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I T is necessary to explain that in the present edition of 
the Ship of Fools, with a view to both philological 
and bibliographical interests, the text, e'en to the punctua- 
tion, has been printed exactly as it stands in the earlier 
impression (Pynson's), the authenticity of which Barclay 
himself thus -ouches fbr in a deprecatory apology at the 
end of his labours (II. 33 o) :-- 
« some wordes be in my boke amys 
For though that I my selle dyd it correct 
Yet with some fautis I knowe it is infect 
Part by my owne ouersyght and neglygence 
And part by the prynters nat perfyte in sdence 

And other some escaped ar and past 
For that the Prynters in theyr besynes 
Do ail theyr workes hedelynge, and in hast " 

Yet the differences of reading of the later edition (Ca- 
wood's), are surprisingly few and mostly unimportant, though 
great pains were evidently bestowed on the production 
of the book, all the misprints being carefully corrected, and 
the orthography duly adjusted .to the fashion of the time. 
These differences have, in this edition, been placed in one 
alphabetical arrangement with the glossary, by ,«,hich plan 

ri Prefatoty IVoti. 

it is believed reference to them v¢ill be made more easy, and 
much repetition avoided. 
The woodcuts, no less valuable for their artistic merit 
than they are interesting as pictures of contemporary 
manners, have been facsimiled for the present edition from 
the originals as they appear in the Basle edition of the 
Latin, "denuo seduloque reuisa," issued under Brandt's ov¢n 
superintendence in 1497. This v¢ork has been done by 
Mr J. T. Reid, to whom it is due to say that he has 
executed it with the most painstaking and scrupulous 
The portrait of Brandt, v¢hich forms the frontispiece to 
this volume, is taken from Zarncke's edition of the Nar- 
renschiff; that of Barclay presenting one of his books to 
his patron, prefixed to the Notice of his life, appears v¢ith 
a little more detail in the Mirror of Good Manners and the 
Pynson editions of the Sallust; it is, hov¢ever, of no 
authority, being used for a similar purpose in various other 
For the copy of the extremely rare original edition from 
which the text of the present bas been printed, I ara 
indebted to the private collection and the well knov¢n 
liberality of Mr David Laing of the Signet Library, to 
whom I beg here to return my best thanks, for this as well 
as many other valuable favours in connection with the 
present work. 
In prosecuting enquiries regarding the lire of an author 
of v¢hom so little is known as of Barclay, one must be 
indebted for aid, more or less, to the kindness of friends. 
In this v¢ay 1 have to açknowledge my obligations to 
Mr ASneas Mackay, Advocate, and Mr Ralph Thomas, 

Prefatory Note. vii 

("Olphar Hamst"), for searches ruade in the British 
Museum and elsewhere. 
For collations of Barclay's Works, other than the Ship 
of Fools, ail of ,hich are of the utmost degree of rarity, 
and consequent inaccessibility, I ara indebted to the kindness 
of Henry Huth, Esq., 3 ° Princes' Gate, Kensington; the 
Rev. W. D. Macray, of the Bodleian Library, Oxford; 
W. B. Rye, Esq., of the British Museum; Henry Brad- 
shaw, Esq., of the University Library, Cambridge; and 
Professor Skeat, Cambridge. 
For my brief notice of Brandt and his Work, it is also 
proper to acknowledge my obligations to Zarncke's critical 
edition of the Narrenschiff (Leipzig, t854 ) which is a per- 
fect encyclopoedia of everything Brandtian. 


EDtNnU.CH, December z 8 7 3" 

WORKS o o 

Vo]. I. ix 
,, lxxxvi 
,, lxxxix 

Vol. I. ! 
Vol. II. 339 

,, 347 


F popularity be taken as the measure of success in 
literary effort, Sebastian Brandt's "Ship of Fools" 
must be considered one of the most successful books 
recorded in the who!e history of literature. Published in 
edition after edition (the first dated t494), at a time, but 
shortly after the invention of printing, when books were 
expensive, and their circulation limited ; translated into the 
leading languages of Europe at a time when translations of 
new works were only the result of the most signal merits, 
its success xvas then quite unparalleled. It may be said, in 
modern phrase, to bave been the rage of the reading world 
at the end of the fifteenth and throughout the sixteenth 
centuries. It was translated into Latin by one Professor 
(Locher, 1497) and imitated in the saine language and under 
the same title, by another (Badius Ascensius, 15o7); it 
appeared in Dutch and Low German, and was txvice trans- 
lated into English, and three times into French; imitations 
competed with the original in Frencb_ and German, as well as 
Latin, and greatest and most unprecedented distinction of 
ail, it was preached, but, we should opine, only certain parts 
of it, from the pulpit by the best preachers of the time as 
a new gospel. The Germans proudly award it the epithet, 
"epoch-making," and its long-continued popularity affords 
good, if hot quite sufficient, ground fer the extravagant 

x Introduction. 

eulogies they lavish upon it. Trithemius calls it "Divina 
Satira," and doubts whether anything could have been 
written more suited to the spirit of the age; Locher com- 
pares Brandt with Dante, and Hutten styles him the new 
law-giver of German poetry. 
A more recent and impartial critic (Miiller, " Chips from 
a German.Workshop," Vol. III.), thus suggestively sers forth 
the varied grounds ofBrandt's wonderful popularity :--" His 
satires, it is true, are not very powerful, nor pungent, nor 
original. But lais style is free and easy. Brant is hot a pon- 
derous poet. He writes in short chapters, and mixes his fools 
in such a manner that we always meet with a variety of new 
faces. It is true that all this would hardly be sufficient 
to secure a decided success for a work like his at the 
present day. But then we must remember the time in 
which he wrote, . . There was room at that time for a work 
iike the 'Ship of Fools.' It was the first printed book 
that treated of contemporaneous events and living persons, 
instead of old German battles and French knights. People 
are always fond of reading the history of their own times. 
If the good qualities of their age are brought out, they 
think of themselves or their friends; if the dark features 
of their contemporaries are exhibited, they think of their 
neighbours and enemies. Now the 'Ship of Fools' is 
just such a satire which ordinary people would read, and 
read with pleasure. They might feel a slight twinge now 
and thon, but they would put down the book at the end, 
and thank God that they were hOt like other men. There 
is a chapter on Misers--and who would not gladly give a 
penny to a beggar ? There is a chapter on Gluttony--and 
who was ever more than a little exhilarated after dinner ? 

Introduction. xi 

There is a chapter on Church-goers--and who ever xvent 
to church for respectability's sake, or to show off a gaudy 
dress, or a fine dog, or a new hawk ? There is a chapter 
on Dancing--and who ever danced except for the sake of 
exercise ? There is a chapter on Adultery--and who ever 
did more than flirt with his neighbour's wife ? We some- 
times ",vish that Brant's satire had been a little more 
searching, and that, instead of his many allusions to classical 
fools (for his book is full of scholarship), he had given us 
a little more of the chronique scandaleuse of his own time. 
But he ",vas too good a man to do this, and his contempo- 
raries were no doubt grateful to him for his forbearance." 
Brandt's satire is a satire for all time. Embodied in the 
language of the fifteenth century, coloured ",vith the habits 
and fashions of the times, executed after the manner of 
working of the period, and motived by the eager questioning 
spirit and the discontent with "abusions" and "folyes" 
which resulted in the Reformation, this satire in its morals 
or lessons is almost as applicable to the year of grace a873 
as to the year of gracelessness t 497- It never can grow 
old ; in the mirror in which the men of his time saw them- 
selves reflected, the men of ail times can recognise them- 
selves ; a crew of "able-bodied" is never wanting to man 
this old, xveather-beaten, but ever seaworthy vessel. The 
thoughtful, penetrating, conscious spirit of the Basle professor 
passing by, for the most part, local, temporary or indifferent 
points, seized upon the never-dying follies of buman nature 
and impaled them on the printed page for the amusement, 
the edification, and the warning of contemporaries and pos- 
terity alike. No petty writer of laborious vers de societe to 
raise a laugh for a week,  month, or a year, and to be 

xii Introductlo,l. 

buried in utter oblivion for ever after, was he but a divine 
seer who saw the weakness and wickedness of the hearts 
of men, and warned them to amend their ways and flee 
from the wrath to come. Though but a retired student 
and teacher of the canon law, a humble-minded man of 
letters, and a diffident imperial Counsellor, yet is he to be 
numbered among the greatest Evangelists and Reformers of 
medioeval Europe vehose trumpet-toned tongue penetrated 
into regions where the names of Luther or Erasmus were 
but an empty sound, if even thzt. _And yet, though helping 
much the cause of the Reformation by the freedom of his 
social and clerical criticism, by his unsparing exposure of 
every form of corruption and injustice, and, not least, by his 
use of the vernacular for political and religious purposes, he 
can scarcely be classed in the great army of the Protestant 
Reformers. He was a reformer from within, a biting, 
unsparing exposer of every priestly abuse, but a loyal son of 
the Church, who rebuked the faults of his brethren, but 
visited with the pains of Hell those of "fals herytikes," 
and wept over the "ruyne, inclynacion, and decay of the 
holy fayth Catholyke, and dymynucion of the Empyre." 
So while he was yet a reformer in the true sense of the 
word, he was too much of the scholar to be anything but 
a true conservative. To his scholarly habit of working, 
as well as to the manner of the time which hardly trusted 
in the value of its own ideas but loved to lean them 
upon classical authority, is no doubt owing the classical 
mould in which his satire is cast. The description of 
every folly is strengthened by notice of its classical or 
biblical prototypes, and in the margin of the Latin edition 
of Locher Brandt himself supplied the citations of the 

books and passages which formed the basis of his text, 
which greatly added to the popularity of the work. 
Brandt, indeed, with the modesty of genius, professes that 
it is really no more than a collection and translation of 
quotations from biblical and classical authors, " Gesamlet 
durch Sebastianh Brant." But even admitting the work to 
be a Mosaic, to adopt the reply of its latest German 
editor to the assertion that it is but a compilation testify- 
ing to the most painstaking industry and the consump- 
tion of midnight oil «even so one learns that a Mosaic is 
a work of art xhen executed with artistic skill." That 
he caused the classical and biblical passages flitting before 
his eyes to be cited in the margin proves chiefly only the 
excellence of his memory. They are also before our eyes 
and yet we are not always able to answer the question : 
where, e.g., does this occur ? . . . xtVhere, e.g., occur the 
following appropriate words of Goethe: "Who can think 
anything foolish, who can think anything wise, that antiquity 
has not already thought of." 
Of the Greek authors, Plutarch only is used, and he evi- 
dently by means of a Latin translation. But from the Latin 
large draughts of inspiration are taken, direct from the foun- 
tainhead. Ovid, Juvenal, Persius, Catullus, and Seneca, are 
largely drawn from, while, strangely enough, Cicero, Boethius, 
and Virgil are quoted but seldom, the latter, indeed, only 
twice, though his commentators, especially Servetus are 
frequently employed. The Bible, of course, is a never-failing 
source of illustration, and, as was to be expected, the Old 
Testament much more frequently than the lqew, most use 
being ruade of the Proverbs of Solomon, while Ecclesiastes, 
Ecclesiasticus, and the Sapientia follow at no great distance. 

xiv Introduction. 

The quotations are made apparently direct from the Vulgate, 
in only a few cases there beng a qualification of the idea by 
the interpretation ofthe Corpus Juris Canonici. But through 
tlfis medium only, as was to be expected of the professor of 
canon law, is the light of the fathers of the Church allowed 
to shine upon us, and according to Zarncke (Introduction 
to lais edtion of the Narrenschiff,  854), use of it has cer- 
tainly been ruade far oftener than the commentary shows, 
the sources of information of which are of the most un- 
satisfactory character. On such solid and tried foundations 
did Brandt construct his great vork, and the judgment of 
contemporaries and posterity alike has declared the super- 
structure to be vorthy of its supports. 
The following admirable notice from Ersch and Grfiber 
(Encyclopidie) sums up so skilfully the history, nature, and 
qualities of the book that v¢e quote at length :--"The 
Ship of Fools was received with almost unexampled applause 
by high and low, learned and unlearned, in Germany, 
Switzerland, and France, and was made.the common pro- 
perty of the greatest part of literary Europe, through Latin, 
French, English, and Dutch translations. For upwards of 
a century it was in Germany a book of the people in the 
noblest and videst sense of the wod, alike appreciated by 
an Erasmus and a Reuchlin, and by the mechanics of Strass- 
burg, Basel, and -Augsburg; and it was assumed to be so 
familiar to ail classes, that even during Brandt's lifetime, the 
German preacher Gailer von Kaiserberg went so far as to 
deliver public lectures from the pulpit on his friend's poem 
as if it had been a scriptural text. _As to the poetical and 
humorous character of Brandt's poem, its whole conception 
does hot display any extraordinary power of imagination, 

Introduction. xv 

nor does it present in its details any very striking sallies of 
wit and humour, even when compared with older German 
works of a similar kind, such as that of Renner. The 
fundamental idea of the poem consists in the shipping off 
of several shiploads of fools of al1 kinds for their native 
country, which, however, is visible at a distance only; and 
one would bave expected the poet to bave given poetical 
consistency to his work by fidly carrying out this idea of a 
ship's crew, and sailing to the ' Land of Fools.' Itis, how- 
ever, at intervals only that Brandt reminds us of the allegory; 
the fools who are carefully divided into classes and intro- 
duced to us in succession, instead of being ridiculed or 
derided, are reproved in a liberal spirit, -«,ith noble earnest- 
ness, true moral feeling, and practical common sense. It 
was the straightforward, the bold and liberal spirit of the 
poet which so powerfully addressed his contemporaries from 
the Ship of the Fools ; and to us it is valuable as a product of 
the piety and morality of the century which paved the way 
for the Reformation. Brandt's fools are represented as con- 
temptible and loathsome rather thanfoolisb, and what he calls 
follies might be more correctly described as fins and vices. 
"The ' Ship of Fools' is written in the dialect of Swabia, 
and consists of vigorous, resonant, and rhyming iambic 
quadrameters. It is divided into  3 sections, each or 
which, with the exception of a short introduction and two 
concluding pieces, treats independently of a certain class of 
fools or vicious persons; and we are only occasionally 
reminded of" the fundamental idea by an allusion to the ship. 
No folly of the century is left uncensured. The poet 
attacks with noble zeal the failings and extravagances of his 
age, and applies his lash unsparingly even to the dreaded 

xvi Introduction. 

Hydra of popery and monasticism, to combat ,hich the 
Hercules of Wittenberg had hot yet kindled his firebrands. 
But the poet's object was hot merely to reprove and to 
animadvert; he instructs also, and shows the fools the way 
to the land of wisdom ; and so far is he from assuming the 
arrogant air of" the commonplace moralist, that he reckons 
himself" among the number of" f"ools. The style of" the poem 
is lively, bold, and simple, and often remarkably terse, 
especially in his moral sayings, and renders it apparent that 
the author was a classical scholar, without however losing 
anything of" his G erman character." 
Brandt's humour, which either his earnestness or his 
manner banished f"rom the text, took refuge in the illustra. 
tions and there disported itself with a wild zest and vigour. 
Indeed to their popularity several critics bave ascribed 
the success of" the book, but for this there is no sufficient 
authority or probability. Clever as they are, it is more pro- 
bable that they ran, in popularity, but an equal race with the 
text. The precise amount of Brandt's workmanship in them 
has not been ascertained, but it is agreed that "most of them, 
if hot actually drawn, were at least suggested by him." 
Zarncke remarks regarding their artistic worth, "hot all of 
the cuts are of equal value. One can easily distinguish rive 
diftërent workers, and more practised eyes would probably be 
able to increase the number. In some one can see how the 
outlines, heads, hands, and other principal parts are cut 
v¢ith the fine stroke of the toaster, and the details and 
shading left to the scholars. The woodcuts of the most 
superior toaster, which can be recognized at once, and are 
about a third of the whole, belong to the finest, if they are 
hot. indeed, the finest, which were executed in the fifteenth 

Iplrodll gion. XVll 

century, a worthy school of Holbein. According to the 
opinion of Herr Rudolph Weigel, they might possibly be 
the work of Martin Sch5n of Colmar... The composition 
in the better ones is genuinely Hogarth-like, and the 
longer one Iooks at these little pictures, the more is one 
astonished at the fulness of the humour, the fineness of the 
characterisation and the almost dramatic talent of the group- 
ing." Green, in his recent work on emblems, characterizes 
them as marking an epoch in that kind of literature. And 
Dibdin, the Macaulay of bibliography, loses his head in 
admiration of the "entertaining volume," extolling the 
figures without stint for "merit in conception and execu- 
tion," 'bold and free pencilling," 'spirit and point," "deli- 
cacy, truth, and force,"  spirit of drollery," &c., &c.; 
summarising thus, ' few books are more pleasing to the 
eye, and more gratifying to the fancy than the early editions 
ofthe  8tultifera IX/avis.' It presents a combination of enter- 
tainment to which the curious can noyer be indifferent." 
Whether it were the racy cleverness of the pictures 
or the unprecedented boldness of the text, the book stirred 
Europe of the fifteenth century in a way and with a 
rapidity it had noyer been stirred before. In the German 
actual acquaintance with it could then be but limited, though 
it ran through seventeen editions within a century; the 
Latin version brought it to the knowledge of the educated 
dass throughout Europe ; but, expressing, as it did mainly, 
the feelings of the common people, to bave it in the learned 
language was hot enough. Translations into various ver- 
naculars were immediately called for, and the Latin edition 
having lightened the translator's labours, they were speedily 
supplied. England, however, was ail but last in the field 

xviii Introduction. 

but when she did appear, it was in force, with a version 
in each hand, the one in prose and the other in verse. 
Fifteen years elapsed from the appearance of the first 
German edition, bdore the English metrical version "trans- 
lated out of Laten, French, and Doche... in the colege of 
Saynt Mary Otery, by me, Aiexander Barclay," was issued 
from the press of Pynson in 15o 9. A translation, how- 
ever, it is not. Properly speaking, it is an adaptation, an 
English ship, formed and fashioned after the Ship of 
Foois of the Worid. "But concernynge the translacion of 
this boke; I exhort ye reders to take no displesour for 
yt, it is nat translated word by worde acordinge to ye verses 
of my actour. For I haue but only drawen into our moder 
tunge, in rude langage the sentences of the verses as nere 
as the parcyte of my wyt wyl surfer me. some tyme addynge, 
somtyme detractinge and takinge away suche thinges as 
semeth me necessary and superflue. Wherfore I desyre of 
you reders pardon of my presumptuous audacite, trustynge 
that ye shall hoide me excused if ye consyder ye scarsnes 
of my wyt and my vnexpert youthe. I haue in many 
places ouerpassed dyuers poetical digressions and obscure- 
ries of fables and haue concluded my worke in rude langage 
as shai apere in my translacion." 
"Wylling to re&es the errours and vyces of this oure 
royailne of Egland.. I haue taken upon me... the 
translacion of this present boke.., onely for the holsome 
instruccion commodyte and doctryne of wysdome, and to 
clense the vanyte and madness of folysshe people of whom 
ouer great nombre is in the Royalme of Engionde." 
_Actuated by these patriotic motives, Barclay has, while 
preserving all the valuable characteristics of his original, 

[ntrolucion. xix 

painted for posterity perhaps the most graphic and com- 
prehensive picture now preserved of the folly, injustice, and 
iniquity hich demoralized England, city and country alike, 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and rendered it 
ripe for any change political or rdigious. 
- Knowledge of trouth, prudence, and iust symplicite 
Hath vs clene left j For we set of them no store. 
Out Fayth is defyled loue, goodnes, and Pyte : 
Honest maners nowe ar reputed of: no more. 
Lawyers ar lordes  but Justice is rent and tore. 
Or closed lyke a Monster within dores thre. 
For without mede : or money no man can hyr se. 
AI is disordered : Vertue bath no rewarde. 
Alas» compassion ; and mercy bothe ar slayne. 
Alas, the stony hartys of pepyl ar so harde 
"Fhat nought can constrayne theyr folyes to refrayne." 
His ships are full laden but carry not ail who should be on 
«« We are full lade and yet torsoth I thynke 
A thousand are behynde, whom we may not receyue 
For if we do, our nauy clene shall synke 
He oft ail lesys that coueytes all to haue 
From London Rockes Almyghty God vs saue 
For if we there anker, outher bote or barge 
'l'here be so many that they vs wyll ouercharge." 
The national tone and aim of the English « Shlp" are 
maintained throughout xith the greatest emphasis, exhibit- 
ing an independence of spirit which few ecclesiastics of the 
rime would have dared to own. Barclay seems to have 
been first an Englishman, then an ecclesiastic. Every- 
where throughout his great work the voice of the people 

xx Introduction. 

is heard to rise and ring through the long exposure of abuse 
and injustice, and had the authorship been unknown it would 
most certainly have been ascribed to a Langlande of the 
period. Everywhere he takes what we would call the 
popular side, the side of the people as against those in 
office. Everywhere he stands up boldly in behalf of the 
oppressed, and spares hOt the oppressor, even if he be of 
his own class. He applies the cudgel as vigorously to the 
priest's pate as to the Lolardes back. But he disliked modern 
innovation as much as ancient abuse, in this also faithfully 
reflecting the mind of the people, and he is as emphatic in 
his censure of the one as in his condemnation of the other. 
Barclay's "Ship of Fools,"however, is not only important 
as a picture of the English life and popular feeling of his 
time, itis, both in style and vocabulary, a most valuable and 
remarkable monument of the English language. XVritten 
midway between Chaucer and Sperser, it is infinitely more 
easy to read than either. Page after page, even in the antique 
spelling of Pynson's edition, may be read by the ordinary 
reader of to-day without reference to a dictionary, and when 
reference is required it will be found in nine cases out of 
ten that the archaism is Saxon, not Latin. This is all the 
more remarkable, that it occurs in the case of a priest trans- 
lating mainly from the Latin and French, and can only be 
explained with reference to his standpoint as a social re- 
former of the broadest type, and to his evident intention 
that his book should be an appeal to all classes, but espe- 
cially to the mass ofthe people, for amendment of their follies. 
In evidence of this it may be noticed that in the didactic 
passages, and especially in the L'envois, which are addition 
of his own, wherever, in fact, he appears in his own 

Introduction. xxi 

character of "preacher," his language is most simple, and 
his vocabulary of the most Saxon description. 
In his prologue "excusynge the rudenes of his trans- 
lacion," he professes to bave purposely used the most 
" comon speche" :-- 
« My speche is rude my termes comon and rural 
And I for rude peple moche more conuenient 
Than for estates, lerned men, or eloquent." 
He afterwards humorously supplements this in " the 
prologe," by :-- 
,, But if I halt in meter or erre in eloquence 
Or be to large in langage I pray you blame hot me 
For my mater is so bad it wyll none other be." 
So much the better for ail who are interested in studying 
the development of out language and literature. For thus 
v¢e have a volume confessedly written iu the commonest 
language of the common people, from v¢hich the philologist 
may at once see the stage at v¢hich they had arrived in the 
development of a simple English speech, and how far, in 
this respect, the spoken language had advanced a-head of 
the ,z¢ritten; and from v¢hich also he can judge to v¢hat 
extent the popularity of a book depends, v¢hen the lan- 
guage is in a state of transition, upon the unusual simplicity 
of its style both in structure and vocabulary, and how far it 
may, by reason of its popularity, be influential in modify- 
ing and improving the language in both these respects. 
In the long barren tract between Chaucer and Spenser, the 
Ship of Fools stands ail but alone as a popular poem, and the 
continuance of this popularity for a century and more is no 
doubt to be attributed as much to the use of the language 
of the "coming time" as to the popularity of the subject. 

xxii Introduction. 

In more recent times however, Barclay has, probably in 
part, from accidental circumstances, come to be relegated 
to a position among the English classics, those authors 
whom every one speaks of but few read. That modern 
editions of at least hls principal performance have hOt 
appeared, can only be accounted for by the great expense 
attendant upon the reproduction of so uniquely illustrated 
a work, an interesting proof of which, given in the evidence 
before the Select Committee of the House of Commons on 
the Copyright act in  818, is worth quoting. Amongst new 
editions of standard but costly works, of which the tax then 
imposed by the act upon publishers of giving eleven copies 
of all their publications free to certain libraries prevented 
the publication, is mentioned, Barclay's " Ship of Fools; " 
regarding which Harding, the well known bookseller, is 
reported to have said, « We have declined republishing the 
'Ship of Fools,' a folio volume of great rarity and high price. 
Out probable demand would hOt have been more than for 
a hundred copies, at the price of 12 guineas each. The 
delivery of eleven copies to the public libraries decided us 
against entering into the speculation." 
A wider and more eager interest is now being manifested 
in our ëarly literature, and especially in our early popular 
poetry, to the satisfaction of which, it is believed, a new edi- 
tion of this book will be regarded as a most valuable contribu- 
tion. Indeed, as a graphic and comprehensive picture of the 
social condition of pre-Reformation England; as an important 
influence in the formation of our modern English tongue ; 
and as a rich and unique exhibition of early art, to all 
of which subjects special attention is being at present di- 
rected, this medioeval picture-poeln is of unrivalled interest. 





""rHETHER this distinguished poet ,,vas an English- 
man or a Scotchman has long been a çuoestio 
wexahz affording the literary antiquary a suitable field for the 
display of his characteristic amenity. Bale, the oldest autho- 
rity, simply says that some contend he was a Scot, others an 
Englishman, (Script. Illust. 1Vlajoris Britt. Catalogus, 1559). 
Pits (De lllust. Anglioe Script.,) asserts that though to some 
he appears to bave been a Scot, he was really an Englishman, 
and probably a native ofDcvonshire, (" nain ibi ad S. Mariam 
de Otery, Presbyter primum fuit "). Wood again, (Athen. 
Oxon.), by the reasoning which finds a likeness between 
Macedon and Monmouth, because there is a river in each. 
arrives at " Alexander de Barklay, seems to have been born 
at or near a town so called in Somersetshire;" upon which 
Ritson pertinently observes, "there is no such place in 
Somersetshire, the onely Berkele knoxvn is in Glouces- 
tershire." XVarton, coming to the question double-shotted, 
observes that " he xvas most probably of Devonshire or 
Gloucestershire," in the one case following Pits, and in 
the other anticipating Ritson's observation. 
On the other hand Baie, in an earlier work than the 

XXVl Life and 14ritings 

Catalogus, the Summarium Ill. Mai. Britt. Script., published 
in 548, during Barclay's lire time, adorns him with the 
epithets « Scotus, rhetor ac poeta insignis." Dempster 
(Hist. ecclesiastica), styles him « Scotus, ut retulit ipse 
Joannes Pits,'eus." Holinshed also styles him "Scot "! 
Sibbald gives him a place in his (,MS.) Catalogues of Scot- 
tish poets, as does also Wodrow in his Catalogues of Scots 
writers. 1V[ackenzie (Lires of the Scots writers) begins, 
" The Barklies, from whom this gentleman is descended, 
are of a very ancient standing in Scotland." Ritson (Bib. 
Poetica), after a caustic review of the controversy, observes 
« both his naine of baptism and the orthography of his sur- 
naine seem to prove that he was of Scottish extraction." 
Bliss (Additions to \Vood) is of opinion that he «un- 
doubtedly ,,vas not a native of England," and Dr Irving 
(Hist. of Scot. Poetry) adheres to the opinion of Ritson. 
Such contention, v, hatever may be the weight of the evi- 
dence on either side, is at any rate a sufl:icient proof of the 
eminence of the individual who is the subject of it; to be 
his birthplace being considered an honour of so much value 
to the country able to prove its claim to the distinction as 
to occasion a literary warfare of several centuries' duration. 
We cannot profess to bave brought such reinforcements 
to either side as to obtain for it a complete and decisive 
victory, but their number and character are such as xvill prob- 
ably induce one of the combatants quietly to retire from the 
field. In the first place, a more explicit and unimpeach- 
able piece of evidence than any contained in the authors 
mentioned above has been round, strangely enough, in a 
medical treatise, published about twenty years after Barclay's 
death, by a physician and botanist of great erninence in the 

C" ll«xalcler ]3«rcl«F. xxvii 
middle of the sixteenth century, who was a native of the 
isle of Ely, at the 1V[onastery of which Barclay was for some 
time a monk. 
Itis entitled "A dialogue both pleasaunt and pietifull, 
v¢herein is a godlie regiment against the Fever Pestilence, 
• ,vith a consolation and comforte against death.--Newlie 
corrected by William Bullein, the author thereof.--Im- 
printed at London by Ihon Kingston. Julij, 1573." [Svo., 
B. L.,   leaves.] "There was an earlier impression of 
this work in 564, but the edition of 1573 was ' corrected 
by the author,' the last work on which he probably was 
engaged, as he died in 576. Itis of no value at this time 
of day as a medical treatise, though the author was very 
eminent ; but we advert toit because Bullein, for the sake 
of variety and amusement, introduces notices of Chaucer, 
Gower, Lidgate, Skelton, and Barclay, "«'hich, coming from 
a man who ,,vas contemporary xith two of them, may be 
accepted as generally accurate representations... _Alexander 
Barclay, Dr Bullein calls Bartlet, in the irregular spelling of 
those times; and, asserting that he was 'born beyond the 
cold river of Tweed,' we see no suflïcient reason for dis- 
believing that he ws a native of Scotland. Barclay, after 
writing his pastorals, &c., did hot die until 55 z, so that 
Bullein was his contemporary, and most likely knew him 
and the fact. He observes :--'Then Bartlet, with an 
hoopyng russet long coate, with a pretie hoode in his necke, 
and rive knottes upon his girdle, after Francis tricks. He 
was borne beyonde the cold river of" Twede. He lodged 
upon a swete bed of chamomill, under the sinamum tree; 
about hym many shepherdes and shepe, with pleasaunte 
pipes; greatly abhorring the life of Courtiers, Citizens, 

xxviii Life and 147ritings 

Usurers and Banckruptes &c. whose olde daies are miser- 
able. And the estate of shepherdes and countrie people he 
accoumpted moste happie and sure." (Collier's 'Biblio- 
graphical Account of Early English Literatur%" Vol. 1. 
P- 97)- 
"The certainty with which Bulleyn here speaks of Bar- 
clay, as born beyond the Tweed, is not a little strengthened 
hy the accuracy with which even in allegory he delineates 
his peculiar characteristics. 'He lodged upon a bed of 
sweet camomile.' \Vhat figure could have been more de- 
scriptive of that agreeable bitterness, that pleasant irony, 
which distinguishes the author of the 'Ship of Fools?' 
' About him many shepherds and sheep with pleasant 
pipes, greatly abhorring the lire of courtiers.' \Vhat 
could have been a plainer paraphrase of the title of Bar- 
clay's ' Eclogues,' or ' Miseries of Courtiers and Courtes, 
and of all Princes in Generai.' As a minor feature  the 
rive knots upon his girdle after Francis's tricks' may also 
be notice& Hitherto, the tct of Barclay having been a 
member of the Franciscan order has been always repeated 
as a marrer of some doubt; 'he was a monk of the order 
of St Benedict, and afterwards as mme say a Franclscan. 
Bulleyn knows and mentions with certainty xhat others 
only speak of as the merest conjecture. In shorg every- 
thing tetds to shew a degree of familiar acquaintance with 
the man, his habits and his productions, which entitles the 
testimony of Bulleynto the highest credit.' " (Lives of the 
Scottish Poets Vol. I., pt. il., p. 77). 
But there are other proofs pointing as decidedly to 
the determination of this long-continued controversy in 
favour of Scotland, as the mil from which this vagrant 

of 4lexander Barclay. xxix 

child of the muses sprung. No evidence seems to have been 
hitherto sought from the most obvious source, his writings. 
The writer of the memoir in the Biographia Brittanica, 
(who certainly dealt a well-aimed, though by no means 
decisive, blow, in observing, "It is pretty extraordinary that 
Barclay himsel' in his several addresses to his patrons 
should never take notice of his being a stranger, xx'hich 
would have ruade their kindness to him the more remark- 
able lit was very customary for the writers of that age 
to make mention in their works of the countries to which 
they belonged, especially if they wrote out of their own] ; 
whereas the reader will quickly see, that in his address to 
the young gentlemen of England in the ' Mirror of Good 
ianners,' he treats them as his countrymen,") has remarked, 
"It seems a little strange that in those days a Scot should 
obtain so great reputation in England, especially if it be con- 
sidered from whence our author's rose, riz., from his enrich- 
ing and improving the English tongue. Had he xvritten 
in Latin or on the sciences, the thing had been probable 
enough, but in the light in xvhich it nov stands, I think it 
very far from likely." From xvhich it is evident that the 
biographer understood not the versatile nature of the $cot 
and his ability, especially when caught young, in "doing in 
Rome as the Romans do." Barclay's English education and 
foreign travel, together extending over the most impression- 
able years of his youth, could hot have failed to rub off any 
obvious national peculiarities of speech acquired in early 
boyhood, had the difference between the English and Scot-- 
tish speech then been wider than it was. But the language 
of Barbour and Chaucer was really one and the saine. It 
wi[[ then hot be wondered at that but few Scotch 

xxx Life ad ll/'ritings 

words are found in Barclay's writings. 8till, these few are 
not without their importance in strengthening the argument 
as to nationality. The following from "The Ship of Fools," 
indicate at once the dime to which they are native, 
"gree," "kest," "ra',vky," "ryue," « yate," "bokest," 
"bydeth," "thekt," and "or," in its peculiar Scottish use. 
That any Englishman, especially a South or \Vest of Eng- 
land Englishman, should use words such as those, particu- 
larly at a time of hostility and of little intercourse between 
the nations, will surely be admitted to be a far more unlikely 
thing than that a Scotchman born, though not bred, should 
become, after the effects of an English education and resi- 
dence had eflïciently done their work upon him, a great 
improver and enticher of the English tongue. 
But perhaps the strongest and most decisive argument 
of ail in this much-vexed controversy is to be found in the 
panegyric of James the Fourth contained in the "Ship of 
Fools," an eulogy so highly pitched and extravagant that 
no Eglishman of that time would ever have dreamed of it or 
dared to pen it. Nothing could well be more conclusive. 
Barclay precedes it by a long and high-flown tribute to 
Henry, but when he cornes to "Jamys of Scotlonde," he, 
so to speak, out-Herods Herod. Ordinary verse suffices 
hot for the greatness of his subject, which he must needs 
honour with an acrostic,-- 

,« I n prudence perdes is this moste comely kynge 
And as for his strength and magnanymyte 
C oncernynge his noble dedes in euery thynge 
O ne founde or grounde lyke to hym can not be 
I3 y byrth borne to boldnes an:l audacyte 
V nder the bolde planer of blars the champyon 
S urely to subdue his ennemyes echone." 

of l/exander Jarc/a.y. xxxi 

There, we are convinced, speaks not the prejudiced, Scot- 
hating English critic, but the heart beating true toits father- 
land and loyal toits native Sovereign. 
That "he xvas born beyonde the cold river of Twede," 
about the year  476, as shall be shoxvn anon, is however ail 
the length we can go. His training vas without doubt 
mainly, if not entirely English. He must have crossed the 
border very early in lire, probably for the purpose of pur- 
suing his education atone of the Universities, or, even 
earlier than the period of his University career, xith 
parents or guardians ,o reside in the neighbourhood of 
Croydon, to which he frequently refers. Croydon is men- 
tioned in the following passages in Eclogue I. : 

" While I in youth in Croidon towne did dwell." 
" He hath no felowe betwene this and Croidon, 
Save the proude plowman Gnatho of Chorlington." 
" And as in Croidon I heard the Collier preache" 
" Such maner riches the Collier tell thee can" 
"As the riche Shepheard that woned in Mortlake." 

It seems to have become a second home to him, for there, 
we find, in I55Z , he died and was buried. 
At which University he studied, whe, her Oxford or Cam- 
bridge, is also a matter of doubt and controversy. ,Vood 
claires him for Oxford and Oriel, apparently on no other 
ground than that he dedicates the "8hip of Fools" to 
Thomas Cornish, the Suffragan bishop of Tyne, in the 
Diocese of Bath and Wells, who was provost of Oriel Col- 
lege from 493 to 5o7. That the Bishop was the first 

xxxii Lfe and ll/ritings 

to give him an appointment in the Church is certainly a 
circumstance of considerable weight in favour of the claire 
of Oxford to be his alma mater, and of Cornish to be his 
intellectuai father; and if the appointment proceeded from 
the Provost's good opinion of the young Scotchman, then it 
says much for the ability and talents displayed by him during 
his College career. Oxford however appears to be nowhere 
mentioned in his various writings, while Cambridge is 
introduced thus in Eclogue I. :-- 

« And once in Cambridge I heard a scoller say.'" 

From uhich it seems equally, if not more, probable that 
he xvas a student at that university. «There is reason to 
believe that both the universîties were frequented by 
Scotish studcnts; many particular names are to be traced 
in their annals ; nor is it altogether irrelevant to mention 
that Chaucer's young clerks of Cambridge who played such 
tricks to the miller of Trompington, are described as coming 
from the north, and as speaking the Scotish language :-- 

' John highte that on, and Alein highte that other, 
Of o toun were they born that highte Strother, 
Fer in the North, I cannot tellen where.' 

" It may be considered as highly probable that Barclay 
completed his studies in one of those universities and that 
the connections which he thus had an opportunity of form- 
ing, induced him to fix his residence in the South; and 
when we suppose him to have enjoyed the benefit of an 
English education it need hOt appear peculiarly 'strange, 
that in those days, a Scot should obtain so great reputation 
in England.'" (Irving, Hist. of Scot. Poetry). 

of /ilexander Barclay. xxxiii 

In the "Ship" there is a chapter " Of unprof)-table 
Stody" in which he makes allusion to his student lire in 
such a way as to imply that it had not been a model of 
regularity and propriety : 
,, The great foly, the pryde, and the enormyte 
Of our studentis, and theyr obstynate errour 
Causeth me to wryte two sentences or thre 
glore than I fynde wrytyn in nayne actoure 
The tyme hath ben whan I was conductoure 
Of naoche foly, whiche noxve my naynde doth greue 
x, Vherfor of this shyp syns I ana gouernoure 
I dare be bolde nayne owne vyce to repreue." 

If these lines are meant to be accepted literally, which 
such confessions seldom are, it may be that he was advised 
to put a year or t'vo's foreign travel between his University 
career, and his entrance into the Church. At any rate, for 
whatever reason, on leaving the Uni,¢ersity, where, as is 
indicated by the title of "Syr" prefixed to his naine in his 
translation of Sallust, he had obtained the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, he travelled abroad, 'vhether at his own 
charges, or in the company of a son of one of his patrons is 
hot recorded, principally in Germany, Italy, and France, 
xvhere he applied himself, with an unusual assiduity and 
success, to the acquirement of the languages spoken in 
those countries and to the study of their best authors. In 
the chapter " Of unprofytable Stody," above mentioned, 
which contains proof how well he at least had profited by 
study, he cites certain continental seats of university ]earn- 
ing at each of which, there is indeed no improbability in 
supposing he may have remained for "some time, as x, as 
the custom in those days: 

xxxiv Lire and H/'ritings 

« One rennyth to Almayne another vnto France 
To Parys, Padway, Lumbardy or Spayne 
Another to Bonony, Rome, or Orleanse 
To Cayne, to Tolows, Athenys, or Colayne." 
Another reference to his travels and mode of travelling 
is found in the Eclogues. XVhether he ruade himself 
acquainted with the English towns he enumerates before or 
after his continental travels it is impossible to determine : 
" As if diuers wayes laye vnto Islington, 
To Stow on the Wold, Quaueneth or Trompington, 
To Douer, Durham, to Bar,vike or Exeter, 
To Grantham, Tomes, Bristow or good Manchester, 
To Roan, Paris, to Lions or Floraunce. 
(What ho man abide, what already in Fraunce, 
Lo, a fayre iourney and shortly ended to, 
"Vith all these townes what thing haue we to do ? 
By Gad man knowe thou that I haue had to do 
In all these townes and yet in many mo, 
To see the worlde in youth me thought was best, 
And after in age to geue my selle to test. 
Thou might haue brought one and set by our village. 
What man I might hot for lacke of cafiage. 
To cary mine owne selle was ail that euer I might, 
And sometime for ease my sachell ruade I light. » 

of I/exander Bara«9,. xxxv 

Returning to England, after some years of residence 
abroad, with lais mind broadened and strengthened by 
foreign travel, and by the study of the best authors, modern 
as well as ancient, Barclay entered the church, the only career 
then open to a man of lais training. With intellect, accom- 
plishments, and energy possessed by few, his progress to dis- 
tinction and power ought to have been easy and rapid, but 
it turned out quite otherwise. The road to eminence lay 
by the "backstairs," the atmosphere of which hë could not 
endure. The ways of courtiers--falsehood, flanery, and 
fawning--he detested, and worse, he said so, wherefore his 
learning, wit and eloquence round but small reward. To 
his freedom of speech, his unsparing exposure and denuncia- 
tion of corruption and vice in the Court and the Church, as 
well as among the people generally, must undoubtedly be 
attributed the fai[ure to obtain that high promotion his 
talents deserved, and would othervise ha¢e met x.ith. The 
policy, not always a successful one in the end, of ignoring 
an inconvenient display of talent, appears to ha¢e been fully 
carried out in the instance of Barclay. 
His first preferment appears to have been in the shape of 
a chaplainship in the sanctuary for piety and learning founded 
at Saint Mary Otery in the County of Devon, by Grandi- 
son, Bishop of Exeter; and to have corne from Thomas 
Cornish, Suffragan Bishop of Bath and Wells under the title 
of the Bishop of Tyne, "meorum primitias laborum qui in 
lucem eruperunt," to whom, doubtless out of gratitude for 
his first appointment, he dedicated "The Ship of Fools." 
Cornish, amongst the many other good things he enjoyed, 
held, according to Dugdale, from 149 o to 5, the post 
of warden of the College of S. Mary Otery, where Barclay 


Life and lVriti,gs 

no doubt had formed that regard and respect for him which 
is so strongly expressed in the dedication. 
 very eulogistic notice of « My Mayster Kyrkham," in 
the chapter "Of the extorcion of Knyghtis," (Ship of 
Fools,) has misled biographers, who were ignorant of Cor- 
nish's connection with S. Mary Otery, to imagine that 
Barclay's use of " Capellanus humilimus" in his dedi- 
cation xvas merely a polite expression, and that Kyrkham, 
of whom he styles himself, ' His true seruytour lais chap- 
layne and bedeman " was his actual ecclesiastical superior. 
The follo,,ving is the x hole passage :-- 
,, Good otïycers ar good and commendable 
And manly knyghtes that lyue in rightwysenes 
But they that do nat ar worthy of a bable 
Syns by theyr pryde pore people they oppres 
My mayster Kyrkhan for his perfyte mekenes 
And supportacion of men in pouertye 
Out of my shyp shall worthely be ire 
I flater nat I am his true seruytour 
His chaplayne and his bede man whyle my lyfe shall endure 
Requyrynge God to exalt hym to honour 
And of his Prynces fauour to be sure 
For as I haue sayd I knowe no creature 
More manly rightwyse wyse discrete and sad 
But thoughe he be good, yet other ar als bad." 
That this Kyrkham was a knight and hot an ecclesiastic 
is so plainly apparent as to need no argument. 
investigation into Devonshire history affords the interesting 
information that among the ancient familles of that county 
there was one of this naine, of great antiquity and repute, 
now no longer existent, of which the most eminent member 

of llexander 13arclay. xxxvii 

xvas a certain Sir John Kirkham, whose popularity is evinced 
by his having been twice created High Sheriff of the 
County, in the years 15o 7 and 15z 3. (Prince, V¢orthies 
of Devon ; Izacke, Antiquities of Exeter.) 
That this was the Kirkham aboie alluded to» there can 
be no reasonable doubt, and in view of the expression "My 
mayster Kyrkham," it may be surmised that Barclay had 
the honour of being appointed by this worthy gentleman to 
the office of Sheriff's or private Chaplain or to some similar 
position of confidence, by which he gained the poet's respect 
and gratitude. The whole allusion, however, might, with- 
out straining be regarded as a merely complimentary one. 
The tone of the passage affords at any rate a very pleasing 
glimpse of the mutual regard entertained by the poet and 
his Devonshire neighbours. 
After the eulogy of Kyrkham ending with "Yet other 
ar als bad" the poet goes on immediately to give the picture 
of a character of the opposite description, making the only 
severe personal reference in his whole writings, for with all 
his unsparing exposure of wrong-doing, he carefully, wisely, 
honourably avoided personality. A certain blansell of 
Otery is gibbeted as a terror to evil doers in a way which 
would form a suflïcient ground for an action for libel in 
these degenerate days.--Ship, II. 82. 
,, Mansell of Otery for powlynge of the pote 
Were nat his great wombe, here sholde haue an ore 
But for his body is so great and corporate 
And so many burdens his brode backe doth charge 
If his great burthen cause hym to corne to late 
Yet shall the knaue be Captayne of a barge 
Where as ar bawdes and so sayle out at large 

xxxviii Lire aild llVritiilgs 

About our shyp to spye about for prayes 
For therupon hath he lyued ail his dayes." 

It ought however to be mentioned that no such name as 
Mansell appears in the Devonshire histories, and it may 
therefore be fictitious. 
The ignorance and reckless living of the clergy, one of 
the chier objects of his animadversion, receive also local 
illustration : 

,, For if one can flater, and beare a Hauke on his fist, 
He shalbe mde parson of Honington or Clist." 

A good humoured reference to the Secondaries of the 
College is the only other streak of local colouring we have 
detected in the Ship, except the passage in praise of his 
friend and colleague Bishop, quoted at p. liii. 

"Sorte, fooles, sorte, a little slacke your pace, 
"['iii I haue space you to order by degree, 
I haue eyght neyghbours, that first shall haue a place 
Within this my ship, for they most worthy be, 
They may their learning receyue costles and free, 
Their walles abutting and ioyning to the scholes i 
Nothing they can, yet nought will they learne nor see, 
Therfore shall they guide this our ship of fooles." 

In the comfort, quiet, and seclusion of the pleasant Devon- 
shire retreat, the "Ship" was translated in the year j 5o8, 
when he would be about thirty-two, "by Alexander 
Barclay Preste; and at that tyme chaplen in the sayde 
College," whence it may be inferred that he left Devon, 
either in that year or the year following, when the " Ship" 
was published, probably proceeding to London for the pur- 

of llexal«ler Barchy. xxxix 

pose of seeing it through thepress. Whether he returned 
to Devonshire we do not know; probably not, for his patron 
and friend Cornish resigned the wardenship of St Mary 
Otery in tsar, and in two years after died, so that 
Barclay's ries and hopes in the \Vest were at an end. At 
any rate we next hear of him in monastic orders, a monk 
of the order of S. Benedict, in the famous monastery of Ely, 
where, as is evident from internal proof, the Eclogues 
were vitten and where likewise, as appears from the title, 
was translated « The mirrour ol good maners," at the 
desire of Syr Giles Alington, Knight. 
It is about this period of his lire, probably the period of 
the full bloom of his popularity, that the quiet lire of the 
poet and pfiest was interrupted by the recognition of his 
eminence in the highest quarters, and by a request for his 
aid in maintaining the honour of the country on an occasion 
to which the eyes of all Europe were then directed. Ii a 
ietter of Sir Nicholas Vaux, busied with the preparations for 
the meeting of Henry VIII., and Francis I., called the Field 
of the Cloth of Gold, to Wolsey; of date oth April Szo, 
he begs the cardinal to "send to them . Maistre 
13arkleye, the Black lIonke and Poete, to devise histoires 
and convenient raisons to florisshe the buildings and banquet 
bouse withal" (Rolls Calendars of Letters and Papers, Henry 
VIII., i. pt. .). No doubt it was also thought that this 
would be an excellent opportunity for the eulogist of the 
Defender of the Faith to again take up the lyre to sing the 
glories of his royal toaster, but no effort of his muse on the 
subject of this great chivalric pageant has descended to us if 
any were ever penned. 
Probably after this employment he did not return to 

xl Life and I/I/'ritings 

Ely; xvith his position or surroundings there he does hOt 
seem to have been altogether satisfied (" there many a thing 
is wrong," see p. lxix.) ; and afterwards, though in the 
matter of date we are somewhat puzzled by the allusion 
of Bulleyn, an Ely man, to his Franciscan habit, he 
assumed the habit of the Franciscans at Canterbury, 
(' Baie IS. Sloan, f. 68,') to which change we may 
owe, if it be really Barclay's, "The life of St Thomas of 
Autumn had now corne to the poet, but fruit had failed 
hitn. The advance of age and his failure to obtain a 
suitable position in the Church began gradually to weigh 
upon his spirits. The bright hopes with which he had 
started in the flush of youth, the position he was to obtain, 
the influence he was to wield, and the work he was 
to do personally, and by his writings, in the field of moral 
and social reformation were ail in sad contrast xith the 
actualities around. He had never risen from the ranks, 
the army was in a state of disorganisation, almost of 
mutiny, and the enemy was more bold, unscrupulous, 
and numerous than ever. It is scarcely to be vondered 
at that, though hOt past fifty, he felt prematurely aged, 
that his youthful enthusiasm which had carried him 
on bravely in many an attempt to instruct and benefit his 
fellows at length forsook him and left him a prey to that 
weakness of body, and that hopelessness of spirit to which 
he so pathetically alludes in the Prologue to the Mirror of 
good Manners. Ail his best work, all the work which has 
survived to out day, was executed before this date. But the 
pen was too familiar to his hand to be allowed to drop. 
His biographers tell us "that when years came on he spent 

of Alexander Barclay. xii 

his time .mostly in pious matters, and in reading and writing 
histories of the Saints." A goodly picture of a well-spent 
old age. The harness of youth he had no longer the 
spirit and strength to don, the garments of age he 
gathered resignedly and gracefuily about him. 
On the violent dissolution of the Monasteries in 539, 
when their inmates, the good and bad, the men of wisdom 
and the "foois," were alike cast adrift upon a rock-bound 
and stormy coast, the value of the patronage which his 
iiterary and personai popularity had brought him, was put 
to the test, and in the end successfuily, though after consider- 
able, but perhaps hot to be wondered at, delay. His great 
patrons, the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Kent, Bishop 
Cornish, and probably also Sir Giles Alington, were 
ail dead, and he had to rely on newer and necessarily 
weaker ries. But after waiting, till probably somewhat 
dispirited, "fortune smiled at last. Two handsome livings 
were presented to him in the saine year, both of which he 
apparentltr held at the saine rime, the vicarage of Much 
Badew in Essex, by the presentation of Mr John Pascal, to 
which he was instituted on February 7th, 546, holding it 
(according to the Lansdowne MS. (980 f. lo), in the 
British Museum)till his death; and the vicarage of S. 
Mathew at Wokey, in Somerset, on Match 3oth of the 
came year. Wood dignifies him with the degree of doctor 
of divinity at the rime of his presentation to these 
That he seems to have accepted quietly the gradual pro- 
gress of the reformed religion during the reign of Edward 
VI., bas been a cause of wonder to some. It would cer- 
tainly have been astonishing had one who was so unsparing 


Lire and l/Fritings 

in his exposure of the flagrant abuses of the Romish Church 
donc otherwise. Though personally disindined [o radical 
changes his writings amply show his deep dissatisfaction with 
things as they were. This renders the more improbable 
the honours assigned him by Wadding (Scriptores Ordinis 
Biinorum, 18o6, p. 5), who promotes him to be Suffragan 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Bale, who, in a slanderous 
anecdote, the locale of which is also VCells, speaks of him 
as a chaplain of Q,.geen Mary's, though Mary did hot ascend 
the throne till the year after his death. _As these state- 
ments are noxvhere confirmed, it is hOt improbable that 
their authors have fallen into error by confounding the poet 
Barclay, with a Gilbert Berkeley, who became Bishop of Bath 
and Wells in 1559. One more undoubted, but tardy, piece 
of preferment was awarded him which may be regarded as 
an honour of some significance. On the 3oth April 1552 , 
the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, London, presented 
him to the Rectory of Ail Hallows, Lombard Street, but the 
weil-deserved promotion came too late to be enjoyed. A 
few weeks after, and before the l oth June, at which date 
his will was proved, he died, as his biographers say, " at a 
very advanced age;" at the good old age of seventy-si 
as shall be shown presently, at Croydon where he had 
passed his youth, and there in the Church he was buried. 
"June loth 1552 , Alexander Barkley sepuit," (Extract 
from the Parish Register, in Lyson's Environs of London). 
A copy ofhis will, an extremely interesting and instructive 
document, has been obtained from Doctors' Commons, and 
will be round appended. It bears in ail its details those 
traits of character which, from ail that we otherwise know, 
we are led to associate xvith him. In it we see the earnest 

of lexander Barday. xliii 

conscientious minister whose first thought is of the poor, the 
loyal churchman liberal in his support of the bouse of God, 
the kind relative in his numerous and considerate bequests 
to his kith and kin, the amiable, much loved man in the 
gifts of remembrance to his many friends, and the pious 
Christian in his wishes for the prayers of his survivors " to 
Almightie God for remission of my synnes, and mercy upon 
my soule." 
Barclay's career and character, both as a churchman and 
a man of letters, deserve attention and respect from every 
student of our early history and literature. In the former 
capacity he showed himself diligent, honest, and anxious, at 
a rime when these qualities seemed to bave been so entirely 
lost to the church as to form only a subject for clerical ridi- 
cule. In the latter, the saine qualities are also prominent, 
diligence, honesty, bold outspokenness, an ardent desire for 
the pure, the true, and the natural, and an undisguised 
enmity to everything false, self-seeking, and vile. Every- 
thing he did was done in a pure way, and to a worthy end. 
Bale stands alone in casting aspersions upon his moral 
character, asserting, as Ritson puts it, " in his bigoted 
and foul-mouthed way," that " he continued a hater of 
truth, and under the disguise of celibacy a filthy adulterer 
to the last;" and in his Declaration of Bonner's articles 
(56, fol. 8 I), he condescends to an instance to the effect 
that "Doctoure Barkleye hadde greate harme ones of suche 
a visitacion, at Wellys, before he was Oene Maryes Chap- 
layne. For the woman whome he so religiouslye visited did 
light him of all that he had, sauinge his workinge tolas. For 
the whiche acte he had ber in prison, and yet coulde nothing 
recouer againe." Whether this story be true of any one is 

xliv Life and l/Uritings 

perhaps doubtful, and, if true of a Barclay, we are convinced 
that he is not out author. It may have arisen as we have seen 
from a mistake as to indentity. But apart from the question 
of identity, we have nothing in support of the slander but 
Bale's "foul-mouthed" assertion, while against it we have the 
whole tenor and aim of Barclay's published writings. 
Everywhere he inculcates the highest and purest morality, 
and where even for that purpose he might be led into 
descriptions of vice, his disgust carries hîm past what most 
others ,ould have felt themselves justified in dealing with. 
For example, in the chapter of « Disgysyd folys " he 
expressly passes over as lightly as possible what might to 
others have proved a tempting subject : 

"They disceyue myndes chaste and innocent 
With dyuers wayes whiche I wyll nat expres 
Lyst that whyle I labour this cursyd gyse to stynt 
I myght to them mynyster example of lewdnes 
And therfore in this part I shall say les 
Than doth my actour." 

Elsewhere he declares : 

" for rr, y boke certaynly 
I haue compyled : for vertue and goodnes , 
And to reuyle fouie synne and vyciousnes" 
But citatiol, is needless; there is not a page of his 
x, ritings which will not supply similar evidence, and out 
great early moralist may, we think, be dismissed from Court 
without a stain on his character. 
lndeed to his high pitched morality, he doubtless owed 
in some degree the great and extended popularity of his 
poetical writings in former times and their neglect in later. 

qf l/exaner Barda.v. xlv 

Sermons and « good" books were hOt yet in the sixteenth 
century an extensive branch ofliterature, and "good "people 
could without remorse of conscience vary their limited theo- 
Iogical reading by frowning over the improprieties and sins 
of their neighbours as depicted in the "Ship," and joining, 
with a serious headshaking heartiness, in the admonitions of 
the translator to amendment, or they might feel " strength- 
ened " by a glance into the "Mirrour of good Maners," or 
edified by hearing of the "Miseryes of Courtiers and 
Courtes of ail princes in generall," as told in the "Eclogues." 
Certain it is that these writings owed little of their 
acceptance to touches of humour or satire, to the gifts of 
a poetical imagination, or the g'race of a polished diction. 
The indignation of the honest man and the earnestness of 
the moralist waited not for gifts and graces. Everything 
went down, hard, rough, even uncouth as it stood, of course 
gaining in truth and in graphic power what it wants in 
elegance. Still, with no refinement, polish or elaboration, 
there are many picturesque passages scattered throughout 
thcse works which no amount of polishing could have im- 
proved. How could a man in a rage be better touched off 
than thus (" Ship" I. Sz, 5)- 
« This man malycious whiche troubled is with wrath 
Nought els soundeth but the hoorse letter R." 
The passion of love is so graphically described that it is 
difficult to imagine out priestly moralist a total stranger to 
its power, (I. 8). 
« For he that loueth is voyde of ail reason 
Wandrynge in the worlde without lawe or mes,ire 
In thought and fere sore vexed eche season 

xlvi Z.//ç and ritings 

And greuous dolours in loue he must endure 
No creature hym selle, may well assure 
From loues soft dartis : I say none on the grounde 
But mad and folysshe bydes he whiche hath the wonnde 
Aye rennynge as franatyke no reson in his mynde 
He hath no constaunce nor ease within his herre 
His iyen ar blynde, his wyll alwaye inclyned 
To lou)s preceptes yet can nat he departe 
The Net is stronge, the foie caught can nat starte 
The darte is sharpe, who euer is in the chayne 
Can nat his sorowe in vysage hyde nor fayne" 
For expressive, happy simile, the two following examples 
are capital :-- 
" Yet sometimes riches is geuen by some chance 
To such as of good haue greatest aboundaunce. 
Likewise as streames unto the sea do glide. 
But on bare hills no water will abide. 

So smallest persons haue small rewarde alway 
But men of worship set in authoritie 
Must haue rewardes great after their degree."qEcI.oGuE I. 
" And so such thinges which princes to thee geue 
To thee be as sure as water in a siue 

So princes are wont with riches some to fede 
As we do our swine when we of larde haue nede 
X, Ve fede our hogges them after to deuour 
When they be fatted by costes and labour."--EcLoGtsE I. 
The everlasting conceit of musical humanity is very 
truthfully lait off. 
,' This is of singers the very propertie 
Alway they coueyt desired for to be 

f llexander Barclay. xh'ii 

And when their frendes would heare of their cunning 
Then are they neuer disposed for to sing, 
But if they begin desired of no man 
Then shewe they ail and more then they can 
And neuer leaue they till men of them be wery, 
So in their conceyt their cunning they set by."--Ec_oçtE II. 
Pithy sayings are numerous. Comparing citizens wih 
countrymen, the countryman says :-- 
" Fortune to them is like a mother dere 
As a stepmother she doth to us appeare." 
Of money : 
« Coyne more than cunning exalteth every man." 
Of clothing : 
« It is not clothing can make a man be good 
Better is in ragges pure liuing innocent 
Than a soule defiled in sumptuous garment." 
It is as the graphic delineator of the lire and con- 
dition of the country in his period that the chief 
interest of Barclay's writings, and especially of the "Ship of 
Fools," now lies. Nowhere so accessibly, so fully, and so 
truthfully will be round the state of Henry the Eighth's 
England set forth. Every line bears the character of truth- 
fulness, written as it evidently is, in ail the soberness of 
sadness, by one who had no occasion to exaggerate, whose 
only object and desire was, by massing together and describ- 
ing faithfully the follies and abuses which were evident o 
ail, to shame every class into some degree of moral refor- 
mation, and, in particular, to effect some amelioration of 
circumstances to the suffering poor. 
And a sad picture it is ,,vhich we thus obtain of merrie 
England in the good old times of bluff King Hal, wanting 
altogether in the couleur de rose with which it is tinted by its 

xlviii Life and l¢/'ritings 

latest historian Mr Froude, who is ably taken to task Oll this 
subject by a recent writer in the Westminster Review, whose 
conclusions, formed upon other evidence than Barclay's, ex- 
press so fairly the impression left by a perusal of the " Ship 
of Fools," and the Eclogues, that we quote them here. 
" Mr Froude remarks : ' Looking therefore, at the state of 
England as a whole, I cannot doubt that under Henry the 
body of the people were prosperous, well-fed, loyal, and 
contented. In ail points of material comfort, they were as 
well off as ever they had been before ; better off than they 
have ever been in later rimes.' In this estimate we cannot 
agree. Rather we should say that during, and for long 
after, this reign, the people were in the most deplorable 
condition of poverty and misery of every kind. Thzt they 
were ill-fed, that loyalty was at its lowest ebb, that discon- 
tent was rife throughout the land. In ail points of 
material comfort,' we think they were worse off than they 
had ever been before, and infinitely worse off than they 
have ever been since the close of the sixteenth century,--a 
century in which the cup of England's woes was surely 
fuller than it has ever been since, or will, we trust, ever be 
again. It was the century in which this country and its 
people passed through a baptism of blood as well as 'a 
baptism of tire,' and out of which they came holier and better. 
The epitaph which should be inscribed over the century is 
contained in a sentence written by the famous _Acham in 
x547 :--' Nain vita, quoe nunc vivitur a plurimis, non vita 
sed miseria est.' " So, Bradford (Sermon on Repentance, 
533) sums up contemporary opinion in a single weighty 
sentence : "Ail men may see if they will that the whoredom 
pride, unmercifulness, and tyrann), of England far surpasses 

of .gl]exander larc]ay, xlix 

any age that ever was before." Every page of Barclay 
corroborates these accounts of tyranny, injustice, immorality, 
wretchedness, poverty, and general discontent. 
Not only in fact and feeling are Barclay's Ship of Fools 
and Elogues thoroughly expressive of the unhappy, dis- 
contented, poverty-stricken, priest-ridden, and court-ridden 
condition and life, the bitter sorrows and the humble wishes 
of the people, their very texture as Barclay himself tells us, 
consists of the commonest language of the day, and in it are 
interwoven many of the current popular proverbs and expres- 
fions. _Almost ail ofthese are still "household words" though 
few ever imagine the garb of their "daily wisdom "to be of 
such venerable antiquity. Every page of the "Elogues" 
abounds with them ; in the " Ship" they are less common, 
but still by no means infrequent. We have for instance :-- 
" Better is a frende in courte than a peny in purse "-(I. 70.) 
« Whan the stede is stolyn to shyt the stable dote "-(I. 76.) 
"It goeth through as water through a syue."--(I. 24_. ) 
« And he that alway thretenyth for to fyght 
Oft at the profe is skantly worth a hen 
For greattest crakers af nat ay boldest men."--(I. 198.) 
« I fynde route thynges whiche by no meanes can 
Be kept close» in secrete» or longe in preuetee 
The firste is the counsell of a wytles man 
The seconde is a cyte whiche byldyd is a hye 
Upon a montayne the thyrde we often se 
That to hyde his dedes a louer bath no skyll 
The fourth is strawe or fethers on a wyndy hyll."-(I, t99. ) 
"  crowe to pull."--(II. 8.) 
« For it is a prouerbe, and an olde sayd sawe 
That in euery place lyke to lyke wyll drawe."---(II. 5-) 
« Better haue one birde sure within tby wall 
Or fast in a cage than twenty score without'--(II. 74-) 

1 Lire and lffrritigs 

" Gapynge as it were dogges for a bone."--(II. 93-) 
" Pryde sholde haue a fall"m(II.  6 I). 
" For wyse men sayth . . . 
One myshap fortuneth neuer alone." 
" Clawe where it itchyth."--(I1. 256. ) l-The use of this, it 
occurs again in the Eclogues, might be regarded by some of our 
Southern friends, as itself a sufficient proof of the author's Northern 
The following are selected from the Eclogues as the most 
remarkable : 
" Each man for himself, and the rende for us ail." 
"They robbe Saint Peter therwith to clothe Saint Powle" 
" For might of water will not our leasure bide." 
" Once out of sight and shortly out of minde." 
" For children brent st'dl after drede the tire." 
"Together they cleave more fast than do burres." 
" Tho' thy teeth water." 
" I aske of the foxe no farther than the skin." 
" To touche soft pitche and not his fingers file." 
" From post unto piller tost shall thou be." 
" Over head and eares." 
« Go to the ant." 
" A man may contende, God geueth victory." 
" Of two evils chose the least." 
These are but the more striking specimens. An examina- 
tion of the " Ship," and especially of the "Eclogues," for 
the purpose of extracting their whole proverbial lofe, would 
be well worth the while, if it be not the duty, of the next 
collector in this branch of popular literature. These writings 
introduce many of out common sayings for the first rime to 
English literature, no writer prior to Barclay having thought 
it dignified or worth while to profit by the popular wisdom 
to any perceptible extent. The first collection of proverbs, 

of llexander Barclay. li 

Heywood's, did not appear until 1546 , So that in Barclay 
we possess the earliest known English form of such pro- 
verbs as he introduces. It need scarcely be said that that 
form is, in the majority of instances, more full of meaning 
and point than its modern representatives. 
Barclay's adoption of the language of the people naturally 
elevated him in popular estimation to a POsition far above 
that of his contemporaries in the matter of style, so much so 
that he has been traditionally recorded as one of the greatest 
improvers of the language, that is, one of those who helped 
greatly to bring the written language to be more nearly 
in accordance with the spoken. Both a scholar and a 
man of the world, his phraseology bears token of the greater 
cultivation and -,vider knowledge he possessed over his 
contemporaries. He certainly aimed at clearness of ex- 
pression, and simplicity of vocabulary, and in these respects 
was so far in advance of his rime that his works can even 
now be read with ease, without the help of dictionaryor 
glossary. In spite of his church training and his residence 
abroad, his works are surprisingly free from Latin or French 
forms of speech ; on the contrary, they are, in the main, 
characterised by a strong Saxon directness of expression 
which must have tended greatly to the continuance of their 
popularity, and have exercised a strong and advantageous 
influence both in regulating the use of the common spoken 
language, and in leading the way which it was necessary for 
the literary language to follow. Philologists and dictionary 
makers appear, however, to have hitherto overlooked Bar- 
clay's works, doubtless owing to their rarity, but their in- 
trinsic value as well as their position in relation to the history 
of the language demand specific recognition at their hands. 

Iii Lire and l/Iritings 

Barclay evidently delighted in his pen. From the time 
of his return from the Continent, it was seldom out of his 
hand. Idleness was distasteful to him. He petitions his 
critics if they be " wyse men and cunnynge," that :-- 

« They shall my youth pardone, and vnchraftynes 
Whiche onely translate, to eschewe ydelnes." 

Assuredly a much more laudable way of employing leisure 
then than now, unless the translator prudently stop short of 
print. The modesty and singleness of aire of the man are 
strikingly illustrated by his thus devoting his time and talents, 
not to original work as he was well able to have done had he 
been desirous only of glorifying his own name, but to the 
translation and adaptation or, better, "Englishing" of such 
foreign authors as he deemed would exercise a wholesome 
and profitable influence upon his countrymen. Such wgrk, 
however, moulded in his skilful hands, became ail but original, 
little being left of his author but the idea. Neither the 
Ship of Fools, nor the Eclogues retain perceptible traces of a 
foreign source, and were it not that they honestly bear their 
authorship on their fore-front, they might be regarded as 
thoroughly, even characteristically, English productions. 
The first known work from Barclay's pen appeared from 
the press of De Worde, so early as 15o6 , probably 
immediately on his return from abroad, and was no doubt 
the fruit of continental leisure. It is a translation, in seven 
line stanzas, of the popular French poet Pierre Gringore's 
Le Chateau de labour (1499)--the most ancient work of 
Gringore with date, and perhaps his best--under the title 
of " The Castell of laboure wherein is richesse, vertu, and 
honour;" in which in a fanciful allegory of some length, 

of l]exander 1]arclay. liii 

a somewhat wearisome Lady Reason overcomes despair, 
poverty and other such evils attendant upon the fortunes 
of a poor man lately married, the moral being to show :-- 
"That idleness, mother of all adversity, 
Her subjects bringeth to extreme poverty." 
The general appreciation of this first essay is evidenced 
by the issue of a second edition from the press of Pynson 
a few years af-ter the appearance of the first. 
Encouraged by the favourable reception accorded to the 
first effort of his muse, Barclay, on his retirement to the 
ease and leisure of the College of St Mary Otery, set 
to v¢ork on the "Ship of Fools," acquaintance with which 
Europe-famous satire he must have ruade when abroad. 
This, his magnum opus, has been described at some length 
in the Introduction, but two interesting personal notices 
relative to the composition of the work may here be added. 
In the execution of the great task, he expresses himself, 
(II. 278), as under the greatest obligations to his colleague, 
friend, and literary adviser, Bishop :-- 
,, Whiche was the first ouersear of this warke 
And vnto his frende gaue his aduysement 
It nat to surfer to slepe styll in the darke 
But to be publysshyd abrode : and put to prent 
To thy monycion my bysshop I assent 
Besechynge god that I that day may se 
That thy honour may prospere and augment 
So that thy naine and offyce may agre 

In this short balade I can nat comprehende 
Ail my full purpose that I wolde to the wryte 
But fayne I wolde that thou sholde sone assende 
To heuenly worshyp and celestyall delyte 

liv Life and ]/Iritings 

Than shoulde I after my pore wyt and respyt» 
Display thy name» and great kyndnes to me 
But at this tyme no farther I indyte 
But pray that thy name and worshyp may agre." 

Pynson, in his capacity of judicious publisher, fearing lest 
the book should exceed suitable dimensions, also receives 
due notice at p. 1o8 of Vol. I., where he speaks of 
', the charge Pynson hathe on me layde 
With many folys our Nauy not to charge." 
The concluding stanza, or colophon, is also devoted to 
immortalising the great bibliopole in terres, it must be 
admitted, not dissimilar to those of a modern draper's poet 
laureate :-- 

Our Shyp here leuyth the sees brode 
By helpe of God almyght and quyetly 
At Anker we lye within the rode 
But who that lysteth of them to bye 
In Flete strete shall them fynde truly 
At the George : in Richarde Pynsonnes place 
Prynter vnto the Kynges noble grace. 
Deo gratias. 
Contemporary allusions to the Ship of Fools there could 
not fail to be, but the only one ,,ve have met with occurs 
in Bulleyn's Dialogue quoted above, p. xxvii. It runs as 
follovs :--Uxor.--What ship is that with so many owers, and 
straunge racle; it is a greate vessell. Ciuis.-This is the 
ship of fooles, vherin saileth bothe spirituail and temporall, 
of euery callyng some : there are kynges, queenes, popes, 
archbishoppes, prelates, lordes, ladies, knightes, gentlemen, 
phisicions, iawiers, marchauntes, housbandcmen, beggers, 

of llexander Barclay. lv 

theeues, hores, knaues, &c. This ship wanteth a good pilot : 
the storme, the rocke, and the wrecke at bande, ail will corne 
to taught in this hulke for want of good gouernement. 
The Eclogues, as appears from their Prologue, had ori- 
ginally been the work of out author's youth, "the essays of 
a prentice in the art of poesie," but they were wisely laid 
past tobe adorned by the wisdom of a wider experience, 
and were, strangely enough, lost for years until, at the age 
of thirty-eight, the author again lighted, unexpectedly, 
upon his lost treasures, and straightway finished them off 
for the public eye. 
The following autobiographical passage reminds one 
forcibly of Scott's throwing aside Waverley, stumbling 
across it after the lapse of years, and thereupon deciding 
at once to finish and publish it. After enumerating the 
most famous eclogue writers, he proceeds :-- 
', Nowe to my purpose, their workes worthy fame 
Did in my yonge age my heart greatly inflame, 
Dull slouth eschewing my selfe to exercise, 
In such small matters, or I durst enterprise, 
To hyer matter, like as these children do, 
Which first vse to creepe, and afterwarde to go. 

So where I in youth a certayne worke began, 
And not concluded, as oft doth many a man : 
Yet thought I after to make the saine perfite, 
But long I missed that which I first did write. 
But here a wonder, I tortie yere saue twayne, 
Proceeded in age, founde my first youth agayne. 
To finde youth in age is a probleme diffuse, 
But nowe heare the truth, and then no longer muse. 
As I late turned olde bookes to and fro, 
One litle treatise I founde among the mo 


Lire and l/lriting-s 

Because that in youth I did compile the saine, 
Egloges of youth I did call it by naine. 
And seing some men haue in the same delite, 
At their great instance I made the same perfite, 
Adding and bating where I perceyued neede, 
Ail them desiring which shall this treatise rede, 
Not to be grieued with any playne sentence» 
Rudely conuayed for lacke of eloquence." 

The most important revelation in the whole of this in- 
teresting passage, that relating to the author's age, seems to 
have been studiously overlooked by ail his biographers. If 
we can fix with probability the date at which these Eclogues 
were published, then this, one of the most regretted of the 
lacunoe in his biography, wiil be supplied. We shall feel 
henceforth treading on firmer ground in dealing with 
the scanty materials of his life. 
From the length and favour with v¢hich the praises of 
the Ely Cathedral and of Aicock its pious and munificent 
bishop, then but recently dead, are sung in these poems (see 
p. lxviii.), it is evident that the poet must have donned the 
black hood in the monastery of Ey for at least a few years. 
Warton fixes the date at 5 x4, because of the praises of 
the "noble Henry which now departed late," and the after 
panegyric of his successor Henry VIII. (Eclogue I.), whose 
virtues are also duly recorded in the Ship of Fools (I. 39 
and II. 2o5-8), but not otherwise of course than in a com- 
plimentary manner. Our later lights make this picture of 
the noble pair appear both out of drawing and over- 
coloured :-- 

« Beside noble Henry which nowe departed late, 
Spectacle of vertue to euery hye estate, 

of Xllexander tarc]ay, lvii 

The patrone of peace and primate of prudence, 
Which on Gods Church hath done so great expence. 
Of ail these princes the mercy and pifie, 
The loue of concorde, Justice and equitie, 
The purenes of lire and giftes liberall, 
Not lesse vertuous then the said princes ail. 
And Henry the eyght moste hye and triumphant, 
No g'tfte of vertue nor manlines doth want, 
Mine humble spech and language pastorall 
If it were able should write his actes ail : 
But while I ought speake of courtly misery, 
Him with ail suche I except v.tterly. 
But what other princes commonly frequent, 
As true as I can to shewe is mine intent, 
But if I should say that ail the misery, 
Which I shall after rehearse and specify 
Were in the court of our moste noble kinge, 
I should fayle truth, and playnly make leasing."mEcLoGVE I. 

This eulogy of Henry plainlyimplies some short experience 
of his reign.. But other allusions contribute more definitely 
to fix the precise date, such as the following historical pas- 
sage, which evidently refers to the career of the notorious 
extortioners, Empson and Dudley, who were executed for 
conspiracy and treason in the first year of the new king's 


Such as for honour unto the court resort, 
Looke seldome tlmes upon the lower sort ; 
"fo the hyer sort for moste part they intende, 
For still their desire is hyer to ascende 
And when none can make with them comparison, 
Against their princes conspire they by treason, 
Then when their purpose can nat corne well to frame, 
Agayne they descende and that with utter shame, 

lviii Life and [/[Tritings 

Coridon thou knowest right well what I meane, 
We lately of this experience haue seene 
When men would ascende to rowmes honorable 
Euer is their minde and lust insaciable." 

The most definite proof of the date of publication, how- 
ever, is round in the fourth Eclogue. It contains a long 
poem called The towre of vertue and honour, which is 
really a highly«vrought elegy on the premature and glori- 
ous death, hot of "the Duke of Norfolk, Lord High admiral, 
and one of Barclay's patrons," as has been repeated parrot- 
like, from ,Varton downwards, but of his chivalrous son, 
Sir Edward Howard, Lord High _Admiral for the short 
space of a few months, x'lao perished in his gallant, if 
reckless, attack upon the French fleet in the harbour of 
Brest in the year 1513. It is incomprehensible that the 
date of the publication of the Eclogues should be fixed 
at i514, and this blunder still perpetuated. No Duke of 
l'qorfolk died between Barclay's boyhood and 524, ten 
years after the agreed upon date of the Elegy; and the 
Duke (Thomas), who was Barclay's patron, never held the 
position of Lord High Admiral (though his son Lord Thomas, 
created Earl of Surrey in 1514, and who afterwards suc- 
ceeded him, also succeeded his brother Sir Edward in the 
Admiralship), but worthily enjoyed the dignified offices of 
Lord High Steward, Lord Treasurer, and Earl Marshal, and 
died one of Henry's most respected and most popular Mini- 
sters, at lais country seat, at a good old age, in the year above 
mentioned, 5z4. The other allusions to contemporary 
events, and especially to the poet's age, preclude the idea of 
carrying forward the publication to the latter date, did the 
clearly defined points of the Elegy allow of it, as they do hot. 

of Ilexander Barclay. lix 

Minalcas, one of the interlocutors, thus introduces the 
subje¢t :-- 
" But it is lamentable 
To heare a Captayne so good and honorable, 
8o soone withdrawen by deathes crueltie, 
Belote his ertue was at moste hye degree. 
If death for a season had shewed him fauour, 
To all his nation he should haue bene honour." 
" 'The Towre of Vertue and Honor,' introduced as a 
song of one of the shepherds into these pastorals, exhibits 
no very masterly strokes of a sublime and inventive fancy. 
It bas much of the trite imagery usually applied in the 
fabrication of these ideal edifices. It, however, shows out 
author in a new walk of poetry. This magnificent tower, 
or castle is built on inaccessible cliffs of flint: the walls are 
of gold, bright as the sun, and decorated vdth ' olde his- 
toryes and picture manyfolde: ' the turrets are beautifully 
shaped. Among its heroic inhabitants are Henry VIII., [' in 
his maiestie moste hye enhaunsed as ought a conquerour,' 
no doubt an allusion to the battle of the Spurs and his other 
exploits in France in 1 5 ,3], Howard Duke ofNorfolk, ['the 
floure of chiualry '], and the Earl of Shrewsbury, [' manfull 
and hardy, with other princes and men of dignitie']. Labour 
is the porter at the gate, and Virtue governs the house. 
Labour is thus pictured, wlth some degree of spirit :-- 
' Fearefull is l.qbour wlthout fauour at ail, 
Dreadfull of i-age, a monster intreatable, 
Iàke Cerberus lying at gares infernall i 
To sorne men his looke is halte intollerable, 
His shoulders large, for burthen strong and able, 
His body bristled, his necke rnightie and stiffe ; 
By sturdy senewes, his ioyntes stronge and stable, 
Like rnarb]e stones his bandes be as stilTe. 


Life and Writings 

Here must man vanquishe the dragon of Cadmus, 
Against the Chimer here stoutly must he fight, 
Here must he vanquish the fearefull Pegasus, 
For the golden flece here must he shewe his might : 
If labour gaynsay, he can nothing be right, 
This monster labour oft chaungeth his figure, 
Sometime an oxe, a bore» or lion xvight, 
Playnely he seemeth, thus chaungeth his nature, 
Like as Protheus ofte chaunged his stature. 
Under his browes he dreadfully doth loure, 
,Vith glistering eyen, and side dependaunt beard» 
For thirst and hunger alxvay his chere is soure» 
His horned forehead doth make faynt heartes feard. 
Alway he drinketh, and yet alway is drye, 
The sweat disdlling with droppes aboundaunt,' 

"The poet adds, ' that when the noble Howard had long 
boldly contended with this hideous monster, had brokên the 
bars and doors of the castle, had bound the porter, and was 
now preparing to ascend the tower of Virtue and Honour, 
Fortune and Death appeared, and interrupted his progress.'" 
(Warton, Eng. Poetry, III.) 
The hero's descent and .knightly qualitiês axe duly set 
forth :-- 
', Though he were borne to glory and honour, 
Of auncient stocke and noble progenie» 
Yet thought his courage to be of more valour, 
By his owne actes and noble chiualry. 
Like as becommeth a knight to fortifye 
His princes quarell with right and equitie» 
So did this Hawarde with courage valiauntly, 
'IïLl death abated his bolde audackie." 

of .dllexander Barclay. lxi 

The poet, gives « cursed fortune" a severe rating, and at 
such length that the old lad), no doubt repented herself, for 
cutting off so promising a hero at so early an age : 
« Tell me, frayle fortune, why did thou breuiate 
The liuing season of suche a captayne, 
That when his actes ought to be laureate 
Thy fauour turned him suffring to be slayne ?" 
And then he addresses the Duke himself in a consolatou¢ 
strain, endeavouring to reconcile him to the loss of so pro- 
mising a son, b¢ recalling to his memory those heroes of 
antiquity v,-hose careers of glory were cut short by sudden 
and violent deaths :-- 
« But moste worthy duke hye and ,Actorious» 
Respire to comfort» see the ,ncertentie 
Of other princes» whose fortune prosperous 
Oftetime haue ended in hard aduersitie : 
Read of Pompeius," [&c.] 


This shall be, this is» and this hath euer bene» 
That boldest heartes be nearest ieopardie, 
"Fo dye in battayle is honour as men wene 
"Fo suche as haue ioy in haunfing chiualry. 
Suche famous ending the naine doth magnifie, 
Note worthy duke, no cause is to complayne» 
His lire hot ended foule nor dishonestly» 
In bed nor tauerne his lustes to maynteyne» 
But like as besemed a noble captayne, 
In sturdie harnes he died for the right, 
From deathes daunger no man may flee certayn% 
But suche death is metest vnto so noble a knight. 

But death it to call me thinke it vnright, 
$ith his worthy naine shall laste perpetuall," [&c.] 

lxii Life and IUritiîlgs 

This detail and these long quotations have been ren- 
dered necessary by the strange blunder which bas been 
made and perpetuated as to the identity of the young 
hero whose death is so feelingly lamented in this elegy. 
With that now clearly ascertained, we can not only fix 
with confidence the date of the publication of the Eclogues, 
but by aid of the hint conveyed in the Prologue, quoted 
above (p. Iv.), as to the author's age, "fortie saue twayne, 
decide, for the first time, the duration of his life, and the 
dates, approximately at least, of its incidents, and of the 
appearance of his undated works. Lord Edward Howard, 
perhaps the bravest and rashest of England's admirais, 
perished in a madly daring attack upon the harbour of 
Brest, on the zsth of April, 1514. _As the eclogues 
could not therefore bave been published prior to that date, 
so, bearing in mind the other allusions referred to above, they 
could scarcely have appeared later. Indeed, the loss which the 
elegy commemorates is spoken of as quite recent, xvhile the 
elegy itself bears every appearance of having been intro- 
duced into the eclogue at the last moment. \¥e feel quite 
satisfied therefore that Warton hit quite correctly upon the 
year 15 t 4 as that in which these poems first saw the light, 
though the ground (the allusion to the Henries) upon which 
he went was insufficient, and his identification of the hero 
of the elegy contradicted his supposition. Had he been 
aware of the importance of fixing the date correctly, he 
would probably have taken more care than to fall into the 
blunder of confounding the father with the son, and adorn- 
ing the former with the dearly earned laurels of the latter. 
It may be added that, fixing i 5 t 4 as the date at which 
Barclay had arrived at the age of 38, agrees perfectly v¢ith 

of llexancler darclay, lxiii 

ail else we know of his years, with the assumed date of 
his academical education, and of his travels abroad, with the 
suppositions formed as to his age from his various published 
works having dates attached to them, and finally, with the 
traditional "great age" at which he died, which would 
thus be six years beyond the allotted span. 
After the Ship of Fools the Eclogues rank second in im- 
portance in a consideration of Barclay's writings. Not only 
as the first of their kind in English, do they crown their 
author with the honour of introducing this kind of poetry to 
English literature, but they are in themselves most interest- 
ing and valuable as faithful and graphic pictures of the 
court, citizen, and country lire of the period. Nowhere else 
in so accessible a form do there exist descriptions at once 
so full and so accurate of the whole condition of the people. 
Their daily lire and habits, customs, manners, sports and 
pastimes, are ail placed on the canvas belote us with a ready, 
vigorous, unflinching hand. Witness for instance the follow- 
ing sketch, which might be entitled, "Lire, temp. 15 t4 ":-- 
« Some men deliteth beholding men to fight, 
Or goodly knightes in pleasaunt apparayle, 
Or sturdie souldiers in bright harnes and maie. 

Some glad is to see these Ladies beauteous, 
Goodly appoynted in clothing sumpteous : 
A number of people appoynted in like wise : 
In costly clothing after the newest gise, 
Sportes, disgising, fayre coursers mount and praunce, 
Or goodly ladies and knightes sing and daunce : 
To see fayre bouses and curious picture(s), 
Or pleasaunt hanging» or sumpteous vesture 
Of silke, of purpure, or golde moste orient, 
And other clothing diuers and excellent: 

lxiv Life atd [I/'ritings 

Hye curious buildinges or palaces royall, 
Or chapels, temples fayre and substanciall, 
Images grauen or vaultes curious ; 
Gardeyns and medowes, or place delicious, 
Forestes and parkes well furnished with dere, 
Colde pleasaunt streames or welles fayre and clere, 
Curious cundites or shadowie mountaynes, 
Swete pleasaunt valleys, laundes or playnes 
Houndes, and suche other thinges manyfolde 
8ome men take pleasour and solace to beholde." 

The following selections illustrative of the cutoms and 
manners of the times will serve as a sample of the over- 
flowing cask from which they are taken. The condition 
of the country people is clearly enough indicated in a de- 
scription of the village Sunday, the manner of its celebration 
being depicted in language calculated to make a modern 
sabbatarian's hair stand on end :-- 

« What man is faultlesse, remember the village, 
Howe men vplondish on holy dayes rage. 
Nought can them tame, they be a beastly sort, 
In sweate and labour hauing most chiffe comfort, 
On the holy da), assoone as morne is past, 
When ail men resteth while ail the day doth last, 
They drinke, they banket, they reuell and they iest 
They leape, they daunce, despising ease and rest. 
If they once heare a bagpipe or a drone, 
Anone to the elme or oke they be gone. 
There vse they to daunce, to gambolde and to rage 
Such is the custome and vse of the village. 
When the ground resteth from rake, plough and wheles» 
Then moste they it trouble with burthen of their heles : 

of qlexan&r arday. lxv 

To Bacchus they banket, no feast is festiuall, 
They chide and they chat, they vary and they bra]l, 
They rayle and they route, they reuell and they crye, 
Laughing and leaping, and making cuppes drye. 
What, sdnt thou thy chat, these wordes I defye, 
It is to a vilayne rebuke and vilany. 
8uch rurall solace so plainly for to blame, 
Thy wordes sound to thy rebuke and shame." 
Football is described in a livdy picture :-- 
,, They get the bladder and blowe it great and rhin, 
With many beanes or peason put within, 
It ratleth, soundeth, and shineth clere and fayre, 
While it is throwen and caste vp in the ayre, 
Eche one contendeth and hath a great delite, 
With foote and with hande the bladder for to smite, 
If it fall to grounde they lifte it vp agayne, 
ïhis wise to labour they count it for no payne, 
Renning and leaping they driue away the colde, 
The sturdie plowmen lustie, stronge and bolde, 
Ouercommeth the winter wittl drluing the foote ball, 
Forgetting labour and many a greuous fall." 

_A shepherd, after mentioning his skill in shooting birds 
with a bow, says :-- 

"No shepheard throweth the axeltrie so farre." 

A gallant is thus described :-- 

"For women vse to loue them moste of ail, 
Which boldly bosteth, or that can ring and let, 
Which are well decked with large bushes set, 
Which hath the mastery ofte rime in tournament, 
Or that can gambauld, or daunce feat and gent." 

lxvi Life an 14/ritings 

The foliowing sorts of wine are mentioned :-- 
", As lIuscadell, Caprike, Romney, and Maluesy, 
From Gene brought, from Grece or Hungary." 

As are the dainties of the table. _A_ shepherd at court must 
not think to ea b 
« Swanne» nor heron» 
Curlewe» nor crane» but course beefe and mutton." 

Again : 
,, What fishe is of sauor swete and delicious,-- 
Rosted or sodden in swete hearbes or wine ; 
Or fried in oyle, most saporous and fine.-- 
The pasdes of a hart.-- 
The crane, the fesant, the pecocke and curlewe, 
The partfiche, plouer, bittor, and heronsewe-- 
Seasoned so well in licour redolent, 
That the hall is full of pleasaunt smell and sent." 

At a feast at court :-- 
" Slowe be the seruers in serulng in alway, 
But swift be they af-ter» taking thy meate away i 
A spedall custome is vsed them among, 
No good dish to surfer on borde to be longe : 
If the dishe be pleasaunt, eyther fleshe or fishe» 
Ten handes at once swarme in the dishe : 
And if it be flesh ten kniues shalt thou see 
Mangling the flesh» and in the platter flee : 
To put there thy handes is perill without fayle, 
Without a gauntlet or els a gloue of mayle." 
"The two last lines remind us of a saying of Oin, who 
declared it was hOt safe to sit down to a turtle-feast in one 
of the city-hails, without a basket-hilted knife and fork. 

of llexander tarclay, lxvii 

Not that I suppose Oin borrowed his bon-mots from black 
letter books." (Warton.) 
The following lines point out some of the festive tales of 
our ancestors : 

" Yet would I gladly heare some mery fit 
Of mayde Marion, or els of Robin hood  
Or Bentleyes aie which chafeth well the bloud, 
Of perre of Norwich, or sauce of Wilberton, 
Or bucldshe Joly well-stuffed as a ton." 

He again 
to inke ; " 

mentions "Bentley's _Aie " which "maketh me 
and some of our ancient domestic pastimes and 
are recorded :-- 

Then is it pleasure the yonge maydens amonge 
To watche by the tire the winters nightes long 
At their fonde raies to laugh, or when they brall 
Great tire and candell spending for laboure small, 
And in the ashes some playes for to marke, 
To couer wardens [pears] for fault of other warke 
To toste white sheuers, and to make prophitroles 
And after talking oft rime to fill the bowles." 

He mentions some musical instruments: 

« .... Methinkes no mirth is scant, 
Where no reioysing of minstrelcie doth want : 
The bagpipe or fidle to vs is delectable." 
And the mercantile commodities of different 
and cities :-- 


« Englande bath cloth, Burdeus bath store of whae, 
Cornewall hath tinne, and Lymster wools fine. 
London hath scarlet, and Bristowe pleasaunt red, 
Fen lands hath fishes, in other place is lead." 

lxviii Life and I/Vritings 

Of songs at feasts :-- 

"When your fat dishes smoke hote vpon your table, 
Then layde ye songes and balades magnifie, 
If they be mery, or written craftely, 
Ye clappe your bandes and to the maldng harke, 
And one say to other, Io here a proper warke." 

He says that minstrels and singers are highly favoured at 
court, especially those of the French gise. Also jugglers 
and pipers. 
The personal references throughout the Eclogues, in 
addition to those already mentioned, though not numerous, 
are of considerable interest. The learned Alcock, 
Bishop of Ely (486-15oo), and the munificent founder of 
Jesus College, Cambridge, stands deservedly high in the 
esteem of a poet and priest, so zealous of good works as 
Barclay. The poet's humour thus disguises him.--(Eclogue 
I., A iii., recto.) :-- 

Yes since his dayes a cocke was in the/en, " 
I knove his voyce among a thousande men : 
He taught, he preached, he mended euery wrong ; 
But, Coridon alas no good thing bideth long. 
He aH was a cocke, he wakened vs from slepe, 
And while we slumbred, he did our foldes hepe. 
No cur, no foxes, nor butchers dogges wood, 
Coulde hurte our fouldes, his watching was so good. 
The hungry wolues, which that rime did abounde, 
What rime he crowed, abashed at the sounde. 
This cocke was no more abashed of the foxe, 
Than is a lion abashed of an oxe. 
When he went, faded the floure of ail the fen i 
I boldly dare sweare this cocke neuer trode hen ! 

of llexander t?arclay, lxix 

This was a father of thinges pastorall, 
And that well sheweth his Church cathedrall, 
There was I lately about the middest of May, 
Coridon his Church is twenty sith more gay 
Then ail the Churches betwene the same and Kent, 
There sawe I his tome and Chapell excellent. 
I thought fiue houres but euen a little while, 
Saint John the virgin me thought did on me smile, 
Our parishe Church is but a dongeon, 
To that gay Churche in coinparlson. 
If the people were as pleasaunt as the place 
Then were it paradice of pleasour and solace, 
Then might I truely right well finde in my heart. 
There st'fil to abide and neuer to departe, 
But since that this cocke by death hath left his song, 
Trust me Coridon there many a thing is wrong, 
When I sawe his figure lye in the Chapell-side, 
Like death for weping I might no longer bide. 
Lo all good thinges so sone away doth glide, 
That no man liketh to long doth rest and abide. 
When the good is gone (my mate this is the case) 
Seldome the better reentreth in the place." 

The excellence of his subject carries the poet quite 
beyond himself in describing the general lamentation at the 
death of this v¢orthy prelate; v¢ith an unusual power of 
imagination he thus pictures the sympathy of the towers, 
arches, vauhs and images of Ely monastery : 
« My harte sore mourneth when I must spec'rfy 
Of the gentle cocke whiche sange so mirily, 
He and his flocke wer like an union 
Conioyned in one without discention, 
All the fayre cockes which in his dayes crewe 
When death him touched did his departing rewe. 

lxx Life and l¢Tritings 

The pretie palace by him ruade in the fen, 
The maides, widowes, the wiues, and the men, 
With deadly dolour were pearsed to the heart, 
When death co/astrayned this shepheard to departe. 
Corne, grasse, and fieldes, mourned for wo and payne, 
For oft his prayer for them obtayned rayne. 
The pleasaunt floures for wo faded eche one, 
When they perceyued this shepheard dead and gone, 
The okes, elmes, and euery sorte o dere 
Shronke vnder shadowes, abating ai1 their chere. 
The mightle walles of Ely Monastery, 
The stones, rockes, and towres semblably, 
'rhe marble piliers and images echeone, 
Swet ail for sorowe, when this good cocke was gone, 
Though he or stature were humble» weake and leane» 
His minde ,,vas hye, his liuing pure and cleane, 
Whe're other feedeth bv beasrly appetite, 
On heauenly foode was ail his whole delite." 

Morton, Alcock's predecessor and afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (486-15oo), is also singled out for 
compliment, in which allusion is made to his troubles, his 
servants' faithfulness, and his restoration to favour under 
Richard III. and Henry Vil. (Eclogue III.):-- 

« And shepheard Morton, when he durst not appeare, 
Howe his olde seruauntes were carefull of his chere ; 
In payne and pleasour they kept fidelitie 
T'dl grace agayne gaue him aucthoritie 
Then his olde fauour did them agayne restore 
'1-o greater pleasour then they had payne before. 
Though for a season this shepheard bode a blast, 
The greatest winde yet slaketh at the last, 
And at conclusion he and his flocke certayne 
Eche true to other did quietly remayne." 

of l]exander tarc]ay, lxxi 

And again in Eclogue IV. :-- 
« 1Vficene and Morton be dead and gone certayne." 
The "Dean of Powles" (Colet), with wlom Barday seems 
to have been personally acquainted, and to whom the refer- 
ence alludes as to one still living (his death occt, rred in 
15 19), Si celebrated as a preacher in the saine Eclogue :-- 
« For this I learned of the Dean of Powles 
I tell thee, Codrus this man hath won some soules." 
as is " the olde friar that wonned in Greenwich" in 
Eclogt, e V. 
The first three Eclogues are paraphrases or adaptations 
from the Miserioe Curialium, the most popular of the 
works of one of the most successful literary adventt, rers of 
the middle ages, ASneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II., who died 
in I464). It appears to have been written with the view 
of relieving his feelings of disappointment and disgust at his 
reception at the court of the Emperor, xvhither he had 
repaired, in the hope of political advancement. The tone 
and nature of the work may be gathered from this candid 
exposure of the adventurer's morale: "Many things 
there are which compel us to persevere, but nothing more 
powerfully than ambition which, rivalling charity, truly 
beareth ail things however grievous, that St may attain to 
the honours of this world and the praise of men. If we 
were humble and laboured to gain our own souls rather than 
hunt after vain glory, few of us, indeed, would endure such 
annoyances." He details, v¢ith querulous humour, ail the 
grievances of his position, from the ingratitude of the 
prince to the sordour of the table-cloths, and the hardness 
of the black bread. But hardest of ail to bear is the con- 

Ixxii JLife and lritings 

tempt shown towards literature. « In the courts of princes 
literary knowledge is held a crime; and great is the grief 
of men of letters when they find themselves universally 
despised, and see the most important matters managed, hot 
to say mismanaged, by blockheads, who cannot tell the 
number of their fingers and toes." 
Barclay's adaptation is so thoroughly Englished, and con- 
tains such large additions from the stores of his own bitter 
experience, as to make it even more truly his own than any 
other of his translations. 
The fourth and fifth eclogues are imitations,pthough no 
notice that they are so is conveyed in the title, as in the 
case of the first three,--of the fifth and sixth of the popular 
eclogue writer of the time, Jo. Baptist Mantuan, which may 
bave helped to-give fise to the generally received statement 
noticed below, that ail the eclogues are imitations of that 
author. The fourth is entitled "Codrus and Minalcas 
treating of the behauour of Riche men agaynst Poetes," and 
it may be judged how far it is Barclay's from the fact that 
it numbers about twelve hundred lines, including the elegy 
of the Noble Howard, while the original, entitled, "De 
consuetudine Divitum erga Poetas," contains only about two 
hundred. The fifth is entitled "Amintas and Faustus, of 
the disputation of citizens and men of the countrey." It 
contains over a thousand lines, and the original, « De dis- 
ceptatione rusticorum et civium," like the fifth, extends to 
little more than two hundred. 
In the Prologue belote mentioned we are told (Cawood's 
edition) :-- 

"That fiue Egloges this whole treatise doth holde 
To imitation of other Poetes olde," 

ol e 4lexander Barclay. lxxiii 

Which appears to be a correction of the printer's upon 
the original, as in Powell's edition :-- 

"That X. egloges this hole treatyse dothe holde." 

Whether other rive were ever published there is no record 
to show; it appears, however, highly improbable, that, if 
they had, they could have been entirely lost,--especially con- 
sidering the popularity and repeated issue of the first rive,-- 
during the few years that would have elapsed between their 
original publication and the appearance of Cawood's edition. 
Possibly the original reading may be a typographical blunder, 
for Cawood is extremely sparing of correction, and appears 
to bave ruade none xvhich he did not consider absolutely 
necessary. This is one of the literary puzzles which remain 
for bibliography to solve. (See below, p. Ixxix.) 
The next of Barclay's works in point of date, and per- 
haps the only one actually entitled to the merit of origi- 
nality, is his Introductory to write and pronounce French, 
compiled at the request of his grêat patron, Thomas Duke 
of lqorfolk, and printed by Copland in 52. It is thus 
alluded to in the first important authority on French gram- 
mar, " Lesclarissement de la langue Francoyse compose 
par aistre Jehan Palsgraue, Angloys, natyf de Londres," 
53 o : " The right vertuous and excellent prince Thomas, 
late Duke of Northfolke, hath commanded the studious 
clerke, Alexandre Barkelay, to embusy hymselfe about this 
exercyse." Further on he is hot so complimentary as he 
remarks:--" Where as there is a boke, that goeth about 
in this realme, intitled The introductory to writte and pro- 
nounce frenche, compiled by Alexander Barcley, in which k is 
moche vsed, and many other thynges also by hym aflïrmed, 

lxxiv Lf" and lloeritings 

contrary to my sayenges in this boke, and specially in my 
seconde, where I shall assaye to expresse the declinations 
and coniugatynges with the other congruites obserued in 
the frenche tonge, I suppose it sufficient to warne the lernar, 
that I haue red ouer that boke at length : and what myn 
opinion is therin, it shall well inough apere in my bokes 
selle, though I make therof no ferlher expresse mention: 
saue that I haue sene an olde boke written in parchement, in 
maner in ail thynkes like to his sayd Introductory: whiche, 
by conjecture, was not vnwritten this hundred yeres. I 
wot nat if he happened to fortune npon suche an other : 
for whan it was commaunded that the grammar maisters 
shulde teche the youth of Englande ioyntly latin with 
frenche, there were diuerse suche bokes diuysed: wher- 
upon, as I suppose, began one great occasyon why we of 
England sounde the latyn tong so corruptly, whiche haue 
as good a top, ge to sounde ail maner speches parfitely as 
any other nacyon in Europa."--Book I. ch. xxxv. 
cording to this," Mr Ellis (Early English Pronnnciation, 
804) pertinently notes- "°, there ought to be many old 
IIS. treatises on French grammar; and OE°, the English 
pronunciation of 1.atin was moulded on the French." 
To Barclay, as nine years before Palsgrave, belongs 
at least the credit, hitherto generally unrecognised, of the 
first published attempt at a French grammar, by either 
Frenchman or foreigner. 
"The mirror of good manners, containing the four cardi- 
nal verrues," appeared from the press of Pynson, without 
date, "which boke," says the typographer, «I haue 
prynted at the instance and request of the ryght noble 
Rychard Yerle of Kent." This earl of Kent died in 

9f tlexander YBarchy. lxxv 

and as Barclay speaks of himself in the preface as advanced 
in age, the date of publication may be assigned to close 
upon that year. It is a translation, in the ballad stanza, of 
the Latin elegiac poem of Dominicus Mancinus, D« cuatuor 
virtutibus, first published in 1 5 1 6, and, as appears ri-oto the 
title, was executed while Barclay was a monk of Ely, at 
" the desire of the righte worshipfull 8yr Giles Alington, 
Knight." From the address to his patron it vould seem 
that the Knight had requested the poet to abridge or 
modernise Gower's Confessio amantis. For declining 
this task he pleads, that he is too old to undertake such 
a light subject, and also the sacred nature of lais profession. 
He then intimates his choice of the present more grave and 
serious work instead-- 
Which a priest may write, not hurting his estate, 
Nor of honest naine obumbring at all his light. 
" But the poet," says Warton, "decltned this undertak- 
ing as unsuitable to his age, infirmities, and profession, and 
chose rather to oblige his patron with a grave system of 
ethics. It is certain that he ruade a prudent choice. The 
performance shows how little qualified he was to correct 
Gower." Instead of a carping criticism like this, it would 
bave been much more to the point to praise the modesty and 
sensibility of an author, vho had the courage to decline a 
task unsuited to his tastes or powers. 
He professes little :-- 
This playne litle treatlse in stile compendious, 
lIuch briefly conteyneth four vertues cardinall, 
In r, ight pleasaunt processe, plaine and cominodious 
With light foote of mette, and stile heroicail, 
Rude people to infourme in language rnaternall, 

lxxvi Lire and II'rilings 

To whose vnderstanding maydens of tender age, 
And rude litle children shall finde easy passage. 
Two editions of the work are sufficient evidence that 
this humble and praiseworthy purpose was, in the eyes of 
his contemporaries, successfuily carried out. 
The only remaining authentic production of Barclay 
which has corne down to us, is a translation of the Jugur- 
thine XVar of 8allust, undertaken at the request of, and 
dedicated to, his great patron, Thomas Duke of l'qorfolk, 
and printed also at Pynson's press without date. The Latin 
and English are printed side by side on the saine page, 
the former being dcdicated, with the date " Ex ceilu[a 
Hatfeldefi regii (i.e., King's Hatfield, Hertfordshire) in Idus 
l'qovembris" to Vesey, the centenarian Bishop of Exeter, 
with this superscription :--" Reuerêdissimo in Christo patri 
ac dru5 : dn5 Joanni Veysy exoniên episcopo _A[exander Bar- 
c[ay presbyter debi,,ta cure obseruantia. 8." The dedication 
begins, "Memini me superioribus annis cri adhuc saceili 
regij presul esses: pastor vigilantissime: tuis suasionibus 
incitatfi: vt Crispi Salustij hystorifi.--e romana lingua: 
in anglicam compendiose transferrem," &c. Vesey was 
probably one of Barclay's oldest west country friends; for 
he is recorded to have been connected with the diocese of 
Exeter from i5o 3 to i551, in the various capacities of arch- 
deacon, precentor, dean, and bishop successively. Conjec- 
ture has placed the date of this publication at i5tt , but 
as Veysey did not succeed to the Bishopric of Exeter till 
_August 1519, this is untenable. ,¥e cannot say more than 
that it must have been published between 1519 and i524, 
the date of the Duke of l'qorfolk's death, probably in the 
former year, since, from its being dated from « Hatfield," 

of llexander ]arc]ay. lxxvii 

the ancient palace of the bishops of Ely, (sold to the Crown 
in the 3oth of Henry VIII. ; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, 
II.) Barclay at the rime of its completion was evidently stiil 
a monk of Ely. 
By his translation of Sallust (so popular an author at 
that period, that the learned virgin queen is reported to 
have amused her leisure wittt an English version), Barclay 
obtained the distinction of being the first to introduce that 
classic to Eglish readers. His version bears the reputation 
of being executed hot only with accuracy, but with con- 
siderable freedom and elegance, and its popularity was 
evinced by its appearance in three additions. 
Two other works of our author are spoken of as ha'ring" 
been in print, but they have apparently passed entirely out of 
sight : "The figure of out holy mother Church, oppressed 
by the Frenche King," (Pynson, 4to), known only from 
Maunsell's Catalogue; and "The lyf of the glorious 
martyr, saynt George translated (from Mantuan) by A lex- 
ander Barclay, while he was a monk of Ely, and dedicated 
to N. Vest, Bishop of Ely," (Pynson, 4to), (Herbert, 
Typ. Antiquities.) Vest was Bishop of Ely from 15 5 
to 533, and consequently Barclay's superior during pro- 
bably his v«hole stay there. .rhether these two works 
were in verse or prose is unkno'n. 
There are two other books ascribed to Barclay, but 
nothing satisfactory can be stated regarding their parentage 
except thaq considering their subject, and the press they 
issued from, it is hot at all unlikely that they may have been 
the fruit of his prolific pen. The first is "The lyre of 
the blessed martyr, Saynte Thomas," in prose, printed 
by Pynson, (Herbert, Typ. Ant. 292), regarding 'hich 

lxxviii Life and ll%iti»gs 

Ant. l.Vood says, « I should feel little diflïculty in ascrib- 
ing this to Barclay." The other is the English trans- 
lation of the Histoire merveilleuse du Grand Khan 
Latin, De Tartaris siue I.iber historiarum partium Orientis) 
of the eastern soldier, and western monk, Haytho, prince 
Georgia at the end of the 3th, and beginning of the 14th 
centuries. The Ilistory which gives an account of Genghis 
Khan, and his successors, with a short description of the 
different kingdoms of Asia, was very popnlar in the 15th 
and 6th centuries, as one of the earliest accounts of the 
East, and the conjecture of the Grenville Catalogue is 
hot improbable, though there is no sufficient evidence, 
that Barclay was the author of the English version which 
appeared from the press of Pynson. 
Baie further enumerates in his list of Barclay's works 
"Contra Skeltonum, Lib. I. ; Q.uinq: eglogas ex 1VIantuano, 
I.ib. I; Vitam D. Catherinoe, Lib. I., [Libros tres, Pits]; 
\ritam D. Margaritoe, Lib. !. ; Vitam Ètheldredae, Lib. I. ; 
Aliaq: plura fecit." Tanner adds: « Orationes varias, 
Lib. I. ; De ride orthodoxa, Lib. I." 
Of these various fruits of Barclay's fertility and industry 
no fragment has survived to out day, nor has even any 
positive information regarding their nature been transmitted 
to us. 
The « Orationes varias," probably a collection of sermons 
with especial reference to the sins of the day would have 
been historically, if hot otherwise, interesting, and their loss 
is matter for regret. On the other hand the want of the 
treatise, "De ride orthodoxa," is doubtless a relief to 
literature. There are too many of the kind already to 
encu,nber out shelves and our catalogues. 

of H]exam]er arc]ay. lxxix 

The Lires of the Saints, the work, it is stated, of the 
author's old age, were, according to Tanner, and he is 
no doubt right, translations from the Latin. Barclay's 
Teputation probably does hOt surfer from their loss. 
« Ofinque eglogas ex Mantuano," though Baie mentions 
also "De miserijs aulicorum ; Bucolicam Codri ; Eglogam 
quartam," apparently the rive, but really the first four of the 
eclogues known to us, are, I ara strongly inclined to believe, 
nothing else than these saine rive eclogues, under, to use a 
bibliographical phrase, "a made up" title. That he men- 
tions first, rive ri'oto Mantuan, and afterwards adds "Bucoli- 
cam Codri" and "Eglogam quartam," as two distinct 
eclogues, apparently not from Mantuan, while both titles 
must refer to the saine poem, an imitation of Mantuan's 
fifth eclogue, is proof enough that he was hot speaking 
with the authority of personal knowledge of these works. 
Johannes Baptista Spagnuoli, commonly called from his 
native city, Mantuan, was the most popular and prolific 
eclogue writer of the fifteenth century, to which Barclay 
himself testifies :m 

" As the moste famous Baptist Mantuan 
The best of that sort since Poetes first began." 

Barclay's Eclogues being the first attempts of the kind 
in English, Bale's "Ex Mantuano," therefore"probably 
means nothing more than "on the model of Mantuan ;" 
otherwise, if it be assumed that rive were the whole hum- 
ber that ever appeared, it could hot apply to the first three, 
which are expressly stated in the title to be from Aneas 
Sylvius, while if ten be assumed, his statement would 
account for nine, the "quinque eglogas" being the rive now 

lxxx Lire and lI",'itmgs 

wanting, but if so, then he has omitted to mention the most 
popular of ail the eclogues, the fifth, and bas failed to attri- 
bute to Mantuan two which are undoubtedly due to him. 
The loss of the " Contra Skeltonum," is a matter 
for regret. That there was no love lost between these 
two contemporaries and chief poets of their time is evident 
enough. Skelton's scathing sarcasm against the priesthood 
no doubt woke his brother satirist's ire, and the latter lets 
no opportunity slip of launching forth his'contempt for the 
laureate of Oxford. 
The moralist in announcing the position he assumes in 
opposition to the writer of popular tales, takes care to have 
a fling at the author of "The boke ofPhyllyp Sparowe" :-- 
" I wryte no Ieste ne tale of Robyn Hode, 
Nor sawe no sparcles, ne sede of ,yciousnes ; 
Wyse men loue ,ertue, wylde people wantones, 
It longeth nat to my scyence nor cunnynge, 
For Phylyp the sparowe the (Dirige) to synge." 

A sneer to which Skelton most 
enumerating his own productions 
Laurell, he mentions, 
"Of Phillip Sparow the lamentable rate, 
The dolefull desteny, and the carefull chaunce, 
lyuysed by Skelton after rhe funerall rate  
Yet sure there be therewith.that take greuaunce» 
And grudge thereat with frownyng countenaunce i 
But what of that ? harde it is to please al] men  
Who list amende it, let hym set to his penne." 
The following onslaught in Barclay's Fourth Eclogue, is 
evidently levelled at the abominable Skelton : 

probably alludes when, 
in the Garlande o 

of llexander larchg,, lxxxi 

" Another thing yet is greatly more damnable : 
Of rascolde poetes yet is a shamfull rable, 
Which voyde of wisedome presumeth to indite, 
Though they haue scantly the cunning of a »nite ; 
And to what ,ices that princes moste intende, 
Those dare these fooles solemnize and commende 
Then is he decked as Poete laureate, 
When stinking Thais ruade him her graduate : 
When Muses rested, she did her season note, 
And she with Bacchus her camous did promote. 
Such rascolde drames, promoted by Thais, 
Bacchus, Licoris, or yet by Testalis, 
Or by suche other newe forged Muses nine, 
Thinke in their mindes for to haue wit diuine i 
They laude their verses, they boast, they vaunt and let, 
Though all their cunning be scantly worth a pet : 
If they haue smelled the artes tritaiall, 
They count them Poetes hye and heroicall. 
Such is their foly, so foolishly they dote, 
Thinking that none can their playne errour note i 
Yet be they foolishe, auoy,te of honestie, 
Nothing seasoned with spice of grauitie, 
Auoyde of pleasure, auoyde of eloquence, 
With many wordes, and fruitlesse of sentence i 
Llnapt to learne, disdayning to be taught, 
Their priuate pleasure in snare bath them so caught i 
And worst yet of ail, they count them excellent, 
Though they be fruitlesse, rashe and improuident. 
To such ambages who doth their minde incline, 
'I'hey count ail other as priuate of doctrine, 
And that the faultes which be in them alone, 
And be common in other men eche one. 
Thus bide good poetes oft rime rebuke and blame, 
Because of other which haue despised naine. 

lxxxii Life and lVritings 

And thus for the bad the good be cleane abject. 
Their art and poeme counted of none e/Fect, 
Who wanteth reason good to discerne from ill 
Doth worthy writers interprete at his will : 
So both the laudes of good and hOt laudable 
For lacke of knowledge become vituperable." 

It has hot hitherto been pointed out that Skelton did 
hot disdain to borrow a leaf from the enemy's book and try 
his hand at paraphrasing the 8hip of" Fools aiso. "The 
Boke of" three fooles, M. Skelton, poete laureate, gaue to 
rny lord Cardynall," is a paraphrase in prose, with intro- 
ductory verses, of" three chapters of Brandt, corresponding 
to Barclay's chapters beaded, Of yonge folys that take olde 
wymê to theyr wyues nat for loue but for ryches (I. 247) ; 
Of enuyous folys (I. 52); Of bodely lust or corporall 
voluptuosyte (I. 39)- Skelton's three foois, are, "The 
man that doth wed a wyfe for ber goodes and ber rychesse;" 
"Of Enuye, the seconde foole"; and, " Of the Voluptuous- 
nes corporall, the third foole;" and his versions are dashed 
off with his usuai racy vigour. He probably, however, did 
hot think it worth while to compete with the established 
favourite. If he had we wouid certainly bave got a very 
different book from Barclay's. 
Notwithstanding his popularity and industry, Barclay's 
naine appears to be but seldom mentioned by contemporary 
or iater authors. _As early as 15oEl however, v,e find him 
placed in the most honourable company by Henry Brad- 
shaw, " Lyre of Saynt Werburghe," (1.52 l, Pynson, 4to). 
But the compliment wouid probably iose hall its sweetness 
from his being bracketed with the detested Skelton :-- 

of 4lexancler Barclay. lxxxiii 

To ail auncient poetes, litell boke, submytte the, 
Whilom flouryng in eloquerice facuridious, 
And to ail other whiche present riowe be ; 
Fyrst to maister Chaucer and Ludgate sentencious, 
Also to preignaurit Barkley nowe beying religious, 
To inuerlfiue Skelton and poet laureate ; 
Praye them ail of pardon both erly and late. 
Bulleyn's repeated allusions to Barclay (see above, pp. 
xxvii., liv.), apart from the probability tha b as contempor- 
aries resident in the same provincial town, Ely, they were 
xvell acquainted with each other, leave little doubt that the 
two were personal friends. Bulleyn's figurative description 
of the poet, quoted at p. xxvii., is scarcely complete with- 
out the following verses which are appended to it by way 
of summary of his teachings (similar verses are appended 
to the descriptions of Chaucer, Gower, &c.):--[Barclay 
appears] saying 
« Who entreth the court in yong and têder age 
Are lightly blinded with fo|y and outrage: 
But suche as enter with witte and grauitie, 
Bow not so sone to such enormitie, 
But ere thei enter if thei haue lerned nought 
Afterwardes Verrue the least of theyr thought." 
Dialogue against the Fever Pestilence. 
In another passage of the saine Dialogue the picture of 
the honourable and deserving but neglected churchman is 
touched with so much strength and feeling that, though no 
indication is given one cannot but believe that the painter 
was drawing from the lire, the lire of his friend. The like- 
ness, whether intentional or hot, is a most faithful one: 
"The third [picture] is, one whiche sheweth the state of 

lxxxii Lire ld lI/'riti»gs 

And thus for the bad the good be cleane abject. 
'rheir art and poeme counted of none effect, 
Who wanteth reason good to discerne from ill 
Doth worthy writers interprete at his will : 
So both the laudes of good and not laudable 
For lacke of knowledge become vituperable. » 

It has not hitherto been pointed out that Skelton did 
not disdain to borrow a leaf from the enemy's book and try 
his hand at paraphrasing the Ship of Fools also. "The 
Boke of three fooles, M. Skelton, poete laureate, gaue to 
my lord Cardynall," is a paraphrase in prose, with intro- 
ductory verses, of three chapters of Brandt, corresponding 
to Barclay's chapters headed, Of yonge fo/ys that take olde 
wymê to theyr x,yues nat for loue but for ryches (I. 247) ; 
Of enuyous folys (I. z5z); Of bodely lust or corporall 
voluptuosyte (I. OE39)- Skelton's three fools, are, "The 
man that doth wed a wyfe for ber goodes and her rychesse;" 
"Of Enuye, the seconde foole " and, " Of the Voluptuous- 
nes corporall, the third foole;" and his versions are dashed 
off with his usual racy vigour. He probably, however, did 
hot think it worth while to compete with the established 
favourite. If he had we would certainly have got a very 
different book from Barclay's. 
Notwithstanding his popularity and industry, 13arclay's 
naine appears to be but se]dom mentioned by contemporary 
or later authors. As early as 5z however, we find him 
placed in the most honourable company by Henry Brad- 
shaw, ' Lyfe of Saynt Werburghe," ( 5; z , Pynson, 4to). 
But the compliment would probably lose hall its sweetness 
from his being bracketed with the detested Skelton :-- 

of llexander larc]ay, lxxxiii 

To ail auncient poetes, litell boke, submytte the, 
Whilom flouryng in eloquence facundious, 
And to ail other whiche present nowe bei 
Fyrst to maister Chaucer and Ludgate sentencious, 
Also to preignaunt Barkley nowe beying religious, 
To inuentiue 8kelton and poet laureate i 
Praye them ail of pardon both erly and late. 
Bulleyn's repeated allusions to Barclay (see above, pp. 
xxvii., liv.), apart from the probability that, as contempor- 
aries resident in the same provincial town, Ely, they were 
well acquainted with each other, leave little doubt that the 
two were personal friends. Bulleyn's figurative description 
of the poet, quoted at p. xxvii., is scarcely complete with- 
out the following verses, which are appended to it by way 
of summary of his teachings (similar verses are appended 
to the descriptions of Chaucer, Gower, &c.):--[Barclay 
appears] saying 
« Who entreth the court in yong and têder age 
Are lightly blinded with foly and outrage: 
But suche as enter with witte and grauitie, 
Bow not so sone to such enormitie, 
But ere thei enter if thei haue lerned nought 
Afterwardes Vertue the least of theyr thought." 
l)ialogue against the lever Pestilence. 
In another passage of the saine Dialogue the picture of 
the honourable and deserving but neglected churchman is 
touched 'ith so much strength and feeling that, though no 
indication is given, one cannot but believe that the painter 
was drawing from the life, the life of his friend. The like- 
ness, whether intentional or hOt, is a most faithful one: 
"The third [picture] is, one whiche sheweth the state of 

lxxxiv Lire a»d lId'riti»gs 

learned men, labouring long rime in studie and diuine 
vertue, whiche are wrapped in pouertie, wantyng the 
golden rake or gapyng mouth. This man hath verie fewe 
to preferre hym to that promotion, he smiteth himselfe 
up) the breast, he wepeth and lamenteth, that vice should 
thus be exalted, ignoraunce rewarded with glorie, coueteous 
rnen spoilyng the Churcbe, by the names of patrones and 
geuers, whiche extorcioners and tellers they care not to 
• a'hom, so that it be raked with the golden racke. Wel, 
wel, God of his mercie, amêd this euill market." 
In one of the many humorous sallies which lighten up 
this old-fashioned antidote to the pestilence, Barclay again 
appears, dressed in the metaphorical colour of the poet or 
minstrel--green, which has probably here a double signifi- 
cance, referring no doubt to his popularity as the English 
eclogue writer as well as to his faine as a poet and satirist. 
In introducing " Bartlet, grene breche " as the antithesis to 
" Boner wepyng," allusion was also probably intended to 
the honourable position occupied by Barclay amongst the 
promoters of the Reformation, compared with the reapostacy, 
the career of brutal cruelty, and the deserved rate of the 
Jefferies of the Episcopal bench. 
Thus discourse Civis et Uxor :-- 
"Uxor. \Vhat are ail these two and two in a table. Oh 
it is trim. Civis. These are old frendes, it is well handled 
and workemanly. Willyam Boswell in Pater noster rowe, 
painted them. Here is Christ, and Sathan, Sainct Peter, 
and Symon Magus, Paule, and Alexider the Coppersmith 
Trace, and Becket, Martin Luther, and the Pope 
bishop Crimer, and bishop Gardiner. Boner epyng, 
Bartlet, grene breche... Salomon, and Will Sommer. "_l'he 

of ./I]exander Barc@. lxxxv 

cocke and the lyon, the wolfe and the lambe." This pas- 
sage also necessarily implies that Barclay's faine at that 
rime was second to none in England. Alas! for faine: 
" What is the end of fame ? 'Tis but to fill 
A certain portion of" uncertain paper." 
In the seventeenth century Barclay still held a place in 
the first tank of satirists, if we accept the evidence of the 
learned Catholic poet of that time, Sir Aston Cokaine. 
He thus alludes to him in an address "To my learned friend, 
Mr Thomas Bancroft, upon his Book of Satires. By Sir 
Aston Cokayne." 
"After a many works of divers kinds 
Your muse to tread th' Aruncan path designs : 
'Tis hard to write but Satires in these days, 
And yet to write good Satires merits praise : 

So old Petronius Arbiter appli'd 
Corsives unto the age he did deride : 
So Horace, Persius, Juvenal, (among 
Those ancient Romans) scourg'd the impious throng ; 
So Ariosto (in these later rimes) 
Reprov'd his Italy for many crimes i 
So learned Barclay let his lashes fall 
Heavy on some to bring a cure to ail." 
In concluding this imperfect notice of one of the most 
remarkable of our early writers, we cannot but echo the 
regret expressed by one of his biographers, that " What 
ought most to be ]amented is, that we are able to say so 
very little of one in his own time so famous, and whose 
works ought to have transmitted him to posterity with 
much greater honour." 

lxxxvi Lfe and llGitings 


In tbe Prerogative Court of Cantcrbury. 
Is Tnr N,Mr or GOD. AMrN.--The xxv th day of 
July in the yere of our Lorde God a thousande fyve hun- 
dreth fyftie and one. I zaxLEXANDER ARQ,_UELEY 
Doctor of Divinitie Vicar of myche badowe in the countie 
of Essex do make dispose and declare this my pfite testa- 
ment conteyning my last Will in forme and order as here- 
after followethe That ys to saye First I bequeathe my mule 
unto Almightie God my maker and Redemer and my bodye 
to be buried where it shall please God to dispose after 
delSting my soule from the bodye Also I bequeathe to the 
poore people of the said ish of Badowe fyftie shiilings to 
be disposed where as yt shall appere to be most nede by 
the discrescon of myrte Executours And also I bequeathe 
towardes the rep.cons of the same Churche vj  viii d Item 
I bequeathe to the poore people of the Pish of Owkley in 
the Countie of Somersett fiftie shillings likewise to be dis- 
tributed And towardes the repcons of the same Churche 
vj  viii a Item I bequeathe m Mr Horsey of Tawnton in the 
saide Countie of Somersett one fether bed and a bolster 
which I had of hym or els twentie shillings in redye money 
Item I bequeathe to Edword Capper otherwise called 
Edwarde Mathewe of Tawnton aforesaid xxxiij s iiij d of cur- 
rant money of England Item I bequeathe to Johane 

of ilexanaer larc]ay, lxxxvii 

Atkynson the daughter of Thomas Atkynson of London 
Scryvener one fetherbed wheruppon I use to lye having a 
newe tyke with the bolster blanketts and coverlett tester 
pillowe and two payer of my best shetes Item I bequeth to 
the saine Johane Atkyr, son eight pounds current money of 
England to be receyved of the money due unto me by Cut- 
beard Crokk of Wynchester to be paide in two yeres (that 
is to saye foure poundes in the first yere and foure poundes 
in the secounde yere) Item 1 bequeathe to the saide Johane 
a flocke bed a quylte and ail my pewter and brasse and 
other stuf of my kechen Item I give and bequeathe to 
Jeronymy Atkynson the daughter of the saide Thomas 
Atkynson vj i xiij s iiij d currant money of Egland to be re- 
ceyved of the said Cutbeard Crok in two yeres that is to 
saye every yere fyve markes Item I bequeathe to Tymothy 
and Elizabeth Atkynson the daughters of the said Thomas 
Atkynson to everye of theym rive pounds currant money of 
England to be receyved of the said Cutbeard Croke so that 
the eldest of thes two daughters be paide the first two 
yeres and the other to be paide in other tv«o yeres then 
next following Item The rest of the money whiche the saide 
Cutbeard Croke oweth to me amounting in the hole to the 
some of four score poundes I bequeathe to be devyded 
amonge poore and nedye 15sones after tlae discretion of myn 
Executours and manely to such as be bedred blynde lame 
ympotent wydowes and fatherless children. Item I 
bequeathe to Syr John Gare Knight S r Henry Gate 
Knight and to M r Clerke to everye of theym louer angell 
nobles to make every of theym a ringe of golde to be worne 
by theym in remembraunce of me Item I gi'e and bequeathe 
to Hugh Rooke of London Scryvener to Henry bosoll of 


Life and I/Iritings 

London Gold Smythe to Thomas Vqytton of London 
Screvener and to the wief of Humfrey Stevens of London 
Goldsmythe to Humfrey Edwards Clerke to John Owhan 
of the Pish of Badowe aforesaid to every of them one angell 
noble of gold or ells ye valew therof in sylver Item I he- 
queathe to M r Thomas Clerk of Owkey aforesaid to 
Thomas Edey Gentelman and to the said Thomas Atkyn- 
son to every of them foure angell nobles to make therof for 
every of them a ringe to were in remembraunce of oure 
olde acquayntaunce and famyliarytie Item my will is that 
my Executours shall distribute at the daye of my buriall 
among poore and nedy people fixe pounds fyftene shillings 
Item I bequeathe to Parnell Atkynson the wief of the said 
Thomas Atkynson my cosyn thirtenne pounds thirtene shil- 
lings and foure pence of currant lnoney of England Item I 
bequeathe to John XVatson of London Clotheworker three 
angell nobles to make a ring therof to be worne in remem- 
braunce of oure olde famyliaritie Also I desire ail suche as 
have or shall hereafter have eny benyfytt by thes my 
legacies and ail other good chrestian people to praye to 
Almightie God for remission of my synnes and mercy upon 
my soule Item I bequeath to Johan Bowyer the syster of 
the said 'nell my cosen fourtie shillings Item I bequeathe 
to the said Thomas Atkynson Tenne pounds currant money 
of England whome with the said Thomas Eden I constitute 
th executours of this my last Will to whome I bequeathe 
the test and residue of ail my goodes chattelis and debts to 
be distributed at their discrescion in works of mercy to 
poore people not peny lnele but by larger poreon after theyr 
discrecon namely to psons bedred maydens widowes ar, d 
other ympotent psons Item I ordeyne and desire the said 

of l]exander arc]a.. lxxxix 

M  Rochester to be the Overseer of this my last Will to be 
well and truely pformed and fulfilled to whome for his labor 
and paynes I bequeathe fyve marks currant money of Eng- 
land In wytnes of whiche this my last Will I the said 
Alexander Barqueley hereunto have set my seale and sub- 
scribed the saine with my owne hands the day and yere 
fyrst above writtennce. .ALEXANDRUBARQUEI.EY. 
PgoBaTtM fuit Test coram do cafit Archief apud London decimo 
die mensis Junij Anno &o milleiiio quingentesimo quinquagesimo secundo 
Juramento Thomê Atkynson ER in hm6i testamento noiat Ac Approbatfi 
et insumatfi et comissa fuit admStraco omf bonor & dêi deft de bene et 
&« ac de pleno Inv "° &c exhibend Ad sancta dei Evangelia Jurat Regrvata 
ptate Thome Eden alteri eR &« cure venerit. 


P. XXIX.B^so.^¢'s 

The objection raised to claiming 13arclay as a 8cotsman, founded on the 
ground that he nowhere mentions his nationality, though it was a common 
practice of authors in his rime to do so, especially when they wrote out of 
their own country, appeared to me, though ingenious and pertinent, to be 
of so little real weight, as to be dismissed in a parenthesis. Its impor- 
tance, however, may easily be overrated, and it may therefore be well to 
point out that, apart from the possibility that this omission on his part was 
the resu]t of accident or indifference, there is also the probability that it was 
dictated by a wise discretion. To be a Scotsman was hot in the days of 
Henry VIII., as it bas been in later and more auspicious times, a pass- 
port to confidence and popularity, either at the court or among the 
people of England. Barclay's rate haing led him, and probably his 
nearest relatives also, across fnat Border which no Scotsman ever recrosses, 
to lie and labour among a people by no means fiiendly to his country, it 
would hae been a folly which so sensible a man as he was hot likely to com- 
mit to hae displayed the red rag of his nationality belote his easily excited 
neighbours, upon whose friendliness his comfort and success depended. The 
farther argument of the Biographia Brittannica, that "it is pretty extraor- 

xc Life and [¢rilings 

dinary that Barclay himself, in his several addresses to his patrons, should 
never take notice of his being a stranger, which would have ruade their 
kindness to him the more remarkable," is suciently disposed of by the 
succeeding statement, that the Duke of Noffolk and the Earl of Kent, 
Barclay's principal patr6ns, "are known to have been the fiercest enemies 
of the Scots." Surely a man who was English in everything but his birth 
could hOt be expected to openly blazon his Scottish nativity, without 
adequate occasion for so doing, in the very face of his country's chiefest 
enemies, who were at the same time his own best fiiends. His caution in 
this respect, indeed, may be regaded as an additional proof of his Scottish 
Some of the words, stated in popular fashion to be Scotch--they are of 
course of Saxon origin--the usage of which by Barclay is adduced as an 
evidence of his nationality, are also tobe found in Chaucer, but that does 
hot invalidate the argument as stated. The employment of so many words 
of northern usage must format least a strong corroborative argument in 
favour of northern origin. 
It ought tobe stated that the modesty of the young author prevented 
hlm fiom affixing his name to his first production, The Casde of Labour. 
Both editions are anonymous. Baie, Pits, Wood, &c.» all include it 
in the list of his works without remark. 
P. LXXXIlI.--BvLLts's 
A notice of the history of this once popular Dialogue, its ever recurring 
disappearance, and ever recurring « discovery" by some fortunate antiquary, 
would form an interesting chapter in a new « I-/istory of the transmission 
of ancient books to modern times." Its chances of preservation and 
record were unusually favourable. It must bave been disseminated over 
the ]ength and breadth of the ]and in its day, having run through four 
editlons in little more than a dozen years. Maunsell's Catalogue 
records the edltion of I578. _A_ntony Wood (ITZl), and Bishop Tanner 
(I748) both duly give it a place in their notices ot the productlons of its 
author, without any special remark. But the Iiographia ]rittanica (1748) 
in a long article upon Iulleyn, in which hls various works are noticed in 
great detail, mtroduces the Dialogue as « tbis long negl«cted and 
tr«atise»" and gives an e]aborate account of it extendlng to about 
columns of small print. The now famous passage, descriptive of the early 
poets, is quoted at length, and special notice or its bearing on ]arclay's 
nationa]ity tken, the wrlter (Oldys) announclng that the dispute must 
now be settled in favour ofScodand, « Seeing out author (]ulleyn), a con- 

of llexand«r 33arclay. xci 

temporary who lived in, and long upon the borders of 8cotland, says, as 
above, he ¢as born in that kingdorn : and as rnuch indeed rnight have been 
in great measure gathered frorn an attentive perusal of this poet hirnself." 
The next biographer of Bulleyn, Aikin (Biog. Memoirs of Mcdi- 
¢ine, 178o), rnakes no discovey, but contents himself with giving a brief 
account of the Dialogue (in 1½ pages), in which the description of 
Chaucer, &c., is duly noticed. Three years later, in 8pite of this, and the 
appearance of a second edition of the Biographia Brittanica (778), 
another really learned and able antiquary, VCaldron, in his edition of 
Jonson's Sad Shepherd (783), cornes forth triurnphantly announcing his 
discovery of the Dialogue as that of a hitherto totally unknown treasure ; 
and in an appendix favours the curious with a serles of extracts from it, 
extending to more than thirty pages, prefacing thern thus: "Having, 
among the various Mysteries and Moralities, whether original irnpressions, 
reprinted, or described only by those writers who have given any account 
of these Ernbrios of the English Drarna, ne'oer met ¢Jaith or read of any 
otite colY fl of te Dialogue, or Morality, by Bulleyn, tan te on 6 [which I 
bave used], an account of and oerne extracts fiorn it rnay hot be unpleasing." 
The pasage regarding the poets is of course given ad Iongum. 
The next notice of the Dialogue occurs in Herbert's A mes (I 786), where 
two edidons, t56 ¢ and t578, are entered. Dibdin (89) , in addition, 
notices the edition of 1573- In the biographieal accounts of Bulleyn in 
Hutchinson's Biographia Medica (1799), Aikin's General Biog. Dict. 
(8o), and its succesor, Chalrners's Biog. Dict. (xSx2), due mendon is 
preserved of the Dialogue in enurnerating the works of its author. Sir 
Walter ;cott alludes to it in the Introduction to the Minstrelsy of the ;cot- 
tlsh Border ( 802) as a" rnystery," but his only knowledge of it is evidently 
derived from Waldron. Chalrners's Lire ofLindsay (Poetical Works,  806) 
bas alto kept it prorninently belote a conslderable clas of inquirers, as he 
gives that part ofthe description of the poet relatlng to Lindsay a conpicu- 
ous place, with the following note : "Owing to the very obliging ternper of 
Mr Waldron I bave been perrnitted to see that rare hook of Dr Bulleyn, with 
the econd edition of * 569, whlch is rernarkably different frorn the first in 
 56¢." To thi use of it by Chalmers we owe the references to it in Lord 
Linday's Lires of the Lindsays, i. 26 ( 849), 8eton' 8cottish Heraldry, 
480 (863), and Notes and O, peries, 3rd s., iv. 64 (863). It was also 
probably Chalrners that drew the attention of the writer of the Mernoir of 
Barclay in the Live of the 8cottish Poets (822), to the posfibility 
there being also in the Dialogue notice of that poet. t any rate» he 
quotes the description of the early poets, showing in his prelirninary rernarks 
considerable farniliarity with Bulleyn's history, pointing out the probability 
of his having known Barclay at Ely, and arguing that whether or hot, 
« from living in the arne neighbourhood he had an opportunity of knowing 


Z, ije act l/lrritins 

better than any contemporary whose evidence on the subject is extant, to 
what country Barclay was, by ail about him, reputed to belong." He pre- 
cedes his quotations thus : "As the whoh passage possesses considerable 
elegance, and bas been so unier«al/y o*erlooed by the critics, the transcrip- 
tion of it here will hot probably be deemed out of place." No mention is 
ruade of the title of the book from which the "Allegorical Description o! 
the Early English Poets" is taken ; hence itis impossible to say whether 
the quoter ruade use of a copy of the Dialogue, or of Waldron's Notes. 
The spelling is modernioed. 
In various well-known bibliographical publications the existence of this 
fugitive Dialogue is carefully registered, and its title, at least, ruade known 
to ail inquirers,--in Watt's Bibliotheca Britt. (8z4), in Lowndes' 
13ibliog. Manual (1834), and in Atkinson's Medical Bibliog. (1834) ; and 
by the published Catalogues of the British Museum (1813), the Douce Col- 
lection (184o), and the Bodleian Library (1843), it is ruade known that 
there are copies of it preserved in these great collections. In Warton's 
Hist. of Eng. Poetry (ed. 184o), it is also recorded by Park, in his notes 
to the chapter on Gower, in which he refers to Bulleyn's visionary 
description of that poet. Cooper's Athenoe Cantabrigienses, art. Bulleyn 
(1858), also carefully notes the Dialogue and its editions. And in 1865 
Collier's well-known Bibliographical Account of Early English Literature 
again gives an account (two pages long) of the much neglected production, 
in which the passage relating to the poets is once more extracted in full, with 
the preliminary remarks as quoted at p. xxvii. «utra , but wlthout the usual 
announcement that the work has hitherto been unknown. 
But in 1873 , by the very last man from whom we might bave expected 
it (F. J. Furnivall, the Atlas on whose shoulders ail out projects for the 
preservation of out early literature test, in Notes and Q.ueries, ¢th s., xii. 
161), we are again introduced to this ever disappearing, ever reappearing 
Dialogue as a fresh find in early English literature: "Few things are 
pleasanter in reading old books than to corne on a passage of praise of our 
old poets, showing that in Tudor days men cared for the ' makers' of 
former days as we do still. To Mr David Laing's kindness I owe 
the introduction to the following quotation from a rare tract, where one 
wouldn't have expected to find such a passage," and then follows once 
more the whole passage so often quoted for the first rime. Dr Rimbault, 
in an interesting note in a succeeding number of Notes and Queries (p. 
z34), is the first one acquainted with the Dialogue to state that "this 
amusing old work is perfectly well known, and has ofien been quoted 
from." So henceforth we may presume that this interestlng and long- 
fertile field of discovery may be regarded aa finally worked out. 





I. Tn CAST£LL OF L,xnOUR.--Wynkyn de Worde. 
5o6. 8mall Oarto. Black letter. 
The title, "The castell of laboure," is within a scroll above a 
woodcut of men over a tub : on the verso, a eut of a man 
sitting st adesk. At sign. a ii. (recto) " Here begynneth the 
prologue of this present treatyse." [The Brie. Mus. copy has 
this on the verso of the title instead of the cut, a peculiarity which 
may entitle it to be clled a oeparate edition, though it appears 
to agree otherwise with the copy described. "l There are many 
curious woodcuts. Colophon on the reverse ofsign, i iii. (5 lb) : 
"Thus endeth the caste|l of labour, wherin is rychesse, verrue, 
and honour. Enprynted st London in Fletestrete in the sygne 
of the sonne, by Wynkyn de worde. Anno dfii" 
There is no indication of authorship. Signatures : a b c d e f 
g h, alternately 8s and 4s, i 4 ; 5 z leaves, not numbered. The 
British Museum and Cambridg« University Library copies of 
this book have been collated, but as the former ends with H 3 
and the latter wants the last leaf» that leaf muse remain undeo 
scribed. Mr Bradshaw, however, says» " it almost certainly 
contained a woodcut on the recto, and one of the devices on 
the verso." 
A copy of this very scarce book was sold among Mr. Vrest's books 
in I773 for z. 
Small Qarto. Black letter. 
The title, « Here begynneth the castell of laboure," is over a 
woodcut; and on the reverse is a woodcut; both the 
saine as those in the previous edition. In the body of 
the work there are 3o woodcuts, which differ from those of 
the first edition, one of these (at G 6) is a repetition of that 
on the title page. Colophon : « Thus endeth the castell of 
labour wherin is rychesse vertue and honoure. ]nprynted 
be me Richarde Pynson. » After the colophon cornes another 
[eaf (I 6), on the recto of which is the printer's devlce, and 
on the verso a woodcut representing a ¢ity on the banks of a 
river. Without indication of authorship. Signatures : A, 8 
leaves ; BI, in fixes. 
"Neither Ames nor Herbert appear to have seen this rare volume ; 
which is probably a reprint of Wynkyn de Worde's impres- 
sion of I ço6." (Dibdin's Typ. Antiq., II. ç57.) There 
is a copy in the Library of H. Huth, Esq. 

xcviii l Bibliograpbical Catalogue 


509 . Folio. 
On the recto of the first leaf there is a large woodcut of Pynson'8 
arms, or device No. VIL, similar to that which is on the 
reverse of the last leaf of each of the volumes of his edition of 
Lord Berners' translation of Froissart's Chronicles ; on the 
back of the first leaf is the translator's dedication to "Thoma8 
Cornisshe, bishop of Tine, and suffragan bishop of Bath ;" on 
the next leaf begins "The regyster or table of this prescrit 
boke in Englyshe," (ail as on pp. cxiii.---cxx.), succeeded 
by a Latin table. Then on sign. a i. and fol. i. a large 
xvoodcut, the same as is used for the title page of Ca- 
xvood's edition (and on p. 313, Vol. II.), with a Latin de- 
scription in the margin. Beneath is the title in Latin. 
On the back, "Alexander Barclay excusynge the rudeness 
of his translation," followed with "An exhortacion of 
Alexander Barclay." Then on fol. il., etc., follow in 
Latin, "Epigramma," "Epistola" in prose, and various 
" Carmina." On the back of fol. v. "The exhortacion of 
Brant to the fools" in Latin verse, followed by Barclay' ver- 
sion xvith tle heading "Barclay the Translatour tho the Foies." 
On fol. iiii. the "Prokgus Jacobl Locher . . . incipit," 
followed by its translation into English. On fol. ix., etc., 
" Hecatastichon in proludium auctoris et Libelli Narragonici" 
and the English translation, " Here begynneth the prologe." 
On xii. "The Argument" in Latin and English, and then 
on xiii. commences the first chapter, "De inutilibus libris," in 
Latin, and then in English, which is the ozder throughout, 
with the cuts at the beginning of either the one or other as the 
page suite& The book concludes with a ballad in honour 
of the virgin Mary, consisting of twelve octave stanzas: at 
the end of which is the colophon in a stanza of seven lines. 
On the verso of the last leaf is the printer's device, No. v. 
The Latin is uniformly printed in the Roman type, and the 
English in the Gothic. Herbert supposes the diphthongs to be 
"the first perhaps used in this kingdom." 
The cuts are rude, coarse, English imitations of those in the original 
editions. They are, including the preliminary one, I I8 in hum- 
ber. The eut illustrating the chapter, "Of them that correct 
other," etc., fol. liii. has been exchanged with the eut of the suc- 
ceeding chapter. The eut illustrating "The unyuersall shyp 
and generall Barke, » fol. cclxii., la repeated at the succeeding 
chapter. The one illustrating Barclay's new chapter " Of 
folys that af ouer worldly" is an imitation of the illustration 
of "De singularitate quorundam novorum fatuorum " in the 
Latin edition of March 1497- The eut illustrating the ballad 
of the Virgin appears in the original at the head of" Excusatio 

of larc]ay's l/[/'orks, xcix 

Jacobi Locher Philomusi," and ilhstrates, according to the 
margin, "Derisio boni operis." 
The word " Folium" is on the left hand page, and the number» 
in Roman capitals, on the right throughout the book ; the 
last is cclxxiifi. Including the dedication and table (4 folios) 
there are z83 folios. The numbering is a model or 
irregularity: iiii. is repeated for ri., xx. stands for xv., 
xviii, is repeated, xx. is wanting» xxii. is repeated, xxiv. 
is wanting, xxx. is repeated, xxxv, is wanting, xxxix. 
is repeated in place of xliv., xlviii, is wanting, xlix. is 
repeated, lvii is repeated after lxi., lviii follows twice, lix., Ix., 
lxi. being repeated m sccession after lviii., lxvii., lxviii, are 
repeated after lx¢iii., lxxxii, is wanting, lxxxiii, is repeated, 
lxxxii, stands for lxxxvii., lxxxiii, sueceeds for lxxxviiii, 
cclxv, succeeds for lxxxix., lxxxxii, is repeated for lxxxxvii., 
[in the Grenville copy this leaf is correctly numbered], 
cxxxiiis wanting, cxl. stands for cxxxviii., cxlxi, stands for 
cxlvi., clxxiv, is wanting, clxxxxxi, sands for cci., ecxii, is 
repeated for ccxvii., ccxxxviii, is wanting, cclx. stands for 
cci., cclviii, is repeated for cclx. 
The numeration by signatures is as follows : + iiij ; a, 8 ; b--p, 6 s ; 
q, 7 ; r,s,t,v,x,y,z, &, 6 s ; A--Y, 6 s. 
The book is extremely rare. There is a fine copy in the Bodleian 
Library among Selden's books, another in the British Mu- 
seum, Grenville Collection, and another in the Library of 
John's College, Oxford. 
The following are the more notable prices: Fariner, t798 , 
£z. 6s. ; Sotheby's, t8zI, £z8; Dent, .£3o. 9s.; Bib. 
Anglo-Poetica, .Io ; Perkins, I873, 
The fo[lowing amusing note on prices is taken from Renouard's 
" Catalogue d'un Amateur." "Les premières 6ditions latines 
de ce singulier livre, celles des traductions francises, toutes 
également remplies de figures en bois, ne déplaisent pas aux 
amateurs, mais jamais ils ne les ont payées un haut prix. La 
traduction angloise faite en  o9, sur le francois, et avec des 
figures en bois, plus mauvaises encore que leurs modèles, se 
paye en Angleterre z g, 3o et même 60 guinées ; c'est là, si 
l'on veut, du zèle patriotique, de l'esprit national." 
ll.a. STI2LTIFERA ]'AUIS .... THé. SHP OF FOOLS .... 
With diuers other workes .... very profitable and 
fruitfull for ail men .... Cawood. s57o. Folio. 
A large eut of vessels filled with fools (the saine as on p. 3 
Vol. II.)is inserted between the Latin and English titles. 
This edition omits the ballad to the Virgin at the end. 
The English is in black htter, and the Latin in Roman, in 
the saine order as in the preceding edition. On the recto 

c A ]ibliograjhical Catalogue 

of leaf z 59 : Thus endeth the Ship of Fooles, translated... 
by Alexander Barclay Priest, st that rime Chaplen in the 
Colledge of S. Mary Otery in the Countie of Deuon. Anno 
Domini IO8. On the back " Excusatio Iacobi Locher 
Philomusi," in Sapphic verse. On the next page rive tanzas 
by Barclay "excusing the rudenes of his Translation." 
Lastly, an Index in Latin, and then in English. Then 
follow the "diuers other workes," the Mirrour of good maners, 
and the Egloges. Colophon : Imprinted at London in Paules 
Church-yarde by lohn Cawood Printer to the Queenes Maie6- 
tie. Cum P,'iuilegio ad imprimendum solum. 
The woodcuts, inchding the one on the title-page, number I 17- 
They are the saine as those of Pynson's edition, but show 
occasional traces of the blocks having been chipped in the 
course of their preservation in a printer's oflïce for 60 years 
or so. The borders only differ, being of a uniform type, while 
those of the previous edition are woodcuts of severa] patterns. 
The numbering is a little irregular ; the preliminary leaves (*z) are 
unnumbered. The folios are numbered in figures on the 
left hand page, ' folio' being prefixed to the first six, ,6 is 
repeated for I7, '3 stands for 3 I, [in one of the Adv. Lib. 
copies the latter irregularity is found, though hot the former ; 
in the other,  7 and 31 are numbered correctly], 96 is re- 
peated for 99, 88 for I9I, oo for zoo, and zo for zoL 
The last number is z 59, and there are three extra leaves, thus 
making z74 for the Ship. Tbe supplementary works are hot 
numbered. The signatures are as follows : The 8hip, ¶ six 
leaves ; ¶¶ six leaves ; A to U u, in fixes ; X x, four lea¢es ; 
irrour ofgood manners, A--G, in fixes ; Egloge«, A to D, 
in fixes ; in ail 680 pp. 
This book was licensed to Cawood in 567-8, and is said to 
be the only book he had license for. It is now very rare. 
Prices : Digby, I68o, 4s. 4d. Bernard, t698, s. od. Gulston, 
t783, £I, 6s. White Knights,£8, 2s. Roxburghe,-£9, 
t9 s. 6& Fonthill, £3, 3 s- Bib. Anglo-Poet, £I2, 2s. 
Hcber, £8, 12s. Sotheby's, 873, £48, os. 

A complete bibliograpby of tbe various editions and ,ersions of tbe Ship of 
Fools will b« found in Zarncke's edition of the original or in Graesse'$ 
Trésor de livres rares et pécieux. A notice is subjoined of the two 
editions of the Englisb prose translation» and of the two other publica- 
tions bearing the title. 
The abridged prose translation, b)" Henry WaLson, frorn the French prose 
,ersion of Jehan Droyn appeared from the press of De Worde in the 

of larclay's I'o,'ks. ci 

saine year in which Barclay's fuller poetical version was issued. In 
both text and illustrations it is a much inferior production to the latter. 
As the existence of the first editlon bas been, and still is, denied, it 
being frequently confounded with larclay's book, we transcrihe the 
following description oi r the only known copy from Van Praet's "Cata- 
logue des livres imprimés sur vélin de la Bibliotheque du Roi." 

The Shyppe of Fooles, translated out of frenche, by Henry 
Watson. London, Wynkyn de Worde, 1509, petit in--4. 
Edition en lettres de forme, sans chiffres ni réclames, avec signatures, figures et 
initiales en bois ; /t longues lignes, au nombre de 3z sur les pages en- 
tières ; cont. x6 9 f. ; les 7 premiers renferment L le titre suivant, gravé 
audessus d'une figure qui représente le navire des fous : 
¶ The fla)-ppe of fnoles. 
2. Le prologue du traducteur; 3- la préface ; 4- la table des chapitres. 
Au recto du dernier f. est cette souscription : 
¶ Thus endeth the [hyppe of fooles of this worde. EnpTnted at London in 
Flete frete by Wynk' de worde prynter vnto the excellent pTncellL Marguerete, Countefle of Rychemonde and Derbye, and grandame 
vnto out moof naturall fouereyne lorde kynge Henry r. viii. The 
yere of out lorde. .ccecc. ix. ¶ The fyrfe yere of the reygne of out 
fouerayne Iorde kynge HemT the viii. The. ri. daye of Julii. 
On aFerçoit a, verso le monogramme et la marque de William Caxton, au bas 
deuels on lit ces mots : Wynken de Worde." 
This beautiful copy upon reliure is the only example of thls edition known. 

The grete Shyppe of Fooles of this worlde. Wkyn de 
Worde. 1517- Qarto. 
This is the second edition of V'atson's translation. Colophon : "Thus endeth 
the shyppe of fooles of this worlde. Jmprynted at Londod in flete 
strete b" W$'kyn de Worde. ve yere of out lorde l.ccccc. & xvii. 
¶ The nynthe yere of ye reygne of out souerayne lorde kynge Henry 
ye VIII. The xx. daye of June." It contains G G 6, fours and eights 
alternatdy (the signatures ending on G O iii. ), besides 6 leaves, with the 
prologue, prolude and table, belote signature A. 
Extremely rare. Roxburghe, £6 4` 

The Ship of Fools Fully Fraught and Richly Laden v¢ith 
Asses, Fools, Jack-daws, Ninnihammers, Coxcombs, Slender- 
wits, Shallowbrains, Paper-Skuls, Simpletons, Nickumpoops, 
Wiseakers, Dunces, and Blockheads, Declaring their several 
Natures, Manners and Consfitutions ; the occasion why this 
Ship was built, with the places of their intended Voyage, 
and a list of the Officers that bear Command therein. 
If for this Voyage an)' have a mind, 
The" with Jack Adams ma}, acceptance find, 
Who will strain hard ere they shall stay behind. 
Licensed, Roger L'Estrange. 
lA large woodcut of the Ship.] 
London, Printet by J. W. forJ. Clark, at the Bible and Harp 
in West-Smithfield. n.d. [Circa I65O. ] 4to. 4 leaves. 

cii 1 llibliogra/gbical Catalogue 

"This book, or rather tract, has nothing in common with Barchy's Ship of 
Foois, except the generai idea. Itis entirdy in prose. My COl ] ha 
nothing to show to whom it formedy belonged."--(Letter of H. Huth, 
Esq.) The last entence was elicited by the inquiry whether Mr 
Huth's copy were the one formerly bdonging to Mr Heber.--$ee 
l$iliotheca t[eeriana, Part IV. No. 75z. 

Stultifera Navis... The modern Ship of fools. Lond. 18o7, 
8o. Pp. xxiv., 95- 
A wretched production in verse, in imitation of Barclay's Ship of Fools 1 
published anonymously by W. H. lreland, the 8hakesperian forger. 

first three, without printer's naine or device. No date. 
Qarto. Black letter. 
« Here begynneth the Egloges of Alexder Barclay, p»esh wherot 
the fyrst thre conteyneth the myseryes of courters and courtes 
of ail prynces in generall, the marrer wherof was transhted 
into Englyshe by the sayd Alexander in fourme of Dialogues, 
out of a boke named in latyn Miserie Cufialifi, compyled by 
Eneas 8iluius, Poete and oratour, whiche after was Pope or 
Rome, & named Pius." This tide is over a cut of two 
shepherds, Coridon and Cornix, the interlocutors in these 
three eclogues. On the back is a cut of David and Bath- 
sheba. At the end of the third egloge : "Thus endyth 
the thyrde and last egloge of the mysery of court and 
courters, composed by Alexander Barclay, preste, in his 
youthe." A cut of the two shepherds and a courtier fills up 
the page. .Vithout date, printer's naine, or device. Contains 
P 6, in fours, the last leaf blank. 

--Pynson. No date. Qarto. Black letter. 
It is entitled, "The Boke of Codrus and Mynaclus," over the cut 
of a priest, with a shaven crown, writing at a plutus. It 
concludes with "The discrypcion of the towre of Verrue & 
Honour, into whiche the noble Hawarde contended to entre, 
by worthy acts of chiualry," related by Menalcas, in stanzas 
of eight verses. At the end, "Thus endeth the fourthe 
Eglogge of Alexandre Barcley, cteyning the maner of the 
riche men anenst poets and other clerkes. Emprinted by 
Richarde Pynson priter to the ky»ges noble grace." On 
the last leaf is his device, No. V. Contains zz leaves» with 

of B«trchy's Horks. ciii 

Wynkyn de Worde. 1'4o date. Oarto. Black letter. 
« The fyfte Eg]og of A]exandre Barc]ay of the Cytezen and 
vplondyshman." This title is over a large woodcut of a priest, 
sitting in his study. ]Seneath, "Here after foloweth the Pro- 
loge." On the verso of A il. are two cuts of two shepherds, 
whole lengths, with this head-title, "Interlocutoures be Amyn- 
tas and Faustus." There are no other cuts. Colophon : 
"Here endeth the v. Eg]og of A]exandre Barclay of the 
Cytezyn and vp]ondysshman. Imprynted at London in flete 
strete, at the sygne of ['the] Sonne, by Wynkyn de worde." 
Beneath, device No. v. Contains A 8, B , C 6 ; 18 lea,es. 
There is a copy in the British Museum. 
With the first four Eclogues as above, Woodhouse. 18o3, (Her- 
bert' copy), £z 5. ; resold, Dent, 18z7, £36. ; resold, Heber, 
1834, £z4. los. At Heber's sale this unique set, contain- 
ing the on]y known copy of the first edition of the first four 
Eclogues, was bought by Thorpe ; further I hate hot been 
able to trace it. 

III.c. THE EGLoOEs.--John Herforde. No date. Qarto. 
" Here begynneth the Egloges ofAlex. 13arclay, Priest, whereof 
the first three conteineth the Miseries of Courters and Courtes." 
"Probably a reprint of Pynson's impression," Dibdin. Con- 
tains only Eclogues I.-III. Herbert conjectures the date to 
be 15ç8 ; Corser, 546; Hazlitt, 1545. 

III.d. TuE EcLors.---Humfrey Powell. No date. Oarto. 
Black letter. 
"Here begynneth the Egloges of Alexander Barclay, prlest, where- 
of the first thre conteineth the miseries of courters and 
courtes, of all Princes in general... In the whiche the inter- 
loquutors he, Cornix, and Coridon." Concludes: "Thus endeth 
the thyrde and last Eglogue of the Misery of Courte and 
Courters, Composed by Alexander Barclay preest, in his 
youth. Jmprinted at London by Humfrey Powell." Con- 
tains only Eclogues I.--III. Collation: Title, A  ; ig. 
A to Pz, in fours; 58 leaves hot numbered. 
This is an edition of extreme rarity. It is very well printed, and 
the title is surrounded with a woodcut border with orna- 
mentcd pillars at the sides. Herbert conjectures the date to 
be 1549, the Bib. Anglo-Poetica, Lowndes, and Corser, 
 548. There is a copy in the Cambridge University Library, 
and another in the possession of Da,id Laing, Esq. 
Prices : Inglis, £6. zs. 6d.; Bright, 18ç 5, £IO. los.; 13ib. Anglo- 
Poetica, £ 15- 


.,4 Bibliographical Catalogue 


PasT.--Cawood. 57 o. Folio. Black letter. 
Appended to Cawood's edition o! the Ship of Fools. No title- 
page, cuts, or pagination. The above heading on ^ i. 
Colophon : Thus endeth the fifth and last Egloge of Alexander 
Barclay, of the Citizen and the man of the countrey. Im- 
printed at London in Paules Church-yarde by Iohn Cawood, 
Printer to the Queenes Maiestie. Cure Priuilegio ad impri- 
mendum solum. 
Contains AD, in àxes. 

III.f.T. Cv'rEzs ANt UVNtVSma^N: an Eclogue [the fifth] by 
Alexander Barclay. Printed from the original edition by 
Wynkyn de Worde. Edited, with an Introductory Notice of 
Barclay and his other Eclogues, by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. 
London ; printed for the Percy Society [vol. XXII.], 847. 
8vo. Pp. + 6, lxxiv., 47- 

FREI¢HE. Coplande. 15oE l. Folio. Black letter. 
'Here begynneth the introductory to wryte, and to pronounce 
Frenche compyled by Alexander Barcley compendiously at 
the commafidemêt of the ryght hye excellent and myghty 
prynce Thomas duke of Northfolke.' This title is over a 
large woodcut of a lion rampant, supporting a shield, con- 
taining a white lion in a border, (the saine as that on the title 
of the Sallust, VI.), then follows a French ballad of 16 
lines in two colorons, the first headed, "R. Coplande to the 
whyte lyooe, and the second, " ql Ballade." On the recto 
of the last leaf, ' Here foloweth the marier of dauncynge 
of bace dafices after the vse of fraunce & other places trans- 
lated out of frenche in englysshe by Robert coplande.' 
Col. : Jmprynted at London in the Fletestrete at the sygne 
of the rose Garlande by Robert coplande, the yere of our 
lorde, ta.ccccc.xxi, y xxii. day of Marche.' Neither folioed 
nor paged. Contains C 4, in fixes, 16 leaves. 
In the edition of Palsgrave (see above, p. lxxiii.), published among 
the "Documents inédits sur l'histoire de France," the editor 
8ays of this work of Barclay's : "Tous mes efforts pour d6- 
couvrir un exemplaire de ce curieux ouvrage ont été inutiles." 
There is a copy, probably unique, in the Bodleian ; it was 
formerly Herbert's, afterwards Douce's. 
Ail the parts of this treatise relating to French pronunclation have 
been carefully reprinted by Mr A. J. Ellis, in his treatise 
" On Early English Pronunciation" (published by the Philo- 
logical Society), Part III., p. 8o4. 

of Barclay's II/orks. cv 

V. THE MvIIOUI or COOD MAlqls.--Pynson. No date. 
Folio. Black letter. 
' Here begynneth a ryght frutefull tteatyse, intituled the myrrour 
of good maners, cteynyng the iiii. verrues, callyd car- 
dynall, compyled in latyn by Domynike Mancyn: And 
translate into englysshe : at the desyre of syr Gyles Alyngton, 
knyght: by Alexander Bercley prest : and monke of Ely. 
This dtle is over a cut» the saine as at the head or Bar- 
clay's preface to his translation of Sallust, a representa- 
tion of the author in a monkish habit on his knees, presenting 
a book to a nobleman. The text begins on back of title. 
The original is printed in Roman letter in the margins.-- 
Colophon in a square woodcut border: Thus endeth the 
ryght frutefull marrer of the route verrues cardynall: Jm- 
prynted by Rychard Pynson: prynter vnto the kynges 
noble grace : with his gracyous pryuylege the whiche boke I 
haue prynted, at the instance & request, of the ryght noble 
Rychard yerle of Kent. On the back, Pynson's device 
No. v. It bas neither running titles, catch-words, nor 
the leaves numbered. Signatures ; A to G, in sixes, and H, 
in eights ; loo pp. 
In the British Museum, Grenville collection, from Heber's col- 
lection. « This edition differs materially from that used by 
Herbert, which has led I)r I)ibdin to the conclusion that 
there were two impressions." $o says a MS. note on the 
copy, (quoted in the Bib. Grenv.), but I)ibdin does hot com- 
mit himself to the conclusion, his words belng these : "This 
description is given from a copy in the possession ofMr Heber ; 
whicla, from its varying with the accourir of Herbert, Mr H. 
supposes, with justice, must be a different one from Herbert's." 
I have failed to discover the difference. 
Prices: Perry, £9- ; Roxburghe (last leaf wanting}, £Io. os. ; 
Btbllotheca Anglo-Poetica, £ z. zs.; 8ykes, £6. 6s. 
To the above edition must belong the fragment entered in Bohn's 
Lowndes under «Four," thus: "Four Verrues Cardinal. 
Lond. R. Pynson, n.d. folio. Onlya fiagment ofthis Poem 
is known ; it was prlnted at the request of Rychard Erle of 
V.a. TH Millotrp. of GoooMANEls.--Cawood. 57 o. 
Folio. Black letter. 
Appended to Cawood's edition of the 8hip of Fools. No title 
page, pagination, or cuts. The above heading on A l. The 
Latin original printed in Roman by the side of the English. 
Contains A--G, in sixes. 

cvi 1 Bibliograpbical Catalogue 

It may be useful to give here the bibliography of the other English trans- 
lations of Mancyn. 
Mancinus de quattuor Virtutibus. The englysshe of Man- 
cyne apon the foure cardynah vertues.] No place, printer's 
naine, or date, but with the types of Wynkyn de Worde, 
circa 1518- to, a--d, in eights. Bodleian. 
Followlng the title occurs : Petri Carmeliani exasticon in Dominici Mancini 
de quattuor cardincis virtutibus libellum. The I.atin portion is in verse, 
printed in Roman Ictter, with marginal notes in black letter, of a *ery 
small size, and the English in prose. 
The English part, in black letter, is entitled: The englysshe of Mancyne 
apon the foure cardynale verrues, ri.p. or d. This portion has a separate 
title and signatures ; the title is on A x. On sign. F il. occurs, « The 
correccion of the englysshe," and on the verso of the saine leaf is printed, 
"The correction of the texte." A, B, C, and D, $ leaves each ; E, 6 
leaves ; and F, 4 baves ; 4z leaves altogether. A copy of this is in the 
British Museum. Only two pexfect copies are known. 
A Plaine Path to Perfect Verrue : Deuised and found out by 
Mancinus, a Latine Poet, and translated into English by G. 
Turberuile, Gentleman. 
.Ardua ad virtutem via. 
lmprinted at London in Knightrider-strete, br Henry Bynneman, for Leonard 
Maylard. Anno. S65. Svo., 7 z leaves. Black letter, in verse. Decli- 
cated "To the right Honorable and hys singular good Lady, Lady Arme, 
Cofitesse Warvicke." There i« also a metrcal address to the reader, and 
$ 4-line stanzas by .lames Sanford in praise of the translator. 
Freeling, $36, lqo. 9, .7-, bought for Mr Corser: now in the Bx|tish 
Museum. Supposed to be unique. 


CP.orvc.E compyled in Latyn, by the renowned 
Sallust.--Pynson. No date. Folio. 
"' Here begynneth the famous cronycle of the warre, whlch the 
romayns had agaynst Jugurth, vsurper of the kyngdome of 
Numidy. which cronycle is compyled in latyn by the re- 
nowmed romayne Salust. And translated into englysshe by 
syr Alexander Barclay preest, at c6aundemetlt of the rlght 
hye and mighty prince: Thomas duke of Northfolke." 
There are two editions by Pynson of this book. 
I. In this edition the lower lalf of the title page bas a square 
enclosed by double lines containing the Norfolk arms, a lion 
rampant, holding a shield in his paws, on which is another 
lion, a cut which also appears on the title of The Introductory. 
There is a full page cut of the royal arms with portcullis, &c., 
on the back, followed by rive pages of Table. The preface 
to his patron, in English,--together with a Latin dedication to 
Bishop Veysy, in parallel columns,--begins on the verso of 
signature ^ iiii, under a cut of the author presenting his 

of 13arc]ay's Vorks. cvii 

book to him, the saine as that which appears on the title of 
The myrrour of good maners. [See the cut prefixed to the 
Notice of Barclay's lire, which is confined however to a repro- 
duction of the two principal figures only, two other figures, evi- 
dently of servants, and some additional ornamentation of the 
room being omitted.] At the end of this preface is another cut 
ofthe author, writing at a desk; also on the back of the leafis a 
cut ofthe disembarking of an army. There are no other cuts, but 
the volume is adorned throughout with veryfine woodcut initiais. 
Catchwords are given irregularly at the beginning, but egu- 
lady towards the end, at the bottom of the left hand page only, 
but the preface has them to every cohmn. Colophon 
« Thus endeth the famous cronycle ofthe war.., imprented 
at London by Rycharde Pynson primer vnto the kynges noble 
grace : with priuylege vnto hym grated by out sayd souerayne 
lorde the kynge." On the back o the last leaf is Pynson's 
device, No. v. The date is erroneously conjectured in Moss's 
Classical Bib. to be I  I I. It was probably 15 I9, certainly 
between 1519 and Iiz 4. Contains 9 z numbered leaves, 
and one leaf unnumbered, besides eight leaves of preliminary 
matter : numbering quite regular: signatures; a 8, 
6 s, P, Q, 4 s. In the British Museum, Grenville Collec- 
tion, the Bodleian, and the Public Library at Cambridge. 
Prices : Roxburghe, £2, 128. ; Sykes, £8, 128. ; I-/eber, 
1Ss. 6d. ; 8otheby's, 857, 
In this edition, the title page is the saine as in the other with the 
exception of a semicolon for a full point after Numidy, the 
succeeding which having an e added, and romayne being 
without the e, but on the back instead of a cut of the royal 
arms The table commences ; the preface begins on the recto of 
sign. a 4, under the cut of the author presenting his book 
to the Duke of Norfolk, and ends without the leaf of wood- 
cuts which is appended to the preface of the first edition. 
Pynson's device at the end of the book is also wanting in this 
edifion. It contains only fol. Ixxxvi., with six leaves of 
prcliminary marrer; the pagination is a little irregular, xxi. 
and xxii. are wanting but xxiii, is given three rimes, and 
lxxvii, is repeated for lxxviii. ; the British Museum copy is 
deficient in folios lxii. and lxv. : signatures ; a 6, A--N, 6 s, 
and O, P, 4 s. The initiais are the saine as those in the first 
edition in the great majority of cases, but appear much more 
worn. There are catch-words only at the end of every signa- 
ture throughout the book, except to the preface, which has 
them to every column. In the British Museum, and the 
Public Library, Cambridge. 
Both editions have the Latin in Roman letter in the margins, 
and running-titles. Ames mentions an editlon with cuts, 
which must be the saine as the first of these. 

cviii 1 tibliograpbical Catalogue 

CROlqICLE OF ,¥ARRE. Compiled in Laten by 
Saluste. Corrected by Thomas Paynell. Waley, 
f 557- Qlarto. 

" Here begynneth the famou Cronicle of warre, whyche the 
Romaynes hadde agaynst Jugurth vsurper of the kyngedome 
of Numidie: whiche Cronicle i compiled in Laten by the 
renowmed Romayne Saluste: and translated into englyshe 
by syr alexander Barklaye prieste. And nowe perused and 
corrected by Thoma Paynell. Newely Jmprinted in the 
yere of oure Lorde God M.D.L vij." On the verso of the 
title begin Paynell' dedication-- « To the ryghte honorable 
Lorde Antonye Vycounte Mountegue, Knyghte of the ryghte 
honorable order of the garter and one of the Kynge and 
Queenes Magestie pryuie counsayle." "The prologue" 
begins on a . ]3arclay's prelace and dedication are omitted, 
as well as the Latin of 8allust. Col. : "Thu endeth the 
famouse Cronicle of the warre.., against Jugurth. ; . trana- 
lated.., by syr axlexander Barkeley, prieste, at commaunde- 
mente of... Thomaa, duke of Northfolke, And imprinted 
at London in Foiter lane by Jhon Waley." 8ignaturei ; 
H h, 4 , besides title and dedication, two leave : the pag- 
ination commences on a 4, at "The fyrste chapter," the laat 
folio being cxx. ; xxi. ia repeated for xxii., xxiii, for xxiv., 
xix., stands for xxix., lvii. is repeated, and lxxiv, ia repeated 
for lxxv. 
This edition form8 the second part of a volume having the following 
general title page: The Conspiracie of Catiline, written by 
Constancius Felicius Durantinus, and translated bi Thomas 
Paynell : with the historye of Jugurth, writen by the famous 
Romaine 8alust, and translated into Englyshe by/lexander 

This is given by Herbert on the authority ofMaunsell's Catdogue, 

GEORGE. Translated by _A_lexander Barclay, while 
he was a monk of Ely, and dedicated to N. XVest, 
Bp. of Ely. Pinson [Circa ,53 °-] Oarto. [Herbert, 

of [arclay's [IVorks. cix 

IX. THr LYFE or SAY'NTE TrIOM,S. Pynson. No date. 
Q,arto. Black letter. 
"I Here begyt, neth the lyre of the blessed martyr saynte Thomas." 
This title is the headline of this little treatise ; at the begin- 
ning of which is indented a small woodcut of a man in armour, 
striking at the bishop, with his cross-bearer belote him. It 
begins "The martir saynte Thomas was son to Gylberde 
Bequet a burgeys of the Cite of London. And was borne 
in ye place, whereas now standeth the churche called saynte 
Thomas of Akers." It concludes, "¶ Thus endeth the 
lyre of the blessed martyr saynt Thomas of Caunturbury. 
Jmprynted by me Rycharde Pynson, prynter vnto the kynges 
noble grace." Contains eight leaves. There is a copy in the 
British Museum. Assigned to Barclay on trie authoAty 
X. H,v'rrIo's ClovcLr. Pynson. No date. Folio. 
Black letter. 
"Here begynneth a lytell Cronycle, translated & imprinted at the 
cost & charge of Rycharde Pynson, by the c6maundement 
of the ryght high and mighty prince, Edwarde duke of Buck- 
ingham, yerle of Gloucestre, Staffarde, and of Northamton," 
over a large woodcut. Colophon: "Here endeth, 
Imprinted by the sayd ik]arcle Pynon, pdnter unto the 
Kinges noble grace." Date conjectured to be between 
and 153o. Pynson's device, No. S, at the end. Collation : 
A--E, and H, in sixes ; F and G, and I, in fours ; forty- 
eight leaves. 
On the verso of fol. 3S, "Here endeth ye boke of thistorls of 
thoriêt pattes copyled by a relygious man frere Hayton 
frere of Prem6te order, s5tyme lorde of court & cosyn 
german to the kyng of Armeny vpon ye passage of the holy 
lande. By the c6mafidement of ye holy fader ye apostle 
of Rome Clemêt the V. in ye cite of Potiers which boke I 
Iqicholas Falcon, writ first in French . . . I haue tr,slated 
in Latyn for out holy father V e pope. In the yere of out 
lorde god in ye monéth of August. Deo gré." 
"The travels of Hayton into the Holy Land and Armenia, and 
his history of Asia, is one of the most valuable of the early 
accounts of the east. The present is the only translation into 
English, and from the ci,'cumstances of its being printed by 
Pynson and having been (when in Mr Heber's collection) 
bound v¢ith tv¢o other v¢orks (Mirrour of good Maners and 
Sallust) both translated by Barclay, v¢as probably also trans- 
lated by him. It is a book of extraordinay rarlty, no perfect 
copy that can be taced having previously occured for sale." 
(Bibliotheca Grenvilliana, vol. I.) 
Ht'ber's copy (the one above mentioned), £4o- 9 s. 6d. 


¥»crandissimo in Christo Patri ac Domino : domino -home 
Cornisshe Tene»ensis ponti_fici ac diocesis Badonensis 
S'u.ff'raganio `vigilantissimo, sue paternitat»s Capellanus 
humilimus llcxander Barclay suiipsius rccommcncta. 
cionem cure omni summissione, et reucrcntia. 

ff'amctsi crebris negocijs : `varioçue impedimentorum gencre 
t'atigatus paulo diutiùs quàm "volucram a studio reuulsus eram. 
lttamen obseruandissime presul : Stultiferam classera (`vt sure 
tue paternati pollicitus) iam tandem absolui et impressam ad te 
destinaui. 1Veque tamen certum laborem pro incerto premio 
(h«mano. s.) meis intpossuissem humeris : nisi Seruianum illud 
dictum (longe anteaçam inceperam) admonuisset. Satius esse 
non incipere quàm inceptum minus pcrfectum relinTucre. 
Completo tamen opere : nec quemquam magis dignum quàm 
tua sit paternitas existimaui oui id dcdicarem : tutu quia salu- 
bcrrima tua prudentia, morum grauitas, "vite sanctitas doc- 
trineque assiduitas : errantes fatuos mumdanis ab illecebris ad 
"virtutis tramites : diffciles licet : possint reducere : tutu "veto : 
quia sacros ad ordines per te sublimatus et promotus, multisçue 
aliis tuis beneflciis ditatus non potui tibi meure obsequium non 
coartare. Opus igitur tue paternitati dedicaui: meorum 
primicias laborum qui in lucem eruperunt 4tue vt tua 
consuluerit paternatis : autoris carmina cum meis vulgaribus 
rithmicis vn alternatim coniunixi : et çuantum a veto car- 
niinum sensu erraueriln, tue autoritatis iudicium erit. Fateor 
equidem multo plura adiccisse quam adcmisse : partira ad 

[ cxvi ] 

vhia que bac nostra in regione abundantius pullulant mor- 
dacius carpenda : partimque ob Ritbmi di.cultatem. Adicct 
eti, m quas&«m Biblie aliorumque autorum concordandas in 
margine notatas quo singula magis lectoribus illucescant : Simul 
ad inuidorum caninos latratus pacandos : et rabida ora obstru- 
cmta : qui vbi quid fadnorum : quo ipsi scatent : reprehcnsum 
audicrint, continuo patulo gutture liuida euomunt dicta, scripta 
dilacerant, digna scombris ac tbus carmina recensent : sed bi 
si pcrgant malediccre : vt stultiuagi comitcs classent insiliant. 
dt tu vencran.te Presul Discipuli tui exiguum munusculum: 
hilari fi'onte accipito, ClasscmTue nostram (si quid vagum, si 
quicl erronium : si quid dcni7ue superfluum emineat : optimam 
in partent interpretando : ab inuidorum fltudbus : tue autori- 
tatis clipco tucaris. Vale. Ex lmpressoria oc'na Richardi 
Pynson. iij. ldus Dccembris. 




 Alexander Barclay excusynge the rudenes of 
his translacion, ye first lefe Barclay ye translatour 
to y folys, 3 
A prologe in prose shewynge to what lutent this Boke 
was firste ruade, & who were the first Auctours 
of it, 5 
Another Prologe: in Balade concernyng the same,   
In what place this Boke was translate and to what 
purpose it was translatyd, . 17 
 Here begynneth the Folys and firste of inprofyt- 
able bokys, ' 9 
 Of euyll Counsellours Juges & men of lawe, 24 
Of couetyse and prodigalyte, OE9 
Of newe disgysynges in apparayle, • 34 
 A lawde of the nobles and grauyte of Kynge 
Henry the eyght, 39 
Of olde Folys encresynge foly with age, 4' 
Of negligent Fathers ayenst their Children, 45 
Of taleberers : & mouers of debate, 53 
Of nat folowers of good counsel, • . 57 


Of vngoodly maners, and dysordred, 6z 
Of the hurtynge of frendshyp, 66 
Of dispysers of holy scripture, . 71 
Of folys inprouydent, • 75 
Of disordred & venerious loue, 79 

Of them that synne trustynge vpon the mercy of 
almyghty god, 84 
Of folys yt begyn great byldynge ithout suflïcient 
prouysion, 88 
Of glotons, and droncardes, 9 • 
Of ryches vnprofytable, 9 8 
Of folys that wyl serue two lordes both togyther, o 3 
Of superflue speche, lO 7 
Of them that correct other, them self culpable in the 
saille faut, 1 1 1 
Of folys that fynde others good, nat restorynge the 
saine to the owner, • ,.   5 
 The sermon or doctryne of wysdom,   9 
Of Folys bostyng them in fortune,  z4 
Of the superflue curyosyte of men, t z 9 
Of great borowers, & slacke payers, 
Of vnprofitable vowers & peticions, 37 
Of negligent stodyers, .  4 • 
Of them that folysshly speke ayenst the workes of god, 48 
Of lewde Juges of others dedes, 5 • 
Of pluralytees of benefyces, 56 
Of sylmers that prolonge from daye to day to amende 
theyr myslyuyng, . ! 6z 
Of men that ar Jelous, .. 66 
Of auoutry, and specially of suche as ar bawdes to 
theyr wyues,  7 t 

ab la. cxix 

Of suche as nedys wyll contynue in theyr foly nat 
withstandynge holsom erudicion, . 175 
An addicion of the secundaries of Otery saynt Mary, 
in Deuynshyre, . x 79 
Of wrathfull folys, 18 t 
Of the mutabylyte of fortune, i 86 
Of seke men inobedient, ! 9 z 
Of to open councellers, . 197 
Of folys that can nat be ware by ye mysfortune nor 
take example of others damage, . 2Ol 
Of folys that force or care for the bacbytynge of 
lewde people, OEo5 
Of mockers and tïals accusers, 21 o 
Of them that despyse euerlastynge blys for worldly 
thynges & transitory, OE 15 
Of talkers and makers of noyse in the Chirche of god, 2 z o 
Of folys that put them self in wylful ieopardy and 
peryll, 225 
Of the way of felycyte, and godnes and the payne to 
corne to synners, 23° 
Of olde folys yt gyue example of vyce to youth 
negligent & vnexpert, OE34 
Of bodely lust or corporall voluptuosyte, OE39 
Of folys that can nat kepe secrete theyr owne counsell, 244 
Of yonge folys that take olde wymen to theyr wyues 
nat for loue but for ryches, OE47 
Of enuyous Folys, 252 
Of impacient folys disdaynynge to abyde and surfer 
correccion, for theyr profyte, 256 
Of folysshe Fesicians vsynge theyr practyke without 
speculacyon, . :z6o 

cxx T bula. 

Of the ende of wo, ldly honour & power and of folys 
yt trust in them, . 265 
An addicion of Alexander barclay, . 268 
Of predestinacyon, • • OE 71 
Of folys that aply other mennys besynes leuynge 
theyr owne vndone, . 276 
Of the vyce of ingratytude or vnkyndnes and folys 
that vse it, . 280 
Of Folys that stande to moche in theyr owne conceyte, z86 
Of folys that delyte them in daunsynge, . . 291 
Of nyght watchers, . OE9 6 
Of the vanyte of beggers, • 3o* 


Alexander Barclay excusynge the rudenes 
of his translacion. 

Go Boke : abasshe the thy rudenes to present. 
To men auaunced to worshyp, and honour. 
By byrthe or fortune : or to men eloquent. 
By thy submyssion excuse thy Translatour. 
But whan I remember the comon behauour 
Of men: I thynke thou ought to quake for fere 
Of tunges enuyous whose venym may the dere 

Tremble, fere, and quake, thou ought I say agayne. 
For to the Redar thou shewest by euydence 
Thy selfe of Rethoryke pryuate and barayne 
In speche superflue: and fruteles of sentence. 
Thou playnly blamest without al difference 
Bothe hye and lowe sparinge eche mannes naine. 
Therfore no maruayle thoughe many do the blame. 

z oin exbortaciolt of ¢tlexamler Barclay. 

But if thou fortune to lye before a State 
As Kynge or Prince or Lordes great or smal. 
Or doctour diuyne or other Graduate 
Be this thy Excuse to content theyr mynde withal 
My speche is rude my termes comon and rural 
And I for rude peple moche more conuenient. 
Than for Estates, lerned men, or eloquent. 

But of this one poynt thou nedest not to fere 
That any goode man: vertuous and Just. 
XVyth his yl speche shal the hurt or dere. 
But the defende. As I suppose and trust. 
But suche Unthriftes as sue theyr carnal lust 
XVhome thou for vyce dost sharply rebuke and blame 
Shal the dysprayse: emperisshinge thy naine. 

An exhortacion of Alexander Barclay. 

But ye that shal rede this boke: I you exhorte. 
And you that ar herars therof also I pray 
Where as ye knowe that ye be of this sorte: 
Amende your lyfe and expelle that vyce away. 
Slomber nat in syn. Amende you whyle ye may. 
And yf ye so do and ensue Vertue and grace. 
XVythin my Shyp ye get no rowme ne place. 

Barclay the translatour tho the Foles. 

To Shyp galantes the se is at the fui. 
The wynde vs calleth out sayles ar dlsplayed. 
Where may we best aryue ? at Lyn or els at Huile ? 
To vs may no hauen in Englonde be denayd. 
Why tary we ? the Ankers af vp wayed. 
If any corde or Cabyl vs hurt, let outher hynder. 
Let slyp the ende or els hewe it in sonder. 

Retourne your syght beholde vnto the shore. 
There is great nomber that Cayne wold be aborde. 
They get no rowme our Shyp can holde no more. 
Haws in the Cocke gyue them none other vorde. 
God gyde vs from Rockes, quicsonde tempest and forde 
If any man of warre, vether, or xvynde apere. 
My selfe shal trye the wynde and kepe the Stere. 

But I pray you reders haue ye no dysdayne. 
Thoughe Barclay haue presumed of audacite 
This Shyp to fuie as chefe mayster and Captayne. 
Though some thynke them selle moche ,,orthyer than he. 
It were great maruayle forsoth syth he hath be. 
A scoler longe: and that in dyuers scoles 
But he myght be Captayne of a Shyp of Foies 

4 darc]ay t]e trans]atour t]o t]e ]Voles. 

But if that any one be in suche maner case. 
That he wyl chalange the maystershyp fro me 
Yet in my Shyp can I nat want a place. 
For in euery place my selle I oft may se. 
But this I leue besechynge eche degre : 
To pardon my youthe and to bolde interprise. 
For harde is it duely to speke of euery vyce. 

For yf I had tunges an hundreth : and wyt to fele 
A1 thinges natural and supernaturall 
A thousand mouthes : and voyce as harde as stele. 
And sene ail the seuen Sciences lyberal. 
Yet cowde I neuer touche the vyces ail. 
And syn of the worlde : ne theyr braunches comprehende : 
Nat thoughe I lyued vnto the worldes ende. 

But if these vyces whiche mankynde doth incomber. 
Were clene expellyd and vertue in theyr place. 
I cowde nat haue gathered of fowles so great a nomber. 
\¥hose foly from them out chaseth goddys grace. 
But euery man that knowes hym in that case 
To this rude Boke let hym gladly intende. 
And lerne the way his lewdnes to amende. 

[The Prologe of James Locher.] 

_After that I haue longe mused by my self of the sore 
confounded and vncertayne cours of mannys lyre, and thinges 
therto belonginge: at the last I haue by my vigilant medi- 
tacion round and noted many degrees of errours : wherby 
mankynd wandreth from the way of trouth I haue also 
noted that many wyse men and wel lettred haue writen 
right fruteful doctrines: wherby they haue heled these 
dyseses and intollerable perturbacions of the mynde: and 
the goostly woundes therof, motive better than Esculapius 
v¢hich was fyrst Inuentour of Phesyke and amonge the 
Gentyles worshypped as a God. In the contrey of Grece 
were stodyes fyrst founded and ordeyned in the vhich be- 
gan and sprange holsom medicyne which gaue vnto infect 
myndes frutful doctryne and norisshinge. Amonge v¢home 
Socrates that great begynner and honourer of wysdom be- 
gan to dispute of ye maners of men. But for that he coude 
nat fynde certayne ende of goodnes and hyest felicite in 
naturall thinges : nor induce men to the saine, he gaue the 
hye contemplacions of his mynde to moral vertues. And 
in so moche passed he al other in Philosophy moral that it 
• ,vas sayde that he called Philosophy down from the Imperial 
heuen, whan this Socrates perceyued the mindes of 
men to be prone, and extremely inclyned to viciousnes he 
had gret affeccion to subdue suche maners. \¥herfore in 
comon places of the Cyte of Athenes he instruct and in- 

6 /e Prologe of Jame Locher. 

fourmed the peple in such doctrynes as compasith the clere 
and immaculate welles of the moste excellent and souerayne 
gode. After the disces of Socrates succeded ye godly 
Plato whiche in moral Philosophy ouerpassed also a great 
part of his tyme And certaynly nat without a cause was he 
called godly. For by what stody myght he more holely 
or better socour mankynde than by suche doctrynes as 
he gaue. He wrote and ordeyned lawes moste egal and iust 
He edityed vnto the Grekes a comon welthe stable, quyet 
and commendable. And ordeyned the societe and company 
of them most iocund and amyable. He prepared a brydel 
to refrayne the lust and sensualyte of the body. And 
fynally he changed the yl ignorance feblenes and negligence 
of youth vnto dylygence, strength and vertue. In tyme 
also of these Phylosophers sprange the florisshynge age of 
Poetes : xhiche amonge lettred men had nat smal owme 
and place. And that for theyr eloquent Retoryke and also 
for theyr mery ficcions and inuencions. Of the whiche 
Poetes some wrote in moste ornate termes in ditees heroycal 
wherin the noble actes and lyues both of dyuyne and 
humayne creatures af wont to be noted and xritem. 
Some wrote of tylling of the grounde. Some of the Planetes, 
of the courses of ye sterres : and of the mouynge of the 
heuyn and fyrmament. Some of the Empyre and shameful 
subieccion of disordred loue. And many other of the 
myserable ruyne and fal of Kynges and princes for vice: 
as Tragedies. And some other wrote Comedyes with 
great libertye of speche: which Comedies we cal Inter- 
ludes. Amonge whome Aristophanes Eupolis and Cratinus 
mooste laudable Poetes passed al other. For whan they 
sawe the youth of Athenes and of al the remanent of 

Whe Prologe of g lames Locher. 7 

Grece inclyned to al ylles they toke occasion to note suche 
myslyuinge. And so in playne wordes they repreued with- 
out fauour the vyces of the sayd yl disposyd peple of what 
condicion or order they were : Of this auncient wrytinge of 
Comedyes our laten Poetes deuysed a maner of wrytinge 
nat inelegant. And fyrst Lucilius composed one Satyre in 
the whiche he wrote by name the vices of certayne princes 
and Citezyns of Rome And that with many bourdes so yt 
with his mery speche myxt with rebukes he correct al 
them of the cyte that disordredly lyued. But this 
mery speche vsed he nat in his writing to the intent 
to excercyse wanton wordes or vnrefrayned lascyuyte, 
or to put his pleasour in suche dissolute langage: but 
to ye intent to quenche vyces and to prouoke the commons 
to wysdome and vertue, and to be asshamed of theyr foly 
and excessyfe lyuynge, of hym ail the Latyn poetes haue 
takyn example, and begynnynge to wryte Satyrs whiche the 
grekes t,.amed Comedyes: As Fabius specifyeth in his X 
boke of institucions. After Lucilius succeded Horacius, 
moche more eloquent in wrytynge whiche in the saine de- 
seruyd great laude : Persius also left to vs onely one boke 
by the whiche he commyttyd his naine and laude to per- 
petuall memory. The last and prynce of all -,vas Juuenall 
whiche in his iocunde poemys comprehendyd al that was 
wryten most eloquent and pleasaunt of ail the poetis of that 
sorte afore his tyme : O noble men, and diligent hertes and 
myndes, o laudable maners and tymes, these worthy men 
exyled ydelnes, wherby they haue obtayned nat small 
worshyp and great commodyte example and doctryne lefte 
to vs theyr posteryours why begyn we nat to vnderstonde 
and perceyue. Why worshyp nat the pcople of out tyme 

8 OEhe Prologe of dames Locber. 

these poetis why do nat they reuerence to ye interpretours 
of them do they nat vnderstonde: that no poetes wryte, 
but outher theyr mynde is to do pleasure or els profyte to 
the reder, or ellys they togyther wyll doo bothe profyte and 
pleasoure why are they dyspysed of many rude carters of 
nowe a dayes which vnderstonde nat thern, And for lacke of 
them haue nat latyn to vtter and expresse ye wyl of their 
mynde. Se whether poetes af to be dispised, they laude 
vertue and hym that vseth it rebukyng vices with the vsers 
therof, They teche what is good and what is euyll: to 
what ende vyce, and xvhat ende vertue bringeth vs, and do 
nat Poetis reuyle and sharply byte in their poemys all suche 
as ar vnmeke, Prowde, Couetous, Lecherous, \Vanton 
delycyous, Vrathfull glotons, wasters, Enuyours, En- 
chauntours, taythebrakers, rasshe, vnauysed, malapert, 
drunken, vntaught foies, and suche lyke. Shulde theyr 
writyng that suche thinges disprayse and reuyle be dyspised 
of many blynde Dotardes yt nowe lyue whiche enuy that 
any man shulde haue or vnderstonde ye thyng whiche they 
knowe nat. The Poetes alo wyth great lax,des commende 
and exalt the noble folowers of vertue ascribyng to euery 
man rewardes after his merytes. And shortly to say, the 
intencion of al Poetes hath euer ben to repreue vyce: and 
to commende vertue. But syns it is so that noxve in out 
dayes ar so many neglygent and folysshe peple that they 
ar almost innumerable whiche despisynge the loue of ver- 
tue : folowe the blyndenes and vanyte of this worlde : it was 
expedient that of newe some lettred man, wyse, and subtil 
of wyt shulde awake and touche ye open vices of foles that 
now lyue: and blame theyr abhomynable lyfe. This 
fouime and l)bertye of writinge, and charge hathe taken 

7he Prologe of James Locler. 9 

vpon hym the Right excellent and worthy Mayster Sebastian 
Brant Doctour of both the Lawes and noble Oratour and 
Poete to the comon welthe of al people in playne and 
comon speche of Doche in the contrey of Almayne : to the 
ymytacion of Dant Florentyne: and Francis Petrarche 
Poetes heroycal which in their maternal langage haue com- 
posed maruelous Poemes and ficcions. But amonge diuers 
inuencions composed of the sayde 8ebastian brant I haue 
noted one named ye Shyp of Foles moche expedient and 
necessary to the redar which the sayd 8ebastian composed 
in doche langage. And afier hym one called James 
Locher his Disciple translated the saine into Laten to the 
vnderstondinge of al Christen nacions where Laten is spoken. 
Than another (whose naine to me is vnknowen) translated 
the saine into Frenche. I haue ouersene the f),rst Inuen- 
cion in Doche and after that the two translations in Laten 
and Frenche whiche in blaminge the disordred lyre of men 
of our tyme agreeth in sentence : threfolde in langage wher- 
fore wylling to redres the errours and vyces of this oure 
Royalme of Englonde: as the foresayde composer and 
translatours hath done in theyr Contrees I haue taken vpon 
me: howbeit vnworthy to drawe into our Englysshe tunge 
the sayd boke named ye shyp of folys as nere to ye sayd 
thre Langages as the parcyte of my wyt wyll surfer me. But 
ye reders gyue ye pardon vnto Alexander de Barklay If 
ignoraunce negligence or lacke of wyt cause hym to erre in 
this translacion his purpose and synguler desyre is to content 
youre myndes. And sothely he hathe taken vpon hym the 
translacion of this present Boke neyther for hope of rewarde 
nor lawde of man : but onely for the holsome instruccion 
commodyte and Doctryne of wysdome, and to clense the 

 o g'be Pdoge of .la»es Locer. 

vanyte and madnes of folysshe people of whom ouer great 
nombre is in the 1Royalme of Englonde. Therfore let 
euery man beholde and ouerrede this boke: And than I 
doute nat but he shal se the errours of his lyfe of what 
condycyon that he be. in lyke wyse as he shal se in a 
Myrrour the fourme of his countenaunce and vysage: _And 
if he amende suche fautes as he redeth here wherein he 
knoweth hymself gylty, and passe forth the resydue of his 
lyfe in the order of good maners than shall he haue the 
fruyte and auauntage wherto I haue translatyd this boke. 

Here begynneth the prologe. 

Amonge the people of euery regyon 
And ouer the worlde, south north eest and west 
Soundeth godly doctryne in plenty and foyson 
XVherin the grounde of ,¢ertue and wysdome doth test 
Rede gode and bad, and kepe the to the best 
XVas neuer more plenty of holsome doctryne 
Nor fewer people that doth therto enclyne 

We haue the Bybyll whiche godly doth expresse 
Of the olde testament the lawes mysticall 
And also of the newe out erour to redresse 
Of phylosophy and other artes liberall 
X¥ith other bokes of vertues morall 
But thoughe suche bokes vs godly wayes shewe 
XYe ail ar blynde no man wyll them ensue 

Banysshed is doctryne, we wander in derknes 
Throughe all the worlde : our selle we vyll not knowe 
Wysdome is exyled alas blynde folysshenes 
Mysgydeth the myndes of people hye and lowe 
Grace is decayed, yll governaunce doth growe 
Both prudent Pallas and Minerua are slayne 
Or els to heuyn retourned are they agayne 

Knowledge of trouth, Prudence, and iust Symplicite 
Hath vs clene left : For we set of them no store. 
Our Fayth is def-yled loue, goodnes, and Pyte : 
Honest maners nowe ar reputed of: no more. 
Lawyers ar lordes : but Justice is rent and tore. 
Or closed lyke a Monster within dores thre. 
For without mede : or money no man can hyr se. 

_Al is disordred : Vertue hathe no rewarde. 
_Alas, Compassion: and Mercy bothe ar slayne. 
Alas, the stony hartys of pepyl ar so harde 
That nought can constrayne theyr folyes to refrayne 
But styl they procede : and eche other meyntayne. 
So wander these foies : incresinge without nomber. 
That al the worlde they vtterly encomber. 

Blasphemers of Chryst ; Hostlers ; and Tauerners : 
Crakars ar, d bosters with Courters auenterous, 
Bawdes and Pollers with comon extorcioners 
_Af taken nowe adayes in the worlde moste glorious. 
But the gyftes of grace and al wayes gracious 
We haue excluded. Thus lyue we carnally: 
Utterly subdued to al lewdnes and Foly. 

Thus is of Foles a sorte almost innumerable. 
Defilynge the worlde xvith syn and Vylany. 
Some thynkinge them self moche wyse and commendable 
Thoughe al theyr dayes they lyue vnthryftely. 
No goodnes they perceyue nor to no goode aplye. 
But if he haue a great wombe, and his Cofers fui 
Than is noue holde xvyser bytwene London and Ilul. 

g"he Prdoge.  :3 

But to assemble these Foies in one bonde. 
And theyr demerites worthely to note. 
Fayne shal I Shyppes of euery maner londe. 
None shalbe left: Barke, Galay, Shyp, nor Bote. 
One vessel tan nat brynge them al aflote. 
For yf al these Foies were brought into one Barge 
The bote shulde synke so sore shulde be the charge. 

The sayles ar hawsed, a pleasant cole dothe blowe. 
The Foies assembleth as fast as they may dryue. 
Some swymmeth after : other as thycke doth rowe 
In theyr small botes, as Bees about a hyue 
The nomber is great, and eche one doth stryue 
For to be chefe as Purser and Capytayne 
Qœarter mayster, Lodesman or els Boteswayne. 

They ron to our shyp, eche one doth greatly fere 
Lyst his slacke paas, sholde cause hym byde behynde 
The wynde ryseth, and is lyke the sayle to tere 
Eche one enforseth the anker vp to wynde 
The se swellyth by planettes well I fynde 
These obscure clowdes thre:eneth vs tempest 
Ail are nat in bed whiche shall haue yll test 

We are full lade and yet forsoth I thynke 
A thousand are behynde, whom we may not receyue 
For if we do 1 our nauy clene shall synke 
He oft ail lesys that coueytes ail to haue 
From London Rockes almyghty god vs saue 
For if we there anker, outher bote or barge 
There be so many that they vs wyll ouercharge 

14 T1)e Prologe. 

Ye London Galantes, arere, ye shall nat enter 
XYe kepe the streme, and touche nat the shore 
In Cyte nor in Court we dare nat well auenter 
Lyst perchaunce we sholde displeasure haue therfore 
But if ye wyll nedes some shall haue an ore 
And all the remenaunt shall stande afar at large 
And rede theyr fautes paynted aboute our barge. 

Lyke as a myrrour doth represent agayne 
The fourme and fygure of mannes countenaunce 
So in our shyp shall he se wrytyn playne 
The fourme and fygure of his mysgouernaunce 
What man is fautles, but outher ignoraunce 
Or els wylfulnes causeth hym offende : 
Than let hym nat disdayne this shyp, tyll he amende. 

_And certaynly I thynke that no creature 
Lyuynge in this lyfe mortall in transytory 
Can hym self kepe and stedfastly endure 
Without ail spot, as worthy eternall glor, 
But if he call to his mynde and memory 
Fully the dedys both of his youthe and age 
He wyll graunt in this shyp to kepe some stage 

But who so euer wyll knowlege his owne foly 
And it repent, lyuynge after in sympylnesse 
Shall haue no place nor rowme more in our nauy 
But become felawe to pallas the goddesse 
But he that fyxed is in suche a blyndnesse 
That thoughe he be nought he thynketh al is well 
Suche shall in this Barge bere a babyll and a bell 

7"be P,'ologe.  5 

These with other lyke may eche man se and rede 
Eche by themselfe in this small boke ouerall 
The fautes shall he fynde if he take good hede 
Of ail estatis as degres temporall 
With gyders of dignytees spirituall 
Bothe pore and riche, Chorles and Cytezyns 
For hast to lepe a borde many bruse theyr shynnys 

Here is berdles youth, and here is crokyd age 
Children with theyr faders that yll do them insygne 
And doth nat intende theyr wantones to swage 
Nouther by worde nor yet by discyplyne 
Here be men of euery science and doctryne 
Lerned and vnlerned man mayde chylde and wyfe 
May here se and rede the lewdenes of theyr lyre. 

Here ar vyle wymen: whome loue Immoderate 
And lust Venereall bryngeth to hurt and shame. 
Here ar prodigal Galantes : wyth mouers of debate. 
And thousandes mo: ,,vhome I nat wel dare naine. 
Here ar Bacbyters whiche goode lyuers dyffame. 
Brakers of ,,vedlocke, men proude: and couetous : 
Pollers, and pykers with folke delicious. 

It is but foly to rehers the names here 
Of al suche Foies : as in one Shelde or targe. 
Syns that theyr foly dystynctly shal apere 
On euery lefe: in Pyctures fayre and large. 
To Barclays stody: and Pynsones cost and charge 
Wherfore ye redars pray that they both may be saued 
Before God, syns they your folyes haue thus graued. 

 6 g'/e Pro/oge. 

But to thentent that euery man may knowe 
The cause of my wrytynge : certes I intende 
• fo profyte and to please both hye and lowe 
And blame theyr fautes wherby they may amende 
But if that any his quarell wyll defende 
Excusynge his fautes to my derysyon 
Knowe he that noble poetes thus haue done. 

Afore my dayes a thousande yere ago 
Blamynge and reuylynge the inconuenyence 
Of people, wyllynge them to withdrawe therfro 
Them I ensue: nat lyke of intellygence 
And though I am nat to them lyke in science 
Yet this is my wyll mynde and intencion 
To blame ail vyce lykewyse as they haue done. 

To tender youth my mynde is to auayle 
That they eschewe may ail lewdenes and offence 
Whiche doth theyr myndes often sore assayle 
Closynge the iyen of theyr intellygence 
But if I halt in meter or erre in eloquence 
Or be to large in langage I pray you blame nat me 
For my mater is so bad it wyll none other be. 

[ The Argument. ] 

Here after foloweth the Boke named the Shyp of Foies 
of the world : translated out of Laten, French and Doche 
into Englysse in the Colege of saynt Mary Otery By me 
Alexander Barclay to the felicite and moste holsom instruc- 
cion of mankynde the whiche conteyneth al suche as wandre 
from the way of trouth and from the open Path of holsom 
vnderstondynge and wysdom : fallynge into dyuers blynd- 
nesses of ye mynde, folysshe sensualytees, and vndlawfid 
delectacions of the body. "Fhis present Boke myght haue 
ben callyd nat inconuenyently the Satyr (that is to say) the 
reprehencion of foulysshnes, but the neweltye of the naine 
was more plesant vnto the fyrst actour to call it the Shyp of 
foies: For in lyke wyse as olde Poetes Satyriens in dyuers 
Poesyes conioyned repreued the synnes and ylnes of the 
peple at that tyme lyuynge : so and in lyke wyse this our 
Boke representeth vnto the iyen of the redars the states and 
condicions of men: so that euery man may behold within 
the same the cours of his lyfe and his mysgouerned maners, 
as he sholde beholde the shadowe of the fygure of his 
visage within a bright Myrrour. But concernynge the trans- 
lacion of this Boke: I exhort ye reders to take no displesour 
for yt it is nat translated word by worde acordinge to ye 
verses of my actour. For I haue but only drawen into our 
moder tunge, in rude langage the sentences of the verses as 
nere as the parcyte of my wyt wyl surfer me, some tyme 
addynge, somtyme detractinge and takinge away suche 
ttfinges a semeth me necessary and superflue, wherfore I 
desyre of you reders pardon of my presumptuous audacite 

 8 Whe Irument. 

trustynge that ye shall holde me excused if ye consyder ye 
scarsnes of my wyt and my vnexpert youthe. I haue in 

many places ouerpassed 
obscurene8 of Fables and 
langage as shal apere in 
cawse that mouethe me 

dyuers poetical digressions and 
haue concluded my worke in rude 
my translacion. But the speciyl 
to this besynes is to auoyde the 

execrable inconuenyences of ydilnes whyche (as saint Ber- 
nard sayth) is moder of al vices: and to the vtter derision 
of obstynat men delitynge them in folyes and mysgouernance. 
But bycause the name of this boke semeth to the redar to 
procede of derysion: and by that mean that the substance 
therof shulde nat be profitable: I wyl aduertise you that 
this Boke is named the Shyp of foies of the worlde : For 
this worlde is nought els but a tempestous se in the whiche 
we dayly wander and are caste in dyuers tribulacions paynes 
and aduersitees : some by ignoraunce and some by wilfulnes : 
wherfore suche doers ar worthy to be called foies, syns they 
gyde them nat by reason as creatures resonable ought to do. 
Therfore the fyrst actoure willynge to deuyde suche foles 
from wysemen and gode lyuers : hathe ordeyned vpon the 
se of this worlde this present Shyp to contayne these folys of 
ye worlde whiche ar in great nomber. 8o that who redeth 
it perfytely consyderynge his secrete dedys, he shall not 
lyghtly excuse hym selle out of it what so euer good name 
yt he hath outwarde in the mouth of the comonty% And to 
the entent yt this my laboure may be the more pleasaunt 
vnto lettred men, I haue adioyned vnto the saine ye verses 
of my Actour with dyuerse concordaunces of the Bybyll to 
fortyfy my wrytynge by the same, and also to stop the 
enuyous mouthes (If any suche shal be) of them that by 
malyce shall barke ayenst this my besynes. 


begynneth the 

foles and 


I ara the firste foie of ail the hole nauy 
To kepe the pompe, the helme and eke the sayle 
For this is my mynde, this one pleasoure haue I 
Of bokes to haue grete plenty and aparayle 
I take no wysdome by them : nor yet auayle 
Nor them preceyue nat: And then I them despyse 
Thus ara I a foole and ail that sewe that guyse 

That in this shyp the chefe place I gouerne 
By this wyde see with folys wanderynge 
The cause is playne, and easy to dyscerne 
Styll ara I besy bokes assemblynge 
For to haue plenty it is a plesaunt thynge 
In my conceyt and to haue them ay in bonde 
But what they mene do I nat ,nderstonde 

But yet I haue them in great reuerence 
And honoure sauynge them from fylth and ordure 
By often brusshynge, and moche dylygence 
Full goodly bounde in pleasaunt couerture 
Of domas, satyn, or els of veluet pure 
I kepe them sure ferynge lyst they sholde be lost 
For in them is the connynge wherin I me bost. 

But if it fortune that any lernyd men 
XVithin my house rail to disputacion 
I drawe the curtyns to shewe my bokes then 
That they of my cunnynge shlde make probacion 
I kepe nat to rail in altercation 
And whyle they comon my bokes I turne and wynde 
For ail is in them, and no thynge in my mynde. 

Tholomeus the riche causyd longe agone 
Ouer all the wodde good bokes to be sought 
Done was his commaundement anone 
These bokes he had and in his stody brought 
XVhiche passyd ail erthly treasoure as he thought 
But neuertheles he dyd hym nat aply 
Unto theyr doctr),ne, but lyued unhappely. 

Lo in lyke wyse of bokys I haue store 
But fewe I rede and fewer understande 
I folowe nat theyr doctryne nor theyr lore 
It is ynoughe to bere a boke in hande 
It were to moche tobe it suche a bande 
For to be bounde to loke within the boke 
I ara content on the fayre couerynge to loke 

Why sholde I stody to hurt my wyt therby 
Or trouble my mynde with stody excessyue 
Sythe many ar whiche stody right besely 
And yet therby shall they neuer thryue 
The fruyt of wysdom can they nat contryue 
And many to stody so moche are inclynde 
That utterly they fali out of theyr mynde 

Eche is nat lettred that nowe is made a Iorde 
Nor eche a clerke that hath a benefyce 
They are nat ail lawyers that plees doth recorde 
Ail that are promotyd are nat fully wyse 
On suche chaunce nowe fortune throwys hir dyce 
That thoughe one knowe but the yresshe gaine 
Yet wolde he haue a gentylimannys naine 

So in lyke wyse I am in suche case 
Thoughe I nought can I wolde be callyd wyse 
Also I may set another in my place 
XVhiche may for me my bokes excercyse 
Or else I shall ensue the comon gyse 
And say concedo to euery argument 
Lyst by moche speche my latyn sholde be spent 

z  Irotable bokes. 

I am lyke other Clerkes whiche so frowardly them gyde. 
That after they af onys corne vnto promocion 
They gyue them to plesour theyr stody set asyde. 
Theyr Auaryce couerynge with f:ayned deuocion. 
Yet dayly they preche : and haue great derysyon 
Against the rude Laymen : and al for Couetyse. 
Though theyr owne Conscience be blynded w t that vyce. 

But if I durst trouth playnely vtter and expresse. 
This is the special cause of this Inconuenyence. 
That greatest foles, and fullest of lewdnes 
Hauynge least wyt : and symplest Science 
Af fyrst promoted : and haue greatest reuerence 
For if one can flater, and bere a hawke on his Fyst 
He shalbe ruade Person of Honyngton or of Clyst. 

But he that is in Stody ay ferme and diligent. 
And without al fauour prechyth Chrystys lore 
Of al the Comontye nowe adayes is sore shent. 
And by Estates thretened to Pryson oft therfore. 
Thus what auayle is it, tovs to Stody more: 
To knowe outher scripture, trouth, wysedom, or vertue 
Syns fewe, or none without fauour dare them shewe. 

But O noble Doctours, that worthy ar of name: 
Consyder our olde faders : note wel theyr diligence ; 
Ensue ye theyr steppes : obtayne ye such faine, 
As they dyd lyuynge: and that by true Prudence. 
Within theyr hartys they planted theyr scyence 
And nat in plesaunt bokes. But nowe to fewe suche be. 
Therefore in this Shyp let them corne rowe with me. 

Iro.table bokes.  3 



Say worthy doctours and Clerkes curious : 
\Vhat moueth you of Bokes to haue such nomber. 
Syns dyuers doctrines throughe way contrarious. 
Doth mannys mynde distract and sore encomber. 
Alas blynde men awake, out of your slomber 
And if ye wyl nedys your bokes multyplye 
With diligence endeuer you some to occupye. 

Of euyl 

Counsellours, Juges 
men of lawe. 


He that Office hath and hyghe autorite. 
To rule a Royalme : as Juge or Counsellour 
\Vhich seynge Justice, playne ryght and equyle 
Them falsly blyndeth by fauour or rigour 
Condemnynge wretches gyltles. And to a Transgressour 
For mede shewinge fauour. Suche is as wyse a man 
As he that wolde seeth a quycke Sowe in a Pan. 

Of tl Cot,,nsellours. u S 

Right many labours nowe, with hyghe diligence 
For tobe Lawyers the Comons to counsayle. 
Therby to be in honour had and in reuerence 
But onely they labour for theyr pryuate auayle. 
The purs of the Clyent shal fynde hym apparayle. 
And yet knowes he neyther lawe good counsel nor Justice. 
But speketh at auenture: as men throwe the dyce. 

Suche in the Senate af taken oft to counsayle 
With Statis of this and many a other region. 
Whiche of theyr maners vnstable af and frayle 
Nought of Lawe Ciuyi knowinge nor Canon. 
But wander in derknes clerenes they haue none. 
O noble Rome thou gat nat thy honours 
Nor general Empyre by suche Counsellours. 

Whan noble Rome ail the worlde dyd gouerne 
Theyr councellers were olde men iust and prudent 
Whiche egally dyd euery thynge descerne 
Wherby theyr Empyre became so excellent 
But nowe a dayes he shall haue his intent 
That hath most golde, and so it is befall 
That aungels worke wonders in westmynster hall. 

There cursyd coyne makyth the wronge seine right 
The cause of hym that lyueth in pouertye 
Hath no defence, tuycion, strength nor myght 
Suche is the olde custome of this faculte 
That colours oft cloke J ustyce and equyte 
None can the mater fele or vnderstonde 
Without the aungell be weyghty in his honde 

2 6 Of Euyl Counsellours. 

Thus for the hunger of syluer and of goide 
Justyce and right is in captyuyte 
And as we se nat gyuen fre, but solde 
Nouther to estates, nor sympell comonte 
And though that many lawyers rightwysnes be 
Yet many other dysdayne to se the ryght 
And they ar suche as blynde Justycis syght 

There is one and other alleged at the barre 
And namely suche as chrafty were in glose 
Upon the lawe : the clyentis stande afarre 
Full lytell knowynge howe the mater goose 
And many other the lawes clene transpose 
Folowynge the example, of lawyers dede and gone 
Tyll the pore Clyentis be etvn to the bone 

It is not ynough to conforme thy mynde 
Unto the others faynyd opynyon 
Thou sholde say trouthe, so Justyce doth the bynde 
And also lawe gyueth the commyssyon 
To knowe hir, and kepe hir without transgressyon 
Lyst they whome thou hast J uged wrongfully 
Unto the hye Juge for vengeaunce on the crye. 

Perchaunce thou thynkest that god taketh no hede 
To mannes dedys, nor workes of offence 
Yes certaynly he knowes thy thought and dede 
No thynge is secrete, nor hyd from his presence 
,Vherefore if thou wylt gyde the by prudence 
Or thou gyue Jugement of mater lesse or more 
Take wyse mennys reade and good couusayle before 

Of Euy] Coutse]]our. 2 7 

Loke in what Balance, what weyght and what mesure 
Thou seruest other, for thou shalt serued bë 
With the saine after this lyfe I the ensure. 
If thou ryghtwysly Juge by lawe and equyte 
Thou shalt haue presence of goddes hyghe maiestye 
But if thou Juge amys : than shall Eacus 
(As Poetis sayth) hell Juge thy rewarde discusse 

God is aboue and regneth sempiternally. 
Whiche shall ,s deme at his last Jugement, 
And gyue rewardes to echone egally 
After suche fourme as he his lyre hath spent 
'Fhan shall we them se whome we as violent 
Traytours : haue put to wronge in worde or dede 
And after our deserte euen suche shall be our mede 

There shall be no Bayle nor treatynge of maynpryse 
Ne worldly wysdome there shall no thynge preuayle 
There shall be no delayes vntyll another Syse 
But outher quyt, or to irtfernall Gayle. 
I11 Juges so iuged, Lo here theyr trauayle 
Worthely rewarded in wo withouten ende. 
Than shall no grace be graunted ne space to amende. 


Therfore ye yonge Studentes of the Chauncery : 
(I speke nat to the olde the Cure of them is past) 
Remember that Justyce longe hath in bondage be 

2 8 Of" .Eu.vA 

Reduce ye hir nowe vnto lybertye at the |ast. 
Endeuer you hir bondes to louse or to brast 
Hir raunsome is payde and more by a thousande pounde 
And yet alas the lady Justyce lyeth bounde. 

Thoughe your fore Faders haue take hir prysoner 
And done hir in a Dongeon nat mete for hir degre 
Lay to your bandes and helpe hir from daungere 
And hir restore vnto hir lybertye 
That pore men and monyles may hir onys se 
But certaynly I fere lyst she hath lost hir naine 
Or by longe prysonment shall after euer be lame. 

Of Auaryce or Couetyse and prodygalyte. 

Ye that ar gyuen ouer moche to Couetyse 
Corne nere, a place is here for you to dwel 
Corne nere ye wasffull people in lyke wyse 
Youre rowme shall be hye in the Topcastell 
Ye care for no shame, for heuen nor for hell 
Golde is your god, ryches gotten wrongfully 
Ye dame your soule, and yet lyue in Inury. 

3o Of luaryce or Couetyse 

He that is besy euery day and houre 
Without mesure, maner, or moderacion 
To gather riches and great store of treasoure 
Therof no ioy takinge, confort nor consolacion. 
He is a Foie : and of blynde and mad opynyon 
For that which he getteth and kepeth wrongfully 
His heyre often wasteth moche more vnthryftely. 

While he here lyueth in this lyre caduke and mortal. 
Fui sore he laboureth : and oft hungry gothe to bed 
Sparine from hymselfe: for hym that neuer shal 
After do hym goode, thoughe he were harde bested. 
Thus is this Couetous wretche so blyndly led 
By the rende that here he lyueth wretchydly 
And after his deth damned eternally. 

There wandreth he in dolour and derknes 
Amonge infernall flodes tedyous and horryble 
Let se what auayleth than ail his ryches 
Ungracyously gotyne, his paynes ar terryble 
Than ,olde he amende but it is inpossyble 
In hell is no order nor hope of remedy 
But sorowe vpou sorov¢e, and that euerlastyngly. 

Yet fynde I another vyce as bad as this 
Whiche is the vyce of prodygalyte 
He spendyth ail in ryot and amys 
Without ail order, pursuynge pouertye 
He lyketh nat to lyue styll in prosperite 
But ail and more he wastyth out at large 
(Beware the ende) is the leste poyut of his charge. 

a rodyalyte. 3  

But of the couetous somwhat to say agayne 
Thou art a foie thy soule to sell for riches 
Or put thy body to labour or to payne 
Thy mynde to fere, thy herte to heuynesse 
Thou foie thou fleest no maner cruelnesse 
So thou may get money, to make thy heyr a knyght 
Thou sleest thy soule where as thou saue it myght 

Thou hast no rest thy mynde is euer in fere 
Of mysauenture, nor neuer art content 
Deth is forgoten, thou carest nat a here 
To saue thy sou[e from infernal[ punysshement 
If thou be dampned, than art thou at thy stent 
By thy ryches which thou here hast left behynde 
To thy executours, thou shalt sma[l comforte fynde 

Theyr custome is to holde fast that they haue 
Thy pore soule shall be farthest fro theyr thought 
If that thy carkes be brought onys in the graue 
_And that they haue thy bagges in bandes cought 
What say they, than (by god the man had nought) 
Whyle he here lyuyd he was to lyberall 
Thus dampned is thy soule, thy ryches cause of ail 

Who wyll denay but it is necesary 
Of riches for to haue plenty and store 
To this opynyon I wyll nat say contrary 
So it be ordred after holy lofe 
Whyle thy selle leuest departe some to the pote 
With thy owne hande trust nat thy executours 
Gyue for god, and god shall sende at all houres 

3 2 Of l, tayce o" Co.«O,s« 

Rede Tullius warkes the worthy Oratour. 
And writen shalt thou fynde in right fruteful sentence 
That neuer wyseman loued ouer great honour. 
Nor to haue great riches put ouer great diligence 
But onely theyr mynde was set on Sapience 
And quyetly to lyue in Just symplycite. 
For in greatest honour is greatest ieoperdye. 

He that is symple, and on the grounde doth lye 
And that can be content with ynoughe or suffisaunce 
ls surer by moche than he that lyeth on hye. 
Nowe vp nowe downe vnsure as a Balaunce. 
But sothly he that set wyll his plesance 
Onely on wysdom and styl therfore labour. 
Shal haue more goode than ail erthly tresour. 

Wysdom techeth to eschewe al offence. 
Gydynge mankynde the ryght way to vertue. 
But of couetyse Comys ali Inconuenyence. 
It cawseth man of worde to be vntrue. 
Forswerynge and t:alshode doth it also ensue. 
Brybery and Extorcion, murder and myschefe. 
Shame is his ende: his lyuyinge is reprefe. 

By couetyse Crassus brought was to his ende. 
By it the worthy Romayns lost theyr name. 
Of this one yl a thousand ylles doth descende. 
Besyde enuy, Pryde, wretchydnes and Shame. 
Crates the Philosopher dyd Couetyse so blame : 
That to haue his mynde vnto his stody fre. 
He threwe his Tresour all hole into the see. 

and Procl.rgal.rte. 3 3 

But shortly to conclude. Both bodely bondage. 
And gostly also: procedeth of this couetyse. 
The soule is damned the body bath damage 
As hunger, thyrst, and colde with other preiudice. 
Bereft of the ioyes of heuenly Paradyse. 
For golde was theyr god and that is left behynde 
Theyr bodyes beryed the soule clene out of mynde 

Therefore thou couetouse thou wretch I speke to the. 
Amende thy selle ryse out of this blyndenes. 
Content the wyth ynoughe for thy degre. 
Data nat thy soule by gatheringe frayle riches 
Remembre this is a Uale of wretchednes. 
Thou shalt no test nor dwellynge place here fynde. 
Depart thou shalt and leue it al behynde. 

Of newe fassions and disgised Garmentes. 

Who that newe garmentes loues or deuyses. 
Or weryth by his symple wyt, and vanyte 
Gyuyth by his foly and vnthryfty gyses 
Moche yl example to yonge Comontye. 
Suche one is a Foie and skant shal euer thce 
And comonly it is sene that nowe a dayes 
One Foie gladly folowes anothers wayes. 

Of newe fassions and disgised g'armentes. 35 

Drawe nere ye Courters and Galants disgised 
Ye counterfayt Caytifs. that af nat content 
As god hath you ruade: his warke is despysed 
Ye thynke you more crafty than God onipotent. 
Unstable is your mynde : that shewes by your garmcnt. 
A fole is knowen by his toyes and his Cote. 
But by theyr clothinge nowe may we many note. 

Aparayle is apayred. Al sadness is decayde 
The garmentes ar gone that longed to honestye. 
And in newe sortes newe Foies af arayede 
Despisynge the costom of good antiquyte. 
Mannys fourme is disfigured with euery degre 
As Knyght Squyer yeman Jentilman and knaue, 
For al in theyr goynge ,¢ngoodely them behaue 

The tyme hath ben, nat longe before our dayes 
¥han men with honest ray coude holde them self content. 
Vithout these disgised : and counterfayted wayes. 
Wherby theyr goodes af wasted, loste, and spent. 
Socrates with many mo in wysdom excellent. 
Bycause they wolde nought change that cam of nature 
Let growe theyre here without cuttinge or scissure. 

At that tyne was it reputed to lawde and great honour. 
To haue longe here: the Beerde downe to the brest 
For so they vsed that were of moste valour. 
Stryuynge together who myht be godlyest 
Saddest, moste clenely, discretest, and moste honest. 
But nowe adayes together we contende and stryue. 
Who may be gayest : and newest wayes contryue. 

Fewe kepeth mesure, but excesse and great outrage 
In theyr aparayle. And so therin they procede 
That theyr goode is spent : theyr Londe layde to morgage. 
Or solde out right : of Thryft they take no hede. 
Hauinge no Peny them to socour at theyr nede. 
So xhan theyr goode by stche wastefulnes is loste. 
They sel agayne theyr Clothes for hall that they coste. 

A fox furred Jentelman : of the fyrst yere or hede. 
If he be ruade a Bailyf a Clerke or a Constable. 
And can kepe a Parke or Court and rede a Dede 
Than is Ueluet to his state mete and agreable. 
Howbeit he were more mete to bere a Babyl. 
For his Foies Hode his iyen so sore doth blynde 
That Pryde expelleth his lynage from his mynde. 

Yet fynde I another sort almoste as bad as thay. 
As yonge Jentylmen descended of worthy Auncetry. 
Vrhiche go fui wantonly in dissolute aray. 
Counterfayt, disgised, and moche vnmanerly 
Blasinge and garded : to lowe or else to hye. 
And wyde without mesure: theyr stuffe to wast thus gothe 
But other some they surfer to dye for lacke of clothe 

Some theyr neckes charged with colers, and chaynes 
As golden withtthes: theyr fyngers fui of rynges: 
Theyr neckes naked : almoste vnto the raynes 
Theyr sleues blasinge lyke to a Cranys wynges 
Thus by this deuysinge suche counterfayted thinges 
They dysfourme that figure that god hymselfe hath made 
On pryde and abusion thus ar theyr myndes layde 

Of newe fassions and disgised garmentes. 3 7 

Than the Courters careles that on theyr mayster wayte 
8einge hym his Uesture in suche fourme abuse 
Assayeth suche Fassion for them to counterfayt, e. 
And so to sue Pryde contynually they muse. 
Than stele they; or Rubbe they. Forsoth they can nat chuse. 
For without Londe or I,abour harde is it to mentayne. 
But to thynke on the Galows that is a careful payne. 

But be it payne or nat : there many suche ende. 
At Newgate theyr garmentis ar offred to be solde. 
Theyr bodyes to the Jebet solemly ascende. 
Wauynge with the wether whyle theyr necke wyl holde. 
But if I shulde wryte al the ylles manyfolde. 
That procedeth of this counterfayt ahusion 
_And mysshapen Fassions: 1 neuer shulde haue done. 

For both 8tares, cornons, man, woman, and chylde 
Ar ,tterly inclyed to this inconuenyence. 
But namely therwith these Courters are defyled. 
Bytwen mayster and man I fynde no dyfference. 
Therfore ye Courters knowledge your offence. 
Do nat your errour mentayne, support nor excuse. 
For Fowles ye ar your Rayment thus to abuse. 

To Shyp Galauntes corne nere I say agayne. 
Wyth your set Busshes Curlynge as men of lnde. 
Ye counterfayted Courters corne with your fleinge brayne 
Expressed by these variable Garmentes that ye fynde. 
To tempt chast Damseis and turne them to your mynde 
Your breste ye discouer and necke. Tht, s your abusion 
ls the Fe,,des bate. And yonr soules confusion. 

3 8 Of newefssions and disgised garmentes. 

Corne nere disgysed foles : receyue your Foles Hode. 
And ye that in sondry colours ar arayde. 
Ye garded galantes wastinge thus your goode 
Corne nere with your Shertes brodered and displayed. 
In fourme of Surplys. Forsoth it may be sayde. 
That of your Sort right fewe shal thryue this yere. 
Or that your faders werith suche Habyte in the Oere. 

And ye Jentyl wymen whome this lewde vice doth blynde 
Lased on the backe : your peakes set a loti. 
Corne to my Shyp. forget ye nat behynde. 
Your Sadel on the tayle : yf ye lyst to sit sort. 
Do on your Decke Slut : if ye purpos to corne oft. 
I mean your Copyntanke : And if it wyl do no goode. 
To kepe you from the rayne, ye shall haue a foies hode. 

By the aie stake knowe we the ale hous 
And euery Jnne is knowen by the sygne 
So a lewde woman and a lechcrous 
Is knowen by hir clothes, be they cours or fyne 
Folowynge newe fassyons, not graunted by doctryne 
The bocher sheweth his flesshe it to sell 
So doth these women dampnyng theyr soule to hell 

What shall I more wryte of our enormyte 
Both man and woman as I before haue sayde 
-Ar rayde and clothyd nat after theyr degre 
_As nat content with the shape that god hath made 
The clenlynes of Clergye is nere also decayed. 
Out olde apparale (alas) is nowe layde downe 
_And many prestes asshamed of theyr Crowne. 

Od[ newedfi+ssions and disgised garmentes. 39 

Unto laymen we vs refourme agayne 
As of chryste our mayster in maner llalfe asshamed 
My hert doth wepe : my tunge doth sore complayne 
Seing howe our State is worthy to be blamed. 
But if ail the Foly of our Hole Royahne were named 
Of mys apparayle of Olde, young, lowe, and hye, 
The tyme shulde fayle : and space to me denye. 

Alas thus al states of Chrysten men declynes. 
And of wymen also disfourmynge theyr fygure. 
\Vors than the Turkes, Jewes, or Sarazyns. 
A Englonde Englonde amende or be thou sure 
Thy noble naine and faine can nat endure 
Amende lyst god do greuously chastyce. 
Bothe the begynners and folowes of this vyce. 

Reduce courters clorly vnto your rembrance 
From whens this disgysyng was brought wherein ye go 
As I remember it was brought out of France. 
This is to your plesour. But payne ye had also. 
As French Pockes hote ylles with other paynes mo. 
Take ye in good worth the swetnes with the Sour. 
For often plesour endeth xvith sorowe and dolour. 

But ye proude Galaundes that thus yourselfe disgise 
Be ye asshamed, beholde vnto your Prynce. 
Consyder his sadnes : His honestye deuyse 
His clothynge expresseth his inwarde prudence 
Ye se no Example of suche Inconuenyence 
In his hyghnes: but godly wyt and grauyte. 
Esue hym : and sorowe for your enormyte. 

_Away with this pryde, this statelynes let be 
Rede of the Prophetis clothynge or vesture 
And of _Adam firste of your ancestrye 
Of Johnn the Prophete theyr clothynge was obscure 
Uyle and homly but nowe what creature 
Wyll then eusue sothly fewe by theyr wyll 
Therfore suche folys my nauy shall fulfyll 

Of old 

folys that 
the more 

is to say the longer they 
they ar gyuen to foly. 

Howe beit I stoup, and fast declyne 
Dayly to my graue, and sepulture 
And though my lyfe fast do enclyne 
To pay the trybute of nature 
Yet styll remayne I and endure 
In my olde synnes, and them nat hate 
Nought yonge, wors olde, suche is my state. 

The madnes of my youthe rotyd in my age 
And the blynde foly of my iniquite 
Wyll me nat surfer to leue myrte old vsage 
Nor my fore lyuynge full of enormyte 
Lame af his lymmys, and also I can nat se 
I ara a childe and yet lyuyd haue I 
An hundreth wynter, encresynge my foly. 

But though I myght lerne my wyll is nat therto 
But besy I am and fully set my thought 
To gTue example to children to mysdo 
By my lewde doctryne bryngynge them to nought 
_And whan they af onys into my daunce brought 
I teche them my foly wysdome set asyde 
My selfe example, begynner, and theyr gyde. 

My lewde lyre, my foly and my selRvyllyd mynde 
Whiche I haue styll kept hytherto in this lyre 
In my testament I leue wryten behynde 
Bequethyng parte both to man childe and wyfe 
I ara the actour of myschefe and of stryfe 
The foly ofmy youth and the inconuenyence 
In age I practyse, techynge by experyence 

I ara a foie and glad am of that naine 
Desyrynge lawde for eche vngracious dede 
_And of my foly to spred abrode the saine 
To showe my vyce and synne, as voyde of drede 
Of heuen or hell. therfore I take no hede 
But as some stryue disputynge of theyr cunnynge 
Right so do I in lewdnes and myslyuynge. 

Of oldlys. 4 3 

Somtyme I bost me of falshode and dysceyt 
Somtyme of the sede that sawyn is by me 
Of ail myschefe, as murder flatery debate 
Couetyse bacbytynge theft and lechery 
My mynde is nat to mende my iniquyte 
But rather I sorowe that my lyre is wore 
That I can nat do as I haue done before 

But syns my lyfe so sodaynly dothe apeyre 
That byde I can nat styll in this degre 
I shall infourme and teche my sone and heyre 
To folowe his fader, and lerne this way of me 
The way is large, god wot glad shall he be 
Lernynge my lore with affeccion and desyre 
And folowe the steppys of his vnthryfty syre 

I trust so crafty and wyse to make the lad 
That me his father he shall pas and excell 
O that my herte shall than be wonder glad 
If I here of may knowe, se, or here tell 
If he be false faynynge sotyll or cruell 
And so styll endure I haue a speciall hope 
To make hym scrybe to a Cardynall or Pope. 

Or els if he can be a fais extorcyoner 
Fasynge and bostynge to scratche and to kepe 
He shall be ruade a comon costomer 
As yche hope of Lyn Calays or of Depe 
Than may he after to some great offyce crepe 
So that if he can onys plede a case 
He may be ruade Juge of the comon place. 

44 Of old fo.-. 

Thus shali he lyue as I haue ail his dayes 
And in his age increas his folysshenes 
His fader came to worshyp by suche ways 
So shali the sone, if he hym selle addres 
To sue my steppes in falshde and iewdnes 
And at leste if he can come to no degre 
This shyp of folys shall he gouerne with me 

Awake age alas what thynkest thou be 
Awake I say out of thy blynde derkenes 
Remembrest thou nat that shortly thou shait dye 
Aryse from synne amende thy folysshenes 
Though thy youth reted were in vyciousnes 
Aryse in age is full tyme to leue it 
Thy graue is open thy one fore in the pyt 

Leue thy bostynge of that thou hast done amys 
Bewayle thy synnes, sayeng with rufuli mone 
Delicta iuuentutis mee deus ne memineris 
Amende the or thy youth be fully gone 
That sore is harde to hele that bredes in the bone 
He that is nought yonge, procedynge so in age 
Shali skant euer his vyciousnes asswage 

What thinge is more abhomynable in goddes syght. 
Than vicious age: certaynly no thynge. 
It is eke worldly shame, whan thy corage and mycht 
Is nere dekayed, to kepe thy lewde lyuynge. 
And by example of the, thy yonge children to brynge. 
Into a vicious lyfe : and all goodnes to hate. 
Alas age thus thou art the Fendes bate. 

Of the 

erudicion of neglygent faders 
anenst theyr chyldren. 

That fuie that suffreth his Chylde for to offCde 
lrythout rebukynge, blame, and correccion. 
And hym nat exhorteth, hymselfe to amende. 
Of suche fawtes as by hym af done. 
8hal it sore repent : god wote howe sone 
For oft the faders foly, fauour, and neglygence 
Causeth the Chylde for to fall to great offcnce 

A myserable Foie euermore shal he be. 
A wretche vnauysed, and a Catyf blynde. 
,Vhiche his chyldren fawtes forseth nat to see 
Hauynge tao care for to induce theyr mynde 
To godly vertue: and vyce to leue behynde. 
For whyle they af yonge fereful and tender of age 
Theyre vyce and foly is easy to asswage. 

Two dyuers sortes of these foies may we fynde. 
By whome theyr chyldren ar brought to confusion. 
The one is neglygent, the other is starke blynde. 
Nat wyllynge to beholde his childes yl condicion. 
,Vhyle he is in youthe : But for a conclusion 
He is a Foie that wyl nat se theyr vyce. 
And he that seyth : and wyl it nat chastyce. 

Alas thou art a cursed counselloure 
To wanton youth that tender is of age 
To let them wander without gouernoure 
Or wyse mayster, in youthes furious rage 
Get them a mayster thcyr foly to asswage 
For as a herdles flocke strayth in Jepardy 
go children without gyde wandreth in foly. 

To moche lyberty pleasoure and lycence 
Gyuen vnto youth, whether it be or age 
Right oftet, causyth great inconuenyence 
As ryot mysrule with other sore damage 
Theyr londe and goodes solde or layde to gage 
But thou folysshe father art redy to excuse 
Thy yonge children of theyr synne and abuse 

benst tbeyr cvldren 4 7 

Thou sayst they ar ouer tender to eschewe 
Theyr folysshe maners and they haue no skyll 
To knowe the wayes of goodnes or vertue 
Nor to discerne what is gode, what is yll 
Thou blynde dodart these wordes holde thou styll 
Theyr youth can nat excuse thy folysshenes 
He that can yll as well myghr lerne goodnes 

A yonge hert is as apt to take wysdome 
As is an olde, and if it rotyd be 
It sawyth sede of holy lyfe to corne 
Also in children we often tymes se 
Great aptness outwarde and syne of gr,myte 
But fyil an erthen pot first ,«ith yli lycoure 
And euer after it shall smell somwhat soure 

So youth brought vp in lewdnes and in sin 
Shall skant it shrape so clene out of his mynde 
But that styll after some spot wyll byde within 
A lytell twygge plyant is by kynde 
A bygger braunche is harde to bowe or wynde 
But surfer the braunche to a byg tre to growe 
And rather it shall brake than outher wynde or boire 

Correct thy childe whyle he is lyke a twygge 
Soupyll and plyant, apt to correccion 
It wyll be harde forsoth whan he is bygge 
To brynge his stubron herte to subieccion 
What hurtyth punysshement with moderacion 
Unto yonge children, certaynely no thynge 
It voydeth vyce, gettynge vertue and cunnynge 


Of tbe erudicion of neglygent faders 

Say folysshe fader haddest thou leuer se 
Thy sonnes necke vnwrested wyth a rope. 
Than with a rod his skyn shulde brokyn be. 
And oft thou trustest : and hast a stedfast hope 
To se thy son promoted nere as hye as is the Pope 
But yet perchaunce mourne thou shalt ful sore. 
For lais shameful ende: fortuned for lacke of lore. 

Some folowe theyr chyldrens wyl and lewde plesour 
So grauntinge them theyr mynde: that after it doth fal 
To theyr great shame : they sorowe and dolour 
As dyd to Priamus a Kynge Imperial 
XVhiche suffred his men : his son chefe of them al 
By force from Grece to robbe the fayre Helayne. 
Wherby both Fader and son were after slayne. 

XVith noble Hector and many thousandes mo. 
The Cyte of Troy vnto the ground clene brent. 
I rede in the Cronycles of the Romayns 
Howe Tarquyne the proude had shame and punysshment : 
For rauysshynge chaste Lucres agaynst hyr assent. 
XVherfore hyrselfe she slewe hyr seynge thus defiled. 
For the which dede this Tarquyn was exiled. 

From Rome: wandrynge in the Costes of haly. 
Dyd nat the traytour Catelyne also conspyre 
And many mo sworne to his cruel tyranny 
Agaynst the Romans to oppresse theyr Impyre, 
But he and ail his were murdred for theyr hyre 
And nat vnworthely. Beholdewherto they come 
XVhich af nat enfourmed in youth to ensue wysdom. 

nenst t])effr c])fflffren. 49 

The son oft foloweth the faders behauour 
And if the fader be discrete and vertuous. 
The son shal suche wayes practyse both day and hour. 
But if that the fader be lewde and vicious 
By falshode lyuynge: and by wayes cautelous. 
The son also the sarne wayes wyl ensue 
And that moche rather than goodnes or vertue 

Therfore it nedeth that better prouysion. 
Were founde for youthe by sad and wyse counsayle 
Far from theyr faders of this condicion. 
And other lewde gydes which myght theyr rnyndes assayle 
Greuously wyth syn. So were it theyr auayle 
From theyr faders frawde and falshode to declyne 
And them submyt to some laxvdable rnannys doctryne. 

Peleus, somtyme a noble and worthy kynge 
Subdued Achylles vnto the doctryne 
Of phenix whiche was both worthy and cunnynge 
Wherfcre Achyllys right gladly dyd enclyne 
With his hert and mynde vnto his disciplyne 
Wherby his naine so noble was at the last 
That ail Asy in worthynes he past 

Ryght so Philippus a kynge worthy of narne 
Ouer all Grece rnade great iniquicion 
To fynde one wyse, sad and laudable of faine 
To Alexander his sonne for to gyue Instruccion 
Founde was great Arîstotyl at the conclusion 
Disciple of Piato. whiche in euery Science. 
lnfourmed this chylde with parfyte diligence. 

5 ° 

Whiche Alexander afterward had so great dignyte. 
What by his strength, his cunnynge, and boldenes. 
That he was lorde both of Londe and See. 
And none durst rebel aganst his v¢orthynes. 
Lo here the lawde, the honour, and nobles. 
Which dothe procede of vertue and doctryne 
But few ar the faders that nowe hereto inclyne 

Fewe af that forceth nowe adayes to se 
Theyr chyldren taught : or to do any cost 
On soin sad man, wyse, and of auctorite : 
A! that is theron bestowed thynke they loste. 
The folyssh Fader oft tymes maketh great boste. 
That he lais son to habundant riches shal auance 
But no thynge he speketh of vertuous gouernance. 

The feder ruade but smal shyfi or prouysion. 
To induce his Son by vertuous doctryne. 
But whan he is dede and past : moche les shal the son 
To stody of grace his mynde or hert inclyne. 
But abuse his reason: and from al good declyne. 
Alas folysshe faders gyue your aduertence 
To Crates comp|aynt comprysed in this sentence. 

If it were graunted to me to shewe my thought 
Ye follysshe faders Caytifes I myght you cal 
Whiche gather riches to brynge your chylde to nought. 
Gyuynge hi,n occasion forto be prodigal. 
But goode nor cunnynge shewe ye hym noue at ail. 
But whan ye drawe to age, ye than moste comonly. 
Sorowe for your suffrance. But without remedy. 

lnenst theyr chy]aren. 5 [ 

An olde sore to hele is oft halfe incurable 
Ryght so af these Chyldren roted in myschefe 
8orne after euer lyueth a lyre abhomynable 
To all theyr Kyn great sorowe and reprefe. 
The one is a murderer the other a fereles thefe, 
The one of god nor goode man hath no fors ne care. 
Another so out wasteth that his frendes ar fui bare. 

Some theyr londe and lyuelode in riot ont wasteth, 
Atcardes, and, tenys, and other vnlawful gamys. 
And some wyth the Dyce theyr thryft away casteth. 
Some theyr soule damnes, and theyr body shames. 
With ttesshly lust: which many one dyffamys. 
Spendynge the ttourcs of youth moche vnthryftely. 
On dyuers Braunches that longe to Lechery. 

Another delyteth hymselfe in Glotony. 
Etynge and drynkynge without maner, or mesure: 
The more that some drynke: the more they wax drye. 
He is moste Galant whyche lengest can endure. 
Thus ,,vithout mesure ouercharge they theyr nature. 
So that theyr Soule is loste theyr body and goode is spent. 
For lacke of doctryne, Iqorture and punysshment. 

Se here playne prose, example and euydence 
ttowe youthe which is nat norysshed in doctr)-ne. 
In age is gyuen vnto al Irconuenyence. 
But nought shall make youthe soner forto inclyne. 
To noble maners : nor Godly dysciplyne : 
Than shal the doctryne of a mayster vyse and sad : 
For the rote of vertue and wysdome therby is had. 

Vithout dout Noblenes is moche excellent 
Whiche oft causeth youth to be had in great honour. 
To haue the naine, and laxvde they ar content. 
Thoughe it be nat gotten by theyr owne labour. 
But what auayleth them this lewde obscure errour 
Of suche hye byrthe them self to magnyfy'. 
Sythe they defyle it xvith vice and Uilany. 
Why art thou proude thou foui of that nobles 
XVhyche is nat gotten by thyle owne verrue. 
By thy goode maners, wyt nor worthynes : 
But this for»othe oft tymes fynde I true 
That of a goode beste, yl whelpes may weshewe. 
In lyke wyse of a Moder that is bothe chast and goode. 
Often is brought forth a fui vngracious Brode. 
But though the childe be of lewde condicion 
And of his nature frowarde and varyable 
If the fader be slacke in the correccion 
Of his childe, he onely is culpable 
Whiche wyll nat teche hym maners commendable 
Thus is the fader a fole for his suffraunce 
_And the sone also for his mysgouernaunce 

THE ElqUo¥. 
Auoyd faders your fauour and suffraunce 
Anenst your children in theyr faute and offence 
Reduce ye clerely vnto your remembraunce 
That many a thousande inconuenyence 
Haue children done by theyr faders negligence 
But to say trouth brefely in one clause 
The fader's fauour onely is the cause 

Of tale berers, fais reporters, 
prometers of stryfes. 


Of folys yet fynde 1 another maner sorte 
Whiche ar cause of brawlynge stryfe and deuysion 
Suche aa" dowble tongyd that lesyngys reporte 
Therby trustynge to corne to great promosion 
But suche lewde caytyfes at the conclusion 
]3ytwene two mylstons theyr legges puttes to gryndc 
And for rewarde, theyr confusion shall thcy fynde. 

5 4 çt,,« &,«rs fds ,«l,o,-t«,s, 

Some af that thynke the pleasoure and ioy of theyr lyfe 
To brynge men in brawlynge to discorde and debate 
Enioynge to moue them to chydynge and to stryfe 
And where lotie before was to cause mortall hate 
With the comonty, and many great estate 
Suche is moche wors than outher murderer or thefe 
For ofte of lais talys procedeth grete mvschefe 

\Vithin his mouth is venym Jeperdous and vyle 
His ronge sryll laboryth lesynges to contryue 
llis mynde styll museth of falshode and on gyle 
Therwith to trobyll suchc as gladly wolde nat stryue 
Somt)-me his wordes as dartis he doth dryue 
Agaynst good men : for onely his delyte. 
Is set fo sclaunder to diffame and bacbyte. 

And namely them that fautles ar and innocent. 
Of conscience clene, and mancrs commendable 
These dryuyls sclaunder, beynge full dilygent. 
To deuyde, louers that ar moste agreable 
His tonge Infect his mynde abhomynable 
Ilffectyth loue and ouertourneth charyte 
Of them that longe tyme haue lyuyd in amyte 

But he that accused is thus without ail faute 
And so sclaundred of this caytyf vnthryfty 
Knowyth nought of this ieoperdous assaute 
For he nought dowteth that is no thynge fauty 
Thus whyle he nonght feryth comyth sodaynly 
This venemous doloure distaynynge his gode naine 
And so gyltles put to rebuke, and to shame. 

Thus if one serche and seke the worlde ouerall 
Than a backbyter nought is more peryllous 
His mynde myscheuous, his wordys ar mortall 
His damnable byt is foule and venemous 
A thousande lyes of gyles odyous 
He castyth out where he wolde haue debate 
Engendrynge murder whan he his tyme can wayt 

Where as any frendes lyueth in accorde 
Faythfull and truc: this cowarde and caytyf 
XVith his tals talys them bryngeth to dyscorde 
And with his venym kepeth them in stryfe 
But howe beit that he thus pas forth his lyre 
Sawynge his sede of debate and myschefe 
His darte off retourneth to his own reprefe 

But nat withstandynge, suche boldely wyl excuse 
His fais dyffamynge : as fautles and innocent. 
If a.ny hym for his dedes worthely accuse 
He couereth his venyln : as symple of intent. 
Other ar whiche flater : and to euery thynge assent. 
Before tace folowynge the way of adulacion, 
Whiche afterwarde sore hurteth by detraccion. 

The worlde is nowe aile set on dyffamacion. 
Suche ar moste cherisshed that best can forge a tale. 
Whych shulde be moste had in abhom)'nacion. 
And so they af of wyse men without fayle. 
But suche as ar voyde of wysdom and counsa)'le 
Inclyneth theyr erys to sclander and detraccion, 
5'Ioche rather than they wolde to a noble sermon 

5 6 Ofta]e berers, jçds reporters, 

But euery Sclanderer, and begynner of stryfe. 
Lousers of loue, and,infecters of Charite. 
Unworthy ar fo lyue here at large in this lyre. 
But in derke Dongeon they worthy ar tobe. 
And there to remayne in pryson tyl they dye. 
For with there yi tunges they labour to destroy 
Concorde : xvhiche cause is of loue and of ioy. 

An olde quean that hath ben nought al hyr dayes. 
Whiche off hath for money hyr body let to hyre 
Thynketh that al other doth folowe hyr olde wayes. 
So she and hyr boul fdawes syttinge by the lyre. 
The Boule about walkynge with theyr tunges they conspyre 
Agaynst goode peple, to sclander them wyth shame. 
Than shal the noughty doughter ierne of the bawdy dame. 

By his warkes knowen is euery creature 
For if one good, louynge, meke and charitable be. 
He labours no debates amonge men to procure. 
But coueyteth to norysshe true loue and charite. 
,¥here as the other ful of falshode and iniquyte 
Theyr synguler plesour put to ingender variaunce. 
But oft theyr folysshe stody retournes to theyr myschaunce 

Therfore ye bacbyters that folke thus dyffame 
Leue of your lewdnes and note wel this sentence. 
X¥hich Cryist hymself sayd : to great rebuke and shame 
Unto them that sclandreth a man of Innocence. 
Wo be to them whych by malyuolence 
Slandreth or dyffameth any creature. 
But wel is hym that w)'th pacience can i**dure. 

Of hym that wyll nat folowe nor ensue 
good counsell, and necessary. 

Of folys yet another ore doth corne 
Vnto our shyp rowynge with great trauayle 
Whiche nought perceyue of doctryne nor wysdome 
And yet dysdaytae they to aske wyse coutaseyl| 
Nor it to folowe for theyr owne auayle 
Let suche folys therat haue no dysdayne 
If they alone endure theyr |osse and paytae 

He is a foie that dothe coueyt and desyre 
To haue the name of wysdome and prudence 
And yet of one sought thorugh a cyte or a shyre 
None coude be founde of lesse wysdome nor science 
But whyle he thynketh hym full of sapience 
Crafty and wyse, doutles he is more blynde 
Than is that foie whiche is out of his mynde 

But though he be vyse, and of myght meruaylous 
Endued with retoryke and with e!oquence 
And of hym selfe both ware and cautelous 
If he be tachyd with this inconuenyence 
To dysdayne others counseyll and sentence 
He is vnwyse, for oft a folys counsayle 
Tourneth a wyse man to confort and auayle 

But specially the read and auysement 
Of wyse men, discrete, and full of grauyte 
Helpeth thyne owne, be thou never so prudent 
To thy purpose gyuynge strength and audacyte. 
One man alone knowys nat ail polycye 
Thoughe thou haue wysdome cunnynge and scyence 
Yet hath another moche more experience 

Some cast out wordes in paynted eloquence 
Thynkynge therby to be reputed wyse 
Thoughe they haue neyther wysdome nor science 
Suche maner folys them self do exercyse 
A plughe and teame craftely to deuyse 
To ere the path that folys erst hath made 
Thc trouth vnder glose of suche is hyd and layde 

Good «ouï,sel] atd ecessary. 5 9 

For why, they trust alway to theyr owne mynde 
And furour begon whetlaer it be good or yll 
As if any other, no wyser read coude fynde 
Thus they ensue theyr pryuate folysshe wyll 
Oh in suche maters wherin they haue no skyli 
As did Pyrrus wlaiclae began crueii Batayle 
Agaynst Orestes refusynge xvyse counsayle 

But folowyd his owne rasshe mynde without auaylc 
As blynde and obstynat of his intencion 
XVherfore he was disconfyted in Batayle 
Hymseife slayne, his men put to confusyon 
If that tlae Troyans in tlaeyr abusyon 
ritla false Parys, had confourmed theyr intent 
"Fo Helenns counsayle Troy had nat ben brent. 

For that Prianus his mynde wolde nat aply 
To the counseyll of Cassandra Prophetes 
The grekys distroyed a great parte of Asy 
Hector also by his selfwyllydnes 
Was slayne with Peyn for ail his doughtynes 
Of Achyiles in open and playne Batayle 
For nat folowynge of his faders counsayle 

If Hector that day had byddyn within Troy 
And vnto his fader bene obedient 
Perclaaunce he sholde laaue lyuyd in welth and ioy 
Longe tyme after and corne to his intent 
Whereas his body was with a spere through rent 
Of the sayd Achyllys crueii and vnk)'nde 
Alas for suynge his owne selfwyilyd mynde 

I rede of Nero moche cursed and cruell 
Whiche to wyse counsayle hymself v¢olde nat agre 
But in ail myschef ail other dyd excell 
Delytynge hym in synne and crueltye 
But howe dyde he ende forsoth in myserye 
And at the last as xvery of his lyre 
Hymselfe he murdred with his owne hand and knyfe 

The Bybyll wytnessyth howe the prophete Thoby 
Gaue his dere sone in chefe commaundement 
That if" he wolde lyue sure without ieoperdy 
He sholde sue the counsayle of" men wyse and prudent 
The story of Roboam is also euydent 
lYhiche for nat suynge of counseyll and wysdome 
Lost his Empyre, his scepter and kyngdome 

If that it were nat for cawse of breuyte 
I coude shewe many of our predecessours 
Whiche nat folowynge counceyll of" men of grauyte 
Soone haue decayed from theyr olde honours 
I rede of Dukes, Kynges, and Emperours 
Whiche dispysynge the counsa),le of men of age 
Haue after had great sorowe and damage. 

For he suerly whiche is so obstynate 
That onely he trusteth to his ov¢ne blyndnes 
Thynkynge all wysdome within his dotynge pare 
He often endyth in sorowe and dystres 
lYherfore let suche theyr cours swyftly addres 
To drawe out Plough, and depe to ere the ground 
That by theyr laboure all folys ma l, be founde. 

Good counsell and necessar.y. 6  


0 man vnauysed thy blyndnes set asyde 
Knowledge thy owne foly thy statelynes expel 
Let nat for thy eleuate mynde nor folysshe pryde. 
To order thy dedes by goode and wyse counsel 
Howbeit thou thynke thy reason doth excel 
AI other mennys wyt. yet oft it doth befall. 
Anothers is moche surer : and thyn the worst of ail. 

Of disordred and vngoodly maners. 

Daxve nere ye folys of lewde condtcion 
Of yll behauoure gest and countenaunce 
Your proude Iokys, disdayne and derysyon 
Expresseth your inwarde folysshe ignoraunce 
Nowe wyll I touche your mad mysgoueraunce 
Whiche h:tst to foly, And folysshe company 
Trey|ynge your 13aybll in sygne of your foly 

Of (lisordred and v,,çoodl.v maners. 63 

In this our tyme small is the company 
That haue good maners worthy of reuerence 
But many thousandes foiowe vylany 
Prone to all synne and inconuenyence 
Stryuynge who sonest may come to ail offence 
Of lewde condicions and vnlefulnesse 
Blyndnes of yll, and defylyd folysshenesse 

Ail myserable men alas haue set theyr mynde 
On lothsome maners clene destytute of grace 
Theyr iyen dymmyd, theyr hertes are so blynde 
That heuenly ioy none forceth to purcLace 
Both yonge and olde procedeth in one trace 
Vith ryche and pote without ail dyfferênce 
As bonde men subdued to foly and offence 

Some ar busshed theyr bonetes, set on syde. 
Some waue theyr armys and hede to and fro 
Some in no place can stedfastly abyde 
More wylde and wanton than outher buk or do 
Some ar so proude that on rote they can nat go 
But get they must with countenaunce vnstable 
Shewynge them folys, frayle and varyable 

Some chyde that ail men do them hate 
Some gygyll and lawgh without grauyte 
Some thynkes, hymselfe a gentylman or state 
Though he a knaue caytyf and bonde churle be 
These folys ar so blynde them self they can nat so 
A yonge boy that is nat worth an onyon 
With gentry or presthode is felowe and companyon. 

6 4 Ofdisordred and vngood/y ma,ters. 

Brybours and Baylyes that lyue upon towlynge 
Are in the world moche set by nowe a dayes 
Sergeauntis and Catchpollys that lyue upon powlynge 
Courters and caytyfs beg3'nners of frayes 
Lyue styll encreasynge theyr vnhappy wayes 
And a thousande mo of dyuers facultyes 
Lyue auauntynge them of theyr enonnytees. 

l, Vithin the chirche and euery other place 
These folys use theyr lewde condicions 
Some starynge some cryeng some haue great solace 
In rybawde wordes, mme in deuysyons 
Some them delyte in scornes and derysons 
Some pryde ensueth and some glotony. 
XVithout ail norture gyuen to vylany 

Theyr lyfe is folysshe lothsome and vnstable 
Lyght brayned, theyr herte and mynde is inconstant 
Theyr gate and loke proude and abhomynable 
They haue nor order as folys ignorant 
Chaungyng theyr myndes thryse in one instant 
Alas this lewdnes and great enormyte 
l, Vyll them nat surfer theyr wretchydnes to se 

Thus ar these wretchyd caytyfes fully blynde 
Ail men and wymen that good ar doth them hate 
But he that with good maners endueth his mynde 
Auoydeth this wrath hatered and debate 
His dedes pleaseth both comonty and estate 
And namely suche as af good and laudable 
Thynketh his dedes right and commendable 

Of disordred and vngoodly re,mers. 6 5 

As wyse men sayth : both vertue and cunnynge 
Honoure and worshyp grace and godlynes 
Of worthy maners take tlaeyr begynnynge 
And fere also asswagyth wantones. 
Subduynge the furour of youthes wyifulnes 
But shamefastnes trouth constance and probyte 
Both yonge and olde bryngeth to great dignyte. 

These foresayde vertues with charite and peas. ', 
Together assembled stedfast in mannys mynde. 
Cawseth his honour and worthynes to encreas. 
And his godly lyre a godly ende shal fynde 
But these lewde caytyfs which doth theyr myndes blynde 
With corrupt maners lyuynge vnhappely. 
In shame they lyue and wretchedly the) dye. 

Of brekynge 

and hurtynge 

of amyte and 

He that iniustyce vseth and greuance 
-A_gaynst ail reason lawe and equyte 
By vyolent force puttynge to vtteraunce 
.A_ symple man full of humylyte 
Suche by his lewdnes and iniquyte. 
Makyth a graue wherin hym selle shall lye. 
And lewdly he dyeth that lyueth c,aat.llye. 

Of a»[e and fre,,d«. 6 7 

A Foie frowarde cruell and vntrewe 
Is he whiche by his power wrongfully 
His frendes and subiectes laboures to subdewe 
Without ail lawe, but clene by tyranny 
Therfore thou Juge thy erys se thou aply 
To right Justyce and set nat thyne intent 
By wrath or malyce tobe to vyolent. 

It is nat lawfull to any excellent 
Or myghty man, outher lax'yer or estate 
By cruelnes to oppresse an innocent 
lXle by pryde and malyce Justyce to violate 
The law transposynge after a frowarde rate 
With proude wordes defendynge his off«ce 
ç_,od wot oft suche haue symple conscience 

O that he cursed is and reprouable 
Whiche day and nyght stodyeth besely 
To fynde some meanes false and detestable 
To put his frende to losse or hurte therby 
Our hertes ar fully set on vylany 
There af right fewe of hye or lowe degre 
That luste to norysshe trewe loue and amyte 

_Alas exyled is godly charyte 
Out of our Royalme we ail ar so vnkynde 
Out folys settyth gretter felycyte 
On golde and goodes than on a faythfull frynde 
wake blynde folys and call vnto your mynde 
That though honest ryches be moche commendable 
Yet to a true frende it is nat comparable 

68 Of brekynge and laurtynge 

Of ail thynges loue is moste profytable 
For the right order of lowe and amyte 
Is of theyr maners to be agreable 
And one of other haue mercy and pyte 
Eche doynge for other af ter theyr degre 
_And without falshode this frendeshyp to mayntayne 
And nat departe for pleasour nor for payne 

Rut alas nowe ail people haue dysdayne 
On suche frendshyp for to set theyr delyte 
Amyte we haue exyled out certayne 
We lowe oppressyon to sclaunder and bacbyte 
Extorcyon hath strength pyte gone is quyte 
Nowe in the worlde suche frendes ar there none 
As were in Grece many yeres agone. 

Who lyst thystory of Patroclus to rede 
There shall he se playne wryten without fayle 
Howe whan Achyllys gaue no force nor hede 
Agaynst the Troyans to execute batayle 
The sayd Patroclus dyd on the aparayle 
Of Achylles, and went forth in his steade 
Agaynst Hector : but lyghtly he was dede. 

Rut than Achylles seynge this myschaunce. 
Refallen his frende whiche was to hym so true. 
He hym addressyd shortly to take vengeaunce. 
And so in Batayle the noble Hector slewe 
And his dede cors after his charot drewe. 
Upon the grounde traylynge ruthfully behynde 
Se howe he auengyd Patroclus his frende. 

Of aoEvte anddrrendsvp. 6 9 

The hystory also of Orestes dothe expresse 
Whiche whan agamenon his fader was slayne 
By egystus whiche agaynst rightwysnes 
The sayde Orestis moder dyd meyntayne 
The childe was yonge wherfore it was but vayne 
In youth to stryue, but whan he came to age 
His naturall moder slewe he in a rage 

And also Egystus whiche had his fader slayne 
Thus toke he vengeaunce of both theyr crueines 
But yet it grewe to his great care and payne 
For sodaynly he fell in a madnesse 
And euer thought that in his furiousnes 
His moder hym sued flamynge full of lyre 
And euer his deth was redy to conspyre 

Orestes troubled with this fereful vysyon 
-As franatyke and mad wandred many a day 
Ouer many a countrey londe and regyon 
His frende Pylades folowynge hym alway 
In payne nor wo he wolde hym nat denay 
Tyll he restoryd agayne was to his mynde 
Alas what ffynde may we fynde nowe so kynde. 

Of dymades what shall I lawde or wryte. 
And Pythias his felawe amyable 
Whiche in eche other suche loue had and del)'te 
That whan Denys a tyrant detestable 
And of his men some to hym agreable 
Wolde one of them haue mordred crueily 
Echone for othcr offred for to dye 

Ualerius wrytyth a story longe and ample 
Of Lelius and of worthy Cipio. 
Whiche of trewe loue hath left vs great example 
For they neuer left in doloure wele nor wo 
I rede in thystory of Theseus also: 
Howe he (as the Poetes fables doth tell) 
Folowyd his felawe perothus in to hell. 
And serchynge hym dyd wander and compas 
Those lothsome flodys and wayes tenebrous 
Ferynge no paynes of that dysordred place 
N or obscure mystes or ayres odyous 
Tyll at the laste by his wayes cautelous 
And Hercules valyaunt dedes of boldnesse 
He gat Perothus out of that wretchydnesse. 
Alas where af suche frendes nowe a dayes 
Suerly in the worlde none suche can be founde 
Ail folowe theyr owne profyte and lewde wayes 
None vnto other coueytys to be bounde 
Brekers of frendshyp ynough af on the grounde 
Whiche set nought by frendshyp so they may haue good 
Ail suche in my shyp shall haue a folys hode 
Ye cruell folys full of ingratitude. 
Aryse be asshamyd of your iniquyte 
Mollyfy your hertes vnkynde stuberne and rude 
Graffynge in them true loue and amyte 
Consyder this prouerbe of'antyquyte 
And your vnkyndnes weray ban and curse 
For whether thou be of hy or lowe degre 
Better is a frende in courte than a peny in purse 


contempt, or dispisynge of 


He that gyueth his erys or credence 
To euery folys talys or talkynge 
Thynkynge more wysdome and fruytfull sentence 
In theyr vayne talys than is in the redynge 
Of bokes whiche shewe vs the way of godly lyuynge 
And oeulys hehh : forsoth huche one is blynde 
And in this nhyp the anker shall vp wynde. 

7  Of contenir or desDisynge 

Suche as dispyseth auncyent scripture 
XVhiche prouyd is of great auctoryte 
And hath no pleasoure felycyte or cure 
Of godly Prophetis whiche wrote of veryte 
A foie he is for his moste felycyte 
Is to byleue the tales of an olde wyfe 
Rather than the doctryne of eternall lyre 

The holy Bybyll grounde of trouth and of lawe 
ls nowe of many abiect and nought set by 
Nor godly scripture is nat worth an hawe 
But talys af louyd grounde of rybawdry 
And many blynddyd af so with theyr foly 
That no scripture thynke they so true nor gode 
As is a folysshe yest of Robyn hode. 

He that to scripture wyll not gyue credence 
Wherin ar the armys of our tuycion 
And of our fayth foundacion and defence 
Suche one ensueth nat the condycion 
Of man resonable, but by abusyon 
Lyuyth as a best of conscyence cruell 
As saue this wodde were neyther hcuen nor hcll. 

He thynketh that there is no god aboue 
Nor nobler place than is this wretchyd grounde 
Nor goddes power suche fere nor loue 
,Vith whom all grace and mercy doth abounde 
x.Vhiche whan hym lyst vs wretches may confounde 
Alas what auayleth to gyue instruccion 
To suche lewde folys of this condycion. 

of Holy Scriptu,'e. 7 3 

It nought auayleth vnto them to complayne 
Of theyr blyndnes, rtor enfourme them with verrue 
Theyr cursed lyfe wyll by no mean refrayne 
Their viciousnes, nor their erroure eschewe 
But rather stody theyr foly to renewe 
Alas what profytis to suche to expresse. 
The heuenly ioy, rewarde of holynesse. 

Alas what auayleth to suche to declare 
The paynes of hell, wo dissolate and dcrke 
No wo nor care can cause suche to beware 
From their lewde lyfe corrupt and synfidl warke 
What profyteth serinons of any noble clarke 
Or godly lawes taught at any Scolys 
For to reherse to these myscheuous folys. 

What helpeth the Prophetis scripture or doctryne 
Unto these folys obstynate and blynde 
Their hertis af harde, nat wyllynge to enclyne 
To theyr preceptis nor rote them in theyr mynde 
Nor them byleue as Cristen men vnkynde 
For if that they consydred heuen or hell 
They wolde nat be so cursed and cruell 

And certaynly the trouth apereth playne 
That these folys thynke in theyr intent 
That within heli is neyther car nor payne 
Hete nor colde, woo, nor other punysshement 
Nor that for synners is ordeyned no turment 
Thus these mad folys wandreth euery boute 
Without amendement styll in theyr blynde erroure 


Before thy fete thou mayst beholde and se 
Of our holy fayth the bokys euydent 
The olde lawes and newe layde ar before the 
Expressynge christes tryumphe right excellent 
But for ail this set is nat thyne intent 
Theyr holy doctryne to plant within thy brest 
Wherof shoid procede ioy and eternail rest 
Trowest thou that thy selle wyllyd ignoraunce 
Of godly iawes and mystycali doctryne 
May clense or excuse thy blynde mysgouernaunce 
Or lewde erroure, whiche scorne hast to inclyne 
To theyr preceptis: and from thy synne declyne 
Nay nay thy cursed ignoraunce sothly shali 
Drowne thy soule in the depe flodes infernali 
Therfore let none his cursydnes defende 
Nor holy doctryne, nor godly bokes dispyse 
But rather stody his fawtes to amende 
For god is aboue ail our dedes to deuyse 
Whiche shali rewarde them in a ferefull wyse 
With mortali wo that euer shali endure 
Whiche haue dyspysyd his doctryne and scripture 

Out of your slomber folys I rede you ryse. 
Scripture dyuyne, to folowe and inbrace 
Be nat so boide it to leue nor dispyse 
But you enforce it to get and purchase 
Remember mannys confort and solace. 
Is holy closyd within the boke of iyfe 
Who that it foloweth hath a speciali grace 
But he that doth nat a wretche is and caytyfe 

Of folys without prouysyon. 

He is a foie forsoth and worse 
That to his saddyll wolde lepe on hye 
Before or he haue gyrt his horse 
For downe he comys with an euyll thee 
But as great a fo|e forsoth is he 
Ad to be lawghed to derysyon. 
That ought begyneth without prouysyon 

Of other folys yet is a moche nornber 
Whorn I wolde gladly brynge to intellygence 
To auoyde their blyndnes which sore doth incomber 
Theyr rnynde and herte for lackynge of science 
Suche af vnware and gyuen to neglygence 
Mad and mysmyndyd pryuate of wysdome 
Makynge no prouysyon for the tyrne to corne. 

If any rnysfortune aduersyte or wo 
As often hapnyth, to suche a fole doth rail 
Than sayth he I thought it wolde nat haue be so 
But than ouer late is it agayne to call 
It is nat ynough thou fole to say I shall 
For this one daye prouyde me by wysdome 
A wyse man seyth peryll longe belote it corne 

He is vnwyse and of prouysyon pote 
That nought can se belote he haue darnage 
Whan the stede is stolyn to shyt the stable dote 
Cornys srnall pleasoure profyte or vauntage 
But he that can suche folysshenes asswage 
Begynnynge by counsayll, and fore prouydence 
Is sure to escape ail inconuenyence 

Whan Adarn tastyd the appyll in Paradyse. 
To hym prohybyte by dyuyne commaundernent 
If he had noted the ende of his interpryse 
To Eue he wolde nat haue ben obedyent 
Thus he endured right bytter punysshernent 
For his blynde erroure and improuydence 
That ail his lynage rue sore for his offence. 

Of folys witbo,,t _prouysyo». 77 

Hymselfe dryuyn out from Paradyce all bare 
With Eue, into this vale of wretchydnes 
To get theyr lyuynge with laboure payne and care 
And also if Jonathas by errour and blyndnes 
Had nat receyued the gyftis of falsnes 
Unto hym gyuen of Tryphon by abusyon 
He sholde haue escapyd great confusyon 

If that he before had notyd craftely 
His ennemyes gyftis of frawde full and of treason 
He myght haue sauyd hymselfe from ieoperdy 
And ail his people by prouydence and reason 
Where as he blynde was as at that season 
And to a cyte broughte in by a trayne 
XVhere he was murdred and ail his people slaync 

julius Cesar the chefe of conquerours 
Was euer warre and prudent of counsayle 
But whan he had obteyned great honours 
And drewe to test as wery of Batayle 
Than his vnwarnes causyd hym to wayle 
For if he had red with good aduysement 
The letter whiche to the counselhous was sent 

He had nat gyuen his owne Jugement 
As he dyd by his foly and neglygence 
For whiche he murdred was incontynent 
Without respect had vnto his excellence 
Alas se here what inconuenyence 
Came to this Emperour hye and excellent 
For nat beyng wyse dyscrcte and prouydt.m 

If Nichanor before had noted well 
The ende of his dedes he had nat be slayne 
By Judas and the children of lsraell 
His hande and tunge cut of to his great payne 
And than his hede, as the bybyll sheweth playne 
Thus may ail knowe that wyll therto entende 
Wherto they corne that caryth nat the ende 
But he that begynneth by counsayll and wysdome 
Alway procedynge with good prouysyon 
Notynge what is past and what is for to corne 
Suche folowys godly scripture and monycion 
In happy wayes without transgressyon 
Of goddes lawes, and his commaundement 
And often tymes comys to his intent. 
Thus it appereth playne and euydent 
That wyse prouysyon, profe and good counsayle 
Are moche laudable, and also excellent 
And to mankynde great profyte and auayle. 
Where as those folys haue often cause to wayle 
For theyr mysfortune, in sorowe vexed sore 
Whiche ought begyn nat prouydyd before 

O man remember thou canste nat abyde 
8tyll in this lyre therfore moste specially 
For thy last ende thou oughtest to prouyde. 
For that prouysion forsoth is most godly 
And than next after thy mynde thou ought aply 
To fie offence, and bewayle thyne olde synne 
And in al| workes and besynes worldly 
XYhat may be thc ende marke 'a, ell or thou begynne 

Of disordred loue and veneryous. 

Here drawe we folys mad ogyther bounde 
Whom Uenus caught hath in hyr net a snare 
Whose blynde hertes this forour doth confounde 
Theyr lyre consumynge in sorowe shame and care 
Many one she blyndeth ala« fewe can beware 
Of hyr dartes hedyd with 8haine and ,ylany 
But he that is wondyd can skant yndc remedy 

8C Of disordred loue and venryous. 

O cruel Uenus fo'soth who doth insue 
Thy flaterynge gylys and proude commaundement 
_And hastyth nat the dartis to eschewe 
Of blynde Cupido but folowys his intent 
Suche folys endure moche sorowe and turment 
Wastynge theyr goodes dishonestynge their name 
As past fere of god and sekynge after shame 

Itowe many yllys, what inconuenyence 
Howe great vengeaunce, and howe by.tter punysshemcnt 
Hath god oft takyn for this synne and offence 
Howe many Cytees hye and excellent 
Hath Uenus lost, destroyed, and alto brent 
What lordes and howe many a great estate 
Hath loue lost, murdred, or els brought in debate 

The noble Troyans murdred ar and slayne 
Theyr cyte brent, decayde is theyr kyngdome 
Theyr kynge pryant by pyrrus dede and slayne 
And ail this by Parys vnhappy loue is come 
Whiche voyde of grace and blynde without wysdome 
To fyll his lust, from Grece rubbyd Helayne, 
But this one pleasour was grounde of moche payne 

Also Marcus a Prynce of the Romayns 
Called Antonius by another name 
_After that he had ouercome the persyans 
To Rome retournyd with tryumphe lawde and lame 
And there (whiche after was to his great shame) 
With cleopatra in loue was take so in blyndnes 
That he promysyd to make hir empresse 

Qledisor«lred loue ana vener_vous. 8  

So this blynde louer to fyll his interpryse 
Caused his men two hondred shyppes ordayne 
And toke the see wenynge in suche fourme and wyse 
His lewde desyre : to perfourme and obteyne 
But shortly after was he ouercome and slayne 
Of Cesar : and whan he this purpose vnderstode 
He bathed his Corse within his lemmans blode 

For two serpentis that venemus were and fell 
Were set to the brestis of fayre Cleopatray 
13o this cruell purpose had punysshement cruell 
For theyr intendynge theyr countrey to betray 
And worthy they were, what man can it dertay 
Thus it apereth playne by euydence 
That of false loue cometh great inconuenyence 

For he that loueth is voyde of ail reason 
¥andrynge in the worlde without iawe or mesure 
In thought and fere sore vexed eche season 
And greuous dolours in loue he must endure 
No creature hym selle may well assure 
From loues sort dartis : I say none on the grounde 
But mad and folysshe bydes he whiche hath the wouude 

Aye rennynge as franatyke no reason in his mynde 
He hath no constaunce nor ease within his herte 
His iyen ar blynde, his wyll alwaye inclyned 
To iouys preceptes yet can nat he departe 
The Net is stronge, the fole caught can nat starte 
The datte is sharpe, who euer is in the chayne 
Can nat his sorowe in vysage hyde nor fayne 

8 z Ofdisordred loue and veneryou. 

Rede howe Phedra hir loue fixed so feruent 
On ypolitus in prohybyte auowtry. 
That whan he wolde nat vnto hir consent 
To hir husbonde she accused hym falsly 
As if he wolde hir tane by force to vylany 
Ipolitus was murdred for this accusement 
But Phedra for wo hanged hyrself incontynent 

The lewde loue of Phasyphe abhomynable 
As poetis sayth) brought hir to hir confusyon 
l'qero the cruell Tyrant detestable. 
His naturall mother knewe by abusyon 
Uenus and Cupido with their collusyon. 
Enflamyd Messalina in suche wyse 
That euery nyght hir selle she wolde disgyse 

And secretly go to the brothelhous 
For to fulfyll hir hote concupyssence 
What shall I wryte the dedes vicious 
Of Julia or, hir cruell offence. 
What shall I wryte the inconuenyence 
XVhiche came by Danythys cursed auowtry 
Syth that the bybyll it shewyth openly 

What shall I wryte the greuous forfayture 
Of 8odom and Gomor syns the Bybyll doth tell 
Of their synnes agaynst god and nature 
For whiche they sanke alyue downe into hell. 
Thus it aperith what punysshement cruell. 
Our lorde hath taken both in the olde lawe and newe 
For this synne : whiche sholde vs moue it to eschewe 

Of disordred loue and veneryous. 83 


Ye folys inflamyd with loue inordynate. 
Note these examples, drawe from this vyce your mynde 
Remember that there is none so great estate 
But that false loue hym causeth to be blynde 
Out folysshe wymen may nat be left behynde 
For many of them so folowys in this way 
That they sell theyr soules and bodyes to go gay 

The graceles galantes, and the aprentyce pote 
Though they nought haue, themselfe they set nought by 
Without they be acquaynted with some hore 
Of westmynster or some other place of rybawdry 
Than fall they to murder theft and robery. 
For were nat proude clothynge, and also flesshely lust 
.Ail the feters and gyues of Englonde shulde rust. 

Therfore folys awake, and be no longer blynde 
Consyder that shame, seknes, and pouertye 
Of loue procedeth : and drawe from it your mynde 
Suffre not your soules damned and lost tobe 
By vayne lust and carnall sensualyte 
For thoughe the small pleasure do make the fay,e 
The ende off is worldly wo and myserye 
Or amonge the fendes eternall payne 

Of them 

yt sylme trustynge vpon 
lnercy of god. 


Who that styll synneth without contricion 
Trustynge goddes mercy andbenygnyte 
Bycause he sparyth out transgressyon 
And he that thynketh iustice and equyte 
Is nat in god as wdl as is petye 
Suche is forsoth without discressyon 
8yns he thus synneth upon presumpcion 

Of tt)em tiret s.nne. 8 5 

The wynde is up our Nauy is aflote 
_A bande of Folys a borde is corne yet more 
Theyr cursed maners and mad I shall nowe note 
Whose bette for synne is neyther contryte ne sore 
Nat mornynge (as they ought to do) therfore 
Without fere styll lyuynge in theyr vyciousnes 
No thynge inclyned to godly holynes 

They thynke no thynge on goddes rightwysnes 
But grounde them ail, on his mercy and pyte 
For that he redyer is vnto forgeuenesse 
Unto all people, than them punysshed to se 
Trouth it is that the great enormyte 
Of the worlde hathe nat aye worthy punysslemcnt 
Nor he nat damnyd that doth his synne repent 

Put case he gyuyth nat aye lyke iugement 
On mannys mysdede» nor yet mundayne offence 
_And though he be gode meke and pacyent 
Nor shortly punyssheth out inconuenyence 
Put case also he gyue nat aduertence 
To ail mundayne fawtes synne and fragylyte 
Yet none sholde synne in hope of his mercy 

But these folys assembled in a companye 
Sayth eche to other that oft it is laufull 
To perseuerant synners lyuynge in iniquyte 
Yo trust in god syns he is mercyfull 
What nedeth vs our wyttis for to dull 
Labourynge our synne and foly to refrayne 
Syns synne is a thynge naturall and humayne 

86 Of t/)en t/)at synne 

Than sayth another forsoth thou sayst playne 
_And also our fore Faders and progenitours 
Belote out dayes offendyd haue certayne. 
_As well as we, in many blynde errours 
But syns they haue escapyd ail paynes and dolours 
Of hell; and nowe in heuyn af certayne 
What nede haue we to fere infernall payne. 

Than comys in an other with his dotysshe brayne 
By god sayth he I knowe it without fable 
That heuyn was made neyther for gose nor crane 
Nor yet for other bestes vnresonable 
Than of the Scripture doth he Chat and bable 
_Alleggynge our forefaders whiche haue mysdone 
8aynge that no synne is newe in out season 

_A myserable men destytute of reason. 
That thus on hope do synne vnhappely 
Remember the synne of our forefaders done 
Haue neuer ben left vnpunysshed fynally 
And that somtyme, full sharpe and bytterly 
For euer more ail synne hath had a fall 
With sorowe here, or els wo infernall 

The synne of Sodom foule and nat natural 
The Pryde of rome, whiche was so excellent 
The offence of Dauyd Prophete and kynge royal 
The furour of Pharao fyers and violent 
Haue nat escaped the rightwyse punysshment 
Of God aboue, the celestial and highe Justice 
Which fyrt, or last punysheth euery vyce. 

'rttstynge vbon t]e mercy of god. 87 

Remember Richarde lately kynge of price 
In Engionde raynynge vnrightwisely a whyle. 
Howe he ambycion, and gyleful Couetyse 
With innocent blode his handes dyd defyle 
But howbeit that fortune on hym dyd smyle 
Two yere or thre: yet god sende hym punysshment 
By his true seruant the rede Rose redolent. 
Therfore remember that god omnypotent 
Oft suffreth synners in theyr iniquyte 
Grauntynge them space and tyme of amendement 
And nat to procede in their enormyte 
But those synners that byde in one degre 
_And in this lyre their synne wyll nat refrayne 
God after punyssheth with infernall payne 
As I haue sayde (therfore) I say agayne 
Though god be of infynyte pety and mercy 
His fauour and grace passynge ail synne mundayne 
Yet iustice is with hym eternally. 
Wherfore I aduyse the to note intentifly 
Though pyte wolde spare, iustyce wyll nat so 
But the here rewarde, els with infernal wo. 

AZ.EX,Z)ER B,R:*.^V TO Trie Foz.vs. 
Syghe synners, syghe, for your mysgouernauce. 
Lament mourn% and sorowe for your enormyte. 
Away with thêse Clowdes of mysty ignorance 
Syn nat in hope of goddys hyghe petye 
And remember howe ye daily punysshed be 
With dyuers dyseases both vncouthe and cruel 
And ail for your synne, but suche as escapeth fre 
And styl lyue in syn, may fere the peynes of heIle 

Of the folisshe begynnynge of great 
bildynges without sufficient prouision. 

Corne nere folys and rede your ignorance 
And great Io««e procedynge of your owne foly 
Whiche without gode and discrete purueaunce 
Any great werke wyll bylde or edefye. 
Ail suche ar folys what man wyll it deny 
For he that wyll bylde belote he count his cost 
Shall seldome well ende, so that is ruade is lost. 

Of the begynnynge of great bihlynges. 


Who euer begynneth any worke or dede 
Of byldynge or of other thynge chargeable 
And to his costes before taketh no hede 
Nor tyme nat countyth to his worke agreable 
Suche is a foie and well worthy a babyll 
For he that is wyse wyll no thynge assay 
Without he knowe howe he well ende it may. 

The wyse man counteth his cost before alway 
Or he begyn, and nought wyll take in honde 
Wherto his myght or power myght denay 
His costes confourmynge to the stynt of his londe 
Where as the foie that nought doth vnderstonde 
Begynneth a byldynge without aduysement 
But or halfe be done his money clene is spent. 

Many haue begon with purpose dilygent 
To bylde great houses and pleasaunt mansyons 
Them thynkynge to finysshe after theyr intent 
But nede disceyuyd bath theyr opynyons 
Their purpose nat worth a cowpyll of onyons 
But whan they se that they it ende nat can 
They curse the tyme that euer they it began 

Of Nabugodosor that worthy man. 
What shall I wryte or the story to the tell 
Syth that the Bybyll to the expresse it can 
In the fourth chapter of the prophete Danyell 
Was he nat punysshed in paynes cruell 
For his great pryde and his presumpcion 
Whiche he toke it in the byldynge of Babylon 

9 o Of the begynnynge ofgreat bildynges 

His golde and treasoure he spendyd hole theron 
Enioynge hym in his Cyte excellent 
Right so Nemroth by his inuencion 
The towre of Babylon began for this intent 
To saue hym, if the worlde agayne were drent 
But the hye god consyderynge his blynde rage 
His purpose let by confusyon of langage 

His towre vnperfyte to his losse and domage 
His people punysshed, hymselfe specyally 
Thus it apereth what great disauauntage 
On theyr hede falleth that byldeth in foly 
Thus he is folysshe that wolde edefy 
Any great worke without ryches in excesse 
For great byldynges requyreth great rychesse 

But many folys af in suche a blyndnesse 
That hereon nought they set their mynde ne thought 
Wherfore to them oft commyth great distresse 
_And to great pouerty often af they brought 
Laughed to scorne, their purpose cometh to nought 
_And truely I f-ynde in bokes wryten playne 
That our olde faders haue neuer set theyr brayne 

On great byldynge, ne yet of them ben fayne : 
It longeth to a lorde a Prynce or a Kynge 
That lacke no treasoure theyr werkes to mayntayne 
To set theyr myndes on excellent buyldynge 
Therfore who so euer wyll meddle with this thynge 
Or any other, before let hym be wyse 
That his myght and ryches therto may suffyse. 

lit]out soucient prouision. 9  

Lyst ail men do mocke and scorne his interpryse 
For if he ought begyn without prouysyon 
And haue nat wherby his byldynge may up ryse 
Ail that is lost that is ruade and begon 
And better itis sothly in myn intencion 
Nought to begyn, and spare laboure and payne 
Than to begyn and than, leue of agayne 

Who euer he be that so doth certayne 
He shall haue mockis mengled with his damage 
Therfore let suche folys sharpe theyr brayne 
And better intende to theyr owne auauntage 
Consyderynge that processe of tyme and age 
Theyr curyous byldynges shall at the lest confounde 
And Roule and wallys make egall with the grounde. 


Ye folys blyndyd with curyosyte 
Whiche on great byldynge set so sore your mynde 
Remember ye nat that doutles ye shall dye 
And your gay byldynges and howses leue behynde 
Thynke ye your conforte alway in them to fynde 
Or whan ye dye, them hens with you to haue 
Nay nay the laste hous gyuen to mankynde 
Is the course grounde and walles of his graue. 

Of glotons and dronkardes. 

That gloton or dronkarde, vyle in goddes sight 
Shall hardly escape the weyght of pouertye. 
Whiche drynketh and deuoureth both day and nyght 
Therin onely settynge all his felycyte 
His lothsome lust and his bestyalyte 
Shall brynge vnto destruccion fynally 
His soule, his godes and his wretchyd body. 

Of glotons and dronkardes. 93 

Within our nauy he nedes shall haue a place. 
Whiche vithout mesure on lothsome glotony 
Setteth his pleasure and singuler solace 
His stomacke ouerchargynge, -yle and vngodely 
And to none other thynge his mynde doth he aply 
Saue depest to drynke, suche force nat of theyr soules 
But labore in rynsynge pecis cuppis and bowles 

The madnes of dronkennes is so immoclerate 
That greuous sores it ingendreth and sykenes 
It causeth often great foly and debate 
With soden deth and carefull heuynes 
In thynges no difference putteth dronkennes. 
It febleth the ioyntis and the body within 
rastynge the brayne makynge the v't full thyn 

It engendreth in the hede infirmyte 
Blyndynge the herte wyt and discression 
The mynde it demynyssheth, coloure and beaute. 
Causynge ail myschef, shame and abusyon 
It maketh men mad, and in conclusyon 
Causeth them lyue without lawe or measure 
Suynge after syn defylynge theyr nature 

The people that are acloyed with this synne. 
On no thynge els theyr myndes wyll aply: 
8aue to the v¢yne and ale stakes to renne 
_A_nd there as bestes to stryue and drynke auy 
Than ar they outher gyuyn to rybax'dry 
Or els to brawle and fight at euery worde 
Thus dronkennes is the chefe cause of discorde 

94 Of glotons and dronkarcles. 

But namely dronkennes and wretchyd glotony 
By their excesse and superfluyte 
Engendreth the rote of cursed Lechery 
Vith murder, thefte and great enormyte 
So bryngeth it many to great aduersyte 
And with his furour the worlde so doth it blynde 
That many it bryngeth to a shamfull ende 

This vyce (alas) good maners doth confounde 
And maketh man ouer besy of langage 
And hym that in all ryches doth abounde 
It ofte in pryson bryngeth and in bondage 
It causeth man to his great sorowe and domage 
Disclose his secrete and his preuey counsayle 
Whiche causeth hym after sore to mourne and wayle 

Nought is more lothsome, more vycyous nor vyle 
Than he that is subdued to this vyce 
His lyfe shortynge his body he doth defyle 
Bereuynge his soule the ioy of Paradyse 
Howe many Cytees and lordes of great pryce 
Hath ben destroyed by dronken glotony 
And by his felawe, false loue, or lechery. 

The sone of Thomyr had nat ben ouercome 
Nor slayne by Cyrus for all his worthynes. 
If he hym selfe had gydyd by wysdome 
_And the vyce auoydyd of blynde dronkennes 
The great Alexander taken with this madnes 
With his swerde, whan he was dronken slewe 
Suche of his frendes as were to hyln most trewe 

Of glotons and dronkardes. 95 

I rede also howe this conquerour myghty 
Upon a season played at the Chesse 
With one of his knyghtes which wan ynally 
Of hym great golde treasoure and rychesse 
And hrm ouercame, but in a furyousnes 
And lade with wyne, this conquerour vp brayde 
And to his knyght in wrath these wordes sayde 

I haue subdued by strength and by v¢y,dome 
Ail the hole worlde, whiche obeyeth to me 
And howe hast thou alone me thus ouercome 
And anone commaundyd his knyght hanged to be 
Than sayde the knyght by right and equyte 
I may apele, syns ye ar thus cruell 
Ood Alexander to whome wylt thou apell 

Knowest thou any that is gretter than 1 
Thou shalt be hanged thou spekest treason playne 
The knyght sayd sauynge your honour certaynly 
I am no traytoure, apele I woll certayne 
From dronken Alexander tyll he be sober agayne 
His lorde than herynge his desyre sounde to reason 
Differryd the iustyce as for that tyme and season 

_And than after whan this furour was gone 
His knyght he pardoned repentynge his blyndenes. 
And well consydered that he shulde haue mysdone 
If he to deth had hym done in that madnesse 
Thus it apereth what great unhappynes 
And blyndnes cometh to many a creature 
By wyne or ale taken without measure. 

9 6 Ofglotons and dronkardes. 

Se here the inconuenyence manyfolde 
Comynge of dronkennes as I wrytyn fynde. 
Some af so starynge mad that none can them holde 
Rorynge and cryeng as men out of their mynde 
Some fyghtynge some chydynge, some to other kynde 
Nought lyuynge to them selle : and some dotynge Johnn 
Beynge dronke thynketh hym as wyse as Salomon 

Some sowe dronke, swaloynge mete without mesure 
Some mawde]ayne dronke, mournynge lowdly and hye 
Some beynge dronke no ]enger can endure 
V¢ithout they gyue them to bawdy rybawdry 
Some swereth armys nayles herte and body. 
Terynge our lord worse, than the Jowes hym arayed 
Some nought can speke, but harkenyth what is sayd. 

S ome 

spende ail that they haue and more at wast 
reuell and reuell dasshe fyll lhe cup ]oohnn 
their thryft lesyth with dyce at one cast 
slepe as slogardes tyll their thryft be gone 
shewe theyr owne counsell for kepe can they none 
are Ape dronke full of lawghter and of toyes 
mery dronke syngynge with wynches and boyes 

Some spue, some stacker some vtter]y ar lame 
Lyeng on the grounde without power to ryse 
Some bost them of bawdry ferynge of no shame 
Some dumme, and some speketh, ix. wordes at thryse 
Some charge theyr bely with wyne in suche wyse 
That theyr legges skant can bere vp the body 
Here is a sort to drowne a ho]e nauy. 

Of glotom and dro»kardes. 9 7 


Alas mad folys howe longe wyll ye procede 
In this beestly lyuynge agayst humayne nature 
Cease of your Foly: gyue aduertence and hede 
That in eche thynge ought to be had measure 
Wyne ne aie hurteth no maner creature 
But sharpeth the wyt if it be take in kynde 
But if it be nat, than I the ensure 
It dulleth the brayne, blyndynge the wyt and mynde 

Rede ail bokes and thou shalt neuer fynde 
That dronkennes and wysdome may togyther be 
For where is dronkennes, there madnes is by kynde 
Gydynge the hauer to ail enormyte 
And where as is madnes thou shait neuer se 
Reason ne wysdome take theyr abydynge 
In one instant, wherfore lerne this of me 
That dronkennes is mortell enmy to cunnynge. 

Of ryches 


Yet fynde I folys of another sorte 
Whiche gather and kepe excessyfe ryches 
With it denyeng their neyghboures to conforte 
Whiche for nede lyueth in payne and wretchydnes 
Suche one by fortune may fall into distres 
And in lyke wyse after corne to mysery 
And begge of other, whiche shal! to hym deny. 

Of ryctes vprof,table. 


It is great foly, and a desyre in vayne 
To loue and worshyp ryches to feruently 
_And so great laboure to take in care and payne 
Fals treasoure to encrease and muhyply 
But yet no wonder is it sertaynly 
Syth he that is ryche bath gretter reuerence 
Than he that hath sadnes wysdom and scyence 

The ryche mannes rewardes stande in best degre 
But godly maners we haue set clene asyde 
Fewe loueth vertue, but fewer pouertye. 
Fais couetyse his braunches spreddeth wyde 
Ouer ail the worlde, that pety can nat byde 
Among vs wretches banysshed is kyndnes 
Thus lyeth the pore in wo and wretchydnes 

Without conforte and without auctoryte 
But he only is nowe reputed wyse 
Whiche hath ryches in great store and plente. 
Suche shall be ruade a sergeant or Justyce 
_And in the Court reputed of moste pryse 
He shall be callyd to counseyll in the lawe 
Though that his brayne be skarsly worth a strawe 

He shall be Mayre baylyfe or constable 
.And he onely promotyd to honoure 
His maners onely reputed ar laudable 
His dedys praysyd as grettest of valoure 
Men laboure and seke to fall in his fauoure 
He shall haue loue, echone to hym shall sue 
For his ryches, but nought for his vertue 

I O0 Of ryc])es vntSro]talffe. 

Se what rewardes ar gyuen to ryches 
Without regarde had to mannys condycyon 
A strawe for cunnynge wysdome and holynes 
Of ryches is the first and chefe questyon 
What rentes what londes howe great possessyon 
What stuffe of housholde what store of grotz and pens 
And after lais gode his wordes hath credence. 

His wordes ar trouth men gyue to them credence 
Thoughe they be falsly fayned and sotell 
But to the pore none wyll gyue aduertence 
Though that his wordes be true as the gospell 
Ye let hym swere by heuyn and by hell 
By god and his sayntes and ail that god made 
Yet nought they beleue that of hym is sayde 

They say that the pore men doth god dispyse 
Thouhe they nought swere but trouth and veryte 
And that god punyssheth them in suche wyse 
For so dispysynge of his hye maiestye 
Kepynge them for their synnes in pouerte 
And theyr ryche exaltyth by his power and grace 
To suche ryches worldly pleasour and solace 

The ryche af rewarded with gyftis of dyuerse sorte 
With Capons and Conyes delycious of sent 
But the pore caytyf abydeth without confort 
Though he moste nede haue : none doth hym present 
The fat pygge is baast» the lene cony is brent 
He that nought hathe shall so alway byde pore 
But he that ouer moche hath, yet shall haue more 

Of rycbes wro'table I o I 

The wolfe etis the shepe, the great fysshe the small 
The hare with the houndes vexed ar and frayde 
He that bath halfe nedes 3-11 haue ail 
The ryche mannes pleasour can nat be denayde 
Be the pote wroth, or be he well apayde 
Fere causeth hym sende vnto the r2"ches bous 
His mete from his owne mouth, if it be delycious 

And yet is this ryche caytyf nat content 
Though he haue ail yet wolde he haue more. 
And though this gode tan neuer of hym be spent 
XVith nought he departyth to hym that is pore 
Though he with nede harde vexed were and sore. 
0 cursyd hunger o mad mynde and delyte. 
To laboure for that whiche neuer shall do prof)'te 

Say couetous caytyfe -a'hat doth it the auayle 
For to haue all and yet, nat tobe content 
Thou takest nat this sore laboure and trauayle 
To thy pleasoure but to thy great turment 
But loke therof what foloweth consequent 
XVhan thou art dede and past this wretchyd lyfe 
Thou leuyst behynde brawlynge debate and str2"fe 

To many one ryches is moche necessary 
XVhiche can it order right as it ought tobe 
But vnto other is it vtterly contrary 
XVhiche therwith disdayneth to socoure pouerte. 
Nor them relefe in theyr aduersyte 
Suche shall out lorde sore punysshe fynally 
And his petycion rightwysly deny 


Ye great estatis and men of dignyte 
To whome god in this lyfe hath sent ryches 
Haue ye compassion, on paynfull pouertye 
And them conforte in theyr carefull wretchydnes 
God hym Ioueth and shall rewarde doutles 
Whiche to the nedy for hym is cha_ritable 
With heuenly ioy, whiche treasour is endeles 
So shall thy riches to the be profytable. 


hym that togyder u-yll 
tvo maysters. 


A foie he is and voyde of reason 
Whiche with one hounde tendyth to take 
'I'wo harys in one instant and season 
Rightso is he that wolde vndertake 
Hym to two lordes a seruaunt to make 
For whether, that he be lefe or lothe 
The one he shall displease, or els bothe. 

1 0 4. Of])ym t])at wyll serue two maysters. 

/k foie also he is vdthouten doute 
And in his porpose sothly blyndyd sore 
vVhiche doth entende labour or go aboute 
To serue god, and also his wretchyd store 
Of worldly ryches : for as I sayde before 
He that togyder wyll two maysters serue 
Shall one displease and nat his loue deserue 

For he that vvith one hownde vvol take also 
Two harys togyther in one instant 
For the moste parte doth the both two forgo 
And if he one haue : harde it is and skant 
_And that blynde foie mad and ignorant 
That draweth thre boltis atons in one bowe 
At one marke shall shote to hye or to lowe 

Or els to wyde, and shortly for to say 
With one or none of them he strykis the marke : 
_And he that taketh vpon hym nyght or day 
Laboures dyuers to chargeable of warke. 
Or dyuerse offycis : suche wander in the darke 
For it is harde to do well as he ought 
To hym that on dyuerse thynges hath his thought 

With great thoughtes he troubleth sore his brayne 
His mynde vnstable, his wyt alway wandrynge : 
Nowe here nowe there his body labours in payne 
_And in no place of stedfast abydynge. 
Nowe workynge now musynge now renynge now rydynge 
Now on see nowe on londe, than to se agayne 
Somtyme to Fraunce, and nowe to Flaunders or Spayne 

Of hym that wyll serue two maysters. I (5 

Thus is it paynfull and no thynge profytable 
On many labours a man to set his mynde 
For nouther his wyt nor body can be stable 
Whiche wyll his body to dyuers chargis bynde 
XYhyle one goth forwarde the other bydes behynde 
Therfore I the counseyll for thyne owne behoue 
Let go this worlde and serue thy lorde aboue 

He that his mynde settyth god truly to serue 
_And his sayntes : this worlde settynge at nought 
Shall for rewarde euerlastynge ioy descrue 
But in this worlde, he that settyth his thought 
_Ail men to please, and in fauour to be brought 
Must lout and lurke, flater, lawde, and lye: 
And cloke a knauys counseyll, though it ls be 

If any do hym wronge or iniury 
He must it surfer and pacyently endure 
A dowble tunge with wordes lyke hony 
And of his offycis if he wyll be sure 
He must be sober and colde of his langage 
More to a knaue than to one of hye lynage 

Oft must he stoupe his bonet in his honde 
His maysters backe he must oft shrape and clawe 
His breste anoyntynge, his mynde to vnderstonde 
But be it gode or bad therafter must he drawe 
Without he can Jest he is nat worth a strawe. 
But in the meane tyme beware that he none checke 
For than layth malyce a mylstone in his ne«ke 

o6 Of t)ym that wy]l serue two maysters. 

He that in court wyli loue and f:auour haue 
_A foie must hym fayne, if he were none afore 
_And be as felowe to euery boy and knaue 
_And to please his lorde he must styll laboure sore 
His manyfolde charge maketh hym coueyt more 
That he had leuer serue a man in myserye 
Than serue his maker in tranquylyte 

But yet whan he hath done his dylygence 
His iorde to serue as I before haue sayde 
For one small faute or neglygent offence 
Suche a displeasoure agaynst hym may be layde 
That out is he cast bare and vnpuruayde. 
Whether he be gentyii, yeman grome or page 
Thus v,orldly seruyce is no sure herytage 
Wherfore I may proue by these examples playne 
That it is better more godly and plesant 
To leue this mondayne casuahe and payne 
And to thy maker one god to be seruaunt 
XVhiche whyle thou lyuest shali nat let the want 
That thou desyrest iustly, for thy syruyce 
And than after gyue the, the ioyes of Paradyse. 

_Alas man aryse out of Idolatry. 
Worshyp nat thy ryches nor thy vayne treasoure 
Ne this wretchyd worlde full of mysery. 
But lawde thy maker and thy sauyour 
With fere, mekenes, fayth, glory, and honoure 
Let thy treasoure onely in his seruyce be 
_And here be content with symple behauoure 
Hauynge in this lorde trust and felycyte 

Of to moche spekynge or bablynge. 

He that his tunge can temper and refrayne 
And asswage the foly of hasty langage 
Shall kepe his mynde from trowble, sadnes and payne 
And fynde therby great ease and auauntage 
Where as a hasty speker falleth in great domage 
Peryll and losse, in lyke -ayse as the pye 
Betrays hir byrdes by hir cbatrynge and crye. 

Ye blaberynge folys superflue of langage 
Corne to our shyp our ankers ar in wayde 
By right and lawe ye may chalange a stage 
To you of Barklay it shall nat be denayde 
Howe be it the charge Pynson hathe on me layde 
With many folys our Nauy not to charge. 
Yet ye of dewty shall haue a sympyll barge 

Of this sorte thousandes ar withouten fayle 
That haue delyte in wordes voyde and vayne 
On men nat fawty somtyme vsynge to rayle 
On folysshe wordes settynge theyr herte and brayne 
They often touche to theyr owne shame and payne 
Suche thynges to whiche none wyll theyr mynde aply 
(Saue suche folys) to theyr shame and enuy 

Say besy foie art thou nat weli worthy 
To haue enuy, and that echone sholde the hate 
Vqhan by thy wordes soundynge to great foly 
Thou sore labrest to engender debate 
Some renneth fast thynkynge to corne to late 
To gyue his counsell whan he seeth men in doute 
_And lyghtly his folysshe boit shall be shot out 

Is it nat better for one his tunge to kepe 
Vghere as he myght (perchaunce) with honestee 
Than wordes to speke whiche make hym after wepe 
For great losse folowynge wo and aduersyte 
_A worde ones spokyn reuoked can nat be 
Therfore thy fynger lay before thy lypes 
For a wyse mannys tunge, without aduysement trypes 

Of to moche speleynge or babl_ynge. Io 9 

He that wyll answere of his owne folysshe brayne 
Before that any requyreth his counsayle 
Shewith hym selfe and his hasty foly playne 
XYherby men knowe his wordes of none auayle 
Some haue delyted in mad blaborynge and frayle 
Whiche after haue suffred bytter punysshement 
For their wordes, spoken without aduysement 

Say what precedeth of this mad outrage 
But great mysfortune, ,«o and vnhappynesse 
But for all theyr chattynge and plenty of langage 
Whan to the preste they corne them to confesse 
To shewe theyr lewde lyfe theyr synne and wretchydnes 
Whan they sholde speke, and to this poynt ar corne 
Theyr tunges ar loste and there they syt as domme 

Many haue ben whiche sholde haue be counted wyse 
8ad and discrete, and right well sene in scyence 
But all they haue defyled with this one vyse 
Of moche spekynge : o cursyd synne and offence 
Pyte it is that so great inconuenience 
So great shame, contempt rebuke and vylany 
Sholde by one small member came to the hole body 

Let suche take example by the chatrynge pye. 
Whiche doth hyr nest and byrdes also betraye 
By hyr grete chatterynge, clamoure dyn and crye 
Ryght so these folys theyr owne foly bewraye. 
But touchynge wymen of them I wyll nought say 
They can nat speke, but ar as coy and styll 
As the horle wynde or clapper or a mylle 


But that man or woman or any creature 
That lytell speketh or els kepeth sylence 
Af euer of them selle moste stedfast and sure 
Without enuy hatred or inalyuolence. 
Where as to suche comys moche inconuenyence 
Sorowe vpon sorowe, malyce and dysdayne 
Vhiche wyll no tyme, his speche nor tunge refrayne 
Fayre speche is pleasaunt if it be moderate 
And spoken in season conuenyente and dewe 
To kepe scylence, to pore man or estate 
[s a great grace, and synguler ertue 
Langage is lawdable whan it is god and true 
A wyse man or he speke wyll be wyse and ware 
What (to vhome) why (hoxve) whan and whare 

Ye bablynge brybours, endeuer you to amende 
Mytygat by mesure, your prowde hasty langage 
Kepe well your tunges so, shall ye kepe your frende 
For hasty speche ingendreth great damage 
Whan a worde is nat sayd, the byrde is in the cage 
Also the hous is surest whan the dorys be barryde 
So whan thy worde is spokyn and out at large 
Thou arte nat mayster, but he that hath it harde 
If thou take hede and set therto thy brayne 
In this world thou shalt fynde thynges thre 
Whiche ones past, can nat be callyd agayne. 
The firste is (tyme lost) by mannes symplycyte 
The seconde (youth) reuoked can nat be 
The thyrde (a worde spoken) it gooth out in the wynde 
And yet is the fourth, that is (virginyte) 
My forgetfull mynde, had lefte it nere behynde 

Of them that correct other and yet them 
selle do nought and synne ,vorse than 
they whom they so correct. 

He lacketh reason and vndersumdynge to 
Whiche to a towne or Cyte knoweth the way 
And shewyth other howe they may tbetber go 
Hym selle wandrynge aboute from day to day 
In myre and fen, though his iourney thether lay 
So he is mad whiche to other doth preche and tell 
Tbe wave to heuyn, and hym selfe goth to hcll. 

1 I 2 Of t])eîn t])at correct ot]ers 

N'owe to our N'auy a sorte maketh asaute 
Of folys blynde, mad Jugys and Iniust 
Vhiche lyghtly noteth another mannes faute. 
Chastynge that synne whiche theyr owne mynde doth rust 
By longe abydynge, and increas of carnall lust 
They cloke their owne vyce synne and enormyte 
Other blamynge and chastynge with moche cruelte 

They mocke and mowe at anothers small offence 
And redy ar a faute in them to fynde 
But of theyr owne foly and inconuenyence 
They se no thynge, for fully ar they blynde 
lq'at notynge the vyce rotyd in theyr owne mynde 
Theyr greuous woundes and secrete malady 
For theyr owne yll they seke no remedy 

The hande whiche men vnto a Crosse do nayle 
Shewyth the waye ofte to a man wandrynge 
xtYhiche by the saine his right way can nat fayle 
But yet the hande is there styll abydynge 
So do these folys lewde of theyr owne lyuynge 
To other men shewe mean and way to wynne 
Eternall ioy themselfe bydynge in synne 

He sertaynly may well be callyd a sote 
Moche vnauysed and his owne ennemy 
,Vhiche in a nothers iye can spye a lytell mote 
And in his owne can nat fele nor espye 
A moche stycke, so is he certaynly. 
Whiche noteth anothers small faute or offence 
To his owne great synnes gyuynge none aduertence 

and synne worse tl)emsek,es. !  3 

Many them selle fayne as chaste as was saynt Johnn 
_And many other fayne them meke and innocent 
Some other as iust, and wyse as Salomon 
As holy as Poule, as Job als pacyent 
.As sad as senecke, and as obedyent 
.As Abraham, and as martyn vertuous 
But yet is theyr lyfe full lewde and vycious 

Some lokyth with an aungels countenaunce 
Wyse sad and sober lyke an heremyte 
Thus hydynge theyr synne and theyr mysgouernaunce. 
Under suche clokys lyke a fais ypocryte 
Let suche folys rede what Cicero doth wryte 
Whiche sayth that none sholde blame any creature 
For his faut, without his owne lyuynge be sure 

Without ail spot of synne faut or offence 
For in lyke fourme as a phesycyan. 
By his practyse and cunnynge or scyence 
The sekenes curyth of a nother man 
But his owne yll nor dyseas he nat can 
Relefe nor hele so doth he that doth blame 
-Anothers synne: he styll lyuynge in the same 

Many ar whiche other can counseyll craftely 
_And shewe the peryll that may corne by theyr synne 
But them selfe they counseyll nat: ne remedy. 
Nor take no waye whereby they heuyn may wynne 
But lye in that vyce that they rotyd ar in 
Leuynge the way that gydyth to ioy and rest 
Their owne sensualyte ensuynge as a beest 

 4 Of t/em t/at correct oters. 

Vherfore ye prestis that haue the charge and cure. 
To te¢he and enfourme the rude comonte. 
In goddys lawes groundyd in scripture 
And blame ail synnes sparynge no degre 
XVhyle ye rebuke thus theyr enormyte 
Lyue so that none may cause haue you to blame 
_And if ye do nat : it is to your great shame 

For without doute it is great vylany 
A man to speke agaynst any offence 
Wherin he well knowyth hym owne selle gylty 
Within his mynde and secrete conscience 
Agaynst hymselfe suche one gyueth sentence 
Howe god ryght iuge, by rightwyse iugement 
8hulde hym rewarde with worthy punysshement 
Ye clerkes that on your shulders bere the shelde 
Unto you graunted by the vnyuersyte. 
Howe dare ye auenture to fyght in cristes felde 
Agaynst synne, without ye clere and gyltles be 
Consyder the Cocke and in hym shall ye se: 
A great example, for with his wynges thryse 
He betyth hym selfe to wake his owne bodye 
Before he crowe, to cause other wake or ryse. 

Of hym 

that fyndeth ought of another 
it nat restorynge to the owner. 

He that ought fyndyth outher by day or nyght 
Usynge it as his owne, as thynge gottyn iustly 
And thynketh that he so may do by lawe and right 
Suche is disceyuyd, and thynketh wrongfully 
For why the deuyll our goostly ennemy 
Doth hym so counseyll and in his erys blowe 
Disceyuynge in his bondes, as he doth many mo 

,, 6 Of hym thatJndett 

The feruour of ryches and disordred loue 
XYhiche many haue, doth me bynde and constrayne. 
Within my shyp them sharply to reproue 
That pen nor hande, themselfe wyll not refrayne 
Of couetyse no,ve I wyll nat speke agayne 
But of them that kepeth by force and by myght 
That thynge wherto they haue nat corne, by ryght 

Some fyndeth treasours other mennys good 
_And in theyr owne vse suche good they occupy. 
XVhiche of theyr myndes ar so blynde and wode. 
_And so reted in theyr errour and foly 
That oft they say (say) ye and dare byde by 
That some saynt whome they worshypped haue 
Haue sende them the saine theyr honestee to saue 

They haue no force nor care, nor they none haue vyll 
To whome the ryches so loste dyde apertayne 
That fortune hath gyuen they holde fast and kepe styll 
l'qeuer hauynge mynde it to restore agayne 
Suche folys fere no thynge euerlastynge payne 
Nor note nat, that without true restytucion 
It smali auayleth to haue made confessyon. 

Here me foie with thy immoderate mynde 
Here me and do thy herte therto aply 
If thou by fortune any ryches fynde 
Callynge it thyne : thou lyest therin falsly 
If thou haue wyt thou canst nat well deny 
But that gode nat gyuen, nor gottyn by laboure 
Can nat be rightwyse : thus mende thy blynde erroure 

Ought of anot/)er mannys. I 1 7 

If thou ought fynde that longeth nat to the 
Than is it anothers, the case is clere and playne 
Wherfor thou ought of lawe and of dewte 
Unto the owner it soone to yelde agayne 
But if he be dede, to whome it dyd attayne 
Thou ought nat yet to kepe it nere the more. 
But to his sectours or heyres it restore 

Put case that they also be past and dede 
Yet ought thou nat to keep it styll with the. 
The lawe commaundyth, and also itis mede. 
To gyue it to suche as haue necessyte. 
With it releuynge theyr paynfull pouertee 
And so shalt thou discharge thy conscyence. 
Helpynge the pote, and auoyde great offence 

But he that others godes tourneth to his owne vse 
Spendynge and wastynge that thynge that neuer was his 
Suche certaynly his reason doth abuse 
And by this meane greuously doth amysse 
XVherby he lesyth eternall ioy and blysse 
His soule drownynge depe within hell flodes 
For his myspendynge of other mennys goodes 

But to be shorte, and brefe in my sentence 
And sothe to saye playne as the mater is 
Forsoth I se nat right great difference 
Bytwene a thefe, and these folys couetys 
Both wrongly kepeth that thynge that is nat his 
Thynkynge that god doth nat therto aduerte 
Whiche notyth thy dedys, thy mynde thought and herte 

XYherfore if thou haue a rightwyse conscyence 
Thou wylt nought kepe whiche longeth nat to the 
The lawe so commaundeth in payne of great offence 
For of gode that thou kepest agaynst equyte 
Thou shalt make accompt after that thou shalt dye 
To thy great payne in hell for euer more 
If thou no restytucion make before. 

Here myght I touche executours in this cryme. 
Blamynge theyr dedys dysceyte and couetyse 
If it were nat for wastynge of my tyme 
For mende they wyll nat them in any wyse 
Nor leue no poyntes of theyr disceytfull gyse 
Let them take parte of that whiche I here note 
And be partynge foies in this present bote. 

Ye false executours whome ail the worlde repreuys 
And ye that fynde mennes goodes or treasoures 
I call you as bad as robbers or theuys 
For ye by your falshode and manyfolde errours 
Kepe falsly that thynge whiche is none of yours 
And wast here the goodes of hym that is past 
The soule lyeth in payne, ye take your pleasours. 
With his ryches, damnynge your owne soule at the last 

Of the sermon 
bothe to 

or erudicion of wysdone 
wyse men and folys. 

He that ddyteth in godly sapience 
And it to obtayne puttyth his besynes 
Aboue ail folys shall haue preemynence 
And in this worlde haue honour and rychesse 
Or a vorthy crowne in heuyns blessydnesse 
Or els bothe welthe here, and after ioy and blysse 
Where as a foie of bothe the two shall mysse 

Wysdome with ,oyce replete with grauyte 
Callyth to ail people, and sayth o thou mankynde 
Howe longe wylt thou lyue in this enormyte 
Alas howe longe shalt thou thy wyt haue blynde 
Here rny preceptis and rote them in thy mynde 
Nowe is full tyme and season to clere thy syght: 
Harkyn to my v¢otdes, grounde of goodnes and ryght 

Lerne mortall men, stodyerge day and nyght 
To knowe me ,vysdome, chefe rote of chastyte 
My holy doctryne thy herte shall clere and lyght 
My tunge shall shewe the ryght and equyte 
Chase out thy foly, cause of aduersyte. 
And seke me wysdome whiche shall endewe thy myrde 
With helth and welth wherby thou lyfe shalt fynde 

Aryse I say agayne to the mankynde 
And seke me wysdome that ara well of goodnes 
Let nat this worlde thy conscyence farther blynde 
lqor to synne subdue for loue of false rychesse 
Blynde nat thy herte with mondayne wretchednes 
I ara worth golde and worth ail good mundayne : 
And to mankynde counselloure sollerayne 

No maner Jowell is to me lyke certayne 
Ne so prof)rtable to mortall creature 
I passe ail ryches and cause a man refrayne 
His mynde from synne, and of his ende be sure 
There is no treasoure nor precious stone so pure 
Carbuncle Ruby ne adamond in londe nor see 
Nor other lapydary comparable to me: 

And shortly to speke wysdome is more laudable 
Than all the worlde or other thynge mundayne 
There is no treasoure: to -vysdome comparable 
But it alone is a vertue moste souerayne 
Hauynge nought lyke in valoure nor worth certayne 
No foie is so ryche, nor hye of dignyte 
But that a wyse man pore is more worthy than he 

Wysdome preserueth men in auctoryte 
Prynces promotynge by counseyll prouydent 
By it pore men somtyme, and of lowe degre 
Hath had the hole worlde to them obedyent 
It gydeth Cytees and countrees excellent 
And gouerneth the counseyll of prynce lorde and kynge 
Strengthynge the body the herte enlumynynge 

It gydyth lordes and from bondage doth brynge 
Them whome foly hath brought in to captyuyte 
Hir gyftys to mankynde frely offrynge 
Gydynge hir discyples from ail aduersyte 
Wysdome stondynge vpon a stage on hye 
Cryeth to mankynde with lowde voyce in this wyse 
I trouth exalte : and vycious men dispys'e 

Lerne of me wysdome cast out your couetyse 
For by my myght craft and wyse prouysicion 
Kynges vnto their dygnyte dothe ryse 
Theyr septers gydynge by my monycion 
I gaue them lawes to gyde eche regyon 
In welthe defendynge and in prosperyte 
Them and theyr royalmes whyle they gyde them by me 

 2 2 Of t& ««mo OE.«dom« 

Ail maner nacyons that doth to me inclyne 
I gyde and gouerne by lawe and equyte 
In me is right, godly wyt and doctryne 
What blynde foly, and howe great aduersyte 
Do they auoyde that gyde them selfe by me 
And he that me louyth with worshyp and honour 
Shall knowe my loue my grace and my fauour 

He that me folowyth shall auoyde ail dolour 
I shall hym folowe promotynge in suche case 
That none shall be before hym in valour 
I godly ryches in my power inbrace 
Whiche man by me may esely purchase 
And he that wyll his way by me addresse 
I shall rewarde with heuenly ioy endles 

The father of heuen of infynyte goodnesse. 
Me comprehendyth within his deytee 
Of hym my firste begynnynge is doutles. 
And heuen and erth he create hath by me 
And euery creature bothe on londe and se 
The heuen imperyall ail planetis and firmament 
God neuer thynge ruade without my true assent 

Therfore mankynde set thy mynde and intent 
To me wysdome to be subiect and seruaunt 
To my preceptis be thou obedyent 
And heuenly ioy thou shalt nat lacke nor want 
For doutles they ar mad and ignoraunt 
And folys blyndyd who so euer they be 
That wyll nat gladly be seruauntes vnto me 

Aryse folys of myndes darke and blynde. 
Receyue the gyftes of godly sapyence 
Here hir perceptis and plant them in your mynde 
And rote out the gaffys of your olde offence. 
Call to your myndes what inconuenyence 
Howe sodayne fallys, what sorowe and turment 
Hath corne to many a myghty lorde and prynce 
For nat folowynge of hir commaundement. 

Of bostynge or hauynge confydence 
in fortune. 

He is a foie whiche settyth confydence 
On frayle fortune vncertayne and mutable 
His mynde exaltynge in pryde and insolence 
Because that she somtyme is fauorable 
As if she wolde so be perdurable 
Suche folys oft whan they thynke them most sure 
Ail sodaynly great mysfortune endure 

Of ]auynge cottlence infortune.  2 5 

Amonge our folys he ought to haue a place 
_And so he shall for it is resonable 
Whiche thynketh hymselfe greatly in fortunes grace 
Bostynge that she to hym is fauorable 
_As if hyr maner were nat to be mutable 
In this vayne hope suche theyr lyfe doth lede 
Tyll at the laste theyr hous borne oure theyr hede 

He shakyth boost and off doth hym auaunte 
Of fortunes fauoure and his prosperyte 
Whiche suffreth hym nought of his wyll to wante 
So that he knoweth nought of aduersyte 
Nor mysfortune nor what thynge is pouertee. 
O lawles fole o man blyndyd of mynde 
Say what suretye in fortune canst thou fynde 

To what ende or vnto what conclusyon 
Shall fortune frayle vnrightwyse and vnsure 
Lede the blynde foie by hyr abusyon. 
Howe darest thou the in hir blyndnes assure. 
Syns she vnstable is and can nat longe endure 
Hir gyftis changith, she is blynde and sodayne 
Thoughe she firste lawghe hir ende is vncertayne. 

Thou shakest boste ofte of hir foly in vayne 
For he is most happy whiche can auoyde hir snare 
If she exalte some one vnto welth mundayne 
She bryngeth another to payne sorowe and care 
Whyle one is ladyd to the others backe is bare 
XVhyle she a begger maketh in good abounde 
_A lorde or state she throweth to the grounde 

But nat withstandynge hir mutabylyte. 
Thou bostest thy gode and to moche abundaunce 
Thou bostest thy welth and thy prosperyte 
Thy good auenturs, and plentyfull pleasaunce 
-Alas blynde foie amende thy ygnoraunce 
_And in thy welthe to this saynge intende 
That fortune euer hath an incertayne ende 

Fais fortune infect of countenaunce and of face 
By hir iyen clowdy and varyable vysage 
Hath many for a whyle taken to hir grace 
Whiche after by hir whele vnstable and volage 
Hath brought them to wo mysfortune and damage 
She ruleth pore and riche without difference 
Lewdnes exaltynge and damnynge innocence 

Thus is that man voyde, of ail intellygence 
Whom fortune fedyth, with chaunche fortunable 
If he therin haue ouer large confydence 
_And thynke that sure that euer is mutable 
That fole is sonne, to the fende abhomynable 
That foloweth ryches, and fortune that is blynde 
His sauyour lefte, and clene out of mynde 

Whan the foule fende, father of vnhappynes 
Pote man purposyth by falshode to begyle 
He sendeth hym welth worldly, and fais ryches 
_And causeth fortune, awhyle on hym to smyle 
XVhiche wih hir blyndenes doth mankynde so defyle 
That whyle they trust in hir fauour to sore. 
They damme theyr soules in hell for euermore 

Of bauynge copdence infortune. I 2 7 

By large examples thou eche day mayste se 
The chaunge of fortune and the ende vncertayne 
Wherfore to boste the of hyr commodyte 
It is great foly and also thynge in vayne 
From this lewdnes thy mynde therfore refrayne 
And be content with fortune moderate 
Nor boste the nat of thy wehh or estate 

This day thou art ryche and despysest the pore 
Yet so may it rail, that for thy lewde lyuynge 
To morowe thou beggest thy brede from dore to dore 
Therfore remembre that blynde fortune wandrynge 
Hath nat in hyr handes power, nor gydynge 
The rewardes of welth, nor of felycyte 
But god them gydeth by his great maieste 

And ail thynge chaungeth as is to hym plesaunt 
His dedes to wysdome alwaye agreable 
Wherfore blynde foie be nat so ignoraunt 
To prayse fortune whiche is so varyable 
And of rewardes vnsure and chaungeable 
But thoughe she smyle trust nat to hir intent 
For amonge swete herbes ofte lurkyth the serpent 


Ye folys that haue in fortune confydence : 
_And boste you of velth and of prosperyte 
Leue of your foly, and note by euydence : 
Hir cours vnsure : and hir mutabylyte 
None in this lyfe can byde in one degre 
But somtyme hye, than after pore and lowe. 
Nowe nought set by, nowe in auctoryte 
Nowe full nowe voyde as waters ebbe and flowe 

1 ara remembred that I haue often sene 
Great worldly ryches ende in pouertye 
_And many one that hath in fauour ben: 
_And hye promotyd in welth and dignyte. 
Hath sodaynly fallyn into calamyte 
Thus is it foly to trust in fortunes grace 
For whvle the Se floweth and is at Burdews hye 
It as fast ebbeth at some other place 



ouer great and chargeable 
curyosyte of men. 

Unto mo folys here ordayne I a barge 
Whiche medlyth with euery mannys besynes 
And nat inteadeth to their owne fosse and charge 
Great payne and wo suche folys oft oppresse 
And let them lerne with pacyent mekenes 
OE'o surfer sorowe for why they shall none lacke 
Syns they alone, the hule worlde take on theyr laacke 

I 30 Of ])o Oll8F great cu,yo«yt« of,nen. 

He that wyll coueyt to bere more than he may 
And take on his sholders more than he can sustayne 
Suche is a foie, his dedys wyll not deny 
And with his owne wyll gooth to peryll and payne. 
He is vnwyse whiche is ioyous and fayne 
To offer his necke to bere that without fere 
XVhichz were ynoughe for dyuers men to bere 

That man that taketh vpon his backe alone 
The heuy weght of the large fyrmament 
Or any burdeyne whiche maketh hym to grone 
Whiche to sustayne his strength is ympotent 
No meruayle is if he fall incontynent 
And than whan he lowe on the grounde doth lye 
He oft repentyth his purpose and foly 

\¥e haue in storyes many examples great 
Shewynge the lewde ende of this curyosyte. 
I rede of Alexatder that dyd often sweate 
In great peryls to augment his dignyte 
He was nat content with europe and asye 
Nor ail the grounde under the fyrmament 
At the last ende, cowde nat his mynde content 

As if ail the erth were nat suffycyent 
For his small body by curyouse couetyse 
But at the last he must holde hym content 
With a small cheste and graue nat of great pryce. 
Thus deth vs shewyth what thynge sholde vs suffyce 
_And what is the ende of our curyosyte. 
For dethe is lyke to hye and lowde degre 

Of t]e ouer great curyos_vte of men.  3 t 

What shall a kynge at his last endynge haue 
Of ail his realme and infynyte treasoure 
Saue onely his towmbe, and the grounde of his graue 
But thoughe it be of great pryce and voloure 
As is conuenyent to his hye honoure. 
Yet lytell conforte to his soule shall it gyue 
But cause of bostynge to them that after lyue 

Thus whan man vnto his iast ende is corne 
He nought with hym bereth of his dignytees 
Wherfore cynicus a man of great wysdome 
Lorde grettest of Grece in londes and Cytees 
Hathe lefte great example vnto ail degrees 
For his great ryches his herte dyd neuer blynde 
But worldly pompe set clene out of his mynde 

He forced of no castels nor excellent byldynge 
Dispysynge charges and besynes worldly 
But gaue his mynde to verrue and cunnynge 
And namely to the scyence of astronomy 
Consyderynge that great test of mynde and of body 
With hym abydeth whiche with bolde bette is fayne 
To folowe vertue and leue charges mundayne 

He that so doth no weght doth vndertake 
Vpon his backe of so great a grauyte 
That his small strength must it agayne forsake. 
Where he that attempteth grettest thynges and hyc : 
Great weyght of charges and moche dignite 
Must lerne to surfer payne thought and vexacion 
By his great charges of perturbacion. 

 3 OE Of t]e otter great curyosyte of men. 

XVhat auayle is it the worlde to obtayne 
In one mannys power, and ail other to excell 
To surfer trouble r and vayne charges sustayne 
And at the last his pote soule gooth to hell 
There toren and tourmented in paynes cruell 
It were moche better to kepe a quyet mynde 
And after our deth etemall test to fynde 
He that taketh thought tbr euery besynes : 
And caryth for that whiche doth nat apertayne 
Nor longe to his charge r he is full of blyndnes 
And no houre shall rest, but styll in thought and payne 
Care for thy owne charges r theron set thy brayne 
For he a foie is that caryth or doth intende 
For another mannys charge whiche he can nat amende 
Therfore lyue in test after thy degre. 
Nor on suche thynges do nat thy mynde aply 
Whiche ar no thynge apertaynynge vnto the 
If thou so do thou shalt fynde rest therby 
Auoyde thou the charge of worldly mysery 
For godes take no thought great care ne trauayle. 
XVhiche after deth shall do the none auayle 

Foie clere thy iyen and of thy selfe beware 
Care moste for thy owne besynes and charge 
For other mennes take no great thought nor care 
If thou thy conscience mayst therof discharge 
A curyous man that of his tunge is large 
Talkynge or carynge of other, his place is best 
Hye in the fore top of our folysshe barge 
For in that place is small quyet or test 

Of them that ar alway borooEnge. 

A man that is besy both euyn and morowe 
With rauysshynge clawys and insaciable 
Of his frendes and neyghbours to begge and to borow 
To the deuourynge wolfe is most l'ke or semblable 
Buche in our shyp shall nat want a babyll 
For he that styll borowes shail skant hym quyte or redde 
And as a wretche the asse shall hym ouer trçdde 

 34 Of tl)em that ar a]way borovnge. 

That foie that hym selle a dettour doth make 
To dyuerse men, and is borowynge alway 
Right ponderous charges on hym doth take 
Borowynge of one another therwith to pay 
Thoughe he be glad to haue longe terme and day 
To hym assygned to make his payment 
It nought auayleth, for soone the tyme is spent 

But in the meane tyme deuourynge vsurye 
Spoylyth makynge pore many a borewer 
Where they two borewed they promys to pay thre 
Their day of payment lenger to defarre. 
Thus doth oft borowynge many thousandes marre 
Yet some get malyce for that gode that they len 
And where they lent twenty gladly taketh ten. 

I wyll nat say but that it is mede certayne 
To lene frely to one that is in nede 
And wyll be glade it to content agayne. 
But he that lenyth to haue rewarde or mede 
Or more than he lent, may of hell payne haue drede 
And he that so boroweth gayne can haue none 
Therby in this lyre, but hell whan he is gone 

Therfore in this satyre suche wyll 1 repreue 
And none that borowe uor lene on amyte 
The vsurers: fais cristen men in theyr byleue 
Folowe the waren way of theyr iniquyte 
Prohybyte by lawe iustyce and equyte 
Theyr vnclene hertes, and mynde, vnhappely 
On lucre settynge, comynge by vsury 

Of them that af a]way borowynge. I35 

They hepe theyr synne in quantyte horryble 
Labowrynge that lewde burthen gretter to make 
And that sore weght tedyose and terryble 
,¥ith a great rope vpon theyr shulders take 
The weyght vp taken all theyr hole ioyntes quake 
Thus these caytyfs with this tope and burthyn heuy 
Them selle hange damnynge theyr soule eternal/y 

A wretchyd man, alas make clere thy reason 
Remember thoughe god the surfer thus longe tyme 
He graunteth that space to amende the in season. 
And nat dayly to encreas thy synne and cryme 
Somtyme he punyssheth with infenall abhyme 
Shortly for synne, somtyme thoughe one mysdo 
He suffreth longe : but yet truste nat therto 

The longer vnpunysshed, the sorer is the payne 
And if thou vylt nat gyue to me credence 
Of sodome and Gomor the Bybyll sheweth playne 
Howe God rightwysely ponysshed theyr offence 
And also Solym, towne of great excellence 
For vyciousnes god ponysshed bytterly 
Whiche sholde vs cause for to lyue rightwysely. 

The rightwyse god also dyd sore chastyce 
Tthe Nilicolyans and them vtterly destroy 
For theyr contynuynge in theyr syn and vyce 
And theyr lynage longe kepte from welth and ioy 
In great trouble whiche dyd theyr hertis noy: 
Howe be it that they were good and innocent 
For theyr fathers faute they suffred punysshement 

3 6 Of them t]a! .r alway borowynge. 

But to our purpose to retourne agayne. 
He that ought boroweth whiche he can nat pay 
Of a wolfe rauysshynge foloweth the trayne 
But though he ail swolowe yet can he by no way 
I)euoure the tyme nor the prefyxed day 
XVherfore if he than disceyue his credytour 
He oft hym chastyth with iustyce and rygour 

Ryght in lyke wyse our lorde omnipotent 
In this worlde to lyue grauntyth vs tyme and space 
Nat styll to synne, but vnto this intent 
To leue our vyce, and folowe the way of grace 
But if we styll contynue in one case 
And haue done no good to pay hym at our day 
In hell pryson he iustly shall vs lay 


Thou fole mysmyndyd to large of sconscyence 
To the I speke that art a lewde dettour 
Borowe thou no thynge, noble grote ne pens. 
More than thou mayst agayne pay thy credytour 
Right so endener the to pay thy sauyour 
His right and dewty, with a glad wyll and fayne 
That is true seruyce, with glory and honour 
Than shalt thou surely escape infernall payne. 

Of inprofytable and vayne prayers 
and peticyons. 


That man whose herte vnhappy synne doth blynde 
And prayth gasynge into the fyrmament 
Or he that setteth nat his herte and mynde 
Upon his wordes, theyr sentence or intent 
And he that desyreth thynge nat conuenyent 
Suche folys shall nat theyr peticion obtayne 
For without the heite the ronge laboureth in vayne 

 3 8 Of brofytable and va.yne pra.yers. 

Here we repreue (reperue) ye and reuyle. 
A sorte of folys lewde of condicions 
Whose bette and tunge theyr soules doth defyle 
By theyr blynde prayers and yll peticions 
Suche folowe no techynge nor gode monysyons 
For often many of them with tunge doth pray 
Theyr mynde, abstract nat knowynge what they say 

Man oft desyreth with great affeccion 
That thynge of god, whiche thynge if god wolde graunt. 
Sholde be at last vnto thyer destruccyon 
Examples hereof thou canst nat lacke nor want 
The great Medas somtyme kynge tryumphant. 
t)f Phrygye By his owne folysshe desyre 
With paynfull hunger, his lyfe breth dyd expyre 

This kynge Mydas of whom I haue you tolde 
Of god desyred xvith prayer dylygent. 
That ail that he touchyd tourne myght vnto golde 
His prayer was harde, he obteynyd his intent 
But nat to his welth, but mortall punysshelnent 
For whan he brede or drynke tast or touche sholde 
Incontynent was it tourned in to golde 

Thus was his prayer to his owne damage 
For at the laste he dyed in wo and payne 
For no golde coude his sore hunger asswage 
Nor his desyre coude he nat call agayne. 
Thus his peticion desyred was in vayne : 
And where he wenyd great welth to get therby 
He dyed in shame hunger and mysery. 

Of h,otab/e and vavne i,'.era. I 3 9 

Some dayly pray with marueylous besynes 
Cryeng and syghynge to god omnypotent 
For to haue plenty of welth ioy and ryches 
And to be made ryche myghty and excellent. 
O cursyd lyuers o blynde men of intent 
On suche desyres they set theyr mynde and thought 
Whiche thousandes vnto shamefull ende bath brought 

What profyted the myghty edefyces : 
Of Lycynus, or lyuelode of excesse : 
What profyteth the money gotten in vyces 
Of riche Crassus, or cresus, great ryches 
They all af dede by theyr vnhappynes 
And that lewdely, nat by deth naturall 
Theyr blynde desyres chefe rote and cause of ail 

Another .hiche is in youthes prosperyte 
For strength and myght often to god doth pray 
Some of theyr lyre to haue prolyxyte 
Desyreth god, and here to byde alway 
In riches welth, ioy and solempne aray 
But yet they in glotony take suche custome 
That they slea them selle longe or theyr day be corne 

Alas mad foie why prayest thou for age 
Syns it so greuous is and ymportable 
Unstable and full of dolour and damage 
Odyous to youth and intollerable 
Say folysshe man whiche art of mynde vnstable 
Is it nat great foly to any creature 
To pray for that thyng% whiche he can nat endure 

Peleus, and Nestor and many other mo 
_As hackes and laertes, sore haue complayned 
For to longe age, euer full of payne and wo 
Wherwith theyr bodyes sore haue ben constrayned 
_And with great sorowes and dyuers often payned : 
_And to conclude brefly in one sentence 
Oft to age falleth moche inconuenyence 

Yet ar mo folys whiche ought repreued be 
_And they ar suche whiche styll on god doth call 
For great roxvrnes, offyces and great dignyte 
No thynge intendynge to theyr greuous fall 
For this is dayly sene, and euer shall 
That he that coueytys hye to clym aloft 
If he hap to çall, his fall can nat be soft 

Some other pray for bewty and faymes 
_And that to a cursyd purpose and intent 
Wherby they lese the heuenly blyssydnes : 
Theyr soule subduynge to infernall turrnent 
O ye rnad folys of rnyndes yrnpotent 
Pray your Pater noster with deuoute herte and rnynde 
For therin is ail that is nedefull to rnankynde 

Our sauyour criste whyle he was on this grounde 
_Amonge vs synners in this vale of rnysery 
Taught his disciples this prayer whiche doth sounde 
Nere to this sentence, nor greatly doth nat vary 
(Out father wiche art in heuen) eternally 
Thy narne be halowyd (graunt that to thy kyngdorne) 
Ail we thy seruauntis worthely rnay corne 

Of irotable and vayne trayers.  4  

In heuen and erth thy wyll be done alway 
And of thy great grace and thy benygnyte 
Out dayly brede graunt vnto vs this day 
Forgyuynge out synnes and our iniquyte : 
As we forgyue them that to vs detters be 
And to auoyde temptacion thy grace vnto vs len 
And vs delyuer from euery yll amen. 
Whan thou hast clensyd thy mynde from syn before 
And sayd this Frayer to thy maker deuoutly 
Thou nedyst nat of hym to desyre more 
Yet mayst thou pray and desyre rightwysly 
For hehhe of soule within thy hole body 
For stedfast fayth and yll name to eschewe. 
And chastely to lyue ,by his help) in vertue 
Thus sholde thou pray thou ",retche both day and nyght 
¥ith bette and mynde vnto thy creatourê: 
And nought by foly to asshe agaynst right 
To hutte or losse to thy f-rende or neyghboure 
lqor to thy fo by yll wyll or rygoure 
But if god to thy prayers alway sholde enclyne 
Oft sholde corne great sorowe to the and to ail thyne 

Man clere thy mynde or thou begyn to pray 
Els though thy prayer be iust it is but vayne 
And kepe togyther thy hurte and tonge alway 
Or els doutles thou lesest ail thy payne 
From lewde peticions thy mynde thou ought refrayne 
If thou desyre yll to thy fo by malyce 
At thy peticion god shall haue dysdayne 
For though thou be wrothe god is nat in lyke wyse 

Of vnprofytable stody. 

I-Ie that vayne stody doth haunt or exercyse 
.A_nd lesyth his tyme, of fruyte voyde and barayne 
Resoxynge to ryot whiche cunnynge doth dispyse 
And that of doctryne (in maner) bath disdayne 
Suche shall in age of his madnes complayne 
And seynge that he lesyth his tyme thus in fo[y 
Let hym corne to out folysshe company. 

Or p,'of),t«le stoÇ.  43 

lqowe in this lqauy many them selle present 
Of this our roylame and from beyond the see 
Whiche in theyr stody or lexvde and neglygent 
Lesynge theyr tyme at the vnyuersyte 
Yet count they them selle of great auctoryte 
x.¥ith theyr proude hodes on theyr neckes hangynge 
They haue the lawde : but other haue the cunnynge 

They thynke that they haue ail scyence, perf'ytely 
Within theyr hertes bostynge them of the saine 
Though they therto theyr mynde dyd neuer aply 
Without the thynge, they ioy them of the naine 
But suche mad folys to theyr great losse and shame 
Whyle they sholde norysshe theyr myndes with science 
They seke theyr pleasour, gyuen to neglygence 

They wander in euery inconuenyence 
From strete to strete, from tauerne to tauerne 
But namely youth, foloweth ail offence 
No thynge intendynge the profyte to dyscerne 
Nor fruyte of cunnynge wherby they myght gouer»e 
Them selle by reason, but suche thynges they ensue 
X.¥herby they neyther get good maners nor vert,le 

But he that intendeth to corne to the science 
_And godly wysdome of our elders : certayne. 
He must sore stody, for without dilygence 
_And besy laboure no man canit obtayne 
lqone ought to cesse: though it firste be a payne. 
In good perseueraunce getteth great ryches 
Where no good cometh by sleuthfull ydelnes. 

But moste I marueyll of other folys blynde 
XVhiche in dyuers scyencis ar fast laborynge 
Both daye and nyght with ail theyr bette and mynde 
But of gramer knowe they lytyll or no thynge 
Whiche is the grounde of all lyberall cunnynge 
Yet many af besy in Logyke and in lawe 
Whan all theyr gramer is skarsly worth a strawe 

If he haue onys red the olde dotrinall 
\Vith his diffuse and vtparfyte breuyte 
He thynketh to haue sene the poyntis of grammer ail. 
And yet of one errour he maketh two or thre 
Precyan or sulpice disdayneth he to se 
Thus many whiche say that they theyr grammer can 
Ar als great folys as whan they firste began 

One with his speche rounde tournynge lyke a whyle 
Of logyke the knottis doth lows and vndo 
In hande with his sylogysimes, and yet doth he fele 
No thynge what it menyth, nor what longeth therto 
Nowe sortes currit: Nowe is in hande plato 
Another comyth in with bocardo and pheryson 
And out goeth agayne a fole in conclusyon 

There is nought else but Est and non est 
Blaberynge and chydynge, as it were beawlys wyse 
"l'hey argue nought els but to proue man a beest 
Homo est Asinus is cause of moche stryfe 
Thus passe forth these folys the dayes of theyr lyfe 
In two syllabis, not gyuynge aduertence 
To other cunnynge doctryne, nor scyence. 

Of q)Rtl"'lb]e slody, 145 

I wyll nat say but that it is expedyent 
The to knowe of Logyke the chrafte and connynge 
For by argument it maketh euydent 
Moche obscurenes, somt¢me enlumynynge 
The mynde : and sharpynge the wyt in many a thynge 
But oft yet by it a thynge playne bryght and pure 
Is made diffuse, ,,nknowen harde and obscure 

It is ynoughe therof to knowe the grounde 
And nat therin to wast ail thy lyfe holly 
Styll grutchynge lyke vnto the frogges sounde 
Or lyke the chaterynge of the folysshe pye 
If one afferme the other wyll deny 
Sophestry nor Logyke with their art talcatyfe 
Shewe nat the way vnto the boke of lyre 

With suche folyes tender youth is defylyd 
And ail theyr dayes on them they set delyte 
But godly doctryne is from theyr myndes exylyd 
Whiche sholde the body and soule also profyte 
They take no layser, pleasur nor respyte 
To other scyences, pleasaunt and profytable 
But without ende in one thynge chat and bable 

One rennyth to almayne another vnto fraunce 
To parys padway Lumbardy or spayne 
Another to Bonony, Rome or orleance 
To cayne, to Tolows, Athenys or Colayne 
_And at the last retournyth home agayne 
More ignorant, blynder and gretter folys 
Than they were whan they firste went to the scolys 

,46 of ,,,-o»« «oay. 

One bostynge the name of a lawer or deuyne 
His proude hode hye vpon his stately necke : 
Thus muste a gode clerke vnto a foule enclyne 
Lowt with the body and with obedyence becke 
And thoughe it tourne to theyr rebuke and checke 
Yet nowe a dayes ouer many suche there be. 
Vhiche in stede of cunnynge vseth audacyte 

The hode must answere for the follysshe student 
Theyr tyme hath ben Iost frutles and barayne. 
Theyr frendes godes on suche folyes af spent 
To their damage thought hunger and payne: 
Thus to conclude : me thynke it is but vayne 
The frendes to labour the dayes of theyr lyue 
To spare for suche scolers whiche shall neuer thryue 

The great foly, the pryde, and the enormyte 
Of our studentis, and theyr obstynate errour 
Causeth me to wryte two sentences or thre 
More than I fynde wrytyn in myne actoure 
The tyme hath ben whan I was conductoure 
Of moche foly, whiche nowe my mynde doth greue 
Wherfor of this shyp syns I am gouernoure. 
I dare be bolde myne owne vyce to repreue 

Howe be it I knowe my wordes shall suche greue 
As them selfe knoweth fawty and culpable 
But if they be wroth: take they me by the sleue 
For they shall bere the hode and I wyll the bable : 
But firste ye studentis that af of mynde vnstable 
Ye wasters and getters by nyght in felde or towne 
Within my Nauy wolde I set you to a cable 
If I not fered lyst ye your selle wolde drowne 

Of vro.jta]e sto.  4 7 

Also I fere lyst my shyp sholde synke for syn 
If that Cupido and Uenus seruytours 
On the vnsure se my shyp entred within 
Or ail the folys promotyd to honours 
I none receyue can of hye progenytours 
My shyp is nat dressyd for them conuenyent 
And to I fere lyst theyr cruell rygours: 
Sholde rayse to my shyp some tempest or tourment 

Fy studentis clercs your myrdes of this cryme 
Gyue ones your hertis to parfyte dylygence 
Howe longe in Idelnes, wyll ye lese your tyme 
In pryde and ryot, with ail other offence 
Alas what profyte get ye by neglygence 
But sperde your goodes in ail irfiquyte 
And where your frerdes thynke, ye labour for scyence: 
Ye lese your tyme bryngynge them to pouertee 

I,eue of suche stody as is vnprofytable 
Without fruyte outher godly discyplyne 
And gyue your myndes to scyences lawdable 
Where ye may your herte set and inclyne: 
To Arystotyls or Platoys doctryne 
And nat alway on logyke or Sophestry 
I wyll nat say but it is a thynge dyuyne 
And moche worth to knowe Phylosophy 

Of them that folysshly speke agaynst 
the workes of god. 

Here note we fowlys whiche can nat be content 
With goddes worke, and ordynaunce dyuyne 
Thynkynge theyr owne wyll moche more expedyent 
Nat wyllynge theyr myndes to his wyll to enclyne 
But suche folys often sholde corne to ruyne 
And wo with sorowe and losse sholde they fynde 
If god sholde conforme his workes to theyr mynde 

Of tl)em tlaat fo/yssla/y sjOee. '49 

He is a foie and laboreth in vayne : 
Whiche with small brondes of fyre ttamynge bryght 
Entendyth with laboure besynes and payne 
Of the shynynge sonne for to encrease the lyght 
Suche one assayeth a thynge passynge his myght 
And is a foie to set thought or ddyte 
To mende that thynge whiche god hath made perfyte 

But yet is he a moche gretter foie truely 
Whiche wyll correct that thynge whiche god hath done 
And doth nat his herte his wyli and mynde aply 
To goddes workes and deuyne prouysyon 
Of all other maddest is his condycion 
And more frantyfe forsoth I may hym cali 
Than they that ar vext with furyes infernall : 

(Thou foie) the myght of god omnipotent 
In vertue and wysdome so largely doth extende 
His maiesty, and power is so excellent 
His glorious godhede his workes doth defende 
So that no mortall man can them amende 
Wenest thou mad foie that thou amende cannest ought 
That he hath done: whiche made ail thynge of nought 

He that hath marie the heuen and firmament 
The londe, the se, and euery other thynge 
Is so discrete, so wyse, and prouydent 
Before his presence parfytely seynge 
ll thynge to corne that neuer hath had beynge 
His workes and dedys ar so perfyte and ryght 
That none can increas nor yet decreas his myght 

5 o 

Of tem tat fo$ç] 

He doth ail thynge dispose moderate and dispence 
Knowynge our mynde, and what is to vs most mete 
Ail thynge is open and playne in his presence 
Our inwarde thought must he nedes knowe and wete 
.A_nd euery fortune is playne before his fete 
He bath ail thynge by lawe and order drest 
And doth no thynge but it is for the best 

Therfore whether he gyue thunder snowe or rayne 
Wynde or wether, tempest or tourment 
Frost lyghtnynge, fayre wether, outher storme sodayne 
Mystes or clowdes, yet man sholde be content 
And nat with worde nouther inwarde intent 
Agaynst god grutche, but euery day and houre 
Magnyfye the dedys of god his creatoure 

It were moche better thou foie that thou were dome 
Than to cast lewde wordes agaynst thy lorde in vayne 
Thou foie he worketh no thynge but by wysedome 
And yet art thou nat content but dost complayne 
Thou sekest vengeaunce (for thy synne) and payne 
In hell for euer, thynkynge thy selfe so wyse 
To teche thy god, and his warke to dispyse 

It is nat lawfull for any, hye nor lowe 
To be so bolde so blynde or so cruell 
Grutchynge wordes agaynst his god to throwe 
Thughe to theyr plaseour a thynge nat fortune well 
Take example by the children of Israell 
xtVhiche oft for this synne suffred great payne and wo 
Slayne and distroyed, so haue ben many mo 

l.çaymt t]e ,or]ee of go«L I,SI 

Many a lewde body without ",vysdome or rede 
Grutche in theyr myndes, and openly do blame 
_Almyghy god, whan theyr children af dede 
Where rather they ought to enioye of the saine 
For it myght fortune that great rebuke and shame 
Myght to theyr frendes haue corne by theyr synne and cryme 
Soone after : if they had nat dyed at that tyme 

Wherfore this one clause is my conclusyon 
That god our maker is ",vyse and prouydent 
Blame nat his veorkes by thyne abusyon 
For ail that he doth is for the best intent 
But if that god sholde alwaye assent 
To out desyres and euer perfourme out wyll 
Out owne requestis sholde tourne vs to great yll 

O ye mad myndes that no thynge vnderstonde 
O man presumptuous and vnobedyent 
Howe darest thou be so bolde to take on honde 
To repreue the workes of god omnipotent 
Wylt thou hym teche, as more veyse and prouydent 
Than he is (whiche made ail thynge of nought) 
Leue of this thy foly, and holde thy selfe content 
For thou art a fole to set theron thy thought 

Of them that gyue jugement on other. 

Who that reputyth hym selle iust and fawtles 
Of maners gode, and of lyuynge commendable. 
And iugeth other (parchaunce that af gyltles) 
To be of a condiciori reprouable 
Hymselfe nat notynge, thoughe that he were culpab]e 
He is a foie, and onys shall haue a fall 
8yns he wyll other luge, hym selfe yet worst of ail. 

Of them t]at gyue Jugement on otber.  5 3 

Many fallyth in great peryll and damage 
And greuous deth by the vyce of folysshnes 
Perseuerantly bydynge in theyr outrage 
Theyr soule infect with synne and viciousnes 
And though that deth hym alway to them addres 
Yet hope they in longe lyfe and prosperyte 
And neuer asswageth theyr blynde iniquyte 

The tyme passeth as water in a ryuere 
No mortall man can it reuoke agayne 
Dethe with his dartis vnwarely doth apere 
It is the ende of euery man certayne 
The last of ail ferys and ende of worldly payne 
But thoughe we knowe that we ail must haue an ende 
We slepe in synne disdaynynge vs to amende 

Some thynke them gode, iust and excellent 
Myghty stronge and worthy of preemynence : 
Charitable, chast, constant and innocent 
Nat doutynge deth nor other inconuenyence 
But yet ar they wrappyd sore in synne and offence 
And in a vayne hope, contynue in suche wyse 
That all the worlde (saue them selle) they dispyse 

They take on them the workes of god omnipotent 
To iuge the secrete of mannys mynde and thought 
_And where no sygne is sene playne and euydent 
They iuge a man saynge, his lyre is nought 
_And if deth one hath vnto his last ende brought 
(As mad) they mende nat theyr mysgouernaunce 
lqat thynkynge that they ensue must the same daunce 

I4. Of t])em t])at ue iuement n t])e. 

Suche folys fayne causes and often tymes say: 
That he that is dede vsed ryot and moche foly 
Whiche causyd hym to dye belote his day 
And that he was feble, or full of malancoly 
Ouer sad, or prowde, disceytfull and pope holy 
Uiciously lyuynge in couetyse and gyle 
Wherfore god suffred hym lyue the shorter whyle 

Lo these blynde folys saciat with vyce 
Jugeth hym that perchaunce dyd nat amys 
Whyle he here lyuyd, and is in paradyce 
Rewardyd for his workes in endles ioy and blys 
XVhere as this lewde Juger, here in this worlde is 
Sryll lyuynge in synne, suffrynge great payne and wo 
And though he thynke hym gode shall neuer come therr.o 

He that in synne here lyeth fettered fast 
And iugeth the deth of his frende or neyboure 
XVhiche from this lyfe is departed and past. 
Let hym beware, for onys come shall the houre 
That he must fele dethis dolorouse rygoure. 
And after that endure infernall punysshement 
For iugynge and mysdemynge of people innocent 

The terme and day, of deth is moche vnsure 
The deth is sure, the houre is vncertayne 
Deth is generall to euery creature 
Theder we must ail, be it pleasour or payne 
XVherfore wysdome wyll that we shulde refrayne 
From folysshe demynge and nons deth discus 
After deth god wot howe it shall be with vs 

Of t]em tbat gyt«e iugement on otber.  55 

Alas full often a iust man gode and true 
Of mynde innocent sad sober and sympyll 
Passynge his tyme in goodnes and verrue 
Is of these folys thought and demyd for yll 
And he that is nought, frowarde of dede and wyll 
Of these folys blynde frantyke and wode. 
Without ail reason is iug3"d to be goode 

Wherfore I proue that a blynde foie thou art 
To iuge or deme a mannys thought or intent 
For onely god knoweth our my'nde and hart 
Wherto we gree and to what thynge we assent 
But who that is rightwyse iust, and innocent 
And louyth god with honour and with reuerence 
Than, may he boldely luge anothers offence 

Amende you folys : do way these folysshe wayes 
Take ye no charge : nat mete for your degre. 
And note these wordes: whiche criste out sauyour sayes 
.luge nat another, and thou shalt nat iugyd be 
It longeth onely to the hye dyuynyte 
To iuge our mynde: for he is true iustyce 
All thynge discemynge by right and equyte 
No man sholde deme, whyle hym selfe is in vyce 

Of pluralitees that is to say of them whiche 
charge them selfe with many benefycis. 

That myller is a foie and here shall haue a barge 
And as a mad man shall fast therin be bounde 
Whiche his Asse wyll with so many sackes charge 
That the porc beste for païne fallys to the grounde 
.Manï in the chirche lyke hïm maï be founde. 
XVhiche so many benefycis labour to procure 
That their small mïght can nat the charge endure. 

Of Ph«ralitees, c. 15 7 

Amonge our folys delytynge them in vyces 
ls yet another sorte of the speritualte 
Whiche them ouerchargeth with dyuers benefyces 
And namely suche that lowest ar in degre 
Of byrth and cunnynge, of this condycion be 
Defylynge goddes rentis and the chirches goode 
Them se|fe ouer |adynge, as men frantyke and wode 

The weght is so great they can it nat endure 
Theyr myght is small, theyr cunnynge is moche lesse 
Thus this great charge wherof they haue the cure 
To infernall Fenn doth this pore Asse oppresse 
And to an Asse moste lyke he is doutles 
Whiche takynge on his backe sackes nyne or tenne. 
Destroyeth hymselfe them leuynge in the fenne 

But though one prebende were to hym suffycient 
Or one benefyce his lyuynge myght suffyse 
Yet this blynde foie is nat therwith content 
But labowreth for mo, and alway doth deuyse 
Fals meanes to corne therto by couetyse 
He gapeth with his wyde throte insaciable 
And neuer can content his wyll abhomynable 

So for the loue of the peny and ryches. 
He taketh this charge to lyue in welth and eas. 
Howe be it that fole that bath suche besynes 
And dyueres charges fyndeth great disseas 
Neyther shall he god, nor yet the v¢orlde pleas 
And shall with his burthyns his mynde so vex and comber 
That halfe his cures can he nat count nor nomber 

 5 8 Of tbem wbicbe charge tbem selfe 

These carefull caytyfs, that ar of this saine sort 
With cures ar ouerchargyd so that of theyr mynde. 
Rest haue they none, solace, pleasour nor conforte 
Howe be it they thynke therby great welth to fynde 
They gape yet euer, theyr maners lyke the wynde 
Theyr lyfe without all terme or sertaynte 
If they haue two lyuynges, yet loke they to haue thre 

The folys whose hertis vnto this vyce ar bounde 
Upon theyr sholders bereth aboute a sacke. 
Insaciable without botome, outher grounde : 
They thynke them nat lade though ail be on theyr backe. 
The more that they haue (the more they thynke they lacke) 
Vhat deuyll can stop theyr throte so large and wyde 
Yet many all waste aboute Ryot and pryde 

But yet is this moche more abhomynable 
That asses vntaught without wysdome or scyence 
Haue theyr proude myndes moste vnsaciable 
Nat commynge to worshyp by verrue nor prudence 
Yet counte they them worthy of this excellence 
Courters become prestis noughr knowynge but the dyce 
They preste not for god, but for a benefyce 

The clerke of the kechyn is a prest become 
In full trust to corne to promosyon hye 
No thynge by vertue cunnynge nor wysdome 
But by couetyse practyse and flatery 
The Stepyll and the chirche by this meane stand awry 
For some become rather prestis for couetyse. 
Than for the loue of god or his seruyce. 

lff itb mapg benefcis.  5 9 

Alas oft goddes goodes and cristis herytage 
Of suche folys is wastyd and spent in vayne 
In great folyes mundaynes and outrage 
Where it decreed, and ordeyned is certayne. 
That prestis sholde helpe pore people that lyue in payne 
And with suche goodes kepe hospytalyte 
Whiche pryde ryot and Uenus suffreth nat to be 

Thus is the grettest parte of the spiritualte 
Pore preste, persone, vicayr, relygyon and prelate 
With couetyse acloyde outher prodigalyte 
And folys promotyd causyth good clerkis haue hate 
Say lordes and bysshops with other of estate 
Vqhat mouyth you so gladly, suche to promote 
Whiche haue no cunnynge their wyt skant worth a grote 

Wyll ye alway the folysshe asse ouercharge 
Vgith suche burthyns wherwith it can nat fare 
And surfer other to walke and ren at large 
And where they best myght bere theyr backes ar left bare 
And that is worst of ail, suche folys can nat be ware 
But whan they ar promotyd after theyr owne entent. 
Yet theyr insaciable mynde can neuer be content. 

Some make exchanges and permutacions 
Some take to ferme, and some let out agayne 
Other folys for hope make resignacions 
And some for one god scosyth gladly twayne 
Some lyueth longe in hunger and in payne 
_And in the somer day skarsly drynketh twyse 
Sparynge monay therwith to by a benefyce 

 6 Of ttoem w]ic/:e ctarge t]em selle 

Some for no wages in court doth attende 
With lorde or knyght, and ail for this polecy 
To get of his lorde a benefyce at the ende 
And in the meane tyme ensueth rybawdry 
An,4 somtyme laboureth by chraft of symony. 
He playeth a fais cast, nat cessynge to conjure 
Tyll of some benefyce he at the last be sure 

Than if this lorde haue in hym f.uoure, he bath hope 
To haue another benefyce of gretter dignyte 
And so maketh a fais suggestyon to the pope 
For a Tot quot outher els a pluralyte 
Than shall he nat be pleased with. 1 . nouther thre 
But dyuers wyll he haue ay choppynge and changynge 
So off a foie ail and a gode clerke no thynge 

These of nought force so that they may haue gayne 
And golde ynough to spende on rybawdry and pryde 
They haue the profyte, another hath the payne 
The cure of the soulys of them is set asyde 
And no meruayle, for howe sholde they abyde. 
To teche their parysshynges verrue wysdome or grace 
Syns no man can be atonys in euery place 

Alas these folys our mayster criste betray 
Of mannes soule ,herof they haue the cure 
And settynge in their stede syr Johnn of garnesey 
They thynketh them selfe dischargyd quyte and sure 
These folys note nat that euery creature. 
Whiche here of soulys doth cure or charge take 
At domys day a compt for them shall make 

l/Uit]) many benejS, cis. 16  

But if I sholde touche all the enormytees 
The immoderat couetyse and desyre of dignyte 
That nowe is vsed amonge all the degrees 
Of benefycyd men ouer ali the spirituaite 
I fere displeasour, and also I often se 
That trouth is blamed, and nat ay best to tell 
But he that in this lyre wyll alway besy be 
To get dyuers prebendes shall haue the last in hell 

XYhat meane ye gyders of Christis herytage 
Shall ye neuer feue this your deuowrynge mynde 
Shall ye no tyme your couytyse :sswage 
Whiche in goddes seruyce your hartis sore doth blynde 
Let this fais traytour no place amonge you fynde 
Graunt hym no roxvne in churche nor in quere. 
For this is sure ye shall ail leue behynde 
We haue no Cyte, nor place abydynge here 

Of them that prolonge from day to day 
to amende themselfe. 

I'-Ie that cras cras syngeth with the crowe 
I)eferrynge the tyme of his amendement 
Amonge our folys, in this out shyp shall rowe 
For his presumpcion, dull mynde and blynde intent 
V'hat knowe these folys whether god omnypotent 
Vyll graunt them to lyue vntyll another day. 
Vt'hetfore we ought to mende vs whyle we may. 

Of tlame that lkro]onge, ,c. 163 

If vnto any aimyghty god doth sende 
From heuen aboue by inspyracion dïuïne 
Wyil and gode mynde his sïnnes to amende 
And with his grace his thoughtes enlumyne 
If that synner wyll nat therto enclyne 
But doth dyffer and dryue frome day to day 
A foie he is, no wyse man wyll denay 

Yet many folowe this inconuenience 
And knowynge theyr owne vyce, and lyre full of ordure 
The payne therof, and howe euery offence 
And synne is punysshed of eche creature 
Also they knowe that theyr deth is vnsure 
And dye they must knowynge no houre nor space 
Yet synne they styll, nat receyuynge this grace 

They folowe the croxves cry to theyr great sorowe 
Cras cras cras to morowe we shall amende 
And if we mende nat than, than shall we the next morowe 
Outher shortly after, we shali no more offende 
Amende mad foie whan god this grace doth sende 
He is vnwyse whiche trustes the crowes songe 
And that affermyth that he shall iyue so longe 

Syns deth (as I haue sayde) is so vnstable 
Wherfore we ought alway vs to prouyde 
And mende our lyre and synne abhomynable 
For though that thou be hole at the euyn tyde 
Thou knowest nat sure that thou shall here abyde 
Untyll the morne but if thou dye in that space 
It shall be to late for the to cry cras cras 

Syns it is in thy power that thou may 
Amende thy selfe whan god inspyreth the 
Why shalt thou tary vnto another day 
The longer tary the lesse apt shalt thou be. 
In olde sores is grettest ieopardye 
Whan costome and vse is tourned to nature 
It is right harde to leue : I the ensure 

Therfore if that thou lewdly fall in syn 
By thy frayle flesshe, and the fais fendes trayne 
Take nat the vse, contynue nat therin 
But by confessyon shortly ryse agayne 
Synne alway thretenyth vnto the doer, payne 
And grutche of conscience with moche thought and wo 
Yet alwaye ar we redy and prone therto 

Mannys lyre on erth is euyn a chyualry 
Agaynst our flesshe fyghtyng whiche ofien doth vs shame 
Also the deuyll our goostly ennemy 
On his parte labours to get vs in his frame 
Thus oft we rail, and than our foly blame 
Repentynge sore, and wyllynge to refrayne 
But within an houre we fall therto agayne 

Thus euer to vyce ar -,ve redy and prone 
The gyfiis of grace '*ve clene from vs exclude 
We haue great cause sore to complayne and mone 
We leue that thynge (our myndes ar so rude) 
That myght vs gyde to helth and beatytude 
Thus out owne foly, and our owne blynde madnes 
Us often ledyth vnto great wretchydnes 

to amende t]emse]fe.  6 5 

.And if it fortune, that at any tyme 
XVithin our myndes we purpose stedfastly 
For to confesse our synne, excesse, or cryme 
Agayne our thought is changyd by and by 
Away than ren we with the crowys crye 
With one cras, to morowe, perauenture twayne 
Without regarde had, vnto infernall payne 

But in the meane space if that deth vntretable 
Arrest the with his mace, fyers and cruell 
And for thy synne and lyre abhomynable 
By iustyce damme thy soule for euer to hell 
Than woldest thou glad[y (If thou rnyght) do wel[ 
But there is no grace but doloure payne and sorowe 
Than is to late to crye cras cras to rnorowe 


Say what delyte, thou foie or what pleasoure 
Takest thou in synne and voluptuosyte 
It is small sothly, and passeth euery houre 
Lyke to the water, and that in myserye 
Therfore set nat in synne thy felycyte 
This day begyn thy lewde lyfe to refuse 
Perchaunce to morowe sholde be to late to the 
$o sholde cras the crwys songe the sore abuse 

Of laym that is Jelous ouer his wyfe and 
watcheth hic wayes without cause, or 
euydent tokyn of hir myslyuynge. 

He that his wyfe wyll counterwayte and watche 
And feryth of hir lyuynge by his Jelowse intent 
Is as great foie, as is that wytles wratche 
That wolde kepe flees vnder the son feruent 
Or in the se cast water, thynkynge it to augment 
For thoughe he hir watche lockynge wlth lockys twayne 
But if she kepe hir selle his kepynge is but vayne 

Of ].ym tbat is Jelous ouer is OErfe. x6 7 

Orestes was neuer so blynde and mad as is he 
"Whiche for his wyfe taketh thought and charge 
YVatchynge hir wayes, thoughe that she gyltles be 
"I'his foie styll fereth, if she be out at large 
Lyst that some other his harnes sholde ouercharge 
But for ail his fere and carefull Jelowsy 
If she be nought there is no remedy. 

Thou fole I proue, thy watchynge helpeth nought 
Thy labour lost is, thou takest this care in vayne 
In vayne thou takest this Jelowsy and thouglat 
In vayne thou sleest thy selle vith care and payne 
/tnd of one doute thou foie thou makest twayne 
/tnd neuer shalt fynde eas nor mery lyuynge 
(Whyle thou thus lyuest) but hatered and chydynge 

For locke hir fast and ail hir lokes marke. 
Note ail hir steppys, and twynklynge of hir iye. 
Ordeyne thy watchers and cogges for to barke 
Bar fast thy dores and yet it wytl nat be 
Close hir in a Toute with wallys stronge and hve 
But yet thou fole thou lesist thy trauayle 
For without she wyll no man can kepe hir tayie 

And yet more ouer breche hir with plate and mayle 
/tnd for ail that if she be nought of kynde 
She shall disceyue the (If she lïst) without çaple 
But if that she be chast of dede and mynde 
Hir se|fe shall she kepe, though thou hir neuer bynde 
Thus they that ar chast of nature wytl byde so 
And nought wyll be nought what so euer thou do 

Thus is it foly and causeth great debate 
Bytwene man and wyfe, whan he by Jelowsy. 
His wyfe suspectyth, and doth watche or counterwayt 
Or hir mysdemyth and kepyth in stratly. 
Wherfore me thynke it is best remedy 
For hym that gladly wolde escape the hode 
Nat to be Jelous : but honest lyuynge and gode 

The toute of bras that callyd was darayne. 
Coude nat the damsell (by name Danes) defende 
But that Jupiter fonde a cautell and trayne 
In a golden shoure into hir to discende 
And to be short, at conclusyon and ende 
This mayde for ail this Toure was there defylyd. 
And by this lorde was she there brought with childe 

By this example it apereth euydent 
That it is foly a woman to kepe or close 
For if she be of lewde mynde or intent 
Outher preuy or apert there about she goys 
Deuysynge wayes with hir good man to gloe 
But specially if that he hir suspect 
XVith a hode shall he vnwars be ouerdect 

But in the worlde right many other be 
Vhiche neuer folowe this fais and lothly way 
We haue example of one Penolope 
Whiche though that she alone was many a day 
Hir husbonde gone, and she vexed alway. 
By other louers : yet was she euer trewe 
Unto hir olde: and neuer changyd for newe 

Of taym ttaat is Jelous ouer lais wyfe. 6 9 

I fynde that often this folysshe Jeiowsy 
Of men : causyth some women to mysdo 
Where as (were nat theyr husbondes blynde foly) 
The pore wymen knowe nat what longyd therto 
Wherfore suche men af tblys and mad also 
And with theyr hodes whiche they them selle purchace 
Within my shyp shail haue a rowme and place 

For where as perchaunce theyr wyfes ar chaste and goode 
By mannys vnkyndnes they chaunge and turne theyr herte 
$o that the wyfe must nedes gyue them a hode 
But to be playne some wymen ar esy to conuert 
For if one take them where they can nat start. 
Vhat for theyr husbondes folysshe Jelowsy 
And theyr owne pleasour : they scars can ought deny 


Therfore ye wymen lyue wysly and eschewe 
These wanton wowers and suche wyide company 
Get you gode name by sadnes and vertue 
Haunt no olde quenys that nourysshe rybawdry 
Than fere ye nat your husbondes Jelowsy 
If ye be fawtles, chaste and innocent 
But wanton wowers ar fui of flatery 
Euer whan they labour for their intent. 

Be meke, demure, bocsome, and obedyent, 
Gyue none occasyon to men by your foly 
If one ought asshe, deny it incontynent 
_And euer after auoyde his company 

Beware of cornes, do nat your erys aply 
To pleasaunt wordes nor letters eloquent 
If that Helena had so done certaynly 
She had nat ven rauysshed by bandes violent 


auoutry, and specially of then yt ar 
bawdes to their wyues, knowynge and 
wyll nat knowe, but kepe counseyll, for 
couetyse, and gaynes or auauntage. 

A foie blynde, forsoth and wytles is that man 
Whiche thoughe his wyfe openly defylyd be 
Before his owne face, yet suche a chrafie he can 
To fayne hym a slepe, nat wyllynge it to se 
Or els he layeth his hande before his iye 
And thoughe he here and se howe the mater gose 
He snortynge slepyth, and wyll it nat disclose. 

 7 2 Of attoutr.y. 

O what disorder, what shame and what domage 
Is nowe brought in, and right lykely to abyde 
In the sacrament of holy mariage 
The fere of payne and lawe is set a syde 
Faythe is clene lost, and fewe them selfe do gyde 
After theyr othe, but for lacke of punysshement. 
They brake and despyse this dyuyne sacrament 

Alas the lawe that Julius dyd ordeyne 
Agaynst auoutry : is nowe a slepe or dede 
None feryth iustyce punysshement nor payne 
Both man and woman ar past ail fere and drede 
Theyr promes brekynge, without respect or hede 
Had to theyr othe, by mariage solemnysed 
The bed defylyd, the sacrament despysed 

Many ar whiche thynke it is a thynge laudable 
Anothers sponse to pullute and dyfFame 
And howe beit the synne is moche abhomynable 
They fere nat god, nor dout nat worldly shame 
But rather boldly they bost them of the same 
They note no thynge the mortall punysshement 
Taken on auoutrers in the olde testament 

Yet is another thynge more lothsome and vyle 
That many husbondes knowynge theyr wyues syn 
Absent themselfe and stop theyr iyen the vhyle 
Kepynge the dote whyle the auoutrer is within 
They forse no thynge so they may money wyn 
Lyuynge as bawdes, and that to theyr owne wyues 
O cursyd money this madnes thou contryu_s 

Of lot«tr.r.  7 3 

O cursyd husbonde thou ought to be asshamyd 
To set so great fors for syluer or for golde 
That thou for them thy wyfe wyll se diffamyd 
And helpe therto : ye : and the dede beholde 
Blame it blynde dryuyll : by the lawe so thou sholde 
And nat therat to gyggyll laghe and Jest 
It is a lewde byrde that fyleth his owne nest 

The Hystory of Atreus expressyth playne 
Howe he (by his owne brother) for auoutry 
Was dryuen from his royalme and his childre slayne 
For his mysdede : without : let or remedy 
These children thus bought theyr faders mad foly 
What shall I wryte the wo and heuynes 
Whiche Tarquyn had for rauysshynge lucres 

I rede in the hystory of one Virginius 
Whiche to thyntent this foule synne to eschewe 
Whan his doughter was desyred by Clodius 
And that by force ; the fader his dowghter slewe 
Bytwene the handes of Clodius vntrue 
The fader answered (whan men his dede dyd blame) 
Better is to dye chast : than longe to lyue in shame 

But of auoutry somwhat more to speke 
In it is yre Euy and paynfull pouertye. 
And also he or she that mariage doth breke 
May fere of deth eternall whan they dye 
And here without welth ioy and rest shall they be 
And well af they worthy (forsoth) of sore tourment 
In hell: for brekynge this holy sacrament 

 7 4 Of attoutry. 

But in the meane tyme here shalt thou haue discorde 
And neuer prosper in vertue nor ryches 
And lothsome be before the almyghty lorde 
Thy dedes shall purchace mysfortune and distres 
Thou lyue shalt in shame and dye in wretchydnes 
And if thou procede therin and nat amende 
Some great shame shalt thou haue before thyne ende. 


O creatures vnkynde leue ye this outrage 
Breke nat your othe whiche ye ruade solemly 
Eche one to other for to lyue in mariage 
Defyle ye it nat by synne and vylany 
On both partis if ye lyue faythfully 
.After your promes : in loue, fayth and concorde 
Than shall ye in erth encreas and multyply 
_And afier haue syght of the almyghty lorde 

Let ail spousys in theyr myndes comprehende 
The lawys and decrees of the olde testament 
Howe they that in auoutry dyd offende 
Vere outher stonyd or els openly brent 
Vherfore syns goddes son omnypotent. 
Confermed hath the olde testament with the newe 
Auoutrers nowe deserue that saine punysshement 
But well is to them, that stedfast af and trewe 

Of hym that nought can and nought wyll 
lerne, and seyth moche, lytell berynge 
away, I mene nat theuys. 

He is a fole, and so shall he dye and lyue 
That thynketh hym wyse, and yet can he no thynge 
.And though he myght he wyll nat set nor gyue 
His mynde to good maners, vertue nor cunnynge. 
$o is he a foie that doth to market brynge 
His Gese fast bounde, and game or sporte to se 
Lowsyth theyr fete, and suffreth them to fie 

Saynt George to borowe our l'q'auy is aflote 
Forth shall we sayle, thoughe that it be a payne 
And moche laboure to forge a pryuate bote 
For euery faute.- yet shall I nat refrayne 
My hande nor penne: thoughe vnsure be my gayne 
My laboure sure: my wyt and reason thynne 
Than leue a thynge vnendyd better nat begynne 

But in this place shall I a Shyp ordayne 
For that foie: that heryth great doctryne 
Wherby good maners and vertue aperyth playne 
He seth ail goodnes, stody, and disciplyne 
And yet wyll nat his mynde therto enclyne 
But though he knowe what thynge is godlyest 
Ouer ail the worlde, yet is he styll a beest. 

1VI_any of this sort wander and compase 
Ail studies, the wonders of the worlde to se 
\¥ith vnstabyll wynges fleynge from place to place 
Some seyth lawe and some dyuynyte 
But for ail this byde they in one degre 
And if they were Asses and folys blynde before 
After ail these syghtes yet ar they moche more 

They se moche nought lernynge, and hauynge no delyte 
In wysdome nor maners vertue nor goodnes 
Theyr tyme is loste, without wysdome or profyte 
¥ithout grace, or other holynes 
But whyle they labour thus with besynes 
If they se ought newe, or any folysshe toy 
That lyghtly they lerne, and set theron theyr ioy. 

tnd nougbt wy]l lere.  7 7 

By this desyre folys may knowen be 
For wytles men of fleynge mynde and brayne 
Ar best pleasyd with thynges of neweltye 
And them to haue, they spare no cost nor payne 
To dyuers londes to ren but ail in vayne 
And so they labour alway from londe to londe 
To se ail wonders, but nought they ,nderstonde 

8ome fie to se the wonders of englonde 
8ome to the court to se the maners there 
8ome to Wallys, Holonde, to Fraunce or lrlonde 
To Lybye, afryke, and besyly enquere. 
Of ail marueyles, and skantly worth a here 
Some "nto Fraunce and some to Flaunders ren 
To so the wayes, and workes of cunnynge men 

And to be shorte otler ail they range 
Spendynge theyr goodes about vnthryftynes 
In countrees knowen, vnknowen and strange 
But whan theyr iourney they homwarde must addres 
As folys vnware, and Yagabundes thryftles 
They haue nought lerned, kept, nor with them brought 
Of maners, wysdome or other thynge that is ought 

They that by the se sayle to londes strange 
Oft chaunge the place and planete of the fyrmament 
But theyr mynde nor maners they ne turne nor chaunge 
_And namely suche that af lewde and neglygent 
What euer they se styll one is theyr intent 
Whan he departyd, If that he were a sote 
Agayne anone he comyth in the saine mynde and cote 

Say mad folys blynde ouersene, and worthy scorne 
Fayne wolde I knowe what necessyte ye haue 
To go from the place where ye were bred and borne 
Into another londe to lerne to play the knaue 
Your mynde vnstable sheweth playne that ye raue 
Laboure nat so sore, to lerne to be a foie 
That corneth by it selfe without any other scole 

He that is borne in walys or srnall brytayne 
To lerne to pyke and stele nedys nat go to Rome. 
What nede we sayle to Flaunders or Almayne 
To lerne giotony, syns we may it lerne at home 
Suche lewdnes soon may we lerne of out wombe 
He that wyll lerne falshode gyle or sotelte 
May lerne it here as well as beyonde the se. 

To passe the se to lerne Uenus rybawdry 
It is great foly, for thou mayst lerne thy fyll 
In shoppis Innes and sellers, ye somtyme openly 
At saynt Martyns Westmynster or at the tour hyll 
So that I fere ail London, in tyme it shall fyll 
For it is there kept in lyght and in darke 
That the pote Stuys decays for lacke of warke 

But brefely to speke, and this to set a syde 
He that on vyce, and synne wyll set his entent 
Ma t" lerne it in Englonde, if he at home abyde 
-And that of ail sortis : god sende amendement 
But if thou alway wyll nede be dylygent 
To labour in the worlde about frorn place to place 
Do as dyd Plato, than shalt thou fynde great grace 

Ind nougll wy/l lerne.  7 9 

This godly plato laboured with dilygence 
To Egypt, and other londes sparynge for no payne 
Where euer he came : augmentynge his scyence 
And at the last retourned to Grece agayne 
His countrey natyf: with laude and naine souerayne 
Thus he for all his wysdome laboured besyly 
But that fowle that nought can nought settyth by 

V¢herfore that gose that styll about wyll wander 
Moche seynge and herynge, and nought berynge away 
Shall home corne agayne as wyse as a gander 
But more foie is he that may lerne euery day 
Without cost or laboure out of his owne countrey 
And whan the well of wysdome renneth by theyr dote 
Yet looth they the water as if that it were soure 


Sort folys sort, a lytell slacke your pace 
Tyli I haue space you to order by degre 
I haue eyght neyghbours, that firste shall haue a place 
Within this my shyp, for they most worthy be 
They may theyr lernynge receyue costeles and ri-e. 
Theyr wallys abuttynge and ioynynge to the scoles. 
No thynge they can, yet nought wyll they lerne nor se 
Therfore shall they gyde this one shyp of foies. 

8o Of l)ym tl)at noug])t can lerne. 


0 vnauysyd, vnwyse and frowarde man 
Great cause thou hast to morne sore and complayne 
Whan no goodnes verrue nor wyt thou can 
And yet to lerne thou hast scorne and dysdayne 
Alas man mende, and spare no maner payne 
To get wysdome, and it thou shalt nat want 
Hym that nough t wyll knowe, god wyll nat knowe certayne 
Wo is hym that wylfully is ignorant. 



wrathe, procedynge 

of small 

Assys erys for our folys a lyuray is 
And he that wyll be wroth for a thynge of nought 
Of the saine leuray is nat worthy to mys 
For who that by wrathe to suche a wyll is brought 
To sle his Asse for hir pas slowe and soft 
Shall after his fury, repent his mad foly 
For to a clere mynde» mad wrathe is ennemy 

J 8 z Ofgreat wratbe 

Corne nere, ye wrathfull men, take your rowme and place 
Within out shyp, and to slake out hastynes 
Mount on an Asse slowe of hir gate and pace 
Syns troublous wrath, in you, styreth this madnes 
Often lacke of myght asswagyth cruelnes 
To a wy]de cowe god doth short hornys sende 
,Vrath is great foly, where myght may nat extende 

O man yll myndyd what helpeth the this yre 
None the commendyth whiche doth thy maners marke 
XVhat doste thou: but the waste with thyne owne lyre 
Narrynge with thyselfe lyke as a dogge doth barke 
Without meke worde and p]easyd with no warke 
Art thou: but thoughe ail men be dy]ygent 
Mad wrathe to please, yet who can it content 

This man malycious whiche troubled is with wrath 
lought els soundeth but the hoorse letter R 
Thoughe ail be well, yet he none anwere hath 
Saue the dogges letter, glowmynge with nar nar 
Suche labour nat this mad rancour to defar 
Nor yet his malyce to mytygate or asswage 
But ioyeth to be drede of men lbr this outrage 

His mouth fomyth his throte out gorgyth fyre 
His ferefull furoure is, his hole felycyte 
By his great yre, doth he coueyte and desyre 
Dowtyd to be : of the pore comontye 
His owne madnes and cruell furyosyte 
XVyll he nat knowe as he were nat culpable 
O1- this mad fury and vyce abhomynable 

Procedynge of sma]l occasyon. I 8 3 

Hym selle is blynde, but other well note his dede 
He shall be poynted whether he go or ryde 
Saynge one to other take gode regarde and hede 
Of yonder furyous fole whome reason doth nat gyde 
Beware his wayes fie hym on euery syde 
Xrho that hym sueth both hurte and shame shall fynde 
Thus other hym notyth but he hymself is blynde 

So his _Asse erys to hym ar inuysyble 
He thynkyth to haue pacyence though that he haue none 
_And vnto hym itis thynge incredyble 
That suche af folys whose pacyence is gone 
Thus coueytyth he to kepe his erys alone 
And to wrathfull men he wyll no thynge obiect 
For that hym selfe is with the saine infect 

But somwhat to touche the inconuenyences 
Whiche by this wrath procedyth to mankynde 
Itis chefe grounde of many great offences 
Destroynge reason blyndynge the wyt and mynde 
By malyce man is to ail yll inclynde 
Both symple man, and lordes excellent 
Do that by wrath oft whiche they after repent 

Reuoke thy mynde, somwhat thy herte enclyne 
Unto _Archytas a man of hye wysdome 
Borne the the ryche Cyte namyd Tarentyne 
B.ede howe that he his malyce dyd ouercome 
For thoughe his seruaunt v¢as fais to hym become 
_And he sore mouyd to auenge the saine offence 
Yet he refraynyd his wrathe by pacyence 

 8 4 Ofgreat wrat]e 

80 socrates so 8enyk and Plato 
8uffred great wronge great iniury and payne 
And of your fayth sayntis right many mo 
For christ out mayster dyd great turment sustayne 
What wo or payne cowde saynt Laurance refrayne 
From pacience wherfore itis great shame 
For christen men if they do not the same 

They suffred deth, ye, and yet were pacyent 
And many haue prayed, for suche that haue them slayne 
Where thou mad fole takest greuous punysshement 
For small occasyon, ye corne by chaunce sodayne 
Foie thou art blynde, and mad to set thy brayne 
Ail thynge to venge (by wrath) that doth mysfall 
For he that part hath lost : by wrath oft lesyth ail 

And forsoth no meruayle, if suche wyse actours 
Hath wrathes madnes, expelled and set asyde 
For where that wrath doth rayne with his furours 
There can no reason nor wysedome longe abyde 
The wyt it wastyth : so is it a lewde gyde 
Therfore let mesure, this malyce holde agayne 
But pacyence is brydyll his madnes to refrayne 

It longeth nat to any man of hye prudence 
For to be wrothe, yrous, or gyuys to malancoly 
No suche passyon nor inconuenyence 
Can rail to man, ay stedfast xvyse and holy 
But folys ar moste troublyd with this foly 
Where as a wyse man for any aduersyte 
Lyueth in quyete mynde and tranquylyte 

Procedynge of small occasyom ,8 5 

A man well manerd, sad sober and dyscrete 
If he be ware, wyse, chrafty and prouydent 
Beholdeth all thynge belote his syght and fete. 
Gydynge hym by mesure a vertue excellent 
Where as a fole doth ail without aduysement 
And in euery thynge shewyth his folysshnes 
Wroth at eche worde as mayster of madnes 

Wherfore ye folys se ye no lenger tary 
But on the dull Asse hastely assende 
That a slowe beest may hasty folys cary 
For your mad wrath dowtyth no thynge the ende 
Your madnes can nat your blynde mysdede defende 
For who that one sleyth, angry and feruent 
Ought to be hangyd whan he is pacyent 

TIw zNtrov or THE zaxCTOUR. 
Blynde myndyd man whiche wylt ail thynge ouercome 
Reputynge thy selfe, moste souerayne and royall 
If thou be wyse or partener of wysdome 
Labour to ouercome thyne owne selle firste of all 
Thy wrath asswage thou in especyall 
Let neyther malyce, nor yre with the abyde 
Thou art a foie the chefe or lorde to call 
Of other: whan thou can nat thy selfe well gyde. 

Of the mutabylyte of fortune. 

That man whiche hopyth hye vp to ascende 
On fortunes whele» and corne to state royall 
If the whele turne may doute sore to descende 
If he be hye the somr is his fall 
So he whiche trustyth nat therto at ail 
Shall in moste eas and suerty hymselfe gyde 
For vnsure fortune can in no place abyde 

i8 7 

We dayly proue by example and euydence 
That many be made folys mad and ignorant 
By the brode worlde, puttynge trust and confydence 
In fortunes whele vnsure and inconstant 
Some assay the whele thynkynge it pleasant 
But whyle they to clym p haue pleasour and desyre 
Theyr fete them faylyth so fall they in the myre 

Promote a yeman make hym a gentyl man 
And make a Baylyf of a Butchers sort 
Make of a Squyer knyght, yet wyll they if they can 
Coueyt in theyr myndes hyer promosyon 
And many in the worlde haue this condiciort 
In hope of honour by treason to conspyre 
But ofte they slyde, artd so fall irt the myre 

8uche lokys so hye that they forget theyr fete 
On fortunes whele whiche turneth as a ball 
They seke degrees for theyr small myght vnmete 
Theyr folysshe hertis and blynde se nat theyr rail 
Some folys purpose to haue a rowme Royall 
Or clym by fortunes whele to art empyre 
The whele thart turneth lyuynge them in the myre 

0 blynde man say what is thyne intent 
To worldly honoures so greatly to entende 
Or here to make the hye ryche and excellent 
Syns that so shortly thy lyfe must haue an ende 
None is so worthy, nor can so hye ascende 
Nor nought is so sure if thou the trouth enquyre 
But that it may doute to fall downe to the myre 

There is no lorde Duke kynge nor other estate 
But dye they must, and from this wolde go 
Ail worldly thynges whiche god hath here create 
Shall nat ay byde but haue an ende also 
What mortall man hath ben promotyd so : 
In worldly welthe or vncertayne dignyte 
That euer of lyfe had houre of certaynte 

In stormy wyndes lowest trees af most sure 
And howsys surest whiche ar nat byldyd hye 
XVhere as hye byldynges may no tempest endure 
Without they be foundyd sure and stedfastly 
So gretest men haue moste fere and ieopardy 
Better is pouertye though it be harde to bere 
Than is a hye degre in ieopardy and fere, 

The hyllys ar hye, the valeys ar but lowe 
In valeys is corne the hyllys ar barayne 
On hyest places most gras doth nat ay growe 
A mery thynge is mesure and easy to sustayne 
The hyest in great fere, the lowest lyue in payne 
Yet better ly on grounde, hauynge no name at ail 
Than hye on a Clyf ferynge alway to rail 

Thus as me thynke it is no thynge lawdable 
On fortunes whele for one to clym to hye 
Syns the swyft cours therof is so vnstable 
And ail must we leue whan we depart and dye 
Of our short lyfe haue we no certayntye 
For lachesys (whan that thou hast lefte drede) 
Of thy lyue dayes shall shortly breke the threde. 

Atropos is egall to pore man and estate 
Defar wyll nat deth by prayer ne request 
No mortall man may his furour mytygate. 
Nor of hym haue one day longer here to test : 
Content the with measure (therfore) for it is best 
Coueyt nat to moche in honour to excell 
It is a fowle fall to fall from erth to hell 

Unstable fortune exalteth some a loft 
To this intent, them to brynge to an yll ende 
For who that hye clymmeth his fall can nat be sort 
If that mysfortune constrayne hym to dyscende 
Though Julius Cesar his lordshyp dyd extende 
Ouer ail the worlde : yet fortune at the last. 
From lyfe and lordshyp hym wretchydly dyd cast 

This hath ben sene, is sene and euer shall 
That most peryll is in hyest dignyte 
Howe many estatis, howe many men Royall. 
Hath fortune dryuyn downe into aduersyte 
Rede dyuers cronycles, and thou shall playnly se 
That many thousandes hath endyd in doloure 
13y theyr immoderate mynde to honoure 

Ouer rede Bochas and than shalt thou se playne 
The fall of prynces wryten ryght compendeously 
There shah thou se v¢hat punysshement and payne 
Haue to them fallen somtyme by theyr foly 
And oft is moche preuy hatered and enuy 
Had agaynst lordes of the rude comonte 
Where euer they go : they lyue in ieopardye 

I 9 ° Of tte mutabylyte offortune. 

Ay dowtynge deth by cursed gyle and treason 
Eche thynge mysdemynge, ferynge to be opprest 
By some mysfortune with venym or with poyson. 
Thus in great honour is neyther ioy nor test 
But thought and fere, ye whyle the lyre doth lest 
Thus who that procuryth great honour to attayne 
Procuryth with ail, enuy, peryll, fere and payne 

A lorde or state whom many men doth drede 
XVith loueles fere, and fayned countenaunce 
Unto hym selle ought wysely to take hede 
And them tofere, if he wyll voyde myschaunce 
For why a comonty is of suche ignoraunce 
And so enuyous, that both erly and late 
They muse to destroy hym whom, they fere and hate 

A man promotyd vnto hye dygnyte 
Shall haue loue shewyd hym by adulacion 
But no true loue nouther faythfull amyte. 
Good faine nor naine, ne commendacion 
Ye though he be worthy great exaltacion 
Pytefull louynge and full of equyte 
Yet harde is to please a folysshe comonte 

Therfore me thynke of ail thynge it is best 
Man to be pleased and content with his degre 
For why in mesure, is suerty eas and rest 
And ay moste peryll in hyest dignyte 
Fortune is full of changes and mutabylyte 
Trust nat therto, therby comyth do gode 
But nowe hye nowe lowe vnstable as a flode 

Labour nat man with to moche besy cure 
To clymme to hye lyst thou by fortune rail 
For certaynly, that man slepyth nat sure 
That lyetb lows vpon a narowe wall 
Better somtyme to serue, than for to gouerne ail 
For whan the Net is throwen into the se 
The great fysshe ar taken and the pryncipall 
Where as the small escapyth quyte and fie 


them that be diseasyd and seke and 
ar impacient and inobedyent to the 

I| one be vexed with sore infirmyte 
x, Vithin his body felynge dyseas and payne 
And wyll nat gladly with perfyte mynde agre 
To a wyse Phesycian that wolde hym hele agayne 
He is a foie, and shall his foly sore complayne 
And if that he by his selle wyll do sterue 
It is but well : syns he it doth deserue. 

Of them thaæ be diseasyd and seke  93 

He that is feble with sekenes outher wounde 
Wherwith he feleth h]¢m selfe so kept in payne 
That dye he muste but if remedy be founde 
He is a fole, if that he haue dysdayne 
Of wyse Phesycyans : and medecines souerayne 
And wyll nat sue theyr counsell and aduysement 
Wherby he myght haue helth and short amendement 

Thoughe the Phesycyan (of his lyre) hym asst, re 
So he be ruled, and vnto his mynde agre 
The pacyent yet kepyth no dyete nor mesure 
In mete nor drynke, and wyll nat gouerned be 
But foloweth Ryot and ail superfluyte 
Receyuynge colde water in stede of ale or wyne 
Agaynst read and counsell of crafty medycyne 

What mete or drynke that is most contagious 
And most infectyf to his sekenes or dyseas 
And to hym forbyden, as moste contrarious 
"Unto his sekenes. That namely doth hym pleas 
But that thynge that myght hym helpe and greatly eas 
He hatyth moste, and wyll none receyue at ail. 
Tyll this small sore, at the last become mortali 

Suche wyll no counsell ensue, nor mesure haue 
iN'or temper theym selfe in lesse nor yet in more. 
Tyll theyr yll gouernaunce brynge them to theyr graue 
Retournynge into grounde lyke as they were before 
But who that soone wolde, be helyd of his sore 
Whan it is newe ought to fynde rentedy. 
For in olde sorys is greatest ieopardy 

194 ..,4t]. ar bobec]yent to t]e tg]es.rc.ran. 

A smali sparcle often tyme doth augment 
It selle : and groweth to flames peryllous 
Right so small wellys whiche semeth to be spent 
With lytell sprynges and Ryuers, ofte so growys 
Unto great waters, depe and ieopadous. 
So a smali sore augmentyth, styll preuely 
By l),tell and lytell for lacke of remedy 

A small diseas whiche is ynoughe durable 
At the begynnynge, for lacke of medycyne 
At longe contynuaunce becomyth incurable 
The paynfuli pacyent bryngynge vnto ruyne 
\Vherfore who wyll to his owne helth enclyne 
And soone be helyd of yll without ail tary 
To the Phesician ought nat tobe contrary 

Obstynat frowarde or inobedyent 
Ought he nat be, but with a pacyent mynde 
Shewe ail his soris truly playne and euydent 
To the Phesician if he wyll socour fynde. 
And thoughe his saluys in paynes hym sore bynde. 
Let nat for that, but after his wyll the gyde 
Better a shorte payne, than that doth longe abyde 

No sore can be releuyd without payne. 
Forsake nat the short, the longe payne to eschewe 
To the Phesycian we ought in worde be playne 
And shewe hym out sore whether it be olde or newe 
For in thy wordes if that thou be nat trewe 
Or kepe ought close, thou dysceyuest be thou sure 
Thy selfe, and nat hym that of the hath the cure. 

Of t])em t]at ar diseao, d and seke 

In lyke fourme who comyth vnto confessyon 
There to declare howe he his lyfe hath spent 
And shewyth nat his synne lyke wyse as he bath done 
Hymself he disceyuyth, as blynde of his entent. 
Thus many one endureth infernall tourment 
With wo contynuall and payne for euermore 
For kepynge secrete there, of his goostly sore. 

Thus who that is payned in any malady 
Bodely or gostly, ought nat to be callyd wyse 
To the Phesycian xvithout that he aply. 
And his preceptis hant kepe and exercyse 
But now olde wytches date boldly interpryse 
To intromyt to hele all infyrmyte 
And many them byleue, whiche sothly is pyte 

Suche wytches of theyr byleue abhomynable 
On brest or hede of the paynfull pacyent 
With theyr wytchecraftis shall compasse chat and bable 
Assurynge hym of helth, and short amendement 
Than he that is seke fyxith his intent 
Upon hir errour : to haue helpe of his sore 
But she hym leuyth wors than he was belote 

Poule the apostyll doth boldly say and preue 
That they whiche to suche wytches wyll assent 
Af heretykes Lolardes and false of theyr byleue 
Brekynge goddes lawes and commaundement 
And oft also by profe it apereth euydent 
That suche as to wytches crafiis wyll intende 
By theyr fais Phesyke corne soner to theyr ende 

198 Of ouer o])en tak),nges of col«nsel]. 

Who that intendyth by chraft and polycy 
To take many byrdes, outher small or great 
And layeth before them to playne and openly 
His lynes snarys, his lyme twyggis or his net 
He shall no profyte gayne nor auauntage get 
For if that he his engynes can nat hyde 
The byrdes shall be ware, and lyghtly fie asyde 

So he that wyll openly manace and threte 
With worde and hande, as he ,olde sle adowne ryght 
Is oft scant abyll a symple hounde to bete. 
For in his worde is ail his force and myght 
_And he that alway thretenyth for to fyght. 
Oft at the profe is skantly worth a hen 
For greattest crakers ar nat ay boldest men 

XVho that agaynst his ennemy wolde fyght 
And gyueth hym before wepyn and armour. 
gaynst hym selle to encreas his foes myght 
8uche one bath reason and wyt of smal valour. 
Ryght so that fole is led in lyke errour 
XVhich nought can do, of mater les or more 
X¥ithout he crake and boste therof before. 

nd also suche bosters and crakers comonly 
XVhiche doth theyr mynde in hasty wordes declare 
Of other men af lytell or nought set by 
nd by theyr wordes, full often yll they fare 
A man also may ryght easely be ware 
Of folys whiche thus theyr counsell out expres 
Whose thretenyngs to theyr foes is armour and harnes 

But hym caii I wyse and crafty of counseli 
Whiche kepeth close the secretis of his mynde 
And to no man wyll them disclose nor tell 
To man nor woman, ennemy nor yet frynde 
But do his purpose whan he best tyme can fynde 
Without worde spekylge, and so may his intent 
Best come to ende, his foo, beynge inprduydent 

And speciaily no man ought to be large 
Of wordes nor shewe his counseli openly 
In thynges weyghty, of peryll and great charge 
Consernynge a royallue, or heith of his body 
For many ar falsly disceyued fynaily 
By lewde tale berers whiche seke the way to fynde 
To knowe the preuy counseii of theyr iordes mynde 

They fawne and flater to knowe his pryuetee 
But they forsoth, that wolde knowe thynges newe 
For the moste part of this condicion be 
No thynge to kepe, but lyghtly it to shewe. 
Thus may the saynge of Saiomon be fonde true. 
Whiche sayth that he is wyse, and iyueth happely 
Whiche to hym seife kepyth his counseli secretely 

I fynde foure thynges whiche by meanes can 
Be kept close, in secrete, one longe in preuetee 
The firste is the counseil of a wytles man 
The seconde a Cyte, whiche byidyd is a hye 
Upon a mountayne, the thyrde we often se 
That to hyde his dedes a louer hath no skyli 
Tbe fourth is strawe or fethers on a wyndy hyii 

A pore mannys dedys may soone be kept close 
His name is hyd, and right sois his dede. 
A ryche mannys dede may no man hyde nor glose 
It fleeth farthest, ail men of it take hede 
So that yll lame whome ail men ought to drede 
In fleynge about hir myght doth multyply 
Augmentynge to lais lynage shame and vylany 

Therfore who that intendyth to be wyse 
XVare and crafty, auoydynge all inconuenyence 
To shewe his counsell ought nat to interpryse 
But do his mynde, kepynge alway sylence 
In seruauntis is small trust or confydence 
He that is nowe thy frende may after be thy fo 
XVarne nat thy ennemy of that that thou wylt do 


O ye that ar put to wronge and Iniury 
If ye intende for to yelde the same agayne 
It is great tbly to warne your ennemye 
Or hym to threten with bostynge wordes vayne. 
For oft is sayde, and true it is certayne 
That they that wyll lyue in quyetnes and rest 
Must here and se and hasty wordes refrayne 
Ail styll with fewe wordes do that they thynke best 

Of folys that can nat beware by 
fortune and example of others 

the mys- 

Here we expresse, the errour and blyndnes 
Of them that se. others aduersyte 
Theyr wofull fall the ruyne and dystres. 
Yet sue they the saine, and ware they wyll nat be 
Though they by example the payne of other se 
Yet leue they nat : thus may they clayme a place 
Within my Nauy, as folys voyde of grace 

We dayly se the mysfortune and damage 
_And often fallys,.to pouerte and payne 
Whiche folys surfer for theyr synne and outrage 
Some drowned, some maymed, some other wyse slayne 
Yet this example can nat cause vs refrayne 
Out wretchyd lyfe, and seke for remedy 
We marke no thynge anothers ieopardy. 

\Ve se the mockynge scorne and derysyon 
That folys hath ofte tyme han they orfende 
\Ve se theyr losse, theyr, shame and theyr confusion 
Howe be it ail this can cause vs to amende 
We can no thynge and to nought we intende 
So many folys I fynde that playne I thynke 
Theyr weyghty charge shall cause my shyp to synke 

Suche ar despysyd of men discrete and wyse 
Ye and more ouer these folys ar so blynde 
That echone of them the other doth despyse 
\Vith sharp rebukes, wordes lewde and vnkynde 
Yet in theyr lyfe no difference may we fynde 
And though they haue sene a thousande brough to shame 
For one sore vyce: yet lyue they in the same 

The example of other can nat theyr myndes moue 
Theyr wyttis ar blynde theyr foly is the cause 
Alas mad folys why do ye vyce thus loue 
Rennynge ay to deth without ail rest or pause 
Alas, at the last retourne to christis lawes 
Be ware, whan ye other se taken in the snare 
Let anothers peryll cause you to be ware 

By the exa.]e of ot/)ers damage. OE o 3 

Ye do nat so, alas it is great shame 
Your synne hath quenchyd your grace and gostly lyght 
One blynde man another doth chyde and blame 
And yet both stomble, nat goynge euyn or right 
A blynde man hym ledyth that also hath no syght 
So both in the dyche fallyth in suche a wyse 
That one can nat helpe, the other agayne to ryse 

One crab blamys another for hir bacwarde pace 
And yet the blamer sothly can none other do 
But both two ar in theyr goynge in lyke case 
The one goeth bocwarde, the other doth also 
Many of these folys after that maner go 
But who that of his moders doctryne bath disdayne : 
Shall by his stepdame endure wo care and payne 

And perchaunce after abyde the correccyon 
Of the sayde stepdame, in place of punysshemen.t. 
For his synne, sufferynge hir vniust subieccien 
And who that nat [oloweth the commaundement 
Of his fader beynge to hym obedyent 
May fortune after in hunger thyrst ond colde 
Obey that stranger, whom he nat gladly wolde 

We fynde Hystories wryten longe and ample 
In dyuers bokes of great auctoryte 
The hole Bybyll sheweth to vs example 
Howe they were punysshed that lyuyd in cruelte 
I fynde also wryten in bokes of Poetrye 
Howe that Pheton was brent with the lyghtnynge 
For his presumpcion, agaynst a myghty kynge 

We haue example also by Icarus 
XVhiche contrary vnto the commaundement 
Of his crafiy father named Dedalus 
By fleynge to hye his wynges and fethers brent 
.And so descendyd and in the se was drent 
Thus these two endynge by theyr lewdnes in care 
By theyr example sholde cause vs to beware 
,¥e dayly se before out syght and out presence 
,Vhat mysauenture to many one doth fall 
.And that worthely for theyr synne and offence 
Yet ar we blynde, and ar nat ware at all 
But in out synnes lyue vnto them egall 
.And where by synne we se one corne to shame 
W'e wyllyngly (alas) ensue the same 
Therfore who sethe a mad fole corne to wo 
Or tall in peryll for lacke of a good gyde 
By another way ought craftely to go 
.And Çoy anothers yll) for his helthe to prouyde 
The fox was ware, and peryll set asyde 
.And wolde nat enter into the caue, for playne 
Of bestis that entred sawe he none corne agayne 

Lerne man, lerne of bestes to be ware 
Of others peryll, by theyr enormyte 
For if" one byrde be onys tane in a snare 
The other auoyde as fast as they may flee 
A fysshe byrde or beste that bath in peryll be 
Of net hoke or snare, if" that they may escape. 
Wyll after euer beware, but blynde man wyll nat se 
His owne destruccion, but after it doth gape 

Of them that forceth or careth for the 
bacbytynge of lewde people. 

Whether that a bell be hangyd or lye on grounde 
If vnto the saine a clapper lacke or fayle 
The bell shall make but sympyll noyse or sounde 
Though thou in it do hange a Foxys tayle 
Right so backbyters that vse on men to rayle 
Can nat greatly hurt them that lyue fightwys|y 
Wheffore it is foly theyr babblynge to set by. 

OEo6 Of t]oem l]oat forcet]o or caret] 

Who that within this worlde wolde test and lyue 
In eas of mynde, peas and tranquyllyte 
Must nat his mynde set, nor his erys gyue 
To the vayne talys, of the rude comonte 
And though some people of suche condicion be 
Oft to dyffame good people true and Just 
Let them nought care, for byde it nede they must 

Let no man care for the lewde hyssynges 
And yll soundynges of this vnhappy rage 
It is great foly to set by the lesynges 
Of cursyde tunges syns none can them asswage 
For who in this worlde wyll corne to auautage 
Hym selle exaltynge to worshyp and honoure 
Shall fynde the swetnes mengled with the sowre 

And he that wyll o1 his dygnyte be sure 
Or sympyll lyuynge what so euer it be 
Right greuous chargis somtymes must endure 
And with his iyen often beholde and se 
Suche thynges wherwith his mynde can not agre 
And he that wyll with the worlde haue to do 
Must surfer suche trouble as belongeth therto 

Yet some haue pytched theyr tentis stedfastly 
Upon sure grounde, auoyde of ail this payne 
Despysynge the worldes wantonnes and foly 
For in the same is nought sure nor certayne 
lqought se we tranquyll in these wawes mundayne 
We se no loue, lawe, fydelyte, nor trust 
But nowe up hye and nowe lowe in the dust 

2or t]oe bacb.vtyJe of levae lbeolle. OE o 7 

To auoyde the worlde with his foly and stryfe 
Many hath left londes townes and ryches 
And yll company lyuynge solytary lyfe 
Alone in desert and in wyldernes 
Ye and that: men of moste wyt and worthynes 
Whiche by that meane dyd best of ail eschewe 
Ail worldly sclaunder and lyuyd in vertue 

He that intendeth to lyue a rightwyse lyre 
_And so procedeth in maners and good dede 
Of worldly sclaunder, complaynt, hatered, and stryfe 
_And ail yll wyll, he ought nat to take hede 
For he that is iuste ought no thynge for to drede 
A sclaundrynge tonge, ye, be it neuer so xvode 
For suche lewde tonges can none hurte that af gode. 

Lyue well and wysely, than let men chat theyr fyll 
Vf'ordes ar but wynde, and though it oft so rail 
That of lewde wordes comyth great hurte and yll 
Yet byde the ende. that onely prouyth ail 
If thou canst surfer truste well that thou shall 
Ouercome thyne ennemyes better by pacience 
Than by hye wordes rygour or vyolence 

If poetis that somtyme ,yce blamyd and discommendyd 
_And holy Prophetis whiche also dyd the saine 
To suche vayne and mortall wordes had intendyd 
They sholde nat haue durst the peoples vyce to blame 
So sholde they haue lost their honour and good naine 
Theyr faine and meryt but nowe they haue nat so 
But spred theyr fame whiche neuer away shall go 

OE08 Of t]oem t]oat forcet]o o, caret] 

Forsoth none lyueth within the worlde wyde 
Suche meke so holy, so wyse or pacyent 
Whiche can hym selle at euery tyme so gyde 
To please eche fole, for none can some content 
Forsoth he myght be named excellent 
Happy and blessyd and lyue in welth and eas 
Whiche euery man cowde serue content and pleas 

But suche is none. and he that wyll assay 
For to content eche folysshe mannes mynde 
Must brake his slepe and stody nyght and day 
And yet alway some foie shall be behynde 
Ye if one lyue well, yet xvyll they somwhat fynde 
Behynde his backe hym to sclaunder and diffame 
For beggers and bawdes therin haue ail theyr gaine 

For whether thou dwell in Est west north or south 
Of suche dryuels euer shalt thou fynde plente 
One must haue moche mele, to stoppe eche mannys mouth 
Sclander is the cunnynge of all the comonte 
.And in the same suche ay moste besy be 
XVhiche lyue them selle in shame and vylany 
Euen nowe they speke repentynge by and by 

Thus all the cunnynge and stody dilygent. 
Of people vnthryfty is alway to despyse 
.And diffame other whiche ar but innocent 
Wherfore let suche as ar discrete and wyse 
Nought set by them that lesyngys doth deuyse 
Iqor theyr vayne foly : for he that doth certayne 
Is but, a foie. and euer shall lyue in payne. 

For t/ae bacbytynge of lewae DeoDle. OEo 9 


Trouble nat thy selle (thou man) where is no nede 
And arme thou thy selle with goodly pacyence 
Be sure it is great foly to take hede 
Unto backbytynge syns that no resystence 
May be founde to withstande his violence 
And take thou this one thynge for thy comfort 
That none wyse, or good, wyll commyt this offence 
But ail af caytyffes, that af of this lewde sort. 

Of mockers, and scorners, and 
false accusers. 

Yet ar mo Folys whiche mocke and scorneth fast 
8uche as them shewyth wysdome and doctryne 
And at theyr hedes (vngoodly) stonys cast 
In mynde disdaynynge to wysdome to enclyne 
But gladly they ensue the discyplyne 
Of folysshe mockers, let wyse men them eschewe 
For no corre¢cion can brynge them to vertue 

Of mockers, scorners, and ]çdse accusers.   I 

O Hertles folys, haste here to our doctryne 
Leue of the wayes of your enormyte 
Enforce you to my preceptis to enclyne 
For here shall I shewe you good and veryte 
Enclyne, and ye fynde shall great prosperyte 
Ensuynge the doctryne of our faders olde 
And godly lawes in valour worth great golde 

Who that wyll folowe the graces manyfolde 
Whiche ar in vertue, shall fynde auauncement 
Wherfore ye folys that in your syn ar bolde 
Ensue ye wysedome and leue your lewde intent 
Wysdome is the way of men most excellent 
Therfore haue done, and shortly spede your pace 
To quaynt your selfe and company with grace. 

Lerne what is verrue, therin is great solace 
Lerne what is trouth sadnes and prudence 
Let grutche be gone, and grauyte purchace 
Forsake your foly and inconueuyence 
Cesse to be folys, and ay to sue offence 
Folowe ye verrue, chefe rote of godlynes 
For it and wysdome is grounde of clenlynes 

Wysedome and vertue two thynges ar doutles 
Whiche man endueth with honour specyall 
But suche hertis as slepe in folysshnes 
Knoweth no thynge, and wyll nought knowe at ail 
But in this lytell barge in pryncypall 
_Ail folysshe mockers I purpos to repreue 
Clawe he his backe that felyth ytche or greue 

ŒEE 1 2 Of lllOç'el'., .çOl'ller., anddse accusers. 

Mockers and scorners that ar harde of byleue 
With a rugh combe here wyll I clawe and grate 
To proue if they wyll from theyr vyce remeue 
And leue theyr foly whiche causeth great debate 
8uche caytyfs spare neyther pore man nor estate 
And where theyr selle ar moste worthy of dyrysion 
Other men to scorne i ail theyr moste condicion 

Yet ar mo folys of this abusion 
XYhiche of wyse men despyseth the doctryne 
With mowes, mockes, scorne, and collusyon 
Rewardynge rebukes, for theyr good diciplyne 
Shewe to suche wysdome, yet shall they nat enclyne 
Unto the saine, but set no thynge therby 
But mocke thy doctryne, styll or openly 

So in the worlde it apereth comonly 
That who that wyll a Foie rebuke or blame 
A mocke or mowe shall he haue by and by 
Thus in derysyon, haue folys theyr speciall gaine 
Correct a wyse man, that wolde eschewe yll name 
And fayne wolde lerne, and his lewde lyre amende 
And to thy wordes he gladly shall intende 

If by mysfortune a rightwyse man offende 
He gladly suffreth a iuste correccion 
And hym that hym techyth taketh for his frende 
Hym selfe puttynge mekely vnto subieccion 
Folowynge his preceptis and good dyreccion 
But if that one a Foie rebuke or blame 
He shall his techer, hate, sclaunder, and dyffame 

Of mockers, scorners, anaja.ise accusers.   : 

Howbeit his vmrdes, oft turne to his owne shame 
And his owne dartis retourne to hym agayne 
And so is he sore woundyd with the saine 
And in wo endyth, great mysery and payne 
It also prouyd full often is certayne 
That they that on mockes alway theyr myndes cast 
Shall of all other be mocked at the last 

He that goeth right, stedfast sure and fast 
May hym well mocke that goth haltynge and lame 
And he that is whyte may well his scornes cast 
Agaynst a man of ynde, but no man ought to blame 
Anothers vyce whyle he vsyth the saine 
But who that of synne is clene in dede and thought 
May hym well scorne whose lyuynge is starke nought 

The scornes of Naball full dere sholde haue ben bought 
If Abigayll his wyfe discrete and sage 
Had nat by kyndnes right crafty meanes sought 
The wrath of Dauyd to temper and asswage 
Hath nat two berys in theyr fury and rage 
Two and fourty Children rent and tome 
For they the Prophete Helyseus dyd scorne 

So myght they curse the tyme that they were borne 
For theyr mockynge of this Prophete dyuyne 
So many other of this sorte often mowrne 
For theyr lewde mockes, and fall in to ruyne 
Thus is it foly for wyse men to enclyne 
To this lewde flocke of Folys for se thou shall 
Them moste scornynge that af most bad of ail 

:   Of moco's, sco,',o's, ,,d fls« «cus«s. 

Ye mockynge Folys that in scorne set your ioy 
Proudly dyspysynge goddes punycion 
Take ye example by Cham the son of Noy 
Whiche laughyd his Father vnto derysyon 
Whiche hym, after, cursyd for his transgressyon 
_And ruade hym seruaunt to ail his lyne and stocke 
So shall ye Caytyfs at the conclusyon 
Syns ye ar nought, and other scorne and mocke 


them that dyspyse euerlastynge ioye, 
and settyth thynges transytory before 
thynges eternall and euerlastynge. 

He is a foule that wereth in one balaunce 
The heuen and erth to knowe the heuyest 
And by his foly and cursed ignoraunce 
He thynketh that this wretchyd erth is best 
And thoughe that here be neyther ioy nor rest 
Yet had some leaer here styll to remayne 
Than to depart to heuen voyde of al payne 

OEI60ft]em t]at dyslkyse euerlastynge ioye. 

My hande is wery: fayne wolde I rest a space 
But folys comyth to my shyp so besely 
That to haue test : they wyll graunt me no grace 
That nede I must theyr lewdnes notefy 
But to recorde this folysshe company 
They ar suche that this worlde so greatly loue 
That they despyse the heuenly Royalme aboue 

They often thynke in theyr mynde preuely 
And by them selle in this wyse oft they say 
O glorious Iorde raynynge eternally 
Graunt me thy grace that I may lyue alway 
To se of this worlde the extreme ende and day 
This is my wyll and synguler askynge 
As for thy royalme, forsoth I set no thynge 

But yet this foie doth nat desyre this tyme 
Of so longe lyre, and yeres alway newe 
To clens his mynde from ail synfull cryme 
Nor for the loue of goodnes or vertue 
But rather that he his pleasour may ensue 
And with his maters and felawes suche as he 
To folowe ryot» delytys and enormyte. 

To lyue in wantonnes and blyndnes lascyuyte 
In pryde in Lechery andin couetyse 
Suche sytteth theyr myndes and theyr felycyte 
Not ferynge hell whiche is rewarde of vyce. 
Those dredefull dennys, in a right ferell wyse 
With fyres flamynge, and manyfolde tourment 
Can nat suche folys theyr synnes cause to stent 

Of tbem tbat dys_pyse euer]aslynge ioye. 2I 7 

0 sleuthfull foie say why doste nat thou call 
Unto thy mynde that this worldes wretchydnes 
Is full of sorowe moche more bytter than gall 
Uoyde of all ioy, ail pleasour and swemes 
Why settest thou so moche by frayle delyciousnes 
On vayne pleasours, whiche shall sothly decay 
Lyke as the sone meltyth the snowe away 

Man note my wordes and gyue to them credence 
I say that pleasours and also ioyes mundayne 
As it apereth playne by good euydence 
Af fylled xith sorowe bytternes and payne 
Without ail test quyete or certayne 
And yet alas the worlde so doth men blynde 
That it they loue and caste heuen out of mynde 

Wherfore it hapneth fidl often as I fynde 
That suche as foloweth shamefull wantonnes 
Ungoodly luste, and statelynes of mynde 
Shall ofte perceyue great shame and wretchydnes 
And them most surfer, with great mundayne distres. 
And better charges, and after must nede endure 
Cruell deth whiche ende is of euery creature 

The worlde shall passe: ye and ail ioy mundayne 
Without ail doute at last shall haue an ende 
And euery thynge outher fruytfull or barayne 
Shall to the grounde outher firste or last discende 
We se also that none can hym defende 
From dethes dartis, and for conclusyon. 
We dayly se many mennys confusyon. 

We dayly se the fallys innumerable 
_And greuous deth aswell of youth as age 
Thus is this wretchyd worlde moche vnstable 
Wherfore me thynke it is a great outrage 
To trust therto, or for an vnsure stage 
Or hye place of welth or worldly honour 
The presence to despyse of our sauyoure 

But without doute the tyme shall corne and houre 
Whan ail mankynde shall se hym euydent 
Some to theyr ioy, some to wo and doloure 
None shall eskhape that rightwyse iugement. 
But eche be rewardyd as he his tyme hath spent 
So they that vertuously haue lyuyd here 
Despysynge this worlde shall gladly there apere 

But they that here haue led theyr lyfe in vyce 
For to depart ar wo in herte and mynde 
_And ferefull to byde that sentence of iustyce 
Syns of theyr synne excuse they can none fynde 
But to conclude forsoth that foie is blynde 
That for worldly welth, from god wolde hym deuyde 
_And for vayne clay, the hye heuyn set a syde 

O blynde man whiche hast thy moste felycyte 
On worldly thinges, alas make clere thy mynde 
What fyndest thou here, but great aduersyte 
Wylt thou for it leue y heuenly ioy behynde 
_And where thou myght euerlastynge ryches fynde 
Where as is helth, endles lyre and ail goodnes 
Wylt thou forsake it for worldly wretchydnes 

Of ttoem that dyslhyse euerlastynge ioye. OEI 9 

Wylt thou heuyn compare with his paynfull lyre 
There on to thynke thou art vnwyse certaync 
There is concorde, here is no thynge but stryfe 
There is all test, and here is care and payne 
There is true loue: here is scorne and disdayne 
There is ail goodnes, here all yll and offence 
Nowe chuse the best: here is great difference 

Of them that make noyses rehersynges of 
talys and do other thynges vnlaufull 
and dishonest in ye chirche of god. 

A foie is he, and hath no mynde deuoute 
And gyueth occasyon to men on hym to rayle. 
Whiche goth in the chirche, his houndes hym aboute 
8ome rennynge, some fast tyed to his tayle 
A hawke on his fyst suche one withouten fayle 
Better were to be thens, for by his dyn and cry 
He troublyth them that wolde pray deuoutly: 

Of t]em thaz make noyses rehersyes. OE OE  

Yet of mo folys fynde I a great nomber 
Whiche thynke that it is no shame nor vylany 
Within the chirche, the seruyce to encomber 
With theyr lewde barkynge roundynge dyn and cry 
And whyle good people af praynge stedfastly 
Theyr herte to good, with meke mynde and deuout 
Suche folys them let, with theyr mad noyse and shout 

.And whyle the prestis also them exercyse. 
In matyns masse sermon or prechynge dyuyne 
Or other due thynges that longe to theyr seruyce. 
Techynge the people to vertue to enclyne 
Than these folys as it were rorynge swyne 
With theyr gettynge and talys of vycyousnes 
Trouble ail suche seruyce, that is sayd, more and les 

In to the churche than comys another sote 
Without deuocyon gettynge vp and downe 
Or to be sene, and to showe his gardyd cote 
Another on his fyst a Sparhauke or :awcon 
Or els a Cokow, and so wastynge his shone 
Before the auters he to and fro doth wander 
With euyn as great deuocyon as a gander 

In comys another his houndes at his tayle 
With lynes and leshes and other lyke baggage. 
His dogges barkyth, so that withouten :ayle 
The hole churche is troubled by theyr outrage 
So innocent youth lernyth the same of age 
_And theyr lewde sounde doth the churche fyll. 
But in this noyse the good people kepe them styll. 

  z Of them tloat make noyses rehersynges 

One tyme the hawkys bellys Jenglyth hye 
Another tyme they flutter with theyr wynges 
And nowe the houndes barkynge strykes the skye 
l'qowe sounde theyr fete, and nowe the chaynes rynges 
They clap with theyr handes, by suche maner thynges 
They make of the churche, for theyr hawkes a mewe 
And Canell to theyr dogges, whiche they shall after rewe 

So with suche folys is neyther peas nor rest 
Unto the holy churche they haue no reuerence 
But wander about to see who get may best 
In rybawde wordes pryde and insolence 
.As mad men they fere nat our sauyours presence 
Hauynge no honour vnto that holy place 
Wherin is gyuen to man euerlastynge grace 

There ar handlyd pledynges and causes of the lawe 
There ar ruade bargayns of dyuers maner thynges 
]3yenges and sellynges scant worth a hawe 
.And there ar for lucre contryued false lesynges 
.And whyle the prest his Masse or matyns synges 
These folys whiche to the Churche do repayre 
.Ar chattynge and bablynge as it were in a fayre 

Some gygyll and lawghe and some on maydens stare 
.And some on wyues with wanton countenaunce 
.As for the seruyce they haue small force or care 
But full delyte them in theyr mysgouernaunce 
Some with theyr slyppers to and fro doth prance 
Clappynge with their helys in churche and in quere 
$o that good people can nat the seruyce here 

of vnlatfull and 'sbonest tynges. ŒE ŒE 3 

What shall I wryte of maydens and of wyues 
Of theyr roundynges and vngoodly comonynge 
Howe one a sclaundre craftely contryues 
_A_nd in the churche therof hath hyr talkynge 
The other hath therto theyr erys lenynge 
_A_nd than whan they ail hath harde forth hir tale 
With great deuocyon they get them to the aie. 

Thus is the churche defylyd with vylany 
And in stede of prayer and godly oryson 
r vsyd shamefull bargayns and talys of rybawdry 
Jettynges and mockynges and great derysyon 
There fewe ar or none of perf-yte deuocion 
And whan our lorde is consecrate in fourme of brede 
Therby walkes a knaue, his bonet on his hede 

And whyle those wordes of consecracion 
r sayde of the preste in goddes owne presence 
8uche caytyfs kepe talys and communycacion 
Fast by the auter thynkynge it none offence 
And where as the angels ar ther with reuerence 
Laudynge and worshyppynge out holy sauyour 
These vnkynde caytyfs wyll scantly hym honour 

Alas wherto shall any man complayne 
For this foly and accostomed furour 
Syns none of them theyr fautes wyll refrayne 
But ay procede in this theyr lewde errour 
And nat withstandynge that Christ our sauyour 
Hath left vs example, that none sholde mysdo 
Within the chirche, yet inclyne v¢e nat therto. 

OE 2 40ft]em t]at make noyses re]ersynges. 

Jhonn the euangelyst doth openly expres. 
Howe criste our sauyour dyd dryue out and expeii 
From the Temple, suche as vsed there falsnes 
And ail other that therin dyd bye and sell 
Saynge as it after iyeth in the Gospell 
Unto the Jues rebuke and great repreues 
That of goddes house they ruade a den of thêues. 

Remember this man, for why thou dost the same 
Defylynge goddes Chirche with synne and anyte 
Vhiche sothly was ordeyned to halowe goddes naine 
And to lawde and worshyp the holy trynyte 
With deuout harte, loue, and ail benygnyte 
And with ail our myght our lorde to magnyfy 
And than after all the heuenly company 

For this cause hath god the holy chirche ordeyned 
And nat for rybawde wordes and thynges vayne 
But by vs chrysten men it is distayned. 
Moche wors than euer, the J ewes dyd certayne 
And if our lOrde sholde nowe corne downe agayne. 
To dryue out of the churche suche as there do syn 
Forsoth I thynke, right fewe shoide byde within 

O man that bostest thy selfe in cristes name 
Callynge the christen, se thou thy synne refuse 
Remember well it is both synne and shame 
The house of god, thus to defyle and abuse 
But this one thynge causeth me oft to muse 
That the false paynyms within theyr Temples be 
To theyr ydols moche more deuout than we 

Of them that wyllynge and knowyngly 
put them self in ieopardy and peryll. 

He is a foie that wyll purchace and desyre 
His owne deth or putteth hym selle in ieopardy 
L, epynge in a well, or in a flamynge lyre 
And wherc he myght lyue so dyeth wyllyngly 
8uche surfer theyr destruc%,on ,orthdy 
And if that they be drowned outher brent 
It is to late them after to repent. 

OE OE 6 Of tloem tloat wyl]ynge and knowyngly 

I fynde mo folys yet. whome I shall note 
Suche ar they whiche pray both day and nyght 
To god and his sayntes cryeng with open throte 
0 glorious god helpe me by thy great myght 
That I may clens my herte and clere my syght 
Wherby ail foly and synne may fro me fall 
But yet this foie it leuyth nat at ail 

Suche folys oit pray for theyr amendement 
Unto our lorde with syghynges sore and depe 
But yet to synne contynually they assent 
_And after the saine often complayne and wepe 
'rhan say they playne that god hath had no kepe 
Unto theyr prayer and taken of it no hede 
But theyr owne foly is cause of theyr lewde dede 

They se the peryll before theyr faces playne 
That god hath ordeyned, for foly and for synne 
They pray for helpe, and yet ar they full fayne 
/kfter the folys hode alway to ren 
And besely laboure the same alone to wyn 
So vnto god for helpe they cry and call 
But they them selfe wyll helpe no thynge at ail 

Than thynke they theyr prayers to god nat acceptable 
Bycause (anone) they haue nat all theyr wyll 
And for that god is nat sorte agreable 
To here theyr cry and it graunt and fulfyll 
These folys in theyr vyce contynue styll 
And put theyr selle in wylfull ieopardy 
And where they myght they fynde no remedy 

But these folys vnstabyll as the wynde 
Prayeth vnto god and to his sayntis aboue 
Nat knowynge what may content theyr folysshe mynde 
lqor whether theyr askynge be for theyr behoue 
But sothly this date I both say and proue 
And it auowe after my sympyll skyll 
That neuer man shall syn without his wyll 

If that one with his owne wyll doth tZall 
lnto a well to assay the ieopardy 
Whan he is there, if he lowde crye and call 
Bothe on god and man for helpe and remedy 
He sekyth that peyll, and dyeth worthely 
So were it foly to gyue hym corde or trayne 
Or other engyne to helpe hym vp agayne 

Whan suche folys ar sure vpon the grounde 
Without ail daunger, pery]l hurt or fere 
They ]epe in the wel and yet fere to be drowned 
Empedocles though he right myghty were 
With suche lyke foly hym selle so sore dyd dere 
That knowyngly and with his owne consent 
Hymself he lost and by fyers fyre was brent 

He lept hedelynge into the flamynge fyre 
Of a brennynge hyll whiche callyd is Ethnay 
To knowe the trouth, and nature to enquyre 
Whether that saine flame were very fyre or nay 
So with his deth the trouth he dyd assay 
But who that wolde hym drawen out of that hyll 
Had ben a foie, syns it was his owne wyll 

OE OE 8 Of tl)en tl)at wyllynge and knowingly 

For why his mynde was blyndyd so certayne 
That thoughe a man had hym delyuered than 
The same peryll v¢oide he haue proued agayne 
As mad as he forsoth is euery man 
That is at eas, and hym nat so holde can 
And also he that putteth hymselfe in drede 
Or fere and peryll, where as he hath no nede 

So he that prayeth to god that he may get 
The blysse of heuen, and scape infernall payne 
He is a foie his herte or mynde to set 
On frayle ryches, welth and ioy mundayne 

On stedfast fortune, on lucre or on gayne 
For certaynly these thynges of worldly welth 
Oft man deuydeth away from heuenly helth 

Thus he that prayeth for welth or for ryches 
Or in this worlde hym selfe to magnyfy 
Prayeth for his hurt and cause of viciousnes 
For worldly welth doth vyce oft multyply 
So seke men theyr owne peryll wyllyngly 
But who that prayeth, and can nat as he ought 
He bloweth in the wynde, and shall nat haue his thought 

And who that to honour couetyse to ascende 
Or to lyue in damnable voluptuosyte 
He seketh his pei'yll for if that he descende 
From wehh and worshyp to payne and pouerte 
It is but worthy, and let hym pacyent be 
It to endure with mynde demure and meke 
He is worthy sorowe that wyll it alway seke 

put tlemself in ieoibardy anderyl].   9 

Tl-Iz zNIsov o» BARKLAV a'O a'l-I. FoLvs. 
Ye that fayne wolde escape ail ieopardy 
Auoyde suche thynges the vhiche myght cause the saine 
To proue a peryll, is foly certaynly 
Whether it be done in ernest or in gaine 
They that so doth may theyr owne madnes blame 
For he that is sure, and to a fray wyli ren 
May fortune corne home agayne, nosles or lame 
And so were it better for to haue byd within 

Of the way of felycyte and godnes, and of 
the payne to corne vnto synners. 

Many in this lyfe the cart of syn doth drawe 
13y payne and labour, alway right dylygent 
Norysshynge theyr syn agaynst al/ right and lawe 
And alway lyuynge after one lyke assent 
But whan they ar dede than shall theyr punysshement 
In hell be dowblyd with cartis of whelys route 
x, Vhere as they thought, deth shuld ende theyr laboure 

God suffreth nat eche vicious foie to knowe 
The wonders that he made hath on this grounde 
And dayly worketh, wherfore theyr syn doth growe 
So that theyr foly them selle doth confounde 
And here theyr bodyes to great labours ar bounde 
Sparynge no peryll for pleasour and for gayne 
Than after deth haue they euerlastynge payne 

So he that here lyueth in vyce and synne 
Shall extreme dolour after deth endure 
Than what auantage is it for man to wyne 
Ail orthly tresour, and of hell payne be sure 
But without dowt that wretchyd creature 
Whiche goddes lawes wyll nat here holde and kepe 
Shall after deth haue cause to wayle and wepe 

_And suche as here wyll nat knowe theyr sauyour 
Obseruynge his preceptis and commaundement 
Whiche god hathe ordeyned to saue vs from erroure 
And vs commaundyd to kepe with clene intent 
Ouer all the worlde, as rule moste excellent 
To lyue godly, and who so euer he be 
That foloweth in this worlde voluptuosyte 

Or camail lust ryot or other offence 
Wastynge his tyme in syn and viciousnes 
Ail suche in this worlde, by theyr blynde negligence 
Drawe styll the cart of greuous besynes. 
With payne and charge and, whan this wretchydnes 
Is past and gone, yet after this they shall 
In hell endure great tourmentis eternall 

There shalt (thou foie) the charet drawe alway 
vrith dowble paynes both tedyous and cruell 
V¢herfore thou foie retourne the I the pray. 
Seke nat the way whiche ledeth -nto hell 
Vqith his foule dennes, more darke than tunge can tell 
And thoughe the way be esy streyght and playne 
The ende is nought, I aduyse the tourne agayne 

The way to heli is greatly occupyed 
The path is playne, and easy to ouergo 
The dote ay open no entre is denyed 
To suche as purpose in mynde to corne therto 
But at the ende therof is care and v¢o 
With syghtis odyous and abhomynable 
Yet in the way af folkes innumerable 

Thus is no meruayle though this way be playne 
And greatly xvorne syns it is hantyd so 
By dyuers folys ,«hiche haste them to that payne. 
By way contynuall therto : but none therfro 
The dredefull dote to them that vyll in go 
Both day and nyght is open, it doth forsake 
No folys that wyil theyr iourney thyther take 

But that way that to hye heuen doth lye 
Is way of grace plesour, and ail felycyte 
In it suche valke as here lyue vertuously. 
_And blessyd men, but nat suche as vyciouse be 
Yet is it narowe, and full of difficulte 
There is many a harde flynt brere and thorne 
And no meruayle for it is nat greatl)' worne 

./Ind of the ]oayne Io corne vnto synners. ŒEE 3 3 

For why lewde people, whiche is the gretest sort 
Forsake this way for the payne and hardnes 
But godly men therin haue chefe confort 
With ail that lyue by grace in ryghtwysnes 
Suche well consyder that heuyns blessydnes 
Can nat be gotten by pleasour rest nor eas 
Wherfote this way can nat suche synners pleas 

God so hath ordeyned that who wyll haue verrue 
Must it obtayne with payne and dilygence 
_And great labour, whiche many nowe eschewe 
Without it be to seke synne and offence 
Fewe seke the way to christis hye presence 
Therby it hapneth that many a thousande 
Fast rennyth leftwarde, but fewe on the right hande 

Tnr rtroY oF BAP, KLAY TO THE Focvs. 
_Alas man remembre heuens blyssednes 
_And though the way be harde that lyeth therto 
Forsoke it nat for all that great sharpnes. 
For at the ende is lyfe and rest also 
Eerlastynge glory vvith other ioyes mo 
But who that taketh the other way certayne 
Shall fynde at the ende eternall payne and wo 
Thoughe the way thether be easy streyght and playne 



yll example of elders gyuyn vnto 

Il that the fader and mother before theyr son 
By anger or malyce brake, platter pot, or pan 
The son in bande hall take ome cauderon 
And lertae to breke it if his «mail power can 
Thus oft tyme chyldren haue cause to cur«e or ban 
Theyr trendes for suche example of lewdnes 
For sotaer that they lerne than verrue or goode« 

Of tbe yll example of elders. OE 35 

Ye aged men rotyd in folysshnes 
And folysshe parentis lewde of your langage 
Vnto our shyp swyfily your selle addres 
Syns ye be worthy therin to haue a stage 
Nowe cast I repreues agaynst your outrage 
Whiche boldly bost you of your vnthryfty lyues 
Before your maydes, your doughters and your wyues 

Alas the folys of this mad company 
By theyr example cause great inconuenyence 
Before theyr children recountynge rybaudry 
Of suche as they haue had experyence. 
So gyue they to them example of offence 
And in that synne wheron they bost and vant 
They make them perfyte whiche erst were ignorant 

Theyr wordes ar voyde of shame and honestye 
Theyr lyre is without mesure and reuerence 
But yet they thynke that they moste worthy be 
That moste can tell of this greuous offence 
Thus all the youth that is in theyr presence 
Or that doth here theyr vyce and rybawdry 
Vnto the saine with theyr full mynde aply 

Thus theyr yonge children maners lernyth none 
The wyfe hath occasyon to breke hir chastyte 
So is the lyfe defyled of them echone 
And to be playne, we often tymes se 
That of what maners the folysshe husbondes be 
Such af theyr wyues, children and housholde 
The yonge Cok lerneth to crowe hye of the olde 

A folysshe Father, full hardly shall ensyne 
His sorte to good lyre or to good gouernaunce 
For if the father to foly doth enclyne 
The sone wyll folowe his father in that daunce 
And if the father vse hasarde or the chaunce 
Or any prohybyt and vnlawfull gaine 
Most comonly the sone wyll do the same 

If that the husbonde be vycious of his lyre 
Wastfull or dronken, or vyle in his langage 
His sonnes doughters, his seruauntes and his wyfe 
Wyll lerne of hym to passe the saine passage 
And if the husbonde breke his maryage 
If the wyfe knowe, in mynde she wyll be wroth 
Without he haue a hode of the saine cloth 

An olde prouerbe hath longe agone be sayde 
That oft the sone in maners lyke wyll be 
Vnto the Father, and in lyke v¢yse the mayde 
Or doughter, vnto the mother wyll agre 
So if the elders vse enormyte 
And before theyr children bost them of the saine 
The sone and doughter shall folowe syre and dame 

The monkes thynke it lawull for to play 
Whan that the Abbot bryngeth them the dyce 
Right so the Father, can nought or lytell say 
Agaynst the sone, nor hym blame or chastyce 
If he hym selle be taken in that saine vyce 
Thus lyues the Father in synne v¢ithouten shame 
And after his deth the sone shall do the saine 

Gn îu' yu'&  3 7 

O wretchyd maners o tyme full of furour 
And full of foly without ail hope to stent 
Howe longe shall god our lorde and sauyour 
This synne surfer without greuous punysshement 
_Alas it nowe apereth euydent 
That the fathers foly synne and great outrage 
Is left to the sonne as it were herytage 

And no meruayle, for it hath neuer ben seen 
That of a wolfe a shepe hath be forth brought 
Or that a caife or lambe gendred hath been 
Of a fell tygre: right so if it were sought 
Ouer ail the v¢orlde, a Father that is nought 
Sholde scant be founde, whiche coude brynge vp his childe 
With his synne in no maner poynt defylyd 

The yonge crab bacwarde doth crepe or go 
As doth the olde, none can hir cours redres 
These yonge children for the moste part also 
Foloweth theyr fathers synne and his lewdnes 
But they that lyue in maners of mekenes 
In honest lyfe, goodnes grace and chastyte 
May brynge forth children of maners as they be 

I rede howe the Phylosopher Diogenes 
Sayde by a childe whiche dronken was with wyne 
That his Father was in that case doutles 
Whan he it gate, so his hye wyt dyuyne 
Knewe that the childes maners dyd inclyne 
Vnto his Fathers, and so was it founde trewe 
By them wbiche well that childes fader knewe 

But though the Father and mother also be nought 
Without dout this one thynge apereth playne 
That the childe is suche as it is vp brought 
_And nat lyghtly chaungyd without great charge or payne 
Therfore let euery man hym selle refrayne 
Within his hous from ail thynge worthy blame 
Than shall his children and seruautes do the saine 

THE EqçO¢ o1 BARKLA¥. 
Ye that haue children or other great housholde 
Subdued to your seruyce, and your obedyence 
Kepe vertuous lyre, for that is worth great golde 
_And great example to youth to auoyde offence 
But if ye boost you of synne and neglygence 
In rybawde wordes, gyue credence to this clause 
If the herers rail into incouenyence 
Your lewde example is the chefe grounde and cause 

Of bodely pleasour or corporall 

Wanton wastfull and vayne voluptuosyte 
Oft blyndeth attysynge vnto inconuenyence 
Many that ar rude, for theyr symplycyte 
And thera as shepe sleeth for all theyr innocence 
But other some it kepyth with myght and violence 
As bulles bounde sure to endure great care 
And other as byrdes it tangleth in hir snare 

Drawe nere ye folys to you I crye and call 
Whiche ar of grace clene destytute and bare 
Folowynge your lust and pieasour corporall 
But for your soule ye take no thought ne care 
To whome may I this shamefull lust compare 
Saue to a harlat faynynge, fals and couetous. 
Of whome comyth shame and bytes venemous 

She syttyth in the strete as past both shame and fere 
Hir brestes bare to tempt them that passe by 
Hir face anoyntyd blasynge abrode hir here 
Or els on hir folysshe front enlaced hye 
Hir smocke to ganysshyd so hir dysceytfull iye 
To shamfull lust a thousande doth attyce 
Of youth whiçhe erst perchuance knewe nought of vyce 

Hir chamber full of flatery and disceyte 
Anone is opened the blynde fole entreth in 
The hoke of deth is hyd vnder the bayte 
Of folysshe iust pleasour and mortail syn 
Hir soule she sellyth ryches therby to wyne 
And what riches: a rewarde sothly full vyle 
The soules damneth and bodyes doth defyle 

The one departyth, another comys in agayne 
Without ail shame dare she them boldly pray 
To hir fais pleasours, Thus by hir gyle and trayne 
This folysshe youth to hir wyll nat denay 
But vnto hir some lepe both nyght and day 
Without mesure, rennynge to lese theyr lyfe 
As ox or shepe vnto the bochers knyfe 

ordbora]] vo]t,ms.}.te.  4  

The symple lambe his necke doth out extende 
Vnto the Bocher his mortall ennemy 
So doth these folys, sekynge a shamefull ende 
And theyr owne deth, though they myght fynde remedy 
O blynde foie I requyre the to aply 
Vnto my wordes and thou shalt here and se. 
Howe moche thou oughtest this folysshe lust to fie 

The soule it damneth, and drowneth depe in hell 
The wyt it wastyth, and confoundeth the mynde 
It causeth man his londe and good to sell 
And if that he none other mene can fynde 
To rob and stele he oft tyme is inclyned 
Besyde all these this fowle lust is so vyle 
That with fowle sauour it shall thy body fele 

Thoughe of lewde lust the ioy be short and small 
And thoughe the pleasour therof be soon ouer past 
The payne that foloweth it, is eternall 
With wofull dolour menglyd, that euer shall last 
Therfore leue of: do nat thy pleasour cast 
On worldly welth, delyte ioy and pleasour 
For soon they pas and chaunge at euery hour 

Who that in this wretchyd worlde wyll auoyde 
Of voluptuousnes the ioyes frayleoand vayne 
And suffre nat hym with them to be acloyde 
Infect or drowr, yd, shall for the same certayne 
Euerlastynge lyre, and endles ioy obtayne 
And for his hye tryumphe and dyuyne prudence 
Haue the fruycyon of goddes hye presence 

But who that wyll his carnall lust ensue 
Shall here haue shame, and after payne cruell 
I coude hereof dyuers examples shewe 
But of right many this one I shall you tell 
()ne Sardanapalus ail other dyd excell. 
In carnall lust and so his mynde dyd cast 
On loue prohybyte, that grace was fro hym past 
The loue of vertue was full out of his mynde 
8o he concludyd to sue dilyciousnes 
Thynkynge after deth no welth nor ioy to fynde 
For tlfis is the sentence of the prynce of derknes 
But good a|myghty seynge his vycyousnes 
His body and soule deuydyd soon in twayne 
From worldly pleasour vnto infernall payne 
By tlfis hystory to vs it apereth playne 
That from worldly pleasour and voluptuosyte 
l, Vith ail our myght we ought vs to refrayne 
For thoughe the first of them delycious be 
Theyr ende is poyson, and of sournes plente 
Sue wvse men vertue and set suche lust asyde 
For they ar folys that in it lyue and byde 

Amende mad men your blynde mysgouernaunce 
Subdue nat your necke to the captyuyte 
Of flysshely lust and corporall pleasaunce 
Nor to blynde Venus with hir lasciuyte 
(If ye it note) ye dayly here and se 
The mysfortune of them that it ensue 
And certayn]y no man can saued be 
By camail lust, but by godly vertue 

Of folys that can nat kepe secrete theyr 
owne counsell. 

Of other Foies a nomber yet I fynde 
Which by theyr bablynge wordes and langage 
Can nat kepe close the secrete of theyr mynde. 
But ail theyr counsel out they shewe at large. 
8o that oft therof procedeth great damage. 
As Murder, myschefe, hatered and debate. 
That after they repent. But than it is to laie 

OE44 Of folys tt)at ca,, ,,at el)e secrete 

He is a naturall foie and vndiscrete 
_And to hym selfe ingendryth oft great stryfe 
Whiche can nat hyde his counseil and secrete 
But by his foly it sheweth to his wyfe 
_And ail that he hath done in his hole iyfe 
Or that to do here after he doth purpose 
To euery man suche a foie wyli disclose 

The noble Sampson moste excellent of myght 
_And strongest man that euer was get or borne 
Were nat this foly: sholde nat haue lost his syght 
l'qor had his here, by gyle from his hede ofshorne 
_And of his ennemyes ben laughyd vnto scorne 
_And at the last with herte wrethfull and wo 
His ennemyes murdred and hym selfe also 

Where as he myght haue lyued in honour 
If he had kept his secretes in his mynde 
With his owne wyll he dyed in great dolour. 
By the fais treason of his lemman vnkynde 
We may in dyuers mo examples fynde 
Howe many thousandes haue suffred paynes smart 
_And ail for shewynge the secretes of theyr hart 

_Amphiaraus a Prynce moste excellent 
Shortened the dayes of his pore doutfuii lyfe 
For shewynge the preuetees of his intent 
By his owne foly to his disceytfuli wyfe 
_And thoughe he longe escaped had the stryfe 
_And war of Thebes whiche he dyd longe defnde 
Yet at the leest his tunge was his owne ende 

g'lar owne çounse//. 45 

Thus olde storyes doth oft recorde and tell 
By theyr examples whiche they vnto vs gyue 
That wymen ar no kepars of councell 
It goeth through them as water trough a syue 
Wherfore let them that quyetly wolde lyue 
No more of theyr counsell to any wolnan showe 
Than that they wolde that euery man dyd knowe 

Let euery man that is discrete and sage 
Of suche folys with ail wysdome be ware 
Whiche shewe theyr counsell by theyr hasty langage. 
To euery man without ail thought and care 
For they of wysdome and reason ar but bare 
And who that his owne secrete wyll forth tell 
Howe sholde he hyde another mannes counsell 

Yet other be whiche by theyr flaterynge trayne 
Labour to knowe euery mannys pryuete 
And by and by to shewe it forth agayne 
Of them be ware for they disceyfull be. 
Some other bost them of theyr felycyte 
Bablynge that they haue theyr wyll in euery thynge 
_As prosperous welth loue, ryches and cunnynge 

And of great dedes done both on see and londe 
Some by theyr f, dshode, some by strength and vertue 
But if one laboured the trouth to vnderstonde 
Suche folïsshe wordes sholde ail be founde vntrewe 
Let neuer man to suche his counsell shewe 
For of one worde these folys makyth twayne 
Whiche tourneth many to losse rebuke and payne 

OE4 60fjô]ys tbat ca,, nat ketse t/)eyr counsell. 

Vrherfore if thou wylt that thy pryuete 
Be kept secrete and nat come out at large 
Be nat so folysshe to showe it vnto me 
Or any other if it be thynge of charge 
And if thou do thou shalt be in this barge 
For howe wylt hou thynke that another man 
Can kepe thy counsell syns thou thy selle ne can 
If the kynge Achab had nat vttred and tolde 
Vnto his wyfe his wyll and mynde so playne 
By hir fais treason, and dysceyt manyfolde 
Vnrightwysly Nabot had nat ben slayne 
But for the saine, Achab suffred great payne 
By deth in batayle, and for a punysshment 
His wyfe with houndes was ail to torne and rent 
Thus it apereth that he is wyse and ware 
Vhiche can his counsell kepe within his hart 
For by that mean may he escape great care 
And suerly lyue without yll wyllys dart 
The Prophete seynge what dyuers paynes smart 
Comyth oft to them whiche doth theyr secret tell 
Eche man exortyth to kepe close his counsell. 


Thou man that hast thy secret in thy brest 
Holde it styll there surfer it nat out to go 
XVho that so doth, therby shall fynde great test 
Ne to thy frende shewe nat thy mynde also 
For if that he after become thy fo 
As often hapneth, than myght he the bewry 
So sholde thy foly tourne vnto thy great wo 
Howe be it suche thynges are prouyd comonly. 


yonge folys that take olde u3,men 
theyr wyues, for theyr ryches. 


Within our shyp that foie shall haue a hode 
"VVhiche an olde wyfe taketh in ma,'yage 
Rather for hir ryches and hir Wol-ldly gode 
Than for pure loue, or hope to haue lynage 
But suche youth as mary them selle with age 
The profyte and pleasour of wedlocke lese cetayne 
And worthely lyue in brawlynge stryfe and payne. 

OE 48 Of yongeJblys that take olde wymen 

/Jnder the Asse tayle thoughe it be no thynge pure 
Yet many seke and grope for the vyle fatnes 
Gatherynge togyther the fowle dunge and ordure 
8uche af they that for treasour and ryches 
Whyle they af yonge in theyr chefe lustynes 
An agyd woman taketh to theyr wyfe 
Lesynge theyr youth, and shortynge so theyr lyfe 

They that so do hath neyther rest nor pe as 
But besy brawlynge and stryfe contynuall 
They have no pleasour, but thought and great dyseas 
Rebuke out braydynge, and strypes whan they çall 
But theyr owne foly is grounde and cause of ail 
For they be maryd unto the vyle treasour 
And precious bagges, but nat for godly pleasour 

They haue no hope of children nor lynage 
Loue is there none, and durynge theyr wretchyd lyre 
ls nat one day in suche mari maryage 
.A_uoyde of brawlynge, of hatered and of stryfe 
But that pote man that weddeth a ryche wyfe 
Cast in hs nose shall styll hir bagges fynde 
For whose cause he ruade was ruade and blynde 

They that ar weddyd nat for loue but rychesse 
Of moryage despysynge the pleasour and profyte 
Suche seldome sauour fortunes happynes 
But oft mysfortune them greuously doth byte 
Thus gone is theyr pleasour theyr ioy and delyte 
_And for vayne treasoure suche ar so glad and fayne 
That fir the saine they them subdue to payne 

V'o t/ae_yr xvuesjçr t/aeyr,es. =49 

They wyllyngly to payne them selle subdue 
The whiche af weddyd for wretchyd couetyse 
They take no hede to maners and verrue 
To honeste nor wysdome but lyue ay in malyce 
For if a woman be fowle and full of vice 
And lewde of maners, nought both to man and lad 
Yet good shall hir mary be she neuer so bad 

If that a man of hye or lowe degre 
Wolde spouse tiis doughter "nto a strange man 
He nought inquyreth of his honestye 
Of his behauour, nor if he norture can 
But if he be ryche in londes and good: than 
He shall be prayed his doughter for to haue 
Thoughe be but a bonde man or a knaue 

The firste enquyrynge and speciall questyon 
Is of the money, that thynge namely they moue 
And last of ail aske they the condicion 
So whan they mete they neuer haue perfyte loue 
Wherfore it were better to suche for theyr behoue 
To byde alone in deserte and wyldernes 
Than in wedloke in payne for frayle ryches 

Forsoth it is an vnmete maryage 
And disagreynge and moche agaynst the lawe 
Bytwene fresshe youth, and lame ,nlusty age 
The loue bytwene them is scantly worth a strawe 
So doth the one styll on the other gnawe 
And oft the man in mynde doth sore complayne. 
His sede to sowe vpon a grounde barayne 

: 5 o Ofyonefolys tbat take oMe wymen 

Than muste he haue another prymme or twayne 
With them to slake his wanton yonge cowrage 
But in that space must he endure great payne 
With hir that he hath tane in maryage 
Hir bablynge tunge whiche no man can asswage 
With wrathfull wordes shall sle hym at the laste 
His other prymes his good shall spende and waste 

Thus who that selleth his youthes lustynes 
For frayle ryches and this mundayne vanyte 
He byeth stryfe, gyle and çalshode endlesse 
Suche force nat for fayth true loue nor honestye 
And thoughe that he discende of hye degre 
For hope of money he shall an olde fole wed 
By whose foly he to euery yll is led. 

And so these folys subdue them to bondage 
And worthely endure suche payne and punysshement 
They hope therby to corne to auantage 
But that they lese and lyue in sore tourment 
They wast theyr good, and so whan that is spent 
And nought remayneth theyr bodyes to relefe 
Theyr disputacion is nought but hore and thefe 

But if I sholde wryte ail the vnhappynes 
The wrath discorde and the great deuysyon 
Wherin they lyue, that mary for ryches 
And nat for loue. I neuer sholde haue done 
Wherfore this say I for a conclusyon 
That he shall neuer thryue ne come to his behoue 
That weddyth a wyfe for gode and nat for loue 

To tbe.rr w.vues for tbe.vr r.vcbes. 2 5  

_A_las man myndles xvhat is thyne intent 
To wed for ryces, that weddynge I defy 
Maryage was ordeyned by god omnypotent 
In goddes lawes the worlde to multyply 
Wherfore that man that wyll therto aply 
_And wolde haue the profyte of faythfull maryage 
This world|y ryces ought no thynge to set by 
But wed for loue and hope to haue lynage 

Remember ryches is no thynge comparable 
To mekenes vertue and discrete gouernaunce 
And other maners whiche ar more commendable 
Than worldly treasour or suche vnsure substaunce 
Wherfore consyder and call to thy remembraunce 
That better is to haue some ,,roman pore and bare 
-And lyue in eas : Than one with habundaunce 
Of great ryches : and euer to lyue in care 

Of enuyous Folys. 

Yet ar mo folys whiche greatly them delyte 
In others losse, and that by fa|s enuy 
Wherby they suche vnrightwysly bacbyte 
The dartis of suche ouer all the wordIy flye 
And euer in fleynge theyr fethers multyply 
No state in erth thrfro can kepe hym sure 
His sede encreasyth as it wolde euer endure 

Of e»,9,ous folys. :z 5 3 

Wastynge enuy oft styreth to malyce 
Folys nat a fewe whiche ar therto enclynyd 
Pryckynge theyr frowarde hertes vnto vyce 
Of others damage reioysynge in theyr mynde 
Enuyes datte doth his begynnynge fynde 
In wrathfull hrtes, it wastyth his owne nest 
lX]'at suffrynge other to lyue in eas and test 

If one haue plenty of treasour and ryches 
Or by his merytis obteyne great dignyte 
These folys enuyous that of the saine haue les 
Enuy by malyce, the others hye degre 
And if another of honour haue plente 
They it enuy and wysshe that they myght sterue 
Howe be it suche folys can nat the saine deserue 

These folys desyre agaynst both lawe and right 
Anoters good if they may get the saine 
If they may nat by flaterynge nor by myght 
Than by fais malyce they hym enuy and blame 
Outher if one by his vertue hath good naine 
By fais enuy these foles hym reproue 
Their wrath them blyndeth so that they none can loue 

The wounde of this malycious, fals enuy 
So dedely is, and of so great cruelte 
That it is incurable and voyde of remedy 
A man enuyous hath suche a properte 
That if he purpose of one vengyd to be 
Or do some mysche whiche he reputyth best 
Tyll it be done, he neuer hath eas nor rest 

No slepe, no rest nor pleasour can they fynde 
To them so swete, pleasaunt and delectable 
That may expell this malyce from theyr mynde 
Sois enuy a vyce abhomynable 
And vnto helth so frowarde and damnable 
That if it onys be rotyd in a man 
It maketh hym lene. his colour pale and wan. 
Enuy is pale of loke and countenaunce 
His body lene of colour pale and blewe 
His loke frowarde, his face without pleasaunce 
Pyllynge lyke scalys, his wordes ay vntrue 
His iyen sparklynge with lyre ay fresshe and newe 
It neuer lokyth on man with iyen full 
But euer his herte by furious wrath is dull 

Thou mayst example fynde of this enuy 
By Joseph whome his bretherne dyd neuer beholde 
With Iouynge Ioke, but sharpe and cruelly 
So that they hym haue murdred gladly wolde 
I myght recount examples manyfolde 
Howe many by enuy Iost hath theyr degre 
But that I leue bycause of breùyte 

Enuyous folys af stuffed with yll wyll 
In them no myrth nor solace can be founde 
They neuer laughe but if it be for yll 
_As for gode lost or whan some shyp is drounde 
Or whan some hous is brent vnto the grounde 
But whyle these folys on other byte and gnawe 
Theyr enuy wastyth theyr owne herte and deyr mawe 

The mount of Ethnay though it brent euer styll 
Yet (saue itselfe) it brenneth none other thynge 
So these enuyous Folys by theyr yll wyll 
Wast theyr owne herte, thoughe they be ay musynge 
Another man to shame and [osse or hurt to brynge 
Upon them sellfe Thus tournyth this yll agayne 
To theyr destruccion both shame great fosse and payne 
This fais enuy by his malycious yre 
Doth often, bretherne so cursedly inflame 
That by the satne the one of them conspyre 
Agaynst the other without ail fere and shame 
As Romulus and Remus excellent of faine 
Whiche byldyd Rome, but after: enuy so grewe 
Bytwene them that the one the other slewe 
What shall I wryte of Cayme and of Abell 
Howe Cayme for murder suffred great payne and wo 
Atreus story and Theseus cruell. 
Ar vnto vs example hereof also 
Ethyocles with his brother : and many mo 
Lyke as the storyes declareth openly 
The one the other murdred by enuy 

Wherfore let hym that is discrete and wyse 
This wrathfull vyce exyle out of his mynde 
And yll on none by malyce to surmyse 
Let charyte in perfyte loue the bynde 
Sue hir preceptis than shalt thou confort fynde 
Loue in this lyre, and ioy whan thou art past 
Where as enuy thy conscyence shall blynde 
And both they blode and body mat and wast 

Of impacient Folys that wyll nat abyde 

Unto our Folys shyp let hym come hastely 
Whiche in his Bagpype hath more game and sport 
Than in a Harpe or Lute more swete of melody 
I fynde vnnumerable Folys of this sort 
Whiche in theyr Bable haue ail they hole confort 
For it is oft sayd of men both yonge and olde 
A foie wyll nat gyue his Babyll for any golde 

O i»aciendys. OE 5 7 

The grettest synners that man may se or fynde 
In myserable Folys theyr foly to expres 
Is whan they wyll by no mean gyue theyr mynde 
To frendly wordes, to grace or to goodnes 
Suche folys so set theyr mynde on frowardnes 
That though one gyue them counsell sad and wyse 
They it disdayne and vtterly despyse 

But he that is discrete sad and prudent 
_Aplyeth his mynde right gladly to doctryne 
He hereth wyse men, his v¢ysdome to augment 
He them doth folowe and to theyr wordes enclyne 
But that foie ,hiche ay goeth to ruyne. 
_And mortall myschefe had leuer be dede or slayne 
Than byde correccyon or for his profyte payne 

Suche haue suche pleasour in theyr mad folysshe pype 
That they dispyse all other melody. 
They leuer wolde dye folys than : byde a strype 
For theyr correccyon and specyall remedy 
_And without dout none other _Armony 
To suche folys is haife so delectable 
Rs is their folysshe bagpype and theyr babyll 

These frantyke folys wyll byde no punysshement 
Nor smale correccion, for theyr synne and offence 
No frendly warnynge can chaunge theyr yll intent 
For to abyde it, they haue no pacyence. 
They here no wysdome but fie from hir presence 
And soit hapnyth that in the woride be 
Mo folys than men of v¢yt and grauyte 

O mortall foie remember well what thou art 
Thou art a man of erth made and of clay 
Thy dayes af short and nede thou must depart 
Out of this lyre, that canst thou nat denay 
Yet hast thou reason and wyt wherby thou may 
Thy selle here gyde by wysdome ferme and stable 
Wherby thou passest ail bestis vnreasonable 

Thou art made lorde of euery creature 
Ail thynge erthly vnto thyne obedyence 
God hath the creat vnto his owne fygure 
Lois nat here a great preemynence 
God bath also gyuyn vnto the intellygence 
And reason and wyt ail foly to refuse. 
Than art thou a foie that reason to abuse 

He that is fie outher in subieccion. 
If by his foly he fall into offence 
And than submyt hym vnto correccyon. 
fill men shall laude his great obedyence 
But if that one by pryde and insolence 
Supporte his faute and so bere out his vyce 
The hell tourmentis hym after shall chastyce 

Correccyon shall the vnto wysdome brynge 
Whiche is more precious than ail erthly ryches 
Than londes rentis or any other thynge 
Why dost thou bost the of byrth or noblenes 
Of ryches, strength beauty or fayrnes 
These often ar cause of inconuenyence. 
Where as ail good comyth by wysdome and prudence 

t]at wyl] nat abyde correccioh  5 9 

A wyse man onely as we often fynde 
Is to be named moste ryche and of most myght 
Here thou his wordes and plant them in thy mynde 
And folowe the saine for they ar sure and right. 
Better is to endure, thoughe it be nat lyght 
To surfer a wyse man the sharply to repreue 
Than a flaterynge foie to clawe the by the sleue 
Thoughe sharpe correccyon at the first the greue 
Thou shalt the ende therof fynde profytable 
It oft apereth, therfore Iit byleue 
That man also forsoth is fortunable 
VChiche here in fere lyueth sure and stable 
And in this lyre is clene of his intent 
Ferynge the sharpe payne of hellys punysshement 
He may hym selle right happy call also 
VChiche is correct in his first tender age 
And so lernyth in goodes law to go 
And in his yocke, whiche doth ail yll asswage 
But these folys bydynge in theyr outrage 
VChiche of correccyon in this lyre bath dysdayne 
May fere to be correct in hell with endles payne 
Ye obstynate folys that often fa]l in vyce 
Howe longe shall ye kepe this frowarde ignoraunce 
Submyt your myndes, and so from synne aryse 
Let mekenes slake your mad mysgouernaunce 
Remember that worldly payne it greuaunce 
To be compared to hell whiche hath no pere 
There is sty|| payne, this is a short penaunce 
Wherfore correct thy selfe whyle thou art here. 

Of folysshe Fesycyans and vnlerned that 
onely folowe paractykeknowynge nought 
of the speculacyon of theyr faculte. 

Who that assayeth the craft of medycyne 
Agaynst the seke and paynfull pacyent 
And hath no insyght cunnynge nor doctryne 
To gyue the seke, helth and amendement 
Suche is a foie, and of a mad intent 
To take on hym by Phesyke any cure 
Nat knowynge of man» nor herbe the right nature 

of y««»« F«y,,«. 6  

Yet be mo folys vpon the grounde and londe 
Whiche in our Shyp may clayme a rowme and place 
Suche be Phesycians that no thynge vnderstonde 
Wandrynge about in euery towne and place 
Uysytynge the seke whiche lyue in heuy case 
But nought they relefe of those paynes harde 
But gape alway after some great rewarde 

Suche that haue practyse and nought of speculatyfe 
Whan they go ,ysyte some paynfull pacyent 
Whan they hym note sure to forgo hls lyfe 
Without ail hope of any amendement 
Yet say they other than is in theyr intent 
That his diseas is no thynge incurable 
$o that the pacyent to hym be agreable 

Sayth the Phesycyan whan he hath his rewarde 
Abyde a whyle tyll I my bokes ouer se 
Wherby I may relyue thy paynes harde 
Than from the pacyent homewarde departyth he 
To se his bokes but if the pacyent dye 
In that meane space the medycyne is to late 
So may he lay it to his owne folysshe pare 

The speculacion sholde he before haue sene 
For that in Phesyke is chefe and pryncypall, 
Yet many ar that vse the craft I wene 
Whiche of the cunnynge knowe l)tell or nought at all 
A herbe or wede that groweth vpon a wall 
Beryth in it these folys medycyne. 
None other bokes haue thev nor doctryne 

262 Of fdyss]e Fesycyans. 

Nor none they rede to haue the true scyence 
Or perfyte knowlege and grounde of medycyne 
They rede no volumes of the experyence 
Of Podalirius nor Mesues doctryne 
Suche folys disdayne theyr myndes to enclyne 
Unto the doctryne of bokes of Auycen 
Of ypocras and parfyte galyen 

But all the substance of theyr blynde faculte 
They take in bokes that speke of herbes only 
Without respect had to theyr properte 
Or operacion so often they them aply 
To fals doctrynes, but first and specyally 
These olde wyues therwith wyll haue to do 
Thoughe they nought knowe that doth belonge therto 

They dare be bolde to take on them the cure 
Of them diseasyd howe be it that they nat can 
Suche thynge descerne as longyth to nature 
What is for woman good, and what for man 
So oft they ende moche wors than they began 
That the pore pacyent is so brought to his graue 
Yet dyuers suters suche folysshe wytches haue 

Suche wytches boldly dare afferme and say 
That with one herbe they hele can euery sore 
Under euery syne plenete, houre and day 
"/'et besyde this they boldly dare say more 
That it that helyth a man aged and hore 
Shall helpe also a woman or a childe 
Thus many thousandes oft ar by them begyled 

They say also in this our charge or cure 
W'hat nedes it note the synes or fyrmament 
The cause of thynges, or the strength of nature 
Whether that the seke be stronge or impotent 
They gyue one medesyn to euery pacyent 
_And if it fortune it be to colde or warme 
The faythles wytche in hande goth with hir scharme 

Say folysshe Surgyan by what experyence 
Or whose Doctryne discyplyne or lore 
Takest thou on the, nought knowynge of scyence 
With one Salue or plaster, to heale euery sore 
Yet so thou thynkest, I the compare therfore 
Unto a lawyer that of his craft nought can 
And yet presumeth to counsell euery man 

_A lawer and a Phesician af both lyke 
Of theyr condicion and both insue one trayne 
The one begylyth the pacyent and seke 
Takynge his god for to encreas his payne 
The other labours and cauteles oft doth fayne 
To clawe the coyne by craft from his clyent 
Castynge hym of whan ail his good is spent 

Thus thryues the lawer by anothers good 
Iniustly gotten, disceyuynge his clyent 
_Also some other af callyd Phesicians good 
Whiche vtterly disceyue the pacyent 
If he haue money than hath he his intent 
_And if the seke haue store ynough to pay 
Than shall the cure be dryuen ffom day to dag 

264 Of fd_yssbe Fes.yc.yans. 

So if the lawer may any auauntage wyn 
He shall the cause from terme to terme defarre 
The playntyf for a player is holde in. 
With the defendaunt kepynge open warre 
So laweyers and Phesicians thousandes do marre 
_And whan they no more can of theyr suers haue 
The playntyf beggyth, the seke is borne to graue 
But of" these lawyers bycause I spoke before 
Of folysshe Phesicians here onely I intende. 
Somwhat to say: _And of lawers no more 
On you Phesicians shall I conclude and ende 
I say no man may hym so well defende 
That he for murder may auoyde punysshement 
Yet may Phesicians, sleynge the pacient 
Thus thou that of Phesycian hast the naine 
If thou nought knowe of perfyte medycyne 
It is forsoth to thy rebuke and shame 
To boste the scyence : nat hauynge the doctryne 
Therfore I counsell that thou thy mynde inclyne 
To haue the cunnynge, els certaynly thou shail 
Haue thy blynde craft and lvue a fole with ail. 

Thou blynde Phesician that of thy craft nought can 
Leue of thy lewdnes and bolde audacyte 
To take on the: the cure of chylde or man 
For by thy foly the wors myght they be 
And ye that suerly perceyue your faculte 
Be true therin, and auaryce from you cast 
8hame is to brynge a man to pouertye 
.And than in paynes to leue hym at the last 

Of the ende of worldly honour and power 
and of Folys that trust therein. 

On erth was neuer degre so excellent 
Nor man so myghty : in ryches nor scyence 
But at the ende ail bath ben gone and spent 
Agaynst the saine no man can make defence 
I)eth all thynge drawyth, ferefull is his presence, 
It is last ende of euery thynge mundayne 
Thus mannys fortune of cours is vncertayne 

0 creatures of myndes mad and blynde 
I wonder of your hertis proude and eleuate 
Whiche on vayne power set so sore your mynde 
_And trust so moche to your vnsure estate 
_As of your lyre were neyther yere nor date 
To worldly worshyp ye stedfastly intende 
_As if your lyre sholde neuer more corne to ende 

Alway ye labour to come to dignyte 
_And oft by falshode your power to augment 
Alas fewe af content with theyr degre 
But by extorcion spoyle the pore innocent 
On xvorldly treasour so set is theyr intent 
_And styll to honour as besely to ascende 
_As if theyr lyre sholde neuer more come to ende 

Take thou example by Julius cesar 
That of the worlde durynge a whyle was sure 
_And many kynges subduyd by myght of warre 
_And of the Empyre had lordshyp charge cure 
But this his myght great space dyd nat endure 
_And whyle he trustyd yet hyer to ascende 
By cruell deth he soon came to his ende 

Right in lyke wyse the myghty Dafius 
Was kynge of Persy a realme moche excellent 
Yet was his mynde so greatly couetus 
That with the same helde he hym nat content 
But warred on other Royalmes adiacent 
So whan his myght coude nat therto extende 
His owne Royalme he loste and so came to his ende 

and of 'ol_ys tbat trust tl)erin. OE 6 7 

And also Xerxes in ryches abundant 
Was longe in peas and great tranquyllyte 
And in his Royalme was hye and tryumphant 
As longe as lae was content witla lais degre 
Than had lae pleasour and great felycyte. 
To assay by warre lais kyngdome to amende 
But ail he lost and so came to his ende 

Whyle Nabugodonosor kynge of Babylone 
In vnsure fortune set to great confydence 
Commaundynge honour vnto hym to be done 
As vnto god: with ail laumble reuerence, 
God by his power and hye magnyfycence 
Made hym a beste, for tlaat he dyd offende 
And so in proces of tyme came to his ende 

.Alexander the great and myghty conquerour 
To whome ail the worlde scantly myght suffyse 
Of Grece ",vas the origynail lorde and Emperour 
And ail the worlde subdued as I surmyse 
Yet hath he done as is the comon gyse 
Left ail behynde, for nought coude hym defende 
But as a symple man at the last came to his ende 

The myghty Cresus witla his kyngdomes and store 
Of golde and ryches hym selle coude nat content 
But whyle lae trustyd and laboured for more 
Fortune hym fayled : So lost lae his intent. 
What shall I wryte of Cyrus excellent 
Drynkynge his blode by deth whiche fortune sende 
To laere of states tlae comon detla and ende 

Ail kyngdomes dekay and ail estate mundayne 
Example of Rome Cartago and Mycene 
Of Solyme Tyre grace and Troy moste souerayne 
None of these places ar nowe as they haue ben 
Nor none other ouer the worlde as I wene 
Thus shortly to speke and ail to comprehende 
Ail worldly thynges at last shall haue an ende. 

O man that hast thy trust and confydence 
Fyxed on these frayle fantasyes mundayne 
Remember at the ende there is no difference 
Bytwene that man that lyued hath in payne 
And hym that hath in welth and ioy souerayne 
They both must dye their payne is of one sort 
Both ryche and pote, no man can deth refrayne 
For dethes dart expellyth ail confort 

Say where is Adam the fyrst progenytour 
Of ail mankynde is he nat dede and gone 
And where is Abell of innocence the flour 
With adamys other sonnes euerychone 
A." dredfull deth of them hath left nat one 
Where is Mathusalem, and Tuball that was playne 
The first that played on Harpe or on Orgone 
llz sont tous mortz ce monde est choce vayne 

Where is iust Noy and his ofsprynge become 
Where is Abraham and ail his progeny 
As Isaac and Jacob, no strength nor wysdome 
Coude them ensure to lyue cont'nually 

and of 'olys t])at trust t])erin. OE 6 9 

Where is kynge Dauyd whome god dyd magnyfy 
And Salomon his son of wysdome souerayne 
Where af his sonnes of wysdome and beauty 
llz sont toutz mortz ce monde est choce vayne. 

Where ar the prynces and kynges of Babylon 
And also of Jude and kynges of Israell 
Where is the myghty and valiant Sampson 
He had no place in this lyre ay to dwell 
Where ar the Prynces myghty and cruell 
That rayned before Christ delyuered vs from payne 
And from the Dongeons of darke and ferefull hell 
I/z sont toutz mortz ce monde est choce vayne. 

Of worldly worsyp no man can hym assure 
In this our age whiche is the last of ail 
No creature can here alway endure 
Yonge nor olde, pote man nor kynge royall 
Unstable fortune tourneth as doth a ball 
And they that ones pas can nat retourne agayne 
Wherfore I boldly dare speke in generall 
re ail shal| dye : ce monde est choce vayne. 

Ryches nor wysdome can none therfro defende 
Ne in his strength no man can hym assure 
Say where is Tully is he nat come to ende 
Seneke the sage with Cato and Arture 
The hye Arystotyll of godly wyt and pure 
The glorious Godfray, and myghty Charlemayne 
Thoughe of theyr lyfe they thought that they were sure 
Yet ar they ail dede : ce monde est choce vayne. 

2 7 o Oft]oe end of worldly onour, c. 

Where af the Phylosophers and Poetis lawreat 
The great Grammaryens and pleasant oratours. 
Af they nat dede after the sarne fourme and rate 
As af all these other myghty conquerours 
Where af theyr Royalmes theyr ryches and treasours 
Left to theyr heyres : and they be gone certayne 
And here haue left theyr riches and honours 
So haue they proued that this worlde is but vayne. 

So I conclude bycause of breuyte 
That if one sought the worlde large and wyde 
Therin sholde be founde no marier of dere 
That can alway in one case suerly byde 
Strength, honour, riches cunnynge and beautye 
All these decay, dayly : thoughe we complayne 
Omniafert etas, both helth and iolyte 
We ail shall dye: ce monde est choce :ayne. 

Of predestynacion. 

That man that lokyth for to haue a rewarde 
Whiche he bath nat deseruyd to obtayne 
And lenyth his body vpon a rede for,sarde 
Whiche for waykenes ma 5, hym nat well sustayne 
Forsoth this foie may longe so loke in vayne 
And on the Crauys he atyll shall bacwarde ryde 
Cryenge with the doue, whose flyght shall hym ay gyde 

9_ 7 OE Of predestynacion. 

It is vnlawfull, man to be dilygent 
Or serchynge goddes workes to set his thought 
Howe he hath ruade the heuen and fyrmament 
The erth the see and euery thynge of nought 
Yet of some Folys the cause hereof is sought, 
Whiche labour also with curyosyte 
To knowe the begynnynge of his dyuynyte 

These folys forgettynge their owne fragilyte 
Wolde loke to knowe the ende of euery thynge 
Boldly disputynge in goddys pryuete 
_And what rewarde is ordeynyd for men lyuynge 
Of many folys this is the moste musynge 
Whiche labour dayly with besy cure and payne. 
To knowe what god doth discerne and or ordayne 

Therfore in this part I shall dispyse and blame 
Unchrafty folys whiche scantly haue ouer sene 
Ought of scripture, if they knowe the bokes naine 
Or els a whyle hath at the Scoles bene 
Than bende they the browys and stedfastly they wene 
In theyr conceyt that they ar passynge wyse 
For ail scripture newe commentis to deuyse 

They frowardly the sentence do transpose 
.And that whiche is wryten, both playne and holely 
By theyr corruptynge and vnlawfull glose 
Oft tyme they brynge to damnable heresy 
Falsly expoundynge after theyr fantasy 
They labour to transpose and tume the right sence 
Thoughe the wordes stryue and make great resystence 

Of j)redestynadon.  7 3 

Here what these folys with theyr audacyte 
Date besely say by theyr fais errour blynde 
Presumynge on goddes secrete and pryuete 
Here what lewde wordes they cast out in the wynde 
They say what man can chaunge or turne his mynde 
To lyue after any other fourme and rate 
But lyke as he is therto predestynate 

They say: if god that rayneth ouerall 
Hath any ordeyned that in this worlde is 
To come to the place and rowme celestyall 
For to be partyner of euerlastynge blys 
Ordeyned for suche as here doth nat amys 
No man can chaunge, not other thynge mundayne 
That thynge whiche god by his myght doth ordayne 

But if that god prefyxed hath before 
Any creature vnto infernall payne 
In derknes to be damnyd for euer more 
No erthly thynge may that sentence call agayne 
Nor hym delyuer : o fole thou mayst complayne 
For this thy foly and also it repent 
Thynkest thou nat god alway omnypotent 

Is god nat rightwyse and groundeof all iustyce 
Rewardynge man after his gouernaunce 
He that bath here nat lyen in synne and vyce 
Hauynge in goddys seruyce his pleasaunce 
Shall of his lorde be had in remembraunce 
And of rewarde worthely be sure 
Where it is worthy that synners payne endure 

OE 7 4 Of predestynacion. 

Trust well who seruyth his maker stedfastly 
XVith pure herte kepynge sure his commaundement 
_And lawes shall be rewardyd fynaily 
With heuenly ioy and scape ail punysshement 
Therfore thou foie leue of this lewde intent 
Lyue vertuously and trust in goddes grace 
Than yll desteny in the shall haue no place 

Vnto great ioy god hath vs all create 
_And to vs ail ordeyned his kyngdome 
_And none hath vnto Heli predestynate 
But often whan we folowe nat wysàome 
By ouer owne foly we fall, and so become 
Vnto our maker vnkind : and hym deny 
Whiche them rewardyth that here lyue vertuously 

Therfore thou Foie desyst thy wordes vayne 
_And let thy tunge no more suche wordes say 
For god hath vs made ail of one stuf certayne 
_As one potter makyth of one clay 
Vessels dyuers, but whan he must them lal¢ 
Vpon the kyil with fyre them there to dUC 
They come nat ail to good, moste comonly 

Doth this erthyn pot his maker dispyse 
Whether it be made of fassyon good or yll 
Saynge why dost thou make me in this wyse 
Wherfore mad man I reade the to be styll 
Blame nat thy maker, for thy vnhappy wyll 
For god bath neuer man nor childe create 
But ail he bath to heuen predestynate 

Of predestynacion. 


_And whyle we lyue here on this wretchyd grounde 
We haue our reason and wyttes vs to gyde 
With out fre wyll and if no faute be founde 
In out demenour, in heuen we shall abyde 
But if we goddes lawes set asyde 
Howe may we hope of hym rewarde to wyn 
So out owne foly is moste cause of our syn. 

Tn tov o» BARCLAY. 
O creature vnkynde vnto thy creatour 
What carest thou to knowe or to inuestygate 
The pryuetye, of god, leue this thy errour 
To thynke the by hym to be predestynate 
To endles wo and from his blysse pryuate 
For syns thou hast thy reason and frewyll 
Gyuyn the by god, thou art in suche estate 
To take the eleccion outher of good or yll 

Of folys that forget then selle and do 
another mannys besynes leuynge theyr 
owne vndone. 

Who that wyll surfer his owne hous to bren 
Tyll nought of it saue the bare wallys stonde 
And with his water hastely doth ren 
To quenche the fyre of anothers bous or londe 
I-le is a foie and haue shall in his hande 
A folysshe Pype or home therwith to blowe 
For other folys that in my Shyp wyll rowe. 

Of fo[_),s t]mt forget t]oem se[e. OE 7 7 

Within my Shyp of rowme he shall be sure 
Whiche for anothers auantage and profyte 
Takyth great thought and doth moche payne endure 
Vnto his owne charge takynge no respyte 
But settyth it asyde and hath ail his delyte 
With ail his stody hym to enforce and dres: 
To care for euery mannys besynes. 

Suche hertles folys to them self neglygent 
In theyr owne charge slepe contynually 
But with open iyen they af full dylygent 
The worke of other with ail theyr myght to aply 
_And for others profyte prouyde they besely. 
But whyle these Folys af glad to take in hande 
Anothers charge, theyr owne styll let they stande 

Wherfore I ara so bolde within my boke 
Somwhat to touch these folys mad vsage 
That if it fortune them on the saine to loke 
They may therby perceyue in theyr corage 
That labour they ought for their owne auauntage 
Most specyally, for that is the degre 
&nd the true order of perfyte charite 

For perfyte loue and also charite 
Begynneth with hym selle for to be charitable 
_And than to other after his degre 
Thy owne auauntage is ay moost profytable 
The great Phylosophers of maners ferme and stable 
and also of wysdome godly and dyuyne 
Hath left tovs suche techynge and doctryne 

We haue by Therence the same commaundement 
The same is wryten also as I fynde 
In the holy lawe of the olde testament 
And therfore he that oft wyll set his mynde 
For others maters with tare his thought to blynde 
Let hym first se vnto his owne profyte 
Lyst some mysfortune hym after sharply byte 

Let hym tume his labour to his owne auauntage 
And than do for other where as he seeth moste nede 
For who that playeth for mony outher gage 
And on his felawes cast takyth onely hede 
And nat to his owne, suche one shall seldom spede 
_And is a Foie. Sois he that doth ren 
To quenche another bous, suffrynge his owne to bren 

Suche one of his owne damage h.'tth no fere 
And worthy is his losse and hurte to byde 
Sois he that wyll anothers burthen bere 
Or takyth anothers charge at any tyde 
Despysynge his owne werke and settynge it asyde 
If suche haue losse and after it forthynke 
Iqo man shall moche force whether he flete or synke 

He is well worthy to haue a folys pype 
That goth vnbyddyn to rype anothers corne 
-And suffreth his owne to stande though it be rype. 
_And generally ail Folys ar worthy scorne 
Of what maner byrth so euer they be borne 
If they them self put, to losse or damage 
Therby to do some other auauntage 

and do anottaer manoEvs besynes, z 7 9 

8ay curyous Foie: say what pleasour thou hast 
In others maters thy self to intermyt 
Or theyr great charges thus in thy mynde to cast 
Thy selfe to socour set thou thy mynde and wyt 
Let others matei-s therfore in quyete syt 
On thy owne profyte of ail firste set thy mynde 
_And than (if thou mayst) do somwhat for thy frende 

For vtterly that man is moche vnwyse 
That thus takyth thought for anothers charge 
And doth his owne by neglygence despyse 
For suche Folys I forgyd haue this barge 
But of the same suche men I dene discharge 
That first of his pryuate profyte can take hede 
And than helpe a frende and felowe at a nede 

Ye that take charge, thought and besy cure 
For others mysfortune, losse or aduersyte 
First of your self I aduyse you to be sure 
For this is the order of parfyte charyte 
Eche to hym selfe moste louynge ay to be 
And next to his frende, but who that doth dispyse. 
His owne besynes whiche is in ieopardye 
Seynge to anothers forsoth he is vnwyse 

He must of maners also be commendable 
And of his speche als pleasaunt as he can 
For an olde prouerbe true and verytable 
Sayth that good lyre and maners makyth man 
But euery lawe doth data and also ban 
The churlysshe vyce and lewde of vnkyndnes 
Whiche dryeth vp the well of bounte and goodnes 

For vnkynde folys if one labour dylygent 
And so brynge theyr worke vnto good conclusyon 
They fynde yet fautis and so ar nat content 
Withdrawynge the rewarde by theyr collusyon 
Wherfore let suche thynke it no abusyon 
lqor haue disdayne ne yet in mynde complayne 
If the pore laborer gyue vp his worke agayne 

These frowarde Folys, doth wronge and iniury 
To suche as to them do profyte and honour 
For kyndnes, they render shame and vylany 
Rebukes sclander extorcion and rygour 
But whyle they hope to come to great valoure 
And by such rygour to honours to aryse 
Theyr hope vanyssheth as doth the snowe or yce 

Wherfore who that puttyth one to besynes 
To charge or labour of body or of mynde 
Ought hrm rewarde agayne for his kyndnes 
If he do nat forsoth he is unkynde 
But specyally as I of't wryten fynde 
It is a thynge whiche doth for vengeaunce cry 
A pore laborer to put to Iniury 

Of he .yce of »,.ydnes. OE 83 

What man can wryte the inconuenyence 
Whiche groweth of this lewde and cursyd vyce 
Vnkyndnes causeth great myschefe and offence 
And is repugnynge to reason and iustyce 
Wherfore let suche that wyll be namyd wyse 
Leue it: and folowe lyberalyte 
Whiche is noryssher of loue and amyte 

In dyuers bokes examples we may fynde 
Howe many Cytees hygh and excellent 
Agaynst ail lawe and reason were vnkynde 
To suche as d)d theyr dignyte augment 
O vnkynde rome thou was of this intent 
Whiche hast Camyllus exyled in great payne 
Thoughe he euer laboured thy honour to mentayne 

O cruell Athenes by thy ingratytude 
Hast thou nat banysshyd Solon also fro the 
Though he enfourmyd bath thy maners rude 
And gyuyn the lawes of right and equyte 
For his great meryte, loue and benygnyte 
Thou hast hym gyuen exyle and paynes harde 
His labour was nat worthy that rev¢arde 

Thou vnkynde Sparta: of thy audacyte 
What shall I wryte or thy lewde vnkyndnes 
Hast thou nat banysshed by thy cruelte 
Thy kynge Lycurgus, bycause he dyd redres 
Thy wanton errours by lawe and rightv¢ysnes 
And Scipio whiche his country dyd defende 
Fonde it to hym, "¢nkynde at the last ende 

_A thousande mo whome I can nat expresse 
To suche as haue for them abyde great payne 
Haue done displeasour, and shewed vnkyndnes 
And them disceyued by some cautele or trayne 
Yet none of them great goodnes cowde obtayne 
By theyr vnkyndnes for who that so doth cast 
Vnkyndly shall be seruyd at the last. 

O fais vnkyndnes out on the I cry 
From ail goodnes dost thou nat man withdrawe 
Byndynge his herte to gyle and vylany 
Agaynst nature, agaynst both fight and lawe 
Thou makest man his maker nat to knawe 
Therfore thou man expell out from thy mynde 
This vyce, for we fynde in an olde sayde sawe 
Wo is hym that to his maker is vnkynde. 

Remember man the great preemynence 
Gyuen unto the by good omnypotent 
Bytwene the and .Angels is lytell dif[erence 
And ail thynge erthly to the obedyent 
Fysshe byrde and beste vnder the fyrmament 
8ay what excuse mayst thou nowe lay or fynde 
Syns thou art ruade by god so excellent 
But that thou oughtest agayne to hym be kynde. 

God hath the made vnto his owne lykenes 
No erthly creature vnto the comparable 
Thy iyen vpwarde to consyder his hyghnes 
Where other creatures that af vnresonable 

Goeth on ail foure and ar nat other able. 
Theyr loke alway vnto the grounde inclynyd 
Therfore thou ought in vertue to be stable 
And to thy maker neuer to be vnkynde 

Whan man offendyd by disobedyence 
Subduynge hym self to labour care and payne 
And lost the confort of goodes hye presence 
Hath nat christ Jhesu redemyd hym agayne 
Besyde all this thou hast no thynge certayne 
In erth but by hym. v¢herfore I call the blynde 
And of thy maners vncurtayse and vylayne 
If to thy sauyour thou be nat true and kynde 

Thoughe god hath made the (man) thus excellent 
To lyue (if thou lyst) in ioy eternally 
A lytell thynge shall hym agayne content 
He nought requyreth but thy herte onely 
And that thou defy thy gostly ennemy 
And in goddes seruyce thy herte and body bynde. 
Than shall he rewarde the in heuen right gloriously 
So mayst thou be callyd vnto thy maker kynde 

Of folys that stande so well in their owne 
conceyt that they thinke none so wyse, 
stronge, fayre, nor eloquent, as they 
ar themself. 

We haue ouercome the malyce and enuy 
Of suche as agaynst out Nauy did conspyre 
Wheffore I shall my folys call quyckly 
That they my Shyp may aparayle and atyre 
I)rawe nere ye Folys whiche syttynge by the fyre 
Loke ay in a glasse to se your countenaunce 
And in your owne dedis haue ail your hole pleasaunce 

Of folys tlat stand well in tleir conceyt. OE 8 7 

Vnto my shyp I call hym to be Coke 
The mete to dresse to other Folys echone 
Whiche in his myrrour doth alway gase and loke 
Whan he may get hym vnto a place alone 
And though of colour and beaute he haue none 
Yet thynketh he hym self fayre and right plesant 
And wyse: thoughe that he be mad and ignorant 

In his owne dedys is onely his delyte 
In his owne conceyte thynkynge hïmself right wyse 
And fayre, thoughe he be yelowe as kyte 
Is of hir fete: yet doth he styll deuyse 
His vayne myrrour: that onely is his gyse 
And thoughe he beholde hym self of lothly shape 
He wyll it nat byleue, but in his glasse doth gape. 

Though for his foly ail men myght hym repreue 
And that he se it before hym openly 
Within his glasse : he wyll it nat byleue 
But strongly it defende and eke deny 
He seyth nat his erys longe and hye 
Whiche stande vpon his folysshe hode behynde 
His lewde conceyt thus makyth hym starke blynde 

Whan people comon of men of hye prudence 
Or of hye beauty, and strength if men doth tell 
If one suche foie were there in the presence 
He swere durst boldly and that on the gospell 
That he onely ail other dyd excell 
And that to gyue councell good and profytable 
Were none in the worldly vnto hym comparable 

88 Of flys tt st.d w« 

These folys bost them selfe of theyr wysdome 
_And thynke them selfe to haue preemynence 
_Aboue ail other that af in christendome. 
In gyftis of grace as beautye and scyence 
Of strength, gode maners vertue and eloquence 
But thoughe they stande in theyr owne conceytis 
Nought is saue foly within theyr folysshe patis 

And thoughe theyr face and vysage stande awry 
And all to reuylde, theyr mouth standynge asyde 
Within theyr myrrour the saine can they nat spye 
But in theyr foly contynually abyde 
And whether that they af styll outher go or ryde 
Labour or be ydyll, they gase styll in theyr glasse 
Yet wyll they nat byleue to haue erys lyke an Asse. 

Oft whan these folys lye in theyr bed vpright 
With tawny loke or els theyr botyll nose 
They haue theyr myrrour alway in theyr syght 
The vayne glasse (of theyr beautye) to apose 
_And whan suche a foie into the kechyn gose 
To stere the pot, there whether he syt or stande 
The glasse alway is in the other hande 

Whan he a whyle his glas hath loken than 
If one examynyd hym of his beautye 
He boldly durst swere both by god and man 
That nought were in hym whiche myght repreuyd be 
But all goodnes fayre shape, and loke of grauyte 
_And that his gere gayly vpon his backe doth syt 
He hardly is wyse : if he had any wyt. 

in their owne conceyt. OE 8 9 

I 'ryten fynde that great inconuenyence 
As losse, contempt and occasyon of pryde 
Hath fallyn vnto many by this lewde complacence 
Whiche haue nat knowen the way themself to gyde 
The emperour Otho had ay borne by his syde 
In warre and peas (a glasse) for his pleasaunce 
To se his colour therin ; and countenaunce 

And to the entent to make his colour gay 
With Assys mylke he noyntyd oft his skyn 
And shauyd his berde onys euery day 
But for that he offendyd god herein 
After was he sharply punysshyd for this syn 
And put vtto extreme rebuke and shame 
To gyue other example to auoyde the saine 

It is forsoth a maner femynyne 
And nat for man to be so elegant 
To suche toyes wanton wymen may in¢lyne 
A yonge mayde may at ber forhede haue pendant 
The vayne myrrour to se hir shape pleasant 
Man sholde nought set bv to norysshe his beautye 
But onely manhode strength and audacyte 

The wanton mayde may for hir self ordayne 
Hir call hir coyfe, and suche conceytis newe 
As broches fyletes and oyntmentis souerayne 
And clothynge of dyuers colour and of hewe 
But nowe yonge men the saine fourme do ensue 
And to content theyr mad and folysshe mynde 
To wymen they compare themselfe agaynst kynde 

OE9 o Of f@s that Jtand wd! 

Disorder rayneth as I before haue sayde 
The yonge men takyth womans countenaunce 
And hir aparayll, and wymen ar arayde 
_As men : agaynst ail lawe and ordynaunce 
Thus man and woman ensue mysgouernaunce 
In theyr behauour is small dyuersyte 
Theyr owne conceyt causeth great enormyte 

The poet Ouyde shewyth in a fable 
Itowe that one callyd Pygmalyon by naine 
A fygure made vnto hymselfe semblable 
¥hiche he in marbyll r;ght craftely dyd frame 
,nd in so moche he worshypped the saine 
Tyll at the last his mynde was past and gone 
_And he transformed so was in to that stone 

And if the Poetis fanes be ail sure 
As by theyr subtyle wordes oft we here 
The childe Narcissus was chaungyd of fygure 
Whyle he behelde into the water clere 
For xvhyle his shadowe vnto hym dyd apere 
Vpon the same so sore he set his mynde 
That he transformyd was to another kynde. 

But to retorne agayne to our purpose - 
And of this sort of Folys to conclude 
If god sholde them to other shape transpose 
That thynke them lCayre though they be foule and rude 
Into foule fassyon he many sholde indude 
For whyle Folys theyr owne beauty lnagnyfy 
So growyth the nomber and so they multyply 

in their owne conceyt. OE9 o* 


Blynde man inclere thy "«ylfull ignoraunce 
Stande nat so great in thy owne conceyte 
Ne in thy lewde fassyon set nat thy pleasaunce 
XYhetheI thou be pote or man of great estate 
Another man moche more shall in the wayte 
Of gode and yli than thou thy self canst do 
Therfore be nat cause to thy self of disceyte 
If one the teche: aply thy mynde therto 

Of lepynges and dauncis and Folys that pas 
theyr tyme in suche vanyte. 

That fole that settyth his felycyte 
In wanton daunces and ]epes immoderate 
FIath in my Shyp a rowme for his degre 
Bysyde the tere for troub]ynge of his pare 
l"Ie goal dyspleasyth, whiche doth suche foly hate 
Suche ]ese theyr tyme in vayne and oft thrin 
Af many hurtis : and cause of dedcy sya. 

 9 OE Oflelyn, ffes and dauncis. 

Those folys a place may chalenge in my shyp 
Whiche voyde of wysdome as men out of theyr mynde 
Them selfe delyte to daunce to lepe and skyp 
In compase rernyrge lyke to the worlde wyde 
In vnkynde labour, suche folys pleasour fynde 
Rennynge about in this theyr furyous vyce 
Lyke as it were in Bacchus sacryfyce 

Or as the Druydans rennyth in vayne about 
In theyr mad lestes vpon the hylle of yde 
Makynge theyr sacrafyce with furour noyse and shout 
XVhan theyr madnes settyth theyr wyt asyde 
Or whan the prestis of mars ail nyght abyde 
Vqithin theyr temple by vse abhomynable 
To theyr ydollys doynge theyr seruyce detestable 

Lyke as these paynyms hath to theyr ydols done 
Theyr sacryfyce wandrynge in theyr madnes 
Theyr bodyes weryenge, in vayne wastynge their shone 
So do these fowlys them selfe to daunsynge dres 
Sekyrge occason of great vnhappynes 
They take suche labour without ail hope of gayne 
Vqithout rewarde sure of werynes and payne 

Say Folys that vse this fury and outrage 
XYhat causyth you to haue delyte therin 
For your great labour say what is your wage 
Forsoth ye can therby no profyte wyn 
But seke occasyon (as I haue sayde) of syn 
.And for thy werynge thy fete thus in the dust 
Thou gettest no gayne but cause of carnall lust 

Of kpyn«s and dauncis. 


But v¢han I consyder of this folysshe game 
The firste begynnynge and cause orygynall 
I say the cause therof is worthy blame 
For whan the deuyll to disceyue man mortall 
_And do contempt to the hye god eternall 
Vpon a stage had set a Calfe of golde. 
That euery man the saine myght clere beholde 

So than the Fende grounde of mysgouernaunce 
Causyd the people this fygure to honour 
_As for theyr god and before the saine to daunce. 
Whan they were dronkon, thus fell they in errour 
Of Idolatry: and forgate theyr creatour. 
Before this ydoll daunsynge both v¢yfe and man 
Dispysynge god: Thus daunsynge fyrst began 

8uche blynde folyes and inconuenyence 
Engendryth great hurte and incommodyte 
_And sawyth sede wherof groweth great offence 
The grounde of vyce and of ull enormyte 
In it is pryde, fowle lust and lecherye 
_And whyle lewde lepys ar vysd in the daunce 
Oft frowarde bargayns ar ruade by countenaunce 

What els is daunsynge but euen a nurcery 
Or els a bayte to purchase and meyntayne 
In yonge hertis the vyle synne of rybawdry 
Them tbtrynge therin, as in a dedely chayne 
And to say trouth in wordes clere and playne 
Venereous people haue ail theyr hole pleasaunce 
Theyr vyce to norysshe by this vnthryfty daunce 

u 94 Oflynges and dauncis. 

And wanton people disposyd vnto syn 
To satysfye theyr mad concupyscence 
With hasty cours vnto this daunsynge ryn 
To seke occasyon of vyle synne and offence 
And to expresse my mynde in short sentence 
This vyciouse gaine oft tymes doth attyse 
By his lewde synes, chast hartis vnto vyce 

Than it in erth no game is more damnable 
It semyth no peas, but Batay|e open|y 
They that it vse of myndes seme vnstable 
As mad folke rennynge with c|amour showt and cry 
What place is voyde of this furyous foly 
l'qone : so that I dout xvithin a whyle 
These folys the holy churche shall defyle 

Of people what sort or order may we fynde 
Ryche or pore hye or Iowe of naine 
But by theyr folysshnes, and wanton mynde 
Of eche sort some ar gyuen vnto the same 
The prestis and clerkes to daunce haue no shame 
The frere or monke in his frocke and cowle 
Must daunce in his dortor lepynge to play the foie 

Toit comys children, maydes and wyues. 
And flaterynge yonge men to se to haue theyr pray 
The hande in hande great falshode oft contryues 
The olde quean also this madnes wyll assay 
And the olde dotarde tlioughe he skantly may 
For age and lamenes stere outher fote or hande 
Yet playeth he the foie with other in the bande 

Of le_pynges and dauncis. 95 

Than lepe they about as folke past theyr mynde 
With madnes amasyd rennynge in compace 
He moste is commendyd that can moste lewdnes fynde 
Or can most quyckly ren about the place 
There af ail maners vsyd that lacke grace 
Mouynge theyr bodyes in synes full of shame 
Whiche doth theyr hertes to synne right sore inflame 

So oft this vyce doth many one abuse 
That whan they af departyd from the daunce 
On lust and synne contynually they muse 
Hauynge therin theyr wyll and theyr pleasaunce 
Than rail they oft to great mysgouernaunce 
As folys gyuyn to worke vnprofytable 
So in my shyp they well deserue a babyll. 

Do way your daunces ye people moche vnwyse 
Desyst your folysshe pleasour of trauayle 
It is me thynke an vnwyse vse and gyse 
To take suche labour and payne vithout auayle 
And who that suspectyth his mayde or wyues tayle 
Let hym nat surfer them in the daunce to be 
For in that gaine thoughe sys or synke them fayle 
The dyse oft renneth vpon the chaunce of thre 

Of nyght watchers and beters of the stretes 
playnge by nyght on instrumentes and 
vsynge lyke Folyes whan tyme is to 

I-le is a Foie that wandreth by nyght 
In felde or towne, in company or alone 
Playnge at his lemmans dote withouten lyght 
Tyll ail his body be colde as lede or stone 
These folys knockynge tyll the nyght be gone 
_At that season thoughe that they fele no colde 
8hall it repent and fele whan they be olde. 

Of nygtt watcters and beters of tle stretes.  9 7 

Nowe wolde I of my boke haue ruade an ende 
And with iny shyp drawen to some hauen or porte 
Stryken my sayle, and ail my folys sende 
Vnto the londe, a whyle them selle to sporte 
But this my purpose is lettyd by a sorte 
Of frantyke folys, wandrynge about by nyght 
For often ail yll doers hatyth the day lyght 

Whyle (man) beste and euery lyuely creature 
Refresshe theyr myndes and bodyes with rest 
And slepe: without the whiche none can endure 
And whyle ail byrdes drawe them to theyr nest 
These dronken bandes of Folys than doth Jest 
About the stretis, with rumour noyse and cry 
Syngynge theyr folysshe songes of rybawdry 

The furyes ferefull spronge of the flodes of hell 
Vexith these vagabundes in theyr myndes so 
That by no mean can they abyde ne dwell 
Within theyr howsys, but out they nede must go 
More wyldly wandrynge than outher bucke or doo 
Some with theyr harpis another with his lute 
Another with his bagpype or a folysshe flute 

Than mesure they theyr songes of melody 
Before the dores of theyr lemman dere 
Yowlynge with theyr folysshe songe and cry 
8o that theyr lemman may theyr great foly here 
And tyll the yordan make them stande arere 
Cast on theyr hede, or tyll the stonys fie 
They nat depart, but couet there styll to be 

298 Of ,9,g])t watc])ers and beters of t])e stretes. 

But yet more ouer these Folys ar so vnwyse 
That in colde wynter they vse the saine madnes 
Whan ail the howsys af lade with snowe and yse 
0 mad men amasyd vnstabyll and wytles 
What pleasour take ye in this your folysshenes 
What ioy haue ye to wander thus by nyght 
Saue that yll doers alv¢ay hate the lyght 

But folysshe youth doth nat alone this vse 
Corne of lowe byrth and sympyll of degre 
But also statis them selle therein abuse 
VTith some yonge folys of the spiritualte 
The folysshe pype without ail grauyte 
Doth eche degre call to this frantyke gaine 
The darkenes of nyght expellyth fere of shame 

One barkyth another bletyth lyke a shepe 
8ome rore, some countre, some theyr balades f:ayne 
Another from syngynge gyueth hym to wepe 
Whan his souerayne lady hath of hym dysdayne 
Or shyttyth hym out, and tobe short and playne 
Who that of this sort best can play the knaue 
Lokyth of the other the maystery to haue 

The folysshe husbonde oft of this sort is one 
With wanton youth wandrynge by nyght also 
Leuynge his wyfe at home in bed alone 
_And gyueth hyr occasyon often to mysdo 
So that whyle he after the owle doth go 
Fedynge the Couko, his xvyfe hir tyme doth xvatche 
Receyuynge another whose egges she doth hatche. 

Of nyght watc]ers and beters of tle stretes.  99 

Therfore ye folys that krtowe you of this sort 
To gyue occasyon of synne vnto your wyues 
_And ail other : I you pray and exort 
Of this your foly to amende your lyues 
For longe nyght watches seldome tymes thryues 
But if it be in labour : good to wyn 
Therfore kepe your dorys: els abyde within 

Thoughe I have touchyd of this enormyte 
In englysshe tunge: yet is it nat so vsed 
In this Royalme as it is beyonde the se 
Yet moche we vse whiche ought to be refusyd 
Of great nyght watchynge we may nat be excusyd 
But out watchynge is in drunken glotony 
More than in syngynge or other meledy 

Whan it is nyght and eche shulde drawe to test 
Many of out folys great payne and watchynge take 
To proue maystryes and se who may drynke best 
Outher at the Tauerne of wyne, or the aie stake 
Other ail nyght watchyth for theyr lemmans sake 
8tandynge in corners lyke as it were a spye 
Whether that the weder be, hote, colde, wete, or dry 

8ome other Folys range about by nyght 
Prowdely Jettynge as men myndeles or wode 
To seke occasyon with pacyent men to fyght 
Delytynge them in shedynge mennys blode 
Outher els in spoylynge of other mennys gode 
Let these folys with suche lyke and semblable 
Drawe to this barge, here shall they bere a bable 

3 oo Of nygl)t watcbers ald beters of the stretes. 


Ye folys that put your bodyes vnto payne 
By nyghtly watchynge, voyde of auauntage 
Leue of your foly or els ye shall complayne 
_And mourne it sore if ye lyue vnto age 
For though ye thynke that this your blynde outrage 
Is vnto you no hurte nor preiudyce 
It doth your body and goodes great dammage 
_And great cause both to you and yours of vyce. 

Of folysshe beggers and of theyr vanytees. 

Syns I haue taken the charge one me 
Mo botis and Barges for Folys to aparayle 
And so agayne of newe to take the se 
I feryd lyst company shulde me fayle 
Within my folysshe shyppis to trauayle 
But nowe doth beggers them selle to me present 
For fewe of them I fynde ofgood intent 

A great company of folys may we fynde 
Amonge beggers, whiche haue theyr hole delyte 
In theyr lewde craft : wherfore I set my mynde 
In this Barge theyr maners, brefely for to write 
For thoughe that nede them greuously do byte. 
Yet is theyr mynde for ail theyr pouerte 
To kepe with them of children great plente 

And though that they myght otherwyse well lyue 
And get theyr lyuynge by labour and besynes 
Yet fully they theyr myndes set and gyue 
To lede this lyfe alway in wretchydnes 
The clerke, frere, or monke, whiche hath store of ryches 
For ail his lyre. if he it gyde wysely. 
Wyll yet the beggers offyce occupy 

Suche oft complayne the charge of pouerte 
In garmentis goynge raggyd and to rem 
But yet haue they of ryches great plente 
Whiche in gode vse can neuer of them be spent 
Aimys is ordeyned by god omnypotent 
And holy churche : for to be gyuyn in dede 
Vnto good vse, and suche as haue moste nede 

Aimes is ordeyned by god our creatour 
For men that lyue in nede and wretchydnes 
Therwith their paynfull iyues to socour 
And nat for ryche that lyues in viciousnes 
But yet suche caytyfs boldly in dare pres 
For their lewde lyfe without ail maner drede 
This aimes takynge from them that haue most nede 

Of folysshe beggers and of theyr va,yees. 3 o 3 

The abbot, the Pryour, and also theyr couent 
Ar so blyndyd with vnhappy couetyse 
That with theyr owne can they nat be content 
But to haue more, they alway mean deuyse 
Ye: in so moche that some haue founde a gyse 
To fayne theyr bretherne tan in captyuyte 
That they may begge so by auctoryte 

They fayne myracles where none were euer donc 
And ail for lucre: some other range about 
To gather and begge with some fayned pardon 
And at the alehows at nyght all drynkyth out 
$o ren these beggers in company rowt 
By stretis tauernes townes and vyllagys 
No place can well be fre of theyr outragys 

Some begge for byldynges, some for relyques newe 
Of holy sayntis of countreys farre and strange 
And with theyr wordes faynyd and vntrewe 
For cause of Lucre, about they ren and range 
But in a sympyll vyllage, ferme or grange 
Where as these beggers moste sympyll men may fynde 
With theyr fais bonys as relykes they them blynde 

Other beynge stronge and full of lustynes 
And yonge ynoughe to labour for theyr rode 
Gyuyth theyr bodyes fully to slewthfulnes 
The beggers craft thynkynge to them moost good 
Some ray theyr legges and armys ouer witb blood 
With leuys and plasters though they be hole and sounde 
Some halt as crypyls, theyr legge falsely vp bounde 

Some other beggers falsly for the nonys 
Disfygure theyr children god wot vnhappely 
Manglynge theyr facys, and brekynge theyr bonys 
To stere the people to pety that passe by 
There stande they beggynge with tedyous shout and cry 
There owne bodyes tournynge to a strange fassion 
To moue suche as passe to pyte and compassyon 

euche yonge iaddys as lusty ar of age 
Myghty and stronge, and wymen in lyke wyse 
Wanton and yonge and lustv of cowrage 
Gyueth them selfe vtterly to this gyse 
The cause is that they labour do despyse 
For theyr mynde is in ydylnes to be styll 
Or els in vyce to wander at theyr wyll 

They paciently theyr prouertye abyde 
Nat for deuocion of herte or of mynde 
But to the intent that at euery tyde 
Other mennys godes sholde them fede and fynde. 
But if they a whyle haue ron in the wynde 
And in theyr hande the star some hete hath caught 
They neuer after shall leue the beggers craft 

Arnonge these beggers also is comonly 
Braulynge debate hatered and chydynge 
Great othes, mockes falshode and enuy 
_And one with other euer more fyghtynge 
_As for theyr dronkennes and vnsure abydynge 
Theyr rebaudry both in dede and comrnunycacion 
These ar chefe poyntis of theyr occupacion 

Of Jblyssbe a:ggers and of theyr va»yt«es. 305 

If the begger haue his star and his hode 
One bagge behynde and another before 
Than thynkes he hym in the myddes 6 his goode 
Thoughe that his clothes be raggyd and to tore 
His body nere bare he hath no thought therfore 
And if some man cloth them well to day 
To morowe it shall agayne be solde away 

And if these caytyfes fortune to begge or cry 
For mete or money, on woman or on man 
If one to them that, that they aske deny 
And so depart : anone these beggers than 
Whan he is gone, doth way curse and ban 
And if another gyue them ought of pyte 
At the next alestake dronken sha[l it be 

But if that I sholde gather in my barge 
Ail folysshe beggers, and labour or intende 
To note all theyr vyces, to sore sholde be the charge 
And as I suppose I neuer sholde make an ende. 
Wherfore I counsell them shortly to amende 
Or els theyr lewdnes, synne, and enormyte 
Shall cause men withdrawe theyr aimes of charyte 


0 people vnthrifty gyuen to ydlenes 
Spendynge your youth this wyse in vanyte 
What ioy haue ye to lyue in wretchydnes 
Where ye myght corne to better rowme and degre