ALEXANDER BARCI AY
VOLUME FI RSF
EI)INBURGH" \VILLIAM PATERSON
LONDON: HENRY SOTHERAN & CO.
I T is necessary to explain that in the present edition of
the Ship of Fools, with a view to both philological
and bibliographical interests, the text, e'en to the punctua-
tion, has been printed exactly as it stands in the earlier
impression (Pynson's), the authenticity of which Barclay
himself thus -ouches fbr in a deprecatory apology at the
end of his labours (II. 33 o) :--
« some wordes be in my boke amys
For though that I my selle dyd it correct
Yet with some fautis I knowe it is infect
Part by my owne ouersyght and neglygence
And part by the prynters nat perfyte in sdence
And other some escaped ar and past
For that the Prynters in theyr besynes
Do ail theyr workes hedelynge, and in hast "
Yet the differences of reading of the later edition (Ca-
wood's), are surprisingly few and mostly unimportant, though
great pains were evidently bestowed on the production
of the book, all the misprints being carefully corrected, and
the orthography duly adjusted .to the fashion of the time.
These differences have, in this edition, been placed in one
alphabetical arrangement with the glossary, by ,«,hich plan
ri Prefatoty IVoti.
it is believed reference to them v¢ill be made more easy, and
much repetition avoided.
The woodcuts, no less valuable for their artistic merit
than they are interesting as pictures of contemporary
manners, have been facsimiled for the present edition from
the originals as they appear in the Basle edition of the
Latin, "denuo seduloque reuisa," issued under Brandt's ov¢n
superintendence in 1497. This v¢ork has been done by
Mr J. T. Reid, to whom it is due to say that he has
executed it with the most painstaking and scrupulous
The portrait of Brandt, v¢hich forms the frontispiece to
this volume, is taken from Zarncke's edition of the Nar-
renschiff; that of Barclay presenting one of his books to
his patron, prefixed to the Notice of his life, appears v¢ith
a little more detail in the Mirror of Good Manners and the
Pynson editions of the Sallust; it is, hov¢ever, of no
authority, being used for a similar purpose in various other
For the copy of the extremely rare original edition from
which the text of the present bas been printed, I ara
indebted to the private collection and the well knov¢n
liberality of Mr David Laing of the Signet Library, to
whom I beg here to return my best thanks, for this as well
as many other valuable favours in connection with the
In prosecuting enquiries regarding the lire of an author
of v¢hom so little is known as of Barclay, one must be
indebted for aid, more or less, to the kindness of friends.
In this v¢ay 1 have to açknowledge my obligations to
Mr ASneas Mackay, Advocate, and Mr Ralph Thomas,
Prefatory Note. vii
("Olphar Hamst"), for searches ruade in the British
Museum and elsewhere.
For collations of Barclay's Works, other than the Ship
of Fools, ail of ,hich are of the utmost degree of rarity,
and consequent inaccessibility, I ara indebted to the kindness
of Henry Huth, Esq., 3 ° Princes' Gate, Kensington; the
Rev. W. D. Macray, of the Bodleian Library, Oxford;
W. B. Rye, Esq., of the British Museum; Henry Brad-
shaw, Esq., of the University Library, Cambridge; and
Professor Skeat, Cambridge.
For my brief notice of Brandt and his Work, it is also
proper to acknowledge my obligations to Zarncke's critical
edition of the Narrenschiff (Leipzig, t854 ) which is a per-
fect encyclopoedia of everything Brandtian.
T. H. JAMIESON.
EDtNnU.CH, December z 8 7 3"
1N]'OTICE OF BARCLAY AND HIS WRI'I'ING$
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL CATALOGUE OF BARCLAY'S
WORKS o o
TuE SHIP OF FOOLS, .
CHAPTER I. OF THr ORIOlNSL (GERMAN), AND
OF THE I.ATIN AND FRENCH VERSIONS
OF THE SHIP OF FOOLS
Vo]. I. ix
Vol. I. !
Vol. II. 339
F popularity be taken as the measure of success in
literary effort, Sebastian Brandt's "Ship of Fools"
must be considered one of the most successful books
recorded in the who!e history of literature. Published in
edition after edition (the first dated t494), at a time, but
shortly after the invention of printing, when books were
expensive, and their circulation limited ; translated into the
leading languages of Europe at a time when translations of
new works were only the result of the most signal merits,
its success xvas then quite unparalleled. It may be said, in
modern phrase, to bave been the rage of the reading world
at the end of the fifteenth and throughout the sixteenth
centuries. It was translated into Latin by one Professor
(Locher, 1497) and imitated in the saine language and under
the same title, by another (Badius Ascensius, 15o7); it
appeared in Dutch and Low German, and was txvice trans-
lated into English, and three times into French; imitations
competed with the original in Frencb_ and German, as well as
Latin, and greatest and most unprecedented distinction of
ail, it was preached, but, we should opine, only certain parts
of it, from the pulpit by the best preachers of the time as
a new gospel. The Germans proudly award it the epithet,
"epoch-making," and its long-continued popularity affords
good, if hot quite sufficient, ground fer the extravagant
eulogies they lavish upon it. Trithemius calls it "Divina
Satira," and doubts whether anything could have been
written more suited to the spirit of the age; Locher com-
pares Brandt with Dante, and Hutten styles him the new
law-giver of German poetry.
A more recent and impartial critic (Miiller, " Chips from
a German.Workshop," Vol. III.), thus suggestively sers forth
the varied grounds ofBrandt's wonderful popularity :--" His
satires, it is true, are not very powerful, nor pungent, nor
original. But lais style is free and easy. Brant is hot a pon-
derous poet. He writes in short chapters, and mixes his fools
in such a manner that we always meet with a variety of new
faces. It is true that all this would hardly be sufficient
to secure a decided success for a work like his at the
present day. But then we must remember the time in
which he wrote, . . There was room at that time for a work
iike the 'Ship of Fools.' It was the first printed book
that treated of contemporaneous events and living persons,
instead of old German battles and French knights. People
are always fond of reading the history of their own times.
If the good qualities of their age are brought out, they
think of themselves or their friends; if the dark features
of their contemporaries are exhibited, they think of their
neighbours and enemies. Now the 'Ship of Fools' is
just such a satire which ordinary people would read, and
read with pleasure. They might feel a slight twinge now
and thon, but they would put down the book at the end,
and thank God that they were hOt like other men. There
is a chapter on Misers--and who would not gladly give a
penny to a beggar ? There is a chapter on Gluttony--and
who was ever more than a little exhilarated after dinner ?
There is a chapter on Church-goers--and who ever xvent
to church for respectability's sake, or to show off a gaudy
dress, or a fine dog, or a new hawk ? There is a chapter
on Dancing--and who ever danced except for the sake of
exercise ? There is a chapter on Adultery--and who ever
did more than flirt with his neighbour's wife ? We some-
times ",vish that Brant's satire had been a little more
searching, and that, instead of his many allusions to classical
fools (for his book is full of scholarship), he had given us
a little more of the chronique scandaleuse of his own time.
But he ",vas too good a man to do this, and his contempo-
raries were no doubt grateful to him for his forbearance."
Brandt's satire is a satire for all time. Embodied in the
language of the fifteenth century, coloured ",vith the habits
and fashions of the times, executed after the manner of
working of the period, and motived by the eager questioning
spirit and the discontent with "abusions" and "folyes"
which resulted in the Reformation, this satire in its morals
or lessons is almost as applicable to the year of grace a873
as to the year of gracelessness t 497- It never can grow
old ; in the mirror in which the men of his time saw them-
selves reflected, the men of ail times can recognise them-
selves ; a crew of "able-bodied" is never wanting to man
this old, xveather-beaten, but ever seaworthy vessel. The
thoughtful, penetrating, conscious spirit of the Basle professor
passing by, for the most part, local, temporary or indifferent
points, seized upon the never-dying follies of buman nature
and impaled them on the printed page for the amusement,
the edification, and the warning of contemporaries and pos-
terity alike. No petty writer of laborious vers de societe to
raise a laugh for a week, month, or a year, and to be
buried in utter oblivion for ever after, was he but a divine
seer who saw the weakness and wickedness of the hearts
of men, and warned them to amend their ways and flee
from the wrath to come. Though but a retired student
and teacher of the canon law, a humble-minded man of
letters, and a diffident imperial Counsellor, yet is he to be
numbered among the greatest Evangelists and Reformers of
medioeval Europe vehose trumpet-toned tongue penetrated
into regions where the names of Luther or Erasmus were
but an empty sound, if even thzt. _And yet, though helping
much the cause of the Reformation by the freedom of his
social and clerical criticism, by his unsparing exposure of
every form of corruption and injustice, and, not least, by his
use of the vernacular for political and religious purposes, he
can scarcely be classed in the great army of the Protestant
Reformers. He was a reformer from within, a biting,
unsparing exposer of every priestly abuse, but a loyal son of
the Church, who rebuked the faults of his brethren, but
visited with the pains of Hell those of "fals herytikes,"
and wept over the "ruyne, inclynacion, and decay of the
holy fayth Catholyke, and dymynucion of the Empyre."
So while he was yet a reformer in the true sense of the
word, he was too much of the scholar to be anything but
a true conservative. To his scholarly habit of working,
as well as to the manner of the time which hardly trusted
in the value of its own ideas but loved to lean them
upon classical authority, is no doubt owing the classical
mould in which his satire is cast. The description of
every folly is strengthened by notice of its classical or
biblical prototypes, and in the margin of the Latin edition
of Locher Brandt himself supplied the citations of the
books and passages which formed the basis of his text,
which greatly added to the popularity of the work.
Brandt, indeed, with the modesty of genius, professes that
it is really no more than a collection and translation of
quotations from biblical and classical authors, " Gesamlet
durch Sebastianh Brant." But even admitting the work to
be a Mosaic, to adopt the reply of its latest German
editor to the assertion that it is but a compilation testify-
ing to the most painstaking industry and the consump-
tion of midnight oil «even so one learns that a Mosaic is
a work of art xhen executed with artistic skill." That
he caused the classical and biblical passages flitting before
his eyes to be cited in the margin proves chiefly only the
excellence of his memory. They are also before our eyes
and yet we are not always able to answer the question :
where, e.g., does this occur ? . . . xtVhere, e.g., occur the
following appropriate words of Goethe: "Who can think
anything foolish, who can think anything wise, that antiquity
has not already thought of."
Of the Greek authors, Plutarch only is used, and he evi-
dently by means of a Latin translation. But from the Latin
large draughts of inspiration are taken, direct from the foun-
tainhead. Ovid, Juvenal, Persius, Catullus, and Seneca, are
largely drawn from, while, strangely enough, Cicero, Boethius,
and Virgil are quoted but seldom, the latter, indeed, only
twice, though his commentators, especially Servetus are
frequently employed. The Bible, of course, is a never-failing
source of illustration, and, as was to be expected, the Old
Testament much more frequently than the lqew, most use
being ruade of the Proverbs of Solomon, while Ecclesiastes,
Ecclesiasticus, and the Sapientia follow at no great distance.
The quotations are made apparently direct from the Vulgate,
in only a few cases there beng a qualification of the idea by
the interpretation ofthe Corpus Juris Canonici. But through
tlfis medium only, as was to be expected of the professor of
canon law, is the light of the fathers of the Church allowed
to shine upon us, and according to Zarncke (Introduction
to lais edtion of the Narrenschiff, 854), use of it has cer-
tainly been ruade far oftener than the commentary shows,
the sources of information of which are of the most un-
satisfactory character. On such solid and tried foundations
did Brandt construct his great vork, and the judgment of
contemporaries and posterity alike has declared the super-
structure to be vorthy of its supports.
The following admirable notice from Ersch and Grfiber
(Encyclopidie) sums up so skilfully the history, nature, and
qualities of the book that v¢e quote at length :--"The
Ship of Fools was received with almost unexampled applause
by high and low, learned and unlearned, in Germany,
Switzerland, and France, and was made.the common pro-
perty of the greatest part of literary Europe, through Latin,
French, English, and Dutch translations. For upwards of
a century it was in Germany a book of the people in the
noblest and videst sense of the wod, alike appreciated by
an Erasmus and a Reuchlin, and by the mechanics of Strass-
burg, Basel, and -Augsburg; and it was assumed to be so
familiar to ail classes, that even during Brandt's lifetime, the
German preacher Gailer von Kaiserberg went so far as to
deliver public lectures from the pulpit on his friend's poem
as if it had been a scriptural text. _As to the poetical and
humorous character of Brandt's poem, its whole conception
does hot display any extraordinary power of imagination,
nor does it present in its details any very striking sallies of
wit and humour, even when compared with older German
works of a similar kind, such as that of Renner. The
fundamental idea of the poem consists in the shipping off
of several shiploads of fools of al1 kinds for their native
country, which, however, is visible at a distance only; and
one would bave expected the poet to bave given poetical
consistency to his work by fidly carrying out this idea of a
ship's crew, and sailing to the ' Land of Fools.' Itis, how-
ever, at intervals only that Brandt reminds us of the allegory;
the fools who are carefully divided into classes and intro-
duced to us in succession, instead of being ridiculed or
derided, are reproved in a liberal spirit, -«,ith noble earnest-
ness, true moral feeling, and practical common sense. It
was the straightforward, the bold and liberal spirit of the
poet which so powerfully addressed his contemporaries from
the Ship of the Fools ; and to us it is valuable as a product of
the piety and morality of the century which paved the way
for the Reformation. Brandt's fools are represented as con-
temptible and loathsome rather thanfoolisb, and what he calls
follies might be more correctly described as fins and vices.
"The ' Ship of Fools' is written in the dialect of Swabia,
and consists of vigorous, resonant, and rhyming iambic
quadrameters. It is divided into 3 sections, each or
which, with the exception of a short introduction and two
concluding pieces, treats independently of a certain class of
fools or vicious persons; and we are only occasionally
reminded of" the fundamental idea by an allusion to the ship.
No folly of the century is left uncensured. The poet
attacks with noble zeal the failings and extravagances of his
age, and applies his lash unsparingly even to the dreaded
Hydra of popery and monasticism, to combat ,hich the
Hercules of Wittenberg had hot yet kindled his firebrands.
But the poet's object was hot merely to reprove and to
animadvert; he instructs also, and shows the fools the way
to the land of wisdom ; and so far is he from assuming the
arrogant air of" the commonplace moralist, that he reckons
himself" among the number of" f"ools. The style of" the poem
is lively, bold, and simple, and often remarkably terse,
especially in his moral sayings, and renders it apparent that
the author was a classical scholar, without however losing
anything of" his G erman character."
Brandt's humour, which either his earnestness or his
manner banished f"rom the text, took refuge in the illustra.
tions and there disported itself with a wild zest and vigour.
Indeed to their popularity several critics bave ascribed
the success of" the book, but for this there is no sufficient
authority or probability. Clever as they are, it is more pro-
bable that they ran, in popularity, but an equal race with the
text. The precise amount of Brandt's workmanship in them
has not been ascertained, but it is agreed that "most of them,
if hot actually drawn, were at least suggested by him."
Zarncke remarks regarding their artistic worth, "hot all of
the cuts are of equal value. One can easily distinguish rive
diftërent workers, and more practised eyes would probably be
able to increase the number. In some one can see how the
outlines, heads, hands, and other principal parts are cut
v¢ith the fine stroke of the toaster, and the details and
shading left to the scholars. The woodcuts of the most
superior toaster, which can be recognized at once, and are
about a third of the whole, belong to the finest, if they are
hot. indeed, the finest, which were executed in the fifteenth
Iplrodll gion. XVll
century, a worthy school of Holbein. According to the
opinion of Herr Rudolph Weigel, they might possibly be
the work of Martin Sch5n of Colmar... The composition
in the better ones is genuinely Hogarth-like, and the
longer one Iooks at these little pictures, the more is one
astonished at the fulness of the humour, the fineness of the
characterisation and the almost dramatic talent of the group-
ing." Green, in his recent work on emblems, characterizes
them as marking an epoch in that kind of literature. And
Dibdin, the Macaulay of bibliography, loses his head in
admiration of the "entertaining volume," extolling the
figures without stint for "merit in conception and execu-
tion," 'bold and free pencilling," 'spirit and point," "deli-
cacy, truth, and force," spirit of drollery," &c., &c.;
summarising thus, ' few books are more pleasing to the
eye, and more gratifying to the fancy than the early editions
ofthe 8tultifera IX/avis.' It presents a combination of enter-
tainment to which the curious can noyer be indifferent."
Whether it were the racy cleverness of the pictures
or the unprecedented boldness of the text, the book stirred
Europe of the fifteenth century in a way and with a
rapidity it had noyer been stirred before. In the German
actual acquaintance with it could then be but limited, though
it ran through seventeen editions within a century; the
Latin version brought it to the knowledge of the educated
dass throughout Europe ; but, expressing, as it did mainly,
the feelings of the common people, to bave it in the learned
language was hot enough. Translations into various ver-
naculars were immediately called for, and the Latin edition
having lightened the translator's labours, they were speedily
supplied. England, however, was ail but last in the field
but when she did appear, it was in force, with a version
in each hand, the one in prose and the other in verse.
Fifteen years elapsed from the appearance of the first
German edition, bdore the English metrical version "trans-
lated out of Laten, French, and Doche... in the colege of
Saynt Mary Otery, by me, Aiexander Barclay," was issued
from the press of Pynson in 15o 9. A translation, how-
ever, it is not. Properly speaking, it is an adaptation, an
English ship, formed and fashioned after the Ship of
Foois of the Worid. "But concernynge the translacion of
this boke; I exhort ye reders to take no displesour for
yt, it is nat translated word by worde acordinge to ye verses
of my actour. For I haue but only drawen into our moder
tunge, in rude langage the sentences of the verses as nere
as the parcyte of my wyt wyl surfer me. some tyme addynge,
somtyme detractinge and takinge away suche thinges as
semeth me necessary and superflue. Wherfore I desyre of
you reders pardon of my presumptuous audacite, trustynge
that ye shall hoide me excused if ye consyder ye scarsnes
of my wyt and my vnexpert youthe. I haue in many
places ouerpassed dyuers poetical digressions and obscure-
ries of fables and haue concluded my worke in rude langage
as shai apere in my translacion."
"Wylling to re&es the errours and vyces of this oure
royailne of Egland.. I haue taken upon me... the
translacion of this present boke.., onely for the holsome
instruccion commodyte and doctryne of wysdome, and to
clense the vanyte and madness of folysshe people of whom
ouer great nombre is in the Royalme of Engionde."
_Actuated by these patriotic motives, Barclay has, while
preserving all the valuable characteristics of his original,
painted for posterity perhaps the most graphic and com-
prehensive picture now preserved of the folly, injustice, and
iniquity hich demoralized England, city and country alike,
at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and rendered it
ripe for any change political or rdigious.
- Knowledge of trouth, prudence, and iust symplicite
Hath vs clene left j For we set of them no store.
Out Fayth is defyled loue, goodnes, and Pyte :
Honest maners nowe ar reputed of: no more.
Lawyers ar lordes but Justice is rent and tore.
Or closed lyke a Monster within dores thre.
For without mede : or money no man can hyr se.
AI is disordered : Vertue bath no rewarde.
Alas» compassion ; and mercy bothe ar slayne.
Alas, the stony hartys of pepyl ar so harde
"Fhat nought can constrayne theyr folyes to refrayne."
His ships are full laden but carry not ail who should be on
«« We are full lade and yet torsoth I thynke
A thousand are behynde, whom we may not receyue
For if we do, our nauy clene shall synke
He oft ail lesys that coueytes all to haue
From London Rockes Almyghty God vs saue
For if we there anker, outher bote or barge
'l'here be so many that they vs wyll ouercharge."
The national tone and aim of the English « Shlp" are
maintained throughout xith the greatest emphasis, exhibit-
ing an independence of spirit which few ecclesiastics of the
rime would have dared to own. Barclay seems to have
been first an Englishman, then an ecclesiastic. Every-
where throughout his great work the voice of the people
is heard to rise and ring through the long exposure of abuse
and injustice, and had the authorship been unknown it would
most certainly have been ascribed to a Langlande of the
period. Everywhere he takes what we would call the
popular side, the side of the people as against those in
office. Everywhere he stands up boldly in behalf of the
oppressed, and spares hOt the oppressor, even if he be of
his own class. He applies the cudgel as vigorously to the
priest's pate as to the Lolardes back. But he disliked modern
innovation as much as ancient abuse, in this also faithfully
reflecting the mind of the people, and he is as emphatic in
his censure of the one as in his condemnation of the other.
Barclay's "Ship of Fools,"however, is not only important
as a picture of the English life and popular feeling of his
time, itis, both in style and vocabulary, a most valuable and
remarkable monument of the English language. XVritten
midway between Chaucer and Sperser, it is infinitely more
easy to read than either. Page after page, even in the antique
spelling of Pynson's edition, may be read by the ordinary
reader of to-day without reference to a dictionary, and when
reference is required it will be found in nine cases out of
ten that the archaism is Saxon, not Latin. This is all the
more remarkable, that it occurs in the case of a priest trans-
lating mainly from the Latin and French, and can only be
explained with reference to his standpoint as a social re-
former of the broadest type, and to his evident intention
that his book should be an appeal to all classes, but espe-
cially to the mass ofthe people, for amendment of their follies.
In evidence of this it may be noticed that in the didactic
passages, and especially in the L'envois, which are addition
of his own, wherever, in fact, he appears in his own
character of "preacher," his language is most simple, and
his vocabulary of the most Saxon description.
In his prologue "excusynge the rudenes of his trans-
lacion," he professes to bave purposely used the most
" comon speche" :--
« My speche is rude my termes comon and rural
And I for rude peple moche more conuenient
Than for estates, lerned men, or eloquent."
He afterwards humorously supplements this in " the
prologe," by :--
,, But if I halt in meter or erre in eloquence
Or be to large in langage I pray you blame hot me
For my mater is so bad it wyll none other be."
So much the better for ail who are interested in studying
the development of out language and literature. For thus
v¢e have a volume confessedly written iu the commonest
language of the common people, from v¢hich the philologist
may at once see the stage at v¢hich they had arrived in the
development of a simple English speech, and how far, in
this respect, the spoken language had advanced a-head of
the ,z¢ritten; and from v¢hich also he can judge to v¢hat
extent the popularity of a book depends, v¢hen the lan-
guage is in a state of transition, upon the unusual simplicity
of its style both in structure and vocabulary, and how far it
may, by reason of its popularity, be influential in modify-
ing and improving the language in both these respects.
In the long barren tract between Chaucer and Spenser, the
Ship of Fools stands ail but alone as a popular poem, and the
continuance of this popularity for a century and more is no
doubt to be attributed as much to the use of the language
of the "coming time" as to the popularity of the subject.
In more recent times however, Barclay has, probably in
part, from accidental circumstances, come to be relegated
to a position among the English classics, those authors
whom every one speaks of but few read. That modern
editions of at least hls principal performance have hOt
appeared, can only be accounted for by the great expense
attendant upon the reproduction of so uniquely illustrated
a work, an interesting proof of which, given in the evidence
before the Select Committee of the House of Commons on
the Copyright act in 818, is worth quoting. Amongst new
editions of standard but costly works, of which the tax then
imposed by the act upon publishers of giving eleven copies
of all their publications free to certain libraries prevented
the publication, is mentioned, Barclay's " Ship of Fools; "
regarding which Harding, the well known bookseller, is
reported to have said, « We have declined republishing the
'Ship of Fools,' a folio volume of great rarity and high price.
Out probable demand would hOt have been more than for
a hundred copies, at the price of 12 guineas each. The
delivery of eleven copies to the public libraries decided us
against entering into the speculation."
A wider and more eager interest is now being manifested
in our ëarly literature, and especially in our early popular
poetry, to the satisfaction of which, it is believed, a new edi-
tion of this book will be regarded as a most valuable contribu-
tion. Indeed, as a graphic and comprehensive picture of the
social condition of pre-Reformation England; as an important
influence in the formation of our modern English tongue ;
and as a rich and unique exhibition of early art, to all
of which subjects special attention is being at present di-
rected, this medioeval picture-poeln is of unrivalled interest.
THE TRAblSLATOR OF BRANDT'S SHIP OF FOOLS.
""rHETHER this distinguished poet ,,vas an English-
man or a Scotchman has long been a çuoestio
wexahz affording the literary antiquary a suitable field for the
display of his characteristic amenity. Bale, the oldest autho-
rity, simply says that some contend he was a Scot, others an
Englishman, (Script. Illust. 1Vlajoris Britt. Catalogus, 1559).
Pits (De lllust. Anglioe Script.,) asserts that though to some
he appears to bave been a Scot, he was really an Englishman,
and probably a native ofDcvonshire, (" nain ibi ad S. Mariam
de Otery, Presbyter primum fuit "). Wood again, (Athen.
Oxon.), by the reasoning which finds a likeness between
Macedon and Monmouth, because there is a river in each.
arrives at " Alexander de Barklay, seems to have been born
at or near a town so called in Somersetshire;" upon which
Ritson pertinently observes, "there is no such place in
Somersetshire, the onely Berkele knoxvn is in Glouces-
tershire." XVarton, coming to the question double-shotted,
observes that " he xvas most probably of Devonshire or
Gloucestershire," in the one case following Pits, and in
the other anticipating Ritson's observation.
On the other hand Baie, in an earlier work than the
XXVl Life and 14ritings
Catalogus, the Summarium Ill. Mai. Britt. Script., published
in 548, during Barclay's lire time, adorns him with the
epithets « Scotus, rhetor ac poeta insignis." Dempster
(Hist. ecclesiastica), styles him « Scotus, ut retulit ipse
Joannes Pits,'eus." Holinshed also styles him "Scot "!
Sibbald gives him a place in his (,MS.) Catalogues of Scot-
tish poets, as does also Wodrow in his Catalogues of Scots
writers. 1V[ackenzie (Lires of the Scots writers) begins,
" The Barklies, from whom this gentleman is descended,
are of a very ancient standing in Scotland." Ritson (Bib.
Poetica), after a caustic review of the controversy, observes
« both his naine of baptism and the orthography of his sur-
naine seem to prove that he was of Scottish extraction."
Bliss (Additions to \Vood) is of opinion that he «un-
doubtedly ,,vas not a native of England," and Dr Irving
(Hist. of Scot. Poetry) adheres to the opinion of Ritson.
Such contention, v, hatever may be the weight of the evi-
dence on either side, is at any rate a sufl:icient proof of the
eminence of the individual who is the subject of it; to be
his birthplace being considered an honour of so much value
to the country able to prove its claim to the distinction as
to occasion a literary warfare of several centuries' duration.
We cannot profess to bave brought such reinforcements
to either side as to obtain for it a complete and decisive
victory, but their number and character are such as xvill prob-
ably induce one of the combatants quietly to retire from the
field. In the first place, a more explicit and unimpeach-
able piece of evidence than any contained in the authors
mentioned above has been round, strangely enough, in a
medical treatise, published about twenty years after Barclay's
death, by a physician and botanist of great erninence in the
C" ll«xalcler ]3«rcl«F. xxvii
middle of the sixteenth century, who was a native of the
isle of Ely, at the 1V[onastery of which Barclay was for some
time a monk.
Itis entitled "A dialogue both pleasaunt and pietifull,
v¢herein is a godlie regiment against the Fever Pestilence,
,vith a consolation and comforte against death.--Newlie
corrected by William Bullein, the author thereof.--Im-
printed at London by Ihon Kingston. Julij, 1573." [Svo.,
B. L., leaves.] "There was an earlier impression of
this work in 564, but the edition of 1573 was ' corrected
by the author,' the last work on which he probably was
engaged, as he died in 576. Itis of no value at this time
of day as a medical treatise, though the author was very
eminent ; but we advert toit because Bullein, for the sake
of variety and amusement, introduces notices of Chaucer,
Gower, Lidgate, Skelton, and Barclay, "«'hich, coming from
a man who ,,vas contemporary xith two of them, may be
accepted as generally accurate representations... _Alexander
Barclay, Dr Bullein calls Bartlet, in the irregular spelling of
those times; and, asserting that he was 'born beyond the
cold river of Tweed,' we see no suflïcient reason for dis-
believing that he ws a native of Scotland. Barclay, after
writing his pastorals, &c., did hot die until 55 z, so that
Bullein was his contemporary, and most likely knew him
and the fact. He observes :--'Then Bartlet, with an
hoopyng russet long coate, with a pretie hoode in his necke,
and rive knottes upon his girdle, after Francis tricks. He
was borne beyonde the cold river of" Twede. He lodged
upon a swete bed of chamomill, under the sinamum tree;
about hym many shepherdes and shepe, with pleasaunte
pipes; greatly abhorring the life of Courtiers, Citizens,
xxviii Life and 147ritings
Usurers and Banckruptes &c. whose olde daies are miser-
able. And the estate of shepherdes and countrie people he
accoumpted moste happie and sure." (Collier's 'Biblio-
graphical Account of Early English Literatur%" Vol. 1.
"The certainty with which Bulleyn here speaks of Bar-
clay, as born beyond the Tweed, is not a little strengthened
hy the accuracy with which even in allegory he delineates
his peculiar characteristics. 'He lodged upon a bed of
sweet camomile.' \Vhat figure could have been more de-
scriptive of that agreeable bitterness, that pleasant irony,
which distinguishes the author of the 'Ship of Fools?'
' About him many shepherds and sheep with pleasant
pipes, greatly abhorring the lire of courtiers.' \Vhat
could have been a plainer paraphrase of the title of Bar-
clay's ' Eclogues,' or ' Miseries of Courtiers and Courtes,
and of all Princes in Generai.' As a minor feature the
rive knots upon his girdle after Francis's tricks' may also
be notice& Hitherto, the tct of Barclay having been a
member of the Franciscan order has been always repeated
as a marrer of some doubt; 'he was a monk of the order
of St Benedict, and afterwards as mme say a Franclscan.
Bulleyn knows and mentions with certainty xhat others
only speak of as the merest conjecture. In shorg every-
thing tetds to shew a degree of familiar acquaintance with
the man, his habits and his productions, which entitles the
testimony of Bulleynto the highest credit.' " (Lives of the
Scottish Poets Vol. I., pt. il., p. 77).
But there are other proofs pointing as decidedly to
the determination of this long-continued controversy in
favour of Scotland, as the mil from which this vagrant
of 4lexander Barclay. xxix
child of the muses sprung. No evidence seems to have been
hitherto sought from the most obvious source, his writings.
The writer of the memoir in the Biographia Brittanica,
(who certainly dealt a well-aimed, though by no means
decisive, blow, in observing, "It is pretty extraordinary that
Barclay himsel' in his several addresses to his patrons
should never take notice of his being a stranger, xx'hich
would have ruade their kindness to him the more remark-
able lit was very customary for the writers of that age
to make mention in their works of the countries to which
they belonged, especially if they wrote out of their own] ;
whereas the reader will quickly see, that in his address to
the young gentlemen of England in the ' Mirror of Good
ianners,' he treats them as his countrymen,") has remarked,
"It seems a little strange that in those days a Scot should
obtain so great reputation in England, especially if it be con-
sidered from whence our author's rose, riz., from his enrich-
ing and improving the English tongue. Had he xvritten
in Latin or on the sciences, the thing had been probable
enough, but in the light in xvhich it nov stands, I think it
very far from likely." From xvhich it is evident that the
biographer understood not the versatile nature of the $cot
and his ability, especially when caught young, in "doing in
Rome as the Romans do." Barclay's English education and
foreign travel, together extending over the most impression-
able years of his youth, could hot have failed to rub off any
obvious national peculiarities of speech acquired in early
boyhood, had the difference between the English and Scot--
tish speech then been wider than it was. But the language
of Barbour and Chaucer was really one and the saine. It
wi[[ then hot be wondered at that but few Scotch
xxx Life ad ll/'ritings
words are found in Barclay's writings. 8till, these few are
not without their importance in strengthening the argument
as to nationality. The following from "The Ship of Fools,"
indicate at once the dime to which they are native,
"gree," "kest," "ra',vky," "ryue," « yate," "bokest,"
"bydeth," "thekt," and "or," in its peculiar Scottish use.
That any Englishman, especially a South or \Vest of Eng-
land Englishman, should use words such as those, particu-
larly at a time of hostility and of little intercourse between
the nations, will surely be admitted to be a far more unlikely
thing than that a Scotchman born, though not bred, should
become, after the effects of an English education and resi-
dence had eflïciently done their work upon him, a great
improver and enticher of the English tongue.
But perhaps the strongest and most decisive argument
of ail in this much-vexed controversy is to be found in the
panegyric of James the Fourth contained in the "Ship of
Fools," an eulogy so highly pitched and extravagant that
no Eglishman of that time would ever have dreamed of it or
dared to pen it. Nothing could well be more conclusive.
Barclay precedes it by a long and high-flown tribute to
Henry, but when he cornes to "Jamys of Scotlonde," he,
so to speak, out-Herods Herod. Ordinary verse suffices
hot for the greatness of his subject, which he must needs
honour with an acrostic,--
,« I n prudence perdes is this moste comely kynge
And as for his strength and magnanymyte
C oncernynge his noble dedes in euery thynge
O ne founde or grounde lyke to hym can not be
I3 y byrth borne to boldnes an:l audacyte
V nder the bolde planer of blars the champyon
S urely to subdue his ennemyes echone."
of l/exander Jarc/a.y. xxxi
There, we are convinced, speaks not the prejudiced, Scot-
hating English critic, but the heart beating true toits father-
land and loyal toits native Sovereign.
That "he xvas born beyonde the cold river of Twede,"
about the year 476, as shall be shoxvn anon, is however ail
the length we can go. His training vas without doubt
mainly, if not entirely English. He must have crossed the
border very early in lire, probably for the purpose of pur-
suing his education atone of the Universities, or, even
earlier than the period of his University career, xith
parents or guardians ,o reside in the neighbourhood of
Croydon, to which he frequently refers. Croydon is men-
tioned in the following passages in Eclogue I. :
" While I in youth in Croidon towne did dwell."
" He hath no felowe betwene this and Croidon,
Save the proude plowman Gnatho of Chorlington."
" And as in Croidon I heard the Collier preache"
" Such maner riches the Collier tell thee can"
"As the riche Shepheard that woned in Mortlake."
It seems to have become a second home to him, for there,
we find, in I55Z , he died and was buried.
At which University he studied, whe, her Oxford or Cam-
bridge, is also a matter of doubt and controversy. ,Vood
claires him for Oxford and Oriel, apparently on no other
ground than that he dedicates the "8hip of Fools" to
Thomas Cornish, the Suffragan bishop of Tyne, in the
Diocese of Bath and Wells, who was provost of Oriel Col-
lege from 493 to 5o7. That the Bishop was the first
xxxii Lfe and ll/ritings
to give him an appointment in the Church is certainly a
circumstance of considerable weight in favour of the claire
of Oxford to be his alma mater, and of Cornish to be his
intellectuai father; and if the appointment proceeded from
the Provost's good opinion of the young Scotchman, then it
says much for the ability and talents displayed by him during
his College career. Oxford however appears to be nowhere
mentioned in his various writings, while Cambridge is
introduced thus in Eclogue I. :--
« And once in Cambridge I heard a scoller say.'"
From uhich it seems equally, if not more, probable that
he xvas a student at that university. «There is reason to
believe that both the universîties were frequented by
Scotish studcnts; many particular names are to be traced
in their annals ; nor is it altogether irrelevant to mention
that Chaucer's young clerks of Cambridge who played such
tricks to the miller of Trompington, are described as coming
from the north, and as speaking the Scotish language :--
' John highte that on, and Alein highte that other,
Of o toun were they born that highte Strother,
Fer in the North, I cannot tellen where.'
" It may be considered as highly probable that Barclay
completed his studies in one of those universities and that
the connections which he thus had an opportunity of form-
ing, induced him to fix his residence in the South; and
when we suppose him to have enjoyed the benefit of an
English education it need hOt appear peculiarly 'strange,
that in those days, a Scot should obtain so great reputation
in England.'" (Irving, Hist. of Scot. Poetry).
of /ilexander Barclay. xxxiii
In the "Ship" there is a chapter " Of unprof)-table
Stody" in which he makes allusion to his student lire in
such a way as to imply that it had not been a model of
regularity and propriety :
,, The great foly, the pryde, and the enormyte
Of our studentis, and theyr obstynate errour
Causeth me to wryte two sentences or thre
glore than I fynde wrytyn in nayne actoure
The tyme hath ben whan I was conductoure
Of naoche foly, whiche noxve my naynde doth greue
x, Vherfor of this shyp syns I ana gouernoure
I dare be bolde nayne owne vyce to repreue."
If these lines are meant to be accepted literally, which
such confessions seldom are, it may be that he was advised
to put a year or t'vo's foreign travel between his University
career, and his entrance into the Church. At any rate, for
whatever reason, on leaving the Uni,¢ersity, where, as is
indicated by the title of "Syr" prefixed to his naine in his
translation of Sallust, he had obtained the degree of
Bachelor of Arts, he travelled abroad, 'vhether at his own
charges, or in the company of a son of one of his patrons is
hot recorded, principally in Germany, Italy, and France,
xvhere he applied himself, with an unusual assiduity and
success, to the acquirement of the languages spoken in
those countries and to the study of their best authors. In
the chapter " Of unprofytable Stody," above mentioned,
which contains proof how well he at least had profited by
study, he cites certain continental seats of university ]earn-
ing at each of which, there is indeed no improbability in
supposing he may have remained for "some time, as x, as
the custom in those days:
xxxiv Lire and H/'ritings
« One rennyth to Almayne another vnto France
To Parys, Padway, Lumbardy or Spayne
Another to Bonony, Rome, or Orleanse
To Cayne, to Tolows, Athenys, or Colayne."
Another reference to his travels and mode of travelling
is found in the Eclogues. XVhether he ruade himself
acquainted with the English towns he enumerates before or
after his continental travels it is impossible to determine :
" As if diuers wayes laye vnto Islington,
To Stow on the Wold, Quaueneth or Trompington,
To Douer, Durham, to Bar,vike or Exeter,
To Grantham, Tomes, Bristow or good Manchester,
To Roan, Paris, to Lions or Floraunce.
(What ho man abide, what already in Fraunce,
Lo, a fayre iourney and shortly ended to,
"Vith all these townes what thing haue we to do ?
By Gad man knowe thou that I haue had to do
In all these townes and yet in many mo,
To see the worlde in youth me thought was best,
And after in age to geue my selle to test.
Thou might haue brought one and set by our village.
What man I might hot for lacke of cafiage.
To cary mine owne selle was ail that euer I might,
And sometime for ease my sachell ruade I light. »
of I/exander Bara«9,. xxxv
Returning to England, after some years of residence
abroad, with lais mind broadened and strengthened by
foreign travel, and by the study of the best authors, modern
as well as ancient, Barclay entered the church, the only career
then open to a man of lais training. With intellect, accom-
plishments, and energy possessed by few, his progress to dis-
tinction and power ought to have been easy and rapid, but
it turned out quite otherwise. The road to eminence lay
by the "backstairs," the atmosphere of which hë could not
endure. The ways of courtiers--falsehood, flanery, and
fawning--he detested, and worse, he said so, wherefore his
learning, wit and eloquence round but small reward. To
his freedom of speech, his unsparing exposure and denuncia-
tion of corruption and vice in the Court and the Church, as
well as among the people generally, must undoubtedly be
attributed the fai[ure to obtain that high promotion his
talents deserved, and would othervise ha¢e met x.ith. The
policy, not always a successful one in the end, of ignoring
an inconvenient display of talent, appears to ha¢e been fully
carried out in the instance of Barclay.
His first preferment appears to have been in the shape of
a chaplainship in the sanctuary for piety and learning founded
at Saint Mary Otery in the County of Devon, by Grandi-
son, Bishop of Exeter; and to have corne from Thomas
Cornish, Suffragan Bishop of Bath and Wells under the title
of the Bishop of Tyne, "meorum primitias laborum qui in
lucem eruperunt," to whom, doubtless out of gratitude for
his first appointment, he dedicated "The Ship of Fools."
Cornish, amongst the many other good things he enjoyed,
held, according to Dugdale, from 149 o to 5, the post
of warden of the College of S. Mary Otery, where Barclay
Life and lVriti,gs
no doubt had formed that regard and respect for him which
is so strongly expressed in the dedication.
very eulogistic notice of « My Mayster Kyrkham," in
the chapter "Of the extorcion of Knyghtis," (Ship of
Fools,) has misled biographers, who were ignorant of Cor-
nish's connection with S. Mary Otery, to imagine that
Barclay's use of " Capellanus humilimus" in his dedi-
cation xvas merely a polite expression, and that Kyrkham,
of whom he styles himself, ' His true seruytour lais chap-
layne and bedeman " was his actual ecclesiastical superior.
The follo,,ving is the x hole passage :--
,, Good otïycers ar good and commendable
And manly knyghtes that lyue in rightwysenes
But they that do nat ar worthy of a bable
Syns by theyr pryde pore people they oppres
My mayster Kyrkhan for his perfyte mekenes
And supportacion of men in pouertye
Out of my shyp shall worthely be ire
I flater nat I am his true seruytour
His chaplayne and his bede man whyle my lyfe shall endure
Requyrynge God to exalt hym to honour
And of his Prynces fauour to be sure
For as I haue sayd I knowe no creature
More manly rightwyse wyse discrete and sad
But thoughe he be good, yet other ar als bad."
That this Kyrkham was a knight and hot an ecclesiastic
is so plainly apparent as to need no argument.
investigation into Devonshire history affords the interesting
information that among the ancient familles of that county
there was one of this naine, of great antiquity and repute,
now no longer existent, of which the most eminent member
of llexander 13arclay. xxxvii
xvas a certain Sir John Kirkham, whose popularity is evinced
by his having been twice created High Sheriff of the
County, in the years 15o 7 and 15z 3. (Prince, V¢orthies
of Devon ; Izacke, Antiquities of Exeter.)
That this was the Kirkham aboie alluded to» there can
be no reasonable doubt, and in view of the expression "My
mayster Kyrkham," it may be surmised that Barclay had
the honour of being appointed by this worthy gentleman to
the office of Sheriff's or private Chaplain or to some similar
position of confidence, by which he gained the poet's respect
and gratitude. The whole allusion, however, might, with-
out straining be regarded as a merely complimentary one.
The tone of the passage affords at any rate a very pleasing
glimpse of the mutual regard entertained by the poet and
his Devonshire neighbours.
After the eulogy of Kyrkham ending with "Yet other
ar als bad" the poet goes on immediately to give the picture
of a character of the opposite description, making the only
severe personal reference in his whole writings, for with all
his unsparing exposure of wrong-doing, he carefully, wisely,
honourably avoided personality. A certain blansell of
Otery is gibbeted as a terror to evil doers in a way which
would form a suflïcient ground for an action for libel in
these degenerate days.--Ship, II. 82.
,, Mansell of Otery for powlynge of the pote
Were nat his great wombe, here sholde haue an ore
But for his body is so great and corporate
And so many burdens his brode backe doth charge
If his great burthen cause hym to corne to late
Yet shall the knaue be Captayne of a barge
Where as ar bawdes and so sayle out at large
xxxviii Lire aild llVritiilgs
About our shyp to spye about for prayes
For therupon hath he lyued ail his dayes."
It ought however to be mentioned that no such name as
Mansell appears in the Devonshire histories, and it may
therefore be fictitious.
The ignorance and reckless living of the clergy, one of
the chier objects of his animadversion, receive also local
,, For if one can flater, and beare a Hauke on his fist,
He shalbe mde parson of Honington or Clist."
A good humoured reference to the Secondaries of the
College is the only other streak of local colouring we have
detected in the Ship, except the passage in praise of his
friend and colleague Bishop, quoted at p. liii.
"Sorte, fooles, sorte, a little slacke your pace,
"['iii I haue space you to order by degree,
I haue eyght neyghbours, that first shall haue a place
Within this my ship, for they most worthy be,
They may their learning receyue costles and free,
Their walles abutting and ioyning to the scholes i
Nothing they can, yet nought will they learne nor see,
Therfore shall they guide this our ship of fooles."
In the comfort, quiet, and seclusion of the pleasant Devon-
shire retreat, the "Ship" was translated in the year j 5o8,
when he would be about thirty-two, "by Alexander
Barclay Preste; and at that tyme chaplen in the sayde
College," whence it may be inferred that he left Devon,
either in that year or the year following, when the " Ship"
was published, probably proceeding to London for the pur-
of llexal«ler Barchy. xxxix
pose of seeing it through thepress. Whether he returned
to Devonshire we do not know; probably not, for his patron
and friend Cornish resigned the wardenship of St Mary
Otery in tsar, and in two years after died, so that
Barclay's ries and hopes in the \Vest were at an end. At
any rate we next hear of him in monastic orders, a monk
of the order of S. Benedict, in the famous monastery of Ely,
where, as is evident from internal proof, the Eclogues
were vitten and where likewise, as appears from the title,
was translated « The mirrour ol good maners," at the
desire of Syr Giles Alington, Knight.
It is about this period of his lire, probably the period of
the full bloom of his popularity, that the quiet lire of the
poet and pfiest was interrupted by the recognition of his
eminence in the highest quarters, and by a request for his
aid in maintaining the honour of the country on an occasion
to which the eyes of all Europe were then directed. Ii a
ietter of Sir Nicholas Vaux, busied with the preparations for
the meeting of Henry VIII., and Francis I., called the Field
of the Cloth of Gold, to Wolsey; of date oth April Szo,
he begs the cardinal to "send to them . Maistre
13arkleye, the Black lIonke and Poete, to devise histoires
and convenient raisons to florisshe the buildings and banquet
bouse withal" (Rolls Calendars of Letters and Papers, Henry
VIII., i. pt. .). No doubt it was also thought that this
would be an excellent opportunity for the eulogist of the
Defender of the Faith to again take up the lyre to sing the
glories of his royal toaster, but no effort of his muse on the
subject of this great chivalric pageant has descended to us if
any were ever penned.
Probably after this employment he did not return to
xl Life and I/I/'ritings
Ely; xvith his position or surroundings there he does hOt
seem to have been altogether satisfied (" there many a thing
is wrong," see p. lxix.) ; and afterwards, though in the
matter of date we are somewhat puzzled by the allusion
of Bulleyn, an Ely man, to his Franciscan habit, he
assumed the habit of the Franciscans at Canterbury,
(' Baie IS. Sloan, f. 68,') to which change we may
owe, if it be really Barclay's, "The life of St Thomas of
Autumn had now corne to the poet, but fruit had failed
hitn. The advance of age and his failure to obtain a
suitable position in the Church began gradually to weigh
upon his spirits. The bright hopes with which he had
started in the flush of youth, the position he was to obtain,
the influence he was to wield, and the work he was
to do personally, and by his writings, in the field of moral
and social reformation were ail in sad contrast xith the
actualities around. He had never risen from the ranks,
the army was in a state of disorganisation, almost of
mutiny, and the enemy was more bold, unscrupulous,
and numerous than ever. It is scarcely to be vondered
at that, though hOt past fifty, he felt prematurely aged,
that his youthful enthusiasm which had carried him
on bravely in many an attempt to instruct and benefit his
fellows at length forsook him and left him a prey to that
weakness of body, and that hopelessness of spirit to which
he so pathetically alludes in the Prologue to the Mirror of
good Manners. Ail his best work, all the work which has
survived to out day, was executed before this date. But the
pen was too familiar to his hand to be allowed to drop.
His biographers tell us "that when years came on he spent
of Alexander Barclay. xii
his time .mostly in pious matters, and in reading and writing
histories of the Saints." A goodly picture of a well-spent
old age. The harness of youth he had no longer the
spirit and strength to don, the garments of age he
gathered resignedly and gracefuily about him.
On the violent dissolution of the Monasteries in 539,
when their inmates, the good and bad, the men of wisdom
and the "foois," were alike cast adrift upon a rock-bound
and stormy coast, the value of the patronage which his
iiterary and personai popularity had brought him, was put
to the test, and in the end successfuily, though after consider-
able, but perhaps hot to be wondered at, delay. His great
patrons, the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Kent, Bishop
Cornish, and probably also Sir Giles Alington, were
ail dead, and he had to rely on newer and necessarily
weaker ries. But after waiting, till probably somewhat
dispirited, "fortune smiled at last. Two handsome livings
were presented to him in the saine year, both of which he
apparentltr held at the saine rime, the vicarage of Much
Badew in Essex, by the presentation of Mr John Pascal, to
which he was instituted on February 7th, 546, holding it
(according to the Lansdowne MS. (980 f. lo), in the
British Museum)till his death; and the vicarage of S.
Mathew at Wokey, in Somerset, on Match 3oth of the
came year. Wood dignifies him with the degree of doctor
of divinity at the rime of his presentation to these
That he seems to have accepted quietly the gradual pro-
gress of the reformed religion during the reign of Edward
VI., bas been a cause of wonder to some. It would cer-
tainly have been astonishing had one who was so unsparing
Lire and l/Fritings
in his exposure of the flagrant abuses of the Romish Church
donc otherwise. Though personally disindined [o radical
changes his writings amply show his deep dissatisfaction with
things as they were. This renders the more improbable
the honours assigned him by Wadding (Scriptores Ordinis
Biinorum, 18o6, p. 5), who promotes him to be Suffragan
Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Bale, who, in a slanderous
anecdote, the locale of which is also VCells, speaks of him
as a chaplain of Q,.geen Mary's, though Mary did hot ascend
the throne till the year after his death. _As these state-
ments are noxvhere confirmed, it is hOt improbable that
their authors have fallen into error by confounding the poet
Barclay, with a Gilbert Berkeley, who became Bishop of Bath
and Wells in 1559. One more undoubted, but tardy, piece
of preferment was awarded him which may be regarded as
an honour of some significance. On the 3oth April 1552 ,
the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, London, presented
him to the Rectory of Ail Hallows, Lombard Street, but the
weil-deserved promotion came too late to be enjoyed. A
few weeks after, and before the l oth June, at which date
his will was proved, he died, as his biographers say, " at a
very advanced age;" at the good old age of seventy-si
as shall be shown presently, at Croydon where he had
passed his youth, and there in the Church he was buried.
"June loth 1552 , Alexander Barkley sepuit," (Extract
from the Parish Register, in Lyson's Environs of London).
A copy ofhis will, an extremely interesting and instructive
document, has been obtained from Doctors' Commons, and
will be round appended. It bears in ail its details those
traits of character which, from ail that we otherwise know,
we are led to associate xvith him. In it we see the earnest
of lexander Barday. xliii
conscientious minister whose first thought is of the poor, the
loyal churchman liberal in his support of the bouse of God,
the kind relative in his numerous and considerate bequests
to his kith and kin, the amiable, much loved man in the
gifts of remembrance to his many friends, and the pious
Christian in his wishes for the prayers of his survivors " to
Almightie God for remission of my synnes, and mercy upon
Barclay's career and character, both as a churchman and
a man of letters, deserve attention and respect from every
student of our early history and literature. In the former
capacity he showed himself diligent, honest, and anxious, at
a rime when these qualities seemed to bave been so entirely
lost to the church as to form only a subject for clerical ridi-
cule. In the latter, the saine qualities are also prominent,
diligence, honesty, bold outspokenness, an ardent desire for
the pure, the true, and the natural, and an undisguised
enmity to everything false, self-seeking, and vile. Every-
thing he did was done in a pure way, and to a worthy end.
Bale stands alone in casting aspersions upon his moral
character, asserting, as Ritson puts it, " in his bigoted
and foul-mouthed way," that " he continued a hater of
truth, and under the disguise of celibacy a filthy adulterer
to the last;" and in his Declaration of Bonner's articles
(56, fol. 8 I), he condescends to an instance to the effect
that "Doctoure Barkleye hadde greate harme ones of suche
a visitacion, at Wellys, before he was Oene Maryes Chap-
layne. For the woman whome he so religiouslye visited did
light him of all that he had, sauinge his workinge tolas. For
the whiche acte he had ber in prison, and yet coulde nothing
recouer againe." Whether this story be true of any one is
xliv Life and l/Uritings
perhaps doubtful, and, if true of a Barclay, we are convinced
that he is not out author. It may have arisen as we have seen
from a mistake as to indentity. But apart from the question
of identity, we have nothing in support of the slander but
Bale's "foul-mouthed" assertion, while against it we have the
whole tenor and aim of Barclay's published writings.
Everywhere he inculcates the highest and purest morality,
and where even for that purpose he might be led into
descriptions of vice, his disgust carries hîm past what most
others ,ould have felt themselves justified in dealing with.
For example, in the chapter of « Disgysyd folys " he
expressly passes over as lightly as possible what might to
others have proved a tempting subject :
"They disceyue myndes chaste and innocent
With dyuers wayes whiche I wyll nat expres
Lyst that whyle I labour this cursyd gyse to stynt
I myght to them mynyster example of lewdnes
And therfore in this part I shall say les
Than doth my actour."
Elsewhere he declares :
" for rr, y boke certaynly
I haue compyled : for vertue and goodnes ,
And to reuyle fouie synne and vyciousnes"
But citatiol, is needless; there is not a page of his
x, ritings which will not supply similar evidence, and out
great early moralist may, we think, be dismissed from Court
without a stain on his character.
lndeed to his high pitched morality, he doubtless owed
in some degree the great and extended popularity of his
poetical writings in former times and their neglect in later.
qf l/exaner Barda.v. xlv
Sermons and « good" books were hOt yet in the sixteenth
century an extensive branch ofliterature, and "good "people
could without remorse of conscience vary their limited theo-
Iogical reading by frowning over the improprieties and sins
of their neighbours as depicted in the "Ship," and joining,
with a serious headshaking heartiness, in the admonitions of
the translator to amendment, or they might feel " strength-
ened " by a glance into the "Mirrour of good Maners," or
edified by hearing of the "Miseryes of Courtiers and
Courtes of ail princes in generall," as told in the "Eclogues."
Certain it is that these writings owed little of their
acceptance to touches of humour or satire, to the gifts of
a poetical imagination, or the g'race of a polished diction.
The indignation of the honest man and the earnestness of
the moralist waited not for gifts and graces. Everything
went down, hard, rough, even uncouth as it stood, of course
gaining in truth and in graphic power what it wants in
elegance. Still, with no refinement, polish or elaboration,
there are many picturesque passages scattered throughout
thcse works which no amount of polishing could have im-
proved. How could a man in a rage be better touched off
than thus (" Ship" I. Sz, 5)-
« This man malycious whiche troubled is with wrath
Nought els soundeth but the hoorse letter R."
The passion of love is so graphically described that it is
difficult to imagine out priestly moralist a total stranger to
its power, (I. 8).
« For he that loueth is voyde of ail reason
Wandrynge in the worlde without lawe or mes,ire
In thought and fere sore vexed eche season
xlvi Z.//ç and ritings
And greuous dolours in loue he must endure
No creature hym selle, may well assure
From loues soft dartis : I say none on the grounde
But mad and folysshe bydes he whiche hath the wonnde
Aye rennynge as franatyke no reson in his mynde
He hath no constaunce nor ease within his herre
His iyen ar blynde, his wyll alwaye inclyned
To lou)s preceptes yet can nat he departe
The Net is stronge, the foie caught can nat starte
The darte is sharpe, who euer is in the chayne
Can nat his sorowe in vysage hyde nor fayne"
For expressive, happy simile, the two following examples
are capital :--
" Yet sometimes riches is geuen by some chance
To such as of good haue greatest aboundaunce.
Likewise as streames unto the sea do glide.
But on bare hills no water will abide.
So smallest persons haue small rewarde alway
But men of worship set in authoritie
Must haue rewardes great after their degree."qEcI.oGuE I.
" And so such thinges which princes to thee geue
To thee be as sure as water in a siue
So princes are wont with riches some to fede
As we do our swine when we of larde haue nede
X, Ve fede our hogges them after to deuour
When they be fatted by costes and labour."--EcLoGtsE I.
The everlasting conceit of musical humanity is very
truthfully lait off.
,' This is of singers the very propertie
Alway they coueyt desired for to be
f llexander Barclay. xh'ii
And when their frendes would heare of their cunning
Then are they neuer disposed for to sing,
But if they begin desired of no man
Then shewe they ail and more then they can
And neuer leaue they till men of them be wery,
So in their conceyt their cunning they set by."--Ec_oçtE II.
Pithy sayings are numerous. Comparing citizens wih
countrymen, the countryman says :--
" Fortune to them is like a mother dere
As a stepmother she doth to us appeare."
Of money :
« Coyne more than cunning exalteth every man."
Of clothing :
« It is not clothing can make a man be good
Better is in ragges pure liuing innocent
Than a soule defiled in sumptuous garment."
It is as the graphic delineator of the lire and con-
dition of the country in his period that the chief
interest of Barclay's writings, and especially of the "Ship of
Fools," now lies. Nowhere so accessibly, so fully, and so
truthfully will be round the state of Henry the Eighth's
England set forth. Every line bears the character of truth-
fulness, written as it evidently is, in ail the soberness of
sadness, by one who had no occasion to exaggerate, whose
only object and desire was, by massing together and describ-
ing faithfully the follies and abuses which were evident o
ail, to shame every class into some degree of moral refor-
mation, and, in particular, to effect some amelioration of
circumstances to the suffering poor.
And a sad picture it is ,,vhich we thus obtain of merrie
England in the good old times of bluff King Hal, wanting
altogether in the couleur de rose with which it is tinted by its
xlviii Life and l¢/'ritings
latest historian Mr Froude, who is ably taken to task Oll this
subject by a recent writer in the Westminster Review, whose
conclusions, formed upon other evidence than Barclay's, ex-
press so fairly the impression left by a perusal of the " Ship
of Fools," and the Eclogues, that we quote them here.
" Mr Froude remarks : ' Looking therefore, at the state of
England as a whole, I cannot doubt that under Henry the
body of the people were prosperous, well-fed, loyal, and
contented. In ail points of material comfort, they were as
well off as ever they had been before ; better off than they
have ever been in later rimes.' In this estimate we cannot
agree. Rather we should say that during, and for long
after, this reign, the people were in the most deplorable
condition of poverty and misery of every kind. Thzt they
were ill-fed, that loyalty was at its lowest ebb, that discon-
tent was rife throughout the land. In ail points of
material comfort,' we think they were worse off than they
had ever been before, and infinitely worse off than they
have ever been since the close of the sixteenth century,--a
century in which the cup of England's woes was surely
fuller than it has ever been since, or will, we trust, ever be
again. It was the century in which this country and its
people passed through a baptism of blood as well as 'a
baptism of tire,' and out of which they came holier and better.
The epitaph which should be inscribed over the century is
contained in a sentence written by the famous _Acham in
x547 :--' Nain vita, quoe nunc vivitur a plurimis, non vita
sed miseria est.' " So, Bradford (Sermon on Repentance,
533) sums up contemporary opinion in a single weighty
sentence : "Ail men may see if they will that the whoredom
pride, unmercifulness, and tyrann), of England far surpasses
of .gl]exander larc]ay, xlix
any age that ever was before." Every page of Barclay
corroborates these accounts of tyranny, injustice, immorality,
wretchedness, poverty, and general discontent.
Not only in fact and feeling are Barclay's Ship of Fools
and Elogues thoroughly expressive of the unhappy, dis-
contented, poverty-stricken, priest-ridden, and court-ridden
condition and life, the bitter sorrows and the humble wishes
of the people, their very texture as Barclay himself tells us,
consists of the commonest language of the day, and in it are
interwoven many of the current popular proverbs and expres-
fions. _Almost ail ofthese are still "household words" though
few ever imagine the garb of their "daily wisdom "to be of
such venerable antiquity. Every page of the "Elogues"
abounds with them ; in the " Ship" they are less common,
but still by no means infrequent. We have for instance :--
" Better is a frende in courte than a peny in purse "-(I. 70.)
« Whan the stede is stolyn to shyt the stable dote "-(I. 76.)
"It goeth through as water through a syue."--(I. 24_. )
« And he that alway thretenyth for to fyght
Oft at the profe is skantly worth a hen
For greattest crakers af nat ay boldest men."--(I. 198.)
« I fynde route thynges whiche by no meanes can
Be kept close» in secrete» or longe in preuetee
The firste is the counsell of a wytles man
The seconde is a cyte whiche byldyd is a hye
Upon a montayne the thyrde we often se
That to hyde his dedes a louer bath no skyll
The fourth is strawe or fethers on a wyndy hyll."-(I, t99. )
" crowe to pull."--(II. 8.)
« For it is a prouerbe, and an olde sayd sawe
That in euery place lyke to lyke wyll drawe."---(II. 5-)
« Better haue one birde sure within tby wall
Or fast in a cage than twenty score without'--(II. 74-)
1 Lire and lffrritigs
" Gapynge as it were dogges for a bone."--(II. 93-)
" Pryde sholde haue a fall"m(II. 6 I).
" For wyse men sayth . . .
One myshap fortuneth neuer alone."
" Clawe where it itchyth."--(I1. 256. ) l-The use of this, it
occurs again in the Eclogues, might be regarded by some of our
Southern friends, as itself a sufficient proof of the author's Northern
The following are selected from the Eclogues as the most
" Each man for himself, and the rende for us ail."
"They robbe Saint Peter therwith to clothe Saint Powle"
" For might of water will not our leasure bide."
" Once out of sight and shortly out of minde."
" For children brent st'dl after drede the tire."
"Together they cleave more fast than do burres."
" Tho' thy teeth water."
" I aske of the foxe no farther than the skin."
" To touche soft pitche and not his fingers file."
" From post unto piller tost shall thou be."
" Over head and eares."
« Go to the ant."
" A man may contende, God geueth victory."
" Of two evils chose the least."
These are but the more striking specimens. An examina-
tion of the " Ship," and especially of the "Eclogues," for
the purpose of extracting their whole proverbial lofe, would
be well worth the while, if it be not the duty, of the next
collector in this branch of popular literature. These writings
introduce many of out common sayings for the first rime to
English literature, no writer prior to Barclay having thought
it dignified or worth while to profit by the popular wisdom
to any perceptible extent. The first collection of proverbs,
of llexander Barclay. li
Heywood's, did not appear until 1546 , So that in Barclay
we possess the earliest known English form of such pro-
verbs as he introduces. It need scarcely be said that that
form is, in the majority of instances, more full of meaning
and point than its modern representatives.
Barclay's adoption of the language of the people naturally
elevated him in popular estimation to a POsition far above
that of his contemporaries in the matter of style, so much so
that he has been traditionally recorded as one of the greatest
improvers of the language, that is, one of those who helped
greatly to bring the written language to be more nearly
in accordance with the spoken. Both a scholar and a
man of the world, his phraseology bears token of the greater
cultivation and -,vider knowledge he possessed over his
contemporaries. He certainly aimed at clearness of ex-
pression, and simplicity of vocabulary, and in these respects
was so far in advance of his rime that his works can even
now be read with ease, without the help of dictionaryor
glossary. In spite of his church training and his residence
abroad, his works are surprisingly free from Latin or French
forms of speech ; on the contrary, they are, in the main,
characterised by a strong Saxon directness of expression
which must have tended greatly to the continuance of their
popularity, and have exercised a strong and advantageous
influence both in regulating the use of the common spoken
language, and in leading the way which it was necessary for
the literary language to follow. Philologists and dictionary
makers appear, however, to have hitherto overlooked Bar-
clay's works, doubtless owing to their rarity, but their in-
trinsic value as well as their position in relation to the history
of the language demand specific recognition at their hands.
Iii Lire and l/Iritings
Barclay evidently delighted in his pen. From the time
of his return from the Continent, it was seldom out of his
hand. Idleness was distasteful to him. He petitions his
critics if they be " wyse men and cunnynge," that :--
« They shall my youth pardone, and vnchraftynes
Whiche onely translate, to eschewe ydelnes."
Assuredly a much more laudable way of employing leisure
then than now, unless the translator prudently stop short of
print. The modesty and singleness of aire of the man are
strikingly illustrated by his thus devoting his time and talents,
not to original work as he was well able to have done had he
been desirous only of glorifying his own name, but to the
translation and adaptation or, better, "Englishing" of such
foreign authors as he deemed would exercise a wholesome
and profitable influence upon his countrymen. Such wgrk,
however, moulded in his skilful hands, became ail but original,
little being left of his author but the idea. Neither the
Ship of Fools, nor the Eclogues retain perceptible traces of a
foreign source, and were it not that they honestly bear their
authorship on their fore-front, they might be regarded as
thoroughly, even characteristically, English productions.
The first known work from Barclay's pen appeared from
the press of De Worde, so early as 15o6 , probably
immediately on his return from abroad, and was no doubt
the fruit of continental leisure. It is a translation, in seven
line stanzas, of the popular French poet Pierre Gringore's
Le Chateau de labour (1499)--the most ancient work of
Gringore with date, and perhaps his best--under the title
of " The Castell of laboure wherein is richesse, vertu, and
honour;" in which in a fanciful allegory of some length,
of l]exander 1]arclay. liii
a somewhat wearisome Lady Reason overcomes despair,
poverty and other such evils attendant upon the fortunes
of a poor man lately married, the moral being to show :--
"That idleness, mother of all adversity,
Her subjects bringeth to extreme poverty."
The general appreciation of this first essay is evidenced
by the issue of a second edition from the press of Pynson
a few years af-ter the appearance of the first.
Encouraged by the favourable reception accorded to the
first effort of his muse, Barclay, on his retirement to the
ease and leisure of the College of St Mary Otery, set
to v¢ork on the "Ship of Fools," acquaintance with which
Europe-famous satire he must have ruade when abroad.
This, his magnum opus, has been described at some length
in the Introduction, but two interesting personal notices
relative to the composition of the work may here be added.
In the execution of the great task, he expresses himself,
(II. 278), as under the greatest obligations to his colleague,
friend, and literary adviser, Bishop :--
,, Whiche was the first ouersear of this warke
And vnto his frende gaue his aduysement
It nat to surfer to slepe styll in the darke
But to be publysshyd abrode : and put to prent
To thy monycion my bysshop I assent
Besechynge god that I that day may se
That thy honour may prospere and augment
So that thy naine and offyce may agre
In this short balade I can nat comprehende
Ail my full purpose that I wolde to the wryte
But fayne I wolde that thou sholde sone assende
To heuenly worshyp and celestyall delyte
liv Life and ]/Iritings
Than shoulde I after my pore wyt and respyt»
Display thy name» and great kyndnes to me
But at this tyme no farther I indyte
But pray that thy name and worshyp may agre."
Pynson, in his capacity of judicious publisher, fearing lest
the book should exceed suitable dimensions, also receives
due notice at p. 1o8 of Vol. I., where he speaks of
', the charge Pynson hathe on me layde
With many folys our Nauy not to charge."
The concluding stanza, or colophon, is also devoted to
immortalising the great bibliopole in terres, it must be
admitted, not dissimilar to those of a modern draper's poet
Our Shyp here leuyth the sees brode
By helpe of God almyght and quyetly
At Anker we lye within the rode
But who that lysteth of them to bye
In Flete strete shall them fynde truly
At the George : in Richarde Pynsonnes place
Prynter vnto the Kynges noble grace.
Contemporary allusions to the Ship of Fools there could
not fail to be, but the only one ,,ve have met with occurs
in Bulleyn's Dialogue quoted above, p. xxvii. It runs as
follovs :--Uxor.--What ship is that with so many owers, and
straunge racle; it is a greate vessell. Ciuis.-This is the
ship of fooles, vherin saileth bothe spirituail and temporall,
of euery callyng some : there are kynges, queenes, popes,
archbishoppes, prelates, lordes, ladies, knightes, gentlemen,
phisicions, iawiers, marchauntes, housbandcmen, beggers,
of llexander Barclay. lv
theeues, hores, knaues, &c. This ship wanteth a good pilot :
the storme, the rocke, and the wrecke at bande, ail will corne
to taught in this hulke for want of good gouernement.
The Eclogues, as appears from their Prologue, had ori-
ginally been the work of out author's youth, "the essays of
a prentice in the art of poesie," but they were wisely laid
past tobe adorned by the wisdom of a wider experience,
and were, strangely enough, lost for years until, at the age
of thirty-eight, the author again lighted, unexpectedly,
upon his lost treasures, and straightway finished them off
for the public eye.
The following autobiographical passage reminds one
forcibly of Scott's throwing aside Waverley, stumbling
across it after the lapse of years, and thereupon deciding
at once to finish and publish it. After enumerating the
most famous eclogue writers, he proceeds :--
', Nowe to my purpose, their workes worthy fame
Did in my yonge age my heart greatly inflame,
Dull slouth eschewing my selfe to exercise,
In such small matters, or I durst enterprise,
To hyer matter, like as these children do,
Which first vse to creepe, and afterwarde to go.
So where I in youth a certayne worke began,
And not concluded, as oft doth many a man :
Yet thought I after to make the saine perfite,
But long I missed that which I first did write.
But here a wonder, I tortie yere saue twayne,
Proceeded in age, founde my first youth agayne.
To finde youth in age is a probleme diffuse,
But nowe heare the truth, and then no longer muse.
As I late turned olde bookes to and fro,
One litle treatise I founde among the mo
Lire and l/lriting-s
Because that in youth I did compile the saine,
Egloges of youth I did call it by naine.
And seing some men haue in the same delite,
At their great instance I made the same perfite,
Adding and bating where I perceyued neede,
Ail them desiring which shall this treatise rede,
Not to be grieued with any playne sentence»
Rudely conuayed for lacke of eloquence."
The most important revelation in the whole of this in-
teresting passage, that relating to the author's age, seems to
have been studiously overlooked by ail his biographers. If
we can fix with probability the date at which these Eclogues
were published, then this, one of the most regretted of the
lacunoe in his biography, wiil be supplied. We shall feel
henceforth treading on firmer ground in dealing with
the scanty materials of his life.
From the length and favour with v¢hich the praises of
the Ely Cathedral and of Aicock its pious and munificent
bishop, then but recently dead, are sung in these poems (see
p. lxviii.), it is evident that the poet must have donned the
black hood in the monastery of Ey for at least a few years.
Warton fixes the date at 5 x4, because of the praises of
the "noble Henry which now departed late," and the after
panegyric of his successor Henry VIII. (Eclogue I.), whose
virtues are also duly recorded in the Ship of Fools (I. 39
and II. 2o5-8), but not otherwise of course than in a com-
plimentary manner. Our later lights make this picture of
the noble pair appear both out of drawing and over-
« Beside noble Henry which nowe departed late,
Spectacle of vertue to euery hye estate,
of Xllexander tarc]ay, lvii
The patrone of peace and primate of prudence,
Which on Gods Church hath done so great expence.
Of ail these princes the mercy and pifie,
The loue of concorde, Justice and equitie,
The purenes of lire and giftes liberall,
Not lesse vertuous then the said princes ail.
And Henry the eyght moste hye and triumphant,
No g'tfte of vertue nor manlines doth want,
Mine humble spech and language pastorall
If it were able should write his actes ail :
But while I ought speake of courtly misery,
Him with ail suche I except v.tterly.
But what other princes commonly frequent,
As true as I can to shewe is mine intent,
But if I should say that ail the misery,
Which I shall after rehearse and specify
Were in the court of our moste noble kinge,
I should fayle truth, and playnly make leasing."mEcLoGVE I.
This eulogy of Henry plainlyimplies some short experience
of his reign.. But other allusions contribute more definitely
to fix the precise date, such as the following historical pas-
sage, which evidently refers to the career of the notorious
extortioners, Empson and Dudley, who were executed for
conspiracy and treason in the first year of the new king's
Such as for honour unto the court resort,
Looke seldome tlmes upon the lower sort ;
"fo the hyer sort for moste part they intende,
For still their desire is hyer to ascende
And when none can make with them comparison,
Against their princes conspire they by treason,
Then when their purpose can nat corne well to frame,
Agayne they descende and that with utter shame,
lviii Life and [/[Tritings
Coridon thou knowest right well what I meane,
We lately of this experience haue seene
When men would ascende to rowmes honorable
Euer is their minde and lust insaciable."
The most definite proof of the date of publication, how-
ever, is round in the fourth Eclogue. It contains a long
poem called The towre of vertue and honour, which is
really a highly«vrought elegy on the premature and glori-
ous death, hot of "the Duke of Norfolk, Lord High admiral,
and one of Barclay's patrons," as has been repeated parrot-
like, from ,Varton downwards, but of his chivalrous son,
Sir Edward Howard, Lord High _Admiral for the short
space of a few months, x'lao perished in his gallant, if
reckless, attack upon the French fleet in the harbour of
Brest in the year 1513. It is incomprehensible that the
date of the publication of the Eclogues should be fixed
at i514, and this blunder still perpetuated. No Duke of
l'qorfolk died between Barclay's boyhood and 524, ten
years after the agreed upon date of the Elegy; and the
Duke (Thomas), who was Barclay's patron, never held the
position of Lord High Admiral (though his son Lord Thomas,
created Earl of Surrey in 1514, and who afterwards suc-
ceeded him, also succeeded his brother Sir Edward in the
Admiralship), but worthily enjoyed the dignified offices of
Lord High Steward, Lord Treasurer, and Earl Marshal, and
died one of Henry's most respected and most popular Mini-
sters, at lais country seat, at a good old age, in the year above
mentioned, 5z4. The other allusions to contemporary
events, and especially to the poet's age, preclude the idea of
carrying forward the publication to the latter date, did the
clearly defined points of the Elegy allow of it, as they do hot.
of Ilexander Barclay. lix
Minalcas, one of the interlocutors, thus introduces the
" But it is lamentable
To heare a Captayne so good and honorable,
8o soone withdrawen by deathes crueltie,
Belote his ertue was at moste hye degree.
If death for a season had shewed him fauour,
To all his nation he should haue bene honour."
" 'The Towre of Vertue and Honor,' introduced as a
song of one of the shepherds into these pastorals, exhibits
no very masterly strokes of a sublime and inventive fancy.
It bas much of the trite imagery usually applied in the
fabrication of these ideal edifices. It, however, shows out
author in a new walk of poetry. This magnificent tower,
or castle is built on inaccessible cliffs of flint: the walls are
of gold, bright as the sun, and decorated vdth ' olde his-
toryes and picture manyfolde: ' the turrets are beautifully
shaped. Among its heroic inhabitants are Henry VIII., [' in
his maiestie moste hye enhaunsed as ought a conquerour,'
no doubt an allusion to the battle of the Spurs and his other
exploits in France in 1 5 ,3], Howard Duke ofNorfolk, ['the
floure of chiualry '], and the Earl of Shrewsbury, [' manfull
and hardy, with other princes and men of dignitie']. Labour
is the porter at the gate, and Virtue governs the house.
Labour is thus pictured, wlth some degree of spirit :--
' Fearefull is l.qbour wlthout fauour at ail,
Dreadfull of i-age, a monster intreatable,
Iàke Cerberus lying at gares infernall i
To sorne men his looke is halte intollerable,
His shoulders large, for burthen strong and able,
His body bristled, his necke rnightie and stiffe ;
By sturdy senewes, his ioyntes stronge and stable,
Like rnarb]e stones his bandes be as stilTe.
Life and Writings
Here must man vanquishe the dragon of Cadmus,
Against the Chimer here stoutly must he fight,
Here must he vanquish the fearefull Pegasus,
For the golden flece here must he shewe his might :
If labour gaynsay, he can nothing be right,
This monster labour oft chaungeth his figure,
Sometime an oxe, a bore» or lion xvight,
Playnely he seemeth, thus chaungeth his nature,
Like as Protheus ofte chaunged his stature.
Under his browes he dreadfully doth loure,
,Vith glistering eyen, and side dependaunt beard»
For thirst and hunger alxvay his chere is soure»
His horned forehead doth make faynt heartes feard.
Alway he drinketh, and yet alway is drye,
The sweat disdlling with droppes aboundaunt,'
"The poet adds, ' that when the noble Howard had long
boldly contended with this hideous monster, had brokên the
bars and doors of the castle, had bound the porter, and was
now preparing to ascend the tower of Virtue and Honour,
Fortune and Death appeared, and interrupted his progress.'"
(Warton, Eng. Poetry, III.)
The hero's descent and .knightly qualitiês axe duly set
', Though he were borne to glory and honour,
Of auncient stocke and noble progenie»
Yet thought his courage to be of more valour,
By his owne actes and noble chiualry.
Like as becommeth a knight to fortifye
His princes quarell with right and equitie»
So did this Hawarde with courage valiauntly,
'IïLl death abated his bolde audackie."
of .dllexander Barclay. lxi
The poet, gives « cursed fortune" a severe rating, and at
such length that the old lad), no doubt repented herself, for
cutting off so promising a hero at so early an age :
« Tell me, frayle fortune, why did thou breuiate
The liuing season of suche a captayne,
That when his actes ought to be laureate
Thy fauour turned him suffring to be slayne ?"
And then he addresses the Duke himself in a consolatou¢
strain, endeavouring to reconcile him to the loss of so pro-
mising a son, b¢ recalling to his memory those heroes of
antiquity v,-hose careers of glory were cut short by sudden
and violent deaths :--
« But moste worthy duke hye and ,Actorious»
Respire to comfort» see the ,ncertentie
Of other princes» whose fortune prosperous
Oftetime haue ended in hard aduersitie :
Read of Pompeius," [&c.]
This shall be, this is» and this hath euer bene»
That boldest heartes be nearest ieopardie,
"Fo dye in battayle is honour as men wene
"Fo suche as haue ioy in haunfing chiualry.
Suche famous ending the naine doth magnifie,
Note worthy duke, no cause is to complayne»
His lire hot ended foule nor dishonestly»
In bed nor tauerne his lustes to maynteyne»
But like as besemed a noble captayne,
In sturdie harnes he died for the right,
From deathes daunger no man may flee certayn%
But suche death is metest vnto so noble a knight.
But death it to call me thinke it vnright,
$ith his worthy naine shall laste perpetuall," [&c.]
lxii Life and IUritiîlgs
This detail and these long quotations have been ren-
dered necessary by the strange blunder which bas been
made and perpetuated as to the identity of the young
hero whose death is so feelingly lamented in this elegy.
With that now clearly ascertained, we can not only fix
with confidence the date of the publication of the Eclogues,
but by aid of the hint conveyed in the Prologue, quoted
above (p. Iv.), as to the author's age, "fortie saue twayne,
decide, for the first time, the duration of his life, and the
dates, approximately at least, of its incidents, and of the
appearance of his undated works. Lord Edward Howard,
perhaps the bravest and rashest of England's admirais,
perished in a madly daring attack upon the harbour of
Brest, on the zsth of April, 1514. _As the eclogues
could not therefore bave been published prior to that date,
so, bearing in mind the other allusions referred to above, they
could scarcely have appeared later. Indeed, the loss which the
elegy commemorates is spoken of as quite recent, xvhile the
elegy itself bears every appearance of having been intro-
duced into the eclogue at the last moment. \¥e feel quite
satisfied therefore that Warton hit quite correctly upon the
year 15 t 4 as that in which these poems first saw the light,
though the ground (the allusion to the Henries) upon which
he went was insufficient, and his identification of the hero
of the elegy contradicted his supposition. Had he been
aware of the importance of fixing the date correctly, he
would probably have taken more care than to fall into the
blunder of confounding the father with the son, and adorn-
ing the former with the dearly earned laurels of the latter.
It may be added that, fixing i 5 t 4 as the date at which
Barclay had arrived at the age of 38, agrees perfectly v¢ith
of llexancler darclay, lxiii
ail else we know of his years, with the assumed date of
his academical education, and of his travels abroad, with the
suppositions formed as to his age from his various published
works having dates attached to them, and finally, with the
traditional "great age" at which he died, which would
thus be six years beyond the allotted span.
After the Ship of Fools the Eclogues rank second in im-
portance in a consideration of Barclay's writings. Not only
as the first of their kind in English, do they crown their
author with the honour of introducing this kind of poetry to
English literature, but they are in themselves most interest-
ing and valuable as faithful and graphic pictures of the
court, citizen, and country lire of the period. Nowhere else
in so accessible a form do there exist descriptions at once
so full and so accurate of the whole condition of the people.
Their daily lire and habits, customs, manners, sports and
pastimes, are ail placed on the canvas belote us with a ready,
vigorous, unflinching hand. Witness for instance the follow-
ing sketch, which might be entitled, "Lire, temp. 15 t4 ":--
« Some men deliteth beholding men to fight,
Or goodly knightes in pleasaunt apparayle,
Or sturdie souldiers in bright harnes and maie.
Some glad is to see these Ladies beauteous,
Goodly appoynted in clothing sumpteous :
A number of people appoynted in like wise :
In costly clothing after the newest gise,
Sportes, disgising, fayre coursers mount and praunce,
Or goodly ladies and knightes sing and daunce :
To see fayre bouses and curious picture(s),
Or pleasaunt hanging» or sumpteous vesture
Of silke, of purpure, or golde moste orient,
And other clothing diuers and excellent:
lxiv Life atd [I/'ritings
Hye curious buildinges or palaces royall,
Or chapels, temples fayre and substanciall,
Images grauen or vaultes curious ;
Gardeyns and medowes, or place delicious,
Forestes and parkes well furnished with dere,
Colde pleasaunt streames or welles fayre and clere,
Curious cundites or shadowie mountaynes,
Swete pleasaunt valleys, laundes or playnes
Houndes, and suche other thinges manyfolde
8ome men take pleasour and solace to beholde."
The following selections illustrative of the cutoms and
manners of the times will serve as a sample of the over-
flowing cask from which they are taken. The condition
of the country people is clearly enough indicated in a de-
scription of the village Sunday, the manner of its celebration
being depicted in language calculated to make a modern
sabbatarian's hair stand on end :--
« What man is faultlesse, remember the village,
Howe men vplondish on holy dayes rage.
Nought can them tame, they be a beastly sort,
In sweate and labour hauing most chiffe comfort,
On the holy da), assoone as morne is past,
When ail men resteth while ail the day doth last,
They drinke, they banket, they reuell and they iest
They leape, they daunce, despising ease and rest.
If they once heare a bagpipe or a drone,
Anone to the elme or oke they be gone.
There vse they to daunce, to gambolde and to rage
Such is the custome and vse of the village.
When the ground resteth from rake, plough and wheles»
Then moste they it trouble with burthen of their heles :
of qlexan&r arday. lxv
To Bacchus they banket, no feast is festiuall,
They chide and they chat, they vary and they bra]l,
They rayle and they route, they reuell and they crye,
Laughing and leaping, and making cuppes drye.
What, sdnt thou thy chat, these wordes I defye,
It is to a vilayne rebuke and vilany.
8uch rurall solace so plainly for to blame,
Thy wordes sound to thy rebuke and shame."
Football is described in a livdy picture :--
,, They get the bladder and blowe it great and rhin,
With many beanes or peason put within,
It ratleth, soundeth, and shineth clere and fayre,
While it is throwen and caste vp in the ayre,
Eche one contendeth and hath a great delite,
With foote and with hande the bladder for to smite,
If it fall to grounde they lifte it vp agayne,
ïhis wise to labour they count it for no payne,
Renning and leaping they driue away the colde,
The sturdie plowmen lustie, stronge and bolde,
Ouercommeth the winter wittl drluing the foote ball,
Forgetting labour and many a greuous fall."
_A shepherd, after mentioning his skill in shooting birds
with a bow, says :--
"No shepheard throweth the axeltrie so farre."
A gallant is thus described :--
"For women vse to loue them moste of ail,
Which boldly bosteth, or that can ring and let,
Which are well decked with large bushes set,
Which hath the mastery ofte rime in tournament,
Or that can gambauld, or daunce feat and gent."
lxvi Life an 14/ritings
The foliowing sorts of wine are mentioned :--
", As lIuscadell, Caprike, Romney, and Maluesy,
From Gene brought, from Grece or Hungary."
As are the dainties of the table. _A_ shepherd at court must
not think to ea b
« Swanne» nor heron»
Curlewe» nor crane» but course beefe and mutton."
,, What fishe is of sauor swete and delicious,--
Rosted or sodden in swete hearbes or wine ;
Or fried in oyle, most saporous and fine.--
The pasdes of a hart.--
The crane, the fesant, the pecocke and curlewe,
The partfiche, plouer, bittor, and heronsewe--
Seasoned so well in licour redolent,
That the hall is full of pleasaunt smell and sent."
At a feast at court :--
" Slowe be the seruers in serulng in alway,
But swift be they af-ter» taking thy meate away i
A spedall custome is vsed them among,
No good dish to surfer on borde to be longe :
If the dishe be pleasaunt, eyther fleshe or fishe»
Ten handes at once swarme in the dishe :
And if it be flesh ten kniues shalt thou see
Mangling the flesh» and in the platter flee :
To put there thy handes is perill without fayle,
Without a gauntlet or els a gloue of mayle."
"The two last lines remind us of a saying of Oin, who
declared it was hOt safe to sit down to a turtle-feast in one
of the city-hails, without a basket-hilted knife and fork.
of llexander tarclay, lxvii
Not that I suppose Oin borrowed his bon-mots from black
letter books." (Warton.)
The following lines point out some of the festive tales of
our ancestors :
" Yet would I gladly heare some mery fit
Of mayde Marion, or els of Robin hood
Or Bentleyes aie which chafeth well the bloud,
Of perre of Norwich, or sauce of Wilberton,
Or bucldshe Joly well-stuffed as a ton."
to inke ; "
mentions "Bentley's _Aie " which "maketh me
and some of our ancient domestic pastimes and
are recorded :--
Then is it pleasure the yonge maydens amonge
To watche by the tire the winters nightes long
At their fonde raies to laugh, or when they brall
Great tire and candell spending for laboure small,
And in the ashes some playes for to marke,
To couer wardens [pears] for fault of other warke
To toste white sheuers, and to make prophitroles
And after talking oft rime to fill the bowles."
He mentions some musical instruments:
« .... Methinkes no mirth is scant,
Where no reioysing of minstrelcie doth want :
The bagpipe or fidle to vs is delectable."
And the mercantile commodities of different
and cities :--
« Englande bath cloth, Burdeus bath store of whae,
Cornewall hath tinne, and Lymster wools fine.
London hath scarlet, and Bristowe pleasaunt red,
Fen lands hath fishes, in other place is lead."
lxviii Life and I/Vritings
Of songs at feasts :--
"When your fat dishes smoke hote vpon your table,
Then layde ye songes and balades magnifie,
If they be mery, or written craftely,
Ye clappe your bandes and to the maldng harke,
And one say to other, Io here a proper warke."
He says that minstrels and singers are highly favoured at
court, especially those of the French gise. Also jugglers
The personal references throughout the Eclogues, in
addition to those already mentioned, though not numerous,
are of considerable interest. The learned Alcock,
Bishop of Ely (486-15oo), and the munificent founder of
Jesus College, Cambridge, stands deservedly high in the
esteem of a poet and priest, so zealous of good works as
Barclay. The poet's humour thus disguises him.--(Eclogue
I., A iii., recto.) :--
Yes since his dayes a cocke was in the/en, "
I knove his voyce among a thousande men :
He taught, he preached, he mended euery wrong ;
But, Coridon alas no good thing bideth long.
He aH was a cocke, he wakened vs from slepe,
And while we slumbred, he did our foldes hepe.
No cur, no foxes, nor butchers dogges wood,
Coulde hurte our fouldes, his watching was so good.
The hungry wolues, which that rime did abounde,
What rime he crowed, abashed at the sounde.
This cocke was no more abashed of the foxe,
Than is a lion abashed of an oxe.
When he went, faded the floure of ail the fen i
I boldly dare sweare this cocke neuer trode hen !
of llexander t?arclay, lxix
This was a father of thinges pastorall,
And that well sheweth his Church cathedrall,
There was I lately about the middest of May,
Coridon his Church is twenty sith more gay
Then ail the Churches betwene the same and Kent,
There sawe I his tome and Chapell excellent.
I thought fiue houres but euen a little while,
Saint John the virgin me thought did on me smile,
Our parishe Church is but a dongeon,
To that gay Churche in coinparlson.
If the people were as pleasaunt as the place
Then were it paradice of pleasour and solace,
Then might I truely right well finde in my heart.
There st'fil to abide and neuer to departe,
But since that this cocke by death hath left his song,
Trust me Coridon there many a thing is wrong,
When I sawe his figure lye in the Chapell-side,
Like death for weping I might no longer bide.
Lo all good thinges so sone away doth glide,
That no man liketh to long doth rest and abide.
When the good is gone (my mate this is the case)
Seldome the better reentreth in the place."
The excellence of his subject carries the poet quite
beyond himself in describing the general lamentation at the
death of this v¢orthy prelate; v¢ith an unusual power of
imagination he thus pictures the sympathy of the towers,
arches, vauhs and images of Ely monastery :
« My harte sore mourneth when I must spec'rfy
Of the gentle cocke whiche sange so mirily,
He and his flocke wer like an union
Conioyned in one without discention,
All the fayre cockes which in his dayes crewe
When death him touched did his departing rewe.
lxx Life and l¢Tritings
The pretie palace by him ruade in the fen,
The maides, widowes, the wiues, and the men,
With deadly dolour were pearsed to the heart,
When death co/astrayned this shepheard to departe.
Corne, grasse, and fieldes, mourned for wo and payne,
For oft his prayer for them obtayned rayne.
The pleasaunt floures for wo faded eche one,
When they perceyued this shepheard dead and gone,
The okes, elmes, and euery sorte o dere
Shronke vnder shadowes, abating ai1 their chere.
The mightle walles of Ely Monastery,
The stones, rockes, and towres semblably,
'rhe marble piliers and images echeone,
Swet ail for sorowe, when this good cocke was gone,
Though he or stature were humble» weake and leane»
His minde ,,vas hye, his liuing pure and cleane,
Whe're other feedeth bv beasrly appetite,
On heauenly foode was ail his whole delite."
Morton, Alcock's predecessor and afterwards Arch-
bishop of Canterbury (486-15oo), is also singled out for
compliment, in which allusion is made to his troubles, his
servants' faithfulness, and his restoration to favour under
Richard III. and Henry Vil. (Eclogue III.):--
« And shepheard Morton, when he durst not appeare,
Howe his olde seruauntes were carefull of his chere ;
In payne and pleasour they kept fidelitie
T'dl grace agayne gaue him aucthoritie
Then his olde fauour did them agayne restore
'1-o greater pleasour then they had payne before.
Though for a season this shepheard bode a blast,
The greatest winde yet slaketh at the last,
And at conclusion he and his flocke certayne
Eche true to other did quietly remayne."
of l]exander tarc]ay, lxxi
And again in Eclogue IV. :--
« 1Vficene and Morton be dead and gone certayne."
The "Dean of Powles" (Colet), with wlom Barday seems
to have been personally acquainted, and to whom the refer-
ence alludes as to one still living (his death occt, rred in
15 19), Si celebrated as a preacher in the saine Eclogue :--
« For this I learned of the Dean of Powles
I tell thee, Codrus this man hath won some soules."
as is " the olde friar that wonned in Greenwich" in
Eclogt, e V.
The first three Eclogues are paraphrases or adaptations
from the Miserioe Curialium, the most popular of the
works of one of the most successful literary adventt, rers of
the middle ages, ASneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II., who died
in I464). It appears to have been written with the view
of relieving his feelings of disappointment and disgust at his
reception at the court of the Emperor, xvhither he had
repaired, in the hope of political advancement. The tone
and nature of the work may be gathered from this candid
exposure of the adventurer's morale: "Many things
there are which compel us to persevere, but nothing more
powerfully than ambition which, rivalling charity, truly
beareth ail things however grievous, that St may attain to
the honours of this world and the praise of men. If we
were humble and laboured to gain our own souls rather than
hunt after vain glory, few of us, indeed, would endure such
annoyances." He details, v¢ith querulous humour, ail the
grievances of his position, from the ingratitude of the
prince to the sordour of the table-cloths, and the hardness
of the black bread. But hardest of ail to bear is the con-
Ixxii JLife and lritings
tempt shown towards literature. « In the courts of princes
literary knowledge is held a crime; and great is the grief
of men of letters when they find themselves universally
despised, and see the most important matters managed, hot
to say mismanaged, by blockheads, who cannot tell the
number of their fingers and toes."
Barclay's adaptation is so thoroughly Englished, and con-
tains such large additions from the stores of his own bitter
experience, as to make it even more truly his own than any
other of his translations.
The fourth and fifth eclogues are imitations,pthough no
notice that they are so is conveyed in the title, as in the
case of the first three,--of the fifth and sixth of the popular
eclogue writer of the time, Jo. Baptist Mantuan, which may
bave helped to-give fise to the generally received statement
noticed below, that ail the eclogues are imitations of that
author. The fourth is entitled "Codrus and Minalcas
treating of the behauour of Riche men agaynst Poetes," and
it may be judged how far it is Barclay's from the fact that
it numbers about twelve hundred lines, including the elegy
of the Noble Howard, while the original, entitled, "De
consuetudine Divitum erga Poetas," contains only about two
hundred. The fifth is entitled "Amintas and Faustus, of
the disputation of citizens and men of the countrey." It
contains over a thousand lines, and the original, « De dis-
ceptatione rusticorum et civium," like the fifth, extends to
little more than two hundred.
In the Prologue belote mentioned we are told (Cawood's
"That fiue Egloges this whole treatise doth holde
To imitation of other Poetes olde,"
ol e 4lexander Barclay. lxxiii
Which appears to be a correction of the printer's upon
the original, as in Powell's edition :--
"That X. egloges this hole treatyse dothe holde."
Whether other rive were ever published there is no record
to show; it appears, however, highly improbable, that, if
they had, they could have been entirely lost,--especially con-
sidering the popularity and repeated issue of the first rive,--
during the few years that would have elapsed between their
original publication and the appearance of Cawood's edition.
Possibly the original reading may be a typographical blunder,
for Cawood is extremely sparing of correction, and appears
to bave ruade none xvhich he did not consider absolutely
necessary. This is one of the literary puzzles which remain
for bibliography to solve. (See below, p. Ixxix.)
The next of Barclay's works in point of date, and per-
haps the only one actually entitled to the merit of origi-
nality, is his Introductory to write and pronounce French,
compiled at the request of his grêat patron, Thomas Duke
of lqorfolk, and printed by Copland in 52. It is thus
alluded to in the first important authority on French gram-
mar, " Lesclarissement de la langue Francoyse compose
par aistre Jehan Palsgraue, Angloys, natyf de Londres,"
53 o : " The right vertuous and excellent prince Thomas,
late Duke of Northfolke, hath commanded the studious
clerke, Alexandre Barkelay, to embusy hymselfe about this
exercyse." Further on he is hot so complimentary as he
remarks:--" Where as there is a boke, that goeth about
in this realme, intitled The introductory to writte and pro-
nounce frenche, compiled by Alexander Barcley, in which k is
moche vsed, and many other thynges also by hym aflïrmed,
lxxiv Lf" and lloeritings
contrary to my sayenges in this boke, and specially in my
seconde, where I shall assaye to expresse the declinations
and coniugatynges with the other congruites obserued in
the frenche tonge, I suppose it sufficient to warne the lernar,
that I haue red ouer that boke at length : and what myn
opinion is therin, it shall well inough apere in my bokes
selle, though I make therof no ferlher expresse mention:
saue that I haue sene an olde boke written in parchement, in
maner in ail thynkes like to his sayd Introductory: whiche,
by conjecture, was not vnwritten this hundred yeres. I
wot nat if he happened to fortune npon suche an other :
for whan it was commaunded that the grammar maisters
shulde teche the youth of Englande ioyntly latin with
frenche, there were diuerse suche bokes diuysed: wher-
upon, as I suppose, began one great occasyon why we of
England sounde the latyn tong so corruptly, whiche haue
as good a top, ge to sounde ail maner speches parfitely as
any other nacyon in Europa."--Book I. ch. xxxv.
cording to this," Mr Ellis (Early English Pronnnciation,
804) pertinently notes- "°, there ought to be many old
IIS. treatises on French grammar; and OE°, the English
pronunciation of 1.atin was moulded on the French."
To Barclay, as nine years before Palsgrave, belongs
at least the credit, hitherto generally unrecognised, of the
first published attempt at a French grammar, by either
Frenchman or foreigner.
"The mirror of good manners, containing the four cardi-
nal verrues," appeared from the press of Pynson, without
date, "which boke," says the typographer, «I haue
prynted at the instance and request of the ryght noble
Rychard Yerle of Kent." This earl of Kent died in
9f tlexander YBarchy. lxxv
and as Barclay speaks of himself in the preface as advanced
in age, the date of publication may be assigned to close
upon that year. It is a translation, in the ballad stanza, of
the Latin elegiac poem of Dominicus Mancinus, D« cuatuor
virtutibus, first published in 1 5 1 6, and, as appears ri-oto the
title, was executed while Barclay was a monk of Ely, at
" the desire of the righte worshipfull 8yr Giles Alington,
Knight." From the address to his patron it vould seem
that the Knight had requested the poet to abridge or
modernise Gower's Confessio amantis. For declining
this task he pleads, that he is too old to undertake such
a light subject, and also the sacred nature of lais profession.
He then intimates his choice of the present more grave and
serious work instead--
Which a priest may write, not hurting his estate,
Nor of honest naine obumbring at all his light.
" But the poet," says Warton, "decltned this undertak-
ing as unsuitable to his age, infirmities, and profession, and
chose rather to oblige his patron with a grave system of
ethics. It is certain that he ruade a prudent choice. The
performance shows how little qualified he was to correct
Gower." Instead of a carping criticism like this, it would
bave been much more to the point to praise the modesty and
sensibility of an author, vho had the courage to decline a
task unsuited to his tastes or powers.
He professes little :--
This playne litle treatlse in stile compendious,
lIuch briefly conteyneth four vertues cardinall,
In r, ight pleasaunt processe, plaine and cominodious
With light foote of mette, and stile heroicail,
Rude people to infourme in language rnaternall,
lxxvi Lire and II'rilings
To whose vnderstanding maydens of tender age,
And rude litle children shall finde easy passage.
Two editions of the work are sufficient evidence that
this humble and praiseworthy purpose was, in the eyes of
his contemporaries, successfuily carried out.
The only remaining authentic production of Barclay
which has corne down to us, is a translation of the Jugur-
thine XVar of 8allust, undertaken at the request of, and
dedicated to, his great patron, Thomas Duke of l'qorfolk,
and printed also at Pynson's press without date. The Latin
and English are printed side by side on the saine page,
the former being dcdicated, with the date " Ex ceilu[a
Hatfeldefi regii (i.e., King's Hatfield, Hertfordshire) in Idus
l'qovembris" to Vesey, the centenarian Bishop of Exeter,
with this superscription :--" Reuerêdissimo in Christo patri
ac dru5 : dn5 Joanni Veysy exoniên episcopo _A[exander Bar-
c[ay presbyter debi,,ta cure obseruantia. 8." The dedication
begins, "Memini me superioribus annis cri adhuc saceili
regij presul esses: pastor vigilantissime: tuis suasionibus
incitatfi: vt Crispi Salustij hystorifi.--e romana lingua:
in anglicam compendiose transferrem," &c. Vesey was
probably one of Barclay's oldest west country friends; for
he is recorded to have been connected with the diocese of
Exeter from i5o 3 to i551, in the various capacities of arch-
deacon, precentor, dean, and bishop successively. Conjec-
ture has placed the date of this publication at i5tt , but
as Veysey did not succeed to the Bishopric of Exeter till
_August 1519, this is untenable. ,¥e cannot say more than
that it must have been published between 1519 and i524,
the date of the Duke of l'qorfolk's death, probably in the
former year, since, from its being dated from « Hatfield,"
of llexander ]arc]ay. lxxvii
the ancient palace of the bishops of Ely, (sold to the Crown
in the 3oth of Henry VIII. ; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire,
II.) Barclay at the rime of its completion was evidently stiil
a monk of Ely.
By his translation of Sallust (so popular an author at
that period, that the learned virgin queen is reported to
have amused her leisure wittt an English version), Barclay
obtained the distinction of being the first to introduce that
classic to Eglish readers. His version bears the reputation
of being executed hot only with accuracy, but with con-
siderable freedom and elegance, and its popularity was
evinced by its appearance in three additions.
Two other works of our author are spoken of as ha'ring"
been in print, but they have apparently passed entirely out of
sight : "The figure of out holy mother Church, oppressed
by the Frenche King," (Pynson, 4to), known only from
Maunsell's Catalogue; and "The lyf of the glorious
martyr, saynt George translated (from Mantuan) by A lex-
ander Barclay, while he was a monk of Ely, and dedicated
to N. Vest, Bishop of Ely," (Pynson, 4to), (Herbert,
Typ. Antiquities.) Vest was Bishop of Ely from 15 5
to 533, and consequently Barclay's superior during pro-
bably his v«hole stay there. .rhether these two works
were in verse or prose is unkno'n.
There are two other books ascribed to Barclay, but
nothing satisfactory can be stated regarding their parentage
except thaq considering their subject, and the press they
issued from, it is hot at all unlikely that they may have been
the fruit of his prolific pen. The first is "The lyre of
the blessed martyr, Saynte Thomas," in prose, printed
by Pynson, (Herbert, Typ. Ant. 292), regarding 'hich
lxxviii Life and ll%iti»gs
Ant. l.Vood says, « I should feel little diflïculty in ascrib-
ing this to Barclay." The other is the English trans-
lation of the Histoire merveilleuse du Grand Khan
Latin, De Tartaris siue I.iber historiarum partium Orientis)
of the eastern soldier, and western monk, Haytho, prince
Georgia at the end of the 3th, and beginning of the 14th
centuries. The Ilistory which gives an account of Genghis
Khan, and his successors, with a short description of the
different kingdoms of Asia, was very popnlar in the 15th
and 6th centuries, as one of the earliest accounts of the
East, and the conjecture of the Grenville Catalogue is
hot improbable, though there is no sufficient evidence,
that Barclay was the author of the English version which
appeared from the press of Pynson.
Baie further enumerates in his list of Barclay's works
"Contra Skeltonum, Lib. I. ; Q.uinq: eglogas ex 1VIantuano,
I.ib. I; Vitam D. Catherinoe, Lib. I., [Libros tres, Pits];
\ritam D. Margaritoe, Lib. !. ; Vitam Ètheldredae, Lib. I. ;
Aliaq: plura fecit." Tanner adds: « Orationes varias,
Lib. I. ; De ride orthodoxa, Lib. I."
Of these various fruits of Barclay's fertility and industry
no fragment has survived to out day, nor has even any
positive information regarding their nature been transmitted
The « Orationes varias," probably a collection of sermons
with especial reference to the sins of the day would have
been historically, if hot otherwise, interesting, and their loss
is matter for regret. On the other hand the want of the
treatise, "De ride orthodoxa," is doubtless a relief to
literature. There are too many of the kind already to
encu,nber out shelves and our catalogues.
of H]exam]er arc]ay. lxxix
The Lires of the Saints, the work, it is stated, of the
author's old age, were, according to Tanner, and he is
no doubt right, translations from the Latin. Barclay's
Teputation probably does hOt surfer from their loss.
« Ofinque eglogas ex Mantuano," though Baie mentions
also "De miserijs aulicorum ; Bucolicam Codri ; Eglogam
quartam," apparently the rive, but really the first four of the
eclogues known to us, are, I ara strongly inclined to believe,
nothing else than these saine rive eclogues, under, to use a
bibliographical phrase, "a made up" title. That he men-
tions first, rive ri'oto Mantuan, and afterwards adds "Bucoli-
cam Codri" and "Eglogam quartam," as two distinct
eclogues, apparently not from Mantuan, while both titles
must refer to the saine poem, an imitation of Mantuan's
fifth eclogue, is proof enough that he was hot speaking
with the authority of personal knowledge of these works.
Johannes Baptista Spagnuoli, commonly called from his
native city, Mantuan, was the most popular and prolific
eclogue writer of the fifteenth century, to which Barclay
himself testifies :m
" As the moste famous Baptist Mantuan
The best of that sort since Poetes first began."
Barclay's Eclogues being the first attempts of the kind
in English, Bale's "Ex Mantuano," therefore"probably
means nothing more than "on the model of Mantuan ;"
otherwise, if it be assumed that rive were the whole hum-
ber that ever appeared, it could hot apply to the first three,
which are expressly stated in the title to be from Aneas
Sylvius, while if ten be assumed, his statement would
account for nine, the "quinque eglogas" being the rive now
lxxx Lire and lI",'itmgs
wanting, but if so, then he has omitted to mention the most
popular of ail the eclogues, the fifth, and bas failed to attri-
bute to Mantuan two which are undoubtedly due to him.
The loss of the " Contra Skeltonum," is a matter
for regret. That there was no love lost between these
two contemporaries and chief poets of their time is evident
enough. Skelton's scathing sarcasm against the priesthood
no doubt woke his brother satirist's ire, and the latter lets
no opportunity slip of launching forth his'contempt for the
laureate of Oxford.
The moralist in announcing the position he assumes in
opposition to the writer of popular tales, takes care to have
a fling at the author of "The boke ofPhyllyp Sparowe" :--
" I wryte no Ieste ne tale of Robyn Hode,
Nor sawe no sparcles, ne sede of ,yciousnes ;
Wyse men loue ,ertue, wylde people wantones,
It longeth nat to my scyence nor cunnynge,
For Phylyp the sparowe the (Dirige) to synge."
A sneer to which Skelton most
enumerating his own productions
Laurell, he mentions,
"Of Phillip Sparow the lamentable rate,
The dolefull desteny, and the carefull chaunce,
lyuysed by Skelton after rhe funerall rate
Yet sure there be therewith.that take greuaunce»
And grudge thereat with frownyng countenaunce i
But what of that ? harde it is to please al] men
Who list amende it, let hym set to his penne."
The following onslaught in Barclay's Fourth Eclogue, is
evidently levelled at the abominable Skelton :
probably alludes when,
in the Garlande o
of llexander larchg,, lxxxi
" Another thing yet is greatly more damnable :
Of rascolde poetes yet is a shamfull rable,
Which voyde of wisedome presumeth to indite,
Though they haue scantly the cunning of a »nite ;
And to what ,ices that princes moste intende,
Those dare these fooles solemnize and commende
Then is he decked as Poete laureate,
When stinking Thais ruade him her graduate :
When Muses rested, she did her season note,
And she with Bacchus her camous did promote.
Such rascolde drames, promoted by Thais,
Bacchus, Licoris, or yet by Testalis,
Or by suche other newe forged Muses nine,
Thinke in their mindes for to haue wit diuine i
They laude their verses, they boast, they vaunt and let,
Though all their cunning be scantly worth a pet :
If they haue smelled the artes tritaiall,
They count them Poetes hye and heroicall.
Such is their foly, so foolishly they dote,
Thinking that none can their playne errour note i
Yet be they foolishe, auoy,te of honestie,
Nothing seasoned with spice of grauitie,
Auoyde of pleasure, auoyde of eloquence,
With many wordes, and fruitlesse of sentence i
Llnapt to learne, disdayning to be taught,
Their priuate pleasure in snare bath them so caught i
And worst yet of ail, they count them excellent,
Though they be fruitlesse, rashe and improuident.
To such ambages who doth their minde incline,
'I'hey count ail other as priuate of doctrine,
And that the faultes which be in them alone,
And be common in other men eche one.
Thus bide good poetes oft rime rebuke and blame,
Because of other which haue despised naine.
lxxxii Life and lVritings
And thus for the bad the good be cleane abject.
Their art and poeme counted of none e/Fect,
Who wanteth reason good to discerne from ill
Doth worthy writers interprete at his will :
So both the laudes of good and hOt laudable
For lacke of knowledge become vituperable."
It has hot hitherto been pointed out that Skelton did
hot disdain to borrow a leaf from the enemy's book and try
his hand at paraphrasing the 8hip of" Fools aiso. "The
Boke of" three fooles, M. Skelton, poete laureate, gaue to
rny lord Cardynall," is a paraphrase in prose, with intro-
ductory verses, of" three chapters of Brandt, corresponding
to Barclay's chapters beaded, Of yonge folys that take olde
wymê to theyr wyues nat for loue but for ryches (I. 247) ;
Of enuyous folys (I. 52); Of bodely lust or corporall
voluptuosyte (I. 39)- Skelton's three foois, are, "The
man that doth wed a wyfe for ber goodes and ber rychesse;"
"Of Enuye, the seconde foole"; and, " Of the Voluptuous-
nes corporall, the third foole;" and his versions are dashed
off with his usuai racy vigour. He probably, however, did
hot think it worth while to compete with the established
favourite. If he had we wouid certainly bave got a very
different book from Barclay's.
Notwithstanding his popularity and industry, Barclay's
naine appears to be but seldom mentioned by contemporary
or iater authors. _As early as 15oEl however, v,e find him
placed in the most honourable company by Henry Brad-
shaw, " Lyre of Saynt Werburghe," (1.52 l, Pynson, 4to).
But the compliment wouid probably iose hall its sweetness
from his being bracketed with the detested Skelton :--
of 4lexancler Barclay. lxxxiii
To ail auncient poetes, litell boke, submytte the,
Whilom flouryng in eloquerice facuridious,
And to ail other whiche present riowe be ;
Fyrst to maister Chaucer and Ludgate sentencious,
Also to preignaurit Barkley nowe beying religious,
To inuerlfiue Skelton and poet laureate ;
Praye them ail of pardon both erly and late.
Bulleyn's repeated allusions to Barclay (see above, pp.
xxvii., liv.), apart from the probability tha b as contempor-
aries resident in the same provincial town, Ely, they were
xvell acquainted with each other, leave little doubt that the
two were personal friends. Bulleyn's figurative description
of the poet, quoted at p. xxvii., is scarcely complete with-
out the following verses which are appended to it by way
of summary of his teachings (similar verses are appended
to the descriptions of Chaucer, Gower, &c.):--[Barclay
« Who entreth the court in yong and têder age
Are lightly blinded with fo|y and outrage:
But suche as enter with witte and grauitie,
Bow not so sone to such enormitie,
But ere thei enter if thei haue lerned nought
Afterwardes Verrue the least of theyr thought."
Dialogue against the Fever Pestilence.
In another passage of the saine Dialogue the picture of
the honourable and deserving but neglected churchman is
touched with so much strength and feeling that, though no
indication is given one cannot but believe that the painter
was drawing from the lire, the lire of his friend. The like-
ness, whether intentional or hot, is a most faithful one:
"The third [picture] is, one whiche sheweth the state of
lxxxii Lire ld lI/'riti»gs
And thus for the bad the good be cleane abject.
'rheir art and poeme counted of none effect,
Who wanteth reason good to discerne from ill
Doth worthy writers interprete at his will :
So both the laudes of good and not laudable
For lacke of knowledge become vituperable. »
It has not hitherto been pointed out that Skelton did
not disdain to borrow a leaf from the enemy's book and try
his hand at paraphrasing the Ship of Fools also. "The
Boke of three fooles, M. Skelton, poete laureate, gaue to
my lord Cardynall," is a paraphrase in prose, with intro-
ductory verses, of three chapters of Brandt, corresponding
to Barclay's chapters headed, Of yonge fo/ys that take olde
wymê to theyr x,yues nat for loue but for ryches (I. 247) ;
Of enuyous folys (I. z5z); Of bodely lust or corporall
voluptuosyte (I. OE39)- Skelton's three fools, are, "The
man that doth wed a wyfe for ber goodes and her rychesse;"
"Of Enuye, the seconde foole " and, " Of the Voluptuous-
nes corporall, the third foole;" and his versions are dashed
off with his usual racy vigour. He probably, however, did
hot think it worth while to compete with the established
favourite. If he had we would certainly have got a very
different book from Barclay's.
Notwithstanding his popularity and industry, 13arclay's
naine appears to be but se]dom mentioned by contemporary
or later authors. As early as 5z however, we find him
placed in the most honourable company by Henry Brad-
shaw, ' Lyfe of Saynt Werburghe," ( 5; z , Pynson, 4to).
But the compliment would probably lose hall its sweetness
from his being bracketed with the detested Skelton :--
of llexander larc]ay, lxxxiii
To ail auncient poetes, litell boke, submytte the,
Whilom flouryng in eloquence facundious,
And to ail other whiche present nowe bei
Fyrst to maister Chaucer and Ludgate sentencious,
Also to preignaunt Barkley nowe beying religious,
To inuentiue 8kelton and poet laureate i
Praye them ail of pardon both erly and late.
Bulleyn's repeated allusions to Barclay (see above, pp.
xxvii., liv.), apart from the probability that, as contempor-
aries resident in the same provincial town, Ely, they were
well acquainted with each other, leave little doubt that the
two were personal friends. Bulleyn's figurative description
of the poet, quoted at p. xxvii., is scarcely complete with-
out the following verses, which are appended to it by way
of summary of his teachings (similar verses are appended
to the descriptions of Chaucer, Gower, &c.):--[Barclay
« Who entreth the court in yong and têder age
Are lightly blinded with foly and outrage:
But suche as enter with witte and grauitie,
Bow not so sone to such enormitie,
But ere thei enter if thei haue lerned nought
Afterwardes Vertue the least of theyr thought."
l)ialogue against the lever Pestilence.
In another passage of the saine Dialogue the picture of
the honourable and deserving but neglected churchman is
touched 'ith so much strength and feeling that, though no
indication is given, one cannot but believe that the painter
was drawing from the life, the life of his friend. The like-
ness, whether intentional or hOt, is a most faithful one:
"The third [picture] is, one whiche sheweth the state of
lxxxiv Lire a»d lId'riti»gs
learned men, labouring long rime in studie and diuine
vertue, whiche are wrapped in pouertie, wantyng the
golden rake or gapyng mouth. This man hath verie fewe
to preferre hym to that promotion, he smiteth himselfe
up) the breast, he wepeth and lamenteth, that vice should
thus be exalted, ignoraunce rewarded with glorie, coueteous
rnen spoilyng the Churcbe, by the names of patrones and
geuers, whiche extorcioners and tellers they care not to
a'hom, so that it be raked with the golden racke. Wel,
wel, God of his mercie, amêd this euill market."
In one of the many humorous sallies which lighten up
this old-fashioned antidote to the pestilence, Barclay again
appears, dressed in the metaphorical colour of the poet or
minstrel--green, which has probably here a double signifi-
cance, referring no doubt to his popularity as the English
eclogue writer as well as to his faine as a poet and satirist.
In introducing " Bartlet, grene breche " as the antithesis to
" Boner wepyng," allusion was also probably intended to
the honourable position occupied by Barclay amongst the
promoters of the Reformation, compared with the reapostacy,
the career of brutal cruelty, and the deserved rate of the
Jefferies of the Episcopal bench.
Thus discourse Civis et Uxor :--
"Uxor. \Vhat are ail these two and two in a table. Oh
it is trim. Civis. These are old frendes, it is well handled
and workemanly. Willyam Boswell in Pater noster rowe,
painted them. Here is Christ, and Sathan, Sainct Peter,
and Symon Magus, Paule, and Alexider the Coppersmith
Trace, and Becket, Martin Luther, and the Pope
bishop Crimer, and bishop Gardiner. Boner epyng,
Bartlet, grene breche... Salomon, and Will Sommer. "_l'he
of ./I]exander Barc@. lxxxv
cocke and the lyon, the wolfe and the lambe." This pas-
sage also necessarily implies that Barclay's faine at that
rime was second to none in England. Alas! for faine:
" What is the end of fame ? 'Tis but to fill
A certain portion of" uncertain paper."
In the seventeenth century Barclay still held a place in
the first tank of satirists, if we accept the evidence of the
learned Catholic poet of that time, Sir Aston Cokaine.
He thus alludes to him in an address "To my learned friend,
Mr Thomas Bancroft, upon his Book of Satires. By Sir
"After a many works of divers kinds
Your muse to tread th' Aruncan path designs :
'Tis hard to write but Satires in these days,
And yet to write good Satires merits praise :
So old Petronius Arbiter appli'd
Corsives unto the age he did deride :
So Horace, Persius, Juvenal, (among
Those ancient Romans) scourg'd the impious throng ;
So Ariosto (in these later rimes)
Reprov'd his Italy for many crimes i
So learned Barclay let his lashes fall
Heavy on some to bring a cure to ail."
In concluding this imperfect notice of one of the most
remarkable of our early writers, we cannot but echo the
regret expressed by one of his biographers, that " What
ought most to be ]amented is, that we are able to say so
very little of one in his own time so famous, and whose
works ought to have transmitted him to posterity with
much greater honour."
lxxxvi Lfe and llGitings
THE WILL OF ALEXANDER BARCLAY.
EXTRACTED FROM THE PRINCIPAL REGISTRY OF HER
MAJETV'$ COURT OF PROBATE.
In tbe Prerogative Court of Cantcrbury.
Is Tnr N,Mr or GOD. AMrN.--The xxv th day of
July in the yere of our Lorde God a thousande fyve hun-
dreth fyftie and one. I zaxLEXANDER ARQ,_UELEY
Doctor of Divinitie Vicar of myche badowe in the countie
of Essex do make dispose and declare this my pfite testa-
ment conteyning my last Will in forme and order as here-
after followethe That ys to saye First I bequeathe my mule
unto Almightie God my maker and Redemer and my bodye
to be buried where it shall please God to dispose after
delSting my soule from the bodye Also I bequeathe to the
poore people of the said ish of Badowe fyftie shiilings to
be disposed where as yt shall appere to be most nede by
the discrescon of myrte Executours And also I bequeathe
towardes the rep.cons of the same Churche vj viii d Item
I bequeathe to the poore people of the Pish of Owkley in
the Countie of Somersett fiftie shillings likewise to be dis-
tributed And towardes the repcons of the same Churche
vj viii a Item I bequeathe m Mr Horsey of Tawnton in the
saide Countie of Somersett one fether bed and a bolster
which I had of hym or els twentie shillings in redye money
Item I bequeathe to Edword Capper otherwise called
Edwarde Mathewe of Tawnton aforesaid xxxiij s iiij d of cur-
rant money of England Item I bequeathe to Johane
of ilexanaer larc]ay, lxxxvii
Atkynson the daughter of Thomas Atkynson of London
Scryvener one fetherbed wheruppon I use to lye having a
newe tyke with the bolster blanketts and coverlett tester
pillowe and two payer of my best shetes Item I bequeth to
the saine Johane Atkyr, son eight pounds current money of
England to be receyved of the money due unto me by Cut-
beard Crokk of Wynchester to be paide in two yeres (that
is to saye foure poundes in the first yere and foure poundes
in the secounde yere) Item 1 bequeathe to the saide Johane
a flocke bed a quylte and ail my pewter and brasse and
other stuf of my kechen Item I give and bequeathe to
Jeronymy Atkynson the daughter of the saide Thomas
Atkynson vj i xiij s iiij d currant money of Egland to be re-
ceyved of the said Cutbeard Crok in two yeres that is to
saye every yere fyve markes Item I bequeathe to Tymothy
and Elizabeth Atkynson the daughters of the said Thomas
Atkynson to everye of theym rive pounds currant money of
England to be receyved of the said Cutbeard Croke so that
the eldest of thes two daughters be paide the first two
yeres and the other to be paide in other tv«o yeres then
next following Item The rest of the money whiche the saide
Cutbeard Croke oweth to me amounting in the hole to the
some of four score poundes I bequeathe to be devyded
amonge poore and nedye 15sones after tlae discretion of myn
Executours and manely to such as be bedred blynde lame
ympotent wydowes and fatherless children. Item I
bequeathe to Syr John Gare Knight S r Henry Gate
Knight and to M r Clerke to everye of theym louer angell
nobles to make every of theym a ringe of golde to be worne
by theym in remembraunce of me Item I gi'e and bequeathe
to Hugh Rooke of London Scryvener to Henry bosoll of
Life and I/Iritings
London Gold Smythe to Thomas Vqytton of London
Screvener and to the wief of Humfrey Stevens of London
Goldsmythe to Humfrey Edwards Clerke to John Owhan
of the Pish of Badowe aforesaid to every of them one angell
noble of gold or ells ye valew therof in sylver Item I he-
queathe to M r Thomas Clerk of Owkey aforesaid to
Thomas Edey Gentelman and to the said Thomas Atkyn-
son to every of them foure angell nobles to make therof for
every of them a ringe to were in remembraunce of oure
olde acquayntaunce and famyliarytie Item my will is that
my Executours shall distribute at the daye of my buriall
among poore and nedy people fixe pounds fyftene shillings
Item I bequeathe to Parnell Atkynson the wief of the said
Thomas Atkynson my cosyn thirtenne pounds thirtene shil-
lings and foure pence of currant lnoney of England Item I
bequeathe to John XVatson of London Clotheworker three
angell nobles to make a ring therof to be worne in remem-
braunce of oure olde famyliaritie Also I desire ail suche as
have or shall hereafter have eny benyfytt by thes my
legacies and ail other good chrestian people to praye to
Almightie God for remission of my synnes and mercy upon
my soule Item I bequeath to Johan Bowyer the syster of
the said 'nell my cosen fourtie shillings Item I bequeathe
to the said Thomas Atkynson Tenne pounds currant money
of England whome with the said Thomas Eden I constitute
th executours of this my last Will to whome I bequeathe
the test and residue of ail my goodes chattelis and debts to
be distributed at their discrescion in works of mercy to
poore people not peny lnele but by larger poreon after theyr
discrecon namely to psons bedred maydens widowes ar, d
other ympotent psons Item I ordeyne and desire the said
of l]exander arc]a.. lxxxix
M Rochester to be the Overseer of this my last Will to be
well and truely pformed and fulfilled to whome for his labor
and paynes I bequeathe fyve marks currant money of Eng-
land In wytnes of whiche this my last Will I the said
Alexander Barqueley hereunto have set my seale and sub-
scribed the saine with my owne hands the day and yere
fyrst above writtennce. .ALEXANDRUBARQUEI.EY.
PgoBaTtM fuit Test coram do cafit Archief apud London decimo
die mensis Junij Anno &o milleiiio quingentesimo quinquagesimo secundo
Juramento Thomê Atkynson ER in hm6i testamento noiat Ac Approbatfi
et insumatfi et comissa fuit admStraco omf bonor & dêi deft de bene et
&« ac de pleno Inv "° &c exhibend Ad sancta dei Evangelia Jurat Regrvata
ptate Thome Eden alteri eR &« cure venerit.
The objection raised to claiming 13arclay as a 8cotsman, founded on the
ground that he nowhere mentions his nationality, though it was a common
practice of authors in his rime to do so, especially when they wrote out of
their own country, appeared to me, though ingenious and pertinent, to be
of so little real weight, as to be dismissed in a parenthesis. Its impor-
tance, however, may easily be overrated, and it may therefore be well to
point out that, apart from the possibility that this omission on his part was
the resu]t of accident or indifference, there is also the probability that it was
dictated by a wise discretion. To be a Scotsman was hot in the days of
Henry VIII., as it bas been in later and more auspicious times, a pass-
port to confidence and popularity, either at the court or among the
people of England. Barclay's rate haing led him, and probably his
nearest relatives also, across fnat Border which no Scotsman ever recrosses,
to lie and labour among a people by no means fiiendly to his country, it
would hae been a folly which so sensible a man as he was hot likely to com-
mit to hae displayed the red rag of his nationality belote his easily excited
neighbours, upon whose friendliness his comfort and success depended. The
farther argument of the Biographia Brittannica, that "it is pretty extraor-
xc Life and [¢rilings
dinary that Barclay himself, in his several addresses to his patrons, should
never take notice of his being a stranger, which would have ruade their
kindness to him the more remarkable," is suciently disposed of by the
succeeding statement, that the Duke of Noffolk and the Earl of Kent,
Barclay's principal patr6ns, "are known to have been the fiercest enemies
of the Scots." Surely a man who was English in everything but his birth
could hOt be expected to openly blazon his Scottish nativity, without
adequate occasion for so doing, in the very face of his country's chiefest
enemies, who were at the same time his own best fiiends. His caution in
this respect, indeed, may be regaded as an additional proof of his Scottish
P. XXX.--BAXCLAY's VOCABULAR'.
Some of the words, stated in popular fashion to be Scotch--they are of
course of Saxon origin--the usage of which by Barclay is adduced as an
evidence of his nationality, are also tobe found in Chaucer, but that does
hot invalidate the argument as stated. The employment of so many words
of northern usage must format least a strong corroborative argument in
favour of northern origin.
P. LII.--Te CASTLE OF L.BOI.IR,
It ought tobe stated that the modesty of the young author prevented
hlm fiom affixing his name to his first production, The Casde of Labour.
Both editions are anonymous. Baie, Pits, Wood, &c.» all include it
in the list of his works without remark.
A notice of the history of this once popular Dialogue, its ever recurring
disappearance, and ever recurring « discovery" by some fortunate antiquary,
would form an interesting chapter in a new « I-/istory of the transmission
of ancient books to modern times." Its chances of preservation and
record were unusually favourable. It must bave been disseminated over
the ]ength and breadth of the ]and in its day, having run through four
editlons in little more than a dozen years. Maunsell's Catalogue
records the edltion of I578. _A_ntony Wood (ITZl), and Bishop Tanner
(I748) both duly give it a place in their notices ot the productlons of its
author, without any special remark. But the Iiographia ]rittanica (1748)
in a long article upon Iulleyn, in which hls various works are noticed in
great detail, mtroduces the Dialogue as « tbis long negl«cted and
tr«atise»" and gives an e]aborate account of it extendlng to about
columns of small print. The now famous passage, descriptive of the early
poets, is quoted at length, and special notice or its bearing on ]arclay's
nationa]ity tken, the wrlter (Oldys) announclng that the dispute must
now be settled in favour ofScodand, « Seeing out author (]ulleyn), a con-
of llexand«r 33arclay. xci
temporary who lived in, and long upon the borders of 8cotland, says, as
above, he ¢as born in that kingdorn : and as rnuch indeed rnight have been
in great measure gathered frorn an attentive perusal of this poet hirnself."
The next biographer of Bulleyn, Aikin (Biog. Memoirs of Mcdi-
¢ine, 178o), rnakes no discovey, but contents himself with giving a brief
account of the Dialogue (in 1½ pages), in which the description of
Chaucer, &c., is duly noticed. Three years later, in 8pite of this, and the
appearance of a second edition of the Biographia Brittanica (778),
another really learned and able antiquary, VCaldron, in his edition of
Jonson's Sad Shepherd (783), cornes forth triurnphantly announcing his
discovery of the Dialogue as that of a hitherto totally unknown treasure ;
and in an appendix favours the curious with a serles of extracts from it,
extending to more than thirty pages, prefacing thern thus: "Having,
among the various Mysteries and Moralities, whether original irnpressions,
reprinted, or described only by those writers who have given any account
of these Ernbrios of the English Drarna, ne'oer met ¢Jaith or read of any
otite colY fl of te Dialogue, or Morality, by Bulleyn, tan te on 6 [which I
bave used], an account of and oerne extracts fiorn it rnay hot be unpleasing."
The pasage regarding the poets is of course given ad Iongum.
The next notice of the Dialogue occurs in Herbert's A mes (I 786), where
two edidons, t56 ¢ and t578, are entered. Dibdin (89) , in addition,
notices the edition of 1573- In the biographieal accounts of Bulleyn in
Hutchinson's Biographia Medica (1799), Aikin's General Biog. Dict.
(8o), and its succesor, Chalrners's Biog. Dict. (xSx2), due mendon is
preserved of the Dialogue in enurnerating the works of its author. Sir
Walter ;cott alludes to it in the Introduction to the Minstrelsy of the ;cot-
tlsh Border ( 802) as a" rnystery," but his only knowledge of it is evidently
derived from Waldron. Chalrners's Lire ofLindsay (Poetical Works, 806)
bas alto kept it prorninently belote a conslderable clas of inquirers, as he
gives that part ofthe description of the poet relatlng to Lindsay a conpicu-
ous place, with the following note : "Owing to the very obliging ternper of
Mr Waldron I bave been perrnitted to see that rare hook of Dr Bulleyn, with
the econd edition of * 569, whlch is rernarkably different frorn the first in
56¢." To thi use of it by Chalmers we owe the references to it in Lord
Linday's Lires of the Lindsays, i. 26 ( 849), 8eton' 8cottish Heraldry,
480 (863), and Notes and O, peries, 3rd s., iv. 64 (863). It was also
probably Chalrners that drew the attention of the writer of the Mernoir of
Barclay in the Live of the 8cottish Poets (822), to the posfibility
there being also in the Dialogue notice of that poet. t any rate» he
quotes the description of the early poets, showing in his prelirninary rernarks
considerable farniliarity with Bulleyn's history, pointing out the probability
of his having known Barclay at Ely, and arguing that whether or hot,
« from living in the arne neighbourhood he had an opportunity of knowing
Z, ije act l/lrritins
better than any contemporary whose evidence on the subject is extant, to
what country Barclay was, by ail about him, reputed to belong." He pre-
cedes his quotations thus : "As the whoh passage possesses considerable
elegance, and bas been so unier«al/y o*erlooed by the critics, the transcrip-
tion of it here will hot probably be deemed out of place." No mention is
ruade of the title of the book from which the "Allegorical Description o!
the Early English Poets" is taken ; hence itis impossible to say whether
the quoter ruade use of a copy of the Dialogue, or of Waldron's Notes.
The spelling is modernioed.
In various well-known bibliographical publications the existence of this
fugitive Dialogue is carefully registered, and its title, at least, ruade known
to ail inquirers,--in Watt's Bibliotheca Britt. (8z4), in Lowndes'
13ibliog. Manual (1834), and in Atkinson's Medical Bibliog. (1834) ; and
by the published Catalogues of the British Museum (1813), the Douce Col-
lection (184o), and the Bodleian Library (1843), it is ruade known that
there are copies of it preserved in these great collections. In Warton's
Hist. of Eng. Poetry (ed. 184o), it is also recorded by Park, in his notes
to the chapter on Gower, in which he refers to Bulleyn's visionary
description of that poet. Cooper's Athenoe Cantabrigienses, art. Bulleyn
(1858), also carefully notes the Dialogue and its editions. And in 1865
Collier's well-known Bibliographical Account of Early English Literature
again gives an account (two pages long) of the much neglected production,
in which the passage relating to the poets is once more extracted in full, with
the preliminary remarks as quoted at p. xxvii. «utra , but wlthout the usual
announcement that the work has hitherto been unknown.
But in 1873 , by the very last man from whom we might bave expected
it (F. J. Furnivall, the Atlas on whose shoulders ail out projects for the
preservation of out early literature test, in Notes and Q.ueries, ¢th s., xii.
161), we are again introduced to this ever disappearing, ever reappearing
Dialogue as a fresh find in early English literature: "Few things are
pleasanter in reading old books than to corne on a passage of praise of our
old poets, showing that in Tudor days men cared for the ' makers' of
former days as we do still. To Mr David Laing's kindness I owe
the introduction to the following quotation from a rare tract, where one
wouldn't have expected to find such a passage," and then follows once
more the whole passage so often quoted for the first rime. Dr Rimbault,
in an interesting note in a succeeding number of Notes and Queries (p.
z34), is the first one acquainted with the Dialogue to state that "this
amusing old work is perfectly well known, and has ofien been quoted
from." So henceforth we may presume that this interestlng and long-
fertile field of discovery may be regarded aa finally worked out.
I. Tn CAST£LL OF L,xnOUR.--Wynkyn de Worde.
5o6. 8mall Oarto. Black letter.
The title, "The castell of laboure," is within a scroll above a
woodcut of men over a tub : on the verso, a eut of a man
sitting st adesk. At sign. a ii. (recto) " Here begynneth the
prologue of this present treatyse." [The Brie. Mus. copy has
this on the verso of the title instead of the cut, a peculiarity which
may entitle it to be clled a oeparate edition, though it appears
to agree otherwise with the copy described. "l There are many
curious woodcuts. Colophon on the reverse ofsign, i iii. (5 lb) :
"Thus endeth the caste|l of labour, wherin is rychesse, verrue,
and honour. Enprynted st London in Fletestrete in the sygne
of the sonne, by Wynkyn de worde. Anno dfii M.ccccc.vi."
There is no indication of authorship. Signatures : a b c d e f
g h, alternately 8s and 4s, i 4 ; 5 z leaves, not numbered. The
British Museum and Cambridg« University Library copies of
this book have been collated, but as the former ends with H 3
and the latter wants the last leaf» that leaf muse remain undeo
scribed. Mr Bradshaw, however, says» " it almost certainly
contained a woodcut on the recto, and one of the devices on
A copy of this very scarce book was sold among Mr. Vrest's books
in I773 for z.
[.a. THE CASTELL OF LABOURÆ.--PynSOn. NO date.
Small Qarto. Black letter.
The title, « Here begynneth the castell of laboure," is over a
woodcut; and on the reverse is a woodcut; both the
saine as those in the previous edition. In the body of
the work there are 3o woodcuts, which differ from those of
the first edition, one of these (at G 6) is a repetition of that
on the title page. Colophon : « Thus endeth the castell of
labour wherin is rychesse vertue and honoure. ]nprynted
be me Richarde Pynson. » After the colophon cornes another
[eaf (I 6), on the recto of which is the printer's devlce, and
on the verso a woodcut representing a ¢ity on the banks of a
river. Without indication of authorship. Signatures : A, 8
leaves ; BI, in fixes.
"Neither Ames nor Herbert appear to have seen this rare volume ;
which is probably a reprint of Wynkyn de Worde's impres-
sion of I ço6." (Dibdin's Typ. Antiq., II. ç57.) There
is a copy in the Library of H. Huth, Esq.
xcviii l Bibliograpbical Catalogue
THE SHYP OF FOLYS OF THE WORLDE.--Pynson.
509 . Folio.
On the recto of the first leaf there is a large woodcut of Pynson'8
arms, or device No. VIL, similar to that which is on the
reverse of the last leaf of each of the volumes of his edition of
Lord Berners' translation of Froissart's Chronicles ; on the
back of the first leaf is the translator's dedication to "Thoma8
Cornisshe, bishop of Tine, and suffragan bishop of Bath ;" on
the next leaf begins "The regyster or table of this prescrit
boke in Englyshe," (ail as on pp. cxiii.---cxx.), succeeded
by a Latin table. Then on sign. a i. and fol. i. a large
xvoodcut, the same as is used for the title page of Ca-
xvood's edition (and on p. 313, Vol. II.), with a Latin de-
scription in the margin. Beneath is the title in Latin.
On the back, "Alexander Barclay excusynge the rudeness
of his translation," followed with "An exhortacion of
Alexander Barclay." Then on fol. il., etc., follow in
Latin, "Epigramma," "Epistola" in prose, and various
" Carmina." On the back of fol. v. "The exhortacion of
Brant to the fools" in Latin verse, followed by Barclay' ver-
sion xvith tle heading "Barclay the Translatour tho the Foies."
On fol. iiii. the "Prokgus Jacobl Locher . . . incipit,"
followed by its translation into English. On fol. ix., etc.,
" Hecatastichon in proludium auctoris et Libelli Narragonici"
and the English translation, " Here begynneth the prologe."
On xii. "The Argument" in Latin and English, and then
on xiii. commences the first chapter, "De inutilibus libris," in
Latin, and then in English, which is the ozder throughout,
with the cuts at the beginning of either the one or other as the
page suite& The book concludes with a ballad in honour
of the virgin Mary, consisting of twelve octave stanzas: at
the end of which is the colophon in a stanza of seven lines.
On the verso of the last leaf is the printer's device, No. v.
The Latin is uniformly printed in the Roman type, and the
English in the Gothic. Herbert supposes the diphthongs to be
"the first perhaps used in this kingdom."
The cuts are rude, coarse, English imitations of those in the original
editions. They are, including the preliminary one, I I8 in hum-
ber. The eut illustrating the chapter, "Of them that correct
other," etc., fol. liii. has been exchanged with the eut of the suc-
ceeding chapter. The eut illustrating "The unyuersall shyp
and generall Barke, » fol. cclxii., la repeated at the succeeding
chapter. The one illustrating Barclay's new chapter " Of
folys that af ouer worldly" is an imitation of the illustration
of "De singularitate quorundam novorum fatuorum " in the
Latin edition of March 1497- The eut illustrating the ballad
of the Virgin appears in the original at the head of" Excusatio
of larc]ay's l/[/'orks, xcix
Jacobi Locher Philomusi," and ilhstrates, according to the
margin, "Derisio boni operis."
The word " Folium" is on the left hand page, and the number»
in Roman capitals, on the right throughout the book ; the
last is cclxxiifi. Including the dedication and table (4 folios)
there are z83 folios. The numbering is a model or
irregularity: iiii. is repeated for ri., xx. stands for xv.,
xviii, is repeated, xx. is wanting» xxii. is repeated, xxiv.
is wanting, xxx. is repeated, xxxv, is wanting, xxxix.
is repeated in place of xliv., xlviii, is wanting, xlix. is
repeated, lvii is repeated after lxi., lviii follows twice, lix., Ix.,
lxi. being repeated m sccession after lviii., lxvii., lxviii, are
repeated after lx¢iii., lxxxii, is wanting, lxxxiii, is repeated,
lxxxii, stands for lxxxvii., lxxxiii, sueceeds for lxxxviiii,
cclxv, succeeds for lxxxix., lxxxxii, is repeated for lxxxxvii.,
[in the Grenville copy this leaf is correctly numbered],
cxxxiiis wanting, cxl. stands for cxxxviii., cxlxi, stands for
cxlvi., clxxiv, is wanting, clxxxxxi, sands for cci., ecxii, is
repeated for ccxvii., ccxxxviii, is wanting, cclx. stands for
cci., cclviii, is repeated for cclx.
The numeration by signatures is as follows : + iiij ; a, 8 ; b--p, 6 s ;
q, 7 ; r,s,t,v,x,y,z, &, 6 s ; A--Y, 6 s.
The book is extremely rare. There is a fine copy in the Bodleian
Library among Selden's books, another in the British Mu-
seum, Grenville Collection, and another in the Library of
John's College, Oxford.
The following are the more notable prices: Fariner, t798 ,
£z. 6s. ; Sotheby's, t8zI, £z8; Dent, .£3o. 9s.; Bib.
Anglo-Poetica, .Io ; Perkins, I873,
The fo[lowing amusing note on prices is taken from Renouard's
" Catalogue d'un Amateur." "Les premières 6ditions latines
de ce singulier livre, celles des traductions francises, toutes
également remplies de figures en bois, ne déplaisent pas aux
amateurs, mais jamais ils ne les ont payées un haut prix. La
traduction angloise faite en o9, sur le francois, et avec des
figures en bois, plus mauvaises encore que leurs modèles, se
paye en Angleterre z g, 3o et même 60 guinées ; c'est là, si
l'on veut, du zèle patriotique, de l'esprit national."
ll.a. STI2LTIFERA ]'AUIS .... THé. SHP OF FOOLS ....
With diuers other workes .... very profitable and
fruitfull for ail men .... Cawood. s57o. Folio.
A large eut of vessels filled with fools (the saine as on p. 3
Vol. II.)is inserted between the Latin and English titles.
This edition omits the ballad to the Virgin at the end.
The English is in black htter, and the Latin in Roman, in
the saine order as in the preceding edition. On the recto
c A ]ibliograjhical Catalogue
of leaf z 59 : Thus endeth the Ship of Fooles, translated...
by Alexander Barclay Priest, st that rime Chaplen in the
Colledge of S. Mary Otery in the Countie of Deuon. Anno
Domini IO8. On the back " Excusatio Iacobi Locher
Philomusi," in Sapphic verse. On the next page rive tanzas
by Barclay "excusing the rudenes of his Translation."
Lastly, an Index in Latin, and then in English. Then
follow the "diuers other workes," the Mirrour of good maners,
and the Egloges. Colophon : Imprinted at London in Paules
Church-yarde by lohn Cawood Printer to the Queenes Maie6-
tie. Cum P,'iuilegio ad imprimendum solum.
The woodcuts, inchding the one on the title-page, number I 17-
They are the saine as those of Pynson's edition, but show
occasional traces of the blocks having been chipped in the
course of their preservation in a printer's oflïce for 60 years
or so. The borders only differ, being of a uniform type, while
those of the previous edition are woodcuts of severa] patterns.
The numbering is a little irregular ; the preliminary leaves (*z) are
unnumbered. The folios are numbered in figures on the
left hand page, ' folio' being prefixed to the first six, ,6 is
repeated for I7, '3 stands for 3 I, [in one of the Adv. Lib.
copies the latter irregularity is found, though hot the former ;
in the other, 7 and 31 are numbered correctly], 96 is re-
peated for 99, 88 for I9I, oo for zoo, and zo for zoL
The last number is z 59, and there are three extra leaves, thus
making z74 for the Ship. Tbe supplementary works are hot
numbered. The signatures are as follows : The 8hip, ¶ six
leaves ; ¶¶ six leaves ; A to U u, in fixes ; X x, four lea¢es ;
irrour ofgood manners, A--G, in fixes ; Egloge«, A to D,
in fixes ; in ail 680 pp.
This book was licensed to Cawood in 567-8, and is said to
be the only book he had license for. It is now very rare.
Prices : Digby, I68o, 4s. 4d. Bernard, t698, s. od. Gulston,
t783, £I, 6s. White Knights,£8, 2s. Roxburghe,-£9,
t9 s. 6& Fonthill, £3, 3 s- Bib. Anglo-Poet, £I2, 2s.
Hcber, £8, 12s. Sotheby's, 873, £48, os.
A complete bibliograpby of tbe various editions and ,ersions of tbe Ship of
Fools will b« found in Zarncke's edition of the original or in Graesse'$
Trésor de livres rares et pécieux. A notice is subjoined of the two
editions of the Englisb prose translation» and of the two other publica-
tions bearing the title.
The abridged prose translation, b)" Henry WaLson, frorn the French prose
,ersion of Jehan Droyn appeared from the press of De Worde in the
of larclay's I'o,'ks. ci
saine year in which Barclay's fuller poetical version was issued. In
both text and illustrations it is a much inferior production to the latter.
As the existence of the first editlon bas been, and still is, denied, it
being frequently confounded with larclay's book, we transcrihe the
following description oi r the only known copy from Van Praet's "Cata-
logue des livres imprimés sur vélin de la Bibliotheque du Roi."
The Shyppe of Fooles, translated out of frenche, by Henry
Watson. London, Wynkyn de Worde, 1509, petit in--4.
Edition en lettres de forme, sans chiffres ni réclames, avec signatures, figures et
initiales en bois ; /t longues lignes, au nombre de 3z sur les pages en-
tières ; cont. x6 9 f. ; les 7 premiers renferment L le titre suivant, gravé
audessus d'une figure qui représente le navire des fous :
¶ The fla)-ppe of fnoles.
2. Le prologue du traducteur; 3- la préface ; 4- la table des chapitres.
Au recto du dernier f. est cette souscription :
¶ Thus endeth the [hyppe of fooles of this worde. EnpTnted at London in
Flete frete by Wynk' de worde prynter vnto the excellent pTncellL Marguerete, Countefle of Rychemonde and Derbye, and grandame
vnto out moof naturall fouereyne lorde kynge Henry r. viii. The
yere of out lorde. .ccecc. ix. ¶ The fyrfe yere of the reygne of out
fouerayne Iorde kynge HemT the viii. The. ri. daye of Julii.
On aFerçoit a, verso le monogramme et la marque de William Caxton, au bas
deuels on lit ces mots : Wynken de Worde."
This beautiful copy upon reliure is the only example of thls edition known.
The grete Shyppe of Fooles of this worlde. Wkyn de
Worde. 1517- Qarto.
This is the second edition of V'atson's translation. Colophon : "Thus endeth
the shyppe of fooles of this worlde. Jmprynted at Londod in flete
strete b" W$'kyn de Worde. ve yere of out lorde l.ccccc. & xvii.
¶ The nynthe yere of ye reygne of out souerayne lorde kynge Henry
ye VIII. The xx. daye of June." It contains G G 6, fours and eights
alternatdy (the signatures ending on G O iii. ), besides 6 leaves, with the
prologue, prolude and table, belote signature A.
Extremely rare. Roxburghe, £6 4`
The Ship of Fools Fully Fraught and Richly Laden v¢ith
Asses, Fools, Jack-daws, Ninnihammers, Coxcombs, Slender-
wits, Shallowbrains, Paper-Skuls, Simpletons, Nickumpoops,
Wiseakers, Dunces, and Blockheads, Declaring their several
Natures, Manners and Consfitutions ; the occasion why this
Ship was built, with the places of their intended Voyage,
and a list of the Officers that bear Command therein.
If for this Voyage an)' have a mind,
The" with Jack Adams ma}, acceptance find,
Who will strain hard ere they shall stay behind.
Licensed, Roger L'Estrange.
lA large woodcut of the Ship.]
London, Printet by J. W. forJ. Clark, at the Bible and Harp
in West-Smithfield. n.d. [Circa I65O. ] 4to. 4 leaves.
cii 1 llibliogra/gbical Catalogue
"This book, or rather tract, has nothing in common with Barchy's Ship of
Foois, except the generai idea. Itis entirdy in prose. My COl ] ha
nothing to show to whom it formedy belonged."--(Letter of H. Huth,
Esq.) The last entence was elicited by the inquiry whether Mr
Huth's copy were the one formerly bdonging to Mr Heber.--$ee
l$iliotheca t[eeriana, Part IV. No. 75z.
Stultifera Navis... The modern Ship of fools. Lond. 18o7,
8o. Pp. xxiv., 95-
A wretched production in verse, in imitation of Barclay's Ship of Fools 1
published anonymously by W. H. lreland, the 8hakesperian forger.
III. THE EGLOGES OF ALEX.DER BARCLAY, PREST.'rhe
first three, without printer's naine or device. No date.
Qarto. Black letter.
« Here begynneth the Egloges of Alexder Barclay, p»esh wherot
the fyrst thre conteyneth the myseryes of courters and courtes
of ail prynces in generall, the marrer wherof was transhted
into Englyshe by the sayd Alexander in fourme of Dialogues,
out of a boke named in latyn Miserie Cufialifi, compyled by
Eneas 8iluius, Poete and oratour, whiche after was Pope or
Rome, & named Pius." This tide is over a cut of two
shepherds, Coridon and Cornix, the interlocutors in these
three eclogues. On the back is a cut of David and Bath-
sheba. At the end of the third egloge : "Thus endyth
the thyrde and last egloge of the mysery of court and
courters, composed by Alexander Barclay, preste, in his
youthe." A cut of the two shepherds and a courtier fills up
the page. .Vithout date, printer's naine, or device. Contains
P 6, in fours, the last leaf blank.
Ill.a. THE I'OURTHE EGLOGGE OF ALEXAIqDRE BaP.CLEY.
--Pynson. No date. Qarto. Black letter.
It is entitled, "The Boke of Codrus and Mynaclus," over the cut
of a priest, with a shaven crown, writing at a plutus. It
concludes with "The discrypcion of the towre of Verrue &
Honour, into whiche the noble Hawarde contended to entre,
by worthy acts of chiualry," related by Menalcas, in stanzas
of eight verses. At the end, "Thus endeth the fourthe
Eglogge of Alexandre Barcley, cteyning the maner of the
riche men anenst poets and other clerkes. Emprinted by
Richarde Pynson priter to the ky»ges noble grace." On
the last leaf is his device, No. V. Contains zz leaves» with
of B«trchy's Horks. ciii
III.b. THE FYrTE EGLOG or ALIXAlqDRI BARCLA¥.--
Wynkyn de Worde. 1'4o date. Oarto. Black letter.
« The fyfte Eg]og of A]exandre Barc]ay of the Cytezen and
vplondyshman." This title is over a large woodcut of a priest,
sitting in his study. ]Seneath, "Here after foloweth the Pro-
loge." On the verso of A il. are two cuts of two shepherds,
whole lengths, with this head-title, "Interlocutoures be Amyn-
tas and Faustus." There are no other cuts. Colophon :
"Here endeth the v. Eg]og of A]exandre Barclay of the
Cytezyn and vp]ondysshman. Imprynted at London in flete
strete, at the sygne of ['the] Sonne, by Wynkyn de worde."
Beneath, device No. v. Contains A 8, B , C 6 ; 18 lea,es.
There is a copy in the British Museum.
With the first four Eclogues as above, Woodhouse. 18o3, (Her-
bert' copy), £z 5. ; resold, Dent, 18z7, £36. ; resold, Heber,
1834, £z4. los. At Heber's sale this unique set, contain-
ing the on]y known copy of the first edition of the first four
Eclogues, was bought by Thorpe ; further I hate hot been
able to trace it.
III.c. THE EGLoOEs.--John Herforde. No date. Qarto.
" Here begynneth the Egloges ofAlex. 13arclay, Priest, whereof
the first three conteineth the Miseries of Courters and Courtes."
"Probably a reprint of Pynson's impression," Dibdin. Con-
tains only Eclogues I.-III. Herbert conjectures the date to
be 15ç8 ; Corser, 546; Hazlitt, 1545.
III.d. TuE EcLors.---Humfrey Powell. No date. Oarto.
"Here begynneth the Egloges of Alexander Barclay, prlest, where-
of the first thre conteineth the miseries of courters and
courtes, of all Princes in general... In the whiche the inter-
loquutors he, Cornix, and Coridon." Concludes: "Thus endeth
the thyrde and last Eglogue of the Misery of Courte and
Courters, Composed by Alexander Barclay preest, in his
youth. Jmprinted at London by Humfrey Powell." Con-
tains only Eclogues I.--III. Collation: Title, A ; ig.
A to Pz, in fours; 58 leaves hot numbered.
This is an edition of extreme rarity. It is very well printed, and
the title is surrounded with a woodcut border with orna-
mentcd pillars at the sides. Herbert conjectures the date to
be 1549, the Bib. Anglo-Poetica, Lowndes, and Corser,
548. There is a copy in the Cambridge University Library,
and another in the possession of Da,id Laing, Esq.
Prices : Inglis, £6. zs. 6d.; Bright, 18ç 5, £IO. los.; 13ib. Anglo-
Poetica, £ 15-
.,4 Bibliographical Catalogue
CERTAYNE -GLOGES OF ]kLEXANDER BARCLAY
PasT.--Cawood. 57 o. Folio. Black letter.
Appended to Cawood's edition o! the Ship of Fools. No title-
page, cuts, or pagination. The above heading on ^ i.
Colophon : Thus endeth the fifth and last Egloge of Alexander
Barclay, of the Citizen and the man of the countrey. Im-
printed at London in Paules Church-yarde by Iohn Cawood,
Printer to the Queenes Maiestie. Cure Priuilegio ad impri-
Contains AD, in àxes.
III.f.T. Cv'rEzs ANt UVNtVSma^N: an Eclogue [the fifth] by
Alexander Barclay. Printed from the original edition by
Wynkyn de Worde. Edited, with an Introductory Notice of
Barclay and his other Eclogues, by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A.
London ; printed for the Percy Society [vol. XXII.], 847.
8vo. Pp. + 6, lxxiv., 47-
IV. Tnr INTRODUCTORY TO WRITE AND TO PRONOUNCE
FREI¢HE. Coplande. 15oE l. Folio. Black letter.
'Here begynneth the introductory to wryte, and to pronounce
Frenche compyled by Alexander Barcley compendiously at
the commafidemêt of the ryght hye excellent and myghty
prynce Thomas duke of Northfolke.' This title is over a
large woodcut of a lion rampant, supporting a shield, con-
taining a white lion in a border, (the saine as that on the title
of the Sallust, VI.), then follows a French ballad of 16
lines in two colorons, the first headed, "R. Coplande to the
whyte lyooe, and the second, " ql Ballade." On the recto
of the last leaf, ' Here foloweth the marier of dauncynge
of bace dafices after the vse of fraunce & other places trans-
lated out of frenche in englysshe by Robert coplande.'
Col. : Jmprynted at London in the Fletestrete at the sygne
of the rose Garlande by Robert coplande, the yere of our
lorde, ta.ccccc.xxi, y xxii. day of Marche.' Neither folioed
nor paged. Contains C 4, in fixes, 16 leaves.
In the edition of Palsgrave (see above, p. lxxiii.), published among
the "Documents inédits sur l'histoire de France," the editor
8ays of this work of Barclay's : "Tous mes efforts pour d6-
couvrir un exemplaire de ce curieux ouvrage ont été inutiles."
There is a copy, probably unique, in the Bodleian ; it was
formerly Herbert's, afterwards Douce's.
Ail the parts of this treatise relating to French pronunclation have
been carefully reprinted by Mr A. J. Ellis, in his treatise
" On Early English Pronunciation" (published by the Philo-
logical Society), Part III., p. 8o4.
of Barclay's II/orks. cv
V. THE MvIIOUI or COOD MAlqls.--Pynson. No date.
Folio. Black letter.
' Here begynneth a ryght frutefull tteatyse, intituled the myrrour
of good maners, cteynyng the iiii. verrues, callyd car-
dynall, compyled in latyn by Domynike Mancyn: And
translate into englysshe : at the desyre of syr Gyles Alyngton,
knyght: by Alexander Bercley prest : and monke of Ely.
This dtle is over a cut» the saine as at the head or Bar-
clay's preface to his translation of Sallust, a representa-
tion of the author in a monkish habit on his knees, presenting
a book to a nobleman. The text begins on back of title.
The original is printed in Roman letter in the margins.--
Colophon in a square woodcut border: Thus endeth the
ryght frutefull marrer of the route verrues cardynall: Jm-
prynted by Rychard Pynson: prynter vnto the kynges
noble grace : with his gracyous pryuylege the whiche boke I
haue prynted, at the instance & request, of the ryght noble
Rychard yerle of Kent. On the back, Pynson's device
No. v. It bas neither running titles, catch-words, nor
the leaves numbered. Signatures ; A to G, in sixes, and H,
in eights ; loo pp.
In the British Museum, Grenville collection, from Heber's col-
lection. « This edition differs materially from that used by
Herbert, which has led I)r I)ibdin to the conclusion that
there were two impressions." $o says a MS. note on the
copy, (quoted in the Bib. Grenv.), but I)ibdin does hot com-
mit himself to the conclusion, his words belng these : "This
description is given from a copy in the possession ofMr Heber ;
whicla, from its varying with the accourir of Herbert, Mr H.
supposes, with justice, must be a different one from Herbert's."
I have failed to discover the difference.
Prices: Perry, £9- ; Roxburghe (last leaf wanting}, £Io. os. ;
Btbllotheca Anglo-Poetica, £ z. zs.; 8ykes, £6. 6s.
To the above edition must belong the fragment entered in Bohn's
Lowndes under «Four," thus: "Four Verrues Cardinal.
Lond. R. Pynson, n.d. folio. Onlya fiagment ofthis Poem
is known ; it was prlnted at the request of Rychard Erle of
V.a. TH Millotrp. of GoooMANEls.--Cawood. 57 o.
Folio. Black letter.
Appended to Cawood's edition of the 8hip of Fools. No title
page, pagination, or cuts. The above heading on A l. The
Latin original printed in Roman by the side of the English.
Contains A--G, in sixes.
cvi 1 Bibliograpbical Catalogue
It may be useful to give here the bibliography of the other English trans-
lations of Mancyn.
Mancinus de quattuor Virtutibus. The englysshe of Man-
cyne apon the foure cardynah vertues.] No place, printer's
naine, or date, but with the types of Wynkyn de Worde,
circa 1518- to, a--d, in eights. Bodleian.
Followlng the title occurs : Petri Carmeliani exasticon in Dominici Mancini
de quattuor cardincis virtutibus libellum. The I.atin portion is in verse,
printed in Roman Ictter, with marginal notes in black letter, of a *ery
small size, and the English in prose.
The English part, in black letter, is entitled: The englysshe of Mancyne
apon the foure cardynale verrues, ri.p. or d. This portion has a separate
title and signatures ; the title is on A x. On sign. F il. occurs, « The
correccion of the englysshe," and on the verso of the saine leaf is printed,
"The correction of the texte." A, B, C, and D, $ leaves each ; E, 6
leaves ; and F, 4 baves ; 4z leaves altogether. A copy of this is in the
British Museum. Only two pexfect copies are known.
A Plaine Path to Perfect Verrue : Deuised and found out by
Mancinus, a Latine Poet, and translated into English by G.
.Ardua ad virtutem via.
lmprinted at London in Knightrider-strete, br Henry Bynneman, for Leonard
Maylard. Anno. S65. Svo., 7 z leaves. Black letter, in verse. Decli-
cated "To the right Honorable and hys singular good Lady, Lady Arme,
Cofitesse Warvicke." There i« also a metrcal address to the reader, and
$ 4-line stanzas by .lames Sanford in praise of the translator.
Freeling, $36, lqo. 9, .7-, bought for Mr Corser: now in the Bx|tish
Museum. Supposed to be unique.
CP.orvc.E compyled in Latyn, by the renowned
Sallust.--Pynson. No date. Folio.
"' Here begynneth the famous cronycle of the warre, whlch the
romayns had agaynst Jugurth, vsurper of the kyngdome of
Numidy. which cronycle is compyled in latyn by the re-
nowmed romayne Salust. And translated into englysshe by
syr Alexander Barclay preest, at c6aundemetlt of the rlght
hye and mighty prince: Thomas duke of Northfolke."
There are two editions by Pynson of this book.
I. In this edition the lower lalf of the title page bas a square
enclosed by double lines containing the Norfolk arms, a lion
rampant, holding a shield in his paws, on which is another
lion, a cut which also appears on the title of The Introductory.
There is a full page cut of the royal arms with portcullis, &c.,
on the back, followed by rive pages of Table. The preface
to his patron, in English,--together with a Latin dedication to
Bishop Veysy, in parallel columns,--begins on the verso of
signature ^ iiii, under a cut of the author presenting his
of 13arc]ay's Vorks. cvii
book to him, the saine as that which appears on the title of
The myrrour of good maners. [See the cut prefixed to the
Notice of Barclay's lire, which is confined however to a repro-
duction of the two principal figures only, two other figures, evi-
dently of servants, and some additional ornamentation of the
room being omitted.] At the end of this preface is another cut
ofthe author, writing at a desk; also on the back of the leafis a
cut ofthe disembarking of an army. There are no other cuts, but
the volume is adorned throughout with veryfine woodcut initiais.
Catchwords are given irregularly at the beginning, but egu-
lady towards the end, at the bottom of the left hand page only,
but the preface has them to every cohmn. Colophon
« Thus endeth the famous cronycle ofthe war.., imprented
at London by Rycharde Pynson primer vnto the kynges noble
grace : with priuylege vnto hym grated by out sayd souerayne
lorde the kynge." On the back o the last leaf is Pynson's
device, No. v. The date is erroneously conjectured in Moss's
Classical Bib. to be I I I. It was probably 15 I9, certainly
between 1519 and Iiz 4. Contains 9 z numbered leaves,
and one leaf unnumbered, besides eight leaves of preliminary
matter : numbering quite regular: signatures; a 8,
6 s, P, Q, 4 s. In the British Museum, Grenville Collec-
tion, the Bodleian, and the Public Library at Cambridge.
Prices : Roxburghe, £2, 128. ; Sykes, £8, 128. ; I-/eber,
1Ss. 6d. ; 8otheby's, 857,
In this edition, the title page is the saine as in the other with the
exception of a semicolon for a full point after Numidy, the
succeeding which having an e added, and romayne being
without the e, but on the back instead of a cut of the royal
arms The table commences ; the preface begins on the recto of
sign. a 4, under the cut of the author presenting his book
to the Duke of Norfolk, and ends without the leaf of wood-
cuts which is appended to the preface of the first edition.
Pynson's device at the end of the book is also wanting in this
edifion. It contains only fol. Ixxxvi., with six leaves of
prcliminary marrer; the pagination is a little irregular, xxi.
and xxii. are wanting but xxiii, is given three rimes, and
lxxvii, is repeated for lxxviii. ; the British Museum copy is
deficient in folios lxii. and lxv. : signatures ; a 6, A--N, 6 s,
and O, P, 4 s. The initiais are the saine as those in the first
edition in the great majority of cases, but appear much more
worn. There are catch-words only at the end of every signa-
ture throughout the book, except to the preface, which has
them to every column. In the British Museum, and the
Public Library, Cambridge.
Both editions have the Latin in Roman letter in the margins,
and running-titles. Ames mentions an editlon with cuts,
which must be the saine as the first of these.
cviii 1 tibliograpbical Catalogue
CROlqICLE OF ,¥ARRE. Compiled in Laten by
Saluste. Corrected by Thomas Paynell. Waley,
f 557- Qlarto.
" Here begynneth the famou Cronicle of warre, whyche the
Romaynes hadde agaynst Jugurth vsurper of the kyngedome
of Numidie: whiche Cronicle i compiled in Laten by the
renowmed Romayne Saluste: and translated into englyshe
by syr alexander Barklaye prieste. And nowe perused and
corrected by Thoma Paynell. Newely Jmprinted in the
yere of oure Lorde God M.D.L vij." On the verso of the
title begin Paynell' dedication-- « To the ryghte honorable
Lorde Antonye Vycounte Mountegue, Knyghte of the ryghte
honorable order of the garter and one of the Kynge and
Queenes Magestie pryuie counsayle." "The prologue"
begins on a . ]3arclay's prelace and dedication are omitted,
as well as the Latin of 8allust. Col. : "Thu endeth the
famouse Cronicle of the warre.., against Jugurth. ; . trana-
lated.., by syr axlexander Barkeley, prieste, at commaunde-
mente of... Thomaa, duke of Northfolke, And imprinted
at London in Foiter lane by Jhon Waley." 8ignaturei ;
H h, 4 , besides title and dedication, two leave : the pag-
ination commences on a 4, at "The fyrste chapter," the laat
folio being cxx. ; xxi. ia repeated for xxii., xxiii, for xxiv.,
xix., stands for xxix., lvii. is repeated, and lxxiv, ia repeated
This edition form8 the second part of a volume having the following
general title page: The Conspiracie of Catiline, written by
Constancius Felicius Durantinus, and translated bi Thomas
Paynell : with the historye of Jugurth, writen by the famous
Romaine 8alust, and translated into Englyshe by/lexander
Vil. flkLEX. BARCLAY HIS FIGURE OF OUR MOTHER HOLY
CHURCH OPPRESSED BY "FHE FRENCHE KING. Pynson.
This is given by Herbert on the authority ofMaunsell's Catdogue,
VIII. Tr- LVF. OF THE GLORIOUS MARTYR SAYNT
GEORGE. Translated by _A_lexander Barclay, while
he was a monk of Ely, and dedicated to N. XVest,
Bp. of Ely. Pinson [Circa ,53 °-] Oarto. [Herbert,
of [arclay's [IVorks. cix
IX. THr LYFE or SAY'NTE TrIOM,S. Pynson. No date.
Q,arto. Black letter.
"I Here begyt, neth the lyre of the blessed martyr saynte Thomas."
This title is the headline of this little treatise ; at the begin-
ning of which is indented a small woodcut of a man in armour,
striking at the bishop, with his cross-bearer belote him. It
begins "The martir saynte Thomas was son to Gylberde
Bequet a burgeys of the Cite of London. And was borne
in ye place, whereas now standeth the churche called saynte
Thomas of Akers." It concludes, "¶ Thus endeth the
lyre of the blessed martyr saynt Thomas of Caunturbury.
Jmprynted by me Rycharde Pynson, prynter vnto the kynges
noble grace." Contains eight leaves. There is a copy in the
British Museum. Assigned to Barclay on trie authoAty
X. H,v'rrIo's ClovcLr. Pynson. No date. Folio.
"Here begynneth a lytell Cronycle, translated & imprinted at the
cost & charge of Rycharde Pynson, by the c6maundement
of the ryght high and mighty prince, Edwarde duke of Buck-
ingham, yerle of Gloucestre, Staffarde, and of Northamton,"
over a large woodcut. Colophon: "Here endeth,
Imprinted by the sayd ik]arcle Pynon, pdnter unto the
Kinges noble grace." Date conjectured to be between
and 153o. Pynson's device, No. S, at the end. Collation :
A--E, and H, in sixes ; F and G, and I, in fours ; forty-
On the verso of fol. 3S, "Here endeth ye boke of thistorls of
thoriêt pattes copyled by a relygious man frere Hayton
frere of Prem6te order, s5tyme lorde of court & cosyn
german to the kyng of Armeny vpon ye passage of the holy
lande. By the c6mafidement of ye holy fader ye apostle
of Rome Clemêt the V. in ye cite of Potiers which boke I
Iqicholas Falcon, writ first in French . . . I haue tr,slated
in Latyn for out holy father V e pope. In the yere of out
lorde god .ccc.vn. in ye monéth of August. Deo gré."
"The travels of Hayton into the Holy Land and Armenia, and
his history of Asia, is one of the most valuable of the early
accounts of the east. The present is the only translation into
English, and from the ci,'cumstances of its being printed by
Pynson and having been (when in Mr Heber's collection)
bound v¢ith tv¢o other v¢orks (Mirrour of good Maners and
Sallust) both translated by Barclay, v¢as probably also trans-
lated by him. It is a book of extraordinay rarlty, no perfect
copy that can be taced having previously occured for sale."
(Bibliotheca Grenvilliana, vol. I.)
Ht'ber's copy (the one above mentioned), £4o- 9 s. 6d.
THE SHIP OF FOOLS.
¥»crandissimo in Christo Patri ac Domino : domino -home
Cornisshe Tene»ensis ponti_fici ac diocesis Badonensis
S'u.ff'raganio `vigilantissimo, sue paternitat»s Capellanus
humilimus llcxander Barclay suiipsius rccommcncta.
cionem cure omni summissione, et reucrcntia.
ff'amctsi crebris negocijs : `varioçue impedimentorum gencre
t'atigatus paulo diutiùs quàm "volucram a studio reuulsus eram.
lttamen obseruandissime presul : Stultiferam classera (`vt sure
tue paternati pollicitus) iam tandem absolui et impressam ad te
destinaui. 1Veque tamen certum laborem pro incerto premio
(h«mano. s.) meis intpossuissem humeris : nisi Seruianum illud
dictum (longe anteaçam inceperam) admonuisset. Satius esse
non incipere quàm inceptum minus pcrfectum relinTucre.
Completo tamen opere : nec quemquam magis dignum quàm
tua sit paternitas existimaui oui id dcdicarem : tutu quia salu-
bcrrima tua prudentia, morum grauitas, "vite sanctitas doc-
trineque assiduitas : errantes fatuos mumdanis ab illecebris ad
"virtutis tramites : diffciles licet : possint reducere : tutu "veto :
quia sacros ad ordines per te sublimatus et promotus, multisçue
aliis tuis beneflciis ditatus non potui tibi meure obsequium non
coartare. Opus igitur tue paternitati dedicaui: meorum
primicias laborum qui in lucem eruperunt 4tue vt tua
consuluerit paternatis : autoris carmina cum meis vulgaribus
rithmicis vn alternatim coniunixi : et çuantum a veto car-
niinum sensu erraueriln, tue autoritatis iudicium erit. Fateor
equidem multo plura adiccisse quam adcmisse : partira ad
[ cxvi ]
vhia que bac nostra in regione abundantius pullulant mor-
dacius carpenda : partimque ob Ritbmi di.cultatem. Adicct
eti, m quas&«m Biblie aliorumque autorum concordandas in
margine notatas quo singula magis lectoribus illucescant : Simul
ad inuidorum caninos latratus pacandos : et rabida ora obstru-
cmta : qui vbi quid fadnorum : quo ipsi scatent : reprehcnsum
audicrint, continuo patulo gutture liuida euomunt dicta, scripta
dilacerant, digna scombris ac tbus carmina recensent : sed bi
si pcrgant malediccre : vt stultiuagi comitcs classent insiliant.
dt tu vencran.te Presul Discipuli tui exiguum munusculum:
hilari fi'onte accipito, ClasscmTue nostram (si quid vagum, si
quicl erronium : si quid dcni7ue superfluum emineat : optimam
in partent interpretando : ab inuidorum fltudbus : tue autori-
tatis clipco tucaris. Vale. Ex lmpressoria oc'na Richardi
Pynson. iij. ldus Dccembris.
[ 'HE REGYSTER OR TABLE OF THIS PRESENT BOKE 1N
Alexander Barclay excusynge the rudenes of
his translacion, ye first lefe Barclay ye translatour
to y folys, 3
A prologe in prose shewynge to what lutent this Boke
was firste ruade, & who were the first Auctours
of it, 5
Another Prologe: in Balade concernyng the same,
In what place this Boke was translate and to what
purpose it was translatyd, . 17
Here begynneth the Folys and firste of inprofyt-
able bokys, ' 9
Of euyll Counsellours Juges & men of lawe, 24
Of couetyse and prodigalyte, OE9
Of newe disgysynges in apparayle, 34
A lawde of the nobles and grauyte of Kynge
Henry the eyght, 39
Of olde Folys encresynge foly with age, 4'
Of negligent Fathers ayenst their Children, 45
Of taleberers : & mouers of debate, 53
Of nat folowers of good counsel, . 57
Of vngoodly maners, and dysordred, 6z
Of the hurtynge of frendshyp, 66
Of dispysers of holy scripture, . 71
Of folys inprouydent, 75
Of disordred & venerious loue, 79
Of them that synne trustynge vpon the mercy of
almyghty god, 84
Of folys yt begyn great byldynge ithout suflïcient
Of glotons, and droncardes, 9
Of ryches vnprofytable, 9 8
Of folys that wyl serue two lordes both togyther, o 3
Of superflue speche, lO 7
Of them that correct other, them self culpable in the
saille faut, 1 1 1
Of folys that fynde others good, nat restorynge the
saine to the owner, ,. 5
The sermon or doctryne of wysdom, 9
Of Folys bostyng them in fortune, z4
Of the superflue curyosyte of men, t z 9
Of great borowers, & slacke payers,
Of vnprofitable vowers & peticions, 37
Of negligent stodyers, . 4
Of them that folysshly speke ayenst the workes of god, 48
Of lewde Juges of others dedes, 5
Of pluralytees of benefyces, 56
Of sylmers that prolonge from daye to day to amende
theyr myslyuyng, . ! 6z
Of men that ar Jelous, .. 66
Of auoutry, and specially of suche as ar bawdes to
theyr wyues, 7 t
ab la. cxix
Of suche as nedys wyll contynue in theyr foly nat
withstandynge holsom erudicion, . 175
An addicion of the secundaries of Otery saynt Mary,
in Deuynshyre, . x 79
Of wrathfull folys, 18 t
Of the mutabylyte of fortune, i 86
Of seke men inobedient, ! 9 z
Of to open councellers, . 197
Of folys that can nat be ware by ye mysfortune nor
take example of others damage, . 2Ol
Of folys that force or care for the bacbytynge of
lewde people, OEo5
Of mockers and tïals accusers, 21 o
Of them that despyse euerlastynge blys for worldly
thynges & transitory, OE 15
Of talkers and makers of noyse in the Chirche of god, 2 z o
Of folys that put them self in wylful ieopardy and
Of the way of felycyte, and godnes and the payne to
corne to synners, 23°
Of olde folys yt gyue example of vyce to youth
negligent & vnexpert, OE34
Of bodely lust or corporall voluptuosyte, OE39
Of folys that can nat kepe secrete theyr owne counsell, 244
Of yonge folys that take olde wymen to theyr wyues
nat for loue but for ryches, OE47
Of enuyous Folys, 252
Of impacient folys disdaynynge to abyde and surfer
correccion, for theyr profyte, 256
Of folysshe Fesicians vsynge theyr practyke without
speculacyon, . :z6o
cxx T bula.
Of the ende of wo, ldly honour & power and of folys
yt trust in them, . 265
An addicion of Alexander barclay, . 268
Of predestinacyon, OE 71
Of folys that aply other mennys besynes leuynge
theyr owne vndone, . 276
Of the vyce of ingratytude or vnkyndnes and folys
that vse it, . 280
Of Folys that stande to moche in theyr owne conceyte, z86
Of folys that delyte them in daunsynge, . . 291
Of nyght watchers, . OE9 6
Of the vanyte of beggers, 3o*
Alexander Barclay excusynge the rudenes
of his translacion.
Go Boke : abasshe the thy rudenes to present.
To men auaunced to worshyp, and honour.
By byrthe or fortune : or to men eloquent.
By thy submyssion excuse thy Translatour.
But whan I remember the comon behauour
Of men: I thynke thou ought to quake for fere
Of tunges enuyous whose venym may the dere
Tremble, fere, and quake, thou ought I say agayne.
For to the Redar thou shewest by euydence
Thy selfe of Rethoryke pryuate and barayne
In speche superflue: and fruteles of sentence.
Thou playnly blamest without al difference
Bothe hye and lowe sparinge eche mannes naine.
Therfore no maruayle thoughe many do the blame.
z oin exbortaciolt of ¢tlexamler Barclay.
But if thou fortune to lye before a State
As Kynge or Prince or Lordes great or smal.
Or doctour diuyne or other Graduate
Be this thy Excuse to content theyr mynde withal
My speche is rude my termes comon and rural
And I for rude peple moche more conuenient.
Than for Estates, lerned men, or eloquent.
But of this one poynt thou nedest not to fere
That any goode man: vertuous and Just.
XVyth his yl speche shal the hurt or dere.
But the defende. As I suppose and trust.
But suche Unthriftes as sue theyr carnal lust
XVhome thou for vyce dost sharply rebuke and blame
Shal the dysprayse: emperisshinge thy naine.
An exhortacion of Alexander Barclay.
But ye that shal rede this boke: I you exhorte.
And you that ar herars therof also I pray
Where as ye knowe that ye be of this sorte:
Amende your lyfe and expelle that vyce away.
Slomber nat in syn. Amende you whyle ye may.
And yf ye so do and ensue Vertue and grace.
XVythin my Shyp ye get no rowme ne place.
Barclay the translatour tho the Foles.
To Shyp galantes the se is at the fui.
The wynde vs calleth out sayles ar dlsplayed.
Where may we best aryue ? at Lyn or els at Huile ?
To vs may no hauen in Englonde be denayd.
Why tary we ? the Ankers af vp wayed.
If any corde or Cabyl vs hurt, let outher hynder.
Let slyp the ende or els hewe it in sonder.
Retourne your syght beholde vnto the shore.
There is great nomber that Cayne wold be aborde.
They get no rowme our Shyp can holde no more.
Haws in the Cocke gyue them none other vorde.
God gyde vs from Rockes, quicsonde tempest and forde
If any man of warre, vether, or xvynde apere.
My selfe shal trye the wynde and kepe the Stere.
But I pray you reders haue ye no dysdayne.
Thoughe Barclay haue presumed of audacite
This Shyp to fuie as chefe mayster and Captayne.
Though some thynke them selle moche ,,orthyer than he.
It were great maruayle forsoth syth he hath be.
A scoler longe: and that in dyuers scoles
But he myght be Captayne of a Shyp of Foies
4 darc]ay t]e trans]atour t]o t]e ]Voles.
But if that any one be in suche maner case.
That he wyl chalange the maystershyp fro me
Yet in my Shyp can I nat want a place.
For in euery place my selle I oft may se.
But this I leue besechynge eche degre :
To pardon my youthe and to bolde interprise.
For harde is it duely to speke of euery vyce.
For yf I had tunges an hundreth : and wyt to fele
A1 thinges natural and supernaturall
A thousand mouthes : and voyce as harde as stele.
And sene ail the seuen Sciences lyberal.
Yet cowde I neuer touche the vyces ail.
And syn of the worlde : ne theyr braunches comprehende :
Nat thoughe I lyued vnto the worldes ende.
But if these vyces whiche mankynde doth incomber.
Were clene expellyd and vertue in theyr place.
I cowde nat haue gathered of fowles so great a nomber.
\¥hose foly from them out chaseth goddys grace.
But euery man that knowes hym in that case
To this rude Boke let hym gladly intende.
And lerne the way his lewdnes to amende.
[The Prologe of James Locher.]
_After that I haue longe mused by my self of the sore
confounded and vncertayne cours of mannys lyre, and thinges
therto belonginge: at the last I haue by my vigilant medi-
tacion round and noted many degrees of errours : wherby
mankynd wandreth from the way of trouth I haue also
noted that many wyse men and wel lettred haue writen
right fruteful doctrines: wherby they haue heled these
dyseses and intollerable perturbacions of the mynde: and
the goostly woundes therof, motive better than Esculapius
v¢hich was fyrst Inuentour of Phesyke and amonge the
Gentyles worshypped as a God. In the contrey of Grece
were stodyes fyrst founded and ordeyned in the vhich be-
gan and sprange holsom medicyne which gaue vnto infect
myndes frutful doctryne and norisshinge. Amonge v¢home
Socrates that great begynner and honourer of wysdom be-
gan to dispute of ye maners of men. But for that he coude
nat fynde certayne ende of goodnes and hyest felicite in
naturall thinges : nor induce men to the saine, he gaue the
hye contemplacions of his mynde to moral vertues. And
in so moche passed he al other in Philosophy moral that it
,vas sayde that he called Philosophy down from the Imperial
heuen, whan this Socrates perceyued the mindes of
men to be prone, and extremely inclyned to viciousnes he
had gret affeccion to subdue suche maners. \¥herfore in
comon places of the Cyte of Athenes he instruct and in-
6 /e Prologe of Jame Locher.
fourmed the peple in such doctrynes as compasith the clere
and immaculate welles of the moste excellent and souerayne
gode. After the disces of Socrates succeded ye godly
Plato whiche in moral Philosophy ouerpassed also a great
part of his tyme And certaynly nat without a cause was he
called godly. For by what stody myght he more holely
or better socour mankynde than by suche doctrynes as
he gaue. He wrote and ordeyned lawes moste egal and iust
He edityed vnto the Grekes a comon welthe stable, quyet
and commendable. And ordeyned the societe and company
of them most iocund and amyable. He prepared a brydel
to refrayne the lust and sensualyte of the body. And
fynally he changed the yl ignorance feblenes and negligence
of youth vnto dylygence, strength and vertue. In tyme
also of these Phylosophers sprange the florisshynge age of
Poetes : xhiche amonge lettred men had nat smal owme
and place. And that for theyr eloquent Retoryke and also
for theyr mery ficcions and inuencions. Of the whiche
Poetes some wrote in moste ornate termes in ditees heroycal
wherin the noble actes and lyues both of dyuyne and
humayne creatures af wont to be noted and xritem.
Some wrote of tylling of the grounde. Some of the Planetes,
of the courses of ye sterres : and of the mouynge of the
heuyn and fyrmament. Some of the Empyre and shameful
subieccion of disordred loue. And many other of the
myserable ruyne and fal of Kynges and princes for vice:
as Tragedies. And some other wrote Comedyes with
great libertye of speche: which Comedies we cal Inter-
ludes. Amonge whome Aristophanes Eupolis and Cratinus
mooste laudable Poetes passed al other. For whan they
sawe the youth of Athenes and of al the remanent of
Whe Prologe of g lames Locher. 7
Grece inclyned to al ylles they toke occasion to note suche
myslyuinge. And so in playne wordes they repreued with-
out fauour the vyces of the sayd yl disposyd peple of what
condicion or order they were : Of this auncient wrytinge of
Comedyes our laten Poetes deuysed a maner of wrytinge
nat inelegant. And fyrst Lucilius composed one Satyre in
the whiche he wrote by name the vices of certayne princes
and Citezyns of Rome And that with many bourdes so yt
with his mery speche myxt with rebukes he correct al
them of the cyte that disordredly lyued. But this
mery speche vsed he nat in his writing to the intent
to excercyse wanton wordes or vnrefrayned lascyuyte,
or to put his pleasour in suche dissolute langage: but
to ye intent to quenche vyces and to prouoke the commons
to wysdome and vertue, and to be asshamed of theyr foly
and excessyfe lyuynge, of hym ail the Latyn poetes haue
takyn example, and begynnynge to wryte Satyrs whiche the
grekes t,.amed Comedyes: As Fabius specifyeth in his X
boke of institucions. After Lucilius succeded Horacius,
moche more eloquent in wrytynge whiche in the saine de-
seruyd great laude : Persius also left to vs onely one boke
by the whiche he commyttyd his naine and laude to per-
petuall memory. The last and prynce of all -,vas Juuenall
whiche in his iocunde poemys comprehendyd al that was
wryten most eloquent and pleasaunt of ail the poetis of that
sorte afore his tyme : O noble men, and diligent hertes and
myndes, o laudable maners and tymes, these worthy men
exyled ydelnes, wherby they haue obtayned nat small
worshyp and great commodyte example and doctryne lefte
to vs theyr posteryours why begyn we nat to vnderstonde
and perceyue. Why worshyp nat the pcople of out tyme
8 OEhe Prologe of dames Locber.
these poetis why do nat they reuerence to ye interpretours
of them do they nat vnderstonde: that no poetes wryte,
but outher theyr mynde is to do pleasure or els profyte to
the reder, or ellys they togyther wyll doo bothe profyte and
pleasoure why are they dyspysed of many rude carters of
nowe a dayes which vnderstonde nat thern, And for lacke of
them haue nat latyn to vtter and expresse ye wyl of their
mynde. Se whether poetes af to be dispised, they laude
vertue and hym that vseth it rebukyng vices with the vsers
therof, They teche what is good and what is euyll: to
what ende vyce, and xvhat ende vertue bringeth vs, and do
nat Poetis reuyle and sharply byte in their poemys all suche
as ar vnmeke, Prowde, Couetous, Lecherous, \Vanton
delycyous, Vrathfull glotons, wasters, Enuyours, En-
chauntours, taythebrakers, rasshe, vnauysed, malapert,
drunken, vntaught foies, and suche lyke. Shulde theyr
writyng that suche thinges disprayse and reuyle be dyspised
of many blynde Dotardes yt nowe lyue whiche enuy that
any man shulde haue or vnderstonde ye thyng whiche they
knowe nat. The Poetes alo wyth great lax,des commende
and exalt the noble folowers of vertue ascribyng to euery
man rewardes after his merytes. And shortly to say, the
intencion of al Poetes hath euer ben to repreue vyce: and
to commende vertue. But syns it is so that noxve in out
dayes ar so many neglygent and folysshe peple that they
ar almost innumerable whiche despisynge the loue of ver-
tue : folowe the blyndenes and vanyte of this worlde : it was
expedient that of newe some lettred man, wyse, and subtil
of wyt shulde awake and touche ye open vices of foles that
now lyue: and blame theyr abhomynable lyfe. This
fouime and l)bertye of writinge, and charge hathe taken
7he Prologe of James Locler. 9
vpon hym the Right excellent and worthy Mayster Sebastian
Brant Doctour of both the Lawes and noble Oratour and
Poete to the comon welthe of al people in playne and
comon speche of Doche in the contrey of Almayne : to the
ymytacion of Dant Florentyne: and Francis Petrarche
Poetes heroycal which in their maternal langage haue com-
posed maruelous Poemes and ficcions. But amonge diuers
inuencions composed of the sayde 8ebastian brant I haue
noted one named ye Shyp of Foles moche expedient and
necessary to the redar which the sayd 8ebastian composed
in doche langage. And afier hym one called James
Locher his Disciple translated the saine into Laten to the
vnderstondinge of al Christen nacions where Laten is spoken.
Than another (whose naine to me is vnknowen) translated
the saine into Frenche. I haue ouersene the f),rst Inuen-
cion in Doche and after that the two translations in Laten
and Frenche whiche in blaminge the disordred lyre of men
of our tyme agreeth in sentence : threfolde in langage wher-
fore wylling to redres the errours and vyces of this oure
Royalme of Englonde: as the foresayde composer and
translatours hath done in theyr Contrees I haue taken vpon
me: howbeit vnworthy to drawe into our Englysshe tunge
the sayd boke named ye shyp of folys as nere to ye sayd
thre Langages as the parcyte of my wyt wyll surfer me. But
ye reders gyue ye pardon vnto Alexander de Barklay If
ignoraunce negligence or lacke of wyt cause hym to erre in
this translacion his purpose and synguler desyre is to content
youre myndes. And sothely he hathe taken vpon hym the
translacion of this present Boke neyther for hope of rewarde
nor lawde of man : but onely for the holsome instruccion
commodyte and Doctryne of wysdome, and to clense the
o g'be Pdoge of .la»es Locer.
vanyte and madnes of folysshe people of whom ouer great
nombre is in the 1Royalme of Englonde. Therfore let
euery man beholde and ouerrede this boke: And than I
doute nat but he shal se the errours of his lyfe of what
condycyon that he be. in lyke wyse as he shal se in a
Myrrour the fourme of his countenaunce and vysage: _And
if he amende suche fautes as he redeth here wherein he
knoweth hymself gylty, and passe forth the resydue of his
lyfe in the order of good maners than shall he haue the
fruyte and auauntage wherto I haue translatyd this boke.
Here begynneth the prologe.
Amonge the people of euery regyon
And ouer the worlde, south north eest and west
Soundeth godly doctryne in plenty and foyson
XVherin the grounde of ,¢ertue and wysdome doth test
Rede gode and bad, and kepe the to the best
XVas neuer more plenty of holsome doctryne
Nor fewer people that doth therto enclyne
We haue the Bybyll whiche godly doth expresse
Of the olde testament the lawes mysticall
And also of the newe out erour to redresse
Of phylosophy and other artes liberall
X¥ith other bokes of vertues morall
But thoughe suche bokes vs godly wayes shewe
XYe ail ar blynde no man wyll them ensue
Banysshed is doctryne, we wander in derknes
Throughe all the worlde : our selle we vyll not knowe
Wysdome is exyled alas blynde folysshenes
Mysgydeth the myndes of people hye and lowe
Grace is decayed, yll governaunce doth growe
Both prudent Pallas and Minerua are slayne
Or els to heuyn retourned are they agayne
Knowledge of trouth, Prudence, and iust Symplicite
Hath vs clene left : For we set of them no store.
Our Fayth is def-yled loue, goodnes, and Pyte :
Honest maners nowe ar reputed of: no more.
Lawyers ar lordes : but Justice is rent and tore.
Or closed lyke a Monster within dores thre.
For without mede : or money no man can hyr se.
_Al is disordred : Vertue hathe no rewarde.
_Alas, Compassion: and Mercy bothe ar slayne.
Alas, the stony hartys of pepyl ar so harde
That nought can constrayne theyr folyes to refrayne
But styl they procede : and eche other meyntayne.
So wander these foies : incresinge without nomber.
That al the worlde they vtterly encomber.
Blasphemers of Chryst ; Hostlers ; and Tauerners :
Crakars ar, d bosters with Courters auenterous,
Bawdes and Pollers with comon extorcioners
_Af taken nowe adayes in the worlde moste glorious.
But the gyftes of grace and al wayes gracious
We haue excluded. Thus lyue we carnally:
Utterly subdued to al lewdnes and Foly.
Thus is of Foles a sorte almost innumerable.
Defilynge the worlde xvith syn and Vylany.
Some thynkinge them self moche wyse and commendable
Thoughe al theyr dayes they lyue vnthryftely.
No goodnes they perceyue nor to no goode aplye.
But if he haue a great wombe, and his Cofers fui
Than is noue holde xvyser bytwene London and Ilul.
g"he Prdoge. :3
But to assemble these Foies in one bonde.
And theyr demerites worthely to note.
Fayne shal I Shyppes of euery maner londe.
None shalbe left: Barke, Galay, Shyp, nor Bote.
One vessel tan nat brynge them al aflote.
For yf al these Foies were brought into one Barge
The bote shulde synke so sore shulde be the charge.
The sayles ar hawsed, a pleasant cole dothe blowe.
The Foies assembleth as fast as they may dryue.
Some swymmeth after : other as thycke doth rowe
In theyr small botes, as Bees about a hyue
The nomber is great, and eche one doth stryue
For to be chefe as Purser and Capytayne
Qarter mayster, Lodesman or els Boteswayne.
They ron to our shyp, eche one doth greatly fere
Lyst his slacke paas, sholde cause hym byde behynde
The wynde ryseth, and is lyke the sayle to tere
Eche one enforseth the anker vp to wynde
The se swellyth by planettes well I fynde
These obscure clowdes thre:eneth vs tempest
Ail are nat in bed whiche shall haue yll test
We are full lade and yet forsoth I thynke
A thousand are behynde, whom we may not receyue
For if we do 1 our nauy clene shall synke
He oft ail lesys that coueytes ail to haue
From London Rockes almyghty god vs saue
For if we there anker, outher bote or barge
There be so many that they vs wyll ouercharge
14 T1)e Prologe.
Ye London Galantes, arere, ye shall nat enter
XYe kepe the streme, and touche nat the shore
In Cyte nor in Court we dare nat well auenter
Lyst perchaunce we sholde displeasure haue therfore
But if ye wyll nedes some shall haue an ore
And all the remenaunt shall stande afar at large
And rede theyr fautes paynted aboute our barge.
Lyke as a myrrour doth represent agayne
The fourme and fygure of mannes countenaunce
So in our shyp shall he se wrytyn playne
The fourme and fygure of his mysgouernaunce
What man is fautles, but outher ignoraunce
Or els wylfulnes causeth hym offende :
Than let hym nat disdayne this shyp, tyll he amende.
_And certaynly I thynke that no creature
Lyuynge in this lyfe mortall in transytory
Can hym self kepe and stedfastly endure
Without ail spot, as worthy eternall glor,
But if he call to his mynde and memory
Fully the dedys both of his youthe and age
He wyll graunt in this shyp to kepe some stage
But who so euer wyll knowlege his owne foly
And it repent, lyuynge after in sympylnesse
Shall haue no place nor rowme more in our nauy
But become felawe to pallas the goddesse
But he that fyxed is in suche a blyndnesse
That thoughe he be nought he thynketh al is well
Suche shall in this Barge bere a babyll and a bell
7"be P,'ologe. 5
These with other lyke may eche man se and rede
Eche by themselfe in this small boke ouerall
The fautes shall he fynde if he take good hede
Of ail estatis as degres temporall
With gyders of dignytees spirituall
Bothe pore and riche, Chorles and Cytezyns
For hast to lepe a borde many bruse theyr shynnys
Here is berdles youth, and here is crokyd age
Children with theyr faders that yll do them insygne
And doth nat intende theyr wantones to swage
Nouther by worde nor yet by discyplyne
Here be men of euery science and doctryne
Lerned and vnlerned man mayde chylde and wyfe
May here se and rede the lewdenes of theyr lyre.
Here ar vyle wymen: whome loue Immoderate
And lust Venereall bryngeth to hurt and shame.
Here ar prodigal Galantes : wyth mouers of debate.
And thousandes mo: ,,vhome I nat wel dare naine.
Here ar Bacbyters whiche goode lyuers dyffame.
Brakers of ,,vedlocke, men proude: and couetous :
Pollers, and pykers with folke delicious.
It is but foly to rehers the names here
Of al suche Foies : as in one Shelde or targe.
Syns that theyr foly dystynctly shal apere
On euery lefe: in Pyctures fayre and large.
To Barclays stody: and Pynsones cost and charge
Wherfore ye redars pray that they both may be saued
Before God, syns they your folyes haue thus graued.
6 g'/e Pro/oge.
But to thentent that euery man may knowe
The cause of my wrytynge : certes I intende
fo profyte and to please both hye and lowe
And blame theyr fautes wherby they may amende
But if that any his quarell wyll defende
Excusynge his fautes to my derysyon
Knowe he that noble poetes thus haue done.
Afore my dayes a thousande yere ago
Blamynge and reuylynge the inconuenyence
Of people, wyllynge them to withdrawe therfro
Them I ensue: nat lyke of intellygence
And though I am nat to them lyke in science
Yet this is my wyll mynde and intencion
To blame ail vyce lykewyse as they haue done.
To tender youth my mynde is to auayle
That they eschewe may ail lewdenes and offence
Whiche doth theyr myndes often sore assayle
Closynge the iyen of theyr intellygence
But if I halt in meter or erre in eloquence
Or be to large in langage I pray you blame nat me
For my mater is so bad it wyll none other be.
[ The Argument. ]
Here after foloweth the Boke named the Shyp of Foies
of the world : translated out of Laten, French and Doche
into Englysse in the Colege of saynt Mary Otery By me
Alexander Barclay to the felicite and moste holsom instruc-
cion of mankynde the whiche conteyneth al suche as wandre
from the way of trouth and from the open Path of holsom
vnderstondynge and wysdom : fallynge into dyuers blynd-
nesses of ye mynde, folysshe sensualytees, and vndlawfid
delectacions of the body. "Fhis present Boke myght haue
ben callyd nat inconuenyently the Satyr (that is to say) the
reprehencion of foulysshnes, but the neweltye of the naine
was more plesant vnto the fyrst actour to call it the Shyp of
foies: For in lyke wyse as olde Poetes Satyriens in dyuers
Poesyes conioyned repreued the synnes and ylnes of the
peple at that tyme lyuynge : so and in lyke wyse this our
Boke representeth vnto the iyen of the redars the states and
condicions of men: so that euery man may behold within
the same the cours of his lyfe and his mysgouerned maners,
as he sholde beholde the shadowe of the fygure of his
visage within a bright Myrrour. But concernynge the trans-
lacion of this Boke: I exhort ye reders to take no displesour
for yt it is nat translated word by worde acordinge to ye
verses of my actour. For I haue but only drawen into our
moder tunge, in rude langage the sentences of the verses as
nere as the parcyte of my wyt wyl surfer me, some tyme
addynge, somtyme detractinge and takinge away suche
ttfinges a semeth me necessary and superflue, wherfore I
desyre of you reders pardon of my presumptuous audacite
8 Whe Irument.
trustynge that ye shall holde me excused if ye consyder ye
scarsnes of my wyt and my vnexpert youthe. I haue in
many places ouerpassed
obscurene8 of Fables and
langage as shal apere in
cawse that mouethe me
dyuers poetical digressions and
haue concluded my worke in rude
my translacion. But the speciyl
to this besynes is to auoyde the
execrable inconuenyences of ydilnes whyche (as saint Ber-
nard sayth) is moder of al vices: and to the vtter derision
of obstynat men delitynge them in folyes and mysgouernance.
But bycause the name of this boke semeth to the redar to
procede of derysion: and by that mean that the substance
therof shulde nat be profitable: I wyl aduertise you that
this Boke is named the Shyp of foies of the worlde : For
this worlde is nought els but a tempestous se in the whiche
we dayly wander and are caste in dyuers tribulacions paynes
and aduersitees : some by ignoraunce and some by wilfulnes :
wherfore suche doers ar worthy to be called foies, syns they
gyde them nat by reason as creatures resonable ought to do.
Therfore the fyrst actoure willynge to deuyde suche foles
from wysemen and gode lyuers : hathe ordeyned vpon the
se of this worlde this present Shyp to contayne these folys of
ye worlde whiche ar in great nomber. 8o that who redeth
it perfytely consyderynge his secrete dedys, he shall not
lyghtly excuse hym selle out of it what so euer good name
yt he hath outwarde in the mouth of the comonty% And to
the entent yt this my laboure may be the more pleasaunt
vnto lettred men, I haue adioyned vnto the saine ye verses
of my Actour with dyuerse concordaunces of the Bybyll to
fortyfy my wrytynge by the same, and also to stop the
enuyous mouthes (If any suche shal be) of them that by
malyce shall barke ayenst this my besynes.
I ara the firste foie of ail the hole nauy
To kepe the pompe, the helme and eke the sayle
For this is my mynde, this one pleasoure haue I
Of bokes to haue grete plenty and aparayle
I take no wysdome by them : nor yet auayle
Nor them preceyue nat: And then I them despyse
Thus ara I a foole and ail that sewe that guyse
That in this shyp the chefe place I gouerne
By this wyde see with folys wanderynge
The cause is playne, and easy to dyscerne
Styll ara I besy bokes assemblynge
For to haue plenty it is a plesaunt thynge
In my conceyt and to haue them ay in bonde
But what they mene do I nat ,nderstonde
But yet I haue them in great reuerence
And honoure sauynge them from fylth and ordure
By often brusshynge, and moche dylygence
Full goodly bounde in pleasaunt couerture
Of domas, satyn, or els of veluet pure
I kepe them sure ferynge lyst they sholde be lost
For in them is the connynge wherin I me bost.
But if it fortune that any lernyd men
XVithin my house rail to disputacion
I drawe the curtyns to shewe my bokes then
That they of my cunnynge shlde make probacion
I kepe nat to rail in altercation
And whyle they comon my bokes I turne and wynde
For ail is in them, and no thynge in my mynde.
Tholomeus the riche causyd longe agone
Ouer all the wodde good bokes to be sought
Done was his commaundement anone
These bokes he had and in his stody brought
XVhiche passyd ail erthly treasoure as he thought
But neuertheles he dyd hym nat aply
Unto theyr doctr),ne, but lyued unhappely.
Lo in lyke wyse of bokys I haue store
But fewe I rede and fewer understande
I folowe nat theyr doctryne nor theyr lore
It is ynoughe to bere a boke in hande
It were to moche tobe it suche a bande
For to be bounde to loke within the boke
I ara content on the fayre couerynge to loke
Why sholde I stody to hurt my wyt therby
Or trouble my mynde with stody excessyue
Sythe many ar whiche stody right besely
And yet therby shall they neuer thryue
The fruyt of wysdom can they nat contryue
And many to stody so moche are inclynde
That utterly they fali out of theyr mynde
Eche is nat lettred that nowe is made a Iorde
Nor eche a clerke that hath a benefyce
They are nat ail lawyers that plees doth recorde
Ail that are promotyd are nat fully wyse
On suche chaunce nowe fortune throwys hir dyce
That thoughe one knowe but the yresshe gaine
Yet wolde he haue a gentylimannys naine
So in lyke wyse I am in suche case
Thoughe I nought can I wolde be callyd wyse
Also I may set another in my place
XVhiche may for me my bokes excercyse
Or else I shall ensue the comon gyse
And say concedo to euery argument
Lyst by moche speche my latyn sholde be spent
z Irotable bokes.
I am lyke other Clerkes whiche so frowardly them gyde.
That after they af onys corne vnto promocion
They gyue them to plesour theyr stody set asyde.
Theyr Auaryce couerynge with f:ayned deuocion.
Yet dayly they preche : and haue great derysyon
Against the rude Laymen : and al for Couetyse.
Though theyr owne Conscience be blynded w t that vyce.
But if I durst trouth playnely vtter and expresse.
This is the special cause of this Inconuenyence.
That greatest foles, and fullest of lewdnes
Hauynge least wyt : and symplest Science
Af fyrst promoted : and haue greatest reuerence
For if one can flater, and bere a hawke on his Fyst
He shalbe ruade Person of Honyngton or of Clyst.
But he that is in Stody ay ferme and diligent.
And without al fauour prechyth Chrystys lore
Of al the Comontye nowe adayes is sore shent.
And by Estates thretened to Pryson oft therfore.
Thus what auayle is it, tovs to Stody more:
To knowe outher scripture, trouth, wysedom, or vertue
Syns fewe, or none without fauour dare them shewe.
But O noble Doctours, that worthy ar of name:
Consyder our olde faders : note wel theyr diligence ;
Ensue ye theyr steppes : obtayne ye such faine,
As they dyd lyuynge: and that by true Prudence.
Within theyr hartys they planted theyr scyence
And nat in plesaunt bokes. But nowe to fewe suche be.
Therefore in this Shyp let them corne rowe with me.
Iro.table bokes. 3
ENUOY oF xLEXANDER BARCLAY TRANSLATOUR
EXORTYIqGE THE FOLES ACCLOYED WITH THIS VICE
TO AMEIDE THEYR FOI.Y.
Say worthy doctours and Clerkes curious :
\Vhat moueth you of Bokes to haue such nomber.
Syns dyuers doctrines throughe way contrarious.
Doth mannys mynde distract and sore encomber.
Alas blynde men awake, out of your slomber
And if ye wyl nedys your bokes multyplye
With diligence endeuer you some to occupye.
men of lawe.
He that Office hath and hyghe autorite.
To rule a Royalme : as Juge or Counsellour
\Vhich seynge Justice, playne ryght and equyle
Them falsly blyndeth by fauour or rigour
Condemnynge wretches gyltles. And to a Transgressour
For mede shewinge fauour. Suche is as wyse a man
As he that wolde seeth a quycke Sowe in a Pan.
Of tl Cot,,nsellours. u S
Right many labours nowe, with hyghe diligence
For tobe Lawyers the Comons to counsayle.
Therby to be in honour had and in reuerence
But onely they labour for theyr pryuate auayle.
The purs of the Clyent shal fynde hym apparayle.
And yet knowes he neyther lawe good counsel nor Justice.
But speketh at auenture: as men throwe the dyce.
Suche in the Senate af taken oft to counsayle
With Statis of this and many a other region.
Whiche of theyr maners vnstable af and frayle
Nought of Lawe Ciuyi knowinge nor Canon.
But wander in derknes clerenes they haue none.
O noble Rome thou gat nat thy honours
Nor general Empyre by suche Counsellours.
Whan noble Rome ail the worlde dyd gouerne
Theyr councellers were olde men iust and prudent
Whiche egally dyd euery thynge descerne
Wherby theyr Empyre became so excellent
But nowe a dayes he shall haue his intent
That hath most golde, and so it is befall
That aungels worke wonders in westmynster hall.
There cursyd coyne makyth the wronge seine right
The cause of hym that lyueth in pouertye
Hath no defence, tuycion, strength nor myght
Suche is the olde custome of this faculte
That colours oft cloke J ustyce and equyte
None can the mater fele or vnderstonde
Without the aungell be weyghty in his honde
2 6 Of Euyl Counsellours.
Thus for the hunger of syluer and of goide
Justyce and right is in captyuyte
And as we se nat gyuen fre, but solde
Nouther to estates, nor sympell comonte
And though that many lawyers rightwysnes be
Yet many other dysdayne to se the ryght
And they ar suche as blynde Justycis syght
There is one and other alleged at the barre
And namely suche as chrafty were in glose
Upon the lawe : the clyentis stande afarre
Full lytell knowynge howe the mater goose
And many other the lawes clene transpose
Folowynge the example, of lawyers dede and gone
Tyll the pore Clyentis be etvn to the bone
It is not ynough to conforme thy mynde
Unto the others faynyd opynyon
Thou sholde say trouthe, so Justyce doth the bynde
And also lawe gyueth the commyssyon
To knowe hir, and kepe hir without transgressyon
Lyst they whome thou hast J uged wrongfully
Unto the hye Juge for vengeaunce on the crye.
Perchaunce thou thynkest that god taketh no hede
To mannes dedys, nor workes of offence
Yes certaynly he knowes thy thought and dede
No thynge is secrete, nor hyd from his presence
,Vherefore if thou wylt gyde the by prudence
Or thou gyue Jugement of mater lesse or more
Take wyse mennys reade and good couusayle before
Of Euy] Coutse]]our. 2 7
Loke in what Balance, what weyght and what mesure
Thou seruest other, for thou shalt serued bë
With the saine after this lyfe I the ensure.
If thou ryghtwysly Juge by lawe and equyte
Thou shalt haue presence of goddes hyghe maiestye
But if thou Juge amys : than shall Eacus
(As Poetis sayth) hell Juge thy rewarde discusse
God is aboue and regneth sempiternally.
Whiche shall ,s deme at his last Jugement,
And gyue rewardes to echone egally
After suche fourme as he his lyre hath spent
'Fhan shall we them se whome we as violent
Traytours : haue put to wronge in worde or dede
And after our deserte euen suche shall be our mede
There shall be no Bayle nor treatynge of maynpryse
Ne worldly wysdome there shall no thynge preuayle
There shall be no delayes vntyll another Syse
But outher quyt, or to irtfernall Gayle.
I11 Juges so iuged, Lo here theyr trauayle
Worthely rewarded in wo withouten ende.
Than shall no grace be graunted ne space to amende.
THE EN'UOY OF ALEXANDER BARCLAV
Therfore ye yonge Studentes of the Chauncery :
(I speke nat to the olde the Cure of them is past)
Remember that Justyce longe hath in bondage be
2 8 Of" .Eu.vA
Reduce ye hir nowe vnto lybertye at the |ast.
Endeuer you hir bondes to louse or to brast
Hir raunsome is payde and more by a thousande pounde
And yet alas the lady Justyce lyeth bounde.
Thoughe your fore Faders haue take hir prysoner
And done hir in a Dongeon nat mete for hir degre
Lay to your bandes and helpe hir from daungere
And hir restore vnto hir lybertye
That pore men and monyles may hir onys se
But certaynly I fere lyst she hath lost hir naine
Or by longe prysonment shall after euer be lame.
Of Auaryce or Couetyse and prodygalyte.
Ye that ar gyuen ouer moche to Couetyse
Corne nere, a place is here for you to dwel
Corne nere ye wasffull people in lyke wyse
Youre rowme shall be hye in the Topcastell
Ye care for no shame, for heuen nor for hell
Golde is your god, ryches gotten wrongfully
Ye dame your soule, and yet lyue in Inury.
3o Of luaryce or Couetyse
He that is besy euery day and houre
Without mesure, maner, or moderacion
To gather riches and great store of treasoure
Therof no ioy takinge, confort nor consolacion.
He is a Foie : and of blynde and mad opynyon
For that which he getteth and kepeth wrongfully
His heyre often wasteth moche more vnthryftely.
While he here lyueth in this lyre caduke and mortal.
Fui sore he laboureth : and oft hungry gothe to bed
Sparine from hymselfe: for hym that neuer shal
After do hym goode, thoughe he were harde bested.
Thus is this Couetous wretche so blyndly led
By the rende that here he lyueth wretchydly
And after his deth damned eternally.
There wandreth he in dolour and derknes
Amonge infernall flodes tedyous and horryble
Let se what auayleth than ail his ryches
Ungracyously gotyne, his paynes ar terryble
Than ,olde he amende but it is inpossyble
In hell is no order nor hope of remedy
But sorowe vpou sorov¢e, and that euerlastyngly.
Yet fynde I another vyce as bad as this
Whiche is the vyce of prodygalyte
He spendyth ail in ryot and amys
Without ail order, pursuynge pouertye
He lyketh nat to lyue styll in prosperite
But ail and more he wastyth out at large
(Beware the ende) is the leste poyut of his charge.
a rodyalyte. 3
But of the couetous somwhat to say agayne
Thou art a foie thy soule to sell for riches
Or put thy body to labour or to payne
Thy mynde to fere, thy herte to heuynesse
Thou foie thou fleest no maner cruelnesse
So thou may get money, to make thy heyr a knyght
Thou sleest thy soule where as thou saue it myght
Thou hast no rest thy mynde is euer in fere
Of mysauenture, nor neuer art content
Deth is forgoten, thou carest nat a here
To saue thy sou[e from infernal[ punysshement
If thou be dampned, than art thou at thy stent
By thy ryches which thou here hast left behynde
To thy executours, thou shalt sma[l comforte fynde
Theyr custome is to holde fast that they haue
Thy pore soule shall be farthest fro theyr thought
If that thy carkes be brought onys in the graue
_And that they haue thy bagges in bandes cought
What say they, than (by god the man had nought)
Whyle he here lyuyd he was to lyberall
Thus dampned is thy soule, thy ryches cause of ail
Who wyll denay but it is necesary
Of riches for to haue plenty and store
To this opynyon I wyll nat say contrary
So it be ordred after holy lofe
Whyle thy selle leuest departe some to the pote
With thy owne hande trust nat thy executours
Gyue for god, and god shall sende at all houres
3 2 Of l, tayce o" Co.«O,s«
Rede Tullius warkes the worthy Oratour.
And writen shalt thou fynde in right fruteful sentence
That neuer wyseman loued ouer great honour.
Nor to haue great riches put ouer great diligence
But onely theyr mynde was set on Sapience
And quyetly to lyue in Just symplycite.
For in greatest honour is greatest ieoperdye.
He that is symple, and on the grounde doth lye
And that can be content with ynoughe or suffisaunce
ls surer by moche than he that lyeth on hye.
Nowe vp nowe downe vnsure as a Balaunce.
But sothly he that set wyll his plesance
Onely on wysdom and styl therfore labour.
Shal haue more goode than ail erthly tresour.
Wysdom techeth to eschewe al offence.
Gydynge mankynde the ryght way to vertue.
But of couetyse Comys ali Inconuenyence.
It cawseth man of worde to be vntrue.
Forswerynge and t:alshode doth it also ensue.
Brybery and Extorcion, murder and myschefe.
Shame is his ende: his lyuyinge is reprefe.
By couetyse Crassus brought was to his ende.
By it the worthy Romayns lost theyr name.
Of this one yl a thousand ylles doth descende.
Besyde enuy, Pryde, wretchydnes and Shame.
Crates the Philosopher dyd Couetyse so blame :
That to haue his mynde vnto his stody fre.
He threwe his Tresour all hole into the see.
and Procl.rgal.rte. 3 3
But shortly to conclude. Both bodely bondage.
And gostly also: procedeth of this couetyse.
The soule is damned the body bath damage
As hunger, thyrst, and colde with other preiudice.
Bereft of the ioyes of heuenly Paradyse.
For golde was theyr god and that is left behynde
Theyr bodyes beryed the soule clene out of mynde
T. ENUO¥ OF ALEXANDER BARCLAV TRANSLATOUR.
Therefore thou couetouse thou wretch I speke to the.
Amende thy selle ryse out of this blyndenes.
Content the wyth ynoughe for thy degre.
Data nat thy soule by gatheringe frayle riches
Remembre this is a Uale of wretchednes.
Thou shalt no test nor dwellynge place here fynde.
Depart thou shalt and leue it al behynde.
Of newe fassions and disgised Garmentes.
Who that newe garmentes loues or deuyses.
Or weryth by his symple wyt, and vanyte
Gyuyth by his foly and vnthryfty gyses
Moche yl example to yonge Comontye.
Suche one is a Foie and skant shal euer thce
And comonly it is sene that nowe a dayes
One Foie gladly folowes anothers wayes.
Of newe fassions and disgised g'armentes. 35
Drawe nere ye Courters and Galants disgised
Ye counterfayt Caytifs. that af nat content
As god hath you ruade: his warke is despysed
Ye thynke you more crafty than God onipotent.
Unstable is your mynde : that shewes by your garmcnt.
A fole is knowen by his toyes and his Cote.
But by theyr clothinge nowe may we many note.
Aparayle is apayred. Al sadness is decayde
The garmentes ar gone that longed to honestye.
And in newe sortes newe Foies af arayede
Despisynge the costom of good antiquyte.
Mannys fourme is disfigured with euery degre
As Knyght Squyer yeman Jentilman and knaue,
For al in theyr goynge ,¢ngoodely them behaue
The tyme hath ben, nat longe before our dayes
¥han men with honest ray coude holde them self content.
Vithout these disgised : and counterfayted wayes.
Wherby theyr goodes af wasted, loste, and spent.
Socrates with many mo in wysdom excellent.
Bycause they wolde nought change that cam of nature
Let growe theyre here without cuttinge or scissure.
At that tyne was it reputed to lawde and great honour.
To haue longe here: the Beerde downe to the brest
For so they vsed that were of moste valour.
Stryuynge together who myht be godlyest
Saddest, moste clenely, discretest, and moste honest.
But nowe adayes together we contende and stryue.
Who may be gayest : and newest wayes contryue.
Fewe kepeth mesure, but excesse and great outrage
In theyr aparayle. And so therin they procede
That theyr goode is spent : theyr Londe layde to morgage.
Or solde out right : of Thryft they take no hede.
Hauinge no Peny them to socour at theyr nede.
So xhan theyr goode by stche wastefulnes is loste.
They sel agayne theyr Clothes for hall that they coste.
A fox furred Jentelman : of the fyrst yere or hede.
If he be ruade a Bailyf a Clerke or a Constable.
And can kepe a Parke or Court and rede a Dede
Than is Ueluet to his state mete and agreable.
Howbeit he were more mete to bere a Babyl.
For his Foies Hode his iyen so sore doth blynde
That Pryde expelleth his lynage from his mynde.
Yet fynde I another sort almoste as bad as thay.
As yonge Jentylmen descended of worthy Auncetry.
Vrhiche go fui wantonly in dissolute aray.
Counterfayt, disgised, and moche vnmanerly
Blasinge and garded : to lowe or else to hye.
And wyde without mesure: theyr stuffe to wast thus gothe
But other some they surfer to dye for lacke of clothe
Some theyr neckes charged with colers, and chaynes
As golden withtthes: theyr fyngers fui of rynges:
Theyr neckes naked : almoste vnto the raynes
Theyr sleues blasinge lyke to a Cranys wynges
Thus by this deuysinge suche counterfayted thinges
They dysfourme that figure that god hymselfe hath made
On pryde and abusion thus ar theyr myndes layde
Of newe fassions and disgised garmentes. 3 7
Than the Courters careles that on theyr mayster wayte
8einge hym his Uesture in suche fourme abuse
Assayeth suche Fassion for them to counterfayt, e.
And so to sue Pryde contynually they muse.
Than stele they; or Rubbe they. Forsoth they can nat chuse.
For without Londe or I,abour harde is it to mentayne.
But to thynke on the Galows that is a careful payne.
But be it payne or nat : there many suche ende.
At Newgate theyr garmentis ar offred to be solde.
Theyr bodyes to the Jebet solemly ascende.
Wauynge with the wether whyle theyr necke wyl holde.
But if I shulde wryte al the ylles manyfolde.
That procedeth of this counterfayt ahusion
_And mysshapen Fassions: 1 neuer shulde haue done.
For both 8tares, cornons, man, woman, and chylde
Ar ,tterly inclyed to this inconuenyence.
But namely therwith these Courters are defyled.
Bytwen mayster and man I fynde no dyfference.
Therfore ye Courters knowledge your offence.
Do nat your errour mentayne, support nor excuse.
For Fowles ye ar your Rayment thus to abuse.
To Shyp Galauntes corne nere I say agayne.
Wyth your set Busshes Curlynge as men of lnde.
Ye counterfayted Courters corne with your fleinge brayne
Expressed by these variable Garmentes that ye fynde.
To tempt chast Damseis and turne them to your mynde
Your breste ye discouer and necke. Tht, s your abusion
ls the Fe,,des bate. And yonr soules confusion.
3 8 Of newefssions and disgised garmentes.
Corne nere disgysed foles : receyue your Foles Hode.
And ye that in sondry colours ar arayde.
Ye garded galantes wastinge thus your goode
Corne nere with your Shertes brodered and displayed.
In fourme of Surplys. Forsoth it may be sayde.
That of your Sort right fewe shal thryue this yere.
Or that your faders werith suche Habyte in the Oere.
And ye Jentyl wymen whome this lewde vice doth blynde
Lased on the backe : your peakes set a loti.
Corne to my Shyp. forget ye nat behynde.
Your Sadel on the tayle : yf ye lyst to sit sort.
Do on your Decke Slut : if ye purpos to corne oft.
I mean your Copyntanke : And if it wyl do no goode.
To kepe you from the rayne, ye shall haue a foies hode.
By the aie stake knowe we the ale hous
And euery Jnne is knowen by the sygne
So a lewde woman and a lechcrous
Is knowen by hir clothes, be they cours or fyne
Folowynge newe fassyons, not graunted by doctryne
The bocher sheweth his flesshe it to sell
So doth these women dampnyng theyr soule to hell
What shall I more wryte of our enormyte
Both man and woman as I before haue sayde
-Ar rayde and clothyd nat after theyr degre
_As nat content with the shape that god hath made
The clenlynes of Clergye is nere also decayed.
Out olde apparale (alas) is nowe layde downe
_And many prestes asshamed of theyr Crowne.
Od[ newedfi+ssions and disgised garmentes. 39
Unto laymen we vs refourme agayne
As of chryste our mayster in maner llalfe asshamed
My hert doth wepe : my tunge doth sore complayne
Seing howe our State is worthy to be blamed.
But if ail the Foly of our Hole Royahne were named
Of mys apparayle of Olde, young, lowe, and hye,
The tyme shulde fayle : and space to me denye.
Alas thus al states of Chrysten men declynes.
And of wymen also disfourmynge theyr fygure.
\Vors than the Turkes, Jewes, or Sarazyns.
A Englonde Englonde amende or be thou sure
Thy noble naine and faine can nat endure
Amende lyst god do greuously chastyce.
Bothe the begynners and folowes of this vyce.
TH ENuo,," OF ALEXANI3ER BARCLA¥ YE TRANSLATOUR.
Reduce courters clorly vnto your rembrance
From whens this disgysyng was brought wherein ye go
As I remember it was brought out of France.
This is to your plesour. But payne ye had also.
As French Pockes hote ylles with other paynes mo.
Take ye in good worth the swetnes with the Sour.
For often plesour endeth xvith sorowe and dolour.
But ye proude Galaundes that thus yourselfe disgise
Be ye asshamed, beholde vnto your Prynce.
Consyder his sadnes : His honestye deuyse
His clothynge expresseth his inwarde prudence
Ye se no Example of suche Inconuenyence
In his hyghnes: but godly wyt and grauyte.
Esue hym : and sorowe for your enormyte.
_Away with this pryde, this statelynes let be
Rede of the Prophetis clothynge or vesture
And of _Adam firste of your ancestrye
Of Johnn the Prophete theyr clothynge was obscure
Uyle and homly but nowe what creature
Wyll then eusue sothly fewe by theyr wyll
Therfore suche folys my nauy shall fulfyll
is to say the longer they
they ar gyuen to foly.
Howe beit I stoup, and fast declyne
Dayly to my graue, and sepulture
And though my lyfe fast do enclyne
To pay the trybute of nature
Yet styll remayne I and endure
In my olde synnes, and them nat hate
Nought yonge, wors olde, suche is my state.
The madnes of my youthe rotyd in my age
And the blynde foly of my iniquite
Wyll me nat surfer to leue myrte old vsage
Nor my fore lyuynge full of enormyte
Lame af his lymmys, and also I can nat se
I ara a childe and yet lyuyd haue I
An hundreth wynter, encresynge my foly.
But though I myght lerne my wyll is nat therto
But besy I am and fully set my thought
To gTue example to children to mysdo
By my lewde doctryne bryngynge them to nought
_And whan they af onys into my daunce brought
I teche them my foly wysdome set asyde
My selfe example, begynner, and theyr gyde.
My lewde lyre, my foly and my selRvyllyd mynde
Whiche I haue styll kept hytherto in this lyre
In my testament I leue wryten behynde
Bequethyng parte both to man childe and wyfe
I ara the actour of myschefe and of stryfe
The foly ofmy youth and the inconuenyence
In age I practyse, techynge by experyence
I ara a foie and glad am of that naine
Desyrynge lawde for eche vngracious dede
_And of my foly to spred abrode the saine
To showe my vyce and synne, as voyde of drede
Of heuen or hell. therfore I take no hede
But as some stryue disputynge of theyr cunnynge
Right so do I in lewdnes and myslyuynge.
Of oldlys. 4 3
Somtyme I bost me of falshode and dysceyt
Somtyme of the sede that sawyn is by me
Of ail myschefe, as murder flatery debate
Couetyse bacbytynge theft and lechery
My mynde is nat to mende my iniquyte
But rather I sorowe that my lyre is wore
That I can nat do as I haue done before
But syns my lyfe so sodaynly dothe apeyre
That byde I can nat styll in this degre
I shall infourme and teche my sone and heyre
To folowe his fader, and lerne this way of me
The way is large, god wot glad shall he be
Lernynge my lore with affeccion and desyre
And folowe the steppys of his vnthryfty syre
I trust so crafty and wyse to make the lad
That me his father he shall pas and excell
O that my herte shall than be wonder glad
If I here of may knowe, se, or here tell
If he be false faynynge sotyll or cruell
And so styll endure I haue a speciall hope
To make hym scrybe to a Cardynall or Pope.
Or els if he can be a fais extorcyoner
Fasynge and bostynge to scratche and to kepe
He shall be ruade a comon costomer
As yche hope of Lyn Calays or of Depe
Than may he after to some great offyce crepe
So that if he can onys plede a case
He may be ruade Juge of the comon place.
44 Of old fo.-.
Thus shali he lyue as I haue ail his dayes
And in his age increas his folysshenes
His fader came to worshyp by suche ways
So shali the sone, if he hym selle addres
To sue my steppes in falshde and iewdnes
And at leste if he can come to no degre
This shyp of folys shall he gouerne with me
BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
Awake age alas what thynkest thou be
Awake I say out of thy blynde derkenes
Remembrest thou nat that shortly thou shait dye
Aryse from synne amende thy folysshenes
Though thy youth reted were in vyciousnes
Aryse in age is full tyme to leue it
Thy graue is open thy one fore in the pyt
Leue thy bostynge of that thou hast done amys
Bewayle thy synnes, sayeng with rufuli mone
Delicta iuuentutis mee deus ne memineris
Amende the or thy youth be fully gone
That sore is harde to hele that bredes in the bone
He that is nought yonge, procedynge so in age
Shali skant euer his vyciousnes asswage
What thinge is more abhomynable in goddes syght.
Than vicious age: certaynly no thynge.
It is eke worldly shame, whan thy corage and mycht
Is nere dekayed, to kepe thy lewde lyuynge.
And by example of the, thy yonge children to brynge.
Into a vicious lyfe : and all goodnes to hate.
Alas age thus thou art the Fendes bate.
erudicion of neglygent faders
anenst theyr chyldren.
That fuie that suffreth his Chylde for to offCde
lrythout rebukynge, blame, and correccion.
And hym nat exhorteth, hymselfe to amende.
Of suche fawtes as by hym af done.
8hal it sore repent : god wote howe sone
For oft the faders foly, fauour, and neglygence
Causeth the Chylde for to fall to great offcnce
A myserable Foie euermore shal he be.
A wretche vnauysed, and a Catyf blynde.
,Vhiche his chyldren fawtes forseth nat to see
Hauynge tao care for to induce theyr mynde
To godly vertue: and vyce to leue behynde.
For whyle they af yonge fereful and tender of age
Theyre vyce and foly is easy to asswage.
Two dyuers sortes of these foies may we fynde.
By whome theyr chyldren ar brought to confusion.
The one is neglygent, the other is starke blynde.
Nat wyllynge to beholde his childes yl condicion.
,Vhyle he is in youthe : But for a conclusion
He is a Foie that wyl nat se theyr vyce.
And he that seyth : and wyl it nat chastyce.
Alas thou art a cursed counselloure
To wanton youth that tender is of age
To let them wander without gouernoure
Or wyse mayster, in youthes furious rage
Get them a mayster thcyr foly to asswage
For as a herdles flocke strayth in Jepardy
go children without gyde wandreth in foly.
To moche lyberty pleasoure and lycence
Gyuen vnto youth, whether it be or age
Right oftet, causyth great inconuenyence
As ryot mysrule with other sore damage
Theyr londe and goodes solde or layde to gage
But thou folysshe father art redy to excuse
Thy yonge children of theyr synne and abuse
benst tbeyr cvldren 4 7
Thou sayst they ar ouer tender to eschewe
Theyr folysshe maners and they haue no skyll
To knowe the wayes of goodnes or vertue
Nor to discerne what is gode, what is yll
Thou blynde dodart these wordes holde thou styll
Theyr youth can nat excuse thy folysshenes
He that can yll as well myghr lerne goodnes
A yonge hert is as apt to take wysdome
As is an olde, and if it rotyd be
It sawyth sede of holy lyfe to corne
Also in children we often tymes se
Great aptness outwarde and syne of gr,myte
But fyil an erthen pot first ,«ith yli lycoure
And euer after it shall smell somwhat soure
So youth brought vp in lewdnes and in sin
Shall skant it shrape so clene out of his mynde
But that styll after some spot wyll byde within
A lytell twygge plyant is by kynde
A bygger braunche is harde to bowe or wynde
But surfer the braunche to a byg tre to growe
And rather it shall brake than outher wynde or boire
Correct thy childe whyle he is lyke a twygge
Soupyll and plyant, apt to correccion
It wyll be harde forsoth whan he is bygge
To brynge his stubron herte to subieccion
What hurtyth punysshement with moderacion
Unto yonge children, certaynely no thynge
It voydeth vyce, gettynge vertue and cunnynge
Of tbe erudicion of neglygent faders
Say folysshe fader haddest thou leuer se
Thy sonnes necke vnwrested wyth a rope.
Than with a rod his skyn shulde brokyn be.
And oft thou trustest : and hast a stedfast hope
To se thy son promoted nere as hye as is the Pope
But yet perchaunce mourne thou shalt ful sore.
For lais shameful ende: fortuned for lacke of lore.
Some folowe theyr chyldrens wyl and lewde plesour
So grauntinge them theyr mynde: that after it doth fal
To theyr great shame : they sorowe and dolour
As dyd to Priamus a Kynge Imperial
XVhiche suffred his men : his son chefe of them al
By force from Grece to robbe the fayre Helayne.
Wherby both Fader and son were after slayne.
XVith noble Hector and many thousandes mo.
The Cyte of Troy vnto the ground clene brent.
I rede in the Cronycles of the Romayns
Howe Tarquyne the proude had shame and punysshment :
For rauysshynge chaste Lucres agaynst hyr assent.
XVherfore hyrselfe she slewe hyr seynge thus defiled.
For the which dede this Tarquyn was exiled.
From Rome: wandrynge in the Costes of haly.
Dyd nat the traytour Catelyne also conspyre
And many mo sworne to his cruel tyranny
Agaynst the Romans to oppresse theyr Impyre,
But he and ail his were murdred for theyr hyre
And nat vnworthely. Beholdewherto they come
XVhich af nat enfourmed in youth to ensue wysdom.
nenst t])effr c])fflffren. 49
The son oft foloweth the faders behauour
And if the fader be discrete and vertuous.
The son shal suche wayes practyse both day and hour.
But if that the fader be lewde and vicious
By falshode lyuynge: and by wayes cautelous.
The son also the sarne wayes wyl ensue
And that moche rather than goodnes or vertue
Therfore it nedeth that better prouysion.
Were founde for youthe by sad and wyse counsayle
Far from theyr faders of this condicion.
And other lewde gydes which myght theyr rnyndes assayle
Greuously wyth syn. So were it theyr auayle
From theyr faders frawde and falshode to declyne
And them submyt to some laxvdable rnannys doctryne.
Peleus, somtyme a noble and worthy kynge
Subdued Achylles vnto the doctryne
Of phenix whiche was both worthy and cunnynge
Wherfcre Achyllys right gladly dyd enclyne
With his hert and mynde vnto his disciplyne
Wherby his naine so noble was at the last
That ail Asy in worthynes he past
Ryght so Philippus a kynge worthy of narne
Ouer all Grece rnade great iniquicion
To fynde one wyse, sad and laudable of faine
To Alexander his sonne for to gyue Instruccion
Founde was great Arîstotyl at the conclusion
Disciple of Piato. whiche in euery Science.
lnfourmed this chylde with parfyte diligence.
Whiche Alexander afterward had so great dignyte.
What by his strength, his cunnynge, and boldenes.
That he was lorde both of Londe and See.
And none durst rebel aganst his v¢orthynes.
Lo here the lawde, the honour, and nobles.
Which dothe procede of vertue and doctryne
But few ar the faders that nowe hereto inclyne
Fewe af that forceth nowe adayes to se
Theyr chyldren taught : or to do any cost
On soin sad man, wyse, and of auctorite :
A! that is theron bestowed thynke they loste.
The folyssh Fader oft tymes maketh great boste.
That he lais son to habundant riches shal auance
But no thynge he speketh of vertuous gouernance.
The feder ruade but smal shyfi or prouysion.
To induce his Son by vertuous doctryne.
But whan he is dede and past : moche les shal the son
To stody of grace his mynde or hert inclyne.
But abuse his reason: and from al good declyne.
Alas folysshe faders gyue your aduertence
To Crates comp|aynt comprysed in this sentence.
If it were graunted to me to shewe my thought
Ye follysshe faders Caytifes I myght you cal
Whiche gather riches to brynge your chylde to nought.
Gyuynge hi,n occasion forto be prodigal.
But goode nor cunnynge shewe ye hym noue at ail.
But whan ye drawe to age, ye than moste comonly.
Sorowe for your suffrance. But without remedy.
lnenst theyr chy]aren. 5 [
An olde sore to hele is oft halfe incurable
Ryght so af these Chyldren roted in myschefe
8orne after euer lyueth a lyre abhomynable
To all theyr Kyn great sorowe and reprefe.
The one is a murderer the other a fereles thefe,
The one of god nor goode man hath no fors ne care.
Another so out wasteth that his frendes ar fui bare.
Some theyr londe and lyuelode in riot ont wasteth,
Atcardes, and, tenys, and other vnlawful gamys.
And some wyth the Dyce theyr thryft away casteth.
Some theyr soule damnes, and theyr body shames.
With ttesshly lust: which many one dyffamys.
Spendynge the ttourcs of youth moche vnthryftely.
On dyuers Braunches that longe to Lechery.
Another delyteth hymselfe in Glotony.
Etynge and drynkynge without maner, or mesure:
The more that some drynke: the more they wax drye.
He is moste Galant whyche lengest can endure.
Thus ,,vithout mesure ouercharge they theyr nature.
So that theyr Soule is loste theyr body and goode is spent.
For lacke of doctryne, Iqorture and punysshment.
Se here playne prose, example and euydence
ttowe youthe which is nat norysshed in doctr)-ne.
In age is gyuen vnto al Irconuenyence.
But nought shall make youthe soner forto inclyne.
To noble maners : nor Godly dysciplyne :
Than shal the doctryne of a mayster vyse and sad :
For the rote of vertue and wysdome therby is had.
Vithout dout Noblenes is moche excellent
Whiche oft causeth youth to be had in great honour.
To haue the naine, and laxvde they ar content.
Thoughe it be nat gotten by theyr owne labour.
But what auayleth them this lewde obscure errour
Of suche hye byrthe them self to magnyfy'.
Sythe they defyle it xvith vice and Uilany.
Why art thou proude thou foui of that nobles
XVhyche is nat gotten by thyle owne verrue.
By thy goode maners, wyt nor worthynes :
But this for»othe oft tymes fynde I true
That of a goode beste, yl whelpes may weshewe.
In lyke wyse of a Moder that is bothe chast and goode.
Often is brought forth a fui vngracious Brode.
But though the childe be of lewde condicion
And of his nature frowarde and varyable
If the fader be slacke in the correccion
Of his childe, he onely is culpable
Whiche wyll nat teche hym maners commendable
Thus is the fader a fole for his suffraunce
_And the sone also for his mysgouernaunce
Auoyd faders your fauour and suffraunce
Anenst your children in theyr faute and offence
Reduce ye clerely vnto your remembraunce
That many a thousande inconuenyence
Haue children done by theyr faders negligence
But to say trouth brefely in one clause
The fader's fauour onely is the cause
Of tale berers, fais reporters,
prometers of stryfes.
Of folys yet fynde 1 another maner sorte
Whiche ar cause of brawlynge stryfe and deuysion
Suche aa" dowble tongyd that lesyngys reporte
Therby trustynge to corne to great promosion
But suche lewde caytyfes at the conclusion
]3ytwene two mylstons theyr legges puttes to gryndc
And for rewarde, theyr confusion shall thcy fynde.
5 4 çt,,« &,«rs fds ,«l,o,-t«,s,
Some af that thynke the pleasoure and ioy of theyr lyfe
To brynge men in brawlynge to discorde and debate
Enioynge to moue them to chydynge and to stryfe
And where lotie before was to cause mortall hate
With the comonty, and many great estate
Suche is moche wors than outher murderer or thefe
For ofte of lais talys procedeth grete mvschefe
\Vithin his mouth is venym Jeperdous and vyle
His ronge sryll laboryth lesynges to contryue
llis mynde styll museth of falshode and on gyle
Therwith to trobyll suchc as gladly wolde nat stryue
Somt)-me his wordes as dartis he doth dryue
Agaynst good men : for onely his delyte.
Is set fo sclaunder to diffame and bacbyte.
And namely them that fautles ar and innocent.
Of conscience clene, and mancrs commendable
These dryuyls sclaunder, beynge full dilygent.
To deuyde, louers that ar moste agreable
His tonge Infect his mynde abhomynable
Ilffectyth loue and ouertourneth charyte
Of them that longe tyme haue lyuyd in amyte
But he that accused is thus without ail faute
And so sclaundred of this caytyf vnthryfty
Knowyth nought of this ieoperdous assaute
For he nought dowteth that is no thynge fauty
Thus whyle he nonght feryth comyth sodaynly
This venemous doloure distaynynge his gode naine
And so gyltles put to rebuke, and to shame.
Thus if one serche and seke the worlde ouerall
Than a backbyter nought is more peryllous
His mynde myscheuous, his wordys ar mortall
His damnable byt is foule and venemous
A thousande lyes of gyles odyous
He castyth out where he wolde haue debate
Engendrynge murder whan he his tyme can wayt
Where as any frendes lyueth in accorde
Faythfull and truc: this cowarde and caytyf
XVith his tals talys them bryngeth to dyscorde
And with his venym kepeth them in stryfe
But howe beit that he thus pas forth his lyre
Sawynge his sede of debate and myschefe
His darte off retourneth to his own reprefe
But nat withstandynge, suche boldely wyl excuse
His fais dyffamynge : as fautles and innocent.
If a.ny hym for his dedes worthely accuse
He couereth his venyln : as symple of intent.
Other ar whiche flater : and to euery thynge assent.
Before tace folowynge the way of adulacion,
Whiche afterwarde sore hurteth by detraccion.
The worlde is nowe aile set on dyffamacion.
Suche ar moste cherisshed that best can forge a tale.
Whych shulde be moste had in abhom)'nacion.
And so they af of wyse men without fayle.
But suche as ar voyde of wysdom and counsa)'le
Inclyneth theyr erys to sclander and detraccion,
5'Ioche rather than they wolde to a noble sermon
5 6 Ofta]e berers, jçds reporters,
But euery Sclanderer, and begynner of stryfe.
Lousers of loue, and,infecters of Charite.
Unworthy ar fo lyue here at large in this lyre.
But in derke Dongeon they worthy ar tobe.
And there to remayne in pryson tyl they dye.
For with there yi tunges they labour to destroy
Concorde : xvhiche cause is of loue and of ioy.
An olde quean that hath ben nought al hyr dayes.
Whiche off hath for money hyr body let to hyre
Thynketh that al other doth folowe hyr olde wayes.
So she and hyr boul fdawes syttinge by the lyre.
The Boule about walkynge with theyr tunges they conspyre
Agaynst goode peple, to sclander them wyth shame.
Than shal the noughty doughter ierne of the bawdy dame.
By his warkes knowen is euery creature
For if one good, louynge, meke and charitable be.
He labours no debates amonge men to procure.
But coueyteth to norysshe true loue and charite.
,¥here as the other ful of falshode and iniquyte
Theyr synguler plesour put to ingender variaunce.
But oft theyr folysshe stody retournes to theyr myschaunce
Therfore ye bacbyters that folke thus dyffame
Leue of your lewdnes and note wel this sentence.
X¥hich Cryist hymself sayd : to great rebuke and shame
Unto them that sclandreth a man of Innocence.
Wo be to them whych by malyuolence
Slandreth or dyffameth any creature.
But wel is hym that w)'th pacience can i**dure.
Of hym that wyll nat folowe nor ensue
good counsell, and necessary.
Of folys yet another ore doth corne
Vnto our shyp rowynge with great trauayle
Whiche nought perceyue of doctryne nor wysdome
And yet dysdaytae they to aske wyse coutaseyl|
Nor it to folowe for theyr owne auayle
Let suche folys therat haue no dysdayne
If they alone endure theyr |osse and paytae
He is a foie that dothe coueyt and desyre
To haue the name of wysdome and prudence
And yet of one sought thorugh a cyte or a shyre
None coude be founde of lesse wysdome nor science
But whyle he thynketh hym full of sapience
Crafty and wyse, doutles he is more blynde
Than is that foie whiche is out of his mynde
But though he be vyse, and of myght meruaylous
Endued with retoryke and with e!oquence
And of hym selfe both ware and cautelous
If he be tachyd with this inconuenyence
To dysdayne others counseyll and sentence
He is vnwyse, for oft a folys counsayle
Tourneth a wyse man to confort and auayle
But specially the read and auysement
Of wyse men, discrete, and full of grauyte
Helpeth thyne owne, be thou never so prudent
To thy purpose gyuynge strength and audacyte.
One man alone knowys nat ail polycye
Thoughe thou haue wysdome cunnynge and scyence
Yet hath another moche more experience
Some cast out wordes in paynted eloquence
Thynkynge therby to be reputed wyse
Thoughe they haue neyther wysdome nor science
Suche maner folys them self do exercyse
A plughe and teame craftely to deuyse
To ere the path that folys erst hath made
Thc trouth vnder glose of suche is hyd and layde
Good «ouï,sel] atd ecessary. 5 9
For why, they trust alway to theyr owne mynde
And furour begon whetlaer it be good or yll
As if any other, no wyser read coude fynde
Thus they ensue theyr pryuate folysshe wyll
Oh in suche maters wherin they haue no skyli
As did Pyrrus wlaiclae began crueii Batayle
Agaynst Orestes refusynge xvyse counsayle
But folowyd his owne rasshe mynde without auaylc
As blynde and obstynat of his intencion
XVherfore he was disconfyted in Batayle
Hymseife slayne, his men put to confusyon
If that tlae Troyans in tlaeyr abusyon
ritla false Parys, had confourmed theyr intent
"Fo Helenns counsayle Troy had nat ben brent.
For that Prianus his mynde wolde nat aply
To the counseyll of Cassandra Prophetes
The grekys distroyed a great parte of Asy
Hector also by his selfwyllydnes
Was slayne with Peyn for ail his doughtynes
Of Achyiles in open and playne Batayle
For nat folowynge of his faders counsayle
If Hector that day had byddyn within Troy
And vnto his fader bene obedient
Perclaaunce he sholde laaue lyuyd in welth and ioy
Longe tyme after and corne to his intent
Whereas his body was with a spere through rent
Of the sayd Achyllys crueii and vnk)'nde
Alas for suynge his owne selfwyilyd mynde
I rede of Nero moche cursed and cruell
Whiche to wyse counsayle hymself v¢olde nat agre
But in ail myschef ail other dyd excell
Delytynge hym in synne and crueltye
But howe dyde he ende forsoth in myserye
And at the last as xvery of his lyre
Hymselfe he murdred with his owne hand and knyfe
The Bybyll wytnessyth howe the prophete Thoby
Gaue his dere sone in chefe commaundement
That if" he wolde lyue sure without ieoperdy
He sholde sue the counsayle of" men wyse and prudent
The story of Roboam is also euydent
lYhiche for nat suynge of counseyll and wysdome
Lost his Empyre, his scepter and kyngdome
If that it were nat for cawse of breuyte
I coude shewe many of our predecessours
Whiche nat folowynge counceyll of" men of grauyte
Soone haue decayed from theyr olde honours
I rede of Dukes, Kynges, and Emperours
Whiche dispysynge the counsa),le of men of age
Haue after had great sorowe and damage.
For he suerly whiche is so obstynate
That onely he trusteth to his ov¢ne blyndnes
Thynkynge all wysdome within his dotynge pare
He often endyth in sorowe and dystres
lYherfore let suche theyr cours swyftly addres
To drawe out Plough, and depe to ere the ground
That by theyr laboure all folys ma l, be founde.
Good counsell and necessar.y. 6
THE ENUOY OF 24£LEXANDER BARCLAY THE TRANSLATOUR.
0 man vnauysed thy blyndnes set asyde
Knowledge thy owne foly thy statelynes expel
Let nat for thy eleuate mynde nor folysshe pryde.
To order thy dedes by goode and wyse counsel
Howbeit thou thynke thy reason doth excel
AI other mennys wyt. yet oft it doth befall.
Anothers is moche surer : and thyn the worst of ail.
Of disordred and vngoodly maners.
Daxve nere ye folys of lewde condtcion
Of yll behauoure gest and countenaunce
Your proude Iokys, disdayne and derysyon
Expresseth your inwarde folysshe ignoraunce
Nowe wyll I touche your mad mysgoueraunce
Whiche h:tst to foly, And folysshe company
Trey|ynge your 13aybll in sygne of your foly
Of (lisordred and v,,çoodl.v maners. 63
In this our tyme small is the company
That haue good maners worthy of reuerence
But many thousandes foiowe vylany
Prone to all synne and inconuenyence
Stryuynge who sonest may come to ail offence
Of lewde condicions and vnlefulnesse
Blyndnes of yll, and defylyd folysshenesse
Ail myserable men alas haue set theyr mynde
On lothsome maners clene destytute of grace
Theyr iyen dymmyd, theyr hertes are so blynde
That heuenly ioy none forceth to purcLace
Both yonge and olde procedeth in one trace
Vith ryche and pote without ail dyfferênce
As bonde men subdued to foly and offence
Some ar busshed theyr bonetes, set on syde.
Some waue theyr armys and hede to and fro
Some in no place can stedfastly abyde
More wylde and wanton than outher buk or do
Some ar so proude that on rote they can nat go
But get they must with countenaunce vnstable
Shewynge them folys, frayle and varyable
Some chyde that ail men do them hate
Some gygyll and lawgh without grauyte
Some thynkes, hymselfe a gentylman or state
Though he a knaue caytyf and bonde churle be
These folys ar so blynde them self they can nat so
A yonge boy that is nat worth an onyon
With gentry or presthode is felowe and companyon.
6 4 Ofdisordred and vngood/y ma,ters.
Brybours and Baylyes that lyue upon towlynge
Are in the world moche set by nowe a dayes
Sergeauntis and Catchpollys that lyue upon powlynge
Courters and caytyfs beg3'nners of frayes
Lyue styll encreasynge theyr vnhappy wayes
And a thousande mo of dyuers facultyes
Lyue auauntynge them of theyr enonnytees.
l, Vithin the chirche and euery other place
These folys use theyr lewde condicions
Some starynge some cryeng some haue great solace
In rybawde wordes, mme in deuysyons
Some them delyte in scornes and derysons
Some pryde ensueth and some glotony.
XVithout ail norture gyuen to vylany
Theyr lyfe is folysshe lothsome and vnstable
Lyght brayned, theyr herte and mynde is inconstant
Theyr gate and loke proude and abhomynable
They haue nor order as folys ignorant
Chaungyng theyr myndes thryse in one instant
Alas this lewdnes and great enormyte
l, Vyll them nat surfer theyr wretchydnes to se
Thus ar these wretchyd caytyfes fully blynde
Ail men and wymen that good ar doth them hate
But he that with good maners endueth his mynde
Auoydeth this wrath hatered and debate
His dedes pleaseth both comonty and estate
And namely suche as af good and laudable
Thynketh his dedes right and commendable
Of disordred and vngoodly re,mers. 6 5
As wyse men sayth : both vertue and cunnynge
Honoure and worshyp grace and godlynes
Of worthy maners take tlaeyr begynnynge
And fere also asswagyth wantones.
Subduynge the furour of youthes wyifulnes
But shamefastnes trouth constance and probyte
Both yonge and olde bryngeth to great dignyte.
These foresayde vertues with charite and peas. ',
Together assembled stedfast in mannys mynde.
Cawseth his honour and worthynes to encreas.
And his godly lyre a godly ende shal fynde
But these lewde caytyfs which doth theyr myndes blynde
With corrupt maners lyuynge vnhappely.
In shame they lyue and wretchedly the) dye.
of amyte and
He that iniustyce vseth and greuance
-A_gaynst ail reason lawe and equyte
By vyolent force puttynge to vtteraunce
.A_ symple man full of humylyte
Suche by his lewdnes and iniquyte.
Makyth a graue wherin hym selle shall lye.
And lewdly he dyeth that lyueth c,aat.llye.
Of a»[e and fre,,d«. 6 7
A Foie frowarde cruell and vntrewe
Is he whiche by his power wrongfully
His frendes and subiectes laboures to subdewe
Without ail lawe, but clene by tyranny
Therfore thou Juge thy erys se thou aply
To right Justyce and set nat thyne intent
By wrath or malyce tobe to vyolent.
It is nat lawfull to any excellent
Or myghty man, outher lax'yer or estate
By cruelnes to oppresse an innocent
lXle by pryde and malyce Justyce to violate
The law transposynge after a frowarde rate
With proude wordes defendynge his off«ce
ç_,od wot oft suche haue symple conscience
O that he cursed is and reprouable
Whiche day and nyght stodyeth besely
To fynde some meanes false and detestable
To put his frende to losse or hurte therby
Our hertes ar fully set on vylany
There af right fewe of hye or lowe degre
That luste to norysshe trewe loue and amyte
_Alas exyled is godly charyte
Out of our Royalme we ail ar so vnkynde
Out folys settyth gretter felycyte
On golde and goodes than on a faythfull frynde
wake blynde folys and call vnto your mynde
That though honest ryches be moche commendable
Yet to a true frende it is nat comparable
68 Of brekynge and laurtynge
Of ail thynges loue is moste profytable
For the right order of lowe and amyte
Is of theyr maners to be agreable
And one of other haue mercy and pyte
Eche doynge for other af ter theyr degre
_And without falshode this frendeshyp to mayntayne
And nat departe for pleasour nor for payne
Rut alas nowe ail people haue dysdayne
On suche frendshyp for to set theyr delyte
Amyte we haue exyled out certayne
We lowe oppressyon to sclaunder and bacbyte
Extorcyon hath strength pyte gone is quyte
Nowe in the worlde suche frendes ar there none
As were in Grece many yeres agone.
Who lyst thystory of Patroclus to rede
There shall he se playne wryten without fayle
Howe whan Achyllys gaue no force nor hede
Agaynst the Troyans to execute batayle
The sayd Patroclus dyd on the aparayle
Of Achylles, and went forth in his steade
Agaynst Hector : but lyghtly he was dede.
Rut than Achylles seynge this myschaunce.
Refallen his frende whiche was to hym so true.
He hym addressyd shortly to take vengeaunce.
And so in Batayle the noble Hector slewe
And his dede cors after his charot drewe.
Upon the grounde traylynge ruthfully behynde
Se howe he auengyd Patroclus his frende.
Of aoEvte anddrrendsvp. 6 9
The hystory also of Orestes dothe expresse
Whiche whan agamenon his fader was slayne
By egystus whiche agaynst rightwysnes
The sayde Orestis moder dyd meyntayne
The childe was yonge wherfore it was but vayne
In youth to stryue, but whan he came to age
His naturall moder slewe he in a rage
And also Egystus whiche had his fader slayne
Thus toke he vengeaunce of both theyr crueines
But yet it grewe to his great care and payne
For sodaynly he fell in a madnesse
And euer thought that in his furiousnes
His moder hym sued flamynge full of lyre
And euer his deth was redy to conspyre
Orestes troubled with this fereful vysyon
-As franatyke and mad wandred many a day
Ouer many a countrey londe and regyon
His frende Pylades folowynge hym alway
In payne nor wo he wolde hym nat denay
Tyll he restoryd agayne was to his mynde
Alas what ffynde may we fynde nowe so kynde.
Of dymades what shall I lawde or wryte.
And Pythias his felawe amyable
Whiche in eche other suche loue had and del)'te
That whan Denys a tyrant detestable
And of his men some to hym agreable
Wolde one of them haue mordred crueily
Echone for othcr offred for to dye
Ualerius wrytyth a story longe and ample
Of Lelius and of worthy Cipio.
Whiche of trewe loue hath left vs great example
For they neuer left in doloure wele nor wo
I rede in thystory of Theseus also:
Howe he (as the Poetes fables doth tell)
Folowyd his felawe perothus in to hell.
And serchynge hym dyd wander and compas
Those lothsome flodys and wayes tenebrous
Ferynge no paynes of that dysordred place
N or obscure mystes or ayres odyous
Tyll at the laste by his wayes cautelous
And Hercules valyaunt dedes of boldnesse
He gat Perothus out of that wretchydnesse.
Alas where af suche frendes nowe a dayes
Suerly in the worlde none suche can be founde
Ail folowe theyr owne profyte and lewde wayes
None vnto other coueytys to be bounde
Brekers of frendshyp ynough af on the grounde
Whiche set nought by frendshyp so they may haue good
Ail suche in my shyp shall haue a folys hode
THE ENUOY OF BARKI,AY TO THE FOLYS.
Ye cruell folys full of ingratitude.
Aryse be asshamyd of your iniquyte
Mollyfy your hertes vnkynde stuberne and rude
Graffynge in them true loue and amyte
Consyder this prouerbe of'antyquyte
And your vnkyndnes weray ban and curse
For whether thou be of hy or lowe degre
Better is a frende in courte than a peny in purse
contempt, or dispisynge of
He that gyueth his erys or credence
To euery folys talys or talkynge
Thynkynge more wysdome and fruytfull sentence
In theyr vayne talys than is in the redynge
Of bokes whiche shewe vs the way of godly lyuynge
And oeulys hehh : forsoth huche one is blynde
And in this nhyp the anker shall vp wynde.
7 Of contenir or desDisynge
Suche as dispyseth auncyent scripture
XVhiche prouyd is of great auctoryte
And hath no pleasoure felycyte or cure
Of godly Prophetis whiche wrote of veryte
A foie he is for his moste felycyte
Is to byleue the tales of an olde wyfe
Rather than the doctryne of eternall lyre
The holy Bybyll grounde of trouth and of lawe
ls nowe of many abiect and nought set by
Nor godly scripture is nat worth an hawe
But talys af louyd grounde of rybawdry
And many blynddyd af so with theyr foly
That no scripture thynke they so true nor gode
As is a folysshe yest of Robyn hode.
He that to scripture wyll not gyue credence
Wherin ar the armys of our tuycion
And of our fayth foundacion and defence
Suche one ensueth nat the condycion
Of man resonable, but by abusyon
Lyuyth as a best of conscyence cruell
As saue this wodde were neyther hcuen nor hcll.
He thynketh that there is no god aboue
Nor nobler place than is this wretchyd grounde
Nor goddes power suche neytb.er fere nor loue
,Vith whom all grace and mercy doth abounde
x.Vhiche whan hym lyst vs wretches may confounde
Alas what auayleth to gyue instruccion
To suche lewde folys of this condycion.
of Holy Scriptu,'e. 7 3
It nought auayleth vnto them to complayne
Of theyr blyndnes, rtor enfourme them with verrue
Theyr cursed lyfe wyll by no mean refrayne
Their viciousnes, nor their erroure eschewe
But rather stody theyr foly to renewe
Alas what profytis to suche to expresse.
The heuenly ioy, rewarde of holynesse.
Alas what auayleth to suche to declare
The paynes of hell, wo dissolate and dcrke
No wo nor care can cause suche to beware
From their lewde lyfe corrupt and synfidl warke
What profyteth serinons of any noble clarke
Or godly lawes taught at any Scolys
For to reherse to these myscheuous folys.
What helpeth the Prophetis scripture or doctryne
Unto these folys obstynate and blynde
Their hertis af harde, nat wyllynge to enclyne
To theyr preceptis nor rote them in theyr mynde
Nor them byleue as Cristen men vnkynde
For if that they consydred heuen or hell
They wolde nat be so cursed and cruell
And certaynly the trouth apereth playne
That these folys thynke in theyr intent
That within heli is neyther car nor payne
Hete nor colde, woo, nor other punysshement
Nor that for synners is ordeyned no turment
Thus these mad folys wandreth euery boute
Without amendement styll in theyr blynde erroure
Before thy fete thou mayst beholde and se
Of our holy fayth the bokys euydent
The olde lawes and newe layde ar before the
Expressynge christes tryumphe right excellent
But for ail this set is nat thyne intent
Theyr holy doctryne to plant within thy brest
Wherof shoid procede ioy and eternail rest
Trowest thou that thy selle wyllyd ignoraunce
Of godly iawes and mystycali doctryne
May clense or excuse thy blynde mysgouernaunce
Or lewde erroure, whiche scorne hast to inclyne
To theyr preceptis: and from thy synne declyne
Nay nay thy cursed ignoraunce sothly shali
Drowne thy soule in the depe flodes infernali
Therfore let none his cursydnes defende
Nor holy doctryne, nor godly bokes dispyse
But rather stody his fawtes to amende
For god is aboue ail our dedes to deuyse
Whiche shali rewarde them in a ferefull wyse
With mortali wo that euer shali endure
Whiche haue dyspysyd his doctryne and scripture
BARCL,Y "fo THE FOLVS.
Out of your slomber folys I rede you ryse.
Scripture dyuyne, to folowe and inbrace
Be nat so boide it to leue nor dispyse
But you enforce it to get and purchase
Remember mannys confort and solace.
Is holy closyd within the boke of iyfe
Who that it foloweth hath a speciali grace
But he that doth nat a wretche is and caytyfe
Of folys without prouysyon.
He is a foie forsoth and worse
That to his saddyll wolde lepe on hye
Before or he haue gyrt his horse
For downe he comys with an euyll thee
But as great a fo|e forsoth is he
Ad to be lawghed to derysyon.
That ought begyneth without prouysyon
Of other folys yet is a moche nornber
Whorn I wolde gladly brynge to intellygence
To auoyde their blyndnes which sore doth incomber
Theyr rnynde and herte for lackynge of science
Suche af vnware and gyuen to neglygence
Mad and mysmyndyd pryuate of wysdome
Makynge no prouysyon for the tyrne to corne.
If any rnysfortune aduersyte or wo
As often hapnyth, to suche a fole doth rail
Than sayth he I thought it wolde nat haue be so
But than ouer late is it agayne to call
It is nat ynough thou fole to say I shall
For this one daye prouyde me by wysdome
A wyse man seyth peryll longe belote it corne
He is vnwyse and of prouysyon pote
That nought can se belote he haue darnage
Whan the stede is stolyn to shyt the stable dote
Cornys srnall pleasoure profyte or vauntage
But he that can suche folysshenes asswage
Begynnynge by counsayll, and fore prouydence
Is sure to escape ail inconuenyence
Whan Adarn tastyd the appyll in Paradyse.
To hym prohybyte by dyuyne commaundernent
If he had noted the ende of his interpryse
To Eue he wolde nat haue ben obedyent
Thus he endured right bytter punysshernent
For his blynde erroure and improuydence
That ail his lynage rue sore for his offence.
Of folys witbo,,t _prouysyo». 77
Hymselfe dryuyn out from Paradyce all bare
With Eue, into this vale of wretchydnes
To get theyr lyuynge with laboure payne and care
And also if Jonathas by errour and blyndnes
Had nat receyued the gyftis of falsnes
Unto hym gyuen of Tryphon by abusyon
He sholde haue escapyd great confusyon
If that he before had notyd craftely
His ennemyes gyftis of frawde full and of treason
He myght haue sauyd hymselfe from ieoperdy
And ail his people by prouydence and reason
Where as he blynde was as at that season
And to a cyte broughte in by a trayne
XVhere he was murdred and ail his people slaync
julius Cesar the chefe of conquerours
Was euer warre and prudent of counsayle
But whan he had obteyned great honours
And drewe to test as wery of Batayle
Than his vnwarnes causyd hym to wayle
For if he had red with good aduysement
The letter whiche to the counselhous was sent
He had nat gyuen his owne Jugement
As he dyd by his foly and neglygence
For whiche he murdred was incontynent
Without respect had vnto his excellence
Alas se here what inconuenyence
Came to this Emperour hye and excellent
For nat beyng wyse dyscrcte and prouydt.m
If Nichanor before had noted well
The ende of his dedes he had nat be slayne
By Judas and the children of lsraell
His hande and tunge cut of to his great payne
And than his hede, as the bybyll sheweth playne
Thus may ail knowe that wyll therto entende
Wherto they corne that caryth nat the ende
But he that begynneth by counsayll and wysdome
Alway procedynge with good prouysyon
Notynge what is past and what is for to corne
Suche folowys godly scripture and monycion
In happy wayes without transgressyon
Of goddes lawes, and his commaundement
And often tymes comys to his intent.
Thus it appereth playne and euydent
That wyse prouysyon, profe and good counsayle
Are moche laudable, and also excellent
And to mankynde great profyte and auayle.
Where as those folys haue often cause to wayle
For theyr mysfortune, in sorowe vexed sore
Whiche ought begyn nat prouydyd before
THE ENUOY OF ALEXANDER BARCLAY.
O man remember thou canste nat abyde
8tyll in this lyre therfore moste specially
For thy last ende thou oughtest to prouyde.
For that prouysion forsoth is most godly
And than next after thy mynde thou ought aply
To fie offence, and bewayle thyne olde synne
And in al| workes and besynes worldly
XYhat may be thc ende marke 'a, ell or thou begynne
Of disordred loue and veneryous.
Here drawe we folys mad ogyther bounde
Whom Uenus caught hath in hyr net a snare
Whose blynde hertes this forour doth confounde
Theyr lyre consumynge in sorowe shame and care
Many one she blyndeth ala« fewe can beware
Of hyr dartes hedyd with 8haine and ,ylany
But he that is wondyd can skant yndc remedy
8C Of disordred loue and venryous.
O cruel Uenus fo'soth who doth insue
Thy flaterynge gylys and proude commaundement
_And hastyth nat the dartis to eschewe
Of blynde Cupido but folowys his intent
Suche folys endure moche sorowe and turment
Wastynge theyr goodes dishonestynge their name
As past fere of god and sekynge after shame
Itowe many yllys, what inconuenyence
Howe great vengeaunce, and howe by.tter punysshemcnt
Hath god oft takyn for this synne and offence
Howe many Cytees hye and excellent
Hath Uenus lost, destroyed, and alto brent
What lordes and howe many a great estate
Hath loue lost, murdred, or els brought in debate
The noble Troyans murdred ar and slayne
Theyr cyte brent, decayde is theyr kyngdome
Theyr kynge pryant by pyrrus dede and slayne
And ail this by Parys vnhappy loue is come
Whiche voyde of grace and blynde without wysdome
To fyll his lust, from Grece rubbyd Helayne,
But this one pleasour was grounde of moche payne
Also Marcus a Prynce of the Romayns
Called Antonius by another name
_After that he had ouercome the persyans
To Rome retournyd with tryumphe lawde and lame
And there (whiche after was to his great shame)
With cleopatra in loue was take so in blyndnes
That he promysyd to make hir empresse
Qledisor«lred loue ana vener_vous. 8
So this blynde louer to fyll his interpryse
Caused his men two hondred shyppes ordayne
And toke the see wenynge in suche fourme and wyse
His lewde desyre : to perfourme and obteyne
But shortly after was he ouercome and slayne
Of Cesar : and whan he this purpose vnderstode
He bathed his Corse within his lemmans blode
For two serpentis that venemus were and fell
Were set to the brestis of fayre Cleopatray
13o this cruell purpose had punysshement cruell
For theyr intendynge theyr countrey to betray
And worthy they were, what man can it dertay
Thus it apereth playne by euydence
That of false loue cometh great inconuenyence
For he that loueth is voyde of ail reason
¥andrynge in the worlde without iawe or mesure
In thought and fere sore vexed eche season
And greuous dolours in loue he must endure
No creature hym selle may well assure
From loues sort dartis : I say none on the grounde
But mad and folysshe bydes he whiche hath the wouude
Aye rennynge as franatyke no reason in his mynde
He hath no constaunce nor ease within his herte
His iyen ar blynde, his wyll alwaye inclyned
To iouys preceptes yet can nat he departe
The Net is stronge, the fole caught can nat starte
The datte is sharpe, who euer is in the chayne
Can nat his sorowe in vysage hyde nor fayne
8 z Ofdisordred loue and veneryou.
Rede howe Phedra hir loue fixed so feruent
On ypolitus in prohybyte auowtry.
That whan he wolde nat vnto hir consent
To hir husbonde she accused hym falsly
As if he wolde hir tane by force to vylany
Ipolitus was murdred for this accusement
But Phedra for wo hanged hyrself incontynent
The lewde loue of Phasyphe abhomynable
As poetis sayth) brought hir to hir confusyon
l'qero the cruell Tyrant detestable.
His naturall mother knewe by abusyon
Uenus and Cupido with their collusyon.
Enflamyd Messalina in suche wyse
That euery nyght hir selle she wolde disgyse
And secretly go to the brothelhous
For to fulfyll hir hote concupyssence
What shall I wryte the dedes vicious
Of Julia or, hir cruell offence.
What shall I wryte the inconuenyence
XVhiche came by Danythys cursed auowtry
Syth that the bybyll it shewyth openly
What shall I wryte the greuous forfayture
Of 8odom and Gomor syns the Bybyll doth tell
Of their synnes agaynst god and nature
For whiche they sanke alyue downe into hell.
Thus it aperith what punysshement cruell.
Our lorde hath taken both in the olde lawe and newe
For this synne : whiche sholde vs moue it to eschewe
Of disordred loue and veneryous. 83
JkLEXANDER BARKLAY TO THE FOL¥S.
Ye folys inflamyd with loue inordynate.
Note these examples, drawe from this vyce your mynde
Remember that there is none so great estate
But that false loue hym causeth to be blynde
Out folysshe wymen may nat be left behynde
For many of them so folowys in this way
That they sell theyr soules and bodyes to go gay
The graceles galantes, and the aprentyce pote
Though they nought haue, themselfe they set nought by
Without they be acquaynted with some hore
Of westmynster or some other place of rybawdry
Than fall they to murder theft and robery.
For were nat proude clothynge, and also flesshely lust
.Ail the feters and gyues of Englonde shulde rust.
Therfore folys awake, and be no longer blynde
Consyder that shame, seknes, and pouertye
Of loue procedeth : and drawe from it your mynde
Suffre not your soules damned and lost tobe
By vayne lust and carnall sensualyte
For thoughe the small pleasure do make the fay,e
The ende off is worldly wo and myserye
Or amonge the fendes eternall payne
yt sylme trustynge vpon
lnercy of god.
Who that styll synneth without contricion
Trustynge goddes mercy andbenygnyte
Bycause he sparyth out transgressyon
And he that thynketh iustice and equyte
Is nat in god as wdl as is petye
Suche is forsoth without discressyon
8yns he thus synneth upon presumpcion
Of tt)em tiret s.nne. 8 5
The wynde is up our Nauy is aflote
_A bande of Folys a borde is corne yet more
Theyr cursed maners and mad I shall nowe note
Whose bette for synne is neyther contryte ne sore
Nat mornynge (as they ought to do) therfore
Without fere styll lyuynge in theyr vyciousnes
No thynge inclyned to godly holynes
They thynke no thynge on goddes rightwysnes
But grounde them ail, on his mercy and pyte
For that he redyer is vnto forgeuenesse
Unto all people, than them punysshed to se
Trouth it is that the great enormyte
Of the worlde hathe nat aye worthy punysslemcnt
Nor he nat damnyd that doth his synne repent
Put case he gyuyth nat aye lyke iugement
On mannys mysdede» nor yet mundayne offence
_And though he be gode meke and pacyent
Nor shortly punyssheth out inconuenyence
Put case also he gyue nat aduertence
To ail mundayne fawtes synne and fragylyte
Yet none sholde synne in hope of his mercy
But these folys assembled in a companye
Sayth eche to other that oft it is laufull
To perseuerant synners lyuynge in iniquyte
Yo trust in god syns he is mercyfull
What nedeth vs our wyttis for to dull
Labourynge our synne and foly to refrayne
Syns synne is a thynge naturall and humayne
86 Of t/)en t/)at synne
Than sayth another forsoth thou sayst playne
_And also our fore Faders and progenitours
Belote out dayes offendyd haue certayne.
_As well as we, in many blynde errours
But syns they haue escapyd ail paynes and dolours
Of hell; and nowe in heuyn af certayne
What nede haue we to fere infernall payne.
Than comys in an other with his dotysshe brayne
By god sayth he I knowe it without fable
That heuyn was made neyther for gose nor crane
Nor yet for other bestes vnresonable
Than of the Scripture doth he Chat and bable
_Alleggynge our forefaders whiche haue mysdone
8aynge that no synne is newe in out season
_A myserable men destytute of reason.
That thus on hope do synne vnhappely
Remember the synne of our forefaders done
Haue neuer ben left vnpunysshed fynally
And that somtyme, full sharpe and bytterly
For euer more ail synne hath had a fall
With sorowe here, or els wo infernall
The synne of Sodom foule and nat natural
The Pryde of rome, whiche was so excellent
The offence of Dauyd Prophete and kynge royal
The furour of Pharao fyers and violent
Haue nat escaped the rightwyse punysshment
Of God aboue, the celestial and highe Justice
Which fyrt, or last punysheth euery vyce.
'rttstynge vbon t]e mercy of god. 87
Remember Richarde lately kynge of price
In Engionde raynynge vnrightwisely a whyle.
Howe he ambycion, and gyleful Couetyse
With innocent blode his handes dyd defyle
But howbeit that fortune on hym dyd smyle
Two yere or thre: yet god sende hym punysshment
By his true seruant the rede Rose redolent.
Therfore remember that god omnypotent
Oft suffreth synners in theyr iniquyte
Grauntynge them space and tyme of amendement
And nat to procede in their enormyte
But those synners that byde in one degre
_And in this lyre their synne wyll nat refrayne
God after punyssheth with infernall payne
As I haue sayde (therfore) I say agayne
Though god be of infynyte pety and mercy
His fauour and grace passynge ail synne mundayne
Yet iustice is with hym eternally.
Wherfore I aduyse the to note intentifly
Though pyte wolde spare, iustyce wyll nat so
But the here rewarde, els with infernal wo.
AZ.EX,Z)ER B,R:*.^V TO Trie Foz.vs.
Syghe synners, syghe, for your mysgouernauce.
Lament mourn% and sorowe for your enormyte.
Away with thêse Clowdes of mysty ignorance
Syn nat in hope of goddys hyghe petye
And remember howe ye daily punysshed be
With dyuers dyseases both vncouthe and cruel
And ail for your synne, but suche as escapeth fre
And styl lyue in syn, may fere the peynes of heIle
Of the folisshe begynnynge of great
bildynges without sufficient prouision.
Corne nere folys and rede your ignorance
And great Io««e procedynge of your owne foly
Whiche without gode and discrete purueaunce
Any great werke wyll bylde or edefye.
Ail suche ar folys what man wyll it deny
For he that wyll bylde belote he count his cost
Shall seldome well ende, so that is ruade is lost.
Of the begynnynge of great bihlynges.
Who euer begynneth any worke or dede
Of byldynge or of other thynge chargeable
And to his costes before taketh no hede
Nor tyme nat countyth to his worke agreable
Suche is a foie and well worthy a babyll
For he that is wyse wyll no thynge assay
Without he knowe howe he well ende it may.
The wyse man counteth his cost before alway
Or he begyn, and nought wyll take in honde
Wherto his myght or power myght denay
His costes confourmynge to the stynt of his londe
Where as the foie that nought doth vnderstonde
Begynneth a byldynge without aduysement
But or halfe be done his money clene is spent.
Many haue begon with purpose dilygent
To bylde great houses and pleasaunt mansyons
Them thynkynge to finysshe after theyr intent
But nede disceyuyd bath theyr opynyons
Their purpose nat worth a cowpyll of onyons
But whan they se that they it ende nat can
They curse the tyme that euer they it began
Of Nabugodosor that worthy man.
What shall I wryte or the story to the tell
Syth that the Bybyll to the expresse it can
In the fourth chapter of the prophete Danyell
Was he nat punysshed in paynes cruell
For his great pryde and his presumpcion
Whiche he toke it in the byldynge of Babylon
9 o Of the begynnynge ofgreat bildynges
His golde and treasoure he spendyd hole theron
Enioynge hym in his Cyte excellent
Right so Nemroth by his inuencion
The towre of Babylon began for this intent
To saue hym, if the worlde agayne were drent
But the hye god consyderynge his blynde rage
His purpose let by confusyon of langage
His towre vnperfyte to his losse and domage
His people punysshed, hymselfe specyally
Thus it apereth what great disauauntage
On theyr hede falleth that byldeth in foly
Thus he is folysshe that wolde edefy
Any great worke without ryches in excesse
For great byldynges requyreth great rychesse
But many folys af in suche a blyndnesse
That hereon nought they set their mynde ne thought
Wherfore to them oft commyth great distresse
_And to great pouerty often af they brought
Laughed to scorne, their purpose cometh to nought
_And truely I f-ynde in bokes wryten playne
That our olde faders haue neuer set theyr brayne
On great byldynge, ne yet of them ben fayne :
It longeth to a lorde a Prynce or a Kynge
That lacke no treasoure theyr werkes to mayntayne
To set theyr myndes on excellent buyldynge
Therfore who so euer wyll meddle with this thynge
Or any other, before let hym be wyse
That his myght and ryches therto may suffyse.
lit]out soucient prouision. 9
Lyst ail men do mocke and scorne his interpryse
For if he ought begyn without prouysyon
And haue nat wherby his byldynge may up ryse
Ail that is lost that is ruade and begon
And better itis sothly in myn intencion
Nought to begyn, and spare laboure and payne
Than to begyn and than, leue of agayne
Who euer he be that so doth certayne
He shall haue mockis mengled with his damage
Therfore let suche folys sharpe theyr brayne
And better intende to theyr owne auauntage
Consyderynge that processe of tyme and age
Theyr curyous byldynges shall at the lest confounde
And Roule and wallys make egall with the grounde.
BARKLAY TO THE FOLY8.
Ye folys blyndyd with curyosyte
Whiche on great byldynge set so sore your mynde
Remember ye nat that doutles ye shall dye
And your gay byldynges and howses leue behynde
Thynke ye your conforte alway in them to fynde
Or whan ye dye, them hens with you to haue
Nay nay the laste hous gyuen to mankynde
Is the course grounde and walles of his graue.
Of glotons and dronkardes.
That gloton or dronkarde, vyle in goddes sight
Shall hardly escape the weyght of pouertye.
Whiche drynketh and deuoureth both day and nyght
Therin onely settynge all his felycyte
His lothsome lust and his bestyalyte
Shall brynge vnto destruccion fynally
His soule, his godes and his wretchyd body.
Of glotons and dronkardes. 93
Within our nauy he nedes shall haue a place.
Whiche vithout mesure on lothsome glotony
Setteth his pleasure and singuler solace
His stomacke ouerchargynge, -yle and vngodely
And to none other thynge his mynde doth he aply
Saue depest to drynke, suche force nat of theyr soules
But labore in rynsynge pecis cuppis and bowles
The madnes of dronkennes is so immoclerate
That greuous sores it ingendreth and sykenes
It causeth often great foly and debate
With soden deth and carefull heuynes
In thynges no difference putteth dronkennes.
It febleth the ioyntis and the body within
rastynge the brayne makynge the v't full thyn
It engendreth in the hede infirmyte
Blyndynge the herte wyt and discression
The mynde it demynyssheth, coloure and beaute.
Causynge ail myschef, shame and abusyon
It maketh men mad, and in conclusyon
Causeth them lyue without lawe or measure
Suynge after syn defylynge theyr nature
The people that are acloyed with this synne.
On no thynge els theyr myndes wyll aply:
8aue to the v¢yne and ale stakes to renne
_A_nd there as bestes to stryue and drynke auy
Than ar they outher gyuyn to rybax'dry
Or els to brawle and fight at euery worde
Thus dronkennes is the chefe cause of discorde
94 Of glotons and dronkarcles.
But namely dronkennes and wretchyd glotony
By their excesse and superfluyte
Engendreth the rote of cursed Lechery
Vith murder, thefte and great enormyte
So bryngeth it many to great aduersyte
And with his furour the worlde so doth it blynde
That many it bryngeth to a shamfull ende
This vyce (alas) good maners doth confounde
And maketh man ouer besy of langage
And hym that in all ryches doth abounde
It ofte in pryson bryngeth and in bondage
It causeth man to his great sorowe and domage
Disclose his secrete and his preuey counsayle
Whiche causeth hym after sore to mourne and wayle
Nought is more lothsome, more vycyous nor vyle
Than he that is subdued to this vyce
His lyfe shortynge his body he doth defyle
Bereuynge his soule the ioy of Paradyse
Howe many Cytees and lordes of great pryce
Hath ben destroyed by dronken glotony
And by his felawe, false loue, or lechery.
The sone of Thomyr had nat ben ouercome
Nor slayne by Cyrus for all his worthynes.
If he hym selfe had gydyd by wysdome
_And the vyce auoydyd of blynde dronkennes
The great Alexander taken with this madnes
With his swerde, whan he was dronken slewe
Suche of his frendes as were to hyln most trewe
Of glotons and dronkardes. 95
I rede also howe this conquerour myghty
Upon a season played at the Chesse
With one of his knyghtes which wan ynally
Of hym great golde treasoure and rychesse
And hrm ouercame, but in a furyousnes
And lade with wyne, this conquerour vp brayde
And to his knyght in wrath these wordes sayde
I haue subdued by strength and by v¢y,dome
Ail the hole worlde, whiche obeyeth to me
And howe hast thou alone me thus ouercome
And anone commaundyd his knyght hanged to be
Than sayde the knyght by right and equyte
I may apele, syns ye ar thus cruell
Ood Alexander to whome wylt thou apell
Knowest thou any that is gretter than 1
Thou shalt be hanged thou spekest treason playne
The knyght sayd sauynge your honour certaynly
I am no traytoure, apele I woll certayne
From dronken Alexander tyll he be sober agayne
His lorde than herynge his desyre sounde to reason
Differryd the iustyce as for that tyme and season
_And than after whan this furour was gone
His knyght he pardoned repentynge his blyndenes.
And well consydered that he shulde haue mysdone
If he to deth had hym done in that madnesse
Thus it apereth what great unhappynes
And blyndnes cometh to many a creature
By wyne or ale taken without measure.
9 6 Ofglotons and dronkardes.
Se here the inconuenyence manyfolde
Comynge of dronkennes as I wrytyn fynde.
Some af so starynge mad that none can them holde
Rorynge and cryeng as men out of their mynde
Some fyghtynge some chydynge, some to other kynde
Nought lyuynge to them selle : and some dotynge Johnn
Beynge dronke thynketh hym as wyse as Salomon
Some sowe dronke, swaloynge mete without mesure
Some mawde]ayne dronke, mournynge lowdly and hye
Some beynge dronke no ]enger can endure
V¢ithout they gyue them to bawdy rybawdry
Some swereth armys nayles herte and body.
Terynge our lord worse, than the Jowes hym arayed
Some nought can speke, but harkenyth what is sayd.
spende ail that they haue and more at wast
reuell and reuell dasshe fyll lhe cup ]oohnn
their thryft lesyth with dyce at one cast
slepe as slogardes tyll their thryft be gone
shewe theyr owne counsell for kepe can they none
are Ape dronke full of lawghter and of toyes
mery dronke syngynge with wynches and boyes
Some spue, some stacker some vtter]y ar lame
Lyeng on the grounde without power to ryse
Some bost them of bawdry ferynge of no shame
Some dumme, and some speketh, ix. wordes at thryse
Some charge theyr bely with wyne in suche wyse
That theyr legges skant can bere vp the body
Here is a sort to drowne a ho]e nauy.
Of glotom and dro»kardes. 9 7
BARKLAYE TO THE FOLYS.
Alas mad folys howe longe wyll ye procede
In this beestly lyuynge agayst humayne nature
Cease of your Foly: gyue aduertence and hede
That in eche thynge ought to be had measure
Wyne ne aie hurteth no maner creature
But sharpeth the wyt if it be take in kynde
But if it be nat, than I the ensure
It dulleth the brayne, blyndynge the wyt and mynde
Rede ail bokes and thou shalt neuer fynde
That dronkennes and wysdome may togyther be
For where is dronkennes, there madnes is by kynde
Gydynge the hauer to ail enormyte
And where as is madnes thou shait neuer se
Reason ne wysdome take theyr abydynge
In one instant, wherfore lerne this of me
That dronkennes is mortell enmy to cunnynge.
Yet fynde I folys of another sorte
Whiche gather and kepe excessyfe ryches
With it denyeng their neyghboures to conforte
Whiche for nede lyueth in payne and wretchydnes
Suche one by fortune may fall into distres
And in lyke wyse after corne to mysery
And begge of other, whiche shal! to hym deny.
Of ryctes vprof,table.
It is great foly, and a desyre in vayne
To loue and worshyp ryches to feruently
_And so great laboure to take in care and payne
Fals treasoure to encrease and muhyply
But yet no wonder is it sertaynly
Syth he that is ryche bath gretter reuerence
Than he that hath sadnes wysdom and scyence
The ryche mannes rewardes stande in best degre
But godly maners we haue set clene asyde
Fewe loueth vertue, but fewer pouertye.
Fais couetyse his braunches spreddeth wyde
Ouer ail the worlde, that pety can nat byde
Among vs wretches banysshed is kyndnes
Thus lyeth the pore in wo and wretchydnes
Without conforte and without auctoryte
But he only is nowe reputed wyse
Whiche hath ryches in great store and plente.
Suche shall be ruade a sergeant or Justyce
_And in the Court reputed of moste pryse
He shall be callyd to counseyll in the lawe
Though that his brayne be skarsly worth a strawe
He shall be Mayre baylyfe or constable
.And he onely promotyd to honoure
His maners onely reputed ar laudable
His dedys praysyd as grettest of valoure
Men laboure and seke to fall in his fauoure
He shall haue loue, echone to hym shall sue
For his ryches, but nought for his vertue
I O0 Of ryc])es vntSro]talffe.
Se what rewardes ar gyuen to ryches
Without regarde had to mannys condycyon
A strawe for cunnynge wysdome and holynes
Of ryches is the first and chefe questyon
What rentes what londes howe great possessyon
What stuffe of housholde what store of grotz and pens
And after lais gode his wordes hath credence.
His wordes ar trouth men gyue to them credence
Thoughe they be falsly fayned and sotell
But to the pore none wyll gyue aduertence
Though that his wordes be true as the gospell
Ye let hym swere by heuyn and by hell
By god and his sayntes and ail that god made
Yet nought they beleue that of hym is sayde
They say that the pore men doth god dispyse
Thouhe they nought swere but trouth and veryte
And that god punyssheth them in suche wyse
For so dispysynge of his hye maiestye
Kepynge them for their synnes in pouerte
And theyr ryche exaltyth by his power and grace
To suche ryches worldly pleasour and solace
The ryche af rewarded with gyftis of dyuerse sorte
With Capons and Conyes delycious of sent
But the pore caytyf abydeth without confort
Though he moste nede haue : none doth hym present
The fat pygge is baast» the lene cony is brent
He that nought hathe shall so alway byde pore
But he that ouer moche hath, yet shall haue more
Of rycbes wro'table I o I
The wolfe etis the shepe, the great fysshe the small
The hare with the houndes vexed ar and frayde
He that bath halfe nedes 3-11 haue ail
The ryche mannes pleasour can nat be denayde
Be the pote wroth, or be he well apayde
Fere causeth hym sende vnto the r2"ches bous
His mete from his owne mouth, if it be delycious
And yet is this ryche caytyf nat content
Though he haue ail yet wolde he haue more.
And though this gode tan neuer of hym be spent
XVith nought he departyth to hym that is pore
Though he with nede harde vexed were and sore.
0 cursyd hunger o mad mynde and delyte.
To laboure for that whiche neuer shall do prof)'te
Say couetous caytyfe -a'hat doth it the auayle
For to haue all and yet, nat tobe content
Thou takest nat this sore laboure and trauayle
To thy pleasoure but to thy great turment
But loke therof what foloweth consequent
XVhan thou art dede and past this wretchyd lyfe
Thou leuyst behynde brawlynge debate and str2"fe
To many one ryches is moche necessary
XVhiche can it order right as it ought tobe
But vnto other is it vtterly contrary
XVhiche therwith disdayneth to socoure pouerte.
Nor them relefe in theyr aduersyte
Suche shall out lorde sore punysshe fynally
And his petycion rightwysly deny
BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
Ye great estatis and men of dignyte
To whome god in this lyfe hath sent ryches
Haue ye compassion, on paynfull pouertye
And them conforte in theyr carefull wretchydnes
God hym Ioueth and shall rewarde doutles
Whiche to the nedy for hym is cha_ritable
With heuenly ioy, whiche treasour is endeles
So shall thy riches to the be profytable.
hym that togyder u-yll
A foie he is and voyde of reason
Whiche with one hounde tendyth to take
'I'wo harys in one instant and season
Rightso is he that wolde vndertake
Hym to two lordes a seruaunt to make
For whether, that he be lefe or lothe
The one he shall displease, or els bothe.
1 0 4. Of])ym t])at wyll serue two maysters.
/k foie also he is vdthouten doute
And in his porpose sothly blyndyd sore
vVhiche doth entende labour or go aboute
To serue god, and also his wretchyd store
Of worldly ryches : for as I sayde before
He that togyder wyll two maysters serue
Shall one displease and nat his loue deserue
For he that vvith one hownde vvol take also
Two harys togyther in one instant
For the moste parte doth the both two forgo
And if he one haue : harde it is and skant
_And that blynde foie mad and ignorant
That draweth thre boltis atons in one bowe
At one marke shall shote to hye or to lowe
Or els to wyde, and shortly for to say
With one or none of them he strykis the marke :
_And he that taketh vpon hym nyght or day
Laboures dyuers to chargeable of warke.
Or dyuerse offycis : suche wander in the darke
For it is harde to do well as he ought
To hym that on dyuerse thynges hath his thought
With great thoughtes he troubleth sore his brayne
His mynde vnstable, his wyt alway wandrynge :
Nowe here nowe there his body labours in payne
_And in no place of stedfast abydynge.
Nowe workynge now musynge now renynge now rydynge
Now on see nowe on londe, than to se agayne
Somtyme to Fraunce, and nowe to Flaunders or Spayne
Of hym that wyll serue two maysters. I (5
Thus is it paynfull and no thynge profytable
On many labours a man to set his mynde
For nouther his wyt nor body can be stable
Whiche wyll his body to dyuers chargis bynde
XYhyle one goth forwarde the other bydes behynde
Therfore I the counseyll for thyne owne behoue
Let go this worlde and serue thy lorde aboue
He that his mynde settyth god truly to serue
_And his sayntes : this worlde settynge at nought
Shall for rewarde euerlastynge ioy descrue
But in this worlde, he that settyth his thought
_Ail men to please, and in fauour to be brought
Must lout and lurke, flater, lawde, and lye:
And cloke a knauys counseyll, though it ls be
If any do hym wronge or iniury
He must it surfer and pacyently endure
A dowble tunge with wordes lyke hony
And of his offycis if he wyll be sure
He must be sober and colde of his langage
More to a knaue than to one of hye lynage
Oft must he stoupe his bonet in his honde
His maysters backe he must oft shrape and clawe
His breste anoyntynge, his mynde to vnderstonde
But be it gode or bad therafter must he drawe
Without he can Jest he is nat worth a strawe.
But in the meane tyme beware that he none checke
For than layth malyce a mylstone in his ne«ke
o6 Of t)ym that wy]l serue two maysters.
He that in court wyli loue and f:auour haue
_A foie must hym fayne, if he were none afore
_And be as felowe to euery boy and knaue
_And to please his lorde he must styll laboure sore
His manyfolde charge maketh hym coueyt more
That he had leuer serue a man in myserye
Than serue his maker in tranquylyte
But yet whan he hath done his dylygence
His iorde to serue as I before haue sayde
For one small faute or neglygent offence
Suche a displeasoure agaynst hym may be layde
That out is he cast bare and vnpuruayde.
Whether he be gentyii, yeman grome or page
Thus v,orldly seruyce is no sure herytage
Wherfore I may proue by these examples playne
That it is better more godly and plesant
To leue this mondayne casuahe and payne
And to thy maker one god to be seruaunt
XVhiche whyle thou lyuest shali nat let the want
That thou desyrest iustly, for thy syruyce
And than after gyue the, the ioyes of Paradyse.
BARKLAY TO THE FOLY$.
_Alas man aryse out of Idolatry.
Worshyp nat thy ryches nor thy vayne treasoure
Ne this wretchyd worlde full of mysery.
But lawde thy maker and thy sauyour
With fere, mekenes, fayth, glory, and honoure
Let thy treasoure onely in his seruyce be
_And here be content with symple behauoure
Hauynge in this lorde trust and felycyte
Of to moche spekynge or bablynge.
He that his tunge can temper and refrayne
And asswage the foly of hasty langage
Shall kepe his mynde from trowble, sadnes and payne
And fynde therby great ease and auauntage
Where as a hasty speker falleth in great domage
Peryll and losse, in lyke -ayse as the pye
Betrays hir byrdes by hir cbatrynge and crye.
Ye blaberynge folys superflue of langage
Corne to our shyp our ankers ar in wayde
By right and lawe ye may chalange a stage
To you of Barklay it shall nat be denayde
Howe be it the charge Pynson hathe on me layde
With many folys our Nauy not to charge.
Yet ye of dewty shall haue a sympyll barge
Of this sorte thousandes ar withouten fayle
That haue delyte in wordes voyde and vayne
On men nat fawty somtyme vsynge to rayle
On folysshe wordes settynge theyr herte and brayne
They often touche to theyr owne shame and payne
Suche thynges to whiche none wyll theyr mynde aply
(Saue suche folys) to theyr shame and enuy
Say besy foie art thou nat weli worthy
To haue enuy, and that echone sholde the hate
Vqhan by thy wordes soundynge to great foly
Thou sore labrest to engender debate
Some renneth fast thynkynge to corne to late
To gyue his counsell whan he seeth men in doute
_And lyghtly his folysshe boit shall be shot out
Is it nat better for one his tunge to kepe
Vghere as he myght (perchaunce) with honestee
Than wordes to speke whiche make hym after wepe
For great losse folowynge wo and aduersyte
_A worde ones spokyn reuoked can nat be
Therfore thy fynger lay before thy lypes
For a wyse mannys tunge, without aduysement trypes
Of to moche speleynge or babl_ynge. Io 9
He that wyll answere of his owne folysshe brayne
Before that any requyreth his counsayle
Shewith hym selfe and his hasty foly playne
XYherby men knowe his wordes of none auayle
Some haue delyted in mad blaborynge and frayle
Whiche after haue suffred bytter punysshement
For their wordes, spoken without aduysement
Say what precedeth of this mad outrage
But great mysfortune, ,«o and vnhappynesse
But for all theyr chattynge and plenty of langage
Whan to the preste they corne them to confesse
To shewe theyr lewde lyfe theyr synne and wretchydnes
Whan they sholde speke, and to this poynt ar corne
Theyr tunges ar loste and there they syt as domme
Many haue ben whiche sholde haue be counted wyse
8ad and discrete, and right well sene in scyence
But all they haue defyled with this one vyse
Of moche spekynge : o cursyd synne and offence
Pyte it is that so great inconuenience
So great shame, contempt rebuke and vylany
Sholde by one small member came to the hole body
Let suche take example by the chatrynge pye.
Whiche doth hyr nest and byrdes also betraye
By hyr grete chatterynge, clamoure dyn and crye
Ryght so these folys theyr owne foly bewraye.
But touchynge wymen of them I wyll nought say
They can nat speke, but ar as coy and styll
As the horle wynde or clapper or a mylle
But that man or woman or any creature
That lytell speketh or els kepeth sylence
Af euer of them selle moste stedfast and sure
Without enuy hatred or inalyuolence.
Where as to suche comys moche inconuenyence
Sorowe vpon sorowe, malyce and dysdayne
Vhiche wyll no tyme, his speche nor tunge refrayne
Fayre speche is pleasaunt if it be moderate
And spoken in season conuenyente and dewe
To kepe scylence, to pore man or estate
[s a great grace, and synguler ertue
Langage is lawdable whan it is god and true
A wyse man or he speke wyll be wyse and ware
What (to vhome) why (hoxve) whan and whare
BARKLAYE TO THE FOIJYS.
Ye bablynge brybours, endeuer you to amende
Mytygat by mesure, your prowde hasty langage
Kepe well your tunges so, shall ye kepe your frende
For hasty speche ingendreth great damage
Whan a worde is nat sayd, the byrde is in the cage
Also the hous is surest whan the dorys be barryde
So whan thy worde is spokyn and out at large
Thou arte nat mayster, but he that hath it harde
If thou take hede and set therto thy brayne
In this world thou shalt fynde thynges thre
Whiche ones past, can nat be callyd agayne.
The firste is (tyme lost) by mannes symplycyte
The seconde (youth) reuoked can nat be
The thyrde (a worde spoken) it gooth out in the wynde
And yet is the fourth, that is (virginyte)
My forgetfull mynde, had lefte it nere behynde
Of them that correct other and yet them
selle do nought and synne ,vorse than
they whom they so correct.
He lacketh reason and vndersumdynge to
Whiche to a towne or Cyte knoweth the way
And shewyth other howe they may tbetber go
Hym selle wandrynge aboute from day to day
In myre and fen, though his iourney thether lay
So he is mad whiche to other doth preche and tell
Tbe wave to heuyn, and hym selfe goth to hcll.
1 I 2 Of t])eîn t])at correct ot]ers
N'owe to our N'auy a sorte maketh asaute
Of folys blynde, mad Jugys and Iniust
Vhiche lyghtly noteth another mannes faute.
Chastynge that synne whiche theyr owne mynde doth rust
By longe abydynge, and increas of carnall lust
They cloke their owne vyce synne and enormyte
Other blamynge and chastynge with moche cruelte
They mocke and mowe at anothers small offence
And redy ar a faute in them to fynde
But of theyr owne foly and inconuenyence
They se no thynge, for fully ar they blynde
lq'at notynge the vyce rotyd in theyr owne mynde
Theyr greuous woundes and secrete malady
For theyr owne yll they seke no remedy
The hande whiche men vnto a Crosse do nayle
Shewyth the waye ofte to a man wandrynge
xtYhiche by the saine his right way can nat fayle
But yet the hande is there styll abydynge
So do these folys lewde of theyr owne lyuynge
To other men shewe mean and way to wynne
Eternall ioy themselfe bydynge in synne
He sertaynly may well be callyd a sote
Moche vnauysed and his owne ennemy
,Vhiche in a nothers iye can spye a lytell mote
And in his owne can nat fele nor espye
A moche stycke, so is he certaynly.
Whiche noteth anothers small faute or offence
To his owne great synnes gyuynge none aduertence
and synne worse tl)emsek,es. ! 3
Many them selle fayne as chaste as was saynt Johnn
_And many other fayne them meke and innocent
Some other as iust, and wyse as Salomon
As holy as Poule, as Job als pacyent
.As sad as senecke, and as obedyent
.As Abraham, and as martyn vertuous
But yet is theyr lyfe full lewde and vycious
Some lokyth with an aungels countenaunce
Wyse sad and sober lyke an heremyte
Thus hydynge theyr synne and theyr mysgouernaunce.
Under suche clokys lyke a fais ypocryte
Let suche folys rede what Cicero doth wryte
Whiche sayth that none sholde blame any creature
For his faut, without his owne lyuynge be sure
Without ail spot of synne faut or offence
For in lyke fourme as a phesycyan.
By his practyse and cunnynge or scyence
The sekenes curyth of a nother man
But his owne yll nor dyseas he nat can
Relefe nor hele so doth he that doth blame
-Anothers synne: he styll lyuynge in the same
Many ar whiche other can counseyll craftely
_And shewe the peryll that may corne by theyr synne
But them selfe they counseyll nat: ne remedy.
Nor take no waye whereby they heuyn may wynne
But lye in that vyce that they rotyd ar in
Leuynge the way that gydyth to ioy and rest
Their owne sensualyte ensuynge as a beest
4 Of t/em t/at correct oters.
Vherfore ye prestis that haue the charge and cure.
To te¢he and enfourme the rude comonte.
In goddys lawes groundyd in scripture
And blame ail synnes sparynge no degre
XVhyle ye rebuke thus theyr enormyte
Lyue so that none may cause haue you to blame
_And if ye do nat : it is to your great shame
For without doute it is great vylany
A man to speke agaynst any offence
Wherin he well knowyth hym owne selle gylty
Within his mynde and secrete conscience
Agaynst hymselfe suche one gyueth sentence
Howe god ryght iuge, by rightwyse iugement
8hulde hym rewarde with worthy punysshement
THE ENUOY OF BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
Ye clerkes that on your shulders bere the shelde
Unto you graunted by the vnyuersyte.
Howe dare ye auenture to fyght in cristes felde
Agaynst synne, without ye clere and gyltles be
Consyder the Cocke and in hym shall ye se:
A great example, for with his wynges thryse
He betyth hym selfe to wake his owne bodye
Before he crowe, to cause other wake or ryse.
that fyndeth ought of another
it nat restorynge to the owner.
He that ought fyndyth outher by day or nyght
Usynge it as his owne, as thynge gottyn iustly
And thynketh that he so may do by lawe and right
Suche is disceyuyd, and thynketh wrongfully
For why the deuyll our goostly ennemy
Doth hym so counseyll and in his erys blowe
Disceyuynge in his bondes, as he doth many mo
,, 6 Of hym thatJndett
The feruour of ryches and disordred loue
XYhiche many haue, doth me bynde and constrayne.
Within my shyp them sharply to reproue
That pen nor hande, themselfe wyll not refrayne
Of couetyse no,ve I wyll nat speke agayne
But of them that kepeth by force and by myght
That thynge wherto they haue nat corne, by ryght
Some fyndeth treasours other mennys good
_And in theyr owne vse suche good they occupy.
XVhiche of theyr myndes ar so blynde and wode.
_And so reted in theyr errour and foly
That oft they say (say) ye and dare byde by
That some saynt whome they worshypped haue
Haue sende them the saine theyr honestee to saue
They haue no force nor care, nor they none haue vyll
To whome the ryches so loste dyde apertayne
That fortune hath gyuen they holde fast and kepe styll
l'qeuer hauynge mynde it to restore agayne
Suche folys fere no thynge euerlastynge payne
Nor note nat, that without true restytucion
It smali auayleth to haue made confessyon.
Here me foie with thy immoderate mynde
Here me and do thy herte therto aply
If thou by fortune any ryches fynde
Callynge it thyne : thou lyest therin falsly
If thou haue wyt thou canst nat well deny
But that gode nat gyuen, nor gottyn by laboure
Can nat be rightwyse : thus mende thy blynde erroure
Ought of anot/)er mannys. I 1 7
If thou ought fynde that longeth nat to the
Than is it anothers, the case is clere and playne
Wherfor thou ought of lawe and of dewte
Unto the owner it soone to yelde agayne
But if he be dede, to whome it dyd attayne
Thou ought nat yet to kepe it nere the more.
But to his sectours or heyres it restore
Put case that they also be past and dede
Yet ought thou nat to keep it styll with the.
The lawe commaundyth, and also itis mede.
To gyue it to suche as haue necessyte.
With it releuynge theyr paynfull pouertee
And so shalt thou discharge thy conscyence.
Helpynge the pote, and auoyde great offence
But he that others godes tourneth to his owne vse
Spendynge and wastynge that thynge that neuer was his
Suche certaynly his reason doth abuse
And by this meane greuously doth amysse
XVherby he lesyth eternall ioy and blysse
His soule drownynge depe within hell flodes
For his myspendynge of other mennys goodes
But to be shorte, and brefe in my sentence
And sothe to saye playne as the mater is
Forsoth I se nat right great difference
Bytwene a thefe, and these folys couetys
Both wrongly kepeth that thynge that is nat his
Thynkynge that god doth nat therto aduerte
Whiche notyth thy dedys, thy mynde thought and herte
XYherfore if thou haue a rightwyse conscyence
Thou wylt nought kepe whiche longeth nat to the
The lawe so commaundeth in payne of great offence
For of gode that thou kepest agaynst equyte
Thou shalt make accompt after that thou shalt dye
To thy great payne in hell for euer more
If thou no restytucion make before.
Here myght I touche executours in this cryme.
Blamynge theyr dedys dysceyte and couetyse
If it were nat for wastynge of my tyme
For mende they wyll nat them in any wyse
Nor leue no poyntes of theyr disceytfull gyse
Let them take parte of that whiche I here note
And be partynge foies in this present bote.
THE ENUO¥ OF BARKLA¥ THE TRANSLATOUR TO THE
Ye false executours whome ail the worlde repreuys
And ye that fynde mennes goodes or treasoures
I call you as bad as robbers or theuys
For ye by your falshode and manyfolde errours
Kepe falsly that thynge whiche is none of yours
And wast here the goodes of hym that is past
The soule lyeth in payne, ye take your pleasours.
With his ryches, damnynge your owne soule at the last
Of the sermon
or erudicion of wysdone
wyse men and folys.
He that ddyteth in godly sapience
And it to obtayne puttyth his besynes
Aboue ail folys shall haue preemynence
And in this worlde haue honour and rychesse
Or a vorthy crowne in heuyns blessydnesse
Or els bothe welthe here, and after ioy and blysse
Where as a foie of bothe the two shall mysse
Wysdome with ,oyce replete with grauyte
Callyth to ail people, and sayth o thou mankynde
Howe longe wylt thou lyue in this enormyte
Alas howe longe shalt thou thy wyt haue blynde
Here rny preceptis and rote them in thy mynde
Nowe is full tyme and season to clere thy syght:
Harkyn to my v¢otdes, grounde of goodnes and ryght
Lerne mortall men, stodyerge day and nyght
To knowe me ,vysdome, chefe rote of chastyte
My holy doctryne thy herte shall clere and lyght
My tunge shall shewe the ryght and equyte
Chase out thy foly, cause of aduersyte.
And seke me wysdome whiche shall endewe thy myrde
With helth and welth wherby thou lyfe shalt fynde
Aryse I say agayne to the mankynde
And seke me wysdome that ara well of goodnes
Let nat this worlde thy conscyence farther blynde
lqor to synne subdue for loue of false rychesse
Blynde nat thy herte with mondayne wretchednes
I ara worth golde and worth ail good mundayne :
And to mankynde counselloure sollerayne
No maner Jowell is to me lyke certayne
Ne so prof)rtable to mortall creature
I passe ail ryches and cause a man refrayne
His mynde from synne, and of his ende be sure
There is no treasoure nor precious stone so pure
Carbuncle Ruby ne adamond in londe nor see
Nor other lapydary comparable to me:
And shortly to speke wysdome is more laudable
Than all the worlde or other thynge mundayne
There is no treasoure: to -vysdome comparable
But it alone is a vertue moste souerayne
Hauynge nought lyke in valoure nor worth certayne
No foie is so ryche, nor hye of dignyte
But that a wyse man pore is more worthy than he
Wysdome preserueth men in auctoryte
Prynces promotynge by counseyll prouydent
By it pore men somtyme, and of lowe degre
Hath had the hole worlde to them obedyent
It gydeth Cytees and countrees excellent
And gouerneth the counseyll of prynce lorde and kynge
Strengthynge the body the herte enlumynynge
It gydyth lordes and from bondage doth brynge
Them whome foly hath brought in to captyuyte
Hir gyftys to mankynde frely offrynge
Gydynge hir discyples from ail aduersyte
Wysdome stondynge vpon a stage on hye
Cryeth to mankynde with lowde voyce in this wyse
I trouth exalte : and vycious men dispys'e
Lerne of me wysdome cast out your couetyse
For by my myght craft and wyse prouysicion
Kynges vnto their dygnyte dothe ryse
Theyr septers gydynge by my monycion
I gaue them lawes to gyde eche regyon
In welthe defendynge and in prosperyte
Them and theyr royalmes whyle they gyde them by me
2 2 Of t& ««mo OE.«dom«
Ail maner nacyons that doth to me inclyne
I gyde and gouerne by lawe and equyte
In me is right, godly wyt and doctryne
What blynde foly, and howe great aduersyte
Do they auoyde that gyde them selfe by me
And he that me louyth with worshyp and honour
Shall knowe my loue my grace and my fauour
He that me folowyth shall auoyde ail dolour
I shall hym folowe promotynge in suche case
That none shall be before hym in valour
I godly ryches in my power inbrace
Whiche man by me may esely purchase
And he that wyll his way by me addresse
I shall rewarde with heuenly ioy endles
The father of heuen of infynyte goodnesse.
Me comprehendyth within his deytee
Of hym my firste begynnynge is doutles.
And heuen and erth he create hath by me
And euery creature bothe on londe and se
The heuen imperyall ail planetis and firmament
God neuer thynge ruade without my true assent
Therfore mankynde set thy mynde and intent
To me wysdome to be subiect and seruaunt
To my preceptis be thou obedyent
And heuenly ioy thou shalt nat lacke nor want
For doutles they ar mad and ignoraunt
And folys blyndyd who so euer they be
That wyll nat gladly be seruauntes vnto me
THE ENUOY OF BARKLAY TO THE FOI.Ys.
Aryse folys of myndes darke and blynde.
Receyue the gyftes of godly sapyence
Here hir perceptis and plant them in your mynde
And rote out the gaffys of your olde offence.
Call to your myndes what inconuenyence
Howe sodayne fallys, what sorowe and turment
Hath corne to many a myghty lorde and prynce
For nat folowynge of hir commaundement.
Of bostynge or hauynge confydence
He is a foie whiche settyth confydence
On frayle fortune vncertayne and mutable
His mynde exaltynge in pryde and insolence
Because that she somtyme is fauorable
As if she wolde so be perdurable
Suche folys oft whan they thynke them most sure
Ail sodaynly great mysfortune endure
Of ]auynge cottlence infortune. 2 5
Amonge our folys he ought to haue a place
_And so he shall for it is resonable
Whiche thynketh hymselfe greatly in fortunes grace
Bostynge that she to hym is fauorable
_As if hyr maner were nat to be mutable
In this vayne hope suche theyr lyfe doth lede
Tyll at the laste theyr hous borne oure theyr hede
He shakyth boost and off doth hym auaunte
Of fortunes fauoure and his prosperyte
Whiche suffreth hym nought of his wyll to wante
So that he knoweth nought of aduersyte
Nor mysfortune nor what thynge is pouertee.
O lawles fole o man blyndyd of mynde
Say what suretye in fortune canst thou fynde
To what ende or vnto what conclusyon
Shall fortune frayle vnrightwyse and vnsure
Lede the blynde foie by hyr abusyon.
Howe darest thou the in hir blyndnes assure.
Syns she vnstable is and can nat longe endure
Hir gyftis changith, she is blynde and sodayne
Thoughe she firste lawghe hir ende is vncertayne.
Thou shakest boste ofte of hir foly in vayne
For he is most happy whiche can auoyde hir snare
If she exalte some one vnto welth mundayne
She bryngeth another to payne sorowe and care
Whyle one is ladyd to the others backe is bare
XVhyle she a begger maketh in good abounde
_A lorde or state she throweth to the grounde
But nat withstandynge hir mutabylyte.
Thou bostest thy gode and to moche abundaunce
Thou bostest thy welth and thy prosperyte
Thy good auenturs, and plentyfull pleasaunce
-Alas blynde foie amende thy ygnoraunce
_And in thy welthe to this saynge intende
That fortune euer hath an incertayne ende
Fais fortune infect of countenaunce and of face
By hir iyen clowdy and varyable vysage
Hath many for a whyle taken to hir grace
Whiche after by hir whele vnstable and volage
Hath brought them to wo mysfortune and damage
She ruleth pore and riche without difference
Lewdnes exaltynge and damnynge innocence
Thus is that man voyde, of ail intellygence
Whom fortune fedyth, with chaunche fortunable
If he therin haue ouer large confydence
_And thynke that sure that euer is mutable
That fole is sonne, to the fende abhomynable
That foloweth ryches, and fortune that is blynde
His sauyour lefte, and clene out of mynde
Whan the foule fende, father of vnhappynes
Pote man purposyth by falshode to begyle
He sendeth hym welth worldly, and fais ryches
_And causeth fortune, awhyle on hym to smyle
XVhiche wih hir blyndenes doth mankynde so defyle
That whyle they trust in hir fauour to sore.
They damme theyr soules in hell for euermore
Of bauynge copdence infortune. I 2 7
By large examples thou eche day mayste se
The chaunge of fortune and the ende vncertayne
Wherfore to boste the of hyr commodyte
It is great foly and also thynge in vayne
From this lewdnes thy mynde therfore refrayne
And be content with fortune moderate
Nor boste the nat of thy wehh or estate
This day thou art ryche and despysest the pore
Yet so may it rail, that for thy lewde lyuynge
To morowe thou beggest thy brede from dore to dore
Therfore remembre that blynde fortune wandrynge
Hath nat in hyr handes power, nor gydynge
The rewardes of welth, nor of felycyte
But god them gydeth by his great maieste
And ail thynge chaungeth as is to hym plesaunt
His dedes to wysdome alwaye agreable
Wherfore blynde foie be nat so ignoraunt
To prayse fortune whiche is so varyable
And of rewardes vnsure and chaungeable
But thoughe she smyle trust nat to hir intent
For amonge swete herbes ofte lurkyth the serpent
BARKLAY TO THE FoI,Ys.
Ye folys that haue in fortune confydence :
_And boste you of velth and of prosperyte
Leue of your foly, and note by euydence :
Hir cours vnsure : and hir mutabylyte
None in this lyfe can byde in one degre
But somtyme hye, than after pore and lowe.
Nowe nought set by, nowe in auctoryte
Nowe full nowe voyde as waters ebbe and flowe
1 ara remembred that I haue often sene
Great worldly ryches ende in pouertye
_And many one that hath in fauour ben:
_And hye promotyd in welth and dignyte.
Hath sodaynly fallyn into calamyte
Thus is it foly to trust in fortunes grace
For whvle the Se floweth and is at Burdews hye
It as fast ebbeth at some other place
ouer great and chargeable
curyosyte of men.
Unto mo folys here ordayne I a barge
Whiche medlyth with euery mannys besynes
And nat inteadeth to their owne fosse and charge
Great payne and wo suche folys oft oppresse
And let them lerne with pacyent mekenes
OE'o surfer sorowe for why they shall none lacke
Syns they alone, the hule worlde take on theyr laacke
I 30 Of ])o Oll8F great cu,yo«yt« of,nen.
He that wyll coueyt to bere more than he may
And take on his sholders more than he can sustayne
Suche is a foie, his dedys wyll not deny
And with his owne wyll gooth to peryll and payne.
He is vnwyse whiche is ioyous and fayne
To offer his necke to bere that without fere
XVhichz were ynoughe for dyuers men to bere
That man that taketh vpon his backe alone
The heuy weght of the large fyrmament
Or any burdeyne whiche maketh hym to grone
Whiche to sustayne his strength is ympotent
No meruayle is if he fall incontynent
And than whan he lowe on the grounde doth lye
He oft repentyth his purpose and foly
\¥e haue in storyes many examples great
Shewynge the lewde ende of this curyosyte.
I rede of Alexatder that dyd often sweate
In great peryls to augment his dignyte
He was nat content with europe and asye
Nor ail the grounde under the fyrmament
At the last ende, cowde nat his mynde content
As if ail the erth were nat suffycyent
For his small body by curyouse couetyse
But at the last he must holde hym content
With a small cheste and graue nat of great pryce.
Thus deth vs shewyth what thynge sholde vs suffyce
_And what is the ende of our curyosyte.
For dethe is lyke to hye and lowde degre
Of t]e ouer great curyos_vte of men. 3 t
What shall a kynge at his last endynge haue
Of ail his realme and infynyte treasoure
Saue onely his towmbe, and the grounde of his graue
But thoughe it be of great pryce and voloure
As is conuenyent to his hye honoure.
Yet lytell conforte to his soule shall it gyue
But cause of bostynge to them that after lyue
Thus whan man vnto his iast ende is corne
He nought with hym bereth of his dignytees
Wherfore cynicus a man of great wysdome
Lorde grettest of Grece in londes and Cytees
Hathe lefte great example vnto ail degrees
For his great ryches his herte dyd neuer blynde
But worldly pompe set clene out of his mynde
He forced of no castels nor excellent byldynge
Dispysynge charges and besynes worldly
But gaue his mynde to verrue and cunnynge
And namely to the scyence of astronomy
Consyderynge that great test of mynde and of body
With hym abydeth whiche with bolde bette is fayne
To folowe vertue and leue charges mundayne
He that so doth no weght doth vndertake
Vpon his backe of so great a grauyte
That his small strength must it agayne forsake.
Where he that attempteth grettest thynges and hyc :
Great weyght of charges and moche dignite
Must lerne to surfer payne thought and vexacion
By his great charges of perturbacion.
3 OE Of t]e otter great curyosyte of men.
XVhat auayle is it the worlde to obtayne
In one mannys power, and ail other to excell
To surfer trouble r and vayne charges sustayne
And at the last his pote soule gooth to hell
There toren and tourmented in paynes cruell
It were moche better to kepe a quyet mynde
And after our deth etemall test to fynde
He that taketh thought tbr euery besynes :
And caryth for that whiche doth nat apertayne
Nor longe to his charge r he is full of blyndnes
And no houre shall rest, but styll in thought and payne
Care for thy owne charges r theron set thy brayne
For he a foie is that caryth or doth intende
For another mannys charge whiche he can nat amende
Therfore lyue in test after thy degre.
Nor on suche thynges do nat thy mynde aply
Whiche ar no thynge apertaynynge vnto the
If thou so do thou shalt fynde rest therby
Auoyde thou the charge of worldly mysery
For godes take no thought great care ne trauayle.
XVhiche after deth shall do the none auayle
BARKLAY TO TI-IE FOLYS.
Foie clere thy iyen and of thy selfe beware
Care moste for thy owne besynes and charge
For other mennes take no great thought nor care
If thou thy conscience mayst therof discharge
A curyous man that of his tunge is large
Talkynge or carynge of other, his place is best
Hye in the fore top of our folysshe barge
For in that place is small quyet or test
Of them that ar alway borooEnge.
A man that is besy both euyn and morowe
With rauysshynge clawys and insaciable
Of his frendes and neyghbours to begge and to borow
To the deuourynge wolfe is most l'ke or semblable
Buche in our shyp shall nat want a babyll
For he that styll borowes shail skant hym quyte or redde
And as a wretche the asse shall hym ouer trçdde
34 Of tl)em that ar a]way borovnge.
That foie that hym selle a dettour doth make
To dyuerse men, and is borowynge alway
Right ponderous charges on hym doth take
Borowynge of one another therwith to pay
Thoughe he be glad to haue longe terme and day
To hym assygned to make his payment
It nought auayleth, for soone the tyme is spent
But in the meane tyme deuourynge vsurye
Spoylyth makynge pore many a borewer
Where they two borewed they promys to pay thre
Their day of payment lenger to defarre.
Thus doth oft borowynge many thousandes marre
Yet some get malyce for that gode that they len
And where they lent twenty gladly taketh ten.
I wyll nat say but that it is mede certayne
To lene frely to one that is in nede
And wyll be glade it to content agayne.
But he that lenyth to haue rewarde or mede
Or more than he lent, may of hell payne haue drede
And he that so boroweth gayne can haue none
Therby in this lyre, but hell whan he is gone
Therfore in this satyre suche wyll 1 repreue
And none that borowe uor lene on amyte
The vsurers: fais cristen men in theyr byleue
Folowe the waren way of theyr iniquyte
Prohybyte by lawe iustyce and equyte
Theyr vnclene hertes, and mynde, vnhappely
On lucre settynge, comynge by vsury
Of them that af a]way borowynge. I35
They hepe theyr synne in quantyte horryble
Labowrynge that lewde burthen gretter to make
And that sore weght tedyose and terryble
,¥ith a great rope vpon theyr shulders take
The weyght vp taken all theyr hole ioyntes quake
Thus these caytyfs with this tope and burthyn heuy
Them selle hange damnynge theyr soule eternal/y
A wretchyd man, alas make clere thy reason
Remember thoughe god the surfer thus longe tyme
He graunteth that space to amende the in season.
And nat dayly to encreas thy synne and cryme
Somtyme he punyssheth with infenall abhyme
Shortly for synne, somtyme thoughe one mysdo
He suffreth longe : but yet truste nat therto
The longer vnpunysshed, the sorer is the payne
And if thou vylt nat gyue to me credence
Of sodome and Gomor the Bybyll sheweth playne
Howe God rightwysely ponysshed theyr offence
And also Solym, towne of great excellence
For vyciousnes god ponysshed bytterly
Whiche sholde vs cause for to lyue rightwysely.
The rightwyse god also dyd sore chastyce
Tthe Nilicolyans and them vtterly destroy
For theyr contynuynge in theyr syn and vyce
And theyr lynage longe kepte from welth and ioy
In great trouble whiche dyd theyr hertis noy:
Howe be it that they were good and innocent
For theyr fathers faute they suffred punysshement
3 6 Of them t]a! .r alway borowynge.
But to our purpose to retourne agayne.
He that ought boroweth whiche he can nat pay
Of a wolfe rauysshynge foloweth the trayne
But though he ail swolowe yet can he by no way
I)euoure the tyme nor the prefyxed day
XVherfore if he than disceyue his credytour
He oft hym chastyth with iustyce and rygour
Ryght in lyke wyse our lorde omnipotent
In this worlde to lyue grauntyth vs tyme and space
Nat styll to synne, but vnto this intent
To leue our vyce, and folowe the way of grace
But if we styll contynue in one case
And haue done no good to pay hym at our day
In hell pryson he iustly shall vs lay
BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
Thou fole mysmyndyd to large of sconscyence
To the I speke that art a lewde dettour
Borowe thou no thynge, noble grote ne pens.
More than thou mayst agayne pay thy credytour
Right so endener the to pay thy sauyour
His right and dewty, with a glad wyll and fayne
That is true seruyce, with glory and honour
Than shalt thou surely escape infernall payne.
Of inprofytable and vayne prayers
That man whose herte vnhappy synne doth blynde
And prayth gasynge into the fyrmament
Or he that setteth nat his herte and mynde
Upon his wordes, theyr sentence or intent
And he that desyreth thynge nat conuenyent
Suche folys shall nat theyr peticion obtayne
For without the heite the ronge laboureth in vayne
3 8 Of brofytable and va.yne pra.yers.
Here we repreue (reperue) ye and reuyle.
A sorte of folys lewde of condicions
Whose bette and tunge theyr soules doth defyle
By theyr blynde prayers and yll peticions
Suche folowe no techynge nor gode monysyons
For often many of them with tunge doth pray
Theyr mynde, abstract nat knowynge what they say
Man oft desyreth with great affeccion
That thynge of god, whiche thynge if god wolde graunt.
Sholde be at last vnto thyer destruccyon
Examples hereof thou canst nat lacke nor want
The great Medas somtyme kynge tryumphant.
t)f Phrygye By his owne folysshe desyre
With paynfull hunger, his lyfe breth dyd expyre
This kynge Mydas of whom I haue you tolde
Of god desyred xvith prayer dylygent.
That ail that he touchyd tourne myght vnto golde
His prayer was harde, he obteynyd his intent
But nat to his welth, but mortall punysshelnent
For whan he brede or drynke tast or touche sholde
Incontynent was it tourned in to golde
Thus was his prayer to his owne damage
For at the laste he dyed in wo and payne
For no golde coude his sore hunger asswage
Nor his desyre coude he nat call agayne.
Thus his peticion desyred was in vayne :
And where he wenyd great welth to get therby
He dyed in shame hunger and mysery.
Of h,otab/e and vavne i,'.era. I 3 9
Some dayly pray with marueylous besynes
Cryeng and syghynge to god omnypotent
For to haue plenty of welth ioy and ryches
And to be made ryche myghty and excellent.
O cursyd lyuers o blynde men of intent
On suche desyres they set theyr mynde and thought
Whiche thousandes vnto shamefull ende bath brought
What profyted the myghty edefyces :
Of Lycynus, or lyuelode of excesse :
What profyteth the money gotten in vyces
Of riche Crassus, or cresus, great ryches
They all af dede by theyr vnhappynes
And that lewdely, nat by deth naturall
Theyr blynde desyres chefe rote and cause of ail
Another .hiche is in youthes prosperyte
For strength and myght often to god doth pray
Some of theyr lyre to haue prolyxyte
Desyreth god, and here to byde alway
In riches welth, ioy and solempne aray
But yet they in glotony take suche custome
That they slea them selle longe or theyr day be corne
Alas mad foie why prayest thou for age
Syns it so greuous is and ymportable
Unstable and full of dolour and damage
Odyous to youth and intollerable
Say folysshe man whiche art of mynde vnstable
Is it nat great foly to any creature
To pray for that thyng% whiche he can nat endure
Peleus, and Nestor and many other mo
_As hackes and laertes, sore haue complayned
For to longe age, euer full of payne and wo
Wherwith theyr bodyes sore haue ben constrayned
_And with great sorowes and dyuers often payned :
_And to conclude brefly in one sentence
Oft to age falleth moche inconuenyence
Yet ar mo folys whiche ought repreued be
_And they ar suche whiche styll on god doth call
For great roxvrnes, offyces and great dignyte
No thynge intendynge to theyr greuous fall
For this is dayly sene, and euer shall
That he that coueytys hye to clym aloft
If he hap to çall, his fall can nat be soft
Some other pray for bewty and faymes
_And that to a cursyd purpose and intent
Wherby they lese the heuenly blyssydnes :
Theyr soule subduynge to infernall turrnent
O ye rnad folys of rnyndes yrnpotent
Pray your Pater noster with deuoute herte and rnynde
For therin is ail that is nedefull to rnankynde
Our sauyour criste whyle he was on this grounde
_Amonge vs synners in this vale of rnysery
Taught his disciples this prayer whiche doth sounde
Nere to this sentence, nor greatly doth nat vary
(Out father wiche art in heuen) eternally
Thy narne be halowyd (graunt that to thy kyngdorne)
Ail we thy seruauntis worthely rnay corne
Of irotable and vayne trayers. 4
In heuen and erth thy wyll be done alway
And of thy great grace and thy benygnyte
Out dayly brede graunt vnto vs this day
Forgyuynge out synnes and our iniquyte :
As we forgyue them that to vs detters be
And to auoyde temptacion thy grace vnto vs len
And vs delyuer from euery yll amen.
Whan thou hast clensyd thy mynde from syn before
And sayd this Frayer to thy maker deuoutly
Thou nedyst nat of hym to desyre more
Yet mayst thou pray and desyre rightwysly
For hehhe of soule within thy hole body
For stedfast fayth and yll name to eschewe.
And chastely to lyue ,by his help) in vertue
Thus sholde thou pray thou ",retche both day and nyght
¥ith bette and mynde vnto thy creatourê:
And nought by foly to asshe agaynst right
To hutte or losse to thy f-rende or neyghboure
lqor to thy fo by yll wyll or rygoure
But if god to thy prayers alway sholde enclyne
Oft sholde corne great sorowe to the and to ail thyne
THE ENUOY OF BARKLA¥ TO THE FOLYS.
Man clere thy mynde or thou begyn to pray
Els though thy prayer be iust it is but vayne
And kepe togyther thy hurte and tonge alway
Or els doutles thou lesest ail thy payne
From lewde peticions thy mynde thou ought refrayne
If thou desyre yll to thy fo by malyce
At thy peticion god shall haue dysdayne
For though thou be wrothe god is nat in lyke wyse
Of vnprofytable stody.
I-Ie that vayne stody doth haunt or exercyse
.A_nd lesyth his tyme, of fruyte voyde and barayne
Resoxynge to ryot whiche cunnynge doth dispyse
And that of doctryne (in maner) bath disdayne
Suche shall in age of his madnes complayne
And seynge that he lesyth his tyme thus in fo[y
Let hym corne to out folysshe company.
Or p,'of),t«le stoÇ. 43
lqowe in this lqauy many them selle present
Of this our roylame and from beyond the see
Whiche in theyr stody or lexvde and neglygent
Lesynge theyr tyme at the vnyuersyte
Yet count they them selle of great auctoryte
x.¥ith theyr proude hodes on theyr neckes hangynge
They haue the lawde : but other haue the cunnynge
They thynke that they haue ail scyence, perf'ytely
Within theyr hertes bostynge them of the saine
Though they therto theyr mynde dyd neuer aply
Without the thynge, they ioy them of the naine
But suche mad folys to theyr great losse and shame
Whyle they sholde norysshe theyr myndes with science
They seke theyr pleasour, gyuen to neglygence
They wander in euery inconuenyence
From strete to strete, from tauerne to tauerne
But namely youth, foloweth ail offence
No thynge intendynge the profyte to dyscerne
Nor fruyte of cunnynge wherby they myght gouer»e
Them selle by reason, but suche thynges they ensue
X.¥herby they neyther get good maners nor vert,le
But he that intendeth to corne to the science
_And godly wysdome of our elders : certayne.
He must sore stody, for without dilygence
_And besy laboure no man canit obtayne
lqone ought to cesse: though it firste be a payne.
In good perseueraunce getteth great ryches
Where no good cometh by sleuthfull ydelnes.
But moste I marueyll of other folys blynde
XVhiche in dyuers scyencis ar fast laborynge
Both daye and nyght with ail theyr bette and mynde
But of gramer knowe they lytyll or no thynge
Whiche is the grounde of all lyberall cunnynge
Yet many af besy in Logyke and in lawe
Whan all theyr gramer is skarsly worth a strawe
If he haue onys red the olde dotrinall
\Vith his diffuse and vtparfyte breuyte
He thynketh to haue sene the poyntis of grammer ail.
And yet of one errour he maketh two or thre
Precyan or sulpice disdayneth he to se
Thus many whiche say that they theyr grammer can
Ar als great folys as whan they firste began
One with his speche rounde tournynge lyke a whyle
Of logyke the knottis doth lows and vndo
In hande with his sylogysimes, and yet doth he fele
No thynge what it menyth, nor what longeth therto
Nowe sortes currit: Nowe is in hande plato
Another comyth in with bocardo and pheryson
And out goeth agayne a fole in conclusyon
There is nought else but Est and non est
Blaberynge and chydynge, as it were beawlys wyse
"l'hey argue nought els but to proue man a beest
Homo est Asinus is cause of moche stryfe
Thus passe forth these folys the dayes of theyr lyfe
In two syllabis, not gyuynge aduertence
To other cunnynge doctryne, nor scyence.
Of q)Rtl"o.lt'lb]e slody, 145
I wyll nat say but that it is expedyent
The to knowe of Logyke the chrafte and connynge
For by argument it maketh euydent
Moche obscurenes, somt¢me enlumynynge
The mynde : and sharpynge the wyt in many a thynge
But oft yet by it a thynge playne bryght and pure
Is made diffuse, ,,nknowen harde and obscure
It is ynoughe therof to knowe the grounde
And nat therin to wast ail thy lyfe holly
Styll grutchynge lyke vnto the frogges sounde
Or lyke the chaterynge of the folysshe pye
If one afferme the other wyll deny
Sophestry nor Logyke with their art talcatyfe
Shewe nat the way vnto the boke of lyre
With suche folyes tender youth is defylyd
And ail theyr dayes on them they set delyte
But godly doctryne is from theyr myndes exylyd
Whiche sholde the body and soule also profyte
They take no layser, pleasur nor respyte
To other scyences, pleasaunt and profytable
But without ende in one thynge chat and bable
One rennyth to almayne another vnto fraunce
To parys padway Lumbardy or spayne
Another to Bonony, Rome or orleance
To cayne, to Tolows, Athenys or Colayne
_And at the last retournyth home agayne
More ignorant, blynder and gretter folys
Than they were whan they firste went to the scolys
,46 of ,,,-o»« «oay.
One bostynge the name of a lawer or deuyne
His proude hode hye vpon his stately necke :
Thus muste a gode clerke vnto a foule enclyne
Lowt with the body and with obedyence becke
And thoughe it tourne to theyr rebuke and checke
Yet nowe a dayes ouer many suche there be.
Vhiche in stede of cunnynge vseth audacyte
The hode must answere for the follysshe student
Theyr tyme hath ben Iost frutles and barayne.
Theyr frendes godes on suche folyes af spent
To their damage thought hunger and payne:
Thus to conclude : me thynke it is but vayne
The frendes to labour the dayes of theyr lyue
To spare for suche scolers whiche shall neuer thryue
The great foly, the pryde, and the enormyte
Of our studentis, and theyr obstynate errour
Causeth me to wryte two sentences or thre
More than I fynde wrytyn in myne actoure
The tyme hath ben whan I was conductoure
Of moche foly, whiche nowe my mynde doth greue
Wherfor of this shyp syns I am gouernoure.
I dare be bolde myne owne vyce to repreue
Howe be it I knowe my wordes shall suche greue
As them selfe knoweth fawty and culpable
But if they be wroth: take they me by the sleue
For they shall bere the hode and I wyll the bable :
But firste ye studentis that af of mynde vnstable
Ye wasters and getters by nyght in felde or towne
Within my Nauy wolde I set you to a cable
If I not fered lyst ye your selle wolde drowne
Of vro.jta]e sto. 4 7
Also I fere lyst my shyp sholde synke for syn
If that Cupido and Uenus seruytours
On the vnsure se my shyp entred within
Or ail the folys promotyd to honours
I none receyue can of hye progenytours
My shyp is nat dressyd for them conuenyent
And to I fere lyst theyr cruell rygours:
Sholde rayse to my shyp some tempest or tourment
THENUOY OF BARKLAY TO THE FOLCS.
Fy studentis clercs your myrdes of this cryme
Gyue ones your hertis to parfyte dylygence
Howe longe in Idelnes, wyll ye lese your tyme
In pryde and ryot, with ail other offence
Alas what profyte get ye by neglygence
But sperde your goodes in ail irfiquyte
And where your frerdes thynke, ye labour for scyence:
Ye lese your tyme bryngynge them to pouertee
I,eue of suche stody as is vnprofytable
Without fruyte outher godly discyplyne
And gyue your myndes to scyences lawdable
Where ye may your herte set and inclyne:
To Arystotyls or Platoys doctryne
And nat alway on logyke or Sophestry
I wyll nat say but it is a thynge dyuyne
And moche worth to knowe Phylosophy
Of them that folysshly speke agaynst
the workes of god.
Here note we fowlys whiche can nat be content
With goddes worke, and ordynaunce dyuyne
Thynkynge theyr owne wyll moche more expedyent
Nat wyllynge theyr myndes to his wyll to enclyne
But suche folys often sholde corne to ruyne
And wo with sorowe and losse sholde they fynde
If god sholde conforme his workes to theyr mynde
Of tl)em tlaat fo/yssla/y sjOee. '49
He is a foie and laboreth in vayne :
Whiche with small brondes of fyre ttamynge bryght
Entendyth with laboure besynes and payne
Of the shynynge sonne for to encrease the lyght
Suche one assayeth a thynge passynge his myght
And is a foie to set thought or ddyte
To mende that thynge whiche god hath made perfyte
But yet is he a moche gretter foie truely
Whiche wyll correct that thynge whiche god hath done
And doth nat his herte his wyli and mynde aply
To goddes workes and deuyne prouysyon
Of all other maddest is his condycion
And more frantyfe forsoth I may hym cali
Than they that ar vext with furyes infernall :
(Thou foie) the myght of god omnipotent
In vertue and wysdome so largely doth extende
His maiesty, and power is so excellent
His glorious godhede his workes doth defende
So that no mortall man can them amende
Wenest thou mad foie that thou amende cannest ought
That he hath done: whiche made ail thynge of nought
He that hath marie the heuen and firmament
The londe, the se, and euery other thynge
Is so discrete, so wyse, and prouydent
Before his presence parfytely seynge
ll thynge to corne that neuer hath had beynge
His workes and dedys ar so perfyte and ryght
That none can increas nor yet decreas his myght
Of tem tat fo$ç]
He doth ail thynge dispose moderate and dispence
Knowynge our mynde, and what is to vs most mete
Ail thynge is open and playne in his presence
Our inwarde thought must he nedes knowe and wete
.A_nd euery fortune is playne before his fete
He bath ail thynge by lawe and order drest
And doth no thynge but it is for the best
Therfore whether he gyue thunder snowe or rayne
Wynde or wether, tempest or tourment
Frost lyghtnynge, fayre wether, outher storme sodayne
Mystes or clowdes, yet man sholde be content
And nat with worde nouther inwarde intent
Agaynst god grutche, but euery day and houre
Magnyfye the dedys of god his creatoure
It were moche better thou foie that thou were dome
Than to cast lewde wordes agaynst thy lorde in vayne
Thou foie he worketh no thynge but by wysedome
And yet art thou nat content but dost complayne
Thou sekest vengeaunce (for thy synne) and payne
In hell for euer, thynkynge thy selfe so wyse
To teche thy god, and his warke to dispyse
It is nat lawfull for any, hye nor lowe
To be so bolde so blynde or so cruell
Grutchynge wordes agaynst his god to throwe
Thughe to theyr plaseour a thynge nat fortune well
Take example by the children of Israell
xtVhiche oft for this synne suffred great payne and wo
Slayne and distroyed, so haue ben many mo
l.çaymt t]e ,or]ee of go«L I,SI
Many a lewde body without ",vysdome or rede
Grutche in theyr myndes, and openly do blame
_Almyghy god, whan theyr children af dede
Where rather they ought to enioye of the saine
For it myght fortune that great rebuke and shame
Myght to theyr frendes haue corne by theyr synne and cryme
Soone after : if they had nat dyed at that tyme
Wherfore this one clause is my conclusyon
That god our maker is ",vyse and prouydent
Blame nat his veorkes by thyne abusyon
For ail that he doth is for the best intent
But if that god sholde alwaye assent
To out desyres and euer perfourme out wyll
Out owne requestis sholde tourne vs to great yll
_/xLEXA1WDER BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
O ye mad myndes that no thynge vnderstonde
O man presumptuous and vnobedyent
Howe darest thou be so bolde to take on honde
To repreue the workes of god omnipotent
Wylt thou hym teche, as more veyse and prouydent
Than he is (whiche made ail thynge of nought)
Leue of this thy foly, and holde thy selfe content
For thou art a fole to set theron thy thought
Of them that gyue jugement on other.
Who that reputyth hym selle iust and fawtles
Of maners gode, and of lyuynge commendable.
And iugeth other (parchaunce that af gyltles)
To be of a condiciori reprouable
Hymselfe nat notynge, thoughe that he were culpab]e
He is a foie, and onys shall haue a fall
8yns he wyll other luge, hym selfe yet worst of ail.
Of them t]at gyue Jugement on otber. 5 3
Many fallyth in great peryll and damage
And greuous deth by the vyce of folysshnes
Perseuerantly bydynge in theyr outrage
Theyr soule infect with synne and viciousnes
And though that deth hym alway to them addres
Yet hope they in longe lyfe and prosperyte
And neuer asswageth theyr blynde iniquyte
The tyme passeth as water in a ryuere
No mortall man can it reuoke agayne
Dethe with his dartis vnwarely doth apere
It is the ende of euery man certayne
The last of ail ferys and ende of worldly payne
But thoughe we knowe that we ail must haue an ende
We slepe in synne disdaynynge vs to amende
Some thynke them gode, iust and excellent
Myghty stronge and worthy of preemynence :
Charitable, chast, constant and innocent
Nat doutynge deth nor other inconuenyence
But yet ar they wrappyd sore in synne and offence
And in a vayne hope, contynue in suche wyse
That all the worlde (saue them selle) they dispyse
They take on them the workes of god omnipotent
To iuge the secrete of mannys mynde and thought
_And where no sygne is sene playne and euydent
They iuge a man saynge, his lyre is nought
_And if deth one hath vnto his last ende brought
(As mad) they mende nat theyr mysgouernaunce
lqat thynkynge that they ensue must the same daunce
I4. Of t])em t])at ue iuement n t])e.
Suche folys fayne causes and often tymes say:
That he that is dede vsed ryot and moche foly
Whiche causyd hym to dye belote his day
And that he was feble, or full of malancoly
Ouer sad, or prowde, disceytfull and pope holy
Uiciously lyuynge in couetyse and gyle
Wherfore god suffred hym lyue the shorter whyle
Lo these blynde folys saciat with vyce
Jugeth hym that perchaunce dyd nat amys
Whyle he here lyuyd, and is in paradyce
Rewardyd for his workes in endles ioy and blys
XVhere as this lewde Juger, here in this worlde is
Sryll lyuynge in synne, suffrynge great payne and wo
And though he thynke hym gode shall neuer come therr.o
He that in synne here lyeth fettered fast
And iugeth the deth of his frende or neyboure
XVhiche from this lyfe is departed and past.
Let hym beware, for onys come shall the houre
That he must fele dethis dolorouse rygoure.
And after that endure infernall punysshement
For iugynge and mysdemynge of people innocent
The terme and day, of deth is moche vnsure
The deth is sure, the houre is vncertayne
Deth is generall to euery creature
Theder we must ail, be it pleasour or payne
XVherfore wysdome wyll that we shulde refrayne
From folysshe demynge and nons deth discus
After deth god wot howe it shall be with vs
Of t]em tbat gyt«e iugement on otber. 55
Alas full often a iust man gode and true
Of mynde innocent sad sober and sympyll
Passynge his tyme in goodnes and verrue
Is of these folys thought and demyd for yll
And he that is nought, frowarde of dede and wyll
Of these folys blynde frantyke and wode.
Without ail reason is iug3"d to be goode
Wherfore I proue that a blynde foie thou art
To iuge or deme a mannys thought or intent
For onely god knoweth our my'nde and hart
Wherto we gree and to what thynge we assent
But who that is rightwyse iust, and innocent
And louyth god with honour and with reuerence
Than, may he boldely luge anothers offence
"A'LEXANDER BARKLAY TO THZ FoLY.
Amende you folys : do way these folysshe wayes
Take ye no charge : nat mete for your degre.
And note these wordes: whiche criste out sauyour sayes
.luge nat another, and thou shalt nat iugyd be
It longeth onely to the hye dyuynyte
To iuge our mynde: for he is true iustyce
All thynge discemynge by right and equyte
No man sholde deme, whyle hym selfe is in vyce
Of pluralitees that is to say of them whiche
charge them selfe with many benefycis.
That myller is a foie and here shall haue a barge
And as a mad man shall fast therin be bounde
Whiche his Asse wyll with so many sackes charge
That the porc beste for païne fallys to the grounde
.Manï in the chirche lyke hïm maï be founde.
XVhiche so many benefycis labour to procure
That their small mïght can nat the charge endure.
Of Ph«ralitees, c. 15 7
Amonge our folys delytynge them in vyces
ls yet another sorte of the speritualte
Whiche them ouerchargeth with dyuers benefyces
And namely suche that lowest ar in degre
Of byrth and cunnynge, of this condycion be
Defylynge goddes rentis and the chirches goode
Them se|fe ouer |adynge, as men frantyke and wode
The weght is so great they can it nat endure
Theyr myght is small, theyr cunnynge is moche lesse
Thus this great charge wherof they haue the cure
To infernall Fenn doth this pore Asse oppresse
And to an Asse moste lyke he is doutles
Whiche takynge on his backe sackes nyne or tenne.
Destroyeth hymselfe them leuynge in the fenne
But though one prebende were to hym suffycient
Or one benefyce his lyuynge myght suffyse
Yet this blynde foie is nat therwith content
But labowreth for mo, and alway doth deuyse
Fals meanes to corne therto by couetyse
He gapeth with his wyde throte insaciable
And neuer can content his wyll abhomynable
So for the loue of the peny and ryches.
He taketh this charge to lyue in welth and eas.
Howe be it that fole that bath suche besynes
And dyueres charges fyndeth great disseas
Neyther shall he god, nor yet the v¢orlde pleas
And shall with his burthyns his mynde so vex and comber
That halfe his cures can he nat count nor nomber
5 8 Of tbem wbicbe charge tbem selfe
These carefull caytyfs, that ar of this saine sort
With cures ar ouerchargyd so that of theyr mynde.
Rest haue they none, solace, pleasour nor conforte
Howe be it they thynke therby great welth to fynde
They gape yet euer, theyr maners lyke the wynde
Theyr lyfe without all terme or sertaynte
If they haue two lyuynges, yet loke they to haue thre
The folys whose hertis vnto this vyce ar bounde
Upon theyr sholders bereth aboute a sacke.
Insaciable without botome, outher grounde :
They thynke them nat lade though ail be on theyr backe.
The more that they haue (the more they thynke they lacke)
Vhat deuyll can stop theyr throte so large and wyde
Yet many all waste aboute Ryot and pryde
But yet is this moche more abhomynable
That asses vntaught without wysdome or scyence
Haue theyr proude myndes moste vnsaciable
Nat commynge to worshyp by verrue nor prudence
Yet counte they them worthy of this excellence
Courters become prestis noughr knowynge but the dyce
They preste not for god, but for a benefyce
The clerke of the kechyn is a prest become
In full trust to corne to promosyon hye
No thynge by vertue cunnynge nor wysdome
But by couetyse practyse and flatery
The Stepyll and the chirche by this meane stand awry
For some become rather prestis for couetyse.
Than for the loue of god or his seruyce.
lff itb mapg benefcis. 5 9
Alas oft goddes goodes and cristis herytage
Of suche folys is wastyd and spent in vayne
In great folyes mundaynes and outrage
Where it decreed, and ordeyned is certayne.
That prestis sholde helpe pore people that lyue in payne
And with suche goodes kepe hospytalyte
Whiche pryde ryot and Uenus suffreth nat to be
Thus is the grettest parte of the spiritualte
Pore preste, persone, vicayr, relygyon and prelate
With couetyse acloyde outher prodigalyte
And folys promotyd causyth good clerkis haue hate
Say lordes and bysshops with other of estate
Vqhat mouyth you so gladly, suche to promote
Whiche haue no cunnynge their wyt skant worth a grote
Wyll ye alway the folysshe asse ouercharge
Vgith suche burthyns wherwith it can nat fare
And surfer other to walke and ren at large
And where they best myght bere theyr backes ar left bare
And that is worst of ail, suche folys can nat be ware
But whan they ar promotyd after theyr owne entent.
Yet theyr insaciable mynde can neuer be content.
Some make exchanges and permutacions
Some take to ferme, and some let out agayne
Other folys for hope make resignacions
And some for one god scosyth gladly twayne
Some lyueth longe in hunger and in payne
_And in the somer day skarsly drynketh twyse
Sparynge monay therwith to by a benefyce
6 Of ttoem w]ic/:e ctarge t]em selle
Some for no wages in court doth attende
With lorde or knyght, and ail for this polecy
To get of his lorde a benefyce at the ende
And in the meane tyme ensueth rybawdry
An,4 somtyme laboureth by chraft of symony.
He playeth a fais cast, nat cessynge to conjure
Tyll of some benefyce he at the last be sure
Than if this lorde haue in hym f.uoure, he bath hope
To haue another benefyce of gretter dignyte
And so maketh a fais suggestyon to the pope
For a Tot quot outher els a pluralyte
Than shall he nat be pleased with. 1 . nouther thre
But dyuers wyll he haue ay choppynge and changynge
So off a foie ail and a gode clerke no thynge
These of nought force so that they may haue gayne
And golde ynough to spende on rybawdry and pryde
They haue the profyte, another hath the payne
The cure of the soulys of them is set asyde
And no meruayle, for howe sholde they abyde.
To teche their parysshynges verrue wysdome or grace
Syns no man can be atonys in euery place
Alas these folys our mayster criste betray
Of mannes soule ,herof they haue the cure
And settynge in their stede syr Johnn of garnesey
They thynketh them selfe dischargyd quyte and sure
These folys note nat that euery creature.
Whiche here of soulys doth cure or charge take
At domys day a compt for them shall make
l/Uit]) many benejS, cis. 16
But if I sholde touche all the enormytees
The immoderat couetyse and desyre of dignyte
That nowe is vsed amonge all the degrees
Of benefycyd men ouer ali the spirituaite
I fere displeasour, and also I often se
That trouth is blamed, and nat ay best to tell
But he that in this lyre wyll alway besy be
To get dyuers prebendes shall haue the last in hell
THENUO¥ OF BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
XYhat meane ye gyders of Christis herytage
Shall ye neuer feue this your deuowrynge mynde
Shall ye no tyme your couytyse :sswage
Whiche in goddes seruyce your hartis sore doth blynde
Let this fais traytour no place amonge you fynde
Graunt hym no roxvne in churche nor in quere.
For this is sure ye shall ail leue behynde
We haue no Cyte, nor place abydynge here
Of them that prolonge from day to day
to amende themselfe.
I'-Ie that cras cras syngeth with the crowe
I)eferrynge the tyme of his amendement
Amonge our folys, in this out shyp shall rowe
For his presumpcion, dull mynde and blynde intent
V'hat knowe these folys whether god omnypotent
Vyll graunt them to lyue vntyll another day.
Vt'hetfore we ought to mende vs whyle we may.
Of tlame that lkro]onge, ,c. 163
If vnto any aimyghty god doth sende
From heuen aboue by inspyracion dïuïne
Wyil and gode mynde his sïnnes to amende
And with his grace his thoughtes enlumyne
If that synner wyll nat therto enclyne
But doth dyffer and dryue frome day to day
A foie he is, no wyse man wyll denay
Yet many folowe this inconuenience
And knowynge theyr owne vyce, and lyre full of ordure
The payne therof, and howe euery offence
And synne is punysshed of eche creature
Also they knowe that theyr deth is vnsure
And dye they must knowynge no houre nor space
Yet synne they styll, nat receyuynge this grace
They folowe the croxves cry to theyr great sorowe
Cras cras cras to morowe we shall amende
And if we mende nat than, than shall we the next morowe
Outher shortly after, we shali no more offende
Amende mad foie whan god this grace doth sende
He is vnwyse whiche trustes the crowes songe
And that affermyth that he shall iyue so longe
Syns deth (as I haue sayde) is so vnstable
Wherfore we ought alway vs to prouyde
And mende our lyre and synne abhomynable
For though that thou be hole at the euyn tyde
Thou knowest nat sure that thou shall here abyde
Untyll the morne but if thou dye in that space
It shall be to late for the to cry cras cras
Syns it is in thy power that thou may
Amende thy selfe whan god inspyreth the
Why shalt thou tary vnto another day
The longer tary the lesse apt shalt thou be.
In olde sores is grettest ieopardye
Whan costome and vse is tourned to nature
It is right harde to leue : I the ensure
Therfore if that thou lewdly fall in syn
By thy frayle flesshe, and the fais fendes trayne
Take nat the vse, contynue nat therin
But by confessyon shortly ryse agayne
Synne alway thretenyth vnto the doer, payne
And grutche of conscience with moche thought and wo
Yet alwaye ar we redy and prone therto
Mannys lyre on erth is euyn a chyualry
Agaynst our flesshe fyghtyng whiche ofien doth vs shame
Also the deuyll our goostly ennemy
On his parte labours to get vs in his frame
Thus oft we rail, and than our foly blame
Repentynge sore, and wyllynge to refrayne
But within an houre we fall therto agayne
Thus euer to vyce ar -,ve redy and prone
The gyfiis of grace '*ve clene from vs exclude
We haue great cause sore to complayne and mone
We leue that thynge (our myndes ar so rude)
That myght vs gyde to helth and beatytude
Thus out owne foly, and our owne blynde madnes
Us often ledyth vnto great wretchydnes
to amende t]emse]fe. 6 5
.And if it fortune, that at any tyme
XVithin our myndes we purpose stedfastly
For to confesse our synne, excesse, or cryme
Agayne our thought is changyd by and by
Away than ren we with the crowys crye
With one cras, to morowe, perauenture twayne
Without regarde had, vnto infernall payne
But in the meane space if that deth vntretable
Arrest the with his mace, fyers and cruell
And for thy synne and lyre abhomynable
By iustyce damme thy soule for euer to hell
Than woldest thou glad[y (If thou rnyght) do wel[
But there is no grace but doloure payne and sorowe
Than is to late to crye cras cras to rnorowe
THE EI'qUOY OF THE /xCTOUR.
Say what delyte, thou foie or what pleasoure
Takest thou in synne and voluptuosyte
It is small sothly, and passeth euery houre
Lyke to the water, and that in myserye
Therfore set nat in synne thy felycyte
This day begyn thy lewde lyfe to refuse
Perchaunce to morowe sholde be to late to the
$o sholde cras the crwys songe the sore abuse
Of laym that is Jelous ouer his wyfe and
watcheth hic wayes without cause, or
euydent tokyn of hir myslyuynge.
He that his wyfe wyll counterwayte and watche
And feryth of hir lyuynge by his Jelowse intent
Is as great foie, as is that wytles wratche
That wolde kepe flees vnder the son feruent
Or in the se cast water, thynkynge it to augment
For thoughe he hir watche lockynge wlth lockys twayne
But if she kepe hir selle his kepynge is but vayne
Of ].ym tbat is Jelous ouer is OErfe. x6 7
Orestes was neuer so blynde and mad as is he
"Whiche for his wyfe taketh thought and charge
YVatchynge hir wayes, thoughe that she gyltles be
"I'his foie styll fereth, if she be out at large
Lyst that some other his harnes sholde ouercharge
But for ail his fere and carefull Jelowsy
If she be nought there is no remedy.
Thou fole I proue, thy watchynge helpeth nought
Thy labour lost is, thou takest this care in vayne
In vayne thou takest this Jelowsy and thouglat
In vayne thou sleest thy selle vith care and payne
/tnd of one doute thou foie thou makest twayne
/tnd neuer shalt fynde eas nor mery lyuynge
(Whyle thou thus lyuest) but hatered and chydynge
For locke hir fast and ail hir lokes marke.
Note ail hir steppys, and twynklynge of hir iye.
Ordeyne thy watchers and cogges for to barke
Bar fast thy dores and yet it wytl nat be
Close hir in a Toute with wallys stronge and hve
But yet thou fole thou lesist thy trauayle
For without she wyll no man can kepe hir tayie
And yet more ouer breche hir with plate and mayle
/tnd for ail that if she be nought of kynde
She shall disceyue the (If she lïst) without çaple
But if that she be chast of dede and mynde
Hir se|fe shall she kepe, though thou hir neuer bynde
Thus they that ar chast of nature wytl byde so
And nought wyll be nought what so euer thou do
Thus is it foly and causeth great debate
Bytwene man and wyfe, whan he by Jelowsy.
His wyfe suspectyth, and doth watche or counterwayt
Or hir mysdemyth and kepyth in stratly.
Wherfore me thynke it is best remedy
For hym that gladly wolde escape the hode
Nat to be Jelous : but honest lyuynge and gode
The toute of bras that callyd was darayne.
Coude nat the damsell (by name Danes) defende
But that Jupiter fonde a cautell and trayne
In a golden shoure into hir to discende
And to be short, at conclusyon and ende
This mayde for ail this Toure was there defylyd.
And by this lorde was she there brought with childe
By this example it apereth euydent
That it is foly a woman to kepe or close
For if she be of lewde mynde or intent
Outher preuy or apert there about she goys
Deuysynge wayes with hir good man to gloe
But specially if that he hir suspect
XVith a hode shall he vnwars be ouerdect
But in the worlde right many other be
Vhiche neuer folowe this fais and lothly way
We haue example of one Penolope
Whiche though that she alone was many a day
Hir husbonde gone, and she vexed alway.
By other louers : yet was she euer trewe
Unto hir olde: and neuer changyd for newe
Of taym ttaat is Jelous ouer lais wyfe. 6 9
I fynde that often this folysshe Jeiowsy
Of men : causyth some women to mysdo
Where as (were nat theyr husbondes blynde foly)
The pore wymen knowe nat what longyd therto
Wherfore suche men af tblys and mad also
And with theyr hodes whiche they them selle purchace
Within my shyp shail haue a rowme and place
For where as perchaunce theyr wyfes ar chaste and goode
By mannys vnkyndnes they chaunge and turne theyr herte
$o that the wyfe must nedes gyue them a hode
But to be playne some wymen ar esy to conuert
For if one take them where they can nat start.
Vhat for theyr husbondes folysshe Jelowsy
And theyr owne pleasour : they scars can ought deny
THE EI'qUOY OF THE ,ACTOUR.
Therfore ye wymen lyue wysly and eschewe
These wanton wowers and suche wyide company
Get you gode name by sadnes and vertue
Haunt no olde quenys that nourysshe rybawdry
Than fere ye nat your husbondes Jelowsy
If ye be fawtles, chaste and innocent
But wanton wowers ar fui of flatery
Euer whan they labour for their intent.
Be meke, demure, bocsome, and obedyent,
Gyue none occasyon to men by your foly
If one ought asshe, deny it incontynent
_And euer after auoyde his company
Beware of cornes, do nat your erys aply
To pleasaunt wordes nor letters eloquent
If that Helena had so done certaynly
She had nat ven rauysshed by bandes violent
auoutry, and specially of then yt ar
bawdes to their wyues, knowynge and
wyll nat knowe, but kepe counseyll, for
couetyse, and gaynes or auauntage.
A foie blynde, forsoth and wytles is that man
Whiche thoughe his wyfe openly defylyd be
Before his owne face, yet suche a chrafie he can
To fayne hym a slepe, nat wyllynge it to se
Or els he layeth his hande before his iye
And thoughe he here and se howe the mater gose
He snortynge slepyth, and wyll it nat disclose.
7 2 Of attoutr.y.
O what disorder, what shame and what domage
Is nowe brought in, and right lykely to abyde
In the sacrament of holy mariage
The fere of payne and lawe is set a syde
Faythe is clene lost, and fewe them selfe do gyde
After theyr othe, but for lacke of punysshement.
They brake and despyse this dyuyne sacrament
Alas the lawe that Julius dyd ordeyne
Agaynst auoutry : is nowe a slepe or dede
None feryth iustyce punysshement nor payne
Both man and woman ar past ail fere and drede
Theyr promes brekynge, without respect or hede
Had to theyr othe, by mariage solemnysed
The bed defylyd, the sacrament despysed
Many ar whiche thynke it is a thynge laudable
Anothers sponse to pullute and dyfFame
And howe beit the synne is moche abhomynable
They fere nat god, nor dout nat worldly shame
But rather boldly they bost them of the same
They note no thynge the mortall punysshement
Taken on auoutrers in the olde testament
Yet is another thynge more lothsome and vyle
That many husbondes knowynge theyr wyues syn
Absent themselfe and stop theyr iyen the vhyle
Kepynge the dote whyle the auoutrer is within
They forse no thynge so they may money wyn
Lyuynge as bawdes, and that to theyr owne wyues
O cursyd money this madnes thou contryu_s
Of lot«tr.r. 7 3
O cursyd husbonde thou ought to be asshamyd
To set so great fors for syluer or for golde
That thou for them thy wyfe wyll se diffamyd
And helpe therto : ye : and the dede beholde
Blame it blynde dryuyll : by the lawe so thou sholde
And nat therat to gyggyll laghe and Jest
It is a lewde byrde that fyleth his owne nest
The Hystory of Atreus expressyth playne
Howe he (by his owne brother) for auoutry
Was dryuen from his royalme and his childre slayne
For his mysdede : without : let or remedy
These children thus bought theyr faders mad foly
What shall I wryte the wo and heuynes
Whiche Tarquyn had for rauysshynge lucres
I rede in the hystory of one Virginius
Whiche to thyntent this foule synne to eschewe
Whan his doughter was desyred by Clodius
And that by force ; the fader his dowghter slewe
Bytwene the handes of Clodius vntrue
The fader answered (whan men his dede dyd blame)
Better is to dye chast : than longe to lyue in shame
But of auoutry somwhat more to speke
In it is yre Euy and paynfull pouertye.
And also he or she that mariage doth breke
May fere of deth eternall whan they dye
And here without welth ioy and rest shall they be
And well af they worthy (forsoth) of sore tourment
In hell: for brekynge this holy sacrament
7 4 Of attoutry.
But in the meane tyme here shalt thou haue discorde
And neuer prosper in vertue nor ryches
And lothsome be before the almyghty lorde
Thy dedes shall purchace mysfortune and distres
Thou lyue shalt in shame and dye in wretchydnes
And if thou procede therin and nat amende
Some great shame shalt thou haue before thyne ende.
THV. ENUOY OF THE Ac'rouR.
O creatures vnkynde leue ye this outrage
Breke nat your othe whiche ye ruade solemly
Eche one to other for to lyue in mariage
Defyle ye it nat by synne and vylany
On both partis if ye lyue faythfully
.After your promes : in loue, fayth and concorde
Than shall ye in erth encreas and multyply
_And afier haue syght of the almyghty lorde
Let ail spousys in theyr myndes comprehende
The lawys and decrees of the olde testament
Howe they that in auoutry dyd offende
Vere outher stonyd or els openly brent
Vherfore syns goddes son omnypotent.
Confermed hath the olde testament with the newe
Auoutrers nowe deserue that saine punysshement
But well is to them, that stedfast af and trewe
Of hym that nought can and nought wyll
lerne, and seyth moche, lytell berynge
away, I mene nat theuys.
He is a fole, and so shall he dye and lyue
That thynketh hym wyse, and yet can he no thynge
.And though he myght he wyll nat set nor gyue
His mynde to good maners, vertue nor cunnynge.
$o is he a foie that doth to market brynge
His Gese fast bounde, and game or sporte to se
Lowsyth theyr fete, and suffreth them to fie
Saynt George to borowe our l'q'auy is aflote
Forth shall we sayle, thoughe that it be a payne
And moche laboure to forge a pryuate bote
For euery faute.- yet shall I nat refrayne
My hande nor penne: thoughe vnsure be my gayne
My laboure sure: my wyt and reason thynne
Than leue a thynge vnendyd better nat begynne
But in this place shall I a Shyp ordayne
For that foie: that heryth great doctryne
Wherby good maners and vertue aperyth playne
He seth ail goodnes, stody, and disciplyne
And yet wyll nat his mynde therto enclyne
But though he knowe what thynge is godlyest
Ouer ail the worlde, yet is he styll a beest.
1VI_any of this sort wander and compase
Ail studies, the wonders of the worlde to se
\¥ith vnstabyll wynges fleynge from place to place
Some seyth lawe and some dyuynyte
But for ail this byde they in one degre
And if they were Asses and folys blynde before
After ail these syghtes yet ar they moche more
They se moche nought lernynge, and hauynge no delyte
In wysdome nor maners vertue nor goodnes
Theyr tyme is loste, without wysdome or profyte
¥ithout grace, or other holynes
But whyle they labour thus with besynes
If they se ought newe, or any folysshe toy
That lyghtly they lerne, and set theron theyr ioy.
tnd nougbt wy]l lere. 7 7
By this desyre folys may knowen be
For wytles men of fleynge mynde and brayne
Ar best pleasyd with thynges of neweltye
And them to haue, they spare no cost nor payne
To dyuers londes to ren but ail in vayne
And so they labour alway from londe to londe
To se ail wonders, but nought they ,nderstonde
8ome fie to se the wonders of englonde
8ome to the court to se the maners there
8ome to Wallys, Holonde, to Fraunce or lrlonde
To Lybye, afryke, and besyly enquere.
Of ail marueyles, and skantly worth a here
Some "nto Fraunce and some to Flaunders ren
To so the wayes, and workes of cunnynge men
And to be shorte otler ail they range
Spendynge theyr goodes about vnthryftynes
In countrees knowen, vnknowen and strange
But whan theyr iourney they homwarde must addres
As folys vnware, and Yagabundes thryftles
They haue nought lerned, kept, nor with them brought
Of maners, wysdome or other thynge that is ought
They that by the se sayle to londes strange
Oft chaunge the place and planete of the fyrmament
But theyr mynde nor maners they ne turne nor chaunge
_And namely suche that af lewde and neglygent
What euer they se styll one is theyr intent
Whan he departyd, If that he were a sote
Agayne anone he comyth in the saine mynde and cote
Say mad folys blynde ouersene, and worthy scorne
Fayne wolde I knowe what necessyte ye haue
To go from the place where ye were bred and borne
Into another londe to lerne to play the knaue
Your mynde vnstable sheweth playne that ye raue
Laboure nat so sore, to lerne to be a foie
That corneth by it selfe without any other scole
He that is borne in walys or srnall brytayne
To lerne to pyke and stele nedys nat go to Rome.
What nede we sayle to Flaunders or Almayne
To lerne giotony, syns we may it lerne at home
Suche lewdnes soon may we lerne of out wombe
He that wyll lerne falshode gyle or sotelte
May lerne it here as well as beyonde the se.
To passe the se to lerne Uenus rybawdry
It is great foly, for thou mayst lerne thy fyll
In shoppis Innes and sellers, ye somtyme openly
At saynt Martyns Westmynster or at the tour hyll
So that I fere ail London, in tyme it shall fyll
For it is there kept in lyght and in darke
That the pote Stuys decays for lacke of warke
But brefely to speke, and this to set a syde
He that on vyce, and synne wyll set his entent
Ma t" lerne it in Englonde, if he at home abyde
-And that of ail sortis : god sende amendement
But if thou alway wyll nede be dylygent
To labour in the worlde about frorn place to place
Do as dyd Plato, than shalt thou fynde great grace
Ind nougll wy/l lerne. 7 9
This godly plato laboured with dilygence
To Egypt, and other londes sparynge for no payne
Where euer he came : augmentynge his scyence
And at the last retourned to Grece agayne
His countrey natyf: with laude and naine souerayne
Thus he for all his wysdome laboured besyly
But that fowle that nought can nought settyth by
V¢herfore that gose that styll about wyll wander
Moche seynge and herynge, and nought berynge away
Shall home corne agayne as wyse as a gander
But more foie is he that may lerne euery day
Without cost or laboure out of his owne countrey
And whan the well of wysdome renneth by theyr dote
Yet looth they the water as if that it were soure
_/xLEXANDER BARKLAY .AD FATUOS VT DENT LOCUM
OCTO SECUNDARIIS BEATE MARIE DE OTEREY QUI
(UIDEM PRIMA HUIUS RATIS TRANSTRA MERElqTUR.
Sort folys sort, a lytell slacke your pace
Tyli I haue space you to order by degre
I haue eyght neyghbours, that firste shall haue a place
Within this my shyp, for they most worthy be
They may theyr lernynge receyue costeles and ri-e.
Theyr wallys abuttynge and ioynynge to the scoles.
No thynge they can, yet nought wyll they lerne nor se
Therfore shall they gyde this one shyp of foies.
8o Of l)ym tl)at noug])t can lerne.
THE ENUOY OF BARKLAY.
0 vnauysyd, vnwyse and frowarde man
Great cause thou hast to morne sore and complayne
Whan no goodnes verrue nor wyt thou can
And yet to lerne thou hast scorne and dysdayne
Alas man mende, and spare no maner payne
To get wysdome, and it thou shalt nat want
Hym that nough t wyll knowe, god wyll nat knowe certayne
Wo is hym that wylfully is ignorant.
Assys erys for our folys a lyuray is
And he that wyll be wroth for a thynge of nought
Of the saine leuray is nat worthy to mys
For who that by wrathe to suche a wyll is brought
To sle his Asse for hir pas slowe and soft
Shall after his fury, repent his mad foly
For to a clere mynde» mad wrathe is ennemy
J 8 z Ofgreat wratbe
Corne nere, ye wrathfull men, take your rowme and place
Within out shyp, and to slake out hastynes
Mount on an Asse slowe of hir gate and pace
Syns troublous wrath, in you, styreth this madnes
Often lacke of myght asswagyth cruelnes
To a wy]de cowe god doth short hornys sende
,Vrath is great foly, where myght may nat extende
O man yll myndyd what helpeth the this yre
None the commendyth whiche doth thy maners marke
XVhat doste thou: but the waste with thyne owne lyre
Narrynge with thyselfe lyke as a dogge doth barke
Without meke worde and p]easyd with no warke
Art thou: but thoughe ail men be dy]ygent
Mad wrathe to please, yet who can it content
This man malycious whiche troubled is with wrath
lought els soundeth but the hoorse letter R
Thoughe ail be well, yet he none anwere hath
Saue the dogges letter, glowmynge with nar nar
Suche labour nat this mad rancour to defar
Nor yet his malyce to mytygate or asswage
But ioyeth to be drede of men lbr this outrage
His mouth fomyth his throte out gorgyth fyre
His ferefull furoure is, his hole felycyte
By his great yre, doth he coueyte and desyre
Dowtyd to be : of the pore comontye
His owne madnes and cruell furyosyte
XVyll he nat knowe as he were nat culpable
O1- this mad fury and vyce abhomynable
Procedynge of sma]l occasyon. I 8 3
Hym selle is blynde, but other well note his dede
He shall be poynted whether he go or ryde
Saynge one to other take gode regarde and hede
Of yonder furyous fole whome reason doth nat gyde
Beware his wayes fie hym on euery syde
Xrho that hym sueth both hurte and shame shall fynde
Thus other hym notyth but he hymself is blynde
So his _Asse erys to hym ar inuysyble
He thynkyth to haue pacyence though that he haue none
_And vnto hym itis thynge incredyble
That suche af folys whose pacyence is gone
Thus coueytyth he to kepe his erys alone
And to wrathfull men he wyll no thynge obiect
For that hym selfe is with the saine infect
But somwhat to touche the inconuenyences
Whiche by this wrath procedyth to mankynde
Itis chefe grounde of many great offences
Destroynge reason blyndynge the wyt and mynde
By malyce man is to ail yll inclynde
Both symple man, and lordes excellent
Do that by wrath oft whiche they after repent
Reuoke thy mynde, somwhat thy herte enclyne
Unto _Archytas a man of hye wysdome
Borne the the ryche Cyte namyd Tarentyne
B.ede howe that he his malyce dyd ouercome
For thoughe his seruaunt v¢as fais to hym become
_And he sore mouyd to auenge the saine offence
Yet he refraynyd his wrathe by pacyence
8 4 Ofgreat wrat]e
80 socrates so 8enyk and Plato
8uffred great wronge great iniury and payne
And of your fayth sayntis right many mo
For christ out mayster dyd great turment sustayne
What wo or payne cowde saynt Laurance refrayne
From pacience wherfore itis great shame
For christen men if they do not the same
They suffred deth, ye, and yet were pacyent
And many haue prayed, for suche that haue them slayne
Where thou mad fole takest greuous punysshement
For small occasyon, ye corne by chaunce sodayne
Foie thou art blynde, and mad to set thy brayne
Ail thynge to venge (by wrath) that doth mysfall
For he that part hath lost : by wrath oft lesyth ail
And forsoth no meruayle, if suche wyse actours
Hath wrathes madnes, expelled and set asyde
For where that wrath doth rayne with his furours
There can no reason nor wysedome longe abyde
The wyt it wastyth : so is it a lewde gyde
Therfore let mesure, this malyce holde agayne
But pacyence is brydyll his madnes to refrayne
It longeth nat to any man of hye prudence
For to be wrothe, yrous, or gyuys to malancoly
No suche passyon nor inconuenyence
Can rail to man, ay stedfast xvyse and holy
But folys ar moste troublyd with this foly
Where as a wyse man for any aduersyte
Lyueth in quyete mynde and tranquylyte
Procedynge of small occasyom ,8 5
A man well manerd, sad sober and dyscrete
If he be ware, wyse, chrafty and prouydent
Beholdeth all thynge belote his syght and fete.
Gydynge hym by mesure a vertue excellent
Where as a fole doth ail without aduysement
And in euery thynge shewyth his folysshnes
Wroth at eche worde as mayster of madnes
Wherfore ye folys se ye no lenger tary
But on the dull Asse hastely assende
That a slowe beest may hasty folys cary
For your mad wrath dowtyth no thynge the ende
Your madnes can nat your blynde mysdede defende
For who that one sleyth, angry and feruent
Ought to be hangyd whan he is pacyent
TIw zNtrov or THE zaxCTOUR.
Blynde myndyd man whiche wylt ail thynge ouercome
Reputynge thy selfe, moste souerayne and royall
If thou be wyse or partener of wysdome
Labour to ouercome thyne owne selle firste of all
Thy wrath asswage thou in especyall
Let neyther malyce, nor yre with the abyde
Thou art a foie the chefe or lorde to call
Of other: whan thou can nat thy selfe well gyde.
Of the mutabylyte of fortune.
That man whiche hopyth hye vp to ascende
On fortunes whele» and corne to state royall
If the whele turne may doute sore to descende
If he be hye the somr is his fall
So he whiche trustyth nat therto at ail
Shall in moste eas and suerty hymselfe gyde
For vnsure fortune can in no place abyde
We dayly proue by example and euydence
That many be made folys mad and ignorant
By the brode worlde, puttynge trust and confydence
In fortunes whele vnsure and inconstant
Some assay the whele thynkynge it pleasant
But whyle they to clym p haue pleasour and desyre
Theyr fete them faylyth so fall they in the myre
Promote a yeman make hym a gentyl man
And make a Baylyf of a Butchers sort
Make of a Squyer knyght, yet wyll they if they can
Coueyt in theyr myndes hyer promosyon
And many in the worlde haue this condiciort
In hope of honour by treason to conspyre
But ofte they slyde, artd so fall irt the myre
8uche lokys so hye that they forget theyr fete
On fortunes whele whiche turneth as a ball
They seke degrees for theyr small myght vnmete
Theyr folysshe hertis and blynde se nat theyr rail
Some folys purpose to haue a rowme Royall
Or clym by fortunes whele to art empyre
The whele thart turneth lyuynge them in the myre
0 blynde man say what is thyne intent
To worldly honoures so greatly to entende
Or here to make the hye ryche and excellent
Syns that so shortly thy lyfe must haue an ende
None is so worthy, nor can so hye ascende
Nor nought is so sure if thou the trouth enquyre
But that it may doute to fall downe to the myre
There is no lorde Duke kynge nor other estate
But dye they must, and from this wolde go
Ail worldly thynges whiche god hath here create
Shall nat ay byde but haue an ende also
What mortall man hath ben promotyd so :
In worldly welthe or vncertayne dignyte
That euer of lyfe had houre of certaynte
In stormy wyndes lowest trees af most sure
And howsys surest whiche ar nat byldyd hye
XVhere as hye byldynges may no tempest endure
Without they be foundyd sure and stedfastly
So gretest men haue moste fere and ieopardy
Better is pouertye though it be harde to bere
Than is a hye degre in ieopardy and fere,
The hyllys ar hye, the valeys ar but lowe
In valeys is corne the hyllys ar barayne
On hyest places most gras doth nat ay growe
A mery thynge is mesure and easy to sustayne
The hyest in great fere, the lowest lyue in payne
Yet better ly on grounde, hauynge no name at ail
Than hye on a Clyf ferynge alway to rail
Thus as me thynke it is no thynge lawdable
On fortunes whele for one to clym to hye
Syns the swyft cours therof is so vnstable
And ail must we leue whan we depart and dye
Of our short lyfe haue we no certayntye
For lachesys (whan that thou hast lefte drede)
Of thy lyue dayes shall shortly breke the threde.
Atropos is egall to pore man and estate
Defar wyll nat deth by prayer ne request
No mortall man may his furour mytygate.
Nor of hym haue one day longer here to test :
Content the with measure (therfore) for it is best
Coueyt nat to moche in honour to excell
It is a fowle fall to fall from erth to hell
Unstable fortune exalteth some a loft
To this intent, them to brynge to an yll ende
For who that hye clymmeth his fall can nat be sort
If that mysfortune constrayne hym to dyscende
Though Julius Cesar his lordshyp dyd extende
Ouer ail the worlde : yet fortune at the last.
From lyfe and lordshyp hym wretchydly dyd cast
This hath ben sene, is sene and euer shall
That most peryll is in hyest dignyte
Howe many estatis, howe many men Royall.
Hath fortune dryuyn downe into aduersyte
Rede dyuers cronycles, and thou shall playnly se
That many thousandes hath endyd in doloure
13y theyr immoderate mynde to honoure
Ouer rede Bochas and than shalt thou se playne
The fall of prynces wryten ryght compendeously
There shah thou se v¢hat punysshement and payne
Haue to them fallen somtyme by theyr foly
And oft is moche preuy hatered and enuy
Had agaynst lordes of the rude comonte
Where euer they go : they lyue in ieopardye
I 9 ° Of tte mutabylyte offortune.
Ay dowtynge deth by cursed gyle and treason
Eche thynge mysdemynge, ferynge to be opprest
By some mysfortune with venym or with poyson.
Thus in great honour is neyther ioy nor test
But thought and fere, ye whyle the lyre doth lest
Thus who that procuryth great honour to attayne
Procuryth with ail, enuy, peryll, fere and payne
A lorde or state whom many men doth drede
XVith loueles fere, and fayned countenaunce
Unto hym selle ought wysely to take hede
And them tofere, if he wyll voyde myschaunce
For why a comonty is of suche ignoraunce
And so enuyous, that both erly and late
They muse to destroy hym whom, they fere and hate
A man promotyd vnto hye dygnyte
Shall haue loue shewyd hym by adulacion
But no true loue nouther faythfull amyte.
Good faine nor naine, ne commendacion
Ye though he be worthy great exaltacion
Pytefull louynge and full of equyte
Yet harde is to please a folysshe comonte
Therfore me thynke of ail thynge it is best
Man to be pleased and content with his degre
For why in mesure, is suerty eas and rest
And ay moste peryll in hyest dignyte
Fortune is full of changes and mutabylyte
Trust nat therto, therby comyth do gode
But nowe hye nowe lowe vnstable as a flode
ALEXANDER BARKLAY T( THE FOLYS.
Labour nat man with to moche besy cure
To clymme to hye lyst thou by fortune rail
For certaynly, that man slepyth nat sure
That lyetb lows vpon a narowe wall
Better somtyme to serue, than for to gouerne ail
For whan the Net is throwen into the se
The great fysshe ar taken and the pryncipall
Where as the small escapyth quyte and fie
them that be diseasyd and seke and
ar impacient and inobedyent to the
I| one be vexed with sore infirmyte
x, Vithin his body felynge dyseas and payne
And wyll nat gladly with perfyte mynde agre
To a wyse Phesycian that wolde hym hele agayne
He is a foie, and shall his foly sore complayne
And if that he by his selle wyll do sterue
It is but well : syns he it doth deserue.
Of them thaæ be diseasyd and seke 93
He that is feble with sekenes outher wounde
Wherwith he feleth h]¢m selfe so kept in payne
That dye he muste but if remedy be founde
He is a fole, if that he haue dysdayne
Of wyse Phesycyans : and medecines souerayne
And wyll nat sue theyr counsell and aduysement
Wherby he myght haue helth and short amendement
Thoughe the Phesycyan (of his lyre) hym asst, re
So he be ruled, and vnto his mynde agre
The pacyent yet kepyth no dyete nor mesure
In mete nor drynke, and wyll nat gouerned be
But foloweth Ryot and ail superfluyte
Receyuynge colde water in stede of ale or wyne
Agaynst read and counsell of crafty medycyne
What mete or drynke that is most contagious
And most infectyf to his sekenes or dyseas
And to hym forbyden, as moste contrarious
"Unto his sekenes. That namely doth hym pleas
But that thynge that myght hym helpe and greatly eas
He hatyth moste, and wyll none receyue at ail.
Tyll this small sore, at the last become mortali
Suche wyll no counsell ensue, nor mesure haue
iN'or temper theym selfe in lesse nor yet in more.
Tyll theyr yll gouernaunce brynge them to theyr graue
Retournynge into grounde lyke as they were before
But who that soone wolde, be helyd of his sore
Whan it is newe ought to fynde rentedy.
For in olde sorys is greatest ieopardy
194 ..,4t]. ar bobec]yent to t]e tg]es.rc.ran.
A smali sparcle often tyme doth augment
It selle : and groweth to flames peryllous
Right so small wellys whiche semeth to be spent
With lytell sprynges and Ryuers, ofte so growys
Unto great waters, depe and ieopadous.
So a smali sore augmentyth, styll preuely
By l),tell and lytell for lacke of remedy
A small diseas whiche is ynoughe durable
At the begynnynge, for lacke of medycyne
At longe contynuaunce becomyth incurable
The paynfuli pacyent bryngynge vnto ruyne
\Vherfore who wyll to his owne helth enclyne
And soone be helyd of yll without ail tary
To the Phesician ought nat tobe contrary
Obstynat frowarde or inobedyent
Ought he nat be, but with a pacyent mynde
Shewe ail his soris truly playne and euydent
To the Phesician if he wyll socour fynde.
And thoughe his saluys in paynes hym sore bynde.
Let nat for that, but after his wyll the gyde
Better a shorte payne, than that doth longe abyde
No sore can be releuyd without payne.
Forsake nat the short, the longe payne to eschewe
To the Phesycian we ought in worde be playne
And shewe hym out sore whether it be olde or newe
For in thy wordes if that thou be nat trewe
Or kepe ought close, thou dysceyuest be thou sure
Thy selfe, and nat hym that of the hath the cure.
Of t])em t]at ar diseao, d and seke
In lyke fourme who comyth vnto confessyon
There to declare howe he his lyfe hath spent
And shewyth nat his synne lyke wyse as he bath done
Hymself he disceyuyth, as blynde of his entent.
Thus many one endureth infernall tourment
With wo contynuall and payne for euermore
For kepynge secrete there, of his goostly sore.
Thus who that is payned in any malady
Bodely or gostly, ought nat to be callyd wyse
To the Phesycian xvithout that he aply.
And his preceptis hant kepe and exercyse
But now olde wytches date boldly interpryse
To intromyt to hele all infyrmyte
And many them byleue, whiche sothly is pyte
Suche wytches of theyr byleue abhomynable
On brest or hede of the paynfull pacyent
With theyr wytchecraftis shall compasse chat and bable
Assurynge hym of helth, and short amendement
Than he that is seke fyxith his intent
Upon hir errour : to haue helpe of his sore
But she hym leuyth wors than he was belote
Poule the apostyll doth boldly say and preue
That they whiche to suche wytches wyll assent
Af heretykes Lolardes and false of theyr byleue
Brekynge goddes lawes and commaundement
And oft also by profe it apereth euydent
That suche as to wytches crafiis wyll intende
By theyr fais Phesyke corne soner to theyr ende
198 Of ouer o])en tak),nges of col«nsel].
Who that intendyth by chraft and polycy
To take many byrdes, outher small or great
And layeth before them to playne and openly
His lynes snarys, his lyme twyggis or his net
He shall no profyte gayne nor auauntage get
For if that he his engynes can nat hyde
The byrdes shall be ware, and lyghtly fie asyde
So he that wyll openly manace and threte
With worde and hande, as he ,olde sle adowne ryght
Is oft scant abyll a symple hounde to bete.
For in his worde is ail his force and myght
_And he that alway thretenyth for to fyght.
Oft at the profe is skantly worth a hen
For greattest crakers ar nat ay boldest men
XVho that agaynst his ennemy wolde fyght
And gyueth hym before wepyn and armour.
gaynst hym selle to encreas his foes myght
8uche one bath reason and wyt of smal valour.
Ryght so that fole is led in lyke errour
XVhich nought can do, of mater les or more
X¥ithout he crake and boste therof before.
nd also suche bosters and crakers comonly
XVhiche doth theyr mynde in hasty wordes declare
Of other men af lytell or nought set by
nd by theyr wordes, full often yll they fare
A man also may ryght easely be ware
Of folys whiche thus theyr counsell out expres
Whose thretenyngs to theyr foes is armour and harnes
But hym caii I wyse and crafty of counseli
Whiche kepeth close the secretis of his mynde
And to no man wyll them disclose nor tell
To man nor woman, ennemy nor yet frynde
But do his purpose whan he best tyme can fynde
Without worde spekylge, and so may his intent
Best come to ende, his foo, beynge inprduydent
And speciaily no man ought to be large
Of wordes nor shewe his counseli openly
In thynges weyghty, of peryll and great charge
Consernynge a royallue, or heith of his body
For many ar falsly disceyued fynaily
By lewde tale berers whiche seke the way to fynde
To knowe the preuy counseii of theyr iordes mynde
They fawne and flater to knowe his pryuetee
But they forsoth, that wolde knowe thynges newe
For the moste part of this condicion be
No thynge to kepe, but lyghtly it to shewe.
Thus may the saynge of Saiomon be fonde true.
Whiche sayth that he is wyse, and iyueth happely
Whiche to hym seife kepyth his counseli secretely
I fynde foure thynges whiche by meanes can
Be kept close, in secrete, one longe in preuetee
The firste is the counseil of a wytles man
The seconde a Cyte, whiche byidyd is a hye
Upon a mountayne, the thyrde we often se
That to hyde his dedes a louer hath no skyli
Tbe fourth is strawe or fethers on a wyndy hyii
A pore mannys dedys may soone be kept close
His name is hyd, and right sois his dede.
A ryche mannys dede may no man hyde nor glose
It fleeth farthest, ail men of it take hede
So that yll lame whome ail men ought to drede
In fleynge about hir myght doth multyply
Augmentynge to lais lynage shame and vylany
Therfore who that intendyth to be wyse
XVare and crafty, auoydynge all inconuenyence
To shewe his counsell ought nat to interpryse
But do his mynde, kepynge alway sylence
In seruauntis is small trust or confydence
He that is nowe thy frende may after be thy fo
XVarne nat thy ennemy of that that thou wylt do
THE ENUOY OF BARKLAY TO THE Fol.YS.
O ye that ar put to wronge and Iniury
If ye intende for to yelde the same agayne
It is great tbly to warne your ennemye
Or hym to threten with bostynge wordes vayne.
For oft is sayde, and true it is certayne
That they that wyll lyue in quyetnes and rest
Must here and se and hasty wordes refrayne
Ail styll with fewe wordes do that they thynke best
Of folys that can nat beware by
fortune and example of others
Here we expresse, the errour and blyndnes
Of them that se. others aduersyte
Theyr wofull fall the ruyne and dystres.
Yet sue they the saine, and ware they wyll nat be
Though they by example the payne of other se
Yet leue they nat : thus may they clayme a place
Within my Nauy, as folys voyde of grace
We dayly se the mysfortune and damage
_And often fallys,.to pouerte and payne
Whiche folys surfer for theyr synne and outrage
Some drowned, some maymed, some other wyse slayne
Yet this example can nat cause vs refrayne
Out wretchyd lyfe, and seke for remedy
We marke no thynge anothers ieopardy.
\Ve se the mockynge scorne and derysyon
That folys hath ofte tyme han they orfende
\Ve se theyr losse, theyr, shame and theyr confusion
Howe be it ail this can cause vs to amende
We can no thynge and to nought we intende
So many folys I fynde that playne I thynke
Theyr weyghty charge shall cause my shyp to synke
Suche ar despysyd of men discrete and wyse
Ye and more ouer these folys ar so blynde
That echone of them the other doth despyse
\Vith sharp rebukes, wordes lewde and vnkynde
Yet in theyr lyfe no difference may we fynde
And though they haue sene a thousande brough to shame
For one sore vyce: yet lyue they in the same
The example of other can nat theyr myndes moue
Theyr wyttis ar blynde theyr foly is the cause
Alas mad folys why do ye vyce thus loue
Rennynge ay to deth without ail rest or pause
Alas, at the last retourne to christis lawes
Be ware, whan ye other se taken in the snare
Let anothers peryll cause you to be ware
By the exa.]e of ot/)ers damage. OE o 3
Ye do nat so, alas it is great shame
Your synne hath quenchyd your grace and gostly lyght
One blynde man another doth chyde and blame
And yet both stomble, nat goynge euyn or right
A blynde man hym ledyth that also hath no syght
So both in the dyche fallyth in suche a wyse
That one can nat helpe, the other agayne to ryse
One crab blamys another for hir bacwarde pace
And yet the blamer sothly can none other do
But both two ar in theyr goynge in lyke case
The one goeth bocwarde, the other doth also
Many of these folys after that maner go
But who that of his moders doctryne bath disdayne :
Shall by his stepdame endure wo care and payne
And perchaunce after abyde the correccyon
Of the sayde stepdame, in place of punysshemen.t.
For his synne, sufferynge hir vniust subieccien
And who that nat [oloweth the commaundement
Of his fader beynge to hym obedyent
May fortune after in hunger thyrst ond colde
Obey that stranger, whom he nat gladly wolde
We fynde Hystories wryten longe and ample
In dyuers bokes of great auctoryte
The hole Bybyll sheweth to vs example
Howe they were punysshed that lyuyd in cruelte
I fynde also wryten in bokes of Poetrye
Howe that Pheton was brent with the lyghtnynge
For his presumpcion, agaynst a myghty kynge
We haue example also by Icarus
XVhiche contrary vnto the commaundement
Of his crafiy father named Dedalus
By fleynge to hye his wynges and fethers brent
.And so descendyd and in the se was drent
Thus these two endynge by theyr lewdnes in care
By theyr example sholde cause vs to beware
,¥e dayly se before out syght and out presence
,Vhat mysauenture to many one doth fall
.And that worthely for theyr synne and offence
Yet ar we blynde, and ar nat ware at all
But in out synnes lyue vnto them egall
.And where by synne we se one corne to shame
W'e wyllyngly (alas) ensue the same
Therfore who sethe a mad fole corne to wo
Or tall in peryll for lacke of a good gyde
By another way ought craftely to go
.And Çoy anothers yll) for his helthe to prouyde
The fox was ware, and peryll set asyde
.And wolde nat enter into the caue, for playne
Of bestis that entred sawe he none corne agayne
THE ENUOY OF BARKLAY
Lerne man, lerne of bestes to be ware
Of others peryll, by theyr enormyte
For if" one byrde be onys tane in a snare
The other auoyde as fast as they may flee
A fysshe byrde or beste that bath in peryll be
Of net hoke or snare, if" that they may escape.
Wyll after euer beware, but blynde man wyll nat se
His owne destruccion, but after it doth gape
Of them that forceth or careth for the
bacbytynge of lewde people.
Whether that a bell be hangyd or lye on grounde
If vnto the saine a clapper lacke or fayle
The bell shall make but sympyll noyse or sounde
Though thou in it do hange a Foxys tayle
Right so backbyters that vse on men to rayle
Can nat greatly hurt them that lyue fightwys|y
Wheffore it is foly theyr babblynge to set by.
OEo6 Of t]oem l]oat forcet]o or caret]
Who that within this worlde wolde test and lyue
In eas of mynde, peas and tranquyllyte
Must nat his mynde set, nor his erys gyue
To the vayne talys, of the rude comonte
And though some people of suche condicion be
Oft to dyffame good people true and Just
Let them nought care, for byde it nede they must
Let no man care for the lewde hyssynges
And yll soundynges of this vnhappy rage
It is great foly to set by the lesynges
Of cursyde tunges syns none can them asswage
For who in this worlde wyll corne to auautage
Hym selle exaltynge to worshyp and honoure
Shall fynde the swetnes mengled with the sowre
And he that wyll o1 his dygnyte be sure
Or sympyll lyuynge what so euer it be
Right greuous chargis somtymes must endure
And with his iyen often beholde and se
Suche thynges wherwith his mynde can not agre
And he that wyll with the worlde haue to do
Must surfer suche trouble as belongeth therto
Yet some haue pytched theyr tentis stedfastly
Upon sure grounde, auoyde of ail this payne
Despysynge the worldes wantonnes and foly
For in the same is nought sure nor certayne
lqought se we tranquyll in these wawes mundayne
We se no loue, lawe, fydelyte, nor trust
But nowe up hye and nowe lowe in the dust
2or t]oe bacb.vtyJe of levae lbeolle. OE o 7
To auoyde the worlde with his foly and stryfe
Many hath left londes townes and ryches
And yll company lyuynge solytary lyfe
Alone in desert and in wyldernes
Ye and that: men of moste wyt and worthynes
Whiche by that meane dyd best of ail eschewe
Ail worldly sclaunder and lyuyd in vertue
He that intendeth to lyue a rightwyse lyre
_And so procedeth in maners and good dede
Of worldly sclaunder, complaynt, hatered, and stryfe
_And ail yll wyll, he ought nat to take hede
For he that is iuste ought no thynge for to drede
A sclaundrynge tonge, ye, be it neuer so xvode
For suche lewde tonges can none hurte that af gode.
Lyue well and wysely, than let men chat theyr fyll
Vf'ordes ar but wynde, and though it oft so rail
That of lewde wordes comyth great hurte and yll
Yet byde the ende. that onely prouyth ail
If thou canst surfer truste well that thou shall
Ouercome thyne ennemyes better by pacience
Than by hye wordes rygour or vyolence
If poetis that somtyme ,yce blamyd and discommendyd
_And holy Prophetis whiche also dyd the saine
To suche vayne and mortall wordes had intendyd
They sholde nat haue durst the peoples vyce to blame
So sholde they haue lost their honour and good naine
Theyr faine and meryt but nowe they haue nat so
But spred theyr fame whiche neuer away shall go
OE08 Of t]oem t]oat forcet]o o, caret]
Forsoth none lyueth within the worlde wyde
Suche meke so holy, so wyse or pacyent
Whiche can hym selle at euery tyme so gyde
To please eche fole, for none can some content
Forsoth he myght be named excellent
Happy and blessyd and lyue in welth and eas
Whiche euery man cowde serue content and pleas
But suche is none. and he that wyll assay
For to content eche folysshe mannes mynde
Must brake his slepe and stody nyght and day
And yet alway some foie shall be behynde
Ye if one lyue well, yet xvyll they somwhat fynde
Behynde his backe hym to sclaunder and diffame
For beggers and bawdes therin haue ail theyr gaine
For whether thou dwell in Est west north or south
Of suche dryuels euer shalt thou fynde plente
One must haue moche mele, to stoppe eche mannys mouth
Sclander is the cunnynge of all the comonte
.And in the same suche ay moste besy be
XVhiche lyue them selle in shame and vylany
Euen nowe they speke repentynge by and by
Thus all the cunnynge and stody dilygent.
Of people vnthryfty is alway to despyse
.And diffame other whiche ar but innocent
Wherfore let suche as ar discrete and wyse
Nought set by them that lesyngys doth deuyse
Iqor theyr vayne foly : for he that doth certayne
Is but, a foie. and euer shall lyue in payne.
For t/ae bacbytynge of lewae DeoDle. OEo 9
THE ENUOY OF BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
Trouble nat thy selle (thou man) where is no nede
And arme thou thy selle with goodly pacyence
Be sure it is great foly to take hede
Unto backbytynge syns that no resystence
May be founde to withstande his violence
And take thou this one thynge for thy comfort
That none wyse, or good, wyll commyt this offence
But ail af caytyffes, that af of this lewde sort.
Of mockers, and scorners, and
Yet ar mo Folys whiche mocke and scorneth fast
8uche as them shewyth wysdome and doctryne
And at theyr hedes (vngoodly) stonys cast
In mynde disdaynynge to wysdome to enclyne
But gladly they ensue the discyplyne
Of folysshe mockers, let wyse men them eschewe
For no corre¢cion can brynge them to vertue
Of mockers, scorners, and ]çdse accusers. I
O Hertles folys, haste here to our doctryne
Leue of the wayes of your enormyte
Enforce you to my preceptis to enclyne
For here shall I shewe you good and veryte
Enclyne, and ye fynde shall great prosperyte
Ensuynge the doctryne of our faders olde
And godly lawes in valour worth great golde
Who that wyll folowe the graces manyfolde
Whiche ar in vertue, shall fynde auauncement
Wherfore ye folys that in your syn ar bolde
Ensue ye wysedome and leue your lewde intent
Wysdome is the way of men most excellent
Therfore haue done, and shortly spede your pace
To quaynt your selfe and company with grace.
Lerne what is verrue, therin is great solace
Lerne what is trouth sadnes and prudence
Let grutche be gone, and grauyte purchace
Forsake your foly and inconueuyence
Cesse to be folys, and ay to sue offence
Folowe ye verrue, chefe rote of godlynes
For it and wysdome is grounde of clenlynes
Wysedome and vertue two thynges ar doutles
Whiche man endueth with honour specyall
But suche hertis as slepe in folysshnes
Knoweth no thynge, and wyll nought knowe at ail
But in this lytell barge in pryncypall
_Ail folysshe mockers I purpos to repreue
Clawe he his backe that felyth ytche or greue
EE 1 2 Of lllOç'el'., .çOl'ller., anddse accusers.
Mockers and scorners that ar harde of byleue
With a rugh combe here wyll I clawe and grate
To proue if they wyll from theyr vyce remeue
And leue theyr foly whiche causeth great debate
8uche caytyfs spare neyther pore man nor estate
And where theyr selle ar moste worthy of dyrysion
Other men to scorne i ail theyr moste condicion
Yet ar mo folys of this abusion
XYhiche of wyse men despyseth the doctryne
With mowes, mockes, scorne, and collusyon
Rewardynge rebukes, for theyr good diciplyne
Shewe to suche wysdome, yet shall they nat enclyne
Unto the saine, but set no thynge therby
But mocke thy doctryne, styll or openly
So in the worlde it apereth comonly
That who that wyll a Foie rebuke or blame
A mocke or mowe shall he haue by and by
Thus in derysyon, haue folys theyr speciall gaine
Correct a wyse man, that wolde eschewe yll name
And fayne wolde lerne, and his lewde lyre amende
And to thy wordes he gladly shall intende
If by mysfortune a rightwyse man offende
He gladly suffreth a iuste correccion
And hym that hym techyth taketh for his frende
Hym selfe puttynge mekely vnto subieccion
Folowynge his preceptis and good dyreccion
But if that one a Foie rebuke or blame
He shall his techer, hate, sclaunder, and dyffame
Of mockers, scorners, anaja.ise accusers. :
Howbeit his vmrdes, oft turne to his owne shame
And his owne dartis retourne to hym agayne
And so is he sore woundyd with the saine
And in wo endyth, great mysery and payne
It also prouyd full often is certayne
That they that on mockes alway theyr myndes cast
Shall of all other be mocked at the last
He that goeth right, stedfast sure and fast
May hym well mocke that goth haltynge and lame
And he that is whyte may well his scornes cast
Agaynst a man of ynde, but no man ought to blame
Anothers vyce whyle he vsyth the saine
But who that of synne is clene in dede and thought
May hym well scorne whose lyuynge is starke nought
The scornes of Naball full dere sholde haue ben bought
If Abigayll his wyfe discrete and sage
Had nat by kyndnes right crafty meanes sought
The wrath of Dauyd to temper and asswage
Hath nat two berys in theyr fury and rage
Two and fourty Children rent and tome
For they the Prophete Helyseus dyd scorne
So myght they curse the tyme that they were borne
For theyr mockynge of this Prophete dyuyne
So many other of this sorte often mowrne
For theyr lewde mockes, and fall in to ruyne
Thus is it foly for wyse men to enclyne
To this lewde flocke of Folys for se thou shall
Them moste scornynge that af most bad of ail
: Of moco's, sco,',o's, ,,d fls« «cus«s.
THENtlOY OF BARCLY' TO THE FoLYS.
Ye mockynge Folys that in scorne set your ioy
Proudly dyspysynge goddes punycion
Take ye example by Cham the son of Noy
Whiche laughyd his Father vnto derysyon
Whiche hym, after, cursyd for his transgressyon
_And ruade hym seruaunt to ail his lyne and stocke
So shall ye Caytyfs at the conclusyon
Syns ye ar nought, and other scorne and mocke
them that dyspyse euerlastynge ioye,
and settyth thynges transytory before
thynges eternall and euerlastynge.
He is a foule that wereth in one balaunce
The heuen and erth to knowe the heuyest
And by his foly and cursed ignoraunce
He thynketh that this wretchyd erth is best
And thoughe that here be neyther ioy nor rest
Yet had some leaer here styll to remayne
Than to depart to heuen voyde of al payne
OEI60ft]em t]at dyslkyse euerlastynge ioye.
My hande is wery: fayne wolde I rest a space
But folys comyth to my shyp so besely
That to haue test : they wyll graunt me no grace
That nede I must theyr lewdnes notefy
But to recorde this folysshe company
They ar suche that this worlde so greatly loue
That they despyse the heuenly Royalme aboue
They often thynke in theyr mynde preuely
And by them selle in this wyse oft they say
O glorious Iorde raynynge eternally
Graunt me thy grace that I may lyue alway
To se of this worlde the extreme ende and day
This is my wyll and synguler askynge
As for thy royalme, forsoth I set no thynge
But yet this foie doth nat desyre this tyme
Of so longe lyre, and yeres alway newe
To clens his mynde from ail synfull cryme
Nor for the loue of goodnes or vertue
But rather that he his pleasour may ensue
And with his maters and felawes suche as he
To folowe ryot» delytys and enormyte.
To lyue in wantonnes and blyndnes lascyuyte
In pryde in Lechery andin couetyse
Suche sytteth theyr myndes and theyr felycyte
Not ferynge hell whiche is rewarde of vyce.
Those dredefull dennys, in a right ferell wyse
With fyres flamynge, and manyfolde tourment
Can nat suche folys theyr synnes cause to stent
Of tbem tbat dys_pyse euer]aslynge ioye. 2I 7
0 sleuthfull foie say why doste nat thou call
Unto thy mynde that this worldes wretchydnes
Is full of sorowe moche more bytter than gall
Uoyde of all ioy, ail pleasour and swemes
Why settest thou so moche by frayle delyciousnes
On vayne pleasours, whiche shall sothly decay
Lyke as the sone meltyth the snowe away
Man note my wordes and gyue to them credence
I say that pleasours and also ioyes mundayne
As it apereth playne by good euydence
Af fylled xith sorowe bytternes and payne
Without ail test quyete or certayne
And yet alas the worlde so doth men blynde
That it they loue and caste heuen out of mynde
Wherfore it hapneth fidl often as I fynde
That suche as foloweth shamefull wantonnes
Ungoodly luste, and statelynes of mynde
Shall ofte perceyue great shame and wretchydnes
And them most surfer, with great mundayne distres.
And better charges, and after must nede endure
Cruell deth whiche ende is of euery creature
The worlde shall passe: ye and ail ioy mundayne
Without ail doute at last shall haue an ende
And euery thynge outher fruytfull or barayne
Shall to the grounde outher firste or last discende
We se also that none can hym defende
From dethes dartis, and for conclusyon.
We dayly se many mennys confusyon.
We dayly se the fallys innumerable
_And greuous deth aswell of youth as age
Thus is this wretchyd worlde moche vnstable
Wherfore me thynke it is a great outrage
To trust therto, or for an vnsure stage
Or hye place of welth or worldly honour
The presence to despyse of our sauyoure
But without doute the tyme shall corne and houre
Whan ail mankynde shall se hym euydent
Some to theyr ioy, some to wo and doloure
None shall eskhape that rightwyse iugement.
But eche be rewardyd as he his tyme hath spent
So they that vertuously haue lyuyd here
Despysynge this worlde shall gladly there apere
But they that here haue led theyr lyfe in vyce
For to depart ar wo in herte and mynde
_And ferefull to byde that sentence of iustyce
Syns of theyr synne excuse they can none fynde
But to conclude forsoth that foie is blynde
That for worldly welth, from god wolde hym deuyde
_And for vayne clay, the hye heuyn set a syde
THE ENUOY OF BARKLA¥ TO THE FOLY$.
O blynde man whiche hast thy moste felycyte
On worldly thinges, alas make clere thy mynde
What fyndest thou here, but great aduersyte
Wylt thou for it leue y heuenly ioy behynde
_And where thou myght euerlastynge ryches fynde
Where as is helth, endles lyre and ail goodnes
Wylt thou forsake it for worldly wretchydnes
Of ttoem that dyslhyse euerlastynge ioye. OEI 9
Wylt thou heuyn compare with his paynfull lyre
There on to thynke thou art vnwyse certaync
There is concorde, here is no thynge but stryfe
There is all test, and here is care and payne
There is true loue: here is scorne and disdayne
There is ail goodnes, here all yll and offence
Nowe chuse the best: here is great difference
Of them that make noyses rehersynges of
talys and do other thynges vnlaufull
and dishonest in ye chirche of god.
A foie is he, and hath no mynde deuoute
And gyueth occasyon to men on hym to rayle.
Whiche goth in the chirche, his houndes hym aboute
8ome rennynge, some fast tyed to his tayle
A hawke on his fyst suche one withouten fayle
Better were to be thens, for by his dyn and cry
He troublyth them that wolde pray deuoutly:
Of t]em thaz make noyses rehersyes. OE OE
Yet of mo folys fynde I a great nomber
Whiche thynke that it is no shame nor vylany
Within the chirche, the seruyce to encomber
With theyr lewde barkynge roundynge dyn and cry
And whyle good people af praynge stedfastly
Theyr herte to good, with meke mynde and deuout
Suche folys them let, with theyr mad noyse and shout
.And whyle the prestis also them exercyse.
In matyns masse sermon or prechynge dyuyne
Or other due thynges that longe to theyr seruyce.
Techynge the people to vertue to enclyne
Than these folys as it were rorynge swyne
With theyr gettynge and talys of vycyousnes
Trouble ail suche seruyce, that is sayd, more and les
In to the churche than comys another sote
Without deuocyon gettynge vp and downe
Or to be sene, and to showe his gardyd cote
Another on his fyst a Sparhauke or :awcon
Or els a Cokow, and so wastynge his shone
Before the auters he to and fro doth wander
With euyn as great deuocyon as a gander
In comys another his houndes at his tayle
With lynes and leshes and other lyke baggage.
His dogges barkyth, so that withouten :ayle
The hole churche is troubled by theyr outrage
So innocent youth lernyth the same of age
_And theyr lewde sounde doth the churche fyll.
But in this noyse the good people kepe them styll.
z Of them tloat make noyses rehersynges
One tyme the hawkys bellys Jenglyth hye
Another tyme they flutter with theyr wynges
And nowe the houndes barkynge strykes the skye
l'qowe sounde theyr fete, and nowe the chaynes rynges
They clap with theyr handes, by suche maner thynges
They make of the churche, for theyr hawkes a mewe
And Canell to theyr dogges, whiche they shall after rewe
So with suche folys is neyther peas nor rest
Unto the holy churche they haue no reuerence
But wander about to see who get may best
In rybawde wordes pryde and insolence
.As mad men they fere nat our sauyours presence
Hauynge no honour vnto that holy place
Wherin is gyuen to man euerlastynge grace
There ar handlyd pledynges and causes of the lawe
There ar ruade bargayns of dyuers maner thynges
]3yenges and sellynges scant worth a hawe
.And there ar for lucre contryued false lesynges
.And whyle the prest his Masse or matyns synges
These folys whiche to the Churche do repayre
.Ar chattynge and bablynge as it were in a fayre
Some gygyll and lawghe and some on maydens stare
.And some on wyues with wanton countenaunce
.As for the seruyce they haue small force or care
But full delyte them in theyr mysgouernaunce
Some with theyr slyppers to and fro doth prance
Clappynge with their helys in churche and in quere
$o that good people can nat the seruyce here
of vnlatfull and 'sbonest tynges. E E 3
What shall I wryte of maydens and of wyues
Of theyr roundynges and vngoodly comonynge
Howe one a sclaundre craftely contryues
_A_nd in the churche therof hath hyr talkynge
The other hath therto theyr erys lenynge
_A_nd than whan they ail hath harde forth hir tale
With great deuocyon they get them to the aie.
Thus is the churche defylyd with vylany
And in stede of prayer and godly oryson
r vsyd shamefull bargayns and talys of rybawdry
Jettynges and mockynges and great derysyon
There fewe ar or none of perf-yte deuocion
And whan our lorde is consecrate in fourme of brede
Therby walkes a knaue, his bonet on his hede
And whyle those wordes of consecracion
r sayde of the preste in goddes owne presence
8uche caytyfs kepe talys and communycacion
Fast by the auter thynkynge it none offence
And where as the angels ar ther with reuerence
Laudynge and worshyppynge out holy sauyour
These vnkynde caytyfs wyll scantly hym honour
Alas wherto shall any man complayne
For this foly and accostomed furour
Syns none of them theyr fautes wyll refrayne
But ay procede in this theyr lewde errour
And nat withstandynge that Christ our sauyour
Hath left vs example, that none sholde mysdo
Within the chirche, yet inclyne v¢e nat therto.
OE 2 40ft]em t]at make noyses re]ersynges.
Jhonn the euangelyst doth openly expres.
Howe criste our sauyour dyd dryue out and expeii
From the Temple, suche as vsed there falsnes
And ail other that therin dyd bye and sell
Saynge as it after iyeth in the Gospell
Unto the Jues rebuke and great repreues
That of goddes house they ruade a den of thêues.
Remember this man, for why thou dost the same
Defylynge goddes Chirche with synne and anyte
Vhiche sothly was ordeyned to halowe goddes naine
And to lawde and worshyp the holy trynyte
With deuout harte, loue, and ail benygnyte
And with ail our myght our lorde to magnyfy
And than after all the heuenly company
For this cause hath god the holy chirche ordeyned
And nat for rybawde wordes and thynges vayne
But by vs chrysten men it is distayned.
Moche wors than euer, the J ewes dyd certayne
And if our lOrde sholde nowe corne downe agayne.
To dryue out of the churche suche as there do syn
Forsoth I thynke, right fewe shoide byde within
THE ElqI.JOY TO THE REDER$.
O man that bostest thy selfe in cristes name
Callynge the christen, se thou thy synne refuse
Remember well it is both synne and shame
The house of god, thus to defyle and abuse
But this one thynge causeth me oft to muse
That the false paynyms within theyr Temples be
To theyr ydols moche more deuout than we
Of them that wyllynge and knowyngly
put them self in ieopardy and peryll.
He is a foie that wyll purchace and desyre
His owne deth or putteth hym selle in ieopardy
L, epynge in a well, or in a flamynge lyre
And wherc he myght lyue so dyeth wyllyngly
8uche surfer theyr destruc%,on ,orthdy
And if that they be drowned outher brent
It is to late them after to repent.
OE OE 6 Of tloem tloat wyl]ynge and knowyngly
I fynde mo folys yet. whome I shall note
Suche ar they whiche pray both day and nyght
To god and his sayntes cryeng with open throte
0 glorious god helpe me by thy great myght
That I may clens my herte and clere my syght
Wherby ail foly and synne may fro me fall
But yet this foie it leuyth nat at ail
Suche folys oit pray for theyr amendement
Unto our lorde with syghynges sore and depe
But yet to synne contynually they assent
_And after the saine often complayne and wepe
'rhan say they playne that god hath had no kepe
Unto theyr prayer and taken of it no hede
But theyr owne foly is cause of theyr lewde dede
They se the peryll before theyr faces playne
That god hath ordeyned, for foly and for synne
They pray for helpe, and yet ar they full fayne
/kfter the folys hode alway to ren
And besely laboure the same alone to wyn
So vnto god for helpe they cry and call
But they them selfe wyll helpe no thynge at ail
Than thynke they theyr prayers to god nat acceptable
Bycause (anone) they haue nat all theyr wyll
And for that god is nat sorte agreable
To here theyr cry and it graunt and fulfyll
These folys in theyr vyce contynue styll
And put theyr selle in wylfull ieopardy
And where they myght they fynde no remedy
But these folys vnstabyll as the wynde
Prayeth vnto god and to his sayntis aboue
Nat knowynge what may content theyr folysshe mynde
lqor whether theyr askynge be for theyr behoue
But sothly this date I both say and proue
And it auowe after my sympyll skyll
That neuer man shall syn without his wyll
If that one with his owne wyll doth tZall
lnto a well to assay the ieopardy
Whan he is there, if he lowde crye and call
Bothe on god and man for helpe and remedy
He sekyth that peyll, and dyeth worthely
So were it foly to gyue hym corde or trayne
Or other engyne to helpe hym vp agayne
Whan suche folys ar sure vpon the grounde
Without ail daunger, pery]l hurt or fere
They ]epe in the wel and yet fere to be drowned
Empedocles though he right myghty were
With suche lyke foly hym selle so sore dyd dere
That knowyngly and with his owne consent
Hymself he lost and by fyers fyre was brent
He lept hedelynge into the flamynge fyre
Of a brennynge hyll whiche callyd is Ethnay
To knowe the trouth, and nature to enquyre
Whether that saine flame were very fyre or nay
So with his deth the trouth he dyd assay
But who that wolde hym drawen out of that hyll
Had ben a foie, syns it was his owne wyll
OE OE 8 Of tl)en tl)at wyllynge and knowingly
For why his mynde was blyndyd so certayne
That thoughe a man had hym delyuered than
The same peryll v¢oide he haue proued agayne
As mad as he forsoth is euery man
That is at eas, and hym nat so holde can
And also he that putteth hymselfe in drede
Or fere and peryll, where as he hath no nede
So he that prayeth to god that he may get
The blysse of heuen, and scape infernall payne
He is a foie his herte or mynde to set
On frayle ryches, welth and ioy mundayne
On stedfast fortune, on lucre or on gayne
For certaynly these thynges of worldly welth
Oft man deuydeth away from heuenly helth
Thus he that prayeth for welth or for ryches
Or in this worlde hym selfe to magnyfy
Prayeth for his hurt and cause of viciousnes
For worldly welth doth vyce oft multyply
So seke men theyr owne peryll wyllyngly
But who that prayeth, and can nat as he ought
He bloweth in the wynde, and shall nat haue his thought
And who that to honour couetyse to ascende
Or to lyue in damnable voluptuosyte
He seketh his pei'yll for if that he descende
From wehh and worshyp to payne and pouerte
It is but worthy, and let hym pacyent be
It to endure with mynde demure and meke
He is worthy sorowe that wyll it alway seke
put tlemself in ieoibardy anderyl]. 9
Tl-Iz zNIsov o» BARKLAV a'O a'l-I. FoLvs.
Ye that fayne wolde escape ail ieopardy
Auoyde suche thynges the vhiche myght cause the saine
To proue a peryll, is foly certaynly
Whether it be done in ernest or in gaine
They that so doth may theyr owne madnes blame
For he that is sure, and to a fray wyli ren
May fortune corne home agayne, nosles or lame
And so were it better for to haue byd within
Of the way of felycyte and godnes, and of
the payne to corne vnto synners.
Many in this lyfe the cart of syn doth drawe
13y payne and labour, alway right dylygent
Norysshynge theyr syn agaynst al/ right and lawe
And alway lyuynge after one lyke assent
But whan they ar dede than shall theyr punysshement
In hell be dowblyd with cartis of whelys route
x, Vhere as they thought, deth shuld ende theyr laboure
God suffreth nat eche vicious foie to knowe
The wonders that he made hath on this grounde
And dayly worketh, wherfore theyr syn doth growe
So that theyr foly them selle doth confounde
And here theyr bodyes to great labours ar bounde
Sparynge no peryll for pleasour and for gayne
Than after deth haue they euerlastynge payne
So he that here lyueth in vyce and synne
Shall extreme dolour after deth endure
Than what auantage is it for man to wyne
Ail orthly tresour, and of hell payne be sure
But without dowt that wretchyd creature
Whiche goddes lawes wyll nat here holde and kepe
Shall after deth haue cause to wayle and wepe
_And suche as here wyll nat knowe theyr sauyour
Obseruynge his preceptis and commaundement
Whiche god hathe ordeyned to saue vs from erroure
And vs commaundyd to kepe with clene intent
Ouer all the worlde, as rule moste excellent
To lyue godly, and who so euer he be
That foloweth in this worlde voluptuosyte
Or camail lust ryot or other offence
Wastynge his tyme in syn and viciousnes
Ail suche in this worlde, by theyr blynde negligence
Drawe styll the cart of greuous besynes.
With payne and charge and, whan this wretchydnes
Is past and gone, yet after this they shall
In hell endure great tourmentis eternall
There shalt (thou foie) the charet drawe alway
vrith dowble paynes both tedyous and cruell
V¢herfore thou foie retourne the I the pray.
Seke nat the way whiche ledeth -nto hell
Vqith his foule dennes, more darke than tunge can tell
And thoughe the way be esy streyght and playne
The ende is nought, I aduyse the tourne agayne
The way to heli is greatly occupyed
The path is playne, and easy to ouergo
The dote ay open no entre is denyed
To suche as purpose in mynde to corne therto
But at the ende therof is care and v¢o
With syghtis odyous and abhomynable
Yet in the way af folkes innumerable
Thus is no meruayle though this way be playne
And greatly xvorne syns it is hantyd so
By dyuers folys ,«hiche haste them to that payne.
By way contynuall therto : but none therfro
The dredefull dote to them that vyll in go
Both day and nyght is open, it doth forsake
No folys that wyil theyr iourney thyther take
But that way that to hye heuen doth lye
Is way of grace plesour, and ail felycyte
In it suche valke as here lyue vertuously.
_And blessyd men, but nat suche as vyciouse be
Yet is it narowe, and full of difficulte
There is many a harde flynt brere and thorne
And no meruayle for it is nat greatl)' worne
./Ind of the ]oayne Io corne vnto synners. EE 3 3
For why lewde people, whiche is the gretest sort
Forsake this way for the payne and hardnes
But godly men therin haue chefe confort
With ail that lyue by grace in ryghtwysnes
Suche well consyder that heuyns blessydnes
Can nat be gotten by pleasour rest nor eas
Wherfote this way can nat suche synners pleas
God so hath ordeyned that who wyll haue verrue
Must it obtayne with payne and dilygence
_And great labour, whiche many nowe eschewe
Without it be to seke synne and offence
Fewe seke the way to christis hye presence
Therby it hapneth that many a thousande
Fast rennyth leftwarde, but fewe on the right hande
Tnr rtroY oF BAP, KLAY TO THE Focvs.
_Alas man remembre heuens blyssednes
_And though the way be harde that lyeth therto
Forsoke it nat for all that great sharpnes.
For at the ende is lyfe and rest also
Eerlastynge glory vvith other ioyes mo
But who that taketh the other way certayne
Shall fynde at the ende eternall payne and wo
Thoughe the way thether be easy streyght and playne
yll example of elders gyuyn vnto
Il that the fader and mother before theyr son
By anger or malyce brake, platter pot, or pan
The son in bande hall take ome cauderon
And lertae to breke it if his «mail power can
Thus oft tyme chyldren haue cause to cur«e or ban
Theyr trendes for suche example of lewdnes
For sotaer that they lerne than verrue or goode«
Of tbe yll example of elders. OE 35
Ye aged men rotyd in folysshnes
And folysshe parentis lewde of your langage
Vnto our shyp swyfily your selle addres
Syns ye be worthy therin to haue a stage
Nowe cast I repreues agaynst your outrage
Whiche boldly bost you of your vnthryfty lyues
Before your maydes, your doughters and your wyues
Alas the folys of this mad company
By theyr example cause great inconuenyence
Before theyr children recountynge rybaudry
Of suche as they haue had experyence.
So gyue they to them example of offence
And in that synne wheron they bost and vant
They make them perfyte whiche erst were ignorant
Theyr wordes ar voyde of shame and honestye
Theyr lyre is without mesure and reuerence
But yet they thynke that they moste worthy be
That moste can tell of this greuous offence
Thus all the youth that is in theyr presence
Or that doth here theyr vyce and rybawdry
Vnto the saine with theyr full mynde aply
Thus theyr yonge children maners lernyth none
The wyfe hath occasyon to breke hir chastyte
So is the lyfe defyled of them echone
And to be playne, we often tymes se
That of what maners the folysshe husbondes be
Such af theyr wyues, children and housholde
The yonge Cok lerneth to crowe hye of the olde
A folysshe Father, full hardly shall ensyne
His sorte to good lyre or to good gouernaunce
For if the father to foly doth enclyne
The sone wyll folowe his father in that daunce
And if the father vse hasarde or the chaunce
Or any prohybyt and vnlawfull gaine
Most comonly the sone wyll do the same
If that the husbonde be vycious of his lyre
Wastfull or dronken, or vyle in his langage
His sonnes doughters, his seruauntes and his wyfe
Wyll lerne of hym to passe the saine passage
And if the husbonde breke his maryage
If the wyfe knowe, in mynde she wyll be wroth
Without he haue a hode of the saine cloth
An olde prouerbe hath longe agone be sayde
That oft the sone in maners lyke wyll be
Vnto the Father, and in lyke v¢yse the mayde
Or doughter, vnto the mother wyll agre
So if the elders vse enormyte
And before theyr children bost them of the saine
The sone and doughter shall folowe syre and dame
The monkes thynke it lawull for to play
Whan that the Abbot bryngeth them the dyce
Right so the Father, can nought or lytell say
Agaynst the sone, nor hym blame or chastyce
If he hym selle be taken in that saine vyce
Thus lyues the Father in synne v¢ithouten shame
And after his deth the sone shall do the saine
Gn îu' yu'& 3 7
O wretchyd maners o tyme full of furour
And full of foly without ail hope to stent
Howe longe shall god our lorde and sauyour
This synne surfer without greuous punysshement
_Alas it nowe apereth euydent
That the fathers foly synne and great outrage
Is left to the sonne as it were herytage
And no meruayle, for it hath neuer ben seen
That of a wolfe a shepe hath be forth brought
Or that a caife or lambe gendred hath been
Of a fell tygre: right so if it were sought
Ouer ail the v¢orlde, a Father that is nought
Sholde scant be founde, whiche coude brynge vp his childe
With his synne in no maner poynt defylyd
The yonge crab bacwarde doth crepe or go
As doth the olde, none can hir cours redres
These yonge children for the moste part also
Foloweth theyr fathers synne and his lewdnes
But they that lyue in maners of mekenes
In honest lyfe, goodnes grace and chastyte
May brynge forth children of maners as they be
I rede howe the Phylosopher Diogenes
Sayde by a childe whiche dronken was with wyne
That his Father was in that case doutles
Whan he it gate, so his hye wyt dyuyne
Knewe that the childes maners dyd inclyne
Vnto his Fathers, and so was it founde trewe
By them wbiche well that childes fader knewe
But though the Father and mother also be nought
Without dout this one thynge apereth playne
That the childe is suche as it is vp brought
_And nat lyghtly chaungyd without great charge or payne
Therfore let euery man hym selle refrayne
Within his hous from ail thynge worthy blame
Than shall his children and seruautes do the saine
THE EqçO¢ o1 BARKLA¥.
Ye that haue children or other great housholde
Subdued to your seruyce, and your obedyence
Kepe vertuous lyre, for that is worth great golde
_And great example to youth to auoyde offence
But if ye boost you of synne and neglygence
In rybawde wordes, gyue credence to this clause
If the herers rail into incouenyence
Your lewde example is the chefe grounde and cause
Of bodely pleasour or corporall
Wanton wastfull and vayne voluptuosyte
Oft blyndeth attysynge vnto inconuenyence
Many that ar rude, for theyr symplycyte
And thera as shepe sleeth for all theyr innocence
But other some it kepyth with myght and violence
As bulles bounde sure to endure great care
And other as byrdes it tangleth in hir snare
Drawe nere ye folys to you I crye and call
Whiche ar of grace clene destytute and bare
Folowynge your lust and pieasour corporall
But for your soule ye take no thought ne care
To whome may I this shamefull lust compare
Saue to a harlat faynynge, fals and couetous.
Of whome comyth shame and bytes venemous
She syttyth in the strete as past both shame and fere
Hir brestes bare to tempt them that passe by
Hir face anoyntyd blasynge abrode hir here
Or els on hir folysshe front enlaced hye
Hir smocke to ganysshyd so hir dysceytfull iye
To shamfull lust a thousande doth attyce
Of youth whiçhe erst perchuance knewe nought of vyce
Hir chamber full of flatery and disceyte
Anone is opened the blynde fole entreth in
The hoke of deth is hyd vnder the bayte
Of folysshe iust pleasour and mortail syn
Hir soule she sellyth ryches therby to wyne
And what riches: a rewarde sothly full vyle
The soules damneth and bodyes doth defyle
The one departyth, another comys in agayne
Without ail shame dare she them boldly pray
To hir fais pleasours, Thus by hir gyle and trayne
This folysshe youth to hir wyll nat denay
But vnto hir some lepe both nyght and day
Without mesure, rennynge to lese theyr lyfe
As ox or shepe vnto the bochers knyfe
ordbora]] vo]t,ms.}.te. 4
The symple lambe his necke doth out extende
Vnto the Bocher his mortall ennemy
So doth these folys, sekynge a shamefull ende
And theyr owne deth, though they myght fynde remedy
O blynde foie I requyre the to aply
Vnto my wordes and thou shalt here and se.
Howe moche thou oughtest this folysshe lust to fie
The soule it damneth, and drowneth depe in hell
The wyt it wastyth, and confoundeth the mynde
It causeth man his londe and good to sell
And if that he none other mene can fynde
To rob and stele he oft tyme is inclyned
Besyde all these this fowle lust is so vyle
That with fowle sauour it shall thy body fele
Thoughe of lewde lust the ioy be short and small
And thoughe the pleasour therof be soon ouer past
The payne that foloweth it, is eternall
With wofull dolour menglyd, that euer shall last
Therfore leue of: do nat thy pleasour cast
On worldly welth, delyte ioy and pleasour
For soon they pas and chaunge at euery hour
Who that in this wretchyd worlde wyll auoyde
Of voluptuousnes the ioyes frayleoand vayne
And suffre nat hym with them to be acloyde
Infect or drowr, yd, shall for the same certayne
Euerlastynge lyre, and endles ioy obtayne
And for his hye tryumphe and dyuyne prudence
Haue the fruycyon of goddes hye presence
But who that wyll his carnall lust ensue
Shall here haue shame, and after payne cruell
I coude hereof dyuers examples shewe
But of right many this one I shall you tell
()ne Sardanapalus ail other dyd excell.
In carnall lust and so his mynde dyd cast
On loue prohybyte, that grace was fro hym past
The loue of vertue was full out of his mynde
8o he concludyd to sue dilyciousnes
Thynkynge after deth no welth nor ioy to fynde
For tlfis is the sentence of the prynce of derknes
But good a|myghty seynge his vycyousnes
His body and soule deuydyd soon in twayne
From worldly pleasour vnto infernall payne
By tlfis hystory to vs it apereth playne
That from worldly pleasour and voluptuosyte
l, Vith ail our myght we ought vs to refrayne
For thoughe the first of them delycious be
Theyr ende is poyson, and of sournes plente
Sue wvse men vertue and set suche lust asyde
For they ar folys that in it lyue and byde
THr rNUOY Or BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
Amende mad men your blynde mysgouernaunce
Subdue nat your necke to the captyuyte
Of flysshely lust and corporall pleasaunce
Nor to blynde Venus with hir lasciuyte
(If ye it note) ye dayly here and se
The mysfortune of them that it ensue
And certayn]y no man can saued be
By camail lust, but by godly vertue
Of folys that can nat kepe secrete theyr
Of other Foies a nomber yet I fynde
Which by theyr bablynge wordes and langage
Can nat kepe close the secrete of theyr mynde.
But ail theyr counsel out they shewe at large.
8o that oft therof procedeth great damage.
As Murder, myschefe, hatered and debate.
That after they repent. But than it is to laie
OE44 Of folys tt)at ca,, ,,at el)e secrete
He is a naturall foie and vndiscrete
_And to hym selfe ingendryth oft great stryfe
Whiche can nat hyde his counseil and secrete
But by his foly it sheweth to his wyfe
_And ail that he hath done in his hole iyfe
Or that to do here after he doth purpose
To euery man suche a foie wyli disclose
The noble Sampson moste excellent of myght
_And strongest man that euer was get or borne
Were nat this foly: sholde nat haue lost his syght
l'qor had his here, by gyle from his hede ofshorne
_And of his ennemyes ben laughyd vnto scorne
_And at the last with herte wrethfull and wo
His ennemyes murdred and hym selfe also
Where as he myght haue lyued in honour
If he had kept his secretes in his mynde
With his owne wyll he dyed in great dolour.
By the fais treason of his lemman vnkynde
We may in dyuers mo examples fynde
Howe many thousandes haue suffred paynes smart
_And ail for shewynge the secretes of theyr hart
_Amphiaraus a Prynce moste excellent
Shortened the dayes of his pore doutfuii lyfe
For shewynge the preuetees of his intent
By his owne foly to his disceytfuli wyfe
_And thoughe he longe escaped had the stryfe
_And war of Thebes whiche he dyd longe defnde
Yet at the leest his tunge was his owne ende
g'lar owne çounse//. 45
Thus olde storyes doth oft recorde and tell
By theyr examples whiche they vnto vs gyue
That wymen ar no kepars of councell
It goeth through them as water trough a syue
Wherfore let them that quyetly wolde lyue
No more of theyr counsell to any wolnan showe
Than that they wolde that euery man dyd knowe
Let euery man that is discrete and sage
Of suche folys with ail wysdome be ware
Whiche shewe theyr counsell by theyr hasty langage.
To euery man without ail thought and care
For they of wysdome and reason ar but bare
And who that his owne secrete wyll forth tell
Howe sholde he hyde another mannes counsell
Yet other be whiche by theyr flaterynge trayne
Labour to knowe euery mannys pryuete
And by and by to shewe it forth agayne
Of them be ware for they disceyfull be.
Some other bost them of theyr felycyte
Bablynge that they haue theyr wyll in euery thynge
_As prosperous welth loue, ryches and cunnynge
And of great dedes done both on see and londe
Some by theyr f, dshode, some by strength and vertue
But if one laboured the trouth to vnderstonde
Suche folïsshe wordes sholde ail be founde vntrewe
Let neuer man to suche his counsell shewe
For of one worde these folys makyth twayne
Whiche tourneth many to losse rebuke and payne
OE4 60fjô]ys tbat ca,, nat ketse t/)eyr counsell.
Vrherfore if thou wylt that thy pryuete
Be kept secrete and nat come out at large
Be nat so folysshe to showe it vnto me
Or any other if it be thynge of charge
And if thou do thou shalt be in this barge
For howe wylt hou thynke that another man
Can kepe thy counsell syns thou thy selle ne can
If the kynge Achab had nat vttred and tolde
Vnto his wyfe his wyll and mynde so playne
By hir fais treason, and dysceyt manyfolde
Vnrightwysly Nabot had nat ben slayne
But for the saine, Achab suffred great payne
By deth in batayle, and for a punysshment
His wyfe with houndes was ail to torne and rent
Thus it apereth that he is wyse and ware
Vhiche can his counsell kepe within his hart
For by that mean may he escape great care
And suerly lyue without yll wyllys dart
The Prophete seynge what dyuers paynes smart
Comyth oft to them whiche doth theyr secret tell
Eche man exortyth to kepe close his counsell.
THE ElqUOY OF BARKLA¥ TO THE FOL¥S.
Thou man that hast thy secret in thy brest
Holde it styll there surfer it nat out to go
XVho that so doth, therby shall fynde great test
Ne to thy frende shewe nat thy mynde also
For if that he after become thy fo
As often hapneth, than myght he the bewry
So sholde thy foly tourne vnto thy great wo
Howe be it suche thynges are prouyd comonly.
yonge folys that take olde u3,men
theyr wyues, for theyr ryches.
Within our shyp that foie shall haue a hode
"VVhiche an olde wyfe taketh in ma,'yage
Rather for hir ryches and hir Wol-ldly gode
Than for pure loue, or hope to haue lynage
But suche youth as mary them selle with age
The profyte and pleasour of wedlocke lese cetayne
And worthely lyue in brawlynge stryfe and payne.
OE 48 Of yongeJblys that take olde wymen
/Jnder the Asse tayle thoughe it be no thynge pure
Yet many seke and grope for the vyle fatnes
Gatherynge togyther the fowle dunge and ordure
8uche af they that for treasour and ryches
Whyle they af yonge in theyr chefe lustynes
An agyd woman taketh to theyr wyfe
Lesynge theyr youth, and shortynge so theyr lyfe
They that so do hath neyther rest nor pe as
But besy brawlynge and stryfe contynuall
They have no pleasour, but thought and great dyseas
Rebuke out braydynge, and strypes whan they çall
But theyr owne foly is grounde and cause of ail
For they be maryd unto the vyle treasour
And precious bagges, but nat for godly pleasour
They haue no hope of children nor lynage
Loue is there none, and durynge theyr wretchyd lyre
ls nat one day in suche mari maryage
.A_uoyde of brawlynge, of hatered and of stryfe
But that pote man that weddeth a ryche wyfe
Cast in hs nose shall styll hir bagges fynde
For whose cause he ruade was ruade and blynde
They that ar weddyd nat for loue but rychesse
Of moryage despysynge the pleasour and profyte
Suche seldome sauour fortunes happynes
But oft mysfortune them greuously doth byte
Thus gone is theyr pleasour theyr ioy and delyte
_And for vayne treasoure suche ar so glad and fayne
That fir the saine they them subdue to payne
V'o t/ae_yr xvuesjçr t/aeyr r.vc/.,es. =49
They wyllyngly to payne them selle subdue
The whiche af weddyd for wretchyd couetyse
They take no hede to maners and verrue
To honeste nor wysdome but lyue ay in malyce
For if a woman be fowle and full of vice
And lewde of maners, nought both to man and lad
Yet good shall hir mary be she neuer so bad
If that a man of hye or lowe degre
Wolde spouse tiis doughter "nto a strange man
He nought inquyreth of his honestye
Of his behauour, nor if he norture can
But if he be ryche in londes and good: than
He shall be prayed his doughter for to haue
Thoughe be but a bonde man or a knaue
The firste enquyrynge and speciall questyon
Is of the money, that thynge namely they moue
And last of ail aske they the condicion
So whan they mete they neuer haue perfyte loue
Wherfore it were better to suche for theyr behoue
To byde alone in deserte and wyldernes
Than in wedloke in payne for frayle ryches
Forsoth it is an vnmete maryage
And disagreynge and moche agaynst the lawe
Bytwene fresshe youth, and lame ,nlusty age
The loue bytwene them is scantly worth a strawe
So doth the one styll on the other gnawe
And oft the man in mynde doth sore complayne.
His sede to sowe vpon a grounde barayne
: 5 o Ofyonefolys tbat take oMe wymen
Than muste he haue another prymme or twayne
With them to slake his wanton yonge cowrage
But in that space must he endure great payne
With hir that he hath tane in maryage
Hir bablynge tunge whiche no man can asswage
With wrathfull wordes shall sle hym at the laste
His other prymes his good shall spende and waste
Thus who that selleth his youthes lustynes
For frayle ryches and this mundayne vanyte
He byeth stryfe, gyle and çalshode endlesse
Suche force nat for fayth true loue nor honestye
And thoughe that he discende of hye degre
For hope of money he shall an olde fole wed
By whose foly he to euery yll is led.
And so these folys subdue them to bondage
And worthely endure suche payne and punysshement
They hope therby to corne to auantage
But that they lese and lyue in sore tourment
They wast theyr good, and so whan that is spent
And nought remayneth theyr bodyes to relefe
Theyr disputacion is nought but hore and thefe
But if I sholde wryte ail the vnhappynes
The wrath discorde and the great deuysyon
Wherin they lyue, that mary for ryches
And nat for loue. I neuer sholde haue done
Wherfore this say I for a conclusyon
That he shall neuer thryue ne come to his behoue
That weddyth a wyfe for gode and nat for loue
To tbe.rr w.vues for tbe.vr r.vcbes. 2 5
THE ENISO¥ OF BARKLA¥.
_A_las man myndles xvhat is thyne intent
To wed for ryces, that weddynge I defy
Maryage was ordeyned by god omnypotent
In goddes lawes the worlde to multyply
Wherfore that man that wyll therto aply
_And wolde haue the profyte of faythfull maryage
This world|y ryces ought no thynge to set by
But wed for loue and hope to haue lynage
Remember ryches is no thynge comparable
To mekenes vertue and discrete gouernaunce
And other maners whiche ar more commendable
Than worldly treasour or suche vnsure substaunce
Wherfore consyder and call to thy remembraunce
That better is to haue some ,,roman pore and bare
-And lyue in eas : Than one with habundaunce
Of great ryches : and euer to lyue in care
Of enuyous Folys.
Yet ar mo folys whiche greatly them delyte
In others losse, and that by fa|s enuy
Wherby they suche vnrightwysly bacbyte
The dartis of suche ouer all the wordIy flye
And euer in fleynge theyr fethers multyply
No state in erth thrfro can kepe hym sure
His sede encreasyth as it wolde euer endure
Of e»,9,ous folys. :z 5 3
Wastynge enuy oft styreth to malyce
Folys nat a fewe whiche ar therto enclynyd
Pryckynge theyr frowarde hertes vnto vyce
Of others damage reioysynge in theyr mynde
Enuyes datte doth his begynnynge fynde
In wrathfull hrtes, it wastyth his owne nest
lX]'at suffrynge other to lyue in eas and test
If one haue plenty of treasour and ryches
Or by his merytis obteyne great dignyte
These folys enuyous that of the saine haue les
Enuy by malyce, the others hye degre
And if another of honour haue plente
They it enuy and wysshe that they myght sterue
Howe be it suche folys can nat the saine deserue
These folys desyre agaynst both lawe and right
Anoters good if they may get the saine
If they may nat by flaterynge nor by myght
Than by fais malyce they hym enuy and blame
Outher if one by his vertue hath good naine
By fais enuy these foles hym reproue
Their wrath them blyndeth so that they none can loue
The wounde of this malycious, fals enuy
So dedely is, and of so great cruelte
That it is incurable and voyde of remedy
A man enuyous hath suche a properte
That if he purpose of one vengyd to be
Or do some mysche whiche he reputyth best
Tyll it be done, he neuer hath eas nor rest
No slepe, no rest nor pleasour can they fynde
To them so swete, pleasaunt and delectable
That may expell this malyce from theyr mynde
Sois enuy a vyce abhomynable
And vnto helth so frowarde and damnable
That if it onys be rotyd in a man
It maketh hym lene. his colour pale and wan.
Enuy is pale of loke and countenaunce
His body lene of colour pale and blewe
His loke frowarde, his face without pleasaunce
Pyllynge lyke scalys, his wordes ay vntrue
His iyen sparklynge with lyre ay fresshe and newe
It neuer lokyth on man with iyen full
But euer his herte by furious wrath is dull
Thou mayst example fynde of this enuy
By Joseph whome his bretherne dyd neuer beholde
With Iouynge Ioke, but sharpe and cruelly
So that they hym haue murdred gladly wolde
I myght recount examples manyfolde
Howe many by enuy Iost hath theyr degre
But that I leue bycause of breùyte
Enuyous folys af stuffed with yll wyll
In them no myrth nor solace can be founde
They neuer laughe but if it be for yll
_As for gode lost or whan some shyp is drounde
Or whan some hous is brent vnto the grounde
But whyle these folys on other byte and gnawe
Theyr enuy wastyth theyr owne herte and deyr mawe
The mount of Ethnay though it brent euer styll
Yet (saue itselfe) it brenneth none other thynge
So these enuyous Folys by theyr yll wyll
Wast theyr owne herte, thoughe they be ay musynge
Another man to shame and [osse or hurt to brynge
Upon them sellfe Thus tournyth this yll agayne
To theyr destruccion both shame great fosse and payne
This fais enuy by his malycious yre
Doth often, bretherne so cursedly inflame
That by the satne the one of them conspyre
Agaynst the other without ail fere and shame
As Romulus and Remus excellent of faine
Whiche byldyd Rome, but after: enuy so grewe
Bytwene them that the one the other slewe
What shall I wryte of Cayme and of Abell
Howe Cayme for murder suffred great payne and wo
Atreus story and Theseus cruell.
Ar vnto vs example hereof also
Ethyocles with his brother : and many mo
Lyke as the storyes declareth openly
The one the other murdred by enuy
THE ENUOY OF BARKLAY TO THE Fol.vS.
Wherfore let hym that is discrete and wyse
This wrathfull vyce exyle out of his mynde
And yll on none by malyce to surmyse
Let charyte in perfyte loue the bynde
Sue hir preceptis than shalt thou confort fynde
Loue in this lyre, and ioy whan thou art past
Where as enuy thy conscyence shall blynde
And both they blode and body mat and wast
Of impacient Folys that wyll nat abyde
Unto our Folys shyp let hym come hastely
Whiche in his Bagpype hath more game and sport
Than in a Harpe or Lute more swete of melody
I fynde vnnumerable Folys of this sort
Whiche in theyr Bable haue ail they hole confort
For it is oft sayd of men both yonge and olde
A foie wyll nat gyue his Babyll for any golde
O i»aciendys. OE 5 7
The grettest synners that man may se or fynde
In myserable Folys theyr foly to expres
Is whan they wyll by no mean gyue theyr mynde
To frendly wordes, to grace or to goodnes
Suche folys so set theyr mynde on frowardnes
That though one gyue them counsell sad and wyse
They it disdayne and vtterly despyse
But he that is discrete sad and prudent
_Aplyeth his mynde right gladly to doctryne
He hereth wyse men, his v¢ysdome to augment
He them doth folowe and to theyr wordes enclyne
But that foie ,hiche ay goeth to ruyne.
_And mortall myschefe had leuer be dede or slayne
Than byde correccyon or for his profyte payne
Suche haue suche pleasour in theyr mad folysshe pype
That they dispyse all other melody.
They leuer wolde dye folys than : byde a strype
For theyr correccyon and specyall remedy
_And without dout none other _Armony
To suche folys is haife so delectable
Rs is their folysshe bagpype and theyr babyll
These frantyke folys wyll byde no punysshement
Nor smale correccion, for theyr synne and offence
No frendly warnynge can chaunge theyr yll intent
For to abyde it, they haue no pacyence.
They here no wysdome but fie from hir presence
And soit hapnyth that in the woride be
Mo folys than men of v¢yt and grauyte
O mortall foie remember well what thou art
Thou art a man of erth made and of clay
Thy dayes af short and nede thou must depart
Out of this lyre, that canst thou nat denay
Yet hast thou reason and wyt wherby thou may
Thy selle here gyde by wysdome ferme and stable
Wherby thou passest ail bestis vnreasonable
Thou art made lorde of euery creature
Ail thynge erthly vnto thyne obedyence
God hath the creat vnto his owne fygure
Lois nat here a great preemynence
God bath also gyuyn vnto the intellygence
And reason and wyt ail foly to refuse.
Than art thou a foie that reason to abuse
He that is fie outher in subieccion.
If by his foly he fall into offence
And than submyt hym vnto correccyon.
fill men shall laude his great obedyence
But if that one by pryde and insolence
Supporte his faute and so bere out his vyce
The hell tourmentis hym after shall chastyce
Correccyon shall the vnto wysdome brynge
Whiche is more precious than ail erthly ryches
Than londes rentis or any other thynge
Why dost thou bost the of byrth or noblenes
Of ryches, strength beauty or fayrnes
These often ar cause of inconuenyence.
Where as ail good comyth by wysdome and prudence
t]at wyl] nat abyde correccioh 5 9
A wyse man onely as we often fynde
Is to be named moste ryche and of most myght
Here thou his wordes and plant them in thy mynde
And folowe the saine for they ar sure and right.
Better is to endure, thoughe it be nat lyght
To surfer a wyse man the sharply to repreue
Than a flaterynge foie to clawe the by the sleue
Thoughe sharpe correccyon at the first the greue
Thou shalt the ende therof fynde profytable
It oft apereth, therfore Iit byleue
That man also forsoth is fortunable
VChiche here in fere lyueth sure and stable
And in this lyre is clene of his intent
Ferynge the sharpe payne of hellys punysshement
He may hym selle right happy call also
VChiche is correct in his first tender age
And so lernyth in goodes law to go
And in his yocke, whiche doth ail yll asswage
But these folys bydynge in theyr outrage
VChiche of correccyon in this lyre bath dysdayne
May fere to be correct in hell with endles payne
THE ENUOY OF BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
Ye obstynate folys that often fa]l in vyce
Howe longe shall ye kepe this frowarde ignoraunce
Submyt your myndes, and so from synne aryse
Let mekenes slake your mad mysgouernaunce
Remember that worldly payne it greuaunce
To be compared to hell whiche hath no pere
There is sty|| payne, this is a short penaunce
Wherfore correct thy selfe whyle thou art here.
Of folysshe Fesycyans and vnlerned that
onely folowe paractykeknowynge nought
of the speculacyon of theyr faculte.
Who that assayeth the craft of medycyne
Agaynst the seke and paynfull pacyent
And hath no insyght cunnynge nor doctryne
To gyue the seke, helth and amendement
Suche is a foie, and of a mad intent
To take on hym by Phesyke any cure
Nat knowynge of man» nor herbe the right nature
of y««»« F«y,,«. 6
Yet be mo folys vpon the grounde and londe
Whiche in our Shyp may clayme a rowme and place
Suche be Phesycians that no thynge vnderstonde
Wandrynge about in euery towne and place
Uysytynge the seke whiche lyue in heuy case
But nought they relefe of those paynes harde
But gape alway after some great rewarde
Suche that haue practyse and nought of speculatyfe
Whan they go ,ysyte some paynfull pacyent
Whan they hym note sure to forgo hls lyfe
Without ail hope of any amendement
Yet say they other than is in theyr intent
That his diseas is no thynge incurable
$o that the pacyent to hym be agreable
Sayth the Phesycyan whan he hath his rewarde
Abyde a whyle tyll I my bokes ouer se
Wherby I may relyue thy paynes harde
Than from the pacyent homewarde departyth he
To se his bokes but if the pacyent dye
In that meane space the medycyne is to late
So may he lay it to his owne folysshe pare
The speculacion sholde he before haue sene
For that in Phesyke is chefe and pryncypall,
Yet many ar that vse the craft I wene
Whiche of the cunnynge knowe l)tell or nought at all
A herbe or wede that groweth vpon a wall
Beryth in it these folys medycyne.
None other bokes haue thev nor doctryne
262 Of fdyss]e Fesycyans.
Nor none they rede to haue the true scyence
Or perfyte knowlege and grounde of medycyne
They rede no volumes of the experyence
Of Podalirius nor Mesues doctryne
Suche folys disdayne theyr myndes to enclyne
Unto the doctryne of bokes of Auycen
Of ypocras and parfyte galyen
But all the substance of theyr blynde faculte
They take in bokes that speke of herbes only
Without respect had to theyr properte
Or operacion so often they them aply
To fals doctrynes, but first and specyally
These olde wyues therwith wyll haue to do
Thoughe they nought knowe that doth belonge therto
They dare be bolde to take on them the cure
Of them diseasyd howe be it that they nat can
Suche thynge descerne as longyth to nature
What is for woman good, and what for man
So oft they ende moche wors than they began
That the pore pacyent is so brought to his graue
Yet dyuers suters suche folysshe wytches haue
Suche wytches boldly dare afferme and say
That with one herbe they hele can euery sore
Under euery syne plenete, houre and day
"/'et besyde this they boldly dare say more
That it that helyth a man aged and hore
Shall helpe also a woman or a childe
Thus many thousandes oft ar by them begyled
They say also in this our charge or cure
W'hat nedes it note the synes or fyrmament
The cause of thynges, or the strength of nature
Whether that the seke be stronge or impotent
They gyue one medesyn to euery pacyent
_And if it fortune it be to colde or warme
The faythles wytche in hande goth with hir scharme
Say folysshe Surgyan by what experyence
Or whose Doctryne discyplyne or lore
Takest thou on the, nought knowynge of scyence
With one Salue or plaster, to heale euery sore
Yet so thou thynkest, I the compare therfore
Unto a lawyer that of his craft nought can
And yet presumeth to counsell euery man
_A lawer and a Phesician af both lyke
Of theyr condicion and both insue one trayne
The one begylyth the pacyent and seke
Takynge his god for to encreas his payne
The other labours and cauteles oft doth fayne
To clawe the coyne by craft from his clyent
Castynge hym of whan ail his good is spent
Thus thryues the lawer by anothers good
Iniustly gotten, disceyuynge his clyent
_Also some other af callyd Phesicians good
Whiche vtterly disceyue the pacyent
If he haue money than hath he his intent
_And if the seke haue store ynough to pay
Than shall the cure be dryuen ffom day to dag
264 Of fd_yssbe Fes.yc.yans.
So if the lawer may any auauntage wyn
He shall the cause from terme to terme defarre
The playntyf for a player is holde in.
With the defendaunt kepynge open warre
So laweyers and Phesicians thousandes do marre
_And whan they no more can of theyr suers haue
The playntyf beggyth, the seke is borne to graue
But of" these lawyers bycause I spoke before
Of folysshe Phesicians here onely I intende.
Somwhat to say: _And of lawers no more
On you Phesicians shall I conclude and ende
I say no man may hym so well defende
That he for murder may auoyde punysshement
Yet may Phesicians, sleynge the pacient
Thus thou that of Phesycian hast the naine
If thou nought knowe of perfyte medycyne
It is forsoth to thy rebuke and shame
To boste the scyence : nat hauynge the doctryne
Therfore I counsell that thou thy mynde inclyne
To haue the cunnynge, els certaynly thou shail
Haue thy blynde craft and lvue a fole with ail.
THJ ENUO'¢ OF THE TRASLATOUR.
Thou blynde Phesician that of thy craft nought can
Leue of thy lewdnes and bolde audacyte
To take on the: the cure of chylde or man
For by thy foly the wors myght they be
And ye that suerly perceyue your faculte
Be true therin, and auaryce from you cast
8hame is to brynge a man to pouertye
.And than in paynes to leue hym at the last
Of the ende of worldly honour and power
and of Folys that trust therein.
On erth was neuer degre so excellent
Nor man so myghty : in ryches nor scyence
But at the ende ail bath ben gone and spent
Agaynst the saine no man can make defence
I)eth all thynge drawyth, ferefull is his presence,
It is last ende of euery thynge mundayne
Thus mannys fortune of cours is vncertayne
0 creatures of myndes mad and blynde
I wonder of your hertis proude and eleuate
Whiche on vayne power set so sore your mynde
_And trust so moche to your vnsure estate
_As of your lyre were neyther yere nor date
To worldly worshyp ye stedfastly intende
_As if your lyre sholde neuer more corne to ende
Alway ye labour to come to dignyte
_And oft by falshode your power to augment
Alas fewe af content with theyr degre
But by extorcion spoyle the pore innocent
On xvorldly treasour so set is theyr intent
_And styll to honour as besely to ascende
_As if theyr lyre sholde neuer more come to ende
Take thou example by Julius cesar
That of the worlde durynge a whyle was sure
_And many kynges subduyd by myght of warre
_And of the Empyre had lordshyp charge cure
But this his myght great space dyd nat endure
_And whyle he trustyd yet hyer to ascende
By cruell deth he soon came to his ende
Right in lyke wyse the myghty Dafius
Was kynge of Persy a realme moche excellent
Yet was his mynde so greatly couetus
That with the same helde he hym nat content
But warred on other Royalmes adiacent
So whan his myght coude nat therto extende
His owne Royalme he loste and so came to his ende
and of 'ol_ys tbat trust tl)erin. OE 6 7
And also Xerxes in ryches abundant
Was longe in peas and great tranquyllyte
And in his Royalme was hye and tryumphant
As longe as lae was content witla lais degre
Than had lae pleasour and great felycyte.
To assay by warre lais kyngdome to amende
But ail he lost and so came to his ende
Whyle Nabugodonosor kynge of Babylone
In vnsure fortune set to great confydence
Commaundynge honour vnto hym to be done
As vnto god: with ail laumble reuerence,
God by his power and hye magnyfycence
Made hym a beste, for tlaat he dyd offende
And so in proces of tyme came to his ende
.Alexander the great and myghty conquerour
To whome ail the worlde scantly myght suffyse
Of Grece ",vas the origynail lorde and Emperour
And ail the worlde subdued as I surmyse
Yet hath he done as is the comon gyse
Left ail behynde, for nought coude hym defende
But as a symple man at the last came to his ende
The myghty Cresus witla his kyngdomes and store
Of golde and ryches hym selle coude nat content
But whyle lae trustyd and laboured for more
Fortune hym fayled : So lost lae his intent.
What shall I wryte of Cyrus excellent
Drynkynge his blode by deth whiche fortune sende
To laere of states tlae comon detla and ende
Ail kyngdomes dekay and ail estate mundayne
Example of Rome Cartago and Mycene
Of Solyme Tyre grace and Troy moste souerayne
None of these places ar nowe as they haue ben
Nor none other ouer the worlde as I wene
Thus shortly to speke and ail to comprehende
Ail worldly thynges at last shall haue an ende.
THE EltIoX" OF BARKLAY TO THE FOLYS.
O man that hast thy trust and confydence
Fyxed on these frayle fantasyes mundayne
Remember at the ende there is no difference
Bytwene that man that lyued hath in payne
And hym that hath in welth and ioy souerayne
They both must dye their payne is of one sort
Both ryche and pote, no man can deth refrayne
For dethes dart expellyth ail confort
Say where is Adam the fyrst progenytour
Of ail mankynde is he nat dede and gone
And where is Abell of innocence the flour
With adamys other sonnes euerychone
A." dredfull deth of them hath left nat one
Where is Mathusalem, and Tuball that was playne
The first that played on Harpe or on Orgone
llz sont tous mortz ce monde est choce vayne
Where is iust Noy and his ofsprynge become
Where is Abraham and ail his progeny
As Isaac and Jacob, no strength nor wysdome
Coude them ensure to lyue cont'nually
and of 'olys t])at trust t])erin. OE 6 9
Where is kynge Dauyd whome god dyd magnyfy
And Salomon his son of wysdome souerayne
Where af his sonnes of wysdome and beauty
llz sont toutz mortz ce monde est choce vayne.
Where ar the prynces and kynges of Babylon
And also of Jude and kynges of Israell
Where is the myghty and valiant Sampson
He had no place in this lyre ay to dwell
Where ar the Prynces myghty and cruell
That rayned before Christ delyuered vs from payne
And from the Dongeons of darke and ferefull hell
I/z sont toutz mortz ce monde est choce vayne.
Of worldly worsyp no man can hym assure
In this our age whiche is the last of ail
No creature can here alway endure
Yonge nor olde, pote man nor kynge royall
Unstable fortune tourneth as doth a ball
And they that ones pas can nat retourne agayne
Wherfore I boldly dare speke in generall
re ail shal| dye : ce monde est choce vayne.
Ryches nor wysdome can none therfro defende
Ne in his strength no man can hym assure
Say where is Tully is he nat come to ende
Seneke the sage with Cato and Arture
The hye Arystotyll of godly wyt and pure
The glorious Godfray, and myghty Charlemayne
Thoughe of theyr lyfe they thought that they were sure
Yet ar they ail dede : ce monde est choce vayne.
2 7 o Oft]oe end of worldly onour, c.
Where af the Phylosophers and Poetis lawreat
The great Grammaryens and pleasant oratours.
Af they nat dede after the sarne fourme and rate
As af all these other myghty conquerours
Where af theyr Royalmes theyr ryches and treasours
Left to theyr heyres : and they be gone certayne
And here haue left theyr riches and honours
So haue they proued that this worlde is but vayne.
So I conclude bycause of breuyte
That if one sought the worlde large and wyde
Therin sholde be founde no marier of dere
That can alway in one case suerly byde
Strength, honour, riches cunnynge and beautye
All these decay, dayly : thoughe we complayne
Omniafert etas, both helth and iolyte
We ail shall dye: ce monde est choce :ayne.
That man that lokyth for to haue a rewarde
Whiche he bath nat deseruyd to obtayne
And lenyth his body vpon a rede for,sarde
Whiche for waykenes ma 5, hym nat well sustayne
Forsoth this foie may longe so loke in vayne
And on the Crauys he atyll shall bacwarde ryde
Cryenge with the doue, whose flyght shall hym ay gyde
9_ 7 OE Of predestynacion.
It is vnlawfull, man to be dilygent
Or serchynge goddes workes to set his thought
Howe he hath ruade the heuen and fyrmament
The erth the see and euery thynge of nought
Yet of some Folys the cause hereof is sought,
Whiche labour also with curyosyte
To knowe the begynnynge of his dyuynyte
These folys forgettynge their owne fragilyte
Wolde loke to knowe the ende of euery thynge
Boldly disputynge in goddys pryuete
_And what rewarde is ordeynyd for men lyuynge
Of many folys this is the moste musynge
Whiche labour dayly with besy cure and payne.
To knowe what god doth discerne and or ordayne
Therfore in this part I shall dispyse and blame
Unchrafty folys whiche scantly haue ouer sene
Ought of scripture, if they knowe the bokes naine
Or els a whyle hath at the Scoles bene
Than bende they the browys and stedfastly they wene
In theyr conceyt that they ar passynge wyse
For ail scripture newe commentis to deuyse
They frowardly the sentence do transpose
.And that whiche is wryten, both playne and holely
By theyr corruptynge and vnlawfull glose
Oft tyme they brynge to damnable heresy
Falsly expoundynge after theyr fantasy
They labour to transpose and tume the right sence
Thoughe the wordes stryue and make great resystence
Of j)redestynadon. 7 3
Here what these folys with theyr audacyte
Date besely say by theyr fais errour blynde
Presumynge on goddes secrete and pryuete
Here what lewde wordes they cast out in the wynde
They say what man can chaunge or turne his mynde
To lyue after any other fourme and rate
But lyke as he is therto predestynate
They say: if god that rayneth ouerall
Hath any ordeyned that in this worlde is
To come to the place and rowme celestyall
For to be partyner of euerlastynge blys
Ordeyned for suche as here doth nat amys
No man can chaunge, not other thynge mundayne
That thynge whiche god by his myght doth ordayne
But if that god prefyxed hath before
Any creature vnto infernall payne
In derknes to be damnyd for euer more
No erthly thynge may that sentence call agayne
Nor hym delyuer : o fole thou mayst complayne
For this thy foly and also it repent
Thynkest thou nat god alway omnypotent
Is god nat rightwyse and groundeof all iustyce
Rewardynge man after his gouernaunce
He that bath here nat lyen in synne and vyce
Hauynge in goddys seruyce his pleasaunce
Shall of his lorde be had in remembraunce
And of rewarde worthely be sure
Where it is worthy that synners payne endure
OE 7 4 Of predestynacion.
Trust well who seruyth his maker stedfastly
XVith pure herte kepynge sure his commaundement
_And lawes shall be rewardyd fynaily
With heuenly ioy and scape ail punysshement
Therfore thou foie leue of this lewde intent
Lyue vertuously and trust in goddes grace
Than yll desteny in the shall haue no place
Vnto great ioy god hath vs all create
_And to vs ail ordeyned his kyngdome
_And none hath vnto Heli predestynate
But often whan we folowe nat wysàome
By ouer owne foly we fall, and so become
Vnto our maker vnkind : and hym deny
Whiche them rewardyth that here lyue vertuously
Therfore thou Foie desyst thy wordes vayne
_And let thy tunge no more suche wordes say
For god hath vs made ail of one stuf certayne
_As one potter makyth of one clay
Vessels dyuers, but whan he must them lal¢
Vpon the kyil with fyre them there to dUC
They come nat ail to good, moste comonly
Doth this erthyn pot his maker dispyse
Whether it be made of fassyon good or yll
Saynge why dost thou make me in this wyse
Wherfore mad man I reade the to be styll
Blame nat thy maker, for thy vnhappy wyll
For god bath neuer man nor childe create
But ail he bath to heuen predestynate
_And whyle we lyue here on this wretchyd grounde
We haue our reason and wyttes vs to gyde
With out fre wyll and if no faute be founde
In out demenour, in heuen we shall abyde
But if we goddes lawes set asyde
Howe may we hope of hym rewarde to wyn
So out owne foly is moste cause of our syn.
Tn tov o» BARCLAY.
O creature vnkynde vnto thy creatour
What carest thou to knowe or to inuestygate
The pryuetye, of god, leue this thy errour
To thynke the by hym to be predestynate
To endles wo and from his blysse pryuate
For syns thou hast thy reason and frewyll
Gyuyn the by god, thou art in suche estate
To take the eleccion outher of good or yll
Of folys that forget then selle and do
another mannys besynes leuynge theyr
Who that wyll surfer his owne hous to bren
Tyll nought of it saue the bare wallys stonde
And with his water hastely doth ren
To quenche the fyre of anothers bous or londe
I-le is a foie and haue shall in his hande
A folysshe Pype or home therwith to blowe
For other folys that in my Shyp wyll rowe.
Of fo[_),s t]mt forget t]oem se[e. OE 7 7
Within my Shyp of rowme he shall be sure
Whiche for anothers auantage and profyte
Takyth great thought and doth moche payne endure
Vnto his owne charge takynge no respyte
But settyth it asyde and hath ail his delyte
With ail his stody hym to enforce and dres:
To care for euery mannys besynes.
Suche hertles folys to them self neglygent
In theyr owne charge slepe contynually
But with open iyen they af full dylygent
The worke of other with ail theyr myght to aply
_And for others profyte prouyde they besely.
But whyle these Folys af glad to take in hande
Anothers charge, theyr owne styll let they stande
Wherfore I ara so bolde within my boke
Somwhat to touch these folys mad vsage
That if it fortune them on the saine to loke
They may therby perceyue in theyr corage
That labour they ought for their owne auauntage
Most specyally, for that is the degre
&nd the true order of perfyte charite
For perfyte loue and also charite
Begynneth with hym selle for to be charitable
_And than to other after his degre
Thy owne auauntage is ay moost profytable
The great Phylosophers of maners ferme and stable
and also of wysdome godly and dyuyne
Hath left tovs suche techynge and doctryne
We haue by Therence the same commaundement
The same is wryten also as I fynde
In the holy lawe of the olde testament
And therfore he that oft wyll set his mynde
For others maters with tare his thought to blynde
Let hym first se vnto his owne profyte
Lyst some mysfortune hym after sharply byte
Let hym tume his labour to his owne auauntage
And than do for other where as he seeth moste nede
For who that playeth for mony outher gage
And on his felawes cast takyth onely hede
And nat to his owne, suche one shall seldom spede
_And is a Foie. Sois he that doth ren
To quenche another bous, suffrynge his owne to bren
Suche one of his owne damage h.'tth no fere
And worthy is his losse and hurte to byde
Sois he that wyll anothers burthen bere
Or takyth anothers charge at any tyde
Despysynge his owne werke and settynge it asyde
If suche haue losse and after it forthynke
Iqo man shall moche force whether he flete or synke
He is well worthy to haue a folys pype
That goth vnbyddyn to rype anothers corne
-And suffreth his owne to stande though it be rype.
_And generally ail Folys ar worthy scorne
Of what maner byrth so euer they be borne
If they them self put, to losse or damage
Therby to do some other auauntage
and do anottaer manoEvs besynes, z 7 9
8ay curyous Foie: say what pleasour thou hast
In others maters thy self to intermyt
Or theyr great charges thus in thy mynde to cast
Thy selfe to socour set thou thy mynde and wyt
Let others matei-s therfore in quyete syt
On thy owne profyte of ail firste set thy mynde
_And than (if thou mayst) do somwhat for thy frende
For vtterly that man is moche vnwyse
That thus takyth thought for anothers charge
And doth his owne by neglygence despyse
For suche Folys I forgyd haue this barge
But of the same suche men I dene discharge
That first of his pryuate profyte can take hede
And than helpe a frende and felowe at a nede
THENUO¥ OF BARKLAY.
Ye that take charge, thought and besy cure
For others mysfortune, losse or aduersyte
First of your self I aduyse you to be sure
For this is the order of parfyte charyte
Eche to hym selfe moste louynge ay to be
And next to his frende, but who that doth dispyse.
His owne besynes whiche is in ieopardye
Seynge to anothers forsoth he is vnwyse
He must of maners also be commendable
And of his speche als pleasaunt as he can
For an olde prouerbe true and verytable
Sayth that good lyre and maners makyth man
But euery lawe doth data and also ban
The churlysshe vyce and lewde of vnkyndnes
Whiche dryeth vp the well of bounte and goodnes
For vnkynde folys if one labour dylygent
And so brynge theyr worke vnto good conclusyon
They fynde yet fautis and so ar nat content
Withdrawynge the rewarde by theyr collusyon
Wherfore let suche thynke it no abusyon
lqor haue disdayne ne yet in mynde complayne
If the pore laborer gyue vp his worke agayne
These frowarde Folys, doth wronge and iniury
To suche as to them do profyte and honour
For kyndnes, they render shame and vylany
Rebukes sclander extorcion and rygour
But whyle they hope to come to great valoure
And by such rygour to honours to aryse
Theyr hope vanyssheth as doth the snowe or yce
Wherfore who that puttyth one to besynes
To charge or labour of body or of mynde
Ought hrm rewarde agayne for his kyndnes
If he do nat forsoth he is unkynde
But specyally as I of't wryten fynde
It is a thynge whiche doth for vengeaunce cry
A pore laborer to put to Iniury
Of he .yce of »,.ydnes. OE 83
What man can wryte the inconuenyence
Whiche groweth of this lewde and cursyd vyce
Vnkyndnes causeth great myschefe and offence
And is repugnynge to reason and iustyce
Wherfore let suche that wyll be namyd wyse
Leue it: and folowe lyberalyte
Whiche is noryssher of loue and amyte
In dyuers bokes examples we may fynde
Howe many Cytees hygh and excellent
Agaynst ail lawe and reason were vnkynde
To suche as d)d theyr dignyte augment
O vnkynde rome thou was of this intent
Whiche hast Camyllus exyled in great payne
Thoughe he euer laboured thy honour to mentayne
O cruell Athenes by thy ingratytude
Hast thou nat banysshyd Solon also fro the
Though he enfourmyd bath thy maners rude
And gyuyn the lawes of right and equyte
For his great meryte, loue and benygnyte
Thou hast hym gyuen exyle and paynes harde
His labour was nat worthy that rev¢arde
Thou vnkynde Sparta: of thy audacyte
What shall I wryte or thy lewde vnkyndnes
Hast thou nat banysshed by thy cruelte
Thy kynge Lycurgus, bycause he dyd redres
Thy wanton errours by lawe and rightv¢ysnes
And Scipio whiche his country dyd defende
Fonde it to hym, "¢nkynde at the last ende
_A thousande mo whome I can nat expresse
To suche as haue for them abyde great payne
Haue done displeasour, and shewed vnkyndnes
And them disceyued by some cautele or trayne
Yet none of them great goodnes cowde obtayne
By theyr vnkyndnes for who that so doth cast
Vnkyndly shall be seruyd at the last.
THErUV or BARKLAY.
O fais vnkyndnes out on the I cry
From ail goodnes dost thou nat man withdrawe
Byndynge his herte to gyle and vylany
Agaynst nature, agaynst both fight and lawe
Thou makest man his maker nat to knawe
Therfore thou man expell out from thy mynde
This vyce, for we fynde in an olde sayde sawe
Wo is hym that to his maker is vnkynde.
Remember man the great preemynence
Gyuen unto the by good omnypotent
Bytwene the and .Angels is lytell dif[erence
And ail thynge erthly to the obedyent
Fysshe byrde and beste vnder the fyrmament
8ay what excuse mayst thou nowe lay or fynde
Syns thou art ruade by god so excellent
But that thou oughtest agayne to hym be kynde.
God hath the made vnto his owne lykenes
No erthly creature vnto the comparable
Thy iyen vpwarde to consyder his hyghnes
Where other creatures that af vnresonable
Goeth on ail foure and ar nat other able.
Theyr loke alway vnto the grounde inclynyd
Therfore thou ought in vertue to be stable
And to thy maker neuer to be vnkynde
Whan man offendyd by disobedyence
Subduynge hym self to labour care and payne
And lost the confort of goodes hye presence
Hath nat christ Jhesu redemyd hym agayne
Besyde all this thou hast no thynge certayne
In erth but by hym. v¢herfore I call the blynde
And of thy maners vncurtayse and vylayne
If to thy sauyour thou be nat true and kynde
Thoughe god hath made the (man) thus excellent
To lyue (if thou lyst) in ioy eternally
A lytell thynge shall hym agayne content
He nought requyreth but thy herte onely
And that thou defy thy gostly ennemy
And in goddes seruyce thy herte and body bynde.
Than shall he rewarde the in heuen right gloriously
So mayst thou be callyd vnto thy maker kynde
Of folys that stande so well in their owne
conceyt that they thinke none so wyse,
stronge, fayre, nor eloquent, as they
We haue ouercome the malyce and enuy
Of suche as agaynst out Nauy did conspyre
Wheffore I shall my folys call quyckly
That they my Shyp may aparayle and atyre
I)rawe nere ye Folys whiche syttynge by the fyre
Loke ay in a glasse to se your countenaunce
And in your owne dedis haue ail your hole pleasaunce
Of folys tlat stand well in tleir conceyt. OE 8 7
Vnto my shyp I call hym to be Coke
The mete to dresse to other Folys echone
Whiche in his myrrour doth alway gase and loke
Whan he may get hym vnto a place alone
And though of colour and beaute he haue none
Yet thynketh he hym self fayre and right plesant
And wyse: thoughe that he be mad and ignorant
In his owne dedys is onely his delyte
In his owne conceyte thynkynge hïmself right wyse
And fayre, thoughe he be yelowe as kyte
Is of hir fete: yet doth he styll deuyse
His vayne myrrour: that onely is his gyse
And thoughe he beholde hym self of lothly shape
He wyll it nat byleue, but in his glasse doth gape.
Though for his foly ail men myght hym repreue
And that he se it before hym openly
Within his glasse : he wyll it nat byleue
But strongly it defende and eke deny
He seyth nat his erys longe and hye
Whiche stande vpon his folysshe hode behynde
His lewde conceyt thus makyth hym starke blynde
Whan people comon of men of hye prudence
Or of hye beauty, and strength if men doth tell
If one suche foie were there in the presence
He swere durst boldly and that on the gospell
That he onely ail other dyd excell
And that to gyue councell good and profytable
Were none in the worldly vnto hym comparable
88 Of flys tt st.d w«
These folys bost them selfe of theyr wysdome
_And thynke them selfe to haue preemynence
_Aboue ail other that af in christendome.
In gyftis of grace as beautye and scyence
Of strength, gode maners vertue and eloquence
But thoughe they stande in theyr owne conceytis
Nought is saue foly within theyr folysshe patis
And thoughe theyr face and vysage stande awry
And all to reuylde, theyr mouth standynge asyde
Within theyr myrrour the saine can they nat spye
But in theyr foly contynually abyde
And whether that they af styll outher go or ryde
Labour or be ydyll, they gase styll in theyr glasse
Yet wyll they nat byleue to haue erys lyke an Asse.
Oft whan these folys lye in theyr bed vpright
With tawny loke or els theyr botyll nose
They haue theyr myrrour alway in theyr syght
The vayne glasse (of theyr beautye) to apose
_And whan suche a foie into the kechyn gose
To stere the pot, there whether he syt or stande
The glasse alway is in the other hande
Whan he a whyle his glas hath loken than
If one examynyd hym of his beautye
He boldly durst swere both by god and man
That nought were in hym whiche myght repreuyd be
But all goodnes fayre shape, and loke of grauyte
_And that his gere gayly vpon his backe doth syt
He hardly is wyse : if he had any wyt.
in their owne conceyt. OE 8 9
I 'ryten fynde that great inconuenyence
As losse, contempt and occasyon of pryde
Hath fallyn vnto many by this lewde complacence
Whiche haue nat knowen the way themself to gyde
The emperour Otho had ay borne by his syde
In warre and peas (a glasse) for his pleasaunce
To se his colour therin ; and countenaunce
And to the entent to make his colour gay
With Assys mylke he noyntyd oft his skyn
And shauyd his berde onys euery day
But for that he offendyd god herein
After was he sharply punysshyd for this syn
And put vtto extreme rebuke and shame
To gyue other example to auoyde the saine
It is forsoth a maner femynyne
And nat for man to be so elegant
To suche toyes wanton wymen may in¢lyne
A yonge mayde may at ber forhede haue pendant
The vayne myrrour to se hir shape pleasant
Man sholde nought set bv to norysshe his beautye
But onely manhode strength and audacyte
The wanton mayde may for hir self ordayne
Hir call hir coyfe, and suche conceytis newe
As broches fyletes and oyntmentis souerayne
And clothynge of dyuers colour and of hewe
But nowe yonge men the saine fourme do ensue
And to content theyr mad and folysshe mynde
To wymen they compare themselfe agaynst kynde
OE9 o Of f@s that Jtand wd!
Disorder rayneth as I before haue sayde
The yonge men takyth womans countenaunce
And hir aparayll, and wymen ar arayde
_As men : agaynst ail lawe and ordynaunce
Thus man and woman ensue mysgouernaunce
In theyr behauour is small dyuersyte
Theyr owne conceyt causeth great enormyte
The poet Ouyde shewyth in a fable
Itowe that one callyd Pygmalyon by naine
A fygure made vnto hymselfe semblable
¥hiche he in marbyll r;ght craftely dyd frame
,nd in so moche he worshypped the saine
Tyll at the last his mynde was past and gone
_And he transformed so was in to that stone
And if the Poetis fanes be ail sure
As by theyr subtyle wordes oft we here
The childe Narcissus was chaungyd of fygure
Whyle he behelde into the water clere
For xvhyle his shadowe vnto hym dyd apere
Vpon the same so sore he set his mynde
That he transformyd was to another kynde.
But to retorne agayne to our purpose -
And of this sort of Folys to conclude
If god sholde them to other shape transpose
That thynke them lCayre though they be foule and rude
Into foule fassyon he many sholde indude
For whyle Folys theyr owne beauty lnagnyfy
So growyth the nomber and so they multyply
in their owne conceyt. OE9 o*
THENUOY OF BARKLAY THE TR.a.NSLATOUR.
Blynde man inclere thy "«ylfull ignoraunce
Stande nat so great in thy owne conceyte
Ne in thy lewde fassyon set nat thy pleasaunce
XYhetheI thou be pote or man of great estate
Another man moche more shall in the wayte
Of gode and yli than thou thy self canst do
Therfore be nat cause to thy self of disceyte
If one the teche: aply thy mynde therto
Of lepynges and dauncis and Folys that pas
theyr tyme in suche vanyte.
That fole that settyth his felycyte
In wanton daunces and ]epes immoderate
FIath in my Shyp a rowme for his degre
Bysyde the tere for troub]ynge of his pare
l"Ie goal dyspleasyth, whiche doth suche foly hate
Suche ]ese theyr tyme in vayne and oft thrin
Af many hurtis : and cause of dedcy sya.
9 OE Oflelyn, ffes and dauncis.
Those folys a place may chalenge in my shyp
Whiche voyde of wysdome as men out of theyr mynde
Them selfe delyte to daunce to lepe and skyp
In compase rernyrge lyke to the worlde wyde
In vnkynde labour, suche folys pleasour fynde
Rennynge about in this theyr furyous vyce
Lyke as it were in Bacchus sacryfyce
Or as the Druydans rennyth in vayne about
In theyr mad lestes vpon the hylle of yde
Makynge theyr sacrafyce with furour noyse and shout
XVhan theyr madnes settyth theyr wyt asyde
Or whan the prestis of mars ail nyght abyde
Vqithin theyr temple by vse abhomynable
To theyr ydollys doynge theyr seruyce detestable
Lyke as these paynyms hath to theyr ydols done
Theyr sacryfyce wandrynge in theyr madnes
Theyr bodyes weryenge, in vayne wastynge their shone
So do these fowlys them selfe to daunsynge dres
Sekyrge occason of great vnhappynes
They take suche labour without ail hope of gayne
Vqithout rewarde sure of werynes and payne
Say Folys that vse this fury and outrage
XYhat causyth you to haue delyte therin
For your great labour say what is your wage
Forsoth ye can therby no profyte wyn
But seke occasyon (as I haue sayde) of syn
.And for thy werynge thy fete thus in the dust
Thou gettest no gayne but cause of carnall lust
Of kpyn«s and dauncis.
But v¢han I consyder of this folysshe game
The firste begynnynge and cause orygynall
I say the cause therof is worthy blame
For whan the deuyll to disceyue man mortall
_And do contempt to the hye god eternall
Vpon a stage had set a Calfe of golde.
That euery man the saine myght clere beholde
So than the Fende grounde of mysgouernaunce
Causyd the people this fygure to honour
_As for theyr god and before the saine to daunce.
Whan they were dronkon, thus fell they in errour
Of Idolatry: and forgate theyr creatour.
Before this ydoll daunsynge both v¢yfe and man
Dispysynge god: Thus daunsynge fyrst began
8uche blynde folyes and inconuenyence
Engendryth great hurte and incommodyte
_And sawyth sede wherof groweth great offence
The grounde of vyce and of ull enormyte
In it is pryde, fowle lust and lecherye
_And whyle lewde lepys ar vysd in the daunce
Oft frowarde bargayns ar ruade by countenaunce
What els is daunsynge but euen a nurcery
Or els a bayte to purchase and meyntayne
In yonge hertis the vyle synne of rybawdry
Them tbtrynge therin, as in a dedely chayne
And to say trouth in wordes clere and playne
Venereous people haue ail theyr hole pleasaunce
Theyr vyce to norysshe by this vnthryfty daunce
u 94 Oflynges and dauncis.
And wanton people disposyd vnto syn
To satysfye theyr mad concupyscence
With hasty cours vnto this daunsynge ryn
To seke occasyon of vyle synne and offence
And to expresse my mynde in short sentence
This vyciouse gaine oft tymes doth attyse
By his lewde synes, chast hartis vnto vyce
Than it in erth no game is more damnable
It semyth no peas, but Batay|e open|y
They that it vse of myndes seme vnstable
As mad folke rennynge with c|amour showt and cry
What place is voyde of this furyous foly
l'qone : so that I dout xvithin a whyle
These folys the holy churche shall defyle
Of people what sort or order may we fynde
Ryche or pore hye or Iowe of naine
But by theyr folysshnes, and wanton mynde
Of eche sort some ar gyuen vnto the same
The prestis and clerkes to daunce haue no shame
The frere or monke in his frocke and cowle
Must daunce in his dortor lepynge to play the foie
Toit comys children, maydes and wyues.
And flaterynge yonge men to se to haue theyr pray
The hande in hande great falshode oft contryues
The olde quean also this madnes wyll assay
And the olde dotarde tlioughe he skantly may
For age and lamenes stere outher fote or hande
Yet playeth he the foie with other in the bande
Of le_pynges and dauncis. 95
Than lepe they about as folke past theyr mynde
With madnes amasyd rennynge in compace
He moste is commendyd that can moste lewdnes fynde
Or can most quyckly ren about the place
There af ail maners vsyd that lacke grace
Mouynge theyr bodyes in synes full of shame
Whiche doth theyr hertes to synne right sore inflame
So oft this vyce doth many one abuse
That whan they af departyd from the daunce
On lust and synne contynually they muse
Hauynge therin theyr wyll and theyr pleasaunce
Than rail they oft to great mysgouernaunce
As folys gyuyn to worke vnprofytable
So in my shyp they well deserue a babyll.
THENUO¢ OF BAP.KLAY
Do way your daunces ye people moche vnwyse
Desyst your folysshe pleasour of trauayle
It is me thynke an vnwyse vse and gyse
To take suche labour and payne vithout auayle
And who that suspectyth his mayde or wyues tayle
Let hym nat surfer them in the daunce to be
For in that gaine thoughe sys or synke them fayle
The dyse oft renneth vpon the chaunce of thre
Of nyght watchers and beters of the stretes
playnge by nyght on instrumentes and
vsynge lyke Folyes whan tyme is to
I-le is a Foie that wandreth by nyght
In felde or towne, in company or alone
Playnge at his lemmans dote withouten lyght
Tyll ail his body be colde as lede or stone
These folys knockynge tyll the nyght be gone
_At that season thoughe that they fele no colde
8hall it repent and fele whan they be olde.
Of nygtt watcters and beters of tle stretes. 9 7
Nowe wolde I of my boke haue ruade an ende
And with iny shyp drawen to some hauen or porte
Stryken my sayle, and ail my folys sende
Vnto the londe, a whyle them selle to sporte
But this my purpose is lettyd by a sorte
Of frantyke folys, wandrynge about by nyght
For often ail yll doers hatyth the day lyght
Whyle (man) beste and euery lyuely creature
Refresshe theyr myndes and bodyes with rest
And slepe: without the whiche none can endure
And whyle ail byrdes drawe them to theyr nest
These dronken bandes of Folys than doth Jest
About the stretis, with rumour noyse and cry
Syngynge theyr folysshe songes of rybawdry
The furyes ferefull spronge of the flodes of hell
Vexith these vagabundes in theyr myndes so
That by no mean can they abyde ne dwell
Within theyr howsys, but out they nede must go
More wyldly wandrynge than outher bucke or doo
Some with theyr harpis another with his lute
Another with his bagpype or a folysshe flute
Than mesure they theyr songes of melody
Before the dores of theyr lemman dere
Yowlynge with theyr folysshe songe and cry
8o that theyr lemman may theyr great foly here
And tyll the yordan make them stande arere
Cast on theyr hede, or tyll the stonys fie
They nat depart, but couet there styll to be
298 Of ,9,g])t watc])ers and beters of t])e stretes.
But yet more ouer these Folys ar so vnwyse
That in colde wynter they vse the saine madnes
Whan ail the howsys af lade with snowe and yse
0 mad men amasyd vnstabyll and wytles
What pleasour take ye in this your folysshenes
What ioy haue ye to wander thus by nyght
Saue that yll doers alv¢ay hate the lyght
But folysshe youth doth nat alone this vse
Corne of lowe byrth and sympyll of degre
But also statis them selle therein abuse
VTith some yonge folys of the spiritualte
The folysshe pype without ail grauyte
Doth eche degre call to this frantyke gaine
The darkenes of nyght expellyth fere of shame
One barkyth another bletyth lyke a shepe
8ome rore, some countre, some theyr balades f:ayne
Another from syngynge gyueth hym to wepe
Whan his souerayne lady hath of hym dysdayne
Or shyttyth hym out, and tobe short and playne
Who that of this sort best can play the knaue
Lokyth of the other the maystery to haue
The folysshe husbonde oft of this sort is one
With wanton youth wandrynge by nyght also
Leuynge his wyfe at home in bed alone
_And gyueth hyr occasyon often to mysdo
So that whyle he after the owle doth go
Fedynge the Couko, his xvyfe hir tyme doth xvatche
Receyuynge another whose egges she doth hatche.
Of nyght watc]ers and beters of tle stretes. 99
Therfore ye folys that krtowe you of this sort
To gyue occasyon of synne vnto your wyues
_And ail other : I you pray and exort
Of this your foly to amende your lyues
For longe nyght watches seldome tymes thryues
But if it be in labour : good to wyn
Therfore kepe your dorys: els abyde within
Thoughe I have touchyd of this enormyte
In englysshe tunge: yet is it nat so vsed
In this Royalme as it is beyonde the se
Yet moche we vse whiche ought to be refusyd
Of great nyght watchynge we may nat be excusyd
But out watchynge is in drunken glotony
More than in syngynge or other meledy
Whan it is nyght and eche shulde drawe to test
Many of out folys great payne and watchynge take
To proue maystryes and se who may drynke best
Outher at the Tauerne of wyne, or the aie stake
Other ail nyght watchyth for theyr lemmans sake
8tandynge in corners lyke as it were a spye
Whether that the weder be, hote, colde, wete, or dry
8ome other Folys range about by nyght
Prowdely Jettynge as men myndeles or wode
To seke occasyon with pacyent men to fyght
Delytynge them in shedynge mennys blode
Outher els in spoylynge of other mennys gode
Let these folys with suche lyke and semblable
Drawe to this barge, here shall they bere a bable
3 oo Of nygl)t watcbers ald beters of the stretes.
THENUOY OF BARCLA¥.
Ye folys that put your bodyes vnto payne
By nyghtly watchynge, voyde of auauntage
Leue of your foly or els ye shall complayne
_And mourne it sore if ye lyue vnto age
For though ye thynke that this your blynde outrage
Is vnto you no hurte nor preiudyce
It doth your body and goodes great dammage
_And great cause both to you and yours of vyce.
Of folysshe beggers and of theyr vanytees.
Syns I haue taken the charge one me
Mo botis and Barges for Folys to aparayle
And so agayne of newe to take the se
I feryd lyst company shulde me fayle
Within my folysshe shyppis to trauayle
But nowe doth beggers them selle to me present
For fewe of them I fynde ofgood intent
A great company of folys may we fynde
Amonge beggers, whiche haue theyr hole delyte
In theyr lewde craft : wherfore I set my mynde
In this Barge theyr maners, brefely for to write
For thoughe that nede them greuously do byte.
Yet is theyr mynde for ail theyr pouerte
To kepe with them of children great plente
And though that they myght otherwyse well lyue
And get theyr lyuynge by labour and besynes
Yet fully they theyr myndes set and gyue
To lede this lyfe alway in wretchydnes
The clerke, frere, or monke, whiche hath store of ryches
For ail his lyre. if he it gyde wysely.
Wyll yet the beggers offyce occupy
Suche oft complayne the charge of pouerte
In garmentis goynge raggyd and to rem
But yet haue they of ryches great plente
Whiche in gode vse can neuer of them be spent
Aimys is ordeyned by god omnypotent
And holy churche : for to be gyuyn in dede
Vnto good vse, and suche as haue moste nede
Aimes is ordeyned by god our creatour
For men that lyue in nede and wretchydnes
Therwith their paynfull iyues to socour
And nat for ryche that lyues in viciousnes
But yet suche caytyfs boldly in dare pres
For their lewde lyfe without ail maner drede
This aimes takynge from them that haue most nede
Of folysshe beggers and of theyr va,yees. 3 o 3
The abbot, the Pryour, and also theyr couent
Ar so blyndyd with vnhappy couetyse
That with theyr owne can they nat be content
But to haue more, they alway mean deuyse
Ye: in so moche that some haue founde a gyse
To fayne theyr bretherne tan in captyuyte
That they may begge so by auctoryte
They fayne myracles where none were euer donc
And ail for lucre: some other range about
To gather and begge with some fayned pardon
And at the alehows at nyght all drynkyth out
$o ren these beggers in company rowt
By stretis tauernes townes and vyllagys
No place can well be fre of theyr outragys
Some begge for byldynges, some for relyques newe
Of holy sayntis of countreys farre and strange
And with theyr wordes faynyd and vntrewe
For cause of Lucre, about they ren and range
But in a sympyll vyllage, ferme or grange
Where as these beggers moste sympyll men may fynde
With theyr fais bonys as relykes they them blynde
Other beynge stronge and full of lustynes
And yonge ynoughe to labour for theyr rode
Gyuyth theyr bodyes fully to slewthfulnes
The beggers craft thynkynge to them moost good
Some ray theyr legges and armys ouer witb blood
With leuys and plasters though they be hole and sounde
Some halt as crypyls, theyr legge falsely vp bounde
Some other beggers falsly for the nonys
Disfygure theyr children god wot vnhappely
Manglynge theyr facys, and brekynge theyr bonys
To stere the people to pety that passe by
There stande they beggynge with tedyous shout and cry
There owne bodyes tournynge to a strange fassion
To moue suche as passe to pyte and compassyon
euche yonge iaddys as lusty ar of age
Myghty and stronge, and wymen in lyke wyse
Wanton and yonge and lustv of cowrage
Gyueth them selfe vtterly to this gyse
The cause is that they labour do despyse
For theyr mynde is in ydylnes to be styll
Or els in vyce to wander at theyr wyll
They paciently theyr prouertye abyde
Nat for deuocion of herte or of mynde
But to the intent that at euery tyde
Other mennys godes sholde them fede and fynde.
But if they a whyle haue ron in the wynde
And in theyr hande the star some hete hath caught
They neuer after shall leue the beggers craft
Arnonge these beggers also is comonly
Braulynge debate hatered and chydynge
Great othes, mockes falshode and enuy
_And one with other euer more fyghtynge
_As for theyr dronkennes and vnsure abydynge
Theyr rebaudry both in dede and comrnunycacion
These ar chefe poyntis of theyr occupacion
Of Jblyssbe a:ggers and of theyr va»yt«es. 305
If the begger haue his star and his hode
One bagge behynde and another before
Than thynkes he hym in the myddes 6 his goode
Thoughe that his clothes be raggyd and to tore
His body nere bare he hath no thought therfore
And if some man cloth them well to day
To morowe it shall agayne be solde away
And if these caytyfes fortune to begge or cry
For mete or money, on woman or on man
If one to them that, that they aske deny
And so depart : anone these beggers than
Whan he is gone, doth way curse and ban
And if another gyue them ought of pyte
At the next alestake dronken sha[l it be
But if that I sholde gather in my barge
Ail folysshe beggers, and labour or intende
To note all theyr vyces, to sore sholde be the charge
And as I suppose I neuer sholde make an ende.
Wherfore I counsell them shortly to amende
Or els theyr lewdnes, synne, and enormyte
Shall cause men withdrawe theyr aimes of charyte
THENUO¥ OF BARCLA¥ THE TRANSLATOUR.
0 people vnthrifty gyuen to ydlenes
Spendynge your youth this wyse in vanyte
What ioy haue ye to lyue in wretchydnes
Where ye myght corne to better rowme and degre