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Full text of "The samkhya philosophy; containing samkhya-pravachana sutram, with the vritti of Aniruddha, and the bhasya of Vijnana Bhiksu and extracts from the vritti-sara of Mahadeva Vedantin; tatva samasa; samkhya karika; panchasikha sutram. Translated [and edited] by Nandlal Sinha"

THE 

SACRED BOOKS OF THE HINDUS 



Translated by various Sanskrit Scholars 



EDITED BY 

MAJOR B. D. BASU, I.M.S. (Retired) 



VOL. XL 

r-gJAMKHYA PHILOSOPHY 




i 



PUBLISHED BY 
THE PAJVINI OFFICE, BHUVANE-SWARI ASRAMA, BAHADURGANJ 

Bllababai) 

PRINTED BY APURVA KRISHNA BOSE, AT THE INDIAN PRESS 

1915 



THE 

SAMKHYA PHILOSOPHY 






CONTAINING 

(i) SAMKHYA-PRAVACHANA SI)TRAM, WITH THE VRITTI OP ANIRUDDHA, 
AND THE BHASYA OF VIJNANA BHIKSU AND EXTRACTS 
FROM THE VRITTI-SARA OF MAHADEVA VEDANTIN ; 
(2) TATVA SAM ASA/ (3) SAMKHYA 
(4) PANCHASIKHA 



TRANSLATED BY 

NANDALAL SINHA, M.A, B.L., P.C.S. 

DEPUTY MAGISTRATE, DALTONGANJ. 



PUBLISHED BY 

SUDHINDRA NATH VASU, 
THE PANINI OFFICE, BHUVANESWARl ASRAMA, BAHADURGANJ, 

Bllababat) 

PRINTED BY APURVA KRISHNA BOSE, AT THE INDIAN PRESS 

1915 



135. 



i <? 




Kris Una bha-. 
Calcutta. 

PREFACE. 



The present volume of the Sacred Books of the Hindus which bears 
The Contents of the the modest title of the Sdrnkhya-Praoacliana-Sutra,m, 
is, in reality, a collection of all the available original 

documents of the School of the Samkhyas, with the single exception of the 
commentary composed by Vyasa on theSdmhhya-Pravaehana-Yoga-Sutram 
of Patanjali. For it contains in its pages not only the Sdmkhya-Prava- 
efiana-Sutram of Kapila together with the Vritti of Aniruddha, the Bhdsya 
of Vijnana Bhiksu, and extracts of the original portions from the Vrit- 
tisdra of Vedantin Mahadeva, but also the Tattoa-Samasa together with 
the commentary of Narendra, the Samkhya- Kdrikd of t^varakrisna with 
profuse annotations based on the Blidsya of Gaudapada and the Tattva- 
Kaumudi of Vaehaspati MisVa, and a few of the Aphorisms of Pancha- 
rfikha with explanatory notes according to the Yoga-Bhdsya which has 
quoted them. An attempt, moreover, has been made to make the volume 
useful in many other respects by the addition, for instance, of elaborate 
analytical tables of contents to the Sdmkhya-Prauachana-Sutram and the 
Sdmhhya-Kdrikd, and of a number of important appendices. 

In the preparation of this volume, I have derived very material help 
from the excellent editions of the Vritti of Aniruddha and the Bhdsya of 
Vijnana Bhiksu on the Sdmkhya-Pravachana-Sutram by Dr. Richard Garbe, 
to whom my thanks are due. And, in general, I take this opportunity of 
acknowledging my indebtedness to all previous writers on the Samkhya, 
living and dead, from whose writings I l^ve obtained light and leading 
in many important matters connected with the subject. 

An introduction only now remains to be written. It is proposed, 
lowever, to write a separate monogram on the Samkhya Dar^ana, which 
would be historical, critical and comparative, in its scope and character. In 
this preface, therefore, only a very brief account is given of some of the 
cardinal doctrines of the Samkhya School. 

The first and foremost among these is the Sat-Kdrya-Siddhdvita or the 

Established Tenet of Existent Effect. It is the Law 
The La\v of the 

[Identity of Cause and of the Identity of Cause and Effect : what_ is called 
the cause is the umnanifested state of what is called 
the effect, and what is called the effect is only the manifested state of what 



PREFACE. 



is called the cause ; their substance is one and the same ; differences of 
manifestation and non-manifestation give rise to the distinctions of 
Cause and Effect. The effect, therefore, is never non-existent ; whether 
before its production, or whether after its destruction, it is always 
existent in the cause. For, nothing can come out of nothing, and nothing 
can altogether vanish out of existence. 

This doctrine would be better understood by a comparison with 
Definition of Cause and the contrary views held by other thinkers on the 
Effect. relation of cause and effect. But before we proceed 

to state these views, we should define the terms " cause " and " effect." 
One thing is said to be the cause of another thing, when the latter 
cannot be without the former. In its widest sense, the term, Cause, 
therefore, denotes an agent, an act, an instrument, a purpose, some* 
material, time, and space. In fact, whatever makes the accomplishment 
of the effect possible, is one of its causes. And the immediate result of 
the operation of these causes, is their effect. Time and Space, however, 
are universal causes, inasmuch as they are presupposed in each and every 
act of causation. The remaining causes fall under the descriptions of 
Aristotelian Division "Material/ 5 "Efficient," "Formal," and "Final." 
^Th^Smkhya Divi- The Samkhyas further reduce them to two des- 
slon - criptions only, viz., Updddna, i.e., the material, 

which the Naiyayikas call Samavdyi or Combinative or Constitutive, 
and Nimitta, i. e., the efficient, formal, and final, which may be vari 
ously, though somewhat imperfectly, translated as the instrumental, 
efficient, occasional, or conditional, because it includes the instruments 
with which, the agent by which, the occasion on which, and the conditions 
under which, the act is performed. Obviously, 
there is a real distinction between the Updddna and 



the Nimiwa : the Updddna enters into the consti 
tution of the effect, and the power of taking the form of, in other 
words, the potentiality of being re-produced as, the effect, resides in it ; 
while the Nimitta, by the exercise of an extraneous influence only, co 
operates with the power inherent in the material, in its re-production in 
the form of the effect, and its causality ceases with such re-production. 
To take the case of a coin, for example : the material causality was in a 
lump of gold ; it made possible the modification of the gold into the form 
of the coin, it will remain operative as long as the coin will last as a coin, 
and after its destruction, it will pass into the potential state again ; but 
the operation of the Nimittas came to an end as soon as the coin was 
minted. 



PREFACE. 



Similarly, the Samkhyas distinguish the Effect under the twofold 
aspect of simple manifestation and of re-production. Thus, the coin is an 
instance of causation by re-production, while the production of cream 
from milk is an instance of causation by simple manifestation. 

Now, as to the origin of the world, there is a divergence of opinion 
among thinkers of different Schools : Some uphold 
the Theory of Creation, others maintain the Theory 
of Evolution. Among the Creationists are counted 

the Nastikas or Nihilists, the Buddhists, and the Naiyayikas ; and 
among the Evolutionists, the Vedantins and the Samkhyas. The Nas 
tikas- hold that the world is non-existent, that is, unreal, and that it 
came out of what was not ; the Buddhists hold that the world is existent, 
that is, real, and that it came out of what was not ; the Naiyayikas hold 
that the world is non-existent, that is, non-eternal, perishable, and 
that it came out of the existent, that is, what is eternal, imperishable; 
the Vedantins hold that the world is non-existent, that is, unreal, and that it 
came out of what was existent, that is, real, namely, Brahman ; and the 
Samkhyas hold that the world is existent, that is, real, and that it came out 
of what was existent, that is, real, namely, the Pradhdna. Thus, there are 
the A-Sat-Kdrya-Vdda of the Nastikas that a non-existent world has been 
produced from a non-existent cause, and of the Buddhists that an existent 
world has been produced from a non-existent cause, the Abhdva-Utpatti-Vdda 
of the Naiyayikas that a non-eternal world has been produced from an 
eternal cause, the Vivarta-Vada of the Vedantins that the world is a re 
volution, an illusory appearance, of the one eternal reality, viz., Brahman, 
and the Sat-Kdrya-Vada of the Samkhyas that an existent world has been 
produced from an existent cause. 

Against the theories of A-Sat-Kdrw, Abhdva-Utpatti, and Vivarta, 

esfawirhThe^la^hya *? d in 8U PP 0rt f their theor y f ^-^ya, the 
Theory. Samkhyas advance the following arguments : 

I. There can be no production of what is absolutely non-existent 

e.g., a man s born. 

TI. There must be some determinate material cause for every pro 
duct. Cream, for instance, can form on milk only, and never 
on water. Were it as absolutely non-existent in milk as it is in 
water, there would be no reason why it should form on milk, 
and not equally on water. 

III. The relation of cause and effect is that of the producer and the 
produced, and the simplest conception of the cause as the pro- 
ducer_is that it possesses the potentiality of becoming the effect, 



iv PREFACE. 



and this potentiality is nothing but the unrealised state of the 
effect. 
IV. The effect is seen to possess the nature of the cause, e.g., a coin 

still possesses the properties of the gold of which it is made. 
V. Matter is indestructible ; u destruction " means disappearance 

into the cause. 

It follows, therefore, that cause and effect are neither absolutely 
The World possesses dissimilar nor absolutely similar to each other. They 
phenomenal reality. possess essential similarities and formal dissimilari 

ties. Such being the relation between cause and effect, the world cannot 
possibly have come out of something in which it had been absolutely non 
existent, and which accordingly was, in relation to it, as good as non-existent. 
For the world is neither absolutely unreal nor absolutely real. The test of 
objective reality is its opposition to consciousness. It is distinguished as 
Prcitibhdsilta or apparent, Vyavalidrika or practical or phenomenal, and 
Pdramarthika or transcendental. Of these, the world possesses phenomenal 
reality, and must, therefore, have a transcendental reality as its 
substratum. Thus is the Doctrine of Sat-Kdrya established. 

A natural corollary from the above doctrine is the other doctrine of 
The Doctrine of Parindma or transformation. ]t is the doctrine that, 
Transformation. ag a j] e ff ects are contained in their causes in an 

unmanifested form, the "production of an effect is nothing but its 
manifestation, and that, as cause and effect are essentially identical, an 
effect is merely a transformation of the cause. 

Now, the question arises, whether the cause of the world be a single 
The Cause of the one, or whether it be manifold. Some think that, 
World, one or manifold? according to the Naiyayikas, who declare the exist 
ence of Parama-Anus or the ordinary Atoms of Matter, the world has 
sprung from a plurality of causes. This is, however, to take a very 
superficial view of the Nyaya-Vai^ esika Dar^ana. The Naiyayikas were 
The Position of the certainly not timid explorers of metaphysical truths ; 
Naiyayikas explained. there ig absolute ] y no reason f or Sllpp osing that 

they either would not or could not penetrate behind and beyond the 
ordinary Atoms of Matter. As I have elsewhere pointed out, it would 
be a mistake to treat the six Dar&mas as each being a complete and 
self-contained system of thought ; in respect of their scope and purpose, 
they bear no analogy to the philosophies of the West. They are singly 
neither universal nor final ; but they mutually supplement one another. 
Their Risis address themselves to particular sets of people possessing 
different degrees of mental and spiritual advancement. They reveal 



PREFACE 



and explain the truths embodied in the Vedas to them from their 
point of view and according to their competence, and thus help 
them in realising the truths for themselves and thereby in progressing 
towards Self-realisation. If the Naiyayikas, therefore, do not carry their 
analysis of the world further than the ordinary Atoms of Matter, it 
must not be assumed that they teach a sort of atomic pluralism as the 
ultimate theory of the origin of the world, and are in this opposed to the 
authors of the other ^astras which teacli a different origin. The right 
explanation is that they make but a partial declaration of the Vedic truths 
and cut short the process of resolution at the ordinary Atoms of Matter, 
because they address themselves to a class of students who do not possess 
the mental capacity to grasp subtler truths. 

For the sense of unity which has found expression in the Law of 

Unity of the Cause of Parsimony, points to a single original of the world 

or material manifestation, as revealed in the Vedas. 

And the Samkhya makes its students acquainted with this. It, is called 
the Root, and is described as the Pradhdna, that in which all things are 
contained, and as Praltriti, the mother of things. 

It is a long way from the ordinary Atoms of Matter to the Pradhana 
The Scope of the or Primordial Matter. The Samkhya undertakes to 
Samkhya. declare and expound the successive transformations 

of the Pradhana down to the Gross Matter, with the object of accomplish 
ing the complete isolation of the Self from even the most shadowy con 
junction with the Pradhana. 

The d efinition of Prakriti is that it is the sjbate of ^guilibrium 
of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, called the Gunas. 

Definition of Prakriti. -- . . 

It is the genus of which the Chinas are the species. 

Their state of equilibrium is their latent, jpotent ml, or inactive state, the 
state of noTbeing developed into effects. The Gunas are extremely fine 
substances, and are respectively the principles of illumination, evolution, 
and involution, and the causes of pleasure, pain, and dullness. For, 
Sattva is light and illuminating, Rajas is active and urgent, and Tamas is 
heavy and enveloping. They are in eternal and indissoluble conjunction 
with one another, aud, by nature, mutually overpower, support, produce, 
and intimately mix with, one another. 

This doctrine of the Three Gunas is the very foundation of the 

Samkhya Tantra. It is explained in the following 

The Doctrine of the / 1 - TT< i i 

Three Gunas. manner: (I) Everything in the world, external as 

well as internal, is in constant change ; and there 

can be no change, whether it be movement in space, or whether it 



vi PREFACE. 



be movement in time, without rest. Side by side, therefore, with the 
principle of mutation, there must be a principle of conservation. And, as 
Berkeley tells us, existence is perception, --whatever is not manifested to 
Consciousness, individual or universal, does not exist. Another principle 
is, therefore, required which would make the manifestation of the other 
two principles and of their products, (as also of itself and of its own), to 
Consciousness possible. Thus, at the origin of the world, there must be 
a principle of conservation, a principle of mutation, and a principle of 
manifestation. (2) Similarly, an examination of the intra-organic energies 
would disclose the existence of three distinct principles behind them. 
These energies are the eleven Indriyas or Powers of Cognition and Action, 
and Prana or Vital Force. Among them, the Powers of Cognition, e.g., 
Seeing, Hearing, etc., cause manifestation of objects, the Powers of Action, 
e.g., seizing by the hand, etc., produce change, and Prana conserves and 
preserves life. (3) In the mind, again, modifications of three distinct 
characters take place ; viz., cognition, conation, and retention ; and these 
could not be possible without there being a principle of manifestation, 
a principle of mutation, and a principle of conservation respectively. 
(4) Likewise, a psycho-esthetic analysis of our worldly experience yields 
the result that everything in the universe possesses a threefold aspect, 
that is, it may manifest as agreeable, or as disagreeable, or as neutral, i.e., 
neither agreeable nor disagreeable. It must then have derived these 
characteristics from its cause ; for nothing can be in the effect which 
was not in the cause. The principles of manifestation, mutation, and 
conservation, therefore, which are operative in the change of the states of 
agreeable, disagreeable, and neutral, must also possess the nature of being 
pleasant (t&nta), unpleasant (ghora), and dull (mud ha). 

It is these principles of manifestation, mutation, and conservation, 
possessing the nature of pleasure, pain, and dullness, that are respectively 
the Gunas, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, of the Samkhyas. They are the 
constitutive elements of Prakriti. They are Gunas in their manifested 
forms; they are Prakriti in their unmanifested form. 

The transformations of Prakriti are either prakriti-vikriti, original or 

evolvent as well as modification or evolute, or vikriti, 
The Transformations 
of Prakriti .enumerated modification or evolute merely. Ihe former are 

and distinguished. themselves transformations of their antecedents, 

and, in their turn, give rise to subsequent transformations. They are 
Mahat, Ahamkara, and the five Tan-matras. The latter are the eleven 
Indriyas and the five gross Elements. The transformation of Praki-iti 
ceases with them. Of course, the gross Elements combine and evolve the 



PREFACE. vii 



material world ; but the world is not a different Tattva or principle from 
the Elements, because it does not develop a single attribute which is not 
already possessed by them. For the test of a Tattva or original or ultimate 
principle is that it possesses a characteristic property which is not pos 
sessed by any other Tattva. 

The objective world thus contains twenty-four Tattvas, namely, 

Prakriti, Mahat, Aham-kara, Manas, the five Indriyas 
The Objective World . . 

consists of Twenty- or Cognition, the rive In any as or Action, the five 

four Tattvas. m \, j -i r THI 

lan-matras, and the live gross Elements. 
At the beginning of creation, there arises in Prakriti Spandana or 

cosmic vibration which disturbs its state of equili- 
The Transformation 
of Prakriti is Mahat or briutn, and releases the Gunas from quiescence. 

Buddhi. T ^ . , 

Kajas at once acts upon battva and manifests it as 

Mahat. Mahat denotes Buddhi, the material counterpart and basis of 
what we term Understanding or Reason. Buddhi is called Ma.ha.tj gr^p.^ 

because it is the principal among the Instruments of Cognition and Action. 
Mahat also means " light " ; it is derived from the Vedic word Malias or 
Maghas, meaning light. And Buddln is called Mahat,. because jt L JgJhe 
initial transformation of Sattva which is the principle of manifestation. 
Or, Buddhi which is the first manifestation of the Gunas and which is the 
material cause of the world, is called Mahat, in order 

Universal and Indivi- . . ... 

dual Buddhis distin- to distinguish it from individual or finite Buddhis 

which are its parts. For " what is the Buddhi of 

the first-born golden- egged (Brahma), the same is the primary basis of all 
Buddhis; it is here called the great self. 

The function of Buddhi is Adhyavasftya or certainty leading to 

Definition of Buddhi. 2^- It manifests in eight forms ; m., as virtue, 

knowledge, dispassion and power, while _Sattva_ is. 

predominant in it, and as vice, ignorance, passion, and weakness, while 
Tamas is predominant in it. And these, again, are modified into in 
numerable forms, which, are classified as Error, Incapacity, Complacency, 
and Perfection. Such is Pratyaya-sarga or the creation of Buddhi or 
intellectual creation as contra- distinguished from elemental creation. 

From Buddhi springs Aham-kara : from " cogito" 1 think, " sum" 

The Transformation of I am,. Aham-kara is literally the I-maker. It is the 

Buddhi is Aham-kara. material counterpart and basis of what we term ego 
ism, and causes modifications of Buddhi in the forms of "I am," "I do," 
etc., etc. It is the principle of personal identity and of individuation. Its 
function is Abhimana, conceit, thinking with reference to itself, assump- 
.iQ__itself. But it is not a mere function ; it is a substanoe 



viii PREFACE. 



in which reside Vdsands or the resultant teiidencies of accumulated ^ex 
perience, and which is capable of modification into other and grosser 
forms. 

This Aham-kara, which is the first transformation of Buddhi, is the 

Universal and Indivi- cosmic Aham-kara, the Upadhi or adjunct of the 
dual Aham-karas dis- golden-egged Brahma, the Creator. It is the 

tinguished. , . . 

infinite source or the finite Aham-karas of indivi 
dual Jivas. 

The modification of Aham-kara is twofold, according as it is in- 

The Transformations ^nced by Sattva or by Tamas. The Sattvic modi- 

of Aham-kara are : The fications are the eleven Indriyas, that is, the five 

Indriays of Cognition, vis., the powers located in the 

Eye, Ear, Nose, Tongue, and Skin, the five Indriyas of Action, viz., the 
powers located in the voice, hand, feet, and the organs of generation and of 
excretion, and Manas. Manas is both a power of cognition and a power 
of action. Assimilation and differentiation are its distinctive functions. 

The Tamasic modifications of Aham-kara are the five Tan-matras, 

viz., of Sound, Touch, Form, Flavour and Smell. 
And the Tan-ma bras. , , i i ^i 

They are pure, subtle or simple elements, the meta 
physical parts of the ordinary Atoms of Matter. They are "fine substan 
ces," to quote from Vijnana Bhiksu, " the undifrerentiated (a-visfesa) origi 
nals of the Gross Elements, which form the substratum of Sound, Touch, 
Form, Flavour and Smell, belonging to that class (that is, in that stage of 
their evolution) in which the distinctions of fifinta pleasant 1 , etc., do not 
exist." The process of their manifestation is as follows: The Tan- 
ma tra of Sound, possessing the attribute of Sound, is produced from 
Aham-kara ; then, from the Tan-matras of Sound, accompanied by Aham- 
kara, is produced the Tan- ma tra of Touch, possessing the attributes of 
Sound and Touch. In a similar mariner, the other Tan-matras are produced, 
in the order of their mention, by the addition of one more attribute at 
each successive step. 

The transformations of the Tan-matras are the Gross Elements of 

, . Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth, the ordinary 
The Transformations 

of the Tan-matras are Atoms of Matter, in which appear for the first time the 
the Gross Elements. . . , . , 

distinctions of being pleasant, painful, and neutral. 

All Bodies, from that of Brahma down to a stock, are formed of them. 

Now, all this objective world is non-intelligent, because its 

How the Existence of material cause, Prakriti, is non-intelligent. It does 

a Subjective Principle, not, therefore, exist or energise for its own sake. 

There must be some one else of a different nature, 



PREFACE. 



IX 



some intelligent being, for whose benefit, i.e., experience and freedom, 
all this activity of Prakriti is. Thus do the Sdmkhyas explain the 
existence of Purusa. 

The Twentyfive To classify the Tattvas logically, they may be 

Tatfcvas exhibited thus : 



Jna. 
Knower, 
Intelligent, 
Subject : 
25 Purusa. 


A-Jna. 
Non-knower, 
Non-intelligent, 
Object : 


Ma. 

ifest. 

ahat. 
m-kara. 


1 
A-vyakta. Vya 
Unmanifesfc : Man 
24 Prakriti, the state 
of equilibrium of 23 M 
Sattva, Rajas and 
Tamas. 22 Aha 


x Sattva. 
1 


XTan 


as. 


Indriyas ^ 
of k 21 Manas. 
Cognition : } 
Powers located in 
20 The Eye. 
19 The Ear. 
18 The Nose. 
17 The Tongue. 
16 The Skin. 


1 
( Indriyas 
of 
{ Action : 
Powers located in 
15 Hands. 
14 Feet. 
13 Speech. 
12 Excretory Organ. 
11 Organ of generation. 


1 1 
10 Sound. 8 Touch. 
1 1 
9 Ether. 7 Air. 


1 1 ! 
6 Form. 4 Flavour. 2 Smell. 

[ 1 1 
5 Fire. 3 Water. 1 Earth. 



Of these, Purusa is the principle of Being, Prakriti is the principle 
Purusa and Prakriti of Becoming : Purusa eternally is, never becomes, 
contrasted. while Prakriti is essentially Movement ; even during 

Pralaya or Cosmic Dissolution, its activity does not altogether cease ; 
it then undergoes homogeneous transformation : Sattva modifying as 
Sattva, Rajas modifying as Rajas,* and Tamas modifying as Tamas. 
Purusa, on the other hand, is eternal consciousness undisturbed. Noth 
ing can come into him, nothing can go out of him ; he is Kuta-stha, 
dwelling in the cave. And these two eternal co-ordinate principles 
The Spontaneity of are in eternal conjunction with each other. But 
conjunction as such does not set Prakriti in move 
ment. Creation is caused by E&ga or Passion. Rdga is a change of 
state which spontaneously takes place in the Rajas of Buddhi, through 
the influence of Dharma and A-dharma. These are the natural 
consequences of the previous changes in the transformations of Prakriti, 



PREFACE. 



and they reside in Aham-kara in the form of Vdsand or tendency, 
and render impure the Sattva of Buddhi. The activity of Prakriti, in 
the form of the disturbance of its Rajas element, is spontaneously evoked 
for the purpose of working out and exhausting the stored up Vasana ; its 
successive transformation is really a process of purification of the Sattva of 
Buddhi. This spontaneous tendency towards purification is due to the 
vicinity of Purusa. 

The Samkhyas constantly hammer on the theme that no pain, no 
The Nature of Purusa. suffering, no bondage ever belongs to Purusa. 
Purusa is eternally free, never bound, never released. And because they 
The Meaning of the thus thoroughly reveal the nature of Purusa, their 
word, Samkhya. doctrine is described as the Samkhya, thorough- 

re vealer. 

The " experience " of Purusa consists in his being the indifferent 

The " Bondage " of spectator of the changes that take place in Buddhi ; 

his_l!_boridage^ is nothing but the reflection^ on 

him of the bondage, that is, the impurities, of Buddhi ; his " release^js 
merely the removal of this reflection which, again, depends upon^the 
recovery by Buddhi of its state of pristine purity, which means its dissolu r 
tion into Prakriti. To say that the activity of Prakriti is for the benefit 
of Purusa is, therefore, a mere figure of speech. It is really for the purifica 
tion of the Sattva of Buddhi. 

To think, as people generally do, that pleasure and pain, release 
Is due to A-vivaka. anc l bondage really belong to Purusa, is a mistake 
pure ancl simple. It is A-vidyd. A-viveka is the cause of A-vidya. And 
A-viveka, non-discrimination, is the failure to discriminate Purusa from 
Prakriti and her products. Many are ignorant of the very existence 
of Purusa. Many are ignorant of his exact nature : some identify him 
with Prakriti, some with Mal^at, some with Aham-kara, and so on. 
Many, again, know the Tattvas in some form or other, but they know 
them not : knowledge, in the sen^e of mere information, they have, 
but no realisation, and it is realisation which matters. The Samkhya, 
for this reason, enters into a detailed examination of the Tattvas, their num 
ber, nature, function, effect, inter-relation, resemblance, difference, etc., and 
The Aim of the Sam- insists on Tattva-abhyasa or the habitual contempla 
tion of the Tattvas, so that they may be Sak$dt- 

krita or immediately known or realised. The way is also shown asL_to 
how, and the means, too, whereby, to discriminate, on the one hand, 
the gross Elements from the Tan-matras, the Tan-matras from the 
Indriyas, and both from Aham-kara, Aham-kara from Buddhi, and Buddhi 



PREFACE. xi 



from Purusa, and, on the other hand, to discriminate Purusa from_ the 
gross and subtle Bodies and to prevent their further identification. 

The Yoga which is the practice of the Samkhya, which is the theory, 
The Relation of the takes up, and starts from, these central teachings 
tiT T e P ractce ya to pf its predecessor, mz. (1) All activity-all change- 
Theory. i s j n an( j o f Prakriti. (2) No activity no change 

is in Purusa. (3) The modifications of the mind are reflected in Purusa, 
and make him look like modified. (4) When the mind is calm and puri-. 
fied, Purusa shines as he really is. (5) Save and except these, reflection 
and its removal, bondage and release do not belong to Purusa. (6) Bond 
age and release are really of Prakriti, or, more strictly speaking, of the 
individualised form of its first transformation, viz., Buddhi. From the 
point of view of the philosophy of the history of the Dar&inas, these are 
the last words of the Samkhya. 

The Samkhya also has brought the doctrine of Suksma or Lifiga 
Sarira, the Subtle Body, prominently to the fore. 

SubtfeBody! 1116 f the For, the purification of the Sattva of Buddhi may 
not be, and, as a general rule, is not, possible in one 

life, nor in one region of the Universe. But death seems to put an untimely 
end to the process of purification, by destroying the gross Body, flow 
then can the process of purification be continued in other lives and in other 
regions ? The SA mkhya replies that it can be and is so continued by means of 
the Subtile Body. It is composed of the seventeen Tattvas, beginning with 
Buddhi and ending with the Tan-matras. It is produced, at the beginning 
of Creation, one for each Purusa, and lasts till the time of Maha-Pralaya 
or the Great Dissolution. It is altogether unconfined, such that it may 
ascend to the sun dancing on its beams, and can penetrate through a 
mountain. And it transmigrates from one gross Body to another, from 
one region of the Universe to another, 1)eing perfumed with, and carrying 
the influence of, the BhAvas or dispositions of Buddhi characterised as 
virtue, knowledge, dispassion, and power, and their opposites. 

The Samkhyas, again, teach a plurality of Purusas. This topic has 
been very fully discussed in the Sdmkhya-Pravacha- 

The Plurality of na _Stitram, I. 149-159, and the commentaries. 
Purusas. \ t . 

Therein "Vijfiana Bhiksu has mercilessly criticised 

the doctrine of Non-duality maintained by some of the Vedantins, and has 
sought to establish the plurality of Purusas. And Garbe, in his character 
istic style, contents himself with a flippant criticism of Vijnana Bhiksu s 
explanations. But Vijnana Bhiksu s criticisms are not aimed principally 
against the unity of Purusas, but at those interpretations of it, according 



xii PREFACE. 



to which the empirical Purusas, that is, mundane Purusas, the plurality 
of whom is established by irrefutable arguments, as in the Samkhya 
Sastra, are reduced to mere shadows without substance. He does not so 
much attack the unadulterated ArDvaitd of the Vedas and the Upanisats 
as its later developments. He was fully aware of the fact that none of 
the six Dantanas, for example, was, as we have hinted more than once, 
a complete system of philosophy in the Western sense, but merely a cate 
chism explaining, and giving a reasoned account of, some of the truths 
revealed in the Vedas and Upanisats, to a particular class of students, 
confining the scope of its enquiry within the province of Creation, without 
attempting to solve to them the transcendental riddles of the Universe, 
which, in their particular stage of mental and spiritual development, it 
would have been impossible for them to grasp. Similarly, Garbe is wrong 
in thinking that Vijnana Bhiksu " explains away the doctrine of absolute 
monism." It is only a matter of interpretation and of stand-point ; 
compare Ramanuja, Madhva, etc. For Vijnana does not hesitate to do 
away even with the duality of Prakrit! and Purusa when he observes 
that all the other Tattvas enter into absorption in Purusa and rest there 
in a subtle form, as does energy in that which possesses it. (Vide his 
Commentary on S-P-S., I. 61). For an explanation, therefore, of the 
apparent contradictions in the Darsanas, one must turn to the Vedas and 
Upani&ats and writings of a similar scope and character. The Bhagavat- 
GitA, for instance, declares : 



I vS 

In the world there are these e two Purusas only, the mutable and the 
immutable. The mutable is all created things ; the intelligent experiencer 
is said to be the immutable. XV. 16. 

While the highest Purusa is a different one, who (in the Upanisats) 
is called the Pararna-Atma, the Supreme Self, and who, presiding over 
the three worlds, preserves them, as the undecaying, omniscient, omni 
potent Isvara. XV. 17. 

Along such lines the so-called contradictions of the Darsanas find their 
reconciliation and true explanation in the higher teachings of the Upanisats. 

It will probably be contended that, in the case in question, such 

The Samkhya does reconciliation is impossible in view of " one of the 
not deny the Existence 
of God. fundamental doctrines of the genuine Samkhya, which 



PREFACE. xiii 



is the denial of God " (Garbe). No graver blunder has ever been 
committed by any student of the JSamkhya ! The genuine Samkhya 
no more denies the existence of God than does Garbe s illustrious 
countryman, Emmanuel Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason. To make 
this position clear, let us paraphrase the Sdmkhya-Pravachana-Sutram 
on the subject. Thus, Isvara is not a subject of proof (I. 92). 
For, we must conceive irfvara as being either Mukta, free, or Baddha, 
bound. He can be neither free nor bound ; because, in the former 
case, being perfect, He would have nothing to fulfil by creation, 
and, in the latter case, He would not possess absolute power (T. 93-94). 
No doubt, in the Srutis, we find such declarations as " He is verily 
the all-knower, the creator of all," and the like ; these, however, 
do not allude to an eternal, uncaused Isvara (God), but are only eulogies 
of such Jivas or Incarnate Selves as are going to be freed, or of the 
Yogins, human as well as super-human, who have attained perfection by 
the practice of Yoga (I. 95). Some say that attainment of the highest end 
results through absorption into the Cause fill. 54). But this is not so, 
because, as people rise up again after immersion into water, so do 
Purusas, merged into Prakriti at the time of Pralaya, appear, again, at the 
next Creation, as T^varas (III. 54-55). The Vedic declarations, e. g., 
"He is verily the all-knower, the creator of all," refer to such Highest 
Selves (III. 56). Neither is the existence of God as Jhe moral 

governor of the world, proved ; for, if_ God Himself produce the 
consequences of acts, He would do so even without the aid of Karma; 
on the other hand, if Mis agency in this respect be subsidiary to that 
of Karma, then let Karma itself be the cause of its consequences; 
what is the use of a God ? Moreover, it is impossible that God should be 
the dispenser of the consequences of acts. For, His motive will be 
either egoistic or altruistic. But it cannot be the latter, as it is simply 
inconceivable that one acting for the, good of others, should create a world 
so full of pain. Nor can it be the former; because (1) in that case, He 
would possess unfulfilled desires, and, consequently, suffer pain and the 
like. Thus your worldly God would be no -better than onr ffifftfipt. SftTvpa 
(2) Agency cannot be established in the absence of desire, for, behind 
every act, there lies an intense desire. Arid to attribute intense desire to 
God would be to take away from his eternal freedom. (3; Further, desire is 
a particular product of Prakriti. It cannot, therefore, naturally grow 
within the Self, whether it be God or the Jiva ; it must come from the 
outside. Now, it cannot be said that desire, which is an evoluteof Prakriti, 
directly has connection with the Self, as it would contradict hundreds of 



xiv PREFACE. 



Vedic declarations to the effect that the Self is Asanga, absolutely free 
from attachment or association. Neither can it be maintained that Prakriti 
establishes connection of desire with the Self by induction, as it were, 
through its mere proximity to it ; as this would apply equally to all the 
Selves at the same time (V. 2-9). Furthermore, the above arguments 
might have lost their force or relevancy, were there positive proof of the 
existence of God ; but there is no such proof. For, proof is of three kinds, 
viz., Perception, Inference and Testimony. Now, God certainly is not 
an object of perception. Neither can He be known by Inference ; because 
there is no general proposition (VyApti) whereby to infer the existence of 
God, inasmuch as, Prakriti alone being the cause of the world, the law of 
causation is of no avail here. And the testimony of the Veda speaks of 
Prakriti as being the origin of the world, and hence does not prove the 
existence of God (V. 10-12). 

Thus the Sarnkhyas maintain that it cannot be proved by evidence 
that an eternal, self-caused God exists ; that the ordinary meansof 
proof, Perception, Inference and Testimony, fail to reach Him ; and 
that there is no other means of correct knowledge on our plane of 
the Universe. And when, therefore, Kapila thus declares that the 
various objective arguments for the establishment of theism, viz., the 
ontological, the cosmological, the teleological, and the moral, cannot stand, 
and pronounces the verdict of non-proven in regard to the existence of 
God, he takes up the right philosophical attitude, and there is absolutely no 
justification for branding his doctrine as atheistical merely on this score. 
" The notion that the existence of God is susceptible of dialectic demons 
tration has been surrendered, in later times," ns Air. Fitz-Edward Hall 
remarks, "by most Christian theologians of any credit: it now being, more 
ordinarily, maintained that our conviction of deity, on grounds apart 
from revelation, reposes solely on original consciousness, antecedent to 
all proof." 

Thus the Samkhya is Nir-lscara, but not Ndstika. It is not Ndstika, 

atheistical, because it does not deny the existence of 
Nir-Isvara and Nas- f 

tika are not convertible God. It is ISir-Iscara, lit. god-less, ars it explains all 

and every fact of experience without referencejo, 

and without invoking the intervention of, a divine agency. Those who 
imagine that, in the Samkhya, there is a denial of God, obviously fail to 
recognize the distinction between the two words, Ndstika and Nir-Isvara. 
They, further, fail to bear in mind that the Sanskrit 1 svara arid the English 
God are not synonymous terms. For, the opposite of Ndstika is Astika 
(believer), one who believes in the existence of God, the authority of the 



PREFACE. xv 



Veda, immortality, and so forth. Accordingly, the Hindu Dar^anas have 
been classified as being either "Astiha " or " Ndstika," and the "Nir-tsvara" 
Samkhya has been always regarded as falling under the former category. 

DALTONGANJ : 
The 15th February, 1915. N. SINHA. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

PAGES. 

The Samkhya Sastra presupposes Vairagya or Dispassion ... 1 

The origin and development of Vairagya ... ... 1 

Moksa or Release is achieved through Para Vairagya or Higher 

Dispassion ... ... ... ... ... 1 

The Samkhya is a Moksa Sastra and teaches Para Vairagya ... 1 

The term " A-Dvaita " or Non-Dualism explained ... ... 2 

Kapila, the father of the Samkhya, is an Avatara of Visnu ... 2 

Loss of the original Samkhya Sutras ... ... ... 3 

The Samkhya is the only true A-Dvaita Sastra ... ... 3 

It is not in conflict with the Veda ... ... ... 3 

The Samkhya versus the Nyaya and the Vaisfesika : 

The latter deals with Vyavaharika or practical reality, while 

the former deals with Paramarthika or ultimate reality ; hence 
neither is there opposition between them, nor is the Samkhya 

superfluous ... ... ... ... ... 4-5 

The Samkhya versus the Vedanta and the Yoga : 

The exclusion of l^vara from the Samkhya, possible reasons 
for ... ... ... ... ... 5-10 

The Samkhya is concerned primarily with Purusa-Prakriti- 

Viveka or Discrimination between Purusa and Prakriti, while 

the Vedanta is concerned primarily with Wvara ... ... 7 

The Samkhya Plurality of Self versus the* Vedanta Unity of Self : 

does not necessarily imply a conflict... ... ... 10 

The Samkhya-Pravachana is an elaboration of the Tattva-Samasa 11 

The name " Samkhya " explained ... ... ... 11-12 

The Divisions of the Samkhya $&stra ... ... ... 12 

BOOK I : OF TOPICS. 

Th e Supreme Good defined ... ... ... ... 12 

and explained ... ... ... ... 13-14 

" Threefold pain " explained . ... ... 13-14 

Proof of " Duhkham anagatam," pain not-yet-come ... 15 

Jivan-Mukti-Dasla and Videha-Kaivalya compared ... ... 16 

How " cessation of pain " is an object of desire to Purusa ... 16-18 



ii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGES. 

Purusa is associated with pain in the form of a reflection ... 17 
This view is supported by the Vedanta : the Vedanta Theory of 

Adhyasa is the same as the Samkhya Theory of Reflection ... 18 
Cessation of pain is not in itself the end, but cessation of the 

experience of pain is 

Ordinary means are inadequate to accomplish the Supreme Good 19 

They have no doubt their own uses ... ... ... 20 

But these must be rejected by reasonable men .... ... 21 

Also because Moksa or Eelease is the Good par excellence ... 22 

Scriptural means are equally inadequate ..." ... 23 

Sacrifice is^ stained with the sin of killing ... ... 24 

Immortality obtained by the drinking of the Soma juice is not 

eternal ... ... ... ... ... 25-26 

Bondage is not natural to Purusa ... ... ... 26 

Viveka or Discrimination is the means of Release : 

A-Viveka or Non-Discrimination, the cause of Bondage, i.e., 

the experience of pain ... ... ... ... 26-27 

Because were Bondage natural, it would be unchangeable and 

consequently there can be no Release ... ... 28 

The scriptures do not lay down precepts for the accomplishment 

of the impossible ... ... ... ... 28 

The analogy of the " white cloth " and the " seed "... ... 29 

is inadmissible ... ... ... ... 30 

Defect of the theory that mere disappearance of the power of pain 

is Eelease, pointed out ... ... .. ... 30-31 

Theories of Naimittika or conditional Bondage considered : 

Bondage is not conditioned by Time ... ... ... 31 

N either by Space ... ... ... ... 32 

Nor by organisation ... ... ... ... 33 

Because organisation is of the Body and not of Purusa ... 33 

Purusa is free from Sanga or intimate association with anything 34 

Bondage is not conditioned by Karma ... ... ... 34-36 

How Purusa becomes aware of the modifications of the Chitta ... 36 
Scripture on Bondage and Release appertaining to the Chitta 

and not Purusa, explained ... ... ... 36 

Nor is Prakriti the cause of Bondage to Purusa ... ... 37 

No Bondage without conjunction of Prakriti ... ... 37-43 

Bondage is not the effect of, but the very same as, the conjunc 
tion of Prakriti ,,. ... ... ,,. 38 






TABLE OF CONTENTS. ill 

PAGES. 

Bondage is Aupadhika or adventitious, and not real ... 39 

The Vais$eika theory criticised and the real character of Purusa 

explained ... ... ... ... ... 39-40 

The Samkhya Theory of Bondage supported by Yoga-Sutram, 

Gita, and Katha-Upanisat ... ... ... 41 

By " conjunction of Prakriti" is meant the conjunction of indivi 
dual Buddhis to individual Purusas ... ... 41 

" Conjunction" distinguished from Non-Discrimination, Trans 
formation, and Intimate Association ... ... 42 

How conjunction of Prakriti with Purusa takes place ... 43 

Another interpretation of " Conjunction" criticised and the 

Sutrakara s meaning established ... ... ... 43 

Nastika Theories of Bondage criticised : 

Bondage is not caused by A-Vidya, as is asserted by the 
Bauddhas ... ... ... ... ... 44-45 

Bondage is not unreal ... ... ... ... 44 

A-Vidya cannot be an entity ... ... ... 45-46 

Genuine, distinguished from spurious, Vedanta : the Maya-Vad- 

ins are really a branch of the Vijriana-Vadins ... ... 46 

The Samkhya view of A-Vidya ... ... ... 47 

A-Viyda cannot be both real and unreal ... ... 47-48 

Experience of Prarabdha Karma offers one more objection to 

A-Vidya being the direct cause of Bondage ... ... 48 

Principles governing the enumeration of Predicables stated ... 48-50 
Real character of Prakriti incidentally described ... ... 50 

Bondage is not caused by Vasana ... ... ... 51-56 

Bondage is not momentary : Theory of Transiency of Things 
controverted, and the Theory of Permanency of Things estab 
lished by the fact of Recognition, l^y Scripture, etc., and by 
means of the Relation of Cause and Effect ... ... 56-62 

The cause of Bondage is real and not ideal: Vijnana Vada or 

Bauddha Idealism criticised ... ; ... ... 62-64 

Vijnana- Vada logically leads to Sftnya-Vada, or the Theory that 

the World is a Void ... ... ... ... 64-66 

Scriptural texts about non-existence of external things-- meaning 

of " non-existence" explained ... ... ... 65-66 

Origin of Vijnana-Vadin Nastikas, or Idealist Heretics ... 66 

Theory of the Void criticised ... ... ... 66-71 

Doubtful texts of the Sruti and Smriti explained ... ... 69-70 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Bondage is not the result of movement ... 

Doubtful Srutis explained ... 

Bondage is not caused by Adristam 

Conjunction of Prakriti with Purusa takes place through A-Viveka- 

or Non-Discrimination ... 
It is all the doing of Prakriti 
Objections answered 
Nature of A-Viveka explained and its identity with A-Vidya 

shown 
A-Vive.ka is not a form of Non-Existence : Nature of A-Viveka 

further discussed : Agreement between the Yoga and the 

Samkhya shown 

How A-Viveka brings about Conjunction : Doctrines of the Yo 
ga, the Nyaya and the I^vara-Gita compared 
A-Viveka is eradicable by Viveka alone 
Theory of Darkness discussed 
Doctrines of the Yoga and the Vedanta compared ... 
Discrimination between Purusa and Prakriti includes all discri 
mination 

" Abhimana" in Purusa of birth, etc., explained ... 
The Bondage of Purusa is merely verbal ... ... 

Immutability of Purusa and Reflectional Theories of Bondage 

and Release defended ... 
Bondage is not removeable by mere Learning or Reasoning, but 

by Spiritual Intuition of the truth about Purusa and Prakriti 
Existence of Prakriti, etc., defended : 

Inference also is an instrument of right knowledge 
Karika on Sources of Human Knowledge quoted ... 
The Twenty five Tattvas or Principles enumerated : The order 

of their evolution and their inter-relation as cause and effect 

shown: Prakriti defined... 
Sattva, etc., are substances : Why they are called Gunas. 

in the Vaisesika sense of the word ... 
Nature of Prakriti and her relation to the Gunas explained 
Two meanings of the word Prakriti : one technical and 

other general, explained 

The enumeration of the Tattvas is definite and exhaustive 
Enumeration of Predicables in different Systems of Thought 

justified on the principle laid down in the Bhagavatam 



Not 



the 



PAGES. 
71-74 
73-74 

75-76 

77-82 
78 
79 

79 



80 

80*82 
82-86 
82-83 
84-85 

86-88 

88 

88-91 

89-90 
91-92 

92-93 
93 



93-98 

94-95 
94 

94 
96 

96-97 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



The Samkhya enumeration has the support of the Upanisats 

Garbha, Pra&ia, and Maitreya 

Scriptural declaration of one reality, without a second, ex 
plained 
Difference between Theistic and Non-Theistic Theories pointed 

out 

Proof of the existence of the Tan-matras 
Nature of Tan-matras explained : Visnu-Puranam cited in 

support 

Process of inference of Tan-matras exhibited 
Visnu-Punlnam on the nature of Prakriti quoted ... 
How the Tan-matras are evolved : a doubtful Sloka of the 

Visnu-Puranam on this point explained 
Proof of Ahamkara 
Nature of Ahamkara explained 
Process of inference of Ahamkara exhibited 
Chhandogya Upanisat VI. ii. 3 quoted in support ... 
Objections answered : Yoga-Sutram II. 22 quoted ... 
Proof of the Antah-karana Buddhi 
The process of inference of Buddhi exhibited 
A corroborative argument stated 

Brihat-Aranyaka and Chhandogya Upanisats quoted in support 
Threefold uses of the Antah-karana explained and justified 

by reference to the Linga-Puranam, the Vedanta-Sutram and 

the Yoga- Vasistha-Ra may anam 
Proof of Prakriti 

The process of inference of Prakfiti exhibited 
A favourable argument stated 
Authority of the Veda and Smriti referred to 
An ob j ection answered 
Pleasure cognised by Buddhi and Pleasure inherent in Buddhi, 

distinguished 
The order of evolution defended against that of the Logicians : 

The futility of mere reasoning, unsupported by Scripture, 

shown 

Proof of Purusa 

The process of inference of Purusa exhibited 
Yoga-Sutram IV. 24 explained and distinguished ... 
Favourable arguments stated 



PAGES. 

97-98 

98 

98 
99-101 

99 
100 
100 

101 

102-103 
102 
102 
102 
103 

103-105 
104 
104 
101 



104-105 

106-108 

106 

106 

106 

106-107 

107 



107-108 

108-111 

109 

109 

110 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGES. 

Visnu-Puranam I. iv. 51 and I. ii. 33 compared ... ... 110 

Prakriti, the Boot Cause, is root-less ... ,.. ... Ill 

The point argued : Prakriti is merely the name given to the 

original starting point of evolution ... ... ... 111-112 

The Nyaya, the Sarnkhya, and the Vedanta doctrines compared... 112-115 
Scriptural texts about " production " of Prakriti and Purusa 

explained :" production " is in a derivative sense ... 112-114 
Prakriti and A-Vidya distinguished : doubtful scriptures ex 
plained ... ... ... ... ... 114-115 

Only the most competent can realise the truth taught : 

three classes of Adhikarins described ... ... 115-116 

From Prakriti, the first evolute is Mahat, also called Buddhi and 

Manas ... ... ... ... ... 116-117 

The next is Ahamkara ... ... .... ... 117 

The rest spring from Ahamkara ... ... ... 117 

But by the chain of causation the primary causality of Prakriti 

remains unimpaired ... ... ... ... 118 

Why Prakriti, and not Purusa, is the material cause ... 118-120 
Argument in favour of Purusa s never undergoing transfor 
mation, succinctly stated ... ... ... 119 

Prakriti is all pervading ... ... ... ... 1 20-1 2 1 

" All pervading "-ness explained ... ... ... 121 

The Veda supports the theory that Prakriti is the cause of all 

things and is all-pervading ... r.. ... 121-122 

Ex nihilo nihil fit ... ... ... ... 122 

The world is not unreal ... ... ... ... 122-124 

Doubtful Chhandogya text VI. i. 4 explained ... ... 123 

Unreality of the World refuted by the Vedanta-Sutram 11. ii. 

28-29 ... ... , ... ... ... 124 

Brihat-Aranyaka-UpamBat II. iii. 6 does not negate the reality of 

the World : Of. the Vedanta-Sutram III. ii. 22 ... ... 124 

Why nothing can come out of nothing ... ... ... 124-125 

Karma, A-Vidya, etc., cannot be the material cause of the world... 125-126 

Ritual observances cannot become the cause of Release ... 126-127 

Samkhya-Pravachana-Sutram I. 2 and 6 further explained ... 126-127 
The result of Karma is not permanent : Chhandogya-Upanisat 

VII. i. 6 quoted in support ... ... ... 127 

Doubtful $ruti, Kalagni-Rudra-Upanisat 2, e.g., explained ... 128 

Freedom from Samsara is not the result of Karma ... ... 128-129 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



vn 



PAGES. 

The result of Niskama Karma also is equally transitory ... 129-131 

Kaivalya-Upanisat I. 2 quoted in support ... ... 130 

Release producible by knowledge is not perishable ... ... 131-132 

Prama or Right Cognition and Pramana or Instrument of Right 

Cognition, defined : Pramana is threefold ... ... 132-136 

Right Knowledge resides in Purusa ... ... ... 133 

The process of knowing rightty described ... ... 134 

Object of Cognition discussed ... .., ... 135-136 

Three kinds of Pramana sufficient ... ... .. 137-138 

Perception defined ... ... ... ... 138-139 

Perception by Yogins ... ... ... ... 140-142 

Contact of Buddhi with Objects is the cause of perception ... 141 

Perception is not necessarily dependent upon external Senses ... 142 

IjJvara is not an object of perception ... ... ... 142-143 

In what sense there can be perpetual cognition of fcvara ... 143 

Why the existence of IsJvara is above proof ... ... 143-141 

Texts which declare l^vara, explained ... ... ... 144-145 

The influence of Purusa upon Prakriti is through proximity ... 145-146 

Chhandogya-Upanisat VI. ii. 3 explained ... ... 145 

Kfirma-Puranam on Unconscious Creation quoted ... ... 145 

The influence of Jivas also is through proximity ... ... 147 

Jiva defined ... ... ... ... ... 147 

Vedic declarations vindicated ... ... ... 147-148 

Actual agency belongs to the Antah-karana ... ... 148-152 

How Purusa illuminates the Antah-karana ... ... 149 

How Buddhi and Self are mutually reflected in each other ... 149 
Reflection of Consciousness in Buddhi makes Self-Consciousness 

possible ... ... ... ... ... 150 

Reflection of Buddhi in Consciousness makes cognition of 

objects possible ... ... ... ... 150 

Theory of Mutual Reflection of Buddhi and Consciousness estab 
lished by Vyasa in the Yoga-Bhasy am ... ... 150 

Opposite theories criticised ... ... ... 151-152 

Definition of Inference ... ... ... ... 152-153 

Division of Inference ... ... ... ... 152 

Word or Verbal Testimony defined ... ... ... 153 

Necessity of Pramana in the Samkhya Sastra ... ... 153-154 

Proof of Prakriti and Purusa is by means of Samanyato Drista 

Inference ... ... ... ... ... 154-156 



Vlll 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGES, 
"Purva-vat," "Sesa-vat" and " Samanyato Drista " Inference 

described ... ... .., ... ... 155 

Process of inference of Prakriti and Purusa exhibited ..; 155-156 

The end of Bhoga is in Consciousness ... ... ... 156-157 

Two meanings of the word " Bhoga " distinguished ... 157 

He who does not act, may still enjoy the fruit ... ... 157-158 

The notion that Purusa is the Experiencer is due to A-Viveka ... 158-159 

The fruit of Knowledge is absence of Pleasure and Pain ... .160 

Mere non-perception does not prove non-existence ... ... 160-162 

Karika VII, on causes of non- perception, quoted ... ... 161 

Non-apprehension of Prakriti and Purusa by the Senses is due to 

their extreme fineness ... ... ... ... 162 

Proof of the subtlety of Prakriti, etc. ... ... ... 163 

An objection answered ... ... ... ... 163-165 

Proofs of the Theory of Existent Effects ... ... 165-17 1 

A Vaitfesika theory refuted ... ... ... ... 168 

Cause and Effect are identical : The Gita and the Upanisats 
Brihat-Aranyaka, Chhandogya, and Maitri quoted in support : 

Karika IX referred to ... ... ... ... 170-171 

A doubt raised as to how the existent can be said to be produced ... 171-172 

The doubt removed : " Production " is only manifestation ... 172-173 

"Manifestation" described... ... ... ... 172-173 

" Destruction" is only dissolution into the cause ... ... 173-175 

Re-manifestation of the same thing after dissolution, refuted ... 174 
Existence of things past and gone and of things not-yet-come- 
to-pass, proved by perception of the Yogin ... ... 174 

Theory of Manifestation defended ... ... ... 174-175 

" Existence " and " Non-Existence " explained ... ... 175 

The Theory of Manifestation does not entail non-finality ... 175-176 

When non-finality is no fault ... ... ... 176 

Creation by Will ... ... ... ... 175 

The theory of the Manifestation of the existent, further defended 177-178 

The rival Theory of the Production of the Non-Existent criticised 177 

The two reconciled ... ... ... ... 173 

Effect defined : Properties common to all effects ... ... 178-180 

Different meanings of the word " Linga " mentioned ... 179 

Proof of the existence of the effect as separate from the cause ... 180-182 

Properties common to Prakriti and her products ... ... 182-183 

The Stitra supplemented by Karika XI 182 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



IX 



PAGES. 
Karika X on difference of properties between Prakrit! and her 

products quoted ... ... ... ... 183 

Unity and infinity of Prakrit! explained and supported by 

Visnu-Puranam II. vii. 25-26 ... ... ... 183 

Points of dissimilarity among the Gunas ... ... 183-185 

The text supplemented by a quotation from Pafichasikha .... 184 

The Gunas are substances ... ... ... ... 184 

They are infinite ... ... ... ... 185 

Similarity and dissimilarity among the Gunas ... ... 185-187 

Karika XIII compared ... ... ... ... 186 

Samkhya and Vaisfesika doctrines compared ... ... 187 

Proof that Mahat, etc , are effects ... ... ... 187-191 

Buddhi, etc., are nourished with food : Chhandogya-Upanisat 

VI. vii. 6 and Yoga-Sutram IV. 2 quoted in support ... 189 

Karika XV. compared ... ... ... ... 190 

Ground of in ference of cause from effect stated ... ... 191-192 

The process of inference exhibited ... ... ... 192 

The manifested is the mark of inference of the unmanifested ... 192-193 

The existence of Prakrit! cannot be ignored ... ... 193 

The existence of Purusa requires no proof ... ... 193-195 

Intention of Sutra I. 66 explained ... ... ... 195 

Purusa is something different from Prakrit! and her products .,. 195 

Reasons for the above ... ... ... ... 195-199 

Nature of Purusa is Light or 1 Humiliation ... ... 200-201 

This view is supported by the Veda and Smriti ... ... 200 

The opposite Vaise&ka theory discredited ... ... 200 

Consciousness is not an attribute, but the essence, of Purusa ... 201-203 

That the Self is devoid of attributes, proved ... ... 202 

Description of the Sva-rupa of the Self, quoted from the Yoga- 

Vajftstha-Ramayanam ... ... ... ... 203 

The Sruti is higher evidence than Perception ... ... 203-205 

Purusa s freedom from attributes proved by the Upanisats 

Brihat-Aranyaka IV. iii. 15 and Svetasvatara VI. 11 and by 

the Vedanta-Sara ... ... ... ... 203-204 

Contradictory Srutis : their value : Rule of interpretation of 

Vedic texts ... ... ... ... ... 204 

Purusa is merely the Witness ... ... ... 205-207 

Svapna or Dream and Susupti or Deep Sleep described ... 206 

Proof of Plurality of Purusas ... ... ... 207-208 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



The Vedanta doctrine of Unity criticised 

The Vedanta interpretation of certain Vedic texts discarded ... 
The doctrine of Aropa of the pseudo-Vedantins discredited 
The Vedanta-Sutram has nowhere declared the unity of the 

Self 

The Vedanta-Sutram I. i. 21-22 and II. iii. 41 establish differ 
ence 

The Vedanta doctrines of Avachchheda and Pratibimba must 

be rejected, and the Samkhya doctrine of Multiplicity 

accepted : Rule as to solution of doubts in philosophical and 

other matters stated 

The Samkhya Theory is not in conflict with the oruti and 

Smriti 
Upanisats Chhandogya VI. ii. 1, Katha IV. x. 11, Brahma- 

Bindu 11 and 12, Aitareya I. i. 1, explained 
The Samkhya Theory supported by the Vedanta-Sutram III. ii, 
33, Katha Upanisat IV. 15 and Mundaka-Upanisat III. i. 3 
and also by Smriti 

Denotation of " That " in " Thou art That " 
Unity is the popular conception which the druti, Smriti, etc., 
have taken the trouble to chasten by declarations of Plurality 
What is condemned by the Taittiriya-Upanisat II. 7 is not 
plurality of individual Selves essentially alike one another ... 
The Vedic declarations of Avachchheda or separation and of 
Pratibimba or reflection, explained with the help of Xatha- 
UpanisatV. 10 

Plurality of Purusas further established 
Those who have eyes to see, can see the oneness of form among the 

Selves 

Non-Duality is disproved by recorded cases of Release 
The Neo-Vedantins are verily a sect of the Bauddhas 
Release of Vamadeva is absolute 
As it has been, so will it be ... 
^urusas are ever uniform ... 

Character of being witness is compatible with uniformity 
Purusa is witness (Saksi) of Buddhi alone, and the seer (Drasfta) 

of all the rest 

Purusa is for ever released 
Purusa is indifferent 



PAGES. 

208-216 

212 

215 

215 
215 



216 

216-221 
216-217 

219 
219 

220 
220 



220-221 
221-222 

222-223 

223-224 

224 

224-225 
225-226 
226-227 
227-228 

228 

228-229 
229 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



XI 



PAGES. 

Seeming agency o/ Purusa is due to influence of Buddhi ... 229-230 

Karika XXII on the same subject, compared ... ... 230 

The title " Samkhya-Pravachana-Sutram " explained ... 230 

BOOK II : OF THE EVOLUTIONS OF PRAKRITI. 

The Purpose of Creation ... ... ... ... 231-234 

Kinds of Vairtigya or Dispassion stated and explained ... 232 

Pain not-yet-come is of twentyone varieties ... ... 232 

A-Vidya is destructible by means of Vidya, ... ... 233 

The Higher and the Lower Self : their proof ... ... 233-234 

The Cause of Successive Creation ... ... ... 234-235 

Who are Adhikarins or fit for Release ... .., ... 234 

Vairagya cannot grow in a single Creation ... ... 235-236 

The Rule of Individuals ... ... ... ... 236 

Proof of the Theory of Adhyasa or fictitious attribution (e.g., 

of Bondage, Release, etc,.) in regard to Purusa ... ... 237-238 

Doubtful Sruti, Taittiriya-Upanisat II. 1. explained ... 237 

Reality of the creative agency of Prakriti proved ... ... 238-239 

Knowledge and Ignorance are the sole determinants of Release 

and Bondage ... ... ... ... ..* 239-240 

How the activity of Prakriti ceases automatically in the case of 

a Purusa possessing discriminative knowledge ... ... 240 

The Theory of Adhyasa further argued ... ... 240-241 

The instrumental cause of Creation is Raga or Passion ... 241-242 

The order of Creation ... ... ... ... 242-244 

Taittiriya-Upanisat II. 1, which mentions a different order of 

evolution, considered in the light of Mundaka-Upanisat II. i. 3, 

Pradna-Upanisat VI. 4, and the Vedanta-Sutram II. iii. 14 243-244 

The origination of Mahat, etc., is not fortheir own sake ... 244-245 

Theory of Space and Time : they are forms of AkajJa ... 245-246 

Space and Time, unlimited and limited ... ... 246 

Definition of Buddhi ... ... ... ... 246-247 

Different uses of the word " Mahat " explained ... ... 247 

elation of individual Buddhis to the Mahat Tattva ... 247 

Products of Mahat ... ... ... ... 247-248 

How contrary products arise from the same Tattva Mahat ... 248-249 

Every Purusa is an Ii^vara ... ... ... ... 248 

Definition of Ahamkara ... ... ... ... 249-250 

Products rf Ahamkara ... ... ... ... 250-25] 



XI 1 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGES. 
How the Senses and Objects were produced in the primary 

creation ... ... ... ... ... 250 

Origin of Manas ... ... ... ... 251-252 

Production of the external Indriyas and the Tan-Matras ... 251 

The Devas of the Indriyas ... ... ... ... 252 

The Indriyas are eleven in number ... ... ... 252-253 

The Indriyas are not formed out of the Bhutas or Elements ... 253-254 

Doubtful Srutis explained ... ... ... ... 254-255 

The Indriyas are n ot eternal ... ... ... 255-256 

The Indriyas are not the same as their physiological counterparts 256 

There is not one, but many Indriyas ... ... ... 256-257 

Conception must not be allowed to stand against Positive Evidence 257 

Definition of Manas ... ... ... ... 257-258 

Diverse functions of Manas explained ... ... ,. 258-259 

The Objects of the Indriyas ... ... ... ... 259 

Purusa is different from the Indriya ... ... ... 259-261 

The In ternal Indriyas distinguished ... ... ... 261-262 

Their resemblance ... ... ... ... 262-263 

Prana or Life-Breath is not Air : why it is called Air ... 263 
The modifications of the Indriyas are simultaneous as well as 

successive ... ... ... ... ... 264-265 

Cognition called Alochana described ... ... ... 265 

Aniruddha s interpretation of Sutram II. 32 criticised ... 265 

Number and character of the Modifications ... ... 266-267 

The Sva-rupa of Purusa indicated ... ... ... 267-268 

Above illustrated ... ... ... ... 268 

What mo ves the Indriyas to operate ... ... ... 268-269 

Above illustrated ... ... ... ... 269 

The number of the Instruments >- ... ... ... 270 

Why the Indriyas are called Instruments ... ... 270-271 

Pre-eminence of Buddhi illustrated ... ... ... 271-272 

Why Buddhi is the principal ... ... ... 272-273 

Recollection is not spontaneous to Purusa ... ... 273-274 

Relativity of the condition of being principal and secondary ... 274 
Why one particular Buddhi and not another acts 

for the benefit of one particular Purusa, and not of another ... 274-276 

In what sense Karma is said to belong to Purusa ... ... 275 

Aniruddha s dictum that Karma is of Purusa reflected in Buddhi, 

criticised 275-276 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Xlll 



PAGES. 

The Topic of the pre-eminence of Buddhi concluded ... 276-277 

Nimiber of the components of the Linga-Deha ... ... 277 

BOOK III : OF DISPASSION. 

Origin of the Gross Elements ... ... ... 278 

Origin of the Body ... ... ... ... 279 

Origin of Samsara ... ... ... ... 279-280 

Limit of Samsara ... ... ... . . , 280-281 

Purusa is ever free from Experience ... ... ... 281-282 

The Gross and the Subtle Body distinguished ... ... 282-283 

Experience may take place during transmigration also ... 283 

The Subtle, and not the Gross, Body causes experience to Purusa... 283-284 

Constitution of the Subtle Body ... ... ... 284-286 

The Subtle Body distinguished as being the container arid the 

contained ... ... ... ... ... 284 

The constituents of the Subtle Body are seventeen, and not 

eighteen in number ... ... ... ... 285 

Aniruddha s interpretation of the Sutram III. 9 criticised ... 285 

How from one single Subtle Body manifold individuals arise ... 286-287 

Why the Gross Organism is called a Body ... ... 287-288 

" Body " means the House of Experience ... ... 287 

Body is threefold : Linga-Deha, Adhisthana-Deha, and Sthula- 

Deha ... ... ... ... ... 288 

Proof of Adhisthana or Vehicular Body ... ... 288-290 

An objection answered ... ... ... ... 290-291 

The size of the Linga-Sarira is atomic ... ... ... 291-292 

Another proof of the finiteness of the Linga-Sarira ... ... 293 

Cause of migration of the Linga Sarira ... .. -... 293-294 

Origin of the Gross Body ... ... ... ... 294 

Contrary opinions stated and explained ... ... ... 294-295 

Consciousness is not a natural product of the organisation of the 

Body ... ... ... ... ... 295-296 

An objection answered ... ... ... ... 297-298 

Why the Linga-Sarira takes a Gross Body : the cause of Release ... 298-299 

Cause of Bondage ... ... ... ... 299 

Knowledge is the sole and independent cause of Release ... 299-300 

Sveta^vatara-Upanisat III. 8, quoted in support ... ... 300 

Doubtful Sruti, lf!a-Upanisat XL explained ... ... 300 

Futility of [the co-operatioji of knowledge and Action illustrated ... 301-302 



XIV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGES. 

Our conception of the Object of Worship is faulty ... ... 302 

Wherein it is faulty ... ... ... ... 303-304 

Fruit of Worship ... ... ... 304 

Sources of Knowledge : 

Dliy ana is cessation of Raga ... ... ... 304-305 

Dhyana includes Dharana and Samadhi also ... ... 305 

How consummation of Dhyana is reached ... ... 305-306 

" Samprajnata " and " A-Samprajnata " Yoga explained ... 305-306 

Practices conducive to Dhyana ... ... ... 306-307 

Dharana described ... ... ... ... 307-308 

" Dharana " here means Pranayama ... ... ... 307 

Asana described ... ... ... 308 

Sva-Karma described ... .. ... ... 309 

Other means of Dhyana ... ... ... ... 309-310 

Nuture of Viparyaya or Mistake described ... ... 310-312 

A-Sakti or Incapacity which is the cause of Mistake, is of twenty- 
eight sorts ... ... ... ... ... 311-312 

Tusfci or Complacency is ninefold ... ... ... 312 

Siddhi or Perfection is eightfold ... ... ... 312 

Minor sub-divisions of Mistake : sixty-two in number ... 312-314 

Minor sub-divisions of Incapacity ... ... ... 314-315 

Divisions of Complacency explained ... ... ... 315-319 

Divisions of Perfection explained ... ... ... 319-321 

The other so-called Perfections are not real ... ... 322-323 

Vyasti or Specific Creation described ... ... ... 323-324 

Bhautika Sarga or Elemental Creation also is for the sake of 

Purusa ... ... ... ... ... 324-325 

The Higher, the Lower, and the Middle World described ... 325-326 

Cause of the above differences in Creation ... ... 326 

The Higher Worlds cannot be the Supreme Good .., ... 326-327 

There is pain in the Higher Worlds also ... ... 327 

Dissolution into Prakriti is not the Supreme Good ... ... 327-329 

Re-birth after absorption into Prakriti accounted for ... 329-330 

Prakriti s independence how maintained ... ... 329 

Proof of re-appearance, after absorption into Prakriti ... 330-331 

The Samkhya conception of Adi Purusa and l^vara ... 330 

In what sense the Samkhya denies Isvara ... ... 331-332 

Creation by Prakriti is for the release of Purusa ... ... 333-334 

Prakriti s interest is bound up with that of Purusa ... 334 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGES. 

Prakrit! acts spontaneously for the benefit of Purusa . . . 334-335 

Spontaneous activity further illustrated ... ... 335 

A ctivity of Prakrit! is natural ... ... ... 336 

Spontaneity of Prakrit! is necessary ... ... ... 336-337 

Cessation of her activity is also spontaneous ... ... 337 

Atyantika Pralaya, or Final Dissolution described ... ... 337 

Release of one does not involve release of all ... ... 338-339 

Doubtful Sruti, ^veta^vatara-Upanisat I. 10, explained ... 338 

Release consists in what ... ... ... ... 339 

How Prakriti affects one Purusa and does not affect another ... 339-341 

The " Error of snake in respect to a rope " explained ... 341 

The above dual character of Prakriti supported ... ... 341-342 

Prakriti s selection, how determined ... ... ... 342-343 

Hoiv Prakriti ceases to act : the analogy of the fair dancer ... 343-344 

Relation of Bondage and Release to Purusa ... ... 345 

Bondage and Release really are of Prakriti ... ... 345-346 

How Prakriti binds and releases herself ... , . . 346-347 

A-Viveka or N on Discrimination itself is not Bondage ... 347-348 

How development of Viveka or Discrimination is possible ... 348-352 

An exception to the rule laid down ... ... ... 352 

Pure Viveka alone is the cause of Release ... ... 352-354 

A-Samprajnata Yoga is the means of perfect development of 

Viveka ... ... ... ... ... 353 

The case of Jivan-Mukta considered ... ... ... 354 

Proofs of Release-in-life ... ... ... 354-356 

Definition of Jivan-Mukta quoted from the Naradiya Smriti ... 356 

The Jivan-Muktas only can be spiritual guides ... ... 355 

Worldly existence after Release explained ... ... 356-357 

How retention of Body even after Release is rendered unvoidable. . . 357-359 

Viveka is the only means of Release ... ... ... 359-360 

BOOK IV : OF FABLES. 

Instruction is necessary : Story of the abandoned Prince ... 361-362 

Instruction, to be effective, need not be directly imparted : Story 

of the Pidticha ... ... ... ... 362-363 

Inculcation also is necessary : Story of Svetaketu ... ... 363 

The instructor need not necessarily be a spiritual guide - Story 

of the Father and the Son ... ... ... 363-364 

All worldly pleasure is alloyed with pain : Story of the Hawk . , . 364-365 



XVI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGES. 
Things avoidable must be avoided : Story of the Snalte and the 

Slough ... ... ... ... ... 365 

Penance necessary for prohibited acts done : Story of the Ampu 
tated Hand ... ... ... ... ... 365-366 

Thoughts uncongenial to Release, to be avoided : Story of 

Bharata ... ... ... ... ~ 366-367 

Company is to be avoided : Story of the Girl and her Bracelets 367 

Hope is to be abandoned : Story of Pingala ... ... 368-369 

The innate pleasure of the Chitta ... ... ... 368-369 

Exertion is needless : Example of the Snake ... ... 369 

In study, discrimination is necessary : Example of the Bee . . . 369-370 

Concentration of mind necessary : Story of the Arrow-maker ... 370-371 

Rules are not to be transgressed : Experience in life ... 371-373 

Brahmacharin defined ... ... ... .. 372 

Who are the Pasandas ... ... ... ... 372 

For getf ulness of Rules is also harmful : Story of the She- 
Frog ... ... ... ... ... 373-374 

Instruction is to be supplemented by Reflection : Story of Indra 

and Virochana ... ... .<. ... 374-375 

Time also is a factor in the attainment of Release ... ... 375-376 

There is no rule as to the limit of Time required : 

Story of Vamadeva ... ... ... ... 376-377 

Inferior means also are useful in their own way : Example of 

the performers of sacrifices ... ... ... 377-378 

Although they fail to secure permanent release ... ... 378-380 

Vairagya is the only means of Knowledge : Story of the Swan 

and Milk ... ... ... ... ... 380 

Benefit of excellent company: Story of Alarka and Dattatreya 380-381 
Association with worldly-minded people is to be shunned : Story 

of the Parrot ... ... ... ... 381 

Bondage results from connection with the Guna : Story of the 

Parrot ... ... ... ... ... 382 

Passion is not appeased by enjoyment: Story of Saubhari ... 382-383 

But through seeing the faults of Prakriti ... ... 383-384 

Faults disqualify even for instruction : Story of Aja ... 384 

Example of the dirty mirror ... ... ... 384-385 

Knowledge necessarily is not perfect Knowledge : Example of 

the lotus ... ... ... ... .., 385-386 

Release is above Lordliness ... ... ... ... 386-387 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



XVll 



BOOK V : OF THE DEMOLITION OF COUNTER-THEORIES. 

PAGES. 

Performance of Mangala is necessary ... ... .. 388 

Itfoara as the Creator of the World is not proved ... ... 389-390 

The facts are satisfactorily explained by Karma ... ... 389 

I^vara as the Moral Governor of the World is not proved ... 390-394 

There is no proof of an eternal Isvara ... ... ... 394-395 

Inference of Irfvara is impossible ... ... ... 395-396 

There is no Sabda in regard to Irfvara as Creator ... ... 396-397 

Doubtful Chhdiidogya-Upanisat VI. ii. 3 explained ... 397 

A-Vidya does not belong to Purusa ... ... ... 398-400 

Samsara is not without beginning ... ... ... 399 

The nature of A- Vidy a discussed ... ... ... 400-402 

In any case, A-Vidya cannot be without beginning ... ... 403 

The causality of Dharina in Creation ... ... ... 404 

Proofs of DLarma ... ... ... ... 404-405 

Perception is not the sole proof of existence ... ... 405 

Proof of A-Dharma ... ... ... ... 405-406 

Arthapatti is not the proof of Dharma ... ... ... 406-407 

Dliarma, etc., are attributes of the Antab-Karaua ... ... 407 

The existence of the Gunas, etc., has nowhere been absolutely 

denied . Doubtful scriptures explained ... ... 407-409 

Reality of Objective Existence is established by proof ... 409-411 
Vydpti or Logical Pervasion cannot be grasped from a single 

instance ... ... ... ... ... 411-412 

Vyapti defined ... ... ... ... 412-413 

Vyapti is not a separate Tattva ... ... 413-414 

The View of the Acharyas on Vyapti ... ... 414-415 

The View of Panchaettkha ... ... ... ... 415 

Vyapti is not a power inherent in the essence of the thing ... 415-419 

Relation of Word and Object .*.. ... ... 419-420 

Proofs of the Relation of Word and Object ... ... 420-421 

W ord does not refer to acts only ... ... ... 421-422 

Probative force of Vidhis, Artluivfidas and Mantras considered... 421 
Words Kfirya-para and A-Karya-para, Sadhya-para and Siddlia- 

para ... ... ... ... 422 

Words convey the same in scriptural as in secular literature ... 423 

An objection stated ... ... ... 423-424 

Answer : The Vedic objects are not absolutely supra-sensuous ... 425-426 

How there can be intuition of supra-sensuous objects ... 426 



XV111 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGES. 

Power to denote objects is inherent in Vedic words ... ... 426-427 

Proof of the power of Vedic words to denote objects ... 427 

The Veda is not eternal ... ... ... ... 428 

The Veda is not the work of a person ... ... ... 428-429 

But still it is not eternal ... ... ... ... 430-431 

Meaning of the term "Pauruseya" ... ... .... 431-432 

The Veda itself is proof of its own authority ... ... 432-433 

Reality of Objective W orld further established ... ... 434 

Object of cognition in cases of illusion not absolutely non 
existent ... ... ... ... ... 434 

Neither is the Objective World absolutely real ... ... 434-435 

The World cannot be something else than real and unreal ... 435-437 

Nor is the World a reflection of ivhat it is not ... ... 437-438 

The World is both existent and non-existent ... ... 439-440 

The Theory of Sphota refuted ... ... ... 441-442 

Varnas or Letters are not eternal ... ... ... 442 

An objection answered ... ... ... ... 442-443 

Non-Duality of the Self refuted ... ... ... 444-445 

Unity of the Self and the Non-Self contradicted by Perception ... 445-446 

Qi utis on Non-Duality explained ... ... ... 446-447 

On the Theory of Non-Duality there can be no material cause of 

theioorld ... ... ... ... ... 447-449 

The Samkhya and the Vedanta compared ... ... 448-449 

Pseudo-Vedantins condemned ... ... ... 449 

The Self is nob Ananda or Bliss ... ... ... 449-452 

Conflicting Srutis compared : Rule of Interpretation : Place of 

Reasoning ... ... ... ... ... 452 

The Sruti on Ananda is metaphorical ... ... ... 452-453 

The purpose of such metaphorical ferutis ... ... 453-454 

The Theory that Manas is all-pervading, refuted ... ... 454 

Argument in support of the above ... ... 455 

Manas is not partless ... ... ... ... 455-456 

Objects eternal and non-eternal, distinguished ... ... 456 

Eternality of Prakrit! and Purusa defended ... ... 456-457 

Doubtful Sruti, SvetaJ^vatara-Upanisat IV. 10, explained ... 457 

Eel ease is not manifestation of Ananda... ... ... 457-458 

Eelease is not the elimination of particular attributes ... 458-459 

Neither is it the attainment of particular Worlds ... ... 459-460 

It is not the cessation of connection with objects ... ... 460 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



xix 



PAGFS. 

Total extinction of the Self is not Release ... ... 460-461 

The Void is not Release ... ... ... 461 

It is not the possession of excellent enjoyables ... ... 462 

It is not the absorption of the Jiva into Brahman ... ... 462-463 

It is not the acquisition of supernatural powers ... ... 463 

It is not the attainment of supreme power ... ... 463-464 

The Indriyas are not the products of the Elements ... ... 464 

Release is not attained through the knowledge of the Six Predic- 

ables of the Vaisesikas ... ... ... ... 465-466 

Neither through the knowledge of the Sixteen PredicaUes of the 

Naiyayikas ... ... ... ... ... 466-468 

The Ultimate Atoms of the Vaisesikas cannot be eternal ... 469-470 

The Sruti is against them ... ... ... ... 469 

Manu-Samhita I. 27, quoted and explained ... ... 469 

The Atoms are not partless ... ... ... ... 470 

The Tan-matras are the parts of the Atoms ... ... 479 

The VaiSesika Theory of Visual Perception criticised ... 471 

Magnitude is not fourfold, as maintained by the VaiSesikas ... 471-472 

.The Va\Qfiik&Theory of Eternal Genus criticised ... ... 472-473 

Genus exists ... ... ... ... 473-474 

Genus is not a negative conception ... ... 474-475 

Similarity is not a separate Tattva . . . 475 

Neither is it an inherent power of the thing ... ... 476 

Tt is not the relation of Names and Things ... ... 476-477 

Because their relation is non-eternal ... ... ... 477 

It cannot be from eternity ... ... ... ... 477-478 

The Samavfiya or Combination of the Vaisesikas does not exist ... 478-479 

Because there is no proof of it ... ... 479-480 

Aniruddha s interpretation criticised t ... ... ... 480 

Motion is perceptible also ... ... 481-482 

The Body is not composed of five Elements ... ... 482-483 

The Body is composed of one Element only ... 483 

Body is not necessarily gross ... 483-485 

Meaning of Ativahika Body ... ... ... 484 

Meaning of Body ... ... ... 484 

Proof of Ativahika Body ... ... ... ... 484 

How the Senses illuminate objects ... ... ... 485-487 

In what sense the Senses are the revealers of objects ... 487 

The Eye is not formed of Light ... ... ... 487-488 

Proof of the Vritti ormodification of the Senses ... ... 488 



XX 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGES. 

Nature of the modification of the Senses described ... ... 488-489 

The modification may be a quality as well as a substance ... 490-491 

Ahamkara is everywhere the uniform cause of the Senses ... 491 

A doubtful $ruti explained ... ... ... 491-492 

Varieties of the Gross Body. . . ... ... ... 492-493 

Earth is the only material of the Gross Body ... ... 493 494 

Prana is not the originant of the Body ... ... ... 494-41)5 

Prana is a modification of the Indriyas... ... ... 495 

The Building of the Body is due to the Self ... ... 495-496 

The superintendence of the Self is relative and not absolute ... 496-497 

Purusas are ever free ... ... ... ... 497-499 

Uses of the word Brahman in the Samkhya and the Vedanta ... 498 

Release distinguished from Deep Sleep and Trance ... 499-500 

The reality of Release demonstrated ... ... ... 500-501 

Vasana is powerless during Deep Sleep ... ... ... 501-503 

Release in life defended ... ... .... ... 503-504 

Theory of Samskara ... ... ... ... ... 504 

The Vegetable Kingdom also is a Field of Experience ... 504 506 

The evidence of the $ruti, Ohhandogya-Upanisat VI. xi. I ... 505 

The evidence of the Smriti ... ... ... ... 506 

The vegetables are not moral agents ... ... ... 506-507 

Three principal kinds of Body : Karma-Deha, Upabhoga-Deha, 

and Ubhaya-Deha ... ... ... 507-508 

A fourth kind of Body ... ... ... ... 508 

Eternality of individual Buddhi refuted ... ... ... 509-510 

Yogic Perfections defended ... ... ... ... 510 

Consciousness cannot be a product of the Elements ... ... 511-512 

BOOK VI : OF THE RECAPITULATION OF TEACHINGS. 

The Self exists ... ... ... 513 

It is different from the Body and the rest ... ... ... 514-517 

How Pur usa s aim is fulfilled ... ... ... ... 1)1 7 

Pain is more intense than Pleasure ... ... ... 517-518 

Pleasure is rare ... ... ... ... ... 518-519 

All pleasure is alloyed with pain ... ... ... ... 519 

All is pain : Yoga-Sutram II. 15 quoted ... ... ... 519 

The aim of Purusa is twofold : pleasure and absence of pain ... 520 

A doubt raised and solved ... ... ... ... 520-522 

A-Viveka is from eternity ... ... ... .. 522-523 

But it is not eternal ... ... ... ... ... 523 

Ths cause of the annihilation of A-Viveka ... 523-524 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 



xxi 



PAGES. 

Proof that Viveka is the only destroyer of A-Viveka ... ... 524-525 

A-Viveka ?s the sole cause of Bondage ... ..". ... 525 

Bondage does not over again befall the released one ... ... 525-520 

Defects in the opposite mew, pointed out ... ... ... 526-527 

Nature, of Release ... 527-528 

Conflict with the Veda avoided 528-529 

Adhikarins are of three classes . . ... ... 529 

Utility of other means of Knowledge than Hearing ... ... 530 

Misconception about Yogic Posture removed ... ... ... 530 

Dhyana defined ... ... ... ... ... 531 

Defence of Yoga ... ... ... 531-532 

A-Viveka is the cause of Upardga in Purusa ... ... ... 532 

The UparAga is not real, but is a mere conceit ... ... 532-533 

Means of the suppression of Upardga ... ... ... 533-535 

Teaching of the Ancients on the point ... ... ... 535-536 

For practice of Yoga, there is no need of any particular locality 536 

Prakriti is the material of the World ... ... ... 536-537 

Purusa cannot be the material of the World ... ... 537 

The Sruti is against the opposite view ... ... ... 537-539 

The Vaisesikas condemned ... ... ... ... 538 

Doubtful Mundaka Upanisat IT. i. 5 explained 538-539 

A misconception removed ... .. ... ... 539 

Proof that Prakriti is all-pervading ... ... ... ... 539-540 

Motion of Prakriti is not in conflict with her being the Primal 

Cause ... ... ... ... ... ,.. 540-541 

Prakriti is sui generis ... ... ... ... ... 511 

The Gtmas are not the attributes, but the very form of Prakriti... 542-543 

Purpose of Prakriti s creation . .. ... ... ... 543 

Reason for diversity of creation .., ... ... ... 544 

How the self -same Prakriti creates as well as destroys ... ... 544-545 

A ctivity of Prakriti is no bar to Release ... ... ... 545 

Creation for one Purusa does not affect another ... ... 545-546 

Multiplicity of Purusas is proved by the Veda ... ... 546-547 

Upadhi cannot explain the situation ... ... ... 547-548 

Even A-Vidya is a contradiction to the Vedantin s Non-Duality ... 548 

Other faults in the Theory of Non-Duality ... ... ... 548-549 

The Self cannot prove itself ... ... ... ... 549-550 

Light is not a property of the Self ... ... ... ..." 550-553 

Doubtful Srutis explained ... .. ... ... 553 

Reality of the World established ... ... 554-556 



xxii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGES. 

Causes of unreality ... 554 

The Universe described ... ... ... 554-555 

Doubtful Srutis, Chhandogya-Upanisat VI. i. 4 and Brahma 

Bindu Upanisat 10, explained ... ... ... 556 

The Universe is ever existent, never created ... ... 556-557 

Agency belongs to Ahamkara ... ... 557 

When Experience ceases .. ... ... ... 557-558 

How re-birth takes place after attainment of Higher Worlds ... 558-559 

Higher instruction in the Higher Worlds availeth not ... 559 

A doubtful Sruti explained ... ... ... 559-560 

How going is possible for the Self ivhich is omnipresent ... 560-562 

When and why the Self is called the Jiva-Atma ... ... 561 

Why Ananda is attributed to the Self ... ... ... 562 

Existence of the Body is dependent upon the Self ... ... 562-563 

Formation of the Body is not possible through Adristain ... 563-565 

Jiva distinguished from Purusa, i.e., Paraina-Atina... ... 565-567 

Ahamkara, and n ot I^vara, is the cause ... ... 567-568 

Brahma, Visnu, and Rudra are I^varas in a practical sense only 568 

There is no intelligent cause of Ahamkara ... ... 568-569 

Other functions of the supposed frfvara accounted for ... 569-570 

The Mahat Tattva is the Upadhi of Visnu ... .,. 570 

Causal Brahman in the Samkhya Sastra ... ... 570 

In any case, the relation of Prakrit! and Purusa is from eternity 570-571 

The view of Paiichadikha ... ... ... ... - 571-572 

The view of Sanandana ... ... ... ... 572-573 

Whatever may be its form, the dissolution of the tie between 

Prakriti and Purusa is the Supreme Good ... ... 573-575 

The contention of the Vedantin that the founder of the Sfim- 

khya is not Kapila, the Avatara of Visnu, but Kapila the 

Avatara of Agni, refuted... ... ... ... 574 

One Kapila is mentioned in all the Sastras ... ... 574 

Conflicting text of the Mahabharatam explained ... 4-575 

Appendix I. (Index of Aphorisms). 

Appendix II. (Index of words). 

Appendix III. (Index of authorities quoted). 

Appendix IV. (A catalogue of some of the important works on the 

Samkhyha). 

Appendix V. (Tattva Samasa or Kapila Sutram). 
Appendix VI. (Samkhya-Karika of Isvar Krisna). 
Appendix VII. (Pancha&kha Sutram). 



APPENDIX I. 
INDEX OF APHORISMS. 



INDEX OF APHORISMS. xv 



PAGE. 



...V, 9 ... ... ... ... 394 



. . T, c i 93 

...VI, 39 ... ... ... 542 

...V, 56 ... ... ... 439 

... ... ... ... 284 

, 131 ... ... ... ... 188 

. . . v, lie ... ... ... 497 

:...!, 69 ... ... ... .. 112 



35 srraRi ro^gta^...!!, 17 ... ... 276 

...ui, 53 ... ... ... 327 

..in, 6 ... ... ... ... 281 

- . . V, 2 ... ... ... 395 



..Il, 44 ... ... ... ... 273 

. . .VI, 36 ... ... ... ... 539 

.. 1, 116 ... ... ... 169 

...i, 4 ... ... 21 

. . . v, 1 1 2 . . . ... 493 

..nT, 56 ... ... ... ... 330 

...I 5 161 ... ... ... 227 

...n, 18 ... ... 251 



...if, 31... ... ... 262 

...I, 103 ... ... ... 154 

...1, 138 193 



. . . vi, 42 ... ... ... 548 

n ..F, 198 ... ... ... 147 

, 40 ... ... ... ... 312 

. . . v r , o ... ... 520 



...r, us ... ... ... ... 205 

:...I, 109 ... ... ... ... 162 

...I, 34 ... ... ... 56 

308 

: . . . vr, 24 ... . . ... 530 

" 99 

... 506 



xv 



INDEX OF APHORISMS, 



...II, 43 



. . in, 35 



. . . V, 3 



. . . i, 8 

...111,61 



...!, 124 



PAGE. 

... 273 

. . . 309 

. .ill, 26 . . . 301 

... 28 

... 336 

... 390 

... 1.7 8 



APPENDIX K. 
INDEX OF WORDS. 



Word Index Samkhya Pravachana Sutram. 



. _ 
* 1. 15 

ii. 32 
i. 85 
iii. 55 

: ii. 33 
r*;: v. 48... 



PAGE. 

... 156 

... 264 

... 129 

... 329 

... 266 

.., 430 

i. 122, v. 15, vi. 
67 ... 175,399,570 

fKTf^v. 48 ... 430 

i.61... ... 563 

*ftiv. 22 ... ... 378 

i. GO ... 92 

i. 126 ... 182 

iii. 59 ... 334 

[: v. 98 ... ... 477 

iv. 29 ... 384 

ii. 8 ... 240 

v. Ill ... 492 

v. 82 ... 463 

i: v. 82 463 



iii. 14, v. 87 291, 469 

L 74, vi. 35, vi. 

37 118, 539, 540 

SmT v. 87 ... 469 

5r vi. 39 ... 542 

_ . p, 

i. ^ ... ^ 



i. 155 ... 221 
I 1, i. 4, i. 59, vi. 
5 ... 12,17,21,225 
i. 1 ... 12 



PAGE. 

v. 26 ... 407 

i. 4 ... 21 

vi. 15 ... ... 524 

: i. 108 160 



i. 91, iv. 24 140, 380 

i. 16 ... 34 

ii. 23 ... 256 

. 41 ... 423 

WI i. 1 ... ... 2 

i. 79, vi. 52 122, 554 



79, vi. 52 ... 122,554 

: i. 123 ... 177 

i. 158, vi. 37 ... 224, 540 
vi. 37 ... 540 



*. 30, ii. 36, vi. 61, 

vi. 65 ... 54, 269, 563, 568 

STCf vi. 61 ... 563 

^5TT^i. 30 ... 53 

i. 156 ... 222 

s: iii. 20, v. 129, 295,511 

. 50 ... 431 

ii. 36 ... 269 

vi. 65 ... 568 

i. 154 ... 216 

f i. 157, v. 61 223, 444 
ftftfcre: i. 154 216 

iv. 21 ... 377 

^qtqT GT^ iv. 21 377 

ii. 13 ... 246 

ii. 5 ... 237 



xvili WORD 1NDEX-SAMKHYA PRAVAGHANA SUTRAM. 



PAGE. 

i. 152 ... 212 

: ii. 5 ... 237 

ii. 42 ... 272 

vi. 22 ...529 

iii. 76 ... 352 

vi. 22 ... 115, 529 
stfT^iii. 76 .. 352 
iii. 11 ... 287 
iii. 3 ... 390 
i. 142, v. 114 

197, 495 

ii. 23 ... 256 
i. 96, i. 99 145, 148 
: v. 115 ... 496 
v. 2 ... 389 
i. 64 ... 567 
i. 8 ... 28 
iii. 61 ... 336 
v. 34 ... 416 
.119 501 



i. 27, ii. 3 51, 235 

: vi. 12, vi. 67 521, 570 

iii. 62 ... 336 
rcWW ii. 3 ... 235 

lWiri.158 ... 224 

iv. 12 ... 369 

i. 83, vi. 17 128, 525 

ST^: i. 83 ... 128 

J vi. 17 ... 525 

ri. 124, v. 72 178,456 

. 97 ... 477 

. 91 ... 472 

iii. 25 ... 299 
iii. 25 ... 299 

i. 26 49 



PAGE. 

v. 54 ... 435 

iv. 8 ... 366 

vi. 13 ... 523 

. 2 ... 19 

i. 11 ... 30 

i. <J ... 28 

Jv. 35 ... 417 

vi.4() ... 543 

i. 22 ... 20 
i. 100, i. 135, v. 
11, v. 100,152, 19 i, 395,479 
ii. 43 . 
i. 60 . 



273 

1)2 



*v. 101 
-vi. 35 

iii. 77 
i. 156 

i. 82 



: v. 125 
i. 8 



... 481 

... 539 

... 352 

... 222 

... 126 

... 508 

... 28 

... 309 

i,8 ... 28 

i. 124 .. 178 

ii. 28 ... 259 

. 25 ... 407 
i. 64, i. 99 

103, 148 

r^ v. 25 ... 407 
v. 22, vi. 16, vi. 53 

405, 525, 556 

: ii. 19, v. 94, v. 107 

252, 475, 488 

vi. 20 ... 527 

vi. 20 ... 527 
i. 156, iii. 81 222, 356 

i. 156 ... 222 






WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PRAVACHANA SUTRAM. 



xx 



PAGE. 

iii. 81 ... 356 

iii. 15 ... 203 

i. 105 ... 157 
i. 17, i. 57, i. 153, iii. 
66, iv. 2, v. 64, v. 93, 

v. 109, vi. 44 35, 86, 213, 
330, 367, 446, 474, 401, 545 

i. 127 ... 183 



i. 127 



... 183 



. 72, vi. 06 456, 560 
i. 93 ... 143 
^m: i.75 ... 118 
WTT^i. 03 ... 143 
i. 120, ... 187 
i. 134, v. 16 100, 400 
v, 117 ... 400 
i. 26, v. 55, v. 100, 
v. 114, vi. 12, vi. 13, 
vi. 18 .40, 437, 470, 

405, 521, 523, 526 

wnfir v. 55 ... 437 

: v. 100 ... 470 

i. 17, i. 153 35, 213 

i . 16 ... 34 

f v. 03 ... 474 

. 64 ... 446 

ii. 8 ... 240 



iii. 66 ... 330 



iv. 2 ... 362 

i. 57 ... 86 

i. 32 ... 536 

v. 14 ... 308 

v. 14 ... 308 

. 100 ... 401 

vi. 44 ... 545 

vi. 15, vi. 63 524565 



i. 15, 



i. 63, 

i. 122 
iii. 65 
iii. 10 
. 101 






PAGE. 

524, 565 
... 175 
... 330 
... 205 
... 481 
: v. 101 ... 481 

v. 128 ... 510 

i. 112, i. 137, i. 
147, v. 20. 164, 103, 203, 404 
i. 45 ... 67 
vi. 34 ... 537 
v. 105 ... 487 
i. 50 ... 9 
i. 30 ... 
i. 2, i. 4, i. 5, i. 0, i. 
13, i. 18, i. 20, i. 26, i, 
27, i. 28, i. 40, i. 46, 
i. 52, i. 55, i. 59, i. 68, 
i. 74, i. 82, i. 85, i. 87, 
i. 04, i. 07, i. 105, i. 
108, i. 112, i. 150, i. 
153, i. 158, ii. 8, ii. 24, 
ii. 36, iii. 27, iii. 28, 
iii. 51, iii. 55, iii. 58, 
iii. 50, iii. 66, iii. 68, 
iii. 69, iii. 70, iii. 77, 
iv. 2, iv. 10, iv. 12, iv. 
13, iv. 16, iv. 17, iv. 22, 
iv. 30, iv. 31, iv. 32, 
v. 7, v. 12, v. 18, v. 23, 
v. 49, v. 50, v. 62, v. 70, 
v. 80, v. 82, v 83, v. 86, 
v. 91, v. 06, v. 100, 
v. 103, v. 100, v. 118, 
v. 110, v. 121, v. 125, 
v. 126, v. 128, v. 129, 



xx WORD INDEXSAMKBYA PRAVAGHANA SUTRAM. 



PAGE. 

vi. 3, vi. 7, vi. 8, vi. 
11, vi. 15, vi. 17, vi. 
21, vi. 26, vi. 27, vi. 33, 
vi. 35, vi. 37, vi. 40, 
vi. 44, vi. 47, vi. 48, vi. 
56, vi. 59, vi. 67. ..19, 21,22, 
28, 32, 37, 43, 49, 51, 51, 60, 
70,75, 77,91, 111,118, 126, 
129, 132,144, 147, 157, 160, 
164, 208, 213, 224, 240, 256, 
269, 302, 303, 326, 329, 333, 
334. 339, 342, 343, 344, 352, 
362, 367, 369, 369, 373, 
374, 378, 384, 385, 386, 392, 
396, 402, 405, 430, 431, 445, 
4.61,462, 463, 463, 466, 472, 
476, 479, 483, 491, 500, 501, 
504, 508, 509, 510, 511, 515, 
518,519, 521, 525, 525, 528, 
531, 532, 537, 539,540, 543, 
545, 548, 548, 550, 560, 570 
" vi. 9 ... 520 

i. 47, i. 82, 
vi. 18 ... 70, 126, 526 
v. 78 ... 460 
r. 41, v. 48 

423, 430 

v. 104 ... 485 
b i. 24, v. 58 48, 442 
v. 104 ... 485 

; ... 28 

t:v. 104 ... 485 
Hi 127 ... 183 
. 35, i. 79, v. 56 

57, 122, 439 
. 17 ... 401 
ri.45 67 



PAGE. 

i. 63 ... 102 
v. 73 ... 456 
l iii. 21 ... 296 

i. 43, i. 67, i. 80, 
i. 93, i. 138, i. 158, v. 
10, v. 11, v. 46, v. 54, 
v. 99, vi. 9, vi. 33, vi. 
44, vi. 48, vi. 52, vi. 
64 ... ... 64, 

111, 124, 143, 193, 224,394, 
395, 428, 435, 478, 520, 537, 
545, 548, 554, 567 
i. 43, i. 80 64, 124 
> ... 274 
:ii.l6, vi.28, 249,532 
i. 120 ... 172 
;: v. 59, v. 74, v. 
95 ... 442,457,475 
^T i. 120 172 
: v. 51 ... 432 
: vi. 6 ... 517 
i. 84 ... 128 
v. 47 ... 429 
: i. 125 ... 180 
iii. 58 ... 333 
i. 28 ... 51 
vi. 29 ... 533 
iii. 36, iii. 75 

309, 348 
i i. 67... ... HI 

i. 15, i. 46 33, 70 

^ i. 20, i. 31, i. 39, 
i. 81, i. 145. ..43, 54, 60,125, 

200 

- v. 47 ... 429 
v. 44 427 



WORD I^DEXSAMKHYA PRAVACHANA StiTRAM. xxi 



PAGE. 

ii. 8 ... 246 

i. 20 ... 49 

ii. 40 ... 274 

1 ... ... 12 

. 2, v. 100, v. 107 

302, 488, 488 

i. 3 ... ... 20 

v. 37 ... 4J9 

v. 24 ... 400 

v. 92 ... 473 

v. 22 ... 405 

: i. 100 ... 158 

v. 27 ... 409 

v. 82 403 



16 



106 



403 
150 
557 
122 
43 
122 
33 
258 
312 
312 
270 
140 
140 
;: iii. 08, vi. 12, vi. 

342, 512, 525 
vi. 08 ... 571 
q i. 57, iii. 74 

80, 347 

re vi. 08 ... 571 
v. 64 ... 440 
i. 55, i. 57, i. 
iii. 71, vi. 11, vi. 



: i. 104 

r vi. 55 

i. 78 

i. 20 

i. 79 

i. 14 

ii. 27 

iii. 41 

iii. 41 
% ii. 38 
i. 90 

i. 90 



PAGE. 

27 ... 77,80, 158,345,521, 

532 

v. J3, v. 05 ...398, 447 
n i. 20 ... 43 
: v. 13 ... 398 
: vi. 21 ... 528 
vi. 48 ... 548 
i. ... 93 
vi. 19, vi. 26. ..526, 531 
i. 85, iii. 1...129, 218 
iii. 4 ... 286 
: vi 19 ... 526 
i- ^08 ... 160 
i. 82 ... 12G 
.82 ... 120 
i. 136 192 

ii. 41 ... 079 

i. 120 179 

. 124 ... 17 g 

i. 9 ... 28 

: iii. 38 ... 3n 

i. 11 ... 30 

&: i. 9 ... 28 

ii. 42... 272 

^RTHIKcgrT^ii.42 272 
iii. 40 QIO 

<_/ J. j 

i. 13, iii. 38 

14, 311 

iv, 3 ... 363 
i. 114, v. 56 107, 439 

v. 52 ... 434 

i. 94 ... 144 
i. 114 ... 107 
i. 87 ... 132 



87 



132 



xxii WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PRAVACHANA SfJTRAM. 



PAGE. 

: i. 15... ... 33 

vi. 10 ... 520 

srjh vi. io ... 520 

i. 49, i. 11(3, vi. 

16, vi. 53, vi. 61, vi. 62, 72, 

169, 525, 556, 563, 564 

: vi. 28 ... 532 

vi. 61 ... 563 

. 109 ... 491 
i. 13 

v. 100 ... 491 



i. 33, v.99, vi. 1... 55, 
478, 513 

vi. 1 ... 513 
i. 27, vi. 14 51,523 
v. 112 ... 493 

iv. 8 ... 366 

^ iv. 8 ... 366 
:i. 88, i. Ill ...137, 163 
f:i.34,i.92, v. 127 56, 
142, 509 
i. 2... ... 514 

rc i. 61,i.72, ii. 16, 
vi. 54, vi. 62, vi. 64 ... 93, 
117, 249, 557, 564, 567 
i. 61, ii. 18. ..93, 251 
vi. 64 ... 567 
i. 63 ... 102 
v. 84 ... 464 
v. 84 ... 464 



irc tflft vi. 62 ... 564 

iv. 6 ... 365 



i. 89, v. 77 138, 460 

r^&f^n v. 77... 460 

i. 51 ... 73 

i. 15 208 



ii 12 

i. 107 
v. i 

v L 

. 3L 
vi. 30 
i. 125, iii. 72 



PAGE. 

245 

160 
388 
388 
414 



180, 
345 

v. 57 ... 441 
ii. 26 ... 257 
: i. 95, ii. 29, v. 61, 
vi. 10, vi. 33 ... 144, 

256, 444, 520, 537 



. 62 
: vi. 34 



... 445 

... 537 

... 523 

447, 513 

... 346 

... 244 

... 244 

... 302 



v. 65, vi. 1 
iii. 73 ... 
ii. II ... 
ii. 11 ... 
iii. 27 ... 

v. L03 ... 483 
i. 26, i. 54, i. 126, i. 
128, i. 139, i. 141, i. 
149, ii. 10, ii. 28, iii. 
21, iii. 43, iii. 46, v. 
49, v. 77, v. 78, v. 80, 
v. 82, v. 83, v. 126, vi. 
2, vi. 10, vi.56 ... 49, 
75, 182, 185, 195, 196, 207, 
242, 259, 296, 315, 323, 430, 
460, 460, 462, 463, 463, 509, 
514, 520, 558 
i.157 ... 223 
. 77, v.78 ... 460, 
460 



WORD INDEX SAMKRYA PRAVACRANA S&TRAM. xxiii 



Fi. 33 

iii. 53 

: i. 60, vi. 29 



i v. 82 

i. 25, v. 109, 
61 ... 48, 
v. 86 



v. 25, v. 121 



:i. 129 
i. 71 
i. 118, vi. 32 



i. 127 



vi. 32 

i. 88 
vi. 38 
v. 32, v. 30 



r: v. 32 

Mir v. 3 1 

iii 43 

^ iii. 
v. 74 
v.66 

: v. 74 
iv. 15 
: vi. 19 
: i. 113 
i. 101 
: ii. 45 
: i. 101 
* cf iii. 47 



iv. so 



PAGE. 

... 55 
... 327 
... 92, 

533 

... 463 
vi. 

491, 563 
... 466 
... 407, 

504 

.... 187 
... 116 
... 205, 

536 

"... 118 
... 183 
... 536 
... 157 
... 541 
... 415, 

417 

... 415 
.. 417 
... 315 
43 315 
... 457 
... 449 
... 457 
... 371 
... 526 
... 165 
... 153 
... 274 
... 153 
... 324 

384 



. 114 

.121 
TrJ^ vi. 55 

i. 153 



PAGE. 

... 495 
... 504 

... 557 
213 



ii. 11, iii. 1 ... 244, 278 
p. 21, v. 113... 254, 
494 

ii. 21 ... 254 
ETr^iii. 4, iii. 47 ... 280, 
324 

l iii. 52, iv. 3, iv. 
22, vi. 56 ... 326, 
363,378,558 



iii 35 

v. 126, v. 127 
" v. 14 

v.128 



v. i 
iii. 11 
i. 124 
ii. 32 
iii. 34, vi. 24 



64 



.. 309 

.. 509, 

.. 398 

.. 500 

.. 509 

.. 287 

.. 178 

.. 300 

.. 308, 
530 

.. 253 
: ii. 20, iii. 

253, 338 



iii. 04, v. 82 ... 338,463 
ii. 7... ... 282 

iii. 81 ... 356 
. 82 ... 463 
iii. 64 ... 338 
iv. 22 ... 378 
iii. 5, iii. 8, iii. 27 

280, 283, 302 



xxiv WORD INDEX SAMKHFA PRAVAGHAKA SUTRAM. 



PAGE. 

: iii. 42 ... 314 
iii. 45, iii. 84. ..322, 359 
i. 15, i. 54, i. 61, i. 
68, i.lll,i. 132, i. 142, 
i. 163, iii. 18, iii. 11), 
iii. 75, v. 1, v. 31, v. 
32, v. 80, v. 103, v. 
107, v. Ill, vi. 7, vi. 
8, vi. 9, vi. 24, vi. 30, 
vi. 69. ..33, 75, 93, 111, 163, 
189, 197, 229, 294, 295, 348, 
388, 414, 4H, 462, 483, 488, 
492, 518, 518, 520, 530, 535, 

572 

i. 159 ... 
. 83 ... ... 

^^m! v. 83 ... 
ii.19, ii. 32, v. 113 

252, 264, 494 
i. 61, ii. 23 93, 256 
. 69 ... 454 
ii. 32 ... 264 
v. 113 ... 494 



225 
463 
463 



i. 108, iv. 18. ..160, 375 
ii. 39 ... 270 
! ii. 19 ... 252 

ii. 29, v. 84, v. 
104 259, 464, 485 
r i. 28, i. 60, i. 150, i. 
159, iii. 26, iv. 21, v. 
59, v. 118, vi. 28... 51, 92, 
208, 225, 301, 377, 442,>500, 

532 
iv. 14 370 



iii. 57... 



331 



PAGE. 

i. 92, iii. 57, v. 2, 
vi. 64 .,. 142, 331, 389, 569 
vi. 64 ... 567 
J iii. 57 ... 331 
I ... 389 
: i. 92 142 



iii. 68 ... 342 
i. 162 ... 228 
i. 56, v. 75, v. 

77, v. 78, vi. 70 ... 82, 458, 
460, 460, 573 



J v. 82 
: i. % 159 



... 463 
... 225 
... 148 
22 
22 

... 60 
... 548 
... 60 
i. 73, vi. 73... 117, 530 
^H iii 52 



i. o ... 

i. 5 
i. 39 ... 

vi. 48... 

i. 39 



iii. 54 



i. 77, ii. 22 
: vi. 53 
i. 123 



: iii. 8 
: i. 114 
i. 11 ... 
v. 31 ... 
: ii. 36, iii. 22 
v. Ill 

i. 65 
i. 97 
i; 26 



.. 326 
... 327 
121, 155 
... 556 
... 177 
... 283 
... 167 
... 30 
... 414 
269, 297 
... 492 
... 568 
... 147 
49 



I 



WORD INDEX-SAMKEYA PRAVAGHANA SIJTRAM. xxv 



i. 31 






PAGE. 
... 54 

i. 31 ... 54 
:f>TT5n i. 31 54 

iii. 29 ... 304 
v. 50 ... 431 
i. 108 ... 160 
i. 9 ... 28 
i. 7, i. 9. 26, 28 
:i. 98, i. 101, i. 102, 
iv. 2, iv.17, iv. 29 ... 147, 
153, 153, 362, 374, 384 
iv. 17 ... 374 
iii. 99 ... 354 
7. l,iv. 3, vi.57 361, 
363, 559 
: iv. 29 ... 384 
iii. 79 354 



i. 105, v. 124. ..157, 507 

iii. 5 ... 280 
iii. 77, vi. 44. ..352, 545 
i. 28 ... 51 

i. 28 ... DI 

! i. 28 ... 51 
i. 27 ... 51 
ii- 34, vi 26, vi. 
27, vi. 28... 267, 531, 532,532 
i- 29, i. 164, ii. 



15 ... 53,229,248 
iii. 66 ... 339 
^KtsrT^ vi. 26 ... 531 
v. 77 ... 460 
i. 109 ... 162 
i. 110, v. 94, v. 95 

163, 475, 475 
ii. 34 ... 267 
* ii. 34 267 



PAGE. 

iii. 70 ... 344 
iv. 19 ... 375 
vi. 44 ... 545 
iii. 30 ... 304 
iv. 25 ... 381 

i. 115, v. 65, v. 
102 ... 168, 447, 482 

* i. 76, iv. 23, 
v. 112 ... 120, 380,493 
i. 81 ... 125 
i. 81 ... 125 
v. 102 482 



v. 109, vi. 32 

491, 536 
i. 115 ... 168 
: iv. 23 ... 380 
i. 57 ... 73 
:i. 151, vi. 46. ..210, 547 
i. 150 ... 208 
[^ i. 51, vi. 59 

73, 560 

fiv. 21 ... 377 
iv. 21 ... 377 
iv. 13 ... 369 
i. 95 ... 144 
iv.32 ... 386 
iv. 32 386 



i. 40, i. 46, i. 102, 
i. 103, i. 129, i. 160, 
ii. 26, v. 91, v. 124 ...60,70, 
153, 154, 187, 226, 257, 477, 

507 
I i. 61, i. 107, v. 65 

93, 160, 447 
W i. 47, i. 94, v. 39, 
vi. 26 ... 70, 144, 421, 531 



xxvi WORD IWDEXSAMKRYA PRAVAGHANA BUTE AM. 



PAGE. 

v. 23, v. 100... 405, 479 

cSn^ i. 

46 ... ... 70 

: i. 160 ... 226 
i. 102, i. 103 

153, 154 

ii. 26 ... 257 

v. 97 ... 477 

i. 129 ... 187 

5 i. 6, ii. 28, iii. 36, 
iv.4,iv. 28, v. 24, v. 29, 

vi. 19 ... ... 23, 

259, 301, 363, 383, 406, 412, 

526 

WT*ri v. 63 .. 446 

TOT* iii. 66 ... 339 

^ii. 36 ... 269 

i. 89 ... 138 

TOW v. Ill ... 492 



Ill ... 

vi. 40 ... 



vi. 40 



iii. 48 
5 iii. 44 



... 492 
... 543 
58, 
333, 543 



... 325 
319 



i. 19, i. 59, iii. 71, iv. 
17, v. 6. ..37, 91, 345,374,391 



v. 120 
iii. 9 



PAGE. 

... 503 

... 284 

J. 31 ... 51 

Ti. 112 ... 164 

i. 68 ... Ill 

ii.2J ... 256 

i. 112 ... 164 
i. 75, iii. 65, v. 
29 ... 118, 339, 412 

! i. 112 ... 164 

i. 153 ... 213 

i. 152 ... 212 

i. 29 ... 53 

553^q?Tm^ i. 29 53 

SMMJ iii. 19 ... 295 

~ HI iii. 73 ... 346 
i. 150, iii. 8, v. 66 

208, 283, 449 

i 87 132 



i. 33 
* iii. 71 
. 115 



i. 31 



54 



... 345 
... 496 

ii. 17 .., 250 
ii. 18, ii. 19 251,252 
C3r%iii. 18 ... ... 294 

qfrvi. 62 ... ... 564 

iii. 66, iv. 10, v. 63, 
v. 101, vi. 16 ... 339, 
367, 446, 481, 525 
* i. 152, i. 158, iii. 28, 
iii. 42, v. 18, v. 23, v. 
79, v. 86, vi. 26... 212, 224, 
303, 3] 4, 402,403, 461, 466, 

531 
ii. 11 244 



WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PRAVACHAKA SUTEAM. xxvii 



f* i. 163,iii.65. 

v. 128 

121 



PAGE. 

229, 
339 
510 

504 



. 



vi. 7 

ii. 31, ii. 36 
ii. 38 ... 
v. 69 



i. 117 



... 239 
... 239 
... 518 
259, 269 
... 270 
... 454 
... 169 
... 269 
... 259 
330, 557 
158, 428 
549, 567 
... 229 

ii. 19, ii. 46, ii. 47, 
iii. 10, iii. 35, iii. 51, 
iii. 67, v. 124, vi. 41, 
vi. 49, vi. 55, vi. 67... 259, 
274, 276, 286, 309, 326, 341, 
507, 544, 549, 557, 570 
5 vi. 49 549 



11. :D 

ii. 29 
iii. 56, vi. 54 
: i. 106. v. 46 



vi. 49, vi. 64 
i 164 



v, 124, ... ... 507 

: vi. 67 ... 570 
iii. 67 . 341 



iii. 10 ... 286 
iii. 51, vi. 41 

320, 544 

: i. 81 ... 185 

i. 16, i. 52, v. 2 ... 34, 

73, 389 



PAGE. 

i. 32, iii. 60 55, 335 
iii. 62 .., 336 
v. 1 23 ... 506 
5[tfc ii. 19 252 



ii. 25, v. 30 257, 413 

ii. 25 ... 257 

iv. 25 ... 381 
i. 85 ... ... 129 

i. 19, i. 38, i. 78, i. 
121, i. 135, vi. 14, vi. 
52 ... 59, 72, 110, 173, 
191, 523, 554 
v. 65 ... 447 
vi. 37 ... 540 
iii. 25, v. 6 ... 299, 
391 

i. 118 ... 170 

: i. 121 ... 173 

iii. 54 ... 327 

i. 155 ... 221 

i. 56 ... 82 

i. 135 ... 191 



i. 34, i. 38, i. 71, i. 
110, ii. 14, ii. 17,v. 20, 
vi. 36, vi. 64 ... 56, 59, 116, 
163, 247, 250, 404, 

539, 567 
^ 

i. 38 ... 59 



* i. 73, i. 129, iii. 8, 
v. 45, v. 87, vi. 32 ... 117, 
187, 283, 428, 469, 536 
: v. 45, vi. 32... 428, 
536 

v. 12 ... 396 
: i. 137, ii. 6 193, 238 
v. 58 442 
v. 88 ... 470 



xxviii WORD IKDEXSAMKHYA PRAVACHANA SC7TRAM. 



PAGE. 

: v. 58 ... 442 
i. 110, vi. 36. ..163, 
539 
vi. 42 544 



;: vi. 64 ... 567 

i. 135 ... 191 

v. 39 ... ... 421 

-i. 97... ... 147 

5FT53i. 12, i. 31, iv 20, vi. 
59 ... 31, 54, 376, 560 

i: iv. 20 ... 376 

r: i. 12 .. 31 

: iii. 60 ... 335 

ii. 12 ... 245 

r. 125 ... 508 

vi. 28... ... 532 

v. 120 ... 503 

fiCTTH&fo: v. 120 ... 503 

F: v. 101 ... 481 

ii. 45 ... 274 

ii. 39 ... 270 

r; i. 80 ... 124 

vi. 7 ... 518 

SFfcvi. 34.. 537 



i. 34 ... 537 

i. 80 ... 124 

fmfiv. 9... ... 367 

teNraq;iv.9 ... 367 

iii. 70 ... ... 344 

iii. 70 ... 344 

ii. 35 ... 268 

I: i. 4 ... ... 21 

iv. 15, v. 50, vi. 5 

371,431, 517 

: v. 50 ... 431 

vi. 5 517 



PAGE. 



iii. 54, iii. 84, 
iv. 17, iv. 32, vi. 5 

327, 359,374,386, 517 

iv. 15 ... 371 

iv. J9 ... 375 

iii. 14... ... 291 

: iii. 14 .. 291 

I* i. 14 ... 199 

^ iii. 73 ... 291 

ii. 32 ... 264 

ii. 10 ... 242 

ii. 33 ... 266 

: ii. 33 ... 266 

pfSH vi. 6 ... 517 



i. 34 

v. 77 



i. 46 



56 

460 

380 

20 

70 



v. 55, v. 66... 437, 439 
v. 52 434 



T*m i. 61 93 

i. 48, i. 51, v. 70, v. 
76, vi. 37, vi. 59 ... 71, 

73, 455, 459, 540, 560 

vi. 37 ... 540 

WM * i O ^71 

* Tq^ i . 4o ... /l 

nfaSTfa: i 51 73 



v. 



70, vi. 59^|. 

455, 560 



WORD INDEX SAMKRYA PEAVACHANA SIJTRAM. xxix 



iii. 51 



iii. 51 



PAGE. 

... 326 
... 326 
... 55 



i. 33 ... 
i. 125, ii.27, ii. 39, ii. 
45, iv. 26, v. 75... 180, 

258, 270, 274, 382, 458 
ii. 27 ... 258 

ii. 45 ... 274 

iv. 26 ... 382 



: I 125 ... 180 

i. 127, i. 128. ..183, 185 

v. 26 ... 407 

v. 107 ... 488 

iv. 13 ... ... 369 

v. 121... ... 504 

S v. 67 ... ... 452 

v. 28 ... 411 



5T 

v. 71 ... 455 

v. 59 ... 442 

: i. 150 ... 208 

i. 50, i. 129. ..72, 187 



i. 6, i. 16, i. 22, i. 36, 
i. 37, i. 54, i. 63, i. 

77, i. 79, i. 107, i. 113, 
i. 118, i. 128, i. 132, i. 
142, i. 144, i. 163, ii. 5, 

c\ci * o <n * * Or" * * 

11. 22, 11. 32, 11. oo, 11 
43, iii. 4, iii. 12, iii. 15, 
iii. 21, iii. 36, iii. 67, iii. 

78, iii. 80, v. 1, v. 26, 
v. 35, v. 80, v. 85, v. 
lll,v. 122, v. 127, v. 



PAGE. 

129, vi. 48, vi. 59 ... 23, 34, 
45,58,58, 75, 102,121, 
122, 160, 165, 170,185, 
189, 197,199,229,237, 
255, 264, 268, 273, 280, 
288,293,296,309,341, 
354,355,388,407,417, 
462,465,492,506,509, 
511, 548, 560 

iii. 82 ... 356 

vi. 56 ... ... 558 

vi. 56 ... 558 

i. 72 ... ... 117 

v. 105 ... 487 

i. 156 ... 222 

iii.-69 ... 343 

iii. 18 ... 294 

v. 90 ... 471 

i. 104, vi. 50, vi. 55... 156, 
550, 557 

i. 58, vi. 31 ... 88, 
536 

vi. 31 ... 536 

i. 164 ... 229 

i. 58 ... 88 

i. 104 . .. 156 

vi. 55 ... 557 

: vi. 50 ... 550 

i 146 ... 201 

iii. 12 ... 288 



i. 10, i. 18, i. 23, i. 
30, i. Ill, i. 119, iii. 
22, v. 8, v. 9, v. 24, v. 
60, vi. 9, vi. 26, vi. 46, 
vi. 61 ... 29, 37, 45, 54, 
163, 171, 297, 392, 394, 406, 
443, 520, 531, 547, 563. 



xxx WORD 1NDEX-SAMKHYA PRAVACBANA SUTRAM. 





PAGE. 




PAGE. 


^ ^ v 


. . 239 


5KTJJ1T v. 1 1 1 


492 


^^T^5IT^ 11. 7 


%cf% iv. 29 


... 384 


3T55 i. 84, vi. 61 


128, 


%^[^T^ i. 3 


... 20 




563 

P" /" O 


%gf iii. 51 


... 326 


""STcSi l^^l ri vi. ul ... 


563 . 


^ifyd iii. 59, iii. 61 


... 334, 


R. 01 


128 


TM^^T^ i. 84 




336 


STFKTWrf iii. 26 


301 


tflPT* iii. 20, v. 129 


... 295, 

r"i 1 


5T1^7 i S5 


128 

1-\ r\ 




511 


3rrrrarHr^ i. o4 


28 
o i f* 


9 




STTin^^c^T^ i. 154 
5!T^nTT^^T5 i. 38 


216 

59 


W.JX, OQ 


... 307 


^Tracer vi. 63 


565 


e3S|i? if^rViii ^ 411 i ^jT ill, t ) r_) 


SPTTT^ iii. 12 


... 288 


*ft^gTf>s iii. 78 


354 




... 365 


^t^Trt i. 97 


147 


IC^^Ifi ^?^ ^1 fl IV / 






*f* i. 100 ... 


152 






^rir^Ti 22 ... 


20 


* 








3T*T^ v. 65, vi. 52 


... 447, 


cT 






554 


^TST^W iv, 31 


385 


giro: v. 18... 


... 402 


rfcP i. 65 


106 


- * n 


... 554 


cf^ i. 2, i. 3, i. 4, i. 19, 




*JfMCv!f{?4CS| VI. fJ<^ 


_ * cr 


... 447 


i. 40, i. 43, i. 49, i. 55, 




3I*T <*M | <^ f "t 1l *v<!J V. DO 


5T? i. 145 


... 200 


i. 56, i. 57, i. 62, i. 71, 




3f^ vi. 50 


... 550 

... 200 


i. 73, i. 74, i. 77, i. 80, 

i. 82, i. 87, i. 88, i. 89, 






* r* f\ 


... 550 


i. 93, i. 96, i. 99, i. 102, 
i. 106, i. 109, i. 110, i. 




3Tvg<aiT^Tn vi. 50 


5T?*T i. 149, iv. 22 


... 207, 


Ill, i. 125, i. 133, i. 






378, 


135, i. 137, i. 147, i. 




5C?*3rJt: iv. 22 


... 378 

OAT 


153, ii. 2, ii. 3, ii. 6, ii. 




si Wn^^l^^lcf i. 149 


207 


8, ii. 14, ii. 17, ii. 22, 




__ . r , ^-^V 


... 122, 


ii. 34, ii. 46, iii. 3, iii. 8, 




^^(cc|T^ i. 79, vi. 52 




554 


iii. 11, iii. 14, iii. 22, 






- 427 iii. 31, iii. 55, iii. 64, 




... s 


5TT vi. 28 ... 


... 532 

f O C) 


iii. 79, iii. 83, iv. 16, 

6\ -% c\ r* rj 




Sf^T^^jfe^F^T* vi. 28 


5o^ 


iv. 31, v. 2, v. 6, v. 7, 




5W iii. 53 


-... 327 


v. 10, v. 14 v. 19, v. 21, 






... 327 


v. 44, v. 46, v. 49, v, 50, 




^r^t^ STt^SI 111. 53 



WORD INDEX SAMKUYA PRAVAGEANA SfJTRAM. xxxi 



PAGE. 

v. 54, v.61, v. 71, v. 85, 
v. 87, v. 90, v. 92, v. 
95, v. 105, v. 108, v. 
110, v. 112, v. 113, v. 
117, vi.8,vi. 11, vi. 29, 
yi. 39, vi. 46, vi. 49, 
vi. 51, vi. 55, vi. 58, 
vi. 61, vi. 62, vi. 70... 19, 
20, 21,37,6-), 64, 72, 77, &2, 
86, 99, 116, 117, 118, 121, 
124, 126, 132, 137, 138, 143, 
145, 148, 153, 158, 162, 163, 
163, 180, 190, 191, 197, 203, 
213, 234, 235, 238, 240, 247, 
250, 255, 267, 274, 279, 283, 
287, 291, 297, 305, 329, 338, 
354, 357, 373, 385, 389, 391, 
392, 394, 398, 403, 404, 427, 
428, 430, 431,435, 444,455, 
465,469, 471, 473, 475, 487, 
490, 491, 493, 494, 499, 519, 
521, 533, 542, 547, 549, 553, 
557, 558, 563, 564, 573 
: v. 146 ... 428 

fsf cf^f^ ii. 46, vi. 
55 ... ... 274, 



ii. 14, ii. 17 ... 247, 
250 

: i. 137 ... 193 
i. 73, iii. 8 ... 117, 
283 

^r:v. 87 ... 489 
iii.l? ... 324 
I i. 33, i. 83, iii. 51, v. 
64, vi. 21 ... 55, 
128, 326, 446, 528 
J \. 44, i. 107, iii, 75, 



PAGE. 

iv. t, v. 94, v. 107 ... 66, 
160, 348, 361, 475, 488 
iii. 66 ... 339 

i. 107 ... 160 

v. 30, v. 94, v. 107, 

... 413, 475,488 

iii. 75 ... 348 

iv. 1 ... 361 

... 431 

i. 147 ... 203 

i. 3 ... 20 

i. 87 ... 132 

i. 96 ... 145 

i.4... ... 21 

i. 135 ... 191 



: i. 2, i. 80, i. 82, 

1. 93, i. 125, i. 153, ii. 3, 
ii. 8, iii. 31, iii. 32, iii. 
79, iii. 83, v. 6, v. 10, 
v.21,v.44, vi. 11, vi 29. ..19, 
124, 126, 143, 180, 213, 235, 
240, 305, 306, 354, 357, 391, 

394, 404, 427, 521, 533 
J i. 106, i. 137, ii. 

2, ii. 6, v. 2, v. 105, v. 

113, vi. 51 ... .158, 
193, 234, 238, 389, 487, 494, 

553 

i. 88, v. 14,vi.46, 
vi. 49, vi. 58 ... 137, 
398, 547, 549, 558 
i. 112, ii. 42, iii. 7, 
iv. 10, vi. 6 ... 164, 
272, 282, 367, 517 
: v. 117 ... 499 
57, i. 133 ... 86, 
190 



xxxii WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PRAVACHANA S&TRAM. 



iii. U 
v. 85 
i. 43, v. 54 



i. 40, i. 43 
v. 01 
i. 19, i. 55 

i. 40 



PAGE. 

... 287 

... 405 

... 64, 

435 

...40,04 
... 444 
...37,77 

... oo 



... 455, 471, 490 
i. 19 ... 37 
v. 7, v. 14, v. 40... 392, 
398, 430 

i. 80 ... 124 
ii. 40 ... 274 
v. 41 ... 423 
iv. 31 ... 385 
vi. 39 542 
v. 19 ... 403 
: v. 92 ... 473 



iv. 19, iv. 24, v. 75, 
v. 83 ... ... 375, 

380, 458, 403 
iii. H ... 287 
iii. 11 ... 287 
n: v HO, v. 112, 

... 491,493 
i. 74 ... 118 
i. 151 ... 210 
iv. 16 ... 373 
iii. 3 _ 279 

iii. 12 ... 288 

i. 49, vi. 61, 
i- 62 ... ... 72, 

563, 564 
: i. Ill 163 



PAGE. 

i. 89 ... 138 

:ii. 22 ... 255 

rt i. 77 ... 121 

U. 56 ... 82 

ScT^n^ i. 99 ... 149 

: i. 102 153 



ft i. 109 ... .162 

: i. 110, v. 95 163, 
475 

ii. 62 ... 99 

i. 61 ... 93 

ii. 34 ... 267 

: iii. 49 ... 325 

i. 61... ... 93 

iii. 49 325 



: i. 134, iv. 18 ... 190, 375 
iii. 13 ... 290 
i. 43 ... ... 64 

i. 14, i. 18 ... 33, 
37 

iii. 2, v. 62... 279, 473 
i. 24 ... 48 
^HfaSft: i. 24 ... 48 
i.58, i. 126, i. 151, 
iii. 38, v. 118, v. 120... 
88, 182, 210, 311, 500, 503 
i. 134 ... 190 
iii. 39, iii. 43 ... 312, 313 
v. 121 ... ... 504 

v. 105. ... ... 487 

rnj; v. 105 ... 487 

i, 64, v. 63 ... 103, 

446 
v. 49 ... ... 430 

i. 63 ... ... 102 

v. 105 487 



WORD INDEX-SAMKHYA PRAVAGHANA SUTBAM. xxxiii 



i.l 



1 3 ... 



iii. 75 



12 

165 
529 
348 



i. 110, ii. 22, iv. 
28, v. 1, v. 39, v. 53, vi. 
36... 163, 255,383,388,421, 
434, 539 

iv. 30 ... 384 
n. 23 ... 530 
iii. 51 ... 326 

ii. 12 ... ... 245 

A 

ii. 12 

i.59 



5 * 



... 245 

... 91 

v. 59" ... 42 
i. 1, i. 84, iii. 53, iii. 

84, v. 67, vi. 5, vi. 8... 12, 
128,327,359,452,517,519 

v. 67 ... 452 

/i. 8 ... 519 

vi. 8 519 



PAGE. 

v. 118 ... 500 
ii. 30, v. 124 ... 261, 
507 

ii. 38 ... 270 
i. 126, i. 141 182, 196 
cT i 136 ... 192 
i. 126 ... 182 
^i. 141 196 
v. 124 ... 507 
5 v. 38, v. 41 ... 420,423 
i. 1, i. 113 ... 12,165 
i. 87 132 



PAGE. 

i. 84, vi. 6 ... 128,517 
iv. 5 ... 364 
iii. 74, iv. 18, v. 49... 347, 
375, 430 
iv. 4, v. 118... 363, 500 

. 49 ... 430 

... 257 

iii. 74 ... 347 

i. 2, i. 103 .... 19,154 

i. 37 ... 58 

: i. 37 ... 58 

: iii. 60 ... 335 

i. 112, i. 155 ... 164, 221 

ii. 21 ... 254 

rawfin ii. 21 ... 254 

i. 13, i. 28, v. 80, v. 

109, vi. 59 ... 32, 

51, 462, 491, 560 

v. 109 ... 491 

cf: i. 13 ... 32 

i. 28 ... 51 

v. 80 ... 462 



i. 14, iii. 17, v. 113, 

v. 124, vi2 ... 33, 

2U4, 494, 507 ,514 

i. 14 ... 33 

: v. 123 ... 506 

- v. 124 ... 507 

* vi. 2 ... 514 

. 113 ... 494 

ii.H ... 287 
iii. 46 

iii. 46 ... 323 



i. DO, i. 91, iv. 28, 
v. 119, vi. 12 ... 140, 
140, 383, 501, 521 



xxxiv WORb INDEX-SAMKttYA I RAVAGHANA SUTRAM. 



iv. 28 



PAGE. 

... 383 
vi. 12 ... 521 

ii.-70 ... 344 

. 119 ... 501 
iii- 64, v. 78, v. 
77 ... 338,460,400 
3[rv. 108 ... 490 
: v. 108 ... 490 
ii. 29 ... 259 
i. 12 ... 521 
: i. 29, i. 31, i. 69, i. 
75, i. 87, i. 126, ii. 40, 
iii 65, v. 66, v. 117, v. 
118 ... ... 53, 

54, 112, 118, 132, 182, 271, 
339, 449, 449, 500 
T iii. 6, iv. 10, v. 90, 
vi. 47, vi. 48 ... 281, 
367, 471, 548, 548 
i. 74, v. 115, vi. 61... 

118, 496, 563 
vi. 40 ... ... 547 

i. 9 ... 520 
ri v. 118 ... ... 500 



i. 152, v. 20, v. 25, 
v. 29 ... ... 212, 

404, 407, 41 2 
f v. 25, v. 42 ...407,425 

14 >i- 44 33 > 60 

i. 17, i. 153 ... 35, 213 

i. 138 ... 193 

i. 62 ... 564 

ii. 14 ... 247 

: i. 152 ... 212 



PAGE. 

: v. 20 ... 404 
v. 98, vi. 4. ..477, 516 

^ v. 98 ... 477 
** i. 128 . 185 



ii. 32, vi. 29 .... 306, 533 
jfi*nT i i . 32 . . . ?>< )G 

. 00 ... ... 92 

: i. 60 ... 92 
... 209 
iii. 82 ... 350 
iii. 82 ... 350 
iii. 30, vi. 25, vi. 
29 ... ... 304, 

531, 533 



vi. 29 ... 
: vi. 20 

i. 50, vi. 14.. 
i. 80 



V.. 533 

... 527 

82,523 

131 



i. 2, i. 7, i. 9, i. 11, 
i. 12, i. 13, i. 14, i. 16, 
i. 18, i. 19, i. 20, i. 24, 
i. 25, i. 20, i. 28, i. 29, 
i. 31, i. 33, i. 35, i. 38, 
i. 40, 5. 41, i. 42, i. 48, 
i. 52, i. 55, i. 58, i. 59, 
i. 70, i. 70, i. 78, .i. 79, 
i. 81, i. 82, i. 84, i. 80, 
i. 88, i. 90, i. 93, i. 107, 
i. 112, i. 114, i. 119, i. 
120, i. 137, i. 138,1.140, 
i. 147, i. 151, i. 152, i. 
153,i.l54,L156,i. 157, 
i. 159, ii. 3, ii. 8,ii. 11, 



WORD IKDEX- ^AMKUYA PRAVACHANA SUTRAM. 



PAGE. 

ii. 20, ii. 21, ii. 24,ii.25, 

11. 44, iii. 7, iii. 8, iii. 

12, Hi. 13, iii. 20, iii. 25, 
iii. 26, iii. 27, iii. 45, 
iii. 54, iii 66, iii. 70, iii. 
71, iii. 74, iii. 75, iii. 
76, iii. 84, iv. 14, iv. 
17, iv. 20, iv. 25, iv. 
29, iv. 30, iv. 31, iv. 32, 
v. 2, v. 6, v. 7, v. 10, 
v. 11, v. 13, v. 15, v. 22, 
v. 26, v. 28, v. 30, v. 33, 
v. 39, v. 41, v. 42, v. 45, 
v. 46, v. 48, v. 52, v. 
53, v. 54, v. 55, v. 57, v. 
58, v. 61, v. 63, v. 65, v. 
69, v. 73, v. 74, v. 75, v. 
76, v. 77, v. 78, v. 80, v. 
81, v. 82, v. 83, v. 84, v. 
87, v. 88, v. 89, v. 90, v. 
92, v. 93, v. 94, v. 96, v. 
97, v. 98, v. 99, v. 100, 
v. 101, v. 102, v. 103, 
v- 104, v. 105, v. 108, 
v. 109, v. Ill, v. 113, 
v. 115, v. 118, v. 119, 
v. 120, v. 121, v. 123, 
v. 125, v. 126, v. 128, 
v. 129, vi. 1, vi. 4,vi. 6, 
vi. 9, vi. 13, vi. 16, vi. 
20, vi. 24, vi. 26, vi. 28, 
vi. 31, vi, 33, vi. 34, 
vi. 37 ; vi. 38, vi. 43, 
vi. 44, vi. 48, vi. 50, vi. 

54, vi. 57, vi. 64 ... 19, 
26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 
37,37,43,48,48,49,51,53, 
54,55, 57, 59, 60,61, 62,71, 
115, 120, 122, 



PAGE. 

122, 125, 126, 128, 131, 137, 
140, 143, 160, 164, 167, 171, 
172, 193, 193, 201, 203, 210, 
212, 213, 216, 222, 223, 225, 
235, 240, 244, 253, 254, 256, 
257, 273, 282, 283, 288, 290, 
295, 299, 301, 303, 322, 327, 
339, 344, 345, 347, 348, 352, 
359, 370, 374, 376, 381, 384, 
384, 385, 386, 389, 391, 392, 
394, 395, 398, 399, 405, 407, 
411, 413, 415, 421, 423, 425, 
426, 428, 430, 434, 434, 435, 
437, 441, 442, 444, 446, 447, 
454, 456, 457, 458, 462, 462, 
463, 463, 464, 459, 460, 460, 
469, 470, 471, 471, 473, 474, 
475, 476, 477, 477, 478, 479, 
481, 482 ; 483, 485, 487, 490, 
491, 492, 494, 496, 500, 501, 
503, 504, 506, 508, 509, 510, 
511, 513, 516, 517, 520, 522, 
525, 527, 530, 531, 532, 536, 
537, 537, 540, 541, 545, 545, 
548, 553, 557, 559, 567 
* i. 9 ... ... 11 



i. 14, iii. 39 ... 14 ,312 



i. 77 .. ... 51 

... 208 

... 258 

,.. 445 

... 173 

... 523 
vi. 

1 ... ... 513 

FI3T i. 86, v. 31, v. 36, v. 



r i. 150 
ii. 27 
v. 62 ... 
i. 120 
vi. 14 



xxxvi WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PRAVACHANA SuTRASt. 



PAGE. 

43, v. 95... ... 131, 

414, 417,426, 475 
v. 36 ... 417 
v. 43 .- 426 
: v. 51 ... 432 
: v. 05 ... 475 



i. 86 ... 131 
i. 19, i.162 ... 37, 

228 

: vi. 13 ... 523 

f v. 45, v. 48, v. 58, 
v. 126 ... ... 428, 

430, 442, 509 
vi. 33 ,.. 537 
v. 87, v. 91 ... 469, 
477 

7 ... 392 
i.162 228 



i. 19 



i 12 

i- 18, v. 89 ... 37, 
471 

i. 120 ... 172 
v. 73 ... 456 
v. 71 ... 455 
iii. 67, v. 110, vi. 
44, vi 56 ... 341, 
49], 545,558 

s vi. 67, vi. 68 ... 570, 
571 

iii. 68 ... 342 
i 27, vi. 60 ... 51, 

572 

riii. 74 ... 347 

vi . 44 ... 545 

. 119 . 501 



PAGE. 

v. 110 ... 491 

vi. 56 ... 558 
i. 56, v. 29 ... 82, 
412 

*roirr^ i. 56 ... 82 
srfarftai v. 29 ... 412 

s i- 41, i. 70, ii. 7, iii. 
76, iv. 15, iv. 20, v. 22, 
v. 33, v. 39, v. 85, v. 89, 
v. 103, v. 108, v. 109, 
v. Ill, v. 131, vi. 22, 
vi. 24, vi. 31, vi. 38 ... 61, 
115, 239, 352, 371, 376, 405, 
415, 421, 465, 471, 483, 490, 
491, 492, 504, 529, 530, 536, 

541 

i. 115 ... 168 

iii. 52 .. 326 

i. 54 ... 75 

. 10 ... 520 

i. 146, vi. 62... 201, 
564 

filRftw: i. 54 75 

. 74 - 457 

.88 -. 470 

v. 73 456 

v 114 ... 495 

: v. 120 ... 503 



f vi. 25 ... 

iv. 11 ... 368 

iii. 33 ... 307 
ii. 31, vi. 26 ... 305, 
531 

:i. l,iii. 63, iii. 69, 
v.93 ... .- 12 
337, 343, 474 

i. 5 ... 517 



WORD INDEXSAM KEY A PRAVAQHAtVA SClTRAM. xxxvii 



PAGE. 

.. 19 

:.. 452 
... 267, 
359 

... 510 
.. 350 
,.. 359 
i. 49, v. 76... 72. 459 



. ... 

v. 67 

ii. 34, iii. 80 

vi. 8 
iii. 84 



: v. 2 
. 13 
v. 65 

27 
114, v 



stfrfiii 



. 75 
v. 101 
iii- 68 

. 17 

36 
v. 36 



iv. 31 ... 

i. 46 ... ... 

vi. 8 ... ... 

i. 61, ii. 31, ii. 62, 
iii. 37, iv. 22, v. 27... 

93, 262, 00, 310, 378, 

ii. 17 ... 



ii. 33 ... 
Rfi i. 61 ... 

i v . 32, vi. 68... 



iv. 22 

v. 27 



. 10 

v. 83 



380 
308 
447 
532 
167, 
434 
348 
481 
342 

401 

58 
417 

385 

70 

510 



400 

250 

266 

03 

415, 

571 

378 

409 

20 

463 



PAGE. 

iv. 13 ... 360 

i. 24, i. 25, v. 85 ... 48, 
48, 465 
... 360 

... 131 

... 527 
... 446 

... 521 

... 356 
... 374 



iv. 12 

i 86 ..." 

J vi. 20 ... 

v. 64 

vi. 11 



iv. 17 



iii. 58 



333 



i. 66, i. 140. 108, 195 



i. 76 

:i. 87 

ii. 27 
i. 130 

iii. 22 

i. 68 

iii. 14, v. 90 



qft 



r v. 90 

: iii. 

i. 152 



120 

132 

258 
188 

297 
Ill 
291, 
471 

471 

281 
212 
91 
91 

41 7 

345 
337 

294 
482 

35^1 i. 28 ... 51 

i. 18 ... 37 
: i. 122 ... 75 
68,i. 75,vi.35... ill, 
118, 539 
iv. 21, vi. 58, 377, 550 



i. 59 
i. 59 

v. 35 

iii. 72 
qr%iii. 63... 

: iii. 17 
. 102 



xxxviii WORD INDEX SAMKRYA PRAVAOHANA 8&TRAM. 



PAGE. 

iii. 55 ... 329 

: v. 5 ... 39L 

iv. 11 ... 368 

iv. 11 ... 363 

v. 2 ... 362 

i. 32 55 



55 



i. 32 



i. 4 ... 516 

v. 33, vi. 17, vi 46... 

415,525, 547 

?spfr*T vi. 17 ... 525 

ST^rR * v. 33 ... 4 lo 

vi. 40 ... 543 

1. 139 ... 195 



: i. 1, i. 3, i.15, i. 61, 
i. 133, i. 149, vi. 45, 
vi. 54 ... 12v 29, 33, 

03, 100, 207, 546, 557 
i. 140, vi. 45... 

207, 546 

v. 72 ... 456 
i. 66, ii. 5, iii. 26, 
iii. 71, v. 46, vi. 6 ... 108, 
237,301, 345, 428, 51.7 
ii. 36, iii. 16... 269, 293 
vi. 70 ... 573 



20 
. 114 ... ... 495 

TT v. 114 ... 495 



i. 39, i. 41, iii. 8, v. 
59, vi. 48 ... 60, 61, 283, 
442, 548 

iii. 41, v. 112, v. 
1.21, vi. 57 ... 312, 493, 504, 

559 
*Ht i. 41 ... 61 



PAGE. 

v. 59 ... 442 

i. 39 ... 60 

: iii. 8 ... 283 

. 112 ... 493 

. 112 ... 493 

v. 50 ... 431 

v. 46 428 



vi. 16, vi. 53 ... 525, 556 

. vi. 16, 
vi. 53 .... 525, 550 
i. 145, v. 106... 200, 488 
vi. 49 ... 549 
v. 104 ... 485 
vi. 50 ... 550 
v. 84 - ... 464 
i. 18, i. 61, i. 133, 
ii. 5, iii. 68, v. 20, v. 
72 ... 37, 93, 190, 237, 
342, 404, 456 
v.20... 404 
i. 18 ... 37 
: v. 72 ... 456 
iii. 29 ... 304 
ii. 5 ... 237 
^ iii. 68 342 



i. 61, i. 65, i. 69, iii. 
72, vi. 32, vi. 67 ... 93, L06, 
112, 345, 536, 570 
v. 120 ... 503 
iv. 19 375 



iv. 
19 ... ... 375 

v. 6, vi. 14... 391, 523 



i. 14 



... 523 

v. 6.. 391 



WORD INDEX SAM KEY A PR AV AC HAN A StJTRAM. xxxix 



srfcf 



vi. 15 

i- 100 

i. JOG 



PAGE. 

... 524 

... 152 

... 152 

... 20 

... 20 

423, 427 

... 441 

... 441 



STcftft v. 40, v 14 

v. 57 

v. 57 

arfo*ri v. 57 ... 441 

i. 42, v. 61, v. 1)3, 
v. 101 ... 62,444, 474,481 

i. 89, i. 147, v. 62, 

v. 89, v. 04, v. 100 ... 138, 
203, 445, 471,475, 471) 

i. 90 ... 140 

ra*w v. 89 ... 471 

. 62 ... 445 

: v . 94 ... 475 

i. 35 ... 57 

v. 91 ... 471 

iii. 20, iii 22, v. 121) 

295, 297, 511 

ii. 4 ... .. 236 

Tftflf iii. 22 ... 297 

S: v. 129 ... 511 



i. 57, i. 125, ii. 40, 
ii. 45, iii. 51, iii. 58, iii. 
73, v. 8, v. 12, v. 119, 
vi. 35 ... 86,180,271,274, 
326, 333, 346, 392, 396, 501, 

539 

v. 12 ... 396 
... 326 
i. 125 ... 180 
. 8 ... 392 



ii. 1, iii. 59, iii. 



PAGE. 

63, iii. 70, vi. 38, vi. 
40, vi. 43 ... 231,334,344, 
337, 541, 543, 545 
iii. 58 ... 333 
! vi. 35 ... 539 

i. 57 ... 86 

iii. 21 ... 296 
: iii. 21 296 
iii. 66 ... 339 
iii. 66 ... 339 
iii. 46 ... 323 
iii. 76 ... 352 
SHIT i. 87 ... 132 
SIWU i. 4, ii. 25, v. 10, v. 
22, v. 99, vi. 47, vi. 64. 21, 257, 
394,^05,478,548,567 

iff ... 21 

ii. 25 ... 257 

vi. 47 ... 548 

i. 102 ... 153 

v . 222, 405 



v. 10, v. 99, 

vi. 64 394, 478, 567 

. 87, ... 132 

: iv. 29 ... 384 
ii. 18 ... 251 
iii. 4 ... 280 
iii. 69 ... 343 
: i. 144 ... 199 
i. 95, v. 68 144, 453 
: v. 49 ... 470 
: v. 33, v. 34, v. 120, 
i< 12 ... ... 415, 

416, 503, 521 

; v. 16 ... 400 
v. 114 ... 495 



xl WORD INDEX SAMKHYA FHAVACHANA SLJTRAM. 



vi. 31 
vi. 38 
foWvi. 38 

v . 113 

? ii. 31 

i. 3 



PAGE. 

... 336 

... 541 

... 541 

... 494 

... 262 

... 20 

20 

ii. 47 ... 276 

STIR i. 83, v. 106 128, 488 

i. 83 ... 128 
^TT^v.l06...4S8 
t: v. 104 ... 485 

v. 51 ... 432 

iii. 7 ... 282 

sftfa i. 127... ... 183 

" : i. 127 183 



i. 105, i. 106, v. 1, 

v. 2 ... ... 157, 

158, 388, 389 

v. 1 ... 388 

i: v. 2 ... 389 

i. 106 ... 158 

illtt* i. 105 ... 157 



iii. 70 ... 344 

: iv. 26 ... 382 

Ti. 93 ... 143 

i. 7 ... 26 
: i. 20, i. 155, iii. 24, 

iii. 71, vi. 16, vi. 17 ... 43, 

221, 299, 345, 525, 525 

TOTT5T i. 86 131 



PAGE. 

iii. 71 ... 345 
iii. 73 346 



i. 20 ... 43 
... 519 
... 235 

v. 120 ... 503 
[^ iv. 19 ... 375 
i. 149, vi. 45. ..207, 546 



iv. 13 ... 369 

v. 102 ... 482 

v. 16, v. 53 ... 400, 434 

\i. 52 ... 554 



. Ill) 



... 501 



vi. 52 



. 18 



v. 53 



... 402 
... 434 
v. 49, v. f>6 430, 439 

i. 147, v. 62, v. 98, 
vi. 4 ... ... 203, 

445, 477, 51(> 
v. 56 ... 439 
i. 59 ... 91 
iii. 77 ... 352 
iii. 77 ... 352 
i. 26 ... ... 49 

flSTHi. 26... 49 
v. 16 ... 400 
iv. 29, v. 15, vi. 67... 384 
399, 570 

i. 10 ... 29 
v. 15, vi. 67... 399, 
570 

rri3[ v. 126 ... 509 

i. 19 37 



WORD INDEX SAM KEY A PR AV AC HAN A S&TRAM. xli 



PAGE. 

t ii. 13, ii. 19, v. 50, 
v. 121, v. 126 ... 246, 
252, 431,504,500 
ii. 47 ... 276 
: i. 60 ... ... 92 

iii. 63, v. 85, vi. 43, 

337, 465, 545 
. 16, v. 116 400, 497 
iv. 19 ... 375 
T: v. 16 ... 400 
v. 116 497 



. 8 ... 366 

i. 158 ... 224 

v. 73, v. 107 456,488 

v. 107 ... 488 

v. 73 ... 456 

v. 81 ... 462 

v. 81 ... 462 



i. 31, i. 38, i. 44, 
i. 119, ii. 45, v. 37, v. 
93, v. 114... 54,59,66, 171, 
274,419,474, 495 
iii. 29 ... 304 
iii. 29 ... 304 



: v. 93 ... 474 

i. 4i ... 6i 

i. 119 ... 171 
i. 118, i. 143, vi. 1 170, 
198, 513 
. 82 ... 463 



i. 40, i. 80, i. 119 60, 
124, 171 

i. 151 ... 210 
; vi. 55 ... 557 



PAGE. 

v. 84, v. 129 464, 511 

v. 129 ... 511 

v. 84 ... 464 

i. 61 ... 93 

iv. 32 ... 386 

. 115... ... 496 

v. 115 ... 496 

iii. 61 ... 336 

ii. 40 ... 271 

iii. 16 ... 373 

ii. 24, v. 61 256, 444 

ii. 24 ... 256 

: iii. 41, v. 120 ... 312, 503 

" 27 hi - 43 > v - 

66 ... 258, 315, 449 
v. 109 ... ... 491 

i. 143, v. 121 ... 198, 504 
: v. 114 ... 495 
v. 121... 504 



i. 143 ... 198 
i. 104, v. 114, v. 
121, vi. 59 ... 156, 
495, 504, 560 
: vi. 59 ... 560 
iii. 8, iv. 27 ... 283, 
382 
v . 114 ... 495 

ii. 20 ... 253 

gnarat ii. 23 ... 256 





iii. 54 

ii.35 ... 

i. 96 

ii. 22 

i. 77 ., 



327 
268 
145 
297 
352 



xlii WORD INDEX SAMKEYA PRAVAGEANA S&TRAM. 



PAGE. 

* Hi. 77 ... 352 

iii. 50 ... ... 325 

i. 71, ii 26, ii. 40, vi. 
25 ... ... 116, 

257, 271, 531 
v. 69... ... 454 

v. 68 ... 453 
iii. 21, iii. 53 296, 327 
ii. 28 ... 
iv. 29, iv. 30 
iv. 29 
iv. 30 
i. 61, vi. 66 

129 10 



ii. 10 



i. 129 
i- 61 ... 
iii. 7 



... 259 

... 384 

... 384 

... 384 

93, 569 

" 15 

187, 242, 248 

... 116 

... 242 

... 187 

... 93 

..., 282 

... 99 

... 93 

... 93 



471, 516 



i. 62 
i. 61 
: i. 61 
v. 98, vi. 4 

rettarf iii. 26 301 
i. 19, i. 93, i. 95, i. 
157, v. 47, vi. 44... 37, 143, 
144,223, 429, 545 

: i. 93 ... 143 

i. 86, vi. 17 131, 525 
i. 95 ... 144 
: v. 47 ... 429 
: iii. 23, iii. 26, v. 74, 
v. 85, vi. 20. ..298, 301, 457, 
465, 527 
vi. 44 .,. 545 



iv. 27 
i. 50 
iii. 13 
JJ<35 i. 67 

iii. 49 

i. 67 
i. 16 



i. 67 
i. 7 



ii. 7 



: i. 7 



it. 1 

v. 116 

iii. 71... 

v. 1 ... 

v. 1 



: i. 33 
^ iv. 21 
v. 42 

iv. 21 
. 87, i, 89, vi. 70 



PAGE. 

382 

72 
290 
Ill 
325 
Ill 

17 
Ill 

26 
239 

22 

26 

231 
497 
345 
388 
388 



,.. 55 

... 377 

... 425 

... 377 
132, 

138, 573 

... 517 

... 431 

... 224 

... 91 

... 59 
... 59 

5 i. 55, i. 119, ii.9, iii. 
55, v. 13, v. 32, v. 36, 
v. 81 v. 86, v. 128, vi. 
17 ... 77, 171, 241,329, 398, 
415, 417, 463, 463, 510, 525 



vi. 6 ... 

. 50 
i. 158 
i. 59 

i. 38 

5 i. 38 



WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PR AV AC HAN A S&TRA&. xliii 



PAGE. 

i. 12, i. 13, iv. 22 

31, 32, 378 



. 82 

{ v. 128 
v. 44 ... 
vi. 33 

vi. 33 



v. 44 



463 
510 
427 
537 
537 
427 



i. 19, i. 40, i. 51, i. 

82, ii. 39, iii. 13, iii.67, 
iv. 24, iv. 26, v. 8, v. 
27, v. 71, v. 90, v. 102, 
v. 108, v. 91 ... 37, 60, 73, 
126, 270, 290, 341, 380, 382, 
382, 409, 455, 471, 482, 490, 

492 

i. 90 ... 140 
ii. 47, iv. 9, v. 7, v. 
14, v. 49, v. 119, vi. 
37 ... 276, 367, 392, 

398, 430, 501, 540 
i. 80 . 124 



: i. 61, iii. 50 
iii. 66 ... 

iii. 50 



93, 325 

... 339 

... 325 

ii. 28 ... ... 259 

ii. 9, iii. 30, iv. 25, iv. 

27 241,304, 381, 382 

STTi i. 9 ... 241 

: iv. 27 ... 382 

. 6 ... .. 391 

v. 6 ... 391 

: iv. 9 ... 367 

.,Yi. 51 553 



PAGE, 

cn m. so .:. 304 

iv. 25 ... 381 

iv. 1 ... 36 1 

iii. 16 ... ... 293 

i. 98, i. 160, ii. 28, iv. 

21, v. 16, vi. 50 ... 147, 

226, 259, 377, 471, 550 

iv. 31, v. 116 385, 499 

vi. 39 ... 542 

v. 93 ... 474 

v. 19, v. 66 403, 449 

. 89 ... 471 

ii. 28 ... 259 

iii. 73 346 



i. 8 ... 28 

i i. 128 ... 185 

i. 128 ... 185 

o5rTT v. 121 ... 504 

i. 29, i. 91, iv. 24 ... 53, 
141,380 

v. 24 ... 380 



i. 121, vi. 30 173, 535 
: vi. 30 ... 535 
v. 73, v. 80, vi. 9, 
vi. 34, vi. 59 456, 462, 
520, 537, 560 
. 124, iii. 9, vi. 69... 1~78, 
284, 572 

v i. 69 ... 572 

i. 136, v. 61, v. 106 192, 
444, 488 

: v. 21 ... 404 

iii. 16 ... 293 
i. 91 140 



xiiv WORD INDEX-SAMKHYA PRAVAGHANA S&TRAM. 



PAGE. 



i. 91 ... ... HO 

: iii. 83 ... 537 

ii.40, ii.46, ii, 47, 

iv. 15, v. 3, vi. 43 ... 271, 
274, 276, 371, 390,545 

vi. 57 ... 559 

v. 40, vi. 56 423, 558 

. 99 ... 148 

iv. is ... 371 



ii. 37 ... 269 

v. 121 ... 504 

v. 126 ... 509 

: i. 60 ... 92 

i. 25 ... 48 

54 

i. 44, 5. 58, i. 91, v. 
30 ... 66, 122, 140,413 
.": v. 30 ... 413 
45 

. 44 ... 66 
: v. 120 ... 503 
: iv. 9... ... 367 

iv. 13 .. 369 



i. 87, i. 91, i. 95, i. 97, 
i. 106, i. 123, i. 125, i. 
133, ii. 1, ii. 4, ii. 60, 
iii. 62, iii. 65, iv. 7, iv. 
24, v. 5, v. 29, v. 69, v. 
95, v. 100, v. 104, vi. 
68, vi. 70... 132, 140, 144, 
147, 158, 177, 180, 190, 231, 
236, 335, 336, 339, 365, 380, 
391,412, 454, 475, 479, 485, 
571,573. 



i. 98 

i. 98 

i. 58 
v 37... 
v. 37 

en^frarar: v. 37 

v. 33 
i. 25 



PAGE. 
147 

147 

88 
419 
419 

419 

415 
48 



: i. Ill ... 163 

i. 157 ... 223 

iv. 20 ... 376 

i. 157 ... 223 

ii. 31 ... 262 
i. 28, i. 42, i. 63, v. 
121 51,62,102,504 

: i. 42 ... 62 

v. 121 ... 504 

i. 28 ... 51 

i. 63 ... 102 

v. 119 ... 501 

ii. 3 ... 235 

iii. 25 ... 299 

: vi. 30 ... 535 

i. 17... 35 

tm qfcn i. 22... 45 

i. 89... ... 138 

finrramra i. 42 ... 62 

i. 155 ... 221 

i. 155... 221 

. 103 ... 483 

v. 18 ... 402 

v. 18 ... 402 
:i. 7, 1. 9 ...26,28 

. 44 ... 66 

ftRIiii.45 ... 322 

ii. 22 ... 255 



WORD INVEX-SAMKHYA PRAVAGHANA SUTRAM. xlv 



. 44 



PAGE. 

ii.22 ... 255 

... 66 
141, iii. 24 

196, 299 



* Hi. 37 

. 15 
vi. 36 
ii. 1, vi. 43 
vi. 43 
ii. 1 
v. 68, vi. 58 

v. 68 
: vi. 58 
: i. 84 

iii. 73 
: v. 80 
i. 66 
ii. 2, iv. 23 



: ii. 9 

i. 152 



i- 23 



... 310 

... 248 
... 539 
231, 545 
... 545 
.. 231 
453, 558 
... 453 
... 558 
... 128 
... 346 
... 462 
... 339 
234, 380 

... 241 

... 212 
... 45 



* i. 54, i. 113,i. 154, 
ii. 25, iv. 9 vi. 47, vi. 
49, vi. 51 ... 75, 
165, 216, 257, 367, 548, 549, 

553 

. 36, vi. 34 58, 537 
. 17 ... 374 
i. 138 ... 193 
1 38 ... 193 
... 337 

... 337 

... 348 
... 352 
... 128 
348 



iii. 63 

ii. 63 

iii. 75 
! iii. 77 
i. 83 
: iii. 75 



PAGE. 

iii. 84 ... 359 
vi. 8 ... 519 
iii. 47, iii, 50 325, 325 
vi. 63 



... 565 

i. 97, iii. 1, v. 75, 
v. 76, vi. 26 ... 147,278, 
458,459,531 
i. 97 ... 147 
v. 76 ... 459 
R5%: v. 75 ... 458 
v. 34 ... 416 
SftpUTO^: v . 34 416 
i. 48, iii. 10 ... 71, 286 
iii. 1 ... 278 
v. 120 ... 509 
i. 27, i. 108 51, 160 
i- 127 ... 183 
iv. 16 ... 375 
iii. 35 ... 309 
i. 122 ... 175 
iii. 3 ... 79 
v. 121 ... 504 
121 ... 504 



v . 121 504 

ii. 33 ... 266 
: ii. 31, ii. 32, iii. 31, 

v. 106, v. 109 ... 262, 
264, 305, 488, 488 

v. 105 ... 487 

iii. 31 305 

: v. 106 ... 488 

. 41 ... 423 

. 45 ... 428 

. 40 ... 423 

: v. 40 423 



Ivi WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PRAVACHAKA. S0TRAM. 



2, 



v. 



PAGE. 

ii. 18 ... 251 

iii. 51, v. 20, vi. 
vi. 41 ... 326,404,514,544 
vi. 41 . . 544 

i 128 --- 183 > 185 

vi. 29 ... 533 

iii. 36 ... 309 

i. 51 ... 553 

v. 123 ... 506 

v. 123 ... 506 

. 42, v. 95... 425, 475 
. 25 ... 48 
i. 25 ... 48 
vi. 42 ... 544 
iii. 10 ... 286 
ti. 139, vi. 2... 195,514 
i. 15, vi. 63 ... 524, 
565 

v. 110, v. 112 ... 491, 
493 

i- 125, v. no, 

3 ... 180, 491, 515 

i. 40 ... 60 

v. 43 ... 420 

i. 28 ... 51 

i. 29, v. 124 ... 53, 507 

i- 149, vi. 45. ..207, 546 
i- 120 ... 172 

araSI^T i. 120 ... 172 

. 55 ... 437 

v. 69 ... 454 

%vi. 59 ... 560 

5 i. 12 ... 31 

v. 29 ... 412 

* i. 160 ... 226 

vi. so ... 535 



v. 43 
v. 40 
vi. 59 



PAGE. 

426 
423 
560 



7 ... 169 

i. 117 ... 169 

i. 117 ... 169 

. 1 1 30 



i. 11, v. 8, v. 13, v. 
31, v. 32, v. 33, v. 36, 
v. 43, v. 51, v. 95 ... 30, 
392, 398, 414, 415, 415, 417, 
426, 432, 474 
i. 132, v. 113 ... 189, 
494 

ii. 24 ... 256 
iv. 10 ... 367 
: i. 101, v. 37, v. 57, 
v. 58 ... ... 153, 

419, 441, 442 
v. 58 ... 442 
: v. 37 ... 419 



i. 139, iii. 82, v. 102, 

vi. 69 ... ... 195, 

356, 482, 572 

iii. 2 ... 279 

ftTR: i. 139 ... 195 

iv, 27 ... 382 

vi. 4 ... ... 516 



vi. 4 



v. 1 



v. 1 
. 10 ... 
i. 10 



... 516 

... 388 

... 388 

... 29 

... 29 



WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PR AV AC HAN A S&TRAM. xlvii 



iv. 25, iv. 26 



i. 19 

iii. 29 
i. 43, i. 44, v. 79 



iv. 5 



ii. 3 



iv. 17 
i. 28 



i. 147 

. 36, i. 51, i. 54, i. 
83, i. 154, ii. 21, iii. 86, 
v. 12, v. 21, vi. 34, vi. 
51, vi. 58 



PAGE. 

... 381, 

382 

37 

... 304 

... 64, 

66, 461 

... 364 

... 235 

... 374 

51 

28 51 
203 



58, 



i 



73, 75, 128, 216, 254, 355, 
396, 404, 537, 553, 558 
v. 1 388 

ffi^ i- 36 ... 58 
v. 2 1 ... 404 
* vi. 51 ... 553 
: i. 5, i. 17, ii. 20, ii. 
22, iii. 14, iii. 15, iv. 22, 
v. 15, v. 45, v. 70, v. 73, 
v. 84, v. 87, v. 123, vi. 
10, vi. 17, vi. 32, vi. 
59 ... ... 22, 

121, 253, 255, 291, 293, 378, 

399, 428, 455, 456, 464, 469, 

506, 520, 525, 536, 560 



i. 25, iv. 13, v, 85 ... 48, 

369, 465 

iv. 13 ... 369 

v. 85 ... 465 



TO 



vi. 3 



vi. 3 



v. 86... 
fl v. 86 



iii. 28 
v. 70 



i. 124 
v. 28 



v 28 



: v. 8 

: i. 26 
iii. 13 



iii. 13 



v. 96 ... 

i. es 



PAGE. 

i. 25 48 
... 515 

... 513 

... 466 
... 466 



330 
303 
455 
178 
411 
4H 

392 

49 
290 

290 

479 



v. 96 



. 96 ... 
v. 53 ... 
i. 89, v. 56, vi. 53 



v. 60 



: v. 60 



. 9 



t i. 6i 



iii. 48 
v. 59 
tvi. 39 

: v. 56 
i. 56 



... 476 

... 476 

... 434 

... 138, 
439, 556 

... 443 

... 443 

... 394 

... 554 

... 93 

.. 93 

... 325 

... 442 

... 542 

... 439 

... 558 

... 556 



xlviii WORD INDEX SAM KEY A PR AV AGE AN A S&TRAM. 



: vi. 69 



i. 96 



PAGE. 

572 
145 
284 
346 
, 4S9 
281 



iii. 9 

j iii. 73 

v. 117 

iii. 6 

v. 11, v. 28, v. 37, 
v. 38, v. 96, v. 97, v. 
98, v. 107... 395, 411, 419, 
420, 476, 477, 477, 488 
i. 12, i. 91 ... 31, 
140 

v. 97 ... 477 
v. 28,v.38 ... 411, 
420 

. 1 1 ... 395 
v. 107 ... 488 
i. 4 ... 21 
i. 4 ... 21 

ii. 44 ... 273 
i. 26 ... 49 
i. 131 ... 188 
v. 99 ... 478 
i- 89 ... ... 138 

i. 161 227 

. 14, v. lie ... 370, 

497 

^S v. 116, 497 
iv. 14 ... 370 



i. 46, i. 50, i. 69, 
ii. 42, iii. 53, v. 24, v. 
36 ... 70, 72, 112,276, 327, 
406, 417 
ii. 47 ... 276 



i. 55, i. 86, vi. 
65 77,131,568 



: iii. 25 



i. 50 
. 36 

iii. 25 



PAGE. 
72 
417 
299 
299 
462 
488 
369 



t v. 80 
v. 107 
. 12 

i. 4, i. 5, i. 12, i. 16, 
i. 88, i. 116, iii. 56, v. 
9, v. 78, v. 104 ... 21,22, 
31, 120, 137, 169, 330, 394. 
460, 485 

~ iii. 29, v. 72 ... 304, 

456 

iii. 56 ... 330 
i. 116, i. 159, vi. 
36 169,225,539 



169 
485 
31 
137 
21, 
169 
330 
493 
394 
460 
22 
120 

: v. 27 ... 409 
iii. 72 ... 345 
ii. 42, iii. 33, v. 
120 ... ... 272, 

357, 503 

v. 120 ... 503 
iii. 83 357 



116 

v. 104 
i. 12 

: i. 88 

i. 4,i. 116 



ii. 56 
112 
. 9 

v. 78 
i. 5 

i. 76 



WOED INDEX- SAMKRYA PRAVACHANA BtJTEAM. xlix 



i. 33 

v. is 

v. 1 1 1 
* iii. 3, iii. 16 



i. 66, i. 140 



i. 66 



140 



v. Ill 



i. 161 

i. 148, i. 161 



ii. is 

v. 15 ... 
v. 19 

v. 15 

v. 94 

i. 87, vi. 48 



ii. 39 



vi. 48 
i. 7. i. 138, v. 
26, 
vi. 1 
i. 85 

i. 85 



i. 82 
i. 128 

ii. 31 
i. 103 



: ii. 31 



v. 91 
i. 125 
i. 138 



PAGE. 

55 

... 399 

... 492 

... 279, 

293 

... 108, 
195 
i. 

108, 195 
... 492 
... 227 
... 205, 
227 

... 251 
... 399 
... 403 
... 399 
... 475 
... 132, 
548 

... 270 
39 270 
... 548 
60 

193, 443 
... 513 
... 129 
... 129 
... 126 
... 185 
... 262 
... 154 
... 262 
... 471 
... 180 
193 



vi. 42 
i. 61 



vi. 42 
iv. 13 

iii. 20 
, iii. 22, v. 129 

v. 29 

i. 135 
i. 98, v. 59, v. 60 



v. 128 



i . 98 . . 



v. eo 

i. 95 i. 147 



iii. 57 

i. 21,v. 60 

i i. 21 ... 
2, i. 78, i. 80, 
i. 82, i. 93, i. 102, i. 
103, i. 125, i. 153, ii. 3, 
ii. 5, ii. 8, iii. 31, ii. 32, 
iii. 40, iii. 44, iii. 57, iii. 
75, iii. 79, iii. 83, iv. 19, 
v. 6, v. 10, v. 21, v. 24, 
v. 28, v. 38, v. 44, v. 
106, vi. 11, vi. 29, vi. 
57, vi. 64. ..19, 122,124, 
126, 143, 153,154, 180, 
213, 235,237, 240,305, 
306, 312, 319, 331,348, 
354, 357, 375,391, 394, 
404,406, 411,420, 427, 
488,521,533,559, ... 

iv. 32, v. 128 ... 



PAGE. 

... 544 
... 93 
... 544 
... 369 
... 295 
... 297, 

511 

... 412 
... 191 
... 147, 
442, 443 
... 510 

147 
... 443 
.. 144, 

203 

... 331 
45, 443 

45 



567 

386, 

510 



1 WORD INDEX SAMKHYA PR AV AC HAN A S0TRAM. 



PAGE. 

i. 37, i. 88, i 106, 
i. 112, i. 137, ii. 2, ii. 6, 
v. 2, v. 100, v. 105, v. 
113, vi. 51 ... 58, 
137, 158, 164, 193, 234, 
238, 389, 479, 487, 494, 
553 

i. 88, ii. 24, v. 14, 
v. 36, vi. 46, vi. 49, vi. 
58 ... ... 137, 

256, 398, 417, 547, 549, 
558 

iii. 34, iv. 5, v. 27, 
vi. 9, vi. 24 ... 308, 
364, 409, 520, 530 
iv. 5 ... 364 
vi. 9 ... 520 
! v. 27 ... 409 
i. 6... ... 517 

iv. 11, iv. 12, vi. 7 

368,369, 518 
. 148, v. 116 ... 205, 
497 

H lm 148, 205 
iii. 63 ... 337 



1 ^ iii. 16 ... 293 
: ii. 9, iii. 47, iii. 58, 
iii. 63, iii. 66, vi. 40, 
vi. 41, vi. 43 ... 241,324, 
333, 337, 339, 543, 544, 545 
^f^T: Hi. 36 ... 337 
i. 41 ... 544 
: ii. 11 ... ... 244 

i. 109 ... 162 
i. 31 ... 536 
tvi. 31 ... 536 
folfrti.58... .- 88 



PAGE. 

: i. 33, i. 34, iii. 34, 
vi. 24 ... 55, 56, 308, 530 
: i. 34 ... 56 



. 91 ... 492 

. 91 ... 492 

i. 24 ... 530 

iii. 34 ... 308 



i. 61, iii. 7, v. 103, 

93, 282, 483 

i. 61 ... 93 

i. 62 ... 99 

v. 57... ... 441 

ira: v. 57 ... 441 

ii- 43 ... 273 

v. 122 ... 506 

vi. 13 ... 523 

iii. 35, vi. 67 309, 570 

iii. 35 ... 309 

UTiii. 32 ... 306 

ii. 44, iii. 58, v. 51 

273, 333, 432 

iii. 26 ... 301 

iii. 26 ... 301 

! i. 7 26 
i. 8, i. 19 ... 28,37 

iii. 61 ... 336 

v. 33 ... 415 

tv. 42 ... 425 

v. 33 ... 415 

v. 55 ... 437 

v. 55 ... 437 

: ii. 34 ... 267 

t vi. 67 ... 570 

vi. 67 ... 570 

. 115 ... 496 

Ffcn v. us ... 496 



WOED INDEX SAMKEYA PR AV ACE AN A S&TRAM. Ii 



iii. 12 



ii. 1 



ii. 30 



35 



r. 3 



i. 108 ... 
i. 57 



in. 



PAGE. 

288 
231 
261 

309 
390 



160 
86 



PAGE. 

i. 21, iii. 74, iv. 14, 
vi. 37 ... 45, 347, 370, 540 
i. 57, i. 75, i. 133 ... 86, 
118, 190 
i. 108 160 



f| i. 33, iii. 56, vi. 62 ... 55, 
330, 564 

i. 124 ... 178 

F: i. 4, iii. 52 21, 326 

iv. 23 ... 380 

iv. 23 ... 380 

iv. 23 380 



Index of Words in Kapila Sutram (Tatva Samasa). 



3T 7 



: 8 
: 12 
: 13 
15 



22 



2 

; 9 
11 
22 



22 



is 



21 ... 

r: 19, 20 

22 

g 3 

afc u ... 



PAGE. 

2 

2 

9 

9 

9 

17 

20 

10 

13 

14 

15 

14 

3 

20 

3 

11 

12 

20 

9 

17 

20 

2 

19 

18, 19 

, 20 

4 

14 



q^T 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 



:*5f 22 



14 ... 
12 



22 
: 4 



21 
: 19 ... 

18 
: 10 ... 
20 ... 
: 16 
: 3 
:3 

6 ... 
22 
: 1 
: 17 
22 



PAGE. 

...10,11, 
12,13 

7 

... 16 

... 20 

... 20 

... 14 

... 13 

... 13 

... 20 

5 

3 

8 

... 19 

... 18 

17 

... 12 

... 19 

... 16 

4 

4 

8 

... 20 

2 

17 

20 



APPENDIX III. 
INDEX OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 



INDEX OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 

N.B. The numbers refer to the pages. 

PAGES. 

Atharva-oiras-Upanisat ... ... ... 24 

Amara-Korfa ... ... ... ... 44, 224, 262 

It4a-Upanisat ... ... ... ... 84,300 

Rig- Veda ... ... ... ... 555 

Aitareya-Upanisat ... ... ... ... 217 

Katha-Upanisat 17, 41, 73, 160, 216, 219, 221, 306, 332, 408, 458, 484 

Kalagni-Rudra-Upanisat ... ... ... 128 

Kalika-Purapam ... ... ... ... 200 

Kavyadar&i ... ... ... ... 551 

Kumara-Sambhava ... ... ... ... 518 

Kurma-Puraria ... 7, 27, 69, 81, 113, 237, 238, 268, 283, 521 

Kena-Upanisat ... ... ... ... 447 

Kaivalya-Upanisat ... ... ... ... 25, 130 

Garuda-Purana ... ... ... ... 310,362 

Garbha-Upanisat ... ... ... ... 97 

Gaudapada s Mandukya-Karika ... ... ... 69,89 

Ohhandogya-Upanisat ...2, 17, 23, 58, 102, 104, 122, 123, 127, 

146, 171, 189, 192, 216, 217, 233, 238, 253, 293, 

304, 374, 379, 397, 400, 409, 445, 447, 449, 492, 

493, 505, 556, 568 

Jabala-Upanisat ... ... ... ... 1 

Taittiriya-Aranyaka ... ... ... ... 378 

Taittiriya-Upanisat ... ... 220, 237, 243, 292, 452, 453 

Dkatu-Patha ... ... ... ... 490,566 

Naradiya-Purana ... ... ... ... 344 

Naradiya-Sinriti ... ... ... ... 356 

Nrisimha-Tapani-Upanisat ... ... ... 39,64 

Nyaya-Bindu ... .. ... ... 139 

Nyaya-Sutram ... ... 81, 82, 286, 358, 433, 466, 467, 468 

Pailcha&kha-Su tram ... ... ... ... 154 

Padma-Purana ... ... ... ... 9 } 46 

Parariara-Upa-Purana ... ... ... 7 

Panini-Sutram ... ... ... ... 228 

Prabodha-Chandra-Udaya ... ... 540 



ii INDEX OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 



PAGES. 
Pradna-Upanisat ... ... ... ... 97,243 

Brilmt-Aranyaka-Upanisat ... 3, 5, 20, 34, 76, 90, 104, 110, 114, 

124, 133, 171, 178, 200, 203,204, 229, 233, 234, 
238, 242, 247, 254, 255, 259, 261, 292, 299,330, 
348, 349, 350, 354, 355, 376, 393, 397, 400, 402, 
405, 432, 435, 449, 451, 453, 530, 547, 551, 552, 
555 

Brahraa-Bindu-Upanisat ... 69, 74, 89, 216, 218, 409, 556, 562 

Brahma-Sutram ... 8, 10, 46, 84, 85, 104, 107, 124, 206, 215, 243, 

263, 280, 434, 536 
Bhagavat-Gita ... 4, 6, 11, 41, 74, 79, 80, 88, 137, 145, 170, 376, 

555, 558, 567, 575 
Bhagvata-Puranam ... ... 129, 251, 365, 533, 570, 574 

Matsya-Puranam ... ... ... .. 250 

Manu-Samhita ... 108, 138, 279, 287, 317, 351, 365, 469, 484 

Maha-Narayana-Upanisat ... ... ... 300,378 

Maha-Bharatam ... 6, 7, 11, 74, 81, 114, 231, 250,285,368,369,372, 

483, 484, 574 

Mandukya-Karika ... Vide Gaudapada s MancJukya-Karika. 

Markandeya-Pnrana ... ... ... 25, 107, 252, 370 

Mundaka-Upanisat ... 219, 243, 255, 263, 322, 342, 445, 464, 538 
Maitri-Upanisat ... ... ... 58, 97, 171, 192, 254 

Yoga-Bhftrfyam ... 17, 18, 36, 120, 134, 150, 176, 305 

Yoga-Vadistham ... ... 18, 105, 134, 173, 203, 268, 290 

Yoga-Sutram ... 1, 14, 17, 22, 41, 42, 80, 81, 84, 103, 109, 120, 

134, 189, 236, 266, 267, 308, 320, 329, 338, 
352, 358, 519, 527, 534, 535 
Ramayanam ... ... ... ... 365 

Linga-Purana ... .., ... ... 64, 104 

Vnyu-Purana ... ... ... ... 250 

Visnu-Pnrana ...5, 8, 26, 66, 99, 100, 101, 110, 113, 157, 176, 183, 

187, 214, 367, 372, 382, 383, 384, 440, 466, 
516, 519, 524 
Vedanta-Sara ... ... ... ... 204 

Vedanta-Sutram Vide Brahma-Sutram. 

Vairfesika-Sfttrain ... ... ... ... 465 

Sa^vata ... ... ... ... ... 508 

Sij$upalavadha ... ... ... ... 157 

Sulika-Upanisat ... 50 



INDEX OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 



PAGES. 
panifcat 11, 25, 73, 74, 76, 114, 204, 208, 300, 337, 376, 

396, 397, 399, 457, 514, 547, 566 
Safva-Dar&na-Samgraha ... ... ... 44 

Samldiya-Karik i ... 24, 40, 78, 93, 98, 129, 161, 171, 179, 182, 183, 

186, 190, 197, 199, 230, 251, 262, 264, 270, 
282, 283, 289, 299, 311, 314, 318, 321, 323, 
324, 326, 328, 335, 344, 345, 346, 351 
Samkhya-Tattva-Kaumudi ... ... ... 23, 265 

Samkhya-Sutram ... 13, 14, 18, 79, 98, 126, 127, 134, 198, 211, 389, 

498 
Saura-Piir.iim ... ... ... 39, 5() 

Quotations not traced ... 3, 12, 19, 24, 26, 39, 50, 58, 69, 71, 81, 83, 84, 

87, 90, 95, 98,108, 112, 113, 115, 117, 130, 
139, 142, 144, 146,152, 159, 170, 200, 201, 
205, 207, 219, 221, 223, 226, 227, 233, 246, 
247, 260, 287, 288, 293, 328, 332, 355, 357, 
364, 368, 370, 371, 377, 405, 407, 408, 428, 
436, 438, 440, 444, 449, 452, 453, 457, 459, 
462, 474, 489, 494, 499, 505, 506, 521, 526, 
538, 543, 546, 552, 567. 






APPENDIX IV. 

A CATALOGUE OF SOME OF THE IMPORTANT 
WORKS ON THE SAMKHYA. 



A CATALOGUE OF SOME OF THE IMPORTANT WORKS 
ON THE SAMKHYA. 

A List of Recognised Text-Books of the Sdnikhya School 
> (Taken from Fitz-Edivard Hall s Collection). 

\. Samkhya-Pravachana-Sutram attributed to Risi Kapila. ^ 
^2. Sfimkbya-Pravachana-Sutra-Vritti by Aniruddha. ^* 
v^3. Samkbya-Pravacliana-Sutra-Vritti-Sarali by Mahadeva Sarasvati, 
more commonly known as Vedantin Mahadeva. ^ 

^4. Samldiya-Pravachana-Bhasyam by Vijuana Bhiksu.^ 

5. Laghu-Samkhya-Sutra-Vritti by Nagoji Bhatta or Nagesfa Bhatta, 
snrnamed as Upadhyaya. ^ 

v . Tattva-Samasah, attributed to Risi Kapila. 

7. Samkhya-Tarangah, a Commentary on No. 1, by VisJverivaradatta 
Mi^ra, ascetically called Deva Tirtha. . 

8. Sarvopakarini, a Commentary on No. 6. Author is not known. 

9. Samkhya-Sutra-Vivaranam, ditto. x ditto. 

10. Samkliya-Krama-Dipika, also called Samkhyalankarah and 
Samkbya-Sutra-Praksepika, ditto. ^ ditto. 

11. Tattva-Yathartbya-Dipanam, ditto, by Bbava Ganesa Diksita. 

12. Tattva-Sarnasa-Vyakhya, by Ksemananda. x 

X13. Samkbya-Karika, also called Saptatih, by tdvara Krisna. 
^14. Sarnkbya-Karika-Bhasyam, by Gaudapada. 

15. Sarnkhya-Tatt.va-Kau niudi, sbortly called Tattva-Kaumudi, by 
Vacliaspati Mirfra. 

\/16. An exposition of No. 14, by Yati Bharati. 

>/\l. Tattvarnavah, otherwise called Tattvamrita-Praksini, a Com 
mentary on No. 14, by Raghavananda Sarasvati. 

^18. Tattva-Chandrah, ditto, by Narayana Tirtha Yati. 
Kaumudi-Prabha,, ditto, by Svapne^vara. 

Samkhya-Tattva-Vilasah, alsc\ called Samkliya-Vritti-Praka^ah 
and Samkhyartha-Samkhyayika, by Raghunatha Tarka Vagina BhaUa- 
charya. ^, 

21. Sctmkhya-Chandrika, a Commentary on No. 12, by Nfirayana 
Tirtha. 

Sarnkhya-Sara-Vivekah, by Vijnana Bhiksu. 
Samkhya-Tattva-Pradipah, by Kaviraja Yati or Kaviraja Bhiksn. 

24. Samkhyartha-Tattva-Pradipiku, by Bhatta Ke^ava. 

25. Samkhya-Tattva-Vibhakarah, perhaps by Vansidhara. 

26. Samkhya-Kaumudi, by Ramkrisna Bhat^acharya. 

27. Raja-Vfirtikam, attributed to Ranaranga Malla, king of Dhara. 



APPENDIX V. 
TATTVA-SAMASA OR KAPILA-SUTRAM. 



APPENDIX VI. 
SAMKHYA-KAR1KA OF ISVARAKUISNA 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGES. 
Kdrikd I. 

The problem of Evil or Suffering ... ... ... 1 

Pain is threefold... ... ... ... ... 1 

Deliverance from Pain is Release ... ... ... 1 

Pain includes possible pain also ... ... ... 2 

The Samkhya is the only means of deliverance ... ... 2 

Its effect is certain and permanent ... ... ... 2 

Ordinary remedies produce temporary results only ... ... 2 

Kdrikd II. 

Scriptural means also are defective ... ... ... 2 

The Samkhya consists in discriminative knowledge of the Subject, 

Purusa, and the Object, the Manifest and the Unmanifest ... 3 
Kdrikd III. 

The Subject is Purusa ... ... ... ... 3 

He is neither an evolvent nor an evolute ... ... 4 

The Unmanifest is the Root Evolvent, Prakriti ... ... 4 

She is not an evolute ... ... ... ... 4 

The Manifest comprises Mahat, Ahamkara, and the five Tan- 
matras which are evolutes as well as evolvents, and the eleven 
Indriyas and the five Gross P]lements which are evolutes only 

and not evolvents ... ... ... ... 4 

Kdrikd IV. 

The above twenty-five Tattvas have to be known ... ... 4 

Sources of knowledge are Perception, Inference, and Testimony... 4 

All other means of knowledge are included in the above ... 4 

Kdrikd V. 

Perception defined ... ... ... ... 5 

Inference is threefold ... ... ... ... 5 

Inference defined ... ... ... ... 5 

Testimony defined ... ... ... ... 5 

Process of perceptual cognition described ... ... 5 

Threefold inference described .,. ... 5 



ii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Pages. 
Kdrikd VI. 

Objects are either sensible or super-sensible. ... ... 6 

Super-sensible objects are proved from Inference and from Testi 
mony ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Kdrikd VII. 

Prakriti and Purusa are not objects of Perception ... ... 7 

Perception is not the sole test of reality ... ... ... 7 

Admittedly existent things are not perceived ... ... 7 

Causes which obstruct perception ... ... ... 7 

Kdrika VIII. 

Prakriti, being subtile, is non-perceptible ... ... 7 

Prakriti is proved from her products ... ... 7" 

Mahat, etc. are the products of Prakriti... ... ... 7 

They both resemble and differ from Prakriti ... ... 7 

Kdrikd IX. 

Effect infers some cause, and not a particular one ... ... 8 

But the existence of the Pradhana has to be proved ... 9 

The theories of effect examined ... ... ... 9 

The existent is not produced from the non-existent... ... 9 

Effects are not the Vivarta or revolutions of a single existence ... 9 

The non-existent is not produced from the existent ... ... 9 

The existent is produced from the existent ... ... 9 

The effect is identical with the cause ... ... ... 9 

Reasons for the doctrine ... ... ... ... 9 

Karikd X. 

The differences between the Manifest and the Unmanifest ... 9 

Kdrikd XT. 

The resemblances between them ... ... ... 10 

The differences between them and Purusa ... ... 10 

Their resemblances ... ... ,.. ... 10 

A doubt as to the multiplicity of Purusa removed ... ... 11 

Kdrikd XII. 

The Gunas are Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas ... ... 12 

Their Svarupa or essential form described ... 12 

What objects they fulfil ... ... ... ... 12 

What functions they mutually perform ... ... ... 12 

How the Gunas subserve one another ... ... ... 12 

How they co-exist throughout the Universe ... .- 13 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Hi 

Pages. 
Kdrikd XIII. 

The respective properties of the Gunas stated ... ... 13 

These are contrary to one another ... ... ... 13 

How contraries can co-operate towards a common end ... 13 

The example of the lamp ... ... ... ... 13 

Kdrikd XIV. 

Proof of the properties of the Unmanifest ... ...... 14 

Proof of the Uninanifest ... ... ... ... 15 

Kdrikds XV-XVI. 

Proof of the Un manifest continued ... ... ... 15 

The first transformation of the Unmanifest are the Gunas ... 16 
How a single cause accounts for the diversity in Creation ... 16 
The transformations of the Gunas are homogeneous and heteroge 
neous ... ... ... ... ... 16 

The example of the rain-water ... ... ... 17 

Kdrikd XVII. 

Proof of Purusa ... ... ... ... ... 17 

Purusa is not an aggregate ... ... ... ... 17 

Kdrikd XVIII. 

Proof of the multiplicity of Purusa ... ... .... 18 

Kdrikd XIX. 

Proof of the Samkhya conception of the nature of Purusa ... 18 

Kdrikd XX. 

The seeming agency of Purusa is a reflection of the real agency 

of the Manifest ... ... ... ... 19 

The seeming intelligency of the Manifest is a reflection of the 

real intelligence of Purusa ... ... ... 19 

Their mutual reflection takes place through conjunction ...;. 19 
Idrikd XXI. 

The object of their conjunction is the exhibition of the Pra- 

dhana to Purusa, and the isolation of Purusa ... ... 20 

The example of the halt and the blind ... ... ... 20 

Creation is through conjunction ... ,,. .... 20 

rikd XXII. 

The evolutes of Prakriti ... ... ... ... 21 

Their inter-relation ... ... ... 21 

The order of their evolution... ... v . v ... ; v> 21 



iv T ABLE OF 



Pages. 
KdriM XXIII. 

Buddhi defined ... ... ... ... ... 22 

Its products are Sattvic and Tamasic ... ... ... 22 

The Sattvic ones are virtue, knowledge, dispassion, and 

power ... ... ... ... ... 22 

The Tamasic ones are the opposite ... ... ... 22 

Stages of dispassion explained ... ... ... 22 

" Power " explained ... ... ... ... 23 

Sattvic and Tamasic explained ... ... ... 23 

KdriM XXIV. 

Ahamkara defined ... ... ... ... 23 

The creation of Ahamkara is twofold : the eleven Indriyas and 

the five Tan-matras ... ... ... ... 23 

Abhimana explained ... ... ... ... 23 

KdriM XXV. 

From Ahamkara, dominated by Sattva, are the Indriyas ... 24 

From Ahamkara, dominated by Tamas, are the Tan-matras ... 24 
The part Rajas plays in the evolution of the products of Aham 

kara ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Terms " Vaikrita," " Bhutadi," and " Taijasa " explained ... 24 

KdrikdXXVL 

The Indriyas are those of Cognition and of Action ... ... 24 

Names of the two classes of Indriyas given ... ... 24 

Kdrihd XXVII. 

Manas is the Indriya both of Cognition and of Action ... 25 

The uncommon function of Manas is Samkalpa or Imagina 
tion ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Cause of the variety of the Indriyas and of external objects ... 26 
Process of sensuous cognition referred to ... ... 26 

Kdrika XXVIIL 

What functions the Indriyas severally perform ... ... 26 

Kdrikd XXIX. 

The common and uncommon functions of the three Internal 
Indriyas ... ... ... ... ... 27 

The Internal Indriyas are Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Manas ... 27 

The vital airs are produced from them, and not from the element 
al Air ... ... ,. 27 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Pages. 
Kdrikd XXX. 

In perception, there is the joint operation of the three Internal 

Indriyas and one of the external ones... ... 27 

Their functions may be successive as well as simultaneous ... 28 
In inference, revelation, and recollection, there is the joint opera 
tion of the three Internal Indriyas only ... ... 28 

Their functions may be successive as well as simultaneous ... 28 

Inference, revelation, and recollection must follow perception ... 28 

Kdrikd XXXI. 

How the Indriyas come to act jointly and in harmony ... 28 

Theory of some sort of sensuous resonance ... ... 28 

The Indriyas act spontaneously ... ... ... 28 

The purpose of Purusa is the final cause of their activity ... 28 

Kdrikd XXXII. 

The Indriyas are thirteen in number ... ... ... 29 

Their general functions and the effect thereof ... ... 29 

Kdrikd XXXIII. 

There are three Internal Indriyas and ten external ones ... 30 

The latter are object to the former ... ... ... 30 

In what sense they are object ... ... ... 30 

The external Indriyas operate at time present ... ... 30 

The Internal ones at times past, present and future ... ... 30 

Kdrikd XXXIV. 

The objects of the Indriyas of cognition are both gross sound, 

etc., and subtile sound, etc., in the form of the Tan-matras ... 30 
Sound is the only object of Speech ... ... ... 39 

The other Indriyas of action have sound and all the rest as their 

object ... ... ... ... ... 30 

Kdrikd XXXV. 

The Internal Indriyas reach to all objects, through the external 
ones ... ... ... ... ... 31 

The former are compared to a house of which the latter may be 
said to be the gates ... ... ... ... 31 

Kdrikd XXXVI. 

The example of the lamp repeated . ... ... 31 

The external Indriyas present all objects to Buddhi... ... 31 

Purusa can experience objects through all, in Buddhi only ... 31 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Pages. 

Kdrikd XXXVII. 

Buddhi discrirniuates the subtile difference between Prakriti and 

Purusa ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Buddhi is supreme among the Indriyas . ... ... 32 

Kdrikd XXXVIII. 

The Tan-matras are indiscernibles ... ... ... 32 

The Gross Elements are their products ... ... 32 

They are discernibles ... ... ... ... 32 

Nature of the Tan-matras explained ... ... ... 32 

Kdrikd XXXIX. 

The discernibles enumerated ... ... ... 33 

Gross and Subtile Bodies distinguished ... ... ... 33 

Kdrikd XL. 

Character of the Subtile Body described ... ... 34 

The cause of its migration stated ... ... 34 

Kdrikd XLI. 

The Subtile Body ever seeks a Gross one ... ... 35 

The doctrine of an intermediate Body called Vehicular ... 35 

Kdrikd XL1L 

The migration of the Subtile Body : the example of the dramatic 

performer ... ... 35 

Its causes : the Bhavas ... ... ... 36 

Kdrikd XLIII. 

Bhavas are instinctive, essential, and acquired ... ... 36 

These explained... ... ... 37 

Kdrikd XLIV. 

Result of virtue ... ... 37 

Result of vice ... ... 37 

Result of knowledge 37 

Result of ignorance or error ... ... ... 37 

Bondage is threefold : Prakritika, Vaikritika, and Daksinaka ... 37 

Bondage described ... ... ... ... 37 

Kdrikd XLV. 

Result of dispassion ... ... ... ... 38 

Result of passion 

Result of power ... ... ... 38 

Result of weakness ... ... 38 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii 

Pages. 
Kdrikd XL77. 

Pratyay a-Sarga explai ned ... ... ... ... 38 

Its divisions are Error, Incapacity, Complacency, and Perfec 
tion ... ... ... ... ... 39 

Their sub-divisions are fifty ... ... ... 39 

The cause of this diversity explained ... ... ... 39 

Kdrikd XLVII. 

There are five kinds of Error ... ... ... 39 

Twenty-eight kinds of Incapacity ... ... ... 39 

Nine kinds of Complacency ... ... ... 39 

Eight kinds of Perfection ... ... ... ... 39 

Kdrikd XLVIII. 

The sub-divisions of Error ... ... ... ... 39 

A-Vidya has eight varieties ... ... ... ... 40 

Asmita has eight ... ... ... ... 40 

Raga has ten ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Dvesa has eighteen ... ... ... ttt 40 

A bhinive^a has eighteen ... ... ... ... 40 

Kdrikd XLIX. 

The sub-divisions of Incapacity : ... ... ... 40 

Eleven injuries of the eleven Indriyas ... ... ... 40 

Seventeen injuries of Buddhi ... ... ... 40 

The injuries of Buddhi denote the contrary states of Complacen 
cies and Perfections ... ... ... ... 40 

Kdrikd L. 

The sub-divisions of Complacency : ... ... ... 40 

Internal five ... ... ... ... ... 40 

External five . ... ... ... ... 40 

Kdrikd LI. 

The sub- divisions of Perfection ... ... ... 41 

Error, Incapacity, and Complacency are obstacles to Perfec 
tion ... ... ... ... ,..41 

Kdrikd LII. 

Creation is twofold ; from Buddhi and from the Tan-matras ... 42 

Why a two-fold creation is necessary ... ... ... 42 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Pages. 

Karikd LIU. 

The sub-divisions of Elemental Creation ... ... 42 

Celestial beings are of eight kinds ... ... ... 42 

The grovelling are of five kinds ... ... ... 42 

The human is of one kind ... ... ... ... 43 

Karikd LIV. 

Worlds higher, lower, and intermediate characterised ... 43 

Kdrikd LV. 

There is suffering in the higher worlds also ... ... 43 

Pain is universal ... ... .... ... 43 

So long as the Subtile Body remains, there can be no escape 

from pain ... ... ...- ... ... 43 

Kdrikd LV1. 

Prakriti s creation is individualistic ... ... ... 44 

For the release of each respective Purusa ... ... 44 

And utterly unselfish ... ... ... ... 44 

Kdrikd LVII. 

Prakriti s activity is spontaneous ... ... ... 44 

Purposive activity is seen in unintelligent things ... ... 45 

The example of the secretion of milk for the calf ... ... 45 

Interposition of an l^vara is impossible ... ... 45 

Kdrikd LVTII. 

Spontaneity of Prakriti further illustrated ... ... 45 

To act for the release of Purusa is an inner necessity of the 

nature of Prakriti ... ... 46 

Kdrikd LIX. 

How Prakriti s activity ceases spontaneously ... ... 46 

The example of a fair dancer < ... 46 

Kdrikd LX. 

The unselfishness of Prakriti demonstrated ... ... 46 

Kdrikd LX1. 

How Prakriti does not energise over again, in regard to the re 
leased Purusa... ... 47 

The example of a lady of high birth ... ... 47 

Kdrikd LXII. 

Bondage, transmigration, and release are really of Prakriti and 

not of Purusa .,. .,. .,. rt* ..,47 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. ix 

Pages. 

Kdrikd LX1I1. 

How Prakrit! herself binds and releases herself ... ... 47 

Virtue, dispassion, and power, without knowledge, avail not ... 47 

Kdrikd LXIV. 

How discriminative knowledge can be fully developed ... 48 

What is perfect development of knowledge ... ... 48 

Kdrikd LXV. 

Relation of Prakriti and Purusa after release ... ... 48 

Kdrikd LXVI. 

After release, there remains still conjunction of Prakriti and 

Purusa ... ... ... ... ... 49 

Their conjunction, as such, is not the cause of creation ... 49 

The purpose of creation is to free Purusa from bondage ... 49 

Kdrikd LXVII. 

Jivan-mukti, or release in life, stated and explained ... 49 

Perfect knowledge kills the germ of re-birth ... ... 49 

The Body is sustained by Prarabdha Karma which originated 

it... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Prarabdha and other kinds of Karma explained ... ... 50 

Kdrikd LXVIII. 

When a Jivan-mukta is finally released ... ... 50 

Kdrikd LXIX. 

The origin of the Samkhya Sastra is from Kapila ... ... 51 

r .drikd LXX. 

The tradition of the Samkhya $astra : . . . ... ... 51 

Kapila taught it to Asuri, and Asuri to Pancha&kha ... 51 

Pancha&kha elaborated it in various *ways ... ... 51 

:drikd LXXI. 

How LJvarakrisna got it ... ... ... ... 52 

The Samkhya-Karika is a compendium of the original oastras ... 52 
Kdrifcd LXXII. 

The Samkhya-Karika is also called the Saptati or Of Seventy 

verses ... ... ... ... ... 53 

The Samkhya- Pravachana-Sutram is also called the Sati-Tantra 

or Of sixty Topics ... ... ... 53 

The Saptati compared with the Sasti-Tantra ... ... 53 

The sixty topics enumerated ... ... 53 



THE SAMKHTA-KAKLKA, 



The Sdmkhya is the only means of the Supreme Good. 



ii < ii 

fl Duhkha-traya-abhighatat, from the disagreeable occurrence, 
affection or action (abhighata) of the threefold pain or causes of suffering. f%ww 
Jijiiasa, the desire to know, enquiry, fl^iwifi Tat-avaghatake, preventive or 
counter-active thereof, i.e., of the threefold pain. t% Hetau, into the means, 3g* 
Driste, there existing visible or ordinary means. *r Sa, it, i.e., the enquiry. 
w*i? Apa-artha, purpose-less, superfluous. %a Ohet, if it is said, i Na, no. 
WTTTr3nT^5?irara Ek4nta-atyanta-tah-abhavit, because of the absence of certainty 
and permanency. 

I. From the disagreeable occurrence of the threefold 
pain, (proceeds) the enquiry into the means which can 
prevent it ; nor is the enquiry superfluous because ordinary 
(means) exist, for they fail to accomplish certain and perma 
nent prevention of pain. 

ANNOTATION. 

1. Wise men want to demonstrate that which, by being known, would 
accomplish the Supreme Good. Knowledge about the subject matter of 
the proposed Sastra is the means of accomplishing the Supreme Good. 
The present K& rika, therefore, introduces an enquiry into that subject. 
Vachaspati Mi^ra s Tattva-Kaumudi. * 

2. The subject-matter of the Slmkhya System comprises the well- 
known Twenty-five Tattvas or Principles, from the knowledge of which 
results the destruction of the three kinds of pain. Of. Gaudpada s 



* 

3. The Supreme Good is Moksa or Release which consists in the 
permanent impossibility of the incidence of pain in any form whatever, 
that is, in recovering that state of the pristine purity of the Self in which 
the occurrence of pain is impossible, in other words, in the realisation of 
the Self as Self pure and simple. 



SAMKHYA-KARTKA. 



4. Pains, according to the place of their origin, are divided 
primarily into two classes : internal and external. Internal pains, again, 
are either bodily or mental. These are called Adbyatmika or intra-organic. 
External pains are either Adbibhautika or caused by created beings, 
namely, man, beast, bird, reptile, and the immobile, or Adhidaivika or 
caused by supernatural agencies, such as Yaksa, Raksasa, Vinayaka, etc. 
Now, pain, such as it is, cannot be ignored, because it is experienced by 
every individual being. 

5 Pain is not a condition of the pure Self. It resides in the 
Internal Instrument of Action and Cognition, that is, the inner sense, or 
Buddhi, and is a particular modification of that component element of it 
which is called Rajas. "Abbighata" is the contact of the power of 
Sentiency with pain as an object of disagreeable sensation. 

6. It may be objected that when such obvious remedies as medi 
cines, desirable objects, skill in political arts and sciences, employment of 
gems and charms, etc., for the alleviation and removal of pain, do exist, 
whilst the knowledge of the Tattvas is difficult of attainment and to be 
acquired only by long study and traditional tuition through many 
generations, the investigation proposed is needless. To this, the answer 
is that the obvious means are neither Ekanta or absolute, nor Atyanta or 
final ; that is, there is in them no certainty of the cessation of pain nor of 
the non-recurrence of pain that has ceased. Therefore, the good accom 
plished by them is not the Supreme Good. The means of accomplishing 
the Supreme Good must possess these two properties. Such a means is 
the knowledge of the Tattvas. The enquiry, therefore, is certainly not 
needless. 

7. But our opponent may contend that, though the obvious means 
may fail, still there are means declared in the Vedas, which bring about 
absolute and final cessation of pain, and that, consequently, the proposed 
enquiry is quite superfluous Accordingly, the next Karika declares : 

Scriptural, like ordinary, means are defective. 



II ^ II 

Drista-vat, like the ordinary (means). wjufwi: Anusravikali, the 
revealed, Vedic, scriptural. S: Sah, it, i.e., the Vedic means. f% Hi, for. 
A-visuddhi-ksaya-atisaya-yuktah, attended with impurity, waste, 



and excess. ftf$*fifti Tat-viparitah, the opposite thereof, i.e., of ordinary and scrip 
tural means. $m Sreyan, preferable. ITWOIMI*|*JMM Vyakta-a-vyakta-jna-vijnan&t, 



SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



as it consists in discriminative knowledge of the Manifest, the Unmanifest, and the 
Knower. 

II. Like the ordinary, is the scriptural (means 
ineffectual), for it is attended with impurity, waste, and 
excess. (The means which is) the opposite of both is 
preferable, as it consists in a discriminative knowledge of 
the Manifest, the Unmanifest, and the Knower. 

ANNOTATION. 

8. " Scriptural " here refers to the rituals laid down in the Vedas, 
and not to their Jnana-Kanda portion, for Discriminative Knowledge also 
is enjoined in them. 

The scriptural m6ans are, e.g., the drinking of the Soma juice, 
performance of sacrifices such as the Jyotistorna, the A^vamedha, 
etc. They are " impure " from sacrifice of animals, etc. The result 
produced by them is liable to " waste," for even heaven and the gods 
pass away in course o time. They are also inequal in the distribution 
of their rewards. 

9. The " opposite of both " that is, that which is absolute and 
final in its result, and is free from impurity, deficiency, and inequality. 
Such a means is the discriminative knowledge of Prakriti and Purusa. 

10. "Vijnana" means knowledge of discrimination. Knowledge 
of the Manifest leads to the knowledge of its cause, the Unmanifest. 
And knowledge of both as existing for the sake of another, leads to the 
knowledge of the Self. The Manifest begins with Mahat and includes 
Ahamkara, the five Tan-mi tras, the eleven Tndriyas, and the five Great 
Elements. The Unmanifest is the Pradhana, i.e., Prakpti. The Knower 
is Purusa. These are the Twenty-five Tattvas. 

11. The mutual differences of the Manifest, the Unraanifest, and 
the Knower are declared in the next Ka*ika. 

The Manifest, the Unmanifest, and the Knower distinguished. 



II \ II 

Mula-prakritih the root-evolvent, sifesf^: A-vikritifr, non-evolute. 
Mahat-adyalj, Mahat, etc. rr$fcferra: Prakriti-vikritayalj, evolvent-e volutes. 
SB Sapta, seven. ^resRi: Sodasakafr, sixteen. 3 Tu, merely, forc: Vikarah, 
evolute. f Na. not. nft: Prakriti^, evolvent, i Na, not. %^ : Vikritib, evolute. 
5W Purusafr, Purusa. 



SAMKHYA-KARTKA. 



III. The Root Evolvent is no evolute ; Mahat, etc., are 
the seven evolvent-evolutes ; the sixteen are mere evolutes ; 
(that which is) neither evolvent nor evolute, is Purusa. 

12. By " Prakrit! " is meant that which procreates or evolves the 
Pradhana, that is, that in which all things are contained, and in its 
general significance, it denotes that which becomes the material cause of 
another Tattva. 

13. The Root Evolvent is the state of equipoise of Sattva, Rajas, 
and Tamas. It has no root of its own and is the root of all things. Hence 
it is not a product. To imagine a root for the Root Evolvent would 
entail infinite regression. 

14. Evolvent-Evolutes : Mahat springs from the Pradhana. and, 
in its turn, gives rise to Aharnkara ; Aharnkara, in its turn, to the 
Tan-matras of Sound, Touch, Smell, Form, and Taste ; and these, in their 
turn, respectively to the gross elements of Ether, Air, Earth, Fire, and 
Water. 

15. It is next to be considered how the existence of the Tattvas 
described above can be rationally established. The causes of cognition 
and non-cognition are, therefore, expounded in the following four Karikas. 

Sources of knowledge enumerated. 



II II 

5,3*^ Dristam, the seen, sensuous, perception, w^n^ Anuinanam, inference. 
Apta-vachanam, statement of trustworthy persons. ^ Cha, and. wn 



Sarva-pramana-siddha-tvat, because all proofs are established, ifcRw Tri-vidham, 
threefold, xrowj^ Pramanam, proof. *B Istam, desired. uSfofisfg: Prameya-siddhih, 
establishment of the existence of the things to be proven, viz., the Twenty-five 
Tattvas. mniq Pramaijat, from proof, f^ Hi, verily. 

IV. Perception, Inference, and Testimony (are the 
Proofs ; by these) all proofs being established, Proof is 
intended to be threefold. From Proof verily is the estab 
lishment of the Provables. 

Perception, Inference, and Testimony defined. 



II V II 

Prati-visaya-adhyavasayah, ascertainment of each respective 



object by the senses. ^? Dristam, perception, raf^ Trividhajii, threefold. 



SAMKHYA-KAR1KA. 



Anumanam, inference. gnw?^ Akhyatam, declared. ?ra Tat, it. Bgf^fff^^. Liftga 
lingi-purvakam, preceded by the mark and by that of which it is the mark 
9iF*fa: Apta-srutih, trustworthy person and the Veda. WFF& Apta-vachanam, 
trustworthy statement, testimony. 3 Tu, while. 

V. Perception is the ascertainment of each respective 
object (by the Senses). Inference has been declared to be 
threefold. It is preceded by the mark and it is preceded by 
the thing of which it is the mark. While Testimony is the 
statement of trustworthy persons and the Veda. 

ANNOTATION. 

16. Vachaspati Mi^ra interprets " Prati-visaya-adhyavasayah " as 
follows : Adhyavasaya, that is, the operation of Buddhi, in other words, 
cognition, based on or depending upon Prati-visaya, that is, that which 
functions in regard to, that is, comes into contact with, the several objects, 
in other words, the Senses. 

17. The same authority describes the process of perceptual 
cognition thus : On the modification of the Senses apprehending objects, 
when there takes place the subdual of the Tamas of Buddhi, there is 
predominance of the Sattva, which is variously called Adhyavasaya, Vritti, 
and J fiana. And the favour that is hereby done to the power of intelli 
gence, that is the fruit ; it is the consciousness of Prama or Right Cogni 
tion. For the Buddhi Tattva, being derived from Prakriti, is unintelli 
gent ; hence its Adhyavasaya also is unintelligent, like a jar, etc. 
Similarly, the other modifications of the Buddhi Tattva, such as pleasure, etc., 
also are unintelligent. While Purusa, unassociated with pleasure, etc., 
is intelligent. Yet he, by the falling of the shadow of cognition, pleasure, 
etc., reflected by those residing in the Buddhi Tattva, becomes, as though 
possessed of cognition, pleasure, etc. This is how the intelligent one is 
favoured. And by the falling of the shadow of intelligence, Buddhi and 
also its Adhyavasaya, though unintelligent, appear, as though intelligent. 

18. Anumana is inference, by means of the mark, of the thing of 
which it is the mark, and vice versa. The Methods of Inference are either 
of Agreement, called Vita, or of Difference, called A- Vita. A- Vita in 
ference is called ^esa-vat, because it has the Sesa or the remainder or the 
residue as its subject matter. E.g., Earth is not not-Earth, because it pos 
sesses smell. Gaudapada explains Sesa-vat to be inference in respect 
of the Sesa or remainder of the class ; e.g., having found a drop of water 
taken from the sea to be salt, the saltness of the rest also is inferred; 



6 SAMKHYA-KABIKA. 



Vita inference is two-fold : Purva-vat and Samanyato Drista. 
Purva-vat is the inference of an individual of a genus particular instances 
of which have previously been seen ; e.g., the inference of fire from smoke, 
in a mountain, fire having previously been seen in the kitchen. Sama 
nyato Drista is inference of a thing particular instances of which same 
kind have not previously been seen, but particular instances of a kind 
similar to which have previously been seen in analogous cases ; that is, 
in this case, the particular is not seen but the genus is seen. E.g., 
Karana-tva or instrumentality, that is, the capability of effecting an act 
is, as a genus, a known thing, because it has been seen in the axe which 
is an instrument of cutting. But an Indriya or Power of Cognition and 
Action (commonly rendered as Sense Organ) does not belong to the same 
class as the axe, and is also not an object of perception. Now, cognition 
and action are acts, and as the act of cutting cannot be effected without 
an instrument, so the acts of cognition and action cannot be effected 
without some instrument. Thus is inferred the existence of the Indriyas 
as the Instruments of Cognition and Action. 

Apta means Acharyas, such as Brahma and the rest. 
Super-Sensible objects how proved. 



II I II 

: Samanyatafc, of the generic. 5 Tu, but. <^ Dristat, from the 
seeing, 9RW*3*iwri Ati-indriyanarp, of things transcending ihe senses. Hffifa: 
Pratitib, approach, intuition, cognition. wnim Anumanat, from inference. 
f^ira Tasmat, from that, sifi Api, even. i Cha, and also, from Seea-vat inference 
(Vachaspati). wfig A-siddham, not-established, qwt Paroksam, super- sensuous. 
siTFTwa Apta-agamat, from Testimony and Revelation. R^ Siddham, proved. 

VI. (Intuition of sensible things is from perception). 
But the intuition of supersensible things is from Sama 
nyato Drista and Sesa-vat Inference. And super-sensible 
things not established from that even, are established from 
Testimony and Revelation. 

19. Prakriti and Purusa are not objects of perception and there 
fore they are unreal, argue our opponents ; for a hare s horn or a castle 
in the air is not perceived, because it is unreal. It is, accordingly, next 
pointed out that perception cannot be the sole^ test of reality, because 
there are well-known causes from which even admittedly existent things 
are not perceived. These causes are declared in the next Karika, 



SAMKBYA-KARIKA. 



Causes of failure of external perception enumerated. 



u vs \\ 

Ati-durat, from extreme distance. N. B. The word Ati qualifies 
distance as well as all the rest. *r*?tera Samipyat, from nearness. *f*spwwM Indriya- 
ghatat, from impairment of the senses. ^s^reiHra Manah-anavasthanat, from 
non-presence of mind. gte^ira Sauksmyat, from fineness, sq^^ra Vyavadhanat, 
from intervention. sjn^ira Abhibhavat, from suppression by others. wirfiifrcw 
Samana-abhiharat, from intermixture with likes. ^ Cha, and others. 

VII. (Apprehension of ev^en existing things may not 
take place) through extreme remoteness, nearness, impair 
ment of the senses, non-presence of the mind, extreme fine 
ness, intervention, suppression by other matters, intermix 
ture with likes, and other causes. 

Why Prakriti is not an object of perception. 



I) q U 



Sauksmyat, from extreme fineness. ci^w^f: Tat-anupalabdhifc, 
non-apprehension thereof, i.e., of Prakriti. ^ Na, not. SR^m Abhavat, from 
non-existence. m$i: K4rya-tab, from effects. ?T|W^: Tat-upalabdheh, because 
of the apprehension thereof. *t^ Mahat-adi, Mahat and the rest. ?m Tat, that. 
* Cha, and. ^ Karyam, effect. i*&fimi Prakriti- sarftpam, similar to Prakriti. 
^?* Virupam, dissimilar, w Cha, and. 

VIII. From extreme fineness is the non-apprehension 
of Prakriti, and not from her non-existence, because there is 
apprehension of her from the, effect. And that effect is 
Mahat, etc., similar and dissimilar to Prakriti. 

20. " Similar and dissimilar to Prakriti " : for these resemblances 
and differences, see Karikas X and XI. 

21. But from the effects, a mere cause or cause in the abstract is 
deduced, and not its nature, and, on this point, different conclusions have 
been arrived at by different thinkers. Thus, some Buddhists, say 
that the existent is produced from the non-existent ; e.g., from the non- 
existence, by destruction, of the seed is produced the sprout. 2. Some, 
the Vedantins, say that the effects are the Vivarta or revolution of one 



8 KAMKHYA-KARIKA* 

. , : i " 

single existent thing, and are not themselves ultimately real. 3. Some, 
the Vaifeikas, Naiyayikas, etc., say that from the existent, i.e., the Ulti 
mate Atoms, is produced the non-existent. 4. The elders, the Samkhyas, 
say that from the existent is produced the existent. Of these, on the first 
three alternatives, the Pradhana is not established. For the character 
istic of being the Pradhana, i.e., that in which all things are contained, 
and of being of the nature of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, belonging to the 
Cause of the World, consists in being of the nature of Sound and all 
other Par in a ma or transformations, the essences of which possess the 
distinctions of pleasure, pain, and bewilderment. Now, if the existent 
is to be produced from the non-existent, how can a non-existent, name 
less, form-less cause possess the nature of Sound, etc., in the form of 
pleasure, etc. ? for there is no proof of the identity of nature between the 
existent and the non-existent. If, again, the diversity of Sound, etc., 
is the Vivarta of a single existent thing, still it would not follow that the 
existent is produced from the existent. For a one without a second 
cannot have identity of nature with the diversity ; on the contrary, the 
apprehension of the non-diversity under the characteristic of the diversity 
is an error pure and simple- With those also, again, namely Kanada, 
Gotama, and others, who say that it is from the existent that the non 
existent is produced, the cause cannot be of the nature of the effect, 
because there is no proof of the unity of the existent and the non-existent. 
Hence there can be no proof of the Pradhana on these theories. In order, 
therefore, to establish the existence of the Pradhana, the next Karika 
determines that the effect must be existent from before its " productfon." 

Effects pre-exist in their causes. 



II *. II 

A-sat-a-karagat, from the non-effectuation of the non-existent. 
Upadana-grahagat,^from the selection of material for the effect. 
Sarva-sambhava-abhavat, from the absence of the production of 



every thing by every means. SRffsr Saktasya, of the competent, spmrcsmi Sakya- 
karagat, from the effectuation of the producible, ^r^mr^m Karapa-bhavat, from 
the nature of the cause, wi Sat, existent, w^ Karyam, effect. 

IX. The effect is ever existent, because that which is 
non-existent, can by no means be brought into existence ; 
because effects take adequate material causes ; because all 



SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



things are not produced from all causes ; because a compe 
tent cause can effect that only for which it is competent; and 
also because the effect possesses the nature of the cause. 

ANNOTATION. 

22. That which is non-existent, etc. : e.g. a hare s horn. 

Effects take, etc. : Oil, for instance, can be produced from mustard 
seeds, but not a piece of cloth. 

All things are not produced, etc. : Did effects not pre-exist in their 
causes, then, in mustard seeds, for example, there would be non-existence 
of a piece of cloth, a jar, in fact, of every other thing as w6ll as of oil, 
and it would be quite as easy to produce a piece of cloth, a jar, and all 
the rest from them as it is to produce oil. But such is not the case. 

A competent cause can effect, etc. : Competency means potentiality, 
the unmanifested state of the effect. A lump of clay, for instance, is 
potentially a jar; in it the jar lies hidden, unmanifested ; it is manifested 
in the form of the jar by the operation of the potter. 

The effect possesses the nature, etc. : The colour, weight, touch, etc. 
of -a piece of cloth for instance, are the colour, weight, touch, etc., of the 
threads from which it is made. This could, not have been so, were not 
cause and effect identical in essence. 

The Manifest and the Unmanifest contrasted. 



^<wj Hetu-mat, possessing or depending on a cause. ^RrJi^ A-nityam, non- 
eternal, perishable, *iiR A-vyapi, unpervading, finite. sf?fi*n?. Sakriyam, mobile, 
mutable- ^**t Anekam, multitudinous, manifold. wfsra Asritam, supported, depend 
ent. Bf! Lingam, mergent, mark, grerog Savayavam, made up of parts. mzv?m 
Para -tan tram, subordinate, sq^s* Vyaktam, jthe manifested. raMfld^ Viparitam, 
the reverse. ^-n^ A- Vyaktam, the unmanifested. 

X. The Manifest is producible^ non-enternal, non-per 
vading, mobile, multiform, dependent, (serving as) the mark 
(of inference), a combination of parts, subordinate. The Un 
manifest is the reverse (of this). 

ANNOTATION. 

23. Sakriya, migratory : Buddhi and the rest leave, one after another, 
bodies which they, had taken up and enter into other bodies : this is their 

movement. The movement of the. Body, Earth, etc., is indeed well-known. 
2 



10 SAMkHYA-KAtilkA. 

Aneka, multitudinous : There are as many of them as there are Puru- 
as ; Earth and the rest also are multiplied according to the differences of 
Bodies, jars, etc. 

Asrita, supported : They are supported by their respective causes. 

Linga, mergent, mark : Buddhi and the rest are marks of the Pra 
dhana. Gaudapada explains the word to mean " subject to dissolution." At 
the time of the Dissolution the five Great Elements merge into the Tan- 
matras, and these together with the eleven Indrivas, into Ahamkara, and 
this, into Buddhi ; and that merges into the Pradhana. 

Paratantra, subordinate: Buddhi, for instance, when it has to produce 
its own effect, namely, Ahamkara, has to draw upon Prakriti ; otherwise, 
being weak or exhausted, it will not be able to produce Ahamkara. Simi 
larly, by Ahamkara and the rest also is awaited the inflow of Prakriti 
in the production of their own effects. 

24. Viparita, reverse : The Unmanifest is causeless, eternal, all 
pervading, motion-less, single, self- sustained, the subject of the mark or 
non-mergent, part-less, and supreme. 

The Manifest, the Unwanifest and the Knower contrasted and compared. 

faro 



SI^fR rlH^TT ^ 3*TT^ II ^ II 

Tri-gunam, having or constituted by the three Qunas, viz., Sattva, 
Rajas, and Tamas. ft^ A-viveki, non-discriminative, fow: Visayah, objective. 
*i*nwpj Samanyam, common, sfari A-chetanam, non-intelligent. Ji^^R Prasava- 
dharmi, prolific, aws* Vyaktam, the Manifest. ?WT Tatha, so. JTOR Pradhanam, 
the Pradhana, Prakriti. n^fm: Tat-viparitalj, the reverse of this. TOT Tath^,, so. 
<r Cha, yet. 3^ Puman, Purusa. 

XI. The Manifest is constituted by the three 
Gunas, is non-discriminative, objective, common, non- intel 
ligent, prolific. So is also the Pradhana. Purusa is the 
reverse of them both (in these respects), and yet is similar 
(to the Pradhana and also to the Manifest in those other 
respects mentioned in the preceding Karika.) 

ANNOTATION. 

25. A-vivehi : Just as the Pradhana is not discriminated from itself, 
even so are not Mahat and the rest also discriminated from the Pradhana, 
because of their essential identity. Or, A-viveka is to create by uniting 

II 



SAMKBYA-KARIKJL. 11 



together, for none of them singly are capable of producing their own effects, 
but, on the contrary, only by uniting together. 

Vi$aya because it is the Object as distinguished from the Subject, 
to be apprehended and made use of by all Purusas alike. 

26. Tatha cha, and yet is similar : that is, as the Pradhana is, in 
the preceding Karika, declared to be without cause, etc., such is Purusa. 
Thus, " * * * The Manifest is multitudinous ; the Unmanifest is single ; 
so is Purusa also single. * * " (Gaudapada)." " But when similarity to 
the Pradhana belongs to Purusa in respect of non-causability, eternality, 
etc., and likewise multiplicity is his similarity to the Manifest, how is it 
said that " the reverse of them both is Purusa ? To this, it is replied : Tatha 
cha : Cha has the sense of Api, even, yet ; although there is similarity in 
respect of non-causability, etc., yet he possesses dissimilarity in respect 
of not being constituted by the three Gunas, etc. Such is the meaning " 
(Vachaspati MitJra). " The S. Chandrika confirms the interpretation : 
1 The phrase tathd cha implies that (soul) is analogous to the undiscrete 
principle in non-causability and the rest, and analogous to discrete prin 
ciples in manifold enumeration. This is, in fact, the Samkhya doctrine, 
as subsequently laid down by the text, ver. 18, and is conformable to the 
Sutra of Kapila ; Multitude of souls is proved by variety of condition : 
that is, the virtuous are born again in heaven, the wicked are regenerated 
in hell ; the fool wanders in error, the wise man is set free. Either, there 
fore, Gaudapada has made a mistake, or by his eka is to be understood, 
not that soul in general is one only, but that it is single, or several, in 
its different migrations ; or, as Mr. Colebrooke renders it (R.A.S. Trans. 
vol. I. p. 31) * individual. So in the Sutras it is said that there may be 
various unions of one soul, according to difference of receptacle, as the 
etherial element may be confined in a variety of vessels. This singleness 
of soul applies therefore to that particular soul which is subjected to its 
own varied course of birth, death, bondage, and liberation ; for, as the 
commentator observes, * one soul is torn, not another (in a regenerated 
body) The singleness of soul, therefore, as asserted by Gaudapada, is no 
doubt to be understood in this sense." (Wilson). 

Characteristics of the Gunas described. 

iTf iHi+i i ^ i : i 

H R n 



w : Priti-apriti-visada-atmakah, of the nature of pleasure, pain 



and dulness. n*iamqffiRwi>qf : Prakasa-pravritti-niyama-arthafy adapted to serving 



12 SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



. 

~~ 



the purpose of, or capable of causing, illumination, activity, and, restraint. 

Anya-anya-abhibhava-asraya-janana-mithuna-vrittayah, 



Laving mutual domination, dependence, production, consociation, and co-existence. 
Vachaspati does not consider the term Vritti as a distinct condition : he in 
terprets it as Kriya, act, operation or function, and compounds it with each of 
the foregoing terms. ^ Cha, and. JTOT : Gunah, the Gunas. 

XII. The Gunas possess the nature of pleasure, pain 
and dulness ; serve the purpose of illumination, activity, 
and restraint ; and perform the function of mutual domina 
tion, dependence, production, and consociation. 

ANNOTATION. 

27. Possess the nature, etc : Hereby the intrinsic forms of the 
Gunas Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas are declared. The force of the word 
Atma, nature, is that it is a reply to those who think that pleasure is 
nothing but absence of pain, and that pain is nothing but absence of 
pleasure. For Atma denotes being 5 something positive, and is a negation 
of non-being. 

28. Serve the purpose, etc : Hereby the purposes served by the 
Gunas respectively are declared. Artha means prayojana or purpose. 
Gaudapada interprets the term in the sense of competency, fitness, 
capability. 

29. Perform the functions, etc : Hereby the various operations of 
the Gunas are declared. 

Dependence : Although dependence, that ie, co-existence by the 
relation of the container and the contained is not possible, still that is 
the support of that, the operation of which depends upon it. Thus, 
Sattva, by resting on activity and restraint, subserves Rajas and Tamas 
with illumination ; Rajas, by resting on illumination and restraint, sub 
serves Sattva and Tamas with activity ; Tamas, by resting on illumination 
and activity, subserves Sattva and Rajas with restraint. 

Production: Production is transformation, and it is of the same 
form as the Gunas ; hence causability is not entailed, owing to the absence 
of a cause which is a different Tattva. Neither is non-eternality entailed, 
owing to the absence of dissolution into a different Tattva. 

Consociation: That is, the Gunas are constant companions of one 
another. 

Co-existence is explained by Guadapada thus : As a beautiful and 
amiable woman, who is a source of delight to every one else, is the cause 






SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 13 

of misery to the other wives of her husband, and of bewilderment to the 
dissolute ; so does Sattva produce the functions of Rajas and Tamas. 
Asa king, assiduous in protecting his people, and curbing the profligate, 
is the cause of happiness to the good, of misery and mortification to the 
wicked ; so does Rajas produce the functions of Sattva and Tamas. 
Similarly, Tamas produces the functions of Sattva and Rajas, as clouds, 
overshadowing the heavens, cause delight upon earth, animate by their 
rain the active labours of the husbandman, and overwhelm absent 
lovers with despair. In this manner, the Gnnas perform the functions of 
one another. 

The Co-operation of the Gun as explained. 



:ll U 

* Sattvam, sattva. ^ Laghu, alleviating, light. H*IWJ; Prakasakam, 
enlightening, illuminating. ??1 Istam, desired, considered. 3^^ Upastam- 
bhakam, urgent, exciting. TO Chalam, versatile, restless. * Cha, and. ^ : Rajal}, 
rajas. 5^ Guru, heavy. 3^3^ Varanakam enveloping, covering, obscuring. 
*3 Eva, to he sure. ?ro: Tamali, tamas. U$TO Pradipa-vat, like a lamp. ^ Oha, 
and. swci : ArtLa-tah, for a purpose. ?fa: Vrittih, function, operation. 

XIII. Sattva is considered to be light and illu 
minating, and Eajas, to be exciting and restless, and Tamas, 
to be indeed heavy and enveloping. Like a lamp (consisting 
of oil, wick, and fire), they co-operate for a (common) purpose 
(by union of contraries). 

ANNOTATION. 

30. Contraries need not necessarily oppose and counteract one 
another. As co-operation of contraries for a common purpose is seen in 
the case of a lamp, even so is it the case with the Gunas which co-operate 
with one another to serve a common purpose, viz., the experience and 
release of Purusa. 

31. Granted, one may say, that non-discriminativeness, etc., are 
proved by perception in the case of Earth, etc., which are objects of 
perception ; but how can Sattva, etc., which are not objects of perception, 
be said to be non-discriminative, objective, common, non-intelligent, 
and prolific (Karika XI) ? To this, the reply is given in the next 



14 SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



Proof of the properties of the Unmanifest. 



A-viveki-adeh, of non-discriminativeness, etc. f^% : Siddhih, 
proof. ??V*jra Traigunyat, from their being constituted by the three Gunas or 
from their manifesting the three qualities of pleasure, pain, and dulness. 
ri Tat-viparyaya-abhavat, from the absence of non-discriminativeness, etc., 



in the reverse thereof* i.e., of the Manifest and the Unmanifest, i.e., Purusa ; 
from the absence of the reverse of Traigunya in the Unmanifest ; from the 
absence of the divergence or non concomitance or disagreement between the 
properties in question and the Manifest and the Unmanifest or the Unmanifest 
only. thiw<JjicH<hrcmi Kara$a-guna-atmaka-tvat, from the effect s containing the attri 
butes of the cause, *firfcr Karyasya, of the effect. ^^^ A-Vyaktam, the Unmanifest. 
9irc Api, also. fss*i Siddham, proved, established. 

XIV. The proof of non-discriminativeness, and the 
rest (in the Manifest and the Unmanifest) is from their be 
ing constituted by the three Gunas and from absence of their 
non-concomitance. From the effect possessing the attributes 
of the cause is proved the Unmanifest also. 

ANNOTATION. 

32. According to Vachaspati, the proof of non-discriminativeness 
and tbe rest is by tbe method of agreement, thus ; 

Whatever possesses pleasure, pain, and dulness, is non-discrimina 
tive, etc., 

As, for instance, are the objects of the senses ; 

Prakriti, Mabat, etc., possess pleasure, pain, and dulness ; 

Tbey are, therefore, non-discriminative, etc : 
and also by tbe method of difference, thus : 

Whatever is not non-discriminative, etc., does not possess pleasure, 
pain and dulness, 

As, for instance, is tbe case with Purusa. 

But Prakriti, Mabat, etc., possess pleasure, pain, and dulness ; 

They are, therefore, not-non-discriminative, etc. 

But tbe proof of these attributes must be subject to tbe proof of their 
alleged substratum. How then is this, namely, tbe Pradhana proved ? 
Thus : Tbe effect characterised as Mahat, etc., possessing the form of 
pleasure, pain, and dulness, must have tbe nature or essence of pleasure, 



SAMKRYA-KAR1KA. 15 

pain, and dulness inhereing in its own cause ; so that its cause, possessing 
the nature of pleasure, pain, and dulness, that is, the Pradhana Unmani- 
fest, is established. 

33. Gaudapada s interpretation is different from the above. Ac 
cording to him, the properties of non-discriminativeness, etc., are proved in 
the Manifest from their being constituted by the three Gunas, through the 
absence of divergence, that is, because the properties of non-discriminative- 
ness, etc., have never been found except in conjunction with the property 
of being constituted by the three Gunas. And their existence in the 
Un manifest is proved from the absence of divergence, that is, from the 
invariable atid universal concomitance of the Manifest and the Unmani- 
fest : just as, wherever there is the cloth, there are the yarns ; similarly 
whoever sees the Manifest, sees the Unmanifest as well ; and also from the 
effect possessing the nature of the cause : thus, from the effect, viz., Mahat 
and the rest which are non-discriminative, objective, common, non-in 
telligent, and prolific, is proved that their cause, namely, the Unmanifest, 
possesses the same properties. 

Proof of the Unmanifest. 



II 



rfrf 



rr 



r Bhedanam, of differentiated particulars, specific objects, of the evolutes, 
Mahat and the rest. tfxircra Parimanat, from finiteness, measurableness. gfFerara 
Samanvayat, from homogeneity, agreement, sfci: Sakti-tafr, from power. *?$: 
Pravrittefr, from activity, from production. ^ Cha, and. ^n?imn^raHT^m Karana-karya- 
bibhagat, from differentiation of cause and^ effect. sif^Fmi A-vibhagat, from non- 
differentiation, from reunion, tsa**^ Vaisvarupasya, of the formal Universe. *K<U^ 
Karanam, cause. f% A.sti, exists. 3i*Kfi A-Vyaktam, Unrnanifest. V3r$ Pravartate, 
energises, operates, f^rcm: Tri-guna-tah, through or of the three Gunas, Sattva, 
Rajas, and Tamas. ^^ Sam-udayat, through combination, co-operation. ^ Cha, 
and. qfaifmH: Parinama-ta^, through transformation, ^^n Salila-vat, like water* 
nfitafii^wrnflifcSfrRi Prati-prati-gana-asraya-visesat, through differences according to 
the differences of the several receptacles of the Gunas, or differences created by 
the Gunas severally based on the principal Guna. 

XV-XVI. Of the particulars (e.g., Mahat and all the 
rest down to the earth), there exists an Unmanifest cause : 



16 SAttKBYA-RARlKA. 



because the particulars are finite ; because they are homo 
geneous ; because production is through power ; because 
there is differentiation of effect from cause or difference of 
cause and effect ; and because there is reunion of the multi 
form effect with the cause. 

It operates, in the form of the three Gunas and by 
combination, undergoing transformation, (diversified) accord 
ing to the differences severally of the other Gunas depend 
ing on the principal Guna. 

ANNOTATION. 

34. Because they are homogeneous : Homogeneousness is the 
possession of a common form among a number of distinct individuals. 
The presence of a common form infers a common origin. 

Because production is through power : Power inhering in the cause 
is nothing but the unmanifested state of the effect. 

Differentiation and reunion : Discrete products of every sort of 
form from Mahat down to a jar, for instance, successively rise from their 
causes at the time of creation and disappear into them at the time of 
destruction and universal dissolution. The ultimate points in the process 
of evolution and involution are one and the same. It is the absolute 
unmanifested state of a single entity. It is called the Unmanifest, the 
Pradhana and Prakriti, 

35. It operates etc. : The Gunas of which the nature is to undergo 
transformation, never rest, even for a moment, without transforming 
themselves. Their transformation may be homogeneous or heterogeneous. 
Homogeneous transformation takes place during Pralaya or the period of 
latency intervening Creation and Dissolution, when Sattva transforms as 
Saliva, Rajas as Rajas, and Tarn as as Tamas. Such is the meaning of the 
phrase Tri-guna-tah, in the form of the three Gunas severally. Hetero 
geneous transformation takes place during Creation and Dissolution. For 
this, combination of the Gunas with one another in different proportions 
is necessary. Such combination is rendered possible by the diversified 
activity of the Gunas in the evolution of Mahat and all the rest, of which 
each successive one is more and more specified than, and differentiated 
from, its predecessor. And this differentiation is brought about by the 
difference in the ratio in which ^the subsidiaryffGunas combine and 
co-operate with the principal Guna. Thus, as regards the eleven Indriyas 



SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 17 



and the five Tan-matras, while Rajas is equally operative in the evolution 
of both, the former arise from Ahamkara in which Sattva is predominant 
and Tamas is dormant ; whereas the latter arise from Ahamkara in which 
Tamas is predominant and Sattva is dormant. 

Salila-vat : As simple water shed by the clouds, coming into contact 
with various situations, is modified as sweet, sour, bitter, pungent, or as 
tringent, in the character of the juice of the cocoa-nut, palm, bel, karanja, 
amalaka, wood-apple, etc. 

Proof of Purusa. 



\\ 

*iviirmi4r<M Samghata-para artha-tvat, since an aggregate or structure of 
manifold parts into one whole is for the sake of another of a different character 
fawf^<raqra Tri-Guna-adi-viparyayat, since there must exist an entity in which 
there is the reverse of the properties of being constituted by three Gunas, and 
the rest mentioned in Karika XL w%"rm Adhisthanat, since there must be 
superintendence over Buddhi and other products of the Gunas. j^ra: Purusah 
Purusa. ufa Asti, exists, ^ripff^ra Bhoktri-bhavat, since there must be an 
experiencer of pleasure and pain. ^^^ Kaivalya-artham, for the sake of iso 
lation. H^: Pravritteh, since activity is. ^ Oha, and. 

XVII. Purusa exists : since the aggregate must be for 
the sake of the non-aggregate ; since there must exist an 
entity in which the properties of being constituted by the 
three Gunas and the rest do not appear ; since there must be 
a superintendent ; since there must be an experiencer ; and 
since activity is for the sake of abstraction. 

ANNOTATION. 

36. Since there must exist an entity, etc. : Hereby is prevented the 
inference of an aggregate by the aggregate. For all aggregates possess 
the three Gunas, whereas Purusa is free from them, as declared in Karika 
XI. Therefore, the entity for which the aggregate is, must be a non- 
aggregate. And Purusa is a non-aggregate. 

Proof of Multiplicity of Purusa. 



I) ^q i) 

ri Janana-marana-karananam, of birth, death, and the instrument 
of cognition and action, afafawnj Prati-niyamat, individual allotment, 



18 SAMKRYA-KAEIKA. 



A-yugapat, non-simultaneous. *^ . Pravritteh, from activity or occupation. ^ Cha, 
and. gwrfr^r Purusa-bahu-tvam, multiplicity of Purusas. reg Siddham, estab 
lished. cfV^^rawnfl Traigunya-viparyayat, from absence of the condition of the three 
Gujjas, from diverse modification of the three Gunas. ^ Cha, and. ^ Eva, 
verily. 

XVIII. From the individual allotment of birth, death 
and the Instruments, from non-simultaneous activity (towards 
the same end), and from the diverse modification of the 
three Gunas, multitude of Purusas is verily established. 

ANNOTATION. 

37. Birth consists in conjunction with body, Indriya, Manas, 
AJiairikara, l^uddhi, and experience, and death consists in their aban 
donment. So that they do not entail the transformation of Purusa. The 
distribution of body and the rest, which is different in each individual 
case, must imply a plurality of Purusas, as, otherwise, on the birth of 
one, all would be born and on the death of one, all would die. 

Non-simultaneous activity towards the same end : as, e.g., some are 
busy with virtuous, others with vicious, actions; some cultivate dispassion, 
others knowledge. 

Diverse modification of the three Gunas : thus, though birth is 
common to all, one possessing Sattva is happy, another possessing Rajas, 
is wretched, and a third possessing Tamas, is dull. 

Proof of the Nature of Purum. 



u ^ n 

Tasmat, from that. ^ Cha, and. forafara Viparyasat, from contrast, diver 
gence. % Siddham, proved. ^rri%rg Saksi-tvam, to he the witness, sro Asya, of 
this. WJ^r Purusa- sya, of Purusa. t ^9 KaiA^alyam, aloneness, solitariness. 
iTR*2r Madhyasthyam, indifference, to he the hystander. ^5^1 Drastri-tvatn, to 
he the spectator. ^R^ra: A-kartvi-bhavah, non-agent-ship ^ Cha, and. 

XIX. And from that contrast it is proved that this 
Purusa is witness, solitary, indifferent, spectator, and non-, 
agent. 

ANNOTATION. 

38. That contrast : that is, Purusa is not constituted by the three 
Gunas, is discriminative, is not objective but subjective, is not common, 
is intelligent, and is not prolific (see Karikd XIV). 



SAMKHYA-KARTKA: 19 



Because he is intelligent and subjective, he is spectator and wit 
ness. A witness is one to whom objects are shown. Prakriti exhibits 
herself to Purusa. 

From his not being constituted by the three Gunas follow his 
solitariness and indifference. For solitariness consists in the absolute 
non-existence of the three sorts of pain, and indifference denotes absence 
of love for pleasure and hate for pain. Bat pleasure and pain are 
properties of the three Gunas. And because Purusa is not constituted 
by the three Gunas, he is absolutely free from pleasure, pain and 
bewilderment. 

And since he is discriminative and non-prolific, he is not the agent. 

But if .Purusa is a non-agent, how does he make determination ? as 
I will perform acts of merit, I will not perform acts of demerit : hence 
Purusa must be the agent ; neither is Purusa the agent ; thus there is, 
may say our opponent, defect in both the theories. Accordingly, the 
seeming agency of Purusa is explained in the next Karika. 

The agency of Purusa is not real, l)iit fictitious. 



n ** n 

<j Tasmat, therefore. wro^Him Tat-sarnyogat, from conjunction therewith, 
i.e., with the intelligent Purusa. 3i%?R A-chetanara, the non-intelligent. 3rHiem 
Chetana-vat, possessing intelligence. ^ Iva, like, as if. rag.^ Lingam, the effect, 
Mahat and the rest, wra c^ Guna-kartri-tve, in the case of the agency of the 
Gunas. ^ Cha, and. ?WT Tatha, likewise. ^ Karta, agent. ^ Iva, like, as if. 
Bhavati, becomes, g^refa: Udasiaafc, indifferent, i.e., Purusa. 



XX. Therefore (the inference that intelligence and 
agency belong to one and the same subject is a mistake.) 
Through conjunction with Purusa, the non-intelligent Effect 
appears as if it were intelligent, and although agency is of 
the Gunas, the indifferent (Purusa) appears, in the same 
way, as if he were the agent. 

39. Lingam here denotes Mahat, Ahamkaia, Manas and the five 
Tan-matras. See Kar,ika XL. 

40. The confusion then is due to the con junction -of Prakriti and 
Purusa. And conjunction means mutual approach and co-operation, 



20 SAMKHVA-KARIKA. 



which necessarily pre-supposes some object or purpose to be achieved. 
That purpose can be nothing but mutual benefit, as declared in the 
following Karika. 

Object of the conjunction of Purusa and Prakriti. 



: \\H\\\ 

Purusa-sya, of Purusa. ^SRI*! Darsana-artham, for the sake of seeing 
or exhibition, ffa^irzr Kaivalya-artham, for the sake of separation, rrar Tatha, 
likewise. iwro Pradhana-sya, of the Pradhana. tre*^^ Pangu-andha-vat, like 
that of the halt and the blind. 3^1: Ubhayoh, of both. fi Api, also, iftm: 
Samyogah, conjunction. cffififi: Tat-kritah, originated by that, i.e., conjunction. 
m: Sargajj, creation, evolution. 

XXI. The conjunction of Purusa and the Pradhana 
is, like that of the halt and the blind, for mutual benefit, 
that is, for the exhibition of the Pradhana to Purusa and 
for the isolation of Purusa. From this conjunction proceeds 
Creation. 

ANNOTATION. 

41. The halt and-the blind : " As a lame man and a blind man, 
deserted by their fellow-travellers, who, in making their way with difficulty 
through a forest, had been dispersed by robbers, happening to encounter 
each other, and entering into conversation so as to inspire mutual 
confidence, agreed -to divide between them the duties of walking and of 
seeing ; accordingly the lame man was mounted on the blind man s 
shoulders, and was thus carried on his journey, whilst the blind man was 
enabled to pursue his route by the directions of his companion. In the 
same manner, the faculty of seeing is in soul, not that of moving ; it is 
like the lame man : the faculty of moving, but not of seeing, is in nature ; 
which resembles, therefore, the blind man. Further, as a separation takes 
place between the lame man and the blind man, when their mutual object 
is accomplished, and they have reached their journey s end, so nature, 
having effected the liberation of soul, ceases to act ; and soul, having 
contemplated nature, obtains abstractedness ; and, consequently, their 
respective purposes being effected, the connexion between them is 
dissolved." Gaudapada s Bhasya, translated by Wilson. 



SAMRBYA-KimKA. 21 



The Evolutions of Prakriti and the order of their evolution stated. 



u^rn: Prakriteh, from Prakriti. i*r| Malmn, Mahat. fifj; Tatah, thence, from 
Maliat. gjfsfin:: Ahamharat, Abamkara. crc^ffij Tasmat, therefrom, from Ahamkara. 
iw: Ganah, set, group, series. ^ Cha, and. wzm: So^asakafc, sixteenfold. fl^ra 
Tasmat, from that, wq Api, again. ^ifWfl Sodasakat, from sixteenfold. vspn: 
Paficha-bhyafr, from the five, ^ H^rR Pancha bhfttani, the five gross elements. 

XXII. From Prakriti (evolves) Maliat ; thence, Aham- 
kara ; and from this, the sixteenfold set ; from five, again, 
among the sixteenfold, the five Elements. 

ANNOTATION. 

42. The sixteenfold set : that is, the eleven Indriyas and the five 
Tan-matras. From five, etc : that is, from the lower five among the sixteen, 
that is, the five Tan-matras. 

Five Elements : viz., Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth. 

43. The synonyms of Prakriti are Pradhana, that in which all things 
are contained, Brahma, that which expands, A-vyakta, the unmanifest, 
Bahu-dhanaka, that in which manifold things are contained, Maya, that 
which measures or limits. 

The synonyms of Mahat are Buddhi, that which makes things known, 
Asuri, probably Chheda-bheda-adi-atrnika as in the medical science, that is, 
that which causes separation, differentiation, etc., Mati, that by which 
things are understood, Khyati, that by which things are manifested, 
Jnana, that by which knowledge is acquired, Prajna, that by which per 
fect knowledge is obtained. 

The synonyms of Ahamkara are Bhuta-adi, the origin of the Bhutas 
or elements, Vaikrita, the modified, Taijasa, partaking of Tejas, i.e. f 
Rajas, Abhimana, self-consciousness. 

By Tattva is meant the Tva, i.e., condition or existence of Tat, 
or that by which all the three worlds are pervaded. Prakriti, Mahat, 
Ahamkara, Manas, the Indriyas, the Tan-matras and the Elements are then 
the physical and metaphysical existences, realities, or principles pervading 
all the three worlds. 



SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



Buddhi and its modifications described. 



I) ^ U 

: Adhyavasayah, ascertainment. ^fg: Buddhih, Mahat, Buddhi. 
Dbarmah, virtue, merit. irr^Jn an am, knowledge. facro: Viragah, dispassion. 
Aisvaryam, lordliness, power. *rf?^ Sattvikam, partaking of Sattva. ^|^ Etata- 
rupam, its forms. flTW* Tamasam, partaking of Tamas. ^^m Asm&t, from this. 
fsrow?^ "Viparyastam, the reverse. 

XXIIII. Ascertainment is Buddhi. Virtue, know 
ledge, dispassion and power are its forms or manifestations 
or modifications, partaking of Sattva. Those partaking of 
Tamas, are the reverse of these. 

ANNOTATION. 

44. Ascertainment is Buddhi : this statement in apposition is 
intended to teach that there is no difference between the function and the 
fuctionary. 

Ascertainment is to arrive at the certainty that this is a jar, this I 
will do, etc., which is above the stage of doubt, differentiation, assimila 
tion, and deliberation. 

Virtue is that which is the cause of happiness and release, 
and includes the fruits of sacrifices and of the practice of Yoga as 
taught by Patanjali. 

Knowledge is the manfestation of the discrimination between Pra- 
kriti and Purusa. 

Dispassion is absence of Raga or passion. It has four names : the name 
of Yatamana, Vyatireka, Ekendriya. and Vasikara. Passion and the like, 
which act like dyes of different hues, reside in the Chitta or the Retentive 
Faculty. By them the Indriyas, the Powers of Cognition and Action, are 
employed on their respective objects. Now, the endevour, i.e., the putting 
forth of energy for the purpose of boiling down and dissolving them, with 
the desire that the Indriyas may not go out to the objects, is designated 
as Yatamana. And when the boiling is once begun, some passions will 
become boiled, while others will be in the course of being boiled. In that 
stage, the relation of before and after thus coming into existence, the 
ascertainment of the boiled by means of their discrimination from those 
that are in the course of being boiled, is designated as Vyatireka. They 
being thus disabled to excite the Indriyas to activity, the persistence 



SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 23 



of the boiled passions in the mind in the form of mere longing, is 
designated as Ekendriya The surcease of even the mere longing in regard 
to sensible and scriptural objects of enjoyment, even though they be near at 
hand, which, in its appearance, is subsequent to the first three stages, is 
designated as Va&kara. Vfichaspati. 

Power is will-power or thought-power, whereby a Yogin becomes at 
will light as a leaf or heavy as a hill, whereby he can ascend to the sun 
on a sunbeam or can touch the moon with the tip of his finger, etc. 

Partaking of Sattva : that is, when Sattva becomes predominant in 
Buddhi, by subduing Rajas and Tamas. 

Partaking of Tamas : that is, when Tamas becomes predominant in 
Buddhi, by subduing Sattva and Rajas. 

The reverse are vice, ignorance, passion and weakness. 

Aliamhdra and its Modifications described. 



r: Abhimanah, consciousness, self-assertion. ^*K: Ahamkarah, Aham- 
kara. flWfl Tasniat, from it. f|fw: Dvi-vidhah, twofold. V^K Pravartate, pro 
ceeds w: Sargah, creation, evolution. w^: Ekadasakak, elevenfold. ^ Cha, 
and. m: Ganah, set, series. cF+iwM^h Tan-m&tra-panchakam, the pentad of the 
Tan-matras. ^ Cha, and. ^ Eva, nothing else. 

XXIV, Self-assertion is Ahamkara. Fiom it proceeds 
a twofold evolution only : the elevenfold set and also the 
fivefold Tan-matra. 

ANNOTATION. 

45. The elevenfold set comprises the eleven Indriyas, i.e., the five 
Tndriyas of cognition and the five Indriyas of action and Manas. 

The fivefold Tan-matra comprises the subtile particles or essences 
which are Sound, Touch, Form, Taste, and Smell. Whatever word conveys 
the sense of subtil ty or fineness is a synonym of Tan-nmtra. 

Self-assertion : All that is considered (alochita) and reasoned (mata) 
refers to me, in this 1 am competent, all these objects of sense are for my 
sake only, this does not concern any one else but me, hence I am, such 
abhimana, self-assertion or consciousness by reference to oneself, from its 
having an uncommon or unique operation of its own, is called Ahamkara, 
by working upon which Buddhi determines that this is to be done by me. 



24 S&MKHYA-KAHIKA. 



Transformations of Ahamkara distinguished. 



u ** n 



: Sattvikah, partaking of Sattva, in which Sattva is dominant, pure. 
: Ekadasakah, elevenfold, n^^ Pravartate, proceeds. tfirira vaikritat, modi 
fied by the predominance of Sattva ; an older term conveying the same sense 
as Sattvika. *M*Kid Ahamkarat, from Ahamkara. ^mi^: Bhuta-adeh from the 
original of the elements in which Tamas is dominant ; an older term conveying 
the same sense as Tamasa. cFwt: Tan-matrah, the Tan-matras. *: Sah, it. <trw: 
Tamasah, Tamasa, having Tamas dominant in it. tsrwra Taijasat, from Taijasa, 
which is an older term having the sense of Rajasa, that in which Rajas is domin 
ant. ^w^Ubhayam, both, i.e., the Indriyas and the Tan-matras. 

XXV. The Sattvika elevenfold set proceeds from the 
Vaikrita Ahamkara ; from the Bhutadi Ahamkara, the Tan- 
matras ; they are Tamasa ; from Taijasa Ahamkara, proceed 
both. 

ANNOTATION. 

46. From the Taijasa, both : Of the three Gunas, Rajas alone is 
exciting and restless (see Karika XIII). Rajas alone, therefore, is active 
while Sattva and Tamas are inert. These must then depend upon the 
activity of Rajas for the evolution of their products. It is in this sense 
that from the Taijasa proceed both, and not that a duplicate set of the 
Indriyas and the Tan-matras simultaneously issue from the Rajasa Aham 
kara. 

Indriyas enumerated. 



TO BQddhi-indriyani, the Indriyas or Powers of cognition. ^:*ta- 
Ohaksuh-srotra-ghraaa-rasana-tvak-akhyani, called the eyes, ears, 



nose, tongue, and skin. ^raqrlw^ra^iT^ Vak-pani-pada-payu-upasthan, speech, 
hands, feet, excretory organ and organ of generation. ^f^HTO Karma-indriyani, 
the Indriyas or Powers of action. 3iT|: Ahull, they say. 

XXVI. Those called the eyes, the ears, the nose, the 
tongue and the skin are said to be the Indriyas of cognition, 
and the speech, hands, feet, the excretory organ and the 
organ of generation, to be the Indriyas of action, 






SAMKHYA-RARlKA. 25 



Manns described. 



U ^ U 

Ubhaya-atmakam, possessing the nature of both, i.e. Indriyas of 
cognition and of action. v& Atra, herein, in the set of Indriyas. 11: Manal?. 
Manas. ^M*^ Sarnkalpakam, that which forms a complete idea at last, by means 
of assimilation and differenitation ; reflective ; deliberative ; combinative. *%** 
Indriyam, indriya. ^ Cha, as well, sre^fa Sadharmyat, from homogeneousness. 
wrfw^raSfara Guna-parinama-visesat, from differences in the transformation of 



the Gunas. fpn?* Nana-tvam, manifoldness ; variety ; diverseness. 
Bahya-bhedat, external diversities, i Oha, and. 

XXVII. Among the Indriyas, Manas possesses the 
nature of both. It is deliberative, and is as well an Indriya, 
as it is homogeneous with the rest. The variety of the In 
driyas is due to the differences in the transformation of the 
Gunas, and so are the external diversities (of objects of the 
senses). 

ANNOTATION. 

47, Nature of both : The presence of Manas is necessary both in 
respect to cognition and in respect to action ; for, to quote from Locke, 
" a man whose mind is intently employed in the contemplation of some 
objects, takes no notice of impressions made by sounding bodies Upon the 
organ of hearing : therefore it is evident that perception is only when 
the mind receives the impression." Similarly, there can be no movement 
of the hands, etc., without the co-operation of Manas. 

48. Sainkalpa or deliberation is the uncommon or distinctive func 
tion of Manas. By the form of deliberation, Manas is marked out, because, 
when a thing is first simply observed by the sense as It is something, and 
doubt arises as to whether it be this or whether it be that, Manas perfectly 
images it as It is this and not that, that is to say, discriminates the thing 
as a particular substance possessing specific attributes. In other words, 
from the materials of the senses, Manas creates percepts. These are then 
transferred to Ahamkara, which regards them either as concerning itself or 
not concerning itself. Thus coloured with the personal equation, they are 
next taken up by Buddhi, which makes certain their true nature and deter 
mines conduct accordingly. Such, in brief, is the process of sensuous 
.cognition propounded in the Samkhya Dar^ana. 



26 SAMRHYA-KARIKA. 



49. But Mauas thus possesses a unique definition of its own, yet it 
does not lie altogether out of the category of the Indriyas, like Buddhi and 
Ahamkara ; for, unlike them, it is, along with the other Indriyas, produced 
from the same material cause, viz., Ahamkara modified by the predomi 
nance of Sattva. Hence, Manas also is an Indriya. 

50. But how, from the same material, are diverse effects, viz., eleven 
Indriyas of eleven sorts, produced ? Further, the eleven Indriyas necessarily 
imply, and must depend for their existence upon, eleven different sorts 
of objects. How is this diversity created ? when the Pradhana, Buddhi, 
and Ahamkara are non-intelligent, and Purusa is a non-agent. Is it 
created by IsSvara or by Svabhava or Spontaneity ? The answer is, that a 
certain Spontaneity is the cause of the variety of the Indriyas and their 
objects. Just as through Spontaneity, secretion of milk takes place for 
the growth of the calf, so the Gunas become spontaneously modified 
by the forms of the eleven Indriyas for the benefit of Purusa. Similarly, 
through particular transformation of the Gunas spontaneously, external 
objects of various kinds are produced ; for whatever is the modification 
of the Gunas, is their object ; hence, external objects must be understood 
to be the products of the Gunas. 

" Vachaspati understands the allusion to external objects to be 
merely illustrative ; that is, the internal organs are diversified by the 
modification of the qualities, in the same manner that external objects are 
varied by the same modification". Wilson s free translation. 

Vijnana Bhiksu reads the passage as Bahya-bhedat cha, and from 
the variety of external objects, instead of Bahya-bhedah cha, and so are 
the external diversities. 

The Functions^/ the Indriyas described. 



II ^S II 



Sabda-adi-su, in respect to sound and the rest, i.e., form, touch, taste, 
and smell. V3pn Panchanam, of the five, i.e., senses of cognition. gir^nrrcrai 
Alochana-matram, observation simply, the mere observation of things, the identity 
of which is not free from doubt. **m Isyate, is considered. ?f?r: Vrittili, modi 
fication,. function. ^ir^rnra^mt^I i<rqi : Vachana-adana-vikarana-utsarga-anand&h, 
speech, manipulation, locomotion, excretion and generation. ^ Cha, and. ^RPJ. 
Pnchanam, of the five, Indriyas of action. 

XXVIII. The function of the five, in respect to sound 
and the rest, is considered to be observation simply. Speech, 



SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 27 

manipulation, locomotion, excretion and generation are con 
sidered to be the functions of the other five. 

The common and uncommon functions of the Antah-Karanas distinguished . 



II Ri II 

j Svalaksanyam, the condition of having specific or distinctive or 
uncommon or characteristic definitions of their own. sirt: Vrittib, function, 
operation. WTO Traya-sya, of the three, viz., Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Manas. 
m S&, the same, **rr Esa, this, wfw Bhavati, is. WIWIHT A-samany&, uncommon, 
peculiar to each. qwHHbwRi: Samanaya-karana-vrittih the common function or 
modification of the Instruments, imp^i : Prana-adyah, Prana and the rest, viz., 
Apana, Samana, Udana, and Vyana, the five vital airs, life-breaths. sr*ra: Vayavab, 
airs. ^ Pancha, five. 

XXIX. Of the three (internal Instruments), their own 
definitions are their respective functions. These, the same, 
(functions) are peculiar to each. The common modification 
of the Instruments is the five airs beginning with Prana. 

ANNOTATION. 

51. It is to be noted that the five vital airs are taught to be the 
modifications jointly of Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Manas, and not of the 
elements, as otherwise might be imagined. 

The functions of the It.driyos are successive as well as simultaneous. 



RT$ 



\\ 



Yugapat, simultaneous, consentaneous. ^w Chatustayasya, of the 
quartet, viz., Buddhi, Ahamkara, Manas, and one of the external senses. 3 Tu, 
but. sfn: Vrittib, function, sroi: Krama-sab, successively, gradually. ^ Cha, 
and. rRzr Tasya, its, of the quartet. f*i%T Nirdista, found. && Dpste, in the case 
of the seen, in regard to sensible objects, in the case of perceptual cognition. 
rrarfq Tath4 api, so too. ^^ A-drisste, m regard to supra-sensible objects, in the 
case of the unseen, in the case of cognition by inference, testimony, revelation, 
and recollection. <wm Traya-sya, of the triad, viz., Buddhi, Ahamk&ra, and Manas. 
TOjfifw Tat-purvika, preceded by that, the seen. 3fa: Vriltlh, function. 

XXX. Of all the four, the functions are instantaneous ; 
their functions are found to be successive also. This is in 



28 SMA KHYA-KARIKA. 



regard to sensible objects. In regard to unseen objects, so 
too are the functions of the three, but preceded by that. 

ANNOTATION. 

52. Instantaneous : as when one suddenly comes across a tiger in 
a dark night, one s eyes at once observe, Manas considers, Ahamkara 
identifies, and Buddhi determines, and the man immediately runs away 
for his life. 

Successive : as when a man sees in dim light something moving in 
front of him and doubt arises as to what it might be ; his Manas con 
siders that it is nothing but a robber ; his Ahamkara makes him self- 
conscious that he is approaching towards him ; and his Buddhi deter 
mines, I must move away. 

So too : that is, in the case of non-perceptual cognition, the functions 
of Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Manas may be simultaneous as well as succes 
sive. 

But preceded by that : Hereby the condition of cognition by in 
ference, revelation, and recollection is laid down, which may be stated 
in the phraseology of Locke as that nothing can be in the intellect 
which was not previously in the senses. For there can be no inference 
or revelation or recollection of what has never before been perceived. 

How the Indriyas act in harmony with one another. 






\\ 

i Svam svam, own, own. slcw^n Pratipadyante, reach, enter into. 

Paraspara-akuta-hetukam, of which the cause is proneness to acti 
vity arising from mutual sympathy, sfrf^ Vrittim, function, modification. jw$: 
Purusa-arthah, the purpose of Purusa. ^ Eva, alone. ^3: Hetuh, cause, motive. 
* Na, not. tfaftfl Kena chit, by any one whatever. firi?i Karyate, wrought, made 
to act. qm*?; Karanam, instrument. 



XXXI. The Instruments enter into their respective 
modifications to which they are incited by mutual desire. 
The purpose of Purusa is the only (cause of the activity of 
the Instruments). By none whatever is an Instrument made 
to act. 



SAMKHYA-KARTKA. 29 



The number, functions and effects of the Tndriyas described. 



II II 



src^ Karanam, instrument. ft^sifN Trayodasa-vidham, thirteenfold. <ra 
Tat, it. H|qKW*row Aharana-dharana-prakasa-karam, performer of apprehen 
sion, sustentation and manifestation. ^ra Karyam, effect. * Cha, and. ?ra 
Tasya, its. ^w Dasa-dha% tenfold, smfrci Aharyam, apprehensible. ^M Dh&ryarp, 
sustainable. J^rtra Prakasyam, manifestable. ^ Cha, and. 

XXXII. The Instrument is of thirteen sorts. It per 
forms apprehension, sustentation, and manifestation. And 
its effect or act, viz., the apprehensible, the sustainable, and 
the manifestable, is (each) tenfold. 

ANNOTATION. 

53. Apprehension is of the five instruments of action. Their 
effects are speech, manipulation, locomotion, excretion and generation, 
which being distinguished as earthly and non-earthly, become tenfold. 

Sustentation is of the five vital airs, which support the Body. 
The thing to be sustained, i.e., Body, is fivefold according as it is made of 
Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Ether, and these, again, being distinguished 
as celestial (divya) and non-celestial, become tenfold. 

Manifestation is of the five instruments of cognition. The things 
to be manifested are sound, touch, form, taste, and smell, and these being 
distinguished as celestial and non-celestial, become tenfold. 

Gaudapada explains the Karika differently. According to him, the 
instruments of action apprehend and sustain, those of cognition mani 
fest. The action or effect of these instruments is tenfold, viz., sound, etc., 
and speech, etc. Thus, what is manifested by the instruments of cogni 
tion, is acquired and maintained by those of action. 

The Thirteen Indriyas described and distinguished. 



i pi 

; 



U 

SFfTiwj Antah-Karanam, the internal instrument, faf^ Tri-vidham, three- 
d. ^w Dasa-dha, tenfold, ^q Bahyam, external. aR*r Trayasya, of the 
ree. f^rans^ Visaya-akhyam, called object, ^rrum^ Samprata-kalam, at time 
present, ^r^ Bahyam, external. fa*M<t Tri-kalam, at three times, i.e., time past, 
resent and future, simr^ Abhyantaram, internal. *RWJ, Karanam, instrumen, 



30 8AMKSYA-KAEIKA. 



XXXIII. The internal Instrument is threefold ; the 
external, tenfold, called the object of the three. The ex 
ternal instrument operates at time present ; the internal at 
all the three times. 

ANNOTATION. 

54. Called the object of the three: because the external instruments 
of cognition and action are the channels through which the three internal 
instruments of Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Manas come into contact with, 
and exercise their functions in regard to, the external objects. 
Objects of the Indriyas described. 



Buddhi-indriyani, the Indriyas of cognition, w Tesam, of these. 
v*^ Pancha, five. ft^T^faiwirw Visesa-avisesa-visayani, having as their objects 
gross sound, etc., causing pleasure, pain, and dulness, and subtile sound, etc., 
in the form, of tire Tan-matras. 313? Vak, speech, wfn Bhavati, is. SKNW 
Sabda-visaya, having sound as object. Sfarfo Sesani, the rest, i e., hands, feet, 
the excretory organ and the organ of generation. 5 Tu, but. ^rawfa Pancha- 
visayani, having all the five, sound, etc., as objects. 

XXXIV. Among these (ten Indriyas) the five Indriyas 
of cognition have for their objects things gross and subtile. 
Speech has sound (alone) for its object. But the rest have 
(all) the five as their objects. 

ANNOTATION. 

55. But the rest have the five etc.: for, a jar, e.g., which may be 
taken hold of by the hand, possesses sound, touch, form, taste, and smell ; 

the foot treads upon the earth of which sound and the rest are the 



characteristics ; the excretory organ separates that in which these five 
abide ; and the organ of generation produces the secretion in which all 
these five are present. 

Why Buddhi is principal among the Indriyas. 



Sa-antah-karana, together with the internal instruments of Aham 
and Manas, 5% Wuddhih, Buddhi, q* Sarvam, all. m^. Visayam, 



SAMKtlYA-KAtitKA. 31 



object, WIT^?! Avagahate, adverts to, comprehends, i^^ffij Yasmat, since. 
Tasmat, therefore, rafoj Tri-vidharn, threefold, w^ Karanam, instrument, ^rfr 
Dvari, warders, gatemen, room. j?TW5 Dvarani, gates. 3Ftfm Sesani, rest. 

XXXV. Since Buddhi, together with Ahamkara and 
Manas, comprehends all objects (at all times), therefore, the 
three Instruments are like a house of which the rest are 
gates. 

Above continued. 



n 

Ete, these, the ten external Indriyas, Manas, and Ahamkara. 
radipa-kalpali, comparable to a lamp. tn^w^raw: Paraspara-vilaksanati, 
characteristically different from one another. ^ifoSlNi: Guna-visesah, particular 
modifications of the Gun as. f^^f Kritsnam, whole. 3^n?r Purusa-sya, of, i.e., to 
Purusa. ?& Artham, object, was Prakasya, manifesting. ^ Buddhau, to 
Buddhi. Jnr^f^ Prayachchhanti, present, make over. 

XXXVI. These particular modifications of the Gunas, 
which are characteristically different from one another, and 
which are, therefore, in this matter, comparable to a lamp, 
present all their respective objects to Buddhi, so that these 
may be exhibited to Purusa. 

ANNOTATION. 

56. Comparable to a lamp : see Karika XIII. 
Present ...... to Buddhi : for Puruya can experience objects, pleasure, 

etc., only such as are lodged in Buddhi. The process by which ideas are 
conveyed to Purusa is here described. 

Above continued. 



; 

i 
1 



9$ Sarvarn, all. sm Prati, in regard to. &wm Upa-Bhogam, experience 
through conjunction, iwa Yasmat, since. 5^R?T Purusa-sya, of Purusa. ^wfa 
Sadhayati, effects, accomplishes, ^fg: Buddhih, Buddhi. *r Sa, it. ^ Eva, the 
same. ^ Cha, and. raftmfg Visinasti, differentiates, discriminates, gr: Punah, 
again, ir^n^r^t Pradhana-purusa-antaram, difference between the Pradhana 
and Purusa. ^1 Suksam subtile, difficult to discern, not to be apprehended 
by those who have not practised religious austerities. 



32 



XXXVII. (The other Indriyas present all objects to 
Buddhi, so that they may be exhibited to Purusa), since it is 
Buddhi which accomplishes the experience of Purusa in 
regard to all (objects at all times). And it is that, again, 
which discriminates the subtile difference between the Pra- 
dhana and Purusa. 

ANNOTATION. 

57. In these three Karikas it is established that Buddhi is supreme 
among the Indriyas. It is the principal means of accomplishing the 
apparently contradictory purposes of Purusa, viz., experience and release. 
For Buddhi, through the adjacence of Purusa, by means of the falling of 
his shadow, becoming verily of his form, accomplishes Purusa s experience 
of all objects ; for experience consists in the apprehension of pleasure 
and pain, and this exists in Buddhi, and Buddhi is verily of the form 
of Purusa ; hence it causes experience to Purusa. And while, on 
the one hand, it is the cause of experience, it is, on the other hand, the 
cause of release as well, since it is Buddhi which causes discrimination 
between Prakriti and Purua. 

The Tan-mdtras and their products described. 



II 

Tan-matrani, Tan-matras, subtile elements, the originals of atoms. 
: A-visesalj, indistinguishables, indiscernibles, un differentiated as pleasant, 
painful or dull. ?Ni: Tebhyafe, from these. $wfi Bhutani, the gross or great 
elements. ^ Paficha, five, i^: Pafichabhyah, from the five. ^ Ete, these. 
^?n: Smritah, remembered. raSftr : Visesafr, the distinguishables, discernibles, 
differentiated as pleasant, painful and dull. an*m: S&ntaJi, pacific, causing 
pleasure, tranquil. $w: Ghorah, terrific, causing pain, disagreeable. * Cha, 
since, ^r: Mu^hah, stupefic, dull. ^ Cha, and. 

XXXVIII. The Tan-matras are the indiscernibles. 
From these five, proceed the five gross Elements which are 
remembered to be the discernibles ; for they are pacific, 
terrific, and stupefic. 

ANNOTATION. 

58. Tan-matra : lit. That-merely or its measure. The Tan-matras 
are subtle forms of Sound, Touch, Form, Taste, and Smell which have 



33 



not yet come down to that degree of materialisation in which they cause 
pleasure, pain, and dulness, and thereby become capable of experience. 
Such is the force of the word merely, according to Vachaspati s inter 
pretation. They are, however, not properties or qualities but substances. 
Vijnana Bhiksu describes them as " fine substances, the undifferentiated 
originals of the Gross Elements, which form the substrata of Sound, 
Touch, Form, Flavour, and Smell, belonging to that class (that is, in 
that state of their evolution) in which the distinctions of S&nta, etc., do 
not exist." So we find from the Visnu-Puranam and other sources, e.g., 
that in them severally reside their parts (matra) wherefore the Smriti 
describes them as Tan (their)-matra (part). They are neither Santa, 
pacific, nor Ghora, terrific, nor, again, Mudha, stupefying, but are 
indistinguishables. 

59. Pacific, etc. : Every one of the five Gross Elements possesses 
the threefold characteristic of causing pleasure, pain, and dulness. 

Subtile and Gross Bodies described and distinguished. 

f^RT: 



R3KIT ffT^TlSIT R^f^rT I) S. II 



Suksmah subtile Bodies, ircnton: Mata-pitri-jdh, Bodies produced 
from mother and father. ** Saha, together, *w: Pra-bhutaifr, with the Great 
Elements. ftwr Tri-dha, threefold. ra5i<N: Visesafr, distinguishables, specific 
objects. ^r: Syufr, will be. ^r: Suksmah, subtile Bodies. ?rai Tesam, among 
them. forar: Niyatah constant, continuant, *n?iTfapn: Mata-pitri-ja.fr, Bodies 
produced from mother and father, fotffcri Nivartante, cease, perish. 

XXXIX. The Subtile Bodies, Bodies produced from 
father and mother, together with the Great Elements, will 
be the Visesas. Amongst them, the Subtile Bodies are 
continuant ; Bodies produced from father and mother cease 
(to entangle after death.) 

ANNOTATION. 

60. Wilson s learned disquisition on the meaning of the present 
Karika is misguided and misleading. The Samkhya describes or displays 
the gradual materialisation of the Pradhana from the highest degree of 
subtelity to the lowest form of grossness. In the series of evolutes, the 
Tan-matras and the Gross Elements may be said, loosely speaking, to 
occupy the same plane, that is, the plane of materiality in the current 
sense of the term, and to stand to each other as do atoms to earth, air, 
5 



S4 SAMKtlYA-KARIKA. 



etc. Bat though they are on the same plane, there is a marked difference 
between them ; for the Tan-matras are indiscernible, while the Elements 
are discernible. A Visesa is what contains a VijJesana or qualification, 
something extra by means of which it is distinguished from others. 
In the present case the Vis^esana is the property of causing pleasure, 
pain and dulness. This is absent from the Tan-matras and is present 
in the Elements. It is clear, therefore, that the transition from the 
Tan-matras to the next succeeding form of evolution is marked by the 
development of the property of causing pleasure, pain and dulness. 
Similarly, the Subtile Body which is a combination of the Tan-matras 
and the Tattvas upward, and Indriyas which are pacific, terrific, and 
stupefic, contains the aroma of past experiences. So is it as well as the 
Elements and the Bodies formed of them classed among the Visfesas, as 
distinguished from the Tan-matras which are A-Vi^esas. 

How the Subtile Body migrates. 



Purva-utpannam, primseval, produced at the beginning of creation 
by the Pradhana, one for each Purusa. *Wr e A-saktam, unconnected, unconfined 
to any particular gross Body, and therefore unobstructed in its passage even, 
through a mountain, fwr Niyatam, continuant, constant, as it lasts from the 
beginning of creation to the time of the Great Dissolution. ^iR^w-tw Mahat- 
Mi-suksma-paryantam, being the combination .of the Tattvas beginning with 
Mahat and ending with the Subtile, i.e., the Tan-matras. wffl Samsarati, moves 
from Body to Body, transmigrates, fwnto Nir-upabhogam, free from, or without, 
experience, vfe: Bhavaih, dispositions, conditions, such as virtue, vice, etc. 
rvro%r Adhivasitam, perfumed, affected, tinged. f%-^ Lingam, mergent, that which 
suffers resolution, being a product, a combination of things. 

XL. The Liiga or jnergent Body, the one primor- 
dially produced, unconfined, continuant, composed of the 
Tattvas beginning with Mahat and ending with the Tan- 
matras, transmigrates, free from Experience, tinged with 
tlie Bhavas. 

ANNOTATION. 

6.1. Tinged with the Bhiivas : The Bhavas reside in Buddhi which 
accompanies or is associated with the Subtile Body, and through sueli 
association, the Subtile Body is affected by the Bhavas in the same manner, 
for instance, as a piece of cloth is perfumed with the sweet smell of a 



SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 35 

Champaka flower from contact with it. And it is this affection by the 
Bhavas which is the cause of the transmigration of the Subtile Body. 

Necessity for Gross Creation shown. 



Rn* Chi.tram, a painting or picture, w Yath&, as. smw^; Asrayam, ground, 
support, m Rite, without, wr^rf^i : Sthanu-adi-bhyalj, a stake, etc. fan Vina 
without, w Yatha, as. rer Chhaya, shadow. <I$H Tat-vat, similarly to that. fMr 
Vina, without, fcifl : Vieesaih, Visesas, Subtile Bodies {Vachaspati), the Tan-matras 
(Goutfapada), Ativahika or Vehicular Bodies (Vijnana Bhiksu). * Na, not. fosfa 
Tisthati, stands, subsists, f^wi Nir-asrayam, supportless. ^g-i; Lingam, that 
which makes known, iyiz. t Buddhi, Ahamkara, Manas and the other Indriyas 
(Vachaspati, Gau<Japada), the Subtile Body called Lihga. (Vijn&na). 

XLI. As a painting stands not without a support, 
nor is there a shadow without a stake or the like, so neither 
does the Linga subsist supportless, without the Visesas. 

ANNOTATION. 

62, Visesas : The difference of the interpretation of this word points 
to a difference of doctrine. Thus, according to Gaudapada and Vachaspati, 
there are only two kinds ol Body, as described above. But, according to 
Vijn/na Bhiksu, there is also a third kind of Body, the Adhisthana Sarjra, 
which is formed of a finer form of the gross elements and which serves 
as the receptacle of the Linga Sarira. 

The activity of the Subtile Body further explained. 



I) $^ I) 

Purusa-artha-hetu-kam, which has the object of Purusa as motive. 



* Idam, this. ftfafl3Rftiw<ta Nimitta-naimittika-parasarigena, by association 
with instrumental causes such as virtue, vice, etc., and with their consequences 
such as the body of a god or a man or a beast, n^ : Prakriteh, of Prakriti. ranr<$roRi 
Vibhu-tva-yogat, from conjunction or the universal supremacy of Prakriti. *re?m 
Nata-vat, like a dramatic actor. 5^*371 Vyavatisthate, appears in different roles. 
f^g*l Lingam, the subtile body. 

XLII. Impelled by the purpose of Purusa, this Sub 
tile Body appears in different roles, like a dramatic perform 
er, by means of association with instrumental causes aud 



36 SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



their consequences, through the universal supremacy of 
Prakriti. 

ANNOTATION. 

63. Like a dramatic performer : Just as, on the stage, one and the 
same person plays the parts of Para^urama, Ajatadatru and Vatsaraja, so 
the same Subtile Body may appear in the body of a god or an elephant or 
a man. The final and material causes of this transmigration of the Sub 
tile Body in general are respectively the purpose of Purusa and Prakriti, 
and the formal and efficient causes which determine particular migrations, 
are respectively the consequences of the Nimittas and the Nimittas, namely, 
virtue, vice, and the like. 

Bhavas divided and described. 



S&msiddhikalj, produced from means already in existence, viz., pre 
vious Karma ; innate, instinctive. ^ Cha, and. ^M: Bhavafy, dispositions, condi 
tions, circumstances. *n$rasfir: Prakritikah, essential, natural, springing from 
Pr&kriti direct. ^sfom: Vaikritikah, acquired, due or relating to vikriti or 
transformations. * Cha, and. ^ftfspr: Dharma-ady&h, virtue and the rest, ggr: 
Dristal?, seen. qwunRw: Karana-asrayinah, residing in the Karana, i.e , Buddhi. 
rahn%: Karya-asrayiuah, residing in the effect, i.e , body. * Oha, and. **MI$JI: 
Kalala-ady^h, the, uterine germ and the rest. 

XLIII. The Bhavas or dispositions are instinctive, 
essential, and also acquired. Dharma and the rest are 
considered as residing in Buddhi, and the uterine germ, and 
the rest as residing in the Body. 

ANNOTATION. 

64. Sdmsiddhika : as, at the beginning of creation, when the Lord 
Kapila was to appear, the four Bhavas, viz., virtue, knowledge, dispassion, 
and power, were produced along with him. They are then the effects of 
causes appertaining to a former creation. 

Prakritika : These are equally innate or instinctive, but are the 
effects of causes appertaining to the present creation. Thus, from the 
very same causes, i.e., highly purified form of Prakritic matter, from which 
the perpetually youthful Bodies of the four sons of Brahma, namely, 
Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana, and Sanatkumara, were produced, were 



SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 37 



also at the same time produced the Bhavas of virtue and the rest in 
them. 

Vaikritika : These are those acquired from a Vikriti or evolute, 
namely, a teacher whose Body is an evolute ; thus the effect of tuition is 
knowledge, knowledge leads to dispassion, dispassion to virtue, and virtue 
to power. This is how ordinary human beings acquire the Bhavas. 

The Bhavas, virtue, knowledge, dispassion, and power, grow when 
Sattva is dominant. Hence they are characterised as Sattvic. Those 
that grow during the predominance of Tamas, are vice, ignorance, passion, 
and weakness. These are characterised as Tamasic. 

These eight Bhavas are the Nimittas or efficient causes of particular 
migrations of the Linga Sarira. They operate through bringing about 
connection with their effects, the Naiinittikas, from the first commingled 
blood and semen in the uterus up to the fully developed Body. 
Effects of the Bhdvas described. 



n $ n 

wr Dharmena, by means of virtue. nr^ Gamanam, going, a^i Urd- 
dhvam, upward. ITW Gamanam, going. siwra Adhastat, downward, wfn 
Bhavati, is. srenfa A-dharmena, by means of vice, wr^r Jnanena, by means of 
knowledge. * Oha, and. WOT: Apavargah, release, ra<rfara Viparyayat, from the 
reverse, i.e., of knowledge, that is, ignorance. *ft Isyate, considered. *^: 
Bandha^, bondage. 

XLIV. By virtue, is going upward ; going downward 
is by vice ; and by knowledge, is Release ; from the reverse, 
Bondage is considered (to be.) 

ANNOTATION. 

65. Upwards : that is, to the worlds of Brahma, Prajapati, Soma, 
Indra, the Gandharvas, the Yaksas, the Raksasas, and the Pisiachas. 

Downward : that is, into the Bodies of beasts, birds, reptiles, trees, 
etc. 

Knowledge : that is, knowledge of the discrimination between Purusa 
and Prakriti. 

Release : when the Subtile Body ceases and Purusa becomes Parama- 
atma. 

Bondage : it is either Prakritika, or Vaikritika, or Daksinaka. The 
first is of those who, mistaking either of the eight Prakritis, viz., the 
Pra.dh.ana, Mahat, Ahamkara, and the five Tan-ma tras, to be Purusa, 



38 SAMKHYA-EARIKA. 

contemplate upon that, and not upon Purusa. After death, they are 
absorbed in the Prakritis, and are called Prakriti-layas. The second is of 
those who contemplate upon the transformations, viz., the elements, the 
[ndriyas, individual Aharnkara and individual Buddhi, mistaking them 
for Purusa, and after death reach unto the archetypes of those transforma 
tions. The third is of those who, not knowing the Tattva, i.e., Purusa, 
seek mundane and heavenly happiness through performance of acts of 
charity and public utility. 

Above continued. 



* H 

Vairagyat, from dispassion, that is, from dispassion divorced from 
knowledge of the Tattvas. u$f^: Prakriti-layah, absorption into the eight 
Prakritis, which state of absorption lasts for full one hundred thousand Manvan- 
taras. TOTC: Samsarah, transmigration, revolution of births and deaths, ^f^ 
Bhavati, is- <I^M Rajasat, produced from, or appertaining to, Rajas, crora Ragat, 
from passion. 3a.*itd Aisvaryat, from power. 3ifoira: A-vighatah, non-impediment 
i.e. of desire, foratra Viparyayat, from the reverse, i.e., from weakness. cifgH<t<j: 
Tat-viparyasali, the contrary thereof, i e. impediment. 

XLV. From dispassion is absorption into the Pra 
kritis, transmigration is from the passion of Rajas, from 
power is unimpediment, from the reverse is the contrary. 

ANNOTATION. 

66. In these two Knrikas, the eight efficient causes and their eight 
effects have been declared. They are : 

CAUSE. EFFECT. 

o i. Virtue. 2. Elevation to the higher worlds. 

3. Knowledge. 4. Release. 

^ 5. Dispassion. 6. Dissolution into the Prakritis. 

co 7*. Power. 8. Unimpediment to fulfilment of desire. 

2 9. Vice. 10. Degradation to the lower worlds. 

*| 11. Ignorance. 12. Bondage. 

S 13; Passion. 14. Migration. 

5 15. "Weakness. 16. Impediment to fulfilment of desire. 

The creations of Buddhi classified and explained. 



*q: Esab, this. MHIWI: Pratyaya-sargalj, the creation of that by which in 
tuition of things is made, that is, Buddhi. raqwai^R3fg%Tr^: viparyaya-asakti- 
tusti-siddhi-akhyah, called ignorance, incapacity, complacency, and perfection, 






SAMKBYA-KAtUKA. 39 



3*j$q**fo*^fti Guna-vaisamya-vimardat, from the conflict of the Gunas in unequal de 
grees of strength, from the combination of the Gunas in different proportions, and 
consequent predominance of one over others. ?ro Tasya, its, of the creation of 
Buddhi. *r Cha and. ^r: Bhedali, sorts, divisions. 3 Tu, again, *qpm Pan- 
chasat, fifty. 

XL VI. This is the creation of Buddhi, termed ignor 
ance, incapacity, complacency, and perfection. And from 
the conflict of the Gunas in unequal degree of strength, its 
sorts, again, are fifty. 

ANNOTATION. 

67. This : that is, the sixteenfold cause and effect mentioned in 
the preceding Karika. They are all modifications or products of Buddhi. 
Their minor divisions are legions. To attempt some classification, they 
are primarily of four sorts, and secondarily of fifty sorts. 

The creations of Buddhi subdivided. 



II $V9 I) 

ig Pancha, five, viz., A-vidya, Asmita, Raga, Dvesa, and Abhinivesa. 
Viparyaya-bhedafr, divisions of mistake or ignorance. ^mr Bhavanti, are. 
mm: A-saktih, incapacity. ^ Cha, and. sfi^^Rr^ Karana-vaikalyat, according 
to the impairment of the Instruments or Indriyas. ^n r ^qf^^T Astavimsati-bheda, 
having twenty-eight divisions. 515: Tustih, complacency. *FWI Nava-dha^ ninefold. 
*3*n Asta-dha, eightfold, fife: Siddhih, perfection. 

XL VII. Five are the divisions of ignorance ; and 
according to the impairment of the instruments, incapacity 
has twenty-eight varieties ; while complacency is ninefold ; 
perfection, eightfold, o 

Divisions af Error subdivided. 



ii 

^rr Bhedab, distinctions, divisions. ?m: Tamasab, of Tamas, which is a tech 
nical term for A-Vidya or false knowledge. *gfo: Asta-vldha^, eightfold. ^T^I 
Mohasya, of Moha, which is technical for Asmita or Am-ness or egotism. ^ Cha- 
and. ^aif^: Dasa-vidhati tenfold. I^T^: Maha-mobab Mahamoha, which is tech 
nical for Raga or passion, flifts: Tamisrab, Tamisra, which is technical for Dvesa 



40 SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



or aversion, ^gr^awr Astadasa-dha, eighteenfold. <TOT Tatha", so. H*rf?f Bhavati, is. 
*jH=jfiRi*: Andha-tamisrah, Andhatamisra, which is technical for Abhinivesa or 
blind attachment to life. 

XLVIIL The distinctions of A-Vidya are eightfold, 
as also of Asmita ; tenfold is Raga ; Dvesa is eighteenfold ; 
so also is Abhinivesa. 

Incapacity subdivided. 



H : 

: Ekadasa-indriya-badhab, injuries of the eleven Indriyas 
Saha, together. 5%^- Buddhi-badhai^, with injuries of Buddhi. mm: A-s 
incapacity. ^f|?T Uddista, pronounced. ^^I^T: Saptadasa-badha^, seventeen in 
juries. 3$f : Buddheb, of Buddhi. HWJM Viparyayat, from inversion, fjfjl^^i 
Tusti-siddhinam, of complacencies and perfections. 

XLIX. Injuries of the eleven Indriyas, together with 
injuries of Buddhi, are pronounced to be Incapacity. The 
injuries of Buddhi are seventeen, through inversion of com 
placencies and perfections. 

Complacency subdivided. 



: (I V^ II 

: Adhyatmikah, self (souJ)-regarding, it is that form of complacency 
in which there is belief in the existence of a Self, as distinct from Prakriti, but in 
which the Self is identified with the Not^Self. ^ro: Chatasra, four. 



Prakriti-upadana-kala-bh^gya-akhyab, called after Prakriti or Root, Upddana 
or Material, Kala or Time, and Bhagya or Luck. *tt&t: Bahyab, external, Not- Self - 
regarding. NM^m^m Visaya-uparamat, through abstinence from objects. ^ 
Pancha, five. TWT Nava-dha, ninefold. <Jg*i: Tustayalj, complacencies, ^f^f^r: 
Abhihit&h, propounded. 

L. The nine Complacencies are propounded : the 
four Self-regarding ones called after Prakriti, Material, 
Time, and Luck ; the external five, through abstinence from 
objects. 



SAMKHYA-KAR1KA. 41 



Perfection subdivided. 



u 

$5: Uhah, reasoning, argumentation, ai^: Sabdab, word, verbal instruction. 
^apH Adhyayanam, study. :foufli: Dubhha-vighatl^i, preventions of pain, m: 
Trayab, three, ggdmfp; Suhrit-praptib, acquisition of friend, intercourse with 
friend, ^nf Danam, charity, purity. ^ Cha, and. fig*: Siddhayah, perfections. 
*$ Astau, eight, fiajf: Siddheh, of perfection. 35: Purvah, preceding, first. 
^51: Ankusah, goad, curb, restrainer. fftfo*: Tri-Vidhah, threefold. 

LI. Argumentation, Word, Study, the three Pre 
ventions of Pain, Acquisition of friends, Charity or Purity 
are the eight Perfections. Those mentioned before Perfec 
tion are the threefold goad to (Ignorance and suffering). 

ANNOTATION. 

68. Those mentioned before Perfection are Ignorance, Incapacity, 
and Complacency. 

Afihusa : This word may also be rendered by curb, meaning that 
Ignorance and the rest curb, i.e., impede or obstruct the means to Per 
fection. 

69. Vijnana Bhiksu has interpreted this Karika* in a different 
manner and has criticised unfavourably the exposition of Gaudapada and 
VachaspatL See our Samkhya-Pravachana-Sutratn, Sacred Books of the 
Hindus, Vol. XI, page 321. 

70. The above details of the creations of Buddhi have been fully 
explained in the commentaries on the Tattva-SaiMsah and the Samkhya 
Pravachana-Sutram. The reader is accordingly referred to Vol. XI of 
the Sacred Books of the Hindus. 

71. Now, if it be questioned that when any one of the two, viz., 
creations of Buddhi and creations of the Tan-matras, is enough for the 
accomplishment of the purpose of Purusa, what need is there for a two 
fold creation ? so it is declared in the succeeding Karika. 

Twofold creation, of Buddhi and of Tanmatra, upheld. 
f\.. . ,,J2kJL * , X-r,r 

^ T^TT VfRT^fW T T^TT 



II H* II 

i Na, not. for Vina, without. *nt: Bh&vaih, dispositions, the creations 
of Buddhi mentioned above. % Lingam, the creation of the Tan-matras, *r 



43 SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 






Na, not. RT Vina, without. f%f^ Lingena, the creation of the Tan-matras. 
HNfa^fft: Bhava-nirvrittih, cessation or pause of the dispositions. f^gng*: Linga- 
akhyah, termed Linga. wsr^: Bhava-akhyafy, termed Bhava. ?rewi Tasmat, hence. 
f|foi: Dvi-vidhafy, twofold. mm?i Pravartate, proceeds, m: Sargah, creation. 

LII. Without the Bhavas, there would be no Linga, 
^without the Linga, there would be no surcease of the Bhavas ; 
therefrom a twofold creation proceeds : the one called after 

the Linga, the other called after the Bhavas. 

/ . - . . 

ANNOTATION. 

72. Vachaspati explains the necessity for a twofold creation and 
their interdependence thus : Experience which is the object of Purusa, 
cannot be possible in the absence of the objects of experience, such as 
sound and the rest, as well as of the twofold Body which is the Ayatana or 
house of experience : wherefore the creations of the Tan-matras are neces 
sary. In the same manner, the very same Experience is not possible 
witihont the Indriyas and the Antah-karana which are the instruments of 
Experience ; these, again, cannot be possible without the Bhavas, virtue and 
the rest! Neither is the manifestation of Discrimination, Which is the 
cause of Release, possible i i the absence of the twofold creation. Hence 
the twofold creation is established. 

The succession of the two kinds of creation as mutually cause and 
effect is na fault, as it is from eternity, like that of the seed and the sprout- 
Even in the beginning of a Kalpa the production of the Bhavas and the 
Linga under the influence of the Samskara or impression of the Bhavas 
and the Linga produced in a previous Kalpa, is not unproved. 

Gross Creation subdivided. 



II V,^ II 



i: A sta-vikalpab, having eight specific kinds, viz., Brahma, Prajapatya, 
etc. %* Daivab, divine, celestial, supernatural, super-human. ^%^: Tairyak- 
yonah, the grovelling-born. ^ Cha, and. if^r Pancha-dha, fivefold. *ref?i Bha- 
vati, is. IIJMI: Manusyah, human. ^ Cha, and, while, izfo*. Eka-vidha^, 
uniform, of one kind. s*nra?i: Samasa-tah, briefly. ^ Ayam, this, ^f^: Bhau- 
tikah, of the Bhutas or beings, ^n: Sargab, creation. 

LIII. The superhuman is of eight kinds ; and the 
grovelling species is of five kinds ; and the human is of a 



SAMKRYA-KARIKA. 43 

single kind ; this, briefly, is the Bhautika Sarga or Creation 
of Beings. 

Higher, Lower, and Intermediate Worlds characterised. 



r Urddhvam, above, in the higher worlds of JSrahma and the rest. 

, abundant in Sattva, in which Sattva is dominant and Rajas and 
Tamas are dormant. d*)iNajH: Tamah.-visalah, abundant in Tamas, in which Tamas 
is dominant and Sattva and Rajas are dormant. ^ Cha, and. ^: Mula-tah, 
at the bottom, below. 

w: Sargab, creation. *r<3 Madhye, in the middle, in the world of man. 
i^iRwiw: Rajah-visalah, abundant in Rajas, in which Rajas is dominant and Sattva 
and Tamas are dormant. a^nf^ wN: Brahma-adi-stamba-paryantah, beginning 
with Brahma and ending with a stock. 

LIV. "Above, the creation is abundant in Sattva ; be 
low, it is abundant in Tamas ; in the middle, it is abundant 
in Rajas; such is the creation from Brahma down to a 
stock, 

(Jniversality of pain demonstrated. 



\\ 

Ti3 Tatra, therein, in the three worlds, in the bodies of the superhuman, 
human and grovelling species, grcrrosifi Jara-marana-kptam, caused by decay 
and death. 5:^ Dubkham, pain. Jrotfrif Prapnoti, experiences. %n: Chetanab, 
intelligent. The force of this word is to exclude experience of pain from Prakyiti 
and her products which are all non-intelligent. 3^: Purusah, that which lies 
(Sete) in the Pitri or the Linga ^arira or Subtile Body, Pumsa. %^i Linga-sya, 
of the Linga Sarira. ^jraf^^n: A-vinivrJtteb> owing to the non-cessation, or 1 11 
the cessation of the Linga Sarira which is continuant (see Karika XL), and does 
not cease till the development of discriminative knowledge. cre*tni Tasmat, there 
fore. f : Duhkham, pain. ^i%f Sva-bhavena, by nature. 

LV. Therein does intelligent Purusa experience pain 
caused by decay and death, on acount of the non-cessation 
of, or till the cessation of, the Subtile Body : wherefore pain 
is the natural order of things. 



44 



Object of Prakriti s creation explained. 



Iti, thus then. 



Prakriti. 



II V^ \\ 

: Esah, this. u*iri*ri: Prakriti-kritah, originated by 
Mahat-adi-yisesa-bhftta-paryantah, beginning with 



Mahat and ending with the particular, i.e., gross elemental creations. Jff^ywftfoujri 
Pratipurusa-artham, for the release of each individual Purusa. ^ Sva-arthe, in her 
own interest, m Iva, as. w$ Para-arthe, in the interest of another, i.e., of Purusa. 
sirc*H: Arambhah, creation. 

LVI. Thus then is this creation beginning with Mahat 
and ending with specific entities, originated by Prakriti in 
the interest of another as in her own interest, for the release 
of each individual Purusa. 

ANNOTATION. 

73. Originated by Prakriti : Creation by Prakriti is not guided, 
directed, and controlled by I^vara or Adi Purusa, for this is impossible, 
inasmuch as no activity can belong to him. Neither can Brahman be the 
material of creation, for, being the power or energy of Consciousness, 
it can undergo no transformation or modification. 

For the release of each individual Purusa : This explains why, on 
the release of one Purusa, the release of others does not result, and how 
the activity of Prakriti whose nature is to energise, can cease in regard 
to a particular Purusa, and how creation does not ever continue , making 
release of any one impossible. Vachaspati explains the passage thus : As 
a man who desires food, being engaged in the cooking of food, rests 
after the food has been cooked, so does Prakriti, who is engaged in activity 
with a view to release every individual Purusa, cease from energising 
again in regard to that Purusa whom she releases. 

Spontaniety of Prakriti explained and illustrated. 



srn%: 



n 



n 



^H^RsJ^Miw Vatsa-vivriddhi-nimittam, for the sake of, or due to the nourish 
ment of, the calf, ^wi Ksira-sya, of milk. *w Yatha, as. **%: Pravrittih, acti 
vity, i.e., secretion, srare? A-jna-sya, of the unintelligent. ^^N^i^RHiti Purusa- 



virnoUsa-nimittam, due to the release of Purusa. crar Tatha, so. v^fa: Pravrittih, 
activity, i.e., creation, irap^i Pradhana-sya, of the Pradhana. 






SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 45 

LVII. Just as is the secretion of milk, which is un 
intelligent, for the sake of nourishment of the calf, so is the 
creation of the Pradhana for the sake of the release of 
Purusa. 

ANNOTATION. 

74. This Kflrika gives an answer to those who entertain doubts as 
to how an unintelligent substance such as Prakriti is represented here to 
be, can engage in activity for an altruistic end. It cannot be maintained 
that the secretion of milk takes place under the superintendence of IsVara. 
For all intelligent activity such as, for instance, as is here attributed to 
T^vara, proceeds either from selfish motives or from compassion. Now, 
in the case of Isvara, who is exhypotliesi all-full, having all desires ful 
filled, wanting in nothing whatever, can possibly have no selfish ends to 
accomplish. Compassion also is impossible ; for compassion implies the 
desire to alleviate, remove or prevent suffering, but prior to creation there 
is no existence of the Jivas, Indriyas, Bodies, and Objects, and conse 
quently no pain, no suffering. Compassion, therefore, cannot be the motive 
for creation. Further, were creation an act of compassion on the part of 
l^vara, one would expect to find in it only happy beings, but such is not 
the case, but just the opposite. The anomaly cannot be explained by 
reference to diversity of Karma, as in that case the alleged superintendence 
.of Karma by an omniscient and omnipotent Being falls to the ground. 
Prakriti, on the other hand, being unintelligent, has no selfish motive nor 
any motive of compassion to impel her to activity. Her activity is directed 
simply by the end of the other ; she exists for his sake. Her action is of 
the nature of a sympathetic response, of harmonical variation or corres 
pondence, like the secretion of the mother s milk, in response to the re 
quirement of the baby. 

Above continued. 



II 

Autsukya-nivritti-artham, for the sake of relieving or gratifying 
desire or curiosity, w Yatha, as. f^iro Kriyasu, in acts. fl^fi Pravartate, 
engages. %TR: Lokah, man. J^f^r Purusa-sya, of Purusa. f^%r^ Vimoksa- 
artham, for the sake of release. 3*tift Pravartate, energises, ff^a Tat-vat, 
similarly to this. K&m^ A-Vyaktam, the Unmanifest, Prakriti. 

LV1IL Just as people engage in acts to relieve 



46 SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



anxiety or desires, so does the Unmanifest energise for the 
purpose of the release of Purusa. 

Row Praltritis creation ceases spontaneously. 



Ranga-sya, to the stage, i.e., the spectators. ^f^r^T Darsayitva, having 
exhibited, faffi Nivartate, ceases, desists. ^fl^r Nartaki, fair dancer. w Yatha, 
as. ^^ Nrityat, from dance. 3*^ Purusa sya, to Purusa. rrar Tatha, similarly. 
^nr^ni Atmanam, herself, n^ra^ Prakasya, having exhibited, f^^ Nivartate, ceases. 
m>f?i: Prakritib, Prakriti. 

L1X. Just as a fair dancer, having exhibited herself 
to the spectators, desists from the dance, so does Prakriti 
desist, having exhibited herself to Purusa. 

Unselfishness of Prakriti demonstrated. 



II ^ II 



: Nana-vidhaih, manifold. ^^: Upayaih, by means. 3qwf^ft Upa- 
kari^ji, generous, beneficent. ^w%: An-upakarinah, non-beneficent, ungrateful. 
^g: Pumsa^, of Purusa. yjrgtfi Guna-vati, possessing the Gunas, possessing qualities, 
virtuous, mffitfl A-gur;a-sya, devoid of the Gunas, devoid of qualities, worthless. 
Sfl: Satah, as he is. TTC* Tasya, his. ^ Artham, object. w& Ap-artha-kam, 
objectless, i^ffl Charati, pursues. 

LX. By manifold means does benevolent Prakriti, 
possessed of the Gunas, pursue, in a manner in which she 
has no interest of her own, the object of Purusa who makes 
no return, being devoid as he is of the Gunas. 

How activity of Prahriti ceases for ever, in regard to the released Purusa. 



foT%^Erftfrr f 



U 

: Prakriteb, than Prakpti. 5*n^t Sukumara-taram, more gentle or 
delicate. * Na, not. i^f^ Kim chit, anything. si% Asti, exists. ?B Iti, such. 
^ Me, my. ^: Matih, opinion, ^ft Bhavati, is. IT Ya, who. 5gr Drista, seen. 



SAMKBYA-KAB1KA. 47 



Asmi, I am. $fa Iti, so. 3^: Punah, again. T Na, not. ^sp^Darganam, seeing, 
gaze, sight, ^f^ Upaiti, approaches. 5^*1 Purusa-sya, of Purusa. 

LXI. My opinion is that nothing exists which is more 
delicate than Prakrit! who, knowing that, " I have seen," 
comes no more within the sight of Purusa. 

ANNOTATION. 

75. This Karika explains and illustrates how Prakriti does not 
energise, over again, in regard to the released Purnsa. 

Bondage, Transmigration and Release are all of Prakriti, and not of 

Purusa. 



STftfrf: I) ^R II 



?rc*ira Tasmat, therefore, f Na, not. ro?i Badhyate, is bound, 3131 Addha, any, 
whatever, i Na, not. g^P Much} ate, is released. i Na, not. ^ Api, also, 
sgrffl Sarnsarati, transmigrates. 5^: Pnrusah, Purusa. *mrffl Samsarati, transmi 
grates, ^zm Badhyate,. is bound. g^mMuchyate, is released. ^ Cha, and. IHHKII 
(Nana-asraya, the support of manifold creations or beings. v%fa: Prakritib, 
Prakriti. 

LXII. Wherefore, verily, no Purusa is ever bound, 
nor is released, nor transmigrates. Prakriti, being the sup 
port of manifold creations, is bound, is released, and trans 
migrates. 

How Prakriti binds and releases herself. 



11 ^ II 

^ : Rupaih, by forms, modes, conditions, dispositions, gpft : Saptabhili, 
seven, viz. virtue, vice, dispassion, passion, power, weakness, and ignorance. ^ 
Eva, verily. TOrfn Badhnati, binds. WIH^ Atmanam, herself, WRT Atmana, 
by herself, ^fa: Prakritib, Prakriti. ^r Sa, she. ** Eva, it is. ^ Oha, and. 
j^n^ Purusa-artham, object of Purusa. ^ Prati, in regard to. N^N^fri vimocha- 
yati, releases. ^>^y Eka-rupena, by one form, i. e., of Knowledge. 

LXEir. By seven forms does Prakriti bind herself by 
herself ; and it is she who, by one form, releases herself for 
the sake of Purusa, 



48 SAMKSYA-KARIKA. 



How discriminative knoidedge is fully developed. 



^ Evam, so, in the manner, taught above. r^grorora Tattva-abhyas&t, 
through cultivation of the knowledge of the Tattvas or twenty-five Principles, i 
Na, not. vfa Asti, is. *i Na, not. ^ Me, mine. T Na, not. ^f^ Aham, I. *fa Iti, 
thus. 3rofi3fo^ Aparisesam, beyond which there remains nothing to know, final. 
sifeq^ra A-viparyayat, from the absence of error and doubt. fop* Visuddham, 
purified, free, ifa^i. Kevalam, single, unsullied. sw^ft Utpadyate, is produced. 
^r^ Jnanam, knowledge. 

LXIV. So, through cultivation of the knowledge of 
the Tattvas, is produced the final, pure, because free from 
error and doubt, and one single knowledge that neither does 
agency belong to me, nor is attachment mine, nor am I 
identical with the Body, etc. 

Relation of Prakriti and Purusa after Release. 



11 ^ u 

^T Tena, thereby, by means of knowledge of the Tattvas, as described in the 
preceding Karika- f^rww^ Nivritta-prasavam, whose prolificness has come to 
cease through creation of all that was to be created for the sake of Purusa. 
sr&reira Artha-vasat, through the influence of the object, wz., knowledge of the 
Tattvas. ^r^MNRsitii^Sapta-riipa-vinivrUtam, desisting from the seven forms, virtue 
and the rest, by which she binds herself and which are no longer required for the 
sake of Purusa, both of whose objects, experience and release, are accomplished. 
*5f?f Prakritim, Prakrlti. <T93m Pasyati, looks at. j^r: Purusal?, Purusa. fos^ra 
Preksaka-vat, like a spectator in a theatre, srafari: Avasthitah, seated, stand 
ing by. ^^: Sva-sthah, self-reposed, undisturbed, freed from the reflection 
of Buddhi rendered impure by means of the modifications of Rajas and 
Tamas. 

LXV. Thereby having her prolific energy stopped, 
and desisting from the seven forms under the influence of 
knowledge, Prakriti is looked at by Purusa ju$t like a spec 
tator, standing by, self-reposed f 



SAMKHYA-KAR1KA. 49 

Conjunction of Prakriti and Purusa is not, as such, the cause of creation. 

*\ *\ 



II II 

5gi Drist4, seen. w Maya, by me. sft Iti, so. 3^: Upeksakah, regardless, 
indifferent, unaffected. w>: Ekah, the one, ^Purusa. ^gr Drista, seen. wn.Ahnm, 
I. *ft Iti, so. ^t^f^ Uparamati, desists, ww Anya, the other, Prakriti. *rfff Sati, 
existing, continuing, ^nt Samyoge, conjunction, existence side by side, vfa Api, 
even. ?%: Tayoh of the two. H%*H Prayojanam, purpose, motive, i Na, not. 
irf%i, Exists, ^i^r Sarga-sya, of creation. 

LXVI. u She has been seen by me," so the one 
stands indifferent ; " I have been seen,", so the other desists. 
Though their conjunction still remains, there does not exist 
any motive for creation. 

Jivan-Mukti explained. 



II LVS II 

Samyak, perfect, smfwrra Jnana-adhigamat, from attainment of know 
ledge. ^^f^^Dharma-adinam, of virtue and the rest. ^hK<iiMi^ A-karana-prdptau, 
on reaching or being reduced to the state in which they lose their power of 
causing effects, f^^ Tisthati, remains, ^rasjm Samskara-vagat, from the influ 
ence of Samskara or impression or the effect of the impulse previously given to it. 
srai**^ Ohakra-bhrama-vat, like the whirling of the potter s wheel, ^rf^nc: Dhrita- 
sariral?, invested with a Body. 

LXVII. Through attainment of perfect knowledge, 
virtue and the rest coming to be deprived of their power as 
causes, Purusa yet continues invested with body under the 
influence of previous Dharma and A-Dharma, as the potter s 
wheel continues whirling (from momentum). 

ANNOTATION. 

76. This Karika explains the fact of Jivan-Mukti or release in life, 
as in the case of Kapila, ^ 7 amadeva 5 and others. Jivan-Mukti consists in 
the release of an incarnate Purusa from the entanglement of Prakriti prior 
to his separation from the Body. These two things, viz., release from 
bondage and continuance of the Body, are compatible with each other, as 
they are dependent upon independent causes, For, universally, release 
7 



50 SAMKHYA-KARIKA. 



takes place on the manifestation of discriminative knowledge between 
Prakriti and Purusa, in other words, it does not imply the acquisition of a 
new state or condition, but consists merely in the removal of a veil or a 
shadow, as it were ; whereas the Body is the positive result of positive 
causes and depends for its existence or non-existence upon those very 
causes. These causes are Dharma and A-Dharma, or merit and demerit, 
collectively termed Karma. Now, l Karma is distinguished as Prarabdha 
or operative, Sanchita or stored or potential, and Agamika, or to come, or 
future. On the attainment of discriminative knowledge, Sanchita Karma 
or Karma in seed-form is burnt up and rendered infructuous, and 
Agamika Karma also is necessarily precluded. Only the Prarabdha 
then remains, It is Karma acquired by acts performed in a previous 
life and which has become operative in the present life, that is to 
say, it is the cause of conjunction with the present Body and of all 
the experiences of the present incarnate existence. It is not affected by 
discriminative knowledge, and it goes on sustaining the Body till it is 
exhausted or works itself out, in its natural course, when the Body 
which was supported by it, automatically drops down. It is hence, there 
fore, that when discriminative knowledge is perfectly developed before 
the Prarabdha has worked itself out, the incarnate Purusa in qiiestion, is 
released, but remains awhile burdened with the Body. This is what is 
called Jivan-Mukti or the state of release during life. 



When a Jivan-Mukto is finally released. 



STTH 



II 3 m II 

unT Prapte, come to pass, that is, on the exhaustion of Prarabdha Karma 
by experience, aifrc^ Sarira-hhede, on separation from the body. ^fw^m 
Charita-artha-tvat, for the reason that phe has fulfilled her purpose, viz., Crea 
tion for the experience and release of Purusa. J^TT^ST^ Pradhana-vinivrittau, 
on the cessation of the activity of the Pradhftna. <toir-nMt Aikantikam, certain, 
absolute. wi^f-rw^ Atyantikam, final, imperishable. 3*ro Ubhayam, both, tta^i 
Kaivalyam, singleness, pureness, freedom from the reflection of the threefold 
pain. tuiHlid Apnoti, attains. 

LXVI1I. When (in due course) separation from the 
Body takes place, and there is cessation of the activity of 
the Pradhana from her purpose having been fulfilled 
Purusa attains both absolute and final Kaivalya. 



SAMKHYA-KAR1KA. 5l 



Origin of the Samkhya declared 

31T TOTWOT 



Purusa-artha-jnanam, knowledge for the accomplishment of the 
end of Purusa, i.e., release. s? Idam, this. 5^ Guhyam, secret, abstruse, 
unintelligible to the dull, wfw Parama-risina, by the great Ilisi or Seer, 
namely Kapila. s^n^ra^ Sam-akhyatam, thoroughly expounded, expounded in 
all details. Rmr^dMfriti^T; Sthiti-utpatti-pralayalj, duration, production, and 
dissolution. R-HW! Ohintyante, are considered, discussed, *ra Yatra, wherein. 
^n^ Bhutanam, of created things, beings. 

LXIX. This abstruse knowledge, adapted to the 
end of Purusa, wherein the production, duration, and 
dissolution of beings are considered, has been thoroughly 
expounded by the great Risi. 

ANNOTATION. 

77. Vachaspati construes the second line of the Karika in a 
different manner. It is thus Yatra, wherein, that is, in which knowledge, 
that is to say, for which knowledge, the origin, duration and destruction 
of living beings are considered by the Srutis. Hereby he wants to bring 
out the sense that the Samkhya is connected with, and is supported by, 
the Veda. 

Traditional succession of the Sdmkhya stated. 



rR ^ ^T^rT rF il ^ 



*?m Etat , this, ^f^l Pavitram, purifying, i.e., from the sin causing the 
threefold pain. ^ Agryam, first in order, principal among all purifying 
things, foremost. 5^: Munih, Muni, sage Kapila. ^m$ Asuraye, to Asuri. 
Anukampaya, through compassion. J^f Pradadau, taught, imparted. 
: Asurih, Asuri. nfo Api, again. H^fW<i Pailchasikhaya, to Panchasikha. 
?N Tena, by him. ^ Cha, and. is*n$ri Bahu-dha-kritam, extensively propaga 
ted, elaborated in manifold ways. <vwi. Tantram, the system. 

LXX. This foremost purifying knowledge the Muni, 
through compassion, imparted to Asuri ; Asuri, again, to 
Panchasikha, by whom the System was elaborated in 
manifold ways. 



52 



ANNOTATION. 

78. Tn this and the succeeding Karika the traditional succession 
of the Samkbya doctrine is recorded with a view to establish its authentic 
character and thereby to inspire reverence towards it. 

79. According to Gaudapada, the Samkhya-KariM ends with this 
Karika. " For the Samkhya which is the cause of release from transmi 
gration, was declared by the Muni Kapila, wherein or in regard to which," 
as he says, " there are these seventy verses in the Aryri rhetre." This 
is supported by the other traditional name for the Sanpkhya-Karikn, 
which is Samkhya- Saptati or the Seventy (Verses) on the Samkbya. 
Vachaspati, on the other hand, has not questioned the genuineness, or 
the claim to authority, of the additional two Karikas and has added 
his comment to them. 

Above continued. 



fSjisqwiw &sya-paramparaya., by tradition of disciples, siro?^ Agatam, 
descended, received, f^fsw^ tsvarakrisnena, by Isvarakrisna, the author of the 
Samkhya-K&rika. * : Sah, this. ^ Cha, and. ^m, this, ^itm : Aryabhih, by 
Arya verses. %"l Samksiptam, abridged, summarised, compendiously written. 



. 

Arya-matina, whose intelligence reached to the Tattvas ; holy-minded. 
Samyak, thoroughly. $mm Vijnaya, understanding, realising. %^r 
Siddhantam, demonstrated truth, established tenet, doctrine. 

LXXI. And this doctrine, descended by tradition 
of disciples, to the holy-minded Isvarakrisna, having been 
thoroughly understood by him, has been summarised by 
means of these Aryas. 

Relation of the Sdmkhya-Kdrikd to the Sdmkya-Pravachana-Sutram. 



Saptatya, by the seventy-versed treatise. ^ Kila, truly. ^ Ye, what. 
*Rft: Arthab, subjects, topics. ^ Te, those, wif: Arthab, subjects, fim^r 
Kritsna-sya, entire, whole. Nfgd*-<^ asti-tantra-sya, of the system of sixty 
topics. ^qiRiwfc<f^r!T : Akhyayika-virahital?, disjoined from the illustrative 
stories. M<=n<jfc3i^m : Para-v4da-vivarjitab, omitting demolition of opposite doct 
rines. * Cha, and. w Api, also. 






SAMKBYA-KARIKA. 53 

LXXII. The subjects which are treated by the Saptati, 
are the subjects of the entire Sasti-Tantra, exclusive of the 
illustrative stories, and omitting demolition of opposite 
doctrines. 

ANNOTATION. 

80. The term Sasti-Tantra alludes to the Samkhya-Pravachana- 
Siitram divided into the six Books, namely, of Topics, of the Evolutions* of 
the Pradhana, of Dispassion, of Fables, of the Demolition of Counter- 
Theories, and of Recapitulation of Teachings. It is thus constructive, 
illustrative and destructive in its method. In its constructive portions, 
it establishes the sixty topics of the Samkhya System. The same is done 
by the Saptati as well. Inasmuch, however, as the latter omits the 
stories and controversies, and also does not deal with the topics in so 
much detail, it has, in the preceding Karika, been described as a 
summary of the former. 

The sixty topics alluded to above are : 1. the existence, that is, 
conjunction with, and disjunction from, Purusa, of the Pradhana, 2. her 
unity or singleness, 3. her objectiveness, 4. her subservience, 5. the 
distinctness of Purusa, 6. his manifoldness, 7. his inactivity, 8. his 
conjunction, 9. his disjunction, and 10. the duration of the rest, these 
are the ten radical topics. 

According to another enumeration, the ten radical categories are 
1. Purusa, 2. Prakriti, 3. Mahat, 4. Ahamkara, 5-7. Sattva, Rajas, and 
Tamas, 8. the Tan-Matras, 9. the Indriyas, and 10. the Elements. 

A third enumeration specifies them as, 1. the eternality of Purusa 
and Prakriti, 2. the reality of experience and discriminative knowledge 
in Prakriti, 3. the unity of Prakriti and of Purusa, throughout transmigra 
tion, 4. the subservience of Prakriti, 5. the difference between Purusa and 
Prakriti, 6. the inactivity of Parusa, 7. the multiplicity of Purusa, 8. the 
conjunction of Puriiba and Prakriti at the time of creation, 9. the disjunc 
tion of Purusa and Prakriti at the time of release, and 10. the pre-existence 
of Mahat and the other Tattvas in their respective causes. 

Add to them, the five kinds of error, nine of complacency, twenty- 
eight of incapacity, and eight of perfection. Thus the number sixty is 
obtained. 



Alphabetical Index of Karikas. 



v 

xxiii 
xxx ... 



xxv 
xiv 



:, Ivi 



xx v 

liv 

? ^ 

xlix 

ixx 



, xxxvi 
, Ixiv 

, xlvi 

, Iviii 
xxxii 



XVI 

, xli 



IX 



XV111 ... 

,lv 

~\ 

:, xlviii 
, xix 



PAGE. 

7 

22 
29 
23 
14 
42 

8 

40 
44 
25 
43 
41 
40 
51 
31 
48 
38 
45 
29 
15 
35 

17 

43 
39 
18 



) ixv 



[fo few, xi 



11 



iv 
, Ixvi ... 

, Hi 
xlvii 



, xlii 
xl 



5 Ixviii 



, xlviii 



PAGE. 

19 

47 

48 

10 

1 

2 

4 

49 
37 
41 
46 
39 
20 
51 
35 
34 
21 
46 
4 
50 
11 
30 
24 
39 
15 
3 



g, 



:. xxx 



, Ivii 
, xlv 



xxv 



5 Lxxii 

, ixvii 
xxxvii 



( 56 ) 

PAGE. 
27 
46 
47 
44 
38 
26 
52 
13 
52 
49 
31 



XXX.V 
, XXV 

, vi 

xxxix 
viii 
xvn 
fr, xxxi 



: xxix 
fa, x 



PAGE. 
36 
30 
24 
6 
83 

I 
17 

28 

27 

9 







Words Index of the Karikas. 



* xx 

Ixvii 
: li 

lx 

Ixx 
xi, xx 

Ivii 
ii 

vi 



xxv 
xxx 

xliv 

xliv 
Ixvii 
f xl 
xvii 

ixii 



v 

Ixx 
m lx 



v 



x 
xxxvii 

xxxiii 
xlviii 

* xlviii 



PAGE. 

... J8 
49 
41 
46 
51 

...11, 19 

44 

2 



27 
37 
37 
49 
34 
17 
47 
41 
4, 22 

7 

9 

51 
46 

6 
4, 4 

9 

31 
29 
39 
39 



Ixvi 
xii 
: xliv 

lxiv 



vi, xiv, xxi, xxii, xxx, 
Ixii, Ixvi, Ixx, Ixxii 



PAGE. 
20 
49 
11 
37 
48 
46 

6, 



14,20,21,27,47, 49, 51, 52 
xii 11 



v, x, xv 



x 
vii 

1 

xxiv 



xxx 



liii 



Ixi x 
xiii 



xxxvi, lx 
xii, Ixxii, 
xxxv 



Ixv 



1 

7, 8, 14 
1 

11 

7 

... 40 

7 

... 29 
... 48 
... 42 
... J7 
... 51 
... 13 
... 48 
...31, 46 
...11, 52 
... 30 

1 
... 48 

3 



( 58 ) 



xlv 

vii 
Iv 
Ixiv 



x 



n 



XXXVlll 

x, xiv, Iviii 

ii 

xlii 
x 

xlvi 

: xlvii, xlix 
xlvii 



xlviii 
xlviii 
* xlvii 



* xl 



x 
xxix 



v 



xvii, Ixi, Ixiv, 



xx 



Ixiv Ixvi 
: xxii, xxiv 

xxv 
xxxi 
xlvi 1 



PAGE. 

38 
7 

43 
48 
15 

14 
2 
2 
32 
9, 

14, 45 
2 

35 
9 

... 38 

...39, 40 

39 

... 42 
39 

... 39 

.., 39 

... 41 

34 

8 

... 27 
6 

Ixvi 17, 

46, 48, 49 

... 22 

...15, 18 

...48, 49 

...21, 23 

24 

... 28 
...38, 40 



LV ... 

xxvi 

Ixxii 
xiv 



xxvn 

: xii .., 

Ixiii 

[ lix, Ixiii 
Ixviii 

xxviii 
viii, xvii, xl, 

: xli ... 
iii 

: 1 
: xxviii 



v ... 

vi 
Ixviii 



Ivi ,.. 
Ixxi 
Ixxi 



XXV 111 

xii, xvi 
Ixii ... 
J xliii 
*xli ... 
x 

XX ... 

Ixx ... 
J Ixx ... 

xxxii 
xxvi 



PAGE. 
4 

24 

... 52 
14 

... 25 
... 11 
... 47 
...46,47 
... 50 
26 

Ivi 7, 

17, 34, 44 

35 

3 

40 

... 26 
2 

... 4,4 
4 
6 

... 50 
... 24 
... 44 
... 52 
... 52 
... 26 
...11, 15 
... 47 
... 36 
35 
9 

19 
51 
51 

... 29 
24 



59 ) 



Ivi, Ixi, Ixiv, 

xiii, Ixix 

vii 

xx vii 
xlix 

xx vi, xxxiv 
xx, Ivi ... 
iv, xiii ... 
xxviii ... 



Ixix . . . 



* xl 
xxviii 



Ixvi 
viii 
xiii 
ix, 1 



x 



t Ixvi 
Ixi 

xx vii ... 
xxv, Ixviii 

xxi .:. 
xliv, liv 



xli 
Ixvi 
Ixiii 



PAGE. 




PAGE 


Ixvi 44, 


Hfjf^fsn liii ... 


... 42 


46, 48, 49 


^fHcfST xlix 


... 40 


...35, 51 


^ftf^STfiJ xxiv, xxv 


...23,24 


7 


<CTRT i 


1 


25 


<**JRT r^T^f ^TSm^T^ i 


i ... 1 


40 


c^cfi^xxiii, Ixx, Ixxi 


... 22, 


...24,30 




51, 52 


...19, 44 


c^ xxxvi, xxxviii 


...31,32 


... 4, 13 


^ xiii, xviii, xxiv, 


xxxi, 


... 26 


xxxvii, Ixiii 


... 13, 


51 


17, 23 


, 28, 31, 47 


... 51 


CcT Ixiv 


... 48 


... 51 


c^q: xlvi, Ivi 


...38,44 


... 48 


Cqr xxix: 


... 27 


34 


^ r- i ... 


... . 50 


^^Jtn^r ixvm 


... 26 


Q 

^W^ xxiii 


... 22 


... 40 


^rq^ xiv 


... 38 


46 


*hcH^T Iviii 


... 45 


... 49 


shr^f^ftjrSn^* Iviii 


.... 45 


7 


3FR?0 xxix, xliii, 


xlvii 27, 


... 13 




36, 39 


... 8,40 


5|?;*!? xxxi, xxxii, 


xxxv 28, 


.... 40 




29, 30 


8 


j^ i 


... 39 


fj<*03rfiicrr^ xivn 


46 


^J^^rr^t xviii 


... 17 


... 49 


^ROTrsrftunJ xliii 


36 


... 46 


, ^J^ xx 


... 19 


25 


^Jac% xx 


... 19 


...24,50 


^ xxvi 


... 24 


... 20 


aF^m?ir: xliii 


... 36 


...37,43 


^R^ ix, xiv, xv 


... 8, 


41 




14, 15 


51 


<*5K?n xvi 


... 15 


35 




iv ... 14 


^JR^S ST^flrfJ^ f^ x 


49 


^jT^^flfT^rr^ ix 


8 


47 


^JT^I xv, xliii 


...15,36 



( 60 ) 



v 
xxxi 



xv 



Ixxii 
: xxi 

Ixxii 
xxxvi 
Ixxi 



Ixiv 

j xix, Ixviii 
xvii, xxi 

... 

Ivii ... 



PAGE. 
... 7, 

8, 29 
... 7 
... 28 
... 14 
... 40 
... 46 
... 52 
... 20 
... 52 
... 31 
... 52 
... 28 
... 48 
...18, 50 
...17, 20 



44 

27 

45 

58 



xxii, xxiv ...21, 

xliv 

xiv, xx, xxvii, xxxvi, 
xlvi 14,19,25,31, 

xii 
* : ^ xx 
Ix 



* Ixix ... 



xxx v* ... 

iv, vi, vii, viii, ix, xi, 
xii, xiii, xv, xvi, xvii, 
xviii, xix, xx, xxii, xxiv, 
xxvii, xxviii, xxx, xxxii, 



37 

38 
11 
19 
46 
27 
13 
51 

8 

32 



PAGE. 

xxxvii, xxxviii, xliii, xliv, 
xlvi, xlvii, xlviii, Ii, liii, 
liv, Ixiii, Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxii 4, 6, 
7,7,8,11, 11, 13, 15, 15, 17, 
17, 18,19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 
29, 31, 32,36, 37,38, 39, 39, 
41, 42, 43, 47,* 51, 52, 52 
Ixvii ... 49 

: xxvi ... .... 24 

: 1 ... ... 40 

xxx ... 27 

Ix ... ... 46 

Ixviii ... 50 

13 



x 
f xii 



lxi 



Iv 



x xv 



51 
1 

43 
19 

... 35 
...11, 17 
xviii ... 17 
43 
43 
1 

5f xxiii, Ixiv, Ixvii, lxix 22, 
48, 49, 51 
... 37 

, n, v, vni, xi, xiv, 
xx, xxi, xxxii, xiv ... 1, 
2,4, 7, 11, 14, 19, 20, 29, 38 
xxii .... 21 

Ixiv ... ... 48 

: xxi ... ... 55 

27 
43 



xxx 



( 61 ) 



xli, Iviii 

xlv 



xxv 
: xxv 

xxxviii 
cm: xiii, liv 
r: xlviii 
: Ixvi ,,. 



PAGE. 

Ixx ... ... 51 

Ixxii ... ... 52 

xi, xx, xxi, xxx, xlviii 
Ivii, lix ... 11, 

19, 20, 27, 39, 44, 46 
viii ... 7 

1 

...35, 45 
... 38 
... 23 
... 24 
... 32 
... 13,43 
... 39 
... 49 

xxx, xxxii xlvi, Ix... 27, 
29, 38, 46 
vi, xix, xx, xxii, 
xxiv, xxxv, Iii, Iv, Ixii 6, 18, 
19, 21, 23, 30, 41, 43, 47 
xxiii ... ... 22 

: xxv ... ... 24 

: xlviii ... 39 

xli,lxvii ...35,49 

iii, v, vi, xxx, xxxiv, 
xlvi, Ixiii ... 3, 4, 

6, 27, 30, 38, 47 
:1 .., ... 40 

xlvi, xlvii, xlix ... 38, 

39, 40 
... 40 
52 

... 48,51 
... 32 
xiv, xxxix .... 30, 33 

: liii 42 



xlix 



Ixxii 
Ixv, Ixx 
xxxviii 



5T3TC*T xxix, xxx, xxxiii 



PAGE. 

xxv ... 24 

1 

... 41 
29 

27, 
27, 29 

xxxiii ... 29 

tvii ... ... 17 

15 

. 11 
, 17 
33 

iv, v, xxxiii, xxxv 4, 4 
29, 30 
li ... ... 41 

17 

xiv ... 14 

q&JTrlxviii ... 17 
Ixi ... ... 46 

xxi ... 20 

lix ... 46 

xxxii, xxxiii ... 29, 29 

: xlviii ... 39 

41 
li, Iv ... ... 1, 41, 

43 
1 

46 

... 4,4 
2 

49 
: xliii ... ... 36 

vi .., ... 6 

i, xxx ... ... 1 5 27 

r : liii .., ... 42 

xix 18 



( 62 ) 



xxxv ... 

: xxiv, Iii 
xxiii 



xliv 

xxxii 

xxxii 



T i, iii, viii, xxxi, xli, xlii, 
Ixi, Ixii, Ixiv, Ixvi ... 1, 
7, 28, 35, 35, 46, 47, 48, 
xlii . . . 
lix 



xlvii .. 
Ixii 
xxvii 



lii .. 



xlii . . 



xxxx 
xl 
xii 

* xli ... 

xxx ... 



lix .. 
xxxix 



z* Iviii 
: In ... 



PAGE. 


PAGE. 


. 30 


^ftrrT^: xlii .., 35 


. 30 


qw Ixix ,.. ... 51 


23, 41 


q^?3f x ... ... 9 


22 


ItWflmcf Ixxi ... 52 


36 


lOT^l ... 40 


49* 


q^snfq *ur Ixix ... 51 


37 


q^T^" Ixxii... ... 52 


29 


q^qc xxxi, xxxvi 28, 31 


29 


qcHi 1 Ivi ... 44 


49 


TO^ft^r^xvii ,.. 17 




qft^TTR xxvii ... 25 


1, 3, 

48, 49 
35 


qfenfJT^ xvi ... 15 

R*.. 1 K 


WTOT^XV .... 15 

^f^TT^ vi ..6 


46 


qijrcf Ivi ... ... 44 


40 


qsjrefj^xl ... ... 34 


39 


qfesf Ixx ... ... 51 


47 


qs^fo Ixv ... 48 


25 


qiftl xxvi ... ... 24 


46 


qr^q xxvi ... 24 


35 


fq^srn xxix ... 33 


44 
35 
33 


3^: xxxvii, Ixi 31,46 
JJTR; xi ... ,.. 11 

j^q xviii, xxxvii, Ivii, 


o4 


Ixix ... 17, 31, 44, 51 


11 


JJW iii, xvii, Iv, Ixii, Ixv 3, 


35 


17, 43, 47, 48 


27 * 


3^q^ xix, xxi, xxxvi, 


34 


xxxvii, Iviii, lix, Ixi ... 18, 


46 


20, 31, 31, 45, 46, 46 


33 


g^q^TJc^f xviii ... 17 


48 


JJ^qf^ftT^T Ivii ... 44 


48 


3^qHfr xxxi, xlii, Ixiii ... 28, 


45 

41 
46 


37, 47 

_,_____.^__,_ T r ft 


g^rmfTlT Ixix .... 50 

5^qHf|fj4> xlii ... 35 



63 ) 



*sn lx 

xl, li 

sr* xl ... 

xxi, 



xx xxxv 



xxv 



xn 



PAGE. 

... 46 
...34,41 
34 

... 20 
IT^T xxii, xxix, xxxiv, 

xxxviii, xlvii, 1 ... 21 

27, 30, 32, 39, 40 
xxiv ... ... 23 

liii ... ... 42 

. 21,32 
51 

, 26 
,. 38 
11 
13 
19 
11 

..36,59 
. 29 
. 40 
48 

3,46, 
47, 47 
,. 44 
8 
3 
7 

21,35, 
4j6 
17 

. 28 
44 
15 
7 
4 
4 



xn 
xiii . 
xii 
ST 
xxxn 

1 ... 

Ixv 
f Ivi 
iii, lix, Ixii, Ixiii 



[* xlv 



Vlll 

xviii 
: xxii, xlii, Ixi 



XXXI 

Ivi 



xv 



J xlvi 
xxxvii 



xxxvi 
xiii 

xxxvii, Ixviii 
Ivii 
Ixviii 
xi 
xxix 



PAGE. 

6 

38 
31 
51 

... 31 
... 13 
31, 32 
20, 44 
... 50 
11 
33 
4 
4 
4 

iv ... 4 

iv 4 

xxxvi ... 31 

^Ixvi... ... 49 

xvi, xxiv, xxv, Iii, 
Iviii 15, 23, 24, 41, 45, 

xii ... ... 11 

[5 Ivii ... >>e 44 

srsra: xv, xvii, xviii 15, 17, 17 



iv 
51 WO* iv 



Ixi 



Ixv 

xlii .. 
ET xliii 
STUn xxvi 



STTHT 



ji 

* Ixviii 
xvii 
Iv 



xn 



51 
11 
48 
35 
36 
24 
27 
41 
50 
49 
43 
11 
11 



( 64 ) 



xxvm ... 
Ixii 
rxlix 

xliv 
: Ixiii ... 
xviii ... 
I xliv 



PAGE. 

... 48 
... 26 
47 

... 40 
... 37^ 

17 
51 

xxvi, xxxiv, xlix 24, 30, 

40 

xxiii, xxxv, xxxvii 22, 
30,31 
f : xlix ... ... 40 

xxxvi ... ... 31 

: liv ... 43 

xx, xxix, xxxiv, 
xliv, xlv, xlviii, liii, 
Ixi 19,27, 30, 37,38, 39, 

42. 46 



xlvii 



liii 

: xliii 



XXV ... 

Ixix ... 
xxii, xxxviii 
; xlviii 



xlvi ... 

I XV 

Ixviii 



, 39 

, 40 

41 

41 

36 

, 41 
8 

34,41 

, 44 

, 24 

51 

21, 32 

. 39 

39 

38 

, 15 
50 



tliii ... 

Ixi 



Vll, XXV11 

Ixvi 

xviii ... 
flv ... 
iii, viii, xl, Ivi 



v ... 



: xlviii 
xxxix ... 

; xxxix 
xix 



x 



; Ixx 

: xxxviii 
iii 

liv 

-*1i iii 



Ixi, Ixiv ... 
xlviii 



xli, Ivii, Iviii, lix 
, xxxvii 



^ Ixxii 



PAGE. 

... 17 

... 42 

46 

... 43 

... 7,25 

... 49 

17 

... 43 

3,7, 

34, 44 

7 

3 

21 

... 36 
33 

... 33 

... 18 

... 42 

11 

... 47 
51 

... 32 
3 

43 
3 

...46, 48 

... 39 

... 42 

51 

35,44, 

45, 46 

...30, 31 

... 46 

2 

... 27 
52 



( 65 ) 



5T5f: xiii, liv 



xxv 



: Ixiii 
xxiii 



PAGE. 

40 

...13,43 
... 43 
... 24 
... 38 

38 
... 48 

47 



x, xx, xl, xli, xiii, Hi 9, 19, 
34, 35,35, 41 
4 

... 43 
... 51 
.... 51 

45 

... 44 
... 40 
... 13 
... 49 
...24, 30 
... 27 
... 25 
... 40 

29 



;: Hi 
. Hi 
t Iviii 

xlix 
xiii 



xxvi, xxxiv 



xxvii 



xxxin 

:: iii 

: iii ... 

Ixxi ... 
ii ... 

li ... 
xli, Hi... 
Ixviii 
x 
ii, xi 



... 52 
2 

... 41 

...35,41 

50 

9 

2,11 



xiv, xlvi, xlvii 



xli 



xx 



xlvii 
xvii, xviii, 



: xiv 
^ xix 
xxiii 
xv ... 

^ xiii 
xlvi 
Ivii ... 



8J Iviii 
IV Ixxii 
xxiii ... 
viii . . . 
xxxvi 
: Ixxii 
Ivii ... 
: liv ... 

xxxvii 
* Ixiv ... 
xxxiv, Ivi 
xxxiv 

: xxxvi, xxxix 
, xxvii 



1 

1 xxxiv 
xxxiii 
xxxiv 



xxxv 
xi 



PAGE. 

...14,38, 
39 

... 39 
xiv, 

...17,17, 

38, 40 

... 37 

... 38 

... 18 

... 22 

... 15 

35 

... 38 
44 
44 
45 

... 52 

... 22 

7 

31 
52 

... 44 
... 43 
... 31 
... 48 
...30,44 
... 30 
...31,33 
...15,25 
... 35 
... 40 
... 30 
... 29 
... 30 
30 
11 



Xll .. 

xxviii 



xxv... 
: xliii 



xv 



PAGE. 

11 

26 
39 
24 
36 

38 
15 

38 



x, x, xv 



xlvi ... 

xiii; xxviii, xxix, xxx 13,26, 

27, 27 

xxxi ... ... 28 

: xii ... ... 11 

ii ... ... 2 

ii ... 2 
...9,11, 
15 
7 
8 

15 
8 

30 
41 
30 

... 26 
... 50 
49 

... 50 
... 32 
... 52 
...30,30 
2 

24 

... 52 
3 

.. ;24,52 
2 



xxxiv ... 
Ii 

xxxiv 
xxviii 
Ixviii 
: Ixvii . . . 
Ixviii 
xxxviii 
Ixxi 



xxvi 
Ixxii 



: in . 

^T xxv, Ixxi 
*?n ii 



Ix 

Ixvi 

liv ... 
xiii 

x . 
iii, Ixv ... 
Ixxii ... 
xlix ... 
: Ixiii ... 
xv 
Ixix 
vii 



J liii 



v 



Ixvii, Ixxi 

xx ... 
: Ixvi, xxi 
f: xxi, xxiv, Hi, liii, liv.. 
41, 

* 1 

Ixvi ... 
iv, ix 

xxxv, xxxvii 
MWDreR^cefT^ iv 

[ xvi 
xxxix, xlix 
xxix. xxxvii. Ixiii 



xxv . . . 
xxiii 
xxvii 
xxxvii 
xxxv 



PAGE. 

8 

46 
49 
43 
13 
9 

3, 48 

52 

40 

47 

15 

51 

7 

7 

42 
15 

49,52 
19 

.49,20 

.20,23, 

42, 43 

49 

. 4,8 

30,31, 

4 

. 15 

.33,40 

.27,31, 

47 

. 18 
24 
22 

. 25 

. 31 

. 30 

1 



( 67 ) 



xxx 



XXIX 



Vll 

xxxiii 



x ... 

iv 



vi, xiv 

Ixxi 

xlvi . . . 
xviii, xix 
iv, xiv, xlvii 



xlix 



H 



r Ixi 



xl 

^ 



XXXV11 

xxxix 
vii, viii 
xxvii 
Ixxi.. 



PAGE. 

... 27 

... 10 

... 27 

6 

7 

... 29 
9 

... 6, 14 
41 

... 52 
... 38 
...17,18 
...4,14, 
39 

... 40 

... 41 

... 46 

41 

34 

34 

31 

"... 33 

... 7,7 

25 

49 



Ixxi ... 
xvii . 



xv 



ix 

xl, Ixii 
; xlv ... 
^5ft* xliii 

STrcP liv 



xli ... 
Ixix . . . 
xxxviii 
xxxix . 



! Ixv ... 
Ivi ... 
) xxix 
xxxi 
xxii 
^ xxii 
xxxii . . . 
11, iv 

5 xxxi ... 
4 xlii ... 
xxxi . 



PAGE. 

52 

17 

17 

8 

.34, 47 

. 38 

. 36 

43 

. 35 
. 51 
. 32 
. 33 
43 

. 48 
44 

. 27 

. 28 

, 21 

21 

. 29 

. 2,4 

,. 28 

,. 35 

.. 28 

9 

1 



APPENDIX VIL 

PANCHA&KHA SUTRAM 



OR 



A FEW OF THE APHORISMS OF PANCHA& IKHA 



PANCHASIKHA-SUTRAM. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

1. Parichasikha is one of the few earliest writers on the Samkhya. 
He is an authority on the subject, and is mentioned as an A chary a or Pro 
fessor of the School, According to L4varakfi&na, the author of Samkhya- 
Karika, the original Samkhya which descended from its founder Kapila 
to Panchasikha (through Asuri, see Samkhya-Karika, No. LXX), was 
elaborated by him in manifold ways. But not a single one of his works 
is amongst the current coins of the Samkhya literature. " He is known, 
by scanty fragments, as the author of a collection of philosophical apho- 
One other performance, if not two, is likewise imputed to him ; 



nsms. 



and he, perhaps, descanted on the theistic (sic) Samkhya as well as on 
the atheistic (sic.) " (F. E. Hall). It would appear, from Vijnana Bhiksu s 
Commentary on the Vedanta-Sutram, that Panchasikha wrote a comment 
ary on the Tattva-Samasa. 

2. The only source, as yet discovered, so far as we know, from 
which a few of the aphorisms of Panchasikha can be recovered, is Vyasa s 
Commentary on the Yoga-Sutram of Patanjali. In the Preface to his edition 
of the Samkhya-Pravachana-Bhasyam of Vijnana Bhiksu, Mr. Fitz- 
Edward Hall has collected eleven aphorisms of Panchasikha quoted by 
Vyasa in his said Commentary. Another collection of extracts from the 
same source has been published, under the title of PanchaSikha-acharya- 
pranita Samkhya-Sutra, by Pandita Raja Ram, Professor of Sanskrit, 
D. A. V. College, Lahore, in Nos. 4 and 5, Vol. VIII, 1912, of the series 
entitled Arsa-Granthavali, Lahore. r Phis collection contains twenty-one 
aphorisms including one of Varsaganya. Quite recently, again, we had 
a peculiar opportunity of examining the MS. of another collection of apho 
risms attributed to PanchaSikha, prepared by Svami Hariharananda 
Aranya of the Kapila A^rama in the District of Hooghli. This was 
obviously not an original compilation, but a reproduction of the Lahore 
publication, with a few additions, one of which was taken from the Veda 
without acknowledgment ! As regards the collection of Mr. Fitz-Edward 
Hall and the collection of Pandita Raja Ram, we have found that the one 
is, in certain respects, more complete and correct than the other, while 
the paternity of some of the aphorisms attributed in it to PanchaSikha 



PANCHASIKHA SfJTEAM. 



is not free from suspicion. These will be noticed more in detail in the 
subsequent pages. 

3. " Little can safely be conjectured, " as rightly observes Mr. 
Fitz-Edward Hall, " with regard to the character of the work or works 
from which these sentences were collected by Vyasa. They may be 
text ; and they may be commentary. Probably they are Samkhya ; but, 
possibly, the} 7 pertain to the Yoga. That Pancharfikha treated of other 
subjects than the Samkhya, may be inferred from a remark of Vijnana 
Bhiksu s : 

Svaprayujana-ab have pi vidusflm pravrittau Panchasililia-acharya- 
vakyam samkhya-stham pramdnayati. Yoga-Vdrtika, I. 25." 



PANCHASIKHA-S&TRAM. 




4. ^iRfcgii di-Vidvan, the primeval Seer. " Primeval " means pro 
duced at the beginning of Creation. " Seer " means Darstana-kara or one 
who has had direct vision of Purusa ,^,s distinct from Prakriti. In its 
primary significance, the term " Adi-Vidvan " is applicable to Visnu alone. 
Here it refers to Kapila, the reputed founder of the Samkhya Tantra, 
because " it is the self-existent Visuu who appeared as the first Wise Man, 
Kapila, at the beginning of the current cycle of Cosmic Evolution, 
endowed with virtue, knowledge, dispassion, and infallible will " (Vachas- 
pati Mijfra). 

5. fa^kiNT^Rrani Nirmana-chittam adhisthaya, presiding over, ensoul 
ing, or through the medium of, a self-made mental vehicle. These words 
explain how Visnu became incarnated as Kapila. He, by an act of will, 
reproduced Himself as the mighty sage Kapila, Kapila was not a deve 
loped man, but an enveloped Divinity. This artificial creation of bodies, 
ensouled by artificial emanations of the mind, which is one of the most 
wonderful discoveries of the Hindu Spiritual Science, is not expected to 
make any deep impression on the minds of the majority of Western 
Scholars in the present age, nor to engage them in the investigation or in 
an examination of the truth in this matter, in a true scientific spirit. Neither 
do we here propose to enter into a discussion with them on this subject. 
We shall simply mention, for the information of readers at large, that this 
subject of the creation of artificial bodies and minds is dealt with in the 
Yoga-Sutram of Patanjali, IV. 4, 5, and 6 (See the Sacred Books of the 
Hindus, Vol IV., 272-273). And to make the words of our text a little 
more illuminating to them, we may take the following extract from the 
Introduction to the above volume : 

" A Yogi, having attained the power of Samadhi, sets about destroy 
ing his past Karmas. All Karmas may be divided into three classes : (1) 
The acts done in the past, the consequences of which the man must suffer in 
the present life ; the Karmas to expiate which he has taken the present birth 
or incarnation. They are the ripe Karmas (Prarabdha). (2) The Karmas 
done in the past, but which are not ripe, and will have to be expiated in some 
future life. They are the stored Karmas, or unripe (Sauchita). (3) The 
Karmas which a man creates in his present life, and which have to be 
expiated in a future or the present life. This last kind of act, the fresh 
Karmas, can be stopped. By devotion to the Lord and doing .everything 



PANCHASIKHA-S&TRAM. 



in a spirit of service, no fresh Karmas are generated. The incurring of 
debt is stopped. The man, however, has to pay off past debts the ripe 
and unripe Karmas. The ripe Karrnas will produce their effects in the 
present life. The Yogi does not trouble himself about this. But the 
unripe or stored Karmas require a future birth. It is here that the Yoga 
is of the greatest practical importance. The Yogi is not bound to wait for 
future lives in order to get an opportunity to pay off the debt of Sanchita 
Karmas. He simultaneously creates ALL the bodies that thpse Sanchita 
Karmas require, through those bodies expiates all his Karmas simulta 
neously. Every one of such bodies has a Chitta or mentality of his own. 
This is the Nirmana-chitta or the Artificial mind like the Pseudo-Person 
alities of hypnoptic trance. These artificial minds arise simultaneously 
like so many sparks from the Ahamkaric matter of the Yogi s Self, and 
they ensoul the artificial bodies created for them. These artificial bodies, 
with artificial minds in them, walk through the earth in hundreds, they 
are distinguished from ordinary men by the fact that they are perfectly 
methodical in all their acts, and automatic in their lives- All these arti 
ficials are controlled by the consciousness of the Yogi, one consciousness 
controlling hundred automatons. Every one of these automatons has a 
particular destiny, a particular portion of the Sanchita Karma to exhaust. 
As soon as that destiny is fulfilled, the Yogi withdraws his ray from it, 
and the " man " dies a sudden death, a heart-failure generally. 

" Now, what is the difference between the ordinary mind and the 
Yoga-created mind, the natural Chitta and the artificial Chitta? The 
natural mind by experience gains a habit, the impressions are stored in it, 
and they, as V^sanas, become the seeds of desires and activities. The 
artificial mind is incapable of storing up impressions in it. It has no 
Vasana*s and consequently it disintegrates as soon as the body falls down." 

6. hi* u fl Karunyat, through compassion. This word, according to 
Vyasa, tells us what the teaching of the text is. It is this that l^vara, cut 
of the abundance of His compassion towards all Purusas, incarnates Himself, 
from time to time, in order to teach them knowledge and virtue, whereby 
they may be delivered from bondage. The passage of the text is quoted 
by Vyasa in his Commentary on the Yoga-Sutram, I. 25, and Vachaspati 
explains the purpose of the quotation thus : " This theory that the com 
passionate Lord teaches knowledge and virtue is also common to the 
teaching of Kapila : So has it been said by Panchasikha." Rdma 
Prasada s translation. 

7. w&i Bhagavan, divine. This term connotes the possession of 



PANGHASIKHA-StJTRAM. 



virtue, knowledge, dispassion, and infallible will. And we know that 
these were cognate with Kapila. 

8. mff: Parama-risih, the mighty sage. Visnu appeared on earth as 
Kapila, in the highly purified and richly developed body of a saint who 
held communion with the gods. The necessity for such bodies for divine 
manifestations has been admirably explained and illustrated by the late 
Babu Sisir Kumar Ghosh in his Lord Gaurdnga. 

9. wf<3 Asuraye, to Asuri, a disciple of Kapila and the first recipient 
of the Samkhya. 

10. fSwtniim Jijnasamanaya, who wished to know Asuri approached 
the divine man Kapila and desired to know from him the means for the 
accomplishment of the Supreme Good, namely, the permanent prevention 
of pain. 

11. wa Tantram, the systematic teaching, the Samkhya doctrine. 

12. *tarc Pra-uvacha, declared fully, revealed. Such, then, is the 
origin of the Samkhya. 

I. The primeval Seer, (incarnated), through the me 
dium of an artificial mind, (as) the mighty divine sage 
(Kapila), out of compassion (towards all entangled Purusas), 
revealed the (Samkhya) doctrine, in a systematic way, to 
Asuri, who desired to know them. 

13. Now, what is this Samkhya Dar^ana? " Dars ana " etymo- 
logically means the act or the result of seeing, from the root </Dri!$, to see. 
Here it stands for Saksatkara or immeditae vision, that is, intuition of 
the Self. And " Samkhya " means that by which something is perfectly 
revealed, from the root /Khya, to manifest. The " Samkhya DanJana," 
therefore, is that form of Spiritual Intuition of the Self, whereby the 
nature of the Self is perfectly revealed. So declares Pancha&kha : _ 

II 



wi Ekam, one, single. ^ Eva, only, there is no second, ^r Darsanam, 
intuition, knowledge, wft : Khyatifr, coming to light, shining, manifestation, 
illumination. ^ Eva, alone. ^\ Darsanam, intuition, knowledge. 

II. There is but one Spiritual Intuition of the Self 
it is nothing but manifestation which is the Spiritual In 
tuition of the Self. 



PANCHASIKBA-StJTRAM. 



14. The word Khyati is suggestive in more respects than one. 
Now, manifestation is declared to be the means of accomplishing Moksa or 
Release. (1) What, then, must be its nature? It cannot obviously be of the 
nature of the attainment of some advanced state or development from a state 
less advanced or less developed ; for Manifestation itself cannot accom 
plish this. It will also be repugnant to the Samkhya conception of the 
Self ; for the Self is kutastha, unchangeable ; it ever is, never becomes. 
It follows, therefore, that Moksa consists merely in the removal of a 
shadow, as it were, that is, of something which casts its reflection on 
the Self and thereby overshadows it and causes obstruction to its shining 
out in the fullness of its own light. (2) This shadow, this obstruction, 
is not of, or from, the Self, but is a creation of the Not-Self. And what 
is the cause of its origin, the same is also the cause of its removal. 
It fades or deepens, it contracts or expands, it exists or ceases to exist, 
and for this depends entirely on the activity or non-activity of the Not-Self. 
(3) The Self is altogether passive and inert. Shadow or no shadow, it is 
ever there, all-full, ever shining, unaffected, unsullied. In ignorance, 
men speak of the Bondage of the Self which is never bound, ever released. 
Bondage, in reality, is this supreme ignorance, this veil of the Not- 
Self, the non-discrimination of the principle of Becoming and the 
principle of Being, to which alone is due all the suffering in the 
world, not exactly suffering, for actual suffering there can be, and is, 
nothing in the Self, but the Abhimana or assumption or attribution 
of it to the Self. Replace non-discrimination by Discrimination, the 
veil is gone, and gone with it is the Shadow the obstruction and see 
the ever pure, ever constant, ever shining Self. 

15. This Aphorism of Pancha&kha has been quoted by Vyasa 
in his Commentary on the Aphorism I. 4 of Patanjali s Yoga-Sutram in 
the following context : Yoga is the inihibition of the modifications 
of the mind (chitta) (Yoga-Sutram I; 2). Then the Seer (Purusa) stands 
in his own nature (Ibid I. 3), that is, is established in his own intrinsic 
form, as in the state of kaivalya or absolute abstractedness. Elsewhere 
(there takes place in him) similarity of form with the modifications 
(Ibid I. 4j. How does it take place ? Because objects are presented to 
him. Whatever, therefore, be the modifications of the mind, with the 
same is Purusa invested, so long as the mind remains up and doing. 
That is to say, Purusa, with the light of his intelligence, illuminates 
the manifold modifications of the active mind, which, consequently, are 
mistaken as being the manifestations of Purusa. It is thus this mistake, 
the failure to distinguish between the unintelligent modifications of 



PANCHAS1 KHA-StfTRAM. 



the unintelligent mind and the intelligence of the inert, immutable 
Purusa, which is the cause of all the mental phenomena so universally 
attributed to Purusa. In reality, however, the manifestation of Purusa is 
one and one only, the same at all times and in all circumstances. And so 
there is the Aphorism : " There is but one Spiritual Intuition of the Self ; it 
is nothing but Manifestation, which is the Spiritual Intuition of the Self." 

16- The Self is most difficult to know. It is inscrutable. Only a 
steady, pure* and peaceful mind can reflect it as it is in itself. Steadiness 
of the mind implies a long and arduous process of Yogic practice. The 
stepping-stone to it is what is called Jyotismati or the state of lucidity, 
or the activity which causes illumination. This activity of the mind is 
twofold, according as it is painless objective (vijfoka-visayavati) or is 
purely egoistic (asmita-nmtra). It is described by Vyasa in his Com 
mentary on Yoga-Sutram, I. 36, in the following manner : " It is the 
consciousness of thought-forms (Buddhi), on the part of one who practises 
concentration upon the Lotus of the Heart. For, the substance of 
Buddhi is refulgent and^is like Akada, i.e., all-pervading. Through success 
in concentration upon that, the activity of the mind modifies by the 
forms having the colour of the light of the sun, the moon, the planets 
and precious stones. Likewise, the mind concentrated upon Asmita, 
I-am-ness or egoism, becomes pure egoism, calm and infinite, like a 
waveless ocean." And he supports his exposition by quoting the 
following Aphorism of Pancharfikha : 


II 



cpj Tarn, that. IH^W^ Anu-matram, of the size of an atom, small as an 
atom, difficult to understand, inscrutable, ^nr^r^ Atmanam, Self. SRri^i Anu- 
vidya, knowing at last, ufa Asmi, am. sffl Iti, that. ^ Evam, in this form. 
?n^ Tavat, for certain, ^ffm Sam-pra-janite, fully and accurately knows- 

III. Knowing, at last, that inscrutable Self, his cons 
ciousness manifests as " I am * only. 

17. It has been mentioned above that the identification of the 
Principle of Being with the Principle of Becoming, of the Self with the 
Not-Self, is the cause of all the suffering in the Universe. This identifica 
tion is called A-vidya. Its nature is declared by Pancha^ikha in the 
following two Aphorisms : 



t<4 



8 PANCHASIKHA-SfJTRAM. 



Vyaktam, unfolded, sentient substances or existences, such as wife, 
son, animals, etc. ?&m A-vyaktam, not unfolded, insentient objects, such as riches, 
house, couch, etc. 3T Va, or. ^r^ Sattvam, existence, substance, object. 
Atma-tvena, under the characteristic of the Self, as being the Self, ^n 
Abhi-pratitya, approaching towards in mind, thinking, believing, taking up. rRS 
Tasya, its, of the object. *R^ Sampadam, prosperity, well-being. SH^T^ Aiiu- 
nandati, rejoices at or according to. 1 3iTrwr^ Atma-Sampadam, well-being of the 
Self. *fF3T^: Manvanah, imagining, rrer Tasya, its, of the object. *IIH<^ Vyapa- 
dam, adversity. ^r^tof?! Anu-Sochati, grieves according to. wi^qr^ Atma-vyapa- 
darn, adversity of the Self. I*M: Manvanah, imagining. s: Sal?, he. sf : Sarvah, 
all. ^ J n^g: A-prati-buddhafy, unawakened in regard to the truth. 

IV. They are all unawakened who, believing the 
objective entities, whether they be sentient or insentient, 
to be the Self, rejoice at their prosperity, imagining it to be 
the prosperity of the Self, and grieve at their adversity, 
imagining it to be the adversity of the Self. 

18. This Aphorism has been quoted by Vyasa in his Commentary 
on Yoga-Sutram II. 5 which describes A-vidya as being " the manifestation 
of the non-eternal, the impure, the painful, and the Not-Self to be the 
eternal, the pure, the pleasant, and the Self." 



Buddhi-tah, from Buddhi. vi. Param, different, wnj Purusam, 
Purusa. wwrsfftara^Tf^i: Akara-Sila-vidya-adibhih, by nature, character, know 
ledge, etc. The nature of Purusa is constant purity. Indifference is his character. 
By knowledge is denoted his being intelligent. Whereas Buddhi is impure, not 
indifferent, and non-intelligent, siwr^ A-pasyan, not seeing. *jrcf<j Kuryat, is led 
to form, ria Tatra, therein, in respect of Buddhi. ^irH^Qf Atma-buddhim, the 
notion of the Self. %% Mohena, by reason of the dullness (of Tamas). 

V. Not knowing Purusa to be different from Buddhi 
in nature, character, knowledge, etc., a man is led, by reason 
of the dullness born of Tamas, to form the notion of the 
Self in respect of Buddhi. 

19. The above has been quoted by Vyasa in his Commentary on the 
Yoga-Sutram II. 6 which describes Asmita or Egoism as being " the 
apparent identity of the subjective power of seeing (i.e., Purusa) and the 
instrumental power of seeing (i. e., Buddhi)." 



PANGHASIKHA-BtJTRAM. 9 

20. It follows, therefore, that there is Bondage as long as this 
notion of the Self in respect of the Not-Self remains, and that there is 
Release when this notion is destroyed by the knowledge of the Self as 
being distinct and different from the Not-Self in all essential particulars. 



^ira SyAt, can be. *^: Svalpah, little. *farc: Samlrarah, mixture. 
Sa-pariharah attended with, i.e., capable of , avoidance or removal. wmsr: Sa-prati- 
avamarsah, attended with, i.e., capable of, being borne easily. sw^i Kusalasya, 
of the good. T Na, not. <*HW< Apakarsaya, for damage or impairment or lessen 
ing the effect, w^ Alam, sufficient, strong or powerful enough, 

VI. A little mixture (of evil entailed, for instance, by 
the killing of animals) which is capable of removal (by ex 
piation) or is easy to bear, cannot prevail for the diminution 
of the (greater) good (produced by the performance of sacrifices 
such as the Asvamedha and the like). 

21. The above bears reference to the vexed question as to the conse 
quences of the acts of sin necessarily committed in the course of the per 
formance of sacrifices which are calculated to produce merits of far-reach 
ing consequences. For instance, an Asvamedha sacrifice cannot be per 
formed without the killing of a horse, and killing is a sinful act. So that, 
while the performance of the Asvamedha produces its desirable conse 
quences, the killing of the horse cannot, at the same time, fail to produce its 
undesirable consequences. The question, therefore, arises whether what is 
acquired througb the sacrifice, be not lost through the sin. This is an 
important issue arising in the discussion of the Law of Karma as a whole. 

22. Now, " the killing of animals, etc., has," as Vachaspati explains, 
* two effects. The first is that, being ordained as part of the principal action, 
it helps in its fulfilment. The second is that, the causing of pain to all 
living beings being forbidden, it results in undesirable consequences- Of 
these, when it is performed only as subsidiary to the principal action, 
then, for that very reason, it does not manifest its result all at once, 
independently of the principal action. On the contrary, it keeps its 
position of an accessory only, and manifests only when the fruition of the 
principal ruling action begins. It is said to be tacked on to the ruling 
action, when, while helping the ruling action, it exists as the seed of its 
own proper effect. Panchadikha has said the following on the subject : 
A, little mixture. 



10 PANCHA&KHA-SdTRAM. 

"When the ruling factor of the present karma, born from the sacrifice 
of Jyotistoma, etc , is mixed up with the present cause of evil, it may be 
easily removed. Tt is possible of removal by a small expiatory sacrifice. 
Even if an expiatory sacrifice be not performed by carelessness, the 
subsidiary action would ripen at the time of the ripening of the 
principal only, and, in that case, the evil generated thereby would 
be easy to bear. The wise who are taking their baths in the great 
lake of the nectar of pleasure brought about by a collection of good 
actions, put up easily with a small piece of: the fire of pain produced by 
a small evil. It is not, therefore, capable of diminishing, i.e., appreciably 
lessening the effect of the good, i.e., of his large virtues." Rama Prasada s 
translation. 

23. This Aphorism of Panchaj^ikha has been quoted by Vyasa in 
his Commentary on the Yoga-Sutram II. 13. "So long as the cause 
remains, the fruition of Merit and Demerit is in the kind of birth, length 
of life and experience." 

24. Pandit Raja Ram is wrong in reading the next sentence in the 
Commentary as part of the present Aphorism. For both Svapnesvara and 
Vsichaspati are against this reading. 

25. But the fact remains that even a highly meritorious act is 
tainted with sin, and with consequent pain. It is even as Patanjali declares 
that " to the discriminative, all is pain" (Yoga-Sutram II. 15). And pain 
is the thing which every mortal seeks to get rid of : not merely present 
pain, but pain not-yet-corae is the thing to be avoided v Yoga-Sutram II. 16). 
Accordingly, both in the Samkhya and in the Yoga Sastra, enquiries have 
been instituted into the cause of its origin as well as into the means of 
its removal. In the Yoga-Sutram II. 17, Patanjali declares that the 
conjunction of Buddhi and Purusa is the cause of pain. And on this 
subject, also says Panchasikha : 



d<wli i^r|fceisJHid Tat-Samyoga-hetu-vivarjanat, through abandonment of the 
cause, namely, Non-discrimination, of the conjunction thereof, i-e., of Buddhi. Wr| 
Syat, will be. ^re^ Ayam, this, i.e., the desired prevention of pain not-yet-come. 
gm^rfli: Atyantikab* final, permanent. ^:^Mdi*i<: Duljkha-prati karat, prevention or 
remedy of pain. 

VII. Through the abandonment of the cause thereof, 
there can be the permanent prevention of pain, which is 
desired. 



PAKCHASIKHA-SUTRAM. 11 

26. The above has been quoted by Vyasa in his Commentary on the 
Yoga-Sutram II. 17. 

27. Pain is due to conjunction. Rajas gives rise to pain in Sattva, 
which reflects it on Purusa, through conjunction. In this reflection con 
sists the experience (Bhoga) of Purusa from which emancipation (Apavarga 
is sought. To describe them more correctly, Bhoga is the ascertainment 
of the essential nature of the Gunas, as v desirable and undesirable, in their 
undifferenthited form ; and Apavarga is the ascertainment of the essential 
nature of the Experience!*, through the withdrawal of the influence of 
Prakriti upon him. To accomplish both these objects, namely, Bhoga and 
Apavarga, is the creation of the world. Creation is the exhibition of 
Prakriti to Purusa. Purusa regards or looks at Prakriti from these 
points of view only ; and there is no third point of view. So declares Pan- 
cha&kha also : 



TT^TW^ 



3R Ayam, this Purusa. 3 Tu, but. ^ Khalu, surely, im Trisu, in the three. 
3^J Gunesu, in the Gugas, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. mv Kartrisu, which are 
the actors, agents. ^MK A Kartari, who is not the actor. ^ Cha, and. 3^ 
Puruse, in Purusa. g^ig^idft Tulya-a-tulya-j&tiye, who is of a like and unlike 
kind. ^ Chaturthe, the fourth, ddfwwifafti Tat-kriya-saksi^i, who is the 
witness of the action thereof, i.e.. of the Gugas. ^iwn^ Upaniyamanan, that are 
being presented, swr^ Sarva-bhavan, all objects. STOT^ Upapannan, established, 
known. 3^**^ Anupasyan, knowing. T Na, not. ^PT Darsanam, view, wm 
Anyat, other. i*& Sankate, suspects. 

VIII. This one, however, seeing all things explained 
as these are being presented to the three Gunas as the actors 
and to the fourth, viz., Purusa, of a like and unlike kind, as 
the non-actor and as the witness of their action, does not 
suspect (the existence of) any other point of view, or object 
of knowledge. 

28. " Of a like and unlike kind": For instance, the Gunas are eter 
nal, so is Purusa ; Purusa is intelligent, but the Gunas are non-intelligent. 

29. " The above has been quoted by Vyasa in his Commentary on 
Yoga-Sfitram II 18 : The object (Dritfya) which possesses the nature of 
illumination (Sattva), activity (Rajas), and inertia (Tamas) and consists 



PANGHASlKHA-StiTRAM. 



of the elements and of the powers of cognition and action, exists for the 
purpose of experience and of emancipation. 

30. " But these two, experience and emancipation, which are effected 
by Buddhi, reside in Buddhi alone ; ho\v are they, then," asks Vy;>sa, 
" predicated of Purusa ? " He next gives the answer : " Just as victory or 
defeat, which lies in the army, is predicated of the owner of the army, as 
he is the experiencer of its consequences, so too are Bondage and Release, 
residing in Buddhi alone, are predicated of Puru&a, as he is the experiencer 
of their consequences. Of Buddhi alone are Bondage in the shape of the 
non-accomplislunent of the object of Purusa, and Release in the shape of the 
fulfilment thereof. Similarly, are perception, memory, reasoning, doubt, 
knowledge of the truth, and blind attachment to life, which reside in 
Buddhi, are attributed as existing in Purusa, as he is the experiencer of 
their consequences, by having their reflections thrown upon him from 
Buddhi, through proximity." 

31. Puruba, then, is neither quite similar to Buddhi nor quite 
dissimilar to it. He is not quite subject to Bondage and Release, nor is 
quite free from them. On this subject, Paficha&kha further declares: 



f 



A-parinamini, not subject to transformation, unchangeable, ff 
Hi, for. ^RR*if?R: Bhoktri-Saktih, the power of the experiencer, intelligence, cons 
ciousness. swfirasnif A-prati-Sankrarna, not moving towards objects, inert, actionless, 
inactive. * Oha, and. iRwPni Parinamini, subject to transformation, change 
ful. 9$ Arthe, into the object, i.e., Buddhi. nmsa^rn Pratisamkranta, transferred, 
moved to. * Iva, as if. H^Ph^ TaWrittim, the modifications thereof, ie.,of 
Buddlii. ^HMdld Anu-patati, imitates, modifies according to. rrar: Tasyafe, its, i.e , 
of Buddhi. * Cba, and. mp^?T^N^^niT: Prapta-chaitanya-upagraha-rdpdyah, trans 
formed by receiving the reflection of intelligence, ^fgfn: Buddbi-vritteh, of the 
modification of Buddhi. 3RWW?*?roT Anu-kara-matra-taya, by reason of mere imita 
tion. jfi^n Buddhi-vrittya, by the modification oi Buddhi ^mnigr A-visista, 
unqualified, f^ Hi, verily, ^rrfffr: Jnana-vritti^, modification of consciousness. 
?ra Iti, thus. *in*m Akhyayate, called, described. 

IX. For the power of the Experiencer which is un 
changeable as well as inert, as if running into the changeful 



PANCHASIKHA-SUTRAM. 13 

object (i.e., Buddhi), imitates its modifications. And by 
reason of the mere imitation of the modifications of Buddhi, 
while that is transformed by receiving the reflection of intel 
ligence, it (the imitation) is described as the modification of 
intelligence unqualified by the modification of Buddhi. 

32. The above has been quoted by Vyasa in his Commentary 
on Yoga-Sutram II. 20 : " The seer is the power of seeing merely : though 
pure, he sees ideas by imitation," and he thereby supports the proposition 
that " though pure, he sees ideas by imitation ; because he sees, by imita 
tion, ideas belonging to Buddhi, and, though he is not of the same nature 
as Buddhi, as he sees by imitation, because he looks as if he were of the 
nature of Buddhi." This is further explained by Vacbaspati in the follow 
ing manner : 

" Although the moon is not, as a matter of fact, transferred into 
pure water, yet, inasmuch as its reflection passes into water, it is, as it 
were, transferred into it. So also, the power of consciousness, although 
not actually transferred into the Buddhi, yet is, as it were, transferred 
into it, because it is reflected into it. By that fact, consciousness becomes, 
as it were, of the very nature of the will-to-be (Buddhi). It accordingly 
follows the modifications of the will- to-be. This explains the words "by 
imitation." It is said, it cognises by imitation, as it cognises by following 
the modifications of the will-to-be." Ram Prascidas translation. 

33. Conjunction has been stated to be the cause of Bhoga. The 
objective world owes its existence to it. But when, in the case of a 
Purusa whose objects have been fulfilled, the objective world no longer 
exists for him, it does not at the same time altogether vanish out of 
existence, because there are other Purusas whose Bhoga and Apavarga 
still remain to be accomplished. (Vide the Yoga-Sutram II. 22). Thus 
is the continuity of creation established. Hereby is also established 
that, whereas the Subject and the Object exist from eternity, their conjunc 
tion must, in the form of a stream of successive conjunctions, be without 
beginning. On this subject there has been quoted by Vyasa, in his 
Commentary on the above Yoga-Sutram, the following Aphorism of 
Panchat^ikha : 



Dharmioam, of the containers, that is, the Guijas, Sattva, Rajas, and 
Tamas. miRwImid An-adi-samyogat, because conjunction with Purusa is without 
beginning. >ri*naw!T^ Dharma-matranarn, of all the contained, that is, the products 



14 PANCHASIKHA-StJTRAM. 



Mahat and the rest. ^R Api, also, 9Hrf^: An-ddih, without beginning. 
Sarnyogafy, conjunction. 

X. Because the conjunction of the Gunas (with 
Purusa) is without beginning, the conjunction also of the 
products thereof, taken as a class, is without beginning. 

34. " It is for this reason .that, although the conjunction of one 
Purusa with one manifestation of the principle of Mahat has ceased to 
exist, the conjunction of another Purusa with another manifestation of 
the Mahat has not become a thing of the past." Ram Prasada s translation 
of Vachaspati. 

35. In the Yoga-Sutram III. 13, Patanjali declares: " By this are 
described the changes of characteristic vdharma), of secondary quality 
(laksanaj, and of condition (avastha) in the objective and instrumental 
phenomena." Ram Prasada s translation. 

36. In the course of his Commentary on the above, Vyasa observes : 
" The change of secondary quality is the moving of the characteristic 
along the paths of being (past, present, and future). The past character 
istic joined to the past secondary quality, is not devoid of the future 
and the present secondary quality. Similarly, the present (characteristic) 
joined to the present secondary quality, is not devoid of the past and 
the future secondary quality. Similarly, the future (characteristic) joined 
to the future secondary quality, is not devoid of the present and past 
secondary qualities. For example, a man who is attached to one woman, 
does not hate all the others. 

" Others find a fault in this change of secondary qualities They 
say that all the qualities being in simultaneous existence, their paths of 
being must be confused, (and thus overlapping one another, cannot be 
considered as distinct and different). 

" This is thus met : That the characteristics do exist as such, requires 
no proof. When there is such a thing as a characteristic, the differences 
of the secondary qualities also must be posited. It is not only in the 
present time that the characteristic characterizes. If it were so, the mind 
would not possess the characteristic of attachment, seeing that attachment 
is not in manifestation at the time of anger. - Further, the three (peaceful, 
fearful, and dull) secondary qualities are not possible of existence in one 
individual simultaneously. They may, however, appear in succession, 
by virtue of the operation of their several (exciting causes. Therefore, 
there is no confusion. For example, attachment being in the height of 
manifestation with reference to some object, it does not, for that reason, 



PANCHASIKHA-S&TRAM. 15 

cease to exist with reference to all other objects. On the contrary, it is 
then ordinarily in existence with reference to them." Earn Prasadas 
translation. 

And in support of the above view, Vyasa quotes the following 
Aphorism of Panchadikha : 



Rupa-atisayafr, intensities of nature or characteristic. 
Vritti-atisayah, intensities of function or manifestation. * cha, and. 
Virudhyante, are opposed. OTfr^ffR Sam&nyani, ordinary ones. 5 Tu, but. 
Atisayaili, with the intense ones, q* Saha, with. JwM Pravartante, co-exist, 
co-operate. 

XL Intensities of characteristic and intensities of 
manifestation are opposed to each other, but the ordinary 
ones co-exist with the intense ones. 

37. This simple Aphorism of Panchasikha embodies the discovery 
of the important doctrine of the sub-conscious mind. 

38. As to the relation between AkasJa and the Power of Hearing, 
there is the following Aphorism of Panchasikha : 

II 



^ Tulya-desa-sravanan&m, of those having their powers of hear 
ing similarly located, that is, equally in Ak3,sa or soniferous ether. *$^wf?H Eka- 
desa-sruti-tvam, to have the power of hearing in the same situation, ^fai Sarve- 
sa"m, of all. w^ Bhavati, is. 

XII. In the case of all, having their powers of hear 
ing equally located in Akasa, hearing takes place in the 
same situation. 

39. The above has been quoted by Vyasa in his Commentary on 
the Yoga-Sutrarn III. 40 : " By Samyama over the relation between 
Aka^a and the power-of-hearing, comes the higher power hearing." 

40. And Vachaspati explains its sense and significance in the 
following manner : " This sense of hearing, then, having its origin in the 
principle of egoism, acts like iron, drawn as it is by sound originating 
and located in the mouth of the speaker, acting as loadstone, transforms 
them into its own modifications in sequence of the sounds of the speaker, 
and thus senses them. And it is for this reason that for every living 



16 PANOHASIKHA-S&TRAM. 

creature, the perception of sound in external space is, in the absence of 
defects, never void of authority. So says the quotation from PanchasJikha : 
" To all those whose organs of hearing are similarly situated, the situation of 
hearing is the same." " All those " are Chaitras and others whose powers 
of hearing are similarly situated in space. The meaning is, that the powers 
of hearing of all are located in 2ka&. Further, the Akaafo, in which the 
power of hearing is located, is Lorn out of the Soniferous Tamnatra, 
and has therefore the quality of sound inherent in itself. It is by this 
sound acting in unison, that it takes the sound of external solids, etc. 
Hence the hearing, i.e., the sound, of all is of the same class. 

" This, then, establishes that Akarfa is the substratum of the power 
of hearing, and also possesses the quality of sound. And this sameness 
of the situation of sound is an indication of the existence of Aka^a. That 
which is the substratum of the auditory power (Sruti) which manifests as 
sound of the same class, is Ak&rfa." Earn PrasadcCs translation. 

41. In his Pancha&kha Acharya-pranita Samkbya-Sutra, Pandita 
Raja Ram includes the following quotations by Vyasa : 

cHUT 



: II 



XIII. The Pradhana, the material cause of all mani 
festation, would become what it is not, if it tended only to 
rest, because in that case there would not be any manifesta 
tion into phenomena ; nor would it be what it is, if it were 
to remain in constant motion, because in that case, the phe 
nomena would become eternal and never disappear. It is 
only when it tends to both these states, that it can be called 
the Pradhana (the cause of manifestation), not otherwise. 
The same considerations apply to any other causes that 
might be imagined. Vide Vyasa s Commentary on Yoga- 
Sutram II. 23. 



XIV. On account of the absence of the difference of 
form, intervening space and time, and genus, there is no 
separation in the Root (i.e., the Pradhana.) Vide Vyasa s 
Commentary on Yoga-Sutram III. 52. 



PANCHA&IKBA-S0TRAM. 17 



XV. All the diverse forms of juice, etc., caused by the 
transformation of earth and water, is seen in immobile 
objects ; similarly of the immobile, in the mobile, and of the 
mobile, in the immobile. Vide Vyasa s Commentary on 
Yoga-Sutram III. 14. 



XVI. Of these which possess the same genus, the 
differences are in (specific) properties only. Vide Vyasa s 
Commentary on Yoga-Sutram III. 43. 

u 



XVII. By the magic panorama of Mahamoha (desire 
and ignorance), overshadowing the Sattva which is lumi 
nous by nature, the very same is employed in acts of vice. 
Vide Vyasa s Commentary on Yoga-Sutram II. 52, 



XVIII. There is no penance greater than Pranayama : 
whence are the purification from dirts and the brightness of 
knowledge. Vide Vyasa s Commentary on Yoga-Sutram 

II. 52. 

^roref JTfrgrr $*t <jJ<^ ^vr^% *rersr ^r*^ *r^Rr u 

XIX. (In the case of those who do not possess the 

i curiosity to know the nature of the Self), giving up, through 
faults (i.e., demerits), the nature, there arises a liking for 
primd facie contrary views, and dislike for the ascertainment 
of the truth. Vide Vyasa s Commentary on Yoga-Sutram, 
IV 25. 



n 

XX. As a Brahmana undertakes many a vow, one 
after another, he turns away successively from acts of injury 
due to inadvertence, and thereby makes the virtue of non-in 
jury (ahimsa) gradually purer and purer. Vide Vyasa s 
Commentary on Yoga-Sutram II. 30. 



18 PANG HA SI KHA-S&TRAM. 



XXI. And what are these activities of the Dhyayins, 
namely, friendliness (maitri), etc., being, by nature, inde 
pendent of external means, accomplish the highest virtue. - 
Vide Vyasa s Commentary dh Yoga-Sutram IV. 10. 
42. And to them, the Kapila Asirama reproduction add : 

11 



XXII. The activity of the Pradhana is for the sake of 
the exhibition of herself. Vide Vyasa s Commentary on 
Yoga-Sutram II. 23. 

43. But Vachaspati tells us that No. XIII is a doctrine of an 
opposite school, and Nos. XVII XX are the teachings of the Agamins(Saiva 
Dar^ana) ; while Vyasa himself tells us that No. XIV is an aphorism of 
Varsaganya and No. XXII is a text of the Veda. Both of them, again, are 
silent as to the paternity of Nos. XV and XVf. The remaining one, No. XI, 
is referred by Vachaspati to the Ach&ryas or older teachers of the Samkhya 
School. In these circumstances, we do not feel we should be justified in 
affiliating these aphorisms to Panchaj^ikha. 

44. Pandita Raja Ram has, we observe, arranged his aphorisms 
of Panchasikha in a particular order, and has explained them in a 
connected form. This may mislead the unwary in thinking that this 
collection of aphorisms is a complete treatise composed by Panchasikha 
which, however, it is not, and can, by no means, pretend to be. To avoid 
any such. misconception, we have, with the single exception of the first j 
one, and this, for obvious reasons presented the aphorisms just in the * 
order of their quotation by Vyasa ; for there is no more reason known to 
us for placing them in one particular order than in any other. 

45 It may also be just mentioned here that some other views, not 
aphorisms or sayings, of Panchasikha have been referred to in the Samkhya- 
Pavrachana-Sutram also. See Ibidem V. 32 and VI. 68, and Vijnana 
Biksu s Commentary on I. 127. 



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