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Full text of "The works of Thomas Cranmer ... Edited for the Parker society"

PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



32, 



MISCELLANEOUS WRITINGS 



AND 



LETTERS 



OF 



THOMAS CRANMER, 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, 
MARTYR, 1556. 



EDITED FOR 



REV. JOHN EDMUND COX, M.A., F.S.A., 

OF ALL SOULS COLLEGE, OXFORD, CURATE AND LECTURER OF STEPNEY 




Camftrftrge: 

PRINTED AT 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



M.DCCC.XLVI. 



5057 

Clo, 
I8H/4 




JAN 12 1966 




1039174 



THE 



WORKS 



OF 



THOMAS C R A N M E R, 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, 
MARTYR, 1556. 



EDITED FOR 



RKV. JOHN EDMUND COX, M.A., F.9.A., 

()! ALL SOULS COI.I.KOF,, OXKOUD, Cl KATK AND LlCTl RMl O) STKPNKY, 




VOLUME THE SECOND. 



CambriUge: 

PRINTED AT 

THE UNIVERSITY PEESS. 



M.DCCC.XLYI. 



THE 



W E K S 



OF 



THOMAS CRANMER, 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 




jfor tbe f ublttation of tfte fflfflorfes; of tfte 
anft (Sarlj) JKBrtter* of tfte Btformrti 



MISCELLANEOUS WRITINGS 



AND 



LETTEES 



OP 



THOMAS CRANMER, 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 



Snstftutfli a, IB. 




jfor tfje f ublicattmt of tfte OTorfesJ of tfje 
ani Ofarlp OTrfters; of tfte Eeformetr 



I 






C N T E N T S. 



PAGE 

BIOGRAPHICAL Notice of Archbishop Cranmer vii 

A Confutation of Unwritten Verities 1 

A Collection of Tenets from the Canon Law 68 

Substance of a Speech on General Councils 76 

Speech at an Assembly of Bishops, 1536 79 

Some Queries concerning Confirmation, with Cranmer s Answers 80 

Injunctions to the Diocese of Hereford, 1538 81 

Corrections of the Institution by Henry VIII. with Cranmer s Annotations ... 83 

Questions and Answers concerning the Sacraments, &c. 1540 115 

Preface to the Bible, 1540 118 

Speech at the Coronation of Edward VI. Feb. 20, 1547 126 

Homily of Salvation 128 

Homily of Faith 135 

Homily of Good Works annexed unto Faith 141 

Questions concerning some Abuses of the Mass 150 

Questions with Answers by the Bishops of Worcester, Chichester, and Hereford. 152 

Articles to be inquired of within the Diocese of Canterbury, 1548 154 

Articles of Inquiry, 1550 159 

Injunctions to the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, 1550 161 

Answer to the Fifteen Articles of the Rebels, Devon, 1549 163 

Notes for a Homily against Rebellion 188 

A Sermon concerning the Time of Rebellion ]90 

Notes on Justification 203 

Examination before Brokes, 1555 212 

Appeal at his Degradation . 224 

LETTERS... 229 



APPENDIX. 

I. 
II. 



III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 



XL 
XII. 

XIII. 
XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 



Cranmer s Oath to the King for his Temporalties 460 

An Order taken for preaching and bidding of the bead in Sermons, 

1534 .- ib. 

Inhibitio pro Visitatione Regia, 1535 463 

The judgment of the Convocation concerning General Councils... ib. 

Queries put by Cranmer in order to the correction of abuses, 1537 465 

Considerations offered to the King for further Reformation 466 

Opinion of certain of the Bishops. &c. touching the General Council. 467 
Mandatum Archiepiscopi Cantuar de Festo D. Marci Evangelistae 

celebrando 468 

Minute of an answer of Henry VIII. to a letter from the Com 
missioners prefixed to the Institution of a Christian Man 469 

Mandatum Archiepiscopi Cantuar de non celebrandis Festis Diebus 

jussu Regio in Synodo Provincial! abrogatis 470 

Archiepiscopi Cantuar Epistola ad Regem pro Suffraganeo Dovorensi 471 
Archiepiscopi Cantuar Litera Commissionalis ad Richardum, Suf- 

fraganeum Dovorensem ib. 

A Book containing divers Articles, De Unitate Dei et Trinitute Pcr- 

sonarum, de Peccato Original?., &c 472 

Articuli de Missa Privata, de Veneratione Sanctorum, et de Iinagi- 

nibus 480 

De Ordine et Ministerio Sacerdotum et Episcoporum 484 

Breve Regis et Mandatum Archiepiscopi de Nominibus Bencficiato- 

rum et Beneficiorum 489 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



XVII. The King s Letter [and the Mandate of the Archbishop of Canter 

bury] for taking away Shrines and Images 490 

XVII I. Constitutio Thomse Cranmeri, Archiepiscopi, et aliorum Fratrum 

suonim de apparatu escarum moderando 491 

XIX. Statutum de Numero Procuratorum Curice Cantuar confirmatum 

per dominum Thomam Cranmer, Cantuar Archiepiscopum ... ib. 

XX. Liters Regis et Archiepiscopi Cantuar Mandatum Episcopo London 

pro Orationibus pro Cessatione Pluvise 493 

XXI. Literse Regiae Archiepiscopo Cantuar. pro Publicatione Regiarum 

Injunctionum 494 

XXII. Mandate by the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Bishop of London 

for keeping Processions in English 495 

XXIII. A Preface made by the King s most excellent Majesty unto his 

Primer Book 496 

XXIV. Injunctions given by the most excellent Prince, Edward the Sixth, 

to all his loving subjects 498 

XXV. King Edward VI s Injunctions particularly delivered to the Bishops. 504 

XXVI. Letter from the Privy Council concerning Homilies and Injunctions. 505 

XXVII. A Proclamation concerning the irreverent Talkers of the Sacrament. 

Dec. 27, 1547 ib. 

XXVIII. A Proclamation for the abstaining from Flesh in Lent time. Jan. 

16,1548 507 

XXIX. A Proclamation against those that do innovate, &c., and against 

them which preach without licence. Febr. 6, 1548 508 

XXX. Mandatum ad amovendas et delendas Imagines 509 

XXXI. Letter Missive from the Council to the Bishops concerning the 

Communion to be ministered in both kinds. March 13, 1548. . 511 
XXXII. A Letter sent to all licensed Preachers from the Council. May 13, 

1548 512 

XXX II I. A Proclamation for the Inhibition of all Preachers. Sept. 23, 1548. 513 

XXXIV. Of Unwritten Verities 514 

XXXV. 1. Preface to the Book of Common Prayer, 1549. 2. Of Ceremo 
nies. 3. Preface to the Ordination Service, 1550 ... 517 

XXXVI. Three Letters from the Lords of the Council in Windsor to the 

Lords of the Council in London. October, 1 549 520 

XXXVII. The King s Order, and the Mandate of the Archbishop of Canter 

bury, for bringing in Popish Rituals. Febr. 24, 1550 522 

XXXVIII. The Council s Letter to Bishop Ridley to take down Altars, and 

place Communion Tables in their stead. Nov. 24, 1550 524 

XXXIX. Reasons why the Lord s Board should rather be after the Form of 

a Table than of an Altar ib. 

XL. Letter from the Council to the Princess Mary. Dec. 25, 1550 ... 526 
XLI. Mandatum pro Publicatione Actus Parliament! contra Rebelles. 

Mai. 9, 1551 530 

XLII. Letters from Edward VI. to the Bishops on occasion of the Sweating 

Sickness. July 18, 1551 531 

XLI 1 1. Mandates by Edward VI. for Subscription to the Articles of 1552... 532 
XLIV. Pole, Cardinal Legate, to Archbishop Cranmer, in answer to the 

Letter he had sent to the Queen. Nov. 6, 1555 534 

X L V. Processus contra Thomam Cranmer 541 

XLVI. All the Submissions and Recantations of Thomas Cranmer, &c. 

Anno MDLVI 563 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE 

OK 

ARCHBISHOP CRANMER. 



THE notice which the editor purposes to give of the Life of Archbishop Cranmer 
will necessarily, be very brief: a full exhibition of the character and conduct of such 
a man would require a careful and orderly investigation of documents connected with 
the three reigns of Henry, Edward, and Mary, and a close examination of the leading 
facts of ecclesiastical history, extending from the days of Wicliffe to his own ; while 
the plan pursued by the Parker Society is only to present a succinct view of such 
general and prominent features of individual biography as may contribute to the in 
telligent appreciation of the writings collected in its volumes. 

"The Life, State, and Story of Thomas Cranmer," already reprinted in the first 
volume of this edition of his works, describes his character as it was viewed by his 
contemporaries. This, together with Strype s Memorials of him, and his Life as written 
severally by Todd and Gilpin, forms a valuable groundwork for all historians of his times, 
as well as an important help to assist the general student to a just estimate of his 
principles, as viewed in connection with the singular and appalling difficulties of his 
position. These difficulties, candidly considered, will often suggest a satisfactory reply 
to the obloquy, which either religious or political acrimony has attempted to cast on 
the name of this illustrious martyr. 

Thomas Cranmer was born July 2, 1489, at Aslacton in Nottinghamshire. At an 
early period of his life he lost his father, but his mother sent him to Cambridge, 
at the age of fourteen, and entered him at Jesus College, where he succeeded to a 
fellowship. He devoted the first eight years of his academical career to the acquisi 
tion of a knowledge of the questionists of the Church of Rome. In the year 1519 
he commenced the study of the scriptures, which he pursued with unremitting assiduity 
till he reached his thirty-fourth year, i.e. A.D. 1523. In his twenty-third year he 
had married, by which he forfeited his fellowship ; but being appointed reader at Buck 
ingham (now Magdalene) College, he continued to reside and to prosecute his studies 
at Cambridge. His wife dying about twelve months afterwards, he was reinstated in 
his former fellowship, which he continued to hold, though much urged by the agents 
of Cardinal Wolsey to join the new foundation at Oxford, for the endowment of which 
that prelate suppressed several monastic establishments ; but Cranmer preferred to con 
tinue divinity lecturer in his own college, which office he held from the time of his 
proceeding to the degree of D.D. 

In 1 528 he retired to AValtham Abbey with two pupils, named Cressy, on account 
of an infectious disorder breaking out at Cambridge. At this time the divorce between 
Henry VIII. and his queen, Katherine of Arragon, attracted the attention of Cranmer, 
whose opinion as to the best method of deciding upon the validity of the royal marriage 
having been represented to Henry, he w r as summoned to court, when he w T as required to 
digest his views in writing : having done this to the satisfaction of the king, he returned 
to Cambridge, but in a short time afterwards became one of the commissioners ap 
pointed from the universities, to determine the cause of the divorce, against the pope s 
dispensation. Henry VIII. soon after appointed him to the archdeaconry of Taunton, 
as well as one of his chaplains. In 1529, towards the close of the year, he was 
sent as an ambassador to the court of Rome, upon the same question, but was com 
pelled to return home about the end of the following year on account of the ill success 
of his negociations. 



viii BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

In January 153^, he was sent as Henry s sole ambassador to the court of Charles 
V., in order to induce the German divines to advocate the cause of his master, when 
lie married a second time, his wife being the niece of Osiander, pastor of Nuremburg. 
The embassy was unfavourable in its results; but Cranmcr was summoned to return 
to England, to receive the highest appointment in the realm, which could be conferred 
upon him, namely, the archbishoprick of Canterbury, which had become vacant by the 
death of William Warham, August 23, 1532. Although ho delayed his return to 
avoid the appointment, and manifested great reluctance to undertake the responsible 
duties of this high station, he was at length compelled to yield to the determination 
of the imperious monarch, and was consecrated on the 30th March, 1533, having made 
a public and repeated protestation before witnesses, "wherein he declared that he in 
tended not, by the oath that he was to take, to bind himself to do anything contrary 
to the laws of God, the king s prerogative, or to the commonwealth, and statutes of 
the kingdom 1 ." On the 23rd May, in the same year, the new archbishop pronounced 
judgment in favour of the king s divorce. 

The primary concern of the archbishop in the following year, 1534, was to bring 
about the reformation of the church, and in connection with it, to effect an object 
which he had long desired, namely, to procure a translation of the bible, and to obtain the 
royal permission that it should be read by the people. He was also employed in endea 
vouring to settle the succession to the crown upon the heirs of Anne Boleyn, in which 
he was vehemently opposed by Sir Thomas More, and Fisher, bishop of Rochester, who 
in consequence of their refusal to take the oath required in the preamble of the act were 
beheaded, although Cranmer used every endeavour to prevent that result. 

The archbishop about this time commenced the visitation of his province, and 
met with much opposition from the bishops and clergy, who favoured Romanism, and 
opposed the progress of the reformation ; amongst whom none was more persevering 
than Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. He also counselled that the monasteries 
should be visited, with a view to their dissolution, in order that "new foundations 
might spring from them, which should be nurseries of learning throughout the realm." 

On the 2nd May, 1536, Anne Boleyn was sent to the Tower, and a few days 
after the archbishop divorced her, by command of Henry VIIL, which " he performed 
by due order and process of law 2 ," but evidently with much reluctance. 

In the year 1537, Cranmer had the satisfaction of seeing the bible of Tyndale s 
translation printed in English, and by the assistance of his friend and fellow-labourer 
in the work of the reformation, Crumwell, lord privy seal, he caused it to be set forth 
by the king s authority. It had been preceded by that of Covcrdale, dedicated first to 
Anne Boleyn, and afterwards to Jane Seymour. In the following year, J538, it is supposed 
that the archbishop, still intent upon advancing the progress of the reformation, addressed 
a memorial to the king, praying for his countenance and support in the accomplishment 
of this purpose, as well as his assent to the marriage of the clergy. He succeeded in 
having the English bible printed with farther revisions ; but at this time the influence 
of the Romish party against his efforts was gaining ground, and so far from his second 
request being granted, a proclamation was issued against the marriage of the clergy, 
depriving all who had openly entered into that state of their privileges and offices, 
and threatening the punishment of fine and imprisonment upon such as in future should 
do so. Other disappointments also were encountered by the archbishop, amongst which 
it was not the least, that a conference between the German ambassadors and the 
English divines, which was held to effect an uniformity of doctrine between the re 
formed and continental churches, had proved unsuccessful. His urgent applications 
were set aside by those who were determined, if possible, to restore the power of 
the Roman catholic church. The result of the mission from Germany proved utterly 
useless. Every prospect now appeared of a decline of the archbishop s influence at 
court, through the efforts which were made to obtain a counter ascendancy over the 
mind of Henry VIII. It was in this year that Cranmer had to take a part in the 



1 Strypc s Mem.of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. i. p. 28. Ed. Oxon. 15)40. 2 Id. ibid. p. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. ix 

argument against John Lambert on the bodily presence in the sacrament, the result of 
which was his condemnation and execution as a heretic ; which is one of the grounds of 
accusation urged against the archbishop by his opponents. 

From the year 1538 to 1541 Cranmer had to endure a succession of disappoint 
ments, which much tried his spirit. He saw the Act of the Six Articles passed, not 
withstanding his opposition to it, and Crumwell, his most intimate friend and associate, 
beheaded in consequence of the part he had taken in bringing about the marriage of Henry 
with Anne of Cleves. But although left almost alone, and surrounded by indefatigable 
adversaries, who were bent upon his ruin, he yet firmly resisted an attempt which was 
made by them " to extort from him a consent to a set of articles which would have re 
established the dominion of error and superstition." In this instance the king still remained 
his friend, and for a time opposition against him ceased ; and he was enabled to secure 
a royal proclamation enforcing the placing of the bible in the churches throughout the 
country. In the year 1542, attempts were made by the Roman Catholic party to 
effect a revision of the English bible; but the archbishop succeeded in defeating the 
object, by obtaining the consent of the king to have the matter referred to the univer 
sities : in twelve months time, however, when the attempt was again renewed, he 
was unable effectually to resist it ; for the king, wearied and perplexed by continued 
dissension, was induced to sanction the prohibition of Tyndale s English bible, and 
to limit the privilege of reading the translations of the scriptures, which had previously 
been granted. 

During the succeeding years Cranmer had still to encounter the hatred and oppo 
sition of his opponents; but, in 1543, a conspiracy was resorted to which bade fair 
to destroy his influence, and to render ineffective all that he had hitherto accomplished in 
the advancement of the Protestant cause. " A succession of meetings were held, a 
regular scheme was organized, and a voluminous mass of articles were collected by 
Gardiner and his accomplices, to obtain an advantage over iiim. The chief accusations 
brought against him were, that he had discouraged and restrained those preachers who 
refused to promote the new doctrines of the Reformation, that he had ordered the 
removal of images, and that he corresponded with the divines of Germany." The ac 
cusations, however, were no sooner laid before the king than he suspected the parties 
who originated them : he immediately shewed them to the archbishop, who solicited that 
the whole matter might be sifted by a commission, to which the king at once acceded, 
but insisted upon appointing the primate himself as chief commissioner. The result of 
the examinations which followed was, that the archbishop s character was cleared, and 
his adversaries confounded. 

In the year 1544 Cranmer succeeded, through his influence with the king, in 
mitigating the Act of the Six Articles, and effecting a great change in the forms of 
public devotion, by the introduction of an English Litany, with responses: neverthe 
less, his further attempts at a reformation were defeated, and he had again, A.D. 1545, 
to endure another measure of hostility on the part of his adversaries, from which he was 
only again released by the continuance of the firm friendship of Henry, who in this 
instance personally defeated their object of sending him to the Tower, by granting him 
his ring to be produced at any moment of emergency, and by afterwards reproving 
them for their hostility and malice against him. 

On the 28th of January, 1547, Henry VIII. died, at a period of the deepest in 
terest to Cranmer, when he had anticipated the prospect of a speedy abolition of many 
of the remaining and most notorious abuses of the church of Rome, which hitherto 
he had been unsuccessful in his efforts to remove. The state of religion at this moment 
throughout the country was unsettled, and it was evident to himself that he was 
entering upon a reign which, in its earliest period, could not fail to increase his 
anxiety and his cares. Edward VI. was but ten years old when he began to reign; 
and as much of the affairs of state necessarily fell to the charge of the archbishop, 
he had still to encounter the unceasing opposition of the men who throughout the 
latter years of the late king s government had never ceased to harass and persecute him. 
Gardiner still continued his activity, although separated from the government; but Cran 
mer was enabled to set his machinations at defiance by prosecuting steadily the objects 



x BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

he had in view : and, in order to ascertain the actual condition of the church, he obtained 
a royal proclamation for a visitation of the whole kingdom, which measure was resolved 
upon in April, and carried into effect in the following September. 

The Reformation was now progressing, and the archbishop s influence became more 
and more predominant, especially in the deliberations of the clergy. On November 
22, he produced an ordinance for the receiving of the sacrament in both kinds, which 
was unanimously carried ; and immediately afterwards obtained an entire repeal of the 
Act of the Six Articles, and other persecuting statutes, the abrogation of which hitherto 
he had not been able to procure. This year, 1548, saw the abolition of images, and steps 
taken for converting the mass into a communion-service in English. Opposition w r as 
offered to these proposed changes ; but the tide had now set in favour of the progress of 
the Reformation, and the great work of producing the English Liturgy was finished, and 
received the final sanction of the legislature on the 15th of January, 1549. The spirit 
of rebellion was, however, abroad ; and while a vast proportion of the inhabitants of 
the country rejoiced at the changes which were taking place, in Devonshire and Cornwall 
active opposition was roused by the disaffected, and a formidable revolt broke out, 
which ended in the signal defeat of the rebels. The part which the archbishop had to 
take in these events was of a prominent character; and his answer to the demands 
of the rebels remains as an important and interesting document amongst his many 
literary labours. 

In the month of December, of the same year, an act passed the legislature authorising 
the marriage of the clergy, which afterwards, A.D. 1552, was confirmed by a declaratory 
statute that marriages performed under it were valid. From the year 1549 to 1551 
the work of reformation still proceeded. " The labour of the most reverend the arch 
bishop of Canterbury," writes Peter Martyr to Bullinger, Jan. 27, 1550, " is not to be 
expressed. For whatever has hitherto been wrested from them (the bishops) we have 
acquired solely by the industry, and activity, and importunity of this prelate 1 ." He 
obtained orders for the abolition of popish books of devotion, and effected the comple 
tion of the formulary for the ordination of the clergy. He likewise entertained many 
of the foreign divines at Lambeth, with whom he took counsel in aiding the progress 
of scriptural divinity. A source of affliction to Cranmer at this season was a spirit of 
dissension, which spread amongst the reformers themselves, upon the refusal of Hooper, 
bishop of Gloucester, to wear the episcopal vestments then usually worn. The arch 
bishop was firm in his opposition to these scruples, and resisted the influence which 
dictated the opposition : a compromise however was in the end effected. In October, 
1550, the communion-table was substituted for the Roman catholic altar, to do away 
the popish idea of a sacrifice, though several of the bishops resisted the change 2 . 

Proceedings were also taken out against Gardiner, who was deprived of his 
bishoprick in April, 1551. In this matter the conduct of the archbishop has been 
animadverted upon, as he undoubtedly took a considerable part in the degradation of 
his old and inveterate adversary. Gardiner pertinaciously refused to comply with the 
views of the Reformers. During his imprisonment in the Tower he prepared his 
treatise on the sacrament, in answer to the archbishop s " Defence of the True Doctrine 
of the Sacrament," which had attracted great attention, and met with extraordinary 
success. The primate lost no time in preparing a reply to the bishop of Winchester s 
confutation, which issued from the press in October, 1551. These works will be found 
in the first volume of the present collection of the archbishop s writings. Gardiner also 
replied to this work under the feigned name of Marcus Antonius Constantius, and his 
rejoinder was published in 1552. It is impossible to say when this contest would have 
terminated,, had Cranmer and Gardiner lived to carry it on. The anxious attention of 
the former was occupied during his imprisonment about an answer to Marcus Antonius ; 
and three parts of it are said to have been actually written, when the design was cut 



1 Original Letters relative to the English Re- | to the writings of Roger Hutchinson published by 



formation (Park. Soc. ) p. 4J! 80. 

a In this year (1550) occurred the burning of 
Joan Bocher. In the biographical notice prefixed 



the Parker Society, there is a statement (pp. iv v.) 
relieving the archbishop from the allegation respect 
ing her case so commonly reported to his prejudice. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 



XI 



short by his approaching martyrdom : but not a fragment of his labours is known now 
to be extant, though unceasing search has been made, if possible, to discover it ; and 
but little doubt now exists that it is irrecoverably lost. 

About this time the English Liturgy underwent a revision at the hands of the 
archbishop, assisted by Ridley, and Cox (afterwards bishop of Ely), in which some of the 
suggestions of Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer, and others were adopted. The result of these 
labours was, that the Book of Common Prayer was reduced very nearly into the form in 
which it stands at the present time, the subsequent changes in Queen Elizabeth s reign 
having been principally intended to render it less objectionable to the opponents of 
the reformation. A project of the archbishop for an agreement in religious doctrine 
between the Anglican and foreign reformed churches about this time was once more 
attempted, but it again failed ; and the design entertained by him, of holding a synod 
in England, and adopting one Confession for all the reformed churches, was at length 
finally abandoned. 

In the course of 1551, the archbishop received an order of the king in council to 
compile certain articles of religion : in the May following, 1552, the first draft was 
completed, and laid before the council. In September it was again revised by the 
archbishop, and on the 19th of the same month was submitted by him to sir John 
Cheke, the tutor of Edward VI., and to Mr Secretary Cecil. On the 2nd October the 
draft was handed over to six of the royal chaplains, viz. Harley, Bill, Home, Grindal, 
Perne, and John Knox, the Scottish reformer. On the 20th November it was returned 
to Cranmer, who again revised it, and returned it to the council, November 24th, with 
a letter expressing his sentiments thereon, and requesting that all the clergy might be 
called upon to subscribe to it as the book of articles 3 . The authority here sought was 
not granted till June 9, 1553, when the king issued his mandate confirming Cranmer s 
request. 

The next project which the archbishop entertained was that of bringing about a 
reformation of the ecclesiastical laws ; but his intention was cut short by the untimely 
removal of his young master, Edward VI., who died before he could authorise the code 
which had been prepared for this purpose, and which was printed in the following 
reign, though never authorised or adopted. 

The prospects of the reformation were now wholly darkened. By the accession of 
Mary to power Cranmer lost not only all hope of completing the work he had so long 
laboured to perfect, but he soon found that he could expect no mercy at the hands 
of the successor of Edward VI. ; for although he raised his voice against the design 
for making the Lady Jane Grey queen, yet he did not remain long unmolested after 
Mary was firmly seated in the throne. Early in the month of August he was sum 
moned before the council, and was commanded to keep his house at Lambeth. 
On the 27th of the same month he was again brought before the council, and ordered 
to give in an inventory of his goods ; and in the middle of the following September 
he was committed to the Tower. The archbishop was now prepared for extremities, 
which he anticipated would quickly follow upon his imprisonment. As the commence 
ment of them, he found himself attainted of high treason by the parliament. This 
took place in the month of November, and there is reason to believe that he fully 
expected his execution would speedily have followed. This did not, however, im 
mediately happen, and in the month of March 4 , 1554, he was removed to Oxford, 
with Ridley and Latimer, where disputations were held between these reformers and 
the Romanist party. On the 20th of April they were condemned, and excommuni 
cated as heretics. Their execution did not, however, even now immediately follow : 
eighteen months elapsed from the period of their condemnation, before Ridley and 
Latimer were burned ; and there was still a further interval of five months al 
lowed to expire between their martyrdom and that of Cranmer, as he was reserved 



3 Vid. Letters CCCV. CCCVII. pp. 439, 40. 

4 Incorrectly stated, Vol. I. p. 3111. in the quota 
tion from Foxe, to have been " about the tenth of 
April :" but Kishop Ridley (Works, Park. Soc. p. 



3!JO.) says, "a little before Easter," (which was 
March 27 th.) See also Original Letters relating to 
the Knglish Reformation, p. 154. where the note, 
following Foxe, is at variance with the text. 



xii BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

for another trial when the authority of the pope should be restored throughout the 
realm. On the 1 2th September, 1555, the archbishop was summoned before his judges, 
and on the following day the process against him was closed. On the 7th of September, 
previously to these proceedings, he was cited to appear at Rome within eighty days ; 
and though obedience to this citation was totally impossible, as he was still kept in 
prison, yet no sooner had the eighty days elapsed, than on the fourth of December, he 
was sentenced to excommunication at Rome : the pope s final executory letter was 
dated December 14th, by which it was commanded that he should first be degraded from 
his archbishoprick, and then be delivered over to the secular powers. It was not till 
Feb. 14th, 1556, that this degradation was carried into execution; and notwithstanding 
he appealed to a general council, after having formally withdrawn the recantations he 
had been induced to make, he was led to the stake, and suffered death for the truth s 
sake, on the 21st of March, 1550, in the 67th year of his age, and just at the close 
of the twenty-third from his consecration as primate of all England. 

A list of archbishop Craniner s writings, extracted from bishop Tanner s Biblio 
theca, has already been given in Vol. I. pp. xxx. xxxi. To this the editor subjoins 
the following lists: from Bale s Script, lllust. Mag. Brit. Cat, Todd s Life of Abp. 
Cranmer, and Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer. 



List of Abp. Cranmer s Writings from Bales "Script. lllust. maj. Brit. Cat. Ed. 

Basil 1559." 

INTER occupationes varias in Anglico sermone composuit Cranmerus: 

Catechismum Doctrinas Christianas. Lib. I. "Excellentissimo principi Edwardo/ 

Ordinationes Ecclesice Reformats. Lib. I. " Nusquam excogitatum aliquid erat. 

De Ministris Ordinandis. Lib. I. " Clarum est omnibus hominibus." 

De Eucharistia cum Luthero. Lib. I. 

Defcnsionem Catholicae Doctrine?. Lib. V. " Pro cura Dominici gregis mihi." 

Ad Veritatis Professores. Lib. I. " Dominus et Servator noster." 

Jura Ecclesiastica tempore Edwardi. Lib. I. " Quoniam regni potestas et legum. 

Contra Gardineri Concionem. Lib. I. 

Doctrinam Crenas Dominicas. Lib. I. " Servator Noster Christus Jesus." 

Contra Trans ubstantiationis Errorem. Lib. I. " Quatuor audivistis declaratas." 

Quomodo Christus adsit in Coana. Lib. I. " Resoluta jam, ut spero, transub." 

De Esu Crenas Dominican. Lib. I. " Crassus Papistarum error de." 

De Christi Oblationc. Lib. I. " Maxima blasphemia et injur." 

liomelias Christianas. Lib. I. 

Ad Ricardi Smithi Calumnias. Lib. I. " Jam mine obtinui, candide lee." 

Confutations Veritatum non scriptarum. Lib. I. " Nihil addetis ad verbum, 

quod." 

Locos Communes ex Doctoribus. Lib. XII "Sacraa Scripture intellectus et." 
De non ducenda Fratria. Lib. II. 
Contra Primatum Papas. Lib. II. 
Adversus Papas Purgatorium. Lib. II. 
De Justificatione. Lib. II. 
Pias Precationes. Lib. I. 
Epistolas ad viros eruditos. Lib. I. 

Scripsit ex carcere: 

Contra Sacrificium Missas. Lib. I. 
Contra Adorationem Panis. Lib. 1. 
Ad Reginam Mariam. Lib. I. 

et alia quaedam. 

Bibliorum translationes Anglicas pluribus in locis emendavit, prarfationesque addidit. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. xiii 

List of Alp. Cranmer s Writinys, from Mr Toc/d s Life of Cranmer, Vol. n. 

p. 519 et sqq. 

A LONG Speech in the House of Lords in 1534, discussing the propriety of a 

General Council, and denouncing the authority of the Pontiff. 
A Speech in Convocation in 1536, defending the Opinion of Alexander Aless 

concerning the Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord s Supper. 
Answers to Questions concerning Confirmation, 1537- 

Considerations submitted to King Henry in order to a further Reformation, 1537. 
Injunctions given at his Visitation of the See of Hereford, 1538. 
Preface to the Translation of the Bible, in 1539, first printed in 1540. 
Articles intended to be the Doctrine of the Church of England, 1540. 
Answers 4 to Seventeen Questions concerning the Sacraments, previously to the 

publication of the Necessary Doctrine, in 1543. 
Three brief Discourses on his Review of the Necessary Doctrine, entitled, Faith, 

Justification, and Forgiveness of Injuries. 
Other Annotations on this Review. 
Parts of three other Discourses against the fear of Death, and on Patience in 

Sickness and Adversity. 
Collection of Passages from the Canon Law, to shew the necessity of reforming it, 

about the year 1544. 

Speech to Edward the Sixth at his Coronation, 1546-7- 
Speech in Convocation to the Clergy, 1547- 
The Homilies on Salvation, Faith, and Good Works, 1547. 
Answers to Questions concerning the Mass, 1547. 
Additions to the Translation of Justus Jonas s Catechism, 1548. 
Against Unwritten Verities, 1548. 
Articles to be inquired into at his Visitation, 1548. 
Preface to the Book of Common Prayer, entitled, " Concerning the Service of 

the Church," 1548-9. 

Answers to the Fifteen Articles of the Devonshire Rebels, 1549. 
Notes for a Homily on the subject of Rebellion, 1549. 
Defence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament of the Body and 

Blood of our Saviour Christ, 1550. 

Vindication of the Defence in Answer to Bishop Gardiner and Dr Smith, 1551. 
Pious Prayers. 

Declaration against the Mass, 1553. 
Disputation at Oxford, 1554. 
Speech before the Papal Commissioners, 1555. 
Appeal to a General Council, 1555-6. 
Speech at his Martyrdom, 1555-6. 



List of Alp. Cranmer s Writings as given in " Jenkyvs Remains of Cranmer," 

4 Vols. Oxon. 1833. 

LETTERS, 

Collection of Extracts from the Canon Law. 

Substance of a Speech on the authority of the Pope, and of General Councils. 

Speech in Convocation. 

Queries and Answers on Confirmation. 

Injunctions for the Diocese of Hereford. 

Corrections of The Institution of a Christian Man, by Henry VIII. 

Annotations on the King s Book. 

Seventeen Questions and Answers on the Sacraments, &c. 

Preface to the Bible. 



xiv BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

Speech at the Coronation of Edward VI. 
Notes and Authorities on Justification. 
Homily of Salvation. 

of Faith. 

of Good Works. 

Queries and Answers on the Mass. 

Articles of Visitation for the Diocese of Canterbury. 

Articles of Visitation for the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. 

Injunctions to the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. 

Answer to the Devonshire Rebels. 

Notes for a Sermon against Rebellion. 

Sermon on Rebellion. 

Defence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament, &c. 

Answer to Rich. Smj-the s Preface. 

Answer to Gardyner s Explication. 

Notes of Gardyner s Errors. 

Declaration concerning the Mass. 

Disputation at Oxford with Chedsey. 

with Harpsfield. 

Condemnation, by Weston. 

Examination at Oxford before Brokes. 

Appeal to a General Council. 

Prayer, Exhortation, and Confession of Faith at St Mary s Church 

Confutation of Unwritten Verities. 

Appendix. 



In bringing this edition of the Writings of Archbishop Cranmer to a close, the editor 
cannot but express how much he has been indebted to the previous labours of Dr 
Jenkyns, by whose researches many difficulties have been cleared for him : he would in 
deed consider it a dereliction of duty, were he not to state that in preparing the reprint of 
the archbishop s letters for this volume, he has found the chief part of the work amply 
done before him, which he would here most thankfully acknowledge. Nevertheless he 
has not thought it right to take any statements upon trust ; but in every instance, when 
it has been practicable, he has collated for himself, having gone over the MSS. in the 
State Paper Office, the British Museum, and other libraries, and examined them seriatim 
and verbatim. He is enabled, through the kind assistance of friends, to add several letters 
of the archbishop to those already published, which have never before been printed in any 
collection of the archbishop s writings ; and in many instances, when it had been left 
undone by Dr Jenkyns, he has supplied references not previously given. 

The editor would be wanting in courtesy, were he not to acknowledge his obligations 
to various persons who have kindly assisted him ; and more especially are his thanks due 
to the Rev. the masters and fellows of Corpus Christi and Emmanuel colleges, Cam 
bridge ; to R. Lemon. Esq., of the State Paper Office ; to the Rev. W. H. Cox, vice- 
principal of St Mary Hall, Oxford; to the Rev. II. Christmas, Sion College ; to the Rev. 
G. Bryan ; to the Rev. H. Robbins, Head Master of the Stepney Grammar School ; to 
the Rev. J. Mendham, Sutton Coldfield ; to the Rev. S. R. Maitland, librarian of the 
Archiepiscopal Library, Lambeth ; to Mr J. Darling, of the Clerical Library, Little 
Queen Street, Lincoln s Inn Fields, London ; to Mr Black, of the Public Record Office ; 
and, though last not least, to the Rev. J. Ayre, the indefatigable and laborious editor of 
Becon, Jewel, &c. for the Parker Society, without whose aid the w r ork in several parts 
would have been far less complete. 

Dee. 10, 1846. 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



Page 17. n. 6. for Gardner read Gardiner. 

36. at the end of n. 1. supply D. Scot. Prol. Sent, quaest. ii. p. 5. Ed. Venet. 1497. 
66. 1. 7- after " another learned man," supply [Salcot. Bp. of Bangor.] 
155. 1. 3. for war read wax. 
210. n. 9. substitute the following : 

Antididagma, seu Christiana et Catholics &c. Propugnatio. Ed. Paris. 1545. 
fo. 34. 2. where is affixed a marginal note : " Cum judicio legenda sunthaec." 
This is a work relative to Archbishop Herman s reformation at Cologne. 
298. n. 1.1. 7- for 1533 read 1523. 
457. to n. 6. add : These grounds may be briefly stated as follows : 

1. It is clear from the letter that the bearer was high in Cranmer s estimation, 
and also intimate with P. Martyr. Jewel had been engaged as an assistant to 
Martyr at Oxford, and had also acted as notary in behalf of Cranmer at his 
h rst trial in April, 1554. 

2. He was a person of note among the reformers, and one who left England 
late : for the date given by Bullinger either for the letter, or his own note to it, 
is 1555. Now the exiles had settled at Zurich before Sept. 1554 ; but Jewel 
came thither later than the rest. 

3. The bearer of the letter was going straight from Oxford to the continent, and 
to P. Martyr; for Cranmer evidently implies that the friend to whom he 
entrusted it would deliver it in person to Martyr. And Jewel did actually 
start from Oxford when he fled abroad, and immediately became Martyr s 
assistant at Strasburgh, and followed him to Zurich. 

4. Jewel had conformed ; but evidently repented of this before he left Oxford, 
though it was not till he reached Frankfort that he made his open confession of 
penitence. This previous repentance at Oxford accounts for his precipitate 
flight thence ; and also for the caution observed by Cranmer in not mentioning 
his name ; and explains his allusion to the "danger and mischief" occasioned 
by letters. 

6. It is also very intelligible that the fact of Jewel s temporary conformity to 
the popish articles may have procured him access to Cranmer in his imprison 
ment ; while it seems incredible that any friend of Cranmer and Martyr, not 
conforming, would have been allowed such access. 

6. To all this it must be added, that there is no evidence (it is believed) of any 
other reformer a friend of Cranmer and Martyr having been in England and 
at Oxford so late as the date of this letter. 







*< 



A CONFUTATION 



OF 



UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



[cRANMER, II.] 



[Title-page of the original Edition.] 

* & (bantu* 

tatto of imtoritte bm ttesf, botf) bt tbe 

holye scriptures and mostc auncient 

autors, anfc also probable arguments, 

anfc pitj)|i reasons, britj) platne auns- 

toers to a! (or at tjje least) to tjje moste 

part antr strongest argumentes, folnd) 

tfte abuersartes of gotis trutf) either 

ftaue, or can fcrgng fortj for tj)e profe 

an& defence of tje same bnforitten ba 

ntttes, berfttes as tfieg tuoulbe ftaue 

t^em calletr : matre ftp ^Jomas ^ran= 

mer, late ^rcfiebisjop of antorbu= 

rte, jWartpr of gob, anb rntrnefc 

at ([^xforb for tje fcefece of tje 

tretoe boctrtne of our sauu 

our ODStist, translated 

antr set fortfi, 



1T ^6f contentes tofjereof, tftou 
sfialte finbe in tfje next sibe 
folofomge. 



If A Confutation of 

vnwritten verities, both by the holye 

Scriptures and most auntient authours, and also probable 

Arguments, and pithie reasons, with plaine aunsweres to all (or at the 
least) to the most part and strongest argumentes, which the Aduersa- 
ries of Gods truth, either haue or can bring foorth for the proofe 
and defence of the same vnwritten Vanities, Ve 
rities as they woulde haue them 
called. 



Made ly Thomas Cranmer, late Arche- 

lishop of Canterburie, Martir of God, and lurned at Oxen- 

fordefor the defence of the true doctrine of our 

Sauiour Christ. 



The Contents whereof, thou 

shalt finde in the next side 

following. 

(v) 




Imprinted at London by Tliomas Purfoote 

and are to be solde at his Shop, without Newgate, ouer- 

against S. Sepulchers Churche. 

Anno. 1582. 



12 



[The "Confutation of Unwritten Verities," is printed from the 
edition "imprinted at London by Thomas Purfootc, anno 1582," 
and has been carefully collated with the original edition, published 
by E. P. in the reign of Queen Mary.] 



THE Title-page of the original edition of the " Confutation of Unwritten Verities " 
states that it was " translated and set forth by E. P. ;" and upon that of both editions 
it is said to be " made by Thomas Cranmer, late archbishop of Canterbury." Strypo, 
in his Memorials of Archbp. Cranmer, writes, that " there was another book of the arch 
bishop s against unwritten verities, which I do by conjecture place here, as put forth 
under this year, or near this time, (A. D. 1547.) The book was in Latin, and consisted 
only of allegations out of the bible and ancient writers. In queen Mary s days the 
book was again published by an English exile, naming himself E. P. The title it 
now bore was, A Confutation of Unwritten Verities, by divers authorities, diligently 
and truly gathered out of the Holy Scripture and ancient fathers ; ly Thomas Cranmer, 
late archbishop, and burned at Oxford for the defence of the true doctrine of our Sa 
viour. Translated and set forth by E. P. Before it is a preface of the translator to 
his countrymen and brethren in England," &C 1 . 

Dr Jenkyns, in his edition of the archbishop s works 2 , pronounces that it certainly 
was not " made" by Cranmer in its present form : for the preface and some other parts 
were avowedly written by the translator. "And" (he goes on to say) "it may be 
doubted, whether it was ever prepared by him for publication at all ; no complete copy 
of it in Latin, either printed or in manuscript, having been yet discovered. The 
citations, however, of which the work chiefly consists, are for the most part to be 
found in one of the archbishop s common-place books in the British Museum, ar 
ranged under the same heads as in the Confutation. And hence perhaps it may be 
conjectured, that, according to his usual practice, he formed a collection of authorities 
on the subject for his private use ; that this collection fell after his death into the 
hands of the person designated by the letters E. P., and that it was moulded by 
him, by addition, omission, and transposition, into the shape in which it now appears." 
"Under these circumstances," Dr Jenkyns thinks, "it cannot safely be quoted as evi 
dence of Cranmer s tenets, and that perhaps it scarcely ought to be admitted into a 
collection of his works." 

The work, however, has been usually placed amongst the writings of the arch 
bishop; and there is but little doubt, even in the mind of Dr Jenkyns, that the 
materials, from which "it was composed, were brought together" and prepared by 
him. The editor has collated the original edition set forth by E. P., with that im 
printed at London, A. D. 1582, by Thomas Purfoote, from which copy the piece is 
printed in this edition, and he has given the different readings in each copy, though 
adhering as closely as possible in the text to that of A. D. 1582. 

Another treatise of unwritten verities, which was published, A. D. 1548, anony 
mously, is also supposed by Strype to have been written by archbishop Cranmer. 
Dr Jenkyns 3 , however, thinks, as he has not brought forward " any evidence in 
support of his opinion, and has manifestly fallen into much confusion on this matter, * 
that " his judgment is of no great weight, since Bale, the cotemporary of Cranmer, 
evidently knew of no other work" of his than that, which was supposed to be written 
in Latin, A. D. 1547, and afterwards translated and set forth by E. P. Bp. Tanner, 
in reference to it, says, "that though it was written in Latin, it is evident to him 
that it was never printed in that language 4 ." 



f 1 Strype, Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, ! [ 4 Qui liber Latine scriptus nunquam, ut mihi 
Vol. I. p. 2255. Ed. Oxon. 1H40.] quidem videtur, in ea lingua impressus fuit. Tan- 

| 2 Vol. IV. p. 144. Ed. Oxon. 1833.] , ner, Bibliotheca " Cranmer." J 
[ 3 Ibid. p. 144.1 



Dr Jenkyns 1 thinks, "that it was not unlikely that it was compiled by E. P. out 
of Cranmer s MS. notes, which are still preserved in the British Museum;" and he 
also positively asserts that " it is certain, at least, that the preface and the conclusion, 
together with some parts of the body of the work, must be ascribed entirely to the 
translator." 

The anonymous treatise, which is found in Strype 8 , will be printed in an appendix 
to this edition. For further particulars, relating to these treatises, the reader is referred 
to Strype, Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, Vol. I. pp. 228, 570, ed. Oxon. 1840. 
Ecclesiastical Memorials, Vol. II. part i. pp. 212, 213; Vol. II. part ii. p. 410, ed. 
Oxon. 1822. Bale, Script. Brit. Catal. p. 691, ed. Basil. 1559. Ames, Typ. Antiq. 
Vol. I. p. 583, ed. 1785; Vol. III. p. 1563, ed. 1790. 



[ l Vol. I. Preface, p. Ivi.] I part ii. (Appendix AA. MSS. D. Job. D. Episc. 

[ 2 Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, Vol.11. | Elien.) p. 410. Ed. Oxon. 1822. J 



THE CONTENTS. 



First, the preface of the translator to his countrymen and brethren of England. 

1. That the word of God, written and contained within the canon of the bible, 
is a true, sound, perfect, and whole doctrine, containing in itself fully all things needful 
for our salvation. 

2. That the writings of the old fathers, without the written word of God, are 
not able to prove any doctrine in religion. 

3. That general councils have no authority to make new articles of our faith. 

4. That nothing can be proved by oracles of angels touching religion. 

5. That apparitions of the dead 3 be unsufficient to that purpose. 

6. Neither are miracles able to prove the same. 
7- Custom also is of no strength in this case. 

8. Reasons against unwritten verities. 

9. Scriptures alleged by the papists for unwritten verities, with answers to the same. 

10. Doctors to the same purpose, with their answers. 

11. The papists objections, with answers unto them 4 . 



[ 3 The words, " of the dead," are not found in 
the original ed.] 

[ 4 The Editor is indebted to the edition of Dr 
Jenkyns, Vol. IV. p. 147, et sqq. for the following 
valuable information : " A conjecture has been 
hazarded in a preceding note, that this Confutation 
was compiled from a collection of authorities still 
preserved in the British Museum (Royal MSS. 7. 
B. xi. xii.) A list of the principal heads under which 
these authorities are arranged, is subjoined. It will 
assist the reader in forming a judgment on the vali 
dity of the conjecture, and will also give him some 
insight into Cranmer s studies on other subjects. 
It will be found to be more copious than the Table 
of Contents which is prefixed to the manuscript in 
the Museum, and which has been printed by Strype, 
(Life of Parker, App. No. 23). The additions are 
distinguished by brackets. The articles marked 
with an asterisk exist in the original Table, but are 
not in the same handwriting as the rest. 

Collectiones ex S. Scriptur. et Patribus. 

TABULA REPERTOIIIA. 

1. Sacrae Scripturae intellectus et utilitas, p. 9. 

2. Quod auctorum scripta sine verbo Dei non sunt 

accipienda pro articulis fidei, p. 15. 

3. Scripture contirmantes idem, p. 16. 

4. Doctores idem probantes, p. 19. 

5. Rationes in idem, p. 42. 

6. Conciliorum decreta sine Scriptura non sunt ac 

cipienda pro articulis fidei, p. 47. 

7. Veteres Canones abrogati, p. 48. 

8. Ex angelorum oraculis non licet idem facere, 

p. 53. 

9. Nee miraculis idem probare fas est, p. 54. 

10. Ne etiam apparitio mortuorum id ipsum satis 

astruit, p. 59. 

11. Sed ne consuetudini hac in re fidendum est, 

p. 62. 



12. Objectiones, quod praeter Scriptura? auctoritatern 

recipiendi sunt novi articuli fidei, p. 65. 

13. Traditiones non scriptas, p. 75. 

*Ex Tertullian. Anglice, p. 93. 

14. Rationes in idem, p. 94. 

[Baptismus parvulorum, p. 97. 
Baptizati ab haereticis non sunt rebaptizandi, 
p. 98.] 

15. Nee miracula, nee Christi professio, nee locus, 

nee externum aliquod, faciunt hominem sanc 
tum aut Deo gratum, sed observatio manda- 
torum Dei, p. 99. 

16. Novae doctrinae, p. 101. 

17- In caeremoniis fere omnibus Juda?os imitamur, 
p. 101. 

18. Osiander. 

19. De sacrificiis Christianorum, p. 103. 

20. De sacramentis, p. 115, 121. 

21. De charactere, p. 133. 

22. De baptismo, p. 147- 

23. De eucharistia, p. 211. 

[Pro sacramentariis, p. 259.] 

24. De poenitentia, p. 305, 327- 

*De confessione, p. 351. 
De satisfactione, p. 384. 
De matrimonio, p. 397- 
De ordinibus ecclesiasticis, p. 417, 454, 461. 
[Multa fecerunt Christus et Apostoli qua? 

hodie apud nos non observantur, p. 474. 
Multi sacerdotalem dignitatem consecuti sunt 

sine episcoporum consecratione, p. 476. 
Quod ordo sit sacramentum, p. 477-] 

28. De unctione, p. 464, 483. 

29. De impositione manuum, p. 470. 

[De unctione chrismatis, p. 486. 
De contirmatione sine unctione chrismatis, 
p. 502.] 

30. De confirmatione, p. 506. 

31. De extrema unctione, p. 519. 



THE CONTENTS. 



32. De unctioue podum, p. 53?. 

33. De aqua benedictu, p. 540. 

34. De feriis, p. 545. 

Tomo secundo. 

35. De sanctorum invocatione, p. 1. 

[Desideria nostra sancti intelligunt, et quo- 

modo, p. 10.] 
30. De imaginibus, p. 115. 
37- De divorum reliquiis, p. 59. 
38. De vera religione et superstitione, p. 67. 
3D. Ut oremus, aut peccatoruni veniam consequa- 

mur, non est ullus locus pra> alio Deo accep- 

tior ; nee pro his opus cst longe pcrcgriuari, 

P. 71. 
[Pro sanctorum invocatione, p. 75.] 

40. De religiosis, p. 11U. 

41. De votis, p. 137. 

42. De virginitate et de votis castitatis, p. 141. 

43. De ecclesia, p. 86. 

44. De ecclesiis aedificandis, dedicandis, et earum 

ornatu, p. 85. 

45. De horis canonicis, p. 88. 

46. De oratione et cantu ecclesiastico, p. 91. 

47. Dejejunio, p. 101. 

48. De eleemosyna. 

49. De corruptis ecclesiae moribus, p. 111. 

50. De excommunicatione, p. 155. 

51. De sepultura mortuorum, p. 100. 

52. De missa, p. 164. 

53. De divinis praeceptis, p. 513, b. 

54. De gratia et meritis, p. 183, 245, 517. 

[Accipere divinum adjutorium esse accipere 
Spiritum Sanctum et charitatem, per quas 
fit in homine delectatio summi boni, p. 183. 

Gratis, id est, nullis praecedentibus meritis, 
p. 185. 

Justificare subinde significat justum pronun- 
ciare, declarare, aut ostendere, p. 187. 

Sola fides, p. 191. 

Ex sola fide justificamur, p. 199. 

Fide in Christum, hoc est, merito passionis 
Christi, non nostris operibus justificamur, 
p. 202. 

Fides quid sit, p. 207. 

Gratia accipitur pro gratia justificante, sive 
pro gratia ilia qua3 bonos discernit a malis, 
non pro ilia, quae communis est bonis et 
malis, p. 229. 

Conciliatio Pauli et Jacobi, p. 231. 

De loco angelorum, p. 233. 

Quod quidam angeli pr.nesint uno vitio, p. 234. 

De libero arbitrio angelorum, ibid. 



De cognitione angelorum, p. 23(5. 

Utrum invocare licet auxilia dannonum, ibid. 

De potestate damionum, p. 237- 

An angeli corporei sint, p. 238. 

Angeli aliquando loquuntur ex persona Patris, 

aliquando Filii, aliquando Spiritus Sancti, 

aliquando Trinitatis, p. 240. 
Voces et species corporales Dei ante incarna- 

tionem per angelos factae sunt. ibid. 
Quod nomine sensualitatis inferior rationis 

portio intelligitur, p. 244.] 
55. De libero arbitrio, p. 244, 519, b. 

[Prrcvenit gratia Dei bonam voluntatem, non 

contra, p. 255. 
Praedestinatio, p. 202.] 
*Pro purgatorio, p. 203. 
"Contra purgatorium, p. 334. 
[Subversio illarum rationum qua? pro con- 

stabiliendo purgatorio passim solent adduci, 

p. 357. 
Oramus ut eveniant ea, quas ex Dei promissis 

certo novimus eventura, p. 431.] 
50. Semper orandus est Deus, ut condonet peccata, 
etiam piis filiis, quibus jam omnia peccata 
dimissa sunt, p. 432, 521, b. 
*De conversione impii, p. 453, a. 
[Cum impius confitetur peccatum, omni.i 

peccata dimittuntur, nee medium est ullum 

inter filios Dei et diaboli, ibid. 
Quod timore poence fit, non fit, p. 473, a. 
Gratia sanat voluntatem, praeceditque meritum, 

et justificatio cor rectum, p. 481, a. 
Ex operibus ante Spiritum Sanctum rei potius 

tenemur quam contra, p. 505. 
Fides non est sine operibus, nee contra, sicut 

nee dilectio Dei sine dilectione proximi, nee 

e con verso, p. 510, a.] 
De fide, p. 447, a. 450, a. 511, a. 
[Duplex fides, p. 450, b.] 
"Contra merita humana, p. 453, b. 
[Gratia et meritum, p. 402, b. 517, b. 
Baptismus parvulorum, p. 504, b.] 

57. De beatissima Virgine Maria, Tom. I. p. 95. 

Tom. II. p. 523, b. 
[Peccatum originate, p. 539, b.] 

58. De obedientia erga magistratus, p. 549, b. 

[Christianorum sectae et errores, p. 559, b.J 

In consequence of a mistake in the paging, there 
are duplicates of the numbers after 447 in the second 
volume. These are distinguished in the above list 
by the letters a and b."J 



THE PREFACE. 



the heart of 
man to ever 



WHAT Christian heart, dearly beloved countrymen and brethren in our Saviour Christ, 2. 
can abstain from deep sobs and sorrowful sighings? What natural and kind-hearted 
man can forbear weeping ; so often as he calleth to remembrance the Lord s vineyard isai. v. 2. 
within the realm of England (which he himself had of late so strongly hedged, walled, 
and fenced round about by the princes of most famous memory, king Henry the eighth, Kings and 
and Edward the sixth, and planted therein the pure vine of his own blessed word by to be^u iei 
godly preachers, his gardeners,) to be so suddenly broken down, destroyed, wasted, and fn^ders; 
rooted up by the roots, by the wild boar of the wood and the beasts of the field, that is, 
by the Romish bishop and his bloody ministers ; and now in the same vineyard to see 
planted, take root, and prosper, brambles, briars, and hemlocks ; that is, gross ignorance, m-onie! " 
naughty doctrine, false worship of God, and such other kinds of most stinking, vile, and >sa - lxxxj 
filthy weeds ? Oh what a sweet and pleasant grape of godly doctrine was then gathered God s word 
in England, to the great comfort and rejoicing of all them that lovingly tasted thereof! andpTeasant 
Then was God s word (for that is the sweet and pleasant grape " that maketh glad the 
heart of man") with great freedom preached, earnestly embraced, and with greedy hearts 
in all places received. !S, inffsalva " 

Then was God s great glory marvellously advanced. Then the only merits of Christ, Psal - clv - 
then true repentance for our former sins, then trust in God s mercy through the death of 
our Saviour Christ, with a new Christian life, was truly published and preached every 
where. Then was there the common prayer rightly used, and the sacraments (baptism, 
I mean, and the holy communion) in such a tongue and language set forth that all 
people might understand them. Then were they plainly ministered, without any 
juggling or sorcery, according to Christ s institution and thc rule of his holy word : 
which word at that time had the prize and bare the bell away throughout the whole 
land. 

With that were all pulpits filled, churches garnished, printers shops furnished, and 3. 
every man s house decked. With God s word was every man s mouth occupied, of that But thc 
were all songs, interludes, and plays made. But, alas ! so long, till all was played under tllc most 
the board. But what was the cause of all this ? Truly none other thing but our own naked, bare, 
sins and wickedness. For we were talkers only and not walkers, lip-gospellers, from the ** tteproof 
mouth outward and no farther. We were even such as thc prophet speaketh of, saying, t<> well 
" This people honoureth me with their lips, but are far from me with their hearts." We sS u the 
could speak of God s word and talk gloriously thereof; but in our hearts we were full 



of pride, malice, envy, covetousness, backbiting, rioting, harlot-hunting, no whit bettered from any 

at all than we were before under the pope s kingdom. Nothing was in us amended, 

but only our tongues; no, nor they neither, if I shall speak rightly and as the truth was 

in deed. For, besides our communication of scripture, we used detraction of our neighbour, 

filthy talk, with many proud brags of ourselves. We read not thc scriptures, neither 

heard them, for any amendment of our own wicked lives, but only to make a brag and a 

shew thereof, to check and to taunt others, yea, and to spy small motes in other men s eyes, Matt \a <>.< 

but nothing desirous to sec the great beams in our own. This, I say, to talk and not to 

walk, to say and not to do, was not only amongst the unlearned sort, but also amongst 

thc great clerks and chief preachers of God s word. Which thing, as I judge, was the 

only cause, why God by his just judgment suffered his elect and chosen vineyard to 

be thus trodden down, rooted up, and miserably afflicted by this bloody boar of Rome, 

and the fat bulls of Basan, his cruel officers. This is thc cause why God hath suffered r*ai. xxu.i 

[< Not in ed. 1,082. 



10 CONFUTATION OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 

The nope this great antichrist to disgrace the merits of Christ s passion, and in place thereof to set 

for e truth, up men s merits, and instead of his sufficient satisfaction upon the cross once for all to set 

nourishing up his masses satisfactory for the sins both of the quick and dead. This is the cause 

and minister- that this monstrous beast hath taught the invocation of saints, and the same to be our 

life. mediators to God, and satisfiers for our sins. Whereas before, in the forenamed vineyard, 

John vi. W as planted Christ Jesus, the true bread that came down from heaven, and that most 

John iv. p ure we ii O f the water of life ; now, after the rooting of this monstrous and ravenous 

boar, are upsprung conjured bread, conjured water, to drive away evil spirits and to 

purge our sins. 

This bloody boar, besides all mischiefs that he hath done to the vineyard, yet ccaseth 

4. he not, with fagot, fire, and all other cruel torments, to constrain and compel men to 

Psai. cxv. worship images, the work of men s hands, to kneel to them, to reverence them, to bow 

to them, and with all manner of obeisance to honour them, clean contrary to God s 

Exod. xx. 4.2 commandment, who saith : "Thou shalt not make to thyself" (much less then to 

honour, reverence, and worship them) "any graven image, nor the likeness of any 

thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth ; 

thou shalt not bow down to them, nor worship them." But yet these shameless wretches 

be not abashed to say, that images are necessary, because they be laymen s books, 

teaching them, instructing them, and leading them to the true worship of God. Oh 

great blasphemy ! Oh sacrilege ! Oh spiteful robbery ! What is blasphemy, what is 

God s word is sacrilege, what is robbery, if this be none ? God giveth his word written to be every 

sufficient to i . 

instruct ail man s book, and his pure, everlasting, and imdenled commandments as sufficient in- 
true worship structions for all men to the true worship of him. But these earthly wroters (the pope, 
out imkges. I mean, and his prelates) as though they were wiser than God, will teach men to 
themselves worship him with images, although the same be utterly forbidden by God throughout 
God. the whole course of his holy scriptures. 

These and such other false and feigned doctrines, contrary to the scriptures of God 

contained in his holy bible, are now blown out, blustered, and yelled forth in every 

pulpit. Every street soundeth of these ; yea, every printer s house is filled with such 

ungodly baggage; yea, and the same are commanded by public authority (which is much 

to be lamented) to be set forth, and the sincere doctrine of Christ s holy word clean 

put to silence, and utterly condemned. Neither may any man reason, or once doubt of 

their doctrine, under pain of excommunication, nay, rather under pain of burning. 

The pope And when they be not able (as they are not able at any time indeed) to prove any 

iKoctrine of these doctrines by the word of God written, then they fly to their unwritten verities, 

fagoted that is, to certain things delivered, as they say, from the apostles by word of mouth, 

scriptures. y3 without writing. Which things are to all men uncertain ; for no man knoweth certainly, 

A weak re- what they are. But whatsoever pleaseth them and maketh for their purpose, profit, 

were not ob- and lordly ambition, that is an unwritten verity, not to be gainsaid or denied. This 

shameless, is their shot-anchor, bulwark, and extreme refuge, whereunto they fly whensoever they 

are forced and constrained by God s word. These they make their foundations, where 

upon they build and maintain all their superstitions, idolatries and heresies. Which 

5. foundations I trust, by God s grace and help, so to shake, both by the open scriptures, 

by the full consent of all the most ancient writers, and by probable reasons, that the 

building thereupon shall have a fall. 

if unwritten For this is most true, that no unwritten verity is or can be necessary for our 
salvation : for then should the sacred and holy scriptures, written by the apostles in 
the Spirit of God, and sealed witli their bloods, seem to be insufficient and not able to 
bring us unto salvation. But what a great blasphemy that should be to God and his 



nto * most holy Spirit, all men, I trust, that list to read the same scriptures, easily shall 
perceive. But when these unshamefaced robbers are put to their shifts, urged and forced 
herein by the open and manifest word written, then have they another starting-hole to 



[ Misprinted Psalm xx. in ed. 1582.] ! ed. 1582, Exo. 115.] 

( 2 Misprinted in Orig. ed. Exo. xx. 2, and in I [ 3 By the holy scriptures, Orig. ed.J 



THE PREFACE. 11 

creep out at, crying and yelling, Templum Domini, Templum Domini, Templum Jer. \\\. 2. 
Domini, &c. " The church, the church, the church ;" affirming in plain words that the thetr strong 
church can in no wise err or be deceived. And here they deceive themselves, because Kafk of 



they take 4 no distinction or difference of the church. For there are two manner of 
churches, one true, perfect, and holy in the sight of God, and another false, imperfect, and 
ungodly. Truth it is, that the true church of God, being grounded and set upon his code 
holy word, (I mean the gospel of grace) cannot err unto damnation. But the other, how d 
shining and glorious soever it appear, if it wander abroad, and be not contained within the 
compass and limits of the word written, is no true, but a feigned and forged church, word eff 
That church, as it is without the compass of God s promises made in truth, not only ^"matters of 
may, but also doth commonly, yea continually err and go astray ; for they are not sal 
coupled to the head Christ, which is the life, the way, and the truth. Paul, the apostle The church 
of God, and elect vessel of salvation, writing to the Galatians, hath these words : " If eth from 
we," saith he, " or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you, than that we written 
have preached, hold him accursed:" and yet the papist 5 , not fearing the curse of God, errnfrnat 

i ,1 i i T i i ,1 i tersof faith 

dare be bold to teach things which Paul never knew, yea, things clean contrary to his and saiva- 
evident and manifest teaching. Such gross ignorance (I would to God it were but Gaia t. i. 
ignorance indeed) is entered into their heads, and such arrogant boldness possesseth their The papists 
hearts, that they are bold to affirm no church to be the true church of God, but that curse. 
which standeth by ordinary succession of bishops, in such pompous and glorious sort as 6. 
now is seen. For if there be, say they, no such outward and visible church, how shall 
any man know whether he be of the church of Christ, and in the right belief, or no ? 
To this I answer, that if our faith should be stayed upon the outward, glistering, and 
pompous church, not ruled nor governed by the determinate counsel of God in his word 
written, we should never be certain thereof, but ever wavering and doubting; which is 
the gate and ready pathway to desperation, from which God defend his chosen flock ! 

" Cursed is he," saith the scripture, "that putteth his trust in man." And why? For jer. xvii. 
" all men," as the kingly prophet David saith, "are liars" in their words, and sinners in their rsai. cxvi. 
works. By which words it appeareth plain, that there was never man so virtuous, holy, nor 
so well learned, only the writers of the holy scriptures excepted, but, either of ignorance or 
of negligence, there escaped some faults in his writings and doings. Yea, the general The general 
councils themselves also, that they make so much of, have notably erred, as hereafter erred, and 
shall be declared. Yea, such hath been the truth of those seen churches, that one small trifles. 
general council hath condemned another of heresy : moreover, the outward seen church, 
whereof they brag not a little, hath never since the beginning any space continued in 
the true doctrine of God. Let us begin at Moses, who was the first lawgiver, and 
we shall see the state of this outward church, which consisteth in the ordinary suc 
cession of bishops, whether it be so as I have said, or no. When Moses was gone Exod. xxxii. 
up to the mount Sinai to talk with God, and to receive the law at his hands, did 
not Aaron, the high priest and bishop, with all the people, in the mean space worship 
the golden calf? Read the book of Judges, and you shall see how the whole outward 
and visible church fell to idolatry and worshipping of strange gods : as Baal, Astaroth, 
gods of the Edomites, Moabites, Philistines, and the Syrians. After the reign of king 
David, how many kings were there, I pray you, in whose time false gods were not 
openly worshipped? All the kings of Israel served strange gods with the consent 
of the bishops, priests, and the whole people. And in Juda there passed not three or 
four kings, after David, in whose days open idolatry was not allowed and practised, 
by the consent of the kings, bishops, high priests, scribes, and Pharisees. Which of 
the prophets did not the open and visible church persecute ? Where was the visible 
church in the time of Elias ? Were not all that were known, and thought to be of 
the church, worshippers of Baal ; insomuch that Elias thought there had been left 
alive of God s true church but himself only? And yet, notwithstanding, God had 
preserved his church, known but only to himself; for he knoweth who are his. Who 2 Tim. ii. 
smote Micheas, the true prophet of God, but the chief priest and bishop Zedechias ? i Kings xxii. 



4 Make, Orig. ed.] [ 5 Papists, Orig. ed.] 



12 CONFUTATION OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 

And he, with four hundred priests more of his own mind and religion, deceived 

7. Achab, and promised him victory over the Assyrians, although Cod had made them 
no such promise, hut rather had pointed the contrary, as it came to pass. Who 

jer. xx commanded Jeremy to he beaten for his true prophesying, but Phashur, the archbishop? 
This and such Who persuaded with the king that Jeremy, the true prophet of God, was a seditious 
ward of ail fellow, and w r ent about to discourage the people in Jerusalem, that they should not 
c : rs ami f.uth- resist Nabuchodonozor, king of Babylon, but the priests ? Yea, and when the king 
of God. delivered him out of prison, who but these holy men of the church procured him to 
be cast again into a deep dungeon, where they would have famished him, if God had not 
put in the king s heart to take him out and deliver him ? These be the fruits and 
practices of the visible and seen church, which, if it be true that the papists say, 
cannot err. But whatsoever they say, it forceth not : for we know what the spi 
ritualty, as they call themselves, have been since the beginning, the very expressed 
i Mac. vii. image whereof is set forth and declared in the Machabies (as they that read the story 
shall perceive it well enough) by Alcinus, Simon, Jason, and Menelaus. 

Now let us come to the new Testament, and see what the visible and known 

church was under it. Who was the true church, or how was it known to the people, 

in Christ s time ? The high priests, bishops, scribes, Pharisees, and Sadducees, which 

appeared outwardly and boasted themselves to be the church of God, were indeed, as 

Matt. ni. xii. Christ calleth 1 them, serpents, the generations of vipers, hypocrites, children of hell, 

painted tombs, persecutors of true religion, and murderers of the prophets, yea, of 

himself and his apostles ; men that shut up the kingdom of heaven, so that neither 

they would enter therein themselves, nor suffer the poor simple, that were desirous 

to know the truth, to enter, but excommunicated and thrust them out of the 

church, as men cast away, as heretics, and forsaken of God, whosoever believed on 

Actsiv. Christ. W T ho commanded the apostles that they should preach no more in Christ s 

Acts vii. name? Who caused Stephen to be stoned, and James to be thrown off the pin- 

Eub. Kcci. nacle? 2 Who gave authority to Paul to bind and bring before them all that professed 

cap L 22. lb Christ? Who commanded him to be buffeted? Who accused him before Festus and 

Acts xxv. Agrippa ? Who stirred the gentiles against him in all countries where he went to 

preach, but the church ? If you will then needs judge the outward visible church, 

that sitteth in Moses chair, (though they do not as the chair requireth,) to be the true 

Rum, Lib. church of God, I pray you then tell me, who caused Constantinus, the emperor, to 

Boo&^Lib. banish Athanasius? 3 Who exiled Chrysostome and many other more godly and well 

learned bishops, and slew a great number of godly and well learned men, but the 

8. priests, by seducing the empress Eudoxia? 4 Who put out the eyes of Constantino, 
Mark woii the fourth emperor, and caused him to be slain, because he pulled the images out of 
[ills outward the church, being worshipped contrary to God s holy will and commandment, but his 
by them yc own mother, by the counsel of the pope and the bishops, being then taken for the 
whauhey church ? Who deposed Henry, the fourth emperor, causing his own son to rebel 

against him ? Who deposed Childericus, the French king, assoiling his subjects from 
their obedience to him, and made Pipine king in his stead, but the pope and his 
churchmen ? 

Let us come to our own realm, and speak of things done in our own memory. 
Who procured king Henry the eighth, in the beginning of his reign, to war against 
the French king; where, besides the murder committed, adultery was learned, theft 
and sacrilege practised, lying, swearing, yea, and forswearing, with all other kinds of 
vices, used, which be the very fruits of war, but the clergy ? For the pope, then being 
in war with the French king, to make his part good and the stronger, procured the 
bishops of the church of England, being the pope s dear darlings, and chief of the king s 
council, to entitle the king to his right of the realm and crown of France ; and to en 
courage the young king thereto, the pope accursed the king of France and all his 



[ l Called, Ori. ed.] j pp. 11)0, 1. Ed. Basil. IfilJl.] 
[- Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. Lib. ji. cap.xxii. p. Gl. ( 4 Socrates, Eccl. Hist. Lib. vi. cap. xvi. p. 7 24. 

Ed. Paris. lfir,9.] | Ed. Colon. Allobr. 1612.] 

[ 3 Ruffinus, Eccl. Hist. Lib. i. cap. xvii. x ; x. I 



THE PREFACE. 13 

aiders and succonrcrs. Then free pardons flew abroad as thick as butterflies in sum 
mer: but so free, that the realm thereby and the said warriors 5 was robbed of a great 
deal of our treasure, and in manner half undone. There w r as full remission a noena The i n i ie 

* imketh him- 

et culpa preached at Paul s Cross, and almost m every sermon through all England ; s ? lf iai to 
promising, that whosoever died in the pope s quarrel, his soul should be in heaven ralh e r >V C 
before his bones were cold. After, when the same king Henry had justly, by the his promise, 
authority of God s word, and the full consent both of the parliament and convocation, 
abolished the usurped power of the bishop of Rome, then the pope interdicted the T h llis > ls one of 
whole realm, and sent cardinal Poolc from prince to prince, to excite and move them of prelate*, 
(if he could have brought it to pass) to make open war against the king and the 
realm; as it appcareth in a sermon preached by Tonstall then* 3 bishop of Durham, 
and set out in print openly: which sermon, and all other tcll-truths, opening the 
abuses and tyranny of the bishop of Rome, arc now put to silence. Who were the 
workers of all these mischiefs ? Who, these three years past, hath persecuted, prisoned, 
and burned so many learned and godly men, only for their true faith s sake, grounded 
upon God s most holy word, (men worthy to be compared with the old martyrs of 
the primitive church, as well for the constancy of their faith, as also for patience and 
charity shewed at their deaths,) but the church, as they call themselves? Who, by 
their cruel tyranny, hath enforced so many notable members of Christ (leaving wife, 
children, kinsfolk, lands and goods) cither to fly into strange realms, or else from 
town to town, from city to city, only because they would not drink of the venomous 
cup of the whore of Babylon? Who hath wrought all these wickednesses, but only 
the mitred prelates and their popish priests? 

If we shall allow them for the true church of God, that appear to be the visible 
and outward church, consisting of the ordinary succession of bishops, then shall we 
make Christ, which is an innocent lamb without spot, and in whom is found no Exod. xu. 
guile, to be the head of ungodly and disobedient members. Which thing is as im- J Pet S 
possible as to make God, which is only good, and nothing but goodness itself, to be 
the author, original, and cause of all evil. For Christ, as he is pure, holy, and 
perfect, even so must his church and members be, to whom he, as the head, is ad- Ephes. i. 
joined and coupled. But if we allow the pope, his cardinals, bishops, priests, monks, 
canons, friars, and the whole rabble of the clergy, to be this perfect church of God, 
whose doings are clean contrary, for the most part, to the will and commandment 
of Christ, left and expressed in his word written; then make we him a sinner, and 
his word of no effect 9 . For as sweet agreeth with sour, black with white, dark 
ness with light, and evil with good ; even so this outward, seen, and visible church, 
consisting of the ordinary succession of bishops, agreeth with Christ. 

But here they will ask me, how shall a man know whether he be in the right faith, 
but by this church ? To this Christ shall make answer himself, saying, in the gospel of 
John, " My sheep hear my voice, and shall not hear a stranger." And where, I pray John \. 
you, hath Christ left any voice to be heard or followed, but in his word written? 
" Search the scriptures," saith he, " for they bear witness of me." Where he biddeth you John v. 
not search unwritten verities, such as the outward, seen, and pompous church shall of 
their own heads shew you, but the written verities contained in the holy scriptures, 
"which are profitable to teach, to improve, to amend, and to instruct in righteousness, 2 Tim. in. 
that the man of God may be perfect and prepared unto all good works." 

If thou therefore be desirous to know, whether thou be in the right faith or no 
seek it not at man s mouth : for " all men be liars." Seek it not, I say, at a proud, i ai. m. 
glorious, and wavering sort of bishops and priests ; but at God s own mouth, which is oni/eerti- 
his holy word written, which can neither lie, deceive, nor be deceived. Ask, I say, uhethelThTs 
seek, and knock by diligent study and earnest prayer unto God, who hath promised to or no. c ! 

10. 

[ 5 Warres, Grig. ed.J [ 7 Nunquam enim spiritualis pcrsequitur carna- 

[ 6 Now Bishop, Grig. ed. See Strypc, Eccl. lem, sed ignoscit. Hieron. in Epist. ad Galat. Lib. 



Mem. Vol. I. parti, pp. fl, , r 2l. Oxford, 1822. 
This Sermon was intituled "Against the Pope s 
supremacy." Bertholet. 1539.] 



11. cap. v. Tom. IX. p. 140. Ed. Francof. 1G34. 
[ 8 1 Pet. ii. Grig. ed.J 
[ 9 None effect, Grig, ed.] 



14 CONFUTATION OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 

give to all them that ask faithfully of him the certainty of good faith in their con 
science, taught and confirmed by the holy scriptures of the old and new Testament. 

And here I forbid no man, as though they should not ask and learn of the learned ; 
for that is good and necessary, yea, and allowed by God s truth : but this would I have 
all men to do, to use discretion and wisdom in this matter, and to know whether they 
be learned, godly-minded, and able to instruct by the scriptures, or no. And yet, if they 
ke, believe them no further than they can shew their doctrine and exhortation to be 
a g reeaD l e with the true word of God written. For that is the very touchstone which 
mus t> yea, and also will, try all doctrine or learning, whatsoever it be, whether it be 
scriptures good or evil, true or false. And let not men of small learning be too curious in asking 
triethS?" 1 or movm dark an ^ doubtful questions, which breed contention rather than godly 



wh"fher the edifying, but let them be content with the plain and open places of the scriptures. Let 
bejood or them rather be earnest to observe the commandments of faith and love, which are plainly 
set forth in God s book, than to trouble themselves and busy their heads with dark 
places; for that is a thing that hath done, and also doth displease God very greatly. 
Yea, I think surely, that these heavy plagues, wherewith God most justly punisheth 
now this realm of England (which I beseech him, of his infinite mercy, either to take 
clean away, or else to mitigate them for his elect s sake) cometh not so much from the 
simple, innocent, and unlearned sort, (which, being beguiled through their simplicity, by 
the craft and subtlety of the wily papists, do still continue in superstition and idolatry,) 
but rather for the curious sort, which preach strange and far-fetched doctrines, nothing 
so much to edifying as to contentious brawling. Yea, I would to God there were 
not a great number of them, that were and are counted learned, which preach and 
defend doctrines which themselves know to be untrue and contrary to the evident 
scriptures. Would God there were not many hundreds of great gospellers sometimes, 
that had not subscribed with their own hands, and confirmed by their open and 
Their con- public sermons, the contrary of that which they once builded in Christ. And some 

sciences shall L . * . J . 

therefore O f such, I know, in persuading privately with their old friends and acquaintance, 

them for so have confessed no less, but that they have done contrary to the truth, and the good 

repent not in persuasion of their own conscience: and yet the same men counsel their friends, for 

11. unity and peace sake, as they term it, but rather, they may say, for fear of loss of 

goods and life, to obey wicked superstition 1 , naughty rites, and damnable laws. But 

Matt. xvi. what peace, or what unity is that, that is against God and his Christ ? And " what 
profiteth it a man to win all the world, and lose his own soul ?" For "he that loveth 
his own life more than me," saith Christ, " is not worthy of me." For these men s 
sakes therefore, that is to say, the stubborn papists, that lead the world in blindness, 

The wit and contrary to their own consciences ; and specially for delicate gospellers sakes, whose 
wit and virtue is in their tongues, hot disputers, busy talkers, taunters and fault- 
finders with others, rather than menders of themselves ; for these two sorts sakes 
chiefly, I say, God heapeth these great plagues, that is, persecution of his word, dearth, 
danger of war, and people of strange nations, likely to subdue and utterly destroy that 
our realm, except they repent and amend their lives in time, and become not only 
forgetful of their former evils, but also diligent workers and true followers of the 
word, that they have so lightly condemned and refused. "Which if they do not, let 

Matt, xxiii. them be sure that all the plagues which are written in the book of God, and all the 
blood of his saints, which hath been shed from just Abel unto this present time, shall 
be poured upon them. But howsoever these men do, let us, dear brethren, whose 
hearts God of his goodness hath more mercifully touched, repent and amend our former 
lives, and cease from all dead works, lest we be partakers of the same plagues with 
them. But thanks be unto our God, that hath so gently ordered us ! For this we 
know, that God sufiereth not his people long to follow their own minds, but shortly 
punisheth them, which is a token of his great loving-kindness toward them. For this 

2 Mace. vi. grace have we of God more than other people, as it is written, that he suffereth not 
us long to sin unpunished, like other nations, that when the day of judgment cometh, 
he may punish them in the fulness of their sins. If we sin, he correcteth us, but he 



[ Superstitions, Orig. ed. 



THE PREFACE. 



15 



m th< 



never withdraweth his mercy from us ; and though he punish us with adversity, yet 

doth he never forsake his people : " For whom," as St Paul saith, " the Lord loveth, Heb. xii. 

him he chasteneth; yea, and he scourgeth every son whom he receiveth." 

But, to leave this digression and come to our purpose again, I will briefly shew 
you what the outward face of the church and religion hath been in all ages ; even 
such as hath pleased the mighty kings, emperors, and rulers of the world. When 
Jeroboam set up golden calves at Bethel and Dan, the priests and Levites consented 2Chron.xiii.2 
thereto, and all Israel worshipped them, contrary to God s commandment. When 12. 
Jesabel had persuaded with her husband about murder, he fulfilled her mind and slew 
all the prophets of God that he could come by; only Elias remained that was known 
to be the true church, whereas the priests of Baal were four hundred and fifty in J 
number. Ezechias destroyed the brazen serpent, and restored the true religion and } 
worship of God; but Manasses, his son, set up idolatry, maintained wicked religion, 
and slew them that were good. Josias restored right religion; but Jehoas and Jeho- 
achim, his sons, forsook it, and all their priests and subjects with them committed 
idolatry. And generally, what religion soever the king would have, that was stab- AS princes 
lished for his time ; so that, as Solomon saith of the judges, so may we say of the things were 
clergy, "Whatsoever saith the prince, that saith the priest." 

But let us once again come to the new Testament. Did not the head rulers of 
the church, with the authority of Herod and Pilate, condemn Christ and his doctrine Matt. xxvi. 
as erroneous and seditious; and all the people followed, and cried, crucifye? Did not 
all the emperors before Constantine, being seduced by their bishops and priests, con 
demn Christian religion as heretical, seditious, and traitorous, and for the same mur 
dered many thousands of martyrs ? When Constantine was christened, then was the 
true religion first set forth and openly preached by public authority: and yet, in the 
space between Christ and this godly emperor, God was not without his church, though 
it were not known, seen, and so accepted of the world. In this prince s time, and 
by his authority, was kept the first and best general Council of Nice 3 ; where was set 
forth our common creed, containing shortly the chief and most necessary articles of 
our belief. This Constantinus son, Constantius, favouring the error of the Arians, in Theodoreti, 

Lib. ii. cap. 

the council of Arimine, decreed that Christ was not God but man only 4 : and then is. 
to call Christ the Son of God, was by the outward known church, and by a general 
council, condemned for an heinous heresy. From that time forth, w T hen painime 5 princes The priests, 
reigned, idolatry and worshipping of false gods was the public doctrine. When heretics part, were 
reigned and bare the rule, heresy was openly preached for God s truth. When the em- turnttppett 
perors were catholic, then was the true doctrine of the gospel openly preached. And an 
generally, such as was the faith of the emperors, kings, or other rulers, such did the 
priests preach. And if any, by the authority of God s word, preached the contrary, or 
withstood their corrupt teachings, straightway he was either deposed from his office, 
condemned for an heretic, banished, brent, or put to some other cruel death. 

After all these sprung up the pope, that triple-crowned monster, and great anti- 
christ, which took upon him authority 6 , not only over the clergy, but also climbed 
above kings and emperors, deposing them at his pleasure, and settled himself in the 
temple of God, that is, in the consciences of men, extolling himself above God, dispensing 
with good 7 laws, and giving men leave to break them, and to regard more his decrees 
than the everlasting commandments of God. And so it came to pass in time, that 
to eat flesh on the Friday, or fasting-day, was counted greater sin than drunkenness, 
adultery, or perjury. And why? because his laws were diligentlier and more straitly 
looked to, and the offenders thereof sorer punished, than God s laws. Since this anti 
christ of Rome, I say, was stablished in his full power, whatsoever pleased him, that 
was taken for God s law, and that was decreed upon by general council, confirmed 



13. 



[ 2 Omitted in ed. 1582.] 

[ 3 The first (Ecumenical, or General Nicene 
Council, was held at Nice, A.D. 325.] 

[ 4 Theodoreti, Eccl. Hist. Lib. n. cap. xviii. 
p. 70. Ed. Colon. Allobr. 1612. The Council of 



Rimini was held, A.D. 359. Vid. Labbe et Cossart, 
Tom. II. col. 791. Ed. Lutet. Paris. 1671. J 

[ 5 Painime: Pagan.] 

[ 6 An authority, Orig. ed.] 

P With God s laws, Orig. ed.] 



10 CONFUTATION OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 

and ratified by whole heaps of clerks. To speak against that was, and also now is, 
detestable heresy, and so heinous a crime against the Holy Ghost (if it were true 
that they say), that it cannot be forgiven cither in this world or in the world to come. 
These bo the He that spcaketh against any of his decrees must utterly be condemned for an heretic, 
Bxii? un ~ accursed of God, and damned into hell for ever, without redemption, except he recant, 
toSrth abjure, and deny the truth, and set forth error and false doctrine, and promise with 
SSffijSk a solemn oath, that he shall never preach, teach, nor defend the truth hereafter. 
d?t?M Now let us come to our days. AVhcn king Henry the eighth was, as he ought 

to be by God s law, made supreme head, as well of the clergy as of the laity, he, by 
the consent of the parliament and convocation, set forth in print a godly book of 
religion 1 , not much varying from that which was enacted in his son s time, Edward 
it was a small the sixth. But when he took displeasure with certain bishops, as they term them, 
of the new learning, because they would not give their consent in the parliament, 
that the king should have all abbey lands to his own use, but only such lands as 
were given by his ancestors, kings of England; and that the residue of those lands 
shoukf have been bestowed to augment the number of learned men in the universities; 
to the founding also of grammar schools in every shire of England, where children, 
most apt to learning, should have been brought up freely, and without great cost to 
their friends and kinsfolks; to the founding of hospitals, where poor and impotent 
people should have been sufficiently provided for with physicians and surgeons, 
14. which should have ministered physic 2 and surgery freely, not only to them, but also 
to all other poor folk within this realm; and also in every shire town, and other 
market towns, where should be thought most meet and fit, to set up divers occupa 
tions, most profitable for the commonwealth, where all valiant and sturdy beggars 
should have been set to work, and if they refused to labour, then to force them thereto 
by whipping, stocking, and hunger; and the residue of the abbey lands above these 
should have been reserved in the common treasuries, to aid the king in his wars, or 
other affairs of his realm, and thereby to have favoured and eased the more his sub- 
private com- jects, in taxes, subsidies, fifteenths 3 , and loans, and such other like thing 4 : king Henry, 
oSS. as I said before, upon the displeasure taken, and by the incitation of the old popish 
I-unep2d bishops, shortly after, by consent of the same, or the most part of them, that were 
aml bnmljhf makers of the first book of religion, set forth by open parliament and convocation the 
in tyranny, g.^ j^k^ as we n a rr re eing with the former parliament and the word of God, as 
black with white, light with darkness, Christ with Belial, or with antichrist. But 
after, when he was pacified with these foresaid bishops, considering that they spake 
against the king s profit, not of malice but of good conscience and zeal to God s 
glory and the commonwealth, he mitigated the Six Articles, and from that time forth, 
more and more, restored true religion. And I doubt not but, if he had lived, he 
would have brought all things to a better state than he left it. But Edward the 
sixth, his son, succeeding in his said father s place, by the advice of his uncle, the 
duke of Somerset, the lords of his council, bishops, and the clergy, set forth such a 
book of religion 3 , as without boast or dispraise of other be it spoken, was never a 
better set forth since the apostles time. 

Now, after that God had plagued this realm with the most grievous plague that 
ever came to it, in taking away from it so godly a king as he was, yea, such an one 
as hath not been read of, of his age, in any realm, both for wit, learning, so 
berness, and godliness; in his stead he hath set up queen Mary, who in short time 
They are nil hath pulled down that was not buildcd in many years, and brought in the bishop 
Vr.ai U y r asgTve of Rome, before justly and by law of parliament abolished, with open perjury of so 
^ theTrinT many, as gave their voices and consent to the same. For they had all made a 
imta?pof he solemn oath before, never to receive his unjust usurped power into the realm again. 



llom 



[ l "The godly and pious institution of a chris- the reformation than the other.] 
dan man," published 1537, which was superseded [ s Ministered both physic, Orig. ed.] 

by "A necessary doctrine and erudition of any [ 3 Fifteens, Orig. ed.] 
Christian man," in 1540; the latter book being in [ 4 Things, Orig. ed.] 

several points less favourable to the doctrines of ; [ 5 i. e. the Liturgy.] 



THE PREFACE. 



17 



m 3 , 



Hath she not, being seduced by the perjured prelacies 6 , revoked and made of none 
effect so many godly laws enacted by parliament, that is, by the consent of the lords J" 1 ^ 
both spiritual and temporal, the clergy and common house, yea, and by them that were 
the chief of king Henry her father s privy council, and setters on of him in the abo- {Sj^Sjot 
lishing of the bishop of Rome, even open preachers and writers against the pope s a" waging 
tyranny, with so pithy reasons and strong arguments, as neither they themselves, nor r< ^. t and 
any other after them, shall be able at any time rightly to assoil and answer? Yet 
these men were chief of counsel, and procurers of the queen, and first workers in the 
parliament to allure the lords and commons to receive the bishop of Rome again for 
the supreme head of this realm, contrary to God s law, the laws of this realm, and By their 
their own solemn oaths. And not only this, but they have taken away the acts of krj 
mortmain and praemunire, and divers other statutes that did bridle the unsatiate 7 
covetousness and licentious liberty of the popish priests, and restored the act ex qfficio 3 . 
Which thing if it should long continue in this state that it is in, the great treasure 
of this realm should come into the clergy s hands, and a great part thereof should 
fly to Rome for bishoprics, benefices, appellations, pardons, dispensations, and such 
other baggage. 

But (say the papists) when scriptures be hard and doubtful, and seem to be con 
trary one to another, by mistaking and wrong understanding whereof divers heresies 
do arise ; how shall a man know the truth in such diversity of opinions, both parties 
grounding themselves upon the scriptures, but only by the church, which (as they say) 
cannot err ? St Augustine shall make answer herein for me, saying on this wise : in his third 
"Dark places are to be expounded by more plain places; for that is the surest way of Christian 
declaring the scriptures, to expound one scripture by another 9 ." And again he saith, cap. as" 6 
that " in things openly contained in the scriptures are found all things that concern in his second 
faith, good living, and charity 10 ." "And if any thing cannot be tried by the certain Christum 
and clear places of the scriptures, let man s presumption," saith he, " stay itself, not esp!?!* 
leaning to either part: for this I am sure of, that if it were requisite to be known Inl jJ 88econd 
upon pain of damnation, there should not lack most plain and clear authorities of the J , Ic ri < 
same in the scriptures. But in seeking of the scriptures, let us seek no farther than , f Sin \. 
is left in writing by God our Saviour, lest in desiring too much we lose all 11 ." St^ap. uit. 
Chrysostom also saith : " It is not possible that he which with earnest study and u P n GcTie - 
fervent desire applieth him to the scriptures of God, should ever be 12 neglected of Ilom - 3<5 - 
God; but although we lack a master to teach us, yet the Lord himself, entering our 
hearts from above, shall give light into our minds, and pour his bright beams into ]0. 
our reason and understanding, and open the things that be hid, and teach us those 
things whereof we be ignorant 13 ." "Therefore," saith the same Chrysostom, "if thou inhi*rnp?r- 
wilt enter into the truth of the scriptures, now ask by prayers, now knock by good cap. as!"" 
works, and search the old ancient writers, and ask divers priests, to know which be 



and 
en ess 



[ 6 Prelates, Orig. ed. i. e. Bishops Gardner, 
Bonner, ccc. who had previously written and spoken 
against the Pope s supremacy.] 

[7 Unsatiable, Orig. ed.] 

[ 8 Vid. Foxe s Acts and Monuments, Ed. 1583. 
pp. 418, 11). 523. and 1410; and Strype, Eccl. Me 
morials, Vol. III. Part i. p. 59; and Life of Abp. 
Whitgift, Vol. II. pp. 2832. Ed. Oxon. 1822.] 

[ Ubi autem talis sensus eruitur, cujus incer- 
tum certis sanctarum scripturarum testimoniis non 
possit aperiri, restat ut ratione reddita manifestus 
appareat, etiamsi ille cujus verba intelligere quas- 
rimus, eum forte non sensit. Sed hasc consuetudo 
periculosa est. Per scripturas enim divinas multo 
tutius ambulatur. Augustin. I)e Doctrina Chris 
tiana, Lib. in. cap. xxviii. Tom. III. p. 25. 
Paris. 1635.] 

[ 10 In iis enim quas aperte in scriptura posita 
sunt, inveniuntur ilia omnia qua? continent fidem 
moresque vivendi, spem scilicet atque caritatem. 
Id. Lib. ii. cap. ix. Tom. III. p. 12.] 

CCRANMER, n."] 



[ n Ubi enim de re obscurissima disputatur, non 
adjuvantibus divinarum scripturarum certis claris- 
que documentis, cohibere se debet humana pra?- 
sumptio, nihil faciens in partem alteram declinando. 
Etsi enim quodlibet horum, quevnadmodum de- 
monstrari et explicari possit, ignorem, illud lamen 
credo, quod etiam hinc divinorum eloquiorum cla- 
rissima auctoritas esset, si homo illud sine dispendio 
promissa? salutis ignorare non posset. Id. De Pec- 
catorum mentis et remissione. Tom. VII. p. 3U4.J 

[ 12 Would ever be, Orig. ed.] 

j^ 13 Ouoe ydp eoTTt TOV fifrd CTTTOUOJ/S /cat TTO\\OV 

TTodoV TOIS 06iOlS V TVy^dvOVTa 7T6yOtO00i;j/ai 7TOT6 

a XXa KU.V civQpwTros ijfJiiv fJLij yivi\Ta.i ototi ir/caXos, 
auTos 6 <5e<r7roTj;s dviafiev e^i/3Teu6uf Tats Kapciat? 
Tats ij^CTc /oais </>a>Ttei TIJI/ didvoLav, KaTavyd^ci 
TOV Xoyicrfjiov, e/CKaXirTTTet TCC Xai/6az/oj/Ta, otoa- 
cr/caXos tj/utv yive-rat tiav dyvoovfUViav. Chrysost. 
in (lenes. Cap. xiii. Horn. xxxv. Tom. IV. pp. 
349,50. Ed. Paris. 1J1838.] 



CONFUTATION OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



James i. 



Matt. xxii. 
Mark xii. 



John x. 



Rev. iii. 



John xv. 



the true key-keepers, and which are the false 1 . For all things," saitli he, "are plain 
and manifest in the divine scriptures : whatsoever things are needful are there 2 opened 3 ." 
But if these authors will not satisfy them, then let them use St James counsel, 
saying : " He that lacketh wisdom, let him ask it of God, which giveth to all men 
indifferently, and casteth no man in the teeth, and it shall be given him." For God 
is not partial, nor regardeth any more a pope than a potter, a cardinal than a carter, 
a bishop than a butcher, a priest than a pedlar, except his faith and life be agree 
able to God s will. 

Whither should a man (desiring to know the truth, and right understanding and 
worshipping of God) have resorted in Elias his time, when there was no more of the 
true outward church but he alone ? To whom should a man have resorted for counsel 
of the truth in the time of Jeremy ? Of whom should a man have learned the truth 
in Christ s time, when there was no ordinary succession of bishops in the truth ? 
Should they have learned (think you) the truth of God of the head priests, scribes, 
and Pharisees ? Then you know what a learning they should have had, and how 
much Christ should have profited them. How should a man have been satisfied of 
his salvation at Annas, Caiphas, and the rest of the Pharisees hands? Even so, no 
doubt, would they have taught and instructed him, that, if he had believed and fol 
lowed their sayings, Christ and he should never have met. And yet those men bare 
the image and name of the known church at that time; yea, and the same men 
condemned him of whom our faith and salvation dependeth, as a seditious fellow, 
as a traitor to Cassar, as an heretic, and a blasphemer of God. Christ therefore, to 
teach us what we should do in matters pertaining to his glory and our own com 
modity, sendeth his hearers to the scriptures, and not to the church. He said also 
to the Sadducees, "Ye err because ye know not the scriptures;" and not, because 
ye believe not the church. He also promiscth his elect, that they shall hear his 
voice, and not a stranger s voice. If ye be doubtful therefore in any point, resort 
to the scriptures given from God, and out of them search for the thing whereof 
thou art ignorant ; and, above all things, be not too rash in judgment, neither trust 
too much in thine own wit. 

Ask also counsel of such men whom thou knowest to be well learned and exercised 
in the same scriptures, and whose conversation thou seest to be agreeable to their 
words; and yet believe them no farther than they can prove their doctrines and ex 
hortations to answer and agree with God s most holy word. Seek, ask, cry, call, 
knock, fast and pray, with a constant faith, joining thereto a Christian, sober, and a 
charitable living ; and then " he that hath the key of David, who openeth, and no man 
shutteth," shall (according to his promise) give unto you all that you ask of his 
Father in his name, and shall send his Holy Spirit into your hearts, who shall lead 
you into all truth, and put you in remembrance of all those things which Christ 
hath commanded, needful and necessary for your salvation. 

Whatsoever therefore the church teacheth you out of the canonical books of the 
bible, believe that; but if they teach any thing beside that, (I mean, which is not 
agreeable 4 with the same,) believe neither that, nor them. For then they are not the 
church of Christ, but the synagogue of Sathan and antichrist. For the church of 
God (as Saint Paul witnesseth) is "builded upon the foundation of the apostles and pro 
phets;" not upon the apostles, -but upon the same foundation which they laid, that 
is, Christ Jesus, and his holy word. And all such unwritten verities as the papists 



[ l Et si velles scripturarum ingredi veritatem, 
nunc peteres orationibus, nunc quaereres in scripturis, 
nunc pulsates bonis operibus, nunc interrogates 
sacerdotes, nunc istos, nunc illos; non investigas 
qui veri sint clavicularii scripturarum, qui falsi. 
Id. Opus. Imperf. in Matthaeum. Horn. xliv. col. 
clxxxvii. in cap. xxiii. Tom. VI. This treatise 
is generally supposed to be spurious. See James 
Corruption of Scripture Councils, p. 107. &c. Lon 



don, 1843. Rived Critica Sacra. Ed. Genevae, 
1626.] 

f 2 Needful there to be opened, Orig. ed.] 
[ 3 Ergo non sunt scriptura; clausae....Non ergo 
abscondita est in scripturis veritas, sed obscura : 
non ut non inveniant earn qui quserunt earn, sed 
ut non inveniant earn qui quaerere earn nolunt. Id. 
ibid. col. clxxxvi.] 

[ 4 Agreeing, Orig. ed.J 



THE PREFACE. 19 

have in their mouths, though they seem never so glorious a church to the face of 

the world, if they bo not agreeing (as they are not indeed) to the very word of 

God, suspect them, yea, rather, I bid you utterly to abhor and reject them. For 

their outward and seen church may, and doth (as is before proved) commonly err 

in great and weighty matters. Stand fast therefore to sound and good doctrine, and 

waver not. And " if any man come unto you, and bring not this doctrine with him, 2 John 

receive him not into your house : bid him not God speed," nor have ought to do 

with him; but count him as an abject from God and Christ. But cleave ye fast to 

the sound and certain doctrine of God s infallible word, written in the canonical 

books of the new and old Testament, which is able sufficiently to instruct 

you to eternal salvation, through Jesus Christ our Lord. To 

whom, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, 

be all honour and praise for 

ever and ever. 

Amen. 



22 



THE BOOK TO THE READER, 



18. Judge not before 

Thou know mine intent, 
But read me throughout, 
And then say thy Jill : 
As thou in opinion 
Art minded and bent, 
Whether it be 
Either good or ill. 

I care not for praise, 
Nor slander untrue, 
Of man nor of child, 
Whatever he be: 
Truth need not to fear, 
Who doth it pursue 
With praise or dispraise 
In any 



For truth is not bettered 
By praises at all, 
Nor harmed by dispraise 
Of any wight : 
But goodness or hurt 
Most surely come shall 
To him that doth judge 
Either wrong or right. 

Read me, then judge me, 
Therefore I thee pray, 
Nothing for my cause, 
But only thine own : 
For I shall endure, 
Whosoever say nay, 
When unwritten truths 
Shall be overthrown. 



A CONFUTATION 



UNWRITTEN VERITIES 

BY DIVERS AUTHORITIES DILIGENTLY AND TRULY GATHERED TOGETHER 
OUT OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES AND ANCIENT FATHERS. 



THE FIRST CHAPTER. 

That the word of God written, contained within the canon of the Bible, is a true, 
sound, perfect, and whole doctrine, containing in itself fully all things needful for 
our salvation. 

" YE shall put nothing to the word which I command you, neither take aught Dcut. iv. 
therefrom ; that ye may keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I com 
mand you." 

"You shall not do after any thing 1 that we do here this day, every man what Deut. xii. 
seemeth him good in his own eyes." 

" Whatsoever I command you, that take heed you do only to the Lord ; and put ibidem 
nothing thereto, nor take aught therefrom." 

" The prophet which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have Deut. xvm. 
not commanded him to speak, or that speaketh in the name of strange gods, that 
prophet shall die." 

"All the words of God are pure and clean: for he is a shield unto all them that Prov. xxx. 
put their trust in him. Put thou nothing unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and 
thou be found a liar." 

" Hear not the words of the prophets that preach unto you and deceive you : for Jer. xxm. 
they speak the meaning of their own hearts, and not out of the mouth of the Lord." 

" Whosoever teacheth and keepeth the same, (speaking of his commandments,) shall Matt. r. 
be called great in the kingdom of heaven." 

"Whosoever heareth these my words, and doth the same, shall be likened unto aMatt.vii. 
wise man, that buildeth his house upon a rock ; and abundance of rain fell, the floods 
came, the wind blew, and beat upon the same house, and it fell not, because it was 
grounded on the sure rock." 

" This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honourcth me with Matt. xv. 
their lips 2 , howbeit their hearts be far from me; but in vain do they serve me, teaching 
the doctrines and precepts of men." 

" Go ye, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, &c. Matt, xxviii 
teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you." 

" Go ye into all the world, and preach my gospel to all creatures." Mark xvi. 

" He that heareth my word, and believcth in him that sent me, hath everlasting John v. 
life, and shall not come into damnation ; but is escaped from death to life." 

" Search the scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and they are John v. 
they which testify of me." 

" These are written that you might believe that Jesus is Christ the Son of God, John xx. 
and that (in believing) ye might have life through his name." 

" I have spared no labour, but I have shewed you all the counsel of God." Acts xx. 

" I have obtained help of God, and continue unto this day, witnessing both to the Acts xxvi. 
small and to the great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and 
Moses did say should come." 



[ Do anything, Orig. ed.] f 2 With lips, Grig, ed.] 



22 A CONFUTATION [CHAP. 

Horn, x. " Faith cometh by hearing, hearing cometh by the word of God." 

Hom. xiv. "Whatsoever is not of faith, the same is sin." 

2 cor. i. "We be not lords over your faith, but helpers of your joy." 

c*ai. i. " Though we ourselves, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto 

you than that which we have preached, let him be accursed." 

2 Tim. ill. " Continue thou in the things which thou hast learned, which also were commit 

ted unto thee, knowing of whom thou hast learned them : and forasmuch also as thou 
hast known the holy scriptures of a child, which are able to make thee learned unto 
salvation, through the faith which is in Christ Jesu. For all scripture, given by in- 
21. spiration of God, is profitable to teach, to improve, to amend, to instruct in righte 
ousness, that the man of God may bo perfect, and prepared to all good works." 

1 Pet. iv. " If any man speak, let him speak as the words of God." 

2 John, " If any man come unto you, and bring not this learning, receive him not into 

your house, neither bid him God speed. For he that biddeth him God speed is par 
taker of his evil deeds." 

itev. xxii. "If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues 

that are written in this book. And if any man shall minish of the words of this 
prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy 
city, and from those things which are written in this book." 



THE SECOND CHAPTER. 

That t/ie Writings of the old Fathers, without the written Word of God, are not able 
to prove any doctrine in religion. 

Doctrine in IREN^EUS, Lib. ii. cap. 46. " To lean to the scriptures of God (which is the certain 

be grounded an d undoubted truth) is to build a man s house upon a sure and strong rock. But 
scriptures to leave that, and lean to any other doctrines (whatsoever they be), is to build a 

ruinous house upon the shattering gravel, whereof the overthrow is easy 1 ." 
We may^not Idem, in Epist. 72. " Happy is he that sowcth upon the water where the ox and 
faith upon the ass treadeth, that is, upon that people which only folio weth the doctrine of both 

men s tradi- . J 

turns. the testaments, and not upon the vain traditions of men. 

Tertullian, in the Prescriptions of Heretics, pa. 19. " It is not lawful for us to 

favour any doctrine at our pleasure, nor yet to choose what any man hath brought 

The apostles J n O f n i s O wn mind. We have the apostles of the Lord for our authors, which did 

taught 

nothing but no t elect any thing, that they would bring in, of their own heads ; but taught faith- 
they learned fully to all nations that doctrine that they had received of Christ. Therefore, although 

an angel from heaven should preach any other thing, let us hold him accursed 2 . " 
The first And a little after he saith : " We need to use no curiosity after Jesus Christ, 

point of be- 

lief is, that nor make further search after the gospel : for when we believe, we desire to believe 
pel no 3 other no more. For first we believe this, that there is nothing else that we ought to 

thing is to be 

believed. bellCVC . 

22. , 



[* Quia autem parabolas possunt multas recipere 
absolutiones ; ex ipsis de inquisitione Dei affirmare, 
relinquentes quod certum et indubitatum et verum 
est, valde praecipitantium se in periculum, et irra- 
tionabilium esse, quis non amantium veritatem con- 
fitebitur ? Et numquid hoc est non in petra firma, 
et valida, et in aperto posita aedificare suam do- 
mum ; sed in incertum effusae arenac ? Unde et 
facilis est aversio hujusmodi aedificationis. Iren. 

Lib. n. cap. xlvi. (xxvii.) p. 155. Ed. Paris. Jesum, nee inquisitione post evangelium. Cum 
1710.] credimus, nihil desideramus ultra credere. Hoc 

[ 2 Nobis vero nihil ex nostro arbitrio inducere enim prius credimus, non esse quod ultra credere 
licet, sed nee eligere quod aliquis de arbitrio suo debeamus. Id. cap. viii. p. 205.] 



induxerit : apostolos Domini habemus auctores, qui 
nee ipsi quicquam ex suo arbitrio, quod inducerent, 
elegerunt ; sed acceptam a Christo disciplinam fide- 
liter nationibus adsignaverunt. Itaque etiamsi an- 
gelus de ccelis aliter evangelizaret, anathema dice- 
retur a nobis. Tertull. de Prescript, haereticor. 
Cap. vi. p. 204. Ed. Lutet. Paris. 1664.] 

[ 3 None, Orig. ed.] 

[ 4 Nobis curiositate opus non est post Christum 



II.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



23 



Idem, Of the Flesh of Christ, pa. 20. against Apelles, which said that the angels 
had a bodily substance, which they took of the stars. Tertullian answereth, that " there 
is no certainty in this matter, because the scripture declareth it not 5 ." 

The same, to Praxeas. "Let this be a general rule, indifferently determined before 
and against all heresies : that that is true, whatsoever is first ; and that to be forged, 
whatsoever cometh after 7 ." pa. 418. 

Origen, in his first homily upon Jeremy. " We must needs call the holy scrip 
tures to witness : for our judgments and expositions without these witnesses are worthy 
no credit 9 ." 

Idem, upon Leviticus, in his fifth homily. " If the holy scripture do not deter 
mine any thing, we ought not to admit any other writing for the stablishing of our 
doctrine: but as for the rest, let us leave it to God 10 ." 

The same, upon the third chapter to the Romans. "After these, as his custom 
is (meaning St Paul), he doth confirm that he had said by the scriptures, giving also 
an example to the preachers of the church, that those things which they speak to 
the people should be armed and maintained by the holy scriptures, and not spoken 
out of their own judgments. For if he (being such and so great an apostle) thought 
not the authority of his own words to be sufficient, except he teach those things 
which he saith to be written in the law and the prophets ; how much more ought 
we little ones to take heed, that when we teach, we utter not our own minds, but 
the sentences of the Holy Ghost 11 !" 

The same, upon Matthew, in his 26th Homily. " No man ought (for the stablishing 
of doctrine) to use any books that be without the canonical scriptures 13 ." 

Cyprian, in the exposition of the creed, after that he hath rehearsed the canonical 
books of the bible, he saith: "These be they which our fathers have included within the 
canon, out of the which our fathers would the doctrine of our faith to be certain : never 
theless there be other books, which of our elders were not called canonical, but ecclesias 
tical; as the book of Wisdom, the books of Sirach, Tobie, Judith, Machabees, and 
other. All which books they would have to be read in the church, but not alleged as of 
authority to confirm any article of our faith. All other writings they called Apocrypha, 
which they would in no wise to be read in the church 14 ." 



There is no 
certainty in 
that the scrip 
ture dcfmeth 
not 

The law, the 
prophets, and 
gospel , are 
the first doc 
trines, and 
therefore 
true. 

Our words, 
without* 
God s word 
are not to be 
believed. 
That which 
cannot be 
proved by the 
scripture, 
leave to God. 



If Paul 
thought his 
autho>ity[not 

sufficient, 
much more 
ought we to 
take heed 
that we utter 
not our own 
minds 1 - .] 



All books 
which be not 
in the canon 
of the Hible 
are called 
Apocrypha, 
and are not 
sufficient to 
prove any 
articles of 
our faith. 



[ 5 Igitur probent angelos illos camera de si- 
deribus concepisse. Si non probant, qviia nee scrip- 
turn est, nee Christi caro inde erit .... Igitur, cum 
relatum non sit unde sumpserint carnem, relinquitur 
intellectui nostro non dubitare, hoc esse proprium 
angelicae potestatis, ex nulla materia corpus sibi 
sumere. Quanto magis, inquis, ex aliqua ? Certum 
est, sed nihil de eo constat, quia scriptura non ex- 
hibet. Id. De carne Christi, cap. vi. p. 312.] 

[ 6 And the gospel, Orig. ed.] 

[ 7 Quo peraeque adversus universas haeraeses jam 
hinc prsejudicatum sit, id esse verum quodcumque 
primum; id esse adulterum quodcumque posterius. 
Id. adversus Praxeam. Cap. ii. p. 501. J 

[ 8 With God s words, 1582.] 

[ Md/oTUyOcts (5eT XajSeu/ TCCS y/oa^a s. dfj.dpTvpoi 
yap al 67rt/3o/\ai I I/ULWV Kal ai tjjyfjcrets a-jncrToi 
elcriv. Origen. In Jeremiam. Horn. i. Tom. III. 
p. 129. Ed. Paris, 17331759.] 

[ 10 Si quid autem superfuerit, quod non divina 
scriptura decernat, nullam aliam tertiam scripturam 

debere ad auctoritatem scientiae suscipi, sed igni 

tradamus quod superest, id est, Deo reservemus. 
Id. In Levit. Horn. v. Tom. II. p. 212.] 

[ n Post haec vero, ut ei moris est, de scripturis 
sanctis vult affirmare quod dixerat : simul et doc- 
toribus ecclesiaa prsbet exemplum, ut ea quse lo- 
quuntur ad populum, non propriis praasumpta sen- 
tentiis, sed divinis munita testimoniis proferant. Si 
enim ipse tantus ac talis apostolus auctoritatem dic- 
torum suorum sufficere posse non credit, nisi doceat 
in Icge et prophetis scripta esse qua 1 dicit ; quanto 



magis nos minimi hoc observare debemus, ut non 
nostras cum docemus, sed sancti Spiritus sententias 
proferamus ! Id. In Epist. ad Romanos, Cap. in. 
Tom. IV. p. 504.] 

[ 12 The words, "If Paul thought his authority," 
are only found in the margin of the original edition. 
The remaining clause is in Jenkyns Cranmer, 
Vol. IV. p. 175.] 

[ 13 Non ergo debemus ad confirmandum doc- 
trinam nos tram nostros proprios intellectus jurare, 
et quasi testimonia assumere, quos unusquisque 
nostrum intelligit, et secundum veritatem existimat 
esse, ni ostenderit eos sanctos esse ex eo quod in 
scripturis continentur divinis. Id. In Matthaeum, 
Horn. xxv. Tom. III. p. 842.] 

[ 14 Haec sunt quae patres intra canonem conclu- 
serunt ; ex quibus fidei nostrae assertiones constare 
voluerunt. Sciendum tamen est, quod et alii libri 
sunt qui non canonici, sed ecclesiastici a majoribus 
appellati sunt: ut est Sapientia Salomonis, et alia 

Sapientia quae dicitur filii Syrach Ejusdem 

ordinis est libellus Tobiae et Judith, et Macha- 

bzeorum libri quaeomnia legi quidem in ecclesiis 

voluerunt, non tamen proferri ad auctoritatem ex 
his fidei confirmandam. Ceteras vero scripturas 
apocryphas nominarunt, quas in ecclesiis legi 
noluerunt. Cyprian. Expos, in Symb. Apostol. 
Capp. xxxvii, viii. col. ccxxiv. Ed. Paris. 172(1. 
This exposition is asserted by the Benedictine edi 
tors to be spurious. Ruffinus was probably the 
author. J 



24 



A CONFUTATION 



23. 



No man can 
dispense with 
God s law. 



Things that 
be not com 
manded be 
inditrbreiit to 
be used or 
not used : but 
yet as cliarity 
requireth. 
Search no 
further than 
the gospel. 

24. 

In time of 
heresy there 
is no means 
to try the 
truth, and 
the true 
church of 
Christ from 
Antichrist s 
church, but 
only by the 
scriptures. 



Athanasius against the Gentiles. " The holy scriptures, being inspired from God, are 
sufficient to all instruction of the truth ." 

Basilius, in his book of Ethics, of his short definitions the 20. "Every word and 
deed that maketh for the certainty and surety of good men, and the confusion of them 
that be evil, must be confirmed by the testimony of God s scriptures. And those things, 
which either in our nature, or in the custom and manner of our life, arc manifestly 
known, must we use to confirm those things which we do and say 2 ." 

The same, in his short definitions, the first question: "Whether it be lawful or expe 
dient for a man to permit himself to do what he thinketh good, without the testimony 
of the holy scriptures." His answer : " Seeing that our Saviour saith of the Holy Ghost, 
4 He shall not speak of himself, but whatsoever he hath heard, that shall he speak : and 
of himself he saith, The Son can do nothing of himself : and again, I have not 
spoken of myself, but he which sent me gave me commandment what I should say, and 
what I should speak ; and I know that his commandment is eternal life : therefore those 
things that I speak, I speak as the Father said unto me : who is he then that will run 
into such madness, that he dare once think only anything of himself, seeing that he hath 
need of the Holy Ghost for his aid, so that both in mind, word, and work, he may be 
guided in the way of truth, and that he must needs walk in darkness, except he be 
lightened with the Sun of Righteousness, our Lord Jesus Christ, which shineth upon us 
with his commandments, as with bright beams ? For the commandment of the Lord 
is clear, and giveth light to the eyes. For of those things that are done, and com 
monly used among us, some are by God s commandment determined, and plainly set 
forth in the holy scriptures, and some not expressed. Of those that be expressed by the 
scriptures, there is utterly no power given to any man (whatsoever he be in the whole 
world) either to do anything of those that be forbidden, or else to leave undone anything 
of them that be commanded : seeing that the Lord hath once commanded and said, 
Whatsoever I command you, that take heed ye do, &c. But of those things that 
are not expressed, the apostle Paul hath given us a rule, saying : I may do all 
things; but all things are not expedient. I may do all things; but all things edify 
not 3 . " 

Isychius, upon Leviticus, lib. v. cap. 16. "Let us, which would have anything 
observed of God, search no more but that which the gospel doth give unto us 4 ." 

Chrysostom, upon the 24 cap. of Matthew, Homilia 49. " When you shall see 
the abominable desolation stand in the holy place, (that is) when you shall see ungodly 
heresy (which is the army of antichrist) stand in the holy places of the church, in 
that time let them which are in Jewry fly unto the hills, (that is) let them that be in 
Christendom resort unto the scriptures. For like as the true Jew is a Christian (as 



1 Aura/oKeis /uti/ yap ela-iv al aytai Kal 0eo- 
ypafpal -717)09 Ttji/ TJ|S a XtjOeias aVayye- 
\iav. Athanas. Oratio contra Gentes. Tom. I. 
p. I.Ed. Paris. 1598.] 

[ 2 "OTI Sel irdv pnp.a jj irpdy/j.a TTLcrTcveffQai -ry 
fjLapTvpta T//S QcoTTveuffTou ypafpijs, eis 7r\tjpo(po- 

piav /JLCV TWV dyadwv, evTpoTrijv Se TU>V Troviipwv 

Ori 06? Kal TOIS ev TTJ (pvtrei Kal TT) (rvvt]$eia TOV 
(3iov yvaipi^ofjievot^ Kex/>7/<r0i eis fiefia ucHriv Ttav 
yivofjLevwv j Xeyo^eVtof. Basil. Moralia Ethica. 
Regula xxvi. cap. i. ii. pp. 434, 435. Ed. Paris. 
1887.] 

[ 3 Tov Kvpiov TJ/UWI> Iiiffov XpicrTov Xe yoz/Tos 
Trepi TOV dyiov -Tn/eu/xarus, Ou yap XaXfjo"ei dtp 
eavTov, cc XX ocra civ duovtrri, TavTa XaXtjcrei* treat 
oe eauTou, Ov cvvaTai b i/los iroielv dtp cavTov 
ovctv KUI TraXif/ Ori tycu e e/mavTov OVK eXa X^o-a, 
a XX 6 Tre /ivJ/as /me TraTtjp, airros /not emroXj/V eow/ce, 
rt etTro), KUI XaXfj crio Kal olda OTL ?; ei/roXtj af/Tov 
jjanj cuw mos CCTTLV d ovv XaXw eyto, /ca0ws etp?;/ce 
fjL<)i b iraTtj/o, ovTca XaXw Tts dv eis TocrauTijv ee X0; 
/Ltoi/iay, ai(TT6 d(p eavrov To\[i.ij(rai TI KUI fie^pi-s 
tvvoia* Xafielir, tis ocijyov /j.tu TOU dyiov Kal dya- 



6ov TrveufjLaros \pciav ex^tj iva KarcvQuvQfj eis T-fjv 
bdov T?JS a X}0ei as, Kara re vovv, Kal Xdyoj/, /cat 
Trpd^iv, TU^>Xos ^e Kal ev ovcoTet cidyet uvev TOV 
?;Xiov T?;S dtKaioarvviyi avTOV TOV Kvpiov ij/mwif Irjo-ou 
X piaTOv TOV (pwTt^ovTos, uxnrep a /CTlcTi, Tais cav- 
TOV ei/ToXals ; ij yap ei/roXjj Kvpiov, <pr)crl, TJjXau- 
yrjs, (pcoT^ov<ra 6(ptia\/Jiov<i. uia-trep fte Ttav ev r\p.!v 
aTpcfyofjievtav Trpay/jiaTiav Ta fiev earTtv VTTO T^S 
ti/ToX/Js TOV Beou ev Ty dyia ypacpfj oteo-TaX/ze i/a, 
Ta oe o ec itoTrTj/At i a TTCpl fjiev T<Jov yeypafjLfjLeviov 
ov^efjiia efcovtria SedoTai Ka06\ov ovSevl, OVTC Troirj- 
<rai Ti TWV K6/ca)Xu/xej/ajj/, oi/Te Trapa\el\l/ai TI TIOV 
TrpoarTeTay/ULovwv TOV Kvpiov dira Trapayyel\av- 
TOS, Kal eiTrovTO? Kal (f)v\d^y TO prifia o eVreX- 

Xo/xat (rot (Ti i/j.epov Trepl de TWV (retrKa Trrjfj.evwv 

Kavova vfjiiv ee6eTO b aTrotrroXos IlauXos e nruiu 
irdvTa IULOL eeo-TLV, dXX" ov irdvTa crvfirfrepei. irdvTa 
fioi efcevTtv, aXX" ov irdvTa OLKoco/j.el. Id. Regulae 
Breviores. Interrogatio prima. Tom. II. pp. 623,4.] 
[ 4 Et nihil amplius qua?ramus nos qui aliquid 
de Deo scrutari volumus, sed quantum nobis evan- 
gelicus sermo tradit. Isychius, in Levit. Lib. v. 
cap. xvi. fol. 91. Ed. Basil. 152J-] 



II.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



25 



the apostle saith, He is not a Jew which is outward, &c. ), in like ma nner the very 

Jewry is Christianity, the hills are the scriptures of the apostles and prophets. And 

why doth he command all Christians at that time to resort to the scriptures ? For in 

this time, since heresy hath prevailed in the church, there can be none other proof of 

true Christianity: neither can there be any other refuge for Christian men (willing to 

know the truth of the right faith) but only unto the holy scriptures. Beforetime it was 

shewed by many other means, which was the true church of Christ, and which gentility : 

but now there is no way to know it. And why ? For all those things, which pertain 

to Christ indeed, have the heretics in their schism : likewise churches, likewise the 

scriptures of God, likewise bishops, and other orders of clerks, and likewise baptism 

and the sacrament of thanksgiving, and (to conclude) Christ himself. Wherefore he 

that will know which is the true church of Christ in this so great a confusion of 

things being so like, how shall he know it but only by the scriptures ? It was also 

known which was the true church of Christ by their manners, when the conversation 

of Christian men (either of all or many) was holy, which was not among the heathen. 

But now Christian men are become like, or worse than the gentiles or heretics : yea, An heary 

and there is more continency found amongst them than amongst Christians. Therefore aUsTfeo true. 

he that will know which is the true church of Christ, whereby shall he know it but 

only by the scriptures? The Lord therefore, knowing that so great a confusion of 

things should come in the latter time, commandeth that Christian men, that be willing 

to know the right faith, should fly to none other things but only to the scriptures. 

For if they look upon any other thing but only the scriptures, they shall be offended 

and perish, not perceiving which is the true church; and so fall into the abominable 

desolation which standeth in the holy places of the church 5 ." 

The same in the Unperfect Work, Matth. 7- "Every preacher is a servant of the Preachers 
law, which may neither add anything above the law of his own mind, nor withdraw STm"r uke 
anything after his own understanding; but preach that thing only that is had in the GwKiaS 
law, as Salomon saith, Thou shalt add nothing to the word of God, nor take aught 25. 
therefrom 6 . " 

The same of the Holy Ghost, torn. 3. " If you see any man saying that I have They that 
the Holy Ghost, and not speaking the gospel, but his own, that man speaketh of se 
himself, and the Holy Ghost is not in him." And after: "If any of them therefore 



f the 



scripture, be 
void of the 
Holy Ghost. 



[ 6 Tune cum videriiis abominationem desola- 
tionis stantem in loco sancto. Id est, cum videritis 
haeresim impiam, qua; est exercitus antichristi, stan 
tem in locis sanctis ecclesia;, in illo tempore qui in 
Judaea sunt fugiant ad montes : id est, qui sunt in 
Christianitate, conferantsead scripturas. Sicut enim 
verus Judaus est Christianus,Aicente apostolo,...sic 

vera Judaea Christianitas est Montes autem sunt 

scripturas apostolorum aut prophetarum Et quare 

jubet in hoc tempore omnes Christianos conferre se 
ad scripturas ? Quia in tempore hoc, ex quo ob- 
tinuit haeresis illas ecclesias, nulla probatio potest 
esse vera; Christianitatis, neque refugium potest 
esse Christianorum aliud, volentium cognoscere 
fidei veritatem, nisi scripturae divinae. Antea enim 
multis modis ostendebatur, quae esset ecclesia 
Christi, et quae gentilitas : nunc autem nullo modo 
cognoscitur volentibus cognoscere quae sit vera 
ecclesia Christi, nisi tantummodo per scripturas. 
Quare ? quia omnia haec quae sunt proprie Christi 
in veritate, habent et hasreses illae in schismate : 
similiter ecclesias, similiter et ipsas scripturas di- 
vinas, similiter episcopos ceterosque ordines clerico- 
rum, similiter baptismum, similiter eucharistiam, et 
cetera omnia, denique ipsuvn Christum. Volens ergo 
quis cognoscere quae sit vera ecclesia Christi, unde 
cognoscat in tantae conlusione similitudinis, nisi 

tantummodo per scripturas? Item ex moribus 

ipsis prius intelligebatur ecclesia Christi, quando 



conversatio Christianorum, aut omnium, aut mul- 
torum, erat sancta, quae apud impios non erat. Nunc 
autem aut tales, aut pejores facti sunt Christiani, 
quales sunt haeretici aut gentiles. Adhuc autem et 
major continentia apud illos invenitur, quamvis in 
schismate sunt, quam apud Christianos. Qui ergo 
vult cognoscere quae sit vera ecclesia Christi, uncle 
cognoscat, nisi tantummodo per scripturas ? Sciens 
ergo Dominus tantam confusionem rerum in novis- 
simis diebus esse futuram, ideo mandat, ut Chris 
tiani qui sunt in Christianitate, volentes tirmitatem 
accipere fidei verae, ad nullam rem fugiant nisi 
ad scripturas. Alioqui si alia respexerint, scanda- 
lizabuntur, et peribunt, non intelligentes quae sit 
vera ecclesia ; et per hoc incident in abomina 
tionem desolationis, quae stat in sanctis ecclesia; 
locis. Chrysostom. Opus Imperf. in Matthaeum. 
in cap. xxiv. Horn. xlix. Tom. VI. col. cciv. Ed. 
Paris. 171838.] 

[ Omnis doctor servus est legis, quia neque 
supra legem addere potest aliquid de suo sensu, 
neque subtrahere aliquid secundum proprium intel- 
lectum, sed hoc tantummodo pra:dicat, quod habe- 
tur in lege. Nee enim potest mens humana direc- 
tare, id est extra rectum facere, scilicet perversum 
vel malum ostendere, quod sapientia divina dictavit. 
Sic enim ait Moses ac Salomon : Non addas verbis 
Dei, neque detrahas inde. Id. ibid, in cap. vii. 
Horn. xx. Tom. VI. col. xcix.] 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



reason. 



an p thin h be 



which saith he hath the Holy Ghost, and speakcth anything of himself, and not forth 
of the gospel, say, Follow my counsel, believe him not 1 ." 

The same on the 7. of Matth. Horn. 19. Upon this text: "By their fruits ye shall 
know them." "The fruits of man is the confession of his faith, and the works of his 
conversation. If thou, therefore, shalt see a Christian man, forthwith consider, if his 
confession agree with the scriptures, he is a true Christian : but if not, he is (as Christ 
said) false. For so John, when he wrote his epistle of the heretics, said not, If any 
come unto you, not having the name of Christ, bid him not God speed : but, If 
any bring not this doctrine 2 /" 

Heretics The same in the same place, the 22. chapt. and 42. Homily. " Let us first allege 

be convinced the authority of the scriptures to the false forgers, afterward let us shew them reasons : 
tur,*nd and to them that ask for any manner of purpose, first let us declare unto them the 
reason, and afterward the authority, that we may pacify them with reason, and stablish 
them with authority. For we ought to confute false interpreters, and instruct them that 
search V 

^ e same > u P on the ^ as * f * ne Romans, upon this text: "I beseech you, bre- 
thwn.* "He saith, that dissensions and slanders, that is to say, heresies, are brought 
and * n f those, which bring any thing besides the doctrine and learning of the apostles 4 ." 
AH things The same, upon the latter epistle to Timothy, the third chapter. " There is no- 

terming by thing that cannot be determined by the scriptures, to reprove, if it be to be reproved, 
re that is to say, lies ; to correct, and to teach in righteousness. If it be needful 
(saith he) that any should be corrected or instructed, that is, to be made continent 
and sober unto righteousness, and to execute those things that be just ; all that shall be 
given by the scripture, that the man of God may be perfect : the amendment (saith 
he) is prepared by the scriptures, that nothing may be lacking to that man that 
walketh after God 5 ." 
The holy The same, upon Matth. 22. cap. Horn. 4. "Whatsoever is required for our salva- 

scripture con- . . .... . 

tainethaii tion is already contained in the holy scriptures. He that is ignorant, shall find there 
luiforour what he may learn; he that is stubborn, and a sinner, may find there scourges of 

the judgments to come, the which he may fear ; he that is troubled, may find there 

the joys and promises of everlasting life, through the beholding of the which he may 

be stirred to good works 6 ." 

The same, upon the 2. of the Thessalo. cap. 2. "All things be plain and clear 

in the scriptures; and what things soever be needful, be manifest there 7 ." 



26. 



I" 1 ~Edv ?o;re TLVCL \eyovra, 
KO.I fit] \u\ovvra TO. eva.yye\iKd, dXXa TO. toia, d<p 
eavTov XaAei, KCII OVK e<rri Trvevfia ayiov evauTco.... 
edv Tts ovv T(av ovofjict^ovrtav e~)^eiv irvevfia \eyri TL 
d(f> cauTOu, /cat /o; diro TWV eiiayyeXiwf, /JLI] TTI- 
crreuo-aTe. Id. De Spiritu Sancto. Cap. x. Tom. 
III. p. 808. This treatise is pronounced by the 
Benedictine editors to be spurious.] 

[ 2 Ex fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos. Fructus 
enim hominis est confessio fidei ejus, et opera con- 
versationis ipsius. Si ergo videris hominem chris- 
tianum, statim considera, si confessio ejus conveniat 
cum scripturis, verus est Christianus : si autem non 
est quemadmodum Christus mandavit, falsus est. 
Sic enim et Joannes, cum de ha?reticis scripsisset 
epistolam, non dixit, Si quis venerit ad vos non 
habens nomen Christi, nee ave ei dixeritis : sed, Si 
quis non attulerit istam doctrinam. Id. Opus Im- 
perf. in Matthaeum, in cap. vii. Horn. xix. Tom. 
VI. col. xciv.] 

[ Ut et nos calumniatoribus prius auctoritatem 
scripturae proferamus, postea rationem reddamus. 
Interrogantibus autem quocumque proposito, prius 
rationem exponamus, postea auctoritatem; ut ra- 
tione quidem eos placemus, auctoritate confirmemus : 
quoniam calumniatores convincere oportet, interro- 



gatores autem docere. Id. ibid. Horn. xlii. Tom. 
VI. col. clxxix, clxxx.] 

[ 4 H Se QiyoaTavia TroOei/; diro TWV coy/JLaTwit 
TWV irapd TI]V l>ioayr\v TWV aTroo-ToXcoi/. Id. ill 
Epist. ad Rom. Horn, xxxii. Tom. IX. p. 754.] 

[ 5 Ileco-a ovv ; -roiawTtj OeoVveuo-Tos. /juidev ovv 
a/i</)i/3a\Xfc , f/)trt. /cat w (/)cXi/xos -TT/OOS ^toatr/caXiav, 
7ryoo5 e Xcy^of, TT^OOS eTrai/o/oOaxrii/, Iva a/oTios y o 
TOV Qeov aj/O/owTTos, TT^OS TTO.V epyov dyaQov e]~i)pTi- 
<TfJievo<s. TTyoos oiSa<TKa\iav. iva. apTios 17 6 TOV Qfou 
avOpwTros, Sid TOVTO c^njcri, yeyovev Tiav ypa.(p(ou 
Tra/oa/cXtjcris, iva. a/oTios ^ o TOV Oeov avdpiairos, OVK 
upa )(a)pis au-ri/s dpTtov evi yeveffQai. Id. In 
2 Epist. ad Timoth. cap. iii. Horn. ix. Tom. XI. 
p. 714.] 

[ 6 Quidquid quseritur ad salutem, totum jam ad- 
impletum est in scripturis. Qui ignarus est, inve- 
niet ibi quod discat. Qui contumax est et peccator, 
inveniet ibi futuri judicii flagella, quaa timeat. Qui 
laborat, inveniet ibi glorias et promissiones vitap 
perpetua?, quas manducando amplius excitetur ad 
opus. Id. Opus Imp. in Matthasum, Horn. xli. 
in cap. xxii. Tom. VI. col. clxxiv.] 

[ 7 Ilaj/Ta tra^ij Kal cvOea TO. Trapd TaZs 0eta<s 
yp(/>a?s irdvTct Ta dvaynala o7Xa. Id. in 2 Epist. 
ad Thessal. cap. ii. Horn. iv. Tom. XI. p. 528.] 



n.] OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 27 

The same, upon the 2. to Timo. cap. 3. " If there be any thing needful to be 
known, or not to be known, we shall learn it by the holy scriptures : if we shall need 
to reprove a falsehood, we shall fetch it from thence : if to be corrected, to be chas 
tened, to be exhorted, or comforted, to be short, if aught lack that ought to be taught 
or learned, we shall also learn it out of the same scriptures 8 ." 

The same, Horn. 1. Titum. "Like as the beadle crieth openly to all them that A preacher 
be in the court, so do we preach openly ; but on that condition, that we add nothing, nXin^but 
but preach only that thing that we have heard. For the office of a crier is to speak Sooth. 
out those things that be committed to him, and not to add, change, or take away 
any thing 9 ." 

The same upon the later epistle to Timothy, cap. 3. " Therefore neither ought Believe him 
they to be believed at all, except they speak those things which be agreeable to the speaketh 

Scriptures 10 ." scripture. 

The same, upon the 20. chap, of John, Horn. 89. " But why did not the apostles "^^the" 
write all things ? Chiefly, because of the multitude of them. Moreover, they did f^ 1 ^^ 
consider, that he which would not believe these, would not believe more : but he believe no 
that bclieveth these, need no more to attain faith 11 ." 

The same, upon Genesis, the 12. Homily. "The holy scripture expoundeth itself, 
and suffereth not the hearer to err 13 ." 

The same, in the same book, Horn. 21. "Neither hath the scripture of God Not man s 
any need of man s wisdom, that it may be understand, but the revelation of the Holy the Holy 

, , . , , . , J Ghost, is the 

Ghost : that, the true meaning being sucked thereout, great advantage may grow to trueexpositor 

. . ., of the scrip- 

US thereby 13 . ture. 

Hieronymus, in the prologue of the bible to Pauline. After he had recited the Nothing is of 
books of the New Testament and the Old, he saith : " I pray thee, dear brother, among rity with the 
these live, muse upon these, know nothing else, seek for none other thing 14 ." ture. s r 

Again, upon the books of the Old and New Testament. " These writings be 
holy, these books be sound both in number and authority; there is none other to be 
compared to these ; whatsoever is besides these may in no wise be received among 
these holy things." 

Again, upon the first chapter of Agge. " All other things which they seek out and God s word 
invent at their own pleasure, without the authority and testimony of the scriptures (as SSStonf ** 
though they were the traditions of the apostles), the sword of God cutteth off 15 ." thTy caii as 

Again, in his little commentaries to the Galatians, upon this place: " Condescend bedside the 
to no man : this persuasion is not of God, which hath called you :" thus he inter- same ^ 
preteth it: "Ye ought neither to consent to them, nor to me, without the word of God 16 ." Jott U aiio 



[ 8 Ei Tt jua0eTv, ei TI dyvoijarai X/ T J 
el eXe yat TCC x//"ei;o7, Kal TOVT 



O eKeev 

el cTravopQwQ^vai Kal <r(o<ppovL<TQi)vai. TT/OOS Trapd- 
TjOos TrapafjLvQlaV) <^>rjcrt, Trpo s eTravopQcacriv 
TovT6<TTiv, ei Tt XetTTet, Kal XP J TrpoarTeQijvat. Id 
in 2 Epist. ad Timoth. cap. iii. Horn. ix. Tom. XI. 
P. 714.] 

[ 9 "Qa-irep yap 6 /oj/ou TrdvTtav irapovTcov ev TW 

KT)/OUTT6i, OUTO) Kal JJjUcTs /CrjjOUTTO/i6t/, (a(TT 

/uTj<5ei/ TrpocrQelvai) d\\ auTa a riKovarafiev elirelv. 
/ yap TOU KtipvKo<i dpCTi) ev TU> Traaiv elirelv eari 
TO yeyoi/os, OVK ev T(ia TrpoarQelvat Tiva Kal d(f>e- 
Xelv. Id. In Epist. ad Titum. cap. i. Horn. i. 
Tom. XI. p. 732.] 

[ 10 These words are not found. Similar senti 
ments are in the end of Horn. viii. on 2 Timoth. 
Tom. XI. p. 713.] 

[ n Tti/os oiiv eveKev ov iravra eTrijXQov; /xcc Xiora 
juev Sid TO Tr\fjQos. eireiTa tie KUKS^VO evevoovv^ OTL 
6 fir} TTioreuo-as TO!S elpii/uievoLS ovSe TOIS TrXeuxri 
b 8e TavTa ^ea xeyos oi/Sev 



eTepov eis TOV T/S Tri<TT(0s \6yov. Id. In Joan- 
nem. cap. xx. Horn. Ixxxvii. (al. Ixxxvi.) Tom. 



now 

any man s 

docfrine, 
without God s 

VIII. p. 521.] 

[ 12 KottTot ye TJJS a ytas ypafyijs, eireiodv (3ov\e- 



ai TI TOLOVTOV ?}/uas 5t(5ao-Keii/, cauTfjV kpfjii]vevov 



<rijSj Kai OVK a^ueto-tjs 7rXaj/ao-6ai TOV 

Id. In Genes, cap. ii. Horn. xiii. (al. xii.) Tom. IV. 

p. 103.] 

[ 13 Ouoe yap <TO^HGCS dvQpiairivi]^ SetTat tj Beta 



ypa(j>i] TTjOos TJ 
d\\d T^S TOU Trvev/jLaTos aVo/caXui^eeos, Lva TOV 
d\i]Qrj vovv TWV eyKei/j.evu)V /caTa/xaOoi/Tes TroXXiji/ 
eKeWev de^tafj.eQa TTJV cofpeXeiav. Id. In Genes. 
cap. iv. Horn. xxi. Tom. IV. p. 181.] 

[ u Oro te, frater carissime, inter hacc vivere, 
ista meditari, nihil aliud nosse, nihil quasrere. 
Hieron. in Epist. ad Paulinum, de Studio divinaj 
scripturae. Tom. III. p. 8. Ed. Francof. 1684.] 

[ 15 Sed et alia, quae absque auctoritate et testi- 
moniis scripturarum quasi traditione apostolica 
sponte reperiunt atque confingunt, percutit gladius 
Dei. Id. in Aggeum. cap. i. Tom. VI. p. 184.] 

[ 16 Nee illis, nee mihi, sine verbis Dei consentire 
debetis. Id. in Epist. ad Galat. cap. v. Tom. IX. 
p. 286.] 



28 



A CONFUTATION 



The apostles 
grounded all 
their doctrine 
upon the law 
and prophets. 

To build 
upon any 
doctor s say 
ing, without 
scripture or 
reason agree 
ing to scrip 
ture, were to 
follow Pytha 
goras, rather 
than Christ. 



[Be a man 
never so 
holy, and 
never so 
learned after 
the apostles, 
yet his words, 
without 
God s word, 
are of none 
authority 5 .] 



To teach that 
as needful to 
salvation, 
which Christ 
hath not 
taught, is 
damnable. 

The soul 
Jiveth only 
by the word 
of God. 

28. 

Nothing is to 
be added to 
the word of 
God, al 
though it be 
for a good 
purpose. 



Again, upon Matth. cap. 13. Upon this place: "Every learned scribe." "Whatso 
ever the apostles preached, they confirmed it by the oracles of the law and prophets V 

The same, to Minerius and Alexander. "Not, according to Pythagoras disciples, 
the opinion given sentence upon aforehand by the doctors, but the reason of the doctrine 
is to be weighed : but if any man, that is of a contrary sect, do murmur why I read 
their expositions unto whose doctrines I do not consent, let him know that I willingly 
hear this of the apostle, 4 Prove all things, but cleave to that which is good ; and 
the words of our Saviour, saying, Be ye tried bankers; and if any money be coun 
terfeited, and have not the emperor s stamp, nor be current money, refuse it ; but that 
that sheweth the face of Christ in the clear light, bestow it in the purse of your 
heart V 

The same, upon Matthew, 23d chap. "That which hath none authority of the 
scriptures may as easily be rejected as proved 3 ." 

The same, in the 98. Psal. " All that ever we speak we ought to prove it by 
the scriptures 4 ." 

The same, in the 86. Psal. " The Lord shall speak in the scriptures of the 
people," c. " And how shall he speak ? Not with words, but with scriptures of 
those princes that were in it, that is, of the apostles and evangelists. And mark 
what he saith, c Of those princes that were in it, and not which are. So that (the 
apostles except) whatsoever shall be spoken afterward, let it be cut off, and have none 
authority. Be a man therefore never so holy, be he never so well learned, after the 
apostles he hath none authority : for the Lord speaketh in the scriptures, of those 
princes that Avere in it 6 . " 

Ambrosius, of Virgins, Lib. 3. cap. 1. "We justly do condemn all new things 
which Christ hath not taught ; for Christ is the way to the faithful. If therefore we 
ourselves preach any thing that Christ hath not taught, judge that abominable 7 ." 

The same, in the Psal. 118. "The word of God is the lively meat of our souls, 
with the which it is nourished, fed, and governed : neither is there any thing else 
that maketh a reasonable soul to live but the word of God 8 ." 

The same, in his book of Paradise, chap. 12. " By that which Eva added to the 
word of God, Thou shalt not touch, &c. we do learn how much this present lesson 
putteth us in remembrance that we ought to add nothing to the word of God 9 ,] 
yea, though it be for a good purpose. For if thou put to, or take away any thing, 



[ J Ut quicquid in evangelic praedicabant, legis 
et prophetarum vocibus comprobarent. Id. in Mat- 
thccum, cap. xiii. Tom. IX. p. 35.] 

[ 2 Nee juxta PythagoraD discipulos praejudicata 
doctoris opinio, sed doctrinae ratio ponderanda est. 
Si quis autem contrariae factionis immurmurat, 
quare eorum explanationes legam, quorum dog- 
matibus non acquiesco ; sciat me illud apostoli 
libenter audire : " Omnia probate, quod bonum est 
tenete;" [et Salvatoris verba dicentis : "Estote pro- 
bati numularii,"] ut si quis nummus adulter est, 
et figuram Caesaris non habet nee signatus est 
moneta publica, reprobetur. Qui autem Christi 
faciem claro praefert lumine, in cordis nostri marsu- 
pium recondatur. Id. Minerio et Alexandro. Tom. 
III. p. 128.] 

[ 3 Hoc quia de scripturis non habet auctoritatem, 
eadem facilitate contemnitur, qua probatur. Id. in 
Matth. cap. xxiii. Tom. IX. p. 5J.] 

[ 4 Omne quod loquimur, debemus affirmare de 
scripturis sanctis. Id. in Psalmum xcviii. Tom. 
VIII. p. 118. J 

f 5 This side-note is omitted in ed. 1582.] 

[ 6 [Dominus narrabit^ &c.] Non dixit, qui 
sunt in ea, sed qui fuerunt in ea. Dominus nar- 
rabit : et quomodo narrabit ? Non verbo, sed scrip. 



tura. In cujus scriptura? In populorum. Non 
sufficit in populorum, sed etiam principum dicit. 
Et quorum principum ? Qui sunt in ea. Non dixit 

hoc, sed qui fuerunt in ea Et principum, hoc est, 

apostolorum et evangelistarum : horum qui fuerunt 
in ea. Videte quid dicat : Qui fuerunt, non qui 
sunt : ut exceptis apostolis, quodcunque aliud pos- 
tea dicetur, abscindatur ; non habeat postea auctori 
tatem. Quamvis ergo sanctus sit aliquis post 
apostolos, quamvis disertus sit, non habet auctori 
tatem. Quoniam Dominus narrat in scriptura 
populorum et principum horum qui fuerunt in ea. 
Id. in Psalmum Ixxxvi. Tom. VIII. p. 103.] 

[ 7 Nos enim nova omnia, quae Christus non do- 
cuit, jure damnamus, quia fidelibus via Christus 
est. Si igitur Christus non docuit quod docemus, 
etiam nos id detestabile judicamus. Ambros. 
De Virginibus. Lib. HI. cap. i. Tom. IV. p. 229. 
Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1616.] 

[ 8 Hacc est enim animae nostrae vitalis substantia, 
qua alitur, pascitur, gubernatur. Nee quidquam 
aliud est quod vivere facial rationabilem animam, 
quam alloquium Dei. Id. in Psalmum cxviii. (119) 
Octon. vii. Tom. II. p. 437.] 

[ 9 This passage is omitted in ed. 1582.] 



II.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



it appoarcth to be a transgression of the commandment : for there ought nothing to be 
added, although it seem good 10 ." 

The same, in the epistle to the Galatians, cap. 1. "Neither saith the apostle, AS well who 
if they preach contrary: but, * if they preach any thing besides that that we have beside the 
preached/ (that is, if they add any thing to it at all,) hold them accursed. Neither against it, is 
do I except myself, if I put to any thing beside that which was preached afore 11 ." 

The same, in the same place. " He doth affirm the gospel, which he had preached Even the 
unto them, to be so firm and true, that although it should chance themselves (that preaching be- 
is to say, the apostles), being changed, to preach any other thing, he teacheth that g<*pei, are 
they ought not to be heard Ia ." believed. 

Augustine, of the consent of the Evangelists. " He that sent the prophets before Christ made 
his incarnation, the same sent also his apostles after his ascension ; yea, and by that ten that he 
manhood, which he took upon him, he is the head of all his disciples, which are members should read 
of his body : therefore, forasmuch as they wrote those things, which he shewed and 
taught them, it ought not to be said that he wrote them not, seeing that his mem- weareas 
bers wrote that which they knew by their head teaching them. For whatsoever he tobettere 
would have us to read, both of his deeds and words, that commanded he them to 



write, as his hands of his body. Whosoever doth perceive this fellowship of unity, though Christ 
and agreement of members, ministering under one head in diverse offices, he shall none with his own 
other ways take that that he readeth in the gospel, the disciples declaring it, than if he 
had seen the very hand of the Lord, which he bare in his own body, writing it 13 ." 

The same, to Vincent, against the Donatists, the 6th torn. pa. 116, Epist. 48. "We The church 
therefore for this cause are certain and sure, that no man ought to withdraw himself the scripture. 
from the communion of all men. And let none of us seek the church in our own righte 
ousness, but in the holy scripture 14 ." 

The same, to the Mandarens, Epi. 42. "All that ever our elders made mention of AH that con- 
to be done towards mankind in times past, and delivered to us; all things also which religion is 
we see and deliver to our posterity, which do appertain to getting and maintaining of the scripture. 
true religion, the scripture of God did not pass with silence 15 ." 

Again, to the brethren in the wilderness. " Read the holy scripture, wherein ye shall t^*^ 1 
find fully what is to be followed, and what to be avoided 1 "." enough for 

The same, of nature and grace, lib. i. cap. 61. "I owe my consent to the canonical turn 17. ] 
scriptures only, without any refusal 18 ." 



[ lo Etenim quantum praesens lectio docet, dis- 
cimus nihil vel cautionis gratia jungere nos debere 
mandate. Si quid enim vel addas vel detrahas, pras- 

varicatio qusedam videtur esse mandati Nihil 

igitur, vel quod bonum videtur, addendum est. Id. 
De Paradise, cap. xii. Tom I. p. 62.] 

[ n Aut si forte diabolus angelumDei se fingens, 
ut facile possit audiri, de ccelis appareret contra hacc 
praedicans, sciretur esse contrarium, et ut abominatio 
haberetur. Si ergo apostolos Christi, quorum tarn 
praeclara opinio in signis et prodigiis erat faciendis, 
et angelum de ccelo, quern possit spiritalis ratio 
commendare, aliter docentes quam ab apostolo 
Paulo edocti erant, anathematizari praecepit, c. 
Id. in Epist. ad Galat. cap. i. Tom. III. p. 221.] 

[ 12 Nam tarn firmum atque verum evangelium 
quod eis praedicaverat, asserit, ut etiam seipsos, id 
est apostolos, si immutati forte aliter praedicarent, 
non audiri doceret. Id. ibid. cap. i. Tom. III. 
p. 221.] 

[ 13 Proinde qui prophetas ante descensionem 
suam prannisit, ipse et apostolos post ascensionem 
suam misit. Omnibus autem discipulis suis per 
hominem quern assumpsit, tanquam membris sui 
corporis, caput est. Itaque cum illi scripserunt, quae 
ille ostendit et dixit, nequaquam dicendum est quod 
ipse non scripserit : quandoquidem membra ejus id 
operata sunt, quod dictante capite cognoverunt. 



Quicquid enim ille de suis factis et dictis nos 
legere voluit, hoc scribendum illis tanquam suis 
manibus imperavit. Hoc unitatis consortium et in 
diversis officiis concordium membrorum sub uno 
capite ministerium, quisquis intellexerit, non aliter 
accipiet quod narrantibus discipulis Christi in evan- 
gelio legerit, quam si ipsam manum Domini, quam 
in proprio corpore gestabat, scribentem conspexerit. 
Augustin. De Consensu Evangelistarum. Lib. i. 
cap. xxxv. Tom. IV. p. 170. Ed. Paris. 1635.] 

[ 14 Nos autem ideo certi sumus, neminem se a 
communione omnium gentium juste seperare potu- 
isse, quia non quisque nostrum in justitia sua, sed 
in scripturis divinis quaerit ecclesiam. Id. Epist. 
xlviii. Vincentio contra Donatistas Tom. II. p. 68.] 

[ 15 Omnia quae prscteritis temporibus erga huma- 
num genus majores nostri gesta esse meminerunt, 
nobisque tradiderunt ; omnia etiam quae nos vide- 
mus, et posteris tradimus, qua? tamen pertinent ad 
veram religionem quaerendam et tenendam, divina 
scriptura non tacuit. Id. Epist. xlii. Mandauren- 
sibus. Tom. II. p. .57-] 

[ 16 Legite sacram scripturam, in qua quid tenen- 
dum, et quid fugiendum sit, plene invenietis. Id. 
Sermones ad fratres in eremo. Serm. xxxviii. Tom. 
X. p. 734.] 

[ 17 Omitted in ed. 1582.] 

[ 1R Quia solis canonicis debeo sine ulla recusa- 



30 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



No man is 
bound to be 
lieve farther 
than the 
holy scrip 
tures teach. 

The balanee 
to try the 
truth is the 
holy scrip 
ture. 



They that 
sit on Moses 
chair , and 
teach their 
own doctrine, 
are not to be 
believed. 

All evil is 
condemned 
by the scrip 
ture, and all 
good things 
are there 
found. 



We may law 
fully di. sent 
from all doc 
trine except 
the scriptures 
only. 
30. 



All things 
that concern 
f.iith, hope, 
love, and 



The same, upon John, 49th Treatise, cap. 11. " Not all things that the Lord Jesus 
did arc written, as the same evangelist witnesseth : for the Lord both did and said many 
things that are not written; but things were chosen out to be written, which seemed 
sufficient for the salvation of the believers ." 

The same, against Faustus, lib. 23, cap. 9. " That which Faustus putteth forth upon 
the birth of Mary, that she had a certain priest to her father, of the tribe of Levi, named 
Joachim ; because it is not canonical, it doth not bind me 2 ." 

The same, of Baptism against the Donatists, lib. ii. cap. 6. " Let us not bring de 
ceitful balances, wherein we may weigh what we will after our own pleasure, saying, 
this is heavy, this is light/ but let us bring the divine balance of the holy scriptures, as 
of the treasures of the Lord, and in it let us weigh what is heavy; yea, let us not weigh, 
but rather acknowledge the things that are weighed of the Lord 3 ." 

Again, upon John, the 46th Treatise. " Sitting upon the chair of Moses, they teach 
the law of God : therefore God teach eth by them. But if they will teach their own, 
hear them not, do not after them : for truly such men search their own, but not those 
things which are of Jesus Christ 5 ." 

Again, Lib. 3. of the Christian Doctrine, cap. ult. " How much less the abundance 
of gold, silver, and clothing, which that people brought with them forth of Egypt, 
is in comparison of the riches which afterwards they had at Jerusalem, which, above 
all other, was shewed in king Salomon ; so let all knowledge, which is in deed profitably 
gathered out of the books of the gentiles, be such, if it be compared to the knowledge of 
God s scriptures. For whatsoever man learneth without them, if it be evil, there it is 
condemned ; if it be profitable, there it is found. And seeing then every man shall find 
all things there which he hath profitably learned other where; much more abundantly 
shall he find those things there, which can no where at all else be learned, but only 
in the marvellous deepness and wonderful humility of those scriptures 6 ." 

The same, in his book of Nature and Grace, the 16th chapt. "We may lawfully 
sometimes dissent from other learning; but to the catholic learning every man must give 
place, every man must subscribe, whether he be layman, priest, king, or emperor 7 ." 

The same, in his 2nd book of the Christian Doctrine, cap. 9. After that he hath 
numbered the canonical books, he saith thus : " In all these books they that fear God, 
and are tamed through godliness, do search the will of God. The first note of whicli 
labour and travail, as we said, is to know these books ; and if as yet we cannot under 
stand them, yet let us by reading get them in memory, or not to be altogether ignorant 
in them. Furthermore, those things which be plainly contained therein, whether they be 
precepts of living, or else of believing, are earnestly and diligently to be searched ; which, 



tione consensum. Id. De Natura et Gratia contra 
Pelagianos. Lib. i. cap. Ixi. Tom. VII. p. 322.J 

[ Nam cum multa fecisset Dominus Jesus, non 
omnia scripta sunt : sicut idem ipse sanctus Joannes 
evangelista testatur, multa Domiuum Christum et 
dixisse et fecisse quae scripta non sunt. Electa sunt 
autem quae scriberentur, qua? saluti credentium suf- 
ficere videbantur. Id. in Joannem. Tract, xlix. De 
cap. xi. Tom. IX. p. 146.] 

[ 2 Ac per hoc illud, quod de generatione Marias 
Faustus posuit, quod patrem habuerit ex tribu Levi 
sacerdotem quendam nomine Joachim, quia canoni- 
cum non est, non me constringit. Id. Contra Faus- 
tum, Lib. xxiu. cap. ix. Tom. VI. p. 188.] 

[ 3 Non afferamus stateras dolosas, ubi appen- 
damus quod volumus, et quomodo volumus pro ar- 
bitrio nostro, dicentes, hoc grave, hoc leve est : sed 
afteramus divinam stateram de scripturis sanctis 
tanquam de thesauris Dominicis, et in ilia quid sit 
gravius appendamns : imo non appendamus, sed 
a Domino appensa recognoscamus. Id. De Bap- 
tismo contra Donatistas. Lib. II. cap. vi. Tom. VII. 
p. 43.] 

I 4 On Moses scat, Orig. ed.] 



[ 5 Sedendo enim [super] cathedram Moysi le- 
gem docent; ergo per illos Deus docet. Sua vero 
illi si velint docere, nolite audire, nolite facere : 
certe enim tales sua qucerunt, non quceJesu Chrinti. 
Id. in Joannem. Tract, xlvi. De cap. x. Tom. IX. 
p. 139.] 

[ 6 Quantum autem minor est auri, argenti, ves- 
tisque copia, quam de JEgypto secum ille populus 
abstulit, in comparatione divitiarum, quas postea 
Hierosolymae consecutus est, qua? maxime in Salo- 
mone rege ostenduntur ; tanta fit cuncta scientia, 
quae quidem est utilis collecta de libris gentium, si 
divinarum scripturarum scientiae comparetur. Nam 
quicquid homo extra didicerit, si noxium est, ibi 
damnatur; si utile est, ibi invenitur. Et cum ibi 
quisquis invenerit omnia quae utiliter alibi didicit; 
multo abundantius ibi inveniet ea quae nusquam 
omnino alibi, sed in illarum tantummodo scriptu 
rarum mirabili altitudine et mirabili humilitate dis- 
cuntur. Id. De Doctrina Christiana, Lib. n. cap. 
xlii. Tom. III. p. 20.] 

[ 7 The reference in the text appears to be er 
roneous.] 



II.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



31 



how many the more every man findeth, so much the more is he apt in his understanding. fi od m n - 
In these, therefore, which are evidently contained in the scripture, are found all things, [Jnd in the 
which contain faith, manners of living, hope, and love 8 ." 

The same, of the Unity of the Church, cap. 3. " Let us not hear, I say, Thou Not what we 
sayest ; but let us hear, Thus saith the Lord. There are, out of doubt, the Lord s the Loni, 
books, to the authority whereof we both consent, we both believe, we both serve. Let heart. 
us search the church there; let us discuss our cause there 9 ." b known by 



Again in his second book of Baptism, against the Donatists, cap. 3. " Who is he 
that knoweth not that the scripture canonical is so contained within his certain bounds 10 
of the Old and New Testament, and is so to be preferred above all other writings" of We may 
bishops, that a man may not at all either doubt or dispute of it, whether any thing be mSX do? 
true or right, that he is sure is written in it? but the letters of all other bishops, which notofhoiy 
are or shall be hereafter written, besides the canonical scriptures, already confirmed, may scnptui 
be reproved either by more grave authority of other bishops or learned men, and by the 
words of every nwi that is better seen in the matter 12 ." 

Again, in his second book of the Merits and Forgiveness of Sins, cap. ult. Tom. vii. if God s 
" Where disputation is had of a doubtful matter, if the certain and clear doctrine of the ranffdis- 
scriptures of God do not help it, man s reason ought to stay itself, nothing leaning to either todoubtflet 
part. For though I know not how to express every one of these things, yet I believe J> a JX e to 
surely that the scriptures of God should be most plain herein, if a man might not be 
ignorant hereof without the loss of that salvation that is promised him 13 ." 

Again, in his book of Pastors. " He appointed the hills of Israel, the authors of who feedeth 
the scriptures of God ; feed there, that you may feed safely. Whatsoever you hear out of ratytuni, 
that, let it savour well to you ; whatsoever is besides that, refuse it, lest you wander 
into clouds. Get you to the hill u of the scriptures : there be the pleasures of your hearts ; 
there is no noisome, hurtful, or venomous things, no inconvenient things ; there be most "erTti 
plentiful pastures 16 ." untruly 

Again, of Christian Doctrine, lib. 2, cap. 9. "In these things that be plainly set 31 
forth in the scriptures are found all things that contain faith and manners of living, that J" 
is to wit, hope and charity. Then after a certain familiarity had with the speech of the J 
scripture of God, we must go to expound and discuss those things that be dark, that * n h | t 5 1 jj ( l fe 
(to give light to dark speeches) examples may be taken out of the more plain places, 



[ R In his omnibus libris timentes Deum et pie- 
tate mansueti quaerunt voluntatem Dei. Cujus 
operis et laboris prima observatio est, ut diximus, 
nosse istos libros, et si nondum ad intellectum, le- 
gendo tamen vel mandate memoriae, vel omnino in 
cognitos non habere. Deinde ilia quae in eis aperte 
posita sunt, vel praacepta vivendi vel regulae credendi, 
solertius diligentiusque investiganda sunt. Quae 
tanto quisquis plura invenit, quanto est intelligentia 
capacior. In iis enim quae aperte in scriptura posita 
sunt, inveniuntur ilia omnia quae continent fidem, 
moresque vivendi, spem scilicet atque caritatem. 
Id. De Doctrina Christiana. Lib. n. cap. ix. Tom. 
III. p. 12.] 

[ 9 Sed, ut dicere cceperam, non audiamus, Haec 
dico, hasc dicis; sed audiamus, Haec dicit Domi- 
nus. Sunt certe libri Dominici, quorum auctori- 
tati utrique consentimus, utrique credimus, utrique 
servimus : ibi quaeramus ecclesiam, ibi discutiamus 
causam nostram. Id. De Unitate Ecclesiae. cap. iii. 
Tom. VII. p. 142. J 

[ 10 Certain bonds, Orig. ed.] 

[ n All latter writings, Orig. ed.] 

[ 12 Quis autem nesciat sanctam scripturam ca- 
nonicam tarn veteris quam novi testamenti certis 
suis terminis contineri, eamque omnibus posteriori- 
bus episcoporum literis ita praeponi, ut de ilia om 
nino dubitari et disceptari non possit, utrum verum 



vel utrum rectum sit, quicquid in ea scriptum con- 
stiterit; episcoporum autem literas, quae post con- 
firmatum canonem vel scriptae sunt vel scribuntur, 
et per sermonem forte sapientiorem cujuslibet in ea 
re peritioris et per aliorum episcoporum graviorem 
authoritatem doctioremque prudentiam et per con 
cilia licere reprehendi ? Id. De Baptismo contra 
Donatistas, Lib. n. cap. iii. Tom. VII. p. 40. J 

[ 13 Ubi enim de re obscurissima disputatur non 
adjuvantibus divinarum scripturarum certis claris- 
que documentis, cohibere se debet humana pra?- 
sumptio, nihil faciens in partem alteram declinando. 
Etsi enim quodlibet horum, quemadmodum demon- 
strari et explicari possit, ignorem, illud tamen credo, 
quod etiam hinc divinorum eloquiorum clarissima 
auctoritas esset, si homo illud sine dispendio pro- 
missaa salutis ignorare non posset. Id. De pecca- 
torum mentis et remissione, Lib. II. cap. xxxvi. 
Tom. VII. p. 304. Ib.J 

[ 14 To the hills, Orig. ed.] 

[ 15 Constituit montes Israel auctores scriptura 
rum divinarum. Ibi pascite, ut secure pascatis. 
Quicquid inde audieritis, hoc vobis bene sapiat : 
quicquid extra est, respuite, ne erretis in nebula.... 
Colligite vos ad montes scripture sanctae. Ibi sunt 
deliciae cordis vestri, ibi nihil venenosum, nihil ali- 
enum ; uberrima pascua sunt. Id. De Pastoribus, 
cap. xi. Tom. IX. p. 279-1 



32 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



Jf any man s 
saying or 
writing 
cannot be 
proved by 
plain scrip 
ture, or good 
reason 
gathered of 
trie same, a 
man may 
allow or 
refuse it, as 
him liketh. 



32. 

The old 
writers are 
not of such 
authority 
but that we 
may deny 
them, if they 
dissent from 
the holy 
scriptures. 



We may not 
think afl 
that the old 
fathers did 
write to be 
true. 



and some testimonies of places being certain may take away the doubt of the uncertain 
sentences 1 ." 

Again, of the Christian Doctrine, the 3 lib. cap. 26. " Dark places are to be ex 
pounded by plainer places. That is the surest way, to expound one scripture by another 2 ." 

Again, to Vincent the Donatist, Epist. 48. "This kind of learning (speaking of 
the old writers doings) is not to be read with necessity of belief, but with liberty of 
judgment." And after : " There, that is, in the holy scriptures, it is not lawful to say, the 
author of this book perceived not the truth ; but either that the book is false, or the 
interpreter hath erred, or thou understandest it not. But in the works of all them that 
come after, (which be contained in innumerable books, yet in no wise to be compared to 
the most holy excellency of the canonical scriptures,) although in some of them be found 
the same truth, yet the authority is far unlike. Therefore, if it fortune any thing in 
them to be thought to dissent from the truth, because they are not so understand as they 
be spoken, yet the reader or hearer hath his free judgment, so that either he may allow 
that that pleaseth him, or reject that which offcndeth him. And therefore all such 
like (except they may be defended either by good reason, or by the canonical authority, 
that it may be proved that they are so in deed, or may be so, because either it is there 
disputed or declared), if it displease any man, or if he will not believe it, he is not to be 
blamed therefore 3 ." 

The same, in the same place, Epist. 48. " Gather not, my brother, against so many, 
so clear, and so undoubted witnesses of the scriptures, sentences misunderstanded, out of 
the writings of bishops, either of ours, or of Hilary, or Cyprian, bishop, and martyr of 
the church : for \ve must put a diversity betwixt this kind of writing and the canonical 
scriptures. For these are not so to be read, as though a witness might be alleged out of 
them, so that no man might think otherwise, if they fortune to judge otherwise than the 
truth requireth 4 ." 

The same to Jerome. "I have learned to give this reverence and honour to those 
only writers which be now called canonical, that I dare be bold to believe that none of 
them did err any thing at all in writing. But if I find any thing in those scriptures 
that seemeth contrary to the truth, I doubt not but that either the book is false, or the 
interpreter did not attain the thing that was spoken, or else I understand it not. But all 
other authors, be they never so excellent both in virtue and learning, I do so read them, 
not that I think it true that they writ 5 , because they thought so ; but because they could 
persuade me either by other canonical scriptures, or by some probable reasons, a thing 
not altogether abhorring from the truth 6 ." 



[ l In iis enim, quae aperte in scriptura posita 
sunt, inveniuntur ilia omnia qua; continent {idem 
moresque vivendi, spem scilicet atque charitatem : 
Turn vero facta quadam familiaritate cum ipsa 
lingua divinarum scripturarum in ea quae ob- 
scura sunt aperienda et discutienda pergendum est, 
ut ad obscuriores locutiones illustrandas de mani- 
festioribus sumantur exempla, et quondam certarum 
sententiarum testimonia dubitationem de incertis 
auferant. Id. De Doctrina Christiana, Lib. n. cap. 
ix. Tom. III. p. 12.J 

[ 2 Ubi autem apertius ponuntur, ibi discendum 
est quomodo in locis intelligantur obscuris. Neque 
enim melius potest intelligi quod dictum est de Deo. 
Id. Lib. in. cap. xxvi. ibid. p. 25.] 

[ 3 The reference is erroneous ; the passage is as 
follows : Quod genus literarum non cum credendi 
necessitate, sed cum judicandi libertate legendum 
est. Ibi si quid velut absurdum moverit, non licet 
dicere, author hujus libri non tenuit veritatem : sed, 
aut codex mendosus est, aut interpres erravit, aut tu 
non intelligis. In opusculis autem posteriorum, 
quae libris innumerabilibus continentur, sed nullo 
modo illi sacratissimae canonicorum scripturarum 
excellentia? coa:quantur, etiam in quibuscunque 
eorum invenitur eadem veritas, longe tamen est im- 



par authoritas : itaque in eis, si quae forte propterea 
dissonare putantur a vero, quia non ut dicta sunt 
intelliguntur, tamen libeium ibi habet lector audi- 
torve judicium, quo vel approbet quod placuerit, 
vel improbet quod offenderit: et ideo cuncta ejus- 
modi nisi vel certa ratione, vel ex ilia canonica au- 
thoritate defendantur, ut demonstretur sive omnino 
ita esse, sive fieri potuisse, quod vel disputatum ibi 
est, vel narratum : si cui displicuerit, aut credere 
noluerit, non reprehenditur. Id. Contra Faustum, 
Lib. xi. cap. v. Tom. VI. pp. 104, 5.J 

[ 4 Noli ergo frater contra divina tain multa, tain 
clara, tarn indubitata testimonia colligere velle ca- 
lumnias ex episcoporum scriptis, sive nostrorum, si- 
cut Hilarii, sive antequam pars Donati separaretur, 
ipsius unitatis, sicut Cypriani, et Agrippini : primo, 
quia hoc genus literarum ab authoritate canonis dis- 
tinguendum est. Non enim sic leguntur, tanquam 
ita ex eis testimonium proferatur, ut contra sentire 
non liceat, sicubi forte aliter sapuerint quam veritas 
postulat. Id. Vincentio contra Donatistas, Tom. II. 
p. 70.] 

[ 5 That they wrote, Orig. ed.] 

[ 6 Ego enim fateor caritati tua?, solis eis scrip 
turarum libris, qui jam canonici appellantur, didici 
hunc timorem honoremquc deferre, utnullum eorum 



II.] 



OF UNAVRITTEN VERITIES. 



,-33 



Tho same against Cresconlum^ a grammarian, lib. ii. cap. 32. "I am not bound AH men s 
to his authority. For I do not account Cyprian s writings as canonical, but weigh them ouSulo be 
by the canonical scriptures ; and that in them which agreeth with the canonical scrip- thecanonii 
tures, I allow to his praise; but that that agreeth not, by his favour I refuse 7 ." 

The same to Vincent Victor. " I cannot, nor ought not to deny, that like as in mine Heomfesseth 
ciders, so also in my so many books, be many things that by just judgment, without ^""w own" 
rashness, may be reproved 8 ." others also. 

The same, in the Prologue of his book of the Trinity. "Be not bound to my Believe not 
writings, as to the canonical scriptures : but if thou find any thing in them, which thou exceptthou 
diddest not believe, straightway believe it ; in these that thou art not sure of, except thou them r b y the 
certainly understand it, believe it not certainly 9 ." 

The same to Fortunate, Epist. 198. "Neither ought we to allow the reasonings of We ought 
any men, whatsoever they be, (although they be catholic and laudable men,) as the man s writ- 

ings further 

canonical scriptures; so that it shall not be lawful for us, saving the reverence that is due than they 
to those men, to reprove and refuse any thing in their writings, if it chance that they the scrip- 
have judged otherwise than truth is; the same truth, by God s help, being understand may refuse 
either of other men, or of us. For I am even such an one in other men s writings as I pleasures, 
would men should be in mine 10 ." 

The same, in the same place. " Let us seek no further than is written of God our 
Saviour, lest a man would know more than the scriptures witness 11 ." 33. 

Cyril, lib. vi. upon Leviticus. " There be two offices of a bishop, to learn Understand 
the scriptures of God, and by oft reading to digest the same, or else to teach the wrltte?, for 
people; but let him teach those things, which he hath learned of God, and not ofkurnofit 
his own heart, or by man s understanding, but those things which the Holy Ghost 
teacheth V 

The same, in John, chap. vi. He saith, " By this we learn, that only Christ ought 
to be followed as a master, and we must cleave unto him only 13 ." 

The same, in John, chap. xx. " Not all things that the Lord did are written, but AH things 
those things that the writers thought sufficient, as well to good manners as to doctrine ; 5oSSSend 
that we, shining with a constant faith, good works, and virtues, may come to the king- nersarein 

f. fe the word 

dom of heaven . written, 

which is 

sufficient. 



auctorem scribenclo aliquid errasse firmissime cre- 
dam. Ac si aliquid in eis offendero literis, quod vi- 
deatur contrarium veritati : nihil aliud, quam vel 
mendosum esse codicem, vel interpretem non asse- 
quutum esse quod dictum est; vel me minime intel- 
lexisse, non ambigam. Alios autem ita lego, ut, 
quantalibet sanctitate doctrinaque praapolleant, non 
ideo verum putem, quia ipsi ita senserunt ; sed quia 
mihi vel per illos auctores canonicos, vel probabili 
ratione, quod a vero non abhorreat, persuadere po- 
tuerunt. August. Epist. xix. (de Petro reprehenso 
a Paulo ad Hieronymum) Tom. II. p. 27. Ed. 
Paris. 1637.] 

[ 7 Ego hujus epistolae auctoritate non teneor, 
quia literas Cypriani non ut canonicas habeo, sed 
eas ex canonicis considero ; et quod in eis divinarum 
scripturarum auctoritati congruit, cum laude ejus 
accipio; quod autem non congruit, cum pace ejus 
respuo. Id. contra Cresconium Grammaticum, Lib. 
n. cap. xxxii. Tom. VII. p. 177.] 

[ 8 Neque enim negare debeo, sicut in ipsis mo- 
ribus, ita multa esse in tarn vnultis opusculis meis, 
quae possint justo judicio et nulla temeritate culpari. 
Id. De Anima et ejus origine, Lib. iv. (ad Vincen- 
tium Victorem) cap. i. Tom. VII. p. 499.] 

[ 9 Noli meis literis quasi scripturis canonicis 
inservire; sed in illis et quod non credebas cum 
inveneris incunctanter crede, in istis autem quod 
certum non habebas, nisi certum intellexeris, noli 

QCRANMEH, u.] 



firmiter retinere. Id. Procemium in Lib. in. de 
Trinitate, Tom. III. p. 104.] 

[ 10 Neque enim quorumlibetdisputationes.quam- 
vis catholicorum et laudatorum hominum, velut 
scripturas canonicas habere debemus, ut nobis non 
liceat salva honorificentia, qua illis debetur homi- 
nibus, aliquid in eorum scriptis improbare atque 
respuere, si forte invenerimus quod aliter senscrint 
quam veritas habet, divino adjutorio vel ab aliis 
intellecta vel a nobis. Talis ego sum in scriptis 
aliorum, tales volo esse intellectores meorum. Id. 
Fortunatiano,(de videndoDeo). Epist.cxi.Tom.il. 
p. 199.J 

[ n De corpore autem spiritali pacatius et dili- 
gentius inquiramus, ne forte aliquid certum ac 
liquidum, si nobis hoc utile esse novit, secundum 
scripturas suas Deus dignetur demonstrare. Id. 
ibid.] 

[ 12 Haec duo sunt pontificis opera: ut a Deodiscat 
legendo scripturas divinas et sa?pius ruminando, aut 
populum doceat; sed ilia doceat quse ipse a Deo 
didicerit, non ex proprio corde, vel ex humano 
sensu, sed quae Spiritus docet. Cyril. Alexand. In 
Levit. Lib. vi. col. 25. Ed. Paris. 1514.] 

[ 13 Hinc etiam discimus unum solummodo Chris- 
turn sequendum esse magistrum,illi soli inhaerendum. 
Id. in Joannem, cap. vi. p. 384. Ed. Lutet. 1638.J 

[ u Non igitur omnia qua? Dominus fecit con- 
scripta sunt, sed quae scribentes tarn ad mores 

3 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



Note this Fulgence, in his sermon of the Confessors. " In the word of God is plenty for the 

words, d ami r " strong man to eat ; there is enough for the child to suck ; there is also milk to drink, 
your hearts wherewith the tender infancy of the faithful may be nourished ; and strong meat, where 
with the lusty youth of them that be perfect may receive the spiritual increasement 
of holy virtue. There provision is made for the salvation of all men whom the Lord doth 
vouchsafe to save. There is that that is agreeable to all ages ; there is also that which is 
meet for all states. There we learn the commandments which we ought to do ; there 
we know the rewards which we hope for 1 ." 
if preachers Gregory in Job lib. xvi. cap. 28. "lie that prepareth himself to the office of a 

ou_ htso,then e> . t * 

true P rcaclier ^ must nec( l s f etcn the foundation of his matters out of the holy scriptures; 
so that all that he saith he must reduce it to the first beginning of God s authority, 
to^one an d i n that stay the effect of his sayings. For, as I have said many times afore, heretics, 
ordinary rule, when they study to maintain their fro ward doctrine, surely they bring forth those things 
that are not contained in the holy scriptures 2 ." 

Theophylactus, upon this place of Paul, the last to the Romans, " I beseech you, 
brethren, mark them which cause division, and give occasion of evil, contrary to the 
doctrine which you have learned, and avoid them. For they that arc such, serve not the 
Lord Jesus Christ, but their own bellies ; and with sweet preachings and flattering words 
deceive the hearts of the innocents." Here saith Theophylactus, that "they bring in 
"4. divisions and occasions of evil, which bring forth any thing beside the doctrine and 
learning of the apostles 3 ." 

Damascenus, lib. i. cap. 1. " All that ever was delivered by the law, the prophets, 
the apostles, and the evangelists, we receive, acknowledge, and give reverence unto them, 
searching nothing besides them 4 ." 

The serin- Bruno, in the second to Timothy. " Doubtless the holy scriptures are able to instruct 

sufficient for thee to salvation. For every scripture being inspired from God, that is to say, spiritually 

salvation \ understand after the will of God, is profitable to teach them that be ignorant ; to reprove, 

that is, to convince them that speak against the faith ; to correct sinners, such as deny 

not themselves to be sinners ; to instruct those that be yet rude and simple ; to instruct, 

I say, in righteousness, that they may be made righteous by putting away their former 

instructions of infidelity, I say, that he may be so taught, that, as much as in the teacher 

lieth, he that is taught may be the perfect man of God; so perfect, that he may be 

instruct to do every good work 6 ." 



quam ad dogmata putarunt sufficere ; ut recta fide 
et operibus ac virtute rutilantes, ad regnum coelorum 
perveniamus. Id. in Joannem, cap. xxi. col. 220. 
Ed. Paris. 1508. This edition is quoted, since this 
reference made by the archbishop was undoubtedly 
extracted from it, and not from the Greek text of 
the author, which is more diffuse.] 

[ l In quibus denuo mandatis, tanquam ditissi- 
mis ferculis, sic coclestium deliciarum copia spiritalis 
exuberat, ut in verbo Dei abundet, quod perfectus 
comedat ; abundet etiam, quod parvulus sugat. Ibi 
est enim simul et lacteus potus, quo tenera fidelium 
nutriatur infantia; et solidus cibus, quo robusta 
perfectorum juventus spiritalia sanctae virtutis ac- 
cipiat incrementa. Ibi prorsus ad salutem consuli- 
tur universis, quos Dominus salvare dignatur. Ibi 
est quod omni astati congruat : ibi quod omni pro- 
fessioni conveniat. Ibi audimus praecepta quae fa- 
ciamus : ibi cognoscimus praemia qua; speremus. 
Fulgent. Sermo de Confessoribus, p. 649. Ed. Ant- 
verp. 1574.] 

[ 2 Qui ad vera? praedicationis verba se praparat, 
necesse est ut causarum origines a sacris paginis 
sumat ; ut omne quod loquitur, ad divina? auctorita- 
tis fundamentum revocet, atque in eo acdificium lo- 



cutionis sua? firmet. Ut enim praediximus, ssepe 
ha;retici dum sua student perversa adstruere, ea pro- 
ferunt qua? profecto in sacrorum librorum paginis 
non tenentur. Gregor. Papas I. Op. (Moral. Lib. 
xvin. in cap. xxxviii. beati Job.) Tom. I. col. 
5J3. Ed. Paris. 1705.] 



[ 3 Kal al SiyotTTaaiai TOIVVV, KOI TO. c 
jjyovv al aipe&eiv, e/c TWV Trapd Ti}v aTro<rro/\i/cij// 
<5ioX>ji> ooyfJMTi^ovrwv. Theoph. In Epist. ad 
Rom. Tom. II. p. 110. Ed. Venet. 1754.] 

[ 4 Liber vero scripturas est sacra pagina, legem, 
prophetas, et evangelium continens. In quibus 
divina revelatione nobis indultis manifesta traditur 
Dei cognitio, quid de eo tenere, quid sentire debea- 
mus ; ut quae ibidem aperiuntur de Deo, inconcussa 
fide teneamus, et ultra ilia temerarie quippiam as- 
truere de ipso non tentemus. Damascen. Ortho- 
doxae fidei, Lib. i. p. 3. Ed. Basil. 1675.] 

[ 5 Matter of salvation, Orig. ed.] 

[ 6 Vere sacra? literac possunt te instruere ad sa 
lutem : quia omnis scriptura inspirata divinitus, i. 
spiritualiter secundum Deum intellecta, utilis est 
ad docendum eos qui nesciunt ; et ad arguendum, i. 
ad convincendum eos qui fidei contradicunt ; et ad 
corripiendum peccantes, et se peccasse non abne- 



II.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



35 



Beda, in the 1st Epistle of Peter, chap. v. " If any man speak, let him speak as the if any man 
words of God." " Fearing lest he say or command any thing besides the will of God, or S speak 
besides that which is manifestly commanded in the holy scriptures, and be found as STSwKrf 
a false witness of God, or a committer of sacrilege, or a bringer in of any strange thing he w 
from the Lord s doctrine, or else leave out or pass over any thing that pleaseth God ; th 
seeing that Christ most plainly commandeth the preachers of the truth concerning them ed* e 
whom they had taught, saying, Teach them to keep all things that I have com 
manded you; yea, even the same which he had commanded, and none other; and 
he commanded his preachers to command their hearers to keep, not some of these, 
but all 7 ." 

Anselmus, bishop, in his book of Virginity, cap. xxiv. " God s law forbiddeth to w? may not 
follow the steps of the catholic, or universal faith, any more than the judgment of the general faith, 
canonical truth commandeth to believe. And all other apocryphal lies, the good policies Mine agree 
of the best learned fathers have stablished in their decrees utterly to reject, and to banish word, 
them clean, as horrible thunderings of w r ords 8 ." 

Lyrane, upon the last chap, of the Proverbs. " Like as in a merchant s ship are 
carried divers things necessary for man s life, so in the scripture are contained all things 
needful to salvation 8 ." 

Thomas of Aquine. " The holy scripture is the rule of our faith, whereunto it is The truth of 
neither lawful to add, nor take any thing away. But the truth of our faith is contained 
in the holy scriptures diffusely and divers ways ; in some places darkly ; and to try 
out the truth of our faith by the scriptures, is required long study and exercise ; to the 
which all they cannot come that need to know the truth of the faith, the more part 
whereof, being occupied with other business, cannot attend to study. And therefore 
it was needful out of the sentences of holy scripture to gather something into a short sum, 
which should be set forth for all men to believe; which is not added to the scriptures, but 
rather taken out of the scriptures 10 ." 

Scotus, in the prologue of Sentences, quEest. 2. Question: " Whether knowledge 
above nature, sufficient for a man in this life, be sufficiently set forth in the holy scrip 
ture." The question is not, " Whether any things be true that are not written, or whether 
God, since the creation and redemption of the world, hath done or said any thing that 
is not written, and received of the church for the holy scripture ;" but this is the ques 
tion, "Whether the word of God written be sufficient for our salvation ; or whether a 
Christian man be bound to believe any thing that cannot be proved by the holy scripture." 
And this granted, that all things that may be gathered out of the scripture, and every 
thing that upon any truth granted may be proved by a good argument of the scripture, 



gantes ; et ad erudiendum eos qui adhuc rudes 
sunt et simplices, erudiendum dico in justitia, i. ad 
hoc ut justificentur exuendo rudimenta infidelitatis. 
Sic inquam erudiant ut, quantum in doctore est, sit 
ille qui eruditur perfectus homo Dei ; perfectus ita 
ut sit instructus ad omne opus bonum faciendum. 
Brun. Carth. Patri. In 2 Tim. cap. iii. in fine. 
Ed. 1524.J 

[ 7 Si quis loquitur quasi sermones Dei. Timens 
videlicet, ne piaster voluntatem Dei, vel przeter 
quod in scripturis sanctis evidenter praecipitur, vel 
dicat aliquid, vel imperet, et inveiftetur tanquam 
falsus testis Dei, aut sacrilegus, vel introducens 
aliquid alienum a doctrina Domini, vel certe subre- 
linquens et praeteriens aliquid eorum, quae Deo pla- 
cita sunt, cum ipse manifestissime praedicatoribus 
veritatis de his quos imbuerint praecipiat dicens : 
Docentes eos servare omnia, qucecunque mandavi 
vobis. Et ea enim, qua? ipse mandavit, non alia, et 
hsec non ex parte, sed omnia suis auditoribus obser- 
vare tradere jubet. Bedas Opera, Tom. IV. col. 
710. Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1012.] 



[ 8 The Editor has not succeeded in discovering 
the passage referred to.] 

[ 9 Sicut enim in navi institoris portantur di- 
versa vitas human 83 necessaria ; sic in scriptura 
continentur omnia necessaria ad salutem. Nico. de 
Lyra. In Prov. cap. xxxi. Pars in. p. 339. Ed. 
Basil. 1502.J 

[ 10 Sacra enim scriptura est regula fidei, cui nee 
addere, nee subtrahere licet. Veritas fidei in sacra 
scriptura diffuse continetur et variis modis, et in 
quibusdam obscure, ita quod ad eliciendum fidei veri- 
tatem ex sacra scriptura requiritur longum studium 
et exercitium, ad quod non possunt pervenire omnes 
illi, quibus necessarium est cognoscere fidei verita- 
tem; quorum plerique aliis negotiis occupati, studio 
vacare non possunt: et ideo fuit necessarium, ut ex 
sententiis sacra scripturae aliquid manifestum sum- 
marie colligeretur, quod proponeretur omnibus ad 
credendum : quod quidem non est additum sacra) 
scripturae, sed potius ex sacra scriptura sumptum. 
Thomas Aquin. Secunda secundae, Quaest. i. Art. 
ix. Tom. II. p. 5. Ed. Antverp. 1624.] 

32 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



doth pertain to the holy scripture; this granted, I say, he concludeth, that "all things 
necessary for our salvation are fully contained in the holy scripture 1 ." 

11 The school-authors call the stay of our faith, the truth shewed of God, and 
contained in the canon of the bible. 



They were 
gathered in 
the spirit of 
pride and 
envv, and not 
in the spirit 
of meekness 
and love. 



Note these 
words dili 
gently, and 
forget them 



Councils are 
not of such 
authority 
that whatso 
ever they de 
cree must be 
holden for 
truth. 



The scripture 
must try all. 



Mark this. 



THE THIRD CHAPTER. 

That the General Councils, without the Word of God, are not sufficient to make articles 

of our faith. 

EUSEBIUS, in his Ecclesiastical History, lib. i. cap. 8. [viii. 1.] "The head-rulers of the 
church, forgetting God s commandments, were inflamed one against another with con 
tention, zeal, envy, pride, malice, and hatred ; so that they thought rather that they 
occupied the room of tyrants than of priests. And also, forgetting Christian humility 
and sincerity, they did celebrate the holy mysteries with unholy hands 2 ." 

Gregory Nazianzen to Procopius. " Undoubtedly I think thus, if I must needs write 
the truth, that all assemblies of bishops are to be eschewed. For I never saw good 
end of any synod, that did not rather bring in evils, than put them away ; for the 
lusts of strife and desire and of lordship reign there 3 ." 

Augustine, in his second book and third chapter against the Donatists. " The 
councils, which are kept through every region or province, without all clokings, ought 
to give place to the general councils, which are made of all Christendom; yea, and 
the former general councils ought ofttimes to be reformed by the latter councils, if 
any thing in them do chance to err from the truth 4 ." 

Augustine, against Maximinuin, the bishop of the Arians, lib. iii. cap. 4. "But 
now neither ought I to allege the council of Nice, nor thou the council of Arimine, 
to take advantage thereby : for neither am I bound nor held by the authority of this, 
nor thou of that. Let matter with matter, cause with cause, or reason with reason, 
try the matter by the authority of scriptures, not proper witnesses to any of us, but 
indifferent witnesses for us both 5 ." 

Gerson. "We ought rather believe the saying of any teacher, armed with the 
canonical scripture, than the pope s determination 6 ." 



[ Quaestio ii. Utrum cognitio supernaturalis 
necessaria viatori sit sufficienter tradita in sacra 
scriptura : upon which the conclusion is, Quod 
sacra scriptura sufficienter continet doctrinam ne- 
cessariam viatori.] 

[ 2 Ot TC COKOVVTCS rfj.wv TTOifj.ei e Sy TOV T?;S 6eo- 
(re/3etas Qccr/Ji6v Trapcocraytiefoi, TaTs TT^OOS a XXj;Xous 
di/e^Xeyoirro <iXoi/et/aats aura ojj TOUTC p.6va, 
TCES e piflas /cut Tas aVeiAas TOV TC /}Xoi> /cat TO 
TT/OOS a XXjjXous e x&os /cat ynio-os e7rauoi/T6s, old T 
Tvpa.WLoa i Tas </>iXapx* s iicWjuw 5tc/cot/couj/TC9, 
Tore jj, K.T.e. Euseb. Eccl. Hist. Lib. vm. 
cap. i.] 

[ 3 "E^oj (lev OUTCOS, ct eel TaXrjOes ypdcfieiv, 
alcTTe TrdvTa av\Xoyov (peuyeiv eiriffKuTrcov, OTI 
ds GVVO&OV TeXos clcov )(/o?j<rToi , /ur;(5e \vcriv 
/xaXXoi/ eir^Jj/cuias >] TrpocrQi )Ki]v del yap 
/nXoj/ciKtat cal (j)i\np^iai. Greg. Nazianz. Epist. 
cxxx. Procopio. Tom. II. p. 110. Ed. Paris. 1840.] 

[ 4 Et ipsa concilia, quae per singulas regiones 
vel provincias fiunt, plenariorum conciliorum auc- 
toritati, quse fiunt ex universo orbe Christiano, sine 
ullis ambagibus cedere ; ipsaque plenaria sa?pe 
priora posterioribus emendari, cum aliquo experi- 
ir.ento rerum aperitur quod clausum erat. Angus- 



tin, de Bapt. cont. Donat. Lib. n. cap. iii. Tom. 
VI I. p. 42. Ed. Paris. 1G35.] 

[ 5 Sed nunc nee ego Nicacnum, nee tu debes 
Arimenense, tanquam pnEJudicaturus proferre con 
cilium. Nee ego hujus auctoritate, nee tu illius 
detineris : scripturarum auctoritatibus, non quo- 
rumque propriis, sed utrisque communibus testibus, 
res cum re, causa cum causa, ratio cum ratione 
concertet. Id. Contra Maxim. Arrian. Epis. Lib. 
in. cap. xiv. Tom. VI. p. 306.] 

[ 6 Jungatur huic consideration! cum sua decla- 
ratione duplex veritas. Prima, staret quod aliquis 
simplex non auctorisatus, esset tarn excellenter in 
sacris litteris eruditus, quod plus esset credendum 
in casu doctrinaii suae assertioni, quam papae decla 
ration!; constat enim plus esse credendum evangelio 
quam papa? : si doceat igitur talis eruditus veri- 
tatem aliquam in evangelio contineri, ubi et papa 
nesciret, vel ultro erraret; patet cujus praaferendum 
sit juclicium. Altera veritas, talis eruditus deberet 
in casu, si et dum celebraretur generale concilium, 
cui et ipse pracsens esset, illi se opponere, si sentiret 
majorem partem ad oppositum evangelii malitia vel 
ignorantia declinare. Gerson. De Exam. Doctr. Pars 
i. Consid. v. Tom. I. col. ii. Ed. Antverp. 1706.] 



III.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



37 



The same. " More credit is to be given to a man that is singularly learned in 37. 
the scripture, bringing forth catholic authority, than to the general council 7 ." 

Panormitan, in cap. " Significasti." "A simple layman, bringing forth the scriptures, 



is to be believed rather than a whole council. For a council may err, as it hath afore- councils may- 

times erred 8 :" as did the council of Melchidense and Aquisgranum, of contracting of ofuimcs - 

matrimony. The council of Constance, among other articles of John Hus and Hierome 

of Prague unjustly condemned, condemned also this article for heresy : That the two 

natures, that is, the divine 9 and humanity, be one Christ; which is a necessary article 

of our faith, expressed in the Creed of Athanasius, called Quicunque vult; where it 

is read, The right faith is, that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ. J; ;" 1 ^ 

the Son of God, is God and man: and a little after, Like as the reasonable soul 

and the flesh is one man, so God and man is one Christ. The same is also decreed 

by the council of Nice and divers other catholic councils, and it is the doctrine of the 

church at this time. Finally, it may be proved by the express word of God : and 

yet these malicious clergy were not ashamed to condemn the same for an heresy. 

H Note here, gentle reader, unto what shameless and detestable heresies their popish, 
yea, antichristian general councils have Mien, of the which they boast so much that 
they cannot err, and whereupon chiefly they build all their errors and 
heresies. Moreover, the most part of the good laws and 
canons be in manner altogether abrogated, and 
nowhere kept : part whereof I 
shall express. 



CANONS OF THE APOSTLES AND COUNCILS NOT KEPT NOR USED. W. 

" Let not a bishop, priest, or deacon, by any means put away his own wife under Camm :i. 
pretence of religion : but if he do, let him be excommunicated ; and if he so continue, 
let him be deposed 10 ." 

" Let no bishop, priest, or deacon, be received into another bishop s diocese, without canon 4. 
a testimonial of his good behaviour : and when they have delivered their writings, 
let them be diligently examined if they be godly preachers 11 ." 

IT If these two laws \vere throughly executed by indifferent judges, being no priests, 
the realm of England should not swarm so full of runagates, adulterous, and sodomical 
priests. For in Wales, for their cradle crowns paid to the ordinary, they kept their 
concubines or harlots openly; and in England many great beneficcd men keep their 
harlots at rack and manger without any punishment, except it be by. bribing of the 
ordinaries privily ; and, all shame set aside, they have their own known bastards waiting 
upon them in sight of the whole world. But the poor purgatory priests, when they 
be taken in open advoutry, flee from east to west, from north to south, from diocese 
to diocese, and there be received without any letters testimonial at all; where they 
be taken for honest and chaste priests. But if the rich priests were deprived of all 
their promotions, so oft as they be known to be fornicators, (as they ought to be,) 
and the poor priests not received into any strange diocese without testimony of his 
honest demeanour from his former ordinary, you should scarcely find priests for every 



[ 7 See note 6 on previous page.] 

[ 8 Uni fideli privato, si meliorem scripturae auc- 
toritatem aut rationem habeat, plus credendum est, 
quam toti concilio nam et concilium potest errare. 
Panorm. (N. de Tudesch.) sup. Decretal. Lib. i. 
Tit. vi. Tom. I. fol. R. 2. Lib. Venet. Ed. Nur. et 
Basil. 1476-8.] 

[ 9 The divinity and humanity, Orig. ed.J 



eaVTOV yvvcuKct /JLI] eK/SuXXc-Tco Trpo<pd(Ti euXa/3eia. 
Eav Se CK/3a \Ar;, dtyopi^ecrQa) CTri/J.ev<av Be, KaQai- 
(oei o-Pw. Can. Apost. Can. v. Labbe et Cossart. 



Tom. I. col. 25. Ed. Paris. 1671.] 

f" 11 Mrjdeva TUIV fceviov eTnovcoTra i/, j 7r/oe<r/3uTc- 
p(aV) ) ciaKovwv avev crva-TaTiKiiv Trpo<r!!>e~xecrQai, 
Koi GTTK^epoiJLevtav avTcov dva.Kpive<r6(jo<rav. Id. 
Can. xxii. Labbe et Cossart, Tom. I. col. 31. Ib. 
This Canon is given more fully, " ex interpretatione 
Dionysii exigui," in Latin, as follows (col. 50): 
"Nullus episcoporum peregrinorum,aut presbytero- 
rum, aut diaconorum sine commendatitiis suscipiatur 
epistolis. Et cum scripta detulerint, discutiantur 
attentius, et ita suscipiantur, si praedicatores pietatis 
exstiterint." Id. Can. xxxiv. col. 50-1 



38 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



O what a 
court is this, 
that in sus- 

Eicion of 
eresy ac- 
quitteth no 



crime never 
so openly 
known! 

39. 



third benefice of England, and the priests themselves would be the first earnest suitors 
that they might have their lawful wives of their own. But as long as they be their 
own judges, (according to the old proverb, "One scabbed horse knappeth another,") 
what for favour and friendship, what for money and for slandering of their order, they 
wink one at another s faults, and help to cloke the same; insomuch that within my 
memory, which is above thirty years, and also by information of other, that be twenty 
years elder than I, I could never perceive or learn that any one priest under the pope s 
. kingdom was ever punished for advoutry by his ordinary. And yet, not long ago, 

ter ycon- a petty canon of a cathedral church in England was accused 2 , by three boys of 

demneth no ., , , ., . , . . * * 

priest, be his the grammar-school, to the vice-dean or sub-dean of the same church; a man not 
unlike to a monk called Jodocus, of whom Erasmus maketh mention, that he were 
worthy to walk openly with a bell and a cockscomb, if he were not set forth under 
the holy habit of a monk. But when he perceived that the said priest could not purge 
himself of the foresaid crime, he privily paid him his quarter s wages beforehand, 
and suffered him to depart without farther trial of the said crime : and now he jetteth 
in London, with side gown and sarcenet tippet, as good a virgin-priest as the best. 
If I should but briefly touch all the histories that I have known of the incontinency 
of priests, it would grow to a work thrice greater than all my whole book, and it 
would make some of the proudest of them to blush, if they be not past all shame : 
but I will not blot my good paper with so evil matter, although they be not ashamed 
openly to blot and stain their own good names with crimes worthy of such reproach 
and ignominy. 

"Let not any bishop, priest, or deacon, in any wise take upon him any secular 
business; but if he do, let him be excommunicated 3 ." 

II But now such shameless contemners they be of their own laws, which they so 
greatly extol and bind all other to keep, that they be hunters, falconers, stewards, 
surveyors, and receivers, to all great men, yea, and to the bishops themselves. 

" If any priest or deacon, or any other of the number of priesthood, do not receive 
at the communion, let him shew his cause : if it be reasonable, let him be pardoned ; 
if not, let him be deprived from the communion 4 ." 

"It is meet to put off from the communion all Christian men which enter into 
the church, and hear the scriptures, but continue not in prayer until mass be done, 
nor receive there the holy communion, as disturbers of the quietness of the church 6 ." 

U By these two canons be subverted, and utterly overthrown, all private masses, 
where the priest only receiveth. 

" Let the old custom continue still in Egypt, Lybia, and Pentapoli, that the bishop 
of Alexandrie have power over all these ; forasmuch as the bishop of Rome hath a 
like custom. At Antioch also, and other provinces, let their honour be reserved to 
church 6 ." 



Canon 



Canon 9. 



Canon 10. 



The council 
of Nice. 
Canon 6. 



every 



The council 
of Nice. 
Canon 20. 
40. 



" Because there be some that kneel at their prayers on the Sunday and in Whitsun- 
week ; be it therefore ordained by this holy council, that all men stand at their prayers; 
forsomuch as it is a convenient custom, fit to be kept in all churches 7 ." 



f 1 Third be benefice, Ed. 1582.] 

[ 2 Two words are omitted.] 

[ 3 ETTtcr/co-Tros, i) irpeafivTepo-i, jj SidKOVo? KOO-- 
/nt/cas </>/>ovTi <5as /uj dvaXa^aveTW el tie fjn], /ca0- 
ai/oeto-ew. Id. Can. vi. Labbe et Cossart. Tom. I. 
col. 25. Ib.] 

[ 4 E i Tts eTriV/coTTOs, ?) irpecrftvrepo i, T? ^ta /coj/os, 
TJ eK TOU KccraXoyov TOV iepaTiKov, Trpoa-^opd^ ye- 
i/o/ieVijs /urj /ii6TaXa/3oi, TI}V alriav eiTraVto. Kai 
edv ei!\oyos 7, arvyy W /XTJS Tvy^avtTta el <5e yurj 
Xeyei, dfyopC^eaQia, &c. Id. Can. viii. Ib. Tom. I. 
col. 25.] 

[ 5 IlaVras TOI/S etcrtoVras TTKTTOUS, Kai TU>V 
ypafyiav d/vOuoj/Tas, //ij -rra/oa/ie i/oz/Tas e TJ/ irpoa-- 
ev X.V Kat T ?7 dyia jueTaXfji/fei, ws aTa^iav ep.- 
TroiovvTa-s Trj t/v/cXi/aia, atpopi^eoQat. -%pq. Id. 



Can. ix. Ib. Tom. I. col. 27.] 

[ 6 Ta dp^ala 6; Kpa.TeiT<a, rd kv AlyvTn-ta 
Kai Aiftvij Kal Flej/TaTroXei, wcrre TOV 
eTricTKOTrov Trdvrttiv TOVTWV eyjsiv TI]V 
t 7reio; Kai Tea ev TTJ Pw^ir/ eTriarKOTrw TOVTO aruv- 
fjfle s ecrTtv o/uLoitas oe Kai KaTa TI}V A^Tio^etai/, 
Kai ti/ -rals aAAais e7ra/c>xiais> TCC ir/oetr/Jeia <ra>- 
eo-0at Tais eKK\rjo-uus. Cone. Nica-n. Can. vi. 
Labbe et Cossart. Tom. II. col. 32. Lutet. Paris. 
1671-2.] 



TLve<s eicriv ev 



Ka ev TaTs T?/S 



TOU TTUVTO. iv TTaV?? TTapoiKio. 6/xoiws 
rtuT 
Be 



Krj yovv K\i- 
ijfupatv, vjrep 



oe TT ya a-vvou> TS eu^as 
Id. Can. xx. Ib. Tom. II. col. 



37.] 



III.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



39 



anon & 



Ibidem. 
Canon 7- 



11 But now Antichrist of Rome, contrary to this decree, hath extolled himself above 
his fellow-bishops, as God s vicar, yea, rather as God himself; and taketh upon him 
authority over kings and emperors, and sitteth in the temple of God, that is, in the 
consciences of men, and causeth his decrees to be more regarded than God s laws ; 
yea, and for money he dispenseth with God s laws, and all other, giving men licence 
to break them. 

" If any priest be found eating in a common alehouse, let him be excommunicated 8 ." 

" If any man judge that a married priest ought not to offer, as it were for his mar- C 
riage sake, and for that cause do abstain from his oblation, let him be excommuni- 
cated 9 ." 

11 But now married priests be excommunicated; and except they will forsake their 
lawful wives, they shall be burned therefore. 

" Forasmuch as there are some which pray standing, both on the Sunday and in 
Whitsun-week, it is therefore ordained by this holy council, that because it is a con 
venient custom, and agreeable throughout all churches, that men should make their 
prayers to God standing 10 ." 

H This law is no where kept. 

" Let no priest be made before thirty years, yea, though he be of an honest life ; The council 
but let him tarry to the time appointed : for the Lord was baptized at thirty years, ria. 
and then preached 11 ." 

11 How this law is kept, the whole world may judge: for the cardinal of Lorcyn 
was made about the twelfth year of his age ; and pope Clement made two of his 
nephews cardinals, being very boys. And of late, in the pope s kingdom, children 
have been made archdeacons and deans of cathedral churches. 

"No man may be received to baptism in Lent after tw T o weeks 12 ." JrlSkSI 

"Bread ought not to be offered in Lent but in the Saturday and Sunday 13 ." ibidem. 

1T He speaketh of the bread of the holy communion. But who keepeth these 
laws? 

" Laymen ought not to sing any made and commonly used songs in the church, 
nor read any book beside the canon; but only the canonical books of the new and 
old testament 14 ." "Those books which ought to be read and received for authority, be 
those books which be divided from the books called Apocrypha, in the great bible. Unto 
the which Saint Cyprian, Hierome, Austin, with all the old writers, agree 15 ." 

IT But the third council of Carthage added to these the books of Wisdom, Ecclesias- 
ticus, Tobie, Judith, Hester, and the books of the Machabees la ; unto which latter council 
the papists cleave with tooth and nail, and thereupon stay their purgatory, praying to 
saints, with divers other errors and heresies, contrary to the elder and better councils. 
Hereby you may most easily perceive how shamefully their general councils have erred, 
as well in the judgment of the scriptures, as also in necessary articles of our faith and 
good manners. Yea, and the chiefest and oldest councils be (as Anacharsis said of the 
laws made by Solon for the Athenians) like to cobwebs, wherein small flies, gnats, and 
midges, be taken and devoured of the spiders; but great hornets and humble-bees fly 
through and break them, without any danger or hurt. And generally there is no laws 
regarded, kept, or maintained among them, but such as make (as they term them) pro 



41. 



[ 8 There is an error in the reference. But see 
Concil. Labb. et Cossart. Tom. II. p. 592. Tit. 
xxiii.J 

[ 9 Et TIS SiaKpivOLTO irapd irpeo-fiuTepov ye- 
ya/jL^KOTOi, cos /j.i) y^pTivai XetToupyijo-am-os CIVTOV 
Trpo<r<j)opd<i /ieTa\a/u.f3dveiv, dvdQcfM errTtu. Cone. 
Gangr. Can. iv. Tom. 11. col. 419. Id.] 

[ 10 See preceding page, note 7.J 

[ n HpeafivTepos 717)6 TIOV TpLaKovTa eTcav /ijj 
"%EipOTOveia Q(iJ, edv /cat irdvv TJ o dvtfptoTTO S a^tos, 
aXXa a7roT?j|oeicr0a>. O ydp /cuptos I ^axil s XpiaTos 
ev Tat TpiaKOCTTcp eVet <^>a>Ti<rt)tJ, /cat jJ/o^aTo 6t- 
ao-Keii/. Concil. Neoccsarense, Can. xi. Ib. Tom. 
I. col. 1483.] 



[ 12 /me. "OTI ou oel peTa cvo efBSofj.do as TJ 
reo-crapa/coo-TT/s oe^ecrOai eis TO <uTicr/ia. Synodi 
Laodicenas Canones, Can. xlv. Ib. Tom. I. col. 
1503.] 

[ 13 /j.6 . "OTI ou Sel Trj Tecrcrcc/oavoaTj; upTOV 
Trpo<r<t>fpeiV) el /j.i) tv aafifidTio KUI Kvpiaicfj /JLOVOV. 
Can. xlix. Id. Tom. I. col. 1505.] 

[ 14 vd . "Ori ov del ISiwTiKov^ v/Aa\ l uou5 \eyecr0at 
ev Trj eKK\i]cria, ovSe aKavovia-TO. /ii/3Xia, aXXa 
/Jiova TCC Kavovtud T/;S /caiv;";? /cat TraXatas Cta0jj(o;s. 
Id. Can. lix. Tom. I. col. 1507.] 

[ 15 Vide Can. Ix. Ib.] 

[ 1G Vide Canones Concilii Carthagin. iii. Can, 
xlvii. Id. Tom. II. col. 1177-] 



40 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



iiatt. xxiii. pane lucrando, that is, for their dignities, immunities, or liberties and profits. Where 
fore the words of our Saviour Christ may be rightly verified of them : " They lay 
heavy and importable burthens on other men s shoulders, but will not once 
move them with their finger." For all their laws bo but nets 
to take and kill the poor fishes, and to fill 
their own paunches. 



THE FOURTH CHAPTER. 



42. 

Gen. iii. 

1 Kings xxii, 

Gal. i. 

2 Cor. xi. 

CoL ii. 

[1 Tim. iv.] 



1 John IT. 
Acts xvi. 



The devil de- 
ceiveth man, 
because he 
wandereth 
from the 
word written, 
and is not 
content 
therewith. 

43. 

[Spirits work 
no good, but 
eviH] 



[The devil s 
miracles are 
to work mis 
chief 4.] 



They hurt 
most of all 
when they 
cease from 
hurting. 



That nothing can be proccd l>y oracles of angels touching religion*. 

SATAN, being changed into a serpent, deceived our first parents; and in them cast 
all mankind headlong into damnation. 

" I will go forth, and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets." 

II Read the whole chapter. 

" Though an angel from heaven preach any other gospel," &c. 

" Satan himself is changed into an angel of light." 

" Let no man make you shoot at a wrong mark by the humbleness and holiness 
of angels." 

The same, chap. iv. "The Spirit speaketh evidently, that in the latter times some 
shall depart from the faith, and shall give heed unto spirits of error and devilish 
doctrine." 

" Believe not every spirit, but prove the spirits, whether they are of God, or not." 

" A certain damsel, possessed with a spirit that prophesied, met us ; which brought 
her master and mistress much vantage with prophesying. The same followed Paul and 
us, and cried, saying, These are the servants of the most High God, which shew unto 
us the way of salvation. And this did she many days : but Paul, not content, turned 
about, and said to the spirit, I command thee in the name of Jesu Christ, that thou come 
out of her. And he came out the same hour." 

Cyprian, of the Simpleness of Prelates. "The enemy (after the words of the apostles 2 ) 
changeth himself into an angel of light, and setteth forth his servants, as ministers of 
righteousness, affirming night for day, death for health, desperation under the colour of 
hope, false faith under the pretence of faith, antichrist under the name of Christ : so that 
whiles they counterfeit the like things, they make void the truth with subtlety. This, 
dearly-beloved brethren, cometh to pass by this means, that we resort not to the original 
of the truth, nor seek the head Christ, nor keep the doctrine of our heavenly Master 3 ." 

Cyprianus, in his fourth treatise of the Vanity of Idols. " Filthy spirits wandering 
abroad, being drowned in worldly vices, after they have shrunken from heavenly virtue 
through worldly corruption, being themselves destroyed, cease not to destroy other, 
and, being infect with evil, infect other with the same. These inspire the hearts of the 
prophets, ever lapping up lies with the truth ; they trouble men s lives, disquiet their 
sleeps, drawing their members awry, hurt their health, provoke diseases, to force men to 
worshipping of them : and this is the remedy of them, when they cease to hurt. Neither 
have they any other study but to call men back from God, and turn them from the 



I" 1 The Confutation here contains several au 
thorities which are not to be found in Cranmer s 
Common-place Book at the British Museum, par 
ticularly the long quotation from Lactantius.J 

[ 2 The apostle, Orig. ed.] 

[ 3 (Blandiente adversario atque fallente,) qui 
secundum apostoli voccm transfigurat se velut ange- 
lum lucis, et ministros suos subornat velut ministros 
justitiiE, asserentes noctem pro die, interitum pro sa 



lute, desperationem sub obtentu spei, perfidiam sub 
praetextu fidei, antichristum sub vocabulo Christi ; 
ut dum verisimilia mentiuntur, veritatem subtilitate 
frustrentur. Hoc eo fit, fratres dilectissimi, dum ad 
veritatis originem non reditur, nee caput quaaritur, 
nee magistri ccelestis doctrina servatur. Cyprian, 
De Unit. Eccles. (vulg. de Simp. Pra;l.) p. 194. Ed. 
Paris. 1J26.] 

[ 4 These paragraphs arc omitted in ed. 1082.] 



iv.] OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 41 

perceiving of true religion to their superstition; and seeing they be in pain themselves, 
to seek those to be companions of their pain whom they have made, through their error, 
partakers of their sin 5 ." 

Lactantius, Institutionum, Lib. ii. cap. 15. "Corrupt and damned spirits stray over 
all the world, and seek for ease of their destruction through the destruction of men. They 
therefore fill all the world with snares, frauds, and errors: the which, because they be men to seek 

. J to them for 

fine spirits, and cannot be perceived, convey themselves into men s bodies, and being 

secretly hid within the body, trouble health, bring sickness, fray men with dreams, vex 

men s minds with sweat, that through these harms they may force men to run to them 

for help. The cause of all which deceits is dark to them that be ignorant in the truth ; 

for they think they profit when they cease from hurting which can do nothing but hurt. 

But they which have shrunken back from God s service, because they be enemies and 

transgressors of the truth, go about to challenge to themselves the name and honour of 

God : not because they desire any honour, (for what honour can the damned have?) nor 

that they should liurt God, who cannot be hurt; but to hurt men, whom they go about to 

draw away from the worship and knowledge of God s true majesty, lest they should attain 

immortality, which they have lost through their own malice. So they cover all with 

darkness, and compass the truth with clouds ; so that they cannot know their Lord, nor 

their Father. And that they may easily allure men, they hide themselves in the churches, 

and are at hand in all sacrifices. Yea, many times they work miracles, through which 

men being astonied, do give to images the faith of the godhead. Hereof it cometh that b v 

a stone was cut in sunder with a razor by a sorcerer ; and that Juno of Vcia answered, spnngeth the 

. worshipping 

that she would go to Rome; and that a ship followed the hand of Claudia; and that Juno of images. 

being robbed, and Proserpina of Locrense, and Ceres of Milete, took vengeance of those 

that had committed sacrilege ; and Hercules of Appius, and Jupiter of Atimus, and 

Minerva of Caesar. Hereof also it cometh that a serpent delivered the city of Rome 

from the pestilence, being brought from Epidaure. But chiefly they deceive men in their The devils 

oracles and answers, whose jugglings ungodly men cannot discern from the truth. There- images as 

fore they think that empires and victories, riches and lucky chances of things, are given of were gods. 

them ; and to be short, ofttimes commonwealths to be delivered from present dangers at 

their beck, which dangers they both declared by their answer , and, being pacified with 

sacrifice, turned away. But all these be but deceits ; for seeing they know before the JJ[ p|[[ d h ^ y 

disposition of God, because they were his ministers, they thrust themselves into these Jj^jfe e? 

business 7 , so that whatsoever things either be done or have been done of God, they might 

seem chiefly to do or have done it. And so oft as any goodness is coming at hand to 

any people or city, according to God s appointment, they promise that they will do it, 

either by miracles, dreams, or revelations, if churches, if honours, if sacrifices, be given 

to them: the which things being given, when that chanceth that needs must be, they 

get to themselves great worship. For this cause be temples vowed, for this cause be 

new images hallowed. And so oft as perils be at hand, for some foolish and light cause, 

they fcio-n themselves angry, as Juno toward Yarro. But these be the deceits of them, Satan, under 

pretence of 

that lurking under the names of the dead, intend to plague them that be alive. Where- dead men s 
fore, whereas that danger that is at hand may be avoided, they would seem that they, etii them 
being pacified, have turned it away. And if it cannot be eschewed, this they do, that leadeth them 
it might appear to chance for the contempt of them. And so they purchase to themselves ! 
great authority and fear among men that know them not. Some men will say, Why 
doth God then suffer these things? neither doth he succour so evil errors? That evil 



[ 5 Spiritus sunt insinceri et vagi, qui postea 
quam terrenis vitiis immersi sunt, et a vigore coelesti 
terrene contagio receperunt, non desinunt perditi 
perdere, et depravati errorem pravitatis infundere. 
Hi afflatu suo vatum pectora inspirant, falsa veris 
semper involvunt; nam et falluntur et fallunt, vitam 
turbant, somnos inquietant, irrepentes etiam spiritus 



ad cultum sui cogant. Haec est de illis medela, cum 
illorum cessat injuria; nee aliud illis studium est 
quam a Deo homines avocare, et ad superstitionem 
sui ab intellect!! veras religionis avertere, et cum 
sint ipsi poenales, quaerere sibi ad pcenam comites 
quos ad crimen suum fecerint errore participes. Id. 
De Idolorum Vanitate, pp. 220, 7-1 



in corporibus occulte mentcs terrent, membra distor- [ 6 Answers, Orig. ed.] 

nuent, valetudinem frangunt, morbos lacessunt, ut ] f 7 Businesses, Orig. ed.] 



42 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



Subtle Satan 
fei^neth him 
self to be 
Christ, and 
worshipped 
as God. 

45. 

How shall we 
then know 
any certain 
truth by ap 
paritions? 

They that 
believe vi 
sions, often 
worship 
Satan for 
Christ. 



things may fight with good, that vices may be contrary to virtues, that he may have 
some whom he may punish, and some whom he may honour 1 ." 

Stapulensis, upon the 2nd Epistle to the Thessalonians, chap. ii. " Marvel not of 

counterfeit angels, and of the subtlety of Satan, resembling himself to Christ, seeing 

we read a like thing in the history of Heraclides, of a monk called Valent. The devil, 

saith he, changing himself into the likeness of our Saviour, came to him by night, 

with a company (as he feigned) of a thousand angels, holding burning lamps in their 

hands, and with a fiery chariot, in the which he feigned our Saviour to sit. Then 

one of them stept forth, and said thus unto him : 4 Come forth out of thy cell now, 

and do nothing else but when thou seest him come affar off make haste to bow down 

thyself and worship him, and so straightway return again to thine own house/ Then 

he went forth out of his house, and believing that he had seen that godly offices of 

heavenly ministers, and all shining with fiery lamps, and Christ, as he thought, himself 

not past a furlong off, fell flat upon the ground, and worshipped him, whom he 

believed to be the Lord. See here how this fearful and foolish monk 

Valent, leaving very Christ, worshipped Christ s enemy, 

and, instead of the truth, a counterfeit 

antichrist and Satan 2 ." 



f 1 Hi, ut dico, spiritus contaminati ac perditi 
per omnem terrain vagantur ; et solatium perditionis 
suae perdendis hominibus operantur. Itaque omnia 
insidiis, fraudibus, dolis, erroribus complent qui 
quoniam sunt spiritus tenues, et incomprehensibiles, 
insinuant se corporibus hominum ; et occulte in vis- 
ceribus operti valetudinem vitiant, morbos citant ; 
somniis animos terrent ; mentes furoribus quatiunt ; 
ut homines his malis cogant ad eorum auxilia de- 
currere. Quarum omnium fallaciarum ratio exper- 
tibus veritatis obscura est. Prodesse enim eos pu- 
tant, cum nocere desinunt ; qui nihil aliud possunt 
quam nocere. Illi autem, qui desciverunt a Dei mi- 
nisterio, quia sunt veritatis inimici, et prsevaricatores 
Dei, nomen sibi et cultum deorum vendicare co- 
nantur: non quod ullum honorem desiderent, (quis 
enim honor perditis est?) nee ut Deo noceant, cui 
noceri non potest ; sed ut hominibus, quos nituntur 
a cultura et notitia vera? majestatis avertere, ne im- 
mortalitatem adipisci possint, quam ipsi sua nequitia 
perdiderunt. Offundunt itaque tenebras, et verita- 
tem caligine obducunt ; ne Dominum, ne patrem 
suum norint. Et ut illiciant, facile in templis se oc- 
culunt, et sacrih ciis omnibus praesto adsunt ; edunt- 
que saepe prodigia, quibus obstupefacti homines, 
fidem commodent simulachris divinitatis ac numi- 
nis. Inde est, quod ab augure lapis novacula inci- 
sus est; et quod Juno Veiensis migrare se Romam 
velle respondit ; quod Claudiae manum navis secuta 
est ; quod in sacrileges et Juno nudata, et Locrensis 
Proserpina, et Ceres Milesia vindicavit; et Hercules 
de Appio, et Jupiter de Atinio, et Minerva de Cae- 
sare. Hinc, quod serpens urbem Romam pestilentia 
liberavit Epidauro accersitus. In oraculis autem 
vel maxime fallunt, quorum prjestigias profani a 
veritate intelligere non possunt: ideoque ab illis 
attribui putant et imperia, et victorias, et opes, et 
eventus prosperos rerum ; denique ipsorum nutu 
saspe rempublicam periculis imminentibus libera- 
tam : qua? pericula et responsis denuntiaverunt, et 
sacrih ciis placati averterunt. Sed omnia ista fal- 
laciae sunt. Nam cum dispositiones Dei praesenti- 
ant, quippe qui ministri ejus fuerunt, interponunt 
se in his rebus ; ut quaecunque a Deo vel facta sunt, 
vel fiunt, ipsi potissimum facere aut fecisse vide- 



antur. Et quoties alicui populo vel urbi secundum 
Dei statum boni quid impendet ; illi se id facturos 
vel prodigiis, vel somniis, vel oraculis pollicentur ; 
si sibi templa, si honores, si sacriHcia tribuantur. 
Quibus datis, cum illud accident, quod necesse est, 
summam sibi pariunt venerationem. Hinc templa 
devoventur, et novae imagines consecrantur. Quo- 
ties autem pericula impendent ; ob aliquam se inep- 
tam et levem causam profitentur iratos ; sicut Juno 
Varroni. Sed illorum sunt isti lusus ; qui sub no- 
minibus mortuorum delitescentes, viventibus plagas 
tendunt. Itaque sive illud periculum, quod immi- 
net, vitari potest, videri volunt id placati avertisse ; 
sive non potest, id agunt ut propter illorum con- 
temptum accidisse videatur. Ita sibi apud homines, 

qui eos nesciunt, auctoritatem ac timorem pariunt 

Dicet aliquis, Cur ergo Deus haec fieri patitur ? nee 
tarn malis succurrit erroribus ? Ut mala cum bonis 
pugnent ; ut vitia sint adversa virtutibus ; ut habeat 
alios quos puniat, alios quos honoret. Lactant. Lib. 
ii. capp. 14, 15, 16, 17. pp. 138143. Ed. Lugd. 
Batav. 1652.] 

[ 2 Non etiam mireris de h ctitiis angelis et de 
simulate astutia Satanae Christo, cum Valentini 
monacho ex historia Heraclidis simile accidisse 
agnoscatur. Daemon (inquit) in effigiem salvatoris 
transfiguratus, nocte ad eum venit cum choro quo- 
dam mille (ut rinxerat) angelorum, lampadas ac- 
censas tenentium, et cum flammea rota, in qua 
salvatorem sedere simulaverat, praecedente uno ex 
ipsis, eique ista dicente : Egredere igitur e cella 
tua nihilque aliud facias, nisi ut venientem eminus 
cernens, inclinans te, adorare festines, sic deinceps 
ad proprium habitaculum reversurus. Egressus 
igitur e cella sua, credensque se cernere divina mys- 
terii ccelestis officia, cunctaque lampadum fulgore 
rutilantia, et ipsum Christum non ultra unius spa- 
cium stadii constitutum, protinus pronus in terra, 
et eum quern crederet dominum adoravit. Haec 
Heraclides. Ecce quomodo, relicto vero Christo, 
timidus et insipiens Valens Christi adoravit ad- 
versarium, et pro veritate simulatum phantasma et 
ementitum simulachrum. J. Fabri Stapulens. Com 
ment, in Epist. Pauli ; in 2 Epist. Thess. cap. ii. 
fol. civ. Ed. Paris. 1531.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



43 



THE FIFTH CHAPTER. 

That apparitions of the dead be unsufficient to prone truth. 

" WHEN thou art come into the land which the Lord thy God givetli thee, see Deut. xviii. 
that thou follow not the abominations of those nations : let there not be found among 
you any one that maketh his son or daughter to go through the fire, or that useth 
witchcraft, or a chooser of days, and that regardeth the flying of fowls, or a sorcerer, 
or a charmer, or that counselleth with spirits, or a soothsayer, or that asketh the truth 
at them that be dead. For the Lord abhorreth all these: and for such abominations 
the Lord thy God doth cast them out before thee. But the Lord thy God hath not 
suffered thee so to do." 

" And if they say to you, Ask counsel at the soothsayers, witches, charmers, {Jj/gJ; 
and conjurors ; then make them this answer, Is there a people any where that asketh p a ce - 
not counsel at his God? should men run unto the dead for the living? If any man 
want light, let him look upon the law and the testimony, whether they speak after 
this meaning." 

" If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they believe if one arise jgjj t x h v j- 
from death." cha P ter - 

Lactantius, in his Institution 3 , lib. ii. cap. 2. "The rude sort think that men s 
souls walk about the graves and relics of their bodies 4 ." ness to scorn. 

Chrysostom in his fourth Homily of Lazarus. " That thou mayest know that the 
doctrines of the scriptures and prophets are of more force, than if they that be raised 
from death should tell any thing : consider this, that whosoever is dead, is a servant. 
But what the scriptures speak, the Lord himself speaketh : therefore, though a dead 
man arise, yea, although an angel come down from heaven, yet chiefly we ought to and the other 
believe the scriptures. For he that is Master of angels, and Lord of the quick and devil s. 
the dead, made them. If dead men should come again from thence unto us, the devil 
might have brought to us false doctrines; and that very easily. For he might have 
shewed oftentimes ghosts, and have suborned 5 men that should counterfeit death and 
burial, and within a while after shew themselves as though they were raised again from 
death, and through them to persuade the people so beguiled whatsoever him list. For 
if now, when no such thing is done in deed, yet dreams seen of many men in their 
sleep, as though it were of them that are departed hence, have deceived, destroyed, 
and overthrown many men ; much more it should have chanced, if the thing had been 
done in deed, and gotten credit in men s minds ; that is to say, if many of the dead 
had returned again to life, that wicked devil would have wrought innumerable deceits, 
and brought much fraud into the life of men. And for that cause God hath shut up that The dead 

never return 

way, neither doth he suffer any of the dead to come again hither, to tell what is done after the 
there ; lest he by that means should bring in all his wiles and subtleties. For when their state 
there were prophets, he stirred up false prophets ; when the apostles were, false apostles ; 
when Christ appeared, he raised false Christs ; when sound doctrine was brought in, 
he brought in corrupt doctrine, sowing cockle every where. But God, from whom 
nothing is hid, hath stopped his way to those snares, and he favouring us hath not 
suffered that any soul 6 at any time should come from thence hither, to tell what is 
there done to any men living, teaching us that we should rather believe the scrip 
tures than all other things 7 ." 



[ 3 Institutions, Orig. ed.] 

[ 4 Quemadmodum vulgus existimat mortuorum 
animas circa tumulos et corporum suorum reliquias 
oberrare. Lactantius, Lib. n. cap. ii. p. 83.] 

[ 6 Subornated, Orig. ed.J 

[ 6 So corrected in the errata of Orig. ed. though 
ed. 1582 reads "son."] 

[ 7 "Iva <5e /ecu eTepcaQev /txaOjjs, OTI a io < 7rt<rro- 
Tcpa jj -rail/ Trpo(j)iiTU>v (StiSacr/caXta Tijs TWV dvia"ra- 
fievwv aVayyeXtas, e/celi/o crKOTrriffov, OTI ve/cpos /uei/ 



a lras 8ov\6s eaTiv a Se al ypa<j>ai 
Tavra o (5eo"7roTr;s t</>6eyaTo UXTTC KO.V i/e/v /oos 
dvaa"rfj t KO.V ayyeXos e ovpavov /cara/Sj/, travrtav 
ecrraxrai/ al ypa(pai d^wTTiaTOTepai. o yap Tail/ 
dyyeXaii/ oecrTTOTJjs, /cat Tail/ veicp*)V /cat TOOV a)Vra>i/ 
/curios, ai/Tos ineivas ei/o/io6eTJjcre. el ovvejfAt 
e/j.e\\ov dviarraaQat veKpoi, KUI irovijpd av et<rtj- 
yaye d6y/j.aTa o 5ia /3o\os /iteTa TroXXf/s TT;S eu/co- 
Xi as. ei<5a>Xa yap tdvvaTO SeiKvvvat TroXXa /a?, ?] /cat 
ti/as vTTOKpiva&dai QdvaTOV /cat KCT- 



44 



A CONFUTATION 



47- 



It is not the 
soul of the 
dead that 
saith, 1 am 
such a man s 
boul, but the 
devil coun- 
terfeitcth the 
dead to de 
ceive the liv 
ing: for souls 
departed the 
body cannot 
walk here on 
earth. 



The same, in Matth. cap. viii. Homily ii. 9. " I will not deny but that men have been 
killed of cursed charmers and sorcerers : but that dead men s souls work with them, how 
shall they make me believe that ? Because thou hast heard dead men s souls many times 
cry, I am the soul of such a one. Yea, but these words proceed out of the fraud 
and deceit of the devil. For it is not the dead man s soul that saith this, but the 
devil that feigneth this, that he may deceive the hearers. For these ought to be 
taken as old wives fables, the words of liars, and fraybugs of children : neither can 
the soul, being departed from the body, walk in this earth. For the souls of the 
righteous are in the hand of God, and the souls of sinners are straight after their 
death carried away. Which is manifest by Lazarus and the rich man. The Lord 
saith also in another place : 4 This day shall they fetch away thy soul. The soul 
therefore, after it be departed from the body, cannot wander here amongst us. It 
may be proved by many scriptures, that the souls of the righteous cannot wander 
here after their death. For Stephen said, " Lord, receive my spirit." And Paul desired 
to be loosed from the body, and to be w r ith Christ. Of the patriarchs also the 
scripture saith, He was laid up with his fathers, he died in a good age. And that the 
souls of sinners cannot tarry here with us, hearken to the rich man, what he saith : 
consider what he asketh, and obtaineth not. But if men s souls might be conversant 
here, he would have come as he desired, and have certified his brethren of the tor 
ments in hell. Of the which place of scripture it is manifest, that after the depar 
ture from the body the souls are carried into a certain place, from whence they 
cannot return at their pleasure, but look for that terrible day of judgment 1 ." 

Hierome in the 8. cap. of Jeremy [Isaiah]. " If you doubt of any thing (saith the 
prophet) know that it is written, that those nations, which the Lord shall scatter before 
thy face, shall hearken to dreams and soothsayers. But the Lord thy God hath com 
manded thee not so to do : but if you will know things that be doubtful, give your 
selves rather to the testimonies of the law and the scriptures. But if your congre 
gation will not search the word of the Lord, they shall not have the light of the 
truth, but shall wander in darkness of errors. You ought to know this, that every 
nation asketh counsel at their own gods, and inquireth of the dead for the health 
of the quick : but God hath given you the law for your help ; so that you may say, 



opvTTearQai, ceiKvuvai ird\iv cos e/c vexpwv dva- 
o-TaWes, /cat Si eKciviav ova eflovXeTO TritrT 
Tals TWV aTraTtOjUeVeof <5iai/oi ai9. el yap vvv, 
OJ/TOS TOIOVTOV, oveipoi TroXXa /as (^avevre-s ev rv- 
TTOIS TWV aTreXQuvTiav 7roXXoi/s >\Tra.Ti]crav Kal <5ie</>- 
QeipaV TToXXw fia\\ov, el TOCTO yeyevrjfJLevov r\v 
Kal Ke/c/oartj/cos tv Tats TWV dvOptairwv Siavo iais, 
olov OTI TroXXol Tan/ aVeXOoi/Twv eTravrjXQov irdXiv, 
/jLvpiois dv b /xia/oos fiaifjioov t/ceTvos 5oXois eVXe^e, 
Kal TroXXiji/ ctTraTTji; eis TOV fiiov eltnjyaye. dia 
TOVTO aTre/cXeio e TCCS 6upas o Oeos, /cat OVK a^ttjcri 
Tiva TIOV dire\Q6vTwv cTraveXOovTa eiireiv Ta CK cT, 
tVa /itj Xa/3oJi/ d<\)opp.r\v evrevdev chicii/os TCC Trap 
Trdvra eicraya y;. Kal yap ore > jrpo(p7)Tai 
, \l/evSoirpo<pi]ra^ j/yetpe, Kal OTS aVocrroXoi, 
^euoiTTOtrToXous, Kal ore X/OKTTOS e$a i/fj, \l/evSo- 
X/oiCTTOi;s* Kal OTC Soy/maTa eia^ve^Qt] vyifj, die- 
(pQapfJicva ei<rtj yay6, Kal "^i^avia irav-rayov biaa-Trel- 
ptav. aXX o 0eos aVai/Ta TaDra irpoeidaos, dire- 



vos jj^uli/, ov (rvveyju!>pr\av X0OVTt Tivi TTOTC CKeWev 
e/ceT oiaXe^6^j/ai ToTs ^wa*ti/ ai/0po)7rots, 
tj/xas Trai/rcoj/ d^ioiriaTOTepa? ?|yelcr0ai 
T-as 0etas ypacpds. Chrysost. De Lazaro, Concio 
iv. cap. iii. Tom. I. pp. 755, 6. Ed. 1718-38.] 

[* Ego autem quod homines a scelestis aruspi- 
cibus atque magis occisi sint, non negabo. Quod 
vero immolatorum hominum animse ipsis coope- 
rentur, unde mihi persuadebitur ? an quia ipsos 
dcemoniacos clamare nonnunquam audisti, Anima 



hujus ego sum ? Verum hsec quoque oratio a fraude 
atque deceptione diabolica est. Non enim anima 
defuncti est quag ista dicit, sed dcBinon qui haec 
audientes decipiat, fingit. Quare vetularum haec 
verba temulentarum ducenda sunt, et puerorum 
terriculamenta. Nee enim potest anima a corpore 
separata in his regionibus errare. Justorum anima 1 
enim in manu Dei sunt : peccatorum vero post 
hunc exitum continuo abducuntur, quod a L/azaro 
et divite planum efficitur. Sed alibi quoque Domi- 
nus ait, Hodie animam abs te repetent. Non igitur 
potest anima, cum a corpore abscesserit, apud nos 
hie errare. Multis e locis scripturaj comprobari 
potest, non errare hie post mortem justorum homi 
num animas. Nam et Stephanas ait : Suscipe 
spiritum meum. Et Paulus resolvi ac esse cum 
Christo desiderabat. De Patriarcha quoque scrip- 
tura dixit : Et appositus est ad patres suos, enutri- 
tus in senectute bona Quod vero nee peccatorum 
animal hie commorari possint, divitem audias qui 
enixe earn rem petit, nihil tamen impetrat. Quod 
si possent anima; hominum hie conversari, venisset 
ipse ut cupiebat, et suos de tormentis inferni fecisset 
certiores : quo ex loco scripturae illud etiam aperte 
patet, quod post exitum a corpore in locum quen- 
dam certum animas deducuntur, unde redire sponte 
sua non possunt, sed terribilem ilium judicii diem 
ibi exspectant. Chrysost. In Matth. cap. viii. Horn, 
xxix. Tom. II. cols. 270,271. Ed. (Lat.) Basil. 
1547.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



45 



The soothsaying of the heathen, which deceive their worshippers, is not like ours, 
which is spoken out of the law without any cost 2 ." 

St Augustine also saith, that the spirit of Samuel, which the woman sorcerer raised 
to Saul, was not the soul of Samuel, but the devil which appeared in Samuel s like 
ness, for to deceive Saul : this doth he prove both by evident scriptures, and strong 



48. 



reasons 



THE SIXTH CHAPTER. 

Neither are miracles able to prove our faith. 

" THE wise men and enchanters of Pharaoh turned their rods into serpents, and Exod. \ii.viii. 
the waters of Egypt into blood ; and made all the whole land to swarm with frogs, 
through their sorceries." 

" If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and give thec a Dcut. xiu. 
sign or a wonder, and that sign or wonder, which he hath said, come to pass, and 
then say, Let us go after strange gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve 
them ; hearken not unto the words of that prophet, or dreamer of dreams. For the 
Lord thy God tempteth thee, to wit whether ye love the Lord your God with all 
your hearts and all your souls." 

" Behold, here am I, saith the Lord, against those prophets that dare prophesy Jcr. xxm. 
lies, and deceive my people with their vanities and miracles, whom I never sent nor 
commanded." 

" Many shall say to me in those days, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy Matt. \\\. 
name ? have we not cast out devils in thy name ? And then it shall be answered 
them, I never knew you ; depart from me, you children of iniquity." 

" An evil and froward generation seeketh a sign, and there shall no sign be given Matt X ii. 
to them, but the sign of Jonas the prophet." 

" There shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall shew great miracles Mark xiii. 
and wonders, insomuch that, if it were possible, even the very elect should be deceived : 
but take you heed, behold, I have shewed you all things before." 

" The coming of that wicked one (meaning antichrist) shall be after the working 2 xhess. n. 
of Satan, with all lying power, signs and wonders, and with all deceit of unrighte 
ousness of them that shall perish, because they received not the love of the truth, that 
they might be saved. And therefore God shall send them strong delusions, that they 
might believe lies ; that all they might be damned, which believed not the truth, but 
had pleasure in unrighteousness." 

Simon Magus, an enchanter, by his wonders bewitched the Samaritans. Acuviii. 

Elymas the sorcerer had of long time deceived the Antiochians. Read the stories. Acts xiii. 

Irene, Lib. i. telleth of a certain judge 4 , called Mark, which in the sacrament of 
thanksgiving wonderfully deceived the simple people. For he so changed the colour By this C x- 
of wine, that it appeared utterly to be blood : and a little wine so increased through judg* f the 

popish mim- 

his juggling, that the chalice was filled, and ran over 5 . cies. 



[ 2 Si de aliquo, inquit, dubitatis, scitote scrip- 
turn : Gentes quas Dominus Deus tuus disperdet 
a facie tua, somnia audiunt et divinos ; tibi autem 
non ita tradidit Dominus Deus tuus. Unde si 
vultis nosse qua? dubia sunt, magis vos legi et 
testimoniis tradite scripturarum. Quod si noluerit 
vestra congregatio verbum Domini quasrere, non 
habebit lucem veritatis ; sed versabitur in erroris 
tenebris. Hoc scire debetis, quod unaquaeque gens 
proprios consulat Deos, et de virorum salute mor- 
tuos sciscitetur. Vobis autem in auxilium legem 



dedit Deus, ut possitis dicere : Non est talis eth- 
nicorum divinatio, qui cultores suos sfepe decipiunt, 
sicut nostra, quae absque ullo rnunere profertur ex 
lege. Hieron. Comment, in Esaiam. Lib. in. 
cap. viii. Tom. V. pp. 34, 5. Ed. Francof. 1684.] 

[ 3 De Mirab. sacr. Scrip. Lib. n. cap. xi. Tom. 
III. p. 403. Ed. Paris. 1637.] 

[ 4 A certain juggler, Orig. ed.] 

[ 5 Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses, Lib. i. cap. ix. 
p. 57. Ed. Oxon, 1702. J 



46 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



IF By this juggling it is plain enough that those miracles, that be alleged of many 
men for the real presence in the sacrament of the altar, do not confirm their error, 
but be very delusions of the devil or of his juggling ministers. 

Chrysostom, in his 49. Homily, upon the 24. of Matth. " Aforetime it was known 

which were true Christian men, and which false, by miracles : but how were the false 

[True chris- known ? Because they could not work such or like miracles as true Christian men 

tians work . i i 

miracles pro- did : but they wrought vain things, making men to wonder, but brinzinof no profit at 

fitable to the * . . ,., i 1-1 

seers; but the all. But the Christians did miracles which not only brought wonders, but also profit: 
out profit at and by these they were known, which were true Christians, and which false. But 
now working of miracles is utterly taken away. Yea, counterfeit miracles are rather 
found among them that be false Christians, as Peter declareth in Clement: "Anti 
christ shall have full power given him to work great miracles 2 ." 

The same, in his first oration against the Jews, upon this place of Deut. xiii. " If 
there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams," &c. " That that he saith," 
saith Chrysostom, " is this : If any prophet say, I can raise a dead man, and give sight 
to a blind man, obey me, let us worship devils, let us do sacrifice to idols ; more- 
God suffereth over, if a man speak thus, that he can give the blind his sight, raise the dead, yea, 
to work mi- though he do these things, believe him not. For the Lord, trying thee, suffereth him 
trial of the to do them, not that he knew not thy mind, but to give the occasion of trial whe 
ther thou love God in deed 3 ." 

50. The same, in John, cap. ii. in the end of the 22. Horn. " There be some doubt- 

S2i f no mill- less now-a-days, that ask why men work no miracles now. If thou be faithful as 
thou oughtest to be, if thou love Christ as he should be loved, thou needest no miracles : 
for signs are given to unbelievers, and not to the faithful 4 ." 

Augustine, against Faustus the Manichee, Lib. 13. cap. 5. "The scriptures, that 
be stablished and set forth by so great authority, ye despise : miracles you work none ; 
which though you did, yet we would beware of you, by the Lord instructing and 
teaching us, saying, There shall arise false Christs, &c. 6 " 

The same, Of the City of God, Lib. 20. cap. 19. "The presence of antichrist 
shall be after the working of Satan, with all lying powers," as afore. " For then shall 
Satan be let loose, and by him antichrist with all his power shall work marvel 
lously, but lyingly : of the which miracles it was wont to be doubted, whether they 
be called lying signs and wonders, for this cause, that he shall deceive man s senses 
with visions, so that he seemeth to do the thing that he doeth not in deed ; or else 
because the same, although they be true miracles, and not counterfeit, yet they draw 
men to believe that they cannot be done but by the power of God: whereas men 
know not the power of the devil ; chiefly seeing that how great soever power he hath, 
he hath received it. For when fire fell down from heaven, and with one dash destroyed 
so great a family with so many herds of cattle of holy Job, and a sudden whirlwind, 
overthrowing his house, slew his children; these were no deceivable visions, but for 






[* This marginal note is omitted in Ed. 1582.] 
[ 2 Item antea et per signa cognoscebantur, qui 
erant veri Christiani, et qui falsi. Quomodo? Falsi 
quidem aut non poterant facere, sicut veri Christi 
ani : aut talia non poterant, qualia veri Christiani : 
sed faciebant vacua, admirationem quidem facientia, 
utilitatem autem nullam habentia : Christiani autem 
faciebant plena, non solum admirationem facientia, 
sed etiam omnem utilitatem habentia. Et per haec 
cognoscebantur, qui erant veri Christiani, qui falsi. 
Nunc autem signorum operatio omnino levata est : 
magis autem et apud eos invenitur, qui falsi sunt 
Christiani, fieri facta. Sicut autem Petrus apud 
Clementem exponit, Antichristo etiam plenorum 
signorum faciendorum est danda potestas. Chrysost. 
Opus Imperfectum in Matt. Horn. xlix. ex cap. 
xxiv. Tom. VI. p. 205. Ed. Paris. 1/18-38.J 

O Se Xeyet, TOIOVTOV e&Tiv. edv TIS dvaa Tri 
s > <7>tj<ri, KUI Troti ivy o-tj/uelov, fj veKpov eye ipy, 



jj \eirpov KuQdpij, ij irtipov id<rr)Tai /ccci, fierd TO 
Troii/crai TO o-Tj/teToi/, KaXecry <re els aVe /3eiai/ /u; 
Treicrdys cid TI]V CK/Satru/ TOV <nj/tei ov. flta T L ; Trei- 
pd^ei ydp are Kvpio<i o 9eo <rov, ioeli/, et ctya-Tras 
CLVTOV e o\r;s TIJS Kapoias <rou, Kal e o\rj<3 TTJS 
v//ux^s crov. Id. Adver. Judajos, Oratio i. Tom. I. 
p. 598.] 

[ 4 Sunt sane et hac nostra aetate qui quaerant, 
quare et nunc signa non fiunt? Si fidelis es, ut 
oportet ; si Christum diligis, ut diligendus est, non 
indiges signis : signa enim incredulis dantur. Id. 
In Joannem, cap. ii. Horn. xxii. Tom. III. col. 
119. Ed. (Lat.) Basil. 1547.] 

[ 5 Scripturas tanta auctoritate firmatas com- 
mendatasque respuitis ; miracula non facitis : quae 
si feceritis, etiam ipsa in vobis caveremus, prze- 
struente nos Domino et dicente, Exsurgent multi 
pseudochristi. August, cont. Faust. Manich. Lib. 
xiii. cap. v. Tom. VI. p. 118. Ed. Paris. 163?.] 



V,.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



47 



51. 



every one of these it is said, They shall be beguiled with signs and wonders that shall 
deserve to be beguiled, forasmuch as they have not received the love of the truth, 
that they might be saved/ Neither did the apostle fear to say and add, God 
shall send them strong delusions, that they should believe lies/ For God doth send 
these things, because he suffereth the devil to do them : he indeed by his just judg 
ment, although the devil doth 8 it of a wicked and malicious purpose 7 / 

The same, Of the Unity of the Church, cap. 16. " Let them shew their church, 
if they can, not in the sayings and in the fame of the Africans, not in the deter 
minations of their bishops, not in any man s reasonings, not in false signs and won 
ders (for against all this we be warned and armed by God s word), but in the things 
appointed in the law, spoken afore by the prophets, in the songs of the Psalms, in 
the voice of the Shepherd himself, and the preachings and painfulness of the evan 
gelists, that is, in the authority of the books canonical: but not so that they may 
gather and rehearse those things that be spoken darkly and doubtfully and figura- 
tively, which evety man may understand as he list after his own mind. For such 
things cannot be understanded and expounded rightly, except those things that 
be very plainly spoken be perceived before with a constant faith. Let him not say, 
This is true, because I say it, or because my companion saith thus, or these my com- ["4 r figura ~ 
panions, or these our bishops, clerks, or laymen : or else, It is true, because such 
miracles did Donatus, Pontius, or whatsoever other : or else, because men pray at the Miracles 
tombs of our dead men, and be heard : or because these and these things chanced tombs of 
there : or that this brother of ours, or this sister of ours, saw such a vision ; either no doctrine. 
waking, or sleeping, in his dream, saw such a vision or sight. Away with these. Either visions seen 
they be feignings of lying men, or the wonders of deceitful devils. For either they are dreams, or 
not true that are spoken : or if any miracles be done among heretics, we ought the cannot make 
more to take heed of them, because that when the Lord had said there should come a 
some that by working divers miracles should deceive, if it were possible, the very 
elect ; he added, and earnestly setting forth the thing, said, Behold, I have told 
you before/ Whereof the apostle, admonishing them, speaketh plainly, that in the 
latter times men should depart from the faith, giving heed to spirits of error, and 
doctrines of devils/ Furthermore, if any man be heard at the tombs of heretics, he 
receiveth, whether it be good or evil, not for the merit of the place, but for the merit 8 
of his desire. For the Spirit of the Lord, as it is written, filleth the whole world, 
and the earnest ear heareth all things, and many* be heard of God when he is angry, 
of whom the apostle saith, He had given them up to their hearts desire/ And God 
to many, whom he favoureth, giveth not what they would, that he may give them 
that which is profitable : wherefore saith the same apostle of the sting of his flesh, 
the messenger of Satan, (which he said was given him to buffet him, lest he should 
be exalted above measure by the greatness of revelations,) For the which I prayed 
the Lord thrice that he would take it away from me; and he said unto me, My 
grace is sufficient for thee, for my strength is made perfect through weakness/ Do 
we not read that many men were heard of God himself in the high places of Jewry ? 



[ 6 The devil doeth it, Orig. ed.] 

[ 7 Praesentia quippe ejus (i.e. antichristi) erit, 
sicut dictum est, secundum operationem Satanae in 
omni virtute, et signis, et prodigiis mendacii, et in 
omni seductione iniquitatis, his qui pereunt. Tune 
enim solvetur Satanas, et per ilium antichristum in 
omni sua virtute mirabiliter quidem, sed menda- 
citer operabitur. Quod solet ambigi, utrum prop- 
terea dicta sint signa et prodigia mendacii, quoniam 
mortales sensus per phantasmata decepturus est, ut 
quod non facit, facere videatur. An quia ilia ipsa 
etiam si erunt vera prodigia, ad mendacium per- 
trahent credituros non ea potuisse nisi divinitus 
fieri, virtutem diaboli nescientes ; maxime quando 
tantam quantam nunquam habuit, accipiet potes- 
tatem. Non enim quando de coelo ignis cecidit, 
et tantam familiam cum tantis gregibus pecorum 



sancti Job uno impetu absumpsit, et turbo irruens, 
et domum dejiciens, filios ejus occidit, phantasmata 
fuerunt: quae tamen fuerunt opera Satanae, cui 
Deus dederat hanc potestatem. Propter quid horum 
ergo dicta sint prodigia et signa mendacii, tune 
potius apparebit. Sed propter quodlibet horum 
dictum sit, Seducentur ejus signis, atque prodigiis, 
qui seduci merebuntur, pro eo quod dilectionem ve- 
ritatis, inquit, non receperunt, ut salvi fierent. Nee 
dubitavit apostolus addere et dicere, Ideo mittet 
illis Deus operationem erroris, ut credant mendacio. 
Deus enim mittet, quia Deus diabolum facere ista 
permittet, justo ipsius judicio, quamvis faciat ille 
iniquo malignoque consilio. August. De Civitate 
Dei. Lib. xx. cap. xix. Tom. V. p. 1373.] 
[ 8 For the rite, Ed. 1582.] 



48 A CONFUTATION [CHAP. 

52. which high places nevertheless so displeased God, that kings which destroyed them 
The devil not were blamed, and kings that destroyed them were praised. But this ought to be 
miracles in understand, that the desire of him that prayeth is more worthy or of more strength, 
and idoVs of than the place of prayer. But of false visions let them read what is written, both that 
Satan doth change himself into an angel of light, and that their dreams have deceived 
^ anT many men. Let them also hear what the heathen tell of their temples and gods, won 
derfully either done or seen; and yet nevertheless the gods of the heathen be devils, 
but the Lord made the heavens. Therefore many men be heard and after many divers 
sorts, not only catholic Christians, but also Painims and Jews and heretics, given to 
divers errors and superstitions : doubtless they are heard either of deceitful spirits, which 
nevertheless do nothing except they be permitted of God highly and unspeakably judg 
ing what is meet to be given to every man, or else of God himself either for the punish 
ment of malice, or the comfort of misery, or for the admonishment of eternal salvation. 



[Men ought B u t to that eternal salvation cometh no man but he that hath the head Christ, yea, 
themselves to an d no man can have the head Christ which is not in his body the church; which 
church by church, like as the Head itself, we must know in the canonical scriptures, and not to 

none other . . J 

means, but by seek it in divers rumours and opinions of men, not in facts, sayings, and sights, &c. 
only .] Let a ii this sort of them be chaff, and not give sentence aforchand against the wheat, 
if they be the church : but whether they be the church, let them shew none other 
[Neither mi- ways but by the canonical books of the holy scriptures. For neither do we say that 
agreement of men ought to believe us, because we are in the catholic church of Christ, or because 
doctrine Optatus, bishop of Milivet, or Ambrose, bishop of Milane, or that innumerable other 
thing in bishops of our congregation, do allow this doctrine that we keep; or because in churches 
of our companions it is preached; or else, because that through the whole world in 
those holy places, where our congregations resort, so many wonders, either of hearings 
or of healings, be done ; so that bodies of martyrs, being hid so many years, (which, 
if they will ask, they may learn of many) were shewed to Ambrose ; or that at those 
bodies a certain man, being many years blind, well known to the whole city of Milane, 
received his eyes and his sight; or because he being in a dream did see, or he being 
rapt in spirit did hear, either that he should not go to the part of the Donatists, 
or that they should depart 2 from their opinion. Whatsoever such things be done in 
the catholic church, the church is not therefore proved catholic, because these be done 
in it. The Lord Jesus himself, when he was risen from death, and offered his own 
body to be seen with the eyes and* handled with the hands of his apostles, lest they 
53. should then think themselves to be deceived, he rather judged that they ought to be 
stablished by the witnesses of the law, prophets, and Psalms, shewing those things 
to be fulfilled in him that were spoken so long before : so he set forth his church. 
bidding repentance and forgiveness of sins to be preached in his name through all 
nations, beginning at Jerusalem. That these things be written in the law and pro 
phets, himself witnesseth : this is set out by word of mouth. These are the doctrines, 
these are the stays of our cause. We read written in the Acts of the Apostles of 
some faithful men, that i they searched the scriptures whether they were so. What 
scriptures, I pray you, but the canonical of the law and the prophets ? To these 
are joined the Gospels, the Apostles Epistles, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Apo- 
calypsis of St John. Search all these, bring forth some plain thing, whereby you may 
declare that the church hath remained only in Africk : or that this, which the Lord 
saith shall come to pass, c This gospel shall be preached to all the world, for a testi 
mony to all nations, shall be verified of Africk. But bring out somewhat that needeth 
none interpreter ; whereby you may not be convinced that the things, which is spoken 
of another matter, you go about to wrest to your purpose 3 ." 



[ l These marginal notes are omitted in Ed. 1582.] 

[ 2 That he should depart, Orig. ed.] 

[ 3 Remotis ergo omnibus talibus, ecclesiam suam 

demonstrent, si possunt, non in sermonibus, et ru- 

moribus Afrorum, non in conciliis episcoporum 

suorum, non in literis quorumlibet disputatorum, 



contra ista verbo Domini praeparati et cauti redditi 
sumus : sed in praescripto Legis, in Prophetarum 
pra?dictis, in Psalmorum cantibus, in ipsius Pastoris 
vocibus, in Evangelistarum praedicationibus et la- 
boribus, hoc est, in omnibus canonicis sanctorum 
librorum auctoritatibus. Nee ita, ut ea colligant et 



non in signis et prodigiis fallacibus, quia etiam commemorent, quae obscure vel ambigue vel figu- 



VI.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



Chrysostom, of the Contrition of the Heart. " Christ promised not that he would Not miracle- 
reward at the latter day them that work signs and wonders, but them that keep his com- the com 
mandments, saying : 4 Come, you blessed children of my Father, receive that kingdom keepers, are 
which was prepared for you from the beginning of the world/ He said not, Because of Christ, 
you did miracles ; but, Because I was hungry, &c. He shall also call them blessed, 
not that wrought miracles, but the humble and meek in heart *." 



rate dicta sunt, quae quisque sicut voluerit, inter- 
pretetur secundum sensum suum. Talia enim 
recte intelligi exponique non possunt, nisi prius 
ea, quae apertissime dicta sunt, tirma tide tene- 
antur. Et sic ostendat, ut non dicat, Verum est, 
quia hoc ego dico, aut quia hoc dixit ille collega 
meus, aut illi collegaa mei, aut illi episcopi, vel 
clerici, vel laici nostri ; aut ideo verum est, quia ilia 
et ilia mirabilia fecit Donatus vel Pontius, vel 
quilibet alius, aut quia homines ad memorias mor- 
tuorum nostrorum orant. et exaudiuntur, aut quia 
ilia et ilia ibi contingunt, aut quia ille frater noster 
aut ilia soror nostra tale vismn vigilans vidit, vel tale 
visum dormiens somniavit. Removeantur ista vel 
tigmenta mendacium hominum, vel portenta falla- 
cium spirituum : aut enim non sunt vera quae di- 
cuntur, aut si haereticorum aliqua mira facta sunt, 
magis cavere debemus ; quod cum dixisset Domi- 
nus quosdam futuros esse fallaces, qui nonnulla 
signa faciendo etiam electos, si fieri posset, falle- 
rent, adjecit vehementer commendans et ait, " Ecce 
praedixi vobis." Unde et apostolus admonens, 
" Spiritus," inquit, "manifesto dicit, quia in novis- 
simis temporibus recedent quidam a tide, intenden- 
tes spiritibus seductoribus et doctrinis daemonio- 
rum." Porro si aliquis in hasreticorum memoriis 
orans exauditur, non pro merito loci, sed pro merito 
desiderii sui, recepit sive malum sive bonum. " Spi 
ritus enim Domini," sicut scriptum est, " Replevit 
orbem terrarum." Et, " Auris zeli audit omnia." 
Et, "Multi Deo irato exaudiuntur." De qualibus 
dicit apostolus, " Tradidit illos Deus in concupis- 
centias cordis illorum." Et multis propitius Deus 
non tribuit quod volunt, ut quod utile est tribuat. 
Unde idem apostolus ait de stimulo carnis suae, 
angelo Satanae, quern sibi datum dicit a quo cola- 
phizaretur, ne magnitudine revelationum extollere- 
tur : " Propter quod ter Dominum rogavi, ut auferret 
eum a me. Et dixit mini : Sufficit tibi gratia mea ; 
nam virtus in infirmitate perticitur." Nonne legi- 
mus ab ipso Domino Deo nonnullos exauditos in 
excelsis montium Judeae ; quae tamen excelsa ita 
displicebant Deo, ut reges qui ea non everterent, 
culparentur, et qui everterent, laudarentur? Unde 
intelligitur magis valere petentis aftectum, quam 
petitionis locum. De visis autem fallacibus legant 
quae scripta sunt, et quia " ipse Satanas transfigurat 
se tanquam angelum lucis," et quia multos seduxe- 
ruiit somnia sua: audiant etiam quaa narrant pa- 
gani de templis et diis suis mirabiliter vel facta 
vel visa, et tamen " dii gentium daemonia, Domi- 
nus autem ccelos fecit." Exaudiuntur ergo multi 
et multis modis, non solum Christiani catholici, sed 
et pagani, et Judaei haeretici, variis erroribus et su- 
perstitionibus dediti. Exaudiuntur autem vel ab 
spiritibus seductoribus, qui tamen nihil faciunt, nisi 
permittantur Deo sublimiter atque ineffabiliter ju- 
dicante quid cuique tribuendum sit ; vel ab ipso 
Deo, vel ad poenam malitiae, vel ad solatium mise- 
riae, vel ad monitionem qurcrendfc salutis aaternae. 
Ad ipsam vero salutem ac vitam reternam nemo 
pervenit, nisi qui habet caput Christum. Habere 

[CRANMER, II.] 



autem caput Christum nemo poterit, nisi qui in ejus 
corpore fuerit, quod est ecclesia ; quam, sicut ipsum 
caput, in scripturis sanctis canonicis debemus agnos- 
cere, non in variis hominum rumoribus et opinioni- 
bus, et factis, et dictis, et visis inquirere....Sit ista 
omnis turba palea eorum, nee frumentis praejudicet 
si ipsi ecclesiam tenent. Sed utrum ipsi ecclesiam 
teneant, non nisi de divinarum scripturarum canon 
icis libris ostendant : quia nee nos propterea dicimus 
nobis credi oporteie quod in ecclesia Christi sumus, 
quia ipsam quam tenemus commendavit Milevi- 
tanus Optatus, vel Mediolanensis Ambrosius, vel 
alii innumerabiles nostrte communionis episcopi ; aut 
quia nostrorum collegarum conciliis ipsa praedicata 
est; aut quia per totum orbem in locis sanctis, quae 
frequentat nostra communio, tanta mirabilia vel 
exauditionum vel sanitatum fiunt, ita ut latentia 
per tot annos corpora martyrum, quod possunt a mul 
tis interrogantes audire, Ambrosio fuerint revelata, 
et ad ipsa corpora ca?cus multorum annorum civitati 
Mediolanensi notissimusoculos lumenque receperit; 
aut quia ille somnium vidit, et ille spiritu assump- 
tus audivit, sive ne iniret in partem Donati, sive ut 
recederet a parte Donati. Quaecunque talia in ca- 
tholica tiunt, ideo sunt approbanda, quia in catho- 
licatiunt; non ideo ipsa manifestatur catholica, quia 
hasc in ea fiunt. Ipse Dominus Jesus cum resur- 
rexisset a mortuis, et discipulorum oculis videndum 
manibusque tangendum corpus suum ofFerret, ne 
quid tamen fallacies se pati arbitrarentur, magis eos 
testimoniis legis, et prophetarum, et psalmorum 
confirmandos esse judicavit, ostendens ea de se 
impleta, quae fuerant tanto ante prasdicta. Sic et 
ecclesiam suam commendavit dicens, " praedicari in 
nomine suo pcenitentiam et remissionem peccato- 
rum per omnes gentes, incipientibus ab Hieru- 
salem." Hoc in lege, et prophetis, et psalmis esse 
scriptum ipse testatus est, hoc ejus ore commen- 
datum tenemus. Haec sunt causae nostraa docu- 
menta, ha?c fundamenta, haec tirmamenta. Legimus 
in Actis Apostolorum dictum de quibusdam cre- 
dentibus, quod " quotidie scrutarentur scripturas, an 
haee ita se haberent." Quas utique scripturas, nisi 
canonicas legis et prophetarum ? Hue accesserunt 
Evangelia, apostolicao epistolae, Actus Apostolorum, 
Apocalypsis Joannis. Scrutamini hasc omnia, et 
eruite aliquid manifestum, quo demonstretis eccle 
siam vel in sola Africa remansisse, vel ex Africa 
futuram esse, ut impleatur quod Dominus dicit : 
" Praedicalwtur hoc evangelium regni in universo 
orbe in testimonium omnibus gentibus, et tune 
veniet tinis." Sed aliquid proferte quod non egeat 
interprete, nee unde convincamini, quod de alia re 
dictum sit, et vos illud ad vestrum sensum detor- 
quere conemini. August. De Unit. Eccles. cap. 
xviii. xix. Tom. VII. pp. 154, o. Ed. Paris. 
1636.] 

[ 4 Koi o XjOio-ios oe /cara Tii}v ii/u.epav eKeivijv 
oil TCH9 ra o-rjjuela e/oyacra/ut^ois -7T\a>s Ta eirat)\u 
8ic(acri.u, d/XAa TO?S rd TrpoaTay/JLa-ra TrcTroiqKoai 

TU (tVTOV. 06UT6 "/Ct/U? </> JO*tJ/, Ol CV\oyi]flCVOl TOll 



r>o 



A CONFUTATION 



TCHAP. 



To work 
miracles 
maketh no 
man holy ; 
nor to work 
no miraules 
hindereth his 
holiness. 



This would 
be put among 
the appari 
tions of the 
dead. 

Sathan coun- 
terfeiteth 
Moses. 
54. 



Cyril, in John, Lib. vii. cap. 13. " To work miracles maketh not a man one whit 
more holy, seeing that it is also common to evil men and abjects, as the Lord himself also 
witnesseth : Many shall say to me in that day, &c. And, contrariwise, working 
of no miracles hindereth not a man s holiness. For John wrought neither sign nor 
miracle, and yet was this no derogation to his holiness ; for among the children of women 
there was none greater than he 1 ." 

Sabellic, upon the Life of Celestine, almost five hundred years after Christ : " The 
devil, taking upon him the person of Moses, shewed himself visibly in the sight of 
the Jews that dwelt at Candie, promising that he would bring them again into the 
land of promise, where Jerusalem standeth, dry-footed, the waters standing on either 
side in manner of a wall, as when the children of Israel were brought out of the land of 
Egypt. Many of the Jews, rashly giving credit to these jugglings, and entering into the 
sea, were overwhelmed with the waves thereof, except a few, the which at last, being 
warned of their vanity, became Christians 2 ." 



F.xotl. xxlii. 
Levit. xviii. 



Ezek. xx. 



The same. 
Jer. ix. 



65. 



THE SEVENTH CHAPTER. 

Custom also is of no strength in this case of proving a religion. 

"Follow not the multitude to do evil." 

The Lord commanded the Israelites not to follow the customs of the Egyptians, nor 
the Canaanites. Read the chapter. 

" Walk not in the statutes of your forefathers, and keep not their ordinances, and 
defile not yourselves with their idols." 

"Unto this day they keep their old customs; they fear not God, nor do after his 
customs, ordinances, and laws." 

" They did not hearken unto the Lord, but did after their old custom." 

" They followed the wickedness of their own hearts, and served strange gods, as their 
fathers taught them." 

Tertullian, of Virginity, or Praises. " Custom, for the most part, taking his be 
ginning either of ignorance or simplicity, in process of time waxeth strong by use : and so 
it is alleged against the truth. Whatsoever smelleth against the truth, that is heresy, 
yea, though it be old custom 3 ." 

Cyprian, unto Caecilie, Lib. ii. Epist. 3. " There is no cause why, dear brother, that 
any man should think the custom of some men ought to be followed. If any man have 
thought that only water ought to be offered in the chalice, we must first ask, whom they 
followed : and that Christ only ought to be heard, the Father witnesseth from heaven, 
saying : This is my well beloved Son, hear him. Wherefore, if only Christ ought to 
be heard, we ought not to regard what any man afore us thought to be done, but what 
Christ, which is before, did first : neither ought we to follow the custom of man, but the 
truth of God 4 ." 



Ha 



iXeiav diro icaTa/JoXfjs H-OO-/U.OU ov-% VTI edav- 
ovpyi \<raTe XX OTL eTretvaaa KCLI ev TOIS 

[JLUKapia fJLol S 06, OVOO.fJ.OV TOUS TCC QaVfiaTU TtOlOVV- 

Tas Ti 0Tj<rtj/, a XXa TOI/S fiiov e^oirras opQov. Chry- 
sost. De Compunct. Cordis. Lib. i. cap. viii. Tom. 
I. pp. 136, 7. Ed. Paris. 1718 38.J 

P Primum quia Joannes quidem nullum fecit 
signum, id est nullum miraculum ostendit, neque 
tamen id in aliquo derogat sanctitati ejus, quo inter 
natos mulierum non surrexit teste Salvatore major; 
nempe miracula operari nihil adjicit sanctitatis ho- 
mini, cum malis et reprobis id competat, dicente 
Domino apudMattheum, Multi dicent in ilia die __ 
Quare e diverso, nulla signorum ostensio nihil 
detrahit homini sanctitatis. Cyril. Alexandr. in 
Joannem. Lib.vn. cap. xiii. col. 45. Ed. Paris. 
1508.] 

[ 2 This is not found in Sabellicus, but is men- 



tioned by Platina in his account of Pope Celestine I. 
as follows : Ferunt hoc tempore diabolum, personam 
Moysi indutum, multos Juda;os decepisse, dum eos 
ex Creta in terram promissionis ad similitudinem 
historic veteris sicco pede per mare deducere polli- 
cetur. Multi enim ex his, falsum Moysen secuti, 
in undis periere. Aiunt autem illos solos evasisse, 
qui turn Christum verum Deum credidere Plat, de 
Vit. Pontif. p. 57. Ed. Colon. A grip. 1626.] 

[ 3 Consuetude, initium ab aliqua ignorantia vel 
simplicitate sortita, in usum per successionem corro- 
boratur, et ita adversus veritatem vindicatur....Quod- 
cunque adversus veritatem sapit, hoc erit haeresis, 
etiam vetus consuetudo. Tertull. De Virg. Veland. 
cap. i. pp. 172, 3. Ed. Paris. 1664.J 

[ 4 Non est ergo, frater carissime, quod aliquis 
existimet sequendam esse quorundam consuetu- 
dinem, si qui in praeteritum in calice dominico 



VII.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



The same to Julian, of the Baptizing of Heretics. "In vain do some men, when they 
be overcome with the truth, allege custom against us, as though custom were greater 
than the truth 5 ." St Augustine hath the same . 

The same to Pompus, against Steven s Epistle. " Custom without truth is an old 
error : for the which cause let us leave custom, and follow the truth 7 ." 

Chrysostom, upon Genesis xxix. Homily 59. " For if the counsel be good and pro 
fitable, yea, though it be not custom, keep it; but if it be hurtful and noisome, cast 
it away. For if we will be wise, and care for our salvation, we may leave off an evil 
custom, and bring in a good custom ; and so shall we give no small occasion to them that 
come after us to change the same, and have the reward of those things that be done of 
them 8 ." 

Jerome, in his Preface to Job. " Old custom is of such force that vices, which many 
men themselves confess, please them through it 9 ." 

The same, Cap. 9. "Neither are the errors of our fathers, nor our elders to be followed, 
but the authority of the scriptures, and the commandments of God that teacheth us 10 ." 

Augustine, of one only Baptism, Lib. ii. Distinct. 8. cap. " When the truth is once 
known, let custom give place to the truth. For who doubteth but custom ought to give 
place to the manifest truth ? n> 

The same, in the same place. " Let no man prefer custom above truth and reason. 
For truth and reason do ever exclude custom 12 ." 

Gregorius to Guelmunde the bishop, 2 Distinct. Si consuetude. 
lay custom against me, thou must take heed what the Lord saith 
truth, and the life/ He did not say, I am custom, but the truth 13 ." 

Nicolas the pope to Ignatius the reverend bishop, 8. Distinct, 
no less to be avoided than an hurtful corruption: which except it be plucked up the 
sooner by the roots, it will be taken of the ungodly for a law 14 ." 



" If thou chance to 
I am the way, the 

" An evil custom is 



50. 



aquam solam offerendam putaverunt. Quaerendum 
est enim ipsi quern sint secuti. Et quod Christus 
debeat solus audiri, Pater enim de ccelo contestatur 
dicens : " Hie est filius meus dilectissimus, in quo 
bene sensi ; ipsum audite." Quare si solus Christus 
audiendus est, non debemus attendere quid alius 
ante nos faciendum esseputaverit ; sed quid, qui ante 
omnes est, Christus prior fecerit. Neque enim ho- 
minis consuetudinem sequi oportet, sed Dei verita- 
em. Cyprian, ad Caecil. de Sacram. Domin. cal. 
^,. :. Ixiii. p. 108. Ed. Paris. 1726. (Ed. Erasm. 
Lib. ii. Epist. 3, as quoted in the text by the arch 
bishop.)] 

[ 5 Proinde frustra quidam qui ratione vincuntur 
consuetudinem nobis opponunt; quasi consuetudo 
major sit veritate. Id. ad Jubaian. de Bapt. Haeret. 
Epist. Ixxiii. p. 133. Ed. Paris. 1726.] 

[ 6 See below, note 11.] 

[ 7 Nam consuetudo sine veritate vetustas erroris 
est. Propter quod relicto errore sequamur veritatem. 
Id. ad Pompei. contra Epist. Steph. de Ha?ret. Bapt. 
Epist. Ixxiv. p. 141.] 

[ 8 Ei {leu yap KaXov e<rri TO TT/S <ru/i/3oi;X?ys Kal 
67ro)(eXes, KU.V fjiT] <rvv\ )Qeia 77, yiue<rQw el de (3\d- 
/3ji/ eyov Kal TTO\VV TOV o\eQpov TO vvv Trap vfiiiv 
iriTe\ovfJLevoV) KCLV <TVwi]Qeia rj, eyKOTTTftrQio. tai/ 
ydp /3ouXto jue0ct vi]<peiV) KUI Tro\\ijv T?;S 
crooTtyjOias TroielcrOai TI]V tppovTLoa., Svui]O 6fjLe 
T?}S /v aKTys (ri/i/j0etas CCTTOCTTTJI C^ K &l is Ka\ij 
Qeiav eawrovs dyayelv* Kal OUTOJ Kal ToTs jue6 
oi fj.iKpdv rrape^o/j.ev d<popn.r\v TOV TO avTCt 



fyjXovv, Kal Ttov VTT eKeivwv KaTopQov/jLevwv tj/iei? 
Xi]\j/6/jLe6a TOV /jLL<r66v. Chrysost. in cap. xxix. 
Genes. Horn. Ivi. Tom. IV. p. 540. J 

[ 9 Tanta est enim vetustatis consuetudo, ut etiam 
confessa plerisque vitia placeant. Hieron. Praef. in 
Libr. Job. Alt. Tom. III. p. 17. Ed. Francof. 
1684.] 

[ 10 This passage is not found in the place re 
ferred to.] 

[ n Itaque veritate manifestata cedat consuetudo 
veritati. Plane quis dubitet veritati manifestata? 
debere consuetudinem cedere ? August. De Bapt. 
contra Donatist. Lib. in. cap. vi. Tom. VII. p. 45. 
Ed. Paris. 1637- Gratian. Distinct, viii. Cap. iv. 
"Veritate manifestata." Tom. I. p. 6. Ed. Paris. 
1687.] 

[ 12 Nemo consuetudinem rationi et veritati 
praeponat ; quia consuetudinem ratio et veritas 
semper excludit. Id. ibid.] 

[ 13 Si consuetudinem fortassis opponas, adver- 
tendum est, quod Dominus dicit: "Ego sum veri 
tas et vita." Non dixit, Ego sum consuetudo, sed 
veritas. Gregor. Wimundo Aversano Episcopo. Id. 
ibid. Cap. v. "Si consuetudinem," Ibid.] 

[ 14 Mala consuetudo, quae non minus quam per- 
niciosa corruptela vitanda est : nisi citius radicitus 
evellatur, in privilegiorum jus ab improbis assumi- 
tur. Nicol. Papa Hincmaro Remensi Archiepi- 
scopo. Id. ibid. Cap. iii. " Mala consuetudo." 
Ibid.] 



42 



52 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



THE EIGHTH CHAPTER. 



57. 



Reasons a gainst Unwritten Verities 1 . 

THE old testament was sufficient for the Jews ; and why shall not both the new and 
old suffice us ? 

Christ and the apostles proved all their doctrines by the law and prophets. What an 
arrogancy is it then in us, to teach any thing which we can neither prove by the law, 
the prophets, the apostles, nor the evangelists ! 

The devil, when he tempted Christ, was not so far passed all shame to persuade 
any thing without the testimony of the scriptures, although he did (as his dear children 
the papists do) falsely allege them, wrest them from their true meaning to a contrary 
sense, and also cut off that which should make against him, or declare the true meaning 
of the scriptures. 

This word, " unwritten verities," is a new term lately invented, and nowhere heard or 
read among the old writers : of which they could not have been ignorant, if there had 
been any such thing needful to salvation. 

All contention which the old fathers had with heretics was for the scriptures : which 
heretics partly denied, as Marcion, Manichaeus, and Faustus ; partly they wrongly ex 
pounded: but for things which are not contained in the scriptures, they never accused 
any man of heresy. 

If there were any word of God beside the scripture, we could never be certain of 
God s word ; and if we be uncertain of God s word, the devil might bring in among us 
a new word, a new doctrine, a new faith, a new church, a new god, yea, himself to 
be god, as he hath already done in the popish kingdom. For this is the foundation of 
antichrist s kingdom, to settle himself in God s temple, which is the heart and conscience 
of man, of him to be feared and worshipped, as though he were God himself. 

If the church and the Christian faith did not stay itself upon the word of God 
certain, as upon a sure and strong foundation, no man could know whether he had a 
right faith, and whether he were in the true church of Christ, or in the synagogue 
of Satan. 

If we be bound to believe certain things delivered from the apostles by word of 
mouth only, without writing, as they would make us believe, (but what those things 
be, no man can tell,) it should hereof follow that we are bound to believe we wot 
not what. 



[ l The Reasons against Unwritten Verities are 
set forth in Cranmer s Common-place Book, in the 
British Museum, Royal MSS. 7. B. xi. p. 94. ( Vid. 
Jenkyns Remains of Archbp. Cranmer, Vol. IV. 
p. 215.) The following is quoted from Strype, Mem. 
Eccl. Vol. II. pp. 215, 16. Ed. Oxford, 1822. 
" Reasons. Idem. 

"If traditions apostolic have the force of God s 
word, so that every one is bound to the observation 
of them, the bishop of Rome hath a great advantage 
thereby to establish his primacy : not such a primacy 
as he hath lately usurped, but such a primacy as he 
hath had by prerogative from the beginning ; that is 
to say, to be one of the four patriarchs of Christen 
dom, and the chief of all four. And the traditions 
be the chief authors, whereupon Pighius stayeth 
himself. And furthermore, if we admit traditions to 
be of such authority, it is to be feared that we must 
resort to the church of Rome to fetch there our 
traditions, as of the oldest and the mother church. 
Irenaeus, Ad hanc, &c. Cyprian calls Rome Pe- 
tri calhedram et ecclesiarn principalem. Julius 



writing for Athanasius, &c. Melchiades, and other 
quotations he there mentioneth. 

" The old testament was sufficient for the Jews : 
and is not both the old and the new sufficient for 
us? 

" What things came by traditions from the apo 
stles, no man can tell certainly : and if we be bound 
to receive them as articles of our faith, then is our 
faith uncertain. For we be bound to believe we 
know not what. 

" Faith must needs be grounded upon God s word. 
For St Paul saith, Fides ex auditu; auditus antem 
per verbum Dei. Omnis scriplura divinitus inspi- 
ratur. This text St John Chrysostom, Theophylact, 
Thomas, with many other authors, both old and new, 
do expound plainly as the words be, that whatsoever 
truth is necessary to be taught for our salvation, or 
the contrary to be reproved ; whatsoever is necessary 
for us to do, and what to forbear and not to do ; all 
is completely contained in the scripture : so that 
a man thereby may be perfectly instructed unto all 
manner of goodness. "j 



VIIL] OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 53 

Without faith it is not possible to please God ; and faith cometh by hearing of 
God s word ; ergo, where God s word lacketh, there can be no faith. 

Almighty God, afore he gave to Moses the law written of the ten commandments, 
wherein he fully taught the true worshipping of him, as it were a preservative against 
a plague or a poison to come, gave them this notable lesson, worthy alway to be had 
in memory : " You shall add nothing to the words, &c. ;" and again he oftentimes 
repcatcth the same sentence both in the law and the prophets, in the gospels, and the 
epistles of the apostles. And because his people should never forget it, St John 
commandeth the same in the last words of all the new testament, threatening terrible 
plagues, that is, the loss of his everlasting joys of heaven, and the pain of eternal fire, 
to all them that either put to or take aught from the word of God. 



CHAPTER THE NINTH 2 . 

Scriptures alleged l)y the Papists for Unwritten Verities, with answers to the 



" WHERE two or three be gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them." Matt . xviii . 
But Christ cannot err, for he is the truth itself ; ergo, they cannot err in their synods, Ar s ument - 
convocations, and general councils, being gathered together in his name. 

Christ said, " When two or three be gathered in my name," &c. ; and to be gathered Answer. 
in his name, is in our assemblies to seek his only glory and not ours, to do all things by 
his prescript word. "For not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter," Ma tt.vii. 
&c. : as witches, charmers, necromancers, and conjurers, use their wicked arts all in 
the name of God and Christ, and yet is not Christ with them. For the seven sons of Acts X ix. 
Sceva, the chief priest of the Jews, went about to cast out evil spirits in the name of 
Jesus whom Paul preached ; but yet Christ was not with them, but the wicked spirit, 
which wounded them, and drave them away naked. Moreover, all forgers of wills, 
counterfeiters of false instruments, and judges giving false sentences, in the ecclesiastical 
law, they begin with this glorious title, " In the name of God, Amen." Therefore 
sprang this old proverb, " In the name of God, beginneth all mischief." And yet Christ 
is with none of these, though they pretend to do all these things in his name. Christ 
saith also : " Many shall prophesy in my name, and cast out devils, and work miracles, Matt vii. 
in my name ; and then will I confess to them, that I never knew you." Read Eusebius 
and Athanasius, and you shall there see what pride, contention, hatred, malice, envy, 
and desire to bear rule, reigned in the councils of the clergy at those days, not much 
past four hundred years after Christ. What think you they would say if they saw our 
councils, where the Romish antichrist triumpheth ? No doubt, that "though an angel 
from heaven preach any other," &c. 

Here you will reply again, Christ saith, "Where two or three are gathered," &c. A replication. 
Now in every council are not only two or three learned and godly men, but many ; ergo, 59. 
they cannot err. 

I grant that in every general council be many good men which do not err, nor are Answer, 
deceived ; and yet it followeth not that the whole council cannot err. For in councils 
the more part is taken for the whole, and things be there determined and ordered, not by 
reason, learning, and authority of the word of God, but by stoutness, wilfulness, and 
consent of the more part. In those councils, where be mo evil and wicked men than 
good and godly, it cometh oftentimes to pass that, iniquity having the upper hand, the 
greater part overcometh the better ; and yet the good men neither err, nor consent to these 
errors concluded by the wicked and the more part, but resist and speak against them to 



[ 2 The substance of the ninth and tenth chapters , larged. The subject of the sabbath in particular is 



is in Cramner s Common-place Book at the British 
Museum, but they are here much altered and en 



treated at much greater length. Vid. Jenkyns Re 
mains of Archbp. Cranmer, Vol. IV. p. 21J. | 



A CONFUTATION 



The second 
argument. 
Matt, xxiii. 



The first 
answer. 



The second 
answer. 



The fourth 
argument. 
Matt, xxviii, 



GO. 



The fifth 
argument. 
John xvi. 



Answer. 



John xiv. 



John xv. 



Luke xvi 



6!. 



the utmost of their power, not without great danger of their lives, yea, and sometimes 
it costeth them their lives indeed, as it is now daily seen. 

" Tho scribes and the Pharisees sit upon Moses seat : whatsoever they bid you do, 
that do, but after their works do not ; for they say, and do not." Here, they say, it 
appcarcth plainly that Christ commandeth us to obey the heads of the church, how 
evil soever their lives be. 

First, let them look well what manner men they make themselves, that is, scribes 
and Pharisees, the greatest enemies of God, persecutors and murderers of his prophets, 
of the apostles, and of Christ himself, and so antichrists. 

Secondly, Moses seat is not his office or authority, but his doctrine; and therefore 
saith St Augustine, that seat, which is his doctrine, suffcreth them not to err : and in 
another place, They sitting in Moses seat teach the law of God ; therefore God teacheth 
by them. But if they will teach their own doctrine, believe them not ; for such seek 
their own, and not Jesus Christ s : and Christ biddeth us beware of the leaven of the 
Pharisees ; and then the disciples knew that he spake not of the leaven of bread, but of 
their doctrines, although they sat in Moses seat, (if they will needs contend, the dignity 
or office of Moses to be Moses* seat,) and yet erred shamefully in their doctrine. 

" Behold, I am with you all the days unto the world s end." This promise was not 
made to the apostles only, (for they died shortly after Christ,) but to the church : ergo, 
the church cannot err. 

I beseech them to begin a little afore, and they shall plainly hear Christ himself 
unloose this knot. The words before are these in Mark : " Go and preach my gospel 
to every creature ;" and in Matthew : " Go and teach all people, baptizing them in the 
name of the Father, of the Son/ &c. ; " teaching them to observe all things whatsoever 
I have commanded you ; and, lo, I will be with you unto the world s end." Here you 
may see this promise of Christ, " I will be with you," &c., is not absolute or universal, 
but given under a condition : that is, if you preach my gospel truly, if you baptize 
rightly, if you teach the baptized to do all things that I have commanded you, lo, 
then I will be with you unto the world s end. But if you teach any other gospel, or 
baptize otherwise, or bid them do any other thing, above that which I have com 
manded you, you have no promise of God, but the curse that Paul threateneth : 
" though we or an angel from heaven preach," &c. 

" I have yet many more things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them away 
now : howbeit when he is come, which is the Spirit of truth, he will lead you into 
all truth." Here you may see, say the enemies of God s truth, that Christ taught not 
all things himself, but left many things to be taught to the disciples by the Holy 
Ghost after his death. 

Christ said not, "I have many things to say, which I will not tell you now," 
but, " which you cannot bear now ;" that is, you cannot perceive or understand them 
now : and thus Christ himself expoundeth these words : " The Comforter, which is the 
Holy Ghost, whom my Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, 
and put you in remembrance of all things that I have said unto you ;" and no new or 
other things. For Christ saith plainly, that he himself had taught them all before, 
saying, " All things that I have heard of my Father have I opened unto you." 

Moreover, our Saviour in plain words sheweth what things those were that his 
disciples could not understand, although he many times told them the same before. 
" Behold," saith he, " we go up to Jerusalem, and all shall be fulfilled that are written 
by the prophets of the Son of man. For he shall be delivered to the Gentiles, and shall 
be mocked, and despitefully entreated, and spitted on; and when they have scourged 
him, they will put him to death; and the third day he will rise again: and they 
understood none of these things : for these sayings were hid from them, so that they 
perceived none of the things that were spoken :" although he spake to them in most 
plain terms. And the cause why they perceived not his so plain speech, was this : 
they were yet carnal, and understood the prophecies of Christ s kingdom carnally, 
thinking that Christ should reign at Jerusalem like a mighty conqueror, and subdue 
all the Gentiles under the yoke of bondage to the Jews, so that the Jews should be 
lords and rulers over all the world for ever. And therefore James "and John asked a 



ment. 
;ss. U. 



ix.] OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 55 

petition of Jesus by their mother, that they, " her two sons, might sit the one on his Matt. xx. 
right hand, and the other on his left hand, in his kingdom :" and when he spake of his 
death, "Peter took him aside, and rebuked him, saying, Master, favour thyself; this Matt. xvi. 
shall not happen unto thee." To whom Christ said : " Go after me, Satan." These be 
the things that the disciples could not then bear or understand, but thought that he 
had spoken some allegory, riddle, or dark speech unto them : but after his resurrection 
he opened their wits that they might understand the scriptures, and said unto them : 
" Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer." And to the two disciples 
going to Emmaus he expounded Moses, the prophets, and all the scriptures that were 
written of him. And after the ascension the Holy Ghost appeared to them in fiery 
tongues, and filled them with all knowledge, and they began to speak with sundry 
tongues, as the Holy Ghost gave them utterance ; and then they understood the scrip 
tures perfectly. 

" Many other tokens did Jesus, which are not written in this book." Again : " There The sixth 
are many other things that Jesus did, which, if they were written, I suppose the world HES!" 
should not be able to contain the books that should be written." 

St John speaketh not here of faith and charity, but of miracles, the knowledge Answer. 
whereof is not necessary for our salvation ; as his words following do declare : " These 
are written, that you might believe ihat Jesus is Christ the Son of God, and in believing 
may have life in his name." And what is more required or desired of a Christian 
than to enjoy everlasting life ? That ought to be our whole study and endeavour ; to 
that end ought we to apply all our minds, words, and works, and prayers. 

" Stand fast, brethren, and keep the ordinances that ye have learned, either by our The seventh 
preaching or by our epistle." Of these words they gather, that Paul taught divers "f he 
things to the Thessalonians by word of mouth without writing, which nevertheless he 
commanded them to observe and do. 

I grant that Paul taught many things by word of mouth, which he wrote not in his Answer, 
epistles to the Thessalonians. But how shall they prove that the same things be neither 
written by him in any other of his epistles, nor in any other place of the holy bible ? 
For what argument is this? It is not written in this place or to those persons; ergo y 01. 
it is not written in the scripture at all. For the shortness of one epistle, or of one 
sermon, cannot sufficiently contain all things necessary for our salvation : and therefore 
be there so many books of the scripture, that whatso is omitted, and not spoken of in 
one place, or else darkly spoken of, might be written plainly in another place. And 
for this cause St Paul writeth to the Colossians, saying : " When this letter is read 
with you, cause it also to be read to the Laodiceans. And read you also the epistle 
written from Laodicea." And St Paul writeth of himself, "Such as we are in our2Cor. x. 
absence by letters, such are we in deed being present." Moreover, Paul speaketh not 
here of doctrines of faith and charity, which ever continue without changing, adding, or 
minishing; but of certain traditions, observations, ceremonies, and outward rites and 
bodily exercises, which, as he saith, is little worth to God- ward, but to be used for 
comeliness, decent order, and uniformity in the church, and to avoid schism : which 
ceremonies every good man is bound to keep, lest he trouble the common order, and so 
break the order of charity in offending his weak brethren, so long as they be approved, 
received, and used by the heads and common consent. But they, and every one of such 
ceremonies as be neither sacraments, nor commandments of faith and charity, may be 
altered and changed, and other set in their places, or else utterly taken away by the 
authority of princes, and other their rulers and subjects in the church. Yea, also the 
traditions, made by the apostles in full council at Jerusalem, may be, and already are Acts xv. 
taken away ; as to abstain from things offered unto images, from blood and strangled, 
are nowhere kept. And this of Paul, that a man should neither pray nor preach 
capped, or with his head covered, is also clean abolished. 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



THE TENTH CHAPTER. 



Doctors to the same purpose, with their answers*. 



Argument. TERTULLIAN, of the Crown of a Soldier. He, reciting many traditions, as to renounce 

the devil, his pomp and his angels, afore baptism, to dip the children thrice in the 
font, to give it pap of honey and milk first thing after baptism, and not to wash it 
in a whole week after, to offer both at the day of the burial and birth, on the Sunday 
neither 2 to fast, nor to pray kneeling, nor also from Easter to Whitsuntide, crossing our 
foreheads, with divers such like, saith : " If thou require a law T of these and other such 
disciplines, there can be no pretence of a law for them out of the scriptures. But thou 
shalt either perceive by thyself, or learn of some other that perceiveth it, that custom, 
being author, confirmer, conserver, and observer of faith, shall maintain and defend the 
cause of this tradition and custom of faith 3 ." 

Answer. By the scriptures before alleged it is evidently proved, that all things requisite for 

our salvation be set forth in the holy books of the bible, and that it is not lawful to put 
any thing thereto under pain of everlasting damnation. The same Tertullian also, as 

understand it is afore rehearsed 4 , saith that "there is nothing else that ought to be believed after 

s,iry to iaiva- Christ s gospel once published." Yea, all the old authors, a thousand year after Christ, 
and likewise almost all the new, affirm the same, and would not have us credit their 
sayings without the proof of God s word. 

Why should we then believe Tertullian against so plain scriptures, against the old 
fathers of the church, and also contrary to his own sayings ? Yet here will I gently 
interpret him, so as he may both agree with the scriptures, with the old authors, and also 
with himself. Tertullian speaketh here not of doctrines of faith, hope, and charity, 



[ l " The following list of traditions is contained 
in the corresponding part of Cranmer s Common 
place Book at the British Museum." ( Vid. Jenkyns 
Remains of Archbp. Cranmer, Vol. IV. pp. 223, 4.) 

" Traditions not written recited by Tertullian. 
That children should be christened but two times 
in the year, at Easter and Whitsuntide. That 
the bishops should christen them. That they that 
should be christened should be three times put in 
the water, the whole body. That by and by after 
they should eat milk and honey mixed together. 
That the whole week after they should not be 
washed. To offer yearly, the day of men s death, 
and of their birth. Upon the Sunday neither to fast, 
nor to kneel in prayer : and likewise from Easter 
to Whitsuntide. To make a cross upon our fore 
heads. 

" Traditions recited by Basilius. Making a 
cross upon them that be christened. To turn our 
faces to the east, when we pray. Consecrating of 
oil and water in baptism, [and of him that is 
baptized.] Unction with oil. To put them that be 
baptized three times in the water. To renounce 
the devil and his angels in baptism. 

" Other authors rehearse a great number of tra 
ditions. The fast of Lent. To fast Wednesday and 
Friday. Not to fast Saturday nor Sunday. That a 
bishop should be consecrated of two or three bishops, 
and priests of one. A bishop, priest, and deacon, 
shall not meddle with the business and care of 
worldly things; and if he do, let him be deposed. 
If a bishop give orders in another bishop s diocese 
without his licence, he shall be deposed, and also 
he that taketh orders of him. Giving of pax after 



mass. Consecrating of religious men. And a thou 
sand mo traditions apostolic there be, if we give 
credence to St Denys, De Ecclesiast. Hierarchy 
Ignatius, the Canons of the apostles, Ecclesiastica et 
Tripartita Historia, Cyprian, Tertullian, Irenams, 
with other old ancient authors. And yet an infinite 
number mo we shall be constrained to receive, if 
we admit this rule, which St Augustine many times 
repeats, that whatsoever is universally observed, 
and not written in the scripture, nor ordained by 
general councils, is a tradition coming from the 
apostles : as, that bishops have authority to ex 
communicate all persons that be manifest and obsti 
nate sinners ; to admit or reject other bishops and 
curates presented by princes or patrons ; to ordain 
ceremonies to be observed in the church ; to make 
laws how to proceed in excommunication, and other 
laws ecclesiastical ; and what punishment is to be 
given to offenders ; and all people being within 
their jurisdiction, of what estate or condition soever 
they be, be bound to obey them." British Museum, 
Royal MSS. 7. B. xi. p. 92. Strype, Memorials, 
Vol. II. part i. pp. 214, 15, Ed. Oxford, 1822.J 
[ 2 To fast, neither to pray, Orig. ed.J 
[ 3 Harum et aliarum ejusmodi disciplinarum si 
legem expostules scripturarum, nullam invenies... 
Rationem traditioni et consuetudini et fidei patroci- 
naturam aut ipse perspicies, aut ab aliquo qui per- 
spexerit disces: interim nonnullam esse credes, cui 
debeatur obsequium. Tertull. De Cor. p. 102. Ed. 
Lutet. Paris. 1M4.J 

I 4 Id. de Prescript. Hacret. cap. vi. p. 204. Vid. 
p. 22.J 



X.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



57 



but of traditions, outward gestures, rites and ceremonies, which be not necessary for our 
salvation, but be ordained for a decent order and conformity in the church ; as is plainly 
shewed in the answer to St Paul in the epistle to the Thessalonians. And that he 
speaketh of such rites and ceremonies, it is evident. For all those that he rehearseth 
be mere ceremonies, and few of them kept at this day, which no man might have 
altered or abolished, if they had been necessarily to be kept under pain of damnation. 

Cyprian to Pompeius, against Stephen s epistle. " It is of no less authority that the Argument, 
apostles delivered by the instruction of the Holy Ghost, than that which Christ himself 
delivered 5 ." 

Cyprian speaketh not here of traditions unwritten, but of such things as the apostles Answer. 
delivered in their writings, as the gospels and epistles ; like as Paul saith : " I delivered 
you that I received of the Lord;" which thing he wrote to them. But if they will 
needs understand him of things delivered by the apostles without writing, then answer 
him as Tertullian. 

Origen. " In observances of the church, there be divers things which all men must Argument, 
needs do, and yet the reason of them is unknown to all men." And he reciteth in many 6 
the observances that Tertullian doth, and after he concludeth : " Who can certainly tell 
the cause of all these things ?" 

The answer made to Tertullian will serve Origen in this place 7 . Answer. 

Athanasius upon the second epistle to the Thessalonians, chap. ii. upon this place, Argument. 
State et tenete. " Hereby it is plain that Paul delivered many things without the scripture, 
not written in his epistles, but by word of mouth only. And these are worthy no less 
faith than the other: therefore I do judge the tradition of the church to be a thing 
worthy to be credited; so that if any thing be delivered by it, make no farther search 8 ." 

Chrysostomus, in the 2nd epistle to the Thessalonians, chap. ii. : " Stand fast, brethren, 
and keep the traditions," &c. " Hereof," saith Chrysostom, " it is plain that Paul 
delivered not all things in his epistles, but also many things without writing; and as well 
those as these are worthy of like faith. Wherefore we judge the tradition of the church 
worthy of credit : it is a tradition ; search no farther 9 ." 

Epiphanius against Heresies, Lib. ii. torn. 1. Against those that call themselves Argument, 
apostles. 1 Cor. xi. xiv. xv. " We must," saith he, " use traditions, for all things cannot 
be perceived by the holy scripture. Wherefore the holy apostles have set forth unto us G5. 
some things by the word of God, and some things by traditions, as the apostle saith : 
As I have delivered unto you, thus I teach ; and, Thus I have delivered in all 
churches ; and, Thus you remember by what means I have preached unto you, except 
you have believed in vain 10 ." " 

Answer these three authors like as Tertullian is answered, saving that they allege St Answer. 
Paul for their purpose, but clearly wrested from his true meaning, as it shall easily appear 
to every indifferent reader, that is not blinded of malice to resist the truth, as they may 
plainly perceive by the answer made to St Paul afore. And whereas they say, that 
things given by word of mouth are as well to be believed as those that be written ; they 



[ 5 Si ergo aut in evangelic praecipitur aut in 
apostolorum epistolis vel actibus continetur ob- 
servetur divina haec et sancta traditio. Cyprian. 
Epist. Ixxiv. ad Pompeium contr. epist. Stephani. 
p. 138. Ed. Paris. 1J2G.] 
[ c In manner, Orig. ed.] 
[ 7 Will serve Origen here, Orig. ed.J 
[ 8 The passage cited is not from Athanasius, 
but Theophylact. Ka j/TeuOev dr/Xov OTI iroXXa 
KO.L ay/oott^eos did Xoyov, TOVTC(TTI > <rjj (fiiovjj, 
TrupeoiSotrav, ov fiovov di t7rt<TToXwi>. bfioitas <5e 
Kai TCLVTO. Kcc/celi/a a ^ioTTKTTa. a) <TTe Kai Ttfv Trapd- 
doaiv T7s e/cK/V.7j<rias aioVio"roj> nyovfj.eQa. irapd- 
<Wis eo-rf /JLIIOCV irXeov $)jVei. Theoph. Comment, 
in Epist. II. ad Thessalon. cap. ii. v. 15. p. 730. 
Ed. Lond. 1036.] 



[ 9 EvrevQev Sr/Xov on ov irtivTa. 81 
Trapedivocrav, d\Xd iroXXd cai dypdtfrws O/JLOIMS Se 
Kaneiva Kai TavTci GGTIV d^ioTria Tct. WCFTC Kai TI}V 
irapdcoaiv TT/S e/c/cXijo-tas a ioiri<rToi/ tjya/ie0a. 
Trapdootris ecrri /uujoev TrXtov ^ijTei. Chrysost. in 
Epist. II. ad Thessal. cap. ii. Horn. iv. Tom. XI. 
p. 532. Ed. Paris. 1718-38.] 

[ 10 AeT oe /cat irapaSocrei. KexpT/crOai* ov yap 
Trdvra aVd TJ/S Oet as ypa(/)/}s dvvaTai Xa^dveaQai. 
816 TCC fjitv ev ypafpals, Ta oe ei/ Trapaoocret ira/ot Oa)- 
Kav ol ciyioi aTroa-roXoi ws (piialv o a ytos aTroo-To- 
Xos, tosTrapt ^wKTt v/JLlv Kai a XXoT6, OI/TWS ditida-Kia, 
Kai OUTC09 irapcdutKa eu TIS itticXijariais. Kai ei 
KaTe xe-re, CKTOS et /uj eiKrj tTricrTeuo-aTe. Epiphan. 
Adver. Ha;res. Lib. n. Tom. I. p. 511. Ed. Colon. 
1582.] 



58 



A CONFUTATION 



Argument. 



GO. 



Answer. 



Argument. 



mean, that they are worthy of like credit with traditions written. For neither of both 
are of necessity to salvation, but may be changed and taken away by common consent, 
as it is afore said. 

Basil, of the Holy Ghost, chap. 27- " Of those doctrines that are preached in the 
church, we have some delivered us by writing, and again some we have received by the 
traditions of the apostles in mystery, that is, in secret : both have like strength to godli 
ness ; neither doth any man speak against these, whatsoever he be, that hath but mean 
experience what the authority of the church is. For if we, like fools, go, about to reject 
the customs of the church, which are not written, as things of small weight, we shall 
condemn those things that be needful for our salvation in the gospel. Yea, we shall 
rather cut short the true preaching of faith to bare name 1 ." And he rehearseth like 
traditions as Tertullian did. 

Jerome, against the Luciferians. " Although there were no authority of the scriptures 
at all, yet the consent of the whole world in this matter should have the force of a law. 
For many other things, which are observed in the church by tradition, have obtained the 
authority of a law written : as to dip the head thrice in baptism ; and when they are 
christened, to give them first pap made of milk with honey, for a signification of their 
infancy; on the Sunday, and on Whitsun-week 2 , not to kneel at their prayers 3 ." 

Augustine, upon the words of Basil. " Some of the ecclesiastical institutions we have 
received by writings ; some, through traditions from the apostles, approved by succession ; 
and some use hath allowed, being strengthened by custom. Unto all which like usage 
and like affections of godliness is due ; of which who will doubt, though he have but 
small experiences in the scriptures? For if we set our mind to regard lightly customs of 
the church, delivered us from our elders without the scriptures, it shall easily appear 
to them that look earnestly thereon, how great loss Christian religion shall suffer 4 ." And 
he reciteth the same that Jerome doth, with divers other. 

These three authors, and all that make for the same purpose, be answered before in 
Tertullian. For not one of those things that they make mention of are necessary for our 
salvation : and many of them are now taken away ; and the rest which yet remain, as to 
dip the child thrice wholly in the water, to hallow the water, oil, and cream, or to cross 
it in the forehead, are not of necessity to salvation. For John baptized in Jordan, and 
the chamberlain of the queen of Ethiopia was christened in the common stream, and 
children in danger of life are christened of the midwife, or some other woman, without 
any of these ceremonies : and yet they will not deny that all these baptisms be good, and 
allowed of God. In Spain also they dip the child but once, as it was decreed in the 
council of Toilet 5 . And I am sure they will not say that all the Spaniards so many 
years have wanted a thing necessary to salvation in their baptism. God also regardeth 
not our outward bodily gesture in our prayers ; but he beholdeth the faith and earnest 
desire of the heart of him that prayeth, wheresoever he prayeth, and whatsoever his out 
ward bodily gesture be. 

The same against Cresconi, a grammarian, Lib. i. cap. 33, torn. 7- " Although we 
have no certain example of this matter in the canonical scripture, yet nevertheless the 



[ l Tiav ev TT; eKK\ti<ria. vre<pv\uyfj.cvu)V d 
KUI KijpvyfJidTtav, TCC p.ev CK T?;S eyypdffrov cica<TKa- 
X/as e^o/uei/, TU oe en TT;S -ru>v dirocrToXwv Trapa- 
<5oo-ecos diaoodevTa I lfilv ti/ fivoTtjpiui Trapece^d/j.cGa 
(iirep dfjitpuTepa TTJJ/ aimjV layyv e\ei Trpus T>;V 
euffefteiav /cat TOUTOI? ou<5eis dwrepel, o<rTts ye Kav 
KCCTCC fiiKpov yovv Qecr[ji(Jav eKr/cAfjo-iatrri/cali/ TreTrei- 
parat. el yap ^Tri^et/of/cro/iey TCC dypeKfra TWV iQwv 
5s ov ^eya Atji/ eyovra. T;I/ cvvctfJLiv -rrapaiTelo-Gai, 
\d6oifjicv dv eis auTa TGC Kaipta ^rj^tioffres TO euay- 
yeXiov fid\\ov oe eis ovofia \]/i\6u TrepucrTwvres TO 
Ki lpvy/uia. Basil. De Spir. Sancto. cap. xxvii. Tom. 
II. p. 351. Ed. Paris. 1637.J 

[ 2 And all Whitsun-week, Orig. ed.j 

[ 3 Etiam si scripture auctoritas non subesset, 



totius orbis in hanc partem consensus instar pra?- 
cepti obtineret. Nam et multa alia, quae per tra- 
ditionem in ecclesiis observantur, auctoritatem sibi 
scriptae legis usurpaverunt : velut in lavacro ter 
caput mergitare ; deinde egressos, lactis et mellis 
praegustare concordiam ad infantiae significationem ; 
die dominico et per omnem pentecosten nee de geni- 
culis adorare. Hieron. Adver. Lucifer. Tom. II. 
p. 96. Ed. Francof. 1684.] 

[ 4 The " words of Basil " referred to in this 
brief comment are evidently those just quoted in 
note 1. The Editor has not discovered the comment 
itself in Augustine s writings.] 

P Cone. Tolet. iv. cap. vi. Labb. et Cossart. 
Tom. V. col. 1706, 7- Ed. Lutet. Paris. 1674.] 



X.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



59 



truth of the same scriptures in this matter is retained of us, when we do that the whole 
church 6 alloweth, which church the authority of the scriptures commend. And forasmuch 
as the holy scripture can deceive no man, whoso feareth to be deceived with any dark 
speaking of it, let him ask counsel at the church therein, which, without any doubt, the 
holy scripture doth shew 7 ." 

The answer is easy. Austin was more circumspect than to think that any doctrine Answer, 
might be proved by use and custom without the scripture. For baptism of infants he 
bringeth in this text : " Except a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he 
cannot be my disciple." And because the Donatists, like as the anabaptists do now, 
wrest this to them that be of years of discretion, against this exposition he allegeth the 
manner of the church in christening of infants. By the which he proveth that the church 
hath alway taken this sentence, " Except a man be born again," to be spoken also of 
infants. What manner of argument should this be of Austin ? The exposition of the 
scripture, and the use of the sacraments, may be judged by the custom used in the holy 
church alway ; etgo, the church may make a new sacrament, and ordain any new article 67. 
of our faith, without the scripture. By the sentences before cited of Austin himself it 
may be easily judged. I also grant, that every exposition of the scripture, whereinsoever 
the old, holy, and true church did agree, is necessary to be believed. But our con 
troversy here is, whether any thing ought to be believed of necessity without the 
scripture. 

The same against the epistle of Fundament, cap. v. torn. 6. " I would not believe Argument, 
the gospel, but that the authority of the church moveth me :" ergo, say they, whatsoever 
the church saith, we must needs believe them as well as the gospel 8 . 

This argument is naught : for the testimony of the church is but as a public office [Answer.] 
of a record ; as the exchequer, the court of the rolls, the office of a recorder, or a register 
of all Christendom ; in which office men may search and have, of the keepers of such 
offices, the true copies of such lands, or other moveables, as be due to them by the 
law. And yet may neither the registers, recorders, stewards of courts, or town-clerks, 
put to, or take away any thing from, the first original writings ; no, nor the judge him 
self. But all things ought to be judged by those writings. So, likewise, we believe 
the holy canon of the bible, because that the primitive church of the apostles, and eldest 
writers, and next to their time, approved them in their register, that is, in their writings, 
which partly saw them, and partly heard them of the apostles. And more receive we 
not, because these old fathers of the first church testify in their books, that there was 
no more than these required to be believed as the scripture of God. And yet were 
these writings no less true, afore they were allowed by them, than since, Christ witnessing 
and saying, " I seek no witness of man." 

Austin to Cassulane. " In these things, wherein the scripture of God hath determined Argument 
nothing, the custom of the people, and our elders ordinances, ought to be holden as a 
law ; and the transgressors of the customs of the church are likewise to be punished, as 
the breakers of God s law. Of which things if thou wilt dispute, and reprove one 
custom by another, there shall arise an endless strife." He repeateth also this sentence 
many times : " That whatsoever is universally observed, and not written in the scripture, Answer, 
nor ordained by general councils, is a tradition come from the apostles 9 ." 68. 



[ 6 We do that that the whole church, Orig. ed.] 
[ 7 Proinde quamvis hujus rei certe de scripturis 
canonicis non proferatur exemplum, earumdem ta- 
men scripturarum etiam in hac re a nobis tenetur 
veritas, cum hoc facimus quod universae jam placuit 
ecclesiae, quam ipsarum scripturarum commendat 
auctoritas : ut quoniam sancta scriptura fallere non 
potest, quisquis falli metuit hujus obscuritate quaes- 
tionis, eandem ecclesiam de ilia consulat, quam 
sine ulla ambiguitate sancta scriptura demonstrat. 
August. Contra Crescon. G rammat. Lib. i. cap. 



xxxiii. Tom. VII. p. 168. Ed. Paris. 1637.] 

[ 8 Ego vero evangelio non crederem, nisi me 
catholicae ecclesiae commoveret auctoritas. Id. 
Contr. Epist. Fund. Alanich. cap. vi. Tom. VI. 
p. 46.] 

[ 9 In his enim rebus, de quibus nihil certi statuit 
scriptura divina, mos populi Dei vel instituta majo- 
rum pro lege tenenda sunt. De quibus si disputare 
voluerimus, et ex aliorum consuetudine alios impro- 
bare, orietur interminata luctatio. Id. Casul. Epist. 
Ixxxii. Tom. II. p. 143.] 



60 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



Argument. 



Answer. 



Ezek. xliv. 



Argument. 



Answer. 



Geoi. xvii. 
Matt. xix. 



Luke xix. 
1 Cor. vii. 



Argument. 



[Answer.] 



Answer him as Tertullian. Yet of all 1 other authors he is most plain, that nothing 
is of necessity to salvation besides the scriptures of God. But let us grant for their 
pleasures, that those customs which they speak of be traditions apostolic, yet they be 
no longer nor other ways to be observed than the traditions apostolic written ; which, 
as is before fully proved, may (and are already) be both changed, and clearly taken away. 
And as concerning custom, it is plainly proved, that it is not to be received against the 
scripture, truth, or reason. 

They say, moreover, that the perpetual virginity of our lady is to be believed of 
necessity, as Cyprian, Chrysostom, Jerome, Ambrose, Austin, and all other speaking 
thereof say. But this is not found in the scripture; ergo, there is something to be 
believed that is not written in the scripture. 

The minor, that is to say, that this is not written in the scripture, is false. For, first, 
none of the old authors that rehearse traditions of the apostles unwritten, make mention 
of the perpetual virginity of our lady to be one of them ; but they rehearse only divers 
ceremonies, or bodily gestures, and such rites used in baptism, prayers, holydays, and 
fastings, which, as I have manifestly declared, are not necessary to salvation; but the 
most part of them are clean taken away, and the contrary commanded and used by 
the universal church. Moreover, all the said authors prove her perpetual virginity by 
this text of scripture : " This door shall be still shut, and not opened for any man to 
go through it, but only for the Lord God of Israel ; yea, he shall go through it, else 
shall it be shut still." For if these and such other fathers had not judged her per 
petual virginity to have been written in the scriptures, they would never have judged it 
to have been a thing to be believed under pain of damnation. Saint Jerome also calleth 
Ilelvidium a rash and an ungodly man, because that he taught that our lady had other 
children by Joseph after Christ s birth ; which doctrine he could not prove by the 
scriptures of God 2 . In like manner we call all them that preach any doctrine in the 
church, without the authority of God s word, both ungodly, rash, and wicked members 
of antichrist. 

Yet they bring forth, to maintain their error, the baptism of infants, which, they say, 
is not contained in the scriptures : and yet this is to be observed upon pain of damnation 
of the said children. Ergo, there is something to be done, of necessity to our salvation, 
that is not contained in the scriptures. 

O what a gap these men open both to the Donatists and to the anabaptists, that 
deny the baptizing of infants ! For, if it were not written in the word of God, no man 
ought to believe it, or use it : and so the Donatists and anabaptists doctrine were true, 
and ours false. But in deed the baptism of infants is proved by the plain scriptures. 
First, by the figure of the old law, which was circumcision. Infants in the old law 
were circumcised ; ergo, in the new law they ought to be baptized. Again : infants 
pertain to God, as it is said to Abraham, " I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed 
after thee." Christ saith also : " Suffer children to come to me ; for of such is the king 
dom of heaven." And again : " See that ye despise not one of these little ones : for 
their angels in heaven always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven : for 
the Son of man is come to save that which is lost." And again, Paul saith, that " your 
children arc holy now." By these, and many other plain words of scripture, it is evident 
that the baptism of infants is grounded upon the holy scriptures. 

Furthermore, the church, say they, hath changed the sabbath-day into the Sunday, 
which sabbath was commanded by God, and never man found fault thereat. Seeing then 
that the church hath authority to change God s laws, much more it hath authority to 
make new laws necessary to salvation. 

There be two parts of the sabbath-day : one is the outward bodily rest from all 
manner of labour and work ; and this is mere ceremonial, and was taken away with 
other sacrifices and ceremonies by Christ at the preaching of the gospel. The other part 



[ l And yet of all, Orig. ed.J 

[- Hieron. adv. Helvid. Tom. II. p. 7 et sqq. Tom. V. p. 4H2. Ed. Francof. IW54. j 



X.] 



OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 



(31 



of the sabbath-day is the inward rest, or ceasing from sin, from our own wills and lusts, 
and to do only God s will and commandments. Of this part speaketh the prophet Esay : 
" He that taketh heed that he unhallow not the sabbath-day, is he that keepeth himself isai. i 
that he do no evil ; and they that hold greatly of the thing that pleaseth me, and keep 
my covenant, unto them will I give an everlasting name, that shall not perish." And 
moreover, the same prophet saith : " If thou turn thy feet from the sabbath, so that thou isai. i 
do not the thing which pleaseth thyself in my holy day, then shalt thou be called 
unto the pleasant, holy, and glorious sabbath of the Lord, where thou shalt be in 
honour ; so that thou do not after thine own imaginations, neither seek thine own will, 
nor speak thine own words. Then shalt thou have thy pleasure in the Lord, which 
shall carry thee high above the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father : 
for the Lord s own mouth hath spoken it." This spiritual sabbath, that is, to abstain 7 
from sin and to do good, are all men bound to keep all the days of their life, and not only 
on the sabbath-day. And this spiritual sabbath may no man alter nor change, no, not 
the whole church. 

That the utter 3 observing of the sabbath is mere ceremonial, St Paul writeth 
plainly, as that the holy days of the new moon and of the sabbath-days are nothing but 
shadows of things to come 4 . 

And that the outward bodily rest is a mere ceremonial precept, St Austin also TO January 
affirmeth, saying, that among all the ten commandments this only that is spoken of 
the sabbath is commanded figuratively ; but all the other commandments we must observe 
plainly, as they be commanded, without any figure of speech 5 . 

Jerome also, to the Galatians, iv. according to the same, saith : " Lest the congrega 
tion of the people, without good order, should diminish the faith in Christ, therefore 
certain days were appointed, wherein w r e should come together ; not that that day is 
holier than the other in which we come together, but that whatsoever day we assemble 
in there might arise greater joy by the sight of one of us to another. 

" But he that will answer wittily to the question propounded, afnrmcth all the days TO the 
to be like, and not that Christ is crucified only on Good Friday, and riseth only on 
the Sunday ; but that every day is the day of the Lord s resurrection, and we eat his 
flesh always. But fastings and comings together were ordained of wise men for them J$ 
that give themselves rather to the world than to God ; that cannot, yea, for them dayVamfwe 
that will not, come there at all, there to make their sacrifice of prayers to God in JJi a hls 
the face of all the people 6 ." 

Hereby you may easily perceive that the church hath not changed the special 
part of the sabbath, which is to cease from vice and sin ; but the ceremonial part 
of the sabbath only, which was abrogate and taken away, with other ceremonies of 
Moses law, by Christ, at the full preaching of the gospel : in place whereof the church 
hath ordained the Sunday for causes aforesaid 7 . 



bodily 



vays. 



[ 3 i.e. outer.] 

[< Coloss. ii. 16, 17.] 

[ 5 Ideoque inter omnia ilia decem praecepta 
solum ibi quod de sabbato positum est, tigurate 
observandum praecipitur, cetera tamen ibi pras- 
cepta proprie, sicut praecepta sunt, sine ulla figurata 
significatione observamus. August. Januario. Epist. 
cxix. cap. xii. Tom. II. p. 217.] 

[ 6 Et ne inordinata congregatio populi fidem 
minueret in Christo, propterea dies aliqui constituti 
sunt, ut in unum omnes pariter veniremus. Non 
quo celebrior sit dies ilia qua convenimus, sed quo 
quacumque die conveniendum sit, ex conspectu 
mutuo laetitia major oriatur. Qui vero oppositae 
quaestioni acutius respondere conatur, illud affirmat, 
omnes dies aequales esse, nee per Parascevem tan- 
turn Christum crucifigi, et die dominica resurgere, 
sed semper sanctum resurrectionis esse diem, et 



semper eum came vesci dominica. Jejunia autem 
et congregationes inter dies propter eos a viris pru- 
dentibus constitutes, qui niagis seculo vacant quam 
Deo, nee possunt, imo nolunt toto in ecclesia vita? 
suae tempore congregari, et ante humanos actus 
Deo orationum suarum offerre sacrificium. Hieron. 
Lib. n. in Epist. ad Galat. cap. iv. Tom. IX. p. 
142. Ed. Francof. 1684.] 

[ 7 " The following are some extracts from Cran- 
mer s Common-place Book in the British Museum 
relating to the subject of this chapter. 

Nova doctrines. 

Quod sacerdos sit qui non vivat ex doctrina verbi, 
sed ex missis quaa pro defunctis celebrantur. 

Missa de scala coeli. Missa satisfactoria. 

Indulgentia;. Jubileus. 

Communicatio sub una specie. 

Satisfactio. 



02 A CONFUTATION [CHAP. 

THE ELEVENTH CH AFTER 1. 

71 . The Papists Objections, with answers unto them. 

Argument. TREY boast themselves 2 , moreover, of the certainty of their doctrine, and prove it 

to be true by the long continuance thereof, and lucky prosperity of their kingdom ; 
and their adversaries doctrine to be false, by the persecutions, plagues, miseries, and 
afflictions, which they daily suffer for their doctrine s sake. 

Answer. Jf the trial of true religion should rest upon antiquity of time, or upon worldly 

prosperity, then should the gentiles and pagans have a great advantage of us Christians, 
and their religion should be better than ours, by the testimonies of our own scriptures. 
For idolatry and worshipping of false gods, and their images, was used long before 
the law of God, written and given to Moses, in which errors and idolatry the heathen 
continue unto this day, in great prosperity and wealth, under most victorious emperors 
and princes : whereas the true church of Christ hath been most miserably afflicted 
from time to time ; first tinder the Egyptians, after by the Philistines, Canaanites, Phara- 
sites, &c. ; then by the Babylonians, Assyrians, Medes, Persians, Syrians, and Romans, 
both subdued, conquered 3 , and led away captives : and, last of all, by the Turk and 
the pope, the two horns of antichrist, the true church of Christ hath been most cruelly 
persecuted unto death, with prison, famine, water, fire, fagot, and sword, these seven 
or eight hundred years last past. Which Turk and pope, although they be mortal 
enemies one to the other, yet as Herod, Pilate, the bishops, scribes, and Pharisees, 
although they were utter foes each to other, conspired against innocent Christ, 
causeless condemning him to death on the cross ; in like manner, I say, the pope 
and the Turk do fully agree in this one point, to persecute and murder Christ in his 
faithful members. For as the sun cannot be without his brightness, nor the fire with- 

72. out his heat; so cannot the true church of God be long without the cross of perse 
cution, as witnesseth St Paul : " All they that will live godly in Jesus Christ shall 

Christ s suffer persecution." And our Saviour Christ saith plainly, that his " kingdom is not 
of this world." For " if they persecute me," saith he, " they shall also persecute you." 
And Christ giveth not to his apostles earthly peace in this world, but peace and quietness 
of conscience, joined with persecution. For if the wicked persecuted Christ himself, 
shall they not also persecute his servants ? And if they so handled Christ, being the 
lively tree, what think you they shall do to us his withered branches ? And as the 
true church of Christ can never be long without persecution, in like manner can the 
false church of Satan and antichrist never cease from persecuting ; as it appeareth 
throughout the histories of the whole bible. Of the tyranny and cruelty of antichrist 
in persecuting of Christ s true church, prophesied Daniel long before. Speaking of the 



In cceremoniis fere omnibus Judaeos imitamur. 



in libro regum (peracta dedicatione templi) reperies. 



Habemus et velum atrii domus Domini, sicut 

Pro ephodo lineo habemus superpellicia. \ Judasi. De consecratione, Dist. i. < Nemo. 

Pro sacrificiis fecimus ex missa sacrificium, ne Sicut solis sacerdotibus et Levitis licebat con- 

sacerdotes nostri non essent sacrifici. I trectare vasa sacra templi, ita et nunc. De Conse- 

Habemus et asyla pro locis refugii. cratione, Dist. i. In sancta. 

Habemus basilicas consecratas, cum altaribus, i Nee in alios usus licet vestibus sacris frui, quam 

calicibus, vestibus, et reliquis utensilibus, ad divi- | in sacros. De Consecratione, Dist. i. Vestimenta 

num cultum pertinentibus. ! et c Ad nuptiarum. " Royal MSS. 1. B. xi. p. 



Habemus etiam hacc omnia oleo peruncta. 

Quin et sacerdotes ac reliqui ministri oleo im- 
buuntur, et consecrantur more Mosaico. De Con 
secratione, Dist. i. cap. i. et iii. 

Non licet offerre nisi in loco consecrato. De 
Consecratione, Dist. ii. c Sicut non alii, quia 
scriptum est, Vide ne offeras holocausta tua in 
omni loco quern videris, sed in omni loco quern ele- 
gerit Dominus Deus tuus. 

Festum dedicationis octo diebus celebramus, sicut 
Judaei. De Consecratione, Dist. i. * Solemnitates. 

Quod autem octo diebus encaenia sint celebranda, 



101. Vid. Jenkyns Remains of Archbp. Cranmer, 
Vol. IV. p. 234.] 

[ It seems evident that the whole of this eleventh 
chapter could not proceed from the pen of the arch 
bishop, if even any part of it was written by him. 
In several places there appear discrepancies of style, 
and there is reference made to a work which, ac 
cording to the date, was not printed till after his 
death. The chapter is not found in the Common 
place Book in the British Museum.] 

[- Moreover they boast themselves, Orig. ed.J 

[ 3 Conquest, Orig. ed.] 



xi.] OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 03 

empire and regiment of Rome : " The fourth beast," saith he, " shall be the fourth Dan. vii. 
kingdom, which shall be greater than all other kingdoms : it shall devour, tread down, know antj 
and destroy all other lands ; he shall speak words against the Highest of all ; he shall to 
destroy the saints of the Most Highest, and think that he can change times and laws." 
And again, he saith of Antiochus, which was a figure of antichrist: " There shall 
arise a king uushamefaced of face ; he shall be wise in dark speaking ; he shall be 
mighty and strong, but not in his own strength ; he shall destroy above measure, and 
all that he goeth about shall prosper in his hand: his heart shall be proud, he shall of antichrist. 
slay the strong and holy people, and through his craftiness falsehood shall prosper in 
his hand, and many one shall be put to death in his wealthiness ; he shall stand up 
against the prince of princes, but he shall be slain without hand." Of the tyranny 
and prosperous success of antichrist in slaying of the saints of God, and the reward 
of them that be slain for the witness of God s truth, speaketh also St John, in the 
sixth chapter of his Apocalypse, under the opening of the four and five seals : and in Read the 
the seventeenth chapter he lively setteth forth the pope in his own colours, under the 
person of the whore of Babylon being drunken with the blood of saints ; pointing, as 
it were with his finger, who this whore of Babylon is, and the place where she shall 
reign, saying : " The woman which thou sawest is that great city which reigneth over 
the kings of the earth." Now what other city reigned at that time, or at any time 
since, over the Christian kings of the earth, but only Rome? Whereof it followeth 
Rome to be the seat of antichrist, and the pope to be very antichrist himself. I 73. 
could prove the same by many other scriptures, old writers, and strong reasons. But 
forasmuch as Rodulph Gualter hath written hereof a notable work in Latin, and now of 
Latin translated into English by I. O., I remit the reader to his book, wherein he may 
be fully satisfied hereof 4 . Of the prosperity and security that the false church hath in 
worldly pleasures, using the same with all greediness and voluptuousness of carnal lusts, 
with the wicked devices of tyranny against Christ and his true members, wherewith 
the ungodly daily persecute and murder God s elect for his truth, with the reward also of 
them that suffer for the same truth sake, it is most plainly written in the second and Read the 
third chapters of the Book of Wisdom. 

By these scriptures now rehearsed it appeareth most plainly, that worldly prosperity 
of the pope and his clergy prove not the truth of their doctrine ; nor yet persecution of 
God s true preachers and other faithful people argueth their doctrine to be false. But if 
thou wilt needs know where the true church of Christ is, and where the false, and 
not to be deceived, herein take this for a plain and full answer, that wheresoever the 
word of God is truly preached, without addition of man s doctrines and traditions, and 
the sacraments duly ministered according to Christ s institution, there is the true church, 
the very spouse of God, Christ being the head thereof. But how many and who, of 
that number that hear the word of God and receive the sacraments, be God s elect church, 
and true members of Christ, is known to God only ; " for the Lord knoweth who be 
his," and no man can tell of another man, whether he be worthy love or hatred, although 
their works seem never so holy and glorious afore men ; so great a witch is hypocrisy. 

Last of all, to make all cock sure, and to maintain their idolatry beside, yea, and Argument. 
also contrary to the word of God, (as invocation and praying to saints, worshipping of 
images and relics, with pilgrimages and offerings, and the sacrifice of the mass for the 
quick and the dead, and pardons to deliver dead men s souls from purgatory, holy 
bread, holy water, ashes, palms, and such other baggage,) they allege revelations of 
angels, of our lady and other saints, and dead men s souls appearing to divers men and 
women, bidding them to cause certain masses, trentals 5 , pilgrimages, and offering to 
images and relics of this and that saint, to be done for them, and they should be delivered 
from the fire of purgatory, where the pains be greater, say they, than man s wit can 



[ 4 The work referred to seems to be, Antichristus, 
id est, Homilise-quinque, quibus Romanum Pontiti- 
cem verum et magnum ilium Antichristum esse 
probatur. Without date. Antichrist, That is to 
saye: A true report that Antichrist is come, &c. 
Translated out of Latine into English, by J. O. 



(John Olde), Southwarke, 1556. See Herbert s 
Ames Typog. Antiq. p. 1451.] 

[ 5 Trentals : services of thirty masses, said one 
on each of thirty different days for the soul of a 
person deceased.] 



64 A CONFUTATION [CHAP. 

74. comprehend. And when such masses, pilgrimages, with offerings to such saints relics 
and images, be done for them, they appear to the same persons again, saying, that 
by such means they be delivered out of purgatory into the eternal joys of heaven. They 
tell also of many wonders and strange miracles, to prove their doctrine, in all these afore 
said things, to be true. And because they have great profit and advantage thereby, 
they, " counting gains godliness," have filled all their books with such vanities and lies ; 
of which some be so fond, and so directly against God s glory, that the most earnest 
papists (having either learning or wit) be ashamed of them ; yea, and the pope himself 
hath clean put them out of God s service used in the church of Rome : and yet must we read 
them, believe them as necessary articles of our faith, or else burn therefore like heretics. 
Answer. By the manifest and plain words of the scriptures, and the consent of the most 

ancient authors before written, it is evident, that neither the visions of angels, apparitions 
of the dead, nor miracles, nor all these together joined in one, are able or sufficient to 
make any one new article of our faith, or stablish any thing in religion, without the express 
words of God ; because all such things (as is before proved) may be, yea, and have 
been, through God s permission, for our sins and unbelief s sake, done by the power of 
the devil himself, or feigned and counterfeited of his lively members, monks and friars, 
with other such hypocrites. 

But what shall Satan need to tell oracles, use visions, shew apparitions, or work 
miracles no w-a-days ? What should he need to toil herein himself? or why should he 
not, like a gentleman, take his ease in his inn, seeing his subtle servants, monks, friars, 
nuns, and other pope-holy hypocrites, can and do counterfeit such things daily, and from 
their beginning hath done diligently ? Part whereof I shall rehearse. 

johnsiei- About fourteen years past, at Orleance in France, the provost s wife died, willing 

Ui4nc - to be buried at the Friars in the same city, without pomp or other solemnity com 

monly used at burials. Wherefore the friars, fearing to lose a great prey, if this should 
be suffered to enter into the heads of the people, caused a young friar to speak in a vault 
in a woman s voice, many people hearing it, and said that she was the soul of the 
provost s wife, condemned in hell for contemning of the suffrages of the holy church, 
commanding also her body to be cast out of Christian burial. But the provost so bolted 
out the matter, that the young friar confessed the place and the manner of his speaking ; 
and all the friars were openly punished for that fault in the common market at Orleance 1 . 
^^ But let us come home to our own realm of England. About thirty years past, in 

the borders of Wales, within a priory called Lymster, there was a young woman, called 
the holy maid of Lymster, which (as the fame was) lived only by angels food, and 
was inclosed within a grate of iron ; unto whom, certain days, when the prior of the 
place said mass, the third part of the host went, hanging in the air, (by miracle, as it 
seemed,) from the altar, where the prior massed, into the maid s mouth. Which thing 
brought the people into a great opinion of holiness in her, and caused great pilgrimage 
to be there used. But when the Lord of Burgavenny 2 , with his brother Sir Edward 
Nevel, and divers other gentlemen and gentlewomen, came to try the truth hereof, they 
caused the door to be opened, and straightways the dogs fought for bones that were 
under her bed; whereupon they searching farther, found a privy door, whereby the 
prior might resort to her and she to him, at their pleasures. And then she confessed 
that she made, as it were, two fine threads of her own hairs singly tied together with 
fine knots ; and then made a big hole with a bodkin through the corner of a quarter 
of the host, and fastened one end of the said hair to the corporas, where the said 
prior said mass, and the other end to her own bed wherein she lay, and tied the 
other hair fast to the quarter of the host, and wrapped the other end about her own 
finger. And when the prior had received his portion of the host, she wound up the 
thread whereto the host was tied, upon her fingers, and so conveyed the host into 
her mouth. This both the prior and she confessed, and did open penance for the same 3 . 



t 1 Sleidan. De statu religionis et reipub. (A.D. ! 87, n. ; 307, . Park. Soc. Ed. 11)43.] 

1534.) Book ix. pp. 175, 0. Ed. Francof. 15f>8.] [ 3 Sir Thomas Mote s Dialogues of Vene- 

f 2 Burgavenny, i.e. Abergavenny. Vid. Works ration and Worship of Images. Parti. Book i. 

of Thomas Becon, Early Writings, pp. Bl,n. ; cap.xiv. col. 25.] 



XT.] OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 65 

To St Albans, about twenty-eight years past, came a maid, creeping upon her 
knees, and leaning upon two short staves, inquiring after St Alban s bones ; affirming, 
that she should be made whole and go upright, so soon as she should come to the 
place where St Alban s bones were : in token whereof an angel had delivered her a 
key, whereby she should certainly know where his very bones were. And when she 
passed thus through the streets of St Alban s, creeping on her knees till she came to 
St Alban s shrine, after she had made her prayers devoutly there, she took out the 
key of her purse, which she said an angel had delivered to her ; and then she stood 
upright, and opened the shrine with the said key, and then kneeled again to pray, 
and to give thanks to God and St Alban for her healing, and giving her strength to 
walk, which was born lame. And by and by the monks would have had it rung for 
a miracle ; but some wiser men thought it meet to try the matter better, and to examine 
her farther, before they began 4 to ring a miracle openly. And upon her examination 
she said that she had been lame from her birth, declaring both her kindred and place 
where she was fyorn. Upon which confession she was committed to a nunnery called 70. 
Sopwel, there to tarry until messengers, which they straightway sent forth, might return 
and testify the truth. And so she daily and holily visited St Alban s shrine. But 
the night before the return of the messengers she was conveyed away, and never heard 
of nor seen after. And the messengers declared to be lies all that ever she had said : 
for there was never none born lame, nor of her name, where she said she was born. 

A strange thing it is to hear of the wonderful trances and visions of Mistress Anne 
Wentworth 5 , of Suffolk, which told many men the secrets of their hearts, which they 
thought no man could have told, but God only. She cut stomachers in pieces, and 
made them whole again ; and caused divers men that spake against her delusions to 
go stark mad. All which things were proved, and openly by her confessed, to be done 
by necromancy and the deceit of the devil. 

But Elizabeth Barton 6 , called the holy maid of Courtop Street in Kent, passed all Elizabeth 
others in devilish devices. For she could, when she list, feign herself to be in a trance, 
disfigure her face, draw her mouth awry toward the one ear, feigning that she was o devilish 
thus tormented of Satan for the sins of the people, and delivered from his power by 
our blessed lady of Courtop Street, and by her led into heaven, hell, and purgatory, 
and there saw all the joys and pains of those places; and took upon her to pro 
phesy of things to come, and of the king s death. This instrument of the devil drew Read more 
into her confederacy, both of heresy and treason, holy monks of the Charter House, book set forth 
obstinate (they would be called observant) friars of Greenwich, nice nuns of Sion, in &" Irs a " 
black monks (both of cowls and conditions) of Christ s Church and St Austin s of 
Canterbury, knights, squires, learned men, priests, and many other : of which sort 
(whether they were blinded by her, or else of their own mere malice and hypocrisy 
dissembled the matter) some, by due proof made against them, were justly condemned 
both of heresy and treason, and suffered with the said Elizabeth Barton, according to 
their demerits ; and some, acknowledging their own offences, were delivered by the king s 
pardon. This wicked woman caused a letter to be made by a monk of St Austin s 
of Canterbury, in golden letters, feigning the same to be delivered to her by an angel J hou h jt 
from heaven. This monster was convented both before William Warham, archbishop from heaven. 
of Canterbury, and Thomas Wolsey, cardinal and archbishop of York : who, either Bishops ever 
because that generation of the clergy hath alway defended idolatry and superstition, bokterer"of 
or because she knew too much of their incontinency and other wickedness of living, V- 
(for she threatened them with eternal damnation, except they repented and amended 
their lives,) they clearly discharged her without finding of any fault in her at all. But 
when the matter came to be examined by Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, 



[ 4 Before they tempted, (i. e. attempted), Orig. 
ed.J 

[ 5 Anne Wentworth, daughter of sir Roger 
Wentworth, of Ipswich, Suffolk. Vid. sir Thomas 
M ore s Dialogues, Of the Veneration and Worship 
of Images. Pt. I. Book i. chap. xvi. col. 2J.] 

[ 6 But yet Elizabeth Barton, Orig. ed. For an 

[CRANMER, u.] 



account of Elizabeth Barton, the maid of Kent, and 
her accomplices, vid. Hall s Chronicle: The 2ftth 
year of King Henry VIII.; fol. ccxviii. 2. Ed. 
1548. Burnet, Hist. Reformat. Vol. I. p. 302 et 
sqq. Ed. Oxford. 1829. Strype, Eccl. Memorials, 
Vol. I. chap. xxv. p. 271 et sqq. Ed. Oxford 
1822.] 



A CONFUTATION 



[CHAP. 



A notable 
miracle. 



and Thomas Cromwell, then master of the rolls, they so handled the matter, that they 
found out the whole nest of that conspiracy : wherein was disclosed the whole number 
of those confederates, their books of heresy and treason, the authors and writers of the 
same, and of the letter feigned to be sent from heaven. All whose detestable facts, 
as well of idolatry, heresy, and also of treason, were so wittily and learnedly by 
God s word convinced at Canterbury by Doctor Heath 1 , now chancellor of England, 
(she being present and openly confessing the same,) and also by another learned man 
at Paul s cross, that the most part of them, which were before by her seduced, did 
then utterly abhor her shameless and abominable facts. 

What a crafty point of legerdemain was played about the beginning of king Edward s 
reign by a priest ; which, being at mass, pricked his own finger, and caused it to drop 
upon the host; persuading the people that the host bled of itself, by the miraculous 
working of God, for to make the world believe the body of Christ to be as really and 
naturally in the sacrament as he was born of the virgin Mary his mother! For the 
which heinous fact, proved against him and also by him confessed, he did open penance 
at Paul s cross. 

I will rehearse one sermon, made in queen Mary s beginning, by a momish monk, 
and so leave off their vain and wicked lies. A new upstart preacher, being some time a 
monk of Christ s church in Canterbury, stept into the pulpit in St Paul s church, 
saying that the very body of Christ is really and naturally in the sacrament of the 
altar; yea, " By God s body is it," quoth he. And because that neither oath nor perjury 
Christ proved can prove a good argument, he proved the same by three notable miracles : the first 

really in the . / _ 

host by two of an horse, refusing to eat wafers so long as their caky god was among them; the 

devil speak- second, by the devil speaking in the likeness of an horse, being conjured of a priest 

them" J by God s body to tell what he was ; and the third, a maid of Northgate parish 

in Canterbury, who, he said, in pretence to wipe her mouth, kept the host in her 

handkercher ; and when she came home, she put the same into a pot, close covered, 

and spitted in another pot; and after a few days she, looking in the one pot, found 

a little young pretty babe about a shaftmond long, and the other pot was full of 

gored blood. 

78. Here is goodly pulpit matters to prove new articles of our faith ! For if the priests 

that told the stories of the two horses, or the maid that said that the bread was turned 
into a little child, or the monk that preached these shameful blasphemies, or the devil 
himself, who is father of lies, could lie, speaking in the horse, or in any of them ; then 
do all these foresaid miracles prove nothing his purpose. But, O merciful God, in 
what a miserable state were we thine afflicted members, if it were true, which they 
say, being both enemies to thee and to us also, for thy truth s sake ! For we would 
not 2 only suffer extreme miseries, as loss of our goods, good names, and the com 
pany of our dear friends in our native country ; but also burn as heretics in this 
world, if we came in their cruel handling, and also burn eternally in the unquench 
able fire of hell, if their cruel curses might take effect. Wherefore we yield thee most 
hearty thanks, Father of all mercies, and to thy Son Jesus Christ our Saviour, which 
hast promised, for his sake and in his name, thy kingdom of heaven to all them which 
suffer persecution for thy righteousness sake. 

How shall we then know true visions of angels from false, true apparitions and 
miracles from counterfeit, but by the scripture of God, which is the rule and true 
measure wherewith we must try all things ? as St John saith : " Believe not every 
spirit, but prove them whether they be of God : for many false prophets are gone out 
into the world. Hereby is the Spirit of God known," saith he : " every spirit which 
confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God," &c. Whosoever therefore 
saith, that there is any thing that pacifieth the wrath of God, or obtaineth his favour 



[ l Nicholas Heath, successively bishop of Ro 
chester and Worcester, under Henry VIII., was 
deprived i.nder Edward VI. ; but, under Mary, 
became Archbishop of York, and Lord chancellor, 
after the death of Gardiner in 1555, and therefore 
only about three months before the death of Cran- 



mer, for whose execution he signed the warrant. 
Vid. Anderson s Annals of the English Bible. Vol. 
I. p. 374, n. 33. Burnet, Hist, of Reform. Vol. I. 
Partii. p. 139, &c.j 

[ 2 For we should not, Org. ed.] 



XL] OF UNWRITTEN VERITIES. 67 

and forgiveness of sins, but only Christ s death and passion, he denieth Christ to be 
come a Saviour in the flesh. Wherefore these angels, saints, souls of the dead, and 
miracles, that allow worshipping of saints by invocation and praying to them, the 
sacrifice of the mass for the quick and the dead, worshipping of images, pilgrimages, 
offerings to holy relics, to forgive sins, or to deliver the dead out of purgatory, deny 
Christ to be come an only Saviour by his flesh. For they make all these to be saviours 
from purgatory, or, at the least, coadjutors to help him in that office of salvation, and 
delivering those souls from sin and the pains due for the same ; and so they cannot 
be of God, but of antichrist. 

Thus I have plainly, fully, and truly, without fraud of cloaking, or colour of rhetoric 
and dark speech, to blind the eyes of the simple people, answered to all that I remem 
ber, which the papists do or can allege, either by writing, preaching, or reasoning, 
for the defence of their unwritten verities, whereupon they build so many detestable 
idolatries and heresies. And the same answers, if they be aptly applied and placed 
by a discreet and witty reader, will suffice for the answer to all that they ever have 70. 
or can bring forth for the maintaining of their unwritten and uncertain verities. And 
yet I will not be so much wedded to mine own wit or will, but that if they be able to 
answer so plainly and truly to the scriptures, authors, and reasons rehearsed by me, 
as I have done to theirs ; and to prove their doctrine of unwritten verities by as plain 
consent both of scriptures, ancient doctors, and as pithy arguments, as I have done 
mine, and set it forth in print to the judgment of the whole world, as mine is ; I 
shall not only acknowledge mine ignorance and error, but I shall gladly return into 
England, recant mine heresies, openly submitting myself to such discipline and cor 
rection as they shall think meet for mine offences. But if they refuse to answer my 
book by writing, and, using their old trade, burn both my book and the readers 
thereof, let them know they shall do nothing but cut off the head of Hydra. For 
for every heretic, as you call them, which you shall burn, will arise many faithful and 
constant Christians. For " except the grain or corn of wheat die, it remaineth alone ; 
but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit." Wherefore I most heartily beseech the 
Father of heaven, of his infinite mercy, (if you be not indurate in your hearts with 
that sin which is irremissible, and shall never be forgiven in this world nor in the 
world to come, and resist the Holy Ghost, impugning the truth of God of you known, 
and defending and maintaining wicked doctrines, which your consciences bear record 
to be idolatries and heresies,) that he will mollify your stony hearts, and give you 
fleshy hearts; yea, rather spiritual and godly hearts, to worship him truly in spirit, 
according to his godly will expressed in his holy word written. And I exhort all 
you which fear God and be desirous to save your own souls, to flee from this whore 
of Babylon, and from all her detestable idolatries and heresies, not building upon 3 the which is 
sure rock of God s infallible word written, but upon the quavemire 4 of unwritten veri 
ties ; whereupon whatsoever is builded forthwith either sinketh or quite overthroweth. 
And stand thou fast, and stay thy faith, whereupon thou shalt build all thy works, 

upon the strong rock of God s word, written and contained within the old 
testament and the new ; which is able sufficiently to instruct thee in all 
things needful to thy salvation, and to the attainment of the 
kingdom of heaven. To the which I beseech the Almighty 
Father of heaven, of his infinite mercy and good 
ness, and by the merits of his only Son, our 
Saviour and Redeemer, Jesus Christ, 
through his Holy Spirit in 
us, bring us all. 
Amen. 

FINIS. 



Builded upon, Orig. ed.J [* Qualmire, Orig. ed. ; i. e. quagmire. 



[A 
COLLECTION OF TENETS 

EXTRACTED FROM 

THE CANON LAW, 

SHEWING 

THE EXTRAVAGANT PRETENSIONS OF THE CHURCH OF ROME 1 .] 



C CCXL V Dist. 22. Omnes-. De Major, et obedient. : Solitce 3 . Extrav. De majorit. et obedient. : 

Unam sanctam*. 

HE that knowledgeth not himself to be under the bishop of Rome, and that the 
bishop of Rome is ordained by God to have primacy over all the world, is an heretic, 
and cannot be saved, nor is not of the flock of Christ. 

Dist. 10 5 . De sententia excommunwationis: Noverit 6 . 25. q. 1: Omne 1 . 

Princes laws, if they be against the canons and decrees of the bishop of Rome, 
be of no force nor strength. 



447. 

MSS. Stilling. 

Lite. 1107. 



n. 27- pp. 
3!>1 308. 
Kd. Oxon. 
1829. 



19. 8 20. 9 24. q. 1. 



A recta; Memor ; Quoties ; Hcec est 10 . 25. q. 1. 

Generali ; Violator es 1 l . 



All the decrees of the bishop of Rome ought to be kept perpetually of every man, 
without any repugnance, as God s word spoken by the mouth of Peter ; and whosoever 



[ J In reference to these extracts from the Canon 
Law, Strype says : " And one of the first things 
wherein he (i. e. Cranmer) shewed his good service 
to the church was done in the parliament, in the 
latter end of this year, 1533. When the supremacy 
came under debate, and the usurped power of the 
bishop of Rome was propounded, then the old col 
lections of the archbishop did him good service ; 
for the chief, and in a manner the whole burden of 
this weighty cause was laid upon his shoulders." 
Strype, Memorials of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 32. 
Ed. Oxon. 1840. Burnet places the passing of the 
act, " containing some former acts for revising the 
Canon Law," &c. in the year 1544, and says that 
" Cranmer pressed this often with great vehemence, 
and, to shew the necessity of it, drew out a short 
extract of some passages in the Canon Law," which 
he gives in "the Collection of Records." The 
text follows that of Burnet s History of the Reforma 
tion, but it is corrected in many places by the 
MS. in the Library of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. Dr Jenkyns suggests that "the old 
collections," mentioned by Strype, are probably 
those which are still preserved at Lambeth under 
the title of Archbishop Cranmer s Collection of 
Laws, and that " they were formed, perhaps, while 
he resided at Cambridge, and consist of a large 
number of passages, extracted at length from the 
canon law, and followed by that short summary of 
some of its most remarkable doctrines which is here 
printed. They were doubtless of great use," he 
goes on to say, " in the discussions alluded to by 
Strype ; but that was not the only nor the h rst oc 
casion, in which they supplied the archbishop with 



arguments. He must have already availed himself 
of them, when, in stating to the king his unwilling 
ness to accept the see of Canterbury, he disclosed 
therewithal the intolerable usurpation of the pope of 
Rome. See his Examination before Brokes. Arid 
he frequently recurs to them in his subsequent 
writings, particularly in the Answer to the Devon 
shire Rebels, A. D. 1549, and in his long Letter to 
queen Mary, in September, A.D. 1555." See Dr 
Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 1.] 

[ 2 Corpus Juris Canonici. Ed. Paris. 1687. 
Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 22. can. i. Omnes. Tom. 
I. p. 29.] 

[ 3 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. i. Tit. xxxiii. 
De majorit. et obedient, cap. vi. Solitae. Tom. II. 
p. 59.] 

[ 4 Id. Extravag. Comm. Lib. i. Tit. viii. De 
majorit. et obedient, cap. i. Unam sanctam. 
Tom. II. p. 394.] 

[ 5 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 10. Tom. I. p. 8.] 

[ 6 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. v. Tit. 39. 
De sentent. excommunicat. cap. xlix. * Noverit. 
Tom. II. p. 276.] 

[ 7 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xxv. Quaest. 1. 
can. viii. Omne. Tom. I. p. 345.] 

[ 8 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 19. Tom. I. p. 23. 
et sqq.J 

[ 9 Id. ibid. Dist. 20. Tom. I. p. 26.J 

[ 10 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xxiv. Quaest. 1. 
can. ix. A recta. can. x. Memor. can. xii. 
Quoties. can. xiv. Haac est. Tom. I. p. 332.] 

[ u Id. ibid. Causa xxv. Quaest. 1. cap. xi. 
Generali. can. v. Violatores. Tom. I. p. 345. ] 



COLLECTION OF TENETS FROM THE CANON LAW. tj<) 

doth not receive them, neither availeth them the catholic faith, nor the four evangelists; 
but they blaspheme the Holy Ghost, and shall have no forgiveness. 

25. q. 1. Generali. 

All kings, bishops, and nobles that allow 13 or suffer the bishop of Rome s decrees 
in any thing to be violate, be accursed, and for ever culpable before God, as trans 
gressors of the catholic faith. 

Dist. 21. Quamvis 14 , et 24. q. 1. A recta; Memor 15 . 
The see of Rome hath neither spot nor wrinkle in it, nor cannot err. 

25. q. 1. Idea 10 . De senten. et re judicata; Ad apostolicce^ . Li. 6, de jurejurando 18 . 

The bishop 4 of Rome is not bound to any decrees, but he may compel, as well 
the clergy as laymen, to receive his decrees and canon laws. 

9.q.3. Ipsi 19 ; Cuncta 20 ; Nemo 21 . 3.q.6: Dudum 22 ; Aliorum* 3 . 17. <?. 4: Si quis 2 \ 
De laptis. et ejus ejfectu. Major es 25 . 

The bishop of Rome hath authority to judge all men, and specially to discern the 
articles of the faith, and that without any council, and may assoil them that the council 
hath damned; but no man hath authority to judge him, nor to meddle with any 
thing that he hath judged, neither emperor, king, people, nor the clergy : and it is 
not lawful for any man to dispute of his power. 

Gr. Duo sunt 26 . 25. q. 6. Alms; Nos sanctorum,; Juratos* 1 In Clement, de 

hcereticis. Ut officitim 28 . 

The bishop of Rome may excommunicate emperors and princes, depose them from 
their states, and assoil their subjects from their oath of obedience to them, and so 
constrain them to rebellion. 

De major, et obedient. Solitw. Clement, de sententia et re judicata. Pastor alis. 

The emperor is the bishop of Rome s subject, and the bishop of Rome may revoke the 
emperor s sentence in temporal causes. 

De elect, et electi potestate. Venerabilem 31 . 

It belongeth to the bishop of Rome to allow or disallow the emperor after he is 
elected; and he may translate the empire 32 from one region to another. 



[ 12 Vid. supra, n. 11.] 

[ 13 So it appears to be in the C. C. C. MS. : in 
Dr Jenkyns s edition it is printed believe.] 

[ 14 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 21. can. iii. Quam- 
vis. Tom. I. p. 28.] [ 18 Vid. supra, n. 10.J 

[ 16 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xxv. Qusest. 1. 
can. xvi. * Ideo. Tom. I. p. 346.] 

[ 17 Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. n. Tit. xiv. De 
senten. et re judicata. cap. ii. Ad apostolicaa. 
Tom. II. p. 309.] 

[ 18 Id. ibid. Lib. ii. Tit. xi. Jurejurando. cap. i. 



Aliorum. Tom. I. p. 210.] 

[ 24 Id. ibid. Causa xvii. Quaest. 4. can. xxii. 
4 Si quis. Tom. I. p. 282.] 

[ 5 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. in. De 
Baptismo et ejus effect. Tit. xlii. cap. iii. Ma- 
jores. Tom. II. p. 194.] 

[ 26 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 96. can. 10. * Duo 
sunt. Tom. I. p. 118.] 

[ 27 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xv. Quast. 6. 
can. iii. Alius. can. iv. Nos sanctorum. can. v. 
; Juratos. Tom. I. p. 260.] 



Contingit. Tom. II. p. 308.] [ 28 Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. v. Tit. ii-. De 

[ 19 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa ix. Qu*st. 3. j haeret. cap. ii. Ut officium. Tom. II. p. 332.] 



can. xvi. Ipsi. Tom. I. p. 210.] 

[ 20 Id. ibid. can. xvii. xviii. Cuncta. Tom. 
l.p.211.] 

[ 21 Id. ibid. can. xiii. Nemo. Tom. I. p. 210.] 

[ 22 Id. ibid. Causa iii. Quaest. 6. can. ix. Du- 
dum. Tom. I. p. 180.] 

[ 23 Id. ibid. Causa ix. Qusest. 3. can. xiv. 



[ 29 Vid. p. 68. n. 3.] 

[ 30 Id. Clementin. Lib. ii. Tit. xi. De sentent. 
et re judicat. cap.ii. Pastoralis. Tom. II. p. 358.] 

[ 31 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. i. Tit. vi. 
De elect, et electi potest. cap. xxxiv. Venera- 
bilem. Tom. II. p. 23.] 

[ 32 C.C.C. MS. emperor.] 



7<) COLLECTION OF TENETS 

De supplenda negligen. prcelato. Grandi 1 . 
The bishop of Rome may appoint coadjutors unto princes. 

Dist. 17- Synodum; Reyula ; Nee licuit; Multis; Concilia 3 . Dist. 96. 

Ubinam** 

There can be no council of bishops without the authority of the see of Rome ; and 
the emperor ought not 4 to be present at the council, except when matters of faith be 
entreating, which belong universally to every man. 

2. q. 6 5 . Ad Romanum. 

Nothing may be done against him that appealeth unto Rome. 

9. q. 3: Aliorum 6 . Dist. 40: Si Papa 7 . Dist. 96: Satis 8 . 

The bishop of Rome may be judged of none but of God only; for although he 
neither regard his own salvation, nor no man s else, but draw down with himself 
innumerable people by heaps unto hell; yet may no mortal man in this world pre 
sume to reprehend him. Forsomuch as he is called God, he may be judged of no man; 
for God may be judged of no man. 

24. q. 5*. 

The bishop of Rome may open and shut heaven unto men. 

Dist. 40. Non nos 10 . 
The see of Rome receiveth holy men, or else maketh them holy. 

De pcenitentia. Dist. 1. Serpens 11 . 
He that maketh a lie to the bishop of Rome committeth sacrilege. 

De consecrat. Dist. 1 : De locorum. Prcecepta. Ecdesia. De elect, et electi 

potestate. Fundamenta 13 . 

To be senator, captain, patrician, governor, or officer of Rome, none shall be elected 
or pointed without the express licence and special consent of the see of Rome. 

De electione et electi potestate. Venerabilem 14 . 

It appertained to the bishop of Rome to judge which oaths ought to be kept, and 
which not 15 . 

De jurejurand. Si vero. 15. q. 6: Auctoritatem 17 . 

And he may absolve subjects from their oath of fidelity, and absolve from other 
oaths that ought to be kept. 

[ Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. i. Tit. viii. De [ 10 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 40. can. i. Non 

supplenda negligen. praelat. cap. ii. Grandi. nos. Tom. I. p. 53.] 
Tom. II. p. 297.] [ n Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xxxiii. Qua?st. 3. 

[ Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 17. can. i. Syno- j De Poenit. Dist. 1. can. xlvii. Serpens. Tom. I. 

dum. can. ii. Regula. can. iv. Nee licuit. j p. 399.] 



can. v. Multis. can. vi. Concilia. Tom. I. 
pp. 20, 21. J 

f 3 Id. ibid. Dist. 96. can. iv. Ubinam. Tom. 
I. p". 118.] 

[ 4 not wanting in C.C. C. MS.] 

[ 5 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa ii. Quaest. 6. can. 
vi. Ad Romanum. Tom. I. p. 162.] 

[ 6 Vid. p. 69, n. 22.] 

[ 7 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 40. can. vi. Si 
Papa. Tom. I. p. 53.] 

[ 8 Id. ibid. Dist, 96. can. vii. Satis. Tom. I. 
p. 118. J 

[ 9 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xxiv. Quacst. 2. 



[ 12 Id. Decret. iii. Pars. De consecrat. Dist. 1. 
can. iv. De locorum. can. v. Praecepta. can. 
viii. Ecclesia. Tom. I. pp. 447, .] 

[ 13 Id. Sexti. Decretal. Lib. i. Tit.vi. De elect, 
et electi potestat. cap. x vii. Fundamenta. Tom. 
II. p. 291.] 

[ 14 Vid. p. 69, n. 30.] 

[ 15 And which not, wanting in C. C. C. MS., as 
is also the whole of the following article.] 

[ 16 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. n. Tit. xxiv. 
De jurejurando. cap. viii. Si vero. Tom. II. 
P. 107.J 

[ 17 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa, xv. Quaest. R. 



can. ii. Legatur. Tom. I. p. 337.] can. ii. Autoritatem. Tom. I. p. 259.] 



FROM THE CANON LAW. 



71 



De foro competent. Ex tenore. De donat. inter virum et uxorem. De prudentia 19 . 
Qui filii sunt legitimi. Per venerabilem 20 . De elect, et electi potentate. Funda- 
menta 21 . Extravag. de majorit. et obedient. Unam sanctam 22 . De judiciis. 
Norit 23 . 

The bishop of Rome is judge in temporal things, and hath two swords, spiritual 
and temporal. 

[Clement.] de hccreticis. Multorum 2 *. 

The bishop of Rome 25 may give authority to arrest men, and imprison them in 
manacles and fetters. 

Extrav. de consuetudine. Super gentes. 

4 

The bishop of Rome may compel princes to receive his legates. 

De treuga et pace. Trcuyas 27 . 

It belongeth also to him to appoint and command peace and truce to be observed 
and kept, or not. 

De prcclend. et diy. Dilectus. Et li. 6: Licet. 
The collation of all spiritual promotions appertain to the bishop of Rome. 

De excessibus prcelatormn. Slcut unire 30 . 

The bishop of Rome may unite bishopricks together, and put one under another at 
his pleasure. 

Lib. 6. De poems. Felicis 31 . 

In the chapter Felicis, lib. 6. de poems, is the most partial and unreasonable decree, 
made by Bonifacius VIII. that ever was read or heard, against them that be adver 
saries to any cardinal of Rome, or to any clerk, or religious man of the bishop of 
Rome s family. 

Dist. 28. Consulendum . Dist. 96. Siimperator**. 11. <y. 1. Quod clericus. Nemo; 
Nullus ; Clericum 34 , fyc. et </. 2. Quod vero**. De sentent. excommunication. Si 



[ in Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. 11. Tit. ii. 
De tbro compet. cap. xi. c Ex tenore. Tom. II. 
p. 76.] 

[ l9 Id. ibid. Lib. iv. Tit. xx. De donat. inter 
virum et uxorem, &c. cap. iii. De prudentia. 
Tom. II. p. 222.] 

[* Id. ibid. Lib. iv. Tit. xvii. Qui filii sint 
legit, cap. xiii. Per venerabilem. Tom. II. p. 
819.] 

[ 21 Vid. p. 70. n. 12.] [ 22 Vid. p. 68. n. 4.] 

[ 23 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. n. Tit.i. De 
judiciis. cap. xiii. * Novit ille. Tom. II. p. 72.] 

[ 24 Id. Clementin. Lib. v. Tit. iii. De haret. 
cap. i. Multorum. Tom. II. p. 369.] 

L 25 Rome s judge, C. C. C. MS.] 

[ 20 Id. Extrav. Comm. Lib. i. Tit. i. De con- 
suetud. cap. i. Super gentes. Tom. II. p. 391.] 

[ 27 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. i. Tit. xxxiv. 
De treuga et pace. cap. i. Treugas. Tom. II. 
p. 61.J 



[ 28 Id. ibid. Lib. in. Tit. v. De prasbend. et 
dignitat. cap. xxvii. 4 Dilectus. l oni. II. p. 
141.] 

[ 29 Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. in. Tit. iv. cap. ii. 
Licet. Tom. II. p. 313.] 

[ 30 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. v. Tit. xxxi. 
De excess, pradat. cap. viii. * Sicu: unire. Tom. 
II. p. 256.] 

[ 31 Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. v. Tit. ix. De pcenis. 
cap. v. Felicis. Tom. II. p. 338.] 

[ 32 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. xxviii. can. xvii. 
* Consulendum. Tom. I. p. 39.] 

[33 Id. ibid. Dist. 96. can. xi. Si imperator. 
Tom. I. pp. 118, 19.] 

[ 34 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xi. Quacst. i. 
Quod clericus. can. i. Nemo. can. ii. l Nul 
lus. can. iii. < Clericum. Tom. I. p. 216.] 

[ 35 Id. ibid. Quaest.ii. Quodvero. Tom. I. 
p. 221.] 



72 



COLLECTION OF TENETS 



judex 1 . 2. q. 5: Si quis 2 . Ds foro competent.: Nullus 3 ; SI quis 4 ; Ex trans- 
missa*. De foro compet. in li. 6. Seculares 6 . 

Laymen may not be judges to any of the clergy, nor compel them to pay their 
undoubted debts, but the bishops only must be their judges. 

De foro competent. Cum sit 1 ; Licet*. 

Rectors of churches may convent 9 such as do them wrong, whither 9 they will, before 
a spiritual judge, or a temporal. 

Ibidem. Ex parte; JJilecti* . 

A layman being spoiled* may convent his adversaries before a spiritual judge, whether 
the lord of the feod consent thereto or not. 

Ibidem. Significasti : et 11. q. 1. Placuit 13 . 

A layman may commit his cause to a spiritual judge; but one of the clergy may 
not commit his cause to a temporal judge without the consent of the bishop. 

Ne clerici vel monachi. Secundum 1 *. 
Laymen may have no benefices to farm. 

De sententia excommunicationis. Noverit* 5 . Extrav. de pcenitentiis et remiss. Etsi. 

All they that make or write any statutes contrary to the liberties of the church, 
and all princes, rulers, and counsellors, where such statutes be made, or such customs 
observed, and all the judges and other that put the same in execution ; and where 
such statutes and customs have been made and observed of old time, all they that 
put them not out of their books, be excommunicate, and that so grievously, that they 
cannot be assoiled but only by the bishop of Rome. 

De immunitate ecdesice. N on minus ; Adversus ; Quia 17 ; Quum. et in 6. Clericis 19 . 

The clergy to the relief of any common necessity can nothing confer without the 
consent of the bishop of Rome : nor it is not lawful for any layman to lay any im 
position of taxes, subsidies, or any charges upon the clergy. 

Dist. 97- Hoc capitulo ; et 63. Nullus, et quce sequuntur 21 . Et 96. Illud; et Bene 
quidem ss . De rebus eccles. non alien. Cum laicis 23 . 

Laymen may not meddle with elections of the clergy, nor with any other thing 
that belongeth unto them. 



[ Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. v. Tit. xi. De sen- 
tent, excommunicat. cap. xii. Si judex. Tom. 
II. p. 341. J 

[ 2 Id. Decreti. ii. Pars, Causa ii. Quaest. 5. 
can. iv. Si quis. Tom. I. p. 158.] 

[ 3 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. n. Tit. ii. De 
foro compet. cap. ii. Nullus. Tom. II. p. 74.] 

[ 4 Id. ibid. cap. i. * Si quis. Ibid.] 

[ 5 Id. ibid. cap. vi. * Ex transmissa. Ibid.] 

[ 6 Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. n. Tit. ii. De foro 
compet. cap. ii. Seculares. Tom. II. p. 306.] 

[7 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. n. Tit. ii. De 
foro compet. cap. viii. Cum sit. Tom. II. p. 74.] 

[ 8 Id. ibid. cap. x. Licet. Tom. II. p. 75.]" 

[ 9 convict, whether, C. C.C. MS.] 

[ 10 Id. ibid. cap. xv. Ex parte. Ibid. cap. xvii. 
4 Dilecti. Tom. II. p. 76.] 

[ u i. e. Fee, tenure. C. C. C. MS. reads fee.] 

[" Id. ibid. cap. xviii. < Significasti. Tom. II. 
p. 76.] 

[ 13 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xi. Quaest. 1. can. 
xi. Placuit. Tom. 1. p. 217.] 

f 14 Id Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. m. Tit. i. 
Ne clerici vel monachi. cap. vi. Secundum. Tom. 



II. p. 199.] 

f 15 Vid. p. 68. n. 6.] 

[ 16 Id. Extravag. Commun. Lib. v. Tit. ix. De 
pcenitent. et remiss, cap. iii. Etsi. Tom. II. p. 
423.] 

[ 17 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. in. Tit.xlix. 
De immunitate eccles. cap. iv. Non minus. 
cap. vii. Adversus. cap. viii. Quia. Tom. II. 
pp. 197, 8. Et Sexti Decretal. Lib. in. Tit. xxiii. 
cap. i. Tom. II. p. 327.] 

[ 18 Id. ibid. Lib. in. Tit. xlix. cap. v. Cum. 
Tom. II. p. 198.] 

[ 19 Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. in. Tit. xxiii. De 
immunit. eccles. &c. cap. iii. Clericis. Tom. 
II. p. 327.] 

[ 20 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 97. Hoc capi- 
tulo. Tom. I. p. 120. J 

[ 21 Id. ibid. Dist. 63. can. i. Nullus. Tom. I. 
p. 83.] 

[ 22 Id. ibid. Dist. 96. Illud. can. i. Bene 
quidem. Tom. I. p. 117.] 

[ 23 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. in. Tit.xiii. 
De rebus eccl. aliend. cap. xii. t Cum laicis. 
Tom. II. p. 153.] 



FROM THE CANON LAW. 73 

De jurejurando. Nimis**. 

The clergy ought to give no oath of fidelity to their temporal governors, except 
they have temporalities of them. 

Dist. 96. Bene quidem 25 . 12. q. 2. Apottolico** ; Quisquis* 1 . 

The goods of the church may in no wise be alienated, but whosoever receiveth or 
buyeth of them, is bound to restitution ; and if the church have any ground which is 
little or nothing worth, yet it shall not be given to the prince; and if the prince 
would needs buy it, the sale shall be void and of no strength. 

12. q. 2. Non liceat. 

It is not lawful for the bishop of Rome to alienate or mortgage any lands of 
the church for any manner of necessity, except it be houses in cities, which be very 
chargeable to support and maintain. 

Dist. 96. Quis 29 ; Nunquam 30 . 2. q. 7- Accusatio 31 . 11. q. 1. Continua; Nullus ; 
Testimonium ; Relatum; Experiential ; Si quisquam; Si quce ; Sicut ; Statuimus; 
Nullus; De persona; Si quis 32 . 

Princes ought to obey the bishops, and the decrees of the church, and to submit their 
heads unto the bishops, and not to be judges over the bishops; for the bishops ought 
to be forborne, and to be judged of no laymen. 

De major, et obedient. Solitce 33 . 

Kings and princes ought not to set bishops beneath them, but reverently to rise 
against them, and assign them an honourable seat by them. 



11. q. 1. Quwcumque 3 * ; Relatum; Si quce ; Omnes; Volumus ; Placuit 39 . 

All manner of causes, whatsoever they be, spiritual or temporal, ought to be de 
termined and judged by the spiritualty. 

Ibidem. Omnes 37 . 
No judge ought to refuse the witnesses of one bishop, although he be but alone. 

De hcereticis. Ad abolendam 38 . Et in Clementinis. Ut officium". 

Whosoever teacheth or thinketh of the sacraments otherwise than the see of Rome 
doth teach and observe, and all they that the same see doth judge heretics, be excom 
municate. And the bishop of Rome may compel by an oath all rulers and other people 



[ 24 Id. ibid. Lib. ii. Tit.xxiv. De jurejurando. 
cap. xxx. Nimis. Tom. II. p. 111.] 

[ 25 Vid. p. 72. n. 22.] 

[ 2(i Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xii. Quaest. 2. 
can. xiii. Apostolicos. Tom. I. p. 237.] 

[ 27 Id. ibid. can. xix. Quisquis. Tom. I. 
p. 238.] 

[ 28 Id. ibid. can. xx. Non liceat. Ibid.] 

[ 29 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 96. can.ix. Quis. 
Tom. I. p. 118.] 

I 30 Id. ibid. can. xii. Numquam. Tom. 1. p. 
119] 

[ 3l Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa ii. Queest. 7- 
can. xv. Accusatio. Tom. I. p. 168.] 

[ 32 Id. ibid. Causa xi. Quaest. 1. can. v. Con- 
tinua. can. vi. Nullus. can. ix. Testimonium. 
can. xiv. * Relatum. can. xv. Experientiae. 



can. xvi. Si quisquam. can. xxvi. Si quae. 
can. xxx. Sicut. can. xxxi. Statuimus. can. 
xxxiii. Nullus. can. xxxviii. l De persona. 
can. xlv. Si quis. Tom. I. pp. 216 220. J 

[ M Vid. p. 68. n. 3. p. 69. n. 28.] 

[ 34 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa, xi. Quaest. i. 
can. vii. Quaecumque. Tom. I. p. 216.] 

[ 35 Relatum ; Si quae. Vid. supra, n. 32.] 

[ 36 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xi. can. xxxvi. 
Omnes. can. xxx vii. Volumus. can. xliii. 
Placuit. Tom. I. pp. 219, 20.] 

[ 37 Omnes. Vid. supra, n. 36.] 

[ 38 Id. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. v. Tit. vii. 
De haeret. cap. ix. Ad abolendam. Tom. II. p. 
238.] 

[ 39 Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. v. Tit. ii. De haeret. 
cap. xi. Ut officium. Tom. II. p. 332.] 



74 COLLECTION OF TENETS 

to observe, and cause to be observed, whatsoever the see of Rome shall ordain concern 
ing heresy, and the fautors thereof; and who will not obey, he may deprive them of 
their dignities. 

Clement, da reliq. et venerat. sanctorum. Si Dominum 1 . Extrarag. de reliq. et venerat. 
sanctorum. Cum pros excelsa*. De poenitent. et remiss. Antiquorum. et Clemen. 
Unigenitus ; Quemadmodum 3 . 

We obtain remission of sin by observing of certain [feasts, and certain] 4 pilgrimages 
in the jubilee, and other prescribed times, by virtue of the bishop of Rome s pardons. 

De pcenitentiis et remisslonibus extravag. ca. 5. Et si dominici*. 

Whosoever offendeth the liberties of the church, or doth violate any interdiction 
that cometh from Rome, or conspireth against the person or state of the bishop of 
Rome or his see; or by any ways offendeth, disobeyeth or rebelleth against the said 
bishop or see; or that killeth a priest, or offendeth personally against a bishop or 
other prelate; or invadeth, spoileth, withholdeth, or wasteth lands belonging to the 
church of Rome, or to any other church immediately subjected to the same ; or who 
soever invadeth any pilgrims that go to Rome, or any suitors to the court of Rome, 
or that let the devolution of causes unto that court, or that put any new charges or 
impositions real or personal upon any church or ecclesiastical person; and generally, 
all other that offend in the causes contained in the bull" which is usually published 
by the bishops of Rome upon Maundy Thursday ; all these can be assoiled by no 
priest, bishop, archbishop, nor by none other, but only by the bishop of Rome, [or by 
his express licence] 4 . 

24. q. 3 : Si quis 7 . 
Robbing of the clergy, and poor men, appertaineth unto the judgment of the bishops. 

23. q. 5. Excommunicatorum 8 . 
He is [no] 4 manslayer which slayeth a man w r hich is excommunicate. 

Dist. 63. Tibi Domino 9 . De sententia excommunicationis. Si judex 10 . 

Here may be added 11 to the most tyrannical and abominable oaths which the bishop 
of Rome exacts of the emperors; in Clement, de jurejurando. Romani 1 *. Dist. 63. 
Tibi domino 13 . 

De consccrat. Dist. 1. Sicut. 

It is better not to consecrate, than to consecrate in a place not hallowed. 

De consecrat. Dist. 5: De his; Manus: Ut jejuni 16 . 

Confirmation, if it be ministered by any other than a bishop, is of no value, nor 
is no sacrament of the church : also confirmation is more to be had in reverence than 
baptism; and no man by baptism can be a Christian man without confirmation. 



[ Id. Clementin. Lib. in. Tit. xvi. De reliq. 
et venerat. sanct. cap. i. Si Dominum. Tom. 
II. p. 367-1 

[ 3 Id. Extravag. Comm. Lib. in. Tit. xii. De 
reliq. et venerat. sanct. cap. i. Cum prae excelsa. 
Tom. 11. p. 414.] 

[ 3 Id. ibid. Lib. v. Tit. ix. De pcenit. et re 
miss, cap. i. Antiquorum. cap. ii. Unigeni 
tus. cap. iv. Quemadmodum. Tom. II. pp. 423, 4.J 

[ 4 Wanting in the C. C. C. MS.] 



[ 9 Id. Decret. i. Pars, Dist. 63 can. xxxii. 
Tibi domino. (Constitutio Othonis. An. 960. in 
Germania). Tom. I. p. 87.] 

[ 10 Id. Sexti Decretal. Lib. v. Tit. xi. De sen- 
tent, excommanicat. cap. xii. Si judex. Tom. 
II. p. 341. J 

[ n In the C. C. C. MS. is a mark of abbrevia 
tion, perhaps intended for adverted or alluded.] 

[ 12 Id. Clementin. Lib. u. Tit. ix. De jureju 
rando. cap. i. Romani. Tom. II. pp. 356, 7-] 



5 Id. ibid. cap. v. Et si dominici. Ibid.] [ 13 Vid. supra, n. 7.] 

[ 6 The bull, In coena Domini. ] [ 14 Id. Decret. iii. Pars. De consecrat. Dist. 1. 

[ 7 Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xxiv. Quaest. iii. < can. xi. Sicut. Tom. I. p. 448.] 
can. xxi. Si quis. Tom. I. p. 341.J [ l5 Id. ibid. Dist. 5. can. iii. 4 De his. can. iv. 

[ 8 Id. ibid. Causa xxiii. Quaest. v. can. xlvii. ! Manus. can. vi. Ut jejuni. Tom. I. p. 483.] 
Excommunicatorem. Tom. I. p. 324.] 



FROM THE CANON LAW. 



De pcenitent. Dist. 1. Multiplex 16 . 
A penitent man can have no remission of his sins, but by supplication of the priest. 

17 The bishop of Rome allegeth falsely to maintain his usurped power these scriptures 
following, with many other : 

In the chapter Unam sanctam 18 , he abuseth to that purpose this text, Pasce oves John xxi. 
mea* ; and this also, Unum est ovile et unus pastor ; and, Ecce duo gladii hie ; et, Con- Johnx. ic. 
verte gladium tuum in vaginam ; et, Qucecunque sunt, a Deo ordinatce sunt ; et, Ecce ! e 
constitui te hodie super gentes et regna ; et, Spiritualis homo judicat omnia, ipse autem 58. 

. T r\ ^ T o T Rom. xiii. 1. 

a nemine judicatur ; et, Quodeunque ligavens super terram, fyc. ; et, In principio Jer. i. i<>. 
creavit Dens ccelum et terram. Matt. xvu fi. 

In the chapter Solitce, De major, et obed., he abuseth this text, Subditi estote omni f&.V ia. 
humanae creatures propter Deum, sive regi tanquam prcecellenti, sive ducilus, fyc. ; also 
this text, Ecce constitui te super gentes et regna^ fyc. ; also this, Fecit Deus duo lumi- jer. i. 10. 
naria magna in jfirmamento cceli, luminare majus, fyc. ; also, Pasce oves meas ; et, Johuixfw. 
Quodcunque ligaveris super terram, fyc. 

In the chapter Per venerabilem 20 , Quifilii sunt legit., he abuseth and false corrupteth Deut. xvii. a. 
this text, Si difficile et ambiguum apud te judicium esse perspexeris inter sanguinem et 
sanguinem, fyc., leaving out these words, secundum legem Dei : also he abuseth this text, i cor. vi. 3. 
Nescitis quoniam angelos judicabimus ? quanta mag is secularia ! 



f lfl Id. Decret. ii. Pars, Causa xxxiii. Qusest. iii. 
De penitent. Dist. 1. can. xlix. Multiplex. Torn. 
I. p. 399.] 

[ 17 " These remarks on the papal abuses of scrip 
ture follow the extracts in the original manuscript 
at Lambeth, but are not printed by Burnet. The 



latter part of them is in Cranmer g own hand 
writing." Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, 
Vol. II. p. 9.] 

[ 18 Vid. p. 68. n. 4.] 

[ ie Ibid.n. 3. et p. 69. n. 28.] 

[ 20 Vid. p. 71. n. 18.] 



[SUBSTANCE OF A SPEECH 



DELIVERED BY 



C R A N M E R, 



ABOUT THE YEAR 1534, ON THE AUTHORITY OF THE POPE, AND 
OF GENERAL COUNCILS 1 .] 



Burnet, Hist. 



" * HAVE seen a long speech of Cranmer s, written by one of his secretaries. It was 
spoken soon after the parliament had passed the acts 2 formerly mentioned, for it relates 
to them as lately done : it was delivered either in the house of lords, the upper house 
of convocation, or at the council-board ; but I rather think it was in the house of lords, 
for it begins, " My lords." The matter of it does so much concern the business of 
reformation, that I know the reader will expect I should set down the heads of it. 
It appears he had been ordered to inform the house about these things. The preamble 
of his speech runs upon this conceit :" 

That as rich men, flying from their enemies, carry away all they can with them, 
and what they cannot take away they either hide or destroy it ; so the court of Rome had 
destroyed so many ancient writings, and hid the rest, having carefully preserved every 
thing that was of advantage to them, that it was not easy to discover what they had so 
artificially concealed: therefore in the canon law some honest truths were yet to be 
found, but so mislaid, that they are not placed where one might expect them; but 
are to be met with in some other chapters, where one would least look for them. And 
many more things, said by the ancients of the see of Rome and against their authority, 
were lost, as appears by the fragments yet remaining. He shewed that many of the 
ancients called every thing which they thought well done, "of divine institution," by 
a large extent of the phrase; in which sense the passages of many fathers, that mag 
nified the see of Rome, were to be understood. 

Then he shewed for what end general councils were called; to declare the faith, 
and reform errors : not that ever any council was truly general, for even at Nice there 
were no bishops almost but out of Egypt, Asia, and Greece ; but they were called 
general, because the emperor summoned them, and all Christendom did agree to their 
definitions, which he proved by several authorities : therefore, though there were many 
more bishops in the council of Arimini, than at Nice or Constantinople, yet the one 
was not received as a general council, and the others were : so that it was not the 
number nor authority of the bishops, but the matter of their decisions, which made 
them be received with so general a submission. 

As for the head of the council : St Peter and St James had the chief direction of 
the council of the apostles, but there were no contests then about headship. Christ 
named no head ; which could be no more called a defect in him, than it was one in God, 
that had named no head to govern the world. Yet the church found it convenient 
to have one over them ; so archbishops were set over provinces. And though St Peter 
had been head of the apostles, yet as it is not certain that he was ever in Rome, so it 
does not appear that he had his headship for Rome s sake, or that he left it there; 
but he was made head for his faith, and not for the dignity of any see: therefore 



[ l A copy of this speech is said by Burnet to 
exist among bishop Stillingfleet s manuscripts. But 
those which are now in the library at Lambeth do 
not contain it. " Neither can it be discovered in 
Marsh s library at Dublin, where some of the 
bishop s books are preserved." See Dr Jenkyns 



Remains of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 11. J 

[ 2 " For declaring the king s supremacy, for 
confirming the oath of succession, for granting the 
first-fruits and tenths to the king, for appointing 
suffragan bishops ; all passed in the session of No 
vember and December, 1534." Dr Jenkyns.] 



SPEECH ON GENERAL COUNCILS. 77 

the bishops of Rome could pretend to nothing from him, but as they followed his 
faith ; and Liberius, and some other bishops there, had been condemned for heresy ; 
and if, according to St James, faith be to be tried by works, the lives of the popes 
for several ages gave shrewd presumptions that their faith was not good. And though 
it were granted that such a power was given to the see of Rome, yet by many in 
stances he shewed that positive precepts, in a matter of that nature, were not for 
ever obligatory. And therefore Gerson wrote a book, De Auferibilitate Papce: so 
that if a pope with the cardinals be corrupted, they ought to be tried by a general 
council, and submit to it. St Peter gave an account of his baptizing Cornelius, when 
he was questioned about it. So Damasus, Sixtus, and Leo, purged themselves of some 
scandals. 

Then he shewed how corrupt the present pope was, both in his person and govern 
ment, for which he was abhorred even by some of his cardinals, as himself had heard 
and seen at Rome. It is true, there was no law to proceed against a vicious pope, 
for it was a thing not foreseen, and thought scarcely possible; but new diseases re 
quired new remedies : and if a pope that is a heretic may be judged in a council, the 
same reason would hold against a simoniacal, covetous, and impious pope, who was 
salt that had lost its savour. And by several authorities he proved, that every man 
who lives so, is thereby out of the communion of the church ; and that, as the pre 
eminence of the see of Rome flowed only from the laws of men, so there was now 
good cause to repeal these : for the pope, as was said in the council of Basil, was 
only vicar of the church, and not of Christ; so he was accountable to the church. 
The council of Constance, and the divines of Paris, had, according to the doctrine of 
the ancient church, declared the pope to be subject to a general council, which many 
popes in former ages had confessed. And all that the pope can claim, even by the 
canon law, is, only to call and preside in a general council ; but not to overrule it, 
or have a negative vote in it. 

The power of councils did not extend to princes, dominions, or secular matters, but 
only to points of faith, which they were to declare; and to condemn heretics: nor 
were their decrees laws, till they were enacted by princes. Upon this he enlarged 
much, to shew that though a council did proceed against a king, (with which they 
then threatened the king,) that their sentence was of no force, as being without their 
sphere. The determination of councils ought to be well considered and examined by 
the scriptures ; and in matters indifferent men ought to be left to their freedom. He 
taxed the severity of Victor s proceedings against the churches of the East about the 
day of Easter : and concluded, that, as a member of the body is not cut off, except 
a gangrene comes in it; so no part of the church ought to be cut off, but upon a 
great and inevitable cause. And he very largely shewed, with what moderation and 
charity the church should proceed even against those that held errors. And the 
standard of the council s definitions should only be taken from the scriptures, and not 
from men s traditions. 

He said, some general councils had been rejected by others; and it was a tender 
point, how much ought to be deferred to a council : some decrees of councils were not 
at all obeyed. The divines of Paris held, that . a council could not make a new article 
of faith, that was not in the scriptures. And as all God s promises to the people 
of Israel had this condition implied within them, If they kept his commandments ; so 
he thought the promises to the Christian church had this condition in them, If they 
kept the faith. Therefore he had much doubting in himself as to general councils ; 
and he thought that only the word of God was the rule of faith, which ought to take 
place in all controversies of religion. The scriptures were called canonical, as being 
the only rule of the faith of Christians; and these, by appointment of the ancient 
council, were only to be read in the churches. The fathers SS. Ambrose, Jerome, 
and Austin, did in many things differ from one another; but always appealed to the 
scriptures, as the common and certain standard. And he cited some remarkable pas 
sage out of St Austin, to shew what difference he put between the scriptures and all 
the other writings even of the best and holiest fathers. But when all the fathers 
agreed in the exposition of any place of scripture, lie acknowledged he looked on that 



78 SPEECH ON GENERAL COUNCILS. 

as flowing from the Spirit of God; and it was a most dangerous thing to be wise in 
our own conceit : therefore he thought councils ought to found their decisions on the 
word of God, and those expositions of it that had been agreed on by the doctors of 
the church. 

Then he discoursed very largely what a person a judge ought to be : he must not 
be partial, nor a judge in his own cause, nor so much as sit on the bench when it 
is tried, lest his presence should overawe others. Things also done upon a common 
error cannot bind, when the error upon which they were done comes to be discovered ; 
and all human laws ought to be changed, when a public visible inconvenience follows 
them. From which he concluded, that the pope, being a party, and having already 
passed his sentence, in things which ought to be examined by a general council, could 
not be a judge, nor sit in it. Princes also, who, upon a common mistake, thinking 
the pope head of the church, had sworn to him, finding that this was done 
upon a false ground, may pull their neck out of his yoke, as every 
man may make his escape out of the hands of a robber. And 
the court of Rome was so corrupt, that a pope, though 
he meant well, as Hadrian 1 did, yet could never 
bring any good design to an issue ; the car 
dinals and the rest of that court being 
so engaged to maintain their 
corruptions. 



[ i.e. Adrian. VI. A.D. 1522 to Sept. 1523. Vid. Mosheim s Eccl. Hist. Vol. III. p. 584. Ed. 
Lond. 1845.J 



[A SPEECH 
DELIVERED AT AN ASSEMBLY OF BISHOPS, 1536 2 .] 



IT beseemcth not men of learning and gravity to make much babbling and brawl- KOXO. p.ii82. 
ing about bare words, so that we agree in the very substance and effect of the matter. 
For to brawl about words is the property of sophisters and such as mean deceit and 
subtilty, which delight in the debate and dissension of the world, and in the miserable 
state of the churph; and not of them which should seek the glory of Christ, and 
should study for the unity and quietness of the church. There be weighty contro 
versies now moved and put forth, not of ceremonies and light things, but of the true 
understanding and of the right difference of the law and of the gospel ; of the manner 
and way how sins be forgiven ; of comforting doubtful and wavering consciences, by 
what means they may be certified that they please God, seeing they feel the strength of 
the law accusing them of sin ; of the true use of the sacraments, whether the outward 
work of them doth justify man, or whether we receive our justification by faith. 
Item, which be the good works, and the true service and honour which pleaseth God : 
and whether the choice of meats, the difference of garments, the vows of monks and 
priests, and other traditions which have no word of God to confirm them, whether 
these, I say, be right good works, and such as make a perfect Christian man, or no. 
Item, whether vain service, and false honouring of God, and man s traditions, do bind 
men s consciences, or no. Finally, whether the ceremony of confirmation, of orders, 
and of annealing, and such other (which cannot be proved to be institute of Christ, nor 
have any word in them to certify us of remission of sins,) ought to be called sacra 
ments, and to be compared with baptism and the supper of the Lord, or no. 

These be no light matters, but even the principal points of our Christian religion. 
Wherefore we contend not about words and titles, but about high and earnest matters. 
Christ saith, " Blessed be the peace-makers, for they shall be called the sons of God." Wait. v. 
And Paul, writing unto Timothy, commanded bishops to avoid brawling and conten 
tion about words, which be profitable to nothing but unto the subversion and destruction 
of the hearers ; and monisheth him specially, that he should resist with the scriptures, 
when any man disputeth with him of the faith : and he addeth a cause, whereas he 
saith : " Doing this thou shalt preserve both thyself, and also them which hear thee." i Tim. IY. 
Now if ye will follow these counsellors, Christ and Paul, all contention and brawl 
ing about words must be set apart, and ye must stablish a godly and a perfect unity 
and concord out of the scripture. Wherefore in this disputation we must first agree 
of the number of sacraments, and what a sacrament doth signify in the holy scripture ; 
and when we call baptism and the supper of the Lord sacraments of the gospel, what 
we mean thereby. I know right well that St Ambrose and other authors call the 
washing of the disciples feet, and other things, sacraments; which I am sure you 
yourselves would not suffer to be numbered among the other sacraments. 



[ 2 This speech is printed from Foxe s Acts and j mer, Fox, bishop of Hereford, and "one Alexander 

Monuments, and was delivered by Cranmer at an j Alesse, a Scotchman, much esteemed for his learn- 

assembly of bishops, appointed by Henry VIII. to ing and piety, whom Cranmer entertained at Lam- 

u determine those things which pertained unto re- beth," and whom Crumwell brought with him to 

ligion." The whole of the discussion is related in j give his opinion respecting the sacraments. Stokes- 

Foxe, and an abridged statement of it is given in j ley, bishop of London, replied to him, attempting 



Burnet, Hist. Reformat. (Vol. I. p. 429. et sqq. 
Ed. Oxon. 1829.) Crumwell presided as vicar- 
general ; and those who took part in favour of the 
reform of abuses, were, besides the president, Cran- 



to maintain the opposite argument. The articles of 
1536, about religion, resulted from this discussion. 
See Foxe s Acts and Monuments, pp. 1181 1183. 

Ed. 1583.] 



SOME 
QUERIES CONCERNING CONFIRMATION, 

WITH THE ANSWERS WHICH WERE GIVEN TO THEM BY 

CBANMER 1 . 



THE JUDGMENT OF CRANMER, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

Cotton Lib. Whether confirmation be instituted by Christ? 

foL83. Respon. There is no place in scripture that declareth this sacrament to be insti- 

r.S. tute of Christ. 

First, for the places alleged for the same be no institutions, but acts and deeds 
net, Hist, of the apostles. 

Second, these acts were done by a special gift given to the apostles for the con- 
firmation of God s word at that time. 

Thirdly, the said special gift doth not now remain with the successors of the 
apostles. 

What is the external sign? 

The church useth chrisma for the exterior sign, but the scripture maketh no men 
tion thereof. 

What is the efficacy of this sacrament? 

The bishop, in the name of the church, doth invocate the Holy Ghost to give 
strength and constancy, with other spiritual gifts, unto the person confirmed ; so that 
the efficacy of this sacrament is of such value as is the prayer of the bishop made 
in the name of the church. 

Hccc retpondeo, salvo semper eruditiorum et ecclesice orthodoxce judicio. 



[ ! Burnet says this paper was written with Cran- 
mer s hand. Hist, of Reformat. Vol. I. Pt. n. p. 
479. Strype, however, states, " This is writ (i.e. 



Haec respondeo, &c.) with the archbishop s own 
hand : the test above is the hand of his secretary." 
Eccl. Mem. Vol. I. Pt. n. pp. 349, 50.] 



INJUNCTIONS 



GIVEN BY 



THOMAS ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

TO THE PARSONS, VICARS, AND OTHER CURATES, IN HIS 

VISITATION KEPT (SEDE VACANTE 2 ) WITHIN THE 

DIOCESE OF HEREFORD, ANNO DOMINI 1538. 



I. 

First ; That ye and every one of you shall, with all your diligence and faithful Regist. 
obedience, observe, and cause to be observed, all and singular the king s highness iniunc- **>. b. foi. i7. 

, .... . . . % nurnet, Hist. 

tions, by his grace s commissaries given in such places as they in times past have of Reformat. 

. . _ J Append. Vol. 

VISlted. I- Book in. 

n. 12. pp. 
285,6. Ed. 
JJ Oxon. 1829. 

Item; That ye and every one of you shall have, by the first day of August next 
coming, as well a whole bible in Latin and English, or at the least a new testament 
of both the same languages, as the copies of the king s highness injunctions. 

III. 

Item; That ye shall every day study one chapter of the said bible, or new testa 
ment, conferring the Latin and English together, and to begin at the first part of the 
book, and so to continue until the end of the same. 

IV. 

Item, ; That ye, nor none of you, shall discourage any layman from the reading of 
the bible in Latin or English, but encourage them to it, admonishing them that they 
so read it, for reformation of their own life and knowledge of their duty ; and that 
they be not bold or presumptuous in judging of matters afore they have perfect 
knowledge. 

V. 

Item ; That ye, both in your preaching and secret confession, and all other works 
and doings, shall excite and move your parishioners unto such works as are commanded 
expressly of God, for the which God shall demand of them a strait reckoning; and 
all other works which men do of their own will or devotion, to teach your parishioners, 
that they are not to be so highly esteemed as the other; and that for the not doing 
of them God will not ask any account. 



[ 2 " Fox, bishop of Hereford, died May 8, 1538. 
Boner was elected to succeed him Nov. 27 of the 
same year. In the interval Cranmer deputed Hugh 
Coren, prebendary of Hereford, to visit the diocese, 
and promulgate these Injunctions. Boner was trans 
lated to London before consecration, and the see of 
Hereford was not permanently filled till Skyp was 



elected, Oct. 24, 1539. On his death, in 1552, the 
custody of the spiritualities was again committed to 
Hugh Coren, then dean, in conjunction with Richard 
Cheney, archdeacon. Strype, Mem. of Abp. Cran 
mer, Vol. I. pp. 70, 268. Ed. Oxford, 1840. Nicolas, 
Synopsis of the Peerage." Jenkyns Remains of 
Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 19.] 



[CRANMER, n.] 



82 INJUNCTIONS, &c. 

VI. 

Item; That yc, nor none of you, suffer no friar or religious man to have any 
cure or service within your churches or cures, except they be lawfully dispensed withal, 
or licensed by the ordinary. 

VII. 

Item; That ye and every one of you do not admit any young man or woman 
to receive the sacrament of the altar, which never received it before, until that he of 
she openly in the church, after mass, or evening song, upon the holy-day, do recite 
in the vulgar tongue the Pater Noster, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments. 

VIII. 

Item; That ye and every one of you shall two times in a quarter declare to 
your parishioners the band of matrimony, and what great danger it is to all men 
that uscth their bodies but with such persons as they lawfully may by the law of 
God. And to exhort in the said times your parishioners, that they make no privy 
contracts, as they will avoid the extreme pain of the laws used within the king s realm 
by his grace s authority. 



CORRECTIONS 

OF TIIE 

INSTITUTION OF A CHRISTIAN MAN, 

BY 

HENRY VIII. 1 

WITH ARCHBISHOP CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 



[!T is to be observed that the passages in small Roman type are extracted from the Institution, &c. ; 
the marginal remarks in Italic are the Corrections proposed by Henry VIII. applying to the passages in 
the text marked by *. The Annotations of Cranmer are in larger type, connected with the King s Cor 
rections by the numerals added to the latter and prefixed to the former ; and they are here placed so as to 
follow immediately after the passages they notice. ] 



The Institution of a Christian Man, pp. 30, 1. (edit. Oxf. 1825.) I believe also and profess, that this God 
and this Father is almighty, that is to say, that his power and might excelleth incomparably all the other powers 
in heaven and earth : and that all other powers, which be in heaven, earth, or hell, be nothing a i, y his ordi- 
as of themselves, but have all their might, force, and strength of him only, and be all subject na ^ ) ^ w ^ r j^ 
unto his power, and be ruled and governed a * thereby,* and cannot resist or let the same b . grace, ii. 

Annotations upon the King s look 2 . 

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth. 

And in Jesu Christ his only Son our Lord : 

Which was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary : 

He suffered under Pontius Pilate, and was crucified, died, and was buried, and 
descended into hell : 

The third day he arose again from death : 

He ascended into heaven, and sitteth upon the right hand of God: 

From thence he shall come to judge both quick and dead. 

I believe in the Holy Ghost : 

And that there is an holy catholic church : 

A communion of saints, remission of sins: 

And that there shall be resurrection of the body : 

And life everlasting. Amen. 

This Credo I have translated as nigh as I can conveniently, word for word, according 
to the Latin. 



c. c. c. c. 

MSS. civ. 
p. 241. 



[ l Dr Jenkyns has printed these Corrections 
( Vol. II. p. 21. et sqq.) " as a necessary introduction 
to Cranmer s Annotations upon them," and states 
that " they are taken from a copy of the Institution 
formerly belonging to Rawlinson, and now in the 
Bodleian library," as well as that Rawlinson be 
lieved them to have been written by Cranmer ; but 
that Lewis of Margate, in a letter still preserved, 
clearly proved, that, supposing the Annotations on 
the King s Book, attributed to the archbishop, to be 
genuine, these Corrections, instead of being those 
which he made, must be those on which he com 
mented ; and that he further expressed his opinion, 
that Rawlinson s copy of The Institution was the 
identical Book on which Cranmer drew up his re 
marks. Dr Jenkyns thinks that in this conjecture 
he seems to have gone too far. " The probability 
is," he says, " that these are Henry VIII. s rough 
memoranda, which were afterwards transcribed 
fairly, and submitted, with some additions, to Cran 
mer s judgment. They are written chiefly by the 
king s own hand, and it would seem in his own 



copy ; for on the inside of the cover appears this 
order : The king s commandment is that I should 
not be had out of the privy chamber. " They are 
here printed from Dr Jenkyns Remains of Cranmer, 
with most of his notes ; but they are differently ar 
ranged, so as to present the whole at one view to the 
reader. They have been collated with the copy in 
the Bodleian Library, and also corrected by it.] 

[ 2 The Annotations are printed from the C. C. 
C. C. MSS. The title only is in Cranmer s hand, 
the Annotations themselves being a copy by a 
secretary. Extracts were printed by Strype, Mem. 
of Abp. Cranmer, p. 137, and Appendix, Num. 
xxxi. p. 757, and the whole in the " Fathers of the 
English Church:" but the editor of the latter 
work, as well as Strype, supposed them to refer to 
the u Necessary Doctrine," generally known as the 
"King s Book," while the " Institution" was called 
the " Bishops Book." There is some doubt re 
specting the time when they were written, Lewis 
stating them to have appeared in 1538, and Strype, in 
1012, but the former date seems the more probable.] 

G 2 



84 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

i. " By his ordinate power." This word " ordinate power" obscurcth the sentence 
in the understanding of them that be simple and unlearned ; and among the learned it 
gendereth contention and disputation, rather than it any thing edifieth. Therefore me- 
seemeth it better and more plain as it is in the print ; or else to say, " By his ordinance." 
For the scripture speaketh simply and plainly : Potestati ejus quls resistit ? And, Omnia 
quwcunque voluit fecit. 

ii. " But by his grace." It seemeth these words were better out ; for God giveth 
not his grace to let his own power and ordinance. 

Inst. pp. 31, 2. And I believe also and profess, that among his other creatures he did create and make me, 
and did give unto me this my soul, my life, my body, with all the members that I have, great and small, and 

c only by his all the wit, reason, knowledge, and understanding that I have; and finally, all the other out- 
sufferancc. iii. ,. 

* as long at I ward substance, possessions, and things that I have or can have in this world . 

persevere in his And I believe also and profess, that he is my very God, my Lord, and my Father, and that 

laws, one of the I ani his servant and his own son by adoption and grace, and* 1 *the right inheritor* of his 

riyht inherit- kingdom ; and that it proceedeth and cometh of his mere goodness only, without all my desert, 

*by his grace that I am in this life preserved and kept from dangers and perils , and that I am sustained, 

""^and"^ V nourished, fed f , clothed, and that I have health, tranquillity, rest, peace, * or anyf?* other thing 

sand all. necessary for this corporal life 1 . I knowledge also and confess, that he *suffereth* and 

nance.^. 0nU causeth the sun, the moon, the stars, the day, the night, the air, the fire, the water, the land, 

ordained, vii. the sea, the fowls, the fishes, the beasts, and all the fruits of the earth, to serve me for my 

3&S&&Z p rofit and m ? necessit y- 

and sometime And in like manner I confess and knowledge, that all bodily sickness and adversity, which 
SoS and that do fortune unto me in this world, *kbe sent unto me b y his hand and his visitation, and that 
when he punish- he punisheth me not* to destroy me, but only to save me, and to reduce me again by penance 
? unto the ri S ht wa J of his laws and his religion. 



iii. " Only by his sufferance." This word " sufferance" diminisheth the goodness of 
God, and agreeth not with the three verbs to whom it is referred, create, make, and give ; 
for these three verbs import more than sufferance; and all the things that be here spoken 
of, be good and none of them evil, and therefore we may undoubtedly say, that we have 
them of God s gift, and by his liberal benefit. 

iv. " As long as I persevere in his precepts and laws, one of the right inheritors of 
his kingdom." This book speaketh of the pure Christian faith unfeigned, which is without 
colour, as well in heart, as in mouth. He that hath this faith, converteth from his sin, 
repenteth him, that he like Jilius prodigus vainly consumed his will, reason, wits, and 
other goods, which he received of the mere benefit of his heavenly Father, to his said 
Father s displeasure; and applieth himself wholly to please him again, and trusteth 
assuredly, that for Christ s sake lie will and doth remit his sin, withdraweth his indig 
nation, delivereth him from hell, from the power of the infernal spirits, taketh him to 
his mercy, and maketh him his own son and his own heir : and he hath also the very 
Christian hope, that after this life he shall reign ever with Christ in his kingdom. For 
St Paul saith : Sijilii sumus, et hcvredes ; hceredes quidem Dei, cohccredes autem Christi. 

This is the very pure Christian faith and hope, which every good Christian man 
ought to profess, believe, and trust, and to say of himself, even as Job said: Scio 
quod Redemptor meus vivit, et in novissimo die terra surrecturus sum, et rursum circum- 
dabor pelle mea, et in carne mea videbo Deum salvatorem meum, quern visurus sum ego 
ipse, et non alms. Reposita est hcec spes mea in sinu meo. 

And as for the other faith, that the good shall arise unto glory, and the evil unto 
pain ; or that those which " persevere in God s precepts and laws, so long as they so do, 
they be the right inheritors of his kingdom ;" this is not the commendation of a Christian 
man s faith, but a most certain proposition, which also the devils believe most certainly, 
and yet they shall never have their sins forgiven by this faith, nor be inheritors of God s 
kingdom ; because they lack the very Christian faith, not trusting to the goodness and 
mercy of God for their own offences ; but they hate God, envy his glory, and be utterly 
in desperation. 

For the more large declaration of the pure Christian faith, it is to be considered, that 
there is a general faith, which all that be Christian, as well good as evil, have : as, to 
believe that God is, that he is the Maker and Creator of all things, and that Christ is the 
Saviour and Redeemer of the world, and for his sake all penitent sinners have remission 
of their sins ; and that there shall be a general resurrection at the end of this mortal 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 85 

world, at the which Christ shall judge all the good to joy without end, and the evil to 
pain without end ; with such other like things. And all these things even the devils also 
believe, and tremble for fear and grievousness of God s indignation and torments, which 
they endure and ever shall do. But they have not the right Christian faith, that their 
own sins by Christ s redemption be pardoned and forgiven, that themselves by Christ be 
delivered from God s wrath, and be made his beloved children and heirs of his kin^- 
dom to come. 

The other faith hath all devils and wicked Christian people, that be his members : 
but this pure Christian faith have none, but those that truly belong to Christ, and be the 
very members of his body, and endeavour themselves to persevere in his precepts and 
laws ; although many pretend to have the said pure faith, which nevertheless have it not, 
but only in their mouths. For as there is a love in the mouth, and a love in the 
heart, even so there is a faith in mouth and a faith in heart. Examine every man, if he 
trust in God and love God above all things ; and in words he will answer, yea : but 
examine every man s acts and deeds, and surely in a great number their acts and deeds 
condemn their words. For they walk after their own wills and pleasures, and not after 
God s commandments. And Christ himself saith : Qui diligit me, mandata measervat; 
and St John saith : Qui dicit se nosse Deum, et mandata ejus non custodit, mendax est. 

And therefore all those that bridle not their own appetites, but follow them, and 
accomplish the will of their own carnal minds, they trust in God and love God no further 
than the lips. And if they persuade themselves that they trust in God, and love God in 
their hearts, and be of any estimation before God, then be they much deceived, and, as 
St Paul saith, " They deceive their own hearts." Our own flesh and carnal mind is 
contrary to the Spirit and motion of God ; and " they," saith St Paul, " that belong 
unto Christ, do crucify their flesh with the affections and lusts thereof." And contrary, 
he saith, they that follow the works of the flesh "shall not inherit the kingdom of God." 

These be very notable and fearful sentences unto all such as be not repentant, but 
live after their own wills and not after God s will, neither have the right faith nor love 
unto God, nor shall be inheritors of his kingdom. And though Christ hath paid a suffi 
cient ransom for all the sins in the world, and is a sufficient Redeemer and Saviour of all 
the world, yet shall they have no part thereof; for they belong not unto Christ; and 
Christ utterly refuseth them for his, which have faith and love only in their mouth, and 
have not the same engraven in their hearts, and expressed in their acts and deeds. 

St James assimileth him, that hath this faith only in his mouth, unto a man that 
piticth his naked or hungry brother, and biddeth him go warm him or fill his belly ; and 
yet will give him neither clothes nor meat, wherewith he may warm him or feed his 
hungriness. What availeth this mercy spoken only with the tongue, when he sheweth 
no mercy in deed, in relieving his brother s necessity ? But St James saith, " So say, 
so do ;" for he shall not receive mercy of God that speaketh mercifully, except he hath 
the same in his heart to do it in deed. For the mercy that is not in the heart, dieth even 
in the mouth, and he shall have judgment without mercy that showeth not mercy in 
deed, how mercifully that ever he speak. And as the body is but dead that lacketh a 
soul, even so is that faith but dead that is but in the mouth, and doth not enter effect- 
uously into the heart, and work accordingly. 

What love soever the son pretcndeth unto his father, or the servant unto his master, 
yet surely all that love is but coloured and feigned, if they be not glad to accomplish 
the will and commandments of their father and master, and very loath and sorry to 
transgress any part thereof. Likewise, how can the son persuade with himself that his 
father loveth him, favoureth him, and will do all good for him, and at length make him 
his heir, if he love not his father, nor be sorry to offend his father, but, like an un 
natural and disobedient child, is ready to follow his own sensual mind, and to rebel 
against his father and all his precepts ? It is not possible that such a son should have a 
sure trust of his father s benignity, gracious goodness, and fatherly love towards him, 
unless it come either of the ignorance or else the iniquity of his father ; so that he either 
dissemble with his father, and trust that his father knoweth not of his folly, disobedience 
and rebellion ; or else that he know that his father be so evil himself, that he favoureth 
ill-doers, and delighteth in the iniquity of his son, and loveth him never the worse for his 



86 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

vicious living. But to God (who knowcth all things, even before they be done, and 
knoweth all men s hearts even to the bottom better than they do themselves, and who also 
can favour no iniquity or malice of sin, but hateth it and the doers of the same,) cannot 
be ascribed any ignorance or evilness. Therefore, let no man deceive his own mind ; for 
no man surely can have the right faith and sure trust of God s favour towards him, 
and persuade with himself that God is his benign and loving Father, and taketh him for 
his well-beloved son and heir, except he love God in his heart, and have a willing and 
glad mind, and a delight to do all things that may please God, and a very great repent 
ance and sorrow r that ever he did any thing that should offend and displease so loving a 
Father, whose goodness he can never account. 

And as sure as it is, that God lovcth and favoureth them that be thus minded ; even 
as certain it is, that God hateth all those wicked children that love not him, and that be 
otherwise minded, that follow their own will, and rebel against his will : so that all such, 
what faith or love soever they pretend and say they have toward God, it is but in 
the lips and words only, and not in the heart altercth the whole man from all evil unto 
all good. Even as treacle kept only in the mouth doth not remedy poison in the whole 
body ; but the treacle must enter down into the body, and then it altercth the whole 
body, and expelleth all venom and poison : in like manner, he whose profession of his 
faith is only in his mouth, altercth not his evil life, is not forgiven his sin, is not delivered 
from hell nor from the power of devils, is not made the son of God ; but he continucth 
still in the poison of sin, in the wrath and indignation of God, and in the damnation of 
the wicked in hell. 

But, if the profession of our faith of the remission of our own sins enter within us into 
the deepness of our hearts, then it must needs kindle a warm fire of love in our hearts 
towards God, and towards all other for the love of God, a fervent mind to seek and 
procure God s honour, will, and pleasure in all things, a good will and mind to help 
every man and to do good unto them, so far as our might, wisdom, learning, counsel, 
health, strength, and all other gifts which we have received of God, will extend, 
and, in summa, a firm intent and purpose to do all that is good, and leave all that is evil. 
This is the very right, pure, perfect, lively, Christian, hearty, and justifying " faith, which 
worketh by love," as St Paul saith, and suffercth no venom or poison of sin to remain 
within the heart, fide Deus purlficans corda, (Acts xv.), but gendereth in the heart an 
hatred to sin, and maketh the sinner clean a new man. And this is the faith which every 
Christian man ought to profess in his creed, and of this faith runneth all our paraphrasis 
upon the same. For, as for the other feigned, pretended, hypocritical, and adulterate 
faith in the mouth, it is but only a painted visor before men ; but before God it is hollow 
within, dead, rotten, and nothing worth. 

This being declared, in my judgment it shall not be necessary to interline or insert 
in many places, where we protest our pure Christian faith, these words or sentences, that 
be newly added, namely, " I being in will to follow God s precepts ;" " I rejecting in my 
will and heart the devil and his works ;" " I willing to return to God ;" " If I continue 
not in sin ;" " If I continue a Christian life ;" " If I follow Christ s precepts ;" " We living 
well ;" " If we order and conform our wills in this world to his precepts ;" " If we join 
our wills to his godly motions ;" and such other like sentences or clauses conditional, 
which to the right faith need not to be added : for without these conditions is no right 
faith. And these sentences, methinks, come not in aptly in some places, as they be 
brought in, but rather interrupt and let the right course and phrase of the paraphrasis, 
and obscure the same rather than make it clear. In this part I have spoken the more 
largely, because I do refer unto this fourth note all other places like to the same matter 
appertaining. 

v. " By his grace and mercy." This obscureth the sentence, and is superfluous : 
for it is sufficiently expressed by the fonncr words, that is to say, " by his mere good 
ness only." 

vi. " By his ordinance." This also obscureth the sense, and is superfluous. 

vii. " Ordained." The preter tense may not conveniently be joined with the present 
tense. 

viii. " Sometime be suffered by him, and sometime sent by his visitation. And that 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 87 

when he pimishcth me he doth not punish." The sentence, as it is printed, runneth more 
evenly, and is very comfortable to every good man in all sickness and adversities, to take 
all such things to he of God s hand by his visitation. For as of meat, drink, clothing, 
and such like, which other men prepare for us or give unto us, we say, as we ought 
indeed to say, that we have all of God s hand, although other men or creatures be God s 
ministers therein ; even so ought w r e to take all sickness and adversity in this world with 
all humility and gladness, as the rod of Almighty God, whereby he justly and lovingly 
scourgeth and punisheth us for our correction and reformation ; yea, although it be sent 
unto us from him by ministration of wicked angels or men, as it shall appear more at 
length in the Annotation Ixxiii. 

Instt p. 33. And sith he is my Father , I am assured that, for the fatherly love and pity 
which he hath and beareth unto me, he will not only care for me, but he will be also continu 
ally present with me by his grace and favour. 

ix. "As afore." These words do let and interrupt the course of the paraphrasis; 
and if they should be put in this place, there must be added more, viz. " as before 
is said." 

Insi . pp. 34 30. And I believe also and profess, that Jesu Christ is not only Jesus and Lord to me and to all 
men that believe in him, but also that he is my Jesus, my God, and my Lord. For whereas of m ^ ^. Chrif 
my nature I was born in sin, and in the indignation and displeasure of God, and was the very tia)i,an!/inu-ill 
child of wrath, condemned to everlasting death, subject and thrall to the power of the devil and 
sin, having all the principal parts or portions of my soul, as my reason and understanding, and 
my free-will, and all the other powers of my soul and body, not only so destituted and deprived of the gifts of 
God, wherewith they were first endued, but also so blinded, corrupted, and poisoned with error, ignorance, 
and carnal concupiscence, that neither my said powers could exercise the natural function and office for the 
which they were ordained by God at the first creation n , nor I by them could do or think any n 
thing which might be acceptable to God, but was utterly dead to God and all godly things, tinue ax lonp ns 
and utterly unable and insufficient of mine own self to observe the least part of God s com- t} ww M last- 
mandments, and utterly inclined and ready to run headlong into all kinds of sin and mischief; 
I believe, I say, that I being in this case, Jesu Christ, by suffering of most painful and shameful death upon 
the cross, and by shedding of his most precious blood, and by that glorious victory which he had, when he 
descending into hell, and there overcoming both the devil and death, rose again the third day from death to 
life, and so ascended into heaven, hath now pacified his Father s indignation towards me, and hath recon 
ciled me again into his favour, and that he hath loosed and delivered me from the yoke and tyranny of death, 
of the devil, and of sin, and hath made me so free from them, that they shall not finally hurt or annoy me, 
and that he hath poured out plentifully his Holy Spirit and his graces upon me, specially faith, to illumine 
and direct my reason and judgment, and charity, to direct my will and affections towards God, whereby 
I am so perfectly restored to the light and knowledge of God, to the spiritual fear and dread o rejecting in 
of God, and unto the love of him and mine neighbour, that with his grace I am now ready to m v wiu and 
obey, and able to fulfil and accomplish his will and commandments. Besides all this, he hath and kit toorkt. 
brought and delivered me from darkness and blindness to light, from death to life, and from xii - 
sin to justice; and he hath taken me into his protection, and made me as his own peculiar possession ; and he 
hath planted and grafted me into his own body, and made me a member of the same, and he hath communi 
cated and made me participant of his justice, his power, his life, his felicity, and of aU his goods; so that now 
I may boldly say and believe, as indeed I do perfectly believe, that by his passion, his death, his blood, and 
his conquering of death, of sin, and of the devil by his resurrection and ascension, he hath made a sufficient 
expiation or propitiation towards God, that is to say, a sufficient satisfaction and recompence as well for my 
original sin, as also for all the actual sins that ever I have committed P ; and that I am so clearly 
rid from all the guilt of my said offences, and from the everlasting pain due for the same, that r ?cSiliation. y 
neither sin, nor death, nor hell shall be able, or have any power, to hurt me or to let men, but xiii. 
that after this transitory life I shall ascend into heaven, there to reign with my Saviour Christ * for them 
perpetually in glory and felicity. 

All which things considered, I may worthily call him my Jesus, that is to say, my Saviour, and my Christ, 
that is to say, mine anointed King and Priest, and my Lord, that is to say, my Redeemer and Governor. For 
he hath done and fulfilled the very office both of a Priest, and of a King, and of a Lord : of a Priest, in that 
he hath offered up his blessed body and blood, in the altar of the cross, for the satisfaction of my sins ; and 
of a King and Lord, in that he hath, like a most mighty conqueror, overcome and utterly oppressed his 
enemies, (which were also mine enemies,) and hath spoiled them of the possession of mankind r, r . ? 7//, )/7 to re- 
which they won before by fraud and deceit, by lying and blasphemy, and hath brought us now turntohim. xiv. 
into his possession and dominion, to reign over us in mercy and love, like a most loving Lord and Governor. 

Finally, I believe assuredly, and also profess, that this redemption and justification of mankind could not 
have been wrought nor brought to pass by any other means in the world, but by the means of this Jesu Christ, 
God s only Son ; and that never man could yet, nor never shall be able to come unto God the Father, or to 
believe in him, or to attain his favour, by his own wit or reason, or by his own science and learning, or by any 
his own works, or by whatsoever may be named in heaven or in earth, but 8 *by the faith* in 
the name and power of Jesu Christ, and by the gifts and graces of his Holy Spirit. And there- fi rsu/^d 
fore, sith he is my Jesu Christ and my Lord, I will put my whole trust and confidence in him, Men by the faith. 
and will have the self-same faith and affiance in him in all points which I have in God the X 



88 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

Father. And I will knowledge him for my only Lord, and will obey all his commandments during my life, 
which I am without any grudging. And I am sure that while he is my Lord and Governor, and I 
under hi 3 P rotec ti nt j neither sin, neither the devil, nor yet death, nor hell, can do me 
any hurt. 

x. " I being Christian, and in will to follow his precepts." He that hath the 
true faith in heart is Christian, and in will to follow his precepts ; ut supra ad iv. 
Annotationem. 

xi. " And shall continue as long as the world lasteth." This maketh the sentence 
very dark and ambiguous, to what noun the verb " continue" is referred ; whether to the 
powers, or to the function and office. And I cannot perceive any manner of consideration 
why those words should be put in that place. 

xii. " Rejecting in my will and heart the devil and his works." His heart is not 
replenished with a right faith, which in will and heart rejecteth not the devil and his 
works ; ut supra ad iv. 

xiii. " Before my reconciliation." These words be superfluous ; for the true faithful 
heart is already reconciled : and the place can no otherwise be understand but of sins com 
mitted before reconciliation ; for immediately before be written these words, " for all 
actual sins that ever I have committed :" which words cannot be extended to them which 
I shall commit hereafter. 

xiv. " Willing to return to him." It is good to speak of our redemption after the 
fashion of the scripture, which useth ever to say, that Christ hath spoiled the devils, and 
redeemed the world, without this or any like addition : Ipse, saith the scripture, spoliavit 
principatus et potestates ; et, Passtts est pro peccatis nostris, non solum autem nostris^ sed 
et totius mundi. And thus the scripture speaketh, to set forth only the glory of our 
redemption by Christ. And he that hath the pure faith is not only willing, but also 
indeed returneth to Christ ; ut supra ad iv. 

xv. "By his grace first called, and then by the faith." Calling for God s grace pre- 
cedeth not faith ; but, contrary, faith must needs precede our invocation of God, as 
St Paul saith : Quomodo invocabunt in quern non crediderunt ? 

xvi. "Which I am void of, if I continue in sin." These w T ords may stand, but 
they were sufficiently expressed before by these words: "while he is my Lord and 
Governor, and I under his protection." 

Inst.pp. 37,8. And I believe also, that this child Jesu Christ was not only thus conceived without sin, but 

also that he was born in like manner of his said most blessed mother ; and that she, both in the conception, 

u j and also in the birth and nativity of this her child, *and ever after,* retained still her virginity 

aflcr also, as we pure and immaculate, and as clear without blot, as she was at the time that she was first 

verily believe. born . 

And I believe, that this conception and nativity of our said Saviour was ordained to be thus pure, holy, 
and undefiled, to the intent that all filthiness and malediction, wherewith the conception and birth of me, 
of all the Christian people and of all other men that ever were sith Adam, or shall be, and all the filthiness 
y a soon as they reconcile and malice of the sins *of the whole world, x * as well original as actual, should 



vSfl&? ty h " ^^ afieT thereb y be Purified, purged, and made clean y. 

And 1 believe that this innocent Jesu Inst. pp. 38, 9. 2 And I believe, that our Saviour Jesu Christ, being thus 
most falsely and wrongfully accused, and brought before the said judge, 



and had a crown t,f thorn put upon hi* was at length in public and open judgment condemned, by the sentence 

head bv the soldiers, and was by them L , J 

not only most spitefully mocked and of the said judge, to be nailed unto a cross, and to be hanged upon the 

scorned, but also most cruelly torment- same to the i ntent he should so suffer that kind of death, which amonff 

ed and qffttam. And alter tins he was 

at the last in public and open judge- the Jews was ever most abhorred and detested, and accounted to be the 

ffiSSp^^gy^ SS most shameful and cursed of a11 others - 

he should suffer that kind of death, And I believe, that after this sentence and judgment thus pronounced 

^<%1^Sta%1Sn^ and gfr contrarv to a11 J ustice and ef i uit y> the Jews did take this in - 

counted to be the most shameful and cent Jesu Christ our Saviour, and first of all binding him fast to a pillar, 

toS^S^flfcl^SZSftS and Posing with gt lence a cro of thorn u P n his head > they 
him, that is to say, they nailed him did not only most spitefully mock him, and scorn him, but they also most 
fhrouoh hands ami feet unto a cross, , m . . . . , _ ,. , 

and hanged him upon the same, on a cruelly scourged, tormented, and afflicted him, and finally they crucified 
certain hill called Calvary. n im, that is to say, they nailed him through hands and feet unto a cross, 

and so hanged him up upon the same, on a certain hill called Calvary. 

And I believe also and profess, that he hanged there upon the same cross between two thieves, * which 
were malefactors,* until he was dead, * and his soul departed from his body : * and that after he was thus 
dead, one Joseph ab Arimathea, being one of Christ s disciples, *and certain other devout men and women, 



[ See Necessary Doctrine, p. 232, Ed. Oxford, 1825.] [ 3 Ibid. p. 233.] 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 



89 



which also believed in Christ,* obtained licence of the said judge to take down this blessed body of our 
Saviour Jesu Christ from the said cross: *and that when they had so done, they z * wrapped * And that done, 
and folded the same body in a clean sindone, and so laid it and buried it in a new grave or 



sepulchre, which the said Joseph had made of stone, wherein there was never man buried before, pies called Nico- 

Inst. p. 40. And I believe that by this passion and death of our Saviour Jesu Christ a , not a / doing my 
only my corporal death is so destroyed that it shall never have power to hurt me, but rather duty. xvii. 
it is made wholesome and profitable unto me ; but also that all my sins, and the sins also of all them that 
do believe in him and follow him, be mortified and dead, that is to say, all the guilt and offence thereof, and 
also the damnation and pain due for the same, is clearly extincted, abolished, and washed away, so that the 
same shall not afterward be imputed or inflicted unto me. 

xvii. "I doing my duty." We may not say that we do our duty. Nevertheless 
he hath not the right faith in his heart, that hath not a good heart and will to do his 
duty; ut supra ad iv. But no man doth do all his duty, for then he needeth not 
to have any faith for the remission of his sins. Therefore this particle following 
" that all my sins be washed away." 



* The sense and interpretation of the fifth Article** 

Inst. pp. 40 42. * I believe assuredly with my heart, and with my And I believe assuredly that this our 

mouth I do profess, that this our Saviour Jesu Christ, after he was thus $%%$ ^and^d^ 

dead upon the cross, he descended immediately in his soul down into wended with hit soul into hell, leaving his 

i 11 i u- iii i v j u j.u j j.u * A i Messed body in sepulture here in earth. 

hell, leaving his most blessed body here in earth, and that at his coming am i loosed the pains and sorrows thereof 

thither, by the incomparable might and force of his Godhead, he ^ere^iU^it was not possible that he shmild 
entered into hell.* 

And like as that mighty man, of whom St Luke speaketh, which entering into the house of another Lukexi. 
strong man, first overcame him, and bound him hand and foot, and afterward spoiling him of all his armour 
and strength, wherein he trusted, took also away from him all the goods and substance he had ; and like as 
strong Samson slew the mighty lion, and took out of his mouth the sweet honey : even so our Saviour Jesu Judges xi 
Christ *at his said entry into hell, first he* conquered and oppressed ,- n S imili, though their powers be not corn- 
both the devil and hell, and also death itself, whereunto all mankind parable to his. xviii. 
was condemned, *and so bound them fast, that is to say, restrained and so conquered it, that finally hebereaved 
the power and tyranny which they had before, and exercised over all the devil and hell of all their power to hurt 
mankind, that they never had sith that time, nor never shall have, any any ^ them " 

power finally to hurt or annoy any of them* that do faithfully believe in Jesu Christ ; *and afterward he 
spoiled hell, and delivered and brought with him from thence all the and r believe> thatnotonly by thisjlissuf _ 
souls of those righteous and good men, which from the fall of Adam ferance of passion, death, and descent into 
died in the favour of God, and in the faith and belief of this our ^^S^ 
Saviour Jesu Christ, which was then to come. And I believe that by that the sentence and judgment. 
this descending of our Saviour Jesu Christ into hell, not only his elect people, which were holden there 
as captives, were delivered from thence; but also that the sentence and judgment* of the malediction 
and of eternal damnation (which God himself most rightfully pronounced upon Adam and all his posterity 
and so consequently upon me) was clearly dissolved, satisfied, released, and discharged, and that the devil 
and hell both have utterly lost and be deprived of all the right, claim, and interest which they might have 
pretended to have had in me by the authority of that sentence, or by reason of any sin that ever I had 
or have committed, be it original or actual : and that the devil, with all his power, craft, subtilty, and 
malice, is now subdued arid made captive, not only unto me, but also unto all the other faithful people 
and right believers in Jesu Christ that ever was or shall be *sith the time of Christ s said descending into 
hell :* and that our Saviour Jesu Christ hath also, by this his passion, and this his descending into hell, 
paid *my b * ransom, *and c hath merited and deserved*, that neither my soul, neither the b 
souls of any such as be right believers in Christ, shall come therein, or shall finally be en- so? 
cumbered with any title or accusation that the devil can object against us, or lay unto our d ? y .. 
charge d . xix. 

xviii. "In simili, though their powers be not comparable to his." In simili is 
superfluous ; for the same is before spoken in English, " even so : " also the rest is not 
true ; for we may compare God s power and acts unto his creature in similitudine, but 
not in cequalitate. 

xix. " If we so die." This condition taketh away the right belief of a faithful man : 
for the faithful man trusteth surely in God s goodness, that he will give him grace so to 
die. So that it pertaineth as well to our faith, that we should so die, as that we should 
be saved ; ut supra ad iv. 



[ 3 See Nee. Doctr. p. 233.] 

[ 4 In The Institution, the fifth article of the 
Creed comprises the descent into hell and the re 
surrection. Henry VIII. adds the descent into 
hell to the fourth article, and places the resurrec 



tion alone in the fifth. This division is adopted 
both in Cranmer s Annotations and The Necessary 
Doctrine.] 

[ 5 See Nee. Doctr. p. 234.] 



90 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

Inst. pp. 42, 3. And I believe assuredly, that by * this descending of Christ into hell, and * this his resur 

rection again from death to life, Christ hath merited and deserved for me and all true and faithful Christian 

men, * not only that our souls shall never come into hell, but also * that we shall here in this life be perfectly 

justified in the sight and acceptation of God, and shall have such grace, might, and power given unto us by 

him, that we shall be made able thereby to subdue, to mortify, and to extinguish our old Adam, 

and all our carnal and fleshly concupiscences, in such sort, that sin shall never" *afterward* 

reign in our mortal bodies, but that we shall be wholly delivered from the kingdom of sin, and from spiritual 

death, and shall be resuscitated and regenerated into the new life of the Spirit and grace. 

And whereas I and all other Christian men should have been the most miserable of all other creatures in 

the world, and should have died like heathens and pagans, without all hope of everlasting life, or of rising 

again after our death, if Christ our head and Saviour had not risen again to life after his death ; I believe 

{ hjt pattio^ and trust now assuredly, that by the virtue and efficacy of tliis f *descending of Christ into 

death, and hell, and of his * resurrection again * from death to life *, not only our corporal death and all 

the afflictions which we may sustain in this world shall not annoy us, but shall rather turn 

Christian s life, unto our profit, and be as entries and occasions of our greater glory ; but also that we K shall 

xx< after our corporal death be preserved from the captivity of hell, and shall be made partakers of 

Christ s resurrection. 

xx. " Continuing a Christian s life." These words be superfluous, for continuance of 
a Christian s life pertaincth unto a pure faith ; ut supra ad iv. 

Inst. p. 45. And I believe, that according thereunto our Saviour Jesu Christ is of his own goodness not 
only more ready always than any other creature *in the world* is, to help me by his mediation and inter 
cession ; but also that whensoever I do invocate and call upon him in right faith and hope with full intent and 

. purpose to amend and return from my naughty life, *he presenteth and 
he being present always in the smht of his ,., ., ,, ,, . , , , . _, ,, . . , 

Father exhibiteth from time to time, and exhibiteth unto the sight of his Father his most blessed body, as it was 

wounded > crucified, and offered up in sacrifice for the redemption of 
mankind, and so from time to time maketh continual request and 

intercession unto God his Father for the remission of all* my sins, and for my reconciliation unto his 

favour. 

Inst . pp. 49, 50. Neither it is possible for any man to come unto the Father by Christ, that is to say, to be 

reconciled into the favour of God, and to be made and adopted into the number of his children, or to obtain 

any part of that incomparable treasure which our Saviour Jesu Christ, by his nativity, his passion, his death, 

h by grace ^ ns resurrection, and his ascension, hath merited for mankind, unless this Holy Spirit shall first 

i i man adhib- illumine and inspire 1 into his heart the right knowledge and faith of Christ , with due con- 

ithu? his will trition and penance for his sins, and shall also afterward instruct him, govern him, aid him, 

direct him, and endue him with such special gifts and graces, as shall be requisite and neces 

sary to that end and purpose. 

And I believe also assuredly, that this Holy Spirit of God is of his own nature full of all goodness and 

benignity, or rather that he is goodness itself: forasmuch as he is the only Ghost or Spirit, which with the 

k r . ht Father by Christ instilleth and infoundeth into the hearts of mortal men (after they be once 

i the p jf t of purified from sin by ^ faith, and delivered from the power of the Devil) divers and manifold 

calling iymany most noble and excellent gifts and graces; as, the 1 gift of holy fear and dread of God ; the 

/Vow* sin," l and && f fervent love and charity towards God and our neighbour ; the gift of spiritual wisdom 

such other, xxii. and understanding ; the gift of " *free-will and desire,* and also of very fortitude and strength 

tte C qtftffree- to contenm this wor W, to subdue and mortify all carnal concupiscence, and to walk in the 

will and desire ways of God ; the gift of perseverance to continue in the same ; the gift of pity and mercy, of 

t < ame * ll0i *** patience and benignity, of science and cunning, of prophesying, of curing and healing, and of 

all other virtues necessary for Christian men to have, either for the attaining of their own 

salvation, or for the edifying and profit of their neighbours. All and singular which gifts and graces I 

knowledge and profess that they proceed from this Holy Spirit, and that they be given, conferred, and dis 

tributed unto us mortal men here in earth, at his own godly will, arbitre, and dispensation, and that no man 

can purchase or obtain, ne yet receive, retain, or use any one of them, without the special operation of this 

Which vtU not let : and was left with us therefore to remoter "^ ^ * And alth U S h he 8 >iveth not nor di f 
us of our dull/, if we willini/li/ ami wilfully reject not tfte same penseth the same equally and unto every man in 

]S tSLTSXi like > et he * th alwa * s some portion thereof unto 



divideth them pemlMrli/ a)ul */><<///// to every ruember of his all persons which be accepted in the sight of God, 
S?K^^^ ^dthat not only freely, and without all their de- 

led<te is Utnmjht to be most ttenejlcial and expedient J or the game, servings, but also in such plenty and measure, as 
All which thinat he doth of his mere mercy and t/oodnets, freely ,, , , , ,, ,, 

ami without all our deserving*. unto ms g otll y knowledge is thought to be most 

beneficial and expedient.* 

xxi. " Man adhibiting his will thereto." This interrupteth the phrase of speech ; and 
man s will is most amply and fully contained in the words next immediately following, 
" contrition and penance ." 

xxii. " The gift of calling by many ways the sinner from sin, and such other." 



[ See Nee. Doctr. r. 212. J [ 2 See Nee. Doctr. ibid.] [ 3 See Ncc. Doctr. ibid.J 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 1)1 

Calling is no gift of God in us, as all the other following, but the operation of God 
toward us. 

last. p. 53. All the prayers, good works, and merits, yea, and all the gifts, graces, and goods which be 
conferred, done, or wrought in or *unto unfo (my mcmber # ^rite* mystical body, shall be applied and redound 
this whole body, or any member of the commonly nnfo the benefit of the whole, to the edifying and increase of 

BITTIP Jnll IIP iimlipd imtn pvprv nnp of Christ s church. And likewise all gifts, graces, and goods which fa con- 
same, snail be applied unto every or M ferr(d l(ntn tfie wjwh , fm]y< thaa be applied and re<ioiina lltlto the commodity 

them, and shall redound commonly unto and profit of every one of the members of the same, xxiii. 
the benefit of them all.* 

xxiii. "Any member of Christ s mystical body, &c." This particle, I confess, I 
never well understood, neither as it was by us made, nor as it is now corrected ; but 
I consented thereto only because there is no evil doctrine therein contained, as far as 
I perceive and discern. 

Inst. pp. 53, 4. Although God doth ofttimes suffer not only sin, error, and iniquity so to abound here in 
the world, and the congregation of the wicked to exercise such tyranny, cruelty, and persecution over this 
holy church, and the members of the same, that it might seem the said church to be utterly oppressed 
and extinguished, but also suffereth many and sundry of the members of the same holy church to fall out 
from this body for a season, and to commit many grievous and horrible offences and crimes, u, n i j s ( 
for the which they deserve to be precided and excluded for a season " from the communion *". / ^ by re ~ 
of this holy church; yet I believe assuredly, that God will never utterly abject this holy penance they re- 
church, nor any of the members thereof, but that the same doth and shall perpetually con- t urn - 
tinue and endure here in this world", and that God shall at all times (yea, when persecution 4 if fault be 
is greatest and most fervent) be present with his Holy Spirit in the same church, and pre- selves, xxiv. 
serve it all holy and undefiled, and shall keep, ratify, and hold sure all his promises made 
unto the same church or congregation : and finally, that all such members as be fallen out an ,i oftfrtnateJi/ 

from the same by sin, shall at length rise again by penance, and shall be restored and united tlu V wititstund 

not his callintj. 
again unto the same holy body P. xxv . 

xxiv. "If fault be not in themselves." This article spcaketh only of the elect, in 
whom finally no fault shall be, but they shall perpetually continue and endure. 

xxv. " If wilfully and obstinately they withstand not his calling." Likewise the 
elect shall not wilfully and obstinately withstand God s calling 5 . 

Inst. pp. 54, 5. And I believe that this holy church is catholic, that is to say, that it cannot be coarcted 
or restrained within the limits or bonds of any one town, city, province, region, or country ; but that it is 
dispersed and spread universally throughout all the whole world: insomuch that in what part soever of 
the world, be it in Africa, Asia, or Europe, there may be found any number of people, of what sort, state, 
or condition soever they be, which do believe in one God the Father, Creator of all things, and in one Lord 
Jesu Christ his Son, and in one Holy Ghost, and do also profess and have all one faith, one hope, and one 
charity, according as is prescribed in holy scripture, and do all consent in the true interpretation of the 
same scripture, and in the right use of the sacraments of Christ ; we may boldly pronounce and say, that 
there is this holy church, the very espouse and body of Christ, the very kingdom of Christ, and the very 
temple of God. 

And *I<i believe that these* particular churches, in what place of the world soever they i that all. xxvi. 
be congregated, be the very parts, portions, or members of this catholic and universal church. 

xxvi. "And that all particular churches." This \vord "these" must needs remain, 
and not be put out : and it were better to say, " and that all these particular churches ;" 
for if there be any particular church, out of the number of the elect, it is no number 
[member ?] of this universal holy church. 

Inst. p. 58. And I believe, that I being united and *corporated* r as a living member T i ncor p 0rn ( t - ( i 
into this catholic church, (as undoubtedly I trust that I am,)* not only Christ himself, being t{nut so conli , 
Head of this body, and the infinite treasure of all goodness* l , and all the holy saints and nuiitfj. xxvii. 
members of the same body do* and shall necessarily help me, love me, pray for me, care for * doth 
me, weigh on my side, comfort me, and assist me in all my necessities here in this world " ; ". according to 
but also that I shall be made partaker of the fruit, benefit, and treasure of Christ s most ltu p) 0i 
blessed life and his bitter passion, and of all the holy life, passions, and patience, and of all the prayers 
and other good works of faith and charity, which have been or shall be done or sustained x of the j l0 ] U 
by any x and every one of all those faithful and righteous people, which ever have been or saints 
shall be members of this catholic church. 

And I believe that in this catholic church I, and all the lively and quick members of the same, shall 
continually and from time to time, so long as we shall live here on earth x, obtain y following Christ s pre- 
remission and forgiveness of all our sins, as well original as actual, by the merits JS Jaw/^x xviii! ^ 



[ 4 See Ncc. Doctr. p. 214.] [* See Nee. Doctr. ibid.J 



92 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

shall Oie more plenteously f Christ s blood and his passion, and 7 by the virtue and efficacy of Christ s sacra - 
attain the same ments, instituted by him for that purpose, so oft as we shall worthily receive the 

same. 

And like as it is not in the power of any man to dispense, minister, or distribute any part of that 
nutriment which he receiveth in at his mouth unto any member which either is mortified and dead in his 
body, or that is cut off from the same; even so I believe assuredly, that neither Christ s blood, nor his 
sacraments, nor any of the graces of the Holy Ghost, nor any good work in the world, do or can any thing 

obstinately and without P 1 " ^ to remission and forgiveness of sin, or salvation unto any person, which is in 
repentance, xxix. very deed out of the catholic church, as long as he shall so stand, and continue out 

of the same 8 . 

xxvii. " And so continuing." Continuance is comprehended in faith ; for if I believe 
not that I shall continue in the holy catholic church, I cannot believe that I shall 
have any benefit by Christ ; ut supra ad iv. 

xxviii. " Following Christ s steps, or when we fall repent our fault." The elect, of 
whom is here spoken, will follow Christ s precepts, and rise again when they fall ; 
and the right faith cannot be without following of Christ s precepts, and repentance 
after falling. See the fourth annotation. Therefore in my judgment it were better to 
say thus : " The elect shall follow Christ s precepts, or when they fall, they shall repent 
and rise again, and obtain remission," &c. 

xxix. " Obstinately and without repentance." These words need not ; for without 
obstinacy, and lack of repentance, no man is out of the catholic church. 

Inst. p. 67. In the fifth article it is to be noted, that therein is included and contained the grounds 

and foundations of the greatest part of all the mysteries of our catholic faith: insomuch that St Paul 

saith, that whosoever believeth in his heart that God the Father did resuscitate and raise up his Son Christ 

*to this effect, from death to life, he shall be saved. And in another place he saith b, that who- 

c remaineth still in sin, and soever believeth not that Christ is risen from death to life, c *it is not possible 

ro dying cannot be saved. hi gins shouM be remitted> * 



oTeloyW and 7 ^ 67 8 * lt i &ls t0 be n ted in this article > that 
comfortable unto us than the belief of an d conquest which Christ had over death, hell, and the Devil himself, 



t l Se we ag sttt W * h a11 their P wer and t ^ rann y besides that Jt Proceeded of the in- 

also do the same. The faith and be- finite mercy and goodness of God towards us, it was also founded upon 

is our vicLry lnf trLmph oLr^he veT ? J ustice - For sure ty lik e as the sin of man and his disobedience was 

Ueril, hell, and death, and the only the only mean and cause, wherefore God ordained and suffered that deatli 

fear of them ; forasmuch as\ereby and t ^ ie Devil should have and occupy such dominion and tyranny over all 

tee be assured, that as death could mankind as they had ; even so was it contrary to the will and ordinance 

not hold Christ, even so it cannot e ^ , ,, . , ,, u n i. -^ , i * , , 

hold us which are by a Christian OI ou, tnat aeatn, nell, or the UeviJ should have or exercise any power 

S^%T3IJ?f!L?^%m or authority where as no sin reigned : insomuch that if man had never 

death and live again*, if we order sinned, he should never have died, but should have been immortal; nor 

fo d his C precepts^ U ^i U ^nd^ S never should have desc ended into hell, but should ever have had the stipe- 

hope hereof maketh its, that we regard riority over the Devil, death, and hell, and should have had them alwavs 

A^^^we ^taS^fSiiA subdued unto him And therefore, sith the Devil himself did perfectly 

sake, because we be assured to have a know that our Saviour Jesu Christ expressed in all his life most exact and 

b S d St tt fSSlprSSSJo f lke f & most P erfect obedience unto the laws and will of God, and so fulfilled and 

Hnthians, saying, " If we Christian satisfied the same in everv point to the uttermost, that there could never 

men that live in persecution, and i f ,, , .... 

contempt of the world, had no hope be t un d untruth or deceit m his mouth, nor any spot or blot of filthiness or 

tS^^^lf^^JitSSr^ i m P urit y in anv P art of al1 his livin S 5 and vet that notwithstanding, (know- 

all men. But now Christ is risen ing him to be a very natural man,) laboured, procured, and caused the Jews 

mS^ r Zt (l there iTa ffijuFtSl to kil1 this inno <*nt Christ, and to put him unto most sharp and bitter 

life which all Christian men hope to death, contrary to all equity and justice, and all to the intent that he might, 





AulLt A!l fhetwpe^f o 



, 

%ithsLff- after his said death > have C hrist with him down into heU, as one of his cap- 

eth in this point, that we shall rise tives, and so there to exercise his tyranny upon him, like as he had done 

bTdissohvd, ^toSfikCtoS? Of overall other men from the beginning of the world until that time; no 

St^Sl^iSS^eJ& Si Ti a & a Si d Ubt bUt the Devil> in this d inff did extreme and manif est wrong, and 

mans he write th .- Christ rose ugain utterly exceeded the limits of the power given unto him. And therefore 

^I^^sSmS^^fe^s CMst * G d considerin g this hi h presumption and malice of the Devil, and this 

risen again from death." The apostles, intolerable abuse of his said power, did send his only-begotten Son down 

%?. ffySS SSSf n i&^^ into hell > there to condemn the Devil of this extreme v*y> and to con- 

of Christ s resurrection. The which quer, to spoil, and deprive him, not only of the possession of all the souls 

Mr?ap%a%ions Tnd olherin} ,^ of the righteous men, which by his craft and subtilty he had before reduced 

arguments declared and proved unto and brought under his dominion ; but also restrained him of the power and 

Eto* yZ^HSaS^i!Si^ authority which he by death and hell had over mankind. All which things 

principal and a chief article of Christ s Christ did not by the might of his godly power only, but for and upon this 

doctrine: wherein should depend and . . ,, . ./ * 

rest the great comfort and solace of all J ust ancl reasonable cause given unto him on the behalf of the Devil, which 

true and faithful believers in Christ. for the causes aforesaid most worthily deserved to be served so.* 



[ See Nee. Doctr. p. 235.] [2 See Nee. Doctr. ibid/ 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 93 

xxx. "We living well." The right faith requircth good living; but yet our 
triumph and victory over the devil, hell, and death, standeth not in our well living, 
but in Jesus Christ; to whom whensoever we convert in heart and mind, we have 
the triumph and victory of the Devil and sin, notwithstanding our evil life before. See 
the fourth annotation. 

xxxi. " If we order and conform our will in this world to his precepts." Whether 
we order our will to his precepts or not, w r e shall rise from death to life, but not to 
the glorious life. And yet to the glorious life also we shall rise, though we have not 
in all things conformed our will to God s will, but have repugned to his will, so that 
we be repentant and amend, as David, Peter, and Paul did. And the true faithful 
man endeavoureth himself to conform his will to God s will in all things, and to walk 
right forth in all his precepts. And where by infirmity he chanceth to take a fall, he 
licth not still, but by God s help riseth again. And his trust is so much in God, that 
he doubteth not in God s goodness toward him, but that, if by fragility and weakness 
he fall again, God will not suffer him so to lie still, but put his hand to him and help 
him up again, and so at the last he will take him up from death unto the life of glory 
everlasting 3 . 

Inst. pp. G9, 70. Notwithstanding, if any of you shall fortune to commit any * deadly* sin, yet let him con 
sider and remember, that Jesu Christ, which fulfilled all justice for us, and by the sacrificing and offering up 
of his precious blood a * made due satisfaction and propitiation * unto God his Father, not only a became and 
for all our sins, but also for the sins of all the world, is now our continual and perpetual advo- m de ^ " tsc j-f 
cate, our patron and defender before the throne of his Father, and maketh continual inter- saviour, and in- 
cession and prayer for the remission of all our sins. tercessor. xxxii. 

xxxii. " Became, and made himself our redeemer, saviour, and intercessor." < Satis 
faction," which is put out, meseemeth in any wise should stand still, to take aw r ay 
the root, ground, and fountain of all the chief errors, whereby the bishop of Rome 
corrupted the pure foundation of Christian faith and doctrine. For upon this satisfaction 
did he build his sticks, hay, and straw, satisfactory masses, trentals, scala cceli, foun 
dations of chantries, monasteries, pardons, and a thousand other abuses, to satisfy the 
covetousness of him and his ; and yet for their covetousness there never could be found 
any satisfaction, that is to say, any thing that could satisfy it. 

Inst . p. 70. Thirdly, it is to be noted, that although it be said in this article that Christ is e to his Father 

our only mediator and intercessor <", yet thereby is not excluded the * intercession f * of the t mediation ami 

holy saints 8 which be now in heaven, or hereafter shall be ; neither yet the * intercession h * of P ra V ers - 

the ministers of Christ s church, or of any the holy members of the same, which be living here xxxiii. 

in this world. But we must know for certain, that all the 1 members of Christ s church, i> mediation ami 

whether they be departed this life, or yet living here in the world, be all knit and united to- V ra y e/t J 

gether in perfect charity, and each doth care and pray for other continually unto k * Almighty f e ct. 
God *, and that Christ, being head of the same body, is advocate and intercessor for them all , k Christ. 
like as it is more at large declared in the tenth article of this Creed. } to his father. 

xxxiii. "Mediation and prayers of holy saints to Christ." Because that St Paul 
saith, that " there is but one mediator between God and man, and that is Christ Jesus," 
which doctors expound to be understand of mediation by redemption, not of mediation 
by prayer; therefore I think it better to say, "mediation by prayer of holy saints 4 ," 
putting "by" in the stead of "and." And the same is spoken twice. It is written 
there also, that " the members of Christ should be mediators by prayer one for another 
only unto Christ : " which is not true ; for, as St Paul saith in divers places, by Christ 
we have also access unto the Father. And Christ in all places teacheth us to pray 
unto the Father, Pater noster ; et, Adorabitis Patrem in spiritu et veritate ; et, Flecto 
fienua mea ad Patrem. 

7 

Inst. p. 74. Like as Christ is the author, the mean, and the very highway to come unto God the Father, 
so is this Holy Spirit the very conductor, the guide, the director, and the governor, to bring m . acc t 
us into the same highway, and to minister unto us not only * alacrity and * strength to walk the samf, and 
and run therein, but also perseverance to continue in the same, until we shall come unto our J!* 
journey s end m . tio 



[ 3 See Nee. Doctr. p. 235.] 

[ 4 Cranmer s amendment was adopted in the Nee. Doctr. p. 237- J 



94 



CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 



baptism by Ibid. Thirdly, that it is also the peculiar function or office of this Holy Spirit, (after" we 
nx ,-, (V lvcf, a/ui | )C inspired, and perfectly instructed in the said knowledge,) first to purge and purify our 



1 that we may 



commonly 



hearts by *this* faith and knowledge from the malice and filthiness of sin, and afterward to 
stir, inflame, and ravish our hearts, and to make us able gladly and thankfully to embrace and 

//(< /i/if/v i>ii all rece jve the said benefits, and so to keep them, to use them, and to dispose them to our own 

folk to be de- wealth, and to the edifying and profit of our neighbours ; and finally, to comfort us, and to 
be unto us in manner as a certain pledge or an earnest-penny, to assure and warrant us, by 

wi$ M tl ff i!3 mo- true and inf tlllll)ie tokens, that we P be in the favour of God, and his own children by grace 

tiotis. xxxiv. and adoption, and the right inheritors of heaven. 

xxxiv. " Applying our will to his motions." Our faith and trust that we be in 
God s favour and his own children hangeth not of our own merits and applying of 
our will to his motions: for, insomuch as many times the good men do the contrary, 
that were the ready way unto desperation. Therefore if any thing should be here 
added, it were good, in mine opinion, to say thus: "that we, which be renovate by 
the same Spirit, and do convert our lives from following our own carnal wills and 
pleasures, and repenting us that we have followed the same, and now apply our minds 
to follow the will of that Holy Spirit, be in the favour of God." &c. 

Inst. p. 78. Although the lively members of this militant church be subject to the infirmities of their 
flesh, and fall ofttimes into error and sin, as was said before ; yet they always in scripture be called holy, as 
well because they be sanctified in the blood of Christ, and professing in their baptism to believe in God, and 
to forsake the devil and all his works, they be consecrated and dedicated unto Christ; as also for that they be 
from time to time purged 1 by the word of God, and by faith, hope, and charity, and by the 
nC6> exercise of other virtues ; and finally, shall be endued with such grace of the Holy Ghost, that 
they shall be clearly sanctified and purified from all filthiness, and shall be made the glorious espouse of 
Christ, shining in all cleanness, without having any spot or wrinkle, or any other thing worthy to be repre 
hended. 

Inst. pp. 80, 1. To the attaining of which faith, it is also to be noted, that Christ hath instituted and or 
dained in the world but only two means and instruments, whereof the one is the ministration of his word, and 
the other is the administration of his sacraments instituted by him ; so that it is not possible r 
to attain this faith, but by one or both of these two means, as shall be hereafter declared. 

xxxv. 1 "Which in spiritual cure are committed to them." It is small difference 
between "cure" and "charge," but that the one is plain English, and the other is 
deducted out of the Latin. And as for the diversity between these two sayings, " they 
are committed to them in cure or charge," and "they be committed to their cure or charge," 
is no more, I suppose, than is between these two, " it is committed to me in custody," 
and, "it is committed to my custody;" which I reckon to be all one. 

* The rest of the degrees Inst - PP ^ 4 - God P roQlblted that any matrimony should be made between the 
prohibited are necessarily to father and the daughter, the mother and the son, the brother and the sister, and 
be expressed here also, xxxvi. between s di vers o ther persons, being in certain degrees of consanguinity and affi 
nity : which laws of prohibition in marriage, although they were not by express words of God declared at 

the first institution of matrimony, ne yet at this second repetition of the same, 

did engrave and emprint. ma( j e untoNoe; yet undoubtedly God l *had engraved and enprinted* the same 
which soon after blinded j aws m the heart of man at his first creation. u * And forasmuch as in lontr con- 
to li*, an<l not i>n ,<scrrht<i the . <?,.* -i i v v. j i , , 

natural I ujht, so ran in dark- tinuance and process of time * the natural light and knowledge of man was almost 

*h" n -bf and k v sin and malice extincted, or at the least so corrupted and obscured in the most 
part of men, that they could not perceive and judge what things were of their 
own nature naughty and detestable in the sight of God, ne yet how far that natural honesty and rever 
ence which we owe unto such persons as be near of blood, or of near alliance unto us, was extended ; 

* which God perceiving and * God" * commanded his prophet Moses to promulgate and to declare by his word 
witting man to return from unto the people of Israel the said laws of prohibition of matrimony in certain 

degrees of consanguinity and affinity, which be specially mentioned in the book 
of Leviticus. 

xxxvi. " Nota, that the rest of the degrees prohibited are necessary to be expressed 
also." All the degrees prohibited, in my judgment, may be best expressed in these 
general words : that no man may marry his mother, nor mother-in-law, and so upward 
in linea recta ; daughter, nor daughter-in-law, and so downward in linea recta ; sister, 
nor sister-in-law ; aunt, nor aunt-in-law ; niece, nor niece-in-law. 



[/ Where the number of the Annotations is thus 
printed, the expression criticised is not to be found 
in the Bodleian copy of Hen. VIII. s Corrections.] 



[ 2 See Nee. Doctr. p. 2JO, and Letter to Cruni- 
well, 7 Sept. 1530. 1 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 95 

Inst. p. 93. It is offered unto all men, as well infants as such as have the use y they dying in that grace 

of reason, that by baptism they shall have remission of all their sins, the grace and which hi/ tiie sacrament of 

favour of God, and everlasting life, according to the saying of Christ, Whosoever and not by tin alter the same. 

bclieveth and is baptized shall be saved y. xxxvii. 

xxxvii. " They dying in the grace, which by the sacrament of baptism is conferred 
unto them, and not by sin alter the same." It is better speech to say, " If they die," &c. 
And these words come in such place immediately after Christ s words, that they seem 
to be Christ s own words, which they be not; therefore it were better to put them 
next after these words, which be in the line before, viz. " everlasting life 3 ." 

Inst. p. 96. Like as such men, which after baptism do fall again into sin, if they do not penance in this 
life, shall undoubtedly be damned ; even so whensoever the same men shall convert themselves from their 
naughty life, and z do such penance for the same as Christ requireth of them, they shall * having time 
without doubt attain ^remission of their sins, and shall be saved. and s P ace 

Inst. p. 97. The penitent must conceive certain hope and faith that God will forgive him his sins, and 
repute him justified, and of the number of his elect children, not a for the worthiness of any *only 
merit or work done by the penitent, but 1 * for the only merits of the blood and passion of our ^chiefly. 
Saviour Jesus Christ. xxxviii. 

xxxviii. " Only, chiefly." These two words may not be put in this place in any 
wise: for they signify that our election and justification cometh partly of our merits, 
though chiefly it cometh of the goodness of God. But certain it is, that our election 
cometh only and wholly of the benefit and grace of God, for the merits of Christ s 
passion, and for no part of our merits and good works: as St Paul disputeth and 
provcth at length in the epistle to the Romans and Galatians, and divers other places, 
saying, Si ex operibus, non ex gratia; si ex gratia^ non ex operilus. 

Inst. p. 98. Item, That the people may in no wise contemn this auricular confession, which is made 
unto the ministers of the church ; but that they ought to repute the same as a very expedient and necessary 
mean, * whereby they may require and ask this absolution at the priest s hands,* at such c w ^ er ^y fj tey 
time as they shall find their consciences grieved with mortal sin, and have occasion so to may require and 
do c , to the intent they may thereby attain certain comfort and consolation of their con- lutivn at the 
sciences, xxxix. priest s hands, 

xxxix. " To the intent that they may thereby attain certain comfort and consolation 
of their consciences." Although these words make the sentences not very perfect in 
English, yet they may stand : but I like it better as it is in the print. 

Inst. pp. 98, 9. As touching the third part of penance, we think it convenient that all bishops and preachers 
shall instruct and teach the people committed unto their spiritual charge, that although Christ and his death 
be the sufficient oblation, d sacrifice, * satisfaction, and recompence,* for the which God the 
Father forgiveth and remitteth to all sinners not only their sins, but also eternal pain due for 
the same; *yet e all men truly* penitent, contrite, and confessed, *must needs also* bring people 



forth the fruits of penance, that is to say, prayer, fasting, and almsdeed, with much mourning daily fall can- 
and lamenting for their sins before committed. And they must also make restitution or 

satisfaction in will * and deed * to their neighbours, in such things as they have done them f? c< j pt 

wrong and injury in f . And finally, they must do all other good works of mercy and charity, f ^. 

> if 
wardly, when time, power, and occasion shall be ministered unto them, or else they shall able xl> 



and express their obedient will in the executing and fulfilling of God s commandment out- dee if "hey be 



never be saved. For this is the express precept and commandment of God, Do you the worthy fruits of 
penance. And St Paul saith, Like as in times past you have given and applied yourselves, and all the 
members of your bodies, to all filthy living and wickedness, continually increasing in the same; in like 
manner you be now bound, and must give and apply yourselves wholly to justice, increasing continually in 
purity and cleanness of life. And in another place he saith, I chastise and subdue ray carnal body, and the 
alfections of the same, and make them obedient unto the spirit. 

Item, That these precepts and works of charity be necessary works to our salvation ; and God necessarily 
requireth that every penitent man shall perform the same, whensoever time, power, and occasion shall be 
ministered unto him so to do. 

xl. " And also in deed, if they be able, though they put themselves to pain." This 
is well added ; and yet there might be said more amply, " how painful soever it be 
unto them : " for there is no perfect contrition, where is not also a good will to make 
restitution according to all possible power 4 . 



[ 3 See Nee. Doctr. p. 25-1.) [< Ibid. p. 2(50.] 



96 



CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 



Item, That by penance, and such good works of 

/^ the same, we shall not only obtain everlasting life, 





1 Cor. xi. 



the same, shall by penance and other good u\-k* <>f tin- .mine he but also we shall deserve remission or mitigation of 
made meet and a lit and insured tu rewire the virtue ut Christ s ,, , m . .. , . , , . 



passion (xli. ), which is our everlasting life, and also by them we 



the present pains and afflictions, which we sustain 
here in this world. 



xli. " Be made meet, apt, and assured, to receive the virtue of Christ s passion." 
The penitent person, as soon as he repenteth from the bottom of his heart, for Christ s 
sake only he is made partaker of Christ s passion, and good works follow thereof; 
but they be not the cause thereof. And if we should esteem our works so highly, we 
should glory against Christ. 

Inst. pp. 100, 1. As touching the sacrament of the altar, we think it convenient, that all bishops and 
preachers shall instruct and teach the people committed unto their spiritual charge, that they ought and 
must constantly believe, that under the form and figure of bread and wine, which we there presently do see 
and perceive by outward senses 2 , is verily, substantially, and really contained and comprehended the very 
selfsame body and blood of our Saviour Jesu Christ, which was born of the Virgin Mary, and suffered upon 
the cross for our redemption : and that under the same form and figure of bread and wine the very selfsame 
body and blood of Christ is corporally, really, and in the very same substance exhibited, distributed, and 
received unto and of all them which receive the said sacrament: and that * therefore?* the 

* *"" said sacrament is to be used with all due reverence and honour; and that every man ought 

first to prove and examine himself, and * religiously h * to try and search his own conscience, 

before he shall receive the same, according to the saying of St Paul, Whosoever eateth this body of Christ 

unworthily, or drinketh of this blood of Christ unworthily, shall be guilty of the very body and blood of 

Christ : wherefore let every man first prove himself, and so let him eat of this bread, and drink of this 

that he may drink >. For whosoever eateth it or drinketh it unworthily, he eateth it and drinketh it to his 

do it worthily own damnation ; * because he putteth no difference between the very body of Christ and other 

ration. kinds of meat.* 

aslii. " We living as we ought to do." Who liveth as he ought to do ? Who ever 
kept so his journey that he never fell ? And the penitent knowledgeth that he hath 
lived otherwise than he ought to do. And the words next immediately following declare 
the same, sc. "that we shall attain remission of our sins," &c. He that hath sinned 
hath lived otherwise than he ought to do. And ten or twelve lines together need good 
interpretation; for they seem to attribute unto the words of consecration all things 
whatsoever we have of Christ, and ought to attribute unto him, or to any of God s words 
contained in the holy scripture. 

The /Sacrament of Orders. 

Inst. pp. 101, 2. As touching the sacrament of * holy * orders, we think it convenient, that all bishops and 
preachers shall instruct and teach the people committed unto their spiritual charge, first, how that Christ and 
his apostles did institute and ordain in the new testament, that besides the civil powers and governance of 
kings and princes (which is called potestas gladii, the power of the sword) there should also be continually 

* being chosen as the apostles * n ^ e cnurc h militant certain * other * ministers or officers, which k should 
were,^ and living ad normam have special 1 * power, authority, and commission,* under Christ, m *to preach 
and teach the word of God unto his people ; to dispense and administer the 
Q O< sacraments of God unto them, and by the same to confer and give the graces 
unto them. of the Holy Ghost; to consecrate the blessed body of Christ in the sacrament 

ax hereafter followeth, first of the altar ; to loose and absoyle from sin all persons which be duly penitent 
that tltcii (be i no according to the , ./ ii_ L vi_j ^ ^ 11 

laws of every region elect and an{ * sorry tor the same; to bind and to excommunicate such as be guilty in 
constitute) have cure of soul, au- manifest crimes and sins", and will not amend their defaults; to order and 
word of God, and consecrate others in the same room, order, and office, whereunto they be called 

expressed in scripture. and admitted themselves ; and finally,* to feed Christ s people, like good pas- 

o clean living and good exam- tors and rectors, (as the apostle calleth them,) with their wholesome doctrine ; 
fte; and by their continual exhortations and admonitions to reduce them from sin 

and iniquity, so much as in them lieth, and to bring them unto the perfect knowledge, the perfect love 
and dread of God, and unto the perfect charity of their neighbours. 






f 1 This correction is written on the fly leaf at 
the end of the volume ; but it appears from its pur 
port, and from the number prefixed to Cranmer s 
Annotation on it, to belong to this place. It was 
probably intended to be substituted for, " Item, 
that by penance... also we."J 

[ 2 In the original copy the words from "they 
ought" to ^ senses," are erased, and in the margin 
is written, "and in many things God s works be 
wondrous."] 

[ 3 These corrections are written in so confused a 
manner in the original, that they have been ar 



ranged in great measure by conjecture. Henry 
VIII. was evidently much dissatisfied with this 
article Of Orders ; for the marks of his pen occur 
in all parts of it, and he has frequently expressed his 
disapprobation of particular passages by the word 
nihil. It was probably re-written before it was sub- 
mitted to Cranmer; for he here refers, not, as usual, 
to the number of the leaf in the printed book, but 
to "fo. script." i.e. to a manuscript leaf inserted. 
As might be expected from the king s objections, 
the article is very much altered in The Necessary 
Doctrine. See that Formulary, p. 278.] 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 97 

Item, That this office, this ministration, this power and authority, P * is no ty- p ^ loose (llld ^^^ 

rannical power, having no * certain laws or limits within the which it ought to be Q U pertong that gin 

contained, <J*nor yet none absolute power; but it is a moderate power, subject, turs,lindandexconi- 

determined, and restrained unto those certain ends and limits, for the which the same mu nicate, to comccrate 

. , , . , . . . sacraments (xlin.), and 

was appointed by God s ordinance ; which, as was said before, is only to administer to administer the sainc 



and distribute unto the members of Christ s mystical body spiritual and everlasting 
things, that is to say, the pure and heavenly doctrine of Christ s gospel, and the Ghost haw 
graces conferred in his sacraments ; and further to do and execute such other things q and 
appertaining unto their office, as were before rehearsed. 

xliii. " To consecrate sacraments." Consecration is called only of the sacrament of 
the altar : therefore it is more plain to say thus : " to consecrate the body of Christ, 
and to minister the sacraments 4 ." 

Inst. pp. 102, 3. r * And that they should also not cease from the execution of their said 
office, until all the said members were not only reduced and brought unto the unity of the they^fould^bi- 
faith, and the knowledge of the Son of God ; but also that they were come unto a perfect so vigihmt up 
state and full age therein, that is to say, until they were so established and confirmed in the i h l at uwy xhoui< / 
same, that they could no more afterward be wavering therein, and be* led or carried like not gu ff er them 
children into any contrary doctrine or opinion, by the craft and subtile persuasion of the false 
pastors and teachers, which go about by craft to bring them into erroneous opinions : but that they should 
constantly follow the true doctrine of Christ s gospel, growing and increasing continually by charity unto a 
perfect member of that body, whereof Christ is the 8 * very * head. only 

xliv. " As heretofore be rehearsed." It appeareth to me to be in vain, after a 
particular recitation, to add this general, " and such other," and then to restrain the 
general only to the particulars before expressed. For what availetli it to say "such 
other," when it is meant of none other than before is expressed ? 

xh. " And the head thereby fully pleased." I can perceive no good cause why 
these words should be put in this place ; for they come in very strangely. 

Inst. p. 104. Thirdly, because the said l * power* and office, or Border 

* function,* hath annexed unto it assured promises of excellent and in- the occupiers thereof being such as 
estimable things". ^ ore 

Inst. pp. 104, 5. Item, That this office, this power, and authority, was committed and given No( ihat 
by Christ and his apostles unto certain persons only, that is to say, unto priests or bishops, there were no 
whom they did elect, call, and admit thereunto by their prayer and imposition of their hands. ^nder ^^wln m 

* Second,* we think it * convenient, that all bishops and preachers shall instruct and teach they did dwell. 
the people committed unto their spiritual charge, that the sacrament of orders may worthily * also 
be called a sacrament, * because it is a holy rite or ceremony instituted by Christ and his apostles in the 
new testament, and doth consist of two part, like as the other sacraments of the church do, that is to say, of 
a spiritual and an invisible grace, and also of an outward and a visible sign. The invisible gift or grace con 
ferred in this sacrament is nothing else but the power, the office, and the authority before mentioned. The 
visible and outward sign is the prayer and imposition of the bishop s hands upon the person which receiveth 
the said gift or grace. And y*to the intent the church of Christ should never be destituted y and that it 
of such ministers, as should have and execute the z said power * of the keys,* it was also was institu ^ 
ordained and commanded by the apostles, that the same sacrament should be applied and former 
administered by the bishop from time to time unto such other persons as had the qualities necessarily 
required thereunto ; which said qualities the apostles did also very diligently describe, as it 
appeareth evidently in the third chapter of the first Epistle of St Paul to Timothy, and the hie exprimun- 
first chapter of his Epistle unto Titus*. turf 

Inst. pp. 108, 9. And b * in this part also two things be * to be noted. * The first is,* that b f ^ . . 
all punishment which priests or bishops may, by the authority of the gospel, inflict or put to 
any person, is by word only, and not by any violence or constraint corporal. c * The second al * 
is,* that although priests and bishops have the power and jurisdiction to excommunicate, as is aforesaid, 
yet they be not bound so precisely by any commandment of God, but that they ought and may attemper, 
moderate, or forbear the execution of their said jurisdiction in that part at all times, whensoever they shall 
perceive and think that by doing the contrary they should not cure or help the offenders, or else give such 
occasion of further trouble and unquietness in the church, that the peace and tranquillity thereof might 
thereby be impeached, troubled, or otherwise interrupted or broken. 

d *The second point, wherein consisteth* the jurisdiction committed unto priests and 
bishops by the authority of God s law, is to approve and admit such persons as (being nomi 
nated, elected, and presented unto them to exercise the office and room of preaching the gospel, and of 
ministering the sacraments, and to have the cure of jurisdiction over these certain people within this parish 
or within this diocese) shall be thought unto them meet and worthy to exercise the same ; and to reject and 



[ 4 See Nee. Doctr. p. 278.] 
ECRANMER, n.] 



S) CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

repel from the said room such as they shall judge to be unmeet therefore. And in this part we must know 
and understand, that the said presentation and nomination * is of man s ordinance, and * appertaineth unto 

- in every re- * ne f un ders and patrons, or other persons, according to the laws and ordinances of men pro- 
ffion. vided for the same e . 

lust. p. 110. * The third point, wherein consisteth the jurisdiction committed unto priests and bishops 
t Moreoitr D y the authority of God s law, is to make and ordain* 1 certain rules or canons, * concerning* 
concerning. holy days, fasting days, the manner and ceremonies to be used in h the ministration of the 
g establishing sacraments, the manner of singing the psalms and spiritual hymns, (as St Paul calleth them,) 
^thechurchin ^e diversity of degrees among the ministers, and the form and manner of their ornaments, 
and finally concerning such other rites, ceremonies, and observances as do tend and conduce to the preser 
vation of quietness and decent order to be had and used among the people when they shall be assembled 

together in the temple >. For sith that scripture commandeth that 

J^2lZ5i?S^ a11 Christian P e P le should at certain times assemble themselves, 

them, and foresee that t>u them there should not and convene together in some public or open place, there to invo- 
^SSS^ and te and call upon the name of God, there to hear his will and his 

then they be reputed moat meet to have autho- word by *our* preachers, there to receive the sacraments, there to 
S^ give laud and praise to God in psalmody, in prayers, in meditations, 
and in reading ; and finally, with all humility and reverent order, to 
magnify, extol, and set forth the honour of God with all our possible power; and forasmuch also as great 
trouble, unquietness, and tumult might arise among the multitude so assembled, in case there were no certain 
rules, ordinances, and ceremonies prescribed unto them, whereby they should be contained in quietness, and 
k t# therefore thought re- no * 8u ff ere d to do every man after his own fashion or appetite; k *it belongeth 
quisite, and ripht necessary unto the jurisdiction of priests or bishops to * make certain rules or canons con 
cerning all these things, and for the causes aforesaid. 

Inst. p. 111. Although the whole jurisdiction appertaining (as is aforesaid) unto priests and bishops be 
committed unto them in general words, (as it appeareth by divers places of scripture, and specially in the 
Here is cure spoken of, and 20th chapter of the Acts 1 , where the apostle saith, Take diligent heed to your- 
not jurisdiction or power. selveg) and to ^ your whole flock> among w h om the Holy Ghost hath set, or 
dained, and made you bishops, to rule and govern the church of God;) yet there is also a particular 
i ideliot.as order, form, and manner requisite to the due execution of the same, according to the saying 
f power in. U ? * of St Paul > Look tnat a11 things be done in the church seemly and in a decent order ">. 

Inst. p. 114. * The second thing to be noted is, that like as it is the will and commandment of God that 
priests and bishops should, in the execution of all those things which appertain unto their jurisdiction by 
the authority of the gospel, (as is aforesaid,) attemper their doings and proceedings with all charity and 
mildness, and should foresee by their singular wisdom that they pronounce no sentence, nor prescribe or 
make any constitution or ordinance which may in any wise be prejudicial or hurtful unto their flock, but 
such as undoubtedly do tend as well to the good preservation and increase of Christ s true religion, as also 
Also it is of Christian charity and tranquillity to be had among them; even so and in like manner 11 * all 
*^ e P e Pl e being under their cure, and within the limits of their said jurisdiction, *(of what 
spiritual estate or condition soever they be,) be also bound by the law of God, and by the order and 
p should bond of charity,* humbly P * to* obey them, and *toP* fulfil all their said precepts and ordi- 

i Scnpture and nances> duly and rightfully made by the authority of 1 their said jurisdiction; specially being 
the same ones received by the common consent of the people, and authorised by the laws of the Christian 
princes. 

Inst. p. 116. Finally, being thus declared, not only what is the virtue and efficacy, with the whole 
institution and use of the sacrament of *holy* orders, but also in what things consisteth the power and 
jurisdiction of priests and bishops, and unto what limits the same is extended *by the authority of the 
gospel, and also what is added thereunto by the grants and sufferances, or permission of kings and princes: * 

... we r think it convenient, that all * bishops and* preachers shall instruct and teach the people 

, committed unto 8 their spiritual charge, that whereas certain men do imagine and affirm that 
Christ should give unto the bishop of Rome power and authority, not only to be head and 
governor of all priests and bishops in Christ s church, but also to have and occupy the whole monarchy of 
the world in his hands, and that he may thereby lawfully depose kings and princes from their realms, do 
minions, and seigniories, and so transfer and give the same to such persons as him liketh ; that is utterly 
false and untrue : for Christ never gave unto St Peter, or unto any of the apostles, or their successors, any 
such authority. 

Inst. pp. 120, 1. Moreover the truth is, that God constituted and ordained the authority of Christian kings 

and princes to be the most high and supreme above all other powers and offices 1 in the 

d regiment and governance of u *his* people; and committed unto them, as unto the chief 

heads of their commonwealths, the cure and oversight of all the people which be within their 

realms and dominions, without any exception. 

Inst. p. 121. We must think and believe that God hath constituted and made Christian kings and princes 
to be as the chief heads and overlookers over the said priests and bishops, to cause them to administer their 
office and power committed unto them purely and sincerely; and in case they shall be negligent in any 

* or will not diligently P art tn ereof s , to cause them to supply and repair the same again x. And God 
e jcec ute the same, hath also commanded the said priests and bishops to obey, with all humbleness and 

> or else to put other in reverence, all the laws made by the said princes, being not contrary to the laws of God, 
their place. whatsoever they be; and that not only propter iram, but also propter confcientiam. 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 99 

Inst. pp. 123, 4. Second, that although it be not expressed in scripture, that the said apostles had then 
any new commandment of Christ to anoint such as they had healed with oil ; yet, forasmuch as the holy apostle 
St James, endued with the holy Spirit of Christ, prescribed a certain rule or doctrine, and gave in manner a 
commandment, that whensoever any person should fortune to fall sick, **he should* call or . and 
send for the priests or ancients of the church, and cause them to pray over him, anointing him a that the n ( hey 
with oil in the name of our Lord; *and further added hereunto, as an assured promise, that Jj^^^f j 
by the said prayer of the priests and the sick person, made in right faith and confidence in to Mm orQum 
God, the sick man should be restored unto his health, and God should set him on foot again, catting for 
and if he were in sin, his sins should be forgiven him ; * it shall therefore be very necessary 
and expedient that all true Christian people do use and observe this manner of anoiling of sick persons 
with due reverence and honour, as it is prescribed by the holy apostle St James. 

xlvi. " That then they minister the same." The commandment requireth first, that 
the sick man should call for the priests, and that they, being called, should pray over 
him. And the promise made of the prayer in time of anointing is stricken out, which 
chiefly ought to Jbe known 1 . 

Inst. pp. 124-6. And to the intent the same should be had in more honour and veneration, the said holy 
fathers willed and taught, that all Christian men should repute and account the said manner of anoiling 
among the other sacraments of the church, * forasmuch as it is a visible sign of an invisible grace : whereof 
the visible sign is the anoiling with oil in the name of God ; which oil (for the natural properties belonging 
unto the same) is a very convenient thing to signify and figure the great mercy and grace of God, and the 
spiritual light, joy, comfort, and gladness which God potireth out upon all faithful people calling upon him 
by the inward unction of the Holy Ghost: and the grace conferred in this sacrament is the relief and 
recovery of the disease and sickness wherewith the sick person is then diseased and troubled, and also the 
remission of his sins, if he be then in sin. This grace we be assured to obtain by the virtue and efficacy of 
the faithful and fervent prayer used in the ministration of this sacrament of anoiling, according to the saying 
of St James before rehearsed, and also according to the sundry promises made by Christ unto the faithful 
prayer of his church ; as when Christ saith, Whatsoever ye shall ask and pray my Father to give unto you 
in my name, it shall be granted unto you. For the better understanding whereof, two things be here 
specially to be noted. The first is, that St James calleth here the prayer to be used in the time of this in 
unction the prayer of faith : whereby he meaneth, that this prayer ought to be made in that right faith, 
trust, and confidence, which we ought to have in God, to obtain the effect of our petitions made in the 
ministration of this sacrament ; and that it ought to contain nothing but that shall stand with the pleasure, 
the honour, and glory of God ; and that when we direct our prayers unto God for any bodily health or relief, 
or for any other temporal commodity, we ought always to temper our said prayer with this condition, that 
is to say, if it shall so stand with God s will and his pleasure ; and that we ought to say, as Christ said in 
his prayer unto his Father, Father, if it shall please thee, I am content to die and suffer this shameful and 
cruel death of the cross : thy will be fulfilled herein : let not my will and desire be followed, but let thy 
will and disposition be fulfilled, whereunto I wholly commit myself.* 

b*The second thing to be noted is, that* to the attaining of the said grace, (xlvii.) 
conferred in this sacrament of extreme unction, it is expedient *also* that the sick person 
himself shall knowledge his offences towards God and his neighbour, and ask forgiveness of them for the 
same ; and likewise forgive all them that have offended him in word or deed : and so being in perfect love 
and charity, to pray himself (as he may) with faithful heart, and full hope and confidence in God, for the 
remission of his sins, and restoring unto his bodily health, if it shall so stand with God s pleasure. 

xlvii. "Also to the attaining of the said grace." The said grace mentioned of 
before, and the virtue of the prayer also whereby the same grace is given, be both 
stricken out. 

Inst. pp. 128, 9. Thus being declared the virtue and efficacy of all the seven sacraments, we think it 
convenient, that all bishops and preachers shall instruct and teach the people committed to their spiritual 
charge, that although the sacraments *of matrimony,* of confirmation, of *holy* orders, and of extreme 
unction, have been of long time past received and approved by the common consent of the catholic church, 
to have the name and dignity of sacraments, as indeed they be well worthy to have ; (forasmuch as they be 
holy and godly signs, whereby, and by the prayer of the minister, be not only signified and represented, but 
also given and conferred some certain and special gifts of the Holy Ghost, necessary for Christian men to 
have for one godly purpose or other, like as it hath been before declared ;) yet there is a difference in dignity 
and necessity between them and the other * three c * sacraments, that is to say, the sacraments 
of baptism d , of penance, (xlviii.) and of the altar; and that for divers causes. First, because c /"wr 
these * four* sacraments 2 be instituted of Christ, to be as certain instruments or remedies neces 
sary for our salvation and the attaining of everlasting life. Second, because e *they* be also (}l ^ at most OJ 
commanded by Christ to be ministered and received in their outward visible signs. Thirdly, 
because they have annexed and conjoined unto their said visible signs such spiritual graces, as whereby our 
sins be remitted and forgiven, and we be perfectly renewed, regenerated, purified, justified, and made the 
very members of Christ s mystical body, so oft as we worthily and duly receive the same. 

xlviii. " Of matrimony, of baptism, and of penance." The causes there assigned 

I 1 Nee. Doctr. p. 290.] f a Three Sacraments. Inst. Ed. Oxon. 182">.] 

7-2 



100 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

may not be well applied to matrimony ; that it should be, as the other were, by the 
manifest institution of Christ : or, that it is of necessity to salvation : or, that thereby 
wo should have the forgiveness of sins, renovation of life, and justification, &C. 1 

The Ten Commandments. 
[Inst. p. 130.] 1. THOU shalt f havee *none other* gods but me 1 . 

* n nor repute any other God, or 2 Thou shalt not make to th J 8elf <">? g ven thin S ne any similitude 
t Jetu Christ, xlix. f an y tiling that is in heaven above, or in earth beneath, nor in the 

> to the intent to water under the earth . * Thou shalt not * bow down to them, * ne k 

*or honour them as God or worship them.* 
Codt - L 3. Thou shalt not take the name of thy Lord God in vain. 

4. Remember that thou do sanctify and keep holy thy sabbath day. 

5. Honour thy father and mother. 

6. Thou shalt not kill. 

7. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

8. Thou shalt not steal. 



wrongfully or ^ Thou shalt not desire thy neighbour s house, his wife, his servant, his maid, his 

njustly. li. 



9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 
wrongfully or 10 - Thou shalt not desire thy neighboui 
unjustlyAi. O x, his ass, ne any other thing that is his . 

xlix. "But me Jesus Christ." It is not the use of scripture to attribute to one 
person of the Trinity peculiarly that thing which doth express the three persons in one 
deity. And we must not repute for God only Jesus Christ, but also the Father and 
the Holy Ghost. And here be set forth the ten commandments, as they were written 
by God in the two tables. And it seemeth better to read these commandments, taken 
out of the scripture, even as they be there written, without any addition, than that we 
should alter the words of scripture, and specially of God s own commandments 2 . 

1. " Or honour them as God or Gods." We may not thus add to the words of 
scripture, but set them out first plainly and surely, even as they be, and after expound 
and declare them 3 . 

li. " Wrongfully or unjustly." To this I say as to the next before 4 . 

Inst. p. 131. To have God is not to have him as we have other outward things, as clothes upon our 
back, or treasure in our chests ; nor also to name him with our mouth m , or to worship him 
with kneeling, or other such gestures " : but to have him our God is to conceive him in our 
hearts, to cleave fast and surely unto him with heart and mind, to put all our trust and con 

fidence in him, to set all our thought and care upon him, and to hang wholly of him, taking him to be 

infinitely good and merciful unto us. 

Inst. p. 133. * And so do they, that by superstition repute (Hi.) some days good, some dismal or infor- 
tunate; or think it a thing unlucky to meet in a morning with certain kind of beasts, or with men of certain 
professions. For such superstitious folk infame the creatures of God.* 

Item, That they be of the same sort, which by lots, * astrology,* divination, chattering of birds, * phy 
siognomy,* and looking of men s hands, or other unlawful and superstitious crafts, take upon them certainly 
to tell, determine, and judge beforehand of men s acts and fortunes, which be to come afterward. 

lii. " They that by superstition repute." Whereas the same is stricken out, it seemeth 
more necessary to remain, forsomuch as the common people do in nothing more super- 
stitiously. Likewise of astrology, and specially physiognomy 6 . 

Inst. pp. 134-36. The second commandment Moses declareth at good length in the book of Deutero 
nomy, where he speaketh in this manner : " In the day when our Lord spake to you in Horeb from the midst of 
the fire, you heard the voice, and the sound of his words, but you saw no form or similitude, lest peradventure 
you should have been thereby deceived, and should have made to yourself an engraved similitude or image 
of man or woman, or a similitude of any manner beast upon earth, or of fowl under heaven, or of any beast 
that creepeth upon the earth, or of fishes that tarry in the water under the earth ; and lest peradventure 
lifting up your eyes to heaven, and there seeing the sun, and the moon, and the stars of heaven, you should 
"and not to be hon- by error be deceived, and bow down to them, and worship them, which the Lord hath 
cured as God. liii. created to serve all people under heaven ." 

liii. " And not be honoured as God." All the long sentence before, whereunto these 
words be added, is the very words of God in Deuteronomy, which would be recited 
sincerely without any addition. And the images ought to have no manner of honour, 
neither such honour as is due unto God, nor such as is due unto his reasonable crea 
tures. And the same words " as God " be added in another place in the same side of 
the leaf, and not well, as I surely think. 

[ ! See Nee. Doctr. p. 293.] [ 2 Ibid. p. 295.J [ 3 Ibid.] [ 4 Ibid.J [ 5 Ibid. p. 298.] 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 101 

By these words we be utterly forbidden to make or to have any similitude or image, to the intent to 
bow down to it, or to worship it. And therefore we think it convenient, that all bishops and preachers 
shall instruct and teach the people committed to their spiritual charge, first, that God in his substance 
cannot by any similitude or image be represented or expressed ; for no wit ne understanding can compre 
hend his substance : and that the fathers of the church, considering the dulness of man s wit, and partly 
yielding to the custom of gentility, (which before their coming unto the faith of Christ had certain repre 
sentations of their false gods,) suffered the picture or similitude of the Father of heaven to be had and set 
up in churches ; not that he is any such thing as we in that image do behold, (for he is no corporal ne bodily 
substance,) but only to put us in remembrance that there is a Father in heaven, and that he is a distinct 
person from the Son and the Holy Ghost; * which thing nevertheless, if the common people would duly 
conceive of the heavenly Father without any bodily representation, it were more seemly for Christian people 
to be without all such images of the Father, than to have any of them.* (liv.) 

Second, that although all images, be they engraven, painted, or wrought in arras, or in any other wise 
made, be so prohibited that they may neither be bowed down unto ne worshipped P, (for 
asmuch as they be the works of man s hand only,) yet they be not so prohibited, but that p as God> 
they may be had and set up q*in churches,* so it be for none other purpose but only 
to the intent that we (in beholding and looking upon them, as in certain books, and 
seeing represented in them the manifold examples of virtues, which were in the saints, represented by the 
said images) may the rather be provoked, kindled, and stirred to yield thanks to our Lord, and to praise 
him in his said saints, and to remember and lament our sins and offences, and to pray God that we may have 
grace to follow their goodness and holy living. As for an example. The image of our Saviour, as an open 
book, hangeth on the cross in the rood, or is painted in cloths, walls, or windows, to the intent that beside 
the examples of virtues which we may learn at Christ, we may be also many ways provoked to remember his 
painful and cruel passion, and also to consider ourselves, when we behold the said image, and to condemn 
and abhor our sin, which was the cause of his so cruel death, and thereby to profess that we will no more sin : 
and furthermore, considering what high charity was in him that would die for us his enemies, and what 
great dangers we have escaped, and what high benefits we receive by his redemption, we may be pro 
voked in all our distresses and troubles to run for comfort unto him. All these lessons, with many more, 
* we may learn in this book of the rood, if we will 

entirely and earnestly look upon it.* And as the fi be brought to our remembrance by the book of the rood, if we, 
life of our Saviour Christ is represented by this 
image, even so the lives of the holy saints which 
followed him be represented unto us by their images. And therefore the said images may well be set up in 
churches, to be as books for unlearned people, to learn therein examples of humility, charity, patience, 
temperance, contempt of the world, the flesh, and the devil, and to learn example of all other virtues, and 
for the other causes above rehearsed. For which causes only images r * be to * be set in the 
churches, and not for any honour to be done unto them. For although we use to cense the 
said images, and to kneel before them, and to offer unto them, and to kiss their feet, and such other things ; 
yet we must know and understand, that such things be not nor ought to be done to the images self, but 
only to God, and in his honour, or in the honour of the holy saint or saints which be represented by the 
said images. 

liv. " Which thing nevertheless, if the common people." I marvel why these words 
should be stricken out, seeing that it is contrary to the scripture to have any such 
images of the Father of heaven, as St Austin saith, and they be suffered only for the 
infirmity of the people, as we have declared. St Austin saith, in his book "Dc fide 
ct Symbolo," cap. 7 " Tale [enirn^ simulacrum Deo nefas est Christiano in templo 
collocare*." And likewise he and many of the most ancient authors do say in many other 
places 8 . 

List. p. 138. The right use of the name of God, and the outward honour of the same, standeth chiefly 
in these things following, that is to say, in the constant confession of his name, in the right invocation of 
the same, in giving of due thanks unto God, as well in prosperity as in adversity, and in avowing 
s*and in the preaching and teaching of* his word. and ***igr to 

Inst. p. 139. And we * must also preach the word of God truly and t ^. 

purely, and set forth the name of God unto other, and reprove all false u J cording u*s vocation and 
and erroneous doctrine and heresies. For although priests and bishops knowledge 
only be specially called and deputed as public ministers of God s word, * and order 

yet every Christian man is bound particularly" to teach" his family, and ,, y so ** <* * * ***. 

J J J J> they suffer not open sin to be used in 

such as be under his governance within his house, when time and place their rule and family, but virtue to 

requirethy. be exercised instead of it. 

Iv. " Priests and bishops." If these words be added, then this sentence joineth not 
well with the sentence following. And if any man be offended with this word " preach," 
then if it be put out, and this word "teach" put in the stead thereof after this sort, 
" and we must also teach," then do both the sentences run in a good composition together, 
so that no man can be offended 9 . 



[ R Nee. Doctr. p. 300.] p. 63. Ed. Paris. 1636.] 

[< August. De fide et symb. cap. vii. Tom. III. [ See Nee. Doctr. p. 299. J [ 9 Ibid. p. 303.J 



102 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

Inst. p. 140. Item, That they also do take the name of God in vain, which swear to do that thing 

which they intended not to do; or swear to forbear that which they intended not to forbear; or swear to 

do any thing, which to do is unlawful ; or swear to leave undone any thing, which to omit or leave undone 

is not riaht z *is unlawful.* And such as so swear to do things unlawful, not only oft end in such swearing, 

nor reasonable. but ^ so thev mucn more o ff en d, if they perform the thing that they do swear. 

Item, That they also break this commandment, which swear to do or to observe any thing which to do 
and observe they know not whether it be lawful or unlawful; or that make any oath contrary to their 
andtoucheth not lawful oath or promise made before, so long as their former oath or promise standeth 
their prince, Ivi. j n strength 3 . 

Ibid. Priests and ministers of Christ s church do also break this commandment, if, in the administration 
of the sacraments, they yield not the whole efficacy, virtue, and grace thereof to our Lord, as the very author 
of the same ; but ascribe the said efficacy, virtue, and grace, or any part thereof, to themselves : or if any of 
^wordslongingtothe them do use any b of the sacraments to any conjurations, or any other strange practice, 
consecration. Jvi. con trary to that holy use for the which they be ordained. 

Ivi. "And toucheth not their prince." Methinketh this clause need not to bo 
added, or rather, that it is not true; for a latter oath may be made touching the 
prince, contrary to the former lawful oath, and yet good : as when the first by the 
king s laws continueth no longer in his strength 1 . 

*lvi. 2 "Words belonging to the consecration." We say not "the words of tho 
consecration " of any of the sacraments, saving only of the sacrament of the altar. 

so that tee esteem not ^ 1ls ^- P -^1. Nevertheless, to pray to saints to be intercessors with us and for 

nor worship the m not, at us to our Lord for our suits which we make to him, and for such things as we 

tufofervewOTjor ttaM can btain of none but of him, c *so that we make no invocation of them,* is 

same 3 , lawful, and allowed by the catholic church. 

d the right tinderstanding ^ ?w - P- 142. Notwithstanding it is not necessary to alter d the common speech 

or meaning that ought to be which is used, nor there is any error therein ; so that the sentence or meaning 

thereof be well and truly understanded, that is to say, that the said altars and 

churches be not dedicated to any saint, but to God only, and of the saints but a memorial, to put us in 
remembrance of them, that we may follow their example and living. 

Ivii. " The right understanding." In the book it is evident that it was reasoned, 
whether it were necessary to alter the common speech which is used, and seemeth not 
to agree with the truth of God s word, as it is there confessed it doth not, except 
it be better understand than it appeareth to sound. And that it is meant of the 
alteration of the speech, the words following do shew ; sc. " that is used, nor is there 
any error therein, so that the sentence and meaning thereof be well and truly under 
stand:" now these words, "therein and thereof," cannot be referred to that is added, 
for then the sentence were thus : " There is no error in the right understanding and 
meaning, &c. so that the sentence of the right understanding and meaning be well 
understanded." 

Inst. pp. 142, 3. As St. Austin saith, All the other nine commandments be moral commandments, and be 
longed not only to the Jews, and all the other people of the world, in the time of the old testament, but 
also 6 to all Christian people in the new testament. But this precept of sabbath, as con- 



belong now 
pertaineth 



cerning rest from bodily labour the seventh day, pertained only unto the Jews in the old 
testament, before the coming of Christ, and f not to us Christian people in the new 
testament 4 . 

Inst. p. 143. Make thy will to be wrought in us, that from our own corrupt will we may rest and cease. 

> these that follow, as And for this purpose God hath ordained &*that we should * fast, watch, and labour; 

remedies, that is to say, to the end that by these h * remedies * we might mortify and kill the evil and 

and such oUicrs sensual desires of the flesh, and attain this spiritual rest and quietness, which is 

signified and figured in this commandment. 

Inst. p. 145. And they that can read may be well occupied upon the holy day, if they read unto 
such as they have other such good works which may be unto them instead of a sermon. For all things 
that edify man s soul in our Lord God be good and wholesome sermons. 



[i See Nee. Doctr. p. 304.] | servamus....Observare tamen diem sabbati non ad 

[ 2 Two Annotations are numbered (Ivi.) in the j literam jubemur, secundum otium ab opere corporali, 

original manuscript. Though probably a mistake, sicut observant Judjci : et ipsa eorum observatio quia 

it has been retained to avoid confusion in reference.] | ita praecepta est, nisi aliam quandum spiritalem re- 

1 See Nee. Doctr. p. 305.] | qu iem significet, ridenda judicata. August. Epist. 

f 4 The following is perhaps the passage in- | cxix. ad Januar. cap. xii. Tom. II. p. 217. Ed. 

tended: Cetera tamen ibi pnecepta proprie, sicut j Paris. 1635.] 

pra?cepta sunt, sine ulla figurata significatione ob- 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 103 

Iviii. "Such as they have charge of." The words of the print import no more, 
but that those which can read may be well occupied to read good works to others 
which cannot read; and then if these words should be added, "such as they have 
charge of," it might seem that no man were well occupied to read good works, but 
the father to the children, the master to his servants, the parson to his own parishioners, 
and such like. But I think surely, that he that can read may be well occupied, if 
he read some part of scripture unto all them which cannot read; not as taking the 
office of a priest or bishop upon him, except he be called thereunto, but of charity 
moved, as he shall see necessity, time, and opportunity. Whereof St Paul saith, 
Verlum Christi habitet in volis alundanter in omni sapientia ; docete et monete ws 
in vicem 5 . 

Ibid. For notwithstanding all that is afore spoken, it is not meant but that in time of necessity we 
may upon the holy day give ourselves to labour 14 , as for saving of our corn and *sotriatwcneol*ctnof. 
cattle, when it is in danger, or likely to be destroyed, if remedy be not had in time. mass and even-song, lix. 

lix. " So that we neglect not mass and even-song." As well there might be added, 
"matins." And so it signifieth, that whatsoever necessity happencth upon the holy 
day, we must so apply ourselves to such urgent business, that mass, matins, and 
even-song, may not be omitted; and yet matins and even-song be wholly of man s 
tradition and ordinance, and mass also almost altogether, as it is now used ; and these 
things were not understand in this commandment, which were made and ordained 
si thence the commandments w r ere given. And the law in his most rigour doth permit 
otherwise, namely, to the husbandman, cooks, bakers, mariners, fishers, and such other, 
which, laying aside all such service, must take the time as it cometh 6 . 

Inst. pp. 145, G. Against this commandment generally do offend all they, which will not cease and rest 
from their own carnal wills and pleasure, that God may work in them after his pleasure and will. 

Item, All they, which, having no lawful impediment, do not give themselves upon the holy day to hear the 
word of God, to remember the benefits of God, to give thanks for the same, to pray, and to exercise such 
other holy works as be appointed for the same; but (as commonly is used) pass the time * do break this com- 
either in idleness, in gluttony, in riot, or in plays, or other vain and idle pastime } . mandment. 

Inst. p. 147. Therefore concerning such ceremonies of the church m , we think it m , t . . 

convenient, that all bishops and preachers shall instruct and teach the people com- tided bt/ our forefathers 
mitted unto their spiritual charge, that although the said ceremonies have no power ^ ^reim^nant to Christ s 
to remit sin, yet they be very expedient things to stir and cause us to lift up our minds 
unto God, and to put us in continual remembrance of those spiritual things which be signified by them. 

[Inst. pp. 147, 8.] Therefore they be not to be contemned so long as it shall be fem fo the head rulfrs gwj 
and cast away, but be to be used and continued as things good chief ministers of the church or churches convenient 
and laudable for the purposes abovesaid ". obunea and ^ 

The declaration of the fifth Commandment. 

\Inst. p. 148.] As touching the fifth Commandment, we think it convenient, that all bishops and preachers 
shall instruct and teach the people committed to their spiritual charge, first, that by this word father is under- 
standed here, not only the natural father and mother which did carnally beget us and brought us up, but also 
* the spiritual father, (Ix.) by whom we be spiritually regenerated and nourished in Christ ; and * all other 
governors and rulers, under whom we be nourished and brought up, or ordered and gmded. *And although 
this commandment make express mention only of the children or inferiors to their parents and superiors, yet 
in the same is also understanded and comprised the office and duty of the parents and superiors again unto 
their children and inferiors.* 

lx. "Also the spiritual father, by whom." Methinketh this might well remain, 
that the preachers of God s word might be the better esteemed and had in reputation : 
neither should it be so done without example of good authority to be followed, seeing 
that St Paul looked so to be reputed of the Corinthians, yea, and rebuked them as 
unkind children, in that they had more regard of other which were but their school 
masters, than of him which was their father, that is, did first beget them unto Christ 
by preaching the word of God unto them : as he saith, 1 Cor. iv. Si dccem millia 
pasdagogorum habeatis in Christo, at non multos patres. Nam in Christo Jcsu per 
ecangeliwm ego vos genui. And now also they that preaching the word of God do 



p See Nee. Doctr. p. 308.] [ fi Ibid. p. 309,] [ 7 Ibid. p. 310. | \ R Ibid. p. 



104 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 



attd by 



teach us in our youth the principles of our faith, seem to supply the same room, and 
may be right well called our spiritual fathers 1 . 

Deut. xxi. Inst. p. 149. * And, if any man have a stubborn (Ixi.) and a disobedient son, which will not hear the 

voice of his father and mother, and for correction will not amend and follow them ; then shall his father 
and mother take him, and bring him to the judges of the city, and say, This our son is stubborn and diso 
bedient, and despiseth our monitions, and is a rioter and a drunkard. Then shall all the people stone him to 
death ; and thou shalt put away the evil from thee, that all Israel may hear thereof, and be 

Lukcxi. "fy afraid. And* in the book of Exody it is* also* written, He that striketh his father or 

mother, he shall be put to death. 

Ixi. "If any man have a stubborn," &c. Of all the precepts there rehearsed, 
none ought rather to stand than this; for none of them doth express so largely the 
form of the punishment of an inobedient child, and for what offences against the father 
he should in such wise be punished, than this doth which is stricken out 2 . 

Inst. pp. 151, 2. All bishops and preachers shall instruct and teach the people committed unto their spiritual 

charge, that all Christian men be bound to exhibit? *and do unto 

r ra> w r rsr GO H r "f spiritual fethers and parentsq * f 

understand ami believe that they be their souls, the like and the selfsame honour, which (as is aforesaid) 

children of duty do owe unto their natural fathers. 

Item, That these spiritual fathers be* appointed by God to minister his sacraments unto them, *to 
bring them up, and * to feed them with the word of God, r * and to teach them * his gospel 
and scripture, *and by the same to govern,* to conduct, and *to* lead them in the straight 
way to the Father in heaven everlasting. 

Item, That our Saviour Christ, in the gospel, maketh mention as well of the obedience as also of the cor 
poral sustenance which all Christian people do owe unto their spiritual fathers. Of the obedience he saith 
That whosoever receiveth you receiveth me. And in another place he saith, He that heareth you heareth 
me ; and he that despiseth you despiseth me. * And in another place he saith, Whatsoever they bid you do, 
do it.* And St Paul saith, Obey your prelates, and give place unto them : for they s have 
should much charge and care for your souls, as they which must give an account therefore, that they 

may do it with joy and not with grief; that is to say, that they may gladly and with much 
* and yet never- comfort do their cure and charge, when they do perceive that the people be obedient to 
Kundtfit. ** their teacnin S : like as on the contrariwise they have little joy or pleasure to do it, when 

they find the people disobedient and repugnant e . 

And for the sustenance of their living, which is comprised in this word honour, (as before is declared,) 
Christ saith in the gospel, The workman is worthy his wages. And St Paul saith, Who goeth on warfare 
upon his own stipend? And who planteth the vine, and eateth no part of the fruit? And who feedeth the 
flock, and eateth no part of the milk? And after followeth, Even so hath the Lord ordained, that they 
which preach the gospel should live of the gospel. And therefore in another place it is written, Priests or 
ancients that rule well be worthy of double honour, specially they that labour in the ministration of the word 
of God, and his doctrine. In which place the apostle meaneth by double honour, not only the reverence 
which is due unto the spiritual fathers, (as is aforesaid,) but also that all Christian people be bound to 
if they have minister, find, and give unto their spiritual fathers sufficiency of all things necessary and requi- 
it none other site, as well for their sustenance and finding, as for the quiet and commodious exercising and 

executing of their said office ".- 

Fourthly, we think it convenient, that all bishops and preachers shall instruct and teach the people com 
mitted unto their spiritual charge, that this commandment also containeth the honour and obedience which 
subjects owe unto their princes, and also the office of princes towards their subjects. For scripture taketh 
princes to be, as it were, fathers and nourices to their subjects. And by scripture it appeareth, that it apper- 
taineth unto the office of princes to see that the right religion and true doctrine of Christ may be maintained 
and taught ; and that their subjects may be well ruled and governed by good and just laws ; * and to provide 
*they aiding and care for them ( lxiii> ) that ^ thin g 8 necessary for them may be plenteous;* and that 
him thereto; the people and common weal may increase; and to defend them from oppression and inva- 
y or cause to sion, as well within the realm as without x ; and to see that justice be ministered unto them 
indifferently ; and to hear y benignly all their complaints ; and to shew towards them (although 
they* offend) fatherly pity. 

Ixii. "A certain reverence and credit thereto," &c. It seemeth that St Paul re 
quired as much obsequy as was to be shewed to the natural father, in the place 
above mentioned, and rather it may seem to reason, that more should be shewed ; for- 
somuch as the regeneration, which is towards God and to everlasting life, far passeth 
the first generation, which is to a damnable state and endless punishment 3 . 

Ixiii. "To provide and care for them." It may right well appear that St Paul 
affirmeth this point, specially to be required in all such as have governance over other, 
in these words that he saith, Rom. xii. Qui protest in solidtudine prcesit 4 . 



[ Cranmer s attempt to preserve the paragraph 
failed. Nee. Doctr. p. 311.] 
[ 2 See Nee. Doctr. p. 312.] 



[ 3 Ibid. p. 318.] 

[ 4 Cranmer preserved the substance of this 
clause. Nee. Doctr. p. 315.] 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 105 

Inst. p. 158. No man may kill, or use such bodily coercion, but only princes, and they . in j- crior ru i 6rft 
which have authority from princes. Ne the said * princes 8 , ne * any for them, may do the or. ixiv. 
same, but by and according to the just order of their laws b . b and ordinances 

Ixiv. " Inferior rulers." Princes must also do all things with justice, which other 
wise cannot be known, than by their laws and ordinances institute for the ministration 
thereof : and when princes give pardons, placards, protections, and licences, contrary to 
the common order of their laws, yet that also is done by the law, so that it be never 
done against justice and equity between party and party. And moreover it is not 
amply spoken that the inferior rulers should do nothing, but by the order of their 
laws: for the laws be not theirs, but the princes, instead of whom they do minister 
the same justice, that he would do himself by the common order of his laws, if it 
should happen him to take the judgment thereof in his own hands 5 . 

i 

Inst. p. 1G3. They also that do nourish, stir up, and provoke themselves or any other to carnal lusts 
and pleasures of the body, c * by uncleanly and wanton words, tales, songs, sights,* touchings, c fe? unc i enn i 
* gay and wanton apparel, and lascivious decking of themselves,* or any such other wanton tight* and wan. 
behaviour and enticement; *and also all those which procure any such act, or that minister tonworag - lxv - 
house, licence, or place thereto;* and all counsellors, helpers, and consenters to the same, do 
grievously offend God, and do transgress this commandment d . 

Likewise, all they that avoid not the causes hereof so much as they conveniently c use ofidlenett, 
may, as e * surfeiting, sloth, (Ixvii.) idleness, immoderate sleep,* and company of such f if thereby they be pro- 
(both men and women) as be unchaste and evil disposed, be guilty of the transgression voked thereto, or cause 

others. Ixviii. 
Of this commandment . 

lxv. " And wanton words." I think that wanton tales, unclean songs, and lascivi 
ous apparel, need to be spoken of as much as any thing else, being so much used 
as it is, contrary to God s word ; which commandeth us in this wise, " Let not filthy 
communication come from your mouth." Ephes. iv. And as touching the prohibition 
of lascivious apparel, namely of women, it appeareth, 1 Tim. ii. and 1 Pet. iii. 6 

Ixvi. " In procuring of the same." The whole sentence shall yet be more perfect, 
if it be said, " in maintenance of the same ;" for they that be only consenters to such 
evil be not also procurers, albeit they be maintaincrs. 

Ixvii. u As surfeiting, sloth." It seemeth much better expressed before, because the 
chief and special causes of unchaste living were rehearsed more at large. 

Ixviii. " If thereby they be provoked." Whether they be or not provoked, they 
that wittingly doth accompany with such, although they keep themselves chaste, yet 
forsomuch as they seem to be fautors. of them, they be guilty of the transgression 
of this commandment : for that is, even as St Paul saith, to communicate witli the 
unfruitful works of darkness, and not to reprove them. Ephes. v. To the avoiding 
whereof, he would us so much to eschew the company of them that be evil, that we 
should neither eat nor drink with them, 1 Cor. v. 

Inst. p. 172. They chiefly be transgressors of this commandment, which, by deliberation and full 
consent, cast their minds and studies to accomplish the concupiscence and desire which K without due 
they have to obtain and get another man s wife, child, servant, house, land, corn, cattle, recompense. 
or any thing or goods that be his s. 

And they also be transgressors of this commandment, which by envy be sorry of their neighbour s wealth 
and prosperity, or be glad of their sorrow, hinderance, or adversity ; and also all they which do not set their 
minds and studies to preserve, maintain, and defend unto their neighbours (as much as lieth in them) their 
wives, children, servants, houses, lands, goods, and all that is theirs. For (as before is declared) this com 
mandment not only forbiddeth us to desire h from our neighbour any thing which is his, but h 
by the same we be also commanded gladly to wish and will unto him that he may quietly 
possess and enjoy all that God hath sent him, be it never so great abundance. And this mind we ought to 
bear unto every man by this commandment, not only if they be our friends and lovers, but also if they be our 
enemies and adversaries. 

Ixix. ^Without due recompence." This addition agreeth not well with the co 
veting of another man s wife, wherein is no recompensation ; and in the other things, 



[ 5 See Nee. Doctr. p. 322.] 

[ 6 In this and the three following objections Cranmer succeeded. Nee. Doctr. p. 320.] 



106 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 



although recompensation be made, yet the commandment nevertheless is transgressed 
and broken 1 . 

Ixx. " Here follow certain notes." All the notes 2 after the commandments be clean 
put out, which be very good, and contain many things necessary and expedient to be 
known: as, the threatenings of God to the transgressors, and the promises to the 
observers of the same ; a most brief and short content of every commandment ; a 
declaration of the love of God and of our neighbour, what it is, and how therein all 
the ten commandments be comprised ; the causes why the ten commandments be neces 
sary to be known; and the transition from the ten commandments unto the Pater 
noster. And none of these things, meseemeth, were good to be left out. 

Jnst. p. 178. 1. Our Father that art in heaven, thy name be hallowed. 

2. Thy kingdom come unto us. 

3. Thy will be done *and fulfilled* in earth, as it is in heaven. 

4. Give us this day our daily bread. 

5. And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us. 
1 And suffer not us to be led. Ixxi. 6. * And lead us not* into temptation. 

7. But deliver us from the evil. Amen. 

Ixxi. "Suffer not us to be led." Christ taught ns thus to pray, "Lead us not 
into temptation." And we should not alter any word in the scripture, which wholly 
is ministered unto us by the Ghost of God, 2 Pet. i., although it shall appear to us 
in many places to signify much absurdity : but first, the scripture must be set out 
in God s own words, and if there be any ambiguity, absurdity, or scruple, after it 
would be declared, according to the true sense thereof 3 . 

Inst. p. 182. Fifthly, that in these words, Our Father, is signified, that we ought to believe, *not only* 

that Almighty God is the common Father of all Christian people, and equally and indifferently regardeth 

k touching the soul, and. Ixxii. the " e ^ anc ^ the poor, the free and the bond, the lord and the subject ; k * but * 

i endeavouring themselves to also that aU Christian people 1 be Christ s own brethren, and the very co- 

live according to his precepts inheritors and compartioners with him in the kingdom of heaven; and finally, 

ro our that all Christian men be brethren together, and have all one Father, which is 

nGod Almighty. 

Ixxii. "Touching the soul." Christ testifieth that all that be elect shall of God 
be equally and indifferently regarded of him in every condition, concerning not only 
the soul but also the body: so that, considering the state whereunto he hath called 
them, he provideth meat, drink, and clothing for them, Matt. vi. : yea, and that every 
hair of their head is in reputation under God, and in his preservation, Matt, x., Luke 
xii. And although he provide more abundantly for the lords and rich men, than he 
doth for the subjects and poor folks, yet he no more accepteth and regardeth the rich 
with their riches, than he doth the poor with their poverty : but every man, as his 
heart is joined and affied to God, so he is accepted and regarded of God, whether he 
be rich or poor, free or bond. 

Inst. pp. 182, 3. Sixthly, by these words, which art in heaven, we be taught, that we ought to have, * not 
and much to on ty * an i" war d desire and a great care and study to come to that place where our heavenly 
f owt Father is, n * but also an inward sorrow and grief that we be so long kept from * the presence 

of our heavenly Father, * and be subject here unto so manifold cures and thoughts, to so many troubles and 
misery, and to so many and so grievous perils and dangers of the world, of sin, and of the devil.* For like 
as a loving child is ever desirous to be where his father is, * and if his father shall depart to any place, he 
will lament and be sorry, unless he may go with him, and in his absence he will mourn, and at his return he 
will be joyful ; * even so ought we desire ever to be with our heavenly Father ; and to * see * 
that our conversation be all withdrawn from the world, the flesh, and the devil, and be set in 
heaven and heavenly things, as St Paul saith. 

raslonoas they Jnst. pp. 184, 5. For the devil (undoubtedly) is king over all the children of pride, that 
is to say, over all them that be sinners, rebels, and disobedient unto God P. 






Jnst. p. 186. Make us * that we impute not to the devil or evil men,* when any adversity chanceth unto 
i our desert, us ; * but * that we may attribute all unto * thy godly will * 1, and give thee thanks therefore, 
which dost ordain all such things for our weal and benefit. 



Ixxiii. 



[* This addition was struck out according to 
rranmer s wish. Nee. Doctr. p. 333.] 

\ 2 Notwithstanding Cranmcr s remonstrance, 



these notes were all omitted in The Necessary Doc 
trine.] 

[ r> See Nee. Doctr. p. 1/8.] 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 107 

Ixxiii. "To our desert. * 4 Verily, although we ever deserve as much punishment 
as is laid upon us, and much more, yet no part of that is afflict unto us by the will 
of God; yea, and as touching [us,] which are so taken into his favour that through 
Christ we be made his children, though it seem never so grievous, it is done of his 
most beneficial and fatherly good-will, that he beareth towards us, which chasteth, as 
St Paul saith, all those that he loveth. So that of right faith we should believe, 
that all punishments, tribulations, and persecution, be of the sending of God ; not 
withstanding that to our judgment they shall seem many times and often to come 
only of the devil, or the wickedness of his ministers. 

As when to the holy man Job, the example of all patience, so many mischances 
happened together; the Sabees stole his oxen and asses; the fire, coming from above, 
brent up his sheep ; the Chaldees drove away his camels ; the hurtling wind overthrew 
his son s house, wjierewith all his children were slain, who would not have thought, 
but that all this had come only of the devil, and of thieves and robbers, and that he 
had been so far out of God s favour, that the devil had then his full power over him? 
But he, being constant in the faith of God, and knowing certainly that for all this 
God did bear his favour towards him, wist that all this came from him, and that 
the devil had no power to do any such things, saving that God would even the same. 
He said not, the devil owed me shame ; or, these wicked thieves have wrought me 
this woe; but referred all to God, and did acknowledge that it was wrought all at 
his pleasure. Whose ensample all we that be the faithful people should follow, as 
Austin testifieth, saying: Cuicunque aliquid accidit, dicat, Dominus dedit, Dominus 
abstulit. Non enim dixit Job, Dominus dedit, diabolus abstulit. Intendat ergo caritas 
cestra ne forte dicatis, Hcec mihi diabolus fecit : prorsus ad Deum flagellum tuum re 
fer, quia nee diabolus aliquid fecit, nisi ille permittat qui desuper habet potestatem ad 
pcenam vel ad disciplinary. In Psalm, xxxi. and xxxii. 5 

Likewise, when Samei did curse king David, and said, " Come forth, thou blood- 
supper, Baal s man, usurper of another man s kingdom : God hath acquitted thee, and 
given thy kingdom to Absalom thy son; behold, thou art wrapt in mischief, as thou 
wast desirous of blood-shedding :" who would have thought other, but that this 
malediction had come to so blessed a prince even from the devil ? But this chosen 
person of God, king David, knowing and believing that God had not withdrawn his 
favour from him, wist it was much otherwise ; and said unto Abisai, who for this 
railing and cursing of the king would have cut off Samei s head, "Suffer him to 
curse, for the Lord hath commanded him to curse : " and after it followeth, " Suffer 
him to curse, according to the precept of the Lord. It may hap, that God would 
thus look upon mine affliction, and give me goodness for the cursing this day." In 
this it is evident that David denied |~not] this grievous temptation to come of God, 
at his will and commandment, all for the best, and to the provocation of the greater 
favour of God, in case for his sake which sent it he could suffer it patiently. He 
ascribeth this to the will of God and to his power, without whom Pilate could not 
have given sentence of condemnation against Christ, as the gospel testifieth. 

We then should evermore, when any adversity cometh, knowledge therein God s 
power, and think it is also of his sending ; as Austin in divers places giveth us counsel, 
saying : Quicquid acciderit justo, voluntati divince deputat, non potestati inimici. Scecire 
iste potest ut feriat ; ferire autem, si ille noluerit, non potest. In Psalm, xxxvi. And 
again he saith, Quantum diabolus accipit potestatis, tantum ego patior ; non ergo ab 
illo patior, sed ab eo qui potestatem dedit. In Psalm, ciii. 6 

Ibid. For the better understanding of this third petition, we think it convenient, that all bishops and 
preachers shall instruct and teach the people committed unto their spiritual charge, how that by the occasion 
and ever sith the disobedience and sin of our first father Adam the will of man hath been so corrupted with 



[ 4 See Nee. Doctr. p. 341.) i "Dominus dedit et Dominus abstulit." Id. in 

[ 5 August, in Psalm, xxxi. Tom. VIII. p. 82. Psalm, xxxii. Tom. VIII. p. 88.] 

Ed. Paris. 1635 Ideo bene eiudilus ipse Job non [ 6 Id. in Psalm, xxxvi. et ciii. Tom. VIII. pp. 

ait, Dominus dedit et diabolus abstulit: sed, 116,497.] 



108 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 



at only of original sin, that we be all r utterly inclined to disobey the will and precepts of God, and so 
our selves. \KX\\. to love ourselves and our own wills, that without a special grace and a singular inspiration of 
God, we cannot heartily love neither God nor man, but in respect to ourselves, as we may have benefit and 
commodity by them. 

Ixxiv. " As only of ourself." It need not to be added, for it followeth by and 
by after, "Without a special grace and a singular inspiration of God;" which is all 
one with this, " As only of ourself." And if these words be added to signify, that 
by the common influence of grace given generally we have inclination to obey the 
will and precepts of God; so much the Pelagians Avill grant unto us. And then also 
it will not agree with that followeth, that without a special grace and singular in 
spiration we cannot love God nor man, but in respect to ourselves. And moreover 
when [we] have received the special grace and singular inspiration of God, and even 
the Holy Ghost himself, yet our own carnal inclination is still unto evil, as St Paul 
saith : Caro pugnat adversus spiritum, et spiritus adversus carnem. Et, Condelector 
lege Dei secundum interior em hominem ; haleo autem aliam legem in memlris meis re- 
pugnantem legi mentis mea\ et captivantem me in lege pcccati^ qua? est in memlris meis . 

Inst . p. 187. Like as corn, though it be never so clean winnowed and purged from chaff, yet if it be 
sown, the young seed is full of chaff again, until it be winnowed and made clean : even so be the children 
, fjrace an<t born full of chaff and corruption of original sin, until that by baptism 9 *in the blood* of our 
mercy Saviour Jesu Christ they be washed and purged, as their parents were. 

Inst . pp. 188, 9. And to them, to whom thou dost vouchsafe to give more than their own portion necessary 
t w jjg an( t j- a _ for their l vocation and degree, give thy grace, * that they may be thy diligent and true dispen- 
mtty. Ixxv. sators and stewards,* to distribute that they have over and above that is necessary, consider 
ing their estate and degree, to them that have need of it. For so, good Lord, thou dost provide for thy poor 
But one thing herein is to be noted, people that have nothing, by them which have of thy gift sufficient to 
that there be many folk which had relieve themselves and other". And give also thy grace to us, that we 
lever live by the graffte of bekyna . u i- .... 

sloughtfully* titan other work or la- have not too much solicitude and care for these transitory and unstable 

SSV^&V& Se t2 <5 < <*e things; but that our hearts maybe fixed in things which be eternal, and 
of; for we think it rh/ht necessary that in thy kingdom, which is everlasting. And yet moreover, good Lord, not 
ttt^Z%^ !%^ OI % ^ ve us our necessaries, but also conserve that thou dost give us, and 
Wily labour, thinking it small charity cause that it may come to our use, and by us to the poor people, for whom 
by us thou hast provided. Give us grace, that we may be fed and nourished 

with all the life of Christ, that is to say, both his words and works ; and that they may be to us an effectual 

example and spectacle of all virtues. Grant that all they that preach thy word may profitably and godly 

it to the ho- preach *thee* and thy Son Jesu Christ* through all the world; and that all we which hear 

? r0 Son eC ju thy W rd P reached mav so be fed therewith, that not only we may outwardly receive the same, 

Christ. but also digest it within our hearts ; and that it may so work and feed every part of us, that 

it may appear in all the acts and deeds of our life. 

Ixxv. " Wife and family." These words make the sentence very obscure, and no 
perfect English, and they be put of no necessity, for they be contained sufficiently 
in the words following immediately, viz. "Necessary for their vocation and degree;" 
which no man, I think, will take otherwise than such a portion, as is enough, not 
only for himself, but also for his wife and family and other which appertain to his 
charge and provision. 

Inst. p. 191. As the husbandman tilleth and soweth his ground, weedeth it, and keepeth it from destroy 
ing, and yet he prayeth to God for the increase, and putteth all his trust in him to send him more or less at 
his pleasure ; even so, besides our own diligence, policy, labour, and travail, we must also pray daily to God 
to send us sufficient ; and we must take thankfully at his hands all that is sent ; and be no 
7 than needcth. f ur ther careful, y but put our whole confidence and trust in him. 



and teach you the ways justly 
live. 1: 



and truly to live. Ixxvi. 



Inst. p. 192. But seek you first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, 
and then God shall cast all these things unto you z . 
These be the words of Christ, full of good and comfortable lessons, that we should not care ne set our 
hearts too much upon these worldly things, ne care so much for to-morrow, that we shall seem to mistrust 

And also here it a thing greatly to be noted in comfort of our Lord 5 * and that we should sequester this care from 
the true labouring man: for surely, be he craftsman, be us, and seek for the kingdom of God, and employ our- 

selves whollv to the getting thereof : and then he maketh 



and they that do contrary thall be in jeopardy of dam- a comfortable promise that we shall not lack things 
nation. Ixxvii. 

necessary for us.* 



P See Nee. Doctr. p. 340.] 
[ 2 " The craft of begging slothfully" seems to 
be the subject of Henry VIII. s animadversion here ; 



but as there is some doubt respecting the words, 
the orthography of the original manuscript has been 
preserved.] 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 



109 



Ixxvi. " And teach us the ways justly and truly to live." We may not add in 
such wise to the scripture, as no man that can read it can judge other, but that it 
is some part of the promise made there by Christ. For besides that the text will 
give it, also it followeth immediately: "These be the words of Christ." Now we 
may not so boldly make promises of God s behalf. Si enim verum sit illud Pauli, 
Hominis testamentum, uli semel prolatum sit, nemo rejicit, aut addit ei aliquid; 
quanta magis testimoniis et testamento Dei altissimi nihil est addendum vel detra- 
hendum ! 3 

Ixxvii. " Also here is a thing greatly to be noted." This is a good saying, but 
it seemeth not spoken in his place ; for in the words of Christ, whereof is here spoken, 
is no mention made of the true labouring man, or that he should be certain of his 
salvation 4 . 

i 

[ Inst. pp. 192, 3.] Fourthly, that by this bread, which our Saviour teacheth us to ask in this petition, is prin 
cipally meant the word of God, which is the spiritual bread that feedeth the soul. For as the body is nourished, 
brought up, groweth, and feedeth with bread and meat ; so needeth the soul, even from our youth, to be 
nourished and brought up with the word of God, and to be fed * daily * (Ixxviii.) with it. And like as the 
body will faint and decay, if it be not from time to time relieved and refreshed with bodily sustenance ; even 
so the soul waxeth feeble and weak towards God, unless the same be * continually * cherished, refreshed, and 
kept up with the word of God, according to the saying of Christ, A man liveth not with meat only, but by 
every word that proceedeth from the mouth of God. 

Ixxviii. " Daily." The scripture would, that those that be the blessed sort of 
God, should at all times and at all hours call to remembrance the comfortable words 
of God. Ut meditetur, as David saith, in lege Domini die ac node. Like as God 
also rcquireth by manifest commandment, where as Moses in his behalf said these words : 
" That now here I command thee, print them in thy heart, tell them to thy children, 
muse of them sitting in thy house, walking in thy journey, lying down and uprising : 
clasp them in thy hand for a memorial, make them to stir before thine eyes, and 
write them in the posts and doors of thy house." Deut. vi. This commandment of 
God requireth that at all times and in all places we should be mindful of his words, 
yea, daily and hourly 5 ." 



Inst . p. 193. Our heavenly Father, a * lo,* we wretched sinners, knowledging and B u , e most 
confessing * unto thee, our most merciful Father,* the great and manifold sins wherewith beseech thee, that 
our conscience is continually cumbered, and having none other refuge but unto thy mercy, * we most humbly 
beseech thee,* b comfort our conscience both now and in the hour of our death, which is b that thou 
* now * abashed and ashamed to look upon our sin and iniquity. wouldest. 



in heart 



Inst. p. 194. Judge us not after the accusation of the devil, and our c * wretched * con- c weak 
sciences, neither hear the voice of our enemies, which accuse us day and night before thee. But like as we 
forgive d them heartily which trespass against us, even so we beseech thee forgive us the d ought to. 
manifold sins, whereby from our youth we have provoked thy displeasure and wrath against Ixxix. 
us, and daily do provoke it, by doing that is evil, and omitting that is good. And so wash 6 our e away 
sins daily more and more. 

[Inst. pp. 194, 5.] We cannot otherwise trust or look for any forgiveness or remission of {(io 
our trespasses at thy hands, unless we shall, according to thy commandment/ forgive all * w * to 
them g that have trespassed in any wise against us. 

For the better understanding of this fifth petition, we think it convenient, that all bishops and preachers 
shall instruct and teach the people * committed h unto their spiritual charge,* that h trfoVfc in spiritual cure 
no man ought to glory in himself, as though he were innocent, and without sin ; are committed to them, 
but rather that every good Christian man (without exception) ought to knowledge himself to be a sinner, 
and that he hath need to ask forgiveness of God for his sins, and to require him of his mercy. For doubtless 
he daily committeth sin, which is commanded daily to ask remission of his sins. And St John saith in his 
Epistle, If we say that we be without sin, we deceive ourselves, and truth is not in us. 

Second, that* * God will not* forgive us our sins, k *but upon condition that ! &.V this prayer and peti- 
we shall likewise * forgive all them which trespass against us ; ! * and that not in T^ a^we 
tongue only, but also in our hearts. And that this is a certain sure law and decree i and that it is Chritt s in- 



[ 3 See Nee. Doctr. p. 344.] 
[ 4 This "good saying" kept its place, Nee. 
Doctr. p. 344.] 



[ 5 " Daily" was omitted in spite of Cranmcr. 
Nee. Doctr. p. 345.J 



110 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

tent and mind to hanutdo of God > Christ <Jeclareth in sundry places of the gospel.* For, first, by express 
xn, ,i/i/>,-a)-<-tfi in muni/ t>lai-i s words Christ saith, If you forgive men their offences done against you, your 
heavenly Father will forgive you your offences. * And if you will not forgive 
them that offend you, be you assured your Father will not forgive you your offences.* 

Ixxix. " l Ought to forgive." Christ taught us not here in this petition to pray 
unto our Father, that he should forgive us, as we " ought" to forgive other : meaning 
thereby, that unless we forgive other in " deed," our prayer is frustrate and made in 
vain. And to certify us, that he meant so thereby, immediately after the Pater-noster, 
to leave us out of all doubt what he meant by this petition, he saith : Si dimiscritis 
hominibus peccata eorum. Pater vester ccelestis dimittet vobis peccata vestra. Si autem 
non dimiseritis hominibus, nee Pater vester dimittet vobis peccata vestra 3 . 

Jnst. pp. 196-8. Thus it appeareth plainly, that if we will be forgiven, if we will escape everlasting dam- 

- rraditate and take away all rancour, malice, nation > we must m * heartily forgive those which have trespassed 

and will to revenqe out of mi r heart, and commit and offended against us. No man can offend us so much as we 

offe d God; and yet he is alway ready to forgive us. What 
ingratitude is it then, what hardness of heart, what cruelness 
is in us, if we for his sake will not forgive one another ! There is none offence great that man doth to 
man, if it be compared to our offences against God.* And therefore we may be well accounted to have 
little respect and consideration unto our own benefit, if we will not remit and forgive small faults done 
unto us, that we may have pardon and forgiveness of so many thousands of great offences which we have 
committed against God. And if any perad venture will think it to be a hard thing to suffer and forgive his 
enemy, which in word and deed hath done him many displeasures ; let him consider again, how many hard 
storms our Saviour Christ suffered and abode for us. What were we, when he gave his most precious life 
and blood for us, but horrible sinners, and his enemies? How meekly took he for our sake all rebukes, 
mocks, binding, beating, crowning with thorn, and the most opprobrious death ! (Ixxx.) * Why do we boast 
us to be Christian men, if we care not for Christ, of whom we be so named, if we endeavour not ourselves 
to take example at him? We be not worthy to have the name of the members, if we follow not the Head. 
And if any will say that his enemy is not worthy to be forgiven, let him consider and think that no more is 
he worthy to have forgiveness of God. And by what equity or justice can we require that God should be 
merciful unto us, if we will shew no mercy, but extremity, unto our neighbour and brother? Is it a great 
matter for one sinner to forgive another, seeing that Christ forgave them that crucified him ? And although 
thy enemy be not worthy to be forgiven, yet we be worthy to forgive : and Christ is worthy, that for his sake 
we should forgive.* But surely it is above our frail and corrupt nature to love our enemies that do hate us, 
and to forgive them that do hurt and offend us. Thus to do is a greater grace than can come of ourselves. 
Therefore our Saviour Christ teacheth us to ask this heavenly gift of our heavenly Father, that we mav 
forgive our enemies, and that he will forgive us our trespasses, even so as we forgive them that trespass 
against us. 

Thirdly, that to forgive our brother his default is to pray to our Lord that he will forgive him, and will 
not impute his offence to him ; and to wish to him the same grace and glory that we desire unto ourselves ; 

and n * and in no case to annoy him, but* when occasion shall come, to help him, as we be bound 

to help our Christian brother. 

* Fourthly, that none enemy can wish or desire more hurt unto us than we desire unto our own selves 
when we offer unto God this fifth petition, if we will not remit and forgive our displeasure unto them which 
offend us. For what enemy was ever so malicious, or so far from all grace and humanity, that would desire 
and daily pray to God to send unto his enemy eternal damnation, and that God should withdraw his mercy 
from him for ever? And surely in this petition we ask continually these things of God for ourselves, if we 
will be merciless towards our enemies, and will not forgive them their trespasses. For none otherwise we 
do ask forgiveness of God, but upon this condition, that we shall forgive them which trespass against us. 
And in case we do not fulfil this condition, then we pray unto God that he shall never shew mercy unto us, 
nor never forgive us our sins, but suffer us to be damned perpetually.* 

Ixxx. " Why do we boast us to be Christian men ? Why these words should be 
stricken out I cannot tell, seeing that St Paul, as concerning our imitation of Christ 
even in the same point, speaketh the same words in effect, saying, " Forgive you 
one another, if any of you have a grief against another; as the Lord hath forgiven 
you, even so do you." Col. iii. And as touching that reason that followeth, w T hich 



[ The opinions of Henry VIII. which induced , prayer at all; but took our Lady s Psalter in hand, 
him to propose an alteration, seem to have been ] and such fooleries ; thinking they might then do 
similar to those whom Latimer speaks of, "who, j unto their neighbour a foul turn with a better con- 
when they said this petition, perceived that they science, than if they should say this petition." 
asked of God forgiveness, like as they themselves Latimer, Sixth Sermon on the Lord s Prayer, pp. 
forgive their neighbours; and again perceiving them- 425,6. Park. Soc. Ed. 1844.] 
selves so unapt to forgive their neighbours faults, [ 2 See Nee. Doctr. pp. 346, /.] 
came to that point, that they would not say this ! [ Ibid. p. 347.] 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. Ill 

is also stricken out, that is, that we may not think to have forgiveness of God, if wo 
should shew extremity to our neighbour, the scripture testifieth that to look for that, 
it were unreasonable; saying, Qui vindicari vult, a Domino inmniet vindictam, ct 
peccata illius servans servabit. Dimitte proximo tuo nocenti te, et tune deprecanti tibi 
peccata solventur. Homo homini reservat iram, et a Deo qucvrit medelam ? In hominem 
similem sibi non liabet misericordiam, et de peccatis suis deprecatur ? Ipse, dum caro 
sit, reservat iram, et propitiationem petit a Deo ? Quis orabit pro delictis illius * ? 
Prov. EEcclus.] xxviii. 

Ixxxi. "And 5 in case that he which hath committed the offence," &c. This remis 
sion that is required by Christ, nothing toucheth debts that ought to be paid, nor yet 
goods and lands unjustly withh olden, that ought to be restored ; but the displeasure 
and malice of the heart of him that injury is done unto, and an appetite to be revenged 
of such displeasures as be done unto him. For he that suffereth injury should be sorry 
in his heart, that 4 his brother should use himself contrary to the laws and ordinances 
of God or of his prince : he should pray for his amendment, and not of his private 
power render evil for evil, nor take the sword to avenge his own quarrel ; but com 
mit the whole punishment of the trespass unto God and to his ministers, whom he 
hath ordained for that intent. 

So doth the scripture command us, saying, " Say thou not, I will acquit this evil ; 
but tarry the Lord, and he shall help thee." Prov. xx. Likewise St Paul saith : " Dearly 
beloved, avenge not yourselves one of another, but give place unto displeasure : for it 
is written, Leave the revenging unto me, and I will acquit it, saith the Lord." Rom. xii. 
Where God biddeth us to reserve the vengeance unto him, it is not meant that tho 
superior powers and their ministers should not meddle therewith ; but that we should 
preserve our hearts clear from all vengeful appetites, and that we should not enter 
prise any part of God s office and judgment ; but commit it unto them which be God s 
ministers in that behalf, as the prince is, and they that be substitute of him. For as 
St Paul saith, Del minister est ultor ad iram. Rom. xiii. So that referring it to them, 
we refer it even to the judgment of God, which they by his authority do exercise to 
us: as Josophat, giving commandment to the judges, said, Videte quid facitis ; non 
enim hominis exercetis judicium, sed Domini. 2 Chron. xix. 

Now, these things well considered, these two may stand both well together ; that 
we, as private persons, may forgive all such as have trespassed against us, with all 
our heart ; and yet that the public ministers of God may see a redress of the same 
trespasses that we have forgiven. For my forgiveness concerneth only mine own per 
son, but I cannot forgive the punishment and correction that by God s ordinance is 
to be ministered by the superior powers : for insomuch as the sam trespass which I 
do forgive, may be to the maintenance of vice, not only of the offender, but also of 
other taking evil example thereby, it lieth not in me to forgive the same. For so 
should I enterprise in the office of others, which by the ordinance of God be deputed 
to the same. Yea, and that such justice may be ministered to the abolishment of 
vice and sin, I may, yea and rather, as the cause shall require, I am bound to make 
relation to the superior powers of the enormities and trespasses done to me and other ; 
and, being sorry that I should have cause so to do, seek upon the reformation of such 
evil-doers, not as desirous of vengeance, but of the amendment of their life. And yet 
I may not the more cruelly persecute the matter, because the offence is peradventure 
done towards me ; but I ought to handle it as if it were done to any other only, for 
the zeal of the extirpation of sin, the maintenance of justice and quietness, which may 
right well stand with the ferventness of charity, as scripture testifieth : Non oderis 
fratrem tuum in corde tuo, sed publice argiw eum, ne habeas super illo peccatum. 
Levit. xix. 

That this may stand with charity, and also the forgiveness that Christ requires 
of every one of us, for and yet in this doing I must forgive him with all my heart ; 
for as much as lieth in me, I must be sorry that sin should have so much ruled in 



[ 4 See Nee. Doctr. p. 348.] I Corrections, it appears in the Necessary Poctrire, 

I 3 Though this clause is not found in the J p. 349.] 



112 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 



him ; I must pray to God to give him repentance for his misdeeds ; I must desire 
God, that for Christ s sake he will not impute the sin unto him, being truly repentant, 
and so to strengthen him in grace, that he fall not again so dangerously. I think I 
were no true Christian man, if I would not thus do. And what other thing is this, 
than, for as much as licth in me, with all my heart to remit the trespass ? But I may 
by the laws require all that is due unto me by right. And as for the punishment 
and correction, it is not my part to enterprise therein : but that only belongcth to 
the superior powers, to whom, if the gricvousncss of the cause shall require, by God s 
commandment which willeth us to take away the evil from amongst us, we ought to 
shew the offences and complain thereof. For he would not that we should take away 
the evil but after a just and lawful mean, which is only by the ordinance of God 
to shew the same to the superior powers, that they may take an order in it accord 
ing to God s judgment and justice. 

In this matter I have written much more than needcth, and nothing disallowing 
the three leaves added to the printed book, for I like them very well ; saving that 
the first side is not perfect English nor much material, and therefore I think it were 
good to leave out the beginning of the first side, and to begin at the last end thereof, 
at this particle, " It is expedient that all bishops and preachers shall instruct," &c. 
And where the fourth note is stricken out, I think it might well remain; for it is 
very good, and not repugnant to any thing written in the three leaves : and the three 
leaves would very conveniently and aptly follow the fourth note 1 . 

Ixxxii. <f Though our doings be never so good and consonant to equity." He that 
is justified knowledgeth humbly his offences and sins, saying, as the publican did, 
Deus^ propitius esto mihi peccatori; and, as David also said, Lava me ab iniquitate 
mea, quia malum coram te feci ; et, Iniquitates mew supergressce sunt caput meum. 
And he confesseth that before his justification his doings were naught, nor consonant 
unto equity ; and therefore this parenthesis cometh not well in this place. 

Ixxxiii. " For the first offence of our father Adam." No man shall be damned for 
the offences of Adam, but for his own proper offences, either actual or original ; which 
original sin every man hath of his own, and is born in it, although it come from 
Adam. 

us so strong with thy fortitude, Inst. p. 198. Make that we may resist and fight against all temptation. 

r signification Inst. pp. 209, 10. As touching the P* order* and cause of our justification, we think it 
of the word, convenient, that all bishops and preachers shall instruct and teach the people committed unto 
their spiritual charge, that this word justification signifieth remission of our sins, and our acceptation or 
reconciliation into the grace and favour of God % * that is to say, our perfect renovation 
in Christ.* 



by Christ. 



Item, That the chief and first mmn 



Item, That sinners attain this justification by contrition and faith, 

tfhereby sinners attain tte same justification, joined with charity, after such sort and manner as is before mentioned 
whtS^thaTchritib^ l un- and declared in the sacrament of penance. Not as though our con- 

deserved on our behalf; for bit his passion trition or faith, or any works proceeding thereof, can worthily merit 
^tifi^atic^ e wh^efore U he nfosFwwihil^is or desery e to attain the said justification. For the only mercy and 
to be of us honoured, and esteemed our sole grace of the Father, promised freely unto us for his Son s sake Jesu 

Christ, and the merits of his blood and passion, be the only sufficient 

and worthy causes thereof. And yet that notwithstanding, to the attaining of the same justification, God 
requireth to be in us not only inward contrition, perfect faith and charity, certain hope and confidence, with 
all other spiritual graces and motions, which, as was said before, must necessarily concur in remission of our 
sins, that is to say, our justification ; but also he requireth and commandeth us that, after we be justified, we 
must also have good works of charity and obedience towards God, in the observing and fulfilling outwardly 
of his laws and commandments. For although acceptation to everlasting life be conjoined with justification, 
yet our good works be necessarily required to the attaining of everlasting life. And we, being justified, be 
necessarily bound, and it is our necessary duty, to do good works, according to the saying of St Paul, "We be 
bound not to live according to the flesh and to fleshly appetites ; for if we live so, we shall undoubtedly be 
damned. And contrary, if we will mortify the deeds of our flesh, and live according to the Spirit, we shall 



[ ! The fourth note was struck out notwithstand 
ing Cranmer s representations. Pp. 348, 9, of the 
Necessary Doctrine probably contain what was 
written on the three leaves here spoken of. Perhaps 
the paragraph from " And finally... to... neighbour" 



may be that which Cranmer thought not " much 
material." The remainder agrees perfectly with 
his Annotation, but is more concisely expressed. 
In the 349th page occur the very words "And in 
case," &c. with which he commences his remarks.] 



WITH CRANMER S ANNOTATIONS. 113 

be saved. For whosoever be led by the Spirit of God, they be the children of God. And Christ saith, If 
you will come to heaven, keep the commandments. And St Paul, speaking of evil works, saith, Whosoever 
commit sinful deeds shall never come to heaven. Wherefore all good Christian people must understand and 
believe certainly, that God necessarily requireth of us to do good works commanded by him, and that not 
only outward and civil works, but also the inward spiritual motions and graces of the Holy Ghost, that is to 
say, to dread and fear God ; to love God ; to have firm confidence and trust in God ; to invocate and call 
upon God ; to have patience in all adversities ; to hate sin ; and to have certain purpose and will not to sin 
again ; and such other like motions and virtues. For Christ saith, We must not only do outward civil good 
works, but we must also have these foresaid inward spiritual motions, consenting and agreeable to the 
law of God. 

Ixxxiv. " The principal mean whereby all sinners attain this justification." This 
sentence importeth, that the favour and love of the Father of heaven towards us is the 
mean whereby we come to his favour and love; and so should one thing be a mean 
to itself. And it is not the use of scripture to call any other the mean or mediator 
for us, but only Jesus Christ, by whom our access is to the Father; so that it is a 
strange thing to attribute unto the Father this word "mean," but his love was the 
original and beginning of our salvation. 

Ixxxv. " And then to be contrite." It were better to say " and to be contrite," 
putting out " then." 

Ixxxvi. " Having assured hope and confidence in Christ s mercy, willing to enter 
into the perfect faith." He that hath assured hope and confidence in Christ s mercy, 
hath already entered into a perfect faith, and not only hath a will to enter into it. 
For perfect faith is nothing else but assured hope and confidence in Christ s mercy : 
and after it folio weth, that he shall enter into perfect faith by undoubted trust in God, 
in his words and promise, which also be both one thing : for these three be all one, 
" perfect faith;" " assured hope and confidence in Christ s mercy," and " undoubted 
trust in God, in his words and promises." 

And, for a further declaration, to know how we obtain our justification, it is expe 
dient to consider, first, how naughty and sinful we are all, that be of Adam s kindred ; 
and contrariwise, what mercifulness is in God, which to all faithful and penitent sinners 
pardoneth all their offences for Christ s sake. Of these two things no man is lightly 
ignorant that ever hath heard of the fall of Adam, which was to the infection of all 
his posterity ; and again, of the inexplicable mercy of our heavenly Father, w T hich sent 
his only-begotten Son to suffer his most grievous passion for us, and shed his most 
precious blood, the price of our redemption. But it is greatly to be wished and desired, 
that as all Christian men do know the same, so that every man might knowledge and 
undoubtedly believe the same to be true and verified, even upon himself; so that both 
he may humble himself to God and knowledge himself a miserable sinner not worthy 
to be called his son; and yet surely trust, that to him being repentant God s mercy 
is ready to forgive. And he that secth not these two things verified in himself, can 
take no manner of emolument and profit by knowledging and believing these things 
to be verified in others. But we cannot satisfy our minds and] settle our conscience 
that these things are true, saving that we do evidently see that God s word so 
tcacheth us. 

The commandments of God lay our faults before our eyes, which putteth us in 
fear and dread, and maketh us see the wrath of God against our sins, as St Paul 
saith, Per legem agnitio pcccati, et, Lex iram operatur, and maketh us sorry and 
repentant, that ever we should come into the displeasure of God and the captivity 
of the devil. The gracious and benign promises of God by the mediation of Christ 
sheweth us, (and that to our great relief and comfort,) whensoever we be repentant, 
and return fully to God in our hearts, that we have forgiveness of our sins, be 
reconciled to God, and accepted, and reputed just and righteous in his sight, only by 
his grace and mercy, which he doth grant and give unto us for his dearly-beloved 
Son s sake, Jesus Christ ; who paid a sufficient ransom for our sins ; whose blood 
doth wash away the same; whose bitter and grievous passion is the only pacifying 
oblation, that putteth away from us the wrath of God his Father; whose sanctified 
body offered on the cross is the only sacrifice of sweet and pleasant savour, as St Paul 
saith ; that is to say, of such sweetness and pleasantness to the Father, that for 
r 8 

[CRANMER, II. I 



114 CORRECTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION BY HENRY VIII. 

the same he accepteth and reputeth of like sweetness all them that the same offering 
doth serve for. 

These benefits of God, with innumerable other, whosoever expendeth, and well pon- 
dereth in his heart, and thereby conceiveth a firm trust and feeling of God s mercy, 
whereof springeth in his heart a warm love and fervent heat of zeal towards God, it 
is not possible but that he shall fall to work, and be ready to the performance of all 
such works as he knoweth to be acceptable unto God. And these works only which 
follow our justification, do please God ; forsomuch as they proceed from an heart 
endued with pure faith and love to God. But the works which we do before our 
justification, be not allowed and accepted before God, although they appear never so 
good and glorious in the sight of man. For after our justification only begin we to 
work as the law of God requireth. Then we shall do all good works willingly, although 
not so exactly as the law requireth, by mean of infirmity of the flesh. Nevertheless, 
by the merit and benefit of Christ, we being sorry that we cannot do all things no 
more exquisitely and duly, all our works shall be accepted and taken of God, as most 
exquisite, pure, and perfect. 

Now they that think they may come to justification by performance of the law, 
by their own deeds and merits, or by any other mean than is above rehearsed, they 
go from Christ, they renounce his grace : Evacuati estis a Christo^ saith St Paul, Gal. v., 
quicunque in lege justificamini, a gratia excidistis. They be not partakers of the justice 
that he hath procured, or the merciful benefits that be given by him. For St Paul 
saith a general rule for all them that will seek such by-paths to obtain justification : 
those, saith he, which will not knowledge the justness or righteousness which cometh 
by God, but go about to advance their own righteousness, shall never come to that 
righteousness which we have by God ; which is the righteousness of Christ : by whom 
only all the saints in heaven, and all other that have been saved, have been reputed 
righteous, and justified. So that to Christ our only Saviour and Redeemer, on whose 
righteousness both their and our justification both depend, is to be transcribed all the 
glory thereof. 



115 



[QUESTIONS 1 AND ANSWERS 

CONCERNING 

THE SACRAMENTS AND THE APPOINTMENT AND POWER OF 
BISHOPS AND PRIESTS.] 



Cott. Libr. 
Cleop. E. v, 



Libr. 1108. 
fol. l>. 



1. WIIAT a sacrament is by the scripture? 

The scripture sheweth not what a sacrament is : nevertheless, where in the Latin text joTTi 
we have sacramentum, there in the Greek we have mysterium ; and so by the scrip- * 
ture sacramentum may be called mysterium, id est, res occulta sive arcana. 

2. What a sacrament is by the ancient authors? 

The ancient authors call a sacrament sacrce rei signwn, or visibile verbum, sym- 
bolumque, atque pactio qua sumus constricti. 

3. How many sacraments there be by the scriptures? 

The scripture sheweth not how many sacraments there be; but incarnatio Christi 
and matrimonium be called in the scripture mysteria, and therefore we may call 
them by the scripture sacramenta. But one sacramentum the scripture maketh men 
tion of, which is hard to be revealed fully, (as would to God it were!) and that is, 
mysterium iniquitatis, or mysterium meretricis magnce et bestice. 

4. How many sacraments there be by ancient authors? 

By the ancient authors there be many sacraments more than seven ; for all the figures 
which signified Christ to come, or testify that he is come, be called sacraments, as all the 
figures of the old law, and the new law; eucharistia, baptismus, pascha, dies Dominicus, 
lotio pedum, signum crucis, chrisma, matrimonium, ordo, sabbatum, impositio manuum, 
oleum, consecratio olei, lac, mel, aqua, vinum, sal, ignis, cineres, adapertio aurium, 
vestis Candida, and all the parables of Christ, with the prophecies of the Apocalypse, 
and such other, be called by the doctors sacramenta. 

5. Whether this word sacrament be, and ought to be, attributed to the seven only ? 
And whether the seven sacraments be found in any of the old authors, or not? 

I know no cause why this word "sacrament" should be attributed to the seven only: 
for the old authors never prescribe any certain number of sacraments, nor in all their 
books I never read these two words joined together, viz. septem sacramenta. 

6. Whether the determinate number of seven sacraments be a doctrine, either of 
the scripture, or of the old authors, and so to be taught? 

The determinate number of seven sacraments is no doctrine of the scripture, nor of 
the old authors. 

7. What is found in scripture of the matter, nature, effect, and virtue of such as 
we call the seven sacraments; so as although the name be not there, yet whether the 
thing be in scripture or no? and in what wise spoken of? 

I find not in the scripture, the matter, nature, and effect of all those which we 



f 1 The above questions and answers are printed 
verbatim as they stand in the Cott. Libr. Cleop. 
MSS. E. v. f. 53, preserved in the British Museum. 
Another copy is found amongst the Stillingfleet 
MSS. in the Lambeth palace library ; and they have 
been also printed by Burnet and by Collier. An 
swers were given to these questions by other divines, 
amongst which are those of Thirlby, who is called 
" elect of Westminster," which fixes their date be 
tween Sept. 17 and Dec. 29, 1540. The questions, 
"believed to have been proposed to commissioners 
appointed in that year to draw up a declaration of 
the Christian doctrine," have been attributed to 
Henry VIII.; but Strype supposes that he was 



instigated by Cranmer in the matter, which suppo 
sition is confirmed by draughts of some of them in 
the archbishop s handwriting being still found in 
the Lambeth MSS. 1108. fol. 1. Vid. Burnet s 
Hist, of Reformat. Vol. I. pp. 578-82. App. Vol. I. 
b. iii. No. 21. pp. 314-67. Vol. III. p. 294. App. 
Vol. III. b. iii. No. 69, 70, 71. PP- 223-30. Ed. 
Oxon. 1829. Collier, Eccles. Hist. Vol. V. pp. 97, 
8. App. No. 49. Vol. IX. pp. 175-214. Ed. Lond. 
1840-41. Strype s Memorials of Abp. Cranmer, 
Vol. I. pp. 110, 11. and App. No. 27 and 28. Vol. 
II. pp. 744-8. Ed. Oxon. 1840. Todd s Life of 
Cranmer, Vol. 1. p. 299, et sqq. Jenkyns Remains 
of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 98.] 

Q o 



116 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

call the seven sacraments, but only of certain of them : as of baptism, in which we 
be regenerated and pardoned of our sin by the blood of Christ. 

Of eucharistia, in which we be concorporated unto Christ, and made lively members 
of his body, nourished and fed to the everlasting life, if we receive it as we ought to 
do; and else it is to us rather death than life. 

Of penance also I find in the scripture, whereby sinners after baptism, returning 
wholly unto God, be accepted again unto his favour and mercy. But the scripture 
speak eth not of penance, as we call it a sacrament, consisting in three parts, contrition, 
confession, and satisfaction ; but the scripture taketh penance for a pure conversion of 
a sinner in heart and mind from his sins unto God, making no mention of private con 
fession of all deadly sins to a priest, nor of ecclesiastical satisfaction to be enjoined by him. 

Of matrimony also I find very much in scripture, and among other things, that 
it is a mean whereby God doth use the infirmity of our concupiscence to the setting 
forth of his glory, and increase of the world, thereby sanctifying the act of carnal com- 
mixtion between the man and the wife to that use; yea, although one party be an 
infidel : and in this matrimony is also a promise of salvation, if the parents bring up 
their children in the faith, love, and fear of God. 

Of the matter, nature, and effect of the other three, that is to say, confirmation, order, 
and extreme unction, I read nothing in the scripture, as they be taken for sacraments. 

8. Whether confirmation, cum chrismate, of them that be baptized, be found in 
scripture ? 

Of confirmation with chrism, without which it is counted no sacrament, there is 
no manner of mention in the scripture. 

9. Whether the apostles lacking a higher power, as in not having a Christian king 
among them, made bishops by that necessity, or by authority given them by God ? 

All Christian princes have committed unto them immediately of God the whole cure 
of all their subjects, as well concerning the administration of God s word for the cure 
of souls, as concerning the ministration of things political and civil governance. And 
in both these ministrations they must have sundry ministers under them, to supply 
that which is appointed to their several offices. 

The civil ministers under the king s majesty in this realm of England, be those 
whom it shall please his highness for the time to put in authority under him : as for 
example, the lord chancellor, lord treasurer, lord great master, lord privy seal, lord 
admiral, mayors, sheriffs, &c. 

The ministers of God s word under his majesty be the bishops, parsons, vicars, 
and such other priests as be appointed by his highness to that ministration : as for 
example, the bishop of Canterbury, the bishop of Duresme, the bishop of Winchester, 
the parson of AVinwick, &c. All the said officers and ministers, as well of the one 
sort as of the other, be appointed, assigned, and elected in every place, by the laws 
and orders of kings and princes. 

In the admission of many of these officers be divers comely ceremonies and solemnities 
used, which be not of necessity, but only for a good order and seemly fashion : for if such 
offices and ministrations were committed without such solemnity, they were nevertheless 
truly committed. And there is no more promise of God, that grace is given in the 
committing of the ecclesiastical office, than it is in the committing of the civil office. 

In the apostles time, when there was no Christian princes, by whose authority 
ministers of God s word might be appointed, nor sins by the sword corrected, there 
was no remedy then for the correction of vice, or appointing of ministers, but only 
the consent of Christian multitude among themselves, by an uniform consent to fol 
low the advice and persuasion of such persons whom God had most endued with 
the spirit of counsel and wisdom. And at that time, forasmuch as the Christian 
people had no sword nor governor amongst them, they were constrained of necessity 
to take such curates and priests as either they knew themselves to be meet there 
unto, or else as were commended unto them by other that were so replete with the 
Spirit of God, with such knowledge in the profession of Christ, such wisdom, such 
conversation and counsel, that they ought even of very conscience to give credit unto 
them, and to accept such as by them were presented : and so sometime the apostles, 
and other, unto whom God had given abundantly his Spirit, sent or appointed ministers 



CONCERNING THE SACRAMENTS, &c. 117 

of God s word ; sometime the people did choose such as they thought meet thereunto ; 
and when any were appointed or sent by the apostles or other, the people of their 
own voluntary will with thanks did accept them; not for the supremity, impery, or 
dominion that the apostles had over them to command, as their princes or masters; 
but as good people, ready to obey the advice of good counsellors, and to accept any 
thing that was necessary for their edification and benefit. 

10. Whether bishops or priests were first? and if the priests were first, then 
the priest made the bishop? 

The bishops and priests were at one time, and were not two things, but both one 
office in the beginning of Christ s religion. 

11. Whether a bishop hath authority to make a priest by the scripture, or no? 
and whether any other, but only a bishop, may make a priest ? 

A bishop may jnake a priest by the scripture, and so may princes and governors 
also, and that by the authority of God committed to them, and the people also by 
their election: for as we read that bishops have done it, so Christian emperors and 
princes usually have done it; and the people, before Christian princes were, commonly 
did elect their bishops and priests. 

12. Whether in the new Testament be required any consecration of a bishop and 
priest, or only appointing to the office be sufficient ? 

In the new Testament, he that is appointed to be a bishop or a priest, needeth no 
consecration by the scripture ; for election or appointing thereto is sufficient. 

13. Whether (if it befortuned a prince christian-learned to conquer certain do 
minions of infidels, having none but temporal-learned men with him) it be defended bv 
God s law, that he and they should preach and teach the word of God there, or no ? 
and also make and constitute priests, or no? 

It is not against God s law, but contrary, they ought indeed so to do ; and there 
be histories that witnesseth, that some Christian princes, and other laymen unconsecrate, 
have done the same. 

14. Whether it be forfended by God s law, that (if it so fortuned that all the 
bishops and priests of a region were dead, and that the word of God should remain 
there unpreached, the sacrament of baptism and others unministered,) that the king 
of that region should make bishops and priests to supply the same, or no ? 

It is not forbidden by God s law. 

15. Whether a man be bound by authority of this scripture, "Quorum remiseritis," 
and such like, to confess his secret deadly sins to a priest if he may have him, or no ? 

A man is not bound by the authority of this scripture, " Quorum remiseritis" and 
such like, to confess his secret deadly sins to a priest, although he may have him. 

16. Whether a bishop or a priest may excommunicate, and for what crimes ? 
and whether they only may excommunicate by God s law ? 

A bishop or a priest by the scripture is neither commanded nor forbidden to ex 
communicate, but where the laws of any region giveth him authority to excommunicate, 
there they ought to use the same in such crimes as the laws have such authority in ; and 
where the laws of the region forbiddeth them, there they have none authority at all : and 
they that be no priests may also excommunicate, if the law allow them thereunto. 

17. Whether unction of the sick with oil to remit venial sins, as it is now used, 
be spoken of in the scripture, or in any ancient author ? 

Unction of the sick with oil to remit venial sins, as it is now used, is not spoken of 
in the scripture, nor in any ancient author. 

This is mine opinion and sentence at present, which nevertheless I do not teme- 
rariously define, but refer the judgment thereof wholly unto your majesty. 

T. Cantuarien. This is mine opinion and sentence at this present, 
which I do not temerariously define, and do remit the judgment 
thereof wholly unto your majesty 1 . 



[ This passage, with the signature of the archbishop, is in his own hand-writing, bath in the 
Cotton and Stillingfleet MSS.] 



118 



PROLOGUE OR PREFACE 

MADE BY 

THE MOST REVEREND FATHER IN GOD, 

THOMAS, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, 

METROPOLITAN AND PRIMATE OF ENGLAND 1 . 



Cranmer s 
Bible, 1540. 



Psal. cxix. 
Matt. iv. 
Luke xii. 



FOR two sundry sorts of people, it seemeth much necessary that something be said in 
the entry of this book, by the way of a preface or prologue; whereby hereafter it may 
be both the better accepted of them which hitherto could not well bear it, and also the 
better used of them which heretofore have misused it. For truly some there are that be 
too slow, and need the spur : some other seem too quick, and need more of the bridle : 
some lose their game by short shooting, some by overshooting : some walk too much on 
the left hand, some too much on the right. In the former sort be all they that refuse to 
read, or to hear read the scripture in the vulgar tongues; much worse they that also let or 
discourage the other from the reading or hearing thereof. In the latter sort be they, 
which by their inordinate reading, undiscreet speaking, contentious disputing, or other 
wise, by their licentious living, slander and hinder the word of God most of all other, 
whereof they would seem to be greatest furtherers. These two sorts, albeit they be most 
far unlike the one to the other, yet they both deserve in effect like reproach. Neither can 
I well tell whether of them I may judge the more offender, him that doth obstinately 
refuse so godly and goodly knowledge, or him that so ungodly and so ungoodly doth 
abuse the same. 

And as touching the former, I would marvel much that any man should be so mad as 
to refuse in darkness light ; in hunger, food ; in cold, fire : for the word of God is light ; 
lucerna pedibus meis verbum tuum : food ; non in solo pane vivit homo, sed in omni 
verbo Dei : fire ; ignem veni mittere in terram, et quid volo, nisi ut ardeat ? I would 
marvel (I say) at this, save that I consider how much custom and usage may do. So 
that if there were a people, as some write, De Cimmeriis, which never saw the sun by 
reason that they be situated far toward the north pole, and be inclosed and overshadowed 
with high mountains ; it is credible and like enough that if, by the powder and will of 
God, the mountains should sink down and give place, that the light of the sun might have 
entrance to them, at the first some of them would be offended therewith. And the old 
proverb amrmeth, that after tillage of corn was first found, many delighted more to feed 
of mast and acorns, wherewith they had been accustomed, than to eat bread made of 
good corn. Such is the nature of custom 2 , that it causeth us to bear all things well and 
easily, wherewith we have been accustomed, and to be offended with all things thereunto 



[* This prologue is not found in the edition of 
the bible, which was issued A. D. 1539, and which is 
commonly attributed to the archbishop. The pro 
logue was prepared by Cranmer during this year, 
and submitted by him for Henry VIIl. s approba 
tion through Crumwell, to whom he had also sent it 
for his approval ; but it was not issued till the 
April of the following year, when it was prefixed to 
the great bible appointed to be read in churches, 
which is properly called Cranmer s bible. Nine 
editions in folio of this bible were from time to time 
published, containing the prologue, but all differing 
in orthography. The version here given is tran 
scribed from the vellum copy (large folio), as being 



most accurate, preserved in the British Museum, 
which once belonged to Henry VIII., the gift to 
him of "Anthony Marler, of London, haber 
dasher." The various readings of other (paper) 
copies have been also noted, and the marginal refer 
ences added, which are not found in the vellum 
copy, but are copied from another edition in the 
British Museum, bearing on the title the date of 
1540, and on the last page 1541. See Anderson s 
Annals of the English Bible, Vol. II. pp. 86,7, 
130. et sqq. Ed. Lond. 1845. Cranmer s Letter to 
CrumweH, 14 Nov. 1539. Lewis s History of English 
Bibles. Cotton s List of Editions.] 

[ s Other copies read, manner and custom.] 



PREFACE TO THE BIBLE. 119 

contrary. And therefore I can well think them worthy pardon, which at the coming 
abroad of scripture doubted and drew back. But such as will persist still in their wilful- 
ness, I must needs judge, not only foolish, froward, and obstinate, but also peevish, 
perverse, and indurate. 

And yet, if the matter should be tried by custom, we might also allege custom for 
the reading of the scripture in the vulgar tongues, and prescribe the more ancient custom. 
For it is not much above one hundred years ago, since scripture hath not been accustomed 
to be read in the vulgar tongues within this realm ; and many hundred years before that 
it was translated and read in the Saxons tongue, which at that time was our mother s 
tongue : whereof there remaineth yet divers copies found lately in old abbeys, of such 
antique manners of writing and speaking, that few men now been able to read and under 
stand them. And when this language waxed old and out of common usage, because folk 
should not lack the fruit of reading, it was again translated in 8 the newer language. 
Whereof yet also many copies remain and be daily found. 

But now to let pass custom, and to weigh, as wise men ever should, the thing in his 
own nature : let us here discuss, what availeth scripture to be had and read of the lay 
and vulgar people. And to this question I intend here to say nothing but that was 
spoken and written by the noble doctor and most moral divine, St John Chrysostom, in st chryso- 
his third sermon De Lazaro : albeit I will be something shorter, and gather the matter 
into fewer words and less room than he doth there, because I would not be tedious. He 
exhorteth there his audience, that every man should read by himself at home in the mean 
days and time, between sermon and sermon, to the intent they might both more pro 
foundly fix in their minds and memories that he had said before upon such texts, 
whereupon he had already preached ; and also that they might have their minds the more 
ready and better prepared to receive and perceive that which he should say from thence 
forth in his sermons, upon such texts as he had not yet declared and preached upon : 
therefore saith he there : " My common usage is to give you warning before, what matter 
I intend after to entreat upon, that you yourselves, in the mean days, may take the book 
in hand, read, weigh, and perceive the sum and effect of the matter, and mark what hath 
been declared, and what remaineth yet to be declared : so that thereby your mind may 
be the more furnished, to hear the rest that shall be said. And that I exhort you," saith 
he, " and ever have and will exhort you, that ye (not only here in the church) give ear 
to that that is said by the preacher, but that also, when ye be at home in your houses, 
ye apply yourselves from time to time to the reading of holy 4 scriptures : which thing 
also I never linn 5 to beat into the ears of them that been my familiars, and with whom 
I have private acquaintance and conversation. Let no man make excuse and say," saith 
he, " I am busied about matters of the commonwealth ; I bear this office or that ; I 
am a craftsman, I must apply mine occupation ; I have a wife, my children must be 
fed, my household must I provide for : briefly, I am a man of the world, it is not for 
me to read the scriptures, that belongeth to them that hath bidden the world farewell, 
which live in solitariness and contemplation, that hath been 6 brought up and continually 
nosy lied 7 in learning and religion. " 

To this answering, " What sayest thou, man?" saith he: " Is it not for thee to study 
and to read the scripture, because thou art encumbered and distract with cures and 
business ? So much the more it is behoveful for thee to have defence of scriptures, how 
much thou art the more distressed in worldly dangers. They that be free and far from 
trouble and intermeddling of worldly things, liveth in safeguard, and tranquillity, and in 
the calm, or within a sure haven. Thou art in the midst of the sea of worldly wicked 
ness, and therefore thou needest the more of ghostly succour and comfort : they sit far 
from the strokes of battle, and far out of gunshot, and therefore they be but seldom 
wounded : thou that standest in the forefront of the host and nighest to thine enemies, 
must needs take now and then many strokes, and be grievously wounded. And therefore 



[ :! Other copies read, into.] 
[ 4 Of the holy, other copies. J 
[ 5 Linn, i. e. cease. 1 



f 6 Other copies read, and have heen.J 
[ 7 Nosy lied, i. e. nussled, nurtured.] 



120 PREFACE TO THE BIBLE. 

thou hast more need to have thy remedies and medicines at hand. Thy wife provoketh 
thee to anger, thy child giveth thee occasion to take sorrow and pensiveness, thine enemies 
lieth in wait for thee, thy friend (as thou takest him) sometime cnvieth thee, thy neigh 
bour misreporteth thee, or pricketh quarrels against thee, thy mate or partner undennineth 
thee, thy lord judge or justice threateneth thee, poverty is painful unto thee, the loss of 
thy dear and well-beloved causeth thee to mourn ; prosperity exalteth thee, adversity 
bringeth thee low. Briefly, so divers and so manifold occasions of cares, tribulations, and 
temptations besetteth thee and besiegeth thee round about. Where canst thou have armour 
or fortress against thine assaults? Where canst thou have salve 1 for thy sores, but of holy 
scripture? Thy flesh must needs be prone and subject to fleshly lusts, which daily walkest 
and art conversant amongst 2 women, seest their beauties set forth to the eye, hearest their 
nice and wanton words, smellest their balm, civit, and musk, with other like provocations 
and stirrings, except thou hast in a readiness wherewith to suppress and avoid them, 
which cannot elsewhere be had, but only out of the holy scriptures. Let us read and 
seek all remedies that we can, and all shall be little enough. How shall we then do, if 
we suffer and take daily wounds, and when we have done, will sit still and search for no 
medicines ? Dost thou not mark and consider how the smith, mason, or carpenter, or 
any other handy-craftsman, what need soever he be in, what other shift soever he make, 
he will not sell nor lay to pledge the tools of his occupation ; for then how should he work 
his feat, or get a living thereby ? Of like mind and affection ought we to be towards 
holy scripture; for as mallets, hammers, saws, chisels, axes, and hatchets, be the tools of 
their occupation, so been 8 the books of the prophets and apostles, and all holy writ 
inspired by the Holy Ghost, the instruments of our salvation. Wherefore, let us not 
stick to buy and provide us the bible, that is to say, the books of holy scripture. And 
let us think that to be a better jewel in our house than either gold or silver. For like as 
thieves been loth to assault an house where they know to be good armour and artillery; so 
wheresoever these holy and ghostly books been occupied, there neither the devil nor none 
of his angels dare come near. And they that occupy them been in much safeguard, and 
having great 4 consolation, and been the readier unto all goodness, the slower to all evil 5 ; 
and if they have done any thing amiss, anon, even by the sight of the books, their con 
sciences been admonished, and they waxen sorry and ashamed of the fact. 

" Peradventure they will say unto me, How and if we understand not that we read 
that is contained in the books ? What then ? Suppose thou understand not the deep and 
profound mysteries of scripture ; yet can it not be, but that much fruit and holiness must 
come and grow unto thee by the reading : for it cannot be that thou shouldest be ignorant 
in all things alike. For the Holy Ghost hath so ordered and attempered the scriptures, 
that in them as well publicans, fishers, and shepherds may find their edification, as great 
doctors their erudition : for those books were not made to vain-glory, like as w r ere the 
writings of the Gentile philosophers and rhetoricians, to the intent the makers should be 
had in admiration for their high styles and obscure manner of writing 6 , whereof nothing 
can be understand without a master or an expositor. But the apostles and prophets 
wrote their books so that their special intent and purpose might be understanded 7 and 
perceived of every reader, which was nothing but the edification or amendment of the 
life of them that readeth or heareth it. Who is that reading 8 or hearing read in the 
gospel, c Blessed are they that been meek, blessed are they that been merciful, blessed 
are they that been of clean heart, and such other like places, can perceive nothing, 
except he have a master to teach him what it meancth? Likewise the signs .and miracles 
with all other histories of the doings of Christ or his apostles, who is there of so simple 
wit and capacity, but he may be able to perceive and understand them ? These be but 
excuses and cloaks for the rain, and coverings of their own idle slothfulness. I cannot 
understand it. What marvel ? How shouldest thou understand, if thou wilt not read 
nor look upon it ? Take the books into thine hands, read the whole story, and that 



[ Other copies read, salves. 
[ a Among.] 

|_ 3 So he. J 

[ 4 Arid have a great.] 



[* Slower of all evil.] 
[ u Obscure manner and writing.] 
[ 7 Understand.] 
b Who is it, that hearing.] 



PREFACE TO THE BIBLE. 



121 



thou undcrstandest keep it well in memory ; that tlion nnderstandcst not, read it again 
and again : if thou can neither so come by it, counsel with some other that is better 
learned. Go to thy curate and preacher; shew thyself to be desirous to know and learn: 
and I doubt not but God, seeing thy diligence and readiness (if no man else teach thee,) 
will himself vouchsafe with his holy Spirit to illuminate thee, and to open unto thee that 
which was locked from thee. 

" Remember the eunuchus of Candace, queen of Ethiopy, which, albeit he was a man 
of a wild and barbarous country, and one occupied with worldly cures and businesses, yet 
riding in his chariot, he was reading the scripture. Now consider, if this man passing in 
his journey, was so diligent as to read the scripture, what thinkest thou of like was he 
wont to do sitting at home? Again, he that letted 9 not to read, albeit he did not under 
stand, what did he then, trowest thou, after that, when he had learned and gotten under 
standing ? For, that thou may well lo know that he understood not what he read, hearken 
what Philip there saith unto him : Understandest thou what thou readest ? And he, 
nothing ashamed to confess his ignorance, answereth, 4 How should I understand, having 
no body to shew me the way ? Lo ! when he lacked one to shew him the way and to 
expound to him the scriptures, yet did he read ; and therefore God the rather provided 
for him a guide of the way, that taught him to understand it. God perceived his willing 
and toward mind ; and therefore he sent him a teacher by and bye. Therefore let no man 
be negligent about his own health and salvation : though thou have not Philip always 
when thou wouldest, the Holy Ghost, which then moved and stirred up Philip, will be 
ready and not to fail thee if thou do thy diligence accordingly. All these things been 
written for us to our edification and amendment, which be born towards the latter end 
of the world. The reading of scriptures is a great and strong bulwark or fortress 
against sin; the ignorance of the same is the greater ruin and destruction of them that 
will not know it. That is the thing that bringeth in heresies 12 , that is it that causeth 
all corrupt and perverse living, that it is 13 that bringeth all things out of good order 14 ." 

Hitherto, all that I have said, I have taken and gathered out of the foresaid sermon 
of this holy doctor, St John Chrysostom. Now if I should in like manner bring forth 
what the self-same doctor speak eth in other places, and what other doctors and writers 
say concerning the same purpose, I might seem to you to write another bible rather than 
to make a preface to the bible. Wherefore, in few words to comprehend the largeness 
and utility of the scripture, how it containeth fruitful instruction and erudition for every 
man; if any things 15 be necessary to be learned, of the holy scripture we may learn it. 
If falsehood shall be reproved, thereof we may gather wherewithal. If any thing be to 
be corrected and amended, if there need any exhortation or consolation, of the scripture 
we may well learn. In the scriptures be the fat pastures of the soul; therein is no venom 
ous meat, no unwholesome thing ; they be the very dainty and pure feeding. He that 
is ignorant, shall find there what he should learn. He that is a perverse sinner, shall 
there find his damnation to make him to tremble for fear. He that laboureth to serve 
God, shall find there his glory, and the promissions of eternal life, exhorting him more 
diligently to labour. Herein may princes learn how to govern their subjects; subjects 
obedience, love and dread to their princes : husbands, how they should behave them unto 
their wives; how to educate their children and servants: and contrary the wives, 
children, and servants may know their duty to their husbands, parents and masters. 
Here may all manner of persons, men, women, young, old, learned, unlearned, rich, poor, 
priests, laymen, lords, ladies, officers, tenants, and mean men, virgins, wives, widows, 
lawyers, merchants, artificers, husbandmen, and all manner of persons, of what estate or 
condition soever they be, may in this book learn all things what they ought to believe, 
what they ought to do, and what they should not do, as well concerning Almighty God, 
as also concerning themselves and all other. Briefly, to the reading of the scripture none The conciu- 
can be enemy, but that either be so sick that they love not to hear of any medicine, or sion 
else that be so ignorant that they know not scripture to be the most healthful medicine. 



[ 9 Letteth not, other copies.] 

f 10 Thou mayest well.] 

[ n Written unto us tor our edification.] 

[ !2 Heresy.] 



[ 13 That is it.] 

[ 14 Chrysost. De Lazaro. Concio iii. Tom. I. pp. 
737-740. ed.. Paris. 1/18-38.] 

[ u> Other copies read, any thin^.] 



122 PREFACE TO THE BIBLE. 

Therefore, as touching this former part, I will here conclude and take it as a con 
clusion sufficiently determined and approved 1 , that it is convenient and good the scripture 
to be read of all sorts and kinds of people, and in the vulgar tongue, without further 
allegations and probations for the same; which shall not need, since that this one place 
of John Chrysostom is enough and sufficient to persuade all them that be not frowardly 
The king s and perversely set in their own wilful opinion; specially now that the king s highness, 
a being supreme head next under Christ of this church of England, hath approved with 
his royal assent the setting forth hereof, which only to all true and obedient subjects 
ought to be a sufficient reason for the allowance of the same, without farther delay, 
reclamation, or resistance, although there were no preface nor other reason herein ex- 



There is Therefore now to come to the second and latter part of my purpose. There is 

it may It nothing 2 so good in this world, but it may be abused, and turned from fruitful and whole 
some to hurtful and noisome. What is there above better than the sun, the moon, the 
stars? Yet was there that took occasion by the great beauty and virtue of them to 
dishonour God, and to defile themselves with idolatry, giving the honour of the living 
God and Creator of all things to such things as he had created. What is there here 
beneath better than fire, water, meats, drinks, metals of gold, silver, iron, and steel ? 
Yet we see daily great harm and much mischief done by every one of these, as well for 
lack of wisdom and providence of them that suffer evil, as by the malice of them that 
worketh the evil. Thus to them that be evil of themselves every thing setteth forward 
and increaseth their evil, be it of his own nature a thing never so good; like as contrarily, 
to them that studieth and endeavoureth themselves to goodness, every thing prevaileth 
them, and profiteth unto good, be it of his own nature a thing never so bad. As St 
Paul saith : His qui diligant Deum, omnia cooperantur in bonum : even as out of most 
venomous worms is made triacle, the most sovereign medicine for the preservation of 
man s health in time of danger. Wherefore I would advise you all, that cometh to the 
reading or hearing of this book, which is the word of God, the most precious jewel, 
and most holy relic that remaineth upon earth, that ye bring with you the fear of God, 
and that ye do it w r ith all due reverence, and use your knowledge thereof, not to vain 
glory of frivolous disputation, but to the honour of God, increase of virtue, and edifi 
cation both of yourselves and other. 

And to the intent that my words may be the more regarded, I will use in this part 
^ ie autno " t y ^ St Gregory Nazianzene, like as in the other I did of St John Chryso 
stom. It appeareth that in his time there were some (as I fear me, there been also now 
at these days a great number) which were idle babblers and talkers of the scripture out 
of season and all good order, and without any increase of virtue or example of good 
living. To them he writeth all his first book, De Theologia : whereof 3 I shall briefly 
gather the whole effect, and recite it here unto you. " There been some," saith he, 
" whose not only ears and tongues, but also their fists, been whetted and ready bent all 
to contention and unprofitable disputation; whom I would wish, as they been vehement 
and earnest to reason the matter with tongue, so they were also ready and practive to 
do good deeds. But forasmuch as they, subverting the order of all godliness, have 
respect only to this thing, how they may bind and loose subtle questions, so that now 
every market-place, every alehouse and tavern, every feast-house, briefly, every company 
of men, every assembly of women, is filled with such talk ; since the matter is so," saith 
he, " and that our faith and holy religion of Christ beginneth to wax nothing else, but 
as it were a sophistry or a talking-craft, I can no less do but say something thereunto. 
It is not fit," saith he, " for every man to dispute the high questions of divinity, neither 
is it to be done at all times, neither in every audience must we discuss every doubt : 
but we must know when, to whom, and how far we ought to enter into such matters. 

" First, it is not for every man, but it is for such as be of exact and exquisite judg 
ments, and such as have spent their time before in study and contemplation; and such 
as before have cleansed themselves as well in soul as body, or at the least, endeavoured 



[ Sufficiently determine and appoint, other copies.] [ 2 Here is nothing.] [ :; Wherefore.] 



PREFACE TO THE BIBLE. 123 

themselves to bo made clean. For it is dangerous," saith he, " for the unclean to touch 
that thing that is most clean ; like as the sore eye taketh harm by looking upon the 
sun. 

" Secondarily, not at all times, but when we be reposed and at rest from all outward 
dregs and trouble, and when that our heads be not 4 encumbered with other worldly 
and wandering imaginations : as if a man should mingle balm and dirt together. For 
he that shall judge and determine such matters and doubts of scriptures, must take his 
time when he may apply his wits thereunto, that he may thereby the better see and 
discern what is truth. 

" Thirdly, where, and in what audience ? There and among those that been studious 
to learn, and not among such as have pleasure to trifle with such matters as with other 
things of pastime, which repute for their chief delicates the disputation of high questions, 
to shew their wits, learning and eloquence in reasoning of high matters. 

"Fourthly, it is to be considered how far to wade in such matters of difficulty. 
No further," saith he, " but as every man s own capacity will serve him ; and again, no 
further than the weakness or intelligence of the other audience may bear. For like 
as too great noise hurteth the ear, too much meat hurteth a man s body 5 , too heavy 
burdens hurteth the bearers of them, too much rain doth more hurt than good to 
the ground ; briefly, in all things too much is noyous ; even so weak wits and weak 
consciences may soon be oppressed with over-hard questions. I say not this to dis 
suade men from the knowledge of God, and reading or studying of the scripture. For 
I say, that it is as necessary for the life of man s soul, as for the body to breathe. 
And if it were possible so to live, I would think it good for a man to spend all his 
life in that, and to do no other thing 6 . I commend the law which biddeth to meditate 
and study the scriptures always, both night and day, and sermons and preach 
ings to be made both morning, noon, and eventide ; and God to be lauded and 
blessed in all times, to bedward, from bed, in our journeys, and all our other works. 
I forbid not to read, but I forbid to reason. Neither forbid I to reason so far as is 
good and godly. But I allow not that is done out of season, and out of measure 
and good order. A man may eat too much of honey 7 , be it never so sweet, and 
there is time for every thing ; and that thing that is good is not good, if it be un 
godly done : even as a flower in winter is out of season, and as a woman s apparel 
becometh not a man, neither contrarily, the man s the woman; neither is weeping 
convenient at a bridal, neither laughing at burial 8 . Now if we can observe and keep 
that is comely and timely in all other things, shall not we then the rather 9 do the same 
in the holy scriptures? Let us not run forth as it were wild horse 10 , that can suffer 
neither bridle in their mouths, nor sitter on their backs. Let us keep us in our bounds, 
and neither let us go too far on the one side, lest we return into Egypt, neither too 
far over the other, lest we be carried away to Babylon. Let us not sing the song of 
our Lord in a strange land; that is to say, let us not dispute the word of God at all 
adventures, as well where it is not to be reasoned as where it is, and as well in 
the ears of them that be not fit therefore as of them that be. If we can in no w T ise 
forbear but that we must needs dispute, let us forbear thus much at the least, to do 
it out of time and place convenient. And let us entreat of those things which be 
holy holily ; and upon those things that been mystical, mystically ; and not to utter the 
divine mysteries in the ears unworthy to hear them : but let us know what is comely 
as well in our silence and talking, as in our garments wearing, in our feeding, in our 
gesture, in our goings, and in all our other behaving. This contention and debate 
about scriptures and doubts thereof (specially when such as pretend to be the favourers 
and students thereof cannot agree within themselves) doth most hurt to ourselves, 
and to the furthering of the cause and quarrels that we would have furthered above 
all other things. And we in this," saith he, " be not unlike to them that, being mad, 



[ 4 Been not, other copies.] 

[ 5 The man s body, heavy burdens.] 

[ 6 No other song.] 



[ 7 Too much honey.] [ 8 At a burial.] 
[ 9 We then rather.] 
[ 10 Wild horses.] 



124 



PREFACE TO THE BIBLE. 



set their own houses on fire, and that slay their own children, or beat their own 
parents. I marvel much," saith he, " to recount whereof cometh all this desire of vain 
glory, whereof cometh all this tongue-itch, that w r e have so much delight to talk 
and clatter ? And wherein is our communication ? Not in the commendations of vir 
tuous and good deeds of hospitality, of love between Christian brother and brother, 
of love between man and wife, of virginity and chastity, and of alms towards the 
poor ; not in psalms and godly songs, not in lamenting for our sins, not in repressing 
the affections of the body, not in prayers to God. We talk of scripture, but in the 
meantime we subdue not our flesh by fasting, waking, and weeping; we make not 
this life a meditation of death; we do not strive to be lords of our appetites 1 and 
affections ; we go not about to pull down our proud and high minds, to abate our 
furnish and rancorous stomachs, to restrain our lusts and bodily delectations, our un- 
discrete sorrows, our lascivious mirth, our inordinate looking, our insatiable hearing of 
vanities, our speaking without measure, our inconvenient thoughts, and briefly, to re 
form our life and manners. But all our holiness consisteth in talking. And we 
pardon each other from all good living, so that we may stick fast together in argu 
mentation; as though there were no mo ways to heaven, but this alone, the way of 
speculation and knowledge (as they take it) ; but in very deed it is rather the way 
of superfluous contention and sophistication 2 ." 

Hitherto have I recited the mind of Gregory Xazianzene in that book which I 
spake of before. The same author saith also in another place, that "the learning of a 
Christian man ought to begin of the fear of God, to end in matters of high specula 
tion; and not contrarily to begin with speculation, and to end in fear. For specula 
tion," saith he, " either high cunning and knowledge, if it be not stayed with the bridle 
of fear to offend God, is dangerous and enough to tumble a man headlong down 
the hill. Therefore," saith he, "the fear of God must be the first beginning, and as 
it were an A. B. C., or an introduction to all them that shall enter to the very true 
and most fruitful knowledge of holy scriptures. Where as is the fear of God, there 
is," saith he, "the keeping of the commandments, there is the cleansing of the 
flesh, which flesh is a cloud before the soul s eye, and suffereth it not purely to see 
the beam of the heavenly light. Where as is the cleansing of the flesh, there is the 
illumination of the Holy Ghost, the end of all our desires, and the very light whereby 
the verity of scriptures is seen and perceived 8 ." This is the mind and almost the 
words of Gregory Nazianzene, doctor of the Greek church, of whom St Jerome saith, 
that unto his time the Latin church had no writer able to be compared and to 
make an even match with him 4 . 

Therefore to conclude this latter part, every man that cometh to the reading of 
this holy book ought to bring with him first and foremost this fear of Almighty 
God, and then next a firm and stable purpose to reform his own self according there 
unto; and so to continue, proceed, and prosper from time to time, shewing himself 
to be a sober and fruitful hearer and learner. Which if he do, he shall prove at the 
length well able to teach, though not with his mouth, yet with his living and good 
example, which is sure the most lively and most effectuous 6 form and manner of 
teaching. He that otherwise intermeddleth with this book, let him be assured that 
once he shall make account therefore, when he shall have said to him, as it is written 
in the prophet David, Peccatori dicit Deus, &c. : " Unto the ungodly said God, Why 
dost thou preach my laws, and takest my testament in thy mouth ? Whereas thou 
hatest to be reformed, and hast, been partakers with advoutrers. Thou hast let thy 
mouth speak wickedness, and with thy tongue thou hast set forth deceit. Thou 



[ Lords over our appetites, other copies.] 

[ 2 Greg. Nazianz. Orat. xxvii. Theol. i. adver. 

Eunomian. Tom. 1. p. 487, et sqq. Ed. Paris. 1778- 

1840.] 

[ 3 Id. Orat. xxxix. In sancta luurina. Tom. I. 

pp. Ml, 2.J 



[ 4 Numquid in ilia epistola Gregorium virum 
eloquentissimum non potui nominare ? Quis apud 
Latinos par sui est ? Quo ego magistro glorior et 
exulto. Hieron. Apol. adv. Kuffin. Lib. i. Tom. 
II. p. 137. Ed. Francof. 1H84.J 

[ 5 Other copies read, and eflectuous.] 



PREFACE TO THE BIBLE. 



125 



sattest and spakest against thy brother; and hast slandered thine own mother s son. 

These things hast thou done, and I held my tongue, and thou thoughtest (wickedly) 

that I am even such a one as thyself. But I will reprove thee, and set before 

thee the things that thou hast done. consider this, ye that forget 

God; lest I pluck you away, and there be none to deliver 

you. Whoso offereth me thanks and praise, he 

honoureth me ; and to him that orderetli 

his conversation right will I 

shew the salvation 

of God." 

God save the King 6 . 



[ The volume containing " A list of some of 
the early printed books in the Archiepiscopal Li 
brary at Lambeth," Lond. 1843, contains some 
interesting notices of fragments occupying the place 
of fly leaves and end papers in volumes with which 
they had no connexion. Among them is the follow 
ing. The Rev. S. R. Maitland, the librarian, says : 

"Two leaves, each containing the PROLOGUE 
TO CRANMER S BIBLE on one side, and the 
usual matter on the other side." One of these is the 
prologue to the edition of December 1541, and re 
quires no description ; but the other is, as far as I 
can rind, unique. Mr Lea Wilson, whose magni 
ficent collection of bibles contains (as a very small 
part of its treasures) twelve copies exhibiting every 
variety of Cranmer s Bible, and who has spared 
neither pains nor expense in making himself fully 
acquainted with the details of the subject, informs 
me that he had never before seen it. I am in 
debted to the same gentleman for the suggestion, 
that these two leaves so differing from each other, 
and both found together in the binding of one 
volume, that volume being a Salisbury Breviary, 
printed by Francis Regnault, at Paris, in 1535, 
agrees with the notion, supported by other evidence, 
that this bible was printed in France. Certainly 
the large black letter of this prologue, and of the 
Breviary, are as like as can be imagined. Under 
these circumstances, it seems worth while to reprint 
this prologue in something like the form in which 
it stands, premising that it is all in black letter, and 
that the initial F. is not, as in some copies of the 
prologue, a Roman letter, but the same flourishing 
capital as appears in the edition of December, 1541. 
It should I presume be headed, A prologue ex- 
pressynge what is meant by certaine syynes and 
tokens that we have set in the Byble ,- but what 



was probably the first line has been cut off, and 
only what is here in italics remains. The Prologue 
itself is as follows : " 

P IRST where as often tymes ye shall 
fynde a smal letter in the text, it sygnifieth 
that so moch as in (sic) the small letter doth 
abounde & is more in the common translacitf 
in Latyne then is founde ether in the Hebrue 
or in y e Greke. Moreouer where as ye finde 
this sygne o-f it betokeneth a dyuersite & dif 
ference of readyng betwene the Hebrues and 
the Chaldees in the same place, whych diuersytes 
of readynges we were purposed to haue set forth 
perticularly vnto you. But for so moch as they are 
very large and tedyous, & thys volume is very 
great and houge allready, we haue therfore left the" 
out. We haue also (as ye maye se) added many 
handes both in the mergent of this volume and also 
in the text, vpon the whyche we purposed to haue 
made in the ende of the Byble (in a table by them- 
selues) certen annotacios : but for so moch as yet 
there hath not bene sufFycyent tyme mynistred to 
the Kynges mooste honorable councell, for the ouer- 
syght and correcion of the sayde annotacions, we do 
therfore omyt them, tyll theyr more conuenyent 
leysoure. Doynge nowe no more but beseake the, 
moost gentle reader, that when thou commest at 
soch a place where a hande doth stande (or any 
other where, in the Byble) and thou canst not 
attayne to the meanynge & true knowledge of that 
sentence, then do not rashly presume to make any 
pryuate interpretacyon thereof: but submytte thy 
self to the iudgement of those that are learned. 

God sane the Kynge. 



Foxes and 
Firebrands. 
Part ii. pp. 
29. 
Strype, 
Memorials 
of Abp. 
Cranmer, 
Vol. i. pp. 
20.5-7. tid. 
Oxon. 1840. 



126 

[THE 

ARCHBISHOP S SPEECH 

AT THE 

CORONATION OF EDWARD VI., FEB. 20, 1547. 1 ] 



MOST dread and royal sovereign : The promises your highness hath made here at 
your coronation, to forsake the devil and all his works, are not to be taken in the 
bishop of Rome s sense, when you commit any thing distasteful to that see, to hit 
your majesty in the teeth ; as pope Paul the third, late bishop of Rome, sent to your 
royal father, saying, " Didst thou not promise, at our permission of thy coronation, to 
forsake the devil and all his works, and dost thou turn to heresy 2 ? For the breach 
of this thy promise, knowest thou not, that tis in our power to dispose of the sword 3 
and sceptre to whom we please?" We, your majesty s clergy, do humbly conceive, 
that this promise reacheth not at your highness sword, spiritual or temporal, or in 
the least at your highness swaying the sceptre of this your dominion, as you and 
your predecessors have had them from God. Neither could your ancestors lawfully 
resign up their crowns to the bishop of Rome or to his legates 4 , according to their 
ancient oaths then taken upon that ceremony. 

The bishops of Canterbury for the most part have crowned your predecessors, 
and anointed them kings of this land: yet it was not in their power to receive 
or reject them, neither did it give them authority to prescribe them conditions to take 
or to leave their crowns; although the bishops of Rome would encroach upon your 
predecessors by his bishops act and oil 5 , that in the end they might possess those 
bishops with an interest to dispose of their crowns at their pleasure. But the wiser 
sort will look to their claws and clip them. 

The solemn rites of coronation have their ends and utility, yet neither direct force 
or necessity : they be good admonitions to put kings in mind of their duty to God, 
but no increasement of their dignity. For they be God s anointed, not in respect of 
the oil which the bishop useth, but in consideration of their power which is ordained, 
of the sword which is authorised, of their persons which are elected by God 6 , and 
endued with the gifts of his Spirit for the better ruling and guiding of his people. 
The oil, if added, is but a ceremony; if it be wanting, that king is yet a perfect 
monarch notwithstanding, and God s anointed, as well as if he was inoiled. Now for 
the person or bishop that doth anoint a king, it is proper to be done by the chiefest ; 
but if they cannot, or will not, any bishop may perform this ceremony. 

To condition with monarchs upon these ceremonies, the bishop of Rome (or other 
bishops owning his supremacy) hath no authority, but he may faithfully declare what 
God requires at the hands of kings and rulers ; that is, religion and virtue. There 
fore not from the bishop of Rome, but as a messenger from my Saviour Jesus Christ, 
I shall most humbly admonish your royal majesty, what things your highness is to 
perform. 



[* Strype asserts, that "at this coronation, (Edw. 
VI.) there was no sermon, but that was supplied by 
an excellent speech, which was made by the arch 
bishop," and that " it was found among the inesti 
mable collections of archbishop Usher." Dr Jenkyns 
was unable to meet with the original, search having 
been made in vain for it in Dublin, (Vol. II. p. 118, 
n.) A farther search for it has also been made 
for the present edition, but equally without suc 
cess. It is here printed from the second part of 
"Foxes and Firebrands," published by Robert 



Warre, (Ed. Dublin, lf>82, pp. 29.) who says that 
" the collections in this second part are most of 
them either out of the memorials of that great 
minister of state, the lord Cecil, or from the testi 
monies of persons that are still living." Part I. To 
the reader, A. 4.] 

[ 2 Run to heresy, Strype.] 

[ 3 That it is in our power to dispose of thy sword, 
Ibid.] p Or his legates, Ibid.] 

[ 5 By their act and oil, Ibid.] 

[ 6 Elected of God, Ibid.] 



SPEECH AT THE CORONATION OF EDWARD VI. 127 

Your majesty is God s vice-gerent and Christ s vicar within your own dominions, 
and to see, with your predecessor Josiah 7 , God truly worshipped, and idolatry destroyed, 
the tyranny of the bishops of Rome banished from your subjects, and images removed. 
These acts be signs of a second Josiah 7 , who reformed the church of God in his days. 
You are to reward virtue, to revenge sin, to justify the innocent, to relieve the poor, 
to procure peace, to repress violence, and to execute justice throughout your realms. 
For precedents 8 , on those kings who performed not these things, the old law shews 
how the Lord revenged his quarrel; and on those kings who fulfilled these things, he 
poured forth his blessings in abundance. For example, it is written of Josiah in the 
book of the Kings thus : " Like unto him there was no king before him that turned 9 
to the Lord with all his heart, according to all the law of Moses, neither after him 
arose there any like him." This was to that prince a perpetual fame of dignity, to 
remain to the end of days. 

Being bound oy my function to lay these things before your royal highness, the 
one as a reward, if you fulfil; the other as a judgment from God, if you neglect 
them; yet I openly declare before the living God, and before these nobles of the 
land, that I have no commission to denounce your majesty deprived, if your high 
ness miss in part, or in whole, of these performances, much less to draw up inden 
tures between God and your majesty, or to say you forfeit your crown with a 
clause, for the bishop of Rome, as have been done by your majesty s pre 
decessors, king John, and his son Henry of this land. The 
Almighty God of his mercy let the light of his coun 
tenance shine upon your majesty, grant you 
a prosperous and happy reign, defend 
you and save you; and let 
your subjects say, 
Amen! 

God save the king. 



[ 7 Josias, Ibid.] [ 8 Presidents, F. and F.] [ 9 There was no king, that turned, Ibid. 



128 



HOMILY OF SALVATION 1 . 



The efficacy 
of Christ s 
passion and 
oblation. 



Tvom. iii. 
[Gal. ii.] 



BECAUSE all men be sinners and offenders against God, and breakers of his law 
and commandments, therefore can no man by his own acts, works, and deeds 8 (seem 
they never so good) be justified and made righteous before God ; but every man of 
necessity is constrained to seek for another righteousness, or justification, to be received 
at God s own hands, that is to say, the remission, pardon 3 , and forgiveness of his sins 
and trespasses in such things as he hath offended. And this justification or righteous 
ness, which we so receive by God s mercy 4 and Christ s merits, embraced by faith, is 
taken, accepted, and allowed of God for our perfect and full justification. 

For the more full understanding hereof, it is our parts and duty ever to re 
member the great mercy of God, how that (all the world being wrapped in sin by 
breaking of the law) God sent his only Son our Saviour Christ into this world, to 
fulfil the law for us ; and by shedding of his most precious blood, to make 
a sacrifice and satisfaction, or (as it may be called) amends, to his Father for 
our sins 5 , to assuage his wrath and indignation conceived against us for the same. 
Insomuch that infants, being baptized, and dying in their infancy, are by this 
sacrifice washed from their sins, brought to God s favour, and made his children, and 
inheritors of his kingdom of heaven. And they which actually do 8 sin after their 
baptism, when they convert and turn again 7 to God unfeignedly, they are likewise 
washed by this sacrifice from their sins, in such sort, that there remaineth not any 
spot of sin that shall be imputed to their damnation. This is that justification, or 
righteousness, which St Paul speaketh of, when he saith : " No man is justified by 
the works of the law, but freely by faith in Jesus Christ." And again he saith : " "We 
believe in Christ Jesu, that we be justified freely by the faith of Christ, and not by 
the works of the law, because that no man shall be justified by the works of the law." 



[ l The three homilies, " Of Salvation," " Of the 
true, lively, and Christian Faith," and " Of Good 
Works," have generally been attributed to Cran- 
mer. Gardener, in his letter to protector Somer 
set, several times ascribes that of "Salvation" 
to him. Vid. Foxe s Acts and Monuments, 
1st Ed. Lond. 1563, pp. 742, 5,803. Of this 
homily, and the other two, Todd says : " But 
more extensive declarations of doctrine had now 
been formed, entitled Homilies. They are in 
number twelve. Of these at least three, if 
not a fourth, appear to have been written by 
Cranmer himself. If internal evidence had been 
wanting in support of this belief, the authority of 
nearly contemporary assertion exists. JohnWoolton, 
the nephew of the celebrated Alexander Nowell, 
was the author of several theological works in the 
reign of Elizabeth. He became bishop of Exeter. 
Not long before he was advanced to the prelacy, he 
published, in 15/6, the Christian Manual, in which 
he says, (Chr. Man. Sign. c. iii.) What we teach 
and think of good works, those homilies written in 
our English tongue of Salvation, Faith, and Works, 
by that light and martyr of Christ s church, Cran 
mer, archbishop of Canterbury, do plain testify 
and declare ; which are built upon so sure a 
foundation, that no sycophant can deface them, 
nor sophister confute them, while the world shall 
endure. Dr Wordsworth is of opinion that 
Cranmer wrote also the homily of the Misery of 
3Iankind, Eccl. Biogr. iii. 505. I should rather 



attribute to his pen that against the Fear of Death, 
there being among the fragments of his compo 
sition, given by Strype, part of a discourse on 
this subject." Todd s Life of Cranmer, Vol. II. 
pp. 10, 11. Ed. Lond. 1831. But the homily of the 
Misery of Mankind, ascribed by Dr Wordsworth 
to Cranmer, appears in " Homilies set forth by the 
right reverend father in God, Edmunde (Bonner), 
bishop of London," Ed. Lond. (Cawode) 1555. 
with the name of Harpesfield at the end, thus : 
Jo. Harpesfield sacra? theologian professor. Arch. 

London Vid. also, Strype s Memorials of Abp. 

Cranmer, Vol. I. pp. 213, 14. 249. Ed. Oxon. 1840. 
Eccl. Memorials, Vol. I. pp. 533-5. Ed. Oxon. 
1822. Annals of the Reformation, Vol. I. pp. 498, 9. 
Ed. Oxon. 1824. Burriet, Hist, of Reformat. Vol. III. 
p. 358. Ed. Oxon. 1829. The text of this reprint 
follows that of Grafton s edition, "imprinted at 
London, the last day of July, 1547," and has been 
collated with that of Whitchurch, Aug. 20, 1547, 
Jugge and Cawood, 1560, and with a small 12mo. 
copy, (Cawood) 1562. The Ed. 1547, referred to 
throughout the notes, is that of Whitchurch, 1547- J 

[ 2 Deed, Ed. 1560.] 

[ 3 Remission and pardon, omitted in Eds. 1560, 
62.] 

[ 4 Of God s mercy, Ed. 1560.] 

[ 5 For our sin, Ed. 1547-] 

[ Which in act or deed do sin, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

[ 7 When they turn again, Ibid.] 



OF SALVATION. ]2<) 

And although this justification be free unto us, yet it cometh not so freely to us a , 
that there is no ransom paid therefore at all. 

But here may man s reason be astonied, reasoning after this fashion : If a ransom be objection, 
paid for our redemption, then it is not 9 given us freely. For a prisoner that payeth his 
ransom is not let go freely ; for if he go freely, then he goeth without ransom : for what 
is it else to go freely, than to be set at liberty without payment of ransom ? This reason An answer. 
is satisfied by the great wisdom of God in this mystery of our redemption, who hath so 
tempered his justice and mercy together, that he would neither by his justice condemn 
us unto the perpetual captivity 10 of the devil, and his prison of hell, remediless for ever, 
without mercy ; nor by his mercy deliver us clearly, without justice, or payment of a 
just ransom ; but with his endless mercy he joined his most upright and equal justice. 
His great mercy he shewed unto us in delivering us from our former captivity, without 
requiring of any ransom to be paid, or amends to be made upon our parts; which thing 
by us had been impossible to be done. And whereas it lay not in us that to do, he pro 
vided a ransom for us ; that was the most precious body and blood of his most dear and 
best beloved son Jesu Christ, who, besides his ransom 11 , fulfilled the law for us perfectly. 
And so the justice of God and his mercy did embrace together, and fulfilled the mystery 
of our redemption. And of this justice and mercy of God knit together speaketh St Paul 
in the third chapter to the Romans : " All have offended, and have need of the glory Rom. HI. 
of God, justified 13 freely by his grace, by redemption which is in Jesu Christ, whom 
God hath set forth to us 13 for a reconciler and peace-maker, through faith in his blood, 
to shew his righteousness." And in the tenth chapter : " Christ is the end of the law Rom. x. 
unto righteousness to every man that believeth." And in the eighth chapter : " That Rom. viii. 
which was impossible by the law, inasmuch as it was weak by the flesh, God sendino- 
his own Son in the similitude of sinful flesh, by sin damned sin in the flesh; that the 
righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, which walk not after the flesh, but 
after the Spirit." 

In these foresaid places the apostle toucheth specially three things, which must concur Throe things 
and go together 14 in our justification: upon God s part, his great mercy and grace ; ^ theKur 
upon Christ s part, justice, that is, the satisfaction of God s justice, or price of our justificaticn - 
redemption, by the offering of his body and shedding of his blood, with fulfilling 
of the law perfectly and throughly; and upon our part, true and lively faith in the 
merits of Jesu Christ, which yet is not ours, but by God s working in us. So that 
in our justification is riot only God s mercy and grace, but also his justice, which 
the apostle calleth the justice of God; and it consisteth in paying our ransom, and 
fulfilling of the law: and so the grace of God doth not exclude the justice of God 
in our justification, but only cxcludeth the justice of man 15 , that is to say, the justice 
of our works, as to be merits of deserving our justification. And therefore St Paul 
declareth here nothing upon the behalf of man concerning his justification, but only a true 
and lively faith; which nevertheless is the gift of God, and not man s only work 
without God. 

And yet that faith doth not exclude 16 repentance, hope, love, dread, and the fear HOW it to 
of God, to be joined with faith in every man that is justified; but it excludeth them 17 *3f 
from the office of justifying: so that although they be all present together in him Sl 
that is justified, yet they justify not altogether. ]\ T or that faith also 18 doth not exclude 19 works- 
the justice of our good works, necessarily to be done afterward of duty towards God, 
(for we are most bounden to serve God in doing good deeds, commanded by him 
in his holy scripture, all the days of our life;) but it excludeth them, so that we 
may not do them to this intent, to be made good by doing of them. For all the 
good works that we can do be unperfect, and therefore not able to deserve our justi- 



[ R Unto us, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

p Then is it not, Ibid.] 

[ 10 Everlasting captivity, Ibid.J 

[ n Besides this ransom, Ibid.] 

I 12 But are justified, Ibid.] 

[ 13 Unto us, Ed. 1562.] 

[ 14 Which must go together, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

[CRANMER, II.] 



[ 15 Doth not shut out the justice, but only shut- 
teth out the justice of man, Ibid.] 
[ " Doth not shut out, Ibid.] 



[ I7 It shutteth them out, Ibid.] 
[ w The faith were, Ed. 1560.] 
[ 19 Doth not shut out, Ed. 1560, 2.] 



130 



HOMILY 



Gal. iii. 



Gal. ii. 
Gal. v. 



fication : but our justification cloth come freely by the mere mercy of God, and of 
so great and free mercy, that whereas all the world was not able of theirselves to 
pay any part towards their ransom, it pleased our heavenly Father, of his infinite mercy, 
without any our desert or deserving, to prepare for us the most precious jewels of 
Christ s body and blood, whereby our ransom might be fully paid, the law fulfilled, 
and his justice fully satisfied. So that Christ is now the righteousness of all them 
that truly do believe in him. He for them paid their ransom by his death : he for them 
fulfilled the law in his life : so that now in him, and by him, every true Christian man 
may be called a fulfiller of the law; forasmuch as that which their infirmity lacketh, 
Christ s justice hath supplied. 

1 The Second Part of the Sermon of Salvation. 

Ye have heard of whom all men ought to seek their justification and righteousness, and how also 
this righteousness eometh unto men by Christ s death and merits : ye heard also that three things are 
required to the obtaining of our righteousness; that is, God s mercy, Christ s justice, and a true and 
lively faith, out of the which faith springeth good works. 

Before 2 was declared at large that no man can be justified by his own good works, 
because that no man 3 fulfillcth the law, according to the full request of the law. And 
St Paul, in his epistle to the Galatians, proveth the same, saying thus : " If there had 
been any law given which could have justified, verily righteousness should have been 
by the law." And again he saith : " If righteousness be by the law, then Christ died 
in vain." And again he saith : " You that are justified by the law 4 are fallen away 
from grace." And furthermore he writeth to the Ephesians on this wise : " By grace 
are ye saved through faith, and that not of yourselves, for it is the gift of God, and 
not of works, lest any man should glory." And, to be short, the sum of all Paul s 
disputation is this, that if justice come of works, then it eometh not of grace; and 
if it come of grace, then it eometh not of works. And to this end tendeth all the 
Acts x. prophets, as St Peter saith in the tenth of the Acts : " Of Christ all the prophets," saith 
St Peter, " do witness, that through his name all they that believe in him shall receive 
the remission of sins." 

Faith only. And after this wise to be justified, only by this true and lively faith in Christ, 

tlie doctrine speaketh all the .old and ancient authors, both Greeks and Latins; of whom I will 
tors. specially rehearse three, Hilary, Basil, and Ambrose. St Hilary saith these words plainly 

in the ninth canon upon Matthew: "Faith only justifieth 5 ." And St Basil, a Greek 
author, writeth thus : [" This is a perfect and a whole glorying in God, when a man 
doth not boast himself for his own justice, but knoweth himself certainly to be unworthy 
of true justice, but to be justified by only faith in Christ. 6 ] This is a perfect and a 
whole rejoicing in God, when a man advanceth not himself for his own righteousness, 
but knowledgeth himself to lack true justice and righteousness, and to be justified by 
the only faith in Christ 7 ." " And Paul," saith he, " doth glory in the contempt of his 
own righteousness, and that he looketh for his righteousness 8 of God by faith." 

These be the very words of St Basil. And St Ambrose, a Latin author, saith these 
words : " This is the ordinance of God, that he which believeth 9 in Christ should 
be saved without works, by faith only, freely receiving remission of his sins 10 ." Con 
sider diligently these words : " without works," " by faith only," " freely we receive 
remission of our sins." What can be spoken more plainly than to say, that freely, 



Phil, ii 



I" 1 This passage is inserted from the Eds. 1560, 
1562, and is not found in the earlier copies, which 
were not broken by divisions.] 

[ 2 Also before, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

[ 3 Works, that no man, Ibid.] 

I 4 Justified in the law, Ed. 1547.] 

[ Fides enim sola justih cat Hilar. Comment, 
in Mattheeum. Can. viii. col. 500, Ed. Paris. 1531.] 

[ 6 This passage is omitted in Ed. (Grafton) 
1547.] 

[ 7 Aurrj yap Si] 17 TeXeia /cal oXoKXtj/ops Kav-^rj^i^ 
eu Qcw, OTI /LU/TC CTT! OLKaiocriivrj TIS CTraipeTai TJJ 
eaurou, a XX eyvco fiev evdef) ovra e 



TricrTei $e fiovy Trj is XPKTTOI/ fieSiKaiu)- 
fjievov. KOL Ka.vyjS.Ta.1 IlauXos CTTI Tea na.Ta<ppoviia ai 
TIJS eawrov oiKaioaui/tjs, ^Te ivSe -rt;j/<W Xpt(rrou. 
Basil. Horn. xxii. De humilitate. Tom. I. p. 473, 
Ed. Paris. 1538.J 

[ 8 For the righteousness, Eds. 1560, 62.] 
[ 9 That they which believe, Ed. 1560. That he 
which believe, Ed. 1562.] 

[ 10 Quia hoc constitutum est a Deo, utqui credit 
in Christum, salvus sit sine opere, sola fide gratis 
accipiens remissionem peccatorum Ambros. in 
Epist. 1 ad Corinth. Cap. i. v. 4. Tom. III. p. 161. 
Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1616.] 



OF SALVATION. 



131 



without works, by faith only, we obtain remission of our sins ? These and other like 
sentences, that we be justified by faith only, freely, and without works, we do read 
ofttimes in the most best and ancient writers : as, beside Hilary, Basil, and St Ambrose, 
before rehearsed, we read the same in Origen, St Chrysostom, St Cyprian, St Augus 
tine, Prosper, CEcumenius, Photius, Bernardus, Anselm, and many other authors, Greek 
and Latin 11 . 

Nevertheless, this sentence, that we be justified by faith only, is not so meant of Faith alone, 
them, that the said justifying faith is alone in man, without true repentance, hope, be under- 10 
charity, dread, and the fear of God, at any time or season. Nor when they say, that s 
we be justified freely, they mean not that we should or might afterward be idle, 
and that nothing should be required on our parts afterward. Neither they mean not 
so to be justified without our good works, that we should do no good works at all ; like 
as shall be more expressed at large hereafter. But this proposition 12 , that we be justi 
fied by faith only*, freely, and without works, is spoken for to take away clearly all merit 
of our works, as being insufficient to deserve 13 our justification at God s hands, and 
thereby most plainly to express the weakness of man, and the goodness of God; the 
great infirmity of ourselves, and the might and power of God ; the imperfectness of 
our own works, and the most abundant grace of our Saviour Christ ; and thereby 
wholly to ascribe 14 the merit and deserving of our justification unto Christ only, and 
his most precious blood-shedding. This faith the holy scripture teacheth ; this is the The profit of 
strong rock and foundation of Christian religion ; this doctrine all old and ancient authors onhith oniy 
of Christ s church do approve ; this doctrine advanceth and setteth forth the true J ustlfieth - 
glory of Christ, and suppresseth 15 the vain-glory of man; this whosoever denieth is not what they in 
to be reputed for 16 a true Christian man, nor for 17 a setter-forth of Christ s glory, thedwSe 
but for an adversary of Christ and his gospel, and for a setter-forth of men s vain- jusufteth. y 
glory. 

And although this doctrine be never so true (as it is most true indeed), that we be 
justified freely, without all merit of our own good works (as St Paul doth express 
it), and freely, by this lively and perfect faith in Christ only, as the ancient authors A declaration 
use to speak it ; yet this true doctrine must be also truly understand, and most plainly trine? fiSSi 
declared, lest carnal men should take unjustly occasion thereby to live carnally after wor 
the appetite and will of the world, the flesh, and the devil. And because no man fieth 
should err by mistaking of this doctrine 18 , I shall plainly and shortly so declare the 
right understanding of the same, that no man shall justly think that he may thereby 
take any occasion of carnal liberty to follow the desires of the flesh, or that thereby 
any kind of sin shall be committed, or any ungodly living the more used. 

First, you shall understand, that in our justification by Christ it is not all one 
thing, the office of God unto man, and the office of man unto God. Justification is 
not the office of man, but of God: for man cannot justify himself by his own works 19 , 
neither in part, nor in the whole ; for that were the greatest arrogancy and presump 
tion of man that antichrist could erect against God 20 , to affirm that a man might by 
his own works take away and purge his own sins, and so justify himself. But justi- justification 
fication 21 is the office of God only, and is not a thing which we render unto him, 
but which we receive of him ; not which we give to him, but which we take of him, 
by his free mercy, and by the only merits of his most dearly-beloved Son, our only 
Eedeemer, Saviour, and Justifier, Jesus Christ. So that the true understanding of this 
doctrine, we be justified freely by faith without works, or that we be justified by 
faith in Christ only, is not, that this our own act to believe in Christ, or this our 
faith in Christ, which is within us, doth justify us, and merit our justification 22 unto 



[ n Many of the passages on this subject from 
these writers will be found in Cranmer s Notes on 
Justification.] 

[ 12 But this saying, Eds. 1560, 62.] 
[ 13 As being unable to deserve, Ibid.] 
[ u And therefore wholly, Ibid. And thereby 
wholly for to ascribe, Ed. 1547.] 

[ 15 And beateth down, Eds. 1560, 62.] 



[ lf! Is not to be counted for, Ibid.] 
f" Not for, Ibid.] 
[ 18 Of this true doctrine, Ed. 154J.] 
[ 19 Cannot make himself righteous by his own 
works, Ed. 1560, 62.] 

[ ao Could set up against God, Ibid. J 

[ 21 But in justification, Ibid.] 

[ 22 And deserve our justification, Ibid.] 

92 



132 



HOMILY 



John i. 



us (for that were to count ourselves to be justified by some act or virtue that is 
within ourselves) : but the true understanding and meaning thereof is, that although 
we hear God s word, and believe it; although we have faith, hope, charity, repent 
ance, dread, and fear of God within us, and do never so many good works thereunto ; 
yet we must renounce the merit of all our said virtues, of faith, hope, charity, and 
all our other virtues and good deeds, which we either have done, shall do, or can 
do, as things that be far too weak and insufficient and unperfect, to deserve remission 
of our sins, and our justification ; and therefore we must trust only in God s mercy, 
and in that sacrifice which our High Priest and Saviour Christ Jesus, the Son of God, 
once offered for us upon the cross, to obtain thereby God s grace and remission, as 
well of our original sin in baptism, as of all actual sin committed by us after our 
baptism, if we truly repent, and convert unfeignedly 1 to him again. So that, as St 
John Baptist, although he were never so virtuous and godly a man, yet in this matter 
of forgiving of sin he did put the people from him, and appointed them unto 
Christ, saying thus unto them, " Behold, yonder is the Lamb of God, which taketh 
away the sins of the world:" even so, as great and as godly a virtue as the lively 
faith is, yet it putteth us from itself, and remitteth or appointeth us unto Christ, for 
to have only by him remission of our sins, or justification. So that our faith in 
Christ (as it were) saith unto us thus : It is not I that take away your sins, but it 
is Christ only ; and to him only I send you for that purpose, renouncing therein 2 
all your good virtues, words, thoughts, and works, and only putting your trust in 
Christ. 



3 The Third Part of the Sermon of Salvation. 

It hath been manifestly declared unto you, that no man can fulfil the law of God, and therefore by 
the law all men are condemned : whereupon it followed necessarily, that some other thing should be 
required for our salvation than the law ; and that is a true and a lively faith in Christ, bringing forth 
good works, and a life according to God s commandments. And also you heard the ancient authors 
minds of this saying, Faith in Christ only justifieth man, so plainly declared, that you see the very true 
meaning of this proposition, or saying, &c. 

Thus you do see that the very true sense of this proposition, "We be justified by 
faith in Christ only, according to the meaning of the old ancient authors, is this : 
We put our faith in Christ, that we be justified by him only, that we be justified 
by God s free mercy, and the merits of our Saviour Christ only, and by no virtue 
or good work of our own that is in us, or that we can be able to have or to do, for 
to deserve the same, Christ himself only being the cause meritorious thereof. 

Here you perceive many words to be used to avoid contention in words with them 
that delighteth 4 to brawl about words, and also to shew the true meaning, to avoid 
evil taking and misunderstanding; and yet perad venture all will not serve with them 
that be contentious, but contenders will ever forge matter of contention 5 , even when 
they have none occasion thereto. Notwithstanding, such be the less to be passed 
upon, so that the rest may profit, which will be more desirous to know the truth, 
than (when it is plain enough) to contend about it, and with contentions and cap 
tious cavillations to obscure and darken it. 

Truth it is, that our own works doth not 6 justify us, to speak properly of our 
justification ; that is to say, our works do not merit or deserve remission of our sins, 
and make us, of unjust, just before God ; but God of his mere mercy, through the only 
merits and deservings 7 of his Son Jesus Christ, doth justify us. Nevertheless, because 
faith doth directly send us to Christ for remission of our sins, and that by faith given us 
of God we embrace the promise of God s mercy and of the remission of our sins, (which 
thing none other of our virtues or works properly doth,) therefore scripture useth to say, 
that faith without works doth justify. And forasmuch that it is all one sentence in 
effect, to say, faith without works, and only faith, doth justify us ; therefore the old 



[ And turn unfeignedly, Ed. 1561, 62.] 

[ 2 Forsaking therein, Ibid.] 

[ 3 Inserted from Eds. 1560,62. Vid.p. 130, n.l.] 

[ 4 That d ilight, Ed. loH;), 62.] 



[ 5 Matters of contention, Ed. 1560.] 
[ 6 Works do not, Eds. 1560, 62.] 
[ 7 Only merits or deserving, Ed. 154J. Only 
mercies and deservings, Eel. 1560. j 



OF SALVATION. 



133 



ancient fathers of the church from time to time have uttered our justification with this 
speech, Only faith justifieth us ; meaning none other thing than St Paul meant, when he 
said, Faith without works justifieth us. And because all this is brought to pass through 
the only merits and deservings of our Saviour Christ, and not through our merits, or 
through the merit of any virtue that we have within us, or of any work that cometh 
from us; therefore, in that respect of merit and deserving, we renounce, as it were 8 , 
altogether again faith, w r orks, and all other virtues. For our own imperfection is so 
great, through the corruption of original sin, that all is imperfect that is within us ; faith, 
charity, hope, dread, thoughts, words, and works ; and therefore not apt to merit and 
deserve any part of our justification for us. And this form of speaking we use 9 , in the 
humbling of ourselves to God, and to give all the glory to our Saviour Christ, which is 
best worthy to have it. 

Here you have heard the office of God in our justification, and how we receive it of 
him freely, by has mercy, without our deserts, through true and lively faith. Now you 
shall hear the office and duty of a Christian man unto God, what we ought on our part to 
render unto God again for his great mercy and goodness. Our office is, not to pass the They that 
time of this present life 10 unfruitfully and idly, after that we are baptized or justified, not 






caring how few good works we do, to the glory of God, and profit of our neighbours : teach carnal 
much less it is our office 11 , after that we be once made Christ s members, to live contrary thatSe** 
to the same ; making ourselves members of the devil, walking after his enticements, and giSd work" 
after the suggestions of the world and the flesh, whereby we know that we do serve the 
world and the devil, and not God. For that faith which bringeth forth (without repent 
ance) either evil works, or no good works, is not a right, pure, and lively faith, but a 
dead, devilish, counterfeit, and feigned faith, as St Paul and St James call it. For even The devils 
the devils know and believe that Christ was born of a virgin ; that he fasted forty days but^ the 
and forty nights without meat and drink ; that he wrought all kind of miracles, declaring tr 
himself very God 12 : they believe also that Christ for our sakes suffered most painful 
death, to redeem us from eternal death 13 , and that he rose again from death the third day: 
they believe that he ascended into heaven, and that he sitteth on the right hand of the 
Father 14 , and at the last end of this world shall come again, and judge both the quick and 
the dead. These articles of our faith the devils believe, and so they believe all things 
that be written in the new and old Testament to be true: and yet for all this faith 
they be but devils, remaining still in their damnable estate, lacking the very true 
Christian faith. 

For the right and true Christian faith is, not only to believe that holy scripture and what is the 
all the foresaid articles of our faith are true, but also to have a sure trust and confidence tifyLogfaith. 
in God s merciful promises, to be saved from everlasting damnation by Christ : whereof 
doth follow a loving heart to obey his commandments. And this true Christian faith 
neither any devil hath, nor yet any man, which in the outward profession of his mouth, 
and in his outward receiving of the sacraments, in coming to the church, and in all other 
outward appearances, seemeth to be a Christian man, and yet in his living and deeds 
sheweth the contrary. For how can a man have this true faith, this sure trust and con- They that 
fidence in God, that by the merits of Christ his sins be remitted 15 , and he reconciled to the evil living 
favour of God, and to be partaker of the kingdom of heaven by Christ, when he liveth true faith 
ungodly, and denieth Christ in his deeds ? Surely no such ungodly man can have this 
faith and trust in God. For as they know Christ to be the only Saviour of the world, 
so they know also that wicked men shall not possess the kingdom 16 of God. They know 
that God "hateth unrighteousness;" that he will " destroy all those that speak untruly;" Psai. v. 
that those that have done good works (which cannot be done without a lively faith in 
Christ) " shall come forth into the resurrection of life, and those that have done evil shall 



f 8 We forsake (as it were), Eds. 1560, 62.] 
[ 9 Use we, Ibid.j 

I 10 Ed. 1547 (Grafton) reads, " his present life," 
probably a misprint.] 

[ u Less is it our office, Eds. 1560, 62.] 



[ 13 Himself to be very God, Ed. 1562.] 
[ 13 From everlasting death, Eds. 1560, 62. 
[ 14 Hand of God the Father, Ed. 1562.] 
[ 15 Be forgiven, Eds. 1560, 62. j 
[ 10 Shall not enjoy the kingdom, Ibid.] 



]34 HOMILY OF SALVATION. 

come unto resurrection 1 of judgment." And very well they know 2 also, that "to them 
that be contentious, and to them that will not be obedient unto the truth, but will obey 
unrighteousness, shall come indignation, wrath, and affliction," &c. 

Therefore, to conclude, considering the infinite benefits of God, shewed and exhibited 
unto us 3 mercifully without our deserts, who hath not only created us of nothing, and 
from a piece of vile clay of his infinite goodness hath exalted us, as touching our soul, 
unto his own similitude and likeness ; but also, whereas we were condemned to hell and 
death eternal 4 , hath given his own natural Son, being God eternal, immortal, and equal 
unto himself in power and glory, to be incarnated, and to take our mortal nature upon 
him, with the infirmities of the same, and in the same nature to suffer most shameful and 
painful death for our offences, to the intent to justify us and to restore us to life ever 
lasting; so making us also his dear beloved children, brethren unto his only Son our 
Saviour Christ, and inheritors for ever with him of his eternal kingdom of heaven : 
these great and merciful benefits of God, if they be well considered, do neither minister 
unto us occasion to be idle, and to live without doing any good works, neither yet stirreth 
us by any means to do evil things ; but contrariwise, if we be not desperate persons, and 
our hearts harder than stones, they move us to render ourselves unto God wholly, with 
all our will, hearts, might, and power, to serve him in all good deeds, obeying his com 
mandments during our lives, to seek in all things his glory and honour, not our sensual 
pleasures and vain-glory ; evermore dreading willingly to offend such a merciful God and 
loving Redeemer, in word, thought, or deed. And the said benefits of God, deeply 
considered, do move us 6 for his sake also to be ever ready to give ourselves to 
our neighbours, and, as much as^lieth in us, to study with all our endeavour 
to do good to every man. These be the fruits of the true faith, to 
do good, as much as lieth in us, to every man, and, above 
all things, and in all things, to advance the glory of 
God, of whom only we have our sanctification, 
justification, salvation, and redemption. 
To whom be ever glory, praise, 
and honour, world 
without end. 
Amen. 



C 1 Into resurrection, Ed. 1 of 52.] f 3 And given unto us, Ibid.] 

[- Judgment : very well they know, Eds. lf)60, : [ 4 And death everlasting, Ibid.l 
62. J [ 5 Deeply considered, move us, Ibid. 



135 
A SHORT DECLARATION 

OF THE 

TRUE, LIVELY, AND CHRISTIAN FAITH. 



TUE first entry unto God 6 , good Christian people, is through faith, whereby (as it is Faith. 
declared in the last sermon) we be justified before God. And lest any man should be 
deceived for lack of right understanding thereof 7 , it is diligently to be noted, that faith is 
taken in the scripture two manner of ways. There is one faith, which in scripture is called 
a dead faith, which bringeth forth no good works, but is idle, barren, and unfruitful. A dead faith. 
And this faith by the holy apostle St James is compared to the faith of devils, which James H. 
believe God to be true and just, and tremble for fear ; yet they do nothing well, but all 
evil. And such a manner of faith have the wicked and naughty Christian people, " which Tit. i. 
confess God," as St Paul saith, " in their mouth, but deny him in their deeds, being 
abominable, and without the right faith, and in all good works 8 reprovable." And this 
faith is a persuasion and belief in man s heart, whereby he knoweth that there is a God, 
and assenteth unto all truth of God s most holy word, contained in holy scripture : so 
that it consisteth only in believing of the word 9 of God, that it is true. And this is 
not properly called faith. But as he that readeth Caesar s Commentaries, believing the 
same to be true, hath thereby a knowledge of Caesar s life and noble acts 10 , because he 
believeth the history of Caesar ; yet it is not properly said, that he believeth in Caesar, of 
whom he looketh for no help nor benefit : even so, he that believeth that all that is 
spoken of God in the bible is true, and yet liveth so ungodly, that he cannot look to enjoy 
the promises and benefits of God ; although it may be said that such a man hath a faith 
and belief to the words of God, yet it is not properly said that he believeth in God, or 
hath such a faith and trust in God, whereby he may surely look for grace, mercy, and 
eternal life n at God s hand, but rather for indignation and punishment, according to the 
merits of his wicked life. For, as it is written in a book, intituled to be of Didymus 
Alexandrinus : " Forasmuch as faith without works is dead, it is not now faith, as a 
dead man is not a man 12 ." This dead faith therefore is not that sure and substantial faith, 
which saveth sinners. 

Another faith there is in scripture, which is not, as the foresaid faith, idle, unfruitful, A lively 
and dead, but " workcth by charity," as St Paul declareth (Gal. v.) ; which, as the other 
vain faith is called a dead faith, so may this be called a quick or lively faith. And 
this is not only the common belief of the articles of our faith, but it is also a sure trust 14 
and confidence of the mercy of God through our Lord Jesus Christ, and a steadfast hope 
of all good things to be received at God s hand ; and that, although we through infirmity, 
or temptation of our ghostly enemy, do fall from him by sin, yet if we return again unto 
him by true repentance, that he will forgive and forget our offences for his Son s sake, 
our Saviour Jesus Christ, and will make us inheritors with him of his everlasting king 
dom ; and that in the mean time, until that kingdom come, he will be our protector and 
defender in all perils and dangers, whatsoever do chance : and that, though sometime he 
doth send us sharp adversity, yet that evermore he will be a loving father unto us, 
correcting us for our sin, but not withdrawing his mercy finally from us, if we trust in 
him, and commit ourselves wholly to him 15 , hang only upon him, and call upon him, 



faith. 
Gal. 



[ G The first coming unto God, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

[ 7 Understanding hereof, Ed. 1547.] 

[ 8 To all good works, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

[ 9 In believing in the word, Ibid.] 

[ 10 Notable acts, Ibid.] 

[" And everlasting life, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

[ la Notandum scilicet quia cum fides mortua sit 



praeter opera, jam neque fides est : nam neque homo 

mortuus homo est. Didym. Alex. Enarr. in Epist. 

Jacob, cap. ii. in Biblioth. Patr. Tom. VIII. p. 127. 

Par. 1610.] 

[ 13 Omitted in Ed. 1547.] 

[ 14 A true trust, Ed. 1560.] 

[" Wholly unto him, Eds. 1560, 62.] 



136 



HOMILY 



Heb. xi.i 



Heb. xi. 



Three things 
are to he 
noted of 
faith. 



F.iith is full 
of fjood 
works. 



Habak. ii. 
Jer. xvii. 



ready to obey and serve him. This is the true, lively, and unfeigned Christian faith, and 
is not in the mouth and outward profession only, but it liveth and stirretli inwardly in the 
heart. And this faith is not without hope and trust in God, nor without the love of God 
and of our neighbours, nor without the fear of God, nor without the desire to hear God s 
word, and to follow the same, in eschewing evil and doing gladly all good works. 

This faith, as St Paul describeth it, is the " sure ground and foundation of the benefits 
which we ought to look for, and trust to receive of God; a certificate and sure expectation 
of them, although they yet sensibly appear not unto us." And after he saith : " He that 
cometh to God must believe both that he is, and that he is a merciful rewarder of well 
doers." And nothing commcndeth good men unto God so much as this assured faith and 
trust in him. 

Of this faith three things are specially to be noted. First, that this faith doth not 
lie dead in the heart, but is lively and fruitful in bringing forth good works. Second, 
that without it can no good works be done, that shall be acceptable and pleasant to 
God. Third, what manner of good works they be that this faith doth bring forth. 

For the first, as the light cannot be hid, but will shew forth itself at one place 
or other; so a true faith cannot be kept secret, but, when occasion is offered, it will 
break out, and shew itself by good works. And as the living body of a man ever 
exerciseth such things as belongeth to a natural and living body, for nourishment and 
preservation of the same, as it hath need, opportunity, and occasion ; even so the soul, 
that hath a lively faith in it, will be doing alvvay some good work, which shall declare 
that it is living, and will not be unoccupied. Therefore, when men hear in the scriptures 
so high commendations of faith, that it maketh us to please God, to live with God, and 
to be the children of G od ; if then they phantasy that they be set at liberty from doing 
all good works, and may live as they list 2 , they trifle with God, and deceive themselves. 
And it is a manifest token that they be far from having the true and lively faith, and 
also far from knowledge what true faith meaneth. For the very sure and lively Christian 
faith is, not only to believe all things of God which are contained in holy scripture ; but 
also is an earnest trust and confidence in God, that he doth regard us, and hath cure of 
us, as the father of the child 3 whom he doth love, and that he will be merciful unto us 
for his only Son s sake, and that we have our Saviour Christ our perpetual advocate and 
priest, in whose only merits, oblation, and suffering, we do trust that our offences be 
continually washed and purged, whensoever we, repenting truly, do return to him with 
our whole heart, steadfastly determining with ourselves, through his grace, to obey and 
serve him in keeping his commandments, and never to turn back again to sin. Such is 
the true faith that the scripture doth so much commend ; the which, when it seeth and 
considereth what God hath done for us, is also moved, through continual assistance of 
the Spirit of God, to serve and please him, to keep his favour, to fear his displeasure, to 
continue his obedient children, shewing thankfulness again by observing his command 
ments 4 , and that freely, for true love chiefly, and not for dread of punishment or love of 
temporal reward ; considering how clearly, without our descrvings, we have received his 
mercy and pardon freely. 

This true faith will shew forth itself, and cannot long be idle : for, as it is written, 
" The just man doth live by his faith." lie neither sleepeth, fior is idle, when he should 
wake and be well occupied. And God by his prophet Jeremy saith, that " he is a 
happy and blessed man which hath faith and confidence in God. For he is like a tree 
set by the water- side, that spreadeth his roots abroad toward the moisture, and feareth 
not heat when it cometh ; his leaf will be green, and will not cease to bring forth his 
fruit :" even so faithful men, putting away all fear of adversity, will shew forth the fruit 
of their good works, as occasion is offered to do them. 



[ Omitted in Ed. 154J.] 

f 2 Live as they lust, Eds. 1547, 60, (52. ] 

[ :) And that he is careful over us, as the father 



is of the child, Eds. 15fiO, f>2.J 

f 4 By observing or keeping his commandments, 
Ibid.] 



OF FAITH. 



137 



5 The Second Part of the Sermon of Faith. 

Ye have heard in the first part of this sermon, that there be two kinds of faith: a dead and an 
unfruitful faith, and a faith lively, that worketh by charity: the first to be unprofitable, the second 
necessary for the obtaining of our salvation ; the which faith hath charity always joined unto it, and is 
fruitful, bringing forth all good works. Now as concerning the same matter, you shall hear what 
followeth. 

The wise man saith : " He that believeth in God will hearken unto his command- Eccius.xxxii. 
ments." For if we do not shew ourselves faithful in our conversation, the faith which we 
pretend to have is but a feigned faith; because the true Christian faith is manifestly 
shewed by good living, and not by words only, as St Augustine saith : " Good living J.n>. dc a<ic 
cannot be separated from true faith, which worketh by love 6 ." And St Chrysostom sermTdeiqp 
saith : " Faith of itself is full of good works : as soon as a man doth believe, he shall be et 
garnished witli them 7 ." 

How plentiful this faith is of good works, and how it maketh the work of one man 
more acceptable to God than of another, St Paul teacheth at large in the eleventh chapter Heb. xi. 
to the Hebrews, saying, that faith made the oblation of Abel better than the oblation of 
Cain. This made Noe to build the ark. This made Abraham to forsake his country, Gen. vi. 
and all his friends, and to go into a far country, there to dwell among strangers. So did <jen. U xi.8 lv " 
also Isaac and Jacob, depending only of the help and trust that they had in God. And 
when they came to the country which God promised them, they would build no cities, 
towns, nor houses ; but lived like strangers in tents, that might every day be removed. 
Their trust was so much in God, that they set but little by any worldly thing; for 
that God had prepared for them better dwelling-places in heaven, of his own foundation 
and building. This faith made Abraham ready at God s commandment to offer his own Gen. xxii. 
son and heir Isaac, whom he loved so well, and by whom he was promised to have 
innumerable issue, among the which one should be born, in whom all nations should be 
blessed ; trusting so much in God, that though he were slain, yet that God was able by 
his omnipotent power to raise him from death, and perform his promise. He mistrusted 
not the promise of God, although unto his reason every thing seemed contrary. He 
believed verily that God would not forsake him in dearth and famine that was in the 
country. And in all other dangers that he was brought unto, he trusted ever that God 
would be his God and his protector, whatsoever he saw to the contrary. This faith 
wrought so in the heart of Moses, that he refused to be taken for king Pharaoh his daugli- EXOU. a.* 
ter s son, and to have great inheritance in Egypt ; thinking it better with the people of 
God to have affliction and sorrow, than with naughty men in sin to live pleasantly for a 
time. By faith he cared not for the threatening of king Pharaoh : for his trust was so in 
God, that he passed not of the felicity of this world, but looked for the reward to come 
in heaven ; setting his heart upon the invisible God, as if he had seen him ever present 
before his eyes. By faith the children of Israel passed through the Red Sea. By faith Exoci. xiv. 
the walls of Jericho fell down without stroke, and many other wonderful miracles have j os h. vi. 
been wrought. In all good men that heretofore have been, faith hath brought forth their 
good works, and obtained the promises of God. Faith hath stopped the lions mouths : Dan. vi. 
faith hath quenched the force of fire : faith hath escaped the sword s edges : faith hath Dan. iii. 
given weak men strength, victory in battle, overthrown the armies of infidels, raised the 
dead to life : faith hath made good men to take adversity in good part : some have been 
mocked and whipped, bound and cast in prison ; some have lost all their goods, and lived 
in great poverty; some have wandered in mountains 9 , hills, and wilderness; some have 
been racked, some slain, some stoned, some sawn, some rent in pieces, some headed, some 
brent without mercy, and would not be delivered, because they looked to rise again to a 
better state. 



[ 5 Inserted from Eds. 1360, fi2. Vid. pp. 130, 
132.] 

[ (i Apertissime scriptura testatur, nihil prodesse 
fidem, nisi earn quani detinivit apostolus, id est, 
qtue per dilectionem opcralur ; sine operibua autem 
salvarc non posse August. De Fid. et Op. cap. 
xvi. Tom. IV. p. 31. Ed. Paris. 1035.1 



[ 7 Igitur quam primum credideris, simul et 
operibus ornatus eris : non quod desint opera, sed per 
seipsam fides plena est operibus bonis Chrysost. 
Sermo de Fide, et Lege naturae, et Sancto Spiritu. 
Tom. II. col. 901. Ed. (Lat.) Basil. 154J.] 

[ 8 Omitted in Ed. 154J.] 

[ Some have wandered mountains, Ibid.] 



138 HOMILY 

All these fathers, martyrs, and other holy men, whom St Paul spake of, had their 
faith surely fixed in God, when all the world was against them. They did not only 
know God to be Lord 1 , maker, and governor of all men in the world; but also they 
had a special confidence and trust that he was and would be their God, their comforter, 
aider, helper, maintainer, and defender. This is the Christian faith, which these holy men 
had, and we also ought to have. And although they were not named Christian men, yet 
was it a Christian faith that they had ; for they looked for all benefits of God the Father 
through the merits of his Son Jesu Christ, as we now do. This difference is between 
them and us ; for they looked when Christ should come, and we be in the time when he is 

in Joan. Tra. come. Therefore saith St Augustine : " The time is altered, but not the faith 2 ." For we 

2 cor. iv. have both one faith in one Christ. The same Holy Ghost also that we have, had they, 
saith St Paul. For as the Holy Ghost doth teach us to trust in God, and to call upon 

isai. ixiii. him as our Father, so did he teach them to say, as it is written : " Thou, Lord, art our 
Father and Redeemer ; and thy name is without beginning, and everlasting." God gave 
them then grace to be his children, as he doth us now. But now, by the coming of our 
Saviour Christ, we have received more abundantly the Spirit of God in our hearts, 
whereby we may conceive a greater faith, and a surer trust, than many of them had. 
But in effect they and we be all one : W T C have the same faith that they had in God, and 
they the same that we have. And St Paul so much extolleth their faith, because we 
should no less, but rather more, give ourselves wholly unto Christ both in profession and 
living, now when Christ is come, than the old fathers did before his coming. And by all 
the declaration of St Paul it is evident, that the true, lively, and Christian faith is no dead, 
vain, or unfruitful thing, but a thing of perfect virtue, of wonderful 3 operation and 
strength 4 , bringing forth all good motions and good works. 

All holy scripture agreeably beareth witness, that a true lively faith in Christ doth 
bring forth good works; and therefore every man must examine himself 5 diligently, to 
know whether he have the same true lively faith in his heart unfeignedly, or not ; which 
he shall know by the fruits thereof. Many that professed the faith of Christ were in this 
error, that they thought they knew God and believed in him, when in their life they 
declared to the contrary : which error St John in his first Epistle confuting, writeth in 

i John ii. this wise : " Hereby we are certified that we know God, if we observe his command 
ments. He that saith he knoweth God, and observeth not his commandments, is a liar, 

uohniii. and the truth is not in him." And again he saith: "Whosoever sinneth doth not see 
God, nor know T him : let no man deceive you, well-beloved children." And moreover 

i John iii. he saith : "Hereby we know that we be of the truth, and so we shall persuade our hearts 
before him. For if our own hearts reprove us, .God is above our hearts, and knoweth 
all things. Well-beloved, if our hearts reprove us not, then have we confidence in God, 
and shall have of him whatsoever we ask, because we keep his commandments, and 

i John v. do those things that please him." And yet further he saith : " Every man that believeth 
that Jesus is Christ is born of God ; and we know that whosoever is born of God doth 
not sin: but the generation of God purgeth him, and the devil doth not touch him." 

i Johnv. And finally he concludeth, and, shewing the cause why he wrote this Epistle, saith: "For 
this cause have I written unto you, that you may know that you have everlasting life, 
which do believe in the Son of God." And in his third Epistle he confirmeth the whole 

a John. matter of faith and works in few words, saying: " He that doth well is of God; and he 
that doth evil knoweth not God." 

And as St John saith, that the lively 6 knowledge and faith of God bringeth forth good 
works ; so saith he likewise of hope and charity, that they cannot stand with evil living. 

i John iii. Of hope he writeth thus : " We know that when God shall appear, we shall be like unto 
him ; for we shall see him even as he is. And whosoever hath this hope in him doth 

i John ii. purify himself, like as God is pure." And of charity he saith these words : " He that 



[ l God to be the Lord, Eds. 1560,. 62. J [ 4 Operation or working, and strength, Eds. 

[ 3 Tempora variata sunt, non tides. August. 1560,62.] 

In Evang. Joan. Tract, xlv. De cap. x. Tom. IX. [ Must, and examine and try himself, Ibid.J 

p. 136. Ed. Paris. 1035.] [ That as the lively, Eds. 1560, 62.J 

[ 3 And wonderful, Ed. 1562.] 



OF FAITH. 



139 



doth keep God s word or commandment, in him is truly the perfect love of God." And 
again he saith : " This is the love of God, that we should keep his commandments." ] John v - 
And St John wrote not this as a subtle proposition 7 devised of his own phantasy, but as 
a most certain and necessary truth, taught unto him by Christ himself, the eternal and 
infallible Verity, who in many places doth most clearly affirm, that faith, hope, and 
charity cannot consist 8 without good and godly works. Of faith he saith : "He that J Jjjf 1 ?^ 
believeth in the Son hath everlasting life ; but he that believeth not in the Son shall not 
see that life, but the wrath of God remaineth upon him." And the same he confirmeth 
with a double oath, saying : " Forsooth and forsooth, I say unto you, he that believeth in John vi. 
me hath everlasting life." Now, forasmuch as he that believeth in Christ hath everlasting 
life, it must needs consequently follow, that he that hath this faith must have also good 
works, and be studious to observe God s commandments obediently. For to them that 
have evil works, and lead their life in disobedience and transgression of God s command 
ments 9 , without repentance, pertaineth not everlasting life, but everlasting death, as Christ 
himself saith : " They that do well shall go into life eternal ; but they that do evil shall Matt. xxv. 
go into the eternal fire." And again he saith 10 : "I am the first letter and the last, the KCV. \xi. 
beginning and the ending. To him that is athirst I will give of the well of the water of 
life freely. He that hath the victory shall have all things, and I will be his God, and he 
shall be my son : but they that be fearful, mistrusting God and lacking faith, they that 
be cursed people, and murderers, and fornicators, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all 
liars, shall have their portion in the lake that burneth witli fire and brimstone, which is 
the second death." And as Christ undoubtedly affirmeth, that true faith bringeth forth charity 
good works, so doth he say likewise of charity : " Whosoever hath my commandments, forth good 
and keepeth them, that is he that loveth me." And after he saith : " He that loveth me John is v. 
will keep my word, and he that loveth me not keepeth not my words." And as the love 
of God is tried by good works, so is the fear of God also, as the wise man 11 saith: Eccius. i. 
" The dread of God putteth away sin." And also he saith : " He that fcareth God will Eccius. xv. 
do good works." 



12 The Third Part of the Sermon of Faith. 

You have heard in the second part of this sermon, that no man should think that he hath that 
lively faith which scripture commandeth, when he liveth not obediently to God s laws. For all good 
works spring out of that faith. And also it hath been declared unto you by examples, that faith maketh 
men steadfast, quiet, and patient in all affliction. Now as concerning the same matter, you shall hear 
what followeth. 

A man may soon deceive himself, and think in his own phantasy that he by faith 
knoweth God, loveth him, feareth him, and belongeth to him, when in very deed he doth 
nothing less. For the trial of all these things is a very godly and Christian life. He that 
feeleth his heart set to seek God s honour, and studieth to know the will and command 
ments of God, and to conform himself 13 thereunto, and leadeth not his life after the 
desire of his own flesh to serve the devil by sin, but setteth his mind to serve God, 
for God s own sake 14 , and for his sake also to love all his neighbours, whether they 
be friends or adversaries, doing good to every man, as opportunity serveth, and willingly 
hurting no man ; such a man may well rejoice in God, perceiving by the trade of his 
life that he unfeignedly hath the right knowledge of God, a lively faith, a constant 
hope, a true and unfeigned love and fear of God. But he that casteth away the yoke 
of God s commandments from his neck, and giveth himself to live without true 
repentance, after his own sensual mind and pleasure, not regarding to know God s 
word, and much less to live according thereunto; such a man clearly deceiveth him 
self, and seeth not his own heart, if he thinketh that he either knoweth God, loveth 



[ 7 A subtle saying, Eds. 1560, 62.] 
[ B Cannot consist or stand, Ibid.] 
[ !( Transgression or breaking of (rod s command, 
ments, Ibid.] 

[ 10 Again he saith, Ed. 1547.] 



[ u Of God : as the wise, Ed. 1547-1 
[ 13 Inserted from Eds. 1560, 62. Vid. pp. 130, 
132, 137.] 

[ 13 And to frame himself, Eds. 1560, 62.] 
f 14 For his own sake, 1547.] 



140 



HOMILY 



1 John i. 



1 John ii. 



1 John iv. 
1 John ii. 



him, fcarcth him, or trusteth in him. Some peradventure phantasy in themselves that 
they belong to God, although they live in sin, and so they come to the church, and 
shew themselves as God s dear children : but St John saith plainly : " If we say 
that we have any company with God, and walk in darkness, we do lie." Other do 
vainly think that they know and love God, although they pass not of his command 
ments : but St John saith clearly : " He that saith, I know God, and kecpeth not 
his commandments, he is a liar." Some falsely persuade themselves that they love 
God, when they hate their neighbours : but St John saith manifestly : " If any man 
say, I love God, and yet hateth his brother, he is a liar." u lie that saith that he 
is in the light, and hateth his brother, he is still in darkness. He that loveth his 
brother dwelleth in the light ; but he that hateth his brother is in darkness, and 
walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth ; for darkness hath blinded 
i John Hi. his eyes." And moreover he saith : " Hereby we manifestly know the children of God 
from the children of the devil : lie that doth not righteously is not the child of God, 
nor he that hateth his brother." 

Deceive not yourselves therefore, thinking that you have faith in God, or that you 
love God, or do trust in him, or do fear him, when you live in sin; for then your 
ungodly and sinful life declareth the contrary, whatsoever ye say or think. It per- 
taincth to a Christian man to have this true Christian faith, and to try himself whether 
he hath it or no, and to know what belongeth to it, and how it doth work in him. 
It is not the world that we can trust to : the world, and all that is therein, is but vanity. 
It is God that must be our defence and protection against all temptations of wicked 
ness and sin, errors, superstition, idolatry, and all evil. If all the world were on our 
side, and God against us, what could the world avail us ? Therefore let us set our 
whole faith and trust in God, and neither the world, the devil, nor all the power of 
them, shall prevail against us. Let us therefore, good Christian people, try and examine 
our faith, what it is : let us not flatter ourselves, but look upon our works, and so 
judge of our faith what it is. Christ himself speaketh of this matter, and saith : " The 
tree is known by the fruit." Therefore let us do good works, and thereby declare our 
faith to be the lively Christian faith. Let us by such virtues as ought to spring out 
of faith shew our election to be sure and stable, as St Peter teacheth : " Endeavour 
yourselves to make your calling and election certain by good works." And also 
he saith : " Minister or declare in your faith virtue, in virtue knowledge, in knowledge 
temperance, in temperance patience ; again, in patience godliness, in godliness brotherly 
charity, in brotherly charity love." So shall we shew indeed that we have the very 
lively Christian faith, and may so both certify our conscience the better that we be in the 
right faith, and also by these means confirm other men. 

If these fruits do not follow, we do but mock with God, deceive ourselves, and 
also other men. Well may we bear the name of Christian men, but we do lack the 
true faith that doth belong thereunto. For true faith doth ever bring forth good 
works, as St James saith : " Shew me thy faith by thy deeds." Thy deeds and works 
must be an open testimonial of thy faith : otherwise thy faith, being without good works, 
is but the devils faith, the faith of the wicked, a phantasy of faith, and not a true 
Christian faith. And like as the devils and evil people be nothing the better for their 
counterfeit faith, but it is unto them the more cause of damnation ; so they that be 
christened, and have received knowledge of God and of Christ s merits, and yet of a 
set purpose do live idly, without good works, thinking the name of a naked faith to 
be either sufficient for them ; or else, setting their minds upon vain pleasures of this 
world, do live in sin 2 , without repentance, not uttering the fruits that do belong to 
such an high profession; upon such presumptuous persons and wilful sinners must 
needs remain the great vengeance of God, and eternal punishment in hell, prepared 
for the devil and wicked livers 3 . 

Therefore, as you profess the name of Christ, good Christian people, let no such 



Luke vi. 



2 Pet. 



2 Pet. 



James ii. 



f 1 Of the commandments, Eds. 1560,02.] 
[ 2 Liveth in sin, Ed. 1547-1 



[ 3 For the unjust and wicked livers, Ed. 1500.] 



OF FAITH. 



141 



phantasy and imagination of faith at any time beguile you ; but be sure of your faith, 
try it by your living, look upon the fruits that cometh of it, mark the increase of love 
and charity by it towards God 4 and your neighbour, and so shall you perceive it to be a 
true lively faith. If you feel and perceive such a faith in you, rejoice in it, and be 
diligent to maintain it, and keep it still in you ; let it be daily increasing, and more 
and more be well working, ancl so shall you be sure that you shall please God by this 
faith ; and at the length, as other faithful men have done before, so shall you 5 , when 
his will is, come to him, and receive " the end and final reward of your faith," as St i ret. 
Peter nameth it, "the salvation of your souls:" the which God grant us, that hath 
promised the same unto his faithful ! To whom be all honour and glory, world with 
out end. Amen. 



AN HOMILY OR SERMON 



OF 



GOOD WORKS ANNEXED UNTO FAITH. 



IN the last sermon was declared unto you what the lively and true faith of a 
Christian man is ; that it causeth not a man to be idle, but to be occupied in bringing 
forth good works, as occasion serveth. 

Now, by God s grace, shall be declared the second thing that before was noted of NO good 
faith, that without it can no good work be done acceptable and pleasant 6 unto God. done without 
" For as a branch cannot bear fruit of itself," saith our Saviour Christ, " except it jofaaxr. 
abide in the vine, so cannot you except you abide in me. I am the vine, and you 
be the branches : he that abideth in me, and I in him, he bringeth forth much fruit : 
for without me you can do nothing." And St Paul proveth that Enoch had faith, 
because he pleased God : " For without faith," saith he, " it is not possible to please Heb. xi. 
God." And again, to the Romans he saith : " Whatsoever work is done without faith, Rom. xiv. 
it is sin." Faith giveth life to the soul; and they be as much dead to God that 
lack faith, as they be to the world whose bodies lack souls. Without faith all that 
is done of us is but dead before God, although the work seem never so gay and 
glorious before man. Even as a picture graven or painted is but a dead representation 
of the thing itself, and is without life, or any manner of moving; so be the works 
of all unfaithful persons before God. They do appear to be lively works, and indeed 
they be but dead, not availing to the eternal life 7 . They be but shadows and shews 
of lively and good things, and not good and lively things indeed ; for true faith doth 
give life to the w r orks 8 , and out of such faith come good works, that be very good 
works indeed ; and without it no work is good before God. 

As saith St Augustine : " We must set no good works before faith, nor think that in Pnef. 
before faith a man may do any good work ; for such works, although they seem unto Psa1 xxxl 
men to be praise-worthy, yet indeed they be but vain, and not allowed before God. 
They be as the course of a horse that runneth out of the way, which takcth great 
labour, but to no purpose. Let no man, therefore," saith he, "reckon upon his good 



[ 4 Toward God, Ed. 154/.J 

[ 5 So shall ye, Ed. 1547.] 

[" Accepted and pleasant, Ed. 1500.] 



[ 7 To the everlasting life, Ed. 1560, 62.] 
[ To the work, Ed. 1547.J 



142 



HOMILY 



Matt. vi. 



In Pracf. 
Psal. xxxi. 



works before his faith ; where as faith was not, good works were not. The intent," 
saith he, " maketh the good works ; but faith must guide and order the intent of man 1 ." 
And Christ saith : " If thine eye be naught, thy whole body is full of darkness." " The 
eye doth signify the intent," saith St Augustine, " wherewith a man doth a thing ; so 
that he which doth not his good works with a godly intent, and a true faith that 
worketh by love, the whole body beside, that is to say, all the whole number of his 
works, is dark, and there is no light in it 8 ." For good deeds be not measured by the 
facts themselves, and so dissevered from vices 3 , but by the ends and intents for the 
which they be done. If a heathen man clothe the naked, feed the hungry, and do 
such other like works ; yet because he doth them not in faith for the honour and love 
of God, they be but dead, vain, and fruitless works to him. Faith it is that doth 
commend the work to God : " for," as St Augustine saith, " whether thou wilt or no, 
that work that cometh not of faith is naught 4 ;" where the faith of Christ is not the 
foundation, there is no good work, what building soever we make. "There is one 
work, in the which be all good works, that is, faith which worketh by charity 5 :" if 
thou have it, thou hast the ground of all good works ; for the virtues of strength, 
wisdom, temperance, and justice, be all referred unto this same faith. Without this 
faith we have not them, but only the names and shadows of them, as St Augustine 
saith : " All the life of them that lack the true faith is sin ; and nothing is good without 
him that is the author of goodness : where he is not, there is but feigned virtue, although 
it be in the best works 6 ." And St Augustine, declaring this verse of the psalm, "The 
turtle hath found a nest where she may keep her young birds," saith, that Jews, 
heretics, and pagans do good works : they clothe the naked, feed the poor, and do 
other good works of mercy ; but because they be not done in the true faith, therefore 
the birds be lost 7 . But if they remain in faith, then faith is the nest and safeguard 
of their birds ; that is to say, safeguard of their good works, that the reward of them 
be not utterly lost. 

And this matter (which St Augustine at large in many books disputeth) St Am 
brose concludeth in few words, saying : " He that by nature would withstand vice, 
either by natural will or reason, he doth in vain garnish the time of this life, and 
attaineth not the very true virtues ; for without the worshipping of the true God 
that which seemeth to be virtue is vice 8 . 

inserm.de And yet most plainly to this purpose writeth St John Chrysostom in this wise: 
spiritusSct! " You shall find many which have not the true faith, and be not of the flock of 



De Vocat. 
(tent. Lib. 
cap. iii. 



[ l Debemus nulla opera praeponere tidei : id est, 
ut ante tidem quisquam dicatur bene operatus. Ea 
enim ipsa opera qua dicuntur ante fidem, quamvis 
videantur hominibus laudabilia, inania sunt. Ita 
mihi videntur esse, ut magnas vires et cursus celer- 
rimus piaster iram. Nemo ergo computet bona 
opera sua ante fidem : ubi fides non erat, bonum 
opus non erat. Bonum enim opus intentio facit, 
intentionem fides diriget August, in Psalm, xxxi. 
Tom. VIII. p. 76. Ed. Paris 1635.] 

[ 2 Oculum ergo hie accipere debemus ipsam in- 
tentionem, qua facimus quicquid facimus. Id. de 
Serm. Dom. in Monte Lib. n. cap. xiii. Tom. IV. 
p. 352. Et hunc oculum agnosce intentionem, qua 
facit quisque quod facit ; et per hoc disce eum, qui 
non facit opera bona intentione fidei bonae, hoc est 
ejus qua? per dilectionem operatur, totum quasi cor 
pus, quod illis, velut membris, operibus constat, 
tenebrosum esse, hoc est, plenum nigredine pecca- 
torum Id. contra Julian. Pelagian. Lib. iv. Tom. 
VII. p. 406.] 

[ 3 So discerned from vices, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

[ 4 Omne enim, velis nolis, quod non ex fide, 
peccatum est August, contra Julian. Pelagian. 
Lib. iv. Tom. Vll. p. 406.] 

[ 5 Opus ergo unum est, in quo sunt omnia, fides 
quae per dilectionem operatur. Id. in Psalm. Ixxxix. 



Tom. VIII. p. 408.] 

[ e Omnis infidelium vita peccatum est, et nihil 
est bonum sine summo bono. Ubi enim deest ag- 
nitio aeterna? et incommutabilis veritatis, falsa virtus 
est, etiam in optimis moribus. Prosper. Lib. sen- 
tent, ex August, cvi. p. 558. Ed. Paris. 171 !] 

[ 7 Quanti videntur praater ecclesiam bona ope- 
rari ! Quam multi etiam pagani pascunt esurientem, 
vestiunt nudum, suscipiunt hospitem, visitant aegro- 
tum, consolantur inclusum ! Quam multi haec 
faciunt ! Quam multa multi haretici non in ec- 
clesia operantur, non in nido pullos ponunt ! Con- 
culcabuntur et conterentur ; non servabuntur, non 

custodientur August, in Psalm. Ixxxiii. Tom. 

VIII. p. 3/5. Ed. Paris. 1635.] 

[ 8 Quia etsi fuit qui natural! intellectu conatus 
sit vitiis reluctari, hujus tan turn temporis vitam 
steriliter ordinavit, ad veras autem virtutes aster - 
namque beatitudinem non profecit. Sine cultu enim 
veri Dei, etiam quod virtus videtur esse, peccatum 
est Ambros. De Vocat. Gent. Lib. i. cap. iii. 
Tom. IV. p. 245. Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1616. This 
treatise is asserted by the Benedictines, Erasmus, 
and others, to be spurious. Prosper was probably 
the author. Vid. Riveti Critica Sacra, p. 289. Ed. 
Genevas, 1626. Coci Censura Patrum, pp. 259, 60. 
Ed. Helmes, 1683.] 



OF GOOD WORKS. 



143 



Christ, and yet (as it appearetli) they flourish in good works of mercy: you shall 
find them full of pity 9 , compassion, and given to justice ; and yet for all that they 
have no fruit of their works, because the chief work lacketh. For when the Jews 
asked of Christ what they should do to work good works, he answered : This is John vi. 
the work of God, to believe in him whom he sent : so that he called faith 10 the 
work of God. And as soon as a man hath faith, anon he shall flourish in good works ; 
for faith of itself is full of good works, and nothing is good without faith." And for 
a similitude, lie saith, that "they which glister and shine in good works without 
faith in God, be like dead men, which have goodly and precious tombs, and yet it 
availeth them nothing. Faith may not be naked without works, for then it is no 
true faith; and when it is adjoined to works, yet it is above the works. For as 
men, that be very men indeed, first have life, and after be nourished; so must our 
faith in Christ go before, and after be nourished with good works. And life may 
be without nourishment, but nourishment cannot be without life. A man must needs 
be nourished by good works, but first he must have faith. He that doth good deeds, 
yet without faith, he hath not life 11 . I can shew a man that by faith without works 
lived, and came to heaven; but without faith never man had life. The thief that 
was hanged when Christ suffered, did believe only, and the most merciful God did 
justify him. And because no man shall object 12 , that he lacked time to do good works, 
for else he would have done them; truth it is, and I w T ill not contend therein : 
but this I will surely affirm, that faith only saved him. If he had lived, and not 
regarded faith and the works thereof, he should have lost his salvation again. But 
this is the effect that I say, that faith by itself saved him, but works by themselves 
never justified any man 13 ." Here ye have heard the mind of St Chrysostom, whereby 
you may perceive, that neither faith is without works, (having opportunity thereto,) 
nor works can avail to eternal life without faith. 



14 The Second Part of the Sermon of Good Works. 

Of three things which were in the former sermon specially noted of lively faith, two be declared 
unto you. The first was that faith is never idle without good works, when occasion serveth : the second, 
that good works acceptable to God, cannot be done without faith. 

Now to proceed 15 to the third part, (which in the former sermon was noted of faith,) what works 
that is to say, what manner of works they be which spring out of true faith, and lead 



[ 9 Full of piety, Eds. 1500, 62.] 
[ 10 He calleth faith, Ed. 1547.] 
[" Hath no life, Eds. 1560, 62.] 
[ 12 Shall say again, Ibid.] 

[ 13 Offendes equidem multos, qui quatnvis ser- 
monem veritatis non acceperint, et foris sint, operi- 
bus tamen pietatis, ut apparet, sunt conspicui. In- 
venies viros misericordes, compatientes, justitiae 
vacantes ; sed nullos facientes fructus operum, quia 
nescierunt opus veritatis. Enimvero cum olim 
Judaei dicerent Domino, Quid faciemus, ut opere- 
mur opera Dei ? respondit eis : * Hoc est opus Dei, 
ut credatis in eum, quern misit ille. Vides quo- 
modo fidem opus vocavit? Igitur quamprimum 
credideris, simul et operibus ornatus eris: non 
quod desint opera, sed per seipsam fides plena est 
operibus bonis. Nihil enim extra fidem bonum. 
Et ut quadam verbi similitudine utar, fratres, similes 
mihi videntur, qui operibus bonis florent, et Deum 
pietatis ignorant, reliquiis mortuorum pulchre quidem 
indutis, sensum autem pulchrorum non habentibus. 
Quae enim utilitas animae mortuae, Deo quidem 
mortuae fide et ratione, bonis autem operibus vestitae ? 
Non oportet quidem nudam ab operibus esse 
fidem, ut ne vituperetur. Veruntamen sublimior 
est fides quam opera. Sicut enim hominibus, qui 
hominis nomen merentur, opus est primum, ut pras- 
cedat vita, et sic enutriantur ; conservat enim vitam 



nostram alimentum : ita necessarium, ut praecedat 
vitam nostram spes in Christum, quag postea pas- 
cenda bonis operibus. Conceditur vivere quern- 
piam qui non nutritur : non conceditur autem nu- 
triri aliquem non viventem Ita et opus quidem 
habet anima, ut operibus alatur. Ante opera tamen 
fides primum inducenda est. Eum qui operatur 
opera justitiae, sine fide non possum probare vivum 
fuisse. Fidelem autem absque operibus possum 
monstrare et vixisse, et regnum ccelorum assecutum. 
Nullus sine fide vitam habuit, latro autem credidit 
duntaxat, et justificatus est a misericordissimo Deo. 
Atque hie ne mihi dixeris, defuisse ei tempus, quo 
juste viveret, et honesta faceret opera. Neque enim 
de hoc contenderim ego, sed illud unum assevera- 
verim, quod sola fides per se salvum fecerit. Nam 
si super vixisset, tideique et operum fuisset negli- 
gens, a salute excidisset. Hoc autem nunc quae- 
ritur, et agitur, quod et fides per seipsam salvum 
fecerit: opera autem per se nullos unquam opera - 
rios justificarunt Chrysost. Serm. de Fide, et Lege 
naturae, et Sancto Spiritu. Tom. II. col. 902, 3. 
Ed. (Lat.) Basil. 1547.] 

[ 14 Inserted from Eds. 560, 62, Vid. pp. 130, 
132, 137, 139.] 

[ 15 Now to go forth to the third part, that is, what 
manner, &c. Ibid.] 



144 



HOMILY 



Matt. xix. 
Matt. xix. 



Matt. xix. 



The wr rks 
that It ad to 
heavm be 
the works of 
G xl s co! n- 
mandments. 



Man. from 
his first fall 
ing from 
God s com 
mandments, 
hath ever 
been ready to 
do the like, 
and to de 
vise H works 
of his own 
phantasy to 
please God 
withal. 



The devices 
and idolatry 
of the Gen 
tiles. 



The devices 
and idolatries 
of the Gen 
tiles l4 . 



faithful men unto eternal life 1 : this cannot be known so well, as by our Saviour Christ 
himself, who was asked of a certain great man the same question : " What works shall I 
do," said a prince, "to come to everlasting life ?" To whom Jesus answered : " If thou 
wilt come to the eternal life 9 , keep the commandments." But the prince, not satisfied 
herewith, asked farther: "Which commandments?" The scribes and Pharisees had made 
so many of their own laws and traditions, to bring men to heaven, beside God s com 
mandments, that this man was in doubt whether he should come to heaven by those laws 
and traditions, or by the laws of God 3 ; and therefore he asked Christ which command 
ments he meant. Whercunto Christ made him a plain answer, rehearsing the command 
ments of God, saying : " Thou shalt not kill, thou slialt not commit adultery, thou shalt 
not steal, thou shalt not bear false witness, honour thy father and mother," and, " Love 
thy neighbour 4 as thyself." By which words Christ declared that the laws of God be the 
very way that do lead to eternal life 5 , and not the traditions and laws of men. So that 
this is to be taked 6 for a most true lesson taught by Christ s own mouth, that the works 
of the moral commandments 7 of God be the very true works of faith, which lead to the 
blessed life to come. 

But the blindness and malice of man, even from the beginning, hath ever been 
ready to fall from God s commandments : as Adam the first man, having but one 
commandment, that he should not eat of the fruit forbidden, notwithstanding God s 
commandment, he gave credit unto the woman, seduced by the subtle persuasion of 
the serpent, and so followed his own will, and left God s commandment. And ever 
since that time all his succession 9 hath been so blinded through original sin, that they 
have been ever ready to decline from 10 God and his law, and to invent a new way 
unto salvation, by works of their own device: so much, that almost all the world, 
forsaking the true honour of the only eternal, living God, wandered about their own 11 
phantasies, worshipping some the sun, the moon, the stars ; some, Jupiter, Juno, 
Diana, Saturnus, Apollo, Neptunus, Ceres, Bacchus, and other dead men and women : 
some, therewith not satisfied, worshipped divers kinds of beasts, birds, fish, fowl, and 
serpents ; every region, town, and house, in manner l2 being divided, and setting up 
images of such things as they liked, and worshipping the same. Such was the rude 
ness of the people after they fell to their own phantasies, and left the eternal living God 
and his commandments, that they devised innumerable images and gods. In which error 
and blindness they did remain, until such time as Almighty God, pitying the blindness of 
man, sent his true prophet Moses into the world, to reprehend this extreme madness 13 , and 
to teach the people to know the only living God, and his true honour and worship. But 
the corrupt inclination of man was so much given to follow his own phantasies, and (as 
you would say) to favour his own bird that he brought up himself, that all the admo 
nitions, exhortations, benefits, and threatenings of God could not keep him from such 
his inventions. For notwithstanding all the benefits of God, shewed unto the people 
of Israel, yet when Moses went up into the mountain, to speak with Almighty God, 
he had tarried there but a few days, when the people began to invent new gods. And, 
as it came into their heads 15 , they made a calf of gold, and kneeled down and worshipped 
it. And after that they followed the Moabites, and worshipped Beelphegor, the Moab- 
ites god. Read the book of Judges, the books of the Kings, and the Prophets ; and 
there you shall find, how inconstant the people" were, how full of inventions, and 
more ready to run after their own phantasies than God s most holy commandments. 
There shall you read of Baal, Moloch, Chamos, Mechom, Baalpeor, Astaroth, Bel the 
dragon, Priapus, the brasen serpent, the twelve signs, and many other ; unto whose 



[! Unto everlasting life, Ibid.] 

[ 2 To the everlasting life, Ibid.] 

[ 3 By the law of God, Ed. 1560.] 

[ 4 Thy neighbours, Ibid.] 

[ 5 To everlasting life, Ed. 1500, 62.] 

[ 6 To be taken, Ibid, and Ed. 1547. ] 

[ 7 Of the mortal commandments, Ed. 15fiO. 

[ 8 And doth devise, Ibid.] 

[ 9 All that came of him, Ed. 1560, 62.] 



[ 10 To fall from, Ibid.] 
[ About in their own, Ed. 1547.] 
I" 12 In a manner, Ibid.] 

[ 13 To reprove and rebuke this extreme madness, 
Eds. 1500, 62.J 

f 14 Of the Israelites, Ed. 1500.] 
[ 15 In their heads, Eds. 1560, 62.] 
[ }fi How unsteadf ast, Ibid.] 



OF GOOD WORKS. 145 

images the people with great devotion invented pilgrimages, preciously decking and 
censing them, kneeling down and offering to them, thinking that an high merit before 
God, and to be esteemed above the precepts and commandments of God. And where 
at that time God commanded no sacrifice to be made, but in Jerusalem only, they 
did clean contrary, making altars and sacrifices every where, in hills, in woods, and 
in houses, not regarding God s commandments, but esteeming their own phantasies and 
devotion to be better than them 17 . And the error hereof -was so spread abroad, that not 
only the unlearned people, but also the priests and teachers of the people, partly by 
glory and avarice 18 were corrupted, and partly by ignorance blindly seduced with 19 the 
same abominations : so much, that king Achab having but only Helias a true teacher 
and minister of God, there were eight hundred and fifty priests, that persuaded him to 
honour Baal, and to do sacrifice in the woods or groves. And so continued that horrible 
error, until the three noble kings, as Josaphat, Ezcchias, and Josias, God s elect 
ministers, destroyed the same clearly, and reduced the people 20 from such their feigned 
inventions unto the very commandments of God : for the which thing their immortal 
reward and glory doth and shall remain with God for ever. 

And beside the foresaid inventions, the inclination of man to have his own holy Religions an.i 
devotions devised new sects and religions, called Pharisees, Sadducees, and Scribes, with Sjews 1 " 
many holy and godly traditions and ordinances, (as it seemed by the outward appear 
ance and goodly glistering 21 of the works,) but in very deed all tending to idolatry, 
superstition, and hypocrisy, their hearts within being full of malice, pride, covetousness, 
and all iniquity 22 . Against which sects, and their pretensed holiness, Christ cried out 
more vehemently than he did against any other persons, saying and often repeating 
these words : " Woe be to you, scribes and Pharisees, ye hypocrites ! for you make Matt, xxiii. 
clean the vessel without, but within you be full of ravine and filthiness : thou blind 
Pharisee and hypocrite, first make the inward part clean." For, notwithstanding all the 
goodly traditions and outward shews 23 of good works, devised of their own imagination, 
whereby they appeared to the world most religious and holy of all men; yet Christ, 
who saw their hearts, knew that they were inwardly, in the sight of God, most 
unholy, most abominable, and farthest from God of all men. Therefore said he unto 
them: "Hypocrites, the prophet Esay spake full truly of you, when he said, This Matt. xv. 
people honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me : they worship me ls 
in vain, that teach doctrines and commandments of men : for you leave the command 
ments of God to keep your own traditions." 

And though Christ said, "They worshipped God in vain that teach doctrines and 
commandments of men," yet he meant not thereby to overthrow all men s commandments; Man s i, 
for he himself was ever obedient to the princes and their laws, made for good order and JS?Jdam?~ 
governance of the people : but he reproved the laws and traditions made by the scribes ^^f " ot 
and Pharisees, which were not made only for good order of the people, (as the civil laws laws> 
were,) but they were so highly extolled, that 24 they were made to be a right and sincere 
worshipping 25 of God, as they had been equal with God s laws, or above them : for many 
of God s laws could not be kept, but were fain to give place unto them. This arrogancy 
God detested, that man should so advance his laws to make them equal with God s laws, 
wherein the true honouring and right worshipping of God standeth, and to make his 
laws for them to be omitted 26 . God hath appointed his laws, whereby his pleasure is to 
be honoured. His pleasure is also, that all man s laws, being not contrary to his laws, 
shall be obeyed and kept, as good and necessary for every commonweal, but not as things 
wherein principally his honour resteth. And all civil and man s laws either be or should 
be made, to induce men the better to observe God s laws 27 , that consequently 28 God should 
be the better honoured bv them. 



[> 7 Better than they, Ibid.J ^ Were set up so high> that> Eds . 15(j - 0? G2- j 



[ 18 By glory and covetousness, Ibid.] 

| 19 Blindly deceived with, Ibid.J 

f 20 And brought again the people, Ibid/ 



[ 21 And godly glistering, Ed. 1562. J , laws, Ibid.] 



[- 5 And pure worshipping, Ibid.] 

[ 26 To be left off, Ibid.] 

[ - Made to bring in men the better to keep God s 



f 22 And all wickedness, Eds. 15KO, f>2.] 



[ 28 Consequently, or followingly, Ibid.J 



[ 23 Outward shew, Ed. 1547. j 
ER, n.] 



146 HOMILY 

Howbeit, the scribes and Pharisees were not content that their laws should be no 
higher esteemed than other positive and civil laws, nor would not have them called by 
Holy tradi- the name of other temporal laws, but called them holy and godly traditions, and would 
STatr ^ iave ^ iem esteeme( *5 not on ty f r a "girt anc * true worshipping of God, (as God s laws 
be indeed,) but also to be the most high honouring of God, to the which the command 
ments of God should give place. And for this cause did Christ so vehemently speak 
Luke^xvi. against them, saying, Your traditions, which men esteem so high, be abomination before 
man s device God : for commonly of such traditions followcth the transgression 1 of God s command- 
ociaMon that ments, and a more devotion in the observing of such things, and a greater conscience in 

p, i f rt C3* ft 

fended. breaking of them, than of the commandments of God ; as the scribes and Pharisees 

Matt. xii. so superstitiously and scrupulously kept the sabbath, that they were offended with Christ 
because he healed sick men, and with his apostles, because they, being sore hungry, 
gathered the ears of corn to cat upon that day. And because his disciples washed not 
their hands so often as the traditions required, the scribes and Pharisees quarrelled with 

Matt. xv. Christ, saying : " Why do thy disciples break the traditions of the seniors ?" But Christ 
objected against them 2 , that they, for to observe their own 3 traditions, did teach men to 
break the very commandments of God. For they taught the people such a devotion, 
that they offered their goods into the treasure-house of the temple, under the pretence of 
God s honour, leaving their fathers and mothers, to whom they were chiefly bound, 
unholpen : and so they brake the commandments of God, to keep their own traditions. 
They esteemed more an oath made by the gold or oblation in the temple, than an oath 
made in the name of God himself, or of the temple. They were more studious to pay 
their tithes of small things, than to do the greater things commanded of God, as works 
of mercy, or to do justice, or to deal sincerely, uprightly, and faithfully with God and 

Matt, xxi-i. man: "These," saith Christ, "ought to be done, and the other not omitted 4 ." And, to 
be short, they were of so blind judgment, that they stumbled at a straw, and leaped 
over a block. They would, as it were, nicely take a fly out of their cup, and drink 
down a whole camel: and therefore Christ called them "blind guides," warning his 
disciples from time to time to eschew their doctrine. For although they seemed to the 
world to be most perfect men, both in living and teaching; yet was their life but hypo 
crisy, and their doctrine but sour leaven, mixt 5 with superstition, idolatry, and prepos 
terous 8 judgment; setting up the traditions and ordinances of man in the stead of God s 
commandments. 



7 The Third Part of the Sermon of Good Works. 

That all men might rightly judge of good works, it hath been declared in the second part of this 
Sermon, what kind of good works they be that God would have his people to walk in, namely, such 
as he hath commanded in his holy scripture, and not such works as men have studied out of 8 their own 
brain, of a blind zeal and devotion, without the word of God. And by mistaking the nature of good 
works man hath most highly displeased God, and hath gone from his will and commandment. 

Thus have you heard how much the world, from the beginning until Christ s time, 
was ever ready to fall from the commandments of God, and to seek other means to 
honour and serve him, after a devotion imagined of their own 9 heads; and how they 
extolled their own traditions 10 as high or above God s commandments: which hath hap 
pened also in our times, (the more it is to be lamented,) no less than it did among the 
Jews, and that by the corruption, or at the least by the negligence, of them that chiefly 
ought to have preferred God s commandments 11 , and to have preserved the sincere and 



1 The transgression or breaking of, Ibid.] 132, 137, 139, 144.] 

2 But Christ laid to their charge, Ibid.J [ 8 Have imagined out of, Ed. 15R2.] 



3 For to keep their own, Ibid.] 

4 The other not left undone, Ibid.] 

5 Leaven, mingled with, Ed. 15GO.] 

[" And overwart, Ed. 1500, And overthart, Ed. 



[ 9 A devotion found out of their own, Eds. 



1660, 62/ 



[ I0 And how they did set up their own traditions, 



Ibid.] 



[ n Ed. 15CO omits the words " to have preferred 
p Inserted from Ed?. 1,160, C2. Mid- pp. 13U, j God s commandments."] 



OF GOOD WORKS. 147 

heavenly 12 doctrine left by Christ. What man having any judgment or learning, joined 

with a true zeal unto God, doth not sec and lament to have entered into Christ s religion 

such false doctrine, superstition, idolatry, hypocrisy, and other enormities and abuses, so 

as by little and little, through the sour leaven thereof, the sweet bread of God s holy 

word hath been much hindered and laid apart? Never had the Jews in their most 

blindness so many pilgrimages unto images, nor used so much kneeling, kissing, and 

censing of them, as hath been used in our time. Sects and feigned religions were neither s^tsimire- 

thc forty part so many among the Jews, nor more supcrstitiously and ungodly abused araonpt 

than of late days they have been among us : which sects and religions had so many men. 

hypocritical works in their state of religion, as they arrogantly named it, that their lamps, 

as they said, ran always over, able to satisfy, not only for their own sins, but also for all 

other their benefactors, brother, and sisters of their religion 13 , as most ungodly and craftily 

they had persuaded the multitude of ignorant people; keeping in divers places, as it 

were, marts or markets of merits, being full of their holy relics, images, shrines, and 

works of supererogation ready 14 to be sold. And all things which they had were called 

holy; holy cowls, holy girdles, holy pardoned beads 15 , holy shoes, holy rules, and all full of 

holiness. And what thing can be more foolish, more superstitious, or ungodly, than 

that men, women, and children, should wear a friar s coat to deliver them from agues or 

pestilence ; or when they die, or when they be buried, cause it to be cast upon them, in 

hope thereby to be saved ? Which superstition, although (thanks be to God !) it hath 

been little used in this realm; yet in divers other realms it hath been and yet is used 

among many, both learned and unlearned. 

But, to pass over the innumerable superstitiousness that hath been in strange apparel, 
in silence, in dormitory, in cloister, in chapter, in choice of meats and in drinks, and in 
such like things; let us consider what enormities and abuses have been in the three 
chief principal points, which they called the three essentials of religion, that is to say, 
obedience, chastity, and wilful poverty. 

First, under pretence of obedience 15 to their father in religion, (which obedience they The three 
made themselves,) they were exempted, by their rules 17 and canons, from the obedience religion! 
of their natural father and mother, and from the obedience of emperor and king, and all 
temporal power, whom of very duty by God s laws they were bound to obey. And so 
the profession of their obedience not due was a renunciation of their 18 due obedience. 
And how their profession of chastity was observed, it is more honesty to pass over in 
silence, and let the world judge of that which is well known, than with unchaste words, 
by expressing of their unchaste life, to offend chaste and godly ears. And as for their 
wilful poverty, it was such, that when in possessions, jewels, plate, and riches, they were 
equal or above merchants, gentlemen, barons, earls, and dukes ; yet by this subtle sophis 
tical term, Proprium in communi 19 , they deluded the world 20 , persuading that, notwith 
standing all their possessions and riches, yet they observed their vow, and were in wilful 
poverty. But for all their riches, they might neither help 21 father nor mother, nor other 
that were indeed very needy and poor, without the licence of their father abbot, prior, or 
warden. And yet they might take of every man, but they might not give aught to 
any man, no, not to them whom the laws of God bound them to help. And so, 
through their traditions and rules, the laws of God could bear no rule with them. And 
therefore of them might be most truly said that which Christ spake unto the Pharisees : 
" You break the commandments of God by your traditions ; you honour God with your Matt. xv. 
lips, but your hearts be far from him." And the longer prayers they used by day and 
by night, under pretence of 22 such holiness, to get the favour of widows and other simple 
folks, that they might sing trentals and service for their husbands and friends, and admit 
them into their suffrages 2 , the more truly is verified of them the saying of Christ: 



[ 12 The pure and heavenly, Eds. 1560, 02.] 

[ 13 Sisters of religion, Ibid.] 

| M Of overflowing abundance, ready, Ibid.] 

[ 15 Holy pardons, beads, Ibid.] 

f 10 Under pretence, or colour of obedience, Ibid.] 

[ 17 Were made free by their rules, Ibid.] 

[ ia A forsaking of (heir, Ibid.J 



[ 19 Eds. 1560, 62, add, " that is to say, proper in 
common."] 

[ 20 They mocked the world, Ibid.J 

[ 21 Might never help, Ed. 1500.] 

[" Under pretence or colour of, Eds. 1560, 62.] 

[- J And admit or receive them into their prayers, 
Ibid.] 

102 



148 



HOMILY 



( >ther devices 
and super 
stitions. 



Decrees and 
decretals. 



An exhorta 
tion to the 
keeping of 
Cod s com 
mandments. 



"Woe be to you, scribes Pharisees, hypocrites! for you devour widows houses, under 
colour of long prayers ; therefore your damnation shall be the greater. Woe be to you, 
scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you go about by sea and by land to make mo 
novices and new brethren ; and when they be admitted of your sect ! , you make them the 
children of hell worse than yourselves be." 

Honour be to God, who did put light in the heart of his faithful and true minister 
of most famous memory, king Henry the eighth, and gave him the knowledge of his 
word, and an earnest affection to seek his glory, and to put away all such superstitious 
and pharisaical sects by antichrist invented, and set up against the true word 2 of God, 
and glory of his most blessed name, as he gave the like spirit unto the most noble and 
famous princes, Josaphat, Josias, and Ezechias. God grant all us, the king s highness 3 
faithful and true subjects, to feed of the sweet and savoury bread of God s own word, 
and, as Christ commanded, to eschew all our pharisaical and papistical leaven of man s 
feigned religion ; which, although it were before God most abominable, and contrary to 
God s commandments and Christ s pure religion, yet it was extolled to be 4 a most godly 
life and highest state of perfection ; as though a man might be more godly and more 
perfect by keeping the rules, traditions, and professions of men, than by keeping the holy 
commandments of God. 

And briefly to pass over the ungodly and counterfeit religions, let us rehearse some 
other kinds of papistical superstitions and abuses; as of beads, of lady psalters, and 
rosaries, of fifteen Oos, of St Barnard s verses, of St Agathe s letters 5 , of purgatory, of 
masses satisfactory, of stations and jubilees, of feigned relics, of hallowed beads, bells, 
bread, water, palms, candles, fire, and such other 6 ; of superstitious fastings, of fraternities, 
of pardons, with such like merchandise, which were so esteemed and abused to the great 
prejudice of God s glory and commandments, that they were made most high and most 
holy things, whereby to attain to the eternal life 7 , or remission of sin. Yea also, vain 
inventions, unfruitful ceremonies, and ungodly laws, decrees, and councils of Rome, were 
in such wise advanced, that nothing was thought comparable in authority, wisdom, learn 
ing, and godliness unto them : so that the laws of Rome, as they said, were to be 
received of all men as the four evangelists ; to the which all laws of princes must give 
place. And the laws of God also partly were omitted 8 and less esteemed, that the said 
laws, decrees, and councils, with their traditions and ceremonies, might be more duly 
observed, and had in greater reverence. Thus was the people, through ignorance, so 
blinded with the goodly shew and appearance of those things, that they thought the 
observing of them to be a more holiness, a more perfect service and honouring of God, and 
more pleasing to God, than the keeping of God s commandments. Such hath been the 
corrupt inclination of man, ever superstitiously given to make new honouring of God of his 
own head, and then to have more affection and devotion to observe that 9 , than to search 
out God s holy commandments, and to keep them ; and furthermore, to take God s com 
mandments for men s commandments, and men s commandments for God s commandments, 
yea, and for the highest and most perfect and holy of all God s commandments. And so 
was all confused, that scant well- learned men, and but a small number of them, knew, or 
at the least would know, and durst affirm the truth, to separate 10 God s commandments 
from the commandments of men : whereupon did grow much error, superstition, idolatry, 
vain religion, preposterous judgment 11 , great contention, with all ungodly living. 

Wherefore, as you have any zeal to the right and pure honouring of God ; as you 
have any regard to your own souls, and to the life that is to come, which is both without 
pain and without end, apply yourselves chiefly above all thing to read and to hear God s 



f 1 When they be ]et in and received of the sect, 
Ibid.] 

[ 2 Again the true word, Ed. 15(50.] 

[ 3 The queen s highness , Eds. I5f>0, f>2, in re 
ference to Elizabeth, in whose reign these editions 
were published.] 

[ 4 It was praised to be, Ibid.] 

[ Vid. Pilkington s Works, pp. 1/7, 53fi, 563. 
Park. Soc. Ed. 1842.] 



[ 6 Vid. Cardwell s Documentary Annals, Vol. I. 
pp. 37, 8, note. "The archbishop s letter," Ed. 
Oxon. 1829.] 

[ 7 To the everlasting life, Ibid.] 

[ 8 Were left off, Ibid.] 

[ To keep that, Ibid.J 

[ 10 To separate or sever, Ibid.] 

[" Overwhart judgment, Ed. 15P0. Overthwart, 
Ed. 1562.] 



OF GOOD WORKS. 149 

word ; mark diligently therein what his will is you shall do, and with all your endeavour A brief ro- 
apply yourselves to follow the same. First, you must have an assured faith in God, and oSKcSL 
give yourselves wholly unto him, love him in prosperity and adversity, and dread to ini 
offend him evermore. Then, for his sake, love all men, friends and foes, because they be 
his creation and image, and redeemed by Christ as ye are. Cast in your minds how you 
may do good unto all men, unto your powers, and hurt no man. Obey all your supe 
riors and governors, serve your masters faithfully and diligently, as well in their absence 
as in their presence, not for dread of punishment only, but for conscience sake, knowing 
that you are bound so to do by God s commandments. Disobey not your fathers and 
mothers, but honour them, help them, and please them to your power. Oppress not, 
kill not, beat not, neither slander nor hate any man : but love all men, speak well of all 
men, help and succour every man as you may, yea, even your enemies that hate you, 
that speak evil of you, and that do hurt you. Take no man s goods, nor covet your 
neighbour s goodfe wrongfully, but content yourselves with that which ye get truly, and 
also bestow your own goods charitably, as need and case requireth. Flee all idolatry, 
witchcraft, and perjury ; commit no manner of adultery, fornication, nor other unchaste- 
ness, in will nor in deed, with any other man s wife, widow, maid, or otherwise. 
And travailing continually during your life thus in the observing the com 
mandments 12 of God, (wherein consisteth the pure 13 , principal, and direct 
honour of God, and which, wrought in faith 14 , God hath ordained 
to be the right trade and path- way unto heaven ;) you shall 
not fail, as Christ hath promised, to come to that 
blessed and eternal life 15 , where you shall live 
in glory and joy with God for ever. 
To whom be laud, honour, 
and impery, for ever 
and ever. 
Amen. 



| 12 In keeping the commandments, Eds. 1560, I [ 14 And which God, Ed. 1,547. j 
62.] i 13 And everlasting life, Ibid.] 

[ 13 Wherein standeth the pure, Ibid.] 



150 



QUESTIONS 

PUT CONCERNING SOME ABUSES OF THE MASS. 

WITH 

THE ANSWERS 2 

THAT WERE MADE BY MANY BISHOPS AND DIVINES TO THEM. 



Quest. 1. 

^t WHETHER the sacrament of the altar was instituted to be received of one man for 
S Libn another, or to be received of every man for himself? 

Ed. bxon. The sacrament of the altar was not instituted to be received of one man for an- 

Bun.cfsHist. other, but to be received by every man for himself. 

of Reformat. 
Vol. ii. App. 
13. 1. No. 2.5. - _ 

pp. i! 210. Quest. 2. 

KL Oxon. 

Whether the receiving of the said sacrament of one man doth avail and profit 
any other? 

The receiving of the said sacrament by one man doth avail and profit only him 
that rcceiveth the same. 

Quest. 3. 

What is the oblation and sacrifice of Christ in the mass? 

The oblation and sacrifice of Christ in the mass is not so called, because Christ 
indeed is there offered and sacrificed by the priest and the people, (for that was done 
but once by himself upon the cross ;) but it is so called, because it is a memory and 
representation of that very true sacrifice and immolation which before was made upon 
the cross. 

Quest. 4. 

Wherein consisteth the mass by Christ s institution? 

The mass, by Christ s institution, consisteth in those things which be set forth in 
the Evangelists : Matt. xxvi. Mark xiv. Luke xxii. 1 Cor. x. and xi. 



[ Of these queries Collier says: "The latter 
end of this winter (l r >47, 8) a committee of divines 
were commanded by the king to draw up an order 
for administering the holy Eucharist in English 
under both kinds, pursuant to the late act of Parlia 
ment. These prelates and divines, before they 
came to a resolution concerning the form for the 
administration in both kinds, considered the pre 
sent practice of the church, and broke the question 
into several divisions. And here it was settled, that 
every one in the commission should give his answer 
in writing." Collier s Eccl. Hist. Vol. V. p. 246, 
Ed. Loud. 1840, 1. But he adds, " Whether these 
questions were debated before the late statute, for 
communicating under both kinds, is somewhat un 
certain, &c." Id. p. 254. Dr Jenkyns supposes he 
was not aware of the uncertainty being removed by 
the last of the further questions, p. 153, which, he 



says, "was obviously written subsequently to the 
statute to which Collier alludes. The parliament 
which passed this act being prorogued on the 24th of 
December, 1547, and the new order of communion 
compiled in consequence, and to which the present 
deliberations were preparatory, appeared under the 
sanction of a royal proclamation on the 8th of 
March following." Vid. Foxe s Acts and Monu 
ments, p. 1299, Ed. Lond. 1583. Burnct s Hist, of 
Reformation, Vol. II. p. 12fi. Strype s Mem. of 
Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 224, 5. Ed. Oxon. 1840. 
Eccl. Memorials, Vol. II. pp. 9fi 99. Ed. Oxon. 
1822. Todd s Life of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 
19. Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. 
p. 178.] 

[ 2 A manuscript containing many of these an 
swers is preserved at Lambeth. Jcnkyns.J 



QUERIES CONCERNING ABUSES OF THE MASS. 151 

Quest. 5. 

What time the accustomed order began first in the church, that the priest alone 
should receive the sacrament? 

I think the use, that the priest alone did receive the sacrament without the peo 
ple, began not within six or seven hundred years after Christ. 

Quest. 6. 
Whether it be convenient that the same custom continue still within this realm? 

I think it more agreeable to the scripture and primitive church, that the first 
usage should be restored again, that the people should receive the sacrament with 
the priest. 

Quest. 7- 

Whether it be convenient that masses satisfactory should continue, that is to say, 
priests hired to sing for souls departed ? 

I think it not convenient that satisfactory masses should continue. 

Quest. 8. 

"Whether the gospel ought to be taught at the time of the mass, to the under 
standing of the people being present ? 

I think it very convenient, that the gospel, concerning the death of Christ and 
our redemption, should be taught to the people in the mass. 

Quest. 9. 

Whether in the mass it were convenient to use such speech as the people may 
understand ? 

I think it convenient to use the vulgar tongue in the mass, except in certain 
secret mysteries, whereof I doubt. 

Quest. 10. 
When the reservation of the sacrament and the hanging up of the same first began ? 

The reservation of the sacrament began, I think, six or seven hundred years after 
Christ : the hanging up, I think, began of late time. 



152 



SOME QUESTIONS, WITH ANSWERS 

MADE TO THEM BY THE 

BISHOPS OF WORCESTER 1 , CHICHESTER*, AND HEREFORD 1 



Stillinfiflect 
A1SS. Lamb. 
Libr. 1108. 
fol. 40. 
Burnet sHist. 
of Reformat. 
Vol. ii. A pp. 
B. i. No. 25. 
pp. 210-212. 
Ed. Oxon. 
1829. 
Strype s 
Mem. of 
Abp. Cran- 
mer, Vol. i. 
pp. 224, 5. 
Ed. Oxon. 
1840. 



The Question. 

WHAT or wherein John s fasting, giving alms, being baptized, or receiving the sacra 
ment of thanks in. England, doth profit and avail Thomas dwelling in Italy, and not 
knowing what John in England doth? 

The Answer*. 

The distance of place doth not let nor hinder the spiritual communion which is between one and 
another ; so that John and Thomas, wheresoever they be, far and sundry, or near together, being both 
lively members of Christ, receive either of other s goodness some commodity; although to limit what or 
wherein, is unsearchable, and only pertaineth to the knowledge of God. 

The Question. 
Whether the said acts in John do profit them that be in heaven, and wherein? 

The Answer. 

Gaudium est in ccelo super nno peccatore pocnitentiam agente, $c. 

The Question. 

Worcester. Whether it lieth in the said John to defraud any member of Christ s body of 

Hereford. the benefit of his fasting, alms-deeds, baptism, or receiving of the sacrament, and to 
apply the same benefit to one person more than to another? 

Tlie Answer. 

Charity defraudeth no man of any such benefit that might come to him; and it lieth in God only 
to apply the same, and not in any man, otherwise than by desire and prayer ; but the better the man 
is, the more available his prayer is to them for whom he especially prayeth. 

The Question. 

What thing is the presentation of the body and blood of Christ in the mass, which 
you call the oblation and sacrifice of Christ ? and wherein standeth it, in act, gesture, 
or words ? and in what act, gesture, or words ? 

The Answer. 

The presentation, &c. standeth in such words, prayers, supplications, and actions, as the priest useth 
at the mass, having the body and blood of Christ there present in the sacrament. 

The Question. 

Is there any rite or prayer not expressed in the scripture which Christ used, or 
commanded at the first institution of the mass, which we be now bound to use ; and 
what the same be? 

The Answer. 

That Christ used rites and prayers at the institution and distribution of the sacrament, the scripture 
declareth : but what rites and prayers they were, we know not ; but I think that 5 we ought to use such 
rites and prayers as the catholic church hath, and doth uniformly observe. 



I 1 Nicholas Heath. Vide p. 60, n. l.J 
[ 2 George Day.] 
| 3 JohnSkjrp.] 

[ 4 "This paper is all in Bonner s hand, with 



whom these three bishops agreed." Vid. Strype s 
Corrections of Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. Vol. III. 
Part ii. p. 521.] 

f 5 Dr Jenkyns omits the word "that."] 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 



153 



The Question. 

Whether in the primitive church there were any priests that lived by saying of 
mass, matins, and even-song, and praying for souls only ? And whether any such state 
of priesthood he allowed in the scripture, or be meet to be allowed now ? 

The Answer. 

There were priests in the primitive church which preached not, but exercised themselves in prayer 
for the quick and the dead, and other spiritual ministrations in the church, and accustomably used com 
mon prayers both morning and evening; and such state of priesthood is not against the scripture. 

The Question. 

For what cause it were not expedient nor convenient to have the whole mass in 
English? 

The Answer. 

This question is answered by Dionyse and Basil De Spiritu Sancto ; and also an uniformity of all 
churches in that thing is to be kept. 



Bui-net s 



[further Questions 1 in reply to the above Answer sJ] 

If you cannot tell what or wherein the acts of John can profit Thomas, being so 
far distant from him, that he can never hear of him ; why do you then affirm that to i. 
be true, which you cannot tell how, nor wherein it can be true ? 

Whether our prayers for all the souls departed do profit the apostles, prophets, 
and martyrs? 

Whether they know all the acts of every man here in earth; and if not, how do 
they rejoice of those good acts which they know not ? pp> 34t) " 

Whether our evil deeds do them hurt, as our good deeds profit them? 

Whether the presentation of the body and blood of Christ in the mass do stand in 
all the words and actions that the priest useth in the mass ? And if not, then in 
which of them it standeth? 

Whether we may change those rites and ceremonies of the mass,] 8 which now we 
do use ? 

Whereby is it known that in the primitive church were priests which preached not ? 

Why may we not as well alter the mass into the English tongue, or alter the 
ceremonies of the same, as we alter the communion to be under both kinds, which 
in other churches is uniformly ministered to the people under one kind, seeing that 
the uniformity of all churches requireth not more the uniformity in one than in the 
other ? 



[ c Another copy of the above Questions, cor 
rected by Cranmer, is found in the Lambeth MSS., 
" written by a clerk," to which are added the two 
following of the original questions, as well as an 
other, to which no reply has yet been found extant. 
Question. 

" What time did the honouring of the same first 
begin, and by whom, and what proofs there is 
thereof?" Vid. p. 151, Quest. 10.] 
Question. 

" What time did the use of reserving the Sacra 



ment first begin, and by whom ?" 
Question. 

" What time began the use to hang up the same 
in the Church, and by whom ?" 

[ 7 Burnet has not given these queries, which are 
printed from the Lambeth MSS., and are called by 
Strype "a reply by Cranmer." Burnet s Hist, of 
Reformat. Vol. III. Part n.p. 549.] 

[ 8 Strype omits this passage, which is found 
both in the Lambeth MSS. and in Burnet. ] 



154 



ARTICLES 

TO BE INQUIRED OF IN THE VISITATIONS TO BE HAD WITHIN THE 

DIOCESE OF CANTERBURY, IN THE SECOND YEAR OF THE REIGN 

OF OUR DREAD SOVEREIGN LORD, EDWARD THE SIXTH, BY 

THE GRACE OF GOD KING OF ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND 

IRELAND, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, AND IN 

EARTH OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, 

AND ALSO OF IRELAND, THE 

SUPREME HEAD 1 . 







Ed. Lond. 
sparrow s 
Article*, &c. " 
fed. 






Lond. 



FIRST, whether parsons, vicars, and curates, and every of them, have purely and 
sincerely, without colour or dissimulation, four times in the year at the least, preached 
against the usurped power, pretended authority and jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome. 

Item, Whether they have preached and declared likewise four times in the year 
at the least, that the king s majesty s power, authority, and pre-eminence, within his 
realms and dominions, is the highest power under God. 

Item, Whether any person hath by writing, cyphering, preaching or teaching, deed 
or act, obstinately holden and stand with to extol, set forth, maintain, or defend the 
authority, jurisdiction, or power of the bishop of Home or of his see heretofore claimed 
and usurped, or by any pretence, obstinately or maliciously invented any thing for the 
extolling of the same, or any part thereof. 

Item, Whether in their common prayers they use not the collects made for the king, 
and make not special mention of his majesty s name in the same. 

Item, Whether they do not every Sunday and holyday, with the collects of the 
English procession, say the prayer set forth by the king s majesty for peace between 
England and Scotland 2 . 



[ J These articles are printed from Wilkins 
Concilia, and have been collated with Sparrow s 
Collection of Articles, &c. Both Strype arid Bur- 
net assert that they were issued at Cranmer s Vi 
sitation, A. D. 1548. Vid. Strype s Mem. of 
Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 259, Ed. Oxon. 1840. 
Bumet s Hist, of Reformat. Vol. II. p. 211. Ed. 
Oxon. 1829. Cardwell s Documentary Annals, Vol. 
I. pp. 41 51. Vid. Injunctions to the Dean and 
Chaptewof Canterbury, No. 2, p. 162. Yet Strype, 
(Vol. II. p. (513, 14) also says, " The articles whereof 
(king Edward Vlth s Visitation) were drawn up by 
the archbishop, and preserved to us in Bishop Spar 
row s Collections." They were printed by Graf ton, 
Ed. Lond. 1548. Vid. Ames Typogr. Antiq. Ed. 
Dibdin. Vol. III. p. 458, who mentions, (p. 467, 
n.) Abp. Cranmer s Articles of Visitation in the 
Diocese of Norwich, a copy of which has not yet 
been discovered.] 

[ 2 " A prayer for victory and peace was sent to 
the archbishop with an order from the privy council 
for its use, 6th May, 1548. Wilkins Concilia, Vol. 
IV. p. 26. Strype s Mem. of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. 
I. p. 253, and Eccl. Mem. Vol. II. Part i. p. 166. 
Ed. Oxon. 1822. The following prayer is found in the 
State Paper Office. Dr Jenkyns suggests that it " may 
probably be that which was then set forth ;" and that 
" it was perhaps composed by Cranmer himself." 
The Common Prayer. 

Most merciful God, the granter of all peace and 
quietness, the giver of all good gifts, the defender 
of all nations, who hast willed all men to be ac 



counted as our neighbours, and commanded us to 
love them as ourselves, and not to hate our enemies, 
but rather to wish them, yea, and also to do them, 
good if we can : bow down thy holy and merciful 
eyes upon us, and look upon the small portion of 
earth, which professeth thy holy name and thy Son 
Jesu Christ. Give to all us desire of peace, unity, 
and quietness, and a speedy wearisomeness of all 
war, hostility, and enmity to all them that be our 
enemies ; that we and they may, in one heart and 
charitable agreement, praise thy most holy name, 
and reform our lives to thy godly commandments. 
And especially have an eye to this small isle of 
Britain. And that which was begun by thy great 
and infinite mercy and love to the unity and con 
cord of both the nations, that the Scottish men and 
we might for ever live hereafter in one love and 
amity, knit into one nation, by the most happy 
and godly marriage of the king s majesty our sove 
reign lord, and the young Scottish queen ; wherc- 
unto promises and agreements hath been heretofore 
most firmly made by human order : grant, O Lord, 
that the same might go forward, and that our sons 
sons, and all our posterity hereafter, may feel the 
benefit and commodity of thy great gift of unity, 
granted in our days. Confound all those that work- 
eth against it : let not their counsel prevail : diminish 
their strength : lay thy sword of punishment upon 
them that interrupteth this godly peace ; or rather 
convert their hearts to the better way. and make 
them embrace that unity and peace, which shall be 
most for thy glory, and the profit of both the realms. 



ARTICLES TO BE INQUIRED OF, &c. 



155 



Item, Whether they have not removed, taken away, and utterly extineted and 
destroyed in their churches, chapels, and houses, all images, all shrines, coverings of 
shrines, all tables, candlesticks, trindals or roils of war, pictures, paintings, and all 
other monuments of feigned miracles, pilgrimages, idolatry, and superstition, so that 
there remain no memory of the same in walls, glass windows, or elsewhere. 

Item, Whether they have exhorted, moved, and stirred their parishioners to do the 
like in every of their houses. 

Item, Whether they have declared to their parishioners the articles concerning the 
abrogation of certain superfluous holy days, and done their endeavour to persuade the 
said parishioners to keep and observe the same articles inviolably; and whether any 
of those abrogate days have been kept as holydays, and by whose occasion they were 
so kept. 

Item, Whether they have diligently, duly, and reverently ministered the sacraments 
in their cures. 

Item, Whether they have preached, or caused to be preached, purely and sincerely 
the word of God, in every of their cures, every quarter of the year, once at the least, 
exhorting their parishioners to works commanded 3 by the scripture, and not to works 
devised by men s phantasies besides scripture, as wearing or praying upon beads, or 
such like. 

Item, Whether they suffer any torches, candles, tapers, or any other lights to be 
in your churches, but only two lights upon the high altar. 

Item, Whether they have not every holyday, when they have no sermon, immedi 
ately after the gospel, openly, plainly, and distinctly recited to their parishioners in the 
pulpit, the Paternoster, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments in English. 

Item, Whether every Lent, they examine such persons as come to confession to 
them, whether they can recite the Paternoster, the Articles of our Faith, and the Ten 
Commandments in English. 

Item, Whether they have charged fathers and mothers, masters and governors of 
youth, to bring them up in some virtuous study and occupation. 

Item, Whether such beneficed men, as be lawfully absent from their benefices, do 
leave their cure to a rude and unlearned person, and not an honest, well-learned, and 
expert curate, which can and will teach you wholesome doctrine. 

Item, Whether, in every cure they have, they have provided one book of the whole 
bible of the largest volume in English, and the Paraphrasis of Erasmus also in English 
upon the gospels, and set up the same in some convenient place in the church, where 
their parishioners may most commodiously resort to the same. 

Item, Whether they have discouraged any person from reading of any part of the 
bible, either in Latin or English, but rather comforted and exhorted every person to 
read the same, as the very lively word of God, and the special food of man s soul. 



Put away from us all war and hostility, and if we 
be driven thereto, hold thy holy and strong power 
and defence over us : be our garrison, our shield, 
and buckler. And seeing we seek but a perpetual 
amity and concord, and performance of quietness 
promised in thy name, pursue the same with us, and 
send thy holy angels to be our aiders ; that either 
none at all, or else so little loss and effusion of 
Christian blood as can, be made thereby. Look 
not, O Lord, upon our sins, or the sins of our ene 
mies, what they deserve ; but have regard to thy 
most plenteous and abundant mercy, which passeth 
all thy works, being so infinite and marvellous. Do 
this, O Lord, for thy Son s sake, Jesu Christ. 

" The same topic," adds Dr Jenkyns, " was intro 
duced also into the bidding prayer before the sermon. 
The following form is printed by Strype, Eccl. 
Mem. Vol. II. Part i. p. 73, from some manu 
script additions attributed to Cranmer, in a Book 



of Articles and Injunctions then in the possession 
of N. Battely." 

Ye shall also make your hearty and effectual 
prayer to Almighty God for the peace of all Christian 
regions, and especially, that the most joyful and 
perpetual peace and unity of this realm and Scot 
land may shortly be profited* and brought to pass, 
by the most godly and happy marriage of the king s 
majesty and the young queen of Scotland : and that 
it would please Almighty God to aid with strength, 
wisdom, and power, and with his holy defence, all 
those which favour and set forward the same, and 
vanquish and confound all those which labour and 
study to the lett and interruption of so godly a quiet 
and unity, whereof these two realms should take 
such a benefit and profit : for these and all other, &c. 
Vid. Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmcr, Vol. II. 
pp. 18G, 7.J 

[ 3 To words commanded. Sparrow.] 



[* perfected. Jenkyns.] 



156 ARTICLES TO BE INQUIRED OF 

Item, Whether parsons, vicars, curates, and other priests, be common haunters and 
resorters to taverns or ale-houses, giving themselves to drinking, rioting, or playing at 
unlawful games, and do not occupy themselves in the reading or hearing of some part 
of holy scripture, or in some other godly exercise. 

Item, Whether they have admitted any man to preach in their cures not being 
lawfully licensed thereunto, or have refused or denied such to preach as have been 
licensed accordingly. 

Item, Whether they which have heretofore declared to their parishioners anything 
to the extolling or setting forth of pilgrimages, relics, or images, or lighting of candles, 
kissing, kneeling, decking of the same images, or any such superstition, have not openly 
recanted and reproved the same. 

Item, Whether they have one book or register safely kept, wherein they write the 
day of every wedding, christening, and burying. 

Item, Whether they have exhorted the people to obedience to the king s majesty 
and his ministers, and to charity and love one to another. 

Item, Whether they have admonished their parishioners, that they ought not to 
presume to receive the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, before they can per 
fectly rehearse the Paternoster, the Articles of the Faith, and the Ten Commandments 
in English. 

Item, Whether they have declared, and to their wits and power have persuaded 
the people, that the manner and kind of fasting in Lent, and other days in the year, 
is but a mere positive law ; and that therefore all persons, having just cause of sick 
ness, or other necessity, or being licensed by the king s majesty, may moderately eat 
all kind of meats without grudge or scruple of conscience. 

Item, Whether they be resident upon their benefices, and keep hospitality, or no; 
and if they be absent, or keep no hospitality, whether they do make due distributions 
among the poor parishioners, or not. 

Item, Whether parsons, vicars, clerks, and other beneficed men, having yearly to 
dispend an hundred pound, do not find competently one scholar in the university of 
Cambridge or Oxford, or some grammar-school; and for as many hundred pounds as 
every of them may dispend, so many scholars likewise to be found by them ; and what 
be their names that they so find. 

Item, Whether proprietaries, parsons, vicars, and clerks, having churches, chapels, 
or mansions, do keep their chancels, rectories, vicarages, and all other houses apper 
taining to them, in due reparations. 

Item, Whether they have counselled or moved their parishioners rather to pray 
in a tongue not known, than in English, or to put their trust in a prescribed num 
ber of prayers, as in saying over a number of beads, or other like. 

Item, Whether they have read the king s majesty s Injunctions every quarter of the 
year, the first holyday of the same quarter. 

Item, Whether the parsons, vicars, curates, and other priests, being under the de 
gree of a bachelor of divinity, have of their own the new Testament both in Latin 
and English, and the Paraphrase of Erasmus upon the same. 

Item, Whether within every church he that ministereth hath read or caused to be 
read the epistle and gospel in English, and not in Latin, either in the pulpit or some 
other meet place, so as the people may hear the same. 

Item, Whether every Sunday and holyday at matins they have read or caused to 
be read plainly and distinctly, in the said place, one chapter of the new Testament in 
English, immediately after the lessons, and at even-song after Magnificat one chapter 
of the old Testament. 

Item, Whether they have not at matins omitted three lessons, when nine should 
have been read in the church, and at even-song the responds with all the memories. 

Item, Whether they have declared to their parishioners, that St Mark s day and 
the evens of the abrogate holydays should not be fasted. 



[ Vid. Wilkins Concilia, Vol. IV. pp. 38; and Sparrow s Collection of Articles, pp. 113, and 
the Appendix to this Volume.] 



IN THE DIOCESE OF CANTERBURY. 157 

Item, Whether they have the procession-book in English, and have said or sung 
the said litany in any other place but upon their knees in the midst of their church ; 
and whether they use any other procession, or omit the said litany at any time, or 
say it or sing it in such sort as the people cannot understand the same. 

Item, "Whether they have put out of their church-books this word " Papa" and 
the name and service of Thomas Bccket, and prayers having rubrics containing par 
dons or indulgences, and all other superstitious legends and prayers. 

Item, Whether they bid not the beads according to the order appointed by the 
king s majesty. 

Item, Whether they have opened and declared unto you the true use of ceremo 
nies, that is to -say, that they be no workers nor works of salvation, but only out 
ward signs and tokens, to put us in remembrance of things of higher perfection. 

Item, Whether they have taught and declared to their parishioners, that they may 
with a safe and quiet conscience in the time of harvest labour upon the holy and 
festival days; and if superstitiously they abstain from working upon those days, that 
then they do grievously offend and displease God. 

Item, Whether they have admitted any person to the communion, being openly 
known to be out of charity with their neighbours. 

Item, Whether the deans, archdeacons, masters of hospitals, and prebendaries, have 
preached by themselves personally twice every year at the least. 

Item, Whether they have provided and have a strong chest for the poor men s 
box, and set and fastened the same near to their high altar 2 . 

Item, Whether they have diligently called upon, exhorted, and moved their parish 
ioners, and specially when they make their testaments, to give to the said poor men s 
box, and to bestow that upon the poor chest, which they were wont to bestow upon 
pardons, pilgrimages, trentals, masses satisfactory, decking of images, offering of candles, 
giving to friars, and upon other like blind devotions. 

Item, Whether they have denied to visit the sick, or bury the dead being brought 
to the church. 

Item, Whether they have bought their benefices, or come to them by fraud or deceit. 

Item, Whether they have every Sunday, when the people be most gathered, read 
one of the homilies in order as they stand in the book set forth by the king s majesty. 

Item, Whether they do not omit prime and hours, when they have any sermon 
or homily. 

Item, Whether they have said or sung any mass, in any oratory, chapel, or any 
man s house, not being hallowed. 

Item, Whether they have given open monition to their parishioners that they should 
not wear beads, nor pray upon them. 

Item, Whether they have moved their parishioners, lying upon their death- beds, 
or at any other time, to bestow any part of their substance upon trentals, masses 
satisfactory, or any such blind devotions. 

Item, Whether they take any trentals or other masses satisfactory to say or sing 
for the quick or the dead. 

Item, Whether they have given open monition to their parishioners to detect and 
present to their ordinary all adulterers and fornicators, and such men as have two 
wives living, and such women as have two husbands living, within their parishes. 

Item, Whether they have not monished their parishioners openly, that they should 
not sell, give, nor otherwise alienate any of their churches goods. 

Item, Whether they or any of them do keep more benefices and other ecclesias 
tical promotions than they ought to do, not having sufficient licence and dispensations 
thereunto, and how many they be, and their names. 

Item, Whether they minister the communion any other ways than only after such 
form and manner as is set forth by the king s majesty in the book of the communion. 

Item, Whether they hallowed and delivered to the people any candles upon can 
dlemas-day, and ashes upon Ash- Wednesday, or any palms upon Palm-Sunday last past. 

[ 2 To the high altar. Sparrow.] 



158 ARTICLES TO BE INQUIRED OF 

Item, Whether they had upon Good-Friday last past the sepulchres with their 
lights, having the sacrament therein. 

Item, Whether they upon Easter-even last past hallowed the font, fire, or paschal, 
or had any paschal set up, or burning in their churches. 

Item, Whether your parsons and vicars have admitted any curates to serve their 
cures, which were not first examined and allowed either by my lord of Canterbury, master 
archdeacon, or their officers. 

Item, Whether you know any person within your parish or elsewhere, that is a letter 
of the word of God to be read in English or sincerely preached, or of the execution of 
the king s majesty s Injunctions, or other his majesty s proceedings in matters of religion. 

Item, Whether every parish have provided a chest with two locks and keys for the 
book of wedding, christening, and burying. 

Item, Whether in the time of the litany or any other common prayer, in the time of 
the sermon or homily, and when the priest readeth the scripture to the parishioners, 
any person have departed out of the church without a just and necessary cause. 

Item, Whether any bells have been knolled or rung at the time of the premises. 

Item, Whether any person hath abused the ceremonies, as in casting holy water upon 
his bed, or bearing about him holy bread, St John s Gospel, ringing of holy bells, or 
keeping of private holydays, as tailors, bakers, brewers, smiths, shoemakers, and such 
other. 

Item, Whether the money coming and rising of any cattle, or other moveablc stocks 
of the church, and money given or bequeathed to the finding of torches, lights, tapers, 
or lamps, (not paid out of any lands,) have not been employed to the poor men s chest. 

Item, Who hath the said stocks and money in their hands, and what be their names. 

Item, Whether any undiscreet persons do uncharitably contemn and abuse priests and 
ministers of the church. 

Item, Whether they that understand not the Latin do pray upon any primer but the 
English primer, set forth by the king s majesty s authority; and whether they that 
understand Latin do use any other than the Latin primer, set forth by like authority. 

Item, Whether there be any other grammar taught in any other school within this 
diocese than that which is set forth by the king s majesty. 

Item, Whether any person keep their church holyday and the dedication-day any 
otherwise, or at any other time, than is appointed by the king s majesty. 

Item, Whether the service in the church be done at due and convenient hours. 

Item, Whether any have used to commune, jangle, and talk in the church, in the time 
of the common prayer, reading of the homily, preaching, reading or declaring of the 
scripture. 

Item, Whether any have wilfully maintained and defended any heresies, errors, or 
false opinions, contrary to the faith of Christ and holy scripture. 

Item, Whether any be common drunkards, swearers, or blasphemers of the name of 
God. 

Item, Whether any have committed adultery, fornication, or incest, or be common 
bawds, and receivers of such evil persons, or vehemently suspected of any of the premises. 

Item, Whether any be brawlers, slanderers, cinders, scolders, and sowers of discord 
between one person and another. 

Item, Whether you know any that use charms, sorcery, enchantments, witchcraft, 
soothsaying, or any like craft invented by the devil. 

Item, Whether the churches, pulpits, and other necessaries appertaining to the same, 
be sufficiently repaired. 

Item, Whether you know any that, in contempt of your own parish church, do 
resort to any other church. 

Item, Whether any inn-holders or alehouse-keepers do use commonly to sell meat and 
drink in the time of common prayer, preaching, or reading of the homilies or scripture. 

Item, Whether you know any to be married within the degrees prohibited by the 



1 And for the book. Sparrow.] 



IN THE DIOCESE OF CANTERBURY. 



159 



laws of God, or that be separated or divorced without a just cause, allowed by the law 
of God, and whether any such have married again. 

Item, Whether you know any to have made privy contracts of matrimony, not 
calling two or more thereunto. 

Item, Whether they have married solemnly, the banns not first lawfully asked. 

Item, Whether you know any executors or administrators of dead men s goods, which 
do not bestow such of the said goods as were given and bequeathed, or appointed to be 
distributed among the poor people, repairing of highways, finding of poor scholars, or 
marrying of poor maids, or such other like charitable deeds. 

Item, Whether any do contemn married priests, and, for that they be married, will 
not receive the communion or other sacraments at their hands. 

Item, Whether you know any that keep in their houses undefaced any abused or 
feigned images, any tables, pictures, paintings, or other monuments of feigned miracles, 
pilgrimages, idolatry, or superstition. 



ARTICLES OF INQUIRY 

AT THE 

VISITATION OF THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF CANTERBURY, 

1550 2 . 



1550, 10 Septemlris, Visitation in the Chapter-house ly my lord Archlishop, and Hari. MSS. 
Articles there ministered to be answered unto. coiiyby 

Baker from 
Bp. Gun- 

WIIETIIER any of this church is a privy or an apert setter forth of the bishop of "ing s MSS. 
Rome his authority, or is a maintainer of heresy, superstition, idolatry, or anything 
repugnant or derogatory to the holy scripture, or the king s majesty s proceedings in 
matters of religion. 

Item, Whether any of this church do keep or observe, diligently and inviolably, with 
out colour or fraud, the book called the Common Prayer, according to the rules of the 
same, and the statute of parliament authorising the same book, and whether you use any 
other ceremonies at the communion or other divine service than is mentioned or allowed 
in the same book. 

Item, Whether any inhabitcr within my diocese of Canterbury have been admitted to 
the communion within this church, except such as be of the same church 3 . 

Item, Whether the sermons by foundation or statutes of this church or otherwise 
lawfully assigned have been made by the dean, prebendaries, or preachers of the same, 
at the times and places appointed therefore. 

Item, Whether any prebendary, petty canon, or vicar of this church is bencficed 
beside the same, how many every one of them have, what be their names, and what their 
clear yearly value. 

Item, Whether such distributions as should be made to the poor, either here, or at 



[ 2 These Articles and the Injunctions which 
follow, though found in different collections, mani 
festly belong to the same Visitation. The Articles 
were issued on the 10th of Sept. 1550. On the re 
ceipt of the answer to them, the Injunctions were 
given on the 29th of the ensuing October. 

The chronological order has in this instance been 



departed from for the sake of keeping together 
documents of the same character. If it had been 
followed strictly, these two papers would have been 
placed after the work on the Lord s Supper. Jen- 
kyns.] 

[ 3 See the sixth of the Injunctions to the Dean 
and Chapter of Canterbury, p. lf2.J 



100 ARTICLES OF VISITATION, 1550. 

the benefices appropriated to this church, or elsewhere, by the appropriations, ordinances, 
and statutes of this church, have been done accordingly, or no. 

Item, Whether the grammar-school be diligently and duly kept, and the schoolmaster, 
being learned in the Greek and Latin tongue, and usher, do resort and continue at the 
same in due times and convenient hours, and whether the scholars do profit in learning, 
or no. 

Item, Whether the just number of scholars and ministers of this church be continual! v 
maintained in the same, as they ought to be by the foundation and statutes thereof, and 
whether any have been admitted to any scholarship but such as have been destitute of 
all help of friends. 

Item, Whether any of this church have taken any gifts in money or otherwise, for 
the preferment of any person to any petty canonship, scholarship, or any other office or 
room within the said church. 

Item, Whether there be any incorrigible, troublesome makebates, or otherwise dis 
obedient to the dean of this church, or other their superiors. 

Item, Whether any be more absent from the church than by the ordinances and 
statutes of the same they may or ought to be. 

Item, Whether the foundation of this church or statutes, or any portion of the same, 
be by any colourable ways or means wrested, or derogated, or made void and of no force. 

Item, Where, when, and to whom the books of the Latin service were delivered, and 
how many, and whether any of them were sold, and by whom, or doth remain still in the 
hands and custody of any of this church. 

Item, Whether any of the petty canons, vicars, and ministers of this church be a 
earder, dicer, rioter, fighter, brawler, swearer, or drunkard. 

Item, Whether they do occupy themselves out of service-time and meals in some 
virtuous exercise and learning. 

Item, Whether there be any strife, rancour, malice, or debate, between any of this 
church ; and if any be, between whom it is, and for what cause. 

Item, Whether any have committed adultery, fornication, or incest, or be vehemently 
suspected of the premises. 

Item, Whether the prebendaries and other of this church, which are bound to be 
resident, do keep hospitality, and specially for the poor, and the ministers of this 
church. 

Item, Whether they do come to the church so much as they ought to do. 

Item, Whether the correction of faults by clerks, choristers, vergers, ringers, and other 
ministers, be made and done accordingly. 

Item, What are the whole and yearly revenues of this church, and what portion of 
the same is assigned for the poor, and mending of highways, or other deeds of charity, 
and on whom it hath been bestowed. 

Item, Whether lands, goods, moveables, or chattels, appertaining to this church, is 
sold or otherwise alienated; to whom, and for how much. 

Item, What treasure they have in store to supply all necessaries and chances that may 
be incident unto this church. 

Item, Whether the treasure of this church and jewels be well and diligently kept by 
just indented inventory. 

Item, Whether this church, every prebendary s house, and other buildings within the 
said church, and the lands, tenements, and rectories belonging to the said church, be dulv 
surveyed and kept in good reparation. 

Item, Whether the common seal of this church is safely kept, according to the foun 
dation or other ordinances of the same. 

Item, Whether there is a perfect register kept of all leases, fees, and offices, granted 
or confirmed by the church. 

Item, Whether every year once there is a perfect and full account made of all and 
singular the revenues and other profits, in anywise to this church belonging. 

Item, Whether any within this church have been or is a hindercr of the word of God, 
either for reading or preaching of the same, or a notorious slanderer of the preachers 
thereof. 



ARTICLES OF VISITATION, 1550. 161 

Item, Whether those of this church, which may dispend in benefices and other pro 
motions ecclesiastical an hundred pounds, do give competent exhibition to one scholar at 
one of the universities of Cambridge or Oxford, and so for so many hundred pounds as 
lie may dispend, do find so many scholars, and what be their names 1 . 

Item, Whether any use commonly to be absent from the sermons made within this 
church. 

Item, Whether there be a library within this church, and in the same St Augustine s 
works, Basil, Gregory Nazianzene, Hierome, Ambrose, Chrysostome, Cyprian, Thco- 
phylact, Erasmus, and other good authors and works. 

Item, Whether you have every day some part of holy scripture read in English at 
your table, at the time of your meals. 

Item, Whether there be two bibles of the largest volume in English in some meet 
and convenient place in the body of this church. 

Item, Whethdr there be any lecture of divinity within this said church. 

Item, Whether ye know any other thing more than these worthy of reformation. 

Item, Whether the dean, prebendaries, preachers, schoolmaster, usher, petty canons, 
and other ministers of this church, have taken a corporal oath to observe and keep all 
and singular the statutes of this church, so much as concerns them, or any of them. 

Item, What was done with the images lately in this church, and whether any doth 
remain not defaced and utterly extincted, and in whose custody and keeping they be. 



INJUNCTIONS 

TO THE 

DEAN AND CHAPTER OF CANTERBURY, 1550 s . 



Injunctions given by me Thomas, Archlishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England 
and Metropolitan, to the dean, prebendaries, preachers, and other ministers and 
officers of the metropolitan and cathedral^ church of Canterbury, the 29th day of 
October, in the fourth year of the reign of our sovereign lord Edward the Vlth, 
by the grace of God king of England, France, avid Ireland, defender of the faith, 
and in earth next under Christ of the Church of England, and also of Ireland, 
the supreme head. 

First, They and every of them shall inviolably observe, fulfil, and keep all and c- c. c. c. 
singular the king s majesty s Injunctions, devised as well for the said church as for other p- *. c py- 
metropolitical and cathedral churches of this realm. 

Item, That they keep mine injunctions 3 given within my diocese of Canterbury and 
peculiars, inasmuch as they shall concern the clergy of the same, except such as can in 
no wise be executed within the said church. 

Item, That the prebendaries and other ministers of the said church, shall sit in the 
chapter-house at the sermons made there, and no where else. 



P See the preceding Articles, No. 26, and Letter 
to Crumwell, 29 Nov. 1539. Jenkyns.] 

[ 2 See note 2, p. 159.] 

[ 3 " It is clear from hence, that besides Edw. 
VI. s Injunctions Cranmer had issued some of his 



own. Articles of Inquiry at his Visitation, 1548, 
are printed by Sparrow and Wilkins, and will be 
found above, p. 154 ; but neither of these collectors 
makes any mention of his Injunctions." Jen- 
kyns-l 



TT ~\ 



162 INJUNCTIONS TO THE DEAN AND CHAPTER OF CANTERBURY. 

Item, That every prebendary of the said church shall preach, or cause to be preached, 
two sermons at the least yearly in the parish churches appropriated to the said church, 
being within my said diocese of Canterbury. 

Item, That every preacher of the said church, not being bcneficed within my said 
diocese, and resident upon the same, shall be resident yearly in the said church by the 
space of six months at the least : and that always there be three of the said preachers 
within my said diocese of Canterbury. 

Item , That no inhabiter within my said diocese of Canterbury shall be admitted to 
the communion within the said church, without the expressed consent of the parson, vicar, 
or curate, where he or she dwclleth, first obtained and had ; except wayfaring persons, or 
necessity doth otherwise require. 

Item, That hereafter there be no selling nor changing of prebendaries houses, but 
that every one shall be contented with that house, which immediately before w r as his 
predecessor s. 

Item, That the schoolmaster of the grammar-school do daily hear the scholars of the 
higher form to repeat their ordinary lessons. And the usher of the same to hear daily the 
scholars of the lower form to parse their ordinary lessons. 

Item, That no women do accustomably lie within the precinct of the said church, 
but such as have their husbands with them, or that be servants. 

Item, That all back doors into the city out of any prebendary s house or others 
shall be clearly shut up. 

Item, That every petty canon and vicar of this church do personally receive the com 
munion in his own course, except sickness or other necessity do let. 

Item, That no sale be hereafter made of any goods belonging to the said church 
without the consent of the dean and chapter. 



See third Article of Visitation above, p. 159.] 



163 



ANSWERS 



TO THE 



FIFTEEN ARTICLES OF THE REBELS, DEVON, ANNO 1549 2 . 



WHEN I first read your request, O ignorant men of Devonshire and Cornwall, 
straightways came to my mind a request, which James and John made unto Christ; 
to whom Christ answered : " You ask you wot not what." Even so thought I of you, as 
soon as ever I heard your articles, that you were deceived by some crafty papist 3 , which 
devised those articles for you, to make you ask you wist not what. 

As for the devisers of your articles, if they understand them, I may not call them 
ignorant persons, but, as they be indeed, most rank papists, and wilful traitors and 
adversaries both to God and to our sovereign lord the king, and to the whole realm. 
But I cannot be persuaded so to think of you, that in your hearts willingly you be papists 
and traitors ; but that those that be such have craftily seduced you, being simple and un 
learned people, to ask you wot not what. 

Wherefore my duty unto God, and the pity that I have of your ignorance, move me 
now at this time to open plainly and particularly your own articles unto you, that you 
may understand them, and no longer be deceived. 

In your first article you require, that all the general councils and holy decrees of 
our forefathers may be observed and kept, and whosoever shall againsay them to be 
holden as heretics. 

This you all ask ; but what you ask, I dare say 4 , very few or none of you understand. 
For how many of you, I pray you, do know certainly which be called the general 
councils 5 and holy decrees of the fathers, and what is in them contained ? The holy 
decrees, as they call them, be nothing else but the laws and ordinances of the bishop of 
Rome : whereof the most part be made for his own advancement, glory, and lucre, and 
to make him and his clergy governors of the whole world, and to be exempted from all 
princes laws, and to do what they list. And would you ask, if you knew what you 
asked, that we should put away the laws of our own realm, and be governed by the 
bishop of Rome s laws ? If you mean this, then be you traitors to the king, and enemies 



MSS. 

c. c. c. c. 

cii. p. 337. 
Strype.Mem. 
of Abp. Cran- 
mer, App. 
No. 40. Vol. 
ii. pp. 799 
RW. Ed. 
Oxon. 1840. 
Todd, Life of 
Abp. Cran- 
mer, Vol. ii. 
p.7f>-139.Kd. 
Lond. 1831. 



[ a " The commons this year brake out into a 
dangerous rebellion ; and though {hey were once or 
twice appeased, and scattered in some places, yet 
they made insurrections in others : and chiefly in 
Devon, where they were very formidable for their 
numbers. The reason they pretended was double. 
The one was, the oppression of the gentry in in 
closing of their commons from them : the other, the 
laying aside the old religion ; which, because it was 
old, and the way their forefathers worshipped God, 
they were very fond of. The lord Russel, lord 
privy seal, who was sent against them, offering to 
receive their complaints, the rebels sent them to 
him, drawn up under fifteen articles : as before they 
had sent their demands in seven articles, and a pro 
testation that they were the king s, body and goods. 
In answer to which the king sent a message to them, 
that may be seen in Foxe. They sent also a sup 
plication to the king, to the which an answer was 
made by the king s learned council. To the fifteen 



articles the archbishop drew up an excellent answer Anno 1540. 
at good length." The archbishop wrote this answer 
" after the rout at Exeter given them by the lord 
Russel, and the taking prisoners divers of their cap 
tains and priests, and between the condemnation 
and execution of Humphrey Arundel, and Bray, 
mayor of Bodmin." Strype s Mem. of Abp. Cran- 
mer, Vol. I. pp. 264, 5. Ed. Oxon. 1840. The text 
follows that of Strype, but has been collated for this 
edition with the C. C. C. C. MS. of which the dif 
ferent readings are given in the notes. Vid. Foxe s 
Acts and Monuments, p. 1305 et seqq. Lond. 1583. 
Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. Vol. II. pp. 237242. 
Oxon. 1829. Holinshed s Chronicles, Vol. III. p. 
1002. In the C. C. C. C. MS. it is headed " Against 
the Articles of the Devonshire men."] 

[ 3 Papists, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 4 I dare boldly say, Ibid.] 

[ Vid. Speech on the Authority of the Pope and 
of General Councils, p. 76 et sqq.j 

112 



164 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



to your own realm : and if you mean it not, consider what persons they be, and how 
they have deceived you, that make you ask you wot not what. 

And as for the general councils, you say you will have them all kept : but you be not 
so destitute of all reason, that you would have spoken such words, if you had known what 
you had said. For a great number of the councils repugn one against another. How 
should they then be all kept, when one is contrary to another, and the keeping of one is 
the breaking of another ? And among your own articles you say, you will have divers 
things observed, which be not only contrary to the general councils, but also contrary 
to the law 1 of this realm, and also to God s laws 2 , as it shall be plainly declared when 
we come to the articles. 

And all reason is contrary that you should have asked such things, if you had known 
what you had asked. I have this opinion of the great number of you, that you would 
fain walk in the right way, if you could find it. And forasmuch as I perceive that wicked 
and false guides, under pretence to bring you to the high way, have brought you clean 
out of it, my good-will shall be, seeing you so far wandering out of the way, and so 
blindfolded w r ith evil persuasions, that you cannot see where you go, to open your eyes 
that you may see, and to set you again into the right way. And when your eyes be so 
opened that you may see, and the right way shewed unto you, wherein you should 
walk ; then if you will still wink, and not see, and run headlong in error, and not come 
to the right way, you may 3 no longer be called simple and ignorant people, but perverse, 
froward, and wicked papists and traitors, enemies to God and your own realm. 

But now I will come to your articles particularly, opening every one of them by 
himself, that you may see the bowels thereof, and what is contained in the same ; that 
when you shall understand the whole, you may judge whether you knew before what you 
asked, or you were deceived by subtle and wily papistical traitors. 



YOUR FIRST ARTICLE IS THIS : 

" We will have all the general councils, and lioty decrees of our forefathers, observed, 
kept, and performed: and ivhosoever shall againsaij them, ive hold them as 
heretics. 

First, to begin with the manner of your phrase. Is this the fashion of subjects to 
speak unto their prince, " We will have ?" Was this manner of speech at any time 
used of the subjects to their prince since the beginning of the world ? Have not all 
true subjects ever used to their sovereign lord 4 this form of speaking, "Most humbly 
beseecheth your faithful and obedient subjects ?" Although the papists have abused your 
ignorance in propounding such articles, which you understand not, yet you should not 
have suffered yourselves so much to be led by the nose and bridled by them, that you 
should clearly forget your duty of allegiance unto your sovereign lord, saying unto him, 
" This we will have ;" and that saying with armour upon your backs and swords in your 
hands. Would any of you that be householders be content that your servants should 
come upon you with harness unto their backs 5 , and swords in their hands, and say unto 
you, " This we will have ?" If then you would abhor and detest this in your servants 
towards yourselves, how can you allow your fact? With what conscience can you, 
being but subjects, do to your king that thing which you would condemn in your 
servants towards yourselves ? But answer me this : Be you subjects or no ? If you be 
subjects, then I admonish you, as St Paul taught Titus, saying: "Warn them to be 
subject to princes and rulers, obeying them at a word." But tell me again : Pertaineth 
this to subjection and obedience to say, " This we will have ?" St Peter saith : " Be 
subject unto kings, as unto chief heads 6 , and to other rulers sent by them. For so is the 
will of God." God s will is, that you should be ruled by your princes. But whether is 
this to be ruled by your king, or to rule your king, to say, " Thus we will have the realm 
governed?" Your servants be by the scripture commanded, as they fear God, to be 



P Laws of this realm, C. C. C. C. MS.] 

[ 2 To God s law, Ibid.J 

[ 3 Then you may, Ibid.] 

[ 4 Sovereign lord and king, Ibid.] 



[ 5 Be contented, that your servants should come 
unto you, with harness upon their backs. Ibid.] 
[ 6 As chief heads, Ibid.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



165 



obedient to their masters, whether their masters be good or evil. And can you think it 
meet and lawful 7 for you to disobey your undoubted king, being a prince most innocent, 
most godly, and most careful for your surety 8 and wealth ? If any thing can declare 
disobedience, what can declare it more, than subjects to come with force of arms to their 
natural king and prince, and say, " This we will have ?" 

But now, leaving your rude and unhandsome manner 9 of speech to your most sove 
reign lord, I will come to the point, and join with you in the effect of your first 
article. You say, you will have all the holy decrees observed and kept. But do you 
know what they be ? The holy decrees, as I told you before, be called the bishop of 
Rome s ordinances and laws : which how holy and godly soever they be called, they be 
indeed so wicked, so ungodly, so full of tyranny, and so partial, that since the beginning 
of the world were never devised or invented the like. I shall rehearse a certain of them, 
[whereby you may judge of the rest, to the intent] 10 that yourselves may see how holy 
they be, and may say your minds, whether you would have them kept or no. And at 
the hearing of them, if you shall not think them meet to be kept here in this realm, then 
you may see how they deceived you, that moved you to ask this article. And if you 
like them, and would have them kept, after you know what they be, then I say assuredly, 
that you be not only wicked papists, but also heretics, and most heinous traitors to the 
king and this his realm. And yet how an absolute papist varieth from an heretic or 
traitor, I know not ; but that a papist is also both a heretic and a traitor withal. 

One decree saith, that "whosoever doth not acknowledge himself 11 to be under the 
obedience of the bishop of Rome, is an heretic 12 ." Now answer me to this question, 
Whether be you under the obedience of the bishop of Rome, or not ? If you say that 
you be under his obedience, then be you traitors by the laws of this realm ; and if you 
deny it, then be you heretics by this decree. And shift is there none to save you from 
treason, but to renounce this decree, that commandeth you to be under the bishop of Rome; 
and so to confess, contrary to your own first article, that all decrees are not to be kept. 

Yet a great many other decrees be as evil 13 , and worse than this. One saith, that 
"all princes laws which be against a decree 14 of the bishop of Rome, be void and of no 
strength 15 ." Another decree saith, that "all the decrees of the bishop of Rome ought 
for ever to be kept of all men, as God s word 15 ." Another decree there is, that " whoso 
ever receiveth not the laws of the bishop of Rome, availeth neither 10 him the catholic 
faith, nor the four evangelists. For his sin 17 shall never be forgiven 15 ." Yet is there a 
worse and more detestable decree, that " all kings and princes that suffer the bishop of 
Rome s decrees to be broken in any point, are to be taken as infidels 18 ." Another is there 
also, " that the bishop of Rome is bound to no manner of decrees, but he may constrain 
all other persons, both spiritual and temporal, to receive all his decrees and canons 18 ." 
Another is yet more devilish than any before rehearsed, that " although the bishop of 
Rome neither regard his own salvation, nor no man s else, but put down with himself 
headlong innumerable people by heaps unto hell, yet may no mortal man presume to 
reprove him therefore 18 ." But what should I tarry, and make you weary in rehearsing a 
number 19 ? For a thousand other like canons and decrees there be to the advancement of 
the bishop of Rome his usurped power and authority. 

I cannot think of you, that you be so far from all godliness, from all wit and dis 
cretion, that you would have these decrees observed within this realm, which be so 
blasphemous to God, so injurious to all princes and realms, and so far from all equity and 
reason. But here you may easily perceive, what wily foxes you met withal, which 
persuaded you to arm yourselves, to make sedition in your own country, to stand against 



[ 7 Meet or lawful, Ibid.] 

[ 8 So MS. C. C. C. C. Strype reads "sorrow."] 

[ 9 Unseemly manner, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 10 This clause is inserted from the C. C. C. C. 

MS.] 

[ 1! Doth not knowledge himself, Ibid.] 

f 12 Vid. Collection of Tenets from the Canon 

Law, p. 68.] 

[ 13 Be as ill, MS. C. C. C. C.J 



[ 14 Any decree, Ibid.] 

[ 15 Vid. p. 68.] 

[ 1G Neither availeth, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 17 For his sins, Ibid.] 

[ 18 Vid. Collection of Tenets from the Canon 
Law, pp. 69, 70, &c. and Letter to Queen Mary, 
Sept. 1555.] 

[ 19 In rehearsing a number of laws, MS. 
C. C. C. C.] 



166 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



your princes and the laws of your realm, for such articles as you understand not 1 , and to 
ask you wist not what. For I dare say for you, that the subtle papists, when they moved 
you to stand in this article, " that all the holy decrees should be observed," they shewed 
you nothing of these decrees, that they were taken for holy decrees : for if they had, 
they knew right well that you would never have consented unto this article ; but would 
have taken them for traitors, that first moved you thereto. 

For now shall I shew you, what miserable case you should bring yourselves unto, if 
the king s majesty should assent unto this first article 2 , u that all the decrees should be kept 
and observed." For among other partial decrees made in the favour of the clergy, this 
is one : " That none of the clergy shall be called, or sued before any temporal judge, for 
any manner of cause, either for debt, suit of lands, felony, murder, or for any other cause 
or crime; nor shall have any other judge, but his bishop only 3 ." Another is : " That a 
spiritual man may sue a temporal man before a temporal or spiritual judge 4 at his 
pleasure ; but a temporal man cannot sue a spiritual, but only before his ordinary 3 ." I 
cannot deny, but these been good 5 and beneficial laws for the liberty of the clergy. But 
for your own part", I suppose you do not think it any indifferent law 7 , that a priest 
shall sue you where he list, with the licence of his ordinary ; and you shall sue him for 
no manner of cause, but only before his own ordinary 8 ; or if a priest had slain one of 
your sons or brethren, that you should have no remedy against him, but only before the 
bishop 8 . "What mean those 9 papistical priests, that stirred you to ask and will such 
decrees and laws to be observed in this realm, but covertly and craftily to bring you under 
their subjection ; and that you yourselves, ignorantly asking you wist not what, should 
put your own heads under their girdles ? 

For surely, if you had known these decrees, when you consented to this article, you 
would have torn the article in pieces, and they that moved you 10 thereto also. For these 
decrees be not only partial, and against all equity and reason, made only for the favour of 
the clergy, and the suppression of the laity ; but also they be, and ever have been, clearly 
contrary to the laws and customs of this realm. And yet by this article you will have 
the old ancient laws and customs of this realm (which have ever been used in all kings 
times hitherto) to be void and to cease, and these decrees to come in their place, and be 
observed of all men, and againsaid of no man : for whosoever speaketh against them, you 
will hold them for heretics. And in so saying, look what sentence to give 11 of yourselves. 
Although your article say it, yet I am sure you be not so much enemies to your own 
realm, that you would have the old ancient laws and customs of this realm (for the 
defence whereof all the noble kings of this realm have so valiantly and so justly stand 
against the bishops of Rome) now to be taken away, and give place unto Romish decrees. 
And then by your own article you hold and condemn yourselves to be heretics. 

How be you bewitched by these false papists ? Why do you suffer them thus to 
abuse you by their subtlety, to make you condemn yourselves of heresy ? Why do you 
not send them unto the king s majesty, like errant traitors, as indeed they be, saying unto 
him, " Most mighty prince, and most dread sovereign lord, we present here unto you 
most heinous traitors against your majesty and realm, and greatest dissemblers and false 
deceivers of us, your simple and ignorant people, and yet in our own hearts 12 your true 
and faithful subjects. We have erred, we have grievously offended your majesty, but 
by ignorance, being so seduced and provoked by the crafty persuasions of these most 
heinous traitors, that we wist not what we did. But pardon us, sovereign lord, have 
pity upon our simplicity and ignorance ; and these abominable traitors punish according 
to their deservings. Have mercy, most merciful prince, of us, your poor flock, which 
were ignorantly led out of the way; and strike with the sword those malicious guides, 
that purposely would have led us to our utter destruction." 



[ - Understood not, C. C. C. C. MS.] 

[ 2 Would assent unto this your first article, Ibid.] 

[ 3 Vid. Collection of Tenets from the Canon 

Law, p. 72.J 

[ 4 A spiritual or temporal judge, MS. C. C. 

C. C.] 

f 5 But these be good, Ibid.] 



[ e But for your own parts, Ibid.] 

[ 7 An indifferent law, Ibid.] 

[ 8 The bishops, Ibid.] 

[ 9 What meant then those, Ibid.] 

[ 10 And them that moved you, Ibid.] 

[ n You give, Ibid.] 

[ 12 Yet in our hearts, Ibid.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



167 



If you did thus, then would you do 13 the parts of true, faithful, and loyal subjects 14 , 
and should declare to the world, that all that you have hitherto done was done by error 
and ignorance. And I would nothing doubt of the king s majesty his clemency and mercy 
towards you. 

But yet, to the intent that you may further know how unreasonable your first article 
is, I will yet rehearse another sort of the holy laws and decrees. One is : " That no lay 
man may have a benefice to farm 15 ." Another is : " That none of the clergy may give 
any thing to the relief of the commonweal and necessity of their own realm, without the 
consent of the bishop of Rome 15 ." Another is : " That no layman may meddle with 
election or any other thing, that pcrtaineth unto any of the clergy 16 ." Another is : " That 
none of the clergy ought to give any oath of fidelity to their princes, except they have 
temporal lands of them ir ." Another is : " That princes ought to obey the bishops and the 
decrees of the church, and to submit their heads unto their bishops, and not to be judges 
over the bishops ! V Another is this : " Whosoever offendeth the liberties of the church, 
or doth break any interdiction that cometh from Rome, or conspireth against the person 
or estate of the bishop or see of Rome, or by any ways ofFendeth, disobey eth, or rebelleth 
against the same bishop or see, or that killcth a priest, or offendeth personally against a 
bishop or other prelate, or invadeth, spoileth, withholdeth, or wasteth lands belonging 
to the church of Rome, or to any other church immediately subject unto Rome ; or who 
soever invadeth any pilgrims that go to Rome, or any suitors to the court of Rome, or 
that let the devolution of causes unto that court, or that put any new charges or impo 
sitions, real or personal, upon a church 19 or ecclesiastical person ; and generally, all others 
that offend 20 in the cases contained in the bull, which is usually published by the bishops 
of Rome upon Maundy Thursday ; all these can be assoiled by no priest, bishop, arch 
bishop, nor by none other, but only by the bishop of Rome, or by his express licence 81 ." 
These, with an infinite number of like sort, be the godly and holy decrees which you long 
so sore for, and so much desire. 

Now would I know, whether you think that these decrees were made for the common 
wealth of all realms, or only for the private weal of the bishop of Rome, and of his bishops 
and clergy ; and whether you like and long for these laws ; or now, at the hearing of 
them, your longing is done ? If you like them, well : for my part I would you had them 
practised among you for a while, (so that the rest of the realm were not troubled, neither 
with you nor with your decrees,) until you repented yourselves of your foolish demands. 
I think within a year you would kneel on your knees to the king s majesty, desiring him 
to take from your necks the yokes and altars which you had made for yourselves. 

But to conclude the sum of the first article 22 in few words : it is nothing else but a 
clear subversion of the whole state and laws of this realm ; and to make this realm to be 
wholly governed by Romish laws, and to crown the idol and antichrist of Rome king of 
this realm, and to make our most undoubted and natural king his vile subject and slave. 
Oh ! what was in your minds to ask such a thing, and so presumptuously to say, that 
you will have it ? I trust there be not in you so much malice and devilishness, as the 
article containeth, but that you were craftily subornate by subtle papists to ask and 
demand you wist not what. 

If you had asked, that the word of God might be duly observed and kept every where 
within this realm, and whosoever would gainsay 23 God s word, to be holden as a heretic; 
if you had 24 declared yourselves to be godly men; all that be godly 25 would have com 
mended and furthered your request. But forasmuch as you ask Romish canons and 
decrees to be observed and kept here in England, and whosoever shall againsay them, 
to be holden as heretics, there is neither godly nor truly English man, that will allow you, 
or consent to your articles. But clean contrary to your articles, a great number of godly 



[ 13 Should you do, Ibid.] 
[ u Loving subjects, Ibid.] 
[ 15 Vid. Collection of Tenets from the Canon 
Law, p. 72. J 
[ I6 Ibid.] 
[ 17 Ibid. p. 73.] 
[ Ibid.J 



[ 19 Upon any church, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 20 All other that offend, Ibid.] 

[ 21 Vid. Collection of Tenets, &c. p. 74.] 

[ 22 Of your first article, MS. C. C. C. C.J 

[23 Againsay, Ibid.] 

[ 24 Heretic ; you had &c., Ibid.] 

[ 25 And all that be godly, Ibid.] 



168 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



persons within this realm, for the very love that they have to God, that his name may be 
glorified above all things, be daily humble suitors to the king s majesty, that he, following 
the steps of his father, will study and travail to weed out of this his realm all popish 
decrees, laws, and canons, and whatsoever else is contrary to God s word ; and that the 
speakers against God s word may be taken (as they be indeed) for heretics. And is any 
of you so far from reason, that he thinketh the king s majesty ought to hearken to you, 
that by force and stubbornness 1 say, you will have Romish laws and decrees kept in this 
realm, and to turn his ears from them that with all humility be suitors for God s word ? 

But now will I come to your other articles, wherein I will be brief, forasmuch as in 
the first I have been long and tedious. 



YOUR SECOND ARTICLE IS THIS: 

" We will have the law of our sovereign lord king Henri/ VIII. 2 concerning the Six 
Articles 3 to be used again, as in his time tliey were." 

Letting pass your rude style, nothing becoming subjects to say, "You will have:" 
First, I examine you of the cause of your wilful will, wherefore you will have these six 
articles ; which never were laws in no region but this ; nor in this realm also, until the 
31st year of king Henry VIII 2 ; and in some things 4 so enforced by the evil counsel of 
certain papists, against the truth, and common judgment both of divines and lawyers, that 
if the king s majesty himself had not come personally into the parliament house, those laws 
had never passed. And yet within a year or little more the same most noble prince was 
fain to temper his said laws 5 , and moderate them in divers points : so that the statute of 
Six Articles continued in his force little above the space of one year. Is this then so great 
a matter to make these uproars, and to arise against the whole realm ? Will you take 
away the present laws of this realm, (which be and ever have been the laws of all other 
countries also,) and set up new laws, which never were but in this realm only, and were 
here in force not fully thirteen months ? And how chanceth it, that you be so earnest in 
this article, which is directly contrary to your first article, but you know not 6 what 
neither of the articles meaneth, but be persuaded by perverse papists to ask you wot not 
what ? But now here is the repugnance of the two articles 7 : by your first you will 
have all general councils and decrees observed and kept ; and by your second article you 
will have the Six Articles used again. Then let us compare the general councils and 
decrees with the Six Articles ; and you shall see them agree as well together as black 
and white. 

First, it is contained in the canons of the apostles 8 , that a priest under no pretence of 
holiness may put away his wife ; and, if he do, he shall be excommunicated : and the 



[ l Force and stoutness, C. C. C. C. MS.] 

[ 2 Henry VIII. the most noble prince of famous 
memory, Ibid.] 

[ 3 The following are the six articles, which were 
" resolved by the convocation the old popish way," 
and enacted by the parliament, under the title, " An 
act for abolishing diversities of opinions." Cran- 
mer and other divines argued boldly against them, 
but unsuccessfully. 

First That in the sacrament of the altar, after 

the consecration, there remain no substance of bread 
and wine, but under these forms the natural body 
and blood of Christ were present. 

Secondly. That communion in both kinds was 
not necessary to salvation to all persons by the law 
of God ; but that both the flesh and blood of Christ 
were together in each of the kinds. 

Thirdly That priests, after the order of priest 
hood, might not marry by the law of God. 

Fourthly That vows of chastity ought to be 



observed by the law of God. 

Fifthly. That the use of private masses ought 
to be continued ; which as it was agreeable to God s 
law, so men received great benefit by them. 

Sixthly That auricular confession was expe 
dient and necessary, and ought to be retained in the 
church. Vid.Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. Vol. I. pp. 
518, 19. Ed. Oxon. 1829. Collier s Eccl. Hist. Vol. 
V. p. 38. Ed. Lond. 1840, 1. Strype s Eccl. Mem. 
Vol. I. Part I. pp. 542, 3. Ed. Oxon. 1822.J 

[ 4 And then in some things, MS. C. C. C. C.J 

[ 5 The said laws, Ibid.J 

[ 6 But that you know not, Ibid.] 

[ 7 But now hear the repugnance of your two 
articles, Ibid.] 



, >; 5ia O[/os, 



[ 8 



eai; <5e <=K/3a\\?7, a<opieV0a>. Canon. Apostol. can. 
vi. Labb. et Cossart. Tom. I. col. 26. Ed. Lutet. 
Paris. 1671.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



169 



Six Articles say, that if a priest put not away his wife, he shall be taken for a felon. If 
he keep her not still, he must be excommunicate by the canon of the apostles : and if he 
keep her still, he must suffer death by the Six Articles. You be cunning men, if you 
can set these two together. Also the council of Nice, which was the chief of all the 
general councils, and was celebrated more than twelve hundred years past, decreed clean 
directly contrary to the Six Articles. For where the Six Articles command all priests to 
be separate from their wives, Nicene council determined clean contrary, that they should 
not be separated, confessing such copulation to be holy and godly 9 . And the council 
Gangrense, which was about the same time, so much allowed the marriage of priests, 
that they accursed them 10 that would abstain from the ministration" of priests, because 
they were married 18 . These councils vary so far from the Six Articles, that either you 
must put the general councils out of your book, or else the Six Articles. 

Likewise concerning private masses, the law of Six Articles far differeth from the 
canon of the apostles, and from the councils Nicene and Antioch, as shall be declared in 
the next article. 

Other things there be divers also in the Six Articles, which cannot stand with sundry 
old canons, decrees, and councils : so that if you will stand to the canons, decrees, and 
councils, you must of force be constrained utterly to put out of your book your second 
article, which rcquireth the usage of the Six Articles. But now for shortness of time I 
will come to your third article, which is this : 



THE THIRD ARTICLE. 

" We will have the mass in Latin, as was before, and celebrated by the priest, without 
any man or woman communicating with him." 

Forasmuch as there is nothing with you but " will," let your will be conferred with 
reason and God s word ; and then you shall see how far your will differeth from them 
both. First, as touching the Latin masses, whatsoever the priest saith in the old masses, 
whether he pray and ask any thing of God, or give thanks to God, or make the true 
profession of the faith, or whatsoever he doth besides 13 , all he doth in your persons and in 
your names; and you answer unto that which he saith, sometime A men, sometime fit 
cum spiritu tuo, and sometime other things, as the matter serveth. For all the whole 
that is done should be the act of the people 14 and pertain to the people, as well as to the 
priest. And standcth it with reason, that the priest should speak for you, and in your 
name, and you answer him again in your own person ; and yet you understand never a 
word, neither what he saith, nor what you say yourselves ? The priest prayeth to God 
for you, and you answer Amen, you wot not whereto. Is there any reason herein ? 
Will you not understand what the priest prayeth for you, what thanks he giveth for you, 
what he asketh for you ? Will you neither understand what he saith, nor let your hearts 
understand what your own tongues answer ? Then must you needs confess yourselves to 
be such people as Christ spake of, when he said, " These people honour me with their 
lips, but their hearts be far from me." Had you rather be like pies or parrots, that be 
taught to speak, and yet understand not one word what they say, than be true Christian 
men, that pray unto God in heart and in faith ? The priest is your proctor and attorney, 



[ 9 Ev 06 Ttp 7re/ol TOVTOV /SouXeueaGat, TOI 
aXXois edoKei J/O/AOI/S tTreiadyeiv, CTTUTKOTTOVS /cat 
7r/oe<r/3uTc /oous, Cta/cdi/ovs -re /cat viroSiaKovous /utf 
crvyKaQevdeiv Tats ya/i.eTats, asirpiv iepa<rt)at 7Jya - 
yovTO. avao Tas oe IIa</>i/oi/Tios o 6/u.oXoyjjTjjs 
dvTelTre TI/JLLOV fie TOV yd/j.ov aVoKaXwf, <rax/oo- 
<rvvi]V Be T\}V irpos Tas i^tas yvvdiKu. s (rvvovcriav, 
<rvvepou\ev<r TTJ <rvi>6$u> fj.i] TOLOVTOV QeaQai VO/JLOV 
XaXeirov yap elvai TO Trpdy/uia ipepeiv icrtos de 
Kai auTots /cat Tats TGUTWJ/ yayueTais TOV /ztj <ra>- 

<ppovelv aiTta yeiMjVeTat eTTtjveae &e /cat j avv- 

o^os TY\V /3ou\)jf, /cat Trepl TOVTOV ovoev CVOJJLO- 
tftVt/aei . Sozomen. Eccl. Hist. Lib. i. cap. xxiii. 



Via. Todd s Life of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 2G7, 
Ed. Lond. 1831.] 

[ 10 Accursed all them, MS. C. C. C. C.J 
[ u From the administration, I bid.] 
[ 12 d. Et TIS TOV ydfj.ov fj.e/ui<poiTO, Kai TI\V KaQ- 
evoovarav /UFTa TOV dvSpos auT7/9, ovarav TTKTTJ/V /cat 
euXa/3>;, (Bde\va a oiTo t/ fie/jitfioiTo, cos dv /ztj cvva- 
fjievi]v eis /SacriXetai/ ei<reX6eti/, dvddefia etrTw. Con- 
cil. Gangren. circa A.D. 324. Labb. et Cossart. 
Tom. II. col. 415.J 

[ 13 He doth beside, MS. C. C. C. C.] 
[ 14 Action of the people, Ibid.] 



170 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



to plead your cause, and to speak for you all ; and had you rather not know than know 
what he saith for you ? I have heard suitors murmur at the bar, because their attornies 
have pleaded their cases in the French tongue, which they understood not. Why then be 
you offended, that the priests, which plead 1 your cause before God, should speak such 
language as you may understand ? If you were before the king s highness, and should 
choose one to speak for you all, I am sure you would not choose one that should speak 
Greek or Hebrew, French or Italian ; no, nor one that should speak Latin neither. But 
you would be glad to provide such one as should speak your own language, and speak so 
loud, that you might both hear him, and understand him ; that you might allow or dis 
allow that that he said in your names. Why do you then refuse to do the like unto 
God ? When the priest desireth any thing of God 3 for you, or giveth thanks for you, how 
can you in your heart confirm his sayings, when you know not one word what he saith ? 
For the heart is not moved with words that be not understand. 

But if reason will not persuade you, I will prove what God s word will do unto you. 
St Paul, in the first epistle to the Corinthians 3 , saith, that whosoever shall speak to the 
people in the church to their edification, must speak such language as the people may 
understand ; or else he willeth him to hold his peace, and speak softly to himself and to 
God. For he which speaketh 4 a strange language which the people understand not, doth 
not edify them, as St Paul saith. And he giveth an example of the trumpet in the field, 
which when it giveth such a sound that the soldier understandeth, it availeth much 5 : 
for every soldier thereby knoweth what to do. But if such a blast be blown as no man 
understandeth, then the blast is utterly in vain : for no man knoweth thereby, whether 
the horsemen shall make them ready, or leap upon horseback, or go to their standard ; or 
whether the footmen shall make them ready, or set themselves in array, or set upon the 
enemy, or retire to the standard. Even so should the priests be God s trump in his 
church : so that if he blow such a certain blast that the people may understand, they be 
much edified thereby ; but if he give such a sound as is to the people unknown, it is 
clearly in vain, saith St Paul : for he speaks to the air 6 ; but no man is the better or 
edified thereby, nor knoweth what he should do by that he heareth. Furthermore, in 
the same place St Paul saith, that if a man giveth thanks to God in a language to the 
people unknown, how can they say Amen to that they understand not ? He doth well in 
giving thanks to God ; but that nothing availeth or edifieth the people, that know not 
what he saith. And St Paul in one brief sentence concludeth his whole disputation of 
that matter, saying : " I had rather have five words spoken in the church to the instruction 
and edifying of the people, than ten thousand in a language unknown, that edifieth not." 
And for this purpose allegeth 7 the prophet Esay, who saith, that " God will speak to his 
people in other tongues, and in other languages ;" meaning thereby, that he would speak 
to every country in their own language. So have the Greeks the mass in the Greek 
tongue, the Syrians in the Syry tongue, the Armenians in their tongue, and the Indians 
in their own tongue. And be you so much addict to the Romish tongue, (which is the 
Latin tongue,) that you will have your mass in none other language but the Romish 
language ? Christ himself used among the Jews the Jews language, and willed his 
apostles to do the like in every country wheresoever they came. And be you such 
enemies to your own country, that you will not suffer us to laud God, to thank him, and 
to use his sacraments in our own tongue; but will enforce us contrary 8 , as well to all 
reason, as to the word of God ? 

So many as be godly 9 , or have reason, will be satisfied with this. But the mere 
papist will be satisfied with nothing. Wherefore I will no longer tarry to satisfy them 
that never will be satisfied, but will proceed to the second part of this article, wherein 
you say that you will have neither men nor women 10 communicate with the priest. Alas, 
good simple souls ! how be you blinded with the papists ! How contrary be your articles 



Which pleadeth, C. C. C. C. MS.J 

Desireth of God any thing, Ibid.] 

To the Corinthes, Ibid.] 

For he that speaketh, Ibid.] 

That the soldiers understand, then it availeth 



much. Ibid.] 



[ 6 For he speaketh to the air, Ibid.] 
[ 7 This purpose S. Paul allegeth, Ibid. 
[ R Will enforce things contrary, Ibid.] 
f 9 As either be godly, Ibid.] 
[ 10 Man nor woman, Ibid.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



171 



one to another ! You say in your first article, that you will have all general councils and 
decrees observed, and now you go from them yourselves. You say, you will have nobody 
to communicate with the priest. Hear then, what divers canons, decrees, and general 
councils say clean against you. There is one decree which saith thus : " When the conse 
cration is done, let all the people receive the communion, except they will be put out of the 
church 11 ." And in the canons of the apostles, in the eighth chapter, is contained, "That 
whensoever there is any mass or communion, if any bishop, priest, deacon, or any other of 
the clergy, being there present, do not communicate, except he can shew some reasonable 
cause to the contrary, he shall be put out of the communion, as one that giveth occasion 
to the people to think evil of the ministers 12 ." And in the ninth chapter of the same 
canons of the apostles, and in the general council held at Antioch, is thus written : 
" That all Christian people that come into the church, and hear the holy scriptures read, 
and after will not tarry to pray, and to receive the holy communion with the rest of the 
people, but for some misordering of themselves will abstain therefrom, let them be put out 
of the church, until by humble knowledging of their fault, and by the fruits of penance, 
and prayers, they obtain pardon and forgiveness 13 ." And the council Nicene also sheweth 
the order, how men should sit in receiving the communion, and who should receive first 14 . 
All these decrees and general councils utterly condemn your third article, wherein you 
will, that the priest shall receive the communion alone, without any man or woman com 
municating with him. And the whole church of Christ also, both Greeks and Latins, 
many hundred years after Christ and the apostles 15 , do also condemn this your article; 
which ever received the communion in flocks and numbers together, and not the priest 
alone. 

And besides this 1 ", the very words of the mass (as it is called) shew plainly, that 
it was ordained not only for the priest, but for other also to communicate with the 
priest. For in the very canon, which they so much extol, and which is so holy that 
no man may know what it is, (and therefore is read so softly that no man can hear 
it,) in that same canon, I say, is a prayer containing this ; that " not only the priest, 
but also as many beside as communicate with him, may be fulfilled with grace and 
heavenly benediction 17 ." How agreeth this prayer with your article, wherein you say, 
that neither man nor woman shall communicate with the priest? In another place 
also of the said canon, the priest prayeth for himself, and "for all that receive the 



[ n Peracta consecratione omnes communicent, 
qui noluerint ecclesiasticis carere liminibus. Sic 
enim et apostoli statuerunt, et sancta Romana tenet 
ecclesia. Corpus Juris Canon. Ed. Paris. 1687. 
Peered Pars in. De Consecrat. Dist. n. can. x. 
Tom. I. p. 453.] 

[ 12 t/. EiVts eTTior/coTros, ?j TTpetrftuTepos, i) oid- 
coz/09, ?/ CK TOV KaT(i\6yov lepaTiKov, Trpocrtpopd? 
yevo/jLevi}s fit] /ueTaXa /3oi, TIJV a tTiav e nrdTW /cat eaV 
y euXoyos, <ryyyj/a) |Utjs Tvy^aveTW. ei Se /uj Xeyet, 
a (pop ieo-0a>j a> aJVios /3\a /3]s yev6p.evo<i TU> Xa<5, 
K.ai inrovoiav ircujj o-as /CCCTCC TOU TrpoaeveyKavTO s. 
Canon. Apostol. can. viii. Labb. et Cossart. Tom. 
I. col. 26-28.] 

[ 13 . Ilaj/Tas TOUS eiaioVras TTKTTOVS, Kal TWV 
ypa(pwv a.KovovTa<S) /ntj irapa^evovra^ Be Trj irpocr- 
V XV Ka ^ T N dyia jueTaXjj t/fet, als aTafciav efj.Troi.ovv- 
Tas TTJ eKK\ii(ria, dcpopi^eo-Qai XP J* Ibid. can. ix. 
col. 29. Ila vTas TOUS eiatoi/Tas eis TI}V enKXija-iav 
TOU 0eou, Kal TWV iepwv ypa(pa>v a /couojnras, fit] 
KoivwvovvTas fie eu^s a/za TO! Xaai, tj a7ro<rr/oe<o- 
I]V fj.erd\inl/iv T/S ev%api(rTias /CCCTGC riva 
taj/, TOUTOUS ctTTo/SXt/Tous yiveaOai TT/S c/c- 

rtas, etos av eo/j.o\oyrjo d/j.6voi /cat 5eiai/Tes 
/uerai/oias, cat Trapa/caXecrai/Tes, Tvyjelv 
eri/yyi/w jUTjs. Concil. Antioch. I. A. D. 
340. can. ii. Ibid. Tom. II. col. 561.] 

[ 14 ij. T HX0ei> eis TJJI/ dyiav KCLI /xeya X/i/ crvvo- 

^OJ/, OTl ev Tl(7l TOTTOIS KOL TToXcOTt TOIS 



/oots TJJJ/ evyjapicrTiav ol SiaKovoi ioatriv oirtp 
OVT b Kavtav OVTC 1} crvvt]Qe ia TrapeScoKe, TOI/S e^- 
ova-iav firj e^ovra^ irpocrfpepeiv TO?S Trpo<r<pfpovai 
a/uLaTov X/oi<rrov. /cd/ceij/o6c 



OTI jjo~r] Tti/e TWV diaKovtov Kal irpo Ttav e-TTiaKOTrcov 
Trjs eu^a/t)i<TTias aTTTOj/Tat. TO.VTO. /j.ev ovv liiravTa. 
Trepi\ipi](jQu) Kal efjL/j.eveT(acrav ol diaKovoi TOIS idiots 
/xeV/oois, ei^ores OTI TOV fj.ev eTTio-Koirov v 
eitrt, Ttav <5e TrpevfivTepwv eXa-TTOus 
\afj.(3aveTio<rav ce /cara TJ/I; Taiv TI\V ev-^apiarTiav 
peTa TOUS TT/oecr/^UTepous, ij TOU eTTiarKoirov GIOOVTO? 
avTols rj TOV Trpe<r(3vTepov. a XXa 
ev /nearia TWV Trpea-fivTepwv eecrT(a -rot s Si 
irapd Kavova ydp Kalirapd Taiv etrTi TO yivop.evov. 
el 8e Tts /xrj 6eXot ireitiap-%elv Kal jue-ra TOVTOV? 
TOI/S opous, TreTravaQdi TT/S SiaKovias. Concil. Nicttn. 
can. xviii. Ibid. Tom. II. col. 37-] 

[ 15 His apostles, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 1G Beside this, Ibid.] 

[ 17 Suppliceste rogamus, omnipotens Deus : jube 
hzec perferri per manus sancti angeli tui in sub 
lime altare tuum, in conspectu divinas majestatis 
tuae : ut quotquot ex hac altaris participatione 
sacrosanctum Filii tui corpus et sanguinem sump- 
serimus, omni benedictione ccelesti et gratia re- 
pleamur, per eundem Christum Dominum nos 
trum. Amen. Canon Missae, Missale Sarisbur. fol. 
cxxxii. Ed. 1533. Missale Rom. p. 238. Ed. Mech 
lin. 1840.] 



172 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



communion with him, that it may be a preparation for them unto everlasting life 1 ." 
Which prayer were but a very fond prayer, and a very mocking with God, if nobody 
should communicate with the priest. And the communion concludes with two prayers 
made in the name of the priest and them that communicate witli him, wherein they 
pray thus : " O Lord, that thing which we have taken in our mouth, let us take it 
also with pure minds 2 , that this communion may purge us from our sins, and make 
us partakers of heavenly remedy 3 ." And beside all this, there be an infinite sort of 
post-domm unions in the mass-books ; which all do evidently shew, that in the masses 
the people did communicate with the priest. 

And although I would exhort every good Christian man often to receive the holy 
communion, yet I do not recite all these things to the intent, that I would in this 
corrupt world, when men live so ungodly as they do, that the old canons should be 
restored again, which command 4 every man present to receive the communion with the 
priest : which canons, if they were now used, I fear that many would receive it un 
worthily. But I speak them to condemn your article, which would have nobody, 
neither man nor woman, to be communicated with the priest : which your article con- 
demneth the old decrees, canons, and general councils, condemneth all the old primitive 
church, all the old ancient holy doctors and martyrs, and all the forms and manner 
of masses that ever were made, both new and old. Therefore eat again this article, 
if you will not be condemned of the whole world, and of yourselves also by your first 
article ; wherein you will all decrees and general councils to be observed. But foras 
much as I have been so tedious 5 in this article, I will endeavour myself to be shorter 
in the next. 

YOUR FOURTH ARTICLE IS THIS: 

" We will have tJie sacrament hang over the high altar, and there to be worshipped, 
as it was wont to be ; and they which will not thereto consent, we ivill have them 
die like heretics against the holy catholic faith." 

What say you, ignorant people in things pertaining to God? Is this the holy 
catholic faith, that the sacrament should be hanged over the altar and worshipped? 
and be they heretics that will not consent thereto? I pray you, who made this 
faith? Any other but the bishops of Rome? and that more than a thousand years 
after the faith of Christ 6 was full and perfect! Innocent III. about 1215 years after 
Christ, did ordain that the sacrament and chrism should be kept under lock and key 7 . 
But yet no motion 8 is made of hanging the sacrament over the high altar, nor of the 
worshipping of it. After him came Honorius III. and he added further, commanding 
that the sacrament should be devoutly kept in a clean place, and sealed, and that the 
priest" should often teach the people reverendly 10 to bow down to the host, when it was 
lifted up in the mass time, and when the priest should carry it to the sick folks n . And 



f 1 Haec sacrosancta commixtio corporis et sangui- 
nis Domini nostri Jesu Christi n at mihi omni- 
busque sumentibus salus mentis et corporis, et ad 
vitam aeternam promerendam et capescendam przepa- 
ratio salutaris, per eundem ipsum Dominum nos 
trum. Amen. Missale Sarisbur. fol. cxxxiv.] 

[ 2 With pure mind, MS. C. C. C. C.J 

[ 3 Quod ore sumpsimus, Domine, pura mente 
capiamus: et de munere temporali tiat nobis reme- 
dium sempiternum. Missale Sarisbur. fol. cxxxiii. 
2. Missale Rom. p. 244. J 

[ 4 Which commanded, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 5 I have been too tedious, Ibid.] 

[ 6 After Christ s faith, Ibid.] 

[ 7 Statuimus, et in cunctis ecclesiis chrisma et 
eucharistia sub fideli custodia clavibus adhibitis 
conserventur ; ne possit ad ilia temeraria manus 
extendi, ad aliqua horribilia vel nefaria exercenda. 



Corpus Juris Canon. Ed. Paris. 1687. Decretal. 
Gregor. IX. Lib. in. Tit. xliv. cap. i. Tom. Up 
196.] 

[" No mention, MS. C. C. C. C.J 

[ 9 That the priests, I bid.] 

[ I0 Reverently, Ibid.] 

[ u Ne propter incuriam sacerdotum divina in- 
dignatio gravius exardescat, districte pra-cipiendo 
mandamus, quatenus a sacerdotibus eucharistia in 
loco singular! mundo et signato semper honoritice 
collocata, devote ac fideliter conservetur. Sacerdos 
vero frequenter doceat plebem suam, ut cum in 
celebratione missarum elevatur hostia salutaris, se re- 
verenter inclinet, idem faciens cum earn defert 
presbyter ad infirmum. Corpus Juris Canon. 
Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. in. Tit. xli. cap. x. 
Tom. II. p. 193.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



173 



although this llonorius 12 added the worshipping of the sacrament, yet he made no men 
tion of the hanging thereof over the high altar, as your article proporteth 13 . Nor 
how long after, or by what means, that came first up into this realm, I think no man 
can tell. And in Italy it is not yet used until this day. And in the beginning of 
the church it was not only not used to be hanged up, but also it was utterly forbid to 
be kept. 

And will you have all them that will not consent to your article, to die like heretics 
that hold against the catholic faith ? Were the apostles and evangelists heretics ? Were 
the martyrs and confessors heretics ? Were all the old doctors of the church heretics ? 
Were all Christian people heretics, until within three or four hundred years last past, 
that the bishops of Rome taught them what they should do and believe ? All they 
before rehearsed neither hanged the sacrament over the altar, neither worshipped it, nor 
not one of them all spake any one word, either of the hanging up. or worshipping 
of the sacrament! Marry, they speak very much of the worshipping of Christ himself, 
sitting in heaven at the right hand of his Father. And no man doth duly receive the 
sacrament, except he so, after that manner, do worship Christ, whom he spiritually re- 
ceiveth, spiritually feedeth and nourisheth upon, and by whom spiritually he liveth, 
and continueth that life that is towards God. And this the sacrament teacheth us. 

Now to knit up this article shortly. Here is the issue of this matter: that you 
must either condemn of heresy the apostles, martyrs, confessors, doctors, and all the 
holy church of Christ, until the time of Innocentius and Honorius, because they hanged 
not the sacrament over the altar to be worshipped; or else you must be condemned 
yourselves by your own article, to die like heretics against the holy catholic faith. 
Now to your fifth article. 



YOUR FIFTH ARTICLE IS THIS : 

" We ivill have the sacrament of the altar but at Easter delivered to the lay-people ; 
and then but in one kind." 

Methinks you be like a man that were brought up in a dark dungeon, that never 
saw light, nor knew nothing that is abroad in the world. And if a friend of his, 
pitying his ignorance and state, would bring him out of his dungeon, that he might 
see the light and come to knowledge, he, being from his youth used to darkness, could 
not abide the light, but would wilfully shut his eyes, and be offended both with the 
light, and with his friend also. A most godly prince of famous memory, king Henry 
VIII. our late sovereign lord, pitying to see his subjects many years so brought up in 
darkness and ignorance of God by the erroneous doctrine and superstitions 14 of the 
bishop of Rome, with the counsel of all his nobles and learned men, studied by all 
means, and that to his no little danger and charges, to bring you out of your said 
ignorance and darkness unto the true light and knowledge of God s word. And our 
most dread sovereign lord that now is, succeeding his father, as well in this godly 
intent, as in his realms and dominions, hath with no less care and diligence studied 
to perform his father s godly intent and purpose. And you, like men that wilfully 
shut 15 their own eyes, refuse to receive the light, saying you will remain 16 in your 
darkness. Or rather you be like men that be so far wandered out of the right way, 
that they can never come to it again without good and expert guides : and yet when 
the guides would tell them the truth, they would not be ordered by them, but would 
say unto them, We will have and follow our own ways. 

And that you may understand how far you be wandered from the right way in 
this one article, wherein you will have the sacrament of the altar delivered to the 
lay-people but once in the year, and then but under one kind; be you assured, that 



[ l2 This Innocentius, MS. C. C. C. C. Strype 
has here corrected the C. C. C. C. MS.] 
[ 13 Your article purporteth, Ibid.] 



[ 14 Doctrines and traditions, Ibid.] 

[ 15 That wilfully shutteth, Ibid.] 

f 16 Saying that you will still remain, Ibid.] 



174 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



there was never such law nor such request made among Christian people until this 
day. What injury do you to many godly persons, which would devoutly receive it 
many times, and you command the priest to deliver it them but at Easter ! All 
learned men and godly 1 have exhorted Christian people (although they have not 
commanded them) often to receive the communion. And in the apostles time the people 
at Jerusalem received it every day, as it appears 2 by the manifest word of the scrip 
ture 3 . And after, they received it in some places every day; in some places four 
times in the week; in some three times; some twice; commonly 4 everywhere at the 
least once in the week. In the beginning, when men were most godly and most fer 
vent in the Holy Spirit, then they received the communion daily. But when the Spirit 
of God began to be more cold in men s hearts, and they waxed more worldly than 
godly, then their desire was not so hot to receive the communion as it was before. 
And ever from time to time, as the world waxed more wicked, the more the people 
withdrew themselves from the holy communion. For it is so holy a thing, and the 
threatenings of God be so sore against them that come thereto unworthily, that an 
ungodly man abhorreth it, and not without cause dare in no wise approach thereunto . 
But to them that live godly it is the greatest comfort that in this world can be 
imagined. And the more godly a man is, the more sweetness and spiritual pleasure 
and desire he shall have often to receive it. And will you be so ungodly to command 
the priest that he shall not deliver it to him but at Easter, and then but only in one 
kind ? when Christ ordained both the kinds, as well for the laymen as for the priests ; 
and that to be eaten and drunken at all times. 

What enemies be you to all laymen, and to yourselves also, to refuse 5 to drink of 
Christ s cup, which he commanded all men to drink upon, saying, " Take and divide 
this among you;" and, "Drink ye all 6 of it!" 

But what need any more be brought for the reproving of this article, than your 
own first article, where you will have kept all decrees and councils? Now in the 
decrees, De Consecrat. Di. 2, there is one decree that commandeth all men to receive 
the communion at the least thrice in the year, at Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmas 7 . 
Another commandeth every man to receive the same upon Shere-Thursday 8 . The council 
Agathense saith, that all laymen which receive not the communion at Christmas, Easter, 
Whitsuntide, shall not be taken for catholics 9 : and the decree 10 of Gelasius 11 , that the 
receiving under one kind is great sacrilege. Then by your first article you do not 
only condemn this your fifth article, but also you shew yourselves not to be catholics, 
except you receive the communion at the least three times in the year, and that under 
both the kinds, which is clean repugnant to this article. And yet I pray God you 
may receive it worthily once in your life : which you shall never do, except you won 
derfully repent this your misbehaviour ; and all your life-time study to amend and re 
dress that you have now offended. Now to your sixth article. 



f 1 All learned and godly men, C. C. C. C. MS.] 

[ a As it appeareth, Ibid.] 

[ 3 Words of the scripture, Ibid.J 

[ 4 And commonly, Ibid.] 

[ 6 Also that refuse, Ibid.] 

[ c Drink you all, Ibid.] 

[ 7 Etsi non frequentius, saltern in anno ter laici 
homines communicent (nisi forte quis majoribus 
quibuslibet criminibus impediatur), in Pascha vide 
licet, et Pentecoste, et Natali Domino. Corpus 
Juris Canon. Ed. Paris. 168J, Decreti Pars iii. De 
Consecrat. Dist. ii. can. xvi. Tom. I. p. 455.] 

[ 8 In co3na Domini a quibusdam perceptio eu- 
charistiae negligitur : quae quoniam in eadem die ab 
omnibus fidelibus (exceptis iis, quibus pro gravibus 
criminibus inhibitum est) percipienda sit, ecclesi- 
asticus usus demonstrat : cum etiam poenitentes 
eadem die ad percipienda corporis et sanguinis 
dominici sacramenta reconcilientur. Id. ibid. can. 
xvii. Ibid. 



Shere-Thursday : the Thursday before Easter, 
formerly so called. See Dr Wordsworth s Eccl. 
Biogr. Vol. I. p. 295 ; and Nares Glossary under the 
phrase. Todd s Life of Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 105.] 

[ 9 Seculares, qui in Natali Domini, Pascha, et 
Pentecoste non communicaverint, catholici non cre- 
dantur, nee inter catholicos habeantur. Id. ibid, 
can. xix. (ex Concil. Agathen.) A. D. 506. Ibid. 
Vid. Labb. et Cossart. Tom. IV. col. 1386. Ed. 
Lutet. Paris. 16JO.] 

[ 10 Decree of Gelasius saith, MS. C. C. C. C.J 

[ n Comperimus autem, quod quidam sumpta 
tantummodo corporis sacri portione a calice sacri 
cruoris abstineant. Qui proculdubio (quoniam nescio 
qua superstitione docentur adstringi) aut integra 
sacramenta percipiant, aut ab integris arceantur : 
quia divisio unius ejusdemque mysterii sine grandi 
sacrilegio non potest provenire. Corpus Juris Ca 
non. Decreti Pars iii. De Consecrat. Dist. ii. 
can. xii. Tom. I. pp. 454, 5.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



175 



YOUR SIXTH ARTICLE IS THIS : 

" We will that our curates shall minister the sacrament of baptism at all times, as 
well in the week-day as on the holy-day." 

Who Ictteth your ministers to baptize your children every day, if any cause of neces 
sity so do require ? But commonly it is more convenient, that baptism should not be 
ministered but upon the holy-day, when the most number of people be together; as 
well for that the whole church 13 there present may rejoice together of the receiving of 
new members of Christ into the same church, as also, that all men being present may 
remember, and the better know, what they promised themselves by their godfathers 
and godmothers in their own baptism ; and be the more earnestly stirred in their hearts 
to perform the same; and also may all together pray for them that be baptized, that 
they may have grace to perform their profession. St Gregory Nazianzene, as great a 
clerk as ever was in Christ s church, and master to St Hierome, counselled, that chil 
dren should not be christened until they came to three years of age or thereabout, 
except they were in danger of life 13 . And it was thought sufficient to our forefathers 
to be done two times in the year, at Easter and Whitsuntide ; as it appeareth by 
divers of their councils and decrees 14 , which forbid baptism to be ministered at any 
other time than Easter and Whitsuntide, except in case of necessity. And there re 
mained lately divers signs and tokens thereof. For every Easter and Whitsun-even, 
until this time, the fonts were hallowed in every church, and many collects and other 
prayers were read for them that were baptized. But alas! in vain 15 , and as it were 
a mocking with God: for at those times, except it were by chance, none were bap 
tized, but all were baptized before 1<J . For as vigils, otherwise called watchings, remained 
in the calendars upon certain saints evens, because in old times the people watched 
all those nights 17 ; and Vigilantius, because he speaketh against 18 these watchings, was 
condemned of heresy 19 ; but now these many years those vigils remained in vain in the 
books, for no man did w^atch : even so until this day the order and form of christen 
ing was read and kept every year at Easter and Whitsuntide, but none was then 
christened. Wherein it appeareth, how far we be swerved from our forefathers. 

And, to conclude this article shortly, if you will needs have baptism ministered no 



[ 12 The whole church of Christ, Ibid.] 
[ 13 Hepi 8e TWV aXXtav Sid(a/j.i yvw/jujv, TI}V T/oie- 
Tiav ai/a/ieti/ayres, TJ piKpov ei/ros TOUTOV, j VTT&P 

TOVTO, OUTOOS dytd^etv Kai t|/u^as /cat <ra)/xccTa 

TW /xeyaXw /iUffTtjptw T?/ TeXeicoaews. Gregor. 
Nazianz. Orat. xl. in Sanctum Baptismum. Tom. I. 
p. 658. Ed. Paris. 1630.] 

[ 14 Non ratione auctoritatis alicujus, sed sola te- 
meritate praesumitur, ut passim ac libere natalitiis 
Christi, apparatione, necnon et apostolorum seu 
martyrum festivitatibus, innumeras, utasseris, plebes 
baptismi mysterium consequantur : cum hoc sibi 
privilegium et apud nos et apud omnes ecclesias 
dominicum specialiter Pascha defendat cum sua 
Pentecoste. Corpus Juris Canon. Ed. Paris. 1687. 
Decreti Pars iii. De Consecrat. Dist. ii. can. xi. 
Tom. I. p. 469. Duo tempora, id est, Pascha et 
Pentecoste, ad baptizandum a Romano pontifice le- 
gitime sunt prasfixa. Unde, quia manifestime patet 
baptizandis in ecclesia electis haec duo tempora, de 
quibus locuti sumus, esselegitima; dilectionem ves- 
tram monemus, ut nullos alios dies huic observantiae 
misceatis. Id. ibid. can. xii. Ibid. Proprie in 
morte crucifixi et in resurrectione ex mortuis poten- 
tia baptismi novam creaturam condidit, ex veteri : 
ut in renascentibus et mors Christi operetur, et 

vita, ut appareret ex hujus doctrinae spiritu re- 

generandis filiis hominum et in Dei filios adop- 
tandis ilium diem esse, et illud tempus electum, in 



quo per similitudinem formamque mysterii ea, qua; 
genmtur in membris, his, quae in ipso sunt capite 
gesta, congruerunt. 2 De catechumenis bap 
tizandis id statutum est, ut in Pascha; solennitate 
vel Pentecostes, quanto majoris celebritatis major 
celebritas est, tanto magis ad baptizandum veniant : 
ceteris solennitatibus infirmi tantummodo debe- 
ant baptizari, quibus quocumque tempore con- 
venit baptismum non negari. Id. ibid. can. xv. 
Ibid Si qui necessitate mortis, aEgritudinis, obsi- 
dionis, persecutionis, et naufragii urgentur, omni 
tempore debeant baptizari. Id. ibid. can. xvi. Ibid. 
Venerabilis baptismi sacramentum non nisi in festi- 
vitate Paschali et Pentecostes tradere praesumat 
episcopus, exceptis iis, quibus, urgente mortis peri- 
culo, talibus oportet, ne in aetemum pereant, reme- 
diis subveniri. Id. ibid. can. xvii. Ibid. pp. 469, 
70.] 

[ 15 But all was in vain, MS. C. C. C. C.J 
[ 16 For none were baptized at those times, except 
it were by chance, but all were baptized before, 
Ibid.] 

[ 17 See Bingham s Antiquities of the Christian 
Church, Book xni. chap. ix. sect. iv. Vol. IV. 
pp. 357363. Ed. Lond. 1840.] 

[ 18 He spake against, MS. C. C. C. C.] 
[ 19 Vid. Hieron. adv. Vigilant. Epist. Ix. Tom. 
II. pp. 8387. Ed. Francof. 1684. Bayle s Dic 
tionary, Vol. IX. pp. 71316. Ed. Lond. 1739.] 



176 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



more at one time than another, then must you needs renounce your first article ; which 
willeth the councils and decrees of the forefathers to l>c observed and kept. And this 
briefly sufficeth for the sixth article. 



YOUR SEVENTH ARTICLE IS THIS: 

" We will have holy bread and holy icater every Sunday 1 , palms and ashes at the 
times accustomed; imayes to be set up again in every church; and all other 
ancient old ceremonies used heretofore by our mother holy church." 

Oh ! superstition and idolatry, how they prevail among you. The very true hea 
venly bread of life, the food of 2 everlasting life, offered unto you in the sacrament of 
the holy communion, you refuse to eat, but only at Easter. And the cup of the 
most holy blood, wherewith you were redeemed and washed from your sins, you refuse 
utterly to drink of at any time. And yet in the stead of these you will eat often of 
the unsavoury and poisoned bread of the bishop of Rome, and drink of his stinking 
puddles, -which he nameth holy bread and holy water. Consider, ignorant people, 
the authors and intents of the makers of them both. The water of baptism, and the 
holy bread and wine of the holy communion, none other person did ordain, but Christ 
himself. The other, that is called holy bread, holy water, holy ashes, holy palms 3 , 
and all other like ceremonies 4 ordained the bishops of Rome; adversaries to Christ, 
and therefore rightly called antichrist 5 . And Christ ordained his bread, and his wine 6 , 
and his water, to our great comfort, to instruct us and teach us what things we have 
only by him. But antichrist on the other side hath set up his superstitions, under 
the name of holiness, to none other intent, but as the devil seeketh all means to draw 
us from Christ, so doth antichrist advance his holy superstitions, to the intent that 
we should take him in the stead of Christ, and believe that we have by him such 
things as we have only by Christ ; that is to say, spiritual food, remission of our 
sins, and salvation. 

First, our Saviour Christ ordained the water of baptism to signify unto us, that as 
that water washeth our bodies outwardly, so be we spiritually within washed by Christ 
from all our sins. And as the water 7 is called water of regeneration, or new birth, so it 
declareth unto us, that through Christ we be born anew, and begin a new life towards God ; 
and that Christ is the beginning of this new life. And as the body that is new born, 
although it have life within it, yet can it not continue [without meat and drink ; even so 
can we not continue] 8 in the spiritual life towards God, except we be continually nourished 
with spiritual food : and that spiritual food is Christ also. For as he is the first beginning 
of our spiritual life, so is he the continuance and ending thereof. And for this cause did 
Christ ordain in the holy communion to be eaten bread, and drunken wine, that we should 
surely believe, that as our bodies be fed with bread and wine in these holy mysteries, 
so be we out of doubt that our souls be fed spiritually with the lively food of Christ s 
body and blood; whereby we have remission of our sins and salvation 9 . But the 
bishop of Rome invented new devices of his own making, and by them promised re 
mission of sins and salvation, that he might be set up and honoured for a saviour 
equal to Christ; and so to be esteemed above all creatures, and to sit in the temple 
of God, that is to say, in the church of Christ, as he were God. 

And to bring this to pass he hath horribly abused holy scriptures, altering them 
to his purpose, in the stead of Christ s most holy blood putting in his holy water: 



[ Holy water made every Sunday,MS. C.C.C.C.] 
[ 2 Heavenly bread, the food, &c. Ibid.] 
[ 3 Vid. p. 148. n. 6.] 

[ 4 And all such other like, MS. C. C. C. C.] 
[ 5 Called antichrists, Ibid.] 
[ 6 His bread, his wine, Ibid.] 
[ As that water, Ibid.] 

[ 8 The passage within brackets is supplied from 
the C. C. C. C. MS.] 



[ 9 " But my meaning is, that the force, the 
grace, the virtue, and benefit of Christ s body that 
was crucified for us, and of his blood that was shed 
for us, be really and effectually present with all 
them that duly receive the sacraments : but all this 
I understand of his spiritual presence." Vid. Pre 
face to the Reader, Ed. 1551. Cranmer s Answer to 
Winchester, Vol. I. p. 3, Park. Soc. Ed.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 177 

as it appeareth evidently in this sentence of St Paul written in the ninth chapter 
of the Hebrews 10 : " If the blood of oxen and goats," saith St Paul, " and the ashes of 
a young cow purified the unclean, as touching the purifying of the flesh, how much 
more the blood of Christ, which through the eternal Spirit offered himself without 11 
spot unto God, shall purge your consciences from dead works for to serve the living 
God ! And for this cause he is the Mediator of the new covenant 12 ." Consider well this 
sentence of Paul, and you shall find two purifyings, one of the body, and another of 
the soul or conscience. You shall find also two mediators : one was the priest of 
Moses law, and the other is Christ. The priests of the old law, with the blood of 
oxen and goats, and other their sacrifices, purged only the bodies of them that were 
defiled; but the soul or conscience they could not help. But our Saviour Christ by 
his own blood purged both body and soul. And for that cause he, and none other, 
is the Mediator of the new covenant 12 . But the bishop of Rome, to make himself 
also a mediator with Christ, hath taken upon him to purify the soul and conscience 
with holy water, holy salt, and other his holy creatures of his own devising, to the 
intolerable injury of Christ s blood, which only hath the effect 13 . And to bring this 
to pass, he hath most shamefully changed the words of the scripture, and wrested 
them to his purpose ; some words putting out, and also in the stead of Christ s blood 
putting in his own holy water and salt. For whereas St Paul saith, "If the blood 
of oxen and goats and the ashes of a cow purified the unclean, as touching the puri 
fying of the flesh : " here the bishop of Rome leaveth out these words, " as touching 
the purifying of the flesh." And where St Paul, extolling the effects of Christ s blood 
in comparison of the blood of oxen and goats, saith, " How much more the blood of 
Christ, which through the eternal Spirit offered himself, being without spot, unto God, 
shall purge your consciences:" here the bishop of Rome, extolling his water and salt, 
puts 14 out Christ s blood, and in the place thereof puts his 15 holy water and salt; say 
ing, "How much more water, which is sprinkled with salt and hallowed with godly 
prayers, shall sanctify and purify the people 16 !" O intolerable blasphemy against the 
most precious blood of Christ ! O shameless audacity and boldness, so to corrupt 
and pervert God s holy word ! If he by his holy water presume to purify our souls, 
as Christ did by his blood, what is that else but to make himself equal, and another 
mediator with Christ? And what is it to tread under foot 17 the Son of God, and 
to make the blood of the new testament, whereby he was sanctified 18 , like other 
common things, and to dishonour the Spirit of grace, if this be not ? And yet, not 
contented with this blaspheming the blood 19 of Christ, he preferreth his holy creatures 
far above the blood of Christ, promising by them many benefits which by the blood 
of Christ be not promised. For in the same place he promiseth by his holy cere 
monies to take away from us dearth and scarcity of all worldly things, and to mul 
tiply and increase us with the same ; also to defend us from the assaults of the devil, 
and all his deceits, and to give us health both of body and soul. But all men see 
him so shamefully to lie in these worldly things, that no man that wise is will trust 
him in the rest. Nor no man that is godly will desire such things to remain still, 
which so much have deceived simple people, and dishonoured God, and been contume 
lious to the blood of Christ. 

But now to your images, which, you say, you will have set up again in every 
church. What moved you to require this article, but only ignorance ? For if you had 
known the laws of God, and the use of godly religion, as well before the incarnation 



[ 10 To the Hebrews, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ n Himself being without spot, Ibid.J 

[ 12 Of the new testament, Ibid.] 

[ 13 That effect, Ibid.J 

[ 14 Putteth out, Ibid.J 

[ u Putteth his, Ibid.J 

[ 1G Aquam sale aspersam populis benedicimus, 
ut ea cuncti aspersi sanctificentur et purificentur ; 
quod et omnibus sacerdotibus faciendum esse man- 



dam us : nam si cinis vitulae aspersus populum 
sanctificabat, atque mundabat,s. a venialibus; multo 
magis aqua sale aspersa divinisque precibus sacrata 
populum sanctificat, atque mundat a venialibus. 
Durandi Rational. Divin. Ofnc. Lib. iv. c. 4. 
p. 63. Ven. 1609.J 

[ 17 To tread under his foot, MS.[C. C. C. C.] 
[ 18 Whereby we be sanctified, Ibid.J 
[ l9 Blaspheming of the blood, Ibid.J 



[CRANMER, II.] 



178 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



of Christ, as four or five hundred years next after, and by whom images were first 
brought into Christ s church, and how much idolatry was every where committed by 
the means of the same ; it could not have been that ever you would have desired this 
article, except you had more affection to idolatry than to true religion. For Almighty 
God among the ten commandments rehearsed this for the second, as one of the chief: 
" Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image, nor the likeness of any thing 
that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water 1 under the earth. 
Thou shalt not bow down to them, nor worship them." This commandment was dili 
gently kept in the old Testament, so long as the people pleased God. For in their 
tabernacle was not one image, less nor more, that the people might see : although 
upon the propitiatory were two cherubims 2 of gold by the commandment of God; 
and that was in such a place as the people never came near, nor saw 3 . But when 
the people, forgetting this commandment, began to make them images, and to set them 
up in the place of adoration, by and by they provoked God s indignation against 
them, and were grievously punished therefore. 

The church of Christ likewise in the new Testament, for the space of four or five 
hundred years after Christ s ascension, utterly refused to have images in the church, 
a place of adoration; as it may plainly appear 4 by all the old ancient authors that 
lived and wrote in that time : insomuch 5 that above four hundred years after Christ, 
when some superstitious and ignorant people in some places began to bring painted 
images, not into the church, but to the church-doors, the great clerk Epiphanius, 
bishop at Cyprus, finding such a painted image of Christ, or some other saint, hanging 
at the church-door in a town called Anablatha, he cut it in pieces, saying, that "it 
was against the authority of scripture that in the church of Christ should hang the 
image of a man." And the same Epiphanius wrote unto the bishop of Jerusalem, 
that he should command the priests, that in no wise they should suffer such images 
to be hanged in the church of Christ, which were contrary "to our religion 6 . 

But peradventure you will marvel, and ask me the question, how it was brought 
to pass, that of late years all churches were so full of images, and so much offering 
and pilgrimages done unto them, if it were against the commandment of God, against 
the usage of all godly people in the old Testament, and also against the custom of 
Christ s church in the new Testament, so long as it was pure and holy, and kept 
from idolatry ? "Who was able to bring this to effect, contrary both to God s express 
commandment, and the custom of all godly people from the beginning of the world 
until four or five hundred years after Christ? No man surely could have wrought 
this thing so much contrary to God, but antichrist himself, that is to say, the bishop 
of Rome; to whom God hath given great power to work great wonders, to bring 
into error those that will not believe the truth. But by what means did he compass 
this matter? By such means as were most meet 7 for himself, and as he hath com 
monly practised in all other matters ; that is to say, by sedition and murder, by con 
federacies and persecutions, by raising the son against the father, the children against 
their mother, and the subjects against their rulers ; by deposing of emperors and princes, 
and murdering of learned men, saints and martyrs. For thus he wrought against the 



[ l Nor in the water, MS. C. C. C. C.] 
[ 2 Were set twox:herubims, Ibid.] 
[ 3 Never came, nor saw them, Ibid.] 
[ 4 The word " appear" is put in the C. C. C. C. 
MS. evidently by another hand.] 
[ 5 So much, MS. C. C. C. C.] 
[ 6 Praeterea quod audivi quosdam murmurare 
contra me, quia quando simul pergebamus ad sanc 
tum locum, qui vocatur Bethel, ut ibi collectam 
tecum ex more ecclesiastico facerem, et venissem 
ad villam, qua? dicitur Anablatha, vidissemque ibi 
praeteriens lucemam ardentem, et interrogassem, 
quis locus esset, didicissemque esse ecclesiam, et 
intrassem ut orarem ; inveni ibi velum pendens in 
foribus ejusdem ecclesiae tinctum atque depictum, 



et habens imaginem, quasi Christi, vel sancti cujus- 
dam : non enim satis memini, cujus imago fuerit. 
Cum ergo hoc vidissem, in ecclesia Christi contra 
auctoritatem scripturarum hominis pendere imagi 
nem, scidi illud, et magis dedi consilium custodibus 
ejusdem loci, ut pauperem mortuum eo absolverent 

et efferrent Nunc autem nisi quod potui reperire, 

et precor ut jubeas presbyteros ejusdem loci dein- 
ceps praecipere, in ecclesia Christi ejusmodi vela, 
quae contra religionem nostram veniunt, non ap- 
pendi. Epiphan. Epist. ad Joan. Episc. Hier. Tom. 
II. p. 317. Ed. Colon. 1682. Vid. Bingham s An 
tiquities of the Christian Church, Vol. II. Book 
vin. chap. viii. Sect, vi.] 

[ 7 A*was most meet, MS. C. C. C. C.J 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



179 



emperor 8 of the east parties from Gregory II. his time until Gregory III.*; who at 
length, after this condition 10 had endured above five hundred years, in a council held 
at Lyons, by feigned promises persuaded the emperor of the east to condescend to his 
purpose, as well to receive images into the churches, as to other his requests. But 
nevertheless the bishop of Rome failed of his purpose. For yet to this day the Christian 
men in the east do not allow images to stand in their churches ; neither the Greeks, 
nor the Armenians, nor the Indians, nor none 11 other Christian men. And, that more 
is, search all the world 12 throughout, of what religion soever they be, whether they 
be Jews, Turks, Saracens, Tartaries, or Christian people, and you shall not find an 
image in none of their churches, but that was brought in by the bishop of Rome, and 
where the bishop of Rome is, or within these forty years was, taken for the head of 
the church and Christ s vicar in earth. 

And at the beginning the bishops of Rome, to cloak their idolatry, pretended to have 
images set up only for a remembrance to laymen, and to be, as it were, laymen s books. 
But after, they defined plainly that these should be 13 worshipped. And so it increased 
at length, that images were kneeled unto, offered unto, prayed unto, sought unto, incensed 
and pilgrimages done unto them, and all manner of superstition and idolatry that could 
be devised. Almighty God knoweth our corrupt nature better than we do ourselves. 
He knoweth well the inclinations of man 14 , how much he is given to worship creatures 
and the works of his own hands ; and specially fond women, which commonly follow 
superstition rather than true religion. And therefore he utterly forbad the people the 
use of graven images, specially in places dedicated to the honour of God, knowing 
assuredly that of the having would follow the worshipping of them. 

Now (thanks be to God !) in this realm we be clearly delivered from that kind of 
idolatry, which most highly offended God, and we do according to the council Eleber- 
tirie, which ordained that no images should be in churches 15 . And this council is so 
ancient, that is was about the same year that Nicene council was. What should then 
move you to ask again your images in the church, being not only against God s com 
mandments, and the use of God s church evermore since the beginning of the world, 
when it was pure from idolatry, but also being chargeable to the realm, and great 
occasion of heinous idolatry, but that some papistical and covetous priests have per 
suaded you hereto? which care neither for God s honour 16 , nor your damnation, so 
that they may have any commodity or profit thereby. 

I have been very long in this article, and yet the matter is so large that it requireth 
much more to be spoken therein, which for shortness of time I am constrained to leave 
until a more occasion; and to come to your eighth article. 



YOUR EIGHTH ARTICLE IS THIS : 

" We will not receive the new service, because it is but like a Christmas game ; but 
we will have our old service of matins, mass, even-song, and procession in Latin, 
as it was before. And so we the Cornish men, whereof certain of us understand 
no English, utterly refuse this new English." 

As concerning the having of the service in the Latin tongue, is sufficiently spoken 
of in the answer to your third article. But I would gladly know the reason why the 
Cornish men 17 refuse utterly the new English, as you call it, because certain of you 
understand it not; and yet you will have the service in Latin, which almost none of 
you understand. If this be a sufficient cause for Cornwall to refuse the English service, 
because some of you 18 understand none English, a much greater cause have they, both 



[ 8 Against the empire, Ibid.] 

[ 9 Gregory IT. May 18, A. D. 715, to Feb. 20, 
A.D. 732. Gregory III. March 18, A.D. 732, to 
Nov. 27, A.D. 741. Vid. Mosheim s Eccl. Hist. 
Vol. II. Part ii. chap. iii. 11. pp. 154, 5, and 673. 
Ed. Lend. 1845.] 

[ 10 This contention, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ H Nor nor none, Ibid.] 

[ 12 Search the all world, Ibid.] 



[ 13 That they should be, Ibid.] 

[ 14 Inclination of man, Ibid.] 

[ 15 Placuit picturas in ecclesia esse non debere, 
ne quod colitur et adoratur, in parietibus depin- 
gatur. Concil. Eliberit. A. D. 305, cap. xxxvi. Labb. 
et Cossart. Tom. I. col. 974. Ed. Lutet. Paris. 107 1 .] 

[ 16 God s dishonour, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 17 Why you Cornish men, Ibid.] 

f 18 Some of them, Ibid.] 

122 



180 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



of Cornwall and Devonshire, to refuse utterly the late service 1 ; forasmuch as fewer of 
them know the Latin tongue than they of Cornwall 2 the English tongue. But where 
you say that you will have the old service, because the new is " like a Christmas game," 
you declare yourselves what spirit you be led withal, or rather what spirit leadeth them 
that persuaded you 3 that the word of God is but like a Christinas game. It is more 
like a game and a fond play to be laughed at of all men, to hear the priest speak aloud 
to the people in Latin, and the people listen with their ears 4 to hear; and some walking 
up and down in the church, some saying other 5 prayers in Latin, and none understandeth 
other. Neither the priest nor his parish 6 wot what they say. And many times the 
thing that the priest saith in Latin is so fond of itself, that it is more like a play than 
a godly prayer. 

But in the English service appointed to be read there is 7 nothing else but the 
eternal word of God : the new and the old Testament is read, that hath power 8 to save 
your souls ; which, as St Paul saith, " is the power of God to the salvation of all that 
believe;" the clear light to our eyes, without the which we cannot see; and a lantern 
unto our feet 9 , without which we should stumble in darkness. It is in itself the wisdom 
of God, and yet " to the Jews it is a stumblingblock, and to the Gentiles it is but fool 
ishness : but to such as be called of God, whether they be Jews or Gentiles, it is the 
power of God, and the wisdom of God." Then unto you if it be but foolishness and 
a Christmas game, you may discern yourselves what miserable state you be in, and 
how far you be from God. For St Paul saith plainly, that the word of God is foolish 
ness only to them that perish ; but to them that shall be saved it is God s might and 
power. To some it is a lively savour unto life, and to some it is a deadly savour unto 
death. If it be to you but a Christmas game, it is then a savour of death unto death. 
And surely persuade yourselves that you be not led with the Spirit of God, so long as 
the word of God savourcth no better unto you 10 , but seemeth unto you 11 a Christmas 
pastime, and foolishness. And therefore the old service pleaseth you better : which in 
many things is so foolish and so ungodly, that it seems rather 12 to be old wives tales and 
lies than to sound to any godliness. The devil is a liar, and the author of lies ; and they 
may think themselves governed rather of his spirit, than of God, when lies delight more 
than God s most true word. 

But this I judge rather of your leaders than of yourselves, who by ignorance be 
carried away by others 13 , you wot not whither. For when the service was in the Latin 
tongue, which you understood not, they might read to you truth or fables 14 , godly or 
ungodly things, as they pleased; but you 15 could not judge that you understood not. 
And what was the cause 16 why St Paul would have such languages spoken in the church 
as that people 17 might understand ? that they might learn and be edified thereby, and 
judge of that which should be spoken, whether it were according to God s word or not. 

But forasmuch as you understand not 18 the old Latin service, I shall rehearse some 
things in English that were wont 19 to be read .in Latin, that when you understand them, 
you may judge them whether they seem to be true tales, or fables ; and whether they 
or God s word seem to be more like plays and Christmas games. " The devil entered 
into a certain person, in whose mouth St Martin put his finger ; and because the devil 
could not get out at his mouth, the man blew him 20 out behind." This is one of 
the tales that was wont to be read in the Latin service, that you will needs have 
again. As though the devil had a body, and that so crass that he could not pass out 
by the small pores of the flesh, but must needs have a wide hole to go out at. Is this 



t 1 The Latin service, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 2 Them of Cornwall, Ibid.] 

[ 3 Persuaded to you, Ibid.] 

[ 4 Listen to some, Ibid.] 

[ 5 Some in the church, saying other, Ibid.] 

[ 6 Nor the parish, Ibid.] 

[ 7 Is there, Ibid. J 

[ 8 Old Testament, the word that hath, Ibid.] 

f 9 To our feet, Ibid.] 

[ 10 No better to you, Ibid.] 



[ n Seemeth to you, Ibid.] 

[ 12 Seemeth rather, Ibid.] 

I 13 By other, Ibid.] 

[ 14 Truths or fables, Ibid.] 

[ 15 For you, Ibid.] 

[ 16 And that was the cause, Ibid.] 

[ 17 As the people, Ibid.] 

[ 18 You understood not, Ibid.] 

f 19 Which were wont, Ibid.] 

[ 2f) Three words are omitted.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



181 



a grave and godly matter to be read in the church, or rather a foolish Christinas tale, or 
an old wives fable, worthy to be laughed at and scorned of every man that hath either 
wit or godly judgment? Yet more foolish, erroneous, and superstitious things be read 
in the feasts of St Blase, St Valentine, St Margaret, St Peter, of the Visitation of Our 
Lady, and the Conception, of the Transfiguration of Christ, and in the feast of Corpus 
Christi, and a great number mo : whereof some be most vain fables, some very super 
stitious, some directly against God s word, and the laws of this realm ; and all together 
be full of error and superstition. But as Christ commonly excused the simple people 
because of their ignorance, and justly condemned the scribes and Pharisees, which by 
their crafty persuasions led the people out of the right way; so I think not you so 
much to be blamed as those Pharisees and papistical priests, which, abusing your sim 
plicity, caused you to ask you wist not what, desiring rather to drink of the dregs of 
corrupt error, which you knew not, than of the pure and sweet wine of God s word, 
which you may and ought to understand. But now have I sufficiently spoke 21 of your 
eighth article : I will go forward unto the ninth. 



YOUR NINTH ARTICLE IS THIS : 

" We will have every preacher in his sermon, and every priest at the mass 22 , pray 
specially by name for the souls in purgatory, as our forefatliers did." 

To reason with you by learning, which be unlearned, it were but folly : therefore I 
will convince your article with very reason. First, tell me, I pray, if you can 23 , whether 
there be a purgatory or no ; and where, or what it is. And if you cannot tell, then I 
may tell you that you ask you wot not what. The scripture maketh mention of two 
places where the dead be received after this life, of heaven and of hell ; but of purgatory 
is not one word spoken. Purgatory was wont to be called a fire as hot as hell, but not 
so long during. But now the defenders of purgatory within this realm be ashamed so 
to say : nevertheless they say it is a third place ; but where or what it is, they confess 
themselves they cannot tell. And of God s word they have nothing to shew, neither 
where it is, nor what it is, nor that it is. But all is feigned of their own brains 24 , with 
out authority of scripture. 

I would ask of them then, wherefore it is, and to what use it serveth ? For if it be 
to no use, then it is a thing frustrate and in vain. Mary, say they, it is a place of 
punishment, whereby they be purged from their sins, that depart out of this life not 
fully purged before. I cannot tell whether this saying be more foolish 25 , or more con 
tumelious to Christ. For what can be more foolish than to say, that pains can wash sins 
out of the soul ? I do not deny but that corrections and punishments 26 in this life is a 
calling of men to repentance and amendment, and so to be purged by the blood of Christ. 
But correction without repentance can nothing avail ; and they that be dead be past the 
time of repentance; and so no correction or torments in purgatory can avail them. 
And what a contumely 27 and injury is this to Christ, to affirm that all have not 28 full 
and perfect purgation by his blood, that die in his faith ! Is not all our trust in the blood 
of Christ, that we be cleansed, purged, and washed thereby ? And will you have us now 
to forsake our faith in Christ, and bring us to the pope s purgatory to be washed therein ; 
thinking that Christ s blood is an imperfect lee or soap that washeth not clean ? If he 
shall die without mercy that treadeth Christ s blood under his feet, what is treading of 
his blood under our feet, if this be not ? But if according to the catholic faith, which 
the holy scripture teacheth, and the prophets, apostles, and martyrs confirmed with their 
blood, all the faithful that die in the Lord be pardoned of all their offences by Chri&t, 
and their sins be clearly sponged and washed away by his blood ; shall they after be cast 
into another strong and grievous prison of purgatory, there to be punished again for 



[ 21 Sufficiently be spoken, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[* At his mass, Ibid.] 

[- 3 I pray you, if you can, Ibid.] 

[ Their own brain, Ibid.] 



[ M Be more foolishness, Ibid.] 
[ 26 But correction and punishment, Ibid.] 
[ 27 And how great a contumely, Ibid.] 
f ea All they have not, Ibid.J 



182 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



that which was pardoned before ? God hath promised by his word, that the souls of the 
just 1 be in God s hand, and no pain shall touch them : and again he saith, " Blessed 
be they that die in the Lord. For the Spirit of God saith, that from henceforth they 
shall rest from their pains." And Christ .himself saith : " He that believeth in him that 
sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come to judgment, but shall pass from death 
unto life." And is God no truer of his promises a but to punish that which he promiseth 
to pardon ? Consider the matter by your own cases. If the king s majesty should pardon 
your offences, and after would cast you into prison, would you think that he had well 
observed his promise ? For what is to pardon your offences, but to pardon the punish 
ment for the same? If the king would punish 3 you, would you take that for a pardon ? 
Would you not allege your pardon, and say that you ought not to be punished ? Who 
can then, that hath but a crumb of reason in his head, imagine of God that he will after 
our death punish those things that he pardoned in our life-time ? 

Truth it is that scripture maketh mention of paradise and Abraham s bosom after 
this life ; but those be places of joy and consolation, not of pains and torments. But 
yet I know what subtle sophisters use to mutter in men s ears to deceive them withal. 
David, say they 4 , with many other, were pardoned of their offences, and yet were 
they sore punished after for the same of God ; and some of them so long as they lived. 
Well, be it it were so. Yet after their lives they were not punished in purgatory there 
fore : but the end of their lives was the end of their punishment. And likewise it is 
of original sin after baptism, which although it be pardoned, yet after-pains 6 thereof 
continue so long as we live. But this punishment in this life- time 6 is not to revenge our 
original sin, which is pardoned in baptism, but to make us humble, penitent, obedient 
to God, fearful to offend, to know ourselves, and ever to stand in fear and awe ; as, if a 
father that hath beaten a wilful child for his faults should hang the rod continually at 
the child s girdle, it should be no small pain and grief to the child, ever hanging by his 
side : and yet the father doth it not to beat the child for that which is past and for 
given; but to make him beware hereafter that he offend not again, and to be gentle, 
tractable, obedient, and loath to do any thing amiss. But after this life there is no such 
cause of punishment; where no rod nor whip can force any man to go any faster or 
farther, being already at the end of his journey. Likewise a master that hath an unthrifty 
servant, which out of his master s sight doth nothing but riot and disorder himself, if he 
forgive his servant, and for the love he beareth to him, and the desire he hath to see him 
corrected and reformed, he will command him never to be out of his sight, this com 
mand 7 , although indeed it be a great pain to the servant, yet the master doth it not to 
punish those faults, which before he had pardoued and forgiven, but to keep him in stay, 
that he fall no mo to like disorder. But these examples and cases of punishment here 
in this life can in no wise be wrested and drawn to the life to come ; and so in no wise 
can serve for purgatory. 

And furthermore, seeing that the scriptures so often and so diligently teach us, almost 
in every place, to relieve all them that be in necessity, to feed the hungry, to clothe the 
naked, to visit the sick and the prisoner 8 , to comfort the sorrowful, and so to all others 9 
that have need of our help ; and the same in no place make mention 10 either of such 
pains in purgatory, or what comfort we may do them ; it is certain that the same is 
feigned for lucre, and not grounded upon God s word. For else the scripture in some 
place would have told us plainly what case they stood in that be in purgatory, and what 
relief and help we might do unto them. But forasmuch 11 as God s words speak eth not 
one word of neither of them both, my counsel shall be, that you keep not the bishop of 
Rome s decrees that you may come to purgatory, but keep God s laws that you may 
come to heaven : or else I promise you assuredly that you shall never escape hell. Now 
to your next article. 



[ r Of the Jews, Strype.j 

[ 2 Of his promise, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 3 Pardon, Strype.] 

[ 4 David, they say, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 5 Yet certain pains, Ibid.] 

[ 6 In our life-time, Ibid.] 



[ 7 This commandment, Ibid.] 
[ 8 The prisoners, Ibid.] 
[ 9 To all other, Ibid.] 
I 10 In no place maketh mention, Ibid.] 
[ n So MS. C. C. C. C. Strype, But as for 
such.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



183 



YOUR TENTH ARTICLE IS THIS: 

" We will have the bible, and all books of scripture in English, to be called in again. 
For we be informed that otherwise the clergy shall not of long time confound the 
heretics." 

Alas ! it grievoth me to hear your articles ; and much I rue and lament your igno 
rance; praying God most earnestly once to lighten your eyes that you my see the truth 12 . 
"What Christian heart would not be grieved to see you so ignorant, (for willingly and 
wilfully, I trust, you do it not,) that you refuse Christ, and join yourselves with anti 
christ ? You refuse the holy bible and all holy scriptures so much, that you will have 
them called in again; and the bishop of Rome s decrees you will have advanced and 
observed. I may well say to you as Christ said to Peter, " Turn back again, for you 
savour not godly things." As many of you as understand no Latin cannot know God s 
word but in English, except it be the Cornish men, which cannot understand likewise 
none but their own speech. Then you must be content to have it in English, which you 
know, or else you must confess that you refuse utterly the knowledge thereof. And 
wherefore did the Holy Ghost come down [[among the apostles 13 ] in fiery tongues, and 
gave them knowledge of all languages, but that all nations might hear, speak, and learn 
God s word in their mother-tongue ? And can you name me any Christians in all the 
world 14 , but they have, and ever had 15 , God s word in their own tongue ? And the Jews, 
to whom God gave his scriptures in the Hebrew tongue, after their long captivity among 
the Chaldees, so that mo of them knew the Chaldee rather than the Hebrew 16 tongue, 
they caused the scripture to be turned into the Chaldee tongue, that they might under 
stand it : which until this day is called Targum. And Ptolemy, king of Egypt, caused 
sixty [[seventy] of the greatest clerks that might be gotten to translate the scripture out 
of Hebrew into Greek. And until this day the Greeks have it in the Greek tongue, the 
Latins in the Latin tongue, and all other nations in their own tongue. And will you 
have God farther from us than from all other countries ; that he shall speak to every man 
in his own language that he understandeth and was born in, and to us shall speak a 
strange language that we understand not ? And will you that all other realms shall laud 
God in their own speech, and we shall say to him we know not what ? 

Although you savour so little of godliness that you list not to read his word your 
selves, you ought not to be so malicious and envious to let them that be more godly, and 
would gladly read it to their comfort and edification. And if there be an English 
heretic, how will you have him confuted but in English? and whereby else but by 
God s word ? Then it folio weth, that to confute English heretics we must needs have 
God s word in English, as all other nations have it in their own native language. St Paul 
to the Ephesians teacheth all men, as well laymen as priests, to arm themselves, and to 
fight against all adversaries with God s word ; without the which we cannot be able to 
prevail, neither against subtle heretics, puissant devils, this deceitful world, nor our own 
sinful flesh. And therefore, until God s word came to light, the bishop of Rome, under 
the prince of darkness, reigned quietly in the world, and his heresies were received and 
allowed for the true catholic faith. And it can none otherwise be but that heresies must 
reign where the light of God s word driveth not away our darkness. 



YOUR ELEVENTH ARTICLE IS THIS: 



" We will have Dr Moreman and Dr Crispin 17 , which hold our opinions, to be safely 
sent unto us; and to them we require tlie king s majesty to give some certain 
livings, to preach among us our catholic faith." 



[ 12 See his truth, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 13 In C. C. C. C. MS. but not in Strype.] 

[ u Any Christian nation in all the world, Ibid.] 



[ 15 And ever have had, Ibid.] 

[ 16 The Chaldee than the Hebrew, Ibid.J 

17 of Crispin," Strype says, " I find little, but 



184 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



If you be of Moreman s and Crispin s faith, I like you much the worse. For " like 
lettuce, like lips." And to declare you plainly the qualities of Crispin and Moreman, 
and how unmeet men they be to be your teachers, they be persons very ignorant in God s 
word, and yet thereto very wilful, crafty, and full of dissimulation. For if they were 
profoundly learned, and of sincere judgments, as they be not, they might be godly 
teachers of you. Or if they were not toto wilful, and standing wholly in their own con 
ceits, they might learn and be taught of others 1 . But now they be so wilful that they 
will not learn, and so ignorant that they cannot teach, and so full of craft and hypocrisy 
that they be able to deceive you all, and to lead you into error after themselves. So 
that if you ask them, you ask your own poison. Now if a man were in such a sick 
ness that he longed for poison, (as many diseases desire things most noyful unto them,) 
yet it were not the part of a good physician to give it unto them. No more is it the 
office of a most godly prince to give you such teachers (although you long never so 
sore for them) as he knoweth would corrupt you, feeding you rather with sour and 
unwholesome leaven of Romish pharisaical doctrine, than with the sweet, pure, and whole 
some bread of God s heavenly word. And where you would have God s word in English 
destroyed, and Crispin and Moreman delivered unto you, you do even as the people of 
the Jews did ; which cried out that Christ might be crucified, and that Barabbas, the 
strong thief, might be delivered unto them. 



YOUR TWELFTH ARTICLE IS THIS: 

" We think it very meet, because the lord cardinal Pole is of the king s blood 2 , that 
Tie should not 3 only have his pardon, but also be sent for to Rome, and promoted 
to be of the Mny s council." 

In this article I will answer no more but this : If ever any cardinal or legate were 
beneficial unto this realm, we may have some hope of some other to follow his steps : 
but if all that ever were in this realm were pernicious and hurtful unto the same, I know 
not why we should be with child to long for any mo. For by the experience of them 
that have been heretofore, we may conjecture of them that be to come. And I fear me 
that cardinal Pole would follow rather the whole race of the rest, than to begin a better 
of himself. Surely I have read a book of his making 4 , which whosoever shall read, if 
he have a true heart to our late sovereign lord king Henry VIII, or to this realm, he will 
judge cardinal Pole neither worthy to dwell in this realm, nor yet to live. For he doth 



that he was once proctor of the university of Oxon, 
and doctor of the faculty of physic, and of Oriel 
college. Moreman was beneficed in Cornwall in king 
Henry s time, and seemed to go along with that king 
in his steps of reformation, and was observed to be 
the first that taught his parishioners the creed, the 
Lord s prayer, and the ten commandments in Eng 
lish ; yet shewing himself in the next king s reign 
a zealot for the old superstitions. Hence we per 
ceive the reason why the archbishop charged him to 
be a man full of craft and hypocrisy. In queen 
Mary s time he was for his popish merits preferred to 
be dean of Exeter, and was coadjutor to the bishop 
(Voisey )ofthat diocese. "Vid.Strype sMem. of Abp. 
Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 265, 6. Ed. Oxon. 1840. " But 
it may be doubted whether Strype has not confused 
Richard and Edmund Crispin, both of Oriel college, 
and both proctors of the university of Oxford." Vid. 
Dr Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. IV. 
p. 238. Moreman was engaged in the disputation 
in the con vocation -house about the real presence, 
on the day of the third session, Oct. 23, 1553. 
Vid. Foxe s Acts and Monuments, p. 1411. Ed. 



Lond. 1583. Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. Vol. II. 
pp. 529, 532, Ed. Oxon. 1829.] 

[ Of other, C. C. C. C.MS.] 

[ 2 " He was of the blood royal, and cousin-ger- 
main to the king, (Henry VIII.) by both the houses 
of York and Lancaster, being by his mother de 
scended from the duke of Clarence, brother to king 
Edward IV. ;" and was " educated with princely 
munificence by him." Vid. Collier s Eccl. Hist. 
Vol. IV. p. 389. Ed. Lond. 1840, 41. Burnet s 
Hist, of Reformat. Vol. I. p. 444.] 

[ 3 Blood, should not, MS. C. C. C. C.] 

[ 4 The book is entitled by Strype and Collier, 
" De Unione Ecclesiastica," by Burnet, " De Unitate 
Ecclesiastica," and was written against Henry s 
divorce from Queen Katherine, and his assuming the 
supremacy. It was completed in March, 1535, but 
not published till twelve months afterwards. Vid. 
Collier and Burnet, ut supra ; and Strype s Memorials 
of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. pp. 63, 4. Todd s 
Life of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 132. Ed. Lond. 
1831.] 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 185 

extend all his wits and eloquence in that book to persuade the bishop of Rome, the 
emperor, the French king, and all other princes, to invade this realm by force. And sure 
I am, that if you have him, you must have the bishop of Rome also : for the cardinal 
cannot be a subject, but where the other is his head. This sufficeth briefly to this 
article. 

YOUR THIRTEENTH ARTICLE IS THIS: 

" We will that no gentleman sJiall have any mo servants than one to wait upon him, 
except he may dispend one hundred mark land. And for every hundred mark we 
think it reasonable he should have a man." 

Yet have you not foreseen one thing, you wise disposers of the commonwealth. For 
if a gentleman of an hundred mark land 5 (who by your order must have but one 
servant, except he might spend two hundred marks) should send that one servant to 
London, you have not provided who shall wait upon him until his servant come home 
again. Nor you have not provided where every gentleman may have one servant that 
can do all things necessary for him. I fear me the most part of you that devised this 
article, (whom I take to be loiterers and idle unthrifts,) if you should serve a gentleman, 
he should be fain to do all things himself, for any thing that you could or would do for 
him. But one thing methink very strange : for where much complaint is made of divers 
gentlemen, because they keep not houses, you provide by your order that no gentleman 
shall keep house, but all shall sojourn with other men. For who can keep an household 
with one servant, or with two servants, after the rate of two hundred marks, or with 
three, after the rate of three hundred, and so upward ? For here, it seems 6 , you be 
very desirous to make gentlemen rich : for after this proportion every gentleman may 
iv UD clearly in his coffers at the least the one half of his yearly revenue, and much 
more. 

But it was not for good mind that you bare to the gentlemen, that you devised this 
article ; but it appeareth plainly that you devised it to diminish their strength, and to 
take away their friends, that you might command gentlemen at your pleasures. But 
you be much deceived in your account. For although by your appointment they lacked 
household servants, yet shall they not lack tenants and farmers : which, if they do their 
duties, will be as assured to their lords as their own household servants. For of those 
lands, which they have or hold of their lords, they have their whole livings for themselves, 
their wives, children, and servants. And for all these they attend their own business, 
and wait not upon their lords but when they be called thereto. But the household 
servant, leaving all his own business, waiteth daily and continually upon his master s 
service ; and for the same hath no more but meat and drink and apparel for himself only : 
so that all tenants and farmers, which know their duties, and be kind to their lords, will 
die and live with them, no less than their own household servants. Therefore I would 
wish you to put this phantasy out of your heads, and this article out of your book, as 
well for the unreasonableness as for the ungodliness thereof. 

For was it ever seen in any country since the world began, that the commons did 
appoint the nobles and gentlemen the number of their servants ? Standeth it with any 
reason to turn upside down 7 the good order of the whole world, that is every where, 
and ever hath been, that is to say, the commoners to be governed by the nobles, and the 
servants by their masters? Will you now have 8 the subjects to govern their king, the 
villains to rule the gentlemen, and the servants their masters ? If men would suffer this, 
God will not ; but will take vengeance of all them that will break his order, as lie did 
of Dathan and Abiram : although for a time he be a God of much sufferance, and 
hideth his indignation under his mercy, that the evil of themselves may repent, and see 
their own folly. 

P Of an hundred pounds land, MS. C.C.C.C.] I \ 7 To turn upso down, Ibid. J 
f 6 But here it seemeth, Ibid.] [ 8 Will you have now, Ibid.] 



186 



ANSWER TO THE FIFTEEN ARTICLES 



YOUR FOURTEENTH ARTICLE IS THIS: 

" We will that the lialf part of the abbey-lands and chantry-lands in every man s 
possession, hoivever he came by them, be given again to two places, where two of 
the chief abbeys were 1 within every county; where such half part shall be taken 
out, and tliere to be estdblislied a place for devout persons, which shall pray for 
the king and the commonwealth. And to the same we ivill have all tlie alms of 
the church-box given for these seven years" 

At the beginning you pretended that you meant nothing against the king s majesty, 
but now you open yourselves plainly to the world that you go about to pluck the crown 
from his head ; and, against all justice and equity, not only to take from him such lands 
as be annexed unto his crown, and be parcel of the same, but also against all right and 
reason to take from all other men such lands as they came to by most just title, by gift, 
by sale, by exchange, or otherwise. There is no respect nor difference had amongst you, 
whether they came to them by right or by wrong. Be you so blind that you cannot see 
how justly you proceed to take the sword in your hands against your prince, and to 
dispossess just inheritors without any cause? Christ would not take upon him to judge 
the right and title of lands between two brethren ; and you arrogantly presume not only 
to judge, but unjustly to take away all men s right titles ; yea, even from the king him 
self. And do you not tremble for fear that the vengeance of God shall fall upon you, 
before you have grace to repent ? And yet you, not contented with this your rebellion, 
would have your shameful act celebrated with a perpetual memory, as it were to boast 
and glory of your iniquity. For, in memory of your fact, you would have stablished in 
every county two places to pray for the king and the commonwealth : whereby your 
abominable behaviour at this present may never be forgotten, but be remembered unto 
the world s end; that when the king s majesty was in wars both with Scotland and 
France, you, under pretence of the commonwealth, rebelled, and made so great sedition 
against him within his own realm, as never before was heard of. And therefore you must 
be prayed for for ever, in every county of this realm. 

It were more fit for you 2 to make humble supplication upon your knees to the king s 
majesty, desiring him not only to forgive you this fault, but also that the same may never 
be put in chronicle nor writing ; and that neither shew nor mention may remain to your 
posterity, that ever subjects were so unkind to their prince, and so ungracious towards 
God, that, contrary to God s word, they should so use 3 themselves against their sovereign 
lord and king. And this I assure you of, that if all the whole world should pray for you 
until doomsday, their prayers should no more avail you than they should avail the devils 
in hell, if they prayed for them, unless you be so penitent and sorry for your disobedience, 
that you will ever after, so long as you live, study to redub 4 and recompense the same 
with all true and faithful obedience, not only yourselves, but also procuring all other, so 
much as lieth in you ; and so much detesting such uproars and seditions, that if you see 
any man towards any such things, you will to your power resist him, and open him unto 
such governors and rulers as may straightway 6 repress the same. As for your last 
article, thanks be to God, it needeth not to be answered, which is this. 



YOUR LAST ARTICLE IS THIS: 



For the particular griefs of our country, we will have them so ordered, as Humphry 
Arundel and Henry Bray, the Icing s mayor of Bodman, shall inform the king s 
majesty, if they may have safe conduct under the Icing s great seal to pass and 
repass with an lierald ofarms Q ." 



[ Abbeys was, C. C. C. C. MS.] 

[ s More meet for you, Ibid.] 

[ 3 Would so use, Ibid.] 

[ 4 Redub : repair, or make amends for.] 



[ 5 As may straightways, C. C. C. C. MS.] 
[ 6 "Humphry Arundel, the leader of the ten 
thousand Devonshire rebels, was of good family, 
and governor of St Michael s Mount. He was sent 



OF THE REBELS, DEVON. 



187 



Who ever heard such arrogancy in subjects, to require and will of their princes, that 
their own particular causes may be ordered, neither according to reason, nor the laws of 
this realm, but according to the information of two most heinous traitors ? "Was it ever 
heard before this time, that an information should be a judgment, although the informer 
were of never so great credit ? and will you have suffice the information of two villainous 
papistical traitors? You will deprive the king of his lands 7 pertaining to his crown, and 
other men of their just possessions and inheritance, and judge your own causes as you list 
yourselves. And what can you be called then but most wicked judges, and most errant 
traitors ? except only ignorance or force may excuse you ; that either you were constrained 
by your captains 8 against your wills, or deceived by blind priests and other crafty per 
suaders, to ask you wist not what. How much then ought you to detest and abhor such 
men hereafter, and to beware of all such like, so long as you live; and to give most 
humble and hearty thanks unto God, who hath made an end of this article, and brought 
Arundel and Bray to that they have deserved ; that is, perpetual shame, confusion, and 
death ! Yet I beseech God so to extend his grace unto them, that they may die well 
which have lived ill. Amen. 



to London after being for some time confined at 
Exeter, and there executed. Bray was mayor of 
Bodmin, in Cornwall." Dr Jenkyns (Remains of 
Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 244) remarks that "at 
tempts, it is said, were made to exculpate the mayor 
of Bodmin, on the ground of his having been 
forced into the insurrection against his will. As if 
this defence had been successful, Sir Anthony King 
ston, provost-marshal of the army, appointed a day 
for dining with him. Having been c right heartily 
welcomed, he after dinner expressed a wish to see a 
pair of gallows, which he had desired his host to 
erect. On coming thither and beholding them, he 
said to the mayor, Think you, master mayor, that 
they be strong enough? Yea, sir, quoth he, 
that they are. Well then, said Sir Anthony, get 
you even up unto them, for they are provided for 
you. The mayor, greatly abashed herewith, said, 
I trust you mean no such thing to me. Sir, 
said he, there is no remedy ye have been a busy 
rebel, and therefore this is appointed for your re 
ward. And so without respite or stay there was the 
mayor hanged. But Boyer, and not Bray, is the 
name given by Holinshed to this victim of King 
ston s cruel pleasantry. It may therefore be doubted 
whether he is correctly described as mayor of Bod 
min. The story perhaps may apply to another 
person named Boyer, who is said by Strype to have 



suffered death among the rebel leaders." See 
Strype s Eccl. Mem. Vol. II. Part i. p. 281. Ed. 
Oxon. 1822. Holinshed s Chronicles, Vol. III. 
pp. 1006, 1026.] 

[7 Of the lands, C. C. C. C. MS.] 

[ 8 " Of whom the chief gentlemen captains were, 
Humfrey Arundell, Esquire, governor of the mount, 
James Rosogan, John Rosogan, John Payne, Tho 
mas Underfill, John Soleman, William Segar. Of 
priests which were principal stirrers, and some of 
them governors of the camps, and after executed, 
were to the number of eight, whose names were 
Rob. Bochim, John Tompson, Roger Barret, John 
Wolcocke, Wil. Asa, James Mourton, John 
Barow, Rich. Benet ; besides a multitude of other 
popish priests, which to the same faction were ad 
joined. The number of the whole rebellion, speak 
ing with the least, mounted little less than to the 
sum of ten thousand stout traitors." Foxe s Acts 
and Monuments, p. 1305. Ed. Lond. 1583. " Their 
names were Arundel, Pomeroy, Coffin, Winslade, 
Rosogan, Holmes, Bury, Underhil, Soleman, Segar, 
Boyer, Lee, two mayors, Pain, Maunder, Ashridge, 
Thompson, Baret, Bocham, Wolcock, Alsa, Mor 
ton, Welsh, Barrow, Benet ; which last-recited nine 
were priests." See Strype s Eccl. Mem. Vol. II. 
Part i. p. 281.] 



188 

[THE ARCHBISHOP S NOTES 

FOR A HOMILY AGAINST REBELLION 1 .] 



c.c.c.c. 

MSS. cii. 
pp. 529 534. 
Strvpe s 
Mem. of 
Abp. Cran- 
mer, Vol. ii. 
App. No. 41. 
pp. 84(1 -2. 
Ed. Oxon. 
184U. 



Sentences of the Scripture against Sedition. 

1 Cor. iii. Cum sit inter vos zelus et contentio, nonne carnales estis^ et sicnt homines 
ambulatis ? 

1 Cor. vi. Quare non magis injuriam accipitis ? Quare non magis fraudem 
patimini ? 

Jac. iii. Si zelum amarum habetis, et contentions sint in cordilus vestris, Sfc. non 
cst ista sapientia dcsursum desccndens a Patre luminum, sed terrena, animalis, diabolica. 
Uli enim zelus ct contentio, ibi inconstantia et omne opus malum 2 ^ $c. \_Qucv autem 
dcsursum cst sapientia, primum quidem pudica est, deinde pacifica, modesta, suadibilis, fyc. 
Fructus autem justiticc in pace seminatur facientilus pacem.~] 3 

Jac. iv. Unde bella et lites inter vos 4 ? Nonne ex concupiscentiis vestris, quce mili 
tant in membris vestris ? 

How God hath plagued sedition in time past. 

Numb, xvi. 5 Dathan and Abiram, for their sedition against Moses and Aaron, did 
miserably perish by God s just judgment, the earth opening and swallowing them down 
quick. 

2 Reg. [Samuel] xv. and xviii. Absalom, moving sedition against David, did 
miserably perish likewise. 

2 Reg. [Samuel] xx. Seba for his sedition against David lost his head. 

3 Reg. [1 Kings] i. and ii. Adonias also for his sedition against Solomon was 
slain. 

Acts viii. Judas and Theudas for their sedition were justly slain. 
Acts xxi. An Egyptian likewise, which moved the people of Israel to sedition, 
received that he deserved. 

Tumults in England. Jack Cade. Jack Straw. 

In Germany for their sedition w r ere slain almost in one month about two hundred 
thousand. 

The sword by God s word pertaineth not to subjects, but only to magistrates. 

Though the magistrates be evil, and very tyrants against the commonwealth, and 
enemies to Christ s religion ; yet the subjects must obey in all worldly things, as the 
Christians do under the Turk, and ought so to do, so long as he commandeth them not do 
against God. 

How ungodly then it is 6 for our subjects to take the sword, where there reigneth a 
most Christian prince, most desirous to reform all griefs ! 



f 1 "The archbishop procured sermons to be 
made against the rebellion;" one was made by Peter 
Martyr, and another written by M. Bucer against 
the sedition ; and " an office of fasting was com 
posed for this rebellion, which, being allayed in the 
west, grew more formidable in Norfolk and York 
shire. For I find a prayer composed by the arch- 
bishop, with these words preceding: The exhorta 
tion to penance, or the supplication may end with 
this or some other like prayer. And then the 



prayer followeth* After this follow some rude 

draughts, written by archbishop Cranmer s own 
hand, for the composing, as 1 suppose, of an homily 
or homilies to be used for the office aforesaid." 
Strype s Mem. of Cranmer, Vol. I. pp. 266, 8, 9.] 

[ 2 Opus pravum, C. C. C. C. MS.] 

[ 3 This passage is not in Strype. | 

[ 4 In vobis, C. C. C. C. MS.] 

[ 5 Num. 18. Strype.] 

[ 6 Ungodly is it then, C. C. C. C. MS.] 



* Vid. end of Sermon concerning time of Rebellion, p. 202. 



NOTES ON REBELLION. 



189 



Subjects ought to make humble suit to their prince for reformation of all injuries, and 
not to come with force. 

The sword of the subjects at this present cometh not of God, nor for the commonweal 
of the realm ; but of the devil, and destroyeth the commonweal. 

First, For that it is against the word of God. 

Secondly, For that they raise so many lies ; whereof the devil is ever the author. 
Quia mendax est et pater ejus. 

Thirdly, For that they spoil and rob men, and command every man to come to them, 
and to send to them what they please. 

Fourthly, For that they let the harvest, which is the chief sustentation of our life, 
and God of his goodness hath sent it abundantly ; and they by their folly do cause it to 
be lost and abandoned. 

Fifthly, For that they be led by rage and fury, without reason; have no respect 7 
neither of the king s authority 8 ; nor of the papists in the west country ; nor of our affairs 
in France, nor Scotland ; which by their sedition is so much hindered, that there could not 
be imagined so great a damage to the realm. 

Sixthly, That they give commandments in the king s name, and in pain of death, 
having none authority so to do. 

Ever against God the devil hath raised sedition. 

As appcareth by the sedition of Dathan and Abiram ; and all the murmurations of 
the children of Israel against Moses and Aaron. 

Also, of the conspiracy 9 against Zorobabel in the re-edifying of the temple. 

Also, against Christ and his apostles, in sundry parts of the world. 

Also, in Germany lately, and now among us. For the devil can abide no right 
reformation in religion. 

Civil war is the greatest scourge that can be, and most certain argument of God s 
indignation against us for our ingratitude ; that we either will not receive his true word, 
or that they which receive the same dishonour God in their living, when they pretend to 
honour him with their mouths. Which ingratitude and contumely God can in no wise 
bear at our hands. 

The remedies to avert God s indignation from us is to receive his word, and to live 
according thereunto, returning unto God with prayer and penance. Or else surely 
more grievous affliction shall follow, if more grievous may be than civil war among 
ourselves. 

The chief authors of all these tumults be idle and naughty people, which nothing have, 
nor nothing or little will labour to have ; that will riot in expending, but not labour in 
getting. 

And these tumults first were excitated by the papists and others which came from 
the western camp, to the intent, that by sowing division among ourselves we should 
not be able to impeach them 10 . 



[ 7 Having no respect, Ibid.] 

[ 8 King s minority, Ibid.] 

f 9 Of the conspiracies, Ibid.] 

[ 10 The allusion is probably to the rebellion at 



Wymondham, in Norfolk, and Norwich, headed by 
Ket, the tanner. Vid. Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. 
Vol. II. pp. 242, 3. Ed. Oxon. 1829.] 



190 

A SERMON 

CONCERNING THE TIME OF REBELLION 1 . 



c.c.c.c. THE common sorrow of this present time 2 , dearly beloved brethren in Christ, if I 

PP. 409-499. should be more led thereby, than by reason and zeal to my country, would move me 
rather to hold my peace, than to speak. For the great evils, which we now suffer at 
this present time, are to be bewailed with tears and silence, rather than with words. And 
hereunto I might allege for me the example of Job, who when he came to his extreme 
misery, he lying upon a dunghill, and three of his friends sitting upon the ground by him, 
for the space of seven days for great sorrow not one of them opened his mouth to speak a 
word to another. If then the miserable state of Job, like a most hard and sharp bit, 
stopped his mouth from speaking, and the lamentable case of their friend stayed those 
three men, being of speech most eloquent, that they could not utter their words ; surely 
it seemeth that I have a much more cause to be still and hold my peace. For there was 
the piteous lamentation of no mo but of one man, or one household, and that only con 
cerning temporal and worldly substance ; but we have cause to bewail a whole realm, and 
that most noble, which lately being in that state, that all other realms envied our wealth 
and feared our force, is now so troubled, so vexed, so tossed and deformed, (and that by 
sedition among ourselves, of such as be members of the same,) that nothing is left un- 
attempted to the utter ruin and subversion thereof. And besides this, the eternal punish 
ment of God threateneth sore as well the authorers and procurers of these seditions, as all 
other that join themselves unto them. So that we be constrained day and night to bewail 
the decay, not only of a worldly kingdom and most noble realm, but also the eternal 
damnation of innumerable souls. 

These reasons perchance might move some men to be quiet and hold their peace ; but me 
they do not so much move, which know right well that our common sorrow and lament 
able state cannot be remedied with silence, nor good counsel can be given with holding 
my peace. Now therefore, in this common sorrow, I know nothing that is more able to 
suage our griefs, and to comfort our heaviness, than is the word of God. For as the sun 
many times with his beams driveth away great thick and dark clouds, and stayeth great 
storms of winds ; so doth the light of God s word stay men s minds, bringing them from 



[* Dr Jenkyns supposes that, u although this 
sermon has been placed among Cranmer s works, his 
claim to it is not indisputable." It is here printed 
from the C. C. C. C. MS. written by a secretary, 
but corrected throughout by the archbishop ; re 
specting which the following memorandum at the 
commencement of the MS. has been left by arch 
bishop Parker: "Hie sermo prius descriptus Latine 
a Petro Martyre." The Latin sermons referred 
to are found in the same collection, CCCXL, Arti 
cles 4 and 6. The English sermon is founded on 
the two in Latin by P. Martyr, but is not a trans 
lation of them, sentences being omitted and new 
matter added. They contain " descriptions of the 
disturbed state of the country, and of the angry 
feelings existing between the gentry and the lower 
orders." Both the Latin and English sermons con 
tain the same topics and examples as the rough 
notes of the archbishop*. Dr Jenkyns conjectures 
that " Cranmer placed these brief notes in the hands 
of P. Martyr, to be expanded into a regular homily ; 
and that afterwards, from the materials thus pre 



pared in Latin, he drew up the English sermon 
which follows." It is probably the same " which 
Burnet says was preached by Cranmer on a fast- 
day at court, and which he saw at C. C. C. C. 
under the archbishop s own hand, being the only 
sermon of his that he ever saw." He was un 
doubtedly mistaken with respect to the hand-writing, 
and he gives no authority for the rest of his state 
ment, which the expressions of the concluding prayer 
somewhat corroborate. Strype appears to think a 
" fast-day was appointed on account of the insurrec 
tions, that the archbishop directed sermons on the 
occasion to be composed for the curates to read to 
the people, and that this was one of them which 
was printed for common use." See note, p. 188. 
Strype s Mem.of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. pp. 2668. 
Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. Vol. II. Part i. p. 242, 
and Part n. pp. 23941. App. B. i. No. 36. Jen 
kyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 248.] 
[ 2 This sermon was probably directed against 
the Norfolk rebellion headed by Ket. Vid. p. 189. 
n. 10.] 



* Vid. p. 188. 



A SERMON ON REBELLION. 



191 



trouble to quietness, from darkness to brightness, from heaviness and desperation to glad 
ness, joy, and comfort. Wherefore I most humbly beseech Almighty God to grant me 
by his Spirit, that out of holy scripture I may plainly set out before your eyes the 
principal causes of all these tumults and seditions : for if the causes be once known, it 
shall be the more easy to provide remedy therefore. 

The general cause of all these commotions is sin, and under Christian profession un 
christian living. But there be also certain special causes, of the which some pertain both 
to the high and lower sort, as well to the governors as to the common people; some 
appertain only to the people ; and some again only to the governors and rulers. 3 And of 
them I will first begin to speak. 

The governors and rulers be ordained of God (as St Paul declareth in his epistle to the 
Romans) for this intent and purpose, that they should be God s officers and ministers 
here in earth, to encourage and advance them that be good, and to rebuke and correct in the g- 
those that be evil. 

But herein, O good Lord, be merciful unto us ; for we have been too remiss in punish 
ing offenders, and many things we have winked at. We have suffered perjury, blasphemy, 
and adultery, slandering and lying, gluttony and drunkenness, vagabonds and idle persons, 
either lightly punished, or else not punished at all ; either thinking this clemency for the 
time expedient for the commonwealth, or else not duly weighing how grievous those 
offences be in the sight of God. And whilst we lacked this right judgment of God s 
wrath against sin, lo ! suddenly cometh upon us this scourge of sedition, the rod of God s 
wrath, to teach us how sore God hateth all wickedness, and is displeased with his 
ministers that wink thereat. For except we be duller than stocks and stones, we must 
needs feel that this plague is the grievous scourge of God for our offences, that we have 
suffered too much them that have offended against his most holy name. We have dis- 
simuled the matter, we have been cold in God s cause, and have rather winked at than 
punished the contempt both of God and his laws. 

And this surely is one great cause, wherefore we suffer worthily this plague of God. 
Heli suffered his children too much, and was too soft in chastising of them, when they 
sinned against God ; but that his softness was the destruction of him, his children, and of 
a great number also of the people of Israel. David, because in time he did not correct his 
three sons Amon, Absolon, and Adonias, he lost them all three, and was in great danger 
to be destroyed by them himself. And if the perils of this most chosen king of God do 
little move us, let us call to our remembrance, I pray you, the plague of God against the 
whole tribe of Benjamin, because they let pass unpunished the abominable abusing of the 
Levite s wife; whereof followed that the whole tribe of Benjamin was almost utterly 
destroyed ; for there was slain of them above twenty-five thousand, and there was left 
alive of the whole tribe no mo but six hundred. Consider, I pray you, by this example, 
how certain and present destruction cometh to commonweals, because offenders against 
God are unpunished. And whensoever the magistrates be slack in doing their office 
herein 5 , let them look for none other but that the plague of God shall fall in their necks 
for the same. Which thing not only the foresaid examples, but also experiences within 
ourselves, doth plainly teach us. For whensoever any member of our body is diseased or 
sore, if we suffer it long to continue and fester, do we not see that at length it doth infect 
the whole body, and in process of time utterly corrupteth the same? But for what 
purpose, brethren, do I speak so much of this matter ? Verily, for none other intent, 
but that when we know one of the causes of these evils, we may duly repent and 
amend the same. 

But peradventure some will say, If the governors offend because they do not justly 



[ 3 "Ac ne videar potentioribus nostroque ordini 
aequior esse quum par sit, ab eo sermon em auspica- 
bor," &c. Pet. Mart. " This clause is favourable to 
the supposition, that the sermon was prepared, at 
least in the first instance, for the archbishop s own 
us." See p. 190. n. 1. Jenkyns Remains of Abp. 
Cranmer. Vol. II. p. 250.] 



[ 4 The marginal notes are in the archbishop s 
hand -writing.] 

[ 5 "When the magistrate by negligence or pre 
posterous pity will not punish for sin, then Gotl 
striketh, as ye may see by the universal flood, by the 
fire in Sodom and Gomorre." Bp. Hooper, Sermon 
111. upon Jonas, p. 484, Park. Soc. Ed. 1843.] 



192 A SERMON ON REBELLION. 

punish offenders, what doth that pertain to us the common people, which have not 
offended ? Let them repent that have offended ; let them be sorry for their slackness in 
punishment, and more sharply correct from henceforth such as by their horrible offences 
provoke God s indignation against us all. Nay, not so, my friends ; let no men charge 
the governors, and excuse themselves : we have offended God both high and low ; we 
have deserved this plague at God s hands, and much more. Therefore let every man 
search his own conscience, and (like as Daniel did) let every man confess and bewail as 
well his own sins, as the sins of the heads and rulers. And let every man for his own 
part correct and amend himself, forasmuch as he knoweth that our offences be the causes 
not only of private, but also of public and common calamities. 

Now the time requireth to declare another cause of our sedition, which is the greedy 
secumia desire and, as it were, worshipping of riches, wherewith both the high and low sort being 
Avaritia. too much blinded have brought our realm to this point. And surely nothing more hath 
caused great and puissant armies, realms, and empires to be overthrown, than hath done 
the insatiable covetousness of worldly goods. For hereby, as by a most strong poison, 
whole realms many times have come to ruin, which seemed else to have endured for ever : 
sundry commonwealths, which before were conserved in unity, have by incurable disorder 
been divided and separated into many parts. This manner of vice, if it be unseemly unto 
any other people, to them surely that profess Christ it is utterly shameful and detestable ; 
which above all nations should be the true esteemers and lovers of pure godly things 
which be eternal and immortal, and ought to seek for right judgment and estimation of 
things only at their own profession. For as many of us as be truly called Christians of 
Christ, do confess that we be redeemed by him, not through the vain and uncertain riches 
of this world, but through the strong and perfect obedience whereby he submitted himself 
unto his Father, to be obedient even unto the death of the cross. Worldly-wise men 
esteem worldly riches and wealth above all other things ; but the wisdom of God csteemeth 
obedience above all things, that is to say, that a man should submit his will to God s 
will, that he should not desire to use any thing in this world, no, not his own life, but as 
it shah 1 please God and be to his glory ; and to be content with that state, place, and 
degree, that God, the Author of all good things, hath called him unto. With this sacrifice 
of obedience Christ did reconcile us unto his Father, humbling himself to his Father s will 
even to the death of the cross ; and he hath commanded all them that profess to be his 
disciples to follow this his example. 

But, alas ! how far be all they from this rule and example, which come with force of 
arms in the king s majesty s realm without his licence and authority, mustering themselves 
in unlawful assemblies and tumults, to the disorder and disquietness of the whole realm, 
and of a greedy and covetous mind to spoil and rob and take from others ; or they also, 
which through covetousness of joining land to land, and inclosures to inclosures, have 
wronged and oppressed a great multitude of the king s faithful subjects ! I speak of both 
these sorts of people together, because both of them be diseased with a like sickness. But 
are they so ignorant in godly religion, that they know not that God is the distributor and 
giver of the goods of the world ? And if they know this, why then do they go about to 
get goods of this world by unlawful means, contrary to God s will and commandment ? 
Wherein what other thing else do they than forsake their master Christ, and yield them 
selves unto Satan, worshipping him for their God, because he promiseth to give them the 
lands and goods of this world ? But, Almighty God, I beseech thee, open the eyes of 
these blind persons, that they may once see and perceive that the true riches of Christian 
men be not gold, silver, or great possessions, but those things which neither " the eye hath 
seen, nor the ear hath heard, nor man s heart can comprehend." Is it not a great wonder 
that the devil should so rob these men of their wits, that either oppress the poor, or stir 
these commotions, that they do forget death ? For if they did call to their remembrance 
that death every day and hour hangeth over their heads, they would not be so greedy of 
worldly goods, that for the same they would either do injury to their neighbour, or con 
found all things upsy down with seditious uproars and unquietness ; seeing that of all the 
goods in this world they shall carry with them when they die not the value of one 
farthing. No ; he that dieth in the displeasure of God, were he never so rich, shall not in 



A SERMON ON REBELLION. 19, J 

the world to come be able to buy one drop of water to quench the flames of everlasting 
fire, wherewith he shall be tormented in hell. We came naked into this world, and 
naked we shall depart hence again. 

What madness is it then so to labour and toil both day and night, yea, to adventure 
both body and soul, for these things that be so transitory ; which we be sure we shall not 
possess after this life, and be unsure whether we shall keep them so long or no ? For wo 
see by common experience, that many which have had great possessions and riches, arc 
suddenly by divers chances brought to great lack and extreme poverty. For the which 
cause St Paul doth teach us, that we ought not to " put our confidence in riches which 
are uncertain and unstable ;" for riches be like an untrusty servant, which runneth from 
his master when he has most need of him. The wretched man, saith the prophet David, 
" doth hoard up great treasures, but he cannot tell for whom." We see by daily expe 
rience that men be so mad, when they once give themselves to covetousness, that they 
less esteem the I6ss of their honesty, commonwealth, liberty, religion, yea, of God himself 
and everlasting life, than the loss of their riches. 

But here methinketh I hear some of these unlawful assemblers mutter and say, "Sir, 
it is truth that you have said; covetousness is it that undoeth all this realm, and this was thattheySe 
the cause of our assemblies, to have the covetousness of the rich men and gentlemen [J^ISd the 
reformed, and that the poor might be provided for." But to this I answer on this wise : S th!" 
That gentlemen were never poorer than they be at this present, for the more part. And 
in what case soever the gentlemen be in, yet who gave subjects authority to levy armies Sutxiitis non 
in a king s realm without his leave and consent ? Or when had ever any such commotion giadium! 1 " 
good success, or came to good end ? Who did ever see the feet and legs divide them 
selves from the head and other superior parts ? Doth it then become the lower sort of 
the people to flock together against their heads and rulers ? and specially now at this time A tempore. 
in the king s majesty s tender age, when we be round about environed with other enemies ; 
outward with Scots and Frenchmen, and among ourselves with subtle papists, who have 
persuaded the simple and ignorant Devonshire men, under pretence and colour of religion, 
to withstand all godly reformation. Shall we now destroy our realm, and make it a prey 
to om; adversaries ? Remember the fable of ^Esop, that when the frog and the mouse did 
fight together, the puttock came, and snatched them up both. What greater pleasure can 
we do to the Scots and Frenchmen, than to be at variance within ourselves, and so make our 
realm a prey for them? What joy is this to the bishop of Rome, to hear that the blood 
of Englishmen (for the which he hath so long thirsted) is now like to be shed by their 
own brethren and countrymen ! But let us be joined together like members of one body, 
and then we shall have less need to fear our foreign enemy. It is an easy thing to break 
a whole fagot, when every stick is loosed from another ; but it is hard to break the 
fagot, when it is fast bound together. 

But perad venture some will say : The gentlemen have done the commons great wrong, 
and things must needs be redressed. But is this the way, I pray you, to reform that is 
amiss, to redress one injury with another ? Is it the office of subjects, to take upon them 
the reformation of the commonwealth, without the commandment of common authority ? 
To whom hath God given the ordering and reformation of realms ? To kings or to sub 
jects ? Hearken, and fear the saying of Christ : " He that taketh the sword shall perish 
with the sword." To take the sword, is to draw the sword without authority of the 
prince. For God in his scriptures expressly forbiddeth all private revenging, and hath 
made this order in commonweals, that there should be kings and governors, to whom he 
hath willed all men to be subject and obedient. Those he hath ordained to be common 
revengers, correctors, and reformers of all common and private things that be amiss. And 
he hath forbidden all private persons to presume to take any such thing upon them, 
because he would not that his godly order should be broken or troubled of any man. 
Christ refused to divide the inheritance between two brethren, because he would not 
intermeddle with that office unto the which lie was not sent of his Father. How pre 
sumptuous then be they that enterprise to be judges in the limits and bands of lands, not 
being called thereunto, neither having any commission to do it ? Among the Israelites, 
when they had entered into the land of Canaan, none durst be so bold as to usurp unto 
himself either house, city, or land ; but they tarried till Josue their governor had divided 

I Q 

[CRAKMER, TT.l 






194 A SERMON ON REBELLION. 

the same, and every man was contented with his appointment. And why then do not 
our people patiently tarry, till our Josue, that is the king s majesty, and his council do 
make just reformations, as they intend to do ; but will take upon themselves to be re 
formers and judges of their own causes, and so by uproars and tumults hinder the most 
godly purposes and proceedings of him and his council ? 

Paupertatis But poverty, they say, constrained them to do as they have done. So might the thief 
Seteuumu? say, that poverty constraineth him to rob, if that would excuse him. But this is no 
iiu. ! sufficient cause of their disobedience. For our Saviour Christ was so poor that he saith 
of himself, " Foxes have buries, and birds of the air have nests ; but the Son of man 
hath no place where he may lay his head." And Peter also forsook all that he had, and 
followed Christ s poverty. And yet they both paid quietly tribute to Caesar. And we 
read not that they made any business, or gathered numbers of people together to stir a 
commotion, crying, as heaven and earth should go together, that it was not justly ordered 
that they which were most godly had no possessions, and yet w r ere compelled to pay 
tribute to Ca?sar. They said no such words, but paid their tribute without murmuring 
or grudging. They to whom God hath sent poverty in goods, let them also be poor and 
humble in spirit, and then be they blessed in heaven, howsoever they be here in earth. 
Christ himself saith, " Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." 
For no poverty can move such men to do anything against God s commandments, or to 
disquiet the commonwealth. 

This sedition But although they pretend that poverty constraineth them thus to do, be they so 
relieve but blind that they cannot see that this sedition doth not remedy, but increase their poverty? 
Be their eyes so hard shut in their heads, that they cannot see what evil they have done 
to their own commonwealth, what victuals they have consumed, how they have hindered 
the harvest upon the ground which God sent them to be their living the next year ? and 
so they destroy their own livings themselves. They nothing consider how many men 
they have undone, how many they have spoiled and robbed, how many children they 
have caused to be fatherless, and wives to be widows. And what be they the better 
therefore ? What have they gotten thereby, but only loaded themselves with the burden 
of the spoil and robbery of other men, whom they be never able to satisfy ? And yet 
they may be assured that God will be satisfied of them for their evil doings, even unto 
the uttermost farthing. 

And although their offences be as great as may be thought, thus to consume and 
annoy their own country, their own friends and neighbours, yet the mercy of God is 
never consumed to them that will repent and amend. Wherefore let us pray God for 
them, that he will give them eyes to see, and ears to hear, and hearts to understand their 
own misdemeanour and folly. 

But the great part of them that be the chief stirrers in these insurrections be ruffians 
nis procipui and sturdy idle fellows, which be the causes of their own poverty, commonly resorting to 
tippling and to alehouses, much drinking and little working, much spending and little 
getting ; and yet will they be clad gorgeously, fare daintiously, and lie softly, which, neither 
caring for God nor man, seek now nothing else, but to get something by spoil and robbing 
of other men. These fellows make all this hurly-burly in every place, and when the rage 
of the people is quieted in one place, then they run to another, never quiet themselves, 
nor ceasing to disquiet other, until at length they hope to come to their prey. Happy 
is that place where none such be, and in great danger be they where many such be. This 
realm had never so many ; and that evidently appeareth at this present time. 
ncbu- All the holy scripture exhorteth to pity and compassion upon the poor, and to help 



est dandum. them ; but such poor as be oppressed with children or other necessary charges, or by fire, 
water, or other chance, come to poverty, or for age, sickness, or other causes, be not able 
to labour : but to such as be poor by their own folly, that be able to labour and will not, 
the scripture commandeth in no wise to aid them or help them, but chargeth utterly all 
men to abhor them. But these men, repugning against God, gape at nothing else, but 
unjustly and by force to take from other men that which God hath given unto them by 
their just labour. 

And yet they pretend that they mean nothing else but a reformation of things that 
l>e amiss ; and they complain much of rich men and gentlemen, saying, that they take 



A SERMON ON REBELLION. 



195 



the commons from the poor, that they raise the prices of all manner of things, that they 
rule the poverty, and oppress them at their pleasure. Thus they excuse their own out 
rageous presumption by charging the gentlemen. But whilst they look so earnestly at 
other men s faults, they do not see their own. They speak much against Achab, that 
took from Naboth his vineyard ; but they follow not the example of Naboth, who would 
rather lose his vineyard, than he would make any commotion or tumult among the 
people. They make exclamations against Achab, and yet follow him rather than the 
patience of Naboth. We never read that any just man, which is praised in the scripture, 
did take sword in his hand as against his prince or nobility, although he suffered never 
so much wrong or oppression. And yet now they accuse the gentlemen of taking of Q"od sit falsa 
commons, which take from the gentlemen both the common and proper. They charge 
the rich men that they enhance the prices ; but in this unseemly commotion they take 
from the rich man what they list without any price. They say that the gentlemen rule 
the poor and oppress them at their pleasure. But they so say that be out of all rule 
and order, and rule the gentlemen as pleaseth them, except they will have their goods 
spoiled, their houses brent, and further be in danger of their lives 1 . They say, gentlemen Q"<> 
have ruled aforetime, and they will rule now another while 2 . A goodly realm shall that return, si 
be, that shall be ruled by them that never had experience to govern, nor cannot rule * 






isgu- 
bernarutur. 



themselves. A prentice must learn seven years before he can be a good merchant: no 
less time were required to be a good governor. 

But if God were so offended with our realm, and by our ingratitude and wickedness 
were so much provoked to indignation against us, that he would make them governors 
and rulers over us, O Lord, what a realm should this be ! What fruit should we see of 
their governance ? What end or measure would be of their covetousness ? What justice 
should be looked for at their hands, if they were rulers, which now, being but private 
persons, without law or justice take from every man at their pleasure ? How would 
they temper themselves being in authority, that now without authority be ruled by their 
own affections, without the fear of God, or respect to reason or honesty ! It is a common 
and a true saying, that authority sheweth what every man is ; and a gentleman will ever 
shew himself a gentleman, and a villain a villain. We see daily by experience that a gen 
tleman in authority hath a respect to his reputation and worship ; but a villain called to 
office and authority commonly regardeth neither God, worship, nor honesty, but to catch 
what he can by right or by wrong : for unto him all is fish that cometh to the net. 

And yet it is reported, that there be many among these unlawful assemblies that Q"d ^nt 
pretend knowledge of the gospel, and will needs be called gospellers ; as though the gospel Ecffibu 
were the cause of disobedience, sedition, and carnal liberality, and the destruction of those evangeilum. 
policies, kingdoms, and commonweals, where it is received. But if they will be true 
gospellers, let them then be obedient, meek, patient in adversity and long-suffering, and 
in no wise rebel against the laws and magistrates. These lessons are taught in the gospel, 
both by evident scriptures, and also by the examples of Christ and his apostles. Christ 



[ l "As for the other malcontents, the other 
rabble of Norfolk rebels, thus he proceeded to argue 
with them : Ye pretend a commonwealth. How 
amend ye it ? By killing of gentlemen, by spoiling 
of gentlemen, by imprisoning of gentlemen ? A 
marvellous tanned commonwealth. Why should ye 
thus hate them ? For their riches or for their rule ? 
Rule they never took so much in hand as ye do now 

In countries some must rule, some must obey, 

every man may not bear like stroke ; for every man 
is not like wise. And they that have seen most, and 
be best able to bear it, and of just dealing beside, be 

most fit to rule If riches offend you, because ye 

wish the like, then think that to be no common 
wealth, but envy to the commonwealth. Envy it is to 
appair another man s estate, without the amendment 
of your own. And to have no gentlemen, because ye 
be none yourselves, is to bring down an estate, and 
to mend none. Would ye have all alike rich ? That 
is the overthrow of labour, and utter decay of work 



in this realm," &c. Sir John Cheke, The Hurt of 
Sedition. "Cheke s treatise is precisely of the sam 
date with this sermon, and throws much light on it. 
It will be found in Holinshed, Vol. III. p. 1042. 
See also Strype s Life of Cheke, ch. iii. sect, u." 
Jenkyns.J 

[ 2 "Some crieth, Pluck down inclosures and 
parks ; some for their commons ; others pretend the 
religion ; a number would rule another while, and 
direct things as gentlemen have done : and indeed 
all have conceived a wonderful hate against gentle 
men, and taketh them all as their enemies. The 
ruffians among them, and the soldiers, which be the 
chief doers, look for spoil. So that it seemeth no 
other thing but a plague and a fury among the 
vilest and worst sort of men." A Letter from Pro 
tector Somerset to Sir Philip Hobby, concerning 
the rebellions at home. Burnet, Hist of Reformat. 
Vol. II. App. B. i. No. 36, pp.239 40. Ed. Oxon. 
1829, quoted by Dr Jenkyns.] 

132 



196 



A SERMON ON REBELLION. 



Multo dete- 
riores sunt 
rebelles et 
scditiosi 
quam avari. 



Odium nebu- 
lonuni in no- 
biles et 
divites. 



Against them 
that refuse 
the king s 
pardon. 



himself was poor, and pronounceth himself them to be blessed that patiently suffer 
poverty; the apostles forsook all that they had, and followed Christ; the prophets 
oftentimes refused great riches offered unto them : and can they say that they have the 
spirit of the prophets and the apostles, which, having no possessions of their own, go 
about by force, violence, and sedition, to get other men s? No; this spirit is not of 
Christ, but of the devil ; and such a spirit, as among the Romans Catiline, Cethegus, 
and Manlius were inspired withal; and here in England, Jack Straw, Jack Cade the 
blacksmith, Captain Aske, and divers other rebels, who have suffered just punishment 
after their deserving. 

And although here I seem only to speak against these unlawful assemblers, yet I 
cannot allow those, but I must needs threaten everlasting damnation unto them, whether 
they be gentlemen or whatsoever they be, which never cease to purchase and join house 
to house, and land to land, as though they alone ought to possess and inhabit the earth. 
For to such Esay the prophet threateneth everlasting woe and the curse of God, except 
they repent and amend their lives in time. But yet their fault excuseth not those, which 
without the commandment of the king and his laws have taken harness upon their backs, 
and refused to lay it down when they were by the king s authority commanded so to do. 
What other reward can I promise to them, than the anger and vengeance of God, which 
they shall feel both in this life and in the life to come, both sorer and sorer than they 
look for, except they acknowledge their fault, and amend by time ? 

But let us now compare these two destructions of the commonweal together, the 
covetous men, which (as they say) do inclose and possess unjustly the commons, and 
these mutineers, which rashly and without all reason will be both the hearers, judgers, 
and reformers of their own causes ; and, that is most unjustice of all and against all 
man s law and God s law, this they will do, the other parties neither heard nor called, 
and thereunto they take the king s power upon them, the authority of the magistrate, 
and the sword, which they never had by no law r . Which of these two is the greater 
injury? which is the more intolerable robbery? which is the more pernicious confusion? 
Is this a remedy to their griefs ? is this to bring in justice ? I am sure themselves, being 
quiet from their furor and rage, cannot so think. Foolishness is not healed by madness, 
theft is not amended with spoil aud ravine; neither is the commonwealth stayed or 
made strong by the breach of laws, orders, and states. Wherefore let both parties lay 
away this so furious and excessive desire of vain and worldly things, which, as we have 
now learned by experience, and as the apostle saith, " is the root of all evils." 

But now I will go further to speak somewhat of the great hatred which divers of 
these seditious persons do bear against the gentlemen ; which hatred in many is so out 
rageous, that they desire nothing more than the spoil, ruin, and destruction of them that 
be rich and wealthy; for this thing many of them do cry and openly profess. Oh a 
goodly purpose, and benefit to the realm ! this declareth what spirit they be led withal. 
If these devilish spirits might have their wills, what destruction should hang over this 
realm ! what miserable state should this commonweal come unto ! This noble realm, 
which yet is feared of all nations, should then be a prey to all nations, to the Frenchmen, 
to the Scots, and to every realm that would spoil them ; and among ourselves should be 
such confusion, that every man should spoil other, if he were stronger. For take away 
gentlemen and rulers, and straightway all other fallcth clearly away, and followeth bar- 
barical confusion. Oh ! how far be these men from all fear of God ! for God commandeth 
all inferiors most readily to obey their superiors ; but these, more like beasts than men, 
bend themselves clearly against God, not only to disobey, but also to destroy, their supe 
riors which God hath appointed over them. The scripture saith, " He that hateth his 
brother is a murderer" before God : but these men not only mortally hate, but also 
threaten the destruction not only of one man, but of one whole state, and that, next the 
king s majesty, the chief state of the whole realm. 

And not only this, but, that which is more wonderful and to be lamented, part 
of them do despise and openly refuse the king s majesty s pardon 1 . He is loath to 



[ "Pardon was proclaimed in Norwich by a 
herald on the 31st of July, ineffectually, Ket the 



leader declaring, that he needed no pardon, having 
done nothing but that belonged to the duty of a 



A SERMON ON REBELLION. 



197 



n 



shed his subjects blood, although they be unworthy the name of his subjects ; but 
they seek to shed the blood of them which have hitherto defended their blood from 
shedding. He, like a merciful prince, is loath to cut off the members of his body, 
although many of them are so rotten and corrupt, that, if they might, they would 
infect the whole body. And what madness is it, that diseased members refuse to bo 
anointed with the most soft and gentle ointment of his majesty s mercy ! He is as 
careful of their health and life as it were possible if they were his children ; although Gra^us peo- 
by these seditions and uproars he hath been more grievously offended, than the gen- seXsn" 
tlemen have offended them, with whom they be angry. For the gentlemen, in case E^ql 
those things be true wherewith they be charged, yet they have only done wrong to 
the poor commons in their inclosures and such like matters. But by these seditions the 
majesty of a most high and godly king is hurt and wronged, forsomuch as they take 
upon them his office, and as it were pulleth the sword out of his hands. For he is 
ordained of God to have the hearing and decision of such causes, and to have the ad 
ministration and distribution of these worldly goods; but they in their rage do in a 
manner pull him out of his throne and chair of estate, and cast him down to the 
ground, who is here in earth God s vicar and chief minister, and of whom only next 
unto God dependeth all the wealth and felicity of this realm; as it would soon ap 
pear, if he were missing, which God forbid, and all the realm should bewail. Verily, 
when I consider with myself their unjust desire in revenging, and the king s majesty s 
gentleness in suffering and pardoning, methink I see the accustomed order of things 
to be clean turned and changed upside down : for Solomon saith, " A king s anger is 
like the roaring of a lion." But their sovereign lord doth not roar against them, 
(which notwithstanding have grievously offended and provoked his anger,) but rather 
doth fawn upon them, and use them gently. Contrariwise they, which ought to be as 
gentle and meek as lambs, whose part it were either to hold their peace and not 
open their mouths, or else to speak very mildly and lowly, do now roar and make 
outcries like most cruel lions : the which thing how justly they do it, God s vengeance 
(except they take heed) will speedily declare. 

One thing there is, which after all I think necessary to be added hereunto, and 
that in mine opinion is the head and beginning of all these tribulations. For the ntum maio- 
gospel of God now set forth to the whole realm is of many so hated, that it is re- cmite^ptus 
ject, refused, reviled, and blasphemed ; and by those which have received the same, and evangem." 
would be counted to be great favourers thereof, yet it sustaineth much injury and reproach, 
and by their occasion is ill spoken of. For the great number of them, pretending a 
zeal thereto in their lips, and not in their hearts, counterfeiting godliness in name, but 
not in deed, live after their own pleasure, like epicures, and so ungodly as though 
there were no God. And what is it that St Paul calleth the having of God s truth 
in unrighteousness, if this be not it ? These, having more knowledge of God than 
they had before, and receiving a taste of the heavenly gifts, notwithstanding retain 
their old vices in their corrupt manners and dissolute conversation, being nothing 
amended, but rather paired 8 . Which thing being in this case, what other thing should 
we look for than the severe and terrible judgment of God, to make us an ex 
ample to all them that abuse his word, (sith by repentance we will not be amended, 
nor by the pure word of God be healed,) that thereby all men may learn how abo 
minable it is before God, his name to be so dishonoured, and the doctrine of the 
gospel so lightly esteemed? The heathen poet 3 could not wink at such men, but 
with his pen rubbed them on the gall, which, pretending holiness, so dissolutely did 
live. And shall God s judgment leave them unpunished, which, always having in 
their mouth "the gospel, the gospel," reasoning of it, bragging of it, yet in their 
conversation live after the world, the flesh, and the devil? which, as St Paul wrote 
unto Titus, "confessing God with their mouth, deny him with their deeds?" 



true subject. The rebels were defeated, and Ket 
taken on the 27th of August. This sermon was 
probably delivered in the interval. Holinshed, Vol. 
III. p. 1032 103<J."_Jenkyns, Remains of Abp. 



Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 262.] 

[ 2 Paired : impaired, made worse. ] 

[ 3 Juvenal, Sat. n. 3. Qui Curios simulant, et 
Bacchanalia vivunt.J 



198 A SERMON ON REBELLION. 

But such as rejoice and brag in such things, utterly deceive themselves. Whoso 
listeth to read the histories of the heathen people and greatest idolaters, he shall not 
find among them all any region, people, or nation that was so scourged by God, so 
oft brought into servitude, so oft carried into captivity, with so divers, strange, and 
many calamities oppressed, as were the children of Israel. And yet they bragged and 
gloried that none other nation but the^ only had the law of God, their rites and 
ceremonies of God, God s promises and his testaments. And so it was indeed : never 
theless St Paul, writing to the Romans, doth most sore rebuke and reprove them, 
saying: "Thou art called a Jew, and dost trust in the law, and makest thy boast 
of God, and knowest his will, and allowest the things that be best, and are informed by 
the law, and thinkest that thou art a guide to the blind, a light to them that are 
in darkness, a teacher of them that be ignorant, a doctor to them that be unlearned, 
which hast the true form and knowledge of the truth by the law. But yet thou 
which teachest another teachest not thyself; thou preachest that a man should not 
steal, yet thou stealest ; thou sayest that a man should not commit adultery, but thou 
breakest wedlock. Thou abhorrest images, and yet thou dost commit idolatry by 
honouring of them. Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking of the 
law dishonourest God : for the name of God is ill spoken of among the heathen by 
your means." 

Thus the apostle St Paul charging the Jews, chargeth us also, which with our 
mouths say that we have received the word of God, and yet our conversation is 
contrary and ungodly. Why then do we marvel, if we suffer these punishments for 
our dissimulation and hypocrisy? For God useth first to begin and correct his own 
family : then if he should suffer this amongst us unpunished, should not he be thought 
to approve sin, to be a favourer of the wicked, and the God of unthrifts and lewd 
people ? 

The church of God, most dearly beloved brethren, ought not to be reputed and 
taken as a common place, whereunto men resort only to gaze and to hear, either for 
their solace or for their pastime. But whatsoever is there declared of the word of 
God, that should we devoutly receive, and so earnestly print in our minds, that we 
should both believe it as most certain truth, and most diligently endeavour ourselves 
to express the same in our manners and living. If we receive and repute the gospel 
as a thing most true and godly, why do we not live according to the same? If we 
count it as fables and trifles, why do we take upon us to give such credit and autho 
rity unto it ? To what purpose tendeth such dissimulation and hypocrisy ? If we 
take it for a Canterbury tale, why do we not refuse it ? why do we not laugh it out 
of place, and whistle at it? why do we with words approve it, with conscience re 
ceive and allow it, give credit unto it, repute and take it as a thing most true, 
wholesome, and godly, and in our living clearly reject it? Brethren, God will not 
be mocked : for this cause did God so severely and grievously punish the Jews above 
all other nations. And sith our cause is the like and the same, the selfsame ire and 
displeasure of God is now provoked and kindled against us. 

The empire of Rome never appeared to be in worse case, or in a more troublous 
and unquiet state, than when Christ s religion was preached and received among them. 
Whereupon arose neither few nor small complaints of the heathen, ascribing all these 
adversities unto the receiving of the gospel and the religion of Christ. To whom the 
godly and learned fathers and martyrs made answer, that it was not long of Christ s 
doctrine and religion, which teach things most virtuous and godly, that such calami 
ties did ensue ; but it was long of the corrupt execution and negligent observation of 
the same religion. For our Lord did say, The servant which knoweth his master s 
commandment, and doth it not, shall be sorer punished, than he which knoweth not 
his master s will, and offendeth by ignorance : whereby it is evident, as the word of 
God (if it be godly received, and with all the heart embraced) is most comfortable, 
of most efficacy, strength and virtue; so otherwise, if it be trodden under foot, re 
jected, and despised, or craftily under the cloke of dissimulation and hypocrisy received, 
it is a compendious and a short way unto destruction, it is an instrument whereby 



A SERMON ON REBELLION. 199 

the punishment and displeasure of God is both augmented and also more speedily 
and sooner brought upon us, as we have most justly deserved. 

If we will consider the histories of the books of the Kings, we shall no time find 
mo prophets among the people of Israel, nor the light of the word of God more 
spread abroad every where, than it was a little before the captivity and destruction of 
the same by the Babylonians. A man would think that even at that same time God 
had set up a school of holy scriptures and doctrine : then were the heavenly prophets 
in all places and to all men declared. But because so great knowledge of God and 
of his doctrine no good fruits did follow, but daily their living and conversation went 
backward and became worse, the said miserable destruction and captivity did ensue. 
And yet a worse captivity and misery fell upon the same people, when most perfect 
knowledge of God was offered unto them by the coming of Christ, what time the 
Lord Jesus Christ himself did preach there, his apostles did preach there, yea, many other 
disciples, evangelists, and doctors did preach there ; whose preachings and doctrines when 
they would not receive, nor fruitfully and condignly accomplish and execute, then sprang 
up so many dissensions, tumults, and commotions, that at the last they were brought 
unto utter subversion and destruction in the time of Vespasian and Titus. 

Of the chances of the Germans, which in a manner have suffered the same, because 
it is so lately done, I need not much to speak ! . It is yet before our eyes and in pre 
sent memory, so that it needeth no declaration in word. 

These things before rehearsed have I for this intent and purpose spoken, that we 
should acknowledge and repute all these seditions and troubles, which we now suffer, 
to be the very plague of God for the rejecting or ungodly abusing of his most holy 
word, and to provoke and entice every man to true and fruitful repentance and to 
receive the gospel, (which now by God s mercy and the good zeal of the king s ma 
jesty and his council is every where set abroad,) not feignedly and faintly as many 
have done, nor stubbornly and contemptuously to reject it and forsake it, as many 
other do now-a-days, not knowing what it is, but thankfully to take and embrace it 
at God s hands, and with all humbleness and reverence to follow and use the same 
to God s glory and our benefit. 

Ye have heard now, as I suppose, the chief and principal causes of these tumultu- 
ations. Now shall I shew you by examples of times past, what plagues of God 
remaineth for them that stir up seditions, unless they repent in time, and cease from 
their shameful and ungodly enterprises. 

The children of Israel in the desert did oftentimes seditiously use themselves against Q,, modo 
Moses, but always did follow great plagues of death : so that this was the end of it, * 
that six hundred and twenty thousand which came out of Egypt all died and were slain, u 
and no mo came to the land of Canaan but two persons only. How miserably Core, 
Dathan, and Abiron perished, making of sedition, the holy bible manifestly and at 
large dcclareth. Mary 2 seditiously used herself against her brother Moyses ; and was 
she not suddenly stricken with a leprosy, of the which she had perished, if Moyses for her 
had not made intercession to God ? Absolon against his father king David was sedi 
tious; but was not he miserably hanged by the hair in a wood by the punishment 
of God ? Seba and Adonias for their sedition, lost they not both their lives ? In the 
rebellion made against Nabucodonozor in the time of the prophet Hieremy, which 
instantly dissuaded them from their fury, they little regarding his admonition went 
down unto Egypt, where at the last they were all destroyed. Did not the tribe of 
Ephrata make a commotion against Jephthe their judge, but were they not all miser 
ably slain therefore? 

If I would recite and add hereunto all the histories of the heathen, which declare 
the miserable end of seditious persons and rebellions, I should be more prolix and 
tedious than this present time doth suffer. Wherefore I shall think it sufficient for 
this time to bring unto your remembrance the great destruction of the rude and homely 



[ The archbishop alludes here probably to the Sleidan, De Statu religionis ; Lib. v. p. 8f>. Ed 
war in Germany, A.D. 1525, in which the rustics Francof. 1568.] 
were defeated, and Muncer their leader slain. Vid. I [ 2 Miriam. Numb, xii.] 



200 A SERMON ON REBELLION. 

people, which not many years ago chanced to rise in Germany, by and by after that 
the word of God began there to shine and flourish, of the which were slain within 
the time of three months above an hundred thousand persons 1 . And what followed 
further thereof? Great dearth of victual, great hunger and penury. 

J? aiiour dy -^ ut me thinks that I have not done my office and duty, until I have shewed also 
^ ne reme( K es to appease God s wrath, and to avoid his plagues. And to shew you 
the sum in few words, the only help and remedy is repentance: for other medicine 
and preservative can I give you none by God s word, but that which Christ did preach 
and declare unto the world, and which also his faithful messenger, John the Baptist, 
coming before to prepare his ways, did also teach, saying, " Repent you and amend, 
and the kingdom of heaven shall come unto you." And on this wise did our Lord 
Jesus Christ instruct his disciples, to whom he gave commandment specially to preach 
repentance and remission of sins, when he sent them forth into all the world to preach 
m hi s name. The effect of sin is to put us away from God, the very well-spring 
.Sttntiffi ^ a ^ g oocm ess; but by penance we return again to him from whom we were gone 
and departed by sin ; that as we went from God, and ran after worldly things, being 
inflamed with insatiable desires thereof, so by penance we return from worldly crea 
tures unto God the Creator of all things. And what mutation and change can be more 
comfortable or more to be desired than this ? By repentance we be sorry for those 
things which greatly pleased us before; we forsake those things which we much made 
of before, not without great contempt of God, and violation of his most holy laws. 

Wherefore sith repentance doth bring so many benefits, that thereby we be re 
turned unto God, that we be altered into a better mind, that we bewail those things 
which we before unjustly loved ; who doth not manifestly perceive that it is the only 
refuge and anchor of our health and salvation? And for this cause is penance so 
much commended unto us, both of Christ himself, and of St John, and of Christ s 
apostles. 

Sir ru!t"tim ^ n< ^ W ^ ( ^ ^ 1 ^ 0( ^ ^ or ^ ear an( ^ ^ l n defer to make punishment upon sin ? 

jmnire deiin- Surely, because he would have us to repent and amend. And why doth he many times 
strike so sore at length those that continue in evil doings? Because that with the 
rod he would constrain to repent and amend such as by gentleness and long-suffering 
wax worse and worse. If God did not tarry for us, looking for our repentance and 
amendment, we should have perished by God s righteous judgment long before this 
time. If God by and by should have punished offences, we should not have had Peter 
among the apostles, the church should have lacked that elect vessel Paul, yea, we all 
long ago had been destroyed. And if God should have suffered us any longer, being 
so evil as we were, peradventure we should have forgotten God, and died without 
repentance. 

cur tandem Wherefore that thing that God so much desircth of us, and hath provoked nnto, 

Eivcrtu. first by long- suffering, and now by sore punishing, that is true and godly repentance. 
Let us consider well in our minds, how many ways God doth call and allure sinners 
to penance. Our first parents Adam and Eve, after they had transgressed God s com 
mandment, he called them unto him, he rebuked them, he sharply punished them, 
to endure again to repentance. And after, when all things in the earth were corrupted 
by the sins of man, God commanded Nohe to build an ark, to save him and all that 
were righteous, that only the wicked might be drowned throughout all the world. 
And for what purpose was the ark so long in making, but for a long preaching and 
warning of the world to repent and amend ? How oft is it read in the book of 
Judges, that the children of Israel were given over unto the hands of heathen princes, 
that they should be punished by them, and by punishment repent and amend ! It is 
an extreme impiety and madness to think that God is cruel and delighteth in the 
punishment of his people, but for their amendment. For so did the Marcionists and 
the Manichees blaspheme God, which for this purpose did accuse him of cruelty and 
iminercifulness, that thereby they might take away all credit from the old Testament. 
But we do acknowledge that God did therein shew his great mercy, that the Israelites, 



f 1 See note, p. 199. J 



A SERMON ON REBELLION. 201 

admonished by afflictions, whom no speaking nor writing could move, might by re 
pentance return again to God. Also the great slaughter, that the other tribes of Israel 
suffered of the tribe of Benjamin, came of none other cause, but that they being con 
verted by penance might at the last obtain the victory. 

Furthermore, the prophets sent of God did most earnestly persuade all men to 
repentance. The godly king David was no otherwise healed than by repentance. And 
the prophet Holy was sent to Achab king of Israel to call him to repentance. And 
by the same Manasses king of Judah did obtain remission. By the selfsame repent 
ance did his father Ezechias obtain prolongation of his life. The king of Nineve, 
with all his people, by the means of repentance had God merciful unto them. The 
great king Nabucodonozor, after that he had repented, recovered not only his former 
state, being changed from a beast to a man, but also was restored to his empire and 
kingdom, which before he had lost. By the same means did Peter obtain remission 
of his abjuration and denial of Christ. By the same Paul of a persecutor became 
an apostle. Mary Magdalene, at the feet of the Lord, taking repentance was absolved 
and remitted. And the thief on the cross by this same remedy obtained salvation. 
This did the apostles persuade unto them that received their preaching, as it ap- 
peareth in the Acts of the Apostles. This did Peter propound unto Simon Magus. 
This did Paul commend unto the Corinthians, and almost to all other to whomsoever 
he wrote, and did both often and diligently beat it into men s heads. This we must 
receive as the first part of the gospel. This God requireth of all offenders, if they 
will be reconciled unto him. Wherefore now let us repent while we have time; for 
the axe is laid ready at the root of the tree to fell it down. If we will harden our 
hearts, and will not now be repentant of our misdoings, God will surely strike us 
clean out of his book. 

Hitherto ye have heard of the profit and commodity of repentance : now shall ye 
hear what it is, and of what parts it consisteth. And to declare it plainly and grossly qL 
unto you, it is a sorrow conceived for sins committed, with hope and trust to obtain 
remission by Christ, with a firm and effectual purpose of amendment, and to alter all 
things that hath been done amiss. 

I have described unto you this heavenly medicine; which if we use, God hath 
promised by his prophet, that " if our sins were so red as scarlet, they shall be made 
as white as snow." But God s word hath thus much prevailed among us, that in 
the stead of sorrow for our sin is crept in a great looseness of living without repent 
ance: in the stead of hope and trust of remission of our sins is come in a great 
boldness to sin without the fear of God : instead of amendment of our lives I see 
daily every thing waxeth worse and worse. So that it is much to be afraid, that 
God will take away from us his vineyard, and bestow it to other husbandmen which 
will till it better, that it shall bring forth fruit in due season. We be come to the 
point almost that Hieremy spake of, when he said : " The people spake not that was 
right, no man would repent him so much of his sin that he would once say, What 
have I done? Every man ran after his own way, as a horse runneth headlong in 
battle; they have committed abominable mischief, and yet be they nothing ashamed, 
nor know the way to be abashed." 

These words of Hieremy may well be spoken of us this present time. But let us 
repent in time without further delay. For we have enough and overmuch already 
provoked God s wrath and indignation against us. Wherefore let us pray and fall 
down and lament before the Lord our Maker ; for " he is the Lord our God, and we 
are the people of his pasture and the sheep of his fold. To-day if we hear his voice, 
let us not harden our hearts, as the people did in the desert :" for of continuance in 
evil living there is none other end to be looked for than eternal damnation ; but of 
repentance and perfect conversion unto God the end is perpetual salvation and ever 
lasting life. And if we do not repent in time, at the last we shall be compelled to 
hear this terrible voice of damnation : " Go, ye wicked, into everlasting fire, which is 
prepared for the devil and those that be his." Then there shall be no remedy; then 
no intercession shall serve; then it shall be too late to come to repentance. Let us 
rather repent and turn in time, and make intercession unto the Lord by his Son Jesus 



202 



A SERMON ON REBELLION. 



Christ. Let us lament for our sins, and call for God s merey^ that when Christ shall 
come at the last day, we may hear these words of him : u Come to me, you that be 
blessed of my Father, and take possession of the kingdom which my Father hath pre 
pared for you." 

And now with this humble prayer let us make an end : 

O Lord, whose goodness far exceedeth our naughtiness, and whose mercy passeth 
all measure, we confess thy judgment to be most just, and that we worthily have 
deserved this rod \vherewith thou hast now beaten us. We have offended the Lord 
God : w r e have lived wickedly : we have gone out of the way : we have not heard thy 
prophets which thou hast sent unto us to teach us thy word, nor have done as thou 
hast commanded us: wherefore we be most worthy to suffer all these plagues. Thou 
hast done justly, and we be worthy to be confounded. But w r e provoke unto thy 
goodness ; we appeal unto thy mercy ; we humble ourselves ; we knowledge 
our faults. We turn to thee, O Lord, with our whole hearts, in pray 
ing, in fasting, in lamenting and sorrowing for our offences. 
Have mercy upon us, cast us not away according to our 
deserts; but hear us, and deliver us with speed, 
and call us to thee again according to thy 
mercy ; that we, with one consent, 
and one mind, may evermore 
glorify thee, world 
without end 1 . 
Amen. 



[ " There are two copies of this prayer in the 
C. C. C. C. MS. One is placed at the end of the 
sermon : the other, which is a draft corrected by 



Cranmer, stands by itself, bearing the title de 
scribed by Strype, Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 269. Ed. 
Oxon." Jenkyns.J 



203 



[NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION, 



WITH 



AUTHORITIES FROM SCRIPTURE, THE FATHERS, AND THE 

SCHOOLMEN 2 .] 



AUGUSTINUS, Defide ad Petrum. " Fundamentum est Christus Jesus, id est, . . . Christi fides, . . . scilicet Stillincflect 
qu per dilectionem operatur, ... per quam Christus habitat in cordibus, . . . quse neminem perire shut 3 ." S Library. 
THOMAS. " Fidete . . . et spes attingunt . . . Deum secundum quod ex ipso provenit nobis vel cognitio 1108. f. 58. 
veri vel adeptio boni ; sed caritas attingit . . .Deum, ut in ipso sistat, non ut ex eo aliquid nobis proveniat 4 ." 

AUGUSTINUS et ALIPIUS Bonifacio, Epist. 106. 

" Quis nos . . . . ab ilia perditionis massa .... discernit, nisi qui venit quaerere et salvare quod perierat ? 
Unde apostolus interrogat, dicens, Quis enim te discernit? Ubi si dixerit homo, Fides mea, voluntas 
mea, bonum opus meum ; respondetur ei : Quid .... habes quod non accepisti ? " &c. 

" Si aliquid boni operatur homo, ut gratiam mereatur, non ei merces imputatur secundum gratiam, sed 
secundum debitum. Si autem credat in eum qui justificat impium, ut deputetur fides ejus ad justitiam, 
( Justus enim ex fide vivit, ) profecto antequam gratia justificetur, id est, Justus efficiatur, impius quid est nisi 
impius ? Quern si debitum sequeretur, quid ejus merito nisi supplicium redderetur ?" 

" Si quis autum dixerit, quod gratiam bene operandi fides mereatur, negare non possumus, imo veto 
gratissime confitemur." 

" Jpsa est justitia ex fide, qua credimus nos justificari, hoc est, justos fieri, gratia Dei per Jesum Christum 
Dominum nostrum, ut inveniamur in illo non habentes nostram justitiam quae ex lege est, sed earn quae est per 
fidem Christi. Quae est ex Deo justitia in fide ? Utique in fide qua credimus nobis justitiam divinitus dart, 
non a nobis in nobis nostris viribus fieri." 

" Justificati gratis per gratiam ipsius, ne fides ipsa superba sit. Nee dicat sibi, Si ex fide, quomodo pi ( f es non 

gratis ? Quod enim fides meretur, cur non potius redditur quam donatur ? Non dicat ista homo fidelis ; 
quia cum dixerit, Ut merear justificationem habeo fidem ; respondetur ei : Quid habes quod non accepisti ? 
Cum ergo fides impetrat justificationem, (sicut unicuique Deus partitus est etiam ipsius mensuram fidei,) non 
gratiam Dei aliquid meriti praecedit humani, sed ipsa gratia meretur augeri, ut aucta mereatur perfici, comi- 
tante non ducente, pedissequa non praevia voluntate 6 ." 

AUGUSTINUS, Enchirid. ca.3. " Quseris quonam modo sit colendus Deus? Hie si respondero,/efe,spe, 

caritate colendum Deum ; profecto dicturus es, brevius hoc dictum esse quam velis : ac deinde petiturus, ea 
tibi breviter explicari, qua ad singula tria ista pertineant, quid credendum scilicet, quid sperandum, quid 
amandum sit 7 " 

Et ca. 8. "Fides est et malarum rerum et bonarum, et periturarum rerum 8 et praesentium et futurarum, 

. . . . et suarum rerum . . . . et alienarum Spes autem non nisi bonarum rerum est, nee nisi futurarum, et 

ad eum pertinentium qui earum spem gerere perhibetur. Quae cum ita sint, propter has causas distinguenda 

erit fides a spe, sicut vocabulo, ita et rationabili differentia Jam de amore quid dicam, sine quo fides 

nihil prodest I Spes vero sine amore esse non potest Demones credunt et contremiscunt, nee tamen 

sperant vel amant : propter quod .... Paulus fidem qua? per dilectionem operatur approbat atque com- 

mendat, qure utique sine spe esse non potest. Proinde nee amor sine spe est, nee sine amore spes, neque 
utrumque sine fide 9 ." 

CYRILLUS, In Joh. lib. x. ca. 16. " Sicut palmes non potest ferre fructum a semet ipso, nisi manserit in 
vite ; sic nee vos, nisi in me manseritis. Manifesting jam ex hoc loco discimus sincera fide palmites justos 
viti fideles fieri. Sed non est minoris curse, jugiter per caritatem, id est, mandati servationem, Christo 



[ 2 The following "notes on Justification" are 
printed from MSS. in the Lambeth Library, which 
formerly belonged to Archbishop Stillingfleet, and 
which are in Archbishop Cranmer s hand-writing, 
except where otherwise noted. The passages printed 
in italic type are underscored in the MSS. in red 
ink, (Dr Jenkyns conjectures,) "by Cranmer him 
self." Vid. Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, 
Vol. II. p. 121, and Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. 
Vol. II. pp. 576, 7. Ed. Oxon. 1829.] 

[ 3 August. De Fid. et Op. cap. xvi. Tom. IV, 
p. 31. Ed. Paris. 1635 ; where utique for scilicet, 
permittit for sinit; and the whole passage is greatly 
compressed in the quotation.] 

[ 4 Thorn. Aquin. Summ. Theolog. Secund. Se- 
cundse. q. xxiii. Art. vi. Conclus. Tom. II. p. 69. 



Antverp. 1569.] 

[ 5 The side note is inserted in the margin with 
red ink in the archbishop s hand-writing.] 

[ s August, et Alip. Bonifacio, Epist. cvi. Tom. 

II. pp. 181, 2 ; where, si autem credit in eum, 
and qu& ex Deo est justitia, in fide utique est; 
qua credimus. The Benedictine editors call 
this Epist. clxxxvi. Alyp. et August, ad Pauli- 
num.] 

[ 7 Id. Enchirid. ad Laurent, cap. ii. in. Tom. 

III. p. 66.] 

[ 8 Rerum is omitted by Dr Jenkyns, Vol. II. p. 
135.] 

[ 9 August. Enchirid. ad Laurent, cap. viii. p. 
67, where est itaque fides et malarum.] 



204 



NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION. 



inhaerere Non igitur tufficit ad perfectionem (id est, ad sanctificationem, quae per Christum in spiritu 

est) iTi numero palmitum redpi, sed oportet ardenti caritate atque continuo immaculate Christum sequi 1 ." 

THOMAS. Ad Hebr. x. 2 lect. 4. " Justitia duplex est. Una, quo ad humanum judicium, Rom. x. Igno- 
rantes Dei justitiam et suam qurerentes statuere, &c. Ab a, quo ad divinum, Luc. i. Erant ambo justi 

ante Deum Illud autem per quod homo justificatur apud Deum est fides. Horn. iii. Justitia Dei per 

fidem Jesu Christi. Cujus ratio est : quia per hoc est homo Justus, per quod ordinatur ad Deum. Illud 
autem per quod primo . . . ordinatur in Deum est fides. Et ideo dicit, * Justus meus ... ex fide vivit. Nee solum 
Justitia per fidem, sed etiam per fidem justificatus vivit. Sicut enim per animam vivit corpus, ita anima per 
Deum. Unde, sicut per illud per quod primo unitur anima corpori, vivit corpus : ita per id per quod primo 

vnitur Deus anima , vivit anima. Hoc autem est fides Gal. ii. Quantum nunc vivo, .... in fide vivo 

Filii Dei. Fides autem si non est formata caritate, mortua est, et ideo non vivificat animam sine caritate. 
Gal. v. Fides quae per dilectionem operatur. 1 Joh. iii. Nos scimus quod translati sumus de morte ad 
vitam, quum diligimus fratres 3 ." 

HUGO DE STO. VICTORS, to. 3. Summa Scntentiarum tract. I. ca. 2. " De fide tanquam fundamento omnium 
bonorum spes et caritas oriuntur, quia nihil potest sperari vel speratum amari, nisi prius credatur. Licet 
simul sint tempore, et non prius fides .... quam spes et caritas ; tamen in causa fides pratcedit spem et 
caritatem 4 ." 

AMBKOSIUS. Rom. x. " * Finis legis Christus ad salutem omni credenti : hoc dicit, quia perfectionem 

legis fiabet, qui credit in Christum. Cum enim nullus justificaretur ex lege (quia nemo implebat legem nisi 
qui speraret in promisso Christo), fides posita est, qua crederet perfectionem legis, ut omnibus pra:termissis 
fides satisfaceret pro tota lege et prophetis 5 ." 

THOMAS. 1 Cor. xiii. "De fide, spe, et caritate dicitur, Ecclus. ii. Qui timetis Deum, credite in ilium., 
quantum ad fidem. Qui timetis Deum, sperate in ilium, quantum ad spem. Qui timetis Deum, diliyite 
eum, quantum ad caritatem. Tria ergo ista manent nunc 6 ." 

MAOISTEB SENTENTIARUM, Ii. ii. Di. 23. 

"Fides est virtus, qua creduntur quae non videntur 7 ." 

Di. 26. 
" Spes est virtus, qua spiritualia et aeterna bona sperantur 8 ." 

Di. 27. 
" Caritas est dilectio, qua diligitur Deus propter se, et proximus propter Deum vel in Deo 9 ." 

AUGUSTINUS. 
" Fides est credere quod non vides 10 ." 

DORBELLUS, Ii. iii. di. 23. 
" Fides acquisita prtecedit caritatem, .... sed fides infusa non infunditur sine caritate n ." 

Di. 26. 
" Respectu actus desiderandi est aliqua virtus theologica. Sed ilia non potest esse fides nee caritas, quia 

est spes. Probatio minoris : Quia omnis actus fidei est credere, nullum autem desiderare est credere ; et 

caritas est suprema virtus affectiva, et per consequens supremus amor habitualis; amor autem amicitia?, 
quo volumus Deum esse in se bonum, est simpliciter perfectior amore concupiscentia?, quo desideramus Deum 
esse bonum nostrum : ergo caritas, quae inclinat ad amandum Deum amore amicitiae, est alia virtus ab ilia 
quae inclinat ad desiderandum nobis bonum infmitum." 

Eadem di. 

" Credere me justum finaliter esse salvandum non est nisi fides applicata ad quoddam particulare : sed 
desiderare istud est actus spei. Et sic certitudo sperantis non est actus spei, sed prajcedit ipsum 12 ." 

Di. 27. 

** Ad diligendum Deum super omnia est aliqua virtus theologica inclinans ; haec autem caritas est. Et 
distinguitur a spe, quod actus ejus non est concupiscere amanti bonum, in quantum est commodum amantis, 
sed tendere in objectum secundum se, etiam si per impossibile circumscriberetur commoditas amantis." 

Et mox. " Licet posset poni amicitia quaedam acquisita ex actibus dilectionis divinao inclinans ad Deum 



[ Cyril. Alex, in Joan. Lib. x. cap. xvi. Ed. 
(Lat.) Paris. 1508, where facere fructum, ex hoc 
loco dicimus, palmites insertos viti. The Greek will 
be found, Cyril. Op. Tom. IV. p. 8/4. Ed. Lutet. 
Paris. 1638.] 

[ 2 The chapter is omitted by Dr Jenkyns.] 

[ 3 Thorn. Aquin. Op. in Epist. ad Heb. cap. x. 
Lect. iv. Tom. XVI. fol. 421, 2. Ed. Venet. 
1593, where Erant autem is read for erant ambo, 

and npud Deum f ordinatur apud Deum, vivit 

Quod autem nunc, caritatem^ fratres, are 
omitted.] 

[ 4 Hugo de S. Viet. Summa Sentent. Tract, i. 
cap. ii. Tom. III. p. 298. Ed. Mogunt. 1617.] 

[ 5 Ambros. In Epist. ad Rom. cap. x. Tom. III. 
p. 145. Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1616, where inpromissum 
Christum, qua tradcret. This treatise is con 



sidered spurious, and has been attributed to Hilary 
the deacon.] 

[ 6 Thorn. Aquin. Op. in 1 Epist. ad Cor. cap. 
xiii. Lect. iv. Tom. XVI. fol. 82, 2.J 

[ 7 Pet. Lombard. Magist. Sentent. Lib. in. 
Dist. xxiii. p. 287, (2.) Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1566.] 

[ 8 Id. ibid. Dist. xxvi. p. 293, (2.) where, est 
autem spes virtus.] 

[ 9 Id. ibid. Dist. xxvii. p. 294, (2.)] 

[ 10 Quid est enim fides nisi, &c August. In 
Joan. Evang. cap. viii. Tractat. xl. Tom. IX. p. 124.] 

[ n Fides autem ista praecedit caritatem, et per 
consequens est acquisita ; quia infusa non infundi 
tur sine caritate. Nicol. de Orbellis in Sentent. 
Exposit. Sent. in. Dist. xxiii. fol. xix. Ed. Paris. 
1498.] 

[ 12 Id. ibid. Dist. xxvi. foil, xxii., xxiii.] 



NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION. 



205 



diligendum, tamen actus dilectionis non elicitur ita intensus mediante tali habttu, sicut mediante caritate a 
Deo infusa, per quam etiam acceptatur a Deo humana operatic 13 ." 

DL 31. 

" Habitus caritatis manebit in patria, quod ibi erit actus ad quern inclinat, sed diligendi Deum in se 14 ." 

St Paul saith that we be justified freely by faith without works, because no man stniingfleet 

i ill ! i MSS. Lam- 

SnOUld glory in hlS WOrkS. beth Library. 

1108. f. ey. 

Ephes. ii. " Gratia salvi facti estis per fidem, idque non ex vobis ; Dei donum est : non ex operibus, ne 
quis glorietur." 

Titus iii. " Apparuit gratia Dei Salvatoris nostri, non ex operibus justitiae quae fecimus nos, sed secundum 
suam misericordiam salvos nos fecit." 

Rom. iii. " Omnes peccaverunt, et egent gloria Dei, justificati gratis gratia ipsius per redemptionem quic 
est in Christo Jesu." Et mox. " Ubi est ergo gloriatio tua? Exclusa est. Per quam legem? Operum? 
Non, sed per legem fidei. Arbitramur enim fide justificari, &c. Si Abraham ex operibus justificatus est, 
habet gloriationem, sfed non apud Deum." 

Gal. iii. " Si data esset lex, quae posset vivificare, vere ex lege esset justitia. Sed conclusit scriptura 
omnia sub peccatum, ut promissio ex fide Jesu Christ! daretur credentibus." 

[Gal.] v. " Evacuati estis a Christo, quicunque in lege justificamini ; a gratia cecidistis. Nos autem Spiritu 
ex fide spem justitiae exspectamus." 

1 Cor. i. " Videte vocationem vestram, fratres, quia non multi sapientes secundum carnem, non multi 
potentes, non multi nobiles; sed quae stulta sunt mundi elegit Deus, &c. ut non glorietur omnis caro coram 
ipso." 

" Christus factus est nobis sapientia a Deo, justitiaque et sanctificatio et redemptio, ut, quemadmodum 
scriptum est, qui gloriatur in Domino glorietur." 

Gal. vi. " Mihi absit gloriari, nisi in cruce Domini nostri Jesu Christi." 

ORIGENES. 

"Audi quid dicat apostolus: Mihi absit gloriari, nisi in cruce Domini nostri Jesu Christi. 

Vides apostolum non gloriantem super justitia sua, neque super castitate, neque super sapientia, neque 
super ceteris virtutibus vel actibus suis ; sed apertissime pronunciantem et dicentem, <Qui gloriatur in 

Domino glorietur. " Et mox : " Quis vel justitia sua gloriabitur, cum audiat Deum per prophetam 

dicentem, Omnis justitia vestra sicut pannus mulieris menstruatae ? Sola igitur justa gloriatio est in fide 
crucis Christi 15 ." 

BASILIUS. 

"Dicit apostolus quod Christus nobis factus est sapieutia a Deo, justitiaque et sanctificatio et redemptio, 
ut, quemadmodum scriptum est, qui gloriatur in Domino glorietur Hsec enim est perfecta ac integra 
gloriatio in Deo, quum neque ob justitiam suam quis se jactet, sed novit quidem seipsum verse justitise indig- 
num esse, sola autem fide in Christum justificatur. Et gloriatur Paulus ob justifies sues contemptum, et quia 
quaerit per Christum justitiam ex Deo in fide 16 ." 

HlERONYMUS. 

" Convertentem impium per solam fidem justificat Deus, non per opera bona quze non habuit. Alioquin 
per impietatis opera fuerat puniendus 17 ." 

TlIEODORETUS. 

" < Ego sum qui deleo iniquitates tuas propter me, et peccatorum tuorum non recordabor. Nee enim 
ullis operibus, sed per solam fidem rnystica bona consecuti sunt." 

AlTGUSTINUS. 

" Si gratia est, gratis datur. Quid est gratis datur? Nihil boni fecisti, et datur tibi remissio 

peccatorum. Attenduntur opera tua, et inveniuntur omnia mala. Si quod debetur istis operibus, Deus red- 
deret, utique damnaret Non reddit Deus debitam pcenam, sed donat indebitam gratiam 19 . 

Nee quod recti sunt corde, sed ut recti sint corde, praetendit justitiam suam qua justificat impium." 

De Spiritu et Litera, ca. 7 20 . 

AMBROSIUS. 

" Ideo nemo glorietur in operibus, quod nemofactis suis justificatur ; sed qui Justus est, donatum habet 21 ." 
Idem. " Manifesto beati sunt, quibus sine labore aut opere aliquo remittuntur iniquitates et peccata 
teguntur, nulla ab eis requisita poenitentiae opera, nisi tantum ut credant 22 ." 



[ 13 Id. Dist. xxvii. fol. xxiii., where hujusmodi 
operatio for humana.} 

[ 14 Id. Dist. xxxi. fol. xxvi.] 

[ 15 Origen. Comment, in Epist. ad Rom. Lib.in. 
Tom. IV. p. 517. Ed. Paris. L733 59.] 

[ 1G Basil. Horn. xxii. De Humilitat. Tom. I. p. 
473. Ed. Paris. 1G38.] 

[ I7 Hieron. In Epist. ad Rom. cap. iv. Tom. 
IX. p. 220. Ed. Francof. 1684.] 

[ 18 Theodoret. Serm. vii. De sacrificiis. Tom. 



IV. p. 587. Ed. Lutet. Paris. 1642.] 

[ 19 August. In Psalm, xxxi. Proefat. Tom. 
VIII. p. 77-] 

[ 20 Id. De Spiritu et Litera, ad Marcell. cap. vii. 
Tom. III. p. 307.] 

[ 21 Ambros. Epist. xli. Lib. vi. Tom. V. p. 143. 
Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1616, where quia nemo factis.] 

[ 22 Id. Comm. in Epist. ad Rom. cap. iv. Tom. 
III. p. 124.] 



206 NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION. 

Idem. " Convenit . . . . ut creatura in solo nomine Domini Creatoris consequatur salutem, hoc est, per 
fidem 1 : 

LOMBARDUS. 

" Ubi est gloriatio tua 1 ? . ... Sola fide sine operibus prcccedentibus fit homo Justus*" 

BRUNO. 
" Vereperfidem excluditur gloriatio [tud\ ; nam fides sola justificat sine omni opere legis 3 " 

PROSPER, De Gratia et Lib. Arb. 

" Qui credunt, Dei aguntur Spiritu : qui non credunt, libero avertuntur arbitrio. Conversio ergo nostra 
ad Deum non ex nobis, sed ex Deo est, siout apostolus dicit : Gratia salvi facti estis per fidem, et hoc non 
ex vobis, sed donum Dei est, et non ex operibus, ne quis glorietur. " 

Et mox : " Non juste agebat homo, et aucta est justitia ejus. Nee ad Deum gradiebatur, et confirmatus 
est cursus ejus. Nee diligebat Deum, et inHammata est caritas ejus. Sed cum esset sine fide ac proinde 
impius, accepit Spiritum Dei etfactus est Justus." 

Et mox: " Gratia igitur Dei quo scunque justificat, non ex bonis meliores, sed ex mails bonos fecit, postea 
per profectum ex bonis factura meliores 4 ." 

CHRYSOSTOMUS. Rom. iii. 
"Dicens Paulus, * Exclusa est gloriatio? simul etiam ostendit quomodo sit exclusa. Quomodo igitur 

exclusa est ? inquit ; Per quam legem ? Operum ? Nequaquam, sed per legem fidei: Qua? vero ista 

fidei lex est? Per gratiam videlicet salvari 5 " 

Meaning thereby to exclude the merit and dignity of all works and virtues, as insuf 
ficient to deserve remission of sin, and to ascribe the same only to Christ. 

Horn. iv. " Ideo ex fide ut secundum gratiam." 

OBIGENES 
BASILIUS 

HlERONYMUS ra 

AUGUSTINUS 
THEODORETUS 
AMBROSIUS 
CHRYSOSTOMUS postea. 

AMBROSIUS. 
"Dignitatem et meritum non facit nisi fides 6 ." 

AUGUSTINUS. 

"Opera bona sequuntur justificatum, non pracedunt justificandum 7 ." 

" Per gratiam justificatur homo gratis, id est, nullis suorum operum prcccedentibus meritis. Alioquin 
gratia jam non est gratia." De Spiritu et Lit. ca. 10 7 . 

" Nihilque aliud velit intelligi in eo quod dicit gratis, nisi quod justificationem opera non prcucedunt." 
De Spiritu et Lit. [ca.] 2G 8 . 

"Per fidem impetratio gratise contra peccatum, per gratiam sanatio animae a vitio peccati, per animai 
sanitatem libertas arbitrii," &c. De Spiritu et Lit. ca. 30 9 . 

BERNARDUS. 

" Non est quo gratia intret, ubi jam meritum occupavit Deest gratite quicunque meritis deputat. 

Gratia me reddit justificatum gratis, et sic liberatum a servitute peccati 10 ." 

BRUNO. 
" Fides credentis reputatur ei ad justitiam, quod justificatur sine omni merito per solam fidem 11 ." 

CHRYSOSTOMUS. 

" Non ex benefactis, nee laboribus, nee pensatore, sed sola gratia justificavit genus nostrum. Quod et 
Paulus declarans dicit, Nunc autem absque lege justitia Dei manifestata est. Justitia autem Dei per fidem 
Jesu Christi, non per ullum sudorem aut dolorem ls ." 



t 1 Id. In Epist. ad Rom. cap. ix. Tom. III. 
p. 144, where ut in solo nomine Domini et conditoris 
consequatur salutem creatura.~\ 

[ s Pet. Lombard. Magist. in Paul. Epistt. Col- 
lectan. ad Rom. cap. iii. foil. 17, 8. Ed. Paris. 1537.] 

[ 3 Brunon. Exposit. in Pauli Epistt. Ad Rom. 
iv. fol. xi. Ed. Paris. 1509.] 

[* Prosper. Ad Rutin. cap. vi. 7- col. 92, Ed. Paris. 
1711, where non enim juste agebat et y and spiritum 
fidei. Ibid. cap. ix. 10. col. 93, where bonos facit. ] 

[ 5 Chrysost. in Epist. ad Rom. Horn. vii. cap. 
iii. Tom. IX. p. 487. Ed. Paris. 171838.] 



[ G Ambros. in Epist. ad Rom. cap. iii. Tom. III. 
p. 124. Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1616.] 

[ 7 August. De Spiritu et Litera, ad Marcell. 
cap. x. Tom. III. p. 308. Ed. Paris. 1635, where 
per ipsam quippe justificatur gratis.] 

[ 8 Id. ibid. cap. xxvi. p. 314, where nisi quia.\ 

[ Id. ibid. cap. xxx. p. 316.] 

[ 10 Bernard, in Cantica, Serm.lxvii. Tom. I. col. 
1504. Ed. Paris. 1690.] 

f n Brunon. Exposit. ad Roman, iv. fol. xii.] 

[ 12 Chrysost. Adv. Judaeos, Orat. vii. Tom. I. 
p. 665.] 



NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION. 



207 



Idem. " Ne tuao confidas pcenitentiae ; tua namque pcenitentia tanta nequit peccata delete 13 ." 
" Si sola foret pcenitentia, jure timeres : sed postquam cum poenitentia commiscetur Dei misericordia, 
confide, . . . quia tuam vicit nequitiam 14 ." 

GENNADIUS. 

" Gratis, hoc est, absque bonis operibus salvus factus es, ut nihil contuleris praeter fidem. Justificatus 
autem gratis justificaris, et a tergo venis post yloriam et beneficium Dei. Egent gloria Dei, hoc est, a tergo 
veniunt, et non praeoccupaverunt glorificare Deum. Ideo omnes qui crediderunt in Christum, gratis justin- 
cantur, credere tamen coimportantes 16 ." 

LOMBARDUS. 

"Per .... fidem justificatur impius, ut deinde ipsa fides incipiat per dilectionem operari. Ea enim sola 
bona opera dicenda sunt, qucefiunt per dilectionem Dei. Ipsa enim dilectio opus fidei dicitur 18 ." 

ERASMUS. 

" His qui pure simpliciterque Christo fidunt, hoc praestat fides, ut pro justis habeantur, nulla legis ob- 
servatcB commendatione, sed solius fidei 17 ." 

AUGUSTINUS. 

" Quomodo ergo justificabitur homo per fidem sine operibus ? Responderet ipse apostolus, Propterea hoc 
dixi tibi, O homo, ne quasi de operibus tuis prasumere videreris, et merito operum tuorum accepisse fidei 
gratiam 18 ." 

PROSPER, in Psalm, cii. 

" Retributiones Dei non secundum merita humana sunt factae. Nam damnatio peccatoribus debebatur, 
sed gratia prsestita est malis, et salus perditis." 

Et mox : " Ostendit per quos gradus gratiae anima humana salvetur. Qui propitius sit, inquit, omnibus 
iniquitatibus tuis. Non ait, omnibus virtutibus tuis, quie utique nulla; ei inessent, nisi fieret rcmissio 
peccatorum. Quae ne rursus exsurgant, Sanat, inquit, omnes languores tuoa 19 . 

CHRT.SOSTOMUS. Rom. iii. 

" Cujusnam gratia omnia fecit lex? Quatenus justum redderet hominem. Verum illud praestare lex non 
potuit: Omnes enim, inquit, peccaverunt. Adveniens vero fides illud praestitit. Quamprimum enim homo 
credidit, confestim simul Justificatus est 20 ." 

ANSELMUS. Rom. iv. 

" Non ideo apostolus dicit, Arbitramur hominem justificari per fidem, uti, si quis crediderit, non ad eum 
pertineat bene operari ; sed ideo potius, ut nemo putet meritis priorum bonorum operum se pervenisse ad donum 

justificationis qucB est in fide Nam Justificatus per fidem, quomodo potest nisi juste deinceps operari ? 

quamvis nihil anted juste operatus ad fidei justificationem pervenerit Sequuntur enim opera justificatum, 

non praecedunt justificandum." 

Idem. " Manifestum est Jacobum loqui de operibus quae fidem subsequuntur. Paulus sine praocedentibus 
operibus dixit hominem sola fide justificari. Nemo enim fidem suis prcecedentibus meritis habere potest, et ideo 
qui per fidem gratis sibi datam justificatur, non in se sed in Domino glorietur 21 ." 

When St Paul said, "We be justified freely by faith without works," he meant of all 
manner of works of the law, as well of the Ten Commandments, as of ceremonials 
and judicials. 

Rom. iii. "Ex operibus legis non justificabitur omnis caro. Nam per legem agnitio peccati. Legem 
ergo destruimus per fidem ? Absit, sed legem stabilimus." 

Rom. ii. "Si praeputium justificationes legis servaverit, nonne praeputium illius pro circumcisione 
imputabitur? Et judicabit quod est ex natura praeputium (si legem servaverit) te qui per literam et 
circumcisionem transgressor es legis." 

" Qui praedicas non furandum, furaris : qui dicis non moechandum, mcecharis : qui abominaris idola, 
sacrilegium facis: qui in lege gloriaris, per praevaricationem legis Deum inhonoras." 

" Circumcisio quidem prodest, si legem observes. Si autem praevaricator legis sis, circumcisio tua 
prEeputium facta est." 

Rom. iv. "Lex iram operatur; ubi enim non est lex, nee praevaricatio." 

Rom. v. "Peccatum non imputatur, cum non est lex." 

"Lex subintravit, ut abundaret delictum." 



[ 13 Id. De Pccnit. Horn. viii. Tom. II. p. 341.] 

[ 14 Id. ibid.] 

[ 15 The passage has not been found. It does 
not appear what work of his is here intended.] 

[ 16 Pet. Lombard. Magist. Sentent. Lib. in. 
Dist. xxiii.p. 288. Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1566.] 

[ 17 Erasm. In Epist. ad Rom. cap. iv. Tom. VII. 
col. 788, Ed. Lugd. Bat. 17036, where pure sim 
pliciterque fidunt illi . . . his . . . fides non pra stat.} 

[ 18 August. In Psalm, xxxi. Praefat. Tom. 
VIII. p. 77. Ed. Paris. 1635, where respondet, hoc 
tibi dixi, and te accepisse.} 



[ 19 Prosper, in Psalm, cii. col. 379. Ed. Paris. 
1711.] 

[ 20 Chrysost. in Epist. ad Rom. Horn. vii. Tom. 
IX. p. 488.] 

[ 21 Anselm. in Pauli Epistt. Enarrat. In Ro 
man, iv. pp. 25, 26. Ed. Colon. 1545. But these com 
mentaries are supposed to have been written by 
Herv. Natalis. See Coci Censura Patrum. p. 433, 4. 
Ed. Helmes. 1683. 

In the Lambeth MSS. this extract from Anselm 
appears to be in another hand than that of the arch 
bishop.] 



208 



NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION. 



Rom. vii. " Peccatum non cognovi, nisi per legem. Nam et concupiscentiam non novissem, nisi lex 
dixisset, Non concupisces. Lex quidem sancta, et mandatum sanctum et justum et bonum. Quod ergo 
bonum est, mihi factum est mors ? Absit. - Scimus enim quod lex spiritualis est, ego autem carnalis. 
Invenio igitur legem volenti mihi facere bonum, quum mihi malum adjacet. Condelector enim legi Dei 
secundum interiorem hominem." 

Rom. viii. "De peccato damnavit peccatum in came, ut justificatio legis impleretur in nobis." 

Rom. ix. " Israel persequens legem justitiae in legem justitiao non pervenit. Propter quid? Quia non 
ex fide, sed tanquam ex operibus legis." 

2 Cor. iii. "Litera occidit, spiritus autem vivificat." 

Gal. ii. " Si per legem est justitia, ergo Christus gratis mortuus est." 

[Gal.] iii. " Si data esset lex, quae posset justificare, vere ex lege esset justitia." 

Ephes. ii. " Gratia salvi facti estis per fidem, idque non ex vobis." 

Philippen. iii. " Secundum justitiam quae est in lege factus irreprehensibilis. - Omnia reputavi ster- 
cora esse, ut Christum lucrifaciam, et reperiar in illo non habens meam justitiam qua* est ex lege, sed 
illam quae est ex fide Christi." 

Tit. iii. " Apparuit gratia Dei Salvatoris nostri, non ex operibus justitia? qua; fecimus nos, sed secundum 
suam misericordiam salvos nos fecit." 

The same meant divers ancient authors, as well Greeks as Latins, when they said, 
" We be justified by only faith, or faith alone." 

ORIGENES supra. 

HIERONYMUS. 

" Ex operibus legis non justificabitur omnis caro. Quod ne de lege Mosi tantum dictum putes, et 
non de omnibus mandatis, (quae uno legis nomine continentur,) idem apostolus scribit dicens, Consentio 
legi Dei &C. 1 " 

GENNADIUS. 
" Gratis servaris, hoc est, sine operibus virtutum, aut offidis rectis et perfectis 2 ." 

TIIEODORETUS } 
AMBROSIUS 



BERNARDUS J 
AUGUSTINUS, De Spiritu et Litera, ca. 8, 13, 14, 29 3 . Et, Ad Simplicianum, q. 2. 

THOMAS. 

" Arbitramur justificari hominem ex fide sine operibus legis. Non . . . solum sine operibus caremonialibus 
(quae gratiam non conferebant, sed solum significabant), sed etiam sine operibus moralium prceceptorum, sed 
illud ad, 4" c - Tit. iii. Non ex operibus justitiae V " 

Idem. " Moralium praeceptorum legitimus usus est, ut homo attribuat eis quod in eis continetur. * Data 
est lex ut cognoscatur peccatum. . ..Non est ergo in eis spes justificationis, sed in sola fide. Rom. iii. Arbi 
tramur justificari hominem per fidem sine operibus legis 5 . " 

AUGUSTINUS, De Spiritu et Lit. ca. 4. 

"Doctrina...illa, qua mandatum accepimus continenter recteque vivendi, litera est occidens, nisi adsit 
vivificans Spiritus 6 ." 

St James meant of justification in another sense, when he said, "A man is justified 
by works, and not by faith only." For he spake of such a justification which is a 
declaration, continuation, and increase of that justification which St Paul spake of 
before. 

Jac. ii. "Si fidem quis dicat se habere, opera autem non habeat, &c. 7 " 

"Ostende mihi fidem tuam ex operibus tuis, et ego ostendam tibi fidem meam ex operibus meis." 

"Abraham pater noster nonne ex operibus justificatus est, cum immolaret filium suum super altare?" 

1 Mac. ii. "Abraham in tentatione nonne inventus est fidelis?" 

Gen. xxii. "Tentavit Deus Abraham." 

Apoc. [xxii.] "Qui Justus est, justificetur adhuc." 

BEDA. 

"Credere in Deum soli novere qui diligunt Deum, qui non solo nomine fiunt Christiani, sed et factis 
et vita." 



[ x Hieron. Ad Ctesiph. Epist.xliii.Tom.il. p. 
172. Ed. Francof. 1684, where consentio enim.] 
[ 2 See the preceding page, note 15.] 
[ 3 August. Tom. III. pp. 307, 9, 10, 16.] 
[ 4 Thorn. Aquin. Op. Venet. 1593. Ad. Rom. 
cap. iii. Tom. XVI. fol. 13, 2, where secundum 
illud ad Tit. iii. Dr Jenkyns has omitted the 
words sed illud ad, &:c., and inserted the following, 
gu& fecimus nos fecit, which are not found in 



the Lambeth MSS. Vid. Jenkyns Remains of 
Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 128.] 

[ 5 Id. in 1 Tim. i. Tom. XVI. fol. 175, 1. 
where Ilorum legilimus^] 

[ 6 August. De Spiritu et Litera, ad Marcell. 
Tom. III. p. 305.] 

[ 7 Dr Jenkyns has added the following words : 
numquid poterit fides salvare eum? Vol. II. p. 
128.] 



NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION. 209 

Et mox. " Cum [Jacobus] bona opera commemorat Abraham, quae ejus fidem comitata sunt, satis ostendit 
Paulum apostolum non ita per Abraham docere justificari hominem per fidem sine operibus, ut, si quis 
crediderit, non ad eum pertineat bene operari ; sed ad hoc potius, ut nemo arbitretur meritis priorum bono- 
rum operum se pervenisse ad donum justificationis, qua3 est in fide 8 . 

Unde apostolus Paulus dicit posse hominem sine operibus, scilicet praecedentibus, justificari per fidem. 
Nam justificatus per fidem quomodo potest nisi juste operari 9 ? " 

Glossa ordinaria. 

" Probavit [apostolus,] eos qui opera non habent, veram fidem non habere Quod Abraham per fidem 

sine operibus justificatus dicitur, de operibus quae pnecedebant intelligitur; quia per opera quae fecit insons 
non fuit, sed sola fide. Hie de operibus agitur quae fidem sequuntur, per quae amplius justificatur, cum jam 
per fidem fuisset Justus. . . . [Heb. xi.] Fide Abraham obtulit filium suum, cum tentaretur. Haec oblatio fuit 
opus et testimonium fidei et justitiae 10 ." 

HUGO CARDINALIS. 

"Apostolus loquitur ad Rom. de operibus praecedentibus fidem, quibus non Abraham nee alius jus 
tificatus est: hie vero est sermo de operibus sequentibus fidem; qua; dicuntur justiftcare, turn quod justi- 
ficationem jam habita/n per fidem infusam notificant, turn quod earn perficiunt et conservant. Et tune res 
fieri dicitur, quando perficitur, vel quum innotescit 11 ." 

Et mox : " [Abraham per fidem fuit justificatus ;] opera autem fidem perficiunt, notificant, augmentant, 
et confirmant 12 ." 

LYRA. 

" Et suppleta est scriptura dicens, Credidit Abraham Deo, et imputatum est ei ad justitiam ...Ex obla- 
tione Isaac scriptura ilia dicitur esse suppleta, in quantum per hoc magnitude fidei Abrahae fuit aliis 
declarata 13 ." 

PROSPER, De Vita contemplativa, Li. iii. ca. 21. 

" Fides quae est justitia? fundamentum, quam nulla bona opera praecedunt, et ex qua omnia proce- 
dunt, ipsa nos a peccatis omnibus purgat, mentes nostras illuminat, Deo reconciliat !4 / &c. 

Idem, in Libro Sententiarum ex Augustino : " Sicut duo sunt officia medicinae, unum quo sanatur infirmitas, 
aliud quo custoditur sanitas; ita duo sunt dona gratia?, unum quod aufert carnis cupiditatem, aliud quod 
facit animi perse verari virtutem 15 ." 

Idem, eodem, ca. 7. et in Psal. ciii. " Caritas Dei et proximi propria et specialis virtus est piorum atque 
sanctorum, cum cetera) virtutes et bonis et malis possunt esse communes 16 ." 

This proposition, that we be justified by Christ only and not by our good works, is a 
very true and necessary doctrine of St Paul and other the apostles and prophets, taught 
by them to set forth thereby the glory of Christ, and mercy of God by Christ. 

1 Timo. ii. "Unus Deus, unus Mediator Dei et hominum." 
Rom. xi. " Si ex gratia, non ex operibus; alioqui gratia jam non est gratia." 
" Si ex operibus, jam non est gratia." 

1 Cor. i. "Ut non glorietur omnis caro," sed, "qui gloriatur, in Domino glorietur." 
Gal. iii. "Abrahae dictae sunt promissiones et semini ejus. Non dicit seminibus, sed quasi in uno, et 
semini tuo, qui est Christus." 

Although all that be justified must of necessity have charity as well as faith, yet 
neither faith nor charity be the worthiness and merits of our justification, but that is to be 
ascribed only to our Saviour Christ, which was offered upon the cross for our sins, and 
rose again for our justification. 

Tit. iii. "Non ex operibus justitiae quae fecimus nos, sed secundum suam misericordiam salvos nos fecit." 
Daniel, ix. "Non in justificationibus nostris prosternimus preces ante faciem tuam, sed in miserationibus 
tuis multis." 

ANSELM. Rom. iii. 

" Ne fides ipsa superbire incipiat et dicat : Si ex fide, quomodo gratis ? Quod enim fides meretur, potius 
redditur quam datur. Sed si quis dixerit, Ut merear justificationem, habeo fidem ; respondetur ei, Quid 
habes quod non accepisti 17 ? * 

THOMAS fo. sequenti. 



[ 8 Ven. Bed. In Epist. Jacob. Tom. V. p. 942. 
Ed. Basil. 1563.] 

[ 9 Id. ibid.] 

[ 10 Bib. cum Gloss. Ord. et Expos. N. de Lyra, 
Pars vi. fol. 212, 3. In Jac. cap. ii. Ed. Basil. 1502, 
where Justus, Isaac, and est opus.] 

[ u Hug. de S. Charo. Epist. Jacob, cap. ii. Tom. 
VII. fol. 316, Ed. Col. Agrip. 1621, where tune 
quia, turn quia, and quando innotescit.] 



[ 12 Id. ibid., where opera enim, and consum- 
mant.~\ 

[ 13 Nic. de Lyra, ubi supr.] 

[ 14 Prosper. Append. Op. de Vit. Contempl. 
Lib. in. cap. xxi. col. 73. Ed. Paris. 1J11.] 

[ I5 Id. Lib. Sentent. ex August. CXXXI. col. 



561.] 



[ 16 Id. in Psalm, ciii. col. 383.] 
[> 7 Anselm. in Rom. iii. p. 24.] 



[CRANMER, II.] 



210 



NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION. 



Yet nevertheless, because ly faith ice know God s mercy and grace promised by his 
word, (and that freely for Christ s death and passion sake,) and leliece the same, and, 
being truly penitent, we by faith receive the same, and so excluding all glory from 
ourselves, we do by faith transcribe the whole glory of our justification to the merits of 
Christ only, (which properly is not the nature and office of charity;) therefore to set 
forth the same, it is said of faith in ancient writers, "we be justified only by faith," or, 
"by faith alone," and in St Paul, "we be justified by faith freely without works." 

Rom. iv. "Ideo ex fide, ut secundum gratiam." 

Gal. iii. "Christus nos redemit ex maledicto legis, factus pro nobis maledictus: ut in gentes benedictio 
Dei fieret in Christo Jesu, ut promissionem Spiritus acciperemus per fidem." 

Acts x. " Huic omnes prophetae testimonium perhibent, remissionem peccatorum accipere per nomen 
ejus omnes qui credunt in cum." 

[Acts] xiii. "Notum sit vobis, viri fratres, quod per hunc vobis remissio peccatorum annunciatur, et ab 
omnibus a quibus non potuistis in lege Mosis justificari, in hoc omnis qui credit justificatur." 

AUGUSTINUS. 

" His qui gratiam (quam commendat apostolus et percipit fides Christi) putatis esse naturam, verissime 
dicit: Si ex naturajustitia, ergo gratis Christus mortuus est 1 . " 

PROSPER. 

11 Si aliqui consequi hoc per gratiam confitentur, et id non accepit nisi fides ; quac accepta non cst, in ipsa 
cst meritum : cui non donum datur, sed meritum redditur 2 ." 

AMBROSIUS. 

Per fidem . . . prsedicationis Jesu Christi agnoscitur donum dudum promissum a Deo, vel sumitur 3 " 
THEODORETUS in folio 1 praecedentc 4 . 

HISICHIUS. 

" Miseratus .... Deus humanum genus, cum illud ad explenda legis opera infirmatum vidisset, jam non 
ex operibus salvari, sed per gratiam, hominem voluit. Gratia vero ex misericordia atque compassione 
pr.Tbetur, etfide comprchenditur sola, non ex operibus, ut Paulus dicit, nam gratia jam non erit gratia 5 . " 

BERNARDUS. 
" Oleum misericordiao non reponit nisi in vasa fidei 6 ." 

THOMAS. 

" Fides hominis imputatur ad justitiam, . . . non quidem ita, quod per fidem justitiam mereatur, sed quod 
ipsum credere cst primus actus justitia;, quam Deus in eo operatur. Ex eo enim quod credit in Deum justi- 
fi can tern, justificationi ejus subjicit se, et sic recipit effectum 7 ." 

MAGISTER SENTENTIARUM. 

"Per... fidem justificatur impius, .. .ut deinde ipsa fides incipiat per dilectionem operari. Ea cnim 
sola bona opera dicenda sunt, qua) fiunt per dilectionem Dei. Ipsa enim dilectio opus fidei dicitur 6 " 

Antididagma. 

"Per fidem (qua absque dubitatione firmiter confidimus nobis, qui veram peccatorum poenitentiam 
habemus, peccata nostra propter Christum esse dimissa) justificamur tanquam per causam susceptivam 9 ." 

AUGUSTINUS, DC Spiritu et Lit. 

"Per legem fidei quisque cognoscit, si quis bene vivit, Dei gratiam se habere, et ut perficiatur in dilec 
tionem ju >titiae non se aliunde consecuturum. Quae cogitatio pium facit, quia pietas est vera sapicntia 10 ." 

Contra Julianum. "Ex fide autem justitiam ideo dicit esse ex Deo, quia Deus unicuique partitur 
mensuram fidei, et ad fidem pert inet credere, quod Deus in nobis operetur et velle 11 , " &c. 

" Fides habetur, quod aliquanto post dicit, quum omnis qui invocaverit nomen Domini salvus erit : ad 
quam salutem pertinet, ut opera nulla sint, et justitia nobis ex Deo sit 12 ." 



[ Eis qui gratiam, quam commendat et percipit 
fides Christi, putant esse naturam, verissime dicitur : 

Si per naturam justitia est, ergo, &c (Gennadii) 

De Eccles. Dogm. cap. xlviii.J 

[ 2 Prosper. Resp. ad Excerpt. Gen. Dub. ix. 
where illiquid confcrri liomini, and debitum red 
ditur.} 

[ 3 Ambros. Comm. in Epist. ad Rom. cap. iii. 
Tom. V. p. 187. Basil. 1567.] 

[ 4 Vid. p. 205.] 

[ 5 Isych. In Levit. Lib. iv. cap. xiv. fol. 81. (1.) 
Ed. Basil. 1527, where salvare.] 

[ 6 Bernard, in Annunt. Domin. Serrn. iii. Tom. 
I. col. 1G9, Ed. Paris. 1586, where vase fiduciee 
ponis.] 

[ 7 Thorn. Aquin. Comm. in Paul. Epist. Ed. 



Venet. 1593. Ad Rom. cap. iv. fol. 14, 1, where 
Credenti autem in eum quijustificatimpiiim, com- 
putabitur hcec ejus fides ad justitiam, &c.J 

[ 8 Pet. Lomb. in Paul. Epistt. Collectan. ad 
Rom. cap.iv. fol. 18, F.etad Gal. cap. v. fol. 157, E. 
Ed. Paris. 1537.] 

[ 9 This passage has not been found.] 

[ 10 August. Lib. De Spiritu et Litera, capp. 
x. xi. 17, 8. Tom. III. p. 308, Ed. Paris. 1635, 
where si quid and Dei gratia.] 

[ n Id. Op. Imperf. contr. Julian. Lib. n. 158. 
Tom. X. col. 1016. Ed. Paris. 16791709, where in 
nobis DC us.] 

f 12 Id. ibid. Lib. i. cap. cxli. Tom. X. col. 
955, where fides cnim habct, quoniam omnis, opera 
bona et, and Deo sint.] 



NOTES ON JUSTIFICATION. 



211 



Idem. "Fides in nobis, Christus in nobis. Quid cnim aliud dicit apostolus, habitare Christum in 
cordibus nostris per fidem ? Ergo fides tua de Christo, Christus est in corde tuo 13 ." 

Et In Psalm, cxviii. "In lege . . . factorum est Dei jubentis justitia; in lege autem fidei subvenientis 
misericordia u ." 

ORIGENES. Rom. iv. 

" Jam sane considerabis, sic ut de fide dictum est, quod reputatum est ei ad justitiam, ita de aliis virtutibus 
dici possit," &c. 

Et mox : " Quod autem dicit, Ei vero qui operatur, &c. videtur ostendere, quasi in fide quidem gratia 
sit justificantis, in operc vero justitia tribuentis 15 ." 

Et longe infra super hunc locum, Ideo ex fide, ut secundum gratiam. "In superioribus, inquit, 
distinctionem dedit mercedis et gratia), dicens mercedem rem debitam esse, gratiam autem nullius esse 
debiti, sed benevolentiae beneficium. Et in prcesenti ergo loco ostendere volens, Deum hcereditatem pro- 
missionum non ex debito, scd ex gratia dare, dicit quia h&reditas a Deo his qui credunt, non ex mercedis 
debito, sed fidei munere concedatur. Sicut enim (ut exempli gratia dixerim) hoc quod subsistimus non 
potest intelligi, quasi ex operis nostri mercede subsistamus, sed evidenter Dei munus est quod sumus, et 
gratia Conditoris, qui esse nos voluit; ita, etsi haereditatem promissionum Dei capiamus, divinae gratia; 
est, non alicujus debiti aut operis merces 16 ." 

AUGUSTINUS. 

"Medicina enim animae vulnerum, et una propitiatio pro delictis omnibus, est credere in Christum 17 . 
"Credentibus sufficit fides ad justificationem 18 ." 

" Credidit Abraham Deo, et reputatum est illi ad justitiam, et amicus Dei appellatus est. Quod credidit 
Deo, intus in corde, in sola fide cst l J ." 

" Ipsa justitia est ex fide, qua credimus nos justificari, hoc est, justos fieri, gratia Dei per Jesum Christum 
Dominum nostrum 20 ." 

Ne quis glorietur. 

AUGUSTINUS. 

" Non hoc ideo dicit, quod opera bona pia cogitatione facta frustrentur (cum Dcus reddat cuique secun 
dum opera ejus, sitque gloria Dei operanti bonum,) sed quod opera ex gratia, non ex operibus gratia 21 ." 

THOMAS. Ephes. ii. 

" Justificati per gratiam ipsius. Idem enim est salvari et justificari." 

" Subdit rationem quare Deus salvat homines per fidem absque meritis praocedentibus : ut ne quis 

glorietur in seipso, sed tota gloria in Deum referatur 1 Cor. i . * Ut non glorietur omnis caro in 

conspectu ejus 22 . " 

AMBBOSIUS. Ephes. ii. 

"Verum est, quod omnis gratiarum actio salutis nostrae ad Deum referenda est, qui misericordiam 
suam nobis praestat, ut revocaret errantes ad vitam, non quaerentes rectum iter. Ideoque non est glori- 
andum nobis in nobis ipsis, sed in Deo ; qui nos regeneravit nativitate coelesti per fidem Christi 23 ." 

HIEKONYMUS. Ephes. ii. 
"Hoc autem totum propt erea [dixit,] ne quis glorietur a semet ipso et non a Deo se esse salvatum 24 ." 

Ideo ex fide ut secundum gratiam. 

THEOPHYLACTUS. Rom. iv. 

" Quia lex iram operatur, propterea ex fide dicitur justificari Abrahamus ac haores constitui, ut secundum 
gratiam omnia fiant 26 ." 

(ECUMENIUS. 

"Per legem, inquit, non confirmantur promissiones, quod secundum modum aliquem impediuntur. 
Quomodo ? Quia lex iram operatur, eo quod non observatur : nemo enim illam poterat implere. Undo 
autem ira, quomodo haereditas? Quomodo hsereditatem accipiet, qui irritavit? Quomodo venient promis 
siones? Fides, inquit, gratiam inducit Dei ; existente autem gratia, veniunt et implentur promissiones 26 ." 



[ 13 Id. in Joan. Evang. cap. xi. Tractat. xlix. 
19. Tom. IX. p. 149. Ed. Paris. 1635, where ait 
apostolus, and per fidem in cordibus vestris.~] 

[ 14 Id. in Psalm, cxviii. Concio x. Tom. VIII. 
p. 552.] 

[ 15 Origen. in Epist. ad Rom. Lib. iv. 1. Tom. 
IV. p. 522, Ed. Paris. 1733-59, where quod repu- 
tata, ita ut de aliis, justitia retribuentis, rem debiti 
esse, sed per gratiam dare, ut exempli causa.] 

I 16 Id. ibid. 5. p. 528.] 

[ 17 August. Op. Serm. cxliii. De Verb. Evang. 
Job., xvi. Tom. V. col. 690, Ed. Paris. 16791709, 
where medicina omnium, and delictis hominum.] 

[ 18 Id. Ad Paulin. Epist. Tom. II. col. 666.] 

[ 19 Id. Serm. ii. 9. Tom. V. col. 9 ; where cre 
didit enim Abraham.] 

[ 20 Id. ad Paulin. Epist. clxxxvi. 8. Tom. II. 



col. 666. where ipsa est justitia.] 

[ 21 Id. ibid. 4. col. 665, where hoc utique totum 
ideo. . . . Non quia bona opera frustrantur, cum 
Deus reddat unicuique secundum opera ejus, 
sitque gloria . . . omni operanti bonum ; sed quia 
opera ex gratia, non ex operibus gratia.] 

[ 22 Thorn. Aquin. Op. In Epist. ad Ephes. cap. ii. 
Lect. iii. Tom. XVI. pp. 138, 9. where 1 Cor.ii.] 

[ 23 Ambros. in Epist. ad Ephes. cap. ii. Tom. III. 
p. 235. Ed. Colon. Agrip. 1616, where quia omnes.] 

[ 24 Hieron. in Ephes. cap. ii. Tom. IX. p. 169. 
Ed. Francof. 1684.] 

[ 25 Theophylact. in Epist. ad Rom. cap. iv. 
Tom. II. p. 33. Ed. Venet. 175463.] 

[ 2G CEcumen. in Epist. ad Rom. Comm. cap. v. 
Tom. I. pp. 253, 4. Ed. Paris. 163031.] 

142 



212 



[EXAMINATION AT OXFORD BEFORE BROKES, 

SEPTEMBER, 1555 .] 



[Poxe s Act 
and Monu 
ments, pp 
187281, ed. 
Lond. 1583.1 



Dr Brokes, 
Dr Martin, 
Dr Story, 
commis 
sioners 
against the 
archbishop. 

The order of 
setting and 
placing the 
commission 
ers. 



[AFTER the disputations done and finished in Oxford between the doctors of both universities and the 
three worthy bishops, Dr Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, ye heard then how sentence condemnatory 
immediately upon the same was ministered against them by Dr Weston and other of the university: 
whereby they were judged to be heretics, and so committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. But 
forasmuch as the sentence given them 2 was void in law, (for at that time the authority of the pope 
was not yet received into the land,) therefore was a new commission sent from Rome, and a new 
process framed for the conviction of these reverend and godly-learned men aforesaid. In which com 
mission, first was doctor James Brokes, bishop of Gloucester, the pope s subdelegate 3 , with doctor Martin 
and doctor Story, commissioners in the king and queen s behalf, for the execution of the same Im 
primis, here is to be understand, that the coming down 4 of the foresaid commissioners, which was 
upon Thursday, the 12. of September, anno 1555, in the church of St Mary, and in the east end of 
the said church, at the high altar, was erected a solemn scaffold for bishop Brokes aforesaid, repre 
senting the pope s person, ten foot high. The seat was made that he might sit under the sacrament 
of the altar. And on the right hand of the pope s delegate, beneath him, sat doctor Martin, and on 
the left hand sat doctor Story, the king and queen s commissioners, which were both doctors of the 

civil law And anon one of the proctors for the pope, or else his doctor, called, " Thomas, archbishop 

of Canterbury, appear here, and make answer to that shall be laid to thy charge: that is to say, for 
blasphemy, incontinency, and heresy : and make an answer here to the bishop of Gloucester, representing 
the pope s person." 

** 

When doctor Martin had ended his oration, the archbishop beginneth, as here followeth. 

Cranmer: "Shall I then make my answer?" 

Martin : " As you think good ; no man shall let you." 

And here the archbishop, kneeling down on both knees towards the west, said first the Lord s prayer. 
Then rising up, he reciteth the articles of the creed. Which done, he entereth with his protestation, in 
form as followeth.] 



The Faith and Profession of doctor Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury before 

the Commissioners 5 . 

The pro- This I do profess as touching my faith, and make my protestation, which I desire 

protestation you to note. I will never consent that the bishop of Rome shall have any jurisdiction 

ofDrCran- .,,..,. i , 

mer before Within tlllS realm. 

sbner"" Story : Take a note thereof. 

Martin : Mark, M. Cranmer, how you answer for yourself. You refuse and deny 
him, by whose laws ye yet do remain in life, being otherwise attainted of high treason", 
and but a dead man by the laws of this realm. 

Cranmer : I protest before God I was no traitor ; but indeed I confessed more at 
my arraignment than was true. 

Martin: That is not to be reasoned at this present. You know ye were con- 



[ The examination of Archbishop Cranmer is 
printed from Foxe s Acts and Monuments, pp. 1872 
1881. Ed. Lond. 1583. The "Processus contra 
Cranmerum," which contains the official report of 
the examination, sent by Brokes to Cardinal James 
de Puteo, will be found in the Appendix. See 
Cranmer s second Letter to Queen Mary, Sept. 
1555. Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. Vol. II. p. 064. 
et seq. Ed. Oxon. 1829.] 

[ 2 Other editions read, " Given against them."] 

[ 3 Subdelegate to the Cardinal de Puteo, who is 

called in the Processus cont. Cranm. " Judex ac 

Commissarius a sanctissimo domino nostro papa 



specialiter deputatus." Strype s Mem. of Abp. 
Cranmer. Todd s Addenda, No. 2. Vol. II. p. 1069. 
Ed. Oxon. 1840.] 

[ 4 Other editions read, " that at the coming 
down."] 

[ 5 Vid. the Archbishop s letters to queen Mary, 
and to a Lawyer, Sept. 1555, and his Appeal to a 
General Council, infra p. 224.] 

[ 6 Vid. the Archbishop s letters to queen Mary, 
Sept. 1555. Foxe s Acts and Monuments, p. 1871. 
Ed. Lond. 1583. Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. Vol. 
II. p. 664, etseqq. Strype s Mem. of Abp. Gran- 
mer, Vol. II. p. 459. Ed. Oxon. 1840.] 



EXAMINATION BEFORE BROKES. 213 

demned for a traitor, and res judicata pro veritate accipitur. But proceed to your 
matter. 

Crammer : I will never consent to the bishop of Rome ; for then should I give 
myself to the devil : for I have made an oath to the king, and I must obey the 
king by God s laws. By the scripture the king is chief, and no foreign person in his causes ai- 
own realm above him. There is no subject but to a king. I am a subject, I owe cSnmS^ean 
my fidelity to the crown. The pope is contrary to the crown. I cannot obey both : thepope. ve 
for no man can serve two masters at once, as you in the beginning of your oration 
declared by the sword and the keys, attributing the keys to the pope, and the sword 
to the king. But I say the king hath both. Therefore he that is subject to Rome 
and the laws of Rome, he is perjured ; for the pope s and the judge s laws are contrary, The laws of 
they are uncertain and confounded. and the m 

A priest indebted, by the laws of the realm shall be sued before a temporal judge; miry." c< 
by the pope s laws, contrary 7 . 

The pope doth the king injury, in that he hath his power from the pope. The 
king is head in his own realm : but the pope claimeth all bishops, priests, curates, 
&c. So the pope in every realm hath a realm. 

Again, by the laws of Rome the benefice must be given by the bishop ; by the 
laws of the realm the patron giveth the benefice. Herein the laws be as contrary as 
fire and water. 

No man can by the laws of Rome proceed in a prcemunire ; and so is the law of 
the realm expelled, and the king standeth accursed in maintaining his own laws. There 
fore, in consideration that the king and queen take their power of him, as though God 
should give it to them, there is no true subject, unless he be abrogate, seeing the crown 
is holden of him, being out of the realm. 

The bishop of Rome is contrary to God, and injurious to his laws : for God com- The pope s 
manded all men to be diligent in the knowledge of his law ; and therefore hath appointed SS^S 
one holy-day in the week at the least, for the people to come to the church, and hear God * 
the word of God expounded unto them, and that they might the better understand it, 
to hear it in their mother tongue, which they know. The pope doth contrary : for 
he willeth the service to be had in the Latin tongue, which they do not understand. 
God would have it to be perceived : the pope will not. When the priest giveth thanks, 
God would that the people should do so too, and God will them to confess all together : 
the pope will not. 

Now as concerning the sacrament, I have taught no false doctrine of the sacrament The real pre- 
of the altar : for if it can be proved by any doctor above a thousand years after Christ, to 
that Christ s body is there really, I will give over. My book was made seven years 
ago, and no man hath brought any authors against it. I believe, that whoso eateth 
and drinketh that sacrament, Christ is within them, whole Christ, his nativity, passion, 
resurrection, and ascension, but not that corporally that sitteth in heaven. 

Now Christ commanded all to drink of the cup: the pope taketh it away from 
the laymen : and yet one saith, that if Christ had died for the devil, that he should 
drink thereof. 

Christ biddeth us to obey the king, etiam dyscolo PU<TKO\O>] : the bishop of Rome 
biddeth us to obey him. Therefore, unless he be antichrist, I cannot tell what to 
make of him. Wherefore if I should obey him, I cannot obey Christ. 

He is like the devil in his doings, for the devil said to Christ : " If thou wilt fall Thr pope 
down and worship me, I will give thee all the kingdoms of the world." Thus he ti^detiun 
took upon him to give that which was not his own. Even so the bishop of Rome * 
giveth princes their crowns, being none of his own : for where princes either by election, 
either by succession, either by inheritage 8 obtain their crown, he saith, that they should 
have it from him. 

Christ saith, that antichrist shall be. And who shall he be ? Forsooth, he that The pope 
advancoth himself above all other creatures. Now if there be none already that hath SS5?" 



[ 7 Vid. Collection of Tenets from the Canon 
Law, p. 72, nn. 12, 13.] 



R Other editions read, "by inheritance." 



214 



EXAMINATION BEFORE BROKES. 



Matt. xvi. 
Mark viii. 



The pope s 
laws against 
the laws of 
this realm. 



To be called 
universal 
head is a 
mark of 
antichrist. 
Gregory. 



The bishop 
of Gloucester 
charged with 
perjury. 



Warham, 
archbishop, 
gave up first 
the supre 
macy to the 
king. 



advanced himself after such sort besides the pope, then in the mean time let him be 
antichrist. 

Story: Pleaseth it you to make an end? 

Cranmer : For he will be the vicar of Christ, he will dispense with the old and 
new Testament also, yea, and with apostasy. 

Now I have declared why I cannot with my conscience obey the pope. I speak 
not this for hatred I bear to him that now supplieth the room, for I know him not. 
I pray God give him grace not to follow his ancestors. Neither say I this for my 
defence, but to declare my conscience, for the zeal that I bear to God s word, trodden 
under foot by the bishop of Rome. I cast fear apart ; for Christ said to his apostles, 
that in the latter days they should suffer much sorrow, and be put to death for his 
name s sake : " Fear them not," saith he, " but fear him, which, when he hath killed 
the body, hath power to cast the soul into fire everlasting." Also Christ saith, that 
"he that will live shall die, and he that loseth his life for my name s sake, he shall 
find it again." Moreover he said : " Confess me before men, and be not afraid ; for 
if you do so, I will stand with you : if you shrink from me, I will shrink from you." 
This is a comfortable and a terrible saying : this maketh me to set all fear apart. 
I say therefore, the bishop of Rome treadeth under foot God s laws and the king s. 

The pope would give bishopricks ; so would the king. But at the last the king 
gat the upper hand; and so are all bishops perjured, first to the pope, and then to 
the king. 

The crown hath nothing to do with the clergy. For if a clerk come before a judge, 
the judge shall make process against him, but not to execute any laws. For if the judge 
should put him to execution, then is the king accursed in maintaining his own laws. 
And therefore say I, that he is neither true to God, neither to the king, that first received 
the pope. But I shall heartily pray for such councillors as may inform her the truth; for 
the king and queen, if they be well informed, will do well." 

Martin : As you understand then, if they maintain the supremacy of Rome, they 
cannot maintain England too." 

Cranmer : I require you to declare to the king and queen what I have said, and 
how their oaths do stand with the realm and the pope. St Gregory saith, He that 
taketh upon him to be head of the universal church, is worse than the antichrist 1 . If 
any man can shew me that it is not against God s word to hold his stirrup, when he 
taketh his horse, and kiss his feet, (as kings do,) then will I kiss his feet also. 

And you, for your part, my lord, are perjured; for now ye sit judge for the pope, and 
yet did you receive your bishoprick of the king 2 . You have taken an oath to be adversary 
to this realm 3 ; for the pope s laws are contrary to the laws of the realm. 

Gloucester : You were the cause that I did forsake the pope, and did swear that 
he ought not to be supreme head, and gave it to king Henry the eighth, that he ought 
to be it ; and this you made me to do. 

Cranmer: To this I answer, you report me ill, and say not the truth, and I will 
prove it here before you all 4 . The truth is, that my predecessor, bishop Warham, 



[ l Ego autem fidenter dico, quia quisquis se 
universalem sacerdotem vocat, vel vocari desiderat, 
in elatione sua antichristum praecurrit, quia super- 
biendo se prasponit Gregor. Magni Papa; I. Op. 
Lib. vn. Indict. 15. Epist. xxxiii. Ad Maur. Au 
gust. Tom.. II. col. 881. Ed. Paris. 1/05.] 

[ 2 "Ant. Wood s account of Brokes is, that he 
was Fellow of C. C. C. and B. A. 1531 ; D.D. 1546 ; 
Master of Balliol, 1547 ; Bishop of Gloucester, on 
the deprivation of Hoper, April 1, 1554. This is 
inconsistent with the statement here attributed to 
Cranmer, both on the point of his doctor s degree, 
and his appointment to a bishoprick ; but it is not 
inconsistent either with the more full answer of 
the archbishop, printed below, or with his letter to 
the queen (Sept. 1555), or with Brokes s official 



report. It must therefore be concluded that this 
narrative is, as Foxe suspected, not to be trusted. 
See Wood, Athenae, Vol. I. p. 314. Ed. Bliss." 
Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. IV. p. 
87,n.h.] 

[ 3 Other editions read, " to the realm."] 
[ 4 " Archbishop Parker gives the following ac 
count of the first admission of the king s supremacy 
by the clergy : Clerus Anglicanus, qui Cardinali 
[WolseioJ ut Romani pontificis legato obtempera- 
bant, ob admissam receptamque papse potestatem 
actione de prcemunire teneri putabatur : cujus vi 
proscribi et cum bonis atque membris adjudicari 
regi debuit, nisi rex misertus esset. Itaque .... 
consilium iniit clerus de tarn dira poena redimenda. 
... At rex, qui solus regnare, nee divisum et dis- 



EXAMINATION BEFORE BROKES. 



215 



. uni - 



gave the supremacy to king Henry the eighth, and said that he ought to have it before 

the bishop of Rome, and that God s word would bear him 6 . And upon the same was 

there sent to both the universities, Oxford and Cambridge, to know what the word 

of God would do touching the supremacy; and it was reasoned upon and argued at 

length. So at the last both the universities agreed, and set to their seals, and sent ^ ih 

it to king Henry the eighth to the court, that he ought to be supreme head, and not scribed to the 

the pope. Whereupon you were then doctor of divinity at that time, and your consent " -y befcw 

was thereunto, as by your hand doth appear. Therefore you misreport me, that I was archbishop. 

the cause of your falling away from the pope, but it was yourself. All this was in 

bishop Warham s time, and whilst he was alive; so that it was three quarters of a year 

after, ere ever I had the bishoprick of Canterbury in my hands, and before I might do 

any thing. So that here ye have reported of me that which yo cannot prove, which 

is evil done. 

Gloucester : We come to examine you, and you, methink, examine us. 



Talk between doctor Martin and the archbishop. 

Martin : Master Cranmer, ye have told here a long glorious tale, pretending some 
matter of conscience in appearance, but in verity you have no conscience at all. You 
say that you have sworn once to king Henry the eighth against the pope s jurisdiction, 
and therefore you may never forswear the same; and so ye make a great matter of 
conscience in the breach of thc said oath. Here will I ask you a question or two. 
What if ye made an oath to an harlot, to live with her in continual adultery, ought you 
to keep it ? 

Cranmer: I think no. 

Martin : What if you did swear never to lend a poor man one penny, ought you 
to keep it ? 

Cranmer: I think not. 

Martin: Herod did swear whatsoever his harlot asked of him he would give 
her, and he gave her John Baptist s head. Did he well in keeping his oath ? 

Cranmer: I think not. 

Martin: Jephthe, one of the judges of Israel, did swear unto God, that if he 
would give him victory over his enemies, he would offer unto God thc first soul that 
came forth of his house. It happened that his own daughter came first, and he slew 
her to save his oath. Did he well? 

Cranmer: I think not. 



Talk between 
Dr Martin 
and the arch 
bishop. 



Unadvised 
oaths are not 
to be kept. 



Jephthe s 
oath. 



pertitum de clero et populo suo gubernando cum 
papa officium amplius gerere voluit, non alia condi- 
tione hac oblata pecunia redimere clerum voluit, 
quam si se solum suum totiusque populi proxime 
ac secundum Christum protectorem siipremumque 
Caput in ea synodo agnoscerent. Hujus consilii 
Cranmerus et Cromwellus clam auctores f uisse existi- 
mabantur. Clerus animo toto jam obstupuit ; non- 
dum enim quid sibi hie novus vellet titulus, aut 
quorsum tenderet, prospexit. Sed nasuti quidam 
olfecerunt rei exitum ; inter quos fuisse Warhamum 
archiepiscopum, ex his qua; mox dicemus, veri- 
simile est. Magnse res ; deliberating diu ; procrasti- 
nationes et prorogationes crebra> ; disputatum saepius. 
Tandem archiepiscopus, cum exquisivisset praesu- 
lum de ea re sententias, ac plerique siluissent, Qui 
tacet, inquit, consentire videtur : responsumque 
illico fuit: Ergo tacemus omnes. Verum postea, 
cum neque tutum neque e gravitate synodi fore cer- 
nerent sic illudere regi, frequentes ierunt in sen- 
tentiam his verbis conceptam : Ecclesia; et cleri 
Anglicani singularum protectorem, supremumdomi- 



num, et, quantum per Christi leges licet, etiam su- 
premum caput, regiam majestatem agnoscimus. 
(See Parker, Ant. Eccles. Brit. Warham ; Wilkins 
Concilia, Tom. III. p. 725; Burnet s Hist, of 
Reformat. Vol. I. p. 227. This resolution was 
voted on the llth Feb. 1531. But the title of 
Supreme Head was not given to the king by Act 
of Parliament till 1534; (Stat. 26 Hen. VIII. 
cap. i.) Nor does it appear to have been acknow 
ledged by the universities before that year. Wilkins, 
ibid. pp. 771, 775 ; Burnet s Hist, of Reformat. 
Vol. III. App. b. ii. No. 27, p. 72; State Papers, 
Vol. I. p. 425.) Yet Cranmer s words, as here 
reported, imply, that it had been formally approved 
by them during the primacy of Warham. This is 
another reason, in addition to those given in a pre 
ceding note, for suspecting the accuracy of this ac 
count of the examination." Jenkyns Remains of 
Abp. Cranmer, Vol. IV. p. 88.] 

[ 5 Vid. Todd s Life of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. 1. 
p. 69. Ed. Lond. 1831.] 



216 



EXAMINATION BEFORE BROKES. 



The arch, .^ 
swom to the 

king, ought 

not to swear 



The arch 
bishop sworn 
first to the 
j>ope by pro 
testation. 



Dr Martin 
would prove 
the arch 
bishop per 
jured in for 
swearing hi 



the pope. 



Dr Cranmer 

unwilling to 

archblsho 



Martin: So saith St Ambrose, De Offlciis : Miseralilis neccssitas, qua) solrif//,- 
parricidio 1 ; id est, "It is a miserable necessity which is paid with parricide." Then, 
master Cranmcr, you can no less confess by the premises, but that you ought not to 
have conscience of every oath, but if it be just, lawful, and advisedly taken. 

Cranmer : So w r as that oath. 

Martin: That is not so. For first it was unjust, for it tended to the taking 
away of another man s right. It was not lawful, for the laws of God and the church 
were against it. Besides, it was not voluntary ; for every man and woman were com 
pelled to take it. 

Cranmer: It pleaseth you to say so. 

Martin : Let all the world be judge. But, sir, you that pretend to have such a 
conscience to break an oath ; I pray you, did you never swear, and break the same ? 

Cranmer : I remember not. 

Martin : I will help your memory. Did you never swear obedience to the see 
of Rome ? 

Cranmer: Indeed I did once swear unto the same. 

Martin: Yea, that you did twice 2 , as appeareth by records aud writings here 
ready to be shewed. 

Cranmer : But I remember I saved all by protestation that I made by the counsel 
of the best learned men I could get at that time 3 . 

Martin: Hearken, good people, what this man saith. He made a protestation 
one day to keep never a whit of that which he would swear the next day. AVas this 
the part of a Christian man ? If a Christian man would bargain with a Turk, and before 
he maketh his bargain, solemnly before witness readcth in his paper that he holdeth 
secretly in hand 4 , or pcrad venture protesteth before one or two, that he mindeth not to 
perform whatsoever he shall promise to the Turk ; I say, if a Christian man would serve 
a Turk 5 in this manner, that the Christian man were worse than the Turk. AVhat would 
you then say to this man, that made a solemn oath and promise unto God and his 
church, and made a protestation before quite contrary ? 

Cranmer: That which I did, 1 did by the best learned men s advice I could 
get at that time. 

Martin : I protest before all the learned men here, that there is no learning will save 
your perjury herein ; for there be two rules of the civil law clean contrary against you : 
(and so brought forth his rules ; which being done, he proceeded further.) But will you 
have the truth of the matter ? King Henry the eighth even then meant the lamentable 
change which after you see came to pass : and to further his pitiful proceedings, from the 
divorcement of his most lawful wife to the detestable departing from the blessed unity of 
Christ s church, this man made the foresaid protestation, and, on the other side, he 
letted not to make two solemn oaths quite contrary : and why ? for otherwise, by the 
laws and canons of this realm, he could not aspire to the archbishoprick of Canterbury. 

Cranmer : I protest before you all, there was never man came more unwillingly 
to a bishoprick than I did to that : insomuch that when king Henry did send for [me] in 
post, that I should come over, I prolonged my journey by seven weeks at the least, 
thinking that he would be forgetful of me in the mean time 6 . 



[ Ambros. De Officiis, Lib. in. cap. xii. Tom. 
IV. p. 38. Colon. Agrip. 1616.] 

[ 2 Dr Jenkyns supposes that the oaths here re 
ferred to were the two which Cranmer took at his 

consecration, and were all that Martin meant 

Remains of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. IV. p. 91.] 

[ 3 See Strype s Mem. of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. 
pp. 27,28. Ed. Oxon. 1840; Hallam s Constit. Hist. 
8vo. Vol. I. p. 135, note ; Todd s Life of Abp. Cran 
mer, Vol. I. p. 58.] 

[ 4 Other editions read, " in his hand."] 
[ 5 Other editions read, " should serve a Turk."} 
[ 8 Dr Jenkyns remarks hereon, that " this asser 
tion has been questioned, but without sufficient rea 
son. (See Lingard, Vol. VI. p. 254 ; Todd s Life 



of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 50.) Warham died on 
the 23d of Aug. 1532. The precise date of Cranmer s 
return from the continent is not known. Strype 
indeed states, that Cranmer was in England and 
present at the marriage of Anne Boleyn, on the 14th 
of November. He may possibly have been then in 
England ; but neither was Anne Boleyn married on 
that day, nor was Cranmer present on the occasion. 
See his letter to Hawkyns. It is certain that on the 
20th of October, he was still in Germany, at Villach ; 
and the letter which he wrote from that place contains 
no allusion to his coming home. Nor were the bulls 
for his promotion applied for at Rome till the end 
of January, 1533." Jenkyns Remains of Abp. 
Cranmer, Vol. IV. p. 92, n.] 



EXAMINATION BEFORE BROKES. 



217 



Martin: You declare well by the way that the king took you to be a man of 
good conscience, who could not find within all his realm any man that would set forth 
his strange attempts, but was enforced to send for you in post to come out of Germany. 
What may we conjecture hereby, but that there was a compact between you, being then v 
queen Anne s chaplain, and the king : " Give me the archbishoprick of Canterbury, and 
I will give you licence to live in adultery ? " 

Cranmer : You say not true. 

Martin : Let your protestation, joined with the rest of your talk, give judgment. 
Hinc prima mali labes. Of that your execrable perjury, and his coloured and too 
shamefully suffered adultery, came heresy and all mischief to this realm. 

And thus have I spoken as touching your conscience 7 you make for breaking your 
heretical oath made to the king. But to break your former oath, made at two sundry 
times both to Qod and his church, you have no conscience at all. And now to answer 
another part of your oration, wherein you bring in God s word, that you have it on your 
side, and no man else, and that the pope hath devised a new scripture, contrary to 
the scriptures of God ; ye play herein as the Pharisees did, which cried always, Verbum Nay, the 
Domini, verbum Domini, The word of the Lord, the word of the Lord, when they cried not 
meant nothing so. This bettereth not your cause, because you have God s word for mini, but 
you ; for so Basilides 8 and Photinus the heretics said that they had God s word to i^/n^as 
maintain their heresy. So Nestorius, so Macedonius, so Pelagius, and, briefly, all the now P !gainrt 
heretics that ever were, pretended that they had God s word for them ; yea, and so the ams . 1 
devil, being the father of heresies, alleged God s word for him, saying, Scriptum est, It 
^ vHttcn. So said liu to Christ, Mi/f.c tc, <l< <t) snm, Cast thyself backward 11 ; which 
you applied most falsely against the pope. But if you mark the devil s language well, it 
agreed with your proceedings most truly. For, Mitte te deorsum, Cast thyself down 
ward, said he ; and so taught you to cast all things downward. Down with the sacra 
ment! down with the mass! down with the altars! down with the arms of Christ, and up so did king 
with a lion and a dog! down with the abbeys! down with the chauntries! down with SSdSwn* 1 
hospitals and colleges ! down with fasting and prayer ! yea, down with all that good and pentsof" 1 " 
godly is ! All your proceedings and preachings tended to no other, but to fulfil the devil s are com - 3 " 1 
request, Mitte te deorsum. And therefore tell not us that you have God s word. For God ^^ 



hath given us by his word a mark to know that your teaching proceeded not of God, but J 
of the devil, and that your doctrine came not of Christ, but of antichrist. For Christ 
said 10 there should come against his church lupi rapaces, id est, ravening wolves; 
and pseudo-apostoli, id est, false apostles. But how should we know them ? Christ 
teacheth us, saying, Ex fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos ; id est, By their fruits ye shall fruits of the 
know them/ Why, what be their fruits? St Paul declareth : Post carnem in eon- onEe25j5 

. more, let the 

cupiscentia et immunditia ambulant : potestatem contemnunt, &c. : i. e. After the conversation 
flesh they walk in concupiscence and unclcanness ; they contemn potentates Again, givejudg- 
In diebus novissimis erunt periculosa tempora, erunt seipsos amantes, cupidi, elati, im- 
moriyeri parentibus, proditores, &c. : i.e. In the latter days there shall be perilous 
times : then shall there be men loving themselves, covetous, proud, disobedient to parents, 
treason-workers. Whether these be not the fruits of your gospel, I refer me to this 
worshipful audience: whether the said gospel began not with perjury, proceeded with 
adultery, was maintained with heresy, and ended in conspiracy. 

Now, sir, two points more I marked in your raging discourse that you made here : 
the one against the holy sacrament ; the other against the pope s jurisdiction and 
the authority of the see apostolic. 

Touching the first, ye say you have God s word with you, yea, and all the doctors. Doctrine of 
I would here ask but one question of you, whether God s word be contrary to itself, and ment. 
whether the doctors teach doctrine contrary to themselves, or no ? For you, master 
Cranmer, have taught in this high sacrament of the altar three contrary doctrines, and yet 
you pretended in every one verbum Domini. 



[ 7 Other editions read, " touching the con- 
science."] 

T 8 Other editions read, " for Basilides."] 



[ 9 Other editions read, "Cast thyself down- 
ward."] 

[ to Other editions read, " Christ foresaid."] 



2] 8 



EXAMINATION BEFORE BROKES. 



first a Pagan, 



Cranmer: Nay, I taught but two contrary doctrines in the same 1 . 

Martin: What doctrine taught you when you condemned Lambert the sacra- 
mentary, in the king s presence in Whitehall ? 2 

Cranmer: I maintained then the papists doctrine. 

Martin: That is to say, the catholic and universal doctrine of Christ s church. 
And how when king Henry died ? Did you not translate Justus Jonas s book ? 3 

then a Catho- J J 

lj c- Cranmer: I did so. 

Martin : Then there you defended another doctrine touching the sacrament, by 
the same token that you sent to Lynne your printer ; that whereas in the first print 
there was an affirmative, that is to say, Christ s body really in the sacrament, you sent 
then to your printer to put in a not, whereby it came miraculously to pass, that Christ s 
body was clean conveyed out of the sacrament 4 . 

Cranmer : I remember there were two printers of my said book ; but where the 
same not was put in, I cannot tell. 

Martin: Then from a Lutheran ye became a Zwinglian, which is the vilest 
heresy of all in the high mystery of the sacrament ; and for the same heresy you did 
help to burn Lambert the sacramentary, which you now call the catholic faith and 
God s word. 

Dr Cranmer Cranmer : I grant that then I believed otherwise than I do now; and so I did, 
the know- until my lord of London, doctor Ridley, did confer with me, and by sundry persuasions 

IcdKeofthe f , , M* 5 

sacrament by and authorities of doctors drew me quite from my opinion . 

bishop Kid- 

ley. _ 



f 1 Vid. Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, 
Vol. IV. p. 95, where is found the following note : 
" Dr Wordsworth seems to think this declaration 
decisive against the common belief, that Cranmer at 
one time held the Lutheran tenets on the eucharist. 
Yet such an opinion seems to have been entertained, 
not only by Foxe, to whom Dr W. traces it, but by 
the archbishop s contemporaries in general. (See [Dr 
J. s] Preface.) It is therefore scarcely to be surrender- 
ed on the authority of a conversation, which, there is 
reason to suppose, has not been reported accurately. 
As far indeed as it rested on the translation of Justus 
Jonas Catechism, it must be admitted to be with 
out foundation : for Cranmer repeatedly declared, 
that the doctrine there taught, though it had been 
misunderstood, was none other than that which was 
maintained in the Defence. But the following ex 
tract from his Answer to Smythe s Preface leaves a 
strong impression, that in his passage from transub- 
stantiation to the tenets of the Church of England, 
he had paused at the Real Presence according to the 
Lutheran sense. Smythe, he says, understood 
not the matter no more than he understood my 
book of the Catechism ; and therefore reporteth un 
truly of me, that I in that book did set forth the 
real presence of Christ s body in the sacrament. 
Unto which false report I have answered in my 
fourth book, the eighth chapter. But this I confess 
of myself, that not long before I wrote the said Cate 
chism, I was in that error of the real presence, as I 
was many years past in divers other errors; as of 
transubstantiation, of the sacrifice propitiatory of 
the priests in the mass, of pilgrimages, purgatory, 
pardons, and many other superstitions and errors 
that came from Rome. . . . But after it had pleased 
God to shew unto me, by his holy word, a more 
perfect knowledge of his Son Jesus Christ, from 
time to time, as I grew in knowledge of him, by 
little and little I put away my former ignorance. " 
See Writings of Abp. Cranmer on the Sacrament, 
Vol. I. pp. 190, 226, 7; (Answer to Smythe s Pre 
face), p. 374, Park. Soc. Ed. ; Wordsworth s Eccl. 
Biogr. Vol. III. p. 550 ; Preface to Crunmer s 



Catechism, p. 18. Ed. Oxon. 1829; Boner s at- 
tack on Cranmer ; Foxe s Acts and Monuments 
pp. 1312, 1317. Ed. Lond. 1683.] 

[ 2 "John Nicholson, alias Lambert, burnt for 
denying the corporal presence, A.D. 1538, was not 
condemned by Cranmer, but by the king in person, 
Crumwell reading the sentence. Before his sentence 
was passed, there was a disputation, opened by a 
speech from Sampson, bishop of Chichester. The 
king himself disputed against Lambert s first posi 
tion, and then he commanded Thomas Cranmer, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to refute him." Jenkyns. 
Vid. Foxe s Acts and Monuments, pp. 1122, et 
seqq. ; Strype s Mem. of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. 
pp. 9294. Ed. Oxon. 1840.] 

[ 3 The book commonly called " Cranmer s Cate 
chism," translated under his direction from a cate 
chism compiled in Latin by Justus Jonas. See 
Preface to Cranmer s Catechism, ed. Oxford, 1829; 
Todd s Life of Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 45.] 

[ 4 "This catechism was printed first, by the 
archbishop s order, about the time of king Henry s 
death, or soon after. In a second edition the word 
not was inserted in a certain place of the book, 
to alter the doctrine of the real presence, which was 
asserted in the first edition. This Dr Martin... 
threw in his dish at his examination in Oxford. 
But the archbishop professed his ignorance con 
cerning the foisting of that word." Strype s Mem. 
of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. II. p. 569. The word "not" 
has not been found in any copy extant Vid. 
Jenkyns Remains of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. IV. 
p. 97.] 

[ 5 Ne quis autem putet, hunc sanctum Dei 
martyrem ad asserendam hanc de cccna Dominica 
explicationem . . . vel temere vel factiose descen- 
disse ; neutiquam id te latere velim, pie lector, hunc 
virum, post multam scripturarum pervestigationem, 
ex unius beati martyris Ridlei episcopi Londinensis 
institutione sero tandem (nimiium anno 1546) in 
earn quam hie tuctur sententiam adductum esse 
Preface to Embd. Ed. of the Defence of the Sacra 
ment, Vol. I. Appendix, pp. 2, 6. Park. Soc. Ed.] 



EXAMINATION BEFORE BROKES. 



219 



Martin : Now, sir, as touching the last part of your oration, you denied that 
pope s holiness was supreme head of the church of Christ. 

Cranmer : I did so. 

Martin: Who say you then is supreme head? 

Cranmer : Christ. 

Martin: But whom hath Christ left here in earth his vicar and head of his 
church ? 

Cranmer : Nobody. 

Martin : Ah ! why told you not king Henry this, when you made him supreme 
head? and now nobody is. This is treason against his own person, as you then made him. 

Cranmer : I mean not but every king in his own realm and dominion is supreme King Henry 
head, and so was he supreme head of the church of Christ in England. 

Martin : Is this always true ? and was it ever so in Christ s church ? 

Cranmer : It was so. p nTver a! b 

Martin: Then what say you by Nero? He was the mightiest prince of the bead over alt 
earth, after Christ was ascended. Was he head of Christ s church ? 

Cranmer : Nero was Peter s head. 

Martin : I ask, whether Nero was head of the church, or no ? If he were not, it 
is false that you said before, that all princes be, and ever were, heads of the church 
within their realms. 

Cranmer : Nay, it is true, for Nero was head of the church, that is, in worldly 
respect of the temporal bodies of men, of whom the church consisteth ; for so he beheaded 
Peter and the apostles. And the Turk too is head of the church of Turkey. 

Martin : Then he that beheaded the heads of the church, and crucified the 
apostles, was head of Christ s church ; and he that was never member of the church, is 
head of the church, by your new found understanding of God s word. 



wat> not su- 

Creme head 
utonly of 
his own 
realm. The 



Interrogatories objected to the archlishop^ with Ms Answers annexed to the same 6 . 

1. Interrog. First was objected, that he, the foresaid Thomas Cranmer, being yet interroga- 
free, and before he entered into holy orders, married one Joan, surnamcd black, or brown, against the 
dwelling at the sign of the Dolphin, in Cambridge 7 . 

Answ. Whereunto he answered, that whether she was called black or brown he The first 
knew not ; but that he married there one Joan, that he granted. theTrc?i- 

2. Interrog. That, after the death of the foresaid wife, he entered into holy orders, 
and after that was made archbishop by the pope. 

Answ. He received (he said) a certain bull of the pope, which he delivered unto the 
king, and was archbishop by him. 

3. Interrog. Item, that he, being in holy orders, married another woman, as his The second 
second wife, named Anne ; and so was twice married . the 

Answ. To this he granted. 

4. Interrog. Item, in the time of king Henry the eighth he kept the said wife 
secretly, and had children by her 9 . 

Answ. Hereunto he also granted ; affirming that it was better for him to have his 
own, than to do like other priests, holding and keeping other men s wives. 



marriage of 

arch 
bishop. 



[ G See the Processus contra Cranmerum in the 
Appendix.] 

[ 7 "And so being Master of Arts and Fellow of 
the same college, [Jesus college,] it chanced him to 
marry a gentleman s daughter: by means whereof 
he lost and gave over his fellowship there, and be 
came the reader in Buckingham college [now Mag 
dalene ;] and for that he would with more diligence 
apply that his office of reading, he placed his said 
wife in an inn, called the Dolphin, in Cambridge, 
the wife of the house being of affinity unto her." 
Foxe s Acts and Monuments, p. 1860. Upon the 



death of his wife he was re-elected Fellow of Jesus. 
Todd s Life of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 8.J 

[ 8 He married the niece of Osiander, during his 
embassy in Germany, about the beginning of the 
year 1532. Strype s Mem. of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. 1. 
p. 15 ; Todd s Life of Abp. Cranmer, Vol. I. p. 31I.J 

[ 9 Thomas and Margaret, who survived the 
archbishop, and were restored in blood A. D. 15ti3, 
and Anne, who died before his death. Vid. Genea 
logical