves, fo they cou d 
.convey no AC .to any other. And there 
fore this Hypothefis can t preferve either 
the Jewifr or Greek Church, without own- 
,ing that the Magiflrate, tho an fnfidel, had 
, ,this Power even from the beginning b- 
longing to him. And if. Infidels have this 
\ Power, it wou dbe abfurdin him toderiy it 
. (Supreme Power being every where the fame) 
to Chriftian Magiftrate?. , Nor. 

#4. Can Prescription" be Ct any fore?, 
except in thofe things only which have 
no higher Original, than Human Confent. 
1 To prefcribe in things of, a, Divine Origin, 
. Is prefcribing againft God himfelf. But it 
Prefcriptioiv which is only a tacit dr pfrfc- 
fum d Couftiit,- gives a Right, 


that tfhkh .is exprefs does as fully* andOiap.p, 
therefore the Magistrate can gain -nothing v/VV 
by Prefcription, wept what tjic People by 
their exprefs Confent arc able to give him. 

Prescription, Length of Time, Lav/$ 
of Rations,, which only relate to things 
tranfa&ed between different Nations, have 
.nothing, to do in giving a Right upon 
Change of 1 Government j becaufe as Men. 
.inuft needs be in a State of Nature, in all 
Cafes where the Suddennefs of the Danger 
.hinders env from having rccourfe to the 
Magiftrate^ fo they are wholly in that 
State, when .their ; , Governors, by^ Abdica- 
/don or^any other ways, become in^pabfe 
of protecting em : and then the. Right 
vthey jhave of affing.for their ,own Good, 
...of , whjcb they can ^ divert , them fclves, ob- 
^Hges. em, notwithilanding any ,Oaths or 
. Obligations, they \yere under to their for 
mer Governors, to come out of that State, 
: i)y having recourfe : to thofe Powers which 
. arc belt able to protect em ; who the firit 

minute the People have by Words or Adi-r : 
ons.ownM em, -havp the fame, Right to 
; their Obedience, as v if. they hadbqen fcttl d 
...a thoufand yea?s. But were Men oblige! 
; not to- own the Government. in whole 
?*: Power -they were, till it ^ou d plc^l Prc^ 
.1 icriptioh, in< what a, miferable Condition 
^ifnuft they be?: becaufe. tjiey who difown it 
01 ipiift be as much an the State of outlaw d; if the Government had dif- 
*) pwn!d !!to v which wou d not only provoke . 
.rj thc C^vefnmeAtitQ treat. 7 erq aifworn E- 
B b 3 nemys, 

, .. 

: ;nys, but Tubjeft them " anil 
s the inflilt of every one. - And confidering 
bow, frequent Revolutions are, there w<f>u d 
be few Governments which Men of thefe 
principles cou d own, one Ufurpatioiic ge ? 
nerafly fucceeding a nothery before 1 Uny had 
obtain d a Right by.prefmption.^.But :if 
we are to ."be-govern d by the Good of Man- 
Kind (fiiice the Icfs time a Government "has 
been fettl d, the more need it has of- Reft) 
That requires Obedience at the very firft, 
and not to ftay till, Prefcription has gained 
"a fuppos d Right; which is an Hypothecs 
/fo .very ahfurd, that no Perfons were ever 
;influenc d by it, no notrthjs Author himfelf, 
noraiiyof the other. J^cob^ who contend 
fo -iealoufly for it , fince, 
^ 66. Tho they pretend tis agajnft ^their 
" Confciences to own .the prefent Gbvern- 
; nient for want of a fufficient Prefcription, 
Length of Timey ^-cr yet tis in Words 
. only : for by ^helr Adions they do,, and 
have all along pw uM it, in claimiiig all 
.manner of Protection from it ? /Which is 
" fafHdently acknowledging any Govern- 
1 .pieht; : for he that s willing not to be 
: a Prey to every one\vho is too::ft^ong for 
him, but-to be prott&ed-by the Govern- 
mentv muft be willing, tho-. he t pretends 
ever fo much the contrary, -to pay it? all the 
^/Obedience neceflary;- for that; eqdc^ ;nd if 
r . bethinks it lawful to allow :*t JicXJovern- 
V ineht a 1 coercive Power over all trfhtV^i to 
hinder *em from injuring i him f ! lie r 4iiufb 
think it as lawful that 4t lh6iiM ih ave the 
to reftraih him^fromiinjurhig them. 
? < >* * And 


And in appealing tp the: "Courts of JufticeChap/ 
f lie own^:bimrelf ready^ f6 : fabmi;to tliet 
peterminatipn of, the Judges, and confe- 
fluently to the "La fcs;. and Authority by 
which they 0ft, j arld UV*hpfe ! Kamc aft 
Procefles are! 

6q . In the State of Nature every one 
was to 1 judg for himjelf^ and Men came 
out of that .State, when they had recbwrft 
"to a common !XJmpire v to detennine-DifTe- 
Tences/and ridrefs injures by known and 
ft ated Laws, And are; Hot the JMtttes m 
"the State pfKatureftili, for any Proteftioa 
"they receWe : from the pretended Janes tfa 
Thjrd^ or, thofe jcpmmilponM by, him? And 
lif having cb nftant retpurfe to a Gov ern- 
" merit J for. J itV : not owning k f 
1i t alone which 


the ^ifterencc between a Kataral arid 
a Political" $tate: ; AM they who allow 
f the ,Gbvcriiors of the/Country they live in 
all that s necellary ,to proted em (and who is 
: fo 4 m nch"a"7iff^f as norto be 

that?) grants em,all they can juftly claim ^ 
becauie,If: v ttiey Extend their Powcrjo other 
"they exceed their Cornmiiiion,; a;nd 



68. AndMsbythefe Aftions, incommoa 
-to the facotiics. with other Subjefts, that 
>l the "grc^tt ft part of Mankind ever owh d 
Gbv^rriment:: , And Ihou d Men once 
felvBS b6uiid in Confcieric e . to 

/"!!deftr6yVfthaV Gbver : nment to \lvhiclv they 
iiiave recourfe for 1 Protpdibn in their Lives, 
Vamitys,*aiid v Pro : pertys r for no other tea- 


.W&tii of .) 

for t long time together, which yet it 
wou d do, did not they themfelves endeavor 
to prevent it , what a havock wou d this 
inake in the World ? Ai)d what a miferable 
Uncertainty mu ft the Bulk of Mankind be 
rcducd to, if the Lawfulnefs of Obedience 
mult depend on contefled Titles, df a fbffir 
cient Prefcription, the certain time of which 
.none can affign? So that Rf en of thefeTrin- 
.ciples, inflead of being Influenced by the 
Good of the World, the Foundation on 
which tins Author wou d build his Hypo- 
thefis, may be juftly rcckon d common Ene- 
jnys to Mankind. 

By what s herefaid, tis plain, if Eccle- 
CaRical Government is chang d after the 
fame manner as Civil, both are built on the 
Cpnfent of the People , ^nd cdnfequently 
the Jacobites have no Pretence, from what 
this Author has faid concerning Prefcription, 
Laws of Nations, or tfieGood of Mankind, 
not to fubmit to the prefent Government in 
Church and State. 

tfp. Jhis Author has given : up the 
Caufe of Prefcription in tte*c*f<iri VI 
&*f*9rd. a Pamphlet juft no\v publifh di 
becaufe he there fuppofes the Death or 
Kefignation of the. Deprived Bifhops 
(which might have happened i^niedi- 
ately on their Deprivation) fufficicnt ; to 
give a Right t p the prefent PofTeflbrs, 
But if the fccond Donation was, as he 
faith, null and invalid, by the Donors 
u VJ 2 g ^^ haufted thdr whole Power by 
ft fi 7 I^ Donatio u n I wpu d know of him 
the plfferpnce between an invalid Do 


nation and no Donation ; or what Spiritua- Chap. 9! 
litys the fuppos d Ufurpers can have, and 
by whom they were convey d. So I wou d 
likewife ask him, what other reafon his Bi- 
ftiops, who liave hot prefu m d to do any 
. Epifcopal Afts fmce their Lay Deprivation, 
"cou d have not to refign all this while, ex 
cept it were to keep the Kation }n Commu 
nion with the Devil, as he affirms all Schif- 
tuaticks to be. v <- 

-, Another, thing I ,woji 4 , ask _ him is, 
"Whether all he had laid to > heal a broken 
SiiccefTion, is not deftr oy d by his affirni- 
,ing, \ u .That 1 ,the Church .requires Cover- 
.U nors .awthQm d by. God, more .than 
" other* Civir Societysdo^ and that he has * rhf y B 
f 4 not given Men reafon to expeftjthaty/;^ p. 
f c when the Breach lhall fall, he will extra- xoi. 
" ordinarily empower Men ? cr. And 
therefore he concludes, " that the/only 
,; +* way for fccuring the Church, is by fe- 
\ 4C curing : the Succefllon. But now tis more 
tf than time to have done with this Profound 
v Author, admir d abroad as well as at home 
for his great Learning in Ecclefiaftical Mat- 
\-ters, and his deep Skill in Controverfys of 
- this nature, and to proceed to other Argu- 



;:,-..>. T. ;./ - . ; } rffl 
o # p f mii- 
* - 

> : l.^i m-j ! . . ;; /\ [;,,< ,- r 

w -.QithoKck Church t cwfi fa ,oj 
Wai Body* Independent t : fn : catb 
other , "and "thai nofljz \$. -V ^" 

f^ttt make Clergymen, 
for , 

Opinion, necefortfy 


A .lM V \ ,, . . 

;. . i;:I 

! t^r -V 1 -" 1 ^^* <;f --fOi . , - : nwii! >o : J * 

1 c i ! ;.- . . . v rij n-,.^/ v 

EtQi.rtwcje cafy ^o iprovc .tliat 
every Cpngr^ati^nj^o^wif^alj fo- 
rcr v gathered; together ; m : ^he .JSIainc :of 
LChrift, t is; a^ compleat Bpdy .Pplit ick. with 

. _ /* ^ _ rt_ j . **" */**/*< i i i J 

-thing .Within it fi^jfT^q.ujlitc itp , ^ 

iiof ( a Church ,! yet; I , fhall/nofi iiifift pn it^ 

, pofe, if every Chriftian Nation be fo-^and 

if England, for inftance, were not fuch a 

Body, we have neither any Ecclefiaftical 

. Laws nor Perfons among us, becaufe we 

neither have iror defire the ConfenrorAp- 

probation of any other Perfons in the 

making either of em. Nay, is not the 

^leforpajtion built on this, and do not our 

Clergy and others fwear to difown any 


fbren Powery ^Juriftliftibn, ! arid -Authority Chap. i o 

Whatfoever In Ecdcfiafticals? ,)And dbnbt* * 

all Prdteftaiit Rations daim the [fa me Pow? 
dr? -IF it be >oth^n^ife in Pofifh Country^ 
\is r orily their Folly or -Ignorance which 
caufes ? em to beimpos d on by the Bifhop of 

- 2. What !Arg\i merit ns Jthetc .to 
aiiy" (Nation tor be ^a toiJrrpl^atf Body 
litickfor Civils,;T^cept: that they have 
as to Thofe a Legiflative arid Exedati^e 
f]P6Wer ( ? o And "Svill not r thfe fame hold as 
ftrbngly in ^Ecdefiailicals? ; And! if they 
who -have tlifc J Supreme ITertipofal Power 
in . 6n e Countr^J ca nnbt give-ctae a Right 
t6- exercife:^ny:eix-il Jurifdiftibn, > or even 
any Minifterial Oilice, in another not fab* 
^ed^to them v the ^Reafoh/is^eclually con- 
tcl tiding as 1 to ccltfiafticals.::; And by the 
fa me i c eafon, heiwho is exdontmuriicated In 
"onevNational Church, fisefloJmorofo in any 
mother, than one- ivho -is butlaw d ia onp 
-Country is fo in others. :, 1 ) ^ 

v - 1 3-- In^a "Word, when ^ any ^Power j gh es 
o N fte ;a Right to-rexercife any -Employ whiit- 

foever, that Right can extend no farther 
^than v hiS PoWenfdoes ivho l^eftowM it, and 
3 can* r riever be made to rbach to..anylnde 
^ prendentl Plapfela r AndvthereforcJ tis: evident 
h that -he f) \}io isoitmde.a PlricH: or . Bifliop in 

; "whtre^if hiu Ai5t&: are : valid, 
O any gia\rf^Orditiati^ny(^ohfecra* 
? tibn, od^.1 at ^cauri be ^ upbh o io fxnMer foot, 
tfi c the Confent :oWie PcopleJis 
to/saiithoriie -Dn? <to -.tkercife iany 


$8$ .TTfc $i&M V 

o^ Opartof the EcclefiafticaIFuriaion,\ and, that 
T" ^ the Clergy, (fince there eannot,bc two Ori 
ginals of the fame Power) derive all their. 
Right from thence. And as. every Church 
in. the Apoftles time was Independent of 
any other; To the Elders or Bifhops were 
ordam d only for a particular City, or 
Church within: that City, -arid cohfequcnt- 
ly, out of it they had no. more Right to ex- 
trcife an Ecclefiaflical Office than any other 
Chnftian. L:, ;,..-,.,, ., 

4- To. avoid thefe Gonfeqaences, -it. is 
Taid, That every Kation is not a compleaf: 
Body Politick /within it felf as to Eccle- 
rfialticals; but the whole. Church, 1 fay th<% 
compofes, fuch a Body, I and .Chrift 4s ; thp 
-Head of it.. . : ; r, : j, ; , 

But Chrift s Head fhip makes Chriflians 

no more one -Body Politick with refpeft to 

i Ecclefiafticals than to Civils. His Precepts 

equally extend to both, -and the -whole 

Earth is .God s and Chrift s Kingdom ; 
and yet the Kingdoms of .the Earth are 
diftind and .independent of one ano- 

-ther, and-fo ,are all National Churches. 

But, ; ,, . 

^ If Church-Government ...does not p jn 
-every Nation flow from the,. Confent 
: of the Partys , concernM, ! but was 
/placM by God in the : Apoftles -- ^nd 
: { their,SuccejfTors; then fince each of the 
f Apoftles and each of, their SuCceflbrs 
icpud not;, (that implying a ijContradic- 
;tion) have the Government .of the whole 
each: mult have a Part only,- or 

/all muft be fo join d as to -jiaKc only one 


fyriftian Chunk, Sec. j 8 r 

Government; or elfe the Supreme Power Chap. 10 
inuft be lodg d in one, and the reft be no 

than his Deputys. 

5. As to the Firft: If each of the Apo* 
es^ was a Governor of a Part only of 
the Churchy That muft during their Lives 
be_ divided into as many independent Bo- 
dys, as there were Apofties } and after 
their Death, into as many more, as they 
had Succeflbrs ; each of which being Su 
preme in his own Diocefs, cou d have no 
Superior except God, to whom alone he s 
accountable : and confequently all the Bi- 
fhops in the World cou d not inflid the 
leafb Spiritual Cenfure on him, for, that 
wou d make him accountable to his fi- 
quals, who cou d make no Laws relating 
to his Diftria, -becaufe the Supreme Go 
vernment of that belongs to him indepen 
dently of all others. Nor cou d any Syno- 
dical A&s, tho all the Bilhops fhou d agree, 
bind any of their Succeflbrs, flnce they 
have their Authority by the fame Divine 
Right, and as independently as their Pre- 
deceflbrs. Nor can the Ads of any one of 
em, whether of Excommunication, Ordi 
nation, &c. reach -further than the Church 
within his Biflioprick, becaufe;all other 
Churches are under Independent Governors 
Of their own; and confequently as to them 
he is a mere private Perfon. 

Thefe things (not to mention /any o* 
- ( thers) fufficiently demonftrate. that the 
1 -.Government of the Church, was not fo 
divided among the Apofties firft, and their 
: prctc$led Succcflors after wardsi as that 


each- was Snpreme and Independent fa a par- 
- ticular piftrid. . f f .;< 

tf. As to the Second : If the Government 
of the Church was in all the Apoftles fo 
united as to make only one Supreme Pow- 
<er ; no left than a Majority cou d .make 
Laws, or difpofe of Offices and Employs: 
and this wou d be the fame in relation 
to their Sncceflbrs, and confequently all 
the Bifhops of the Catholick Church inuft 
be fo united as to make oply one, Gpyern- 
jncnt*, which fuppofes a ISIecefTity of .their 
being form d into an Affembly, in order 
to debate and conclude things by. a ,Majp- 
fity, and, that none cou d have a Right -tp 
any Eccleliaftical Office, except what ^e 
muft derive immediately or mediately 
-from this Grand Senate: and whpfoever 
had any Church-Power or Jurifdi&ion^ 
-jnuft ,aft as their Deputy, by an Authp- 
,rity deriv d from them, to .\vhpm the laft 
Appeal upon all occafionsiwqu d be: and 
;for any other befldes them to attempt to 
make Laws or Canons for the Church, or 
: any Part thereof, wou d ,be Spirixual Trea- 
fon and Rebellion. JBut; there never was 
. a General AfTembly pf Bifhops (at leaft 
vtill the Empire .became Chriftian) and con- 
: fequentiy from the Deceafe of the Apoftles 
; to that time, the Churdv was without Go 
vernment, and fo fhe raufl: have been, ever 
- >(ince the Empire was cantoniz d jnto fo 
Mnany Provinces. And this holds,- efpe* 
daily among the Pro teftants, where each 
; Katioa afts as independently in Ecclefiafti* 
:.cah as ia Civils, and isasrtuch.a diftinft 





Community .with relation to bneas to theChap-itd 
other. .Kor in reality iVas the Church u^V^s^ 
ever one Body olitick, by virtue of any 
AfTembly of Bifliopsj becaufe the gfeateft 
number of cm that ever met in a Council, 
were only .a few in comparifon of the Vcft t 
For in the Primitive Times a Biihoprick, 
and what we now call a Parilh, Were the 
fame thing^ a Bilhop had only one Altar 
or Church belonging to him, fo that he 
couM daily infpeft all under his Care. And 
even after that time their DioceiTes were 
.fmall: For in that Part of Africa which 
belong d to the Chriftians, St. Mflin rec- Tom. * . 
Jcons nine hundred Bifhops; and Baromus fa 
fays, that as low down as 1145. there 
were a thoufarid in Armenia ; and yet at 
the General Council of Nice there weie a- 
bout three hundred, arid at that of Cwfl*n 
tlndfle hot above half the number. Tis 
true, at the Council of Arlmlnum the hum- 
ber of BiHiops was double to that of Nice ; 
but nothing can be prov d from thence 
.(fince that will not be allow d to be a Ge- 
jieral Council) except that the greater the 
.Number, the likelier they are to be in the 

. 7. Befides, thefe Councils did not aft by 
,an Independent Power, but were call d 
;prorogu d, and diffolvM at the Pleafut-c 
of , the, Emperors, v who aflembl d r em by 
Hhe fame Kight as they did any of /their 
.other Subjeds, to advife with ; and as 
they thought fit, pafs d or not pafs d their 
;Refolve5, I mean fuch as were-the^Subjeft 

io ways 



rijlwi Church, &c. 
files, dnd his Succeflbrs after him/ to Chap. io 
prefide over the whole Church, as Univer- LS\~V 
fal Bifhop ; and the reft to aft as his Depu- 
tys, and by his Authority, and bedcpriva, 
bleat his Pleafure, to whom is the laft Ap 
peal, and in whofe Determinations all muft 
acquiefce. No Power lefs than this can 
make the Afts of any Clergyman, whether 
ot Ordination, Excommunication, tfW va 
lid thro the whole Churchy fincc that can 
only be done by virtue of an Authority 
which extends fb far, and is the Fountain, 
Foundation and Center of Cathojick Union 
and Communion. 

8. Lideed when Men do not think it t 
Efficient for Salvation to be united to 
Ghnf by true Faith, and to One another j 
by Chriftian Love, leaving every Commu 
nity -to form what Ecdeiiajlical Govern 
ment they think fit; but make it neceflhry 
to the very Being of Chriftianity to be 
united by fome one external Head or 
Government, as the Center of Catholick 
Union and Communion , I cannot fee how 
a Popedom is avoidable, which muft have 
Authority to judg of the Differences be 
tween Provincial and National Churches 
that are equal among themfelves, thereby 
to promote the Communion of Saints, 
and to hinder the Body of Ch rift from be- > 
mg divided. And there can be no Argument 
nam d from a -Power in a National Church 
to )udg of Schifms, Herefys, &c. which 
^u n ? C ec l uall y hold for the Catholick 
Church. And nothing can be pleaded for - 
- - r* r, * 

c c the. 



tt of 

the Kecefli ty of uniting fo many Congrcga^ 
tionsasmake up a Diocefs under a Bifhop, 
and fo many Diocefles as make up a Province 
under an Arch-Bifhop, which will not as 
ftrongly hold for all the Provinces being u* 
nited under the Pope. 

9. Who is there that claims this Power 
except the Bifhop .of Rome as deriving it 
from St. Peter \ to whofe Succeflbrs had not 
this defcended, muft it not upon the death 
of the reft of the Apoftles have fallen to 
St. Johtiy and after him to his Succeflbrs ? 
But we do not find the Succeflbrs of any 
Apoftles befides St. Peter pretend to this 

In a word, there are feveral other Argu 
ments, which upon this common Hypothecs 
of the Clergy make for the Neceffity of a 
Spiritual Monarch in the Church} as for 

10. If we deny a Nation, upon their 
Converfion to Chriftianity, fufficient Power 
to make their Church Governors, we muft 
admit of fome Univerfal Bifhop, to whom 
Rations, as they turn Chriftians, become 
fubjed, and to whom it belongs to invefl: 
ibme, as his Deputy s, with a Right to exer- 
cife Ecclefiaftical Power over em ^ which 
he cou d not beftow on others, were it not 
.firft in himfelf. And this Power cannot 
at the fame time belong to more than one ; 
and confequently, there s a Neceflity, if 
you rejed the People^ to have recourfetoa 


- fl 

,. Chriftian Church, ,&c. 387 

All that can be faid in ani wer to this is, 
that cither he who converts a Kation has a t 
Right to govern em, or elfc, that they may 
chufe their own Ecclefiaftical .Governors, 
provided they are fuch as have Epilcopal 

Astothefirft, perfuading Peopleto frame 
themfelves into a Church, "gives one no more 
Right to govern em in Ecclefiafticals, than 
reafoning em into a Commonwealth does in 
Civils, Befides, if the Converter be no BU 
/hop, there s no Pretence for this Suppofi- 
tion, unlefs it fubje&s em to the See from 
whence he came, which wou d place all 
Chriftians under that of Jcrufitlcm. 

If the People may chufe whom they 
think fit to govern em, provided they 
have Hands hid upon em by Bilhops y it 
fliows , tis their Choice alone which gives 
em this Power , and that what the Bi- 
fhops do is at the moft only qualifying 
era to receiye it: As in a parallel Cafe, 
if none be capable of Regal Power who 
is not anointed by a Bifhop, fuch an Uncti 
on wou d only put him in a Condition to 
be a King-, but the Power wou d be ac 
tually deriv d from thofe who chufe him, 
and fo wou d the Right the Bilhop had 
to perform the Anointing Ceremony, flnce 
they might appoint what Bifhop they 
pleas d, and he whom they appoint, wou d 
ad only minilterially, being oblig d to a- 
noint whom they chufe. And tis notori 
ous that with us (and fo it was every 
where formerly, as 1 mail prove hereafter) 
Cc 2 the 

3 88 "The ". Rights of the 

the Bi/hopsaft minifterially, being under no 
2 5 8 t lefs Penalty than a Prcmumrc oblig d tocon- 
; firm and confccrate the Perfon nam d in the . 
Conge <T Elirc* . 

.11. This Argument holds not only to. a 
Nation which is to fettle their Eccleilaftical 
Government, but to any which dcfigns to 
change their ^old Form for that of Epifco* 
pacy. In this cafe, as they may chufe what 
Bifhops they pleafe, fo all the Power thefe 
have over em isderiv d from their Choice y- 
none having any till then, and then tis 
their Choice alone which prefers them before 

12. To carry this further, none can 
have a Right to difpofe of the Ecclefiafti- 
cal Power of a deceased Bifhop, except he 
or they to whom upon his- Death it de-- 
volvesj and that muft devolve, if to thofe 
of the Epifcopal Order, either to all, or to 
a determinate Number, or to a fingle Bi- 
ftop. If to the firft, the Confent of all, 
oratlcaft of a Majority (in which the reft 
. are included) is neceffary -to difpofe of 
what devolves to all : and this is the fame, 
% if it devolves to any fet Number. But as 
, neither can be pretended, fo either wou d 
^ prove that there s now no fuch thing as a 
Bifliop, becaufe there s none who derives 
his Power from all, or -any fet Num 
ber of BlUiops. But if it devolves to 
neither of thefe, there remains no other 
thaa a fingle Bilhop to have the fole Right 
of conftituting Biflipps for the Catholick 
Church, and afligning to every one of em 



Chriftian Church, Sccl ,.- 389 

the Limits of their Diflridts, and of 
inenting or decreafing their Mumber, as the 
Good of the Church requires. And then in 
what a Condition are all thofe Churches . 
which have no recourfe to this Univerfal - 
Bifhop or Pope ? 

13. There s no Scheme which can. give 
the Proteftants any Bifhops, without fup. 4 
pofmg the Power of a deceas d Bifhop de- 
. volves to the People, to be difpos d of by 
them, or by an Authority deriv d from 
them.,, .4 

For it cannot be pretended, fuppofing l 
the Power a Bifhop had over his Diftridt 
was owing to the Bifhops laying Hands 
on or confecrating him, that the Bifhops 
ad in their own Right, or by a Power in 
herent in themfelves difpofe of the Power 
of the deceas d Bifhop, as upon his Death 
devolving to them^ becaufe then only they 
to whom it devolves, whether they are all 
the Bifhops of the Catholick Church, or a 
fet Number, or fome one Bifhop, cou d dif- 
jx.fe of it again : which wou d be inconfU 
ftent with the Magiftratc s authorizing any 
two or three Bifhops, or even any fingle Bi- 
ihop, exclufivclyofallthereft, to lay Hands 
upon him; and confequently the Power 
which in this cafe is fuppos d to be con- 
fer d on him, is deriv d from the Magi- 
ftrate, who commifTions. which of em he 
<pleafes, to give one a Jurifdiftion in a 
Diftrid where they had none themfelves : 
and tis he who impowers them to do 
more for other Bifhops than they can for 
themfelvcs, ii nce they cannot appoint 
Cc 3 their 

oo The- 3?/>ki of the 

/ ^* \O J . , ,* 

their own Succeflbrs. As no Bifhopby his, 
own Authority can give another Power 
out of his own Diftrift, out of which he 
has none himfelf ^ fo none can give one a 
Jurifdi&ion greater than his own, not 
only over his own Diocefs, but over the 
whole Province an,d all the Bifhops of it, a$ > 
Primates, Metropolitans, and Patriarchs 

14. With us (and tis the fame in other 
Protcftant Countrys which have Bifhops) 
nothing can be plainer than that the Bi 
fliops aft only minifterially, and by. vir 
tue of the Regal Commiflron, by which 
the Prince firmly enjoins and commands em^ 
on the Fidelity by which they are bound 
to< /. w, to proceed according to the form 
of the Statutes in ChufiH^ Confirming-^ 
and Confecrating; ftrange Words tor one 
\vho is fupposxl to be a Subjeft to them 
in this Spiritual Matter, but more ftrange 
that the difobeying him in not chafing, 
confirming, and confecrating the Man he 
H, 8. appoints, is under no lefs Penalty than a 
20. P.rewunirc, a greater Punifhment than the 
Civil Minifters fuffcr for not obeying the 
, Royal Mandate. And the Bifhops have fo 
rcligiouily in this matter obferv d their 
Princes Commands, that there s nolnftance 
of their fcrupling to comply with the 
King s Writ, ever fmce the Parliament in- 
vcited the King with all manner of Spiritual 
Power, which from him as the Fountain is 
deriv d to the Bifliops and other Ecclefiafti- 
val Perfons. But had the Bifliops an Inde-r 
pendent Power to make Bifhops, every one 



, fyriftian Church, &c. 

fees the Magiftrate cou d have no more Right Chap. i 
to name the Biihops, than they had to name u~ 
the Judges or other Civil Officers: nay,- 1 
they might as well pretend to appoint ^the 
Perfons who are to fuccced in the Civil, 
as the Magiftrate thofe who are to fucceeu 
in the Spiritual Empire. All that is faid 
in anfwer to this is, that we muft obey 
the Supreme Powers in all lawful things ^ 
which fuppofes it lawful for them to com 
mand in thefe matters, and confequently 
that the Biihops (fince there cannot be two 
commanding Powers about the fame things) 
aft only as their Minifters in obeying their 
Commands, when they confecrate the Bi- 
fhops of their appointing. 
*, 1 5. What s here faid, tho a ^reat deal 
more might be added, is, I think, fuffi- 
cient to fatisfy an impartial Reader, that 
the Clergy who aflert it neceflary to the 
Being of the Church of England that the 
Biihops fhou d derive an Independent 
Power from the Papifts, in the way of 
Succefllon from the Apoftles, inftead of 
defending, expofe and betray the Church 
to the Papifts ^ who can t defire a better 
Hypothefis with relation to her Govern- 
. ment, to confound her from one end to 
t other, and to re-eftablilh the Papal Su 

1 6. Tis not in this alone, but in other 
Points, even the moft abfurd, that fome 
Proteftant Divines aflert fuch Maxims as 
too much countenance Popery : of which 
to mention a few will not be foren to our 
purpofe *, as., 

~- f Firft, 

, , 
39t; :7 ^ Oughts of Me i 

. Firft, How can they condemn the Pa- j 
pifts for denying the Magiftrate a Power i 
over the Lives of the Clergy, when they . 
afert that the Right they have to their, 
Hcclefiaftical Offices is not fubjed to hint! 
upon any account whatever, as being de- 
riv d from an Authority Independent of 
and Superior to all Human Power? Since , 
in Deprivation of Life is included a Depri 
vation of all Offices whatever, can one who, 
has no Right to put a Man to death, have a 
Right to hinder him from breathing } and is 
that more necellary for Life than Life is for 
an Office? 

17. Secondly, There suothing our Clergy 
more rhetorically exclaim againft, than the 
TJncharitablcnefs of the Papifts in con- 
fining Salvation to their own Church-, and 
yet do they not the fame in applying 
Schifm, which they affirm is a damnable 
Sin, to all who refufeto communicate with 
their Church ? A greater Uncharitablenefs ; 
than that of the Papifts, becaufe their 
Difference with Proteftants is much greater, 
and wider than that between Protcftant 
and Protcltuiit. .*Tis no doubt intolerable 
Impudence in the Papifts to appropriate 
to thcmielvcs the Kame of Catholick 
Church j anji yqt I do not fee how thofe 
Churches can cenfure them, which as wel\ 
as the Papilts exclude from the Catholick 
Church, either as SduTmaticks or Hereticks, 
all who will not join in Communion with 

1 8. Thirdly, Tho nothing canbe more wicn 
kcd than the Pcpifli Doftrine yf not keep-: 



ing Faith with Hereticks, yet if the LawChap.i 
ot God, as too many of the Clergy of allV^ ^ 
fides affirm, obliges the Magiftrate to 
jmnlfti them, he is r notwithftanding any 
Promifes, Vows or Oaths to the contrary, 
.under a prior and an indifpenfable Obli 
gation to God to profecute em. And if 
Herefy makes Men forfeit their Right to r: ; .;:* 
Property, Liberty, and even Life" why 
not their Right to Truth, cfpecially when 1 
telling Lyes may be any ways advantageous 
to Orthodoxy? And when Men once, 
think that Sincerity and Impartiality are : 
not fuflicient, but that the Belief of fuch 
or fuch Do&rines are necelTary to Sal 
vation, will they not be tempted to ufq 
Falfhood and Deceit, whenever they ima-. 
gine thefe proper or efFe&ual for the pro 
pagating or promoting thofe Doctrines? 
For if they think it lawful to deceive Chil- 
- dren, melancholy and fick Perfons, <-c. 
for the fake of their bodily Health, or tem 
poral Advantage j may they not be apt to 
conclude that the obtaining infinitely great- 
er Benefits for mens Souls will juftiry the 
fame Method ? And the belt we can fup- 
pofe of the Ecclcfiafticks is, that all the 
holy Cheats, pious Frauds, and godly For- 
gerys which from time to time they have 
been guilty of, were owing to this Princi 
ple. One of Mr. CbitlihgwortWs Reafons 
tor going over to the Romanifts was, 
becaufe, as he fays, The Proteftant Cavfc is Preface tt 
7/0ir, and hath been from the beginning main- Religion 
tain d with grofs Falppcations and Calumny s^ f Fr P tc ". 
whereof the Prime Controvcrfy-Wriicrs are no- an(s 

tor lev fly 


toriov/ly and in A high degree guilty. And 
/, ; . upon his return he does not difown this, 
but only fays, Jliacos intra muros ffccatur 
& extra^ the Papifts are more guilty of thi* 
Fault than Proteftants. It were to be wifh d 
that antient Writers were not criminal 
in this Point as well as modern; and 
that St. Jerom had no reafon for faying*, 
Ezck \ Ecc l e P*fltii Viri non Do^matum cuftodiunt 
" Veritatem^ fed de corde fuo conpngunt, Ma* " 
giftrumque habcnt frtfomftbitem foam, or 
for what he affirms of all the Fathers in 
general down to his own Time, that in 
managing Controverfys they did not fpeak 
, as they thought, but as it made for their 
purpofe; Non dlcimt^ fays he, <juod fen* 
tiunt, fed quod neceffe eft. And this is one 
Reafon, among many others, -why the 
Judicious Daille fuppofes the Authority 
of the Fathers is fo little to be rely d 

19. Fourthly, If the retraining of He* 
refy by Civil Penaltys be, as too many of 
the Clergy aflirt, neceflary for preferring 
the Peace, Purity, and Unity of the 
Church, they can t deny its Governors a 
Right to depofe thofe Princes who protect 
Hcrefy , unlefs they fay that the Church 
wants what s necelTary tor its own Support, 
which they are fo far from owning, that 
they do not only fuppofe the Church the 
molt: compleat Body Politick, as being DH 
. . vinely form d, but fay that the Temporal 
Empire mult give place to the Spiritual, 
the State to the Church, the Good of. 
which they . eftecfli the Supreme Law. 


And they who fuppofe that People 
HereTy forfeit their Propertys, can t well v ^ 
deny that Princes do their Government, 
w Inch was ordainM only for their fake} 
and confequently it can t be more facred or 
lefs forfeitable. 

20. Fifthly, If the Prielts havte, as ma* 
ny of em claiip, more than a Declarative 
Power ( between which and a Judicial 
there s no Medium) of Binding and Loofmg, 
they ought not to ufe fo great a Truit 
blindly, but make Men, before they ab- 
folvc 4 em, confefs all the Particulars ancj. 
Circumftances of their Sins, flnce thefe 
fo much alleviate or aggravate the Guilt f 

21. Sixthly, If the Clergy can judicially 
bind or loofe Mens Sins to all Eternity , why 
rnay they not have fo fmall a Branch of this 
Power, as to free Men by their Prayers from 
Punifhmentina State (call it Purgatory or 
what you will) where they can remain only 
for a time, till the Refurreftion ? At lealfc 
they who claim an infinitely greater Power, 
can t with any good Grace condemn the Po- 
pilh Clergy for being guilty of an abominable 
piece of Prieftcraft, in pretending to the 

22. Seventhly, Why may not the Popifh 
jClergy confecrate Water, Beads, Ca ndles, &c. 
as well as Proteftants do Timber, Stone, 
Lime, and other Materials of Churches? 
For they are not fatisfy d with allowing 
thefe Places a mere relative Holinefs on 
the account of People s meeting in em to 
>yorfhip God, becaufe that s tke fame if 


of tfo 


.they met in Places unconfecrated ; and as 
His wholly owing to their Meeting, fo 
no Place can have any longer a Right to 
it when that s difcontinu d. t But the Ec- 
clefiafticks contend that they infufe a fort of 
they know not what peculiar Sanftity into 
the very Materials, of the Churches, which- 
is fo inherent in em, that tis profane to 
put em to any Secular, when they ce4fe to 
be imploy d for a Religious Ufe. And why 
may not the Papifts as well pretend to 
infufe the like inconceivable Holinefs into 
the Trinkets they blefs ? The Priefts even 
in the Primitive Times found out a notable 
Pretence for their Confecration, or rather 
Conjuration^ that the Devil was in all 
things unconfecrated by them ; and there- 
fore twas not lawful, for inftance, toufe 
f^knfc any uncon fe c rated Water in Baptifm, till 
o///>eW the y had exorcis d the Devil out of it. 
mitive But then from this General Rule they ex* , 
church, cepted certain Pieces of old Wood, ruliy 
J art 2. h-on, rotten Bones, and fuch-like Relicks; 
which they maintain d were fo far from 
having any Devil in em, that they had Vir 
tue enough to drive away ten thoufand evil 
Spirits, and do a prodigious Number of 
other miraculous Feats. 

This ftrange unconceivable Virtue and 
Holinefs, which is fuppos d to be in ina-r 
nimate things upon Confecration, has 
been the occafion of infinite Superftitions, 
and has introduc d into the Gentile World 
the Worlhip of Images, which twas im-, 
pofljble the People Ihou d be fo abfurcl as 
to imagine real Deitys^ but they x only 

though t ? 

(TtriJKan Qmrcb, ,&ccl 59^ 

thought, ,as the Fathers them felves own, Chap* ro 
that the Priefbby their Confecration infus d ^^C^ 
into em a certain Divine Holinefs, and 
made their Gods to inhabit there, asfome 
fay God now does in Churches, after an in 
conceivable manner^ and therefore they pay 
as profound a Refpect to their Images, as 
fpme do to a confecrated Table plac d Eaft- 
ward. Which Notions the Heathen Clergy 
propagated to create a greater Veneration 
to themfelves , and how well they have been 
copy d by fome Chriftian Pdeils, the Rea 
der, I fuppofe, wants not to be inform d. 
Therefore I (hall only add, that tis to thefe 
Notions that moft of the abfurd Do&rines 
relating to the Lord s Supper are in a great 
meafure owing: For when Men began 
to believe that Sacramental was not on 
ly diftinguifh d from Common Bread, by 
the Holy Ufe the Receivers apply d it 
to, but that the Confecration of the Prieft v^;* 
made a great difference between them, <,-* -- 
tho they knew not where to fix it, they 
never left running from one Abfurdity to 
another, till at laft they fuppos d it had fuch 
powerful Charms as to caufe a Change in the 
^ Subftance. 

113. Eighthly, If Reafon is to be filent, . 
why muft wercjeft Tranfubftantiation, fo. 
agreeable to Chrifl s Expreflion, .This is my, 
Body? But if her Voice is to be heard, 
how can the Real Prefence Hand its ground ?j 
And yet is not that the Belief of all Pro-! ,, 
tcftants, - except a - few, calPd in . derifioni 
Sacramentarians br Zumglianst What can 
be more exprefllve of it, than faying 

398 7k ty>ht* of the- .. 

the Body and Blood of Chrift are verily and 
indeed, and confequently not figuratively and 
taken or receiv d ? And accord* 

ingly Archbifhop JBramhal affirms, That no 
" & / * Cfcwd */ England </;<* 
p. 15. wr ^"7 * " T * M Preface. But whe 
ther it be Con, Sub, Trans, or In, IP* p/^ctf 
among the Opinions of the Schools, and not a~ 
mong the Articles of Faith. If fo, the Dif 
ference betwen the two Churches can only 
be about the Manner, both agreeing in the 
Thing: and if one is pofitive in deter 
mining the Modus, is not the other as po 
fitive in denying their Mo Am.? And if they 
are not for Confubftantiation, they mutt be 
for Tranfubftantiation, fince there s no Me 
dium between ern : for the Body, if really 
prefent, mull be either prefent with the Ele 
ments, orelfe thefe muft be converted into 
kenn*/ it. What Hopes can fuch a one as Dr. Kenn 
Catcchifm. j iave o f confounding Tranfubftantration, 
when he has rccourfe to Omnipotence to 
maintain the Abfurditys of a Real Pre 
tence ? And it adds to, rather than takes 
from the Difficulty, to fay the Body is there 
not bodily, or after the manner of a Body } 
but fpiritually, or after the manner of a 
.Spirit. And how can one believe he eats the- 
Body after a Spiritual or Heavenly manner, 
tho he cou d frame an Idea of fuch a fort of 
eating, when he knows he eats only mere 
Bread, and not the Body, which is fo far 
from being really prefent, . as Earth is from; 

24. Ninthly, How can thofc Churchmen 
condemn the Papifts for laying fo great 

\ 0* $***, Church, Sec. 

aftrefson Tradition, or fay, according to Chap. 10 
the fixth Article, that that which can t be 
prov d from Scripture is not requifite to 
Salvation, who affirm that Bifhops, as a 
diftind Order from Presbyters, are ne- 
cefiary to the very Being of a Chriftiaa 
Church? But if they have fo great a 

Deference for Tradition, why have they 
not for Prayers for the Dead, flnce no 
thing can be plainer from the antient 
Liturgys, and Teftimonys of the Fathers 
of the fecond and third Centurys, that 
that was the general Practice of the Church. 
And is not Atrius condemn d as a Here- 
tick for oppofing it? Nay, have we not 
Fathers, whofe Authority is look d on as 
Sacred in other matters, even for Prayers 
to the JDead ? To which let ine add, 

2.5. If the thoufandth part of the Miracles 
were true, which the Fathers of thegreatelt 
Mame and Authority,asjfrow, SafS 9 Aupin^ 
&c. affirm with the greateft Aflurance, and 
fome of em of their own Knowledg, to be 
done by Relicks^ the Veneration which the 
, Church of. Rome pays to em can t iuftly be 
blam d. But, 

, 2<5. Tho the Popifh Doftrines were c- 
ver fo abfurd, and the Proteftant Clergy 
taught nothing in particular which kept 

em in countenance, yet too many of em 
maintain fuch Maxims, in order to oblige 
People to yield an implicit Faith and blind 
Deference to their Diftates, as muft con 
demn all Separation from the Church of 
Rome on the account of her peculiar Doc- 
* ,trines 5 

t$t$ of .the 1 V / 
<^ J + 

, v ,,. -.trlnes; in forac of which I fhall beg leave t^ 
-. H . inftancc, and which may ferve fora Reca- 4 
pitulation. . v* ; 

(i.) Government neceflarily fuppofes a 
Right of judging and determining all Mat 
ters within its Sphere: and confequently^ 
if the Clergy are Governors of the Churchy 
they muft determine all Controverfys re* 
lating to Ecclefiaftical Matters , and if they 
have this Government from God, as he 
alone gave it em, fo he alone couM deprive 
em or it : and confequently, for their Sub- 
jefts in Spirituals to diibwn, on pretence 
of judging for themfelves, the Government 
under which God has plac d ? em, is a Crime 
nexttodifowning God s own Government* 

.(2.) If the Clergy had no other Power- 
than that of admitting Men into, arid- 
turning ? cm out of the Church, which fup 
pofes cm Judges of theTcrms of Admiflion y 
the Laity, as they valu d being Members- 
pt the Church, were oblig d to v own thofe 
Terms. ; . 

.-(3.) There s no Medium between being 
govcrn d by one s own Reafon 7 -and by the 
Authority of others: for if God requir cf 
the firft, they who did this, how much 
foever they differed in Judgment with one 
another, wouM be equally acceptable to: 
him, as having alike done, all he requires 
of em to difcovcr his Will. But this is 
oppos d by the Clergy of all i Denomina 
tions, who fuppofe their Interpretations of, v 
and Inferences from certain Texts to be 
Fundamentals \ and condemn, all other. 


Q)ri(llm hird; &cJ 46? 

Chriftians who prefume -to follow their Chap* 10 
owa Judgment in interpreting Scripture, 
cither as. Schifraaticks or <Hereticks, for 
dialing from cm in the Meaning of thofe 
Texts. 50 Nay, 

(4.) They affirm,; that the Liberty of 
private Judgment wou d deftroy the Peace 
and Unity of the Church, by cauiiag in a 
manner as many Religions as Perfons: 
for the preventing of which private Per 
fons ought to fubmit to the Determina 
tions of their Spiritual Governors in Reli 
gious, as to their Civil in Secular Matters ^ 
and that the Church-Governors, confider-i 
ing the many Spiritual Privileges they en joy 
above the Laity, and the Promife of God 
to be with them to the End of the World, fuppos d as well qualify d to judg 
in Religious, as others are in Civil Matters ^ 
and that it favours of Pride and Prefump- 
tion to fct up a private. Judgment in op- 
pofition to the Church, the Ground and Pil 
lar ef Truth* which whofoever negleds 
to hear is no. better than a Heathen or 

, (5.) If God requires the Belief of thofe 
things, which the Bulk of Mankind, for 
want of Ability, Leifure ,or Learning, are 
not able to judg of, as ^is plain there 
are fuch in all Churches , fome muft be, 
appointed to judg of thefe things for them. 
And, . , 

(5.) The conftant and univerfal Praftice 
oif the Church, the beft Interpreter of her 
Right, has, tis faid, put this Power of 
the Clergy out of difpute ; fmce Councils 
Dd and 

and Synods have all along takenmpdiot^cnl 
to jufk for the*People, by? franun ,j their 
Deduftions from and Interpretations of 
Scripture, into -Creeds, Articles and Ca* 
nons-, and have pblig d all u^der- Spiritual 
fccnfares to fubmitto em. Nay,< 
-. (7.) Have they not inferted this- Power 
of theirs in an Article of the Creed* com 
monly call d the Apoftlev viz. / WiVw 
the Cttholick Church? For how can any prei 
tend to believe the Catholick Church, who 
relies not on her Authority, in taking that 
for Truth which (he declares to be fo, but 
trys every Doftrine by the Touchftoneof 
his own private Reafon-? As tis talking 
in a Circle to fay fuch Doftrines arc true 
becaufe the Catholick Church holds em, 
and; this 15 the Catholick Church becaufe 
it holds thefe Doftrines *, fo tis no left 
than a Contradi&ion to fay, 1 believe the 
Catholick Church, andyetatthe fame time 
affirm, 1 am bound to judg of her Doc-f 
trines, and take and rejeft as tis moft agree- 
able to my private Judgment. And if there 
were not fuch a Church always in being, to 
be diftinguilh d by fuch Notes and Marks as 
all might know her, in order to believe a$ 
{he believes ; this Article wou d be as im 
pertinent as one s believing fome body or 0- 
ther had a certain Remedy for hisDiftemper, 
without knowing the Perfon, or having any- 
Marks to diftinguifh him from a great many 
Others, who With ecjuatAfflirance pretended 
to the fame Receit v tho they oniy admi- 
niftcr d deadly Foifon. ( * - - ; 

..... . .. ^,.:: v;:^!J v- ; 

1U If 

Qnftian Church, &c? K 405 

V If thcfe and fuch-Uke Maxims are true, 
then, our Forefathers Separation frpm the <- 
r Church of &?w<yupon pretence .of private 
Judgment, muft be unlawful, ,and ib muft 
;our continuing in a Separation thus unlaw 
fully begun. 

27. Befides, how can the Proteftants pre 
tend to be a Part 6f the Apofbplick Catholick 
.Churctl, if That, as the Clergy on all fides 
.hold, has had from its firlt Beginning a 
.continual perpetual Exiftence-, imce their 
Churches are but of yefterday, as owing 
their Being to their Separation from Rome ? 
Nor will the ufual Anfwer, that they only 
reformed that Part of the Catholick Church , 
they were Members of before, ferve their 
turn: for if the Church of Rome was Part 
of the Catholick Church, as this Anfwcr 
fuppofes, thofe who fcparated from that 
Church can lay no claim to it , fince the 
Catholick Church, as both Partys agree, is 
not large enough to hold two oppofite Com 
munions. And this the Proteftant, as well 
as Popifh Clergy, take to befo unqueftiona- 
blea Truth, that all their Notions relating 
to Schifmatical Churches are founded upon 
it. To which may be added, 

28. That if no True Church can be 
without an Independent Power belonging to 
their Ecclefiafticks, the Church of England^ 
as tis plain from the Laws which cftablilh 
her, does not claim any fuch Power : and as 
little can fhe pretend (as may be perceiv d 
by what has been already faid) another fup- 
pos d Eflenthl of . a Church, an unintet- 
rupted SucceiGon. 

Dd a 29. With- - 


oujhr .;#<> wyffifaft fome Vifible Head to Uni- 
ferfal Bifhop, the Church cbu d , not be 
}To united within itfelf, as all "Pattys agree 
"it, is: for if the Bifhops had feach : the feme 
Power from God, they l miift be equal to 
and independent of one another , and 
"confequently, each wou d be unaccountable 
to all the reft, who by their Decree? cou d 
: not oblige him or his Diftrift in which 
lie was Independent. Nor cpu 4 any A- 
, greement among. the Bifhops, if every one 
did confeitt, alter this Form of Govern- 
l> xncnt which God had fettl d for his 
Church, either by placing the Power in 
ah Ecclefiaftical Senate of all the Bifhops 
;;of the Chtiftian World, or -by dividing 
;the Church into feveral Independent Na- 
.^tional Bodys. And without a Common 
"Head, to whom the Power of the Bifhops 
as they die devolves, tis impptfible there 
. lhou*dbe a Succeflion of, Bifhops : fmce no 
"one can beftow Epifcopal Power, where 
he has none himfelf; nor cou d 1 any be- 
fides fuch a He^d, to whom Men upon 
their Converfion become fubjeft, add^to 
the number of Bifhops, and by affigning 
to each the Limits of his Power divide a 
newly converted Country between them. 
And without fuch a Head no Afts^of any 
Bifhop, relating to Excommunication, 
Ordination, c^c. cou d be valid fufther 
.than his own DiftriA i to extend em to 
the whole Church can only be done by ah 
"Authority which reaches fo far. Nor 
without fuch a Head cou d any Differences 
between Churches independent of one ano 

i Church, &c; 

thcr be. conipos tf. -And the Clergy- can t 
urge any Argument for an Authority to^^ 
decide Differences between Members of the 
fame Diftrift, which \yill not hold much 
ftronger for an Authority, f/hich for this 
reafon is to extend to all the Diftri&s of 
the Chriftian World. Thus it h that the 
common-recciv d Motions, favour a. Papal 
Supremacy, nay make it, rieceflary for tfce 
Center orVCatholick -Union aM Comma? 

tUOn. . r , i , ., V* 

30. That which gave the Papifl:* fo 
great Advantage,. was Clergymens talking 
(I mean in fome former Reigns) fo very 
inconfiftent with , themfelves, not only 
Vvhen they endeavoured to reconcile the 
Regal Supremacy with , what themfelves 
claim d by Divine Right, but when they 
difputed with Papilts and Diifcnters ^ ufing 
the very fame Arguments againft the lat- 
*ter, which they were under a neceflity of 
condemning in the former.. . Nor wou d 
they allow tholc.who fcparated.from cm 
the fame Plea which themfelves us d to 
juftify their Separation from the PapilU, 
but talk d like em when they had "to 
do with Diflenters,. and like DifTentcrs 
when they had to do with Papifts: for 
then they affirm d that, no Man was ob- 
lig d to fubmit to the Dbftrinc or Difc i- 
pune of any or all the Churches in. the 
,World s if. he judg d it not agreeable to 
the Word of God*, and commended the 
brave Lutker, as afting nobly and heroical 
ly in feparating, tho by himfelf, upon 
tnis Principle from all the Churches then 
Dd 3 c ia 

^ r i*ingv But when they arguM with the 
Piflenters, and at all other times, they 
jtalk d diametrically oppofite to this, and 
carry d tfie ^ Power and Authority of the 
phurch as high as the Papifts themfelves ^ 
.as, may befeen not only in Bifhop Sparrow** 
preface to Cotte&iont of Articles, &c. menti- 
pn d in my Preface, but in the reft of the 
Writers of thofe Times. And their Prac 
tice made their Principles too evident, 
JInce they were not only for hindring 
Men by a Reftra mtof the Prefsfrom feeing 
&ny Arguments which made againft their 
^Determinations, but for forcing em by 
Ecclefiaftical and Civil Penaltys to comply,- 
tho ever fo much againft their Confdences. 
1/Vnd what did the Papifts, or can they 
ilo more for the fake or a blind Obe4ience 
and an implicit Belief? And did not the 
Penal Laws extend to Property, Liberty, 
and Life ? 

^ 31. If the Eflencc of Proteftantifm con- 
fifts, asNLr*Chillirtgworth maintains, in this 
flngle Article, Wat God dots not ^ and tbcrc- 
fore Men ought not to require any more of * 
Man, than to believe the Serif ture to be the 
Word of Gody and to endeavour to find out the 
true Senfe of it \ no Proteftant Clergy can 
claim Authority in Matters of Faith, or 
take upon em judicially to cenfure Opinions, 
pi* to frame their Inferences from Scripture 
into Articles, &c. or endeavour to exclude 
all from Church-Preferments who will not 
lafTent and content to them , or to put the 
Laity -under an "Incapacity for Places of 
. Truit and Profit, or under any other Hard- 



ftip, -fordoing thcirXmty in ^ 
cording to this PfSteftant Principle, td 
which all fuch things as tend to prejudice 
Men irt i&dging of the S^nfc of the Word of 
God, ratcidifeaiy oppsfite. 
. 32.JThe Difference between Mr. Chitting 
tortth : 2nd thofc who writ fo metime before 
bifri againft the Papifb, is* that they had 
carry d their Notion of Chords Authority 
fo high as to ftl^ke the Separation frbitt 
Rome imjuftifiabic : . but th6 he efTeftuallt 
juilifes.ity yet tis by dcftroying all 
Ghurch-AuthoHty.. -What can be more 
oppofite to it-thafn his faying, a That chap. 4* 
i4 this .prefumptuorisinipofingor the Seri*n. ** 
fes. (1 Qf; Men- upon the- Words Of God^ 
Mi the Special Scnfes of Meft ilpon theGe^ 
f c ,,neral -Wbtjds. of God, a$d laying, ^cm 
-** upon menir Conferences together, unddr > 
*][ua^Penaltyof:Death and Dlmna* 
* c tiday this vain Conceit, that we rbn 
* fpeakof the Things of God better \thaa 
tc the Words of God , this Deifying -our 
u own?!ntcrpretations, -and tyrannous en- 
^ forcing cm on others v this Teftrairiing 
114 the Word of God from that Latitude 
a and Generality, and the Underftandirig 
^of Men.; from that Liberty whereim 
cc Chrift and his Apoftlcs left em, is and 
w hath been th6 only Fountain of all the 
44 Schifraa of the Church, and that which 
<* triakes crti immortal^ tlic common fa* 
" cendiatiy ,-pf CMften Aom^ and that which 
* c teart in pietes not the Coat, but the 
l Bowels and Members of Chrift, Rdtnfo 
** Tvrc^m doltnte J*ta> ? .Take away 

} : ; .* *hefc Walls ,t)f Separation^ and all win 
W\ ^ * quickly -be One : Take away ^this Per* 
44 fccuting, Burning, Curfing, Damning 
4 > of Men for not fubfcribing to the Words 
44 of ^ Men as the Words -of God :. Re- 
44 qui -e, of Chriftians only to* believe 
44 Chrift, and to- call no man Mafter but 
Him only:: Let.thofe leave claiming In* 
44 fallibility who have no Title to it ; and 
44 let them that in their Words difclaim it, 
c< difclaim it Jikewife in their Adions: .la 
cc a word, take away Tyranny, which is 
" the Devil s Inftrument to fupport Errors, 
t. ,, 4C , and Separations, and Impietys -^ and 
- * c Univcrfal Liberty thus moderated, may 
44 quickly reduce Cbriftcndom to Truth and 
44 Unity. And after this manner does he 
vrrite in at leaft twenty places of his 
Book: and thefe are the Sentiments of 
honeft ( Mr, H4ct :in his Tratt of Schifa 
where in exprefs Terms he declares there s 
no fuch thing as Church- Authority. But to 
return. < , .; A 7 * i 

33 Tho High-Church in the Reigns of 
Perfccution labour d to fhew. a great dif 
ference between their Conduct and that of 
the Papifts } yet upon their common Princi 
ples they cou d (how none. which was not to 
their Difadvantage. - ,; : /n;c jJi-j 
.For the Papifts faid, that to avoid Er<- 
ror and Confufion, the. Guide?: :".6f.r the 
Church were fo influenc d- by the .-Holy 
Spirit, as not to determine anything con^ 
trary to Truth ; and that the People might 
rely on ? em without.danger of. having felft 
DoctrinesJmpos d upon era, or Scripture fo 
;> . ! - i i inter* 

, Sec. 

interpreted as to make it iliconfiftdit with 
ifcfelf. . < ;. :.. "" *^ 

- High-Church, tho: they cou d not deny 
they -. were liable to Miftakes, yet they 
equally affum d the Power of judging for 
the People, and generally talk d as if the 
Fault of the Papifts was not barely doing 
this, but doing it on pretence of .Infalli 
bility, and took it for granted they might 
,aft like em, as long as they were fo mo- 
deft as to difowa* the only tKing which 
couM be pretended: for a Jultification of 
fuch Aftings. 

34. Such a Power * as this among Pro- 
teftants, confidering how widely they dif- . 
fcr-with one another, wpu d oblige a Man 
to change his Sentiments with his Habita 
tion, and the Difference of a Degree or two 
in the Climate wou d make^ him profefs 
contrary Opinions: which is avoided ra- 
mong.thc Papifts, who .allow this Power 
not to every National, but to the Catho- 
lick Church alone ^ which interpofes her : - 
Authority only in things of the greatelt 
moment to her Interest, but in .others, 
tho the Differences among em are very 
numerous, it leaves every one to their Li 
berty, excluding none from .any Civ il pr 
even Ecclefiaftical Preferment on the ac 
count of thofe Differences: while feme 
who pretend to oppofe her, think they 
can t make the Terms of Communion too 
-narrow, and are for prejudicing the Pub- 
lick, by excluding all from ferving in any 
Poft, who can t comply with theft narrow 
Terms. .. jw -. - -: ! T ^; ; ; ( . ,-j ^ 

35. The 


pr.q/r . ; f 1:35. ?;The main Bififcrcnce; between thcfc, 
x Churchmen and thofe of Rome was. that 
ttefirft were, astheyfeid^ for allowing the 
People a general Liberty of reading the 
Scripture, while, the faft wou d not grant 
It promifcuoufly* But if .the Prefsj a* 
fcoth Sides then agreed, was to bq..-w 
ftrain d, left the People might apprehend 
the Scripture hi fuch aSenfeas their Spi 
ritual Guides judg dto be falfe; it Can t 
be deny d that the Popilh Clergy afted 
xnoft charitably in not tfufting the Gene- 
rality of the People with the Scripture ft 
felf, but only^ with their Senfe or it,, as 
tis exprefs d in their Catechifms, Confcft 
fions of Faith, Books of Devotion, <^(T 
where there s no danger of their taking it 
in a Senfe contrary to that of their Church* 
And therefore on this common Principle Archbifhop Bramhal had reafon to affirm, 
A/m/<//Wu t h 3t t he promifcuous Licence which they 
4< ( the Ptoteftants) give to all forts to read 
and interpret Scripture is more prejudici- 
** al, nay pernicious, than the over-rigdrous 
f Rcftraint of the Romanifts. And they who 
think thus, muft, as foon as conveniently 
they can, reftrain this promifcuous Licence 
of reading the Scripture. . \ . ,J 
36. Thus it was that fom Men bo- 
trayM the Reformation,, and tempted Peo 
ple to beSeve that they had a bad Caufe 
indeed to manage, when they fuppos d it 
necelliTry, for the Prefervation or their 
own Church, toad quite (contrary to ; tbfct 
Principle to> which it ow*d its very Beinff j 
and that their exclaiming againlt the 
-,,. .,, Church 

Church of borne for doing 
with her own Principles) the very fame 
things they praftis d thtmfelves, required* 
to fay no worfe, a very good Stock of 
Afiurance. Twas this Conduft pf theirv 
which occafion d that Remark of their be* 
loved Charles II. when in comparing the 
two Churches, he faid, one ft cm d to ie irt 
earncftj andiotbtr in jefi: which was not 
, To fevere as what a Reverend Divine expreft 
on this occafion V a The Englifi Prieftcraft 
" is the coarfeft that ever I iav^ ; the Romijh 
" is fine, and has made a delicate Book of 
" Father Paul s Trent Hlftory j theirs is the 
44 Dtfths of Satan, and ours is his .Shaffows. 
But tnis can t refleflt on the prefent Church, 
fince the Penal Laws, and the Reftraint, of 
the Prefs, the Badges of Popery, are taken 
away. And^ t ~i 

Whofoever defires 5 em again, or pretends 
the Proteftant Church of England is in 
danger for want of *em, mult either be a 
Papift in his Heart, lince the Domination 
of the Clergy, and the bUnd Submiflion 
of the Laity, is Popery in any Church 
whatever-, or elfe an Atheift, apd believes 
his Religion a mere State-Trick, which will 
not bear Examination, tho there are fo ma 
ny thoufand Learned Men lifted -in its De 
fence. Nor, ; 

.37. Can Proteftents, who are for putting 
Hardfhipson People, even on the account 
of Ceremonys or Modes of Difcipline, 
which they call preferving the Mational 
. Church, condemn the Papifts for endeavour- 
to prefer ve the Catholick Qiurch after 


1 I ^^"^ \ r , . . l * % * 

, the fame manner. And if Schifm. be ,a 
j v damning Sin^ and all are guilty of it who 
are not of the. Church eftablimM by Law, 
Charity to the Souls of People, in pre- 
venting their eternal Ruin by the fpreading 
of Schifm, willreciuirc the ufmoft degree of 
Force.- So that till this Proteftant PrincU 
pie be thorowly fettl d, that tis not lawful 
for a State to. make any diftinftion between 
its Subjefts on a Church-account/ tis im- 
ppffible to find any Principles on which to 
attack the Papifts for their worft part of 
Popery, their Perfections, which they may 
not with Advantage retort. * 

38. If what I have been now facing bp 
a Digrcflioji, I hope ; tis not a very uri- 
feafonable one;, ftnce it giycs People a 
Caution to avoid fuch Opinions, tho ever 
fo confidently aderted by their Priefts, as 
have fo direft a Tendency to Popery. 
Kay, how can we be affiir d that thofe 
Men, who talk backward and forward for 
their luterefr, will not be confident with 
themfelves, if that wou d as well ferve 
their turn k , much more if that wou d 
wonderfully advance their Power, as Po 
pery mii ft when it becomes the National 
Religion? And tho they might formerly 
have hopM, by the help of the Penal Laws 
and the Reftraint of the Prefs (efpcdally 
when the High Commiffion Court, Star- 
^Chambcr, c^c. were in being) of them 
felves t6 have got as great a Tower over 
the People as the Popiflv Clergy by Tuch- 
: iike means have obtained ; yet Hrice the 
prefejit Liberty has fo intirely -defeated 

r i any 

Qviftian* (Mfy &c* 

ifiny "filch Defign, they tnuft 

cHefting that now, by any other way tha 

"Downright JP opcry. .And .what Principles 

"have thefe Men to hinder em from dc- 

".claring for it, whenever , they can do it 

without any hazard to themfelvesy and in 

the mean time from afting ib ai may belt 

fervc tp .promote the Intercft of thofc 

i^wers which are forbringirig it in, and to 

weaken the Adminiftration of thofe who 

"pppofe it ? Will their old Motions of the 

Divine Right of Kings, and the UalawfulJ- 

"nefs of putting by the next Heir of the 

Crown, hinder em from afting thus? And 

what can more eficftually cover their De- 

"figns, as ^ell as give em hopes of Tucceed- 

"ing, than to make the World, believe the 

Danger of the Church is from another 

Quarter , and that to prefcrve it, their 

Tfools and Inftruments are only to be em- 

ploy d ? \Vhether this be fo or no, tis the 

Intereft of the Laity, who muft lofeas much 

by Popery as thefe Clergymen will gain, not 

to be impos d on by fpecious Pretences, but 

to judg of Mens Intentions by the whol^ 

Courfe of their Actions. 

Since this Difcourfe grows top bulky for 
one Volume, 1 (hall finifli the reft in the next , 
Xvhere, if the Author may be allow d to be a 
competent Judg, the Reader will find a full 
Anfwer to all the Arguments drawn from 
Scriptuf e as well as Reafon, for the Indepen 
dent Pbvwjf of the Clergy. 

39, Now lihall conclude with a Word 
gr two in behalf of the Author, who 



" : 


Jhopes that no Perfon, confiderM cither as 
a Man, can blame him for defending the 
Natural Rights of Mankind, or as a 
ChrifHan, for ftriking at the Root of An- r , 
Jtichriftian Prieftcraft. And he can t ap 
prehend but that every real Proteftant 
xnaft. approve his Attempt of maintain- 
,ing, in their frill Latitude, thofe almolt 
forgotten Principles on which the Refer- 
mation was built, and which render Po- 
pery* t hat has nothing to fupport it ex 
cept theabfurd Notions of High-Church, 
naked and . defencelefs ; and of de- 
ftroying thofe unnatural Heats and Feuds 
which Difference in Difcipline creates a- 
mong the Reform d, and thereby pre 
vents their hearty Union againft tne com- 
.mon Enemy. And he hopes all of the 
[National Church will approve this Defign, 
llnce only the Principles he goes on can 
juftify its Conftitution, with relation to 
the Dependency of the Clergy. Nov Can 
thofe who differ from him, have any jult 
reafon to be diflatisfy d for his giving 7 em 
an opportunity to expofe and baffle all 
the contrary Arguments: fince if they 
have Truth on their fide, nothing can do 
their Caufe a greater kindnefs than mut 
tering up thofe Reafons which oppofe it. 
For Truth, the more tis try d, the clearer 
and brighter it appears } efpecially if thoft 
who defend it have all the Advantages 
which Wit and Learning caa afford. And 
they who are fond of Truth, will be fo 
indifferent whether any particular Opinion 



be thicy as to unbrace afl Opportunity* of Chap. 10 
having it fairly debated.: And whpJbevcry"V"xj 
takes a Contrary Method, tis plain, that 
fomewhat bcfidc a Regard to Truth does . 
influence him rand if in this cafe, the Lull 
of Power prevails, and the Author for his 
"Love to Truth and Zeal for the Church 
by Law eftablifo d, befo unhappy as to fall 
under the Difpleafure of fomc Ecclcfiafticks 
even of the National Church, for ftriking 
at their Great JP/*ir*, he hopes the Laitv 
will take him into their Proteftion, and 
not difcourage, as they have hitherto 
done, abler Pens from engaging on their 
fide againft their mortal Enemys, who 
claim an Abfolute Uncontroulablc Power 
over their Minds, and by conference over 
their Perfons and Eftates: which had not 
obtain d, as it does in molt places, had 
not the Laity been highly inftrumental in i 
putting on their own Fetters, and in ru 
ining thofe who attempted to knock em 
off^ whofe Sufferings the Clergy then re- 
prefented as tfcc juft Judgment t of God, 
for having molt Atheiftically ( nothing 
fooner giving, a Man the Charafter of aa 
Atheift than being an Enemy to Prieft- 
craft) oppos d their Sacred Authority. 
But ihou d he be ever fo much exposed 
to the Malice of fuch Men, who almoft 
as feldom want the Power as they do the 
Will to crufh all that oppofe their In- 
tereft, yet nothing can deprive him of 
the inward Satisfaftion he finds^ in en^ 
deavouring to promote the Spiritual as . 



. 416 7U 

c ?.?:. well as Temporal Welfare r of Mankind, 

,f ; in oppofing a Doftrine which has in 

a great meafare made ineffectual that 

i Angelick Wifh, of G lory to God en Hlg\3 % 

Pttcc on Earth) and Good Will tm&dt 

Men! ... . 


.. r jN .1 M -j-S ,# 

... , ; .!M : - 

. :. ?..; , ,; 

.. i 


!- -.. ;) 

;; t<J 
. .. 

n y: . . 

T H E E N D. - 

- ..... 

. : : ... 
. . f rv; 


.* - - - , 

. ..*: 

-. v . - \ -" . : ; ,.::/;.-; 

. . v. . ..,- ..- .., 2:!- 

fa aC^ilLjo, ,; i- . . ,,, .;: ; ;, . 


...V.Sja ;. * 

.-!("( (^ vA , r ;x V"v iiutfKS S^ .nTfd?. ! 
: * ".,"* \ 1 

Alphabetical Table 

V; k ", -* . . ". . Q) p i\H E^ % ^"^ j ^ i 
,-;*. .jf-r ,,v ; ,l v-t W, ,^,^, ^1 

I , I - . I . J * 

vU i 1 , * i * : I*M i*. rvA r 

"^ "^>>, : . - , ; . . \. ;i i ~ ;i ,"vt 
fc ,,., Bfolution ty4 Pncfttnlyi bpngfa- 

liev d MGtffArj)^* may means to 
. T cnflave A State y . 
Almgenfes /i^. 
vour tl to be cxtirfatejifp* tht InJ^igdtH 

Alterations ,*. Govern&cnwclytks 1 C 

cf tht Party s fwctnft) i\-.y \ 7 ^ r . . 9. 
Anne, Quecn^ A ChArnfttr pf ber+ . . ^72. 
Apoftles ( /;^ wt 4 Right to govern , ^f> 
^Con*Jtns y antecedent .to ibtir Corner fait} 
1 54, Requiring Rules to be obfenfA, in 
[,Chriftian A$emUy*+ Jiqpsfet -A fewer in 
\the Pft?!?/f, 155. Only offer their AJvic* 
when. they & nut as -the Em\>*jf*dm : *f 
^Cbrifi ljf. Whether they -^d 4 .,Rigbt .. 
f 9 govern ttx Clrm*ch *nd <q joint Succejjor^ 
c con- 

An Alphabetical Tabled 

con/ideSd) 162, &c. Only Governor* of 

Parts of the Church, 381. If they had 

been one Supreme + ower^fi ^^$$3$ ^fou & 

^ * Jfave Tte en made TPU 

Appointment Divine of Bifhofs^ fee Bilhops 
Athcifts cannot plea/i* &ig ht to Jolerat ion on 
the account of Confcience^ 1 8. 

BAptifm freyvetflfypt the primitive Times 
adminiftefd by Laymen, 135. How 
adminifter d 

concern d in the Church, 1 77, 3 56. Which 
fives y ern a full Rtght to the Office^ 177. 
Not to be divided .between them and the 
ergy^ 17^. Their being by Divine Ap- 

^Eflttnts can t He a true Qjur cb, . 3 1 8^ . Eng- 
lifh h+rie.tto-Powcr1>y SucceJ]loni&4. . Their 
Ordination not mqre indelible than 

^ cverary Diftrift bttt byaLegiftative Power* 
^^64. .If* not Supreme in their ow&DtJIrifK 
^**faciffa riljp> infers An *Univerfal * Qnr* 2$4* 
t\*ty*he:r.PoTvcr tD ov$fiionly lies ut th i fto- 

** tffimfi&i&llyjpW 1 virtue of a Refaft- om~ 

^rtftol; *ffwi&ltt$wt of mg^ Church 

. ^fangxriMt/t^offittht J tilK 1 v - 28<. 
iv V 0, . ;?u:t^%w*i r*>- .-3 i>. VTifti p 

** r, * VUt 


TT* ? d 

re v -.VV .Lidi /-v V^ -..;i to\ Mutai 

\\*\ V^MV.v 

firS: .not tonftn A ty any-.oB* t - 

* / E 1 // A A 

plif&ffm 124* %O.UflW * *l" 

the JcwSj i5v v" ^ 
0j I ^5 ^11 } obli^ d 

for f <W /^ v ^ %*?tb r 4 

* Matter.* 

,- Stripvrt 

,b : &C. -.^r M^^/4 rfe/r 

rtbeir P*tt& 9 >t f n^tc ,^efne- 

V^w. ^r^rf -rtr Independent J>wtr.,ofthe 

.& 3i .^Jrrrf. faPmw**- 

,10 ( -- ,-.v-.^ :/vv- -. 
Church ^f Religious -Society w e^ 

tfff-^p .*r, 80. 
<> contrary to the 
Q o . jTw f * Co veftJineftt oj 

A., *tj (*1VMP 12.3 * 

r ^o^(y Politick in rf 
Ai&tter*<> . : 37 8 
Churches Ev^ng^i<?al /wr ^fe^ ty God to> 
-. * , frejudif^to Civil Polity^ 1 15. /^ /? 

l;, 55 EC 2 l*f 

t he Scripture, 128, Have* Right to con- 

ftitvtt Juch for thai end, ibid. Whit it 

for their, Good c/cpV be contrary to the V/ill of 

<7wJ, J 4^. v - No. j articular Perm < of theh 

Govenintittt *f ; Divide 1 . Appointment, -> 174. 

Clarendon, Earl of, the Mffihiefs be afcri&e* 

*<t* the owning two Independent fewer* in 1 the 

; ; -fame Sfyf** ,304* ; Shews* W/*r*/ to the 

^ frcttflant CMfe our yfaijjkingt jf; Cornm*~ 

,** monrqiththcRcforn?dChiirch esWas+ 340* 

Qcrgy exfltided from { the CM Mtgiftrite s 

Jurlffii&ion^ if EctlcfiafticttlPrtvcrbeyn- 
< defenderit) 37- 4 77?r Ptwtriof Extant- 
v municatfon takes frbm tbt^MagiftrAte- tbe 
^ Power, of difpojfejjlng- >aty for^ a Crime ^ 38. 
v 4 ^y an Independent Porte r htive b Right to*ex~ 
" . communicate for Crimes: bgtinjt the - fublick 
<(Good) ^. J3y which the} have* * Right to 
every thing necfjfary fcr- Government) .- 1 8. 

That Po-xcr : gives -theirf* Authbritv over 
^tk Temper at Sovereigny^l. < Whether* they 
* excommunicate by Power dcriv*d> from Chrift 
or the A fagiftrAtfyConfider d) 55*. Are not for 
"twoy but on* Independent 1 Power j viz** their 

own, 60. v Have not a coercive Power , <5i 
. v An Objection anfrver^ 6$S> Have>wly <a 

\Rigfo to ddvifti ib. Their Power n*t In- 
*"ttrnal) 66. Punifnm cnts : *iti flitted by them 
} not Eternal^ 67. Their Power. Only Decla- 

* YAtive *, for if - morc^ it is judicial^ 6 8. /ty 
<^r r/;^ 1 invade -the People * natural Riglit and 
"ibe yi/>/?r.Wj Prcroxfivf <J-^ Pretend 

^ : , v Z?y r/;^ invade 

l iri&dnfnii(MfC<ihlc" ^Rtghts^ of Gody if 
t bf <J^, -78. 

*t* conftdcr y dj Sj* Have no JurifdiRit* t* 

exclude Afen from Communion for. immoral 

v AtticnS) 90. , J$?r * <$//* i -d/f/r fa rjtf ir 

* Commufi&onby petrol LJ&SJ $2, Why they 
t -introduced this Cvjlom^ 94." Their way t r* 
. flwfo f/tf Peofh flandin ttotjfjhtfa Ex~ 
. . communicatiw, 100. 77?ft> &iftrftxtjfr 

done of the Lors Supper :<m Intsovrtton, 

105. Reproving and rebuking People not 

,- ft eullftr 1 9 them^ lop. Which tends to th* 

Difcouragement of Virtue and Morality 

* 1 1 2. Qualifications nectffary to their Jo 
^ rfwwf, 1 1 5. Submiffion to them mil not 

>Y-:make amends for the Neglctt ^ ofi.Confdc- 
. ^ ration, 1 1 6. Some prefer tkcir own Temporal 
V* Jntereft befirc thf Eternal Good of Souls^ 
*.. 129. //4^f c/^rf/ embroiled the Laity in 
Defence of their Order^ .143, &C-- T/?f/r 
Jnterefl to, have Religion corrupted, l $Q 
v\ T/?r/r Poverty a means of keeping the People 
.from Corruption, 219. Keef the People in 
, Ignorance^ and .&!y 9 221. jBy their Edtt- 
i\ cation of Touth capable of doing much mif- 
v,? chief to the Publicky 244, -&C. -T^r Re 
gular more dangerous to a St*ite than the 
r Secular ) 253. .Their being . exempt . fiom 
i- worldly Employs deftruftivc to a State^ 265. 
/>, Why they have an Averpon to Fr ee Govern- 
mentS) 269. For promoting Tyranny when 
they can govern Princes, ibid. Thofe sire 
juftly to be eftccrrfd who difown all Jnde- 
t.v pendent Parwy 303. In writing^ tganfl 
:<, the Papifts they generally difawn i>, i os- 
i* for fta f/;rw pr/f Centurys refus d. not lay 
ing Hands on any the. Chinch <chofc, 363 
." Maintain foch Maxims M vwfc 
jji... Ee 3 


t dlWparation from "Rome on aciowA i */ 
k-tfyftr/iffcfftttfu.t :>. gppj & c<> 

Congregations Independent 4nd~National mitft 
; Heidi* hart :*^ M/ere#t Polity; 124, //aw 

thy fane * Right to make or^ wtmake their 
Mwftert,**^ \ . - 129. 
Confciende, whether it ought to bind the Ma- 

giftratfs Handy t8. 

Confecration / r/?f Elements in the Lord s 
V 1 Suffer not peculiar to the Clergy^ 1 08. 
, Conlerit of Men the Original of Government^ 
> 7. What Power this gives the Magiftrate 

* f Matters of Religion j 1 1 . 
Confidcration / our Duty tnconfiftent with 
\ cclefaftical Cenfures^ 116. 

Councils generally aft from * Principle* of 

- $elf~Intereftj>i94 An^ Account of that at 

* l^ice, 196, c^r. By undermining the 

Chriftian Religion? deftroy*d - the EJfence 

. .<?/ if, 202. A^f inflvenc d by the Holy 

5p; m, 205. ^^<5 wf by an Indc- 

fendent Power ^ but u the Emperors plets dj 

383. What they do, has no Force ttnlefs 

the Supreme Power confirm f /f, 384. See 

- Synods. 

Cyprian Se*.his Judgment concerning the 
Power of the People ijt Church-Afairs, 

D. < - 

> .U v. V, .. .,,.;. . , ,,. , 

DEgradation if nothing^ if there is an in- 
^delible Charatter bcftow d : by Ordin*- 

M\V* i \ : 352. 

. Difcipline <?/ f^?tf CWc/; w///J i# altered -. ac- 
cording to oar ion* Circumfttnwj > * l 3 8. 

* / 


- -wrto 







ity, If. b^tng t 

*, &C. 

-ii- . t , 

^ Reformation b* fy tktVonfcnt of thfffer- 

Ec^cftaftlcai Officers;^/ fc ^w f uf^ ^ ^ 
, *f topic only, fattufe tfay are for fair ;*kcs, 
5f $V their Independent Porter do uck 

Ecclefiafticks, Diirijw .*,>& ~ 

tneans to jreferve Religion and CM Liber 
ty, 280. Ai*W ntrrorfd the Terms of 
Communion, and why, ? ^* 

feducatioii of Voutb, tvhynot to to tntrvjte* \to 

tej i 

Ejnperors, tfltr they became Chrljti* 9 

,*rrf,i 64 * 

LO " ~J* * *lr** uvetiwi 

PC *t* 2 ?5- Tfce Church of % , 
v*g^ e &W M g fWW thmefam, 

^forrn of ChurckrGwtrnmcnt fix*d,fy_ God^ 

\the Power if making Minijtcrs to Bit 

-,^y. - 

Bq. ;.4w ! f > 

the ir tram Cenjenty . 
Bftecm W Rindnefs 
rf^f / fta w , 

^f f w , u . 

Excluding Men f irnnmtl . Mi*n,fa 
Ctmmvnion > vnittctnintatic? 80 
to the je/ 

p rgy 

Excoinmamcation, rfcr 

, * * detrimental to t he 

.t ;* r^* Jews, 42. , 

mans 43. ^ ;> *MI it 


ii. &t.>n,*t>ti tm l 

r. , -* 1 " . 

|. -j ;, Fathers 



Fathw have W \ih tftitftoy, but rtflr flirt <t I 

, -:, . - v,c. ..G. . , } 

...V.! Vv/ ".& VA </> t \. V - 

GPP t&s different ly, M Gwtrrtor of t he 
Wnlvtrfe* And At Prince of * jww*- 

> ./W $**Qfty , l.SV. j 

GojlpCiL ciptt <* jtot \ hdvff . &sen ^itMtntain d, tj 
, the Independent Power of tilt Clergy h<ut< 
, bstn Ajfirted byits frft Preachers, 1 82. 
Government u onlyly ths Confcnt of -the Par* 
, .tyt concerted,, 1*. A^Qbjettiort ?<tinft itJ. 
unfaer**!, 8. Mterttioxi* it by we fame 
vay^ p. Having recourfe to Any fitch for 
Prote&ionis vrs>ruttgtt 9 37 5* 

Governors foody ought to be moft apprehtn~ 
** five\ of \tnt Notion of two Independent 
v Powers* .. ,i<8: 

HEathens, tfenr Cw/^w < f 
Men taken from the Druids, pp. 
they di/er J, did not jerfecvte we. another ^ 
2<5o. 2Vbr J?M^ Wwen Religious Ac- 
\ ^counts, . ibid. 

.Heathen Prieftsr/^ Original of 

t High-Church facrifice the Ends of Civil and , 
JLcctefi<tftical Government to very unfit 
Means, 145. TfoiV Folly and Madnefs+ 4- 
-ibid* /.o-ve iwr ^ /nwcr w/;o makes*, the 
..Good of hi* Country bis great eft Car e^ 2,83. 
: Why they like not Corporations for employ- . 
ingthePoor^ &c 285. The Miracles they? 

C/J- 7 x ! 

. -i : .. 
TftEOLC3ICAL ?:?.; 

319. why they maintain the Church 
of Rome to be a true one> 322. Their 
Exettfe for carejfing the trofift d 

*<of Cwtrch and Statei *ortj! 

-wvn Communioft with the 

this abroad) guilty of Schifm 

" main difference between* them 

wherein it lies, V *,- > *v^^:hv\ ^41 o 

Holinefs in inanimate thingt <>* Cwfecttttion 

tht Oaafion if ntamfild SuperftitieM, 596 

Holy Ghoft:, GMbgit in^ making* Cl 

man<) what it meant) " V -K f ^-m, 

if\- v - : * v * ^i.-*,*-, 

;,-; \\\,. ,. A vtV JlOfll^Vc vK 

JAcobitcsi (#*c. ty preundifig t&* bf<fir 
the Church^ jrevent an Examination of 
their Condutt> 2po- 

Jews excluded none from their Synagogues 
for Moral Vncleannefsy 98. T^iV^Laws 
v the befl when fram^d^ becaufe inoft adapted. 

* to their Circumftjince*? I49* frequently 
<hand) and at laft abM d by\Ood him" 

i 50. Why fo India d to Suverftition, 
Their Levites not ordain* a by lay- 

- ing on of Hands+ : - 3$2>* 

Ignorance, &c. in the Laity increafes* ac- 

; - cordinr to the Clergy * Pwer* iff any place, 

i?-i-.; ,Vjr,j v ,i.Vv;"./-12. 

* Immoral A&ions^ excluding- Men ^from 
Religion* Community s for them vnaccoun- ( 

table^ 89. Contrary to the Rult) *f Cha* 
n/y, ,* , 9 2 * 

* * . i ?^ Inde- 

Independent Power, trot fah in the fame 

State, the Impoffibitty fievn, 33, & c ; 

Convcrfant About the fame things *!**- 

. **rf Tto&t^JMX ih^Proff* 


- Vmvfa becaufe it fdjefa T&fi ** * 
rb* forte CrfitoiW* * ^ 
Ordinatio^ inon/ifttnt nth the 

* Xigte- / 

47- 9 


ffr/?- Preachers Weber owd *>> 1 

v * r /^^ 

^-i 84;* . f r/;f 
fi i 

... r .188. !?>>> -^ 

without" the Clergfs , .., 
* JVbf fff be allow* d* em by L... ^ 
- inThints EcctepaJHcd, 24^ Dejirutttoe 
> to Morality, &c. -" 
^Mlndf^i^ S** 
~* flition in the-Laity^ _ 
* " tending its Doftrine, 277* 

^ jufHyefteem d who difown it,- $03. Fh^ 
Belief of it equal to that of Tt*nfubf*h* 

ludicial Vower pretended ro ty . f /?^ C/<rpS 
Siv. / fer 70, &c. 


,-, , -.^ 


*-" }>rn-*. 

, ( 

- -> , - ..., 

Aity imbrotfd in. *h* $*#rtfa of their 
Eccltfaftich^ 143. ,.Um, *$&*i ro 
t th* Clergy at the beginning of tbe Reform*- 
n^iwi.i. .England, 217. Sh<nfdnQt;fa 
\KkAt the Clergy impofe in Provincial <Sy- 
-nodi And Councils^ 240, &C. Art ebtigd 

to rtnowst ?th*ir Tt4ckerS) if [crrontw ^ 
,242. Why not now fo much under th* 

Domination of the Clergy as formerly 255. 
<Qfht Pofijh Mi^ion^ how they received 
.leneft fa the Protcfants fepartting from 
.them, 2$2. Their Prefcription in Spiritual 
\ Matters, W long time nece/tryto nuAeit 
ftfsinto Kgfaiw. 371. 

taymcn fre^ntty, frwclfd .in the Afcfto* 
; fad Times* 132. And btptiz dt 135. 

Heir Knowledge being impov d f*t*l to 
^Prifjlcraft) 2?<5. VrwWd frequently in 
>.the Vniverfttyt in Queen Elisabeth / 

Lcgiflators, in making Law h*ve had rc- 
to, the Tempers, &C. / their Sub* 


% */w(?^ the Jems not ordtirfd by laying 
*n of Hands y - 3^2. 

Lord s Supper. tit being held fuch * Myftery 
by the Primitive CkriftiAtitj reflettcd Dij~ 
.honour nf on the Chriflian Reli^ion^ 97. 
I-, Why the Clergy <u*r/d in their Notions and 
Pr attic ts concerning />, lot. Why the 
receiving it WM thought abfolutely neceffary^ 
(103. Not nectQarily to be re reiv d from 
the Hands of a Priefl^ 1 04. 



:^]Qp%abtcaVi fable: 

. V". 

./ -;. .-. -.. m -\:>, n x-wv*. v/a 
> tr>feff Power he -bat in mat 
rJij 0JVt iv> Wbcibtr he b* 
, in theSf ecvtitiw <&d CcrMoniAlJ art 
V t^fU ^ ^ ^ W5?ltf ovsr InM^ 

; ct #y- fff r 


his Subject/ 

l* 4T 


to Ajfftthe Clergy in wtM% their 
> Decree* in e^cution^ $7- Th*<ttheyb*vi 
t ^i// Civd Power in Ecclffajl teals wewn, 
*- ^pv - -. TiwV ^Prerogative inv&ded by thi > 
sy.Cl*rff*HfriHct-i* SfirhuM Power, 69* 
-J Intntfltd by the Civil Society with Power 

by the 

Cfrrgy f<^ te immediately 

.1 frcm God, ^^. TK^MW ^^ 
. 4 P<?trrr P/ depriving Ecclefafticks^ 37*- 
Mankind w^ ^;r f^ frefer their wnlntcreft^ 
s fo 4wy Motive^ . " ? 94 

Marriage: ta>f frohibited to Ectlcp tfticxH 
t dtjln&ivtto. the fttbtkklnitfeft) 263 . 
Maxinate *bitk>fom* Protect Divines *J- 
S Cert, i f tfc >*fc coimt&tnn Popery, 39 1 , c. 
Means to au End mutable; the Confe^uencet 




Mei* before Agreements and Compatts in * 
State of Equality +1&. Why fomc fttppof* 
Governours in Religion* a* well & Civil So" 

x*.\ itm . 

s^<% otyvdtd o^j^ 

ony V^.v:V) A I V.. . ) ; u* V.v\ 

Mhiiftry -iw .RcUwn^iti, End * 
arch Spirit AaiJK. iht 

.EfdtfMftital+w to 

K -;. vv:.v; k . ^ ^ u V, r % .^47- 
Moral Thbg onlr oWrtar f :t\tM^ at j 

* .. tombing zlonf. t* A forcer of Refrofrivg). ccc. 

^;c ^v- iv$. s )| 

v v ,./,, \\ -\ \,\ .* \Vj.H r, -; ; . i. 
: <-. N- ., 1-u ?. JM t 


admit >*n Vnhcr 

Qregpry v Jbp Opinion *fG*n*r*l 

. .-... v . 

^ Mr. 

,,-,;/ ibid. 

. ( 

librcia, Rcpublick there, kctpf Pritft 
^fut.Q^hcGovtip^enti . \ A ^ . : " : -^74 


. i^ -rS 1 *T m .^^ 
~jjfft9?d ly High-Church^ * i85. 

vtkv.U ^ -A-A 7vr * M v;. -.ol. rftiaivi 

* \ \ 

f Doftrtnc 

Ordination of Mincer*, by the Clergy^ not 

mention* d in Scriyurej ,, . . v 358. 

pr tho&OX y, &c, .. , jiot , the Foundation of 

Oxford Decree of .16$$) concerning the Vn- 

, -: . 

|ApIfts in fome ,fl*r* fee how dtftruftive 
t be Principle of . their, Clergy it to G> 
". went* 113* ,No fart of the true * 
* lick Church) 32O*.;T^^ great tdv 
Jrptfcfhp Protefl^nt Clergy t4ktnginconjiftent 
with themfilves, % 405. 

?av^l 5r*. makes the Clergy s claiming fin Inde* 
jttndfnt Power to be AntlclmftiMii . , I jp 
^aulp )?Ather<i his fwrs of England^ being 


"l k 

An Alphabetical ITiblef 

dangerous- to S*fyjTiWX&ijMS 
? */ fctf JEwp/r* Wfr Confidence^ I id; Mob 
fre judicial to CornmonweWtl}i)\- VM !< 
Philofopbers, r&* ^itmf b^thW otfd 
uWfurfrtfd to fee tip Condntt ~of thofc 
floTtf, Wtr/y, t ^nV 

Popedpm mi ro tt^tvtilkd i fuppoffig tfa 
Neceffih of one^ternal ffead fa Eccti- 
> fyfticals, 
Popifh Clergy wr ^ 

Trwi/y, 75. ^^- f Druids, 
\ differ^ loo.- Their Zcar for 
.^ ^ *nd -iP^-223.- T^cir- Indelible Ckaraft 
- confidcSd,w,&Q. Mick obtttfd not f 
feme ^ges among the "Clergy j 35 

P6Wcr naturally in the Body ofthe pMptel 
: ><5.->*r!jc sivjurdxy of two: Independent one? 
"in the fame Society , *2p. "Independent muft 
be Supreme,* 33. -Tfo Im^offibility of iwJ 
fah the fame Society, ibid, why only 
one froiSd be in a Society^ $6. Civil 
wurr/o be fleuded for than Ecclefafiicalj 
-234.<vCff r extend further than it fclf 
* r f^cW/,37pi 5rr Independent- : * 
Preaching wr *Pprvpri*ttd to the Clergy, but 
.common in the Apoftles time, 132. TOf 
V Conferences of the r each of that Cuftem, 

Always vs d fynonymoujly, 152; 
Superiority in one WAffflaUtjVJ^ 
Presbyterians ^w wa frrfrctf w ; **- 
> innrfvjttd Succefliw from the tyofrles, 

Prcfcription / m jrr for i^ rr 

An Alphabetical Table. 

upon Change of Government, ibid. 

Priclts, Heathen, the Origin fit of Excommu* 

nication, 9$ 

Princes, the more they arc inclined to RfligiW) 

.the more liable to be Influenced by the Clergy 

vgainftthe publick Good, 270. Hindering 

Tjfurptttions over the Conscience, * woud make , 

Mt .t happy, - 284* 

Protf,ftant Cantons allow not Excommunica- 

. tlm to be any fart of Ecclcfiaftical Difci- 

flinej 107. Writers acfaoiptedg there 

* is no particular Form of Church-Govern- 

,rnent of Divine Appointment^ 174. W\yy 

Trot eft ants forbid the meeting of Synods, 

202. "Their Advantage over the P.ipifls, . 

253. "Their Clergy M zealous for Indcpen- 

* - dent Power as the Popiflj, 279. At the 

Reformation^ tho differing about Abodes of 

Difeiptine , forbore not communicating 

with one another , 344. Can have no Ri- 

jhops without fuppofag the deceaSd Bifiofs 

fewer devolving to the People, 389. Di- 

vines affert fome Maxims too much coun- 

tenanting Popery : what they are, 391. 

Proteltantifm, its Efferice, wherein it con- 

Puffendorf, Mr. flews how the Vniverfitys 

were zeatow for promoting the Power of 

. the Pope, 224, 

Punifliments, Eternal, belong only to God, 

, 6j. Ecclefaftittlj the Dcfign of em, 

85. How they may be faid to be 5f/r/- 

tvfd) , $ 6 , 


: . 

. Ff R. 

>^,-j . . - 

An Alphabetical Table. 

.... v * 



REal> Pretence in the Sacrament, rvhy 
ttughtby the PopiJJj C rrgy, 103, But 
, / rejected by the Reformers, 104. The Opi 
nion of rnofl. ProteflantS) 397. 

Reformation in the Church hat been by 
Laymw, m oppojttion to the Body of the 
Clergy,. 211. in England .promoted by 
i A . Henry Vs depriving the Clergy of part 
of their Power and Riches, 215 ; Vm*n* 
f l > *f there is (in Independent Power in the 

c ! er & \ 232. 

.Religion, W ncccffary to the Support of 
Hitman Society t, 13. ?<> fa c hof f n by eve 
ry one for himfclft 23. In the Protefiant 

Country* purer than in the Fopifa 212, 
Why not fo corrupted in fomc places as in 
others, 219. j^ ot ordaiJd for God s, but 
i< r fh* 289. 

Reproving and rebuking People, not pecidiar 
to the Clergy, 1 09. Ouatif cations nfceffa- 
ryforit, /, . 

Roman And Greek Citizens, wlyythey were fuch 
Lovers of their Country, 295. Wty it is 
otherwife with them now, 



IAcramentS, their, Validity deftrofd by 
(iffming A particular Set of Ecclcpajficks, 
130. Why the ir Number -mas increased by 
the Romifi Clergy, 248, 

Schifm f r events <tny Claim to Jpoftolicat 
Tower, 3JIt 


An Alphabetical Tablet 

School-Divinity, -why contrived by the Ro- 
tni/h Clergy, 226, What Advantage to the 
Clergy y it)id. Of ufe to fome to evade 
OtthS) . 227. 

Scripture takes not front) nor adds any Power ^ 
to the Magiftrate) 2. Makes no mention 
of any particular Form of Ghurch-Jjovern- 

- rnent) 1 74. Gives the People of a Church 
fufficient Right to make life of what Means 
they plcafe) 238. 

Self-prefcrvation the Original of appointing 
Government, I o. 

Succefiion, an uninterrupted one of BifropS) 
the Abfurditys of it) 313. By it no Reli 
gion* Society without them can be a Clrrif- 
tian Church^ 314. Weakens the Prote- 
flant Caufe, 315. Prot eft ants by it can t 
be a True Church^ 37.8. Tloe Line now i/n- 
. certain, &c. 349. Deftroys t he very Bein 
of a Church^ 36 5, If it has been inter 
rupted) the People had power to make their 
<*>n>n Officers) 370. 

Synods, why fo magnify*d by the Clergy^ - 

193. .Aft commonly for their ow*t Inter eft y 

194. Why forbid by ProteftantS) 2O2. 
Tho not abolffid in England, yet their 
Power curtailed) 203. Not influenced by 
the Holy Spirit) 205. If composed ef Lay- 
men) there woifd not have been fo many Cor~ 
ruptions in the Church) 2 1 o. 


TEmple, Sir. William, his Qbfervttion on 
Religion in Holland, 213. 

Temporal Conduftcrs not being irnpos dy Spiri 
tual ought not) 240. 



% there fioud lc 

- for Chi I Employ^ .287. 

Tc (lament, the Ncw^ m where flews a Law 
, depriving People of their Right of atting in 
"Church-Matters^ i$6. ut the contr*ry 9 

Texts to prov$ the Apoflles had a Right to go- 

ycrn the Church aha appoint Succejfors^ &c., 

^ con/id cSdi I- i<52,&:c. 

Tyrants, their Commands juftify not thoft 

who ajflft them 9 25. jtdvATJtAgcow to an 

. ambitious C/rrgy, 276. 

T.TEnice, the Senate of, Supreme in Eccle- 

.vV fwfiical) at well as in Temporal Af- 

fair 5^ 253* fences ft ftlf again ft the 

Principles of the Priefts^ 273. 

Univerfal Head or Bfoopj without it the 
Church cannot be united in it felf^ confi- 
der*dj , 44 

Universities, why zealous for the Power of , 
the Pope, 224., When woft prejudicial to 
the Publicly 302. Why they ajfcrt the un- . 
interrupted .Succeflion of Bifhofii , 348. 


Tl|TAldcnres r endeavoured to be extir- 

\. patedat the /v/;/>:^//v of . ? ( f^ CVy 

Wars on account of Religion^ frequent when 
. the Clergy came to govern Princes^. 261* 

X H E E N D.