Skip to main content

Full text of "The two Babylons, or, The papal worship proved to be the worship of Nimrod and his wife : with sixty-one woodcut illustrations from Nineveh, Babylon, Egypt, Pompeii, &c"

See other formats










TKHttb SftB*one IHaoo&cut ^lustrations from 





popular Edition 
















NOTB BY THE EDITOK, . . . . . . . vii 



INTRODUCTION, ......... 1 





Section I. Trinity in Unity, .... 12 

II. The Mother and Child, and the Original of the Child, . . 19 

Sub-Section i. The Child in Assyria, . . . .21 

IT. The Child in Egypt, . . . .40 

,, in. The Child in Greece, . . . .46 

iv. The Death of the Child, . . .55 

v. The Deification of the Child, . . .58 

III. The Mother of the Child, . . .74 



Section I. Christmas and Lady-day, ... .91 

II. Easter, ........ 103 

III. The Nativity of St. John, ... .113 

IV. The Feast of the Assumption, . . . .125 



Section I. Baptismal Regeneration, ... .129 

II. Justification by Works, ... .144 

III. The Sacrifice of the Mass, . . 156 

IV. Extreme Unction, . .165 

,, V. Purgatory and Prayers for the Dead, . . .167 





Section I. Idol Processions, . . . . . .171 

II. Relic Worship, . . 176 

III. The Clothing and Crowning of Images, . . 181 

IV. The Rosary and the Worship of the Sacred Heart, . . 187 

V. Lamps and Wax-Candles, . . . . . .191 

VI. The Sign of the Cross, . 197 



Section I. The Sovereign Pontiff, ...... 206 

II. Priests, Monks, and Nuns, . . 219 



Section I. The Great Red Dragon. . ... 225 

II. The Beast from the Sea, . . 242 

III. The Beast from the Earth, . . 256 

,, IV. The Image of the Beast, . . ... 263 

V. The Name of the Beast, the Number of his Name the Invisible 

Head of the Papacy, . ... 269 

CONCLUSION, . ...... 282 

APPENDIX, ... .... 291 

INDEX, . . ... . . 325 


HAD the lamented Author been spared to superintend the issue of 
the Fourth Edition of his work, it is probable he would have felt 
himself called upon to say something in reference to the political and 
ecclesiastical events that have occurred since the publication of the 
last Edition. By the authoritative promulgation of the dogma of 
the Pope s Infallibility, his argument as to the time of the slaying of 
the Witnesses, and his identification of the Roman pontiff as the 
legitimate successor of Belshazzar have been abundantly confirmed. 

It is gratifying to the Author s friends to know that the work has 
been so favourably received hitherto, and that no one, so far as we 
are aware, has ventured to challenge the accuracy of the historical 
proofs adduced in support of the startling announcement on the 
title page. But it is deplorable to think that, notwithstanding all 
the revelations made from time to time of the true character and 
origin of Popery, Ritualism still makes progress in the Churches, and 
that men of the highest influence in the State are so infatuated as to 
seek to strengthen their political position by giving countenance to a 
system of idolatry. If Britons would preserve their FREEDOM and 
their pre-eminence among the nations, they should never forget the 
Divine declaration, "Them that honour ME I will honour, and they 
that despise ME shall be lightly esteemed." 

It only remains for the Editor to say that the work has been 
carefully revised throughout, and a few trifling errors in the refer 
ences have, in consequence, been corrected. One or two notes also, 
enclosed in brackets, have been added, and the Index has been some 
what extended. 

R. H. 

January , 1871. 

vi i 


SINCE the appearing of the First Edition of this work, the Author 
has extensively prosecuted his researches into the same subject; 
and the result has been a very large addition of new evidence. 
Somewhat of the additional evidence has already been given to 
the public, first through the columns of the British Messenger, 
and then in the publication entitled " The Moral Identity of Babylon 
and Home," issued by Mr. Drummond of Stirling. In the present 
edition of " The Two Babylons," the substance of that work is 
also included. But the whole has now been re-written, and the 
mass of new matter that has been added is so much greater than 
all that had previously appeared, that this may fairly be regarded 
as an entirely new work. The argument appears now with a com 
pleteness which, considering the obscurity in which the subject had 
long been wrapped, the Author himself, only a short while ago, 
could not have ventured to anticipate as a thing capable of attain 


On the principle of giving honour to whom honour is due, the 
author gladly acknowledges, as he has done before, his obligations 
to the late H. J. Jones, Esq. to whose researches Protestantism 
is not a little indebted who was the first that directed his attention 
to this field of inquiry. That able, and excellent, and distinguished 
writer, however, was called to his rest before his views were matured. 
His facts, in important instances, were incorrect; and the conclu 
sions at which he ultimately arrived were, in very vital respects, 
directly the reverse of those that are unfolded in these pages. 
Those who have read, in the Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, his 
speculations in regard to the Beast from the Sea, will, it is believed, 
readily perceive that, in regard to it, as well as other subjects, his 
argument is fairly set aside by the evidence here adduced. 

In regard to the subject of the work, there are just two remarks 


the author would make. The first has reference to the Babylonian 
legends. These were all intended primarily to commemorate facts 
that took place in the early history of the jt?os-diluvian world. 
But along with them were mixed up the momentous events in 
the history of our first parents. These events, as can be distinctly 
proved, were commemorated in the secret system of Babylon with 
a minuteness and particularity of detail of which the ordinary 
student of antiquity can have little conception. The post-diluvian 
divinities were connected with the ante-diluvian patriarchs, and 
the first progenitors of the human race, by means of the metem 
psychosis ; and the names given to them were skilfully selected, so 
as to be capable of divers meanings, each of these meanings having 
reference to some remarkable feature in the history of the different 
patriarchs referred to. The knowledge of this fact is indispensable 
to the unravelling of the labyrinthine subject of Pagan mythology, 
which, with all its absurdities and abominations, when narrowly 
scrutinised, will be found exactly to answer to the idea contained in 
the well-known line of Pope in regard to a very different subject : 
" A mighty maze, but not without a plan." 

In the following work, however, this aspect of the subject has, 
as much as possible, been kept in abeyance, it being reserved for 
another work, in which, if Providence permit, it will be distinctly 

The other point on which the author finds it necessary to say a word, 
has reference to the use of the term " Chaldee," as employed in this 
work. According to ordinary usage, that term is appropriated to the 
language spoken in Babylon in the time of Daniel and thereafter. 
In these pages the term Chaldee, except where otherwise stated, is 
applied indiscriminately to whatever language can be proved to have 
been used in Babylonia from the time that the Babylonian system of 
idolatry commenced. Now, it is evident from the case of Abraham, 
who was brought up in Ur of the Chaldees, and who doubtless 
brought his native language along with him into Canaan, that, at 
that period, Chaldee and Hebrew were substantially the same. 
When, therefore, a pure Hebrew word is found mixed up with a 
system that confessedly had its origin in Babylonia, the land of the 
Chaldees, it cannot be doubted that that term, in that very form, 
must have originally belonged to the Chaldee dialect, as well as to 
that which is now commonly known as Hebrew. On this ground, 
the author has found himself warranted to give a wider application 
to the term " Chaldee" than that which is currently in use. 

And now, in sending forth this new Edition, the author hopes he 


can say that, however feebly, he has yet had sincerely an eye, in the 
whole of his work, to the glory of " that name that is above every 
name," which is dear to every Christian heart, and through which 
all tribes, and peoples, and kindreds, and tongues, of this sinful and 
groaning earth, are yet destined to be blest. In the prosecuting of 
his researches, he has found his own faith sensibly quickened. His 
prayer is, that the good Spirit of all grace may bless the work for 
the same end to all who may read it. 


IN giving the Third Edition of this work to the public, I have little 
else to do than to express my acknowledgments to those to whom 
I am under obligations, for enabling me thus far to bring it to a 
successful issue. 

To Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street, London; Mr. Vaux, of the 
British Museum ; and Messrs. Black and Messrs. Chambers, Edin 
burgh, I am specially indebted for permission to copy woodcuts 
belonging to them. Individual woodcuts, from other sources, are 
acknowledged in the body of the work. To Mr. John Adam, the 
artist, who has executed the whole of the woodcuts, with a few 
exceptions, I have to express my obligations for the spirit and 
artistic skill displayed in their execution ; and I do so with the more 
pleasure, that Mr. Adam is a native of Arbroath, and the son of a 
worthy elder of my own. 

I have also acknowledgments of another kind to make. Consider 
ing the character of this work a work that, from its very nature, 
required wide, and, at the same time, minute research, and the 
consultation of works of a very recondite character ; and, taking also 
into view not only the very limited extent of my own library, but 
the distance of my abode from any of the great libraries of the land, 
where rare and expensive works may be consulted, the due prepara 
tion of such a work was attended with many difficulties. The 
kindness of friends, however, has tended wonderfully to remove these 
difficulties. From all quarters I have met with the most disinter 
ested aid, of which I retain a grateful and pleasing remembrance. 
To enumerate the different sources whence help has come to me, 
in the prosecution of my task, would be impossible. There are three 
individuals, however, who stand out from the rest whom I cannot 
pass over without notice. Each of them has co-operated (and all 
spontaneously), though in different ways, in enabling me thus far to 
accomplish my task, and their aid has been of the most essential 


To Mrs. Barkworth, of Tranby Hall, Yorkshire (whose highly 
cultivated mind, enlightened zeal for Protestant truth, and unwearied 
beneficence need no testimony of mine), I am signally indebted, and 
it gives me pleasure to acknowledge it. 

I have also to acknowledge my deep and peculiar obligations to one 
who chooses to be unknown,* who, entirely on public grounds, has 
taken a very lively interest in this work. He has spared neither ex 
pense nor pains, that, every incidental error being removed, the argu 
ment might be presented to the public in the most perfect possible form. 
For this purpose he has devoted a large portion of his time, during 
the last three years, to the examination of every quotation contained 
in the last edition, going in every case where it was at all possible, 
to the fountain-head of authority. His co-operation with me in the 
revisal of the work has been of the greatest advantage. His acute 
and logical mind, quick in detecting a flaw, his determination to be 
satisfied with nothing that had not sufficient evidence to rest upon, 
and yet his willing surrender to the force of truth whenever that 
evidence was presented, have made him a most valuable coadjutor. 
" As iron sharpeneth iron," says Solomon, " so doth a man sharpen the 
countenance of his friend." I have sensibly found it so. His corre 
spondence, by this stimulus, has led to the accumulation of an 
immense mass of new evidence, here presented to the reader, which, 
but for his suggestions, and objections too, might never have been 
discovered. In the prosecution of his investigation he has examined 

[* Edward Joshua Cooper, Esq., of Markree Castle, Ireland, the gentleman 
here alluded to, died 23rd April, 1863. He was "one of our most distinguished 
amateur astronomers. After leaving Oxford, he travelled extensively, with a 

sextant, chronometer, and telescope, as his inseparable companions In the 

year 1831, he purchased from Cauchoix, of Paris, an object glass of 13 3 inches 
aperture, and 25 feet focus, the largest then existing, which, in 1834, was mounted, 
with perfect success, at his magnificent mansion of Markree." The labours of 
himself and his assistant were rewarded by " the discovery of the planet Metis ; 
but his greatest work is his Catalogue of Ecliptic Stars. This (which was 
published by aid from the Government grant placed at the disposal of the Royal 
Society, and which the Royal Irish Academy honoured with their Cunningham 
Medal) contains upwards of 60,000 stars down to the twelfth magnitude, of which 
very few had been previously discovered." 

Mr. Cooper was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Royal Astronomical 
Society, as well as a Member of the Royal Irish Academy. " He represented the 
County of Sligo in Parliament for many years, and was a kind and good landlord, 
making great exertions to educate and improve his numerous tenantry. His 
personal qualities were of a high order. Blameless and fascinating in private life, 
Jie was a sincere Christian, no mean poet, an accomplished linguist, an exquisite 
musician, and possessed a wide and varied range of general information." See 
Obituary Notice in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1864.] 


no fewer than 240* out of the 270 works contained in the accom 
panying list of "Editions," many of them of large extent, all of 
which are in his own possession, and not a few of which he has 
procured for the purpose of verification. His object and mine has 
been, that the argument might be fairly stated, and that error might, 
as far as possible, be avoided. How far this object has been attained, 
the references and list of "Editions" will enable each reader 
competent to the task, to judge for himself. For myself, however, 
I cannot but express my high sense of the incalculable value of the 
service which the extraordinary labours of my kind and disinterested 
friend have rendered to the cause of universal Protestantism. 

But while making mention of my obligations to the living, I may 
not forget what I owe to the dead. To him whose name stands on 
the front of this work, I am, in some respects, pre-eminently 
indebted, and I cannot send forth this edition without a tribute of 
affection to his memory. It is not for me to speak of his wit, 
and the brilliancy of his conversational powers, that captivated all 
who knew him ; of the generous unselfishness of his nature, that 
made him a favourite with every one that came in contact with him ; 
or of the deep interest that he took in the efforts at present being 
made for improving the dwellings of the working-classes, and 
especially of those of his own estate, as well as in their moral and 
religious improvement. But I should be liable to the charge of 
ingratitude if I contented myself, in the circumstances, with the mere 
formal dedication, which, though appropriate enough while he was 
alive, is now no more so when he is gone. 

The time and the circumstances in which his active friendship was 
extended to me, made it especially welcome. His keen eye saw at a 
glance, as soon as the subject of this work came under his attention, 
the importance of it ; and from that time forward, though the work 
was then in its most rudimentary form, he took the deepest interest 
in it. He did not wait till the leading organs of popular opinion, or 
the great dispensers of fame, should award their applause ; but, 
prompted by his own kindly feeling, he spontaneously opened up a 
correspondence with me, to encourage and aid me in the path of 
discovery on which I had entered. 

His own studies qualified him to appreciate the subject and 
pronounce upon it. For many years he had deeply studied the 

* The whole number of works actually examined by the eminent individual 
above referred to, in connection with this subject, is upwards of 260 ; but space 
does not permit me to avail myself of anything like the full amount of the new 
evidence that has been gathered. The above number, therefore, refers only to the 
works actually quoted in this edition. 


Druidical system, which, with the haze and mystery around it, and 
with its many points of contact with the patriarchal religion, had a 
strange and peculiar fascination for him. For the elucidation of this 
subject, he had acquired most valuable works ; and what he possessed 
he was most ready to communicate. In the prosecution of 
my inquiries, I had met with what to me seemed insuperable 
difficulties. He had only to know of this to set himself to remove 
them; and the aid derived from him was at once precious and 
opportune ; for through his acquaintance with Druidism, and the 
works received from him, difficulties disappeared, and a flood of 
light irradiated the whole subject. If, therefore, the reader shall 
find the early history of superstition, not only in our native land, 
but in the world at large, set in a new and instructive light in these 
pages, he must know that he is essentially indebted for that to Lord 
John Scott. In one, who was an entire stranger, being thus 
prompted to render efficient assistance to me at such a time, I could 
not but thankfully recognise the hand of a gracious Providence ; and 
when I reflect on the generous, and humble, and disinterested 
kindness with which the four years correspondence between us was 
conducted on his part, a correspondence in which he always 
treated me with as much confidence as if I had been his friend and 
brother, I cannot but feel warm and tender emotions, mingling with 
the thoughts that spring up in my bosom. Friendship such as his 
was no ordinary friendship. His memory, therefore, must be ever 
dear to me ; the remembrance of his kindness ever fragrant. 

Unexpected was the stroke now, alas ! near three years ago 
by which our correspondence was brought to an end ; but painful 
though that stroke was, and solemnising, there was no gloom 
attending it. The " hope full of immortality " cheered his dying bed. 
For years back he had found the emptiness of the world, and had 
begun to seek the better part. His religion was no sentimental 
religion ; his fear of God was not taught by the commandment of 
men. His faith was drawn directly from the inspired fountain of 
Divine truth. From the time that the claims of God to the homage 
of his heart had laid hold on him, the Word of God became his 
grand study, and few men have I ever known who held with a more 
firm and tenacious grasp the great truth that the "Word of God, and 
that Word alone, is the light and rule for the guidance of Christians ; 
and that every departure from that Word, alike on the part of 
Churches and individuals, implies, as he himself expressed it, "going 
off the rails," and consequently danger of the highest kind. As his 
religion was Scriptural, so it was spiritual. In one of his earliest 


letters to me, he avowed that the bond of " spiritual religion " was 
that by which he felt himself specially bound to those whose char 
acter and spirit showed them to be the true sheep of Christ s 
pasture ; and in accepting the dedication of my work, he particularly 
stated, that the interest that he took in it was not as a mere matter 
of literary curiosity, but as being "fitted to teach great truths, 
which the world is not very willing to learn." This, in the connec 
tion in which he wrote it, evidently had special reference to the 
great doctrine of "regeneration." His mind was deeply penetrated 
with a sense of the majesty of God, and the " awfulness " of our 
relations to Him, in consequence of the sin that has entered the 
world, and has infected the whole human race, and therefore he 
vividly realised the indispensable necessity of Mediation and 
Atonement, to give hope to sinful man in prospect of the grand 

The origin of that earnestness and attachment to spiritual reli 
gion which he manifested in his last years, was, as I was assured 
by a relative now also gone to his reward, the perusal of the tract en 
titled " Sin no Trifle." Deep was the impression that tract had made. 
He read it, and re-read it, and continually carried it about with him, 
till it was entirely worn away. Under the impressions springing 
from such views of sin, he said to an intimate friend, when in the 
enjoyment of health and vigour, "It is easy to die the death of a 
gentleman, but that will not do." His death was not the death of a 
mere gentleman. It was evidently the death of a Christian. 

The circumstances in which he was removed were fitted to be pecu 
liarly affecting to me. In reply to a letter the last which I received 
from him in which he expressed deep interest in the spread of 
vital religion, I was led, "in pursuance of the theme to which he 
himself had specially referred, to dwell more than ever before on the 
necessity not merely of having hope towards God, but of having 
the question of personal acceptance decisively settled, and the 
consequent habitual possession of the "joy of salvation," and as one 
special reason for this, referred to the fact, that all would be needed 
in a dying hour. "And who can tell," I added, "how suddenly 
those who are surrounded with all the comforts of life may be 
removed from the midst of them 1 ?" In illustration of this, I 
referred to the affecting case of one whom I had known well, just 
a short while before, lost along with his family in the Royal Charter. 
Having made a large fortune in Australia, he was returning home, 
and when on the point of setting foot on his native shores, with the 
prospect of spending his days in ease and affluence, suddenly father 


and mother, son and daughter, were all engulfed in a watery grave. 
My letter concluded with these words : " In view of such a solem 
nising event, well may we say, What is man? But oh, man is 
great, if he walks with God, and the divine words are fulfilled in his 
experience, God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, 
hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the 
glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. That this may be more 
and more the experience of your Lordship, is my earnest desire." 
When I wrote this I had not the least suspicion that I was writing 
to a dying man. But so it proved to be. Only a few days after he 
received this, he was smitten with his death-sickness. From his 
dying bed he sent me a kindly memorial of his affectionate remem 
brance, and in his painful illness he manifested the supporting power 
of faith, when faith has respect to the truth as it is in Jesus, and 
appropriates Him as a personal and Almighty Saviour. 



Adam s Roman Antiquities, 
^Eliani Historise, . 
^Elianus de Nat. Animal, 
^Eschylus, .. 

Agathias (Corp. Script. Byzant. ), 

Alford s Greek Test., .... 

Ambrosii Opera, ..... 

Aminianus .Marcelliniis, 

Anacreon, . . ... 

Apocalypse, Original Interpretation, 

Apocriphi (Diodati, Bibbia), 

Apollodorus, ...... 

Apuleius, ...... 

Arati Phcenomena, ..... 

Aristophanes, ..... 

Arnobius, ...... 

Athenasus, ...... 

Athenagoras, ..... 

Asiatic Journal, ..... 

- Researches, ..... 

Augustini Opera Ornnia, .... 

Augustine s City of God, with Lud. Vives s Comment., 
Aulus Gellius, ..... 

Aurelius Victor, ..... 

Ausonii Opera, ..... 

Barker aud Ainsworth s Lares and Penates of Cilicia, 
Barker s Hebrew Lexicon, .... 

Baronii Annales, ..... 

Bede s Works, ..... 

Begg s Handbook of Popery, 

Bell s (Robert) Wayside Pictures, . 

- (John) Italy, ..... 

Berosus, ...... 

Betham s Etruria Celtica, .... 

Gael and Cymbri, .... 











































































Bilney (British Reformers), . 

Bion (Poet. Grsec. Min.), 

Blakeney s Popery in its Social Aspect, 

Borrow s Gipsies, .... 

Bower s Lives of the Popes, . 

Bryant s Mythology, 

Bulwark, The, .... 

Bunsen s Egypt, .... 

Caesar, ..... 

Callirnachus, ..... 

Catechismus Romanus, 

Catlin s American Indian*, . 

Catullus, ..... 

Cedreni Compendium, 

Charlotte Elizabeth s Personal Recollections, 

Sketches of Irish History, 
Chesney s Euphrates Expedition, 
Chronicon Paschale, .... 
Chrysostomi Opera Omnia, . 
Ciceronis Opera Omnia, 
Clemens Alexandrinus, Opera, 
Clemens Protrepticos, 

Clericus (Johannes) de Chaldaeis et de Saboeis, 
Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, 
Codex Theodosiarms, 
Coleman s Hindoo Mythology, 
Cory s Fragments, .... 
Courayer s Council of Trent, 
Covenanter, Irish, .... 
Crabb s Mythology, .... 
Crichton s Scandinavia, 
Cumrnianug (Patr. Patrum), . 
Daubuz s Symbolical Dictionary, 
D Aubigne s Reformation, 
David s Antiquites Etrusques, &c., . 
Davies s Druids, .... 
Davis s (Sir J. F. ) China, . 
Didron s Christian Iconography, 
Diodori Bibliotheca, .... 
Diogenes Laertius, 

Dionysius Afer, .... 

Dionysius Halicarn, .... 
Dryden s Virgil, 

Dupuis, Origine de tous les Cultes, . 
Dymock s Classical Dictionary, 
Elliott s Horse Apocalypticse, 
Ennodii Opera, .... 

Epiphanii Opera Omnia, 
Eunapius, ..... 
Euripides, ..... 
Eusebii Preepar. Evangel., 

London, 8. D. 

Cambridge, 1661 
Edinburgh, S. D. 


Wurtzburg, 1778 
Lutetian, 1629 
Amsterdam, 1700 




Edin. , 













































Eusebii Chronicon, ...... 

Chron., ...... 

Vita Constantin., ..... 

Eustace s Classical Tour, ..... 

Eutropius (Rom. Hist. Script. Grgec. Min.), . 

Evangelical Christendom, ..... 

Do. do., .... 

Firmicus, Julius, ...... 

Flores Seraphici, ...... 

Furniss s What Every Christian must Know, 

Fuss s Roman Antiquities, ..... 

Garden of the Soul, ...... 

Gaussen s Daniel, ... 

Gebelin, Monde Primitif, 

Gesenii Lexicon, ...... 

Gibbon s Decline and Fall, ..... 

Gibson s Preservative, ..... 

Gieseler s Eccles. History, ..... 

Gill s Commentary, .... 

Gillespie s Sinim, ...... 

Golden Manual, .... 

Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, . 

Greswell s Dissertations, ..... 

Guizot s European Civilisation, .... 

Hanmer s Chroriographia ; appended to translation of 

Eusebius, &c., 
Hardy, Spence, Buddhism, ..... 

Harvet, Dr. Gent., Review of Epistle of, . 
Hay s Sincere Christian, .... 

Heathen Mythology, .... 

Herodoti Historia, ...... 

Hesiodus, . ... 

Hesychii Lexicon, . . . 

Hieronymi Opera, 

Hislop s Light of Prophecy, ..... 

Homer, . . .... 

(Pope s), 

Horapollo s Hieroglyphics, . 
Horatius, .... 

Hue s Voyage dans la Tartarie et Thibet, . 

Humboldt s Mexican Researches, .... 

Kurd s Rites and Ceremonies, .... 

Hyde s Religio Persarum, ..... 

Hygini Fabulas, ...... 

Irensei Opera, ...... 

Jamblichus on the Mysteries, .... 

Jamieson s Scottish Dictionary, 
Jewell (British Reformers), . 
Jones s (Sir W.) Works, . 









c Colonies 


f Dublin, 
( London, 






Edinburgh, 1846 

London, 1852-54 

Edinburgh, 1854 

London, 18fO 

Antwerp, 1612 

Oxford, 1837 

London, 1846 

s. D. 


S. D. 












S. D. 















A msterdam, 









s. i\ 







G his wick, 





S. D. 





Josephus (Gr 



Justini Hist. (Hist. Rom. Script.), . 

Justinus Martyr, . 

Justus Lipsius, . 

Juvenal, . 

Kennedy s Ancient and Hindoo Mythology, 

Kennett s Roman Antiquities, 

Kitto s Cyclopaedia, . 

Kitto s Illustrated Commentary, 

Knox s History of Reformation, 

Knox (British Reformers), . 

Lactantius, . 

Lafitan, Mceurs des Sauvages Americains, . 

Landseer s Sabean Researches, 

Layard s Babylon and Nineveh, 

Nineveh, . 

Livius, . 

Lorimer s Manual of Presbytery, 

Lucan. de Bell. Civ., 

Lucianus, . 

Lucretius, . 

Lycophron (Poet. Graec. Min.), 

Macrobius, . 

M Gavin s Protestant, 

Maimonides More Nevochim, 

Maitland on the Catacombs, 

Mallet s Northern Antiquities, 


Manilius, . 
Martialis Epigrarnmata, 
Massy, Memoir of Rev. G., . 
Maurice s Indian Antiquities, 
Mede s Works, . 

Middleton s Letter from Rome, 
Milner s Church History, 
Milton s Paradise Lost, 
Minutius Felix, . 

Missale Romanum, . 
Do. do., . 

Missionary Record of Free Church, . 
Moor s Hindoo Pantheon, 
Morgan s (Lady) Italy, 
Moses of Chorene", . 

Miiller s Dorians, . 

Mulleri Fragmenta, . 
Newman s Development, 
Niebuhr s Roman History, . 
Nonnus de Phil. Oriental, et Dionysiaca, 
Orphic Hymns (Poet. Gra?c.), 
Ouvaroff s Eleusinian Mysteries, 

(Aurelii, \ 

[Attobrog. ) 1609 
Wurtzburg, 1777 
London, 1698 
London, 1728 
London, 1831 
London, 1696 
Edinburgh, 1856 
London, 1840 
Edin., 1846-48 
London, s. D. 
Cambridge, 1685 
Paris, 1724 

London, 1823 
London, 1853 
London, 1849 
Amsterdam, 1710 
Edinburgh, 1842 
Leyden, 1658 
Amsterdam, 1743 
Oxford, 1695 

Geneva, 1814 

Sanct. Colon. 1521 
Glasgow, 1850 
Basle, 1629 



London (See Note}. 

London, 1672 








Edinburgh, 1855 

London, 1810 




Paris, 1846-51 

London, 1846 





Ovidii Opera, ..... 

Pancarpium Marise, .... 

Paradisus Sponsi et Sponsae, . 

Parkhurst s Heb. Lexicon, . 

Parson s Japhet, .... 

Pausanias, ..... 

Paxton s Illustrations, Geography, . 

Persius, ..... 

Petri Suavis Polani, Concilium Tridentinum, 

Pfeiffer s (Ida) Iceland, 

Photii Bibliotheca, .... 

Lexeon Synagoge, 

Pindarus, ..... 

Pinkerton s Voyages, 

Platonis Opera, .... 

Plinii Opera, ..... 

Plutarchi Opera, .... 

Pococke s India in Greece, . 

Pompeii, ..... 

Pontificale Romanum, 

Do. do., .... 

Poor Man s Manual, .... 
Porphyrius de Antro Nympharum, . 
Potter s Greek Antiquities, . 
Prescott s Conquest of Peru, 

Mexico, .... 

Prisciani Opera, .... 

Proclus in Timaeo, .... 

on Plat. Theology, . 

Propertius, ..... 

Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, 

Quintus Curtius, .... 

Redhouse s Turkish Dictionary, 

Rome in the Nineteenth Century, 

Russell s Egypt, .... 

Ryle s (Rev. J.) Commentary, 

Salverte, Eusebe, Sciences Occultes, . 

Essai sur les Nome, 

Sanchuniathon, .... 

Scottish Protestant, .... 

Septuagint, ..... 

Servius, ..... 

Savary s Letters on Egypt, . 

Seymour s Evenings with Romanists, 

Sinclair s (Sir George) Letters to Protestants, 

Smith s Classical Dictionary, 

Socrates Ecclesiasticus, 

Sophocles, ..... 

Stanley s History of Philosophy, 

Statius, ..... 

Stephen s Central America, . 



























London, 1808-14 
















S. D. 




























































Stockii Clavis, ..... 

Strabo, ...... 

Suidas, ...... 

Symmachi Epistolse, ..... 

Tacitus, ...... 

Taylor s Mystic Hymns of Orpheus, 

Pausauias ..... 

Tertulliani Opera, ..... 
Theocritus (Poet. Graec. Min.), 

Theopompus (Mullet), .... 

Thevenot, Voyages, ..... 
Thuani Historia, ..... 
Todd s Western India, .... 

Toland s Druids, . . 

Tooke s Pantheon, ..... 
Trimen s Architecture, .... 

Trogus Pompeius (Hist. Rom. Script.), 

Turner s Anglo-Saxons, 

Usher s Sylloge, ..... 
Valerius Maximus, . . 

Vaux s Nineveh, ..... 

Antiquities of the British Museum, 

Virgilius, ...... 

Vitruvius de Architectura, .... 

Vossius de Idololatria, .... 

Walpole s Ansayri, ..... 

Wilkinson s Egyptians, .... 

Williams s Missionary Enterprises, . 
\Vilson s India 3000 Years Ago, 

Parsee Religion, 

Wylie s Great Exodus, 

Xenophontis Opera, . 


Zosimus (Rom. Hist. Script. Graeci. Min.), . 

Note. Of Maurice s " Indian Antiquities " in the copy quoted, except where 
otherwise stated, the 1st, 2nd, and 7th vols. are 1806 ; the 3rd, 1794 ; the 4th 
and 5th, 1800, and the 6th, 1812. 

































f Aurel. ~\ 
















A msterdam, 




London, 1837-41 

















1. Woman with Cup from Babylon, .... 5 

2. Do. do. from Rome, ... 6 

3. Triune Divinity of Ancient Assyria, . . 17 

4. Do. do. of Pagan Siberians, . . . .17 

5. Goddess Mother and Son, from Babylon, . 19 

6. Do. do. do. from India, . 19 

7. Janus and his Club, ..... .27 

8. Diana of Ephesus, ...... 29 

9. Three-Horned Head of Togrul Begh, . . 33 

10. Assyrian Hercules, or Zernebogus, . 33 

11. Horned Head-Dresses, ... 

12. Three-Horned Cap of Vishnu, . . 36 

13. Tyrian Hercules, ..... .37 

14. Winged Bull from Nimnid, . 38 

15. Do. do. from Persepolis, . . . 38 

16. Centaur from Babylonia, ..... 42 

17. Do. from India, ..... 43 

18. Osiris of Egypt, . . . 44 

19. Egyptian High Priest, . . 45 

20. Egyptian Calf-Idol, ..... .46 

21. Assyrian Divinity, with Spotted Fallow-Deer, . . 47 

22. Bacchus, with Cup and Branch, .... 48 

23. An Egyptian Goddess, and Indian Crishna, crushing the Serpent s 

Head, 60 

24. Baal-Berith, Lord of the Covenant, ... 70 

25. Dove and Olive Branch of Assyrian Juno, . . 79 

26. Circe, the Daughter of the Sun, .... .38 

27. The Yule Log, .... 98 

28. Roman Emperor Trajan burning Incense to Diana, . . 100 

29. Egyptian God Seb, and Symbolic Goose, . . .101 

30. The Goose of Cupid, . . . 102 

31. Sacred Egg of Heliopolis, and Typhon s Egg, . 108 

32. Mystic Egg of Astarte, . 109 

33. Juno, with Pomegranate, .... Ill 

34. Two-Headed God, 134 

35. Cupid with Wine-Cup and Ivy Garland of Bacchus, . 140 

36. Symbols of Nimrod and Baal-Berith, . . . .142 

xx iii 



37. Ceres, Mother of Bar, " the Son," and of Bar, " the Corn," . . 160 

38. Sun- Worship in Egypt, . . . . . . .162 

39. Popish Image of "God," with Clover Crown, . . . .185 

40. Cupid, with Symbolic " Heart," ...... 189 

41. Vishnu, with same, . . . . . . .190 

42. Lion of Mithra, with Bee in its Mouth, . . . .194 

43. The Cruciform T or Tau of Ancient Nations, . . . .197 

44. Ancient Pagans adorned with Crosses, . . . . .198 

45. Bacchus, with Head-Band covered with Crosses, .... 199 

46. Various Examples of Pagan Crosses, ..... 200 

47. Egyptian Pontiff-King (under a Canopy) borne on Men s Shoulders, . 214 

48. Assyrian Dagon, with Fish-Head Mitre, ..... 215 

49. Maltese God with similar Mitre, ...... 216 

50. The Sacrificial Mitre of Chinese Emperor, as Pontifex Maximus of the 

Nation, ......... 216 

51. Babylonian Crosier, . . . . . .217 

52. The Deified Serpent, or Serpent of Fire, . .227 

53. Roman Fire-Worship and Serpent-Worship combined, . . . 237 

54. Hindu Goddess Devaki, with the Infant Crishna at her breast, . . 238 

55. The Rani-Headed God of Egypt, . . . . . .257 

56. The Ram-Headed Boy-God of Etruria, ..... 257 

57. Indian Goddess Lakshmi, sitting in a Lotus-flower, borne by a Tor- 

toif?.- s . 266 

58. Virgin and Child sitting in Cup of Tulip, .... 266 

59. The Serpent of ^Esculapius, and the Fly-Destroying Swallow, the 

Symbol of Beel-zebub, from Pompeii, ..... 279 

60. Popish Image of "God," with bandaged Globe of Paganism, . . 301 

61. Supreme Divinity of Ancient Persia, with bands of Cybele, "the 

Binder with Cords," . 303 


" And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON TEE GREAT, 


THERE is this great difference between the works of men and the 
works of God, that the same minute and searching investigation, 
which displays the defects and imperfections of the one, brings out 
also the beauties of the other. If the most finely polished needle on 
which the art of man has been expended be subjected to a micro 
scope, many inequalities, much roughness and clumsiness, will be 
seen. But if the microscope be brought to bear on the flowers of 
the field, no such result appears. Instead of their beauty diminish 
ing, new beauties and still more delicate, that have escaped the 
naked eye, are forthwith discovered ; beauties that make us appre 
ciate, in a way which otherwise we could have had little con 
ception of, the full force of the Lord s saying, "Consider the 
lilies of the field, how they grow ; they toil not, neither do they 
spin : and yet I say unto you, That even Solomon, in all his glory, 
was not arrayed like one of these." The same law appears also in 
comparing the Word of God and the most finished productions of 
men. There are spots and blemishes in the most admired produc 
tions of human genius. But the more the Scriptures are searched, 
the more minutely they are studied, the more their perfection 
appears; new beauties are brought into light every day; and the 
discoveries of science, the researches of the learned, and the labours 
of infidels, all alike conspire to illustrate the wonderful harmony of 
all the parts, and the Divine beauty that clothes the whole. 

If this be the case with Scripture in general, it is especially the 
case with prophetic Scripture. As every spoke in the wheel of 
Providence revolves, the prophetic symbols start into still more 
bold and beautiful relief. This is very strikingly the case 
with the prophetic language that forms the groundwork and 
corner-stone of the present work. There never has been any 
difficulty in the mind of any enlightened Protestant in identify 
ing the woman " sitting on seven mountains," and having on her 
forehead the name written, " Mystery, Babylon the Great," with the 



Roman apostacy. " No other city in the world has ever been 
celebrated, as the city of Rome has, for its situation on seven hills. 
Pagan poets and orators, who had no thought of elucidating prophecy, 
have alike characterised it as the seven hilled city. " Thus Virgil 
refers to it: "Rome has both become the most beautiful (city) in 
the world, and alone has surrounded for herself seven heights with a 
wall."* Propertius, in the same strain, speaks of it (only adding 
another trait, which completes the Apocalyptic picture) as " The 
lofty city on seven hills, which governs the whole world, "f Its 
"governing the whole world" is just the counterpart of the Divine 
statement " which reigneth over the kings of the earth " (Rev. 
xvii. 18). To call Rome the city "of the seven hills" was by its 
citizens held to be as descriptive as to call it by its own proper 
name. Hence Horace speaks of it by reference to its seven hills 
alone, when he addresses, "The gods who have set their affections 
on the seven hills."J Martial, in like manner, speaks of "The 
seven dominating mountains. " In times long subsequent, the same 
kind of language was in current use ; for when Symmachus, the 
prefect of the city, and the last acting Pagan Pontifex Maximus, as 
the Imperial substitute, introduces by letter one friend of his to 
another, he calls him " De septem montibus virum " "a man from 
the seven mountains," meaning thereby, as the commentators 
interpret it, " Civem Romanum," "A Roman Citizen. "|| Now, 
while this characteristic of Rome has ever been well marked and 
denned, it has always been easy to show, that the Church which has 
its seat and headquarters on the seven hills of Rome might most 
appropriately be called " Babylon," inasmuch as it is the chief seat 
of idolatry under the New Testament, as the ancient Babylon was 
the chief seat of idolatry under the Old, But recent discoveries in 
Assyria, taken in connection with the previously well-known but 
ill-understood history and mythology of the ancient world, demon 
strate that there is a vast deal more significance in the name 
Babylon the Great than this. /It has been known all along that 
Popery was baptised Paganism ; but God is now making it manifest, 
that the Paganism which Rome has baptised is, in all its essential 
elements, the very Paganism which prevailed in the ancient literal 
Babylon, when Jehovah opened before Cyrus the two-leaved gates of 
brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron. 

That new and unexpected light, in some way or other, should be 
cast, about this very period, on the Church of the grand Apostacy, 
the very language and symbols of the Apocalypse might have 
prepared us to anticipate. In the Apocalyptic visions, it is just 
before the judgment upon her that, for the first time, John sees the 

* Scilicet et rerura facta est pulcherrima Roma 
Septemqueuna sibi muro circumdedit arces. 

Georg., lib. ii. v. 534, 535. 

f Septem urbs alta jugis toto quae prsesidet orbi. Lib. iii. Eleg. 9, p. 721. 
t Diis, quibus septem placuere colles. Carmen Seculare, v. 7, p. 497. 
Septein dominos montes. Lib. iv. Ep. 64, p. 254. 
|| SYMMACHUS, lib. ii. Epis. 9, Note, p. 63. 


Apostate Church with the name Babylon the Great " written upon 
her forehead " (Rev. xvii. 5). What means the writing of that 
name "on the forehead" ? Does it not naturally indicate that, just 
before judgment overtakes her, her real character was to be so 
thoroughly developed, that everyone who has eyes to see, who has 
the least spiritual discernment, would be compelled, as it were, on 
ocular demonstration, to recognise the wonderful fitness of the title 
which the Spirit of God had affixed to her. |Her judgment is now 
evidently hastening on ; and just as it approaches, the Providence of 
God, conspiring with the Word of God, by light pouring in from all 
quarters, makes it more and more evident that Rome is in very deed 
the Babylon of the Apocalypse); that the essential character of her 
system, the grand objects of her worship, her festivals, her doctrine 
and discipline, her rites and ceremonies, her priesthood and their 
orders, have all been derived from ancient Babylon ; | and, finally, 
that the Pope himself is truly and properly the lineal representative 
of Belshazzar. { In the warfare that has been waged against the 
domineering pretensions of Rome, it has too often been counted 
enough merely to meet and set aside her presumptuous boast, that 
she is the mother and mistress of all churches the one Catholic 
Church, out of whose pale there is no salvation. If ever there was 
excuse for such a mode of dealing with her, that excuse will hold no 
longer. If the position I have laid down can be maintained, she 
must be stripped of the name of a Christian Church altogether ; for 
if it was a Church of Christ that was convened on that night, when 
the pontiff-king of Babylon, in the midst of his thousand lords, 
" praised the gods of gold, and of silver, and of wood, and of stone " 
(Dan. v. 4), then the Church of Rome is entitled to the name of a 
Christian Church ; but not otherwise. This to some, no doubt, will 
appear a very startling position ; but it is one which it is the object 
of this work to establish ; and let the reader judge for himself, 
whether I do not bring ample evidence to substantiate my position. 



IN leading proof of the Babylonian character of the Papal Church, 
the first point to which I solicit the reader s attention, is the 
character of MYSTERY which attaches alike to the modern Roman 
and the ancient Babylonian systems. The gigantic system of moral 
corruption and idolatry, described in this passage under the emblem 
of a woman with a "GOLDEN CUP IN HER HAND" (Rev. xvii. 4), 
" making all nations DRUNK with the wine of her fornication " (Rev. 
xvii. 2 ; xviii. 3), is divinely called " MYSTERY, Babylon the Great " 
(Rev. xvii. 5). That Paul s "MYSTERY of iniquity," as described 
in 2 Thess. ii. 7, has its counterpart in the Church of Rome, no 
man of candid mind, who has carefully examined the subject, can 
easily doubt. Such was the impression made by that account on 
the mind of the great Sir Matthew Hale, no mean judge of evidence, 
that he used to say, that if the apostolic description were inserted in 
the public " Hue and Cry," any constable in the realm would be 
warranted in seizing, wherever he found him, the Bishop of Rome 
as the head of that "MYSTERY of iniquity." Now, as the system 
here described is equally characterised by the name of "MYSTERY," 
it may be presumed that both passages refer to the same system. 
But the language applied to the New Testament Babylon, as the 
reader cannot fail to see, naturally leads us back to the Babylon 
of the ancient world. As the Apocalyptic woman has in her 
hand A CUP, wherewith she intoxicates the nations, so was it 
with the Babylon of old. Of that Babylon, while in all its 
glory, the Lord thus spake, in denouncing its doom by the 
prophet Jeremiah: "Babylon hath been a GOLDEN CUP in the 
Lord s hand, that made all the earth drunken : the nations 
have drunken of her wine ; therefore the nations are mad " 
(Jer. li. 7). Why this exact similarity of language in regard to 
the two systems ? The natural inference surely is, that the one 
stands to the other in the relation of type and antitype. Now, as 
the Babylon of the Apocalypse is characterised by the name of 
" MYSTERY," so the grand distinguishing feature of the ancient 
Babylonian system was the Chaldean " MYSTERIES," that formed so 
essential a part of that system. And to these mysteries, the very 
language of the Hebrew prophet, symbolical though of course it is, 
distinctly alludes, when he speaks of Babylon as a " golden CUP." 
To drink of " mysterious beverages," says Salverte, was indispensable 


on the part of all who sought initiation in these Mysteries.* These 
"mysterious beverages" were composed of " wine, honey, water, and 
flour. ;; f From the ingredients avowedly used> and from the nature 
of others not avowed, but certainly used,| there can be no doubt 
that they were of an intoxicating nature ; and till the aspirants had 
come under their power, till their understandings had been dimmed, 
and their passions excited by the medicated draught, they were not 
duly prepared for what they were either to hear or to see. If it 
be inquired what was the object and design of these ancient 
" Mysteries," it will be found that there was a wonderful analogy 
between them and that " Mystery of iniquity" which is embodied in 
the Church of Home. Their primary object was to introduce 
privately, by little and little, under the seal of secrecy and the 
sanction of an oath, what it would not have been safe all at once and 
openly to propound. The time at which they were instituted proves 
that this must have been the case. The Chaldean Mysteries can be 
traced up to the days of Semiramis, who lived only a few centuries 
after the flood, and who is known to have impressed upon them the 
image of her own depraved 
and polluted mind. That 
beautiful but abandoned queen 
of Babylon was not only her 
self a paragon of unbridled 
lust and licentiousness, but 
in the Mysteries which she 
had a chief hand in forming, 
she was worshipped as Rhea,|| 
the great " MOTHER " of the 
gods,1I with such atrocious rites 
as identified her with Yenus, 
the MOTHER of all impurity, 
and raised the very city where 
she had reigned to a bad eminence among the nations, as the 
grand seat at once of idolatry and consecrated prostitution, ff Thus 

* EUSEBE SALVERTE, Des Sciences Occultes, p. 259. 

t GEBELIN, Monde Primitif, vol. iv. p. 319. 

J See SALVERTE, pp. 258, 259. 

AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, lib. xiv. cap. 6, p. ad. 26, and lib. xxiii. cap. 6, pp. 
371, 374, compared with JUSTINUS, Historia, lib. i. cap. 1, p. 615, and EUSEBIUS S 
Chronicle, vol. i. pp. 40, 70, &c. Eusebius says that Ninus and Semiramis 
reigned in the time of Abraham. See vol. i. p. 41, and vol. ii. p. 65. In regard 
to the age of Semiramis, see further in note on next page. 

|| Chronicon Paschale, vol. i. p. 65. IT HESIOD, Thcogonia, v. 453, p. 36. 

* The shape of the cup in the woman s hand is the same as that of the cup 
held in the hand of the Assyrian kings ; and it is held also in the very same 
manner. See VAUX, pp. 243, 284. 

[A correspondent has pointed out a reference by Pliny to the cup of Semiramis, 
which fell into the hands of the victorious Cyrus. Its gigantic proportions must 
have made it famous among the Babylonians and the nations with whom they had 
intercourse. It weighed fifteen talents, or 1200 pounds. PLINII, Hist. Nat., lib. 
xxxiii. cap. 15.] 

ft HERODOTUS, Historia, lib. i. cap. 199, p. 92 ; QUINTUS CURTIS, v. 1. 


was this Chaldean queen a fit and remarkable prototype of the 
" Woman " in the Apocalypse, with the golden cup in her hand, and 
the name on her forehead, "Mystery, Babylon the Great, the 
MOTHER of harlots and abominations of the earth." (Fig. 1.) The 
Apocalyptic emblem of the Harlot woman with the cup in her hand 
was even embodied in the symbols of idolatry derived from ancient 
Babylon, as they were exhibited in Greece ; for thus was the Greek 
Venus originally represented,* and it is singular that in our own 
day, and so far as appears for the first time, the Roman Church has 
actually taken this very symbol as her own chosen emblem. In 
1825, on the occasion of the jubilee, Pope Leo XII. struck a medal, 
bearing on the one side his own image, and on the other, that of the 
Church of Rome symbolised as a " Woman," holding in her left hand 
a cross, and in her right a CUP, with the legend around her, " Sedet 
super universum" "The whole world is her seat."f (Fig. 2.) Now 
the period when Semiramis lived, a period when the patriarchal 
faith was still fresh in the minds of men, when Shem was still alive,]: 
to rouse the minds of the faithful to rally around the banner for the 
truth and cause of God, made it hazardous all at once and publicly 

Fig. 2. 

Woman with cup from Home, on reverse of medal. (ELLIOTT S Horce.) 

to set up such a system as was inaugurated by the Babylonian 
queen. We know, from the statements in Job, that among 

* For evidence on this subject, see Appendix, Note A. 

f ELLIOTT S Horce, vol. iv. p. 30. 

For the age of Shem see Genesis xi. 10, 11. According to this, Shena lived 
502 years after the flood, that is, according to the Hebrew chronology, till B.C. 
1846. The age of Ninus, the husband of Semiramis, as stated in a former note, 
according to Eusebius, synchronised with that of Abraham, who was born B.C. 
1996. It was only about nine years, however, before the end of the reign of 
Ninus, that the birth of Abraham is said to have taken place. (SYNCELLUS, p. 
170. Paris, 1652.) Consequently, on this view, the reign of Ninus must have 
terminated, according to the usual chronology, about B.C. 1987. Clinton, who is 
of high authority in chronology, places the reign of Ninus somewhat earlier. In 
his Fasti Hellenici (vol. i. p. 263) he makes his age to have been B.C. 2182. 
Layard (in his Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 217) subscribes to this 
opinion. Semiramis is said to have survived her husband forty-two years. 
(SYNCELL., p. 96.) Whatever view, therefore, be adopted in regard to the age of 
Ninus, whether that of Eusebius, or that at which Clinton and Layard have 
arrived, it is evident that Shem long survived both Ninus and his wife. Of 
course, this argument proceeds on the supposition of the correctness of the 
Hebrew chronology. For conclusive evidence on that subject, see Appendix, 
Note B. 


patriarchal tribes that had nothing whatever to do with Mosaic 
institutions, but which adhered to the pure faith of the patriarchs, 
idolatry in any shape was held to be a crime, to be visited with 
signal and summary punishment on the heads of those who practised 
it. "If I beheld the sun," said Job, "when it shined, or the moon 
walking in brightness ; and my heart hath been secretly enticed, 
and * my mouth hath kissed my hand ; this also were an iniquity to 
be punished by the judge ; for I should have denied the God that is 
above " (Job xxxi. 26-28). Now if this was the case in Job s day, 
much more must it have been the case at the earlier period when the 
Mysteries were instituted. It was a matter, therefore, of necessity, 
if idolatry were to be brought in, and especially such foul idolatry as 
the Babylonian system contained in its bosom, that it should be done 
stealthily and in secret. f Even though introduced by the hand of 
power, it might have produced a revulsion, and violent attempts 
might have been made by the uncorrupted portion of mankind to 
put it down j and at all events, if it had appeared at once in all its 
hideousness, it would have alarmed the consciences of men, and 
defeated the very object in view. That object was to bind all man 
kind in blind and absolute submission to a hierarchy entirely 
dependent on the sovereigns of Babylon. In the carrying out of this 
scheme, all knowledge, sacred and profane, came to be monopolised 
by the priesthood, % who dealt it out to those who were initiated in 
the " Mysteries " exactly as they saw fit, according as the interests 
of the grand system of spiritual despotism they had to administer 
might seem to require. Thus the people, wherever the Babylonian 
system spread, were bound neck and heel to the priests. The priests 
were the only depositaries of religious knowledge ; they only had the 
true tradition, by which the writs and symbols of the public religion 
could be interpreted ; and without blind and implicit submission to 
them, what was necessary for salvation could not be known. Now 
compare this with the early history of the Papacy, and with its 
spirit and modus operandi throughout, and how exact was the 
coincidence ! Was it in a period of patriarchal light that the 
corrupt system of the Babylonian " Mysteries " began ? It was in a 
period of still greater light that that unholy and unscriptural system 
commenced, that has found such rank development in the Church of 
Rome. It began in the very age of the apostles, when the primitive 
Church was in its flower, when the glorious fruits of Pentecost were 
everywhere to be seen, when martyrs were sealing their testimony 
for the truth with their blood. Even then, when the Gospel shone 
so brightly, the Spirit of God bore this clear and distinct testimony 

* That which I have rendered "and" is in the authorised version "or," but 
there is no reason for such a rendering, for the word in the original is the very 
same as that which connects the previous clause, "and my heart," &c. 

f* It will be seen by-and-by what cogent reason there was, in point of fact, for 
the profoundest secrecy in the matter. See Chapter II. 

EuBiBE SALVEBTE, DCS Sciences Occultes, passim. 


(2 Thess. ii. 7). That system of iniquity which then began it was 
divinely foretold was to issue in a portentous apostacy, that in due 
time would be awfully "revealed," and would continue until it 
should be destroyed "by the breath of the Lord s mouth, and 
consumed by the brightness of His coming " (Ibid. v. 8). But at its 
first introduction into the Church, it came in secretly and by stealth, 
with "all DECEIVABLENESS of unrighteousness." It wrought 
"mysteriously" under fair but false pretences, leading men away 
from the simplicity of the truth as it is in Jesus. And it did so 
secretly, for the very same reason that idolatry was secretly 
introduced in the ancient Mysteries of Babylon ; it was not safe, it 
was not prudent to do otherwise. The zeal of the true Church, 
though destitute of civil power, would have aroused itself, to put the 
false system and all its abettors beyond the pale of Christianity, if it 
had appeared openly and all at once in all its grossness ; and this 
would have arrested its progress. Therefore it was brought in 
secretly, and by little and little, one corruption being introduced after 
another, as apostacy proceeded, and the backsliding Church became 
prepared to tolerate it, till it has reached the gigantic height we now 
see, when in almost every particular the system of the Papacy is the 
very antipodes of the system of the primitive Church. Of the 
gradual introduction of all that is now most characteristic of Rome, 
through the working of the " Mystery of iniquity ," we have very 
striking evidence, preserved even by Rome itself, in the inscriptions 
copied from the Roman catacombs. These catacombs are extensive 
excavations underground in the neighbourhood of Rome, in which 
the Christians, in times of persecution during the first three 
centuries, celebrated their worship, and also buried their dead. On 
some of the tombstones there are inscriptions still to be found, which 
are directly in the teeth of the now well-known principles and 
practices of Rome. Take only one example : What, for instance, at 
this day is a more distinguishing mark of the Papacy than the 
enforced celibacy of the clergy 1 Yet from these inscriptions we 
have most decisive evidence, that even in Rome, there was a time 
when no such system of clerical celibacy was known. Witness the 
following, found on different tombs : 

1. "To Basilius, the presbyter, and Felicitas, his wife. They 
made this for themselves." 

2. " Petronia, a priest s wife, the type of modesty. In this place 
I lay my bones. Spare your tears, dear husband and daughter, and 
believe that it is forbidden to weep for one who lives in God."* A 
prayer here and there for the dead : " May God refresh thy spirit," 
proves that even then the Mystery of iniquity had begun to work ; 
but inscriptions such as the above equally show that it had been 
slowly and cautiously working, that up to the period to which they 
refer, the Roman Church had not proceeded the length it has done 
now, of absolutely " forbidding its priests to marry. " Craftily 
and gradually did Rome lay the foundation of its system of priest. 

* Dr. MAITLAND S Church in the Catacombs, pp. 191, 192. 


craft, on which it was afterwards to rear so vast a superstructure. 
At its commencement, " Mystery " was stamped upon its system. 

But this feature of " Mystery " has adhered to it throughout its 
whole course. "When it had once succeeded in dimming the light of 
the Gospel, obscuring the fulness and freeness of the grace of God, 
and drawing away the souls of men from direct and immediate 
dealings with the One Grand Prophet and High Priest of our 
profession, a mysterious power was attributed to the clergy, which 
gave them "dominion over the faith" of the people a dominion 
directly disclaimed by apostolic men (2 Cor. i. 24), but which, in 
connection with the confessional, has become at least as absolute and 
complete as was ever possessed by Babylonian priest over those 
initiated in the ancient Mysteries. The clerical power of the Roman 
priesthood culminated in the erection of the confessional. That 
confessional was itself borrowed from Babylon. The confession 
required of the votaries of Rome is entirely different from the con 
fession prescribed in the Word of God. The dictate of Scripture in 
regard to confession is, " Confess your faults one to another " (James 
v. 16), which implies that the priest should confess to the people, as 
well as the people to the priest, if either should sin against the other. 
This could never have served any purpose of spiritual despotism ; 
and therefore, Rome, leaving the Word of God, has had recourse to 
the Babylonian system. In that system, secret confession to the 
priest, according to a prescribed form, was required of all who 
were admitted to the " Mysteries ; " and till such confession had been 
made, no complete initiation could take place. Thus does Salvert6 
refer to this confession as observed in Greece, in rites that can be 
clearly traced to a Babylonian origin:* "All the Greeks, from 
Delphi to Thermopylae, were initiated in the Mysteries of the temple 
of Delphi. Their silence in regard to everything they were com 
manded to keep secret was secured both by the fear of the penalties 
threatened to a perjured revelation, and by the general CONFESSION 
exacted of the aspirants after initiation a confession which caused 
them greater dread of the indiscretion of the priest, than gave him 
reason to dread their indiscretion."! This confession is also referred 
to by Potter, in his " Greek Antiquities," though it has been gener 
ally overlooked. In his account of the Eleusinian mysteries, after 
describing the preliminary ceremonies and instructions before the 
admission of the candidates for initiation into the immediate presence 
of the divinities, he thus proceeds : " Then the priest that initiated 
them called Isgofpavrqe [the Hierophant], proposed certain QUESTIONS, 
as, whether they were fasting, &c., to which they returned answers in 
a set form." J The etcetera here might not strike a casual reader; 
but it is a pregnant etcetera, and contains a great deal. It means, 
Are you free from every violation of chastity ? and that not merely 

* For Babylonian origin of these Mysteries, see next chapter, first two 

t EusfeBE SALVEKTE, Des Sciences Occultes, chap. xxvi. p. 428. 
POTTER, vol. i. Eleusinia, p. 356. 


in the sense of moral impurity, but in that factitious sense of chas 
tity which Paganism always cherishes.* Are you free from the guilt 
of murder ? for no one guilty of slaughter, even accidentally, could be 
admitted till he was purged from blood, and there were certain 
priests, called Koes, who "heard confessions" in such cases, and 
purged the guilt away.f The strictness of the inquiries in the Pagan 
confessional is evidently implied in certain licentious poems of 
Propertius, Tibullus, and Juvenal. J Wilkinson, in his chapter on 
"Private Fasts and Penance," which, he says, "were strictly 
enforced," in connection with " certain regulations at fixed periods," 
has several classical quotations, which clearly prove whence Popery 
derived the kind of questions which have stamped that character of 
obscenity on its confessional, as exhibited in the notorious pages of 
Peter Dens. The pretence under which this auricular confession 
was required, was, that the solemnities to which the initiated were to 
be admitted were so high, so heavenly, so holy, that no man with 
guilt lying on his conscience, and sin unpurged, could lawfully be 
admitted to them. For the safety, therefore, of those who were to 
be initiated, it was held to be indispensable that the officiating priest 
should thoroughly probe their consciences, lest coming without due 
purgation from previous guilt contracted, the wrath of the gods 
should be provoked against the profane intruders. This was the 
pretence ; but when we know the essentially unholy nature, both of 
the gods and their worship, who can fail to see that this was nothing 
more than a pretence ; that the grand object in requiring the candi 
dates for initiation to make confession to the priest of all their 
secret faults and shortcomings and sins, was just to put them 
entirely in the power of those to whom the inmost feelings of their 
souls and their most important secrets were confided 1 Now, 
exactly in the same way, and for the very same purposes, has Koine 
erected the confessional. Instead of requiring priests and people 
alike, as the Scripture does, to "confess their faults one to another," 
when either have offended the other, it commands all, on pain of 
perdition, to confess to the priest, || whether they have transgressed 
against him or no, while the priest is under no obligation to confess 
to the people at all. Without such confession, in the Church of 
Rome, there can be no admission to the Sacraments, any more than 
in the days of Paganism there could be admission without con 
fession to the benefit of the Mysteries. Now, this confession is made 

* For the arbitrary prohibitions, in consequence of which guilt might be con 
tracted, see POTTER, vol. i. p. 356, a few sentences before the last quotation. 

t DOPUIB, De tons les Cultes, vol. iv. Part I. p. 312. Paris. L an III. de la 

See particularly JUVENAL, Satires, vi. 535, p. 129. 

WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. v. pp. 335, 336. 

|| Bishop HAT S Sincere Christian, vol. ii. p. 68. In this work, the following 
question and answer occur : " Q. Is this confession of our sins necessary for 
obtaining absolution ? A. It is ordained by Jesus Christ as absolutely necessary 
for this purpose." See also Poor Man s Manual, a work in use in Ireland, pp. 109, 


by every individual, in SECRECY AND IN SOLITUDE, to the priest sitting 
in the name and clothed with the authority of God,* invested with 
the power to examine the conscience, to judge the life, to absolve or 
condemn according to his mere arbitrary will and pleasure. This is 
the grand pivot on which the whole "Mystery of iniquity," as 
embodied in the Papacy, is made to turn ; and wherever it is sub 
mitted to, admirably does it serve the design of binding men in 
abject subjection to the priesthood. 

In conformity with the principle out of which the confessional 
grew, the Church, that is, the clergy, claimed to be the sole deposi 
taries of the true faith of Christianity. As the Chaldean priests 
were believed alone to possess the key to the understanding of the 
Mythology of Babylon, a key handed down to them from primeval 
antiquity, so the priests of Rome set up to be the sole interpreters of 
Scripture ; they only had the true tradition, transmitted from age to 
age, without which it was impossible to arrive at its true meaning. 
They, therefore, require implicit faith in their dogmas ; all men were 
bound to believe as the Church believed, while the Church in this 
way could shape its faith as it pleased. As possessing supreme 
authority, also, over the faith, they could let out little or much, as 
they judged most expedient ; and " RESERVE " in teaching the great 
truths of religion was as essential a principle in the system of 
Babylon, as it is in Romanism or Tractarianism at this day.f It 
was this priestly claim to dominion over the faith of men, that 
" imprisoned the truth in unrighteousness " J in the ancient world, so 
that " darkness covered the earth, and gross darkness the people." 
It was the very same claim, in the hands of the Roman priests, that 
ushered in the dark ages, when, through many a dreary century, the 
Gospel was unknown, and the Bible a sealed book to millions who 
bore the name of Christ. In every respect, then, we see how justly 
Rome bears on its forehead the name, " Mystery, Babylon the Great." 

* Light of Prophecy, Appendix, Note C. 

t Even among the initiated there was a difference. Some were admitted only 
to the " Lesser Mysteries ; " the " Greater " were for a favoured few. WILKINSON S 
Ancient Egyptians, vol. i. pp. 266, 267. 

Romans i. 18. The best interpreters render the passage as given above. It 
will be observed Paul is expressly speaking of the heathen. 



IF there be this general coincidence between the systems of Babylon 
and Home, the question arises, Does the coincidence stop here 1 To 
this the answer is, Far otherwise. We have only to bring the 
ancient Babylonian Mysteries to bear on the whole system of Rome, 
and then it will be seen how immensely the one has borrowed from 
the other. These Mysteries were long shrouded in darkness, but 
now the thick darkness begins to pass away. All who have paid the 
least attention to the literature of Greece, Egypt, Phenicia, or Rome 
are aware of the place which the " Mysteries " occupied in these 
countries, and that, whatever circumstantial diversities there might 
be, in all essential respects these " Mysteries " in the different 
countries were the same. Now, as the language of Jeremiah, 
already quoted, would indicate that Babylon was the primal source 
from which all these systems of idolatry flowed, so the deductions 
of the most learned historians, on mere historical grounds, have led 
to the same conclusion.* From Zonarast we find that the con 
current testimony of the ancient authors he had consulted was to 
this effect; for, speaking of arithmetic and astronomy, he says: "It 
is said that these came from the Chaldees to the Egyptians, and thence 
to the Greeks." If the Egyptians and Greeks derived their arithmetic 
and astronomy from Chaldea, seeing these in Chaldea were sacred 
sciences, and monopolised by the priests, that is sufficient evidence 
that they must have derived their religion from the same quarter. 
Both Bunsen and Layard in their researches have come to substanti 
ally the same result. The statement of Bunsen is to the effect that the 
religious system of Egypt was derived from Asia, and "the primitive 
empire in Babel." J Layard, again, though taking a somewhat more 
favourable view of the system of the Chaldean MAGI, than, I am 
persuaded, the facts of history warrant, nevertheless thus speaks of 
that system : " Of the great antiquity of this primitive worship 
there is abundant evidence, and that it originated among the inhabit 
ants of the Assyrian plains, we have the united testimony of sacred 
and profane history. It obtained the epithet of perfect, and was 

* See HERODOTUS, lib. ii. cap. 109, and DIOGENES LAERTIUS, Proem, p. 2. 
f Lib. i. 6, p. 34. 
+ BUNSEN S Egypt, vol. i. p. 444. 


believed to be the most ancient of religious systems, having preceded 
that of the Egyptians (Egyptiis vero antiquiores esse MAGOS 
Aristoteles auctor est in primo de Philosophia libro. Theopompi 
Frag.)."* "The identity," he adds, "of many of the Assyrian 
doctrines with those of Egypt is alluded to by Porphyry and 
Clemens;" and, in connection with the same subject, he quotes 
the following from Birch on Babylonian cylinders and monuments : 
"The zodiacal signs .... show unequivocally that the Greeks 
derived their notions and arrangements of the zodiac [and con 
sequently their Mythology, that was intertwined with it] from the 
Chaldees. The identity of Nirnrod with the constellation Orion is 
not to be rejected."! Ouvaroff, also, in his learned work on the 
Eleusinian mysteries, has come to the same conclusion. After 
referring to the fact that the Egyptian priests claimed the honour 
of having transmitted to the Greeks the first elements of Polytheism, 
he thus concludes: "These positive facts would sufficiently prove, 
even without the conformity of ideas, that the Mysteries trans 
planted into Greece, and there united with a certain number of local 
notions, never lost the character of their origin derived from the 
cradle of the moral and religious ideas of the universe. All these 
separate facts all these scattered testimonies, recur to that fruitful 
principle which places in the East the centre of science and civilisa 
tion."! ^ thus we have evidence that Egypt and Greece derived 
their religion from Babylon, we have equal evidence that the 
religious system of the Phenicians came from the same source. 
Macrobius shows that the distinguishing feature of the Phenician 
idolatry must have been imported from Assyria, which, in classic 
writers, included Babylonia. " The worship of the Architic Venus," 
says he, " formerly flourished as much among the Assyrians as it 
does now among the Phenicians." 

Now to establish the identity between the systems of ancient 
Babylon and Papal Rome, we have just to inquire in how far does 
the system of the Papacy agree with the system established in these 
Babylonian Mysteries. In prosecuting such an inquiry there are 
considerable difficulties to be overcome ; for, as in geology, it is 
impossible at all points to reach the deep, underlying strata of the 
earth s surface, so it is not to be expected that in any one country 
we should find a complete and connected account of the system 
established in that country. But yet, even as the geologist, by 
examining the contents of a fissure here, an upheaval there, and 
what " crops out " of itself on the surface elsewhere, is enabled to 
determine, with wonderful certainty, the order and general contents 
of the different strata over all the earth, so is it with the subject of 
the Chaldean Mysteries. What is wanted in one country is sup 
plemented in another; and what actually "crops out "in different 

* LAYARD S Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 440. 
t Ibid. pp. 439, 440. 

+ OUVAROFP S Eleusinian Mysteries, sect. ii. p. 20. 
Saturnalia, lib. i. cap. 21, p. 79. 


directions, to a large extent necessarily determines the character of 
much that does not directly appear on the surface. Taking, then, 
the admitted unity and Babylonian character of the ancient Mysteries 
of Egypt, Greece, Phenicia, and Rome, as the clue to guide us in our 
researches, let us go on from step to step in our comparison of the 
doctrine and practice of the two Babylons the Babylon of the Old 
Testament and the Babylon of the New. 

And here I have to notice, first, the identity of the objects of worship 
in Babylon and Rome. The ancient Babylonians, just as the modern 
Romans, recognised in words the unity of the Godhead ; and, while 
worshipping innumerable minor deities, as possessed of certain 
influence on human affairs, they distinctly acknowledged that there 
was ONE infinite and Almighty Creator, supreme over all.* Most 
other nations did the same. " In the early ages of mankind," says 
Wilkinson in his " Ancient Egyptians," "the existence of a sole and 
omnipotent Deity, who created all things, seems to have been the 
universal belief ; and tradition taught men the same notions on this 
subject, which, in later times, have been adopted by all civilised 
nations."! "The Gothic religion," says Mallet, "taught the being 
of a supreme God, Master of the Universe, to whom all things were 
submissive and obedient." (Tacit, de Morib. Germ.) The ancient 
Icelandic mythology calls him "the Author of every thing that 
existeth, the eternal, the living, and awful Being ; the searcher into 
concealed things, the Being that never changeth." It attributeth to 
this deity "an infinite power, a boundless knowledge, and incor 
ruptible justice."| We have evidence of the same having been the 
faith of ancient Hindostan. Though modern Hinduism recognises 
millions of gods, yet the Indian sacred books show that originally it 
had been far otherwise. Major Moor, speaking of Brahm, the 
supreme God of the Hindoos, says : " Of Him whose Glory is so 
great, there is no image " (Veda). He " illumines all, delights all, 
whence all proceeded ; that by which they live when born, and that 
to which all must return " (Yeda). In the " Institutes of Menu," 
he is characterised as " He whom the mind alone can perceive ; 
whose essence eludes the external organs, who has no visible parts, 
who exists from eternity .... the soul of all beings, whom no 
being can comprehend." || In these passages, there is a trace of 
the existence of Pantheism ; but the very language employed bears 
testimony to the existence among the Hindoos at one period of a far 
purer faith. 

Nay, not merely had the ancient Hindoos exalted ideas of the 
natural perfections of God, but there is evidence that they were well 
aware of the gracious character of God, as revealed in His dealings 
with a lost and guilty world. This is manifest from the very name 

* JAMBLICHUS, sect. viii. chap. ii. MACBOBIUS, Saturnalia, p. 65. 

t WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 176. 

$ MALLET S Northern Antiquities, vol. i. pp. 78, 79. 

MOOR S Pantheon, p. 4. 

|| Col. VANS KENNEDY S Hindoo Mythology, p. 270. 


Bralim, appropriated by them to the one infinite and eternal God. 
There has been a great deal of unsatisfactory speculation in regard 
to the meaning of this name, but when the different statements in 
regard to Brahm are carefully considered, it becomes evident that 
the name Brahm is just the Hebrew Rahm, with the digamma pre 
fixed, which is very frequent in Sanscrit words derived from Hebrew 
or Chaldee. Rahm in Hebrew signifies "The merciful or compas 
sionate one."* But Rahm also signifies the WOMBJ or the bowels / J 
as the seat of compassion. Now we find such language applied to 
Brahm, the one supreme God, as cannot be accounted for, except on 
the supposition that Brahm had the very same meaning as the 
Hebrew Rahm. Thus, we find the God Crishna, in one of the 
Hindoo sacred books, when asserting his high dignity as a divinity 
and his identity with the Supreme, using the following words : " The 
great Brahm is my WOMB, and in it I place my foetus, and from it is 
the procreation of all nature. The great Brahm is the WOMB of all 
the various forms which are conceived in every natural womb." 
How could such language ever have been applied to " The supreme 
Brahm, the most holy, the most high God, the Divine being, before all 
other gods ; without birth, the mighty Lord, God of gods, the uni 
versal Lord," || but from the connection between Rahm "the womb" 
and Rahm "the merciful one" 1 ? Here, then, we find that Brahm is 
just the same as "Er-Rahman," "The all-merciful one," a title 
applied by the Turks to the Most High, and that the Hindoos, not 
withstanding their deep religious degradation now, had once known 
that " the most holy, most high God," is also " The God of Mercy," in 
other words, that he is " a just God and a Saviour." 1T And proceeding 
on this interpretation of the name Brahm, we see how exactly their 
religious knowledge as to the creation had coincided with the account 
of the origin of all things, as given in Genesis. It is well known 
that the Brahmins, to exalt themselves as a priestly, half-divine 
caste, to whom all others ought to bow down, have for many ages 
taught that, while the other castes came from the arms, and body 
and feet of Brahma the visible representative and manifestation of 
the invisible Brahm, and identified with him they alone came 
from the mouth of the creative God. Now we find statements in 
their sacred books which prove that once a very different doctrine 
must have been taught. Thus, in one of the Vedas, speaking of 
Brahma, it is expressly stated that " ALL beings " " are created from 
his MOUTH." ** In the passage in question an attempt is made to 
mystify the matter; but, taken in connection with the meaning of 
the name Brahm, as already given, who can doubt what was the 

* See PABKHURST S Hebrew Lexicon, sub vocc, No. V. 
t Ibid. No. II. 
$ Ibid. No. IV. 

Moon s Pantheon, "Crishna," p. 211. 
|| GITA, p. 86, apud MOOR. 

IT For further evidence as to Hindu knowledge on this subject, see near the end 
of next section. 

** Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 294. London, 1807. 


real meaning of the statement, opposed though it be to the lofty and 
exclusive pretensions of the Brahmins 1 It evidently meant that He 
who, ever since the fall, has been revealed to man as the " Merciful* 
and Gracious One " (Exod. xxxiv. 6), was known at the same time 
as the Almighty One, who in the beginning "spake and it was 
done," " commanded and all things stood fast," who made all things 
by the " Word of His power." After what has now been said, any one 
who consults the "Asiatic Researches," vol. vii. p. 293, may see 
that it is in a great measure from a wicked perversion of this Divine 
title of the One Living and True God, a title that ought to have been 
so dear to sinful men, that all those moral abominations have come 
that make the symbols of the pagan temples of India so offensive to 
the eye of purity. f 

So utterly idolatrous was the Babylonian recognition of the Divine 
unity, that Jehovah, the Living God, severely condemned His own 
people for giving any countenance to it : " They that sanctify them 
selves, and purify themselves in the gardens, after the rites of the 
ONLY ONE,J eating swine s flesh, and the abomination, and the 
mouse, shall be consumed together" (Isaiah Ixvi. 17). In the unity 
of that one Only God of the Babylonians, there were three persons, 
and to symbolise that doctrine of the Trinity, they employed, as the 
discoveries of Layard prove, the equilateral triangle, just as it is 
well known the Romish Church does at this day. In both cases 

* The word in the original of Exodus is the very same as rahm, only in a 
participial form. 

f While such is the meaning of Brahin, the meaning of Deva, the generic name 
for " God " in India, is near akin to it. That name is commonly derived from the 
Sanscrit, Div, " to shine," only a different form of Shiv, which has the same 
meaning, which again comes from the Chaldee, Ziv, "brightness or splendour" 
(Dan. ii. 31) ; and, no doubt, when sun-worship was engrafted on the Patriarchal 
faith, the visible splendour of the deified luminary might be suggested by the name. 
But there is reason to believe that "Deva" has a much more honourable origin, 
and that it really came originally from the Chaldee, Thav, "good," which is also 
legitimately pronounced Thev, and in the emphatic form is Theva or Thevo, " The 
Good." The first letter, represented by Th, as shown by Donaldson in his New 
Cratylvs, is frequently pronounced Dh. Hence, from Dheva or Theva, "The 
Good," naturally comes the Sanscrit, Deva, or, without the digamma, as it 
frequently is, Deo, "God," the Latin, Dens, and the Greek, Theos, the digamma 
in the original Thevo-s being also dropped, as novus in Latin is neos in Greek. 
This view of the matter gives an emphasis to the saying of our Lord (Matt, 
xix. 17) : " There is none good but One, that is (Theos) God " "The Good." 

I The words in our translation are, "behind one tree," but there is no word in 
the original for "tree" ; and it is admitted by Lowth, and the best orientalists, 
that the rendering should be, "after the rites of Achad," i.e., "The Only One. 

I am aware that some object to making " Achad " signify, " The Only One," on 
the ground that it wants the article. But how little weight is in this, may be 
seen from the fact that it is this very term " Achad," and that without the article, 
that is used in Deuteronomy, when the Unity of the Godhead is asserted in the 
most emphatic manner, " Hear, O Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah," i.e., 

II only Jehovah." When it is intended to assert the Unity of the Godhead in the 
strongest possible manner, the Babylonians used the term "Adad." Macrobii 
Saturnalia, lib. i. cap. 23, p. 73. 

LAYARD S Babylon and Nineveh, p. 605. The Egyptians also used the triangle 
as a symbol of their "triform divinity." See MAURICE S Indian Antiquities, 
vol. iv. p. 445. London, 1794. 



such a comparison is most degrading to the King Eternal, and is 
fitted utterly to pervert the minds of those who contemplate it, as if 
there was or could be any similitude between such a figure and Him 
who hath said, " To whom will ye liken God, and what likeness will 
ye compare unto Him ? " 

The Papacy has in some of its churches, as, for instance, in the 
monastery of the so-called Trinitarians of Madrid, an image of the 
Triune God, with three heads on one body.* The Babylonians had 
something of the same. Mr. Layard, in his last work, has given a 
specimen of such a triune divinity, worshipped in ancient Assyria f 
(Fig. 3). The accompanying cut (Fig. 4) of such another divinity, 
worshipped among the Pagans of Siberia, is taken from a medal in 
the Imperial Cabinet of St. Petersburg, and given in Parson s 
"Japhet."J The three heads are differently arranged in Layard s 
specimen, but both alike are evidently intended to symbolise the 
same great truth, although all such representations of the Trinity 

Fig. 4. 

necessarily and utterly debase the conceptions of those, among whom 
such images prevail, in regard to that sublime mystery of our faith. 
In India, the supreme divinity, in like manner, in one of the most 

* PABKHURST S Hebrew Lexicon, sub voce, " Cherubim." From the following 
extract from the Dublin Catholic Layman, a very able Protestant paper, describing 
a Popish picture of the Trinity, recently published in that city, it will be seen that 
something akin to this mode of representing the Godhead is appearing nearer 
home : " At the top of the picture is a representation of the Holy Trinity. We 
beg to speak of it with due reverence. God the Father and God the Son are 
represented as a MAN with two heads, one body, and two arms. One of the heads 
is like the ordinary pictures of our Saviour. The other is the head of an old man, 
surmounted by a triangle. Out of the middle of this figure is proceeding the Holy 
Ghost in the form of a dove. We think it must be painful to any Christian 
mind, and repugnaot to Christian feeling, to look at this figure." Catholic 
Layman, 17th July, 1856. 

t Babylon and Nineveh, p. 160. Some have said that the plural form of the 
name of God, in the Hebrew of Genesis, affords no argument for the doctrine of 
plurality of persons in the Godhead, because the same word in the plural is applied 
to heathen divinities. But if the supreme divinity in almost all ancient heathen 
nations was triune, the futility of this objection must be manifest. 

$ Japhet, p. 184. 


ancient cave-temples, is represented with three heads on one body, 
under the name of "Eko Deva Trirnurtti," "One God, three 
forms."* In Japan, the Buddhists worship their great divinity, 
Buddha, with three heads, in the very same form, under the name of 
" San Pao Fuh."f All these have existed from ancient times. While 
overlaid with idolatry, the recognition of a Trinity was universal in 
all the ancient nations of the world, proving how deep-rooted in 
the human race was the primeval doctrine on this subject, which 
comes out so distinctly in Genesis. J When we look at the symbols 
in the triune figure of Layard, already referred to, and minutely 
examine them, they are very instructive. Layard regards the 
circle in that figure as signifying " Time without bounds." But the 
hieroglyphic meaning of the circle is evidently different. A circle in 
Chaldea was zero; and zero also signified "the seed." Therefore, 
according to the genius of the mystic system of Chaldea, which was 
to a large extent founded on double meanings, that which, to the 
eyes of men in general, was only zero, " a circle," was understood by 
the initiated to signify zero, "the seed." Now, viewed in this light, 
the triune emblem of the supreme Assyrian divinity shows clearly 
what had been the original patriarchal faith. First, there is the 
head of the old man ; next, there is the zero, or circle, for " the 
seed;" and lastly, the wings and tail of the bird or dove ;|| show 
ing, though blasphemously, the unity of Father, Seed, or Son, and 

* Col. KENNEDY S Hindoo Mythology, p. 211. Col. Kennedy objects to the 
application of the name "Eko Deva" to the triform image in the cave-temple at 
Elephanta, on the ground that that name belongs only to the supreme Brahm. 
But in so doing he is entirely inconsistent, for he admits that Brahma, the first 
person in that triform image, is identified with the supreme Brahm ; and further, 
that a curse is pronounced upon all who distinguish between Brahmk, Vishnu, 
and Seva, the three divinities represented by that image. 

f GILLESPIE S Sinim, p. 60. 

+ The threefold invocation of the sacred name in the blessing of Jacob bestowed 
on the sons of Joseph is very striking : " And he blessed Joseph, and said, God, 
before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all 
my life long unto this day, the Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the 
lads" (Gen. xlviii. 15, 16). If the angel here referred to had not been God, 
Jacob could never have invoked him as on an equality with God. In Hosea 
xii. 3-5, "The Angel who redeemed" Jacob is expressly called God: "He 
(Jacob) had power with God : yea, he had power over the Angel, and prevailed ; 
he wept and made supplication unto him : he found him in Bethel, and there he 
spake with us ; even the Lord God of Hosts ; The Lord is his memorial." 

In our own language we have evidence that Zero had signified a circle among 
the Chaldeans ; for what is Zero, the name of the cypher, but just a circle ? And 
whence can we have derived this term but from the Arabians, as they, without doubt, 
had themselves derived it from the Chaldees, the grand original cultivators at once 
of arithmetic, geometry, and idolatry ? Zero, in this sense, had evidently come from 
the Chaldee, zer, "to encompass," from which, also, no doubt, was derived the 
Babylonian name for a great cycle of time, called a " saros." (BuNSEN, vol. i. pp. 
711, 712.) As he, who by the Chaldeans was regarded as the great "Seed," was 
looked upon as the sun incarnate (see chap. iii. sect, i.), and as the emblem of the 
sun was a circle (BuNSEN, vol. i. p. 335, and p. 537, No. 4), the hieroglyphical 
relation between zero, "the circle," and zero, "the seed," was easily established. 

|| From the statement in Gen. i. 2, that "the Spirit of God fluttered on the face 
of the deep " (for that is the expression in the original), it is evident that the dove 
had very early been a Divine emblem for the Holy Spirit. 



Holy Ghost. While this had been the original way in which Pagan 
idolatry had represented the Triune God, and though this kind of 
representation had survived to Sennacherib s time, yet there is 
evidence that, at a very early period, an important change had taken 
place in the Babylonian notions in regard to the divinity ; and that 
the three persons had come to be, the Eternal Father, the Spirit of 
God incarnate in a human mother, and a Divine Son, the fruit of that 


While this was the theory, the first person in the Godhead was 
practically overlooked. As the Great Invisible, taking no immediate 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 5. 

From Babylon.* 

From India.f 

concern in human affairs, he was " to be worshipped through silence 
alone,"| that is, in point of fact, he was not worshipped by the 
multitude at all. The same thing is strikingly illustrated in India 
at this day. Though Brahma, according to the sacred books, is 

* From KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. p. 31. 

+ Indrani, the wife of the Indian god Indra, from Asiatic Researches, vol. vi. 
p. 393. 

JAMBLICHUS, On the Mysteries, sect. viii. chap. iii. 


the first person of the Hindoo Triad, and the religion of Hindostan 
is called by his name, yet he is never worshipped, and there is 
scarcely a single Temple in all India now in existence of those that 
were formerly erected to his honour.* So also is it in those countries 
of Europe where the Papal system is most completely developed. 
In Papal Italy, as travellers universally admit (except where the 
Gospel has recently entered), all appearance of worshipping the 
King Eternal and Invisible is almost extinct, while the Mother and 
the Child are the grand objects of worship. Exactly so, in this 
latter respect, also was it in ancient Babylon. The Babylonians, 
in their popular religion, supremely worshipped a Goddess Mother 
and a Son, who was represented in pictures and in images as an 
infant or child in his mother s arms (Figs. 5 and 6). From Babylon, 
this worship of the Mother and the Child spread to the ends of the 
earth. In Egypt, the Mother and the Child were worshipped under 
the names of Isis and Osiris, f In India, even to this day, as Isi 
and Iswara ; J in Asia, as Cybele and Deoius ; in Pagan Konie, as 
Fortuna and Jupiter-puer, or Jupiter, the boy ; || in Greece, as Ceres, 
the Great Mother, with the babe at her breast, 1 !! or as Irene, the 
goddess of Peace, with the boy Plutus in her arms ; ** and even in 
Thibet, in China, and Japan, the Jesuit missionaries were astonished 
to find the counterpart of Madonnaff and her child as devoutly 

* WARD S View of the Hindus, apud KENNEDY S Researches into Ancient and 
Modem Mythology, p. 196. 

t Osiris, as the child called most frequently Horns. Bunsen, vol. i. p. 438, 
compared with pp. 433, 434. 

^ KENNEDY S Hindoo Mythology, p. 49. Though Iswara is the husband of Isi, 
he is also represented as an infant at her breast. Ibid. p. 338, Note. 

DYMOCK S Classical Dictionary, "Cybele" and "Deoiua." 

|| CICERO S Works, De Divinatione, lib. ii. cap. 41, vol. iii. p. 77. 

IT SOPHOCLES, Antigone, v. 1133. 

** PAUSANIAS, lib. i. ATTIOA, cap. 8. 

H- The very name by which the Italians commonly designate the Virgin, 
is just the translation of one of the titles of the Babylonian goddess. As Baal 
or Belus was the name of the great male divinity of Babylon, so the female 
divinity was called Beltis. (HESYCHius, Lexicon, p. 188.) This name has been 
found in Nineveh applied to the " Mother of the gods " (VAUX S Nineveh and 
Persepolis, p. 459) ; and in a speech attributed to Nebuchadnezzar, preserved 
in EUSEBII Prceparatio Evangelii, lib. ix. cap. 41, both titles "Belus and Beltis " 
are conjoined as the titles of the great Babylonian god and goddess. The Greek 
Belus, as representing the highest title of the Babylonian god, was undoubtedly 
Baal, "The Lord." Beltis, therefore, as the title of the female divinity, was 
equivalent to " Baalti," which, in English, is "My Lady," in Latin, "Mea 
Domina," and, in Italian, is corrupted into the well-known "Madonna." In 
connection with this, it may be observed, that the name of Juno, the classical 
" Queen of Heaven," which, in Greek, was Hera, also signified " The Lady ; " 
and that the peculiar title of Cybele or Rhea at Rome, was Domina or " The 
Lady." (OviD, Fasti, lib. iv. v. 340.) Further, there is strong reason to believe, 
that Athena, the well-known name of Minerva at Athens, had the very same 
meaning. The Hebrew Adon, "The Lord," is, with the points, pronounced 
Athon. We have evidence that this name was known to the Asiatic Greeks, 
from whom idolatry, in a large measure, came into European Greece, as a name 
of God under the form of "A than." Eustathius, in a note on the Periergesis 
of Dionysius (v. 915, apud BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 140), speaking of local names in 
the district of Laodicea, says that " Athan is god." The feminine of Athan, " The 


worshipped as in Papal Rome itself ; Shing Moo, the Holy Mother 
in China, being represented with a child in her arms, and a glory 
around her, exactly as if a Roman Catholic artist had been employed 
to set her up.* 


The original of that mother, so widely worshipped, there is reason 
to believe, was Semiramis,f already referred to, who, it is well 
known, was worshipped by the Babylonians, J and other eastern 
nations, and that under the name of Rhea,|| the great Goddess 
" Mother." 

It was from the son, however, that she derived all her glory and 
her claims to deification. That son, though represented as a child 
in his mother s arms, was a person of great stature and immense 
bodily powers, as well as most fascinating manners. In Scripture 
he is referred to (Ezek. viii. 14) under the name of Tammuz, but he 
is commonly known among classical writers under the name of 
Bacchus, that is, " The Lamented one."U To the ordinary reader 

Lord," is Athana, "The Lady," which in the Attic dialect, is Athena. No 
doubt, Minerva is commonly represented as a virgin ; but, for all that, we learn 
from Strabo (Lib. x. cap. 3, p. 405. Paris, 1853), that at Hierapytna in Crete (the 
coins of which city, says Miiller, Dorians, vol. i. p. 413, have the Athenian 
symbols of Minerva upon them), she was said to be the mother of the Corjbantes 
by Helius, or "The Sun." It is certain that the Egyptian Minerva, who was the 
prototype of the Athenian goddess, was a mother, and was styled " Goddess 
Mother," or "Mother of the Gods." See WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 285. 

* CRABB S Mythology, p. 150. Gutzlaff thought that Shing Moo must have 
been borrowed from a Popish source ; and there can be no doubt, that in the 
individual case to which he refers, the Pagan and the Christian stories had been 
amalgamated. But Sir J. F. Davis shows that the Chinese of Canton find such 
an analogy between their own Pagan goddess Kuanyin and the Popish Madonna, 
that, in conversing with Europeans, they frequently call either of them indifferently 
by the same title. DAVIS S China, vol. ii. p. 56. The first Jesuit missionaries 
to China also wrote home to Europe, that they found mention in the Chinese 
sacred books books unequivocally Pagan of a mother and child, very similar 
to their own Madonna and child at home. See LE PERK LAFITAN, Les Mceurs des 
Sauvages Ameriquains, vol. i. p. 235, Note. 

One of the names of the Chinese Holy Mother is Ma Tsoopo ; in regard to 
which, see Appendix, Note C. 

f Sir H. Rawlinson having found evidence at Nineveh, of the existence of a 
Semiramis about six or seven centuries before the Christian era, seems inclined 
to regard her as the only Semiramis that ever existed. But this is subversive 
of all history. The fact that there was a Semiramis in the primeval ages of the 
world, is beyond all doubt (see JUSTIN, Historia, p. 615, and the historian CASTOR 
in Cory s Fragments, p. 65), although some of the exploits of the latter queen have 
evidently been attributed to her predecessor. Mr. Layard dissents from Sir 
H. Rawlinson s opinion. 

+ See DIODORUS SICULUS, lib. ii. p. 76. 

ATHENAGORAS, Legatio, pp. 178, 179. 

|| PASCHAL, Chronicle, vol. i. p. 65. 

11 From Bakhah "to weep" or "lament." Among the Phenicians, says 
Hesychius, " Bacchos means weeping," p. ] 79. As the women wept for Tammuz, 
so did they for Bacchus. 


the name of Bacchus suggests nothing more than revelry and 
drunkenness, but it is now well known, that amid all the abomina 
tions that attended his orgies, their grand design was professedly 
" the purification of souls,"* and that from the guilt and defilement of 
sin. This lamented one, exhibited and adored as a little child in his 
mother s arms, seems, in point of fact, to have been the husband of 
Semiramis, whose name, Ninus, by which he is commonly known in 
classical history, literally signified " The Son."f As Semiramis, the 
wife, was worshipped as Rhea, whose grand distinguishing character 
was that of the great goddess " Mother,"! the conjunction with her 
of her husband, under the name of Ninus, or " The Son," was 
sufficient to originate the peculiar worship of the " Mother and 
Son," so extensively diffused among the nations of antiquity ; and 
this, no doubt, is the explanation of the fact which has so much 
puzzled the inquirers into ancient history, that Ninus is sometimes 
called the husband, and sometimes the son of Semiramis. This 
also accounts for the origin of the very same confusion of relationship 
between Isis and Osiris, the mother and child of the Egyptians ; for 
as Bunsen shows, Osiris was represented in Egypt as at once the son 
and husband of his mother ; and actually bore, as one of his titles of 
dignity and honour, the name " Husband of the Mother."|| This 

* SEBVIUS, in Georg., lib. i. vol. ii. p. 197, and in ^Eneid, lib. vi. vol. i. p. 400. 

f From Nin, in Hebrew, " A Son." 

As such Rhea was called by the Greeks, Ammas ; see HESYCHIUS, sub voce 
" Ammas." Ammas is evidently the Greek form of the Chaldee Ama, " Mother." 

LATAKD S Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 480. 

|| BUNSEN, vol. i. pp. 438, 439. It may be observed that this very name 
" Husband of the Mother," given to Osiris, seems even at this day to be in 
common use among ourselves, although there is not the least suspicion of the 
meaning of the term, or whence it has come. Herodotus mentions that when in 
Egypt, he was astonished to hear the very same mournful but ravishing "Song of 
Linus," sung by the Egyptians (although under another name), which he had 
been accustomed to hear in his own native land of Greece (HEROD., lib. ii. cap. 79). 
Linus was the same god as the Bacchus of Greece, or Osiris of Egypt ; for Homer 
introd\ices a boy singing the song of Linus, while the vintage is going on (Jlias, 
lib. xviii. v. 569-571, pp. 725, 726), and the Scholiast says that this song was sung 
in memory of Linus, who was torn in pieces by dogs. The epithet "dogs," applied 
to those who tore Linus in pieces, is evidently used in a mystical sense, and it will 
afterwards be seen how thoroughly the other name by which he is known 
Narcissus identifies him with the Greek Bacchus and Egyptian Osiris. In 
some places in Egypt, for the song of Linus or Osiris, a peculiar melody seems to 
have been used. Savary says that, in the temple of Abydos, "the priest repeated 
the seven vowels in the form of hymns, and that musicians were forbid to enter 
it." Letters, p. 566. Strabo, whom Savary refers to, calls the god of that temple 
Memnon, but we learn from Wilkinson, vol. iv. pp. 344, 345, that Osiris was the 
great god of Abydos, whence it is evident that Memnon and Osiris were only 
different names of the same divinity. Now the name of Linus or Osiris, as the 
"husband of his mother," in Egypt, was Kamut (BUNSEN, vol. i. pp. 373, 374). 
When Gregory the Great introduced into the Church of Rome what are now 
called the Gregorian Chants, he got them from the Chaldean mysteries, which 
had long been established in Rome; for the Roman Catholic priest, Eustace, 
admits that these chants were largely composed of " Lydian and Phrygian 
tunes" (Classical Tour, vol. i. p. 379), Lydia and Phrygia being among the 
chief seats in later times of those mysteries, of which the Egyptian mysteries 
were only a, branch. These tunes were sacred the music of the great god, and 


still further casts light on the fact already noticed, that the Indian 
God Iswara is represented as a babe at the breast of his own wife 
Isi, or Parvati. 

Now, this Ninus, or " Son," borne in the arms of the Babylonian 
Madonna, is so described as very clearly to identify him with 
Nimrod. " Ninus, king of the Assyrians,"* says Trogus Pompeius, 
epitomised by Justin, " first of all changed the contented moderation 
of the ancient manners, incited by a new passion, the desire of 
conquest. He was the first who carried on ivar against his neighbours, 
and he conquered all nations from Assyria to Lybia, as they were 
yet unacquainted with the arts of war." f This account points 
directly to Nimrod, and can apply to no other. The account of 
Diodorus Siculus entirely agrees with it, and adds another trait 
that goes still further to determine the identity. That account is as 
follows : " Ninus, the most ancient of the Assyrian kings men 
tioned in history, performed great actions. Being naturally of a 
warlike disposition, and ambitious of glory that results from valour, 
he armed a considerable number of young men that were brave and 
vigorous like himself, trained them up a long time in laborious 
exercises and hardships, and by that means accustomed them to 
bear the fatigues of war, and to face dangers with intrepidity." J 
As Diodorus makes Ninus "the most ancient of the Assyrian 
kings," and represents him as beginning those wars which raised 
his power to an extraordinary height by bringing the people of 
Babylonia under subjection to him, while as yet the city of Babylon 
was not in existence, this shows that he occupied the very position 
of Nimrod, of whom the Scriptural account is, that he first "began 
to be mighty on the earth," and that the " beginning of his kingdom 
was Babylon." As the Babel builders, when their speech was 
confounded, were scattered abroad on the face of the earth, and 
therefore deserted both the city and the tower which they had 
commenced to build, Babylon as a city, could not properly be said 
to exist till Nimrod, by establishing his power there, made it the 
foundation and starting-point of his greatness. In this respect, 
then, the story of Ninus and of Nimrod exactly harmonise. The 
way, too, in which Ninus gained his power is the very way in which 
Nimrod erected his. There can be no doubt that it was by inuring 
his followers to the toils and dangers of the chase, that he gradually 
formed them to the use of arms, and so prepared them for aiding him in 
establishing his dominion ; just as Ninus, by training his companions 

in introducing them Gregory introduced the music of Kamut. And thus, to all 
appearance, has it come to pass, that the name of Osiris or Kamut, " the husband 
of the mother," is in every-day use among ourselves as the name of the musical 
scale ; for what is the melody of Osiris, consisting of the "seven vowels" formed 
into a hymn, but the Gamut ? 

* The name " Assyrians," as has already been noticed, has a wide latitude of 
meaning among the classic authors, taking in the Babylonians as well as the 
Assyrians proper. 

f JUSTIN S Trogus Pompeius, Hist. Rom. Script., vol. ii. p. 615. 

DIODORDS, Eibliotheca, lib. ii. p. 63. , 


for a long time " in laborious exercises and hardships," qualified them 
for making him the first of the Assyrian kings. 

The conclusions deduced from these testimonies of ancient history 
are greatly strengthened by many additional considerations. In 
Gen. x. 11, we find a passage, which, when its meaning is properly 
understood, casts a very steady light on the subject. That passage, 
as given in the authorised version, runs thus : " Out of that land 
went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh." This speaks of it as 
something remarkable, that Asshur went out of the land of Shinar, 
while yet the human race in general went forth from the same land. 
It goes upon the supposition that Asshur had some sort of divine 
right to that land, and that he had been, in a manner, expelled from 
it by Nimrod, while no divine right is elsewhere hinted at in the 
context, or seems capable of proof. Moreover, it represents Asshur 
as setting up in the IMMEDIATE NEIGHBOURHOOD of Nimrod as mighty 
a kingdom as Nimrod himself, Asshur building four cities, one of 
which is emphatically said to have been "great" (ver. 12); while 
Nimrod, on this interpretation, built just the same number of cities, 
of which none is specially characterised as "great." Now, it is in 
the last degree improbable that Nimrod would have quietly borne so 
mighty a rival so near him. To obviate such difficulties as these, it 
has been proposed to render the words, " out of that land he 
(Nimrod) went forth into Asshur, or Assyria." But then, according 
to ordinary usage of grammar, the word in the original should have 
been " Ashurah," with the sign of motion to a place affixed to it, 
whereas it is simply Asshur, without any such sign of motion 
affixed. I am persuaded that the whole perplexity that com 
mentators have hitherto felt in considering this passage, has arisen 
from supposing that there is a proper name in the passage, where in 
reality no proper name exists. Asshur is the passive participle of a 
verb, which, in its Chaldee sense, signifies " to make strong"* and, 
consequently, signifies "being strengthened," or "made strong." 
Read thus, the whole passage is natural and easy (ver. 10), "And 
the beginning of his (Nimrod s) kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and 
Accad, and Calrieh." A beginning naturally implies something to 
succeed, and here we find it (ver. 11) ; "Out of that land he went 
forth, being made strong, or when he had been made strong (Ashur), 
and builded Nineveh," &c. Now, this exactly agrees with the 
statement in the ancient history of Justin : " Ninus strengthened 
the greatness of his acquired dominion by continued possession. 
Having subdued, therefore, his neighbours, when, by an accession 
of forces, being still further strengthened, he went forth against 

* See Chaldee Lexicon in Clavis Stoclcii, where the verb"asher" is rendered 
"firmavit roboravit." Ashur, the passive participle, is consequently "firmatus, 
roboratus." Even in Hebrew this sense seems to be inherent in the verb, as may 
be concluded from the noun te-ashur, the name of the box-tree (Isaiah Ix. 13), the 
wood of that tree being remarkable for its firmness and compactness. Even in the 
ordinary Hebrew sense, the meaning is substantially the same ; for as Asher 
means " to prosper," or "make prosperous," Ashur, in the participle passive, must 
signify "prospered," or "made prosperous." 


other tribes, and every new victory paved the way for another, he 
subdued all the peoples of the East."* Thus, then, Nimrod, or 
Ninus, was the builder of Nineveh ; and the origin of the name 
of that city, as "the habitation of Ninus," is accounted for,f and 
light is thereby, at the same time, cast on the fact, that the name of 
the chief part of the ruins of Nineveh is Nimroud at this day. J 

Now, assuming that Ninus is Nimrod, the way in which that 
assumption explains what is otherwise inexplicable in the statements 
of ancient history greatly confirms the truth of that assumption itself. 
Ninus is said to have been the son of Belus or Bel, and Bel is said to 
have been the founder of Babylon. If Ninus was in reality the first 
king of Babylon, how could Belus or Bel, his father, be said to be the 
founder of it 1 Both might very well be, as will appear if we con 
sider who was Bel, and what we can trace of his doings. If Ninus 
was Nimrod, who was the historical Bel 1 He must have been Gush ; 
for " Gush begat Nimrod " (Gen. x. 8) ; and Gush is generally repre 
sented as having been a ringleader in the great apostacy. But 
again, Gush, as the son of Ham, was Her-mes or Mercury ; for 
Hermes is just an Egyptian synonym for the "son of Ham." || Now, 
Hermes was the great original prophet of idolatry; for he was 

* JUSTIN, Hist. Rom. Script., vol. ii. p. 615. The words of the original are the 
following: "Ninus magnitudinem qusesitse dominationis continua possessione 
firmavit. Cum accessione virum fortior, ad alios transiret, et proxima quaeque 
victoria instrumentum sequentis esset totius Orientis populos subegit." 

f Nin-neveh, "The habitation of Ninus." 

+ LAYARD S Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. p. 7, et passim. 

See GEEGORIDS TURONENSIS, De rerum Franc., lib. i., apud, BRYANT, vol. ii. 
pp. 403, 404. Gregory attributes to Gush what was said more generally to have 
befallen his son ; but his statement shows the belief in his day, which is amply 
confirmed from other sources, that Gush had a pre-eminent share in leading man 
kind away from the true worship of God. 

|| The composition of Her-mes is, first, from " Her," which, in Chaldee, is 
synonymous with Ham, or Khem, "The burnt one." As "Her" also, like Ham, 
signified "The hot or burning one," this name formed a foundation for covertly 
identifying Ham with the "Sun," and so deifying the great patriarch, after whose 
name the land of Egypt was called, in connection with the sun. Khem, or Ham, 
in his own name was openly worshipped in later ages in the land of Ham 
(BuNSKN, vol. i. p. 373) ; but this would have been too daring at first. By 
means of "Her," the synonym, however, the way was paved for this. "Her" is 
the name of Horus, who is identified with the sun (BuNSEN, vol. i. p. 507), which 
shows the real etymology of the name to be from the verb to which I have traced 
it. Then, secondly, "Mes" is from Mesheh (or, without the last radical, which is 
omissible, see PARKHURST, sub voce, p. 416), Mesh, "to draw forth" In 
Egyptian, we have Ms in the sense of "to bring forth" (BuNSEN, vol. i., Hierogly- 
phical Signs, Append., b. 43, p. 540), which is evidently a different form of the 
same word. In the passive sense, also, we find Ms used (BuNSEN, Vocabulary, 
Appendix i. p. 470, at bottom, &c., "Ms .... born"). The radical meaning of 
Mesheh in Stockii Lexicon, is given in Latin " Extraxit," and our English word 
"extraction," as applied to birth or descent, shows that there is a connection be 
tween the generic meaning of this word and birth. This derivation will be found 
to explain the meaning of the names of the Egyptian kings, Harnesses and Thoth- 
mes, the former evidently being "The son of Ra," or the Sun ; for Harnesses is 
*H\ioi> TTCUS (AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, lib. 17, cap. 4, p. 162) ; the latter, in like 
manner, being " The son of Thoth." For the very same reason Her-mes is the 
" Son of Her, or Ham," the burnt one that is, Gush. 


recognised by the pagans as the author of their religious rites, and 
the interpreter of the gods. The distinguished Gesenius identifies 
him with the Babylonian Nebo, as the prophetic god ; and a state 
ment of Hyginus shows that he was known as the grand agent in that 
movement which produced the division of tongues. His words are 
these : " For many ages men lived under the government of Jove 
[evidently not the Roman Jupiter, but the Jehovah of the Hebrews], 
without cities and without laws, and all speaking one language. 
But after that Mercury interpreted the speeches of men (whence an 
interpreter is called Hermeneutes), the same individual distributed 
the nations. Then discord began."* Here there is a manifest 
enigma. How could Mercury or Hermes have any need to interpret 
the speeches of mankind when they " all spake one language " ? To 
find out the meaning of this, we must go to the language of the 
Mysteries. Peresh, in Chaldee, signifies "to interpret;" but was 
pronounced by old Egyptians and by Greeks, and often by the 
Chaldees themselves, in the same way as "Peres," to "divide." 
Mercury, then, or Hermes, or Gush, "the son of Ham," was the 
" DIVIDER of the speeches of men." He, it would seem, had been the 
ringleader in the scheme for building the great city and tower of 
Babel ; and, as the well-known title of Hermes, " the interpreter of 
the gods," would indicate, had encouraged them, in the name of God, 
to proceed in their presumptuous enterprise, and so had caused the 
language of men to be divided, and themselves to be scattered abroad 
on the face of the earth. Now look at the name of Belus or Bel, 
given to the father of Ninus, or Nimrod, in connection with this. 
While the Greek name Belus represented both the Baal and Bel of 
the Chaldees, these were nevertheless two entirely distinct titles. 
These titles were both alike often given to the same god, but they 
had totally different meanings. Baal, as we have already seen, 
signified "The Lord ;" but Bel signified "The Confounder." When, 
then, we read that Belus, the father of Ninus, was he that built or 
founded Babylon, can there be a doubt, in what sense it was that the 
title of Belus was given to him ? It must have been in the sense of 
Bel the "Confounder." And to this meaning of the name of the 
Babylonian Bel, there is a very distinct allusion in Jeremiah i. 2, 
where it is said "Bel is confounded," that is, "The Confounder is 
brought to confusion." That Gush was known to Pagan antiquity 
under the very character of Bel, " The Confounder," a statement of 
Ovid very clearly proves. The statement to which I refer is that in 
which Janus " the god of gods," f from whom all the other gods had 
their origin, \ is made to say of himself : "The ancients .... called 
me Chaos." Now, first this decisively shows that Chaos was known 

* HYGINUS, Fab. 143, p. 114. Phoroneus is represented as king at this time. 

t Janus was so called in the most ancient hymns of the Salii. MACROS., 
Saturn, lib. i. cap. 9, p. 54, col. 2, H. 

$ By Terentianus Maurus he is called " Principium Deorum." BRYANT, vol. 
iii. p. 82. 

Me Chaos antiqui nam res sum prisca vocabant. Fasti, lib. i. v. 104, vol. iii. 
p. 19. 



not merely as a state of confusion, but as the "god of Confusion." 
But, secondly, who that is at all acquainted with the laws of Chaldaic 
pronunciation, does not know that Chaos is just one of the established 
forms of the name of Chus or Gush ? * Then, look at the symbol of 
Janus (see Fig. 7 f), whom "the ancients called Chaos," and it will 
be seen how exactly it tallies with the doings of Gush, when he is 
identified with Bel, " The Confounder." That symbol is a club ; and 
the name of " a club " in Chaldee comes from the very word which 
signifies "to break in pieces, or scatter abroad"\ He who caused the 
confusion of tongues was he who "broke" the previously united 
earth (Gen. xi. 1) "in pieces," and "scattered" the fragments 
abroad. How significant, then, as a symbol, is the club, as com 
memorating the work of Gush, as Bel, the " Confounder " 1 And that 
significance will be all the more apparent when the reader turns to 
the Hebrew of Gen. xi. 9, and finds that the very word from which a 
club derives its name is that which is employed when it is said, that 
in consequence of the confusion of tongues, the children of men were 
" scattered abroad on the face of all the earth. " The word there 
used for scattering abroad is Hephaitz, which, in the Greek form 

becomes Hephaizt,|| and hence the origin of the well-known but little 
understood name of Hephaistos, as applied to Vulcan, "The father 
of the gods. "II Hephaistos is the name of the ringleader in the first 

* The name of Gush is also Khus, for sh frequently passes in Chaldee into s ; 
and Khus, in pronunciation, legitimately becomes Khawos, or, without the 
digamma, Khaos. 

f From Sir WM. BETHAM S Etruscan Literature and Antiquities Investigated, 
Plate II., vol. ii. p. 120. 1842. The Etruscan name on the reverse of the above 
medal Bel-athri, "Lord of spies," is probably given to Janus, in allusion to his 
well-known title "Janus Tuens," which may be rendered "Janus the Seer," or 
"All-seeing Janus." 

In Prov. xxv. 18, a maul or club is "Mephaitz." In Jer. li. 20, the same 
word, without the Jod, is evidently used for a club (though, in our version, it is 
rendered battle-axe) ; for the use of it is not to cut asunder, but to "break in 
pieces." See the whole passage. 

Genesis xi. 9. 

|| There are many instances of a similar change. Thus Botzra becomes in 
Greek, Bostra ; and Mitzraim, Mestraiin. For last, see BDNSEN, vol. i. pp. 

H Vulcan, in the classical Pantheon, had not commonly so high a place, but in 
Egypt Hephaistos, or Vulcan, was called "Father of the gods." AMMIANUS 
MARCELLINUS, lib. xvii. 


rebellion, as " The Scatterer abroad," as Bel is the name of the same 
individual as the " Confounder of tongues." Here, then, the reader 
may see the real origin of Vulcan s Hammer, which is just another 
name for the club of Janus or Chaos, " The god of Confusion ; " and 
to this, as breaking the earth in pieces, there is a covert allusion in 
Jer. i. 23, where Babylon, as identified with its primeval god, is thus 
apostrophised : " How is the hammer of the whole earth cut asunder 
and broken ! " Now, as the tower-building was the first act of open 
rebellion after the flood, and Gush, as Bel, was the ringleader in it, 
he was, of course, the first to whom the name Merodach, " The great 
Rebel ,"* must have been given, and, therefore, according to the usual 
parallelism of the prophetic language, we find both names of the 
Babylonian god referred to together, when the judgment on Babylon 
is predicted : " Bel is confounded : Merodach is broken in pieces " 
(Jer. i. 2). The judgment comes upon the Babylonian god according 
to what he had done. As Bel, he had " confounded" the whole earth, 
therefore he is "confounded." As Merodach, by the rebellion he had 
stirred up, he had "broken" the united world in pieces; therefore 
he himself is "broken in pieces." 

So much for the historical character of Bel, as identified with 
Janus or Chaos, the god of confusion, with his symbolical club.f 
Proceeding, then, on these deductions, it is not difficult to see how it 
might be said that Bel or Belus, the father of Ninus, founded Babylon, 
while, nevertheless, Ninus or Nimrod was properly the builder of it. 
Now, though Bel or Gush, as being specially concerned in laying the 
first foundations of Babylon, might be looked upon as the first king, 
as in some of the copies of " Eusebius s Chronicle " he is represented, 
yet it is evident, from both sacred history and profane, that he could 
never have reigned as king of the Babylonian monarchy, properly so 
called; and accordingly, in the Armenian version of the "Chronicle 
of Eusebius," which bears the undisputed palm for correctness and 
authority, his name is entirely omitted in the list of Assyrian kings, 
and that of Ninus stands first, in such terms as exactly correspond 
with the Scriptural account of Nimrod. Thus, then, looking at the 
fact that Ninus is currently made by antiquity the son of Belus, or 

* Merodach eomes from Mered, to rebel ; and Dakh, the demonstrative pronoun 
affixed, which makes it emphatic, signifying " That" or "The great." 

t While the names Bel and Hephaistos had the origin above referred to, they 
were not inappropriate names also, though in a different sense, for the war-gods 
descending from Gush, from whom Babylon derived its glory among the nations. 
The warlike deified kings of the line of Gush gloried in their power to carry con 
fusion among their enemies, to scatter their armies, and to " break the earth in 
pieces " by their resistless power. To this, no doubt, as well as to the acts of the 
primeval Bel, there is allusion in the inspired denunciations of Jeremiah on Baby 
lon. The physical sense also of these names was embodied in the club given to 
the Grecian Hercules the very club of Janus when, in a character quite differ 
ent from that of the original Hercules, he was set up as the great reformer of the 
world, by mere physical force. When two-headed Janus with the club is repre 
sented, the two-fold representation was probably intended to represent old Gush, 
and young Gush or Nimrod, as combined. But the two-fold representation with 
other attributes, had reference also to another " Father of the gods," afterwards 
to be noticed, who had specially to do with water. 



Bel, when we have seen that the historical Bel is Gush, the identity 
of ISTinus and Nimrod is still further confirmed. 

But when we look at what is said of Semiramis, the wife of Ninus, 
the evidence receives an additional development. 

That evidence goes 

Fig. 8. 

Diana of Ephesus.* 

conclusively to show that the wife of Ninus could be none other than 
the wife of Nimrod, and, further, to bring out one of the grand 
characters in which Nimrod, when deified, was adored. In Daniel 

* From KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. v. p. 205. 


xi. 38, we read of a god called Ala Mahozine* i.e., the "god of fortifi 
cations." Who this god of fortifications could be, commentators have 
found themselves at a loss to determine. In the records of antiquity 
the existence of any god of fortifications has been commonly over 
looked ; and it must be confessed that no such god stands forth there 
with any prominence to the ordinary reader. But of the existence 
of a goddess of fortifications, every one knows that there is the 
amplest evidence. That goddess is Cybele, who is universally repre 
sented with a mural or turreted crown, or with a fortification, on her 
head. Why was Rhea or Cybele thus represented 1 Ovid asks the 
question and answers it himself ; and the answer is this : The reason 
he says, why the statue of Cybele wore a crown of towers was, 
" because she first erected them in cities."f The first city in the world 
after the flood (from whence the commencement of the world itself 
was often dated) that had towers and encompassing walls, was Baby 
lon ; and Ovid himself tells us that it was Semiramis, the first queen 
of that city, who was believed to have " surrounded Babylon with a 
wall of brick. "J Semiramis, then, the first deified queen of that city 
and tower whose top was intended to reach to heaven, must have been 
the prototype of the goddess who " first made towers in cities." 
When we look at the Ephesian Diana, we find evidence to the very 
same effect. In general, Diana was depicted as a virgin, and the 
patroness of virginity ; but the Ephesian Diana was quite different. 
She was represented with all the attributes of the Mother of the gods 
(see Fig. 8), and, as the Mother of the gods, she wore a turreted 
crown, such as no one can contemplate without being forcibly 
reminded of the tower of Babel. Now this tower-bearing Diana is 
by an ancient scholiast expressly identified with Semiramis. When, 
therefore we remember that Rhea, or Cybele, the tower-bearing god 
dess, was, in point of fact, a Babylonian goddess, || and that Semi 
ramis, when deified, was worshipped under the name of Rhea,U there 

* In our version, Ala Mahozim is rendered alternatively "god of forces," or 
"gods protectors." To the latter interpretation, there is this insuperable objec 
tion, that Ala is in the singular. Neither can the former be admitted ; for 
Mahozim, or Mauzzim, does not signify "forces," or "armies," but "munitions," 
as it is also given in the margin that is "fortifications." Stockius, in his Lexi 
con, gives as the definition of Mahoz in the singular, robur, arx, locus munitus, and 
in proof of the definition, the following examples : Judges vi. 26, " And build an 
altar to the Lord thy God upon the top of this rock " (Mahoz, in the margin 
" strong place ") ; and Dan. xi. 19, " Then shall he turn his face to the fort (Mahoz) 
of his own land." See also GESENIUS, Lexicon, p. 533. 

t OVID, Opera, vol. iii. ; Fasti, iv. 219-221. 

I Ibid. vol. ii., Mctam., lib. iv., Fab. Pyramus and Thisbe. 

A scholiast on the Periergesis of Dionysius, says Layard (Nineveh and its 
Remains, vol. ii. p. 480, Note), makes Semiramis the same as the goddess Artemis 
or Despoina. Now, Artemis was Diana, and the title of Despoina given to her, 
shows that it was in the character of the Ephesian Diana she was identified with 
Semiramis ; for Despoina is the G-reek for Dornina, " The Lady," the peculiar title 
of Rhea or Cybele, the tower-bearing goddess, in ancient Rome. OVID, Fasti, lib. 
iv. 340. 

|| See LAYARD S Nineveh, &c., vol. ii. pp. 451, 457. 

IT See ante, p. 21. 


will remain, I think, no doubt as to the personal identity of the 
"goddess of fortifications." 

Now there is no reason to believe that Semiramis alone (though 
some have represented the matter so) built the battlements of Baby 
lon. We have the express testimony of the ancient historian, 
Megasthenes, as preserved by Abydenus, that it was " Belus " who 
" surrounded Babylon with a wall."* As " Bel," the Confounder, 
who began the city and tower of Babel, had to leave both unfinished, 
this could not refer to him. It could refer only to his son Ninus, 
who inherited his father s title, and who was the first actual king of 
the Babylonian empire, and, consequently Nimrod. The real reason 
that Semiramis, the wife of Ninus, gained the glory of finishing the 
fortifications of Babylon, was, that she came in the esteem of the 
ancient idolaters to hold a preponderating position, and to have 
attributed to her all the different characters that belonged, or were 
supposed to belong, to her husband. Having ascertained, then, one 
of the characters in which the deified wife was worshipped, we may 
from that conclude what was the corresponding character of the 
deified husband. Layard distinctly indicates his belief that Rhea or 
Cybele, the " tower-crown " goddess, was just the female counterpart 
of the "deity presiding over bulwarks or fortresses; " f and that this 
deity was Ninus, or Nimrod, we have still further evidence from 
what the scattered notices of antiquity say of the first deified king of 
Babylon, under a name bhat identifies him as the husband of Rhea, 
the " tower-bearing " goddess. That name is Kronos or Saturn. J It 
is well known that Kronos, or Saturn, was Rhea s husband ; but it 
is not so well known who was Kronos himself. Traced back to his 

* CORY S Fragments, pp. 45, 46. 

f LAYARD S Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. pp. 456, 457. 

In the Greek mythology, Kronos and Rhea are commonly brother and sister. 
Ninus and Semiramis, according to history, are not represented as standing in any 
such relation to one another ; but this is no objection to the real identity of Ninus 
and Kronos ; for, 1st, the relationships of the divinities, in most countries, are 
peculiarly conflicting Osiris, in Egypt, is represented at different times, not only 
as the son and husband of Isis, but also as her father and brother (BuNSEN, vol. i. 
p. 438) ; then, secondly, whatever the deified mortals might be before deification, 
on being deified they came into new relationships. On the apotheosis of husband 
and wife, it was necessary for the dignity of both that both alike should be repre 
sented as of the same celestial origin as both superuaturally the children of God. 
Before the flood, the great sin that brought ruin on the human race was, that the 
"Sons of God" married others than the daughters of God, in other words, those 
who were not spiritually their "sisters." (Gen. vi. 2, 3.) In the new world, 
while the influence of Noah prevailed, the opposite practice must have been 
strongly inculcated ; for a " son of God " to marry any one but a daughter of God, 
or his own "sister" in the faith, must have been a mesalliance and a disgrace. 
Hence, from a perversion of a spiritual idea, came, doubtless, the notion of the 
dignity and purity of the royal line being preserved the more intact through the 
marriage of royal brothers and sisters. This was the case in Peru ( PRESCOTT, vol. 
i. p. 18), in India (HARDY, p. 133). and in Egypt (WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 385). 
Hence the relation of Jupiter to Juno, who gloried that she was " soror et conjux " 
"sister and wife" of her husband. Hence the same relation between Isis and 
her husband Osiris, the former of whom is represented as " lamenting her brother 
Osiris." (BuNSEN, vol. i. p. 419.) For the same reason, no doubt, was Rhea, 
made the sister of her husband Kronos, to show her divine dignity and equality. 


original, that divinity is proved to have been the first king of Baby 
lon. Theophilus of Antioch shows that Kronos in the east was wor 
shipped under the names of Bel and Bal ; * and from Eusebius we 
learn that the first of the Assyrian kings, whose name was Belus, was 
also by the Assyrians called Kronos. f As the genuine copies of 
Eusebius do not admit of any Belus, as an actual king of Assyria, 
prior to Ninus, king of the Babylonians, and distinct from him, that 
shows that Ninus, the first king of Babylon, was Kronos. But, 
further, we find that Kronos was king of the Cyclops, who were his 
brethren, and who derived that name from him,j and that the 
Cyclops were known as "the inventors of tower-building." The 
king of the Cyclops, "the inventors of tower-building," occupied a 
position exactly correspondent to that of Khea, who "first erected 
(towers) in cities." If, therefore, Rhea, the wife of Kronos, was the 
goddess of fortifications, Kronos or Saturn, the husband of Rhea, that 
is, Ninus or Nimrod, the first king of Babylon, must have been Ala 
mahozin, " the god of fortifications." || 

The name Kronos itself goes not a little to confirm the argument. 
Kronos signifies "The Horned one." II As a horn is a well-known 
Oriental emblem for power or might, Kronos, " The Horned one," 
was, according to the mystic system, just a synonym for the Scriptural 
epithet applied to Nimrod viz., Gheber, " The mighty one." (Gen. x. 
8), " He began to be mighty on the earth." The name Kronos, as the 
classical reader is well aware, is applied to Saturn as the " Father of 
the gods." We have already had another "father of the gods" 
brought under our notice, even Gush in his character of Bel the 
Confounder, or Hephaistos, " The Scatterer abroad ; " ** and it is easy 
to understand how, when the deification of mortals began, and the 
" mighty " Son of Gush was deified, the father, especially considering 
the part which he seems to have had in concocting the whole idola 
trous system, would have to be deified too, and of course, in his 
character as the Father of the " Mighty one," and of all the " im 
mortals " that succeeded him. But, in point of fact, we shall find, in 
the course of our inquiry, that Nimrod was the actual Father of the 
gods, as being the first of deified mortals ; and that, therefore, it is 

* CLKRIOUS, De Philosophia Oricntali, lib. i. sect. ii. cap. 37. 

f EUSEBII, Ckronicon, p. 6. 

The scholiast upon EURIPIDES, Orest., v. 963, p. 85, says that "the Cyclops 
were so called from Cyclops their king." By this scholiast the Cyclops are 
regarded as a Thracian nation, for the Thracians had localised the tradition, and 
applied it to themselves ; but the following statement of the scholiast on the 
Prometheus of JEschylus, p. 56, shows that they stood in such a relation to Kronos, 
as proves that he was their king : " The Cyclops .... were the brethren of Kronos, 
the father of Jupiter." 

"Turrcs ut Aristotdes, Cyclopes (invenerunt)." PLINY, lib. vii., cap. 56, p. 

|| For further evidence in regard to the "God of fortifications," see Appendix, 
Note D. 

IT From Km, a horn. The epithet Carneus applied to Apollo (PAUSANIAS, lib. 
iii., Laconica, cap. 13), is just a different form of the same word. In the Orphic 
Hymns, Apollo is addressed as the "Two-horned god" (Hymn to Apollo). 

** See ante, p. 28. 



Fig. 9. 

in exact accordance with historical fact that Kronos, the Horned, or 
Mighty one, is, in the classic Pantheon, known by that title. 

The meaning of this name Kronos, " The Horned one," as applied 
to Nimrod, fully explains the origin of the remarkable symbol, so 
frequently occurring among the Nineveh sculptures, the gigantic 
HORNED man-bull, as representing the great 
divinities in Assyria. The same word that 
signified a bull, signified also a ruler or 
prince.* Hence the " Horned bull " signified 
"The Mighty Prince," thereby pointing back 
to the first of those " Mighty ones," who, 
under the name of Guebres, Gabrs, or Cabiri, 
occupied so conspicuous a place in the ancient 
world, and to whom the deified Assyrian 
monarchs covertly traced back the origin of 
their greatness and might. This explains 
the reason why the Bacchus of the Greeks 
was represented as wearing horns, and why 
he was frequently addressed by the epithet 
"Bull-horned," as one of the high titles of his 
dignity, f Even in comparatively recent times, 
Togrul Begh, the leader of the Seljukian Turks, 
who came from the neighbourhood of the 
Euphrates, was in a similar manner represented with three horns 
growing out of his head, as the emblem of his sovereignty (Fig. 

Fig. 10. 

9). | This, also, in a remarkable way accounts for the origin of one of 
the divinities worshipped by our Pagan Anglo-Saxon ancestors under 
the name of Zernebogus. This Zernebogus was " the black, malevo- 

The name for a bull or ruler, is in Hebrew without points, Shur, which in 
Chaldee becomes Tur. From Tur, in the sense of a bull, comes the Latin Taurus ; 
and from the same word, in the sense of a ruler, Turannus, which originally had 
no evil meaning. Thus, in these well-known classical words, we have evidence of 
the operation of the very principle which caused the deified Assyrian kings to be 
represented under the form of the man-bull. 

t Orphic Hymns : Hymn li., To Trietericus, Greek, p. 117. 
J From HYDE S Religio Veterum Persarum, cap. 4, p. 116. 



lent, ill-omend divinity," * in other words, the exact counterpart of 
the popular idea of the Devil, as supposed to be black, and equipped 
with horns and hoofs. This name, analysed and compared with the 
accompanying woodcut (Fig. 10), from Layard,f casts a very singular 
light on the source from whence has come the popular superstition 
in regard to the grand Adversary. The name Zer-Nebo-Gus is 
almost pure Chaldee, and seems to unfold itself as denoting " The 
seed of the prophet Cush." We have seen reason already to conclude 
that, under the name Bel, as distinguished from Baal, Gush was the 
great soothsayer or false prophet worshipped at Babylon. But inde 
pendent inquirers have been led to the conclusion that Bel and Nebo 
were just two different titles for the same god, and that a prophetic 
god. Thus does Kitto comment on the words of Isaiah xlvi. 1 : " Bel 
boweth down, Nebo stoopeth," with reference to the latter name : 
"The word seems to come from Nibba, to deliver an oracle, or to 
prophesy ; and hence would mean an oracle, and may thus, as 
Calmet suggests ( Commentaire Literal/ in loc.), be no more than 
another name for Bel himself, or a characterising epithet applied to 
him ; it being not unusual to repeat the same thing, in the same 
verse, in equivalent terms." J " Zer-Nebo-Gus," the great " seed of 
the prophet Cush," was, of course, Nimrod ; for Cush was Nimrod s 
father. Turn now to Layard, and see how this land of ours and 
Assyria are thus brought into intimate connection. In the woodcut 
referred to, first we find "the Assyrian Hercules," that is " Nimrod 
the giant," as he is called in the Septuagint version of Genesis, with 
out club, spear, or weapons of any kind, attacking a bull. Having 
overcome it, he sets the bull s horns on his head, as a trophy of 
victory and a symbol of power ; and thenceforth the hero is repre 
sented, not only with the horns and hoofs above, but from the middle 
downwards, with the legs and cloven feet of the bull. Thus equipped 
he is represented as turning next to encounter a lion. This, in all 
likelihood, is intended to commemorate some event in the life of him 
who first began to be mighty in the chase and in war, and who, 
according to all ancient traditions, was remarkable also for bodily 
power, as being the leader of the Giants that rebelled against heaven. 
Now Nimrod, as the son of Cush, was black, in other words, was a 
negro. " Can the Ethiopian change his skin? "is in the original, 
" Can the Cushite " do so 1 Keeping this, then, in mind, it will be 
seen that in that figure disentombed from Nineveh, we have both the 
prototype of the Anglo-Saxon Zer-Nebo-Gus, " the seed of the prophet 
Cush," and the real original of the black Adversary of mankind, with 
horns and hoofs. It was in a different character from that of the 
Adversary that Nimrod was originally worshipped ; but among a 
people of a fair complexion, as the Anglo-Saxons, it was inevitable 

* SHARON TURNER S Anglo-Saxons, vol. i. p. 217. 
t LATARD S Nineveh and Babylon, p. 605. 
KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. p. 53. 

In Lares and Penates of Cilicia, p. 151, Barker identifies the Assyrian Her 
cules with " Dayyad the Hunter," that is evidently Nimrod. 



that, if worshipped at all, it must generally be simply as an object 
of fear ; and so Kronos, " The Horned one," who wore the " horns," 
as the emblem both of his physical might and sovereign power, has 
come to be, in popular superstition, the recognised representative of 
the Devil. 

In many and far-severed countries, horns became the symbols of 
sovereign power. The corona or crown, that still encircles the brows 
of European monarchs, seems remotely to be derived from the 
emblem of might adopted by Kronos, or Saturn, who, according to 
Pherecydes, was "the first before all others that ever wore a crown. "* 

* "Saturnum Pherecydes ante omnes refert coronatum." TERTULLIAN, De 
Corona Militis, cap. 7, vol. ii. p. So. 



Fig. 12. 

The first regal crown appears to have been only a band, in which 
the horns were set. From the idea of power contained in the 
" horn," even subordinate rulers seem to have worn a circlet adorned 
with a single horn, in token of their derived authority. Bruce, 
the Abyssinian traveller, gives examples of Abyssinian chiefs thus 
decorated (Fig. 11), in regard to whom he states that the horn 
attracted his particular attention, when he perceived that the gover 
nors of provinces were distinguished by this head-dress.* In the 
case of sovereign powers, the royal head-band was adorned some 
times with a double, sometimes with a triple horn. The double 
horn had evidently been the original symbol of power or might 
on the part of sovereigns ; for, on the Egyptian monuments, the 

heads of the deified royal person 
ages have generally no more than 
the two horns to shadow forth 
their power. As sovereignty in 
Nimrod s case was founded on 
physical force, so the two horns 
of the bull were the symbols of 
that physical force. And, in 
accordance with this, we read in 
" Sanchuniathon," that "Astarte 
put on her own head a bull s 
head as the ensign of royalty." f 
By-and-by, however, another and 
a higher idea came in, and the 
expression of that idea was seen 
in the symbol of the three 
horns. A cap seems in course 
of time to have come to be 
associated with the regal horns. 
In Assyria the three -homed 
cap was one of the " sacred 
emblems" J in token that the 
power connected with it was of 
celestial origin, the three horns 
evidently pointing at the power 
of the trinity. Still, we have indications that the horned band, 
without any cap, was anciently the corona or royal crown. The 
crown borne by the Hindoo god Vishnu, in his avatar of the Fish, 
is just an open circle or band, with three horns standing erect from 
it, with a knob on the top of each horn (Fig. 12). All the avatars 

* See KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. pp. 280-282. In Fig. 11, the 
two male figures are Abyssinian Chiefs. The two females, whom Kitto has 
grouped along with them, are ladies of Mount Lebanon, whose horned head 
dresses Walpole regards as relics of the ancient worship of Astarte. (See above, 
and WALPOLE S Ansayri, vol. iii. p. 16.) 

t EUSEBIUS, Prceparatio Evangelii, lib. i. cap. 10, vol. i. p. 45. 

LAYABD S Nineveh, vol. ii. p. 446. 

MAURICE, vol. iii. p. 353. London, 1793. 


are represented as crowned with a crown that seems to have been 
modelled from this, consisting of a coronet with three points, standing 
erect from it, in which Sir William Jones recognises the ^Ethiopian 
or Parthian coronet.* The open tiara of Agni, the Hindoo god of 
fire, shows in its lower round the double horn, f made in the very 
same way as in Assyria, J proving at once the ancient custom, and 
whence that custom had come. Instead of the three horns, three 
horn-shaped leaves came to be substituted (Fig. 13); and thus the 
horned band gradually passed into the modern coronet or crown with 
the three leaves of the fleur-de-lis, or other familiar three-leaved 

Among the Red Indians of America there had evidently been 
something entirely analogous to the Babylonian custom of wearing 
the horns ; for, in the " buffalo dance " there, each of the dancers 
had his head arrayed with buffalo s horns ; || and it is worthy of 
especial remark, that the " Satyric dance,"H or dance of the Satyrs 
in Greece, seems to have been the counterpart of this Red Indian 
solemnity ; for the satyrs were horned divinities, and consequently 
those who imitated their dance must Fig< 13 

have had their heads set off in imita 
tion of theirs. When thus we find a 
custom that is clearly founded on a 
form of speech that characteristically 
distinguished the region where Nimrod s 
power was wielded, used in so many 
different countries far removed from 
one another, where no such form of 
speech was used in ordinary life, we 
may be sure that such a custom was 
not the result of mere accident, but 
that it indicates the wide-spread diffu 
sion of an influence that went forth in all directions from Babylon, 
from the time that Nimrod first "began to be mighty on the earth." 

There was another way in which Nimrod s power was symbolised 
besides by the " horn." A synonym for Gheber, " The mighty one," 
was " Abir," while " Aber " also signified a "wing." Nimrod, as 
Head and Captain of those men of war, by whom he surrounded 
himself, and who were the instruments of establishing his power, 
was " Baal-aberin," "Lord of the mighty ones." But " Baal-abirin " 

* Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 260. 

f Ibid. "Agni," Plate 80. 

I LAYAKD S Nineveh, &c., vol. ii. p. 451. 

From KITTO S Rlust. Com., vol. ii. p. 301. The groove in the middle 
of the central prominence seems to prove that it is not really a horn, but a leaf. 

|| CATLIN S North American Indians, vol. ii. p. 128. 

1T BRYANT, vol. iv. p. 250. The Satyrs were the companions of Bacchus, and 
"danced along with him" (^Elian Hist., p. 22). When it is considered who 
Bacchus was, and that his distinguishing epithet was " Bull-horned," the horns of 
the " Satyrs " will appear in their true light. For a particular mystic reason the 
Satyr s horn was commonly a goat s horn, but originally it must have been the 
same as Bacchus s. 



Fig. 14. 

Bull from Nimrud. From VAVX, p. 23 


(pronounced nearly in the same way) signified " The winged one,"* 
and therefore in symbol he was represented, not only as a horned 
bull, but as at once a horned and winged bull as showing not 
merely that he was mighty himself, but that he had mighty ones 

under his command, who 
were ever ready to carry 
his will into effect, and to 
put down all opposition 
to his power; and to 
shadow forth the vast 
extent of his might, he 
was represented with 
great and wide-expand 
ing wings. To this 
mode of representing 
the mighty kings of 
Babylon and Assyria, 
who imitated Nimrod 
and his successors, there 
is manifest allusion in 
Isaiah viii. 6-8 : " For 
asmuch as this people 
refuseth the waters of 
Shiloah that go softly, 
and rejoice in Rezin 
and Remaliah s son ; 
now therefore, behold, 
the Lord bringeth up 
upon them the waters 
of the river, strong and 
mighty, even the king 
of Assyria, and all his 
glory ; and he shall 
come up over all his 
banks. And he shall 
pass through Judah ; 
he shall overflow and 
go over j he shall reach 
even unto the neck ; 


the breadth of thy land, 
O Immanuel." When 
we look at such figures 
Bull from Persepoiis. ibid. p. 320. as those which are here 

* This is according to a peculiar Oriental idiom, of which there are many 
examples. Thus, Haal-aph, "Lord of wrath," signifies " an angry man ;" Baal- 
laskon, "lord of tongue," "an eloquent man;" JJaal-hatzim, "lord of arrows," 
" an archer ; " and in like manner, Baal-aberin, " lord of wings," signifies " a 
winged one." 


presented to the reader (Figs. 14 and 15), with their great extent 
of expanded wing, as symbolising an Assyrian king, what a vividness 
and force does it give to the inspired language of the prophet ! And 
how clear is it, also, that the stretching forth of the Assyrian 
monarch s WINGS, that was to "Jill the breadth of Immanuel s land," 
has that very symbolic meaning to which I have referred viz., the 
overspreading of the land by his "mighty ones," or hosts of armed 
men, that the king of Babylon was to bring with him in his over 
flowing invasion ! The knowledge of the way in which the Assyrian 
monarchs were represented, and of the meaning of that representa 
tion, gives additional force to the story of the dream of Cyrus the 
Great, as told by Herodotus. Cyrus, says the historian, dreamt that 
he saw the son of one of his princes, who was at the time in a distant 
province, with two great "wings on his shoulders, the one of which 
overshadowed Asia, and the other Europe,"* from which he imme 
diately concluded that he was organising rebellion against him. The 
symbols of the Babylonians, whose capital Cyrus had taken, and to 
whose power he had succeeded, were entirely familiar to him ; and if 
the " wings " were the symbols of sovereign power, and the possession 
of them implied the lordship over the might, or the armies of the 
empire, it is easy to see how very naturally any suspicions of 
disloyalty affecting the individual in question might take shape in 
the manner related, in the dreams of him who might harbour these 

Now, the understanding of this equivocal sense of " Baal-aberin " 
can alone explain the remarkable statement of Aristophanes, that at 
the beginning of the world "the birds" were first created, and then, 
after their creation, came the "race of the blessed immortal gods."f 
This has been regarded as either an atheistical or nonsensical utter 
ance on the part of the poet, but, with the true key applied to the 
language, it is found to contain an important historical fact. Let it 
only be borne in mind that " the birds " that is, " the winged ones " 
symbolised "the Lords of the mighty ones," and then the meaning 
is clear viz., that men first " began to be mighty on the earth ; " 
and then, that the " Lords " or Leaders of " these mighty ones " were 
deified. The knowledge of the mystic sense of this symbol accounts 
also for the origin of the story of Perseus, the son of Jupiter, 
miraculously born of Danae, who did such wondrous things, and 
who passed from country to country on wings divinely bestowed 
on him. This equally casts light on the symbolic myths in regard 
to Bellerophon, and the feats which he performed on his winged 
horse, and their ultimate disastrous issue ; how high he mounted in 
the air, and how terrible was his fall ; and of Icarus, the son of 
Daedalus, who, flying on wax-cemented wings over the Icarian Sea, 
had his wings melted off through his too near approach to the sun, 
and so gave his name to the sea where he was supposed to have 
fallen. The fables all referred to those who trode, or were supposed 

* HERODOTUS, lib. i. cap. 209, p. 96. 

f ARISTOPHANES Avcs, v. 695-705, p. 404. 


to have trodden, in the steps of Nimrod, the first "Lord of the 
mighty ones," and who in that character was symbolised as equipped 
with wings. 

Now, it is remarkable that, in the passage of Aristophanes already 
referred to, that speaks of the birds, or " the winged ones," being 
produced before the gods, we are informed that he from whom both 
"mighty ones" and gods derived their origin, was none other than 
the winged boy Cupid. * Cupid, the son of Venus, occupied, as will 
afterwards be proved, in the mystic mythology the very same position 
as Nin, or Ninus, "the son," did to Rhea, the mother of the gods.f 
As Nimrod was unquestionably the first of " the mighty ones " after 
the Flood, this statement of Aristophanes, that the boy-god Cupid, 
himself a winged one, produced all the birds or " winged ones," while 
occupying the very position of Nin or Ninus, "the son," shows that 
in this respect also Ninus and Nimrod are identified. While this 
is the evident meaning of the poet, this also, in a strictly historical 
point of view, is the conclusion of the historian Apollodorus ; for he 
states that "Ninus is Nimrod. "; And then, in conformity with 
this identity of Ninus and Nirnrod, we find, in one of the most 
celebrated sculptures of ancient Babylon, Ninus and his wife Semi- 
raniis represented as actively engaged in the pursuits of the chase, 
"the quiver-bearing Semiramis " being a fit companion for "the 
mighty Hunter before the Lord." 


When we turn to Egypt we find remarkable evidence of the same 
thing there also. Justin, as we have already seen, says that " Ninus 
subdued all nations, as far as Lybia," and consequently Egypt. The 
statement of Diodorus Siculus is to the same effect, Egypt being one 
of the countries that, according to him, Ninus brought into subjection 
to himself,)) In exact accordance with these historical statements, 
we find that the name of the third person in the primeval triad of 
Egypt was Khons. But Khons, in Egyptian, comes from a word 
that signifies " to chase."U Therefore, the name of Khons, the son 
of Maut, the goddess-mother, who was adorned in such a way as to 

* Aristophanes says that Eros or Cupid produced the "birds " and " gods by 
* mingling all things. " This evidently points to the meaning of the name Bel, 
which signifies at once " the mingler " and " the confounder." This name properly 
belonged to the father of Nimrod, but, as the son was represented as identified 
with the father, we have evidence that the name descended to the son and others 
by inheritance. 

t See Chap. V. Sect. IV. 

J APOLLODORI, Fragm. 68, in MULLEB, vol. i. p. 440. 

DIODORUS, lib. ii. p. 69. 

II See BRYANT, vol. ii. p. 377. 

^ IT BUNSBN, vol. i. p. 392, and Vocabulary, p. 488. The Coptic for "to hunt " is 
KWJ/C, c being pronounced as *. 


identify her with Rhea, the great goddess-mother of Chaldea,* 
properly signifies " The Huntsman," or god of the chase. As Khons 
stands in the very same relation to the Egyptian Maut as Ninus 
does to Rhea, how does this title of " The Huntsman " identify the 
Egyptian god with Nimrod ? Now this very name Khons, brought 
into contact with the Roman mythology, not only explains the mean 
ing of a name in the Pantheon there, that hitherto has stood greatly 
in need of explanation, but causes that name, when explained, to 
reflect light back again on this Egyptian divinity, and to strengthen 
the conclusion already arrived at. The name to which I refer is the 
name of the Latin god Census, who was in one aspect identified with 
Neptune,! hut who was also regarded as "the god of hidden coun 
sels," or " the concealer of secrets," who was looked up to as the 
patron of horsemanship, and was said to have produced the horse.; 
Who could be the "god of hidden counsels," or the "concealer of 
secrets," but Saturn, the god of the "mysteries," and whose name 
as used at Rome, signified "The hidden one"? The father of 
Khons, or Khonso (as he was also called), that is, Amoun, was, as 
we are told by Plutarch, known as "The hidden God;"|| and as 
father and son in the same triad have ordinarily a correspondence of 
character, this shows that Khons also must have been known in the 
very same character of Saturn, The hidden one." If the Latin 
Census, then, thus exactly agreed with the Egyptian Khons, as the 
god of "mysteries," or "hidden counsels," can there be a doubt that 
Khons, the Huntsman, also agreed with the same Roman divinity as 
the supposed producer of the horse 1 ? Who so likely to get the credit 
of producing the horse as the great huntsman of Babel, who no doubt 
enlisted it in the toils of the chase, and by this means must have 
been signally aided in his conflicts with the wild beasts of the forest 1 
In this connection, let the reader call to mind that fabulous creature, 
the Centaur, half-man, half-horse, that figures so much in the myth 
ology of Greece. That imaginary creation, as is generally admitted, 
was intended to commemorate the man who first taught the art of 
horsemanship. IF But that creation was not the offspring of Greek 

* The distinguishing decoration of Maut was the vulture head-dress. Now the 
name of Rhea, in one of its meanings, signifies a vulture. For the mystic meaning 
of this name, see Appendix, Note C. 

t How Nimrod came to be regarded as the god of the sea will afterwards 
appear. See Chap. IV. Sect. I. 

+ Fuss s Roman Antiquities, chap. iv. p. 347. 

The meaning which the Romans attached to the name Saturn is evident 
from the account they give of the origin of the name of Latium. It was given, 
they said, because "Saturn had safely lain hid in its coasts." VIRGIL, jEneid, lib. 
viii. See also OVID, Fasti, lib. i. 

II PLUTAECH, De hide et Osiride, vol. ii. p. 354. 

M In illustration of the principle that led to the making of the image of the 
Centaur, the following passage may be given from PRESCOTT S Mexico, vol. i. p. 
259, as showing the feelings of the Mexicans on first seeing a man on horseback : 
"He [Cortes] ordered his men [who were cavalry] to direct their lances at the 
faces of their opponents, who, terrified at the monstrous apparition for they sup 
posed the rider and the horse, which they had never before seen, to be one and the 
same were seized with a panic." 



Fig. 16. 

fancy. Here, as in many other things, the Greeks have only 
borrowed from an earlier source. The Centaur is found on coins 
struck in Babylonia (Fig. 16),* showing that the idea must have 
originally come from that quarter. The Centaur is found in the 
Zodiac (Fig. 17),f the antiquity of which goes up to a high period, 
and which had its origin in Babylon. The Centaur was represented, 
as we are expressly assured by Berosus, the Babylonian historian, in 
the temple of Babylon,! and his language would seem to show that 
so also it had been in primeval times. The Greeks did themselves 
admit this antiquity and derivation of the Centaur ; for though Ixion 
was commonly represented as the father of the Centaurs, yet they 
also acknowledged that the primitive Centaurus was the same as 
Kronos, or Saturn, the father of the gods. But we have seen that 
Kronos was the first King of Babylon, or Nimrod ; consequently, the 
first Centaur was the same. Now, the way in which the Centaur 
was represented on the Babylonian coins, and in the Zodiac, viewed 
in this light, is very striking. The Centaur 
was the same as the sign Sagittarius, or " The 
Archer." || If the founder of Babylon s glory 
was "The mighty Hunter," whose name, 
even in the days of Moses, was a proverb 
(Gen. x. 9, "Wherefore, it is said, Even as 
Nimrod, the mighty hunter before the Lord ") 
when we find the " Archer," with his bow 
and arrow, in the symbol of the supreme 
Babylonian divinity, H and the "Archer," 
among the signs of the Zodiac that originated 
in Babylon, I think we may safely conclude 
that this Man-horse or Horse-man Archer 
primarily referred to him, and was intended 
to perpetuate the memory at once of his 
fame as a huntsman and his skill as a horse- 

Now, when we thus compare the Egyptian Khons, the " Hunts 
man," with the Latin Consus, the god of horse-races, who " produced 
the horse," and the Centaur of Babylon, to whom was attributed the 

* See Nineveh and Babylon, p. 250, and BRYANT, vol. iii. Plate, p. 245. 

t Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 440, Note. The name there given is 
Sagittarius. See Note below. 

BEROSUS apud BUNSEN, p. 708. 

Scholiast in Lycophron, v. 1200, apud BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 315. The Scholiast 
says that Chiron was the son of " Centaurus, that is, Kronos." If any one objects 
that, as Chiron is said to have lived in the time of the Trojan war, this shows 
that his father Kronos could not be the father of gods and men, Xenophon 
answers by saying "that Kronos was the brother of Jupiter." De Venatione, 
p. 973. 

|| See coins already referred to, also the figure in the Zodiac. See also Manilius, 
i. 270, where he describes Sagittarius as " mixtus equo." Hence, says Smith, in 
his Classical Dictionary, Sagittarius is " frequently termed Centaurus." 

H LAYARD S Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 448. For the meaning of the 
name Centaurus, see Appendix, Note E. 


honour of being the author of horsemanship, while we see how all 
the lines converge in Babylon, it will be very clear, I think, whence 
the primitive Egyptian god Khons has been derived. 

Khons, the son of the great goddess-mother, seems to have been 
generally represented as a full-grown god.* The Babylonian divinity 
was also represented very frequently in Egypt in the very same way 
as in the land of his nativity i.e., as a child in his mother s arms.t 
This was the way in which Osiris, " the son, the husband of his 
mother," was often exhibited, and what we learn of this god, equally 
as in the case of Khonso, shows that in his original he was none other 
than Xirnrod. It is admitted that the secret system of Eree Masonry 
was originally founded on the Mysteries of the Egyptian Isis, the 
goddess-mother, or wife of Osiris. But what could have led to the 
union of a Masonic body with these Mysteries, had they not had 
particular reference to architecture, and had the god who was 
worshipped in them not been celebrated for his success in perfecting 
the arts of fortification and building ? JSTow, if such were the case, 
considering the relation in which, as we have already seen, Egypt 
stood to Babylon, who would naturally be looked up to there as the 
great patron of the Masonic art ? The strong 
presumption is, that Nimrod must have been the Flg> 

man. He was the first that gained fame in this way. 
As the child of the Babylonian goddess-mother, 
he was worshipped, as we have seen, in the charac 
ter of Ala mahozim, "The god of fortifications." 
Osiris, in like manner, the child of the Egyptian 
Madonna, was equally celebrated as " the strong 
chief of the buildings. " This strong chief of 
the buildings was originally worshipped in Egypt 
with every physical characteristic of Nimrod. I have already 
noticed the fact that Nimrod, as the son of Gush, was a negro. 
vTow, there was a tradition in Egypt, recorded by Plutarch, 
that Osiris was black"\\ which, in a land where the general com 
plexion was dusky, must have implied something more than ordinary 
in its darkness. Plutarch also states that Horus, the son of Osiris, 
" was of a fair complexion, "H and it was in this way, for the most 
part, that Osiris was represented. But we have unequivocal evidence 
that Osiris, the son and husband of the great goddess-queen of Egypt, 
was also represented as a veritable negro. In Wilkinson may be 
found a representation of him (Eig. 18)** with the unmistakable 
features of the genuine Cushite or negro. Bunsen would have it that 

* See WILKINSON, vol. vi. Plate 20. 

f One of the symbols with which Khonso was represented, shows that even he 
was identified with the child-god ; "for," says Wilkinson, " at the side of his head 
fell the plaited lock of Harpocrates, or childhood. " Vol. v. p. 19. 

$ The above is the Hindoo Sagittarius, as found in the Indian Zodiac, which is 
proved by Sir William Jones to be substantially the same as the Zodiac of the 
Greeks. See Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 303. 

BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 425. II PLUTARCH, De hid. ct Os., vol. ii. p. 359. 

1[ Ibid. ** WILKINSON, vol. vi. Plate 33. 


Fig. 18. 

this is a mere random importation from some of the barbaric tribes ; 
but the dress in which this negro god is arrayed tells a different tale. 
That dress directly connects him with Nimrod. This negro-featured 
Osiris is clothed from head to foot in a spotted dress, the upper part 
being a leopard s skin, the under part also being spotted to corre 
spond with it. Now the name Nimrod* signifies " the subduer of 
the leopard." This name seems to imply, that as Nimrod had gained 
fame by subduing the horse, and so making use of it in the chase, so 
his fame as a huntsman rested mainly on this, that he found out the 
art of making the leopard aid him in hunting the other wild beasts. 
A particular kind of tame leopard is used in 
India at this day for hunting ; and of Bagajet 
I., the Mogul Emperor of India, it is 
recorded that in his hunting establishment 
he had not only hounds of various breeds, 
but leopards also, whose " collars were set 
with jewels."! Upon the words of the 
prophet Habakkuk, chap. i. 8, " swifter than 
leopards," Kitto has the following remarks : 
"The swiftness of the leopard is proverbial 
in all countries where it is found. This, 
conjoined with its other qualities, suggested 
the idea in the East of partially training it, 

that it might be employed in hunting 

Leopards are now rarely kept for hunting in 
Western Asia, unless by kings and gover 
nors ; but they are more common in the 
eastern parts of Asia. Orosius relates that 
one was sent by the king of Portugal to the 
Pope, which excited great astonishment by 
the way in which it overtook, and the facility 
with which it killed, deer and wild boars. 
Le Bruyn mentions a leopard kept by the 
Pasha who governed Gaza, and the other 
territories of the ancient Philistines, and 

* " Nimr-rod " ; from Nimr, a "leopard," and rada or rad "to subdue." 
According to invariable custom in Hebrew, when two consonants come together 
as the two rs in Nimr-rod, one of them is sunk. Thus Nin-neveh, " The habita 
tion of Ninus," becomes Nineveh. The name Nimrod is commonly derived from 
Mered, " to rebel ; " but a difficulty has always been found in regard to this 
derivation, as that would make the name Nimrod properly passive not "the 
rebel," but " he who was rebelled against." There is no doubt that Nimrod was 
a rebel, and that his rebellion was celebrated in ancient myths ; but his name in 
that character was not Nimrod, but Merodach, or, as among the Romans, Mars, 
"the rebel ;" or among the Oscans of Italy, Mamers (SMITH, sub voce), " The causer 
of rebellion." That the Roman Mars was really, in his original, the Babylonian 
god, is evident from the name given to the goddess, who was recognised some 
times as his " sister," and sometimes as his " wife " i.e., Bellona (see Ibid., sub voce), 
which, in Chaldee, signifies, "The Lamenter of Bel" (from Bel and onak, to .ament). 
The Egyptian Isis, the sister and wife of Osiris, is in like manner represented, as 
we have seen, as " lamenting her brother Osiris." BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 419, Note. 

t WILKINSON, vol. iii. p. 17. 



Fig. 19. 

which he frequently employed in hunting jackals. But it is in 
India that the cheetah, or hunting leopard, is most frequently 
employed, and is seen in the perfection of his power."* This 
custom of taming the leopard, and pressing it into the service of 
man in this way, is traced up to the earliest times of primitive 
antiquity. In the works of; Sir William Jones, we find it stated from 
the Persian legends, that Hoshang, the father of Tahmurs, who built 
Babylon, was the " first who bred dogs and leopards for hunting." f 
As Tahmurs, who built Babylon, could be none other than Mmrod, 
this legend only attributes to his father what, as his name imports, 
he got the fame of doing himself. Now, as the classic god bearing 
the lion s skin is recognised by that sign as Hercules, the slayer of the 
Nemean lion, so in like manner, the god clothed in the leopard s skin, 
would naturally be marked out as Nimrod, the " Leopard-subduer." 
That this leopard skin, as appertaining to the Egyptian god, was no 
occasional thing, we have clearest evidence. 
Wilkinson tells us, that on all high occa 
sions when the Egyptian high priest was 
called to officiate, it was indispensable that 
he should do so wearing, as his robe of 
office, the leopard s skin (Fig. 19). J As it 
is a universal principle in all idolatries that 
the high priest wears the insignia of the 
god he serves, this indicates the importance 
which the spotted skin must have had 
attached to it as a symbol of the god 
himself. The ordinary way in which the 
favourite Egyptian divinity Osiris was 
mystically represented was under the form 
of a young bull or calf the calf Apis 
from which the golden calf of the Israel 
ites was borrowed. There was a reason 
why that calf should not commonly appear 
in the appropriate symbols of the god he 
represented, for that calf represented 
the divinity in the character of Saturn, <{ The HIDDEN one," 
"Apis" being only another name for Saturn. The cow of 
Athor, however, the female divinity corresponding to Apis, is 
well known as a " spotted cow,"|| and it is singular that the Druids 
of Britain also worshipped " a spotted cow. "IT Rare though it be, 
however, to find an instance of the deified calf or young bull 
represented with the spots, there is evidence still in existence, that 

* KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. pp. 271, 272. 

-j- Works, vol. xii. p. 400. 

WILKINSON, vol. iv. pp. 341, 353. 

The name of Apis in Egyptian is Hepi or Hapi, which is evidently from the 
Chaldee " Hap," " to cover." In Egyptian, Hap signifies " to conceal." BUNSEN, 
vol. i. Vocab. p. 462. 

II WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 387, and vol. vi. Plate 36. 

IF DAVIES S Druids, p. 121. 



even it was sometimes so represented. The accompanying figure 
(Fig. 20) represents that divinity, as copied by Col. Hamilton Smith 
" from the original collection made by the artists of the French In 
stitute of Cairo. "* When we find that Osiris, the grand god of 
Egypt, under different forms, was thus arrayed in a leopard s skin or 
spotted dress, and that the leopard-skin dress was so indispensable a 
part of the sacred robes of his high priest, we may be sure that there 
was a deep meaning in such a costume. And what could that mean 
ing be, but just to identify Osiris with the Babylonian god, who was 
celebrated as the " Leopard-tamer," and who was worshipped even as 
lie was, as Ninus, the CHILD in his mother s arms ? 


Thus much for Egypt. 

Fig. 20. 

Egyptian Calf Idol. 

Coming into Greece, not only do we find 
evidence there to the same 
effect, but increase of that 
evidence. The god worshipped 
as a child in the arms of the 
great Mother in Greece, under 
the names of Dionysus, or 
Bacchus, or lacchus, is, by 
ancient inquirers, expressly 
identified with the Egyptian 
Osiris. This is the case with 
Herodotus, who had prose 
cuted his inquiries in Egypt 
itself, who ever speaks of 
Osiris as Bacchus, f To the 
same purpose is the testimony 
of Diodorus Siculus. " Orpheus," says he, " introduced from 
Egypt the greatest part of the mystical ceremonies, the orgies 
that celebrate the wanderings of Ceres, and the whole fable of 
the shades below. The rites of Osiris and Bacchus are the same ; 
those of Isis and Ceres (A^Tjr^a) exactly resemble each other, except 
in name."J Now, as if to identify Bacchus with Nimrod, "the 
Leopard-tamer," leopards were employed to draw his car; he himself 
was represented as clothed with a leopard s skin ; his priests were 
attired in the same manner, or when a leopard s skin was dispensed 
with, the spotted skin of a fawn was used as a priestly robe in its 
stead. This very custom of wearing the spotted fawn-skin seems to 
have been imported into Greece originally from Assyria, where a 
spotted fawn was a sacred emblem, as we learn from the Nineveh 

* Biblical Cyelopcedia, vol. i. p. 368. The flagellum or lash the emblem of the 
great Egyptian god suspended to the yoke about the neck of the calf, shows that 
this calf represented that god in one of his different forms. 

f HERODOTUS, lib. ii. cap. 42. 

Bibliotkeca, lib. i. p. 9. 


sculptures ; for there we find a divinity bearing a spotted fawn, or 
spotted fallow-deer (Fig. 21), in his arm, as a symbol of some myste 
rious import.* The origin of the importance attached to the spotted 
fawn and its skin had evidently come thus : When Nimrod, as " the 
Leopard-tamer/ began to be clothed in the leopard-skin, as the 
trophy of his skill, his spotted dress and appearance must have 
impressed the imaginations of those who saw him ; and he came 
to be called not only the "Subduer of the Spotted one" (for such 
is the precise meaning of Nimr the name of the leopard), but to be 
called " The spotted one " himself. We have distinct evidence to 
this effect borne by Damascius, who tells us that the Babylonians 
called "the only son" of the great goddess-mother "Momis, or 

Fig. 21. 

Moumis."f JSTow, Momis, or Mournis, in Chaldee, like Nimr, signi 
fied "The spotted one." Thus, then, it became easy to represent 
Nimrod by the symbol of the "spotted fawn," and especially in 
Greece, and wherever a pronunciation akin to that of Greece pre 
vailed. The name of Nimrod, as known to the Greeks, was Nebrod. J 
The name of the fawn, as "the spotted one," in Greece was Nebros ; 
and thus nothing could be more natural than that Nebros, the 

* VAUX S Nineveh and Persepolis, chap. viii. p. 233. 

t DAMASCIUS, in GOBY S Fragments, p. 318. 

+ In the Greek Septuagint, translated in Egypt, the name of Nimrod is 
"Nebrod." (P- 17.) 

Nebros, the name of the fawn, signifies "the spotted one." Nmr, in Egypt, 
\rould also become Nbr ; for Bunsen shows that m and b in that land were often 
convertible. See vol. i. p. 449, 



Fig. 2-2 

"spotted fawn," should become a synonym for Nebrod himself. 
When, therefore, the Bacchus of Greece was symbolised by the 
Nebros, or "spotted fawn," as we shall find he was symbolised, 
what could be the design but just covertly to identify him with 
Nimrod 1 

We have evidence that this god, whose emblem was the Nebros, 
was known as having the very lineage of Nimrod. From Anacreon, 
we find that a title of Bacchus was Aithiopais* i.e., "the son of 
JEthiops." But who was ^thiops ? As the ^Ethiopians were 
Cushites, so yEthiops was Gush. "Chus," says Eusebius, "was he 
from whom came the ^Ethiopians."! The testimony of Josephus 
is to the same effect. As the father of the ^Ethiopians, Gush was 

^Ethiops, by way of eminence. 
Therefore Epiphanius, referring to 
the extraction of Nimrod, thus 
speaks : " Nimrod, the son of Gush, 
the .^Ethiop."J Now, as Bacchus 
was the son of ^Ethiops, or Gush, 
so to the eye he was represented 
in that character. As Nin "the 
Son," he was portrayed as a youth 
or child; and that youth or child 
was generally depicted with a 
cup in his hand. That cup, to 
the multitude, exhibited him as 
the god of drunken revelry; and 
of such revelry in his orgies, no 
doubt there was abundance; but 
yet, after all, the cup was mainly 
a hieroglyphic, and that of the 
name of the god. The name of a 
cup, in the sacred language, was 
khus, and thus the cup in the hand 
of the youthful Bacchus, the son of 
^Ethiops, showed that he was the 
young Chus, or the son of Chiis. 
In the accompanying woodcut (Fig. 22), the cup in the right hand 
of Bacchus is held up in so significant a way, as naturally to suggest 
that it must be a symbol ; and as to the branch in the other hand, 
we have express testimony that it is a symbol. But it is worthy of 
notice that the branch has no leaves to determine what precise kind 
of a branch it is. It must, therefore, be a generic emblem for a 
branch, or a symbol of a branch in general; and, consequently, it 
needs the cup as its complement, to determine specifically what sort 
of a branch it is. The two symbols, then, must be read together ; 

* ANACREON, p. 296. The words of Anacreon are kiovwov Ai0io7rcu5a. 

t EUSEBIUS, Chronicon, vol. i. p. 109. 

EPIPHANIUS, lib. i. vol. i. p. 7. 

From SMITH S Classical Dictionary, p. 208. 


and read thus, they are just equivalent to the "Branch of Chus" 
i.e., " the scion or son of Gush." * 

There is another hieroglyphic connected with Bacchus that goes 
not a little to confirm this that is, the Ivy branch. No emblem 
was more distinctive of the worship of Bacchus than this. Wherever 
the rites of Bacchus were performed, wherever his orgies were cele 
brated, the Ivy branch was sure to appear. Ivy, in some form or 
other, was essential to these celebrations. The votaries carried it 
in their hands, f bound it around their heads, J or had the Ivy leaf 
even indelibly stamped upon their persons. What could be the use, 
what could be the meaning of this? A few words will suffice to 
show it. In the first place, then, we have evidence that Kissoe, the 
Greek name for Ivy, was one of the names of Bacchus ; || and further, 
that though the name of Gush, in its proper form, was known to the 
priests in the Mysteries, yet that the established way in which the 
name of his descendants, the Cushites, was ordinarily pronounced in 
Greece, was not after the Oriental fashion, but as "Kissaioi," or 
" Kissioi." Thus, Strabo, speaking of the inhabitants of Susa, who 
were the people of Chusistan, or the ancient land of Gush, says : 
"The Susians are called Kissioi," U that is beyond all question, 
Cushites. Now, if Kissioi be Cushites, then Kissos is Gush. Then, 
further, the branch of Ivy that occupied so conspicuous a place in all 
Bacchanalian celebrations was an express symbol of Bacchus himself ; 
for Hesychius assures us that Bacchus, as represented by his priest, 
was known in the Mysteries as " The branch." ** From this, then, it 
appears how Kissos, the Greek name of Ivy, became the name of 
Bacchus. As the son of Gush, and as identified with him, he was 
sometimes called by his father s name Kissos. ff His actual relation, 

* Everyone knows that Homer s odzos Areos, or "Branch of Mars," is the 
same as a " Son of Mars." The hieroglyphic above was evidently formed on the 
same principle. That the cup alone in the hand of the youthful Bacchus was 
intended to designate him "as the young Chus," or "the boy Chus," we may 
fairly conclude from a statement of Pausanias, in which he represents " the boy 
Kuathos " as acting the part of a cup-bearer, and presenting a cup to Hercules. 
(PAUSANIAS, lib. ii. ; Corinthiaca, cap. 13, p. 142.) Kuathos is the Greek for a 
"cup," and is evidently derived from the Hebrew Khus, "a cup," which, in one 
of its Chaldee forms, becomes Khuth or Khuath. Now, it is well known that 
the name of Gush is often found in the form of Cuth, and that name, in certain 
dialects, would be Cuath. The " boy Kuathos," then, is just the Greek form of 
the "boy Gush," or "the young Cush." The reader will not fail to notice the 
spots on the robe of the figure on opposite page. 

[The berries or unopened flower-buds at the end of the twigs (Fig. 22), may 
indicate the Ivy plant. This, however, would not invalidate, but rather strengthen 
the general argument.] 

t SMITH S Classical Dictionary, "Dionysus," p. 227. 

EURIPID., in STRABO, lib. x. p. 452. 

KITTO S lllust. Com., vol. iv. p. 144. POTTER, vol. i. p. 75. Edin. 1808. 

II PAUSANIAS, Attica, cap. 31, p. 78. 

IF STRABO, lib. xv. p. 691. In Hesychius, the name is Kissaioi, p. 531. The 
epithet applied to the land of Cush in ^Eschylus is Kissinos ^EsCHYL., Pers. 
v. 16. The above accounts for one of the unexplained titles of Apollo. " Kisseus 
Apollon "is plainly " The Cushite Apollo." 
* HESYCHIUS, p. 179. 

ft See ante, for what is said of Janus, Note, p. 28. 



however, to his father was specifically brought out by the Ivy branch, 
for " the branch of Kissos," which to the profane vulgar was only 
" the branch of Ivy," was to the initiated " The branch of Gush."* 

Now, this god, who was recognised as "the scion of Gush," was 
worshipped under a name, which, while appropriate to him in his 
vulgar character as the god of the vintage, did also describe him as 
the great Fortifier. That name was Bassareus, which, in its two-fold 
meaning, signified at once "The houser of grapes, or the vintage 
gatherer," and " The Encompasser with a wall,"f in this latter sense 
identifying the Grecian god with the Egyptian Osiris, " the strong 
chief of the buildings," and with the Assyrian " Belus, who encom 
passed Babylon with a wall." 

Thus from Assyria, Egypt, and Greece, we have cumulative and 
overwhelming evidence, all conspiring to demonstrate that the child 
worshipped in the arms of the goddess-mother in all these countries 
in the very character of Ninus or Nin, " The Son," was Nimrod, the 
son of Gush. A feature here, or an incident there, may have been 
borrowed from some succeeding hero ; but it seems impossible to 
doubt, that of that child Nimrod was the prototype, the grand 

The amazing extent of the worship of this man indicates something 
very extraordinary in his character ; and there is ample reason to 
believe, that in his own day he was an object of high popularity. 
Though by setting up as king, Nimrod invaded the patriarchal 
system, and abridged the liberties of mankind, yet he was held by 
many to have conferred benefits upon them, that amply indemnified 
them for the loss of their liberties, and covered him with glory and 
renown. By the time that he appeared, the wild beasts of the forest 
multiplying more rapidly than the human race, must have committed 

* The chaplet, or head-band of Ivy, had evidently a similar hieroglyphical 
meaning to the above, for the Greek "Zeira Kissou" is either a "band or circlet 
of Ivy," or "The seed of Gush." The formation of the Greek "Zeira," a zone or 
enclosing band, from the Chaldee Zer, to encompass, shows that Zero "the seed," 
which was also pronounced Zeraa, would, in like manner, in some Greek dialects, 
become Zeira. Kissos, "Ivy," in Greek, retains the radical idea of the Chaldee 
Khesha or Khesa, " to cover or hide," from which there is reason to believe the 
name of Gush is derived, for Ivy is characteristically " The coverer or hider." In 
connection with this, it may be stated that the second person of the Phenician 
trinity was Chusorus (WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 191), which evidently is Chus-zoro, 
"The seed of Gush." We have already seen (p. 13) that the Phenicians derived 
their mythology from Assyria. 

f Bassareus is evidently from the Chaldee Batzar, to which both Gesenius, pp. 
150, 151, and Parkhurst, p. 77, give the two-fold meaning of "gathering in 
grapes," and " fortifying." Batzar is softened into Bazzar in the very same way 
as Nebuchadnetzar is pronounced Nebuchadnezzar. In the sense of " rendering a 
defence inaccessible," Gesenius adduces Jeremiah li. 53, "Though Babylon should 
mount up to heaven, and though she should fortify (tabatzar) the height of her 
strength, yet from me shall spoilers come unto her, saith the Lord." Here is 
evident reference to the two great elements in Babylon s strength, first her tower ; 
secondly, her massive fortifications, or encompassing walls. In making the mean 
ing of Batzar to be, " to render inaccessible," Gesenius seems to have missed the 
proper generic meaning of the term. Batzar is a compound verb, from a, " in," 
and Tzar, "to compass," exactly equivalent to our English word "en-compass." 


great depredations on the scattered and straggling populations of the 
earth, and must have inspired great terror into the minds of men. 
The danger arising to the lives of men from such a source as this, 
when population is scanty, is implied in the reason given by God 
Himself for not driving out the doomed Canaanites before Israel at 
once, though the measure of their iniquity was full (Exod. xxiii. 
29, 30) : " I will not drive them out from before thee in one year, 
lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply 
against thee. By little and little I will drive them out from before 
thee, until thou be increased." The exploits of Nimrod, therefore, 
in hunting down the wild beasts of the field, and ridding the world 
of monsters, must have gained for him the character of a pre-eminent 
benefactor of his race. By this means, not less than by the bands he 
trained, was his power acquired, when he first began to be mighty 
upon the earth ; and in the same way, no doubt, was that power 
consolidated. Then, over and above, as the first great city-builder 
after the flood, by gathering men together in masses, and surrounding 
them with walls, he did still more to enable them to pass their days 
in security, free from the alarms to which they had been exposed in 
their scattered life, when no one could tell but that at any moment 
he might be called to engage in deadly conflict with prowling wild 
beasts, in defence of his own life and of those who were dear to him. 
"Within the battlements of a fortified city no such danger from savage 
animals was to be dreaded ; and for the security afforded in this way, 
men no doubt looked upon themselves as greatly indebted to Nimrod. 
No wonder, therefore, that the name of the " mighty hunter," who was 
at the same time the prototype of " the god of fortifications," should 
have become a name of renown. Had Nimrod gained renown only 
thus, it had been well. But not content with delivering men from the 
fear of wild beasts, he set to work also to emancipate them from that 
fear of the Lord which is the beginning of wisdom, and in which 
alone true happiness can be found. For this very thing, he seems 
to have gained, as one of the titles by which men delighted to 
honour him, the title of the " Emancipator," or "Deliverer." The 
reader may remember a name that has already come under his 
notice. That name is the name of Phoroneus. The era of 
Phoroneus is exactly the era of Nimrod. He lived about the time 
when men had used one speech, when the confusion of tongues 
began, and when mankind was scattered abroad.* He is said to 
have been the first that gathered mankind into communities,! the 
first of mortals that reigned, f and the first that offered idolatrous 
sacrifices. This character can agree with none but that of Nimrod. 
Now the name given to him in connection with his " gathering men 

* See ante, p. 25, and Note. 

t PAUSANIAS, lib. ii. ; Corinthiaca, cap. 15, p. 145. 

HYGINCS, Fab. 143, p. 114. 

LUTATIUS PLACIDUS, in Stat. Tkeb., lib. iv. v. 589, a.pud BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 65, 
Note. The words are "Primus Junoni sacrificasse dicitur." The meaning of this 
probably is, that he first set up the dove (lune) as a material and visible symbol 
of the Holy Spirit. See next Section. 


together," and offering idolatrous sacrifice, is very significant. 
Phoroneus, in one of its meanings, and that one of the most 
natural, signifies the " Apostate."* That name had very likely been 
given him by the uninfected portion of the sons of Noah. But that 
name had also another meaning, that is, " to set free ; " and therefore 
his own adherents adopted it, and glorified the great " Apostate " 
from the primeval faith, though he was the first that abridged the 
liberties of mankind, as the grand " Emancipator ! " f And hence, 
in one form or other, this title was handed down to his deified 
successors as a title of honour. | All tradition from the earliest 
times bears testimony to the apostacy of Nimrod, and to his success 
in leading men away from the patriarchal faith, and delivering their 
minds from that awe of God and fear of the judgments of heaven 
that must have rested on them while yet the memory of the flood 
was recent. And according to all the principles of depraved human 
nature, this too, no doubt, was one grand element in his fame ; for 
men will readily rally around any one who can give the least 
appearance of plausibility to any doctrine which will teach that 
they can be assured of happiness and heaven at last, though their 
hearts and natures are unchanged, and though they live without 
God in the world. 

How great was the boon conferred by Nimrod on the human race, 
in the estimation of ungodly men, by emancipating them from the 
impressions of true religion, and putting the authority of heaven to 
a distance from them, we find most vividly described in a Polynesian 
tradition, that carries its own evidence with it. John Williams, 
the well-known missionary, tells us that, according to one of the 
ancient traditions of the islanders of the South Seas, " the heavens 

* From Pharo, also pronounced Pharang, or Pharong, " to cast off, to make 
naked, to apostatise, to set free." These meanings are not commonly given in 
this order, but as the sense of " casting off " explains all the other meanings, that 
warrants the conclusion that " to cast off" is the generic sense of the word. Now 
" apostacy " is very near akin to this sense, and therefore is one of the most natural. 

t The Sabine goddess Feronia had evidently a relation to Phoroneus, as the 
Emancipator." She was believed to be the " goddess of liberty," because at 
Terracina (or Anxur) slaves were emancipated in her temple (Servius, in jEneid, 
viii. v. 564, vol. i. p. 490), and because the freedmen of Rome are recorded on one 
occasion to have collected a sum of money for the purpose of offering it in her 
temple. SMITH S Classical Dictionary (the larger one), sub voce " Feronia." 

The Chaldee meaning of the name "Feronia," strikingly confirms this conclu 
sion. Her contemplar divinity, who was worshipped along with her in a grove, 
was, like Ninus, a youthful divinity. He was regarded as a " youthful Jupiter." 
SMITH S Classical Dictionary, sub voce " Anxurus," p. 60. 

+ Thus we read of " Zeus Aphesio" (PAUSANIAS, lib. i. Attica, cap. 44), that is 
"Jupiter Liberator " (see also ARRIAN, who speaks of " Jovi Aphesio Liberatori 
scilicet," apud BRYANT, vol. v. p. 25), and of " Dionysus Eleuthereus" (PAUSANIAS, 
Attica, cap. 20, p. 46), or " Bacchus the Deliverer." The name of Theseus seems 
to have had the same origin, from nthes " to loosen," and so to set free (the n 
being omissible). "The temple of Theseus" [at Athens] says POTTER (vol. i. 
p. 36) . . . . " was allowed the privilege of being a Sanctuary for slaves, and all 
those of mean condition that fled from the persecution of men in power, in 
memory that Theseus, while he lived, was an assister and protector of the 


were originally so close to the earth that men could not walk, but 
were compelled to crawl" under them. "This was found a very 
serious evil ; but at length an individual conceived the sublime idea 
of elevating the heavens to a more convenient height. For this pur 
pose he put forth his utmost energy, and by the first effort raised 
them to the top of a tender plant called teve, about four feet high. 
There he deposited them until he was refreshed, when, by a second 
effort, he lifted them to the height of a tree called Kauariki, which 
is as large as the sycamore. By the third attempt he carried them 
to the summits of the mountains ; and after a long interval of repose, 
and by a most prodigious effort, he elevated them to their present 
situation." For this, as a mighty benefactor of mankind, "this in 
dividual was deified ; and up to the moment that Christianity was 
embraced, the deluded inhabitants worshipped him as the * Elevator 
of the heavens. 3 "* Now, what could more graphically describe the 
position of mankind soon after the flood, and the proceedings of 
Nimrod as Phoroneus, "The Emancipator,"! than this Polynesian 
fable 1 While the awful catastrophe by which God had showed His 
avenging justice on the sinners of the old world was yet fresh in the 
minds of men, and so long as Noah, and the upright among his 
descendants, sought with all earnestness to impress upon all under 
their control the lessons which that solemn event was so well fitted 
to teach, "heaven," that is, God, must have seemed very near to 
earth. To maintain the union between heaven and earth, and to 
keep it as close as possible, must have been the grand aim of all who 
loved God and the best interests of the human race. But this 
implied the restraining and discountenancing of all vice and all 
those "pleasures of sin," after which the natural mind, unrenewed 
and unsanctified, continually pants. This must have been secretly 
felt by every unholy mind as a state of insufferable bondage. " The 
carnal mind is enmity against God," is " not subject to His law," 
neither indeed is "able to be " so. It says to the Almighty, "Depart 
from us, for we desire not the knowledge of Thy ways." So long as 
the influence of the great father of the new world was in the ascen 
dant, while his maxims were regarded, and a holy atmosphere sur 
rounded the world, no wonder that those who were alienated from 
God and godliness, felt heaven and its influence and authority to be 
intolerably near, and that in such circumstances they "could not 
walk," but only "crawl," that is, that they had no freedom to 
" walk after the sight of their own eyes and the imaginations of 
their own hearts." From this bondage Nimrod emancipated them. 
By the apostacy he introduced, by the free life he developed among 
those who rallied around him, and by separating them from the holy 
influences that had previously less or more controlled them, he helped 
them to put God and the strict spirituality of His law at a distance, 

* WILLIAM S Narrative of Missionary Enterprises, chap. xxxi. p. 142. 

f The bearing of this name, Phoroneus, "The Emancipator," will be seen in 
Chap. III. Sect. I., " Christmas," where it is shown that slaves had a temporary 
emancipation at his birthday. 


and thus he became the " Elevator of the heavens," making men feel 
and act as if heaven were afar off from earth, and as if either the 
God of heaven " could not see through the dark cloud," or did not 
regard with displeasure the breakers of His laws. Then all such 
would feel that they could breathe freely, and that now they could 
walk at liberty. For this, such men could not but regard Nimrod 
as a high benefactor. 

Now, who could have imagined that a tradition from Tahiti would 
have illuminated the story of Atlas 1 But yet, when Atlas, bearing 
the heavens on his shoulders, is brought into juxtaposition with the 
deified hero of the South Seas, who blessed the world by heaving up 
the superincumbent heavens that pressed so heavily upon it, who does 
not see that the one story bears a relation to the other 1 * Thus, 

* In the Polynesian story the heavens and earth are said to have been "bound 
together with cords," and the "severing" of these cords is said to have been 
effected by myriads of " dragon-flies," which, with their "wings," bore an import 
ant share in the great work. ( WILLIAMS, p. 142. ) Is there not here a reference to 
Nimrod s " mighties " or " winged ones " ? The deified " mighty ones " were often 
represented as winged serpents. See WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 232, where the god 
Agathodsemon is represented as a " winged asp." Among a rude people the 
memory of such a representation might very naturally be kept up in connection 
with the " dragon-fly " ; and as all the mighty or winged ones of Nimrod s age, 
the real golden age of paganism, when "dead, became daemons " (HESIOD, Works 
and Days, v. 120, 121), they would of course all alike be symbolised in the same 
way. If any be stumbled at the thought of such a connection between the myth 
ology of Tahiti and of Babel, let it not be overlooked that the name of the 
Tahitian god of war was Oro (WILLIAMS, Ibid.), while " Horus (or Orus)," as 
Wilkinson calls the son of Osiris, in Egypt, which unquestionably borrowed its 
system from Babylon, appeared in that very character. ( WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 
402.) Then what could the severing of the " cords " that bound heaven and earth 
together be, but just the breaking of the bands of the covenant by which God 
bound the earth to Himself, when on smelling a sweet savour in Noah s sacrifice, 
He renewed His covenant with him as head of the human race. This covenant did 
not merely respect the promise to the earth securing it against another universal 
deluge, but contained in its bosom a promise of all spiritual blessings to those 
who adhere to it. The smelling of the sweet savour in Noah s sacrifice had 
respect to \\isfaith in Christ. When, therefore, in consequence of smelling that 
sweet savour, "God blessed Noah and his sons" (Gen. ix. 1), that had reference 
not merely to temporal but to spiritual and eternal blessings. Every one, there 
fore, of the sons of Noah, who had Noah s faith, and who walked as Noah walked, 
was divinely assured of an interest in "the everlasting covenant, ordered in all 
tilings and sure." Blessed were those bands by which God bound the believing 
children of men to Himself by which heaven and earth were so closely joined 
together. Those, on the other hand, who joined in the apostacy of Nimrod broke 
the covenant, and in casting off the authority of God, did in effect say, "Let us 
break His bands asunder, and cast His cords from us." To this very act of severing 
the covenant connection between earth and heaven there is very distinct allusion, 
though veiled, in the Babylonian history of Berosus. There Belus, that is Nimrod, 
after having dispelled the primeval darkness, is said to have separated heaven and 
earth from one another, and to have orderly arranged the world. (BEROSUS, in 
BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 709.) These words were intended to represent Belus as the 
" Former of the world." But then it is & new world that he forms ; for there are 
creatures in existence before his Demiurgic power is exerted. The new world 
that Belus or Nimrod formed, was just the new order of things which he intro 
duced when, setting at nought all Divine appointments, he rebelled against Heaven. 
The rebellion of the Giants is represented as peculiarly a rebellion against Heaven. 
To this ancient quarrel between the Babylonian potentates and Heaven, there is 


theD, it appears that Atlas, with the heavens resting on his broad 
shoulders, refers to no mere distinction in astronomical knowledge, 
however great, as some have supposed, but to a quite different thing, 
even to that great apostacy in which the Giants rebelled against 
Heaven* and in which apostacy Nimrod, " the mighty one," f as 
the acknowledged ringleader, occupied a pre-eminent place. J 

According to the system which Nimrod was the grand instrument 
in introducing, men were led to believe that a real spiritual change 
of heart was unnecessary, and that so far as change was needful, they 
could be regenerated by mere external means. Looking at the 
subject in the light of the Bacchanalian orgies, which, as the reader 
has seen, commemorated the history of Nimrod, it is evident that he 
led mankind to seek their chief good in sensual enjoyment, and 
showed them how they might enjoy the pleasures of sin, without any 
fear of the wrath of a holy God. In his various expeditions he was 
always accompanied by troops of women ; and by music and song, 
and games and revelries, and everything that could please the natural 
heart, he commended himself to the good graces of mankind. 


How Nimrod died, Scripture is entirely silent. There was an 
ancient tradition that he came to a violent end. The circumstances 
of that end, however, as antiquity represents them, are clouded with 
fable. It is said that tempests of wind sent by God against the 
Tower of Babel overthrew it, and that Nimrod perished in its ruins. 
This could not be true, for we have sufficient evidence that the Tower 
of Babel stood long after Nimrod s day. Then, in regard to the 
death of Ninus, profane history speaks darkly and mysteriously, 
although one account tells of his having met with a violent death 
similar to that of Pentheus,|| Lycurgus,U and Orpheus,** who were 

plainly an allusion in the words of Daniel to Nebuchadnezzar, when announcing 
that sovereign s humiliation and subsequent restoration, he says (Daniel iv. 26), 
" Thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, when thou hast known that the HBAVENS 
do rule." 

* SMITH S Lesser Dictionary, " Gigantes," pp. 282, 283. 

t In the Greek Septuagint, translated in Egypt, the term " mighty " as applied 
in Gen. x. 8, to Nimrod, is rendered yiyas, the ordinary name for a " Giant." 

IVAN and KALLERY, in their account of Japan, show that a similar story to 
that of Atlas was known there, for they say that once a-day the Emperor " sits 
on his throne upholding the world and the empire." Now something like this 
came to be added to the story of Atlas, for PAUSANIAS shows (lib. v. cap. 18, 
p. 423) that Atlas also was represented as upholding both earth and heaven. 

BRYANT, vol. iv. pp. 61, 62. 

|| HYGINUS, Fab. 184, p. 138. 

if Ibid. Fab. 132, p. 109. Lycurgus, who is commonly made the enemy of 
Bacchus, was, by the Thracians and Phrygians, identified with Bacchus, who it is 
well known, was torn in pieces. See STRABO, lib. x. p. 453. 

** APOLLODORUS, Bibliotlieca, lib. i. cap. 3 and 7, p. 17. 


said to have been torn in pieces.* The identity of Nimrod, however, 
and the Egyptian Osiris, ^having been established, we have thereby 
light as to Nimrod s death. Osiris met with a violent death, and 
that violent death of Osiris was the central theme of the whole 
idolatry of Egypt. If Osiris was Nimrod, as we have seen, that 
violent death which the Egyptians so pathetically deplored in their 
annual festivals was just the death of Nimrod. The accounts in 
regard to the death of the god worshipped in the several mysteries 
of the different countries are all to the same effect. A statement of 
Plato seems to show, that in his day the Egyptian Osiris was 
regarded as identical with Tammuz ; f and Tammuz is well known to 
have been the same as Adonis, J the famous HUNTSMAN, for whose 
death Yenus is fabled to have made such bitter lamentations. As 
the women of Egypt wept for Osiris, as the Phenician and Assyrian 
women wept for Tammuz, so in Greece and Rome the women wept 
for Bacchus, whose name, as we have seen, means "The bewailed," 
or " Lamented one." And now, in connection with the Bacchanal 
lamentations, the importance of the relation established between 
Nebros, " The spotted fawn," and Nebrod, " The mighty hunter," will 
appear. The Nebros, or " spotted fawn," was the symbol of Bacchus, 
as representing Nebrod or Nimrod himself. Now, on certain 
occasions, in the mystical celebrations, the Nebros, or " spotted fawn," 
was torn in pieces, expressly, as we learn from Photius, as a com 
memoration of what happened to Bacchus, whom that fawn repre 
sented. The tearing in pieces of Nebros, " the spotted one," goes to 
confirm the conclusion, that the death of Bacchus, even as the death 
of Osiris, represented the death of Nebrod, whom, under the very 
name of " The Spotted one," the Babylonians worshipped. Though 
we do not find any account of Mysteries observed in Greece in 
memory of Orion, the giant and mighty hunter celebrated by Homer, 
under that name, yet he was represented symbolically as having died 
in a similar way to that in which Osiris died, and as having then 

* LUDOVICUS VIVES, Commentary on Augustine, lib. vi. chap. ix. Note, p. 239. 
Ninus as referred to by Vives is called " King of India." The word India " in 
classical writers, though not always, yet commonly means ^Ethiopia, or the land 
of Gush. Thus the Choaspes in the land of the eastern Cushites is called an 
" Indian river" (DiONYSius AFER. Periergesis, v. 1073-4, p. 32) ; and the Nile is 
said by Virgil to come from the "coloured Indians" (Georg., lib. iv. v., 293, p. 
230) i.e., from the Cushites, or ^Ethiopians of Africa. Osiris also is by Diodorus 
Siculus (Bibliotheca, lib. i. p. 16), called " an Indian by extraction." There can be 
no doubt, then, that " Ninus, king of India," is the Cushite or ^Ethiopian 

t See WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. v. p. 3. The statement of Plato amounts 
to this, that the famous Thoth was a counsellor of Thamus, king of Egypt. Now 
Thoth is universally known as the " counsellor" of Osiris. (WILKINSON, vol. v. 
c. xiii. p. 10.) Hence it may be concluded that Thamus and Osiris are the same. 

it KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. p. 141. 

Photius, under the head " Nebridz on " quotes Demosthenes as saying that 
" spotted fawns (or nebroi) were torn in pieces for a certain mystic or mysterious 
reason ; " and he himself tells us that " the tearing in pieces of the nebroi (or 
spotted fawns) was in imitation of the suffering in the case of Dionysus " or 
Bacchus. PHOTIUS, Lexicon, Pars. i. p. 291. 


been translated to heaven.* From Persian records we are expressly 
assured that it was Nimrod who was deified after his death by the 
name of Orion, and placed among the stars, f Here, then, we have 
large and consenting evidence, all leading to one conclusion, that the 
death of Nimrod, the child worshipped in the arms of the goddess- 
mother of Babylon, was a death of violence. 

Now, when this mighty hero, in the midst of his career of glory, 
was suddenly cut off by a violent death, great seems to have been the 
shock that the catastrophe occasioned. When the news spread abroad, 
the devotees of pleasure felt as if the best benefactor of mankind 
were gone, and the gaiety of nations eclipsed. Loud was the wail 
that everywhere ascended to heaven among the apostates from the 
primeval faith for so dire a catastrophe. Then began those weepings 
for Tammuz, in the guilt of which the daughters of Israel allowed 
themselves to be implicated, and the existence of which can be traced 
not merely in the annals of classical antiquity, but in the literature 
of the world from Ultima Thule to Japan. 

Of the prevalence of such weepings in China, thus speaks the Rev. 
W. Gillespie : " The dragon-boat festival happens in midsummer, 
and is a season of great excitement. About 2000 years ago there 
lived a young Chinese Mandarin, Wat-yune, highly respected and 
beloved by the people. To the grief of all, he was suddenly drowned 
in the river. Many boats immediately rushed out in search of him, 
but his body was never found. Ever since that time, on the same 
day of the month, the dragon-boats go out in search of him." " It is 
something," adds the author, " like the bewailing of Adonis, or the 
weeping for Tammuz mentioned in Scripture." J As the great god 
Buddh is generally represented in China as a Negro, that may serve 
to identify the beloved Mandarin whose loss is thus annually be 
wailed. The religious system of Japan largely coincides with that of 
China. In Iceland, and throughout Scandinavia, there were similar 
lamentations for the loss of the god Balder. Balder, through the 
treachery of the god Loki, the spirit of evil, according as had been 
written in the book of destiny, "was slain, although the empire of 
heaven depended on his life." His father Odin had "learned the 
terrible secret from the book of destiny, having conjured one of the 

* See OVID S Fasti, lib. v. lines 540-544. Ovid represents Orion as so puffed up 
with pride on account of his great strength, as vain-gloriously to boast that no 
creature on earth could cope with him, whereupon a scorpion appeared, "and," 
says the poet, "he was added to the stars." The name of a scorpion in Chaldee 
is Akrab ; but Ak-rab, thus divided, signifies "THE GREAT OPPRESSOR, and this 
is the hidden meaning of the Scorpion as represented in the Zodiac. That sign 
typifies him who cut off the Babylonian god, and suppressed the system he set up. 
It was while the sun was in Scorpio that Osiris in Egypt " disappeared " 
(WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 331), and great lamentations were made for his disappear 
ance. Another subject was mixed up with the death of the Egyptian god ; but it 
is specially to be noticed that, as it was in consequence of a conflict with a 
scorpion that Orion was "added to the stars," so it was when the scorpion was in 
the ascendant that Osiris " disappeared." 

f See Paschal Chronicle, torn. i. p. 64. 

GILLKSPIE S Sinim, p. 71. 


Volar from her infernal abode. All the gods trembled at the know 
ledge of this event. Then Frigga [the wife of Odin] called on every 
object, animate and inanimate, to take an oath not to destroy or 
furnish arms against Balder. Fire, water, rocks, and vegetables were 
bound by this solemn obligation. One plant only, the misletoe, was 
overlooked. Loki discovered the omission, and made that con 
temptible shrub the fatal weapon. Among the warlike pastimes of 
Valhalla [the assembly of the gods] one was to throw darts at the 
invulnerable deity, who felt a pleasure in presenting his charmed 
breast to their weapons. At a tournament of this kind, the evil 
genius putting a sprig of the misletoe into the hands of the blind 
Hoder, and directing his aim, the dreaded prediction was accomplished 
by an unintentional fratricide.* The spectators were struck with 
speechless wonder; and their misfortune was the greater, that no 
one, out of respect to the sacredness of the place, dared to avenge it. 
With tears of lamentation they carried the lifeless body to the shore, 
and laid it upon a ship, as a funeral pile, with that of Nanna his 
lovely bride, who had died of a broken heart. His horse and arms 
were burnt at the same time, as was customary at the obsequies of 
the ancient heroes of the north." Then Frigga, his mother, was 
overwhelmed with distress. "Inconsolable for the loss of her 
beautiful son," says Dr. Crichton, "she despatched Hermod (the 
swift) to the abode of Hela [the goddess of Hell, or the infernal 
regions], to offer a ransom for his release. The gloomy goddess pro 
mised that he should be restored, provided everything on earth were 
found to weep for him. Then were messengers sent over the whole 
world, to see that the order was obeyed, and the effect of the general 
sorrow was as when there is a universal thaw. "f There are con 
siderable variations from the original story in these two legends ; but 
at bottom the essence of the stories is the same, indicating that they 
must have flowed from one fountain. 


If there was one who was more deeply concerned in the tragic 
death of Nimrod than another, it was his wife Semiramis, who, from 
an originally humble position, had been raised to share with him the 
throne of Babylon. What, in this emergency shall she do ? Shall 
she quietly forego the pomp and pride to which she has been raised 1 
No. Though the death of her husband has given a rude shock to 
her power, yet her resolution and unbounded ambition were in 
nowise checked. On the contrary, her ambition took a still higher 
flight. In life her husband had been honoured as a hero ; in death 
she will have him worshipped as a god, yea, as the woman s promised 

* In THEOCRITUS, also, the boar that killed Adonis is represented as baring 
done so accidentally. See next section, 
f Scandinavia, vol. i. pp. 93, 94. 


seed, "Zero-ashta,"* who was destined to bruise the serpent s head, 
and who, in doing so, was to have his own heel bruised. The patri 
archs, and the ancient world in general, were perfectly acquainted with 
the grand primeval promise of Eden, and they knew right well that 
the bruising of the heel of the promised seed implied his death, and 
that the curse could be removed from the world only by the death of the 
grand Deliverer. If the promise about the bruising of the serpent s 

* Zero in Chaldee, "the eeed " though we have seen reason to conclude that 
in Greek it sometimes appeared as Zeira, quite naturally passed also into Zoro, 
as may be seen from the change of Zerubbabel in the Greek Septuagint to 
Zoro-babel ; and hence Zuro-ashta, "the seed of the woman" became Zoroaster, 
the well-known name of the head of the fire-worshippers. Zoroaster s name is also 
found as Zeroastes (JOHANNES CLERICUS, torn, ii., De Chaldceis, sect. i. cap. 2, p. 
194). The reader who consults the able and very learned work of Dr. Wilson of 
Bombay, on the Parsi Religion, will find that there was a Zoroaster long before 
that Zoroaster who lived in the reign of Darius Hystaspes. (See note to 
WILSON S Parsi Religion, p. 398.) In general history, the Zoroaster of Bactria 
is most frequently referred to ; but the voice of antiquity is clear and distinct to 
the effect that the first and great Zoroaster was an Assyrian or Chaldean (SuiDAS, 
torn. i. p. 1133), and that he was the founder of the idolatrous system of Babylon, 
and therefore Nimrod. It is equally clear also in stating that he perished by a 
violent death, even as was the case with Nimrod, Tammuz, or Bacchus. The 
identity of Bacchus and Zoroaster is still further proved by the epithet Pyrisporus, 
bestowed on Bacchus in the Orphic flymns (Hymn xliv. 1). When the primeval 
promise of Eden began to be forgotten, the meaning of the name Zero-ash ta was 
lost to all who knew only the exoteric doctrine of Paganism ; and as "ashta" 
signified "fire" in Chaldee, as well as "the woman," and the rites of Bacchus 
had much to do with fire-worship, "Zero-ashta " came to be rendered " the seed 
of fire ; " and hence the epithet Pyrisporus, or Ignigena, " fire-born," as applied 
to Bacchus. From this misunderstanding of the meaning of the name Zero-ashta, 
or rather from its wilful perversion by the priests, who wished to establish one 
doctrine for the initiated, and another for the profane vulgar, came the whole 
story about the unborn infant Bacchus having been rescued from the flames that 
consumed his mother Semele, when Jupiter came in his glory to visit her. (Note 
to OVID S Metam., lib. iii. v. 254, torn. ii. p. 139.) 

There was another name by which Zoroaster was known, and which is not a 
little instructive, and that is Zar-adas, " The only seed." ( JOHANNES CLERICUS, 
torn. ii. De Chaldceis, sect. i. cap. 2, p. 191.) In WILSON S Parsi Religion the name 
is given either Zoroadus, or Zarades (p. 400). The ancient Pagans, while they 
recognised supremely one only God, knew also that there was one only seed, 
on whom the hopes of the world were founded. In almost all nations, not only 
was a great god known under the name of Zero or Zer, the seed," and a great 
goddess under the name of Ashta or Isha, "the woman ; " but the great god Zero 
is frequently characterised by some epithet which implies that he is " The only 
One." Now what can account for such names or epithets ? Genesis iii. 15 can 
accoxmt for them ; nothing else can. The name Zar-ades, or Zoro-adus, also 
strikingly illustrates the saying of Paul : " He saith not, And to seeds, as of 
many ; but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ." 

It is worthy of notice, that the modern system of Parseeism, which dates from 
the reform of the old fire-worship in the time of Darius Hystaspes, having rejected 
the worship of the goddess-mother, cast out also from the name of their Zoroaster 
the name of the " woman " ; and therefore in the Zend, the sacred language of 
the Parsees, the name of their great reformer is Zarathustra (see WILSON, p. 201, 
and passim) i.e., "The Delivering Seed," the last member of the name coming 
from Thusht (the root being Chaldee nthsh, which drops the initial n), "to 
loosen or set loose," and so to free. Thusht is the infinitive, and ra appended to 
it is, in Sanscrit, with which the Zend has much affinity, the well-known sign of 
the doer of an action, just as er is in English. The Zend Zarathushtra, then, 
seems just the equivalent of Phoroneus, "The Emancipator." 



head, recorded in Genesis, as made to our first parents, was actually 
made, and if all mankind were descended from them, then it might 
be expected that some trace of this promise would be found in all 
nations. And such is the fact. There is hardly a people or kindred 
on earth in whose mythology it is not shadowed forth. The Greeks 
represented their great god Apollo as slaying the serpent Pytho, and 
Hercules as strangling serpents while yet in his cradle. In Egypt, 
in India, in Scandinavia, in Mexico, we find clear allusions to the 
same great truth. " The evil genius," says Wilkinson, " of the 
adversaries of the Egyptian god Horus is frequently figured under 
the form of a snake, whose head he is seen piercing with a spear. 
The same fable occurs in the religion of India, where the malignant 
serpent Calyia is slain by Vishnu, in his avatar of Crishna (Fig. 23) ; 
and the Scandinavian deity Thor was said to have bruised the head 
of the great serpent with his mace." " The origin of this," he adds, 
" may be readily traced to the Bible."* In reference to a similar 

Fig. 23. 

An Egyptian goddess piercing the serpent s head, and the Indian 
Crishna crushing the serpent s head.f 

belief among the Mexicans, we find Humboldt saying, that "The 
serpent crushed by the great spirit Teotl, when he takes the form of 
one of the subaltern deities, is the genius of evil a real Kako- 
dsemon."! Now, in almost all cases, when the subject is examined 
to the bottom, it turns out that the serpent destroying god is repre 
sented as enduring hardships and sufferings that end in his death. 
Thus the god Thor, while succeeding at last in destroying the great 
serpent, is represented as, in the very moment of victory, perishing 
from the venomous effluvia of his breath. The same would seem to 
be the way in which the Babylonians represented their great serpent- 
destroyer among the figures of their ancient sphere. His myste 
rious suffering is thus described by the Greek poet Aratus, whose 

* WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 395. 

t The Egyptian goddess is from WILKINSON, vol. vi. Plate 42 ; Crishna from 
COLEMAN S Indian Mythology, p. 34. 

$ HUMBOLDT S Mexican Researches, vol. i. p. 228. 
MALLET S Northern Antiquities, Fab. H. p. 453. 


language shows that when he wrote, the meaning of the representa 
tion had been generally lost, although, when viewed in the light of 
Scripture, it is surely deeply significant : 

" A human figure, whelmed with toil, appears ; 
Yet still with name uncertain he remains ; 
Nor known the labour that he thus sustains ; 
But since upon his knees he seems to fall, 
Him ignorant mortals Engonasis call ; 
And while sublime his awful hands are spread, 
Beneath him rolls the dragon s horrid head, 
And his right foot unmoved appears to rest, 
Fixed on the writhing monster s burnished crest."* 

The constellation thus represented is commonly known by the 
name of "The Kneeler," from this very description of the Greek 
poet ; but it is plain that, as " Engonasis " came from the Baby 
lonians, it must be interpreted, not in a Greek, but in a Chaldee 
sense, and so interpreted, as the action of the figure itself implies, 
the title of the mysterious sufferer is just "The Serpent-crusher."! 
Sometimes, however, the actual crushing of the serpent was repre 
sented as a much more easy process ; yet, even then, death was the 
ultimate result; and that death of the serpent-destroyer is so 
described as to leave no doubt whence the fable was borrowed. 
This is particularly the case with the Indian God Crishna, to whom 
Wilkinson alludes in the extract already given. In the legend that 
concerns him, the whole of the primeval promise in Eden is very 
strikingly embodied. First, he is represented in pictures and images 
with his foot on the great serpent s head,! an( ^ then, after destroying 
it, he is fabled to have died in consequence of being shot by an arrow 
in the foot ; and, as in the case of Tammuz, great lamentations are 
annually made for his death. Even in Greece, also, in the classic 
story of Paris and Achilles, we have a very plain allusion to that 
part of the primeval promise, which referred to the bruising of the 
conqueror s " heel." Achilles, the only son of a goddess, was invul 
nerable in all points except the heel, but there a wound was deadly. 
At that his adversary took aim, and death was the result. 

Now, if there be such evidence still, that even Pagans knew that 
it was by dying that the promised Messiah was to destroy death and 
him that has the power of death, that is the Devil, how much more 
vivid must have been the impression of mankind in general in regard 
to this vital truth in the early days of Semiramis, when they were 
so much nearer the fountain-head of all Divine tradition. When, 
therefore, the name Zoroastes, " the seed of the woman," was given 
to him who had perished in the midst of a prosperous career of false 

* LANDSEER S Sabean Researches, pp. 132-134. 
t From E, "the," nko, " to crush," ar 

and nahash, "a serpent," " E-uko-nahash." 
The Arabic name of the constellation, "the Kneeler," is "Al-Gethi," which, in 
like manner, signifies " The Crusher." 

COLEMAN S Indian Mythology, Plate xii. p. 34. See ante, p. 60. 

POCOCKE S India in Greece, p. 300. 


worship and apostacy, there can be no doubt of the meaning which 
that name was intended to convey. And the fact of the violent 
death of the hero, who, in the esteem of his partisans, had done so 
much to bless mankind, to make life happy, and to deliver them 
from the fear of the wrath to come, instead of being fatal to the 
bestowal of such a title upon him, favoured rather than otherwise 
the daring design. All that was needed to countenance the scheme 
on the part of those who wished an excuse for continued apostacy 
from the true God, was just to give out that, though the great patron 
of the apostacy had fallen a prey to the malice of men, he had freely 
offered himself for the good of mankind. Now, this was what was 
actually done. The Chaldean version of the story of the great 
Zoroaster is that he prayed to the supreme God of heaven to take 
away his life ; that his prayer was heard, and that he expired, assur 
ing his followers that, if they cherished due regard for his memory, 
the empire w T ould never depart from the Babylonians.* What 
Berosus, the Babylonian historian, says of the cutting off of the head 
of the great god Belus, is plainly to the same effect. Belus, says 
Berosus, commanded one of the gods to cut off his head, that from 
the blood thus shed by his own command and with his own consent, 
when mingled with the earth, new creatures might be formed, the 
first creation being represented as a sort of a failure, f Thus the 
death of Belus, who was Nimrod, like that attributed to Zoroaster, 
was represented as entirely voluntary, and as submitted to for the 
benefit of the world. 

It seems to have been now only when the dead hero was to be 
deified, that the secret Mysteries were set up. The previous form 
of apostacy during the life of Nimrod appears to have been open and 
public. Now, it was evidently felt that publicity was out of the 
question. The death of the great ringleader of the apostacy was not 
the death of a warrior slain in battle, but an act of judicial rigour, 
solemnly inflicted. This is well established by the accounts of the 
deaths of both Tammuz and Osiris. The following is the account of 
Tammuz, given by the celebrated Maimonides, deeply read in all 
the learning of the Chaldeans : " When the false prophet named 
Thammuz preached to a certain king that he should worship the 
seven stars and the twelve signs of the Zodiac, that king ordered 
him to be put to a terrible death. On the night of his death all the 
images assembled from the ends of the earth into the temple of 
Babylon, to the great golden image of the Sun, which was suspended 
between heaven and earth. That image prostrated itself in the midst 
of the temple, and so did all the images around it, while it related to 
them all that had happened to Thammuz. The images wept and 
lamented all the night long, and then in the morning they flew away, 
each to his own temple again, to the ends of the earth. And hence 
arose the custom every year, on the first day of the month Thammuz, 
to mourn and to weep for Thammuz. "J There is here, of course, all 

* SUIDAS, torn. i. pp. 1133, 1134. f BEROSUS, apud BUNSBN, vol. i. p. 709. 



the extravagance of idolatry, as found in the Chaldean sacred books 
that Maimonides had consulted but there is no reason to doubt the 
fact stated either as to the manner or the cause of the death of 
Tammuz. In this Chaldean legend, it is stated that it was by the 
command of a " certain king " that this ringleader in apostacy was 
put to death. Who could this king be, who was so determinedly 
opposed to the worship of the host of heaven 1 From what is related 
of the Egyptian Hercules, we get very valuable light on this subject. 
It is admitted by Wilkinson that the most ancient Hercules, and 
truly primitive one, was he who was known in Egypt as having, 
" by the power of the gods " * (i.e., by the SPIRIT) fought against 
and overcome the Giants. Now, no doubt, the title and character 
of Hercules were afterwards given by the Pagans to him whom they 
worshipped as the grand deliverer or Messiah, just as the adversaries 
of the Pagan divinities came to be stigmatised as the " Giants " who 
rebelled against Heaven. But let the reader only reflect who were 
the real Giants that rebelled against Heaven. They were Nimrod 
and his party; for the "Giants" were just the "Mighty ones," of 
whom Nimrod was the leader. Who, then, was most likely to head 
the opposition to the apostacy from the primitive worship 1 If Shem 
was at that time alive, as beyond question he was, who so likely as 
he ? In exact accordance with this deduction, we find that one of 
the names of the primitive Hercules in Egypt was " Sem."f 

If " Sem," then, was the primitive Hercules, who overcame the 
Giants, and that not by mere physical force, but by " the power of 
God," or the influence of the Holy Spirit, that entirely agrees with 
his character ; and more than that, it remarkably agrees with the 
Egyptian account of the death of Osiris. The Egyptians say, that 
the grand enemy of their god overcame him, not by open violence, 
but that, having entered into a conspiracy with seventy-two of the 
leading men of Egypt, he got him into his power, put him to death, 
and then cut his dead body into pieces, and sent the different parts 
to so many different cities throughout the country. J The real mean 
ing of this statement will appear, if we glance at the judicial institu 
tions of Egypt. Seventy-two was just the number of the judges, 
both civil and sacred, who, according to Egyptian law, were required 
to determine what was to be the punishment of one guilty of so high 
an offence as that of Osiris, supposing this to have become a matter 
of judicial inquiry. In determining such a case, there were neces 
sarily two tribunals concerned. Eirst, there were the ordinary 
judges, who had power of life and death, and who amounted to 
thirty, then there was, over and above, a tribunal consisting of 
forty-two judges, who, if Osiris was condemned to die, had to deter 
mine whether his body should be buried or no, for, before burial, 

* The name of the true God (Elohim) is plural. Therefore, " the power of the 
gods," and " of God," is expressed by the same term. 
t WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 17. 
J Ibid. vol. iv. pp. 330-332. 
DIODOBUS, lib. i. p. 48. 


every one after death had to pass the ordeal of this tribunal.* As 
burial was refused him, both tribunals would necessarily be con 
cerned ; and thus there would be exactly seventy-two persons, under 
Typho the president, to condemn Osiris to die and to be cut in pieces. 
What, then, does the statement amount to, in regard to the con 
spiracy, but just to this, that the great opponent of the idolatrous 
system which Osiris introduced, had so convinced these judges of the 
enormity of the offence which he had committed, that they gave up 
the offender to an awful death, and to ignominy after it, as a terror 
to any who might afterwards tread in his steps. The cutting of the 
dead body in pieces, and sending the dismembered parts among the 
different cities, is paralleled, and its object explained, by what we read 
in the Bible of the cutting of the dead body of the Levite s concubine 
in pieces (Judges xix. 29), and sending one of the parts to each of 
the twelve tribes of Israel ; and the similar step taken by Saul, when 
he hewed the two yoke of oxen asunder, and sent them throughout 
all the coasts of his kingdom (1 Sam. xi. 7). It is admitted by com 
mentators that both the Levite and Saul acted on a patriarchal 
custom, according to which summary vengeance would be dealt to 
those who failed to come to the gathering that in this solemn way 
was summoned. This was declared in so many words by Saul, when 
the parts of the slaughtered oxen were sent among the tribes : 
" Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and after Samuel, so shall 
it be done to his oxen." In like manner, when the dismembered 
parts of Osiris were sent among the cities by the seventy-two " con 
spirators " in other words, by the supreme judges of Egypt, it was 
equivalent to a solemn declaration in their name, that " whosoever 
should do as Osiris had done, so should it be done to him ; so should 
he also be cut in pieces." 

When irreligion and apostacy again rose into the ascendant, this 
act, into which the constituted authorities who had to do with the 

* DIODORUS, lib. i. p. 58. The words of Diodorus, as printed in the ordinary edi 
tions, make the number of the judges simply "more than forty, without specifying 
how many more. In the Codex Coislianus, the number is stated to be "two more 
than forty." The earthly judges, who tried the question of burial, are admitted 
both by WILKINSON (vol. v. p. 75) and BUNSEN (vol. i. p. 27), to have corre 
sponded in number to the judges of the infernal regions. Now, these judges, 
over and above their president, are proved from the monuments to have been just 
forty-two. The earthly judges at funerals, therefore, must equally have been 
forty-two. In reference to this number as applying equally to the judges of this 
world and the world of spirits, Bunsen, speaking of the judgment on a deceased 
person in the world unseen, uses these words in the passage above referred to : 
" Forty-two gods (the number composing the earthly tribunal of the dead) occupy 
the judgment-seat." Diodorus himself, whether he actually wrote "two more 
than forty," or simply " more than forty," gives reason to believe that forty-two 
was the number he had present to his mind ; for he says, that " the whole of the 
fable of the shades below," as brought by Orpheus from Egypt, was " copied from 
the ceremonies of the Egyptian funerals," which he had witnessed at the judgment 
before the burial of the dead. (DIODORUS, lib. i. p. 58.) If, therefore, there 
were just forty-two judges in " the shades below," that even, on the showing of 
Diodorus, whatever reading of his words be preferred, proves that the number of 
the judges in the earthly judgment must have been the same. 


ringleader of the apostates were led, for the putting down of the 
combined system of irreligion and despotism set up by Osiris or 
Nimrod, was naturally the object of intense abhorrence to all his 
sympathisers ; and for his share in it the chief actor was stigmatised 
as Typho, or "The Evil One."* The influence that this abhorred 
Typho wielded over the minds of the so-called " conspirators," con 
sidering the physical force with which JSTimrod was upheld, must 
have been wonderful, and goes to show, that though his deed in 
regard to Osiris is veiled, and himself branded by a hateful name, 
he was indeed none other than that primitive Hercules who over 
came the Giants by "the power of God," by the persuasive might of 
his Holy Spirit. 

In connection with this character of Shem, the myth that makes 
Adonis, who is identified with Osiris, perish by the tusks of a wild 
boar, is easily unravelled, f The tusk of a wild boar was a symbol. 
In Scripture, a tusk is called " a horn ; " J among many of the Classic 
Greeks it was regarded in the very same light. When once it is 
known that a tusk is regarded as a "horn" according to the symbolism 
of idolatry, the meaning of the boar s tusks, by which Adonis perished, 
is not far to seek. The bull s horns that Nimrod wore were the 
symbol of physical power. The boar s tusks were the symbol of 
spiritual power. As a "horn" means power, so a tusk, that is, a 
horn in the mouth, means " power in the mouth ; " in other words, 
the power of persuasion; the very power with which "Sem," the 
primitive Hercules, was so signally endowed. Even from the ancient 
traditions of the Gael, we get an item of evidence that at once illus 
trates this idea of power in the mouth, and connects it with that 
great son of Noah, on whom the blessing of the Highest, as recorded 
in Scripture, did specially rest. The Celtic Hercules was called 

* Wilkinson admits that different individuals at different times bore this hated 
name in Egypt. One of the most noted names by which Typho, or the Evil One, 
was called, was Seth (EPIPHANIUS, Adv. ffceres., lib. iii.). Now Seth and Shem 
are synonymous, both alike signifying "The appointed one." As Shem was a 
younger son of Noah, being "the brother of Japhet the elder (Gen. x. 21), and 
as the pre-eminence was divinely destined to him, the name Shem, " the appointed 
one," had doubtless been given him by Divine direction, either at his birth or 
afterwards, to mark him out as Seth had been previously marked out as the 
"child of promise." Shem, however, seems to have been known in Egypt as 
Typho, not only under the name of Seth, but under his own name ; for Wilkinson 
tells us that Typho was characterised by a name that signified "to destroy and 
render desert." (Egyptians, vol. iv. p. 434.) Now the name of Shem also in one 
of its meanings signifies "to desolate" or lay waste. So Shem, the appointed 
one, was by his enemies made Shem, the Desolator or Destroyer i.e., the Devil. 

f In India, a demon with a " boar s face " is said to have gained such power 
through his devotion, that he oppressed the " devotees " or worshippers of the gods, 
who had to hide themselves. (MooR s Pantheon, p. 19.) Even in Japan there 
seems to be a similar myth. For Japanese boar, see Illustrated News, 15th Dec., 

J Ezek. xxvii. 15 : " They brought thee for a present horns of ivory." 

Paxisanias admits that some in his day regarded tusks as teeth ; but he argues 
strongly, and, I think, conclusively, for their being considered as " horns." See 
PAUSANIAS, lib. v., Eliaca, cap. 12, p. 404 ; also, VARRO, De Lingua Latina, lib. vi. 
apud PARKHURST, sub voce " Krn." 



Hercules Ogmius, which, in Chaldee, is " Hercules the Lamenter."* 
No name could be more appropriate, none more descriptive of the 
history of Shem, than this. Except our first parent, Adam, there 
was, perhaps, never a mere man that saw so much grief as he. Not 
only did he see a vast apostacy, which, with his righteous feelings, 
and witness as he had been of the awful catastrophe of the flood, 
must have deeply grieved him ; but he lived to bury SEVEN GENERA 
TIONS of his descendants. He lived 502 years after the flood, and as 
the lives of men were rapidly shortened after that event, no less than 
SEVEN generations of his lineal descendants died before him (Gen. 
xi. 10-32). How appropriate a name Ogmius, "The Lamenter or 
Mourner," for one who had such a history ! Now, how is this 
" Mourning " Hercules represented as putting down enormities and 
redressing wrongs? Not by his club, like the Hercules of the 
Greeks, but by the force of persuasion. Multitudes were represented 
as following him, drawn by fine chains of gold and amber inserted 
into their ears, and which chains proceeded from his mouth, f There 
is a great difference between the two symbols the tusks of a boar 
and the golden chains issuing from the mouth, that draw willing 
crowds by the ears ; but both very beautifully illustrate the same 
idea the might of that persuasive power that enabled Shem for a 
time to withstand the tide of evil that came rapidly rushing in upon 
the world. 

Now when Shem had so powerfully wrought upon the minds of 
men as to induce them to make a terrible example of the great 
Apostate, and when that Apostate s dismembered limbs were sent to 
the chief cities, where no doubt his system had been established, it 
will be readily perceived that, in these circumstances, if idolatry was 
to continue if, above all, it was to take a step in advance, it was 
indispensable that it should operate in secret. The terror of an 
execution, inflicted on one so mighty as Nimrod, made it needful 
that, for some time to come at least, the extreme of caution should 
be used. In these circumstances, then, began, there can hardly be a 
doubt, that system of " Mystery," which, having Babylon for its 

* The Celtic scholars derive the name Ogmius from the Celtic word Ogum, 
which is said to denote "the secret of writing ; " but Ogum is much more likely 
to be derived from the name of the god, than the name of the god to be derived 
from it. 

t Sir W. BETHAM S Gael and Cymbri, pp. 90-93. In connection with this 
Ogmius, one of the names of " Sem," the great Egyptian Hercules who overcame 
the Giants, is worthy of notice. That name is Chon. In the Etymologicum 
Magnum, apud BRYANT, vol. ii. p. 33, we thus read : " They say that in the 
Egyptian dialect Hercules is called Chon." Compare this with WILKINSON, vol. 
v. p. 17, where Chon is called "Sem." Now Khon signifies "to lament" in 
Chaldee, and as Shem was Khon i.e., "Priest" of the Most High God, his 
character and peculiar circumstances as Khon " the lamenter " would form an 
additional reason why he should be distinguished by that name by which the 
Egyptian Hercules was known. And it is not to be overlooked, that on the part 
of those who seek to turn sinners from the error of their ways, there is an 
eloquence in tears that is very impressive. The tears of Whitefield formed one 
great part of his power ; and, in like manner, the tears of Khon, " the lamenting " 
Hercules, would aid him mightily in overcoming the Giants. 


centre, has spread over the world. In these Mysteries, under the 
seal of secrecy and the sanction of an oath, and by means of all the 
fertile resources of magic, men were gradually led back to all the 
idolatry that had been publicly suppressed, while new features were 
added to that idolatry that made it still more blasphemous than 
before. That magic and idolatry were twin sisters, and came into 
the world together, we have abundant evidence. " He " (Zoroaster), 
says Justin the historian, "was said to be the first that invented 
magic arts, and that most diligently studied the motions of the 
heavenly bodies."* The Zoroaster spoken of by Justin is the 
Bactrian Zoroaster ; but this is generally admitted to be a mistake. 
Stanley, in his History of Oriental Philosophy, concludes that this 
mistake had arisen from similarity of name, and that from this cause 
that had been attributed to the Bactrian Zoroaster which properly 
belonged to the Chaldean, "since it cannot be imagined that the 
Bactrian was the inventor of those arts in which the Chaldean, who 
lived contemporary with him, was so much skilled." f Epiphanius 
had evidently come to the same substantial conclusion before him. 
He maintains, from the evidence open to him in his day, that it was 
" Nimrod, that established the sciences of magic and astronomy, the 
invention of which was subsequently attributed to (the Bactrian) 
Zoroaster." J As we have seen that Nimrod and the Chaldean 
Zoroaster are the same, the conclusions of the ancient and the modern 
inquirers into Chaldean antiquity entirely harmonise. Now the 
secret system of the Mysteries gave vast facilities for imposing on 
the senses of the initiated by means of the various tricks and artifices 
of magic. Notwithstanding all the care and precautions of those 
who conducted these initiations, enough has transpired to give us a 
very clear insight into their real character. Everything was so 
contrived as to wind up the minds of the novices to the highest pitch 
of excitement, that, after having surrendered themselves implicitly to 
the priests, they might be prepared to receive anything. After the 
candidates for initiation had passed through the confessional, and 
sworn the required oaths, "strange and amazing objects," says 
Wilkinson, " presented themselves. Sometimes the place they were 
in seemed to shake around them ; sometimes it appeared bright and 
resplendent with light and radiant fire, and then again covered with 
black darkness, sometimes thunder and lightning, sometimes frightful 
noises and bellowings, sometimes terrible apparitions astonished the 
trembling spectators." Then, at last, the great god, the central 
object of their worship, Osiris, Tammuz, Nimrod or Adonis, was 
revealed to them in the way most fitted to soothe their feelings and 
engage their blind affections. An account of such a manifestation is 
thus given by an ancient Pagan, cautiously indeed, but yet in such 
a way as shows the nature of the magic secret by which such an 

* JUSTINUS, ffistoria, lib. i. cap. 1, vol. ii. p. 615. 

t STANLEY, p. 1031, col. 1. 

I EPIPHANIUS, Adv. ff ceres., lib. i. torn, i., vol. i. p. 7 c. 

WILKINSON S Manners and Customs of Egyptians, vol. v. p. 326. 


apparent miracle was accomplished : " In a manifestation which one 
must not reveal .... there is seen on a wall of the temple a mass 
of light, which appears at first at a very great distance. It is trans 
formed, while unfolding itself, into a visage evidently divine and 
supernatural, of an aspect severe, but with a touch of sweetness. 
Following the teachings of a mysterious religion, the Alexandrians 
honour it as Osiris or Adonis."* From this statement, there can 
hardly be a doubt that the magical art here employed was none other 
than that now made use of in the modern phantasmagoria. Such 
or similar means were used in the very earliest periods for present 
ing to the view of the living, in the secret Mysteries, those who 
were dead. We have statements in ancient history referring to 
the very time of Semiramis, which imply that magic rites were 
practised for this very purpose ;f and as the magic lantern, or some 
thing akin to it, was manifestly used in later times for such an end, 
it is reasonable to conclude that the same means, or similar, were 
employed in the most ancient times, when the same effects were 
produced. Now, in the hands of crafty, designing men, this was 
a powerful means of imposing upon those who were willing to be 
imposed upon, who were averse to the holy spiritual religion of the 
living God, and who still hankered after the system that was put 
down. It was easy for those who controlled the Mysteries, having 
discovered secrets that were then unknown to the mass of mankind, 
and which they carefully preserved in their own exclusive keeping, 
to give them what might seem ocular demonstration, that Tammuz, 
who had been slain, and for whom such lamentations had been made, 
was still alive, and encompassed with divine and heavenly glory. 
From the lips of one so gloriously revealed, or what was practically 

* DAMASCIUS, apud PHOTIUM, Bibliotheca, cod. 242, p. 343. 

t One of the statements to which I refer is contained in the following words of 
Moses of Chorene in his Armenian History, referring to the answer made by Semi 
ramis to the friends of Araeus, who had been slain in battle by her : " Diis inquit 
[Semiramis] meis mendata dedi, ut Araei vulnera lamberent, et ab inferis excitarent. 
.... Dii, inquit, Araeum lamberunt, et ad vitam revocarunt ;" "I have given 
commands, says Semiramis, to my gods to lick the wounds of Arseus, and to raise 
him from the dead. The gods, says she, have licked Araeus, and recalled him to 
life." (MosES CHORONEN, lib. i. cap. 14, p. 42.) If Semiramis had really done 
what she said she had done, it would have been a miracle. The effects of magic 
were sham miracles ; and Justin and Epiphanius show that sham miracles came 
in at the very birth of idolatry. Now, unless the sham miracle of raising the 
dead by magical arts had already been known to be practised in the days of 
Semiramis, it is not likely that she would have given such an answer to those 
whom she wished to propitiate ; for, on the one hand, how could she ever have 
thought of sueh an answer, and on the other, how could she expect that it would 
have the intended effect, if there was no current belief in the practices of necro 
mancy ? We find that in Egypt, about the same age, such magic arts must have 
been practised, if Manetho is to be believed. "Manetho says," according to 
Josephus, " that he [the elder Horus, evidently spoken of as a human and mortal 
king] was admitted to the sight of the gods, and that Amenophis desired the same 
privilege." Oewp yeveaQai 6ta.Tyv utnrep Op; so it stood in the old copies. 
(JOSEPHUS, contra APION, lib. i. p. 932.) This pretended admission to the sight 
of the gods evidently implies the use of the magic art referred to in the 


the same, from the lips of some unseen priest, speaking in his name 
from behind the scenes, what could be too wonderful or incredible 
to be believed 1 Thus the whole system of the secret Mysteries of 
Babylon was intended to glorify a dead man ; and when once the 
worship of one dead man was established, the worship of many more 
was sure to follow. This casts light upon the language of the 
106th Psalm, where the Lord, upbraiding Israel for their apostacy, 
says : " They joined themselves to Baalpeor, and ate the sacrifices 
of the dead." Thus, too, the way was paved for bringing in all the 
abominations and crimes of which the Mysteries became the scenes ; 
for, to those who liked not to retain God in their knowledge, who 
preferred some visible object of worship, suited to the sensuous 
feelings of their carnal minds, nothing could seem a more cogent 
reason for faith or practice than to hear with their own ears a com 
mand given forth amid so glorious a manifestation apparently by the 
very divinity they adored. 

The scheme, thus skilfully formed, took effect. Semiramis gained 
glory from her dead and deified husband ; and in course of time 
both of them, under the names of Rhea and Nin, or " Goddess- 
Mother and Son," were worshipped with an enthusiasm that was 
incredible, and their images were everywhere set up and adored.* 
Wherever the negro aspect of Nimrod was found an obstacle to his 
worship, this was very easily obviated. According to the Chaldean 
doctrine of the transmigration of souls, all that was needful was just 
to teach that Ninus had reappeared in the person of a posthumous 
son, of a fair complexion, supernaturally borne by his widowed wife 
after the father had gone to glory. As the licentious and dissolute 
life of Semiramis gave her many children, for whom no ostensible 
father on earth would be alleged, a plea like this would at once 
sanctify sin, and enable her to meet the feelings of those who were 
disaffected to the true worship of Jehovah, and yet might have no 
fancy to bow down before a negro divinity. From the light reflected 
on Babylon by Egypt, as well as from the form of the extant images 
of the Babylonian child in the arms of the goddess-mother, we have 
every reason to believe that this was actually done. In Egypt the 
fair Horus, the son of the black Osiris, who was the favourite object 
of worship, in the arms of the goddess Isis, was said to have been 
miraculously born in consequence of a connection, on the part of 
that goddess, with Osiris after his death, f and, in point of fact, to 
have been a new incarnation of that god, to avenge his death on his 
murderers. It is wonderful to find in what widely-severed countries, 
and amongst what millions of the human race at this day, who never 
saw a negro, a negro god is worshipped. But yet, as we shall after 
wards see, among the civilised nations of antiquity, Nimrod almost 
everywhere fell into disrepute, and was deposed from his original 

* It would seem that no public idolatry was ventured upon till the reign of the 
grandson of Semiramis, Arioch or Arius. Cedrcni Compendium, vol. i. pp. 
29, 30. 

+ Plutarchi Opera, vol. ii. p. 366. 



pre-eminence, expressly ob deformitatem* " on account of his ugli 
ness." Even in Babylon itself, the posthumous child, as identified 
with his father, and inheriting all his father s glory, yet possessing 
more of his mother s complexion, came to be the favourite type of 
the Madonna s divine son. 

This son, thus worshipped in his mother s arms, was looked upon 
as invested with all the attributes, and called by almost all the names 
of the promised Messiah. As Christ, in the Hebrew of the Old 
Testament, was called Adonai, The Lord, so Tammuz was called 
Adon or Adonis. Under the name of Mithras, he was worshipped 
as the "Mediator."! As Mediator and head of the covenant of 
grace, he was styled Baal-berith, Lord of the Covenant (Fig. 24) 
(Judges viii. 33). In this character he is represented in Persian 
monuments as seated on the rainbow, the well-known symbol of 
the covenant.! In India, under the name of Vishnu, the Preserver 
or Saviour of men, though a god, he was worshipped as the great 
" Victim-Man," who before the worlds were, because there was 
nothing else to offer, offered himself as a sacrifice. The Hindu 

Fig. 24. 

sacred writings teach that this mysterious offering before all creation 
is the foundation of all the sacrifices that have ever been offered 
since.|| Do any marvel at such a statement being found in the 
sacred books of a Pagan mythology? Why should they? Since 
sin entered the world there has been only one way of salvation, 
and that through the blood of the everlasting covenant a way that 
all mankind once knew, from the days of righteous Abel downwards. 
When Abel, " by faith," offered unto God his more excellent sacrifice 
than that of Cain, it was his faith " in the blood of the Lamb slain," 
in the purpose of God " from the foundation of the world," and in 

* These are the words of the Gradus ad Parnassum, referring to the cause of 
the downfall of Vulcan, whose identity with Nimrod is shown in Chapter VII. 
Section I. 

f PLUTAKCH, De hide, vol. ii. p. 369. 

THEVENOT, Voyages, Partie ii., chap. vii. p. 514. 

Col. KENNEDY S Hindoo Mythology, pp. 221 and 247, with Note. 

|| Ibid. pp. 200, 204, 205. In the exercise of his office as the Remedial god, 
Vishnu is said to "extract the thorns of the three worlds." MOOR S Pantheon, 
p. 12. " Thorns " were a symbol of the curse (Gen. iii. 18). 


due time to be actually offered up on Calvary, that gave all the 
" excellence " to his offering. If Abel knew of " the blood of the 
Lamb," why should Hindoos not have known of it 1 One little 
word shows that even in Greece the virtue of "the blood of God" 
had once been known, though that virtue, as exhibited in its poets, 
was utterly obscured and degraded. That word is Ichor. Every 
reader of the bards of classic Greece knows that Ichor is the term 
peculiarly appropriated to the blood of a divinity. Thus Homer 
refers to it : 

" From the clear vein the immortal Ichor flowed, 
Such stream as issues from a wounded god, 
Pure emanation, uncorrupted flood, 
Unlike our gross, diseased terrestrial blood."* 

Now, what is the proper meaning of the term Ichor ? In Greek it 
has no etymological meaning whatever; but, in Chaldee, Ichor 
signifies " The precious thing." Such a name, applied to the blood 
of a divinity, could have only one origin. It bears its evidence on 
the very face of it, as coming from that grand patriarchal tradition, 
that led Abel to look forward to the " precious blood " of Christ, the 
most " precious " gift that love Divine could give to a guilty world, 
and which, while the blood of the only genuine " Victim-Man," is at 
the same time, in deed and in truth, "The blood of God" (Acts 
xx. 28). Even in Greece itself, though the doctrine was utterly 
perverted, it was not entirely lost. It was mingled with falsehood 
and fable, it was hid from the multitude ; but yet, in the secret 
mystic system it necessarily occupied an important place. As 
Servius tells us that the grand purpose of the Bacchic orgies " was 
the purification of souls,"f and as in these orgies there was regularly 
the tearing asunder and the shedding of the blood of an animal, in 
memory of the shedding of the life s blood of the great divinity 
commemorated in them, could this symbolical shedding of the 
blood of that divinity have no bearing on the "purification" from 
sin, these mystic rites were intended to effect 1 We have seen that 
the sufferings of the Babylonian Zoroaster and Belus were expressly 
represented as voluntary, and as submitted to for the benefit of the 
world, and that in connection with crushing the great serpent s head, 
which implied the removal of sin and the curse. If the Grecian 
Bacchus was just another form of the Babylonian divinity, then his 
sufferings and blood-shedding must have been represented as having 
been undergone for the same purpose viz., for the " purification of 
souls." From this point of view, let the well-known name of 
Bacchus in Greece be looked at. The name was Dionysus or 
Dionusos. What is the meaning of that name? Hitherto it has 
defied all interpretation. But deal with it as belonging to the 
language of that land from which the god himself originally came, 

* POPE S Homer, corrected by PARKHURST. See the original in Iliad, lib. v. 
11.339, 340, pp. 198, 199. 
t See ante, p. 22. 


and the meaning is very plain. D J ion-nuso-s signifies "Tnis SIN- 
BEARER,"* a name entirely appropriate to the character of him whose 
sufferings were represented as so mysterious, and who was looked up 
to as the great " purifier of souls." 

Now, this Babylonian God, known in Greece as " The sin-bearer," 
and in India as the " Victim-Man," among the Buddhists of the East, 
the original elements of whose system are clearly Babylonian, was 
commonly addressed as the " Saviour of the world."! It has been 
all along well enough known that the Greeks occasionally worshipped 
the supreme god under the title of " Zeus the Saviour ; " but this title 
was thought to have reference only to deliverance in battle, or some 
such-like temporal deliverance. But when it is known that " Zeus 
the Saviour " was only a title of Dionysus, J the " sin-bearing Bacchus," 
his character, as " The Saviour," appears in quite a different light. 
In Egypt, the Chaldean god was held up as the great object of love 
and adoration, as the god through whom " goodness and truth were 
revealed to mankind." He was regarded as the predestined heir of 
all things ; and, on the day of his birth, it was believed that a voice 
was heard to proclaim, " The Lord of all the earth is born."|| In 
this character he was styled "King of kings, and Lord of lords," it 
being as a professed representative of this hero-god that the celebrated 
Sesostris caused this very title to be added to his name on the monu 
ments which he erected to perpetuate the fame of his victories. U 
Not only was he honoured as the great World King," he was 
regarded as Lord of the invisible world, and " Judge of the dead ; " 
and it was taught that, in the world of spirits, all must appear before 
his dread tribunal, to have their destiny assigned them.** As the 

* The expression used in Exodus xxviii. 38, for "bearing iniquity " or sin in a 
vicarious manner is " nsha eon " (the first letter eon being ayn). A synonym for 
eon, "iniquity," is aon (the first letter being aleph). (See PARKHDRST sub voce 
An, No. IV.) In Chaldee the first letter a becomes i, and therefore aon, 
"iniquity," is ion. Then nsha " to bear," in the participle active is " nusha." 
As the Greeks had no sh, that became nusa. De, or Da, is the demonstrative 
pronoun signifying "That" or "The great." And thus " D ion-nusa" is exactly 
" The great sin-bearer." That the classic Pagans had the very idea of the 
imputation of sin, and of vicarious suffering, is proved by what Ovid says in 
regard to Olenos. Olenos is said to have taken upon him and willingly to have 
borne the blame of guilt of which he was innocent : 

" Quique in se crimen traxit, voluitque videri, 
Olenos esse nocens." 

(OviD, Metam., vol. ii. p. 486.) Under the load of this imputed guilt, voluntarily 
taken upon himself, Olenos is represented as having suffered such horror as to 
have perished, being petrified or turned into stone. As the stone into which 
Olenos was changed was erected on the holy mountain of Ida, that shows that 
Olenos must have been regarded as a sacred person. The real character of Olenos, 
as the "sin-bearer," can be very fully established. See Appendix, Note F. 

t MAHAWANSO, xxxi. apud POCOCKE S India in Greece, p. 185. 

ATHEN/EUS, lib. xv. p. 675. 

WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. iv. p. 189. 

|| Ibid. p. 310. 

IT RUSSELL S Egypt, p. 79. 

** WILKINSON, vol. iv. pp. 310, 314. 


true Messiah was prophesied of under the title of the " Man whose 
name was the branch," he was celebrated not only as the " Branch of 
Gush," but as the " Branch of God," graciously given to the earth for 
healing all the ills that flesh is heir to.* He was worshipped in 
Babylon under the name of El-Bar, or " God the Son." Under this 
very name he is introduced by Berosus, the Chaldean historian, as 
the second in the list of Babylonian sovereigns.! Under this name 
he has been found in the sculptures of Nineveh by Layard, the name 
Bar " the Son," having the sign denoting El or " God " prefixed to 
it. Under the same name he has been found by Sir H. Rawlinson, 
the names " Beltis " and the " Shining Bar " being in immediate jux 
taposition^ Under the name of Bar he was worshipped in Egypt 
in the earliest times, though in later times the god Bar was degraded 
in the popular Pantheon, to make way for another more popular 
divinity. 1 1 In Pagan Rome itself, as Ovid testifies, he was 
worshipped under the name of the " Eternal Boy. "IF Thus daringly 

* This is the esoteric meaning of Virgil s " Golden Branch," and of the Misle- 
toe Branch of the Druids. The proof of this must be reserved to the Apocalypse 
of the Past. I may remark, however, in passing, on the wide extent of the 
worship of a sacred branch. Not only do the Negroes in Africa in the worship of 
the Fetiche, on certain occasions, make use of a sacred branch (HoRD s Rites and 
Ceremonies, p. 375), but even in India there are traces of the same practice. My 
brother, S. Hislop, Free Church Missionary at Nagpore, informs me that the late 
Rajah of Nagpore used every year, on a certain day, to go in state to worship the 
branch of a particular species of tree, called Apta, which had been planted for the 
occasion, and which, after receiving divine honours, was plucked up, and its leaves 
distributed by the native Prince among his nobles. In the streets of the city 
numerous boughs of the same kind of tree were sold, and the leaves presented to 
friends under the name of sona, or " gold." 

t BEROSDS, in BUNSEN S Egypt, vol. i. p. 710, Note 5. The name "El-Bar" is 
given above in the Hebrew form, as being more familiar to the common reader of 
the English Bible. The Chaldee form of the name is Ala-Bar, which in the Greek 
of Berosus, is Ala-Par, with the ordinary Greek termination os affixed to it. The 
change of Bar into Par in Greek is just on the same principle as Al, "father," 
in Greek becomes Appa, and Bard, the "spotted one," becomes Pardos, &c. 
This name, Ala-Bar, was probably given by Berosus to Ninyas as the legitimate 
son and successor of Nimrod. That Ala-Par-os was really intended to designate 
the sovereign referred to, as " God the Son," or "the Son of God," is confirmed 
by another reading of the same name as given in Greek (in p. 712 of BifNSEN, 
Note). There the name is Alasparos. Now Pyrisporus, as applied to Bacchus, 
means Ignigena, or the " Seed of Fire ; " and Ala-sporos, the " Seed of God," is 
just a similar expression formed in the same way, the name being Grecised. It 
is well known that the Greek cnreipd) comes from the Hebrew Zero, both signifying 
as verbs to sow. The formation of <nreipu comes thus : The active participle of 
Zero is Zuro, which, used as a verb, becomes Zwero, Zvero, and Zpero. " Ala 
sparos," then, naturally signifies, "The Seed of God" a mere variation of 
Ala-Par-os, "God the Son," or " the Son of God." 

Nineveh and Babylon, p. 629. 

VAUX S Nineveh, p. 457. 

I! BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 426. Though Bunsen does not mention the degradation 
of the god Bar, yet by making him Typhon he implies his degradation. See 
EPIPHANIUS, Adv. Jfcereses, lib. iii. torn, ii., vol. i. p. 1093. 

H To understand the true meaning of the above expression, reference must be 
had to a remarkable form of oath among the Romans. In Rome the most sacred 
form of an oath was (as we learn from AULUS GELLIUS, i. 21, p. 192), " Per Jovem 
LAPIDEM," " By Jupiter the STONE." This, as it stands, is nonsense. But trans- 


and directly was a mere mortal set up in Babylon in opposition to 
the " Son of the Blessed." 


Now while the mother derived her glory in the first instance from 
the divine character attributed to the child in her arms, the mother 
in the long-run practically eclipsed the son. At first, in all likeli 
hood, there would be no thought whatever of ascribing divinity to 
the mother. There was an express promise that necessarily led 
mankind to expect that, at some time or other, the Son of God, in 
amazing condescension, should appear in this world as the Son of 
man. But there was no promise whatever, or the least shadow of a 
promise, to lead any one to anticipate that a woman should ever be 
invested with attributes that should raise her to a level with 
Divinity. It is in the last degree improbable, therefore, that when 
the mother was first exhibited with the child in her arms, it should 
be intended to give divine honours to her. She was doubtless used 
chiefly as a pedestal for the upholding of the divine Son, and holding 
him forth to the adoration of mankind \ and glory enough it would 
be counted for her, alone of all the daughters of Eve, to have given 
birth to the promised seed, the world s only hope. But while this, 
no doubt, was the design, it is a plain principle in all"idolatries that 
that which most appeals to the senses must make the most powerful 
impression. Now the Son, even in his new incarnation, when 
Nimrod was believed to have reappeared in a fairer form, was 
exhibited merely as a child, without any very particular attraction ; 
while the mother in whose arms he was, was set off with all the art 
of painting and sculpture, as invested with much of that extraordinary 
beauty which in reality belonged to her. The beauty of Semiramis 
is said on one occasion to have quelled a rising rebellion among her 
subjects on her sudden appearance among them ; and it is recorded 
that the memory of the admiration excited in their minds by her ^ 
appearance on that occasion was perpetuated by a statue erected in .. 
Babylon, representing her in the guise in which she had fascinated ,<* 
them so much.* This Babylonian queen was not merely in cffyractet .-^ Vi ; 

late lap idem back into the sacred tongue, or Chaldee, and the oath stands, " By 
Jove, the Son," or "By the son of Jove." Ben, which in Hebrew is Son* in 
Chaldee becomes Eben, which also signifies a stone, as may be seen in " Eben- 
ezer," "The stone of help." Now as the most learned inquirers into antiquity 
(Sir G. Wilkinson evidently being included among them, see Egyptians, vol. iv. 
p. 186), have admitted that the Roman Jovis, which was anciently the nominative, 
is just a form of the Hebrew Jehovah, it is evident that the oath had originally 
been, " by the son of Jehovah." This explains how the most solemn and binding 
oath had been taken in the form above referred to ; and, it shows, also, what was 
really meant when Bacchus, "the son of Jovis," was called "The Eternal Boy." 
OVID, Metam., iv. 17, 18. 

* VALERIUS MAXIMUS, lib. ix., cap. 3, leaf 193, p. 2. Valerius Maximus does not 
mention anything about the representation of Semiramis with the child in her 
arms ; but as Semiramis was deified as Rhea, whose distinguishing character was 


coincident with the Aphrodite of Greece and the Venus of Rome, 
but was, in point of fact, the historical original of that goddess that by 
the ancient world was regarded as the very embodiment of everything 
attractive in female form, and the perfection of female beauty ; for 
Sanchuniathon assures us that Aphrodite or Venus was identical 
with Astarte,* and Astarte being interpreted, is none other than 
" The woman that made towers or encompassing walls " i.e., Semi- 
ramis. The Roman Venus, as is well known, was the Cyprian Venus, 
and the Venus of Cyprus is historically proved to have been derived 
from Babylon. (See Chap. IV. Sect. III.) Now, what in these 
circumstances might have been expected actually took place. If the 
child was to be adored, much more the mother. The mother, in 
point of fact, became the favourite object of worship. J To justify 
this worship, the mother was raised to divinity as well as her son, 
and she was looked upon as destined to complete that bruising of the 
serpent s head, which it was easy, if such a thing was needed, to find 
abundant and plausible reasons for alleging that Ninus or Nimrod, 
the great Son, in his mortal life had only begun. 

The Roman Church maintains that it was not so much the seed of 
the woman, as the woman herself, that was to bruise the head of the 
serpent. In defiance of all grammar, she renders the Divine de 
nunciation against the serpent thus : "She shall bruise thy head, and 
thou shalt bruise her heel." The same was held by the ancient Baby 
lonians, and symbolically represented in their temples. In the upper 
most storey of the tower of Babel, or temple of Belus, Diodorus 
Siculus tells us there stood three images of the great divinities of 

that of goddess Mother, and as we have evidence that the name, " Seed of the 
Woman," or Zoroastes, goes back to the earliest times viz., her own day (CLERI- 
CUS, De Chaldceis, lib. i. sect, i., cap. 3, torn. ii. p. 199), this implies that if there 
was any image-worship in these times, that " Seed of the Woman " must have 
occupied a prominent place in it. As over all the world the Mother and the child 
appear in some shape or other, and are found on the early Egyptian monuments, 
that shows that this worship must have had its roots in the primeval ages of the 
world. If, therefore, the mother was represented in so fascinating a form when 
singly represented, we may be sure that the same beauty for which she was cele 
brated would be given to her when exhibited with the child in her arms. 


t From Asht-trt. See Appendix, " On the meaning of the name Astarte." 

How extraordinary, yea, frantic, was the devotion in the minds of the Baby 
lonians to this goddess queen, is sufficiently proved by the statement of Hero 
dotus, lib. i. cap. 199, as to the way in which she required to be propitiated. 
That a whole people should ever have consented to such a custom as is there de 
scribed, shows the amazing hold her worship must have gained over them. Non- 
nus, speaking of the same goddess, calls her "The hope of the whole world," 
EXTi-is oXou KoafjLOLo. (DIONUSIACA, lib. xli., in BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 226.) It was 
the same goddess, as we have seen (pp. 29, 30), who was worshipped at Ephesus, 
whom Demetrius the silversmith characterised as the goddess " whom all Asia and 
the world worshipped" (Acts xix. 27). So great was the devotion to this goddess 
queen, not of the Babylonians only, but of the ancient world in general, that the 
fame of the exploits of Semiramis has, in history, cast the exploits of her husband 
Ninus or Nimrod, entirely into the shade. 

In regard to the identification of Rhea or Cybele and Venus, see Appendix, 
Note G. 


Babylon ; and one of these was of a woman grasping a serpent s head* 
Among the Greeks the same thing was symbolised ; for Diana, whose 
real character was originally the same as that of the great Babylonian 
goddess,! was represented as bearing in one of her hands a serpent 
deprived of its head.\ As time wore away, and the facts of Semi- 
ramis s history became obscured, her son s birth was boldly declared to 
be miraculous : and therefore she was called " Alma Mater," " the 
Virgin Mother." That the birth of the Great Deliverer was to be 
miraculous, was widely known long before the Christian era. For 

* DIODORUS, Bibliotheca, lib. ii. p. 70. See Fig. 23, p. 60, ante, where an 
Egyptian goddess, in imitation of Horus, pierces a serpent s head. 

t See ante, pp. 29, 30. 

t See SMITH S Classical Dictionary, p. 320. 

The term Alma is the precise term used by Isaiah in the Hebrew of the Old 
Testament, when announcing, 700 years before the event, that Christ should b 
born of a Virgin. If the question should be asked, how this Hebrew term Alma 
(not in a Roman, but a Hebrew sense) could find its way to Rome, the answer is, 
Through Etruria, which had an intimate connection with Assyria (see LAYAED, 
Nineveh and Babylon, p. 190). The word "mater" itself, from which comes our 
own "mother," is originally Hebrew. It comes from Heb. Msh, "to draw forth," 
in Egyptian Ms, " to bring forth" (BuNSEN, vol. i. p. 540), which in the Chaldee 
form becomes Mt, whence the Egyptian Maut, " mother." Erh or Er, as in 
English (and a similar form is found in Sanscrit), is, " The doer." So that 
Mater or Mother signifies "The bringer forth." 

It may be thought an objection to the above account of the epithet Alma, that) 
this term is often applied to Venus, who certainly was no virgin. But this 
objection is more apparent than real. On the testimony of Augustine, himself an 
eye-witness, we know that the rites of Vesta, emphatically "the virgin goddess of 
Rome," under the name of Terra, were exactly the same as those of Venus, the 
goddess of impurity and licentiousness (Aug., De Civitate Dei, lib. ii. cap. 26). 
Augustine elsewhere says that Vesta, the virgin goddess, "was by some called 
Venus" (Ibid. lib. iv. cap. 10). 

Even in the mythology of our own Scandinavian ancestors, we have a remark 
able evidence that Alma Mater, or the Virgin Mother, had been originally known 
to them. One of their gods called Heirndal, who is described in the most exalted 
terms, as having such quick perceptions as that he could hear the grass growing 
on the ground, or the wool on the sheep s back, and whose trumpet, when it blew, 
could be heard through all the worlds, is called by the paradoxical name, " the son 
of nine virgins." (MALLET, p. 95.) Now this obviously contains an enigma. 
Let the language in which the religion of Odin was originally delivered viz., the 
Chaldee, be brought to bear upon it, and the enigma is solved at once. In 
Chaldee "the son of nine virgins" is Ben-Almut-Teshaah. But in pronunciation 
this is identical with " Ben- Almet-Ishaa," "the son of the virgin of salvation." 
That son was everywhere known as the "saviour seed." Zera-hosha " (in Zend, 
"cra-osha"), and his virgin mother consequently claimed to be "the virgin of 
salvation." Even in the very heavens the God of Providence has constrained His 
enemies to inscribe a testimony to the great Scriptural truth proclaimed by the 
Hebrew prophet, that a " virgin should bring forth a son, whose name should be 
called Immanuel." The constellation Virgo, as admitted by the most learned 
astronomers, was dedicated to Ceres (Dr. JOHN HILL, in his Urania, and Mr. A. 
JAMIESON, in his Celestial Atlas, see LANDSEER S Sabean Researches, p. 201), who is 
the same as the great goddess of Babylon, for Ceres was worshipped with the babe 
at her breast (SOPHOCLES, Antigone, v. 1133), even as the Babylonian goddess 
was. Virgo was originally the Assyrian Venus, the mother of Bacchus or Tammuz. 
Virgo then, was the Virgin Mother. Isaiah s prophecy was carried by the Jewish 
captives to Babylon, and hence the new title bestowed upon the Babylonian 


centuries, some say for thousands of years before that event, the 
Buddhist priests had a tradition that a Virgin was to bring forth a 
child to bless the world.* That this tradition came from no Popish 
or Christian source, is evident from the surprise felt and expressed 
by the Jesuit missionaries, when they first entered Thibet and China, 
and not only found a mother and a child worshipped as at home, but 
that mother worshipped under a character exactly corresponding with 
that of their own Madonna, " Virgo Deipara," " the Virgin mother 
of God," f and that, too, in regions where they could not find the least 
trace of either the name or history of our Lord Jesus Christ having 
ever been known. J The primeval promise that the "seed of the 
woman should bruise the serpent s head," naturally suggested the 
idea of a miraculous birth. Priestcraft and human presumption set 
themselves wickedly to anticipate the fulfilment of that promise ; 
and the Babylonian queen seems to have been the first to whom that 
honour was given. The highest titles were accordingly bestowed 
upon her. She was called the " queen of heaven." (Jeremiah xliv. 
17, 18, 19, 25.) In Egypt she was styled Athor i.e., "the Habita 
tion of God,"|| to signify that in her dwelt all the " fulness of the 
Godhead." To point out the great goddess-mother, in a Pantheistic 
sense, as at once the Infinite and Almighty one, and the Virgin 
mother, this inscription was engraven upon one of her temples in 
Egypt : " I am all that has been, or that is, or that shall be. No 
mortal has removed my veil. The fruit which I have brought forth 
is the Sun. "II In Greece she had the name of Hestia, and amongst 
the Romans, Vesta, which is just a modification of the same name 
a name which, though it has been commonly understood in a different 
sense, really meant u The Dwelling-place"** As the Dwelling-place 
of Deity, thus is Hestia or Vesta addressed in the Orphic Hymns ; 

* Asiatic Researches, vol. x. p. 27. 

f See Sir J. F. DAVIS S China, vol. ii. p. 56, and LAFITAN, who says that the 
accounts sent home by the Popish missionaries bore that the sacred books of the 
Chinese spoke not merely of a Holy Mother, but of a Virgin Mother (vol. i. p. 
235, Note). See also SALVERTE, De Sciences Occultes, Appendix, Note A, Sect. 12, 
p. 490. The reader may find additional testimonies to the very same effect in 
PRESCOTT S Conquest of Mexico, vol. i. pp. 53, 54, Note. For further evidence on 
this fmbject, see Appendix, Note H. 

PARSON S Japhet, pp. 205, 206. 

When Ashta, or "the woman," came to be called the " queen of heaven," the 
name "woman" became the highest title of honour applied to a female. This 
accounts for what we find so common among the ancient nations of the East, that 
queens and the most exalted personages were addressed by the name of " woman." 
"Woman" is not a complimentary title in our language; but formerly it had 
been applied by our ancestors in the very same way as among the Orientals ; for 
our word "Queen " is derived from Cwino, which in the ancient Gothic just 
signified a woman. 

|| BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 401. 

If Ibid. vol. i. pp. 386, 387. 

** Hestia, in Greek, signifies "a house" or "dwelling." (See SCHREVELIUS and 
PHOTIUS, sub voce.) This is usually thought to be a secondary meaning of the 
word, its proper meaning being believed to be "fire." But the statments made 
in regard to Hestia, show that the name is derived from Hes or Hese, " to cover, 
to shelter," which is the very idea of a house, which " covers " or " shelters " from 


** Daughter of Saturn, venerable dame, 
Who dwell st amid great fire s eternal flame, 
In thee the gods have fix d their DWELLING-PLACE, 
Strong stable basis of the mortal race." * 

Even when Vesta is identified with fire, this same character of Vesta 
as "The Dwelling-Place" still distinctly appears. Thus Philolaus, 
speaking of a fire in the middle of the centre of the world, calls it 
" The Vesta of the universe, The HOUSE of Jupiter, The mother of 
the gods."f In Babylon, the title of the goddess-mother as the 
Dwelling-place of God was Sacca, :[ or in the emphatic form, Sacta, 
that is, "The Tabernacle." Hence, at this day, the great goddesses 
in India, as wielding all the power of the god whom they represent, 
are called "Sacti," or the " Tabernacle." Now in her, as the Taber 
nacle or Temple of God, not only all power, but all grace and good 
ness were believed to dwell. Every quality of gentleness and mercy 
was regarded as centred in her ; and when death had closed her 
career, while she was fabled to have been deified and changed into a 
pigeon, 1 1 to express the celestial benignity of her nature, she was 
called by the name of "D Iune,"H or "The Dove," or without the 

the inclemency of the weather. The verb " Hes " also signifies " to protect," to 
"show mercy," and from this evidently comes the character of Hestia as "the 
protectress of suppliants." (See SMITH.) Taking Hestia as derived from Hes, " to 
cover," or "shelter," the following statement of Smith is easily accounted for: 
" Hestia was the goddess of domestic life, and the giver of all domestic happiness ; 
as such she was believed to dwell in the inner part of every house, and to have in 
vented the art of building houses." If " fire " be supposed to be the original idea of 
Hestia, how could "fire " ever have been supposed to be " the builder of houses " ? 
But taking Hestia in the sense of the Habitation or Dwelling-place, though de 
rived from Hes, "to shelter," or "cover," it is easy to see how Hestia would 
come to be identified with " fire." The goddess who was regarded as the " Habi 
tation of God " was known by the name of Ashta, " The Woman ; " while " Ashta " 
also signified " The fire ; " and thus Hestia or Vesta, as the Babylonian system was 
developed, would easily come to be regarded as " Fire," or "the goddess of fire." 
For the reason that suggested the idea of the Goddess-mother being a Habitation, 
see Appendix, Note I. 

* TAYLOR S Orphic Hymns : Hymn to Vesta, p. 175. Though Vesta is here called 
the daughter of Saturn, she is also identified in all the Pantheons with Cybele or 
Rhea, the wife of Saturn. 

t Note to TAYLOR S Orphic Hymns, p. 156, 

+ For the worship of Sacca, in the character of Anaitis i.e., Venus, see 
CHESNEY S Euphrates Expedition, vol. i. p. 381. 

KENNEDY and MOOR, passim. A synonym for Sacca, "a tabernacle," is 
"Ahel," which, with the points, is pronounced " Ohel." From the first form of 
the word, the name of the wife of the god Buddha seems to be derived, which, in 
KENNEDY, is Ahalya (pp. 246, 256), and in MOOR S Pantheon, Ahilya (p. 264). 
From the second form, in like manner, seems to be derived the name of the wife 
of the Patriarch of the Peruvians, "Mama Oe llo." (PRESCOTT S Peru, vol. i. pp. 
7, 8.) Mama was by the Peruvians used in the Oriental sense ; Oe llo, in all like 
lihood, was used in the same sense. 

|| DIODORUS Sic., lib. ii. p. 76. In connection with this the classical reader 
will remember the title of one of the fables in OVID S Metamorphoses. " Semiramis 
in columbam" (Metam. iv.) "Semiramis into a pigeon." 

IT Dione, the name of the mother of Venus, and frequently applied to Venus 
herself, is evidently the same name as the above. Dione, as meaning Venus, is 
clearly applied by Ovid to the Babylonian goddess. Fasti, lib. ii. 461-464, vol. 
iii. p. 113. 



article, " Juno," the name of the Roman "queen of heaven," which 
has the very same meaning; and under thejforra of a dove as well 
as her own, she was worshipped by the Babylonians. The dove, the 
chosen symbol of this deified queen, is commonly represented with an 
olive branch in her mouth (Fig. 25), as she herself in her human form 
also is seen bearing the olive branch in her hand ; * and from this 
form of representing her, it is highly probable that she has derived 
the name by which she is commonly known, for ." Z emir-amit " 
means "The branch-bearer."! When the goddess was thus repre 
sented as the Dove with the olive branch, there can be no doubt that 
the symbol had partly reference to the story of the flood ; but there 
was much more in the symbol than a mere memorial of that great 
event. " A branch," as has been already proved, was the symbol of 
the deified son, and when the deified mother was represented as a 
Dove, what could the meaning of this representation be but just to 
identify her with the Spirit of all grace, that brooded, dove-like, over 
the deep at the creation ; for in the sculptures at Nineveh, as we 
have seen, the wings and tail of the dove represented the third 
member of the idolatrous Assyrian trinity. In confirmation of this 

Fig. 25. 

view, it must be stated that the Assyrian " Juno," or "The Virgin 
Venus," as she was called, was identified with the air. Thus Julius 
Firmicus says: "The Assyrians and part of the Africans wish the 
air to have the supremacy of the elements, for they have consecrated 
this same [element] under the name of Juno, or the Virgin Venus." 
Why was air thus identified with Juno, whose symbol was that of 
the third person of the Assyrian trinity? Why, but because in 
Chaldee the same word which signifies the air signifies also the 
"Holy Ghost" The knowledge of this entirely accounts for the 

* LAYARD S Nineveh and Babylon, p. 250. 

t From Ze, "the" or "that," emir, "branch," and amit, "bearer," in the 
feminine. HESYCHIUS, sub voce, says that Semiramis is a name for a "wild 
pigeon." The above explanation of the original meaning of the name Semiramis, 
as referring to Noah s wild pigeon (for it was evidently a wild one, as the tame 
one would not have suited the experiment), may account for its application by the 
Greeks to any wild pigeon. 

J BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 84. The branch in the hand of Cybele in the above cut 
is only a conventional branch ; but in the figure given by Layard it is distinctly 
an olive branch. 

FIRMICUS, De Errore, cap. 4, p. 9. 


statement of Proclus, that " Juno imports the generation of soul." * 
Whence could the soul the spirit of man be supposed to have its 
origin, but from the Spirit of God. In accordance with this char 
acter of Juno as the incarnation of the Divine Spirit, the source of 
life, and also as the goddess of the air, thus is she invoked in the 
"Orphic Hymns": 

"0 royal Juno, of majestic mien, 
Aerial formed, divine, Jove s blessed queen, 
Throned in the bosom of cserulean air, 
The race of mortals is thy constant care ; 
The cooling gales, thy power alone inspires, 
Which nourish life, which every life desires ; 
Mother of showers and winds, from thee alone 
Producing all things, mortal life is known ; 
All natures show thy temperament divine, 
And universal sway alone is thine, 
With sounding blasts of wind, the swelling sea 
And rolling rivers roar when shook by thee." t 

Thus, then, the deified queen, when in all respects regarded as a 
veritable woman, was at the same time adored as the incarnation of 
the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of peace and love. In the temple of 
Hierapolis in Syria, there was a famous statue of the goddess Juno, 
to which crowds from all quarters flocked to worship. The image of 
the goddess was richly habited, on her head was a golden dove, and 
she was called by a name peculiar to the country, " Semeion." | 
What is the meaning of Semeion? It is evidently "The Habita 
tion ; " and the " golden dove " on her head shows plainly who it 
was that was supposed to dwell in her even the Spirit of God. 
When such transcendent dignity was bestowed on her, when such 
winning characters were attributed to her, and when, over and above 
all, her images presented her to the eyes of men as Venus Urania, 
" the heavenly Venus," the queen of beauty, who assured her wor 
shippers of salvation, while giving loose reins to every unholy passion, 
and every depraved and sensual appetite no wonder that every 
where she was enthusiastically adored. Under the name of the 
" Mother of the gods," the goddess queen of Babylon became an 
object of almost universal worship. "The Mother of the gods," 
says Clericus, " was worshipped by the Persians, the Syrians, and all 
the kings of Europe and Asia, with the most profound religious 

* PROCLUS, lib. vi. cap. 22, vol. ii. p. 76. 

f TAYLOR S Orphic Hymns, p. 50. Every classical reader must be aware of the 
identification of Juno with the air. The following, however, as still further illus 
trative of the subject from Proclus, may not be out of place : " The series of our 
sovereign mistress Juno, beginning from on high, pervades the last of things, and 
her allotment in the sublunary region is the air ; for air is a symbol of soul, accord 
ing to which also soul is called a spirit, irveviMa" PROCLUS, Ibid. p. 197. 

BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 145. 

From Ze, "that," or " the great," and " Maaon," or Ma ion, " a habitation," 
which, in the Ionic dialect, in which Lucian, the describer of the goddess, wrote, 
would naturally become Meion. 


veneration."* Tacitus gives evidence that the Babylonian goddess 
was worshipped in the heart of Germany,! and Csesar, when he 
invaded Britain, found that the priests of this same goddess, known 
by the name of Druids, had been there before him.J Herodotus, 
from personal knowledge, testifies, that in Egypt this " queen of 
heaven " was " the greatest and most worshipped of all the divini 
ties. ^ Wherever her worship was introduced, it is amazing what 
fascinating power it exerted. Truly, the nations might be said to be 
" made drunk " with the wine of her fornications. So deeply, in 
particular, did the Jews in the days of Jeremiah drink of her wine 
cup, so bewitched were they with her idolatrous worship, that even 
after Jerusalem had been burnt, and the land desolated for this very 
thing, they could not be prevailed on to give it up. While dwelling 
in Egypt as forlorn exiles, instead of being witnesses for God against 
the heathenism around them, they were as much devoted to this 
form of idolatry as the Egyptians themselves. Jeremiah was sent of 
God to denounce wrath against them, if they continued to worship 
the queen of heaven ; but his warnings were in vain. " Then," saith 
the prophet, " all the men which knew that their wives had burnt 
incense unto other gods, and all the women that stood by, a great 
multitude, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, in 
Pathros, answered Jeremiah, saying, As for the word that thou hast 
spoken unto us in the name of the Lord, we will not hearken unto 
thee ; but we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of 
our own mouth, to burn incense unto the queen of heaven, and to 
pour out drink-offerings unto her, as we have done, we, and our 
fathers, our kings, and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and in the 
streets of Jerusalem : for then had we plenty of victuals, and were 
well, and saw no evil" (Jer. xliv. 15-17). Thus did the Jews, God s 

* JOANNES CLERICUS, Philos. Orient., lib. ii., Dt Persis, cap. 9, vol. ii. p. 340. 

j- TACITUS, Oermania, ix. torn. ii. p. 386. 

J CJSSAR, De Bello Gallico, lib. vi. cap. 13, p. 121. The name Druid has been 
thought to be derived from the Greek Drus, an oak tree, or the Celtic Deru, which 
has the same meaning ; but this is obviously a mistake. In Ireland, the name for 
a Druid is Droi, and in Wales Dryw ; and it will be found that the connection of 
the Druids with the oak was more from the mere similarity of their name to that 
of the oak, than because they derived their name from it. The Druidic system in 
all its parts was evidently the Babylonian system. Dionysius informs us, that the 
rites of Bacchus were duly celebrated in the British Islands (PERIERGESIS, v. 56.5, 
p. 29) and Strabo cites Artemidorus to show that, in an island close to Britain, 
Ceres and Proserpine were venerated with rites similar to the orgies of Samoth- 
race. (Lib. iv. p. 190.) It will be seen from the account of the Druidic Ceridwen 
and her child, afterwards to be noticed (see Chap. IV. Sect. III.) that there 
was a great analogy between her character and that of the great goddess-mother 
of Babylon. Such was the system ; and the name Dryw, or Droi, applied to the 
priests, is in exact accordance with that system. The name Zero, given in Hebrew 
or the early Chaldee, to the son of the great goddess queen, in later Chaldee be 
came " Dero." The priest of Dero, " the seed," was called, as is the case in almost 
all religions, by the name of his god ; and hence the familiar name " Druid " is 
thus proved to signify the priest of " Dero " the woman s promised " seed." The 
classical Hamadryads were evidently in like manner priestesses of "Hamed-dero, * 
"the desired seed " i.e., " the desire of all nations." 

HERODOTUS, Historia, lib. ii. cap. 66, p. 117, D. 



own peculiar people, emulate the Egyptians in their devotion to the 
queen of heaven. 

The worship of the goddess-mother with the child in her arms 
continued to be observed in Egypt till Christianity entered. If the 
Gospel had come in power among the mass of the people, the 
worship of this goddess-queen would have been overthrown. With 
the generality it came only in name. Instead, therefore, of the 
Babylonian goddess being cast out, in too many cases her name 
only was changed. She was called the Virgin Mary, and, with her 
child, was worshipped with the same idolatrous feeling by professing 
Christians, as formerly by open and avowed Pagans. The conse 
quence was, that when, in A.D. 325, the Nicene Council was sum 
moned to condemn the heresy of Arius, who denied the true divinity 
of Christ, that heresy indeed was condemned, but not without the 
help of men who gave distinct indications of a desire to put the 
creature on a level with the Creator, to set the Virgin-mother side 
by side with her Son. At the Council of Nice, says the author of 
" Nimrod," " The Melchite section " that is, the representatives of 
the so-called Christianity of Egypt "held that there were three 
persons in the Trinity the Father, the Virgin Mary, and Messiah 
their Son."* In reference to this astounding fact, elicited by the 
Nicene Council, Father Newman speaks exultingly of these discus 
sions as tending to the glorification of Mary. "Thus," says he, 
"the controversy opened a question which it did not settle. It 
discovered a new sphere, if we may so speak, in the realms of light, 
to which the Church had not yet assigned its inhabitant. Thus, 
there was a wonder in Heaven ; a throne was seen far above all 
created powers, mediatorial, intercessory, a title archetypal, a crown 
bright as the morning star, a glory issuing from the eternal throne, 
robes pure as the heavens, and a sceptre over all. And who was the 
predestined heir of that majesty? Who was that wisdom, and what 
was her name, the mother of fair love, and fear, and holy hope, 
exalted like a palm-tree in Engaddi, and a rose-plant in Jericho, 
created from the beginning before the world, in God s counsels, and 
in Jerusalem was her power *? The vision is found in the Apocalypse 
* a Woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and 
upon her head a crown of twelve stars. "! "The votaries of Mary," 
adds he, "do not exceed the true faith, unless the blasphemers of her 
Son came up to it. The Church of Rome is not idolatrous, unless 
Arianism is orthodoxy."} This is the very poetry of blasphemy. 

* Nimrod, iii. p. 329, quoted in Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, July, 1852, 
p. 244. 

t NEWMAN S Development, pp. 405, 406. The intelligent reader will see at a 
glance the absurdity of applying this vision of the " woman " of the Apocalypse 
to the Virgin Mary. John expressly declares that what he saw was a " sign " or 
"symbol" (semeion). If the woman here is a literal woman, the woman that sits 
on the seven hills must be the same. " The woman " in both cases is a " symbol. " 
"The woman" on the seven hills is the symbol of the false church ; the woman 
clothed with the sun, of the true church the Bride, the Lamb s wife. 

t Ibid. 


It contains an argument too ; but what does that argument amount 
to ? It just amounts to this, that if Christ be admitted to be truly 
and properly God, and worthy of Divine honours, His mother, from 
whom He derived merely His humanity, must be admitted to be the 
same, must be raised far above the level of all creatures, and be 
worshipped as a partaker of the Godhead. The divinity of Christ is 
made to stand or fall with the divinity of His mother. Such is 
Popery in the nineteenth century ; yea, such is Popery in England. 
It was known already that Popery abroad was bold and unblushing 
in its blasphemies; that in Lisbon a church was to be seen with 
these words engraven on its front, " To the virgin goddess of Loretto, 
the Italian race, devoted to her DIVINITY, have dedicated this 
temple."* But when till now was such language ever heard in 
Britain before? This, however, is just the exact reproduction of 
the doctrine of ancient Babylon in regard to the great goddess- 
mother. The Madonna of Rome, then, is just the Madonna of 
Babylon. The " Queen of Heaven " in the one system is the same 
as the "Queen of Heaven" in the other. The goddess worshipped 
in Babylon and Egypt as the Tabernacle or Habitation of God, is 
identical with her who, under the name of Mary, is called by Rome 
"the HOUSE consecrated to God," "the awful Dwelling-place/ t 
" the Mansion of God,"J the " Tabernacle of the Holy Ghost," the 
"Temple of the Trinity." || Some may possibly be inclined to defend 
such language, by saying that the Scripture makes every believer to 
be a temple of the Holy Ghost, and, therefore, what harm can there 
be in speaking of the Virgin Mary, who was unquestionably a saint 
of God, under that name, or names of a similar import ? Now, no 
doubt it is true that Paul says (1 Cor. iii. 16), "Know ye not that 
ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in 
you *? " It is not only true, but it is a great truth, and a blessed one 
a truth that enhances every comfort when enjoyed, and takes the 
sting out of every trouble when it comes, that every genuine Christian 
has less or more experience of what is contained in these words of 
the same apostle (2 Cor. vi. 16), "Ye are the temple of the living 
God ; as God hath said, I will dwell in them and walk in them, and 
I will be their God, and they shall be my people." It must also be 
admitted, and gladly admitted, that this implies the indwelling of all 
the Persons of the glorious Godhead ; for the Lord Jesus hath said 
(John xiv. 23), " If a man love me, he will keep my words ; and my 
Father will love him, and WE will come unto him, and make our 
abode with him." But while admitting all this, on examination it 
will be found that the Popish and the Scriptural ideas conveyed 

* Journal of Professor GIBSON, in Scottish Protestant, vol. i. p. 464. 

f The Golden Manual, in Scottish Protestant, vol. ii. p. 271. The word here 
used for Dwelling-place " in the Latin of this work is a pure Chaldee word 
" Zabulo," and is from the same verb as Zebulun (Gen. xxx. 20), the name which 
was given by Leah to her son, when she said " Now will my husband dwell 
with me." 

t Pancarpium Maries, p. 1 41. Garden of the Soul, p. 488. 

|| Golden Manual,, in Scottish Protestant, vol. ii. p. 272. 


by these expressions, however apparently similar, are essentially 
different. When it is said that a believer is "a temple of God," 
or a temple of the Holy Ghost, the meaning is (Eph. iii. 17) that 
" Christ dwells in the heart by faith." But when Rome says that 
Mary is " The Temple "or " Tabernacle of God," the meaning is the 
exact Pagan meaning of the term viz., that the union between her 
and the Godhead is a union akin to the hypostatical union between 
the divine and human nature of Christ. The human nature of Christ 
is the " Tabernacle of God," inasmuch as the Divine nature has 
veiled its glory in such a way, by assuming our nature, that we can 
come near without overwhelming dread to the Holy God. To this 
glorious truth John refers when he says (John i. 14), "The Word 
was made flesh, and dwelt (literally tabernacled) among us, and we 
beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full 
of grace and truth." In this sense, Christ, the God-man, is the only 
" Tabernacle of God." Now, it is precisely in this sense that Rome 
calls Mary the " Tabernacle of God," or of the " Holy Ghost." Thus 
speaks the author of a Popish work devoted to the exaltation of the 
Virgin, in which all the peculiar titles and prerogatives of Christ are 
given to Mary : " Behold the tabernacle of God, the mansion of God, 
the habitation, the city of God is with men, and in men and for men, 

for their salvation, and exaltation, and eternal glorification Is 

it most clear that this is true of the holy church ? and in like manner 
also equally true of the most holy sacrament of the Lord s body 1 Is 
it (true) [of every one of us in as far as we are truly Christians ? 
Undoubtedly ; but we have to contemplate this mystery (as existing) 
in a peculiar manner in the most holy Mother of our Lord."* Then 
the author, after endeavouring to show that " Mary is rightly con 
sidered as the Tabernacle of God with men," and that in a peculiar 
sense, a sense different from that in which all Christians are the 
" temple of God," thus proceeds with express reference to her in this 
character of the Tabernacle : " Great truly is the benefit, singular is 
the privilege, that the Tabernacle of God should be with men, IN 
WHICH men may safely come near to God become man."f Here the 
whole mediatorial glory of Christ, as the God-man in whom dwelleth 
all the fulness of the Godhead bodily, is given to Mary, or at least 
is shared with her. The above extracts are taken from a work 
published upwards of two hundred years ago. Has the Papacy 
improved since then ? Has it repented of its blasphemies *? No, the 
very reverse. The quotation already given from Father Newman 
proves this ; but there is still stronger proof. In a recently published 
work, the same blasphemous idea is even more clearly unfolded. 
While Mary is called "The HOUSE consecrated to God," and the 
" TEMPLE of the Trinity," the following versicle and response will 
show in what sense she is regarded as the temple of the Holy Ghost : 
" V. Ipse [deus] creavit illam in Spiritu Sancto. R. Et EFFUDIT 
ILLAM inter omnia opera sua. V. Domina, exaudi," <fec., which is 

* Pancarpium Maria;, or Marianum, pp. 141, 142. 
t Ibid. p. 142. 


thus translated : " V. The Lord himself created HER in the Holy 
Ghost, and POURED HER out among all his works. V. O Lady, hear," 
<fec.* This astounding language manifestly implies that Mary is 
identified with the Holy Ghost, when it speaks of her "being poured 
out " on " all the works of God ; " and that, as we have seen, was 
just the very way in which the Woman, regarded as the " Tabernacle " 
or House of God by the Pagans, was looked upon. Where is such 
language used in regard to the Virgin ? Not in Spain ; not in 
Austria ; not in the dark places of Continental Europe ; but in 
London, the seat and centre of the world s enlightenment. 

The names of blasphemy bestowed by the Papacy on Mary have not 
one shadow of foundation in the Bible, but are all to be found in the 
Babylonian idolatry. Yea, the very features and complexions of the 
Roman and Babylonian Madonnas are the same. Till recent times, 
when Raphael somewhat departed from the beaten track, there was 
nothing either Jewish or even Italian in the Romish Madonnas. Had 
these pictures or images of the Virgin Mother been intended to 
represent the mother of our Lord, naturally they would have been 
cast either in the one mould or the other. But it was not so. In a 
land of dark-eyed beauties, with raven locks, the Madonna was 
always represented with blue eyes and golden hair, a complexion 
entirely different from the Jewish complexion, which naturally would 
have been supposed to belong to the mother of our Lord, but which 
precisely agrees with that which all antiquity attributes to the 
goddess queen of Babylon. In almost all lands the great goddess has 
been described with golden or yellow hair, showing that there must 
have been one grand prototype, to which they were all made to 
correspond. " Flava ceres," the " yellow-haired Ceres," might not 
have been accounted of any weight in this argument if she had stood 
alone, for it might have been supposed in that case that the epithet 
" yellow-haired " was borrowed from the corn that was supposed to be 
under her guardian care. But many other goddesses have the very 
same epithet applied to them. Europa, whom Jupiter carried away 
in the form of a bull, is called "The yellow-haired Europa. "f 
Minerva is called by Homer " the blue-eyed Minerva,"! and by Ovid 
"the yellow-haired ;" the huntress Diana, who is commonly identi 
fied with the moon, is addressed by Anacreon as " the yellow-haired 
daughter of Jupiter,"|| a title which the pale face of the silver moon 
could surely never have suggested. Dione, the mother of Venus, is 
described by Theocritus as " yellow-haired. "5T Venus herself is 
frequently called " Aurea Venus," the "golden Venus."** The 
Indian goddess Lakshmi, the " Mother of the Universe," is described 

* Golden Manual, p. 649. This work has the imprimatur of " Nicholas, Bishop 
of Melipotamus,"now Cardinal Wiseman. 

t OVID, Fasti, lib. v. 1. 609, torn. iii. p. 330. 

I Iliad, lib. v. v. 420, torn. i. p. 205. 

OVID, Tristium, lib. i. ; Elegia, p. 44 ; and Fasti, lib. vi. v. 652, torn. iii. 
p. 387. 

i ANACREON, Od. lx. p. 204. 

*[ Idyll vii. v. 116, p. 157. ** HOMER S Iliad, lib. v. v. 427. 


as of " a golden complexion."* Ariadne, the wife of Bacchus, was 
called " the yellow-haired Ariadne."f Thus does Dryden refer to 
her golden or yellow hair : 

" Where the rude waves in Dian s harbour play, 
The fair forsaken Ariadne lay ; 
There, sick with grief and frantic with despair, 
Her dress she rent, and tore her golden hair."t 

The Gorgon Medusa before her transformation, while celebrated for 
her beauty, was equally celebrated for her golden hair : 

" Medusa once had charms : to gain her love 
A rival crowd of anxious lovers strove. 
They who have seen her, own they ne er did trace 
More moving features in a sweeter face ; 
But above all, her length of hair they own 
In golden ringlets waved, and graceful shone." 

The mermaid that figured so much in the romantic tales of the north, 
which was evidently borrowed from the story of Atergatis, the fish 
goddess of Syria, who was called the mother of Semiramis, and was 
sometimes identified with Semiramis herself, || was described with 
hair of the same kind. " The Ellewoman," such is the Scandinavian 
name for the mermaid, " is fair," says the introduction to the " Danish 
Tales " of Hans Andersen, " and gold-haired, and plays most 
sweetly on a stringed instrument. "1T " She is frequently seen sitting 
on the surface of the waters, and combing her long golden hair with 
a golden comb."** Even when Athor, the Venus of Egypt, was re 
presented as a cow, doubtless to indicate the complexion of the 
goddess that cow represented, the cow s head and neck were gilded.^ f 
When, therefore, it is known that the most famed pictures of the 
Virgin Mother in Italy represented her as of a fair complexion and 
with golden hair, and when over all Ireland the Virgin is almost 
invariably represented at this day in the very same manner, who can 
resist the conclusion that she must have been thus represented, only 
because she had been copied from the same prototype as the Pagan 

NOT is this agreement in complexion only, but also in features. 
Jewish features are everywhere marked, and have a character 
peculiarly their own. But the original Madonnas have nothing at all 
of Jewish form or feature; but are declared by those who have 
personally compared both,|f entirely to agree in this respect, as well 
as in complexion, with the Babylonian Madonnas found by Sir 
Robert Ker Porter among the ruins of Babylon. 

* Asiatic Researches, vol. xi. p. 134. f HESIOD, Theogonia, v. 947, p. 74. 
$ Heathen Mythology Illustrated, p. 58. Ibid. p. 90. 

II Lucian de Dea Syria, vol. iii. pp. 460, 461. The name mentioned by Ltician 
is Derketo, but it is well known that Derketo and Atergatis are the same. 
1i Danish Tales, p. 36. ** Ibid. p. 37. 

ft HERODOTUS, lib. ii. p. 158, and WILKINSON, vol. i., Note to p. 128. 
JJ H. J. JONES, in Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, October, 1852, p. 331. 


There is yet another remarkable characteristic of these pictures 
worthy of notice, and that is the nimbus or peculiar circle of light 
that frequently encompasses the head of the Roman Madonna. With 
this circle the heads of the so-called figures of Christ are also 
frequently surrounded. Whence could such a device have originated 1 
In thejcase of our Lord, if His head had been merely surrounded with 
rays, there might have been some pretence for saying that that was 
borrowed from the Evangelic narrative, where it is stated, that on the 
holy mount His face became resplendent with light. But where, in 
the whole compass of Scripture, do we ever read that His head was 
surrounded with a disk, or a circle of light? But what will be 
searched for in vain in the Word of God, is found in the artistic 
representations of the great gods and goddesses of Babylon. The 
disk, and particularly the circle, were the well-known symbols of the 
Sun-divinity, and figured largely in the symbolism of the East. 
With the circle or the disk the head of the Sun-divinity was encom 
passed. The same was the case in Pagan Rome. Apollo, as the 
child of the Sun, was often thus represented. The goddesses that 
claimed kindred with the Sun were equally entitled to be adorned 
with the nimbus or luminous circle. We give from Pompeii a 
representation of Circe, " the daughter of the Sun " (see Eig. 26), with 
her head surrounded with a circle, in the very same way as the head 
of the Roman Madonna is at this day surrounded. Let any one 
compare the nimbus around the head of Circe, with that around the 
head of the Popish Virgin, and he will see how exactly they 

Now, could any one possibly believe that all this coincidence could 
be accidental. Of course, if the Madonna had ever so exactly 

* The explanation of the next woodcut is thus given in Pompeii, vol. ii. pp. 91, 
92 : " One of them [the paintings] is taken from the Odyssey, and represents 
Ulysses and Circe, at the moment when the hero, having drunk the charmed cup 
with impunity, by virtue of the antidote given him by Mercury [it is well known 
that Circe had a golden cup/ even as the Venus of Babylon had], draws his 
sword, and advances to avenge his companions," who, having drunk of her cup, 
had been changed into swine. The goddess, terrified, makes her submission at 
once, as described by Homer ; Ulysses himself being the narrator : 

" Hence, seek the sty, there wallow with thy friends, 
She spake, I drawing from beside my thigh 
My falchion keen, with death-denouncing looks, 
Rushed on her ; she, with a shrill scream of fear, 
Ran under my raised arm, seized fast my knees, 
And in winged accents plaintive, thus began : 
Say, who art thou, " &c. COWPKR H Odyssey, x. 320. 

" This picture," adds the author of Pompeii, " is remarkable, as teaching us the 
origin of that ugly and unmeaning glory by which the heads of saints are often 

surrounded This glory was called nimbus, or aureola, and is defined by 

Servius to be the luminous fluid which encircles the heads of the gods. (On 
^NEIB, lib. ii. v. 616, vol. i. p. 165.) It belongs with peculiar propriety to Circe, 
as the daughter of the Sun. The emperors, with their usual modesty, assumed it 
as the mark of their divinity ; and under this respectable patronage it passed, like 
many other Pagan superstitions and customs, into the use of the Church." The 
emperors here get rather more than a fair share of the blame due to them. It was 
not the emperors that brought "Pagan superstition" into the Church, so much 
as the Bishop of Rome. See Chap. VII. Sect. II. 



resembled the Virgin Mary, that would never have excused idolatry. 
But when it is evident that the goddess enshrined in the Papal 
Church for the supreme worship of its votaries, is that very Baby 
lonian queen who set up Nimrod, or Ninus " the Son," as the rival of 
Christ, and who in her own person was the incarnation of every kind 
of licentiousness, how dark a character does that stamp on the Roman 
idolatry. What will it avail to migitate the heinous character of 
that idolatry, to say that the child she holds forth to adoration is 
called by the name of Jesus ? When she was worshipped with her 
child in Babylon of old, that child was called by a name as peculiar 
to Christ, as distinctive of His glorious character, as the name of 
Jesus. He was called " Zoro-ashta," " the seed of the woman." 
But that did not hinder the hot anger of God from being directed 
against those in the days of old who worshipped that "image of 
jealousy, provoking to jealousy."* Neither can the giving of the 

Fig. 26. 

name of Christ to the infant in the arms of the Romish Madonna, 
make it less the " image of jealousy," less offensive to the Most High, 
less fitted to provoke His high displeasure, when it is evident that 
that infant is worshipped as the child of her who was adored as 
Queen of Heaven, with all the attributes of divinity, and was at the 
same time the "Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth." 
Image-worship in every case the Lord abhors ; but image- worship of 
such a kind as this must be peculiarly abhorrent to His holy soul. 
Now, if the facts I have adduced be true, is it wonderful that such 
dreadful threatenings should be directed in the Word of God against 
the Romish apostacy, and that the vials of this tremendous wrath are 

* Ezek. viii. 3. There have been many speculations about what this "image 
of jealousy " could be. But when it is known that the grand feature of ancient 
idolatry was just the worship of the Mother and the child, and that child as the 
Son of God incarnate, all is plain. Compare verses 3 and 5 with verse 14, and it 
will be seen that the " women weeping for Tammuz " were weeping close beside 
the image of jealousy. 


destined to be outpoured upon its guilty head 1 If these things be 
true (and gainsay them who can), who will venture now to plead for 
Papal Rome, or to call her a Christian Church *? Is there one, who 
fears God, and who reads these lines, who would not admit that 
Paganism alone could ever have inspired such a doctrine as that 
avowed by the Melchites at the Nicene Council, that the Holy 
Trinity consisted of " the Father, the Virgin Mary, and the Messiah 
their Son " ? * Is there one who would not shrink with horror from 
such a thought ? What, then, would the reader say of a Church that 
teaches its children to adore such a Trinity as that contained in the 
following lines ? 

" Heart of Jesus I adore thee ; 
Heart of Mary, I implore thee ; 
Heart of Joseph, pure and just ; 


If this is not Paganism, what is there that can be called by such a 
name ] Yet this is the Trinity which now the Roman Catholics of 
Ireland from tender infancy are taught to adore. This is the 
Trinity which, in the latest books of catechetical instruction is 
presented as the grand object of devotion to the adherents of the 
Papacy. The manual that contains this blasphemy comes forth with 
the express " Imprimatur " of "Paulus Cullen," Popish Archbishop 

* Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, July, 1852, p. 244. 

t What every Christian must Know and Do. By the Rev. J. FURNI&S. Pub 
lished by James Duffy, Dublin. The edition of this Manual of Popery quoted 
above, besides the blasphemy it contains, contains most immoral principles, 
teaching distinctly the harmlessness of fraud, if only kept within due bounds. 
On this account, a great outcry having been raised against it, I believe this edition 
has been withdrawn from general circulation. The genuineness of the passage 
above given is, however, beyond all dispute. I received myself from a friend in 
Liverpool a copy of the edition containing these words, which is now in my pos 
session, having previously seen them in a copy in the possession of the Rev. 
Richard Smyth of Armagh. It is not in Ireland, however, only, that such a 
trinity is exhibited for the worship of Romanists. In a Card, or Fly-leaf, issued 
by the Popish priests of Sunderland, now lying before me, with the heading 
" Paschal Duty, St. Mary s Church, Bishopwearmouth, 1859," the following is the 
4th admonition given to the " Dear Christians " to whom it is addressed : 

" 4. And never forget the acts of a good Christian, recommended to you so often during the 
renewal of the Mission. 

Blessed be Jesus, Mary, and Joseph. 

Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, I give you my heart, my life, and my soul. 
Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, assist me always ; and in my last agony, 
Jesus, Mary, aud Joseph, receive my last breath. Auien." 

To induce the adherents of Rome to perform this " act of a good Christian," a 
considerable bribe is held out. In p. 30 of Furniss s Manual above referred to, 
under the head " Rule of Life," the following passage occurs : " In the morning, 
before you get up, make the sign of the cross, and say, Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, 
I give you my heart and my soul. (Each time you say this prayer, you get an 
indulgence of 100 days, which you can give to the souls in Purgatory) ! I must 
add that the title of Furniss s book, as given above, is the title of Mr. Smyth s 
copy. The title of the copy in my possession is " What every Christian must 
Know." London : Richardson & Son, 147 Strand. Both copies alike have the 
blasphemous words given in the text, and both have the "Imprimatur" of 
" Paulus Cullen." 


of Dublin. Will any one after this say that the Roman Catholic 
Church must still be called Christian, because it holds the doctrine 
of the Trinity ? So did the Pagan Babylonians, o did the Egyptians, 
so do the Hindoos at this hour, in the very same sense in which 
Rome does. They all admitted A trinity, but did they worship THE 
Triune Jehovah, the King Eternal, Immortal, and Invisible ? And 
will any one say with such evidence before him, that Rome does so ? 
Away then, with the deadly delusion that Rome is Christian! 
There might once have been some palliation for entertaining such a 
supposition ; but every day the " Grand Mystery " is revealing itself 
more and more in its true character. There is not, and there cannot 
be, any safety for the souls of men in " Babylon." " Come out of 
her, my people," is the loud and express command of God. Those 
who disobey that command, do it at their peril. 



IF Rome be indeed the Babylon of the Apocalypse, and the Madonna 
enshrined in her sanctuaries be the very queen of heaven, for the 
worshipping of whom the fierce anger of God was provoked against 
the Jews in the days of Jeremiah, it is of the last consequence that 
the fact should be established beyond all possibility of doubt ; for 
that being once established, every one who trembles at the Word 
of God must shudder at the very thought of giving such a system, 
either individually or nationally, the least countenance or support. 
Something has been said already that goes far to prove the identity 
of the Roman and Babylonian systems ; but at every step the 
evidence becomes still more overwhelming. That which arises 
from comparing the different festivals is peculiarly so. 

The festivals of Rome are innumerable ; but five of the most 
important may be singled out for elucidation viz., Christmas-day, 
Lady-day, Easter, the Nativity of St. John, and the Feast of the 
Assumption. Each and all of these can be proved to be Baby 
lonian. And first, as to the festival in honour of the birth of 
Christ, or Christmas. How comes it that that festival was con 
nected with the 25th of December? There is not a word in the 
Scriptures about the precise day of His birth, or the time of the year 
when He was born. What is recorded there, implies that at what 
time soever His birth took place, it could not have been on the 25th 
of December. At the time that the angel announced His birth to the 
shepherds of Bethlehem, they were feeding their flocks by night in 
the open fields. Now, no doubt, the climate of Palestine is not so 
severe as the climate of this country ; but even there, though the 
heat of the day be considerable, the cold of the night, from December 
to February, is very piercing,* and it was not the custom for the 
shepherds of Judea to watch their flocks in the open fields later than 
about the end of October, f It is in the last degree incredible, then, 

* London Tract Society s Commentary, vol. i. p. 472. ALFORD S Greek Testament, 
vol. i. p. 412. GRESWKLL, vol. i., Dissert, xii. pp. 381-437. 

f GILL, in his Commentary on Luke ii. 8, has the following : " There are two 
sorts of cattle with the Jews .... there are the cattle of the house that lie 
in the city ; the cattle of the wilderness are they that lie in the pasttirea. 
On which one of the commentators (MAIMONIDKS, in Misn. Betza, cap. 5, sect. 7), 
observes, * These lie in the pastures, which are in the villages, all the days 
of the cold and heat, and do not go into the cities until the rains descend. The 
first rain falls in the month Marches van, which answers to the latter part of our 



that the birth of Christ could have taken place at the end of 
December. There is great unanimity among commentators on this 
point. Besides Barnes, Doddridge, Lightfoot, Joseph Scaliger, and 
Jennings, in his " Jewish Antiquities," who are all of opinion that 
December 25th could not be the right time of our Lord s nativity, 
the celebrated Joseph Mede pronounces a very decisive opinion to 
the same effect. After a long and careful disquisition on the subject, 
among other arguments he adduces the following : " At the birth 
of Christ every woman and child was to go to be taxed at the city 
whereto they belonged, whither some had long journeys; but the 
middle of winter was not fitting for such a business, especially for 
women with child, and children to travel in. Therefore, Christ 
could not be born in the depth of winter. Again, at the time of 
Christ s birth, the shepherds lay abroad watching with their flocks 
in the night time ; but this was not likely to be in the middle of 
winter. And if any shall think the winter wind was not so extreme 
in these parts, let him remember the words of Christ in the gospel, 
Pray that your flight be not in the winter. If the winter was so 
bad a time to flee in, it seems no fit time for shepherds to lie in the 
fields in, and women and children to travel in."* Indeed, it is 
admitted by the most learned and candid writers of all parties! 
that the day of our Lord s birth cannot be determined,^ and that 

October and the former part of November From whence it appears that 

Christ must be born before the middle of October, since the first rain was not yet 
come." KITTO, on Deut. xi. 14 (Illustrated Commentary, vol. i. p. 398), says that 
the "first rain," is in "autumn," "that is, in September or October." This would 
make the time of the removal of the flocks from the fields somewhat earlier than 
1 have stated in the text ; but there is no doubt that it could not be later than 
there stated, according to the testimony of Maimonides, whose acquaintance with 
all that concerns Jewish customs is well known. 

* MEDE S Works, 1672. Discourse xlviii. The above argument of Mede goes 
on the supposition of the well-known reasonableness and consideration by which 
the Roman laws were distinguished. 

f Archdeacon WOOD, in Christian Annotator, vol. iii. p. 2. LOKIMER S Manual 
of Presbytery, p. 130. Lorimer quotes Sir Peter King, who, in his Enquiry into 
the Worship of the Primitive Church, &c., infers that no such festival was observed 
in that Church, and adds " It seems improbable that they should celebrate 
Christ s nativity when they disagreed about the month and the day when Christ 
was born." See also Rev. J. RYLE, in his Commentary on Luke, chap, ii., Note to 
verse 8, who admits that the time of Christ s birth is uncertain, although he 
opposes the idea that the flocks could not have been in the open fields in 
December, by an appeal to Jacob s complaint to Laban, " By day the drought 
consumed me, and the frost by night." Now the whole force of Jacob s 
complaint against his churlish kinsman lay in this, that Laban made him do 
what no other man would have done, and, therefore, if he refers to the cold nights 
of winter (which, however, is not the common understanding of the expression), it 
proves just the opposite of what it is brought by Mr. Ryle to prove viz., that it 
was not the custom for shepherds to tend their flocks in the fields by night in winter. 

J GIESELER, vol. i. p. 54, and Note. CHRYSOSTOM (Monitum in Horn, de Natal. 
Christi), writing in Antioch about A.D. 380, says : "It is not yet ten years since 
this day was made known to us" (Vol. ii., p. 352). "What follows," adds 
Gieseler, " furnishes a remarkable illustration of the ease with which customs of 
recent date could assume the character of apostolic institutions." Thus proceeds 
Chrysostom : " Among those inhabiting the west, it was known before from 
ancient and primitive times, and to the dwellers from Thrace to Gadeira [Cadiz] 


within the Christian Church no such festival as Christmas was ever 
hoard of till the third century, and that not till the fourth century 
was far advanced did it gain much observance. How, then, did the 
Romish Church fix on December the 25th as Christmas-day 1 Why, 
thus : Long before the fourth century, and long before the Christian 
era itself, a festival was celebrated among the heathen, at that precise 
time of the year, in honour of the birth of the son of the Babylonian 
queen of heaven ; and it may fairly be presumed that, in order to 
conciliate the heathen, and to swell the number of the nominal 
adherents of Christianity, the same festival was adopted by the 
Roman Church, giving it only the name of Christ. This tendency 
on the part of Christians to meet Paganism half-way was very early 
developed ; and we find Tertullian, even in his day, about the year 
230, bitterly lamenting the inconsistency of the disciples of Christ in 
this respect, and contrasting it with the strict fidelity of the Pagans 
to their own superstition. " By us," says he, " who are strangers to 
Sabbaths,* and new moons, and festivals, once acceptable to God, 
the Saturnalia, the feasts of January, the rumalia, and Matronalia, 
are now frequented ; gifts are carried to and fro, new year s day 
presents are made with din, and sports and banquets are celebrated 
with uproar ; oh, how much more faithful are the heathen to their 
religion, who take special care to adopt no solemnity from the 
Christians."! Upright men strove to stem the tide, but in spite of 
all their efforts, the apostacy went on, till the Church, with the 
exception of a small remnant, was submerged under Pagan super 
stition. That Christmas was originally a Pagan festival, is beyond 
all doubt. The time of the year, and the ceremonies with which it 
is still celebrated, prove its origin. In Egypt, the son of Isis, the 
Egyptian title for the queen of heaven, was born at this very time, 
" about the time of the winter solstice."! The very name by which 
Christmas is popularly known among ourselves Yule-day proves 
at once its Pagan and Babylonian origin. " Yule " is the Chaldee 
name for an " infant " or " little child ; " || and as the 25th of Decem- 

it was previously familiar and well-known," that is, the birth-day of our Lord, 
which was unknown at Antioch in the east, on the very borders of the Holy 
Land, where He was born, was perfectly well known in all the European region of 
the west, from Thrace even to Spain ! 

* He is speaking of Jewish Sabbaths. 

t TERTULLIAN, De Idololatria, c. 14, vol. i. p. 682. For the excesses connected 
with the Pagan practice of the first foot on New Year s day, see GIESELER, vol. i. 
sect. 79, Note. 

J WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. iv. p. 405. PLUTARCH (De hide, vol. ii. p. 377, 
B), states that the Egyptian priests pretended that the birth of the divine son of 
Isis, at the end of December, was premature. But this is evidently just the 
counterpart of the classic story of Bacchus, who, when his mother Semele was con 
sumed by the fire of Jove, was said to have been rescued in his embryo state from 
the flames that consumed her. The foundation of the story being entirely taken 
away in a previous note (see p. 59), the superstructure of course falls to the ground 

MALLET, vol. i. p. 130. 

H From Eol, an " infant." The pronunciation here is the same as in eon of 
Gideon. In Scotland, at least in the Lowlands, the Yule- cakes are also called 
Nur-cakes (the u being pronounced as the French u). Now in Chaldee Nour 


ber was called by our Pagan Anglo-Saxon ancestors, " Yule-day," or 
the " Child s day," and the night that preceded it, " Mother-night," * 
long before they came in contact with Christianity, that sufficiently 
proves its real character. Far and wide, in the realms of Paganism, 
was this birth-day observed. This festival has been commonly be 
lieved to have had only an astronomical character, referring simply 
to the completion of the sun s yearly course, and the commencement 
of a new cycle, f But there is indubitable evidence that the festival 
in question had a much higher reference than this that it com 
memorated not merely the figurative birth-day of the sun in the 
renewal of its course, but the birth-day of the grand Deliverer. 
Among the Sabeans of Arabia, who regarded the moon, and not the 
sun, as the visible symbol of the favourite object of their idolatry, 
the same period was observed as the birth festival. Thus we read in 
Stanley s Sabean Philosophy : " On the 24th of the tenth month," 
that is December, according to our reckoning, " the Arabians cele 
brated the BIRTH-DAY OF THE LORD that is the Moon."}: The 
Lord Moon was the great object of Arabian worship, and that Lord 
Moon, according to them was born on the 24th of December, which 
clearly shows that the birth which they celebrated had no necessary 
connection with the course of the sun. It is worthy of special note, 
too, that if Christmas-day among the ancient Saxons of this island, 
was observed to celebrate the birth of any Lord of the host of heaven, 
the case must have been precisely the same here as it was in Arabia. 
The Saxons, as is well known, regarded the Sun as a female divinity, 
and the Moon as a male. It must have been the birth-day of the 
Lord Moon, therefore, and not of the Sun, that was celebrated by 
them on the 25th of December, even as the birth-day of the same 
Lord Moon was observed by the Arabians on the 24th of December. 
The name of the Lord Moon in the East seems to have been Meni, 
for this appears the most natural interpretation of the Divine state 
ment in Isaiah Ixv. 11, "But ye are they that forsake my holy 
mountain, that prepare a temple for Gad, and that furnish the drink- 
offering unto Meni. "|| There is reason to believe that Gad refers to 
the sun-god, and that Meni in like manner designates the moon- 
divinity.lF Meni, or Manai, signifies " The Numberer," and it is by 

signifies "birth." Therefore, Nur-cakes are "birth -cakes." The Scandinavian 
goddesses, called " Norns," who appointed children their destinies at their birth, 
evidently derived their name from the cognate Chaldee word " Nor," a child. 

* SHARON TURNER S Anglo-Saxons, vol. i. p. 219. 

t SALVERTJJ;, Des Sciences Occultes, p. 491. 

STANLEY, p. 1066, col. 1. 

SHARON TURNER, vol. i. p. 213. Turner cites an Arabic poem which proves 
that a female sun and a masculine moon were recognised in Arabia as well as by 
the Anglo-Saxons. (Ibid.) 

|| In the authorised version Gad is rendered " that troop," and Meni, " that 
number ;" but the most learned admit that this is incorrect, and that the words 
are proper names. 

11 See KITTO, vol. iv. p. 66, end of Note. The name Gad evidently refers, in 
the first instance, to the war-god, for it signifies to assault ; but it also signifies 
" the assembler ; " and under both ideas it is applicable to Nimrod, whose general 
character was that of the sun-god, for he was the first grand warrior ; and, under 


the changes of the moon that the months are numbered : Psalm civ. 
19, " He appointed the moon for seasons : the sun knoweth the time 
of its going down." The name of the " Man of the Moon," or the 
god who presided over that luminary among the Saxons, was Mane, 
as given in the " Edda,"* and Mani, in the " Voluspa."f That it was 
the birth of the "Lord Moon" that was celebrated among our 
ancestors at Christmas, we have remarkable evidence in the name 
that is still given in the lowlands of Scotland to the feast on the last 
day of the year, which seems to be a remnant of the old birth festival 
for the cakes then made are called Nur-Cakes, or JBirth-csikQS. That 
name is Hogmanay. J Now, " Hog-Manai " in Chaldee signifies " The 
feast of the Numberer ; " in other words, The festival of Deus Lunus, 
or of the Man of the Moon. To show the connection between country 
and country, and the inveterate endurance of old customs, it is 

the name of Phoroneus, he was celebrated for having first gathered mankind into 
social communities. (See ante, p. 51.) The name Meni, " the numberer," on the 
other hand, seems just a synonym for the name of Gush or Chus, which, while it 
signifies "to cover" or "hide," signifies also "to count or number." The true 
proper meaning of the name Gush is, I have no doubt, " The numberer " or 
" Arithmetician ; " for while Nimrod his son, as the " mighty " one, was the grand 
propagator of the Babylonian system of idolatry, by force and power, he, as 
Hermes (see ante, pp. 25, 26), was the real concocter of that system, for he is said 
to have " taught men the proper mode of approaching the Deity with prayers and 
sacrifice " (WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 10) ; and seeing idolatry and astronomy were 
intimately combined, to enable him to do so with effect, it was indispensable that 
he should be pre-eminently skilled in the science of numbers. Now, Hermes (that 
is Gush) is said to have "first discovered numbers, and the art of reckoning, 
geometry, and astronomy, the games of chess and hazard" (Ibid. p. 3) ; and it is 
in all probability from reference to the meaning of the name of Gush, that some 
called " NUMBER the father of gods and men" (Ibid. vol. iv. p. 196). The 
name Meni is just the Chaldee form of the Hebrew " Mene"," the " numberer " for 
in Chaldee i often takes the place of the final e. As we have seen reason to con 
clude with Gesenius, that Nebo, the great prophetic god of Babylon, was just the 
same god as Hermes (see ante, p. 25), this shows the peculiar emphasis of the first 
words in the Divine sentence that sealed the doom of Belshazzar, as representing 
the primeval god " MENE, MENE, Tekel, Upharsin," which is as much as covertly 
to say, " The numberer is numbered. " As the cup was peculiarly the symbol of 
Gush (see ante, p. 49). hence the pouring out of the drink-offering to him as the 
god of the cup ; and as he was the great Diviner, hence the divinations as to the 
future year, which Jerome connects with the divinity referred to by Isaiah. Now 
Hermes, in Egypt as the "numberer," was identified with the moon that numbers 
the months. He was called " Lord of the moon" (BuNSEN, vol. i. p. 394) ; and 
as the "dispenser of time " (WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 11), he held a " palm branch, 
emblematic of a year" (Ibid. p. 2). Thus, then, if Gad was the " sun-divinity," 
Meni was very naturally regarded as " The Lord Moon." 

* MALLET, vol. ii. p. 24. Edin. 1809. 

t Supplement to IDA PFEIFFEK S Iceland, pp. 322, 323. 

See JAMIESON S Scottish Dictionary, sub voce. Jamieson gives a good many 
speculations from different authors in regard to the meaning of the term " Hog 
manay " ; but the following extract is all that it seems necessary to quote : 
" Hogmanay, the name appropriated by the vulgar to the last day in the year. 
Sibb thinks that the term may be .... allied to the Scandinavian Hoeg-tid, a 
term applied to Christmas, and various other festivals of the Church." As the 
Scandinavian "tid" means " time," and " hoeg-tid" is applied to festivals of the 
Church in general, the meaning of this expression is evidently " festival-time ;" 
but that shows that "hoeg" has just the meaning which I have attached to Hog 
the Chaldee meaning. 


worthy of remark, that Jerome, commenting on the very words of 
Isaiah already quoted, about spreading "a table for Gad," and 
"pouring out a drink-offering to Meni," observes that it "was the 
custom so late as his time [in the fourth century], in all cities 
especially in Egypt and at Alexandria, to set tables, and furnish 
them with various luxurious articles of food, and with goblets con 
taining a mixture of new wine, on the last day of the month and the 
year, and that the people drew omens from them in respect of the 
fruitfulness of the year."* The Egyptian year began at a different 
time from ours ; but this is as near as possible (only substituting 
whisky for wine), the way in which Hogmanay is still observed on 
the last day of the last month of our year in Scotland. I do not 
know that any omens are drawn from anything that takes place at 
that time, but everybody in the south of Scotland is personally 
cognisant of the fact, that, on Hogmanay, or the evening before New 
Year s day, among those who observe old customs, a table is spread, 
and that while buns and other dainties are provided by those who 
can afford them, oat cakes and cheese are brought forth among those 
who never see oat cakes but on this occasion, and that strong drink 
forms an essential article of the provision. 

Even where the sun was the favourite object of worship, as in 
Babylon itself and elsewhere, at this festival he was worshipped not 
merely as the orb of day, but as God incarnate, f It was an essential 
principle of the Babylonian system, that the Sun or Baal was the one 
only God. | When, therefore, Tammuz was worshipped as God in 
carnate, that implied also that he was an incarnation of the Sun. 
In the Hindoo mythology, which is admitted to be essentially Baby 
lonian, this comes out very distinctly. There, Surya, or the Sun, is 
represented as being incarnate, and born for the purpose of subduing 
the enemies of the gods, who, without such a birth, could not have 
been subdued. 

It was no mere astronomic festival, then, that the Pagans cele 
brated at the winter solstice. That festival at Eome was called the 
feast of Saturn, and the mode in which it was celebrated there, 
showed whence it had been derived. The feast, as regulated by 
Caligula, lasted five days ; 1 1 loose reins were given to drunkenness 

* HIERONYM, vol. ii. p. 217. 

f PLUTARCH, De Isidc, vol. ii. sect. 52, p. 372 ; I). MACROB. Saturn., lib. i. cap. 
21, P . 71. 

MACROBIUS, Sat., lib. i. cap. 23, p. 72, E. 

See the Sanscrit Researches of Col. VANS KENNEDY, p. 438. Col. K., a most 
distinguished Sanscrit scholar; brings the Brahmins from Babylon (Ibid. p. 157). 
Be it observed, the very name Surya, given to the sun over all India, is connected 
with this birth. Though the word had originally a different meaning, it was 
evidently identified by the priests with the Chaldee " Zero," and made to coun 
tenance the idea of the birth, of the "Sun-god." The Pracrit name is still nearer 
the Scriptural name of the promised "seed." It is " Suro." It has been seen, in 
a previous Chapter (p. 77), that in Egypt also the Sun was represented as born 
of a goddess. 

y Subsequently the number of the days of the Saturnalia was increased to 
seven. See JUSTUS LIPSIUS, Opera, torn, ii., Saturnal, lib. i. cap. 4. 


and revelry, slaves had a temporary emancipation,* and used all 
manner of freedoms with their masters, f This was precisely the 
way in which, according to Berosus, the drunken festival of the 
month Thebeth, answering to our December, in other words, the 
festival of Bacchus, was celebrated in Babylon. "It was the 
custom," says he, " during the five days it lasted, for masters to be 
in subjection to their servants, and one of them ruled the house, 
clothed in a purple garment like a king." J This " purple-robed " 
servant was called "Zoganes," the "Man of sport and wantonness," 
and answered exactly to the " Lord of Misrule," that in the dark 
ages, was chosen in all Popish countries to head the revels of 
Christmas. The wassailling bowl of Christmas had its precise 
counterpart in the " Drunken festival " of Babylon ; and many of the 
other observances still kept up among ourselves at Christmas came 
from the very same quarter. The candles, in some parts of England, 
lighted on Christmas-eve, and used so long as the festive season lasts, 
were equally lighted by the Pagans on the eve of the festival of the 
Babylonian god, to do honour to him : for it was one of the distin 
guishing peculiarities of his worship to have lighted wax-candles on 
his altars. || The Christmas tree, now so common among us, was 
equally common in Pagan Rome and Pagan Egypt. In Egypt that 
tree was the palm-tree ; in Rome it was the fir ; IF the palm-tree 
denoting the Pagan Messiah, as Baal-Tamar, the fir referring to him 
as Baal-Berith. The mother of Adonis, the Sun-God and great 
mediatorial divinity, was mystically said to have been changed into 
a tree, and when in that state to have brought forth her divine 
son.** If the mother was a tree, the son must have been recognised 
as the " Man the branch." And this entirely accounts for the putting 
of the Yule Log into the fire on Christmas-eve, and the appearance 
of the Christmas-tree the next morning. As Zero-ashta, " The seed 
of the woman," which name also signified Ignigena, or " born of the 
fire," he has to enter the fire on " Mother-night," that he may be 
born the next day out of it, as the " Branch of God," or the Tree that 
brings all divine gifts to men. But why, it may be asked, does he 
enter the fire under the symbol of a Log? To understand this, it 

* If Saturn, or Kronos, was, as we have seen reason to believe, Phoroneus, " The 
emancipator" (see ante, pp. 51, 52), the " temporary emancipation " of the slaves 
at his festival was exactly in keeping with his supposed character. 

f ADAM S Roman Antiquities, "Religion, Saturn." See STATIUS, Sylv., lib. i. 
c. vi. v. 4, pp. 65, 66. The words of Statius are : 

"Saturnus mihi compede exoluta 
Et multo gravidus mero December 
Et ridens jocus, et sales protervi 

I In ATHEN^EUS, xiv. p. 639, C. 

From " Tzohkh," "to sport and wanton," and "anesh," " man," or perhaps 
"anes" may only be a termination signifying " the doer," from an " to act upon." 
To the initiated, it had another meaning. 

|| CRABB S Mythology, "Saturn," p. 12. 

IT Berlin Correspondent of London Times, December 23, 1853. 

** OVID, Metam., lib. x. v. 500-513. 




must be remembered that the divine child born at the winter solstice 
was born as a new incarnation of the great god (after that god had 
been cut in pieces), on purpose to revenge his death upon his 
murderers.* Now the great god, cut off in the midst of his power 
and glory, was symbolised as a huge tree, stripped of all its branches, 
and cut down almost to the ground, f But the great serpent, the 
symbol of the life restoring J ^Esculapius, twists itself around the 
dead stock (see Fig. 27), and lo, at its side up sprouts a young tree 
a tree of an entirely different kind, that is destined never to be cut 
down by hostile power even the palm-tree, the well-known symbol 
of victory. The Christmas-tree, as has been stated, was generally at 
Rome a different tree, even the fir ; but the very same idea as was 
implied in the palm-tree was implied in the Christmas-fir ; for that 
covertly symbolised the new-born God as Baal-berith, || " Lord of the 
Covenant," and thus shadowed forth the perpetuity and everlasting 
nature of his power, now that after having fallen before his enemies, 

be had risen triumphant over them all. 
Therefore, the 25th of December, the 
day that was observed at Home as the 
day when the victorious god reappeared 
on earth, was held at the Natalis invicti 
soils, " The birth-day of the uncon- 
quered Sun." IF Now the Yule Log is 
the dead stock of Nimrod, deified as 
the sun-god, but cut down by his 
enemies ; the Christmas-tree is Nimrod 
redivivus the slain god come to life 
again. In the light reflected by the 
above statement on customs that still 
linger among us, the origin of which 
has been lost in the midst of hoar antiquity, let the reader look at 
the singular practice still kept up in the South on Christmas-eve, of 

* See ante, p. 69. 

f " Ail," or " II," a synonym for Gheber, the "mighty " one (Exodus xv. 15), 
signifies also a wide-spreading tree, or a stag with branching horns (see 
PARKHURST, sub voce). Therefore, at different times, the great god is symbolised 
by a stately tree, or by a stag. In the accompanying woodcut, the cutting off 
of the mighty one is symbolised by the cutting down of the tree. On an Ephesian 
coin (SMITH, p. 289), he is symbolised by a stag cut asunder ; and there a palm-tree 
is represented as springing-up at the side of the stag, just as here it springs up at 
the side of the dead trunk. In SANCHUNIATHON, Kronis is expressly called 
"Ilos" i.e., "The mighty one." The great god being cut off, the cornucopia 
at the left of the tree is empty ; but the palm-tree repairs all. 

+ The reader will remember that ^Esculapius is generally represented with a 
stick or a stock of a tree at his side, and a serpent twining around it. The figure 
in the next evidently explains the origin of this representation. For his character 
as the life-restorer, see PAUSANIAS, lib. ii., Corinthiaca, cap. 26 ; and VIRGIL, 
jEneid, lib. vii. 11. 769-773, pp. 364, 365. 

From MAURICE S Indian Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 368. 1796. 

|| JSaal-bercth, which differs only in one letter from JBaal-berith, "Lord of the 
Covenant," signifies " Lord of the fir-tree." 

U" GIESELER, p. 42, Note. 


kissing under the misletoe bough. That misletoe bough in the 
Druidic superstition, which, as we have seen, was derived from 
Babylon, was a representation of the Messiah, " The man the 
branch." The misletoe was regarded as a divine branch* a 
branch that came from heaven, and grew upon a tree that sprung 
out of the earth. Thus by the engrafting of the celestial branch 
into the earthly tree, heaven and earth, that sin had severed, were 
joined together, and thus the misletoe bough became the token of 
Divine reconciliation to man, the kiss being the well-known token of 
pardon and reconciliation. Whence could such an idea have come ? 
May it not have come from the eighty-fifth Psalm, ver. 10, 11, 
"Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have 
KISSED each other. Truth shall spring out of the earth [in con 
sequence of the coming of the promised Saviour], and righteousness 
shall look down from heaven " 1 Certain it is that that Psalm was 
written soon after the Babylonish captivity ; and as multitudes of 
the Jews, after that event, still remained in Babylon under the 
guidance of inspired men, such as Daniel, as a part of the Divine 
word it must have been communicated to them, as Avell as to their 
kinsmen in Palestine. Babylon was, at that time, the centre of the 
civilised world ; and thus Paganism, corrupting the Divine symbol 
as it ever has done, had opportunities of sending forth its debased 
counterfeit of the truth to all the ends of the earth, through the 
Mysteries that were affiliated with the great central system in 
Babylon. Thus the very customs of Christmas still existent cast 
surprising light at once on the revelations of grace made to all 
the earth, and the efforts made by Satan and his emissaries to 
materialise, carnalise, and degrade them. 

In many countries the boar was sacrificed to the god, for the 
injury a boar was fabled to have done him. According to one 
version of the story of the death of Adonis, or Tammuz, it was, as 
we have seen, in consequence of a wound from the tusk of a boar 
that he died.f The Phrygian Attes, the beloved of Cybele, whose 
story was identified with that of Adonis, was fabled to have perished 

* In the Scandinavian story of Balder (see ante, p. 57), the misletoe branch is 
distinguished from the lamented god. The Druidic and Scandinavian myths 
somewhat differed ; but yet, even in the Scandinavian story, it is evident that 
some marvellous power was attributed to the misletoe branch ; for it was able to 
do what nothing else in the compass of creation could accomplish ; it slew the 
divinity on whom the Anglo-Saxons regarded " the empire " of their "heaven" 
as "depending." Now, all that is necessary to unravel this apparent inconsistency, 
is just to understand " the branch " that had such power, as a symbolical expres 
sion for the true Messiah. The Bacchus of the Greeks came evidently to be 
recognised as the " seed of the serpent ; " for he is said to have been brought forth 
by his mother in consequence of intercourse with Jupiter, when that god had 
appeared in the form of a serpent. (See DYMOCK S Classical Dictionary, sub voce 
" Deois.") If the character of Balder was the same, the story of his death just 
amounted to this, that the "seed of the serpent" had been slain by the "seed of 
the woman." This story, of course, must have originated with his enemies. But 
the idolaters took up what they could not altogether deny, evidently with the 
view of explaining it away. 

f For the mystic meaning of the story of the boar, see ante, p. 65. 



in like manner, by the tusk of a boar.* Therefore, Diana, who 
though commonly represented in popular myths only as the huntress 
Diana, was in reality the great mother of the gods,f has frequently 
the boar s head as her accompaniment, in token not of any mere 
success in the chase, but of her triumph over the grand enemy of 
the idolatrous system, in which she occupied so conspicuous a place. 
According to Theocritus, Venus was reconciled to the boar that 
killed Adonis, because when brought in chains before her, it pleaded 
so pathetically that it had not killed her husband of malice prepense, 
but only through accident. J But yet, in memory of the deed that 
the mystic boar had done, many a boar lost its head or was offered 
in sacrifice to the offended goddess. In Smith, Diana is represented 
with a boar s head lying beside her, on the top of a heap of stones, 
and in the accompanying woodcut (Fig. 28), || in which the Roman 
Emperor Trajan is represented burning incense to the same goddess, 

Fig. 28. 

VVS /^N Mf -=:ii*%=^ -? 

the boar s head forms a very prominent figure. On Christmas-day 
the Continental Saxons offered a boar in sacrifice to the Sun,1T to 
propitiate her** for the loss of her beloved Adonis. In Rome a 
similar observance had evidently existed ; for a boar formed the 

* PAUSANIAS, lib. vii., Achaica, cap. 7. 

f See ante, pp. 29, 30. 

THEOCRITUS, Idyll xxx. v. 21, 45. 

SMITH S Class. Diet., p. 112. 

|| From KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. p. 137. 

II Times Berlin Correspondent, December 23, 1853. 

** The reader will remember the Sun was a goddess. Mallet says, "They 
offered the largest hog they could get to Frigga " i.e., the mother of Balder the 
lamented one. (Vol. i. p. 132.) In Egypt swine were offered once a-year, at the 
feast of the Moon, to the Moon, and Bacchus or Osiris ; and to them only it was 
lawful to make such an offering. ^ELIAN, x. 16, p. 562. 



great article at the feast of Saturn, as appears from the following 
words of Martial : 

" That boar will make you a good Saturnalia."* 

Hence the boar s head is still a standing dish in England at the 
Christmas dinner, when the reason of it is long since forgotten. 
Yea, the " Christmas goose " and " Yule cakes " were essential 
articles in the worship of the Babylonian Messiah, as that worship 
was practised both in Egypt and at Rome (Fig. 29). Wilkinson, in 
reference to Egypt, shows that "the favourite offering" of Osiris 
was "a goose, "f and moreover, that the "goose could not be eaten 
except in the depth of winter." J As to Rome, Juvenal says, "that 
Osiris, if offended, could be pacified only by a large goose and a thin 

Fig. 29. 

The Egyptian God Seb, with his symbol the goose ; and the 
Sacred Goose on a stand, as offered in sacrifice^ 

cake. "| | In many countries we have evidence of a sacred character 
attached to the goose. It is well known that the capitol of Rome 
was on one occasion saved when on the point of being surprised by 
the Gauls in the dead of night, by the cackling of the geese sacred 
to Juno, kept in the temple of Jupiter. IT The accompanying wood 
cut (Fig. 30)** proves that the goose in Asia Minor was the symbol of 
Cupid, just as it was the symbol of Seb in Egypt. In India, the 
goose occupied a similar position ; for in that land we read of the 

* Iste tibi facietbona Saturnalia porcus." MARTIAL, p. 754. 
t WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 353. J Ibid. vol. ii. p. 380. 

From WILKINSON, vol. vi. plate 31 ; and goose on stand, from the same, 
vol. v. p. 353. 

|| JUVENAL, Satires, vi. 539, 540, p. 129. 

fi Livius, Historia, lib. v. cap. 47, vol. i. p. 388. 

** From BARKER and AINSWORTH S Lares and Penates of Cilicia, chap. iv. p. 220. 


sacred " Brahmany goose," or goose sacred to Brahma.* Finally, 
the monuments of Babylon show f that the goose possessed a like 
mystic character in Chaldea, and that it was offered in sacrifice 
there, as well as in Rome or Egypt, for there the priest is seen with 
the goose in the one hand, and his sacrificing knife in the other, f 
There can be no doubt, then, that the Pagan festival at the winter 
solstice in other words, Christmas was held in honour of the birth 
of the Babylonian Messiah. 

The consideration of the next great festival in the Popish calendar 
gives the very strongest confirmation to what has now been said. 
That festival, called Lady-day, is celebrated at Rome on the 25th of 
March, in alleged commemoration of the miraculous conception of 
our Lord in the womb of the Virgin, on the day when the angel 
was sent to announce to her the distinguished honour that was to be 
bestowed upon her as the mother of the Messiah. But who could 
tell when this annunciation was made r < The Scripture gives no clue 

Fig. 30. 

at all in regard to the time. But it mattered not. Before our Lord 
was either conceived or born, that very day now set down in the 
Popish calendar for the "Annunciation of the Virgin " was observed 
in Pagan Rome in honour of Cybele, the Mother of the Babylonian 
Messiah. Now, it is manifest that Lady-day and Christmas-day 

* MOOR S Pantheon, p. 10. 

t KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. iv. p. 31. 

The symbolic meaning of the offering of the goose is worthy of notice. " The 
goose," says Wilkinson, " signified in hieroglyphics a child or son ; " and Horapollo 
says (i. 53, p. 276), "It was chosen to denote a son, from its love to its young, 
being always ready to give itself up to the chasseur, in order that they might be pre 
served ; for which reason the Egyptians thought it right to revere this animal." 
WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. v. p. 227. Here, then, the true meaning of the 
symbol is a son, who voluntarily gives himself up as a sacrifice for those whom he 
loves viz., the Pagan Messiah. 

AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, lib. xxiii. cap. 3, p. 355, and MACROB., Sat., lib. i. 
cap. 3, p. 47, G, H. The fact stated in the paragraph above casta light on a 
festival held in Egypt, of which no satisfactory account has yet been given. That 
festival was held in commemoration of " the entrance of Osiris into the moon." 
Now, Osiris, like Surya in India, was just the Sun. (PLUTARCH, De hide et 

EASTER. 103 

stand in intimate relation to one another. Between the 25th of March 
and the 25th of December there are exactly nine months. If, then, 
the false Messiah was conceived in March and bom in December, 
can any one for a moment believe that the conception and birth of 
the true Messiah can have so exactly synchronised, not only to the 
month, but to the day 1 The thing is incredible. Lady-day and 
Christmas-day, then, are purely Babylonian. 


Then look at Easter. What means the term Easter itself ? It is 
not a Christian name. It bears its Chaldean origin on its very fore 
head. Easter is nothing else than Astarte, one of the titles of Beltis, 
the queen of heaven, whose name, as pronounced by the people of 
Nineveh, was evidently identical with that now in common use in 
this country. That name, as found by Layard on the Assyrian 
monuments, is Ishtar.* The worship of Bel and Astarte was very 
early introduced into Britain, along with the Druids, " the priests of 
the groves." Some have imagined that the Druidical worship was 
first introduced by the Phenicians, who, centuries before the Christian 
era, traded to the tin-mines of Cornwall. But the unequivocal traces 
of that worship are found in regions of the British islands where the 
Phenicians never penetrated, and it has everywhere left indelible 
marks of the strong hold which it must have had on the early British 
mind. From Bel, the 1st of May is still called Beltane in the 
Almanac ;f and we have customs still lingering at this day among 
us, which prove how exactly the worship of Bel or Moloch (for both 
titles belonged to the same god) had been observed even in the 
northern parts of this island. "The late Lady Baird, of Fern Tower, 
in Perthshire," says a writer in "Notes and Queries," thoroughly 

Osiride, sect. 52, vol. ii. p. 372, D.) The moon, on the other hand, though most 
frequently the symbol of the god Hermes or Thoth, was also the symbol of the 
goddess IsitJ, the queen of heaven. The learned Bunsen seems to dispute this ; 
but his own admissions show that he does so without reason. (Vol. i. pp. 414, 
416.) And Jeremiah xliv. 17 seems decisive on the subject. The entrance of 
Osiris into the moon, then, was just the sun s being conceived by Isis, the queen 
of heaven, that, like the Indian Surya, he might in due time be born as the 
grand deliverer. (See note, p. 96.) Hence the very name Osiris ; for, as Isis 
is the Greek form of H isha, " the woman," so Osiris, as read at this day on the 
Egyptian monuments, is He-siri, "the seed." It is no objection to this to say 
that Osiris is commonly represented as the husband of Isis ; for, as we have seen 
already (p. 22), Osiris is at once the son and husband of his mother. Now, this 
festival took place in Egypt generally in March, just as Lady-day, or the tirst 
great festival of Cybele, was held in the same month in Pagan Rome. We have 
seen that the common title of Cybele at Rome was Domina, or "the Lady" 
(OviD, Fasti, lib. iv. 340), as in Babylon it was Beltis (EusEB. Prcep. Evang., 
lib. ix. cap. 41, vol. ii. p. 58), and from this, no doubt, comes the name "Lady- 
day " as it has descended to us. 

* LAYARU S Nineveh and Babylon, p. 629. 

f See OLIVER & BOYD S Edinburgh Almanac, 1860. 


versed in British antiquities,* " told me, that every year, at Beltane 
(or the 1st of May), a number of men and women assemble at an 
ancient Druidical circle of stones on her property near Crieff. They 
light a fire in the centre, each person puts a bit of oat-cake in a 
shepherd s bonnet; they all sit down, and draw blindfold a piece 
from the bonnet. One piece has been previously blackened, and 
whoever gets that piece has to jump through the fire in the centre of 
the circle, and pay a forfeit. This is, in fact, a part of the ancient 
worship of Baal, and the person on whom the lot fell was previously 
burnt as a sacrifice. Now, the passing through the fire represents 
that, and the payment of the forfeit redeems the victim." If Baal 
was thus worshipped in Britain, it will not be difficult to believe 
that his consort Astarte was also adored by our ancestors, and that 
from Astarte, whose name in Nineveh was Ishtar, the religious 
solemnities of April, as now practised, are called by the name of 
Easter that month, among our Pagan ancestors, having been called 
Easter-monath. The festival, of which we read in Church history, 
under the name of Easter, in the third or fourth centuries, was quite 
a different festival from that now observed in the Komish Church, 
and at that time was not known by any such name as Easter, f It 
was called Pasch, or the Passover, and though not of Apostolic 
institution,^ was very early observed by many professing Christians, 
in commemoration of the death and resurrection of Christ. That 
festival agreed originally with the time of the Jewish Passover, when 
Christ was crucified, a period which, in the days of Tertullian, 
at the end of the second century, was believed to have been the 
23rd of March. That festival was not idolatrous, and it was pre 
ceded by no Lent. " It ought to be known," said Cassianus, the 
monk of Marseilles, writing in the fifth century, and contrasting 
the primitive Church with the Church in his day, " that the observ 
ance of the forty days had no existence, so long as the perfection of 
that primitive Church remained inviolate."|| Whence, then, came 
this observance 1 The forty days abstinence of Lent was directly 
borrowed from the worshippers of the Babylonian goddess. Such a 
Lent of forty days, " in the spring of the year," is still observed by 
the Yezidis or Pagan Devil-worshippers of Koordistan,1T who have 

* The Right Hon. Lord John Scott. 

f The name Easter is peculiar to the British Islands. 

+ Socrates, the ancient ecclesiastical historian, after a lengthened account of 
the different ways in which Easter was observed in different countries in his time 
i.e., the fifth century sums up in these words : " Thus much already laid 
down may seem a sufficient treatise to prove that the celebration of the feast of 
Kaster began everywhere more of custom than by any commandment either of 
Christ or any Apostle." (Hist. Ecclesiast., lib. v. cap. 22.) Every one knows 
that the name Easter," used in our translation of Acts xii. 4, refers not to any 
Christian festival, but to the Jewish Passover. This is one of the few places in 
our version where the translators show an undue bias. 

GIESELER, vol. i. p. 55, Note. In GIESELER the time is printed " 25th of 
March," but the Latin quotation accompanying it shows that this is a typo 
graphical mistake for " 23rd." 

|| Ibid. vol. ii. p. 42, Note. 

II LAYARD S -Nineveh and Babylon, p. 93. 

EASTER. 105 

inherited it from their early masters, the Babylonians. Such a Lent 
of forty days was held in spring by the Pagan Mexicans, for thus we 
read in Humboldt,* where he gives account of Mexican observances : 
" Three days after the vernal equinox .... began a solemn fast of 
forty days in honour of the sun." Such a Lent of forty days was 
observed in Egypt, as may be seen on consulting Wilkinson s 
Egyptians.^ This Egyptian Lent of forty days, we are informed 
by Landseer, in his Sabean Researches, was held expressly in 
commemoration of Adonis or Osiris, the great mediatorial god.| At 
the same time, the rape of Proserpine seems to have been commemo 
rated, and in a similar manner ; for Julius Eirmicus informs us that, 
for "forty nights" the "wailing for Proserpine" continued ; and 
from Arnobius we learn that the fast which the Pagans observed, 
called "Castus" or the "sacred" fast, was, by the Christians in his 
time, believed to have been primarily in imitation of the long fast 
of Ceres, when for many days she determinedly refused to eat on 
account of her "excess of sorrow" (violentia mceroris),\\ that is, on 
account of the loss of her daughter Proserpine, when carried away 
by Pluto, the god of hell. As the stories of Bacchus, or Adonis and 
Proserpine, though originally distinct, were made to join on and fit 
in to one another, so that Bacchus was called Liber, and his wife 
Ariadne, Liberal (which was one of the names of Proserpine),** it 
is highly probable that the forty days fast of Lent was made in later 
times to have reference to both. Among the Pagans this Lent seems 
to have been an indispensable preliminary to the great annual festival 
in commemoration of the death and resurrection of Tammuz, which 
was celebrated by alternate weeping and rejoicing, and which, in 
many countries, was considerably later than the Christian festival, 
being observed in Palestine and Assyria in June, therefore called the 
"month of Tammuz;" in Egypt, about the middle of May, and in 
Britain, some time in April. To conciliate the Pagans to nominal 
Christianity, Rome, pursuing its usual policy, took measures to get 
the Christian and Pagan festivals amalgamated, and, by a compli 
cated but skilful adjustment of the calendar, it was found no difficult 
matter, in general, to get Paganism and Christianity now far sunk 
in idolatry in this as in so many other things, to shake hands. 
The instrument in accomplishing this amalgamation was the abbot 
Dionysius the Little, ff to whom also we owe it, as modern chrono- 
logers have demonstrated, that the date of the Christian era, or of 
the birth of Christ Himself, was moved FOUR YEARS from the true 
time. Whether this was done through ignorance or design may be 

* HUMBOLDT S Mexican Researches, v. i. p. 404. 
f WILKINSON S Egyptian Antiquities, vol. i. p. 278. 
J LANDSEER S Sabean Researches, p. 112. 
De Err ore, p. 70. 

|! ARNOBIUS, Adversus (Rentes, lib. v. p. 403. See also what precedes in the 
same book in regard to Proserpine. 

II OVID, Fasti, lib. iii. 1. 512, vol. iii. p. 184. 
* SMITH S Classical Dictionary, " Liber and Libera," p. 381. 
ft About A.D. 525. 


matter of question ; but there seems to be no doubt of the fact, that 
the birth of the Lord Jesus was made full four years later than the 
truth.* This change of the calendar in regard to Easter was at 
tended with momentous consequences. It brought into the Church 
the grossest corruption and the rankest superstition in connection 
with the abstinence of Lent. Let any one only read the atrocities 
that were commemorated during the " sacred fast " or Pagan Lent, 
as described by Arnobius and Clemens Alexandrinus,f and surely he 
must blush for the Christianity of those who, with the full know 
ledge of all these abominations, " went down to Egypt for help " to 
stir up the languid devotion of the degenerate Church, and who 
could find no more excellent way to " revive " it, than by borrowing 
from so polluted a source ; the absurdities and abominations con 
nected with which the early Christian writers had held up to scorn. 
That Christians should ever think of introducing the Pagan abstin 
ence of Lent was a sign of evil ; it showed how low they had sunk, 
and it was also a cause of evil; it inevitably led to deeper degra 
dation. Originally, even in Rome, Lent, with the preceding revelries 
of the Carnival, was entirely unknown ; and even when fasting be 
fore the Christian Pasch was held to be necessary, it was by slow 
steps that, in this respect, it came to conform with the ritual of 
Paganism. What may have been the period of fasting in the Koman 
Church before the sitting of the Nicene Council does not very clearly 
appear, but for a considerable period after that Council, we have 
distinct evidence that it did not exceed three weeks. The words of 
Socrates, writing on this very subject, about A.D. 450, are these : 
"Those who inhabit the princely city of Rome fast together before 
Easter three weeks, excepting the Saturday and Lord s-day." But 
at last, when the worship of Astarte was rising into the ascendant, 
steps were taken to get the whole Chaldean Lent of six weeks, or 

* GIESELEE, vol. i. p. 54. Gieseler adduces as authorities for the statement in 
the text, G. A. HAMBERGER, De Epochce ( hristiante ortu et auctore (in MARTINI 
Thesaur. Disscrtat., T. iii., P. i. p. 241) ; Jo. G. JANI, Historia JErce Uionysiance, 
Viteb., 1715, 4, and IDKLER S Chronologic, ii. 366 ff. This is the statement also 
commonly made in all the standard English chronologies. 

t CLESfENS ALEXANDRINUS, Prolrepticos, p. 13. 

GIESBLER, speaking of the Eastern Church in the second century, in regard to 
Paschal observances, says : " In it [the Paschal festival in commemoration of the 
death of Christ] they [the Eastern Christians] eat unleavened bread, probably like 

the Jews, eight days throughout There is no trace of a yearly festival of a 

resurrection among them, for thia was kept every Sunday" (Catholic Church, 
sect. 53, p. 178, Note 35). In regard to the Western Church, at a somewhat 
later period the age of Constantine fifteen days seem to have been observed in 
religious exercises in connection with the Christian Paschal feast, as appears from 
the following extracts from Bingham, kindly furnished to me by a friend, although 
the period of fasting is not stated. Bingham (Origin. Eccles., vol. ix. p. 94) says : 
" The solemnities of Pasch [are] the week before and the week after Easter Sun 
day one week of the Cross, the other of the resurrection. The ancients speak of 
the Passion and Resurrection Pasch as a fifteen days solemnity. Fifteen days 

was enforced by law by the Empire, and commanded to the universal Church 

Scaliger mentions a law of Constantine, ordering two weeks for Easter, and a 
vacation of all legal processes" (BINGHAM, ix. p. 95). 

SOCRATES, Hist. Eccles., lib. v. cap. 22, p. 234. 

EASTER. 107 

forty days, made imperative on all within the Roman empire of the 
West. The way was prepared for this by a Council held at Aurelia 
in the time of Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome, about the year 519, 
which decreed that Lent should be solemnly kept before Easter.* 
It was with the view, no doubt, of carrying out this decree that the 
calendar was, a few years after, readjusted by Dionysius. This 
decree could not be carried out all at once. About the end of the 
sixth century, the first decisive attempt was made to enforce the 
observance of the new calendar. It was in Britain that the first 
attempt was made in this way;f and here the attempt met with 
vigorous resistance. The difference, in point of time, betwixt the 
Christian Pasch, as observed in Britain by the native Christians, and 
the Pagan Easter enforced by Rome, at the time of its enforcement, 
was a whole month ;| and it was only by violence and bloodshed, at 
last, that the Festival of the Anglo-Saxon or Chaldean goddess came 
to supersede that which had been held in honour of Christ. 

Such is the history of Easter. The popular observances that still 
attend the period of its celebration amply confirm the testimony of 
history as to its Babylonian character. The hot cross buns of Good 
Friday, and the dyed eggs of Pasch or Easter Sunday, figured in the 

* Dr. MEREDITH HANMEB S Chronogmpkia, subjoined to his translation of 
EOSEBIUS, p. 592. London, 1636. 

f GlESELER, vol. i. p. 54. 

CUMMIANUS, quoted by Archbishop USSHER, Sylloge, p. 34. Those who have 
been brought up in the observance of Christmas and Easter, and who yet abhor 
from their hearts all Papal and Pagan idolatry alike, may perhaps feel as if there 
were something " untoward " in the revelations given above in regard to the origin 
of these festivals. But a moment s reflection will suffice entirely to banish such a 
feeling. They will see, that if the account I have given be true, it is of no use to 
ignore it. A few of the facts stated in these pages are already known to Infidel 
and Socinian writers of no mean mark, both in this country and on the Continent, 
and these are using them in such a way as to undermine the faith of the young 
and uninformed in regard to the very vitals of the Christian faith. Surely, then, 
it must be of the last consequence, that the truth should be set forth in its own 
native light, even though it may somewhat run counter to preconceived opinions, 
especially when that truth, justly considered, tends so much at once to strengthen 
the rising youth against the seductions of Popery, and to confirm them in the 
faith once delivered to the Saints. If a heathen could say, " Socrates I love, and 
Plato I love, but I love truth more," surely a truly Christian miud will not dis 
play less magnanimity. Is there not much, even in the aspect of the times, that 
ought to prompt the earnest inquiry, if the occasion has not arisen, when efforts, 
and strenuous efforts, should be made to purge out of the National Establishment 
in the south those observances, and everything else that has flowed in upon it 
from Babylon s golden cup ? There are men of noble minds in the Church of 
Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley, who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity, who 
have felt the power of His blood, and known the comfort of His Spirit. Let them, 
in their closets, and on their knees, ask the question, at their God and at their 
own consciences, if they ought not to bestir themselves in right earnest, and labour 
with all their might till such a consummation be effected. Then, indeed, would 
England s Church be the grand bulwark of the Reformation then would her sous 
speak with her enemies in the gate then would she appear in the face of all 
Christendom, " clear as the sun, fair as the moon, and terrible as an army with 
banners." If, however, nothing effectual shall be done to stay the plague that is 
spreading in her, the result must be disastrous, not only to herself, but to the 
whole empire. 



Chaldean rites just as they do now. The "buns," known too by 
that identical name, were used in the worship of the queen of heaven, 
the goddess Easter, as early as the days of Cecrops, the founder of 
Athens that is, 1500 years before the Christian era. "One species 
of sacred bread," says Bryant,* "which used to be offered to the gods, 
was of great antiquity, and called Boun." Diogenes Laertius, speak 
ing of this offering being made by Empedocles, describes the chief 
ingredients of which it was composed, saying, " He offered one of the 
sacred cakes called Boun, which was made of fine flour and honey."t 
The prophet Jeremiah takes notice of this kind of offering when he 
says, " The children gather wood, the fathers kindle the fire, and the 
women knead their dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven." | 
The hot cross buns are not now offered, but eaten, on the festival of 
Astarte; but this leaves no doubt as to whence they have been 
derived. The origin of the Pasch eggs is just as clear. The ancient 
Druids bore an egg, as the sacred emblem of their order. In the 

Fig. 31. 


Sacred Egg of Heliopolis ; and Typhon s Egg. From BRYANT S 
Mythology, vol. iii. p. 62. 

Dionysiaca, or mysteries of Bacchus, as celebrated in Athens, one 
part of the nocturnal ceremony consisted in the consecration of an 
egg. 1 1 The Hindoo fables celebrate their mundane egg as of a golden 
colour.^I The people of Japan make their sacred egg to have been 
brazen.** In China, at this hour, dyed or painted eggs are used on 

* Mythology, vol. i. p. 373. 

t LABBTIUS, p. 227, B. 

Jeremiah vii. 18. It is from the very word here used by the prophet that the 
word "6u/i" seems to be derived. The Hebrew word, with the points, was pro 
nounced Khavan, which in Greek became sometimes Kapan-os (PHOTius, Lexeon 
8i/llog, Part i. p. 130) ; and, at other times, Khabon (NEANDER, in KITTO S 
Biblical Cyclopaedia, vol. i. p. 237). The first shows how Khvan, pronounced as 
one syllable, would pass into the Latin panis, "bread, "and the second how, in 
like manner, Khvon would become Bon or Bun. It is not to be overlooked that 
our common English word Loa has passed through a similar process of formation. 
In Anglo-Saxon it was Hlaf. 

DAVIES S Druids, p. 208. II Ibid. p. 207. 

If Col. KENNEDY, p. 223. ** COLEMAN, p. 340. 

EASTER. 109 

sacred festivals, even as in this country.* In ancient times eggs 
were used in the religious rites of the Egyptians and the Greeks, and 
were hung up for mystic purposes in their temples, f (Fig. 31.) 
From Egypt these sacred eggs can be distinctly traced to the banks 
of the Euphrates. The classic poets are full of the fable of the 
mystic egg of the Babylonians ; and thus its tale is told by Hyginus, 
the Egyptian, the learned keeper of the Palatine library at Kome, in 
the time of Augustus, who was skilled in all the wisdom of his native 
country : " An pgg of wondrous size is said to have fallen from 
heaven into the river Euphrates. The fishes rolled it to the bank, 
where the doves having settled upon it, and hatched it, out came 
Venus, who afterwards was called the Syrian Goddess "J that is, 
Astarte. Hence the egg became one of the symbols of Astarte or 
Easter; and accordingly, in Cyprus, one of the chosen seats of the 
worship of Venus, or Astarte, the egg of wondrous size was repre 
sented on a grand scale. (See Fig. 32. ) 

The occult meaning of this mystic egg of Astarte, in one of its 

Fig. 32. 

aspects (for it had a twofold significance), had reference to the ark|j 
during the time of the flood, in which the whole human race were 
shut up, as the chick is enclosed in the egg before it is hatched,. If 
any be inclined to ask, how could it ever enter the minds of men to 
employ such an extraordinary symbol for such a purpose, the answer 
is, first, The sacred egg of Paganism, as already indicated (p. 108), is 
well known as the "mundane egg," that is, the egg in which the 
world was shut up. Now the world has two distinct meanings it 
means either the material earth, or the inhabitants of the earth. 
The latter meaning of the term is seen in Gen. xi. 1, "The whole 
earth was of one language and of one speech," where the meaning is 
that the whole people of the world were so. If then the world is 

* My authority for the above statement is the Rev. James Johnston, of Glas 
gow, formerly missionary at Amoy, in China. 

t WILKINSON, vol. iii. p. 20, and PAUSANIAS, lib. iii., Laconica, cap. lu . 

t HYGINUS, Fabulce, pp. 148, 149. 

From LANDSEER S Sabean Researches, p. 80. London, 1823. 

I! BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 161. 


seen shut up in an egg, and floating on the waters, it may not be 
difficult to believe, however the idea of the egg may have come, that 
the egg thus floating on the wide universal sea might be Noah s 
family that contained the whole world in its bosom. Then the 
application of the word egg to the ark comes thus : The Hebrew 
name for an egg is Baitz, or in the feminine (for there are both 
genders), Baitza. This, in Chaldee and Phenician, becomes Baith or 
Baitha,* which in these languages is also the usual way in which the 
name of a house is pronounced, f The egg floating on the waters 
that contained the world, was the house floating on the waters of the 
deluge, with the elements of the new world in its bosom. The 
coming of the egg from heaven evidently refers to the preparation 
of the ark by express appointment of God ; and the same thing 
seems clearly implied in the Egyptian story of the mundane egg 
which was said to have come out of the mouth of the great god.J 
The doves resting on the egg need no explanation. This, then, 
was the meaning of the mystic egg in one aspect. As, however, 
everything that was good or beneficial to mankind was represented 
in the Chaldean mysteries, as in some way connected with the 
Babylonian goddess, so the greatest blessing to the human race, 
which the ark contained in its bosom, was held to be Astarte, who 
was the great civiliser and benefactor of the world. Though the 
deified queen, whom Astarte represented, had no actual existence 
till some centuries after the flood, yet through the doctrine of 
metempsychosis, which was firmly established in Babylon, it 
was easy for her worshippers to be made to believe that, in 
a previous incarnation, she had lived in the Antediluvian world, 
and passed in safety through the waters of the flood. Now 
the Romish Church adopted this mystic egg of Astarte, and 
consecrated it as a symbol of Christ s resurrection. A form of 
prayer was even appointed to be used in connection with it, Pope 
Paul V. teaching his superstitious votaries thus to pray at Easter : 
" Bless, Lord, we beseech thee, this thy creature of eggs, that it 
may become a wholesome sustenance unto thy servants, eating it in 
remembrance of our Lord Jesus Christ, &c." Besides the mystic egg, 
there was also another emblem of Easter, the goddess queen of 
Babylon, and that was the Rimmon or "pomegranate." With the 
Rimmon or "pomegranate" in her hand, she is frequently repre 
sented in ancient medals, and the house of Rimmon, in which the 
King of Damascus, the Master of Naaman, the Syrian, worshipped, 
was in all likelihood a temple of Astarte, where that goddess with 
the Rimmon was publicly adored. The pomegranate is a fruit that 

* In the later Chaldee, the name of an egg is commonly Baiaa, or Baietha in 
the emphatic form ; but Baith is also formed exactly according to rule from Baitz, 
just as Kaitz, " summer," in Chaldee, becomes Kaith, and many other words. 

f The common word "Beth," "house," in the Bible without the points, is 
"Baith," as may be seen in the name of Bethel, as given in Genesis xxxv. 1, of 
the Greek Septuagint, where it is " Baith-el." 

BONSEN, vol. i. p. 377. 

Scottish Guardian, April, 1844. 



Fig. 33. J 

is full of seeds ; and on that account it has been supposed that it was 
employed as an emblem of that vessel in which the germs of the new 
creation were preserved, wherewith the world was to be sown anew 
with man and with beast, when the desolation of the deluge had passed 
away. But upon more searching inquiry, it turns out that the 
Rimmon or " pomegranate " had reference to an entirely different 
thing. Astarte, or Cybele, was called also Idaia Mater,* and the 
sacred mount in Phrygia, most famed for the celebration of her 
mysteries, was named Mount Ida that is, in Chaldee, the sacred 
language of these mysteries, the Mount of 
Knowledge. " Idaia Mater," then, signifies 
" the Mother of Knowledge " in other 
words, our Mother Eve, who first coveted 
the " knowledge of good and evil," and 
actually purchased it at so dire a price to 
herself and to all her children. Astarte, 
as can be abundantly shown, was wor 
shipped not only as an incarnation of the 
Spirit of God, but also of the mother of 
mankind.f When, therefore, the mother 
of the gods, and the mother of knowledge, 
was represented with the fruit of the 
pomegranate in her extended hand (see 
Fig. 33), inviting those who ascended the 
sacred mount to initiation in her mysteries, 
can there be a doubt what that fruit was 
intended to signify 1 Evidently, it must 
accord with her assumed character ; it 
must be the fruit of the "Tree of Knowledge "the fruit of that 

" Tree, whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world, and all our woe." 

The knowledge to which the votaries of the Idaean goddess were 
admitted, was precisely of the same kind as that which Eve derived 
from the eating of the forbidden fruit, the practical knowledge of all 
that was morally evil and base. Yet to Astarte, in this character, 
men were taught to look at their grand benefactress, as gaining for 
them knowledge, and blessings connected with that knowledge, 
which otherwise they might in vain have sought from Him, who is 
the Father of lights, from whom cometh down every good and perfect 

* DYMOCK S Classical Dictionary, sub vocc. 

f For proof on this subject, see Appendix, Note J. 

J From BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 276. Bryant gives the title of the above figure as 
"Juno, Columba, and Rhoia ; " but from Pausanias we learn that the bird on the 
sceptre of Hera, or Juno, when she was represented with the pomegranate, was 
not the Columba or Dove, but the Cuckoo (PAUSAN.,lib. ii., Corinthiaca, cap. 17) ; 
from which it appears, that when Hera or Juno was thus represented, it was not 
as the incarnation of the Spirit of God, but as the mother of mankind, that she 
was represented. But into the story of the cuckoo I cannot enter here. 


gift. Popery inspires the same feeling in regard to the Romish 
queen of heaven, and leads its devotees to view the sin of Eve in 
much the same light as that in which Paganism regarded it. In the 
Canon of the Mass, the most solemn service in the Romish Missal, 
the following expression occurs, where the sin of our first parent is 
apostrophised : " beata culpa, quce talem meruisti redemptorem."* 
" Oh blessed fault, which didst procure such a Redeemer ! " The idea 
contained in these words is purely Pagan. They just amount to 
this : " Thanks be to Eve, to whose sin we are indebted for the 
glorious Saviour." It is true the idea contained in them is found in 
the same words in the writings of Augustine ; but it is an idea 
utterly opposed to the spirit of the Gospel, which only makes sin the 
more exceeding sinful, from the consideration that it needed such a 
ransom to deliver from its awful curse. Augustine had imbibed 
many Pagan sentiments, and never got entirely delivered from 
them. It is wonderful that one so good and so enlightened as Merle 
D Aubignc should see no harm in such words ! 

As Rome cherishes the same feelings as Paganism did, so it has 
adopted also the very same symbols, so far as it has the opportunity. 
In this country, and most of the countries of Europe, no pome 
granates grow ; and yet, even here, the superstition of the Rimmon 
must, as far as possible, be kept up. Instead of the pomegranate, 
therefore, the orange is employed ; and so the Papists of Scotland 
join oranges with their eggs at Easter; and so also, when Bishop 
Gillis of Edinburgh went through the vain-glorious ceremony of 
washing the feet of twelve ragged Irishmen a few years ago at 
Easter, he concluded by presenting each of them with two eggs and 
an orange. 

Now, this use of the orange as the representative of the fruit of 
Eden s " dread probationary tree," be it observed, is no modern 
invention; it goes back to the distant times of classic antiquity. 
The gardens of the Hesperides in the West, are admitted by all who 
have studied the subject, just to have been the counterpart of the 
paradise of Eden in the East. The description of the sacred gardens, 
as situated in the Isles of the Atlantic, over against the coast of 
Africa, shows that their legendary site exactly agrees with the Cape 
Verd or Canary Isles, or some of that group ; and, of course, that 
the "golden fruit" on the sacred tree, so jealously guarded, was 
none other than the orange. Now, let the reader mark well : 
According to the classic Pagan story, there was no serpent in that 
garden of delight in the " islands of the blest," to TEMPT mankind to 
violate their duty to their great benefactor, by eating of the sacred 
tree which he had reserved as the test of their allegiance. No ; on 
the contrary, it was the Serpent, the symbol of the Devil, the 
Principle of evil, the Enemy of man, that prohibited them from 
eating the precious fruit that strictly watched it that would not 
allow it to be touched. Hercules, one form of the Pagan Messiah 
not the primitive, but the Grecian Hercules pitying man s unhappy 
* MERLE D AUBIGNE S Reformation, vol. i. p. 179. 


state, slew or subdued the serpent, the envious being that grudged 
mankind the use of that which was so necessary to make them at 
once perfectly happy and wise, and bestowed upon them what other 
wise would have been hopelessly beyond their reach. Here, then, 
God and the devil are exactly made to change places. Jehovah, who 
prohibited man from eating of the tree of knowledge, is symbolised 
by the serpent, and held up as an ungenerous and malignant being, 
while he who emancipated man from Jehovah s yoke, and gave him 
of the fruit of the forbidden tree in other words, Satan under the 
name of Hercules is celebrated as the good and gracious Deliverer 
of the human race. What a mystery of iniquity is here ! Now all 
this is wrapped up in the sacred orange of Easter. 


The Feast of the Nativity of St. John is set down in the Papal 
calendar for the 24th of June, or Midsummer-day. The very same 
period was equally memorable in the Babylonian calendar as that of 
one of its most celebrated festivals. It was at Midsummer, or the 
summer solstice, that the month called in Chaldea, Syria, and Phenicia 
by the name of u Tammuz " began ; and on the first day that is, 
on or about the 24th of June one of the grand original festivals 
of Tammuz was celebrated.* For different reasons, in different 
countries, other periods had been devoted to commemorate the death 
and reviving of the Babylonian god ; but this, as may be inferred 
from the name of the month, appears to have been the real time 
when his festival was primitively observed in the land where idolatry 
had its birth. And so strong was the hold that this festival, with its 
peculiar rites, had taken of the minds of men. that, even when other 
days were devoted to the great events connected with the Babylonian 
Messiah, as was the case in some parts of our own land, this sacred 
season could not be allowed to pass without the due observance of 
some, at least, of its peculiar rites. When the Papacy sent its emis 
saries over Europe, towards the end of the sixth century, to gather 
in the Pagans into its fold, this festival was found in high favour in 
many countries. What was to be done with it 1 Were they to wage 
war with it ? No. This would have been contrary to the famous 
advice of Pope Gregory I., that, by all means they should meet the 
Pagans half-way, and so bring them into the Roman Church, f The 
Gregorian policy was carefully observed ; and so Midsummer-day, 
that had been hallowed by Paganism to the worship of Tammuz, was 
incorporated as a sacred Christian festival in the Roman calendar. 

But still a question was to be determined, What was to be the 
name of this Pagan festival, when it was baptised, and admitted into 
the ritual of Roman Christianity 1 To call it by its old name of Bel 

* STANLEY S Sabaan Philosophy, p. 1065. In Egypt the month corresponding 
to Tammuz viz. , Epep began June 25. WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 14. 
f BOWER S Lives of the Popes, vol. ii. p. 523. 



or Tammuz, at the early period when it seems to have been adopted, 
would have been too bold. To call it by the name of Christ was 
difficult, inasmuch as there was nothing special in His history at 
that period to commemorate. But the subtlety of the agents of the 
Mystery of Iniquity was not to be baffled. If the name of Christ 
could not be conveniently tacked to it, what should hinder its being 
called by the name of His forerunner, John the Baptist ? John the 
Baptist was born six months before our Lord. When, therefore, the 
Pagan festival of the winter solstice had once been consecrated as 
the birthday of the Saviour, it followed, as a matter of course, that 
if His forerunner was to have a festival at all, his festival must be 
at this very season ; for between the 24th of June and the 25th of 
December that is, between the summer and the winter solstice 
there are just six months. fow, for the purposes of the Papacy, 
nothing could be more opportune than this. One of the many 
sacred names by which Tammuz or Nimrod was called, when he 
reappeared in the Mysteries, after being slain, was Cannes.* The 
name of John the Baptist, on the other hand, in the sacred language 
adopted by the Roman Church, was Joannes. To make the festival 
of the 24th of June, then, suit Christians and Pagans alike, all that 
was needful was just to call it the festival of Joannes ; and thus the 
Christians would suppose that they were honouring John the Baptist, 
while the Pagans were still worshipping their old god Cannes, or 
Tammuz. Thus, the very period at which the great summer festival 
of Tammuz was celebrated in ancient Babylon, is at this very hour 
observed in the Papal Church as the Feast of the Nativity of 
St. John. And the^e of St. John begins exactly as the festal 
day began in Chaldea. It is well known that, in the East, the day 
began in the evening. So, though the 24th be set down as the 
nativity, yet it is on St. John s EVE that is, on the evening of the 
23rd that the festivities and solemnities of that period begin. 

Now, if we examine the festivities themselves, we shall see how 
purely Pagan they are, and how decisively they prove their real 
descent. The grand distinguishing solemnities of St. John s Eve are 
the Midsummer fires. These are lighted in France, in Switzerland, 
in Roman Catholic Ireland, and in some of the Scottish isles of the 
West, where Popery still lingers. They are kindled throughout all 
the grounds of the adherents of Rome, and flaming brands are carried 
about their corn-fields. Thus does Bell, in his Wayside Pictures, 
describe the St. John s fires of Brittany, in France: " Every fete is 

* BEROSUS, apud BUNSEN S Egypt, vol. i. p. 707. To identify Nimrod with 
Cannes, mentioned by Berosus as appearing out of the sea, it will be remembered 
that Nimrod has been proved to be Bacchus. Then, for proof that Nimrod or 
Bacchus, on being overcome by his enemies, was fabled to have taken refuge in 
the sea (see Chap. IV. Sect. I.), When, therefore, he was represented as reappear 
ing, it was natural that he should reappear in the very character of Cannes as a 
Fish-god. Now, Jerome calls Dagon, the well-known Fish-god, Piscem mo&roris 
(BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 179), " the fish of sorrow," which goes far to identify that 
Fish-god with Bacchus, the " Lamented one ; " and the identification is complete 
when Hesychius tells us that some called Bacchus Ichthys, or " The fish " (sub 
voce " Bacchos," p. 179). 


marked by distinct features peculiar to itself. That of St. John is 
perhaps, on the whole, the most striking. Throughout the day the 
poor children go about begging contributions for lighting the fires of 
Monsieur St. Jean, and towards evening one fire is gradually followed 
by two, three, four ; then a thousand gleam out from the hill-tops, 
till the whole country glows under the conflagration. Sometimes 
the priests light the first fire in the market place ; and sometimes 
it is lighted by an angel, who is made to descend by a mechanical 
device from the top of the church, with a flambeau in her hand, 
setting the pile in a blaze, and flying back again. The young people 
dance with a bewildering activity about the fires; for there is a 
superstition among them that, if they dance round nine fires before 
midnight, they will be married in the ensuing year. Seats are placed 
close to the flaming piles for the dead, whose spirits are supposed to 
come there for the melancholy pleasure of listening once more to 
their native songs, and contemplating the lively measures of their 
youth. Fragments of the torches on those occasions are preserved as 
spells against thunder and nervous diseases ; and the crown of flowers 
which surmounted the principal fire is in such request as to produce 
tumultuous jealousy for its possession."* Thus is it in France. 
Turn now to Ireland. " On that great festival of the Irish peasantry, 
St. John s Eve," says Charlotte Elizabeth, describing a particular 
festival which she had witnessed, "it is the custom, at sunset on 
that evening, to kindle immense fires throughout the country, built, 
like our bonfires, to a great height, the pile being composed of turf, 
bogwood, and such other combustible substances as they can gather. 
The turf yields a steady, substantial body of fire, the bogwood a most 
brilliant flame, and the effect of these great beacons blazing on every 
hill, sending up volumes of smoke from every point of the horizon, 
is very remarkable. Early in the evening the peasants began to 
assemble, all habited in their best array, glowing with health, every 
countenance full of that sparkling animation and excess of enjoyment 
that characterise the enthusiastic people of the land. I had never 
seen anything resembling it; and was exceedingly delighted with 
their handsome, intelligent, merry faces ; the bold bearing of the 
men, and the playful but really modest deportment of the maidens ; 
the vivacity of the aged people, and the wild glee of the children. 
The fire being kindled, a splendid blaze shot up ; and for a while 
they stood contemplating it with faces strangely disfigured by the 
peculiar light first emitted when the bogwood was thrown on it. 
After a short pause, the ground was cleared in front of an old blind 
piper, the very beau ideal of energy, drollery, and shrewdness, who, 
seated on a low chair, with a well-plenished jug within his reach, 
screwed his pipes to the liveliest tunes, and the endless jig began. 
But something was to follow that puzzled me not a little. When the 
fire burned for some hours and got low, an indispensable part of the 
ceremony commenced. Every one present of the peasantry passed 
through it, and several children were thrown across the sparkling 
* Wayside Pictures, p. 225. 


embers ; while a wooden frame of some eight feet long, with a horse s 
head fixed to one end, and a large white sheet thrown over it, con 
cealing the wood and the man on whose head it was carried, made 
its appearance. This was greeted with loud shouts as the white 
horse ; and having been safely carried, by the skill of its bearer, 
several times through the fire with a bold leap, it pursued the people, 
who ran screaming in every direction. I asked what the horse was 
meant for, and was told it represented all cattle. Here," adds the 
authoress, " was the old Pagan worship of Baal, if not of Moloch too, 
carried on openly and universally in the heart of a nominally Christian 
country, and by millions professing the Christian name ! I was con 
founded, for I did not then know that Popery is only a crafty adapta 
tion of Pagan idolatries to its own scheme. "* 

Such is the festival of St. John s Eve, as celebrated at this day in 
France and in Popish Ireland. Such is the way in which the votaries 
of Rome pretend to commemorate the birth of him who came to pre 
pare the way of the Lord, by turning away His ancient people from 
all their refuges of lies, and shutting them up to the necessity of 
embracing that kingdom of God that consists not in any mere 
external thing, but in "righteousness, and peace, and joy in the 
Holy Ghost." We have seen that the very sight of the rites with 
which that festival is celebrated, led the authoress just quoted at 
once to the conclusion that what she saw before her was truly a relic 
of the Pagan worship of Baal. The history of the festival, and the 
way in which it is observed, reflect mutual light upon each other. 
Before Christianity entered the British Isles, the Pagan festival of 
the 24th of June was celebrated among the Druids by blazing fires 
in honour of their great divinity, who, as we have already seen, was 
Baal. " These Midsummer fires and sacrifices," says Toland, in his 
Account of the Druids, " were [intended] to obtain a blessing on 
the fruits of the earth, now becoming ready for gathering ; as those 
of the first of May, that they might prosperously grow ; and those of 
the last of October were a thanksgiving for finishing the harvest."! 
Again, speaking of the Druidical fires at Midsummer, he thus pro 
ceeds : "To return to our cam-fires, it was customary for the lord of 
the place, or his son, or some other person of distinction, to take the 
entrails of the sacrificed animals in his hands, and, walking barefoot 
over the coals thrice after the flames had ceased, to carry them straight 
to the Druid, who waited in a whole skin at the altar. If the noble 
man escaped harmless, it was reckoned a good omen, welcomed with 
loud acclamations ; but if he received any hurt, it was deemed 
unlucky both to the community and himself." "Thus, I have seen," 
adds Toland, " the people running and leaping through the St. John s 
fires in Ireland ; and not only proud of passing unsinged, but, as if 
it were some kind of lustration, thinking themselves in an especial 
manner blest by the ceremony, of whose original, nevertheless, they 
were wholly ignorant, in their imperfect imitation of it."| We 
have seen reason already (p. 51) to conclude that Phoroneus, "the 
* Personal Recollections, pp. 112-115. t TOLAND S Druids, p. 107. J Ibid. p. 112. 


first of mortals that reigned" i.e., Nimrod and the Roman goddess 
Feronia bore a relation to one another. In connection with the 
fires of " St. John," that relation is still further established by what 
has been handed down from antiquity in regard to these two divini 
ties ; and, at the same time, the origin of these fires is elucidated. 
Phoroneus is described in such a way as shows that he was known 
as having been connected with the origin of fire-worship. Thus does 
Pausanias refer to him : " Near this image [the image of Biton] 
they [the Argives] enkindle a fire, for they do not admit that fire 
was given by Prometheus, to men, but ascribe the invention of it to 
Phoroneus."* There must have been something tragic about the 
death of this fire-inventing Phoroneus, who "first gathered mankind 
into communities ; " f for, after describing the position of his sepulchre, 
Pausanias adds : "Indeed, even at present they perform funeral obse 
quies to Phoroneus ; " J language which shows that his death must 
have been celebrated in some such way as that of Bacchus. Then 
the character of the worship of Feronia, as coincident with fire- 
worship, is evident from the rites practised by the priests at the 
city lying at the foot of Mount Soracte, called by her name. " The 
priests," says Bryant, referring both to Pliny and Strabo as his 
authorities, "with their feet naked, walked over a large quantity 
of live coals and cinders. " To this same practice we find Aruns in 
Virgil referring, when addressing Apollo, the sun-god, who had his 
shrine at Soracte, where Feronia was worshipped, and who therefore 
must have been the same as Jupiter Anxur, her contemplar divinity, 
who was regarded as a " youthful Jupiter," even as Apollo was often 
called the " young Apollo " : 

" patron of Soracte s high abodes, 
Phoebus, the ruling power among the gods, 
Whom first we serve ; whole woods of unctuous pine 
Are felled for thee, and to thy glory shine. 
By thee protected, with our naked soles, 
Through flames unsinged we march and tread the kindled coals." || 

Thus the St. John s fires, over whose cinders old and young are made 
to pass, are traced up to "the first of mortals that reigned." 

It is remarkable, that a festival attended with all the essential rites 
of the fire-worship of Baal, is found among Pagan nations, in regions 
most remote from one another, about the very period of the month of 
Tammuz, when the Babylonian god was anciently celebrated. Among 
the Turks, the fast of Ramazan, which, says Hurd, begins on the 12th 
of June, is attended by an illumination of burning lamps.H In China, 

* PAUSAN., lib. ii., Corinthiaca, cap. 19. f Ibid. cap. 15. 

J Ibid. cap. 20. BRYANT, vol. i. p. 237. 

|| DBTDEN S Virgil, ^fineid, Book xi. 11. 1153-1158. "The young Apollo," when 
" born to introduce law and order among the Greeks," was said to have made his 
appearance at Delphi "exactly in the middle of summer." (MULLER B Dorians, vol. 
i. pp. 295, 296.) 

IT HURD S Rites and Ceremonies, p. 346, col. i. The time here given by Hurd 
would not in itself be decisive as a proof of agreement with the period of the 


where the Dragon-boat festival is celebrated in such a way as vividly 
to recall to those who have witnessed it, the weeping for Adonis, the 
solemnity begins at Midsummer.* In Peru, during the reign of the 
Incas, the feast of Raymi, the most magnificent feast of the Peruvians, 
when the sacred fire every year used to be kindled anew from the 
sun, by means of a concave mirror of polished metal, took place at 
the very same period. Regularly as Midsummer came round, there 
was first, in token of mourning, " for three days, a general fast, and 
no fire was allowed to be lighted in their dwellings," and then, on 
the fourth day, the mourning was turned into joy, when the Inca, 
and his court, followed by the whole population of Cuzco, assembled 
at early dawn in the great square to greet the rising of the sun. 
"Eagerly," says Prescott, "they watched the coming of the deity, 
and no sooner did his first yellow rays strike the turrets and loftiest 
buildings of the capital, than a shout of gratulation broke forth from 
the assembled multitude, accompanied by songs of triumph, and the 
wild melody of barbaric instruments, that swelled louder and louder 
as his bright orb, rising above the mountain range towards the east, 
shone in full splendour on his votaries."! Could this alternate 
mourning and rejoicing, at the very time when the Babylonians 
mourned and rejoiced over Tammuz, be accidental? As Tammuz 
was the Sun-divinity incarnate, it is easy to see how such mourning 
and rejoicing should be connected with the worship of the sun. In 
Egypt, the festival of the burning lamps, in which many have already 
been constrained to see the counterpart of the festival of St. John, 
was avowedly connected with the mourning and rejoicing for Osiris. 
"At Sais," says Herodotus, J "they show the sepulchre of him whom 
I do not think it right to mention on this occasion." This is the 
invariable way in which the historian refers to Osiris, into whose 
mysteries he had been initiated, when giving accounts of any of the 
rites of his worship. "It is in the sacred enclosure behind the 
temple of Minerva, and close to the wall of this temple, whose whole 
length it occupies. They also meet at Sais, to offer sacrifice during 
a certain night, when every one lights, in the open air, a number of 
lamps around his house. The lamps consist of small cups filled with 
salt and oil, having a wick floating in it which burns all night. This 
festival is called the festival of burning lamps. The Egyptians who 
are unable to attend also observe the sacrifice, and burn lamps at 
home, so that not only at Sai s, but throughout Egypt, the same 
illumination takes place. They assign a sacred reason for the festival 
celebrated on this night, and for the respect they have for it."|| 
Wilkinson,^ in quoting this passage of Herodotus, expressly identifies 

original festival of Tammuz ; for a friend who has lived for three years in 
Constantinople informs me that, in consequence of the disagreement between the 
Turkish and the solar year, the fast of Rauaazan ranges in succession through all 
the different months in the year. The fact of a yearly illumination in connection 
with religious observances, however, is undoubted. 

* See ante, p. 57. t PRESCOTT S Conquest of Peru, vol. i. p. 69. 

Historia, lib. ii. p. 176. Ibid. 

U HERODOTUS, lib. ii.c. 62, p. 127. ii WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 308. 


this festival with the lamentation for Osiris, and assures us that " it 
was considered of the greatest consequence to do honour to the deity 
by the proper performance of this rite." 

Among the Yezidis, or Devil-worshippers of Modern Chaldea, the 
same festival is celebrated at this day, with rites probably almost the 
same, so far as circumstances will allow, as thousands of years ago, 
when in the same regions the worship of Tammuz was in all its glory. 
Thus graphically does Mr. Layard describe a festival of this kind at 
which he himself had been present : "As the twilight faded, the 
Fakirs, or lower orders of priests, dressed in brown garments of coarse 
cloth, closely fitting to their bodies, and wearing black turbans on 
their heads, issued from the tomb, each bearing a light in one hand, 
and a pot of oil, with a bundle of cotton wick in the other. They 
filled and trimmed lamps placed in niches in the walls of the court 
yard and scattered over the buildings on the sides of the valley, and 
even on isolated rocks, and in the hollow trunks of trees. Innumer 
able stars appeared to glitter on the black sides of the mountain and 
in the dark recesses of the forest. As the priests made their way 
through the crowd to perform their task, men and women passed 
their right hands through the flame ; and after rubbing the right 
eyebrow with the part which had been purified by the sacred element, 
they devoutly carried it to their lips. Some who bore children in 
their arms anointed them in like manner, whilst others held out 
their hands to be touched by those who, less fortunate than them 
selves, could not reach the flame As night advanced, those 

who had assembled they must now have amounted to nearly five 
thousand persons lighted torches, which they carried with them as 
they wandered through the forest. The effect was magical: the 
varied groups could be faintly distinguished through the darkness 
men hurrying to and fro women with their children seated on the 
house-tops and crowds gathering round the pedlars, who exposed 
their wares for sale in the court-yard. Thousands of lights were 
reflected in the fountains and streams, glimmered amongst the foliage 
of the trees, and danced in the distance. As I was gazing on this 
extraordinary scene, the hum of human voices was suddenly hushed, 
and a strain, solemn and melancholy, arose from the valley. It 
resembled some majestic chant which years before I had listened to 
in the cathedral of a distant land. Music so pathetic and so sweet 
I never before heard in the East. The voices of men and women 
were blended in harmony with the soft notes of many flutes. At 
measured intervals the song was broken by the loud clash of cymbals 
and tambourines ; and those who were within the precincts of the 

tomb then joined in the melody The tambourines, which were 

struck simultaneously, only interrupted at intervals the song of the 
priests. As the time quickened they broke in more frequently. The 
chant gradually gave way to a lively melody, which, increasing in 
measure, was finally lost in a confusion of sounds. The tambourines 
were beaten with extraordinary energy the flutes poured forth a 
rapid flood of notes the voices were raised to the highest pitch the 


men outside joined in the cry whilst the women made the rocks 
resound with the shrill tahlehl. 

"The musicians, giving way to the excitement, threw their instru 
ments into the air, and strained their limbs into every contortion, 
until they fell exhausted to the ground. I never heard a more 
frightful yell than that which rose in the valley. It was midnight. 
I gazed with wonder upon the extraordinary scene around me. 
Thus were probably celebrated ages ago the mysterious rites of the 
Corybantes, when they met in some consecrated grove."* Layard 
does not state at what period of the year this festival occurred ; but 
his language leaves little doubt that he regarded it as a festival of 
Bacchus; in other words, of the Babylonian Messiah, whose tragic 
death, and subsequent restoration to life and glory, formed the 
corner-stone of ancient Paganism. The festival was avowedly held 
in honour at once of Sheikh Shems, or the Sun, and of the Sheik 
Adi, or "Prince of Eternity," around whose tomb nevertheless the 
solemnity took place, just as the lamp festival in Egypt, in honour 
of the sun-god Osiris, was celebrated in the precincts of the tomb of 
that god at Sais. 

Now, the reader cannot fail to have observed that in this Yezidi 
festival, men, women, and children were " PURIFIED " by coming in 
contact with " the sacred element " of fire. In the rites of Zoroaster, 
the great Chaldean god, fire occupied precisely the same place. 
It was laid down as an essential principle in his system, that " he 
who approached to fire would receive a light from divinity,"! and 
that "through divine fire all the stains produced by generation 
would be purged away."| Therefore it was that " children were 
made to pass through the fire to Moloch" (Jer. xxxii. 35), to purge 
them from original sin, and through this purgation many a helpless 
babe became a victim to the bloody divinity. Among the Pagan 
Romans, this purifying by passing through the fire was equally 
observed ; " for," says Ovid, enforcing the practice, " Fire purifies 
both the shepherd and the sheep." Among the Hindoos, from time 
immemorial, fire has been worshipped for its purifying efficacy. 
Thus a worshipper is represented by Colebrooke, according to the 
sacred books, as addressing the fire : " Salutation to thee [0 fire ! ], 
who dost seize oblations, to thee who dost shine, to thee who dost 
scintillate, may thy auspicious flame burn our foes ; mayest thou, the 
PURIFIER, be auspicious unto us."|| There are some who maintain a 
" perpetual fire," and perform daily devotions to it, and in " con 
cluding the sacraments of the gods," thus every day present their 
supplications to it : " Fire, thou dost expiate a sin against the gods ; 
may this oblation be efficacious. Thou dost expiate a sin against 
man ; thou dost expiate a sin against the manes [departed spirits] ; 

* LAY Ann s Nineveh and its Remains, vol. i. pp. 290-294. 
t TAYLOR S Jamblichus, p. 247. 
J PROCLUS, in Timaeo, p. 805. 
OVID, Fasti, lib. iv. 785-794 inclusive. 

i| COLEBBOOKE S "Religious Ceremonies of Hindus," in Asiatic Researches, 
vol. vii. p. 260. 


thou dost expiate a sin against my own soul; thou dost expiate 
repeated sins ; thou dost expiate every sin which I have committed, 
whether wilfully or unintentionally; may this oblation be effica 
cious."* Among the Druids, also, fire was celebrated as the purifier. 
Thus, in a Druidic song, we read, " They celebrated the praise of the 
holy ones in the presence of the purifying fire, which was made to 
ascend on high."f If, indeed, a blessing was expected in Druidical 
times from lighting the carn-fires, and making either young or old, 
either human beings or cattle, pass through the fire, it was simply in 
consequence of the purgation from sin that attached to human beings 
and all things connected with them, that was believed to be derived 
from this passing through the fire. It is evident that this very same 
belief about the "purifying" efficacy of fire is held by the Eoman 
Catholics of Ireland, when they are so zealous to pass both them 
selves and their children through the fires of St. John.:}: Toland 
testifies that it is as a " lustration" that these fires are kindled ; and 
all who have carefully examined the subject must come to the same 

Now, if Tammuz was, as we have seen, the same as Zoroaster, the 
god of the ancient "fire-worshippers," and if his festival in Babylon 
so exactly synchronised with the feast of the Nativity of St. John, 
what wonder that that feast is still celebrated by the blazing " Baal- 
fires," and that it presents so faithful a copy of what was condemned 
by Jehovah of old in His ancient people when they "made their 
children pass through the fire to Moloch"? But who that knows 
anything of the Gospel would call such a festival as this a Christian 
festival? The Popish priests, if they do not openly teach, at least 
allow their deluded votaries to believe, as firmly as ever ancient fire 
worshipper did, that material fire can purge away the guilt and stain 
of sin. How that tends to rivet upon the minds of their benighted 
vassals one of the most monstrous but profitable fables of their 
system, will come to be afterwards considered. 

The name Cannes could be known only to the initiated as the 
name of the Pagan Messiah ; and at first, some measure of circum 
spection was necessary in introducing Paganism into the Church. 
But, as time went on, as the Gospel became obscured, and the dark 
ness became more intense, the same caution was by no means so 
necessary. Accordingly, we find that, in the dark ages, the Pagan 
Messiah has not been brought into the Church in a mere clandestine 
manner. Cpenly and avowedly under his well-known classic names 
of Bacchus and Dionysus, has he been canonised, and set up for the 
worship of the "faithful." Yes, Rome, that professes to be pre 
eminently the Bride of Christ, the only Church in which salvation is 
to be found, has had the unblushing effrontery to give the grand 

* COLEBROOKE S "Religious Ceremonies of Hindus" in Asiatic Researches, 
vol. vii. p. 273. 

t DAVIKS S Druids, " Song to the Sun," pp. 369, 370. 

"I have seen parents," said the late Lord John Scott in a letter to me, 
" force their children to go through the Baal-fires." 


Pagan adversary of the Son of God, UNDER HIS OWN PROPER NAME, 
a place in her calendar. The reader has only to turn to the Roman 
calendar, and he will find that this is a literal fact ; he will find that 
October the 7th is set apart to be observed in honour of " St. 
Bacchus the Martyr." Now, no doubt, Bacchus was a "martyr"; 
he died a violent death ; he lost his life for religion ; but the religion 
for which he died was the religion of the fire-worshippers ; for he 
was put to death, as we have seen from Maimonides, for maintaining 
the worship of the host of heaven. This patron of the heavenly 
host, and of fire worship (for the two went always hand in hand 
together), has Rome canonised ; for that this " St. Bacchus the 
Martyr" was the identical Bacchus of the Pagans, the god of 
drunkenness and debauchery, is evident from the time of his festival ; 
for October the 7th follows soon after the end of the vintage. At 
the end of the vintage in autumn, the old Pagan Romans used to 
celebrate what was called the "Rustic Festival" of Bacchus;* and 
about that very time does the Papal festival of "St. Bacchus the 
Martyr " occur. 

As the Chaldean god has been admitted into the Roman calendar 
under the name of Bacchus, so also is he canonised under his other 
name of Dionysus, f The Pagans were in the habit of worshipping 
the same god under different names ; and, accordingly, not content 
with the festival to Bacchus, under the name by which he was most 
commonly known at Rome, the Romans, no doubt to please the 
Greeks, celebrated a rustic festival to him, two days afterwards, 
under the name of Dionysus Eleuthereus, the name by which he was 
worshipped in Greece. J That "rustic" festival was briefly called 
by the name of Dionysia ; or, expressing its object more fully, the 
name became " Festum Dionysi Eleutherei rusticurn" i.e., the 
"rustic festival of Dionysus Eleuthereus. " Now, the Papacy in 
its excess of zeal for saints and saint-worship, has actually split 
Dionysus Eleuthereus into two, has made two several saints out of 
the double name of one Pagan divinity ; and more than that, has 
made the innocent epithet " Rusticum," which, even among the 
heathen, had no pretensions to divinity at all, a third ; and so it 
comes to pass that, under date of October the 9th, we read this 
entry in the calendar: "The festival of St. Dionysius,|| and of his 
companions, St. Eleuther and St. Rustic. "II Now this Dionysius, 
whom Popery has so marvellously furnished with two companions, is 
the famed St. Denys, the patron saint of Paris ; and a comparison of 

* See extracts from Legend of St. Peters Chair, by ANTHONY RICH, Esq., in 
Dr. BEGG S admirable Handbook of Popery, pp. 114, 115. See also SALVEBTE, 
Essai sur Noms, torn. ii. p. 54. 

t Dionysus, as is well known, is the Latin form of the Greek Dioniisos. 

PAUSANTAS, Attica, p. 46, and TOOKE S Pantheon, p. 58. 

BEGG S Handbook of Popery, p. 115. 

[| Though Dionysus was the proper classic name of the god, yet in Post- 
classical, or Low Latin, his name is found Dionysius, just as in the case of the 
Romish saint. 

IT See Calendar in Missale Romanvm, Oct. 9th : "Dionysii, Rustici et Eleutherii 
Mart." and Oct. 7th, " Sergii, Bacchi, Marcelli et Apuleii Mart." 


the history of the Popish saint and the Pagan god will cast no little 
light on the subject. St. Denys, on being beheaded and cast into 
the Seine, so runs the legend, after floating a space on its waters, to 
the amazement of the spectators, took up his head in his hand, and 
so marched away with it to the place of burial. In commemoration 
of so stupendous a miracle, a hymn was duly chanted for many a 
century in the Cathedral of St. Denys, at Paris, containing the 
following verse : 

" Se cadaver mox erexit, 
Truncus truncum cap ut vexit, 
Quern ferentem hoc direxit 
Angelorum legio."* 

At last, even Papists began to be ashamed of such an absurdity 
being celebrated in the name of religion; and in 1789, "the office 
of St. Denys " was abolished. Behold, however, the march of events. 
The world has for some time past been progressing back again to 
the dark ages. The Romish Breviary, which had been given up 
in France, has, within the last six years, been reimposed by Papal 
authority on the Gallican Church, with all its lying legends, and 
this among the rest of them ; the Cathedral of St. Denys is again 
being rebuilt, and the old worship bids fair to be restored in all 
its grossness.f Now, how could it ever enter the minds of men to 
invent so monstrous a fable 1 The origin of it is not far to seek. 
The Church of Rome represented her canonised saints, who were 
said to have suffered martyrdom by the sword, as headless images 
or statues with the severed head borne in the hand. "I have 
seen," says Eusebe Salverte, " in a church of Normandy, St. Clair ; 
St. Mithra, at Aries, in Switzerland, all the soldiers of the Theban 
legion represented with their heads in their hands. St. Valerius 
is thus figured at Limoges, on the gates of the cathedral, and other 
monuments. The grand seal of the canton of Zurich represents, 
in the same attitude, St. Felix, St. Regula, and St. Exsuperantius. 
There certainly is the origin of the pious fable which is told of these 
martyrs, such as St. Denys and many others besides. "J This was 
the immediate origin of the story of the dead saint rising up 
and marching away with his head in his hand. But it turns out 
that this very mode of representation was borrowed from Paganism, 
and borrowed in such a way as identifies the Papal St. Denys 
of Paris with the Pagan Dionysus, not only of Rome but of Babylon. 
Dionysus or Bacchus, in one of his transformations, was represented 
as Capricorn, the " goat-horned fish ; " and there is reason to believe 

* "The corpse immediately arose ; the trunk bore away the dissevered head, 
guided on its way by a legion of angels " (SALVERTE, Des Sciences Occitltes, 
Note, p. 48). In Salverte, the first word of the third line of the above Latin 
verse is "Quo," but as this does not make sense, and is evidently an error, 
I have corrected it into "Quern." 

f The statement in the last clause of the above sentence referred to the 
position of matters five years ago. Probably by this time the rebuilding of the 
Cathedral of St. Denys is finished. 

J SALVERT^, Des Sciences Occultes, pp. 47, 48. 


that it was in this very form that he had the name of Cannes. In 
this form in India, under the name " Souro," that is evidently " the 
seed," he is said to have done many marvellous things.* Now, 
in the Persian Sphere he was not only represented mystically as 
Capricorn, but also in the human shape ; and then exactly as 
St. Denys is represented by the Papacy. The words of the ancient 
writer who describes this figure in the Persian Sphere are these : 
" Capricorn, the third Decan. The half of the figure without a 
head, because its head is in its hand"^ Nimrod had his head cut 
off; and in commemoration of that fact, which his worshippers 
so piteously bewailed, his image in the Sphere was so represented. 
That dissevered head, in some of the versions of his story, was 
fabled to have done as marvellous things as any that were done 
by the lifeless trunk of St. Denys. Bryant has proved, in his story 
of Orpheus, that it is just a slightly-coloured variety of the story 
of Osiris. | As Osiris was cut in pieces in Egypt, so Orpheus 
was torn in pieces in Thrace. Now, when the mangled limbs of 
the latter had been strewn about the field, his head, floating on the 
Hebrus, gave proof of the miraculous character of him that owned 
it. " Then," says Virgil : 

" Then, when his head from his fair shoulders torn, 
Washed by the waters, was on Hebrus borne, 
Even then his trembling voice invoked his bride, 
With his last voice, Eurydice, he cried ; 
Eurydice, the rocks and river banks replied." 

There is diversity here, but amidst that diversity there is an 
obvious unity. In both cases, the head dissevered from the lifeless 
body occupies the foreground of the picture; in both cases, the 
miracle is in connection with a river. Now, when the festivals 

* HUMBOLDT S Mexico, vol. i. pp. 339, 340. For Cannes and Souro, see further 
in Appendix, Note K. 

t Note to SALVERTE, Des Sciences Occultes, p. 47. 

BRYANT, vol. ii. pp. 419-423. The very name Orpheus is just a synonym 
for Bel, the name of the great Babylonian god, which, while originally given 
to Gush, became hereditary in the line of his deified descendants. Bel signifies 
" to mix," as well as " to confound," and " Orv " in Hebrew, which in Chaldee 
becomes Orph (see PARKHURST S Chaldee Grammar in Lexicon, p. 40), signifies 
also "to mix." But " Orv," or " Orph," signifies besides "a willow-tree ; " and 
therefore, in exact accordance with the mystic system, we find the symbol of 
Orpheus among the Greeks to have been a willow-tree. Thus, Pausanias, after 
referring to a representation of Actaeon, says, " If again you look to the lower 
parts of the picture, you will see after Patroclus, Orpheus sitting on a hill, with 
a harp in his left hand, and in his right hand the leaves of a willow-tree " 
(PAUSANIAS, lib. x., Phocica, cap. 30) ; and again, a little further on, he says : 
"He is represented leaning on the trunk of this tree." The willow-leaves in 
the right hand of Orpheus, and the willow-tree on which he leans, sufficiently 
show the meaning of his name. 

Georgics, Book iv. vol. i. 11. 759-766, and in original, 11. 523-527. The edition 
of Dryden, which I commonly quote, has in the first line, " Then with ; " but as 
this does not agree with the construction of the sentence, I have given the 
passage as it stands in Baxter s London edition of 1807, which is evidently the 
correct reading. 


of u St. Bacchus the Martyr," and of " St. Dionysius and Eleuther," 
so remarkably agree with the time when the festivals of the Pagan 
god of wine were celebrated, whether by the name of Bacchus, 
or Dionysus, or Eleuthereus, and when the mode of representing 
the modern Dionysius and the ancient Dionysus are evidently the 
very same, while the legends of both so strikingly harmonise, who 
can doubt the real character of these Romish festivals 1 They are 
not Christian. They are Pagan ; they are unequivocally Babylonian. 


If what has been already said shows the carnal policy of Rome 
at the expense of truth, the circumstances attending the festival 
of the Assumption show the daring wickedness and blasphemy 
of that Church still more ; considering that the doctrine in regard 
to this festival, so far as the Papacy is concerned, was not established 
in the dark ages, but three centuries after the Reformation, amid 
all the boasted light of the nineteenth century. The doctrine on 
which the festival of the Assumption is founded, is this : that the 
Virgin Mary saw no corruption, that in body and in soul she was 
carried up to heaven, and now is invested with all power in heaven 
and in earth. This doctrine has been unblushingly avowed in the 
face of the British public, in a recent pastoral of the Popish Arch 
bishop of Dublin. This doctrine has now received the stamp of 
Papal Infallibility, having been embodied in the late blasphemous 
decree that proclaims the "Immaculate Conception." Now, it is 
impossible for the priests of Rome to find one shred of countenance 
for such a doctrine in Scripture. But, in the Babylonian system, 
the fable was ready made to their hand. There it was taught 
that Bacchus went down to hell, rescued his mother from the 
infernal powers, and carried her with him in triumph to heaven."*" 
This fable spread wherever the Babylonian system spread; and, 
accordingly, at this day, the Chinese celebrate, as they have done 
from time immemorial, a festival in honour of a Mother, who 

* APOLLODORUS, lib. iii. cap. 5, p. 266. We have seen that the great goddess, 
who was worshipped in Babylon as " The Mother," was in reality the wife of 
Ninus, the great god, the prototype of Bacchus. In conformity with this, we 
find a somewhat similar story told of Ariadne, the wife of Bacchus, as is fabled 
of Semele his mother. "The garment of Thetis," says Bryant (vol. ii. p. 99), 
" contained a description of some notable achievements in the first ages ; and 
a particular account of the apotheosis, of Ariadne, who is described, whatever 
may be the meaning of it, as carried by Bacchus to heaven" A similar story is 
told of Alcmene, the mother of the Grecian Hercules, who was quite distinct, 
as we have seen, from the primitive Hercules, and was just one of the forms 
of Bacchus, for he was a "great tippler;" and the "Herculean goblets" are 
proverbial. (MiJLLKR s Dorians, vol. i. p. 462.) Now the mother of this Hercules 
is said to have had a resurrection. "Jupiter" [the father of Hercules], says 
Miiller, " raised Alcmene from the dead, and conducted her to the islands of the 
blest, as the wife of Rhadamanthus." (Ibid. p. 443.) 


by her son was rescued from the power of death and the grave. 
The festival of the Assumption in the Romish Church is held 
on the 15th of August. The Chinese festival, founded on a similar 
legend, and celebrated with lanterns and chandeliers, as shown 
by Sir J. F. Davis in his able and graphic account of China, 
is equally celebrated in the month of August.* Now, when the 
mother of the Pagan Messiah came to be celebrated as having 
been thus " Assumed" then it was that, under the name of the 
"Dove,"t she was worshipped as the Incarnation of the Spirit 
of God, with whom she was identified. As such she was regarded 
as the source of all holiness, and the grand " PURIFIER," and, 
of course, was known herself as the "Virgin" mother, "PuRE AND 
UNDEFILED."]: Under the name of Proserpine (with whom, though 
the Babylonian goddess was originally distinct, she was identified), 
while celebrated, as the mother of the first Bacchus, and known as 
" Pluto s honoured wife," she is also addressed, in the " Orphic 
Hymns," as 

" Associate of the seasons, essence bright, 
All-ruling VIRGIN, bearing heavenly light." 

Whoever wrote these hymns, the more they are examined the more 
does it become evident, when they are compared with the most 
ancient doctrine of Classic Greece, that their authors understood and 
thoroughly adhered to the genuine theology of Paganism. To the 
fact that Proserpine was currently worshipped in Pagan Greece, 
though well-known to be the wife of Pluto, the god of hell, under the 
name of " The Holy Virgin," we find Pausanias, while describing the 
grove Carnasius, thus bearing testimony : " This grove contains a 
statue of Apollo Carneus, of Mercury carrying a ram, and of 
Proserpine, the daughter of Ceres, who is called The HOLY 
VIRGIN. "| | The purity of this "Holy Virgin" did not consist 
merely in freedom from actual sin, but she was especially distin 
guished for her "immaculate conception;" for Proclus says, "She 
is called Core, through the purity of her essence, and her UNDEFILED 
transcendency in her GENERATIONS. "IT Do men stand amazed at the 
recent decree 1 There is no real reason to wonder. It was only in 
following out the Pagan doctrine previously adopted and interwoven 
with the whole system of Rome to its logical consequences, that that 
decree has been issued, and that the Madonna of Rome has been 
formally pronounced at last, in every sense of the term, absolutely 

* China, vol. i. pp. 354, 355. 

t See ante, p. 79. 

J PROCLUS, in TAYLOR S Note upon Jamblichus, p. 136. 

Orphic Hymns, 28th, p. 109. These hymns are thought by some to have been 
composed by Neo-Platonists after the Christian era, who are said to have 
corrupted the true doctrine of their predecessors. I doubt this. At anyrate, 
I allege nothing from them that is not amply borne out by authority of the 
highest kind. 

|| PAUSAN., lib. iv., Messenica, cap. 33, p. 362. 

IT PROCLUS, in additional note to TAYLOR S Orphic Hymns, p. 198. 


Now, after all this, is it possible to doubt that the Madonna of 
Rome, with the child in her arms, and the Madonna of Babylon, are 
one and the same goddess 1 ? It is notorious that the Roman 
Madonna is worshipped as a goddess, yea, is the supreme object of 
worship. "Will not, then, the Christians of Britain revolt at the 
idea of longer supporting this monstrous Babylonian Paganism? 
What Christian constituency could tolerate that its representative 
should vote away the money of this Protestant nation for the 
support of such blasphemous idolatry 1 * Were not the minds of 
men judicially blinded, they would tremble at the very thought of 
incurring the guilt that this land, by upholding the corruption and 
wickedness of Rome, has for years past been contracting. Has not 
the Word of God, in the most energetic and awful terms, doomed 
the New Testament Babylon 1 ? And has it not equally declared, 
that those who share in Babylon s sins, shall share in Babylon s 
plagues? (Rev. xviii. 4.) 

The guilt of idolatry is by many regarded as comparatively slight 
and insignificant guilt. But not so does the God of heaven regard 
it. Which is the commandment of all the ten that is fenced about 
with the most solemn and awful sanctions? It is the second : 
" Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness 
of anything that is in the heaven above, or that is in the earth 
beneath, or that is in the water under the earth : thou shalt not bow 
down thyself to them, nor serve them : for I the Lord thy God am a 
jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto 
the third and fourth generation of them that hate me." These words 
were spoken by God s own lips, they were written by God s own 
finger on the tables of stone : not for the instruction of the seed 
of Abraham only, but of all the tribes and generations of mankind. 
No other commandment has such a threatening attached to it as this. 
Now, if God has threatened to visit the SIN OP IDOLATRY ABOVE ALL 
OTHER SINS, and if we find the heavy judgments of God pressing 
upon us as a nation, while this very sin is crying to heaven against 
us, ought it not to be a matter of earnest inquiry, if among all our 
other national sins, which are both many and great, this may not 
form " the very head and front of our offending" ? What though we 
do not ourselves bow down to stocks and stones ? Yet if we, making 
a profession the very opposite, encourage, and foster, and maintain 
that very idolatry which God has so fearfully threatened with His 
wrath, our guilt, instead of being the less, is only so much the 
greater, for it is a sin against the light. Now, the facts are manifest 

* It is to be lamented that Christians in general seem to have so little sense 
either of the gravity of the present crisis of the Church and the world, or of the 
duty lying upon them as Christ s witnesses, to testify, and that practically, against 
the public sins of the nation. If they would wish to be stimulated to a more 
vigorous discharge of duty in this respect, let them read an excellent and well- 
timed little work recently issued from the press, entitled An Original Interpreta 
tion of the Apocalypse, where the Apocalyptic statements in regard to the character, 
life, death, and resurrection of the Two Witnesses, are briefly but forcibly 


to all men. It is notorious, that in 1845 anti-Christian idolatry was 
incorporated in the British Constitution, in a way in which for a 
century and a-half it had not been incorporated before. It is equally 
notorious, that ever since, the nation has been visited with one 
succession of judgments after another. Ought we then to regard this 
coincidence as merely accidental 1 Ought we not rather to see in 
it the fulfilment of the threatening pronounced by God in the 
Apocalypse 1 ? This is at this moment an intensely practical subject. 
If our sin in this matter is not nationally recognised, if it is not 
penitently confessed, if it is not put away from us ; if, on the 
contrary, we go on increasing it, if now for the first time since the 
Revolution, while so manifestly dependent on the God of battles for 
the success of our arms, we affront Him to His face by sending idol 
priests into our camp, then, though we have national fasts, and days 
of humiliation without number, they cannot be accepted ; they may 
procure us a temporary respite, but we may be certain that "the 
Lord s anger will not be turned away, His hand will be stretched out 

* The above paragraph first appeared in the spring of 1855, when the empire 
had for months been looking on in amazement at the "horrible and heart 
rending " disasters in the Crimea, caused simply by the fact, that official men in 
that distant region "could not find their hands," and when at last a day of 
humiliation had been appointed. The reader can judge whether or not the events 
that have since occurred have made the above reasoning out of date. The few 
years of impunity that have elapsed since the Indian mutiny, with all its horrors, 
was suppressed, show the long-suffering of God. But if that long-suffering is 
despised (which it manifestly is, while the guilt is daily increasing), the ultimate 
issue must just be so much the more terrible. 



WHEN Linacer, a distinguished physician, but bigoted Romanist, in 
the reign of Henry VIII. , first fell in with the New Testament, after 
reading it for a while, he tossed it from him with impatience and a 
great oath, exclaiming, " Either this book is not true, or we are not 
Christians." He saw at once that the system of Rome and the 
system of the New Testament were directly opposed to one another ; 
and no one who impartially compares the two systems can come to 
any other conclusion. In passing from the Bible to the Breviary, it 
is like passing from light to darkness. While the one breathes glory 
to God in the highest, peace on earth, and good will to men, the other 
inculcates all that is dishonouring to the Most High, and ruinous to 
the moral and spiritual welfare of mankind. How came it that such 
pernicious doctrines and practices were embraced by the Papacy ? 
Was the Bible so obscure or ambiguous that men naturally fell into 
the mistake of supposing that it required them to believe and practise 
the very opposite of what it did 1 No ; the doctrine and discipline 
of the Papacy were never derived from the Bible. The fact that 
wherever it has the power, it lays the reading of the Bible under its 
ban, and either consigns that choicest gift of heavenly love to the 
flames, or shuts it up under lock and key, proves this of itself. But 
it can be still more conclusively established. A glance at the main 
pillars of the Papal system will sufficiently prove that its doctrine 
and discipline, in all essential respects, have been derived from 
Babylon. Let the reader now scan the evidence. 


It is well known that regeneration by baptism is a fundamental 
article of Rome, yea, that it stands at the very threshold of the 
Roman system. So important, according to Rome, is baptism for 
this purpose, that, on the one hand, it is pronounced of " absolute 
necessity for salvation,"* insomuch that infants dying without it 
cannot be admitted to glory ; and on the other, its virtues are so 
great, that it is declared in all cases infallibly to " regenerate us by 

* Bishop HAY S Sincere Christian, vol. i. p. 363. There are two exceptions to 
this statement ; the case of an infidel converted in a heathen land, where it is 
impossible to get baptism, and the case of a martyr " baptised," as it is called, "in 
his own blood ; " but in all other cases, whether of young or old, the necessity is 

129 K 


a new spiritual birth, making us children of God:"* it is pro 
nounced to be " the first door by which we enter into the fold of 
Jesus Christ, the first means by which we receive the grace of 
reconciliation with God ; therefore the merits of His death are 
by baptism applied to our souls in so superabundant a manner, 
as fully to satisfy Divine justice for all demands against us, 
whether for original or actual sin." f Now, in both respects 
this doctrine is absolutely anti-Scriptural ; in both it is purely 
Pagan. It is anti-Scriptural, for the Lord Jesus Christ has 
expressly declared that infants, without the slightest respect to 
baptism or any external ordinance whatever, are capable of admis 
sion into all the glory of the heavenly world : " Suffer the little 
children to come unto Me, and forbid them not ; for of such is the 
kingdom of heaven." John the Baptist, while yet in his mother s 
womb was so filled with joy at the advent of the Saviour, that, as 
soon as Mary s salutation sounded in the ears of his own mother, the 
unborn babe " leaped in the womb for joy." Had that child died at 
the birth, what could have excluded it from "the inheritance of the 
saints in light " for which it was so certainly " made meet " ? Yet 
the Roman Catholic Bishop Hay, in defiance of every principle of 
God s Word, does not hesitate to pen the following : " Question : 
What becomes of young children who die without baptism ? Answer : 
If a young child were put to death for the sake of Christ, this would 
be to it the baptism of blood, and carry it to heaven ; but except in 
this case, as such infants are incapable of having the desire of baptism, 
with the other necessary dispositions, if they are not actually baptised 
with water, THEY CANNOT GO TO HEAVEN. "J As this doctrine never 
came from the Bible, whence came it 1 It came from heathenism. 
The classic reader cannot fail to remember where, and in what 
melancholy plight, ^Eneas, when he visited the infernal regions, 
found the souls of unhappy infants who had died before receiving, 
so to speak, " the rites of the Church " : 

" Before the gates the cries of babes new-born, 
Whom fate had from their tender mothers torn, 
Assault his ears." 

These wretched babes, to glorify the virtue and efficacy of the 
mystic rites of Paganism, are excluded from the Elysian Fields, the 
paradise of the heathen, and have among their nearest associates no 
better company than that of guilty suicides : 

" The next in place and punishment are they 
Who prodigally threw their souls away, 
Fools, who, repining at their wretched state, 
And loathing anxious life, suborned their fate."|| 

* Bishop HAY S Sincere Christian, vol. i. p. 356. 
t Ibid. p. 358. 
I Ibid. vol. i. p. 362. 

^neid, Book vi. 11. 576-578, DRYDEN. In Original, 11. 427-429. 
|| Virgil, Book vi. 586-589, DRYDEN S Translation. Original, 11. 434-436. 
Between the infants and the suicides one other class is interposed, that is, those 


So much for the lack of baptism. Then as to its positive efficacy 
when obtained, the Papal doctrine is equally anti-Scriptural. There 
are professed Protestants who hold the doctrine of Baptismal 
Regeneration ; but the Word of God knows nothing of it. The 
Scriptural account of baptism is, not that it communicates the new 
birth, but that it is the appointed means of signifying and sealing 
that new birth where it already exists. In this respect baptism 
stands on the very same ground as circumcision. Now, what says 
God s Word of the efficacy of circumcision 1 This it says, speaking 
of Abraham : " He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the 
righteousness of the faith which he had, yet being uncircumcised " 
(Romans iv. 11). Circumcision was not intended to make Abraham 
righteous ; he was righteous already before he was circumcised. But 
it was intended to declare him righteous, to give him the more 
abundant evidence in his own consciousness of his being so. Had 
Abraham not been righteous before his circumcision, his circumcision 
could not have been a seal, could not have given confirmation to that 
which did not exist. So with baptism, it is " a seal of the righteous 
ness of the faith " which the man " has before he is baptised : " for it 
is said, " He that believeth, and is baptised, shall be saved " (Mark 
xvi. 16). Where faith exists, if it be genuine, it is the evidence of a 
new heart, of a regenerated nature ; and it is only on the profession 
of that faith and regeneration in the case of an adult, that he is 
admitted to baptism. Even in the case of infants, who can make no 
profession of faith or holiness, the administration of baptism is not 
for the purpose of regenerating them, or making them holy, but of 
declaring them "holy," in the sense of being fit for being consecrated, 
even in infancy, to the service of Christ, just as the whole nation of 
Israel, in consequence of their relation to Abraham, according to 
the flesh, were "holy unto the Lord." If they were not, in that 
figurative sense, "holy," they would not be fit subjects for baptism, 
which is the " seal " of a holy state. But the Bible pronounces them, 
in consequence of their descent from believing parents, to be " holy," 
and that even where only one of the parents is a believer : " The 
unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving 
wife is sanctified by the husband ; else were your children unclean, 
but now they are HOLY" (1 Cor. vii. 14). It is in consequence of, 
and solemnly to declare, that "holiness," with all the responsibilities 
attaching to it, that they are baptised. That "holiness," however, 
is very different from the " holiness " of the new nature ; and 
although the very fact of baptism, if Scripturally viewed and duly 
improved, is, in the hand of the good Spirit of God, an important 
means of making that " holiness" a glorious reality, in the highest sense 
of the term, yet it does not in all cases necessarily secure their spirit 
ual regeneration. God may, or may not, as He sees fit, give the new 
heart, before, or at, or after baptism ; but manifest it is, that 
thousands who have been duly baptised are still unregenerate, are 

who on earth have been unjustly condemned to die. Hope is held out for these, 
but no hope is held out for the babes. 


still in precisely the same position as Simon Magus, who, after being 
canonically baptised by Philip, was declared to be "in the gall of 
bitterness and the bond of iniquity" (Acts viii. 23). The doctrine of 
Rome, however, is, that all who are canonically baptised, however 
ignorant, however immoral, if they only give implicit faith to the 
Church, and surrender their consciences to the priests, are as much 
regenerated as ever they can be, and that children coming from the 
waters of baptism are entirely purged from the stain of original sin. 
Hence we find the Jesuit missionaries in India boasting of making 
converts by thousands, by the mere fact of baptising them, without 
the least previous instruction, in the most complete ignorance of the 
truths of Christianity, on their mere profession of submission to Rome. 
This doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration also is essentially Baby 
lonian. Some may perhaps stumble at the idea of regeneration at 
all having been known in the Pagan world ; but if they only go to 
India, they will find at this day, the bigoted Hindoos, who have never 
opened their ears to Christian instruction, as familiar with the term 
and the idea as ourselves. The Brahmins make it their distinguish 
ing boast that they are " twice-born "* men, and that, as such, they 
are sure of eternal happiness. Now, the same was the case in 
Babylon, and there the new birth was conferred by baptism. In the 
Chaldean mysteries, before any instruction could be received, it was 
required first of all, that the person to be initiated submit to 
baptism in token of blind and implicit obedience. We find different 
ancient authors bearing direct testimony both to the fact of this 
baptism and the intention of it. " In certain sacred rites of the 
heathen," says Tertullian, especially referring to the worship of 
Isis and Mithra, "the mode of initiation is by baptism."! The term 
" initiation " clearly shows that it was to the Mysteries of these 
divinities he referred. This baptism was by immersion, and seems 
to have been rather a rough and formidable process ; for we find 
that he who passed through the purifying waters, and other necessary 
penances, "if he survived, was then admitted to the knowledge of 
the Mysteries." J To face this ordeal required no little courage on 
the part of those who were initiated. There was this grand induce 
ment, however, to submit, that they who were thus baptised were, 
as Tertullian assures us, promised, as the consequence, " REGENERA 
TION, and the pardon of all their perjuries. " Our own Pagan 
ancestors, the worshippers of Odin, are known to have practised 
baptismal rites, which, taken in connection with their avowed object 
in practising them, show that, originally, at least, they must have 
believed that the natural guilt and corruption of their new-born 
children could be washed away by sprinkling them with water, 
or by plunging them, as soon as born, into lakes or rivers. || Yea, 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 271. 
+ TERTULL., De Baptismo, vol. i. p. 1204. 

Eliae Comment, in S. GREG. NAZ., Orat. iv. ; GREGORII NAZIANZENI Opera, 
p. 245. 

TERTULL., De Baptismo, vol. i. p. 1205. 
|| See MALLET on Anglo-Saxon Baptism, Antiquities, vol. i. p. 335. 


on the other side of the Atlantic, in Mexico, the same doctrine of 
baptismal regeneration was found in full vigour among the natives, 
when Cortez and his warriors landed on their shores.* The ceremony 
of Mexican baptism, which was beheld with astonishment by the 
Spanish Roman Catholic missionaries, is thus strikingly described 
in Prescott s Conquest of Mexico: "When everything necessary 
for the baptism had been made ready, all the relations of the child 
were assembled, and the midwife, who was the person that performed 
the rite of baptism,! was summoned. At early dawn, they met 
together in the court-yard of the house. When the sun had risen, 
the midwife, taking the child in her arms, called for a little earthen 
vessel of water, while those about her placed the ornaments, which 
had been prepared for baptism, in the midst of the court. To per 
form the rite of baptism, she placed herself with her face toward the 

west, and immediately began to go through certain ceremonies 

After this she sprinkled water on the head of the infant, saying, 
O my child, take and receive the water of the Lord of the world, 
which is our life, which is given for the increasing and renewing of 
our body. It is to wash and to purify. I pray that these heavenly 
drops may enter into your body, and dwell there ; that they may 
destroy and remove from you all the evil and sin which was given 
you before the beginning of the world, since all of us are under its 
power. .... She then washed the body of the child with water, and 
spoke in this manner : Whencesoever thou comest, thou that art 
hurtful to this child, leave him and depart from him, for he now 
liveth anew, and is BORN ANEW ; now he is purified and cleansed 
afresh, and our mother Chalchivitlycue [the goddess of water] 
bringeth him into the world. Having thus prayed, the midwife 
took the child in both hands, and, lifting him towards heaven, said, 
Lord, thou seest here thy creature, whom thou hast sent into 
the world, this place of sorrow, suffering, and penitence. Grant 
him, O Lord, thy gifts and inspiration, for thou art the Great 
God, and with thee is the great goddess. "| Here is the opus 
operatum without mistake. Here is baptismal regeneration and 
exorcism too, as thorough and complete as any Romish priest or 
lover of Tractarianism could desire. Does the reader ask what 
evidence is there that Mexico had derived this doctrine from 
Chaldea 1 The evidence is decisive. From the researches of 
Humboldt we find that the Mexicans celebrated Wodan as the 
founder of their race, just as our own ancestors did. The Wodan 

* HUMBOLDT S Mexican Researches, vol. i. p. 185. 

t As baptism is absolutely necessary to salvation, Rome also authorises mid- 
wives to administer baptism. In Mexico the midwife seems to have been a 

+ PRESCOTT S Mexico, vol. iii. pp. 339, 340. 

In the Romish ceremony of baptism, the first thing the priest does is to 
exorcise the devil out of the child to be baptised in these words, " Depart from 
him thou unclean spirit, and give place to the Holy Ghost the Comforter." (Sincere 
Christian, vol. i. p. 365.) In the New Testament there is not the slightest bint 
of any such exorcism accompanying Christian baptism. It is purely Pagan. 


or Odin of Scandinavia can be proved to be the Adon of Babylon.* 
The Wodan of Mexico, from the following quotation, will be seen to 
be the very same : " According to the ancient traditions collected by 
the Bishop Francis Nunez de la Vega," says llumboldt, "the Wodan 
of the Chiapanese [of Mexico] was grandson of that illustrious old 
man, who at the time of the great deluge, in which the greater part 
of the human race perished, was saved on a raft, together with his 
family. Wodan co-operated in the construction of the great edifice 
which had been undertaken by men to reach the skies ; the execu 
tion of this rash project was interrupted ; each family received from 
that time a different language ; and the great spirit Teotl ordered 
Wodan to go and people the country of Anahuac."f This surely 
proves to demonstration whence originally came the Mexican 
mythology and whence also that doctrine of baptismal regeneration 
which the Mexicans held in common with the Egyptian and Persian 
worshippers of the Chaldean Queen of Heaven. Prescott, indeed, 
has cast doubts on the genuineness of this tradition, as being too 
exactly coincident with the Scriptural history to be easily believed. 
Fi 34 But the distinguished Humboldt, who had 

carefully examined the matter, and who had 
no prejudice to warp him, expresses his full 
belief in its correctness ; and even from 
Prescott s own interesting pages, it may be 
proved in every essential particular, with the 
single exception of the ^name of Wodan, to 
which he makes no reference. But, happily, 
the fact that that name had been borne by 
some illustrious hero among the supposed 
ancestors of the Mexican race, is put beyond 
all doubt by the singular circumstance that 

the Mexicans had one of their days called Wodansday, exactly as we 
ourselves have.J This, taken in connection with all the circum 
stances, is a very striking proof, at once of the unity of the human 
race, and of the wide-spread diffusion of the system that began 
at Babel. 

If the question arise, How came it that the Babylonians them 
selves adopted such a doctrine as regeneration by baptism, we have 
light also on that. In the Babylonian Mysteries, the commemora 
tion of the flood, of the ark, and the grand events in the life of Noah, 
was mingled with the worship of the Queen of Heaven and her son. 
Noah, as having lived in two worlds, both before the flood and after 
it, was called "Diphues," or " twice-born," and was represented 
as a god with two heads looking in opposite directions, the one old, 
and the other young (Fig. 34). || Though we have seen that the two- 

* For proof, see Appendix, Note L. 
t HUMBOLDT S Researches, vol. i. p. 320. 
Ibid. vol. i.p. 319. 
BRYANT, VOL. iii. p. 21. 
Ibid. p. 84. 


headed Janus in one aspect had reference to Gush and his son, 
Nimrod, viewed as one god, in a two-fold capacity, as the Supreme, 
and Father of all the deified "mighty ones/ 7 yet, in order to gain for 
him the very authority and respect essential to constitute him 
properly the head of the great system of idolatry that the apostates 
inaugurated, it was necessary to represent him as in some way or 
other identified with the great patriarch, who was the Father of all, 
and who had so miraculous a history. Therefore in the legends of 
Janus, we find mixed up with other things derived from an entirely 
different source, statements not only in regard to his being the 
" Father of the world," but also his being " the inventor of ships,"* 
which plainly have been borrowed from the history of Noah ; and 
therefore, the remarkable way in which he is represented in the 
figure here presented to the reader may confidently be concluded to 
have been primarily suggested by the history of the great Diluvian 
patriarch, whose integrity in his two-fold life is so particularly 
referred to in the Scripture, where it is said (Gen. vi. 9), "Noah 
was a just man, and perfect in his generations" that is, in his life 
before the flood, and in his life after it. The whole mythology of 
Greece and Rome, as well as Asia, is full of the history and deeds of 
Noah, which it is impossible to misunderstand. In India, the god 
Yishnu, " the Preserver," who is celebrated as having miraculously 
preserved one righteous family at the time when the world was 
drowned, not only has the story of Noah wrought up with his 
legend, but is called by his very name. Yishnu is just the Sanscrit 
form of the Chaldee " Ish-nuh," " the man Noah," or the " Man of 
rest."j In the case of Indra, the "king of the gods," and god of 
rain, which is evidently only another form of the same god, the 
name is found in the precise form of Ishnu. Now, the very legend 
of Yishnu, that pretends to make him no mere creature, but the 
supreme and " eternal god," shows that this interpretation of the 
name is no mere unfounded imagination. Thus is he celebrated in 
the " Matsya Puran : " " The sun, the wind, the ether, all things 
incorporeal, were absorbed into his Divine essence ; and the universe 
being consumed, the eternal and omnipotent god, having assumed an 
ancient form, REPOSED mysteriously upon the surface of that 
(universal) ocean. But no one is capable of knowing whether that 
being was then risible or invisible, or what the holy name of that 
person was, or what the cause of his mysterious SLUMBER. Nor can 
any one tell how long he thus REPOSED until he conceived the 
thought of acting ; for no one saw him, no one approached him, and 
none can penetrate the mystery of his real essence."^: In conform 
ity with this ancient legend, Yishnu is still represented as sleeping 
four months every year. Now, connect this story with the name of 

* BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 78. 

t We find the very word Ish, "man," used in Sanscrit with the digamma 
prefixed : Thus Fis/tarapati, " Lord of men." See WILSON S India 3000 Years 
Ayo, p. 59. 

Col. KENNEDY S Hindoo Mythology, p. 228. 


Noah, the man of " Rest," and with his personal history during the 
period of the flood, when the world was destroyed, when for forty 
days and forty nights all was chaos, when neither sun nor moon nor 
twinkling star appeared, when sea and sky were mingled, and all 
was one wide universal " ocean," on the bosom of which the 
patriarch floated, when there was no human being to " approach " 
him but those who were with him in the ark, and " the mystery of 
his real essence is penetrated" at once, "the holy name of that 
person " is ascertained, and " his mysterious slumber " fully 
accounted for. Now, wherever Noah is celebrated, whether by the 
name of Saturn,* " the hidden one/ for that name was applied to 
him as well as to Nimrod, on account of his having been " hidden " 
in the ark, in the "day of the Lord s fierce anger," or "Cannes," or 
" Janus," the " Man of the Sea," he is generally described in such a 
way as shows that he was looked upon as Diphues, " twice-born," or 
"regenerate." The "twice-born" Brahmins, who are all so many 
gods upon earth, by the very title they take to themselves, show 
that the god whom they represent, and to whose prerogatives they 
lay claim, had been known as the "twice-born" god. The connec 
tion of " regeneration " with the history of Noah, comes out with 
special evidence in the accounts handed down to us of the Mysteries 
as celebrated in Egypt. The most learned explorers of Egyptian 
antiquities, including Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, admit that the story 
of Noah was mixed up with the story of Osiris. f The ship of Isis, 
and the coffin of Osiris, floating on the waters, point distinctly to 
that remarkable event. There were different periods, in different 
places in Egypt, when the fate of Osiris was lamented ; and at one 
time there was more special reference to the personal history of " the 
mighty hunter before the Lord," and at another to the awful 
catastrophe through which Noah passed. In the great and solemn 
festival called " The Disappearance of Osiris," it is evident that it is 
Noah himself who was then supposed to have been lost. The time 
when Osiris was " shut up in his coffin," and when that coffin was 
set afloat on the waters, as stated by Plutarch, agrees exactly with 
the period when Noah entered the ark. That time was " the 1 7th 
day of the month Athyr, when the overflowing of the Nile had 
ceased, when the nights were growing long and the days decreas 
ing."! The month Athyr was the second month after the autumnal 
equinox, at which time the civil year of the Jews and the patriarchs 
began. According to this statement, then, Osiris was " shut up in 
his coffin" on the 17th day of the second month of the patriarchal 
year. Compare this with the Scriptural account of Noah s entering 
into the ark, and it will be seen how remarkably they agree (Gen. 
vii. 11), "In the six hundredth year of Noah s life, in the SECOND 
MONTH, in the SEVENTEENTH DAY of the month, were all the fountains 
of the great deep broken up ; in the self-same day entered Noah into 

* BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 75. 

t WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 340. 

$ PLUTARCH, DC Iside et Osiride, vol. ii. p. 336, D. 


the ark." The period, too, that Osiris (otherwise Adonis) was 
believed to have been shut up in his coffin, was precisely the same as 
Noah was confined in the ark, a whole year.* Now, the statements 
of Plutarch demonstrate that, as Osiris at this festival was looked 
upon as dead and buried when put into his ark or coffin, and 
committed to the deep, so, when at length he came out of it again, 
that new state was regarded as a state of "new life," or " REGENERA 
TION."! There seems every reason to believe that by the ark and 
the flood God actually gave to the patriarchal saints, and especially 
to righteous Noah, a vivid typical representation of the power of the 
blood and Spirit of Christ, at once in saving from wrath, and 
cleansing from all sin a representation which was a most cheering 
" seal" and confirmation to the faith of those who really believed. 
To this Peter seems distinctly to allude, when he says, speaking of 
this very event, " The like figure whereunto baptism doth also now 
save us." Whatever primitive truth the Chaldean priests held, they 
utterly perverted and corrupted it. They willingly overlooked the 
fact, that it was " the righteousness of the faith " which Noah " had 
before" the flood, that carried him safely through the avenging 
waters of that dread catastrophe, and ushered him, as it were, from 
the womb of the ark, by a new birth, into a new world, when on the 
ark resting on Mount Ararat, he was released from his long confine 
ment. They led their votaries to believe that, if they only passed 
through the baptismal waters, and the penances therewith connected, 
that of itself would make them like the second father of mankind, 
" Diphueis," " twice-born," or " regenerate," would entitle them to 
all the privileges of " righteous " Noah, and give them that "new 
birth" (paling enesia)! which their consciences told them they so 
much needed. The Papacy acts on precisely the same principle ; 
and from this very source has its doctrine of baptismal regeneration 
been derived, about which so much has been written and so many 
controversies been waged. Let men contend as they may, this, and 
this only, will be found to be the real origin of the anti-Scriptural 

The reader has seen already how faithfully Rome has copied the 
Pagan exorcism in connection with baptism. All the other peeuli- 

* APOLLODORUS, lib. iii. c. xiv., vol. i. pp. 356, 357. THEOCRITUS, Idyll xv., 
11. 103, 104, pp. 190, 191, Poetae Graeci Minores. Theocritus is speaking of 
Adonis as delivered by Venus from Acheron, or the infernal regions, after being 
there for a year ; but as the scene is laid in Egypt, it is evident that it is Osiris 
he refers to, as he was the Adonis of the Egyptians. 

f PLUTARCH, De hide ct Osiridc, vol. ii. pp. 356-367, et quce sequuntur. It was 
in the character of Pthah-Sokari-Osiris that he was represented as having been 
thus "buried" in the waters. (See WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 256.) In his own 
character, simply as Osiris, he had another burial altogether. 

J PLUTARCH, De hide, vol. ii. p. 364, F. 

There have been considerable speculations about the meaning of the name 
Shinar, as applied to the region of which Babylon was the capital. Do not the 
facts above stated cast light on it ? What so likely a derivation of this name as 
to derive it from "shene," "to repeat," and "naar," "childhood." The laud of 
"Shinar," then, according to this view, is just the land of the "Regenerator." 


arities attending the Romish baptism, such as the use of salt, spittle, 
chrism, or anointing with oil, and marking the forehead with the 
sign of the cross, are equally Pagan. Some of the continental 
advocates of Rome have admitted that some of these at least have 
not been derived from Scripture. Thus Jodocus Tiletanus of 
Louvaine, defending the doctrine of " Unwritten Tradition," does 
not hesitate to say, "We are not satisfied with that which the 
apostles or the Gospel do declare, but we say that, as well before as 
after, there are divers matters of importance and weight accepted 
and received out of a doctrine which is nowhere set forth in writing. 
For we do blesse the water wherewith we baptize, and the oyle 
wherewith we annoynt ; yea, and besides that, him that is christened. 
And (I pray you) out of what Scripture have we learned the same] 
Have we it not of a secret and unwritten ordinance 1 And further, 
what Scripture hath taught us to grease with oyle 1 Yea, I pray 
you, whence cometh it, that we do dype the childe three times in the 
water 1 Doth it not come out of this hidden and undisclosed 
doctrine, which our forefathers have received closely without any 
curiosity, and do observe it still."* This learned divine of Lou 
vaine, of course, maintains that " the hidden and undisclosed 
doctrine " of which he speaks, was the " unwritten word " handed 
down through the channel of infallibility, from the Apostles of 
Christ to his own time. But, after what we have already seen, the 
reader will probably entertain a different opinion of the source from 
which the hidden and undisclosed doctrine must have come. And, 
indeed, Father Newman himself admits, in regard to " holy water " 
(that is, water impregnated with " salt," and consecrated), and many 
other things that were, as he says, "the very instruments and 
appendages of demon-worship" that they were all of "Pagan" 
origin, and "sanctified by adoption into the Church."f What plea, 
then, what palliation can he offer, for so extraordinary an adoption "? 
Why, this : that the Church had " confidence in the power of 
Christianity to resist the infection of evil," and to transmute them 
to " an evangelical use." What right had the Church to entertain 
any such "confidence" 1 ? What fellowship could light have with 
darkness 1 what concord between Christ and Belial ? Let the history 
of the Church bear testimony to the vanity, yea, impiety of such a 
hope. Let the progress of our inquiries shed light upon the same. 
At the present stage, there is only one of the concomitant rites of 
baptism to which I will refer viz., the use of "spittle" in that 
ordinance ; and an examination of the very words of the Roman 
ritual, in applying it, will prove that its use in baptism must have 
come from the Mysteries. The following is the account of its 
application, as given by Bishop Hay J : " The priest recites another 
exorcism, and at the end of it touches the ear and nostrils of the 
person to be baptised with a little spittle, saying, Ephpheta, that is, 

* Review of Epistle of Dr. GENTIANUS HARVET, p. 19 B, and 20 A. 
t NEWMAN S Development, pp. 359, 360. 
Sincere Christian^ vol. i. p. 368. 


Be thou opened into an odour of sweetness ; but be thou put to flight, 
Devil, for the judgment of God will be at hand. " Now, surely 
the reader will at once ask, what possible, what conceivable con 
nection can there be between spittle and an " odour of sweetness " ? 
If the secret doctrine of the Chaldean mysteries be set side by side 
with this statement, it will be seen that, absurd and nonsensical as 
this collocation of terms may appear, it was not at random that 
"spittle" and an "odour of sweetness" were brought together. We 
have seen already how thoroughly Paganism was acquainted with 
the attributes and work of the promised Messiah, though all that 
acquaintance with these grand themes was used for the purpose of 
corrupting the minds of mankind, and keeping them in spiritual 
bondage. We have now to see that, as they were well aware of the 
existence of the Holy Spirit, so, intellectually, they were just as well 
acquainted with His work, though their knowledge on that subject 
was equally debased and degraded. Servius, in his comments upon 
Virgil s First Georgic, after quoting the well-known expression, 
"Mystica vannus lacchi," "the mystic fan of Bacchus," says that 
that "mystic fan" symbolised the "purifying of souls."* Now, 
how could the fan be a symbol of the purification of souls 1 The 
answer is, The fan is an instrument for producing "wind" ; f and in 
Chaldee, as has been already observed, it is one and the same word 
which signifies "wind" and the "Holy Spirit." There can be no 
doubt, that, from the very beginning, the "wind" was one of the 
Divine patriarchal emblems by which the power of the Holy Ghost 
was shadowed forth, even as our Lord Jesus Christ said to Nico- 
demus, " The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the 
sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh or whither it 
goeth : so is every one that is born of the /Spirit," Hence, when 
Bacchus was represented with " the mystic fan," that was to declare 
him to be the mighty One with whom was " the residue of the Spirit." 
Hence came the idea of purifying the soul by means of the wind, 
according to the description of Virgil, who represents the stain and 
pollution of sin as being removed in this very way : 

"For this are various penances enjoined, 
And some are hung to bleach upon the WIND." $ 

Hence the priests of Jupiter (who was originally just another form 
of Bacchus), (see Fig. 35), were called Flamens, that is Breathers, 
or bestowers of the Holy Ghost, by breathing upon their votaries. 

Now, in the Mysteries, the "spittle" was just another symbol for 
the same thing. In Egypt, through which the Babylonian system 

* SERVIUS, vol. ii. p. 197. 

t There is an evident allusion to the " mystic fan " of the Babylonian god, in 
the doom of Babylon, as pronounced by Jeremiah li. 1, 2 : " Thus saith the Lord, 
Behold, I will raise up against Babylon, and against them that dwell in the 
midst of them that rise up against me, a destroying ivind ; and will send unto 
Babylon fanners, that shall fan her, and shall empty her land." 

DRYDEN S Viryil, sEneid, Book vi. vs. 1002, 1003 ; in Original, 11. 739-741. 

From "Flo," "I breathe." 



passed to Western Europe, the name of the " Pure or Purifying 
Spirit" was "Rekh."* But "Rekh" also signified " spittle"; f so 
that to anoint the nose and ears of the initiated with "spittle," 
according to the mystic system, was held to be anointing them with 
the " Purifying Spirit." That Rome in adopting the " spittle " 
actually copied from some Chaldean ritual in which " spittle " was 
the appointed emblem of the "Spirit," is plain from the account 
which she gives in her own recognised formularies of the reason for 
anointing the ears with it. The reason for anointing the ears with 
"spittle," says Bishop Hay, is because "by the grace of baptism, the 
ears of our soul are opened to hear the Word of God, and the inspira 
tions of His Holy Spirit." J But what, it may be asked, has the 
" spittle " to do with the " odour of sweetness " ? I answer, The 
very word " Rekh," which signified the " Holy Spirit," and was 

Fig. 35. 

visibly represented by the "spittle," was intimately connected with 
" Rikh," which signifies a "fragrant smell," or "odour of sweet 
ness." Thus, a knowledge of the Mysteries gives sense and a con 
sistent meaning to the cabalistic saying addressed by the Papal 
baptiser to the person about to be baptised, when the ct spittle " is 
daubed on his nose and ears, which otherwise would have no niean- 

* BUNSEN, vol. i. pp. 475, 476, and 516. 

t PARKHURST S Lexicon, p. 703. 

% Sincere Christian, vol. i. p. 368. 

From Pompeii, vol. ii. p. 150. The reader will remember that Jupiter, as 
" Jupiter puer," or " Jupiter the boy," was worshipped in the arms of the goddess 
Fortuna, just as Ninus was worshipped in the arms of the Babylonian goddess, or 
Horus in the arms of Isis (see ante, p. 20). Moreover, Cupid, who, as being the 
son of Jupiter, is Vejovis that is, as we learn from Ovid (vol. iii. p. 179, in a 
Note to Fasti, lib. iii. v. 408), "Young Jupiter" is represented, as in the above 
cut, not only with the wine-cup of Bacchus, but with the Ivy garland, the dis 
tinctive mark of the same divinity, around him. 


ing at all " Ephpheta, Be thou opened into an odour of sweetness." 
While this was the primitive truth concealed under the "spittle," 
yet the whole spirit of Paganism was so opposed to the spirituality 
of the patriarchal religion, and indeed intended to make it void, and 
to draw men utterly away from it, while pretending to do homage 
to it, that among the multitude in general the magic use of " spittle " 
became the symbol of the grossest superstition. Theocritus shows 
with what debasing rites it was mixed up in Sicily and Greece ; * 
and Persius thus holds up to scorn the people of Rome in his day for 
their reliance on it to avert the influence of the " evil eye " : 

" Our superstitions with our life begin ; 
The obscene old grandam, or the next of kin, 
The new-born infant from the cradle takes, 
And first of spittle a lustration makes ; 
Then in the spawl her middle finger dips, 
Anoints the temples, forehead, and the lips, 
Pretending force of magic to prevent (urentes oculos) 
By virtue of her nasty excrement." DRYDEN.f 

While thus far we have seen how the Papal baptism is just a 
reproduction of the Chaldean, there is still one other point to be 
noticed, which makes the demonstration complete. That point is 
contained in the following tremendous curse fulminated against a 
man who committed the unpardonable offence of leaving the Church 
of Rome, and published grave and weighty reasons for so doing : 
" May the Father, who creates man, curse him ! May the Son, who 
suffered for us, curse him ! May the Holy Ghost who suffered for us 
in baptism, curse him ! " | I do not stop to show how absolutely 
and utterly opposed such a curse as this is to the whole spirit of the 
Gospel. But what I call the reader s attention to is the astounding 
statement that " the Holy Ghost suffered for us in baptism." Where 
in the whole compass of Scripture could warrant be found for such 
an assertion as this, or anything that could even suggest it 1 But let 
the reader revert to the Babylonian account of the personality of the 
Holy Ghost, and the amount of blasphemy contained in this language 
will be apparent. According to the Chaldean doctrine, Semiramis, 
the wife of Ninus or Nimrod, when exalted to divinity under the 
name of the Queen of Heaven, came, as we have seen, to be worshipped 
as Juno, the " Dove " in other words, the Holy Spirit incarnate. 
Now, when her husband, for his blasphemous rebellion against the 
majesty of heaven, was cut off, for a season it was a time of tribula 
tion also for her. The fragments of ancient history that have come 
down to us give an account of her trepidation and flight, to save her 
self from her adversaries. In the fables of the mythology, this flight 
was mystically represented in accordance with what was attributed 

* THEOCRITUS, Idyll ii. 61, pp. 126, 127. 

t PEKSIUS, Satires, ii. v. 30-34, in Original. 

The above is from the curse fulminated against Mr. Hogan of Philadelphia for 
leaving the Church of Rome, and assigning his reasons for doing so. See BEGG S 
Handbook, p. 152. See also BLAKENEY S Popery in its Social Aspect, p. 126, and 
Note to p. 127. 



to her husband. The bards of Greece represented Bacchus, when 
overcome by his enemies, as taking refuge in the depths of the ocean 
(see Fig. 36).* Thus, Homer : 

" In a mad mood, while Bacchus blindly raged, 
Lycurgus drove his trembling bands, confused, 
O er the vast plains of Nusa. They in haste 
Threw down their sacred implements, and fled 
In fearful dissipation. Bacchus saw 
Eout upon rout, and, lost in wild dismay, 
Plunged in the deep. Here Thetis in her arms 
Eeceived him shuddering at the dire event."f 

In Egypt, as we have seen, Osiris, as identified with Noah, was 
represented, when overcome by his grand enemy Typhon, or the 
"Evil One," as passing through the waters. The poets represented 
Semiramis as sharing in his distress, and likewise seeking safety in 
the same way. We have seen already, that, under the name of 
Astarte, she was said to have come forth from the wondrous egg that 
was found floating on the waters of the Euphrates. Now Manilius 

Fig. 36. 

tells, in his Astronomical Poetics, what induced her to take refuge 
in these waters. " Venus plunged into the Babylonian waters," says 

* From BRYANT : the first figure, the divided bull, is from vol. iii. p. 303 ; the 
second, the god on the fish, from the same vol., p. 338. The former is just another 
symbol of that which is represented by the mighty tree cut asunder (see ante, 
p. 97). That tree represented Nimrod as " the mighty one" cut in pieces in the 
midst of his power and glory. The divided man-bull symbolises him as " The 
prince " who was cut asunder in like manner ; for the name for a prince and a 
bull is the same. The fish over the bull shows the transformation he was supposed 
to undergo when put to death by his enemies ; for the story of Melikerta, who 
with his mother Ino was cast into the sea, and became a sea-god (SMITH S Class. 
Diet., " Athamas," p. 100), is just another version of the story of Bacchus, for Ino 
was the foster-mother of Bacchus (SMITH, sub vocc " Dionysus," p. 226). Now, on 
the second medal, Melikerta, under the name of Palaemon, is represented as 
triumphantly riding on the fish, his sorrows being over, with the fir-tree, or pine, 
the emblem of Baal-berith, "Lord of the Covenant," as his ensign. This, com 
pared with what is stated in p. 98 about the Christmas-tree, shows how the 
fir-tree came to be recognised in the character of the Christmas-tree. The name 
Ghelas above the divided bull and the fish is equivocal. As applied to the fish, it 
comes from Ghela, "to exult or leap for joy," as dolphins and such like fishes do 
in the sea ; as applied to the divinity, whom both the fish and the bull repre 
sented, it conies from Ghela, "to reveal," for that divinity was the "revealer of 
goodness and truth " (WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 189). 

f HOMER, Iliad, vi. v. 133. See BRYANT S Mythology, vol. iv. p. 57. 


he, " to shun the fury of the snake-footed Typhon."* When Venus 
Urania, or Dione,f the " Heavenly Dove," plunged in deep distress 
into these waters of Babylon, be it observed what, according to the 
Chaldean doctrine, this amounted to. It was neither more nor less 
than saying that the Holy Ghost incarnate in deep tribulation entered 
these waters, and that on purpose that these waters might be fit, not 
only by the temporary abode of the Messiah in the midst of them, 
but by the Spirit s efficacy thus imparted to them, for giving new 
life and regeneration, by baptism, to the worshippers of the Chaldean 
Madonna. We have evidence that the purifying virtue of the waters, 
which in Pagan esteem had such efficacy in cleansing from guilt and 
regenerating the soul, was derived in part from the passing of the 
Mediatorial god, the sun-god and god of fire, through these waters 
during his humiliation and sojourn in the midst of them ; and that 
the Papacy at this day retains the very custom which had sprung up 
from that persuasion. So far as heathenism is concerned, the follow 
ing extracts from Potter and Athenaeus speak distinctly enough : 
* Every person," says the former, " who came to the solemn sacrifices 
[of the Greeks] was purified by water. To which end, at the entrance 
of the temples there was commonly placed a vessel full of holy 
water."J How did this water get its holiness? This water "was 
consecrated," says Athenseus, "by putting into it a BURNING TORCH 
taken from the altar. " The burning torch was the express symbol 
of the god of fire ; and by the light of this torch, so indispensable 
for consecrating " the holy water," we may easily see whence came 
one great part of the purifying virtue of "the water of the loud 
resounding sea," which was held to be so efficacious in purging away 
the guilt and stain of sin,|| even from the sun-god having taken 
refuge in its waters. Now this very same method is used in the 
Romish Church for consecrating the water for baptism. The unsus 
picious testimony of Bishop Hay leaves no doubt on this point : " It " 
[the water kept in the baptismal font], says he, " is blessed on the 
eve of Pentecost, because it is the Holy Ghost who gives to the 
waters of baptism the power and efficacy of sanctifying our souls, 
and because the baptism of Christ is with the Holy Ghost, and with 
fire (Matt. iii. 11). In blessing the waters, a LIGHTED TORCH is put 
into the font."U Here, then, it is manifest that the baptismal 
regenerating water of Rome is consecrated just as the regenerating 
and purifying water of the Pagans was. Of what avail is it for 
Bishop Hay to say, with the view of sanctifying superstition and 
"making apostacy plausible," that this is done "to represent the fire 
of Divine love, which is communicated to the soul by baptism, and 
the light of good example, which all who are baptised ought to give."** 
This is the fair face put on the matter ; but the fact still remains 

* MANILIUS, Astronom., lib. iv. v. 579-582, p. 146. 
t OVID, Fasti, lib. ii. 461. 

POTTER S Antiquities, vol. i. p. 195. ATHEN/EUS, lib. ix. p. 409. 

II " All human ills," says Euripides, in a well-known passage, " are washed away 
by the sea." 

TT HAY S Sincere Christian, vol. i. p. 365. ** Ibid. 


that while the Romish doctrine in regard to baptism is purely Pagan, 
in the ceremonies connected with the Papal baptism one of the 
essential rites of the ancient fire-worship is still practised at this day, 
just as it was practised by the worshippers of Bacchus, the Baby 
lonian Messiah. As Rome keeps up the remembrance of the fire- 
god passing through the waters and giving virtue to them, so when 
it speaks of the " Holy Ghost suffering for us in baptism," it in like 
manner commemorates the part which Paganism assigned to the 
Babylonian goddess when she plunged into the waters. The sorrows 
of Nimrod, or Bacchus, when in the waters were meritorious sorrows. 
The sorrows of his wife, in whom the Holy Ghost miraculously dwelt, 
were the same. The sorrows of the Madonna, then, when in these 
waters, fleeing from Typhon s rage, were the birth-throes by which 
children were born to God. And thus, even in the Far West, Chal- 
chivitlycue, the Mexican "goddess of the waters," and "mother" of 
all the regenerate, was represented as purging the new-born infant 
from original sin, and "bringing it anew into the world."* Now, 
the Holy Ghost was idolatrously worshipped in Babylon under the 
form of a " Dove." Under the same form, and with equal idolatry, 
the Holy Ghost is worshipped in Rome. When, therefore, we read, 
in opposition to every Scripture principle, that " the Holy Ghost 
suffered for us in baptism," surely it must now be manifest who is 
that Holy Ghost that is really intended. It is no other than Semi- 
ramis, the very incarnation of lust and all uncleanness. 


The worshippers of Nimrod and his queen were looked upon as 
regenerated and purged from sin by baptism, which baptism received 
its virtue from the sufferings of these two great Babylonian divini 
ties. But yet in regard to justification, the Chaldean doctrine was 
that it was by works and merits of men themselves that they must be 
justified and accepted of God. The following remarks of Christie in 
his observations appended to OuvarofFs Eleusinian Mysteries, 
show that such was the case : " Mr. Ouvaroff has suggested that one 
of the great objects of the Mysteries was the presenting to fallen man 
the means of his return to God. These means were the cathartic 
virtues (i.e., the virtues by which sin is removed), by the exercise 
of which a corporeal life was to be vanquished. Accordingly the 
Mysteries were termed Teletse, perfections, because they were sup 
posed to induce a perfectness of life. Those who were purified by 
them were styled Teloumenoi and Tetelesmenoi, that is, brought 
.... to perfection/ which depended on the exertions of the indi 
vidual."! In the Metamorphosis of Apuleius, who was himself 
initiated in the mysteries of Isis, we find this same doctrine of human 
merits distinctly set forth. Thus the goddess is herself represented 

* See ante, p. 133. t OUVAKOFF, pp. 183, 184. 


as addressing the hero of his tale : "If you shall be found to DESERVE 
the protection of my divinity by sedulous obedience, religious devotion, 
and inviolable chastity, you shall be sensible that it is possible for me, 
and me alone, to extend your life beyond the limits that have been 
appointed to it by your destiny."* When the same individual has 
received a proof of the supposed favour of the divinity, thus do the 
onlookers express their congratulations : " Happy, by Hercules ! and 
thrice blessed he to have MERITED, by the innocence and probity of 
his past life, such special patronage of heaven."! Thus was it in 
life. At death, also, the grand passport into the unseen world was 
still through the merits of men themselves, although the name of 
Osiris was, as we shall by-and-by see, given to those who departed in 
the faith. " When the bodies of persons of distinction " [in Egypt], 
says Wilkinson, quoting Porphyry, " were embalmed, they took out 
the intestines and put them into a vessel, over which (after some 
other rites had been performed for the dead) one of the embalmers 
pronounced an invocation to the sun in behalf of the deceased." The 
formula, according to Euphantus, who translated it from the original 
into Greek, was as follows : " thou Sun, our sovereign lord ! and 
all ye Deities who have given life to man, receive me, and grant me 
an abode with the eternal gods. During the whole course of my 
life I have scrupulously worshipped the gods my father taught me 
to adore ; I have ever honoured my parents, who begat this body ; 
I have killed no one ; I have not defrauded any, nor have I done any 
injury to any man."J Thus the merits, the obedience, or the inno 
cence of man was the grand plea. The doctrine of Rome in 
regard to the vital article of a sinner s justification is the very same. 
Of course this of itself would prove little in regard to the affiliation 
of the two systems, the Babylonian and the Roman ; for, from the 
days of Cain downward, the doctrine of human merit and of self- 
justification has everywhere been indigenous in the heart of depraved 
humanity. But, what is worthy of notice in regard to this subject 
is, that in the two systems, it was symbolised in precisely the same 
way. In the Papal legends it is taught that St. Michael the Arch 
angel has committed to him the balance of God s justice, and that in 
the two opposite scales of that balance the merits and the demerits 
of the departed are put that they may be fairly weighed, the one 
over against the other, and that as the scale turns to the favour 
able or unfavourable side they may be justified or condemned 
as the case may be. Now, the Chaldean doctrine of justifica 
tion, as we get light on it from the monuments of Egypt, is 
symbolised in precisely the same way, except that in the land of 
Ham the scales of justice were committed to the charge of the god 
Anubis instead of St. Michael the Archangel, and that the good 
deeds and the bad seem to have been weighed separately, and a 
distinct record made of each, so that when both were summed up and 

* Metam., cap. 11. f Ibid. 

+ WILKINSON, vol. v. pp. 463, 464. 

Review of Epistle of Dr. GENTIANUS HAEVET, Book II. chap. xiv. 



the balance struck, judgment was pronounced accordingly. Wilkin 
son states that Anubis and his scales are often represented ; and that 
in some cases there is some difference in the details. But it is 
evident from his statements, that the principle in all is the same. 
The following is the account which he gives of one of these judgment 
scenes, previous to the admission of the dead to Paradise : " Cerberus 
is present as the guardian of the gates, near which the scales of 
justice are erected ; and Anubis, the director of the weight, having 
placed a vase representing the good actions of the deceased in one 
scale, and the figure or emblem of truth in the other, proceeds to 
ascertain his claims for admission. If, on being weighed, he is found 
wanting, he is rejected, and Osiris, the judge of the dead, inclining 
his sceptre in token of condemnation, pronounces judgment upon 
him, and condemns his soul to return to earth under the form of a 

pig or some unclean animal But if, when the SUM of his deeds 

are recorded by Thoth [who stands by to mark the results of the 
different weighings of Anubis], his virtues so far PREDOMINATE as to 
entitle him to admission to the mansions of the blessed, Horus, taking 
in his hand the tablet of Thoth, introduces him to the presence of 
Osiris, who, in his palace, attended by Isis and Nepthys, sits on his 
throne in the midst of the waters, from which rises the lotus, bearing 
upon its expanded flowers the four Genii of Amenti."* The same 
mode of symbolising the justification by works had evidently been in 
use in Babylon itself ; and, therefore, there was great force in the 
Divine handwriting on the wall, when the doom of Belshazzar went 
forth : " Tekel" " Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found 
wanting." In the Parsee system, which has largely borrowed from 
Chaldea, the principle of weighing the good deeds over against the bad 
deeds is fully developed. "For three days after dissolution," says 
Vaux, in his Nineveh and Persepolis, giving an account of Parsee 
doctrines in regard to the dead, "the soul is supposed to flit round 
its tenement of clay, in hopes of reunion ; on the fourth, the Angel 
Seroch appears, and conducts it to the bridge of Chinevad. On this 
structure, which they assert connects heaven and earth, sits the 
Angel of Justice, to weigh the actions of mortals ; when the good 
deeds prevail, the soul is met on the bridge by a dazzling figure, 
which says, I am thy good angel : I was pure originally, but thy 
good deeds have rendered me purer ; and passing his hand over the 
neck of the blessed soul, leads it to Paradise. If iniquities prepond 
erate, the soul is met by a hideous spectre, which howls out, I arn 
thy evil genius ; I was impure from the first, but thy misdeeds have 
made me fouler ; through thee we shall remain miserable until the 
resurrection ; the sinning soul is then dragged away to hell, where 
Ahriman sits to taunt it with its crimes."! Such is the doctrine of 
Parseeism. The same is the case in China, where Bishop Hurd, 
giving an account of the Chinese descriptions of the infernal regions, 
and of the figures that refer to them, says, " One of them always 

* WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. v. p. 447. 
t VADX, p. 113. 


represents a sinner in a pair of scales, with his iniquities in the one, 
and his good works in another." "We meet with several such 
representations," he adds, "in the Grecian mythology."* Thus does 
Sir J. F. Davis describe the operation of the principle in China : " In 
a work of some note on morals, called Merits and Demerits 
Examined, a man is directed to keep a debtor and creditor account 
with himself of the acts of each day, and at the end of the year to wind 
it up. If the balance is in his favour, it serves as the foundation of a 
stock of merits for the ensuing year : and if against him, it must be 
liquidated by future good deeds. Various lists and comparative 
tables are given of both good and bad actions in the several 
relations of life ; and benevolence is strongly inculcated in regard 
first to man, and, secondly, to the brute creation. To cause another s 
death is reckoned at one hundred on the side of demerit; while a 

single act of charitable relief counts as one on the other side 

To save a person s life ranks in the above work as an exact set-off 
to the opposite act of taking it away ; and it is said that this deed of 
merit will prolong a person s life twelve years."! 

While such a mode of justification is, on the one hand, in the very 
nature of the case, utterly demoralising, there never could by means 
of it, on the other, be in the bosom of any man whose conscience is 
aroused, any solid feeling of comfort, or assurance as to his prospects 
in the eternal world. Who could ever tell, however good he might 
suppose himself to be, whether the " sum of his good actions " 
would or would not counterbalance the amount of sins and trans 
gressions that his conscience might charge against him. How very 
different the Scriptural, the god-like plan of "justification by faith," 
and "faith alone, without the deeds of the law," absolutely irre 
spective of human merits, simply and solely through the " righteous 
ness of Christ, that is unto all and upon all them that believe," that 
delivers at once and for ever "from all condemnation," those who 
accept of the offered Saviour, and by faith are vitally united to Him. 
It is not the will of our Father in heaven, that His children in this 
world should be ever in doubt and darkness as to the vital point of 
their eternal salvation. Even a genuine saint, no doubt, may for a 
season, if need be, be in heaviness through manifold temptations, but 
such is not the natural, the normal state of a healthful Christian, of 
one who knows the fulness and the freeness of the blessings of the 
Gospel of peace. God has laid the most solid foundation for all His 
people to say, with John, "We have KNOWN and believed the love 
which God hath to us" (1 John iv. 16); or with Paul, "I am 
PERSUADED that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, 
nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor 
depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the 
love of God, which is in Christ Jesus" (Rom. viii. 38, 39). But 
this no man can ever say, who "goes about to establish his own 
righteousness" (Rom. x. 3), who seeks, in any shape, to be justified 

* KURD S Rites and Ceremonies, p. 64, col. i. 

f DAVIS S China, vol. ii. chap. " Keligion Buddhism." 


by works. Such assurance, such comfort, can come only from a 
simple and believing reliance 011 the free, unmerited grace of God, 
given in and along with Christ, the unspeakable gift of the Father s 
love. It was this that made Luther s spirit to be, as he himself 
declared, " as free as a flower of the field," * when, single and alone, 
he went up to the Diet of Worms, to confront all the prelates and 
potentates there convened to condemn the doctrine which he held. 
It was this that in every age made the martyrs go with such sublime 
heroism not only to prison but to death. It is this that emancipates 
the soul, restores the true dignity of humanity, and cuts up by the 
roots all the imposing pretensions of priestcraft. It is this only that 
can produce a life of loving, filial, hearty obedience to the law and 
commandments of God ; and that, when nature fails, and when the 
king of terrors is at hand, can enable poor, guilty sons of men, with 
the deepest sense of un worthiness, yet to say, " death, where is thy 
sting ] O grave, where is thy victory 1 Thanks be unto God, who 
giveth us the victory through Jesus Christ our Lord" (1 Cor. xv. 55, 

Now, to all such confidence in God, such assurance of salvation, 
spiritual despotism in every age, both Pagan and Papal, has ever 
shown itself unfriendly. Its grand object has always been to keep 
the souls of its votaries away from direct and immediate intercourse 
with a living and merciful Saviour, and consequently from assurance 
of His favour, to inspire a sense of the necessity of human mediation, 
and so to establish itself on the ruins of the hopes and the happiness 
of the world. Considering the pretensions which the Papacy makes 
to absolute infallibility, and the supernatural powers which it 
attributes to the functions of its priests, in regard to regeneration 
and the forgiveness of sins, it might have been supposed, as a matter 
of course, that all its adherents would have been encouraged to 
rejoice in the continual assurance of their personal salvation. But 
the very contrary is the fact. After all its boastings and high 
pretensions, perpetual doubt on the subject of a man s salvation, to 
his life s end. is inculcated as a duty ; it being peremptorily decreed 
as an article of faith by the Council of Trent, " That no man can 
know with infallible assurance of faith that he HAS OBTAINED the 
grace of God."f This very decree of Rome, while directly opposed 
to the Word of G,od, stamps its own lofty claims with the brand of 
imposture ; for if no man who has been regenerated by its baptism, 
and who has received its absolution from sin, can yet have any 
certain assurance after all that "the grace of God" has been 
conferred upon him, what can be the worth of its opus operatum ? 
Yet, in seeking to keep its devotees in continual doubt and un 
certainty as to their final state, it is "wise after its generation. 
In the Pagan system, it was the priest alone who could at all pretend 

* Quoted in Edinburgh Review, January, 1839. 

t Concilium Tridentinum. Decretum de Justificatione. Articulus ix. See 
SARPI S History of Council of Trent, translated into French by COURAYER, vol. i. 
p. 353. 


to anticipate the operation of the scales of Anubis; and, in the 
confessional, there was from time to time, after a sort, a mimic 
rehearsal of the dread weighing that was to take place at last in 
the judgment scene before the tribunal of Osiris. There the priest 
sat in judgment on the good deeds and bad deeds of his penitents ; 
and, as his power and influence were founded to a large extent on 
the mere principle of slavish dread, he took care that the scale 
should generally turn in the wrong direction, that they might be 
more subservient to his will in casting in a due amount of good 
works into the opposite scale. As he was the grand judge of what 
these works should be, it was his interest to appoint what should be 
most for the selfish aggrandisement of himself, or the glory of his 
order; and yet so to weigh and counterweigh merits and demerits, 
that there should always be left a large balance to be settled, not 
only by the man himself, but by his heirs. If any man had been 
allowed to believe himself beforehand absolutely sure of glory, the 
priests might have been in danger of being robbed of their dues after 
death an issue by all means to be guarded against. Now, the 
priests of Kome have in every respect copied after the priests of 
Anubis, the god of the scales. In the confessional, when they have 
an object to gain, they make the sins and transgressions good weight ; 
and then, when they have a man of influence, or power, or wealth 
to deal with, they will not give him the slightest hope till round 
sums of money, or the founding of an abbey, or some other object on 
which they have set their heart, be cast into the other scale. In the 
famous letter of Pere La Chaise, the confessor of Louis XIV. of 
France, giving an account of the method which he adopted to gain 
the consent of that licentious monarch to the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, by which such cruelties were inflicted on his 
innocent Huguenot subjects, we see how the fear of the scales of 
St. Michael operated in bringing about the desired result : " Many 
a time since," says the accomplished Jesuit, referring to an atrocious 
sin of which the king had been guilty, " many a time since, when 
I have had him at confession, / have shook hell about his ears, and 
made him sigh, fear and tremble, before I would give him absolution. 
By this I saw that he had still an inclination to me, and was willing 
to be under my government ; so I set the baseness of the action 
before him by telling the whole story, and how wicked it was, and 
that it could not be forgiven till he had done some good action to 
BALANCE that, and expiate the crime. Whereupon he at last asked 
me what he must do. I told him that he must root out all heretics 
from his kingdom."* This was the "good action" to be cast into 
the scale of St. Michael the Archangel, to " BALANCE " his crime. 
The king, wicked as he was sore against his will consented ; the 
" good action " was cast in, the " heretics " were extirpated ; and the 
king was absolved. But yet the absolution was not such but that, 
when he went the way of all the earth, there was still much to be 
cast in before the scales could be fairly adjusted. Thus Paganism 
* MACGAVIN S Protestant, p. 841, col. 2. 


and Popery alike "make merchandise of the souls of men" (Rev. 
xviii. 13). Thus the one with the scales of Anubis, the other with 
the scales of St. Michael, exactly answer to the Divine description of 
Ephraim in his apostacy : "Ephraim is a merchant, the balances of 
deceit are in his hand" (Hosea xii. 7). The Anubis of the Egyptians 
was precisely the same as the Mercury of the Greeks* the "god of 
thieves." St. Michael, in the hands of Rome, answers exactly to the 
same character. By means of him and his scales, and their doctrine 
of human merits, they have made what they call the house of God to 
be nothing else than a "den of thieves." To rob men of their money 
is bad, but infinitely worse to cheat them also of their souls. 

Into the scales of Anubis, the ancient Pagans, by way of securing 
their justification, were required to put not merely good deeds, 
properly so called, but deeds of austerity and self-mortification 
inflicted on their own persons, for averting the wrath of the gods.f 
The scales of St. Michael inflexibly required to be balanced in the 
very same way. The priests of Rome teach that when sin is forgiven, 
ike punishment is not thereby fully taken away. However perfect 
may be the pardon that God, through the priests, may bestow, yet 
punishment, greater or less, still remains behind, which men .must 
endure, and that to "satisfy the justice of God." Again and again 
has it been shown that man cannot do anything to satisfy the justice 
of God, that to that justice he is hopelessly indebted, that he " has " 
absolutely "nothing to pay;" and more than that, that there is no 
need that he should attempt to pay one farthing ; for that, in behalf 
of all who believe, Christ has finished transgression, made an end of 
sin, and made all the satisfaction to the broken law that that law 
could possibly demand. Still Rome insists that every man must be 
punished for his own sins, and that God cannot be satisfied { without 
groans and sighs, lacerations of the flesh, tortures of the body, and 
penances without number, on the part of the offender, however 
broken in heart, however contrite that offender may be. Now, 
looking simply at the Scripture, this perverse demand for self-torture 
on the part of those for whom Christ has made a complete and 
perfect atonement, might seem exceedingly strange ; but, looking at 
the real character of the god whom the Papacy has set up for the 
worship of its deluded devotees, there is nothing in the least strange 
about it. That god is Moloch, the god of barbarity and blood. 
Moloch signifies " king " ; and Nimrod was the first after the flood 
that violated the patriarchal system, and set up as " king " over his 
fellows. At first he was worshipped as the " revealer of goodness 
and truth," but by-and-by his worship was made to correspond with 

* WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. v. pp. 9, 10. 

t See what is said about Penance in connection with the Confessional, in Chap- 
ter I. pp. 9, 10. 

J Bishop HAY S Sincere Christian, vol. i. p. 270. The words of Bishop Hay 
are : " But He absolutely demands that, by penitential works, we PUNISH our 
selves for our shocking ingratitude, and satisfy the Divine justice for the abuse of 
His mercy." The established modes of " punishment," as is well known, are just 
such as are described in the text. 


his dark and forbidding countenance and complexion. The name 
Moloch originally suggested nothing of cruelty or terror; but now 
the well-known rites associated with that name have made it for 
ages a synonym for all that is most revolting to the heart of 
humanity, and am ply justify the description of Milton: 

" First Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood 
Of human sacrifice, and parents tears, 
Though, for the noise of drums and timbrels loud, 
Their children s cries unheard, that passed through fire 
To his -mm idol."* 

In almost every land the bloody worship prevailed ; " horrid 
cruelty," hand in hand with abject superstition, filled not only "the 
dark places of the earth," but also regions that boasted of their 
enlightenment. Greece, Rome, Egypt, Phenicia, Assyria, and our 
own land under the savage Druids, at one period or other in their 
history, worshipped the same god and in the same way. Human 
victims were his most acceptable offerings ; human groans and 
wailings were the sweetest music in his ears ; human tortures were 
believed to delight his heart. His image bore, as the symbol of 
"majesty," a whip^ and with whips his worshippers, at some of his 
festivals, were required unmercifully to scourge themselves. " After 
the ceremonies of sacrifice," says Herodotus, speaking of the feast 
of Isis at Busiris, "the whole assembly, to the amount of many 
thousands, scourge themselves ; but in whose honour they do this 
I am not at liberty to disclose."! This reserve Herodotus generally 
uses, out of respect to his oath as an initiated man ; but subsequent 
researches leave no doubt as to the god " in whose honour " the 
scourgings took place. In Pagan Rome the worshippers of Isis 
observed the same practice in honour of Osiris. In Greece, Apollo, 
the Delian god, who was identical with Osiris, was propitiated 

* Paradise Lost, Book I. 11. 392-396, p. 13. 

+ See woodcut of Osiris, p. 44. 

t HERODOTUS, lib. ii. cap. 61, p. 127, A. 

We have seen already (p. 69) that the Egyptian Horus was just a new 
incarnation of Osiris or Nimrod. Now, Herodotus calls Horus by the name of 
Apollo (lib. ii. p. 171, C). Diodorus Siculus, also (lib. i. p. 15), says that 
" Horus, the son of Isis, is interpreted to be Apollo." Wilkinson seems, on one 
occasion, to call this identity of Horus and Apollo in question ; but he elsewhere 
admits that the story of Apollo s " combat with the serpent Py tho is evidently 
derived from the Egyptian mythology" (vol. iv. p. 395), where the allusion is to 
the representation of Horus piercing the snake with a spear. From divers 
considerations, it may be shown that this conclusion is correct : 1. Horus, or 
Osiris, was the sun-god, so was Apollo. 2. Osiris, whom Horus represented, was 
the great Revealer ; the Pythian Apollo was the god of oracles. 3. Osiris, in the 
character of Horus, was born when his mother was said to be persecuted by the 
malice of her enemies. Latona, the mother of Apollo, was a fugitive for a similar 
reason when Apollo was born. 4. Horus, according to one version of the myth, 
was said, like Osiris, to have been cut in pieces (PLUTARCH, vol. ii., De hide, 
p. 358, E). In the classic story of Greece, this part of the myth of Apollo was 
generally kept in the background ; and he was represented as victor in the conflict 
with the serpent ; but even there it was sometimes admitted that he had suffered 
a violent death, for by Porphyry he is said to have been slain by the serpent, and 


with similar penances by the sailors who visited his shrine, as we 
learn from the following lines of Callimachus in his hymn to 
Delos : 

" Soon as they reach thy soundings, down at once 

They drop slack sails and all the naval gear. 

The ship is moored ; nor do the crew presume 

To quit thy sacred limits, till they ve passed 

A fearful penance ; with the galling whip 

Lashed thrice around thine altar."* 

Over and above the scourgings, there were also slashings and 
cuttings of the flesh required as propitiatory rites on the part of 
his worshippers. " In the solemn celebration of the Mysteries," 
says Julius Firmicus, "all things in order had to be done, which 
the youth either did or suffered at his death, "f Osiris was cut in 
pieces ; therefore, to imitate his fate, so far as living men might 
do so, they were required to cut and wound their own bodies. 
Therefore, when the priests of Baal contended with Elijah, to gain 
the favour of their god, and induce him to work the desired miracle 
in their behalf, " they cried aloud and cut themselves, after their 
manner, with knives and with lancets, till the blood gushed out 
upon them."! In Egypt, the natives in general, though liberal 
in the use of the whip, seem to have been sparing of the knife ; 
but even there, there were men also who mimicked on their own 
persons the dismemberment of Osiris. "The Carians of Egypt," 
says Herodotus, in the place already quoted, "treat themselves 
at this solemnity with still more severity, for they cut themselves 
in the face with swords. " To this practice, there can be no doubt, 
there is a direct allusion in the command in the Mosaic law, "Ye 
shall make no cuttings in your flesh for the dead."|| These cuttings 
in the flesh are largely practised in the worship of the Hindoo 
divinities, as propitiatory rites or meritorious penances. They are 
well known to have been practised in the rites of Bellona,1I the 

Pythagoras affirmed that he had seen his tomb at Tripos in Delphi (BRYANT, 
vol. ii. p. 187). 5. Horus was the war-god. Apollo was represented in the same 
way as the great god represented in Layard, with the bow and arrow, who was 
evidently the Babylonian war-god, Apollo s well-known title of " Arcitenens," 
"The bearer of the bow," having evidently been borrowed from that source. 
Fuss tells us (pp. 354, 355) that Apollo was regarded as the inventor of the art of 
shooting with the bow. which identifies him with Sagittarius, whose origin we 
have already seen. 6. Lastly, from Ovid (Metam., lib. i. fab. 8, 1. 442, vol. ii. 
p. 39) we learn that, before engaging with Python, Apollo had used his arrows 
only on fallow-deers, stags, &c. All which sufficiently proves his substantial 
identification with the mighty Hunter of Babel. 

* CALLIMACHUS, in Original, v. 318-321, vol. i. p. 134. 


1 Kings xviii. 28. 

HERODOTUS, lib. ii. cap. 61, p. 127, A and B. 

|| Leviticus xix. 28. Every person who died in the faith was believed to be 
identified with Osiris, and called by his name. WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 167, Note. 

1T "The priests of Bellona," says Lactantius, "sacrificed not with any other 
men s blood but their own, their shoulders being lanced, and with both hands 
brandishing naked swords, they ran and leaped up and down like mad men." 
Lib. i. cap. 2, p. 52. 


"sister" or "wife of the Roman war-god Mars," whose name, "The 
lamenter of Bel," clearly proves the original of her husband to whom 
the Romans were so fond of tracing back their pedigree. They were 
practised also in the most savage form in the gladiatorial shows, 
in which the Roman people, with all their boasted civilisation, so 
much delighted. The miserable men who were doomed to engage 
in these bloody exhibitions, did not do so generally of their own free 
will. But yet, the principle on which these shows were conducted 
was the very same as that which influenced the priests of Baal. 
They were celebrated as propitiatory sacrifices. From Fuss we learn 
that " gladiatorial shows were sacred" to Saturn ; * and in Ausonius 
we read that " the amphitheatre claims its gladiators for itself, when 
at the end of December they PROPITIATE with their blood the sickle- 
bearing Son of Heaven."! On this passage, Justus Lipsius, who 
quotes it, thus comments : " Where you will observe two things, 
both, that the gladiators fought on the Saturnalia, and that they 
did so for the purpose of appeasing and PROPITIATING Saturn. "J 
" The reason of this," he adds, "I should suppose to be, that Saturn 
is not among the celestial but the infernal gods. Plutarch, in his 
book of Summaries, says, that * the Romans looked upon Kronos 
as a subterranean and infernal God. " There can be no doubt that 
this is so far true, for the name of Pluto is only a synonym for 
Saturn, "The Hidden One."|| But yet, in the light of the real 
history of the historical Saturn, we find a more satisfactory reason 
for the barbarous custom that so much disgraced the escutcheon 
of Rome in all its glory, when mistress of the world, when such 
multitudes of men were 

" Butchered to make a Roman holiday." 

"When it is remembered that Saturn himself was cut in pieces, it is 
easy to see how the idea would arise of offering a welcome sacrifice 
to him by setting men to cut one another in pieces on his birthday, 
by way of propitiating his favour. 

The practice of such penances, then, on the part of those of the 
Pagans who cut and slashed themselves, was intended to propitiate 
and please their god, and so to lay up a stock of merit that might 
tell in their behalf in the scales of Anubis. In the Papacy, the 
penances are not only intended to answer the same end, but, to 
a large extent, they are identical. I do not know, indeed, that 
they use the knife as the priests of Baal did ; but it is certain that 
they look upon the shedding of their own blood as a most meritorious 
penance, that gains them high favour with God, and wipes away 

* Roman Antiquities, p. 359. 

t AUSONIUS, Eclog. i. p. 156. 

LIPSIUS, torn. ii. SaturnaL, lib. i. cap. 5. 

PLUTARCH, vol. ii. p. 266. 

|| The name Pluto is evidently from " Lut," to hide, which, with the Egyptian 
definite article prefixed, becomes "P Lut." The Greek TT\OVTOS, "wealth," "the 
hidden thing," is obviously formed in the same way. Hades is just another 
synonym of the same name. 


many sins. Let the reader look at the pilgrims at Lough Dergh, 
in Ireland, crawling on their bare knees over the sharp rocks, and 
leaving the bloody tracks behind them, and say what substantial 
difference there is between that and cutting themselves with knives. 
In the matter of scourging themselves, however, the adherents 
of the Papacy have literally borrowed the lash of Osiris. Everyone 
has heard of the Flagellants, who publicly scourge themselves on 
the festivals of the Roman Church, and who are regarded as saints 
of the first water. In the early ages of Christianity such flagellations 
were regarded as purely and entirely Pagan. Athenagoras, one 
of the early Christian Apologists, holds up the Pagans to ridicule 
for thinking that sin could be atoned for, or God propitiated, by 
any such means.* But now, in the high places of the Papal Church, 
such practices are regarded as the grand means of gaining the favour 
of God. On Good Friday, at Rome and Madrid, and other chief 
seats of Roman idolatry, multitudes flock together to witness the 
performances of the saintly whippers, who lash themselves till 
the blood gushes in streams from every part of their body.f They 
pretend to do this in honour of Christ, on the festival set apart 
professedly to commemorate His death, just as the worshippers 
of Osiris did the same on the festival when they lamented for his 
loss.J But can any man of the least Christian enlightenment 
believe that the exalted Saviour can look on such rites as doing 
honour to Him, which pour contempt on His all-perfect atonement, 
and represent His most "precious blood" as needing to have its 
virtue supplemented by that of blood drawn from the backs of 
wretched and misguided sinners ? Such offerings were altogether 
fit for the worship of Moloch ; but they are the very opposite 
of being fit for the service of Christ. 

It is not in one point only, but in manifold respects, that the 
ceremonies of " Holy Week " at Rome, as it is termed, recall to 
memory the rites of the great Babylonian god. The more we look at 
these rites, the more we shall be struck with the wonderful resem 
blance that subsists between them and those observed at the 
Egyptian festival of burning lamps and the other ceremonies of 
the fire-worshippers in different countries. In Egypt the grand 
illumination took place beside the sepulchre of Osiris at Sais. In 
Rome in " Holy Week," a sepulchre of Christ also figures in 
connection with a brilliant illumination of burning tapers. || In 
Crete, where the tomb of Jupiter was exhibited, that tomb was an 
object of worship to the Cretans. IF In Rome, if the devotees do 

* ATHENAGORAS, Legatio pro Christ., s. 14, p. 134. 

t HDRD S Rites and Ceremonies, p. 175 ; and Rome in the 19th Century, vol. iii. 
p. 161. 

The priests of Cybele at Rome observed the same practice. Ibid. p. 251, 

WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 328. 

U Rome in the 19th Century, vol. iii. pp. 145, 150. 

IF "A vanis Cretensibus adhuc mortui Jovis tumulus adoratur." FIRMICUS, 
lib. ii. p. 23. 


not worship the so-called sepulchre of Christ, they worship what is 
entombed within it.* As there is reason to believe that the Pagan 
festival of burning lamps was observed in commemoration of the 
ancient fire-worship, so there is a ceremony at Rome in the Easter 
week, which is an unmistakable act of fire-worship, when a cross of 
fire is the grand object of worship. This ceremony is thus graphic 
ally described by the authoress of Rome in the 19th Century: 
" The effect of the blazing cross of fire suspended from the dome 
above the confession or tomb of St. Peter s, was strikingly brilliant 
at night. It is covered with innumerable lamps, which have the 

effect of one blaze of fire The whole church was thronged with 

a vast multitude of all classes and countries, from royalty to the 
meanest beggar, all gazing upon this one object. In a few minutes 
the Pope and all his Cardinals descended into St. Peter s, and room 
being kept for them by the Swiss guards, the aged Pontiff .... 
prostrated himself in silent adoration before the CROSS OF FIRE. 
A long train of Cardinals knelt before him, whose splendid robes 
and attendant train-bearers, formed a striking contrast to the humility 
of their attitude." f What could be a more clear and unequivocal 
act of fire-worship than this ? Now, view this in connection with the 
fact stated in the following extract from the same work, and how 
does the one cast light on the other: "With Holy Thursday our 
miseries began [that is, from crowding]. On this disastrous day we 
went before nine to the Sistine chapel .... and beheld a procession 
led by the inferior orders of clergy, followed up by the Cardinals in 
superb dresses, bearing long wax tapers in their hands, and ending 
with the Pope himself, who walked beneath a crimson canopy, with 
his head uncovered, bearing the Host in a box ; and this being, as 
you know, the real flesh and blood of Christ, was carried from the 
Sistine chapel through the intermediate hall to the Paulina chapel, 
where it was deposited in the sepulchre prepared to receive it 

beneath the altar I never could learn why Christ was to be 

buried before He was dead, for, as the crucifixion did not take place 
till Good Friday, it seems odd to inter Him on Thursday. His body, 
however, is laid in the sepulchre, in all the churches of Rome, where 
this rite is practised, on Thursday forenoon, and it remains there till 
Saturday at mid-day, when, for some reason best known to them 
selves, He is supposed to rise from the grave amidst the firing of 
cannon, and blowing of trumpets, and jingling of bells, which have 
been carefully tied up ever since the dawn of Holy Thursday, lest 
the devil should get into them." { The worship of the cross of fire 
on Good Friday explains at once the anomaly otherwise so perplex 
ing, that Christ should be buried on Thursday, and rise from the 
dead on Saturday. If the festival of Holy Week be really, as its 
rites declare, one of the old festivals of Saturn, the Babylonian fire- 

* Rome in the 19th Century, vol. iii. p. 145. 

f Ibid. pp. 148, 149. We shall yet see that the cross is the express symbol of 
Tammuz, the sun-god and god of fire. See Sect. VI. of the next Chapter, 
t Ibid. pp. 144, 145. 


god, who, though an infernal god, was yet Phoroneus, the great 
"Deliverer," it is altogether natural that the god of the Papal 
idolatry, though called by Christ s name, should rise from the dead 
on his own day the Dies Saturni, or " Saturn s day." * On the day 
before the Miserere is sung with such overwhelming pathos, that 
few can listen to it unmoved, and many even swoon with the 
emotions that are excited. What if this be at bottom only the old 
song of Linus, f of whose very touching and melancholy character 
Herodotus speaks so strikingly? Certain it is, that much of the 
pathos of that Miserere depends on the part borne in singing it by 
the sopranos ; and equally certain it is that Semiramis, the wife of 
him who, historically, was the original of that god whose tragic death 
was so pathetically celebrated in many countries, enjoys the fame, 
such as it is, of having been the inventress of the practice from 
which soprano singing took its rise.J 

Now, the flagellations which form an important part of the 
penances that take place at Rome on the evening of Good Friday, 
formed an equally important part in the rites of that fire-god, from 
which, as we have seen, the Papacy has borrowed so much. These 
flagellations, then, of "Passion Week," taken in connection with the 
other ceremonies of that period, bear their additional testimony to 
the real character of that god whose death and resurrection Rome 
then celebrates. Wonderful it is to consider that, in the very high 
place of what is called Catholic Christendom, the essential rites at 
this day are seen to be the very rites of the old Chaldean fire- 


If baptismal regeneration, the initiating ordinance of Rome, and 
justification by works, be both Chaldean, the principle embodied in 
the " unbloody sacrifice " of the mass is not less so. We have evidence 
that goes to show the Babylonian origin of the idea of that " unbloody 
sacrifice " very distinctly. From Tacitus we learn that no blood 

* The above account referred to the ceremonies as witnessed by the authoress 
in 1817 and 1818. It would seem that some change has taken place since then, 
caused probably by the very attention called by her to the gross anomaly mentioned 
above ; for Count Vlodaiskj^ formerly a Roman Catholic priest, who visited 
Rome in 1845, has informed me that in that year the resurrection took place, not 
at mid-day, but at nine o clock on the evening of Saturday. This may have been 
intended to make the inconsistency between Roman practice and Scriptural fact 
appear somewhat less glaring. Still the fact remains, that the resurrection of 
Christ, as celebrated at Rome, takes place, not on His own day " The Lord s 
day " but on the day of Saturn, the god of fire ! 

f A surname of one of the three Linuses was Narcissus (in Greek, Narkissos). 
(CLINTON S Fasti Eellenici, Appendix, vol. i. p. 343.) Now " Naar " signifies 
"child," and "Kissos,"as we have seen (p. 49), is Cueh, so that Nar-kissos is 
" The child of Cush." 

AMMIANUS MARCKLLINUS, lib. xiv. cap. 6, p. xxv. 

Historia, lib. ii. cap. 3, vol. iii. p. 106. 


was allowed to be offered on the altars of Paphian Venus. Victims 
were used for the purposes of the Haruspex, that presages of the 
issues of events might be drawn from the inspection of the entrails 
of these victims ; but the altars of the Paphian goddess were required 
to be kept pure from blood. Tacitus shows that the Haruspex of the 
temple of the Paphian Venus was brought from Cilicia, for his know 
ledge of her rites, that they might be duly performed according to the 
supposed will of the goddess, the Cilicians having peculiar knowledge 
of her rites. ISTow, Tarsus, the capital of Cilicia, was built by Senna 
cherib, the Assyrian king, in express imitation of Babylon.* Its 
religion would naturally correspond; and when we find "unbloody 
sacrifice " in Cyprus, whose priest came from Cilicia, that, in the 
circumstances, is itself a strong presumption that the "unbloody 
sacrifice " came to it through Cilicia from Babylon. This presump 
tion is greatly strengthened when we find from Herodotus that the 
peculiar and abominable institution of Babylon in prostituting virgins 
in honour of Mylitta, was observed also in Cyprus in honour of 
Venus, f But the positive testimony of Pausanias brings this pre 
sumption to a certainty. " Near this," says that historian, speaking 
of the temple of Vulcan at Athens, "is the temple of Celestial Venus, 
who was first worshipped by the Assyrians, and after these by the 
Paphians in Cyprus, and the Phenicians who inhabited the city of 
Ascalon in Palestine. But the Cythereans venerated this goddess 
in consequence of learning her sacred rites from the Phenicians. "| 
The Assyrian Venus, then that is, the great goddess of Babylon 
and the Cyprian Venus were one and the same, and consequently 
the " bloodless " altars of the Paphian goddess show the character of 
the worship peculiar to the Babylonian goddess, from whom she was 
derived. In this respect the goddess-queen of Chaldea differed from 
her son, who was worshipped in her arms. He was, as we have seen, 
represented as delighting in blood. But she, as the mother of grace 
and mercy, as the celestial " Dove," as " the hope of the whole 
world," was averse to blood, and was represented in a benign and 
gentle character. Accordingly, in Babylon she bore the name of 
Mylitta 1 1 that is, "The Mediatrix. "1T Every one who reads the 
Bible, and sees how expressly it declares that, as there is only " one 
God," so there is only "one Mediator between God and man" 
(1 Tim. ii. 5), must marvel how it could ever have entered the mind 
of any one to bestow on Mary, as is done by the Church of Rome, 
the character of the " Mediatrix." But the character ascribed to 

* BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 718. 

t HEROD., Historia, lib. i. cap. 199, p. 92. 

PAUSANIAS, lib. i. Attica, cap. 14. 

Nonni Dionysiaca, in BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 226. 

|| HERODOT., lib. i. cap. 199. 

IF Mylitta is the same as Melitta, the feminine of Melitz, "a mediator," which 
in Chaldee becomes Melitt. Melitz is the word used in Job xxxiii. 23, 24 : "If 
there be a messenger with him, an interpreter (Heb. Melitz, "a mediator"), one 
among a thousand, to show unto man his uprightness, then he is gracious unto 
him, and saith, Deliver him from going down to the pit ; I have found a ransom." 
For further evidence on this point, see Appendix, Note J. 


the Babylonian goddess as Mylitta sufficiently accounts for this. In 
accordance with this character of Mediatrix, she was called Aph 
rodite" that is, "the wrath-subduer "* who by her charms could 
soothe the breast of angry Jove, and soften the most rugged spirits 
of gods or mortal-men. In Athens she was called Amarusia f that 
is, " The Mother of gracious acceptance."! In Rome she was called 
" Bona Dea," " the good goddess," the mysteries of this goddess being 
celebrated by women with peculiar secrecy. In India the goddess 
Lakshmi, " the Mother of the Universe," the consort of Vishnu, is 
represented also as possessing the most gracious and genial disposi 
tion ; and that disposition is indicated in the same way as in the 
case of the Babylonian goddess. " In the festivals of Lakshmi," 
says Coleman, " no sanguinary sacrifices are offered"^ In China, 
the great gods, on whom the final destinies of mankind depend, are 
held up to the popular mind as objects of dread ; but the goddess 
Kuanyin, "the goddess of mercy,"|| whom the Chinese of Canton 
recognise as bearing an analogy to the Virgin of Rome, is described 
as looking with an eye of compassion on the guilty, and interposing 
to save miserable souls even from torments to which in the world of 
spirits they have been doomed.1T Therefore she is regarded with 
peculiar favour by the Chinese. This character of the goddess-mother 
has evidently radiated in all directions from Chaldea. Now, thus we 
see how it comes that Rome represents Christ, the " Lamb of God," 
meek and lowly in heart, who never brake the bruised reed, nor 
quenched the smoking flax who spake words of sweetest encourage 
ment to every mourning penitent who wept over Jerusalem who 
prayed for His murderers as a stern and inexorable judge, before 
whom the sinner " might grovel in the dust, and still never be sure 
that his prayers would be heard,"** while Mary is set off in the most 
winning and engaging light, as the hope of the guilty, as the grand 
refuge of sinners ; how it is that the former is said to have " reserved 
justice and judgment to Himself," but to have committed the exercise 
of all mercy to His Mother ! f f The most standard devotional works 
of Rome are pervaded by this very principle, exalting the compassion 
and gentleness of the mother at the expense of the loving character of 
the Son. Thus, St. Alphonsus Liguori tells his readers that the sinner 
that ventures to come directly to Christ may come with dread and 
apprehension of His wrath ; but let him only employ the mediation 
of the Virgin with her Son, and she has only to "show" that Son 

* From Chaldee " aph," " wrath," and " radah," " to subdue ; " " radlte " is the 
feminine emphatic. 

f PAUSANIAS, lib. i., Attica, cap. 31, p. 72. 

From " Ama," "mother," and " Retza," " to accept graciously," which in the 
participle active is " Rutza." Pausanias expresses his perplexity as to the meaning 
of the name Amarusia as applied to Diana, saying, "Concerning which appellation 
I never could find any one able to give a satisfactory account." The sacred tongue 
plainly shows the meaning of it. 

Hindoo Mythology, p. 61. 

|| Sir J. F. DAVIS, vol. ii. p. 67. U Ibid. vol. ii. p. 61. 

** Sermon of an Italian Priest, in Evangelical Christendom, May, 1853. 

ft British Reformers, "Jewell," p. 209. 


" tlie breasts that gave Him suck,"* and His wrath will immediately be 
appeased. But where in the Word of God could such an idea have 
been found 1 Not surely in the answer of the Lord Jesus to the 
woman who exclaimed, "Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and 
the paps that thou hast sucked ! " Jesus answered and said unto 
her, " Yea, rather, blessed are they that hear the Word of God and 
keep it" (Luke xi. 27, 28). There cannot be a doubt that this 
answer was given by the prescient Saviour, to check in the very bud 
every idea akin to that expressed by Liguori. Yet this idea, which 
is not to be found in Scripture, which the Scripture expressly 
repudiates, was widely diffused in the realms of Paganism. Thus 
we find an exactly parallel representation in the Hindoo mythology 
in regard to the god Siva and his wife Kali, when that god appeared 
as a little child. " Siva," says the Lainga Puran, " appeared as an 
infant in a cemetery, surrounded by ghosts, and on beholding him, 
Kali (his wife) took him up, and, caressing him, gave him her breast. 
He sucked the nectareous fluid ; but becoming ANGRY, in order to 
divert and PACIFY him, Kali clasping him to her bosom, danced with 
her attendant goblins and demons amongst the dead, until he was 
pleased and delighted; while Vishnu, Brahma, Indra, and all the 
gods, bowing themselves, praised with laudatory strains the god of 
gods, Kal and Parvati/ f Kali, in India, is the goddess of 
destruction; but even into the myth that concerns this goddess of 
destruction, the power of the goddess mother, in appeasing an 
offended god, by means only suited to PACIFY a peevish child, 
has found an introduction. If the Hindoo story exhibits its "god 
of gods " in such a degrading light, how much more honouring is the 
Papal story to the Son of the Blessed, when it represents Him as 
needing to be pacified by His mother exposing to Him " the breasts 
that He has sucked." All this is done only to exalt the Mother, as 
more gracious and more compassionate than her glorious Son. Now, 
this was the very case in Babylon : and to this character of the 
goddess queen her favourite offerings exactly corresponded. There 
fore, we find the women of Judah represented as simply "burning 
incense, pouring out drink-offerings, and offering cakes to the queen 
of heaven" (Jeremiah xliv. 19). The cakes were "the unbloody 
sacrifice " she required. That " unbloody sacrifice " her votaries not 
only offered, but when admitted to the higher mysteries, they 
partook of, swearing anew fidelity to her. In the fourth century, 
when the queen of heaven, under the name of Mary, was beginning 
to be worshipped in the Christian Church, this "unbloody sacrifice" 
also was brought in. Epiphanius states that the practice of offering 
and eating it began among the women of Arabia ; \ and at that time 
it was well known to have been adopted from the Pagans. The very 
shape of the unbloody sacrifice of Rome may indicate whence it 
came. It is a small thin, round wafer ; and on its roundness the 

* Catholic Layman, July, 1856. 

f LAINGA PUEA.N, apud KENNEDY S Ancient and Hindoo Mythology, p. 338, Note. 

I EPIPHANIUS, Adversus Hcereses, vol. i. p. 1054. 


Church of Rome lays so much stress, that, to use the pithy language 
of John Knox in regard to the wafer-god, "If, in making the 
roundness the ring be broken, then must another of his fellow-cakes 
receive that honour to be made a god, and the crazed or cracked 
miserable cake, that once was in hope to be made a god, must be 
given to a baby to play withal."* What could have induced the 
Papacy to insist so much on the "roundness" of its "unbloody 
sacrifice " ? Clearly not any reference to the Divine institution of 
the Supper of our Lord ; for in all the accounts that are given of it, 
no reference whatever is made to the form of the bread which our 
Lord took, when He blessed and break it, and gave it to His disciples, 
saying, " Take, eat ; this is My body : this do in remembrance of 
Me." As little can it be taken from any regard to injunctions about 
the form of the Jewish Paschal bread; for no injunctions on that 
subject are given in the books of Moses. The importance, however, 
which Home attaches to the roundness of the wafer, must have a 
reason ; and that reason will be found, if we look at the altars of 
Egypt. "The thin, round cake," says Wilkinson, "occurs on all 

Fig. 37. 

altars."! Almost every jot or tittle in the Egyptian worship had a 
symbolical meaning. The round disk, so frequent in the sacred 
emblems of Egypt, symbolised the sun. Now, when Osiris, the sun- 
divinity, became incarnate, and was born, it was not merely that he 
should give his life as a sacrifice for men,J but that he might also be 
the life and nourishment of the souls of men. It is universally 
admitted that Isis was the original of the Greek and Eoman Ceres. 
But Ceres, be it observed, was worshipped not simply as the discoverer 
of corn; she was worshipped as "the MOTHER of Corn." The child 
she brought forth was He-Siri, "the Seed," or, as he was most fre 
quently called in Assyria, " Bar," which signifies at once " the Son " 
and "the Corn." (Fig. 37.)|| The uninitiated might reverence 
Ceres for the gift of material corn to nourish their bodies, but the 

* BEGG S Handbook of Popery, p. 259. 

f WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. v. p. 353. 

See ante, p. 102, Note, in regard to the symbolical meaning of the goose. 

"Genitrix, or Mater frugum." See PYPEK S Gradus ad Parnassum, "Ceres " ; 
also OVID, Metam., lib. vi. v. 117, 118. 

!l The ear of corn in the above medal from BRYANT (vol. v. p. 384), is alongside 
of Ceres ; but usually it is held in her hand. The god on the reverse is the same 
as that ear. See page 73, in regard to " Beltis and the Shining Bar." 


initiated adored her for a higher gift for food to nourish their 
souls for giving them that bread of God that cometh down from 
heaven for the life of the world, of which, " if a man eat, he shall 
never die." Does any one imagine that it is a mere New Testament 
doctrine, that Christ is the " bread of life " 1 There never was, there 
never could be, spiritual life in any soul, since the world began, at 
least since the expulsion from Eden, that was not nourished and 
supported by a continual feeding by faith on the Son of God, " in 
whom it hath pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell" 
(Col. i. 19), "that out of His fulness we might receive, and grace 
for grace" (John i. 16). Paul tells us that the manna of which the 
Israelites ate in the wilderness was to them a type and lively symbol 
of "the bread of life;" (1 Cor. x. 3), "They did all eat the same 
spiritual meat " i.e., meat which was intended not only to support 
their natural lives, but to point them to Him who was the life of 
their souls. Now, Clement of Alexandria, to whom we are largely 
indebted for all the discoveries that, in modern times, have been 
made in Egypt, expressly assures us that, "in their hidden character, 
the enigmas of the Egyptians were VERY SIMILAR TO THOSE OF THE 
JEWS." * That the initiated Pagans actually believed that the 
"Corn" which Ceres bestowed on the world was not the "Corn" of 
this earth, but the Divine " Son," through whom alone spiritual and 
eternal life could be enjoyed, we have clear and decisive proof. 
The Druids were devoted worshippers of Ceres, and as such they 
were celebrated in their mystic poems as "bearers of the ears of 
corn." f Now, the following is the account which the Druids give 
of their great divinity, under the form of " Corn." That divinity 
was represented as having, in the first instance, incurred, for some 
reason or other, the displeasure of Ceres, and as fleeing in terror 
from her. In his terror, "he took the form of a bird, and mounted 
into the air. That element afforded him no refuge ; for The Lady, 
in the form of a sparrow-hawk, was gaining upon him she was just 
in the act of pouncing upon him. Shuddering with dread, he 
perceived a heap of clean wheat upon a floor, dropped into the midst 
of it, and assumed the form of a single grain. Ceridwen [i.e., the 
British Ceres] took the form of a black high-crested hen, descended 
into the wheat, scratched him out, distinguished, and swallowed 
him. And, as the history relates, she was pregnant of him nine 
months, and when delivered of him, she found him so lovely a babe, 
that she had not resolution to put him to death." J Here it is evi 
dent that the grain of corn, is expressly identified with "the lovely 
babe /" from which it is still further evident that Ceres, who, 
to the profane vulgar was known only as the Mother of "Bar," 
" the Corn," was known to the initiated as the Mother of " Bar," 
"the Son." And now, the reader will be prepared to understand the 
full significance of the representation in the Celestial sphere of " the 

* CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, Stromata, v. 7, vol. iii. p. 56. 

f DAVIES S British Druids, p. 504. 

J " Song of Taliesin," DAVIKS S British Druids, p. 230. 




Fig. 38. 

Virgin with the ear of wheat in her hand." That ear of wheat in 
the Virgin s hand is just another symbol for the child in the arms 
of the Virgin Mother. 

Now, this Son, who was symbolised as "Corn," was the SUN- 
divinity incarnate, according to the sacred oracle of the great 
goddess of Egypt : "No mortal hath lifted my veil The fruit 
which I have brought forth is the SUN."* What more natural, 
then, if this incarnate divinity is symbolised as the " bread of God," 
than that he should be represented as a "round wafer," to identify 
him with the Sun 1 Is this a mere fancy ? Let the reader peruse 
the following extract from Hurd, in which he describes the 
embellishments of the Romish altar, on which the sacrament or 
consecrated wafer is deposited, and then he will be able to judge : 
"A plate of silver, in the form of a SUN, is fixed opposite to the 

SACRAMENT on the altar ; which, with the 
light of the tapers, makes a most brilliant 
appearance."! What has that "brilliant" 
" Sun" to do there, on the altar, over 
against the " sacrament" or round wafer ? 
In Egypt, the disk of the Sun was repre 
sented in the temples, and the sovereign 
and his wife and children were repre 
sented as adoring it. Near the small 
town of Babain, in Upper Egypt, there 
still exists in a grotto, a representation of 
a sacrifice to the sun, where two priests 
are seen worshipping the sun s image, as 
in the accompanying woodcut (Fig. 38)4 
In the great temple of Babylon, the golden 
image of the Sun was exhibited for the 
worship of the Babylonians. In the 
temple of Cuzco, in Peru, the disk of the 
sun was fixed up in flaming gold upon 
the wall, || that all who entered might bow 
down before it. The Paeonians of Thrace 
were sun- worshippers ; and in their worship they adored an image 
of the sun in the form of a disk at the top of a long pole.^T In the 
worship of Baal, as practised by the idolatrous Israelites in the days of 
their apostacy, the worship of the sun s image was equally observed ; 
and it is striking to find that the image of the sun, which apostate 
Israel worshipped, was erected above the altar. When the good 
king Josiah set about the work of reformation, we read that his 
servants in carrying out the work, proceeded thus (2 Chron. 
xxxiv. 4) : " And they brake down the altars of Baalim in his 

* BUNSEN S Egypt, vol. i. pp. 386, 387. 

t KURD S Rites and Ceremonies, p. 196, col. i. 

J From MAURICE S Indian Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 809. 1793. 

See ante, p. 62. 

|| PRESCOTT S Peru, vol. i. p. 64. IF BRYANT, vol. i. p. 259. 


presence, and the images (margin, SUN-IMAGES) that were on high 
above them, he cut down." Benjamin of Tudela, the great Jewish 
traveller, gives a striking account of sun-worship even in compara 
tively modern times, as subsisting among the Cushites of the East, 
from which we find that the image of the sun was, even in his day, 
worshipped on the altar. " There is a temple," says ;he, " of the 
posterity of Chus, addicted to the contemplation of the stars. They 
worship the sun as a god, and the whole country, for half-a-mile 
round their town, is filled with great altars dedicated to him. By 
the dawn of morn they get up and run out of town, to wait the 
rising sun, to whom, on every altar, there is a consecrated image, not 
in the likeness of a man, but of the solar orb, framed by magic art. 
These orbs, as soon as the sun rises, take fire, and resound with a 
great noise, while everybody there, men and women, hold censers in 
their hands, and all burn incense to the sun."* From all this, it is 
manifest that the image of the sun above, or on the altar, was one of 
the recognised symbols of those who worshipped Baal or the Sun. 
And here, in a so-called Christian Church, a brilliant plate of silver, 
"in the form of a SUN," is so placed on the altar, that every one 
who adores at that altar must bow down in lowly reverence before 
that image of the "Sun." Whence, I ask, could that have come, 
but from the ancient sun-worship, or the worship of Baal 1 ? And 
when the wafer is so placed that the silver " SUN " is fronting the 
"round" wafer, whose "roundness" is so important an element in 
the Romish Mystery, what can be the meaning of it, but just to 
show to those who have eyes to see, that the " Wafer " itself is only 
another symbol of Baal, or the Sun. If the sun-divinity was 
worshipped in Egypt as " the Seed," or in Babylon as the " Corn," 
precisely so is the wafer adored in Rome. "Bread-corn of the 
elect, have mercy upon us," is one of the appointed prayers of the 
Roman Litany, addressed to the wafer, in the celebration of the 
mass.f And one at least of the imperative requirements as to 
the way in which that wafer is to be partaken of, is the very same 
as was enforced in the old worship of the Babylonian divinity. 
Those who partake of it are required to partake absolutely fasting. 
This is very stringently laid down. Bishop Hay, laying down the 
law on the subject, says that it is indispensable, " that we be fasting 
from midnight, so as to have taken nothing into our stomach from 
twelve o clock at night before we receive, neither food, nor drink, 
nor medicine."J Considering that our Lord Jesus Christ instituted 
the Holy Communion immediately after His disciples had partaken 
of the paschal feast, such a strict requirement of fasting might seem 
very unaccountable. But look at this provision in regard to the 
"unbloody sacrifice" of the mass in the light of the Eleusinian 
Mysteries, and it is accounted for at once ; for there the first question 
put to those who sought initiation was, "Are you fasting? " and 

* Quoted by Translator of SAVARY S Letters, vol. ii. pp. 562, 563, Note. 

f Protestant, p. 269, col. 2. Sincere Christian, vol. ii. sect. iii. p. 34. 

POTTER, vol. i., Elcusiania, p. 356. 


unless that question was answered in the affirmative, no initiation 
could take place. There is no question that fasting is in certain 
circumstances a Christian duty ; but while neither the letter nor the 
spirit of the Divine institution requires any such stringent regulation 
as the above, the regulations in regard to the Babylonian Mysteries 
make it evident whence this requirement has really come. 

Although the god whom Isis or Ceres brought forth, and who 
was offered to her under the symbol of the wafer or thin round 
cake, as "the bread of life," was in reality the fierce, scorching Sun, 
or terrible Moloch, yet in that offering all his terror was veiled, and 
everything repulsive was cast into the shade. In the appointed 
symbol he is offered up to the benignant Mother, who tempers 
judgment with mercy, and to whom all spiritual blessings are 
ultimately referred ; and blessed by that mother, he is given back to 
be feasted upon, as the staff of life, as the nourishment of her 
worshippers souls. Thus the Mother was held up as the favourite 
divinity. And thus, also, and for an entirely similar reason, does 
the Madonna of Rome entirely eclipse her son as the "Mother of 
grace and mercy." 

In regard to the Pagan character of the " unbloody sacrifice " of 
the mass, we have seen not little already. But there is something 
yet to be considered, in which the working of the mystery of iniquity 
will still further appear. There are letters on the wafer that are 
worth reading. These letters are I. H. S. What mean these 
mystical letters? To a Christian these letters are represented as 
signifying, " lesus Hominum Salvator," "Jesus the Saviour of men." 
But let a Roman worshipper of Isis (for in the age of the emperors 
there were innumerable worshippers of Isis in Rome) cast his eyes 
upon them, and how will he read them? He will read them, of 
course, according to his own well-known system of idolatry: "/sis, 
Horus, Seb" that is, " The Mother, the Child, and the Father of the 
gods," in other words, " The Egyptian Trinity." Can the reader 
imagine that this double sense is accidental ? Surely not. The very 
same spirit that converted the festival of the Pagan Cannes into the 
feast of the Christian Joannes, retaining at the same time all its 
ancient Paganism, has skilfully planned the initials I. H. S. to pay 
the semblance of a tribute to Christianity, while Paganism in reality 
has all the substance of the homage bestowed upon it. 

When the women of Arabia began to adopt this wafer and offer 
the "unbloody sacrifice," all genuine Christians saw at once the real 
character of their sacrifice. They were treated as heretics, and 
branded with the name of Collyridians, from the Greek name for the 
cake which they employed. But Rome saw that the heresy might 
be turned to account \ and therefore, though condemned by the sound 
portion of the Church, the practice of offering and eating this 
" unbloody sacrifice " was patronised by the Papacy ; and now, 
throughout the whole bounds of the Romish communion, it has 
superseded the simple but most precious sacrament of the Supper 
instituted by our Lord Himself. 


Intimately connected with the sacrifice of the mass is the subject 
of transuhstantiation ; but the consideration of it will come more 
conveniently at a subsequent stage of this inquiry. 


The last office which Popery performs for living men is to give 
them " extreme unction," to anoint them in the name of the Lord, 
after they have been shriven and absolved, and thus to prepare them 
for their last and unseen journey. The pretence for this " unction " 
of dying men is professedly taken from a command of James in regard 
to the visitation of the sick; but when the passage in question is 
fairly quoted it will be seen that such a practice could never have 
arisen from the apostolic direction that it must have come from an 
entirely different source. "Is any sick among you?" says James 
(v. 14, 15), "let him call for the elders of the church; and let them 
pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord : 
and the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall RAISE 
HIM UP." Now, it is evident that this prayer and anointing were 
intended for the recovery of the sick. Apostolic men, for the laying 
of the foundations of the Christian Church, were, by their great King 
and Head, invested with miraculous powers powers which were 
intended only for a time, and were destined, as the apostles them 
selves declared, while exercising them, to "vanish away" (1 Cor. 
xiii. 8). These powers were every day exercised by the " elders of 
the Church," when James wrote his epistle, and that for healing the 
bodies of men, even as our Lord Himself did. The "extreme 
unction" of Rome, as the very expression itself declares, is not 
intended for any such purpose. It is not intended for healing the 
sick, or " raising them up ; " for it is not on any account to be admin 
istered till all hope of recovery is gone, and death is visibly at the 
very doors. As the object of this anointing is the very opposite of the 
Scriptural anointing, it must have come from a quite different 
quarter. That quarter is the very same from which the Papacy has 
imported so much heathenism, as we have seen already, into its own 
foul bosom. From the Chaldean Mysteries, extreme unction has 
obviously come. Among the many names of the Babylonian god 
was the name " Becl-samen," "Lord of Heaven,"* which is the name 
of the sun, but also of course of the sun-god. But Becl-samen also 
properly signifies "Lord of Oil," and was evidently intended as a 
synonym of the Divine name, "The Messiah." In Herodotus we 
find a statement made which this name alone can fully explain. 
There an individual is represented as having dreamt that the sun had 
anointed her father, f That the sun should anoint any one is 

"Lord of Heaven" is properly " Beel-shemin," but in Sanchuniathon it is 
given exactly as the name of the "Lord of Oil" (pp. 12, 13). EUSEB., Praep. 
Evang., lib. i. cap. 10, p. 39. 
f HERODOTUS, lib. iii. cap. 124. 


certainly not an idea that could naturally have presented itself ; but 
when the name " Beel-samen," " Lord of Heaven," is seen also to 
signify " Lord of Oil," it is easy to see how that idea would be 
suggested. This also accounts for the fact that the body of the Baby 
lonian Belus was represented as having been preserved in his 
sepulchre in Babylon till the time of Xerxes, floating in oil.* And 
for the same reason, no doubt, it was that at Rome the " statue of 
Saturn" was "made hollow, and. filled with oil." If 

The olive branch, which we have already seen to have been one of 
the symbols of the Chaldean god, had evidently the same hieroglyphical 
meaning; for, as the olive was the oil-tree, so an olive branch 
emblematically signified a "son of oil," or an "anointed one" (Zech. 
iv. 12-14). Hence the reason that the Greeks, in coming before their 
gods in the attitude of suppliants deprecating their wrath and entreat 
ing their favour, came to the temple on many occasions bearing an 
olive branch in their hands. As the olive branch was one of the 
recognised symbols of their Messiah, whose great mission it was to 
make peace between God and man, so, in bearing this branch of the 
anointed one, they thereby testified that in the name of that anointed 
one they came seeking peace. Now, the worshippers of this Beel- 
samen, "Lord of Heaven," and "Lord of Oil," were anointed in the 
name of their god. It was not enough that they were anointed with 
" spittle " ; they were also anointed with "magical ointments " of the 
most powerful kind ; and these ointments were the means of intro 
ducing into their bodily systems such drugs as tended to excite their 
imaginations and add to the power of the magical drinks they received, 
that they might be prepared for the visions and revelations that were 
to be made to them in the Mysteries. These " unctions" says Salverte, 

" were exceedingly frequent in the ancient ceremonies Before 

consulting the oracle of Trophonius, they were rubbed with oil over 
the whole body. This preparation certainly concurred to produce the 
desired vision. Before being admitted to the Mysteries of the Indian 
sages, Apollonius and his companion were rubbed with an oil so 
powerful that they felt as if bathed with fire "\ This was professedly 
an unction in the name of the " Lord of Heaven," to fit and prepare 
them for being admitted in vision into his awful presence. The very 
same reason that suggested such an unction before initiation on this 
present scene of things, would naturally plead more powerfully still 
for a special " unction " when the individual was called, not in vision, 
but in reality, to face the " Mystery of mysteries," his personal intro 
duction into the world unseen and eternal. Thus the Pagan system 
naturally developed itself into " extreme unction. " Its votaries 
were anointed for their last journey, that by the double influence of 
superstition and powerful stimulants introduced into the frame by 
the only way in which it might then be possible, their minds might 

* CLERICUS, Phiiosoph. Orient., lib. i., De Chaldccis, sect. i. cap. 4. 

t SMITH S Classical Dictionary, p. 679. 

t SALVERT, Des Sciences Occultes, p. 282. 

Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, p. 6, January, 1853. 


be fortified at once against the sense of guilt and the assaults of 
the king of terrors. From this source, and this alone, there can be 
no doubt came the " extreme unction " of the Papacy, which was 
entirely unknown among Christians till corruption was far advanced 
in the Church.* 


" Extreme unction," however, to a burdened soul, was but a miser 
able resource, after all, in the prospect of death. No wonder, there 
fore, that something else was found to be needed by those who had 
received all that priestly assumption could pretend to confer, to 
comfort them in the prospect of eternity. In every system, therefore, 
except that of the Bible, the doctrine of a purgatory after death, and 
prayers for the dead, has always been found to occupy a place. Go 
wherever we may, in ancient or modern times, we shall find that 
Paganism leaves hope after death for sinners, who, at the time of 
their departure, were consciously unfit for the abodes of the blest. 
For this purpose a middle state has been feigned, in which, by means 
of purgatorial pains, guilt unremoved in time may in a future world 
be purged away, and the soul be made meet for final beatitude. 
In Greece the doctrine of a purgatory was inculcated by the very 
chief of the philosophers. Thus Plato, speaking of the future judg 
ment of the dead, holds out the hope of final deliverance for all, but 
maintains that, of " those who are judged," " some " must first 
" proceed to a subterranean place of judgment, where they shall sustain 
the punishment they have deserved ; " while others, in consequence of 
a favourable judgment, being elevated at once into a certain celestial 
place, " shall pass their time in a manner becoming the life they have 
lived in a human shape, "f In Pagan Rome, purgatory was equally 
held up before the minds of men ; but there, there seems to have been 
no hope held out to any of exemption from its pains. Therefore, 
Virgil, describing its different tortures, thus speaks : 

"Nor can the grovelling mind, 
In the dark dungeon of the limbs confined, 
Assert the native skies, or own its heavenly kind. 
Nor death itself can wholly wash their stains ; 
But long-contracted filth, even in the soul, remains 
The relics of inveterate vice they wear, 
And spots of sin obscene in every face, appear. 
For this are various penances enjoined ; 
And some are hung to bleach upon the wind, 
Some plunged in water, others purged in fires, 
Till all the dregs are drained, and all the rust expires. 
All have their Manes, and those Manes bear. 

* Bishop GIBSON says that it was not known in the Church for a thousand 
years. Preservative against Popery, vol. viii. p. 255. 
f PLATO, Pfiaedrus, p. 249, A, B. 


The few so cleansed to these abodes repair, 
And breathe in ample fields the soft Elysian air. 
Then are they happy, when by length of time 
The scurf is worn away of each committed crime ; 
No speck is left of their habitual stains, 
But the pure ether of the soul remains."* 

In Egypt, substantially the same doctrine of purgatory was 
inculcated. But when once this doctrine of purgatory was admitted 
into the popular mind, then the door was opened for all manner of 
priestly extortions. Prayers for the dead ever go hand in hand with 
purgatory ; but no prayers can be completely efficacious without the 
interposition of the priests ; and no priestly functions can be rendered 
unless there be special pay for them. Therefore, in every land we 
find the Pagan priesthood " devouring widows houses," and making 
merchandise of the tender feelings of sorrowing relatives, sensitively 
alive to the immortal happiness of the beloved dead. From all 
quarters there is one universal testimony as to the burdensome char 
acter and the expense of these posthumous devotions. One of the 
oppressions under which the poor Romanists in Ireland groan, is the 
periodical special devotions, for which they are required to pay, when 
death has carried away one of the inmates of their dwelling. Not 
only are there funeral services and funeral dues for the repose of the 
departed, at the time of burial, but the priest pays repeated visits to 
the family for the same purpose, which entail heavy expense, begin 
ning with what is called "the month s mind," that is, a service in 
behalf of the deceased when a month after death has elapsed. Some 
thing entirely similar to this had evidently been the case in ancient 
Greece ; for, says Miiller in his History of the Dorians, " the 
Argives sacrificed on the thirtieth day [after death] to Mercury as 
the conductor of the dead."f In India many and burdensome are 
the services of the Sradd ha, or funeral obsequies for the repose of the 
dead ; and for securing the due efficacy of these, it is inculcated that 
" donations of cattle, land, gold, silver, and other things," should be 
made by the man himself at the approach of death ; or, " if he be too 
weak, by another in his name."! Wherever we look, the case is 
nearly the same. In Tartary, "The Gurjumi, or prayers for the 
dead," says the Asiatic Journal, "are very expensive." In Greece, 
says Suidas,|| "the greatest and most expensive sacrifice was the 
mysterious sacrifice called the Telete," a sacrifice which, according to 
Plato, " was offered for the living and the dead, and was supposed to 
free them from all the evils to which the wicked are liable when 
they have left this world. "IT In Egypt the exactions of the priests 
for funeral dues and masses for the dead were far from being trifling. 

* DRYDKN S Virgil, Book vi. 11. 995-1012, vol. ii. p. 536 ; in Original, 11. 730-747. 
f Dorians, vol. ii. p. 405. MULLER states that the Argives sacrificed also 
immediately after death. 

$. Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. pp. 239, 240. 
Asiatic Journal, vol. xvii. p. 143. 
11 SUIDAS, vol. ii. p. 879, B. 
IT PLATO, vol. ii. pp. 364, 365. 


"The priests," says Wilkinson, "induced the people to expend large 
sums on the celebration of funeral rites ; and many who had barely 
sufficient to obtain the necessaries of life were anxious to save some 
thing for the expenses of their death. For, besides the embalming 
process, which sometimes cost a talent of silver, or about 250 
English money, the tomb itself was purchased at an immense 
expense ; and numerous demands were made upon the estate of the 
deceased, for the celebration of prayer and other services for the 
soul."* " The ceremonies," we find him elsewhere saying, " consisted 
of a sacrifice similar to those offered in the temples, vowed for the 
deceased to one or more gods (as Osiris, Anubis, and others con 
nected with Amenti) ; incense and libation were also presented ; and 
a prayer was sometimes read, the relations and friends being present 
as mourners. They even joined their prayers to those of the priest. 
The priest who officiated at the burial service was selected from the 
grade of Pontiffs, who wore the leopard skin ; but various other rites 
were performed by one of the minor priests to the mummies, previous 
to their being lowered into the pit of the tomb after that ceremony. 
Indeed, they continued to be administered at intervals, as long as the 
family paid for their performance"^ Such was the operation of the 
doctrine of purgatory and prayers for the dead among avowed and 
acknowledged Pagans ; and in what essential respect does it differ 
from the operation of the same doctrine in Papal Rome *? There are 
the same extortions in the one as there were in the other. The 
doctrine of purgatory is purely Pagan, and cannot for a moment 
stand in the light of Scripture. For those who die in Christ no 
purgatory is, or can be, needed ; for " the blood of Jesus Christ, 
God s Son, cleanseth from ALL sin." If this be true, where can there 
be the need for any other cleansing 1 On the other hand, for those 
who die without personal union to Christ, and consequently unwashed, 
unjustified, unsaved, there can be no other cleansing; for, while " he 
that hath the Son hath life, he that hath not the Son hath not life," 
and never can have it. Search the Scripture through, and it will be 
found that, in regard to all who "die in their sins" the decree of 
God is irreversible : " Let him that is unjust be unjust still, and let 
him that is filthy be filthy still." Thus the whole doctrine of 
purgatory is a system of pure bare-faced Pagan imposture, dishonour 
ing to God, deluding men who live in sin with the hope of atoning 
for it after death, and cheating them at once out of their property 
and their salvation. In the Pagan purgatory, fire, water, wind, were 
represented (as may be seen from the lines of Virgil) } as combining 
to purge away the stain of sin. In the purgatory of the Papacy, ever 
since the days of Pope Gregory, FIRE itself has been the grand means 
of purgation. Thus, while the purgatorial fires of the future world 
are just the carrying out of the principle embodied in the blazing and 

* WILKINSON, vol. ii. p. 94. 

t Ibid. vol. v. pp. 383, 384. 

+ See ante. p. 167. 

Cotechismns Rornanus, pars i., art. 5, sect. 5, p. 50. 


purifying Baal-fires of the eve of St. John, they form another link in 
identifying the system of Rome with the system of Tammuz or 
Zoroaster, the great God of the ancient fire-worshippers. 

Now, if baptismal regeneration, justification by works, penance as 
a satisfaction to God s justice, the unbloody sacrifice of the mass, 
extreme unction, purgatory, and prayers for the dead, were all 
derived from Babylon, how justly may the general system of Rome 
be styled Babylonian ? And if the account already given be true, 
what thanks ought we to render to God, that, from a system such as 
this, we were set free at the blessed Reformation ! How great a 
boon is it to be delivered from trusting in such refuges of lies as 
could no more take away sin than the blood of bulls or of goats ! 
How blessed to feel that the blood of the Lamb, applied by the 
Spirit of God to the most defiled conscience, completely purges it 
from dead works and from sin ! How fervent ought our gratitude 
to be, when we know that, in all our trials and distresses, we may 
come boldly unto the throne of grace, in the name of no creature, 
but of God s eternal and well-beloved Son ; and that that Son is 
exhibited as a most tender and compassionate high priest, who is 
TOUCHED with a feeling of our infirmities, having been in all points 
tempted like as we are, yet without sin. Surely the thought of all 
this, while inspiring tender compassion for the deluded slaves of 
Papal tyranny, ought to make us ourselves stand fast in the liberty 
wherewith Christ has made us free, and quit ourselves like men, 
that neither we nor our children may ever again be entangled in the 
yoke of bondage. 



THOSE who have read the account of the last idol procession in the 
capital of Scotland, in John Knox s History of the Reformation, 
cannot easily have forgot the tragi-comedy with which it ended. 
The light of the Gospel had widely spread, the Popish idols had lost 
their fascination, and popular antipathy was everywhere rising 
against them. "The images," says the historian, "were stolen 
away in all parts of the country ; and in Edinburgh was that great 
idol called Sanct Geyle [the patron saint of the capital], first drowned 
in the North Loch, after burnt, which raised no small trouble in the 
town."* The bishops demanded of the Town Council either "to get 
them again the old Sanct Geyle, or else, upon their (own) expenses, 
to make a new image, "f The Town Council could not do the one, 
and the other they absolutely refused to do ; for they were now 
convinced of the sin of idolatry. The bishops and priests, however, 
were still mad upon their idols ; and, as the anniversary of the feast 
of St. Giles was approaching, when the saint used to be carried in 
procession through the town, they determined to do their best, that 
the accustomed procession should take place with as much pomp as 
possible. For this purpose, " a marmouset idole " was borrowed 
from the Grey friars, which the people, in derision, called " Young 
Sanct Geyle," and which was made to do service instead of the old 
one. On the appointed day, says Knox, " there assembled priests, 
friars, canons .... with taborns and trumpets, banners, and bag 
pipes ; and who was there to lead the ring but the Queen Regent 
herself, with all her shavelings, for honour of that feast. West 
about goes it, and comes down the High Street, and down to the 
Canno Cross. "J As long as the Queen was present, all went to the 
heart s content of the priests and their partisans. But no sooner 
had majesty retired to dine, than some in the crowd, who had 
viewed the whole concern with an evil eye, " drew nigh to the idol, 
as willing to help to bear him, and getting the fertour (or barrow) 
on their shoulders, began to shudder, thinking that thereby the idol 
should have fallen. But that was provided and prevented by the 
iron nails [with which it was fastened to the fertour] ; and so began 
one to cry, Down with the idol, down with it; and so without 

* KNOX, vol. i. p. 256. t Ibid. vol. i. p. 258. 

Ibid. vol. i. p. 259. 



delay it was pulled down. Some brag made the priests patrons at 
the first ; but when they saw the feebleness of their god, for one took 
him by the heels, and dadding* his head to the calsay,f left Dagon 
without head or hands, and said, Fye upon thee, thou young Sanct 
Geyle, thy father would have tarried J four such [blows] ; this 
considered, we say, the priests and friars fled faster than they did at 
Pinkey Cleuch. There might have been seen so sudden a fray as 
seldom has been seen amongst that sort of men within this realm ; 
for down goes the crosses, off goes the surplice, round caps corner 
with the crowns. The Grey friars gaped, the Black friars blew, 
the priests panted and fled, and happy was he that first gat the 
house ; for such ane sudden fray came never amongst the generation 
of Antichrist within this realm before." 

Such an idol procession among a people who had begun to study 
and relish the Word of God, elicited nothing but indignation and 
scorn. But in Popish lands, among a people studiously kept in the 
dark, such processions are among the favourite means which the 
Romish Church employs to bind its votaries to itself. The long 
processions with images borne on men s shoulders, with the gorgeous 
dresses of the priests, and the various habits of different orders of 
monks and nuns, with the aids of flying banners and the thrilling 
strains of instrumental music, if not too closely scanned, are well 
fitted " plausibly to amuse " the worldly mind, to gratify the love 
for the picturesque, and when the emotions thereby called forth 
are dignified with the names of piety and religion, to minister to 
the purposes of spiritual despotism. Accordingly, Popery has ever 
largely availed itself of such pageants. On joyous occasions, it has 
sought to consecrate the hilarity and excitement created by such 
processions to the service of its idols ; and in seasons of sorrow, 
it has made use of the same means to draw forth the deeper wail 
of distress from the multitudes that throng the procession, as if the 
mere loudness of the cry would avert the displeasure of a justly 
offended God. Gregory, commonly called the Great, seems to have 
been the first who, on a large scale, introduced those religious 
processions into the Roman Church. In 590, when Rome was 
suffering under the heavy hand of God from the pestilence, he 
exhorted the people to unite publicly in supplication to God, 
appointing that they should meet at daybreak in SEVEN DIFFERENT 
COMPANIES, according to their respective ages, SEXES, and stations, 
and walk in seven different processions, reciting litanies or supplica 
tions, till they all met at one place. || They did so, and proceeded 
singing and uttering the words, "Lord, have mercy upon us," 
carrying along with them, as Baronius relates, by Gregory s express 
command, an image of the Virgin. 11 The very idea of such pro 
cessions was an affront to the majesty of heaven ; it implied that 

* Knocking, f Pavement. Abode or withstood. KNOX, vol. i. p. 260. 
j| This is the origin of what is called Litania Septemplex, or "The Sevenfold 

U BARONIUS, Annales, 590, torn. viii. pp. 6, 7. 


God who is a Spirit "saw with eyes of flesh," and might be moved 
by the imposing picturesqueness of such a spectacle, just as sensuous 
mortals might. As an experiment it had but slender success. In 
the space of one hour, while thus engaged, eighty persons fell to 
the ground, and breathed their last.* Yet this is now held up 
to Britons as " the more excellent way " for deprecating the wrath 
of God in a season of national distress. " Had this calamity," says 
Dr. Wiseman, referring to the Indian disasters, " had this calamity 
fallen upon our forefathers in Catholic days, one would have seen 
the streets of this city [London] trodden in every direction by 
penitential processions, crying out, like David, when pestilence 
had struck the people." If this allusion to David has any pertinence 
or meaning, it must imply that David, in the time of pestilence, 
headed some such "penitential procession." But Dr. Wiseman 
knows, or ought to know, that David did nothing of the sort, that 
his penitence was expressed in no such way as by processions, and 
far less by idol processions, as "in the Catholic days of our fore 
fathers," to which we are invited to turn back. This reference 
to David, then, is a mere blind, intended to mislead those who are 
not given to Bible reading, as if such " penitential processions " had 
something of Scripture warrant to rest upon. The Times, comment 
ing on this recommendation of the Papal dignitary, has hit the nail 
on the head. "The historic idea," says that journal, "is simple 
enough, and as old as old can be. We have it in Homer the 
procession of Hecuba and the ladies of Troy to the shrine of 
Minerva, in the Acropolis of that city." It was a time of terror 
and dismay in Troy, when Diomede, with resistless might, was 
driving everything before him, and the overthrow of the proud city 
seemed at hand. To avert the apparently inevitable doom, the 
Trojan Queen was divinely directed 

" To lead the assembled train 
Of Troy s chief matrons to Minerva s fane." 

And she did so : 

" Herself .... the long procession leads ; 
The train majestically slow proceeds. 
Soon as to Ilion s topmost tower they come, 
And awful reach the high Palladian dome, 
Antenor s consort, fair Theano, waits 
As Pallas priestess, and unbars the gates. 
With hands uplifted and imploring eyes, 
They fill the dome with supplicating cries." f 

Here is a precedent for " penitential processions " in connection 
with idolatry entirely to the point, such as will be sought for in 
vain in the history of David, or any of the Old Testament saints. 
Religious processions, and especially processions with images, whether 
of a jubilant or sorrowful description, are purely Pagan. In the 

* BARONIUS, Annales, 590, torn. viii. p. 7. 
t Iliad, Book vi. POPE S Translation, vol. ii. 

pp. 455-468. 


Word of God we find two instances in which there were processions 
practised with Divine sanction ; but when the object of these pro 
cessions is compared with the avowed object and character of 
Romish processions, it will be seen that there is no analogy between 
them and the processions of Rome. The two cases to which I refer 
are the seven days encompassing of Jericho, and the procession 
at the bringing up of the ark of God from Kirjath-jearim to the 
city of David. The processions, in the first case, though attended 
with the symbols of Divine worship, were not intended as acts of 
religious worship, but were a miraculous mode of conducting war, 
when a signal interposition of Divine power was to be vouchsafed. 
In the other, there was simply the removing of the ark, the symbol 
of Jehovah s presence, from the place where, for a long period, 
it had been allowed to lie in obscurity, to the place which the Lord 
Himself had chosen for its abode ; and on such an occasion it was 
entirely fitting and proper that the transference should be made 
with all religious solemnity. But these were simply occasional 
things, and have nothing at all in common with Romish processions, 
which form a regular part of the Papal ceremonial. But, though 
Scripture speaks nothing of religious processions in the approved 
worship of God, it refers once and again to Pagan processions, 
and these, too, accompanied with images; and it vividly exposes 
the folly of those who can expect any good from gods that cannot 
move from one place to another, unless they are carried. Speaking 
of the gods of Babylon, thus saith the prophet Isaiah (chap. xlvi. 6), 
" They lavish gold out of the bag, and weigh silver in the balance, 
and hire a goldsmith ; and he maketh it a god : they fall down, 
yea, they worship. They bear him upon the shoulder, they carry him, 
and set him in his place, and he standeth ; from his place he shall 
not remove." In the sculptures of Nineveh these processions of 
idols, borne on men s shoulders, are forcibly represented,* and form 
at once a striking illustration of the prophetic language, and of the 
real origin of the Popish processions. In Egypt, the same practice 
was observed. In "the procession of shrines," says Wilkinson, 
"it was usual to carry the statue of the principal deity, in whose 
honour the procession took place, together with that of the king, 
and the figures of his ancestors, borne in the same manner, on men s 
shoulders." f But not only are the processions in general identified 
with the Babylonian system. We have evidence that these pro 
cessions trace their origin to that very disastrous event in the history 
of Nimrod, which has already occupied so much of our attention. 
Wilkinson says "that Diodorus speaks of an Ethiopian festival 
of Jupiter, when his statue was carried in procession, probably to 
commemorate the supposed refuge of the gods in that country, 
which," says he, "may have been a memorial of the flight of the 
Egyptians with their gods." J The passage of Diodorus, to which 

* LAYARD S Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 451. 
f WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 273. 
I Ibid. vol. v. p. 274. 


Wilkinson refers, is not very decisive as to the object for which 
the statues of Jupiter and Juno (for Diodorus mentions the shrine 
of Juno as well as of Jupiter) were annually carried into the land 
of Ethiopia, and then, after a certain period of sojourn there, were 
"brought back to Egypt again.* But, on comparing it with other 
passages of antiquity, its object very clearly appears. Eustathius 
says, that at the festival in question, " according to some, the 
Ethiopians used to fetch the images of Zeus, and other gods from 
the great temple of Zeus at Thebes. With these images they went 
about at a certain period in Libya, and celebrated a splendid festival 
for twelve gods."f As the festival was called an Ethiopian festival; 
and as it was Ethiopians that both carried away the idols and 
brought them back again, this indicates that the idols must have 
been Ethiopian idols; and as we have seen that Egypt was under 
the power of Nimrod, and consequently of the Cushites or Ethiopians, 
when idolatry was for a time put down in Egypt, what would this 
carrying of the idols into Ethiopia, the land of the Cushites, that 
was solemnly commemorated every year, be, but just the natural 
result of the temporary suppression of the idol- worship inaugurated 
by Nimrod. In Mexico, we have an account of an exact counter 
part of this Ethiopian festival. There, at a certain period, the 
images of the gods were carried out of the country in a mourning- 
procession, as if taking their leave of it, and then, after a time, they 
were brought back to it again with every demonstration of joy. 
In Greece, we find a festival of an entirely similar kind, which, 
while it connects itself with the Ethiopian festival of Egypt on 
the one hand, brings that festival, on the other, into the closest 
relation to the penitential procession of Pope Gregory. Thus we 
find Potter referring first to a " Delphian festival in memory of 
a JOURNEY of Apollo; "|| and then under the head of the festival 
called Apollonia, we thus read : " To Apollo, at ^Egialea on this 
account : Apollo having obtained a victory over Python, went to 
yEgialea, accompanied with his sister Diana ; but, being frightened 
from thence, fled into Crete. After this, the ^Egialeans were infected 
with an epidemical distemper ; and, being advised by the prophets 
to appease the two offended deities, sent SEVEN boys and as many 
virgins to entreat them to return. [Here is the typical germ of 
The Sevenfold Litany of Pope Gregory.] Apollo and Diana 
accepted their piety, .... and it became a custom to appoint chosen 
boys and virgins, to make a solemn procession, in show, as if they 
designed to bring back Apollo and Diana, which continued till 
Pausanias s time."U The contest between Python and Apollo, in 
Greece, is just the counterpart of that between Typho and Osiris 

* DIODORUS, lib. i. sect. 97, p. 62. 

f EDSTATHIUS on HOMER S Iliad, lib. i. 11. 423-425, quoted in SMITH S (larger) 
Classical Dictionary, sub voce "Ethiopia." 
J See ante, pp. 63-65. 
HUMBOLDT, vol. i. pp. 381, 382. 
II POTTER, vol. i. p. 360. 
If Ibid. p. 334. 


in Egypt ; in other words, between Shein and Nimrod. Thus we 
see the real meaning and origin of the Ethiopian festival, when the 
Ethiopians carried away the gods from the Egyptian temples. That 
festival evidently goes back to the time when Nimrod being cut 
off, idolatry durst not show itself except among the devoted adherents 
of the "Mighty hunter" (who were found in his own family 
the family of Gush), when, with great weepings and lamentations, 
the idolaters fled with their gods on their shoulders, to hide them 
selves where they might.* In commemoration of the suppression 
of idolatry, and the unhappy consequences that were supposed to 
flow from that suppression, the first part of the festival, as we get light 
upon it both from Mexico and Greece, had consisted of a procession of 
mourners ; and then the mourning was turned into joy, in memory 
of the happy return of these banished gods to their former exaltation. 
Truly a worthy origin for Pope Gregory s " Sevenfold Litany " and 
the Popish processions. 


Nothing is more characteristic of Rome than the worship of relics. 
Wherever a chapel is opened, or a temple consecrated, it cannot be 
thoroughly complete without some relic or other of he-saint or she- 
saint to give sanctity to it. The relics of the saints and rotten bones 
of the martyrs form a great part of the wealth of the Church. The 
grossest impostures have been practised in regard to such relics ; and 
the most drivelling tales have been told of their wonder-working 
powers, and that too by Fathers of high name in the records of 
Christendom. Even Augustine, with all his philosophical acuteness 
and zeal against some forms of false doctrine, was deeply infected 
with the grovelling spirit that led to relic worship. Let any one 
read the stuff with which he concludes his famous " City of God," 
and he will in no wise wonder that Rome has made a saint of him, 
and set him up for the worship of her devotees. Take only a speci 
men or two of the stories with which he bolsters up the prevalent 
delusions of his day : " When the Bishop Projectius brought the 
relics of St. Stephen to the town called Aquae Tibiltinse, the people 
came in great crowds to honour them. Amongst these was a blind 
woman, who entreated the people to lead her to the bishop who had 
the HOLY RELICS. They did so, and the bishop gave her some flowers 
which he had in his hand. She took them, and put them to her 
eyes, and immediately her sight was restored, so that she passed 
speedily on before all the others, no longer requiring to be guided. "f 
In Augustine s day, the formal " worship " of the relics was not yet 
established ; but the martyrs to whom they were supposed to have 
belonged were already invoked with prayers and supplications, and 
that with the high approval of the Bishop of Hippo, as the following 
story will abundantly show : Here, in Hippo, says he, there was a 

* In regard to "the flight of the gods," see also Chapter VII. 
t De Civitate, lib. xxii. cap. 8, vol. ix. p. 875. B and C. 


poor and holy old man, by name Florentius, who obtained a living 
by tailoring. This man once lost his coat, and not being able to 
purchase another to replace it, he came to the shrine of the Twenty 
Martyrs, in this city, and prayed aloud to them, beseeching that they 
would enable him to get another garment. A crowd of silly boys 
who overheard him, followed him at his departure, scoffing at him, 
and asking him whether he had begged fifty pence from the martyrs 
to buy a coat. The poor man went silently on towards home, and as 
he passed near the sea, he saw a large fish which had been cast up on 
the sand, and was still panting. The other persons who were present 
allowed him to take up this fish, which he brought to one Catosus, a 
cook, and a good Christian, who bought it from him for three 
hundred pence. With this he meant to purchase wool, which his 
wife might spin, and make into a garment for him. When the cook 
cut up the fish, he found within its belly a ring of gold, which his 
conscience persuaded him to give to the poor man from whom he 
bought the fish. He did so, saying, at the same time, " Behold how 
the Twenty Martyrs have clothed you! H Thus did the great 
Augustine inculcate the worship of dead men, and the honouring of 
their wonder-working relics. The " silly children " who " scoffed " at 
the tailor s prayer seem to have had more sense than either the 
11 holy old tailor " or the bishop. Now, if men professing Christ 
ianity were thus, in the fifth century, paving the way for the 
worship of all manner of rags and rotten bones ; in the realms of 
Heathendom the same worship had flourished for ages before 
Christian saints or martyrs had appeared in the world. In Greece, 
the superstitious regard to relics, and especially to the bones of the 
deified heroes, was a conspicuous part of the popular idolatry. The 
work of Pausanias, the learned Grecian antiquary, is full of reference 
to this superstition. Thus, of the shoulder-blade of Pelops, we read 
that, after passing through divers adventures, being appointed by the 
oracle of Delphi, as a divine means of delivering the Eleans from a 
pestilence under which they suffered, it " was committed," as a 
sacred relic, "to the custody" of the man who had fished it out of 
the sea, and of his posterity after him.f The bones of the Trojan 
Hector were preserved as a precious deposit at Thebes. " They " 
[the Thebans], says Pausanias, "say that his [Hector s] bones were 
brought hither from Troy, in consequence of the following oracle : 
1 Thebans, who inhabit the city of Cadmus, if you wish to reside in 
your country, blest with the possession of blameless wealth, bring 
the bones of Hector, the son of Priam, into your dominions from 
Asia, and reverence the hero agreeably to the mandate of Jupiter. " J 

* De Civitate, lib. xxii., cap. 8, vol. ix. pp. 874, 875. This story of the fish and 
the ring is an old Egyptian story. (WILKINSON, vol. i. pp. 186, 187.) Catosus, 
"the good Christian," was evidently a tool of the priests, who could afford to give 
him a ring to put into the fish s belly. The miracle would draw worshippers to 
the shrine of the Twenty Martyrs, and thus bring grist to their mill, and amply 
repay them. 

f PAUSANIAS, lib. v., Prior Eliaca, cap. 13, p. 408. 

Ibid. lib. ix., Bceotica, cap. 18, p. 746. 



Many other similar instances from the same author might be 
adduced. The bones thus carefully kept and reverenced were all 
believed to be miracle-working bones. From the earliest periods, the 
system of Buddhism has been propped up by relics, that have 
wrought miracles at least as well vouched as those wrought by the 
relics of St. Stephen, or by the " Twenty Martyrs." In the 
" Mahawanso," one of the great standards of the Buddhist faith, 
reference is thus made to the enshrining of the relics of Buddha : 
" The vanquisher of foes having perfected the works to be executed 
within the relic receptacle, convening an assembly of the priesthood, 
thus addressed them : The works that were to be executed by me, 
in the relic receptacle, are completed. To-morrow, I shall enshrine 
the relics. Lords, bear in mind the relics. "* Who has not heard 
of the Holy Coat of Treves, and its exhibition to the people ? From 
the following, the reader will see that there was an exactly similar 
exhibition of the Holy Coat of Buddha : " Thereupon (the nephew 
of the Naga Rajah) by his supernatural gift, springing up into the 
air to the height of seven palmyra trees, and stretching out his arm 
brought to the spot where he was poised, the Dupathupo (or shrine) 
in which the DRESS laid aside by Buddho, as Prince Siddhatto, on his 
entering the priesthood, was enshrined .... and EXHIBITED IT TO 
THE PEOPLE."! This " Holy Coat" of Buddha was no doubt as 
genuine, and as well entitled to worship, as the " Holy Coat " of 
Treves. The resemblance does not stop here. It is only a year or 
two ago since the Pope presented to his beloved son, Francis Joseph 
of Austria, a "TOOTH" of "St. Peter," as a mark of his special 
favour and regard. J The teeth of Buddha are in equal request 
among his worshippers. " King of Devas," said a Buddhist mis 
sionary, who was sent to one of the principal courts of Ceylon to 
demand a relic or two from the Rajah, "King of Devas, thou 
possessest the right canine tooth relic (of Buddha), as well as the 
right collar bone of the divine teacher. Lord of Devas, demur not 
in matters involving the salvation of the land of Lanka. " Then the 
miraculous efficacy of these relics is shown in the following : " The 
Saviour of the world (Buddha) even after he had attained to 
Parinibanan or final emancipation (i.e., after his death), by means of 
a corporeal relic, performed infinite acts to the utmost perfection, for 
the spiritual comfort and mundane prosperity of mankind. While 
the Vanquisher ( Jeyus) yet lived, what must he not have done ? " || 
Now, in the Asiatic Researches, a statement is made in regard to 
these relics of Buddha, which marvellously reveals to us the real 
origin of this Buddhist relic worship. The statement is this : " The 
bones or limbs of Buddha were scattered all over the world, like 
those of Osiris and Jupiter Zagreus. To collect them was the first 

* POCOCKE S India in Greece, p. 307. 

f Ibid. pp. 307, 308. 

Original Interpretation of the Apocalypse, p. 72. 

POCOCKE, p. 321. 

|| Ibid. p. 321, and Note. 


duty of his descendants and followers, and then to entomb them. 
Out of filial piety, the remembrance of this mournful search was 
yearly kept up by a fictitious one, with all possible marks of grief 
and sorrow till a priest announced that the sacred relics were at last 
found. This is practised to this day by several Tartarian tribes of 
the religion of Buddha ; and the expression of the bones of the Son 
of the Spirit of heaven is peculiar to the Chinese and some tribes in 
Tartary."* Here, then, it is evident that the worship of relics is 
just a part of those ceremonies instituted to commemorate the tragic 
death of Osiris or Nimrod, who, as the reader may remember, was 
divided into fourteen pieces, which were sent into so many different 
regions infected by his apostacy and false worship, to operate in 
terrorem upon all who might seek to follow his example. When the 
apostates regained their power, the very first thing they did was 
to seek for these dismembered relics of the great ringleader 
in idolatry, and to entomb them with every mark of devotion. 
Thus does Plutarch describe the search : " Being acquainted 
with this event [viz., the dismemberment of Osiris], Isis set 
out once more in search of the scattered members of her 
husband s body, using a boat made of the papyrus rush in order 
more easily to pass through the lower and fenny parts of the country. 
.... And one reason assigned for the different sepulchres of Osiris 
shown in Egypt is, that wherever any one of his scattered limbs was 
discovered she buried it on the spot ; though others suppose that it 
was owing to an artifice of the queen, who presented each of those 
cities with an image of her husband, in order that, if Typho should 
overcome Horus in the approaching contest, he might be unable to 
find the real sepulchre. Isis succeeded in recovering all the different 
members, with the exception of one, which had been devoured by the 
Lepidotus, the Phagrus, and the Oxyrynchus, for which reason these 
fish are held in abhorrence by the Egyptians. To make amends, 
she consecrated the Phallus, and instituted a solemn festival to its 
memory." f Not only does this show the real origin of relic worship ; 
it shows also that the multiplication of relics can pretend to the most 
venerable antiquity. If, therefore, Rome can boast that she has six 
teen or twenty holy coats, seven or eight arms of St. Matthew, two 
or three heads of St. Peter, this is nothing more than Egypt could do 
in regard to the relics of Osiris. Egypt was covered with sepulchres 
of its martyred god ; and many a leg and a^m and skull, all vouched 
to be genuine, were exhibited in the rival burying-places for the 
adoration of the Egyptian faithful. Nay, not [only were these 
Egyptian relics sacred themselves, they CONSECRATED THE VERY 
GROUND in which they were entombed. This fact is brought out 
by Wilkinson, from a statement of Plutarch : | "The Temple of this 
deity at Abydos," says he, "was also particularly honoured, and so 
holy was the place considered by the Egyptians, that persons living 

* Asiatic Researches, vol. x. pp. 128, 129. 

f PLUTARCH, vol. ii. p. 358, A. 

Ibid. sect. 20, vol. ii. p. 359, A. 


at some distance from it sought, and perhaps with difficulty obtained, 
permission to possess a sepulchre within its Necropolis, in order that, 
after death, they might repose in GROUND HALLOWED BY THE TOMB of 
this great and mysterious deity. "* If the places where the relics of 
Osiris were buried were accounted peculiarly holy, it is easy to see 
how naturally this would give rise to the pilgrimages so frequent 
among the heathen. The reader does not need to be told what merit 
Rome attaches to such pilgrimages to the tombs of saints, and how, 
in the Middle Ages, one of the most favourite ways of washing away 
sin was to undertake a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Jago di Com- 
postella in Spain, or to the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.! Now, in 
the Scripture there is not the slightest trace of any such thing as a 
pilgrimage to the tomb of saint, martyr, prophet, or apostle. The 
very way in which the Lord saw fit to dispose of the body of Moses 
in burying it Himself in the plains of Moab, so that no man should 
ever know where his sepulchre was, was evidently designed to rebuke 
every such feeling as that from which such pilgrimages arise. And 
considering whence Israel had come, the Egyptian ideas with which 
they were infected, as shown in the matter of the golden calf, and the 
high reverence they must have entertained for Moses, the wisdom of 
God in so disposing of his body must be apparent. In the land where 
Israel had so long sojourned, there were great and pompous pilgrimages 
at certain seasons of the year, and these often attended with gross 
excesses. Herodotus tells us, that in his time the multitude who 
went annually on pilgrimage to Bubastis amounted to 700,000 indi 
viduals, and that then more wine was drunk than at any other time 
in the year.J Wilkinson thus refers to a similar pilgrimage to 
Philae: "Besides the celebration of the great mysteries which took 
place at Philae, a grand ceremony was performed at a particular 
time, when the priests, in solemn procession, visited his tomb, and 
crowned it with flowers. Plutarch even pretends that all access 
to the island was forbidden at every other period, and that no bird 
would fly over it, or fish swim near this CONSECRATED GROUND." || 
This seems not to have been a procession merely of the priests in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the tomb, but a truly national pilgrimage ; 
for, says Diodorus, " the sepulchre of Osiris at Philae is revered by 
all the priests throughout Egypt. "II We have not the same minute 
information about the relic worship in Assyria or Babylon ; but we 
have enough to show that, as it was the Babylonian god that was 
worshipped in Egypt under the name of Osiris, so in his own country 
there was the same superstitious reverence paid to his relics. We 
have seen already, that when the Babylonian Zoroaster died, he was 
said voluntarily to have given his life as a sacrifice, and to have 
"charged his countrymen to preserve his remains" assuring them 

* WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 346. 

t Evangelical Christendom, Ann. 1855, vol. ix. p. 201. 

J HERODOTUS, ffistoria, lib. ii. cap. 60, pp. 126, 127. 

PLUTARCH, vol. ii. p. 359, B. 

II WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. iv. p. 346. 

IF DIODORUS, lib. i. p. 13. 


that on the observance or neglect of this dying command, the fate of 
their empire would hinge.* And, accordingly, we learn from Ovid, 
that the " Busta Nini," or " Tomb of Ninus," long ages thereafter, 
was one of the monuments of Baby Ion. f Now, in comparing the 
death and fabled resurrection of the false Messiah with the death 
and resurrection of the true, when he actually appeared, it will be 
found that there is a very remarkable contrast. When the false 
Messiah died, limb was severed from limb, and his bones were scat 
tered over the country. When the death of the true Messiah took 
place, Providence so arranged it that the body should be kept entire, 
and that the prophetic word should be exactly fulfilled " a bone of 
Him shall not be broken." When, again, the false Messiah was 
pretended to have had a resurrection, that resurrection was in a new 
body, while the old body, with all its members, was left behind, 
thereby showing that the resurrection was nothing but a pretence 
and a sham. When, however, the true Messiah was "declared to 
be the Son of God with power, by the resurrection from the dead," 
the tomb, though jealously watched by the armed unbelieving soldiery 
of Rome, was found to be absolutely empty, and no dead body of the 
Lord was ever afterwards found, or even pretended to have been 
found. The resurrection of Christ, therefore, stands on a very 
different footing from the resurrection of Osiris. Of the body of 
Christ, of course, in the nature of the case, there could be no relics. 
Rome, however, to carry out the Babylonian system, has supplied the 
deficiency by means of the relics of the saints ; and now the relics of 
St. Peter and St. Paul, of St. Thomas A Beckett and St. Lawrence 
O Toole, occupy the very same place in the worship of the Papacy as 
the relics of Osiris in Egypt, or of Zoroaster in Babylon. 


In the Church of Rome, the clothing and crowning of images form 
no insignificant part of the ceremonial. The sacred images are not 
represented, like ordinary statues, with the garments formed of the 
same material as themselves, but they have garments put on them 
from time to time, like ordinary mortals of living flesh and blood. 
Great expense is often lavished on their drapery; and those who 
present to them splendid robes are believed thereby to gain their 
signal favour, and to lay up a large stock of merit for themselves. 
Thus, in September, 1852, we find the Duke and Duchess of Mont- 
pensier celebrated in the Tablet, not only for their charity in " giving 
3000 reals in alms to the poor," but especially, and above all, for 
their piety in "presenting the Virgin with a magnificent dress of 
tissue of gold, with white lace and a silver crown." Somewhat about 

* SUIDAS, in Zoroastres, vol. i. pp. 1133, 1134. See further on this subject in 
Chap. VII. Sect. I., in connection with what is said about Phaethon. 
f Metamorphoses, lib. iv. 1. 88, vol. ii. p. 278. 


the same time the piety of the dissolute Queen of Spain was testified 
by a similar benefaction, when she deposited at the feet of the Queen 
of Heaven the homage of the dress and jewels she wore on a previous 
occasion of solemn thanksgiving, as well as the dress in which she was 
attired when she was stabbed by the assassin Merino. " The mantle," 
says the Spanish journal JEspana, " exhibited the marks of the wound, 
and its ermine lining was stained with the precious blood of Her 
Majesty. In the basket (that bore the dresses) were likewise the 
jewels which adorned Her Majesty s head and breast. Among them 
was a diamond stomacher, so exquisitely wrought, and so dazzling, 
that it appeared to be wrought of a single stone."* This is all suffi 
ciently childish, and presents human nature in a most humiliating 
aspect ; but it is just copied from the old Pagan worship. The same 
clothing and adorning of the gods went on in Egypt, and there were 
sacred persons who alone could be permitted to interfere with so 
high a function. Thus, in the Rosetta Stone we find these sacred 
functionaries distinctly referred to : "The chief priests and prophets, 
and those who have access to the adytum to clothe the gods, .... 
assembled in the temple at Memphis, established the following 
decree."! The "clothing of the gods" occupied an equally important 
place in the sacred ceremonial of ancient Greece. Thus, we find 
Pausanias referring to a present made to Minerva : "In after times, 
Laodice, the daughter of Agapenor, sent a veil to Tegea, to Minerva 
Alea." The epigram [inscription] on this offering indicates, at the 
same time, the origin of Laodice : 

" Laodice, from Cyprus, the divine, 
To her paternal wide-extended land, 
This veil an offering to Minerva sent." 

Thus, also, when Hecuba, the Trojan queen, in the instance already 
referred to, was directed to lead the penitential procession through 
the streets of Troy to Minerva s temple, she was commanded not to 
go empty-handed, but to carry along with her, as her most acceptable 

" The largest mantle your full wardrobes hold, 
Most prized for art, and laboured o er with gold." 

The royal lady punctually obeyed : 

" The Phrygian queen to her rich wardrobe went, 
Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent ; 
There lay the vestures of no vulgar art ; 
Sidonian maids embroidered every part, 
Whom from soft Sydon youthful Paris bore, 
With Helen touching on the Tyrian shore. 
Here, as the Queen revolved with careful eyes 
The various textures and the various dyes, 
She chose a veil that shone superior far, 
And glowed refulgent as the morning star." 

* BEGG S Handbook, pp. 272, 273. 

t Line vi. apud WILKINSON, vol. i. p. 265, Note. 

+ PAUSANIAS, lib. viii., Arcadica, cap. 5, p. 607. 

HOMER S Iliad, Book vi., POPE S Translation, pp. 466-468. 


There is surely a wonderful resemblance here between the piety of 
the Queen of Troy and that of the Queen of Spain. Now, in ancient 
Paganism there was a mystery couched under the clothing of the 
gods. If gods and goddesses were so much pleased by being clothed, 
it was because there had once been a time in their history when 
they stood greatly in need of clothing. Yes, it can be distinctly 
established, as has been already hinted, that ultimately the great god 
and great goddess of Heathenism, while the facts of their own 
history were interwoven with their idolatrous system, were wor 
shipped also as incarnations of our great progenitors, whose disastrous 
fall stripped them of their primeval glory, and made it needful that 
the hand Divine should cover their nakedness with clothing specially 
prepared for them. I cannot enter here into an elaborate proof of 
this point ; but let the statement of Herodotus be pondered in regard 
to the annual ceremony, observed in Egypt, of slaying a ram, and 
clothing the FATHER OF THE GODS with its skin.* Compare this 
statement with the Divine record in Genesis about the clothing of 
the "Father of Mankind" in a coat of sheepskin; and after all that 
we have seen of the deification of dead men, can there be a doubt 
what it was that was thus annually commemorated] Nimrod him 
self, when he was cut in pieces, was necessarily stripped. That 
exposure was identified with the nakedness of Noah, and ultimately 
with that of Adam. His sufferings were represented as voluntarily 
undergone for the good of mankind. His nakedness, therefore, and 
the nakedness of the " Father of the gods," of whom he was an 
incarnation, was held to be a voluntary humiliation too. When, 
therefore, his suffering was over, and his humiliation past, the 
clothing in which he was invested was regarded as a meritorious 
clothing, available not only for himself, but for all who were initiated 
in his mysteries. In the sacred rites of the Babylonian god, both 
the exposure and the clothing that were represented as having taken 
place, in his own history, were repeated on all his worshippers, in 
accordance with the statement of Firmicus, that the initiated under 
went what their god had undergone.! First, after being duly 
prepared by magic rites and ceremonies, they were ushered, in a 
state of absolute nudity, into the innermost recesses of the temple. 
This appears from the following statement of Proclus : * In the most 
holy of the mysteries, they say that the mystics at first meet with 
the many-shaped genera [i.e., with evil demons], which are hurled 
forth before the gods : but on entering the interior parts of the 
temple, unmoved and guarded by the mystic rites, they genuinely 
receive in their bosom divine illumination, and, DIVESTED OF THEIR 
GARMENTS, participate, as they would say, of a divine nature." J 
When the initiated, thus "illuminated" and made partakers of a 
"divine nature," after being "divested of their garments," were 
clothed anew, the garments with which they were invested were 

* HERODOTUS, Historia, lib. ii. cap. 42, p. 119, A and B. 

t FIRMICUS, I)e Errore, p. 18. 

J TAYLOR S Jamblichui, Note, p. 148. See Appendix, Note M. 


looked upon as "sacred garments," and possessing distinguished 
virtues. " The coat of skin " with which the Father of mankind was 
divinely invested after he was made so painfully sensible of his 
nakedness, was, as all intelligent theologians admit, a typical emblem 
of the glorious righteousness of Christ "the garment of salvation," 
which is "unto all and upon all them that believe." The garments 
put upon the initiated after their disrobing of their former clothes, 
were evidently intended as a counterfeit of the same. " The garments 
of those initiated in the Eleusinian Mysteries," says Potter, " were 
accounted sacred, and of no less efficacy to avert evils than charms 
and incantations. They were never cast off till completely worn 
out."^ And of course, if possible, in these "sacred garments" they 
were buried ; for Herodotus, speaking of Egypt, whence these 
mysteries were derived, tells us that "religion" prescribed the 
garments of the dead.f The efficacy of "sacred garments" as a 
means of salvation and delivering from evil in the unseen and eternal 
world, occupies a foremost place in many religions. Thus the 
Parsees, the fundamental elements of whose system came from the 
Chaldean Zoroaster, believe that "the sadra or sacred vest" tends 
essentially to " preserve the departed soul from the calamities accru 
ing from Ahriman," or the Devil; and they represent those who 
neglect the use of this " sacred vest " as suffering in their souls, and 
"uttering the most dreadful and appalling cries," on account of the 
torments inflicted on them "by all kinds of reptiles and noxious 
animals, who assail them with their teeth and stings, and give them 
not a moment s respite."! What could have ever led mankind to 
attribute such virtue to a "sacred vest" ? If it be admitted that it 
is just a perversion of the "sacred garment" put on our first parents, 
all is clear. This, too, accounts for the superstitious feeling in the 
Papacy, otherwise so unaccountable, that led so many in the dark 
ages to fortify themselves against the fears of the judgment to come, 
by seeking to be buried in a monk s dress. "To be buried in a 
friar s cast-off habit, accompanied by letters enrolling the deceased in 
a monastic order, was accounted a sure deliverance from eternal 
condemnation ! In Piers the Ploughman s Creed, a friar is 
described as wheedling a poor man out of his money by assuring 
him that, if he will only contribute to his monastery, 

St. Francis himself shall fold thee in his cope, 
And present thee to the Trinity, and pray for thy sins. " 

In virtue of the same superstitious belief, King John of England 
was buried in a monk s cowl ; || and many a royal and noble person 
age besides, "before life and immortality " were anew "brought to 
light" at the Reformation, could think of no better way to cover 
their naked and polluted souls in prospect of death, than by wrapping 

* POTTER S Greek Antiquities, vol. i. p. 356. 

f HERODOTUS, lib. ii. cap. 81, p. 134, B. 

WILSON S Parsee Religion, pp. 164, 441, and 442. 

British Reformers, "Bilney," p. 258, Note. || Ibid. 



Fig. 39. 

themselves in the garment of some monk or friar as unholy as 
themselves. Now, all these refuges of lies, in Popery as well as 
Paganism, taken in connection with the clothing of the saints of the 
one system, and of the gods of the other, when traced to their source, 
show that since sin entered the world, man has ever felt the need of 
a better righteousness than his own to cover him, and that the time 
was when all the tribes of the earth knew that the only righteousness 
that could avail for such a purpose was " the righteousness of God," 
and that of " God manifest in the flesh." 

Intimately connected with the "clothing of the images of the 
saints " is also the " crowning " of them. For the last two centuries, 
in the Popish communion, the festivals for crowning the "sacred 
images " have been more and more celebrated. In Florence, a few 
years ago, the image of the Madonna with the 
child in her arms was "crowned" with unusual 
pomp and solemnity.* Now, this too arose out 
of the facts commemorated in the history of 
Bacchus or Osiris. As Nimrod was the first 
king after the Flood, so Bacchus was celebrated 
as the first who wore a crown, f When, how 
ever, he fell into the hands of his enemies, as he 
was stripped of all his glory and power, he was 
stripped also of his crown. The " falling of the 
crown from the head of Osiris " was specially 
commemorated in Egypt. That crown at dif 
ferent times was represented in different ways, 
but in the most famous myth of Osiris it was 
represented as a "Melilot garland."^: Melilot 
is a species of trefoil ; and trefoil in the Pagan 
system was one of the emblems of the Trinity. 
Among the Tractarians at this day, trefoil is 
used in the same symbolical sense as it has 
long been in the Papacy, from which Puseyism has borrowed it. 
Thus, in a blasphemous Popish representation of what is called God 
the Father (of the fourteenth century), we find him represented 
as wearing a crown with three points, each of which is surmounted 
with a leaf of white clover (Fig. 39). But long before Tract- 
arianism or Romanism was known, trefoil was a sacred symbol. 
The clover leaf was evidently a symbol of high import among the 
ancient Persians ; for thus we find Herodotus referring to it, in 
describing the rites of the Persian Magi " If any (Persian) intends 
to offer to a god, he leads the animal to a consecrated spot. Then, 
dividing the victim into parts, he boils the flesh, and lays it upon 
the most tender herbs, especially TREFOIL. This done, a magus 

* Bulwark, 1852-53, pp. 154-157. 

f PLINY, Hist. Nat., lib. xvi. p. 377. Under the name of Saturn, also, the 
same thing was attributed to Nimrod. See ante, p. 35, Note, 
t PLUTARCH, De Iside, vol. ii. p. 356, E. 
From DIDRON S Iconography, vol. i. p. 296. 


without a magus no sacrifice can be performed sings a sacred 
hymn."* In Greece, the clover, or trefoil, in some form or other, 
had also occupied an important place ; for the rod of Mercury, the 
conductor of souls, to which such potency was ascribed, was called 
" Kabdos Tripetelos," or " the three-leaved roo?."f Among the British 
Druids the white clover leaf was held in high esteem as an emblem 
of their Triune God,| and was borrowed from the same Babylonian 
source as the rest of their religion. The Melilot, or trefoil garland, 
then, with which the head of Osiris was bound, was the crown of 
the Trinity the crown set on his head as the representative of the 
Eternal "The crown of all the earth," in accordance with the 
voice divine at his birth, " The Lord of all the earth is born." Now, 
as that "Melilot garland," that crown of universal dominion, fell 
" from his head " before his death, so, when he rose to new life, the 
crown must be again set upon his head, and his universal dominion 
solemnly avouched. Hence, therefore, came the solemn crowning of 
the statues of the great god, and also the laying of the " chaplet " on 
his altar, as a trophy of his recovered "dominion." But if the great 
god was crowned, it was needful also that the great goddess should 
receive a similar honour. Therefore it was fabled that when Bacchus 
carried his wife Ariadne to heaven, in token of the high dignity 
bestowed upon her, he set a crown upon her head ; and the remem 
brance of this crowning of the wife of the Babylonian god is 
perpetuated to this hour by the well-known figure in the sphere 
called Ariadncea corona,\\ or "Ariadne s crown." This is, beyond 
question, the real source of the Popish rite of crowning the image of 
the Virgin. 

From the fact that the Melilot garland occupied so conspicuous a 
place in the myth of Osiris, and that the " chaplet " was laid on his 
altar, and his tomb was " crowned " 11" with flowers, arose the custom, 
so prevalent in heathenism, of adorning the altars of the gods with 
" chaplets " of all sorts, and with a gay profusion of flowers.** Side 
by side with this reason for decorating the altars with flowers, there 
was also another. When in 

" That fair field 

Of Enna, Proserpine gathering flowers, 
Herself, a fairer flower, by gloomy Dis, 
Was gathered ; " 

and all the flowers she had stored up in her lap were lost, the loss 
thereby sustained by the world not only drew forth her own tears, 
but was lamented in the Mysteries as a loss of no ordinary kind, a 
loss which not only stripped her of her own spiritual glory, but 

* Historia, lib. i. cap. 132, pp. 62, 63. 

t HOMER, Hymn to Mercury, 11. 526, 527. 

$ DAVIES S Druids, p. 448. 

OVID, Fasti, lib. iii. 1. 513, vol. iii. p. 184. 

|| MANILIUS, lib. v. v. 21, p. 164. 
IT WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 345. 
** Ibid. vol. v. p. 368. 


blasted the fertility and beauty of the earth itself.* That loss, 
however, the wife of Nimrod, under the name of Astarte, or Venus, 
was believed to have more than repaired. Therefore, while the 
sacred " chaplet " of the discrowned god was placed in triumph 
anew on his head and on his altars, the recovered flowers which 
Proserpine had lost were also laid on these altars along with it, in 
token of gratitude to that mother of grace and goodness, for the 
beauty and the temporal blessings that the earth owed to her inter 
position and love.f In Pagan Rome especially this was the case. 
The altars were profusely adorned with flowers. From that source 
directly the Papacy has borrowed the custom of adorning the altar 
with flowers ; and from the Papacy, Puseyism, in Protestant 
England, is labouring to introduce the custom among ourselves. 
But, viewing it in connection with its source, surely men with the 
slightest spark of Christian feeling may well blush to think of such 
a thing. It is not only opposed to the genius of the Gospel 
dispensation, which requires that they who worship God, who is 
a Spirit, "worship Him in spirit and in truth ;"| but it is a direct 
symbolising with those who rejoiced in the re-establishment of 
Paganism in opposition to the worship of the one living and true 



Every one knows how thoroughly Romanist is the use of the 
rosary ; and how the devotees of Rome mechanically tell their 
prayers upon their beads. The rosary, however, is no invention of 
the Papacy. It is of the highest antiquity, and almost universally 
found among Pagan nations. The rosary was used as a sacred 
instrument among the ancient Mexicaris. It is commonly employed 
among the Brahmins of Hindustan ; and in the Hindoo sacred books 
reference is made to it again and again. Thus, in an account of the 
death of Sati, the wife of Shiva, we find the rosary introduced : 
"On hearing of this event, Shiva fainted from grief; then, having 
recovered, he hastened to the banks of the river of heaven, where he 

* OVID, Metamorphoses, lib. v. fab. 6, 11. 391-395, and fab. 8, 11. 468-473. Ovid 
speaks of the tears which Proserpine shed when, on her robe being torn from top 
to bottom, all the flowers which she had been gathering up in it fell to the 
ground, as showing only the simplicity of a girlish mind. But this is evidently 
only for the uninitiated. The lamentations of Ceres, which were intimately 
connected with the fall of these flowers, and the curse upon the ground that 
immediately followed, indicated something entirely different. But on that I 
cannot enter here. 

t Lucretius, addressing Venus, says, "Tibi suaveis dsedala tellus suminittit 
flores/ Lib. i. v. 6, 7, p. 2. 

It is evident that this expression does not mean merely that they should 
worship Him in sincerity, but in simplicity, as opposed to the Jewish symbolical 

HUMBOLDT, Vol. ii. p. 20. 


beheld lying the body of his beloved Sati, arrayed in white garments, 
holding a rosary in her hand, and glowing with splendour, bright 
as burnished gold."* In Thibet it has been used from time 
immemorial, and among all the millions in the East that adhere to 
the Buddhist faith. The following, from Sir John F. Davis, will 
show how it is employed in China : " From the Tartar religion of the 
Lamas, the rosary of 108 beads has become a part of the ceremonial 
dress attached to the nine grades of official rank. It consists 
of a necklace of stones and coral, nearly as large as a pigeon s 
egg, descending to the waist, and distinguished by various beads, 
according to the quality of the wearer. There is a small rosary of 
eighteen beads, of inferior size, with which the bonzes count their 
prayers and ejaculations exactly as in the fiomish ritual. The laity 
in China sometimes wear this at the wrist, perfumed with musk, 
and give it the name of Heang-choo, or fragrant beads, "f In 
Asiatic Greece the rosary was commonly used, as may be seen from 
the image of the Ephesian Diana.J In Pagan Rome the same 
appears to have been the case. The necklaces which the Roman 
ladies wore were not merely ornamental bands about the neck, but 
hung down the breast, just as the modern rosaries do ; and the 
name by which they were called indicates the use to which they 
were applied. " Monile" the ordinary word for a necklace, can 
have no other meaning than that of a "Remembrancer." Now, 
whatever might be the pretence, in the first instance, for the 
introduction of such " Rosaries " or " Remembrancers," the very 
idea of such a thing is thoroughly Pagan. || It supposes that a 
certain number of prayers must be regularly gone over; it over 
looks the grand demand which God makes for the heart, and leads 
those who use them to believe that form and routine are everything, 
and that " they must be heard for their much speaking." 

In the Church of Rome a new kind of devotion has of late been 
largely introduced, in which the beads play an important part, and 
which shows what new and additional strides in the direction of the 
old Babylonian Paganism the Papacy every day is steadily making. 
I refer to the " Rosary of the Sacred Heart." It is not very long 
since the worship of the " Sacred Heart " was first introduced ; and 
now, everywhere it is the favourite worship. It was so in ancient 
Babylon, as is evident from the Babylonian system as it appeared in 
Egypt. There also a "Sacred Heart" was venerated. The 
" Heart " was one of the sacred symbols of Osiris when he was born 
again, and appeared as Harpocrates, or the infant divinity ,1T borne 
in the arms of his mother Isis. Therefore, the fruit of the Egyptian 
Persea was peculiarly sacred to him, from its resemblance to the 

* Vaivashi Pur an, KENNEDY, p. 332. 

t China, vol. i. p. 391. J See Woodcut, Fig. 8, p. 29. 

" Dat longa monilia collo." OVID, Metam., lib. x. 1. 264, vol. ii. p. 498. 
|| "Rosary" itself seems to be from the Chaldee "Ro," "thought," and 
"Shareh," "director." 
U The name Harpocrates, as shown by Bunsen, signifies " Horus, the child" 


HUMAN HEART."* Hence this infant divinity was frequently 

represented with a heart, or the heart-shaped fruit of the Persea, in 

one of his hands. f (Fig. 40.) The accompanying woodcut is from 

Pompeii; but the following extract from John Bell s criticism on 

the antiques in the Picture Gallery of Florence, will show that the 

boyish divinity had been represented elsewhere also in ancient times 

in the same manner. Speaking of a statue of Cupid, he says it is 

" a fair, full, fleshy, round boy, in fine and sportive action, tossing 

back a heart." $ Thus the boy-god came to be regarded as the "god 

of the heart," in other words, as Cupid, or the god of love. To 

identify this infant divinity, with his father F . 

" the mighty hunter," he was equipped with 

" bow and arrows ; " and in the hands of 

the poets, for the amusement of the profane 

vulgar, this sportive boy-god was celebrated 

as taking aim with his gold-tipped shafts at 

the hearts of mankind. His real character, 

however, as the above statement shows, and 

as we have seen reason already to conclude, 

was far higher and of a very different kind. 

He was the woman s seed. Venus and her 

son Cupid, then, were none other than the 

Madonna and the child. Looking at the subject in this light, the 

real force and meaning of the language will appear, which Virgil 

puts into the mouth of Venus, when addressing the youthful 

Cupid : 

" My son, my strength, whose mighty power alone 

Controls the thunderer on his awful throne, 

To thee thy much afflicted mother flies, 

And on thy succour and thy faith relies."|| 

From what we have seen already as to the power and glory of the 
Goddess Mother being entirely built on the divine character 
attributed to her Son, the reader must see how exactly this is 
brought out, when the Son is called " THE STRENGTH " of his Mother. 
As the boy-god, whose symbol was the heart, was recognised as the 
god of childhood, this very satisfactorily accounts for one of the 
peculiar customs of the Romans. Kennett tells us, in his Anti 
quities, that the Roman youths, in their tender years, used to wear 
a golden ornament suspended from their necks, called bulla, which 

* PLUTARCH, De hide, vol. ii. p. 378, C. t Pompeii, vol. ii. p. 177. 

JOHN BELL S Italy, p. 269. Edinburgh, 1825. 

The following lines of Ovid will show that he distinctly identified Venus and 
Cupid with the Babylonian " Mother and Child : " 

" Terribilem quondam fugiens Typhona Dione 

Tune cum pro ccelo Jupiter anna tulit, 
Venit ad Kuphraten, comitata Cupidine parvo, 
Inque Palsestinfe margine sedit aquae." 

Fasti, lib. ii. 461-464, vol. iii. p. 113. 

|| JEneid, Book i. 937-940. DKYDEN S Translation, vol. ii. p. 335 ; in Original, 
11. 668-670. 



Fig. 41. 

was hollow, and heart-shaped.* Barker, in his work on Cilicia, 
while admitting that the Roman bulla was heart-shaped,^ further 
states, that " it was usual at the birth of a child to name it after 
some divine personage, who was supposed to receive it under his 
care ; " but that the " name was not retained beyond infancy, when 
the bulla was given up."| Who so likely to be the god under 
whose guardianship the Roman children were put, as the god under 
one or other of his many names whose express symbol they wore, and 
who, while he was recognised as the great and mighty war-god, was 
also exhibited himself in his favourite form as a little child 1 

The veneration of the " sacred heart" seems also to have extended 

to India, for there Vishnu, the Media 
torial god, in one of his forms, with the 
mark of the wound in his foot, in 
consequence of which he died, and for 
which such lamentation is annually 
made, is represented as wearing a heart 
suspended on his breast (Fig. 41).|| 
Is it asked, How came it that the 
" Heart " became the recognised symbol 
of the Child of the great Mother ? The 
answer is, " The Heart " in Chaldee is 
" BEL " ; and as, at first, after the check 
given to idolatry, almost all the most 
important elements of the Chaldean 
system were introduced under a veil, 
so under that veil they continued to 
be shrouded from the gaze of the un 
initiated, after the first reason the 
reason of fear had long ceased to 
operate. Now, the worship of the 
" Sacred Heart " was just, under a 
symbol, the worship of the " Sacred 
Bel," that mighty one of Babylon, 
who had died a martyr for idolatry ; 
for Harpocrates, or Horus, the infant 
god, was regarded as Bel, born again. U That this was in very deed 
the case, the following extract from Taylor, in one of his notes to 
his translation of the Orphic Hymns, will show. "While 
Bacchus," says he, was "beholding himself" with admiration "in a 
mirror, he was miserably torn to pieces by the Titans, who, not con 
tent with this cruelty, first boiled his members in water, and after 
wards roasted them in the fire ; but while they were tasting his 

* Pp. 300, 301. 

t Lares and Penates of Cilicia, p. 147. 
J Ibid. p. 166. 

See ante, in regard to the death of Crishna, one of the forms of Vishnu, 
p. 61. 

li From MOOR S Pantheon, Plate 11, Fig. 6. 
IF See ante, p. 69. 


flesh thus dressed, Jupiter, excited by the steam, and perceiving the 
cruelty of the deed, hurled his thunder at the Titans, but committed 
his members to Apollo, the brother of Bacchus, that they might be 
properly interred. And this being performed, Dionysius [i.e., 
Bacchus], (whose HEART, during his laceration, was snatched away 
by Minerva and preserved) by a new REGENERATION, again emerged, 
and he being restored to his pristine life and integrity, afterwards 
filled up the number of the gods."* This surely shows, in a strik 
ing light, the peculiar sacredness of the heart, of Bacchus ; and that 
the regeneration of his heart has the very meaning I have attached 
to it viz., the new birth or new incarnation of Nimrod or Bel. 
When Bel, however, was born again as a child, he was, as we have 
seen, represented as an incarnation of the sun. Therefore, to 
indicate his connection with the fiery and burning sun, the " sacred 
heart "was frequently represented as a "heart of flame." ^ So the 
" Sacred Heart " of Rome is actually worshipped as a flaming heart, 
as may be seen on the rosaries devoted to that worship. Of what 
use, then, is it to say that the " Sacred Heart " which Rome 
worships is called by the name of " Jesus," when not only is the 
devotion given to a material image borrowed from the worship of 
the Babylonian Antichrist, but when the attributes ascribed to that 
" Jesus " are not the attributes of the living and loving Saviour, but 
the genuine attributes of the ancient Moloch or Bel 1 


Another peculiarity of the Papal worship is the use of lamps and 
wax-candles. If the Madonna and child are set up in a niche, they 
must have a lamp to burn before them ; if mass is to be celebrated, 
though in broad daylight, there must be wax-candles lighted on the 
altar; if a grand procession is to be formed, it cannot be thorough 
and complete without lighted tapers to grace the goodly show. The 
use of these lamps and tapers comes from the same source as all the 
rest of the Papal superstition. That which caused the " Heart," 
when it became an emblem of the incarnate Son, to be represented 
as a heart on fire, required also that burning lamps and lighted 
candles should form part of the worship of that Son ; for so, accord 
ing to the established rites of Zoroaster, was the sun-god worshipped.} 
When every Egyptian on the same night was required to light a 
lamp before his house in the open air, this was an act of homage to 
the sun, that had veiled its glory by enshrouding itself in a human 
form. When the Yezidis of Koordistan, at this day, once a-year 
celebrate their festival of "burning lamps," that, too, is to the 

* TAYLOR S Mystic Hymns of Orpheus. Note, p. 88. 

f See Fig. 4, p. 17, with flaming heart in one of the hands. 

+ See third Note. 

See ante, p. 118. 


honour of Sheikh Shems, or the Sun.* Now, what on these high 
occasions was done on a grand scale was also done on a smaller scale, 
in the individual acts of worship to their god, by the lighting of 
lamps and tapers before the favourite divinity. In Babylon, this 
practice had been exceedingly prevalent, as we learn from the 
Apocryphal writer of the Book of Baruch. "They (the Baby 
lonians)," says he, "light up lamps to their gods, and that in greater 
numbers, too, than they do for themselves, although the gods can 
not see one of them, and are senseless as the beams of their houses."! 
In Pagan Rome, the same practice was observed. Thus we find 
Licinius, the Pagan Emperor, before joining battle with Constantine, 
his rival, calling a council of his friends in a thick wood, and there 
offering sacrifices to his gods, " lighting up wax-tapers " before them, 
and at the same time, in his speech, giving his gods a hint, that if 
they did not give him the victory against Constantine, his enemy 
and theirs, he would be under the necessity of abandoning their 
worship, and lighting up no more " wax-tapers to their honour." J 
In the Pagan processions, also, at Rome, the wax-candles largely 
figured. "At these solemnities," says Dr. Middleton, referring to 
Apuleius as his authority, "at these solemnities, the chief magis 
trate used frequently to assist, in robes of ceremony, attended by 
the priests in surplices, with wax-candles in their hands, carrying 
upon a pageant or thensa, the images of their gods, dressed out in 
their best clothes ; these were usually followed by the principal 
youth of the place, in white linen vestments or surplices, singing 
hymns in honour of the gods whose festivals they were celebrating, 
accompanied by crowds of all sorts that were initiated in the same 
religion, all with flambeaux or wax-candles in their hands. " Now, 
so thoroughly and exclusively Pagan was this custom of lighting up 
lamps and candles in daylight, that we find Christian writers, such 
as Lactantius, in the fourth century, exposing the absurdity of the 
practice, and deriding the Romans " for lighting up candles to God, 
as if He lived in the dark."|| Had such a custom at that time gained 
the least footing among Christians, Lactantius could never have 
ridiculed it as he does, as a practice peculiar to Paganism. But 
what was unknown to the Christian Church in the beginning of the 
fourth century, soon thereafter began to creep in, and now forms one 
of the most marked peculiarities of that community that boasts that 
it is the " Mother and mistress of all Churches." 

While Rome uses both lamps and wax-candles in her sacred rites, 
it is evident, however, that she attributes some pre-eminent virtue to 

* Identified with Sheik Adi. See Nineveh and Babylon, p. 81, and Nineveh 
and its Remains, vol. i. pp. 289, 290. 

f BABUCH, vi. 19, 20. The above is from Diodati s Translation. The common 
English version, so far as the point in hand is concerned, is substantially the 

+ ECSEBIUS, Vita Constantini, lib. ii. 5, p. 183. 

MIDDLETON S Letter from Rome, p. 189. APULEIUS, vol. i., Metam., cap. ix. 
pp. 1014-1016, and cap. x. pp. 1019-1021. 

|| LACTANTIDS, Institut., lib. vi. cap. 2, p. 289. 


the latter above all other lights. Up to the time of the Council of 
Trent, she thus prayed on Easter Eve, at the blessing of the Easter 
candles : " Calling upon thee in thy works, this holy Eve of Easter, 
we offer most humbly unto thy Majesty this sacrifice ; namely, a fire 
not defiled with the fat of flesh, nor polluted with unholy oil or 
ointment, nor attainted with any profane fire ; but we offer unto thee 
with obedience, proceeding from perfect devotion, a fire of wrought 
WAX and wick, kindled arid made to burn in honour of thy name. 
This so great a MYSTERY therefore, and the marvellous sacrament of 
this holy eve, must needs he extolled with due and deserved 
praises." * That there was some occult " Mystery," as is here 
declared, couched under the "wax-candles," in the original system of 
idolatry, from which Rome derived its ritual, may be well believed, 
when it is observed with what unanimity nations the most remote 
have agreed to use wax-candles in their sacred rites. Among the 
Tungusians, near the Lake Baikal in Siberia, "wax-tapers are placed 
before the Burchans," the gods or idols of that country. f In the 
Molucca Islands, wax-tapers are used in the worship of Nito, or 
Devil, whom these islanders adore. " Twenty or thirty persons 
having assembled," says Hurd, " they summon the Nito, by beating 
a small consecrated drum, whilst two or more of the company light 
up wax-tapers, and pronounce several mysterious words, which they 
consider as able to conjure him up."J In the worship of Ceylon, the 
use of wax-candles is an indispensable requisite. " In Ceylon," says 
the same author, " some devotees, who are not priests, erect chapels 
for themselves, but in each of them they are obliged to have an 
image of Buddha, and light up tapers or wax-candles before it, and 
adorn it with flowers. " A practice thus so general must have come 
from some primeval source, and must have originally had some 
mystic reason at the bottom of it. The wax-candle was, in fact, a 
hieroglyphic, like so many other things which we have already seen, 
and was intended to exhibit the Babylonian god in one of the 
essential characters of the Great Mediator. The classic reader may 
remember that one of the gods of primeval antiquity was called 
Ouranos,|| that is, "The Enlightener." In this very character 

* "Office for Easter Eve," in Review of Epistle of Dr. GENTIANUS HARVET of 
Louvaine, p. 229, B, and 230, A. 

t Asiatic Journal, vol. xvii. pp. 593, 596. 

+ Rites and Ceremonies, p. 91, col. 1. 

Ibid. p. 95, col. 2. 

|i From Aor or our, "light," and an, "to act upon" or produce, the same as 
our English particle en, " to make." Ouranos, then, is " The Enlightener." This 
Ouranos is, by Sanchuniathon, the Phoenician, called the son of Elioun i.e., as he 
himself, or Philo-JByblius, interprets the name, "The Most High." (SANCH., pp. 
16-19.) Ouranos, in the physical sense, is "The Shiner;" and by Hesychius 
(sub voce " Akmon ") it is made equivalent to Cronos, which also has the same 
meaning, for Krn, the verb from which it comes, signifies either "to put forth 
horns," or " to send forth rays of light ; ; and, therefore, while the epithet 
Kronos, or " The Horned One," had primarily reference to the physical power of 
Nimrod as a "mighty " king ; when that king was deified, and made " Lord of 
Heaven," that name, Kronos, was still applied to him in his new character as 
"The Shiner or Lightgiver." The distinction made by Hesiod between Ouranos 




Fig. 42. 

was Nimrod worshipped when he was deified. As the Sun-god he 
was regarded not only as the illuminator of the material world, but 
as the enlightener of the souls of men, for he was recognised as 
the revealer of " goodness and truth." * It is evident, from the Old 
Testament, not less than the New, that the proper and personal 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ is, "The Word of God," as the 
Revealer of the heart and counsels of the Godhead. Now, to 
identify the Sun-god with the Great Kevealer of the Godhead, while 
under the name of Mithra, he was exhibited in sculpture as a Lion ; 
that Lion had a Bee represented between his lips.f (Fig. 42.) The 
bee between the lips of the Sun-god was intended to point him out 
as " the Word ; " for Dabar, the expression which signifies in Chaldee 
a " Bee," signifies also a " Word " ; and the position of that bee in 
the mouth leaves no doubt as to the idea intended to be conveyed. 
It was intended to impress the belief that Mithra (who, says 
Plutarch, was worshipped as Mesites, "The Mediator "),J in his 
character as Ouranos, "The Enlightener," was no other than that 

glorious one of whom the Evan 
gelist John says, "In the begin 
ning was the Word, and the 
Word was with God, and the 
Word was God. The same was 

in the beginning with God 

In Him was life ; and the life was 
Jesus Christ ever was the revealer 
of the Godhead, and must have 
been known to the patriarchs as 
such ; for the same Evangelist 
says, " No man hath seen God at any time : the only-begotten Son, 
which is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared? that is, He 
hath revealed "Him." Before the Saviour came, the ancient Jews 
commonly spoke of the Messiah, or the Son of God, under the name 
of Dabar, or the "Word." This will appear from a consideration of 
what is stated in the 3rd chapter of 1st Samuel. In the first verse of 
that chapter it is said, " The WORD of the Lord was precious in those 
days ; there was no open vision," that is, in consequence of the sin 
of Eli, the Lord had not, for a long time, revealed Himself in vision 
to him, as He did to the prophets. When the Lord had called 

and Kronos, is no argument against the real substantial identity of these 
divinities originally as Pagan divinities ; for Herodotus (Hist., lib. ii. cap. 53) 
states that Hesiod had a hand in "inventing a theogony " for the Greeks, which 
implies that some at least of the details of that theogony must have come from 
his own fancy ; and, on examination, it will be found, when the veil of allegory 
is removed, that Hesiod s " Ouranos," though introduced as one of the Pagan 
gods, was really at bottom the "God of Heaven," the living and true God. See 
what is said in regard to Hesiod s " Titan " in Chap. VII. Sect. V. 

* WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 189. 

t DUPUIS, De I origine des tons les cultes, vol. iv. p. 194. The above figure is 
from HYDE, De Vetere Rdigione Persarum, p. 113. 

PLUTARCH, De hide, vol. ii. p. 369. 


Samuel, this " vision " of the God of Israel was restored (though not 
to Eli), for it is said in the last verse (v. 21), "And the Lord 
APPEARED again in Shiloh; for the Lord revealed Himself to 
Samuel by the WORD of the Lord." Although the Lord spake 
to Samuel, this language implies more than speech, for it is said, 
"The Lord appeared" i.e., was seen. When the Lord revealed 
Himself, or was seen by Samuel, it is said that it was "by 
(Dabar) the Word of the Lord." The " Word of the Lord " to 
be visible, must have been the personal "Word of God," that 
is, Christ.* This had evidently been a primitive name by which He 
was known ; and therefore it is not wonderful that Plato should 
speak of the second person of his Trinity under the name of the 
Logos, which is just a translation of "Dabar," or "the Word."f 
Now, the light of the wax-candle, as the light from Dabar, "the 
Bee," was set up as the substitute of the light of Dabar " the Word." 
Thus the apostates turned away from the "True Light," and set up 
a shadow in His stead. That this was really the case is plain ; for, 
says Crabb, speaking of Saturn, "on his altars were placed wax- 
tapers lighted, because by Saturn men were reduced from the 
darkness of error to the light of truth. "| In Asiatic Greece, the 
Babylonian god was evidently recognised as the Light-giving 
"Word," for there we find the Bee occupying such a position as 
makes it very clear that it was a symbol of the great Revealer. 
Thus we find Miiller referring to the symbols connected with the 
worship of the Ephesian Diana : " Her constant symbol is the bee, 

which is not otherwise attributed to Diana The chief priest 

himself was called Essen, or the king-bee ." The character of the 
chief priest shows the character of the god he represented. The 
contemplar divinity of Diana, the tower-bearing goddess, was of 
course the same divinity as invariably accompanied the Babylonian 
goddess : and this title of the priest shows that the Bee which 
appeared on her medals was just another symbol for her child, as the 
"Seed of the Woman," in his assumed character, as Dabar, "The 
Word " that enlightened the souls of men. That this is the precise 
" Mystery " couched under the wax-candles burning on the altars of 
the Papacy, we have very remarkable evidence from its own formu 
laries ; for, in the very same place in which the " Mystery " of the 
wax-candle is spoken of, thus does Rome refer to the Bee, by which 
the wax is produced : " Forasmuch as we do marvellously wonder, 
in considering the first beginning of this substance, to wit, wax- 

* After the Babylonish captivity, as the Chaldee Targums or Paraphrases of 
the Old Testament show, Christ was commonly called by the title " The Word of 
the Lord." In these Targums of later Chaldee, the term for "The Word" is 
"Mimra"; but this word, though a synonym for that which is used in the 
Hebrew Scriptures, is never used there. Dabar is the word employed. This is 
so well recognised that, in the Hebrew translation of John s Gospel in Bagster s 
Polyglott, the first verse runs thus : " In the beginning was the Word (Dabar)." 

t Platonis Opera, vol. i. p. 85, E. 

CRABB S Mythology, p. 12. 

MULLBB S Dorians, vol. i. pp. 403, 404. Oxford, 1830. 


tapers, then must we of necessity greatly extol the original of Bees, 
for .... they gather the flowers with their feet, yet the flowers are 
not injured thereby; they bring forth no young ones, but deliver 
their young swarms through their mouths, like as Christ (for a 
wonderful example) is proceeded from His Father s MOUTH."* Here 
it is evident that Christ is referred to as the " Word of God ; " and 
how could any imagination ever have conceived such a parallel as is 
contained in this passage, had it not been for the equivoque between 
"Dabar," "the Bee," and "Dabar," "the Word." In a Popish 
work already quoted, the Pancarpium Marianum, I find the Lord 
Jesus expressly called by the name of the Bee. Referring to Mary, 
under the title of "The Paradise of Delight," the author thus 
speaks : "In this Paradise that celestial Bee, that is, the incarnate 
Wisdom, did feed. Here it found that dropping honeycomb, with 
which the whole bitterness of the corrupted world has been turned 
into sweetness."! This blasphemously represents the Lord Jesus 
as having derived everything necessary to bless the world from His 
mother ! Could this ever have come from the Bible ? No. It must 
have come only from the source where the writer learned to call 
"the incarnate Wisdom" by the name of the Bee. Now, as the 

* Review of Epistle of Dr. GENTIANUS HAKVET of Louvaine, pp. 349, B, and 350, 
A. This work, which is commonly called The Beehive of the Roman Church t 
contains the original Latin of the passage translated above. The passage in 
question is to be found in at least two Roman Missals, which, however, are now 
very rare viz., one printed at Vienna in 1506, fol. 75, p. 2, with which the 
quotation in the text has been compared and verified ; and one printed at Venice 
in 1522. These dates are antecedent to the establishment of the Reformation; 
and it appears that this passage was expunged from subsequent editions, as 
being unfit to stand the searching scrutiny to which everything in regard to 
religion was subjected in consequence of that great event. The ceremonial of 
blessing the candles, however, which has no place in the Pontificate Romanum in 
the Edinburgh Advocates Library, is to be found in the Pontificate Romanum, 
Venice, 1543, p. 195, and in Pontificate Romanum, Venice, 1572, p. 183. In the 
ceremony of blessing the candles, given in the Roman Missal, printed at Paris, 
1677, at p. 181 and following pages, there is great praise of the Bee, strongly 
resembling the passage quoted in the text. The introduction of such an extra 
ordinary formula into a religious ceremony is of very ancient date, and is 
distinctly traced to an Italian source ; for, in the works of the Popish Bishop 
Ennodius, who occupied an Italian diocese in the sixth century, we find the 
counterpart of that under consideration. Thus, in a prayer in regard to the 
" Easter Candle," the reason for offering up the wax-candle is expressly declared 
to be, because that through means of the bees that produce the wax of which it 
is made, " earth has an image of what is PECULIAR TO HEAVEN " (meretur habere 
terra quod cceli est) (ENNOD. Opera, p. 456), and that in regard to the very subject 
of GENERATION ; the bees being able, "through the virtue of herbs, to pour forth 
their young through their MOUTHS with less waste of time than all other creatures 
do in the ordinary way" ("prolem .... quam herbarum lucro, diligentius 
possunt ore profligare quam semine "). (Ibid.) This prayer contains the precise 
idea of the prayer in the text ; and there is only one way of accounting for the 
origin of such an idea. It must have come from a Chaldean Liturgy. 

For discovering this first link in the chain of evidence en this important point, 
now happily brought to perfection by another hand, I am indebted to my brother, 
Mr. Hislop, of Blair Lodge, from whose zealous and recondite researches on many 
other points this work has derived no slight advantage. 

f Pancarpium, cap. 29, p. 122. 


equivoque from which such a name applied to the Lord Jesus 
springs, is founded only on the Babylonian tongue, it shows whence 
his theology has come, and it proves also to demonstration that this 
whole prayer about the blessing of wax-candles must have been 
drawn from a Babylonian prayer-book. Surely, at every step, the 
reader must see more and more the exactitude of the Divine name 
given to the woman on the seven mountains, " Mystery, Babylon 
the Great ! " 


There is yet one more symbol of the Romish worship to be 
noticed, and that is the sign of the cross. In the Papal system, as is 
well known, the sign of the cross and the image of the cross are all 
in all. No prayer can be said, no worship engaged in, no step 
almost can be taken, without the frequent use of the sign of the 
cross. The cross is looked upon as the grand charm, as the great 
refuge in every season of danger, in every hour of temptation as the 
infallible preservative from all the powers of darkness. The cross is 
adored with all the homage due only to the Most High ; and for 
any one to call it, in the hearing of a genuine Romanist, by the 
Scriptural term, "the accursed tree," is a mortal offence. To say 

Fig. 43. 


that such a superstitious feeling for the sign of the cross, such 
worship as Rome pays to a wooden or a metal cross, ever grew out 
of the saying of Paul, "God forbid that I should glory, save in the 
cross of our Lord Jesus Christ " that is, in the doctrine of Christ 
crucified is a mere absurdity, a shallow subterfuge and pretence. 
The magic virtues attributed to the so-called sign of the cross, the 
worship bestowed on it, never came from such a source. The same 
sign of the cross that Rome now worships was used in the Baby 
lonian Mysteries, was applied by Paganism to the same magic 
purposes, was honoured with the same honours. That which is now 
called the Christian cross was originally no Christian emblem at all, 
but was the mystic Tau of the Chaldeans and Egyptians the true 
original form of the letter T the initial of the name of Tammuz 
which, in Hebrew, radically the same as ancient Chaldee, as found 
on coins, was formed as in No. 1 of the accompanying woodcut 
(Fig. 43) ; and in Etrurian and Coptic, as in Nos. 2 and 3. That 

* From KITTO S Biblical Cyclopccdia, vol. i. p. 495. 
f From Sir W. BETHAM S Etruria, vol. i. p. 54. 
From BONSEN, vol. i. p. 450. 



mystic Tau was marked in baptism on the foreheads of those 
initiated in the Mysteries,* and was used in every variety of way as 
a most sacred symbol. To identify Tammuz with the sun it was 
joined sometimes to the circle of the sun, as in No. 4 ; sometimes it 
was inserted in the circle, as in No. 5.f Whether the Maltese cross, 
which the Romish bishops append to their names as a symbol of 
their episcopal dignity, is the letter T, may be doubtful ; but there 
seems no reason to doubt that that Maltese cross is an express 
symbol of the sun ; for Layard found it as a sacred symbol in Nineveh 
in such a connection as led him to identify it with the sun.f The 
mystic Tau, as the symbol of the great divinity, was called "the 
sign of life ; " it was used as an amulet over the heart ; it was 
marked on the official garments of the priests, as on the official 
garments of the priests of Rome \ it was borne by kings in their 
hand, as a token of their dignity or divinely-conferred authority. || 

The Vestal virgins of Pagan Rome wore it suspended from their 
necklaces, as the nuns do now.U The Egyptians did the same, and 
many of the barbarous nations with whom they had intercourse, as 
the Egyptian monuments bear witness. In reference to the adorn 
ing of some of these tribes, Wilkinson thus writes : " The girdle was 
sometimes highly ornamented ; men as well as women wore ear- 

* TERTULLIAN, DC. Prescript. Hwret. cap. 40, vol. ii. p. 54, and Note. The 
language of Tertullian implies that those who were initiated by baptism in the 
Mysteries were marked on the forehead in the same way as his Christian country 
men in Africa, who had begun by this time to be marked in baptism with the sign 
of the cross. 

f STEPHEN S Central America, vol. ii. p. 344, Plate 2. 

LAYARD S Nineveh and Babylon, p. 211 ; Nineveh and its Retnaint, vol. ii. 
p. 446. 

WILKINSON, vol. i. p. 365, Plate. 

H See woodcut of King in next Chapter, p. 214. 

IT PERK LAFITAX, Mceurs des Sauvages Ameriquains, \<1. i. p. 442. 


rings; and they frequently had a small cross suspended to a 
necklace, or to the collar of their dress. The adoption of this last 
was not peculiar to them ; it was also appended to, or figured upon, 
the robes of the Rot-n-no ; and traces of it may be seen in the 
fancy ornaments of the Rebo, showing that it was already in use 
as early as the fifteenth century before the Christian era."* (Fig. 44.) 
There is hardly a Pagan tribe where the cross has not been 
found. The cross was worshipped by the Pagan Celts long 
before the incarnation and death of Christ. f " It is a fact," 
says Maurice, "not less remarkable than well-attested, that the 
Druids in their groves were accustomed to select the most stately 
and beautiful tree as an emblem of the Deity they adored, and 
having cut the side branches, they affixed two of the largest of them 
to the highest part of the trunk, in such a manner that those branches 
extended on each side like the arms of a man, and, together with the 
body, presented the appearance of a HUGE CROSS, and on the bark, in 
several places, was also inscribed the letter Thau."| It was wor 
shipped in Mexico for ages before the Roman Catholic missionaries 
set foot there, large stone crosses 
being erected, probably to the Fi s- *6. 

"god of rain." The cross thus 
widely worshipped, or regarded 
as a sacred emblem, was the un 
equivocal symbol of Bacchus, the 
Babylonian Messiah, for he was 
represented with a head -band 
covered with crosses (see Fig. 
45). 1 1 This symbol of the Baby 
lonian god is reverenced at this 
day in all the wide wastes of 
Tartary, where Buddhism pre 
vails, and the way in which it is 
represented among them forms a 

striking commentary on the language applied by Rome to the Cross. 
" The cross," says Colonel Wilford, in the Asiatic JResearcJies, 
" though not an object of worship among the Baud has or Buddhists, 
is a favourite emblem and device among them. It is exactly the 
cross of the Manicheans, with leaves and flowers springing from it. 
This cross, putting forth leaves and flowers (and fruit also, as I am 
told), is called the divine tree, the tree of the gods, the tree of life 
and knowledge, and productive of whatever is good and desirable, 

* WILKINSON, vol. i. p. 376. 

t CR ABB S Mythology, p. 163. 

MAURICE S Indian Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 49. 

PREBCOTT S Conquest of Mexico, vol. i. p. 242. 

y The above figure is the head of that which is given in p. 48, ante, only 
magnified, that the crosses may be more distinctly visible. Let the reader turn 
back from this point, and read over again what is said in p. 154 about the worship 
at Rome on Good Friday of the "cross of fire," and the full significance of that 
worship will now appear. 



and is placed in the terrestrial paradise."* (Fig. 46.)f Compare 
this with the language of Rome applied to the cross, and it will be 
seen how exact is the coincidence. In the Office of the Cross, it is 
called the "Tree of life," and the worshippers are taught thus to 
address it : " Hail, O Cross, triumphal wood, true salvation of the 
world, among trees there is none like thee in leaf, flower, and bud. 

Fig. 46. 

.... Cross, our only hope, increase righteousness to the godly 
and pardon the offences of the guilty. "J Can any one, reading 

* Asiatic Researches, vol. x. p. 124. 

t The two at the top are Standards of Pagan barbarous nations of the East, 
from BRYANT S Mythology, vol. iii. p. 327. The black one in the middle, "The 
sacred Egyptian Tau or Sign of Life," from WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 283. The two 
lowest are Buddhist Crosses, from Asiatic Researches, vol. x. p. 124. 

Review of Epistle of Dr. GENTIANUS HARVET of Louvaine, p. 251, A. The 
following is one of the stanzas of the above hymn in the original : 

" O crux, lignum triumphale 
Mundi vera salus, vale, 
Inter ligna nullum tale 

Fronde, flore, germine." 

The above was actually versified by the Romanisers in the Church of England, 
and published along with much besides from the same source, some years ago, in 
a. volume entitled Devotions on the Passion. The London Record, of April, 1842, 
gave the following as a specimen of the Devotions " provided by these " wolves 
in sheep s clothing " for members of the Church of England : 

" O faithful cross, thou peerless tree, 
No forest yields the like of thee, 

Leaf, flower, and bud ; 
Sweet is the wood, and sweet the weight 
And sweet the nails that penetrate 

Thee, thou sweet wood." 


the gospel narrative of the crucifixion, possibly believe that that 
narrative of itself could ever germinate into such extravagance of 
"leaf, flower, and bud," as thus appears in this Roman Office 1 ? But 
when it is considered that the Buddhist, like the Babylonian cross, 
was the recognised emblem of Tammuz, who was known as the 
misletoe branch, or " All-heal," then it is easy to see how the 
sacred Initial should be represented as covered with leaves, and how 
Rome, in adopting it, should call it the " Medicine which preserves 
the healthful, heals the sick, and does what mere human power 
alone could never do." * 

Now, this Pagan symbol seems first to have crept into the 
Christian Church in Egypt, and generally into Africa. A statement 
of Tertullian, about the middle of the third century, shows how 
much, by that time, the Church of Carthage was infected with the 
old leaven, f Egypt especially, which was never thoroughly evangel 
ised appears to have taken the lead in bringing in this Pagan 
symbol. The first form of that which is called the Christian Cross, 
found on Christian monuments there, is the unequivocal Pagan Tau, 
or Egyptian "Sign of life." Let the reader peruse the following 
statement of Sir G. Wilkinson : " A still more curious fact may be 
mentioned respecting this hieroglyphical character [the Tau], that 
the early Christians of Egypt adopted it in lieu of the cross, which 
was afterwards substituted for it, prefixing it to inscriptions in the 
same manner as the cross in later times. For, though Dr. Young 
had some scruples in believing the statement of Sir A. Edmonstone, 
that it holds that position in the sepulchres of the great Oasis, I can 
attest that such is the case, and that numerous inscriptions, headed 
by the Tau, are preserved to the present day on early Christian 
monuments." J The drift of this statement is evidently this, that 
in Egypt the earliest form of that which has since been called the 
cross, was no other than the "Crux Ansata," or "Sign of life," 
borne by Osiris and all the Egyptian gods ; that the ansa or " handle" 
was afterwards dispensed with, and that it became the simple Tau, 
or ordinary cross, as it appears at this day, and that the design of 
its first employment on the sepulchres, therefore, could have no 
reference to the crucifixion of the Nazarene, but was simply the 
result of the attachment to old and long-cherished Pagan symbols, 
which is always strong in those who, with the adoption of the 
Christian name and profession, are still, to a large extent, Pagan in 
heart and feeling. This, and this only, is the origin of the worship 
of the "cross." 

This, no doubt, will appear all very strange and very incredible to 
those who have read Church history, as most have done to a large 
extent, even amongst Protestants, through Romish spectacles ; and 
especially to those who call to mind the famous story told of the 
miraculous appearance of the cross to Constantine on the day before 

* From hymn already quoted. 

f TKRTULLIAN, De Corona MHitis, cap. iii., vol. ii. p. 80. 

J WILKINSON, vol. v. pp. 283, 284. 


the decisive victory at the Milvian bridge, that decided the fortunes 
of avowed Paganism and nominal Christianity. That story, as com 
monly told, if true, would certainly give a Divine sanction to the 
reverence for the cross. But that story, when sifted to the bottom, 
according to the common version of it, will be found to be based on 
a delusion a delusion, however, into which so good a man as Milner 
has allowed himself to fall. Milner s account is as follows : " Con- 
stantine, marching from France into Italy against Maxentius, in an 
expedition which was likely either to exalt or to ruin him, was 
oppressed with anxiety. Some god he thought needful to protect 
him ; the God of the Christians he was most inclined to respect, but 
he wanted some satisfactory proof of His real existence and power, 
and he neither understood the means of acquiring this, nor could he 
be content with the atheistic indifference in which so many generals 
and heroes since his time have acquiesced. He prayed, he implored 
with such vehemence and importunity, and God left him not unan 
swered. While he was marching with his forces in the afternoon, 
the trophy of the cross appeared very luminous in the heavens, 
brighter than the sun, with this inscription, Conquer by this, He 
and his soldiers were astonished at the sight ; but he continued 
pondering on the event till night. And Christ appeared to him 
when asleep with the same sign of the cross, and directed him 
to make use of the symbol as his military ensign." * Such is the 
statement of Milner. Now, in regard to the " trophy of the cross," 
a few words will suffice to show that it is utterly unfounded. I do 
not think it necessary to dispute the fact of some miraculous sign 
having been given. There may, or there may not, have been on this 
occasion a " dignus vindice nodus," a crisis worthy of a Divine inter 
position. Whether, however, there was anything out of the ordinary 
course, I do not inquire. But this I say, on the supposition that 
Constantine in this matter acted in good faith, and that there actually 
was a miraculous appearance in the heavens, that it was not the sign 
of the cross that was seen, but quite a different thing, the name of 
Christ. That this was the case, we have at once the testimony of 
Lactantius, who was the tutor of Constan tine s son Crispus the 
earliest author who gives any account of the matter, and the indis 
putable evidence of the standards of Constantine themselves, as 
handed down to us on medals struck at the time. The testimony 
of Lactantius is most decisive : " Constantine was warned in a dream 
to make the celestial sign of God upon his soldiers shields, and so to 
join battle. He did as he was bid, and with the transverse letter X 
circumflecting the head of it, he marks Christ or their shields. 
Equipped with this sign, his army takes the sword." f Now, the 

* Church History, vol. ii. p. 41. Milner refers to EUSEB. Constant, xvii. But 
this is an error ; it is De Vita Constant, lib. i. cap. 28, 29, p. 173. 

t LACTANTIUS, De mortibus Persecutorum, 44, pp. 565, 566. The exact words 
of Lactantius are as follows : " Cominonitus est in quiete Constantinus, ut coeleste 
signum Dei notaret in scutis, atque ita proelium committeret. Fecit ut jussus est 
et transversa X litera summo capite circumflexo, Christum scutis notat. Quo signo 
armatuB exercitus capit ferrum." 


letter X was just the initial of the name of Christ, being equivalent 
in Greek to CH. If, therefore, Constantino did as he was bid, when 
he made " the celestial sign of God " in the form of " the letter X," 
it was that " letter X," as the symbol of " Christ" and not the sign 
of the cross, which he saw in the heavens. When the Labarum, or 
far-famed standard of Constantino itself, properly so called, was made, 
we have the evidence of Ambrose, the well-known Bishop of Milan, 
that that standard was formed on the very principle contained in 
the statement of Lactantius viz., simply to display the Redeemer s 
name. He calls it " Labarum, hoc est Christi sacratum nomine 
signum."* " The Labarum, that is, the ensign consecrated by the 
NAME of Christ. ; f There is not the slightest allusion to any cross 
to anything but the simple name of Christ. While we have these 
testimonies of Lactantius and Ambrose, when we come to examine 
the standard of Constantino, we find the accounts of both authors 
fully borne out ; we find that that standard, bearing on it these very 
words, " Hoc signo victor eris" " In this sign thou shalt be a con 
queror," said to have been addressed from heaven to the emperor, has 
nothing at all in the shape of a cross, but "the letter X." In the 
Roman Catacombs, on a Christian monument to " Sinphonia and her 
sons," there is a distinct allusion to the story of the vision ; but that 
allusion also shows that the X, and not the cross, was regarded as 
the " heavenly sign." The words at the head of the inscription are 
these : 

"!N Hoc VINCBS { 

Nothing whatever but the X is here given as the "Victorious Sign." 
There are some examples, no doubt, of Constantine s standard, in 
which there is a crossbar, from which the flag is suspended, that con 
tains that " letter X ; " and Eusebius, who wrote when superstition 
and apostacy were working, tries hard to make it appear that that 
cross-bar was the essential element in the ensign of Constantine. But 
this is obviously a mistake ; that cross-bar was nothing new, nothing 
peculiar to Constantine s standard. Tertullian shows || that that 
cross-bar was found long before on the vexillum, the Roman Pagan 

* Ambrosii Opera, vol. iv. p. 327. 

f Epistle of Ambrose to the Emperor Theodosius about the proposal to restore the 
Pagan altar of Victory in the Roman Senate. The subject of the Labarum has been 
much confused through ignorance of the meaning of the word. Bryant assumes 
(and I was myself formerly led away by the assumption) that it was applied to the 
standard bearing the crescent and the cross, but he produces no evidence for the 
assumption; and I am now satisfied that none can be produced. The name 
Labarum, which is generally believed to have come from the East, treated as an 
Oriental word, gives forth its meaning at once. It evidently comes from Lab, " to 
vibrate," or "move to and fro," and dr "to be active." Interpreted thus, 
Labarum signifies simply a banner or flag, "waving to and fro" in the wind, and 
this entirely agrees with the language of Ambrose " an ensign consecrated by the 
name of Christ," which implies a banner. 

" In this thou shalt overcome." 

Dr. MAITLAND S Church in the Catacombs, p. 169. 

II Apoloyeticus Adv. Gentes, cap. 16, vol. i. pp. 368, 369. 


standard, that carried a flag ; and it was used simply for the purpose 
of displaying that flag. If, therefore, that cross-bar was the celestial 
sign," it needed no voice from heaven to direct Constantine to make 
it ; nor would the making or displaying of it have excited any parti 
cular attention on the part of those who saw it. We find no evidence 
at all that the famous legend, " In this overcome," has any reference 
to this cross-bar ; but we find evidence the most decisive that that 
legend does refer to the X. Now, that that X was not intended as 
the sign of the cross, but as the initial of Christ s name, is manifest 
from this, that the Greek P, equivalent to our R, is inserted in the 
middle of it, making by their union CHR. Any one who pleases may 
satisfy himself of this by examining the plates given in Mr. Elliot s 
Horce Apocalypticce* The standard of Constantine, then, was 
just the name of Christ. Whether the device came from earth or 
from heaven whether it was suggested by human wisdom or Divine, 
supposing that Constantine was sincere in his Christian profession, 
nothing more was implied in it than a literal embodiment of the 
sentiment of the Psalmist, " In the name of the Lord will we display 
our banners." To display that name on the standards of Imperial 
Rome was a thing absolutely new ; and the sight of that name, there 
can be little doubt, nerved the Christian soldiers in Constantine s 
army with more than usual fire to fight and conquer at the Milvian 

In the above remarks I have gone on the supposition that Con 
stantine acted in good faith as a Christian. His good faith, however, 
has been questioned ; f and I am not without my suspicions that the 
X may have been intended to have one meaning to the Christians 
and another to the Pagans. It is certain that the X was the symbol 
of the god Ham in Egypt, and as such was exhibited on the breast 
of his image. J Whichever view be taken, however, of Constantine s 
sincerity, the supposed Divine warrant for reverencing the sign of the 
cross entirely falls to the ground. In regard to the X, there is no 
doubt that, by the Christians who knew nothing of secret plots or 
devices, it was generally taken, as Lactantius declares, as equivalent 
to the name of " Christ." In this view, therefore, it had no very 
great attractions for the Pagans, who, even in worshipping Horus, 
had always been accustomed to make use of the mystic Tau or cross, 
as the "sign of life," or the magical charm that secured all that was 
good, and warded off everything that was evil. When, therefore, 
multitudes of the Pagans, on the conversion of Constantine, flocked 
into the Church, like the semi-Pagans of Egypt, they brought along 
with them their predilection for the old symbol. The consequence 
was, that in no great length of time, as apostacy proceeded, the X 
which in itself was not an unnatural symbol of Christ, the true 
Messiah, and which had once been regarded as such, was allowed to 
go entirely into disuse, and the Tau, the sign of the cross, the indis- 

* Horce, vol. i. pp. 226, 240. 

t By GAVAZZI, in his publication entitled The Free Word. 

See WILKINSON, vol. vi., " Khem." 


putable sign of Tammuz, the false Messiah, was everywhere substituted 
in its stead. Thus, by the " sign of the cross," Christ has been cruci 
fied anew by those who profess to be His disciples. Now, if these 
things be matter of historic fact, who can wonder that, in the Romish 
Church, "the sign of the cross" has always and everywhere been seen 
to be such an instrument of rank superstition and delusion ? 

There is more, much more, in the rites and ceremonies of Rome 
that might be brought to elucidate our subject. But the above may 

* If the above remarks be well founded, surely it cannot be right that this sign 
of the Cross, or emblem of Tammuz, should be used in Christian baptism. At 
the period of the Revolution, a Royal Commission, appointed to inquire into 
the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church of England, numbering among its 
members eight or ten bishops, strongly recommended that the use of the cross, 
as tending to superstition, should be laid aside. If such a recommendation 
was given then, and that by such authority as members of the Church of 
England must respect, how much ought that recommendation to be enforced 
by the new light which Providence has cast on the subject ! 



THE gift of the ministry is one of the greatest gifts which Christ has 
bestowed upon the world. It is in reference to this that the Psalmist, 
predicting the ascension of Christ, thus loftily speaks of its blessed 
results : " Thou hast ascended up on high ; Thou hast led captivity 
captive ; Thou hast received gifts for men, even for the rebellious, 
that the Lord God might dwell among them" (Eph. iv. 8-11). The 
Church of Rome, at its first planting, had the divinely-bestowed gift 
of a Scriptural ministry and government ; and then " its faith was 
spoken of throughout the whole world ; " its works of righteousness 
were both rich and abundant. But, in an evil hour, the Babylonian 
element was admitted into its ministry, and thenceforth, that which 
had been intended as a blessing, was converted into a curse. Since 
then, instead of sanctifying men, it has only been the means of 
demoralising them, and making them " twofold more the children of 
hell " than they would have been if they had been left simply to 

If there be any who imagine that there is some occult and 
mysterious virtue in an apostolic succession that comes through the 
Papacy, let them seriously consider the real character of the Pope s 
own orders, and of those of his bishops and clergy. From the Pope 
downwards, all can be shown to be now radically Babylonian. The 
College of Cardinals, with the Pope at its head, is just the counter 
part of the Pagan College of Pontiffs, with its " Pontifex Maximus," 
or " Sovereign Pontiff," which had existed in Rome from the earliest 
times, and which is known to have been framed on the model of the 
grand original Council of Pontiffs at Babylon. The Pope now 
pretends to supremacy in the Church as the successor of Peter, to 
whom it is alleged that our Lord exclusively committed the keys of 
the kingdom of heaven. But here is the important fact that, till the 
Pope was invested with the title, which for a thousand years had had 
attached to it the power of the keys of Janus and Cybele,* no such 
claim to pre-eminence, or anything approaching to it, was ever 
publicly made on his part, on the ground of his being the possessor of 

* It was only in the second century before the Christian era that the worship 
of Cybele, under that name, was introduced into Rome ; but the same goddess, 
under the name of Cardea, with the "power of the key," was worshipped in Rome, 
along with Janus, ages before. OVID S Fasti, vol. iii. 1. 101, p. 346. 


the keys bestowed on Peter. Very early, indeed, did the bishops of 
Rome show a proud and ambitious spirit ; but, for the first three 
centuries, their claim for superior honour was founded simply on the 
dignity of their see, as being that of the imperial city, the capital of 
the Roman world. When, however, the seat of empire was removed 
to the East, and Constantinople threatened to eclipse Rome, some 
new ground for maintaining the dignity of the Bishop of Rome must 
be sought. That new ground was found when, about 378, the Pope 
fell heir to the keys that were the symbols of two well-known Pagan 
divinities at Rome. Janus bore a key,* and Cybele bore a key ;f 
and these are the two keys that the Pope emblazons on his arms as 
the ensigns of his spiritual authority. How the Pope came to be 
regarded as wielding the power of these keys will appear in the 
sequel ; but that he did, in the popular apprehension, become 
entitled to that power at the period referred to is certain. Now, 
when he had come in the estimation of the Pagans, to occupy the 
place of the representatives of Janus and Cybele, and therefore to be 
entitled to bear their keys, the Pope saw that if he could only get it 
believed among the Christians that Peter alone had the power of the 
keys, and that he was Peter s successor, then the sight of these keys 
would keep up the delusion, and thus, though the temporal dignity 
of Rome as a city should decay, his own dignity as the bishop of 
Rome would be more firmly established than ever. On this policy it 
is evident he acted. Some time was allowed to pass away, and then, 
when the secret working of the Mystery of iniquity had prepared the 
way for it, for the first time did the Pope publicly assert his pre 
eminence, as founded on the keys given to Peter. About 378 was 
he raised to the position which gave him, in Pagan estimation, the 
power of the keys referred to. In 431, and not before, did he 
publicly lay claim to the possession of Peter s keys.f This, surely, is 
a striking coincidence. Does the reader ask how it was possible that 
men could give credit to such a baseless assumption ? The words of 
Scripture, in regard to this very subject, give a very solemn but 
satisfactory answer (2 Thess. ii. 10, 11) : " Because they received not 

the love of the truth, that they might be saved For this cause 

God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie." 
Few lies could be more gross ; but, in course of time, it came to be 
widely believed ; and now, as the statue of Jupiter is worshipped at 
Rome as the veritable image of Peter, so the keys of Janus and 
Cybele have for ages been devoutly believed to represent the keys of 
the same apostle. 

While nothing but judicial infatuation can account for the credu 
lity of the Christians in regarding these keys as emblems of an 
exclusive power given by Christ to the Pope through Peter, it is not 

* OVID S Fasti, lib. i. 11. 95, 99, vol. iii. p. 18. 

f TOOKE S Pantheon, " Cybele," p. 153. 

In proof of the fact that this claim was first made in 431, see ELLIOT S Horce y 
Tol. iii. p. 139. In 429 he gave a hint at it, but it was only in 431 that this olaim 
was broadly and distinctly made. 


difficult to see how the Pagans would rally round the Pope all the 
more readily when they heard him found his power on the possession 
of Peter s keys. The keys that the Pope bore were the keys of a 
"Peter" well known to the Pagans initiated in the Chaldean 
Mysteries. That Peter the apostle was ever Bishop of Rome has 
been proved again and again to be an arrant fable. That he ever 
even set foot in Rome is at the best highly doubtful. His visit to 
that city rests on no better authority than that of a writer at the end 
of the second century or beginning of the third viz., the author of 
the work called The Clementines* who gravely tells us that on 
the occasion of his visit, finding Simon Magus there, the apostle 
challenged him to give proof of his miraculous or magical powers, 
whereupon the sorcerer flew up into the air, and Peter brought him 
down in such haste that his leg was broken. f All historians of 
repute have at once rejected this story of the apostolic encounter 
with the magician as being destitute of all contemporary evidence ; 
but as the visit of Peter to Rome rests on the same authority, it must 
stand or fall along with it, or, at least, it must be admitted to be 
extremely doubtful. But, while this is the case with Peter the 
Christian, it can be shown to be by no means doubtful that before 
the Christian era, and downwards, there was a " Peter " at Rome, 
who occupied the highest place in the Pagan priesthood. The priest 
who explained the Mysteries to the initiated was sometimes called by 
a Greek term, the Hierophant; but in primitive Chaldee, the real 
language of the Mysteries, his title, as pronounced without the 
points, was "Peter" i.e., "the interpreter."! As the revealer of 
that which was hidden, nothing was more natural than that, while 
opening up the esoteric doctrine of the Mysteries, he should be 
decorated with the keys of the two divinities whose mysteries he 
unfolded. Thus we may see how the keys of Janus and Cybele 
would come to be known as the keys of Peter, the " interpreter " of 
the Mysteries. Yea, we have the strongest evidence that, in countries 
far removed from one another, and far distant from Rome, these keys 
were known by initiated Pagans not merely as the " keys of Peter," 
but as the keys of a Peter identified with Rome. In the Eleusinian 
Mysteries at Athens, when the candidates for initiation were in 
structed in the secret doctrine of Paganism, the explanation of that 
doctrine was read to them out of a book called by ordinary writers 
the "Book Petroma;" that is, as we are told, a book formed of 
stone.|| But this is evidently just a play upon words, according to 
the usual spirit of Paganism, intended to amuse the vulgar. The 
nature of the case, and the history of the Mysteries, alike show that 
this book could be none other than the " Book Pet-Roma ; " that is, 
the " Book of the Grand Interpreter," in other words, of Hermes 

* GIESELER, vol. i. pp. 206-208. f See BOWER, vol. i. pp. 1, 2. 

PARKHURST S Hebrew Lexicon, p. 602. 

The Turkish Muftis, or "interpreters" of the Koran, derive that name from 
the very same verb as that from which comes Miftak, a key. 
|| POTTER S Antiquities, vol. i., Mysteries, p. 356. 


Trismegistus, the great " Interpreter of the Gods." In Egypt, from 
which Athens derived its religion, the books of Hermes were regarded 
as the divine fountain of all true knowledge of the Mysteries.* In 
Egypt therefore, Hermes was looked up to in this very character of 
Grand Interpreter, or " Peter-Roma, "f In Athens, Hermes, as is 
well known, occupied precisely the same place, J and, of course, in 
the sacred language, must have been known by the same title. The 
priest, therefore, that in the name of Hermes explained the Mysteries, 
must have been decked not only with the keys of Peter, but with the 
keys of " Peter-Roma." Here, then, the famous " Book of Stone " 
begins to appear in a new light, and not only so, but to shed new 
light on one of the darkest and most puzzling passages of Papal 
history. It has always been a matter of amazement to candid 
historical inquirers how it could ever have come to pass that the 
name of Peter should be associated with Rome in the way in which 
it is found from the fourth century downwards how so many in 
different countries had been led to believe that Peter, who was an 
"apostle of the circumcision" had apostatised from his Divine 
commission, and become bishop of a Gentile Church, and that he 
should be the spiritual ruler in Rome, when no satisfactory evidence 
could be found for his ever having been in Rome at all. But the 
book of "Peter-Roma" accounts for what otherwise is entirely 
inexplicable. The existence of such a title was too valuable to be 
overlooked by the Papacy ; and, according to its usual policy, it was 
sure, if it had the opportunity, to turn it to the account of its own 
aggrandisement. And that opportunity it had. When the Pope 
came, as he did, into intimate connection with the Pagan priesthood ; 
when they came at last, as we shall see they did, under his control, 
* The following are the authorities for the statement in the text : " Jamblichus 
says that Hermes [i.e., the Egyptian] was the god of all celestial knowledge, 
which, being communicated by him to his priests, authorised them to inscribe 
their commentaries with the name of Hermes" (WILKINSON, vol. v., chap. xiii. 
pp. 9, 10). Again, according to the fabulous accounts of the Egyptian Mercury, 
he was reported .... to have taught men the proper mode of approaching the 
Deity with prayers and sacrifice (WILKINSON, vol. v., chap. xiii. p. 10). Hermes 
Trisinegistus seems to have been regarded as a new incarnation of Thoth, and 
possessed of higher honours. The principal books of this Hermes, according to 
Clemens of Alexandria, were treated by the Egyptians with the most profound 
respect, and carried in their religious processions (CLEM., ALEX., Strom., lib. vi., 
vol. iii. pp. 214-219). 

t In Egypt, "Petr" was used in this very sense. See BUNSEN, vol. i., Hiero 
glyph, p. 545, where Ptr is said to signify " to show." The interpreter was called 
Hierophantes, which has the very idea of " showing " in it. 

% The Athenian or Grecian Hermes is celebrated as " The source of invention. 
.... He bestows, too, mathesis on souls, by unfolding the will of the father of 

Jupiter, and this he accomplishes as the angel or messenger of Jupiter He 

is the guardian of disciplines, because the invention of geometry, reasoning, and 
language is referred to this god. He presides, therefore over every species of 
erudition, leading us to an intelligible essence from this mortal abode, governing 
the different herds of souls " (PROCLUS in Commentary on First Alcibiades, in the 
Notes on TAYLOR S Orphic Hymns, pp. 64, 65). The Grecian Hermes was so 
essentially the revealer or interpreter of divine things, that Hermeneutes, an 
interpreter, was currently said to come from his name (HYGINUS, Note to page 



what more natural than to seek not only to reconcile Paganism and 
Christianity, but to make it appear that the Pagan " Peter-Roma," 
with his keys, meant "Peter of Rome," and that that "Peter of 
Rome " was the very apostle to whom the Lord Jesus Christ gave 
the " keys of the kingdom of heaven " ? Hence, from the mere jingle 
of words, persons and things essentially different were confounded ; 
and Paganism and Christianity jumbled together, that the towering 
ambition of a wicked priest might be gratified ; and so, to the blinded 
Christians of the apostacy, the Pope was the representative of Peter 
the apostle, while to the initiated Pagans, he was only the repre 
sentative of Peter, the interpreter of their well-known Mysteries.* 
Thus was the Pope the express counterpart of " Janus, the double- 
faced." Oh ! what an emphasis of meaning in the Scriptural expres 
sion, as applied to the Papacy, " The Mystery of Iniquity " ! 

The reader will now be prepared to understand how it is that the 
Pope s Grand Council of State, which assists him in the government 
of the Church, comes to be called the College of Cardinals. The 
term Cardinal is derived from Cardo, a hinge. Janus, whose key 
the Pope bears, was the god of doors and hinges, and was called 
Patulcius and Clusius, " the opener and the shutter."f This had a 
blasphemous meaning, for he was worshipped at Rome as the grand 
mediator. Whatever important business was in hand, whatever 
deity was to be invoked, an invocation first of all must be addressed 
to Janus,| wno was recognised as the "God of gods," in whose 
mysterious divinity the characters of father and son were combined,]) 
and without that no prayer could be heard the " door of heaven " 
could not be opened, IF It was this same god whose worship prevailed 
so exceedingly in Asia Minor at the time when our Lord sent, by 
his servant John, the seven Apocalyptic messages to the churches 
established in that region. And, therefore, in one of these messages 
we find Him tacitly rebuking the profane ascription of His own 
peculiar dignity to that divinity, and asserting His exclusive claim 
to the prerogative usually attributed to His rival. Thus, Rev. iii. 7 : 
" And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write : These things 
saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, 
he that openeth, and no man shutteth ; and shutteth, and no man 
openeth." Now, to this Janus, as Mediator, worshipped in Asia 
Minor, and equally, from very early times, in Rome, belonged the 
government of the world ; and, " all power in heaven, in earth, and 
the sea," according to Pagan ideas, was vested in him.** In this 
character he was said to have "jus vertendi cardinis" the "power 
of turning the hinge " of opening the doors of heaven, or of opening 

* For evidence in regard to the title of the interpreter of the Mysteries, see 
BRYANT S Mythology, vol. i. pp. 308-311, 356, 359-362. 
f LEMPRTERE, sub voce. 

+ OVID, Fasti, lib. i. 11. 171, 172, vol. iii. p. 24. 

So called in the Hymns of the Salii, MACROS., Sat., lib. i. c. 9, p. 54, col. 2, H. 
H See ante, pp. 28 (Note) and 134. 
H OVID, Fasti, lib. i. 11. 117-121. 
** Ibid. lib. i. 11. 117, 120, 125. 


or shutting the gates of peace or war upon earth. The Pope, there 
fore, when he set up as the High-priest of Janus, assumed also the 
"jus vertendi cardinis" "the power of turning the hinge," of open 
ing and shutting in the blasphemous Pagan sense. Slowly and 
cautiously at first was this power asserted ; but the foundation being 
laid, steadily, century after century, was the grand superstructure of 
priestly power erected upon it. The Pagans who saw what strides, 
under Papal directions, Christianity, as professed in Rome, was mak 
ing towards Paganism, were more than content to recognise the Pope 
as possessing this power; they gladly encouraged him to rise, step 
by step, to the full height of the blasphemous pretensions befitting 
the representative of Janus pretensions which, as all men know, are 
now, by the unanimous consent of Western Apostate Christendom, 
recognised as inherent in the office of the Bishop of Rome. To enable 
the Pope, however, to rise to the full plenitude of power which he 
now asserts, the co-operation of others was needed. When his power 
increased, when his dominion extended, and especially after he 
became a temporal sovereign, the key of Janus became too heavy for 
his single hand he needed some to share with him the power of 
the "hinge." Hence his privy councillors, his high functionaries of 
state, who were associated with him in the government of the Church 
and the world, got the now well-known title of " Cardinals " the 
priests of the "hinge" This title had been previously borne by the 
high officials of the Roman Emperor, who, as " Pontifex Maximus," 
had been himself the representative of Janus, and who delegated 
his powers to servants of his own. Even in the reign of Theodosius, 
the Christian Emperor of Rome, the title of Cardinal was borne by 
his Prime Minister.* But now both the name and the power 
implied in the name have long since disappeared from all civil 
functionaries of temporal sovereigns ; and those only who aid the 
Pope in wielding the key of Janus in opening and shutting are 
known by the title of Cardinals, or priests of the " hinge" 

I have said that the Pope became the representative of Janus, who, 
it is evident, was none other than the Babylonian Messiah. If the 
reader only considers the blasphemous assumptions of the Papacy, he 
will see how exactly it has copied from its original. In the countries 
where the Babylonian system was most thoroughly developed, we find 
the Sovereign Pontiff of the Babylonian god invested with the very 
attributes now ascribed to the Pope. Is the Pope called " God upon 
earth," the " Vice-God," and "Vicar of Jesus Christ "3 The King in 
Egypt, who was Sovereign-Pontiff,! was, says Wilkinson, regarded 
with the highest reverence as " THE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE 
DIVINITY ON EARTH." J Is the Pope " Infallible," and does the 
Church of Rome, in consequence, boast that it has always been 

* PARKHURST, Lexicon, p. 627. 

t Wilkinson shows that the king had the right of enacting laws, and of manag 
ing all the affairs of religion and the State (vol. ii. p. 22), which proves him to 
have been Sovereign Pontiff. 

+ WILKINSON S Egyptians, vol. ii. p. 68. 


" unchanged and unchangeable " ? The same was the case with the 
Chaldean Pontiff, and the system, over which he presided. The 
Sovereign Pontiff, says the writer just quoted, was believed to be 
" INCAPABLE OF ERROR," * and, in consequence, there was " the 
greatest respect for the sanctity of old edicts ; " and hence, no doubt, 
also the origin of the custom that " the laws of the Medes and Per 
sians could not be altered." Does the Pope receive the adorations of 
the Cardinals? The king of Babylon, as Sovereign Pontiff, was 
adored in like manner, f Are kings and ambassadors required to kiss 
the Pope s slipper ? This, too, is copied from the same pattern ; for, 
says Professor Gaussen, quoting Strabo and Herodotus, "the kings 
of Chaldea wore on their feet slippers which the kings they conquered 
used to kiss. "I In fine, is the Pope addressed by the title of " Your 
Holiness " ? So also was the Pagan Pontiff of Rome. The title 
seems to have been common to all the Pontiffs. Symmachus, the last 
Pagan representative of the Roman Emperor, as Sovereign Pontiff, 
addressing one of his colleagues or fellow-pontiffs, on a step of pro 
motion he was about to obtain, says, " I hear that YOUR HOLINESS 
(sanctitatem tuam) is to be called out by the sacred letters." 

Peter s keys have now been restored to their rightful owner. 
Peter s chair must also go along with them. That far-famed chair 
came from the very same quarter as the cross-keys. The very same 
reason that led the Pope to assume the Chaldean keys naturally led 
him also to take possession of the vacant chair of the Pagan Pontifex 
Maximus. As the Pontifex, by virtue of his office, had been the 
Hierophant, or Interpreter of the Mysteries, his chair of office was 
as well entitled to be called " Peter s " chair as the Pagan keys to be 
called "the keys of Peter;" and so it was called accordingly. The 
real pedigree of the far-famed chair of Peter will appear from the 
following fact : " The Romans had," says Bower, " as they thought, 
till the year 1662, a pregnant proof, not only of Peter s erecting their 

* WILKINSON S Egyptians. The " Infallibility " was a natural result of the 
popular belief in regard to the relation in which the Sovereign stood to the 
gods : for, says Diodorus Siculus, speaking of Egypt, the king was believed to 
be "a partaker of the divine nature" (lib. i. cap. 7, p. 57). 

t From the statements of Layard (Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. pp. 472-474, 
and Nineveh and Babylon, p. 361), it appears that as the king of Egypt was the 
" Head of the religion and the state," so was the king of Assyria, which included 
Babylon. Then we have evidence that he was worshipped. The sacred images 
are represented as adoring him (LAYARD, Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 464), 
which could not have been the case if his own subjects did not pay their homage 
in that way. Then the adoration claimed by Alexander the Great evidently came 
from this source. It was directly in imitation of the adoration paid to the Persian 
kings that he required such homage. Quint. Curtius says (lib. viii. cap. 5, pp. 592, 
593), "Volebat .... itaque more Persarum Macedonas venerabundos ipsum 
salutare prosternentes humi corpora." From Xenophon we have evidence that 
this Persian custom came from Babylon. It was when Cyrus had entered 
Babylon that the Persians, for the first time, testified their homage to him by 
adoration; for, "before this," says Xenophon (Cyropced., lib. viii. p. 215, C), 
"none of the Persians had given adoration to Cyrus." 

GAUSSEN on Daniel, vol. i. p. 114. 

SYMMACHUS, Epistola, lib. vi. 31, p. 240. 


chair, but of his sitting in it himself ; for, till that year, the very 
chair on which they believed, or would make others believe, he had 
sat, was shown and exposed to public adoration on the 18th of 
January, the festival of the said chair. But while it was cleaning, 
in order to set it up in some conspicuous place of the Vatican, the 
twelve labours of Hercules unluckily appeared on it ! " * and so it 
had to be laid aside. The partisans of the Papacy were not a little 
disconcerted by this discovery -, but they tried to put the best face 
on the matter they could. " Our worship," said Giacomo Bartolini, 
in his Sacred Antiquities of Rome, while relating the circum 
stances of the discovery, " Our worship, however, was not misplaced, 
since it was not to the wood we paid it, but to the prince of the 
apostles, St. Peter," that had been supposed to sit in it.f Whatever 
the reader may think of this apology for chair-worship, he will surely 
at least perceive, taking this in connection with what we have 
already seen, that the hoary fable of Peter s chair is fairly exploded. 
In modern times, Rome seems to have been rather unfortunate in 
regard to Peter s chair; for, even after that which bore the twelve 
labours of Hercules had been condemned and cast aside, as unfit to 
bear the light that the Reformation had poured upon the darkness of 
the Holy See, that which was chosen to replace it was destined to 
reveal still more ludicrously the barefaced impostures of the Papacy. 
The former chair was borrowed from the Pagans ; the next appears 
to have been purloined from the Mussulmans ; for when the French 
soldiers under General Bonaparte took possession of Rome in 1795, 
they found on the back of it, in Arabic, this well-known sentence of 
the Koran, "There is no God but God, and Mahomet is His 

The Pope has not merely a chair to sit in ; but he has a chair to 
be carried in, in pomp and state, on men s shoulders, when he pays 
a visit to St. Peter s, or any of the churches of Rome. Thus does an 
eye-witness describe such a pageant on the Lord s Day, in the head 
quarters of Papal idolatry : " The drums were heard beating without. 
The guns of the soldiers rung on the stone pavement of the house of 
God, as, at the bidding of their officer, they grounded, shouldered, 
and presented arms. How unlike the Sabbath how unlike religion 
how unlike the suitable preparation to receive a minister of the 
meek and lowly Jesus ! Now, moving slowly up, between the two 
armed lines of soldiers, appeared a long procession of ecclesiastics, 
bishops, canons, and cardinals, preceding the Roman pontiff, who 
was borne on a gilded chair, clad in vestments resplendent as the 
sun. His bearers were twelve men clad in crimson, being imme 
diately preceded by several persons carrying a cross, his mitre, his 
triple crown, and other insignia of his office. As he was borne 

* BOWER S History of the Popes, vol. i. p. 7. 

t BARTOLINI, Antichitd Sacr6 di Roma, p. 32, Ibid. 

Lady MORGAN S Italy, vol. iii. p. 81. Dr. Wiseman tried to dispute this ; 
but, as the Times, I think, remarked, " the lady had evidently the best of the 



along on the shoulders of men, amid the gaping crowds, his head was 
shaded or canopied by two immense fans, made of peacock s feathers, 
which were borne by two attendants."* Thus is it with the 
Sovereign Pontiff of Koine at this day ; only that, frequently, over 
and above being shaded by the fan, which is just the " Mystic fan of 
Bacchus," his chair of state is also covered with a regular canopy. 
Now, look back through the vista of three thousand years, and see 
how the Sovereign Pontiff of Egypt used to pay a visit to the 
temple of his god. " Having reached the precincts of the temple," 
says Wilkinson, " the guards and royal attendants selected to be the 

representatives of the whole army entered the courts Military 

bands played the favourite airs of the country ; and the numerous 
standards of the different regiments, the banners floating on the 
wind, the bright lustre of arms, the immense concourse of people, 
and the imposing majesty of the lofty towers of the propylsea, decked 
with their bright-coloured flags, streaming above the cornice, pre- 

Fig. 47. 

sented a scene seldom, we may say, equalled on any occasion, in any 
country. The most striking feature of this pompous ceremony was 
the brilliant cortege of the monarch, who was either borne in his 
chair of state by the principal officers of state, under a rich canopy, 
or walked on foot, overshadowed with rich flabella and fans of waving 
plumes."f We give, as a woodcut, from Wilkinson (Fig. 47), \ the 
central portion of one of his plates devoted to such an Egyptian pro 
cession, that the reader may see with his own eyes how exactly the 
Pagan agrees with the well-known account of the Papal ceremonial. 

So much for Peter s chair and Peter s keys. Now Janus, whose 
key the Pope usurped with that of his wife or mother Cybele, was 
also Dagon. Janus, the two-headed god, "who had lived in two 

* BEGG S Handbook of Popery, p. 24. 
t WILKINSON, vol. v. pp. 285, 286. 
From Ibid. vol. vi. Plate 76. 


worlds," was the Babylonian divinity as an incarnation of Noah. 
Dagon, the fish-god, represented that deity as a manifestation of the 
same patriarch who had lived so long in the waters of the deluge. 
As the Pope bears the key of Janus, so he wears the mitre of Dagon. 
The excavations of Nineveh have put this beyond all possibility of 
doubt. The Papal mitre is entirely different from the mitre of 
Aaron and the Jewish high priests. That mitre was a turban. The 
two-horned mitre, which the Pope wears, when he sits on the high 
altar at Rome and receives the adoration of the Cardinals, is the 
very mitre worn by Dagon, the fish-god of the Philistines and 
Babylonians. There were two ways in which Dagon was anciently 
represented. The one was when he was depicted as half-man half- 
fish ; the upper part being entirely human, the under part ending in 
the tail of a fish. The other was, when, to use the words of Layard, 
" the head of the fish formed a mitre above that of the man, while its 
scaly, fan-like tail fell as a cloak behind, leaving the human limbs 
and feet exposed."* Of Dagon in this form Layard gives a repre- 

Fig. 48. 

sentation in his last work, which is here represented to the reader 
(Fig. 48) ; and no one who examines his mitre, and compares it with 
the Pope s as given in Elliot s Rorce,\ can doubt for a moment 
that from that, and no other source, has the pontifical mitre been 
derived. The gaping jaws of the fish surmounting the head of the 
man at Nineveh are the unmistakable counterpart of the horns of 
the Pope s mitre at Eome. Thus was it in the East, at least five 
hundred years before the Christian era. The same seems to have 
been the case also in Egypt ; for Wilkinson, speaking of a fish of the 
species of Silurus, says "that one of the Genii of the Egyptian 
Pantheon appears under a human form, with the head of this fish." J 
In the West, at a later period, we have evidence that the Pagans 
had detached the fish-head mitre from the body of the fish, and used 
that mitre alone to adorn the head of the great Mediatorial god ; for 
on several Maltese Pagan coins that god, with the well-known 
attributes of Osiris, is represented with nothing of the fish save the 

* LA YARD S Babylon and Nineveh, p. 343. 
t 4th Edit, vol. iii. pt. 4, Plate 27. 
+ WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 253. 



mitre on his head (Fig. 49) ; * very nearly in the same form as the 
mitre of the Pope, or of a Papal bishop at this day. Even in China, 
the same practice of wearing the fish-head mitre had evidently once 
prevailed ; for the very counterpart of the Papal mitre, as worn by 

Pig. 49. 

Fig. 50. 

the Chinese Emperor, has subsisted to modern times. "Is it 
known," asks a well-read author of the present day, in a private 
communication to me, "that the Emperor of China, in all ages, even 
to the present year, as high priest of the nation, once a-year prays 
for and blesses the whole nation, having his priestly robes on and 

his mitre on his head, the same, the very 
same, as that worn by the Roman Pontiff 
for near 1200 years ? Such is the fact." f 
In proof of this statement the accompany 
ing figure of the Imperial mitre (Fig. 50) % 
is produced which is the very facsimile 
of the Popish Episcopal Mitre, in a front 
view. The reader must bear in mind, 
that even in Japan, still farther distant 
from Babel than China itself, one of the 
divinities is represented with the same 
symbol of might as prevailed in Assyria 
even the bull s horns, and is called 
"The ox-headed Prince of Heaven." 
If the symbol of Nimrod, as Kronos, 
"The Horned one," is thus found in Japan, it cannot be surprising 
that the symbol of Dagon should be found in China. 

But there is another symbol of the Pope s power which must not 
be overlooked, and that is the pontifical crosier. Whence came 
the crosier? The answer to this, in the first place, is, that the 

* From BRYANT, vol. v. p. 384. See also woodcut of Ceres and the ear of corn, 
Fig. 37, p. 160, of this vol. 

t A. TRIMEN, Esq., the distinguished architect, London, author of Church and 
Chapel Architecture. 

+ From HAGER, on Chinese Hieroglyphics, B xxxv. in British Museum, copied 
for me by Mr. Trimen s son, Mr. L. B. Trimen. The words of Hager, are : " In 
like manner the sacrificial mitre of the Chinese Emperor (the Pontifex Maximus 
of his nation), which was of old represented under this form [and then the above 
figure is given] ( Philos. Transact, at tab. 41 ), bearing a strong resemblance to 
the Roman Episcopal Mitre," &c., &c. 

KEMPFEK S Japan, in PINKERTON S Collection^ vol. vii. p. 776. 



Pope stole it from the Roman augur. The classical reader may 
remember, that when the Roman augurs consulted the heavens, or 
took prognostics from the aspect of the sky, there was a certain 
instrument with which it was indispensable that they should be 
equipped. That instrument with which they described the portion 
of the heavens on which their observations were to be made, was 
curved at the one end, and was called " lituus" Now, so manifestly 
was the " lituus" or crooked rod of the Roman augurs, identical 
with the pontifical crosier, that Roman Catholic writers themselves, 
writing in the Dark Ages, at a time when disguise was thought 
unnecessary, did not hesitate to use the term "lituus" as a synonym 
for the "crosier."* Thus a Papal writer describes a certain Pope 
or Papal bishop as "mitrd lituoque decorus" adorned with the mitre 
and the augur s rod, meaning thereby that he was "adorned with 
the mitre and the crosier" But this lituus, or divining-rod, of the 
Roman augurs, was, as is well known, borrowed from the Etruscans, 
who, again, had derived it, along with their religion, from the 
Assyrians. As the Roman augur was distinguished by his crooked 

Fig. 51. 

rod, so the Chaldean soothsayers and priests, in the performance 
of their magic rites, were generally equipped with a crook or crosier. 
This magic crook can be traced up directly to the first king of 
Babylon, that is, Nimrod, who, as stated by Berosus, was the first 
that bore the title of a Shepherd-king, f In Hebrew, or the Chaldee 
of the days of Abraham, "Nimrod the Shepherd," is just Nimrod 
" He-Roe"; and from this title of the " mighty hunter before the 
Lord," have no doubt been derived, both the name of Hero itself, 
and all that Hero-worship which has since overspread the world. 
Certain it is that Nimrod s deified successors have generally been 
represented with the crook or crosier. This was the case in Babylon 
and Nineveh, as the extant monuments show. The accompanying 
figure (Fig. 51) i from Babylon shows the crosier in its ruder guise. 

* See Oradus ad Parnassum, compiled by G. PYPER, a member of the Society 
of Jesus, sub vocibus Lituus Episcopus et Pedum, pp. 372, 464. 

t BEROKUS apud ABYDKNUS, in CORY S Fragments, p. 32, See also EUSEB., 
Chron., Pars. i. pp. 46, 47. 

I From KITTO S Biblical Cyclopaedia, vol. i. p. 272. See also KITTO S Illustrated 
Commentary, TO!, iv. p. 31, where another figure from Babylon is given with 
a similar crosier. 


In Layard, it may be seen in a more ornate form, and nearly 
resembling the papal crosier as borne at this day.* This was the 
case in Egypt, after the Babylonian power was established there, 
as the statues of Osiris with his crosier bear witness,! Osiris himself 
being frequently represented as a crosier with an eye above it.| 
This is the case among the negroes of Africa, whose god, called the 
Fetiche, is represented in the form of a crosier, as is evident from 
the following words of Hurd : " They place Fetiches before their 
doors, and these titular deities are made in the form of grapples 
or hooks, which we generally make use of to shake our fruit trees." 
This is the case at this hour in Thibet, where the Lamas or Theros 
bear, as stated by the Jesuit Hue, a crosier, as the ensign of their 
office. This is the case even in the far-distant Japan, where, in 
a description of the idols of the great temple of Miaco, the spiritual 
capital, we find this statement : " Their heads are adorned with rays 
of glory, and some of them have shepherd s crooks in their hands, 
pointing out that they are the guardians of mankind against all the 
machinations of evil spirits. "|| The crosier of the Pope, then, 
which he bears as an emblem of his office, as the great shepherd 
of the sheep, is neither more nor less than the augur s crooked 
staff, or magic rod of the priests of Nimrod. 

Now, what say the worshippers of the apostolic succession to all 
this? What think they now of their vaunted orders as derived 
from Peter of Rome ? Surely they have much reason to be proud of 
them. But what, I further ask, would even the old Pagan priests 
say, who left the stage of time while the martyrs were still battling 
against their gods, and, rather than symbolise with them, "loved 
not their lives unto the death," if they were to see the present aspect 
of the so-called Church of European Christendom? What would 
Belshazzar himself say, if it were possible for him to "revisit the 
glimpses of the moon," and enter St. Peter s at Rome, and see the 
Pope in his pontificals, in all his pomp and glory ? Surely he would 
conclude that he had only entered one of his own well-known 
temples, and that all things continued as they were at Babylon, 
on that memorable night, when he saw with astonished eyes the 
handwriting on the wall : "Mene, niene, tekel, Upharsin." 

* Nineveh and Babylon, p. 361. Layard seems to think the instrument referred 
to, which is borne by the king, "attired as high priest in his sacrificial robes," 
a sickle ; but any one who attentively examines it will see that it is a crosier, 
adorned with studs, as is commonly the case even now with the Roman crosiers, 
only, that instead of being held erect, it is held downwards. 

t The well-known name Pharaoh, the title of the Pontiff-kings of Egypt, 
is just the Egyptian form of the Hebrew He-Roe. Pharaoh in Genesis, without 
the points, is "Phe-Roe." Phe is the Egyptian definite article. It was not 
shepherd-fctngrs that the Egyptians abhorred, but Roi-Tzan, "shepherds of cattle" 
(Gen. xlvi. 34). Without the article Roe", a " shepherd," is manifestly the 
original of the French Roi, a king, whence the adjective royal ; and from Ro, 
which signifies to "act the shepherd," which is frequently pronounced Reg 
(with Sh, which signifies " He who is," or " who does," affixed) comes Regsh, 
" He who acts the shepherd," whence the Latin Rex, and Regal. 

PLUTARCH, vol. ii. p. 354, F. 

HUBD, p. 374, col. 2. U Ibid. p. 104, col. 2. 



If the head be corrupt, so also must be the members. If the 
Pope be essentially Pagan, what else can be the character of his 
clergy ? If they derive their orders from a radically corrupted 
source, these orders must partake of the corruption of the source 
from which they flow. This might be inferred independently of 
any special evidence ; but the evidence in regard to the Pagan 
character of the Pope s clergy is as complete as that in regard to 
the Pope himself. In whatever light the subject is viewed, this 
will be very apparent. 

There is a direct contrast between the character of the ministers 
of Christ, and that of the Papal priesthood. When Christ com 
missioned His servants, it was " to feed His sheep, to feed His 
lambs," and that with the Word of God, which testifies of Himself, 
and contains the words of eternal life. When the Pope ordains 
his clergy, he takes them bound to prohibit, except in special 
circumstances, the reading of the Word of God "in the vulgar 
tongue," that is, in a language which the people can understand. 
He gives them, indeed, a commission ; and what is it ? It is couched 
in these astounding words : " Receive the power of sacrificing for 
the living and the dead."* What blasphemy could be worse than 
this ? What more derogatory to the one sacrifice of Christ, whereby 
" He hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified " ? (Heb. x. 14). 
This is the real distinguishing function of the popish priesthood. 
At the remembrance that this power, in these very words, had been 
conferred on him, when ordained to the priesthood, Luther used, 
in after years, with a shudder, to express his astonishment that 
" the earth had not opened its mouth and swallowed up both him 
who uttered these words, and him to whom they were addressed."! 
The sacrifice which the papal priesthood are empowered to offer, 
as a "true propitiatory sacrifice" for the sins of the living and 
the dead, is just the " unbloody sacrifice " of the mass, which was 
offered up in Babylon long before it was ever heard of in Rome. 

Now, while Semiramis, the real original of the Chaldean Queen of 
Heaven, to whom the " unbloody sacrifice " of the mass was first 
offered, was in her own person, as we have already seen, the very 
paragon of impurity, she at the same time affected the greatest favour 
for that kind of sanctity which looks down with contempt on God s 
holy ordinance of marriage. The Mysteries over which she presided 
were scenes of the rankest pollution ; and yet the higher orders of the 
priesthood were bound to a life of celibacy, as a life of peculiar and 
pre-eminent holiness. Strange though it may seem, yet the voice of 
antiquity assigns to that abandoned queen the invention of clerical 
celibacy, and that in the most stringent form.}: In some countries, 

* D AUEIGNE S Reformation, vol. i. B. ii. cap. 4, p. 171. 
t Ibid. vol. i. p. 171. 

AMMIANUS MARCKLLINTO. "Semiramis teneros mares castravit omnium 
prima," lib. xiv. cap. 6, p. xxvi. 


as in Egypt, human nature asserted its rights, and though the general 
system of Babylon was retained, the yoke of celibacy was abolished, 
and the priesthood were permitted to marry. But every scholar 
knows that when the worship of Cybele, the Babylonian goddess, 
was introduced into Pagan Rome, it was introduced in its primitive 
form, with its celibate clergy.* "When the Pope appropiated to 
himself so much that was peculiar to the worship of that goddess, 
from the very same source, also, he introduced into the priesthood 
under his authority the binding obligation of celibacy. The intro 
duction of such a principle into the Christian Church had been 
distinctly predicted as one grand mark of the apostacy, when men 
should " depart from the faith, and speaking lies in hypocrisy, having 
their consciences seared with a hot iron, should forbid to marry" 
The effects of its introduction were most disastrous.! The records of 
all nations where priestly celibacy has been introduced have proved 
that, instead of ministering to the purity of those condemned to it, 
it has only plunged them in the deepest pollution. The history of 
Thibet, and China, and Japan, where the Babylonian institute of 
priestly celibacy has prevailed from time immemorial, bears testimony 
to the abominations that have flowed from it.J The excesses com 
mitted by the celibate priests of Bacchus in Pagan Rome in their 
secret Mysteries, were such that the Senate felt called upon to expel 
them from the bounds of the Roman republic. In Papal Rome the 
same abominations have flowed from priestly celibacy, in connection 
with the corrupt and corrupting system of the confessional, insomuch 
that all men who have examined the subject have been compelled to 
admire the amazing significance of the name divinely bestowed on it, 
both in a literal and figurative sense, " Babylon the Great, THE 
of a thousand facts of a similar kind, let one only be adduced, 
vouched for by the distinguished Roman Catholic historian De Thou. 
When Pope Paul V. meditated the suppression of the licensed 
brothels in the u Holy City," the Roman Senate petitioned against 
his carrying his design into effect, on the ground that the existence 
of such places was the only means of hindering the priests Jrom 
seducing their ivives and daughters ! f H 

These celibate priests have all a certain mark set upon them at 
their ordination ; and that is the clerical tonsure. The tonsure is the 

* PAUSANIAS, lib. vii. cap. 17, p. 566 ; and KENNETT, Book ii. chap, vii., "Of 
the Duumviri," &c. 

t See Light of Prophecy, chapters i. p. 28, and iv. p. 114 ; and British Reformers, 
" Jewell," p. 228. 

HAMEL S Travels in Corea, in PINKER-TON S Collection, vol. vii. pp. 536, 537. 
See also Description of Tibet in same Collection, p. 554 ; GABON S Japan, Ibid. p. 
630 ; and KEMPFER S Japan, Ibid. p. 747. 

LIVY, lib. xxxix. 8 and 18, vol. v. pp. 196-207. 

|| Rev. xvii. 5. The Rev. M. H. Seymour shows that in 1836 the whole num 
ber of births in Rome was 4373, while of these no fewer than 3100 were found 
lings ! What enormous profligacy does this reveal ! " Moral Results of the 
Romish System, 51 p. xlix. in Evenings with Romanists. 

H THUANUS, Historia, lib. xxxix. cap. 3, vol. ii. p. 483. 


first part of the ceremony of ordination ; and it is held to be a most 
important element in connection with the orders of the Romish 
clergy. When, after long contendings, the Picts were at last brought 
to submit to the Bishop of Rome, the acceptance of this tonsure as 
the tonsure of St. Peter on the part of the clergy was the visible 
symbol of that submission. Naitan, the Pictish king, having 
assembled the nobles of his court and the pastors of his church, thus 
addressed them : " I recommend all the clergy of my kingdom to 
receive the tonsure." Then, without delay, as Bede informs us, this 
important revolution was accomplished by royal authority.* He 
sent agents into every province, and caused all the ministers and 
monks to receive the circular tonsure, according to the Roman 
fashion, and thus to submit to Peter, "the most blessed Prince of 
the apostles." f " It was the mark," says Merle D Aubigne, " that 
Popes stamped not on the forehead, but on the crown. A royal pro 
clamation, and a few clips of the scissors, placed the Scotch, like a 
flock of sheep, beneath the crook of the shepherd of the Tiber." J Now, 
as Rome set so much importance on this tonsure, let it be asked what 
was the meaning of it ? It was the visible inauguration of those who 
submitted to it as the priests of Bacchus. This tonsure cannot have 
the slightest pretence to Christian authority. It was indeed the 
" tonsure of Peter," but not of the Peter of Galilee, but of the Chal 
dean " Peter " of the Mysteries. He was a tonsured priest, for so 
was the god whose Mysteries he revealed. Centuries before the 
Christian era, thus spoke Herodotus of the Babylonian tonsure : 
" The Arabians acknowledge no other gods than Bacchus and Urania 
[i.e., the Queen of Heaven], and they say that their hair was cut in 
the same manner as Bacchus s is cut ; now, they cut it in a circular 
form, sbaving it around the temples. " What, then, could have led 
to this tonsure of Bacchus ? Everything in his history was mystically 
or hieroglyphically represented, and that in such a way as none but 
the initiated could understand. One of the things that occupied the 
most important place in the Mysteries was the mutilation to which 
he was subjected when he was put to death. In memory of that, he 
was lamented with bitter weeping every year, as " Rosh-Gheza," 
"the mutilated Prince." But " Rosh-Gheza "|| also signified the 
"clipped or shaved head." Therefore he was himself represented 
either with the one or the other form of tonsure ; and his priests, for 
the same reason, at their ordination had their heads either clipped or 
shaven. Over all the world, where the traces of the Chaldean system 
are found, this tonsure or shaving of the head is always found along 
with it. The priests of Osiris, the Egyptian Bacchus, were always 
distinguished by the shaving of their heads.H" In Pagan Rome,** in 
India, and even in China, the distinguishing mark of the Babylonian 

* BEDE, lib. v. c. 21, p. 216. t Ibid. J D AUBIGNE, vol. v. p. 55. 
HEKODOTUS, lib. iii. cap. 8, p. 185, C. 
|| Gheza signifies either "shearing" or "shaving." 
If MACROBIUS, lib. i. c. 23, j>. 189. 
** TERTULLIAN, vol. ii., Carmina, pp. 1105, 1106. 


priesthood was the shaven head. Thus Gautama Buddha, who lived 
at least 540 years before Christ, when setting up the sect of Buddhism 
in India which spread to the remotest regions of the East, first shaved 
his own head, in obedience, as he pretended, to a Divine command, 
and then set to work to get others to imitate his example. One of 
the very titles by which he was called was that of the " Shaved- 
head."* "The sliaved-head" says one of the Purans, "that he might 
perform the orders of Vishnu, formed a number of disciples, and of 
skaved-heads like nimself." The high antiquity of this tonsure may 
be seen from the enactment in the Mosaic law against it. The 
Jewish priests were expressly forbidden to make any baldness upon 
their heads (Lev. xxi. 5), which sufficiently shows that, even so early 
as the time of Moses, the " shaved-head " had been already intro 
duced. In the Church of Kome the heads of the ordinary priests are 
only clipped, the heads of the monks or regular clergy are shaven, 
but both alike, at their consecration, receive the circular tonsure, 
thereby identifying them, beyond all possibility of doubt, with 
Bacchus, "the mutilated Prince."! Now, if the priests of Rome 
take away the key of knowledge, and lock up the Bible from the 
people ; if they are ordained to offer the Chaldean sacrifice in honour 
of the Pagan Queen of Heaven ; if they are bound by the Chaldean 

* Col. KENNEDY, "Buddha," in Hindoo Mythology, pp. 263, 264. 

f It has been already shown (p. 18, Note) that among the Chaldeans the one 
term "Zero " signified at once " a circle " and " the seed." "Suro," the seed," 
in India, as we have seen, was the sun-divinity incarnate. When that seed was 
represented in human form, to identify him with the sun, he was represented with 
the circle, the well-known emblem of the sun s annual course, on some part of his 
person. Thus our own god Thor was represented with a blazing circle on his 
breast. (WILSON S Parsi Religion, p. 31.) In Persia and Assyria the circle was 
represented sometimes on the breast, sometimes round the waist, and sometimes 
in the hand of the sun-divinity. (BRYANT, vol. ii., Plates, pp. 216, 406, 409 ; and 
LAYAKD S Nineveh and Babylon, p. 160.) In India it is represented at the tip of 
the finger. (Moon s Pantheon, Plate 13, "Vishnu.") Hence the circle became 
the emblem of Tammuz born again, or "the seed." The circular tonsure of 
Bacchus was doubtless intended to point him out as " Zero," or " the seed," the 
grand deliverer. And the circle of light around the head of the ao-called 
pictures of Christ was evidently just a different form of the very same thing, and 
borrowed from the very same source. The ceremony of tonsure, says Maurice, 
referring to the practice of that ceremony in India, " was an old practice of the 
priests of Mithra, who in their tonsures imitated the solar disk." (Antiquities, vol. 
vii. p. 851. London, 1800.) As the sun-god was the great lamented god, and had 
his hair cut in a circular form, and the priests who lamented him had their hair 
cut in a similar manner, so in different countries those who lamented the dead and 
cut off their hair in honour of them, cut it in a circular form. There were traces 
of that in Greece, as appears from the Electra of Sophocles (line 52, pp. 108, 109) ; 
and Herodotus particularly refers to it as practised among the Scythians when 
giving an account of a royal funeral among that people. "The body," says he, 
" is enclosed in wax. They then place it on a carriage, and remove it to another 
district, where the persons who receive it, like the Royal Scythians, cut off a part 
of their ear, shave their heads in a circular form," &c. (Jfist., lib. iv. cap. 71, p. 
279.) Now, while the Pope, as the grand representative of the false Messiah, 
received the circular tonsure himself, so all his priests to identify them with the 
same system are required to submit to the game circular tonsure, to mark them 
in their measure and their own sphere as representatives of that same false 


law of celibacy, that plunges them in profligacy ; if, in short, they are 
all marked at their consecration with the distinguishing mark of the 
priests of the Chaldean Bacchus, what right, what possible right, can 
they have to be called ministers of Christ 1 

But Rome has not only her ordinary secular clergy, as they are 
called ; she has also, as every one knows, other religious orders of a 
different kind. She has innumerable armies of monks and nuns all 
engaged in her service. Where can there be shown the least 
warrant for such an institution in Scripture 1 In the religion of the 
Babylonian Messiah their institution was from the earliest times. 
In that system there were monks and nuns in abundance. In 
Thibet and Japan, where the Chaldean system was early introduced, 
monasteries are still to be found, and with the same disastrous 
results to morals as in Papal Europe.* In Scandinavia, the priest 
esses of Freya, who were generally kings daughters, whose duty it 
was to watch the sacred fire, and who were bound to perpetual 
virginity, were just an order of nuns.f In Athens there were 
virgins maintained at the public expense, who were strictly bound 
to single life. J In Pagan Rome, the Vestal virgins, who had the 
same duty to perform as the priestesses of Freya, occupied a similar 
position. Even in Peru, during the reign of the Incas, the same 
system prevailed, and showed so remarkable an analogy, as to 
indicate that the Vestals of Rome, the nuns of the Papacy, and the 
Holy Virgins of Peru, must have sprung from a common origin. 
Thus does Prescott refer to the Peruvian nunneries : " Another 
singular analogy with Roman Catholic institutions is presented by 
the virgins of the sun, the elect, as they were called. These were 
young maidens dedicated to the service of the deity, who at a tender 
age were taken from their homes, and introduced into convents, 
where they were placed under the care of certain elderly matrons, 
?namaconas, who had grown grey within their walls. It was their 
duty to watch over the sacred fire obtained at the festival of Raymi. 
From the moment they entered the establishment they were cut off 

* See ante, Notes to p. 220, and also History of Tonquin, in PlNKERTON, vol. ix. 
p. 766. There are some, and Protestants, too, who begin to speak of what they 
call the benefits of monasteries in rude times, as if they were hurtful only when 
they fall into " decrepitude and corruption " ! Enforced celibacy, which lies at 
the foundation of the monastic system, is of the very essence of the Apostacy, 
which is divinely characterised as the "Mystery of Iniquity." Let such Protest 
ants read 1 Tim. iv. 1-3, and surely they will never speak more of the abomina 
tions of the monasteries as coming only from their "decrepitude" ! 

t MALLET, vol. i. p. 141. 

POTTER S Antiquities, vol. i. p. 369. 

Mamacona, "Mother Priestess," is almost pure Hebrew, being derived from 
Am a " mother," and Cohn, " a priest," only with the feminine termination. Our 
own Mamma, as well as that of Peru, is just the Hebrew Am reduplicated. It is 
singular that the usual style and title of the Lady Abbess in Ireland is the 
" Reverend Mother." The term Nun itself is a Chaldean word. Ninus, the son 
in Chaldee is either Nin or Non. Now, the feminine of Non, a " gon," is Nonna, 
a "daughter," which is just the Popish canonical name for a "Nun," and 
Nonnus, in like manner, was in early times the designation for a monk in the 
East. (GiESELER, vol. ii. p. 14, Note.) 


from all communication with the world, even with their own family 

and friends Woe to the unhappy maiden who was detected 

in an intrigue ! By the stem law of the Incas she was to be buried 
alive" This was precisely the fate of the Roman Vestal who was 
proved to have violated her vow. Neither in Peru, however, nor in 
Pagan Home was the obligation to virginity so stringent as in the 
Papacy. It was not perpetual, and therefore not so exceedingly 
demoralising. After a time, the nuns might be delivered from their 
confinement, and marry ; from all hopes of which they are absolutely 
cut off in the Church of Rome. In all these cases, however, it is 
plain that the principle on which these institutions were founded 
was originally the same. " One is astonished," adds Prescott, " to 
find so close a resemblance between the institutions of the American 
Indian, the ancient Roman, and the modern Catholic."* 

Prescott finds it difficult to account for this resemblance ; but the 
one little sentence from the prophet Jeremiah, which was quoted at 
the commencement of this inquiry, accounts for it completely : 
" Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord s hand, that hath 
made ALL THE EARTH drunken " (Jer. li. 7). This is the Rosetta 
stone that has helped already to bring to light so much of the secret 
iniquity of the Papacy, and that is destined still further to decipher 
the dark mysteries of every system of heathen mythology that 
either has been or that is. The statement of this text can be proved 
to be a literal fact. It can be proved that the idolatry of the whole 
earth is one, that the sacred language of all nations is radically 
Chaldean that the GREAT GODS of every country and clime are 
called by Babylonian names and that all the Paganisms of the 
human race are only a wicked and deliberate, but yet most instruc 
tive corruption of the primeval gospel first preached in Eden, and 
through Noah, afterwards conveyed to all mankind. The system, 
first concocted in Babylon, and thence conveyed to the ends of the 
earth, has been modified and diluted in different ages and countries. 
In Papal Rome only is it now found nearly pure and entire. But 
yet, amid all the seeming variety of heathenism, there is an astonish 
ing oneness and identity, bearing testimony to the truth of God s 
Word. The overthrow of all idolatry cannot now be distant. But 
before the idols of the heathen shall be finally cast to the moles and 
to the bats, I am persuaded that they will be made to fall down and 
worship " the Lord the king," to bear testimony to His glorious 
truth, and with one loud and united acclaim, ascribe salvation, and 
glory, and honour, and power unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, 
and to the Lamb, for ever and ever. 

* PRESCOTT S Peru, vol. i. p. 103. 




HITHERTO we have considered the history of the Two Babylons 
chiefly in detail. Now we are to view them as organised systems. 
The idolatrous system of the ancient Babylon assumed different 
phases in different periods of its history. In the prophetic descrip 
tion of the modern Babylon, there is evidently also a development 
of different powers at different times. Do these two developments 
bear any typical relation to each other? Yes, they do. When we 
bring the religious history of the ancient Babylonian Paganism to 
bear on the prophetic symbols that shadow forth the organised work 
ing of idolatry in Rome, it will be found that it casts as much light 
on this view of the subject as on that which has hitherto engaged our 
attention. The powers of iniquity at work in the modern Babylon 
are specifically described in chapters xii. and xiii. of the Revelation ; 
and they are as follows : I. The Great Red Dragon ; II. The Beast 
that comes up out of the sea ; III. The Beast that ascendeth out of 
the earth ; and IV. The Image of the Beast.* In all these respects 
it will be found, on inquiry, that, in regard to succession and order 
of development, the Paganism of the Old Testament Babylon was the 
exact type of the Paganism of the New. 


This formidable enemy of the truth is particularly described in 
Rev. xii. 3 : " And there appeared another wonder in heaven, a great 
red dragon." It is admitted on all hands that this is the first grand 
enemy that in Gospel times assaulted the Christian Church. If the 
terms in which it is described, and the deeds attributed to it, are 
considered, it will be found that there is a great analogy between it 
and the first enemy of all, that appeared against the ancient Church 
of God soon after the Flood. The term dragon, according to the 
associations currently connected with it, is somewhat apt to mislead 
the reader, by recalling to his mind the fabulous dragons of the Dark 
Ages, equipped with wings. At the time this Divine description was 

* I purposely omit the consideration of the "Beast from the bottomless pit" 
(Rev. xvii. 8). The reader will find an argument on that subject in the Red 

225 Q 


given, the term dragon had no such meaning among either profane or 
sacred writers. " The dragon of the Greeks," says Pausanias, " was 
only a large snake ; " * and the context shows that this is the very 
case here ; for what in the third verse is called a " dragon," in the 
fourteenth is simply described as a " serpent." Then the word ren 
dered " Red " properly means " Fiery " ; so that the " Red Dragon " 
signifies the "Fiery Serpent" or "Serpent of Fire." Exactly so 
does it appear to have been in the first form of idolatry, that, under 
the patronage of Nimrod, appeared in the ancient world. The " Ser 
pent of Fire " in the plains of Shinar seems to have been the grand 
object of worship. There is the strongest evidence that apostacy 
among the sons of Noah began in fire-worship, and that in connec 
tion with the symbol of the serpent. 

We have seen already, on different occasions, that fire was 
worshipped as the enlightener and the purifier. Now, it was thus 
at the very beginning ; for Nimrod is singled out by the voice 
of antiquity as commencing this fire-worship, f The identity of 
Nimrod and Ninus has already been proved; and under the name 
of Ninus, also, he is represented as originating the same practice. 
In a fragment of Apollodorus it is said that " Ninus taught the 
Assyrians to worship fire."| The sun, as the great source of light 
and heat, was worshipped under the name of Baal. Now, the fact 
that the sun under that name, was worshipped in the earliest ages 
of the world, shows the audacious character of these first beginnings 
of apostacy. Men have spoken as if the worship of the sun and of 
the heavenly bodies was a very excusable thing, into which the 
human race might very readily and very innocently fall. But how 
stands the fact ? According to the primitive language of mankind, 
the sun was called " Shemesh " that is, " the Servant " that name, 
no doubt, being divinely given, to keep the world in mind of the great 
truth that, however glorious was the orb of day, it was, after all, the 
appointed Minister of the bounty of the great unseen Creator to His 
creatures upon earth. Men knew this, and yet with the full know 
ledge of it, they put the servant in the place of the Master ; and 
called the sun Baal that is, the Lord and worshipped him accord 
ingly. What a meaning, then, in the saying of Paul, that, " when 
they knew God, they glorified Him not as God ; " but " changed the 
truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more 
than the Creator, who is God over all, blessed for ever." The begin 
ning, then, of sun-worship, and of the worship of the host of heaven, 
was a sin against the light a presumptuous, heaven-daring sin. As 
the sun in the heavens was the great object of worship, so fire was 
worshipped as its earthly representative. To this primeval fire- 
worship Vitruvius alludes when he says that " men were first 
formed into states and communities by meeting around fires." 

* PAUSANIAS, lib. ii., Corinthiaca, cap. 28, p. 175. 
t JOHANN. CLERICUS, torn. ii. p. 199, and VAUX, p. 8. 
J MULLER, Frag., 68, vol. i. p. 440. 
VITBDVIUS, lib. ii. cap. 1, vol. ii. p. 36, &c. 



Fig. 52. 

And this is exactly in conformity with what we have already 
seen (p. 117) in regard to Phoroneus, whom we have identified 
with Nimrod, that while he was said to be the " inventor of fire," 
he was also regarded as the first that " gathered mankind into com 

Along with the sun, as the great fire-god, and, in due time, identi 
fied with him, was the serpent worshipped. (See Fig. 52.)* " In 
the mythology of the primitive world," says Owen, " the serpent is 
universally the symbol of the sun."f In Egypt, one of the com 
monest symbols of the sun, or sun-god, is a disc with a serpent 
around it.J The original reason of that identification seems just to 
have been that, as the sun was the great enlightener of the physical 
world, so the serpent was held to have been the great enlightener of 
the spiritual, by giving mankind the " knowledge of good and evil." 
This, of course, implies tremendous depravity on the part of the ring 
leaders in such a system, considering the period when it began ; but 
such appears to have been the real meaning of the identification. At 
all events, we have evidence, both Scriptural and profane, for the fact, 
that the worship of the serpent began side by side with the worship 
of fire and the sun. The inspired 
statement of Paul seems decisive on 
the subject. It was, he says, "when 
men knew God, but glorified Him not 
as God" that they changed the glory 
of God, not only into an image made 
like to corruptible man, but into the 
likeness of " creeping things " that is, 
of serpents (Rom. i. 23). With this 
profane history exactly coincides. Of 
profane writers, Sanchuniathon, the 
Phoenician, who is believed to have 
lived about the time of Joshua, says 
" Thoth first attributed something 
of the divine nature to the serpent 

and the serpent tribe, in which he was followed by the Phoenicians 
and Egyptians. For this animal was esteemed by him to be the 
most spiritual of all the reptiles, and of a FIERY nature, inasmuch 
as it exhibits an incredible celerity, moving by its spirit, without 

either hands or feet Moreover, it is long-lived, and has the 

quality of RENEWING ITS YOUTH .... as Thoth has laid down in 
the sacred books ; upon which accounts this animal is introduced in 
the sacred rites and Mysteries. " 

Now, Thoth, it will be remembered, was the counsellor of Thamus, 
that is, Nimrod.|| From this statement, then, we are led to the 

* From Phoenician Coin, in MAURICE S Indian Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 368. 
London, 1796. 

t OWEN, apud DAVIES S Druids, in Note, p. 437. 

$ BUNSEN, Hieroglyphics, vol. i. p. 497. 

SANCHUNIATHON, lib. i. pp. 46-49. || See page 56. 


conclusion that serpent-worship was a part of the primeval apostacy 
of Nimrod. The " FIERY NATURE " of the serpent, alluded to in the 
above extract, is continually celebrated by the heathen poets. Thus 
Virgil, " availing himself," as the author of Pompeii remarks, " of 
the divine nature attributed to serpents,"* describes the sacred 
serpent that came from the tomb of Anchises, when his son ^Eneas 
had been sacrificing before it, in such terms as illustrate at once 
the language of the Phoenician, and the "Fiery Serpent" of the 
passage before us : 

" Scarce had he finished, when, with speckled pride, 
A serpent from the tomb began to glide ; 
His hugy bulk on seven high volumes rolled, 
Blue was his breadth of back, but streaked with scaly gold. 
Thus, riding on his curls, he seemed to pass 
A rolling fire along, and singe the grass ."t 

It is not wonderful, then, that fire-worship and serpent-worship 
should be conjoined. The serpent, also, as "renewing its youth" 
every year, was plausibly represented to those who wished an excuse 
for idolatry as a meet emblem of the sun, the great regenerator, who 
every year regenerates and renews the face of nature, and who, when 
deified, was worshipped as the grand Regenerator of the souls of 

In the chapter under consideration, the " great fiery serpent " is 
represented with all the emblems of royalty. All its heads are 
encircled with " crowns or diadems ; " and so in Egypt, the serpent 
of fire, or serpent of the sun, in Greek was called the Basilisk, that 
is, the " royal serpent," to identify it with Moloch, which name, 
while it recalls the ideas both of fire and blood, properly signifies 
" the King" The Basilisk was always, among the Egyptians, and 
among many nations besides, regarded as " the very type of majesty 
and dominion."! As such, its image was worn affixed to the head 
dress of the Egyptian monarchs ; and it was not lawful for any one 
else to wear it. The sun identified with this serpent was called 
" P ouro,"|| which signifies at once " the Fire " and " the King," and 
from this very name the epithet " Purros," the "Fiery," is given to 
the " Great seven-crowned serpent " of our text,5T 

Thus was the Sun, the Great Fire-god, identified with the Serpent. 
But he had also a human representative, and that was Tammuz, for 
whom the daughters of Israel lamented, in other words Nimrod. 
We have already seen the identity of Nimrod and Zoroaster. Now, 

* Vol. ii. p. 114. 

t DRYDEN S Virgil, Book v. 11. 111-116, vol. ii. pp. 460, 461 ; in Original, 
11. 84-88. 

WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 239. 

Implied in Ibid. vol. iv. p. 239. 

|| BONSEN, vol. i. pp. 407, 457. 

IT The word Purros in the text does not exclude the idea of " Red," for the sun- 
god was painted red to identify him with Moloch, at once the god of fire and god 
of blood. (WILKINSON, vol. iv. pp. 288-296.) The primary leading idea, however, 
is that of Fire. 


Zoroaster was not only the head of the Chaldean Mysteries, but, as 
all admit, the head of the fire- worshippers.* The title given to Nim- 
rod, as the first of the Babylonian kings, by Berosus, indicates the 
same thing. That title is Alorus,f that is, "the god of fire."J As 
Nimrod, "the god of fire," was Molk-Gheber, or, " the Mighty king," 
inasmuch as he was the first who was called Moloch, or King, and the 
first who began to be " mighty " (Gheber) on the earth, we see at once 
how it was that the " passing through the fire to Moloch" originated, 
and how the god of fire among the Romans came to be called " Mulki- 
ber." It was only after his death, however, that he appears to have 
been deified. Then, retrospectively, he was worshipped as the child of 
the Sun, or the Sun incarnate. In his own life-time, however, he set up 
no higher pretensions than that of being Bol-Kahn, or Priest of Baal, 
from which the other name of the Roman fire-god Vulcan is evidently 
derived. || Everything in the history of Vulcan exactly agrees with 
that of Nimrod. Vulcan was "the most ugly and deformed" of all 
the gods.U Nimrod, over all the world, is represented with the 
features and complexion of a negro. Though Vulcan was so ugly, 
that when he sought a wife, "all the beautiful goddesses rejected him 
with horror ; " yet " Destiny, the irrevocable, interposed, and pro 
nounced the decree, by which [Venus] the most beautiful of the god 
desses, was united to the most unsightly of the gods."** So, in spite 
of the black and Cushite features of Nimrod, he had for his queen 
Semiramis, the most beautiful of women. The wife of Vulcan was 
noted for her infidelities and licentiousness ; the wife of Nimrod was 
the very same.ff Vulcan was the head and chief of the Cyclops, that 
is, "the kings of flame."!! Nimrod was the head of the fire-worship 
pers. Vulcan was the forger of the thunderbolts by which such 
havoc was made among the enemies of the gods. Ninus, or Nimrod, 
in his wars with the king of Bactria, seems to have carried on the 
conflict in a similar way. From Arnobius we learn, that when 
the Assyrians under Ninus made war against the Bactrians, the war 
fare was waged not only by the sword and bodily strength, but by 
magic and by means derived from the secret instructions of the 

* In regard to Zoroaster as head of the fire worshippers, see Appendix, Note N. 

t BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 710. 

T BRYANT, vol. i. p. 10, and vol. iv. p. 152. Bryant derives the name Alorus 
from Al-Aur, "god of fire." I incline to think that, from the analogy of the 
name that succeeds it, it cores from Al-Hor, "The burning god;" but the 
meaning is the same either way. 

Commonly spelled Mulciber (Ovin, Art. Am., lib. ii. 1. 562, vol. i. p. 535); 
but the Roman c was hard. From the epithet "Gheber," the Parsees, or fire- 
worshippers of India, are still called "Guebres." 

II OVID, DeArt. Am., Ibid., Nota. 

if Heathen Mythology Illustrated, p. 66. 

** Ibid. p. 75. 

ft Nimrod, as universal king, was Khuk-hold, " King of the world." As such, 
the emblem of his power was the bull s horns. Hence the origin of the Guckhold s 

+ Kuclops, from Khuk, " king," and Lohb, " flame." The image of the great 
god was represented with three eyes one in the forehead ; hence the story of the 
Cyclops with the one eye in the forehead. 


Chaldeans.* When it is known that the historical Cyclops are, by 
the historian Castor, traced up to the very time of Saturn or Belus, 
the first king of Babylon,! and when we learn that Jupiter (who was 
worshipped in the very same character as Ninus, "the child "),J when 
fighting against the Titans, "received from the Cyclops aid" by 
means of "dazzling lightnings and thunders," we may have some 
pretty clear idea of the magic arts derived from the Chaldean 
Mysteries, which Ninus employed against the Bactrian king. There 
is evidence that, down to a late period, the priests of the Chaldean 
Mysteries knew the composition of the formidable Greek fire, which 
burned under water, and the secret of which has been lost ; and 
there can be little doubt that Nimrod, in erecting his power, availed 
himself of such or similar scientific secrets, which he and his associ 
ates alone possessed. 

In these, and other respects yet to be noticed, there is an exact 
coincidence between Vulcan, the god of fire of the Romans, and 
Nimrod the fire-god of Babylon. In the case of the classic Yulcan, 
it is only in his character of the fire-god as a physical agent that he 
is popularly represented. But it was in his spiritual aspects, in 
cleansing and regenerating the souls of men, that the fire-worship 
told most effectually on the world. The power, the popularity, and 
skill of Nimrod, as well as the seductive nature of the system itself, 
enabled him to spread the delusive doctrine far and wide, and he 
was represented under the well-known name of Phaethon,|| as on the 
point of " setting the whole world on fire," or (without the poetical 
metaphor) of involving all mankind in the guilt of fire-worship. 
The extraordinary prevalence of the worship of the fire-god in the 
early ages of the world, is proved by legends found over all the 
earth, and by facts in almost every clime. Thus, in Mexico, the 
natives relate, that in primeval times, just after the first age, the 
world was burnt up with fire.H As their history, like the Egyptian, 
was written in Hieroglyphics, it is plain that this must be symboli 
cally understood. In India, they have a legend to the very same 
effect, though somewhat varied in its form. The Brahmins say that, 
in a very remote period of the past, one of the gods shone with such 
insufferable splendour, "inflicting distress on the universe by his 
effulgent beams, brighter than a thousand worlds,"** that, unless 
another more potent god had interposed and cut off his head, the 

* ARNOBIUS, lib. i. p. 327, col. 1. 

t EUSEBIUS, Ohronicon. Armenian Translation, Pars. i. p. 81. 

J See ante, p. 139. 

SALVERTE, Des Sciences Occultes, p. 415. 

|| Phaethon is called an Ethiopian i.e., a Cushite. For explanation of his 
story, see Appendix, Note O. 

IT HUMBOLDT S Mexico, vol. ii. pp. 21, 22. 

* SKANDA PDRAN, and PADMA PURAN, apud KENNEDY S Hindoo Mythology, 
p. 275. In the myth, this divinity is represented as the fifth head of Brahma ; 
but as this head is represented as having gained the knowledge that made him so 
insufferably proud by perusing the Vedas produced by the other four heads of 
Brahma, that shows that he must have been regarded as having a distinct 


result would have been most disastrous. In the Druidic Triads of 
the old British Bards, there is distinct reference to the same event. 
They say that in primeval times a "tempest of fire arose, which split 
the earth asunder to the great deep," from which none escaped but 
"the select company, shut up together in the enclosure with the 
strong door," with the great " patriarch distinguished for his 
integrity,"* that is evidently with Shem, the leader of the faithful 
who preserved their " integrity " when so many made shipwreck of 
faith and a good conscience. These stories all point to one and the 
same period, and they show how powerful had been this form of 
apostacy. The Papal purgatory and the fires of St. John s Eve, 
which we have already considered, and many other fables or 
practices still extant, are just so many relics of the same ancient 

It will be observed, however, that the Great Red Dragon, or 
Great Fiery Serpent, is represented as standing before the Woman 
with the crown of twelve stars, that is, the true Church of God, " To 
devour her child as soon as it should be born." Now, this is in exact 
accordance with the character of the Great Head of the system of 
fire-worship. Nirnrod, as the representative of the devouring fire to 
which human victims, and especially children, were offered in sacri 
fice, was regarded as the great child-devourer. Though, at his first 
deification, he was set up himself as Ninus, or the child, yet, as the 
first of mankind that was deified, he was, of course, the actual 
father of all the Babylonian gods ; and, therefore, in that character 
he was afterwards universally regarded. f As the Father of the 
gods, he was, as we have seen, called Kronos ; and every one knows 
that the classical story of Kronos was just this, that, "he devoured 
his sons as soon as they were born." I Such is the analogy between 
type and antitype. This legend has a further and deeper meaning ; 
but, as applied to Nimrod, or " The Horned One," it just refers to 
the fact, that, as the representative of Moloch or Baal, infants were 
the most acceptable offerings at his altar. We have ample and 
melancholy evidence on this subject from the records of antiquity. 
"The Phenicians," says Eusebius, "every year sacrificed their 
beloved and only-begotten children to Kronos or Saturn,|| and the 
Rhodians also often did the same." Diodorus Siculus states that the 
Carthaginians, on one occasion, when besieged by the Sicilians, and 
sore pressed, in order to rectify, as they supposed, their error in 
having somewhat departed from the ancient custom of Carthage, in 
this respect, hastily " chose out two hundred of the noblest of their 
children, and publicly sacrificed them" to this god.lf There is 

* DAVIKS S Druids, p. 226. 

t Phaethon, though the child of the sun, is also called the Father of the gods. 
(LACTANTIU8, De Falsa Rdiyione, lib. i. cap. 5, p. 10.) In Egypt, too, Vulcan 
was the Father of the gods. (AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, lib. xvii. cap. 4, p. 163.) 

+ LEMPRIERK, " Saturn." 

See woodcut, Fig. 10, p. 33. 

I! EUSEB. De Laud. Constantini, cap. xiii. p. 267, A, C. 

IT DIODORUS, lib. xx. pp. 739, 740. 


reason to believe that the same practice obtained in our own land in 
the times of the Druids. We know that they offered human sacri 
fices to their bloody gods. We have evidence that they made " their 
children pass through the fire to Moloch," and that makes it highly 
probable that they also offered them in sacrifice ; for, from Jeremiah 
xxxii. 35, compared with Jeremiah xix. 5, we find that these two 
things were parts of one and the same system. The god whom the 
Druids worshipped was Baal, as the blazing Baal-fires show, and the 
last-cited passage proves that children were offered in sacrifice to Baal. 
When " the fruit of the body " was thus offered, it was " for the sin 
of the soul." And it was a principle of the Mosaic law, a principle 
no doubt derived from the patriarchal faith, that the priest must 
partake of whatever was offered as a sin-offering (Numbers xviii. 
9, 10). Hence, the priests of Nimrod or Baal were necessarily 
required to eat of the human sacrifices; and thus it has come to 
pass that " Cahna-Bal,"* the "Priest of Baal," is the established 
word in our own tongue for a devourer of human flesh, f 

Now, the ancient traditions relate that the apostates who joined 
in the rebellion of Nimrod made war upon the faithful among the 
sons of Noah. Power and numbers were on the side of the fire- 
worshippers. But on the side of Shern and the faithful was the 
mighty power of God s Spirit. Therefore many were convinced of 
their sin, arrested in their evil career; and victory, as we have 
already seen, declared for the saints. The power of Nimrod came 
to an end, f and with that, for a time, the worship of the sun, and the 

* The word Cahna is the emphatic form of Cahn. Cahn is "a priest," Cahna 
is " the priest." 

} From the historian Castor (in Armenian translation of EUSEBIUS, pars. i. 
p. 81) we learn that it was under Bel, or Belus, that is Baal, that the Cyclops 
lived ; and the Scholiast on yEschylus (p. 32, ante, Note) states that these 
Cyclops were the brethren of Kronos, who was also Bel or Bal, as we have else 
where seen (p. 32). The eye in their forehead shows that originally this name 
was a name of the great god ; for that eye in India and Greece is found the 
characteristic of the supreme divinity. The Cyclops, then, had been representa 
tives of that God in other words, priests, and priests of Bel or Baal. Now, we 
find that the Cyclops were well-known as cannibals, Referre ritus Cyclopum, " to 
bring back the rites of the Cyclops," meaning to revive the practice of eating 
human flesh. (OviD, Metam., xv. 93, vol. ii. p. 132.) 

+ The wars of the giants against heaven, referred to in ancient heathen writers, 
had primary reference to this war against the saints ; for men cannot make war 
upon God except by attacking the people of God. The ancient writer Enpolemus, 
as quoted by Eusebius (Prceparatio Evang., lib. i. cap. 17, vol. ii. p. 19), states, 
that the builders of the tower of Babel were these giants ; which statement 
amounts nearly to the same thing as the conclusion to which we have already 
come, for we have seen that the "mighty ones" of Nimrod were "the giants" of 
antiquity (see ante, p. 54, Notes). Epiphanius records (lib. i., vol. i. p. 7) that 
Nimrod was a ringleader among these giants, and that " conspiracy, sedition, and 
tyranny were carried on under him." From the very necessity of the case, 
the faithful must have suffered most, as being most opposed to his ambitious and 
sacrilegious schemes. That Nimrod s reign terminated in some very signal 
catastrophe, we have seen abundant reason already to conclude. The following 
statement of Syncellus confirms the conclusions to which we have already come as 
to the nature of that catastrophe ; referring to the arresting of the tower- 
building scheme, Syncellus (Chronographia, vol. i. p. 77) proceeds thus: "But 


fiery serpent associated with it. The case was exactly as stated here 
in regard to the antitype (Rev. xii. 9) : " The great dragon," or fiery 
serpent, was " cast out of heaven to the earth, and his angels were 
cast out with him ; " that is, the Head of the fire-worship, and all 
his associates and underlings, were cast down from the power and 
glory to which they had been raised. Then was the time when the 
whole gods of the classic Pantheon of Greece were fain to flee and 
hide themselves from the wrath of their adversaries.* Then it was, 
that, in India, Indra, the king of the gods, Surya, the god of the sun, 
Agui, the god of fire, and all the rabble rout of the Hindu Olympus, 
were driven from heaven, wandered over the earth, f or hid them 
selves in forests,! disconsolate, and ready to "perish of hunger. " 
Then it was that Phaethon, while driving the chariot of the sun, 
when on the point of setting the world on fire, was smitten by the 
Supreme God, and cast headlong to the earth, while his sisters, the 
daughters of the sun, inconsolably lamented him, as, "the women 
wept for Tammuz." Then it was, as the reader must be prepared to 
see, that Vulcan, or Molk-gheber, the classic "god of fire," was so 
ignominiously hurled down from heaven, as he himself relates in 
Homer, speaking of the wrath of the King of Heaven, which in this 
instance must mean God Most High : 

" I felt his matchless might, 

Hurled headlong downwards from the ethereal height ; 
Tossed all the day in rapid circles round, 
Nor, till the sun descended, touched the ground. 
Breathless I fell, in giddy motion lost. 
The Sinthians raised me on the Lemnian coast. "j| 

The lines, in which Milton refers to this same downfall, though he 
gives it another application, still more beautifully describe the 
greatness of the overthrow : 

" In Ausonian land 

Men called him Mulciber ; and how he fell 
From heaven, they fabled. Thrown by angry Jove 
Sheer o er the crystal battlements ; from morn 

Nimrod would still obstinately stay (when most of the other tower -builders were 
dispersed), and reside upon the spot ; nor could he be withdrawn from the tower, 
still having the command over no contemptible body of men. Upon this, we are 
informed, that the tower, being beat upon by violent winds, gave way, and by the 
just judgment of God, crushed him to pieces." Though this could not be 
literally true, for the tower stood for many ages, yet there is a considerable 
amount of tradition to the effect that the tower in which Nimrod gloried was 
overthrown by ivind, which gives reason to suspect that this story, when properly 
understood, had a real meaning in it. Take it figuratively, and remembering that 
the same word which signifies the wind signifies also the Spirit of God, it becomes 
highly probable that the meaning is, that his lofty and ambitious scheme, by 
which, in Scriptural language, he was seeking to " mount up to heaven," and " set 
his nest among the stars," was overthrown for a time by the Spirit of God, as we 
have already concluded, and that, in that overthrow he himself perished. 

* OVID, Metamorphoses, lib. v., fab. 5, 11. 321-323. 

t KENNEDY S Hindoo Mythology, p. 336. J COLKMAN, p. 89. 

KENNEDY S Hindoo Mythology, p. 350. 
POPE S Homer, Iliad, Book i. 11. 750-765, vol. i. p. 39. 


To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve, 
A summer s day ; and, with the setting sun, 
Dropped from the zenith, like a falling star, 
On Lemnos, the ^Egean isle."* 

These words very strikingly show the tremendous fall of Molk- 
gheber, or Nimrod, "the Mighty King," when "suddenly he was 
cast down from the height of his power, and was deprived at once of 
his kingdom and his life."f Now, to this overthrow there is very 
manifest allusion in the prophetic apostrophe of Isaiah to the king 
of Babylon, exulting over his approaching downfall : " How art 
thou fallen from heaven, Lucifer, son of the morning ! " The 
Babylonian king pretended to be a representative of Nimrod or 
Phaethon ; and the prophet, in these words, informs him, that, as 
certainly as the god in whom he gloried had been cast down 
from his high estate, so certainly should he. In the classic story, 
Phaethon is said to have been consumed with lightning (and, as we 
shall see by-and-by, ^Esculapius also died the same death) ; but the 
lightning is a mere metaphor for the wrath of God, under which his 
life and his kingdom had come to an end. When the history is 
examined, and the figure stripped off, it turns out, as we have 
already seen, that he was judicially slain with the sword. I 

Such is the language of the prophecy, and so exactly does it cor 
respond with the character, and deeds, and fate of the ancient type. 
How does it suit the antitype ? Could the power of Pagan Imperial 
Rome that power that first persecuted the Church of Christ, that 
stood by its soldiers around the tomb of the Son of God Himself, to 
devour Him, if it had been possible, when He should be brought 
forth, as the first-begotten from the dead, to rule all nations be 

* Paradise Lost, lib. i. 11. 738-745. 

t The Greek poets speak of two downfalls of Vulcan. In the one case he was 
cast down by Jupiter, in the other by Juno. When Jupiter cast him down, it 
was for rebellion ; when Juno did so, one of the reasons specially singled out for 
doing so was his "malformation," that is, his ugliness. (HOMER S Hymn to 
Apollo, 11. 316-318, p. 37 of Hymn.) How exactly does this agree with the story 
of Nimrod : First he was personally cast down, when, by Divine authority, he was 
slain. Then he was cast down, in effigy, by Juno, when his image was degraded 
from the arms of the Queen of Heaven, to make way for the fairer child. See 
ante, p. 69. 

See pages 62-65. Though Orpheus was commonly represented as having 
been torn in pieces, he too was fabled to have been killed by lightning. 
(PAUSANIAS, Bceotica, cap. xxx. p. 768.) When Zoroaster died, he also is said in 
the myth to have perished by lightning (SuiDAS, vol. i. pp. 1133, 1134) ; and 
therefore, in accordance with that myth, he is represented as charging his 
countrymen to preserve not his body, but his "ashes." The death by lightning, 
however, is evidently a mere figure. 

The birth of the Man-child, as given above, is different from that usually 
given : but let the reader consider if the view which I have taken does not meet 
all the requirements of the case. I think there will be but few who will assent to 
the opinion of Mr. Elliot, which in substance amounts to this, that the Man-child 
was Constantino the Great, and that when Christianity, in his person sat down on 
the throne of Imperial Rome, that was the fulfilment of the saying, that the child 
brought forth by the woman, amid such pangs of travail, was "caught up to God 
and His throne." When Constantine came to the empire, the Church indeed, as 
foretold in Daniel xi. 34, " was holpen with a little help ; " but that was all. The 


represented by a "Fiery Serpent"? Nothing could more lucidly 
show it forth. Among the lords many, and the gods many, wor 
shipped in the imperial city, the two grand objects of worship were 
the "Eternal Fire," kept perpetually burning in the temple of 

Christianity of Constantine was but of a very doubtful kind, the Pagans seeing 
nothing in it to hinder but that when he died, he should be enrolled among their 
gods. (EuTROPius, x. pp. 131-133.) But even though ithad been better, the descrip 
tion of the woman s child is far too high for Constantine, or any Christian emperor 
that succeeded him on the imperial throne. " The Man-child, born to rule all 
nations with a rod of iron," is unequivocally Christ (see Psalms ii. 9 ; Rev. xix. 15). 
True believers, as one with Him in a subordinate sense, share in that honour (Rev. 
ii. 27) ; but to Christ alone, properly, does that prerogative belong ; and I think 
it must be evident that it is His birth that is here referred to. But those who 
have contended for this view have done injustice to their cause by representing 
this passage as referring to His literal birth in Bethlehem. When Christ was born 
in Bethlehem, no doubt Herod endeavoured to cut Him off, and Herod was a sub 
ject of the Roman Empire. But it was not from any respect to Caesar that he did 
so, but simply from fear of danger to his own dignity as King of Judea. So little 
did Caesar sympathise with the slaughter of the children of Bethlehem, that it is 
recorded that Augustus, on hearing of it, remarked that it was "better to be 
Herod s hog than to be his child," (MACROBius, Saturnalia, lib. ii. cap. 4, p. 77, B.) 
Then, even if it were admitted that Herod s bloody attempt to cut off the infant 
Saviour was symbolised by the Roman dragon, standing ready to devour the 
child as soon as it should be born," where was there anything that could correspond 
to the statement that the child, to save it from that dragon, "was caught up to 
God and His throne " ? The flight of Joseph and Mary with the Child into Egypt 
could never answer to such language. Moreover, it is worthy of special note, that 
when the Lord Jesus was born in Bethlehem, He was born, in a very important 
sense only as " King of the Jews. " Where is He that is born King of the Jews 1 " 
was the inquiry of the wise men that came from the East to seek Him. All His 
life long, He appeared in no other character ; and when He died, the inscription 
on His cross ran in these terms : "This is the King of the Jews." Now, this was 
no accidental thing. Paul tells us (Rom. xv. 8) that "Jesus Christ was a minister 
of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the 
fathers." Our Lord Himself plainly declared the same thing. " I am not sent," 
said He to the Syrophoanician woman, " save to the lost sheep of the house of 
Israel ; " and, in sending out His disciples during His personal ministry, this was 
the charge which He gave them : "Go not in the way of the Gentiles, and into 
any city of the Samaritans enter ye not." It was only when He was "begotten 
from the dead," and "declared to be the Son of God with power," by His victory 
over the grave, that He was revealed as " the Man-child, born to rule all nations." 
Then said He to His disciples, when He had risen, and was about to ascend on 
high : " All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth : go ye therefore, and 
teach agnations." To this glorious "birth "from the tomb, and to the birth- 
pangs of His Church that preceded it, our Lord Himself made distinct allusion on 
the night before He was betrayed (John xvi. 20-22), "Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, That ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice ; and ye shall be 
sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. A woman when she is in travail 
hath sorrow, because her hour is come ; but as soon as she is delivered of the child, 
she rernembereth no more the anguish, for joy that a MAN is born into the world. 
And ye now therefore have sorroiv ; but I will see you again, and your heart shall 
rejoice." Here the grief of the apostles, and, of course, all the true Church that 
sympathised with them during the hour and power of darkness, is compared to 
the pangs of a travailing woman ; and their joy, when the Saviour should see 
them again after His resurrection, to the joy of a mother when safely delivered 
of a Man-child. Can there be a doubt, then, what the symbol before us means, 
when the woman is represented as travailing in pain to be delivered of a "Man- 
child, that was to rule all nations," and when it is said that that " Man-child was 
caught up to God and His throne " ? 


Vesta, and the sacred Epidaurian Serpent. In Pagan Rome, this 
fire-worship and serpent-worship were sometimes separate, sometimes 
conjoined ; but both occupied a pre-eminent place in Roman esteem. 
The fire of Yesta was regarded as one of the grand safeguards of 
the empire. It was pretended to have been brought from Troy by 
^Eneas, who had it confided to his care by the shade of Hector,* and 
was kept with the most jealous care by the Vestal virgins, who, for 
their charge of it, were honoured with the highest honours. The 
temple where it was kept, says Augustine, " was the most sacred and 
most reverenced of all the temples of Rome."f The fire that was so 
jealously guarded in that temple, and on which so much was believed 
to depend, was regarded in the very same light as by the old Baby 
lonian fire-worshippers. It was looked upon as the purifier, and in 
April every year, at the Palilia, or feast of Pales, both men and 
cattle, for this purpose, were made to pass through the fire.J The 
Epidaurian snake, that the Romans worshipped along with the fire, 
was looked on as the divine representation of /Esculapius, the child 
of the Sun. ^Esculapius, whom that sacred snake represented, was 
evidently, just another name for the great Babylonian god. His fate 
was exactly the same as that of Phaethon. He was said to have 
been smitten with lightning for raising the dead.|| It is evident 
that this could never have been the case in a physical sense, nor 
could it easily have been believed to be so. But view it in a spiritual 
sense, and then the statement is just this, that he was believed 
to raise men who were dead in trespasses and sins to newness 
of life. Now, this was exactly what Phaethon was pretending 
to do, when he was smitten for setting the world on fire. In the 
Babylonian system there was a symbolical death,H that all the 
initiated had to pass through, before they got the new life which 
was implied in regeneration, and that just to declare that they 
had passed from death unto life. As the passing through the fire 
was both a purgation from sin and the means of regeneration, so 
it was also for raising the dead that Phaethon was smitten. Then, 
as ^Esculapius was the child of the Sun, so was Phaethon.** To 
symbolise this relationship, the head of the image of >3j]sculapius 
was generally encircled with rays. ft The Pope thus encircles the 
heads of the pretended images of Christ; but the real source of 
these irradiations is patent to all acquainted either with the litera 
ture or the art of Rome. Thus speaks Virgil of Latinus : 

* VIRGIL S JZneid, Book ii. 11. 296, 297, p. 78. 

t De Civitate, lib. iii. cap. 28, vol. ix. p. 110. 

OVID, Fasti, lib. iv. 11. 722-743. 

Ibid. Metam., lib. xv. 11. 736-745. 

|| Ibid, and Jlneid, lib. vii. 11. 769-773, pp. 364, 365. 

H WILKINSON, vol. i. p. 267, and APULEIUS, Metam., cap. xi. 

** The birth of ^Esculapius in the myth was just the same as that of Bacchus. 
His mother was consumed by lightning, and the infant was rescued from the 
lightning that consumed her, as Bacchus was snatched from the flames that 
burnt up his mother. LEMPRIKRE. 

ft DYMOCK, sub voce. 



" And now, in pomp, the peaceful kings appear, 
Four steeds the chariot of Latinus bear, 
Twelve golden beams around his temples play, 
To mark his lineage from the god of day."* 

The " golden beams " around the head of ^Esculapius were intended 
to mark the same, to point him out as the child of the Sun, or the 
Sun incarnate. The "golden beams "around the heads of pictures 
and images called by the name of Christ, were intended to show the 
Pagans that they might safely worship them, as the images of their 
well-known divinities, though called by a different name. Now 
^Esculapius, in a time of deadly pestilence, had been invited from 
Epidaurus to Rome. The god, under the form of a large serpent, 
entered the ship that was sent to convey him to Rome, and having 
safely arrived in the Tiber, was solemnly inaugurated as the guardian 
god of the Romans, f From that time forth, in private as well as in 
public, the worship of the Epidau- 
rian snake, the serpent that repre- 
sented the Sun-divinity incarnate, 
in other words, the " Serpent of 
Fire," became nearly universal. 
In almost every house the sacred 
serpent, which was a harmless sort, 
was to be found. " These ser 
pents nestled about the domestic 
altars," says the author of Pompeii, 
" and came out, like dogs or cats, to 
be patted by the visitors, and beg for 
something to eat. Nay, at table, 
if we may build upon insulated 
passages, they crept about the cups 
of the guests, and, in hot weather, 

- 53 - 

ladies would use them as live boas, 
and twist them round their necks 

for the sake of coolness ..... These sacred animals made war on 
the rats and mice, and thus kept down one species of vermin ; but as 
they bore a charmed life, and no one laid violent hands on them, 
they multiplied so fast, that, like the monkeys of Benares, they 
became an intolerable nuisance. The frequent fires at Rome were 
the only things that kept them under."! The reader will find, in the 
accompanying woodcut (Fig. 53), a representation of Roman fire- 
worship and serpent-worship at once separate and conjoined. The 
reason of the double representation of the god I cannot here enter 
into ; but it must be evident, from the words of Virgil already quoted, 
that the figures in the upper compartment, having their heads 
encircled with rays, represent the fire-god, or Sun-divinity ; and what 

* DRYDEN S Virgil, Book xii. 11. 245-248, vol. iii. p. 775 ; in Original, 11. 161-164. 
t LACTANTIUS, De Origine Erroris, p. 82. 
+ Pompeii, vol. ii. pp. 114, 115. 
Ibid. vol. ii. p. 105. 



Fig. 54. 

is worthy of special note is, that these fire-gods are black* the colour 
thereby identifying them with the ./Ethiopian or black Phaethon ; 
while, as the author of Pompeii himself admits, these same black fire- 
gods are in the under compartment represented by two huge serpents. 
Now, if this worship of the sacred serpent of the Sun, the great fire- 
god, was so universal in Rome, what symbol could more graphically 
portray the idolatrous power of Pagan Imperial Rome than the 
" Great Fiery Serpent " 1 No doubt it was to set forth this very thing 
that the Imperial standard itself the standard of the Pagan 
Emperor of Rome, as Pontifex Maximus, Head of the great system 
of fire-worship and serpent-worship was a serpent elevated on a 
lofty pole, and so coloured, as to exhibit it as a recognised symbol of 

As Christianity spread in the Roman Empire, the powers of light 
and darkness came into collision (Rev. xii. 7, 8) : " Michael and 

his angels fought against the dragon ; 
and the dragon fought and his 
angels, and prevailed not; neither 
was their place found any more 
in heaven. And the great dragon 
was cast out; .... he was cast 
out into the earth, and his angels 
were cast out with him." The 
"great serpent of fire" was cast 
out, when, by the decree of Gratian, 
Paganism throughout the Roman 
empire was abolished when the fires 
of Vesta were extinguished, and the 
revenues of the Vestal virgins were 
confiscated when the Roman Em 
peror (who though for more than a 
century and a-half a professor of 
Christianity, had been "Pontifex 
Maximus," the very head of the 
idolatry of Rome, and as such, on 
high occasions, appearing invested 

with all the idolatrous insignia of Paganism), through force of con 
science abolished his own office. | While Nimrod was personally and 
literally slain by the sword, it was through the sword of the Spirit 
that Shem overcame the system of fire-worship, and so bowed the 
hearts of men, as to cause it for a time to be utterly extinguished. 
In like manner did the Dragon of fire, in the Roman Empire, 
receive a deadly wound from a sword, and that the sword of the 

* " All the faces in his (MAZOIS S) engraving are quite black." (Pompeii, vol. 
ii. p. 106.) In India, the infant Crishna (emphatically the black god), in the arms 
of the goddess Devaki, is represented with the woolly hair and marked features of 
the Negro or African race (see Fig. 54 ; from MOOR, Plate 59). 

t AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, lib. xvi. cap. 12, p. 145. (See Appendix, Note P.) 

t ZOSIMI Hist., lib. iv. p. 761. 


Spirit, which is the Word of God. There is thus far an exact 
analogy between the type and the antitype. 

But not only is there this analogy. It turns out, when the 
records of history are searched to the bottom, that when the head of the 
Pagan idolatry of Rome was slain with the sword by the extinction 
of the office of Pontifex Maximus, the last Roman Pontifex Maximus 
his idolatrous system then existing. To make this clear, a brief 
glance at the Roman history is necessary. In common with all the 
earth, Rome at a very early prehistoric period, had drunk deep of 
Babylon s "golden cup." But above and beyond all other nations, 
it had had a connection with the idolatry of Babylon that put it in 
a position peculiar and alone. Long before the days of Romulus, a 
representative of the Babylonian Messiah, called by his name, had 
fixed his temple as a god, and his palace as a king, on one of those 
very heights which came to be included within the walls of that 
city which Remus and his brother were destined to found. On the 
Capitoline hill, so famed in after-days as the great high place of 
Roman worship, Saturnia, or the city of Saturn, the great Chaldean 

fod, had in the days of dim and distant antiquity been erected.* 
ome revolution had then taken place the graven images of 
Babylon had been abolished the erecting of any idol had been 
sternly prohibited,! and when the twin founders of the now world- 
renowned city reared its humble walls, the city and the palace of 
their Babylonian predecessor had long lain in ruins. The ruined 
state of this sacred city, even in the remote age of Evander, is 
alluded to by Virgil. Referring to the time when ^Eneas is said to 
have visited that ancient Italian king, thus he speaks : 

" Then saw two heaps of ruins ; once they stood 
Two stately towns on either side the flood ; 
Saturnia and Janicula s remains ; 
And either place the founder s name retains."!}! 

The deadly wound, however, thus given to the Chaldean system, was 
destined to be healed. A colony of Etruscans, earnestly attached to 
the Chaldean idolatry, had migrated, some say from Asia Minor, 
others from Greece, and settled in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Rome. They were ultimately incorporated in the Roman state, 
but long before this political union took place they exercised the 
most powerful influence on the religion of the Romans. From the 
very first their skill in augury, soothsaying, and all science, real or 

* AURELIUS VICTOR, Origo Gent. Roman., cap. 3. 

t PLUTARCH (in Hist. Numce, vol. i. p. 65) states, that Numa forbade the 
making of images, and that for 170 years after the founding of Rome, no images 
were allowed in the Roman temples. 

JBneid, lib. viii. 11. 467-470, vol. iii. p. 608. 

DIONYSIDS HALICARN., vol. i. p. 22, Sir W. Betham (Etruria Celtica, vol. i. 
p. 47) opposes the Lydian origin of the Etrurians ; but Layard (Nineveh and 
Babylon, chap. xxiv. p. 563) seems to have set the question at rest in favour of 
their Oriental extraction, or at least their close connection with the East. 


pretended, that the augurs or soothsayers monopolised, made the 
Romans look up to them with respect. It is admitted on all hands 
that the Romans derived their knowledge of augury, which occu 
pied so prominent a place in every public transaction in which they 
engaged, chiefly from the Tuscans,* that is, the people of Etruria, 
and at first none but natives of that country were permitted to 
exercise the office of a Haruspex, which had respect to all the rites 
essentially involved in sacrifice.! Wars and disputes arose between 
Rome and the Etruscans ; but still the highest of the noble youths 
of Rome were sent to Etruria to be instructed in the sacred science 
which flourished there. | The consequence was, that under the 
influence of men whose minds were moulded by those who clung to 
the ancient idol-worship, the Romans were brought back again to 
much of that idolatry which they had formerly repudiated and cast 
off. Though Numa, therefore, in setting up his religious system, so 
far deferred to the prevailing feeling of his day and forbade image- 
worship, yet in consequence of the alliance subsisting between Rome 
and Etruria in sacred things, matters were put in train for the 
ultimate subversion of that prohibition. The college of Pontiffs, of 
which he laid the foundation, in process of time came to be sub 
stantially an Etruscan college, and the Sovereign Pontiff that pre 
sided over that college, and that controlled all the public and private 
religious rites of the Roman people in all essential respects, became 
in spirit and in practice an Etruscan Pontiff. 

Still the Sovereign Pontiff of Rome, even after the Etruscan 
idolatry was absorbed into the Roman system, was only an offshoot 
from the grand original Babylonian system. He was a devoted 
worshipper of the Babylonian god ; but he was not the legitimate 
representative of that God. The true legitimate Babylonian Pontiff 
had his seat beyond the bounds of the Roman empire. That seat, 
after the death of Belshazzar, and the expulsion of the Chaldean 
priesthood from Babylon by the Medo-Persian kings, was at Per- 
gamos, where afterwards was one of the seven churches of Asia.|| 
There, in consequence, for many centuries was " Satan s seat " (Rev. 
ii. 13). There, under favour of the deifiedll kings of Pergamos, was 

* KENNETT S Antiquities, Part ii., Book ii. chap. 3, p. 67, and ADAM S Anti 
quities, "Ministers of Religion," p. 255. 

f KENNETT S Antiquities, Book ii. chap. 4, p. 69. 

CICERO, De Divinatione, lib. i. cap. 41, vol. iii. pp. 34, 35. 

LIVY, lib. iv. cap. 4, vol. i. p. 260. 

I) BARKER and AINSWORTH S Lares and Penates of Cilicia, chap. viii. p. 232. 
Barker says, " The defeated Chaldeans fled to Asia Minor, and fixed their central 
college at Pergamos." Phrygia, that was so remarkable for the worship of Cybele 
and Atys, formed part of the kingdom of Pergamos. Mysia also was another, and 
the Mysians, in the Paschal Chronicle, are said to be descended from Nimrod. 
The words are, " Nebrod, the huntsman and giant from whence came the 
Mysians." (Paseh. Chron. vol. i. p. 50.) Lydia, also, from which Livy and 
Herodotus say the Etrurians came, formed part of the same kingdom. For the 
fact that Mysia, Lydia, and Phrygia were constituent parts of the kingdom of 
Pergamos, see SMITH S Classical Dictionary, p. 542. 

U The kings of Pergamos, in whose dominions the Chaldean Magi found an 
asylum, were evidently by them, and by the general voice of Paganism that 


his favourite abode, there was the worship of ^Esculapius, under the 
form of the serpent, celebrated with frantic orgies and excesses, 
that elsewhere were kept under some measure of restraint. At first, 
the Roman Pontiff had no immediate connection with Pergamos 
and the hierarchy there ; yet, in course of time, the Pontificate of 
Home and the Pontificate of Pergamos came to be identified. 
Pergamos itself became part and parcel of the Roman empire, when 
Attalus III., the last of its kings, at his death, left by will all his 
dominions to the Roman people, B.C. 133.* For some time after 
the kingdom of Pergamos was merged in the Roman dominions, 
there was no one who could set himself openly and advisedly to lay 
claim to all the dignity inherent in the old title of the kings of 
Pergamos. The original powers even of the Roman Pontiffs seem 
to have been by that time abridged,! but when Julius Caesar, who 
had previously been elected Pontifex Maximus,| became also, as 
Emperor, the supreme civil ruler of the Romans, then, as head of 
the Roman state, and head of the Roman religion, all the powers and 
functions of the true legitimate Babylonian Pontiff W&TG supremely 
vested in him, and he found himself in a position to assert these 
powers. Then he seems to have laid claim to the divine dignity of 
Attalus, as well as the kingdom that Attalus had bequeathed to the 
Romans, as centring in himself ; for his well-known watchword, 
" Venus Genetrix," which meant that Venus was the mother of the 
Julian race, appears to have been intended to make him " The Son " 
of the great goddess, even as the "Bull-horned" Attalus had been 
regarded. Then, on certain occasions, in the exercise of his high 
pontifical office, he appeared of course in all the pomp of the 
Babylonian costume, as Belshazzar himself might have done, in robes 
of scarlet, | with the crosier of Nimrod in his hand, wearing the mitre 
of Dagon and bearing the keys of Janus and Cybele.H Thus did 

sympathised with them, put into the vacant place which Belshazzar and his pre 
decessors had occupied. They were hailed as the representatives of the old Baby 
lonian god. This is evident from the statements of Pausanias. First, he quotes 
the following words from the oracle of a prophetess called Phaennis, in reference 
to the Gauls : "But divinity will still more seriously afflict those that dwell near 
the sea. However, in a short time after, Jupiter will send them a defender, the 
beloved son of a Jove-nourished bull, who will bring destruction on all the Gauls." 
(Lib. x., Phocica, cap. xv. p. 833.) Then on this he comments as follows : 
"Phaennis, in this oracle, means by the son of a bull, Attalus, king of Pergamos, 
whom the oracle of Apollo called Taurokeron," or bull-horned. (Ibid.) This 
title given by the Delphian god, proves that Attalus, in whose dominions the Magi 
had their chief seat, had been set up and recognised in the very character of 
Bacchus, the Head of the Magi. Thus the vacant seat of Belshazzar was filled, 
and the broken chain of the Chaldean succession renewed. 

* SMITH S Classical Dictionary, p. 542. 

t NIEBUHB, vol. iii. p. 27. 

J DYMOCK, sub voce "Julius Caesar," p. 460, col. 1. 

The deification of the emperors that continued in succession from the days of 
Divus Julius, or the "Deified Julius," can be traced to no cause so likely as their 
representing the " Bull-horned" Attalus both as Pontiff and Sovereign. 

|| That " scarlet " was the robe of honour in Belshazzar s time, see Dan. v. 
7, 29. 

IT That the key was one of the symbols used in the Mysteries, the reader will 



matters continue, as already stated, even under so-called Christian 
emperors ; who, as a salve to their consciences, appointed a heathen 
as their substitute in the performance of the more directly idolatrous 
functions of the pontificate (that substitute, however, acting in their 
name and by their authority), until the reign of Gratian, who, as 
shown by Gibbon, was the first that refused to be arrayed in the 
idolatrous pontifical attire, or to act as Pontifex.* Now, from all 
this it is evident that, when Paganism in the Roman empire was 
abolished, when the office of Pontifex Maximus was suppressed, 
and all the dignitaries of paganism were cast down from their seats 
of influence and of power, which they had still been allowed in some 
measure to retain, this was not merely the casting down of the Fiery 
Dragon of Rome, but the casting down of the Fiery Dragon of 
Babylon. It was just the enacting over again, in a symbolical sense, 
upon the true and sole legitimate successor of Nimrod, what had 
taken place upon himself, when the greatness of his downfall gave 
rise to the exclamation, " How art thou fallen from heaven, 
Lucifer, son of the morning ! " 


The next great enemy introduced to our notice is the Beast from 
the Sea (Rev. xiii. 1) : "I stood," says John, "upon the sand of the 
sea-shore, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea." The seven heads 
and ten horns on this beast, as on the great dragon, show that this 
power is essentially the same beast, but that it has undergone a cir 
cumstantial change. In the old Babylonian system, after the worship 
of the god of fire, there speedily followed the worship of the god of 
water or the sea. As the world formerly was in danger of being 
burnt up, so now it was in equal danger of being drowned. In the 
Mexican story it is said to have actually been so. First, say they, it 
was destroyed by fire, and then it was destroyed by water, f The 
Druidic mythology gives the same account ; for the Bards affirm that 
the dreadful tempest of fire that split the earth asunder, was rapidly 
succeeded by the bursting of the Lake Llion, when the waters of the 

find on consulting TAYLOR S Note on Orphic Hymn to Pluto, where that divinity is 
spoken of as "keeper of the keys." Now the Pontifex, as " Hierophant," was 
" arrayed in the habit and adorned with the symbols of the great Creator of the 
world, of whom in these Mysteries he was supposed to be the substitute." 
(MAURICE S Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 356.) The Primeval or Creative god was mystic 
ally represented as Androgyne, as combining in his own person both sexes (Ibid. 
vol. v. p. 933), being therefore both Janus and Cybele at the same time. In open 
ing up the Mysteries, therefore, of this mysterious divinity, it was natural that the 
Pontifex should bear the key of both these divinities. Janus himself, however, 
as well as Pluto, was often represented with more than one key. The edition of 
Maurice above referred to is London, 1793-94. 

* The original authority of Zosimus has already been given for this statement. 
The reader may find the same fact stated in GIBBON, vol. iii. p. 397, Note. 

t HUMBOLDT S Researches, vol. ii. pp. 21, 23. 


abyss poured forth and " overwhelmed the whole world."* In 
Greece we meet with the very same story. Diodorus Siculus tells us 
that, in former times, " a monster called ^Egides, who vomited flames, 
appeared in Phrygia ; hence spreading along Mount Taurus, the con 
flagration burnt down all the woods as far as India; then, with a 
retrograde course, swept the forests of Mount Lebanon, and extended 
as far as Egypt and Africa ; at last a stop was put to it by Minerva. 
The Phrygians remembered well this CONFLAGRATION and the FLOOD 
which FOLLOWED it."f Ovid, too, has a clear allusion to the same 
fact of the fire-worship being speedily followed by the worship of 
water, in his fable of the transformation of Cycnus. He represents 
King Cycnus, an attached friend of Phaethon, and consequently of 
fire-worship, as, after his friend s death, hating the fire, and taking to 
the contrary element that of water, through year, and so being trans 
formed into a swan. | In India, the great deluge, which occupies so 
conspicuous a place in its mythology, evidently has the same symboli 
cal meaning, although the story of Noah is mixed up with it ; for it 
was during that deluge that " the lost Yedas," or sacred books, were 
recovered, by means of the great god, under the form of a FISH. 
The u loss of the Vedas " had evidently taken place at that very time 
of terrible disaster to the gods, when, according to the Purans, a 
great enemy of these gods, called Durgu, " abolished all religious 
ceremonies, the Brahmins, through fear, forsook the reading of the 
Veda, .... fire lost its energy, and the terrified stars retired from 
sight ; " in other words, when idolatry, fire-worship, and the worship 
of the host of heaven had been suppressed. When we turn to Baby 
lon itself, we find there also substantially the same account. In 
Berosus, the deluge is represented as coming after the time of Alorus, 
or the "god of fire," that is, Nimrod, which shows that there, too, 
this deluge was symbolical. Now, out of this deluge emerged Dagon, 
the fish-god, or god of the sea. The origin of the worship of Dagon, 
as shown by Berosus, was founded upon a legend, that, at a remote 
period of the past, when men were sunk in barbarism, there carne up 
man, half-fish that civilised the Babylonians, taught them arts and 
sciences, and instructed them in politics and religion. || The worship 
of Dagon was introduced by the very parties Nimrod, of course, 

* DAVIES S Druids, Note at p. 555, compared with p. 142. 
f DIODORUS, lib. iii., cap. 4, p. 142. 

t Hie relicto 

Imperio, ripas virides, amnemque querelis 
Eridanum implerat, silvamque sororibus auctam, 

nee se coeloque Jovique 
Credit, ut injuste missi memor ignis ah illo, 
Stagna petit, patulosque lacus ; ignemque perosus, 
olat, elegit contraria flumina flam mis. 

Metam., lib. ii. v. 369-380, vol. ii. pp. 88, 89. The reader will notice the 
ambiguity of colat, as signifying either "to worship" or "to inhabit." 

GOLEM AN s Hindu Mythology, p. 89. 

|| BEROSUS, lib. i. p. 48. 


excepted who had previously seduced the world into the worship of 
fire. In the secret Mysteries that were then set up, while in the first 
instance, no doubt, professing the greatest antipathy to the prescribed 
worship of fire, they sought to regain their influence and power by 
scenic representations of the awful scenes of the Flood, in which Noah 
was introduced under the name of Dagon, or the Fish-god scenes in 
which the whole family of man, both from the nature of the event 
and their common connection with the second father of the human 
race, could not fail to feel a deep interest. The concocters of these 
Mysteries saw that if they could only bring men back again to idolatry 
in any shape, they could soon work that idolatry so as substantially 
to re-establish the very system that had been put down. Thus it 
was, that, as soon as the way was prepared for it, Tammuz was intro 
duced as one who had allowed himself to be slain for the good of 
mankind. A distinction was made between good serpents and bad 
serpents, one kind being represented as the serpent of Agathodsemon, 
or the good divinity, another as the serpent of Cacodsemon, or the 
evil one.* It was easy, then, to lead men on by degrees to believe 
that, in spite of all appearances to the contrary, Tammuz, instead of 
being the patron of serpent- worship in any evil sense, was in reality 
the grand enemy of the Apophis, or great malignant serpent that 
envied the happiness of mankind, and that in fact he was the very 
seed of the woman who was destined to bruise the serpent s head. 
By means of the metempsychosis, it was just as easy to identify 
Nimrod and Noah, and to make it appear that the great patriarch, in 
the person of this his favoured descendant, had graciously conde 
scended to become incarnate anew, as Dagon, that he might bring 
mankind back again to the blessings they had lost when Nimrod was 
slain. Certain it is, that Dagon was worshipped in the Chaldean 
Mysteries, wherever they were established, in a character that repre 
sented both the one and the other, f 

In the previous system, the grand mode of purification had been 
by fire. Now, it was by water that men were to be purified. Then 
began the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, connected, as we have 
seen, with the passing of Noah through the waters of the Flood. 
Then began the reverence for holy wells, holy lakes, holy rivers, 
which is to be found wherever these exist on the earth ; which is not 
only to be traced among the Parsees, who, along with the worship of 
fire, worship also the Zereparankard, or Caspian Sea,J and among 
the Hindoos, who worship the purifying waters of the Ganges, and 
who count it the grand passport to heaven, to leave their dying rela 
tives to be smothered in its stream ; but which is seen in full force 
at this day in Popish Ireland, in the universal reverence for holy 
wells, and the annual pilgrimages to Loch Dergh, to wash away sin 
in its blessed waters ; and which manifestly lingers also among our- 

* WILKINSON, vol. iv. pp. 239 and 412. In Egypt, the Urseus, or the Cerastes, 
was the good serpent, the Apophis the evil one. ( WILKINSON, vol. v. p. 243.) 
t DAVIES B Druids, p. 180. Davies identifies Noah with Bacchus. 
WILSON S Parsi Religion, pp. 192, 251, 252, 262, 305. 


selves, in the popular superstition about witches which shines out in 
the well-known line of Burns 

" A running stream they daurna cross." 

So much for the worship of water. Along with the water-worship, 
however, the old worship of fire was soon incorporated again. In the 
Mysteries, both modes of purification were conjoined. Though water- 
baptism was held to regenerate, yet purification by fire was still held 
to be indispensable ; * and, long ages after baptismal regeneration had 
been established, the children were still made "to pass through the 
fire to Moloch." This double purification both by fire and water was 
practised in Mexico, among the followers of Wodan.f This double 
purification was also commonly practised among the old Pagan 
Romans ; J and, in course of time, almost everywhere throughout 

* The name Tammuz, as applied to Nirarod or Osiris, was equivalent to Alorus, 
or the " god of fire," and seems to have been given to him as the great purifier by 
h re. Tammuz is derived from tarn, "to make perfect," and muz, "fire," and sig 
nifies " Fire the perfecter," or "the perfecting fire." To this meaning of the name, 
as well as to the character of Ninirod as the Father of the gods, the Zoroastrian 
verse alludes when it says : "All things are the progeny of ONE FIRE. The FATHER 
perfected all things, and delivered them to the second mind, whom all nations of 
men call the first." (CORY S Fragments, p. 242.) Here Fire is declared to be the 
Father of all ; for all things are said to be its progeny, and it is also called the 
" perfecter of all things." The second mind is evidently the child who displaced 
Nimrod s image as an object of worship ; but yet the agency of Nimrod, as the 
first of the gods, and the fire-god, was held indispensable for "perfecting" men. 
And hence, too, no doubt, the necessity of the fire of Purgatory to "perfect " men s 
souls at last, and to purge away all the sins that they have carried with them into 
the unseen world. 

t HUMBOLDT S Researches, vol. i. p. 185. 

t OVID, Fasti, lib. iv. 11. 794, 795, vol. iii. p. 274. It was not a little interest 
ing to me, after being led by strict induction from circumstantial evidence to the 
conclusion that the purgation by fire was derived from the fire-worship of Adon 
or Tammuz, and that by water had reference to Noah s Flood, to find an express 
statement in Ovid, that such was the actual belief at Rome in his day. After 
mentioning, in the passage to which the above citation refers, various fanciful 
reasons for the twofold purgation by fire and water, he concludes thus : "For my 
part, I do not believe them ; there are some (however) who say that the one is 
intended to commemorate Phaethon, and the other the flood of Deucalion." 

If, however, any one should still think it unlikely that the worship of Noah 
should be mingled in the ancient world with the worship of the Queen of Heaven 
and her son, let him open his eyes to what is taking place in Italy at this hour [in 
1856] in regard to the worship of that patriarch and the Roman Queen of Heaven. 
The following, kindly sent me by Lord John Scott, as confirmatory of the views 
propounded in these pages, appeared in the Morning Herald, Oct. 26, 1855 : "AN 
consecutive years the vintage has been almost entirely destroyed in Tuscany, in 
consequence of the prevalent disease. The Archbishop of Florence has conceived 
the idea of arresting this plague by directing prayers to be offered, not to God, 
but to the patriarch Noah ; and he has just published a collection, containing 
eight forms of supplication, addressed to this distinguished personage of the 
ancient covenant. Most holy patriarch Noah ! is the language of one of these 
prayers, who didst employ thyself in thy long career in cultivating the vine, 
and gratifying the human race with that precious beverage, which allays the 
thirst, restores the strength, and enlivens the spirits of us all, deign to regard our 
vines, which, following thine example, we have cultivated hitherto ; and, while 


the Pagan world, both the fire-worship and serpent-worship of 
Nimrod, which had been put down, was re-established in a new 
form, with all its old and many additional abominations besides. 

Now, this god of the sea, when his worship had been firmly 
re-established, and all formidable opposition had been put down, 
was worshipped also as the great god of war, who, though he had 
died for the good of mankind, now that he had risen again, was 
absolutely invincible. In memory of this new incarnation, the 25th 
of December, otherwise Christmas Day, was, as we have already 
seen, celebrated in Pagan Rome as " Natalis Solis invicti" "the 
birth-day of the Unconquered Sun."* We have equally seen that 
the very name of the Roman god of war is just the name of Nimrod ; 
for Mars and Mavors, the two well-known names of the Roman war- 
god, are evidently just the Roman forms of the Chaldee "Mar" or 
"Mavor," the Rebel, f Thus terrible and invincible was Nimrod 
when he reappeared as Dagon, the beast from the sea. If the reader 
looks at what is said in Rev. xiii. 3, he will see precisely the same 
thing : " And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded unto death ; 
and his deadly wound was healed : and all the world wondered after 
the beast. And they worshipped the dragon, which gave power unto 
the beast, and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto 
the beast 1 who is able to make war with him ? " Such, in all respects, 
is the analogy between the language of the prophecy and the ancient 
Babylonian type. 

Do we find, then, anything corresponding to this in the religious 
history of the Roman empire after the fall of the old Paganism of 
that empire? Exactly in every respect. No sooner was Paganism 
legally abolished, the eternal fire of Yesta extinguished, and the old 
serpent cast down from the seat of power, where so long he had sat 
secure, than he tried the most vigorous means to regain his influence 
and authority. Finding that persecution of Christianity, as such, 

thou beholdest them languishing and blighted by that disastrous visitation, which, 
before the vintage, destroys the fruit (in severe punishment for many blasphemies 
and other enormous sins we have committed), have compassion on us, and, pros 
trate before the lofty throne of God, who has promised to His children the fruits 
of the earth, and an abundance of corn and wine, entreat Him on our behalf; 
promise Him in our name, that, with the aid of Divine grace, we will forsake the 
ways of vice and sin, that we will no longer abuse His sacred gifts, and will 
scrupulously observe His holy law, and that of our holy Mother, the Catholic 
Church, &c. The collection concludes with a new prayer, addressed to the Virgin 
Mary, who is invoked in these words : immaculate Mary, behold our fields and 
vineyards ! and, should it seem to thee that we merit so great a favour, stay, we 
beseech thee, this terrible plague, which, inflicted for our sins, renders our fields 
unfruitful, and deprives our vines of the honours of the A intage, &e. The work 
contains a vignette, representing the patriarch Noah presiding over the operations 
of the vintage, as well as a notification from the Archbishop, granting an indul 
gence of forty days to all who shall devoutly recite the prayers in question. 
Christian Times." In view of such rank Paganism as this, well may the noble 
Lord already referred te remark, that surely here is the world turned backwards, 
and the worship of the old god Bacchus unmistakably restored ! 

* GIESELER, vol. ii. p. 42, Note. 

f The Greeks chose as their war-god Arioch or Arius, the grandson of Nimrod. 
(CKDRKNUS, vol. i pp. 28, 29.) 


in the meantime would not do to destroy the church symbolised by 
the sun-clothed Woman, he made another tack (Rev. xii. 15) : 
" And the serpent cast out of his mouth a flood of water after 
the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood." 
The symbol here is certainly very remarkable. If this was the 
dragon of fire, it might have been expected that it would have been 
represented, according to popular myths, as vomiting fire after the 
woman. But it is not so. It was a flood of water that he cast out 
of his mouth. What could this mean ? As the water came out of 
the mouth of the dragon that must mean doctrine, and of course, 
false doctrine. But is there nothing more specific than this 1 
A single glance at the old Babylonian type will show that the water 
cast out of the mouth of the serpent must be the water of baptismal 
regeneration. Now, it was precisely at this time, when the old 
Paganism was suppressed, that the doctrine of regenerating men by 
baptism, which had been working in the Christian Church before, 
threatened to spread like a deluge over the face of the Roman 
empire.* It was then precisely that our Lord Jesus Christ began to 
be popularly called Ichthys, that is, "the Fish,"f manifestly to 
identify him with Dagon. At the end of the fourth century, and 
from that time forward, it was taught, that he who had been washed 
in the baptismal font was thereby born again, and made pure as the 
virgin snow. 

This flood issued not merely from the mouth of Satan, the old 
serpent, but from the mouth of him who came to be recognised by 
the Pagans of Rome as the visible head of the old Roman Paganism. 
When the Roman fire-worship was suppressed, we have seen that 
the office of Pontifex Maximus, the head of that Paganism, was 
abolished. That was " the wounding unto death " of the head of 
the Fiery Dragon. But scarcely had that head received its deadly 
wound, when it began to be healed again. Within a few years 
after the Pagan title of Pontifex had been abolished, it was 
revived, and that by the very Emperor that had abolished it, and 
was bestowed, with all the Pagan associations clustering around 
it, upon the Bishop of Rome,J who, from that time forward, 
became the grand agent in pouring over professing Christendom, 
first the ruinous doctrine of baptismal regeneration, and then all the 
other doctrines of Paganism derived from ancient Babylon. When 
this Pagan title was bestowed on the Roman bishop, it was not as a 
mere empty title of honour it was bestowed, but as a title to which 
formidable power was annexed. To the authority of the Bishop of 
Rome in this new character, as Pontifex, when associated " with five 

* From about A.D. 360, to the time of the Emperor Justinian, about 550, we 
have evidence both of the promulgation of this doctrine, and also of the deep 
hold it came at last to take of professing Christians. See GIESELKR, vol. ii., 
Second Period, k Public Worship," p. 145. 

f AUGUSTINE, De Civitate, lib. xviii. cap. 23, vol. ix. p. 665. 

Codex Theodosianus, lib. xvi. tit. 1, leg. 2. See also leg. 3. The reader will 
notice, that while the Bishop of Rome alone is called Pontifex, the heads of the 
other churches referred to are simply " Episcopi." 


or seven other bishops " as his counsellors, bishops, and even metro 
politans of foreign churches over extensive regions of the West, in 
Gaul not less than in Italy, were subjected; and civil pains were 
attached to those who refused to submit to his pontifical decisions.* 
Great was the danger to the cause of truth and righteousness when 
such power was, by imperial authority, vested in the Roman bishop, 
and that a bishop so willing to give himself to the propagation of 
false doctrine. Formidable, however, as the danger was, the true 
Church, the Bride, the Lamb s wife (so far as that Church was found 
within the bounds of the Western Empire), was wonderfully pro 
tected from it. That Church was for a time saved from the peril, 
not merely by the mountain fastnesses in which many of its devoted 
members found an asylum, as Jovinian, Vigilantius, and the Wal- 
denses, and such-like faithful ones, in the wilderness among the 
Cottian Alps, and other secluded regions of Europe, but also not a 
little, by a signal interposition of Divine Providence in its behalf. 
That interposition is referred to in these words (Rev. xii. 16) : "The 
earth opened her mouth and swallowed up the flood, which the 
dragon cast out of his mouth." What means the symbol of the 
" earth s opening its mouth " ? In the natural world, when the 
earth opens its mouth, there is an earthquake; and an "earthquake," 
according to the figurative language of the Apocalypse, as all admit, 
just means a great political convulsion. Now, when we examine the 
history of the period in question, we find that the fact exactly agrees 
with the prefiguration ; that soon after the Bishop of Rome became 
Pontiff, and, as Pontiff, set himself so zealously to bring in Paganism 
into the Church, those political convulsions began in the civil empire 
of Rome, which never ceased till the framework of that empire was 
broken up, and it was shattered to pieces. But for this the spiritual 
power of the Papacy might have been firmly established over all the 
nations of the West, long before the time it actually was so. It is 
clear, that immediately after Damasus, the Roman bishop, received 
his pontifical power, the predicted "apostacy" (1 Tim. iv. 3), so far 
as Rome was concerned, was broadly developed. Then were men 
" forbidden to marry,"f and " commanded to abstain from meats. "{ 
Then, with a factitious doctrine of sin, a factitious holiness also was 
inculcated, and people were led to believe that all baptised persons 
were necessarily regenerated. Had the Roman Empire of the West 
remained under one civil head, backed by that civil head, the Bishop 

* Rescript of Gratian, in answer to application of Roman Council, in GIESELER, 
vol. i., Second Period, div. i. chap. 3, "Hierarchy in the West," p. 434, Note 12. 
See also BOWEK, "Damasus," A.D. 378. For the demands of the Roman Council, 
see Ibid. vol. i. p. 209. This rescript was prior to the decree in the Codex above 
referred to, which decree runs in the name of Valentinian and Theodosius, as well 
as of Gratian, who had associated them with himself. 

f The celibacy of the clergy was enacted by Syricius, Bishop of Rome, A.D. 385. 
(GIESELER, vol. i., Second Period, div. i. chap. 4, " Monachism," vol. ii. p. 20 ; 
and BOWER S Lives of the Popes, vol. i. p. 235.) 

J Against the use of flesh and wine, see what is said at the same period by 
Jerome, the great advocate of the Papacy. (HiERONYMUS, Adv. Jovin., lib. ii., 
throughout the book, vol. i. pp. 360-380.) 


of Kome might very soon have infected all parts of that empire with 
the Pagan corruption he had evidently given himself up to propagate. 
Considering the cruelty* with which Jovinian, and all who opposed 
the Pagan doctrines in regard to marriage and abstinence, were 
treated by the Pontifex of Kome, under favour of the imperial 
power, it may easily be seen how serious would have been the con 
sequences to the cause of truth in the Western Empire had this 
state of matters been allowed to pursue its natural course. But 
now the great Lord of the Church interfered. The " revolt of the 
Goths," and the sack of Rome by Alaric the Goth in 410, gave that 
shock to the Roman Empire which issued, by 476, in its complete 
upbreaking and the extinction of the imperial power. Although, 
therefore, in pursuance of the policy previously inaugurated, the 
Bishop of Rome was formally recognised, by an imperial edict in 
445, as " Head of all the Churches of the West," all bishops being 
commanded " to hold and observe as a law whatever it should please 
the Bishop of Rome to ordain or decree;"! the convulsions of the 
empire, and the extinction, soon thereafter, of the imperial power 
itself, to a large extent nullified the disastrous effects of this edict. 
The " earth s opening its mouth," then in other words, the breaking 
up of the Roman Empire into so many independent sovereignties 
was a benefit to true religion, and prevented the flood of error and 
corruption, that had its source in Rome, from flowing as fast and as 
far as it would otherwise have done. When many different wills 
in the different countries were substituted for the one will of the 
Emperor, on which the Sovereign Pontiff leaned, the influence of 
that Pontiff was greatly neutralised. " Under these circumstances," 
says Gieseler, referring to the influence of Rome in the different 
kingdoms into which the empire was divided, " under these circum 
stances, the Popes could not directly interfere in ecclesiastical 
matters ; and their communications with the established Church 
of the country depended entirely on the royal pleasure."! The 
Papacy at last overcame the effects of the earthquake, and the 
kingdoms of the West were engulfed in that flood of error that 
came out of the mouth of the dragon. But the overthrow of the 
imperial power, when so zealously propping up the spiritual despotism 
of Rome, gave the true Church in the West a lengthened period of 
comparative freedom, which otherwise it could not have had. The 
Dark Ages would have corne sooner, and the darkness would have 
been more intense, but for the Goths and Vandals, and the political 
convulsions that attended their irruptions. They were raised up to 
scourge an apostatising community, not to persecute the saints of the 
Most High, though these, too, may have occasionally suffered in the 
common distress. The hand of Providence may be distinctly seen, 
in that, at so critical a moment, the earth opened its mouth and 
helped the Woman. 

To return, however, to the memorable period when the pontifical 

* See BOWER, " Syricius," vol. i. p. 256. f BOWER, vol. ii. p. 14. 

GIESELER, vol. ii., Second Period, div. ii. c. 6, " German Nations," p. 157. 


title was bestowed on the Bishop of Rome. The circumstances in 
which that Pagan title was bestowed upon Pope Damasus, were such 
as might have been not a little trying to the faith and integrity of a 
much better man than he. Though Paganism was legally abolished 
in the Western Empire of Rome, yet in the city of the Seven Hills 
it was still rampant, insomuch that Jerome, who knew it well, writing 
of Rome at this very period, calls it "the sink of all superstitions."* 
The consequence was, that, while everywhere else throughout the 
empire the Imperial edict for the abolition of Paganism was respected, 
in Rome itself it was, to a large extent, a dead letter. Symmachus, 
the prefect of the city, and the highest patrician families, as well as 
the masses of the people, were fanatically devoted to the old religion ; 
and, therefore, the Emperor found it necessary, in spite of the law, to 
connive at the idolatry of the Romans. How strong was the hold 
that Paganism had in the Imperial city, even after the fire of Vesta 
was extinguished, and State support was withdrawn from the 
Vestals, the reader may perceive from the following words of 
Gibbon : " The image and altar of Victory were indeed removed from 
the Senate-house ; but the Emperor yet spared the statues of the 
gods which were exposed to public view ; four hundred and twenty- 
four temples or chapels still remained to satisfy the devotion of the 
people, and in every quarter of Rome the delicacy of the Christians 
was offended by the fumes of idolatrous sacrifice."! Thus strong 
was Paganism in Rome, even after State support was withdrawn 
about 376. But look forward only about fifty years, and see what 
has become of it. The name of Paganism has almost entirely 
disappeared ; insomuch that the younger Theodosius, in an edict 
issued A.D. 423, uses these words : " The Pagans that remain, 
although now we may believe there are none."j The words of 
Gibbon in reference to this are very striking. While fully admitting 
that, notwithstanding the Imperial laws made against Paganism, 
" no peculiar hardships " were imposed on " the sectaries who 
credulously received the fables of Ovid, and obstinately rejected the 
miracles of the Gospel," he expresses his surprise at the rapidity of 
the revolution that took place among the Romans from Paganism. 
to Christianity. "The ruin of Paganism," he says and his dates 
are from A.D. 378, the year when the Bishop of Rome was made 
Pontifex, to 395 " The ruin of Paganism, in the age of Theodosius, 
is perhaps the only example of the total extirpation of any ancient 
and popular superstition ; and may therefore deserve to be considered 
as a singular event in the history of the human mind." .... After 
referring to the hasty conversion of the senate, he thus proceeds : 
" The edifying example of the Anician family [in embracing 

Christianity] was soon imitated by the rest of the nobility 

The citizens who subsisted by their own industry, and the populace 
who were supported by the public liberality, filled the churches of 

* Comment, in Epist. ad Galat., iv. 3, torn. iii. p. 138, col. 1. 
+ Decline and Fall, chap, xxviii., vol. v. p. 87. 
J Codex Theodosianus, xvi. 10, 22, p. 1625. 


the Lateran and Vatican with an incessant throng of devout 
proselytes. The decrees of the senate, which proscribed the 
worship of idols, were ratified by the general consent of the Romans ; 
the splendour of the capitol was defaced, and the solitary temples 
were abandoned to ruin and contempt. Rome submitted to the yoke 

of the Gospel The generation that arose in the world, after 

the promulgation of Imperial laws, was ATTRACTED within the pale 
of the Catholic Church, and so KAPID, yet so GENTLE was the fall of 
Paganism, that only twenty-eight years after the death of Theodosius 
[the elder], the faint and minute vestiges were no longer visible to 
the eye of the legislator."* Now, how can this great and rapid 
revolution be accounted for 1 Is it because the Word of the Lord 
has had free course and been glorified 1 Then, what means the new 
aspect that the Roman Church has now begun to assume 1 In exact 
proportion as Paganism has disappeared from without the Church, 
in the very same proportion it appears within it. Pagan dresses for 
the priests, Pagan festivals for the people, Pagan doctrines and ideas 
of all sorts, are everywhere in vogue, f The testimony of the 
same historian, who has spoken so decisively about the rapid 
conversion of the Romans to the profession of the Gospel, is not less 
decisive on this point. In his account of the Roman Church, under 
the head of " Introduction of Pagan Ceremonies," he thus speaks : 
" As the objects of religion were gradually reduced to the standard 
of the imagination, the rites and ceremonies were introduced that 
seemed most powerfully to affect the senses of the vulgar. If, in 
the beginning of the fifth century, Tertullian or Lactantius had been 
suddenly raised from the dead, to assist at the festival of some 
popular saint or martyr, they would have gazed with astonishment 
and indignation on the profane spectacle which had succeeded to the 
pure and spiritual worship of a Christian congregation. As soon as 
the doors of the church were thrown open, they must have been 
offended by the smoke of incense, the perfume of flowers, and the 
glare of lamps and tapers, which diffused at noon-day a gaudy, 
superfluous, and, in their opinion, sacrilegious light. "J Gibbon 
has a great deal more to the same effect. Now, can any one 
believe that this was accidental 1 No. It was evidently the result 
of that unprincipled policy, of which, in the course of this inquiry, 
we have already seen such innumerable instances on the part of the 
Papacy. Pope Damasus saw that, in a city pre-eminently given to 
idolatry, if he was to maintain the Gospel pure and entire, he must 
be willing to bear the cross, to encounter hatred and ill-will, to 
endure hardness as a good soldier of Jesus Christ. On the other 
hand, he could not but equally see, that if bearing the title, around 
which, for so many ages, all the hopes and affections of Paganism had 

* Decline and Fall, chap, xxviii., vol. v. pp. 90-93, and p. 112. 

f GIESELEE, vol. ii. pp. 40, 45. 

Decline and Fall, chap, xxviii., vol. v. pp. 121, &c. 

Gibbon distinctly admits this. " It must ingenuously be confessed," says he, 
" that the ministers of the Catholic Church imitated the profane model they were 
so impatient to destroy." 


clustered, he should give its votaries reason to believe that he was 
willing to act up to the original spirit of that title, he might count 
on popularity, aggrandisement and glory. Which alternative, then, 
was Damasus likely to choose ? The man that came into the 
bishopric of Rome, as a thief and a robber, over the dead bodies 
of above a hundred of his opponents,* could not hesitate as to the 
election he should make. The result shows that he had acted in 
character, that, in assuming the Pagan title of Pontifex, he had 
set himself at whatever sacrifice of truth to justify his claims to that 
title in the eyes of the Pagans, as the legitimate representative of 
their long line of pontiffs. There is no possibility of accounting 
for the facts on any other supposition. It is evident also that he 
and his successors were ACCEPTED in that character by the Pagans, 
who, in flocking into the Roman Church, and rallying around the 
new Pontiff, did not change their creed or worship, but brought 
both into the Church along with them. The reader has seen how 
complete and perfect is the copy of the old Babylonian Paganism, 
which, under the patronage of the Popes, has been introduced into 
the Roman Church. He has seen that the god whom the Papacy 
worships as the Son of the Highest, is not only, in spite of a Divine 
command, worshipped under the form of an image, made, as in the 
days of avowed Paganism, by art and man s device, but that 
attributes are ascribed to Him which are the very opposite of those 
which belong to the merciful Saviour, but which attributes are 
precisely those which were ascribed to Moloch, the fire-god, or Ala 
Mahozim, " the god of fortifications. ! He has seen that, about the 
very time when the Bishop of Rome was invested with the Pagan 
title of Pontifex, the Saviour began to be called Ichthys, or "the 
Fish," thereby identifying Him with Dagon, or the Fish-god ; \ and 
that, ever since, advancing step by step, as circumstances would 
permit, what has gone under the name of the worship of Christ, has 
just been the worship of that same Babylonian divinity, with all 
its rites and pomps and ceremonies, precisely as in ancient Babylon. 
Lastly, he has seen that the Sovereign Pontiff of the so-called 
Christian Church of Rome has so wrought out the title bestowed 
upon him in the end of the fourth century, as to be now dignified, 
as for centuries he has been, with the very "names of blasphemy" 
originally bestowed on the old Babylonian pontiffs. 

* BOWER S Lives of the Popes, vol. i., "Damasus," pp. 180-183 inclusive. 

t See Chapter IV. p. 154. 

I Bacchus himself was called by the very name " Ichthys." (HESYCHius, 
p. 179.) 

The reader who has seen the first edition of this work, will perceive that, in 
the above reasoning, I found nothing upon the formal appointment by Gratian of 
the Pope as Pontifex, with direct aiithority over the Pagans, as was done in that 
edition. That is not because I do not believe that such an appointment was made, 
but because, at the present moment, some obscurity rests on the subject. The 
Rev. Barcroft Boake, a very learned minister of the Church of England in 
Ceylon, when in this country, communicated to me his researches on the subject, 
which have made me hesitate to assert that there was any formal authority given 
to the Bishop of Rome over the Pagans by Gratian. At the same time, I am 


Now, if the circumstances in which the Pope has risen to all this 
height of power and blasphemous assumption, be compared with a 
prediction in Daniel, which, for want of the true key has never been 
understood, I think the reader will see how literally in the history 
of the Popes of Rome that prediction has been fulfilled. The pre 
diction to which I allude is that which refers to what is commonly 
called the "Wilful King" as described in Dan. xi. 36, and succeed 
ing verses. That " Wilful King " is admitted on all hands to be a 
king that arises in Gospel times, and in Christendom, but has 
generally been supposed to be an Infidel Antichrist, not only oppos 
ing the truth but opposing Popery as well, and every thing that 
assumes the very name of Christianity. But now, let the prediction 
be read in the light of the facts that have passed in review before 
us, and it will be seen how very different is the case (ver. 36) : 
"And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt 
himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak 
marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the 
indignation be accomplished : for that that is determined shall be 
done. Neither shall he regard the god of his fathers, nor the 
desire of women, nor regard any god : for he shall magnify himself 
above all." So far these words give an exact description of the 
Papacy, with its pride, its blasphemy, and forced celibacy and 
virginity. But the words that follow, according to any sense that 
the commentators have put upon them, have never hitherto been 
found capable of being made to agree either with the theory that the 
Pope was intended, or any other theory whatever. Let them, 
however, only be literally rendered, and compared with the Papal 
history, and all is clear, consistent, and harmonious. The inspired 
seer has declared that, in the Church of Christ, some one shall arise 

still convinced that the original statement was substantially true. The late 
Mr. Jones, in the Journal of Prophecy, not only referred to the Appendix to the 
Codex Theodosianus , in proof of such an appointment, but, in elucidation of the 
words of the Codex, asserted in express terms that there was a contest for the 
office of Pontifex, and that there were two candidates, the one a Pagan, Sym- 
machus, who had previously been Valentinian s deputy, and the other the Bishop 
of Rome. (Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, Oct. 1852, p. 328.) I have not been 
able to find Mr. Jones s authority for this statement ; but the statement is so 
circumstantial, that it cannot easily be called in question without impugning 
the veracity of him that made it. I have found Mr. Jones in error on divers 
points, but in no error of such a nature as this ; and the character of the man 
forbids such a supposition. Moreover, the language of the Appendix cannot easily 
admit of any other interpretation. But, even though there were no formal 
appointment of Bishop Damasus to a pontificate extending over the Pagans, yet 
it is clear that, by the rescript of Gratian (the authenticity of which is fully 
admitted by the accurate Gieseler), he was made the supreme spiritual authority 
in the Western Empire, in all religious questions. When, therefore, in the year 
400, Pagan priests were, by the Christian Emperor of the West, from political 
motives, "acknowledged as public officers" (Cod. Theod. , xii. 1, ad POMPEJANUM, 
Procons. Africce, p. 1262), these Pagan priests necessarily came under the 
jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, as there was then no other tribunal but his 
for determining all matters affecting religion. In the text, however, I have made 
no allusion to this. The argument, as I think the reader will admit, is sufficiently 
decisive without it. 


who shall not only aspire to a great height, but shall actually reach 
it, so that "he shall do according to his will;" his will shall be 
supreme in opposition to all law, human and Divine. Now, if this 
king is to be a pretended successor of the fisherman of Galilee, the 
question would naturally arise, How could it be possible that he 
should ever have the means of rising to such a height of power ? 
The words that follow give a distinct answer to that question : " He 
shall not REGARD* any god, for he shall magnify himself above all. 
BUT, in establishing himself, shall he honour the god of fortifications 
(Ala Mahozim), and a god, whom his fathers knew not, shall he 
honour with gold and silver, and with precious stones and pleasant 
things. Thus shall he make into strengthening bulwarks! [for 
himself] the people of a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge 
and increase with glory ; and he shall cause them to rule over many, 
and he shall divide the land for gain." Such is the prophecy. Now, 
this is exactly what the Pope did. Self-aggrandisement has ever 
been the grand principle of the Papacy; and, in "establishing" 
himself, it was just the "God of Fortifications" that he honoured. 
The worship of that god he introduced into the Roman Church; 
and, by so doing, he converted that which otherwise would have 
been a source of weakness to him, into the very tower of his 
strength he made the very Paganism of Rome by which he was 
surrounded the bulwark of his power. When once it was proved 
that the Pope was willing to adopt Paganism under Christian names, 
the Pagans and Pagan priests would be his most hearty and staunch 
defenders. And when the Pope began to wield lordly power over 
the Christians, who were the men that he would recommend that 
he would promote that he would advance to honour and power ? 
Just the very people most devoted to " the worship of the strange 
god " which he had introduced into the Christian Church. Gratitude 
and self-interest alike would conspire to this. Jovinian, and all who 
resisted the Pagan ideas and Pagan practices, were excommunicated 
and persecuted.^ Those only who were heartily attached to the 
apostacy (and none could now be more so than genuine Pagans) were 
favoured and advanced. Such men were sent from Rome in all 
directions, even as far as Britain, to restore the reign of Paganism 
they were magnified with high titles, the lands were divided among 
them, and all to promote "the gain " of the Romish see, to bring in 
" Peter s pence " from the ends of the earth to the Roman Pontiff. 
But it is still further said, that the self-magnifying king was to 
" honour a god, whom his fathers knew not, with gold and silver 
and precious stones." The principle on which transubstantiation 

* The reader will observe, it is not said he shall not worship any god ; the 
reverse is evident ; but that he shall not regard any, that his own glory is his 
highest end. 

f The word here is the same as above rendered "fortifications." 
J GIBBON, vol. v. p. 176, states that he was persecuted and exiled, and that as 
the enemy of celibacy and fasts, that is, such fasts as Rome enforced. See 
also in regard to his excommunication, BOWER, vol. i. p. 256 ; and MlLNER, 
Church History, cent. 5th, cap. 10, vol. ii., Note, p. 476. 


was founded is unquestionably a Babylonian principle, but there is 
no evidence that that principle was applied in the way in which it 
has been by the Papacy. Certain it is, that we have evidence that 
no such wafer-god as the Papacy worships was ever worshipped in 
Pagan Rome. " Was any man ever so mad," says Cicero, who 
himself was a Roman augur and a priest " was any man ever so 
mad as to take that which he feeds on for a god ? " * Cicero could 
not have said this if anything like wafer-worship had been estab 
lished in Rome. But what was too absurd for Pagan Romans is 
no absurdity at all for the Pope. The host, or consecrated wafer, is 
the great god of the Romish Church. That host is enshrined in a 
box adorned with gold and silver and precious stones. And thus it 
is manifest that "a god" whom even the Pope s Pagan "fathers 
knew not," he at this day honours in the very way that the terms of 
the prediction imply that he would. Thus, in every respect, when 
the Pope was invested with the Pagan title of Pontifex, and set 
himself to make that title a reality, he exactly fulfilled the predic 
tion of Daniel recorded more than 900 years before. 

But to return to the Apocalyptic symbols. It was out of the 
mouth of the " Fiery Dragon " that " the flood of water " was 
discharged. The Pope, as he is now, was at the close of the fourth 
century the only representative of Belshazzar, or Nimrod, on the 
earth ; for the Pagans manifestly ACCEPTED him as such. He was 
equally, of course, the legitimate successor of the Roman "Dragon 
of fire." When, therefore, on being dignified with the title of 
Pontifex, he set himself to propagate the old Babylonian doctrine of 
baptismal regeneration, that was just a direct and formal fulfilment 
of the Divine words, that the great Fiery Dragon should " cast out 
of his mouth a flood of water to carry away the Woman with the 
flood." He, and those who co-operated with him in this cause, 
paved the way for the erecting of that tremendous civil and spiritual 
despotism which began to stand forth full in the face of Europe in 
A.D. 606, when, amid the convulsions and confusions of the nations, 
tossed like a tempestuous sea, the Pope of Rome was made Universal 
Bishop ; and when the ten chief kingdoms of Europe recognised 
him as Christ s Vicar upon earth, the only centre of unity, the only 
source of stability to their thrones. Then by his own act and deed, 
and by the consent of the UNIVERSAL PAGANISM of Rome, he was 
actually the representative of Dagon ; and as he bears upon his head 
at this day the mitre of Dagon, so there is reason to believe he did 
then.f Could there, then, be a more exact fulfilment of chap. xiii. 1 : 
" And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out 

* CICEHO, De Natura .Deorum, lib. iii. cap. 16, vol. ii. p. 500. 

f It is from this period only that the well-known 1260 days can begin to be 
counted ; for not before did the Pope appear as Head of the ten-horned beast, 
and head of the Universal Church. The reader will observe that though the 
beast above referred to has passed through the sea, it still retains its primitive 
characteristic. The head of the apostacy at first was Kronos, " The Horned One." 
The head of the apostacy is Kronos still, for he is the beast "with seven heads 
and ten Aorns." 


of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten 

crowns, and upon his heads the names of blasphemy And 

I saw one of his heads as it had been wounded to death ; and his 
deadly wound was healed, and all the world wondered after the 

beast " ? 


This beast is presented to our notice (Rev. xiii. 11): "And 
I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth ; and he had two 
horns like a lamb, and he spake as a serpent." Though this beast 
is mentioned after the beast from the sea, it does not follow that he 
came into existence after the sea-beast. The work he did seems to 
show the very contrary ; for it is by his instrumentality that man 
kind are led (ver. 12) "to worship the first beast" after that beast 
had received the deadly wound, which shows that he must have 
been in existence before. The reason that he is mentioned second, 
is just because, as he exercises all the powers of the first beast, and 
leads all men to worship him, so he could not properly be described 
till that beast had first appeared on the stage. Now, in ancient 
Chaldea there was the type, also, of this. That god was called 
in Babylon Nebo, in Egypt Nub or Nurn,* and among the Romans 
Numa, for Numa Pompilius, the great priest-king of the Romans, 
occupied precisely the position of the Babylonian Nebo. Among 
the Etrurians, from whom the Romans derived the most of their 
rites, he was called Tages, and of this Tages it is particularly recorded, 
that just as John saw the beast under consideration " come up out 
of the earth," so Tages was a child suddenly and miraculously born 
out of a furrow or hole in the ground, f In Egypt, this God was 
represented with the head and horns of a ram (Fig. 55). J I n 
Etruria he seems to have been represented in a somewhat similar 
way ; for there we find a Divine and miraculous child exhibited 
wearing the ram s horns (Fig. 56). The name Nebo, the grand 
distinctive name of this god, signifies "The Prophet," and as such, 
he gave oracles, practised augury, pretended to miraculous powers, 
and was an adept in magic. He was the great wonder-worker, and 
answered exactly to the terms of the prophecy, when it is said 
(ver. 13), "he doeth great wonders, and causeth fire to come down 
from heaven in the sight of men." It was in this very character 
that the Etrurian Tages was known ; for it was he who was said 

* In Egypt, especially among the Greek-speaking population, the Egyptian 
6 frequently passed into an ra. See BUNSEN, vol. i. pp. 273, 472. 

f AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, lib. xxi. cap. 1, p. 264. 

From WILKINSON, Plate 22, " Amun." By comparing this figure with what 
is said in WILKINSON, vol. iv. pp. 235, 238, it will be seen, that though the above 
figure is called by the name of " Amun," the ram s head makes it out as having the 
attributes of Noub. 

From AnliquiUs Par. F. A. DAVID. Vol. v. Plate 57. I am 
indebted for the above, and many other things that have helped to elucidate this 
work, to my friend and neighbour, the Rev. A. Peebles, of Colliston. 



to have taught the Romans augury, and all the superstition and 
wonder-working jugglery connected therewith.* As in recent times, 
we hear of weeping images and winking Madonnas, and innumerable 
prodigies besides, continually occurring in the Romish Church, 
in proof of this papal dogma or that, so was it also in the system 
of Babylon. There is hardly a form of "pious fraud" or saintly 
imposture practised at this day on the banks of the Tiber, that 
cannot be proved to have had its counterpart on the banks of the 
Euphrates, or in the systems that came from it. Has the image 
of the Virgin been seen to shed tears ? Many a tear was shed by the 
Pagan images. To these tender-hearted idols Lucan alludes, when, 

Fig. 55. 

Fig. 56. 

speaking of the prodigies that occurred during the civil wars, 
he says : 

" Tears shed by gods, our country s patrons, 
And sweat from Lares, told the city s woes."t 

Virgil also refers to the same, when he says : 

" The weeping statues did the wars foretell, 
And holy sweat from brazen idols fell."t 

When in the consulship of Appius Claudius, and Marcus Perpenna, 
Publius Crassus was slain in a battle with Aristonicus, Apollo s 
statue at Cumse shed tears for four days without intermission. The 

* OVID, Metam., lib. xv. 11. 558, 559, p. 760. 

t LUCAN, Civ. Bell., lib. i. v. 356, 357, p. 41. 

Georyics, Book i. 1. 480, p. 129. 

AUGUSTINE, De Civitatc, lib. iii. cap. 11, vol. ix. p. 86. 



gods had also their merry moods, as well as their weeping fits. 
If Rome counts it a divine accomplishment for the sacred image 
of her Madonna to " wink," it was surely not less becoming in the 
sacred images of Paganism to relax their features into an occasional 
grin. That they did so, we have abundant testimony. Psellus tells 
us that, when the priests put forth their magic powers, " then statues 
laughed, and lamps were spontaneously enkindled."* When the 
images made merry, however, they seemed to have inspired other 
feelings than those of merriment into the breasts of those who beheld 
them. "The Theurgists," says Salverte, "caused the appearance 
of the gods in the air, in the midst of gaseous vapour, disengaged 
from fire. The Theurgis Maximus undoubtedly made use of a secret 
analogous to this, when, in the fumes of the incense which he burned 
before the statue of Hecate, the image was seen to laugh so naturally 
as to Jill the spectators with terror."^ There were times, however, 
when different feelings were inspired. Has the image of the Madonna 
been made to look benignantly upon a favoured worshipper, and 
send him home assured that his prayer was heard *? So did the 
statues of the Egyptian Isis. They were so framed, that the goddess 
could shake the silver serpent on her forehead, and nod assent 
to those who had preferred their petitions in such a way as pleased 
her.J We read of Romish saints that showed their miraculous 
powers by crossing rivers or the sea in most unlikely conveyances. 
Thus, of St. Raymond it is written that he was transported over the 
sea on his cloak. Paganism is not a whit behind in this matter ; 
for it is recorded of a Buddhist saint, Sura Acharya, that, when 
" he used to visit his flocks west of the Indus, he floated himself 
across the stream upon his mantle." || Nay, the gods and high 
priests of Paganism showed far more buoyancy than even this. 
There is a holy man, at this day, in the Church of Rome, somewhere 
on the Continent, who rejoices in the name of St. Cubertin, who 
so overflows with spirituality, that when he engages in his devotions 
there is no keeping his body down to the ground, but, spite of all 
the laws of gravity, it rises several feet into the air. So was it also 
with the renowned St. Francis of Assisi,H Petrus a Martina,** and 
Francis of Macerata,ff some centuries ago. But both St. Cubertin 
and St. Francis and his fellows are far from being original in this 
superhuman devotion. The priests and magicians in the Chaldean 
Mysteries anticipated them not merely by centimes, but by 
thousands of years. Coelius Rhodiginus says, "that, according to 
the Chaldeans, luminous rays, emanating from the soul, do some 
times divinely penetrate the body, which is then of itself raised 

* PSELLDS on Demons, pp. 40, 41. 

f EUNAPIDS, p. 73. 

JUVENAL S Satires, vi. 1. 537. 

NEWMAN S Lectures, 285-287, apud BEGG S Handbook of Popery, p. 93. 

|| TODD S Western India, p. 277. 
** Flores SerapUci, p. 158. 
ft Ibid. p. 391. 


above the earth, and that this was the case with Zoroaster."* 
The disciples of Jamblichus asserted that they had often witnessed 
the same miracle in the case of their master, who, when he prayed 
was raised to the height of ten cubits from the earth, f The 
greatest miracle which Rome pretends to work, is when, by the 
repetition of five magic words, she professes to bring down the body, 
blood, soul, and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ from heaven, 
to make Him really and corporeally present in the sacrament of 
the altar. The Chaldean priests pretended, by their magic spells, 
in like manner, to bring down their divinities into their statues, 
so that their " real presence " should be visibly manifested in them. 
This they called " the making of gods ; " | and from this no doubt 
comes the blasphemous saying of the Popish priests, that they have 
power "to create their Creator." There is no evidence, so far 
as I have been able to find, that, in the Babylonian system, the thin 
round cake of wafer, the " unbloody sacrifice of the mass," was ever 
regarded in any other light than as a symbol, that ever it was held 
to be changed into the god whom it represented. But yet the doctrine 
of trans ubstantiation is clearly of the very essence of Magic, which 
pretended, on the pronunciation of a few potent words, to change 
one substance into another, or by a dexterous juggle, wholly to 
remove one substance, and to substitute another in its place. 
Further, the Pope, in the plenitude of his power, assumes the right 
of wielding the lightnings of Jehovah, and of blasting by his 
" f ulminations " whoever offends him. Kings, and whole nations, 
believing in this power, have trembled and bowed before him, 
through fear of being scathed by his spiritual thunders. The priests 
of Paganism assumed the very same power; and, to enforce the 
belief of their spiritual power, they even attempted to bring down 
the literal lightnings from heaven ; yea, there seems some reason 
to believe that they actually succeeded, and anticipated the splendid 
discovery of Dr. Franklin. Numa Pompilius is said to have done 
so with complete success. Tullus Hostilius, his successor, imitating 
his example, perished in the attempt, himself and his whole family 
being struck, like Professor Reichman in recent times, with the 
lightning he was endeavouring to draw down. || Such were the 
wonder-working powers attributed in the Divine Word to the beast 
that was to come up from the earth ; and by the old Babylonian type 
these very powers were all pretended to be exercised. 

* SALVERT^, p. 37. The story of the above-mentioned Francis of Macerata, 
is the exact counterpart of the story of Zoroaster ; for not only was he raised 
aloft in prayer, but his body became luminous at the same time, " flainmamque 
capiti insidentem," a "flame resting on his head" (Flores Ser. p. 391). 

t Ibid. 

J AUGUSTINE, De Civitate, lib. viii. cap. 26, vol. ix. p. 284, col. 2. 

See SAI.VERTE, p. 382. 

|| Ibid. p. 383 ; LIVY, Historia, lib. i. cap. 31, vol. i. p. 46 ; PLINY, 
lib. xxviii. p. 684. The means appointed for drawing down the lightning were 
described in the books of the Etrurian Tages. Numa had copied from these 
books, and had left commentaries behind him on the subject, which Tullus had 
misunderstood, and hence the catastrophe. 


Now, in remembrance of the birth of the god out of a " hole in the 
earth," the Mysteries were frequently celebrated in caves under 
ground. This was the case in Persia, where, just as Tages was said 
to be born out of the ground, Mithra was in like manner fabled to 
have been produced from a cave in the earth.* Numa of Rome 
himself pretended to get all his revelations from the nymph Egeria, 
in a cave, f In these caves men were first initiated in the secret 
Mysteries, and by the signs and lying wonders there presented to 
them, they were led back, after the death of Nimrod, to the worship 
of that god in its new form. This Apocalyptic beast, then, that 
" comes up out of the earth," agrees in all respects with that ancient 
god born from a " hole in the ground ; " for no words could more 
exactly describe his doing than the words of the prediction (ver. 13) : 
" He doeth great wonders, and causeth fire to come down from 
heaven in the sight of men, .... and he causeth the earth and 
them that dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly 
wound was healed." This wonder-working beast, called Nebo, or 
"the Prophet," as the prophet of idolatry, was, of course, the "false 
prophet." By comparing the passage before us with Rev. xix. 20, it 
will be manifest that this beast that " came up out of the earth " is 
expressly called by that very name : " And the beast was taken, and 
with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with 
which he deceived them that received the mark of the beast, and 
them that worshipped his image." As it was the "beast from the 
earth " that " wrought miracles " before the first beast, this shows 
that "the beast from the earth" is the "false prophet;" in other 
words, is "Nebo." 

If we examine the history of the Roman empire, we shall find that 
here also there is a precise accordance between type and antitype. 
When the deadly wound of Paganism was healed, and the old Pagan 
title of Pontiff was restored, it was, through means of the corrupt 
clergy, symbolised, as is generally believed, and justly under the 
image of a beast with horns, like a lamb ; according to the saying of 
our Lord, "Beware of false prophets, that shall come to you in 
sheep s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves." The 
clergy, as a corporate body, consisted of two grand divisions the 
regular and secular clergy answering to the two horns or powers of the 
beast, and combining also, at a very early period, both temporal and 
spiritual powers. The bishops, as heads of these clergy, had large 
temporal powers, long before the Pope gained his temporal crown. 
We have the distinct evidence of both Guizot and Gibbon to this 
effect. After showing that before the fifth century, the clergy had 
not only become distinct from, but independent of the people, Guizot 
adds : " The Christian clergy had moreover another and very different 

* JDSTIN MARTYR, vol. ii. p. 193. It is remarkable that, as Mithra was bow, 
out of a cave, so the idolatrous nominal Christians of the East represent our 
Saviour as having in like manner been born in a cave. (See KITTO S Cyclopaedia, 
" Bethlehem," vol. i. p. 327.) There is not the least hint of such a thing in the 



source of influence. The bishops and priests became the principal 

municipal magistrates If you open the code, either of 

Theodosius or Justinian, you will find numerous regulations which 
remit municipal affairs to the clergy and the bishops." Guizot 
makes severel quotations. The following extract from the Justinian 
code is sufficient to show how ample was the civil power bestowed 
upon the bishops : " With respect to the yearly affairs of cities, 
whether they concern the ordinary revenues of the city, either from 
funds arising from the property of the city, or from private gifts or 
legacies, or from any other source ; whether public works, or depots 
of provisions or aqueducts, or the maintenance of baths or ports, or 
the construction of walls or towers, or the repairing of bridges or 
roads, or trials, in which the city may be engaged in reference to 
public or private interests, we ordain as follows : The very pious 
bishop, and three notables, chosen from among the first men of the 
city, shall meet together; they shall each year examine the works 
done ; they shall take care that those who conduct them, or who 
have conducted them, shall regulate them with precision, render 
their accounts, and show that they have duly performed their 
engagements in the administration, whether of the public monuments, 
or of the sums appointed for provisions or baths, or of expenses in 
the maintenance of roads, aqueducts, or any other work."* Here is 
a large list of functions laid on the spiritual shoulders of " the very 
pious bishop," not one of which is even hinted at in the Divine 
enumeration of the duties of a bishop, as contained in the Word of 
God. (See 1 Tim. iii. 1-7 ; and Tit. i. 5-9.) How did the bishops, 
who were originally appointed for purely spiritual objects, contrive 
to grasp at such a large amount of temporal authority *? From 
Gibbon we get light as to the real origin of what Guizot calls this 
"prodigious power." The author of the Decline and Fall shows, 
that soon after Constantino s time, " the Church " [and consequently 
the bishops, especially when they assumed to be a separate order 
from the other clergy] gained great temporal power through the 
right of asylum, which had belonged to the Pagan temples, being 
transferred by the Emperors to the Christian churches. His words 
are : " The fugitive, and even the guilty, were permitted to implore 
either the justice or mercy of the Deity and His ministers."! Thus 
was the foundation laid of the invasion of the rights of the civil 
magistrate by ecclesiastics, and thus were they encouraged to grasp 
at all the powers of the State. Thus, also, as is justly observed 
by the authoress of Rome in the 19th Century, speaking of the 
right of asylum, were " the altars perverted into protection towards 
the very crimes they were raised to banish from the world. "J This 
is a very striking thing, as showing how the temporal power of the 
Papacy, in its very first beginnings, was founded on " lawlessness," 
and is an additional proof to the many that might be alleged, that 

* GUIZOT, History of Civilisation, vol. i. sect. ii. pp. 36, 37. 

t GIBBON, vol. iii. chap. xx. p. 287. 

+ Rome in the 19th Century, vol. i. pp. 246, 247. 


the Head of the Roman system, to whom all bishops are subject, is 
indeed 6 avopos, " The Lawless One " (2 Thess. ii. 8), predicted in 
Scripture as the recognised Head of the " Mystery of Iniquity." All 
this temporal power came into the hands of men, who, while profess 
ing to be ministers of Christ, and followers of the Lamb, were 
seeking simply their own aggrandisement, and, to secure that 
aggrandisement, did not hesitate to betray the cause which they pro 
fessed to serve. The spiritual power which they wielded over the 
souls of men, and the secular power which they gained in the affairs 
of the world, were both alike used in opposition to the cause of pure 
religion and undefiled. At first these false prophets, in leading men 
astray, and seeking to unite Paganism and Christianity, wrought 
under-ground, mining like the mole in the dark, and secretly per 
verting the simple, according to the saying of Paul, " The Mystery of 
Iniquity doth already work." But by-and-by, towards the end of the 
fourth century, when the minds of men had been pretty well pre 
pared, and the aspect of things seemed to be favourable for it, the 
wolves in sheep s clothing appeared above ground, brought their 
secret doctrines and practices, by little and little, into the light of 
day, and century after century, as their power increased, by means 
of all " deceivableness of unrighteousness," and "signs and lying 
wonders," deluded the minds of the worldly Christians, made them 
believe that their anathema was equivalent to the curse of God ; in 
other words, that they could " bring down fire from heaven," and 
thus " caused the earth, and them that dwelt therein, to worship the 
beast whose deadly wound was healed."* When "the deadly 
wound " of the Pagan beast was healed, and the beast from the sea 
appeared, it is said that this beast from the earth became the recog 
nised, accredited executor of the will of the great sea beast (v. 12), 
" And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him," 
literally " in his presence " under his inspection. Considering who 
the first beast is, there is great force in this expression " in his 
presence." The beast that comes up from the sea, is "the little 
horn," that " has eyes like the eyes of man " (Dan. vii. 8) ; it is 
Janus Tuens, "All-seeing Janus," in other words, the Universal 
Bishop or " Universal Overseer," who, from his throne on the seven 
hills, by means of the organised system of the confessional, sees and 
knows all that is done, to the utmost bounds of his wide dominion. 
Now, it was just exactly about the time that the Pope became 
universal bishop, that the custom began of systematically investing 
the chief bishops of the Western empire with the Papal livery, the 
pallium, "for the purpose," says Gieseler, "of symbolising and 

* Though the Pope be the great Jupiter Tonans of the Papacy, and 
"fulminates" from the Vatican, as his predecessor was formerly believed to do 
from the Capitol, yet it is not he in reality that brings down the fire from heaven, 
but his clergy. But for the influence of the clergy in everywhere blinding the 
minds of the people, the Papal thunders would be but " bruta fulmina" after all. 
The symbol, therefore, is most exact, when it attributes the " bringing down of 
the fire from heaven," to the beast from the earth, rather than to the beast from 
the sea. 


strengthening their connection with the Church of Rome."* That 
pallium, worn on the shoulders of the bishops, while on the one hand 
it was the livery of the Pope, and bound those who received it to act 
as the functionaries of Rome, deriving all their authority from him, 
and exercising it under his superintendence, as the " Bishop of 
bishops," on the other hand, was in reality the visible investiture of 
these wolves with the sheep s clothing. For what was the pallium 
of the Papal bishop ? It was a dress made of wool, blessed by the 
Pope, taken from the holy lambs kept by the nuns of St. Agnes, and 
woven by their sacred hands, f that it might be bestowed on those 
whom the Popes delighted to honour, for the purpose, as one of 
themselves expressed it, of "joining them to our society in the one 
pastoral sheepfold"l Thus commissioned, thus ordained by the 
universal Bishop, they did their work effectually, and brought the 
earth and them that dwelt in it, " to worship the beast that received 
the wound by a sword and did live." This was a part of this beast s 
predicted work. But there was another, and not less important, 
which remains for consideration. 


Not merely does the beast from the earth lead the world to 
worship the first beast, but (ver. 14) he prevails on them that dwell 
on the earth to make " an IMAGE to the beast, which had the wound 
by a sword, and did live." In meditating for many years on what 
might be implied in " the image of the beast," I could never find the 
least satisfaction in all the theories that had ever been propounded, 
till I fell in with an unpretending but valuable work, which I 
have noticed already, entitled An Original Interpretation of the 
Apocalypse. That work, evidently the production of a penetrating 
mind deeply read in the history of the Papacy, furnished at once the 
solution of the difficulty. There the image of the beast is pro- 

* GIKSKLKR, vol. ii., 2nd Period, Division 2nd, Sect. 117. From Gieseler we 
learn that so early as 501, the Bishop of Rome had laid the foundation of the 
corporation of bishops by the bestowal of the pallium ; but, at the same time, he 
expressly states that it was only about 602, at the ascent of Phocas to the imperial 
throne ^hat Phocas that made the Pope Universal Bishop that the Popes began 
to bestow the pallium, that is, of course, systematically, and on a large scale. 

f Rome in the 19th Century, vol. iii. p. 214. In the present day, the pallium is 
given only to the Archbishops ; Gieseler, in passage already quoted, shows that it 
was given to simple bishops as well. 

+ GIKSELER, vol. ii., " Papacy," p. 255. The reader who peruses the early letters 
of the Popes in bestowing the pallium, will not fail to observe the wide difference 
of meaning between "the one pastoral sheepfold" ("uno pastorali ovili"), above 
referred to, and "The one sheepfold" of our Lord. The former really means a 
sheepfold consisting of pastors or shepherds. The papal letters unequivocally 
imply the organisation of the bishops, as a distinct corporation, altogether 
independent of the Church, and dependent only on the Papacy, which seems 
remarkably to agree with the terms of the prediction in regard to the beast from 
the earth. 


nounced to be the Virgin Mother, or the Madonna.* This at first 
sight may appear a very unlikely solution ; but when it is brought 
into comparison with the religious history of Chaldea, the unlikeli 
hood entirely disappears. In the old Babylonian Paganism, there 
was an image of the Beast from the sea ; and when it is known what 
that image was, the question will, I think, be fairly decided. When 
Dagon was first set up to be worshipped, while he was represented 
in many different ways, and exhibited in many different characters, 
the favourite form in which he was worshipped, as the reader well 
knows, was that of a child in his mother s arms. In the natural 
course of events, the mother came to be worshipped along with the 
child, yea, to be the favourite object of worship. To justify this 
worship, as we have already seen, that mother, of course, must be 
raised to divinity, and divine powers and prerogatives ascribed to 
her. Whatever dignity, therefore, the son was believed to possess 
a like dignity was ascribed to her. Whatever name of honour 
he bore, a similar name was bestowed upon her. He was called 
Belus, "the Lord;" she, Beltis, "My Lady."f He was called 
Dagon,| the "Merman"; she, Derketo, the "Mermaid." He, as 
the World-king, wore the bull s horns ; || she, as we have already 
seen, on the authority of Sanchuniathon, put on her own head 
a bull s head, as the ensign of royalty. If He, as the Sun-god, was 
called Beel-samen, " Lord of heaven ; "** she, as the Moon-goddess, 
Melkat-ashemin, " Queen of heaven."! f He was worshipped in 
Egypt as the " Revealer of goodness and truth ;"|J she, in Babylon, 
under the symbol of the Dove, as the goddess of gentleness and 
mercy, the "Mother of gracious acceptance,"|||| "merciful and 
benignant to men."1HF He, under the name of Mithra, was 
worshipped as Mesites,*** or " The Mediator ; " she, as Aphrodite, or 
the " Wrath-subduer," was called Mylitta, " the Mediatrix."! ff 
He was represented as crushing the great serpent under his heel jj j j 
she, as bruising the serpent s head in her hand. He, under the 
name Janus, bore a key, as the opener and shutter of the gates of 
the invisible world. ||j|[| She, under the name of Cybele, was invested 

* Original Interpretation of the Apocalypse, p. 123. 

t See ante, p. 20, Note. See ante, p. 114, Note. 

KITTO S Cyclopedia, vol. i. pp. 251, 252. || See ante, pp. 32-36. 

H EUSEBIUS, Prceparatio Evanyelii, lib. i. cap. 10, vol. i. p. 45. This statement 
is remarkable, as showing that the horns which the great goddess wore were really 
intended to exhibit her as the express image of Ninus, or " the Son." Had she 
worn merely the cow s horns, it might have been supposed that these horns were 
intended only to identify her with the moon. But the buWs horns show that the 
intention was to represent her as equal in her sovereignty with Nimrod, or 
Kronos, the " Horned one." 

** See ante, p. 165. 

ft Jeremiah vii. 18, and PARKHURST S Hebrew Lexicon, pp. 402, 403. 

Jt See ante, p. 72. See ante, p. 78. 

III! See ante, p. 158. The Chaldean meaning of the name Amarusia, signifying 
" Mother of gracious acceptance," shows it to have come from Babylon. 

HU Lucius AMPELIUS, in BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 161. 
* See ante, p. 194. fff See ante, p. 158. $# See ante, p. 60. 

See ante, p. 75. |||||| See ante, p. 210. 


with a like key, as an emblem of the same power.* He, as the 
cleanser from sin, was called the " Unpolluted god ; "f she, too, had 
the power to wash away sin, and, though the mother of the seed, was 
called the " Virgin, pure and undented."! He was represented as 
"Judge of the dead;" she was represented as standing by his side, 
at the judgment-seat, in the unseen world. He, after being killed 
by the sword, was fabled to have risen again, || and ascended up to 
heaven. 1T She, too, though history makes her to have been killed 
with the sword by one of her own sons,** was nevertheless, in the 
myth, said to have been carried by her son bodily to heaven,f f and 
to have been made Pambasileia, "Queen of the uni verse. "JJ 
Finally, to clench the whole, the name by which she was now known 
was Semele, which, in the Babylonian language, signifies " THE 
IMAGE." Thus, in every respect, to the very least jot and tittle, 
she became the express image of the Babylonian " beast that had the 
wound by a sword, and did live." 

After what the reader has already seen in a previous part of this 
work, it is hardly necessary to say that it is this very goddess that is 
now worshipped in the Church of Rome under the name of Mary. 
Though that goddess is called by the name of the mother of our 
Lord, all the attributes given to her are derived simply from the 
Babylonian Madonna, and not from the Virgin Mother of Christ. 1 1 1 1 

* TOOKE S Pantheon, p. 153. That the key of Cybele, in the esoteric story, 
had a corresponding meaning to that of Janus, will appear from the character 
above assigned to her as the Mediatrix. 

t Proclus, speaking of Saturn, says, " Purity therefore indicates this .... 
transcendency of Saturn, his undefiled union with the intelligible. This purity 
and the undefiled, which he possesses," &c., in Notes to TAYLOR S Orphic Hymns, 
p. 176. 

+ See ante, p. 125. WILKINSON, vol. iv. pp. 314, 315. 

|| Ibid. vol. iv. p. 190. IF Ibid. p. 256. See also ante, p. 57. 

** MOSES OF CHORENE, lib. i. cap. 16, p. 48. " Ninyas enim occasionem nactus 
matrem (Semiramida) necavit." In like manner, Horus, in Egypt, is said to have 
cut off his mother s head, as Bel in Babylon also cut asunder the great primeval 
goddess of the Babylonians. (BtJNSEN, vol. i. pp. 436, 708.) 

ft See ante, p. 125. Jt Orphic Hymns, "Hymn to Semele," No 43. 

Apollodorus states that Bacchus, on carrying his mother to heaven, called her 
Thuone (APOLLODORUS, lib. iii. cap. 5, p. 266), which was just the feminine of his 
own name, Thuoneus in Latin Thyoneus. (OviD, Metam., lib. iv. 1. 13.) 
Thuoneus is evidently from the passive participle of Thn, "to lament," a 
synonym for " Bacchus," " The lamented god." Thuone, in like manner, is 
" The lamented ;/oddcss." The Roman Juno was evidently known in this very 
character of the " Image " ; for there was a temple erected to her in Rome, on the 
Capitoline hill, under the name of " Juno Moueta." Moneta is the emphatic form 
of one of the Chaldee words for an " image " ; and that this was the real meaning 
of the name, will appear from the fact that the Mint was contained in the 
precincts of that temple. (See SMITH S "Juno," p. 358.) What is the use of a 
mint but just to stamp "images"? Hence the connection between Juno and 
the Mint. 

Illl The very way in which the Popish Madonna is represented is plainly copied 
from the idolatrous representations of the Pagan goddess. The great god used 
to be represented as sitting or standing in the cup of a Lotus-flower. (See 
BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 180, where Harpocrates is thus represented ; and VAUX S 
Handbook of British Museum, p. 429, where Cupid is sitting on a flower.) In 
India, the very same mode of representation is common ; Brahma being often seen 



There is not one line or one letter in all the Bible to countenance the 
idea that Mary should be worshipped, that she is the "refuge of 
sinners," that she was " immaculate," that she made atonement for 
sin when standing by the cross, and when, according to Simeon, " a 
sword pierced through her own soul also ; " or that, after her death, 
she was raised from the dead and carried in glory to heaven. But 
in the Babylonian system all this was found ; and all this is now 
incorporated in the system of Rome. The " sacred heart of Mary " 
is exhibited as pierced through with a sword, in token, as the 
apostate Church teaches, that her anguish at the crucifixion was as 
true an atonement as the death of Christ; for we read in the 
Devotional office or Service-book, adopted by the " Sodality of the 

Fig. 57. 

Fig. 58. 

sacred heart," such blasphemous words as these, " Go, then, devout 
client ! go to the heart of Jesus, but let your way be through the 
heart of Mary ; the sword of grief which pierced her sold opens you a 
passage ; enter by the wound which love has made ; "* again we 

seated on a Lotus-flower, said to have sprung from the navel of Vishnu. The 
great goddess, in like manner, must have a similar couch ; and, therefore, in 
India, we find Lakshmi, the " Mother of the Universe," sitting on a Lotus, borne 
by a tortoise (see Fig. 57 ; from COLKMAN S Mythology, plate 23). Now, in this 
very thing, also. Popery has copied from its Pagan model ; for, in the Pancarpium, 
Marianum, p. 88, the Virgin and child are represented sitting in the cup of a 
tulip (see Fig. 58). 

* Memoir of Rev. Godfrey Massy, pp. 91, 92. In the Paradisus sponsi et sponsce, 
by the author of Pancarpium Marianum, the following words, addressed to the 
Virgin, occur in illustration of a plate representing the crucifixion, and Mary, at 
the foot of the Cross, with the sword in her breast, " Dilectus tuusfilius carnem tu 
vero animam immolasti : immo corpus et animam " (p. 181) ; " Thy beloved son did 


hear one expounder of the new faith, like M. Genoude in France, say 
that " Mary was the repairer of the guilt of Eve, as our Lord was 
the repairer of the guilt of Adam ; " * and another Professor Oswald 
of Paderbon affirm that Mary was not a human creature like us, 
that she is "the Woman, as Christ is the Man," that "Mary is 
co-present in the Eucharist, and that it is indisputable that, accord 
ing to the Eucharistic doctrine of the Church, this presence of Mary 
in the Eucharist is true and real, not merely ideal or figurative ; " f 
and, further, we read in the Pope s decree of the Immaculate Con 
ception, that that same Madonna, for this purpose " wounded with 
the sword," rose from the dead, and being assumed up on high, 
became Queen of Heaven. If all this be so, who can fail to see that 
in that apostate community is to be found what precisely answers to 
the making and setting up in the heart of Christendom, of an 
" Image to the beast that had the wound by a sword and did live " ? 

If the inspired terms be consulted, it will be seen that this was to 
be done by some public general act of apostate Christendom ; (ver. 14), 
" Saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an 
image to the beast ; " and they made it. Now, here is the important 
fact to be observed, that this never was done, and this never could 
have been done, till eight years ago : for this plain reason, that till 
then the Madonna of Rome was never recognised as combining all 
the characters that belonged to the Babylonian " IMAGE of the 
beast." Till then it was not admitted even in Rome, though this 
evil leaven had been long working, and that strongly, that Mary was 
truly immaculate, and consequently she could not be the perfect 
counterpart of the Babylonian Image. What, however, had never 
been done before, was done in December, 1854. Then bishops from 
all parts of Christendom, and representatives from the ends of the 
earth, met in Rome ; and with only four dissentient voices, it was 
decreed that Mary, the mother of God, who died, rose from the dead, 
and ascended into heaven, should henceforth be worshipped as the 
Immaculate Virgin, "conceived and born without sin." This was 
the formal setting up of the Image of the beast, and that by the 
general consent of "the men that dwell upon the earth." Now, this 
beast being set up, it is said, that the beast from the earth gives life 
and speech to the Image, implying, first, that it has neither life nor 
voice in itself; but that, nevertheless, through means of the beast 
from the earth, it is to have both life and voice, and to be an effective 
agent of the Papal clergy, who will make it speak exactly as they 
please. Since the Image has been set up, its voice has been every 
where heard throughout the Papacy. Formerly decrees ran less or 
more in the name of Christ. Now all things are pre-eminently 
done in the name of the Immaculate Virgin. Her voice is every- 

sacrifice his flesh ; thou thy soul yea, both body and soul." This does much 
more than put the sacrifice of the Virgin on a level with that of the Lord Jesus, 
it makes it greater far. This, in 1617, was the creed only of Jesuitism ; now 
there is reason to believe it to be the general creed of the Papacy. 

* Missionary Record of the Free Church, 1855. 

f Ibid. 


where heard her voice is supreme. But, be it observed, when 
that voice is heard, it is not the voice of mercy and love, it is 
the voice of cruelty and terror. The decrees that come forth 
under the name of the Image, are to this effect (ver. 17), that 
"no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the 
name of the beast, or the number of his name." No sooner is 
the image set up than we see this very thing begun to be carried 
out. What was the Concordat in Austria, that so speedily followed, 
but this very thing ? That concordat, through the force of unex 
pected events that have arisen, has not yet been carried into 
effect ; but if it were, the results would just be what is predicted 
that no man in the Austrian dominions should "buy or sell" without 
the mark in some shape or other. And the very fact of such an 
intolerant concordat coming so speedily on the back of the Decree of 
the Immaculate Conception, shows what is the natural fruit of that 
decree. The events that soon thereafter took place in Spain showed 
the powerful working of the same persecuting spirit there also. During 
the last few years, the tide of spiritual despotism might have seemed 
to be effectually arrested ; and many, no doubt, have indulged the per 
suasion that, crippled as the temporal sovereignty of the Papacy is, 
and tottering as it seems to be, that power, or its subordinates, could 
never persecute more. But there is an amazing vitality in the 
Mystery of Iniquity ; and no one can ever tell beforehand what 
apparent impossibilities it may accomplish in the way of arresting 
the progress of truth and liberty, however promising the aspect of 
things may be. Whatever may become of the temporal sovereignty 
of the Roman states, it is by no means so evident this day, as to many 
it seemed only a short while ago, that the overthrow of the spiritual 
power of the Papacy is imminent, and that its power to persecute is 
finally gone. I doubt not but that many, constrained by the love 
and mercy of God, will yet obey the heavenly voice, and flee out of 
the doomed communion, before the vials of Divine wrath descend 
upon it. But if I have been right in the interpretation of this 
passage, then it follows that it must yet become more persecuting 
than ever it has been, and that that intolerance, which, immediately 
after the setting up of the Image, began to display itself in Austria 
and Spain, shall yet spread over all Europe ; for it is not said that 
the Image of the beast should merely decree, but should " cause that 
as many as would not worship the Image of the beast should be 
killed" (ver. 15). When this takes place, that evidently is the time 
when the language of verse 8 is fulfilled, "And all that dwell on the 
earth shall worship the beast, whose names are not written in the 
book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world." It 
is impossible to get quit of this by saying, " This refers to the Dark 
Ages; this was fulfilled before Luther." I ask, had the men who 
dwelt on the earth set up the Image of the beast before Luther s days? 
Plainly not. The decree of the Immaculate Conception was the deed 
of yesterday. The prophecy, then, refers to our own times to the 
period on which the Church is now entering. In other words, the 


slaying of the witnesses, the grand trial of the saints, is STILL TO 



Dagon and the Pope being now identified, this brings us naturally 
and easily to the long-sought name and number of the beast, and con 
firms, by entirely new evidence, the old Protestant view of the sub 
ject. The name " Lateinos " has been generally accepted by Protestant 
writers, as having many elements of probability to recommend it. 
But yet there has been always found a certain deficiency, and it has 
been felt that something was wanting to put it beyond all possibility 
of doubt. Now, looking at the subject from the Babylonian point of 
view, we shall find both the name and number of the beast brought 
home to us in such a way as leaves nothing to be desired on the point 
of evidence. Osiris, or Nimrod, whom the Pope represents, was 
called by many different titles, and therefore, as Wilkinson remarks,! 
he was much in the same position as his wife, who was called 
" Myrionymus," the goddess with " ten thousand names." Among 
these innumerable names, how shall we ascertain the name at which 
the Spirit of God points in the enigmatical language that speaks of the 
name of the beast, and the number of his name 1 If we know the 
Apocalyptic name of the system, that will lead us to the name of the 
head of the system. The name of the system is " Mystery " (Rev. 
xvii. 5). Here, then, we have the key that at once unlocks the 
enigma. We have now only to inquire what was the name by which 
Nimrod was known as the god of the Chaldean Mysteries. That 
name, as we have seen, was Saturn. Saturn and Mystery are both 
Chaldean words, and they are correlative terms. As Mystery signi 
fies the Hidden system, so Saturn signifies the Hidden god.J To 
those who were initiated the god was revealed ; to all else he was 
hidden. Now, the name Saturn in Chaldee is pronounced Satur ; 
but, as every Chaldee scholar knows, consists only of four letters, thus 
Stur. This name contains exactly the Apocalyptic number 666 : 

S - 60 

T = 400 

U = 6 

R = 200 


* See Appendix, Note Q. 

f Vol. iv. p. 179. 

+ In the Litany of the Mass, the worshippers are taught thus to pray : "GoD 
HIDDEN, and my Saviour, have mercy upon us." (M GAViN s Protestant, vol. ii. 
p. 79, 1837.) Whence can this invocation of the "God Hidden" have come, but 
from the ancient worship of Saturn, the "Hidden God"? As the Papacy has 
canonised the Babylonian god by the name of St. Dionysius, and St. Bacchus, the 
"martyr," so by this very name of "Satur" is he also enrolled in the calendar ; 
for March 29th is the festival of " St. Satur," the martyr. (CHAMBERS S Book of 
Days, p. 435.) 


If the Pope is, as we have seen, the legitimate representative of 
Saturn, the number of the Pope, as head of the Mystery of 
Iniquity, is just 666. But still further it turns out, as shown above, 
that the original name of Rome itself was Saturnia, " the city of 
Saturn." This is vouched alike by Ovid,* by Pliny, f and by 
Aurelius Victor. J Thus, then, the Pope has a double claim to 
the name and number of the beast. He is the only legitimate repre 
sentative of the original Saturn at this day in existence, and he 
reigns in the very city of the seven hills where the Roman Saturn 
formerly reigned ; and, from his residence in which, the whole of Italy 
was " long after called by his name," being commonly named " the 
Saturnian land." But what bearing, it may be said, has this upon the 
name Lateinos, which is commonly believed to be the "name of the 
beast " ^ Much. It proves that the common opinion is thoroughly 
well-founded. Saturn and Lateinos are just synonymous, having pre 
cisely the same meaning, and belonging equally to the same god. 
The reader cannot have forgotten the lines of Virgil, which showed 
that Lateinos, to whom the Romans or Latin race traced back their 
lineage, was represented with a glory around his head, to show that 
he was a "child of the Sun." Thus, then, it is evident that, in 
popular opinion, the original Lateinos had occupied the very same 
position as Saturn did in the Mysteries, who was equally worshipped 
as the " offspring of the Sun." Moreover, it is evident that the 
Romans knew that the name " Lateinos " signified the " Hidden 
One," for their antiquarians invariably affirm that Latium received 
its name from Saturn "lying hid" there. || On etymological grounds, 
then, even on the testimony of the Romans, Lateinos is equivalent to 
the " Hidden One ; " that is, to Saturn, the " god of Mystery."H 

* Fasti, lib. vi. 11. 31-34, vol. iii. p. 342. f Hist. Nat., lib. iii. 5, p. 55. 

J AUREL. VICT., Origo Gent. Roman, cap. iii. See ante, p. 236. 

|| OVID, Fasti, lib. i. 1. 238, vol. iii. p. 29 ; also VIRGIL, Jlneid lib. viii. 1. 319, 
&c., p. 384. 

IT Latium Latinus (the Roman form of the Greek Lateinos), and Lateo, " to lie 
hid," all alike come from the Chaldee " Lat," which has the same meaning. The 
name "Lat," or the hidden one, had evidently been given, as well as Saturn, to 
the Great Babylonian god. This is evident from the name of the fish Latus, 
which was worshipped along with the Egyptian Minerva, in the city of Latopolis 
in Egypt, now Esneh (WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 284, and vol. v. p. 253), that fish 
Latus evidently just being another name for the fish-god Dagon. We have seen 
that Ichthys, or the Fish, was one of the names of Bacchus ; and the Assyrian 
goddess Atergatis, with her son Ichthys is said to have been cast into the lake of 
Ascalon. ( Vossius de Idololatria, lib. i. cap. xxiii. p. 89, also ATHEN^EDS, lib. viii. 
cap. viii. p. 346, E.) That the sun-god Apollo had been known under the name of 
Lat, may be inferred from the Greek name of his mother- wife Leto, or in Doric, 
Late, which is just the feminine of Lat. The Roman name Latona confirms this, 
for it Bignifies " The lamenter of Lat," as Bellona signifies "The lamenter of Bel." 
The Indian god Siva, who, as we have seen, is sometimes represented as a child at 
the breast of its mother, and has the same bloody character as Moloch, or the 
Roman Saturn, is called by this very name, as may be seen from the following 
verae made in reference to the image found in his celebrated temple at Somnaut : 

" This image grim, whose name was LAUT, 
Bold Mahmoud found when he took Sumnaut." 

BORROW S Gypsies in Spain, or Zincali, vol. ii. p. 113. 


While Saturn, therefore, is the name of the beast, and contains the 
mystic number, Lateinos, which contains the same number, is just as 
peculiar and distinctive an appellation of the same beast. The Pope, 
then, as the head of the beast, is equally Lateinos or Saturn, that is, 
the head of the Babylonian " Mystery." When, therefore, the ^ Pope 
requires all his services to be performed in the " Latin tongue," that 
is as much as to say that they must be performed in the language of 
" Mystery " ; when he calls his Church the Latin Church, that is 
equivalent to a declaration that it is the Church of "Mystery." 
Thus, by this very name of the Pope s own choosing, he has with his 
own hands written upon the very forehead of his apostate communion 
its divine Apocalyptic designation, "MYSTERY Babylon the great." 
Thus, also, by a process of the purest induction, we have been led on 
from step to step, till we find the mystic number 666 unmistakably 
and " indelibly marked " on his own forehead, and that he who has 
his seat on the seven hills of Rome has exclusive and indefeasible 
claims to be regarded as the Visible head of the beast. 

The reader, however, who has carefully considered the language 
that speaks of the name and number of the Apocalyptic beast, must 
have observed that, in the terms that describe that name and 
number, there is still an enigma that ought not to be overlooked. 
The words are these : " Let him that hath understanding count the 
number of the beast for it is the number of a man" (Rev. xiii. 18). 
What means the saying, that the "number of the beast is the 
number of a man " ? Does it merely mean that he has been called 
by a name that has been borne by some individual man before *? 
This is the sense in which the words have been generally under 
stood. But surely this would be nothing very distinctive nothing 
that might not equally apply to innumerable names. But view this 
language in connection with the ascertained facts of the case, and 
what a Divine light at once beams from the expression. Saturn, the 
hidden god, the god of the Mysteries, whom the Pope represents, 
whose secrets were revealed only to the initiated, was identical 
with Janus, who was publicly known to all Rome, to the uninitiated 
and initiated alike, as the grand Mediator, the opener and the 
shutter, who had the key of the invisible world. Now, what means 
the name Janus ? That name, as Cornincius in Macrobius shows, 
was properly Eanus;* and in ancient Chaldee, E-anush signifies 

As Lat was used as a synonym for Saturn, there can be Httle doubt that Latinus 
was used in the same sense. Virgil makes the Latinus, who was the contemporary 
of ^Eneas, third in descent from Saturn : 

" Rex arva Latinus et urbes 
Jam senior longa placidus in pace regebat. 
Hunc Fauno et Myunpha genitum Laurente Marica 
Accipimus. Fauno Picus pater, isque parentem 
Te, Saturne, refert." 

sEneid, lib. vii. 11. 45-49, p. 323. 

The deified kings were called after the gods from whom they professed to spring, 
and not after their territories. The same, we may be sure, was the case with 

* Saturnalia, lib. i. cap. 9, p. 54, G. 


"the Man." By that very name was the Babylonian beast from the 
sea called, when it first made its appearance.* The name E-anush, 
or " the Man," was applied to the Babylonian Messiah, as identifying 
him with the promised seed of the Woman. The name of " the 
Man," as applied to a god, was intended to designate him as the 
" god-man? We have seen that in India, the Hindoo Shasters bear, 
that in order to enable the gods to overcome their enemies, it was 
needful that the Sun, the supreme divinity, should be incarnate, and 
born of a Woman, f The classical nations had a legend of precisely 
the same nature. " There was a current tradition in heaven," says 
Apollodorus, " that the giants could never be conquered except by 
the help of a man." I That man, who was believed to have conquered 
the adversaries of the gods, was Janus, the god-man. In consequence 
of his assumed character and exploits, Janus was invested with high 
powers, made the keeper of the gates of heaven, and arbiter of men s 
eternal destinies. Of this Janus, this Babylonian " man," the Pope, 
as we have seen, is the legitimate representative j his key, therefore, 
he bears, with that of Cybele, his mother-wife ; and to all his 
blasphemous pretensions he at this hour lays claim. The very fact, 
then, that the Pope founds his claim to universal homage on the 
possession of the keys of heaven, and that in a sense which empowers 
him, in defiance of every principle of Christianity, to open and shut 
the gates of glory, according to his mere sovereign will and pleasure, 
is a striking and additional proof that he is that head of the beast 
from the sea, whose number, as identified with Janus, is the number 
of a man, and amounts exactly to 666. 

But there is something further still in the name of Janus or 
Eanus, not to be passed over. Janus, while manifestly worshipped 
as the Messiah or god-man, was also celebrated as " Principium 
Deorum," the source and fountain of all the Pagan gods. We have 
already in this character traced him backward through Gush to 
Noah ; but to make out his claim to this high character, in its proper 
completeness, he must be traced even further still. The Pagans 
knew, and could not but know, at the time the Mysteries were 
concocted, in the days of Shem and his brethren, who, through the 
Flood, had passed from the old world to the new, the whole story of 
Adam, and therefore it was necessary, if a deification of mankind 
there was to be, that his pre-eminent dignity, as the human " Father 
of gods and men" should not be ignored. Nor was it. The 

* The name, as given in Greek by Berosus, is O-annes (p. 48) ; but this is just 
the very way we might expect "He-anesh," "the man," to appear in Greek. 
He-siri, in Greek, becomes Osiris ; and He-sarsiphon, Osarsiphon ; and, in like 
manner, He-anesh naturally becomes Oannes. In the sense of a " Man-god," the 
name Oannes is taken by Barker (Lares and Penates, p. 224). We find the 
conversion of the H into O among our own immediate neighbours, the Irish ; 
what is now O Brien and O Connell was originally H Brien and H Connell. 
(Sketches of Irish History, p. 72.) 

t See ante, Chapter III. p. 96. 

Bibliotheca, lib. i. in PARKHURST, sub voce " aaz," No. v. ; see also MACROBIUB, 
Saturnalia, lib. i. cap. 20, in regard to " Hercules the man." 

TERENTIANUS MAURUB in BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 82. 


Mysteries were full of what he did, and what befel him ; and the 
name E-anush, or, as it appeared in the Egyptian form, Ph anesh,* 
" The man," was only another name for that of our great progenitor. 
The name of Adam in the Hebrew of Genesis almost always occurs 
with the article before it, implying "The Adam," or "The man." 
There is this difference, however "The Adam" refers to man 
unfallen, E-anush, " The man," to " fallen man." E-anush, then, as 
" Principium deorurn," " The fountain and father of the gods," is 
" FALLEN Adam."f The principle of Pagan idolatry went directly 
to exalt, fallen humanity, to consecrate its lusts, to give men license 
to live after the flesh, and yet, after such a life, to make them sure of 
eternal felicity. E-anus, the " fallen man," was set up as the human 
Head of this system of corruption this "Mystery of Iniquity." 
Now, from this we come to see the real meaning of the name, applied 
to the divinity commonly worshipped in Phrygia along with Cybele 
in the very same character as this same Janus, who was at once the 
Father of the gods, and the Mediatorial divinity. That name was 
Atys, or Attis, or Attes,| and the meaning will evidently appear 
from the meaning of the well-known Greek word Ate, which signifies 
" error of sin," and is obviously derived from the Chaldean Hata, 
"to sin." Atys or Attes, formed from the same verb, and in a 
similar way, signifies "The Sinner." The reader will remember 
that Rhea or Cybele was worshipped in Phrygia under the name of 
Idaia Mater, " The mother of knowledge," and that she bore in her 
hand, as her symbol, the pomegranate, which we have seen reason to 
conclude to have been in Pagan estimation the fruit of the 
" forbidden tree." Who, then, so likely to have been the 
contemplar divinity of that "Mother of knowledge " as Attes, "The 
sinner," even her own husband, whom she induced to share with her 
in her sin, and partake of her fatal knowledge, and who thereby 
became in true and proper sense, "The man of sin," "the man by 

* WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 191. 

t Anesh properly signifies only the weakness or frailty of fallen humanity ; but 
any one who consults OVID, Fasti, " Kal. Jun.," 11. 100, &c., vol. iii. p. 346, as to 
the character of Janus, will see that when E-anush was deified, it was not simply 
as Fallen man with his weakness, but Fallen man with his corruption. 

SMITH S Classical Dictionary, "Atys," p. 107. The identification of Attes 
with Bacchus or Adonis, who was at once the Father of the gods, and the 
Mediator, is proved from divers considerations. 1. While it is certain that the 
favourite god of the Phrygian Cybele was Attes, whence he was called "Cybelius 
Attes," from Strabo, lib. x. p. 452, we learn that the divinity worshipped along 
with Cybele in Phrygia, was called by the very name of Dionusos or Bacchus. 
2. Attes was represented in the very same way as Bacchus. In Bryant there is an 
inscription to him along with the Idaean goddess, that is Cybele, under the name 
of "Attis the Minotaur" (MythoL, vol. ii. p. 109, Note). Bacchus was bull- 
horned ; it is well known that the Minotaur, in like manner, was half-man, half- 
bull. 3. He was represented in the exoteric story, as perishing in the same way 
as Adonis by a wild boar (PAUSAN., lib. vii., Achaica, cap. 17). 4. In the rites of 
Magna Mater or Cybele, the priests invoked him as the " Deus propitiu*, Deus 
sanctus," "the merciful God, the holy God" (AKNOBIUS, lib. i. in Maxima Biblioth. 
Patrum, in Ed. Adv. Lib., torn. iii. p. 435, Lugd., 1677), the very character which 
Bacchus or Adonis sustained as the mediatorial god. 

See ante, p. 111. 



whom sin entered the world, and death by sin, and so death passed 
upon all, because all have sinned."* Now to Attes, this " Man of 
sin," after passing through those sorrows and sufferings, which his 
worshippers yearly commemorated, the distinguishing characteristics 
and glories of the Messiah were given. He was identified with the 
sun,f the one only god ; he was identified with Adonis; and to him 
as thus identified, the language of the Sixteenth Psalm, predicting 
the triumph of our Saviour Christ over death and the grave, was in 
all its greatness applied : " Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, nor 
suffer thine Holy One to see corruption." It is sufficiently known 
that the first part of this statement was applied to Adonis ; for the 
annual weeping of the women for Tammuz was speedily turned into 
rejoicings, on account of his fabled return from Hades, or the 
infernal regions. But it is not so well known that Paganism applied 
to its mediatorial god the predicted incorruption of the body of the 
Messiah. But that this was the fact, we learn from the distinct 
testimony of Pausanias. "Agdistis," that is Cybele, says he, 
" obtained from Jupiter, that no part of the body of Attes should 
either become putrid or waste away." J Thus did Paganism apply to 
Attes " the sinner," the incommunicable honour of Christ, who 
came to " save His people from their sins " as contained in the 
Divine language uttered by the "sweet psalmist of Israel," a thousand 
years before the Christian era. If, therefore, the Pope occupies, as 
we have seen, the very place of Janus " the man," how clear is it, 
that he equally occupies the place of Attes, " the sinner," and then 
how striking in this point of view the name "Man of sin," as 
divinely given by prophecy (2 Thess. ii. 3) to him who was to be the 
head of the Christian apostacy, and who was to concentrate in that 
apostacy all the corruption of Babylonian Paganism "? 

The Pope is thus on every ground demonstrated to be the visible 
head of the beast. But the beast has not only a visible, but an 
invisible head that governs it. That invisible head is none other 
than Satan, the head of the first grand apostacy that began in heaven 
itself. This is put beyond doubt by the language of Rev. xiii. 4 : 
" And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the 
beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast 1 Who is able to make 
war with him 1 " This language shows that the worship of the 
dragon is commensurate with the worship of the beast. That the 

* The whole story of Attes can be proved in detail to be the story of the Fall. 
Suffice it here only to state that, even on the surface, his sin was said to be 
connected with undue love for "a nymph, whose fate depended on a tree " (OviD, 
Fasti, lib. iv., Ludi Megalenses). The love of Attes for this nymph was in one 
aspect an offence to Cybele, but, in another, it was the love of Cybele herself ; for 
Cybele has two distinct fundamental characters that of the Holy Spirit, and also 
that of our mother Eve (see Appendix, Note G). "The nymph whose fate 
depended on a tree " was evidently Rhea, the mother of mankind. 

t BRYANT, vol. i. p. 387, Note. The ground of the identification of Attis with 
the sun evidently was, that as Hata signifies to sin, so Hatah, which signifies to 
burn, is in pronunciation nearly the same. In illustration of the name Attes, or 
Attis, as "The Sinner," see Appendix, Note R. 

PAUSAN., lib. vii., Achaica, cap. 17. 


dragon is primarily Satan, the arch-fiend himself, is plain from the 
statement of the previous chapter (Rev. xii. 9): "And the Dragon 
was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which 
deceiveth the whole world." If, then, the Pope be, as we have seen, 
the visible head of the beast, the adherents of Rome, in worshipping 
the Pope, of necessity worship also the Devil. With the Divine 
statement before us, there is no possibility of escaping from this. 
And this is exactly what we might expect on other grounds. Let it 
be remembered that the Pope, as the head of the Mystery of 
Iniquity, is "the son of perdition," Iscariot, the false apostle, the 
traitor. Now, it is expressly stated, that before Judas committed his 
treason, " Satan," the prince of the Devils, " entered into him," took 
complete and entire possession of him. From analogy, we may 
expect the same to have been the case here. Before the Pope could 
even conceive such a scheme of complicated treachery to the cause of 
his Lord, as has been proved against him, before he could be 
qualified for successfully carrying that treacherous scheme into 
effect, Satan himself must enter into him. The Mystery of Iniquity 
was to practise and prosper according " to the working " i.e., 
literally, " according to the energy or mighty power of Satan " 
(2 Thess. ii. 9).* Therefore Satan himself, and not any subordinate 
spirit of hell, must preside over the whole vast system of consecrated 
wickedness; he must personally take possession of him who is its 
visible head, that the system may be guided by his diabolical 
subtlety, and "energised" by his super-human power. Keeping 
this in view, we see at once how it is that, when the followers of 
the Pope worship the beast, they worship also the " dragon that gave 
power to the beast." 

Thus, altogether independent of historical evidence on this point, 
we are brought to the irresistible conclusion that the worship of 
Rome is one vast system of Devil-worship. If it be once admitted 
that the Pope is the head of the beast from the sea, we are bound, 
on the mere testimony of God, without any other evidence whatever, 
to receive this as a fact, that, consciously or unconsciously, those who 
worship the Pope are actually worshipping the Devil. But, in truth, 
we have historical evidence, and that of a very remarkable kind, 
that the Pope, as head of the Chaldean Mysteries, is as directly the 
representative of Satan, as he is of the false Messiah of Babylon. 
It was long ago noticed by Irenaeus, about the end of the second 
century, that the name Teitan contained the mystic number 666 ; 
and he gave it as his opinion, that Teitan was "by far the most 
probable name" of the beast from the sea.f The grounds of his 

* The very term "energy " here employed, is the term continually used in the 
Chaldean books, describing the inspiration coming from the gods and demons to 
their worshippers. (TAYLOR S Jamblichus, p. 163, et passim.) 

f IREN^US, lib. v. cap. 30, p. 802. Though the name Teitan was originally 
derived from Chaldee, yet it became thoroughly naturalised in the Greek language. 
Therefore, to give the more abundant evidence on this important subject, the 
Spirit of God seems to have ordered it, that the number of Teitan should be 
found according to the Greek computation, while that of Satur is found by the 


opinion, as stated by him, do not carry much weight ; but the 
opinion itself he may have derived from others who had better and 
more valid reasons for their belief on this subject. Now, on inquiry, 
it will actually be found, that while Saturn was the name of the 
visible head, Teitan was the name of the invisible head of the beast. 
Teitan is just the Chaldean form of Sheitan,* the very name by 
which Satan has been called from time immemorial by the Devil- 
worshippers of Kurdistan ;f and from Armenia or Kurdistan, this 
Devil-worship embodied in the Chaldean Mysteries came westward 
to Asia Minor, and thence to Etruria and Rome. That Teitan was 
actually known by the classic nations of antiquity to be Satan, or the 
spirit of wickedness, and originator of moral evil, we have the 
following proofs : The history of Teitan and his brethren, as given in 
Homer and Hesiod, the two earliest of all the Greek writers, 
although later legends are obviously mixed up with it, is evidently 
the exact counterpart of the Scriptural account of Satan and his 
angels. Homer says, that " all the gods of Tartarus," or Hell, 
" were called Teitans."J Hesiod tells us how these Teitans, or 
" gods of hell," came to have their dwelling there. The chief of 
them having committed a certain act of wickedness against his 
father, the supreme god of heaven, with the sympathy of many 
others of the " sons of heaven," that father " called them all by an 
opprobrious name, Teitans, " pronounced a curse upon them, and 
then, in consequence of that curse, they were " cast down to hell," 
and "bound in chains of darkness "in the abyss. || While this is 
the earliest account of Teitan and his followers among the Greeks, 
we find that, in the Chaldean system, Teitan was just a synonym 
for Typhon, the malignant Serpent or Dragon, who was universally 
regarded as the Devil, or author of all wickedness. It was Typhon, 
according to the Pagan version of the story, that killed Tammuz, and 
cut him in pieces ; but Lactantius, who was thoroughly acquainted 
with the subject, upbraids his Pagan countrymen for " worshipping a 
child torn in pieces by the Teitans. "U It is undeniable, then, that 
Teitan, in Pagan belief, was identical with the Dragon, or Satan.** 

* The learned reader has no need of examples in proof of this frequent 
Chaldean transformation of the Sh or S into T ; but for the common reader, the 
following may be adduced : Hebrew, Shekel, to weigh, becomes Tekel in Chaldee ; 
Hebrew, Shabar, to break Chaldee, Tabar ; Hebrew, Seraphim Chaldee, 
Teraphim, the Babylonian counterfeit of the Divine Cherubim or Seraphim ; 
Hebrew, Asar, to be rich Chaldee, Atar ; Hebrew, Shani, second Chaldee, 
Tanin, &c. 

f WALPOLE S Ansayri, vol. i. p. 397. LATARD S Nineveh, vol. i. pp. 287, 288. 
See also REDHOUSE S Turkish Dictionary, sub voce " Satan," p. 303. The Turks 
came from the Euphrates. 

I HOMER, Iliad, lib. xiv. 1. 279, p. 549. 

HESIOD, Theoyonia, 1. 207, pp. 18, 19. 

|| Ibid. 11. 717, 729, pp. 56-59. I think the reader will see that Ouranos, or 
Heaven, against whom the Titans rebelled, was just God. 

IF LACTANTIUS, De Falsa Rdiyione, p. 221 ; CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS also, 
vol. i. p. 30. 

** We have seen that Shem was the actual slayer of Tammuz. As the grand 
adversary of the Pagan Messiah, those who hated him for his deed called him for 


In the Mysteries, as formerly hinted, an important change took 
place as soon as the way was paved for it. First, Tammuz was 
worshipped as the .bruiser of the serpent s head, meaning thereby 
that he was the appointed destroyer of Satan s kingdom. Then the 
dragon himself, or Satan, came to receive a certain measure of 
worship, to "console him," as the Pagans said, "for the loss of his 
power," and to prevent him from hurting them;* and last of all 
the dragon, or Teitan or Satan, became the supreme object of 
worship, the Titania, or rites of Teitan, occupying a prominent place 
in the Egyptian Mysteries,! and also in those of Greece. J How 
vitally important was the place that these rites of Teitan or Satan 
occupied, may be judged of from the fact that Pluto, the god of Hell 
(who, in his ultimate character, was just the grand Adversary), was 
looked up to with awe and dread as the great god on whom the 
destinies of mankind in the eternal world did mainly depend ; for it 
was said that to Pluto it belonged "to purify souls after death. " 
Purgatory having been in Paganism, as it is in Popery, the grand 
hinge of priestcraft and superstition, what a power did this opinion 
attribute to the "god of Hell"! No wonder that the serpent, the 
Devil s grand instrument in seducing mankind, was in all the earth 
worshipped with such extraordinary reverence, it being laid down in 
the Octateuch of Ostanes, that "serpents were the supreme of all 
gods and the princes of the Universe. "|| No wonder that it came 
at last to be firmly believed that the Messiah, on whom the hopes of 
the world depended, was Himself the "seed of the serpent" ! This 
was manifestly the case in Greece ; for the current story there came 
to be, that the first Bacchus was brought forth in consequence of a 
connexion on the part of his mother with the father of the gods, in 
the form of a " speckled snake."1F That " father of the gods " was 
manifestly "the god of hell;" for Proserpine, the mother of 
Bacchus, that miraculously conceived and brought forth the wond 
rous child whose rape by Pluto occupied such a place in the 
Mysteries was worshipped as the wife of the god of Hell, as we 
have already seen, under the name of the "Holy Virgin."** The 

that very deed by the name of the Grand Adversary of all, Typhon, or the Devil. 
" If they called the Master of the house Beelzebub," no wonder that his servant 
was called by a similar name. 

* PLUTARCH, De hide, vol. ii. p. 362. t Ibid. vol. ii. p. 364. 

% POTTER S Antiquities, vol. i., sub voce "Titania," p. 400. 

TAYLOR S Pausanias, vol. iii. p. 321, Note. 

|| EUSEBIUS, Prceparatio Evang., lib. i. vol. i. p. 50. 

*l OVID, Metam., lib. vi. 1. 114. So deeply was the idea of the seed of the 
serpent " being the great World-king imprinted on the Pagan mind, that when a 
man set up to be a god upon earth, it was held essential to establish his title to 
that character, that he prove himself to be the serpent s seed." Thus, when 
Alexander the Great claimed divine honours, it is well known that his mother 
Olympias, declared that he was not sprung from King Philip, her husband, but 
from Jupiter, in the form of a serpent. In like manner, says the authoress of 
Rome in the 19th Century, vol. i. p. 388, the Roman emperor, " Augustus, 
pretended that he was the son of Apollo, and that the god had assumed the form 
of a serpent for the purpose of giving him birth." Vid. SUET. AUGUSTUS. 

** See ante, p. 126. 


story of the seduction of Eve* by the serpent is plainly imported 
into this legend, as Julius Firmicus and the early Christian apolo 
gists did with great force cast in the teeth of the Pagans of their 
day -, but very different is the colouring given to it in the Pagan 
legend from that which it has in the Divine Word. Thus the grand 
Thimblerigger, by dexterously shifting the peas, through means of 
men who began with great professions of abhorrence of his character, 
got himself almost everywhere recognised as in very deed " the god 
of this world." So deep and so strong was the hold that Satan had 
contrived to get of the ancient world in this character, that even 
when Christianity had been proclaimed to man, and the true light 
had shone from Heaven, the very doctrine we have been considering 
raised its head among the professed disciples of Christ. Those who 
held this doctrine were called Ophiani or Ophites, that is, serpent- 
worshippers. "These heretics," says Tertullian, "magnify the 
serpent to such a degree as to prefer him even to Christ Himself ; 
for he, say they, gave us the first knowledge of good and evil. It 
was from a perception of his power and majesty that Moses was 
induced to erect the brazen serpent, to which whosoever looked was 
healed. Christ Himself, they affirm, in the Gospel imitates the 
sacred power of the serpent, when He says that, As Moses lifted up 
the serpent in the wilderness even so must the Son of Man be lifted 
up. t They introduce it when they bless the Eucharist." These 
wicked heretics avowedly worshipped the old serpent, or Satan, as the 
grand benefactor of mankind, for revealing to them the knowledge 
of good and evil. But this doctrine they had just brought along 
with them from the Pagan world, from which they had come, or 
from the Mysteries, as they came to be received and celebrated in 
Rome. Though Teitan, in the days of Hesiod and in early Greece, 
was an " opprobrious name," yet in Rome, in the days of the Empire 
and before, it had become the very reverse. "The splendid or 
glorious Teitan" was the way in which Teitan was spoken of at 
Rome. This was the title commonly given to the Sun, both as the 
orb of day and viewed as a divinity. Now, the reader has seen 
already that another form of the sun-divinity, or Teitan, at Rome, 
was the Epidaurian snake, worshipped under the name of " ^Escu- 
lapius," that is, " the man-instructing serpent. "| Here, then, in 

* We find that Semele, the mother of the Grecian Bacchus, had been identified 
with Eve ; for the name of Eve had been given to her, as Photius tells us that 
" Pherecydes called Semele, Hue." (PHOT. Lex., pars ii. p. 616.) Hue is just the 
Hebrew name for Eve, without the points. 

t TERTULLIAN, De Prescript, adv. Hcereticos, cap. 47, vol. ii. pp. 63, 64. 

+ Aish-shkul-ape, from Aish, " man " ; shkul, " to instruct ; " and Aph6, or Ap6 t 
"a serpent." The Greek form of this name, Asklepios, signifies simply "the 
instructing snake," and comes from A, "the," ski, "to teach," and heft, "a 
snake," the Chaldean words being thus modified in Egypt. The name Asclepios, 
however, is capable of another sense, as derived fromAaz, " strength," and Khlep, 
"to renew;" and, therefore, in the exoteric doctrine, Asclepios was known 
simply as "the strength -restorer," or the Healing God. But, as identified with 
the serpent, the true meaning of the name seems to be that which is first stated. 
Macrobius, giving an account of the mystic doctrine of the ancients, says that 


Eome was Teitan, or Satan, identified with the " serpent that taught 
mankind," that opened their eyes (when, of course, they were blind), 
and gave them "the knowledge of good and evil." In Pergamos, 
and in all Asia Minor, from which directly Rome derived its know 
ledge of the Mysteries, the case was the same. In Pergamos, 
especially, where pre-eminently " Satan s seat was," the sun-divinity, 
as is well known, was worshipped under the form of a serpent and 
under the name of ^Esculapius, "the man-instructing serpent." 
According to the fundamental doctrine of the Mysteries, as brought 
from Pergamos to Rome, the sun was the one only god.* Teitan, 
or Satan, then, was thus recognised as the one only god ; and of that 
only god, Tammuz or Janus, in his character as the Son, or the 
woman s seed, was just an incarnation. Here, then, the grand 
secret of the Roman Empire is at last brought to light viz., the 
real name of the tutelar divinity of Rome. That secret was most 
jealously guarded ; insomuch that when Valerius Soranus, a man of 
the highest rank, and, as Cicero declares, "the most learned of the 
Romans," had incautiously divulged it, he was remorselessly put to 
death for his revelation. Now, however, it stands plainly revealed. 

Fig. 59. 

A symbolical representation of the worship of the Roman people, 
from Pompeii, strikingly confirms this deduction by evidence that 
appeals to the very senses. Let the reader cast his eyes on the 
woodcut herewith given (Fig. 59). f We have seen already that it 
is admitted by the author of Pompeii, in regard to a former repre 
sentation, that the serpents in the under compartment are only 
another way of exhibiting the dark divinities represented in the 
upper compartment. Let the same principle be admitted here, and 
it follows that the swallows, or birds pursuing the flies, represent 
the same thing as the serpents do below. But the serpent, of which 
there is a double representation, is unquestionably the serpent of 
^sculapius. The fly-destroying swallow, therefore, must represent 
the same divinity. Now, every one knows what was the name by 
which "the Lord of the fly," or fly-destroying god of the Oriental 
world was called. It was Beel-zebub4 This name, as signifying 

yEsculapius was that beneficent influence of the sun which pervaded the souls 
of men. (Sat., lib. i. cap. 23.) Now the Serpent was the symbol of the 
enlightening sun. 

* MACKOBIUS, Saturnalia, lib. i. cap. 17, 23, pp. 65, C, and 72, 1, 2. 

f From Pompeii, vol. ii. p. 141. 

KITTO S Illustrated Commentary, vol. ii. p. 317. 


" Lord of the Fly," to the profane meant only the power that 
destroyed the swarms of flies when these "became, as they often did 
in hot countries, a source of torment to the people whom they 
invaded. But this name, as identified with the serpent, clearly 
reveals itself as one of the distinctive names of Satan. And how 
appropriate is this name, when its mystic or esoteric meaning is 
penetrated. What is the real meaning of this \ familiar name? 
Baal-zebub just means " The restless Lord,"* even that unhappy one 
who "goeth to and fro in the earth, and walketh up and down in 
it," who " goeth through dry places seeking rest, and finding none." 
From all this, the inference is unavoidable that Satan, in his own 
proper name, must have been the great god of their secret and 
mysterious worship, and this accounts for the extraordinary mystery 
observed on the subject. f When, therefore, Gratian abolished 
the legal provision for the support of the fire-worship and serpent- 
worship of Rome, we see how exactly the Divine prediction was 
fulfilled (Rev. xii. 9): "And the great dragon was cast out, that 
old serpent called the DEVIL, and SATAN, which deceiveth the whole 
world : he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out 
with him."J Now, as the Pagan Pontifex, to whose powers and 

* See CLAVIS STOCKII, sub voce "Zebub," where it is stated that the word 
zebub, as applied to the fly, comes from an Arabic root, which signifies to move 
from place to place, as flies do, without settling anywhere. Baal-zebub, therefore, 
in its secret meaning, signifies, " Lord of restless and unsettled motion." 

t I find Lactantius was led to the conclusion that the ^Esculapian serpent was 
the express symbol of Satan, for, giving an account of the bringing of the 
Epidaurian snake to Rome, he says : "Thither [i.e., to Rome] the Demoniarches 
[or Prince of the Devils] in his own proper shape, without disguise, was brought ; 
for those who were sent on that business brought back with them a dragon of 
amazing size." (De Origine JErroris, lib. ii. cap. 16, p. 108.) 

J The facts stated above cast a very singular light on a well-known supersti 
tion among ourselves. Everybody has heard of St. Swithin s day, on which, if it 
rain, the current belief is, that it will rain in uninterrupted succession for six weeks. 
And who or what was St. Swithin that his day should be connected with forty 
days uninterrupted rain ? for six weeks is just the round number of weeks equi 
valent to forty days. It is evident, in the first place, that he was no Christian 
saint, though an Archbishop of Canterbury in the tenth century is said to have 
been called by his name. The patron saint of the forty days rain was just 
Tammuz or Odin, who was worshipped among our ancestors as the incarnation 
of Noah, in whose time it rained forty days and forty nights without intermission. 
Tammuz and St. Swithin, then, must have been one and the same. But, as in 
Egypt, and Rome, and Greece, and almost everywhere else, long before the 
Christian era, Tammuz had come to be recognised as an incarnation of the Devil, 
we need not be surprised to find that St. Swithin is no other than St. Satan. 
One of the current forms of the grand adversary s name among the Pagans was 
just Sytan or Sythan. This name, as applied to the Evil Being, is found as far 
to the east as the kingdom of Siam. It had evidently been known to the Druids, 
and that in connection with the flood ; for they say that it was the son of Seithin 
that, under the influence of drink, let in the sea over the country so as to over 
whelm a large and populous district. (DAVIES S Druids, p. 198.) The Anglo- 
Saxons, when they received that name, in the very same way as they made Odin 
into Wodin, would naturally change Sythan into Swythan ; and thus, in St. 
Swithin s day and the superstition therewith connected, we have at once a 
striking proof of the wide extent of Devil-worship in the heathen world, and of 
the thorough acquaintance of our Pagan ancestors with the great Scriptural fact 
of the forty days incessant rain at the Deluge. 


prerogatives the Pope had served himself heir, was thus the High- 
priest of Satan, so, when the Pope entered into a league and alliance 
with that system of Devil-worship, and consented to occupy the very 
position of that Pontifex, and to bring all its abominations into the 
Church, as he has done, he necessarily became the Prime Minister 
of the Devil, and, of course, came as thoroughly under his power as 
ever the previous Pontiff had been.* How exact the fulfilment of 
the Divine statement that the coming of the Man of Sin was to be 
"after the working or energy of Satan." Here, then, is the grand 
conclusion to which we are compelled, both on historical and 
Scriptural grounds, to come : As the mystery of godliness is God 
manifest in the flesh, so the mystery of iniquity is so far as such a 
thing is possible the Devil incarnate. 

If any one thinks it incredible that Satan should thus be canonised by the 
Papacy in the Dark Ages, let me call attention to the pregnant fact that, even in 
comparatively recent times, the Dragon the Devil s universally recognised 
symbol was worshipped by the Romanists of Poictiers under the came of "the 
good St. Vermine" ! ! (Notes of the Society of the Antiquaries of France, vol. i. 
p. 464, apud SALVERT&, p. 475.) 

* This gives a new and darker significance to the mystic Tau, or sign of the 
cross. At first it was the emblem of Tammuz, at last it became the emblem of 
Teitan, or Satan himself. 


I HAVE now finished the task I proposed to myself. Even yet the 
evidence is not nearly exhausted ; but, upon the evidence which has 
been adduced, I appeal to the reader if I have not proved every 
point which I engaged to demonstrate. Is there one, who has 
candidly considered the proof that has been led, that now doubts 
that Rome is the Apocalyptic Babylon? Is there one who will 
venture to deny that, from the foundation to the topmost stone, it is 
essentially a system of Paganism. What, then, is to be the practical 
conclusion from all this 1 

1. Let every Christian henceforth and for ever treat it as an out 
cast from the pale of Christianity. Instead of speaking of it as a 
Christian Church, let it be recognised and regarded as the Mystery 
of Iniquity, yea, as the very Synagogue of Satan. With such over 
whelming evidence of its real character, it would be folly it would 
be worse it would be treachery to the cause of Christ to stand 
merely on the defensive, to parley with its priests about the lawful 
ness of Protestant orders, the validity of Protestant sacraments, or 
the possibility of salvation apart from its communion. If Rome is 
now to be admitted to form a portion of the Church of Christ, where 
is the system of Paganism that has ever existed, or that now exists, 
that could not put in an equal claim ? On what grounds could the 
worshippers of the original Madonna and child in the days of old be 
excluded "from the commonwealth of Israel," or shown to be 
" strangers to the covenants of promise " ? On what grounds could 
the worshippers of Vishnu at this day be put beyond the bounds of 
such wide catholicity? The ancient Babylonians held, the modem 
Hindoos still hold, clear and distinct traditions of the Trinity, the 
Incarnation, the Atonement. Yet, who will venture to say that 
such nominal recognition of the cardinal articles of Divine revelation 
could relieve the character of either the one system or the other from 
the brand of the most deadly and God-dishonouring heathenism] 
And so also in regard to Rome. True, it nominally admits Christian 
terms and Christian names ; but all that is apparently Christian in 
its system is more than neutralised by the malignant Paganism that 
it embodies. Grant that the bread the Papacy presents to its 
votaries can be proved to have been originally made of the finest of 
the wheat ; but what then, if every particle of that bread is combined 
with prussic acid or strychnine 1 Can the excellence of the bread 
overcome the virus of the poison 1 Can there be anything but death, 
spiritual and eternal death, to those who continue to feed upon the 
poisoned food that it offers 1 Yes, here is the question, and let it be 


fairly faced. Can there be salvation in a communion in which it is 
declared to be a fundamental principle, that the Madonna is " our 
greatest hope ; yea, the SOLE GROUND OF OUR HOPE " 1 * The time is 
come when charity to the perishing souls of men, hoodwinked by a 
Pagan priesthood, abusing the name of Christ, requires that the 
truth in this matter should be clearly, loudly, unflinchingly pro 
claimed. The beast and the image of the beast alike stand revealed 
in the face of all Christendom ; and now the tremendous threatening 
of the Divine Word in regard to their worship fully applies (Rev. 
xiv. 9, 10): "And the third angel followed them, saying, If any 
man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his 
forehead, or in his hand, the same shall drink of the wine of the 
wrath of God, poured without mixture into the cup of His indigna 
tion ; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the 
presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. " 
These words are words of awful import ; and woe to the man who 
is found finally under the guilt which they imply. These words, as 
has already been admitted by Elliott, contain a " chronological 
prophecy," a prophecy not referring to the Dark Ages, but to a period 
not far distant from the consummation, when the Gospel should 
be widely diffused, and when bright light should be cast on the 
character and doom of the apostate Church of Rome (ver. 6-8). 
They come, in the Divine chronology of events, immediately after 
an angel has proclaimed, " BABYLON is FALLEN, is FALLEN." We 
have, as it were, with our own ears heard this predicted " Fall of 
Babylon " announced from the high places of Rome itself, when the 
seven hills of the " Eternal City " reverberated with the guns that 
proclaimed, not merely to the citizens of the Roman republic, but 
to the wide world, that " PAPACY HAD FALLEN, de facto and de jure, 
from the temporal throne of the Roman State. "f Now, it is in the 
order of the prophecy, after this fall of Babylon, that this fearful 
threatening comes. Can there, then, be a doubt that this threatening 
specially and peculiarly applies to this very time ? Never till now 
was the real nature of the Papacy fully revealed ; never till now 
was the Image of the beast set up. Till the Image of the beast 
was erected, till the blasphemous decree of the Immaculate Con 
ception was promulged, no such apostacy had taken place, even 
in Rome, no such guilt had been contracted, as now lies at the door 
of the great Babylon. This, then, is a subject of infinite importance 
to every one within the pale of the Church of Rome to every one 
also who is looking, as so many at present are doing, towards the 
City of the Seven Hills. If any one can prove that the Pope does 
not assume all the prerogatives and bear substantially all the 
blasphemous titles of that Babylonian beast that "had the wound 
by a sword, and did live," and if it can be shown that the Madonna, 

* The language of the late Pope Gregory, substantially indorsed by the 
present Pontiff. 

t The Apocalypse announces two falls of Babylon. The fall referred to above 
is evidently only the first. The prophecy clearly implies, that after the first fall 
it rises to a greater height than before ; and therefore the necessity of the warning. 


that has so recently with one consent been set up, is not in every 
essential respect the same as the Chaldean " Image " of the beast, 
they may indeed afford to despise the threatening contained in these 
words. But if neither the one nor the other can be proved (and 
I challenge the strictest scrutiny in regard to both), then every one 
within the pale of the Papacy may well tremble at such a threatening. 
Xow, then, as never before, may the voice Divine, and that a voice 
of the tenderest love, be heard sounding from the Eternal throne 
to every adherent of the Mystic Babylon, "Come out of her, My 
people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not 
of her plagues." 

2. But if the guilt and danger of those who adhere to the 
Eoman Church, believing it to be the only Church where salvation 
can be found, be so great, what must be the guilt of those who, 
with a Protestant profession, nevertheless uphold the doomed 
Babylon 1 The Constitution of this land requires our Queen to 
swear, before the crown can be put upon her head, before she 
can take her seat on the throne, that " she believes " that the essential 
doctrines of Rome are " idolatrous." All the Churches of Britain, 
endowed and unendowed, alike with one voice declare the very same. 
They all proclaim that the system of Rome is a system of blasphemous 

idolatry And yet the members of these Churches can endow 

and uphold, with Protestant money, the schools, the colleges, the 
chaplains of that idolatrous system. If the guilt of Romanists, 
then, be great, the guilt of Protestants who uphold such a system 
must be tenfold greater. That guilt has been greatly accumulating 
during the last three or four years. While the King of Italy, in 
the very States of the Church what but lately were the Pope s 
own dominions has been suppressing the monasteries (and in the 
space of two years no less than fifty-four were suppressed, and their 
property confiscated), the British Government has been acting on a 
policy the very reverse, has not only been conniving at the erection 
of monasteries, which are prohibited by the law of the land, but has 
actually been bestowing endowment on these illegal institutions 
under the name of Reformatories. It was only a short while ago, 
that it was stated, on authority of the Catholic Directory, that in 
the space of three years, fifty-two new convents were added to the 
monastic system of Great Britain,* almost the very number that the 
Italians had confiscated, yet Christian men and Christian Churches 
look on with indifference. Now, if ever there was an excuse for 
thinking lightly of the guilt contracted by our national support 
of idolatry, that excuse will no longer avail. The God of Providence, 
in India, has been demonstrating that He is the God of Revelation. 
He has been proving, to an awe-struck world, by events that made 
every ear to tingle, that every word of w r rath, written three thousand 
years ago against idolatry, is in as full force at this day as when He 
desolated the covenanted people of Israel for their idols, and sold 
them into the hands of their enemies. If men begin to see that it 
* Quoted in Irish Covenanter, February, 1862, p. 52. 


is a dangerous thing for professing Christians to uphold the Pagan 
idolatry of India, they must be blind indeed if they do not equally 
see that it must be as dangerous to uphold the Pagan idolatry of 
Rome. Wherein does the Paganism of Rome differ from that of 
Hindooism ? Only in this, that the Roman Paganism is the more 
complete, more finished, more dangerous, more insidious Paganism 
of the two. 

I am afraid, that after all that has been said, not a few will revolt 
from the above comparative estimate of Popery and undisguised 
Paganism. Let me, therefore, fortify my opinion by the testimonies 
of two distinguished writers, well qualified to pronounce on this 
subject. They will, at least, show that I am not singular in the 
estimate which I have formed. The writers to whom I refer, are 
Sir George Sinclair of Ulbster, and Dr. Bonar of Kelso. Few men 
have studied the system of Rome more thoroughly than Sir George, 
and in his Letters to the Protestants of Scotland he has brought 
all the fertility of his genius, the curiosa felicitas of his style, and 
the stores of his highly cultivated mind, to bear upon the elucidation 
of his theme. Now, the testimony of Sir George is this : " Roman 
ism is a refined system of Christianised heathenism, and chiefly 
differs from its prototype in being more treacherous, more cruel, 
more dangerous, more intolerant." * The mature opinion of Dr. 
Bonar is the very same, and that, too, expressed with the Cawnpore 
massacre particularly in view : " We are doing for Popery at home," 
says he, "what we have done for idolaters abroad, and in the end the 
results will be the same ; nay, worse ; for Popish cruelty, and thirst 
for the blood of the innocent, have been the most savage and merci 
less that the earth has seen. Cawnpore, Delhi, and Bareilly, are 
but dust in comparison with the demoniacal brutalities perpetrated 
by the Inquisition, and by the armies of Popish fanaticism." f 
These are the words of truth and soberness, that no man acquainted 
with the history of modern Europe can dispute. There is great 
danger of their being overlooked at this moment. It will be a fatal 
error if they be. Let not the pregnant fact be overlooked, that, 
while the Apocalyptic history runs down to the consummation of 
all things, in that Divine foreshadowing all the other Paganisms of 
the world are in a manner cast into the shade by the Paganism of 
Papal Rome. It is against Babylon that sits on the seven hills that 
the saints are forewarned ; it is for worshipping the beast and his 
image pre-eminently, that " the vials of the wrath of God, that liveth 
and abideth for ever," are destined to be outpoured upon the nations. 
Now, if the voice of God has been heard in the late Indian calamities, 
the Protestantism of Britain will rouse itself to sweep away at once 
and for ever all national support, alike from the idolatry of Hindo- 
stan and the still more malignant idolatry of Rome. Then, indeed, 
there would be a lengthening of our tranquillity, then there would 
be hope that Britain would be exalted, and that its power would 

* First Series, p. 121. 

f British Messenger, Dec., 1857. 


rest on a firm and stable foundation. But if we will not " hear the 
voice, if we receive not correction, if we refuse to return," if we 
persist in maintaining, at the national charge, "that image of 
jealousy provoking to jealousy," then, after the repeated and ever- 
INCREASING strokes that the justice of God has laid on us, we have 
every reason to fear that the calamities that have fallen so heavily 
upon our countrymen in India, may fall still more heavily upon 
ourselves, within our own borders at home ; for it was when " the 
image of jealousy " was set up in Jerusalem by the elders of Judah, 
that the Lord said, " Therefore will I also deal in fury ; mine eye 
shall not spare, neither will I have pity ; and though they cry in 
mine ears with a loud voice, yet will I not hear them." He who let 
loose the Sepoys, to whose idolatrous feelings and antisocial pro 
pensities we have pandered so much, to punish us for the guilty 
homage we had paid to their idolatry, can just as easily let loose the 
Papal Powers of Europe, to take vengeance upon us for our criminal 
fawning upon the Papacy. 

3. But, further, if the views established in this work be correct, 
it is time that the Church of God were aroused. Are the witnesses 
still to be slain, and has the Image of the Beast only within the last 
year or two been set up, at whose instigation the bloody work is to 
be done ? Is this, then, the time for indifference, for sloth, for luke- 
warmness in religion 1 Yet, alas ! how few are they who are lifting 
up their voice like a trumpet, who are sounding the alarm in God s 
holy mountain who are bestirring themselves according to the 
greatness of the emergency to gather the embattled hosts of the 
Lord to the coming conflict ? The emissaries of Eome for years 
have been labouring unceasingly night and day, in season and out of 
season, in every conceivable way, to advance their Master s cause, 
and largely have they succeeded. But " the children of light " have 
allowed themselves to be lulled into a fatal security ; they have 
folded their hands ; they have gone to sleep as soundly as if Rome 
had actually disappeared from the face of the earth as if Satan 
himself had been bound and cast into the bottomless pit, and the 
pit had shut its mouth upon him, to keep him fast for a thousand 
years. How long shall this state of things continue ? Oh, Church 
of God, awake, awake ! Open your eyes, and see if there be not 
dark and lowering clouds on the horizon that indicate an approaching 
tempest. Search the Scriptures for yourselves ; compare them with 
the facts of history, and say, if there be not reason after all to 
suspect that there are sterner prospects before the saints than most 
seem to wot of. If it may turn out that the views opened up in 
these pages are Scriptural and well-founded, they are at least worthy 
of being made the subjects of earnest and prayerful inquiry. It 
never can tend to good to indulge an uninquiring and delusive feeling 
of safety, when, if they be true, the only safety is to be found in a 
timely knowledge of the danger and due preparation, by all activity, 
all zeal, all spirituality of mind, to meet it. On the supposition 
that peculiar dangers are at hand, and that God in His prophetic 


Word has revealed them, His goodness is manifest. He has made 
known the danger, that, being forewarned, we may be forearmed ; 
that, knowing our own weakness, we may cast ourselves on His 
Almighty grace ; that we may feel the necessity of a fresh baptism 
of the Holy Ghost; that the joy of the Lord being our strength, we 
may be thorough and decided for the Lord, and for the Lord alone, 
that we may work, every one in his own sphere, with increased 
energy and diligence, in the Lord s vineyard, and save all the souls 
we can, while yet opportunity lasts, and the dark predicted night 
has not come, wherein no man can work. Though there be dark 
prospects before us, there is no room for despondency; no ground 
for any one to say that, with such prospects, effort is vain. The 
Lord can bless and prosper to His own glory, the efforts of those 
who truly gird themselves to fight His battles in the most hopeless 
circumstances ; and, at the very time when the enemy cometh in like 
a flood, He can, by His Spirit, lift up a standard against him. Nay, 
not only is this a possible thing, there is reason, from the prophetic 
word, to believe that so it shall actually be ; that the last triumph 
of the Man of Sin shall not be achieved without a glorious struggle 
first, on the part of those who are leal-hearted to Zion s King. But 
if we would really wish to do anything effectual in this warfare, it is 
indispensable that we know, and continually keep before our eyes, 
the stupendous character of that Mystery of Iniquity embodied in 
the Papacy that we have to grapple with. Popery boasts of being 
the " old religion ; " and truly, from what we have seen, it appears 
that it is ancient indeed. It can trace its lineage far beyond the 
era of Christianity, back over 4000 years, to near the period of the 
Flood and the building of the Tower of Babel. During all that period 
its essential elements have been nearly the same, and these elements 
have a peculiar adaptation to the corruption of human nature. 
Most seem to think that Popery is a system merely to be scouted 
and laughed at ; but the Spirit of God everywhere characterises it 
in quite a different way. Every statement in the Scripture shows 
that it was truly described when it was characterised as "Satan s 
Masterpiece" the perfection of his policy for deluding and en 
snaring the world. It is not the state-craft of politicians, the 
wisdom of philosophers, or the resources of human science, that 
can cope with the wiles and subtleties of the Papacy. Satan, who 
inspires it, has triumphed over all these again and again. Why, 
the very nations where the worship of the Queen of Heaven, 
with all its attendant abominations, has flourished most in all 
ages, have been precisely the most civilised, the most polished, 
the most distinguished for arts and sciences. Babylon, where it 
took its rise, was the cradle of astronomy. Egypt, that nursed 
it in its bosom, was the mother of all the arts ; the Greek cities of 
Asia Minor, where it found a refuge when expelled from Chaldea, 
were famed for their poets and philosophers, among the former 
Homer himself being numbered ; and the nations of the European 
Continent, where literature has long been cultivated, are now pro- 


strate before it. Physical force, no doubt, is at present employed 
in its behalf ; but the question arises, How comes it that this system, 
of all others, can so prevail as to get that physical force to obey 
its behests 1 No answer can be given but this, that Satan, the god 
of this world, exerts his highest power in its behalf. Physical force 
has not always been on the side of the Chaldean worship of the 
Queen of Heaven. Again and again has power been arrayed against 
it ; but hitherto every obstacle it has surmounted, every difficulty 
it has overcome. Cyrus, Xerxes, and many of the Medo-Persian 
kings, banished its priests from Babylon, and laboured to root it 
out of their empire ; but then it found a secure retreat in Pergamos, 
and " Satan s seat " was erected there. The glory of Pergamos and 
the cities of Asia Minor departed ; but the worship of the Queen of 
Heaven did not wane. It took a higher flight, and seated itself on 
the throne of Imperial Rome. That throne was subverted. The 
Arian Goths came burning with fury against the worshippers of the 
Virgin Queen ; but still that worship rose buoyant above all attempts 
to put it down, and the Arian Goths themselves were soon prostrate 
at the feet of the Babylonian goddess, seated in glory on the seven 
hills of Rome. In more modern times, the temporal powers of 
all the kingdoms of Europe have expelled the Jesuits, the chief 
promoters of this idolatrous worship, from their dominions. France, 
Spain, Portugal, Naples, Rome itself, have all adopted the same 
measures, and yet what do we see at this hour 1 The same Jesuitism 
and the worship of the Virgin exalted above almost every throne 
on the Continent. When we look over the history of the last 
4000 years, what a meaning in the words of inspiration, that " the 
coming of the Man of Sin " is with the energy, " the mighty power 
of Satan." Now, is this the system that, year by year, has been 
rising into power in our own empire 1 And is it for a moment to be 
imagined that lukewarm, temporising, half-hearted Protestants can 
make any head against such a system ? No ; the time is come when 
Gideon s proclamation must be made throughout the camp of the 
Lord : " Whosoever is fearful and afraid, let him return and depart 
early from Mount Gilead." Of the old martyrs it is said, "They 
overcame by the blood of the Lamb and the word of their testimony, 
and they loved not their lives unto the death." The same self- 
denying, the same determined spirit, is needed now as much as ever 
it was. Are there none who are prepared to stand up, and in that 
very spirit to gird themselves for the great conflict that must come, 
before Satan shall be bound and cast into his prison-house 1 Can 
any one believe that such an event can take place without a 
tremendous struggle that " the god of this world " shall quietly 
consent to resign the power that for thousands of years he has 
wielded, without stirring up all his wrath, and putting forth all his 
energy and skill to prevent such a catastrophe. Who, then, is on 
the Lord s side 1 If there be those who, within the last few years, 
have been revived and quickened stirred up, not by mere human 
excitement, but by the Almighty grace of God s Spirit, what is the 


gracious design of this I Is it merely that they themselves may 
be delivered from the wrath to come 1 No ; it is that, zealous for 
the glory of their Lord, they may act the parts of true witnesses, 
contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints, and 
maintain the honour of Christ in opposition to him who blasphemously 
usurps his prerogatives. If the servants of Antichrist are faithful 
to their master, and unwearied in promoting his cause, shall it be 
said that the servants of Christ are less faithful to theirs 1 If none 
else will bestir themselves, surely to the generous hearts of the 
young and rising ministry of Christ, in the kindness of their youth, 
and the love of their espousals, the appeal shall not be made in vain, 
when the appeal is made in the name of Him whom their souls love, 
that in this grand crisis of the Church and of the world, they should 
"come to the help of the Lord the help of the Lord against the 
mighty," that they should do what in them lies to strengthen the 
hands and encourage the hearts of those who are seeking to stem 
the tide of apostacy, and to resist the efforts of the men who are 
labouring with such zeal, and with so much of infatuated patronage 
on the part of "the powers that be," to bring this land back again 
under the power of the Man of Sin. To take such a part, and 
steadily and perseveringly to pursue it, amid so much growing 
lukewarmness, it is indispensable that the servants of Christ set 
their faces as a flint. But if they have grace so to do, they shall 
not do so without a rich reward at last ; and in time they have the 
firm and faithful promise that "as their day is, so shall their strength 
be." For all who wish truly to perform their part as good soldiers 
of Jesus Christ, there is the strongest and richest encouragement. 
With the blood of Christ on the conscience, with the Spirit of Christ 
warm and working in the heart, with our Father s name on our 
forehead, and our life, as well as our lips, consistently bearing 
u testimony " for God, we shall be prepared for every event. But 
it is not common grace that will do for uncommon times. If there 
be indeed such prospects before us, as I have endeavoured to prove 
there are, then we must live, and feel, and act as if we heard every 
day resounding in our ears the words of the great Captain of our 
Salvation, " To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with Me 
on My throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with My 
Father on His throne. Be thou faithful unto death, and I will 
give thee a crown of life." 

Lastly, I appeal to every reader of this work, if it does not 
contain an argument for the divinity of the Scriptures, as well as 
an exposure of the impostures of Rome. Surely, if one thing more 
than another be proved in the previous pages, it is this, that the 
Bible is no cunningly devised fable, but that holy men of God of 
old spake and wrote as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. What 
can account for the marvellous unity in all the idolatrous systems 
of the world, but that the facts recorded in the early chapters of 
Genesis were real transactions, in which, as all mankind were 
involved, so all mankind have preserved in their various systems, 



distinct and undeniable memorials of them, though those who have 
preserved them have long lost the true key to their meaning ? 
What, too, but Omniscience could have foreseen that a system, such 
as that of the Papacy, could ever effect an entrance into the 
Christian Church, and practise and prosper as it has done 1 ? How 
could it ever have entered into the heart of John, the solitary exile 
of Patmos, to imagine, tuat any of the professed disciples of that 
Saviour whom he loved, and who said, " My kingdom is not of this 
world," should gather up and systematise all the idolatry and super 
stition and immorality of the Babylon of Belshazzar, introduce it 
into the bosom of the Church, and, by help of it, seat themselves 
on the throne of the Csesars, and there, as the high-priests of the 
Queen of Heaven, and gods upon earth, for 1200 years, rule the 
nations with a rod of iron 1 Human foresight could never have 
done this ; but all this the exile of Patmos has done. His pen, then, 
must have been guided by Him who sees the end from the beginning, 
and who calleth the things that be not as though they were. And 
if the wisdom of God now shines forth so brightly from the Divine 
expression "Babylon the Great," into which such an immensity 
of meaning has been condensed, ought not that to lead us the more 
to reverence and adore the same wisdom that is in reality stamped 
on every page of the inspired Word ? Ought it not to lead us to 
say with the Psalmist, " Therefore, I esteem all Thy commandments 
concerning all things to be right " 1 The commandments of God, 
to our corrupt and perverse minds, may sometimes seem to be hard. 
They may require us to do what is painful, they may require us to 
forego what is pleasing to flesh and blood. But, whether we know 
the reason of these commandments or no, if we only know that they 
come from " the only wise God, our Saviour," we may be sure that 
in the keeping of them there is great reward ; we may go blindfold 
wherever the Word of God may lead us, and rest in the firm 
conviction that, in so doing, we are pursuing the very path of safety 
and peace. Human wisdom at the best is but a blind guide ; human 
policy is a meteor that dazzles and leads astray ; and they who 
follow it walk in darkness, and know not whither they are going ; 
but he " that walketh uprightly," that walks by the rule of God s 
infallible Word, will ever find that " he walketh surely," and that 
whatever duty he has to perform, whatever danger he has to face, 
" great peace have all they that love God s law, and nothing shall 
offend them." 


NOTE A, p. 6. 
Woman with Golden Cup. 

IN Pausanias we find an account of a goddess represented in the very 
attitude of the Apocalyptic " Woman." " But of this stone [Parian marble] 
Phidias," says he, " made a statue of Nemesis ; and on the head of the 
goddess there is a crown adorned with stags, and images of victory of no 
great magnitude. In her left hand, too, she holds a branch of an ash 
tree, and in her right A CUP, in which ^Ethiopians are carved." 
(PAUSANIAS, lib. i., Attica, cap. 33, p. 81.) Pausanias declares himself 
unable to assign any reason why " the Ethiopians " were carved on the 
cup ; but the meaning of the ^Ethiopians and the stags too will be apparent 
to all who read pp. 48, 49, and 50, &c., ante. We find, however, from 
statements made in the same chapter, that though Nemesis is commonly 
represented as the goddess of revenge, she must have been also known in 
quite a different character. Thus Pausanias proceeds, commenting on the 
statue : "But neither has this statue of the goddess wings. Among the 
Smyrneans, however, who possess the most holy images of Nemesis, I 
perceived afterwards that these statues had wings. For, as this goddess 
principally pertains to lovers, on this account they may be supposed to have 
given wings to Nemesis, as well as to love," i.e., Cupid. (Ibid.) The 
giving of wings to Nemesis, the goddess who "principally pertained to 
lovers," because Cupid, the god of love, bore them, implies that, in the 
opinion of Pausanias, she was the counterpart of Cupid, or the goddess of 
love that is, Venus. While this is the inference naturally to be deduced 
from the words of Pausanias, we find it confirmed by an express statement 
of Photius, speaking of the statue of Rhamnusian Nemesis : " She was at 
first erected in the form of Venus, and therefore bore also the branch of an 
apple tree." (PHOTII, Lexicon, pars. ii. p. 482.) Though a goddess of love 
and a goddess of revenge might seem very remote in their characters from 
one another, yet it is not difficult to see how this must have come about. 
The goddess who was revealed to the initiated in the Mysteries, in the 
most alluring manner, was also known to be most unmerciful and 
unrelenting in taking vengeance upon those who revealed these Mysteries ; 
for every such one who was discovered was unsparingly put to death. 
(POTTER S Antiquities, vol. i., " Eleusinia," p. 354.) Thus, then, the cup- 
bearing goddess was at once Venus, the goddess of licentiousness, and 
Nemesis, the stern and unmerciful one to all who rebelled against her 
authority. How remarkable a type of the woman, whom John saw, 
described in one aspect as the " Mother of harlots," and in another as 
" Drunken with the blood of the saints " ! 



NOTE B, p. 6. 
Hebrew Chronology. 

Dr. Hales has attempted to substitute the longer chronology of the 
Septuagint tor the Hebrew chronology. But this implies that the* Hebrew 
Church, as a body, was not faithful to the trust committed to it in respect 
to the keeping of the Scriptures, which seems distinctly opposed to the 
testimony of our Lord in reference to these Scriptures (John v. 39 ; x. 35), 
and also to that of Paul (Rom. iii. 2), where there is not the least hint of 
unfaithfulness. Then we can find a reason that might induce the 
translators of the Septuagint in Alexandria to lengthen out the period of the 
ancient history of the world ; we can find no reason to induce the Jews in 
Palestine to shorten it. The Egyptians had long, fabulous eras in their 
history, and Jews dwelling in Egypt might wish to make their sacred 
history go as far back as they could, and the addition of just one hundred 
years in each case, as in the Septuagint, to the ages of the patriarchs, looks 
wonderfully like an intentional forgery ; whereas we cannot imagine why 
the Palestine Jews should make any change in regard to this matter at all. 
It is well known that the Septuagint contains innumerable gross errors and 

Bunsen casts overboard all Scriptural chronology whatever, whether 
Hebrew, Samaritan, or Greek, and sets up the unsupported dynasties of 
Manetho, as if they were sufficient to over-ride the Divine word as to a 
question of historical fact. But, if the Scriptures are not historically true, 
we can have no assurance of their truth at all. Now it is worthy of 
notice that, though Herodotus vouches for the fact that at one time there 
were no fewer than twelve contemporaneous kings in Egypt, Manetho, as 
observed by Wilkinson (vol. i. p. 148), has made no allusion to this, but 
has made his Thinite, Memphite, and Diospolitan dynasties of kings, and 
a long etcetera of other dynasties, all successive ! 

The period over which the dynasties of Manetho extend, beginning with 
Menee, the first king of these dynasties, is in itself a very lengthened 
period, and surpassing all rational belief. But Bunsen, not content with 
this, expresses his very confident persuasion that there had been long lines 
of powerful monarchs in Upper and Lower Egypt, " during a period of 
from two to four thousand years " (vol. i. p. 72), even before the reign of 
Menes. In coming to such a conclusion, he plainly goes upon the supposi 
tion that the name Mizraim, which is the Scriptural name of the land of 
Egypt, and is evidently derived from the name of the son of Ham, and 
grandson of Noah, is not, after all, the name of a person, but the name of 
the united kingdom formed under Menes out of " the two Misr," " Upper 
and Lower Egypt " (Ibid. p. 73), which had previously existed as separate 
kingdoms, the name Misrim, according to him, being a plural word. This 
derivation of the name Mizraim, or Misrim, as a plural word, infallibly 
leaves the impression that Mizraim, the son of Ham, must be only a 
mythical personage. But there is no real reason for thinking that Mizraim 
is a plural word, or that it became the name of " the land of Ham," from 
any other reason than because that land was also the land of Ham s son. 
Mizraim, as it stands in the Hebrew of Genesis, without the points, is 
Metzrim ; and Metzr-iin signifies " The encloser or embanker of the sea " 
(the word being derived from Jm, the same as Yam, " the sea," and Tzr, 
" to enclose," with the formative M prefixed). 

If the accounts which ancient history has handed down to us of the 
original state of Egypt be correct, the first man who formed a settlement 
there must have done the very thing implied in this name. Diodorug 
Siculus tells us that, in primitive times, that which, when he wrote, " was 


)t, was said to have been not a country, but one universal sea" (DiOD., 
libl "hi. p. 106.) Plutarch also says (De Iside, vol. ii. p. 367) that Egypt 
was sea. From Herodotus, too, we have very striking evidence to the same 
effect. He excepts the province of Thebes from his statement ; but when 
it is seen that "the province of Thebes" did not belong to Mizraim, or 
Egypt proper, which, says the author of the article "Mizraim" in Biblical 
Cyclopedia, p. 598, " properly denotes Lower Egypt ; " * the testimony of 
Herodotus will be seen entirely to agree with that of Diodorus and 
Plutarch. His statemant is, that in the reign of the first king, " the whole 
of Egypt (except the province of Thebes) was an extended marsh. No 
part of that which is now situate beyond the lake Moeris was to be seen, 
the distance between which lake and the sea is a journey of seven days." 
(HERODOT., lib. ii. cap. 4.) Thus all Mizraim or Lower Egypt was under 

This state of the country arose from the unrestrained overflowing of the 
Nile, which, to adopt the language of Wilkinson (vol. i. p. 89), " formerly 
washed the foot of the sandy mountains of the Lybian chain." Now, 
before Egypt could be fit for being a suitable place for human abode 
before it could become what it afterwards did become, one of the most 
fertile of all lands, it was indispensable that bounds should be set to the 
overflowings of the sea (for by the very name of the Ocean, or Sea, the Nile 
was anciently called, DIODORUS, lib. i. p. 8), and that for this purpose 
great embankments should enclose or confine its waters. If Ham s son, then, 
led a colony into Lower Egypt and settled it there, this very work he 
must have done. And what more natural than that a name should be 
given him in memory of his great achievement ? and what name so exactly 
descriptive as Metzr-im, "The embanker of the sea," or as the name is 
found at this day applied to all Egypt (WILKINSON, vol. i. p. 2), Musr or 
Misr ? Names always tend^to abbreviation in the mouths of a people, and, 
therefore, " The land of Misr " is evidently just " The land of the embanker." 
From this statement it follows that the "embanking of the sea" the 
" enclosing " of it within certain bounds, was the making of it as a river, so 
far as lower Egypt was concerned. Viewing the matter in this light, what 
a meaning is there in the Divine language in Ezekiel xxix. 3, where 
judgments are denounced against the king of Egypt, the representative of 
Metzr-im, " The embanker of the sea," for his pride : " Behold, I am 
against thee, Pharaoh, king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the 
midst of his rivers, which saith, My river is mine own, I have made it for 

When we turn to what is recorded of the doings of Menes, who, by 
Herodotus, Manetho, and Diodorus alike, is made the first historical king 
of Egypt, and compare what is said of him, with this simple explanation of 
the meaning of the name of Mizraim, how does the one cast light on the 
other ? Thus does Wilkinson describle the great work which entailed fame 
on Meues, " who," says he, " is allowed by universal consent to have been 
the first sovereign of the country." " Having diverted the course of the 
Nile, which formerly washed the foot of the sandy mountains of the Lybian 
chain, he obliged it to run in the centre of the valley, nearly at an equal 
distance between the two parallel ridges of mountains which border it on 
the east and west ; and built the city of Memphis in the bed of the 
ancient channel. This change was effected by constructing a dyke about a 
hundred stadia above the site of the projected city, whose lofty mounds 
and strong EMBANKMENTS turned the water to the eastward, and effectually 
CONFINED the river to its new bed. The dyke was carefully kept in 

~ The same view of the extent of Mizraim is taken by the Rev. II. JAMIESON in PAXTON S 
Illustrations of Scripture, vol. i. p. 198 ; and in Krrro s Illustrated Comment., vol. iv. p. 110. 


repair by succeeding kings ; and, even as late as the Persian invasion, 
a guard was always maintained there, to overlook the necessary repairs, 
and to watch over the state of the embankments." (Egyptians, vol. i. 
p. 89.) 

When we see that Menes, the first of the acknowledged historical kings 
of Egypt, accomplished that very achievement which is implied in the 
name of Mizraim, who can resist "the conclusion that Menes and Mizraim 
are only two different names for the same person? And if so, what 
becomes of Bunsen s vision of powerful dynasties of sovereigns " during a 
period of from two to four thousand years " before the reign of Menes, by 
which all Scriptural chronology respecting Noah and his sons was to be 
upset, when it turns out that Menes must have been Mizraim, the grandson 
of Noah himself ? Thus does Scripture contain, within its own bosom, the 
means of vindicating itself ; and thus do its minutest statements, even in 
regard to matters of fact, when thoroughly understood, shed surprising 
light on the dark parts of the history of the world. 

NOTE C, p. 21. 
Shing Moo and Ma Tsoopo of China. 

The name of Shing Moo, applied by the Chinese to their " Holy 
Mother," compared with another name of the same goddess in another 
province of China, strongly favours the conclusion that Shing Moo is just 
a synonym for one of the well-known names of the goddess-mother of 
Babylon. Gillespie (in his Land of Sinim, p. 64) states that the Chinese 
goddess-mother, or " Queen of Heaven," in the province of Fuh-kien, is 
worshipped by seafaring people under the name of Ma Tsoopo. Now, 
" Ama Tzupah " signifies the " Gazing Mother ; " and there is much reason 
to believe that Shing Moo signifies the same ; for Mu was one of the forms 
in which Mut or Maut, the name of the great mother, appeared in Egypt 
(BUNSEN S Vocabulary, vol. i. p. 471) ; and Shngh, in Chaldee, signifies 
" to look " or " gaze." The Egyptian Mu or Maut was symbolised either 
by a vulture, or an eye surrounded by a vulture s wings (WILKINSON, vol. v. 
p. 203). The symbolic meaning of the vulture may be learned from the 
Scriptural expression : u There is a path which 110 fowl knoweth, and which 
the vulture s eye hath not seen " (Job xxviii. 7). The vulture was noted 
for its sharp sight, and hence, the eye surrounded by the vulture s wings 
showed that, for some reason or other, the great mother of the gods in 
Egypt had been known as " The gazer." But the idea contained in the 
Egyptian symbol had evidently been borrowed from Chaldea ; for Rheia, 
one of the most noted names of the Babylonian mother of the gods, is just 
the Chaldee form of the Hebrew Rhaah, which signifies at once " a gazing 
woman" and a "vulture." The Hebrew Rhaah itself is also, according to 
a dialectical variation, legitimately pronounced Kheah ; and hence the 
name of the great goddess-mother of Assyria was sometimes Rhea, and 
sometimes Rheia. In Greece, the same idea was evidently attached to 
Athena or Minerva, whom we have seen to have been by some regarded as 
the Mother of the children of the sun (see ante, p. 20, Note). For one of 
her distinguishing titles was Ophthalmitis (SMITH S Classical Dictionary, 
"Athena," p. 101), thereby pointing her out as the goddess of "the eye." 
It was no doubt to indicate the same thing that, as the Egyptian Maut 
wore a vulture on her head, so the Athenian Minerva was represented as 
wearing a helmet with two eyes, or eye-holes, in the front of the helmet. 
(VAUX S Antiquities, p. 186.) 

Having thus traced the gazing mother over the earth, is it asked, What 
can have given origin to such a name as applied to the mother of the gods ? 


A fragment of Saiichuniathon (pp. 16-19), in regard to the Phenician 
mythology, furnishes us with a satisfactory reply. There it is said that 
Rheia conceived by Kronos, who was her own brother, and yet was known 
as the father of the gods, and in consequence brought forth a son who was 
called Muth, that is, as Philo-Byblius correctly interprets the word, 
" Death." As Sanchuniathon expressly distinguishes this " father of the 
gods" from "Hypsistos," The Most High,* we naturally recall what Hesiod 
says in regard to his Kronos, the father of the gods, who, for a certain 
wicked deed, was called Titan, and cast down to hell. (Theogonia, 1. 207, 
p. 18.) The Kronos to whom Hesiod refers is evidently at bottom a 
different Kronos from the human father of the gods, or Nimrod, whose 
history occupies so large a place in this work. He is plainly none other 
than Satan himself ; the name Titan, or Teitan, as it is sometimes given, 
being, as we have elsewhere concluded (pp. 275, 276), only the Chaldee 
form of Sheitan, the common name of the grand Adversary among the 
Arabs, in the very region where the Chaldean Mysteries were originally 
concocted, that Adversary who was ultimately the real father of all the 
Pagan gods, and who (to make the title of Kronos, "the Horned One," 
appropriate to him also) was symbolised by the Kerastes, or Horned 
serpent. All " the brethren " of this father of the gods, who were 
implicated in his rebellion against his own father, the " God of Heaven," 
were equally called by the "reproachful" name "Titans" ; but, inasmuch 
as he was the ringleader in the rebellion, he was, of course. Titan by way of 
eminence. In this rebellion of Titan, the goddess of the earth was 
concerned, and the result was that (removing the figure under which 
Hesiod has hid the fact) it became naturally impossible that the 
God of Heaven should have children upon earth a plain allusion to 
the Fall. 

Now, assuming that this is the " Father of the gods," by whom Rhea, 
whose common title is that of the Mother of the gods, and who is also 
identified with Ge, or the Earth-goddess, had the child called Muth, or 
Death, who could this " Mother of the gods " be, but just our Mother Eve ? 
And the name Rhea, or " The Gazer," bestowed on her, is wondrously 
significant. It was as " the gazer " that the mother of mankind conceived 
by Satan, and brought forth that deadly birth, under which the world has 
hitherto groaned. It was through her eyes that the fatal connection was 
first formed between her and the grand Adversary, under the form of a 
serpent, whose name, Nahash, or Nachash, as it stands in the Hebrew of 
the Old Testament, also signifies " to view attentively," or " to gaze : " 
(Gen. iii. 6) " And when the woman saw? that the tree was good for food, 
and pleasant to the eyes," &c., " she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat ; 
and gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat." Here, then, we 
have the pedigree of sin and death ; " Lust, when it had conceived, brought 
forth sin ; and sin, when it was finished, brought forth death " (James i. 15). 
Though Muth, or Death, was the son of Rhea, this progeny of hers came to 
be regarded, not as Death in the abstract, but as the god of death ; there 
fore, says Philo-Byblius, Muth was interpreted not only as death, but as 
Pluto. (SANCHUN., p. 24.) In the Roman mythology, Pluto was regarded 
as on a level, for honour, with Jupiter (OviD, Fasti, lib. vii. 578) ; and in 
Egypt, we have evidence that Osiris, " the seed of the woman," was the 
" Lord of heaven," and king of hell, or " Pluto " (WILKINSON, vol. iv. 
p. 63 ; BDNSEN, vol. i. pp. 431, 432) ; and it can be shown by a large 
induction of particulars (and the reader has somewhat of the evidence 
presented in this volume), that he was none other than the Devil himself, 

" In reading Sanchuniathon, it is necessary to bear in mind what Philo-Byblius, his 
translator, states at the end of the Phenician History viz., that history and mythology were 
mingled together in that work. 


supposed to have become incarnate ; who, though through the first trans 
gression, and his connection with the woman, he had brought sin and 
death into the world, had, nevertheless, by means of them, brought 
innumerable benefits to mankind. As the name Pluto has the very same 
meaning as Saturn, " The hidden one," so, whatever other aspect this name 
had, as applied to the father of the gods, it is to Satan, the Hidden Lord of 
hell, ultimately that all came at last to be traced back ; for the different 
myths about Saturn, when carefully examined, show that he was at once 
the Devil, the father of all sin and idolatry, who hid himself under the 
disguise of the serpent, and Adam, who hid himself among the trees of 
the garden, and Noah, who lay hid for a whole year in the ark, and 
Nimrod, who was hid in the secrecy of the Babylonian Mysteries. It was 
to glorify Nimrod that the whole Chaldean system of iniquity was formed. 
He was known as Nin, "the son," and his wife as Ehea, who was called 
Arnmas, " The Mother." The name Rhea, as applied to Semiramis, had 
another meaning from what it had when applied to her, who was really the 
primeval goddess, the "mother of gods and men." But yet, to make out 
the full majesty of her character, it was necessary that she should be 
identified with that primeval goddess ; and, therefore, although the son she 
bore in her arms was represented as he who was born to destroy death, yet 
she was often represented with the very symbols of her who brought death 
into the world. And so was it also in the different countries where the 
Babylonian system spread. 

NOTE D, p. 32. 

The name " Ala-Mahozim " is never, so far as I know, found in any 
ancient uninspired author, and in the Scripture itself it is found only in a 
prophecy. Considering that the design of prophecy is always to leave a 
certain obscurity before the event, though giving enough, of light for the 
practical guidance of the upright, it is not to be wondered at that an 
unusual word should be employed to describe the divinity in question. 
But, though this precise name be not found, we have a synonym that can 
be traced home to Nimrod. In SANCHUNIATHON, pp. 24, 25, " Astarte, 
travelling about the habitable world," is said to have found " a star falling 
through the air, which she took up and consecrated in the holy island 
Tyre." Now what is this story of the falling star but just another version 
of the fall of Mulciber from heaven (see ante, p. 233), or of Nimrod from 
his high estate ? for as we have already seen, Macrobius shows (Saturn., 
lib. i., cap. 21, p. 70) that the story of Adonis the lamented one so 
favourite a theme in Phenicia, originally came from Assyria. The name 
of the great god in the holy island of Tyre, as is well known, was Melkart 
(KiTTo s Illus. Comm-ent., vol. ii. p. 300), but this name, as brought from 
Tyre to Carthage, and from thence to Malta (which was colonised from 
Carthage), where it is found on a monument at this day, casts no little 
light on the subject. The name Melkart is thought by some to have been 
derived from Melek-eretz, or "king of the earth" (WILKINSON, vol. v. 
p. 18) ; but the way in which it is sculptured in Malta shows that it was 
really Melek-kart, " king of the walled city." (See WILKINSON S Errata 
prefixed to vol. v.) Kir, the same as the Welsh Caer, found in Caer-narvon, 
&c., signifies " an encompassing wall," or a " city completely walled 
round ;" and Kart was the feminine form of the same word, as may be 
seen in the different forms of the name of Carthage, which is sometimes 
Car-chedon, and sometimes Cart-hada or Cart-hago. In the Book of 


Proverbs we find a slight variety of the feminine form of Kart, which 
seems evidently used in the sense of a bulwark or a fortification. Thus 
(Prov. x. 15) we read : "A rich man s wealth is his strong city" (Karit), 
that is, his strong bulwark or defence. Melk-kart, then, " king of the 
walled city, 5 conveys the very same idea as Ala-Mahozim. In GRUTER S 
Inscriptions, as quoted by Bryant, we find a title also given to Mars, the 
Koman war-god, exactly coincident in meaning with that of Melkart. We 
have elsewhere seen abundant reason to conclude that the original of Mars 
was Nimrod (p. 44, Note). The title to which I refer confirms this con 
clusion, and is contained in the following Roman inscription on an ancient 
temple in Spain : 

" Malacse Hispanise 
Templum communi voto 

(See BRYANT, vol. ii. p. 454.) This title shows that the temple was 
dedicated to " Mars Kir-aden," the lord of " The Kir," or " walled city." 
The Roman C, as is well known, is hard, like K ; and Adon, " Lord," is 
also Aden. Now, with this clue to guide us, we can unravel at once what 
has hitherto greatly puzzled mythologists in regard to the name of Mars 
Quirinus as distinguished from Mars Gradivus. The K in Kir is what in 
Hebrew or Chaldee is called Koph, a different letter from Kape, and is 
frequently pronounced as a Q. Quir-inus, therefore, signifies " belonging 
to the walled city," and refers to the security which was given to cities by 
encompassing walls. Gradivus, on the other hand, comes from "Grah," 
"conflict, and "divus," "god," a different form of Deus, which has been 
already shown to be a Chaldee term ; and therefore signifies " God 
of battle." Both these titles exactly answer to the two characters 
of Nimrod, as the great city builder and the great warrior, and that 
both these distinctive characters were set forth by the two names referred 
to, we have distinct evidence in Fuss s Antiquities, chap. iv. p. 348. "The 
Romans," says he, " worshipped two idols of the kind [that is, gods under 
the name of Mars], the one called Quirinus, the guardian of the city and its 
peace; the other called Gradivus, greedy of war and slaughter, whose 
temple stood beyond the city s boundaries." 

NOTE E, p. 42. 
Meaning of the name Centaurus. 

The ordinary classical derivation of this name gives little satisfaction ; 
for, even though it could be derived from words that signify "Bull-killers" 
(and the derivation itself is but lame), such a meaning casts no light at all 
on the history of the Centaurs. Take it as a Chaldee word, and it will be 
seen at once that the whole history of the primitive Kentaurus entirely 
agrees with the history of Nimrod, with whom we have already identified 
him. Kentaurus is evidently derived from Kehn, "a priest," and Tor, 
"to go round." "Kehn-Tor," therefore, is "Priest of the revolver," that 
is, of the sun, which, to appearance, makes a daily revolution round the 
earth. The name for a priest, as written, is just Khn, and the vowel is 
supplied according to the different dialects of those who pronounce it, so 
as to make it either Kohn, Kahn, or Kehn. Tor, " the revolver," as applied 
to the sun, is evidently just another name for the Greek Zen or Zan applied 
to Jupiter, as identified with the snn, which signifies the "Eiicircler" or 
" Encompasser," the very word from which comes our own word "Sun," 


which, in Anglo-Saxon, was Sunna (MALLET, Glossary, p. 565, London, 
1847), and of which we find distinct traces in Egypt in the term snnu 
(BUNSEN B Vocab., vol. i. p. 546), as applied to the sun s orbit. The 
Hebrew Zon or Zawon, to " encircle," from which these words come, in 
Chaldee becomes Don or Dawon, and thus we penetrate the meaning of the 
name given by the Boeotians to the " Mighty hunter," Orion. That name 
was Kandaon, as appears from the following words of the Scholiast on 
Lycophron, quoted in BRYANT, vol. iv. p. 154 : " Orion, whom the 
Bceotians call also Kandaon." Kahn-daon, then, and Kehn-tor, were just 
different names for the same office the one meaning " Priest of the 
Encircler," the other, " Priest of the revolver " titles evidently equivalent 
to that of Bol-kahn, or " Priest of Baal, or the Sun," which, there can be 
no doubt, was the distinguishing title of Nimrod. As the title of Cen- 
taurus thus exactly agrees with the known position of Nimrod, so the 
history of the father of the Centaurs does the same. We have seen 
already that, though Ixion was, by the Greeks, made the father of that 
mythical race, even they themselves admitted that the Centaurs had a 
much higher origin, and consequently that Ixion, which seems to be a 
Grecian name, had taken the place of an earlier name, according to that 
propensity particularly noticed by Salverte, which has often led mankind 
"to apply to personages known in one time and one country, myths which 
they have borrowed from another country and an earlier epoch " (Des 
Sciences, Appendix, p. 483). Let this only "be admitted to be the case here 
let only the name of Ixion be removed, and it will be seen that all that 
is said of the father of the Centaurs, or Horsemen-archers, applies exactly 
to Nimrod, as represented by the different myths that refer to the first 
progenitor of these Centaurs. First, then, Centaurus is represented as 
having been taken up to heaven (DYMOCK, sub voce " Ixion "), that is, as 
having been highly exalted through special favour of heaven ; then, in that 
state of exaltation, he is said to have fallen in love with Nephele, who 
passed under the name of Juno, the " Queen of Heaven." The story here is 
intentionally confused, to mystify the vulgar, and the order of events 
seems changed, which can easily be accounted for. As Nephele in Greek 
.signifies "a cloud," so the offspring of Centaurus are said to have been 
produced by a "cloud." But Nephele, in the language of the country 
where the fable was orginally framed, signified " A fallen woman," and it 
is from that " fallen woman," therefore, that the Centaurs are really said to 
have sprung. Now, the story of Nimrod, as Ninus, is, that he fell in love 
with Semiramis when she was another man s wife, and took her for his 
own wife, whereby she became doubly fallen fallen as a woman* and 
fallen from the primitive faith in which she must have been brought up ; 
and it is well known that this " fallen woman " was, under the name of 
Juno, or the Dove, after her death, worshipped among the Babylonians. 
Centaurus, for his presumption and pride, was smitten with lightning by 
the supreme God, and cast down to hell (DYMOCK, sub voce " Ixion "). This, 
then, is just another version of the story of Phaethon, ^Esculapius, and 
Orpheus, who were all smitten in like manner and for a similar cause. In 
the infernal world, the father of the Centaurs is represented as tied by 
serpents to awheel which perpetually revolves, and thus makes his punish 
ment eternal (DYMOCK, Ibid.). In the serpents there is evidently reference 
to one of the two emblems of the fire-worship of Nimrod. If he introduced 
the worship of the serpent, as I have endeavoured to show (p. 228), there 
was poetical justice in making the serpent an instrument of his punishment. 
Then the revolving wheel very clearly points to the name Centaurus itself, 

* Nepheltt was used, even in Greece, as the name of a woman, the degraded wife of Athamas 
being BO called. (SMITH S Class. Diet., tub voce " Athamas," p. 110). 


as denoting the " Priest of the revolving sun." To the worship of the sun 
in the character of the " Revolver," there was a very distinct allusion not 
only in the circle which, among the Pagans, was the emblem of the sun- 
god, and the blazing wheel with which he was so frequently represented 
(WiLSON s Par si Religion, p. 31), "but in the circular dances of the Bac 
chanalians. Hence the phrase, "Bassaridum rotator Evan" "The wheel 
ing Evan of the Bacchantes" (STATIUS, Sylv., lib. ii., s. 7, v. 7, p. 118). 
Hence, also, the circular dances of the Druids as referred to in the 
following quotation from a Druidic song : " Ruddy was the sea beach 
whilst the circular revolution was performed by the attendants and the 
white bands in graceful extravagance" (DAVIES S Druids, p. 172). That 
this circular dance among the Pagan idolators really had reference to the 
circuit of the sun, we find from the distinct statement of Lucian in his 
treatise On Dancing, where, speaking of the circular dance of the ancient 
Eastern nations, he says, with express reference to the sun-god, "it consisted 
in a dance imitating this god " (LuciAN, vol. ii. p. 278). We see then, 
here, a very specific reason for the circular dance of the Baccha3, and for 
the ever-revolving wheel of the great Centaurus in the infernal regions. 

NOTE F, p. 72. 
Olenos, the Sin-Bearer. 

In different portions of this work evidence has been brought to show 
that Saturn, "the father of gods and men," was in one aspect just our first 
parent Adam. Now, of Saturn it is said that he devoured all his children.* 
In the exoteric story, among those who knew not the actual fact referred to, 
this naturally appeared in the myth, in the shape in which we commonly 
find it viz., that he devoured them all as soon as they were born. But 
that which was really couched under the statement, in regard to his 
devouring his children, was just the Scriptural fact of the Fall viz., that 
he destroyed them by eating not by eating them, but by eating the forbidden 
fruit. When this was the sad and dismal state of matters, the Pagan story 
goes on to say that the destruction of the children of the father of gods and 
men was arrested by means of his wife, Rhea. Rhea, as we have already 
seen, had really as much to do with the devouring of Saturn s children, as 
Saturn himself ; but, in the progress of idolatry and apostacy, Rhea, or 
Eve, came to get glory at Saturn s expense. Saturn, or Adam, was repre 
sented as a morose divinity ; Rhea, or Eve, exceedingly benignant ; and, in 
her benignity, she presented to her husband a stone * bound in swaddling 
bands, which he greedily devoured, and henceforth the children of the 
cannibal father were safe.f The stone bound in swaddling bands is, in the 
sacred language, "Ebn Hatul ;" but Ebn-Hat-tul J also signifies "A sin- 
bearing eon." This does not necessarily mean that Eve, or the mother of 
mankind, herself actually brought forth the promised seed (although there 
are many myths also to that effect), but that, having received the glad 
tidings herself, and embraced it, she presented it to her husband, who 
received it by faith from her, and that this laid the foundation of his own 
salvation and that of his posterity. The devouring on the part of Saturn 

* Sometimes he is said to have devoured only his male children ; but see SMITH S (Larger) 
Clc.ssicaJ- Dictionary, sub voce "Hera," where it will be found that the female as well as the 
male were devoured. 

t HESIOD, ThKogonia, 11. 485, <fec., pp. 38-41. 

J Hata, "sin," is found also in Chaldee, Hat. (See CLAVI& STOCKII, p. 1329.) Tul is from 
Ntl, "to support." If the reader will look at Horus with his swathes (BRYA.NT, vol. iii. 
plate 22); Diana with the bandages round her legs (see ante, p. 29); the symbolic bull of the 
Persians swathed in like manner (BRYANT, vol. i. plate 5, p. 367), and even the shapeless log 
of the Tahitians, used as a god and bound about with ropes (WILLIAMS, p. 31); he will see, 
I think, that there must be some important mystery in this swathing. 


of the swaddled stone is just the symbolical expression of the eagerness 
with which Adam by faith received the good news of the woman s seed ; 
for the act of faith, both in the Old Testament and in the New, is symbol 
ised by eating. Thus Jeremiah says, "Thy words were found of me, and I 
did eat them, and Thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of my 
heart" (Jer. xv. 16). This also is strongly shown by our Lord Jesus 
Christ Himself, who, while setting before the Jews the indispensable 
necessity of eating His flesh, and feeding on Him, did at the same time say : 
" It is the Spirit that quickeneth ; the flesh profiteth nothing : the words 
that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life " (John vi. 63). 
That Adam eagerly received the good news about the promised seed, and 
treasured it up in his heart as the life of his soul, is evident from the name 
which he gave to his wife immediately after hearing it : " And Adam 
called his wife s name Eve, because she was the mother of all living ones " 
(Gen. iii. 20. See Dr. CANDLISH S Genesis, p. 108). 

The story of the swaddled stone does not end with the swallowing of it, 
and the arresting of the ruin of the children of Saturn. This swaddled 
stone was said to be " preserved near the temple of Delphi, where care was 
taken to anoint it daily with oil, and to cover it with wool" (MAURICE S 
Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 348). If this stone symbolised the "sin- 
bearing son," it of course symbolised also the Lamb of God, slain from the 
foundation of the world, in whose symbolic covering our first parents were 
invested when God clothed them in the coats of skins. Therefore, though 
represented to the eye as a stone, he must have the appropriate covering of 
wool. When represented as a branch, the branch of God, the branch also 
was wrapped in wool ( POTTER, vol. i., Eeligion of Greece, chap. v. p. 
208). The daily anointing with oil is very significant. If the stone repre 
sented the "sin-bearing son," what could the anointing of that "sin-bearing 
son" daily with oil mean, but just to point him out as the "Lord s 
Anointed," or the "Messiah," whom the idolaters worshipped in opposition 
to the true Messiah yet to be revealed ? 

One of the names by which this swaddled and anointed stone was called 
is very strikingly confirmatory of the above conclusion. That name is 
Baitulos. This we find from Priscian (lib. v., vol. i. p. 180, Note, and 
lib. vi., vol. i. p. 249), who, speaking of " that stone which Saturn is said 
to have devoured for Jupiter," adds, " quern Greed BaiTvXov vacant," whom 
the Greeks called " Baitulos." Now, " B hai-tuloh " * signifies the " Life- 
restoring child." * The father of gods and men had destroyed his children 
by eating ; but the reception of " the swaddled stone " is said to have 
" restored them to life" (HESIOD, Theogon., 1. 495, p. 41). Hence the name 
Baitulos ; and this meaning of the name is entirely in accordance with 
what is said in Sanchuniathon (lib. i., cap. 6, p. 22) about the Baithulia 
made by the Phenician god Ouranos : " It was the god Ouranos who 
devised Baithulia, contriving stones that moved as having life." If the 
stone Baitulos represented the "life-restoring child," it was natural that 
that stone should be made, if possible, to appear as having "life" in itself. 

Now, there is a great analogy between this swaddled stone that repre 
sented the "sin-bearing son," and that Olenos mentioned by Ovid, who 
took on him guilt not his own, and in consequence was changed into 

* From Tli, Tleh, or Tloh, " Infans puer" (CLAVIS STOCKII, Chald., p. 1342), and Hia, or 
Haya, "to live, to restore life." (&ESENIUS, p. 310.) From Hia, " to live," with digamma 
prefixed, comes the Greek Bios, life. That Hia, when adopted into Greek, was also pro 
nounced Haya, we have evidence in the noun Hiiro, "life," pronounced Hayyim, which in 
Greek is represented by at/ma, "blood." The Mosaic principle, that " the blood was the life," 
is thus proved to have been known by others besides the Jews. Now Haya, "to live or 
restore life," with the digamma prefixed, becomes B haya ; and so in Egypt, we find that Bai 
signified "soul," or "spirit" (BUNSEN, vol. i. p. 375), which is the living principle. B hai- 
tulos, then, is the " Life-restoring child." F haya-n is the same god. 



Fig. 60. 

a stone. We have seen already that Olenos, when changed into a stone, 
was set up in Phrygia on the holy mountain of Ida. We have reason to 
believe that the stone which was fabled to have done so much for the 
children of Saturn, and was set up near the temple of Delphi, was just 
a representation of this same Olenos. We find that Olen was the first 
prophet at Delphi, who founded the first temple there (PAUSANIAS, lib. x., 
Phocica, cap. 5, p. 321). As the prophets and priests generally bore the 
names of the gods whom they represented (Hesychius expressly tells us 
that the priest who represented the great god under the name of the 
branch in the Mysteries was himself called by the name of Bacchus, 
p. 179), this indicates one of the ancient names of the god of Delphi. 
If, then, there was a sacred stone on Mount Ida called the stone of Olenos, 
and a sacred stone in the precincts of the temple of Delphi, which Olen 
founded, can there be a doubt that the sacred stone of Delphi represented 
the same as was represented by the sacred stone of Ida 1 The swaddled 
stone set up at Delphi is expressly called 
by Priscian, in the place already cited, " a 
god." This god, then, that in symbol was 
divinely anointed, and was celebrated as 
having restored to life the children of 
Saturn, father of gods and men, as identified 
with the Ida3an Olenos, is proved to have 
been regarded as occupying the very place 
of the Messiah, the great Sin-bearer, who 
came to bear the sins of men, and took 
their place and suffered in their room and 
stead ; for Olenos, as we have seen, volun 
tarily took on him guilt of which he was 
personally free. 

While thus we have seen how much 
of the patriarchal faith was hid under 
the mystical symbols of Paganism, there 
is yet a circumstance to be noted in regard 
to the swaddled stone, that shows how the 
Mystery of Iniquity in Rome has con 
trived to import this swaddled stone of 
Paganism into what is called Christian 
symbolism. The Baitulos, or swaddled 
stone, was arpoyyvKos Xi0os (BRYANT, vol. 
ii. p. 20, Note), a round or globular stone. 
This globular stone is frequently represented swathed and bound, 
sometimes with more, sometimes with fewer bandages. In BRYANT, 
vol. iii. p. 246, where the goddess Cybele, is represented as " Spes 
Divina," or Divine hope, we see the foundation of this divine hope held 
out to the world in the representation of the swaddled stone at her right 
hand, bound with four different swathes. In DAVID S Antiquites Etrusques, 
vol. iv. plate 27, we find a goddess represented with Pandora s box, the 
source of all ill, in her extended hand, and the swaddled globe depending 
from it ; and in this case that globe has only two bandages, the one 
crossing the other. And what is this bandaged globe of Paganism but just 
the counterpart of that globe, with a band around it, and the mystic 
Tau or cross, on the top of it, that is called " the type of dominion," arid 
is frequently represented, as in the accompanying woodcut (Fig. 60),* 
in the hands of the profane representations of God the Father. The reader 
does not now need to be told that the cross is the chosen sign and mark 

* From DIDRON S Iconography, vol. i. p. 301. 


of that very God whom the swaddled stone represented ; and that when 
that God was born, it was said, " The Lord of all the earth is born " 
(WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 310). As the god symbolised by the swaddled 
stone not only restored the children of Saturn to life, but restored the 
lordship of the earth to Saturn himself, which by transgression he had 
lost, it is not to be wondered at that it is said of " these consecrated stones," 
that while " some were dedicated to Jupiter, and others to the sun," 
" they were considered in a more particular manner sacred to Saturn," 
the Father of the gods (MAURICE, vol. ii. p. 348), and that Rome, in 
consequence, has put the round stone into the hand of the image, bearing 
the profaned name of God the Father attached to it, and that from this 
source the bandaged globe, surmounted with the mark of Tammuz, has 
become the symbol of dominion throughout all Papal Europe. 

NOTE G, p. 75. 
The Identification of Rhea or Cybele and Venus. 

In the exoteric doctrine of Greece and Rome, the characters of Cybele, 
the mother of the gods, and of Venus, the goddess of love, are generally 
very distinct, insomuch that some minds may perhaps find no slight 
difficulty in regard to the identification of these two divinities. But that 
difficulty will disappear, if the fundamental principle of the Mysteries 
be borne in mind viz., that at bottom they recognised only Adad, " The 
One God" (see ante, pp. 14, 15, 16, Note). Adad being Triune, this left 
room, when the Babylonian Mystery of Iniquity took shape, for three 
different FORMS of divinity the father, the mother, and the son ; but all 
the multiform divinities with which the Pagan world abounded, whatever 
diversities there were among them, were resolved substantially into so 
many manifestations of one or other of these divine persons, or rather of 
two, for the first person was generally in the background. We have distinct 
evidence that this was the case. Apuleius tells us (vol. i. pp. 995, 996), 
that when he was initiated, the goddess Isis revealed herself to him as 
" The first of the celestials, and the uniform manifestation of the gods and 
goddesses .... WHOSE ONE SOLE DIVINITY the whole orb of the earth 
venerated, and under a manifold form, with different rites, and under 
a variety of appellations ; " and going over many of these appellations, she 
declares herself to be at once " Pessinuntica, the mother of the gods 
[i.e., Cybele], and Paphian Venus " (Ibid. p. 997). Now, as this was the 
case in the later ages of the Mysteries, so it must have been the case from 
the very beginning ; because they SET OUT, and necessarily set out, with 
the doctrine of the UNITY of the Godhead. This, of course, would give 
rise to no little absurdity and inconsistency in the very nature of the case. 
Both Wilkinson and Bunsen, to get rid of the inconsistencies they have 
met with in the Egyptian system, have found it necessary to have recourse 
to substantially the same explanation as I have done. Thus we find 
Wilkinson saying : " I have stated that Amun-re and other gods took the 
form of different deities, which, though it appears at first sight to present 
some difficulty, may readily be accounted for when we consider that each 
of those whose figures or emblems were adopted, was only an EMANATION, 
or deified attribute of the SAME GREAT BEING to whom they ascribed 
various characters, according to the several offices he was supposed 
to perform " ( WILKINSON, vol. iv. p. 245). The statement of Bunsen is to 
the same effect, and it is this : " Upon these premises, we think ourselves 
justified in concluding that the two series of gods were originally identical, 
and that, in the GREAT PAIR of gods, all these attributes were concentrated, 


from the development of which, in various personifications, that mytho 
logical system sprung up which we have been already considering" 
(BDNSEN, vol. i. p. 418). 

The bearing of all this upon the question of the identification of Cybele 
and Astarte, or Venus, is important. Fundamentally, there was but one 
goddess the Holy Spirit, represented as female, when the distinction 
of sex was wickedly ascribed to the Godhead, through a perversion of the 
great Scripture idea, that all the children of God are at once begotten 
of the Father, and born of the Spirit; and under this idea, the Spirit 

the waters." This goddess, then, was called Ops, " the flutterer," or Juno, 
" The Dove," or Khubele, " The binder with cords," which last title had 
reference to " the bands of love, the cords of a man " (called in Hosea xi. 4, 
" Khubeli Adam "). with which not only does God continually, by His 
providential goodness, draw men unto Himself, but with which our first 
parent Adam, through the Spirit s indwelling, while the covenant of Eden 
was unbroken, was sweetly bound to God. This theme is minutely dwelt 
on in Pagan story, and the evidence is very abundant ; but I cannot enter 

Fig. 61. 

upon it here. Let this only be noticed, however, that the Eomans joined 
the two terms Juno and Khubele or, as it is commonly pronounced, 
Cybele together ; and on certain occasions invoked their supreme goddess, 
under the name of Juno Covella (see STANLEY S Philosophy, p. 1055) 
that is, " The dove that binds with cords." In STATIUS (lib. v. Sijlv. 1, 
v. 222, apud BRYANT, vol. iii. p. 325), the name of the great goddess occurs 
as Cybele 

" Italo gemitus Almone Cybele 
Ponit, et Idfeos jam non reminiscitur amnes." 

If the reader looks, in Layard, at the triune emblem of the supreme 
Assyrian divinity, he will see this very idea visibly embodied. There the 
wings and tail of the dove have two bands associated with them instead 
of feet (LAYARD S Nineveh and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 418 ; see also 
accompanying woodcut (Fig. 61), from BRYANT, vol. ii. p. 216 ; and KITTO S 
Bib. Cyclop., vol. i. p. 425). 

In reference to events after the Fall, Cybele got a new idea attached to 
her name. Khubel signifies not only to " bind with cords," but also 
" to travail in birth ; " and therefore Cybele appeared as the " Mother 
of the gods," by whom all God s children must be born anew or regenerated. 
But, for this purpose, it was held indispensable that there should be a 
union in the first instance with Rheia, " The gazer," the human " mother 


of gods and men," that the ruin she had introduced might be remedied. 
Hence the identification of Cybele and Rheia, which in all the Pantheons 
are declared to be only two different names of the same goddess (see 
LEMPRIERE S Classical Dictionary, sub voce), though, as we have seen, these 
goddesses were in reality entirely distinct. This same principle was applied 
to all the other deified mothers. They were deified only through the 
supposed miraculous identification with them of Juno or Cybele in other 
words, of the Holy Spirit of God. Each of these mothers had her own 
legend, and had special worship suited thereto ; but, as in all cases, she 
was held to be an incarnation of the one Spirit of God, as the great Mother 
of all, the attributes of that one Spirit were always pre-supposed as 
belonging to her. This, then, was the case with the goddess recognised 
as Astarte or Venus, as well as with Rhea. Though there were points 
of difference between Cybele or Rhea, and Astarte or Mylitta, the Assyrian 
Venus, Layard shows that there were also distinct points of contact 
between them. Cybele or Rhea was remarkable for her turreted crown. 
Mylitta, or Astarte, was represented with a similar crown (LAYARD S 
Nineveh, vol. ii. p. 456). Cybele, or Rhea, was drawn by lions ; Mylitta, 
or Astarte, was represented as standing on a lion (Ibid.}. The worship of 
Mylitta, or Astarte, was a mass of moral pollution (HERODOT., lib. i. 
cap. 199, p. 92). The worship of Cybele, under the name of Terra, 
was the same (AUGUSTINE, De Civitate, lib. vi. cap. 8, torn, ix., 
p. 203). 

The first deified woman was no doubt Semiramis, as the first deified man 
was her husband. But it is evident that it was some time after the 
Mysteries began that this deification took place ; for it was not till after 
Semiramis was dead that she was exalted to divinity, and worshipped under 
the form of a dove. When, however, the Mysteries were originally 
concocted, the deeds of Eve, who, through her connection with the serpent, 
brought forth death, must necessarily have occupied a place ; for the 
Mystery of sin and death lies at the very foundation of all religion, and in 
the age of Semiramis and Nimrod, and Shern and Ham, all men must have 
been well acquainted with the facts of the Fall. At first the sin of Eve may 
have been admitted in all its sinfulness (otherwise men generally would 
have been shocked, especially when the general conscience had been 
quickened through the zeal of Shem) ; but when a woman was to be deified, 
the shape that the mystic story came to assume shows that that sin was 
softened, yea, that it changed its very character, and that by a perversion 
of the name given to Eve, as " the mother of all living ones," that is, all 
the regenerate (see Note I), she was glorified as the authoress of spiritual 
life, and, under the very name Rhea, was recognised as the mother of the 
gods. Now, those who had the working of the Mystery of Iniquity did not 
find it very difficult to show that this name Rhea, originally appropriate 
to the mother of mankind, was hardly less appropriate for her who was the 
actual mother of the gods, that is, of all the deified mortals. Rhea, in the 
active sense, signifies " the Gazing woman," but in the passive it signifies 
" The woman gazed at," that is, " The beauty," * and thus, under one and 
the same term, the mother of mankind and the mother