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$008 of jfufcgce 




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Bp eminent Q0t6ftcaf edjofare of (Europe anfc cHmertca 





of Jfufcgee 










The REV. G F MOORE, D. D. 



Qpaffimore onbon 









U. S. PATENT NO. 577,253 

D. R. G. M. NO. 28,784 


[AU rights reserved \ 

72 -oH3<s-g< jafufcgea -ea- 21,8 22 

(8.9.12) &y, the prevailing orthography; M tPU 1 in v. 8, vty in vv. 9.12. 

(i i) The instructions in M (<5 AL <33t) seem to be defective in the most important 
particular, namely, the direction to preserve the virgins alive. (8 L P rraaav be 
vedviba (var. fuvaiKa) trapGe vov -rrepnroiricraaGe, so, sub lemnisco, <S H (the met- 
obelus erroneously after vedviba), 05 VN al. rac; be mxp6e vou<; irepiTroirjaeaee, 3 5 
virgines autem reservate; HOUB. emends accordingly; so DATHE, GEDDES, 
KAUTZSCH, GRATZ (rnn n^imn nxi). 

(13) jlBin as above, 21,47; & P 12 " 1 - D1 ^- Many codd. and some old edd. 0"\bvb. 

(17) }&tth ntp^S VB jri *px, a precarious conjecture. The people ask how Benjamin 
can be preserved from utter destruction, seeing that all the women had been 10 
killed (v. i6 b ), and that they cannot give wives to the surviving men. So L P 
TTUJC; <JTCU K\f|po<; biaaw6uevoq TLU Bevia,uiv eic; KXripovouiav, xai ou ur) e^aXeiqpefj 
cpuXr] & lo-panX; cf. <BV". jfl p^f? nts^D ntfV, ACsBsL^H xXnpovouia bia- 
aeawauevr] TUJ B., (D VN biaatutoiaevijuv (all reading as Jit). Bu. (-tf-.S) conj. n*iB^J 
no^S, but the assertion is somewhat superfluous, and the following clause, *?! 15 
nno\ seems to require a question or an expression of purpose. GRATZ [Bu., 
conj. iTi N^i let us leave a remnant, erroneously alleging S 

(19) r6t?3, normal orthography, as in v. 12; M 1^3; another variation in v. 21. 

WBPH nnttt, as elsewhere; ill nrnto (clittography). 20 

(20) 1W1, with Q e re and all the Versions, the plural is necessary; K e thib 1!T1. 

(21) rt^B^ twice, see on v. 19; Jtt 1^^. 

^in^. We should expect, according to usage, ^in^, f/i v. 23 (Bu.). 

(22) |nus, pTlN; grammatical correction of the suffixes referring to the maidens of 
Shiloh; Jtt Dm3, DiTn; see above, on 19,24. y~b Q e re ; K e thib 311 1 ?. 25 
ill iyV ; codd. (of more than one recension) S H -rtpoc; ujaci?, / . ^. D3^K. 
nonboa inX WX inp^ ^ ^ Dm wn, z. e. because in the attack upon Jabesh not 
enough virgins were found to give a wife to the 600 Benjamites (STUDER). This 
restoration follows (5 CsBsVn 5 H ( eXeriaare auTou?, on OUK eXa^ev (var. eXaftov) 
dvrip YuvaiKa auroO dv TLU iroX^|Lia); so LL P, but with the omission of the negative. 30 
The same text is represented in a slightly different translation by (5 N e"Xeoc; 

OTI OUK eXa^ev . . . e"v Tfj irapaxdEei, and by 5 .\pcnAi. *M*>I 
Q J ?! ^? ^^- i9 ) an d 3, which interprets: miseremini coruni : non 
cnitn rapiierunt eas jure bellantiuin atque victorum. (5 A differs only in reading 
(with Jil) ^Xdpo|aev; M "lil unp!? K*? 2 cnix liian grant us them (the girls), because 35 
ivc did not take, &c., supported only by (5 V and &. unp^ 1 is a correction, prompt 
ed by the reflection that it was the speakers, and not the six hundred Benjamites 
who made the attack on Jabesh; this led subsequently to the change of Dnix un, 
to Uian. The whole clause seems to me to be secondary; see below. Bu. emends 
in conformity with 6 LL P: inK N inpb ^, but the absence of 5 H from this group 40 
weighs heavily against it, and the rape of the Shilonite maidens would hardly be 
described as nar6)33. 

lOlPNn nri? ^ DnV Dnn: DHN ^ S for had yc given (the maidens) to them, ye 
would be guilty (scil. of breaking your oath). The words connect immediately 
with nniK *an, and give the reason why indulgence should be shown to the 45 
robbers. M, here supported by all the Versions, nj?3 . . . *6 3. STUDER and 
GRATZ, conj. ^ or xb; the confusion of this particle with the negative is frequent 
in JH and the Versions. J1J73 should then be emended nnj> 3, the usual introduc 
tion of the apodosis after \b. The impf. lOtrwn is an objection to this construction 
of the clauses, but perhaps not a conclusive one. 50 

20,41 48 -**$ 3 M &3 ee *^-"Bfc- 71 

2O movement is narrated in due order. Examples of an infinitive construction con 

tinued, with change of subject, by finite tense, Gen. i8,25;Ex. 33, 16; 2 S 13,28. 
The consec. impf. in Jit is a consequence of misinterpretation, under the in 
fluence of v. 41. [The alternative is to reject the whole verse as a repetitious 
interpolation, with Bu., Coining 5 

(41) vty. Many codd. l^K. 

(42) The verse was perhaps originally preceded by 35 . 36 a ; see above p. 70, 11. 23ff. 
This accounts for the plur. 13DM, for which, in the present surroundings, we 
should expect ]W\ (Bu., Coming. 

jira ini nvrrwe Tynn "IBM, conj. on exegetical grounds. The meaning of the 10 
half-verse seems to be that the ambush, after firing the city, sallied from it and 
attacked the retreating Bejamites in the rear; cf. Jos. 8,22 TJ?n p IKS 1 r6m 
nB n^KI niB H JN "pm ^N-IW^ vm nniOp 1 ?. So 3 interprets, sed et hi qui urbein 
sitccenderant, occurrerunt eis\ cf. (& L P oi v T^| iroXei (codd. 76.106.134. euro ff\c, 
TToXeuic) biecpGeipav aurov iv ja^aa) aurwv; GRATZ emends in a similar way, 15 
erroneously alleging 5, whose ik,*,.ji~>;o, if not a corruption of itwyji^;, repre 
sents a wholly different interpretation. Jit 13in3 . . . D njjnc ; the plural may 
have arisen by dittography of the initial D of the following word. The half-verse, 
with v. 43, is the work of a late writer, who probably had Jos. 8,22 in mind; 
that the meaning is not very clearly expressed does not militate against the 20 
soundness of the restoration. 

(43) warn mtD jnjn nri nj? nrmo p^n n inns. A perhaps overbold attempt to re 
construct the corrupt text. The verse describes the pursuit and slaughter of the 
Benjamites; for nj?33n of Jil, we must substitute ym: the pursuit cannot have 
ceased at a point opposite Gibe ah on the east, while Geba lies in the line of 25 
flight toward Rimmon, and the difficult passage of the ravine between Geba and 
Michmash may well have checked the pursuit. For this terminus ad quern we 
require a terminus a quo, and can find it only in the word nrmo which 05 VN al. 
also take as a proper name, diro Noim (so MERCIER, HouB., STUDER); cf. 
nmj i Chr. 8,2, son of Benjamin, / . e. Benjamite clan or village (with which 30 
nniv Jos. 16,6, on the border of Ephraim, is scarcely to be combined). For the 
verb nro of Jit, (0(0 have KareKoirTov, Kai4.Ko\\>av, exoipav which suggests inn:, 

or VH3 (ZlEGLER). Possibly the author may have written nn3 in the sense gave 
no respite to them, kept at them (Aram., Syr.). The two other verbs in M, ins i n ; )n, 
wannn, are doublets, both corrupt, and perhaps originally a gloss. [On this 35 
verse see Bu., Comtn] 

(44 b ) nb>N ^3 TK. GRATZ omits n as dittogram to the preceding WX; but in v. 46 b this 

explanation fails. 

(45) ]!Din J^D ^ mmisn IDiri WB^. The words are out of place here; they have been 
accidentally repeated from v. 47 a , where they belong, the error being occasioned 40 
by the preceding bvi n^N n"? ^3, vv. 44 b .46 b (TORREY). 

J?33 iy, see above on v. 43; CD N fa^aa, fa^a (fortunate accident), ACsBsSrLLpg 
TaXaab, uncial corruption of Fabaau. (codd. and 5 H ), S vys-^^ ; GEDDES and 
GRATZ would emend: ]15?3J; but Gibeon is in the wrong direction; JU nVl? ^y, 
which may be an infinitive. 45 

(47 b ) lltnn ytel, as in a ; M A article. 

(48) one TJ?0, as in Deut. 2,34; 3,6; Job 24,12; so many codd. and some old edd. 
here, STUDER, KROCHMAL, WELLH. ; JJl one, which is meaningless. GRATZ and 
BUHL (cf. also KAUTZSCH) conj. DINB, as in Ex. 9,25 &c. [For Dhlp cf. Grit. Notes 
on Isaiah, p. no, 1. 38; p. 197, 1. 6.] 50 

ntsm nj>. Here and in the following some codd. 1JM. [The expression DTlO TJ?D 
ny is singular; Bu., Comm., suspects that something has dropped out.] 

70 -^H3*-^ jjutyee 4%<s?*&*~ 20,3339 

2O u^K eiaeXeuaeaGe dxei Kai dperre irupaov d<; ui|;o<; Kai diuaTpevyouev dir auroix; 

xai eKKoiyouev OUTOUI;. Kai f|\6ov oi uioi Beviajuw dc, diravTriaiv roO XaoO Kai 
&-ei\Ku09n.0av K Tf|<; TToXeuuc, K.T.. (beginning the verse again). Apparently a 
marginal comment, derived in substance from vv. 38 ff. ; the author rightly felt 
that some explanation was necessary. 5 

m3 DJ7B3 DJ7EO D^n Dyn man"? l^m. Before m3 in, supported by all the 
Versions, has nnjni nrlNl ^n 3 n!?!? nnx -it?x rnboas. The roads are mentioned 
in vv. 32.45 (cf. 21,19); but the words, which manifestly intrude, are probably 
a fragment of the preceding gloss, 111 nibD03 Tyn ]fi ipmn. For nnySJ some 
emendation is necessary; the road by which the Benjamites were advancing from 10 
Gibeah would not be described as leading to Gibeah; V3J has been suggested 
(cf. v. 43); others, pjna [so Bu., Comm.]. 

(33) lp ^Itf" tt N ^21; in-t-liptttt, which is attested by the Versions also; accidental 
repetition, or reminiscence of places like Jos. 8,19 lOlpOtt mn Dp 311 NH1. The 
expression cannot be forced to mean, they made a stand where they were, and 15 
reformed their lines. [Bu., Comm., conj. DOIpfcls.] 

ripaa^ 2i t |?p, with ACsBsSrLLpVn^H^ dtro buaiuOuv rfi^ Popaa, 3 ab occidentals itrbis 
partc (cf. Jos. 8,4.9.19), HOUB., KAUTZSCH, GRATZ. iH J>?J m.Pae, V Mapaa- 

N codd. Maapa 

[Bu., Comm., 

(34) njn:6 nJ30 1D"1. Many codcl. of ilt, and 2", read 23:tt, j<?//^ of Gibeah, which 
HOUB. would adopt. 

(35-36 a ) TORRKY conjectures with much probability that these verses, which are mani 
festly premature before vv. 36 b fif. (cf. ZIKGLKR), and which WELLH. and others 
regard as a late addition, originally stood after v. 41, and were accidentally mis- 25 
placed by a scribe whose eye, in copying, strayed from njnn Dfvty nyJ3 ^, at 
the end of v. 34, to the similar njnn vty nj?i3 "O at the end of v. 41. V. 42 
connects very well with v. 36. The analysis of the passage is not affected by 
this transposition. 

(36 b ) nj?2Jn hy, so JACOB KHAYYIM, a/., reading of the Oriental schools; the Western 30 
text has h- NORZI, BAR, GINSBURG. 

(38) iai orntyr6 anixn DJ? bxw wh HTI nyioni. After mixn -tfliJ + rvi, for which 
some codd. and old edd. have :nn, fiACsSrLVnSH K ai Y\ auvraYH rjv dvbpi lapar(\ 
irp6<; TO ?vebpov |ucixaipa, roO dvevef Kai autou? irupaov K.T.^. In C5 Sr irpo? TO 
tvebpov sub ast.; doubtless the signs are misplaced, and belong to ucixaipa, 35 
which BsLp omit. (5 V N ^CTO TOO dvtbpou Tf|c udxn?- 3S do not translate the 
word. Probably 3in is a mutilation of miKH (BERTH., Bu., KAUTZSCH, GRATZ) ; 
2"in a correction which at least gave a real word. 

<tt Dnbyn 1 ?. Bu. and GRATZ conj. nibyn^> (D dittogram). The omission of the 

suff. is necessary if Tin be retained (STUDER); but if 3"in be dropped the suff. 40 

is quite right. 

ill ]E>j?n nty. Bu. emends: \\ffy-, (C) does not express the article. If the emen 

dation I have proposed in the next clause be accepted, the article would not be 


(39) nr6n3 biOtr tf N TJBni and that (upon this signal) the men of Israel should 45 
turn about in the battle, and confront their pursuers; continuing the account of 
the plan agreed upon between the main body and the division in ambush, v. 38; 

cf. the execution of this stratagem in vv. 40.41. The verse-division should then 
come after ncr6)23. in ^Bn>l, which can only be taken as a narrative tense, 
with <5 A al. avfeaTpetyav, &c., and has led in (6VN to the introduction of a narra- 50 
tive gloss, Kai eibov oi uioi I0pan.\ OTI irpoKaTeXdjkTo TO gvebpov TH.V Tafiaa, Kai 
e<nr)aav iv Tfj irapaTdEei, K.T.. This leaves the statement of the plan incom 
plete, and, on the other hand, anticipates v. 41, where the execution of the 

20, 1 8 3i -ota*^* j$ut>$te $&&*- 69 

20 On grounds merely of transcriptional probability, we might be inclined to think 

that the clause had fallen out by homaeoteleuton (CLERicus); but the intrinsic 
probability is here strongly in favor of the shorter reading. HOUB. takes the 
other alternative (the seven hundred are not the Gibeathites, whose number is 
not given because they were not in the field, but the corps of slingers), and 5 
emends : "m mm tt"x ni jn nin oyn bsa npsnm. [See also Bu., Comm} 
The words 1VO S "V "IBX are removed to the foot of the page, as an old gloss 
(they are found in all the Versions) derived from 3,15; Ehud s tribesmen of 
P S 33 had the same peculiarity as he. 

yblp m hi; cf. v. i? b nente CPK nt ^2. The words refer not to the Gibeathites 10 
only, but to all the Benjamites, whose skill in shooting was famous; see i Chr. 


rnyfcn, so NORZI, BAR, locative of 1to Is. 7,20; the current text, nnpfcn, is fern. 
(nomcn unitatis], 

KBIT Nbl; M KBIT Hif, score a miss; Qal is equally possible. 15 

(18) bxjTO ibjn- In most editions hK ri 3 in two words (JACOB KHAYYIM, NORZI, GINSB.); 
the Jewish interpretation, of which 3 is here a representative (in doinum Dei, 
hoc cst, in Silo\ shows that it was so written. 

nbnra nty" mirr, with (0 avapriaerai, as in v. a and in 1,2; JH3S& r6nn3 min"; the 
ellipsis is not usual. 20 

(20) 5 omits v. 2O a , and incorporates the substance of v. 20^ in v. 21. 
p 33 DJ?. Many codd. ltt 33 "33 DJ, ; similarly in v. 35; 21,6. 

(21) M nj?33n p; ACsBsSrLLpVnSHg K T f| ? uoXeuK; the name has probably been 
substituted in iJl for greater definiteness. 

(22.23) GEDDKS transposes the two verses; by which a rational connection is made. So 25 
also STUDER. 

(22) ^Niw B>"N pmm, with (5 Kai dviaxuaav dvi ip lapanX, 35 (C3 Sr 5H * 6 \ao<; \< dvrip I., 
which (1)1- has received into the text}; Al$ ^Xl^ " DJ>n, doublet; cf. v. 26. 

(23) bwra, so Bu., cf. v. 26; ill 13^1 bs W "33 ibyi, so all the Versions; ^NIVO was 
accidentally omitted after ^>&nc" ^33 ; see on 2,1. 30 
Jil "nx ^13^33 M3 DJ?; 6 Sr utiuv ^//^ ast. ; not improbably ^33 is secondary, cf. ^HK 
and rbs. In v. 24 also uiout; is asterisked in 6 Sr , and there it is lacking in 
(BALp(f . b u t 6 y; vv. 28.30. 

(26) t ?1B <l ^3 ^3; 4tt and all the Versions + nyn bsi ( A (D S, probably by accident); 
doublet, accommodated by the insertion of the conjunction; cf. v. 22 and above, 35 
p. 67, 1. 24. 

.Jit DB> 13Bn ; ffiSr K ai ^KdGiaav iv.i\ sub as/., A ffiLp. ^H ^ K t ^^ rtJ /. ; ^ (gCsBsVn rt /. 
JH 3nj?n nj?; SrgH g^^ ^ aTT ^ pa? j^ ^j/^ ^ CsBsLpVn a /. 

(27) D s nbxn m3 pix DtPV A good example of the uncertainty of the tradition in this 
phrase: ffiASrLLpVn^H ^ Ki^iuToc biaOriKnc Kupiou, so also 3$; (gvCsBsN Kupiou 40 
TOU 9eoO; 3 area foederis Dei. These words, and the following to Dnn D tt^S in 

v. 28 are a late gloss (WELLH.). GEDDES transposes the passage, placing it after 
v. 26, and bringing v. 27 a immediately before loxb (v. 28), by which a better 
connection is secured. Doubtless this is the place for which the gloss was in 
tended. 45 

(31) DJ?n niOp ? Vtt 33 ^3 1K3P1; Jtt-f TJ>n ]0 1pn3n, which the Versions also found here 
The asyndetic perfect shows that this clause is not part of the sentence in which 
it now stands; it comes, moreover, too early in the narrative, and seems to be 
a gloss from Jos. 8,16, suggested by v. 32 Tj?n )tt ini3pn3l (BERTH.). (5 L P al. 
have here a long passage which is not found in ill or the other Versions; after 50 
the words Kai ^ei\Kuo9naav K T?|? iroXewc;, it continues, air^aTeiXev bd oi uioi 
lapar|\ xiMouc; avbpa? ei<; Tfjv 6bov, Kai ^vereiXavTO auToT<; X^YOVT<;, TTopeueaGe 
irpo? TOV im TUJV dv^bpuuv TOTTOV, Kai ^ffrai orav ^KiropeuajvTav K rf 

68 -etso-ss- ^fubgee ;s-gfej*>- 20,10 16 

Nanya nby 3n3 <? w/// A? /<?/</ off, evidently connecting with v. 10 ; 3 \ ja n*Vv JjifJi 
w^ re//// tvz.y/ lots over it, in which way CLERICUS also would complete the sense, 
and GRATZ would emend. Bu. (R-S} emends: Vyi53 n) ?? [Co mm., blia n^B3], and 
makes the words the beginning of v. 10. 

(10) p aa nyaa 1 ? nwy 1 ?; JHffiVN p 33 yaab D1S^ nityj? 1 ?. The emendation nyaa 1 ? ((S3) 5 
is self-evident; with 6V&z they had nothing to do. The confusion of the two 
names is common; see below vv. 33.43; i S 13,16. For DNab, ACsBsSrLLpVnSH 
read QXlb (TO!<; eioTropeuoutvoK;). We might perhaps retain the word in the text 
by transposing the two infinitives: r\wyh Dnb; so HOUB., cf. KAUTZSCH; 
GRATZ, nipy"? D xan. 10 

A simple, but radical, remedy for the difficulty in v. 10 would be to transpose 
v. ioa and b, reading: Vio^a iwy nx r6a3n ^>22 ^a-32, nyaab miry"? biiaa rvby nbj?a 
oy^> rm nnpb "111 D irax mry lanpbl, by which a perfectly good connection is 
secured on both sides. It appears that the extraordinary disorder in this chapter 
has been in part occasioned by accidental misplacement of passages; see below 15 
on vv. 35-36 a . 

ly 1, plur. referring to the inhabitants, so (6 ACsl!sL P Vn ^ H (<S; M ny, but if 
the city is subj. the fern, nntrj? would be required. 

(11) JH(I) V 3S 2: TJ?n h; (OAC.sBsSrLLpNVnH(g ^ K T (, v uoXeUJV (ffi L l + COITUJv}, /. C. Q^yn ]I3 

(cf. v. 15), perhaps better than itt. The verse would not be any less superfluous 20 
and disturbing, if this reading were adopted. 

nnan, 7.37,16, cf. Gen. 14,3. ( r > epxouevoi, epx<iuevo<; ( A (5 V ), is an old error 
for dxouevoi, i. e. D^riri, Ex. 26,3; Ez. 1,9. [Bu., Comm., suggests Ilin, cf. Gen. 


(12} p"33 B2,B> l?33, sing., with all the Versions, HOUB., DATHE, STUDER, KAUTZSCH; 25 
M ^tt^ai 1| B:iC baa, plur., 6/1 189,21; in both cases the error seems to have been 
occasioned by a preceding " Bail . That the archaic form of the construct, " Batr, 
is intended, is less probable. 

(13) njnn, the article is indispensable; cf. Deut. 17,12; 22,22, &c.; t njn my23i 
(Jiaplography). 30 
p"3a "3a ia h\ Q e re (many codd. in the text), so 05 oi uioi Beviu|iiiv, 5(f; K e thib 

S 3a (Jiaplography]. 

(14) [0-nyn p. Bu. Comm., after <5, onny p.] 

(15) f]b ntroni n^llfj?, with JSACsBsLLpNVnjjHg eiKoat Kai TT^VT (6 Sr al. Ttevre Kai eixoai. 
(S v eiKoai rpeiq represents an error in Heb.; nvbv for the ncN? of itt), 3 25,000; 35 
Cf. also ^H v. 35: 25,100. Joseph. (Ant. v,2, 10), gives the total as 25,600, probably 
by addition of the numbers in vv. 46.47; <HM f\h nwcn Dny. Neither the 
reading of M nor of 6 exactly tallies with the summary of the Benjamite losses 
below in vv. 44-47; but (35 is probably original (riEftsn, corrupted in HI to ntw); 

so WELLH. and others. 40 

(16) At the beginning of the verse M$ have: T IBS mm ers niO yai ntn DJ?n bats 
W s fi\ Sr exhibits the passage as follows : X^pk TUJV KOITOIKOUVTUJV T^V 
Tapaa[-:-]ouTot: ^TreaK^-rrriaav ^irraKoaioi &vbpe<; -f- veaviaxoi -X- 

travToc; roO XaoO TOUTOU dtrraKoaiot 6vbpe<;: ^xXeKroi ducpotepobeEioi: 
OUTOI aqpevbovr)Tai, pdXXovrei; XiOoui; K.T.^.; so SH -.\v^ ^g-a ^pa^.i yOJo* ^e , ^m 45 
JVA^ ijjaN^A |jo l*. o^> <? -X- J.Ia.^ J ^^ *^^ iJ^>?* O^^rol, ^o, 
^^o jlo lKi) loik, JLiJ_s ^>^* ? i:A* vjuo v Qo.^9 Jlid^^xUa^i. The words aster 
isked formed no part of the oldest (8 Version; in other MSS of this Version they 
are not found at all. Nor are they represented in (fiVN ^KTO<; TUJV oixouvTwv 
Tr|v fapaa, oi ^TredK^Trnaav dTrTaxoaioi dvbpe? dnXeKToi ^K iravroc (C5 N + TOU) XaoO 50 
d!U(poTepobtioi K.T.^., 3 praeter habitatorcs Gabaa, qui septingenti erant viri 
fortissimi, ita sinistra ut dextra proeliantes, &c. ; 3 

20,2 9 -ofa*^* jfubgea >?>&}*>- 67 

19 in the mouth of his messengers (cf. Saul, i S 11,7); hence Bu. proposes to read 
merely Ibi6 for 10X1 HKlin ^>3 rrm. It appears also from 20,3 that the Israelites, 
when they assembled at the summons, only knew that a bloody crime had been 
committed, but not what, or how. I infer, therefore, that the passage belonged 

to the original text, and was probably dropped from .itt by homceoteleuton (lj> 5 
run m\T in the words of the messengers and in the response of those who saw the 
bloody sight). The text is restored accordingly. [So also Bu., Coming 
11311 nxj? rrbj? D3^> lire?, with (5 A a/., similarly (<5 VN 6ea9e 0|u!v auroi in auTr)v pou\f|V 
xai \a\r|CfaTe, cf. 20,7. For 1131 we might perhaps read 131, as in 20,7; JH 1XJ> 
11311, which leaves 10^8? without an object, and gives us in 1SJ? a rare verb (Is. 10 
8,10). The cases of the ellipsis of 3h after D are late or doubtful; if we retain 
1SJ?, it would be better to insert 1*7, or read D23 1 ? for D3 1 ? (HOUB., STUDER, KROCH- 
MAL, STADE, Bu., Comm.\ cf. 8t). It is not impossible that the text was early 
conformed to 20,7 (nSJJ . . . 13n) ; n"by 10"tP may perhaps, after all, be the original 
text. The words stand in M in a somewhat unnatural connection ; they are more 1 5 
appropriate in the mouth of the messengers than of the spectators. Following 
(8 A al. they are consequently transposed from the end of the verse. [The original 
text may have been -nsj? 1SJ? n^J? D2-3-!? 10 t?; 11211 is perhaps a later addition 
suggested by Is. 8, 10. P. H.J 


20 (2) DJ?n bo niiD. (0 VN Kara Trpoauuirov Kupiou, /. c. mrp ^S^; preferred by ZIEGLER; 

cf. also Lp. 

b>XlBv ""toSt? "?21, with <B A 3 ; #1(5 rel. Sf "?3; but apposition seems impossible. The 
insertion of the conjunction is the simplest relief of the difficulty, but is on that 
very account suspicious; GRATZ conj. ^30. The words may be a gloss not 25 
accommodated to the structure of the sentence. 

(3) A better division of the verses would put the pIDB ]1D after HBSD. V. 3 a has 
nothing to do with 3 b , and is altogether out of place; Bu. thinks that it originally 
stood (in the older source) immediately before v. 14; the negotiations with Ben 
jamin begin in v. 12. 30 

(5) m 13JJ; ffiACsBsLi^pVn^Htg-i-Kai WiTcuav aim;), OiSr S ttb obel.-, as in 19,25. 

(6) 13 ^N1" r6m mt? "733, doublet; (5 iv -n-avri opiuj K\n.povouia<;, 3 in omncs 
terminos possessions vestrae, as if reading ^sity nbni bl3i b>33; 9^ $ Dinn !?33 
"?1B>H J?1N monx. The text of (53 is free from difficulty, and should perhaps 
be adopted. 35 
^N!Br3 n^33 ij>, with (fjACsBsLLpVn. jfl n^ii nttt, late gloss, O&Sr Ze^na jw/; aj/., (/: 
3 H ; v Ziejaa xai, (8 N d^poauvriv xai UTroiTTuuiua (double translation of 
n"?33; see Hexapla on Is. 34,4, fi^33); both words are represented also in 3$i. 
The rendering Zeuua, a mere transliteration of &, is doubtless from 0; Ze|ua may 
be an attempt to understand it as Greek (SCHARFENBERG). [net has no connec- 40 
tion with Arab. >, pi. f^O blamablencss, fault, but must be derived from m?, 
originally zaniwa; the i instead of n represents a partial assimilation of the 
dental nasal to the final ^ (cf. Ethiopic H ffD <D;); net = nittt, ni:t. The primitive 
meaning of this stem saniwa seems to be to be full; cf. Assyr. zandnu, DELITZSCH, 
Assyr. Handivortcrbuch, p. 26o a and the remarks ibid. p. 324 b , s. v. kusbu. P. H.] 45 

(7) ^l fi^rj; Sr,SH dibe SUb as/., A CsBsLpNVn a l. 

(8) 1^.lb t^N. The plur. vbnn^ is much more common in this phrase; in the two 
other instances in which the sing, occurs it is corrected by the Q e re. 

(9) bim rrbj? r6j?J, so ZIEGLER, STUDER, following 6 dvapnaoueOa e-rr aurriv dv xXripuj 
(ffiSr$Y\a6)jLeQa sub obel?); the loss of the ntya before n^bj> is easily accounted 50 
for. The reference is perhaps to v. 18, cf. I, I. The fact that we will go up is 
the readiest way of filling the lacuna leaves it possible that is only an old 
conjecture; even then it is probably right. The other Versions differently: C 

66 -3^- %ut>%te +>-3>sji~- 19,2530 

ig sumu, suna and sunn, sina or (with h instead of /) htimu, hima and hunit, hina 

were used promiscuously. 

In the course of time the original m disappeared entirely in Assyrian* and 
Aramaic, just as in the plural ending of the noun; so we have in Assyr. sunu 
they, fern, sina, Aram, fin , ] n . In Hebrew, Arabic, and Ethiopic, however, 5 
an arbitrary adaptation took place, the forms with the original m being reserved 
for the masculine, and the byforms with the secondary n, for the feminine; so 
we have in Heb. an , fern. ]H , and in Arabic *A, fern. ^yb. After this conso 
nantal differentiation was established it was no longer necessary to observe the 
vocalic differentiation as we find it in Assyrian and in Aramaic: hum, fern, him, 10 
or him, fem. hin, were just as distinct as hum, fern. ///;;/, or hun, fern. hin. In 
Arabic the vowel of the masculine form prevailed: we find hum, fem. hunna 
instead of the original humti, fem. hima or hunu, fem. hina; in Hebrew, on the 
other hand, the masculine vowel u was entirely superseded by the feminine 
vowel /; therefore we have hem, hen.** The ^-vowel of these forms represents 15 
the i of KM in the same way as the #-vowel in Arab, htim, hunna is connected 
with the u in Kin. The idea that the ^-vowel in Dr6 or DflN is due to an obtusion 
of the original z^-vowel (GES.-KAUTZSCH 26 , 27, v) is untenable. In Arabic we 
find a trace of this -vo\vel in cases like ^^IX*" &c. Here it is not quite accurate 
to say, -hum has been changed into -him, but the form -him, which could at one 20 
time be used in all cases, even when there was no /-vowel in the preceding 
syllable, has been preserved in this case under the influence of the preceding 
/-vowel. There is a difference between the survival of a byform and a modi 
fication of the standard form. The -/// in <^(^ corresponds to the -/// in atoat 
&c. (c*2io = kitdbdht). 25 

If we find in Old Hebrew texts Dn as feminine suffix instead of ]n (cf. GES.- 
KAUTZSCH 26 , 135,0) there may have been originally (not in all cases, but in 
some) a vocalic differentiation, viz., the masculine suffix on may have been 
pronounced horn, while the feminine suffix Dn was sounded as hem. If horn 
became horn, and hem, Jiem, there was practically no difference so that the 30 
consonantal differentiation became necessary. Cf. also Crit. Notes on Ezra-Neh., 
p. 33, 1. 22. - P. H.] 

310H. Many codd. 3103, cf. @Lp ^ & v dp^dKrj; preferred by HOUB. 
Itfjm h. Many codd hx. 

(25) KSVl. Many edd. (among them VAN DER HOOGHT) have 82T1, against which see 35 
the Masorah on Num. 17,23 and Deut. 4,20. 

")nn ni^D Q e re, as in Jos. 6,15; i 89,26; K e thtb rr6j?3. A number of codd. 
have ni^ys in the text without note. 

(28) At the end of v. 28 a (OVN + gTi f, v vexpd, gloss (ZlEGLER); (gACsBsSi-LVngH 6X\(i 
T6vr)Ki (C5 L P ^TeGvqKei). 4 

(29) ^tOBP "?13J ^33 nn^l, so Jfl6 VN 3S(T; AHsSrLLpVnSHfc e i<; -ndaac, (rdtq) cpu\(i<; 
lopanX, explaining the disposition of the twelve pieces. 

(30) After the words Tinto this day, (BACsLpVn( _{. K cd dvereiXaTO TO!? dvbpciaiv ol<; 

t^ujv, Toibe ^peire irpo? iravra avbpa lopanX, Ei Y^T ve Kara TO 
ToCrro diro Tfiq f)u^pai; rf\<; dvapdaeuui; TUUV uiujv lapari\ ds AITUTTTOU (uc, 45 
Tfj? f|u^pa? TctuTn<;; 6^a6e ^auToi? itepl auTfn; pou\r)v Kai XaXriaaTe, so sub obel. 
cod. 121, 5 H (the variations are without significance); so also Josephus read the 
story (Ant. v , 2 , 8). This is not a free addition or doublet in (5, but is manifestly 
translated from Heb. We should expect that the Levite would put some word 

* We must remember that Assyrian is but an older local variety of Aramaic; 
see Johns Hopkins Circulars, No. 114, p. Il8 b , 1. 23. 

** See Johns Hopkins Circulars, No. 114, p. IlS*, footnote; cf. ibid. p. 118^, 1. 7. 

19,12 24 -<*i3<@-g<- Jfubjjea +>-@>ei*>~ 65 

ID (12) 0^133 Vj> ^>N, so GRATZ; consequence of following emendation; ill "nai, rightly 
interpreted by (BACsBsLLpVnjgH e i<; iroXiv dXXorpiou (improved to dXXorpiuuv 
in some cursives), 3 oppidtim gentis alienae, &; not eiq -rroXiv dXXoTpiav, (fiVNj^ 
which would require us to read ma3; [cf., however, GES.-KAUTZSCH 26 , I28,w]. 
nan ^>XW "Oao N 1 ? "WN a city of aliens, who are not of the Bene-Israel, with some 5 
codd. of ill (a correction, but a sound one) and some recensions of (T (Bomberg 
1518, 1525, Antwerp., c.), GRATZ inert); iU nan, equally difficult as pron. 3 fern. 
plur., or as adverb (6 VN al. dv rj OUK ecmv duo uiaiv laparjX dibe). 6 ALL ?5 H r| 
OUK cmv K TUJV uiwv laparjX; so also 33( (Reuchl., Cod. Br. Mus. 2210); but 
we should hardly emend accordingly. 10 

ill ttiajn. As the continuation of the preceding, we should expect the usual 
adversative after a negative, DX <I 2, or "O; simple 1 is as unusual as the KCU of (5 
in place of dXXd. Perhaps in the source from which the words were taken they 
read najPI so they passed on to Gibeah. 

(13) mh, normal orthography which many codd. have; ill *\b, as in Num. 23,13, 15 
2 Chr. 25,17; see the Masorah on the latter verse. 
niipttn nn3, so some good codd. (DE Rossi); ill nn2. 

(18) "J^in ""iN WS bsi, with Kcd ei? TOV olxov JLIOU ey^ dTrorpexw (05 VN iropeuouai), 
so KAUTZSCH, GRATZ ; & ~[^in -ON nw n^2 nxi, 5 JJI Vjl J4^! V i ?^-?> 

^ ^m 3K nin^ npD n^. In M n is an error for b, perhaps helped by the 20 
following HO; m,T n^S probably arose by the resolution of VT3, mistaken for an 
abbreviation of mm JTO (BOTTCHER, KAUTZSCH; t/i Grit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 99, 
1. 26; p. 167, 1. 11); the scribe would naturally think of Shiloh. 3 et nunc vadimus 
ad domuin Dei might suggest ^N JV3, but this would not accord with the context. 

(19) YQJ? DJ? sing., with a number of codd. ; cf. 3M, GEDDES; AW) T naj? plur. 25 

(21) ^OJl Q e re, formed like orn from Dttn ; K e thib ^13^1. 

(22) ^3 ^a D 3, as in 20,13; Deut. 13,14; i K 21,10. JH ^i?a ^a <1 iN, best 
described as suspended annexation, DRIVER, Sam., p. 166; ^ aix n^J?a n^N, &c. 
Some codd. have only hybl VM; M may in fact be conflate. On by^ see now 
CHEYNE, Expositor, June 95, pp. 435-439, Expository Times, June 97, pp. 423 f., 30 
HOMMEL, ibid. July 97, p. 472. 

D^psnnD. GRATZ conj. n^psno. 
(24) Wib Bl as in vv. 2 . 25 ; iU ^n^j^BI. 

pnx twice, \rh (so some codd. and old edd.), grammatical correction; cf. Gen. 
19,8; Ez. 16,50, &c.; Jucl. n,i3(iH); other cases of the same correction in 21, 22; 35 
ill aniK, Dnb. Instances of masc. suff., especially in the plural, referring to fern. 
nouns are numerous; and it would be rash to lay them all at the door of the 
scribes (see GES.-KAUTZSCH 2 ^ 135,0; DIEHL, Pron. pers. suff., 1895); but it is 
scarcely to be believed that a case like the present was possible in Old Heb. 
Copyists, under the influence of Mishnic Heb., in which the suff. of both genders 40 
was in, } , would be less observant of the distinction. 

[The pronouns of the 3 d pers. plural in Semitic were originally su-\-ma = he 
and someone, fern, si + ma = she and someone; the masc. suma (= they} became, 
with vocalic assimilation of the final vowel, sumu, just as we have the suffix 
-kumu (your) = -ku (a byform of -ka) + ma : abukum(ti) your father is literally 45 
father of thee and someone; compare the Sumerian adazunene, that is, father of 
thee and them. Intervocalic ;// is often changed into n (cf. the particle N3 which 
is identical with the enclitic emphatic -ma-* the plural endings in Syriac &c. 
instead of the original -m in Hebrew).** So there must have been a time when 

* See Johns Hopkins University Circulars, No. 114 (July 94) p. 109^; cf. GES.- 
AUTZSCH 2 ^, g 105 , b, note 3. 
** Contrast NOI.DKKE, Die semitischen Sprachen* (Leipzig, 1899), p. 16. 

Jud. 9 


18 Glosses to the same effect are found in the margin of a number of MSS of A\ ; 

the Jewish tradition was perfectly aware that the name was really ntPft. As 
might be expected, however, ntSOO is found in many codd. and old edd. of HI; 
so AVLVn uiou Mavaaaf), 5 JJLLM (but Ephr. Syr. I, p. 327 JLa). See further 
Comm., pp. 400 ff. ; GlNSBURG, Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, pp. 335 ff. 
pxn mbi nv ny. HOUB. and KROCHMAL (cf. Qamhi) conj. 

19 (2) v^j? *)Jm, so HOUB., BOTTCHER, GRATZ; (B A CsBsLLpVn$H(i- Kai iLpYiaOri auriu, 
for which DATHE proposed nnm (cf. Neh. 2,19); J. D. MICH., SCHLEUSNER, 
STUDER, Ew., WELLH., mini. A\ vby nami, which was read also by VN KC1 i I Q 
diropeuGri cm aurou, and 3 quae reliquit eum, following the Jewish interpretation 
nil desert (see Rabb. comm.), & \mby H1D21 she despised, spurned him (cf. Joseph. 
v, 2,8f.); 5 X^jtfo. The verb nai is not elsewhere construed with by-, and the 
sequel of the story does not imply that the woman was the offender. Another not 
improbable conjecture would be *pNfi1; this was corrupted to F|N3fil (for an example 15 
of the confusion of the two verbs see Khullin 63 a ), and then, as the woman was 
no wedded wife, naini substituted as more appropriate to the relation (see Rabb. 
comm.). So MOORE, Comm., approved by Bu., Comm. 

D cnn nyniN D Tn, so GRATZ; cf. CsBs a /_ Terpdunvov, 3. Al, \\ith which 
agree <5 VNALVn S H M, DV2 11 QVf- erroneous doublet in the Old Heb. alphabet. 20 

(3) ni P.T;, so Q e re (according to BAR, the Oriental school in the text; contra, GlNSB.) 
and all Versions; K e thib ITtPn 1 ? that she might win him back; consequence of the 
corruption nami in v. 2, and of the reflection that the man was the injured party 
who needed to be reconciled. 

,T3 rV3 NT1, with <5ACsBsLL P Vn,SHlE K al ^TTOpeuGn, SO KAUTZSCH; M&3SS 25 

insoani she conducted him into her father s house; for the reasons explained in 
the last note. A\ conflicts with v. 4. 

(4) A\ limn 13 ptm; ACsBsLVn xai ciariYorfev aurov 6 yc MPpo^ auxoO, <!5Lp5 H xai 
^Kparrioe tr\<; xt\pbq aurou xai eiar)YaT ev CXUTOV 6 yauppo^ aurou 6 -rraTrip Tf|<; 
vedvibo<; irpoi; aurov (S H cxlaX- sub ast. should probably be a lemniscus, 3 
RORDAM). KAUTZSCH conj. "iii aM in 3M nnj?:n "2K linin u ptm ; this ino^ is 
connected with the erroneous inioani in v. 3. 

(8) ^enn nV3. Editorial summation of the days in the composite text. 
innJVl; A\ inononni, imp., so 6 codd. OTpcrfeu0r|Ti [sic], 5 H linger (see. Hexapla 
on Gen. 19,16; Hab. 2,3), for which (SACsBsLpVn aTpaTeu0r)Ti by frequent error 35 
in uncial writing (T for f), and (with grammatical correction) (6 V axpcxTeuaov; A, 
vuu0peu6r)Ti; "L, bioirpinjov. A different reading is attested by 05 L P N bieirXciva 
UUTOV, or bierrXdjuve aurov (codd. 52.77, cf. 16.131), i. e. innBM (not inj?nn or 
inj?nvn, SCHARFENBERG). This has a genuine look; perhaps the original text 
was nonem innBM he persuaded him, and he lingered, &c. 5 y^Uo represents 40 
a singular. 

A\ 1^2"1; ACsBsLLpNVn(g 4. Ka i g-rTlOV, SH sub obel. 

(9) r iii nvn my ns a T 1 ": niyb ovn noa 3 nan, following (5Lp ibou bfi K^K\mev TI riutpa 
eiq dair^pav KaroiXuaov iLbe Kai 0r]u e P ov / Ka i aYdQuvGnTU) ri xapbia aou; so, with 
minor variations which do not affect the reconstruction, C5 CsAL 3 H ((5 AL doublet 45 
Kai ueivaxe aibe after ar)|nepov, 5H sub ast^; A\ a la !? illy 1 ? DVn HBI N3 nan 
"]32^> nB"! ns v 1 ? nrn man nan; doublets, both corrupt; neither ovn nan nor man 
DVn has any support in usage. Apart from (5, we might conj. naB (Jer. 6,4); so 
GRATZ. Cf. S ^ oJL^Lo JJ;, loi jio, ^ )b oo, 

^n^>. Many codd. i^n"?. 5 

(10) 1oy lira^Bl; (fi 1 ! + Kai 6 Tralq auroO, 5 H \oA^o V Q6A^. x\^; i^joi ; -X- 
(n) 1KO T! S T QVni, so GRATZ, cf. \ K 1 ,25; ill Ti, accidental mutilation. 




18 thither, seize the idols, c. (so also Bu.). It seems to me more probable that the 

whole verse is a late addition, originating in a doublet to v. 18; and that the 
perf. tenses came from the latter verse, where they are grammatically sound. 
(17.18) (D v has for vv. 17.18 a much shorter text, viz., KCU dvepncrav oi Trevre avbpec; 

oi TTOpeuQ^VTe? KaraOK^aoGai T^V "ff|v, Kai eiaf|X6ov ^xeT eic; oTKOV Meixcua, xai 5 
6 iepeuc; OTUJC;- xai Xa{5ov TO Y\UTTTOV xai TO ecpwb KOI TO 0epaq)iv xai TO 
XUJveuTov. xai elirev upo? auTOuc; 6 iepeuc;, Ti uueiq iroieiTe; HOUB. noted this 
as an abridgment; KAUTZSCH and GRATZ, on the contrary, regard it as original, 
and reconstruct the Heb. text accordingly. But comparison with 05 N , the other 
accessible representative of the same translation with 6 V , proves conclusively 10 
that the shorter text of <8 V is merely the result of a common transcriptional ac 
cident, probably in the copy which was the immediate ancestor of (S v : the scribe 
skipped from etoT|\0ov dxei in v. 17 to el0f|X6ov eic; olxov Meixcuot in v. 18. On 
discovering his mistake, he saw that nothing essential had been omitted, except 
the statement that the priest was standing by the door (KCU 6 iepeu^ aTn\uu|uevoc; 15 
irapd Tf) Gupcx TOU mj\ujvo<;, N), and added this notice, in abbreviated form as 
the exigencies of space dictated, on the margin, whence it found its way into <B V 
in the wrong place (KCU 6 iepcu? aTiiuc;). The case forcibly illustrates the peril 
of using (jj v for critical purposes without controlling it by (B N . In (5 L also the 
shorter text is the result of a simple homccoteleuton, the scribe having skipped 20 
from TO x^veuTov i to T O X^veuTov 2, as the other representatives of this 
version (ACsBsLpYnSHfiC) attest. 

(18) A\ (cf. 32) llBNn ^DB n; C55 supply the conjunction, and the Ephod; STUDER 
inserts nxi, which necessitates the further correction ^DBH (KAUTZSCH). The 
glossing is more awkward than usual. 25 

(19) IN, introducing the s*econd member of a disjunctive question, is unusual; DN would 
be regular. See KONIG, Syntax, 353, n. 

(20) 3*? 2to"l. GRATZ conj. wya ats^i, which is more natural, and not improbably 

.itt ^DSn nsi; ffi + Kai TO x^veuTov, as in other places, completing the inventory; 30 
KAUTZSCH and GRATZ accordingly, nroan ni. 

(21) [t)on nx lO^V. Bu., Coinm., with much probability conjectures that the mention 
of the women has accidentally dropped out; read: f)Bn DN1 D twn ns lO 11 ^!.] 

(27) n3"D n^J? I^K bDBn n, so GRATZ (2 codd. equally by conj.); Al and the Versions 
ntpy lirN nS; the noun may have been omitted to make the statement more 35 
indefinite, the whole apparatus; cf. AL al. oaa diroir|aev. [Bu. conj. IIBNn riK.] 
Possibly the original word was DTt^Nn (v. 24), in which case there would be a 
stronger motive for the suppression. 
tf^ hy, so 4it(5 VN al.; many codd. 1J7, ALLp^ii ( a ^. probably original; cf. $>. 

(29) DB>3. Many codd. and edd. DPS; so ACsBsLL P5 H (T (Antwerp). 40 

(30) npo ]3, (5 N uiou Mujuan, 3 filii Moysi; (0 L P (conflate) uto<; Mavaaaii uiou (var. 
uloq) Tnpaau uiou Muuan, so also Theodoret, ,$ H oif^ v li *^ ft,? t* ^ Jjtiao; c^^ )( 
^otai^o \oo( jLjioM; (asterisks in the codex also before v a * : ^!,? anc ^ Oo( m the 
middle of a line; metobelus only after oo), and Bar Hebneus (quoted in P^IELD). 

Al n^ a o p, with Nnn suspensum, the significance of which is explained in the 45 
Tosephta, Sanhedrin, 14,8 (p. 437 eel. ZUCKERMANDEL). After explaining the 
case of Kiel, who rebuilt Jericho (i K 16,34), the Tos. continues: pJl.Tl 13 N3V31 
noVo ? ?ni303 n3T n jn- a no 1 ?! ?in no ]3 &6m sin nio p s ai .n^ao p nwii p 
S^ns i"Qin painty ^4 similar case is, And Jonathan, the son of Gershom, 
the son ofManasseh. Was he, then, the son of Manasseh? Was he not the 50 
son of Moses ~ Why, then, is the thing faste tied on Manasseh? It teaches that 
men fasten guilt upon the guilty. Similarly, Jcr. Berakhoth 10,2, fol. I2 d : ]U 
13 IN 1 ? DS1 nt?D p nst ON ^n; and at greater length, Bab. Baba Bat lira io9 h . 

62 !< jjutyte *>3>Bft~- 1 8, 8 17 

t u)v en.auupou<; (v 6r|o~aupoO), in which the doublets (isy 13X, CAPPEL) are to 
be noted; 5 A^OQ j^j JLal J.xiJLa ;^, XA,o, < ^mv XJHX3 XOJHB p"UOn jv!?1 
^vyt, 3 w////^ ci pcnitus resistente, tiiagnarumque opuin. 

<nvN35 mx DJ> on 1 ? v -oil; ACsSrLLpVn^Hg uerd Zupias, /. *. mx DJ? ; so also in 
v. 9; otherwise in v. 28. The reading Dix should probably have been received % 
into the text; see Bu., Comm. The confusion of D1X, D^X, DIN is very common. 

(8) D TPO Dnx HO w//a/ w<tf do you bring- back?, cf. 2 S 24,13; Num. 13,26 
(GRATZ); &, Dnx HO, the predicate having fallen out. <& TI uuefc; Kd0r|a6e; (as 
this question seemed to be appropriate only in the mouths of the explorers, 
(gVN recast the sentence: KO! eiuov TOI<; dbeXqpoi<; auriuv, adopted by KAUTZSCH). 10 
Bu. (R-S} conj. that xdGnaGe represents D^trno v. 9 b (accidentally misplaced 
there), and would emend accordingly: D"B>no DHX no; so KAUTZSCH. But in v. 9 b 

(0 renders D^no by aiumdre, dueXeire, iiauxciZieTe; nor is KaGnuai anywhere 
found in the translations for ntPnn or ty^nn. More probably KuGriaGe here 
represents a corruption of D^tfO BnN; after the loss of by haplography the 15 
word was read D 2$\ S ^oiwll J-ajaJ, possibly read D^aB*. [For other possibilities, 
see BU., CoinniJ\ 

(9) 10ip, with codd. (Q e rc of the Oriental school) and old edd. of ill, and all the 
Versions, including ; HOUB., STUDER, al. M noip. [The sing, may be defended 
by the analogy of f!3^.] 20 
In ALLp al. (also, sub obeL, in (B Sr and 5 H ) we find a doublet to v. 9 a , with slight 
variations as follows: Avd0Tr)Te KCU dvapoiuev dit a^TOix;, -f- on eiar)\0a,uev Kai 
vTTepieimTr|aauev ^v rfj Y^J ?iu? i? Aataa, xai eibo.uev TOV Xaov TOV xaToiKoOvru 

ev auTfj v d\TTibi Kara TO auYKpi|aa TUJV Iibuuviuuv Kai inaxpav dir^xovra^ (al. 

K Zibujvo?, Kai Xoyoc; OUK r\v auroTc; uerd Zupia<;. d\\d dvaarrire Kai 25 
TT auxout;: ort eupr)Ka|uev (duupciKauev) Tr|V jf\v, K. T. . ( Sr ). The 
first part of this, at least from eiar]\6auev to Aaiaa, has the presumption of 
originality; in 1 the place to which the exploring party proposed to lead their 
clansmen is not named at all, though the words Dn^j? i~6j?}1 101 p presume some 
such information. [Bu. is led by this observation to suspect the word Di"P^J>, the 30 
removal of which would relieve this difficulty.] What follows may be merely 
repeated from v. 7. Unskilful combination of the sources has given rise to other 
difficulties in these verses for which textual criticism has no remedy. 
D"wno nnNi, cf. i K 22,3; 2K 7,9; in the former of these passages, D"^no I3nal 
nnH rinp.O, construed with ]0; here perhaps originally with one of the following 35 
infinitives (DD^, N13 1 ?) ; the absolute use is also possible : you are doing nothing 
about it f [For another restoration of these verses see Bu., Coining 

(14-18) A radical reconstruction of the text was attempted by WELLH. in BLEEK.4, p. 199; 
withdrawn, Composition, p. 356. 

(14) psn n br6; M + wb; A C5 CsBsL P v , 05 Sr <S H sub aster. ; a gloss. Bu. (R-S] retains 40 
Laish and omits pn DN bnb. 

[wyn no lyn. Analogy would suggest IN-il tyi, Bu., Coming 

(15) n3*O n 3, harmonistic note, identifying the residence of the Levite with that of 
his master. 

(16) nniinn "Kn nixo l, the six hundred spoken of before, cf. v. 17; C5 ot ^EaKoaioi 45 
avbpeq; Jfl nniin V, indefinite. 

p 330 IB N. KAUTZSCH thinks the words a gloss, which was meant to follow 
"K niXO WW1; GRATZ makes the same transposition. 

(17) 131 Vosn n inp 1 ? notr 1X2. The asyndetic perfects are anomalous in narrative 
prose. WELLH. formerly (see above, 1. 38) proposed to read the verbs as impera- 50 
lives [so Bu., Comm.}, 1X3, inp^ (itself an anomaly; the imp. np^> Ex. 29,1 is per 
haps accidental, after ^; the two other instances are both late and dubious), 
and to connect them with the end of v. 14: Now know what you must do; go 

17,518,7 -3<-g< jfw&<5 *>-s**>- 61 

17 Waw cxplicativuin before glosses see Crit. Notes on Ezekiel, p. 46, 1. 53. 
P. H.] 

(5) rD fi tTNni. BUDDE, Comm., queries whether the name may not have supplanted 
an original naa he built. 

(7) <fl mirr nnStPftn; A SA and in a single Heb. MS (homa^oteleuton), HOUB., }. D. 5 
MICH., DATHE, ZIEGLER, GEDDES, and, among recent critics, STUDER and 
KUENEN reject the words as a gloss ; but the last thing a glossator would do is 
to represent a Levite as of Judean extraction. Bu. (A -S) regards the words 
mirP Dr6 in v. 7 a as a gloss, derived from v. 8 a in the other source; GRATZ 
rejects the same words in v. 8 a as a dittogram from v. 7 a . [Bu., Comm., thinks 10 
that rnirP must have displaced another name, either vbn or more probably 
ntfo, 18,31.] 

(10) The last words of this verse in M are ^hfl "j^l, which the Versions also found 
here; beyond doubt a corrupt doublet to the following ^bn ^NTl, STUDER, BERTH., 
KAUTZSCH, GRATZ, al. OTTLI would read \h*\, which is not suitable in this 15 

18 (i) ^l& nbn33. STUDER would supply before this word: psn, as in all similar cases 

(2.47,17.22; 45,1; Num. 34,2; 26,53; Jos. 13,6; 23,4, &c.); 633 render only 
nbrtl If the words came from the old source, we should without hesitation 20 
emend: r6ro, which correction is found in a few codd. of M; in a gloss, perhaps 
of late date, we have to admit that the writer, having in mind the phrase men 
tioned above, may have written incorrectly r6rU3. 

(2) &3S& DnnBBteo sing.; ASrix P I K T O,V 0uYY ev ei*v OUIITUJV (5 H , (P 8 ^5 0uy. 
Yeveictc; auTOJv), (5VN a l. diro brjuujv auraiv, i. e. nnhSBtefc plur., perhaps better. 25 
Jit DniUpfi; A (DVN a / _ j n @VN the omission may have been occasioned by 
some confusion in the critical signs of a Hexaplar copy; cf. 6 Sr 5H. 
(2.3) M ro rP3 ny non :n 13^1 ; @VN ; connecting wrongly, nai r|U\ia6r|aav ^KGI auroi 
dv OIKLU M. 

(5) 133">T n ^^Lj, Qal, as in Jer. 12,1, whether our expedition will be successful, so 30 
<gAVLN a /_. jji nbsnn Hif. (Gen. 24,42; 15.48,15 read, with 65, rrbxNi; cf. 
CHEYNE ad fac. ), in which case the subject nw must be supplied, and the verb 
corrected, !rV2rn or rP^on; cf. CsBsLpVn a / t The former alternative is the more 
probable (STADE). Jos. 1,8 "J3"n n rrbsn N "3, is an instance of a different 
idiom (rP^xn 2 sing. masc.). 35 

(7) n^ 1 ?, locative of wh vv. 14.27.29. In Jos. 19,47 Qtfh, properly DB b (WELLH.). 
ntsa 1 : naB?r. The fem. part, does not agree with the natural antecedent, Dj?n, 
which has moreover its own complement in ntani tipl^ below; and can only by 
a very forced construction be taken with the suff. in nmp2 (SEE. SCHMID, al.}. 
If, with CLERICUS and HOUB., we should remove the grammatical discord by 40 
emending: 2B>V, the tautology would remain (STUDER). In our text it is supposed 
that the words come from a second source, and have been imperfectly adapted 
to their new surroundings; originally they were preceded by some such ex 
pression as vyn n iNxn i (or wh n); cf. Jer. 33,16; Is. 47,8; Zeph. 2,15 (Bu.). 
It must be confessed, however, that such imperfect assimilation of his materials 45 
by a redactor has grave improbabilities. 

ptO 1K "OT "?D IIDHD \K\ emended in conformity to v. io b , with BERTHEAU, 
BU., KAUTZSCH; M 1SJ> l^nv pto "in 0^30 ]"K1. The last words were not trans 
lated in the oldest Version; CsBsLpVn Ka \ ^ buvaja^vou? Xa\f|<Ku f)fi|ua sine 
addit., C5 Sr + -X- ev Tf| yrj xXripovouoi; 6r|aaupou (<S H has only JLxiJLa sub as/., see 5 
FIELD, LAG.; not lto*xo;, RORDAM); ^v T^| Ttl nas found its way into A ) the 
whole into 05L al. (. Otherwise the Versions represent Jit as well as they can; 
(5VN KCU OUK ^ariv biarpeTTUJV f\ KaTaiax uvUJV 

6o -"ue**-^ 2fu&3e $3-e**>~ 17,2.3 

16 Shamgar (cf. 2 823,1 if. XJX p nstf, and see Coinm., p. 106;. If in some way 
the name was corrupted to "i:titf (5,6), the verse would almost of necessity be 
transposed to a place before c. 4. Observe, further, that in the text quoted 
above (p. 59, 1. 42) Shamgar is introduced by the regular formula for the Minor 
Judges, Kdi dWarri uerd TOV lauiyuuv, /. e. pBtot? nn Dp 11 !; 9^ 10, i yJO ax nnx Dp ! 5 
UV Similarly in 3,31, xai |UT aur6v dvearr), while Jfl has the awkward \Tl 
yinx, to which there is no parallel in Jucl. The suspicion that in 5,6 Shamgar 
ben-Anath, with his foreign and heathenish name, was not a deliverer but an 
oppressor of Israel (Comjii., p. 143) thus gains in strength. [See now Bu., 
Coinm., on 3,31; and MOORE, Journ. Amer. Orient. Sac., 19,159^] 10 

17 ( 2 ) 1^ vtfh IPX. KLOSTERMANN conj. unnecessarily i"?no. 

n^X nxi Q e re; K e thib vr^>X "nxi (BAR, GINSB.). Other edd. (including those of 
JACOB KHAYYIM and NORZI) have n^N in the text without any note. The latter 
reading is probably that of v al. KGU ue fipciauu Onx). ! 5 

(2-4) M ax vix *\D3n nan <itx3 max nil wb TXT "i 1 ? np^> n *p3n -xoi e^x lax 1 ? nex"i 
vicnpn cnpn ix nnxm icx"? *p3n nxoi t)bx nx nt^i :mrr^ ii *ji"i3 lax noxm vnnpb 
IDK npm inx 1 ? r]o:n nx am n 1 ? ua^x nnyi nsoot TDSS n-.^j? 1 ? "33b. <i TO ni,Tb tjosn rx 
lil ^-nsb inarm \D3 Q rx. This text, which is substantially that of all the Ver 
sions, is manifestly in disorder. The author cannot have made Micah return the 20 
silver to his mother twice (vv. 3 a -4 a ). Bu., followed by KAUTZSCH, conjectures 
that the last words of v. 3 (l"? 1JTPX nnjM) and v. 4 :i originally followed v. 2 a ( 3X 
Tinp^); when they had been accidentally displaced, the substance of v. 4 a was 
restored in v. 3 a , not exactly in the right place. There remains, however, an 
other difficulty. After the words ^1X2, mX Oil (v. 2), which it is very forced to 25 
refer to the preceding curse (we should expect man), we expect to hear what 
the mother said; Bu. supposes that the words were suppressed through a scruple 
such as led to the alteration of the text in i S25,22 &c.; but in the present 
instance this does not seem very likely. On the other hand, v. 3 b stands in M 
in an unsuitable place. In the restoration in our text it is therefore assumed that 30 
the words 131 nin"6 fpan nx "ncnpn Enpn in v. 3 b are the original sequel of nil 
"31X3 max v. 2 : the mother had not only pronounced a curse upon the unknown 
thief, but had, in the hearing of her son, consecrated the silver to JHVH for a 
specified purpose, so that it could not without sacrilege be used for any other 
(cf. the effect of the ]31p, D31p, &c. in the Jewish law). By the fear of the curse 35 
and the taboo, the son was moved to make restitution. So the passage is under 
stood by 3 (v. 3) reddidit ergo eos matri suae, quae dixerat ei: Consecravi ct 
vovi hoc argentum Domino, &c.; cf. also CLERICUS and ZIEGLER. The displace 
ment of the words was perhaps not altogether accidental; a scribe may have 
thought that the consecration was meant to avert or nullify the curse, and must 40 
naturally come after the son s confession. If this conjecture be sound, the other 
transpositions in our text follow of themselves; v. 3 a is omitted as doublet to 
v. 4 a . No other operation of textual criticism is so precarious as such trans 
positions on purely internal grounds; and the present attempt is subject to all 
the reserve which is due in such cases. [For a different restoration of the text 45 
see Bu., Comm., p. 113.] 

(3 b ) nsb, with ACsSrLLpVn3H KUTCt uovai; from my hand alone; an additional pre 
caution in the consecration, which could not IDC satisfied by the thief s taking 
part of the silver to make an idol ; JttVNt(J ^^ nns, A -*? -^l <J4. [Bu., 
Comm., argues forcibly against this emendation.] 5 

n3D01 ^DD. Throughout, ^DB seems to be original; n3DB1 is a gloss inspired 
by the reflection that the idol was made of silver by the *p1S; the 11BX 
D"B"ini, on the contrary, come from the other version of the story. [For the 

16,2631 -H3-3*- jf u& S 6 ^^ f &*- 59 

16 pntri, as in the preceding half-verse and in v. 27; M pnX 1. Except Ez. 23,32 
pnx is found only in the Pentateuch. The different spelling is perhaps not 
without critical significance. The older Greek Version has xai ^vtTraiZov auru), 
as if n Mym (19,25), which may have been altered in conformity with v. 25*; 
(/! @V Kdi -TTcuev eviimiov auTwv xai dpcbn^ov CXUTOV, xai 0Tnaav aurov dvu 5 
ueaov TWV KIOVUJV. [pnfc> with to (Ethiopic I Vh J 1 ;} is the original form; the S in 
pns is due to partial assimilation of the initial sibilant to the final p; cf. Beitr. s. 
Assyr. 1,2. In Ez. 23 , 32 pn^> is canceled by CORNILL, following (5 ; see TOY adloc.} 

(26) ^tstorn Jet me fed the columns, as the sense requires; ill K e thib "WOTTi; Q e re 
^""oni. It is possible that tola (as in Aram., Syr.) existed in Old Heb. by the 10 
side of B>t5>0 in the same sense, or that there was contamination in these forms 
(KoNiG, 1"J? analogy ); but more probable that "Wen is to be set to the account 

of the scribes, who may have been influenced by Aramaic, or have meant to 
hint at a double sense, let me feel (t?D), and let me remove (tPID Mic. 2,3, see 
Qamhi) the columns. \ 5 

(27) DWin. If the preceding clauses, from nat?1, were part of the original text, the 
participle would have to be indefinite, and the article should be struck out as 
an accidental repetition of the final n in rtWN ; cf. fcACsSrLLpVn. The removal of 
the words overlined in our text, which seem to contain two successive additions 

to the original narrative, leaves D Win an unimpeachable connection: n^ni 20 

^WKn N!?. 

v ux ^TrraKocnoi, cod. 237 ux rpiax^ioi dirTaKomot, conflate; 
Theodorct, three thousand men and many times more women. 

(28) DJJBn, idiomatic, as in 6,39; 15,3; 16,18; Jtt + ntn; but as DJ?B is uniformly fern. 

(2 S 23,8 is corrected by the Q e re), the demonstrative is probably a late gloss. 25 
[An alternative is to suppose that ntn is accidental error for mrP, and DTtbttn 
an ill-fitting restoration (Bu., Coming; cf. note on \\i 45,7 and Crit. Notes on 
Ezekiel, p. 52, 1. 52.] 

Jfl -O"? TITO nn np: nopiKI, Jer. Sofa 1 ,8, fol. i7 b , vengeance for one of my two 
eyes; ACsSrLLpVn^H ^KbiKriauu ^KbiKriaiv uiav dvri TUJV buo ( (5L) o^GaXjuujv 30 
uou, VN dvTaTTobiijauj dvTatroboaiv juiav irepi TUJV buo oqpGaXuujv uou, 3 ut 
ulciscar me de hostibus meis, et pro amissione diionim luminuin unam tiltionem 
rccipiam; GRATZ accordingly emends: nn. The preposition p in Titrtt is, 
however, hardly reconcilable with the reading iriN Dp3 or nn npi; usage re 
quires ^J?. On internal grounds also we should probably prefer &. S >*J^}U; 35 
uixN. ^l ^? ^ JOJ ? J , without the numeral one. DOORN. would omit nn; but the 
same objection from the preposition would lie against this; we should have to 
go further and omit TWO also, reading "m 3 J> Dpi, which would be free from 
difficulty, but is too violent a remedy to commend itself. 

(30) en. ffiVNxai dpdaraHev, @LP K <xi bi^aeiaev; 3 concussisque fortitcr. SCHARFENBERG 40 
conj. that they read ti^o^l. 

(31) After v. 31 L P V " al. 5 H and the Slavic version (cited in H-P) add KCU dveOTn 
uerd TOV Zauv^uuv ZeueYap (var. EjaeYap) uio^ Evav xai eKOVjjev ^K TUJV d\\ocpu- 
Xuiv dEaKoaiou? ( A <5 Vn , accidental omission of x ; cf. cod. 121) dvbpa<; ^KTO; TUJV 
KrnvuJv, xai iKpive (al. gauuae) Kai auTO? TOV IcrparjX. This verse stands in ill 45 
and all the Versions (including these recensions of 6) in 3,31. Differences in 
the translation show that it was not brought over to this place from 3,31 in the 

(5 text, but was found here by these translators or revisers in their copies of .ill. 
In SH there are no critical signs; but in <5 121 the whole is sub obel. Beyond 
question, the Philistine fighter comes more appropriately after Samson than at 50 
the beginning of the period of the Judges; and it is perhaps not too bold to 
conjecture that this is the original position of the brief account of his exploit. 
On other grounds it is doubtful whether the name of the hero was originally 

5 8 ofs*-^ \ti>c$ttt *3-*8&<>- 1 6, 1 4 25 

16 xeqmXfi; uou auv TUJ bidauaTt [ Kcti dYKpouariq TUJ iraaadXiy ei? TOY TOIXOV, xai 
ao|aai die; eic; TUJV dvGpuimjuv da6evr)c;. xai tftvtto iv TUJ KoiudaGai auTov xai 
Xa(5ev AaXeiba Tdc; Trrd aeipd? Tf|c; xe(paXf|<; OUTOU xai uqpavev v TUJ bidauaTi 
xai iTr|ev TUJ TtaaadXuj eic; TOY TOIXOV, xai eTirev, x. T. . (so, with variations which 
may here be disregarded, (D N ; the other recensions show the results of conflation 5 
or contamination; cf. also 3). Neither of these translations is entirely free from 
glosses; but by comparing them with each other and with the corresponding 
passages in the account of the other trials the Heb. original may be restored as 
in our text. The lacuna is supplied from (5 by HOUB., J. D. MICH., GEDDES, 
BERTH., DOORN. (Tekstkritiek, and Theol. Tijdschrift 94, pp. 27 f., reads lypnni 10 
and inae^), MOORE, Proc. Am. Or. Soc., 89, p. clxxvi ff., GRATZ, KAUTZSCH, al. 
[Bu., Cornm., p. 106, restores the text after (a) above (p. 57, 1. 48): 1JV3 fl?j?rn 
nrioan DJ? itfs n nisbno jntfviN ansni inat^.ni onxn nn3 vv\ni vv^m. This is method 
ically sounder.] 

(14) nr\ nx J?DM; Jtt :ixn nn\n nx ; the Versions also all represent the word. KAUTZSCH 1 5 
removes the grammatical difficulty by emending: in 11 , as older scholars had done. 
More probably IJVn is a gloss, originally written in the margin as a conjectural 
correction for iisn, by a scribe who understood that the pin in vv. I3 b .i4 a was 
used to fasten the web to the wall ((0) or ground (3), and thought that the verb 
J?D S 1 here described the pulling out of this pin or nail. The i;v was a pointed 20 
piece of wood with which the woof was beaten up, corresponding to the airdOri 
employed by the Greeks in the upright loom (BRAUN); fiSDO is the web itself; 
JIN, the loom. On these and other technical terms connected with weaving see 
PADS cited above (1. 1 1). 

At the end of v. 14 ACsLLpNVn a ^ (,$H su & #&>/.) + xai OUK dYvuja6r| f] \a\vc, 25 
auTou, which would be suitable at this point (Bu.), but may, for that reason, have 
been borrowed from v. 15. 
(16) D^TI bl; (D ALL PVn a i ^H( gx^v Tr]v VUXTU. 

(18) "6 T3H "O, so Q e re, many codd. and old edd. of Jit in the text, and all Versions; 
K e thib rb, accidental repetition of rft in the same phrase just above. 30 
iTbx l^yi, so many codd. of Al, STUDER, KEIL, al. \ tfl l^j?i, grammatically impossible. 

(19) iT313 by. (BACsSrLLpVnJHd av d |U^aov TUJV fovaTUJV auTfj?; DOORN. would read 
p. Cf. 05 4,21; 5,27. 

4tt(B v <I wxb Nnpni; (0 reL 5 H (6 TOV xoupea, 3 tonsorem, S i^.^^.. The more 
specific word may have been suggested by the context. 35 

T\bv\, as the context seems to require; what else was the man called in for? 
so CLERICUS (tacitly), J. D. MICH., KAUTZSCH, GRATZ, Bu.; JltM nbirn, con 
formation to the preceding and following verbs; (03 are ambiguous. The alter 
native would be to strike out the words wvb Nlpm (DOORN. 2 ). 
ni3S$ brm, with <B ACsSrLL P NVn 3 H (6 xui rjpHaTo Ta-rreivoOaeai, DOORN., KAUTZSCH 40 
(niaV); iftSfc 1*113^ br\Fn, which 3 interprets, coepit abigere en in el a se depellere. 
The passive seems to agree better with the meaning of n3J> (cf. vv. 5.6 above) 
and the context; his humiliation began, and his strength departed from him. 
M may have arisen through dittography of 1, but the error was perhaps favor 
ed by a different interpretation of H3J? (torinenf). 45 

(21) o^TDKn JV32 K e thib here and in v. 25; Q e re in both: D llDKn, intended perhaps as 
plural, not of "nDN, which would be at variance with the principle of the correc 
tion in Gen. 39,20, but of 11DN, 15, 14, cf. TlDXn no Jer. 37, 15. 

(23) iaT3. Here and in v. 24 many codd. and old edd., la^TX In both verses also 

la TN is found in many; while 13^n is strongly supported. 5 

(25) na 1 ? 31B "3 K e thib (3lB 3) ; Q e re 31183. In the K e thib, 31tD is perf.; the punctuation, 
not recognizing this form, unnecessarily substitutes the inf. On the variations of 
codd. and edd. see DE Rossi. 

15,10 i6,i4 -**&*&<& jifu&3e -^-sjs**>-- 57 

15 (10) Jtt irty; (5 Sr 3 H dWfhiiuev j ^/.; A Lp <?/. ; the word could well be spared. 
(14) iltC5 v B>N3 "HJD "IIPN; 1 AL al. r)viKa dv 60qppav6f| irupoc;, conformation to 16,9. 

(16) Dvnisn man nionn Ti^a I heaped them all tip; & o^rnbn lion, or n-r^bn (BAR), 
a noun joined to its own dual, as in D jnorn cm, D"np1 nap, 5,30; cf. Sfit. (5 
aXeiqpu>v dEriXeuya ((5 LN ^EaXeiiiJiu) OUTOU<;, rightly recognizing in the words an 5 
infinitive absolute and its verb (cf. 3 delevi eos)\ so HOUB., J. D. MICH., GEDDES, 
verb Qal, D fnan lion, and, for the rest, interpreting very variously (HOUB., 
disturbavi, as tan in Aram.; GEDDES, I have completely routed them; }. D. MICH., 
Ich habe sie dicke iiber einander gehduft; &c.). J. D. MICH, referred in explana- 10 
tion of (8 dSaXeiqpuu to the Arab. -*,-. pare, peel, skin (syn. lsx*o, &**, (j^*-)> 
with this verb DOORN. and numerous recent scholars connect the Heb. verb. 
There is, however, no other trace of such a meaning in Hcb.; and it therefore 
seems safer to regard the verb as from the same root with lOh heap, measure; 
perhaps a casual denominative, invented for the paronomasia; if this be the case, 15 
we should probably regard the finite verb as Piel. 

(17) T6 nan. In spite of the etymological explanation of the origin of the name 
(nai throw}, itt(B3 correctly derive the word from 011. 

(19) 1 DTJ^N; 3 Dominus, 2t nw, S lo^ JUpo. Elsewhere in the context 4tt nin\ 
[Bu., Comm., suspects that the word is redactional ; if we pronounce J>j?3V the 20 
subj. is unnecessary; cf. also notes on i K 2,19; Is. 16,10; Ezr. 4,15, &c.] 

(20) ifl and Versions njtf &*wy;Jer. Sofa 1,8 n3 

16 (i) DWO, with ALLpg^H exetGev, Sr sub obel.; M nnty |ltttW "]^1. The adverb may 

have been omitted by accident after \\VfQV; or intentionally, because after 15,20 25 
it had lost its connection. 

( 2 ) "I5"!i following (5 avrflT^lj 6-rrriYT^n; tne verD is indispensable, and has been 
supplied in all the Versions (CLERICUS, HOUB., ZIEGLER, STUDER, DOORN., 

nb^n ^D i; STUDER and DOORNINCK strike out the words as a gloss. 30 

inunm nsna npan IIS ~\y, with ACsLLpVn a^ qpujroq -rrpoji |ueivuj|aev Kai d-rroKTei- 
vujuev aurov ( Sr 5 H f-ieivuu.uev sub obel.}; cf. 2X7,9. With the ellipsis in M we 
might compare 181,22. 

(3) M nbjn; (JACsLlpNVngHd K ai dvr|VYKev auTa<; (yar. aura) . . . Kai 6r|Kev aura? 
(aura) dxeT; V Ka i dv^r] ... Kai eOriKev K. T. L It is possible that the last clause 35 
is genuine (DOORN.); GRATZ emends: Dts> nrrvi. 

(4) pito (BAR, GINSB.) or p"nto (JACOB KHAYYIM, NORZI, MICHAELIS), not pnittf (JAB- 


(5) M ]Jn3, anomalous punctuation, which I see no reason for preserving. [It might be 
well to note, however, that the present of Assyr. naddmi (=]fi3; see HAUPT, 40 
Sumer. Familiengesctze, p. 43, n. 2) is not only inddin, indmdin but also iddan 
(see op. cit. p. 53) or even ittan^ with n (DELITZSCH, Assyr. Handiuorterbuch , 
pp. 45o a .488 a ; Assyr. Gramm. 100; cf. also above, p. 34, 1. 33.] 

(6) limy 1 ?. DOORN. suspects that this is a gloss from v. 19; cf. vv. 10.13.15; so Bu., 
Comm. 45 

(13.14) In M (5 fit) the end of what Samson said and the beginning of what Delilah did 
have been omitted by homaoteleuton (nroon DJ? i . . . ri3Dn DJ? 2); cf. vv. 7-9. 1 1 f. 
17-19. We have two 6 translations of the passage: (a) Lp (cf. B H ) Mv bidari 
rove, iTTd poarpuxouc; Tfi<; Ke^aXfn; uou v ^Ktdaei bidauaToq | Kai dfKpouanc; TUJ 
TraaadXuj ei<; TOV TOIXOV Kai ^iruq)dvri<; ib^ diri irfixuv, Kai daSevrjaaj Kai ^aouai uj? 5 
eT<; TUJV dvOpduTTuuv. KOI ^Koiuiaev auxov AaXiba, KOI dbidaaro Touq diTTd poarpO- 
Tf|<; K9aXfi<; aurou inerd Tfjt; ^KTu aeuuc, | Kai KarepKouaev ^v TUJ iruaadXiu 
TOV TOIXOV, Kai iiqpuve, K. T. ^.; (//) v tdv urpuvrjc Ta<; ^TTTU aeipdi; Trji; 
Jud. 8 

56 -<**3<cs-g$- %u,t%t8 *>>*>- 14,1515,7 

14 however, no obvious reason why they should be supposed to give up the riddle 
in the middle of the week; more probably the error lies in the other number, 
r\wb& for T\W (an example of this error is found in v in 20,15); J. D. MICH. 
makes this suggestion, without confidently adopting it. Neither the actual nor 
the emended text is in harmony with v. 17, according to which Samson s bride 5 
teases him the whole week through to tell her the riddle. If we may assume 
consistency in the author s own representation, the notes of time in vv. I4 b .i5 a 
must be regarded as glosses (STADE, DOORN., Bu.). The Philistines speedily 
convinced themselves that the only way to get the answer to the riddle was to 
worm it out of Samson, and without delay set his wife on him. For six days she 10 
badgered him with tears and reproaches, until, worn out at last, he betrayed his 

05) & \b nyi; (5 KOI dTTcrfYe^dTw <?i- DATHE and ZIEGLER would emend: "jb; but 
<f) is only an early attempt to remove the difficulty which these critics unnecessa 
rily discover in &\. DOORN. reconstructs: lib ~ttTY\ .TVnn n "f) li l. 15 

UBh^n; many codd. and edd. IJtfV rn, some 13Bnj)n. The inf. Qal of BT is nn ; 
the Piel, for which some take the form with Methieg, occurs only in Deut. 28,42, 
where it is an error (cf. x). ACsBsLLpNVnSHg f| -rrruuxeOaai dxaX^aoTe nude, 
connecting the verb with Bh. Contamination of signification is probable ; cf. 
wnn impoverish 182,7, B"il3 be reduced to poverty. Perhaps we should emend 20 
here: UBTiubn (irrujxitfai). VN f\ ^KfUcxaou f|ua<; KeKXrixare. 
tf?n, with a few codd. of 1, and it, STUDER, BERTH., DOORN., STADE, GRATZ, 
al. According to marginal notes in some MSS, the schools of Sora and Nehardca 
differed on this point (obn npl xbn 2VO WinJ^, ^n npl 3^3 n"?n "KIID "?). 
Jtt xbn, but the alternative or not is expressed in Heb. by b DK, not by N^H; 25 
and is not in place here at all. 5 (which mistranslates) and (5 do not represent 
the word at all; 3 an idcirco vocastis nos ad nuptias ut spoliaretis! 
(18) m/inn S3" 1 DIBS before he entered the bed-chamber, so STADE [to consummate the 
marriage, STADE; but see contra Bu., Co/fim.], adopted by Bu., KAUTZSCH, 
DOORN.; cf. 15, i, m-inn TIB>N hx nxax; & ncnnn, 03 ALL P VnN 5H(E Trpiv (N -npb TOU) 30 
hOvai TOY rj\iov, so also 3; (O v rrpo TOU dvcrreTXcu K. T. ^.; see the Versions and 
comm. on 8,13. 5 Uaol ^o^j jly^ (before the supper came in; see A), taking- 
Din in the sense of tnn ^. SO GEDDES translates 1: before the supper was 
served. If the author had meant before sunset, he would have said N3n mB3 
tW5n. 35 

(20) This verse is regarded by DOORNINCK as a gloss, suggested by 15,2; without 
sufficient reason. 

15 5) [niBpa. Bu., Comm., conj. 

wnits. VN 6-n-o aXuuvoi;, as in Ex. 22 , 5 ; Job 5 , 26. The other recensions of 6 40 
have a conflate text. 

nni m: nj?1; itt rp ma nj>l, which is interpreted in Bcrakhoth 35 a olive- 
plantation, without warrant in usage. We must emend either: IVO (63, GRATZ), 
or: nv ~\y\ (M, HOUB., STUDER, DOORN.). 

(6) JV3K n^3 nw, so many codd. and some old edd. of JH, 6ACsBsLLpVn.5H(g.3, LlLlEN- 45 
THAL (1770), GEDDES, GRATZ, al.; JlKBVNjj n ^ nl, by accidental omission of 
JV2 after n. 

(7) "lii Topa n a. ACsSrLLpNVn^H^ OUK euboxriauj, dXXd rnv ^xblKnoiv HOU it 4v6<; 
(Ai .3H(g + K ai) dKaaroii uuatv -rroinaoiaai. In & ((i)V3M) the words bnn in1 
r/ afterwards I will desist do not add anything to the sense, and there is 50 
ground for the suspicion that bnns has arisen from the variant inN which appears 

in (0; but I do not venture to reconstruct the text in accordance with (5, which 
is itself hardly preserved in its original form. 

-o3-g< sfu&es ^-SS^HO- 55 

14 (2) 10*61. The word is a comparatively late addition to the text. External evidence 
of this fact is perhaps preserved in 5 H , where we read, -cua^JJ >^;olo jAroo 
\fjolo -x-ei^.; ajojlo. The asterisk is manifestly misplaced, the verb xai elire is 
indispensable; and it is a very probable conjecture that the signs should be 
corrected: ;lo \ t^, opojlo -fc. The words xai if] ur|Tpi auTou A codd. 131. 144, 
perhaps by hoinosoteleuton. 

(3) 10iS1 1 3N "b ne*n. The verb was not conformed when the second subject was 
interpolated, cf. v. 5 a ; some recensions of (5 with <S, and even <T, correct to the 
plural. On the editorial changes in this chapter see notes to the English Trans 
lation, pp. 83 ff. ; DOORN., and esp. STADE, ZAT 4 ( 84) 25off. ; Bu., R-S 130 f. 
M "CJ? ^231; <B LL P dv Travri TUJ Xaw aou, so also S; adopted by HOUB., DATHK, 
al. [Bu., Comm. would follow S a step farther, and emend: 73X n"33 [<NB] ]"Kn 

(4) DOORN. regards this verse as a late gloss. 

(5) 10X1 V3N1 \\W ITI. The last two words are secondary (DOORN., STADR). 15 

IWI, conformation to the previous gloss; (D VN xai riXGev, (B ALL P.3 H <E xai 
(z. e. ID^I, v. 8) ; Q3 CsBsVn ^HexXivav, including the father and mother. The 
author wrote X3" 1 ! (DOORN.). 

(6) t-un J>Dt?3 as one might tear a kid; cf. FOUCART, Les associations religicuaes 
cliez les Grecs, p. 73. 20 
"in T jn Vi, gloss, GEDDES (guardedly), DOORNINCK. 

(9) VBD b imi^l scraped it out; the verb is common in later Heb., there is no reason 
to suspect the text, as some scholars have done. See Comm. The consider 
able variations in some recensions of (5 are apparently derived from a Heb. 
copy in which VB3 had been corrupted to VB ( ALVn eic; TO aToua auToO; 25 
(fJCsBs al. 5 H iK TOU OTouaTO^ auTou \sc. TOU Xeovrot;]; (0 N ex TOU aroinaTOi; TOU 
Xeovroc ei? TU? x iP a ? auxou, doublet; (5 V ig xeipa?, castigated; <5 L P ^v raT<; 
Xepoiv aurou, i. c. VS33). This error has worked back into v. 8, where the original 
rendering of iTIsn JVU3, ev TUJ OUJUCXTI TOU X^OVTO<;, has been changed to OTO- 
uaTi in all recensions of 03, and has been perpetuated from in 3, while in v. 9 b 30 
aToucrroc is found in (D VNL P, ex TH? e Seuu? in (BACsBsLVn^H ^ Q u an . jj^ &$ 


(10) The author wrote nnO D^ ^J? s l Hn !?S pu?ttt? T\^1 (DOORN., STADE). 

itt nntr ; Oi + e-rrTa fiuepaq, so 5. HOUB., DATHE, GEDDES [see also Bu., Comtn.}, 
think the words original; to them the following note, for so the young men used 35 
to do, refers. The seven days may, however, very easily have been introduced 
from v. 12. 

(n) Jil<5VS(!r iniN DHS13 TiM; <J5ACsBsL P NVn$H<g Ka i ^ T ^ V TO dv TUJ cpopeToOai auTou? 
(5 H sub obel.} CXUTOV, i. c. cnt<T3, r/I (D L xai eYtveTO ^opeioGai auTOuq CCUTOV, 
Joseph, bid bioc, if\c, iaxuoc TOU veaviaxou. KAUTZSCH would read DrtXV3; 40 
BERTH. nnn >i 3 ) cf. 283,11. 

inpM. DOORN. (Theol. Tijdschrift 94, p. 21) would supply the subject, DTIB^B; 
the author, however, wrote np 1, Samson took these companions. [See, however, 
Bu., Comm., who makes it probable that it was the Timnathites who chose these 
groomsmen; and that the latter (not Samson) provided the feast; cf. WETZSTEIN, 45 
Zeitschrift fiir Etlmologie, 1873, P- 288. Bu. drops DnT3 TP1 as a gloss, and 
transposes 1J1 inp^l to stand before v. io b .] 

(12) Jit QnNXfcl; A CsBsLpVn a j^ ^H su b as f.. gl oss f rom v _ j8 (STADE, DOORN.). 

(14.15) no>i ijr3t9n ova s n i in^a 11 r\w rtTnn T jn 1 ? I ps 1 sb\ so DOORN.; Jit and all the 

Versions: D D 11 r\V)b&. With this the seventh day in v. 15 does not tally; for the 50 
latter, 6 (except & and two other cursives) 5.A have on the fourth day. HOUB., 
emend accordingly: " jTSin DV3 ( jT3l9n easy transcriptional error). There is, 

54 -K3<g-& ut>$te $&&$&>- 13,17 M, 1 

13 immediately follow Manoah s invitation to meat. They are, however, an even 

more apposite comment on v. 17, where Manoah asks his visitor s name and is 
told that it is a mystery. The evident displacement of the sentence is most 
easily explained if it is a gloss meant for v. 17. 

(17) A\ 1 0. GRATZ nD, as in Gen. 32,28; Ex. 3,13. Confusion of and n is not 5 
uncommon; but #1 may be right, cf. Deut. 4,7; Mic. 1,5; Gen. 33,8. 

1121, so Q e re <5<S; many codd. and edd. of $& have the sing, in the text without 
further note (Oriental text); K e thib "pin plur. ; see on v. 12. The other places 
where the same correction is made are i K8,26; 18,36; 22,13; Jer. 15,16; 
xp 119, 147. 161 ; Ezra 10, 12. 10 

(18) "N^B Kim K e thib, regularly formed adjective from K^S; Q e re ^3 with silent K; 
cf. \v 139,6. 

(19) mvyb N^son mrrb to the wonder-working Jm ir, with (gACsBiLLpNVn3H<| T jj upiw 
TUJ eauuaCTOi TTOIOUVTI, 3 Domino, qui facit mirabilia; with the construction cf. 

Is. 29,14; 2 Chr. 26,15; Joel 2,26. This reading, which CLERICUS had suggested, 15 
is rejected by HOUB. on account of the following D\xn int?xi nilOl. M N^Bttl mrr!? 
OWl intTKl rmni WWph, so 3", and (5V (solitary, as often in its agreement with <H) 
xai dvr)veYKev . . . TLU Kupluu, Kai biexuipiaev -rroifiaai, K.T.., which agrees literally 
with 2T and is probably from A; S, with the utmost freedom, jL>po\, loot UUAAJOO. 
M defies all attempts to construe it grammatically. MAURER conj. K^BD Kim 20 
nitryb, but this, as STUDER observes, only gives us a second circumstantial 
clause to dispose of. HOUB., better, nwy 1 ? N^BO mm. M arose from an attempt 
to connect the words with the following clause, after the latter had accidentally 
intruded ; see the next note below. [Bu., Coinm. (cf. BERTH.), thinks the words, 
even when corrected, superfluous a gloss to "xbfi Sim, v. 18.] 25 

At the end of this verse M and the Versions add DWi inew niiOl; copied out 
of place from the next verse. 5 connects the words with v. 20, making the 
repetition even more intolerable. 

(20) ni^JD; many codd. and old edd. mtys. 

roton "?VO. 5 isJL? ^, interpreting as does Josephus; cf. 6,21. 30 

M nnton 2n^3; 5H \\MA r M^ %, (f>^p^\ cd. Rom. dv Tfj cpXcyi sine addit. 

(21) Mil H13D yi" t. The words connect with v. 20 ; the intervening ^t6l3 liy f)D" K^l 
inN ^>K1 niao !? nxinb nw is parenthetic. [BoHME strikes out v. 2i a ; HOLZINGER 
and Bu. cancel v. 2i b , as superfluous after v. 2O b .] 

(23) irTB, with many codd. and edd. of M; the Received Text has 12TD. 35 

^H(D VN 35ir r6x bs ns iixnn "?1; (DABsLLpVng^H Ka i {, K gtv ^ibriaev ri,uct<;. These 
translators read lyyirt; c_/! v. 8, where they render laiVl xai qpujTiadruj r|ua<; (min 
= ^uuriZietv also 2 K 12,2(3); 17,27.28, A Gen. 46,28 &c., probably by pseudo- 
etymological association with TIK). The words n^N ^>2 then refer to the instruc 
tions for the bringing up of the child, from which it was a very strong inference 40 
that JHVH meant something else than their destruction. It is an attractive con 
jecture that this is the true reading; the error which made of it 13nn led then 
to the addition of the rather awkward last clause, since a mention of what JHVH 
had said to them was now lacking. 

JlKfjAVL ,nj?2i; ^ (5CsBsLpNVng3 ) 11 S nb ast.\ 3 connects with the preceding (jjo^a 45 
Jlo .JUaj). Perhaps we might read nnj? 31. 

14 (i) naorQ; M nnaoro. Canaanite name with the fern, ending -at (as in Phot-n., Moa- 
bite), like n^J 1,15; riBS 1,17; nruon is locative (so in this verse, ptPBW TVl 
nmnn). The Hebraized form H3n also occurs, but not in Jud. The same correc- 50 
tion is made in vv. 2.5 below; see also note on 11,20. At the end of the verse 
(gACsBsi.pNVng _^_ K0t i r|peaev ^viimiov CIUTOU, 5 H sub lemnisco; i. e. 
from v. 7. 

12,11 13, l6 -<**3*s-g$- $Utyt6 *>$>**>- 53 

12 troduced into the Heb. text represented by <5 L P from 11,34; in that case we 

should fall back on the reading of S or (D (so, "IJ^J VJD, HOUB.; iv ji Wjn 
EWALD); t_/I the city of Gilead in Hos. 6,8, perhaps the modern Jal f nd, three miles 
south of the Zerqa (Jabbok); see BUHL, Geogr., p. 262. J. D. MlCH. suspects 
that the city Gilead is the same as Mizpeh. 5 

(n) \\bs-, M l^N; see on v. 12. 

(11.12) In 5 H vv. 11.12 are sub asf., and a marginal note in cod. 85 observes that from 
KOI expive (v. 11) to the end of v. 12 is not in (5. 

(12) }\b bis; M \fyxi ^p 1 . . . 11^8 F\W\ cf. Jos. 19,42.43. The punctuation which 
thus distinguishes the name of the Judge from that of the town is artificial (cf. 10 
(i)); both should be read Elon } Gen. 46,14 (NOLDEKE). In the spelling of this 
word there is much diversity, not only in codd. and edd., but apparently among 
the Masoretic schools. BAR writes the name of the Judge in vv. 11.12 f?N, as 
also in 4,11, appealing to Massora finalis K 22 ; but on this rubric see FRENSD., 
Massor. Worterb., p. 265, n. 6, and cf. GlNSBURG, Massora Magna, i, p. 47. 15 

(15) D^jnr p83 Qns VD pnjnss -opM, Lp dv 6 pet Ecppcuu <?v Ytl ZeMrm, cf- I $ 9,4, 
wbyv pKD, voyi D iss -im -ajn (05 IeYa\ei,u, ?w.; (OA Xaa\ei|u); ^l p3 
p"?Jjn "im D""IEN, so v^SS"; CsBsVn ^ v ^r) E^paiin; @AL(g ^ v cipei Aavax. 
Pirathon is to be looked for, not at Per ata NW of Ndbulus, but further south 
(i Mace. 9,50, Joseph. Ant. xiii, 1,3); Abdon occurs in the genealogical lists in Ben- 20 
jamin, i Chr. 8,23; 8,30=9,36. This agrees well with the situation of the dis 
trict of Shaalim in Samuel. The mountain of the Amalekites of 1 is commonly 
brought into connection with Jud. 5,14, pbajn cunt? D HSN "OO, where the text is 
irremediably corrupt. 

J 3 (4) "Wfl ^Nl; many codd. tib); similarly in v. 14. 

(5) fn^l, consec. perf. ; M fi"|^l as in v. 7, Gen. 16,11, an intentionally ambiguous 
punctuation, holding the mean between the perf. and the part. rnb s l. See 
KONIG, 1,404-406. 

(6) .#1 and Versions D H^Kn "]X^12; so also in v. 9. Elsewhere in this chapter always 30 
mrv j 1 ?0 (vv. 3.13.15. Perhaps the variation in vv. 6 and 9 is 
accidental, occasioned by the proximity of DTi^Nn VfK. See note on 6,20. [It 
may be reasonably suspected that D\t!?Nn WN (note the article) was altered by 

a later hand from an original B^Nn (Bu., Comm.y, and, similarly, that for nK103 

D^n^Kn 1t6 the author wrote merely DY^K nl)33, B6HME, HOLZINGER, BUDDE.] 35 

& wrbV N^>1; ABsLL P NVn 5 H Kai f|pujTi.uv (ripdjTrjaa) aurov (SH auxov sttb 

(9) ^l D\nbn yw}; 35 Dominus\ mn 11 elsewhere throughout this chapter. Cf. 

DTlVsn ~[bb v. 6, and note there. For S21 some codd. of <Jl, and 3 have NV1. 
(10) & DV3. The expression has no exact parallel; if the text be sound, we must 40 

compare the idiomatic uses of DV3 and DVTO. 05 ALL P Vn aL rfj fi.uepa ^xetvr) (3 H 

ooi sub obel?), similarly 3, and even ft; probably only from the feeling that the 

sense requires it. HOUB., ntn DV3; GRATZ, orn. 
(n) ^l 8^1; A A I>P <7/. , SH sub ast. 
(12) Tim W nnj? sing., so many codd. and old edd. of JH, <5S, HOUB.; & ^-\tt 45 

plur. (see NORZI). In v. 17, where the same phrase occurs, the plur. is corrected 

by the Q e re. 

(14) M ]"H ^BilS; C5 CsBs LLpNVn(F ^ aUTT6\OU J/C dddtt., 5H + TOU OIVOU J(J rtJ/. 

(15) -ps^ nj?3i. BUDDE, Comm., suggests no B3i; cf. i 59,24; 28,22, &c. 

(16) At the end of this verse M and the Versions have Kin mrp ^^< l 7a "O niiO J?n^ xb ^. 50 
This is not a reason for the Messenger s reply in v. 16, but an explanation of 
something which Manoah said or did. HOUB. (following an observation of 
CLERICUS) and BOHME accordingly transpose v. i6 a and b , so that the words 

52 K3Og$- jubcjis ^gfto- 12,1 7 

ir the word is a late substitute for ]iip^, to remove the last plain trace of the 
human sacrifice. 

12 (i) & rUlfiX; ABsLVn a j, ,H<j lecpeiva (Xeqpnvu, Zeqpivu). See ME/., Bibel des 

Josephus, p. 17. 5 

(2) "1NO ""iUJ? pay "021, with (5ACsBsLLpNVn3H(f K ai oi uioi Aujuujv ^Tutreivouv jue acpo- 
bpa. In .ffl (followed by <8 V -J.3(T) ilijj has been omitted by transcripti onal error 
after poj? (DOORN., Bu., a/., not before it, GRATZ). The origin of the error 
was perceived by SEMLER. 

DD^N pJNNl, with (0 (except V) ^6r|aa up6<; uua<;; <tt(<5VM D2nx pjNNl. Con- 10 
struction of pyt c. ace. (Neh. 9,28) is rare, and confusion of HN and VN common. 
Less probable is D2nx p?ft?) / called you out. 

(3) -tt jnSND IJ N "O; (6 (except 6 V ) OUK rjv 6 aiuEuuv; Bu., Co/nin., accordingly \ < . 
ntJ^BWl, with NORZI, BAR. The Received Text, notTKl, is a mere blunder; the 
note ip ntrtrxi appears to be an addition of modern editors (later than JACOB 15 
KHAVYIM; see XOR/l). See also GiNSBURG, Massora Magna, 2,615 ( 273. 
274), and J. H. MlCHAELIS ad loc. 

(4) The end of the verse in 1& is, ntMO "[102 D^BN "Jina nj?"?J DD nn B^B no 3. 
In 5 H the entire half-verse from in is asterisked as a Hexaplar addition to 6 
(the asterisk has been placed by mistake before Ephraim i; see RORDAM 20 
and LAG.), and it is lacking in 58.64.75; the other codd. of L P ( 
[108 n. b.]. 128. 134) omit from nN O to the end of the verse, from which it is 

to be inferred that the asterisk in Hexaplar MSS originally stood after Ephraim 
2". The words D lBN <I B I ?B 110N T were copied out of place from v. 5, and the 
sentence completed by the insertion of Dnx. KAUTZSCH thinks it possible that 25 
this clause originally stood at the end of v. 6 a . The following words, ^in2 nj?bj 
nnBK, are perhaps a doublet to nnB ns 1J^>J ("JN 12^1) above, adapted to the 
context; ntrats 1^3, finally, observe the asyndeton (corrected "proi in many 
codd., as in Versions generally), seems to be a marginal correction made by 
a scribe who naturally did not see how the (iileadites could be said to be in the 30 
midst of Ephraim. In this state of the text, we need not go afield for parallels 
to the supposed taunting speech of the Ephraimites, with which JACOB (Studien 
sit den altarab. Dichtern, 3,37) compares Mag udi, Marj, 6, 145, where the Taiy 
are reviled as zusammengelaufene Nabatder. On this verse see WELLH. in 
Bleek*, p. 195, and DOORN. GRATZ conj. nn n B^B onBK 110 S 2, and lino. 35 

(6) nblty. C5 understands that the \\ord was a password or countersign; so most 
fully L P xai gXefov auTOit;, Eiirare bf\ auvGriua. Kai Xeyovreq auvGriua ou KOT- 
r)u6uvav TOU \a\fjaai OUTUUC. 

p nan"? bb; bl, with GRATZ, cf. 35 ; &<&$ \^\ explained as an elliptical in 
stance of the idiom n!? pn ; the impf. must then be taken as frequentative. But 40 
the meaning, he did not give heed, take pains, to say it right, is hardly natural; the 
ellipsis is not attested by old examples ; and in the sequence of narrative tenses 
a perfect is expected. The error may be ascribed to the influence of the follow 
ing p. Some codd. and old edd. have f2\ 

(7) nj? 1 ?: HBXD2 1TJ?3 I2p"l, cf. <5 L P v Tfi troXei auroO ^v leqpe (var. Zeq)) PaXaab, 45 
Joseph. v,7,i2 ev rri aurou mrrpibi le^n (Lat. Sebethi}; MS ijto na, 6 ^v rri- 
-rroXei OUTOU (al. + ^v) TaXaab, 3 in civitate sna Galaad, S t^X^? l^feas. The 
reading of L P probably represents HBS3, in a II eb. copy in which had been 
accidentally lost; and as Jephthah s home was at Mizpeh (11,34), we may with 
some confidence restore the name here, with STUDER, DOORN., BUDDE. MEZ 50 
(Bibel des Josephtis, p. 16) proposes nj?^J "BS3 (another name for nBSB), compar 
ing v. i (where he would read ,TBS for HilBX leqpeiva), thus inverting DOQRN. s 
explanation of the variant of <B L P. It is, of course, conceivable that HDSO was in- 

>- 51 

II pTH " T 1 by, with (53; JitM )121S. Aroer and the Arnon come from v. 18 (</. 

Num. 21,136".); while Jaazer and the Jordan, which are not suggested by any 
thing in the context, are original. [Bu., Comin., thinks, on the contrary, that 
the latter names are due to the attempt to give the story which originally 
dealt with Moab a relation to Ammon.] 5 

N"nn njn nr^sn xb yni, with <B VN bid TI OUK ^ppuau) CCUTOIX;, STUDER, GRATZ ; 
& Dflbxn. The sing, has been used throughout in the address to the king; the 
masc. suff. for the fern, (referring to the cities) is not uncommon (cf. below, 
p. 65, 1. 36). The other recensions of (5 have TI on OUK eppuaavro (al. ^ppuaaTo) 
auTouc, LP bid TI OUK ^EeiXavTO auTa?. 10 

(27) nvn t2&its>n m.T e>Btf\ Bu. (Comm^ proposes nrn mrr tsst^ tifstf. 

(29) ]10J? 32 b 13J?, with many codd., as in v. 32 (others have JIN); (5 eic; TO irepuv 
uiuiv Aja.uuw ("OP b, by accidental transposition ; "133? in an isolated MS of &, 
preferred by DE Rossi), 3 transient ad Jilios Ammon ; Jit )1J? ^3 135?. 

(31) KSVn, A (5 L P tf/. , <S H j# rtj/. 15 

(33) JT30 "JN13 1J?. The proper name has suffered various misfortunes; (5VN Apvuiv 
and 5 ;-LA (but cf. A JU^JLo) substitute a familiar name for a strange and per 
haps mutilated word. GRATZ conj. D fc Tj? ny, 2 S 12,27. 

(34) naap, with C5 ABsLL P Vn ffi Tr\r|v auTf|c, as the context demands, HOUB., GRATZ; iH 
^3SO masc., an error for which the following p is perhaps responsible. The 20 
Masorah notes this as one of six places where nittO would be conjectured for 

(35) M, supported by AIQ (see FIELD), nsij?! n"n nxi ^nyon J>isn ; @ACsBsLL P Vn 
al. 5H( ^|nireTToboaTdTriKCx<; ue (var. (not) ei? OKtliXov ^Y^VOU v 6cp6a\uoi<; uou, 

TapaEoic; |ae, Kai au f)<; ev TUJ TapdxuJ |aou, S txL.^aA*o .Q^J*A 25 
J_LO_. -^001 Kjlo, 3 decepisti me et ipsa deccpta cs. Comparison 
of these versions makes it probable that none of them had our Heb. text; 
(5 V N53 suppose the same root in both clauses (i:j?, SCHARFENBERG); for "nsjn 
(!J A al. read TJD; OKUJXov is elsewhere a rendering of ^ICOD or plB, whence 
SCHARFENBERG conj. that their text was "i"jn rPM bwiftb (or i?pl^>). EiuTreirobo- 30 
OTdT^Kac is probably ^ni3J> ; t/i i Chr. 2,7 "jxnty 121J? 13JT, VA rt /. 6 ^iroboaTd- 
Tn? ( Vn ^/. 6 TapdEac). The concurrence of JTO and "I3J? in Jtt is of itself sus 
picious. HOUB. suspects that the original text had 13J? in all three places; 
GRATZ emends.- O msyn "i3J?n, and with a query, "I3J? n3. 

(37) D^ i " 1 by ^mTI nsbxi. DOORN. cancels THTI, which is unnecessary and exegetic- 35 
ally difficult (for Kcrrafiriaouou, (5 N dvapr)ao,uai, Lp -m[3r]aouai attempts to 
relieve the awkwardness of the expression) ; it was a gloss meant for the end of 
the verse. GRATZ conj. Tmav 

-niJT,} Q e re, as in v. 38; K e thib ^jni (cf. Cant. 1,9, &c.). 

(38) n -wnn n^ty, as in v. 39; M n^nn ":w. 40 
(39.40) The division of the verses is wrong (CLERICUS, DOORN.); the custom which be 

came established in Israel was the women s mourning described in v. 40; not the 
sacrifice of daughters, v. 39. The reason for the Masoretic division, as CLERICUS 
and DOORN. both observed, may be learned from it: "r-Q JNIP O nrti^ nxim 

xv xb~\ nwnj; 1 ?: pins 1 n3$n 03 xr\byb n^nna m n- 1 ^ n 11 13J wpoxl? bn 45 

nin :n3 Dna- U 1 ? ^ ^"Kl // was made an ordinance in Israel, 
in order that no man should offer his son or his daughter for a burnt-offering, as 
the Gilcaditc Jephthah did because he did not consult the priest Phinchas ; for had 
he consulted Phinehas, he would have redeemed her with a price. [ nw is ano 
malous (pn is masc.); the false division of the verses perhaps led some scribe 50 
to take Jephthah s daughter as the subject. Probably it should be emended 
VP1, Bu., Cofftm.] 
(40) nun 1 ?. KLOSTERMANN conjectures r\vyb to sing.-, Bu. (Coming suspects that 

50 -W5S3O-S*- %ub$te *^-=*s^- 10,1811,26 

IO XaCu (DJ>3) is a corruption of?DJ?3 (DOORN.); OUK eutipearriaev is a translation of 

Tt?D3 ispni, accommodated to the false reading DJ73. 

(18) Dyn nax- l; ffi + iyb* s lte>, doublet (from 11,5), DOORN. C5 AL P oi apxovret; TOO \aoO 
FaXaab ((S L /. oi TOU Xaou cipxovreq P.); -3 H 3 principes Galaad. If, with GRATZ, 
we should read "HEN, the order would still betray the gloss. 

II (i) Jit 1J1 nybi n"?n. The interpolation attaches awkwardly to the preceding sentence; 

<5ACsBsLLpVn,$H<j Ka \ grexev TUJ raXuctb, which GlESEBRECHT and GRATZ adopt 

(iy^ i 1 ?); VN n e Ye vvn.aev TUJ F. 

BUDDE S reconstruction of vv. 1-3 concerns the source of the verses, not the 10 

actual text; cf. above, p. 23, 1. 37. 
(4) V. 4 C5 VN , perhaps by homceotelenton. The verse is superfluous by the side of 

v. 5 a (observe how 3 condenses in translation); ZIEGLER and STUDER question 

its genuineness, GRATZ omits it. Quite as probably, v. 5 a ( A <B L ) is secondary. 

DOORN. regards v. 4 as by the author of vv. 1-3, making connection with v. 5. 15 
(n) Jtt mix Dyn iD eri; 6 Xao? A (5Lp, S H sub ast.\ not improbably a gloss, the natural 

subject is the D s 3pl. 
(13) n^>3 nnix i"Q n nnyi, with (D J5sL pV" a/, aufrjv, 3 ^?;/ (sc. t errant); so HOUB., <?//.; 

ill ]nnx, which could only refer to the cities in this region, cf. v. 33. 

At the end of the verse (DVN a l _j- K ai Tiopeuaoucn, adopted by GRATZ, 

Further, AL^P<5 (SH sub obel^ + xai cur^OTpe<|mv oi a-fY^oi irpoq leopGae; supply 

ing a link in the narrative. 

(17) rax N 1 ?!. (!3 L i> C$ H j//^ obel^-\- oube OUTO? dveivai auruj irapeXGew. The words 
may be genuine, 13J? inn in Dl H3K "?!; t/ v. 20. 

(18) 3X1(3 ^IS 1 ? tro miao 3"1; A 5, by homccoteleuton, perhaps in the Heb. copy from 25 
which the translation was made, perhaps in 5 itself. 

(19) ni3J>3. Many codd. ni3J)N, conforming to v. 17. 

(20) n3_s> ^ow nx nn pn-o ^KOM., with (fjABsi,LpVn$H< KCt i ^ K ^e^Xrioe IHUJV TOV lapnX 
bieXeeiv; f/: Num. 20,21. niJ> "7x1^ nx ]hi nnx ^SO-I (see also Num. 21,23; Deut. 
2,30); J -ny bx-iw nx pn"D Vn X^i. Mistranscription of }& (]DX S ) necessitated 30 
the introduction of the negative and correction of the tense; nn (GRATZ, which 

is perhaps not indispensable) may have been lost before r.N or supplanted by 
it. With Jtt agree (5 VN .5(f; 3 non dimisit enm transirc, &c. 

nsn-D. In the inscription of Mesha (1. 19), as in Is. 15,4; Jer. 48,34, the name- 
is yn 11 ; the locative in n (Num. 21,23; Deut. 2,32) seems in this, as in numerous 35 
other instances, to be mistaken by later writers for a feminine; sec also on 

(22) J|ALLpNVnSHd3J -n^n Vna ^ nx WTM (S abridges); A (gvcsBs a /.; the words 
only repeat in another form what has been said in v. 2i b ; ZIEGLER suspected 
that they were a gloss. 

pvn nyi isnon pi p3<n nyi ; S H t! ioA- \JLsef^ ^=p >o w*i^A. -x-jjof^, /. e. 
tan; TOO lajioK, Kai UTTO Tf|? tpt iuou eux; V TOU lopbuvou. The asterisked 
words are omitted in ffii-p; in fiCsBsVn /. all after TOU IO^OK is lacking. 

(24) Ul W1D2 ->v 1W nx, corresponding to JUT t^lin IPX bs in the following half- 
verse; Jtt W103 iwnv (dittography), which compels us to take "lin in a different 45 
sense, and destroys the symmetry of the parallel. The error is an old one; it is 
found in all the Versions. 

(25) nnx 3itan, with (gACsBsLLpVn^nge, un. Kpeiaawv el au ; Al nnx 3113 3iein, ffiVN ^ } 
tv u-faGiij uTa6uJTepo<; au uirep BuXuK, 5 ^1 s. ^-^ ^**> ^ nN 3B 3tjn - The 
repetition, which gives us a construction without parallel, is probably accidental, 50 
favored by the following nn^i Dh^a DX ____ 3"J 31in. [So also 15U., Coiniii.] 

(26) nty s, with SAI^P al.l iv \aZr\pl A\ nipya, vNCsBsVn^n ^ v (v + fVl) Aponp 
(C5 L z ^f.), 35. See the following note. 

io,4 1 6 -"KS-o-g*- *iju&<50 **>- 49 

10 -Ob^D WX, cf. M ; JH nsisw , which is definite, and, with rare and doubtful 
exceptions, collective. [Bu., Comm., thinks A\ unobjectionable in R p .] 

VCtri; (!5ASrCsBsLLpVnj$H v ZdUCtpeiqt. 

(4) any D E^tfl, cities, so, with all Versions, ]. D. MICH.; <H D S V1>, accidental confor 
mation to the preceding D^vp aw. (According to BAR, p. 106, the Oriental school $ 
read n^lj? without note.) [n Tjj // may have been pronounced Av;; see Crit. 
Notes on Isaiah, p. 101, 1. 4; and this form D TJJ may have suggested the insertion 
of the D Ty from 12, 14. P. H.] 

IJ^J p3 1X comes unexpectedly at the end of the verse; without 1N the words 
might well stand after Dr6 i. [Bu., Comm.] 10 

(f5 in aH three cases gives 32 for 30. So 70 is frequently raised to 72; the reason 
is not obvious. 

(6) & Dix TI^N n1; (B L P a/., J3 H .<! aster. \ in fl5 A after the gods of Zidon. The variation 
D lX is found in 5. 

(8) ixyn, Ex. 15,6; t and Versions + mvi, doublet (B6TTCHER, who regards the 15 
second as original). SCHARFENBERG suggests IXljn. 

n:t? mtrj? n:e> ionn nawn. Jit carries the second of these conflicting statements 
over to the following half- verse; (5I-P3 omit the first; (5 r^/. translate dv TUJ xoupuj 
i. e. NTin njn, which would be free from difficulty. B6TTCHER emends : 
In 11,26 these 18 years seem not to be included in the reckoning. 20 

(10) 133t}> "O, with numerous codd. ; Jit "^l. Of the Versions only ( expresses the con 
junction, which is intolerable. 

imbx JUT n, GEDDES; so 7 codd. of A\, (5 A 3off (Venice edd., BUXTORF, al.; not 
Antwerp, ed., cod. Reuchl. ed. LAG., cod. Br. Mus. 2210), 3 (Vulgate; introduced 
by Clementine editors, apparently without any Latin attestation); sporadic cor- 25 
rections evincing the feeling that the name is indispensable; cf. we have left 
Thee, our God; M irnVN DX. 

(H) Al DVIB^B ;oi ]\ay *n ]oi nosn pi nnsets xbn, so (5 VN Z(T. The anacoluthon is 
extremely harsh; and neither JTBNn (v. 12) nor ^sn, which we might be tempted 
to supply (HOUB. Q3"n^sn, accidentally omitted after D li fc), is in Jud. ever 30 
construed with simple p. ACsBsLL P Vn 5 H 35 take the names of these peoples, 
like those in v. I2 a , as subj. of the verb D3nx !Xr6, and I have emended accord 
ingly. The error probably originated with a scribe uho began to transcribe the 
verse thinking of D2J1N vrtyn D^ISOO xbn (cf. 6,13), and having discovered his 
mistake boldly went on with it rather than mar his copy by a correction. The 35 
alternative is to suppose that the scribe or editor who introduced the string of 
names spoiled a sentence which began in some such way as D2nN TPbj?n D^XttB; 
cf. 2,3. [Bu., Comm.] 
(11.12) The list of oppressors exhibits considerable variations, which are in part accidental, 

in part to be ascribed to the desire for completeness. In Jtt the names of Moab 40 
(c. 3) and Midian (cc. 6-8) are conspicuously absent; in ACsBsLLpVn (^H su f, o bel^} 9, 
Moab is introduced after the Ammonites, in S immediately after the Egyptians. 
For ]iyo in v. 12 VNL have Mabiau, so also (transposing, Mccbictu xcxi AuaXnx) 
(OALpg; (TiCsBsVn a i 3 H Xavaav, 3 Canaan (c. 4); 5 V QX>V. The Maonites are 
first mentioned as enemies of Judah in the days of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20, i ; see 45 
also 26,7; i Chr. 4,41); and as OT knows nothing of a Maonite invasion in the 
days of the Judges, we should probably emend: pfi (BERTH., DoORN., GRATZ, 
KAUTZSCH; cf. STUDER). HOUB., following 3, reads \SK. It is conceivable, 
however, that the late author of this list wrote the name of a people of his own 
time, pj>a, instead of that of Midian. Other variations in the Versions need not 50 
be discussed here. 

(16) A\ mr! ns nnjn ; (Ov rr/. + ^toviu ( A C5 ALL P5 H ) ; GEDDES inserts nib. ALi-pVn + KU i 
OUK eunpearnaev ((5Lp Kupioq) ^v TUJ Xauj, S H sub obel. \Jaas\. i^a* JJ \ tv TUJ 
Jud. " 7 

-as-eK - 9,3710,1 

g read here something like noilK2 SI?" 1 Xini, and strike out the corresponding words 

in v. 41.] 

-[ by VJM n D^TJJO Dim, so FRANK.ENBERG, based solely on the context [approved 
by Bu.]; A\ "\y\ ons Dini; (gCsBsLLpVn troXiopKoOai, (6 VN TTepiKd6n.vTcu, p"?, S 
t-Jpjju, 3 oppugnat; all attesting Q"1S, and all taking it as part, of IIS. But Gaal 5 
and his followers were in possession of the city, not besieging it; and 112 besiege 
is construed with by, not with the accus. The context requires a word signifying, 
stir up, incite to hostility, many interpret D^llf or DmiX (jTJ?; so GRATZ) in this 
sense, but against usage. STADE suggests nnstt, part. 1 1 if. of Ttt, they make tlie 
city hostile to thce. It is an objection, though not a decisive one, to the emenda 10 
lion adopted in our text that the instances of bz by Tjjn in OT are all compara 
tively late (Ez. 23,22; Is. 13,17; Jer. 50,9; 51,1; Dan.; sec however above, on 
5,12). CLERICUS suggested nnj>, but Qal is not used in this transitive sense (Job 
41 ,2 emend to Hif.). 

(.37) n JJljfn ]"\b THO; Lp dnro 6bou bpuo<; dTTopXe-rrovTuuv, xai dpxn "XXn. duo TOU 15 
POUVOU ou oi -rcoiu^vec, doublet. See MEZ, Bibel des Josephus, p. 14, n. 

(41) nanso SCh TWIN -&y, LP al. xai eirdaTpe^ev A. icai eKaOioev ^v Apeiua; Jit -jba^N 2^;i, (OAiVsi.Vn al. 5 H ^KdOiaev, so 3; (OVN eiaiiXGev A. tv Apnuu. 
The reading in CO L P may be only a 6 doublet, accidentally recovering the original 
text. We might also restore 3Bh I^D^X I ri, as in 8,29. 20 

(44) ioj? niy ti?sim, (0 L P f) dpxn >1 jue-r aurou, 3 cum cuneo suo, as the context requires 
CJ. D. MICH., DATHE, REUSS, DOORN., KAUTZSCH, GRATZ, a/.}-, Al D tswim, by 
accident, from the next half-verse; ABsL ^ H ai dpxai; Oi VN attempts to remove 
the difficulty by translating ol dpxnT 01 - STUDER conj., less probably, D^3n. 

(46) nns. See Comm., and esp. G. HOFFMANN, ZA 96, pp. 322 ff. 25 

ill ;VO "7S n s 2; (fiALp BaaX 6ia6r|Kr|C, Cs BaaX ^epeiG, as in v. 4. 

(48) jia^x in ; CfJAVNLg Epuuuv, (5 L P Aepuuuv (Hermon); (TjCsBs^H o po^ EXuov (Jiaplo- 
graphy) perhaps represents an intermediate stage in the history of the cor 

1-np, as in I S 13,20; sing. ffiACsBsLL P Vn.$H$ ; jUVN nlt3^"!|3n. 3 

(49) in3lt, with GRATZ; M nblte. The noun is n31tf (v. 48); a masc. 1l (as in Mishnic 
Heb.) is not found in OT. DOORN. reads n:i; but in this distributive phrase 
the suff. is usual, if not indispensable (BERTH.); cf. ^f. 

(51) vyn "tya ^>2, GRATZ, Bu., Comm.\ 4H(8 ACsLNVn 5 H (635 ^Dl, commonly explained 
as JFa7t7 explicative (cf. Grit. Notes on Ezek., p. 46, 1. 52), that is, all the citizens, 35 
&c. In the present instance the conjunction may have been inserted by some 
one who understood the words as C5C5 do, oi rpfouuevoi (cf. 2 S 2,5). In (5 V the 
\\hole clause is lacking. 

(53) n?!: ^ P.. an anomalous form, whether we regard it as Hif. (which is not 
found elsewhere) or, with BARTH, as an / impf. Qal. 4 

(57) arr^N; two of the oldest edd. Dirty. 

IO (t) nn p. The Versions, except some recensions of , take nn appellatively, 
patnius. The name Diidu occurs frequently in the Amarna dispatches (see 
KB 5, Xos. 44.45.52,15); in the inscription of Mesha, 1. 12, mn seems to be 45 
the name of a god; cf. Uido (on \\hich name see WlNCKLER, Altorient. Forsch., 
i,339ff.). On nn, sec KENAN, RKJ 5,168; (;RAY, Heb. Proper Names, p. 83. - 
(f3 L P xai dv^OTttaev 6 Geoc; .... TOV OuuXa uiov Ooua uuw Kapie (til. KapnO TT- 
rpabdXcpou (i tir. irarpabeXcpov) autou, xai auroi; KaTtfjKei K. T. L, whence HOLT.KN- 
BERG conj. that in A\ and the Versions a name has fallen out, and would restore, 50 
"m nn rn_j3 p HNIB p j^in; cf. KAUTZSCH. It is to be noted that ffii-p omits the 
words a man of Issachar\ DOORN. suspects that Kupif has arisen from a corruption 
of this word. 

9,29 3 1 -ofjs*^ 3"&3& ^SJ{<- 47 

Hebrew declaration of revolt; in v. 29 he challenges Abimelech to come out from 
his capital, Shechem, to meet the Israelites in the field (see esp. W. R. SMITH). 
Following then the doublet KarebouXiJuaaTO TOUI; avbpa<; Eujnuup in (B L P, WELLH., 
OoRT, W. R. SMITH, STADE, Bu., al. read n^r : Who is Abimelech, and -who 
is Shechem (his city), that we should be subject to him.- Should not the son of 5 
Jerubbaal and his lieutenant Zebul subject the people of Hamor, the father of 
Shechem? But why should we (Israelites) be subject to him? (HouB. suggested 
that /;/ servitutcm egerunt would suit the context, but is deterred by the Qal; 
he transposes: Wps naj? bl3tl. GEDDES renders, Have not a son of Jerub- 
BaaF s and his deputy Zebul made slaves of the Hemorite Sichemites? \. e. 1TOJ?n.) 10 
SMITH thinks, further, that vv. 28 f. should stand immediately after v. 22 (see 
against this theory STADE, Gesch., I, p. 194, n); Bu. would put vv. 28 f. after v. 25. 
KAUTZSCH emends n?l: Is he not the son of Jerubbaal, and Zebul his lieu 
tenant? Then let him (Zebul) sen>e him, together with the Hamorites, &c. 
WlNCKLER conj. iniN m, which he translates, If the Hamoritcs serve 15 
him, &.c. 

The assumption on which all these conjectures rest is at variance with the 
plain tenor of the narrative. The men whose confidence Gaal gains (v. 26), at 
whose vintage festival in the temple of their god he makes his incendiary speech 
(vv. 27-29), and at whose head he goes out to battle against Abimelech (v. 39), 20 
are the D3E> ^3, the very men who made Abimelech king (v. 6). In v. 28, there 
fore, Gaal is not inciting the Israelites to rise against the Canaanite rule of 
Shechem; but is stirring up the native Shechemites to throw off the yoke of the 
half-Israelite Abimelech, which they had unwisely taken upon them. In doing 
so, he appeals to their pride of race: Should Shechem, should the Hamorite 25 
aristocracy, be subject to those who had been their own subjects? With this 
understanding of the situation it is only necessary to read (with S<) the perfect, 
rojj, instead of the imperative of 4H, TQJ? (so GRATZ; cf. WlNCKLER above, 1. 15; 
see also Bu., Co mm.}-. }Viio is Abimelech? And what are the Shechemites, thai 
we should be subject to him ? Were not the son of Jerubbaal and his lieutenant 30 
Zebul subject to the Hamoritcs? Why, then, should we be subject to him? 
STUDER suggested nay., fct them (Abimelech and Zebul) serve, c. ; so OORT 
D:B> -OX. Gloss from Gen. 34,6. 

(29) lO Sl, 6 KUI epOu,; continuation of Gaal s speech, I would say to Abimelech, 35 
GEDDES, DOORN., GRATZ, KAUTZSCH, al.\ SH IDSM, narrative, Gaal sent this 
defiance to Abimelech ; in conflict with the following verse. The conflict is not 
removed by making the subject of 10XM indefinite (3 dictum est\ as CLERICUS 
would do. Bu. (Comm., p. 75) thinks that the difficulty is not to be disposed of 
by emending the text; the words which follow originally belonged to the message 40 
of Zebul to Abimelech, before v. 33 a or b . 

nan, with some codd. and edd., the regular form; i\\ rn"i, an anomaly of which 
no very satisfactory explanation has been given. 

(31) nnntO as in v. 41; Zebul sent messengers to Abimelech, who was at Arumah; 
STUDER, DOORN., GRATZ (as the name of a place, probably identical with Aru- 45 
mah, Tormah was taken by some medieval Jewish commentators); $&. noina, 
(gACsRsLLpVngH U6T ^ bubpuuv (nonn) ; (B VN dv Kpucpfj, # clam, <$"JlajLa, connecting 
the word with JVBVi, nOTO. But the form of the noun is without analogy; secret 
ly attributes to it a meaning for which there is no warrant; deceitfully, fraudulent 
ly, in the context could only mean, with intent to deceive Abimelech. It would 50 
be possible to read nfi"]j?3, Jos. 9,4, &c., craftily, cunningly; but the emendation 
adopted in the text is preferable. J. D. AllCH., on the contrary, suspected that 
in v. 41 ntnra should be read for nonto. [Bu., Comm., surmises that we should 

46 -3-s* 3&3J /S->-&H- 9,1728 

(17) -U3. HOUB. conj. 

(21) & mX2; (OLp (S H sub obel.} iv 6bw (rnKS); Joseph. Ant.\ , 7, 2 ev TOIC 6 pe0i 

(24) noil; JH + mto 1 ?. That the word is a gloss might be suspected from its position; 
more decisive is the harsh change of subject in nil? 1 ? DOm . . . Dn KU7. The $ 
accentuation in JflS (DIE? 1 ? noil) docs not do much to relieve the difficulty. (0 
gives the inff. the same subject (^TrafcrfeTv . . . ^iriOeivui) ; but it is rash on this 
account to emend: N 3r6 (GRATZ). Possibly DTi is itself a gloss [with 1 explica 
tive; see note on 17, 3 b and for D DT = Dn cf, note on Ezek. 9,9], added by some 
one for whom Don was not explicit enough; DIBH was introduced by a scribe who 10 
missed the government of this noun. Cf. the result of successive glosses in 3,2. 
WlNCKLER questions the whole verse, particularly b . 

(26) 12$? p 7W (also in vv. For 7S?3 of ifl(D (faab in many 
codd. by a common uncial error; (0 AV fctXaab) and 3, Joseph, has ruci\r|<;; WELLH. 
(fsr. und jiid. Gesch. 2 , p. 44) regards this as the true form of the name, Arab. 15 
^JJiaL beetle, scarab [in Arab, also applied to a black and ugly and small man, 

or to a contentious one; LANE]; cf. MEZ, Bibel des fosephits, p. 13; note also .5 
^^4^ (Urmia ed. ^4.,). 

Vor & n ((BABsLLpVng Apeb), 3 has Obcd; so also some codd. of C>N ( 

5 6 Qplb, 6 3[I]u)pr|b, dittography), i.e. iniy (HOLLENBERG); VN |njp n \ (f or 

by the same confusion of A and A noted above in the case of Gaal) is also 
simply iniy; see <6 V in i Chr. 11,47, (5 A al. in I Chr. 2,37; 26,7; 2 Chr. 23 i 
(HOLLENBERG; similarly ZlEGLER, rftBHA). EWALD (Gesch. des Volkcs Isr. } 2,485) 
thought 73V, an old Canaanite name, the more probable reading; many recent 
scholars (KUENEN, DOORN., STADE, KAUTZSCH, Bu., KITTEL, al.} suppose that 25 
the name was 7JDV, which being offensive to the scribes was altered to 13J> (son 
of a slave}; it would follow that Gaal was of Israelite extraction. 
Some Heb. codd. have here and below 13J?; cf. 5. 

D2C>:i 1"QJT1. Passed through Shcchem seems to conflict with the following verses, 
in which Gaal and his kinsman have taken up their residence in Shechem; a 30 
pregnant construction, passed over to SJiccJiein and dwelt in it, is without parallel. 
The beginning of the story, which should have introduced Gaal to us, has been 
lost; perhaps some abridgment in v. 26 is the cause of the difficulty we find in 
the words under consideration. The Versions do not appear to have had a dif 
ferent text, though some of them have tried to straighten it out. 35 

(27) n^iTn. ACsBsLVn^H xopoO?, cf. 21,21 m?no2 bmh; 21,23 rvMnnri; 0, auXouc, as 


(28) On this difficult verse see OORT, Godgclcerdc Bijdragen, 1866, pp. 983 ff. (cited 
by DOORN.); KUENEN, Theol. Tijdschrift, I, pp. 703 f., Godsdicnst van Israel, i, 
pp. 299 f.; WELLH., Sam., p. xiii, cf. Co/up, des Hex., pp. 353 f., n.; STADE, Gesch., 40 
i, pp. 194 f. ; \V. R. SMITH, Theol. Tjjdschrift,2o, pp. 195-198; KAUTZSCH, /AT 
10, pp. 299 f. ; KITTEL, Gesch., i ,2, pp. 77 f. ; MOORE, Comm., p. 257; Bu., Comm., 

P- 75- 

So far as the consonant text goes, Jfl is supported by the Versions with but 
slight variations (<53 reading VnriV). In the second clause <6 has uio? luxem 45 
adopting this, and transposing nr p and bysi ]3, some critics obtain : Who 
is the son of Jcrubbaal, that we should serve him .- Is he not a son of Shechem 
(i. c. a Shechemitc), &c.; but to this it is a conclusive objection, that D2tf p is 
not an idiomatic expression for a Shechemite (\V. R. SMITH); GRATZ DSt? S 32 Ol. 
In the absence of external evidence, the textual critic can only be guided by 5 
exegetical considerations. Most recent interpreters set out with the premise 
that Gaal, the son of Jobaal (see on v. 26), was an Israelite who incited the 
Israelite part of the population to rebel against the King of Shechem; v. 28 is a 


(30 Joseph., Ant. v,7,i v66o<; b eiq ex ua\\aKf|<; Apoujua? ApijueXexoc ; cf. Arninali 
9,41; see MEZ, Bibel dcs Josephus, pp. 13-15; Bu., Com in. 

(32) msj?3; Jit and all Versions + -"ityn s ax. The grammatical difficulty may be removed 
by the slight emendation msya, as in 6,24 (STUDER, DOORN., KAUTZSCH); or 
by transposition, putting msya after nap 11 ! or at the end of the verse (KAUTZSCH, 5 
formerly). It is quite as probable, however, that ntyn "as is a gloss from 6,24. 

(33) rna tya, 9,4; cf. ma b 9,46. GKIGER (Urschrift, p. 294) suspects that the last 
is the true name, which in the first two places has been changed; cf. DOORN. 

(35) ty^f 1 ; M<&AL$&3t + \\ytt, doublet. Even as a gloss, jljTU Xin is necessary, cf. 
<6 VN al. auToq eaTiv febeuuv and 5. I0 

(5) Cf. the 1 anammu inscription, 1. 3. 

v6) nasen pbx ; Jit points axii (part. 1 ual); cf. 13 ju.vta querciim quac stabat in Sichcm. 
gACsBsLSH Trpoc Tfj paXdvtu Tf|c aTaaeuu; ((gVN T f, eupeTfj Tf|<; aTdaeuuc; doublet, 
KXDjn, (/I (OL P ) read asafn] (Jos. 4,3, cf. i S 13,23); so also A, eiri irebiou arnXuj- 15 
UXXTOC;, < xnop nt^o ny. Since we have no evidence that there was a noun axn 
with the same meaning as naso (STUDER, a/.), it is safest to emend here: nason 
[so Bu., Com/n.}. The stone is the same the erection of which by Joshua is de 
scribed in Jos. 24,26f, m,T tripea -IPX n rxn nnn DP no-p-i nbna px np-n. When 
the old standing stones had fallen under the ban of a more advanced religion, 20 
the name naso became offensive, and was sometimes replaced by a harmless 
word, e.g. natn Gen. 33,20 (\VELLH.), 2 K 12,10 (STADE); nssft Gen. 31,49, cf. 
v. 45; so also Jud. 9,6 in the Heb. text from which 5 was translated; px JM 
(f) Ex. 24,4 (Jit omits the verb), and probably in many other places. 

(8) nate Q e re ; K e thib nai^fi; similarly s ai!?a v. 12. Sec KONIG, i, pp. 163-166; TRATO- ->c 
RIUS, ZAT 3,55. 

(9) "l!2X l; some codd. and edd. nnxni. 

^hUp ( also v - n-^) IHf, J/M// / cause to cease, stop (transitive); so in the 
margin of the first two Bomberg edd., and in an Erfurt cod.; OLSH., STADE, al.; 
Jit v6tnn, which has given rise to much discussion (see KONIG, i, pp. 240-242); 30 
the most probable explanation is that the punctuation intends a Hofal with n 
interrogative and the elision of - preformative: shall I be compelled to give 
up &c. Many recent scholars explain the form as Qal with n interrogative OnVinn); 
so STUDER, BERTH., KAUTZSCH, al. For this view it is urged that the Hif. and 
Hof. of !nn are not found in OT; on the other side it is to be observed that in 35 
prose Hn Qal is construed with p (cease from something], not with accus. 
Q"twxi DTT^X naa" ia "ix, cf. v. 13; jit -ui na? 1 ^a ix, so also ACsBsLLpNVn, 
(5 V ev fj bosdaouai TOV 6e6v dvbpe?, (T "ia ^pisnt n^ioi mrr mp ]np s 
X3X, S J- o /o^ ^j.A..isj kxa,, 3 qua cf dii utuntur et homines; cf. the trans 
lations of v. 13. The emendation ia (GEIGER, GRATZ) is necessary. For the Nif. 40 
nar, the 1 ual naa 11 [Bu., Coining, or the Pie! with indefinite subj. naa\ is also 
possible. On the motive for the change, see GEIGER, Urschrift, p. 327. 

(10) ^bfi. Some codd. have Tlbo K e thib, "a^tt Q e re, as in v. 12 (<;/: nai po v. 8); so 
BAR. Most codd. and edd. have in v. 10 aba. 

(n) Tibinn. See on v. 9. ,- 

(12) ^o Q e re ; see on vv. 8 and 10. 

(13) Tibnnn. See on v. 9. 

3WK natoen; C3 1 S 11 ^ TI -JV eucppoauvnv (TOO) Beou KUI TUJV dvOpdnrujv; 
A T 6eou Kai, C5^ Trjv euqppoauvr)v Tt]v trapd TOU Geou TLUV dv- 
TOV eu^paivovTa TOU? dv6pujTrou<;, so many different ways of 50 
mitigating the anthropomorphism; see also . Cf. v. 9. 

(16-19) DOORN. regards the whole of vv. i6 b -i9 a as editorial amplification; similarly 



(13) The last words in the verse are in ftt: D"inn n^O^O; ffiVN ^TTO e lrctviueev Ape?, z. . 
nbpobtt (EWALD), which would require Din 1 ?. (6 rel. $H<& UTTO ((OLp TTI) dvapuoeujt; 
Ape?, z # ascensione Hares, 5 >ee^ iLajeaio ^> ; UTTO dvapdaeux; is attested also 
for AI (Jerome). If this be right, we should emend: n^yott; the compound 
preposition admits only the interpretation of (O v . Then onnn must be the name 5 
of a place (cf. 1,36; Jos. io,io ; 15,7). Instead of Din (sun; cf. 1,35) A read nn 
which he rendered saltuttin (Jerome; /. c. bpujaujv, cf. I S 23,18: A, bpuuo?), 
/. e. Ehrin, cf. on i,35;4,i6; this reminds us of the Moabite names tenn vp, Vp 
ntenn, and may be right. I (montium, Jerome) read nnnn; also is said to 
have had opouc, a reading to which CLERICUS inclines; so also STUDER, nSjns^O 10 
nnnn im Norden der Derge [see also Bu., Coming. The appellative interpretations, 
3 ante soils ortitin ; Xl?t? ty *b by before the sit/i se/, are inadmissible. 

(14) v"?S anaM. Bu. (Coining suspects that v"?X is erroneous explanation, the original 
subject of the verb was Gideon. 

(15) n^Bjrn; cf. v. s o"B<j?n. 15 

(16) em, as in v. / oar^a n "nisni; so HOUIJIGANT, DATHE, ZIEGLER, BG-TTCHER, 
have the same verbs in both verses: ALpVn^H K areHavev, C5 VN iiXonoev, 3 contri- 
?-// (coinminitit, doublet), 5 ^*\ , TU (i-ar. Tii, nan); iH J>T1. Cy. esp. 

] <w/^ 6g a ^j?i n"sipn ^y pis D^nao vni D.TDID 33t3 oisbm Dn apya n-apa T 20 
n na in? ijnnff nj? Q^pian forthwith they [the Jews] pierced their heels [scil. 
of the Cuthean ambassadors to Alexander], ;/</ tied them to the tails of horses, 
and kept dragging thon over thorns and knap-weed till they brought them to 
.]//. Gerizim. For other references to this mode of torture see Comin. ad loc., 
and add LEGGE, Chinese Classics, 3,1, p. 39, n. Carding is very common in the 25 
Acts of the Syrian martyrs, e. g. CURETON, Ancient Syriac Documents, pp. 49 &c. 
The oldest (0 translation, preserved (with doublets corresponding to .Jit) in 
(OALL P Vn$H(j ) represents a different text, which may be restored as follows: 
D 3p1331 "O1n "S1p2 Dt?T1 VJ?n nt? HN np"1. This is intrinsically preferable to Jll. 
If the rest of Jll be preserved, n1 l^n "2pt is probably to be regarded as a gloss 30 
from v. 14 (Bu.). 

(18) K1BK tuho were the men- as the context requires (cf. (0 L P Tiveq); ill nD^N, ffi(T 
where. Since this does not seem to be a pertinent question, nor to correspond 
to the answer, S and most recent commentators interpret quales (see also 
E. KONIG, Theol Lit.blatt 96, No. 5). HOUB. and STUDER, rightly feeling that 35 
we are not warranted in ascribing a new meaning to HB K for this single passage, 
conj. rO N (DOORN., alt.}; but this particle is found only before verbs. GRATZ 
therefore emends: vn nD K; but n\n na^W is qitomodo factus est, not qualis fuit. 
It is possible to explain .ffl as a menacing question; see MOORE, Comm. ; Bu., Coiit/n. 
liana. Mt. Tabor is somewhat remote from the seat of the clan Abi-ezer; per- 40 
haps the true name of the place is preserved in pn TOB, 9,37. [Bu., Coinin., 
thinks rather of pan, 9,50.] 

"jbon "3a IKna nnx b?; M nnx, C5i-p3<? units ex eis. Modern interpreters generally 
take inx distributively, unusqiiist/ue, for which there is no warrant in usage. 
[Bu. conj. inx inn.] VNACsBsVn3H05 do not represent ins at all. 45 

(21) VHUJ ^Ka "2. We should expect mini ]3. VN OTI ib? dvbpo? r) buva^i? aou. 
[Bu., Coin/n., nn nia: BTK ^a.] 

(22) neM. See on v. i. 

(24) For JR 013 Bu., Comm., proposes "DO. 

(25) iK ItrnB 1 "!; (0 Kai uveiTTuEe (lyns 1 "!), scil. Gideon. 

(28) pj?ni ^a. Bu. would emend: "tt s ^a, in accord with 2,18. 

(29) GRATZ conj. in^aa a^i nen^D 1 ? ns^> wv p bya-v ba-i; t /. Deut. 31,2. Bu., . <;;;*/., 

8,1 12 -<*&<&< J$\lb%t6 fcS-OS&o- 43 

8 (i) natn. A fe\v codd. of M: "lOtO l (in formal concord with ^Nlt^ &**); so 
Similarly in v. 22. 
niop vi^, BAR; the common edd. have nisop. 

(2) D23, so JH and the Versions, rightly. Both here and in v. 3 some codd. and old 
edd. have D33, what have I done to you? (Ex. 12, 12 ; 28 18, 13). 5 

(3) MS Dv6x ; 6 Kupio?, 3 Dominus, m,T ; adopted by GEDDKS. 

(4) nnrn pjnj 3 <1 1; ^H + 13V. This use of the participle is anomalous; if the word 
were genuine it would be necessary to emend: 13.5H, as 0533 translate (so GRATZ); 
more probably, however, n3J? is a gloss added by a scribe who missed an 
explicit statement that Gideon crossed the river. 10 
D BlTri D^JJ. The order of the words is singular; 05VN agree with M; $ trans 
poses the verbs: V <O?A^O se-^ (cf- A); 3 freely, et prae lassitudine fugicntcs 
persequi non poterant\ ABsLLpVu^H 6\rrovyuxouvTe<; KCU ireivu)VTe<;. HOUB. con 
jectured that the last translation represents the true text, D 3."n D^y [so Bu., 
Coming; GRATZ \\ould restore this or D B j?l D 3.jn. It is certain that 05 A al. did 15 
not read D^BTil ; but their text seems to be merely a double translation of D^J?. 
The words are not at all necessary in the context; a bold critic might perhaps 
conjecture that they were glosses derived from v. 5 ("01 *pn "OiKl an D^J? 3). 

(5) The names of the two kings are pronounced in i\\: J?3^l ri3t, a kind of etymolo 
gical prophecy of their fate; 05 Zefke KCU Ia\uava. In j?3"?s we may prob- 20 
ably recognize the name of a god D^f; cf. 31WD 1 ?* in an inscription of Teiina 
(NOLDEKE, Proc. Berlin Acad. 84, p. 815). With the second element cf. JttD" 

(i Chr. 7,35) and jnan (Gen. 36,40), the latter an Eclomite name. 

(6) IIOWI, with all the Versions, as the grammatical concord requires; <H ")ON"1, for 
which some codd. read nfiiOl; while others note it as a conjecture (I S-D) in the 25 
margin, in accordance with the Masorah on Jud. 11,15. 

*]T3 . . . mt rpn. This use of Jp is perhaps to be explained by the custom of 
cutting off the hand of a foe slain in battle as a proof of the warrior s prowess. 
In Egyptian texts entries like the following are frequently found: Here I captured 
and carried off a hand, mention of which was made to the royal reporter, and 30 
there was given me the golden collar of valor. There was fighting a second 
time at this place, and a second time / captured and carried off a hand (FLIN 
DERS PETRIE, Hist, of Egypt, 2,22). GRATZ unnecessarily conj. ^n ; so also in 
v. 15. 

(7) At D"3p"ian HK1 -men "Sip n. The only grammatical interpretation is 3 cum 35 
spinis, but this is hardly a natural mode of expression; we should expect by 
(M), or 3 ( <!v) as in v. 16. Perhaps the words are a gloss from v. 16 [so Bu., 
Comml\; see note there. 

(n) The words D^nxn Wlvn -pi, which describe the route taken by Gideon, are 
manifestly corrupt. 05 TUUV xaToiKouvruuv (a/. oxnvouvTUJv) v aKrjvaic; similarly 40 
35(5". The grammatical difficulties might be removed by emending: D 33ltyn ~["n 
D^JlKi. This would not mean, however, the road used by the nomads in their 
annual forays (perhaps a trail which avoided the larger towns), as many inter 
pret, but the way to the dwellers in tents ( p13tS>3 pen N31J? n^TtfB mi3 
nai1 mub snanoo 13na3). But this is not a very natural way of designating 45 
a particular route ; more probably a proper name originally stood here. [Bu., 
Comm., conj. D^ntO "i31tf ns^ in the direction toward the Bcdoiu road.} 

(12) jH nnnn, supported by the Versions (but note (5 L dSearpeiyev, 5H ySa, 05 A al. ( 
eterpujjev). As the panic in the camp seems to come too late in the story, after 
the flight and the capture of the kings, SCHARFENBERG, EWALD, al. conj. nnnn 50 
(cf. Joseph, bieqpeeipe); GRATZ suggests the same emendation; SCHLEUSNER 
n^SH; still more probable would be Tn3H, Ex. 23,23 (6 eKTpipuu, 6/9,15); 1^83,5. 
But A\ may be defended; see Ez. 30,9; Zech. 2,4; 2b 17,2 (STUDER). 

42 -oH3s^- jfrutyte s-sx*>- 7,1425 

(ZAT2,i75) ingeniously conj. 1J1 D^ytf onb ^!?S //^ f/tfJ/f of fighting at the gates 
went circling about the camp-, /.$,%. GRATZ conj. bp. 

ffi "?nn by Wl; <SABsLLpVnN$H gwq (-]y) T f|<; 0Kr|vf|<; MablCXU. 

nbytsb inSBiTl inn. In .dU two glosses have intruded, ba^l after 1H3M, and bfill 
bnNn at the end. The former ( A (gCsBsLLpV^ ,H suo a st^ is in an impossible 5 
place; the latter, for which C5 CsBs al. have only KCU Streaev, is in a false tense. 

(14) DM^NH; 03 A and a few minuscules, Kupio<;. 

(15) na run. KROCHMAL conj. nns jm [Cf. Assyr. ^r seer (DEL. HW 639 b ), a 
bytV of barii seer, clairvoyant, 1 tabntu vision, &c. (DEL. HW i82ff. ; see also 
ZlMMERN, Beitr. zitr Kenntnis derbabyl. Religion, 2,1 (Leipzig, 1899), Einleitung.] 10 

(18) pynbl nw!?; CsHsL i )NVn pracm. poucpaid; similarly Sf and some codd. of lit 
(2-in); conformation to v. 20, see note there. CLERICUS, HOUB., DATHE, GEDDES, 
BOTTCHER, DOORN., KAUTZSCH, al. would insert the word here. 

(19) Brxn nl; Al W n0l; the article, which is indispensable, is omitted by haplo- 
grapliy; the error seems to be old, it is faithfully reproduced in ABsLp al. 15 

(20) \\y-\til mn"V ; Al and the Versions praem. 3nn, which is probably a gloss (Bu., 
R-S\ WINCKLER); cf. v. 18; [or misplaced by a redactor; Bu., Co/inn}. 

(21) nanon ^3 ^P" 1 : ^tST p"l, but yn is not usual in the senseyftv, and unnecessarily 
anticipates 1DW1; and all the camp awoke, on the other hand, adds an effective 
trait to the description; cf. 3 omnia itaque castra turbata sitnt. It is also possible 20 
that yvi is only a corrupt doublet to lyT 1 "!. 

1D13M Q e re, (035(T; the K e thib 1DT1 represents an interpretation which makes 
Gideon s men the subject of both the last verbs, they raised the war-cry, and 
put them to flight (DoORN.); not, they (the Midianites) tried to save their goods 

(BERTH.; Cf. 6,1 1). "5 

(22) nnaitfn nistsn vbv 1J?pnM the three hundred blew the horns (ypn construed by 
the editor with ace., as in Jcr. 4,5 &c.); cf. v. 20, 3 insistebant trecenti viri buc- 
cinis personantes; itt niXO Vfhv, cf. 6 V Kai ^adXTTiaav ^v raT? Tpiaxoaiai? Kepari- 
vaiq. The rendering of (B A i 5s l L i lVn .$itJB xai tauXmaav TpiaKoaiai xepaTivai is 
against the usage of the Heb. verb. It is perhaps rash to assume that M may 3 
not, after all, be what the editor wrote. ZlEGLER conj. tyVtra, cf. <5 V and v. 20. 
KlJENEN and ]Ju. (Coming point ^pR l, cf. Am. 3,6. 

nirmn ban; ill "?3^, accidental repetition of 1 from the preceding UJH3. The 

error is older than A^VuN^n Ka i <? v o\r) (<r/. -iruan) rf) Trapeupo\f|. 

nnn, so STUDKR, /. as in iK 11,26 (03 lapeipa), generally identified with 35 

]rm (i K 4, 12 ; 7,46); t/ 2 Chron. 4,17;^ nnm. (6 AL <il. 3 xai r\v 0uvtnufcV)i 

perhaps represents another \-ariant (HMt), but more probably sustains 4H (TUt, 

FIELD). S !MJ, A Jj^^x-o. 

jit n3o by nbino bnx TESB nj>. Perhaps neto and rota are doublets (GRATZ). For 

by the Masorah (on Gen. 49,13) notes that iy would be conjectured (T3D); some 40 

codd. have ny in the text, without note; this is preferred by Bu., Conun. 

(24) mn n^3. The name is often explained as equivalent to rmj> n 3, V being drop 
ped in common speech (CLERICUS, HOUB., RELAND, CiRATZ, a/.); but there i; 
no evidence of such a tendency in Heb. (5 Bcuepnpct (<5 A V a l. Baienpu is 
transcriptional error), 3 Bethbera, 3 IjJ^. K^ suggest rather m n^3; (/: 45 
Jerome (Onom. Sacra, ed. LAG. 106, 12) quodinterpretatur damns aquae, si-ueputei. 
pl n nxi. I suspect that pvn n was originally a marginal note to D DH; when 
introduced into the text in this place, the conjunction was necessarily prefixed. 
[So BU., Comm.] C.RATZ would correct nl to "?K = by, connecting it with the 
words immediately preceding, as far as Bethabara, on the Jordan; the second 50 
occurrence of the words he regards as a dittogram. Cf. 3 (1) ^i, 

(2) ^lie-* f= ^*a^-. 

(25) ]^D n, with some old edd., 635, GRATZ ; Al b*. 

7,313 -<*&&& 3\nt>%ee -fcs-as*s<> - 41 

JT mien r\ynh JIBXO rvn po nanai; ill and the Versions, mion nysia ]IBX ib rrn 
PJ?3. In our ignorance of the topography, the emendation is very uncertain. 
The cause of the corruption appears to be contamination from v. 8; I therefore 
omit 1 s ? and pfij?3; and for nj?33, which, if sound, would require a terminus ad 
quern (. . . nj>), write njnj ?. We might also think of mien njj3.:o psso "b iTn, but 5 
according to v. 8 the camp was in the valley (pttj?3). Bu., conforming more 
closely to v. 8, would restore: pttj?3 mi&n nj?3^ paxa nnntt ll? HYi; but the state 
ment that the camp of Midian was below him, which in v. 8 is preparatory to 
the following narrative, is in v. i less relevant. 

minn rjni r. v rapaaOa.uuupa, OAL al. SH CITTO (TOU) fSouvoO (ve! PUJUOU) TOU 10 
Auujpou (AfSuup, A^ujpai, &c.), 5 8 TOU Auoppaiou; cf. Hexapla here, and on Gen. 
12,6; Deut. II ,30. 

(3) W Tim NT "ft. The words which follow in JH, ly^ri in IBS 1 !, are unintelligible, 
and doubtless corrupt. The verb, which is not found elsewhere, is rendered by 
the Versions (probably guided merely by 38" and ] in the context) depart, set 15 
forth quickly, &c.; 05ACsBsLLpVn,gH<g <?2uupur|<Jav (-aev), VN ^xxujpeiTUJ. Modem 
interpretations, following etymological combinations, make a circiiit, or leap, 
spring, are hardly more satisfactory. GRATZ conj. yiB^l break through; or (later) 
"13JT1. A greater difficulty lies in the words ijj^jn "irifi, since Gilead is remote 
from the scene of operations. J. D. MICH. conj. into, _/&> quickly to Gilead; 20 
but this conflicts with vv. 7.8. CLERICUS emendation, jn^in "intt, is adopted 
by HOUB., GEDDES, HITZ., BERTH., GRATZ, DOORN., REUSS, and others; but 
if, as these critics assume, Gideon was encamped on Mt. Gilboa (see v. i), the 
words are wholly superfluous (DATHE, STUDER). EWALD explains the words as 
an old Manassite saying, in which Gilead is proverbially used for the battle- 25 
field, a theory more ingenious than plausible. Observing that in the present 
text the execution of the divine command at the beginning of the verse is not 
narrated, while its consequences are ("U1 DJ?n ]O 3Bn), we may perhaps suspect 
that the author wrote pjnj DB15n and Gideon put them to the test (cf. v. 4), scil, 
of the proclamation 2W Tim NT D (Deut. 20,8); cf. $ "iPOm, assuming meta- 30 
thesis, as does R. Jesaia. KROCHMAL conj. nun *pjn nybi intt 2W 11 Tim NT fi 
lii Dj?n p. 

(5) mh iniN i s sn, with ALLpN^Hg ^eTaaTrloel? aurov KaG auxov ((/: also (OCsRs). 
similarly 33. The words are accidentally omitted in A\. 

(6) n^pp^on; JH + Dn"B bx DT3, so 03VN (probably 0); see GRABE, ^/. ad Millium, 35 
p. 14; FIELD v/ loc. This explanation of pp^>, which contradicts Ulty rn (v. 5), is 
obviously false; in its place 05 ALL P(6 have the correct gloss v rfj Y\u)0ar] 
auTiijv; conflation of the two has occurred in (gCsBsVnxH. The gloss in ifl was 
probably intended for the words D^D nints6 at end of v. 6, where it would 
rightly express the sense (so DOORN.; Bu., Coming; not so likely genuine at the 40 
end of v. 5 (Bu., R-S; KAUTZSCH), where we should expect the sing. b 1T3 
VS. On the manner of drinking here described see STADE, ZAT 16,183-186. 

(8) DJ?n ^3 nN inp^l; M oyn nix. The grammatical objection may be removed by 
reading ms (DOORN., GRATZ), or TS (Jos. 9^.14); and the text then has the 
support of all the Versions. But the verse is evidently a preparation for the 45 
story of Gideon s stratagem in vv. i6ff. ; it is essential to explain where he got 
so many jars as well as the horns, and quite irrelevant to comment on his supply 
of provisions. Emend therefore: 13; in the old alphabet the error might easily 
be made. Perhaps we should also read np^l, to agree with the following n^, 
and DTQ [Bu., Coming. STUDER conjectures that the beginning of v. 8 (as far 50 
as nrrnnaup) should be joined to the preceding, reading inpM, jussive. 

(12) ^b 2. GRATZ thinks the word erroneously repeated from the end of a . 

(13) Wx Q e re; K e thib V6x. Perhaps nn^> is a gloss to the rare word. G. HOFFMANN 

>d. 6 

40 -83<cg-g$- 3 U &3 40 ^"s?* *- 6, i g 7,1 

this pronoun is sd with long; see Johns Hopkins University Circulars, No. 114, 
p. m a . P. H.J 

(19) p"ion, so here and in v. 20 Qamhi, NORZI, BAR, GlNSB.; the common text has 

(20) m,T -jK^ts, with 05 ACsBsL <7/.5H3 < s ) GEDDES, as in w.; AtVN -^bo 5 
D n^Kn, <S L P affeXoc, Kupiou TOU 6eoO, conflate; cf. 4,23. Compare the tradition 

of the divine names in c. 13; Num. 22. 

(24) Read nib|niiT ib Kip 11 ! with BAR, GINSB., al. The punctuation m^tf nyr VrK-ip i 
represents an ingeniously perverse interpretation. See also NORZI ad loc. HOUB. 
remarks that (eipr|vn. Kupiou) and (T, also, found the name of the altar a 10 

(25) ]t>n n&n, a perhaps too bold conjecture in this locus desperatus; cf. ABsLLpVn 
3H<f TOV u60xov TOV ovreuTov. A\ lltrn IB, 03 V TOV |u6axov TOV Taupov (05 N + TOV 
aiTeuTov). 53 (taurum patris tui) do not translate Tiirn. ill continues, "3n "iBl 
trie* J>2tr (<!5ALl,p A conjunction); <:/ <Jt?n nsn vv. 26.28. Here "Jwn A CsBsi^ 511 ,5 
.sv//; </. ; the whole clause is lacking in (B N . Apparently Tin and 3tyn are 
doublets, and both corrupt; in v. 26 also iBM is not represented in (OCsBsLpVn a /^ 
while in v. 28 these codd, with C AL and 5H t translate OITCUTOC. Graphically, 
]fc& comes nearest to the doublet in M (cf. i S 15,9, on which see WELLH. and 
DRIVER); otherwise we might conjecture xnon (GRATZ), cf. A 286,13; ZIKGLER 20 
suggests ]Bfn. EWALD interprets Jl^n (from n3t>) annosus; if the sense were 
acceptable, we should prefer to emend: ]Wn (the opposite error Cant. 7, 10, cf. (5). 
KUENEN (in DOORN., p. /o,n.) suspects that T 1 39 1B?N "ntrn nB is an attempt to 
restore a corrupt text; the original read: D itf J?3^ "^1 1^3^13 D^JX mtrj? np ; the 
words ^t?n and "i^n 1BH are still later glosses; so KAUTZSCH. With D^ty J?3^ it 25 
seems impossible to do anything. 

(26) A\ pn jN nin 1 ? ; ALL P Vn tf (5 H j?<r^ obel^} + TUJ oqpGevti 0ot. 

n2lj?ftl ntn nj?on. For liyo, which does not occur elsewhere in the Historical 
Books, some good codd. and old edd. of 1 have pyn, according to a marginal 
note in a MS the reading of the school of Sora (see BAR). The word Pj; seems 30 
to mean sanctuary, place of refuge; cf. Dan. 11,19. GRATZ, with a query, nnton. 
03 takes the word as a proper name (with the doublet TOO dpouq in many codd.); 
L P ToO opou? sine addit. 

(B L P ev Tf| KdTabucrei T?|<; -rrapaTaEeajc, doublet, ra"ij>03. 
isn, see note on v. 25. 35 

(27) moj>; ALLpg Tpeiq xai b^xa (5H rpeit; .w/; /?///.) 

(28) pirn isn, see note on v. 25. 

(31) wv naK l. (OV Pebeuuv uio<; luuac, against the context and the entire tradition. 
6 nn" li. The phrase -6 n^" cannot be taken in a different sense from that 
which the same words have in the preceding tyn!? ;i3 -in nnn, as is done by 05 40 
(in various forms) and 3, which render though they probably did not read 
vb TT contend against (21,22; Jer. 12, i ; Job 33, 13), in which sense the author 
writes just below, n Ti. GRATZ conj. ID. In l 1 ? 3T at the end of the verse the 
suffix must be reflexive. This was misunderstood by the author of the gloss 
imio nx pro "2, if the words were originally meant for this place; more probably, 45 
however, the gloss was designed for the end of v. 32 (where it also stands), and 
was introduced at the end of v. 31 by a transcriptional accident (GRATZ). 

(34) ill pn_. KAUTZSCH conj. pPi. 

(39) nnn hy, with some codd. and old edd., as in v. 37 ; itt *?N. 

7 (i) IT" Kin. These words (not byiv, KiTTEL) are a gloss. 

Tin \>y. GRAT/ formerly (GescJi. 1,121) conj. 1KT \*y. [Contrast WELLHAUSEN on 
i| 83,11 and his Skiszen und Vorarbeiten, part 6 (Berlin, 1899), p. 180. 1 . H.J 

5,316,17 -~ K3s-< jfubger >*>- 39 

(1^45,10; Nch. 2,6), which is adopted by WELLH., STADE, DOORN., 

Other conjectures are: hbV n.NlX^ _/2?r the neck of him who takes the spoil 
(\V. GREEN); cf. & IJotaj lioj <^ ; ^ inlS^/0r /> ^-/>, rtJ a spoil (STUDER, 
E. MEIER), cf. 05 VCsBs T jj rpaxriXtu autoO OKOXa, 05A n-epi Tpcixn^ov autoO OKuAov; 5 
raraft, cf.% ad adornanda colla, C5 LL P irepi Tpdxn^ov auToO >;<? rtrtW//. ; "?"? nlsV 
(or nisl?) /or wy w^, as a spoil (TELLER, BOTTCHER, REUSS, GRATZ, a/.). 
DOORN. restores the lines: ano D^ n jnx yas ^ 

^ -nHix!? D nap-i nepn !?te 
Bu., Coim., makes three symmetrical lines: 10 

nviam am ^tf 

^ a;rns jnx ^V 
DTiEpn nopi ^ty 
Note the remarkable doublets to vv. 29.30 in 6 T -P. 

(31) E. MEIER regards this verse as a later addition to the Ocb, on account of its 15 
contents, and because it does not fit into his system of strophes; WINTER also 
doubts its genuineness, on theological grounds (ZAT 9,223^), and is followed 
by Bu. (Corntn.^ MARQ., al. 

TaniK, with 3,5, as the parallelism requires, HOUB., DATHE, GEDDES, GRATZ, 
al. , JHC^ V3m. An alternative is to read "SMN in the preceding line. 20 

Al PBPn. GRIMME VK>V, on metrical grounds. 

(2) nnnJDn. A word of uncertain meaning; CsBsLVnBmQjgH |udvbpac, (SVN rpu|ua- 

Xici?, 3 antra. GRATZ conj. nnmo (from nna bore, pierce]. 

nnj?on ni. Bu. suspects that the words are a gloss to nnnaen. 25 

(5) iNrri; Al K thib, (5VN uc ; Q e re ism (which some codd. and old cdd. have in the 

text), conforming to the preceding llJjT; <OALViQ Ka i T( i ? aK)-)vd<; auruuv -rrap^pe- 

pov ( xai Trapu-ftvovTO K.r.e., (OU irapdfpepov, Kai TOUC Kau)]\ouq OUTUJV 

i lTov, Kai -rrape-fevovTO; so 5 H (-rrapeqpepov . . . rpfov sub leiinrisco] i\ 5 omits 

I 1 ?}? 1 and translates 1X2"; cf. 3. GRATZ strikes out ISO as an accidental repetition 30 

of the following IWi. 

naixn ; ^l nns. 
(7 a ) The first half of this verse, omitted in VNJ.^ i s canceled by GRATZ as doublet 

to v. 6 b . The repetition in Al is not clue to transcriptional accident. 
(9) BTU81, so BAR, with a fe\v codd. and old edd., and STUDER; the context requires 35 

the impf. consec. (05352). The received reading is eruxi, cf. 20,6; other in 

stances of this anomaly (in some cases expressly prescribed by the Masorah) in 

BOTTCHER 973,2; cf. GES.-KAUTZSCH 26 49, c. 
(11) Bu. (Coming surmises that the true order of the words is 1t?N ntyn S 2 majn 

V^. 40 

(13) Al nirr iiB3; (BALI.], a l. d UTTUJOUTO fnufi? Kupioc, (5 Kupio? sub asf.}; 05 re/. A 

(14) Al ni,T> V^N ]BM; 05 6 aTTC^oq Kupiou, as in v. n, adopted by GEDDES, GRATZ. 

Al p13 rpfc; A OJCsIisLVn rt / -t 3H j;^ ^/.(?). 

(15) -ill JIK "3; the punctuation, in distinction from "VIS v. 13, indicates that Gideon 45 
now recognized his visitor as divine. 

(i 6) jH05l VnSH.$ -j y , Tnx , 3 nin , V L, X nDK , 1; ( fj vN Ka , e^gv irp^ a ^, Tiv 6 a TT e\ ? 

Kupiou, Kupioc; eatai (nerd aou. Gonformation to Ex. 3, 12 is to be suspected in 
Al- the author probably wrote simply 1J> rrrp ni.T v^ nnXM i S 17,37 (^ u -i 
GRATZ); cf. CsI5s <7/. xai el-rrev irpoc; auxuv, Kupioc; UCTCI aou (as in v. 12). 50 

(17) "Dion nnB> //// // /j 77/w/ a///^> speakcst with me-, cf. Gen. 45,12; Al 1310; the 
article, which is necessary to the sense, is omitted by haplography. [For B> (else 
where before gutturals tf) it will be well to remember that the original form of 

38 "-oKa-o-g* 3&3 *&ejt>~ 5,2730 

dxpeiuJaou. The commonly received translation is that of A, 
ocpupctv KOTTIUJVTUJV, so (5 VBmN , 3 (ad fabroruin niallcos = rfxhr\), % - 
all guided by 4,21 (rapan). MARTI (in BUDDE, Coming conj. bbn rf?nb her 
rigJit hand smites with great effort. 

nttVni; A\ and Versions + SID^D. The symmetry of the distich gains by the 5 
omission of the name, which may have been added by a scribe for greater ex- 
plicitness. Some codd. of A\ nii jn, without the conjunction. 
MARQ. cancels npnn as a gloss to nsno following. 

inp-i nsbm nxn1. Many codd. of ill have nsntt, without the conjunction, which 
may be a transcriptional error (hap/ography*} ; as, on the other hand, nxnai may 10 
be dittography; STUDER prefers to omit the conjunction. 

(27) 22 bD3 JTD n^il p; jnevumNL (cf. ,$H)_j-<j 33 jji 3 -^n p, an accidental repe 
tition (REUSS, A. MULLER, Bu.}. The words are lacking in 5A, and only partially 
attested in the other recensions of 03. In numerous codd. of A\ the first line is 
omitted. The Greek translators, connecting rr^n p 3,3B>, render eKoiurien laeraSu 1 5 
TWV uobuuv auTf|C, or xai dqpuTrvuuaev diva u^aov TWV OKeXOuv ai)Tf|<;, &c. This 
interpretation has resulted in contamination in several recensions of in 4,21 ; 

cf. also 16, 19. MARQ. strikes out 33B> as gloss to ^33. 

jn2 "IC>N3, so jtlOjABsLLpVn,H (tv ill). VN KaGibt;, i. e. "iwr, which is found in one or 
two codd. of &. Note the doublet in L P KaOdx; ^aKiprrjae TaXaimiupoi;, 6/4,21. 20 
In place of Jjn: we might expect 1CJ?; accidental conformation to the preceding 
line is possible (Bu., Coining. 

(28) nmi. This word is very doubtful. In the Targums 22" 1 is the usual equivalent 
of Heb. yin, 32" of nynn. In Syriac the meaning is the same. It is of course 
possible that, like dXaXcxEuu, the verb could also be used of a loud cry of pain 25 
or distress; so probably S here k:p- (cf. 3 et ululabaf), though other examples 

of this sense have not been produced. (IT, however, does not so understand the 
word, but translates pno (or Np lix, Qamhi^ kept close watch. Similarly ffiAL, 
H sub as/., KctTeucivGavev, which we find elsewhere for verbs of seeing, gazing, 
and the like; KLOST. and MARQ. emend l^nni. Cf. further e-rrip\^Trou0a eiri 30 
TOU? ueTaarpe^ovTa? uerd Iiaapa, which in most codd. of (0 stands in the sec 
ond line of the distich, but contains apparently a variant translation of the first 
line (K1D"D DJ> for N^D^D DN; 33TH derived from 3in = 31ty); DOORN. however 
supposes ueTCtOTpecpovTac; to represent a corruption of aXJlPK. fiVBmN have 
neither this clause nor KCtTeucivOavev. 35 

vnusio "oys. BICK.ELL makes the prosaic observation, currus non facit grcssus, 
and cancels OJJSJ. 

(29) nj 3j?n 3 pi. fern., as required by the subj. n nn rnosri; so 05; f njiyn, or na jyn 
(NORZl), 3 sing. fern. c. suff. 3 sing, fern.; cf. 3 una sapientior ccteris uxoribus, 
^U ot^A^ Kioj^w, I-P (in a doublet qppovrian; ioxuoi; aurfu;, /. c. n3n. The 4 
Masorah treats the form in A\ as plur.; see Ochla wc-Ochla, No. 369, and cf. 
inkdukc 55. An alternative is to emend moan, as HlTZlG, DELITZSCH, al. do 

in Prov. 14, 1 ; cf. 9, 1 ; or n3n the wisest one (MARTI in Bu., Comm.\ 

rh n^niDK a^r. BICK.ELL conj. ntrBjb. OjALLp^Hg <? v pnuaoiv aurnq, reading 3 t?n 

,T"ID2 (DOORN.\ 45 

(30) D noni am. $ jli;oj> a mule, which gives slender support to GKATZ S conj. lion 
DTilDn accn KS; cf. 15,16. 

The last two lines in A\ are: no pi D jm ^V 

The words D"X>3S bbty are accidentally repeated from the preceding line (REUSS, 5 
A. MULLER; BlCKELL would strike out KID ob also^; two or three codd. omit 
these three words (haplography?); J>3$ also is out of place (REUSS, MtJLLER). 
There is manifestly some error in the words Wv "l1S^ of JH; Ew. conj. b& 

5,2226 -of-js*-^ ^fudgea *> < 5 ej3^ 37 

48 tj> ^B3 3VJn. 05 KaraTrarriaei CCUTOUC; (a/. OUTOV) ^uxn uou buvarr), 3 conculca 
anima men robustos, f|1pra yin im ^"Bp TB3 wcni, 5 JULxi y Ai y j,l, (3U **sj), 
all supporting JH; the corruption is therefore ancient. The words must contain 
the end of the preceding hemistich, \y\ OTin CTOVipi ^>nJ. In the place of 
SVin the parallelism then requires a verb corresponding to rpJ in the first line; 5 
and in place of tj? ^BJ an (explicit) object corresponding to the pronoun them in 
DEn:. HOUB. conj. ty <Bte3 "P nn ; 6 / I s - 63,3. For RUBEN S emendation see above, 
p. 36, 1. 50. MARQ. transposes the line to the end of v. 27. 

(22) DID OpJ? lo^n IN; #1 W^H; but the verb is elsewhere transitive, and an ellipsis of 
pN is harsh. The Versions have taken it as passive: (5 dTTeKOTrnaav (= 1Vn, 10 
SCHARFENBERG), veupoKOTif|0r|aav, eveirobiaGriaav, dveKomiaav; or neuter 
(33&); and this seems to be required by ;e in the following line, which can 
hardly be taken otherwise than causatively (from, in consequence of) ; so CLERICUS, 
tune contusi sunt calcanei equoritm, propter &c. Bu. (Coining reads 10^n and 
DWD ^apj?, taking over the 12 from the following rmmtD, which removes the dim- 15 
culty of construction. Bu. would also transpose v. 22 (or 2i b .22) to stand before 
v. 2l a , or (with MARQ.) before v. 20. 

ffi W3N mm mime. The repetition may be explained as an imitation of the 
sound of galloping hoofs. It is possible, however, that it is accidental; (B A L al. 
5 H d|U|uabapuu6 (iuabapu)6, and other variations^ buvaruuv (buvaarujv) autou. Ob- 20 
serve also A, ecpopjuuuvroiv r) euirpe-rreia (cf. PROCOP.), reading DYin for mim 
2 (SCHARFENBERG, FIELD); while CslJsVl1 al. eKcn-cxaeuj? auruuv seems to 
represent rnnn. C5 vlimN a-rroubfi eaueuaav [axupoi aurou (nnO , ("rni); ^/". 3. 
The text has therefore been differently understood, and has varied considerably; 
but im is found in a similar connection in Nah. 3,2, and is probably sound. 25 
STUDER would read JThrn (stat. abs.), and make VT3N ace., obj. of lobn (transi 
For vv. 22.21 CHEVNE, JQR, July 98, p. 566, offers the following: - 


yitrp bni ii^np \ns 
tf >i K>B3 ""Sinn OBIS 

(23) jJlfiVBmNCsBs /. ^HjjJ- , nt5; gALpVn /. g MaZuJp, (S L Mapuup, 5 ? o^o. It has 
been conjectured that mo is the mutilation of a better known name; D.Y10, Jos. 
11,5 (PAGNINUS, CLERICUS [citing EUSEBIUS description of the situation of 35 
Meppav, Onom. Sacra, 278,99, ed. LAG.], BOTTCHER, GRATZ, /.); or pi 
Jos. 12,20, cf. n, i (5 (KRUSE, Ew., DONALDSON, A ERNES); or Mn.puu0, Joseph., 
War, iii,3,i = Mnpuu, ib. ii,2O,6 (Jusxi, KROCHMAL, BOTTGER). 

mn s -[K^o. ninn N^2: no ( ui x^ai pin ION). GRIMME strikes out ixbo on 
metrical grounds ; as in many other places, the word is a later addition to avoid 40 
anthropomorphism. Sec Bu., Coniin. 

yh, supported, with numerous variations of translation, by 
om i t nin 11 ritp 1 ?, running the two lines into one. VN eic 
ev buvaroT<;, 3 in adjutorium fortissimoruin ejus, nin\ which is 
lacking also in many cocld. of M. 45 

(24) ^j? ; M and the Versions + rpn 13H nt, a gloss from 4,17, which completely 
destroys the balance of the verse (BlCKELL, A. MULLER, Bu., OTTLI, MARQ.); 
GRIMME finds it sufficient to omit Tpn. 

(26) nanbffn, with DE DIEU, CLERICUS, SCHNURRER, BICKELL, al.\ & njn^ri (3 pi. 
fern. !); k defended by HOLLMANN, STUDER, BACHMANN, and retained without 50 
comment by GRIMME. 

fSi D^OJ? mebn^. The Versions render variously: C5 AL P Vn S H (cf. <S L ) ei<; CITTOTOILXUC 
, cf. also I DiNl ] <i ywi lan^O 1 ?; CslJS al. ((D Vn as a doublet) TOU ei? 

36 -*of-j3*-^ ^utyee *-e*~ 5,1521 

5 (15) mm cy nrto" "itol; Jtt mm OJ? -irti^n ntoi. Neither nto, nor the emendation 
nto (SCHNURRER, DATHE, STUDER, BERTH., al.\ nor D^t? (KAUTZSCH) seems 
sufficient; 33? render -isiy it? /// princes of Issachar (so J. D. MlCH.), 
which removes the difficulty; but we cannot be sure that we thus recover the 
original text; "OW3, it must be noted, is attested in both Greek translations, 5 
and the other Versions may have had the same text. For DJ> we may read 
DV, as BU. does, who restores the line: mm DP iSBfBTO "Hfe IIBp count [if you 
can] the princes of Issachar, Deborah s tribe; so also MARQ. WlNCKLER conj. 
ntf; see on v. 14. 

p"D p ^riBSi, so STUDER; t/ 4,6; 5,18; Al ill "OBNPM; neither (5 nor 3 renders 10 
this second 12W. The following p"O p can hardly be sound; KAUTZSCH, -i2Br:i, 
p13 p, a formally correct sentence but a complete anticlimax. GRIMME and 
MARQ. strike out .-irBWI as a gloss; the former carries p"Q p over to the next line. 
Jll l^j-O n>>B> pjn ; AL /. 3H eEa-rreateiXev ireZiou^ auTOu ei<; THV KOiXdba, with 
the doublet dS^reivev ev (al. A ) TOI<; iroaiv auTOu, 6/ (5 CsBs /. v Tfj KoiXdbi &i- 15 
reivev -rrobac; aurou; Z, aTre\uaev TOU<; Troba? aurou. The active is perhaps 
better (A. MtJLLER: the passive certainly wrong); possibly the same verb originally 
stood here and in v. 14 (ocntP). WlNCKLER conjectures here also *lltf in the 
Assyrian sense, they descended; MARQ. would read t^J (Cant. 4, i). 
nb npn, as in the repetition of the words, v. i6 b , Hour,., A. MtJLLER, al. ; Jtt 20 
here ^7 ppn. 

(16) At the end of the verse the words 2 1 ? npn D^HJ pl1 nubfi 1 ? (codd. nilbsa) 
have been erroneously repeated from v. i5 b , so TELLER, REUSS, A. MULLER, 
MARQ., al. Bu., on the contrary, strikes out the words in v. 15 and retains them 
here as containing the answer to the question of v. i6 a . It is then necessary to 25 
insert pito at the beginning of v. i6 a . 
( J 7) ny^i. HOUB., GEDDES, GRATX conj. ni; cf. S. 

A\ and the X ersions nviK niJ 11 nob pi, 6 i va TI TtupoiKeT (a/. el?) ir\oioi<;; 
BU. (/?-5) suggested vniO [but no longer thinks it necessary; Cotnm.]; KITTEL 
also suspects the text: neither in the Southwest (i,34f.) nor in its later seats at 30 
the head-waters of the Jordan was Dan a sea-faring tribe, nor did its territory 
even adjoin the Phoenician seaboard. But nV3N is supported by Gen. 49,13 (of 
Zebulun), which plainly appears to be dependent on Jud. 5,17 (BALL plausibly 
emends in Gen. nns 1i:n Nini for l}\ nnx ^n 1 ?). CLERICUS would divide differ 
ently, joining pi to the preceding nj^J, and making the rest read: DVJN 11^ no^ 35 
nt2N cur Jiabitat ad naves Aser~ 

na 1 ? is omitted in a few codd. of <H, and not expressed in 3M; GEDDES cancels it. 
C 1 ^) niff "0110 "?J?. 3 in regione Heroine. Bu., Comm., thinks it necessary to read 
mfc, unless m be taken to mean mountain, as in Assyr. (WlNCKLER). The 
verse is transposed by MARQ. to stand after v. 14. 4 

( 20 ) Jtt divides the line wrongly: JOD D DJJ lon^i DnibottO n"3Di:n Ittn 1 ?: D-W ], 
which destroys the rhythm of both lines (CLERICUS, KOHLER, HERDER, BlCKELL, 
GRIMME, and many others). MARQ. reads D (direct object). 

( 21 ) ill |Wp "?n3 D ttnp bnj. For D-anp (3 Cadumim\ (gCsBsVn Kabn.Lieiv; CO L ^/. Kabv 
uiu; 5 H yj-xso^i, showing that the translators found in their text O enp, which is 45 
also attestcd by A, KUU<JUUVUJV; cf. S ^M*?, C5VBmN X eiudppou<; dpxaiujv. (f>A /. 

0, xabrjaeiu; I, UTIUJV qpdpaYS; KLOST. and MARQ. read D Bhp (the heavenly 
powers. OTTLI suggests Dpnp; nnap would lie as near (Bu., Comm\ RUBEN 
sees in n^np the people of Kadesh on the Orontes, and for "2"nn in the next 
line reads \3Yin the men of Hadrach (Zech. 9,1). WlNCKLER. sees in the last 50 
letters of D mp the word D Dl; this must have been preceded by a suitable verb, 
such as dyed. The words pwp bm 2 are omitted by BlCKELL and GRIMME 
as a dittogram of the end of the preceding line. 

5,13.14 -*<* **9** < *** > * 8 ** > *~ 35 

mm mj? nip 

(qttj?) DJ? nmi n-^n 

p*n nip pin 

Dj?r3N p TOP nat? 

Here Deborah is not summoned to sing a song whether of battle or of vie- 5 
tory but to arouse the myriads of her countrymen, which certainly agrees 
better with the words addressed to Barak. The second line in M, mj? my 
T nai, is readily explained as a corruption of the corresponding line thus 
restored; the opposite is not so probable. The imperative p?n is attested by 
the double translation of 11. 4.5 in the Greek above; in 1. 5 it was read as Pi el 10 
and the context supplied. Finally, the symmetry of the quatrain is restored, 
and the metrical difficulty presented by the words DJtt OX p YO natri pTJ Dip in 
Al removed, as well as the singular expression VB> nil. MARQ. strikes out Dip 
pTi, because they do not make a complete stichos. 

Jll Tpato nacn, OW collective, thy captive train; so (D3(t. The word can also be 15 
read as a part, plur., Jj oto thy captors; so SA, LUTHER, J. D. MICH., WELLH., 
STADE, Bu., KAUTZSCH, MARQ.; cf. Is. 14,2. GRIMME rejects this as unmetrical. 

(13) D TiND bjnw TV tx 

ann:a i 1 ? TV nin 11 DP 

Two lines, perfect in form and parallelism, are thus conjecturally restored ; cf. 20 
v. 23 b . M DnuJS ^ TV nin" DJ> on^N 1 ? into TV tx. For TV, which is intended 
as an apoc. impf. Pi. from mi, the context requires in both cases the perfect 
tense (6 v ^ m N5(T); so J. D. MICH., SCHNURRER, DATHE, STUDER, Ew., BOTTCHER, 
BERTH., and most recent critics. In iJt DJ? is wrongly joined to the first line; 
(5VKmN \aoc, Kupiou KaTdpri auTtu dv TOI<; xparaioTi; connects it with the following, 25 
as do some Heb. codd. (DE Rossi); so W. GREEN, J. D. MICH., SCHNURRER, 
STUDER, GRATZ, and many others. The CIUTUJ of v (l^>) is also preferable to ^ 
of M (K6HLER, GRATZ). The second line being thus restored, it is a natural 
conjecture that the unintelligible T"W in the first line is a corruption of ^>NW, 
corresponding to nin" 1 DJ? in the second. <B AJJ --i> at. 5 H (6 otrore (Trore, Tore) e|.ie- 30 
YaXuvOr) (05 A ^ueYoiXuvev) f| i0x<J? auToO, Kupie, Taireivuuaov ,uoi TOU<; laxupoxepou^ 
ILIOU, apparently reading naT 1 for TV i and omitting T 1 "!^; their second line was 
read (or interpreted as if reading) "itt D^TDJn "h (>mi ) IT ni,T. -- For T"l 
WlNCKLER conj. Tito (=T1D) Schlachtreihe. MARQ. writes nnyt^ (as in v. n) in 
place of D^nj*^. 35 

(14) The first two lines in JU are: 

p!?fcjn DB I^ D^IBX "ifi 

in which only the names of the tribes can be made out. For p^0> 2 0)ACsLJ,pVn 
0C5 H (5 have ^v Koi\dbi, /. e. pJ?3, which is probably the original reading (HOUJ;.; 40 
cf. v. 15); in Dent? we must seek a verb, as the ancient translators felt; for "pinx 
the (5 version cited above, 1. 3of., has dbeX.cpoO aou, /. e. "rriN. BICKKLL, WINCK- 
LER, al. omit T-aoya ra^a -p-inx as a gloss from Hos. 5,8; but see Bu., Comm. 
WlNCKLER writes: pOJ?2 HB* D^IBN Jfi 

HT T<2 JO 45 

thought by WlNCKLER to be a synonym of 1TV; cf. Assyr. Ti [DEL. HW647 b ]. 
See also on v. 15. MARQ. adopts this reconstruction. 

151D B2BO. W. GREEN (1753) carried the last word over to the following verse, 
and read lil onto nSD; similarly Bu. (see on v. 15). On the 1S1D YpajuuciTeix; as 50 
a military official see now DEISSMANN, Bibelstudien, pp. 106-108; LOMBROSO, 
Recherches, 231; FLINDERS PETRIE, History of Egypt, 2, pp. 196.197.247; HOM- 
MEL, Neue kirchl. Zeitschrift^ go, p. 69. 


8 a 

an"? bts 8 b 
nn ilnn 8 a r.7 a8 

131 nnm nsv D p. OjA /. axe-Trr) veavibuuv aeipojaaarujv dvn,q>9n. (al. io.v ocpefj) 5 
KOU aeipoudarric; ^v TeaaepdxovTa xiXidaiv (al., Hsul> ast.,-{-iv TUJ lapanX). This 
rendering in some form is found in all recensions of <B except (fiVBmN^ a i so in 
3 H (\ )Kxt*\S: JLuiooV; Jikj ) <. It has been recognized by several scholars 
that axeim. veavibuuv is wrongly divided for 0x^irn.v iav ibuu; av (^dv) 696^ is a 
doublet to edv ibuu, representing a Heb. variant (ntOX nsiiny. nx). See Ew., 10 
GGA 67, pp. 635 f., WELLH., Te.rf der Biicher Saimtelis, p. 8, FIELD, ad loc., 
LAGARDE, Septitaginta-Studien, p. 60. MARQUAR J and RUBEN adopt the 
reading n"i. 
(9) ^. KLOST. and MARQ. conj. lh, and transpose 9 a and 9 b . 

nin 11 1313 DJ, 2 D Timon. GRIMME strikes out the line as a mere repetition of v. 2, 15 
and here unmetrical. [So also Bu., Comm., proposing alt. mn 11 ^"ia DP3 D"113.] 
MARQ. strikes out only mrr 1313. 03 ABsLL i )Vn 3 H oi buvdarai TOO Xaou, cf. the 
rendering of 3/13, I S 2,8. 

(10) ^10 hy "3B?V nnhs nilinx. The confusion of the Greek versions is here very 
great. seems originally not to have translated nnmt (CD V laeanuppiou;, i. e. 20 
D lns); Kaei]uevoi ^Tri \a(airrivujv is the oldest rendering of *pfit "?V <1 3V (DODER- 
LEIN, cf. FIELD). Subsequently, \\hen pifi by was rendered <?ui xpirripiou, \au- 
TTVIVUUV was erroneously connected with the preceding uTroEufiujv, and then in 
some recensions corrected to XauirouaOuv (cf. DOORN.). 

WE?. Proposed emendations : WE>, intsto, iyo, inatr. MARQ. regards the word as 25 
a corruption of itf JV, which he restores in v. 6 (iBrrr rilD/m " S^ini). 

(11) The first line in ^1 is D 3Niya ]"3 n^SSna ^p. Bu. conj. D pnVC "?lp //"rtr^/ Ac a 
joyful they are ! So also MARQ. ACsBsLLpVn^H (cf, (f) ^ojvriv (/*/. duo 9U)vf|0 
dvaxpouoiaeviuv dvd u^aov eu^paivouevuuv gives a sense which agrees well with 
the following line, but a satisfactory restoration of the Heb. text which it represents 30 
has not yet been suggested. DODERLEIN, ScHLEUSNER, conj. D^nD; GRATZ 
D-HXXrtO, connecting it with 1VP (conj. for irrtP). J AI VBmN seem to have read 
craWD, or something like it. 

UJT. To remove the apparent Aramaism, KLOST. and MARQ., with 6 bujaoum, 
point ur>V [Cf. below, p. 57, 1. 42.] 35 

(5AL /. dviaxiwav; VN auEnoov; Z, dreixiOTOi. 

. GRATZ conj. Darns ? or D ^aN^, perhaps dittogram from v. 13. Bu. 
suspects that v. n b is a misplaced repetition of v. 13. 

(12) The position of this invocation has been found difficult. E\v. made it the 
beginning of a distinct poem; CARL NlEBUHR, in his Reconstellation, transposes, 40 
putting v. 12 in the place of v. 2. 

The remarkable variations of C5 in this verse have not received the attention 
which they deserve. In C&ALLpSHg we find the following text: -- EEefeipou, 
<?e-feipou, Aeppiiipa, feE^-fepov (<5 A <?SeYeipou) |uupioiba<; uerd XaoO (6 L P + aou) 

, <^e-fdpou, \d\ei ( A (5 L , var. Xa\r|Gov) uex ibbn?- tviaxuajv (ffiLptf <!v 45 
^taviarrxao, BapaK, Ki dviaxuaov (& xatiaxuaov), Aeppibpa, TOV Bapax, 
aixi^aXiijTeuaov (ffiL aixiaaXiuriZie) aixuaXuuaiav aou, uio? Apweeu. In 3 H (with 
the self-evident corrections of the critical signs by RORDAM and LAG.): - 


Eliminating the doublets corresponding to 4tt, we 
may restore the Heb. text represented by the oldest Greek version as 

5,7.8 -of?3-g$- %utyte $-e?*>- 33 

companies of travelers, so BOTTCHER (1849); ill and Versions 
ways, roads; the same correction is required in Job 6, 18.19. ACsBsLLp #/. 
3 H < ^XITTOV (JaaiXetq (so also <B N doublet); GRABE conj. pdaei<;; others (3aai- 
Xixcit; (sc. 6bou^, Num. 20, 17); see SCHLEUSNER. DOORN. suggests that aba may 
have been corrupt doublet to r^n. RUBEN emends: D^a = Aram, crabna leaders 5 
of caravans (ms^n, Job 6,19); <r/! I K 10,28. 

ni^pbpy ; ill ;md Versions praem. nllTiN, repeated, either by accident or for greater 
explicitness, from the preceding line (BRIGGS, LEY, GRIMME). For a more 
radical reconstruction see MARQUART. 

(7) pnB. A few codd. of ill have nine, which is adopted by HOUB. and STU., and 10 
is not improbably the true reading. [If J1PB be right, we should probably read 
bin (sing.) for I nn i, Bu., Coming (D Vn C oi KorroiKouvTec;, ffil-P Theodoret oi 

(5 AL qppawv; cf. 5 H vjuot 

ibin 2. A subject, synonymous with ]inB, seems to have fallen out, either 15 
before or after ibirt, leaving this verb as the only remnant of a line. [Bu. suspects 
traces of this subject in the following line, 1J? <l *nj?, mm ipa.] GRIMME carries 
the verb over to the next stichos; BICKELL omits it. RUBEN rejects v. 7 a as 
containing only fragments of vv. 6. 11, and transposes v. 7 b after v. 8. 
ifl mm npt? iy ; <.$ eu><; ou dveoxri (a/. eSaveaxt-i) Aeppdjpa; 3 donee 20 
surgeret Debbora; so also in the next line, ^tt Tifip is now generally explained as 
2 sing, fern., with the old ending i (R6DIGER, BOTTCHER, GRATZ, WELLH., 
A. MULLER). This explanation is satisfactory, so far as ill is concerned; but it 
does not account for the 3 sing, in (03; if these translators had read TiOp, they 
would certainly have rendered in theyfr^/ person. As Deborah is elsewhere in 25 
the poem spoken of only in the third person, it is more probable that the original 
reading was nttj? (a 3 d sing. fern, roj? HOUB., who emends thus, WELLH. 
formerly, BlCKELL is also conceivable, but not probable), which was altered 
to Tip (first pers.}, on the supposition that Deborah was the author and singer 
(cf. v. i). Bu. regards v. 7 b as a gloss (in \\hich the I st person is natural); so 30 
also MARQUART. BICKELL omits \nDpt? 2 for metrical reasons. 
(8) The first two lines are corrupt. 

ill D-npBf Dn^i IS n"Bnn DM^ im- 1 (in many codd. nnb). For the first line, (5 i]pe- 
Tiaav ((fiVBmN ^teX^avro) Oeouq xaivouq (many codd. KEVOUC;, so also ,S H (E); 3 nova 
bclla elegit Dominus; 5 ll^ e^- J^-ss^ God chose a new thing, all supporting 35 
ill. It is possible that a scribe may have tried to restore the partly illegible 
words of the MS before him by the help of Deut. 32, 17 (COOKE). The second 
line is rendered by (D VBmN Tore Tro\eur|aav Tt6\et<; dpxovraiv (? nny, D Htf corrupt 

doublets, DOORNINCK, cf. GRATZ); cf. V. II. (IjACsBsLLpVngsHg^ ^ apTOV Kpt- 

Oivov, / . e. n^V B Dflb (7,13); cf. Theodoret, Ephrem, Augustine. Bu. reads ac- 40 
cordingly, and surmises that D\~6 ina^ is a corruption of [l^>in] D^n^N TDt (or 
H31); D^tynn are new-moons. The two lines described in some way the rarity 
of sacrifices (and thus of flesh to eat), and the rough fare to which the 
Israelites were reduced. KAUTZSCH conjectures that the original text may have 
been D^lto Dr6 DTI^N im 11 IN then God chose for them chiefs; to which it may be 45 
objected that nirr, not D"iT7N, is used throughout the poem. The same objection 
holds against KLOSTERMANN S conj. n^n for D Bnn. RUBEN conj. ETBhrt. 
MAYER LAMBERT (REJ 30,115), dividing the words differently, reads tfr6 rs 
and thus obtains the lines: 

^an^ t 50 


By bold transpositions and conjectures MARQUART reconstructs vv. 7.8 

juci. 5 

32 -~H3s-<- ^fu&cjes >i-ej*~- 4,205,6 

inD3ni. DOORN. strikes out the word. 

(20) ney. The fern, is required (OLSH.); t "I&y, but the masc. imperative addressed 
to a woman is anomalous. 

(21) ^2, as elsewhere; ill 08^3. 

noM *)Jn nV]3 Kim. For op3 there is excellent Masoretic authority (see NORZI 5 
ad loc.}; the current edd. have D"l"i3. This difference is connected with a differ 
ence of accentuation in A\, DOM f|l D;P3 Kinl (,?. -. BAR), or no l *)?M D;P3 Kim 
(WlCKES, Prose Accents, p. 140). Neither of these is satisfactory, as the various 
interpretations of the words prove. The simplest remedy seems to be to pro 
nounce r\y]} (adj.), regarding the whole as a parenthetic circumstantial clause: 10 
he being sound asleep and exhausted ; (5 ALL P al. <E Kai <xuT6<; direOKdpiaev 
(cf. aKip-rri<J 5,27, (gLp) dvd u^aov (al. v u^aw) TUJV irobwv (6 A YOvaToiv) au- 
Tf)<; Kai d&vpui-ev Kai du^Gavev; S H translates this text (tv u^oxu auTfji; sub 
obel. the words come from 5,27); (OCsBs #/. K ai auTO<; dueaKapurev Kai &.- 
^vyuSev. (6 VN Kai OUTOI; ^eaTubq eaKOTiLGri Kai drr^Gavev. I, KeKapuuudvou auToCr 15 
6 b ^\enro6u,uriaev. diroGavovTOi; b^ aOroO (^dvrj BapaK). 

(23) nvn^K J?33 1 1; VBmN 5 ee6?, (OVn Kupto?, (5ALLp3 H Kupio? 6 Geo?; /! on 6,20. 
GEDDES emends: nin\ 

(1) JH(J5ABsLLpNVn,3H<g i^ni, Kai f](Jev; so also S3"; V 0, Kai rjaav, 3 cednerunt. 20 

(2) nijnB J?"iS3. See Comm. ad loc. ; MAYER LAMBERT, REJ 24,140 (synonym of 
Tiinn); and on the fern. nijnB, GRUNWALD, Eigennamen, p. 5, n. 

DJ? manna. GRIMME conj. DJ>3 (cf. v. 9), on metrical grounds (3 lost by haplography). 
[MARQUART rejects v. 2 as a marginal gloss to v. 9 intruded into the text 
in a wrong place. Bu. (Comm?) notes that the diction of vv. 2.3 is late through- 25 
out; the poem begins with v. 4.] 
(V) S 23 2 (SACsBsLLp a f 5H su b as f. <?$-[&> irfw mn^ ittts is struck out by MAR- 

\_>/ A 

QUART for metrical reasons. 

(4) 131133 D 0, (fiCsBsLNVng ^TapoixOn (6 A ^eaTaGr], Lp ^Hdarn), turbatutn est, S" 
ou\.Ul; Bu. (R-S) accordingly conj. ltil3 or 13103. [Bu., Comm., returns to Jil.] 30 
M 12123, (5 Bm crraHev, V ^aTaHev bpoaouq; accidental repetition of the verb in 
the next clause. 

(5) Jtt ^n n-nn, 3 montes fluxerunt; 6 daaXeuenaav, (T lj>t, S ^l, reading 1^3, as A\ 
in Is. "63, 19 (from W); (/. Q^S ^ ^-; so DOORN. would emend here. 

fll.T SSD 2. JHALSf3 (et Sinai} praem. S 3 D nt; (gVBm aiT 6 upoaiUTTOU 35 
Kupiou EXuuei, TOUTO Ziva d-rro upoaujirou Kupiou Geou lapan\, N Kupiou GeoO 
E\uuei TOU Ziva (contamination from \\> 68,9, SCHARFKNBERG), L P Kupiou TOU 
Geou Iiva; CsBsVn a i Kupiou EXuuei sine addit.; <S H V.l^j^.N /n^, transcribed 
by mistake from the next line and canceled by the scribe himself. (According 
to FIELD wixroi Jjo is written in very pale ink in the lower margin; neither 40 
RORDAM nor LAG. mentions this correction.) Montes commoti sunt a facie do- 
mini Dei Israel ex Sina (the abridgement may be accidental homceoteleuton 
- as in (544-54). The words "3-D nt are a gloss (I correctly, TOUT&JTI TO Itva), 
as the form of expression shows [so now Bu., RUBEN]; cf. similar glosses in 
Ex. 32, i ; i K 14, 14; Is. 23, 13; it may be older than \\> 68,9. The rhythm of the 45 
verse also requires the omission of the words. GRIMME, who also finds the line 
too long, emends: "3 D nt 3BB lbt3 Dnn (nt=y ; Sinai s Herr)\ following in this 
interpretation of nt PAREAU, KEMINK, DOORN. GEDDES restored the balance 
of the lines by omitting niPP 2. WlNCKLER sees in nt the remains of 13"] ; 
MARQUART reads V3BS TD t31, omitting the words btW ^n^K nW as in v. 3. 

(6) bjT "0 3. GEDDES regards the words as a gloss; so BlCKELL, COOKE, MAR- 
QUART, Bu., al. For hy EWALD thinks that VST (10,3) is meant; KROCHMAL 
and GRATZ conj. 

4,419 -ofis*-^ $ut>%ee *>g-s>st*~- 31 

Sisera also (unlike Jabin) seems to be non-Semitic; cf., however, *?1DD on an 
Aramaic seal (LEVY, Taf. 1,3, in DRIVER S Samuel, p. xii), and Sassariel = 
Sarsaritt on an Assyrian- Aramaic bilingual (F. JEREMIAS, in SAUSSAYE s Religions- 
geschichte* 1,225). NlEBUHR s hypothesis, that Sisera is an Egyptian name, is 
more ingenious than plausible. 5 

(4) riBBtf NTi. Many codd. and old edd. of M read XTO, construing v. 4 a as a com 
plete sentence. Jtt ntsfib>, participle, interpreting in the sense of v. 5 ; so also the 
Versions, as far as can be judged from their renderings. But v. 5 is by a different 
hand; and the author of v. 4 probably intended the preterit, HBS^; see Trans 
lation. 10 

(5) (t has a long account of Deborah s residence and possessions: Nmp3 N3JV NTtl 
xnyp33 ntra p3j? jvn Kntra p-ns irvvs pp-n nbi ,-6n p NDiisnn mm nnejn 
wi^ hvnw 33, nro^ vpboi N2^ 11133 nvn isj> ^Kn-as "p jvn 5/^ rfrc/*?// z //^ 

city Ataroth-Deborah, being supported by her possessions; for she had palm-trees 
at Jericho, orchards at Ramah, oil-bearing olives in the Valley, irrigated fields \ 5 
at Beth-el, white earth on the King s Mount; and the Israelites went up to her 
to judgment; cf. Megilld I4 a . Such additions are infrequent in Jud. (except in c. 5). 

(6) jtt mwm $; 6 aoi (rjV). 

(7) Jtt NtD D nx JlBrp ^m ^>X "p^N natyoi; xai dnrdHiu (a/. ^TrdHuj) Trpo<; ae e!<; TOV 
xeiudppouv Kiauuv ^TTI TOV Ziaapa. 5 Ifcsu^eo \. v acaxjBj JLuu^. yia^ ^oliio. We 20 
discover here traces of a Heb. variant, NID D by pt^p bm ^?N "jn n^C fil / 
(JHVH) 7<y/// march with thee . . . against Sisera, &c. ("[D intrans., as in v. 6). 
This is supported also by the reading KCU d-rrdHuu (dirdSuu) ae in (D AN , and (as a 
doublet) ffiBsLp ("jnh); irpoq oi is perhaps Hexaplar correction. 

U31 nsi. Many codd. and old edd. of A\, 1231 n; L P 5 K ai dui ("?J?l); see pre- 25 
ceding note. 

(8) At the end of the verse (5 (<S H jw^ obel?) + on OUK olba Trjv f),udpav ev fj euoboi 
TOV 6rfY e ^ v Kupio? (/. Kupioq TOV ayY e ^ ov ) ueT 5 ^uou. The words are meant 
to exclude an unfavorable interpretation of Barak s refusal to go without De 
borah, and were naturally suggested by v. I4 a . They are not part of the original 30 
text (HOUB., GRATZ; more cautiously, STUDER). On the other hand, the words 
are clearly a translation ; comparing in v. 14, "|inp NnVsx 1 ? pS3 mm 3K"?D "?n, 
we may infer that here represents an old Heb. gloss. 

(9) Jil lesni; (SABsLLpNVng-i-TTpi^ auTov Aep^aipa; SH su b ast. 

Jtt S 3 DSX; C5 TrA.f|v yivioaKe OTI. 35 

ni^lp; (OLp + Tfji; Ne^GaXi; 5 H sub ast. (should perhaps be a lemniscus]. 
(9.10) ncnp_. Some codd. and edd. less correctly in v. 10, nanp. 

(10) Vyi. If tf K D^sbs nwy is subject the most natural construction we should 
emend: ibyi. 

n^N, as in v. 6, and according to rule; ill *Ebx. 40 

(u) GEDDES transposes v. n, putting it after v. 17. 

p, so JACOB KHAYYIM and most edd.; BAR \b, al. p\S; cf. 12,11.12. 

K e thib, rightly defended by CAPPEL; Q e re, conforming to Jos. 19,33, 

(15) ninnn ^3 ; Al and all Versions + inn *&b, introduced by a scribe s error from v. 16. 45 

(16) nwin nj>; (5ALLpVn a i ^Hg ^ uji; bpuuou (bpuuujv) ; cf. on 1,35; 8,13. 

(17) On the proposal of W. MAX MULLER, approved by JENSEN, to read i jsn, and 
connect the word with the name of a place Oi-na mentioned in Egyptian texts 
in the neighborhood of Megiddo, see Bu., Conun., p. 37. 

(18) nsvsteo. (iRATZ conj. nD303; cf. <BV ^v e mpoXcuuj, N (some codd.) uepipoXaiuj. 50 
CLERICUS suggested n^nt^n. 

(19) VlN2; A\ riDS. ns : ; ill nito, which perhaps originated with a scribe who had 
in mind the later orthography 113. 

3 *< jifubger *>s-3>sj*>- 3,22 4,2 

3 (22.23) & n3mDOn Tin NS 1 snmjnBn N^l. Both nouns are unknown; for the former (5 
(apparently rendering in the dark by a Greek word of somewhat similar sound) 
has rfiv upocTTcfta (A, irapaaroiba ; I, ret -rrpoGupa); for the latter, TOU<; biareTa-f- 
uevouc;. The Palestinian exegetical tradition connects roiBnB with BhB contents 
of the bowels (Ex. 29, 14 &c.); so 3T, 3 statim per secreta naturae aim stercora $ 
proruperunt. N6LDEKE accordingly emends: cnsn NX 1. The alternative, strongly 
suggested by the parallel construction of the clauses, and similar unusual form 
of the nouns, is that the two clauses are doublets (from different sources, 
WINCKLER), one (or both) of which is corrupt (GRATz); or that one of them is 
a gloss to the other (Ew., Sxu., BOTTCHER, BERTH., <7/.). [Bhs does not mean 10 
dung or e.vcrcinent, but fecal /natter inside the body, the contents of the intestines 
(so, correctly, SIEGFRIED-STADE s. v.\ see note in the English translation of 
Leviticus, p. 66, 1. 34, and cf. Arab. i^ijrS and Assyr. pirsu, which have the same 
meaning. The water in the stomach of a camel is called, in the cuneiform ac 
count of Assurbanipal s Arabian campaign, me pirsi; see my note in Hebraica 15 
3, 1 10, n. 7. The original meaning of KnB is not separation, secretion, but rupture, 
that is, what comes out when an intestine is cut or perforated (cf. Syr. l^s). 
nyicnsn seems to be not accidental conformation (MOORE, Comni., p. 98, below) 
but intentional, artificial assimilation to the following word nivnoan, for the pur 
pose of disguising the objectionable word Bnan as much as possible. 1*. 11.] 20 

(23) At the end of the verse jil adds hyi\ a gloss as the false tense shows - 
suggested by nibljtt, v. 24. 

(24) -IJDG, from "pD; <tt ^ppo. The form is explained by 1"J? analogy (KoNlG); but it 
is more probable that the scribe who wrote "pDtt derived the participle from 
-|D3 OpDO); see Qamhi on i 824,4, Menahem b. Sariiq s. v. "JD3 ( Aruch, s. v. 25 
"D 2 ; cf. also <5 V ^AQ), and Hexapla on i S 24,4. GRATZ conjectures in a similar 
sense, vbil VTtt pno. 

(25) ibTTI. Cf. Gen. 8,10; perhaps we should rather read I^IVM; Bu., Comni. 

(26) onannnn nj? B^ai ninwi; + KOI oOx r\v 6 -n-poavouuv aurCu; <S H sub obel. 

D- b DSn n inj? Xim. WINCKLER conj. nnj? he made an offering (!). 30 

(27) M 1X122 .T1 (soil to Seirah); C5 VNCsVn al. + ei<; Yn v IcJparjX, a natural addition 
on the supposition that Eglon s residence was in Moab. It is possible, on the 
other hand, that the words arc genuine, and were omitted in & in consequence 
of the erroneous assumption that the scene of Ehud s deed was Jericho. 

[For a conjecture about the original order of vv. 26-28 see Bu., Comin.} 35 

(28) nn m, with 6 (GRATZ, KAUTZSCH); cf. nrw nvi in the next half-verse; M ism. 

(29) M pt? b?; (5 iravTciq TOU<; ,uaxnfd<; (codd. mu. + TOU<; dv auroTi;; (5 V TTOIV Xiira- 
pov = iH). The rendering suggests that the strange expression in #!, for which 
we should expect at least pt? B"N ^3, is a mutilation of non^li \X !?3. 

(30) At the end (5-t-Kcd Ixpivev OUTOIX; Aaib euji; ou dnr^Oavev; adopted by KAUTZSCH, 40 
on account of v. 31, VV1N1; but sec below, 1. 44. 

(31) iota Beside various renderings in (5, we find the variant reading KTO<; 

On Shamgar see note on 16,31. 


(1) Jfl3M nn im1 ; A <5 CsBsI -P al., sub ast. $& (in the cod. the sign is misplaced). 

(2) D- Un nBhri; ffi ApiauuG. D lJ (Versions, gentiunt) would seem to be, as in Gen. 14, 
the name of a particular people or tribe (probably a foreign name distorted by 
popular etymology), preserving the memory of an older invasion or conquest; 

cf. iKuOoTToXiq, iKuGuuv TTO\I<; (Beth-shean; cf. English Translation of Joshua, 50 
p. 84, 1.24). [MARQUART, Fundamente israelitischer und jiidischer Geschichte, 
p. 3, surmises that the city of Siscra was the Hittite Kadesh (DTinn CHp), cf. 
2 S 24,6 (5; this conjecture is adopted with confidence by RUBEN, JQR 10,554.] 

2,233,22 -wss*-^ jfubgee *>->5J*>~ 29 

2 (23) HT1. @v Kai dqprjaei, (5 rel. 

Jit J?t2in T3. It is possible that JH9W has been substituted for an original 
(DOORN.); the alternative is to regard the whole clause as a gloss. 

3 (i) Jll mrP mn ItrS; ALL P al. 5 H IncroOt;, conformation to v. 21. $ 

nittnbo "73; 05AV3 A ^3; Jll is supported by (5 BsLL P NVn 5H, as well as by M. 

(2) in nm ]yK>b, with C5 ; Jtt ntsnbD nnebb bjntr ^33, nm njn \yK>b. A bolder emen 
dation would be nonbo bsity IS njn 1J?b, regarding nm as corrupt doublet to njn 
(so GRATZ), and mnbb as a gloss; for the construction cf. Jos. 4,24; so MOORE, 
Comm., Bu., Comm. EWALD thinks it possible to retain Jit by merely reading 10 
nnobb (Qal) ; so 5. 

DI^T b D^lB 1 ? "IB>N pi. The suffix is in the wrong number as well as in the wrong 
gender; but it is attested by (5, and in this gloss may be original, the author 
having in mind the ]J?33 nionbfc, v. i ; 35 and even " evade the difficulty. 
CLERICUS, HOUB., al. emend nijn\ STU. suspects that the whole clause was 15 
originally a marginal note. [See also Bu., Comm] 

(3) [ Ijnsn ^31, perhaps a gloss; Bu., Comm] 

Tinrtl, so E. MEY., Bu., al. \ Jit and Versions Mnni; the same error occurs in Jit 
and most of the Versions in Jos. 11,3, where the correct reading is preserved in 
(gVLp ,?/. (C (WELLH.). The Hivvites were a petty people in Central Palestine 20 
(Gen. 34,2, cf. 30; 36,2; Jos. 9,7, &c.), while Ccele-Syria and the Lebanon was 
the country of the Hittites (i K 10,29; 2X7,6 &c). 

(7) nntPNn nNI. This form of the plur. is late (2 Chron. 19,3; 33,3 7), and probably a 
consequence of the identification of mtPNn with rnntpy. 3 here Astaroth, which 
BUKENTOP defends, and HOUB., DATHE, and others regard as the original 25 
reading here; nnnt?J? is found in one or two codd. of Jll; 5, which is also alleged, 
proves nothing. 

(8) nviytsn ^13. (<3 XouacxpaaGouu (-6e|u); Josephus XouadpaaGoc. 

crini mx "jbo. V. 10 D"is "|Vo (conformed to v. 8 in some of the Versions). GRATZ 
suspects that the author wrote D11X. Cushan is elsewhere the name of a tribe 30 
connected with Midian; Num. 12, i, cf. Ex. 2,i6ff.; Hab. 3,7. 

(13) im, sing., with 63, KAU., Bu. (Comm.}; Jit larvi, which might be referred to 
the allies ; but the change of number after "pi is harsh. 5 makes the preceding 
verbs also plur. 

(16) nVB "3ty. Many codd. have Vit9; false correction. 35 

(17) At the end of this verse Jit and all the Versions have: "iNtt N V 13 P S \bty\ which 
may be regarded as an anticipation. Dr. FuRNESS makes the very probable 
suggestion that it is a misplaced gloss, originally meant to explain the words 
3nbn Yp3 nbnn nio- i in v. 22. 

(18) JH nnittn "Wtl nj?n; (<i TOU? cpepovra<; (-rrpoaqp^povTa?, aipovra?) rd buupa. 40 
DOORN. suspects that nnilin \SB?ll is a gloss. 

(19) D^DDn. According to HlTZ., a false gloss which has displaced the original 
D^Xi ; so also in v. 26. 

vtyfc W1, so JH(!)ALLp (i n doublet) (ES H , cf. 5; (GVN a l. I, who take the preceding- 
command as addressed to Eglon, render causatively; DOORN., Bu. [but see 45 
Comm], and WINCKLER would accordingly emend KS" 1 1 .- 

(20) After pbN C5 adds pacnXeO = "[ban, which may have been accidentally omitted; 
cf. v. 19 [BU., Comm]. 

At the end of this verse, 05 + EY^UJU ^YYu? ctuxoO, gloss. 

(21) 111 Tins n^BH. (6 praem. KCU ^Y^ ve fo aua TUJ dvaarfivai (aurov), following which 50 
DOORN. and Bu. emend imps <i n i "i. 

(22) JH asm Dl ^S" 1 !; 6 direi0r|veYKev, i. e. K3 S 1, adopted by Bu. 
For a gloss to v. 22 a see note on v. 17. 

28 -fi3@-s< 3f**&3** *>^Sfs**~- 2,522 

sense, oO irpoo~0r|(TUJ TOO ineroiKfiaai TOV Xaov 8v eTira TOU e Huuaai (e HoXoGpeOoai) 
ai)TOU<;. This is apparently the translation of an interpolation in the Heb. text 
used by (5, meant to bring out more clearly the fact that not all the peoples 
were left; DooRN., nsmr6 VHDK IPX nj?n wb rpix xb ; ^ v. 21. 
nns^, so DRUSIUS, STUDER, BERTH., S. DAVIDSON, DOORN. M wwb, which -5 
may be mutilation of an original DriX3 GWSb (Num. 33,55) or D3 *lX3 BBWb (Jos. 
23,13); but it would be hazardous to emend the text after these passages. (5 
eic, auvoxac;, in angustias, in pressura, 3 hostes, Ct ^p^ob, read (or conjectured) 
n^sl? or D lIX 1 ?, /: D2DX niSl Num. 33,55 b . Abulwalid, connecting O lS with 11X, 
interpreted /r<s^.y, snares; so FRIEDRICH DELITZSCH, comparing Assyr. qaddu 10 
[initial S not certain; might be t]. HOUB. renders venatores, tacitly reading D s "i^ 
(cf. rrre Ex. 21, 13; i Sam. 24, 12). GRATZ conj. DTSS 1 ?. 

(5) Jtt D S 33. The true name of this place was probably D X33n; cf. 2 Sam. 5,23f. ; 
ip 84,7, where (5 renders as here, KXauOuiuv. The place cannot, however, be the 
same which is meant in Sam. STU. thinks that D 33 is perhaps the same as \\h 15 
ni33 Gen. 35,8; HlTZ. connects it with the X33n ptty ^ 84,7, which he locates 
near Beth-el. 

(6) M inbniV B^X; (OCsBsN a L e KaaTO<; eic; TOV olxov aurou Kai e xaaToc ei? Trjv 
K\ripovo|niav aurou; so, omitting exaaro? 2, C5 ALI P<E and (with etc; TOV CMKOV 
auToO sub obel.^ 5 H . 2O 

(9) JllffiAZO Din nion. In Jos. 19,50; 24,30 mo n, and so some codd. of itt, 3S, 
and a few codd. of 6 here. GEDDES, STU., Ew., BERTH., al. regard Din as a 
transcriptional error; on the contrary, it is the true name, and DID either an 
accidental corruption, or more probably an intentional transposition to remove 
a word which might suggest sun-worship (JUYNBOLL; so also Bu., Coming; cf. 25 
the variants in Is. 19, 1 8 Din, Din and Din [see Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 153, 1. 36]; 
a few codd. and the Soncino Bible of 1488 have Din in our verse, as in 1,35 above. 

(13) by^b MBp 1 1; 1 and Versions, I DST i, but 13J? in this sense is not construed with b. 
This emendation is suggested by Jer. 44,3; cf. Jer. 7,9; 11,13.17; Hos. ii,2,&c. ; 
Yiajn is the result of unintentional conformation to v. 11. 30 
byib. ABsLL P NVn Tfj BaaX, as often, e. g. 3,7 (COCsBs #/.) ; a kind of Greek Q e re, 
the reader substituting ou0xuvr|, as in the Heb. text HBb sometimes takes the 
place of byi, c. g. Hos. 9,10. ffiV0 T UJ BaaX. Cf. DlLLMANN s paper, Ubcr 
Baal mit dem weiblichen Artikel, in the Proceedings of the Berlin Academy, 
1881, pp. 601 ff. 

nintPJ^ sing.; M and Versions, niintfj? 1 ? plur. 

(14) & ni_30^, sc. JHVH; ACs xai drr^bovTO, 3 vendiderunt; see on v. 16. 

(15) Jtt on 1 ? isv. <5 xai dE^eXiipev OUTOU?; KAUTZSCH, BUDDE, al. conj. IS)!. 

[After 1X0 an 1 ? 15T1 Bu. (Comm^ conjectures that the words nw bx, 1pJ>^1 have been 
accidentally omitted; they are an indispensable part of the schema, and are pre- 40 
supposed by DnpX3O in v. 18.] 

(16) .fit DiytPVI; C) xai laujaev a()Tou<; Kupioc,; editions of J also have the sing. verb. 
(18) onipmil. In 2T pni is the usual translation of fnb; here perhaps a late doublet, 

or gloss ( A 05 codd., among them I9-59N 

(21.22) ^tt iai niD3 ]ytb jno 11 ! ywin 11 atj? ix ; (i> iLv KaT^Xiuev InaoO? ( v + ui6<; Nami 45 
t v rfj Yfl) xai aqpnKev TOU ueipoiaai K.T.^.; reading ni l (v. 23; 3,1) in place of 
no 11 !. The expression in <H is unusual ; if ntt l were the true reading we should 
suspect that it was a gloss. On the other hand, if v. 22. is by a different hand 
from v. 21, m 11 ! (scil. nw) is necessary to it. 

(22) D3 Ftibb nin" 1 ^ll; M ^ll, which would require us to correct 03 to 33; so (sing.^ 50 
(533; Jtt m s H3 T-SD, as in Is. 6, 13 ; 63 , 19 (see GlNSB., Introd., c. viii.), which reading 
occurs sporadically in codd., and is adopted by HOUB., STU., DOORN., al. It is 
more probable, however, that the error lies in nin" "pi (haplography). 

i,3o 2,3 -~**3-<-g( ^fu&geer $->BS*>- 27 

(30) bbna, some codd. bbm. (5 Evamaau, Atuuava; AZO NaaXaX. 

(32) "DV. Jit codd. 3PV ; similarly in v. 33 ; f/i (<33 (GRATZ). [At the end of the 
verse BU. (Coining restores IBmn^ Vr b "3.] 

(33) V. 33 b is regarded by DOORN. as a gloss, dictated by national vanity; similar 

ly 35 b - 5 

(34) ""IDxn, without variation here and in v. 35; also in (5 Jos. 19,48. As throughout 
this chapter the author uses the name Canaanites for the native population of 
the land, it is a natural surmise that in vv. 34.35 "ntssn has supplanted an origi 
nal "Oyasn, perhaps through a working back of the error in v. 36. 

13m xb "O. 05 Jos. 19,47 Kcd OUK euuv auToix; = (nuro) x!?l; preferred by Bu. and Ki. 10 

(35) Din im. Some codd. Din, as also in 8,13; Jos. 19,19. (5 V dv TUJ 6 pei TUJ oarpa- 
KuObei (tenn), with the doublet dv TUJ juupaivujvi (Din); others TOU (aupaivtuvcx;, or 
TOU bpuuuivoc; (Bhn). 

ill epl" m T naani; 05 (S H j/^ 0A?/.) adds dm TOV A|uoppaTov, which may be 
genuine (Bu.); Jos. 19,47 dn aurou? (Ki.). 15 

DO 1 ? on!? V.Tl, as in v. 33, with <B VN a/. 3; JltAL ottb 1VT1. 

(36) <H nty&T ybona a^-ipv nbyofi noxn bnn. ALL P(ESH (6 Ibouuaioi; ^ obel.} TO 
opiov TOU Auoppaiou 6 Ibouuaio?; a doublet in which the true and the false 
reading are combined, as often. The restoration of s nxn was suggested by 
HOLLENB., and is adopted by Bu., Ki., and KAU. HOLLENB. himself preferred 20 
to follow <B A al. more closely, and read "IDINn nDXn bnil. 

ybon; M jj^onfi, but the terminus ad qucin is required; the a of Jll is dittogram 
of the final D in D^lpJ?. 05 AL P(E diri Tfjq -rr^Tpai;, correction of euro suggested by 
the context. 


(1) bKrva "?; Jit D Oin bx (v. 5); 03, with substantial unanimity, <Lm TOV K\au6uujva 
Kai TTI Bai0r|X Kai ^TTI TOV OIKOV laparjX; in S H the critical signs are confused, but 
were no doubt meant to athetize all after K\au6uujvct. GEDDES inserts rvi bx 
^"i\ ZIEGLER rightly saw that D^Sn bs was an interpolation from v. 5; d-rri 
TOV oTxov I. an erroneous doublet or gloss to the preceding words (cf. (5 in 30 
1,23). WELLH. therefore restores: ^xr, 11 ! ^ h&*n p ni.T ^xbo by^. Bu., Ki., and 
GRATZ, on the contrary, think that bxw JV2 bx is genuine (omitted by honuvo- 
teleutoti); Bu. further suspects that bW n^ is an editorial correction of pv fl S; 

if this were to be adopted, we should prefer to emend further, pv n^3 nx, as 
in 1, 22. 35 

nbj>X1, iH n"?yx. The future is impossible in the context (cf. the following N^NJ); 
a clause has been accidentally omitted; the XpDB is perhaps evidence that a 
lacuna was recognized by the Masoretic editors, as it was by the translators of 
(gVN (Tcibe X^Yei Kupio<;) 5. STUDER (alt. vptyn) and BERTHEAU supply meN ; 
BOTTCHER conjectures 10SJ DD2 "nina, or n^J?K IttSI D2n TnpS lips (^ Ex. 40 
3,i6f.; Gen. 50,24); DOORN. adopts this, only putting for the last two words 
nbjJKl [so also Bu., C0mm.], which gives an unimpeachable sentence and sense. 
<S A al. Kupioc; dvepipaaev . . . dariYorfev . . . ujjaoaev . . . ei-rrev, cf. 05 6, 16. 

(2) (5 has a considerably longer text: Kai uueic; ot> bia6r)aeCT0e bia6r)Kr)v TOIC; dyKa- 
0n,uevoi(; eii; Triv Y?l v TauTrjv, oube Toiq 6eoT<; auTujv ou jar) irpoOKUvriariTe, d\\d 45 
TO YXuTTTa auTujv auvTpii|>aTe Kai T<X OumaaTripia OUTUJV KaTaaKdipaTe (<D L , so in 
substance the rest; SH oub^ .... GuvTpiijjaTe sub obel.}. GEDDES, DOORN., and 
Bu. think that this is the original text; & has been abridged or mutilated. Quite 

as probably (8 is the result of amplification (in Greek or Heb.) from the parallels 
in Ex. 34,12.13; 23,24.32;Deut. 7,2-5.25, &c. [Before nnwinniD in Jit we should 50 
doubtless have in good Heb. ^ rather, as Bu. suggests; whether the author of 
this patchwork of reminiscences must have written "O is not so clear.] 

(3) iHVNBm nmx anjN h; 6 rel. l.3H ( su i, O bel\ with variations not affecting the 

26 -~3s-< sfubgeer 3->gj*~- 1,1729 

(17) E. MEY. regards nBS as a transcriptional error for 11J7, the correcdon of which 
found its way into v. 16; see above, p. 25, 1. 32. 

(18) M min" *O^1. 05 harmonizing, OUK K\r|pov6un,crev, which is preferred by J. D. 
plains T3^1 as a transcriptional error for 13^ N!?I. Joseph., mediating, they took Ashke- 5 
Ion and Ashdod, but were not able to take Gaza and Ekron (Ant. v,2,4; /! v , 3 , i). 
At the end of the verse (5 adds Kcti (var. oub) Trjv ^AZoiTov KUI (oub) TCI uepi- 
cnropia aurfu; ( L P opia). The rendering irepiairopia, instead of 8piov or opia as 

in the preceding instances, betrays a different hand, and makes it probable that 
the gloss is of relatively late date (DOORN.). Cf. Josephus cited above (1. 6). 10 

(19) P"iin!> by b, with HOUB., STU., a/., cf. <53, Jos. 15,63; 17,12; M tmin 1 ? b. The 
verb "?3" was canceled by a redactor or scribe in conformity to the theory that 
not inability but unwillingness prevented the expulsion of the Canaanites; cf. v. 21. 
5 asr^* Jl, cf. v. 27 c. 

nr6 bll3 321 "2. (5 (with or without the doublet xai apjaara ffibrjpa autoTc;, cf. 3) 15 
OTI Pr|X a P biecrreiXaTo auTOis; cf. (5 L P in 4,3. 

(20) nt? 131 iK3. Jos. 15,13 jnsnn^ mrr 1 "D !?; ^A <5. 

(21) 3W1". ^l codd. "3BM", a Q e re of the Oriental schools. 

1W"Tin Kb. Jos. 15,63 nwmnb . . . 1*73" b, doubtless the original text of J, as in 
v. 19 above. Benjamin (Jos.), notjtedah (Jud.), is also original. 20 

(22) ill rpv JV2 l^yi, C oi uioi luuanqp, M codd. f]DV "32; adopted by DOORN., BER- 
THEAU, Kl.; see also on v. 23. The change is not grammatically necessary, and 
the variation of (5 is of little significance, cf. Jos. 17,17; 18,5. 

bsn 3, one word. So BAR (see his note on Gen. 12,8); according to GlNSB. 
this is the orthography of the Oriental Jews. 25 

1 nay mm; @ ALL P KCU louba^ |aeT auraiv. Bu. and Kl. conjecture that the 
author (J) wrote DOJ? yenn l ; this was first altered to min\ and this again to mn\ 
Bu., Conim., argues that Joshua must have been named in this connection. The 
present text may, however, be the result of abridgment (cf. v. 19); mirf for nin" 
is an easy error, cf. 2 S 1 , 12, ill and . 30 

(23) iH /n"23 *|DV n 2 nvri. The text is not exempt from suspicion ; in Num. 13 . 14, 
where the verb frequently occurs, it is found in Qal, with the accusative, and 
we should accordingly expect here ^K1V3 ---- nuvi (cf. 6 VN KCU KctTeaK^ctvTO 
Bcu0r]X). SCHARFENBERG and STADE conjecture niSM, which would probably 
be construed with by rather than 3 (cf. however 2 Sam. 20, 15). (B, in all recen- 35 
sions, has beside, or instead of, this verb, KCU irapeW(5a\ov, z". e. 131T1; cf. Joseph. 
Ant. v,2,6. For *pr JT3 (QALVn a /. have oTKO? lapar|X, 05Lp uioi lapaqX, VN 
vac.-, & codd., DOORN., /., *)DV "33, as in v. 22. The subject is superfluous after 

v. 22, and perhaps came in only by accident; cf. <5 in 2, i. 

(24) ib 11D"1. Bu. (Coming suspects that before these words 13 HntfV or ttitntf l may 40 
have fallen out. 

(27) EPiin b"\. Jos. 17,12 ^"linb . . . ibr Kb; see on v. 19 above. 

131 ]y JV3 n. There is some lack of uniformity in this verse, "3WV being insert 
ed before the last three names but not before the first two ; which may suggest 
the suspicion that the text has been glossed. 45 

OPV Q e re, as elsewhere in this verse and chapter; so many codd. in the text. 
1X1, as in Jos. 17,11 (cf. 21,32); i Kings 4,11; cf. 1JH r? V 83,11; so & codd. 
here, against the Masorah. The orthography is confirmed by Phoenician (CIS 
i,i,3, 1. 19), Assyrian, and Egyptian inscriptions. $&, here and in three other 
places in. 5 

(29) 4tt 1133 mp3 ^Jttsn 3"l; (5 + KCti df^veTo (ctUTCu) el? cpopov, adopted by GEDDES. 
Jos. 16,10 131J; DO 1 ? VPI mn DVn 1J> D"-IBK 31p3 "3J?33n 3"1; the redactor of Jud. 
appears to have abridged his source (Bu.). 

1,15.16 -H3-^ 3w&<J *>>**>- 25 

tried to express (DOORN., BUDDE, GRATZ, KAUTZSCH); M here and in Jos. 

15,18, irWDm. EWALD conj. WTDni she took him into the secret. 

m, with V al., also ill in Jos. 15 , 18; iit(5AL here mn by dittography (SxUDER, 

DOORN., KAUTZSCH, /.). The article is defended by EWALD. 

naxni. The rare word is variously rendered by the Versions from the context; 5 

(5 dveponaev, ^fOYfuIev, iKpaEev, &c., 3 suspiravit. GRATZ conj. pj?sni (cf. 7>- 

miird i6 a ). Others have surmised that read or guessed nixni, or nasri. [nax 

may mean to press, i. e. eindringen in 4,21 and / z/z dringen (Lat. instare) in 

1,14; it ma Y be identical with Jax.^ /# importune ((J, ^^Js. <J\ \M <k*.i3^ 

<jJl^o). Transposition of liquids is not exceptional. P. H.] 10 

(15) .1313, so Jtt and the Versions; KROCHMAL and GRATZ conj. .1213. 

3Jan nxiN, as in Gen. 20,1, to remove ambiguity; M 3aan yiN, the n might easily 
be lost before the following article (haplography). 

fi^, a sing, is required; (5 Jos. 15,19 FuuXaG, A Jud. FoXXaG; M rfril, which in 
Jos. has led to a false conformation of the adjectives. Canaanite names of places 15 
with fern, ending -at are frequent; sec e. g. DBS v. 17, and 14,1. [In DV3 n^i, 
where ETC is supposed to be explanatory, the plur. is preferred by BlL, Coming 

(16) rhy no ]rnn ^pn Dim, so Bu. (R-S86, Comm^\ M ity no pn "a^p -031. The name 
of Moses father-in-law is obviously required; <5 VN oi uioi loGop ToO Keivaiou ; Joseph. 
loBopou, IdGpou; LLp5H( O i uJoi luufiaf? K.T.. ((0 A ffi luuap), z. e. D3h, Num. 10,29 20 
(J). The latter is supported by Jud. 4,11, where the glcss nfi ]mn D2n ^20 is 
derived from our passage. The sing, verbs in ill v. i6 b make it probable that 
^21 is a corruption of the proper name; it is possible, however, that we should 
read Ul 2Dn S a21, and correct the verbs in i6 b instead of i6 a , in exact agreement 
with <ps al. (KITTEL). E. MEYER (ZAT 1,132.137, n.) conj. nty ne> ]nn 171, 25 
which is approved by KUENEN and Bu. (ft-S, p. 9; but cf. p. 86). STUDER 
conj. ntPtt |nn asn ail, and considers ap a gloss which displaced the proper 

miiT an n. 05 ALL pVn /. SH<J ^p^^ T0l ^ uiou? louba, z . ^. b. The confusion 
of ns and bx is abundantly attested in Heb. MSS and the old Versions. 30 

ny nntt; M ny naaa i min^ nane, which is manifestly corrupt. E. MEY. cancels 
T1J> as a misplaced marginal correction of nBX, v. 17; but, even if this were other 
wise acceptable, it does not remove the difficulty. The various recensions of (5 
all have ^ui Karapdaeujt; Apab, which would represent T1J? TV1D2. DOORN., Bu. 
(7?-5), and KAUTZSCH adopt this reading; and for the rest, following <f}AL al. eiq 35 
Tr]v gpruaov louba TTJV ouaav dv TUJ VOTUJ ^Trl xaTapciaeuai; A., restore miiT lino 
T1J> 111)33 "NPK (^v TUJ VOTLU erroneous doublet in Heb.). But louba does not 
belong to the genuine text of 05; it is lacking in 03 L P Vn , asterisked in <S H , and 
stands in VN in a different place (dv TUJ VOTUJ louba). [Cf. Bu., Comm.] In our 
reconstruction it is supposed that 3333 "itfK is a gloss to Apab (so DOORN.), the in- 40 
trusion of which in the wrong place occasioned other changes; T>1D3 in the Heb. 
text which lay before the 6 translators was a transcriptional error for 13103 as 
in Jos. 8,24. In 5 H the obelus stands before \ y-^-> ) the corresponding met- 
obelus is missing. R6RDAM and LAG. would correct this to ^x _ Jiiaa.tea 
;l; \llKAso, whether rightly, is questionable. ZIEGLER had suspected that 45 
11l3 was an erroneous doublet to 3Ja:. Another possible reconstruction, follow 
ing <5 V and assuming the opposite error, is mirr 3i33 1t?K 11J? 1110. The text of 
the whole verse has suffered so greatly that it is impossible to feel much con 
fidence in any of these attempts. 

3Bn iH so aKBALSHfcScT; (5 r el. 3 A 1^1. 50 

p^oyn n; $& nyn n; 0}N(t have the doublet ueTd TOU Xaou AuaXnK. HOLLENB., 
E. MEYER, KAUTZSCH, restore p rtsy DN; Bu. pbttyn riN, which better accounts 
for the article in 4fl. GRATZ, rejecting this emendation, conjectures pyttttf n. 

Jud. 4 


(1894); but many contributions to the correction of the text are scattered through 
the exegetical literature, in periodicals, and elsewhere.* I have not essayed the 
impossible task of recording all these, nor does it lie in the plan of the present 
series to do so; but I have thought it proper to note more fully the conjectures 
of earlier critics, such as HOUBIGANT (1753), UATHE (1784), ZIEGLER (1791), 
and GEDDES (1797), who often anticipated corrections which are now generally 
accepted. The obvious emendations have been made over and over again, in 
dependently; claims of priority are nowhere more difficult to establish. 

I (5) pD ^31N. The name is attested here by & and all the Versions; (6 has Abuw- 
(JeEeK in Jos. 10, 1 ff. also, where itt and the other Versions read p"!2* 31K. WELL- 
HAUSEN infers that pt3 ^IK is in all places the true form of the name ; plX 318 
in Jos. 10 is a harmonistic differentiation, imitating pIX "O^O (King of Jerusalem) 15 
in Gen. 14. But pD ^IN is a wholly anomalous formation (pt3, name of a 
place), while p"!S "OIK is normal (pis Xubux, name of a god), and is supported 
by the analogy of pis ^li. It seems more probable, therefore, that the latter 
is the original form of the name, and that in Jud., by accident or design, it has 
been changed to pl2 S 31N. Another variation is Abum/iEe^ex (Joseph., Steph. 20 
Byz., Procop., 2 codd. of (5 in Jos. 10, i). 

pl33 fi5s6.59-i 8 g ) probably by homceoieleuton. The topographical difficulty (see 
note on the Translation ad loc.) ** gives room for the suspicion that there is an 
error in this name also. An old commentator suggests that pt3 is identical with 
npS3 (Jos. 15,39). Jos. 10,10.11 would rather lead us to think of npiy. This 2-, 
would be the scene, not of the battle, but of the capture of Adonizedec; note 
INXO l (<5 VN KdT^Xapov, KdTeXdpocrav, perhaps influenced by v. 6), and cf. Jos. 10, 17. 
V. 5 a would be in place after v. 6 a , and a different theory of the composition of 
vv. 4-6 would be neccessary. BUDDE (A-.S) conjectures that in the original 
context of J the words ran 131 13 lon^l D^PIT ^0 pt3 ^IN TIN lXfi l. [If pD "31K 30 
be the original form of the name, pD3 must be struck out; if p~IX "OIK is right, 
pt33 must remain; Bu., Coming 

TiBn fiNi 3^33.1 HN \y\. DOORNINCK regards these words as a marginal gloss in 
tended to follow DT3 in v. 4. 

(7) rrsbo D J?3tr. Perhaps the source had njDP (KlTTEL). 35 

(11) "?J> 1, so ffiv al. (Ki dv^priaav), and itt with all Versions in Jos. 15, 15; A\ here "j^l, 
(SALLp^H ^TTOpeu9r|aav, conformed to the beginning of v. 10 (DOORN., HOLLENB., 

(13) 1300 ]Bpn ittOJAL; 5H \a ^iw^-jL^;; 6/3,9: (JVNC*BiLpVn 6 V U)T6pO ^ sine addit. 40 

(14) njVDM, as the context seems to require, and the Versions in various ways have 

* BUDDE S Richter (in MARTl s Kurser Hand-Commentar, 1897) was published after 
the text of the present volume was in type and the manuscript of the Critical 
Notes was in the Editor s hands. I have therefore been able to take account of 
the valuable contributions which BUDDE has made in this work to the restoration 
of the text only in the form of supplementary notes. BUDDE S earlier work, Richter 
ud Samuel (1890), in part previously published in ZAT ( 87 88), is distinguished 
when necessary as Bu. (A -.S ); the more recent volume, as Bu. (Com HI.). The 
emendations in KAUTZSCH S AT are cited, not in the name of the translator of 
Judges (KITTEL), but in that of the editor (KAUTX.SCH), who assumes the responsibility 
for this apparatus (see Zweites Vorn orl); though, doubtless, most of them were 
proposed or adopted by the translator. 

** SCHICK (PEF, Qu. St. 98, pp. 20-231 would find the site of Bexek at Kufiti, 
between Bethlehem and Hebron. 


ants to the other translation ((D v , ed. Romano}-, but it would be comparatively 
easy, if we possessed a few accurate collations of typical manuscripts, properly 

None of these witnesses exhibits a pre-Hexaplar state of (6 ; all show in differ- 
5 ent ways and degrees the result of revision meant to bring 05 into closer conformity 
with A\. In some the correction has generally supplanted the original render 
ing; in others the two stand side by side, with more or less stylistic accomoda- 
tion. It is in the most systematically conflate recension that the most of the 
pre-Hexaplar translation has been preserved. In Judges this is L P, which the 

10 testimony of Theodoret proves to have been the recension current in Syria in 
the 5 th cent., and which is doubtless of Syrian origin. 

From the Greek translation represented by ACsBsSrLLpVn are derived the Old 
Latin (f ; fragments only), the Ethiopic, edited by DlLLMANN (<), and the 
Hexaplar Syriac, edited by RORDAM and by LAGARDE (3H) ; further the Ar- 

15 menian and the Slavic Versions, which are not used in the accompanying ap 

The other Ancient Versions, the Latin of St. Jerome in its Vulgate form (3), 
the Syriac (5), and the Jewish Aramaic Targum (<T), are all based on the Pal 
estinian Hebrew Standard Text of the 2 d cent. A. D., as are also the new Greek 

20 translations of AZ0, and the revision of 6 after these, and in the main the trans 
lation found in (fiVBmN. T-he pre-Hexaplar ffi alone represents a Hebrew text 
older than the official revision made in the school of R. Aqiba. 

The text presented above, in accordance with the plan of the series, is the 
Masoretic Text, emended where it seemed necessary by the aid of Heb. MSS, 

25 the Ancient Versions, or critical conjecture. For the more difficult undertaking 
of an edition of the Hebrew Text as it was, say, in the 4 th cent. B. C., a critical 
edition of (5 on sound philological principles is indispensable; such problems as 
it presents cannot be solved ambulando. In the Notes, however, the editor has 
indicated, in a considerable number of instances, what in his judgment was the 

30 earlier reading. 

The critic of the Hebrew text of the Pentateuch and the Historical Books is 
confronted by peculiar difficulties arising from the composite character of the 
narrative. Many of the faults which he finds in his text are not due to the errors 
of transmission which alone fall within the province of textual criticism, but to 

35 the unskilful combination of different sources, to the efforts of a redactor to 
connect or harmonize his sources, or to subsequent editorial interference. The 
task of the textual critic is not to restore the text of the sources, nor even of 
some earlier state of the composite work, but only the form in which it left the 
hand of the last redactor. Cf. below, p. 50, 1. 10; p. 62, 1. 33. 

40 In the present edition, the analysis, and the redactional changes which the 
higher criticism conjectures to have been made in the text, are explained in the 
Notes to the English Translation (1898), by which the Notes on the Hebrew 
Text are therefore to be supplemented. The exegetical grounds upon which 
emendations of the text by conjecture often rest will be found more fully set 

45 forth in the author s Commentary on Judges (1895). 

The most glaring inconsistencies of the Masoretic orthography have also been 
emended in this edition; but without any attempt at strict consistency. The <> 
of the inf. abs., the Qal active participle, and the fern, plur., is uniformly written 
plene\ in other cases the prevailing spelling is made uniform. These departures 

50 from the Masoretic orthography are indicated by . 

The only systematic attempts to employ the Versions for the emendation of the 
Hebrew text of Judges are the dissertation of A. v. DOORNINCK, Bijdrage tot 
de Tekstkritiek van Ricltteren i.-n>i. (1879) ar >d tne Emendationes of GRATZ, 


IN FORMING the present text, the following editions of M have been chiefly 
used: JACOB KHAYYIM (Venice, 1525, 4 vols. fol., with the Masorah) in the 
reprint of 154?; VAN DER HOOGHT (Amsterdam and Utrecht, 1705, which has 
attained the character of a textus receptns]\ J. H. MICHAELIS (Halle, 1720); 5 
RAPHAEL KHAYYIM (Mantua, 1742, with the critical commentary of NORZI, 
ns>nn:o); BAR (Leipzig, 1891), and GINSBURG (London, 1894); together with the 
Masorah as edited by JACOB KHAYYIM and by GINSBURG, and the Masso- 
retisches Worterbuch of FRENSDORFF (1876); also the various readings of Heb. 
MSS and early printed editions compiled by KENNICOTT (1776) and DE ROSSI 10 
(vol. 2,1785). 

Of (5, besides the fragments of AI0 collected by MONTFAUCON and by FIELD, 
two translations have been preserved complete (see LAGARDE, Septuaginta-Studien, 
1892). The younger of these is represented by the Codex Vaticanus 1209 (ffiV) ; Cod. 
Mus. Brit, 20,002, collated by LAGARDE for cc. I - 5 (05^ m ), and a considerable group 1 5 
of minuscules ( 131 .144-209.236.237 of HOLMES and 
PARSONS), to which the text printed in the Catena Nicephori (Leipzig, 1773) 
belongs (N). From this version is derived the Sahidic, fragments of which 
have been published by ClASCA (d). 

The older Greek translation is contained in all the remaining MSS so far 20 
as known. Among these are the following uncial codices : Alexandrinus (G> A ), 
Coislinianus (<&Cs = x of H-P), Basiliano - Vaticanus (C5Bs = XI of H-P), Sarravi- 
anus (<5 Sr = IV and V of H-P), and many minuscules. 

Among the latter, three well-defined groups are easily separated, to two of which, 
at least, the character of recensions must be ascribed; vis. codd. 19.108.118 25 
of H-P, whose text is exhibited by the Complutensian Polyglot, and has been 
edited by LAGARDE, i883(L) ; of H-P, and the fragments of a Leipzig 
uncial palimpsest, inedited ( L P); 120.121 of H-! , represented by the Aldine 
edition, Venice, 1518 (<6 V ). A fourth group, which stands intermediate between 
(6Lp and <6 L , is not cited in our apparatus.* 

A complete stemma, exhibiting the filiation of these MSS and recensions, can 
not be made from the collations in H-P, in which the internal variations of the 
representatives of this version are exhibited (in inextricable confusion) as vari- 

* For an attempt to distinguish the recensions of <g in Jud. see FRITZSCHE, Liber 

Judicum secundum LXX interpretes, 1867. 

21,11 25 


nonnn nat 
ot a^a"? B" ny 


nr6 wipM ]iB>n 

14 tin 11 ! 

i p^aa 1 ? Dm oym :p on^ iso bi nyba t^n s ^ao vn 

1 6 anma^ nfcya no myn ^apr n <|i i ihvnw 

17 ^i p^aa^ HB^D <ny 

i s ^aa iya^a ^ la^maao a^a an"? nn^> feia V lanaxi t 

19 aiD s -rf^a mrr an nan 

i an 1 ? 5 
niry *a 

ant nn 


21.3 an s ii :a^i3a anani vh 
as 1 ? anstoni a- anan ]e 

22 1 <)>nia ia s ^ nvn j 
in ^K i-np 1 ? ^ o <) 

23 IIM p^aa s aa ID M 
anyn ns laa^i an pna 

24 iN: 



niaa IKS^ a nam 

anna an < 
ni^han p 





20,26 21,10 


mm2 tont^ ^3 itotsn ;mm 

s }2 ?3 in :3in2O,26 

mty i^jn 2"iyn ny Ninn DV2 27 

ne">y pnK p IJJ^K p orwai :onn o^tra Dvtfxn rns piK DPI 28 
DN TIN p^m ^2 oy n&n^ 1 ? nK56 my *p-oiKn las ? inn ona-a 
5 !2 S 2D ny2n to 

nn n^ss: p s i2 s : 
I :ni^pon bx Tyn p 

i :nyin Dn s y 
inn DVS 




^yn p ]Bty 




noiii no ^NI^ 33 
ion "?y22 iDiy^i 34 




n py mm 41 
v"?y ny^i ^D 42 


ny 44 

25 D 


Kinn nr3 2in 

3 o 


n nnyn "?:> 
no*6 n 
3iyn ny 


:^n 47 
sis 4 s 
ny nans ny 
ty^i 2i 

^ pyn Hysan 

35 :nov nio nox 1 ? nsson mm ? n^y 
no :"?-I^D nns 123^ ovn yn:: 

rmi2 on"? nn 
nsson mm to nby 

Him nyn npsw :"?npn 9K ny 1 ?: 3 
4 o >:2 ^^ *)to n^y D^itr nnyn ntr 

nnjni nni 



n to 



vyn p ipnan 3^ (P) 
21,7 (8) 

5 ?n ^ 20>a6 a) 
n^-ry nnn nrx ni^poa 31 (T) 

19,2520,25 -8<i**- DMW >*>- 19 

19 srKbi orrya aitsn <)>nb ifcyi <jn>n<>8 wjn <]n>n<>8 

na awn pirpi ib ybt?b D^ssn n bi :ntn nbain 

ipan ny n^n bo na ibbym nm lyri pnn c 

26 IPS BP8n rva nns bsni npan nusb ntf 8n am 

27 iamb riabb 8!n fi an mnbn nns^i ipaa n\ft8 Dp 11 ! mn ny at? n^>n s 

28 "oip iT^ lowi :]on ^j; rn^ n s an nns n^s-M NW^B ntrn n:m 

29 in^n ^ ^n 11 ! nw-po^ 1^1 ^8n cp^i T.onn "?j 

n^nm n ^y D^B^ rposj^ nnn^i wi^sa ptn^i n^Don n 
t^s bzb n8n na no^ 1 ? n^ty n^8 n^in ^i> :^KI S *?iaa a 
<n?n nvn TJ? nnso >no "?i^ s ^n n^j; mnri ntn nana nn\n:n 10 

:[] ntn nvn ny nnso p8 

2 ny ^npa bump ^taaty ^a<> nyn ^D nus ns^n^ :nss!?n nin s ^8 15 

s i^y s a p^a ^a 1^0^^ 
4 ]V^ i n8tn njnn nn\ii na^ 


6 o ^8*i s n5m ml? baa 20 

.7 Dp^i Jbbn nsgi nan Dab lan bn^ ^a. naba nin :^8i s a nba: a Vtyy 
9 nr nnyi nn^ab ^8 *nw bi ibns 1 ? t^^ ibi xb n8^ nn ty^a Dj;n ba 

bni^a n st ?j; <nbyi> nj;a:b nt^yi ntr lain 
ms nnpb naanb rf?M rf?*b nsoi bKntr <i aaiy 
^ ^a *p8i jbity s a <>^v 1^8 nbain baa 25 

12 ntn nynn no "tosb ]D s p oisaty baa a tW8 bx-\w ^aaty inbty^i :onan 

13 nn^oi 

Drrrw bipa ybt^b p^a ^aa^ ia bi bKi^^o ny>n> 
. 1 4 npsm :bn^^ ^a oy nonbob n^ nnya^n nnyn ) p^a ^: 

nab ain tf*w ty^K ]^8 nt^<on>i nni^y nnyno 8inn m s a ]o^a s ia 30 

16 b8 ]aa ySvp nr bar <> mna ^ s mso yatr npsnn nya:n ^atr^o 

17 ty s K i^8 nwe yais jo^ae nab npenn bi^ ^ 

is no8^ D"n98a I^X^T ^Nn^a i^y^ iD-vpM :non^o u> s nt ba ann 

n?nna i: 1 

ipaa i^ ^a ioipM :n?nna <.T7y^> 35 
a oy ncnbob 
nyain p ]^a 
22 ova DP laiy IPS oipa nonbo "pyb i 

23 mrra i?8p^i aiyn 

24 iaip^i :-p?8 i^y mn^ IK >I I ^n ]o^a ^ia ny non^o? nt^j^ *pDi8n io^ 40 

na ova nyan ]o nnxip p s ia s s i rit?n ova 
nb b 

16 (7) * Dtoa? 20, (?) * i net 20,6 

l8 -oJSO-gfr DM9BW 8-ej*>- 18,2419,24 

pxion ni nnnpb wfey IPN s nto n -10*01 : npyu ^ i 1 ? no na^o 1 ? 18,24 
yot?n to p J3 vto no*n :"j^ no ^ nen nt noi my ^ noi la 1 ? ro 
laV"! ;"j;v3 PBJI -jtysi ""nsDNi t^Di no D^UK naa IJHB^ )s uoy "j^ip 26 
inp 1 ? noni nrpa to am )si uoo non n^ptn *a na<e NTT Dam 1 ? p ^a 27 
5 ny ty B^ "?y i3M v? ,Tn IL?K p>an ni ns^o n^ IJ^K ^DDn n 
npini ^ ^so )^i :t?a isntr "i s yn ni ann ^ nnis DM nc^ai tspw 28 
n lia^i aim n^a"? n^ oj;n \m m ny nr6 s nani 

- aN p DE>a p "i^vn ntr wip^ :aa lai^i "i s vn 29 
n p ^a an"? 107^1 

:pn m*?; DV TJ; s :in tan n^-io rn 
s a nvn ^ s ^ 

in ^naT3 i: WK \n^i nty^a ]^ 01 nnn o^^a ^n^i IQ 
15 to WNB I pm wa^B rfy <*]y>tni :miiT on^ n^ao iw^a nts^ i 1 ? np^i 2 
T^M n^ s Dp^i :o^"tn nyan D^ s nm mm- nn 1 ? n s a to n^a n s a 3 
n^a -s-a^i nn in nosi ray nyii ^a^n 1 ? na 1 ? ^y nai> nnn 
aM Tiyin s a i:nvn ia prn .i nnsip 1 ? nofcn myin ^as in-i*i 4 
npaa ra^at^M ^^ain ova vm :nty li^^i in^i iba^i ay 

ns^n nnN^ on 1 ? ns -p^? nyo linn to myin ON fwi r\ibb 
ei ^i : toin vrxn to 

ova npaa oa^i JDIT i atn i^rnn 
nvn nio: ny inonen^ i ^aaV i nyo myan 
n:n rnyan s a lanw i 1 ? no i ny:i wa^ai xin na^ ^ n 
nnoatrm pa ? ats^i nrns <Tiy> ns7 : 2 )^< 6 > <4-3-*> aony 1 ? nvn 
na: ny a s i ^-i cp- i p^ ^\sn na ^ t^nx^ ns^m 


--^ nvm DU S ny on :ray wasi n^an onran nos rayi D^trn 1 KM 
:na r^i nrn "aia\n n^y ^s mion a HD^ V:IN to lyan ION 
; iriay ; i n^^n toi^ s ^iaa sb niy c&^sa Ty ^N IID: k sb vaiK vto 
3 o jnona w nyaaa i:^ nra^-pon ininxa nanpai -no 1 ? nyi 1 ? TB^ :nyaa ny 13 

12 Kim nna ino ^ n m anya mton ]o in ^yo ] a ]pr ^\s mm 10 

ainna n>;sn trn n NTI vi s y toM JTZT ^a mpon ^IKI nyaaa 17 
35 umK nna>y vto io i :an ] i2i ^n ni ]ptn tr^n IOKM i^yn is 
min s nnV n*a ny itoi ^N n^o nna in "nan^ ny min^ nn^> n^ao 
ty Nispp na ]an n^ jnn^an VYIK ]DNO tr^s ] s i "]S>n ^H <^>n^a <"?>i 19 
nan b mono )^ ^nay ny ny^i jnosbi ^ ^ ]"i nn^ DJI wnran^ 
:^n to ainia pn ^y -]-nonD to pi -j 1 ? nV;^ ]prn ty^n "io^ 3 
40 n D^a^^o non Jinan V;a s< i nn^i ISHTI nnicn 1 ? Sa s ;i wa 1 ? in s a^i 22.21 
ty n^pB^no n^an n lap: ^yba s ia n^ira Tyn ^i rum 
to a "mn ^n n sin no^ pin ivan "?ya ty^n to 
a lynn to ^n to nn^to na s i n^an "?ya iy^n nn^to ss^ n-iyiii 23 
nbinan ^na nin :ntn n"?a:n ns itryn to T,^a to ntn ty^n sa ntr 24 

17,5 1 8, 

,n rpa 

6 D s a 3 jp io"? b vn viaa nn T 

7 aw an ? rraa ijn vro :at?jr vrya "^ n w* hvnxy^ "jba v onn 
s rrwr on 1 ? rvaa "pyna trn "j^i :nt? 13 Kim ^ Kini mim nnst?aa 

9 aa^a ^ TBNM nam miry 1 ? aa^a rpa iy nns in Km Ksa^ nt^Ka nub 5 

min s nrb 

11 i 1 ? nyjn %TI tyn nx natr n svi : "]n;noi nnja "jn^i D ]oa 

12 :na^o rvsa M^ pva^> iyn i 1 ? NTT ^n T n nans x 

13 nnn 0^2 :]mo^ ^n s b n\n s a s! ? nin^ a^o^ S 2 ^nyn^ nny 

ny ^ n^Di *? ^ nats^ n^ni ib trpao ^nn ea^ nnn 

2 n^i naton nnnstyoo p s ia in 1 ?^^ :n^ma psity^ ^taaty -jina Kinn 
roan nijpn^ ^nn n ^^ ^n^oi nviso b^n s ia n^i onrapD 

3 DJ; nan :c{y i^^i n2^ n^n ny D^BK in iN:n pn n njpri in 1 ? nn^w 15 
-l^^n a i 1 ? neaw D mo^ s i^n nyin ^p n iTan nom na^o n^a 

4 na^D ^ n&y ni nb on^6 i s i : ns -] 1 ? noi nta 

6 oaam mn^ roi m 12? pvan 

7 naipa n^w oyn ns IKTI n^ ia s i o^iwn ntr^n 13^1 :na 

8 nn^n "? isa" 1 ! : m nj; nnV )^ nani c^^a nan 

9 rbyy\ <>oip no^i :<a s a^o= on no on s n 


nwa DJ; ^ ian na-iaa :pn n 


12 p nina inn mpab iip p ^y min^a ony s nnpa lin^i iVy^ 

13 nu iy ia^ nnss in otra nayi :nnr mp nn n:n ntn orn iy 

^ na^ <>pn n ^n 1 ? n^Sinn o^isn ntyon iiy^ .jna^o 30 
na IVT anyi naeai "TDDI o^vn IISK nb^n n^naa ^ 

17 n^an ij?^ :p ^ 

inp 1 ? natr ia pn 

iiinn ^n nwa ^^i ny^n nns a^i jwom nasan ni a^Binn 35 

i s naoan ni 

19 I^D "?y -ji^ D^ tnnn i na s i :n^y cn na pvan 

ian a 1 ? 

21 mpan ni ]an n ia^ s i iai liB^i :nyn anpa a^i 9osn ni o^nnn 40 

22 TOK n^r.aa ity n^im na^a n^aa ip^nin nan jan^iBb iTnaan ni 

23 naw^i on^D inci .i p ->ia ^K iip^i :p ^a n ip^an^i ipyw aa^a n s a DJ; 

V*h 18.14 (a) 

jud. 3 


<*{8*OW- D19&U9 -M4>>ei> 


. anrrn n pnri jwap fby BTIB^B v"? nom vina 16 
rfrnn nan JW&P bx nb bi nowm nna yma vb\ PK imna rrtyan < 
BK rj^K "loin nann naa ^ a rmn nny a^ata st ? nanni u 
-into wm vrbm na*6& ana nfc>ya b I^K sunn BTiaya ^no s 
5 7*7? BTIB^B V^K "IBNJTI ana impxm a^ann n^nny n^n nj?m :mn 12 
: tains vnwit bj; npn:^i -nnn nt^v am )i^tr 13 
naa ^ m s an D^TD ^K nnnni s n nVnri nin i 


? 1 ?! npm 




np^n ^ \HM :^ni ^ni naa ^ man ^i s n n^nn 
n 1 ? "?D ns rib nn :mV itrsi ism 

nt 16 

nnaia 17 

n n 
ID mrp 

w n 1 ? Tan s a n^bn nni :mn 
b n ^b Tan o oysn ib 
npm n^aia ^y ina^^m :aTa ^aan 
ioni n^yo ins ID^I <>ma ^n^i wan msbno 

s na is 


nn\T> pan"? bna nnr nit 1 ? 
nyn mv wvi nia^ 
nann IKI launs ann ni wa^ n 

p ims H 
n ^^o 

n^asn 80 n^am : 


nn apa 

paa n^an IK "jinn 

V.TI ia I^K oyn ^a by] a^anon ^>y n- an ^s^i naa BI 









naa w 

s p 


40 TO fffir )Ban n 

nnyi rnnp ? 
e nprn vs 

arsa nno aai 

nan ,12001 


I J, I 1 6,9 -i<**- D*BW *M>W*>- 15 

i5, ION*! a^y naa irwK n JWBP ips*! n^tsn Yxp 

2 o vruoN >I"N .Ta n*n 5iab .T-aN una sbi rmnn 
T; i \nn naso naia naapn nnin bn "jyncb nasflN 

3 :nyi a^y ^K rrtsM-y -o a s nt?bB aysn Wj?: vwnw anb IBNM :rpnnn 

4 DPI ait b nit )si on^Bb np^i o^yw nwo ^ "D^i piytD 1^1 5 

6 VWK n np> S D ionn )nn 

7 anb i s i :ira n^as <no> ni nni isi^^i D^n^^s ibv^i invna^ mm 

s ty pity om 71 :VnnK in^i oaa ^nopi n ^ n?D pte^yn a ppotf 10 

min^o L^ a^eto n^bty vrvi ni 1 ? n ^y it^a ib rvtoyh 
^S wa n^^-o S D nyT 1 *6n ji^fiti 1 ? noM DB 
i 1 ? noNM jan 1 ? wt^y p. si ? it^y n^3 an 1 ? itt s i ii 1 ? 15 

oa vb rasm DT 
nbsm inNip^ ij;nn a^n^^i ^n^> nv a in tyban p 

nya n^ a^n^sa rmvinr by nty a^nayn m^nm nur nn 


1 6 

18.17 OSM Pn nn inn aipo np^ IT-O s nn i nan in-vaa \TI 25 

nMtn iT>inin nywnn n -jnay n^a r^ni nn IDKM rmr to ip s i na 
19 nba ntr trnDsn n o\nto ypa^i :a^-iyn n^a ^s:i sa ni8 nnyi 
natr np ]a by ^n^i inn a^ni nt^i a s laoo WSM 
jm nntoy avwbs ^a bnt^ T n BB^I tntn am ny 


mn )IPOP a 

3 nb^ t bn ^n ny ]wop aa st i nnwrini <nan> ipan *n ny ib nb^bn 
nnan ay aya- i mwon ^n^ai Tyn nyp ninbia mM nb^bn s sna ap^ 35 
:)nan s is by ip "inn pan to aby^i vsna by 

n.4 iia n- to iby^i :,T>bT aopi pity bnia n 

iniiiai ib baii nsai bn: mi na ^11 im s ns nb otn a s ntys 40 

6 nTan ptyotr to nb^bn nani :*)aD noi fjto ^ ib ]n: i:nii imuyb 

7 wnaN^ DN JNPBP n^bx no <i i qni-iyb ian neai bn: ^ni nea ^ i 
s ^ia nb iby^i :ann nna Ti w m wb 

:ana imani ianh vb 

14 -Kfrso-s^ D BBitp -^-^eHo- 13,19 14,20 

mrrb nn by *?jn nraon ni n^yn n: n rmo np*i :^^ Kim 13, 19 
mrr isbo Vrt n^n naton by& an^n niVya vn i^r^yb w*b&&<n> a 
iiy *)D s K^I :mnK amis by Y?BM own maw ntioi naron anba 21 
JKin mm *Kte s a rmo yT TK int?K bw rmo b 

5 lin^en mrr }>Dn inty noKm nri n^n S D nioi mo int^ 23 

n 1 ? K^ 


nm inp nnyi n^ns niaao "niona wan 

S I 3 

ton o ^b np nm YOK b* )ityoty ION^I nnyn 

15 D^nty^DQ irpno Kin nwn. S D s n mn s a ^D iyT b msi raKi pyya 4 

ixa^i nnion IJSNT vaKi II^D^ "Ti 5 ."! :^"i^a D^JW-O DTIB^D K^nn nyai n 

mn s nn v^y n^m nnxnp 1 ? ixw nm Tsa nam nion nsna ny 6 


nnnp 1 ? D^ 

20 "f? 11 ! rsa "? imi s> i : am mn n s pa nn>an my 
n s po ^2 orb Tin K^I iba s< i nn^> jm IISK *?i raK 
ilyy^ p o nntwo )ityoty ntr tyy^i ntf Kn b& irraS nn^i j t^ain mi nnKn s 
nn 1 ? IBKI JWK rn^i n^yio n^ty inp^i im DHIKID M^ :omnan 12.11 
nntron S D S nyaty ^V nm n^n nan ns 


pino ^ tpei 

25 in x DKI : >< s > no 13 

min i 1 ? IIOK^ DH:Q nis^n n^tyi n^no o^iy ^ on nnn:i 


pi noKm ry ]WD nK "jam :<n>>n i nnip li^in 16 
n:n nb IDK^I man K^ ^i ^ay ^a^ mn m^nn ^nan 
35 \TI nntron on 1 ? rrn IK D S M nyaty vby ^am :TSK ^ man *6 17 
iV IIDX^I :ny *tob nvnn lam innp^n ^ n 1 ? nn s y s atyn ova is 
ty noi ano pino no nvi^nn a s mtsa 7^an nra T 


40 i^m- n onKxe Kb 

n np^i tr n^ty one 71 ]i^pK m nin^ nn vby n^sni 19 

:v-^aK n^a by^ IBK nni nTnn *vaxb ms^nn ]n^ = 

n^ nyi ity 

12,1 13, i8 -4t8*M+ B*ttW 4KM8>- 13 

i2, *aaa anbnb may yna nns^b na*n miss nayi ansK BPN pyn 

2 BmbN nnD s na^i :a Tby *ptw "jma -pay robb ntnp Kb libi 
onyt?in bi D3<^ py?Ni ia ^iay> pay ^ai nsyi ^ VPTJ an t^ 

3 pay ^a te may w ^aa PBJ na^si y^ia ^r -o n"ii : BTB vn 

4 ba n nns^ pap i pa Bnbnb ntn am s b Bivby nabi n^a mrr a:wi 5 

nnayo b imantyM im im^ p ia-6 


n ISB^I yinn p via 1 ? *ran nwa B^^I nsinn n"?t? nwa 

n^aa lap^i ]sa ne^ :B s i^ 15 

, 2 

14.13 D s ia a^yaiw i 1 ? s n s i : s >hjp,Bn n p 

nna<3> pny-jsa nap^i ^>nynsn 7?n )a jnay na^i 20 

is ^?^ 

i3, BTit^^B Ta niiT 1 asm mn 11 s i^ya ynn nwy^ hx-wr* 


n te mn* 1 "sbfi : 2 

3 25 

4 ^a ^an tei 12^1 )". Titrn ^i * ^bwn nnyi :p m^i mm rn^ 

by nby *6 nniw p nn^i mn *jin ^ :etD 

mn ^in s ? IOKM : i^n K? IID ni in HID ^ in^nty i 30 
n\T< a^n^K TTi ^ nxota ba ^asn bi nattfi ] ^n^n ^ nnyi p 

maa irijn nnio BV ny 
no linn w^ my to 
maai mt^a natyr ^m naten *? my BNn^n IN^D a s i mia 

^ nani pm ntyn inani : ny ] s 35 
nn nwa 1^1 ap^i i*te ava a 

12 na 7""iai a s nny nua "iD st i 

13 te THOK nty baa maa te mm -jKba "ION^ nntyyai nyn astya mm 

i basn *6 )^n pia s^ n baa nats n nt#n 
mm "jba te m:o no <i i natrn n s n s is n ba ban te nat^ 40 
1 6 ^nxyn B niia b m<m "]ba laK^i :a^y na T^sb n^yii *]m : 
17 mm iba te mia IBK^ :[] nabyn mmb nby ntryn ai -janba ba 
m nab mn^ ba ib 

in nirv ^S JD 3 niao J?T x 1 ? ^ 13,16 


nny pb nnsr 
jnai pisy 

^pt nB8"i : 


apt ay nn^ i :nb>ya p -pana 
Bb vim ^D ns nns^ 
^ no 
np 1 ? S D 
nn^n nnyi 
10 nns nc na iV ia*n :py s 



itwo nny to an8a n,s 

a8 ^s 1 


mi? nn^y inw oyn 


nhvn tn^i 


my ^or 1 ; ID. 14 
s n 1 ? ^ 16 


nb8n ^B pma ^8 


mtao 8 
ntosn tnxia ^na ]ii"i8 19 

nnyi t 

pi ps^ 

p p"?2 

nn 1 ?: 


^ s ay an ann 
ai n^n^aa 
s nn nya & 



^>a n^ 

2 s 


pna D8 "IB S I mn s 7 ma nns s 
aitra ^nsnp 1 ? ^n^a ^no 
pisy ^a "?8 nns^ nayi :r6y i.Tn 

nay ny^: HSSBBI ny^a 

nyi i^y a-ntpy n^aa I8ia nyi 

35 n^haai a^sna 



n n\m ]isy Mac 32 

nTa mn^ ain^i aa vrkrk 33 

a nsa a^Bia ^a8 

s ina nam irpa ^8 n^sisn nns s a^ 34 
:na 18 ]a <a>asB A ] 
n j|i8i ony-on yian 
73 n8 n s SD ^a8 vte "iam 

i 1 ? nfcy 1^8 nn8 7DB 37 
nsin nrn nann ^ nlry: 
pn^yii ^aa8 il ?ina ty 3 s 
:annn ty n^na ^y iam n^niyii 39 
pn -nm <:^ S 8 nyT 8 1 ? 8\m ma itwt ma 


9,52 : 




nns ny BWI ia 

JIB "3 







on 1 ? o 




ntn nrn 


9 n 
^ n 


16 n 

17 s i 

n n 




min^a D: 
mn 1 * !? 

^ s i2 ipyn no 

non na onina i 

K ipyn 
^i^ 1 


<> 25 


n ny^a T?VI nan nato p wm 



aits pa 
ny pay 40 



2 ? 

3 aty s . 

4 aa ifinV^i D^O \TI nay 

n nnp 1 ? lyba apt 13^1 ^la* 11 oy )ifiy s ia i&r6a I 

6 :pay "oaa nonVai i^p 1 ? la 1 ? n 

7 yna^ OK rvaa ^awi^m ^niK nnK:ty DHK vbn ny*?a ^apt^ nns^ 


irva ayi byaT ny nrvfcy n^anai n&3 am :Nin na s n s a nstf bya 9,19 

PN sn p BNI :naa in a: nom "[b^aNa in&t? nt n BWI : 
rra&i Bap 4y3B PN Nsm Nibo rra ni nstf s bya n basrn 
n,^3K -oso at? 3tn iTiN3 ib i ma"! nnv n:n :-jb<aN n baNni 2. 
5 :WN 

nyn nn nvibN nbtjn :a^p &6t? 5Sn^ ^y O^SK 1^1 23.22 

ya ^a^ 24 

?3 n itri annn ^n y Quango DDty s ?ya ID^I :vn n 
10 nte-aN^ ^i Tna nn^y nay 

is s i :DD^ ^ya in intsm D3tra nay s i vni no> p tya n^ 27.26 
teM an^n^K n^a isa^ D^iVn ityy^i -Dm nn^oiD n 
may: ^ DDty s oi ibo^a ^ n<ay> p ^yj -ie^ :^a n 

n na^ n^ps "?an ^yaT p 
n HTBI n^a nm ayn n 
irn *r<ay> ]a ^ya nan nK n^yn nt^ ^a 

n:n noV no^>o i^G^ax *? 
aym nn rto$ mp nnyi :^^y Tyn n Qn s yt> 32 
Bym Kin nim Tyn Vy ntDtrsi a s an ^otrn nnra npaa rrm 33 
20 qn^ son "ya i 1 ? n^yi 7*? B S P 

nyans nDty by m^ nty isy n oyn bai ^o^a np^i 34 
? Bym ^o^a np^i Tyn iytr nns Tay^i i<ay> ]a tya ^^i n 1 ? 
annn ^wie TJ^ ny nan b^r V i s< i nyn n by: KTI :a"ion 36 
naib bya niy ]B-vi ja^ia nvn nns annn bs n ^t vte 37 
25 nos^ jB^iiiyo pbx Tino a nn *n pn "wae ny nmv ny nan 38 
oyn nr bn linay: ^a ^D s a ^o nan ntrs 72 IDK n ^t V"?K 
nn^i na{y ^ya isb by: s s i na nnVrn nny i s^ n riDNa 39 
a^ T > nytyn nns ny o^an n^bn ^B>I visa o:n ibo^as insnTi 41-0 

30 nsrn ayn n np^i j j waNb n*sn mfcrn ayn KS^ nnnoo \TI 43-42 
:B3!i an^y op^i Tyn ]o KS^ ayn mm n^i nnt^a anM n^n ne6e6 
IB^D D^snn s itri Tyn nytr nns ny si i its^s lay nty o^snm i^o^aw 44 
Tyn n nD 1 ?^ mn DIM ba Tya onbi -jbc^axi :BM mlya -IPN ba by no 
tnbn nynn Tyn n ^ :nn na TON nyn ni 

35 "jb^aNb n^i :nna b n^a nns b isa^i ns^ bn:o bya ba iyo^i 47-46 
ntyN ayn bai Nin ]iobs nn "jbo^aN byM : DD{y bn^o ^bya ba isapnn ^ 48 
IMP by ateri nsly^ n s sy nDti? nna 11 ! n s a oiennpo nx "]b!^aK np^ IPIN 
ba aa irnm Piiea it^y nno s n^y nrvfcn no isy ni?N nyn b ncN^i 49 
nN an^by wn nnsn by 10^1 n,b^K nnN iab s i oivaip tr s nyn 

40 jn^Ni P"N ?)ba nDB bnjo ^JN bD na imo^ t?N3 nnsn 

n^yn ^na n^n ty bnaoi :nnab^i pna )n^i pan bN "jbo^aN n,b^ -51.3 
u by ibyi nnya nan^i Tyn bya ba^ n s tyim n^:n ba not? 

28 (p) Dlto? 9,24 

8,21 9, 1 8 -4i3@-g<* n 

8,21 n aw pyna Dpi in-viaa twa ^ iaa yasi nn nip ya&si nat 

:an st ?a -""IKED 15?K otfinfcn n np^i yaofrc nKi nat 

22 v "pa p aa *pa aa nn aa iaa b^o pjn 

23 oaa ^a too *6i naa -i ^DK *6 pyna on^K "i s i :n TO 

jnaa towy m,T 5 

24 Ota ^ MP nta t^ s ^ iim n"?ty D3 n^ 

na not? ID^I n^n n wns^ ]ni pra no s i :nn 
26 ^ ant mB j?au>i ^ btr n^ antn s ot 

27 niy^ 3 WPI nis^a rvya 

vn ]^"ii nrpaa aM t^v p 37 11 

31 iDty n D^I p KM DJ ib m^ D3^a IK wi^si nb vn man 

32 : a n"iBj;a va tsw napn naj?^ naio na^a PW ]a pyna no^i :^aK 15 

33 ^ya nn 1 ? ia^i nfynn nnw wt^i ^KI S s ia m^i pyna no I^D M^I 

34 VD n^o nniN ^son nn^K mrr* n ^KI^ s ia nat vb\ :&rbvb nna 

naion ^>:o P jya^ n^a DJ; non ifey K 

B n noat? ysy p 

2 oaa b^n DD ? as no mut ^va ^a s :ta KJ nan 
oan^ai nsosy s a anian nn I^K caa V^ o n tyaT s i 

3 BI n^Kn onann "?a n aat^ ^ya b ^ta vty IOK 

4 nna ^ya n^ao *]oa n^atr ^ wn^ :in WMK noK ^ *j^^a nn 
n i-a n^a KaM :nn 12^1 avn-vsi n^pn D^i jteaK nna 

p nnv nnp nn pK ^ ty s ayap ^37 s ia r 

6 nK ia st ?o s< i D^I Kite n^a fei aa^ tyz Va IDD S J : sani ^ )bpn 

7 TO^I 1^1 nnr^ n^^i jna^a n^ ^aso<n ]ib DV 1^0^ -] 
yom Dstr ^j?a ^K lyttLy anV i s> i Kip^i ^ip K^I a^na in 

s na^j; nabo m 1 ? noK^ i^o nrvty n^ a^j?n ia^n "]iVn :n\-6K 

9 ^nD^ni a^iKi BVI^K noa^ <i>a ntr ^trn n Ti^^mn n^n an 1 ? 

n/ an 1 ? iBKni ni^y a po n ^ nasn 1 ? a^gn noK^i :a^j>n by 

:a^yn ^ jm^> ns^m naitsn ^naian nxi ^pnn n ^n^n=n nann 
13.12 nK vfrmn pan an ? noni twby ^o n ^b isa 1 ? a^yn noK^i 35 
14 ^K B syn ^3 noKi ja^yn ^ yiab na^m a^asi a s n^ nol?on 
OK a^yn b$ IBKH noK^i na^y ^o nns ^ 
nBKn p t^K sxn ) s ai ^sa inn IKS aa^y 
1 6 naiB ai ^e^aK n D^om an s b>y a^nai naa ax nnyi 
17 aa^y -aK an"?a I^K n 1 ? an^y n s "?ioaD BKI in^a nyi ^yay ny nm?y 40 
is nrn ^aK n^a by nncp nni :)HD TO nan ^?i naao wbi ns ^M 
by inN p jte aK nK la^oni nns pK by wx n- yaty vaa ns iainm 

8,ni> (3) "nti?n "ax 8,32 

Jud. 2 

8 -B3<9 8$- D BBItf -^SJ>^J*- 7,168,20 

n prw 7> i 

mm ittyn pi win s aa& nn^N natw :n^sn "[inn nn^i n pn 17 
toi S 3i ism Tiypni :]ifcyn p nt?y -HMO rvm nan&n nspa a is 

mrr? amaNi nanan to maoo nns na nnsit?a nnypni s n 
5 "j naia^nn mb^sn pi nanan nspa in nty tmn> ne^ pyn: 3^i 19 

vnnn ^ nojn jpyni mn inpM jripn 1 ? nnswn Diw 21 
nnsiBM mH&n* ?s? in^i now^ in^ nanon "73 vi nino"? 22 

pi n^ pi ^nsao wity 1 P N pyw :na^ y nino ? snsty nv? 23 
m nox 1 ? nns nn ran pjna n^ D^^OI jpa nn IBTIM nts>io 24 
a pysn JI-IM ni ma no ny o^on n nn^ na^i p 

n nty ii nai jTn ni ma rva ny anan n 

ty s 

naa nny wtoy no an^K i^i Jnpma in )ian s i pan nnVn 1 ? na^?n 2 
n pa nfc n a\n^N ]n: nan^a n?j; s a Tsna ans 
20 "iann nana i^yo ann nnst TN naa nifey <i nte^ nai 

IOI n^:y ins 

on n s B:y o ^aia "IPK Dyb nn 1 ? nnaa : ian mao 

nat fjan mao nty <na^ :pa <Dte V^ 1 ?? 1 n ^ 1 ~ ir| N < T " > " 1 6 
25 nm nat n nin^ nna la 1 ? pjnn na <i i ^n 1 ? -jKas^ ]w s a *]n s a nny 7 

T nanan 

n yhK Dit?a ^awa IDS? liB ^as? na naK s< i :niaD ^a 9 


30 "?ao nnman to rpx *\wy ntyona nay an^anai ij^ipa yaa^si nan 
]iyna "?y^ :ain *jSw t^K *)^ ante^yi no a^&vam mp -^aa nano n 
nvi nanoni nanan n 71 nnaa^i naa 1 ? anpa ............ "j"n 

nat n ]HB ^a s at? n na^i nnnn *JTI^ yaobsi nat IDWI :ntaa 12 
...... non^cn p KV ]a pyna a^i nnnn nanon toi yao^t ni 13 

35 n^apt nsi man nt? n i^ ana^i in^t^i nian ^aa lya na^i :. , . . 14 
nnsin nt^K ya^si nat nan "ION^ nian ^a "? a^i :^ nyatri n^yat? m 
^sy^n 7120*6 |na s a "]Ta nny yaaton nat ]an IBN^ s nv 16 
n ana p**n n^apnan ni nanan ^ip 

i nat ia s i :Tyn ^a n ann^i ^na ias :o ni 18.17 
40 aa isna nn 6a> aniaa 7a IIM liana nnann ity n^an V2 
:nan ^nain b am nn^.nn i 1 ? mn^ ^n nn ^K ^a ^n IOK^ n^on 19 
nya lamy o KT ^a nin nyan f] 1 ?^ ^ nm ain mp maa nn 

13V 8,4 

6,297,15 -one-***- tWDiW 4Mei- 

6,29 v*v p pjrn new wpa^ ranTi ntn wri nfey s o injn bx wx new 
b n pna ^ nbM "pa n Ksin pr ^ T-yn nw new : ntn nmn nfcy 
31 vty ney TON teb BW "lew n^y "i mtfn ma -01 *?yan nare 
DK -ipnn ly nev T? an^ TOK w>w pywn nns DM byib pann onn 
a *?yan la aT -i^x 1 ? ^vnT wnn ova i^ np^i t a ^ n-r wn &rb* 5 


nnnw itraN pyn nsitrn vpn^ pyna n n^ 

nn wn DJ pj?ri 


36 :man na ^^ n 

37 pn te byi pi-na^ man hy rvrv h& n jnjia n&sn ra n :^o ^ai mn 

38 mnioo na^ p \TI :man itra bn^ n n s a r^in s a vivn^ anh 

39 D^nVsn V )ij;n: nnM :D^ "?sDn ^o man p ^o V " 1 n ^ n ns " lts T <1 
Sj?" anh i w maa cyan pi tu nDi nysn IK mani s a "JBK ini b > 5 

anh vn wn n^Va p n%n^ t^y^ J TLO n\n^ pn "to tyi ma 1 ? man 

:^B n\i pn te ^yi ma^> man ^y- 
Tin ]^y by urn in i^ ayn 
nyn an 


4 oyn Tiy ]iyna ^ nim TONM :vwi n^V ni^yi ^K n^i nn^y nyn 
nt T"?N n i n^m D ^ WBISI D s Dn ^ an^ run an 
n^ ^ in "jay ^ $b nt 7^ ni? nw tei *]ns ^ in 
n^on p iiit^^a p^ IPN te pyna ^> mn^ "io^i a^on ^ cyn 2 5 

6 mn^ cnoia by iyia cyn nn^ tei ty s m ^ [] D^ppbDn IBDO 

7 nan yw n^ppVisn B^KH niso e^^a i^yna bN mn^ no^i J[P 

s DTa ayn <>^> nK inp^i navpttb tr^s ID^ oyn bai *jTa ]HO n ^n 

ty^ te ni nnwiDW n^ 30 
nnnD i 1 ? mn i^is nanai pnnn 
:rva vnni a nanoa TI Dip mn s v*? i^i inn n"?^a \n^ 

nyatyi :nann "? *]iya msi nn TI nrh nn sn* 1 
n^p b$ nya nisi in TVI nanoa mn^i 71^ naptnn 
12 ^s nna a l ? nan3 pDjn o^&vi onp ^aa bai p^yi ^nai tnanoa 35 
3 mVn inyi 1 ? IBDD ty nani pyna a^i taib o\n nsty byw Vina 
a s i )ne nan&a -jennD nnyiy nnb Ws nani vtcbn Di^n nan 
H ain DK ^nba nt 

iT-a o\T;n )na ?nti s w$ tyT> ]a ]iyia 
nano b at^ inn^i nat? ni mbnn ISDD ns pyna yb^a 40 

nano n oaTa nin^ )na s 

8-eei*>*- 5,316,28 

nsp <i>^nvi mm 7a<iN to nato p 5,31 

tyni :BUP yat? p Ta mm Bam mm Tya jnn^nt^ ua it?yi 6,2. 
anna IS?N nnnisn nN bx*\w ua on!? it?y p USB tont^ ty pna T 

10 Dip \>:n p^yi pa nbyi bw jnt DN mm :nmn nNi nnjjan nNi 3 

nw *6i my -jNia ny pNn to n in^nt^i nn^v ww n^y i^yi 4 

^13 ixavv nn^ni ^y on^poi nn D mom iwi nty-i ^niy>3 rrnp n 

i ^n^ ^^ :nnntj6 fisn wm ISDD )^ nn^o^i nn ?! yh nm n> 6 

by mn 11 b bnt^ s i2 ipyi ^D \IM :n^n^ "? ^s-iB" s in ipyt^ po ^DD 7 

i 5 mrp no na nr6 ics- 11 ! ^i^ ^3 ^ K^} nin^ n^i tp-p nnfc s 

ns DD nini oa^so nnw 

K Da"? 

msjn i^ n?n nnn 

mrp ^ste i^ IM :]no USB our nsa n^tsn taaw iia )iyn?i 12 
iyn: v"? IBK^ :^nn in: ij; mrp wi< 13 
nso n vni*6s} !?a n s .i nr to unwtB 
mm li^Bi nnj;i mn 1 iiVj;rj 14 

25 UIN s a IK no^i n^nn 1 ? K^n )n ^ao n^ n ny^ini nt in aa IB 

nsa 16 

vimm s nn:o ns Tixsim 7*? ^">a 

3 o insa Dt piom toa D^ nl^an nB nap nsw D^V na t^vi a pp^ 19 
ni it^an n np <nin s > ^s^o I^K "ION^I :tm n^n nnn ^K r^ NSW 3 
JIN mm IN^B n^^i :p tyy^i 7-3^ pnn Jitn tVn yton ^>N mm man 21 
nN toNni iwn ]B trn ^ym n^oai nl^aa ym n^a IITN ni^an nsp 

m mn^ -JNB a pyna NTT :vry ^n mm "JN^DI nisan nsi nt^an 22 
35 :DUD ^N nus mm ^N TB WN"I p "?j; s a mn s TIN nn pyna IBN^I 
mm^ nato ]ivii aty p>i :mon N^> NTH ^N "]*? Di 1 ?^ mm ^ IBN^I 24.23 

:ntjjn s a niDj;a laniy ntn nrn iy niVtr mm ^ Nip^i 
. . . 7aN^> I^N <]B>pn is<n> nN np mn s i 1 ? noN^i Ninn n^to NTT na 
i^j? nt^N nn^Nn nNi ^aN 1 ? I^N Vyan n?B nN nonm ........... 

4 o JIN nnp^i nanjtoa ntn nyan trNi by pn rN mn^ naro nuai ; man 26 
bfy pyni npM :man iBf rn^Nn ^ya nSy n^ym ^tyn nsn 27 
nNi raN n^a nN NT nt^Na \TI mn 11 V!?K nan ntrNa t?y s i mayo 
nato YF\) nim ipaa n^yn ^iN iB^a^M : nb^b tyy^i noi 11 mtyy Tyn 28 
n:an naton "?y n^yn ^trn isn nNi nmb i^y 


prn i3jn nyba 5,17 

mob wsa *p.n oy 
rona Vy 


183 19 

ty la 


n ion 1 ?: n^ty p 




:n8on mnpn 



PIT 26 



nsptra )iVnn nys 28 







1D"D 26 

am n 

* * 



ipoi fy 
mrr nipns i-uv 

mm my my 12 

nv t8 13 
v> mn^ &yj 

nns8 ... 14 
p\p ..... 

HT T30 s i 

oy n3^ 
pi3 5)3? 

neb 16 


TD nt 

4 -~>H3-< D BBltf -m>5J*>- 3,305,3 

tow T nnn Kinn ora aio yjsm :&?\s atei *6i ^n w bai JOB? ba 3 

ipan noon t^N rows BW DTIBB n 71 n:y p "IB# mn nni 3 i 


mm onatn :n& iingi mm ^ya yin nwyV tow ^n IB-WI 4, 2 . 

n^ina atsr Kim NID^D was n^ msm ^o n^ )yia -]"? pa* 
10 ^a n |>nV Kim ^ "?t-ia asn nwo y&r\ s a mn^ ? ^it?> ->ia ipys^i 3 

npma ^iLy^ 4 

pi noin ] s a mm ion nnn na^ MI 
p pna"? ipm n^trm JtasjyD ? JVFMF ^jn n-5 i^y^i D^BK ina 6 
man ina nDtyoi ^ ^snt^ ^n^s niiT nis ^n V^K lowm ^nsi ^nj?o 
15 frii ^ 7^ s nati>ai :jftai s iaoi ^nsi ^ao t^ n^D^ nn^y ^y nn ^ 7 

lain ni pa- 1 a^ n^ fcoo c n ]w^p 8 
xb ni -"na^m ^y ^a^n n pia n^ 9 

I piat n pia pyn :n^np pna ay 
20 -mm : mm wy "?ym ITK " 

n ntr n^ysa )i ny n BJI ntris )ni"n aan 

man in Dyi s a p pna n^y s a KID> n^i ;trnp i 3 . I2 

nyn Va ni bna aan mo ytrn iaan 
nr o nip pia to nai iom :piyp i 4 

25 nnn w$ n^sto nn^yi inn in pia ITI ^^s 1 ? KS 11 mm ^n *]Ta 
SID^D ITI pna MS^> ninen ^a nxi aain ^a ni SID^D n mm nmi IB 
nahn iy runon nni aain nns <]Ti pnai n^jia D^I naaion ^>yo 16 
v^ia Di NID^DI nn ny ityi ^ ain ^s ? NID^D mno b ^B^I n^wn 17 
nan n^a ]m nsn -j%) )^a s | s a ai 1 ?^ S D Tjn nan nty by; bns to 

30 arm to ^to miD ^IK niio vto IOKW ID^D nipb ^ sm p"rpn is 
^a D^O tsyo i ^pBTi mto ias s< i :na^toa ino 
nns *i&y ( Tto ia <i i nnoani inpt^ni a jnn >x i n nnsm 
^r t npni :) s moKi L^N ns ^n ii "jtotyi xa* 1 w DM mm bnsn 21 
ypnm a-^a vto am rrra naj?n n o^m bnn im ns ian n{y 

35 n *)n pia nim :nb s i ^jrv nnn: im pa nasm inpia in\n n 22 
typaD nn ity ty^n n ;|i^ -jb ib ioni i t 

n inn ov>a Q^nto yiai nnpia nmm n ^B-M ID^D mm mto 

ID ]^a s ns imian itr iy 

Ninn nva ny^as p piai mm i^m s, 

5,5 toitra myis ylsa 2 

iaia ny aunna 

2,23 3. 2 9 

2,23 rn^Kn a^ian nK mm ra^i JK*? QK anm nat? iPKa aa na^ mm 

Ta Dim K?I ina npmn 

mm man TOK a^an nton 

2 TOK pi nante moVb to-it^ *aa mrr - jya^ pi MV i3 nian?a ^D n 5 

3 in new v n>nm tfrsrn ayaan fei DTIB^B ^D nt?n :DIJTP 

4 nj;iV ^i^ s nw an niDi^ vn^ tnon n^ nj? ponn ^a ini? 
ai :rwo Ta onn n ms ntt mn^ rtso n 
n inp^i PDUTO ^nm ^nsm nbm ^nn ^visn aipa 


7 nayn arrn mn^ n ina^i nin^ ^a^a pn n 
s D-riyBh ^a n^a QID S I Vntyo msr ) nnn 
9 aa ipyri :n s a&? nabty D^Lyi ^ia n bxw ^aa naj?M anna DIN a JS 
rap p ^^anj; n nv^ri ^ijy s ^aaV JW 
n BB^ mn s nn 

IT tv^^ Q" 1^ n- nvtyn jtsha n n^a 


12 prn^i mn^ ^pya y-n nityv n^ s ^aa IB-WI nap p ? s anj; 

13 *jD s i tmrr ^ya y-in n i{j>v s a Vv ^"i^ s ty ^KIO ^Vo p^ajj nw 

V n <>Bn^ Vity> n 71 ^ pbovi pV ^^ n 
-aa ipvn tnaty n^ na biy a^o jtos p!?ajj n ^niy s aa 25 
wn p na p n?n n y^io an^ mn s n^i rnrr 

16 s aty nto am mn i 1 ? tyy^i :ai ^o \fyyb nnao n^a ^is 

17 nnaon n anpi na^ TT> ^ v^iof? nnrio nnw nan^ nDi 
is nyn n nb^i nnaen n anpn^ nVa n^a \TI :[] aio I 

19 sl ? ino "ian "io s< i ^a^an n n^ n^^Dsn ) a im jnnaen ^iw-a 30 
3 Him vto< a mni n^v a^D^n b i^yo is s> i an 
ap -i 7^ ^ D s n^ nan T.HK "itt s< i na 1 ? i 1 

21 nypM wo 11 TT byn annn n np^i ^oly T 

22 ijto ^ ^ c [ a ]^anbn nva a^nn naa^i anVn nn asan aa a s< i naeaa 
24.23 N2P Kim tPnya n s ^j?n r\\rfn naa^i namosn THK s^ : laaao annn 35 

n Kin 7o^ IK nn m^va n st ?yn nin^n nani 
na wp s i nbyn nin n nnv3 iaa^ nam ia ny 

26 onanonn ny Btea ninsi :no nsiK ^&va a.Ta iK nam inns^i nnsgn n 

27 nnsK ina isitya ypn^i ina wi :nm^n ID^I a^^asn nK nay Kim 

28 )na o nnK I<>TI D.T^K IBKM jan^as^ im inn p VKiir 1 ^aa isj? HTI 40 
pTn nnaya n na^i nn HTI aaTa aio n BD-OMN nK mn s 

29 t^^K a^K rrtoyz K s nn nya aio nK D;I nay^> ty^K lana 

23 (3) -INO "na > 

-H8o@-g< D BBW *>- 1,282,22 

pm s a VPI 1,29.28 

nua ianpa ijjian am ina atwn ^iyian n t?mn 
mpa ^iyian aan ttni ^a^r ni pitap atw n tsmn *6 )"6iat b 
ni aVns ni pTx s at?r ni isy ^aw n t?mn N*? "itf 500"? wn 31 
5 pn atsT iyian nipn n^n aM :ni ni p DN ni nnbn nsi rtD 32 
ruy n s a ii aBM <i ni t?&t? n s n ^BM^ n mn *6 ^nsi twmn b> ^ 33 
nn 1 ? vn nij; n^i PBP n^n ^BNVM ^nn ^tyv s iViDn aipa n^i 

mnn T ^n n nbsn 

inn rQ6 


15 s 1 ? 1 ! ]hn Dn^mnnte nsrn pn ^^v^ nna WIDH s 1 ? nnsi 
DD"? vm DS^BB am truK ^? ^mo nai :nn^y nxt no ^ipn 

nmn n mn^ -j^ 1112 M^I :^pia i ? DD^J I\T Drrrfon D^<-I>^ 4 
inn Dion ntr isiM nan n ri n Dn iNl^i ^n^ s in ^D ^ n 

:pn n ntn 1 ? in^ni^ wx btm^ s D^I nyn n ^in 11 n^ah 6 

nn w Dnn n n^iptn ^" ^DI y^in 11 ^ s ^D mn^ n nj?n nny^ 7 

25 in s na^i :f?i^ rw? n^ ^n:n nffp niy> to n ito n^ ^rr s 

n utjn tmn^ n ID^DM an 1 ? 

Din ruoro m?m a inw nnp^i :tnv n^jji no p mn^ iay pi p 9 
in np^i rnnw ^K isosi smn "inn ^o DJI :^v^ "in 1 ? psso nns 

mrv nx I^T K^> "itr nnnn 
yn ynn n ^n^ s i2 wn 12.11 



Dni ID^I a s aw n s a Dim ntro mn^ *) nn^i H 
na nn\n nin s T iwr i ^aa :an s a^M "ie^ "i&y 1 ? niv ^a s ^ a^aDB 10 
35 mrr ap^i nwo anb is s ; an ? nin^ yat^i ntyai mn 1 "an n^a njn^ 16 
nns lit ^a lycjy *6 an^BDW ^ Bii :an^D itr TB aiy^vi B^BDW 17 

no an^> nnnt^i ann a^nV 
ny nin^ n^m a^&w an 1 ? mn^ n^pn -01 :p itry *? mn- 1 is 

anpsiB nin^ an^ ^ tsewn ^B^ Va an^w I^B ay^m 
40 n^K nn na 1 ? 1 ? amae in^ntym ia>^ eswn maa rrm tBiTpn-vm 19 
tntrpn aaiTBi an^VyjsB i^sn vh an 1 ? mnntynto anaj;^ ann 

nrn ^iin nay nt^x jy "iB^" 11 ! ^itra nin 1 * *] "in^ = 
n^iDB ^ s ismrfc ^ai V s i a: p"?ip^ iyB^ "?i ama n TMS 21 
an anccwn hvw n aa ntDi )yB^> :nb s i y^in^ ary n^ a^n 22 

i, la 1 ? nby ^o 10*6 m.Ta 

s aa tn ytinrr nio nn YP g* 

2 ^nna nan ."6y mw m,T 10^1 na pnVn^ n pnna ^ayaan ^ 

3 non jai ^aa s n rby vn pyoB6 min^ nofcw :rra pn fl 

4 rrttiT tyM yop WK ^i "^>iua HN "OK oa ^na^rn s :yaDn 1 1; t 

pnsn ni 

n is 1 ! n 



ptaa pta "OIK n wso^i v 

rn*oi vin IDTPI pra s ai on 
nn^an nnn^ maha n^a^o n^yaLy pra -OIK 

n ni ain ^ nia^i am na^i 

aaam inn 

W ns ISM yan m s p D^as? pan nt^i ]nana atyvn ayaan ? rnirp 
n nsp nnp n^as^ Tan C^T Tan ^atyi 11 "r DU>D *^M 

12 :,T^K^ ^na noag n ib ^inai ana^i ISD nnp n 

13 :n^^> ina no^j; n ^ jrri laoo ]bpn a^a ^n rap p ^s^anj; ma 1 ?^ 15 

s ar\na aaan 

nana ^ nan i 1 ? iom : no aba 


1 6 [] o nnio min s s aa n nnonn 

n 12^ vn_pj;o^ n mm 11 11 :< s p>oyn n 
; n min^ na^i :nonn Tyn nty n ip s i amw 
19 min s n m,T \i^i :a^iaa ni pipy ni a^na ni p^pty ni a^iaa 
tonb ptia aai ^a pogn ^a^^ n mn^ ^a^ *6 ^a inn n >M 
3 :pan ^aa r\wbw ns D^D t^in n^o iai IITND pan n aba^ lan^i 

D^IT a^v s Dia\n ni 25 

:nm nvn iy 
23.22 I >v \ wi :D ,Ti nn 

21 p^aa ^aa n ""Dia^n aty^i p^aa aa 

24 n a 
na am B 

26 ip^i 

27 n^rnaa 

n is 11 ! Tyn iao n DNIM non ^oj; la^yi Tyn 
n^nnn p t^^n -^i nrS innBtfo "?a ni 
n^a ns ntrao tynin K^I :nm arn iy aosy sin 

aBM^ ni n^vaa n 
rprnaa nsi nao s atyr ni nwaa 

1,16 (a)