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Full text of "The numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society"

THE 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 



JOURNAL OF IHE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



/THE 

NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

/AND 

(^JOURNAL 

OF THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



EDITED BY 

JOHN EVANS, D.C.L., LL.D., TREAS.R.S., F.S.A., 
W. S. W. VAUX, M.A., F.R.S., 

AND 

BARCLAY V. HEAD, M.R.A.S., 

ASSISTANT-KEEPER OF COINS, BBITISH MUSEUM; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THB 
IMPERIAL GERMAN AROH^OLOOICAL INSTITUTE. 



THIED SEEIES. VOL. III. 




Faetmn abiit monumenta manent. Ov. Fast . 

LONDON : 
JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36, SOHO SQUARE. 

PARIS: MM. EOLLIN ET FEUARDENT, PLACE LOUVOIS, No. 4. 

1883. 



Nt, 



6412T.-0 



JLONDOS : 

PRINTED BY J. S. VIKTUB AND CO., LliIJTBl>, 
CITY BOAT). 



CONTENTS. 



ANCIENT NUMISMATICS. 

Page 
Additional Tetradrachms of Alexander the Great. By Edward 

H. Bunbury, M.A. 1 

Coinage of Alexander: An Explanation. By Barclay V. 

Head, M.E.A.S .18 

Some Re-attributions. By H. H. Howorth, F.S.A. . . 20 

Rare and Unpublished Coins of the Seleucidan Kings of 

Syria. By Edward H. Bunbury, M.A 65 

Rare and Inedited Sicilian Coins. By the Baron L. de Hirsch 

de Gereuth . 165 

Remarks on Two Unique Coins of Aetna and Zancle. By 

Barclay V. Head, M.R.A.S. 7- . .'" . . . Ill 

Coins of Isauria and Lycaonia. By Warwick Wroth . . iTi 
Unpublished Cistophori. By Edward H. Bunbury, M.A. . 181 

Athenian Coin- Engravers in Italy. By Reginald Stuart 

Poole, LL.D. . . . . 269 

Further Notice of some Roman Coins discovered in Lime 

Street, London. By John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S. . 278 



vi CONTENTS. 

OEIENTAL NUMISMATICS. 

Page 

Catalogue of a Collection of Mohammadan Coins by E. T. 

Rogers Bey 202 

The Old Numerals, the Counting-Eods and the Swan-Pan 

in China. By Prof. A. Terrien de La Couperie, M.R.A.S. 297 



MEDIAEVAL AND MODERN NUMISMATICS. 

Silver Stycas of Northumbria and York. By H. Montagu, 

Esq. ' -i ' ' . " . ' . 20 

The Human Hand on Hiberno-Danish Coins. By Aquilla 

Smith, M.D., M.R.I.A. . ."."'. . . .32 

Coins of the East India Company, in Bombay, under the 

Charters of Charles II. By Edward Thomas, F.R.S. . 40 

On a Hoard of Early English Coins of Henry I. and Stephen, 

1135-40. By George Wakeford, Esq 108 

On a New Piece of Bermuda Hog Money of the Current 

Value of Hid. By Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, F.R.S. . .117 

Australian Currency. By Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, F.R.S. . 119 

Seventeenth Century Tokens of Hampshire not described in 

Boyne's work. By H. S. Gill, Esq 121 

Papal Medals of the Fifteenth Century. By the Rev. Canon 

Pownall, F.S.A 136 

Saxon Coins found in Ireland. By Aquilla Smith, M D., 

M.R.I.A 282 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

The Medallion of Philibert the Fair of Savoy and Margaret 

of Austria. By T. Whitcombe Greene, M. A. . . .288 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 
Prof. Percy Gardner. The Types of Greek Coins ... 55 

Theodor Eohde. Die Miinzen des Kaisers Aurelianus, seiner 

Frau Severina und der Fiirsten von Palmyra . . 56 

F. W. A. Schlickeysen. Erklaerung der Abkuerzungen auf 
Muenzen der neueren Zeit, des Mittelalters und des 
Alterthums ... 58 

Zeitschrift fur Numisniatik ...... 58, 267 

Alfred Armand. Les Me"dailleurs italiens des quinzieme et 

seizieme siecles . 264 

Revue Numismatique . . . . . . . 265 

Annuaire de la Societe fran9aise de Numismatique et 

d'Archeologie . . 267 



MISCELLANEA. 

Rose M.M. on Irish Money, Sixteenth Century . 60 

Unpublished Variety of the Noble of Edward III. ... 61 
Unpublished Variety of the Light Noble of Henry IV. . 61 

Unpublished Rose Noble of Edward IV. . 61 

" Natantes Nummi " . . . .62 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
"Dandy-Prats" 62 

Did Suein as Sole Monarch coin Money in England ? . .63 

The Griffin on Coins 261 

The Coinage of the Seleucidse 261 

" Some Re-attributions " ... . . 263 



LIST OF PLATES CONTAINED IN VOL. III. 

Plate 

I. Tetradrachms of Alexander. 

II. Do. Do. 

III. Hiberno-Danish coins. 

IV. Coins of the Seleucidse. 
V. Do. 

VI. Do. 

VII. Coins found in Kent. 
VIII. Papal Medals. 
IX. Coins of Sicily. 
X. Unpublished Cietophori. 
XI. Silver coins of Terina, &c. 
XII. Do. Do. 

XIII. Philibert and Margaret of Savoy. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC 
SOCIETY. 



SESSION 18821888. 

OCTOBER 19, 1882. 
W. S. W. VATJX, Esq., F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Bulletino dell' Institute di Corrispondenza Archeologica, 
1881, Parts XI., XII. ; 1882, Parts I. IX. From the Impe- 
rial German Archaeological Institute. 

2. Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest, 1882. 
l er trimestre. From the Society. 

3. Sitzungsberichte der K. Preussischen Academie der 
Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1882, Parts I. XXXVIII. From 
the Academy. 

4. Monatsbericht of the same, 1881, November and Decem- 
ber. 

5. Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie. 1880, 
Part II. with Memoires, 1880, and Tillseg, 1880; 1881, Parts 
I., II., and HI., with Tillaeg, 1881 ; 1882, Parts I., II., and IV., 
with Memoires, 1881. From the Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries. 

6. Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im 
Rheinlande. Parts LXX. LXXII. From the Society. 

7. Publications de la Section Historique de 1'Institut Royale 

I 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Grand-ducal de Luxembourg, 1881, Tome 35 (xiii). From the 
Institute. 

8. Bulletin historique de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie ; 31 e annee, N.S. 122 e livraison. From the Society. 

9. Notice historique of the same Society. By M. E. Dramard. 
From the Society. 

10. Annuaire de Numismatique, 1882, 3 e and 4 e trimestres. 
From the French Numismatic Society. 

11. Kevue Beige de Numismatique, 1882, 8 e and 4 e livrai- 
sons. From the Belgian Numismatic Society. 

12. Bulletin mensuel de Numismatique et d'Archeologie, 
2 anne"e, No. 1, July, 1882. From M. R. Serrure. 

13. Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1881, Heft II. ; 1882, Heft I. 
From the Numismatic Society of Vienna. 

14. Verzeichniss der Dubletten des K. Miinzkabinets zu 
Berlin. Sale Catalogue. 

15. Report of the Proceedings of the Numismatic and Anti- 
quarian Society of Philadelphia, 1881. From the Society. 

16. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. iii. No. 1, 1882. 
Text and Plates. From the Society. 

17. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
N.S., vol. iii. From the Society. 

18. Archseologia Cantiana, vol. xiv. From the Kent Archae- 
ological Society. 

19. The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, N.S. vol. xiv., 
Part III. From the Society. 

20. Report of the Government Central Museum, Madras, 
18812. 

21. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
vol. viii., No. 5. From the Society. 

22. Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland, 1882, Nos. 49 and 50. From the 
Association. 

23. Irish Coins of Richard III. By Aquilla Smith, M.D. 
From the Author. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. O 

24. On a hoard of Roman Coins found at Deal. By 
C. Roach Smith, Esq. From the Author. 

25. Early History of the Mediterranean Populations. By 
Hyde Clarke, Esq. From the Author. 

26. On the Genealogy of Modern Numerals.. By Sir Edward 
Clive Bayley. From the Author. 

27. Roman Coins at Eton College. By the Rev. F. St. John 
Thackeray. From Barclay V. Head, Esq. 

Mr. E. K. Burstal exhibited a gold coin of the British prince 
Andoco(mius), found at Thame, and a rare half-groat of 
Henry VI. (light weight). 

Mr. R. A. Hoblyn exhibited a set of the touch-pieces struck 
by the Stuarts, viz., Charles II. (in gold) ; James II. (in gold) ; 
James II., from a different die (in silver) ; the Chevalier St. 
George as James III. (in silver) ; the younger Pretender as 
Charles III. (in silver) ; Henry, Cardinal York, as Henry IX. 
(in silver) ; Anne (in gold). Before the reign of Charles II. no 
coins were struck specially for touch-pieces, the gold "angel" 
having been used for the purpose. The touch-pieces are all 
similar in design. Those of the Pretenders, however, which 
were struck abroad, are of much better work than those made 
in England. Mr. Hoblyn remarked that Anne was the last 
English sovereign who touched for the " king's evil," George I. 
having been, it is said, in the habit of referring all applicants to 
James Edward, the elder Pretender. These touch-pieces (all 
of them perforated) are curious relics of a superstition which 
had existed for many centuries, and was only stamped out on 
the accession of the Brunswick dynasty. 

Professor Gardner read extracts from a paper describing the 
coins of the island of Samos, and discussing the historical facts 
to be gleaned from them. 

The paper is printed in vol. ii., p. 201. 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

NOVEMBEB 16, 1882. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the 
Society : 

W. S. Bird, Esq., Hyde Clarke, Esq., T. W. Greene, Esq., 
W. G. L. Harvey, Esq. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Bulletino dell' Institute di Corrispondenza Archeologica. 
Part X., October, 1882. From the Imperial German ArchEeo- 
logical Institute. 

2. Catalogo das Monedas Arabes in the Lisbon Museum. 
By J. Pareira, 1882. From the Author. 

3. Berlin, Moskau, St. Petersburg, 16491763. By the 
Baron von Koehne. From the Author. 

4. The American Journal of Numismatics. Vol. xvii., No. 2. 
From the Society. 

5. The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. 
Vol. xi., No. 1. From the Society. 

6. The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland. Vol. v., 4th Series, No. 61. From the 
Association. 

7. The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. N.S., vol. xiv., 
Part IV. From the Society. 

Mr. A. J. Evans exhibited a very beautiful tetradrachm of 
Alexander the Great, with a wreath in front of the figure of 
Zeus on the reverse (Miiller, 548), and a tetradrachm of Mace- 
donia as a Roman province, signed by the Quaestor JEsillas 
(circa B.C. 90). 

Miss A. Lucas sent for exhibition a cast of a rare silver 
medallion of the Emperor Geta, with the three moneta? on the 
reverse and the legend AEQVITATI PVBLICAE. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

The Rev. H. C. Reichardt communicated a description of an 
inedited coin of John Hyrcanus I., similar in type to the coin 
of Alexander Jannseus figured in Madden's " Coins of the Jews," 
p. 85, No. 2. See vol. ii. p. 306. 

Mr. H. Montagu exhibited a Tower crown of Charles I., with 
the harp mint-mark, which differed from the ordinary type 
(Hawkins, 474) in having a plume over the shield on the 
reverse. 

Mr. R. Day exhibited some specimens of the so-called Cork 
siege-pieces, or money of necessity, which are assigned by 
Lindsay in his " Coinage of Ireland " to the year 1641. Mr. 
Day, however, was able to prove that the coins in question 
were subsequent to 1677, one of the specimens being restruck 
on a token of that date. See vol. ii. p. 353. 

Mr. Bliss exhibited a pattern for an English halfpenny of the 
decimal coinage, struck in 1859. 

Mr. A. Durlacher exhibited specimens in silver and bronze 
of a medal struck in commemoration of the fiftieth season of 
the Sacred Harmonic Society, founded in 1832. 

M. Terrien de La Couperie communicated a paper on Chinese 
paper-money, and exhibited a specimen of that currency issued 
in the reign of the Emperor Hien-Tsung of the Tang dynasty, 
A.D. 806. This is printed in vol. ii. p. 334. 

Mr. B. V. Head read a paper by Dr. A. Smith, " On the Date 
of the Earliest Money struck in Ireland," vol. ii. p. 308. 



DECEMBER 21, 1882. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the 

Chair. 

M. A. Chabouillet, Conservateur du Cabinet des Medailles et 
Antiques a la Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and M. 1'Intendant 
General Ch. Robert, Membre de 1'Institut, were elected hono- 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

rary members, and the Rev. G. F. Crowther, M.A., an ordinary 
member of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. The Successors of the Seljuks in Asia Minor. By Stanley 
Lane-Poole, Esq. From the Author. 

2. Observations sur les Monnaies Merovingiennes. By M. 
Ch. Eobert. From the Author. 

3. Melanges d'Archeologie et d'Histoire. By M. Ch. Robert. 
From the Author. 

4. Monnaies Gauloises. By M. Ch. Robert. From the 
Author. 

5. Medaillons Contorniates. By M. Ch. Robert. From the 
Author. 

6. A brief history of the soldiers' medals of West Virginia. 
By the Rev. H. E. Hayden. From the Author. 

7. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest, 1882, 
2 me trimestre. From the Society. 

Mr. R. A. Hoblyn exhibited a collection, almost complete, of 
the coins and tokens of the Isle of Man, forming a nearly per- 
fect illustration of Dr. Clay's " Currency of the Isle of Man." 
The collection comprised Hutton's token, 1657, the St. Patrick 
pieces, the cast corns of 1709, patterns of 1728, currency of 
1733, 1758, 1786, 1798, 1813, 1839, together with nearly all 
the known tokens from 1811 to 1831. The patterns of 1724 
and 1732 were wanting, and Mr. Hoblyn thought were probably 
only to be found in Dr. Clay's collection. The original motto on 
the coins of the Isle of Man prior to 1733 was QUOCUNQUE 
GESSERIS STABIT. It was then altered to QUOCUNQUE 
JECERIS STABIT. 

Dr. A. Smith communicated a paper " Ou the Human Hand 
as a Symbol on Hiberno-Danish Coins found in Ireland." See 
vol. iii. p. 82. 

Mr. H. H. Howorth communicated a paper in which he pro- 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



posed various reattributions of Greek, Roman, and British coins. 
See vol. iii. p. 20. 



JANUARY 18, 1883. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the 

Chair. 

Mr. R. K. Walker was elected a member of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Zeitschrift fur Numismatik. Band x., Heft 3. From the 
Editor. 

2. Revue Beige de Numismatique, 1883. l re livraison. 
From the Belgian Numismatic Society. 

3. Report of the Council of the Art Union of London, 1882. 
From the Union. 

Mr. Evans brought for exhibition four varieties of the Ponte- 
fract Castle siege-piece dated 1648 ; two issued in the reign of 
Charles I., and two after his death. 

Mr. B. V. Head exhibited a silver medal struck to comme- 
morate the erection of the Egyptian obelisk in the Central Park 
of New York. 

Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited a specimen of the "Rebellen 
Thaler" of Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel, 
1595, on the reverse of which is a representation of the de- 
struction of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, accompanied by the 
letters N. R. M. A. D. I. E. S., supposed to stand for "Non 
recedit malum a domo ingrati et seditiosi." This was probably 
intended as a warning to the citizens of Brunswick, with whom 
the Duke was then at feud on the question of rights and 
privileges. 

Mr. H. Montagu exhibited an unpublished rose-noble of 
Edward IV. in fine preservation, also unpublished varieties (1^ 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

of the noble of Edward III., and (2) of the light noble of 
Henry IV. See vol. iii. p. 61. 

Mr. E. H. Bunbury communicated a paper on some unpub- 
lished tetradrachms bearing the name of Alexander the Great. 
See vol. iii. p. 1. 



FEBRUARY 15, 1888. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the 

Chair. 

Mr. Constantine Alexander lonides and Mr. Francis E. 
Whelan were elected members of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol. iii., No. 2. Text and 
Plates. From the Society. 

2. Melanges de Numismatique. Tome iii., 1882. From the 
Editor. 

3. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. N.S., vol. xv., Part I. 
From the Society. 

4. Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring. 
Aarsberetning for 1881, with atlas. From the Society. 

5. On the Genealogy of Modern Numerals, Part II. By Sir 
Edward Clive Bayley. From the Author. 

6. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 
2nd Series, vol. viii., No. 6. From the Society. 

7. Bulletin Historique de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie. N.S., 124 e livraison. From the Society. 

8. Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland. No. 52, October, 1882. From the 
Association. 

Mr. Vaux exhibited ten gold coins from the cabinet of Mr. A. 
Grant, comprising one of the Ommiade Khalif Hesham (A.H. 
124) ; two of Harun al-Rashid, one of which had the name 



NtMlSMATIC SOCIETY. 

Daud beneath the legend on the reverse (A.H. 174) ; one of 
Al-Amin, son of Al-Rashid ; one of Mahmud of Ghazna (A.H. 
400) ; and five of the great Seljuk chief, Tughril-Beg, with the 
dates A.H. 432, 434, 436, and 448, two from the mint of 
Nishapur, and three from that of Isfahan. 

Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited a gold florin of John II. of Nassau, 
Archbishop of Mayence, 1397 1419, struck at Bingen, with 
the inscription MONETA OPIDI PINGENSIS on the reverse, 
accompanied by the wheel, the arms of Mayence. 

Mr. H. Montagu brought for exhibition three fine " units " of 
Charles I., with the harp, bell, and portcullis mint-marks; the 
Bermuda halfpenny of 1793 in gold, silver, and bronze ; also a 
shilling of William in., reading DEI GUI (sic), 1699. 

Mr. R. A. Hoblyn showed thirteen impressions from the dies 
of pattern and other coins of George III. and George IV., pre- 
sumed to have belonged to the late B. Pistrucci, chief engraver 
of the Mint. 

Mr. Copp exhibited the silver medal of the Smoke Abatement 
Exhibition, 1882, engraved by Messrs. Wyon, 

Mr. Evans exhibited a tetradrachm of Alexander the Great, 
with the head on the obverse to the left, and with a bee as an 
adjunct symbol on the reverse. This coin was of European 
fabric, and probably struck at Melitea in Thessaly. 

Mr. H. Montagu communicated a paper on silver stycas of 
Northumbria and York. See vol. iii. p. 26. 

Canon Pownall read a paper on Papal medals of the fifteenth 
century. He also contributed some remarks on the rose mint- 
mark on Irish money of the sixteenth century. See vol. iii. 
pp. 136 and 60. 



MABCH 15, 1883. 
JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the 

Chair. 

The Rev. C. R. Durrant, M.A., and the Rev. William 
Wiight, D.D., were elected members of the Society. 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Publications de la Section Historique de 1'Institut Royale 
Grand-ducal de Luxembourg, Annee 1883. Part XXXVI. 
(XIV). From the Institute. 

2. Report of the Proceedings of the Numismatic and Anti- 
quarian Society of Philadelphia, 1882. From the Society. 

8. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural 
Science. Vol. iii., No. 1, 1879, and vol. iii., Part II., 1882. 

Mr. F. Whelan exhibited a selection of Italian and German 
medals from the collection of Sir W. F. Douglas, comprising a 
remarkably fine specimen of Vittore Pisano's medal of Dome- 
nico Malatesta, called Novello ; a medal of Mohammad II., 
conqueror of Constantinople, by Gentile Bellini; a medal of 
Christian L, King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, comme- 
morating his visit to Rome in 1474, by Melioli ; a medal of 
Camilla Buondelmonte by the Florentine medallist known as 
the "Medailleur a 1'Esperance ; " a very interesting Venetian 
medal of Gianbattista Butrigario and his brother Ercole, dated 
1520, by an unknown artist; a lead medal of Genevra Benti- 
voglio, resembling in style the works of the medallist Laurana. 
Genevra Bentivoglio was the natural daughter of Galeazzo 
Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, and wife of Giovanni Bentivoglio, the 
last Lord of Bologna. There were also two fine Flemish 
medals of Charles the Rash, Duke of Burgundy, and of his son 
Antoine, the " Bastard of Burgundy," and two very beautiful 
sixteenth-century German medals. 

Mr. Hoblyn brought for exhibition a silver medal struck on 
the occasion of the re-institution of the Order of the Garter by 
Charles II. in 1678. Obv. St. George and the Dragon ; in- 
scription, " En honneur du Souverain du tres noble ordre de 
la lartiere." Rev. wreath, within which inscription, " Du tre 
haut tre puissant et tres excellent Prince Charles II. par la 
grace de Dieu roy de la Grande Bretag : Fran : et Irlande 
Defenseur de la Foy MDCLXXVIII." Mr. Hoblyn also showed 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 11 

a selection of patterns, proofs, and fine impressions of English, 
Irish, and Scottish halfpennies from Charles II. to Victoria. 

Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited a selection of ecclesiastical coins in 
gold and silver of the Popes Martin V., Nicholas V., Alex- 
ander VI., Paul III. and IV., and Pius IV. ; of the Archbishops 
of Treves, Bohemund II., 1354 1362, and Cuno II. von 
Falkenstein, 13621388; of the Archbishops of Cologne, 
Walram, Count of Jiilich, 1332 1349, Wilhelm von Gennep, 
13491362, Friedrich III., Count of Saarwerden, 1370 
1414, and Dietrich II., Count of Morsz, 14141463 ; of the 
Bishops of Wiirzburg, Gerhard von Schwarzburg, 1372 1400, 
and Godfried von Limpurg, 1443 1455 ; and of the Bishop 
of Durham, Sever or Seveyer, 1502 1505. 

Mr. R. A. Hoblyn read a paper, communicated by Mr. Wake- 
ford, on a hoard of early English coins of Henry I. and Stephen, 
lately found by some labourers while trenching a piece of waste 
land in the parish of Linton, about three miles from Maid- 
stone. See vol. iii. p. 108. 



APRIL 19, 1883. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., President, in the 

Chair. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Retrospections, Social and Archaeological. Vol. i., 1883. 
By C. Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A. From the Author. 

2. Catalogue of Greek coins in the British Museum, Thessaly 
to Aetolia. By P. Gardner. The Ptolemies, Kings of Egypt. 
By R. S. Poole. From the Trustees of the British Museum. 

3. Revue Beige de Numisruatique, 1883. 2 me livraison. 
From the Belgian Numismatic Society. 

4. Annuaire de la Societe francaise de Nurnisinatique, 1883. 
2 mc trimestre. From the French Numismatic Society. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

5. Memoires de la Societe de Borda, Dax, 1888. l re partie. 
From the Society. 

6. Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires del'Ouest. Vol. iv., 
2 me Serie, 1882. From the Society. 

7. Sitzungsberichte der Koniglichen Preussischen Akademie 
der Wissenschaften. Berlin, 1883. Parts XXXIX. LIV. 
From the Academy. 

8. Provincial Tokens. By Charles Williams. From the Author. 
Mr. Evans exhibited a seventeenth-century medal, or possibly 

the centre of some piece of plate, having on one side the arms of 
the Emerson family, and on the other the inscription FLOREAT 
ANGLIA IN VERA RELIGIONE PROTESTANTE. 

Mr. H. Montagu exhibited a penny of the second coinage 
of Alexander III. of Scotland, with the name of the moneyer, 
WALTER ON RAN (Renfrew), on the reverse; also a half- 
crown of Charles II., 1670, by the medallist John Roettier, 
with a blundered inscription. Mr. Montagu also exhibited two 
blundered shillings of William III. 

Mr. A. Peckover exhibited some silver coins lately discovered 
in the Oxus, the most important of which was an Eastern copy 
of a tetradrachm of Athens, having an Aramaic inscription 
beside the owl on the reverse. 

The Rev. J. H. Pollexfen exhibited a sovereign and a crown 
of George III., by Pistrucci, and drew attention to the letters 
W. W. P. (William Wellesley Pole, Master of the Mint) on the 
buckle of the garter on the reverse. 

Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited coins of Henry II. and Herman IV., 
Archbishops of Cologne, Frederick III. of Saxony, William IV. 
of Juliers, the Emperor Charles V., and others, as illustrating 
the earliest examples of the use of Arabic numerals for dating 
the coins. 

Mr. Trist exhibited a case containing scales and coin-weights 
of various countries made in 1596. 

Dr. A. Smith communicated a paper on an inedited half- 
groat of Edward IV 7 ., struck at Galway. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 13 

The Rev. J. H. Pollexfen read a paper on a long-cross penny 
of Alexander III. of Scotland, with the moneyer's name, 
WALTER ON GLE ? (Glasgow), on the reverse. 

A discussion followed, in which the President said that he 
was inclined to attribute the coin to Renfrew, and to read RA 
instead of GLE. 

Mr. E. Thomas communicated a paper on the coins of the 
East India Company struck in Bombay under the charters of 
Charles II. See vol. iii. p. 40. 



MAY 17, 1883. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the 

Chair. 

George White, Esq., was elected a member of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : 

1. Bulletino dell* Institute di Corrispondenza Archeologica, 
1882, Nos. 11 and 12, with list of members ; and 1883, Nos. 14. 

2. Zur Miinzkunde Kilikiens von Dr. F. Imhoof-Blumer. 
From the Author. 

3. Mallos, Megarsos, Antioche du Pyramos. By Dr. F. Im- 
hoof-Blumer. From the Author. 

4. Zeitschrift fur Numismatik. Band x., Heft 4. From the 
Editor. 

5. The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. 
Vol. xi., No. 2. From the Society. 

6. Proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society 
of Philadelphia. January, 1883. From the Society. 

7. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. xv., Part II. 
From the Society. 

8. Journal of the Royal Historical and Archa3ological Asso- 
ciation of Ireland. Ser. iv., vol. vi., No. 53. From the 
Association. 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

9. Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, 1882. 
Parts III. and IV., with supplement, and 1883, Part I. From 
the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries. 

10. Bulletin Historique de la Societe des Antiquaires de la 
Morinie. N.S., livraison 125. From the Society. 

11. Australian Tradesmen's Tokens, London, 1883. ByC.W. 
Stainsfield. From the Author. 

12. The coinage of the United States of America. By 
H. Phillips, jun. From the Author. 

Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited a selection of mediaeval coins of 
various countries, with a seated figure for type. 

Mr. J. W. Trist exhibited a medal struck in Holland in 1579, 
referring to the execution of Counts Egmont and Horn. 

Mr. H. S. Grill exhibited a counterfeit sterling of William, 
Count of Namur. 

Canon Pownall exhibited two medals of Pope Callixtus III., 
signed by an engraver G.P., thought by him to stand for 
G. Paladino. One of the medals recorded a naval victory over 
the Turks. 

Sir H. Lefroy communicated on account of the discovery of a 
new denomination of the Bermuda hog-money, of the current 
value of threepence. See vol. iii. p. 117. 

A paper by Sir H. Lefroy was also read on a curious expe- 
dient adopted in the early part of the present century in New 
South Wales for making the Spanish dollar, worth 4s. 2d., do 
duty for 6s. 3d. Specimens both of the disc (inscribed 
FIFTEEN PENCE) and of the outside ring (inscribed FIVE 
SHILLINGS) were exhibited by Mr. F. W. Pixley. See vol. 
iii. p. 119. 

Mr. H. S. Gill read a paper on seventeenth- century 
tokens of Hampshire not described in Boyne's work. See 
vol. iii. p. 121. 

Mr. E. H. Bunbury communicated a paper on the coins of 
the Seleucidfe. See vol. iii. p. 65. 

Mr. B. V. Head gave an abstract of a paper by M. de La Cou- 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 15 

perie on the date of the introduction into China of the abacus, 
or calculating board, called by the Chinese swan-pan. See 
vol. iii. p. 297. 



JUNE 21, 1883. 
ANNIVERSARY MEETING. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the 

Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Anniversary Meeting were read and 
confirmed. 

Thomas W. Goodman, Esq., and Robert Hobart Smith, Esq., 
were elected members of the Society. 

The Report of the Council was then read to the Society as 
follows : 

GENTLEMEN, The Council again have the honour to lay before 
you their Annual Report as to the state of the Numismatic 
Society. 

With great regret they have to announce their loss by death 
of the five following members : 

John Davidson, Esq. 
Dr. W. Freudenthal. 
Rev. H. R. Huckin, D.D. 
James White, Esq. 
James Whittall, Esq. 

And by resignation of the following three members : 

W. Blades, Esq. 

G. Coffey, Esq. 

H. E. Williams, Esq. 

On the other hand the Council have much pleasure in record- 
ing the election of thirteen ordinary and two honorary 
members : 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Ordinary Members. 



W. S. Bird, Esq. 

Hyde Clarke, Esq. 

Rev. G. F. Crowther, M.A. 

Rev. C. R. Durrant, M.A. 

T. W. Goodman, ESQ. 

T. W. Greene, Esq., B.C.L. 

W. G. L. Harvey, Esq. 



Constantino Alexander lonides, 

Esq. 

R. Hobart Smith, Esq. 
R. K. Walker, Esq., M.A., 

B.E. 

F. E. Whelan, Esq. 
George White, Esq. 



Rev. W. Wright, D.D. 

Honorary Members. 

M. A. Chabouillet, Conservateur du Cabinet des Medailles et 
Antiques a la Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris ; M. 1'Intendant 
General Ch. Robert, Membre de 1'Institut. 

According to our Secretary's Report our numbers are, there- 
fore, as follows : 

Ordinary. Honorary. Total. 

June, 1882 210 37 247 

Since elected , 13 2 15 



223 89 262 

Deceased 6 5 

Resigned 3 8 

Erased 



June, 1883 215 89 254 



The Council have also much pleasure in announcing that 
they have decided to award a medal, in the name of the Numis- 
matic Society of London, from time to time to distinguished 
numismatists, and to inform the Meeting that this year the 
medal (the dies for which have been presented to the Society 
by the President) has been awarded to Charles Roach Smith, 
Esq., F.S.A. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 17 

The Treasurer's Report was then read to the Meeting, by 
which it appeared that the balance in hand on June 21 was 
243 14s. 5d. This Report is appended. 

The President, in handing the medal to Mr. C. Roach Smith, 
addressed him as follows : 

I have much pleasure in handing to you the medal awarded 
to you by the Council of this Society in recognition of your 
services to numismatic science, more especially in connection 
with the Romano-British series. It is the first that the Council 
has had the opportunity of awarding, and it is satisfactory to 
think that the recipient is one who was an original member of 
the Society when it was founded, now more than forty-six 
years ago, and who for some years held office as one of its 
honorary secretaries. Of the interest you have taken in numis- 
matic science your numerous papers in our Journal afford 
sufficient evidence. But the place which the testimony of coins 
has had assigned to it in your various independent works, the 
manner in which any discoveries relating to the coinage of this 
country have been treasured up in your Collectanea Antiqua 
and other archaeological publications, and especially your series 
of articles on the coins of Carausius and Allectus, deserve the 
gratitude of all who are interested in the advancement of numis- 
matic knowledge. After so many years of assiduous devotion 
to antiquarian pursuits you are now engaged in gathering 
together the reminiscences of your past career, and I venture to 
trust that among your future retrospections the looking back 
upon this record of our appreciation 'of your labours may not 
be among the least pleasing. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith having thanked the Council and Society 
for the honour conferred upon him, the President delivered 
the following address : 

As you have done me the honour of still retaining me in 
office as your President, it again becomes my duty to offer you 
a few words, principally by way of retrospect over the year 
that has just elapsed. You have heard from the Report of the 

d 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Council, and from that of our Treasurer, that the Society and 
its finances continue to be in a prosperous condition so far as 
numbers and means are concerned, so that on those heads I 
need do no more than offer you my congratulations. With 
regard to the future of the Society, it is to be hoped that the 
power which the Council now possesses of bestowing medals 
for distinguished services to numismatic science may to some 
extent add to the influence of the Society in promoting numis- 
matic pursuits. It will, at all events, enable us to show our 
appreciation of men who, like Mr. C. Eoach Smith, the first 
recipient of the medal, have devoted a large portion of a long 
life to the furtherance of numismatic and archaeological science ; 
and the prospect of possibly having their labours thus acknow- 
ledged may encourage the younger generation of numismatists 
in their researches. The idea of the bestowal of medals by the 
Society is by no means new. It was, indeed, contemplated in 
our earliest Rules and Regulations, but nothing was done to 
carry the idea into practical effect. It would indeed have still 
lain dormant but that some of the members of the Council, and 
notably Canon Pownall, brought the matter under discussion ; 
and though at first I did not eagerly accept their views, the 
hope that such a medal might both stimulate the ambition of 
the young numismatist and also afford a means of recognition 
of the labours of the veterans in our science, has induced 
me to take upon myself to offer a pair of dies for the medal to 
the Society, which the Council has done me the honour to 
accept on its behalf. 

"With regard to the regulations as to future awards of the 
medal, it will be well here to place on record the conditions 
under which it may be bestowed, in the form in which they 
have been approved by the Council. 

Conditions under which the medal of the Numismatic Society 
of London may be awarded : 

1. A medal in bronze or silver may be awarded not oftener 
than once in each year, but not of necessity so often, to 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 19 

some person highly distinguished for services to numismatic 
science. 

2. The recipient may be of either sex or of any country. 

8. The award shall be made by the President and Council 
of the Society, who shall at one of their meetings discuss the 
merits of candidates proposed as recipients of the medal, and 
at some subsequent meeting shall award it by ballot. 

4. Due notice shall be given to each member of the Council 
of the days when the discussion and ballot are to take place. 

5. No medal shall be awarded unless the candidate obtains 
the votes of at least two-thirds of those present at the meeting. 

6. Members of the Council for the time being shall not be 
disqualified as candidates for the medal, but in their case the 
vote must be unanimous. 

With regard to the design of the medal itself, it may not be 
out of place to say a few words. The principal device on the 
obverse, the Tres Moneta, is the time-honoured emblem of the 
Society, which has appeared upon its seal ever since its founda- 
tion. The figures are, however, treated somewhat differently 
from what they are upon the seal, the general design being 
borrowed from a medallion of Severus Alexander, of which an 
example 1 is in the British Museum. In the exergue are the 
words MON . AVG, and the epithets around TESTIS TEM- 
PORVM, NVNCIA VETVSTATIS, VITA MEMORIAE are 
taken from Elstrack's engraved frontispiece to Sir Walter 
Raleigh's " History of the World," published in 1611. On the 
frontispiece, however, these are only three out of the four 
" proper titles " of " the Mistresse of Man's life, grave His- 
torie," which in "the Minde of the Front" are thus Englished, 
" Time's Witnesse ; Herald of Antiquity, the Light of Truth, 
and Life of Memory." As symbols in the exergue are the pincers 
or pinches of Mr. Pinches, the engraver, and my own crest of 

1 B. M. Catalogue, Roman Medallions, PI. XXXVHL, Fig. 3. 



20 PKOCEEDUVGS OF THK 

the elephant's head couped. The wreath on the reverse is 
taken from one on a large brass coin of Caligula, and the letter- 
ing and arrangement of the inscription are after the new-year 
medallion of Antoninus Pius, with S.P.Q.R. A.N.F.F. OPTIMO 
PRINCIPI PIG. 

Having thus to some extent described the process of evolu- 
tion by which the medal has come into existence, I need say no 
more on that head, beyond again wishing a prolonged and 
happy old age to its first recipient, and will pass on to a slight 
review of what the Society has done during the past year. 

Foremost among the papers communicated to us I must 
place that on Samos and Samian coins by our foreign secretary, 
Prof. Percy Gardner, the merits of which have been recognised 
by the Allier d'Hauteroche prize having been awarded to its 
author, jointly with Mr. Head, for his " Guide to the Coins 
of the Ancients," 1881, by the French Institute. There 
are not many of the Grecian states the coins of which can 
rival those of Samos either in their number or in the period 
over which they extend ; and on some of these we have already 
had exhaustive monographs in the Numismatic Chronicle, to 
which Prof. Gardner's essay forms an admirable sequel. After 
pointing out the principal religious cults of the place, he shows 
how in the case of Samos they reacted even in a stronger 
degree than customary upon the types selected for the coinage. 
The lion's scalp appears to be the emblem either of Hera or 
Dionysos, the bull possibly that of Hera, as are the peacock 
and the sceptre ; while the galley appears rather to represent 
the special war-vessel of the place invented by Polycrates. On 
some of the later coins again appear types representative of 
some well-known statues of Hera and Ancaeus. The coinage is 
divided into nine distinct stages, beginning with the electruin 
and silver coins of the sixth century B.C., and ending with 
those of imperial Roman times. Nor are the coins of the 
Samian colonies omitted. The standards of coin-weights are 
discussed, lists of magistrates' names are given, and in the 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 21 

ninety pages over which the essay extends the details of the 
numismatic history of Samos are unfolded, while they are also 
made to illustrate the political and religious life of the state. 
We must all hope that there are more such states left in 
Greece for Prof. Gardner's industrious researches to conquer, 
and that our Chronicle may have the privilege of recording his 
conquests. While speaking of this paper, we may take the 
opportunity of congratulating him upon the publication of his 
elaborate work upon the types of Greek coins, which is at once 
the most important and the most handsome numismatic work 
which has appeared in England in the course of the past year. 
It may, indeed, be doubted whether any series of plates has ever 
been published so well calculated to give a correct impression 
of Greek medallic art, or whether any previous author has 
adopted so satisfactory a method of treating of its origin and 
development. 

But to return to the communications which have been made 
to the Society. Among those relating to Greek numismatics 
we have received two from the experienced pen of Mr. Edward 
H. Bunbury. The first of these relates to the series of beau- 
tiful tetradrachms bearing the name of Alexander the Great, 
and forms a supplement to a paper communicated to the Society 
some fifteen years ago. Some of these coins appear, from the 
symbols upon them, to be attributable to various mints both in 
Greece and Asia Minor, and one which by the author is with 
some hesitation attributed to Sicyon, is of special interest as 
bearing upon it the miniature representation of a statue of 
Hercules, not improbably that by Lysippus, which was seen by 
Pausanias in the Agora of Sicyon, and which seems to have 
been the original from which the Farnese Hercules was copied 
by the Athenian sculptor, Glycon. Appended to this paper are 
some remarks on the important question as to how far the 
attribution of the Alexander tetradrachms to different mints by 
means of the symbols upon them is to be trusted, and on this 
point there appears to have been some difference of opinion 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

between Mr. Bunbury and Mr. Head. The explanation of the 
latter, which follows the paper of the former, seems, however, 
to show that there is, after all, no very great divergence of 
opinion between them. When once the fact is recognised that 
this series of tetradrachms extends over a much longer period 
than the reign of Alexander, there is no difficulty in seeing that 
the symbols upon the regal coins that is, those struck during 
the life of Alexander and within his dominions may, and pro- 
bably do, bear a different signification from those on pieces 
struck after his death as autonomous municipal coins of cities 
which for commercial reasons found it convenient to imitate 
the types of the well-known coins of Alexander. On these 
latter some symbol of the place of mintage was almost a matter 
of necessity, while on the regal coins of Macedon such marks 
of autonomy would be out of place, though symbols of the 
officers of the regal mints might well make their appearance 
on the coins. 

The second paper by Mr. Bunbury is on some rare and un- 
published coins of the Seleucidan kings of Syria, and is designed 
to supplement and in some respects to correct the catalogue of 
the coins of that series in the British Museum, published by 
Prof. Percy Gardner in 1878. 

Among the rarer coins of which descriptions are given is one 
bearing on the reverse the name of Antiochus, but on the 
obverse an aged bust with a bull's horn above the ear, which 
Mr. Bunbury is inclined to regard as that of Seleucus. It may 
be that the coin was struck during the joint reign of the two 
kings ; or possibly, like Lysimachus, Antiochus may have 
thought well to place the well-known portrait of his predecessor 
on some of his coins. An important feature in this paper is 
the discussion as to the proper attribution of the coins bearing 
the name of Antiochus among the first four monarchs of that 
name. The subject is one of great difficulty, especially as 
regards the coins of Antiochus II. and of Hierax, and the long 
and patient investigation of this series by the author of the 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 23 

paper renders any opinion he expresses of high value. Several 
remarkable coins of the later Syrian kings are also described 
and figured, and any future attempt to classify and describe 
the Seleucidan series will be incomplete without a full and careful 
study of this paper. 

The only other paper relating to ancient classical numis- 
matics is one by Mr. H. H. Howorth, in which he suggests 
some few reattributions.. Some suggestions relate to Seleucid 
coins, especially to one attributed in the Museum Catalogue to 
Antiochus I., but which Mr. Howorth assigns to the second of 
that name, a view in which he will be glad to find himself 
corroborated by no less an authority than Mr. Bunbury. 
Whether he is equally right in the suggestion that a gold medal- 
lion bearing the name of Diocletian should be regarded as 
bearing the head of Maxirninian merely on account of the diver- 
gence of the portrait from the usual type, is a question which 
cannot be readily solved in the affirmative, least of all by those 
who know how differently Diocletian is represented on his 
ordinary gold coins struck in different parts of the empire, say, 
for instance, at Rome and at Antioch. 

The coins of ancient Spain have been brought under our 
notice by Mr. Head in an article founded on the great work of 
Don Zobel de Zangroniz, which is probably the most complete 
guide to the coinage of the Iberian peninsula in Roman and 
pre-Roman times which has appeared. The analogies between 
some of the coins of that part of Europe with those of Gaul, 
and even of Britain, and the traces of Greek and Phoenician 
influences upon them, add much to the interest of the series. 

In Jewish numismatics we have had but one short note by 
Mr. Reichardt, giving us an account of a new type of John 
Hyrcanus, resembling one of Alexander Jannseus, and some 
valuable suggestions as to the meaning of the word Chaber 
(-Qn), which constantly occurs on the coins of the Maccabees. 

In Roman numismatics there is little if anything to record, 
as, with the exception of the exhibition of one or two rare coins, 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

and the paper by Mr. Howorth already mentioned, this impor- 
tant series has not been brought under our notice. I venture 
to hope that this apparent neglect of a highly interesting branch 
of our study will not be of long duration. 

The coinage of our own country has met with much atten- 
tion during the past year. Mr. Montagu has brought under 
our notice the small Northumbrian coins we know as stycas, 
and argued in favour of the view that the occurrence of such 
coins in silver, either more or less alloyed, is due rather to 
accident than to any attempt to introduce a silver currency. 
As I still adhere to the opinion I expressed on this subject 
three years ago, and as Mr. Montagu entirely agrees with me, 
I need say no more at present on this head. 

Particulars of an extensive and interesting hoard of coins, 
mostly of Henry I. and Stephen, have been communicated to 
us by Mr. Wakeford. Among the coins are two of the curious 
pieces bearing the name of PERERIC, as well as several of 
Stephen issued from mints which were not previously known 
to have been at work in his reign. The probability that the 
type of Henry I., given as No. 255 by Hawkins, was the last 
that he struck, and that Stephen's type, No. 270 of Hawkins, 
was his first, which had been deduced from hoards previously 
discovered, is confirmed by this Kentish find. It also seems to 
show that the second important type of Stephen was Hawkins's 
No. 269, though from the similarity of its obverse to that of the 
last coins of Henry I. it might not unnaturally have been 
supposed immediately to follow them. 

The subject of the early Scottish coinage has been more than 
once brought before us during the course of the session. Among 
other coins I may mention one of Alexander III., which Mr. 
Pollexfen has assigned to the mint of Glasgow, and which I 
have at different times attributed to that of Stirling and of 
Renfrew. It certainly cannot belong to all three mints, and 
judging from a coin in the collection of Mr. Montagu, whi h 
also has been exhibited to us, I am inclined to think that 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 25 

if either of my attributions is right it is the latter ; but possibly 
the question may be set at rest by the forthcoming work on 
the coinage of Scotland on which Mr. Burns has so long and 
assiduously been at work. Our veteran honorary member, 
Dr. Aquilla Smith, has again given us some papers on Irish 
numismatics, in one of which he discusses the question of the 
date when money was first coined in Ireland, and shows that 
many of Lindsay's and Simon's attributions of coins to early 
Hiberno-Danish kings are destitute of foundation, and that in 
all probability no money was struck in Ireland before the 
reign of Sihtric III., King of Dublin, who was a contemporary 
of .Ethelred II. 

In another paper Dr. Smith discusses the Hiberno-Danish 
coins with a rude representation of the human hand upon 
them, but the meaning and origin of the symbol seems to be 
still somewhat obscure. The same author has communicated 
to us a notice of an unpublished half-groat of Edward IV., 
struck at Galway, and Canon Pownall has claimed for Ireland 
some of the coins of Edward VI. bearing the mint-mark of a 
rose. 

Mr. Robert Day has been able to show us that the so-called 
Cork siege-pieces assigned by Lindsay to the year 1641 are in 
fact subsequent to the year 1677, so that so far as this Society 
is concerned justice has this year been done to Ireland. 

Of comparatively modern English coins we have had some 
short notes, and Mr. Gill has favoured us with another instal- 
ment of tradesmen's tokens not described by Boyne, which 
this time relates to those issued in Hampshire. 

On the currency of our dependencies and colonies we have 
had several papers. Mr. Thomas has given us an interestiug 
account of the early coins of the East India Company issued at 
Bombay under the charters of Charles II. , with some notes on 
the early rates of exchange. Sir J. H. Lefroy has described a 
hitherto unknown piece coined for the Somers Islands, or Ber- 
muda, and of the value of threepence. As pieces of twelve, six, 

e 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

and twopence had already been described, it seems possible 
that those of fourpence and one penny may yet be discovered. 
Sir H. Lefroy has also called attention to an ingenious adapta- 
tion of the pillar dollar practised in New South Wales in 
1813, by which the value was enhanced by 50 per cent., or 
from 4s. 2d. to 6s. 3d. A small disc was struck from the 
centre of the dollar and made current for Is. 3d. while the 
annular residue was stamped with the value of 5s. This 
colonial practice, which prevailed in Trinidad in 1811, 2 may have 
been derived with modifications from the mother country, for 
my father has told me that before the great re-coinage of silver 
in 1816 it was a not uncommon device to hammer out an old 
halfcrown into a thin plate and then punch from it seven or 
eight sixpences which showed quite as much of the royal image 
and superscription as those in ordinary circulation. 

In foreign numismatics Canon Pownall has given us what I 
trust is only the first instalment of a series of papers on Papal 
medals. Those of which he at present treats are of the fifteenth 
century, and are of the highest interest as illustrative not alone 
of the history of the period, but of that revival of medallic art 
which characterised the close of that century. It was a time 
from which we may date the beginning of much of our present 
civilisation. The art of printing, the discovery of America, the 
commencement of the Reformation, the revival of classical 
taste and classical architecture, all contributed to form an atmo- 
sphere in which art, science, and literature could flourish, and the 
artists of those days not unfrequently combined in one person 
the painter, the sculptor, the architect, and the medallist. The 
grand works of Pisano and his countrymen are now, after four 
hundred years, as highly appreciated as they were when first 
modelled, if not, indeed, more highly prized than they then 
were ; while the modern appliances of photography enable us 
as fully to realise the beauty of their works when we see them 

2 Ruding, vol. ii. p. 107. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 27 

on paper as when we see them in their original bronze. Canon 
Pownall's subject is one of interest alike to artists and anti- 
quaries, and he will, I hope, continue to illustrate it from time 
to time in our Chronicle. 

In Oriental numismatics we have had articles on some 
Mussulman corns by M. H. Sauvaire and by Mr. Vaux, on the 
weights and denominations of Turkish coins by Mr. Stanley 
Lane-Poole ; and while Sir E. Clive Bayley has given us papers 
on certain dates occurring on the coins of the Hindu kings 
of Kabul, which incidentally bring forward the question of the 
origin and development of our ordinary Arabic numerals, 
Prof. Terrien de La Couperie has favoured us with an interesting 
article on some Chinese paper-money dating back to so early a 
period as the ninth century, and has also speculated on the 
date of the Chinese abacus or swan-pan. 

The exhibitions of coins and medals at our meetings have 
been numerous and interesting, and the conversational dis- 
cussion to which some of these exhibitions have given rise 
have, I think, formed not the least pleasing feature of our 
evenings. 

Such is a brief review of our work during the past year, and 
I think it must be regarded as satisfactory. I must now pass 
to the sadder record of the members whom death has removed 
from among our numbers. Several of these had been more or 
less frequent attendants at our meetings and contributors to 
our Journal. 

The first that I must mention is Mr. John Davidson, whose 
decease took place in 1881. He was for many years a member 
of our Society, and occasionally served upon the Council. 
Regarding corns and medals from the artistic rather than the 
historic side, he did not communicate any papers to us. 

Dr. W. Freudenthal was also for many years a well-known 
member, and at one time treasurer of our Society, though 
during the latter part of his life he resided in his native 
country, Hanover, occasionally, however, visiting England. The 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

only paper that he communicated to us was on some patterns 
of coins for Hong Kong, but his knowledge of the coins of all 
countries was, like his collection, extensive, and his series of 
copper coins, which is now preserved in the British Museum, 
numbered many thousands. 

Mr. James Whittall, of Smyrna, was also perhaps better 
known as a collector than as an author, though upwards of 
forty years ago he gave to the Society a paper on some unpub- 
lished coins of Taba, in Caria. 

Mr. James White had been for very many years a member 
of the Society, and had written on the iron money of the Japa- 
nese. For some years he was an alderman of the city of 
London, and at different times represented the borough of 
Plymouth and subsequently Brighton in Parliament. He died 
on January 4 of the present year, in the seventy-fourth year of 
his age. 

The Rev. Dr. Huckin, Head Master of Eepton School, in 
Derbyshire, was a comparatively young member of the Society, 
and living at a distance from London was rarely, if ever, able 
to attend our meetings. 

Although he was not a member of the Society at the time of 
his death, I must take this opportunity of paying a passing 
tribute to the late Mr. J. S. Smallfield, who died on April 27 
last, at the age of sixty-nine. He was for many years one of 
our members, and his collection of local tokens was known as 
one of the most complete in England. As an illustration I 
may mention that in a paper communicated in 1870 he added 
no less than two hundred and forty varieties to the tokens then 
known of London and Southwark. During his closing years I 
fear that failing health and diminished means compelled him- to 
relinquish his favourite pursuit. 

To this list I am sorry to have to add the name of Mr. J. G. 
Pfister, who for many years was a member of this Society, 
though some little time ago he retired from it. His death took 
place about the beginning of this month. A constant traveller 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 29 

abroad, in the capacity, I believe, of a courier, he enjoyed frequent 
opportunities of indulging his natural taste for numismatics, 
and acquired an intimate acquaintance with modern and me- 
diaeval coins, especially those of the Continent. This knowledge 
was for some years utilised in arranging the foreign series in 
the medal room of the British Museum. In the early days of 
the Society he was a not unfrequent contributor to the Chronicle, 
the first series of which contains nine papers from his pen, the 
last, of considerable length, bearing the title of "Stray Leaves 
from the Journal of a Traveller in search of Ancient Coins." 

With these imperfect notices of departed friends I must close 
this address, which I hope you have not found needlessly 
prolonged, and for your attention to which I offer you my best 
thanks. 

The Treasurer's Report is appended: 







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PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 31 

The Meeting then proceeded to ballot for the Council and 
Officers for the ensuing year, when the following gentlemen 
were elected : 

President. 

JOHN EVANS, ESQ., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S , F.S.A., 
F.G.S. 

Vice -Presidents. 

THE REV. CANON GREENWELL, F.R.S. , F.S.A. 
W. S. W. VAUX, ESQ., M.A., F.R.S. 

Treasurer. 
ALFRED E. COPP, ESQ. 

Secretaries. 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, ESQ. 
BARCLAY VINCENT HEAD, ESQ., M.R.A.S. 

Foreign Secretary. 
PROFESSOR PERCY GARDNER, D.Lrr., F.S.A. 

Librarian. 
RICHARD HOBLYN, ESQ. 

Members of the Council. 
SIR EDWARD CLIVE BAYLEY, K.C.S.I. 
E. H. BUNBURY, ESQ., M.A., F.G.S. 
RT. HON. THE EARL OF ENNISKILLEN, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 

ARTHUR J. EVANS, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 
R. LLOYD KENYON, ESQ., M.A. 
J. H. MIDDLETON, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A. 
H. MONTAGU, ESQ. 
J. F. NECK, ESQ. 

THE REV. CANON POWNALL, M.A., F.S.A. 
WARWICK W. WROTH, ESQ. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 

DECEMBEE, 1883. 



LIST OF MEMBEES 

OF THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

OP LONDON. 
DECEMBER, 1883. 



An Asterisk prefixed to a name indicates that the Member has compounded 
for his annual contribution. 



*ALEXE > IEFF, M. GEORGE DE, Chambellan de S.M. PEmpereur de 

Russie, Ekaterinoslaw (par Moscou), Russie Meridionale. 
ANDREW, W. J., ESQ., Mere Bank, Fail-field, near Manchester. 
ARNOLD, W. T., ESQ., G-uardian OflB.ce, Manchester. 
ASHTELL, JOHN, ESQ., 6, Beach Street, Folkestone. 

*BABINGION, REV. CHURCHILL, B.D., M.R.S.L., Cockfield Rectory, 
Sudbury, Suffolk. 

BACKHOUSE, J. E., ESQ., The Eookery, Middleton Tyas, Eich- 
mond, Yorks. 

BAGNALL-OAKELEY, MBS., Newlands, Coleford, Forest of Dean, 
Gloucestershire. 

BAKER, W. R., ESQ., Bayfordbury, Hertford. 

BARON, REV. JOHN, D.D., F.S.A., The Eectory, Upton Scudamore, 
Warminster. 

BARRETT, T. B., ESQ., 12, High Street, Welsh Pool, Montgomery- 
shire. 

*BAYLEY, SIR E. OLIVE, K.C.S.I., The Wilderness, Ascot. 

*BIEBER, G. W. EGMONT, ESQ., Champion Hill House, Champion 
Hill, S.E. 

BIGGE, FRANCIS E., ESQ., Carlton Curlieu Hall, Leicester. 

BIRD, W. S., ESQ., 74, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

BLACKMORE, H. P., ESQ., M.D., Blackmore Museum, Salisbury. 



4 LIST OF MEMBERS, 

BLAIR, ROBERT, ESQ., South Shields. 

*BLiss, THOMAS, ESQ., 5, Clifton Terrace, Upper Clapton. 

BLUNDELL, J. H., ESQ., 157, Cheapside, E.G. 

*BRIGGS, ARTHUR, ESQ., Cragg Royd, Rawden, Leeds. 

BROKE-MIDDLETON, ADMIRAL SIR GEORGE N., BART., C.B., Shrub- 
land Park, and Broke Hall, Suffolk. 

BROWN, G. D., ESQ., 63, Albert Street, Regent's Park, N.W. 

BUCHAN, J. S., ESQ., 15, Barrack Street, Dundee. 

BULL, HERBERT A., ESQ., Wellington College, Wokingham. 

BUNBURY, EDWARD H., ESQ., M.A., F.G.S., 35, St. James's Street. 

BURNS, EDWARD, ESQ., F.S.A.Scot., 3, London Street, Edinburgh. 

BURSTAL, EDWARD K., ESQ., 11, Grand Pont, Oxford. 

BUSH, COLONEL J. TOBIN, 14, St. James's Square ; and 29, Rue de 
1'Orangerie, le Havre. 

BUTLER, CHARLES, F.R.G.S., ESQ., Warren Wood, Hatfield. 

BUTLER, JOHN, ESQ., Alexandra Mill, Bolton. 

*BUTTERY, W., ESQ., 6, Alderney Street, Pimlico. 

CALVERT, REV. THOS., 15, Albany Villas, Hove, Brighton. 
CARFRAE, ROBERT, ESQ., F.S.A.Scot., 77, George Street, Edinburgh. 
CAVE, LAURENCE TRENT, ESQ., 13, Lowndes Square. 
CHAMBERS, MONTAGU, ESQ., Q.C., 3, Serjeant's Inn, Chancery Lane. 
*CLARKE, HYDE, ESQ., F.R.H.S., 32, St. George's Square, S.W. 
COCKBURN, JOHN, ESQ., Abbotsdene, Greenside, Richmond. 
*Copp, ALFRED E., ESQ., Hatherley, Wimbledon Hill, and 37, 

Essex Street, Strand, Treasurer. 
CREEKE, MAJOR ANTHONY BUCK, Monkholme, Burnley. 
*CROY, PRINCE ALFRED EMMANUEL DE, Chateau du Rceulx, Hainaut, 

Belgium. 

CRO-WTHER, REV. G. F., M.A., 12, Great Titchfield Street, W. 
CUMING, H. SYER, ESQ., F.S.A.Scot., 63, Kennington Park Road. 
CUNNINGHAM, MAJOR - GENERAL A., C.B., H. S. King & Co., 65, 

Cornhill. 

DAVIDSON, J. L. STRACHAN, ESQ., Balliol College, Oxford. 

DAVIES, WILLIAM RUSHER, ESQ., Overthorpe House, Walliugford. 

DAWSON, W., ESQ., Almora House, Chiswick Mall. 

DOUGLAS, CAPTAIN R. J. H., Junior United Service Club. 

DOULTON, J. DUNEAU, ESQ., Queen Anne's Mansions, St. James's 
Park, S.W. 

DRYDEN, SIR HENRY, BART., Canon's Ashby, Byfield, Northampton- 
shire. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. O 

DURLACHER, A., ESQ., 15, Old Burlington Street, W. 

DURRANT, EEV. CHRISTOPHER RAWES, Freston Rectory, Ipswich. 

EADES, GEORGE, ESQ., The Abbey, Evesham, Worcestershire. 
ENNISKILLEN, RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., 

M.K.I.A., Florence Court, Enniskillen, Ireland, Vice- President. 
ERHARDT, H., ESQ., 9, Bond Court, Walbrook, E.G. 
EVANS, ARTHUR J., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., Nash Mills, Heinel Hempstead. 
EVANS, JOHN, ESQ., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., Nash Mills, 

Hemel Hempstead ; and 65, Old Bailey, President. 
EVANS, SEBASTIAN, ESQ., LL.D., 10, Rosary Gardens, South Ken- 

sington, S.W. 

FEUARDENT, GASTON, ESQ., 61, Great Russell Street. 

FEWSTER, C. E., ESQ., 17, Harley Street, Hull. 

FOWKES, J. W., ESQ., J, Sandon Place, Sheffield. 

FRANKS, AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON, ESQ., M.A,. F.R.S., F,S.A., Brit. 

Mus. 

FREMANTLE, THE HON. C. W., C.B., Royal Mint. 
FRENTZEL, RUDOLPH, ESQ., 5. Devonshire Street, Bishopsgate, E. 
*FRESHFIELD, EDWIN, ESQ., M.A., V.P.S.A., 5, Bank Buildings, 

E.C. 



GARDNER, PROF. PERCY, D.Lit., F.S.A., British Museum, 

Secretary. 

GEORGE, A. DURANCE, ESQ., 112, Bishopsgate Street Within, E.C. 
GIBBS, THE HON. JAS., C.S.I., Council of the Supreme Government, 

India. 

GILL, HENRY SEPTIMUS, ESQ., Tiverton. 
GILLESPIE, W. J., Whitehall, Foxrock, co. Dublin. 
GOODMAN, T. W., ESQ., Clifton Lodge, 155, Haverstock HilL 
GRANT, ALEXANDER, ESQ., C.E.I., Roseq Villa, Cheltenham. 
GREENE, T. W., ESQ., B.C.L., 16, Southgate Street, Winchester. 
GREENWELL, REV. CANON, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Durham. 
GRUEBER, HERBERT A., ESQ., British Museum, Secretary. 

HALL, J. G., ESQ., 8, Masbro' Road, Hammersmith. 

HALL, ROBERT, ESQ., The Hollies, Victoria Road, Sutton, Surrey. 

HARVEY, WILLIAM G. L., ESQ., 12, Riversdale Road, Aigburth, 

Liverpool. 
HAYNS, W. E., ESQ., Byron Villa, Whitehorse Road, Croydon, S.E. 



Q LIST OF MEMBERS. 

HEAD, BARCLAY VINCENT, ESQ., M.R.A.S., British Museum, Secretary. 
HEAVARD, PETER, ESQ., Charnwood Villa, Newbold, Ashby-de-la- 

Zouch. 

HEYWOOD, NATHAN, ESQ., 3, Mount Street, Manchester. 
HOBLYN, RICHARD A., ESQ., 2, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, Librarian. 
HODGKIN, T., ESQ., Benwelldene, Newcastle. 
*HOITMANN, MONSIEUR H., 33, Q,uai Voltaire, Paris. 
HOWORTH, H. H., ESQ., F.S.A., Derby House, Eccles, Manchester. 
HUBBARD, WALTER R., ESQ., P.O. Box 694, Montreal, Canada. 
HUNT, J. MORTIMER, ESQ., 4, Airlie Gardens, Campden Hill, W. 

*IONIDES, CONSTANTINE ALEX., ESQ., 8, Holland Villas Road, 
Kensington, W. 

JAMES, J. HENRY, ESQ., 3, Stanhope Place, Hyde Park, W. 

JENNINGS, JOHN, ESQ., 21, St. James's Street, S.W. 

*JEX-BLAKE, REV. T. W., D.D., School House, Rugby. 

JOHNSTON, J. M. C., ESQ., The Yews, Grove Park, Camber- 
well, S.E. 

JONES, JAMES COVE, ESQ., F.S.A., Loxley, Wellesbourne, Warwick. 

JONES, THOMAS, ESQ., Eglwyseg Manor House, Llangollen, North 
Wales ; and 2, Plowden Buildings, Temple. 

KAY, HENRY CASSELLS, ESQ., 11, Durham Villas, Kensington, W. 
KEARY, CHARLES FRANCIS, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., British Museum. 
KENYON, R. LLOYD, ESQ , M.A., 11, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
KIRBY, Tnos. B., ESQ., Bowling Green Street, Leicester. 
KITCHENER, CAPT. H. H., R.E., care of Messrs. Cox & Co., 

Craig's Court, S.W. 
KRUMBHOLZ, E. 0., ESQ., 38, Great Pulteney Street, W. 

LAGERBERG, ADAM MAGNUS EMANTJEL, Director of the Numis- 
matic Department, Museum, Gottenberg, Sweden. 

"LAMBERT, GEORGE, ESQ., F.S.A., 10, Coventry Street. 

*LANG, ROBERT HAMILTON, ESQ., Directeur- General des Contribu- 
tions indirectes, Constantinople. 

LATCHMORE, F., ESQ., High Street, Hitchin. 

LAWRENCE, F. G., ESQ., Birchfield, Mulgrave Road, Sutton, Surrey. 

LAWRENCE, W. F., ESQ., Cowesfield House, Salisbury. 

LAWRENCE, RICHARD HOE, ESQ., 31, Broad Street, New York. 

*LAVVSON, ALFRED J., ESQ., Imperial Ottoman Bank, Smyrna, 

LEATHER, C. J., ESQ., North Grounds Villa, Portsea, Portsmouth. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 7 

LEES, F. J., ESQ., Rosemont Lodge, Rosemont Road, Richmond Hill. 
LEES, W., ESQ., 44, Queen Street, Horncastle, Lincolnshire. 
LEGGETT, E., ESQ., Kurrachee, India (care of Mr. R. C. Poulter, 

4A, Middle Temple Lane). 
*LEWIS, REV. SAMUEL SAVAGE, F.S.A., Fellow of Corpus Cbristi 

College, Cambridge. 

LINCOLN, FREDERICK W., ESQ., 69, New Oxford Street. 
LOEWE, DR. L., M.R.A.S., 1 and 2, Oscar Villas, Broadstairs, Kent. 
LONGSTAFFE, W. HtLTON DYER, ESQ., F.S.A., 4, Catherine Terrace, 

Gateshead. 
Lews, J. B. O., ESQ., Bryn Lupus, Tywyn, near Conway, North 

Wales. 
LUCAS, JOHN CLAY, ESQ., F.S.A., Lewes, Sussex. 

MACLACHLAN, R. W., ESQ., 99, Osborne St. [Box 1236], Montreal. 
MADDEN, FKKDERIC WILLIAM, ESQ., M.R.A.S., Hilton Lodge, Sude- 

ley Terrace, Brighton. 

MARSDEN, REV. CANON, B.D., Great Oakley Rectory, Harwich, Essex. 
MASON, JAS. J., ESQ., Maryfield Cottage, Victoria Road, Kirkcaldy. 
MAUDE, REV. S., Needbam Market, Suffolk. 
MATER, Jos., ESQ., F.S.A., Pennant House, Bebington-by-Birkenhead. 
MclNTYRE, 2ENEAS J., ESQ., Q.C., 1 Park Square, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
MIDDLETON, JOHN H., ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., 4, Storey's Gate, St. James's 

Park. 

MONTAGU, H., ESQ., 34, Queen's Gardens, Hyde Park. 
MOORE, GENERAL, Junior U.S. Club. 
MORRIESON, LIEUT. H. WALTERS, R.A., Naval and Military Club, 

94, Piccadilly, W. 
MYERS, WALTER, ESQ., F.S.A., 21, Queensborough Terrace, Hyde 

Park. 

KECK, J. F., ESQ., 110, Cannon Street. 

NELSON, RALPH, ESQ., 55, North Bondgate, Bishop Auckland. 

*NUNN, JOHN JOSEPH, ESQ., Downham Market. 

*' 

OMAN, C. W. C., ESQ., All Souls College, Oxford. 

*PATRICK, ROBERT W. COCHRAN, ESQ., M.P., F.S. A.Scot., Beitli, 

Ayrshire. 
PAULI, WM., ESQ., M.D., Luton, Bedfordshire. 



8 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

*PEARCE, SAMUEL SALTER, ESQ , Bingham's Melcombe, Dorchester. 

PEARSE, MAJOR-GEN. G. G..R.A., C.B., care of Messrs. Grindlay 
& Co., 55, Parliament Street. 

PEARSON, A. HARFORD, ESQ., 29, Ashley Place, S.W. 

PEARSON, WILLIAM CHARLES, ESQ., 7, Prince's Street, Barbican, E.G. 

PECKOVER, ALEX., ESQ., F.S.A., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Bank House, 
Wisbech. 

*PERRY, MARTEN, ESQ., M.D., Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

PHILLIPS, HENRY. ESQ., JUNE., A.M., Ph.D., 320, South Eleventh 
Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

PIXLEY, F. W., ESQ., 5, Upper Westbourne Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 

POLLEXFEN, REV. JOHN H., M.A., Middleton Tyas, Richmond, York- 
sliire. 

POOLE, REGINALD STUART, ESQ., LL.D., Corr. de 1'Institut, British 
Museum. 

POOLE, STANLEY E. LANE, ESQ., M.R.A.S., 6, Park Villas East, Rich- 
mond, Surrey. 

POWELL, SAMUEL, ESQ., Ivy House, Welsh Pool. 

POWNALL, REV. CANON, M.A., E.S.A., South Kilworth, Rugby. 

PRIDEAUX, COL., W. F., 2, Sidlaw Terrace, Bognor, Sussex. 

PRIESTLEY, MRS., 17, Hertford Street, Mayfair. 

PULLAN, RICHARD P., ESQ., M.R.I.B.A., 9, Melbury Road, Ken- 
sington. 

RASHLEIGH, JONATHAN, ESQ., 3, Cumberland Terrace, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
RAWLINSON, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HENRY C., K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

21, Charles Street, Berkeley Square. 
REED, P. R., ESQ., 10, Upper Hornsey Rise. 
RICIIAKDSON, A. B., ESQ., F.S.A.Scot., 16, Coates Crescent, 

Edinburgh. 

*ROBERTSON, J. D., ESQ., M.A., 11, College Green, Gloucester. 
ROBINSON, T. W. U., ESQ., Houghton-le-Spring, Durham. 
RODGERS, 0. J., ESQ., Amritsur, Panjab, India. 
ROGERS, E. T., ESQ., Minister of Public Instruction, Cairo." 
ROSTRON, SIMPSON, ESQ., 1, Hare Court, Temple. 
ROWLAND, G. J., ESQ., 18, Compton Road, Wolverhampton. 

*SALAS, MIGUEL T., ESQ., 247, "Florida Street, Buenos Ayres. 
SANDEMAN, LIEUT.-COL. JOHN GLAS, 24, Cambridge Square, 
Hyde Park. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

SCHINDLER, GENERAL A. H., care of Messrs. W. Dawson and Son, 

121, Cannon Street, E.G. 

SCHLUMBEBGEB, Mons. G., 140, Faubourg St. Honord, Paris. 
SELBORNE, THE EIGHT HON. THE EARL OF, F.E.S., Blackmoor, 

Selborne, Hants. 

SIM, GEORGE, ESQ., F.S.A.Scot., 9, Lauriston Lane, Edinburgh. 
SIMPSON, GEO. B., ESQ., F.S.A.Scot., Seafield House, Broughty 

Ferry, N.B. 

SMITH, R. HOBABT, ESQ., 58,Wall Street, New York. 
SMITH, SAMUEL, ESQ., Wisbech, Cambridgeshire. 
SMITH, SAMUEL, ESQ., JUN., 25, Croxteth Road, Prince's Park, 

Liverpool. 
SMITHE, J. DOYLE, ESQ., F.G.S., New Athenaeum Club, Suffolk 

Street, Pall Mall, S.W. 

SOAMES, REV. CHARLES, Mildenhall, near Marlborough, Wilts. 
SPENCE, ROBERT, ESQ., 4, Rosella Place, North Shields. 
SPICER, FREDERICK, ESQ., Spring View House, Radcliffe, near 

Manchester. 
STEPHEN, C., ESQ., Ludhiana, N.W. Provinces, India (care of 

Messrs. H. S. King & Co.). 
*STREATFEILD, REV. GEORGE SIDNEY, Trinity Vicarage, Louth, 

Lincolnshire. 
*STUBBS, MAJOR-GEN., R.H.A.,Dromiskin House.Castle Bellingham, 

co. Louth, Ireland. 

STUDD, E. FAIRFAX, ESQ., Oxton, Exeter. 
STULPNAGEL, DB. C. E,, Govt. College, Lahore, Punjab, India. 
SUGDEN, JOHN, ESQ., Dockroyd, near Keighley. 

TALBOT, THE HON.MLLO GEOBGE,E.E., 2, Paper Buildings, Temple. 
TALBOT, THE HON. EEGINALD, LL.B., 2, Paper Buildings, Temple. 
*THEOBALD, W., ESQ., 50, Harpur Street, Bedford. 
THOMAS, EDWARD, ESQ., F.R.S., H.E.I.C.S., 47, Victoria Road, Ken- 

sington. 

TOPLIS, JOHN, ESQ., Grimsby Villa, 8, Arthur Street, Nottingham. 
TRIST, J. W., Esa, 62, Old Broad Street, B.C. 
TUNMER, H. G., ESQ., 38, Tacket Street, Ipswich. 

VAUX, W. SANDYS WRIGHT, ESQ., M.A., F.R.S., Sec.R.A.S., 22, 

Albemarle Street, W., Vice- President. 
VERITY, JAMES, ESQ., Earlsheaton, Dewsbury. 
VIRTUE, JAMES SPRENT, ESQ., 294, City Road. 
VI?,E, GEORGE HENRY, ESQ., 4, Loraine Road, Holloway, N. 



10 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

*WADDINGTON, MONSIEUR W. H., Membre de 1'Institut, 31, Rue 

Dumont Durville, Paris. 

WAKEFORD, GEORGE, ESQ., Knightrider Street, Maidstone. 
WALKER, R. K, ESQ., M.A., Trin. CoU. Dub., 9, St. James's 

Terrace, Miltown, Co. Dublin. 

WATTS, EOBT., ESQ., Thorn House, 56, Harborne Road, Edgbaston. 
WEBB, HENRY, ESQ., 11, Argyll Street, Regeut Street. 
* WEBER, HERMANN, ESQ., M.D., 10, Grosvenor St. , Grosvenor Sq.,W. 
WEBSTER, W., ESQ., 26, Bedford Square. 
WHELAN, F. E., ESQ., 61, Great Russell Street. 
WHITE, GEORGE, ESQ., Bank of England, E.G. 
*WIGRAM, MRS. LEWIS, Woodlawn, Bickley, Kent. 
WILKINSON, JOHN, ESQ., F.S.A., 13, Wellington Street, Strand. 
WILLETT, ERNEST H., ESQ., F.S.A., Berrycote, Kew, Surrey. 
WILLIAMSON, GEO. C., ESQ., Dunstanbeorh, Church Hill, Guild- 
ford, Surrey. 
WINSER, THOMAS B., ESQ., Royal Exchange Assurance, Royal Ex- 

cuange. 

WOOD, HUMPHREY, ESQ., Chatham. 
WORMS, BARON GEORGE DE, F.S.A., E.G.S., M.P., 17, Park Crescent, 

Portland Place, Regent's Park. 
WRIGHT, REV. WILLIAM, D.D., The Avenue, Beulah Hill, Upper 

Norwood, 

WROTH, W. W., ESQ., British Museum, W.C. 
WYON, ALFRED BENJAMIN, ESQ., 2, Langham Chambers, Portland 

Place, 

YOUNG, AUTHUR W., ESQ., 12, Hyde Park Terrace, W. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

ADRIAN, DR. J. D., Giessen. 

AMECOURT, M. LE VICOMTE DE PONTON D', Paris. 

BARTHELEMY, M. A. DE, 39, Rue d'Amsterdam, Paris. 
BERGMANN, J. RITTER VON, Vienna. 

CASTELLANOS, SENOR DON BASILIO SEBASTIAN, 80, Rue 8. Bernardo, 

Madrid. 

CHABOUILLET, M. A., Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
CHALON, M. RENIER, 113, Rue du Trone, Brussels. 
COLSON, DR. ALEXANDRE, Noyon (Oise), France. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 11 

DANJTENBERG, HERR H., Berlin. 

DORN, DR. BERNHARD, Actuel Conseiller d'fttat, St. Petersburg. 

FRIEDLAENDER, DR. 3., K. Museen, Berlin. 

GONZALES, CAV. CARLO, Palazzo Ricasoli, Via delle Terme, Florence. 
QROTE, DR. H., Hanover. 
GUIOTH, M. LEON, Liege. 

HART, A. WELLINGTON, Esq., 16, Ex Place, New York. 
HEISS, M. ALOISS, 4*8, Rue Cliarles-Laffitte, Neuilly, Seine. 
HILDEBRAND, M. EMiL BROR, Direct, du Muse'e d' Antiquity's et du 

Cab. des Medailles, Stockholm. 

HOLMBOE, PROP., Direct, du Cab. des Medailles, Christiania. 
HUCHER, M. E., Le Mans. 

iMHOoi'-BniMER, DR. F., Winterthur, Switzerland. 

KENNER, DR. F., K. K. Museum, Vienna. 

KJEHNE, M. LE BARON DE, Actuel Conseiller d'Stat et Conseiller du 
Muse'e de 1'Ermitage Impe'riale, St. Petersburg. 

LEEMANS, DR. CONRAD, Direct, du Musee d' Antiquity's, Leyden. 
LEITZMANN, HERR PASTOR J., Weissensee, Thiiringen, Saxony. 
Lis T RIVES, SENOR DON V. BERTRAN DE, Madrid. 

MINERVINI, CAV. GIULIO, Rome. 

MOMMSEN, PROFESSOR DR. THEODOR, Berlin. 

MULLER, DR. L., Insp. du Cab. des Medailles, Copenhagen. 

ROBERT, M. CH., Membre de 1'Institut, 25, Boulevard de Latour- 
Maubourg, Paris. 

SALLET, PROF. DR. ALFRED VON, K. Museen, Berlin. 

Six, M. J. P., Amsterdam. 

SMITH, AQUILLA, EsQ.,M.D., M.E.I.A., 121, Baggot Street, Dublin. 

SMITH, C. ROACH, ESQ., F.S.A., Temple Place, Strood, Kent. 

STICKEL, PROFESSOR DR. J. G., Jena, Germany. 

TIESENHAUSEN, PROF. W., Pont de la Police, 17, St. Petersburg, 
Russia. 

VALLERSANI, IL PROF., Florence. 
VERACHTER, M. FREDERICK, Antwerp. 

WITTE, M. LE BARON DE, 5, Rue Fortin, Faubourg St. Honore", Paris. 



Num. CkronSerMVoiMPlI 




TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER. 



I. 



ADDITIONAL TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER 
THE GREAT. 

SOME years ago I ventured to submit to the Society a 
notice of some unpublished tetradrachms of Alexander the 
Great, 1 not included in the comprehensive work of M. 
Miiller upon that interesting series, and which was 
designed, therefore, in some respects as a supplement to 
his valuable monograph. Having continued to direct my 
attention to the same series, and finding that it was so far 
from being exhausted that I have continually had the 
opportunity of adding fresh varieties to my collection, I 
have thought it might be worth while to draw up a brief 
notice as a supplement to my former paper, including the 
more interesting of those still unpublished varieties which 
have recently come into my possession. 

The subject will doubtless before long receive much 
light from the publication of the 'extensive series of coins 
of this class in the British Museum. But there is still 
room for other gleaners in the same field ; and some of the 
coins that I propose to bring before the Society are worthy 
of especial notice, as appearing to indicate the mintage of 
new cities that is to say, of such as are not yet included 

1 Num. Chron., N.S., vol. viii. p. 309. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. B 



2 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

in the long list of towns that struck coins with the name 
of the Macedonian king. I may add that none of the 
varieties here described are to be found in the British 
Museum. 

MYTILENE. 

1. Eev. Zeus seated, as usual; throne having a back, the 
pillars of which are surmounted by two small 
sphinxes. In front, a lyre, beneath it a mono- 
gram [A within a wreath ; beneath tbe throne, 
the monogram 4$. Size 9. PI. I. fig. 1. 

The large outspread fabric of this coin, as well as the 
style of the head on the obverse, refer it beyond a doubt 
to the class of those struck in Asia Minor on the borders 
of the JEgsean Sea, which constitute by far the most 
clearly marked group in the whole of this extensive series ; 
and the tyre, which agrees precisely in form with that 
found on the tetradrachms (Nos. 967 978) ascribed by 
Miiller to Mytilene, naturally leads us to assign this coin 
also to the same city. It differs, however, in two re- 
markable points from the other coins described by Miiller : 
the one, in having the monogram in front of the seated 
figure enclosed in a wreath a peculiarity which, though 
found on many of the European coins of Alexander, does 
not occur on any of those belonging to Asia Minor ; 2 the 
other, that of the pillars at the back of the throne being 
surmounted by two small figures of sphinxes, in the same 
manner as they support two Victories in the large group 



2 The extensive series of tetradrachms (Nos. 709 785 of 
Miiller 1 s catalogue) having a monogram composed of MYP or 
MHTP within a wreath, ascribed by some writers to Myrina, 
is justly referred by M. Miiller to Macedonia. The fabric, as 
well as the title of BAZIAEQZ, at once exclude them from 
all connection with Asia Minor. 



TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. G 

of coins supposed to have been struck at Sicyon. 3 This 
peculiar addition to the ornamentation of the throne is 
not found, so far as I am aware, on any other coin of 
Alexander. The figures are, however, so minute that they 
may easily have escaped observation. 

MAGNESIA (?). 

2. Same type and style. In front, a bull in the attitude of 
tossing, to the left, beneath it the monogram j^j>, 
and beneath the throne <E in monogram. Size 9. 
Plate I. fig. 2. 

8. Same type and accessory symbol, but beneath the bull 
the monogram fof and beneath the throne /V. 
Size 9. 

A coin apparently similar to the last is described in the 
catalogue of the Thomas sale (lot 1,242), though the 
monogram in front is not given, and is assigned con- 
jecturally by Mr. Burgon to Antioch in Caria. M. 
Miiller also has one (No. 1,176), which differs from it only 
in having the monogram Al in front of the seated 
figure instead of beneath the throne, which he assigns also 
to Antioch, though he strangely transfers it to Antioch in 
Pisidia, instead of Antioch in Caria, which is certainly 
the more obvious and probable of the two. But the figure 
of a bull, which is distinctly characterised as the Zebu, or 
Indian bull, in the attitude of tossing or butting, is so 
well known as the characteristic type of the coins of 
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, that it is certainly the most 
obvious conclusion to assign them to that city. This 
is rejected by M. Miiller on the ground that there is a 
considerable series of coins bearing the Maeander in the 
exergue, which he assigns to Magnesia, while those in 

3 See these described by M. Midler, p. 218. I shall have 
occasion to refer again to this interesting series. 



4 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

question have not this accessory. But the absence of such 
a characteristic is certainly of very little weight as com- 
pared with the presence of so marked a symbol, which is 
found on all the earlier coins of Magnesia, 4 and on those 
only, for the bull, or Zebu, on the coins of Antioch in 
Caria is in a couchant position, while the coins of Antioch 
in Pisidia are of so late a date as to have no bearing upon 
the question at all. But neither M. Muller nor Mr. 
Burgon would ever have thought of referring these coins 
to either Antioch had it not been for the monogram /J 
found upon some of them a very slender ground at all 
events, considering the interchangeable character of these 
monograms, and the extreme frequency of that in ques- 
tion ; but which is, in my opinion, entirely destroyed by 
the two coins I have just described, on which the monogram 
AN, under the throne, is in the one case replaced by that 
formed of EP, while it is not found in front accompanying 
the bull (as represented in M. Miiller's tables) on either of 
them, that place being occupied by two other monograms, 
both of them of frequent occurrence on the coins of 
Alexander. 

It may be worth while to add that though these two 
coins are so closely connected, and the reverses are of 
similar style, while they both present the broad spread 
form so characteristic of the coins of Western Asia 
Minor, the heads are of very different character, that on 
No. 3 resembling in style those placed by M. Muller 
under his Class III. rather than those of Class VI., to 
which almost all the coins of Ionia belong. 



4 The beautiful tetradrachins with the standing figure of 
Apollo on the reverse of course belong to a later period. 



TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 

Cos. 

4, Same type and style as the preceding coins ; but in the 

field of rev. the monogram ^ , together with 
a crab holding in its claws a club in a vertical 
position. Size 10. PI. I. fig. 3. 

No doubt can exist as to the city to which this coin is 
to be referred. It is only remarkable that so opulent a 
city as Cos, which had so extensive a coinage of its own 
previous to the time of Alexander, should have struck so 
few tetradrachms with its emblems. But the only specimen 
known to Miiller was one in the museum of Leyden, on 
which the crab and club are found one over the other, as 
usual on the autonomous coins of the city. 5 Their com- 
bination in the manner which is found on my coin certainly 
constitutes one of the most elegant as well as characteristic 
examples of such accessory symbols to be found in the 
whole series. It is worthy of notice also that in this 
instance the legs of the throne on which the figure of 
Zeus is seated are supported by two small sphinxes a 
peculiarity not uncommon on the tetradrachms of Chios, 
but which I do not remember to have seen on those of any 
other city. 

SMYRNA (?). 

5. Same types, but in field of rev. under the eagle a female 

head to the left, veiled and turreted ; under the 
throne the monogram K Size 10. PI. 1. fig. 4. 

No doubt can exist with regard to any of the coins above 
described of their belonging to the western provinces of 

8 Another variety in which the same symbols are combined, 
but in a different position, and accompanied by the magistrate's 
name, 2LQSTPATOZ, exists in the British Museum, though 
as yet unpublished. 



O NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Asia Minor, which constitute so marked a series. But 
this is otherwise with the coin now before us. Its large 
size and flat surface indeed at the first glance would 
lead one to assign it to the same class ; to which it may 
be added that I received it direct from Smyrna, together 
with several other coins of the same class (of Rhodes, 
Miletus, &c.), and though I am not disposed to lay too 
much stress upon this point, it is a fact well known to all 
who have collected coins in the Levant, that the tetra- 
drachms of this style are derived almost exclusively from 
the eastern shores of the JEgaean, of which Smyrna is the 
commercial centre. On the other hand, the style of work 
is altogether different from that usual on the coins of Asia 
Minor. The reverse, which is in very fine preservation, 
presents a boldness of relief and finish of execution wholly 
different from the slovenly style of most of the Western 
Asiatic coins; while the head on the obverse, though 
equally unlike that usually found on this class of tetra- 
drachms, is far inferior in style to the reverse, and has 
even something of a semi-barbarous character. 

Nor does the adjunct lead to any satisfactory result. 
The female head would naturally suggest its attribution 
to Smyrna, which, as we know, placed on its Alexandrine 
tetradrachms the same turreted head which figures on its 
autonomous coins. 6 But when carefully examined, which 
the fine preservation of my coin fortunately enables us to 
do, it is found that the head in question is covered at the 
back with a veil, while it supports only two small towers 
in front. This combination of the veiled and turreted 
head is found on many of the autonomous coins of Syrian 



6 See Miiller, Nos. 991 994, and my paper in this Journal, 
vol. viii. p. 315. 



TETRA DRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 7 

cities Seleucia and Sidon for example ; but no instance 
of such a coiffure occurs on the tetradrachms of Alexander 
struck in that region, and the fabric of my coin appears 
to me to exclude the possibility of ascribing it to the 
Syrian series. 

I am not disposed to attach any value to the monogram 
beneath the throne. The combination of K and A in a 
monogram is extremely common, both on the tetradrachms 
of Alexander and elsewhere ; and though its position is 
that which in some instances indicates the city where the 
coin was struck, this is but rarely the case, and the mono- 
grams under the throne in general seem to refer only to 
some magistrate or local authority ; at least their signifi- 
cance is unknown to us. 

SICYON (?). 

6. Same types, of very good style of work both on obv. and 
rev. In the field, beneath the eagle, a figure of 
Hercules standing and leaning on his club ; beneath 
the throne API, the two first letters in monogram. 
Size 6*. PI. I. fig. 5. 

It is with great diffidence that I venture to suggest the 
attribution of this beautiful coin, certainly one of the 
most perfect in my whole series, both for style and 
finished execution, to Sicyon. In fact, I must admit such 
an attribution to be almost wholly conjectural. But, 
assuming that the long series ascribed by M. Miiller, in 
accordance with Mr. Newton, 7 to that city, is to be con- 



7 See his paper on a number of coins of this class found near 
Patras in 1850, in the Num. Chron., First Series, vol. xvi. 
pp. 29 84. It is much to be regretted that we do not possess a 
few more such copious and accurate accounts of the discovery 
of deposits of the coins of this enormous series, which could 
hardly fail to throw much light on their classification. 



8 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

sidered as correctly determined, I have little doubt that 
my coin also may find a place in the same interesting 
suite. Its resemblance in style and character to the one 
marked by M. Miiller as No. 875 is as complete as can 
well be; and so many of this particular series present, like 
the one in question, a small figure of some divinity in the 
field, together with two or three letters or a monogram 
under the throne, that it is at least an obvious conjectui-e 
to include one more with the same characteristic. It is 
true that a large proportion of the coins thus ascribed by 
M. Miiller are characterised by the marked peculiarity of 
having two small Victories on the pillars or supports of 
the back of the throne. But this distinctive character 
which appears to have been found on all the varieties 
included in the find described by Mr. Newton is wanting 
on several of those referred to the same suite by M. 
Miiller ; among others on those which have certainly the 
first claim to belong to Sicyon, namely, those which have 
in the field the chimaera, so well known as the especial 
type on the autonomous coins of that city. The same 
thing is the case with M. Miiller's JN"o. 875, which, as 
already observed, presents so close a resemblance in style 
to my coin. 8 I must confess that this resemblance is much 
less striking when compared with others of the same series 
which have the accessory Victories, these being in general 
of a larger size, and a grander and bolder style of work. 9 
Without being disposed to contest the attribution of M. 

8 Both this and the No. 864 of the same catalogue (with the 
chimsera) are in the British Museum, and the style is in both 
cases identical with that of the specimens in my cabinet. 

9 An excellent figure of one of the varieties of this class will 
be found in the plates (PI. XI. No. 1178) to the catalogue of 
M. Greau's collection (Paris, 18G7), where it is erroneously 
assigned to Potidjea. 



TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 9 

Miiller's No. 875, 10 I am satisfied that that and the one 
I propose for my own coin must stand or fall together. 
The two in my opinion unquestionably belong to the same 
place and the same period. 

But by far the most interesting circumstance attending 
the coin I am now describing is that of the small figure in 
the field presenting exactly the attitude as well as the attri- 
butes of the celebrated statue known as the Farnese 
Hercules. This statue, as is well known, is the work of 
an Athenian sculptor of the name of Glycon ; but it is 
universally agreed that the existing figure is only a copy 
of a work of Lysippus, the contemporary of Alexander the 
Great ; and this opinion may be considered as confirmed 
by the figure on my coin, which presents so far as 
possible on so small a scale all the peculiarities of the 
well-known work of Glycon. Standing figures of Hercules 
are indeed not uncommon on Greek coins though no 
such representation figures as an adjunct on any of the 
tetradrachms of Alexander that have yet been published 
but these simply present the deified hero standing, full 
front, with one hand resting on his club. 11 The attitude 

10 This is connected with No. 864 by having the letters NO 
beneath the lower bar of the throne : a coincidence which, is of 
considerable value when combined, as in this instance, with 
close similarity of style. Miiller's No-. 891, with a horse's head 
in the field, and the letters AE beneath the throne, is assigned 
by him to Sicyon on very slender grounds, but the fabric of 
the specimen in my cabinet certainly bears a strong resemblance 
to that of his No. 867. 

11 There is, however, as Mr. Gardner has pointed out to me, 
a small copper coin of a city of Southern Italy (ascribed con- 
jecturally to Mateola in Apulia), on the rev. of which the figure 
of Hercules is represented leaning on his club, in an attitude 
closely resembling that of the well-known statue. It is figured 
in tbe catalogue of the coins in the British Museum, Italy, 
p. 132. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. C 



10 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

is therefore widely different from that of the Farnese 
statue, which we find on the contrary exactly reproduced 
on my tetradrachm. The hero is here represented as in 
an attitude of repose, standing, but leaning on his club, 
over which he is slightly bent to the left, while the club 
supports his armpit, and rests itself upon a kind of base, 
without which it would obviously not be long enough to 
afford the requisite support. The lion's skin merely hangs 
upon the club, and does not cover as a drapery any part 
of the figure. The right arm is bent, so that the hand 
rests behind the back, exactly in the manner that is seen 
in a front view of the statue. In fact, the agreement 
between the two is so complete as to leave no doubt that 
the representation on the coin was not merely intended as 
a figure of Hercules, but as the figure which was familiar 
to all Greece from the celebrated statue of Lysippus. It 
has been repeatedly suggested that these small accessory 
types may in many cases be derived from well-known 
statues of the divinities represented ; but I am not aware 
of any other case in which this agreement is so clearly 
proved as in the one before us. If the coin in question 
be correctly ascribed to Sicyon, the figure in this instance 
may be plausibly supposed to represent the bronze statue 
of Hercules which was seen by Pausanias in the Agora 
of Sicyon, the native city of Lysippus. 12 The most cele- 
brated of his statues of this hero were in a sitting- 
position, and have, therefore, nothing in common with 
that on my coin, or with the well-known statue by 
Glycon. 13 



12 Pausanias ii. 9, 6. Unfortunately the author gives us no 
particulars as to the attitude of this statue. 

13 See Brunn, Griechische Kiinstler, vol. i. pp. 3G1 3G3. 



TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 11 

The remaining tetradrachms in my collection, which I 
take this opportunity of laying before the Society, are of 
less interest, but are still worthy of notice as presenting 
accessory symbols unknown before, or monograms in the 
place of such symbols, which are not included in the 
copious list of M. M uller . 

7. Usual types, with title of BAZIAEilZ on rev., and throne 

without a back. In front of the knees of seated 
figure the forepart of a lion standing. Size 8. 
Weight 261 grs. PI. I. fig. 7. 

8. Same types, and throne without a back. In field, beneath 

the eagle, a closed quiver in a horizontal position, 
beneath it the monogram ^. Size 8. Weight 
263 grs. PI. I. fig. 8. 

9. Same types, but throne with back. In field of reu. the 

fore-half of a boar with rounded wing to 1., beneath 
it the monogram J$> an d beneath the throne 
N. Size 9. Weight 264-5 grs. PI. I. fig. 6. 

M. Miiller has figured (No. 995) a tetradrachm with 
the fore part of a winged boar, similar to that on the coins 
of Clazomense, which he on this account naturally assigns 
to that city. 14 But the treatment of the symbol on my coin 
is so wholly dissimilar, and especially the prominence 
given to the rounded wing (which is never so represented 
on the coins of Clazomenge) gives it such an altered aspect 
that it would be taken at first for something entirely 
different, and was so, both by myself and others, until 
Mr. Head had the sagacity to perceive its true significa- 
tion. On this account I have thought it as well to include 



14 A drachm with the same adjunct has come into my posses- 
sion while these sheets were passing through the press. But 
in this case there is the additional adjunct of a spear-head 
behind the seated figure, exactly as it is found on the long 
series .of drachms (Nos. 311 325) ascribed by M. Miiller to 
Cardia. 



12 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

it in my plate, though not presenting, strictly speaking, 
a new symbol. The two monograms also are different from 
those given by Dr. M tiller. 

10. Same types, throne with a back. Beneath the eagle /V 

in monogram, and K beneath the throne. Size 8. 
Weight 266 grs. 

11. Same types, throne with a back. Beneath the eagle the 

monogram i&> ; no monogram under throne. 
Size 8. Weight 261 grs. 

I must confess myself wholly at a loss to attribute any 
of these upon plausible grounds to any particular city; 
and I have, therefore, given full particulars concerning 
them, in hopes some of my readers may be more ingenious 
or more fortunate. 15 The first (No. 7) is the only one of 
the five which has the title of king, and from this circum- 
stance, together with its smaller size and greater thickness, 
may be referred with most probability to some place in the 
European dominions of Alexander. The style, which 
belongs to the Class IV. of Miiller, is not decisive, as 
between the coins of European origin and those of Syria or 
Cilicia, several of which have the title of BAXIAEQX, 
though it is not found on any of those of Western Asia. 
The accessory type is very peculiar, the standing figure of 
a lion being of rare occurrence on any of the coins of 
Greece, Macedonia, or Asia, while the half lion is, so far 
as I remember, always in an attitude either of crouching or 
running. 

The other four coins furnish no indication to guide us. 

The two last (Nos. 10 and 11) belong to the large series 
of coins in M. Miiller's plates (Nos. 1562 1662), which 
have no accessory symbol, but a monogram in the field, 

15 With the same view I have figured the first three of them. 



TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 13 

beneath the eagle or the outstretched arm of Zeus, the 
place where the symbol of the city, when there is one, 
usually makes its appearance. Such monograms may, in 
some cases, represent the initials of a city name ; but I am 
inclined to believe that in general they are merely those 
of magistrates, similar in this respect to those so often 
found accompanying symbols that undoubtedly indicate 
the place of coinage. 

Before closing this paper I may take the opportunity to 
mention another coin in my collection, which, though not 
new, presents a peculiarity that I do not remember to 
have seen noticed. This is the variety assigned by M. 
Miiller to Joppa in Syria, on account of the letters IOF1 
(thus arranged |R) in the field of the reverse. The 
attribution appears rather a dubious one, though I have 
no better suggestion to offer. But the peculiarity which 
distinguishes my coin, as well as the specimen in the 
British Museum (which is in all respects identical with 
mine), is that the head on the obverse is turned towards 
the left instead of to the right, as on all the other tetra- 
drachms of Alexander which have come under my obser- 
vation. 16 The point is one of little importance in itself, 
but is worthy of notice as an anomalous departure from 
the general rule. M. Miiller makes no mention of this 
singularity, though he cites three specimens of the coin 
from the museums of Vienna, Berlin, and Copenhagen. 17 



16 While these sheets were passing through the press, Mr. 
Evans has exhibited before the Society (Feb. 1 5) a tetradrachm 
presenting the same peculiarity, which may probably be referred 
to Melitaea in Thessaly. This is, so far as I am aware, an 
unique instance of its occurrence on any coin of European fabric. 

17 A coin with the same peculiarity of the head to the left was 
sold in the Bompois Collection (lot 846), but as usual in sale 
catalogues the monogram is not given. 



14 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

It would be curious to know whether the same peculiarity 
is found in them all. 

P.S. The above essay was written before I had seen a 

v 

notice by Mr. Head in the last number of the Numismatic 
Chronicle, 18 in which he advances a startling statement 
that, if admitted, would render all such attributions as I 
have suggested for the tetradrachms above described alto- 
gether worthless, and throw the whole classification of the 
coins of Alexander into hopeless confusion. In a brief 
notice of a paper by Dr. von Sallet in the Zeitschrift fur 
Numismatik, Band ix. Heft ii., he considers it as proving 
that the whole system of arrangement proposed for this 
class of coins by Dr. Miiller is " an edifice resting on a 
foundation of sand," and adds, " the symbols, however 
much they may resemble municipal devices or coin- types, 
are, as Dr. wn Sallet clearly shows, merely the signets of 
the monetary magistrates, and only very exceptionally to 
be accepted as mint-marks " (p. 297). 

Now, with all respect to Mr. Head, Dr. von Sallet has 
not only proved nothing of the kind, but, as far as one 
can judge from his article, had no intention of doing so. 
In the very brief memoir in question he points out 
that two gold staters of Philip II. , the one with a 
tripod as accessory symbol, and on this account assigned 
by Dr. Miiller to Philippi, the other with a different 
symbol, similar to that on Dr. Mailer's No. 233, had the 
head on the obverse side /row the same die, and could not* 
therefore, have been minted in different towns, From this 
fact he derives the conclusion that great caution is requisite 
in the application of Dr. Miiller's method, and " that these 

18 Num. Chron. Third Series, vol. ii. p. 296. 



TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 15 

accessories do not by any means in all cases indicate the 
places of mintage, but at times are, without doubt, the 
distinguishing marks of the mint-masters, or magistrates, 
who presided over their issue, without any geographical 
signification whatever." 19 In this view, as stated by Dr. 
von Sallet, I should entirely concur, but this is a very 
different thing from the" sweeping generalisation deduced 
from it by Mr. Head, against which I beg to enter an 
energetic protest. The principle on which Dr. Miiller has 
based his classification of the coins of Alexander, that 
where we find in the field of the reverse a symbol well 
known as that characteristic of the autonomous coins of a 
particular city, this may be taken as a sign that the coin 
in question was struck in that city, was so far from being 
new or peculiar to the Danish numismatist, that it has 
been adopted, I believe, by all writers on the subject 
from Eckhel and Mionnet to the present day ; but it has 
often been applied, especially by Mionnet, in a very hap- 
hazard manner. Hence Dr. Miiller has made a most 
valuable contribution to numismatic science by the sys- 
tematic manner in which he has treated the whole subject, 
as well as by the vast mass of materials that he has brought 
together. But I believe that all those who have worked 
much in the same field will have come to the conclusion 
that many of his attributions are hazardous and doubtful, 
and that he has been led, by his desire to explain every- 
thing according to one uniform system, into difficulties of 
which his interpretation will hardly be admitted by other 
numismatists. 

Neither Dr. von Sallet nor Mr. Head have noticed that 
I had already brought forward a case similar to the one 

19 Zeitschrift, p. 153. -' 



16 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

adduced by the former writer in an article on some coins 
of Lysimachus (published in the Numismatic Chronicle 
for 1869), where I pointed out that the portraits on the 
obverses of two coins attributed by Dr. Miiller to two 
cities remote from one another were in fact from the 
same die. 20 But I made use of the argument derived 
from this circumstance only to prove that it was highly 
improbable that two coins thus intimately connected 
should have been struck, as supposed by Dr. Miiller, the 
one in Thrace, the other in Caria. And to this extent I 
still hold the inference to be a sound one. But I am very 
far from accepting Dr. von Sallet's conclusion that it is 
impossible for two neighbouring cities to have made use 
of the same die a suggestion which he, in an offhand 
manner, dismisses as " absurd," 21 entirely overlooking 
the circumstance mentioned by me in the paper already 
referred to, on the authority of Mr. Poole, that this com- 
bination of the same die on the obverse with different 
mint-marks on the reverse is one of common occurrence 
in the coins of the Ptolemies. Mr. Poole's further re- 
searches into that interesting series have, as he now 
informs me, shown that the practice was in their case so 
frequent that it may be almost termed general, and he 
concurs with me in .thinking that there is no " absurdity" 
in supposing the same plan to have been adopted in 
regard to other regal coins. 

The subject is much too extensive to be discussed in a 
brief notice like the present. But I may take this 
opportunity to state that subsequent researches in this 
interesting branch of numismatics have confirmed me in 

2(1 Num. Chron., N.S., vol. ix. p. 6. 
21 Zeitsclwift, I. c. 



TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 



17 



the conviction, expressed in the paper above referred to 
(published in 1869), that Dr. Miiller's system of explaining 
the mint-marks, in all possible cases, 22 as the symbols of 
cities, cannot be regarded as established on sufficient 
grounds ; but that many such attributions rest upon 
reasonable inferences, and have the same claim to be 
accepted by numismatists as most of the other conclusions 
generally adopted by them appears to me unquestionable. 
As my former paper on the tetradrachms of Alexander 
was not accompanied by figures the admirable mode of 
illustration by autotype not having been then introduced 
I have thought it might be acceptable to the readers 
of the Num. Chron. to append to the present memoir 
an additional plate, in which I have figured the most 
interesting of the coins described in my former article. 
Although the principal types of the tetradrachms bearing 
the name of Alexander undergo no variation, they present 
such differences in style and treatment that it is alwaj^s 
desirable, if possible, to have accurate figures of the coins 
themselves, as well as the mere description of the mono- 
grams or accessory symbols. I subjoin a table of reference 
to the pages where the coins now figured are severally 
described. 

Plate II., fig. 1, is described in Nun?. Chron., vol. viii. p. 310. 



I 


fig. 


2, 








, ibid. 


t 


fig. 


3, 








p. 313. 


I 


fig. 


4, 






- 


p. 315. 





fig. 


5, 








, p. 816. 


> 


fig. 


6, 








p. 319. 



82 See his remarks in the Num. Chron., .yol. x. N.S., p. 7, in 
reply to my observations on the coins of Lysimachus above 
referred to. 

EDWARD H. BUNBURY. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. D 



II. 

COINAGE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 
AN EXPLANATION. 

IF the brief abstract of Dr. von Sallet's paper to which 
Mr. Bunbury has called attention be calculated to mislead, 
and if it expresses more than the learned German Numis- 
matist's words seem to warrant, I fear that Mr. Bunbury 
has fallen into a like error with regard to my own estimate of 
the value of Miiller's system of classification, for I certainly 
had no intention of advancing a "startling statement 
which if admitted would render all [local] attributions 
of Alexander's coins altogether worthless, and throw the 
whole classification of this class of coins into hopeless 
confusion." 

I therefore take this opportunity of correcting a false 
impression which Mr. Bunbury's words might well convey 
to the minds of some of our readers. 

My own view of Muller's work does not, I imagine, 
differ essentially from that of Mr. Bunbury himself. Dr. 
Miiller has divided the coins bearing the name of Alexander 
into seven distinct classes, which follow one another in 
approximate chronological order. Of these classes, Nos. I. 
to IV. are for the most part regal coins belonging to the 
age of Alexander and his contemporaries down to about 
B.C. 280, while Classes V., VI., and VII. are now generally 
recognised as being considerably later, and not regal coins 
at all, but the currency of free cities, chiefly of western 
Asia Minor, Phosnicia, and Thrace cities which adopted 
for commercial reasons the types of the coins of Alexander, 



Num. 









TETRADRACHMS OF ALEXANDER. 



COINAGE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 19 

at least a hundred years, roughly speaking, after his death. 
Now these late autonomous municipal tetradrachms, which 
may be called Alexandrine imitations, almost always bear 
as an accessory type the symbol of the city where they 
were issued. There can be no shadow of doubt about the 
interpretation of these signs, which are, moreover, very 
often accompanied by the initial letters of the towns, such 
as E 4> and a bee on coins of Ephesus ; M I and a lion on 
those of Miletus ; KOAO and a lyre on those of Colophon ; 
with many others. 

So far Miiller's classification is undoubtedly correct, and 
is in fact the only possible one. 

But the question arises, are we warranted in applying 
exclusively the same system of local classification by 
adjunct symbols to the regal coins of the age of Philip 
and Alexander, or are the symbols on the earlier coins 
frequently capable of a different interpretation altogether ? 

For my part I am strongly of opinion that a very large 
proportion (perhaps three-fourths) of the symbols on the 
coins of the earlier classes (of European Greece and 
Macedon) are in no wise to be accepted as the municipal 
devices or mint-marks, but rather as the official signets of 
monetary magistrates, and I should be inclined to desig- 
nate any classification of the earlier regal coins which rests 
upon the hypothesis that the symbols are in all cases 
municipal devices as "an edifice based on a foundation of 
sand." To this class alone (the only one, be it observed, 
of which there was any question in Von Sallet's paper) 
was the expression intended to apply, and I need hardly 
state that no one of Mr. Bunbury's attributions of the late 
Alexandrine imitations figured in his plates would be in 
the least degree affected were it universally admitted. 

BARCLAY V. HEAD. 



III. 

SOME RE-ATTRIBUTIONS. 

IN the Catalogue of Roman Medallions in the British 
Museum, edited by my friend, Mr. Grueber, a work of 
great value and interest, there is figured on Plate LV. a 
famous medallion which came to the Museum from the 
Blacas collection. The obverse of this medallion is thus 
described in the text : 

I. Olv.IMP G G VAL DIOCLETIAN VS P F AVG. 
Head of Diocletian, r., bare, bearded ; below, a 
palm branch, incuse : border of dots. 

If there be one thing which must impress a student 
more than another in Roman icoiiographic art, whether 
in statues, busts, or medallions, it is the skill of the artists 
in portraiture, and, as is only too familiar, a very large 
proportion of coins found having their legends obliterated, 
can, nevertheless, be at once attributed by a glance at the 
head. If we remember this, and turn to the medallion under 
discussion, we shall hesitate to accept the head upon it as 
that of Diocletian, notwithstanding the legend around it. 
Diocletian's head is one of well-marked character with a 
square jaw, projecting cheek-bones, perpendicular fore- 
head, &c., &c. This head, on the contrary, is entirely dif- 
ferent, with its round jaw, fat cheeks, and low type of 
forehead. Whose head is it ? This again is assuredly 



Nam. Wren. J'S. KZ, M.PIZT. 









HIBERNO-DANISH COINS. 



SOME KE- ATTRIBUTIONS. 21 

easy to decide. If we compare the head on the medallion 
with those on the bronze coins of Diocletian's colleague, 
we shall at once see that this is in every probability the 
head of Maximianus, whose features are of the typical 
Herculean type, and unmistakable. Maximianus was, of 
course, the colleague of Diocletian for some years, and 
medals are extant with the heads of the two emperors 
upon them, although no specimen is contained in the rich 
collection in the Museum. I venture, therefore, to differ 
from Mr. Grueber's description, and to assign the head on 
this fine medallion to Maximianus Hercules. This is not 
all, however. The head we are discussing is remarkable for 
theabsence of the laureated crown the sign of the Imperial 
dignity a most unusual omission in the case of an 
emperor. This would induce one to conclude that it 
represents Maximianus as Csesar, and before he was given 
the title of Augustus. 

Gibbon says of Diocletian, "After the example of 
Marcus, he gave himself a colleague in the person of 
Maximian, on whom he bestowed at first the title of 
Caesar, and afterwards that of Augustus ; " adding in a 
note, " The question of the time when Maximian re- 
ceived the honours of Csesar and Augustus has divided 
modern critics, and given occasion to a great deal of 
learned wrangling. I have followed M. de Tillemont 
(' Histoire des Empereurs,' tome iv. pp. 500 505), who 
has weighed the several reasons and difficulties with his 
scrupulous accuracy." (Gibbon, ii. 66 and note 6.) Eckhel, 
says Dean Milman, took the same view. To this I would 
only add that, as the medallion was struck at Nicomedia, 
it is not improbable that it was the work of some sycophants 
or friends of the Caesar whose reputation as a military 
man far outshone that of his patron, Diocletian and who 



22 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

thus wished to do him honour, as they did in other in- 
stances, and in later times, by putting his head on one 
side of a medallion, and Diocletian's on another. 

In the volume of the catalogue of Greek coins in the 
Museum devoted to the Seleucidse, edited by another of my 
accomplished friends, Mr. Gardner, is an attribution in 
which I cannot concur. The coin I refer to is figured on 
Plate III. of that volume, No. 2, and is a tetradrachm 
attributed to Antiochus I. The head of Antiochus I. has 
a very marked idiosyncracy. The pinched lips and square 
cheeks are as marked on his young head as shown in 
Fig. 3 on the same plate as on the older heads in 
Figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7. The head on the coin numbered 2 
is entirely different in every respect. Not only so, but it 
is precisely the head of Antiochus II., with the same deep 
sunken eyes and general outline. See Plate V., Nos. 5 
and 6. This view is based on the portrait only, but when 
we turn to the reverse of the coin the question is put 
beyond doubt. The type on the reverse of the coins of 
Antiochus I. is consistently that of Apollo sitting on the 
omphalos ; but in this particular case, the one exception, 
we have the type of Hercules seated on a rock, which is 
an ordinary reverse type on the coins of Antiochus II., 
and I have no doubt whatever that the particular coin in 
discussion ought to be attributed to Antiochus II. and not 
to Antiochus I. This identification would enable us 
further to conclude that the Hercules type was first intro- 
duced among the Syrian monarchs with Antiochus II. 

The tetradrachm of Seleucus II., marked 14 on Plate VI. 
of the same volume, is, I presume, the unique coin men- 
tioned in the Museum Report for 1875. It is rightly 
described in the text of the catalogue, p. 19, but on the 
plate, instead of being marked as of silver, is labelled JE. 



SOME KE- ATTRIBUTIONS. 23 

In regard to a third coin described in the same volume, I 
have great hesitation, inasmuch as it is ill -preserved, and 
I cannot consult the original itself. I refer to the coin 
numbered 5 on Plate II. This coin is assigned to 
Seleucus I. Is the reading of the name Seleucus on this 
specimen quite certain ? and, if so, is it quite certain that 
it belongs to Seleucus I. The reverse type of Apollo 
on the omphalos is very common on later coins, but it 
occurs apparently on no coin assigned to Seleucus I., 
except this dubious specimen. 

I have lately written a memoir on the griffin, and have 
had to make some special inquiries into its occurrence in 
Greek art. The griffin is a perfectly well-known fabulous 
animal, with distinct attributes, and we have more than 
one elaborate description of it notably that of Ctesias, as 
preserved by Aelian and Photius. All these descriptions 
agree that it was a quadruped, with the head, beak, and 
wings of an eagle, and the body and limbs of a lion. 
A lion -headed griffin is as much a solecism as a lion- 
headed Cerberus would be. I have therefore always 
doubted the description given in the Catalogue of Greek 
Coins of Thrace, &c , of the reverses of certain coins of 
Panticapaeum, in which the type is described as a horned 
griffin with lion's head (op. cit. 4). The animals so 
referred to are figured in full-face ; but, as it seems to me, 
they clearly are meant to be represented with the proper 
griffin's head, .which is given in profile in coin No. 20 on 
p. 7, and is quite different to a full-faced lion's, as repre- 
sented on coin 7. 

The complicated head of a griffin is naturally difficult 
to represent in full detail when foreshortened ; but it 
certainly seems to me that the artist has tried on these 
coins to represent an animal with a head differing from. 



24 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

that of a lion, and that it would be most rash to suppose 
on the evidence of these heads that the Greeks were 
so confused in their natural history as to forget that 
a real griffin had an aquiline and not a leonine head. 

As an appendix to this olla podrida, may I refer to a 
very different matter namely to the site of Calleva, a 
famous ancient British town, the mint-place of some of the 
coins of the sons of Commius. It has been generally identi- 
fied with Silchester an identification about which I have 
always felt a difficulty. It is apparently based on no other 
evidence than a vague conjecture on the part of one of the 
older antiquaries, which has been persistently repeated. 

Stukeley's reputation as an antiquary has suffered much 
from some of his fantastic opinions in archaoology, but this 
should not blind us to his sagacity as an interpreter of 
Antonine's Itinerary, and the difficult document that 
is usually attributed to the anonymous geographer of 
Ravenna ; and in this instance I believe that he was, if 
not quite, very nearly right. He very properly calls 
attention, as does Mr. Evans, to the fact that Henry of 
Huntingdon gives us the British name of Silchester as 
Caer Segaint. His words are, "Kair Segent quae fuit 
super Tamesin non longe a Redinge et vocatur Silcestre " 
(Evans, British Coins, 225). In favour of this view we have 
the important evidence of an inscription actually found at 
Silchester, with the words " Deo Her(culi) Saegon " (id. 
274). Several coins are known inscribed Sego, which have 
been attributed, with some probability, to some town with 
a name like Segontium. All this is pro tanto evidence 
against identifying Silchester with Calleva, since Silchester 
had, as we see, another name. This is greatly strengthened 
when we turn to Antonine's itineraries, and dissect those 
in which Calleva is named. They have been dissected 



SOME RE-ATTRIBUTIONS. 25 

with skill and force by Stukeley, and he shows how im- 
possible it is to reconcile them with the facts if we place 
Calleva at Silchester. He urges that the Attrebatian 
capital was really at Far-nham, in Surrey, and assigns 
Surrey as the country of the Attrebates, Berkshire being 
the land not of the Attrebates but of the Bibroci, who left 
it their name. By placing the Attrebates in Surrey we, 
as Stukeley says, are supported by Ptolemy, who places 
them next to the Cantii. I would remark that a very 
strong piece of evidence in favour of this conclusion which 
has accumulated since Stukeley's day is that of the coins. 
So far as I know, none of the coins minted at Calleva, or 
attributed to that mint, have been found anywhere near 
Silchester, nor, in fact, in Berkshire, where only the 
primitive uninscribed British money has occurred. On 
the other hand, Surrey is very rich in coins of Epaticcus and 
Veriea, which are those assigned, with every probability, 
to Calleva. 

While fixing upon Surrey as the home of the Attrebates, 
I cannot quite concur with Stukeley in identifying Calleva 
with Farnham. In such a difficult matter it is impossible 
to come to any other than a tentative conclusion; but I 
have long thought that Guildford represents the old Attre- 
batian capital. The particle " ford " marks the name as a 
British name, as in the case of Hereford, Oxford, &c., &c., 
" ford " meaning a road in Celtic. The other half of the 
name seems to me a probable survival of the name Calleva, 
which Camden, it will be remembered, reads Galleva. 
Guildford is the very focus of the district* in Surrey where 
the British coins abound, and seems in other ways to fit 
in very well with all the facts. 

H. H. HOWORTH. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. K 



IV. 

SILVEK STYCAS OF NORTHUMBRIA AND YORK. 

IN the twentieth volume of the Numismatic Chronicle, 
N.S. p. 62, Major Creeke has called attention to the 
silver and base silver coins of Eanred and Ethelred II., 
Kings of Northumbria, and he follows Mr. J. Rashleigh 
in his article on the coins of that kingdom (N.C., N.S. ix. 
p. 62) in denominating these as silver sceattas. I venture 
to differ from the conclusion to which he arrives, and 
strongly adhere to the view adopted by the present Pre- 
sident of the Numismatic Society, who, in his annual 
address to the members of that Society in July, 1880, 
referred to the subject, but considered the coins described 
by Major Creeke to be stycas, and not sceattas. It is, 
however, if only ex abundanti cauteld, of some importance 
to collect as much information and as many facts upon 
the subject as possible, in order that by a full comparison 
of these some exact result may, if practicable, be arrived 
at. For this reason I think it would be well if the very 
full list of coins of silver and base silver issued under the 
Northumbrian kings, so usefully compiled and communi- 
cated by Major Creeke, were added to, and possibly made 
complete, by means of the observations of other collectors. 
To this end I describe a base silver coin of Eanred in my 



Nun. Ona SerlH. VolJUPUF 




COINS OF THE SELEUCIDAE. 



SILVER STYCAS OF NORTHUMBRIA AND YORK. 27 

collection, and which, is not included in the before- 
mentioned list 

Obv. 6ANEED EX. PeUet within circle of dots. 
JRev. eARVTNT. PeUet within circle of dots. 

It will be noticed that the type is the same as that of 
No. 7 of Major Creeke's list, and which latter was issued 
by the moneyer EADVINL I have no doubt but that 
the name of the moneyer on my coin is a corruption of 
that on his. There is also the same mixture of the Old 
English 6 and the Roman E. I have in my collection a 
very fine silver styca of Eanred, with the name of the 
moneyer, VILHEAH, weighing 20 grains, similar to 
No. 12 in Major Creeke's list. 

The late Mr. Lindsay also states, in his " View of the 
Coinage of the Heptarchy," that Mr. Haigh had seen, in 
the cabinet of Dr. Moore, of Preston, a sceatta of Eanred 
exactly resembling a styca, on which the moneyer's name 
was HVATRED. 

In Hawkins, second edition, p. 74, are mentioned two 
silver stycas of -ZEthelred II., one of them resembling in 
all respects the ordinary styca ; and with regard to these 
the learned author states his conviction that we can 
scarcely consider these anomalous pieces otherwise than 
as caprices of some one engaged in the mint, and that it is 
highly improbable that they should have formed part of 
the general currency of the kingdom. 

In the late Mr. CuflF's collection were silver and base 
silver stycas of Eanred, of the moneyers Eardvulf, Eavini, 
and Eaduni (in the catalogue called EADYDI). 

It would add usefully to the subject discussed if the stycas 
of the Archbishops of York were also considered in connec- 
tion with the question raised. I do not know whether Major 



28 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Creeke was aware that some of the York stycas are also 
found in silver. There is so intimate a connection 
between Northumbria and that see, and such a similarity 
of style in their coins, that any complete list should also 
extend to these. 

I have two of Eanbald as follows : 

1. OJv. EYNBVLD . VE +. Small cross. 

Rev. EDILYAED +. Small cross, base silver. 

2. Obv. EVNBVLD . V +. Small cross. 

Eev. EDILYAED +. Small cross, very fine silver. 

In the Cuff collection were two base silver stycas of the 
moneyers Edilvard and Eadvulf respectively. 

In addition to these Mr. Gill exhibited, at a meeting 
of the Numismatic Society, held on the 21st October, 1880, 
a base silver styca of Ulfhere. 

Thus far I deal with the silver and base silver stycas 
which have been described or exhibited ; but a careful 
examination of any large collection of stycas, such, for 
instance, as that in the British Museum, amply evidences 
the fact that the metal of which a great number are 
composed is more or less mixed with silver or billon. 

In some the presence of the alloy is scarcely noticeable, 
in others it is more marked. There appears to be no 
design in this, nor anything capable of being reduced to a 
system. It is much more likely to result from accidents 
of the melting-pot, as hinted at by Mr. Evans, than from 
any intention on the part of the moneyer to issue a coin 
of a different denomination or even a mint curiosity. 

If this theory be correct, it is obvious why so few stycas 
of fine silver have survived to our times. Their intrinsic 
being greater than their current value, secured their 
destruction more certainly than would the mere lapse of 



SILVER STYCA8 OF NORTHUMBRIA AND YORK. 29 

time. If they were really sceattas, more of them would, 
in the ordinary course of events, have been hoarded and 
discovered in company with the many thousands of stycas 
found at Kirk Oswald, Hexham, and other places. 

A further argument on the subject is provided by the 
famous silver penny of Eanred, in the collection of Mr. 
Rashleigh, which, on the balance of evidence and proba- 
bilities of the case, might be regarded (if it can be con- 
sidered a Northumbrian coin at all) as what would have 
been the form of the silver money of the country, if it had 
been determined to have a silver currency. 

At the time when stycas were, practically, the only 
recognised coins of Northumbria and York, the neigh- 
bouring kingdoms used the Saxon penny, and it is only 
natural that at that period of time this would have formed 
the prototype of any attempted innovation in the northern 
districts, and I do not know why Mr. Rashleigh thought 
it necessary to endeavour to attribute a French origin to 
the type of his coin. In the same way it may be suggested 
that had either of the kingdoms of Mercia or East Anglia 
desired to avail itself of a copper currency, the coins 
issued with that intention would have borne some resem- 
blance to the northern stycas. 

It is easy in matters of this description, and where 
absolute evidence is wanting, to form theories of more or 
less probable a character; but I think that it is not 
unlikely that silver pennies were interchangeable with the 
ordinary Northumbrian money, although in what propor- 
tions and upon what basis remains to be ascertained. It 
would be difficult to imagine that, at the period when these 
were current, there were no commercial or pecuniary 
relations between the various kingdoms. 

If such relations existed, it would be equally difficult to 



30 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

determine the ways and means employed without the 
adoption of some such theory as that propounded by me, 
and which, if carried to its full extent, leads to the inevi- 
table conclusion that the silver pennies of Mercia, East 
Anglia, and of the West Saxons were, in the time of 
Eanred, more or less known, and perhaps familiar in use, 
among the Northumbrians and other north-countrymen ; 
and in connection with this portion of the matter it must not 
be forgotten that Eanred was a contemporary of Coenwlf, 
Ethelstan I., and Egbert, who were respectively monarchs 
of those kingdoms at that period. 

The art displayed on the silver pennies of Offa, the 
predecessor of the first mentioned of those kings, was not 
surpassed by that displayed on his coins by any preceding 
or subsequent monarch of either of the kingdoms named, 
and the coins of Coenwlf and Egbert were certainly not 
much better or worse than the silver coins of the later 
Northumbrian kings, such as Regnald or Anlaf. 

The Northumbrians, when adopting the same metal, 
would in like manner have been imbued with the spirit of 
imitation so far as the types of their neighbours were con- 
cerned, and this, in effect, was the course which events 
subsequently took. What is stated of the Northumbrians 
applies with much greater force to the Archbishops of 
York, who, by reason of their more frequent intercourse 
with the world, and their greater learning and civilisation, 
would have been more likely to create new and improved 
forms of currency. 

It may be asked why, under those circumstances, the 
question of changing the form of the styca should not 
have, for the same reason, become a subject for considera- 
tion in the archiepiscopal see. On this point I can only 
remark that it is one thing to change an old form in 



SILVER STYCAS OF NORTHUMBRIA AND YORK. 31 

dealing with an established institution, and another to 
adopt a new one in dealing with a proposed innovation. 

There are not extant any chronicles connected with 
Northumberland or its history from which any light can 
be derived on the subject of the coinage ; but I venture to 
think the considerations I have above set forth tend to 
show that, if a silver currency had been proposed to be 
adopted in the time of Eanred or his successor, the type 
of such currency would have approached, even if it had 
not been identical with, the type employed in other parts 
of Britain. 

Inferentially, therefore, I conclude that the form of a 
silver styca would not have been adopted for that purpose. 

H. MONTAGU. 



Y. 

THE HUMAN HAND ON HIBERNO-DANISH COINS. 

THE human hand as a symbol is rare on Hiberno-Danish 
coins. The bones of three human arms, forearms, and 
hands are represented in the form of a tribrach on very 
few coins, and the bones of a hand only on a small 
number. 

Another symbol which is usually denominated a hand 
appears on a large number of Hiberno-Danish coins. It 
consists of an upright line having three, four, or six 
parallel lines connected with it, which is more like a 
branch with linear leaves than a hand. It is placed on the 
reverse of the coin in one angle, or more frequently in 
two alternate angles of a double cross, each limb of which 
terminates with three crescents. 

A more elaborate description of these varieties of type 
would fail to convey to the reader a distinct conception 
of the difference in form of the symbols and of their 
position on the coins. 

Some of these types were first published by Mr. Lindsay j 1 
but they are not represented in his plates with sufficient 
accuracy, and his book is now out of print. 

It is therefore desirable to exhibit in one view all the 
varieties of the hand type in the Royal Irish Academy, 
and the most convenient mode of commenting on them 

1 " View of the Coinage of Ireland," 4to, Cork, 1839. 



flam. arm.Ser.III. VolMPl. f 





COINS OF THE SELEUCIDAE. 



THE HUMAN HAND ON HIBERNO-DANISH COINS. 33 

will be first to describe in succession the accurate repre- 
sentations of ten coins which are engraved in the accom- 
panying plate (Plate III.). 

FIG. 1. 

Obv. A skeleton hand with fingers expanded on the king's 
neck ; the significance of this symbol is established 
by the hands -on figs. 9 and 10 ; a cross pomrnee 
before the king's face. 

Per. A long double cross, each limb terminated by three 
crescents, a small pellet in each angle of the cross. 

Wt. 14 grs. 

This coin closely resembles the one published in Lind- 
say, pi. ii. fig. 30, and appropriated by him to Regnald III., 
A.D. 1125. The legend on the reverse is almost iden- 
tical with Lindsay's coin. 

I have given this coin the first place in the series 
because the type of its reverse, although the legend is 
unintelligible, corresponds with the acknowledged coins 
of Sihtric III., who was the first to establish a mint in 
Ireland. 

FIG. 2. 

Obv. This rare type is remarkable for the position of the 
fleshy hand with the thumb applied to the king's 
nose. 

Rev. Long double cross, with a small pellet in two alternate 
angles, and the branch-like symbol with four leaves 
in the other alternate angles. 

Wt. 16-4 grs. 

Another coin of this type, but from a different die, 
published by Lindsay, pi. ii. fig. 29, is in the Royal 
Irish Academy, and it has on the king's neck a pellet 
which is omitted in the engraving. "Weight 16'3 grains. 
This coin is appropriated by Lindsay to Regnald III. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. F 



34 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Mr. Walker, in his commentary on the Hiberno-Danish 
coins published in Camden's " Britannia," fig. 9, tab. iv., 
describes the branch-like symbols on the reverse as " two 
hands in the opposite angles of the cross" (second 
edition, fol. 1722, vol. i. p. cxcviii.). 

Simon, in his description of a coin appropriated by him 
to Ifars (pi. ii. fig. 34), says it has " what Mr. Walker 
calls a hand in two opposite quarters of the cross " 
(" Essay on Irish Coins," 4to, 1749, p. 11). 

Mr. Lindsay, in his description of coins which he con- 
siders to be the first type of the coins of Sihtric III., 
includes ruder coins with unintelligible legends, which 
weigh only from ten to eighteen grains, a few of which 
" bear, in two angles of the cross, and sometimes in only 
one, a rude figure, supposed by some to be a hand, but 
this figure, although very common on Hiberno-Danish 
coins, is very seldom found on the coins of Sihtric" (p. 11). 
Mr. Lindsay adopts Walker's supposition and in table v. 
of the legends of the Hiberno-Danish coins he emplo} r s 
what he calls the " Irish type hand in one quarter/' or 
" hand in two quarters " of the cross, to distinguish the 
" varieties of the coins of Sihtric IV., 1034." 

FIG. 3. 

Obv. Skeleton hand on the king's neck like fig. 1, and 
instead of a legend consisting of letters it has 
many straight strokes. 

Her. A branch with four leaves in two alternate angles of 
. the cross. In the unintelligible legend of nine 
letters the letter N is repeated six times in succes- 
sion and also as the final letter. This coin is in the 
Royal Irish Academy, it weighs 13-5 grains, and is 
published by Lindsay (Supplement, pi. ii. fig. 34), 
who appropriates it to Regnald III. 

Mr. Lindsay, in support of his appropriation of the 



THE HUMAN HAND ON HIBERNO-DANISH COINS. 35 

three preceding coins, pays, " That the coins bearing the 
name of Renden or Nenden, belong to one of the Reg- 
nalds is, I believe, unquestionable ; but to which of the 
Hiberno-Danish princes of that name they are to be 
assigned is perhaps the most perplexing .question that 
could be asked, relative to the ancient coins of Ireland " 
(p. 15). He also observes, " The IN", as in Nenden, and a 
great number of the Irish coins, being used as R, and 
often also in place of other letters ; and if correctly 
appropriated would leave but little doubt that these coins 
belong to Regnald III., who reigned from 1125 to 1147 " 
(p. 16). 

A reference to the accompanying plate will enable the 
reader to test the accuracy of Mr. Lindsay's interpreta- 
tion of the letters and straight strokes which occupy the 
place of legends in figs. 1, -2, and 3. 

FIG. 4. 

The chief difference between this coin and fig. 3 consists 
in the hand on the neck being turned downwards. It 
has more letters on the obverse, and one-half of the legend 
on the reverse is similar to fig. 3. Weight 13*1 grains. 
This variety of the hand type is not mentioned by 
Lindsay. 

FIG. 5. 

A branch having only three leaves terminated by pellets 
in only one angle of the cross, of which the other angles 
are blank. Weight 17'3 grains. This rare variety of 
the branch is not noticed by Lindsay. 2 

2 Since the accompanying plate was engraved, I discovered 
in the cabinet of the Royal Irish Academy a Hiberno-Danish 
coin similar to the type of fig. 3. Instead of a skeleton hand 



36 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

FIG. 6. 

A branch having only three pointed leaves in one 
angle, a small linear cross or pellets in the other angles 
of the cross. Weight 16*9 grains. Not mentioned by 
Lindsay. 

FIG. 7. 

A branch with four leaves terminated by pellets in one 
angle, and a linear cross or pellets in the other angles of 
the cross. "Weight 15'9 grains. Coins of this type are 
published by Lindsay, pi. ii. figs. 44, 45, 46, and 47, and 
are by him classed as " Uncertain." 

FIG. 8. 

A branch with six pointed leaves in one angle of the 
cross. It has an annulet with a pellet in its centre in 
another angle, and in other particulars it bears a close 
resemblance to figs. 6 and 7. Weight 11*2 grains. 
This very rare variety of the branch is not mentioned by 

Lindsay. 

FIG. 9. 

Two human upper extremities like those on fig. 10, one 
above and the other below a transverse band with straight 
lines upon it. Weight 14*8 grains. 

This coin is similar to one found at Glendelach, in the 
county Wicklow, in 1639. The figure of a coin of this 
type, published by Simon, pi. i. fig. 12, is a copy of the 
woodcut first published by Ware in 1654 (" De Hibernia 
et Antiquitatibus ejus Disquisitiones "). 

on the king's neck, it has a branch with three pointed leaves 
like that on fig. 6 ; and on the reverse a branch with four 
leaves, terminated by pellets in two alternate angles of the 
cross, and a pellet in each of the other angles. Weight 14'2 
grains. 



THE HUMAN HAND ON HIBERNO-DANISH COINS. 37 
FlG. 10. 

A tribrach of three human upper extremities, each 
consisting of the bones of an arm, forearm, and hand, 
with fingers expanded, the three thumbs meeting at a 
central point ; straight lines instead of a legend. "Weight 
only 8 '5 grains. 

Fig. 51 in Lindsay's pi. iii. is a variety of this type, 
having in the centre of the reverse a pellet within a 
circle to which the three thumbs are attached. It is 
properly classed as " Uncertain." 

It is very improbable that the fleshy hand on the 
obverse of fig. 2 and the branches with four leaves in two 
alternate angles of the cross on its reverse have the same 
signification as symbols. 

There is some resemblance between the fingers of the 
hand on the obverse and the branches on the reverse ; but 
Mr. Walker, who first described the latter as being hands, 
had not seen a Hiberno-Danish coin bearing a perfect 
hand or a skeleton hand. His appellation, however, has 
been adopted by Simon and Lindsay, and no one, to my 
knowledge, has dissented up to the present time. The 
signification of the five radiating lines on the obverses of 
figs. 1, 3, and 4 would be questionable were it not for the 
demonstration that it is a skeleton human hand, which is 
furnished by the skeleton arms, forearms, and hands 
which are represented on the reverses of figs. 9 and 10. 

The branch-like symbol with four leaves, called a hand 
by Mr. Walker, appears in one, or more frequently in 
two, angles of the cross on the reverse of a large number of 
Hiberno-Danish coins, and Mr. Lindsay correctly observes 
that the rude figure called by some a hand (which name 



38 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

he adopts in bis tables of tbe " Descriptions and Legends 
of Hiberno-Danish Coins ") is very seldom found on tbe 
coins of Sibtric III. (p. 11). 

Tbe workmanship of Sihtric's coins is superior to all 
others, and the intelligible legends on them furnish the 
only complete evidence of the coinage of money in Dublin 
by a Hiberi:o-Danish king. 

The fleshy hand on tbe obverse of fig. 2 is unmis- 
takable, and it is very improbable that the symbol on the 
reverse is intended to'represent a human hand. A similar 
symbol is on the reverses of figs. 3 and 4, each of which 
has a skeleton hand with expanded fingers on the obverse, 
and fig. 1 has a skeleton hand on the obverse, but there 
is not any symbol or particular mark on its reverse. 

A branch with only three leaves (fig. 5) is found on a 
few coins. There are only three coins of this type in the 
Royal Irish Academy. The legend on each side consists of 
unintelligible characters, and is preceded by a cross patee. 

There are five coins in the Royal Irish Academy which 
have a branch with three acute leaves (fig. 6). The branch 
with four leaves terminated by pellets, on fig. 7, occurs in 
two alternate angles of the cross on the reverses of figs. 2, 
3, and 4. Fig. 8 has a branch with six leaves in one 
angle of the cross and an annulet in another angle ; in 
other particulars its type corresponds with figs. 6 and 7. 
The letters of the legends on the obverses are arranged 
with remarkable uniformity, but are unintelligible, and 
are preceded by a cross patee; their reverses have only 
straight lines in place of letters. 

Not one of the coins represented in the accompanying 
plate can be appropriated with certainty or even pro- 
bability to any person or place of mintage, nor can its 
place in the chronological series be fixed with precision. 



THE HUMAN HAND ON HIBERNO-DAN1SH COINS. 39 

Sihtric III., King of Dublin A.D. 989 to 1029, is the 
only king whose coins are known with certainty. The 
chief guide for the chronological arrangement of all 
Hiberno-Danish coins after his time must be the con- 
sideration of the varieties and analogies of types, when 
legends are unintelligible, and when straight lines are sub- 
stituted for letters, as in figs. 3, 6, 9, and 10 in the plate. 

The legend * IIIITEEREIDIFIII on the obverse of 
fig. 5 presents some of the elements of the name Sihtric, 
and the coin may possibly belong to" Sihtric IV., King of 
Dublin A.D. 1034 to 1041. It weighs only 17*3 grains, and 
the branch-like symbol does not appear on the known 
coins of Sihtric III. 

Fig. 10 has not a letter on either side, and it weighs 
only 8*5 grains. It appears to be the latest in the series, 
and is probably contemporary with the Irish bracteates 
of the close of the twelfth century. 

The chief object of this communication is to stimulate 
further investigation for a satisfactory explanation of the 
signification of the human hand, and also of the branch- 
like symbol which appears on so many of the Hiberno- 
Danish coins found in Ireland. 

AQUILLA SMITH. 

Nth November, 1882. 



VI. 

COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY, IN BOMBAY, 
UNDER THE CHARTERS OF CHARLES II. 1 

A CURIOUS commentary on the practical range and cur- 
rency of these issues is to be gathered from the contem- 
porary testimony of Tavernier, that adventurous traveller 
and experienced dealer in " precious stones," who resided 
in India during part of the reigns of Shah Jahan and 
Aurangzeb. He was born in Paris in 1605 A.D., and 
died at Moscow in 1689. He tells us in his preface, " Si 
la premiere Education est comme une seconde naissance, je 
puis dire que je suis venu au monde avec le desir de 
voyager " and further, he claims our confidence in the 
terms, " ainsi j'ai vu avec loisir dans mes six voyages 
et par differens chemins toute la Turquie, toute la 
Perse, et toutes les Indes." 2 His memoirs were only 
written out from his notes, by others, after his return to 



1 Portions of this paper have already been printed in the 
Indian Antiquary of Nov., 1882, p. 818. 

2 The earliest edition of his works appeared in Paris in 1676, 
with frequent reprints. Our references here generally refer 
to the translation " made English by J. Phillips," of London, 
1678. Harris's Voyages, 1764, vol. i., p. 810, reproduces 
much of the text, and Pinkerton, 1811, vol. viii., gives the 
chapter on Diamonds, &c. 



Nun. arm.3erIH.Vol.IlZPl.VI. 




COINS OF THE SELEUCIDAE. 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 41 

Europe, 3 so that it is often difficult to fix the precise date 
to which he refers for any special incident. He was in 
England so early as the time of James I., and we find 
him, after many wanderings, at Agra in 1641 A.D., and 
again in 1665 A.D., when he was invited by the Great 
Mogul himself to examine the hereditary crown jewels, 
which he was subsequently able to describe in full detail, 
for the benefit of the European world, claiming to be the 
first Franc who had been permitted to see and handle 
these choice gems of the Orient. 4 

The following passages represent his leading remarks 
on the early English coinages in India. 

" Figure 1 and 2, plate p. 5, is the money which the 
English coin in their Fort St. George or else at Madres- 
patan, upon the coast of Coromandel. They call them 
Pagods, as those of the Kings and Rajas of the country 
are called. They are of the same weight, the same good- 
ness, and pass for the same value. Formerly the English 
never coined any silver or copper money. . . . But since 
the present King of England married the Princess of 
Portugal, who had in part of her portion the famous port 
of Bombeye, where the English are very hard at work to 
build a str'ong Fort, they coin both silver, copper, and 
tinn [lead ?J. But that money will not go at Surat, nor 
in any part of the Great Mogul's dominions, or in any 
of the territories of the Indian Kings; only it passes 
among the English in their Fort, and some 2 or 3 leagues 



3 La Voyages de Tavernier ont ete rediges d'apres ses propres 
notes, en partie par Chapuzeau, son ami, et en partie par 
Daulier Des Landes, qui 1'a accompagne dans 1'un de ses 
voyages. Tresor de livres rares et precieux, Graesse, Dresden, 
1867. S.V. 

4 Utrecht, edit. 1712. Book II., chap, x., vol. ii., p. 277. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. G 



42 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

up in the country/ and in the villages along the coast ; 
the country people that bring them their wares, being 
glad to take that money ; otherwise they would see but 
very little stirring. . . ." 

As regards the first part of this quotation, it would 
seem that the Portuguese and Dutch had already intro- 
duced a system of imitating the native currencies for the 
mere purpose of facilities of commerce, 5 in which practice 
we wisely followed them. 

As a general rule, the nations of Southern India were 
more inclined to accept the adjudication of the money- 
changer, than to give credence to any royal stamp : in 
short, they preferred the tests of scales and the cupel to any 
impressed authentication of the representatives of the 
King's Mint. Ferishtah has preserved a curious record of 
how, on the conquest of the Dekhan, the Muhammadans 
were much put out by the pertinacious local habit of sub- 
mitting their new money to the arbitrament of the crucible 
and its immediate reconversion into current pagodas. The 
motive for this was imagined by the conquerors to have 
been due to the religious zeal of the Hindus, who were sup- 
posed to desire to perpetuate the sacred emblems of their 
creed in supersession of the pious legends and repetitive 
quotations of Islam, 6 but it seems much more reasonable to 
infer that these reconstructive measures were prompted by 



5 Tavernier, pp. 6, 141. " Fig. 5 and 6, plate p. 5, is a 
roupy of silver, which the Hollanders coin at Pelicate, being the 
same weight as those of the Great Mogul." The pagodas of 
the Hollanders were " better gold by 1 or 2 per cent." than 
those of the English. 

6 Ferishtah, Persian Text, Bombay, lithographed edition, 
vol. i., p. 537 ; Chronicles of the Pathdn Kings of Dehli, by 
Edward Thomas, London, Triibner, 1871, p. 243. 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 43 

the aim of securing fixity of value, in the numismatic form 
usually accepted by the masses ; sanctioned alike by the 
ancient guilds of the goldsmiths and Sarrdfs, whose re- 
sponsibility for attestation marks is maintained with some 
stringency to this day. 

" The Portugals," in the time of Ta vernier, had passed 
beyond mere local issues, and coined fine gold, with Euro- 
pean devices, 7 for the dependencies of Goa, and they also 
had " Silver Pardos " [Patacas] and " a great quantity 
of small copper and tinn money, not much unlike that of 
the kings already mentioned." 8 

We can complete the incidental details of Tavernier 
from our home annals, and can produce specimens from 
our own authorised mints, which will probably suffice to 
explain why the money we first issued at Bombay did 
not find acceptance outside of our own limited domains 
on the Western coast. 

Charles II. came to t.he throne in A.D. 1660. His 
marriage contract with Catherine, the sister of Alphonso 
VI. of Portugal, was arranged late in 1661, and completed 
in or about May, 1662. Under its terms he obtained 
the cession of the Island of Bombay, which was nominally 
made over to the East India Company on the 27th March, 
1 668, 9 and finally passed into their possession on the 23rd 



7 These were known by the name of St. Thomas. Tavernier 
gives an engraving of a specimen Obverse, the arms of the 
king in a shield, with G. A. at the sides, and LEX POB- 
TVGrALL^E in the margin. Reverse, figure of a man, with date 
1660. Margin ST. THOME. 

8 Tavernier, p. 13. 

9 The grant bears date in 1668. Bombay was to be held [by 
the Company] of the King iu free and common soccage, as of 
the manor of East Greenwich, on the payment of the annual 
rent of 10 in gold, on the 30th September in each year." 



44 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

of September of that year, with its then revenue of a total 
of 2,833 per annum, and the King's garrison of two 
companies of Foot, who volunteered into the " Company's 
Service, and thus formed the first nucleus of the military 
establishment at Bombay." 10 " In 1671, Bombay rising 
in importance, a mint was ordered, and the building of two 
ships and two brigan tines commenced upon." n "In 1676 
(28th Charles II.) by the King's letters patent dated 5th 
October, a mint was authorised at Bombay to coin Rupees, 
Pice, and Budgrooks" (badagd-ruka, -^ of an and], which 
should be current not only " in the Island, but in all the 
dependencies of the Company in the East Indies." Of 
course, it is somewhat venturesome to speculate on 
exchanges upon such limited materials as the available 
coins afford. But it would seem that they essentially con- 
firm and explain Tavernier's statement of the non -currency 
of earlier Bombay issues outside the island, a fact, indeed, 
which is virtually admitted by the King's letters patent of 
1676. They, moreover, appear to support the inference of 
the 2s. 3d. rate of exchange per rupee, which our own 
countrymen clearly looked upon as the normal tariff. I 
have had occasion to examine the question of the worth of 
English money as against Indian metallic values elsewhere ; 
but this much may be repeated here, that the Company, in 
the first instance, clearly underrated the value of the local 



Mill's History, vol. i., p. 97. See also Hume, Hist. England, 
vol. vii., pp. 349, 378, &c. ; Macpherson's Annals of Commerce. 
1805, vol. ii., p. 502 ; Harris's Voyayes, vol. i., p. 898. 

10 Chronological Table of European and British connection 
ivith India, compiled by Capt. H. B. Henderson. This admir- 
able resume was first published, in Prinsep's Useful Tables, as 
an appendix to the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Benqal, 
vol. iv. for 1835, p. 153. 

11 Bruce's Annals, pp. 280, 392. 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 45 

rupee, as may be seen by comparing the weight of No. 1, 
or the Company's coin of the 7th year of their Charter of 
1668, = A.D. 1675, with the increased weights given to 
the subsequent issues Nos. 3, 4, bearing the Royal Arms. 12 
A parallel illustration of the higher demands of the 
Indian Imperial mints may be quoted from our Num. 
Chron., 1882, p. 323, where we find the conquering 
Nadir Shah assuming 173*3 grains enough for a Pesha- 
war coin, but even in his hour of triumph admitting 
that the Dehli standard demanded the higher figure of 
178'1 grains. 

I have selected the eight subjoined examples of Indian 
money issued during the reign of Charles II., and added 
a single specimen of the Bombay rupees of James II. of 
1687, which reverts to the arms of the East India Com- 
pany. The date of this coin marks an epoch in the 
annals of the Western presidency. After the removal of 
the seat of Government from Surat to Bombay in 1686, 
the latter is stated to have been " elevated to the dignity 
of a Regency, with unlimited power over the rest of the 
Company's settlements." 13 

CHABLES II. 




12 Jahangir's Rupees of the Ahtncdabad Mint weigh 176 and 

grains : Marsden, p. 167. Shah Jahan's Surat Rupee 
also reaches 176 grains : Marsden, p. 639. 

13 Mill, i. p. 121. 



46 



NT'MISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



1. Obv. Centre MON : 

BOMBAY 
ANGLIC 
REGIMS 

A7 
Margin A: DEO: PAX: & INCREMENTVM. 

Rev. Centre, shield, with the arms of the East India 
Company. Above, two rosettes at the sides ; in 
the middle, two lions and two Us quartered. Below, 
three ships. Margin HON : SOC : ANG : IND : 
ORI: 

Silver, Wt. 177 '8 grs. Date Anno-septimo, 7th year 
of the charter. British Museum. 



2. Obv. Centre- 



THE 
RVPEE OF 



BOMBAIM 

Above one, below two, rosettes. 



BY AVTHOBITY 
SECOND. 



Margin 1677. 
CHARLES THE 



Rev. Centre, the Royal Arms of England, in a shield ; 
viz. three lions, the Scottish lion, the three fleurs 
de Us of France, and the Irish harp. Above the 
shield a crown. Margin KING OF GREAT 
BRITAINE FRANCE AND IRELAND. 

Silver, Wt. 167-8 grs. Date, A.D. 1677. British Museum. 




3. Similar types and legends to No. 2. 

Silver, Wt. 183-2 grs. Date, A.D. 1678. Edge milled." 
B.M. 

14 The system of milling was first introduced into the English 
mint by Blondeau, in April, 1662, and the first milled shilling 



was struck in 
218. 



1663. Ruding, xxxiv. 12 ; Hawkins, pp. 213, 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 47 

4. Similar types and legends to No. 2. 

Silver, Wt. 198-2 grs. Date, A.D. 1678. Edge plain, 
B.M. 

5. 060. Centre MOET 

BOMBAY 

ANGLIC 

, REGIME 

AD9 
Margin As in silver coins ? Traces of iNCREME ? 

Eev. Centre, shield, with the arms of the E. I. C. above ; 
dotted stars, in place of rosettes, at the sides ; in 
the middle, two fleurs de Us, and two compartments 
filled in with dots. Below, three ships. Margin 
illegible traces of the letters SOC : ANG : 

Copper (pice). 15 

6. Obv. CAROLVS A 

CAROLO 

Rer. REX 

BRITANNIA. 

Restruck with the die for the silver rupees, No. 2 
above. 

A farthing of Charles II. Date, A.D. 1G74. B.M. 

7. Types and legends as in the silver rupees. 

Lead. A.D. 1768. ? B.M. 

8. Obv. Centre, two linked C's, 3 (the monogram of Charles 

the Second), with two or three dots at the sides. 

Rev. Centre, the ordinary standing figure of the Indian 
god (Vishnu ?) 

Indian Fan am. 1 ' 



15 Ruding, PI. XV., No. 13, vol. v., p. 369. 
10 Ruding, vol. v., p. 296; Plate VI., Suppt., figs. 16, 17; 
Pembroke, PI. IV., T. 14 ; Leake, p. 376. 



48 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



JAMES II. 

9. Olv. Centre PAX 

DEO 

Margin BOMBAIENSIS MONETA : 1687. 

Rev. Centre, shield, with the arms of the East India Com- 
pany. Above, two rosettes and two dots at the 
sides; in the middle, two lions and two fleurs de Us 
quartered. Below, three ships and three small 
stars. 

Silver, Wt. 179 grs. Date, A.D. 1687. 17 



NOTE ON THE INDIAN EXCHANGES OF THE PERIOD. 

A controversy has lately been raised in India as to the 
exchange value of the rupees of the Dehli Moguls, as com- 
pared with the English money of the period and perhaps 
these quasi-English coins may aid in ultimately deter- 
mining this question. One of the arguments advanced for 
the reduction of the then par value of the rupee to less than 
two shillings which rate I had recently adopted for mere 
facility of conversion has been based upon the returns 
given by foreign writers in French livres and other indeter- 
minate Continental money estimates. The selection of these 
tests, however, does not appear to have been fortunate, inas- 
much as we can fix the relative values from more direct 
evidence. For instance, the English translator of Tavernier, 
in 1677, 18 in his Table of Values, gives the Rupee of Gold 
as 1 lls. 6d., and the Rupee of Silver 2s. 3d. In the same 
way, the English editor of Bernier's work 19 estimates the 

17 Ruding, PI. XV., fig. 12. 

11 Table prefixed to The Persian Travels of J. B. Tavernier, 
London, 1677. 

19 Second edition, London, 1676, vol. ii., p. 164. 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 49 

rupee at 29 pence, and so converts the sura of six crores 
of rupees into 7| millions of English pounds. 20 Harris, 
in 1764, in recapitulating the authorities collected by 
Ramusio, goes beyond this, and fixes the rupee at 2s. 6d. 
Thus, in giving the totals of Aurangzeb's Revenues at 
1207,18,76,840 dams (at 40 to the rupee), or rupees 
30,17,96,864, he estimates these sums in English money 
at 37,724,615. 21 

The next series of definitions of exchange rates consist, 
for the most part, of the contemporary testimony of 
Englishmen, who probably carried British shillings to 
India, and there practically ascertained what they would 
go for. The first on the list is the eccentric Thomas 
Coryate, who defines the Mogul revenues in 1615 as " 40 
millions of crowns of six shillings each." We need not 
here attempt to reconcile these vague totals, as in another 
place he allows us to infer that he places the rupee at 2s., 
in defining a lack (or 1,00,000) at 10,000 sterling. 22 

Terry, in 1616, speaks of the rupees as "of divers 
values, the meanest being worth 2 shillings, and the best 
about 2 shillings and nine pence," 23 an estimate which is 
accepted by De Lae't in " Rupias . . . quae communiter 
valent duos solidos et novem denarios Angl. ."nterdum 

20 In the Appendix to vol. iv. of this edition, p. 175, Bernier 
adds, " Some particulars forgotten to -be inserted in my first 
Book," and therein defines the rupee as " equivalent to 29 or 
80 pence." Bernier himself seems to have said at p. 53, vol. 
iii., " I have said elsewhere that a roupie is almost equivalent 
to half-a-crown." 

21 Harris's Voyages, vol. i., p. 652, London, 1871, pp. 32, 
49, and note p. 50; The Revenue Resources of the Mughal 
Empire, by Edward Thomas. Triibner, London, 1871, p. 32. 

22 Coryate's Crudities, edition of 1776, 3 vols. 8vo., and 
Purchas, vol. i., p. 594; Kerr, vol. ix., pp. 422, 428. 

23 Purchas, London, 1625, vol. ii., p. 1464; Kerr, vol. ix., 
p. 292. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. H 



50 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

etiara tantum duos." 24 Finally, Sir Thomas Herbert, in 
his " Some years of Travaile, begunne in 1626," 25 tells us 
"a Mahraudi is 12 pence, a rupee 2 shillings and three 
pence." 

But with all this, we must remember that the English 
shilling was little better than a token, and a very dubious 
measure of value. Twelve pence in silver instead of being 
equal to one-twentieth ( V) f the standard pound, had 
been very extensively reduced at this date, as will be 
seen from the Tables of English Silver Coins given by 
Macpherson, 26 Ruding, 27 and Hawkins. 28 But this diffi- 
culty of relative values, as far as India is concerned, may 
possibly be disposed of by the parallel definitions, in gold, 
which we occasionally meet with. 29 

On the other hand, the true estimate of value in India 
at this time was dependent upon, so to say, three concur- 
rent standards : (1) the copper, which had not yet lost its 
early status as a primary arbiter of values seeing that 
the revenues of the State were still told, and extensively 
paid in, copper dams ; (2) the silver, which in the form 
of tankas and rupees had been gradually taking the place 
of the lower metal ; and (3) the gold, which, in the in- 
crease of the material riches of the land, had already 
acquired an officially recognised ratio as against silver. 30 

24 De Imperio Mayni Mogolis, sive India Vera. Lugd. Bat. 
1631 ; epitomized in the Calcutta Review, October 1870, and 
quoted in the Revenue Resources of the Mughal Empire, pp. 
19, 22. 

25 London, 1634, p. 41. 

26 Annals of Commerce, London, 1805, vol. iv., Appendix ii. 

27 Ruding, vol. ii., pp. 70, 71. 

* The Silver Coins of England, London, 1841, p. 7. 

29 Tavernier, supra cit., p. 9, and Sir T. Herbert, Persian 
Travels, London, 1676, p. 41. 

30 A'm-i-Akbari, Gladwin's edition, i. 37 ; Blockmann's 
Translation, p. 27. Chronicles of the Path an K'UKJK of De/ili, p. 
418. 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 51 

INDIAN SILVER. 

The origin of the Indian rupee may be traced up to very 
early times, in the Aryan sataraktika, or satakrisnala, the 
even one hundred mti weight, which formed the basis of 
the standard gold and silver pieces of the early Pathan 
Kings of Dehli (A.D. 1228), each of which weighed 100 
rat is, or 175 grains. 31 Muhammad bin Tughlak, in A.D. 
1324, reverted to the local weight of Manu, 32 the karsha 
or surarnaof 80 rat is, or 140 grains, for his silver standard 
and simultaneously raised the weight of his gold pieces to 
200 grains, which measure seems to imply an official re- 
adjustment of the relative values of the two metals. Some 
uncertainty in the mint issues continued until Shir Shah 
reformed the Indian coinages and introduced a new silver 
piece, now definitively called a rupee, of 178 grains. 33 The 
great Akbar followed the same standard in weight, but 
claims justly to have improved the fineness of the metal. 34 
And we have extant rupees of Shah Jahan weighing 178 
grains, and numerous specimens of 177*5 grains. 30 To 
judge by the returns of his gold coinage, some of the 
examples of which reach 170'7 grains, his rupees must 
have ranged at a better average than those of his prede- 
cessors. 3 



M 



31 Pathun Kings of Dehli, pp. 3,. 134, &c. ; Numitmata 
Orientalia, " Ancient Indian Weights," London, 1874, vol. i., 
pp. 12, 36,70. 

32 The Institutes of Manu, by G. C. Haughton, London, 1825 ; 
chap, viii., p. 136. 

33 Pathan Kings of Dehli, p. 405. 

34 Prinsep's Essays, London, 1858 ; p. 43. Akbar' s Gold 
Muhar of 186'60 grains, is pure gold ; so is the average bullion 
return at p. 50. 

35 Marsden's Numismnta Orientalia, London, 1823, pp. 644, 
649, &c. 

36 Prinsep's Essays, Useful Tables, pp. 43, 50. 



52 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Taveruier has a curious notice of the copper and 
smaller money current in India in his day, which is 
perhaps worth preserving : 

" The Indians have also a sort of small copper money 
which they call pecha, which is worth about "2\ of our 
Hards, a Hard being the fourth part of a sous. There is 
also pecha, 2 pechas, and 4 pechas. 

" According to the custom of the province where you 
travel, you have for a ronpy of silver more or less of these 
pechas. 

" In my last travels a roupy went at Surat for 49 pechas. 
But the time was when it was worth 50, and another time 
when it went but for 46. At Agra and Gehanabat 
(Dehli) the roupy is valued at 55 and 56 pechas, and the 
reason is because the nearer you go to the copper mines, 
the more pechas you have for the roupy." 

Cowries, too, were subject to similar laws of distance 
from the Maldives. Near the sea they were rated at 80 
to the pecha, at Agra they went for 50 to 55 per pecha. 
So also with the bitter almonds, which made up the 
small change of the Western coast, whose tariff was 
regulated by the productiveness of the uncultured trees 
in the deserts of Laristan. 

INDIAN GOLD. 

The value of gold in Asia seems from all time to have 
been largely affected by geographical facilities, proximity 
to sites of production, ease of transport, and other incidental 
circumstances. 37 

37 Marco Polo gives the varying rates, in different localities, 
as gold to silver, 1 : 5, chap, xli., xliii. ; 1 : 6, chap. xl. ; and 
1 : 8, chap, xxxix. 



COINS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. 53 

The Southern Peninsula of India had, as it now appear?, 
gold mines of its own, and ocean commerce brought it 
ever-ready contributions in exchange for its home pro- 
ducts. In the North, the Bactrian Greeks were satisfied 
with binal currencies of silver and copper, whereas their 
successors, the Indo-Sythians, utilised gold, to the exclusion 
of silver, in large quantities, and not only secured direct 
supplies of Roman gold coin, but even imitated the devices 
and seemingly restruck many of the Imperial denarii?* 
The central kingdom of Kanouj continued, in modified 
forms, an extensive issue of that metal, which lasted till the 
Muhammadan conquest, and the later local types were 
even momentarily adopted by the foreign invaders. 39 

Mahmud of Ghazni's mints very early in his career re- 
produced Central Asian gold inscribed with Kufic legends, 
and the plunder of India from time to time contributed 
fresh supplies of that metal for his moneyer's needs. 

The Pathan Kings of Dehli, as we have seen, coined 
both gold and silver in equal weights, each being as pure as 
the indigenous refiners could make them, but relative values 
had clearly to be readjusted as varying rates of metallic 
equivalents demanded. At first the scale of gold to silver 
appears to have been 1 to 8. In Akbar's time it was 1 to 
9'4, 40 in Aurangzeb's reign 1 to 14. 41 And at this rate of 
1 to 14 our East India Company, in 1766, coined gold as 
149*72 fine, to the rupee, containing 175'92 of pure 

38 Jainism, or the early faith of Asoka, Triibner, London, 1877, 
p. 68; Journal, Royal Asiatic Society, N.S., vol. ix., p. 220; 
Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1879, PI. III. 

59 Ariana Antiqua, PI. XXI., fig. 25. Prinsep's Essays, PI. 
XXIV. fig. 3. Nnmismata Orientalia, vol. iii., 1882, p. 25. 

Pathan Kings of Dehli, pp. 232, 424. 

41 Tavernier, pp. 20, 134 ; Journal, Royal Asiatic Society, 
vol. ii.. N.S. 1866, pp. 159, 162. 



54 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

silver. 42 This proportion was not, however, found sufficient 
to secure the free currency of the new gold muhar, and 
in consequence, in 1769, a revised Government " Regula- 
tion " was passed raising the value of the gold muhar up 
to 190'086 fine, as against 16 rupees of the old standard of 
1766, 43 of 175-92, above cited. 

Finally, it may be mentioned, in connection with the 
later actualities of the East India Company's mintages and 
home exchange rates, that Stewart, in his " History of 
Bengal," (p. viii.) estimated the rupee at 8 to the ster- 
ling (i.e. 2s. 6d. per rupee), and practically illustrated its 
effect in citing "the sale in October, 1811, of 40 lakhs 
of rupees [Sicca ?] to the Bank of England for the ' 
equivalent sum of 495,527 sterling." 

EDWARD THOMAS. 



I omit the alloy in both cases. 

Prinsep's Essays, Useful Tables, pp. 72, 73. 



NOTICES OF EECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 



The Types of Greek Coins, an Archaeological Essay by Percy 
Gardner, M.A., F.S.A., British Museum, Disney Professor of 
Archaeology in the University of Cambridge. Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 4to, 1888. 

The object of this work is to place before the serious student 
of Greek archaeology such a representative series of Greek coin- 
types as may afford him valuable aid in tracing the gradual 
development of Greek art, and, at the same time, serve as an 
introduction to the science of Greek numismatics. Although it 
is not primarily addressed to numismatists, we have no hesita- 
tion in affirming that there are few specialists who will not find 
in Professor Gardner's pages much suggestive matter and many 
new and original views. 

The work is divided into three sections (1) A Historical 
Introduction, containing chapters on the origin of coinage, the 
chief international currencies of the Greek world, the rights of 
coinage possessed by religious communities, cities, kings, and 
political confederations, on monetary alliances, such as the 
ancient league of the Achaean cities of Southern Italy and the 
later Greek leagues. (2) The Types of Greek Coins, their 
religious origin, and their symbolical character. (3) The Art 
and Mythology of Coin-types. In this section, vvhich con- 
stitutes the main body of the work, the author divides the 
history of Greek art, as exemplified by coins, into six periods, 
and the Greek world, the field of his researches, into ten 
geographical regions. The first chronological period comprises 
the time from the seventh century B.C. down to the Persian 
wars, and is illustrated by coins of the early archaic style. 
Period II. extends from B.C. 479 down to the outbreak of the 
Peloponnesian war, B.C. 431, and exhibits the transition from 
archaism to early fine art, under the influence of the Aeginetan 
school of sculptors. Period III., B.C. 481 371, embraces the 
stirring times of the Peloponnesian war, the Sicilian expedition, 
the age of Dionysius of Syracuse, the fall of Athens, and the 
hegemony of Sparta. Throughout this time the coins, accord- 
ing to Professor Gardner, bear witness to the far-reaching 



56 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

influence of Polycleitus and his school rather than to that of 
Pheidias. Period IV., B.C. 871 335, is that of the later fine 
art, of which in sculpture Praxiteles and Scopas were the lead- 
ing exponents. Period V., B.C. 335 280, shows the beginning 
of the Decadence. This is the age of Alexander the Great and 
of the Diadochi, and is represented in sculpture by the famous 
Lysippus. Period VI., B.C. 280 146, is that of the rapid 
downfall of art on coins, a decline which maybe traced in every 
department save one, that of portraiture, which now rises to 
the chief place of interest. 

The coins on the beautiful autotype plates, sixteen in num- 
ber, which accompany the work, are scientifically arranged in 
chronological and geographical classes, and afford an excellent 
series of coups d'ceil of Greek art on coins in the above-men- 
tioned periods in every part of the ancient world. Each plate 
is faced by a descriptive catalogue of the coins figured upon it, 
in which references to the pages of the text are given, where 
each type is critically examined and compared with other ana- 
logous works. 

Professor Gardner must be congratulated on having produced 
a most valuable and original treatise, which will be indis- 
pensable to all who are interested in ancient art and mythology. 
The numismatist might have preferred to see the obverses and 
reverses of the coins placed side by side on the plates, as in the 
British Museum Guide to the Coins of the Ancients, but this 
would have interfered with the method of treatment followed in 
the text, and would certainly have derogated from the value of 
the book from the point of view of styles and schools of art 
which Professor Gardner has selected as the basis of his dis- 
quisition. 

Die Miinzen des Kaisers Aureliamis, seiner Frau Severinaund 
der Fiirsten von Palmyra. Special Studium von Theodor Ruhde. 
Miskolz, 1882. 

The author of this work divides his subject into three parts. 
In the first part he gives extracts with translations from the 
ancient authors, which may serve to illustrate the coinage of 
the period of which he treats. The second part contains a full 
and minute description of all the coins which have come under 
his notice, whether in his own or some other collection, or 
described in numismatic works. These are given in alpha- 
betical order that ie, after the initial letter of the first word of 
the legend on the reverse. The third part, however, to numis- 
matic science is the most important of all, as Herr Bohde therein 
arranges the coins of the reign of Aurelian in their chronological 
and geographical order. This task was not an easy OLO, but 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 57 

it has been accomplished in a very complete and instructive 
manner. When the coin called the argenteus antoninianus had 
become only a copper coin washed with tin, and had driven out 
of circulation the old silver and copper coinages of the empire, 
mints were founded in most of the provinces. This system of 
local mints was not firmly established before the reign of Gal- 
lienus, and the coins themselves bore little or no direct evidence 
of the various places of mintage. The reforms of Diocletian at 
a later period supplied this want, as each mint stamped its 
initials on its coinage. The absence of such evidence renders 
a geographical classification before that period a most difficult 
task, and the only data are those of fabric and similarity of 
letters marking the succession of issues, and here and there an 
occasional letter, which may lead to the identification of the 
mint where the coin was struck. 

Taking the divisions of the Roman empire as they existed in 
the middle of the third century A.D., Herr Rohde places the 
various mints at Rome, Tarraco, Lugdunum, Londinium, Siscia, 
Serdica, Alexandria, Antioch, Cyzicus, and Tripolis, and to 
each place he assigns upon the system mentioned its own coin- 
age. He then proceeds to arrange the coinage of Aurelian iu 
its chronological order, dividing the whole into three periods, viz. 
that of the accession, from A.D. 270 to 271, in which the coinage 
resembles in type and fabric the issues of the immediately pre- 
ceding years ; that of the first reform, A.D. 271 to 274, when 
Aurelian improved the standard of the coinage, and placed it 
upon a more equitable footing ; and thirdly that of a continued 
reformation, A.D. 274 to 275, when the Emperor placed upon all 
his coins their real circulating value, and on most the place of 
mintage. 

These few remarks give but a slight idea of. the task 
which Herr Rohde has undertaken; and we must refer our 
readers to the work itself, which will well repay a careful 
perusal. As to the mints, it may be suggested that Herr 
Rohde might safely have added two others to his number, that 
of Mediolanum in the north of Italy, to which can be assigned 
those coins with the letters PM, SM, TM, QM, &c., which 
have been attributed by him to the Roman mint, but which are 
of a different fabric from the coins of the capital ; and that of 
Camulodunum, in Britain, at which place Carausius and 
Allectus both struck a large number of coins. The work, how- 
ever, of Herr Rohde deserves the highest praise, as it clearly 
shows to students in numismatics that more is to be obtained 
from the study of Roman coinage than a mere classification of 
types and legends, and that, in fact, the coins not only confirm 
history, but serve also as independent evidence of events 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. I 



58 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

and of the state of the empire, both politically and constitu- 
tionally. H. G. 

Erklaerung der Abkuerzungen auf Muenzen der neueren Zeit, 
des Mittelalters und des Alterthums, dc., von F. W. A. Schlic/c- 
eysen. Second enlarged edition, by Dr. Beinhold Pallmann and 
Dr. H. Droysen. Berlin. 1882. Pp. 438, and 2 Plates. 

To those engaged in the study of modern and mediaeval coins, 
the occurrence of legends reduced to their shortest and most 
unintelligible forms is one which is painfully familiar. Such a 
dictionary as that of Schlickeysen, enlarged as it is by its recent 
editors, will by them be regarded as an unspeakable boon. Not 
only will it be of use to those more especially interested in 
foreign, modern, and medieval medals, but also to those who 
restrict themselves to the English series. For example, the 
somewhat mysterious inscription of BB . ET LVN . DVX S . B 
I.A.T. ET EL. on the coins of our Hanoverian dynasty is ex- 
panded into an intelligible form, and the G.S.L.C.P.G. of the 
pure gold coins of the Great Salt Lake City, receives its proper 
interpretation. 

The initials of medallists and engravers are included in the 
list, and in this respect also the work will be found of great 
utility as a book of reference. At the end of the volume are given 
accounts of some of the abbreviations on Greek and Boman coins, 
as well as of those on modern Bussian coins. The two plates 
are devoted to the various monograms adopted either by the 
engravers or those in whose honour or under whose direction 
the coins ad medals bearing them were struck. 

The Zeitschrift fur Numismatik, Band IX. Heft 3 contains 
a valuable monograph on the Achaean League by Dr. Weil, in 
which, after tracing the history of its rise and growth, he gives a 
full and detailed account of the coins. On this subject much more 
is now known than when Mr. Leicester Warren and Mr. Finlay 
devoted their attention to it. Dr. Weil divides the coins into 
two series. In the older he places coins like that engraved on 
Plate VII. 4, of the thirteenth volume of the Numismatic 
Chronicle, which are without the name of a mint. In the 
later class he arranges the coins inscribed with the name of 
the mint. He abolishes altogether some of the old mints, such 
as .ZEgina, and inserts several which are of recent assignment, 
such as Dyme, Callista, &c. The attribution of many of the 
silver coins of the League must always remain more or less 
conjectural ; no wonder, therefore, if soine of Dr. Weil's assign- 
ments of silver coins such, for instance, as those to Keryneia 
and Megalopolis are somewhat questionable. 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 59 

Band IX. Heft 4 contains the following articles : 

H. Dannenberg. On the coinage of Brandenburg. Supple- 
ment. 

J. Friedlaender. On the Paretz Find in the district of Pots- 
dam, consisting of tenth-century German, Italian, Fre.nch, 
English, and Arab silver coins. 

A. Erman. On Arabian imitations of Greek coins, consisting 
of minute silver pieces with the head of Athena, the owl, the 
full-face female head of the Cilician staters, the head of the god 
Bes, &c. 

F. Friedensburg. On the Medieval coinage of Silesia. 

S. A. Bergsoe. On Norwegian and Danish coins. 

Band X. Heft 1 contains : 

J. Friedlaender. The Acquisitions of the Berlin Coin-cabinet 
in the year 1881, from which we learn that the collection has 
been increased by the purchase of 51 gold, 222 silver, and 219 
bronze coins, Greek, Roman, Mediaeval, and Oriental. Among 
the Greek may be mentioned 8 gold, 21 silver, and 31 bronze 
Bactrian and Syrian, of great rarity, from the collection formed 
by Alexander Grant, Esq., of Cheltenham, while in India. 

M. Bahrfeldt. On a Find of Roman denarii in Roumania. 

F. Friedensburg. The Mediaeval coins of Silesia. Conclu- 
sion. 

P. Lambros. Inedited coins of the town of Eriza, in Caria. 
The pieces here described are (i.) Obv. Head of Poseidon, beneath 
which, trident, downwards. Rev. EPIZHN11N. Eagle on ful- 
men. M. 4. (ii.) Obv. AYTOK . KAI . M . AY . ANTO- 
NEINOC. Bust of Caracalla r. laur. Rev. EHI . GPf . 
AnOAAHNlOY AAEE GPIZHNHN. Helios riding on 
horse. M. 10. 

J. Friedlaender. On a bronze medallion of Gallienus with 
the name of Marinianus, a member of the imperial family, and 
perhaps a son of Mariniana, the second wife of Valerian. 

Band X. Heft 2 contains the following articles : 

A. Lobbecke. Select Greek coins from his own cabinet, rare 
or inedited. 

A. Diming. On a Find of German sixteenth and seventeenth- 
century coins at Walternienburg. 

Count Serge Stroganoff. On the discovery, in 1852, at Nejine 
of about 200 silver coins of the Princes of Kief of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries. 

J. Friedlaender. On a tetradrachm of Gortyna, in Crete, 
struck by Q. Caecilius Metellus, B.C. 6663. Obv. PflMAZ- 
Head of Roma, with the emblem of the Csecilii Metelli, an 
elephant's head, upon her helmet, and in front the monogram 



60 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

KA (for Kcuia'Xios ?). Rev. TOPTYN. Effigy of the Ephesian 
Artemis, with a bee and an elephant's head as symbols in the 
field. JR. 247 grs. 

Band X. Heft 3 contains : 

A. von Sallet. Miscellaneous contributions. (1.) On the dates 
on coins of the Tauric Chersonese. (2.) On the inscriptions 
APIXO and 0Y on the fish-shaped coins of Olbia. (3.) On a 
coin of Commodus Caesar struck at Coela in the Thracian Cher- 
sonese, on the reverse of which is the inscription AIANAE 
AAV FEN AEL MVNICIPII COELAN, Artemis stand 
ing holding long torch and patera. The epithet Dauphena 
applied to Diana is quite new, and perhaps a corruption of some 
such word as f>ao0avoy, a probable, though equally unknown, 
epithet of Artemis. (4.) Elseus in the Thracian Chersonese, 
inedited bronze coin. Obv. Head of Athena. Rev. EAAIOY- 
ZinN. Owl. (5.) Copies on coins of the Pheidian statue of 
Pallas Athene. (6.) The Judgment of Paris on coins of Scepsis. 
(7.) Bactrian coins. (8.) Trajan, the ancestor of the Grordians. 
(9.) Cybele on contorniates, and her Armenian and Cilician 
prototypes. (10.) Metrical inscriptions on Byzantine leaden 
bullae. (11.) A Laconian votive relief showing Asklepios 
seated with his usual emblems, the horse and the dog, beside 
him. The god holds in his hands a kantharos. 

J. Friedlaender. A medal of Wilhelm Schutzper. 

T. W. Greene. A medal of the Rappold family, by Tobias 
Wolff, goldsmith, of Breslau. 

Count Iwan Tolstoi. On the Nejine Find. 

M. Bahrfeldt. On a Find of Victoriati at Tarentum. 

F. van Vleuten. On Roman coins found in the Rhine pro- 
vince, recently acquired by him. 

A. von Sallet. On two Italian medals of Pietro Bembo, circ. 
1520, and of Thomas Rangone (ob. 1577), physician and 
humanist, of Ravenna. 

H. Dannenberg. On a Find of German medieval coins at 
Meppen. 

J. Friedlaender. Gottfried Leigebe, medallist (born at Frei- 
stadt, in Silesia, 1630, died in Berlin 1683), and some of his 
works. 

B. V. H. 



MISCELLANEA. 



" ROSE " M.M. ON IEISH MONEY, SIXTEENTH CENTUBY. In 
a paper entitled, " Have we no Irish Coins of Edward VI. ? " 
IN inn. Chron., third series, No. 1, p. 60] I drew attention to 



MISCELLANEA. 61 

the Irish money of Elizabeth which bears the " harp " as a 
mint-mark [Simon, PI. V., 100, 101, 102], as well as to those 
of Henry VIII. 's seventh coinage for Ireland, which bear that 
mark [jY?/i Chron., second series, vol. xix. p. 171] ; because 
the use of this mark in these two reigns creates a strong pre- 
sumption in favour of an argument that money so marked with 
the " harp," in an intervening reign, must be Irish. I add now, 
what I omitted to note then, how a like presumption arises as 
to money of Edward's bearing the " rose " mint-mark. The 
" rose " is found as a mark on Henry VIII. 's sixth coinage 
(struck after 1541), and again on Queen Elizabeth's earliest 
coinage for Ireland, coined by the commission granted to Sir 
Edmund Peckam, knight, and others, December 81, 1558 
[Simon, PI. VI., 116, 117]. Much the same is true of the 
"lis," only the use of the " lis," as a mark in Elizabeth's 
reign, followed after a longer interval (1601). The "lion," 
unknown on Henry VIII. 's Irish money, appears only on 
Elizabeth's English money, 1566 67. But three out of the 
four marks named in Elizabeth's proclamation (September 27, 
1560) are thus shown to have been the mint-marks of Irish 
money in Henry's time and Elizabeth's time. What is the 
obvious conclusion to draw, if those marks appear on certain 
moneys of Edward's, which present to us great difficulties if 
they are classed with bis English coins ? 

ASSHETON POWNALL. 



UNPUBLISHED VARIETY or NOBLE OF EDWARD III. I have 
a noble of this reign reading on the obverse 6CDWAED * 
D6CI x GE7V x BaX x 7TOGL X Z x FKTmCt x D X B. The 



contraction of the usual HIB or HYB to the single letter B is 
novel, and has not, I believe, been before noticed. 

UNPUBLISHED VAKIETY OF THE LIGHT NOBLE OF HENEY IV. 
I also have a noble of Henry IV. coined after his thirteenth year, 
and which varies from the usual type in having an annulet on 
the side of the ship in juxtaposition with the usual trefoil. 

UNPUBLISHED Rosa NOBLE OF EDWARD IV. I have in my 
collection an unique and unpublished rial of Edward IV., the 
peculiarity of which consists in there being a small lis on the 
obverse of the coin after IB and one also before DRS. The mint- 
mark on the reverse is a sun and the weight of the piece, 119 
grams. It is questionable whether these lis marks are mint- 
marks or not, as they are much smaller than the ordinary lis 
mint-mark on the two nobles of the first coinage of this 



62 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

monarch, both of which are in the possession of Mr. Evans, 
and were described by him in the Numismatic Chronicle, vol. 
xvi. p. 38, and vol. xix. p. 8, respectively, and on which the 
mint-mark is of the same size and appearance as that on the 
coins of previous monarchs, and on the York rials of this reign. 
The introduction of a small lis is not a novelty in connection 
with the gold coins of Edward IV., as it occurs under the ship 
on the obverse of some of his half-rials. 

H. MONTAGU. 



" NATANTES NUMMI." Bircherod ' having given a description 
and engravings of nine Cimbrian amulets, concave and made of 
thin gold, mentions Danish bracteates, which by the Germans 
were called light-penny, concave-penny, thin-penny, and " nummi 
patellae in modum formati." The Danes also called them concave- 
money, and "natantes nummi," because if they were gently 
placed on water they would swim, " instar schyphi concavi." 
They were also compared to fish-scales, being very thin and 
light. The object of making them so thin was to render forgery 
with the baser metals more difficult. In commerce they were 
current as small coins, and are never mentioned in documents 
relating to payment of large sums. 

A. S. 



" DANDY-PBATS." Leake, in his "Account of English 
Money," 2 quoting from Camden's "Remains," says "King 
Henry [VII.] is also said to have stamped a small coin called 
Dandy-Prats, but what sort of money this was we are not in- 
formed." 

Sir J. Bowring, in " The Decimal System, 1854, p. 110," 
quotes a versified description of the aliquot parts of a shilling 
from a work mentioned in De Morgan, " Arithmetical Books," 
p. 31. 

" A farthing first finds forty-eight, 

An halfpenny hopes for twenty-four, 

Three farthings seeks out sixteen straight, 

A peny puls a dozen lower ; 

Dick Dandiprat drewe eight out deade ; 

Twopence took six and went his way ; 

1 Specimen Antiquae Rei Monetarise Danorum, 4to, Hafniae, 
1701, p. 81. 

2 Third edit. 8vo, 1793, p. 181. 



MISCELLANEA. 63 

Tom Trip-and-goe with four is fled, 
But Goodman grote on three doth stay ; 
A testine only two doth take ; 
Moe parts a shilling cannot make." 
Notes and Queries, 6th S. v., p. 179, March 4th, 1882. 

A. S. 



DID SUEIN AS SOLE MONARCH COIN MONEY IN ENGLAND ? 
Ending, not knowing where any coin of Suein was to be found 
in England, was under the necessity of reproducing in his 
Appendix, PI. XXVIII., the engraving from a " rude drawing " 
in Bircherod' s rare work, 1 in order to enable his "readers to 
form their opinion upon the subject," and with the exception 
of his quotation from Bircherod of the description of the silver 
coin, gives no more information about Suein than that " after 
Aethelred fled into Normandy, A.D. 1013, the Danish invader 
mounted the throne, and died within about seven months." 
(3rd edit. vol. i. p. 136.) Bircherod says decidedly, "In 
Anglia cusum fuisse hunc nummum a Suenone extremis suse 
aetatis temporibus neutiquam dubito ; " and Ruding, without 
assigning any reason, gives his judgment that it is " evidently a 
Danish coin." 

Ending's very scant notice of Suein induces me to give as 
much of his personal history as I have been able to obtain. 

Suein or Sweyn, in Latin Sueno, was baptized A.D. 938. When 
he grew up he joined the heathen pirates of the Baltic Sea, and 
relapsed into idolatry and heathen superstition. He rebelled 
against his father, Harald Blue-tooth, who was slain about the 
year 980, and whom he succeeded as King of Denmark. In 
his wars he was taken prisoner, and his treasury of gold and 
silver was exhausted by his ransom. He attributed his mis- 
fortune to the abandonment of his religion and rebellion against 
his father, repented of his crimes, and resumed Christianity. 
Finally he subjugated Norway, England, and other regions. 
So far Bircherod. 

The following particulars have been collected from " L'Art 
de verifier les Dates" (3rd edit., folio, 1783. Tome i. p. 796 
et ii. p. 83). The Danes at the commencement of the reign of 
Aethelred invaded England, and continued from time to time to 
make frequent descents, and to commit great ravages. In 991 



1 Specimen Antiquae Eei Monetariae Danorum, p. 37. 4to, 
Hafniie, 1701. 



64 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

they defeated Aethelred in a pitched battle, aird he induced 
them to retire from England by giving a large amount of silver. 
Their success on that occasion led them to return in 994, when 
Suein, King of Denmark, accompanied by Olaus, King of Nor- 
way, made a descent on the English coast, and carried off a 
considerable amount of booty. Their fleets did not cease to 
desolate England up to the year 1001, when Aethelred again 
paid a large sum to be delivered from the pirates, and he then 
established the tax known as Dane-geld. 2 

There was a great massacre of the Danes in England when 
Suein's sister, Gunilde, who was married to an English lord, 
was slain, on the 13th of November, 1002, and Suein hastened 
to take revenge by fire and sword, and in 1005 he returned to 
Denmark. The Danes revisited England in 1012, and received 
a large sum of money to induce them to quit the country. They 
had hardly re-embarked when Suein returned with a deter- 
mination to establish himself on the throne. Having reduced 
many districts, he besieged London, whence Aethelred fled to 
Normandy, and the citizens having submitted, he took up his 
residence at the palace, and his followers elected him sole 
monarch of England. He died in 1015, at the age of seventy- 
seven. 

Harald Blue-tooth, when his son Suein rebelled, fled to 
Normandy and was received with honour by Duke Richard, 
who never ceased in his efforts to aid and enable Harald to 
recover his throne, on which he was re-established, but did not 
long enjoy his restoration. Suein, forgetting the pardon 
granted by his father, entered into new plots against him, sur- 
prised him in a wood when attended by a few followers, and he 
was slain by an arrow, in the year 985, at the age of ninety 
years. Suein succeeded to the throne by election, and did 
everything in his power to abolish" Christianity and to restore 
the superstitions of paganism. 

A. S. 

2 Jacob's Law Dictionary, s. v. 



Ckron. SerM Vol M.PIVZZ. 










COINS FOUND IN KENT. 



TIL 

RARE AND UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE 
SELEUCIDAN KINGS OF SYRIA. 

THE elaborate and careful catalogue of the rich series of 
the Seleucidan Kings of Syria in the British Museum is 
undoubtedly the most important contribution that has 
been made of late years to our knowledge of these interest- 
ing coins. The earlier works of such writers as Vaillant 
and Froelich may at the present day be safely discarded 
as altogether useless ; and though the valuable treatise 
of Eckhel may be regarded as forming an epoch in this, 
as in almost all other branches of ancient numismatics, 
and laying a foundation of sober, criticism, he did not 
possess sufficient materials for a full investigation of a 
class of coins which were in his day far more rare and 
more imperfectly known than they have since become. 
The well-known work of Mionnet, though merely a com- 
pilation, and very often not a careful one, has long con- 
stituted in this department of Greek numismatics the 
ordinary book of reference, and perhaps for the mere 
collector has adequately supplied his wants. But Mionnet 
was almost wholly destitute of that historical knowledge 
and critical faculty which is indispensable to the true 
numismatist, and his lists of coins are at the present day 
chiefly valuable for their notices of minor details, and 
especially for the numerous and varied monograms which 
are found on the coins of the earlier Seleucidan monarchs, 

VOL. 111. THIRD SERIES. K 



66 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

and which present so wide a field for conjecture, unfor- 
tunately with so little prospect of a satisfactory result. 1 

Moreover, since the appearance of Mionnet's catalogue, 
of which the eighth supplementary volume containing the 
kings of Syria, was published in 1837, many new types of 
this series have been discovered ; and as the readers of the 
" Numismatic Chronicle " are well aware, researches of 
very recent date in the provinces of Central Asia have 
thrown considerable light upon their arrangement and 
attribution. 2 It is to be hoped that we shall gradually 
receive further additions to our knowledge from the same 
source. Meanwhile it is always useful to accumulate the 
necessary materials by bringing forward any interesting 
A r arieties that are not already known to numismatists, or 
at least have not already been figured. And if these 
varieties are not to be found in so important a collection 
as the British Museum, this circumstance in itself adds 
materially to their interest, and constitutes an additional 
reason for their publication. I am therefore induced to 
lay before the Society a coin in my possession, which is 
by no means unique, but of which by some chance there 
appears to be no specimen in the national collection, and 
which has long appeared to me to possess a peculiar 
interest. No similar specimen has I believe been figured, 
nor is the coin described bv Mionnet. 



1 The same credit may be claimed for the well-known work 
on the Syrian coins in the cabinet of Mr. Matthew Duane, pub- 
lished after the collector's death, with an historical memoir by 
Dr. Gough, and a splendid series of plates by Bartolozzi, which 
has rendered this catalogue the ordinary work of reference in 
respect to this series of coins. At the same time it does not 
really pretend to be more than a catalogue of a private col- 
lection, and very little is done towards examining or rectifying 
the received attributions of the coins figured and described. 

2 See the"Num.Chron.,"N.S., vol. xix. pp. 10,11; xx.p. 189. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. G7 

Obc. Diademed head in advanced age, and with strongly- 
marked features, with a bull's horn above the ear, 
directed forwards. 

liev. Apollo seated on the omphalos, to left, holding a 
bow in his right hand, and resting the left on the 
omphalos; leg. BAZIAEftZ ANTIOXOY; in 
front of the seated figure a monogram composed of 
Al, and in the exergue I. Size 71. Weight 262 
grs. Plate IV. Fig. 1. 

I purchased this coin at the Ivanoff sale in 1863 (Lot 
624), where it was ascribed to Antiochus I., but with an 
expression of doubt, and the compiler added, " the portrait 
remarkable and apparently horned." Of the existence of 
the horn there can be no doubt ; and it is well known that 
this was adopted as a characteristic by the first Seleucus, 3 
and is found on several of his coins ; but nothing similar 
to it is found on any of the coins of Antiochus I., or any 
of his successors. 

The head itself will be found on a careful examination 
to present a wholly different character from that of Antio- 
chus L, whose physiognomy is well known to us from the 
coins with the title of Soter, and a long series of others 
with precisely the same character of profile. 4 No portrait 
among those of the early Seleucidan kings is more marked 
or better defined. A glance at the accompanying plate 
will show better than any description the strongly- 



3 See a note on this subject by Colonel Leake in his " Numis- 
mata Hellenica," p. 21. Appian tells a story, repeated by 
other writers, of Seleucus having on one occasion subdued a 
savage bull, that had escaped while Alexander was about to 
sacrifice it ; and adds, that " on this account horns were added 
to his statues" (Appian " Syriaca," 57). The story is doubt- 
less a mere myth, but it is good evidence of the fact that his 
portraits usually bore the horns of a bull. 

4 See British Museum Catalogue, PI. III. Figs. 4 7. 



68 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

marked features of difference in that now presented to my 
readers ; it may suffice to point out that the countenance 
is far more vigorous and expressive than the grave and 
earnest face of Antiochus I., at the same time that it is 
that of a man advanced in years, perhaps older than any 
of the distinctly recognisable portraits of that monarch. 
But little importance can be attached to this point. It is 
the horn which points in my opinion clearly to the conclu- 
sion that the head in question is not that of Antiochus 
himself, but of his father Seleucus, to whom such an 
appendage would properly belong ; and as the elder 
monarch died at the age of at least seventy-three years, 
this would entirely suit with the character of the portrait. 
It is true that such a head presents no resemblance to 
that which is found on certain rare but well-known coins 
of the first Seleucus, which bear a Victory crowning a 
trophy on the reverse, and on the obverse a youthful head 
wearing a closely -fitting helmet, ornamented with a horn. 5 
But I must venture to express my doubts, or rather 
my utter disbelief, that the head in question is that of 
Seleucus ; and it is with great surprise that I find this 
conclusion taken for granted by almost all numismatists, 
from Eckhel to Mr. Percy Gardner. Colonel Leake alone 
(so far as I am aware) has judiciously hinted a doubt on 
the subject. 6 Yet the difficulties in the way of this attri- 
bution would appear to be obvious. The helmeted head is 



5 See the figure in the Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the 
British Museum (" Seleucidae," pi. i. fig. 11). The coins of 
this type are, I believe, generally brought from Babylonia or 
other provinces east of the Euphrates, and, strange to say, are 
almost always plated. See note to the Catalogue of the Bompois 
Collection, No. 1,706. This is the case with my specimen 
also, which weighs only 244 grains. 

6 See his " Numismata Hellenica," p. 22. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 69 

distinctly that of a, young man, with very regular features, 
just such as an engraver would naturally assign to an 
ideal head, but presenting not the slightest trace of those 
strongly-marked features which are so characteristic of 
the earlier Seleucidan portraits. Now we possess three 
different statements with regard to the age of Seleucus I. 
Appian tells us that he was seventy-three at the time of 
his death (in B.C. 280)-, 7 while Justin makes him seventy- 
seven, 8 and Dexippus splits the difference and says he 
was seventy-five. 9 But even according to the lowest 
computation he was not less than forty-seven years of 
age when he assumed the title of king (in B.C. 306), 10 and 
it is utterly impossible to reconcile this fact with the 
portrait on the coins in question. Either therefore we 
must suppose the head to be that of some hero or 
divinity, and not that of Seleucus at all (which appears 
to me much the most probable), or we must admit it to 
be so wholly idealised as to be worthless for purposes of 
identification. 

We find, however, on the gold coins of Seleucus (with 
the type of the horse's head on the reverse) a head which, 
though not so characteristic as that on my tetradrachm, is 
by no means incompatible with the supposition of their 
being intended for the same original, and this head is 
also horned, though the horn, evidently that of a bull, is 



7 Appian, " Syriaca," c. 62. 

8 Justin, " Hist." xvii. i. 

9 See the fragment of his history quoted by Clinton (" F. H." 
vol. ii. p. 236). Eusebius follows Dexippus, and assigns to 
Seleucus the age of seventy-five years (Euseb. Chron. ed. 
Mai, i. 40). 

10 Seleucus is considered as having reigned thirty-two years 
(B.C. 812 280), but he certainly did not assume the title of 
king till B.C. 306. 



70 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

inclined backwards, instead of forwards, as on my coin. 11 
In this respect the symbol on my coin agrees with those 
of Demetrius Poliorcetes, the only others, I believe, out of 
the Syrian series which have this appendage. But little, 
if any, value can be attached to this distinction. 

It must be observed that in addition to the different 
character of the head, the position of the seated figure of 
Apollo on the reverse differs from that upon all other 
known coins of Antiochus I. (to judge from the printed 
lists), on which Apollo is uniformly represented as hold- 
ing up an arrow in his right hand, while his left rests 
upon his bow, immediately behind the cortina. The same 
attitude is found, with very few exceptions, throughout the 
whole Syrian series ; 12 and though so small a difference 
may really have no significance, it is certainly worthy of 
notice when associated with so remarkable a difference in 
the portrait on the obverse. 

If the head on the coin in question be really, as I 
believe it to be, that of Seleucus, although the reverse 
bears the name of Antiochus, the question next arises, 
whether it was placed by the son on his own coinage, as 
a tribute of respect to his father, in the same manner as 
Lysimachus adopted that of Alexander, the portrait being 
in both cases deified, by the addition of the horn of 



11 See the British Museum Catalogue, PI. I. Fig. 6. 

12 The only other cases which I know of, where the seated 
figure holds the bow in the right hand, are a small group of 
coins sometimes ascribed to Antiochus Hierax, to which I shall 
again advert presently; and one or two of Antiochus II., a 
specimen of which is figured in the British Museum Catalogue, 
PI. V. Fig. 3. But this last variety appears to be an unusual one, 
none of the coins in my collection, which can be attributed to 
the same monarch, presenting this peculiarity ; and it appears 
that there is only one in the British Museum. 



rXPUBT.ISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 71 

Aminon in the one case, and of the bull's horn in the 
other ; or, as appears to me most probable, that it was 
struck during the joint reign of Antiochus with his father 
Seleueus. "We learn from Appian that the aged monarch 
in the last years of his reign consigned to his son the 
government of all the provinces of Upper Asia, reserv- 
ing to himself only .those from the Euphrates to the 
Hellespont. 13 And it appears certain that he bestowed 
upon him on this occasion the title of king. Mr. Percy 
Gardner has recently published, in the " Numismatic 
Chronicle," some coins of well-known types, but bearing 
the names both of Seleueus and Antiochus, which he 
regards as the only memorials of their joint reign. But 
at the same time he hesitates to admit that Antiochus 
assumed the title of king during the lifetime of his 
father. But besides the express statement of Appian to 
this effect, 14 it is certainly in itself highly probable, and 
in accordance with a frequent practice among the suc- 
cessors of Alexander. At the same time he would remain 
virtually " his vice-regent or satrap," as he is called by 
Mr. Percy Gardner, and might very reasonably indicate 
this by placing on his coins the head of the elder monarch 
with a symbol by which it could be generally recognised. 
The view I have suggested would receive a strong con- 
firmation if it could be shown that my coin, like those 
published by Mr. Gardner with the joint names, came 



13 Appian, " Syriaca," c. 62. 

14 Ibid. c. 59, 61. It is true that where Appian uses the ex- 
pression on the part of Seleueus, " KCU 'Trip.ir^ /SacrtXeas eivat TUV 
cOvuv ySrj TVV av<a," the words may be merely rhetorical, but 
this does not apply to tbe former passage, where he simply 
states the fact that Seleueus in his own lifetime (irepuav en) 
appointed his son to reign over the upper provinces in his stead. 



72 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

from the remote provinces in the East; 15 but unfortu- 
nately, as is too generally the case with coins purchased 
at a sale, I have no knowledge where it was originally 
found. I have since seen two other specimens, one of 
which was sold in this country subsequently to my coin, 
and was, I believe (for I have unfortunately no note of 
the fact), that which constituted Lot 826 in the sale of the 
"Whittall collection (1867), where it was ascribed, without 
doubt erroneously, to Antiochus Hierax ; and still more 
strangely, described as bearing a horn of the Syrian 
goat (!). The third example I saw in 1871 in the hands 
of Mr. Alishan, an Armenian coin-dealer at Constanti- 
nople, who absurdly ascribed it to one of the kings of 
Pergamus, on account of the supposed resemblance of the 
head to those of the only monarch of that dynasty who 
did not retain the traditional portrait of Philetserus. 16 
What is become of either of them I cannot say ; and have 
therefore no means of testing the accuracy of my memory 
with regard to the likeness of the portraits, but I have no 
doubt of the general resemblance of their character. 

Having taken this occasion to present to the readers of 
the " Numismatic Chronicle " an unpublished coin that 
appears to me to be of some interest, I may perhaps be 
allowed to avail myself of the same opportunity to bring 
before them a brief notice of some other coins in my 



15 It may be observed that it bears on the reverse a monogram 
composed of the letters Al, which, as observed by Mr. Gardner 
("Num. Chron.," N.S., vol. xix. p. 12), are to be found on almost 
all the coins which can be traced to the " Oxus Find." 

16 The coins to which I advert are those with a head such as 
that figured by Mionnet, pi. Ixxv. fig. 5, and sometimes referred 
to Attains I. The portrait on these coins certainly bears some 
resemblance to that on the coin at present under discussion, but 
the likeness is, without doubt, merely fortuitous. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 73 

collection belonging to the same series, which are not 
found in the British Museum, and at the same time to 
offer a few remarks on the arrangement proposed by 
Mr. Gardner for the earlier coins of that series. 

It is hardly necessary to say that the arrangement and 
correct attribution of the coins of the earlier Seleucidan 
kings has been long acknowledged as one of the most 
perplexing problems that presents itself to the numis- 
matist. The prudent and cautious Eckhel, while reject- 
ing as merely conjectural, or based on very inadequate 
evidence, the attributions proposed by his predecessors, 
including Pellerin, was content with fixing a few definite 
points, admitting that, with these exceptions, it was im- 
possible to assign the coins of the three first Seleuci and 
the three first Antiochi to their respective monarchs on 
anything like assured grounds. It must be added, as he 
himself observes, 17 that there is a fourth Antiochus to be 
taken into account, as the brother of Seleucus II., known 
in history as Antiochus Hierax, reigned for a considerable 
time as an independent monarch in Asia Minor, and may 
therefore probably have struck coins in his own name, 
which would doubtless, like those of his contemporaries, 
bear only the simple inscription BAZIAEQZ ANTIOXOY. 
This last suggestion, which appears to have been first 
made by Pellerin, 18 has been adopted by almost all sub- 
sequent numismatical writers, so far as to assign some 
medals of the series to Antiochus Hierax, though differing 
widely as to those which they selected for this attribution. 
Mr. Gardner has gone farther than any previous writer in 



17 " Eckhel Doctrina Numorum Veterurn," torn. iii. p. 215. 
He adds the general remark, " Incerta omnia et anibigua." 
19 " Rois," p. 69. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. L 



74 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the share that he assigns to this prince ; but he has since 
seen cause to alter his views, and in his most recent paper 
on the subject admits that one extensive series of coins, 
which he had assigned in the British Museum Catalogue 
to Antiochus Hierax, must continue to be classed, as they 
had been by all previous numismatists, among those of 
Antiochus III. 19 

This change of view on the part of one who has 
bestowed so much attention upon this class of coins, is a 
sufficient proof how little we have yet arrived at any 
secure system of classification. It is indeed evident how 
insecure must be the basis of any arrangement, which is 
founded almost exclusively upon the character of the 
heads or the obverse of the coins, without any assistance 
from distinctive titles, such as were assumed by the later 
kings of the same dynasty, or from dates, which do not 
appear on the silver coins until a considerably later period. 
At the same time it is always useful to endeavour as far 
as possible to define the limits of our knowledge, and it is 
with this view only, and not in any spirit of controversy, 
that I shall proceed to indicate briefly the points upon 
which Mr. Gardner's conclusions appear to me to be based 
upon sufficient evidence, and those where I am compelled 
to differ from him, or can only regard his suggestions as 
mere conjectures. 

There are, as it is scarcely necessary to point out, four 

19 " Num. Chron.," Third Series, vol. i. p. 11. It is un- 
fortunate that the Catalogue of the Bompois collection (sold 
at Paris in 1882), which contained the richest series of the 
Seleucidan coins that has been brought to sale since the North- 
wick collection (in 1859), was compiled by the owner in accord- 
ance with Mr. Gardner's first classification, so that there are no 
less than seven coins attributed to Hierax, while only the same 
number are assigned to Antiochus the Great. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 75 

kings of the name of Seleucus, and as many of the name 
of Antiochus (including Antiochus Hierax), among which 
we have to arrange as best we can the large number 
of coins that bear the simple title of BAZIAEQZ 
ZEAEYKOY, or BAZIAEHZ ANTIOXOY. Some few 
of the latter class unquestionably belong to Antiochus IV., 
and may be recognised without doubt from the resemblance 
of the portrait to those of the same monarch on coins which 
bear his titles at full. We thus obtain a distinct limit in 
this direction. At the beginning of the series, on the 
other hand, the coins of Seleucus I. may be considered as 
all established upon sufficient grounds, and are I believe 
universally recognised by numismatists. 20 Again, the 
coins of Antiochus I. are clearly characterized by the 
fortunate circumstance that a few of them bear the sur- 
name of Soter, which we know to have been assumed by 
that monarch in the latter part of his reign ; 21 and though 
the coins with this addition are very rare, the portrait is 
so marked a one as to enable us to assign without hesi- 
tation to that monarch a large series of silver tetradrachms 
bearing only the title of King Antiochus, but with many 
varied monograms. Unfortunately none of these are 
calculated to throw any light upon the place of mintage 
of the series in question ; but the general similarity of the 
style and execution is such as to render it probable that 
they were produced in the same part of the empire. 22 

20 I here refer only to the silver coins. I have not attempted 
in this paper to enter into the still more difficult subject of the 
copper coinage of the Seleucidan kings. 

21 Appian, " Syriaca," c. 65. 

22 A large number of these coins with varied monograms ap- 
peared in the sale of Mr. Whittall's collection (1867), forming 
Lots 794 to 811. These, I believe, proceeded for the most part 
from a recent "find" in Asia Minor, where they were asso- 



76 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

None of them, on the other hand, bear any additional 
symbol or adjunct, such as are found on the coins of 
Alexander the Great and Lysimachus, as well as in some 
instances on the coins of Seleucus I. with the types of 
Alexander. 

We have thus at the commencement of the series a 
well-defined and considerable group or class of coins, pre- 
senting numerous varieties, which may be assigned with 
reasonable certainty to Antiochus I. This includes the 
varieties numbered 6 to 18 in the British Museum Cata- 
logue, of which a characteristic figure is given in Plate 
III. Fig. 4. But the very next step involves us in 
difficulties. Mr. Gardner has figured in the same plate 
(Fig. 3) a coin with a head of a very different character, 
on the reverse of which Apollo holds two arrows 
instead of one, as on all the coins above described. Such 
a difference alone might be of little importance ; but the 
whole style of the reverse is of a different character, and 
points to a different place of mintage or epoch. The 
reverse of the coin figured is identical with those of two 
specimens in my collection, in fact the three are as closely 
alike as it is possible for coins to be which do not proceed 
from the same die. But the heads on my two coins 
differ materially, the one resembling, though not identical 
with, that figured by Mr. Gardner, while the other, which 
is of very superior execution, much more resembles the 
portrait on the coins bearing the name of Soter, and the 
series above attributed to him. It is, however, of a some- 
what younger character. Such is the difference between 

ciated with coins of Antiochus II., which will be hereafter 
mentioned. Unfortunately, as is usually the case with sale 
catalogues, no record is preserved of the monograms which they 
bore. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 77 

the two portraits, that I had at first, in arranging my 
cabinet, assigned the one coin to Antiochus I. and the 
other to his son and successor Antiochus II. In fact the 
portrait on this coin will be found, on comparison with 
that figured by Mr. Gardner in Plate V. Fig. 3, and 
assigned by him (in my opinion correctly) to the second 
king of that name, to resemble it so strongly that it is 
difficult not to suppose them meant for the same person. 
The fact that the reverses are so precisely similar as to 
appear at first to be from the same die, undoubtedly 
renders it probable that both coins were struck under the 
same reign, but it is not conclusive, as we have many 
instances of the combination of the same die on the 
reverse with different obverses and vice versa. 23 

But Mr. Gardner has, moreover, included among the 
coins of Antiochus L, one and one only of a series that 
has been almost uniformly assigned by numismatists to 
Antiochus II. This is the coin figured on his Plate III. 
Fig. 2, with a seated figure of Hercules on the reverse, 
instead of the customary Apollo. 24 It must be admitted 
that the reasons for attributing this particular group of 
coins to the second Antiochus, instead of his predecessor 
or successor, are extremely slight. That mentioned by 
Mr. Gardner, namely, the adoption of this type by Euthy- 

23 To enable my readers to judge of the different characters of 
the two heads, as well as of their relation to those figured by 
Mr. Gardner, I give figures of the obverses of both coins. The 
reverses being identical, I have figured only one (See Plate IV. 
Figs. 2, 8). 

24 My remarks on this coin were drawn up before I was 
aware that Mr. Howorth had come to the same conclusion (see 
his paper, entitled " Some Re-Attributions," in the last number 
of the " Numismatic Chronicle," p. 22). It gives me much 
satisfaction to find my view supported by his independent 
authority. 



78 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

demus, King of Bactria, whose revolt from the domination 
of the Syrian kings may probably be placed under the 
reign of the second Antiochus, is undoubtedly entitled to 
some weight, though very far from conclusive. 25 The 
best argument that I know for assigning them to this 
king is, that we have no one else to give them to, or, at 
least, no one else has a better claim. But the series in 
question is so strongly separated from all the other coins 
of the earlier Seleucidans by the type of the reverse, as 
to render it almost certain that it was only a temporary 
and occasional deviation from the established custom : an 
inference confirmed by the fact of the rarity of these 
coins as compared with those of the ordinary type on the 
reverse. Hence it would appear obvious that nothing but 
very strong arguments could lead to the separation of 
any coins of this group from one another, and I must 
confess it is unaccountable to me that Mr. Gardner, while 
adopting the received conclusion respecting the coins of 
this type in general, should have separated one of them 
from the rest, and assign it to Antiochus I. on the sole 
ground of a fancied resemblance of the portrait to that 
monarch, a resemblance which I for one entirely fail to 
see, and which, at all events, is certainly not stronger 
than might easily be found between a father and son. 

Unfortunately it has to be admitted that we have no 
certain coins of Antiochus II., and consequently no trust- 
worthy evidence of his portrait, while those that are 
found on the different coins ascribed to him on plausible 
grounds vary to a great extent : notably those with the 

2 ' It is an argument against this connection, that the coins 
with this type, so far as we can judge, all appear to have been 
struck in Asia Minor, in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont 
and Propontis. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 79 

reverse of the seated Hercules, of which the two in my 
collection present widely dissimilar portraits, while one in 
the Whittall sale, precisely similar to one of mine in other 
respects, had a much younger head on the obverse. 26 

Another group of coins that Mr. Gardner, in common 
with most recent numismatists, has assigned to Anti- 
ochus II. is that of which the obverse presents a winged 
head, having the wing attached to the diadem, in the 
same manner as is seen on the coins of Prusias II., King 
of Bithynia. This attribution has been generally received 
since the time of Mionnet, nor is there anything that I 
know of to be said against it ; 27 but it is difficult to say 
on what positive evidence it rests. The coins in ques- 
tion, which, like those last described, are of considerable 
rarity, form a very marked group, and were probably 
all struck in the same place, all those to which I am 
able to refer having the same accessory symbol of a 
horse feeding, the well-known type of Alexandria Troas. 
The portraits on the obverse also, which are of far supe- 
rior character to any others that can be ascribed to this 
monarch, are almost identical. The head undoubtedly 
presents some resemblance to "that of Antiochus I., such 



26 The discrepancy between the portraits on my two coins 
will be best seen by a reference to the figures given in Plate IV., 
Figs. 4, 5. 

The reverse of the first of these appears to be the same with 
the coin figured (though not very accurately) by Pellerin 
(" Rois," pi. viii.) : that of the other has a monota in the field, 
with two monograms beneath : it is only slightly varied from 
those in the British Museum. 

27 Eckhel, indeed, inclines to follow Vaillant and Pellerin 
in ascribing the coins with this addition to Antiochus I. 
Frolich was, I believe, the first to assign them to Antiochus II. : 
a view which was adopted by Mionnet, without any explanation 
of his reasons for the attribution. 



80 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

as might well be traced between father and son, especially 
in the deep-set eye and projecting brow, but it has much 
the appearance of being idealised, like the head of Alex- 
ander on the coins of Lysimachus, and allowance must be 
made for this in comparing it with other coins of inferior 
execution. 

By the side of this small, but definitely characterized, 
group of coins we find a considerable number of others, of 
which the portrait, though without the wing on the 
diadem, bears so strong a resemblance to those which have 
this peculiarity, as to leave no reasonable doubt of the 
head being intended for that of the same monarch. Such 
is the coin figured in the British Museum Catalogue 
(Plate V. Fig. 1), which, singularly enough, appears to 
be the only specimen of this class in the collection, though 
they are not very uncommon, and there are several 
varieties of them. But it is worthy of notice that all 
these coins (so far as my experience goes) appear to 
belong to the same part of Asia Minor as do those with 
the winged head, from their bearing in the field of the 
reverse either the long torch, characteristic of Cyzicus, or 
the forepart of a sea-horse, appertaining to Lampsacus, 
or, as in the specimen above referred to, both together. 

But while a considerable number of coins may thus be 
referred, with a reasonable degree of certainty, to Anti- 
ochus II. on the ground of the resemblance of the por- 
trait alone, there are others which, though it is difficult 
to assign them to any other monarch of the series, present 
a portrait which bears but a very imperfect similarity to 
the same type. Such is the one which I have figured in 
Plate IV. Fig. 6, and which is distinguished from all 
other varieties in my collection by the adjunct on the 
reverse of an owl in the field close to the knee of the sit- 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 81 

ting figure. There is no similar coin in the British 
Museum ; * and in referring it to the second Antiochus I 
must confess that I do so solely because the head appears 
to be certainly not that of either the first or third monarch 
of the name. 

The coins of Seleucus II. present no great difficulty. 
They are readily distinguished by the figure of Apollo 
being always in a standing position, instead of being 
seated on the omphalos, as on all the other early coins of 
the series. And the circumstance, pointed out by Mr. 
Gardner, that a similar standing figure is found on coins 
which have a head on the obverse of a somewhat older 
character, and with a long beard, 29 renders it probable thalj 
they all belong to the same king. No reasonable doubt 
can be entertained that the bearded portrait is that of 
Seleucus II., who, as we know from Polybius, 30 bore the 
surname of Pogon (the bearded), and hence we may fairly 



28 The only tetradrachm of the Seleucidan series in the national 
collection with an owl as an adjunct is one of quite a different 
character described by Mr. Gardner in the Appendix to his 
Catalogue (p. Ill), and ascribed by him, without doubt cor- 
rectly, to Antiochus Epiphanes. But an owl is found in the 
field of coins of Alexander and Lysimachus, which are, however, 
of uncertain attribution. 

29 As these coins are of extreme rarity the one in the 
British Museum being at one time thought to be unique 1 may 
point out that a specimen seems to have passed unnoticed 
in the Greau sale (Paris, 1867, No. 2264), where it was 
erroneously ascribed to Seleucus III. 

30 Polybius, ii. 71. The testimony of Polybius on this point 
is conclusive. But the supposition of most recent numismatists 
(including Mr. Gardner) that his adoption of the beard was 
connected (as in the similar case of Demetrius II.) with his 
captivity in Parthia, appears to rest on no foundation. 

Niebuhr has shown (" Kleine Schriften," p. 300) that the pas- 
sage on which Eckhel and Clinton have relied as proving that 
he was detained in captivity by the Parthians after his defeat by 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. M 



82 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

conclude that the coins with the youthful head and the 
same reverse belong also to the same monarch, whose 
reign lasted for a period of twenty years. 

It is remarkable that two of the coins of this type in 
my collection have the peculiarity (which is not found on 
any of those in the British Museum) of having detached 
letters, instead of monograms, in the field. One of them 
has, between the legs of the standing figure and the 
legend, the two letters AZ, and beneath them NX : the 
other has the letters NA in the field to the left, beyond 
the legend. It is obviously tempting to regard the letters 
N A and NX as indicating dates ; the more so as in the 
latter case it is difficult to see how they could have formed 
the commencement of a name\ but there is no other 
instance of dates occurring on any of the coins of the 
Seleucidan series, until a considerably later period, 31 and 
the numbers unfortunately do not suit with those of the 
Seleucidan era, the only one to which they can reasonably 
be supposed to refer. The reign of Seleucus II. lasted 
from B.C. 246 to B.C. 226, corresponding to the years of 
the Seleucidan era 66 to 86 ; hence the dates 51 and 67, 
computed from the same era, would fall within the reign 
of his father Antiochus II. I am at a loss to propose any 
solution of this difficulty. It may be added that the two 
coins in question do not present any marked similarity of 



them in B.C. 237, refers, in fact, to another Seleucus (the son of 
Antiochus Sidetes), and the idea that Callinicus was taken 
prisoner is justly rejected by Professor Rawlinson. (" Sixth 
Oriental Monarchy," p. 49.) 

31 Dates are found on small copper coins, struck in Phoenicia, 
in the reign of Antiochus III. the earliest being of the year 
112 (B.C. 200) ; but they do not make their appearance on the 
tetradrachms until the reign of Demetrius I. in the year 158 
(B.O. 164). 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 83 

style, such as would indicate their proceeding from the 
same place of mintage, but, on the contrary, exhibit con- 
siderable differences of execution, though the general 
character of the portrait, as well as the type of the reverse, 
would at once lead us to assign them both to the same 
monarch. 32 

We come now to what has presented one of the chief 
stumbling-blocks to all numismatists who have attempted 
to arrange this difficult series that of the coins to be 
ascribed to Antiochus Hierax. From the time of Pellerin 
to the present day it has been generally admitted that as 
Antiochus, the younger brother of Seleucus, was unques- 
tionably master of a great part of the kingdom of Syria,, 
especially Asia Minor, during a considerable portion of 
his brother's reign, and repeatedly asserted his claim to 
the whole, it is almost certain that he must have struck 
coins in his own name, and with his own portrait. But 
as these would undoubtedly bear as was the case with all 
the other coins of the dynasty for a period of more than a 
century no other inscription than that of BAZIAEQZ 
ANTIOXOY, it becomes very difficult, not to say impos- 
sible, to distinguish them at the present day from the 
numerous and very various coins which are generally 
ascribed to Antiochus III. 

Pellerin was the first to publish a tetradrachm which 
he ascribed to Antiochus Hierax, solely on the ground of 
the resemblance of the head to that of his brother Se- 
leucus Callinicus ; 33 and a similar coin was published by 

32 See Plate IV. Figs. 7, 8. Letters are found in like manner 
in the field of the gold coin of Seleucus II., which is figured in 
the Duane collection (pi. iii. fig. 21), but in that case also 
they cannot represent dates. 

33 Pellerin, " Rois," p. 69. 



84 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Duane, as well as another slightly varied from it. The 
cautious Eckhel refused to admit the validity of Pellerin's 
attribution, 34 but Mionnet introduced into the first edition 
of his work a long list of coins which he assigns to Anti- 
ochus Hierax, but which are in all probability of Anti- 
ochus III., while in the Supplement he accepts the view 
taken by Yisconti, who ascribes to Hierax the coins with 
the wing attached to the diadem, which are now generally 
ascribed to Antiochus II., though, as I have already men- 
tioned, on no very secure ground. Mr. Gardner has, in 
his Catalogue, taken up a wholly new line, and while 
assigning the coins with the winged head to the second 
Antiochus, has transferred to his son Antiochus Hierax a 
whole group of coins with a well-marked type of counte- 
nance which had been hitherto ascribed to Antiochus III., 
a classification to which Mr. Gardner himself has been 
fain to return, from subsequent experience, having found 
that the coins in question generally came from the far 
eastern provinces of the Seleucidan empire, which cer- 
tainly were never subject to Antiochus Hierax. 

We find ourselves thus thrown back into the same state 
of uncertainty as before with regard to the coins struck 
by that prince. It is with the greatest diffidence that I 
venture to suggest the attribution to him of a coin in my 
collection, which appears to me to have at least a some- 
what better claim to fill this gap in the series than any 
other with which I am acquainted. The portrait, which 
is that of a young man, has no resemblance, in any of the 
more characteristic features, to that of Antiochus III., 



34 " Causa ilia una, quod vultus, qui est in hoc nummo, 
vultum fratris Seleuci II. referat. Quam sententiam teneat, cui 
justa ea videbitur." ("Doct. Num. Vet." torn. iii. p. 219.) 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 85 

while it certainly presents a striking likeness to that of 
Seleucus II. Vague as any such inference must be where 
it is a question of family likeness between brothers, not of 
identifying different portraits of the same individual, it is 
unfortunately all we have to rely upon ; but I think I 
may fairly assert that the likeness is much stronger in 
this case than in any other that has yet been published. 
On this point, however (thanks to the autotype process), 
all my readers may judge for themselves by comparing 
the figure in Plate IV. Fig. 9, with that in Mr. Gardner's 
Catalogue (Plate VI. Fig. 1) a more characteristic por- 
trait than that on the coins of Seleucus Callinicus figured by 
myself. It is worthy of note that the reverse of the coili 
in question represents Apollo holding a bow, instead of an 
arrow, as usual, but this peculiarity, as I have already 
observed, though quite exceptional, is found in other 
instances also ; among others, on three coins in the British 
Museum, which were ascribed by Mr. Gardner to Anti- 
ochus Hierax. 

The coins of Seleucus III., on the other hand, present 
little difficulty. His reign was a short one, and, as 
might be expected, his coins exhibit but little variety. 
They have, indeed, been frequently confounded with those 
of Seleucus IV., 35 but, as is pointed out by Mr. Gardner, 
the portrait of the latter monarch is identified by copper 
coins bearing the dates of 135 and 136 of the Seleucidan 
era (B.C. 177-176) ; 36 and, as there is no resemblance 
between the two heads, there can be no doubt that 
we may safely ascribe those with the younger head to 

35 This is the case in the Duane Catalogue (pi. iv.), where 
the only two silver coins figured and described as belonging to 
Seleucus III. unquestionably belong in reality to Seleucus IV. 

36 Catalogue, p. 19. 



86 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Seleucus III. It lias been justly observed by Mr. Gardner, 
as it had been by Pellerin before him, 37 that the portrait 
on these coins entirely agrees with the character given of 
Seleucus III. by historians, that he was a person of infirm 
health and character. 

It may perhaps be worth while to note that by far the 
greater part of the coins of Seleucus III. are of very 
similar fabric, and have the same two monograms on the 
reverse ^ in the field to the left, and *J to the right. 
Both these monograms are, indeed, of common occurrence 
on the coins of some of the earlier Seleucidan kings, from 
Seleucus II. to Antiochus III., but are not found, I think, 
at either an earlier or later date. They are both of them 
peculiar; and, without attempting to explain them, it 
appears to me that they clearly indicate a particular 
mintage ; whether local or with reference to the presiding 
magistrate it is impossible for us to say. All such cases 
of the frequent recurrence of monograms may, if carefully 
observed, tend to assist in the classification of this difficult 
series of coins. 

We come now to the coinage that is at once the most 
important and the most difficult in the whole Seleu- 
cidan series. " The coins of Antiochus the Great" (as Mr. 
Gardner observes) "are very numerous, and present us with 
great variety, as might have been expected from the length 
of his reign and the extent of his dominions." Not only 
did he re-establish the Syrian monarchy in a position of 
importance that it had not attained since the reign of 
Seleucus I., but he personally made expeditions into the 
remoter provinces of the empire, which were followed by 
their temporary submission ; 38 and it is highly probable 

37 " Rois," p. 70. 

38 Polyb. x. 27, 49 ; Appian, " Syriaca," c. 1. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 87 

that on this occasion coins would be struck with his 
" image and superscription " in these more distant regions, 
as well as in the established mints in Babylonia, Syria, 
and Asia Minor. At the same time it might be expected 
that such coinages would be carried on in a somewhat 
imperfect manner, and would not only be of inferior execu- 
tion as works of art, but would probably present consider- 
able diversities of portrait. And this is just what we find 
to be the case in fact. All collections of Seleucidan coins 
present a considerable number of specimens that are 
generally classed as belonging to Antiochus the Great, 
though without any special grounds of identification ; and 
these are often of a rude and semi-barbarous style 01 
execution. Unfortunately they very seldom afford us 
any clue to the place of their origin by distinguishing 
mint-marks as symbols of the cities where they were 
struck, and the monograms they bear are for the most 
part without signification to us. 

All that we can do is to class them into certain groups, 
which present sufficient resemblance to render it probable 
that the 6oins included in them belong to the same place 
of mintage, or, at least, the same region of the extensive 
dominions of Antiochus the Great, and may be assigned 
also to the same period of his long reign. To accomplish 
this it appears to me that there are two points of departure. 

The first of these, which has been recognised and 
adopted by all numismatists from the time of Pellerin and 
Eckhel, is furnished by certain small copper coins, struck 
by some city of Phoenicia, bearing dates of the Seleucidan 
era which fall within the reign of Antiochus the Great, 
while the obverse presents a head that appears to be 
clearly identical with that found on certain tetradrachms 
assigned to that monarch. The dates thus furnished are 



88 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

PIB, PIE, PIZ, and PKA, or 112, 115, 117, and 124 of the 

Seleucidan era, 39 corresponding with B.C. 200, 197, 195, and 
188, and coinciding with the latter portion of the reign 
of Antiochus. Unfortunately these coins are very rare ; 
there is only one in the British Museum, which, as is 
generally the case with them, is in imperfect preservation. 
Still it is clearly possible to identify the portrait on the 
obverse, 40 which may therefore be taken to represent 
what Mr. Gardner calls " the standard portrait of Anti- 
ochus III." This is found on the tetradrachm repre- 
sented in Plate VIII. Fig. 7 of the Catalogue, which 
appears singularly enough to be the only specimen in the 
British Museum of the class or group to which it belongs, 
though there are several varieties of these coins, all pre- 
senting almost precisely the same character of head, as 
well as the same style of work, and all having the pecu- 
liarity which distinguishes them from the ordinary coins 
ascribed to Antiochus III., of having no monogram on the 
reverse, but a symbol or accessory type in the field, in 
front of the seated figure of Apollo, in the same manner 
as is found on so many of the coins of Alexander the 
Great and Lysimachus. The coin in the British Museum 

39 Frolich was the first to publish one of these interesting 
coins with the date of PIB : Vaillant added another with PIZ, 
and Pellerin a third with PIE. Mionnet gives the two last 
dates from coins in the Paris collection. That of PKA in the 
British Museum (Catalogue No. 83) was previously unpublished. 
There was one in the Northwick collection (Lot 1391) with 

PI0. 

40 This may be done with clearness on the coin itself in the 
Museum, though it is utterly impossible to do so from the 
figure in the catalogue. The autotype process, admirable as it 
is for large and well-preserved coins, is worse than useless for 
rubbed copper coins, such as the one in question ; on which 
the eye of the practised numismatist may nevertheless read the 
date and discern the lineaments of the portrait. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 89 

has in the field a bow in its case. Three others, in my 
collection, have respectively a tripod, a cornucopiae, and 
an anchor. 41 

We have here, therefore, a well-marked and character- 
istic group of coins, of the attribution of which there can 
be no doubt, but which are separated by marked pecu- 
liarities from the great mass of those that may probably 
be referred to the same monarch. But by the side of 
these we find a large number of coins, including those 
with the exceptional type of an elephant on the reverse, 42 
of which Mr. Gardner himself observes : " The portrait 
on them is, I think, always of the same king, though 
there is much variety." 43 And he proceeds to admit that 
the same portrait is found also on many other pieces, 
" which were doubtless also issued by Antiochus III.," 
some of which " bear a head almost as closely resembling 
that of Hierax as that of Antiochus the Great ; in fact, 
between the two." This conclusion is the same at which 
I had arrived by a long study of this particular class of 
coins, as well as from the specimens in my own collection. 
If we start from the definite group above described it 
appears to me that we pass through a series of other 
examples, each departing somewhat wider from the first 
type, but not distinguishable from the one that comes next 
to it in the suite, till we arrive at. the definite character of 
portrait which was selected by Mr. Gardner to be attri- 

41 I have thought it worth while to figure one of these, with 
a tripod in the field, as an additional example for comparison of 
this peculiar type of portrait. (See PL V. Fig. 5.) 

" Of these the tetradrachms are very rare : the drachms on 
the contrary are common, but the portrait is generally not so 
clearly marked. It would be interesting to know whether this 
class of coins comes principally from the " far east." 

43 Introduction, p. 17. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. N 



90 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

buted to Antiochus Hierax. It cannot be disputed that 
the coins forming this last group, if they stood alone, 
would appear to belong to a different monarch from those 
first described, while they have a very strong resemblance 
among themselves. 44 But it has always appeared to me 
that it was impossible to draw a line between them, and 
for that reason I found myself unable to accept Mr. 
Gardner's separation of this particular group from the 
general mass of the coinage of Antiochus the Great. He 
has himself been induced to withdraw this proposed 
attribution, though for reasons different from those which 
were conclusive to my mind. 

I was, moreover, led to the same result by setting out 
from a different point of departure, which appears to have 
been overlooked by Mr. Gardner, though it certainly 
contributes to throw some light upon the multifarious 
coinage in question. Singularly enough, it appears that 
there is no specimen in the British Museum of the coins 
of Antiochus III. with the young head of that monarch. 
I do not here refer to those of an infantine character, 
which are attributed to him by the earlier numismatists, 
including Mionnet (Suppl. torn, viii.), but have been justly 
eliminated by Mr. Gardner, who ascribes them to the 

44 They appear, moreover, to form a limited group ; as those 
in my cabinet which I should select as typical examples of this 
character of portrait correspond exactly in the monograms with 
Nos. 9, 10, and 11 (of Antiochus Hierax) in the Catalogue, p. 20. 
Another, with a head almost precisely similar, is identical with 
that figured in the Catalogue (PI. VII. Fig. 3), with the long 
torch of Cyzicus (?) in the field, and an eagle standing in the 
exergue. 

The coins which I have figured in Plate V. Figs. 6, 7, appear 
to me to illustrate the transition from what may be called the 
Phoenician type of portrait to that characteristic of this (so- 
called Hierax) group. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 91 

child Antiochus, the son of Seleucus III., who appears to 
have borne for a short time the title of king. This sug- 
gestion, which was first made by Droysen (" Hellenismus," 
vol. ii. p. 521, note), is in my opinion much the most 
plausible that has been proposed for these juvenile coins ; 
but to whatever prince they are to be attributed, it is cer- 
tain they do not belong to Antiochus III., who was nearly 
twenty years old at the time of his accession. 45 There are, 
however, other coins with a young head, not that of a 
child, but of quite a young man, with a small whisker, 
and a sharp, somewhat prominent nose, which might 
easily develop itself with advancing years into the more, 
conspicuous proportions assumed by that feature on the 
later coins of Antiochus. One of these coins is figured by 
Duane (Plate IY. p. 36, Fig. 15), and is evidently iden- 
tical with one in my cabinet, which has the same mint- 
mark in the field. This is one of those already noticed 
as so common on the coins of Seleucus III., which in style 
of execution this coin also greatly resembles. The small 
whisker also is common to both, though afterwards laid 
aside by Antiochus III. ; and altogether there can, I 
think, be no reasonable doubt that these were the first 
coins issued by that monarch, and that they were struck 
at the same mint with those of his father Seleucus. 46 



45 His age is fixed by the statement of Polybius, quoted by 
Clinton (ad ann. 192), that he was fifty years old at the time of 
his marriage at Chalcis in that year. 

46 It may be observed in passing that, although we are for the 
most part unable to determine the meaning of the monograms 
on the Seleucidan coins, it is almost certain that they indicate 
either the place of mintage, or the monetary magistrate under 
whose authority they were issued. In either case their recur- 
rence is worthy of notice as showing a close connection between 
the two sets of coins on which they are found ; especially 



92 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Another coin in my collection has almost precisely the 
same head, though bearing different mint-marks, having 
three complicated monograms in the field, though, unfor- 
tunately, too much blurred in the striking to be clearly 
made out. A third coin, with a considerably older head, 
and a much fuller face approximating already to the 
" standard portrait " of this king, but still retaining the 
whisker is connected with the same group by the 
presence on the reverse of both the monograms (^ and 
S) of the coinage of Seleucus III., which are not found 
united, I think, on any of the later coins of Antiochus. 47 

But here again we find exactly the same case as in that 
of the former series. If we take the three coins last 
described as undoubtedly belonging to Antiochus III., we 
have others which have lost the distinguishing character 
of the whisker, but in other respects closely resemble the 
coin last described, and pass, by a series of imperceptible 
gradations, from the portrait there displayed to the type 
attributable to Antiochus Hierax. (See Plate Y. Fig. 4.) 
The heads found on this latter group are those of a man 
in the prime of life, while those which belong to the group 
connected with Phoenicia are of a man more advanced in 
years, and may probably belong, like the dated copper coins, 
to the latter half of his long reign. There are, however, 
other differences in the portraits which cannot be thus 
accounted for, and can only be ascribed to an original differ- 
ence in the type of countenance adopted at different mints, 



where, as in the present instance, they are of a complicated or 
peculiar character. Of course the presumption is greatly 
increased where two monograms are both identical. 

47 They are, however, found separately. (See Catalogue, Nos. 
5, 12, 16, and 25). The three coins above described are 
figured in Plate V. Figs. 13. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 93 

which were probably situated in different, and perhaps re- 
mote, regions of his extensive empire. Unfortunately there 
is, as already observed, almost no clue to their geographical 
distribution ; and the evidence of the parts of Asia where 
they are found is at present very imperfect, and even if 
more complete, would afford, at best, a very unsafe crite- 
rion. Thus Mr. Gardner, in his most recent paper on the 
subject, considers the supposed coins of Antiochus Hierax 
to be of Oriental, and probably Bactrian, fabric. 48 But 
the only tetradrachm of this style which has an accessory 
symbol that may fairly be presumed to be a local mint- 
mark, has the long torch, which is generally regarded as 
characteristic of Cyzicus, and is found on coins of Alex-' 
ander the Great, of Lysimachus, and of Antiochus II., all 
of which are attributed by competent authorities to that 
city. 49 

There remains to be considered one other class of coins 
generally, and in all probability correctly, attributed to 
Antiochus III. These are the coins of semi-barbarous 
fabric, bearing on the obverse portraits of very diversified 
character, but all agreeing in the peculiarity of the sharp, 
long nose, so conspicuous on his more typical coinage. 50 
These are commonly designated as of " Bactrian " fabric ; 
an idea in some degree confirmed by the occurrence on 
three specimens out of four in my cabinet, all differing 
materially in the character of the obverse, of the two 
letters Al, which, according to Mr. Gardner, are found, 
either detached or in monogram, on a large part of the 

48 " Num. Chron." Third Series, vol. i. p. 11. 

49 See Miiller's " Numismatique d'Alexandre," p. 233, and 
his " Miinzen des Lysimachus," p. 74. 

60 As Mr. Gardner has not figured any coins of this class, I 
have thought it as well to present my readers with two charac- 



94 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

coins derived from the so-called " Oxus Find." 51 But 
it is difficult to believe that portraits so extremely dis- 
similar should have been struck as the effigy of the reign- 
ing monarch at the same mint or under the same mint- 
master. It is, perhaps, more probable that they continued 
to be struck after the death of Antiochus in the provinces 
which he had for a brief period reunited to the Syrian 
Empire, after his expedition into Bactria and the adjacent 
regions (B.C. 212 205). Concerning the circumstances of 
these provinces after this last assertion of the Macedonian 
power we know nothing ; and our information as to the 
rise and extension of the Bactrian monarchy is so frag- 
mentary and imperfect as to furnish us little assistance. 

The coins of Seleucus 1Y., as has been already observed, 
may be identified with certainty by means of certain 
copper coins of Phoenician fabric, which bear the head of 
the king on the obverse and a galley on the reverse, 
with the dates 135 and 136 of the Seleucidan era. These 
appear to be very rare ; there are none in the British 
Museum, nor apparently in the French Cabinet, as 
Mionnet cites the example to which he refers from Haym's 
" Tesoro Britannico," an old work on the accuracy of 
which no great reliance can be placed. It may, there- 
fore, be interesting to figure a specimen in my collection, 
on which the portrait is very fairly preserved, though the 
date on the reverse is not distinctly legible. The two 
first letters (PA) are, however, clearly to be made out, and 

teristic specimens of them, which, as will be seen, differ from 
one another as widely as they depart from the more normal 
types of Antiochus the Great. (See PI. V. Figs. 8, 9.) The 
portrait on No. 8 is very similar to that figured in the Gre*au 
Catalogue (No. 2296), where it is ascribed by M. Cohen, in my 
opinion erroneously, to Antiochus I. 
" See above, note 15. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 95 

the third is probably a Z, but in any case the date clearly 
belongs to the reign of Seleucus IV. and not to that of the 
more youthful monarch of the name. (See PI. VI. Fig. 2.) 

I have included in the same plate an unpublished tetra- 
drachm of Seleucus IV. with a club in the field to the left, 
and above it the letters ZA, and the monogram IAJ in the 
field to the right. 52 Mr. Gardner has described a tetra- 
drachm of Antiochus IV. with an owl in the field and 
the same letters ZA, on account of which he assigns the 
coin to Salamis in Cyprus ; M but I confess the attribution 
appears to me very doubtful. There is, I believe, no other 
instance of a coin of any Syrian king struck in Cyprus, ' 
which remained, so far as we know historically, almost 
continually subject to the Ptolemies of Egypt. 54 At all 
events a coin with the same letters and a different symbol 
is worthy of record. 

With the reign of Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes) we may 
be said to emerge into the broad daylight of historical 
certainty. The greater part of his 'coins bear his titles 
at full ; and though those struck in the earlier part of 
his reign have only the simple titles of BAZIAEftZ 
ANTIOXOY, the portrait which they bear is so charac- 
teristic as to leave no doubt that it is only the same head, 
at a somewhat younger age, which is found on the later 
coins with the high-sounding titles of EflWANOYZ and 
NIKH<I>OPOY. His silver coins, however, though nume- 
rous and of fine execution, present little interest. They 
have no dates, and though frequently marked by the 



58 Plate VI. Fig. 3. 

63 Catalogue, p. 111. 

M It was, indeed, for a short time annexed to the Syrian 
monarchy by Antioehus IV., but was certainly never subject to 
Seleucus IV. 



96 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

recurrence of the same monograms, these do not afford us 
any assistance in determining the cities at which they 
were minted. 55 But his copper coinage, as is well known, 
presents an anomaly wholly without example in the Seleu- 
cidan series, though easily explained on historical grounds. 
This is the occurrence of a whole series of coins, similar 
both in type and module to the coinage of the contempo- 
rary kings of Egypt, and wholly unlike that of any other 
Syrian monarch, but bearing his name and titles at full, 
so as to leave no possible doubt of their attribution. All 
numismatists are agreed in explaining this abrupt depar- 
ture from the ordinary course of the Syrian coinage by 
the fact that Antiochus Epiphanes was for a considerable 
period master of Egypt, in which country the coins in 
question were undoubtedly struck. But while the greater 
part of the series are well known and not uncommon, it 
appears to have escaped the notice of numismatists that, 
besides the large coins with the head of Zeus, and the 
standing eagle on the reverse, figured by Duane (PI. VIII.) 
and by Mr. Gardner in his catalogue (PI. XII.), Antiochus 
caused to be struck copper coins corresponding to those 
of the largest size in the Ptolemaic series (size 13 of 
Mionnet's scale), and double the weight of those last 
referred to. One of these in my cabinet, which I pro- 
cured at the North wick sale, weighs about 1,180 grains. 
It has precisely the same reverse as the coins of this last 
class, but the head on the obverse, which is unfortunately 
a good deal rubbed, departs considerably in style and 
character from the head of Zeus on the coins of the 



86 It may be observed that the monogram ^, which is of 
common occurrence on the coins of the Seleucidan series, ia 
especially frequent on those of Antiochus IV. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 97 

inferior size, and still more widely from that on the 
corresponding coins of the Ptolemaic kings. 56 It is, so 
far as I am aware, an unique numismatic monument, and 
for convenience of reference I subjoin a detailed descrip- 
tion, though the type presents no marked differences 
from that of the well-known coins figured by Duane and 
Mr. Gardner: 

Obv. Head of Zeus, laureated, to the right, with slightly 
peaked beard. 

Rev. Eagle standing on a thunderbolt, to the right ; 
legend BAZIAEftZ ANTIOXOY 0EOY 
Em<t>ANOYZ arranged in four lines, two in. 
front, and two behind the eagle. M. Size 13. 
PI. VI. Fig. 1. 

The remaining coins belonging to the Seleucidan series 
that I propose to take this opportunity of submitting to 
the Society, require little of comment or illustration. My 
object in bringing them forward is to present the readers 
of the " Numismatic Chronicle " with a kind of Supple- 
ment to Mr. Gardner's valuable Catalogue of those in the 
British Museum, by describing, and, where necessary, 
figuring all the varieties of any interest in my cabinet 
which are not in the national collection. At the same 
time I have not thought it worth while to notice mere 
varieties of monograms or other trifling details. 

ANTIOCHTJS IV., EPIPHANES. 
Obv. Head of Antiochus, to the right, diademed. 

Rev, Zeus seated on a throne, to left, holding a sceptre 
in his left hand, and a Victory on his right ; leg. 

BAZIAEHZ ANTIOXOY] [EFIWAN. . . . 

Size 8. 

86 It is, moreover, still further distinguished from these, its 
prototypes, by the absence of the horn, which at once charac- 
terizes the head on the Egyptian coins as that of Zeus 
Ammon. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. 



98 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

This tetradrachm differs from all those in the British 
Museum, as well as from those in the Duane collection, 
by the omission of the word 0EOY before EFWANOYZ, 
of which it appears to be the natural accompaniment. It 
is indeed wanting on some drachms of the same monarch, 
published by Mr. Gardner, but here the omission may 
probably arise merely from want of space. On the coin 
before us the exergue is wanting, but the word 0EOY 
could hardly have been introduced there, though the 
additional epithet of NIKH<f>OPOY might possibly have 
been so. The head on the obverse is, however, of a younger 
type than that found on the coins which have the addi- 
tional title. 

ALEXANDER I., BALA. 

1. Obv. Head of Alexander, to right, diademed. 

Rev. Zeus seated on a throne, to left, holding a sceptre 
in his left hand, arid a Victory on his right ; leg. 
BAZIAEHZ AAEEANAPOY 0EOF1AT 
OPOZ EYEPfETOY : and in exergue 
JR. Size 8. Wt. 261 grs. 



It is the three letters on the exergue that characterize 
this coin as an unpublished variety. All the tetradrachms 
hitherto published with the type of the sitting Zeus have 
either a simple monogram in the exergue, or a date, 
which the letters fl PO cannot signify. Unfortunately we 
have no clue to their meaning. 

2. Obv . Same head. 

Rev. An eagle standing, to the left; leg. Around BAZIA- 
EHZ AAEEANAPOY ; in the field, to right, 
an ornamented trident; to left, the date CiP, 
and beneath it the monogram /ty\. M. Size 7. 
Wt. 218 grs. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYKIA. 99 

This coin belongs to the small but strongly-marked 
series of tetradrachms with Phoenician types, which are 
supposed to have been struck at Berytus, and are charac- 
terized by the trident in the field, as well as by the 
peculiar monogram (of which no explanation has yet been 
suggested) beneath the date. 57 This group is confined, I 
believe, to the two reigns of Alexander Bala and his 
successor Demetrius II. There is only one variety of it 
in the British Museum of the former monarch, with the 
date FHP (163), which is found also on the coin figured by 
Pellerin. 58 The date of 166 is I believe unpublished ; 
those of 167 and 168 are found on coins of the same series, 
with the name of Demetrius II. The attribution to 
Berytus is very uncertain, and rests, I believe, upon a 
mere conjecture of Pellerin's, who was the first to publish 
a coin of this particular series. 59 

8. Obi: Same head. 

Rev. Eagle standing to left, with palm-branch over its 
shoulder ; in field to right an aplustre and Zl AH, 
to left the date TZP. 

4. Obv. Same head. 

Rev. Same type and legend ; but with date CHP. 

Neither of these dates is to be found on the coins struck 
at Sidon in the British Museum. The latter date (166) 
occurs, however, on a coin in the catalogue of the Bompois 
collection (No. 1761). 

87 This monogram is, however, found on other coins which 
certainly do not belong to the same series. See Catalogue, p. 53, 
NOB. 2426. 

88 " Rois," PL IX., p. 82. This is, doubtless, the same coin as 
that described by Mionnet, torn. v. p. 56, No. 486, though he 
rejects Pellerin's proposed attribution, and ascribes it to Sidon. 

59 Mr. Poole considers this attribution to be confirmed by 
certain coins of the Ptolemaic series ; but the evidence appears 
to me far from conclusive. 



100 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

6. Ubv. Same head. 

Rev. Same type and legend : but with the club and 
monogram of Tyre in front of the eagle ; and in 
field to left the date EZP, and the monogram 
K3. M. Size?. Wt. 218 grs. 

It is singular that, though the coins of this reign struck 
at Tyre are in general of common occurrence, those with 
the date of 165 are an exception. There are none with this 
date in the British Museum, and though Mionnet gives 
one in his Supplement, he had never seen one, and cites 
it from the Museo San dementi. 60 This specimen had a 
different mint-mark from mine. 

ANTIOCHUS VII. 

Obv. Head of Antiochus, diademed. 

Rev. Eagle standing, with club and monogram of Tyre, 
and the date HP below, the monogram /^/. 

This date is wanting in the British Museum, but is 
figured by Duane and described by Mionnet, in both cases 
with a different monogram from mine. That on my 
coin is of rare occurrence on the Seleucidan series. 

DEMETRIUS II. (Second Reign.) 

1. Obv. Head of Demetrius, diademed, with short beard 
and moustache. 

Rev. Zeus seated on a throne, holding sceptre in left, 
and Victory on right hand ; leg. BAZIAEHZ 
AHMHTPIOY 0EOY NIKATOPOZ, 
beneath the arm AN, and in the exergue the 
letters JTIP. JR. Plate VI. Fig. 4. 

This coin is altogether different from any previously 
* " Supplement," torn. viii. p. 42. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 101 

published of the same monarch. It is hardly necessary to 
remind my readers that the portraits on the coins of 
Demetrius II. (setting aside those struck in Phoenicia, on 
which the head seems to be purely conventional) are 
divided into two classes : those struck before his captivity, 
which have a quite youthful, beardless head, and those 
coined after his return from his long captivity in Parthia, 
which bear a head of more mature age with a long beard. 
The latter class also have uniformly the seated figure of 
Zeus Nicephorus on the reverse, while those of his earlier 
reign have generally the seated figure of Apollo, or that of 
Tyche, as on the coins of Demetrius I. The present coin 
has the same type on the reverse, but the head on the 
obverse, though of mature age, in accordance with the date 
which assigns it beyond a doubt to the second period of 
the king's reign, has a very slight beard, scarcely percep- 
tible indeed, were it not for the strongly-marked mous- 
tache on the upper lip, which appears to pass downwards 
into something like a beard. The date on the exergue 
adds much to the interest of this coin, as it is the earliest 
that appears on any of the series with the seated Zeus 
type. It was indeed well known before, from Phoenician 
coins with the date of PHP, that Demetrius was already 
returned from Parthia and in possession of at least a part 
of his dominions as early as the year 183 of the Seleucidan 
era (B.C. 129), but none of the coins that have been 
published with the bearded head bore an older date than 
184. It is clear that this (183) was the first year of his 
renewed reign, as there are extant Phoenician coins 
(struck at Tyre) of his predecessor Antiochus Sidetes, 
with the date PflP. Demetrius was generally and 
naturally supposed to have adopted the fashion of wearing 
a long beard from the Parthians, among whom he had so 



102 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

long resided ; it is therefore curious to find that the first 
coins which he struck after his return do not exhibit the 
long and flowing beard so characteristic of his later 
portraits. 61 

In connection with this subject it may be worth while 
to notice that, while the head of Demetrius on the coins of 
Tyre and Sidon seems to be conventional, and presents a 
mere continuation of that found on his earlier coins struck 
in those cities, there are some which have the eagle on the 
reverse, and by their weight unquestionably belong to 
the Phrenician series, 62 which have the head with a long 
beard, as on the series with the Zeus type. One of these 
is described by Mionnet, and a similar one is in my 
cabinet, though there appears to be none in the British 
Museum. They both have the date EflP (185), with 
three monograms in the field, one of which is the well- 
known rih usually supposed to designate Ptolema'is. The 
coins in question may therefore have been perhaps struck 
in that city. But this monogram is of such frequent 
occurrence, that I cannot feel its evidence to be conclu- 
sive. 

2. Obv. Head of Demetrius, beardless, diademed. 

Bev. Eagle standing, to left, with palm-branch in front ; 
leg. AHMHTPOY BAZIAEI1Z, in the field, 
behind the eagle, an aplustre and ZIAQ; in 
front the date EflP, and beneath it [y|. JR. 
PI. VI. Fig. 8. 

It is remarkable that no silver coins of the second reign 
of Demetrius, struck at Sidon, are found in the Catalogue, 

61 It may be worth while to notice that the letters AN, which 
are found in the field of this coin, occur also under the throne 
of Zeus on one of somewhat similar fabric, with the ordinary 
bearded head and the date of AF1P. 

M The one in my collection weighs 214 grains, though a good 
deal battered. It is figured in Plate VI. Fig. 7. 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 103 

though there is a long list of those at Tyre, extending 
from the year 183 to 187. 63 Nor are there any in Mionnet. 
The tetradrachm in my collection is therefore of interest 
as an apparently unique specimen of his coinage in this 
city. The head on the obverse is the conventional one, 
similar to those found on the Tyrian coins. 

It may be added that this is, as far as I am aware, the 
latest tetradrachm struck at Sidon, of the Phoenician 
types and standard, the coins struck in that city under 
Cleopatra, Antiochus VIII., and Antiochus IX., being 
tetradrachms of the ordinary Syrian standard, with the 
same types as the other coins of those monarch s, but 
characterized by the addition of the letters ZIAQ IEP 
AZY in the field. 

ALEXANDER II., ZEBINA. 
1. Obv. Head of Alexander, diademed. 

Eev. Zeus seated, and holding Victory, as usual; leg. 
BAZIAEJ1Z AAEEANAPOY, in field to 
left the letters IZI ; beneath the throne A and a 
star above it. JR. Size 8. Wt. 258 grs. PI. VI. 
Fig. 5. 

I have thought it worth while to present this coin to 
my readers, though it is not properly speaking a new 
variety ; but the execution, as well as the style of art, of 
the head on the obverse is so superior to that found on 
the ordinary coins of Alexander II. that it presents a far 
more trustworthy portrait of that monarch than any yet 
published. At the same time the character of the head is 
sufficiently like to that on the ordinary coins to show that 
the difference is in the artist, not in the subject. It is 
very singular that the mint-marks on the reverse should 

63 There are, however, copper coins struck at Sidon with dates 
from 182 to 185. 



104 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

be exactly the same as those found on other coins of the 
same king, with portraits of the usual type ; the letters 
IZI occurring on one of those in the British Museum, and 
a similar one in my own collection, and the letter A and 
the star being also found beneath the throne. 

2. Obv. Same head, but of very inferior work. 

Rev. Same type and legend : in field in front the mono- 
gram ]/, and beneath the throne ^ ; in the 
exergue the date ZflP. Plate YI.*Fig. 6. 

Dated coins of the reign of Alexander Zebina appear 
to be very rare. There are none in the British Museum, 
or in the Duane collection, but Pellerin has figured two, 
with the dates OHP and SP (189 and 190), and Mionnet 
has described another, similar to my coin, with the date 
If! P. I have also one with date of OflP, as on the first 
of Pellerin' s figures. The obverses on both are of very 
inferior execution, and though the monograms are not 
exactly the same, there can be little doubt that all these 
dated coins proceed from the same mint. They all belong 
also to the last years of his reign. 

ANTIOCHUS VIII., GRYPUS. 

Obv. Head of Antiochus, of somewhat youthful character. 

Rev. Eagle standing, to left, behind, in the field, the 
date TSP, and in front M, leg. BAZIAEI1Z 
ANTIOXOY. Plate VI. Fig. 9. 

Mr. Gardner has figured in the Catalogue a coin of 
Cleopatra and Antiochus VIII., with an eagle on the 
reverse, of precisely the same style of work as the coin 
here described, but with the date of BSP (192), and also 
another of Antiochus IX. with the date LAZ (201). In 
both these cases, the monogram in the field is i>, which 
Mr. Gardner regards as intimating that the coins in 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 105 

question were minted at Sycamina, a small town on the 
coast of Syria, the name of which is not found on any 
other coins of the Seleucidan series than this group. 
There can be no doubt that the monogram ^ stands for ZY, 
its frequent occurrence on coins of this very series in the 
common form tepas d<rwXou is conclusive on this point ; but 
I can see no reason for assuming it to be a mint-mark of 
place, and the attribution to Sycamina appears to me in 
the highest degree improbable. The earliest geographical 
mention of such a place is found in Strabo, who notices it 
in connection with several other small towns (iroXixyia) in 
the neighbourhood of Mount Carmel, which, he says, were 
"names and nothing more." 64 But Mr. Gardner finds 
an argument in favour of Sycamina having once been a 
place of importance in the fact that " in the year B.C. 103, 
Ptolemy Lathyrus landed at the port (?) of Sycamina with 
an army of 30,000 men." Now, with all deference to 
Mr. Gardner's judgment, this appears to me to prove 
exactly the contrary. Josephus, from whom he derives 
the statement, says nothing of " a port," or " a city," but 
merely speaks of " a place called Sycamina." 65 And it is 
evident that an invader, landing with a large army in a 
hostile country, would naturally choose a part of the 
coast where there was not any strong city or fortress to 
oppose his debarcation, just as was done (ex. gr.) by the 
British troops when they landed in the Crimea, or in 
Egypt in 1801. But a case still more in point is cited 
by Mr. "Williams (in Dr. Smith's " Dictionary of Ancient 
Geography," article " Sycamina/') that in 1831 Ibrahim 
Pasha landed part of his troops for the attack on Acre at 

84 " Strabo," xvi. p. 758. 

65 Josephus, "Ant. Jud." xiii. 12, 3. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. P 



106 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the very place (Kaifa) which is supposed to occupy the 
site of Sycamina, from whence Ptolemy Lathyrus inarched 
against the same city. 

I cannot therefore think that there is any reason to 
believe that an insignificant town like Sycamina ever 
struck coins with its mint-mark, least of all such magnifi- 
cent pieces as the unique tetradrachm of Cleopatra, which 
has the same monogram in the field. But all probability 
in its favour is removed by my coin, which is absolutely 
similar in style to that figured by Mr. Gardner (PL 
XXIII. Fig. 2), and was struck in the very next year, 
the first of the sole reign of Antiochus. Yet it has in the 
field of the reverse, instead of the monogram of ZY, one 
which is in all probability composed of MY, and is one 
of frequent occurrence throughout the Seleucidan series. 66 
It may be added that Pellerin has figured two other coins 
of the same king with the type of the eagle standing, and 
the dates SSP an d HSP; Dut having in the field two 
different monograms. If the position of the monogram 
^> on the coins figured by Mr. Gardner is, as he himself 
remarks (" Introduction," p. xxx.), such as to render it 
" all but certain that it is intended to stand for the name 
of a city," what becomes of these different monograms 
occupying the same place on other coins of precisely 
similar style ? This similarity of style is such as, in the 
case of my coin, to leave no doubt in my mind that it pro- 
ceeds from the same mint with that figured by Mr. 
Gardner. Pellerin's figures are not sufficiently charac- 

68 It is found (e.g.) on the coin of Demetrius II., above de- 
scribed, which was unquestionably struck at Sidon, as well as 
on others of the same monarch, with the bearded head and 
the seated figure of Zeus, which were certainly not coined in 
Phoenicia (see Catalogue, p. 76). 



UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE KINGS OF SYRIA. 107 

teristic to afford the same assurance, but they have every 
appearance of being intended for coins of precisely similar 
character. 

It is discouraging to find doubts and difficulties thicken- 
ing around us, and to be sometimes obliged to retrace 
our steps, when we appeared to have gained a distinct 
point in advance, But the fact, is that the coinage of the 
Seleucidan kings is still very imperfectly known to us. 
The collection of this series in the British Museum is far 
from being as extensive and complete as that of several 
other departments ; and much as we owe to Mr. Gardner 
for his valuable catalogue, there is much to be done in 
the way of accumulation of materials before we possess 
such a knowledge of the coinage of the Macedonian kings 
of Syria as we derive from the unrivalled collection in 
the same museum of their neighbouring and contemporary 
monarchs, the Ptolemies of Egypt. The admirable mono- 
graph of this series, just published by Mr. Poole, may be 
considered as not only placing the whole subject on a 
secure basis of investigation, but leaving very little to be 
gleaned by the future numismatist or collector. 

In this state of things I have thought it desirable to 
bring before the Numismatic Society this notice of all the 
more interesting coins in my collection, with a view to 
contributing my quota to the assemblage of that mass of 
materials which is necessary to a really satisfactory view 
of a coinage that has been long a favourite object with 
collectors, but which has of late years received too little 
attention from numismatists. 

EDWARD H. BUNBURY. 



VIII. 

ON A HOARD OF EARLY ENGLISH COINS OF 
HENRY I. AND STEPHEN, 113540. 

IN February of this year, while trenching a piece of waste 
land in the parish of Linton, about three miles from Maid- 
stone, some labourers struck upon a small earthen vessel 
but fifteen inches below the surface. The jar was broken 
by their tools before it was discovered, when it proved to 
contain a number of coins which, on examination, turned 
out to be of Stephen, with a few of Henry I. included 
among them. Many of them were cut into halves and 
quarters, evidently for circulation as halfpennies and 
farthings (" fourthings "), v. Fig. 7 in the accompanying 
Plate VII. 

About a hundred of the coins came into my hands, the 
remainder about eighty pieces passing into the posses- 
sion of a gentleman of my acquaintance residing near the 
spot, by whose courtesy I have been enabled to closely 
examine all and describe such varieties as are not contained 
among those in my possession. The results will be found 
fully tabulated below ; and the details will, I trust, prove 
interesting to numismatists, especially such as more par- 
ticularly study the period of English History represented 
by the hoard. 

On inquiry I find that an ancient building, near the 
scene of the find, has always been considered, with appa- 
rently little foundation, as having been, centuries ago, a 



VolMPlVIJl 




PAPAL MEDALS. 



EARLY ENGLISH COINS OF HENRY I. AND STEPHEN. 109 

house of call, hostel, or " Travellers' Rest," by which 
latter term it has long been known, standing on the ancient 
main road running through the southern part of the 
county, now little more than a bye-lane, another and 
better road having long superseded it. 

This idea, hitherto quite legendary, receives some sup- 
port from this discovery, for, from the great number and 
variety of mints among coins of one period, it seems pro- 
bable that the host of this ancient hostelry, having saved 
much of the profit derived from entertaining travellers 
from all parts, had hidden his savings during the troublous 
period 1135 50, where it has lain until now unearthed. 

The most notable feature in this hoard is the great 
number of mints represented. With the exception of the 
great hoard found near Watford, and described by Mr. 
Rashleigh in the " Num. Chron.," x probably never before 
have so many been known to occur upon pieces of one 
find, struck within so short a period, for, of the forty- 
four mints known (vide Hawkins) to have struck under 
Stephen's authority, at least twenty-nine occur in addition 
to three mints previously unknown to have coined under 
this King ; five mints also appear of Henry I. 

Of distinctive types there are very few, the whole 
number of varieties only giving the following : Henry I., 
Hks. 255, seven varieties, five mints ; Stephen, Hks. 269, 
thirty-nine varieties, seventeen mints ; Hks. 270, forty 
varieties, twenty-five mints ; Hks. 632, two varieties, two 
mints (PL VII. Figs. 2 and 3) ; and one unpublished piece 
having, rev., annulet enclosing a pellet in centre of double 
cross, the usual fleurs-de-lis in each angle (Fig. 10). 

Of the few pennies (v. Fig. 1 for a fine specimen of 

1 First Ser. vol. xii. p. 188. 



110 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Chester) and one halfpenny of Henry I. there is nothing 
new to record ; of Stephen, H. 269, there are, however, 
many mints represented hitherto unknown to exist of this 
type, viz. Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury (Fig. 5), one 
beautiful specimen reading EANTO : (Fig. 6) ; Exeter, 
Hastings, Lewes, Norwich (reading NOE, NOEP, NON, 
and NOEIE) ; Pevensey (two splendid pieces of this pre- 
viously unknown mint, Figs. 7 and 8) ; Sandwich, Bury 
St. Edmunds (Fig. 4, one very fine piece only), Lincoln, 
and York. 

Of Stephen, H. 270, there is one piece of Durham, also 
one other of Hythe, to both of which the same remark 
applies as to Pevensey above. 

The unpublished piece (Fig. 10) is a neat and finely-pre- 
served piece, and appears to be of the Southampton mint. 

The two pennies (H. 632) attributed to Roger, Earl of 
"Warwick, which were in the hoard and are in the posses- 
sion of the gentleman already mentioned, are very fine 
pieces, the obv. and rev. legends being in both cases almost 
complete, that of London (Fig. 2) is exactly as described by 
Mr. Rashleigh and in Hawkins. The other (Fig. 3) is 
valuable as proving the attribution to Warwick of the 
piece reading PILLEM : ON . . . P, as suggested by Mr. 
Kenyon, in the new edition of Hawkins, to be untenable, 
this coin reading ON: EXNP= Canterbury. Both coins 
appear to be from the same die, the final P being all that 
could be seen of the name of the mint on the previously 
discovered piece. 

The coin I ascribe to Durham reads ON : DVN . 0i, so 
that it can hardly be placed to any other mint. That 
which I regard as being of Hythe reads ON : -IDEifc. I 
trust I am therefore right in thus attributing it. Of Nor- 
wich one piece reads NOE, two others NON, two others 



EARLY ENGLISH COINS OF HENRY 1. AND STEPHEN, Ill 

. . EIE ; these latter I at first placed to the credit of War- 
wick until I met with a third which read in full, NOEIE. 
One specimen presents at the close of the rev. legend the 
letters Sin only. I can but place this to Shaftesbuiy. I 
regret that the hoard should not have been examined and 
described by some more experienced numismatist than my- 
self, but being requested to send a paper on the subject to 
the Society, I thought it better to do so to the best of my 
ability before the parcel became scattered and disunited. 
I hope, therefore, that any errors of judgment or short- 
comings, in this my first communication, will be over- 
looked, and that I may receive the benefit of the far 
greater knowledge of other members who have made this 
particular series their especial study. 

A glance at the table below will show a great variety 
of renderings of Stephen's name and title, those specimens 
upon which the whole obv. legend is visible presenting 
the following diiferent readings: STEFNE, STEFNIE, 
STELNE, STIEFE, STIEFN, STIEFNE, STIEFNE : E, 
STIEFNE : RE, STIENE, STIFENE, STIFNE, STIFNE : E, 
STIFNE EE, STLFNIE, STEFNE : EEX (Figs. 10 and 12) ; 
one commences ifcTS (sic), and another ends EX, which 
latter termination, exclusive of the initial cross, has not, 
I believe, before been noticed. 

One other point worthy of notice, while speaking of these 
pieces, is the great diversity of weights, for though all are 
as they left the die, some are so light speaking only of 
whole pennies that it seems improbable they could have 
been issued from the royal mint, and therefore, though all 
are of good silver, the lighter pieces may possibly be 
baronial productions. This is also a point for settlement 
by those who have a deeper knowledge of the series than 
myself. I can but draw attention to the fact that, whereas 



112 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

the majority weigh as usual 20 to 22, or even as high as 
23 grains, others, though finely preserved, weigh as low as 
18, 16, 15, 13, and even 12 grains, the light specimens 
being all of type Hawkins, 270. 

In no one instance was it found possible to put together 
any halves or quarters. It is thereby proved, the more 
conclusively, that the division into halfpennies and far-* 
things was not a special act done by the owner of the 
hoard, but a general custom to supply the deficiency 
occasioned by a total lack of small change ; the division 
is also common to many mints, 

Finally, from the appearance and condition of the 
pieces, as well as the fact that they almost exclusively 
consist of the two types hitherto considered the earliest 
of Stephen, added to a few of Henry I. of one type only 
(Fig. 1), it appears conclusive that Hks. 255 was the last 
type of Henry I., and that the parcel must have been 
deposited somewhere between the years 1135 1140. 

GEOKGE WAKEFORD. 



EARLY ENGLISH COINS OF HENRY I. AND STEPHEN. 



113 



COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF ALL VARIETIES CONTAINED IN 

FIND OF COINS, TEMP. HENRY I. STEPHEN, AT LINTON, 

FEBRUARY 2, 1883. 



HENRY I. (Hawkins, 255.) 



Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Wt. 

grs. 




1 


.MD6SR : ON : LV . . 21 


(London) 


2. *t|ENEIEVS 


. . AMVND : ON : LVND. 22 





3 


LVN 


10 


,, The only half- 








penny of Henry I. 








in the wholo find 


4. .frtyENR . . S 


. . . . R : ON : ESN 


21 


(Canterbury) 


5. .frtyENRIEYS 


Tf]YRBYRN : ON : EES ! 22 


(Chester) Fig. 1 


6. . . N . . . 


. . N : ON : GLP : 21 


(Ipswich) 


7. . . ENEIEVS 


EDS . . N : NOR . j 21 J 


(Norwich) 


STEPHEN. (Hawkins, 269.) 


1. STLEFNE 


ALFRED : ON : . . IS 19 


(Bristol) 


2. STI . . N . RE 


. . VL : ON : GRSN 


19} 


(Cambridge) 


3. .J.STIFENE 


ROGER : ON : ESN : 


22| 


(Canterbury) 


4. ^STIEFNE . 


RODBERT : ON : ESN : 


21 


Fig. 5 


5. .J.STIEFNE : 


NO . . R : ON : ESNTO : 


22 


Fig. 6 


6. . . . FN : 


. . ER : ON : ES . 


11 


(Exeter) a halfpenny 


7. . . . E 


.... SES 


12 


(Hastings) , , 


8 


OSBERN : ON : GIP- . 


22i 


(Ipswich) 


9. S . . IENER 


S . . RIE : ON : 6IPE 


4 

22 





0. . . . FNE : 


GER ... GIP : 


11 


,, a halfpenny 


I. * . . IEFNE 


... ON : LEY 


22 


(Lewes) 


2. STIEFNE 


LS . . R : ON : LEP : 


18 


it 


3. STLE .. 


RERMER : ON : NIE 


20 


(Lincoln) 


4. . . FNE : 


. . . ON : NI 


6 


,, a farthing 


5. .frSTIEFE 


EDPSRD : ON : LYN . 


20 


(London) 


6. .frS . . . E 


GEFREI : ON : LYN : 


22 





7. STIEFN . . 


GEFREI . . 


12 


,, a halfpenny 


8. * STIEFNE 


GODSRD : ON : LYN : 


23J 


0. ^.STIENE : 


HSMYND : ON : LYN* 20 



VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. 



114 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Wt. 

grs. 




20. .frTS . (!) 


nftMv . . . 


10f 


(London) a halfpenny 


21. .frSTIEFNE : 


EODBEET : ON : LVN 


22 





22. . . IEFN. 


EODBEET . . . 


10* 


,, a halfpenny 


23. .frSTIFNE : E 


TIEEEEID : ON : LVN : 


20* 


Fig. 9 


24. 


TIEE ND : .fr 


12 


a halfpennv 


25. STIFNE : 


WftLTIEE : ON : NON : 


20 


(Norwich) 


26. . . . E : 


... ON : NON : 


13 


,, a halfpenny 


27. .frSTEFN . . 


ftIL . . ON : NOE : 


22 





28. .frSTIEFNE 


EftWLF : ON : . . EIE : 


19 


ii 


29. .frSTIE . 


EX EIEfr 


12 


,, a halfpenny 




30. .frST . . ENE 


ALPINE : ON : PEVEN : 


22* 


(Pevensey) Fig. 8 


31. .frS . . . NE 


. . NE : ON : PEVEN : 


22 




82. * .... E 


. . . . N : PEVEN : 


10 


,, a halfpenny, 








Fig. 7 


33. .frSTIENE 


ftFN : ON : S. ftDMVND.fr 


Oil 

miJLa 


(St. Edmunds Bury) 


34. .frSTIEFNE 


IV EIE : ON : SftN 


O O 1 


(Sandwich) 


oO* *J* 


. . E : ON : SftN : 


11 


,, an extra fine 








halfpenny 


36. ... FNE 


BftI . . . . : TEFfr 


10 


(Thetford) an extra fine 








halfpenny 


37. frS . . . 


... ON : PftL . 


11 


(Wallingford) a half- 


38. ... IENE 


ftNVLF : ON : . . EE. 


20 


(Warwick) [penny 


39. -frS .... 


. . . EE : ON : EO . . 


7 


(York) a very fine half- 








penny 


AN UNPUBLISHED PIECE OF SOUTHAMPTON. (Fig. 10.) 


+STEFNE-EEX| SftNSON : ONftNT | 16 | (Southampton) Fig. 10 


ROGER, EARL OF WARWICK? 


1. .frPEEEEIE : 


GODEIEVS : ON : LV-fr 


22 


(London) Fig. 2 


2. .frPEEIELC : 


*PILLELM : ON : EANP : 


15 


(Canterbury) Fig. 3 


STEPHEN. (Hawkins, 270.) 


1. TIEFNE : 


EODBEET : ON : . . . 


17 


(Canterbury, probably, 








v. No. 4, List of H. 








269 


2. STIEFNEE 


. . N : ON : . . EIST 


20| 


(Bristol) 


3. .frSTE . . . 


. . M: ON: EIEE.fr 


12! 


(Chichester) 


4. STIEFNE 


GODPINE : ON : EIEE 


19 






EARLY ENGLISH COINS OF HENRY 1. AND STEPHEN. 



115 



Obverse. 

5. . . EFN . . 

6. STEINE 

7. .frSTI . . E : 

8. . . EFNE: 

9. STEFNIE 

10. ifiS ... B . 

11. .frSTIEFNEEE: 

12. +STIEFNEBE: 

13. . . . N . . 

14. . . EEE : 

15. STI 

16. . . NE . 

17. STIENE 

18. STIEFN 

19. . . EFNE : 

20. .fr . . E . . 

21. #ST. . . EX 

22. .frST . . IEEE : 

23. +STI . . 

24. STIENEE : 

25. * . . 

26 

27. STIFNIE 

2S. .frSTIFNEBEX 

29. .frSTIEFNE : 

30. ST . EFNE 

31. .frSTIEFNE BEX 

32. STIEFN : 

33. ST . . 

34. ... NE : EE 

35. STIFNEEE 

36. ST . . EE 

37 

38 EX 

39. .frSTN . . . 

40. .frST . . IEEE : 



Reverse. 


Wt. 

grs. 




. . . ERIE 


5 


(Chichester) a farthing 


. . . N : ON : EOLE 


17 


(Colchester) 


... ON : DVN . 0* 


22 


(Durham) 


. . . D : ON : E . . 


11 


(Exeter) a halfpenny 


GIB . . ON : RES . 


22 


(Hastings) 


. . IL : ON : RE 


10 


,, a halfpenny 


. . . TE : ON : REBEFO.fr 


22 


(Hereford) Fig. 11 


ESTMVND : ON : . IDE* 


18 


(Hythe) 


.... '-GPI 


20J 


(Ipswich) 


. . . ON : LE : 


21 


(Leicester) 


. . IN : ON : NIL 


18 


(Lincoln) 


. . N : NIL 


6 


,, a farthing 


EIGIEE: . . 


20J 


(London ?) doubtlul 


ELVBED : ON : LVN 


21 


(London) [what mint 


BE . . N : LV.fr 


12! 




BBIEMEB : ON : LVN) : 


22 




SENSE : ON : L . . 


19 




SEFPINE : ON : LVN . 


22J 




EEIN .... N.fr 


2H 




TOVI : ON : LVND 


19 




. . N : NOBP . 


11 


(Norwich) a halfpenny 


. ON : NO 


5 


,, a farthing 


EIEEED : ON : SN . . 


20 


(Nottingham) 


. . TEN : ON : NOER 


21 


(Northampton) 


BIEEBD : ON : SEN : * 


21 


(Sandwich) 


SIR.fr 


21 


(Shaftesbury) 


EODBEBT : ON : SBOB : 


18 


(Shrewsbury) Fig. 12 


EODBEBT : ON : 


17 


, , probably 


. . . N : SVD . . 


5 


(Southwark) a farthing 


. . . N : ON : SVDB 


21 


(Sudbury) 


GEFEBIE : ON : TE 


21 


(Thetford) 


GEFBEN : ON : TE 


19 


n 


STEN . . O . . VEE : 


22 


(Warwick) 


GODPINE : ON : P . . 


22 


(Winchester) 


GODPIN .... Nfr 


9 


,, a halfpenny 


STINIE : ON : PIN 


22 


,, 



116 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



LIST OF MINTS 
REPRESENTED IN THE LINTON FIND, 

FEBRUARY 2, 1883. 
HENRY I. AND STEPHEN. 



MINT. 


HENRY I. 
Hks. 255. 


STEPHEN. 


269 


270 


632 


Unpub. 
type. 


Bristol ; . 




X 


X 






Cambridge . 




X 








Canterbury .- 


X 


X 








Chester . ' - ' 


X 










Chichester . 






X 






Colchester . 






X 






Durham 






X 




. 


Exeter 




X 


X 






Hastings . 




X 


X 






Hereford . 






X 






Hythe 






X 






Ipswich 


X 


X 


X 






Leicester . 






X 






Lewes 




X 








Lincoln 




X 


X 






London 


X 


X 


X 


X 




Norwich 


X 


X 


X 






Nottingham 






X 






Northampton 






X 






Pevensey . 




X 








Saint Edmonds . 




X 








Sandwich . 




X 


X 






Shaftesbury 






X 






Shrewsbury 






X 






Southampton 










X 


Southwark . 






X 






Sudbury 






X 






Thetford . 




X 


X 




P 


Wallingford 




X 








Warwick . 




X 


X 






Winchester 






X 






York . 




X 








Uncertain . 




X 


X 







.SerlH. W.MPI.K 




COINS OF SICI LY. 




IX. 

ON A NEW PIECE OF BERMUDA HOG-MONEY OF THE 
CURRENT VALUE OF Hid. 

IN former numbers of the Chronicle 1 I have given some 
account of the peculiar currency known as hog-money, 
struck for circulation in the plantation of the Somers 
Isles under the Charter granted to the Bermuda Company 
by James I. in 1609. These pieces were not known to 
Ruding, and have always been extremely scarce ; pieces 
of xiu, \id., and i\d. have been described and figured 
the last from a specimen found in 1877, and at the time 
unique, but another was found last year at St. George's. 
I have now the good fortune to be enabled, by the kind- 
ness of Mr. J. Kermack Ford, to present a fourth variety, 
hitherto unknown, of the value of uid. Mr. Ford found it 
some years ago, by the merest accident, in turning over a 
quantity of old copper coins in a dealer's hands. 

Extravagance or over liberality were faults never attri- 

1 N.S., vol. xvi. p. 153, and vol. xviii. p. 166. 



118 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

buted to the Bermuda Company. That they thought it 
necessary to have eight dies sunk two for each of four 
varieties of currency speaks for the very early stage of 
their history as a corporation, at which the order must 
have been given. It smacks of enthusiasm ; we have no 
documentary evidence of the scale of the provision, and 
very little mention of the circulation of the coins, which 
the settlers never accepted with cordiality. 
The following is a description of the coin. 

Obv. A three-masted, high-pooped ship under sail, between 
the letters S I. 

Rev. A Hog. The Roman numeral III. above it. 

The letters S I for Somers Islands are a little doubt- 
ful, the marks representing them being possibly a part of 
the ship, which is not well denned. They are certainly 
wanting in the pieces of xii< and \id., which however 
bear the words " SOMMER ISLANDS " in full ; but there is a 
trace of the I. in the piece of \\d. 

J. H. LEFROY. 





UNPUBLISHED CiSTOPHORI. 



X. 



AUSTRALIAN CURRENCY. 

THE- HOLEY DOLLAR. 

AMONG the expedients to which some of the British 
Colonies have heen driven in former times, through the 
scarcity of currency, there is none more singular than the 
practice followed for a short time in New South Wales, of 
making the Spanish dollar, worth 4s. 2d., do duty for 
six shillings and threepence. This was effected by punch- 
ing out a circular disc from the centre, which passed 
for one shilling and threepence, and boldly stamping " five 
shillings " on the annular portion left. As these coins, 
popularly called " holey dollars," are extremely scarce, 





an account of one of them may be acceptable to the 
Society. It is a pillar dollar, bearing on the obverse 
FERDIN . VII., DEI GRATIA . 1810, and round the 
edge of the perforation, which is milled, NEW SOUTH 
WALES . 1813. On the reverse HISPAN . ET . IND . 



120 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

REX . m 8R . J . P, and round the perforation FIVE . 
SHILLINGS. 1813. The dump, or fifteenpenny piece, 




which was stamped out of the centre of the dollar, is shown 
in the accompanying figure, which is engraved from a 
specimen kindly lent by Mr. F. ~W. Pixley, who also 
has an example of the perforated dollar. As it was not 
until 1813 that these pieces began to replace promissory 
notes and other forms of paper money in the currency of 
the colony, this is one of the earliest pieces struck. The 
punch and stamps were very likely made in the colony, to 
which the system of transportation then in force supplied 
skilled workmen in almost every art. It is, however, not 
very skilfully done. The perforation is not central, and 
the piece is much "buckled" by the blow. These pieces 
continued current until 1829. The present specimen was 
found in Tasmania, with about fourteen more, in 1881, 
possibly the hoard of some bushranger ; with them were 
two or three dumps, as the centre pieces were called, but 
I was unable to acquire one of these. Montgomery Martin 
remarks : 

" Previous to 1817 the circulating medium of the colony 
consisted principally of the private notes of merchants, 
traders, shopkeepers, and publicans, the amount being 
sometimes as low as 6d." Hist, of Brit. Colonies, p. 432. 

He does not mention the converted dollars, but dollars 
and rupees were current down to 1826. 

J. H. LEFROY. 






SILVER COINS OF TERINA 



:- XL 

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOKENS OF HAMPSHIRE 
NOT DESCRIBED IN BOYNE'S WORK. 

THE number of unpublished tokens in the following list 
shows that Mr. Boyne had not the same efficient help for 
several of the towns in this county as he had for Andover, 
as at page 98 of his standard work Mr. Boyne states, 
" These descriptions of Andover tokens (nineteen in 
number) were kindly communicated to me by Mr. Samuel 
Shaw of that town." Then adds, " The list may be pre- 
sumed to be complete," and, in fact, only one more token 
of that town (No. 4 in following list) has been found since 
1858, the date of Boyne's publication. 

The following seven tj^-eight additions will give above 
half as many more to those in Mr. Boyne's list of the 
county, whilst a dozen fresh ones are added to Newport, 
Isle of Wight, and fifteen, including two varieties of 
Boyne's numbers, are added to Portsmouth. There are 
five places of issue not recorded by Boyne : Crondall, 
near Farnham ; East Meon, near Petersfield ; Hartley 
Row, near Odiham ; Havant, near the Sussex boundary ; 
and Hurstbourne, a few miles from Andover. 

The late Mr. S. Shaw, of Andover, who died in Novem- 
ber, 1881, took great interest in the tokens of his native 
county, and from his researches and collection I have 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. R 



122 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

gained several unpublished descriptions ; also from the late 
Mr. H. Christie, of London, who before his last illness 
acquired many of those in the following list, and from 
time to time informed me of them. Since then I have 
bought the Hampshire tokens of Mr. J. S. Smallfield, 
when his large collection was dispersed, containing above 
twenty unpublished specimens ; and the remaining descrip- 
tions were kindly sent to me with all the tokens for 
inspection by Mr. R. T. Andrews, Hertford (marked A.), 
and Mr. Clements, Peckham Rye, S.E. (C. under Nos.) 

We gain some interesting particulars about the 17th 
century town pieces from the municipal records of various 
boroughs. A few years before these local tokens were finally 
suppressed, in 1672, various English corporations became 
sensible of the fact that an enormous profit was realised 
from the tokens when largely circulated, and from " Sturt's 
Historical Notes on Grantham, 1857," p. 71, we have the 
following interesting account of what took place in that 
borough in 1667 : "Whereas, Mr. Thomas Short, Alder- 
man, hath acquainted this Court that several corporations 
have set forth brass halfpence with the town arms upon 
them for the benefit of the poore of various towns, and 
that it might be very advantageous to this corporation to 
do likewise. Whereupon the said Court orders that the 
present Chamberlain do send to London for brass half- 
pence with the chequers (town arms) on the one side, and 
Grantham, with the year of our Lord, on the other side. 
And to have round the rim, 'To be exchaing'd by the 
overseers of the poor,' and that the same may be obtained 
as soon as may be." The historian adds, "Many of 
these tokens are still in existence, but they are all of 
copper, not of brass." From the researches of various 
collectors, fifteen tokens of Grantham are known, besides 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOKENS OF HAMPSHIRE. 123 

the town-piece, seven of which are not in Boyne, but they 
were all issued before 1667. 

A still more stringent civic proclamation emanated from 
the municipal authorities at Winchester, in 1669, which 
being in the county now under consideration (and the 
proclamation, I believe, never before published), is now 
given in extenso and verbatim, with the original spelling : 

" 7 Sept. 1669. Whereas div r se p'sons have of late in 
sev r all places taken upon them to coyne, or cause to be coyned, 
great numbers of brass halfe-pence and ffarthings, and to vent 
them to the King's subjects, whereby this Citty as well as other 
places dothe exceedingly abound with the sayde Halfe-pence and 
tfarthings, w ch doth already, and iff not tymely p r vented, will 
dayly more and more bringe great damage to the Inhabitants of 
this Citty, for by reason of the death of some of those persons 
w ch sett forth those halfpence and ffarthings, and tbat others of 
tbem doe remove theyr dwellings, or abscond themselves ; many 
of those balfe-pence and ffarthings will not passe from man to 
man, soe tbat tbose p r sons in whose bands they doe remain, 
must needs suffer damage tberebye. And also many of tbose 
balfe-pence and ffarthings are brought from townes farr remote 
from this place, and with whom tbis Citty hath no comerce or 
trade, by reason of all w ch our Inhabitants are putt to great 
trouble in takeing moneys for theyr wares, and do dayly receive 
damage therebye. Now tbat these growing inconveniences may 
be redressed in tyme, and such small cbangeing money be pro- 
vided, that noe man for the future may lose in receiving the 
same : It is att tbis Assembly agreed upon, and accordingly 
ordayned, that a convenient number of brasse Halfe-pence and 
ffarthings shall be provided by the Citty out of the comon 
stocke thereof, with such a stampe upon them as they may be 
publiquely known to be the moneys belonging to tbe Citty, and 
tbat these halfe-pence and ffarthings tbus provided (and noe 
others) sball currently passe in this Citty, and that noe man may 
suffer damage by taking these halfe-pence and ffarthings thus 
sett forth, It is by tbis Assembly agreed upon, that this Citty 
shall exchange all such halfe-peuce and ffarthings for current 
money of England, when any p'son shall give convenient notice 
soe to doe. And it is further agreed upon and ordayned, that 
from and after the first day of November next ensueing, noe 
other halfe-pence or ffarthings shall currently passe in this 
Citty but such as be sett forth as aforesayd. And it is also 



124 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

agreed upon at this Assembly, That such persons who are 
members of this Corporacion shall receive reasonable satis- 
faction for any losse they shall sustain by calling in such halfe- 
pence and ffarthings aforesayd : And it is also agreed upon, 
that yf any benefitt arise by setting forth the sayd halfpence 
and farthings, It shall be ymployed for the use and benefitt of 
the poore. And if any person within this Citty shall after the 
tyme aforesayd, vent or offer in payment any Halfe-pence or 
ffarthings other than such as shall be stamped with the afore- 
sayd stanipe of this Citty, every p'son soe offendinge shall for 
every such offense forfeite the sum of fyve shillings to the use 
of the Chamber of this Citty, to be levyed by distresse, and 
sale of the goods of the offender." * 

Other boroughs, about the same period, ordered the 
considerable profits arising from the issue of their town- 
pieces to be expended in various ways. At Stamford it 
was ordered " to be laid out for, and towards y e repayring 
of y e Guildhall" (see "Simpson's Lincolnshire Tokens," 
p. 46), and the corporation of Henley-on-Thames, Oxon, 
ordered the profit, 46, arising from 65 Ibs. of tokens to 
be expended " in repairing the bridge " (see " Num. 
Chron." Third Ser. vol. i. p. 164). 

LIST OF UNPUBLISHED HAMPSHIRE 17TH CENTURY 
TOKENS. 

ABBREVIATIONS IN THE FOLLOWING LIST: The letter G. under the No. 
designates those in the writer's collection ; C. those belonging to Mr. 
Clements ; and A. to Mr. Andrews of Hertford ; those with the initial S. 
belonged to the late Mr. Shaw of Andover. The ownership of those 
without initial is now unknown. 

ALRESFORD. 

1. Obv. IA . WITHERS . ALRESFORD. Man making candles, 
c. 

Rev. TALLOW . CHANDLER. 1. I. W. 

This issuer's ^d. is in "Boyne," p. 97, No. 2. 

1 Transcript from the " Municipal Archives of Winchester," by 
the late Charles Bailey, Esq., Town Clerk, 1856. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOKENS OF HAMPSHIRE. 125 
ALTON. 

2. Obi'. THOMAS . BRAIMAN. T. B. 

C. 

Rev. ALTON . IN . HAMSHIRE. H. B. 

The fast initial on Rev. is that of the issuer's wife. 

3. A variety ofBoyne 5 is dated 1663 on the Rev. 
G. 

The writer has both B. 5 (dated 1666) and the above. 

ANDOVEB. 

Mem. The late Mr. Shaw said that he had never seen 
or heard of No. 9 with the date 1 664, and believed none 
were struck with that date. 

4. Obv. WILLIAM . ORAM . IVN (lOR). A glove. 
8. 

Rev. IN . ANDOVER . HAMSHER (sic). W. M. O. 

BASINGSTOKE. 

Note to B. 28 and 30. The two issuers, Henry Barffoot 
and John Coleman, were joint churchwardens of St. 
Michael's, Basingstoke, in 1670, and their names are 
recorded with that date on the then new tenor bell. 

5. Obv. IOHN . COLEMAN . THE ELDER. A raven. 

G. 

Rev. Same as in Boyne. 

6. Obv. IOSEPH . MANSFEILD . GROCER .IN. A sword and 
8 - helmet. 

Rev. BASING STOAK . HIS HARTY DVBBLE TOKEN 1669. 

(In six lines, heart shape.) 
There are two varieties of B. 32, one reading on. 

7. Obv. BARNARD . REVE. An angel holding a scroll. 
G. 

Rev. OF . BASING . STOKE. B. M. R. 



126 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



8. Obv. Legend as No. 7. Angel with arms across the 
c - breast. 

Rev. IN . BAZINGSTOKE. B. M. R. 



Reve is an older form of the name than Reeve. The 
Angel Inn is still in existence in the town (late 8.S.). 

BlSHOPS . .WALTHAM. 

9. Obv. IAMES . BLLAKLLEY . 1666. The Grocers' Arms. 
A. 

Rev. IN . BISHOPS . WALLTON. HIS HALFPENNY. I. B. 

CASTLE HOLD. 

10. Obv. IEAMES . SMITH . IN. A castle. 

G. 

Rev. CASTILL . HOLD . NEWPORT. 1. E. S. 

Castle Hold is in Carisbrook parish, but forms the 
tipper part of High Street, Newport, leading direct from 
thence up to the old castle. A variety of B. 39 (Edward 
Knight) will be found at No. 34 in this list, and was no 
doubt issued by the same person. 

. 

COWES. 

11. Obv. PETER . COVRTNELL . 67. P. S. C. 
G. 

Rev. IN . YE . WEST . COWES. P. S. C. 

CRONDALL. 

12. Obv. CRVNDOL . IN. Drapers' Arms in Shield. 
G. 

Rev. HAMPHIRE (sic). E. A. P. 

This strangely spelt token is much like the Liphook 
one (No. 24) in appearance, and perhaps by the same 
artist. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOKENS OF HAMPSHIRE. 127 

EAST MEON. 

13. Obv. IOHN . WITCOMBE . AT . YE. An angel, 
c. 

Rev. IN . EASTE . MEANE . 66. 1. M. W. 

This old village gives its name to the hundred in which 
it is situated, and is four miles from its post-town, Peters- 
field. For a token of West Meon, see Boyne, p. 104, 
No. 126. 

FAREHAM. 

14. Obv. WILLIAM . DIDLESFOLD. The Mercers' Arms. 
A. 

Rev. OF . FARAM . 1658. w. D. 

Spelt in the phonetic style not uncommon at the period. 

GOSPORT. 

15. Obv. IOHN . BRAMLEY . AT . YE . RED. A lion rampant, 
c. 

Rev. LYON . IN . GOSPORT . 1667. HIS HALFE PENY. 

16. Obv. ANNE . GRAINGER . IN. HER HALFE PENY. 

8. 

Rev. GOSPORTE . 1667. A. G. 

17. Obv. STEPHEN LOCK. Two crossed keys, 
s. 

Rev. OF . GOSPORT . 1667. s. D. L. 

18. Obv. IOHN . MORGAN . AT . YE . ROYALL. A ship in full sail. 

Q. 

Rev. SOVERAIGN . IN . GOSPORTE . 1667. HIS HALFE PENY. 

I. N. M. 

HARTLEY Row. 

19. Obv. ROBERT . RAYE . IN. Arms, a chevron between three 
c - crosses botonees. 

Rev. HARTLEY . ROE. R. R. 

20. Obv. IAMES . SMITH . AT . THE . FENIX. A PhoeniX. 

Rev. AT . HARTLE . ROE. HIS HALFE PENY. 



128 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Hartley Row is on the old road between London and 
Salisbury, and was a busy place in the old coaching-days. 

HAVANT. 

21. Obv. THOMAS . HILDROP . OP. A man making candles. 

Rev. HAVANT . TALOW . CHANDLER. T. M. H. 

22. Obv. THOMAS . YOUNG. T. M. Y. 
C. 

Rev. OF . HANANT (sic) . 1653. T. M. Y. 

HURSTBOURNE. 

23. Obv. ROBERT . MVNDAY. The Grocers' Arms, 
c. 

Rev. IN . HVSBONE . 1664. R. M. 

This token was found in Hurstbourne-Tarrant, a village 
in the Andover district, and was probably issued there. 

LIPHOOK (near Haslemere). 

24. Obv. LIPHOOK . IN. An anchor, 
c. 

Rev. HAMPSHEER. 1668 . w. E. s. 

In the stage-coach times this was a halting-place for 
changing horses on the old road from London to Ports- 
mouth. 

LYMINGTON. 

25. Obv. IOHN . BARWICK. HIS HALF PENNY. 

Rev. IN . LIMINGTON . 1667. i. B. 

26. Obv. THOMAS . GLEVEN. The Grocers' Arms. 

Rev. IN . LEIMINGTON. T. E. G. 

NEWPORT (Isle of Wight). 

27. A variety of B. 68, with same legend and date, is full 
G - d. size. 

This token is | of an inch wider and 7 grains heavier 
than B. 63, and may have passed for a |d. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOKENS OF HAMPSHIRE. 129 

28. Obv. RICHARD . DORE. R. M. D, 

Q. 

Rev. OF . NEWPORT. 1654. 

29. Obv. IOSEPH . FOSTER . IN . NEWPORT. HIS HALF PENT, 

G. 1669. 

Rev. IN . THE . ISLE . OF . WIGHT, i. M. F. and a flower. 

This token was kindly presented to me by Mr. Nathan 
Heywood, Manchester. For Joseph Foster's farthing, 
see B. p. 101, No. 67. 

80. Obv. WILL . HANNAM . NEW. Tallow Chandlers' Anns. 
s. 

Rev. PORT . ISLE . WITE. W. H. 

81. Obv. WILLIAM . HAPGOOD. St. George and Dragon. 
8. 

Rev. NEWPORT . 1668. HIS HALFE PENNY. 

This description and the next were sent me by Mr. S. 
Shaw. 

82. Obv. IOHN . E . HORE . NEW. Detrited. 

8. 

Rev. PORT . ISLE . OF . WIGHT. 1. E. H. 

The wife's initial is put on the obv. between the issuer's 
names, as is the case on several London tokens. 

88. Obv. IOHN . IOLLIFFE. 1. E. I. 

G. 

Rev. IN . NEWPORT . 1655. i. E. i. 

84. Obv. EDWARD . KNIGHT . IN. A castle. 
a. 

Rev. NEWPORT . ISLE . OF . WITE. E. K. 

85. Obv. ARTHER . LEGG . 1656. The Grocers' Arms. 
G. 

Rev. OF . NEWPORT. A. I. L. 
VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. S 



130 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



86. Obi'. ANTHONY . MAYNARD. Apothecaries' Arms. 

G. 

Rev. IN . NEWPORT. A. E. M. 

87. A variety of Eliz. Maynard, B. 69, reads on rev. ISLE or 
G. WITE, &c., instead of ISLE . WITE. 

The writer has both tokens. 

88. Obv. WILL . NEWLAND OF. NEWPORT. The Grocers' Arms. 

Rev. IN . ILLE . OF . WEIGHT (sic). W. G. N, 

89. Obv. IOHN . THORNTON. A thorn-bush, 

G. 

Rev. IN . NEWPORT. 1. E. T. 

ODIHAM. 

40. A variety of B. 76, has in field of Obv. A shovel. 

8. 

Rev. OF . ODIVM . (no date). i. A. s. 

OVERTON. 

41. A variety of B. 78, is dated on Rev. 1668. 

G. 

In other respects it is the same as W. Speer's token. 

PETERSFIELD. 

42. Obv. IOHN . HORSENAILE. A pair of stays . i. s. H. 
c. 

Rev. IN . PETERSFIELD . 1668. HIS HALFE PENY. 

43. A variety of B. 79, has on R. " HARTE . IN . PETERSFELD." 

T. i. 

PORTSMOUTH. 

44. Obv. IOHN . AYLWARD. A row of candles and dipping-box. 
G. 

Rev. IN . PORTSMOUTH. I. M. A. 

45. A variety of B. 83, reads on Obi: CHRISTEFER . BRVNKER. 
G. A bell. 

Rev. As in Boyne. The writer has both tokens. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOKENS OF HAMPSHIRE. 131 

46. Obv. ALEXANDEB . CAKTEB. Pair scales and wheatsheaf. 
A. 

Rev. IN . POBTSMOUTH. A. K. C. 

47. A variety of B. 86, Obv. same as in Boyne. (Octagonal.) 

G. 

Rev. is dated . 68 . and has B. A. F. under PENNY. 



48. Obv. THO . IELLIT . AT . WHIT. A hart couchant. 
A. 

Rev. OF . POBTSMOUTH. T. E. L 



49. Obv. IAMES . LOCK. 1667. 

A. 

Rev. IN . POBTSMOUTH. 1. M. L. 

50. Obv. THOMAS . PABKES. A dolphin. 

Q. 

Rev. OF . POBTHMOVTH. T. E. P. 

61. A variety of B. 96 has the initials N. E. p. in the field on 
s. each side, instead of N. s. P., and on Rev. is dated 

1666. 

It is evident that Nicholas Peirson had married again, 
since he issued his former token in 1653. 

52. Obv. PAVL . BICHABDS. P. E. B. 

A. 

Rev. IN . POBTSMOVTH. 1656. 

53. Obv. WILLIAM . SMEDMOBE . AT. A fountain. 

A. 

Rev. POBTCHMOVTH . 1670. HALF PENT. 

54. Obv. BICHABD . THOMAS . ON . THE. A stag couchant. 

Rev. POINTE . OF . POBTSMOVTH. B. I. T. 

55. Obv. WALTEB . THVBMAN. A roll of tobacco. 

A. 

Rev. OF POBTSMOVTH . 60. W. I. T. 

56. Obv, BOBEBT . TIPPETS . IN. Barber Surgeons' Arms. 

A. 

Rev. POBTSMOVTH . 1666. B. E. T. 



132 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 
67. Obv. BICHARD . WHITE. R. M. W. 

Rev. OF . PORTSMOVTH. 1656. 
This token was in the late Mr. Neald's collection. 

58. Obv. THOMAS . WILSON . AT . THE. Plume of feathers. 

Rev. VPON . YE . POINT . IN . PORTSMOVTH. HIS HALFE 

PENNY. 

RlNGWOOD. 

59. Obv. THOMAS . BLANCH. Rose surmounted by crown. 

Rev. IN . RINGWOOD. T. B. 

60. Obv. EDWARD . TANNER. 1668. 
Rev. IN . BINGWOOD. E. D. T. 

Copied from MS. list in library of Num. Society. 

61. Obv. TRISTRAM . TVRGES . OF. Arms in shield. The arms 
o. are a chevron between 8 cross crosslets. 

Rev. RINGWOOD . 1666. T. G. T. 

SOUTHAMPTON. 

62. Obv. ANTHONY . BARROW. The Grocers' Arms. 

A. 

Rev. IN . SOVTHAMPTON. A. B. 

63. Obv. RICHARD . CORNELLIVS . R. c. and 6 stars. 

A. 

Rev. IN . SOVTHAMPTON . 1660. A barrel. 

64. Obv. GEORGE . FREEMAN . AT . YE WHIT. A horse ambling 

A. 

Rev. IN . SOVTHAMPTON . 1668. HIS HALFE PENT. 

65. A variety of B. 117 (IOHN COTER) has Obv. 8 stars . Rev. 
A. 8 roses. Device described in Boyne on Rev. (detrited). 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOKENS OF HAMPSHIRE. 133 

66. Obv. WILLIAM . IOLLIFE . OF. The Grocers' Arms. 
o. 

Rev. OF . SOVTHAMPTON . 1666. W. L I. 

It will be seen OF occurs on both sides. 

67. Obv. WILLIAM . LOLLIFE . OF. The Grocers' Arms. 

A. 

Rev. SOUTH . HAMPTON. W. L. 

It has been thought by some the two last tokens are by 
the same issuer, with the initial of surname altered by 
mistake. 

68. Obv. JOSEPH . SMITH. The Mercers' Arms. 

Rev. IN . SOVTHAMPTON. 1. S. 

TlTCHFIELD. 

69. Obv. WILLI . HOVGHTON. The Grocers' Arms. 
Q. 

Rev. OF . TICHFEILD . 1652. W. H. 

70. Obv. HENKY . RAY. Pair of scissors open. 

G. 

Rev. OF . TICHFEILD. H. E. E. 

WHITCHUBCH. 

71. Obv. ALLEN . HAEPEB. The Grocers' Arms. 

Ret. IN . WHITTCHVECH. A. I. H. 

WlNCHESTEE. 

72. Obv. A I WINCHES | TEE . FAE | THING | 1669. (In five 

G. lines). 

Rev. c. w. Each side the arms of the City in a shield. 

This city farthing is much rarer than the halfpenny 
Boyne, No. 129, and does not appear in his list, although 
it is named in the proclamation. (See ante, p. 123.) 



134 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



78. Obv. PETER . CBOSS . 1667. The Grocers' Arms. 
A. 

Rev. IN . WINTON . GEOCER. HIS HALFE PENNY. 

74. Obv. ROBERT . MICHILL. The Grocers' Arms. 
s. 

Rev. IN . WINCHESTER. R.S.M. 

A variety of B. 136 reads as follows : 

75. Obv. WILLIAM . OVER . AT . YE. W. M. O. 

A. 

Rev. (As Boyne). The Grocers' Arms. 

76. Obv. IOHN . PVRDONE . OF . WINTON. Ironmongers' Arms. 

ReV. HIS . HALFE . PENY . 1667. 1. P. 

77. Obv. WILLIAM . TAYLER. The Grocers' Arms, 
c. 

Rev. IN . WINCHESTER. W. R. T, 

This undated farthing was probably issued before 
W. T.'s halfpenny in 1667. (See B. No. 140.) 

YARMOUTH (Isle of Wight). 

78. Obv. IOHN . PRICE . YARMOTH. St. George and dragon. 

8. 

Rev. ISLE . OF . WITE. i. P. 



No doubt by the same issuer as the ^d. of John Price 
in 1670. (See B. p. 105, No. 143.) 

TRANSFERS. 

There are two transfers from Boyne's Hants list which 
belong to other localities, viz. : 

"Will Adye," B. No. 48, belongs to Wilts, and is 
rightly described under Chippenham, p. 480, No. 23, in 
Boyne. This token is in the writer's possession. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOKENS OF HAMPSHIRE. 135 

" I. Cleaver," B. No. 118, belongs to London, and the 
correct description is in Boyne, at p. 310, No. 2,335. 

"Whilst the following must be transferred from Herts to 
Hants, see B. 112, No. 74, where it reads 

Obv. THOMAS . RAWLENGSON . AT . YE. A hart lodged. 

Rev. WT . HART . AT . HARVORD . BRIDG. HIS HALF PENNY. 
T. E. R. 

Mr. Boyne remarks, " This token should perhaps be 
assigned to Hartford Bridge, Hampshire," and in Daniel 
Paterson's " Book of Roads," London, 1776, we find that 
village (near Odiham) is on one of the coach-roads from 
London to Portsmouth. Another transfer from Salop to 
Hants is in the case of B. p. 386, No. 37, reading 

Obv. THOMAS . IVNINGE. A pot of HHeS. 
G. 

Rei'. OF . NEWPORTE . 1654. T. I. 

This is in the author's collection, and was found near 
Newport, in the Isle of Wight. 

A third transfer to Hampshire is from Norfolk (Boyne, 
p. 354, No. 245) : " Will. Hide," who lived and died in 
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight. He was an alderman of that 
old borough, and there is a slab to his memory in the 
pavement of the parish church, dated March 8, 1679. 
This information I had from the late Mr. J. S. Smallfield, 
who died on April 27th, 1883, after a lingering illness. 

H. S. GILL. 

May Wi, 1883. 



XII. 

PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 
MARTIN V. (COLONNA) 141731. 

BY those who have written on Papal medals hitherto the 
series has been shown to commence with those of Martin 
V. Du Molinet and Venuti say this, that it begins about 
1430, towards the close of that Pope's reign, and Da 
Molinet tells us that they were meant to serve a purpose 
like that which those coins of ancient Rome did that are 
known to us as consular, in commemorating some 
achievement of this or that Roman family. 1 

In the absence of any medals, which with certainty 
can be considered contemporary, it might be questioned 
whether a description of Papal medals ought not to com- 
mence at a date later than this, even though we know that 
this Pope's features were modelled in wax by the great 
artist, Yittore Pisano, or Pisanello, and that from his 
model there were executed cast medallions. Yet who 
amongst us has seen these ? Do they exist ? 

Notwithstanding this, I am of opinion we shall do 
wisely, conforming to the lines laid down by previous 
writers, to take the medals of this pontiff first, and to 
determine, as best we can, those characteristics which 
probably do, or do not, associate them with his reign. 

1 " Historia Summorum Pontificum a Martino Y. ad Inno- 
centem X. per eorum Numismata." 1679. Praefatio. See also 
preface to Venuti, p. 10. " Numismata Romanorum Pontifi- 
cum Prse.stantiora, a Martino V. ad Benedictum XIV." Per 
Rudolphinum Venuti Cortonensem. Roinae, MDCCXLIV. 



Uum.ChrvKjSerMV0l.MPlM 














-- ~ 









KB 




SILVER COINS OF TERINA &c H. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 137 

Of course there are papal medals of much earlier 
popes than those of Martin V., yet no one doubts but that 
they are supposititious. " Sunt et alia" (says Venuti, in 
his Preface), " quae Martini V. aetate antiquiora videntur, 
numismata; quippe duodecim ante Martinum Pontifices 
exhibent, et a Johanne XXI. (1276) primum incipiunt ; 
sed revera nullam redplent vetustatem." 2 

The election of Otto Colon na to the Papal chair, at the 
Council of Constance, disappointed the hope of religious 
minds which were looking for internal Church reforms, 
but outwardly it brought back unity to a considerable part 
of Christendom. With the inappreciative street-boys of 
Florence, who, when the new Pope tarried there on his 
journey Rome wards, saucily bawled under his windows, 

Papa Martino 

Non vale un quattrino, 

the election apparently did not count for much ; but to 
the larger world outside, Pope Martin came to show such 
worth, that the fine bronze tomb in the Lateran basilica, 
erected after his death by the hand of Simone, the brother 
of Donatello, 3 was inscribed with the great words, 
TEMPORVM . SVORVM . FELICITAS. 4 Biographic 
notices must not be built on epitaphs ; yet if this flatter- 
ing inscription reads a little as though by it we were 
to be reminded of the Eternal City under the Antonines, 
we shall not forget that evidence remains to prove 
how Rome, and indeed Italy herself, stood in his debt, 



2 Venuti, op. cit. 

3 Vasari, "Lives of the Painters," &c. 

4 Leonardo of Arezzo, a contemporary, asserts that Colonna 
"undeceived the world by his extraordinary sagacity." Bower's 
"Lives of the Popes." London. 1766. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. T 



138 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

when Pope Martin died of apoplexy in 1431. His 
medals also tell it. What he was to Western Europe as 
Pope lies in the domain of ecclesiastical history, not in 
ours ; but his persistent suppression on the Continent of 
that yearning for ecclesiastical reform which was breath- 
ing audibly there, and his treatment here of our Arch- 
bishop, Henry Chichele, will not commend his memory 
to many amongst ourselves. 5 

The medals which bear the name of this pontiff, as 
recorded by Venuti, are five in number. 

1. Obv. MARTINVS V COLVMNA PONT MAX. Side- 
face of the Pope to right, bare-headed, wearing a 
kind of cape or cloak, called the " pluviale," which 
is richly ornamented with arabesque work. 

Bev. PONT ANNO PBIMO MCDXVII. Arms of the 
Colonna with the Pontifical insignia, " a column 
crowned ; " a crown was the addition to their 
arms, when Stephen Colonna acquired the privi- 
lege of placing the crown on the head of an 
emperor at his coronation. Beneath, ROMA. 
Size 12, according to the scale of Mionnet. 6 

This type, with the Pope's head projecting from the 
stiff collar of the "pluviale" (somewhat as the head of a 
tortoise projects from its shell) is interesting, by its con- 
nection with the original type, known to have been exe- 
cuted by Yittore Pisano of Verona. 7 It was indeed Pope 



5 Archbishop of Canterbury, 1414 43. He was charged 
with encroachment on the prerogatives of the Papacy, by 
having accorded indulgences to pilgrims at Canterbury, resem- 
bling those obtainable at Rome during a jubilee. 

6 In this paper the scale adopted by Venuti has been trans- 
lated into that of Mionnet, wherever it has been possible to 
describe size. 

7 See Pisano's portrait on a contemporary medal. " Guide to 
Italian Medals," British Museum, PI. II. 15. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 139 

Martin's own journey through Florence which brought 
that great artist to Rome. In a letter of Monsignor Giovio 
to Cosimo de Medici, 8 quoted in the "Lives of the Painters," 
that writer, speaking of Pisano, says, " There are many 
highly-esteemed medals of great princes by his hand, . . . 
I have besides a medal with the portrait of Pope Martin, 
bearing the arms of the house of Colonna on the reverse." 
It may be doubted whether that medal of Vittore Pisano's 
is now known. Its restored form, which is common 
enough, is attributed by Venuti to Ferdinand Saint 
Urbain, who worked under the patronage of Francis 
Cardinal Barberini, in the seventeenth century, and it is 
probably a fair restoration, presenting us with some like- 
ness of the Pope. 

2. Obv. MARTINVS V COLVMNA PONT MAX. The 
bust of the Pope to right, with triple crown, and 
" pluviale." 

Rev. QVEM CREANT ADORANT. The Pope en- 
throned, crowned by two Cardinals, others seated. 
A Swiss guardsman kneeling. In the exergue, 
ROALE. 

I venture to suspect that the " triregno," or triple crown, 
upon a medal claiming to be of this reign is itself indi- 
cative of late workmanship, and suspicion is confirmed 
when we regard the reverse. 9 

Its legend points to one mode of election at a Papal 



8 Paulo Giovio. 14831552. 

9 Lorenzo Ghiberti, the goldsmith, celebrated as the founder 
of the bronze gates at Florence, made for Martin V. " wonder- 
fully rich mitre, formed of foliage in gold, the leaves being 
wholly detached from the surface, and of very beautiful effect. 
Vasari also tells us, in the life of Ghiberti, how he made a 
mitre of gold for Eugenius IV. 



140 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

conclave in after-times, when all others had failed. After 
long waiting, the little shout the spontaneous expression 
of a sudden unanimity in choice, the rush forward, the act 
of prostration, seemed to some an answer to prayers, the 
direct afflatus of the Holy Spirit ; and an election so 
carried was termed an election by " inspiration," or 
"acclamation," or "adoration." To others, men hardened 
in conclave procedure, it seemed, I suppose, rather the 
way in which an election had been carried by a coup die 
main, the result of skilful electioneering among cardinals, 
jaded by repeated acts of unsuccessful voting. Further, 
the kneeling Swiss guard here introduced must not be 
overlooked, for his appearance at once disposes of the 
medal's claim to be contemporary with Martin V. ; that 
famous body-guard was not constituted until the reign of 
Julius II. 150313. 

8. OJw. MARTINVS V COL VMNA PONT MAX. Bust 
of the Pope, similar to No. 1, but to left. 

Rev. OPTIMO PONTIFICI. In the exergue, ROMA. 
Female figure (Rome), armed, seated on a trophy, 
holding in her left hand a cornucopia, and an olive 
branch; in her right hand, a balance. Size 12. 10 

This medal is attributed (with a " perhaps ") to Pisa- 
nello, by Yenuti ; the reverse is wholly after the manner 
of ancient Rome, as exhibited on the imperial coins of 
Nero and others. Its idea of Rome, the capital, grateful 
to her Prince for the restoration of peaceable times, may 
be illustrated by our taking the words (quoted by Yenuti) 
of a contemporary diarist, who says, "Rempublicam 
quietam, et tranquillam reddidit, adeo ut quisque securus 



10 See " Guide to Italian Medals in the British Museum." 
Papal series, p. 79. C. F. Keary, M.A., F.S.A. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CEXTUKY. 141 

diuque noctuque aurum in manibus ferre posset ad CC. ab 
urbe lapidem ; fuitque de Romana Urbe multum bene 
meritus." Paul Benedict Nicolai. 

4. Obv. Side-face of the Pope, bare-headed; exactly like 
No. 1. 

Rev. DIRVTAS AC LABANTES VBBIS RESTAVR 
ECCLES. Front of a church with portico. Under- 
neath, COLVMKdE HVIVS FIRMA PETRA. 
(Of this column (Colonna) the stone is firm.) 
Size 12. 

Tbis medal, at first a cast, is a restoration in tbe form 
in wbicb it is known to us. 

Tbe fagade of tbe cburcb here represented is tba't of tbe 
ancient basilica of St. Peter's. To illustrate tbis legend 
[" Tbe churcbes of the city, ruined and' ruinous, he 
restored"], tbe following words of Platina 11 are quoted by 
Yenuti with effect : 

" Martinus autem ab externo hoste quietus ad exornandam 
patriam, basilicasque Rornanas animum adjiciens, Porticum S. 
Petri jam collabentem, restituit," &c. 

So much was done by bim in rebuilding, that he gained 
for bimself tbe name " Romulus tbe Second." 

The legend in tbe exergue plays on tbe Pope's family 
name Colonna, a name said to have been assumed when 
the first Colonna transported from Palestine to Italy the 
very column to which, as people believed, our Blessed 
Lord was tied for tbe scourging. 12 Tbe stability of Martin 
V.'s work with tbe instability of that wbicb he restored, 



11 Battista or Bartolomeo Sacchi, Secretary of the Datary, 
was the writer of " Lives of the Popes," from S. Peter to 
Paul II. He lived in the fifteenth century. 

12 Buonanni questions this tradition. 



142 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

was meant by the words of the legend to appear in con- 
trast. The first mention of the Colonnas occurs in the 
middle of the eleventh century. How they were common 
troublers of the city's peace, by their constant feuds with 
the Popes and the Orsini, will be recollected by those who 
have read nothing more about them than " Rienzi, the 
Last of the Tribunes." Their palace, which stands in a 
street leading out of the Corso, near the Foro Trajano, 
and is now the residence of the French Embassy, was 
begun by Pope Martin V. 

5. Ofo. MARTINVS V COL VMNA PONT MAX. Bust 
of the Pope, as on the obverse of others. 

Rev. IVSTI INTRABVNT PER EAM. A door, over 
which is the head of the Saviour, and on either 
side a candle. An allusion to S. John x. 9. 
Size 12. 13 

Originally cast (according to Venuti), the only example 
of this medal which I have seen was much later than the 
fifteenth century ; it had been struck from a die. 

EUGENIUS IV. 143147. 

The successor of Martin in the Papal Chair was Gabriel 
Condulmieri, a Venetian Elected March 2, 1431, at the 
age of forty-eight, he assumed the government under the 
name Eugenius IV. His pontificate was troubled and un- 
successful, and its troubles soon began ; first of all with 



13 A confraternity at Rome, called " The Society of the Most 
Holy Saviour," had, as their emblem, the device of this reverse. 
Peter Colonna (created Cardinal by Pope Nicolas IV., 1287, 
A.D.) had been the reconstitutor of this Society, and it was to 
his memory, quite as much as in the Pope's honour, that this 
medal owed its production. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 143 

the Colonnas, and then with the Council which was 
assembled at Basle in the year of his election. Two 
points, ahove all others, wei'e to occupy the fathers there : 
one was the much-desired union of the Greek and Latin 
Churches; the other was a reformation within the Church 
" of its head and of its members." As regards the first, 
the Pope was certainly in earnest ; the Council was serious 
as regards both. Its earlier decisions seem to have been 
acquiesced in by the Pope patiently, but not willingly, 
only through a dread of further schism ; his patience, 
however, gave way when the citation was sent him, the 
Pope, to appear before the Council in person ! He decreed 
its dissolution, it declined to dissolve ; he then convoked 
its assembling nearer Rome, first at Ferrara, then at 
Florence. This was in 1438. To Florence accordingly 
the Pope went, and thither went also many more ; but a 
recalcitrant minority stayed behind, enacting decrees and 
eventually going through the form of deposition, to elect 
another in his stead. 14 Thus Europe again saw rival 
popes, and was distracted in its choice between rival 
Councils. 

Meanwhile that larger half of the split-up Basle Council 
met at Ferrara, under the presidency of Eugenius; its first 
meeting was composed in spirit by the gratifying appear- 
ance there of the Greek Emperor, John VIII., Palaeo- 
logus, 15 of Joseph, the Patriarch "of Constantinople, and of 
a host of others bishops and doctors of the Orthodox 



14 This audacious act offended so greatly the King of Eng- 
land, Henry VI., that, in writing to them on the occasion, he 
addressed the Council as the " congregation of Basil." 

15 Bee his portrait on a medal of Vittore Pisano, " Guide to 
Italian Medals." British Museum, PI. II. 7. It is also found 
in the South Kensington Museum collection. 



144 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Church. Reconciliation between the long-divided East 
and West now apparently rose to view, terms of union 
seemed actually found, so that Greek and Armenian were 
again to be folded within the Roman pale. A Papal bull, 
"Sancti Spiritus," which is lying at this day in the public 
archives of Bologna, was issued by the Roman Pontiff 
at Florence, July 6, 1439, his own joyous presage of a 
coming unity. Eugenius was mistaken. It was terror 
only which had been driving men together, terror inspired 
by the aggressive forces of the Turk. In 1442, when the 
Synod of Florence was dissolved, there had dissolved also 
this beautiful mirage ; not only had Eugenius lived to see 
the "Western Church again divided, but the great Church 
of the East again had fallen apart. No wonder if men in 
Rome saw their master grave and melancholy ; or that, 
when death was not far distant, he was heard addressing 
himself by name, " Gabriel, how had it profited thee, to 
have been neither pope, cardinal, nor bishop, ending thy 
days, as thou didst begin them, following in peace thy 
monastic rule ! " He died February 23, 1447, and lies 
buried in the Vatican church, by the side of his pre- 
decessor of the twelfth century. 

Among the few medals of this Pope there is one in 
particular which possesses great historical interest, the 
medal which was produced to commemorate the Synod 
at Florence. 16 It is figured in the " Tresor de Numisma- 
tique " (Paris, 1839), PI. I. No. 4 ; and in Venuti (p. 7) 
it is described thus : 

16 On the bronze doors of the central entrance of St. Peter's is 
a kneeling figure of Pope Eugenius, and also a bas-relief of the 
Synod at Florence. Vasari reflects strongly on the employment 
by the Pope of inferior artists in the execution of this work. 

17 There is an engraving of it also in Buonanni, " Numis- 
mata Pontificum Romanoruin," p. 29 ; also, in Du Molinet, p. 3. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 145 

1. Obv. SVB EVGENIO PAPA IIII ANNO XPl 

MCCCCXLI VNITI SVNT. The Pope seated, 
vested, in the act of blessing, his left hand holding 
the Keys. On either side, a small coat-of-arms, in 
one are the Keys, in the other the Condulmieri 
arms. 

Eev. GRAECI ARMENI IN SYNODO FLOREN- 
TINA CVM SEDE APOSTOLICA. A 
crowned figure, with hands clasped, on his knees. 
On his right, another figure likewise kneeling. In 
the upper part the head of St. Peter, among 
clouds. Size 8, and also size 14. 

Of this medal, this "pulcherrimum numisma," as Venuti 
calls it, there is in the collection of medals at Florence, 18 
a cast, in gold. The crowned kneeling figure of course 
is John Palasologus, the Emperor ; the other kneeling 
figure Venuti conjectures to be the Armenian Nuncio; 
the legends, obverse and reverse, must be taken together. 
Whether it be the work of Vittore Pisano or not, shall 
be decided by others; it is perhaps enough to say the 
fact is questioned. 

2. Obv. EVGENIVS IIII PONT MAX. Bust of the 

Pope to left, wearing the triple crown, and 
" pluviale." 

Rev. Arms of the Condulmieri family, on a shield, azure, a 
bend, argent ; above, the Pontifical insignia. 
Size 12. 

This medal is evidently of late workmanship. It looks 
like one of Paladino's restorations, and is so noted by 
M. Armand. 

8. Obv. EVGENIVS IIII PONT MAX. Bust of the 
Pope, as represented on the preceding medal. 

18 This collection, in the Galeria Imperiale, was formed 
originally by the care of Mr. Fitton, a priest, who left England 
during the Protectorate. He was considered to be highly ac- 
complished in various branches of Archaeology. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. U 



146 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



CREANT ADORANT. In the exergue, 
BOMJE. This reverse resembles that of No. 2 of 
Martin V. in all particulars save size, for of this 
we have sizes 12 and 14. 

That which was said of this type before, applies here 
just as much. 

4. Obv. EVGENIVS IIII PONT MAX. Bust of the 
Pope to left, like No. 2. 

Rev. NICOLAI TOLENTINATIS SANCTITAS 
CELEBRIS REDDITVR. In the exergue, SIC 
TRIVMPHANT ELECTI. 

The Pontiff, before an altar, surrounded by cardinals, 
inscribes the name Nicolas " inter Sanctos," decreeing 
his canonization. At Tolentino, a town gouth-west of 
Ancona, there lived and died this Nicolas, whose canoni- 
zation occurred at Whitsuntide, June, 1446. 19 



NlCOLAUS V. (LUGANO, OR PARENTACELLl). 1447 55. 

This title had been assumed by one of the anti-popes in 
the preceding century. Corbario, a puppet of the Em- 
peror Lewis of Bavaria, was set up, in 1328, to oppose 
John XXII. ; but having subsequently surrendered his 
position and his person to John, Corbario died a prisoner 
at Avignon, in 1333 ; so that his name need not lead us to 



19 This medal is obviously late in date, but it has appreciable 
affinity with the reign of Eugenius ; not so, however, is it with 
two others, bearing his head, " EVGENIVS P'P QVARTVS," 
and " REDDE CVIQVE SWM." These, with another of the 
same kind, of Pope Martin's, " SIC OMNIS MVNDI 
GLORIA," I have excluded from our list, as having no more 
to do with those reigns, than the Lady Godiva on a Coventry 
token of this century has to do with the time of that ancient 
story. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 147 

confound him with the subject of this notice. There used 
to be in Rome a saying 20 that, " he who goes into con- 
clave a pope, comes out a cardinal ; " so surely was 
common expectation apt to be disappointed ! Thus it was 
now ; everybody expected the election of Prospero Colonna, 
a nephew of Martin V., but at last, to everybody's sur- 
prise, the choice of the electors fell on Thomas, Cardinal 
of Bologna ; and, as all have agreed, a better choice could 
not have been made. By prudence and judgment, above 
all by a spirit of conciliation, he found means, on his 
accession, to stem the tide which was flooding Italy and 
the Western Church with disasters. How was he to deal 
with that excommunicated self-asserting remainder of the 
Basle Council, as well as with him, who, by its authority, 
was claiming spiritual allegiance under the name Felix V. ? 
The attitude of certain European princes in part solved 
this problem. Felix was soon induced to renounce a 
position which he had held for nearly nine years, but 
which he had never coveted ; and on renouncing it, 
he was permitted to retain some of the pontifical 
insignia ; he was created Cardinal, Dean of the Sacred 
College, and Perpetual Legate in Savoy. Next, those 
ecclesiastical censures fulminated against the Basle Council 
by Eugenius were by Nicolaus removed ; nay, its very Acts 
were confirmed, and its dissentient members restored to 
their several benefices. 21 But if Pope Nicolaus by these 
and similar measures thus appeared on one side of Europe 
as the pacificator, on the other he played magnificently 
the part of a second Msecenas. During his pontificate 

20 Quoted in his book on "Papal Conclaves," by Mr. T. 
Adolphus Trollope, p. 141. 

31 Artaud, " Histoire des Souverains Pontifes Remains," 
vol. iii. p. 299. Paris, 1847. 



148 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turk, and 
the Empire of the East collapsed (1453) ; the collapse 
created changes in the West which amounted to little less 
than a literary revolution. A host of scholars, fleeing 
from Mahomet II., their hands laden with precious manu- 
scripts, coming to Rome, were received by Nicolaus with a 
splendid hospitality. In Italy, this was to quicken learn- 
ing with a new life, so that Greek classics translated got 
access anew to Latin minds to the minds of some whose 
fathers, not so long before, had regarded Petrarch as mis- 
creant, when he read their own Virgil. Nor is this all ; 
not only did Nicolaus become the founder of universities 
at Glasgow, Treves, and Barcelona, but the grand library 
of Rome was his creation. There he used his opportunity 
so well, that before his death the Vatican could boast the 
possession of nine thousand manuscripts ; while of that 
learning brought to life again, which made illustrious the 
reign of Leo X., it may be said the seeds were now being 
sown broadcast. But Art, in his day, not less than Learn- 
ing, felt the warmth of a fostering hand. It was by 
his invitation the great painter, Fra Angelico, settled in 
Rome ; as it was by his lips the artist's epitaph was 
believed to have been dictated. 22 In public buildings at 
Civita Castellana, at Narni and Spoleto, Rosselino was 
continuously enjoying his patronage ; while within the 
capital itself, his plans for the reconstruction of the 
Vatican laboured only under one difficulty, but that was 
irremediable ; the scale of them was such as to demand, 
not the foot-rule of the architect, but the wand of the 
enchanter. 23 

The death of this eminent Pontiff occurred March, 1455, 

22 Vasari, pp. 28, 86. S3 Ibid. p. 182. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 149 

and in the Vatican Basilica he lies buried. It remains 
for us to catalogue the medals which bear his name. 

1. Obv. NICOLA VS V PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope 
to left, wearing the triple crown ; his " pluviale " 
rich in arabesque work. 

Rev. Arms of Nicolaus V, or, two Keys cross-wise ; 
above, the Pontifical insignia. Size 12. 

A variety is described in Venuti, on which a wreath of 
laurel encircles these arms. Both these medals are of late 
work. 

A question has been raised, "Was his family entitled 
to bear arms at all ? Yasari, speaking of his buildings 
at the Vatican, says : " The little that was done may be 
known by his arms, or what he used as arms, which were 
two keys laid cross-wise, on a field of red." His father 
was an apothecary, and his mother, Andreola di Calan- 
drini, eked out the apothecary's income by rearing 
poultry. 2 * The story is told of her one day presenting 
herself at the Vatican, after her son's exaltation, attired 
as a pope's mother, according to her imagining, ought 
to be. The son, otherwise minded, declined to receive 
her, saying to his chaplain, "he well remembered his 
dear mother, who was a plain and decent body, and 
whom he would fain see again, but he had no desire to 
speak with the magnificent lady who had just entered the 
room." 25 The evidence of .ZEneas Piccolomini (afterwards 
Pius II.) would show that Nicolaus was of noble birth, 
a Parentacelli of Sarzana. 



84 Artaud, vol. iii. p. 30], 

M " Papal Conclaves," p. 144. 



150 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

2. Obv. NICOLAVS V PONT MAX. The head and bust 
of the Pope, as on the preceding. 

Rev. TOMAS LVGANO DI SARZANA MCDIIIL. 
The Pope's arms on the Pontifical insignia, the 
Keys and triple crown. Size 12. 

This medal names the Pope's birthplace, Sarzana ; it 
lies on the road between Spezzia and Carrara. Within 
the simple yet grand facade of the Duomo there has been 
erected a statue of Pope Nicolaus. 

On these three medals the effigy of the Pope is identi- 
cally the same, and that which Veuuti says of this, 
" posteris temporibus cusum," may be said of the others 
likewise ; but if we may not presume that we see on 
them a contemporary portrait, is it presumption to sup- 
pose we have in these effigies faithful copies of one ? 
The men were there to portray his features, and they 
did portray them. 26 Have we no likeness of the man ? 
A picture drawn by word of mouth, 27 describing his 
personal appearance, makes him " small in stature, with 
black eyes and large mouth, his voice strong and sono- 
rous ; " coupling with this description what Vasari says 
of his disposition, "a great and determined spirit, well 
informed also, thoroughly skilled in such undertakings, 
he directed and governed the architects, no less than he 



Z6 Vasari, " Fra Giovanni da Fiesole." 

27 Artaud, vol. iii. p. 312. 

28 Attavante, the contemporary of Fra Angelico, a renowned 
miniature painter, illustrated with elaborate drawing a copy of 
" Silius Italicus." " It is now," writes Vasari, " at San Giovanni 
e Paolo, in Venice ; " and proceeding to describe the paintings 
minutely, he adds, " on another page is the portrait of Pope 
Nioolaus V., taken from the life. He is drawn in profile with- 
out beard, and is looking towards the commencement of the 
book, which is oppo&ite to him, and towards which he extends 
his right hand, as if in admiration of it." 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 151 

was counselled and guided by them," and a good deal of 
the man's portrait seems set before us. 

8. Obv. NICOLAVS V PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope, 
as on the preceding medals. 

Rev. FELIX ROMA. The city, surrounded by walls. 
Size 12. 

I have not seen this medal, but Venuti (page 11) says 
it represents the Rome which Nicolaus beautified and 
remade ; " not only did he render it more safe with walls 
rebuilt, but by the enlargement of the Vatican, and the 
restoration of many churches, he adorned it." Four 
lines, taken from the Latin verses which survivors placed 
on his sarcophagus, sum up so well the causes which 
constituted Rome a " Felix Roma " in his day, that I am 
tempted to quote them here. 

" Consilio illustris, virtute illustrior omni, 
Excoluit doctos doctior ipse viros ; 
Abstulit errorem, quo Schisma infecerat Urbem, 
Restituit mores, moenia, tenipla, domos." 

4. Obv. NICOLAVS V PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope, 
as on the preceding medals. 

Rev. ANNO IVBIL MCDL ALMA ROMA. The 
holy door, closed. 1450. Size 12. 

6. Obv. NICOLAVS V PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope, 
as before. 

Rev. RESERAYIT ET CLAVSIT ANNO IVBIL 
MCDL. The Pope closing the holy door, attended 
by his cardinals. 1450. Size 12. 

These two medals are supposititious, the points which 
divide the words serve to characterize the work, and 
class them, but the subject chosen for the reverses deter- 
mines their date as false. 

The ceremony commemorated thus unhistorically was 



152 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

not instituted until the commencement of the following 
century. Number 4 is figured in the " Tre"sor de Numis- 
matique " (Medailles des Papes], and appears with the 
date 1450 in relief in the exergue. The other also is 
so dated, but in this case the date has been punched in, 
the figures produced by the punch (retrograde) are, like 
the last, comparatively early in form, but the general 
workmanship of both medals is far from early. False 
speaking as the medals are, the jubilee which they both 
commemorate is historical, for unhappily its occurrence 
was signalized by an accident, through the crowding of 
the populace and the pilgrims on the bridge of St. Angelo, 
by which nearly two hundred people lost their lives. The 
booths and shops which had narrowed the roadway of the 
bridge, and thus occasioned the accident, were by the 
Pope's orders subsequently removed. 29 

There are two descriptions of the next medal. One, 
that of Venuti, who simply says, after giving the legend, 
NICOLA VS . V . PONT . MAX, " Effigies, ut in prece- 
dentibus." For a medal which is regarded as contem- 
porary, Yenuti's " ut in praecedentibus " is not a satis- 
factory description of the obverse. This is his reverse. 

Rev. BED . (for sedit) AN . VIII . DI . XX . OB . XXV . 
MAR . MCDLV ; and, completing the legend (in 
the lower part of the medal), ANDREAS . 
GVACALOTIS. [Size 12]. 

The other is that which Mr. Keary gives in his " Gfuide 
to the Italian Medals in the British Museum," p. 79, with 
some little alteration. 



89 This bridge, which appears on medals of later Popes, is 
the Pons JElius, first constructed by the Emperor Hadrian, as 
an approach to his mausoleum. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 153 

This medal was cast, shortly after the Pope's death, by 
Andreas Guacalotis, whose name it bears, to show the 
esteem with which Nicolaus's successful reign was regarded. 

6. Obv. Bust 1. in papal robes, bare-headed. + NICO- 
LAVS PP A> QVINTVS; and below, -TOMAS-. 30 

Rev. SEDI ATraO OCTO DI XX OBIT XXV MAR 
MCCCCLHII. The Pontiff in a boat, the mast of 
which is a cross, from it hangs as the sail a banner, 
on which the Keys, crosswise, are seen displayed ; 
at the stern is a "ciborium" of ancient form. 
With one hand the Pope supports the cross, with 
the other he holds an oar by which he steers. 
Upon the side of the boat is the significant word 
ECLES1A. Below, ANDREAS GVACALOTIS. 
Bronze, 2'9. Figured in Venuti, p. 10, and also 
in the " Tresor de Nurnismatique." [Med. d'ltalie, 
1 partie, PI. XVLI. No. l.J 

Venuti has raised the question in his Preface, as to 
whether Guacalotis was the medallist, or, perhaps, rather 
the commissioner for medallists' work. 31 He inclined to 
think the last, and the opinion was adopted by Cicognara. 
This question, however, has been decided by Dr. Fried - 
Isender against Venuti's conjecture ; he identifies Guaca- 
lotis, or Guazzolotti, with Andreas del Prato, and assigns 
to him the date 1435 1495. 32 

Venuti makes this remark upon the medal, " Licet noil 
aifabre factum, ob raritatem tamen est in pretio." In 
Mr. Thomas's sale, July, 1844, Lot 2,114 contained one ; 
and another, cast in lead, was sold May 10, 1883, among 
the medals of Sir W. F. Douglas, P.R.S. A. 

30 Guazzaloti's use of two forms of the letter A, in this 
obverse, ought not to be overlooked ; one is like V reversed. 
See Dr. Friedlaender's remarks on this peculiarity. 

31 Venuti's words are, " Suspicari licet, ideo Guazoloti nomen 
nunaismatibus impressum legi, quod numismatum negocio prse- 
fuerit, non quod revera confecerit. Curani ergo adhibuit, non 
etiam manum apposuit. Pra?fatio, p. 18. 

32 " Italian Medals of the Fifteenth Century." Berlin, 1882. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. X 



154 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

CALIXTUS III. (ALPHONSUS BORGIA). 
1455_58. 

An aged Spaniard, seventy-seven years old, stepped 
into the place made vacant by the death of Nicolaus. 
Born at Valentia of a noble family, he had filled satisfac- 
torily various important offices. At first, Canon of 
Lerida, and secretary to Alphonsus, 33 King of Arragon, 
then, Bishop of his native city and Cardinal, Borgia 
was elected to the popedom, April, 1455, under the title, 
Calixtus III. If by no one else, his election seems to have 
been expected by himself ; some years before it occurred, 
he appears to have predicted with confidence that he 
should one day become Pope ! The person whose election 
had been expected by others was an ecclesiastic of a 
nobler sort, Bessarion, the theologian, Greek Archbishop 
of Nicsea, and titular Patriarch of Constantinople. Greek 
though he was, his efforts to bring about union betwixt 
East and West had induced Eugenius IV. to include him 
in the Sacred College ; and now, but for one malcontent 
cardinal, he would have become Pope. In public life, 
however, " alicui invidiam conflare " is only too easy, 
and the cry, " Shall we give a Greek, to be head over 
the Latin Church ? " was raised against him in conclave 
successfully by Alain de Cerif, Archbishop of Avignon. 
Thus Bessarion lost his chance, and thus Borgia was 
summoned to preside over the Latin Church, when he had 
little left in him to give her. A learned canonist, we are 



33 The portrait of this king appears in the " Intrepidus 
Venator " medal of Vittore Pisano. " Guide to Italian Medals, 
British Museum," No. 1. PI. I. An example of it occurs in the 
South Kensington Museum collection. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 155 

told that he would continue after he became Pope to cite 
his cases, in conversation, as though he were still professor 
in the law courts. By M. Artaud [vol. iii. p. 319] he is 
credited with " firmness of character ; " to prove it he 
has taken that answer of Calixtus to his former master, 
Alphonsus, " the Magnificent," when the King, through 
his ambassador, was demanding the terms on which his old 
secretary would live with him : " Let him rule his kingdom, 
and leave me to rule the Church." 34 I cannot think M. 
Artaud happy in his illustration. But then, was not 
Calixtus zealous for religion ? Unmistakably, he burned 
to chase the Turk back across the Bosphorus; yet zeal 
for religion is not identical with zeal in religion, and the 
old man's heart beat quite as strongly with another passion, 
an ambitious wish to uplift the Borgias. His short reign 
of three years and a quarter sufficed to give three of them 
undeserved preferment. Calixtus died in 1458 ; his body, 
at first interred in St. Peter's, was removed to Spain, the 
country of his birth, early in the seventeenth century. 

1. Obv.& CALISTVS PAPA TERTIVS. Bust of the 
Pope, with mitre, to the left. 

Rev." Lion's head," ALFONSVS BORGIA GLORIA 
ISPANIE. Arms of the Borgia family; "or, an ox, 
passant ; " above, the tiara, and Keys crosswise. 
This medal is in the British Museum ; an example 
also occurs at South Kensington. It is attributed 
by Dr. Friedlaender and M. Armand to Guazza- 
lotti, and in confirmation of this attribution it is 
well to observe how one mark, found on the 
obverse, the rose, connects this medal with another 



34 Of course there are some who defend Calixtus in his treat- 
ment of the king ; tbere are others who hold it formed part of 
his plan to detach Naples from Aragon, and secure it for his 
nephew, Peter Borgia. 



156 NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 

of Guazzalotti's, struck after Pius II. 's death ; and 
how another, the lion's head on the reverse, con- 
nects it with the work of the same medallist on 
No. 6, PI. XXIV. of Dr. Friedlsender's work, a 
medal of ALFONSVS FERD DVX CALABRIE- 
There the lion's head is opposed to a wolf's and 
one is taken by Dr. Friedlzender to symbolize the 
Turk, the other that Christian Prince. 

We have here a peculiarity observable which belongs 
to this period of the fifteenth century alone. The Pope's 
baptismal name appears on one side, and the name assumed 
by him at his election, on the other. Venuti describes, 
and indeed figures this medal, p. 16, as it is known to us 
in the recent type. I question whether he can have seen 
Guazzalotti's work. 

2. Obv. CALIXTVS III PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope 
to left, wearing a mitre, as on the types of later date. 

Eev.HOG VOVI DEO ; in the exergue, VT FIDEI 
HOSTES PERDEREM ELEXIT ME. 
Thirteen galleys, eight of which carry on their 
standards the Cross, the remainder a Crescent. 
Two of the Turkish galleys are in distress. Upon 
one, the most distant of those in the Christian 
squadron, the letters G. P. (G. Paladino) take the 
place of two of its " eyes," through which the oars 
passed. Size 12. 

This reverse, struck a century after the time of Calixtus, 
by the medallist G. Paladino, refers to a vow said to 
have been made by him before his election. 35 The galleys 
which he built, sixteen in number, were dispatched from 
Ostia under Louis Scaramfa, Patriarch of Aquileia, 36 to 
unite with the forces of the Christians ; they assisted in 

35 This device is also used on a medal of Pope Pius V., 1566 
A.D. 

M See a medal in the South Kensington Museum, giving 
Scaramfa's portrait. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 157 

rescuing Mitylene from the Turks, and restoring it to its 
prince. 

3. Obc. CALIXTVS HI PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope, 

as on preceding types. 

Bev. NE MVLTORVM SVBRVATVR SECVRITAS- 
View of a city strongly fortified ; in the space be- 
tween two bastions, the Papal arms. Above the 
ramparts, on one of the houses within the walls, 
may be detected the initials G. P. (Gr. Paladino, 
the medallist). Size 12. 

Venuti was evidently puzzled to account for this reverse, 
because no record remains of Pope Calixtus having spent 
a single baioccho on fortifications. Signed with the 
initials of Paladino, the medal is later than the time of 
Calixtus by at least a century. I regard it as expressing 
conventionally the Pope's readiness to protect the common 
faith, as the other expresses his readiness to attack the 
common foe. Of Paladino, the medallist, I hope to say 
something later on. 

4. Obv. CALIXTVS HI PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope, 

as on the preceding types. 

Rev. CLAVES REGNI CAELORVM. The Papal keys, 
crowned. Size 12. 

This reverse is altogether out of place here ; the legend 
belongs rather to the succeeding century, when it begins 
with Julius III. (1550), and is carried on in medals of 
succeeding popes. In my opinion, the medal itself may be 
classed with another, which Buonanni ascribes to Calixtus, 
but which Venuti's better judgment led him to regard as 
spurious. " OMNES BEGES SERVIENT El " is its 
legend, and a cross surmounted by the pontifical tiara is the 
device. In Venuti's preface, Buonanni's book is praised, 
but with this qualification, " genuina omittit ; spuria pro 
genuinis adoptat." (p. xiii.) 



158 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



Pius II. (^ENEAS SYLVIUS PICCOLOMINI) 1458 64. 

In the conclave held after the death of Calixtus, " there 
were some cardinals, who hunted the papacy for them- 
selves or their friends ; as there were some who, without 
any sense of shame, made speeches, pointing out their 
own fitness for it." 37 

Not such as these was the Cardinal of Sienna. All but 
silent, his silence was more effective than their speech. 
He said quietly, " It is God that appoints, not man." In 
vain did the Cardinal of Rouen, a man of profligate 
character, assail him by name : " How can you want this 
.ZEneas ? Would you elect a gouty old man, as poor as 
Job ? Shall we place a poet in the Chair of St. Peter ? " 
When, however, it came to the vote, a majority voted in 
his favour, a majority which afterwards, " by accession," 
obtained the requisite number ; thus the election of -ZEneas 
Sylvius Piccolomini was confirmed, and his coronation 
followed, September 3rd, 1458. He had sprung from a 
noble family at Sienna, having been born in Corsignano 
(1405). Nobility was its chief possession, for such was 
the poverty of his parents that when the youthful .2Eneas 
left home to take service abroad, the portion of goods 
which fell to him was a beggarly half-dozen crowns, the 
value of a mule his father had to sell. Strange to say, 
his fortune led the future pope into the service of an anti- 
pope, by his becoming secretary to that Amadeus, Duke 
of Savoy, of whom we have read as Felix V. Passing on, 
the secretary rose higher, he came to be the confidential 

37 " Papal Conclaves," p. 145. This is the account of a 
contemporary, the Chronicler of the Conclave. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 159 

agent and ambassador of Frederick IV., 38 the Emperor. 
Rewarded abundantly with marks of the imperial favour, 
at length he found himself ambassador to the Papal court, 
and being at Rome, he had the wit to make his peace 
there. Having thus changed sides, employment sought 
him quickly, honours followed employment ; in due time 
he was made bishop by Nicolaus, and cardinal by Calixtus. 
Last of all, Rome saw her "accomplished statesman" in 
the highest place of all, and gladly, for it was an election 
which promised to Rome a revival of her waning autho- 
rity ; indeed, it stood well outside the Curia, because in 
addition to distinguished power as a diplomatist, his varied 
learning and his lively writing had bespoken for Picco- 
lomini high place in the republic of letters. In part these 
promises were fulfilled, for Pius II., as Pope, certainly 
held his own. And yet, if his reign may read pleasantly 
in contrast with others of that period, no one would speak 
of it as a success ; and in part it was a failure. The 
council at Mantua, convoked as a goad to stimulate feeling 
against the Mussulman, was barren in results; no one 
except the Duke of Burgundy made a genuine offer of 
assistance. Then, too, by his politic change of side in the 
strife between Pope and Council, there was loss as well 
as gain. True, .^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini had become 
Supreme Pontiff, but it was at a cost. The world 
good-naturedly tolerates in us radical changes of opinion. 
You may attack vigorously to-day that which once you 
brilliantly defended, but men must not observe that you 
profit by the change. This, in his case, they did observe. 
The corner his conscience had turned was a sharp one, and 



38 Frederick IV. (the Peaceful), son of Ernest, Count of 
Styrmark ; elected 1440. 



160 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

if, in turning it, there appeared to others what looked 
like a moral upset, need we wonder if Pope Pius II. has 
not escaped the lash of the historian ? 39 It has been truly 
said, " No man ever laboured more than ^Eneas Piccolo- 
mini to restrain the power of the Pope within the boundary 
of the canons, and no Pope ever strove more to extend 
that power beyond all bounds." 

Death overtook him in August, 1464, when he had 
journeyed to Ancona, that he might head the flotilla 
fitting out for a new crusade. His obsequious physi- 
cians were too cheerful about the case, and so provoked 
him to exclaim, " It is one of the miseries of princes to 
be surrounded by flatterers, even in the hour of death." 
His body, removed to Rome, and buried at St. Peter's, 
some years afterwards was placed where it now lies, over 
one of the side doors of the church of S. Andrea della 
Valle, in a sepulchre designed by Pasquino di Monte- 
pulciano, on which is sculptured, " His portrait taken 
from nature" ( Vasari}. 

We come now to his medals, and in two of them we 
again touch solid ground, as regards authenticity in work- 
manship. 



39 Mosheim's " Ecclesiastical History," vol. iii. p. 428. 
And of him Mr. Hallam said, " Pius II. was a lively writer and 
skilful intriguer. Long experience had given him a considerable 
insight into European politics, and his views are usually clear 
and sensible. Though not so learned as some popes, he knew 
much better what was going forward in his own time." He 
also styles him " a wary statesman," " an accomplished but 
profligate statesman." Europe during the Middle Ages. 

I would refer those wbo desire further acquaintance with this 
" the most characteristic personage in the history of the 
Papacy during the Renaissance period,'' " a Gil Bias of the 
Middle Ages," to two excellent articles in " Macmillan's Maga- 
zine," by Mr. Creighton, vol. xxvii. 1873. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 16l 

1. 05r. PITS II PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope to left, 

wearing a cloak called the " mozzetta " and the 
close-fitting cap called the " camauro" " la coiffure 
habituelle d'un pape malade," says M. Artaud. 
Rev, GLORIA * SENENSI * DI * CAS * PICCO, 
LOMINI * Arms of the Piccolomini, argent, 
a cross, azure, charged with five crescents, or. 
Above, the keys, and oval-shaped tiara. Size 12. 

Yenuti calls attention to this legend, partly in Latin, 
in part Italian, as a proof of ignorance on the part of the 
medallist ; asterisks take the place of points in dividing 
the words of the reverse legend. 

2. Obv. Portrait, as on preceding medal, Venuti. But accord- 

ing to Friedlaender and Armand [I. p. 50], the por- 
trait resembles that on 4, with the legend, PIVS 
PAPA SECVNDVS ENEAS SENEN. 

Eev. PONT ANNO SECVNDO MCCCCLX. Arms 
of the Piccolomini on a shield ; behind, the keys ; 
above, the tiara. Size 12. 

This medal is known commonly in its recent form 
[No. III. of Yenuti' s] ; but in Dr. Friedlaender' s work 
(" Italian Medals of the Fifteenth Century"), under the 
works of the medallist Guazzalotti, he describes one, 
which doubtless is the work of the fifteenth century, 
with obverse, not "as in preceding medal," but with 
head bare, as in other early medals. Among Piccolomini's 
household gods the Piccolomini themselves must be 
included. Corsignano, his birthplace, is renamed Pienza, 
after himself; he erects it into a bishopric, he employs 
Francesco di Georgio, the architect, to design for it a 
palace and episcopal church "as splendid and magni- 
ficent as they could be," wrote Yasari. Sienna was raised 
to an archbishopric, and he actually bestowed on it Radi- 
cofani, though it formed part of the States of the Church, 
besides other tokens of his favour. Did this tincture of a 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. Y 



162 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

profuse partiality colour one of the high, official acts of his 
reign, when he canonized St. Catherine of Sienna ? 

8. Obv. The same legend and type as in 1 and 2. 
Bev. OPTIMO PRINCIPI. Size 12. 

I have not seen this medal ; Venuti describes it as cast, 
a presumption in favour of its authenticity. The legend 
on the reverse of course imitates well-known reverses on 
Roman coins. It appears to have escaped the notice of 
M. Armand. Among the good deeds of this Pope it must 
not be forgotten that, while others robbed the ruins of 
ancient Rome to build palaces for themselves, he, when 
elected Pope, to prevent such malpractices issued the bull, 
" De antiquis jiEdificiis non diruendis." 

4. Obv. AENEAS PIVS SENENSIS PAPA SECVNDVS. 
" Effigies, ut in prtecedentibus " (Venuti). "Bust, 
1. in papal robes, bareheaded." (Mr. Keary, 
" Guide to Italian Medals," p. 80.) 40 

Rev. <& DE SANGVINE NATOS ' ALES VT HEC 
CORDIS PAY!. Pelican feeding her young. 
Compare this with Pisano's reverse on the medal 
of Vittorino da Feltre, " Guide to Italian Medals," 
p. 5. And, observe how this "rose" connects 
Guazzalotti's work here with that on No. 1. of 
Calixtus III. Size 12. 

This rare medal is found in the British Museum collec- 
tion, and another example is in the cabinet of J. H. Mid- 

40 These two descriptions of the obverse do not present the 
same portrait. How are we to reconcile them ? The medal 
figured in the " Guide to Italian Medals," PI. III. 808, presents 
a lusty friarlike-looking man, not the ascetic Piccolomini of the 
other medals. Venuti's " ut in prsecedentibus " again is highly 
unsatisfactory, for the contemporary medal exists, and its 
obverse ought to have been known to him. I have no hesita- 
tion in regarding the ascetic likeness as the creation of after- 
times ; the other portrays -ZEneas Piccolomini, as in his 
published letters he very candidly portrays himself. 



PAPAL MEDALS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 163 

dleton, Esq., F.S.A., a member of our Society. 41 The words 
on the reverse were suggested by Monsignor Campani, 
author of a life of this pontiff. Its application to Pius II. 
is apparent when we recollect how surviving friends 
attributed hia death to one cause only, zeal against the 
infidel, it was a laying down of life, they said. " It is 
in association with the crusading spirit that Pius is 
generally judged," says Mr. Creighton. Certainly in his 
life-work there was no scant service, and he died in harness. 

6. Obv. PIVS II PONT MAX. Bust of the Pope, as 
before, in Nos. 1 3. 

Rev. VELOCITEK SCBIBENTIS . SOBOLES. A 
table, covered by a fringed cloth, stands on a tiled 
floor ; on tbe table are a number of bound books 
with clasps. One stands open, and on its pages 
can be made out IMPROBA TVRCARVM LEX. In tbe 
exergue, NE TANTI ECCLESLE PACIS- 
QVE AMANTIS DELEATVR, MEMOBIA. 
Size 12. 

A memorial medal ; though not signed, I think M. 
Arrnand must be right in assigning the workmanship 
to Paladino. Yenuti describes it as " cast " ; those 
which I have seen have been struck. It was in the 
spirit of this legend, " Ne tanti deleatur memoria," that 
Cardinal Piccolomini (afterwards Pius III.) caused ten 
celebrated frescoes to be painted in the library of the 
cathedral at Sienna, by Pinturic'chio, representing scenes 
in the life of his distinguished predecessor. Vasari 
describes them fully. There are no fewer than thirty- 
five pages of the Brit. Mus. Library Catalogue occupied 
merely with the titles of his books various editions the 
" soboles " of this prolific writer. His mind was of the 

41 At Sir William F. Douglas's sale of medals, May, 1883, 
one of this type formed Lot 11, and was sold for 11 ; it is 
described in tbe catalogue as " very fine." 



164 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

sort sometimes called encyclopaedic ; a treatise of his, on 
" The Nature of the Horse," lies imprinted to this day. 

The Pope, as he is represented by M. Artaud, " un pape 
malade," was a victim to gout, gravel, and an obstinate 
cough, though spare of frame and sparing in diet. Little 
in stature, of pale complexion, and with his hair gone, he 
appeared older than he really was. One cannot fail to 
observe how this representation of his appearance fails 
to correspond with the burly figure which appears on 
No. IV., and again on that with the reverse " Arms of 
the Piccolomini," in the South Kensington Museum 
Collection. 

6. Obv. PIVS II TERMAX PONTIFEX. Effigies ut 
in aliis " (Venuti). 

Rev. Three pedestals, adorned with garlands. Above the 
right-hand one is an eagle ; above that, on the left, 
is a swan. Over the middle pedestal stands a 
Cherub, with wings folded in the form of a cross. 42 

This rare medal, cast in oval form, I have never seen. 
Venuti says the reverse points to the Pontiff's famous 
erudition in three Arts, theology, philosophy, and in literis 
humanis. A prolific writer, among other books he wrote 
a novel ! Translated into various languages, it appeared 
in English, " The historie of Eurialus and Lucretia, 
written in Latine by JEneas Sylvius, and translated into 
English by C. Allen, London, 1639." 43 

ASSHETON POWNALL. 



42 There is another medal, with the head of Pope Pius II., 
and a reverse INSPERATA FLORVIT, which, not merely 
on Yenuti's authority, I exclude from our catalogue, as being 
spurious. 

43 " Enee Silvii poete Senensis de duobus amantibus Eurialo 
et Lucrecia opusculum " is the Latin title of the original. 




PHI LIBERT AND MARGARET OF SAVOY. 



XIII. 
BARE AND INEDITED SICILIAN COINS. 

HAVING recently had the opportunity of increasing my 
collection with some very fine Sicilian silver coins, I am 
very happy to make use of Mr. Head's kind permission to 
publish and illustrate some of them, with an autotype 
plate, in the " Numismatic Chronicle." l 

AETNA. 

1. Obv; AITNAION Head of Seilenos, r., crowned with 
ivy ; beneath neck scarabeus ; border of dots. 

Rev. Zeus seated r. on a richly ornamented throne 
covered with a lion's skin ; he wears an I/J,O.TLOV, 
which hangs over his left shoulder and arm, and 
holds in his 1. hand a winged thunderbolt ; the 
upper right part of the body is naked, the r. arm, 
slightly raised, rests on a natural knotted sceptre ; 
in the field in front of the figure an eagle, r., 
perched above the top of a pine-tree. 

JR. 1. Wt. 266 grs. [PI. IX., No. 1.] 

This coin I consider to be the most important of the 
whole ; its state of preservation is as good as can be desired, 
and the reverse type entirely new and most interesting. 
The only types which I have found bearing a certain 
resemblance to this one, belong to the old Arcadian federal 

1 These coins were formerly contained in a private collection 
in Sicily, and I feel sure that their description will be of some 
interest to the readers of this periodical, especially as two at 
least out of the number are entirely unpublished, and bear 
types which have not yet occurred. I will also seize this 
opportunity for describing some uncommon Sicilian copper 
pieces, which I purchased on previous occasions. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. Z 



166 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

coinage, illustrated in Von Sallet's Zeitschrift fur Numis- 
matik, vol. iii., PL VII., Nos. 2, 4, 8, and 10. 

The head on the obverse is similar to that on the well- 
known small silver coins with AITN or AITNAI, which 
Mr. Gardner, in the Catalogue of the British Museum, p. 
43, classes as having been struck at Catana, under the 
name of Aetna, between the years 476 and 461 B.C. The 
style and workmanship of the head on our coin bears a 
striking likeness to that of the head of Dionysos on the 
tetradrachms of Naxos figured in the " Numismatic 
Chronicle," New Series, vol. xvi., PI. III., No. 9., and 
B. M. Guide, PI. XVII., 29, and would thus confirm the 
attribution of this issue with the name of Aetna to the 
date just mentioned. 

Another reason which undoubtedly proves the connec- 
tion between my tetradrachm and the small coins above- 
mentioned, is to be found on its reverse ; the thunderbolt 
held by Zeus being the same as that which forms the 
principal type on the reverse of the small coins of Aetna, 
and which also occurs on some coins of Catana, having also 
on the obverse the head of Seilenos (B. M. Cat. Sicily, 
p. 42, Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11). 

GELA. 

2. Obv. Naked bearded horseman, r., wearing only a 
helmet; his r. holds aloft spear, his 1. reins, 
horse prancing. 

Eev. CEAA^ Man-headed bull, r., prancing, his tail 
turned up over his back. 

R.. 0-95. Wt. 268 grs. [PL IX., No. 3.] 

I have found no description of a coin quite similar to 
this : didrachms of Gela, with a nearly identical obverse, 
are not rare, but the reverse type on my tetradrachm is 
the only instance at Gelar where the entire body of the 



BARE AND INEDITED SICILIAN COINS. 167 

man-headed bull is represented, while the other coins of 
this city all bear the forepart only of this monster. 

GELA. 

8. Obv. Young head of river-god, 1., with short horns, wear- 
ing taenia ; around three river fishes. 

Rev. TEAQION (in ex.) Quadriga, r., driven by Nike 
wearing long chiton; horses walking; above, 
olive-wreath ; plain border. 

JR. 1-05. Wt. 266 grs. [PI. IX., No. 5.] 

This coin has been described and illustrated several 
times, for instance in the British Museum Cat. Sicily, p. 71, 
No. 54, and I have had an autotype of my coin added on 
the plate only on account of its exceptional state of 
preservation. 

GELA. 



4. Obv. ^lAOHI^O^ Forepart of man-headed ' bull, 
r., crowned by a female figure wearing chiton ; 
she stands facing, head 1., and holds olive-wreath 
in her r. hand, her 1. extended open. 

Rev. I/IOIOA3T (in ex.) Quadriga r., driven by 
male charioteer, wearing long chiton ; he holds 
goad in r. and reins in both hands ; horses walk- 
ing ; above, Nike flying r. and crowning horses ; 
border of dots. 

JR. 1-2. Wt. 265 grs. [PI. IX., No. 4.] 

This coin also is not inedited, similar ones being 
described in the Catalogue of the Northwick Collection, 
p. 28, No. 279, and in Mionnet, Supplement I., p. 388, 
No. 205 ; my reason for having it figured here is that the 
only engraving of a coin of this description, in Torre- 
muzza, PI. XXXII., No. 1, entirely fails to give a fair 
idea of its style, which, although a little archaic on the 
reverse, I would class to the beginning [of the period of 



168 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. , 

finest art. The legend XjQZIPOAlX also occurs on some 
small gold coins of Gela, where it appears round the head 
of a nymph, so that it seems rather to refer to her than to 
the river- god. 

Z ANCLE. 

6. Obv. Male figure advancing, r., wearing chlamys, with 
ends falling over both arms, hurling thunderbolt 
with r. hand ; 1. extended forward over altar 
with architectural design and honeysuckle orna- 
ment ; border of dots. 

Rev. DA/VKU AIO/V Dolphin 1. ; beneath, scallop 
shell ; border of dots. 

JR. 0-95 by 1-15. Wt. 263 grs. [PI. IX., No. 2.] 

Although the general attitude of the figure on the 
obverse, as well as the marine types on the reverse, rather 
point to a representation of Poseidon, I think it is meant 
for Zeus, and the object in the right hand, which a defect 
in the striking of the coin prevents us from distinguishing 
with certainty, is most likely a thunderbolt. The type 
was also described as Zeus, when this coin was mentioned, 
only from a metrological point of view, in Dr. Imhoof- 
Blumer's paper, Die Euboeische Silberwahrung (Monats- 
bericht of the Berlin Academy, June, 1881, p. 667). He 
had seen it in its former owner's collection in Sicily. 

In accordance with Dr. Imhoof 's theory my coin weighs 
as much as three of those of about 85 grains, with dolphin 
and DANKt'E on the obverse, and the peculiar reverse 
with a scallop shell in its centre ; at the same time it is 
identical in weight with the tetradrachms in use in the 
other Sicilian towns. If one does not admit that the issue 
of pieces weighing 85 90 grains, which occurs at a 
remote period at Himera, Naxos, Zancle, &c., is based on 
the same standard as the Attic coinage of the rest of the 



RARE AND INEDITED SICILIAN COINS. 169 

island, my coin would form the link between the two 
systems, being equal to 3 units of the one and to 4 of the 
other. 

FEDERAL COINAGE. 

6. Obv. Head of Sikelia, r., wearing earring, necklace, and 

diadem (?) ; hair rolled ; in front ... u . . A ; 
plain border. 

Rev. [ZY]MM A X IKON Lighted pine-torch fixed 
in the ground between two stalks of barley ; 
plain border. 

M. 1-2. [PI. IX., No. 6.] 

This is a variety of the coin described in the British 
Museum Catalogue, Sicily, p. 29, No. 3, and supposed to 
have been struck at Alaesa by Timoleon and his allies. 

Although only the final A of the legend on the obverse 
remains, there is scarcely a doubt that the traces of the 
third letter before it are those of an E, and consequently 
the inscription ought to be completed into ZIKEAIA- 

ENNA. 

7. Obv. Head of Persephone, r., wearing earring and wreath 

of corn. 

Jftm F.NNA (in ex.) Goat (?) standing r., before a 
lighted pine-torch, between two stalks of barley. 

&. 1-2. [PI. IX., No. 7.) 

I do not think this coin has ever been published cor- 
rectly before. Mionnet, i. p. 233, No. 207, gives a very 
similar specimen after Torremuzza, Tab. XXVIIL, 4. 
On this not very well drawn plate, the types are the same 
as on my coin, only there is the legend AAMATHP 
added on the obverse, which may have existed on my 
specimen, but is not to be read any longer. The principal 
difference, however, is that on Torremuzza's plate and in 



170 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Mionnet the diameter of the coin is given as 0'8 of an 
inch, while mine measures 1*2. Judging from its general 
appearance, style, and especially the similitude of the 
reverse type, it must be a contemporary of No. 6. 

NACONA. 

8. Obv . . . ^ NAION Head of nymph, r., wearing 
earring and necklace ; hair confined by fillet 
passing four times round ; border of dots. 

Rev. He-goat standing, r. ; above, pellet and bunch of 
grapes ; in front, leaf of ivy ; plain border. 

m. 0-45. Wt. 23 grs. [PI. IX., No. 8.] 

I bought this coin at the Bompois sale, in the catalogue 
of which (1882) it is described, p. 34, No. 448. It is 
designated by the single pellet, the mark of value, and by 
its weight, as the Uncia corresponding to the Trias in the 
British Museum Catalogue, Sicily, p. 117 ; by a singular 
coincidence the remains of the inscription on my specimen 
just form the complement of that on the London coin. 

L. DE HlRSCH DE GEREUTH. 



% XIV. 

REMARKS ON TWO UNIQUE COINS OF AETNA AND 
Z ANCLE. 

To the excellent descriptions of the two unique silver 
coins of Aetna and Zancle (PL IX. 1 and 2) which the 
Baron de Hirsch has contributed to the pages of the 
" Numismatic Chronicle/' I may be allowed to add a few 
comments by way of further illustration. 

The marvellous coin of Aetna, now first published, pre- 
sents us on its reverse with a conception of Zeus in many 
respects very remarkable, and to the best of my know- 
ledge not found elsewhere on coins. The attributes and 
adjunct symbols both on obverse and reverse, taken in 
conjunction with the type, may aid us in particularizing 
the idea of Zeus which the artist has endeavoured to 
convey. 

They give it a local colouring, so to speak, which the 
ordinary type of Zeus enthroned, familiar to us all (as 
e.g. on the coins of Alexander the Great), does not 
possess. 

In the first place the god rests his right hand upon a 
natural-knotted staff, bent into a crook at the top, instead 
of upon the ordinary royal sceptre. This peculiarity he 
shares, as the Baron de Hirsch has pointed out, with the 
Arcadian Zeus, who was worshipped on the summit of 
Mount Lycaeum ; but on the coin of Aetna the staff is 



172 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

extremely thin and slight, and exhibits the zigzag appear- 
ance which is characteristic of the growth of a stick of 
vine-wood, which I take it to be. 

It can hardly be doubted that the Zeus here represented 
is the great god of Mount Aetna, the volcanic soil of which 
was especially favourable to the cultivation of the vine, 
whence perhaps the vine-staff on which the god rests his 

arm. See Strab. p. 269. Ka0a7rep ovv TO irrjyavov rfj v\ivrj 
o-7ro8w rplfarai, TOIOVTOV ex eiv Ti ou((i<ap.a Trpos TT/V a/tTreXov CIKOS 
TT)I> AtTvatav criro&ov. 

Over the whole Aetna region Zeus was worshipped 
under the name of Zeus Airvatos : 

dXX,' 3> Kpovov TTCU, os Airvav 
ITTOI/ dve/Aoeo-crav e/caroyKC<aAa. 

Tv<6ivOS 6fJ.f3pLfJLOV. 

Find. 01. iv. 10. 

In the year B.C. 479 according to the Parian marble, 
or 475 according to Thucydides (III. 116), occurred the 
first great eruption of Mount Aetna of which we have any 
historical record, and it was about this time (B.C. 476) 
that Hieron took the city of Catana which stood beneath 
the mountain and changed its name to Aetna, expelling 
its ancient inhabitants and peopling it afresh with Syra- 
cusans. By the new citizens Hieron was solemnly pro- 
claimed oekist or founder, KTIO-TO>P AJWas. (Find. Fr. 71). 

The city was placed under the special protection of 
Zevs Atrvcuos, to whom Pindar has addressed one of his 
most splendid odes (Pyth. I.), in which in magnificent 
word-painting he describes the late eruption of the 
volcano, " Whereout pure springs of unapproachable fire 
are vomited from the inmost depths ; in the day time 
rivers (of lava) pour forth a lurid rush of smoke, but in 
the darkness a red rolling flame beareth rocks with a 



TWO UNIQUE COINS OF AETNA AND ZANCLE. 173 

plash to the deep plain of the sea; " and further he invokes 
the god who haunts the mountain and prays that the 
newly founded city may find favour in his sight : 



fir) Zev, TLV en/ 

o? TOVT </>e7reis opos, ev/cap7roio yat 

a? /LLT<i)7TOV, TOV //,' 
OlKHTT-fjp 

. K. T. A. 



It is noteworthy that across the throne of the god is 
spread the skin of a lion, or of some other mountain-bred 
beast of prey, but the most characteristic symbol on the 
reverse is undoubtedly the Pine tree, IXarrj or TTCVK?;, with 
which, according to Diodorus (XIV. 42) the slopes of 
Aetna were once richly clad : rrjv AiTvyv opos ye/iov car' 
eKttvovs TOVS \p6vovs TroAvreXous eAar^s re feat Treu/ojs. So also 
Find. Pyth. I. 53 : Am/as eV /ueAa/x<v'AAois Kopv^ats, and on 
the summit of the Pine-tree, again to use the words of 
Pindar, " the Eagle of Zeus sleepeth, slackening his swift 
wings on either side ****** and heaving his supple 
back in slumber." (Pyth. I. 10). 

On the reverse we note therefore two indications (the 
staff of vine-wood and the pine-treej that the deity 
represented is the presiding god of Mount Aetna, beneath 
whose shadow the city stood. 

. The obverse type and adjunct symbol are also equally 
characteristic of the place of issue. Seilenos, as we learn 
from Euripides' Satyric drama Kyklops, was enslaved by 
Polyphemos, and dwelt in the caves of Aetna with his 
savage master. More generally the head of Seilenos may 
be taken as pointing to the cultus of Dionysos, who, as we 
know from other coins, was especially revered at Catena ; 
but, as if still further to specialize the locality, the artist 
has placed beneath the head of Seilenos one of those huge 

VOL. III. TrflRD SERIES. A A 



174 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

scarabei, Kav6apoi, for which Mount Aetna was celebrated. 
See Aristophanes, Pac. 73 : 

ciffiyyay' Alrvalov fltyyFTOV Ka.v6a.pov, 
and the Scholiast's remarks on this passage : 

ju,eyciXoi Xeyovrai etvat Kara rrjv Airvrjv Ka.vOa.poi. fjiaprvpovcriv 
Be ol tTTt^wpioi, 'ETrt^a/a^ios Iv 'Hpa/cXe! TU> ITTL rov ^wcrr^pa '' Ouy- 
Xo^ayor CK TWV KavOapwv rwi/ //.eiovwv ou? <a<u TT/I/ A.ITVTJV 
rpoTrov 8e Twa KOU Ator^uXos tVi^wpfos' A.eyet 8e ev 2,icrv(f)u> 
" Atrvaios tern KfivOapos /3ta TTOFCOV." S'x^oK'A^s 
Aai8aAa> " dAX' ov /AEV 8?) KavOapo<s rG>v Atrvaicuv Trairws." Atyct 
8e Traj/Tws eixo^wv ets yueyav. HXarcov ev Eoprats " ws /xeya 
TTOW r/yv AITVTJV opos eTvai ^>acrt T/cynatpou, o0ev Tpe^enr^at, ras 
TWV avOpw-rrw ia-rlv Xoyos ouSev eXarrovs." 



With regard to the time of issue it may be remarked 
that Catana bore the name of Aetna for about fifteen years, 
but in B.C. 461, its old inhabitants drove out the Aetnaeans 
and the city once more recovered its original appellation. 

In point of style the tetradrachm of Aetna exhibits 
some technical peculiarities which are noticeable on certain 
other Sicilian coins struck apparently before B.C. 476. 
Thus the hard stiff folds in which the t/xanov of Zeus falls 
about his body bear a close resemblance to the folds of the 
chiton of Nike on a tetradrachm of Catana (B. M. Guide, 
PI. IX. 25), and the somewhat awkward way in which 
the eagle with closed wings sits above, but not actually 
touching the top of the pine-tree, may be compared with 
the equally unusual manner of depicting a bird (in this 
case an aquatic bird) with closed wings, standing, without 
any support, in the field of the obverse of the same coin of 
Catana, above the back of the bull. 

In fabric, as well as in style, these two coins resemble 
one another so closely (cf. the circular incuse, the border 
of dots, &c.) that one might almost be justified in ascribing 
them to the same workshop of the same engraver. 



TWO UNIQUE COINS OF AETNA AND ZANCLE. 175 

Another coin which in style is also extremely like our 
Aetnaean tetradrachm is the unique piece of Himera in 
the cabinet of the Prince of Waldeck (Imhoof. Mon. Gr. 
PI. B. 3). On this coin also the Nymph Himera wears 
an ample peplos, the folds of which are indicated in pre- 
cisely the same stiff and linear manner which is so 
remarkable on the coin of Aetna. All three pieces are 
certainly almost contemporary, and the date of the Aetna 
coin B.C. 476 461 may serve to fix the date, within a 
little, of the other two. 

Let us now turn to the tetradrachm of Zancle of Attic 
weight (PI. IX. 2). This coin is not only of the highest 
metrological interest, as the Baron de Hirsch and Dr. 
Imhoof-Blumer have already pointed out, but it is a docu- 
ment of considerable archaeological importance for the 
history of Greek art. 

From the very advanced style of the figure of the 
striding Zeus on the obverse I should have been inclined 
to attribute it to about the middle of the fifth century, 
but according to our historical data the name of Zancle 
was no longer in use after the death of Anaxilas in B.C. 
476, it having been superseded by that of Messana either 
at the time of the first occupation of Zancle by a mixed 
body of Samians and Messanians, B.C. 494 (Herod. VII., 
164), or on the expulsion of the Samians by Anaxilas 
some time before his death in B.C. 476 (Thuc. VI. 5), 
TOWS SE 2a/Aiovs 'AvaiAus 'Prjyivwv rvpawos ov TroAAa) vorcpov 

K/3aA.WV KO.I TTJV TToXlV ttUTOS (COdd. ttUTOls) ^V/X/i/KTCOV O.v6 '/3W7TIOI/ 

ouctVas, Meoxr/ji^v airo T^S eauroS TO dp^aiov Trarp/Sos dvTO)vo/xa<rc. 
Unless, therefore, we suppose that the name Zancle was 
not entirely discarded (cf. Paus. VI. ii. 10 where men- 
tion is made of the ancient Zanclaeans at a later period as 
distinct from the Messanians), we are compelled to fix the 



176 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

date of this most remarkable coin before B.C. 476. It may, 
however, be accepted as good evidence that the name of 
Zancle was not abandoned as early as B.C. 494. Even for 
a work dating from 476 the freedom of style and mastery 
of anatomical detail exhibited in the attitude of the figure 
of Zeus are, so far as I know, unexampled on any other 
ancient monument. 

To the accurate descriptions of the other coins given by 
the Baron de Hirsch I have nothing to add, except that 
the coin of Gela (PI. IX., 5) is not from the same die as 
the specimen in the British Museum (B. M. Guide, 
PI. XYI. 24). My friend, Dr. Hermann Weber, has, 
however, lately acquired a specimen of this rare piece, 
unfortunately in poor preservation, which is from the same 
dies as the remarkably fine specimen photographed on the 
Baron de Hirsch's plate. 

As it is always satisfactory to be able to trace the prove- 
nance of coins as important as those of Aetna and Zancle, 
I may mention that I have been informed that for many 
years past these two coins have lain in the cabinet of a 
well-known private collector at Catania, where they were 
seen some ten or fifteen years ago by Prof. Salinas of 
Palermo, and by Dr. Imhoof-Blumer. On the death of 
their original possessor they were offered for sale, with the 
rest of the collection, by Signer Verga, one of the heirs. 

The British Museum not being in a position to give the 
large sum demanded for the collection, which, moreover, 
consisted for the most part of ordinary Sicilian coins 
already represented in the national coin cabinet, the 
whole was acquired by the late Siguor Castellani, from 
whom the rarest specimens have passed into the cabinet 
of the Baron de Hirsch. 

BARCLAY V. HEAD. 



XV. 

COINS OF ISAURIA AND LYCAONIA. 

IN the first number of the new series of the Revue Numis- 
matique (1883 ; pp. 24-63), His Excellency M. Wadding- 
ton has made another valuable contribution to the numis- 
matics of Asia Minor by publishing a list of all the coins 
of Isauria and Lycaonia known to him, including those 
given in the work of Mionnet. Many of these hitherto 
unpublished coins are contained in various European 
museums, and in the rich cabinet of the author himself. As, 
however, there are in the British Museum a few coins of 
these districts which have been acquired since M. Wad- 
dington made his notes on that collection it may be useful 
to offer a description of them here, in order to give still 
greater completeness to his list. 

CABALLIA. 

1. obv. A K M ' (AYR?) ANTON6INO. Bust of 

young Caracalla, r., laureate. 

Rev. KAPAAAIIITON. Artemis standing r., hold- 
ing torch with both hands ; at her back, crescent. 

M. Size -9. 

2. obv. AY KAI Fl AIK OYAA6PIANON Y. 

Bust of Valerian, senior, r., laureate; in field, r., 

H 

Eev. KAPAAAIirniN. Pallas standing, holding 
in r. Victory, in 1. spear; behind her, shield. 

M. Size 1-3. 



178 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ISAUBA. 

3. Obv.ACY ' K M AY ANTON I NOG- Bust of 
young Caracalla, r., laureate, and wearing 
cuirass. 



Rev. MHTPOnOAGnC ICAYPIIN. Male figure 
(Caracalla) standing, r., wearing paludamentum 
and cuirass, his 1. resting on spear ; he gives his 
r. hand to Apollo, who stands looking 1., naked, 
and holding branch in 1. ; between the two figures, 
hind, looking back. 

M. Size 1-05. 

In describing this coin from the British Museum 
collection, M, Waddington (p. 38, No. 2) states that 
the figure on the left of the reverse is Hermes, hold- 
ing the caduceus. But the figure certainly holds nothing 
but a spear, and the details of a military costume can be 
clearly made out. The coin corresponds, in fact, with 
another issued by Caracalla for Isaura (Waddington, 
p. 39, No. 3), on which a military figure leaning on a 
spear is seen giving his hand to Apollo, while a stag lies 
down between them. 

DALISANDUS. 

4. oir. AVTOK KAIC A AVPH OV . . . 

Radiate head of L. Verus, r. 

Rev. KOIN AVKA AAAICANA6J1N. Zeus 

seated on throne, 1., wearing mantle over lower 
limbs ; in his outstretched r. he holds patera. 

M. Size -9. 

No coins of Dalisandus are known to M. Waddington, 
and the present specimen was only acquired by the Museum 
last year, from Mr. A. J. Lawson. The coin previously 
attributed by Borrell (" Num. Chron.," 1846, p. 2) to this 
place is given by M. Waddington to Laranda : its legend 
is very uncertain. 



COINS OF ISAURIA ANT) LYCAON1A. 
IcONIUM. 

5. Obr. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS. 

Bust of Gordianus Pius, r., laureate. 

Rev. COL AEL ' ADR ICONIEN. In ex., S R. 
Veiled priest guiding plough drawn by two oxen, 
r. ; behind, two military standards. 

M. Size 1-35. 

6. Obr. |[MP] CAES M AN GORDI[AN]VS 

[? in ex. S R]. Bust of Gordianus Pius, r., 
laureate. 

Rev. I CON I ESI ADRIA COL. Fortune wearing 
modius, seated 1. ; she holds in r. branch (?) 
and rudder, in her 1. cornucopiae ; before her, 
sphinx (?) ; beneath her seat, wheel. 

M. Size 1-4. 

7. Obr.-lM C P L GALLIENVS AV. Bust of 

Gallienus, r. 

Bet. ICONjENSIVM COL, in ex., S R. Wolf, r., 
suckling Romulus and Remus. 

M. Size 1-15. 

No. 7 is not described by M. Waddington, though 
he refers to it. It will be seen that it is somewhat 
different from his No. 24 (p. 49). 

8. Olv. IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F. Bust 

of Gallienus, r., radiate. 

Rev. ICONI6N ' COLO, 'in field, S R. Helmeted 
Pallas standing L, holding in r. patera, in 1. 
spear, round the lower part of which a serpent is 
coiled ; before her, shield. 

M. Size -9. 

Pallas occurs on other coins of Iconiura, but not with 
the serpent. In its twining round her spear as it does 
round the staff of Asklepios we may perhaps see an 
allusion to her functions as a goddess of healing Athene 
Hygieia. 



180 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

ILISTRA. 

9. Obr.AX OOnniAW NOIAYOI M. Bust of 
Philip, jun., 1., laureate. 

Rev. IAICTP[tu]N KOINON AYKAONIAC. 

Herakles, naked, standing facing, with head 
turned towards r. ; in his r. he holds cluh, in 1. 
lion's skin. 

M. Size 1-05. 

The emperor and god are new in the coinage of Ilistra. 

COINS or TYRA (SARMATIAE). 

I may take this opportunity of referring to a coin also 
published (by M. Muret) in the first number of the new 
Revue Numismatique (1883, torn, i., p. 64, PI. IT. 1), 
namely the rare autonomous silver piece of Tyra in Sar- 
matia, from the French collection. 

The British Museum possesses a similar specimen which, 
is worth noting here, as it was acquired (at the Sparkes 
sale) subsequently to the publication of the Museum 
Catalogue of the Coins of Thrace. The obverse of the 
French coin, according to the engraving and description 
of M. Muret, has simply a head of Demeter : but on the 
Museum specimen (weight, 86 grains) a band or stephane 
appears above the forehead of the goddess, above which, 
again, are two ears of corn laid horizontally, the whole 
being surmounted by the veil. The necklace on the 
Museum specimen has a pendant attached to it. The 
reverse of the latter coin is similar to the French, though 
not apparently from the same die, and the letter A is 
visible between the hind legs of the bull. The French 
specimen appears to be less satisfactorily preserved than 
the English coin, which may perhaps account for these 
discrepancies in the two descriptions. 

WARWICK WROTH. 



XVI. 

UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORI. 

THE well-known memoir by Dr. Finder upon the peculiar 
class of Greek coins, known in ancient times, as well as to 
modern numismatists, by the distinctive appellation of 
" Cistophori," has become, ever since its publication, the 
standard work of reference upon the subject. There 
remains, indeed, little to be added to his comprehensive 
survey of this extensive but peculiar and isolated branch 
of the Greek coinage. But his enumeration of its many 
minor varieties was, even at the time when it was issued, 
far from complete, and recent researches have added much 
to our acquaintance with this, as with all other classes of 
the coins of Asia Minor. Thus, in Mr. Head's valuable 
paper on the coins of Ephesus, 1 he has been able to 
describe fifteen varieties of " undated " Cistophori of that 
city alone, and above forty varieties of the dated coins, 
while Dr. Pinder was acquainted with only ten of the 
former, and thirty of the latter class. As my collection 
enables me to add materially to the number of such 
varieties, especially to those of the earlier or undated 
class of coins, as well as to those struck in other cities of 
Asia contemporaneously with them, I propose to present 
the readers of the " Numismatic Chronicle " with a brief 

1 " Num. Chron.," N.S., vol. xx. pp. 145152. 

VOL. 1IT. THIRD SERIES. B B 



182 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

notice of all the coins of this class in ray cabinet which 
are not mentioned either by Dr. Finder or Mr. Head. 
Such a catalogue would, however, have comparatively 
little interest, were it not for some considerations which 
have suggested themselves to my mind in connection with 
it, and which have a direct bearing on the still uncertain 
question of the period and circumstances of the introduc- 
tion of this peculiar coinage. 

1 begin with the Cistophori of Ephesus, as presenting 
the most complete series ; indeed, the only one in which 
the three subordinate series the undated coins, those 
marked with a date, and those which bear the name of a 
Roman magistrate are all distinctly represented. 

UNDATED COINS. 

1. Obv. Serpent issuing from the half-open cista mystica, 
within a wreath of ivy. 

fiev. Bow-case between two serpents; in the field to 1., 
head of Greek Artemis facing to r. ; in field r. 
E<I>E. PL X. 2. 

Only one variety is mentioned by Finder, in which the 
name of the city is found to the right of the principal 
type, and the accessory symbol (a head of Helios, seen in 
front) to the left. The same variety, and no other of the 
same disposition, is found in the British Museum. 

2. Same types on obverse and reverse, but the letters E4>E 
in field to left of the bow -case (as in all the 
following coins), and on the right, a bee within 
a wreath. PI. X. 1. 

This elegant symbol is not found on any of the Cisto- 
phori described by Dr. Finder or by Mr. Head, 2 but nine 

2 Mr. Head has, however, described and figured (PL IV. 
Fig. 13), from a specimen in the British Museum, a quarter 
Cistophorus, or drachm, with the same emblem in the field. 



UNPUBLISHED C1STOPHORI. 183 

specimens of this variety were contained in a small find 
to which I shall have occasion further to refer, and two 
of these are in my cabinet. 

8. Same as preceding coin, but in field to r. a stag standing, 
with a column behind it, which supports a small 
figure of the Greek Artemis. 

4. Same as before, but in field to r. a palm-tree. 

5. Same, but to r. the head of a lion (?). 

6. Same, but in field a rudder. 

7. Same as No. 2, but bee not in a wreath. 

8. Same, but in field Greek Artemis, standing, to r., before 
her a stag. 

All the above coins, with the exception of No. 1, were 
derived from the small find already mentioned, which con- 
tained in all twenty coins of Ephesus. None of these had 
a date. 

DATED COINS.* 

9. Usual types, on reverse date IA ; above the bow-case, 
between the serpents' heads, a lighted torch ; in 
field to r. a long torch. 

This date is not found in Mr. Head's list ; it therefore 
serves to fill up a gap in the series of years. 

10. Same as before, but the date HA, and between the 
serpents a stag, standing. 

Also an unpublished date, but the stag, as a symbol, is 



3 There is one coin described by Dr. Finder and by Mr. 
Head in his list with the letter K in the field, which they do 
not regard as a date, though it occupies the same place on the 
coin that is usually so interpreted, because the coin in question 
has in the field on the right a small bust of the Greek Artemis, 
and wants the long torch which appears to be characteristic of 
the usual series bearing dates. Notwithstanding this variation 
it appears to me more probable that the letter K is intended for 
a date. The year 20 is not represented in the regular series of 
dated corns. 



184 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

found, according to Dr. Finder, on a Cistophorus with the 
date of the year 8 (H). 

The following Cistophori of other cities in Asia Minor 
are arranged in geographical order. 

PAEIUM. 

11. Usual types; in field 1. the monogram ]J ; on r. a wreath 
with dangling fillets. 

The accessory symbol is new, and as a wreath is of 
common occurrence on the coins of Parium, may serve in 
some degree as a confirmation of the attribution of the 
Cistophori with the above monogram to Parium, on which 
doubt has been thrown by Dr. Pinder. 

ADKAMYTTIUM. 

12. Usual types ; in field 1. the monogram ^^ ; above, be- 
tween the heads of the serpents, the monogram [^j ; 
in field to r. a diota. 

The symbol is new, though the monogram is the same 
as Pinder's No. 5. 

13. Same as preceding, but in field to r. a filleted caduceus; 
above, two monograms ^ and J>J. 

Slightly varied from Pinder's No. 4. 

PERGAMUM. 

The Cistophori of this city are by far the most numerous 
of all, though they do not present so many varieties, and 
do not form nearly so interesting a series as those of 
Ephesus. But I think all collectors will concur with me 
in regard to the fact that while the coins of Pergamum of 
this type are decidedly common coins, those of Ephesus, 
as well as the other cities of Asia, are comparatively rare, 
and seldom occur in ordinary or miscellaneous sales. The 



UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORl. 185 

point is one of considerable importance in determining 
the origin and circumstances of this peculiar coinage. 

It is hardly necessary to remark that there are no 
dated Cistophori of Pergamum. They may, however, be 
divided into two classes, corresponding nearly with the 
undated and dated coins of Ephesus : the first consisting 
of those which have varied accessory symbols in the field, 
but no letters or monograms above the bow-case ; the 
others have the invariable symbol of a thyrsus with a 
serpent twined around it, and two or more letters in the 
upper field of the coin, generally accompanied with the 
monogram Jpt for F1PYT, showing that the letters are 
evidently the initials of a magistrate's name. 

Of these the latter class is very much the most common. 
Dr. Finder has only seven or eight varieties of the former, 
to which the small " find " already adverted to enables me 
to add the six that follow. 

14. Usual types ; the monogram -jfjr (as usual on all the 
coins of this city) in field to 1., to r. a caduceus, 
horizontal. 

15. Same as above, but with bunch of grapes as accessory 
symbol. 

16. Same, but with standard. 

17. Same, with ivy-leaf. 

18. Same, with eagle standing. 

19. Same, with vase placed horizontally. 

The following coin is in some degree intermediate be- 
tween the two classes, like those numbered 85 to 88 in 
Dr. Finder's list. 

20. Types as before ; above ^\ ; in field to r. thyrsus with 
fillets. 

The next two distinctly belong to the second class. 

21. Same as above, with monogram jf between the heads 
of serpents, in field thyrsus with snake round it, 
as on all the coins of the second class. 



186 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

22. Types as usual, but with AZ above the monogram of 

HPYT. 

To these I may add a coin of the third class ; those 
bearing the names of the Roman governors of the pro- 
vince, in addition to the names of local magistrates. 
This interesting class of coins has been fully investigated 
and described by Dr. Finder, but subsequent researches 
have added to the number of varieties. Of Pergamum he 
describes only four coins of this class, three of them 
struck under the government of C. Claudius Pulcher, who 
was proconsul in Asia from the year of Rome 699 to 701 
(B.C. 5553), and the other, which is a very peculiar 
variety, bearing the name of Q. Metellus Pius Scipio, of 
whom no other coins are known. 

23. Types as usual; in field above C ' FABI * M ' F * 
PRO* COS in two lines; beneath AH M AC- 
PI. X. 4. 

Coins of C. Fabius, who was proconsul of Asia in u.c. 
696 697 (B.C. 58 57), are given by Pinder from Apamea, 
Ephesus and Tralles, but none has yet been published that 
was struck at Pergamum. 

To the above list of coins of this type, undoubtedly 
struck at Pergamum, I am disposed, though with con- 
siderable diffidence, to add one that has long been a source 
of perplexity to me, and that in any case presents an 
anomalous exception to all other coins of the class. 

24. Types as on the coins of Pergamum, of the earlier class, 
without the monogram of HPYT, or the initials 
of a magistrate's name, but having in the field 
to 1. instead of the monogram of Pergamum (&}, 
a complicated monogram, composed apparently 
of A, I, N, and Y, with the addition of a lunated 
sigma or crescent, which is hardly joined to the 
monogram, though probably intended to form 
part of it ; in the field to the r. is a diota, placed 
horizontally. PI. X. 3. 



UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORT. 187 

The absence on this coin of the unfailing monogram of 
Pergamum, and the presence of another monogram in the 
place usually occupied either by that or by some other 
monogram indicative of the city where the coin was 
struck, as in the cases of Adramyttium and Parium, seem 
at first sight to leave no doubt that here also the mono- 
gram, though otherwise unknown, must be so interpreted. 
But repeated attempts, both on my own part, and on those 
of my numismatic friends, failed to suggest any plausible 
attribution, 4 and the field of conjecture is materially 
narrowed by the circumstance that Cistophori certainly 
appear to have been issued only by cities of considerable 
importance. In this state of doubt, I observed that Dr. 
Pinder cites from the Museum at Munich, a coin which 
bears indeed the ordinary monogram of Pergamum, but 
has beneath it one which, though not identical with that 
on my coin, closely resembles it, especially in the position 
of the lunated sigma, and this suggested to my mind the 
probability that the monogram which had so long puzzled 
me was merely that of a magistrate, which had been 
placed by an error of the moneyer in the space which 
ought to have been occupied by the name of the city, and 
hence the latter had inadvertently been omitted altogether. 
A strong confirmation of this idea is found in the position 
of the diota that forms the accessory symbol in the field 
to the right, which is precisely similar to that on No. 19 
above described. The same singularity of the accessory 



4 I was at one time disposed to interpret the monogram as 
standing for Nysa, but this certainly leaves a A unaccounted 
for. Synnada, which is not known to have struck Cistophori, 
but may very well have done so, would suit better, but that it 
eeems difficult to suppose that the lunated sigma, added as it 
were outside the monogram, could be taken for its first letter. 



188 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

symbol being placed in a horizontal position or direction, 
if the coin be viewed in the ordinary manner, is found 
in several other instances on Cistophori of Pergamum as 
in the case of the caduceus on No. 14, the flaming torch 
(Finder, No. 84), and even the eagle on No. 18 5 but so 
far as I have observed on those of no other city. Hence 
its occurrence on the coin in question appears to me 
almost conclusive as to its attribution, notwithstanding 
the omission of the otherwise universal characteristic of 
the monogram of Pergamum. 6 

SAUDIS. 

The Cistophori of this city are among the rarest of the 
series. Dr. Pinder has only six varieties, which, singularly 
enough, present the initials of the city in four different 
modes, as ZAP, CAP, and two different monograms. 
Three of his varieties are in my collection ; the following 
is unpublished. 

25. Usual types, with ZAP in field to 1., to r. a star. 

To these I can add (No. 26) a half Cistophorus, of usual 



5 The peculiar position of the accessory in these cases may 
perhaps be connected with that of the ever-present monogram 
of the city, which, as remarked by Dr. Pinder (p. 563), is 
always found in the half-inverted position of jfja, instead of the 
more natural $-. 

6 A very similar case may be cited in the omission of the 
essential letters A0E from the two first series of the later 
Athenian coinage, though found on all others (see Beule, " Mon- 
naies d'Athenes," pp. 145 148). Even in our own days the 
well-known omission of the letters D. Gr. from the first issue 
of florins in England will ssrve to show that such accidents may 
happen, even in mints regulated with a degree of care and 
method which was certainly not to be found in those of 
ancient Greece. 



UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORI. 189 

types, with the monogram of Sardis, as on Finder's PL I. 
Fig. 10. PL X. 5. 

No half Cistophorus of Sardis has been previously pub- 
lished, this denomination being as yet represented only in 
the much more extensive coinage of Ephesus, Pergamum, 
and Tralies. 

TRALLES. 

The Cistophori struck in this city are very numerous, 
and present many varieties. They may be divided, like 
those of Pergamum, into two classes, besides those which 
bear the name of a Roman governor. Of these the second 
class, which have the name of a magistrate, are the most 
common. Dr. Pinder, however, enumerates eleven varieties 
of the first class, without any magistrate's name, to which 
I am enabled to add the following eight new ones, from 
specimens in my collection. 

27. Usual types ; in field to 1. TPAA ; between the ser- 
pents' heads a star, and in field to r. a radiated 
head to r. ; beneath, a complicated monogram. 
PI. X. 6. 

28. Same types, and TPAA, as on all the following coins ; 
in field to r. a laureated head (Apollo ?) to r. 

29. Same as above, but with head of Zeus on a sceptre in 
the field. PL X. 7. 

30. Same, but between the serpents' heads A, and in field 
to r. helmeted head of Pallas. 

81. Same, but in field an eagle standing with wings spread. 

32. Same, but in field an ear of corn. 

33. Same, but in field a thunderbolt. 

34. Same, but with bull's head in field. 

The half and quarter Cistophori also, which are always 
much more rare than the full-sized coins, are less un- 
common in the case of Tralies than of any other city. 
Pinder has a long list of the half Cistophori or didrachms. 
The following variety of the drachm or quarter Cistophorus 
is unpublished. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. C C 



190 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

35. Usual types ; in field of reverse to 1. TPAA, and to r. 
an eagle standing. PL X. 8. 

LAODICEA. 

The Cistophori of this city are numerous and varied ; 
almost all of them have magistrates' names. The coin 
immediately following is an exception. 

86. Usual types ; in field to 1. AAO, to r. a dog running, 
and beneath it a lyre. 

37. Same as preceding, but in field, above the quiver and 
between the heads of serpents, KPATinOOY. 7 

38. Same, but with magistrate's name IFinOXAITHZ 
AEINOMAXOY, and a winged caduceus to r. 
(as in all the following coins). 

39. Same, but with A<t>OBHTOZ 4>IAinnOY. Pl.X. 9. 

40. Same, but with LENTVLVS IMP. above, and be- 
neath KPATinnoz. PI. x. 10. 

41. Same, but above PVLCHER IMP, and beneath 
AHOAAIiNIOZ EYAPXOY. 

Both these two last coins are new varieties of the com- 
paratively small series of Cistophori which bear the name 
of Roman magistrates. The first differs only from that 
figured by Finder (PI. I. Fig. 27) in having a new name 
of the Greek magistrate below ; but on the second it is 
worthy of note that Claudius Pulcher bears the title of 
Imperator (IMP) instead of that of Proconsul (PRO 
COS.), which is not found on any coin previously pub- 
lished of Laodicea, though it appears on those of Apaniea. 

APAMEA. 

The Cistophori of this city differ as a series from those 
of most others, inasmuch as they all have magistrates' 

7 The occurrence of this name on a coin of the second 
autonomous class, which is again found on a later coin (No. 40) 
associated with that of the Roman governor Lentulus, is worthy 
of notice. The name, however, is a common one, and may not 
refer to the same person. 



UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORI. 191 

names, and there are none that correspond to those of the 
first class of Ephesus and Tralles, with various symbols in 
lieu of magistrates' names. They all bear the unvarying 
symbol of a double flute in the field to right ; in the same 
manner as those of the second class at Ephesus have 
uniformly the long torch, those of Laodicea the winged 
caduceus, &c. The only varieties they present are there- 
fore those of the magistrates' names. Of these the follow- 
ing are unpublished. 

42. Types as above described, but with AIOTPE^OYZ 

in two lines, between the heads of serpents. 
48. Same as above, but with MIOPA MY.QNI. 
44. Same, but with MYTA. 

Dr. Finder has given several varieties of what may be 
called Proconsular Cistophori, struck at Apamea, and 
bearing the name of the Roman governor of the province. 
To these, two more may be added. 

45. Types as in Finder's plate Fig. 26, with LENTVLVS 
IMPERATOR above the bow-case, and beneath 
it KAZTOPOZ. 9 PI. X. 11. 

46. Same as preceding, but above the bow-case PVLCHER' 
PROCOS-, and beneath, MYIZKOY. 

Here the local magistrate's name is already well known, 
and published by Mionnet and Dr. Finder (PI. I. Fig. 26), 
but associated with the Roman name of Lentulus Im- 
perator. The occurrence of the same local name in con- 
junction with two different Roman governors is very rare. 
A similar instance, however, is found in the case of 
APICTOKAHC, whose name appears on Cistophori 
struck at Tralles under the proconsulate of Claudius 



8 There appear indications of a second name under that of 
Castor, but the letters are off the coin from want of space. 



192 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Pulcher, and again under C. Fannius. 9 The name of 
Pulcher Pro Cos on my coin is distinctly legible, though 
the letters are very faint; but the letters outside the 
serpents' heads are not visible, and it is therefore im- 
possible to say whether the coin belongs to C. Pulcher or 
his brother Appius, who ruled over the province of Cilicia 
(in which Phrygia was then included) some years later. 

It will thus be seen that I have been able to add no 
less than forty-six unpublished varieties of Cistophori to 
the catalogue of those given by Dr. Pinder. By far the 
greater part of these belong to the earlier series of this 
class of coins ; those which are characterized by the 
absence of dates, and of magistrates' names or initials, 
instead of which they present varied accessory symbols. 
A large portion of these are derived from the small " find " 
of coins of this class to which I have already repeatedly 
alluded, and which was forwarded to me for inspection and 
selection by Mr. Lawson, of Smyrna, in 1876. It con- 
sisted in all, I believe, of fifty-four coins, all Cistophori, of 
which there were 

14 of Pergamum 

20 of Ephesus 

11 ofTralles 
6 of Parium 
2 of Sardis 
1 of Laodiqea. 

None of these bore a date or the name of a magistrate, 
and the absence of any coins of Apamea, which are among 



9 See Pinder, Nos. 187, 190. As the latter is only cited by 
him from Eckhel, who described it from a bronze coin that had 
been plated (" anima subaerati" Sylloye, PI. V. Fig. 7), I 
may mention that I have one perfectly genuine, and in good 
condition. 



UNPUBLISHED C1STOPHORI. 193 

the commonest of the whole class, but all have magis- 
trates' names, tends further to confirm the separation of 
the two classes. It appears certain that this little hoard 
was deposited before the introduction of the second or 
later description of Cistophori, which in the case of 
Ephesus the only one where they are marked by dates 
may be fixed at the year B.C. 133. We thus obtain a 
reasonable assurance that all the varieties included in it 
belong to the same period, and that this earlier coinage 
was therefore considerably more varied and extensive than 
had been before surmised. 

It is well known that Professor Hommsen, in his great 
work on the Roman Coinage, has advanced the opinion 
that the coinage of Cistophori in Asia began with the 
creation of the Roman province of that name, and that no 
such issue could have taken place under the government 
of the kings of Pergamum. 10 Dr. Pinder also, without ex- 
pressing his conclusion so positively, appears to incline to 
the same view. 11 But Mr. Head, in examining the 
sequence of the coins of Ephesus, 12 was led to consider 
them as divided into two distinct classes (as above 
indicated), of which he regards the undated coins as pre- 
ceding those which were marked with dates, and unques- 
tionably belonging to the period of the Roman province, 
beginning with the epoch of its first establishment. I 
had long before arrived independently at the same con- 
clusion, in which I should have thought that all 
numismatists would concur : but the much greater 
number of varieties which my collection presents, than 

10 Mommsen, " Histoire de la Monnaie Romaine," vol. i. 
pp. 6367 ; vol. iii. p. 301. 

11 " Die Cistophoren," p. 553. 

" "Num. Chron.," N.S., vol. xx. 



194 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

are found in the British Museum, adds materially to the 
force of this inference, and renders it at least probable 
that the coinage in question was spread over a wider space 
of time than is allowed by Mr. Head. Treating of the 
coins of Ephesus alone, to which his attention was for the 
time confined, he considers the undated Cistophori to 
belong to the interval between 159 and 133 B.C., and 
suggests that the fifteen or more varieties of them enume- 
rated in his list may very probably be the coinage of the 
twenty-five years comprised between these dates. 13 The 
eight additional varieties which I have given above would 
very nearly fill up the gap, supposing the symbols to 
represent annual magistrates, as suggested, with much 
plausibility, by Mr. Head. But it is extremely improb- 
able that where one small " find " has added seven new 
varieties out of twenty coins in all of Ephesus, nine of 
which had the same symbol there should not remain 
many others to be added to our lists, when this class of 
coins comes to be more diligently collected. And while 
the conclusion of the period fixed by Mr. Head is 
established beyond doubt, his initial limit appears to me 
to rest upon very vague and insufficient arguments, for 
evidence in the true sense of the word there is none. He 
has apparently adopted the year 159 as being the com- 
mencement of a new reign that of Attalus II. the last of 
the kings of Pergamum though he has himself previously 
suggested the probability that this new system of coinage 
was originated by Eumenes II., after the fall of Rhodes 
in B.C. 167. It is true that there exist a few tetradrachms 
of the Attic standard, with the head of Philetaerus, some 
of which may probably have been struck at Ephesus under 

13 "Num. Chron.," N.S., vol. xx. p. 146. 



UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORI. 195 

the rule of the Attalid kings of Pergamus, but these coins 
are few in number, and of comparatively rare occurrence, 14 
so that it cannot be assumed without further proof that 
they were the only coinage issued in the long period 
during which Eumenes II. ruled over a great part of 
Asia Minor (B.C. 189159). 

Now the fact that coins of the Cistophorus type were 
struck under the reign of Eumenes II., though perhaps in 
small numbers, seems to be established beyond a reason- 
able doubt by the occurrence of the rare coins, of which 
the following is an unpublished variety. 

Obr. Serpent issuing from the cista mystica, within a 
wreath of ivy. 

Rev. Two coiled serpents erect, with a bow-case between 
them ; in field above, between the heads of 
serpents, a thunderbolt ; on each side a small 
human head, looking outwards : 15 beneath 
ZTPA, and within the coils of the serpents the 
letters BA EY. Wt. 194 grs. PI. X. 12. 

A specimen somewhat similar to this is described by 
Borrell in the " Numismatic Chronicle " (O.S., vol. viii. 
p. 13,) and is as ;ribed by him to Thyatira on account of 
its having the letters QYA in the field to the left. 



14 Without attempting to enter on the perplexing subject of 
the coinage bearing the name of Philetaerus, it may be observed 
that by far the most numerous of the coins of this class are 
those marked with- the letter A, and with an ivy-leaf ; those 
with the monogram of Eumenes, and with a bee in the field, 
which are very inferior in style and execution to those of the 
earlier period, are much less common. 

15 These heads are so minute that it is impossible on my coin 
to determine their character ; but on that in the British Museum 
it is distinctly seen that the one on the left is a youthful head, 
probably of Apollo, wh^le that on the right has a long beard. 



196 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Another specimen in imperfect condition is described by 
Dr. Finder from the Museum at Munich, but without the 
name of the city, and with APOA beneath. There is a 
third specimen in the British Museum (PL X. 13), appa- 
rently identical with that at Munich, having no name of a 
city, but AflOA beneath ; and being in very good preserva- 
tion, the letters BA EY are quite distinctly legible, within 
the serpents, as they are also on the coin in my cabinet. 16 
While therefore the evidence of these two additional 
specimens strongly confirms the doubt expressed by Dr. 
Pinder as to the attribution of these peculiar coins to 
Thyatira, they seem to preclude all doubt as to the 
signification of the letters BA EY, which being thus 
found upon different varieties, with varied magistrates' 
names, can scarcely be interpreted otherwise than as the 
initials of " the king Eumenes." That the letters below 
the type, ZTPA and AF1OA, indicate the names of 
magistrates, rather than those of cities, may, I think, be 
inferred with little doubt, both from the analogy of their 
position on the coins with those found oh the ordinary 
Cistophori, and from the improbability that the two coins 
should present the names of two cities, both otherwise 
unknown in the series of the Cistophori. 17 

It is hardly necessary to observe that the great difficulty 
in regard to the coinage of the Cistophori arises from the 
repeated mention of this class of coins among the masses 



16 By the kind permission of Mr. Poole I am enabled to give 
a figure of the specimen in the Museum by the side of that in 
my own cabinet, an arrangement which adds materially in the 
interest of both. (See PI. X. 13.) 

17 There is, as we shall hereafter see, some reason for con- 
necting Stratonicea with the coinage of Cistophori, hut no such 
probability exists in regard to Apollonia. 



UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORI. 197 

of treasure carried in the Roman triumphs, at a much 
earlier period than we should have supposed from numis- 
matic evidence that they were current in Asia Minor. 
Thus we learn from Livy that in the triumph of Acilius 
Glabrio, after the defeat of Antiochus the Great, in B.C. 
190, no less than 249,000 Cistophori formed part of the 
booty carried in the procession; in that of Scipio Asiaticus, 
in the following year (B.C. 189), 331,070, and in that of 
2Emilius Regillus in the same year, 132,300 ; while 
Manlius Vulso, whose arms had been directed only against 
the Galatians, had borne away 250,000 Cistophori. 18 This 
repeated testimony, so circumstantial and precise, which 
is moreover the only direct evidence bearing on the subject 
which we possess, is set aside with amazing coolness by 
Professor Mommsen, though it is difficult to see any 
possible mode of explaining away so precise a statement 
in any satisfactory manner. Nothing in the later books 
of Livy bears such strong evidence of being derived from 
authentic, and originally from official records, as these 
enumerations of the mass of valuable objects which 
adorned the Roman triumphs ; and in all the above 
passages, the statement of the amount of gold and silver 
bullion (reckoned of course in pounds weight) is im- 
mediately followed by the enumeration of three kinds of 
coined money : Attic tetradrachms, Cistophori, and the 
gold Philippei, including of course the gold coins of 
Alexander the Great, which were at this time so exten- 
sively spread through the whole of Asia. Here, therefore, 
we distinctly find the term Cistophori used to designate a 
currency of great extent, as contradistinguished from the 
tetradrachms of the Attic standard, which would naturally 

19 Liv. xxxvii. c. 46, 58, 59 ; xxxix. c. 7. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. DD 



198 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

include the silver coinage of Alexander the Great, as well 
as that of his successors, the kings of Syria and Pergaraus. 
The name is one which could not have come into use until 
the coins to which it was applied were in extensive 
circulation, and the type familiar to all, and it seems im- 
possible to believe that the term could ever have been 
employed to designate any other coinage than that 
characterized by its peculiar symbols. The coins of 
Rhodes, for instance, which followed the same standard of 
weight that was adopted for the Cistophori, might, for 
commercial purposes, be reckoned as equivalent to them ; 
but it is difficult to believe that a sum of Rhodian money 
should ever have been described as consisting of Cisto- 
phori ; quite impossible that it should have been so desig- 
nated before the latter term had come into general and 
familiar use for the coinage stamped with the "Cistopho- 
rus " type. 

The difficulty is one of which I for one can see no 
solution, but it is certainly not to be disposed of in the 
off-hand way that it has been treated by Professor Momm- 
sen. His suggestion that the passages in Livy are derived 
from some later annalist, who had altered the original 
statement and introduced the name with which he was 
familiar, besides its intrinsic improbability, does not meet 
the difficulty, for it would still leave unexplained the fact 
that there existed at this early period a vast mass of coin- 
age of a different standard from the Attic ; for this is the 
only reason that can be supposed for the distinct mention 
of the two classes, and of them only, and we know of no 
such coinage until the issue of the Cistophori. 

In connection with this subject I may perhaps be 
allowed to call the attention of my readers to a small 
series of coins, which must have come under the notice of 



UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORI. 199 

all collectors of Asiatic Greek coins, and the relation of 
which to the Cistophorus series has been adverted to by 
Dr. Pinder. 19 It is well known that the flourishing city 
of Side, in Pamphylia, continued during a long period to 
coin tetradrachms of the Attic standard, bearing the 
characteristic symbol of the city, the fruit of the pome- 
granate, in the field of the reverse, together with the 
initial letters of various magistrates' names. The period 
at which this coinage commenced is unknown, 20 but it is 
certain that it was continued down to the time of Amyntas, 
King of Galatia, who was a contemporary of Mark Antony, 
large quantities of the tetradrachms in question, all with 
the same magistrate's name (KAEYX), having been in- 
cluded in the same trouvaille with the silver pieces exactly 
similar to them in other respects, but bearing the name 
of BAZIAEftZ AMYNTOY. 21 Side, therefore, for 
some reason unknown to us, was not included among 
the cities that struck Cistophori ; but it is a curious 
fact that a considerable number of its tetradrachms 
of the ordinary type and style are impressed with 
countermarks of unusual size and distinctness, the 
greater part of which contain a bow in its case, together 
with letters indicating the city where the mark was 

19 "Die Cistophoren," p. 552. 

20 It was, however, certainly subsequent to the time of 
Alexander the Great ; as previously to his conquest Side struck 
coins with the names of the Persian satraps, Denies and Syen- 
nesis, though always with the pomegranate in the field. 

21 See the account of this remarkable deposit (discovered in 
1845) by Mr. Burgon, in the " Numismatic Chronicle," O.S., 
vol. viii. pp. 82, 93. A much larger number of specimens of 
both kinds subsequently emerged from the " find " in question 
than were known to that distinguished numismatist at the time 
he wrote his paper. See the Sale Catalogue of Borrell's Coins 
(1852), pp. 30, 41. 



200 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

affixed, and these names are, in the great majority of cases, 
those of cities which are well known to have struck 
Cistophori. Dr. Finder enumerates AHA, REPPA, 
ZAP, TPA, and AAPA. 22 Besides these there are in 
my collection three others, one with E<1>E, the other two 
with ZTPA and ZYN (both of them perfectly distinct), 
obviously standing for the names of Stratonicea and 
Synnada, two cities which are not known to have struck 
Cistophori, but were in close proximity to cities that did 
so. They were moreover places of importance and in a 
flourishing condition during the period when this coinage 
was in vogue. 23 The countermark of the bow in its case 
seems almost beyond doubt to connect them with those 
previously published, as well as with the class of the 
Cistophori. But two others in my collection, undoubtedly 
contemporaneous with these, being of precisely similar 
style and having the same magistrate's name on the 
reverse, have wholly different countermarks, the one con- 
taining a lyre, with the letters AN, 24 the other an owl 



23 " Die Cistophoren," p. 552. 

23 It is remarked by Dr. Finder (p. 540), as it had already 
been by Pellerin (tom.ii. p. 29), that the cities which issued Cisto- 
phori were almost uniformly the centres of administrative dis- 
tricts, or wbat the Komans called " Conventus Juridici." This 
character would apply to Synnada, but not to Stratonicea, which 
was, however, so important and nourishing a city, that it may 
well have occupied that position at one time, though in the days 
of Pliny the conventus had been transferred to the neighbouring 
city of Alabanda (Plin. v. 29, 66, 105, 109). 

24 This coin has, besides the countermark on the obverse, 
that of an anchor on the reverse, but much more faintly im- 
pressed, and indistinctly struck ; resembling in these respects 
the countermarks so often found on the tetradrachms with the 
name of Alexander, and dates in Greek letters, which were 
probably struck by cities of Pamphylia (see Miiller, " Num. 
d'Alex.," p. 267). 



UNPUBLISHED CISTOPHORI. 201 

standing, full front, but no letters. The first of these may 
probably be assigned to Antioch in Caria, though the lyre 
does not appear on the coins of that city. The other, 
having no letters, affords no clue to its identification. 

AH these countermarked coins belong to the earlier 
period of the coinage of Side, and are very superior in 
style to the rude coins of the trouvaille above men- 
tioned, which bear the name of KAEYX. They present 
but very few varieties of magistrates' initials, and were 
probably all struck within a short period. The occasion 
and date when this remarkable series of countermarks 
was affixed at a number of different cities are wholly 
unknown, but there can be little doubt, as suggested by 
Dr. Pinder, that it was for the purpose of giving them 
currency at a recognised rate of exchange, in connection 
with the Cistophori that had at this period so large a cir- 
culation in Asia. 

E. H. BUNBURY. 



XVII. 

CATALOGUE OF THE COLLECTION OF MOHAMMADAN 

COINS 

BELONGING TO E. T. ROGEBS BEY. 

PABT I. THE COINS OP THE EASTEKN KHALfFEHS. 

THE Collection of Oriental Coins belonging to Rogers 
Bey is especially rich in certain branches. The long 
series of the issues of the Eastern Khalifehs, and the coins 
of the various Mohammadan dynasties that governed 
Egypt from the Beny Tulun to the Turkish conquest, form 
the strongest sections of the collection, and it has been 
suggested that a. brief catalogue of these portions of 
Rogers Bey's cabinet would be of some service to Oriental 
numismatists. It is certainly the duty of the fortunate 
possessor of a fine collection of coins to " bring forth from 
his treasury " at least the new things, and when Rogers 
Be} r entrusted to me the presentation to the Society of the 
concise catalogue he had himself drawn up, and for the 
accuracy of which he is personally responsible, I thought 
that the list would be most useful if published in its 
entirety, and therefore restricted my share of the work to 
the task of correcting the proof-sheets. 

The present instalment contains the coins of the two 
dynasties of the Eastern Khalifehs, the Amawis or 
" Ommiades" of Damascus, and the Abbasis of Baghdad. 
In a future part we hope to offer the Society the descrip- 
tion of Rogers Bey's magnificent series of Fatimy coins 
and the other Egyptian dynasties. A few rarities among 
various other dynasties will form a supplement. 

S. L.-P. 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 203 

I. 

KHALIFS OF THE RACE OF BEM-TJMAYYEH. 

Began to reign. 

1. Mu'awiah A.H. 41 

2. Yezid ibn Mu'awiah 60 

3. Mu'awiah ibn Yezid 64 

4. Marwan ibn al-Hakam 64 

5. 'Abd-al-Malik ibn Marwan 65 

6. Welid ibn 'Abd-al-Malik 86 
7 - Suleiman ibn 'Abd-al-Malik 96 
8. 'TJmar ibn 'Abd-al-'Aziz 99 

Ju ^ jjjj 9. Yezid ibn 'Abd-al-Malik 101 

^ ^ *ljJ> 10. Hisham ibn 'Abd-al-Malik 105 

11. Welid ibn Yezid 125 

12. Yezid ibn "Welid 126 

13. Ibrahim ibn "Welid 126 
H. Marwan ibn Muhammad 127 

to 132 

COPPER. 

I. Copper coins struck before the monetary reform attributed to 
the Khalif 'Abd-al-Malik ibn Marwan. 

1, 2. Olv. Bust of Byzantine type, facing, crowned, on 
the diadem a cross ; in the right hand an orb surmounted by 
a cross. To the right ^z*sC at Hims Emesa; to the left 
KAAON good. 

Rev. The letter M surmounted by a star and two circles. In 

the margin, IMGCHC. Below, c_-- *b good. 

3. Olv. Two figures standing, each holding in right hand a 

sceptre surmounted by a cross. Between them <dH 



204 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Muhammad is the apostle of God. In margin, 

d L!_X) \j*> $ There is no deity but God alone, He has no associate. 

Rev. A. cross erect on three steps, on each side of it a star. 
Margin same as that on obverse. 

4, 5. Obv. Half figure of Byzantine type, facing, sur- 
mounted by a cross; the right hand raised holds a lance; in 
the left hand an orb surmounted by a cross or a fleur-de-lis. 
To the left Al)U^ I* the name of God. To the right vXDA. 

Rev. The letter M, above it a cross; in margin IMGCHC; 
below u**tf good. 

6. Obv. Standing figure facing, head with long hair and 
surrounded by nimbus, from left side hangs a sword ; in the 
margin <OJ! (Jv*j tX**s"*. 

Rev. The letter M ; in the margin ^jJxuJj LL! JElia, 
Palestine. 

7. Obv. Half figure, head facing to front and with long hair. 
In margin, <OJ! $\ ill $ There is no deity but God. 

Rev. Effaced. 

8. Obv. Standing figure wearing long robe, right hand raised 
to breast, left hand holds scabbard of sword hanging from girdle. 
In the margin ^***d\ .+*] u_L*M Jk-^ t]\\ Ju*J By the servant 
of God ^ Abd-al-Malikj commander of the faithful. 

Rev. A cross the head of which is cb erected on four steps. 
To the right ^^uJb at Kinisrin, to the left t_j^ good weight. 
In the margin <OJ\ J^ ^ss* x&*~j <dJ\ HI <d\ ^ There is no 
deity but God, alone, Muhammad is the apostle of God. 

II. Copper coins with religious sentences only. 



9-23. Obv. In three lines *AS-J << There is no deity but 
God alone. 



Rev. Within a circle of beads <dM Jja; J^s^ Muhammad is 
the apostle of God. 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 205 

24. Similar to 9, but rev. inscription written backwards by an 
error of the engraver. 

25, 26. The same inscriptions as on 9, but also on each side 
a marginal inscription, which is illegible. 

27-36. Like 9 with slight variations of detail. 

37. Like 9, but the characters finer. 

38. The same legends as 9, but in a square. . 
39-43. The same inscriptions, with varieties of detail. 

44. The same inscriptions in the field, and in the margin 
<d ^jJl . Jjs *j^d (jt\ ^^j ^vX^lj \~>j\ He sent htm 
with direction, and the true religion that he might extol it above all 
other religions. 

45, 46. Obv. In three lines; A d&^l 51 *J^j <d!\ l\ AW. 

Margin, <J-sM i^^j i_^^V < ^ u ^ <^ cJ - J"V *XKS' < Muhammad 
is the Apostle of God, He sent him icith direction and the true 
religion. 

Rev. In three lines, <dl! Jj~^ <X*^s"* Muhammad is the Apostle 

of God. Margin, <J^?\ ^.-^ c*\^ *L*j1 -21? sent him with 
direction and the true religion. 

III. Coins with floral or other ornaments. 

47. The same legends as on 27, but above the word ill! is a 
crescent, Ihus <d^LS! . 

48-59. Obv. A tl&^y *,*.j <OJ1 'Hi *3H <dJ!^j In the name 
of God, there is no deity but God alone, he has no associate. 

Rev. In a circle, a star with six rays. Margin, <di! J^ J>^s^* 
Muhammad is the apostle of God. 

60. Obv. In three lines s AO-J *1N M 4lU . 

Rev. In three lines <OJ! J^j-^ J^*s^ but between the j and 
the J of the word J^-s appears an ornament like the almond 
blossom on the Israelitish shekels \J 

61. Obv. Like that of 60. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. E E 



206 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 

Rev. In the centre a little ornament and the margin is written 
in a triangular form, thus 



v A 

^ ^ 

62, 63. The same legends as on 60, but on the reverse, to the 
right is a palm branch with three leaves W on each side. 

64, 65. Within a double circle *As-j <d!\ ^ <tSU <OJ! **uJ and 
below ^ W '* a leaf or bud and a six-rayed star on each side. 

Rev. Within a circle <dH (_)**>> &**s?* . Margin illegible. 
66, 67. Obv. Like 60. 

Rev. Within a circle the same inscription as on 60, but to the 
right a palm branch with two leaves J? on each side. 

68. Like 66, but palm branch with three leaves on the left. 

69. Like 66, but a palm branch with four leaves on each side 
y on the right. 

70-72. Obv. In three lines within a circle if As^j *1M * !R 41 1, 
Rev. Within a circle in three lines <dH ^y>\ ^^sf*. Margin, 
\ ****j In the name of God, this f els is 



struck full weight. 

73 . Obv. Within a circle A! d.^j He has no associate ; below, 
a palm branch with two leaves on each side and two six-rayed 

stars ** >p *. Margin, indistinct, but probably 
IV. Copper coins with Mints. 



74. Obv. Within a circle in three lines, *Je-j <dM i\ <d! 1 
There is no deity but God alone, and beneath a star *. 

Rev. In three lines <d]1 Jj*^ (A^s'* Muhammad is the apostle 
of God. Margin, i^j^ (jjulaM ItXfc ^-^j iiS1,vu*J In the name 
of God, this f els was struck in al-Ardun i.e. the Jordan. 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 207 



75-81. Obv. In three lines, CXl*J *U! W d\ 1 There is no deity 
but God. Btfalbekk. 

Rev. <OJ! Jj-sj &AS.". On each side a double circle in margin 
and four annulets. 



82. Obv. In three lines *Jo-. d\ N <JU . 

Rev. In three lines, <dij J^-y iX^s'*. Margin, <>^5 <dll.vuJ 
. . . j ^jjgl&H ! JJ& / the name of God, this f els was struck in . . . 

83, 84. Obv. In a circle, klkuJzl! AlFustdt. Margin ,_Jo ^Jj: 

Jjr* c^^ i^-J^ ^j?*^ B 7 the hands of the Amir 'Abd-al- 
Malik ibn-Marwan. 

Rev. In a circle .-a* Jfassr. Margin, ^.^! tj^r* *^^ 'V* /**i 
^.^^Jl .By orrf^r o/ ^e servant of God, Marwdn, commander 
of the faithful. 

85. Ofo. "Within a circle j^^ Misr, and three obscure 
characters. Margin, ^Vj-* ^\ C^LJ\ J^f.^..^^ ,.jjj ^Jo; By 
the hands of the Amir 'Abd-al-Malik iln-Marwdn. 

Rev. Illegible. 

86-89. Obv. Like that of 60. 

Rev. JM^JU ^^^wljLJMJufc ^j-* This f els was struck in 
Damascus. 

90-93. Obv. Like that of 60. 

Rev. &.J+& j^J-^^ \ j^ '-rV* <dl1**uJ In the name of God, this 
fels was struck in Talariyah, i.e. Tiberias. 

Y. Copper coins with names of Princes. 



94. Obv. . . . ^^ .5**^ <-^J 15^ By th e hands of 'Isa-iln . . . 

95. Obv. In three lines, XS*.j <d!l 1\ A\ 3 d\\**,i. Margin, 

ujj ^ ..... ^*^ <^ j*\ ^< -^y or(?er o/ the Amir ..... ibn 
Yezid. 

Rev. In three lines, <dJl J^ ^ tX-*-sr*. Margin, c-^J 
! JJ& This fels was struck ..... hundred. 



208 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



96-99. Olv. In a square | **-j alone. Margin, <d!U! AW There 
is no deity but God. 

Rev. Like 95. Margin, ^4X ^1 *l&jfe j^\ j*\) By order 
of the Amir Hishdm iln ' Uinar. 

100. Like 70. 

VI. Copper coins with pious legends, mints and dates. 

101. Olv. <U LL5o <r i )l x**.) <dJl 31 *J! S within a double 
circle with three annulets. 

Rev. In three lines, <dll J^; <XKS^. Margin, c-y<5 <dl!,*^ 

<<JL*j ^xLc &~i&*~> la-j^ jjjuJJll 1JJ& / the name of God this 
fels was struck in Wdsit in the year 116. 

102. Obv. Like that of 101, but with five annulets in the 
margin. 

Rev. Like that of 101, but the margin, \ && <-r>f* <LLM.AJ 

<8l*j ^JMJ&J c_lJj ^x-s \2~i\jj jjmAill In the name of God this f els 
was struck in Wdsit in the year 123. 

103. Olv. 

Rev. In field four lines : 

jjL|uJ In the name of God 
\ JJb < . )& This f els was struck 

in the year 

130. 
104-109 are indistinct varieties. 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



209 



GOLD. 
Dinars of the Seni- Umayyeh. 



No. 



Date 

A.H. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



110 



111 

112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 



77 



78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 



Obv. : in the field, 



There is no deity but 

God, alone, 

He has no associate. 



Margin: 



a-5 Muhammad is the Apostle 

of God, He sent him with direction and the true 

religion, to extol it above all other religions. 

Rev. : field, 

<dM Jo-1 <d]^ God is one, God is 

jL J 4X4-^1 everlasting, He begets not, 

jJ^_j * Jj nor is He begotten. 

Margin : 
.,+*-~*:t y-*"' ^-^ ci ^^'-^ '^ < -r ? -^ <d!i,vu*j 

/ Me ze o/ ^o^, this dindr was struck in 

the year 77. 

Same ^j~x*~: ,0^*-' ^- kM9 ci 

,, .-Jt-M; y MI > tsi^j (_t 



118 85 



4.27 



4.27 
4.27 
4.25 
4.25 
4.17 
4.30 
4.30 
4.27 



210 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Description. 

1 


Weight 

grammes. 


119 


86 


Same .^J 


U5 L^-V-S <i~j 


4.27 


120 


87 


c* 


;U3, -- <u~> 


4.27 


121 


88 


u^ J 


UJij ^US ^ 


4.27 


122 


89 


ti^' 


U5^ ^ L 


4.28 


123 


90 


,, 


^^scuJ <L-c 


4.26 


124 


91 


,, ^J*XM* 


;_j ^A^\ i,-. 


4.27 


125 


92 


liJtf**' 


. *t > 


4.27 


126 


92 


Half dinar 




2.13 






Obv. : field, 










' IT* 


2%^^ is no 
ffoa tut bod 








Margin : 


alone. 








Muhammad is 


^\ - J cJJ i ^ 
the apostle of God, He sent him 








with direction and the true religion. 








Eev. : field, 










25 


In the name of God, 
the merciful, 








f**yW 


the compassionate. 








Margin : ,^-Ju 


Jj ^ JL- U^\ ! JA <_^; 








This nisf was struck in the year 92. 




127 


93 


Like 110 ^ 


*J, jJ,5a^ 


3.85 


128 


94 


e# 


JLuJj ^1 i^ 


4.28 


129 


94 


Third of a dinar, Inscriptions like those on 


1.42 






No. 126 except reverse margin 









This third was struck in the year 94. 





THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALI FEHS. 



211 



No. 


Date 

A.K. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


130 


95 


Like 110 ..J+XMIJJ ^^>- <U* 


4.28 


131 


96 


^~*^, ^~> JL, 


4.25 


132 


96 


Half dinar, like 126 ( ^Jt^ J i^^, dL* 


2.10 


133 


96 


Third of a dinar, like 129 ^j-jt^ujij t-v <i-j 




134 


97 


Like 110 . .-,**~w' T ---' &(*) 


4.26 


135 


97 


Third of a dinar, like 129 ^t-ytuJj *...+*> <ij 




136 


98 


Like 110 .,f**..'.ujt <)'***) i w<j 


4.29 


137 


99 


^^j ^j L~, 


4.24 


138 


99 


Third of a dinar, like 129 ^^JCuJ ^*uJ L~, 


1.42 


139 


100 


Like 110 <OL< <i^j 


4.26 


140 


100 


Half dinar, like 126 auu te~> 


2.14 


141 


100 


Third of a dinar, like 129 aju xj 




142 


101 


Like 110 csjUt^ t^J^-1 <U- 




143 


102 


-* i - 


4.24 


144 


103 


Like 110 <Utj kt&Jj <U^9 


4.25 


145 


103 


Third of a dinar, like 129 aJUj eiJj a^x- 




146 


104 


~* i ~ 
Like 110 <vX* _J t <Uw 


4.12 


147 


105 


JtJU^ (^.u^i. JL- 


4.24 


148 
149 


106 

107 


" ) 


4.26 
4.14 


150 


108 


( It" 


4.25 


151 
152 
153 


109 
110 
111 


,, <U*j ^_-u*J <U> 


4.23 
4.25 
4.26 


154 


112 


"* " * *\ ^- 


4.26 


155 


113 


ajl*^ S^as Jja i^ 


4.22 


156 


114 


AjL^ 5.A* mJ^^ i- 


4.08 



212 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALLFEHS. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


157 


115 


J jl K C 110 vOC^t i % UA^ / >u*4^^- ^fiiuit 


4.26 


158 


116 


&, SjlLs. e^~> L* 


4.23 


159 


117 


JUL.J *;&* T-~, *x- 


4.26 


160 


118 


"* "A 1 * " 
,, <U/. Xj**. ^jUj &*i 


4.26 


161 


119 


aju^ Ijt^ ^ <L* 


3.92 


162 


120 


*JU, y^lfi L^ 


4.25 


163 


121 


^_j tj^A^ c^J^^ ii-> 


4.23 


164 


122 


&*J (JS^J ^ ^ 


4.26 


165 


123 


ZL,j y^/rfj ciJJ JL- 


4.26 


166 


124 


*' * A t " 


4.25 


167 


125 


" * A " 


4.05 


168 


126 


t t^A^ 1 * , . J *dLuf ft ^** J r -* ^^<wO 

v HA-; -/ 


4.26 


169 


127 


[The only date wanting.] 




170 


128 


Like 110 <XA** ,,y.4juft ,. ,Lj <.'o>: 


4.45 


171 


129 


, , l>Ar* ,|.*U^ft ^-/A*' Cvi.^J 


4.26 


172 


130 


*JUj ^r^ ^- 


4.27 


173 


131 


^ ^^ ^j^l JL- 


4.25 


174 


132 


^JL,, ..-ilj. ..-J! JL- 


4.25 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



213 



SILVER. 
Dirhems of the Beni-Umayyeh. 

The earliest dirhem in this collection bears the date 79. And 
although the place of its mintage is not mentioned on the coin, 
the style of the engraving proves it to emanate from the mint 
of Damascus. 

On the dinars the date- is found in the margin, of the reverse, 
whilst on the dirhems it is found in that of the obverse. 



Date 

A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



j Weight 

i grammes. 



175 



79 



Obv. : area : 

1\ & \\ ^ There is no deity but 

ij^ aJJI God alone, 

aj u!Jo -Z>$ He has no associate. 

Margin : 

>_rt_-^niiir*l T_ - 1 -"-!* <^XwJ -/W t/i# 

aw o/" God, this dirhem was 
struck in the year 79. 
5 annulets in margin. 
Rev. : area : 

God is one, God 
is eternal, He be- 
gets not neither 

\ \ %>S J~* @ 0QOi/v8%) 

*'\. nor is any equal 
to Him. 



> \\\ * \ A \\ 

<UJl Jo-l <UJ1 

jjj J <X*-2Ji 



Margin: 



VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. 



Muhammad is the Apostle 
of God, He sent him with 
direction and the true re- 
ligion, to extol it above 
other religions notwithstand- 
ing the aversion of poly- 
theists. 

F F 



2.73 



214 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


176 


105 


Azarbaijan 


The dirhems of this dynasty 
are remarkably uniform, fol- 


2.85 






(Ji^rtj^ 


lowing the type above de- 




177 


90 


Ardeshir Khurrah 


scribed ; I shall only refer to 


2.57 






" . A . 1 


deviations from that type. 








*jr"JtP*J 


The above coin, No. 175, 




178 


97 


H 


has 5 small annulets in the 


2.82 


179 
180 


103 
91 


Armenia <L^*s<\ 
Istakhr^ 3 -*! 


margin of each side, and this 
is the most usual number. 


2.92 
2.82 


181 


92 


,, 




2.86 


182 


94 







2.80 


183 


95 


,, 




2.78 


184 


96 







2.88 


185 


98 


,, 






186 


112 


Afrikiyeh <&u,*\ 


On obv. 4 annulets and 5 










on rev. 


2.93 


187 


120 


Al-Bab c_>LS! 


On obv. 4 annulets () and 5 










on rev. 


2.88 


188 


81 


Al-Basrah J-waJt 


, 


2.52 


189 


81 


,, 




2.30 


190 


82 


,, 




2.85 


191 


100 


,, 






192 


101 







2.86 


193 


90 


Bihkubad-al-asfal 










(JjLJl (^U^J 




2.63 


194 


96 


AtTeimerah^Jl 




2.55 


195 


97 


,, 




2.60 


196 


128 


Al-Jezireh r>J-sM 


The 5 annulets are rather 










larger Q. 


2.87 


197 


92 


Jayy ,^~ 




2.43 


198 


94 


n 




2.30 


199 


80 


Al-Jisr? .*uJl 




2.76 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



215 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


200 


91 


Darabjard (J-rsT^J 




2.76 


201 


92 







2,45 


202 


95 







2.80 


203 


96 







2.81 


204 


99 


Destawa \jz~i J 




2.67 


205 


79 


Dimashk ^Aw* J 




245 


206 


80 


,, 




2.91 


207 


81 







2.38 


208 


82 


,, 




2.85 


209 


83 







2.66 


210 


84 









211 


86 


,, 




2.92 


212 


87 







2.67 


213 


88 







2.65 


214 


89 







2.80 


215 


90 


,, 




2.75 


216 


91 


n 




2.90 


217 


92 


,, 




2.41 


218 


93 







2.85 


219 


94 







2.85 


221 


95 


,, 




2.75 


222 


96 


,, 




2.55 


223 


97 


,, 


* 


2.85 


224 


98 


,, 




2.91 


225 


99 







2.8T 


226 


100 


n 




2.86 


227 


101 


n 


~. 


2.78 


228 


102 







2.82 


229 


103 


,, 




2.84 


230 


104 


n 




2.61 


231 


108 







2.72 


232 


113 


n 




2.58 


233 


117 


,, 




2.87 


234 


118 







2.55 


235 


123 


,, 




2.89 


236 


127 


,, 




2.87 


237 


128 







2.91 


238 


80 


Ramhormuz 










>*r*b 




2.46 



216 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


239 


96 


Ar-Rayy tQ\ 




2.77 


240 


131 


As-Samlyeh 


On obv. 5 double annulets 
OO> an( i on rev. 5 single 
annulets o. 


2.90 


241 


91 


Sabur j^\^ 




2.80 


242 


92 


,, 




2.65 


243 


93 


,, 




2.93 


244 


98 


,, 




2.88 


245 


90 


Sijistan ^Lxw^s*-' 




2.85 


246 


97 







2.84 


247 


98 


Surrak ,jj~j 




2.50 


248 


90 


Suk-al-Ahwaz 










j\jto$\ Jj~j 


ft 


2.62 


249 


98 







2.93 


250 


95 


Al-Furat CJl^all 




2.55 


251 


90 


Kerman (^*j* 




1.89 


252 


91 


M 




2.83 


253 


93 


f} 




2.73 


254 


94 


t 


,' f 


2.85 


255 


100 







2.73 


256 


101 


Al-Kufah &/J! 




2.85 


257 


97 


Mahy i^b 




2.76 


258 


98 







2.82 


259 


108 


Al-Mubarakah 

<b-w*n 


On obv. 3 annulets @, and on 
rev. 3 smaller ones. 


2.53 


260 


117 


iy 


On obv. 3 annulets , and 5 
on rev. 


2.82 


261 


119 


" 


On obv. 3 annulets <>', alterna- 
ting with three sets of 3 dots 
thus .'. . On rev. 6 annulets. 


2.96 


262 


90 


Merv -* 




2.36 


263 


91 






2.47 


264 


93 






2.43 


265 


95 






2.60 


266 


99 






2.80 


267 


110 




Obv. 4 sets of dots .'. rev. 5 










annulets. 


2.90 


268 


94 


Manazir \ jL/ 




2.64 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



217 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


269 


93 


NahrTiia^^J 




2.30 


270 


85 


Wasit kJ. 




2.33 


271 


86 







2.79 


272 


,j 









273 


87 


,, 




2.32 


274 


89 


,, 




2.92 


275 


ii 


,, 






276 


n 


J} 






277 


n 


}> 






278 


" 








279 


90 


,, 




2.89 


280 


91 


,, 




2.75 


281 


,, 


,, 






282 


92 


,, 




2.86 


283 


?> 


,, 






284 


tt 


,, 






285 


93 


,, 




2.86 


286 





,, 






287 





,, 






288 


94 


,, 




2.72 


289 


,, 









290 


M 


,, 






291 





,, 






292 


n 


,, 






293 


95 


,, 




2.86 


294 





,, 


t 




295 












296 


f) 


)} 






297 





,, 






298 




n 


~. 




299 


96 


,, 




2.87 


300 


,, 


,, 






301 


,, 


is 






302 


97 


j j 






303 


99 




One of the 5 annulets is double 


2.55 








thus oo. 




304 


103 


M 


Obv. 4 double annulets oo. 


2.92 


305 


104 


j j 


Obv. 4 double annulets oo. 


2.55 


306 


105 


; > 


Obv. 4 double annulets oo. 


2.87 


307 


106 




Obv. 3 double annulets oo. 


2.93 


308 


107 


M 


Obv. 3 large annulets . 


2.95 


309 


14 


,, 


Obv. 3 large annulets <> . 


2.80 



218 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


310 


107 


Wasit L-slj 


Obv. 3 large annulets . 




311 


tl 


,, 


tt 




312 


ti 


,, 







313 


108 


,, 




2.61 


314 


^ 


,, 






315 


109 


5> 




2.92 


316 


110 


,, 




2.87 


317 


. f 


,, 


>f 




318 










319 


111 


M 


M 


2.87 


320 


112 


,, 


>f 


2.88 


321 


113 


,, 




2.92 


322 


114 


,, 


}J 


2.92 


323 


115 





f| 


2.92 


324 


116 


,, 


M 


2.89 


325 


}> 


?> 






326 


117 






2.90 


327 


118 


,, 





2.87 


328 


H 




>} 




329 










330 


119 


,, 


M 


2.70 


331 


120 


,, 


Obv. 5 large annulets (). 


2.85 


332 


121 


,, 


ti 




333 


122 





H 


2.80 


334 




)} 






335 


123 


n 




2.90 


336 










337 


124 


,, 


On obv. 5 large annulets, on 










rev. 5 small. 


2.90 


338 


125 





t 


2.89 


339 


,, 


i) 


. 




340 


,, 









341 






, 




342 










343 


126 





? 


2.81 


344 


,, 


* 


On obv. 4 large annulets. 


2.74 


345 


,, 


* 


On obv. 7 large annulets. 


2.85 



* These three dirhems, struck in the same year and in the same 
town are from three different dies. They have respectively 5, 4 
and 7 annulets on their obverse margins, and as three successive 
Khalifs reigned during the year, it seems reasonable to attribute 
a different dirhem to each Khalif. 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



219 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


346 


126 


"Wasit kJj 


On obv. 7 large annulets 




347 


127 





n 


2.71 


348 


128 


,, 


M 


2.90 


349 


129 


,, 


}) 


2.81 


350 


130 


,, 




2.87 


351 


131 


,, 





2.89 


352 


90 


Herat al J& 


Obv. and rev. 5 small annulets. 




353 


91 


,, 


M 





>1 Abu-Muslim. 

The celebrated general to whom this next dirhem is attributed 
raised the standard of revolt and for several years waged war 
against the Khalifs of the dynasty of Beni-Umayyeh. 

This dirhem bears the same legends as those of the Beni- 
Umayyeh already described ; and in addition another verse of 
the Kuran, which appears around the area of the obverse, within 
the marginal legend. 



Dynastic 
No. 



Date 



Place of 
Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



128 



Obv. : area as on 175, but 
around it, this verse : 



I ask of you no 
reward -for it except love 
towards relations. 
Margin : the words all separa- 
ted by annulets : 

O L ysT O < 3j O <OJ! O f-u-J 

O (^^Axj O ^Uj O <L-s 

4Jl*. In the name of God, 
struck in Jayy the year 128. 
Rev. : as on 175, but no annu- 
lets visible. 



220 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALLFEHS. 

DYNASTY OF 'ABBASY KHALIFS. 



jU-'l 



<d! 



1 Abu-l-'Abbas Abdallah, 




as-Saffah. 


132 


2 Abu-Ja'far' 'Abdallah, al- 




Mansur. 


136 


3 Abu-' Abdallah, al-Mahdy. 


158 


4 Musa, al-Hady. 


169 


5 Abu-Ja'far Harun, ar- 




Eashld. 


170 


6 Abu-Musa Muhammad, al- 


193 


Amin. 


8 


7 Abu-Ja'far 'Abdallah, al- 




Mamun. 


195 


8 Abu-IshakMuhammad,al- 




Mutasim-billah. 


218 


9 Abu-Ja'far Harun al- 




Wathik-billah. 


227 


10 Abu-1-Fadl Ja'far, al- 




Mutawakkil-'ala-llah. 


232 


11 Abu-Ja'far Muhammad, 




al-Muntasir-billah. 


247 


12 Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad, al- 




Musta'in-billah. 


248 


13 Abu-' Abdallah Muham- 




mad, al-Mu'tazz-billah. 


251 


14 Abu Ishak Muhammad, al- 




Muhtady-billah. 


255 


15 Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad, al- 




Mu'tamid-'ala-llah. 


256 


16 Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmed, al- 




Mu'tadid-billah. 


279 


1 7 Abu-Muhammad 'Aly, al- 




Muktafy-billah. 


289 


18 Abu-1-Fadl Ja'far, al- 




Muktadir-billah. 


295 


19 Abu-Mansur Muhammad, 




al-Kahir-billah. 


320 


20 Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad, ar- 




Rady-billah. 


322 


21 Abu-Ishak Ibrahim, al- 




Muttaky-lillah. 


329 


22 Abu-1-Ka'sim 'Abdallah, 




al-Mustakfy-billah . 


333 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 221 

ABBASY RHAIIFS continued. 



>j 



<d! *-Ja*!1 J-oill *~>\&\ *)\ 23 Abu-l-Kasim al-Fadl, al 

Muti'-lillah. 

24 Abu-l-Fadl'Abd-al-Karim, 

At-TaY'-KUah. 

25 Abu-1-' Abbas Ahmad, al- 

Kadir-billah. ' 

26 Abu-Ja'far 'Abdallah, al- 

Kai'm-bi-amri-llah. 

27 'Abdallah, al-Muktadybi- 

amri-llah. 

28 Abu-1-' Abbas Ahmad, al- 

Mustazhir-billah . 

29 Abu-Mansur al-Fadl, al- 

Mustarshid-billah. 

30 Abu-Ja'far al-Mansur, ar- 

Rashid-billah. 

31 Abu-' Abdallah Muham- 

mad, al-Muktafy-li- 
amri-llah. 

32 Yusuf,al-Mustanjid-billah 

.-*Lz-*H^\ (.^ju^l X^sr^ \ 33 Abu-Muhammad al-Hasan, 
A\\ \ ' al-Mustady-bi-amri-llah. 

<UJl ^U 

34 Abu-1-' Abbas Ahmad, an- 

Nasir-li-dini-llah. 

35 Abu-Nasr Muhammad, az- 

Zahir-bi-amri-llah. 

36 Abu-Ja'far al-Mansur, al- 

Mustansir-billah. 

37 Abu- Ahmad 'AbdaUah,al- 

Musta' sim-billah. 

who died in 



334 



363 



381 



422 



467 



487 



512 



529 



530 
555 



566 



575 



622 



623 



640 
656 



VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. G G 



222 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 

I. GOLD. 
DINAHS OF THE DYNASTY OF THE 'ABBASY KHALIFS. 

1st Khalif, As-Safdh, 132-136. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


1 


133 


The dinars of this dynasty are for the first 
few Khalif s so nearly alike that one descrip- 
tion will suffice: departures from that type 
will be noticed in subsequent descriptions. 
Obv. area, 


4-27 






$\ & \\ ^ There is no deity lut 








$Jo-j <UJ1 God alone, 








<d C^o -i> $ He has no associate. 

ii/ 

Margin : ^^ t-? 1 ^^ *JLy1 <OJ1 df) &*^* 








<& logwl .JL* *rv^^ ct Muhammad is the 








apostle of God, He sent him with direction and 
the true religion, to extol it above all other 
religions. 
Rev. area, 








Jk/Ksr* Muhammad 








ijf~i\ is the apostle 




2 


134 


*JJt of God. 
Margin: 

In the name of God this dindr was struck in 
the year 133. 
somewhat abraded. 


4-15 


3 


135 


pierced. 


4-19 


jya^\ 2nd Khalif, Al-Mansur, ^136 158. 


4 137 




4-15 


5 
6 


138 
139 


clipped. 


3-85 
4-23 


7 
8 


>> 
140 


on rev. .'. 


4-25 
4-20 


9 


143 






10 


144 




4-25 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 223 

2nd Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


11 


145 




4-26 


12 


146 




4-18 


13 


147 




4-25 


14 


148 




4-25 


15 


>> 




4-15 


16 


150 






17 


151 




4'25 


18 


152 




4-05 


19 


154 




4-22 


20 


155 




4-23 


21 


156 




4-10 


22 


157 




4-11 



3rd Khalif, Al-Mahdy, 158-169. 



23 


158 




24 


159 




25 


160 




26 


161 




27 


w 


on rev. .*. 


28 


162 




29 


n 


on rev. 


30 


163 




31 


165 




32 


-j 


on rev. 


33 


166 




34 


|f 


on rev. 


35 


167 




36 


M 


A point beneath 


37 


168 





of 



-*-. 



4-23 
4-26 
4-13 
3-82 
4-12 
4-15 
4-18 
4-18 
4-22 
4-12 
4-10 
4-26 
4-00 
4-22 
4-24 



^*\4\ 4th Khalif, Al-Hddy, 169170. 
38 [ 169 | Beneath rev. area :: | 4-11 



39 



40 



5th Khalif, Ar-Rashid, 170-193. 

170 Beneath rev. area ^.z. 'Aly, for 'Aly ibn 4-22 

Suleiman, governor of Egypt. 

171 Beneath rev. area, the letter &. 4-25 



224 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN K.HALIFEHS. 

5th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


41 


171 


Beneath rev. area ,**>y* Musa, for Musa ibn 








'Isa, governor of Egypt. 


4-25 


42 


172 


clipped. 


4-05 


43 





Like 41. 




44 


. 


Beneath rev. area j*s. ' Umar for 'Umar ibn 








Ghilan, governor of Egypt. 


4-10 


45 


173 


Like 44. 




46 


174 






47 





Beneath rev. area t>.1t> Daud, for Daud ibn 








Yezld, governor of Egypt. 




48 


175 






49 





Like 44. 




50 


176 


Beneath rev. area (*&ji\ Ibrahim for Ibrahim 








ibn Salih, governor of Egypt : clipped and 








abraded. 




51 


,, 


Beneath rev. area.yUsy Ja'far, for Ja'far ibn 








Yahya al-Barmaky, governor of Egypt. He 








retained the post for many years but was 








represented by lieutenant governors (See 




52 


177 


Abu-1-Mahasin, vol. i. p. 477). 


4-15 


53 





Like 5\ j&x.s>- Ja'far. 


4-21 


54 


178 


, 


4-21 


55 


179 


> 


4-25 


56 


180 


> 


4-25 


57 


181 


> 


4-18 


58 


182 


> 


4-21 


59 





On the rev., a. second circular legend within 








the margin, Jk^sr* +*$.+*$ <b -\ U.^ 








^^.^^\ _j-**\ ^1 By order of the Amir 








Al-Amin Muhammed son of the Commander of 








the Faithful. 


3-77 


60 


183 


Like 51 JUsy- Ja'far. 


4-22 


61 


184 


Like 59. 


4-06 


62 


M 


Like 51 JJP- Ja'far. 


4-20 


63 


185 


Like 59. 


4-30 


64 


M 


Like 51 -i*5y- Ja'far. 


4-25 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 



225 



5th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A. 11. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


65 


186 


Like 59. 


4-11 


66 

67 
68 


187 
188 


Like 51 _a*r>- Jo 1 far. 
Beneath rev. area, jJlcL Ehdlid. 


3-90 
3-78 
4-18 


69 
70 


189 
190 


Beneath rev. area 4JuLsM Al-Ehalifah. 
Like 69 &-U)! Al-Ehalifah. 


4-20 
4-12 


71 


,, 


Like 40, &. 


4-20 


72 
73 


191 


Beneath rev. area the letter , . 
Like 69 &jU)l Al-Ehalifah. 


4-10 
4-12 


74 


192 


it ii 


4-20 


75 


M 


Like 40 Jb . 


4-20 


76 


193 


Like 69 JCLLs)! Al-Ehalifah. 


4-17 


77 


il 


Like 40 &>. 





78 
79 



80 



81 



82 



83 
84 



194 
195 



197 



198 



196 



197 
198 



6th Khalif, Al-Amin, 193198. 



Like 69 <ilsJl Al-Khalifah. 



Above rev. area 



Al-Ehalifah, beneath 



rev. area 



Al-Amin. 



Above rev. area <dH 
beneath rev. area 



My Lord is God, 
Al-Amin. 



7th Khalif, Al-Mamun, 196218. 



Beneath obv. area JUi 'Alldd, for 'Abbad ibn 
Muhammad, governor of Egypt. Above 
rev. area <t(L*LsM Al-Ehalifah, beneath 
rev. area ,.,**L*n Al-Mamun. 
Like 82. 



4-23 
4-15 

4-13 

4-19 



4-22 
4-25 
4-23 



226 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALI FEHS. 



7th Khalif continued. 



No. 



Date 

A.H. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



85 



86 



87 



198 



199 



89 

90 
91 



200 



Beneath obv. area i^J-kJl Al-Muttalil, for Al- 
Muttalib ibn 'Abdallah, governor of Egypt. 
Above rev. area /L S! Al-Imam, beneath rev. 



area ^^UJl Al-Mamun. 

Beneath obv. area ^L*]^ Al- Alias, for Al- 
' Abbas ibn Musa, governor of Egypt. A 
point over the ^ of the unit of date ^Uj . 
Eev. like 85. 



Beneath obv. area 



Medinet-as- 



Saldm. This is the first instance of the place 
of mintage being found on a gold coin. 
Margin: Ijjb <-r^ f?*^ er* 5 ^ ^ p*^. 

In the name 



(j .s . 

of God the most merciful the most compas- 
sionate, this dindr was struck in the year 198. 
Above rev. area <d) lillah, to Grod, beneath 
rev. area ( j^z~>\j,]\ jj Zu-r-ridsatein, chief 
of two administrations, in reference to Fadl 
ibn Sahel. & . 

Beneath obv. area t-^ik^l Al-Muttalil with- 
out the \. Above rev. area ( .^^\jj\ ^J 
Zu-r-ridsatein. Beneath rev. area jJ^iaJl 
Al-Fadl 

Margin: AH* .MEU^ ><U^J|il iJJb ^-^^'^ <OJ^**uJ 
<lLj t*****- 1 ^ T--"^ ^ n the name of God, this 
dindr was struck in Misr, the year 199. 



Beneath obv. area 

like 87. 
Like 88. 
Rev. like 87. 



s-. 



Al-Irdk. Eev. 



4-33 



4-28 



4-00 



4-28 



4-16 

4-12 
4-22 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



227 



7th Khalif continued. 



No. 



Date 

A. II. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



200 



201 



202 



203 



204 



205 



Beneath obv. area As-Sirry, for As-Sirry ibn 
al-Hakam, governor of Egypt. Above rev. 
area^Jbll? <dl- To God, Tdhir. Below rev. 
area ^.j-i-^Ji J Ambidexter, for Tahir ibn 
Husein who was one of the partisans of Al- 
Mamun. Margin: ,UjJ^ ^JJJ> <__ i->a <dH,***J 
^j-^jL* A^a r* 3 ^ In the name of God this 
dlndr was struck in Misr the year 200. 

Like 92. Struck in Misr. 

Beneath rev. area the letter *>-. 

Like 22. Struck in Misr. 

Beneathobv. area c_^jL*,J\ Al-Maghrib. Above 
rev. area J~aJJ! <UJ To God, Al-Fadl. 
Beneath rev. area f j^>\i\\ ^ Zu-r-ridsatein 
Margin: <Llj .Lxj jJ^ Ijjfe <->,*> <uJl,-*j 
I^MI!I (1 ^ Lj ,j~^ In the name of God 
this dinar was struck in theyear2Q2, As-Sirry. 

Like 94 r^. 

Beneath obv. area t-^cJ! Al-Maghril. Above 
rev. areay&U? aJJ To God, Tdhir. Beneath 
rev. area ,^-wJ^ As-Sirry. Margin, like 92 } 
struck in Misr. 

Like 89 but without the letter A . 

Like 98. 

Above rev. area <dl To God. 

Like 101 but much abraded. 

Beneath obv. area (-^i*)! Al- Maghrib. Above 
rev. area^Jblk <d) To God, Tdhir. Beneath 
rev. area ^$j^\ ^\ &*&* Muhammad ibn 
as-Sirry, who was governor of Egypt. 



4.22 
4.26 
4.12 
3.68 



3.90 
4.20 



4.22 

4.07 
3.45 



4.22 



228 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALLFEHS. 



7th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


104 


206 


Beneath obv. area, (jr.*J! ( .ti\ <OJ^ Ju-x ' Ubeid- 








allah ibn as-Sirry, who was governor of 








Egypt. Above rev. area, aJ^.sr \ The Khalif. 








Beneath rev. area ,.* L*J! Al-Mamun. 




105 


207 


Like 104. 




106 





Marginal legend on obv. ^j J-J ( ^.^i\ <d! 








*1H -aij ^jx^l Jb ~* ) &*> It is 








God who ordains in the past and in the future, 








on that day believers will rejoice in the divine 








protection. Legend within the margin giving 








the date. Above rev. area <dl To God. 


4.21 


107 


208 


Like 104. 


4.25 


108 


209 


Like 104. 


4.22 


109 





Like 104, but in the marginal legend of the obv. 








the name of the place of mintage -A* Misr 








Jr o j 








is introduced. 




110 


210 


Like 106. 


4.01 


111 


215 


Like 1 1 0, a very fine type. 


4.23 



8th Khalif, Al-Mu'tasim-billah, 218-227. 

From this date the dinars generally bear on the obverse, the 
marginal legend of 106 ^\ JJ ^j^-^SI <dl. The name of the 
place of mintage is incorporated into the legend giving the date. 
Above the reverse area we find the word <dS to God, and beneath 
the reverse area, the name of the reigning Khalif. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


112 


222 


Medinet as-Salam 


Above rev. area <OJ To God 




113 


225 


AlMuhammadiyeh 


beneath it <*JJb ^'jytSj 
Al MU' tasim-billan 


4.00 


114 


226 


Merv ..* 




4.21 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 229 

> jjyi 9th Khalif, Al- WdtUk-billah, 227232. 



No. 


Date 

A. H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


115 


227 


Misr JA+ 


Beneath rev. area wJy <_->^ 




116 


232 




Al- WdthiJc-lillah. 


4-21 

4-07 



117 



118 



119 
120 
121 
122 



123 



124 
125 



238 



240 



242 
243 
245 
246 



249 



Misr 



10th Khalif, Al-Mutawakkil-ala-llah 232-247. 

Beneath obv. area <*1H Jue.j^ 
Abu- 'Abdullah. Beneath 
rev. area <dH Ju: 



Al-Mutawakkil- ala-llah. 

Beneath obv. area <d!U l^jt*!^ 
Al-Mu'tazz-billah. Beneath 
rev. area <dll J-c Ji^Jl 
Al-Mutawakkil- ala-llah 

Like 118 



250 
251 



3-68 



4-00 
4-26 
3-93 
4-23 
4-18 



12th Khalif, Al-Musta'm-billak, 248256. 

Beneath obv. area : 

^j ^uuLxl^ Al- Alias son of 
(j-j^j^J] ~*\ the commander 
of the faithful. 
Beneath rev. area : 
<d)lj ^-xuu^JI Al-Musta'in- 

lillah. 4-16 

Like 123 4'18 

Ash-Shash Like 123, clipped, abraded 4-11 



Misr 



13th Khalif, Al-Mutapz-billah, 251255. 
126 253 Samarkand Beneath rev. area : 



VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. 



H H 



230 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



15th Khalif, Al-Mu'tamid-ala-llah, 256-279. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


127 


258 


Medinet as-Salam 


Beneath obv. areayU?- Jet far 








I*U! j^ 


Beneath rev. area iX4**Jl 










<dSl Lc Al-Mu' tamid- ala- 










llah. 


4-40 


128 


259 


Misr. 


Like 127, and beneath the 










name of the Khalif on the 










rev. area, the letter . 


4-25 


129 


260 


. 


Like 127 


4-15 


130 


261 


Surra-man-raa 


Like 127 


4-11 


131 




4*&*jr* 


Like 127, beneath rev. area 










\ij\ ilriz, which means 










pure gold 




132 


263 


Misr 


Like 127 


4-00 


133 


267 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 127, but beneath obv. 








JU1 jX 


area <uJLj ( j3j^\ Al- 








1 


Muwaffak-billah, brother of 










the Khalif 


3-71 


134 


268 


Samarkand 


Like 132 


4-23 


135 


270 


^>- 




4-20 


136 





Al-AhwazjIyM 


Beneath rev. area, under the 










Khalif 's name i^s-fj'jrM^ 










Zu- l-wazdra tein. 


3-86 


137 


273 


No mint mentioned 




4-18 


138 


274 


Ar-Bafikah &u\J\ 


Beneath obv. area : 

Alll \\ /^*0 ^.J 1 ^4 / /v/QJ T/tQ/IQ/l/fff 










4Vw 1 - g* \ / taC*Xxw \^J-V MJ-lvJ IvW IA/U/\M 

V 










ila-llah. Beneath rev. area 










Ahmad ibn al-Muwaffak- 










lillah, r. 


3-76 


139 


275 


No mint mentioned 


Beneath obv. area .AXSJ- Jo 1 far 










Beneath rev. area u-^-*-* 










Shrfeib 


4-00 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



231 



16th Khalif, Al-Mu'tadid-billah, 279289. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


140 


281 


No mint 


Like 1 38, and although struck 










two years after the occasion 










of Al-Mu'tadidbillah, it still 










bears the name of the late 










Khalif^ I- Mu' tamid-ala-llah. 


3-90 


141 


281 


Hamadan ^A*^- 


Beneath obv. area .x>f. ^ \ j+s. 










Jjjjtll 'Umar ibn'Abd-al-Aziz 










Beneath rev. area &azju&\ 










*Db Al Mu'tadid-billah. 


3-96 


142 





Ar-Bankah <UiiUM 




4-25 


143 


286 


Halab v_^>L>- 




3-55 



17th Khalif, Al-Mustakfy-billah, 289295. 



144 


292 


Misr -^3^ 


Beneath rev. area : 










<dllj ( J^u*4^ Al-Mmtdkfy- 










lillah l 


4-24 


145 293 


Hamadan ^,1,X4>&. 


Like 144 


5-75 


146 


Misr j&* 


M 


4-11 


147 294 


,, 





4-11 


148 


295 


Kumm +i 


" 


4-61 


aSJbjjcxaN 18th Khalif, Al-MuJctadir-billah, 295320. 


149 


296 


Misr -^3^ 


Above rev. area : <dl To God. 










Beneath rev. area jJcJuJI 










<dl b Al-Muktadir-lillah. 




150 


300 


Ar-Bafikah ^ftiU! 


Beneath obv. area : 










Alu-l-Ablds son of 










the commander of the faithful 


4-66 



1 In this year the last of the Tuluny Princes was defeated 
by the 'Abbasy Khalif, and Egypt again came under the direct 
government of the supreme government. 



232 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALLFEHS. 



18th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


151 


300 


Harran ^jS>- 


Obv. area; above, one point 










; below, two points 










same legend as on 149 




152 


301 


Furah iLs 


Like 150 


2-76 


153 





Dimashk ^_^L<J 




3-66 


154 


,, 


Misr^, 


- 


4-06 


155 





Filastin .....lugjj 


,, 


3-90 


156 


302 


Misr j&s* 






157 


304 


,, 


' 


3-90 


158 


305 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 150; beneath rev. area, 








*LJ1 <L>,A* 

1 


the letter & 




159 


306 












* * . 


ti 




160 


M 


Misr -*ost 


Like 150 


4-05 


161 


307 


Filastin (^Ja^Jj 


j f 


4-29 


162 


308 


Misr JA* 


,, 




163 


309 


), 


,, 




164 


310 


San'a \jc~a 


Like 149, but of small size 


1-90 


165 





Misr .a^ 


Like 150 


4-04 


166 


311 


,, 


M 


3-66 


167 


312 


,, 





4-15 


168 


5> 


Al-Muhammadiyeh 


,, 








ajjcKs^l 




4 10 


169 


J> 


Dimashk (jJ^stA 


,, 


4-11 


170 





Suk-al-Ahwaz 

'\ n3\ 






171 


313 


Mir j*A* 


" 


3-79 


172 


316 


Ardebil J^'->j^ 


Obv. area, like 149 : beneath 










rev. area 










Al-Fath iln al-Afshin 










Freedman of the commander 










of the faithful 


3-18 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



233 



18th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


173 


316 


Suk-al-Ahwaz 


Like 150 




174 


317 


Milr%^" 




4-05 


175 


318 




}J 


3-35 


176 
177 


319 
320 


ii 




Obv. area like 149. Beneath 


4-00 








rev. area : <JjJui -\^- 










' Amid-ad-dawleh, who was 










the Wazir. 





178 322'Misr 



20th Khalif, Ar-Rady-Wlah, 322329. 



179 323 ! 

180 325 Suk-al-Ahwaz 



181 325 

182 326| 

183 3281 

184 329! 



Beneath rev. area : <d!b^*sUl 

Ar-Rddy-billah. 
Like 178 ' 



3-90 



185 



329 



21st Khalif, Al-Muttafy-billah, 329333. 

Beneath rev. area : 
<d!b Al-Muttaky-lillah 

23rd Khalif, Al-Muti'-lillah, 334363. 



186 



355 



Filastin 



Beneath rev. area : 



, 

<LJ| 



L0 May God lepro- 
pitious to Him 

-L 

fij| and to his family 
Al-MutV-lillah 



234 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



Ul 34th Khalif, An-Ndsir-li-dmi-llah, 575622. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


187 


608 


Medlnet as-Salam 


Obv. area : 








*44kAAAj 1 t\*J^t^S 


^USU 










\&r*)js 










The Imam, There is no deity 










but God alone, He has no 










associate, An-NAsir li-dini- 










llah commander of the faith- 










ful. 










Inner circle and margin, as 










on 106. Rev. above area: 










<dl <X4s.M Glory to God, 










beneath area <uLc <dH \*a 










May Godlepropitious toHim 


11-20 


188 


609 




Like 187 


7-20 


189 


611 






7-21 


190 


612 








191 


613 






9-03 


192 


614 






10-10 


193 


. 






5-48 


194 


616 






3-11 


195 








2-93 


196 


617 






6-53 


197 


621 






3-09 



35th Khalif, Az-ZdUr-biamri-llah, 622633. 



198 



622 



Medinet as-Salam 



Beneath obv. area : 



\ 

Az-Zahir-biamri-llah 
commander of the faithful. 
In other respects this dinar 
is like 187. 
This dinar is unique. 



7-44 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 235 



37th Khalif, Al-Mustasim-bittah, 640656. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


199 


640 


Medlnet as-Salam 


Oby. area: 








flUl*^ . 


| r ui 1 










3 s \ * S * ^ C 

* -v Oj ' ^ J wu9 * Xi\^ 1 . \ 

u '^ 










c^r 










.0 










The Imam & ^ 










o 

b There is no deity but God ^ s>- 
?^ * ^ 










^ alone, he has no associate . ^ 










"^ Al Musta' sim-billah ^ g 










"^commanderofthefaithful. g- 










^^ "^ *^* 

^s in divine help. 

*** ?&- 










<^ 'T*. 

Margin, place of mintage 










and date, rev. area like 187 


6-60 


200 


641 




Like 199 


8 99 


201 


642 




>f 


13-89 


202 


643 






4-94 


203 


649 






7-61 


204 


64* 






7-80 


205 


650 






7-86 


206 


654 






8-97 


207 


65* 






7-32 


208 


6** 






7-90 



236 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALlFEHS. 



II. SlLVEK. 
DlEHAMS OP THE DYNASTY OF THE 'ABBASY KHA1IFS. 

_\Ln 1st Khalif, As-Sa/dh, 132136. 



No. 



Date 
A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



209 



132 



Al-Mfah & 



210 
211 



135 
136 



Thedirhems of this dynasty 
are for the first few Khalif s so 
nearly alike, that one de- 
scription will suffice, only 
departures from that type 
will be noticed in subsequent 
descriptions. 
Obv. area : 

HI & \\ y There is no deity lut 

*X~. <L_H God alone, 
<d u^j-iJ He has no associate. 
Margin : 



<ij In the name of God 
this dirham was struck in 
al-Kufah the year 132. 
Eev. area : 

4\^s^* Muhammad 
J * Ji is the apostle 

A_LN of God. 
Margin : 

*LM J 



^ Muham- 
mad is the apostle of God, He 
sent him with direction and 
the true religion, that he might 
extolit above all other religions 
even though polytheists should 
he averse thereto. 



2-68 
2-86 
2-80 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALI FEHS. 



237 



2nd Khalif, Al-Mansur, 136158. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


212 


145 


Armenia <L^***j\ 




2-24 


213 


149 







2-78 


214 


152 


n 




2-90 


215 


136 


Al-Basrah iLaJ\ 




2-90 


216 


137 


,, 




2-85 


217 


138 


,, 




291 


218 


139 


,, 




2-90 


219 


142 


,, 




2-75 


220 


143 


, 




2-86 


221 


144 


, 


Beneath rev. area (j* 


2-90 


222 


145 


, 


>> (J** 


. 2-90 


223 


146 


, 


>J O 


2-81 


224 


147 


, 


00 


2-96 


225 


157 


, 





2-85 


226 


140 


Junday-Sapur 










1 cA^&- 




301 






_xV 






227 


146 


Ar-Rayy ^j^\ 


Eev. area : 










\ tej*\ U^ 










By order of 










Al-Mahdy Muhammad 










son of the commander of the 










faithful. 


2-85 


228 


147 


,, 


Like 227 


2-79 


229 


M 


,, 


,, 




230 


148 








2-85 


231 


137 


Al-Kufah &jM 




2-78 


232 


139 


)f 


Beneath rev. area 


2-28 


233 


140 


}J 


n 


2-90 


234 


142 


>} 


)} ' 


2-85 


235 


143 







2-92 


236 


144 


t 





2-65 


237 


145 


>y 





2-90 


238 


146 





,, 


2-88 


239 


147 





n 


2-88 



VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. 



I I 



238 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



2nd Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


240 


148 


Al Muhammadiyeh 










<ij iXKs***) 




2-27 


241 


M 




Like 227, beneath rev. area & 


2-91 


242 




. 





2-90 


243 










244 


149 


M 


Like 227, but above rev. area 










+ and beneath rev. area * 


2-91 


245 


149 





Like 244 




246 


tt 


,, 


,i 




247 





n 







248 




,, 


,, 




249 


150 


II 


,, 


2-95 


250 


tt 


,, 


,, 




251 





,, 


M 




252 




,, 


,, 




253 


151 








3-05 


254 




,, 


,, 




255 


152 





,, 


2-91 


256 




,, 


,, 




257 


153 


,, 


,, 


2-95 


258 





,, 


,, 




259 


148 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 227 but beneath rev. area 








1 ** 


& 


2-92 


260 


149 


n 


,, 


2-90 


261 


150 


,, 


n >, ,> 


2-92 


262 


151 








2-89 


263 


152 





n 


2-81 


264 




,, 


n n 




265 


153 





M II 


2-75 


266 


.j 





> 




267 


154 


,, 


^7^: 


2-89 


268 








n M M 




269 


,, 


,, 


n 




270 


tl 





>, ,, 11 11 




271 








11 i 





THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAHFEHS. 



239 



2nd Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


272 


155 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 227butbeneathrev. area 




273 


156 


r U &*. 


f? 


2-83 
2-90 


274 


f 





n ii ii 




275 


157 


,, 


ri n ii >i 


2-81 


276 


158 





ii 11 >i 


2 86 



3rd Khalif, Al-Mahdy, 158169. 
277 161 Armenia &JM* ,\ Eev. area : 



278 
279 



280 



281 



168 



160 



161 



Afrikiyeh <M 



Al-Basrah 



/*.>: ^.fcll* 



Muhammad is the apostle 

of God, may God oe propitious 

to him and give him peace. 

The Khalif al-Mahdy. 

a crescent. 
Like 277, but instead of 

crescent, *>]- ^ Son of 
JBuzeim 
Rev. area : 



The Khalif al-Mahdy, 

By order of Harun son of 

the commander of the faithful. 

Like 277, but instead of 
crescent, Muhammad, pro- 
bably referring to Muham- 
mad ibn Suleiman, who was 
governor of Basrah 

Like 280 



2-92 



2-75 



2-68 



240 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 

3rd Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A. 11. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


282 


167 


Al-Basrah ILdull 


Eev. area : 

^J^fJi <U-i.sM 










ig**y* <U j*\ L*^ 










The Khalif al-Mahdy, 
By order of Musa 
heir of the Muslims 
Basrah. 




283 


162 


Medinet Jayy 


Like 277, but instead of 




284 




&%*** 


crescent ,r^ In Jayy? 
Like 283 




285 


159 


Al-'Abbasiyeh 


Above rev. area : ^ ; beneath 








<LJu*H 


rev. area : Joj_> Yezid 


2-50 


286 


160 


,, 


Like 285 


3-05 


287 


162 


,, 


Above rev. area a, below it Jj^ 










Yezid 


2-93 


288 


164 


, f 




2-60 


289 


165 




n 


2-62 


290 


166 


H 





2-62 


291 


168 


}) 





2-28 


292 


160 


Al Muhammadlyeh 

<6 t \/K5:'*'! 


Like 277, but rev. area in 
three lines instead of four 


2-85 


293 
294 


161 
165 




Like 277, in four lines 
Lk. 2 7 7 and beneath rev. area *e 


2-75 
2-90 


295 


166 







2-81 


296 






} 




297 


167 




Like 277, above rev. area 










Beneath rev. area ^ 


2-92 


298 


159 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 277 


2-85 


299 


160 


r " 




2-78 


300 


M 









301 


- 








302 


161 






2-93 


303 


,, 




,, 





3 I read this .<- Yahyd S.L.-P. 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 

3rd Khalif continued. 



241 



No. 


Date 

A. 11. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


304 


161 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 277 




305 




r O*x^ 






306 


162 


", 




2-93 


307 


}y 








308 


M 








309 


163 






2-87 


310 


164 






2-88 


311 


}) 








312 


ti 








313 


n 








314 










315 


165 






1-90 


316 


168 


Al-Yamameh 


Like 2 77, but rev. area in three 
lines instead of four, and 










above it tt^Juf 'Abd-allah, 










below it >Xx~! ^ ibn Sa'id. 


2-94 


317 


169 


Kasr as-Salam 


Like 277, but above rev. area 




318 


169 


(* ^^ 
Harunabad 


<d! and below it *X4*sM 
Glory to God. 
Like 279, but above rev. area 








rfbUjyU 


<L^^j\ Armenia, and below 










it (Ju~*s? the army of* 





319 



320 



^Jl^ 4th Khalif, Al-Hady, 169170. 
169 Haniniyeh ^-JjjUfe Rev. area: i^Jt-^s 



170 



Khazimeh 

The Khalif al-Hddy 

By order of Harun 

son of the commander of the 

faithful, 
son of Khdzim 
Like 277 



4 Tiesenhausen reads this word 

5 Correctly, I think, with a 



2-76 



, 



Hasan. S.L.-P. 

s^s ? 

^ <UJj*- . S.L.-P. 



242 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAHFEHS. 



5th Khalif, Ar-Rashid, 170-193. 



No. 



Date 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes . 



321 



191 



Armenia 



322 



183 



Afrikiyeh &U 



323 



182 



Medinet Balkh 



Eev. area : 



tLcuw -MM ] 

Khazimeh ibn 
Muhammad is the apostle 
of God, Al-Amin heir of 
the Muslims. 



* * * 



Rev. area : 



Muhammad is the apostle 

of God, prophet of 

compassion. 

above, uV^s^* Muhammad be- 
low, ^ \ Al-'Wclcy. In 1 8 1 
Muhammad Al-'TJkky was ap- 
pointed Governor of Afriki- 
yeh by the Khalif Harun ar- 
Rashid, and in 184 was suc- 
ceeded by Ibrahim al-Aghlab. 

Rev. area : J^-^ <X**sr* 

wJ] <U .-<' \A*<* <UJi 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. By order of the Amir 
Al-Amin Muhammad son of 
the commander of the faithful, 
heir apparent of the Muslims. 



2-79 



2-91 



2-88 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 



243 



5th Khalif continued. 



No. 



Date 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



324 



185 



Medinet Balkh 



325 



185 



326 
327 
328 
329 
330 



186 
187 
188 
189 



Eev. area : 



toj*\ 



,.X*fc4Jl ^ 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. y order of the Amir 
heir apparent of the Muslims, 
Al-Amin Muhammad, son of 
the commander of the faithful 

Rev. area: 



alSl 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. By order of the Amir 
al-Mamun 'Abdallah son of 
the commander of the faith- 
ful, heir of the heir apparent 
of the Muslims. 

Like 325 



2-83 



2-87 
2-68 



2-94 
2-97 



244 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 

5th Khalif continued. 



No. 



Date 

A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



331 



190 



332 



333 
334 



193 



190 
17* 



Ar-Rafikah %u\J\ 
Medinet Zerenj 



335 



336 



337 
338 



339 



180 



184 



185 
187 



192 



Rev. area : 



Muhammad is the apostle of 

God. By order of the Amir 

'Aly son of 'Isa, freedman 

of the commander of the 

faithful. 

Above rev. area, -. beneath 
it* 

Beneath rev. area, the letter . 
Rev. area : 



<ulc ill! J 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. May God he propitious 
to him and give him peace. 
The Khalif ar-Rashid. 

And beneath it ^? 
Like 334, but beneath rev. 

area, Juu>- Ja'far 
Like 334, but above rev. area, 

^Lc 'Aly, and beneath it 

<&j ^\ iln BaraJcah 
Like 336 
Like 336, but beneath rev. 

area, .Jl-ua!' ^jj\ i_ - * 

Seif iln at-Talardny. 
Like 334, above rev. area, 

<Ujyj> Harthemah and below 
it *sM Al Hakam. 



2-55 

2-80 
2-43 



2-92 

2-77 



2-88 



THE COIKS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 

5th Khalif continued. 



245 



No. 



Date 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



340 



341 



193 



170 



Medinet Samar- 
kand 



Al-'Abbasiyeh 



342 171 



343 



344 



345 



346 



174 



170 



Al-Mubarakah 



. 

Al Muhammadiyeh 



171 



347 172 



348 



349 



Beneath, rev. area, 
Ja'uneh 



Above rev. area, *^and below 

it, JujJ Tezid 
Above rev. area,^* *^?, below 

it, <Jj JojJ Yeztd 
Above rev. area, s. , below it, 

J- 
Like 334 ? but above rev. area, 

L* and below it tl^j, to- 

gether Mubdralc. 
Like 344, but legend on rev. 

area in four lines instead 

of three. 
Like 345 
Rev. area : 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. 'The Khalif ar-Rashid 
By order of Muhammad son 
of the commander of the 
faithful. 

Above it <*L)\s>- Hdritk and 

below it y> . 
Like 347, but above rev. area, 

ulUJl Al-Hdrith and 



below it J-AaM Al-Fadl. 
Like 346, but above rev. area : 

\ J and below it Jj, together 
Daud. 



2-88 

2-95 
2-41 

2-78 



2-85 



2-73 



2-67 



VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. 



K K 



246 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 

5th Khalif continued. 



No. 



Date 

A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



350 

351 
352 



173 

175 
180 



353 



354 
355 
356 



357 
358 
359 
360 



181 
182 



183 



Al Muhammadiyeh 



Like 346, but above rev. area: 
J^ Nakhly* and below it 
Jjl^j Bahlul. 

Like 334, but beneath rev. 
area Jol> Yezid. 

Rev. area : 



U. 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. By order of the Amir 
Muhammed son of the Com- 
mander of the faithful, 
during the governorship of 
Muhammad ar-Rahby, Jo* far 

Rev. area : 



,- 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. By order of the Amir 
Muhammad son of the com- 
mander of the faithful. 

Above it j below it jbw- 
Like 353 
Like 353 
Like 353, but above rev. area 

.'. and below .A*s- Ja'far. 
Like 356 
Like 356 

Like 356, but without the .*. 
Like 353, but above rev. area 

4j\^ Daud and below it JJ 



2-95 



2-50 



2-85 
2-55 
2-86 

2-80 



2-90 
2-80 



Rather ^ps? Tahyd. S.L.-P. 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALI FEHS. 

5th Khalif continued. 



247 



.No. 


Date 

A.li. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


361 


184 


Al Muhammadiyeh 


Rev. area : 










t^l^nf 










Muhammad is the apostle of 










God, may God be propitious 










to him and give him peace. 










By order of the Amir Al- 










Amin Muhammad son of the 










commander of the faithful. 










Above it, jjw below jAxs>~ 










Ja'far. 


2-85 


362 


185 


,, 


Like 361, but j instead of (JH 










above rev. area 


3-00 


363 


186 


. 


Like 362 


2-86 


364 


fj 









365 


,, 


> 


,, 




366 


188 




Like 209, and below area y 


2-98 


367 


189 






2-99 


368 


190 


f 


M 


2-84 


369 


193 


? 


tt 


2-96 


370 


171 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 209, but beneath rev. 








11 it r. 


area, and an inner circular 








1 " 


legend on the rev. : 










( j^>^y^\ -**\ By order of 










the servant of God, Hardn, 










commander of the faithful. 


2-80 


371 


179 


,, 


Like 362, and beneath rev. 










area Juv>- Jo? far 


2'77 


372 


,, 


f 






373 










374 


180 






2-84 


375 


j 


( 






376 


181 


; 




2-75 


377 


182 


^ 




2-97 


378 


183 






3-00 


379 


186 




n 


2-90 



248 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 

5th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


380 


187 


Medinet es Salam 


Like 209 




2-95 


381 




jJUlto^ 








382 












383 


188 


1 


Like 209, 


beneath rev. area * 


2-88 


384 


189 








2-95 


385 


190 








2-92 


386 












387 













388 


191 








2-90 


389 












390 


192 








2-86 


391 












392 


193 






}> 


2-88 


393 


t 






i} 




394 


190 


Ma'din ash-Shash 


Like 325, 


but above rev. area 








^ilfiJI ^j^. 


.Jlc L47y and below it-^lJI 










an-Nasr 


2-67 


395 


,, 


,, 


Like 394 




2-85 


396 













397 












398 


192 


Ma'din Bajuneys 


Like 353, 


but above rev. area 








I/-- '^7 io<A*^ 


j2*&r Ja'far, and below it 










J>y J ^ 


lU 


2-65 



6th Khalif, Al-Amin, 193-198. 



399 

400 
401 



197 



198 
194 



Medinet Ispahan 



Medinet Bukhara 



Above rev. area: <&to God, and 
below iUj^te Harthemah and a 



Like 399 
Rev. area : 



Muhammad is the apostleofGod. 
By order of the Amir al-Mamun 
heir of theMuslims, Abdullah, 
son of the commander of the 
faithful. Above diJ To God, 
below J*3$\ Al-Fadl. \ 2'77 



2-91 
2-95 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 

6th Khalif continued. 



249 



No. 



Dite 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



402 194 Medinet Balkh 



403 



404 



405 



194 



193 



194 



406 195 



409 



194 



Like 401 



Medinet Samar- 
kand 



Medinet as-Salam 

H 



Above rev. area : 

<OJ! ^j , My Lord is God. 
Like 404 
Like 404, but beneath rev. area 



By order of Al-Amin Muham- 
mad, commander of the 
faithful. Al-'Abbds. 

Like 406,but beneath rev. area 



Medinet Nisapur 



of the servant of God 
Muhammad, commander of 
the faithful, Al-Amin. 
Rev. area: 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. By order of the Amir 
al-Mamun heir of the Mus- 
lims, 'Abdallah son of the 
commander of the faithful. 

Above it <OJ To God and 
below it Jj :>- Jibrail 



2-98 



2-50 



2-95 
2-92 



2-92 



2-86 



2-65 



250 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 

6th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A. II. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


410 


196 


Medinet Herat 


Above rev. area, <d! To God 








*\p <L> J^ 


beneath it J^ds^ Al-Fadl 




^U! 7th Khalif, Al-Mamun, 195218. 


411 


200 


Medinet Ispahan 


Beneath obv. area, j.-.A^J! 








/tumuli 'O.J <_V 


A.l-Mashrik, The East. Be- 










neath rev. area ( j^Aj] \j J 




412 


201 




Solder of two offices. 
Like 411 


2.90 
2.90 


413 


198 


Al-Basrah a^aJ! 


M 


2.90 


414 


195 


Medinet Samar- 


Rev. area : 








kand 


*1H J^j **^ 










*l^l) <U .s\ wi^f 

,,*i>^ x*>l 1 *"' i.) V* v*J 1 

Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. By order of the Imam 
Al-Mamun commander of 
the faithful. 










Above aJJ To God, below 




415 


197 




Like 414 


3.25 


416 


198 


,, 


Like 414, but above rev. area: 










tjj <dl to God and ly Sim 


3.12 


417 


199 


,, 




2.85 


418 


200 







2.83 


419 


201 







2.63 


420 


206 


Al-Kufah &fl\ 


Above rev. area, <dS To God 


3.02 


421 


198 


Medinet as-Salam 


Rev. area, above <uJ To God. 








*LJ! LJ&* 


Below it, .^-^jU-Jl jJ 




422 


199 




Solder of two offices. 


2.91 
2.90 


423 


200 







2.90 


424 




AlMuhammadlyeh 







425 


199 


&J Jut,.S 1 

Medinet Herat 


^ 


3.20 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



251 



8th Khalif, Al-Mu'tasim-billak, 218227. 



No. 



Date 

A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



426 222 



427 
428 



Dimashk ni 



.On this and nearly all follow- 
ing dirhems, a second mar- 
ginal legend appears on the 
obv., namely, 



<d)i j*s^) It is God who 
ordains in the past and in 
the future; on that day 
believers will rejoice in the 
divine protection. 

Eev. area : above <d! To 

God, below it <d3b 
A l-Mu' tasim-billah \ 



2-79 



222 
226 



Medinet as-Salam 



2-92 



<dJ'u jj\j\ 9th Khalif, Al-Wdthik-billah, 227-232. 

429 229 I Ispahan .^ 



430 



431 
432 



433 



434 



435 



227 



230 
226 



Medinet as-Salam 



Misr 



Beneath rev. area <dib 
Al- Wathik-billah. 



2-82 



10th Khalif, Al-MutawakW, 232247. 



247 


Al-Basrah s.^\ 


Beneath obv. area <dll j^x<*J ! 
Al-Mu'tazzbillah. Beneath 








rev. area <dM ^Ac J^y^l 




235 


Surra-man-raa 


Al-MutaicakkiV-ala-llah. 
On obv. area, Al Mutawakkil- 


3-68 




^j\j ( j*j~> J ala-llah <dl! ^\z ^f^\ 


4-00 


244 


Medinet as-Salam Like 433 






,*LJ1 LI ^ 


4-26 



252 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 



13th Khalif, Al-Mu'tazz-billah, 251-255. 



No. 



Date 
A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



436 



437 



251 



Surra-man-raa 



Beneath rev. area : 



Al MU' tazz-billah 
commander of the faithful. 
A small dirhem which appears 
to have been neatly clipped. 
It bears neither date nor 
place of mintage,the legends 
on the area are unusual. 

Obv. : !N <*JU 



There is no deity but God. 
Al-Mu' tazz-billah. May God 
protect him. 

Rev. : 



Muhammad is the apostle of 
God. 'Abdallah, son of the 
commander of the faithful. 



2.85 



0.95 



15th Khalif, Al-Mu'tamid-ala-llah, 256-279. 
438 267 Surra-man-raa Beneath obv. area: , 



439 



266 



Medinet as-Salam 



440 264 Nasibin .. 



llah. Beneath rev. area 
ad] I JLC JixCJ^I Al-Nu- 
tamid-'ala-llah. 



2.78 
2.75 



3.05 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALLFEHS. 



253 



16th Khalif, Al-Mu'tadid-billak 279289. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 

jrr amines. 


441 


288 


Al-Basrah i^J! 


Beneath rev. area : 










A l-Mtf tadid-littah. 


3-40 


442 





Surra-man-raa ' 






444 


286 


Medinet as-Salam 











fLJ! jJ* 




3-00 


443 284 


"Wasit ks1. 


M 




445 289 








2-65 



b LS ixCJ! 17th Khalif, Al-Muktafy-billah, 289-295. 



446 


292 


Al-Kufahy31 


Beneath rev. area ^a^*!l 








<dlb Al-Muktafy lillah 


3-12 


447 


290 


Medinet as-Salam 











JLJ! AXJ^ 




1-53 


448 


291 


1 " 


Like 443, but beneath obv. 










area : <UJu i J \Vely od- 










dawlah. 


3-17 


449 






n 




450 


294 








2-92 


451 


295 


Al-M6|il Jusj^Jl 





3-12 


*U\j jjc*M 18th Khalif, Al-Muktadir-billah, 295320. 


452 


319 Kas-al-'ain 


Beneath obv. area : 








^..jJl U-K 


^L*]]^! Alu-VAllds 










.,t-ki^4xJ i_xi ..o sow o/ 1 the 










commander of the faithful. 










Beneath rev. area : 










<)JJb jAzsi>A\ Muktadir lillah,. 


3-87 


453 


302 


Surra-man-raa 


n 








^_^ ) l t^ T*** 




2-78 


454 


304 




t) 


3-05 


455 


313 


i 




3-12 


456 


317 


. 


3'32 



VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. 



L L 



254 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 

18th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A. It. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


457 


298 


Ears \j*n\J 


Like 452, but without the 










name Abu-1' Abbas, etc., on 










the obv. area 




458 


297 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 452 


3.27 






*U1 &JJt* 






459 


302 


,, 


, r 


2.91 


460 


303 




)t 


3.16 


461 


304 




n 


2,83 


462 


M 




,, 




463 


306 







3.50 


464 


312 




,, 


3.52 


465 


315 




n 


3.98 


466 


319 




,, 


2.92 


467 


M 







4.62 


468 


320 




,, 


2.78 


469 


318 


Nasibin { .j*t~a* 


Like 452 


2.62 



19th Khalif, Al-Kahir-billah, 320322. 



470 


321 


Medinet as-Salam 


Beneath rev. area <OJb JbUl! 




471 


322 


r O*y^. 


Al JTdhir-liUah 
Like 467, but beneath obv. 


2.58 








area: 

IJuri jj-t Jl^wtJl 










The avenger of God's enemies 
for the sake of God's religion. 


2-79 


472 


321 


Al-M6sil J^xJi 


Like 470 


3.50 


473 


322 


Nasibin ^j-.-^aj 


,, 


2.85 


<dSU ^\}\ 20th Khalif, Ar-Rddy-bittak, 322329. 


474 
475 


324 
323 


Al-Barah ^^aJ! 
Ras-al-'ain 


Beneath obv. area <dSb ,<^U^ 
Ar-Rddy-lillah 


3.93 
3.36 


476 





Surra-man-raa 





3.65 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



255 



20th Khalif continued. 



No. 


Date 

A.H. 


Place of Mintage. 


Description. 


Weight 
grammes. 


477 


327 


Surra-man-raa 


Like 474, but beneath obv. 








^j erv :- 


area : 










Abu-l-Fadl, son of the 










commander of the faithful 


2-54 


478 


322 


Medinet as-Salam 


Like 474 


3-39 


479 


323 


1 " 




3-93 


480 










2-70 


481 


324 


?J 




3-65 


482 


325 








2-81 


483 






t> 




484 


M 




Like 477 




485 


326 







3-63 


486 


M 









487 


327 






2-28 


488 


328 




,, 


3-62 


489 


323 


Al-M6il 


Like 474 


2-59 


490 


327 


,, 





2-65 


491 


323 


Nastbln 


,, 


468 



492 


329 


Medinet as-Salam 






\ 


493 
494 


330 
329 



Naibin ( j++*.*2J 



21st Khalif, Al-Muttaky-bittah, 329333. 
Beneath obv. area : 



son of the 
commander of the faithful 
Beneath rev. area : 



A. l-Muttaky-billah 



3-82 
4-05 

3-35 



256 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



36th Khalif, Al-Mustansir-billah, 623640. 



No. 



Date 

A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



495 



633 



Medinet as-Salam 



Obv. area : 



496 
497 



638 
639 



There is no deity but 
God, Muhammad is 
the apostle of God. 
Margin : 



+M+) 



In the name 

of God, this dirham was 
struck in Medinet as- Sat dm, 
the year 633. 
Rev. area : 

fUn Tie Imdm 
^^MkA^\ Al Mustansir- 

billah, commander 
of the faithful. 
Margin : 



/row 

a speedy victory, give 
good news to the faithful. 



2-97 
2-95 
2-80 



^b 



r* 



37th Khalif, Al-Musta' sim-billah, 640656. 



498 



499 



646 



656 



Medinet as-Salam 



Like 492, excepting the name 
of the Khalif <d) b 
^4? Musta 1 sim-lillah. 



2-95 
2-80 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALI FEHS. 



257 



III. COPPEE COINS OF THE 'AfiBASY DYNASTY. 



No. 



Date 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



500 



Al-M6sil 



501 



145 



Ar-Rayy 



Obv. area, in three lines : 

SA^I \ dJUM *!U 
There is no deity but God 
alone; and below it an 
ornament like a fleur-de-lis 
Margin : The words separated 
by annulets, 



This fals was struck in Al- 
Mdsil. 
Rev. area, in three lines : 



There is no strength but in 
God the Almighty. 
Margin : 



^y order of Jo? far, son of the 
commander of the faithful, by 
the hands of ' Uthmdn son 
ofls-hdk. 

Obv. area, in three lines : 



There is no deity but God 
alone', He has no associate. 
Margin : 



God 

this fals was struck in Ar- 
Rayy the year 145. 
Rev. area, in three lines : 



Muhammad is the apostle of God 
Above it and below it a 
dot 



5.89 



258 THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



No. 



Date 
A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



502 



503 



504 



505 



155 



Medinet as-Salam 

jMUw 



161 



163 



Medinet as-Salam 



/ 

Al-Kufah 



506 
507 



508 



166 



167 



Misr 



509 



168 Medinet Amul 



Margin : 



^y orer o/ Al-Mahdy Mu- 
hammad, son of the com- 
mander of the faithful, may 
God be bountiful to him. 
Like 502, but above rev. area, 

r*. and below it <-? 
Like 502, but margin of rev. 

area, ^j^> <d! \ J-i X^K^ 
...... j^yJt-aJ^ \&Jt> Mu- 

hammad is the apostle of God, 
thisfals was struck ...... 

Like 502, but above rev. area 

.*. and below it J A just. 
Like 502, but margin of rev. 

U **\ U^ 



of Al-Mahdy Muhammad 
commander of the faithful 
in al-Kufah the year 163. 

Like 505, but above rev. area 
a star *. 

Like 505, but in margin 
JL> ^ Ibn-Salih. Eev. 
area, in three lines : 



Muhammad is the 
apostle of God, may God be 
propitious to him and give 
him peace. 
Like 501 



2-45 
3-53 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHALIFEHS. 



259 



No. 



Date 

A.H. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



510 



511 



512 
513 

514 
515 



516 



517 



*** Kumis 



*** 



186 
187 



Al-Basrah 
Medinet as-Salam 



189 Ar-Rafikah 



192 



Dimashk (j 



Obv. margin : 



-.. / the name of God 

thisfals was struck in Kumis 
by the hands of 'Aly son of 
al-Hajjdj. 
Obv. area : 




By order of the heir of the 
Muslims, Muhammad son of 
the commander of the faithful 



Rev. margin 



a ^sj In the name of God, ly 
order of the servant of God 
Harun, commander of the 
faithful, may his victory be 
extolled. 
Rev. area : 

<jj ~+\ L*^ 



JBy order of Harun com- 
mander of the faithful, may 
his victory be extolled. 



260 



THE COINS OF THE EASTERN KHAL1FEHS. 



No. 



Date 

A. II. 



Place of Mintage. 



Description. 



Weight 
grammes. 



518 
519 



520 



200 
2*# 



Hamadan 



Medlnet as-Salam 
C* 



521 
522 



### 
##* 



523 
524 
525-539 



Date on the obv. 

Beneath rev. area, probably 

j*a\j Nasir 
Obv. area, in four lines : 



^...x^^iji The Imam Al- 
Mustansir lilldh commander 
oj the faithful. 

Slightly differing from 517 



Inscription much abraded 



MISCELLANEA. 



I. THE GRIFFIN ON COINS. The last two numbers of the 
Chronicle have contained friendly criticisms of some of my 
numismatic attributions. by Mr. H. Howorth and Mr. Bunbury. 
Some notice of these criticisms on my part would seem to be 
desirable, otherwise it might be supposed that I was willing to 
allow judgment to go against my attributions by default. I 
will therefore put together in small space a few remarks on 
the papers of my critics, or rather on one or two points raised 
by them which seem more especially to invite discussion. 

Mr. Howorth 1 doubts the correctness of my description when 
I assign a lion's head to the griffin on the coins of Panticapaeum, 
on the ground that " a lion-headed griffin is as much a solecism 
as a lion-headed Cerberus would be." But this question is one 
not of opinion but of fact. And the fact is that lion-headed 
griffins are not at all unusual in ancient art. For instance, on 
a vase from the Crimea, 2 on which a battle is depicted between 
Arimaspi and two griffins, one of these creatures has a leonine 
and one an aquiline head, though they are in other respects 
alike. Lion-headed griffins are represented in relief fighting 
against oriental warriors on the seat of the priest of Dionysus 
from the Theatre of Dionysus at Athens. Many other instances 
could be cited, but it is unnecessary. That the griffin on the 
Panticapaean coins is of the leonine rather than the aquiline 
type is certain, if only from the fact that he is horned, for 
eagle-headed griffins have no horns. 



II. THE COINAGE OF THE SELEUCIDAE. The two plates which 
accompany Mr. Bunbury's paper give us valuable new material 
for the classification of the Seleucid coins ; and his remarks are 
temperate and well-judged. On many points he questions the 
attributions adopted in my Catalogue of the Seltucidae, but 
usually without proposing another classification in the place of 
that he rejects. Now I am at least as sceptical as Mr. Bucbury 

1 Xwn. CJiron., 1883, p. 23. 

' Ant. du Bosph. Cim., PI. XLVI. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. M M 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

in these matters. The attributions which he doubts I doubt 
and have always doubted. But I was under the necessity, in 
drawing up a catalogue, of selecting some mode of classification 
or another ; and it would have been useless and absurd to fill 
my pages with suggestions of alternative attributions or with 
notes of interrogation. The fact is that in the absence of more 
definite indications to guide us in the classification of coins we 
are sometimes obliged to go by those of iconography. And 
iconography can never be a safe or trustworthy guide. In 
iconography, quot homines tot sententiae, and what one clearly 
sees another will resolutely deny. To take an instance, I 
assigned on grounds of iconography two coins to Antiochus I., 
Catalogue of Seleucidae, PI. II., Nos. 2 and 8. Of course I did 
so without much confidence, but I could not find any better 
classification. Both of these coins are by Mr. Bunbury given 
on the same grounds to Antiochus II., with so much confidence 
that he regards my attribution as " unaccountable." Let us 
then turn to Mr. Howorth. This critic holds that my attribu- 
tion of No. 3 to Antiochus I. is quite correct. " The pinched 
lips and square cheeks " of Antiochus I. " are as marked on his 
young head as shown in Fig. 3 as on the older heads in 
Figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7." But he rejects my attribution of No. 2. 
" The head on the coin numbered 2 is entirely different in 
every respect. Not only so, but it is precisely the head of 
Antiochus II." It only remains that some one should give 
No. 2 to Antiochus I. and No. 3 to Antiochus II., to exhaust 
all the possible varieties of opinion. My own revised opinion, 
after considering what both writers have to say, is that the two 
coins were probably issued by the same king, but that it is 
quite impossible to say with an approach to certainty whether 
that king is Antiochus I. or II. 

It is quite clear that in matters like this discussion may be 
produced ad wjinitum without procuring a solid result. Hence, 
though I have read Mr. Bunbury's paper with care, and by no 
means without instruction and profit, I do not know that he 
has lighted on any one statement in my catalogue which I 
should be inclined to consider as an erratum except in one 
instance. I seem to have been wrong, although following the 
authority of Eckhel, Leake, and Clinton, in stating that 
Seleucus II. was at one time a captive in Parthia. He was 
defeated by the Parthians, but not, apparently, captured by 
them. This mistake, however, did not lead me to misplace any 
coins. Mr. Bunbury's criticisms also on my assignment of 
coins of Antiochus IV. to the mint of Salamis in Cyprus, and of 
the celebrated coin of Cleopatra to the mint of Sycamina, have 
increased the misgivings with which I originally placed those 



MISCELLANEA. 263 

coins. But in neither case does Mr. Bunbury suggest any pre- 
ferable attribution. 

The proper arrangement of the coins of several dynasties of 
Hellenistic times must always remain more or less doubtful. 
The money of the earlier Seleucidae, of the early Arsacidae, of the 
Ptolemies of Egypt, and the Philetaeri of Pergamum, will always 
be of more or less uncertain assignment. Fortunately in most 
series we proceed on more safe grounds, so that on the whole 
numismatics can claim to be a sound and inductive science. 

PEKCY GARDNEK. 



Mr. Howorth in his paper on " Some Re-attributions," re- 
ferred to above by Mr. Gardner, takes exception to the attribu- 
tion, in the Catalogue of Roman Medallions (British Museum), of 
the gold medallion in the national collection to Diocletian, 
although it bears the name of that Emperor, and attempts to 
show that the portrait is that of Maximian, but executed before 
the latter's accession to imperial power. Setting aside the fact 
that portraits in Roman coins at the end of the third century 
A.D. go for very little, I think that Mr. Howorth, on other 
grounds, has not proved his case. In the first place, the por- 
trait on the medallion, which was struck at Nicomedia, resembles 
more closely that on the coins of Diocletian issued in that city 
than that on the coins of Maximian of the same mint ; and in 
the second place, Mr. Howorth did not sufficiently examine the 
style of the medallion, or he would have seen that it could 
not have been issued till several years after Diocletian had 
appointed Maximian his colleague in the empire, as the type of 
the head is not that of the coins issued during the first few 
years of this joint rule, but that of "the time after the reforma- 
tion of the coinage, in A.D. 296. The type and standard of the 
coinage then underwent a complete change. The difference of 
the types and style of the coinages of the two periods is so 
very marked, that there can be no doubt in attributing the issue 
of the medallion to a period after A.D. 296. 

H. G. 



264 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 

Les Medailleurs Italiens des quinzieme et seizieme Siecles, par 
Alfred Armand. Deuxieme edition, 2 vols. 8vo. Paris : 
E. Plon & Cie. 1883. 

Though this is nominally only the second edition of 
M. Armand's work, it is so much enlarged as to be prac- 
tically a new book. The second volume, at all events, must 
be considered entirely new. For, in the first edition of the 
Medailleurs Italiens, M. Armand attempted only to give a 
catalogue of medals whose authorship was known. He now 
adds a volume devoted altogether to anonymous works, and 
though this addition may be thought somewhat inconsistent 
with the title of his book, there can be no question that it is of 
the greatest interest and value. Thus, while the total number 
of medals described in the first edition was not more than 800, 
the second volume alone now describes about 1,260, and the 
first has risen from 800 to 1,300. This second part, as a simple 
addition to the original, might be thought to claim most notice 
at the hands of the reviewer, but the truth is, there is so much 
new matter in the first volume, that to take stock of that alone 
would require more space than we have at our disposal. 

The number of medallists recorded in the first edition was 
116. The number in this edition is 178. It is true that the 
great majority of these last can scarcely be said to be known, 
seeing that they sign their works with simple initials. When 
nothing further can be ascertained about the authors, M. Armand 
confines himself to copying down literatim the signature as he 
sees it, including (rather perhaps to the confusion of the unin- 
itiated) the F or F F (fecit, fieri fecit] which commonly follow 
the initials of the artist. In the same volume appears a number 
of medallists who do not even sign their pieces, but who may 
be distinguished by some mark or design. Among these is 
especially to be noted the " Medailleur a 1'Amour Captif," who 
made the beautiful medals of Jacoba da Correggio and Lucrezia 
Borgia. M. Armand rejects, we think with reason, the attribu- 
tion by Friedliiuder of these medals to Filippino Lippi, as well 
as the attribution of them to Pomedello. Another of these in- 
teresting unidentified medallists is he who signs with the letter <|>. 
He is at present only known by a very beautiful medal of 
Andrea Gritti, one of the best portraits of the great Doge. 
Among the medallists who appear for the first time are Marande 
(who, as a Frenchman, has scarcely a right to appear in the 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 265 

work) ; one of the Delia Robbia, who is said to have made the 
medal of Savonarola (M. Armand supposes him to have been 
Ambrogio) ; Benedetto Ramelli, who executed two rare medals 
of Francis I. ; Lysippus, supposed to be the nephew of 
Cristoforo Geremia, who is mentioned by Raphael of Volterra. 
Paladino, a wretched medallist, is interesting as the author of a 
large number of " restitutions " of the Popes. " We think, how- 
ever, that M. Armand has ascribed too large an ceuvre to this 
artist. A careful examination of the Papal medals has con- 
vinced the writer that reverses of Paladino are often combined 
with obverses by a different hand. M. Armand has been misled 
by the resemblance of the obverses of some Papal medals to 
those which are signed by Paladino on the reverse. Thus both 
series have been ascribed to this medallist. 

In arranging the anonymous medals, M. Armand has divided 
the time which his work embraces into different series, as 1st, 
earlier than the fourteenth century ; 2nd, between the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries ; 3rd, 1400 to 1450. He divides 
the rest of his time (1450 1600) into six parts of twenty-five 
years in length. Under these chronological divisions he has 
eleven geographical ones, eight for Italy, and one each for Ger- 
many and the north, Spain, and France. We think that the 
greater number of the medals which he attributes to the four- 
teenth century really belong to the succeeding era those of 
Dante, for example, and the Ecchini most unquestionably do so. 
There is, again, no reason to suppose that the medal of Ugo and 
Parisina d'Este was made in the lifetime of these two. There 
was nothing to connect them together previous to the discovery 
of their adultery, which was immediately followed by their 
execution. It is hardly likely that the medal was made before 
the death of Niccolo in 1441. The medal of Niccolo himself 
(by some attributed to Pisanello) is probably older. 

Revue Numiswatique, 3rd series, vol. i. It is with the greatest 
pleasure and no small hope that we welcome the reappearance 
of the Revue Nunmmatique. The last series received its death- 
blow in the terrible conflict of 1870 ; and the deaths of M. de 
Longperier and M. de Saulcy were of evil augury for the future 
of French numismatics. But MM. Waddington and F. Lenor- 
mant still remain, and since 1870 several younger French 
numismatists, such as M. Schlumberger and M. Muret, have 
been producing excellent work. There seems, therefore, no 
reason why France should not again take her due place in 
numismatics as in other things. 

The editors of the new issue are Messrs. Anatole de 
Barthelemy, Schlumberger, and E. Babelon ; the committee of 



266 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

publication includes the names of Messrs. Deloche, F. Lenor- 
mant, Ch. Robert, De Vogue, Waddington, De Witte, aud 
Chabouillet. 

Part 1 contains : 

A. do Barthelemy. Unpublished Gaulish coins and rectifi- 
cations. 

F. Lenorraant. On a coin of Sybaris, bearing the curious 
inscription NIKA, which M. Lenorinant considers to have 
reference to gymnastic contests. 

W. H. Waddington. Numismatics of Isauria and Lycaonia. 
A valuable collection of coins not published in Mionnet. 

E. Muret. Bare and unpublished ancient coins from the 
French collection. Among these the coin of Patraiis, that of 
Eleuthernae in Crete, and two coins of uncertain place are 
especially noteworthy. 

A. Chabouillet. Roman medallions recently acquired by the 
French museum. 

L. Blancard. Some obscure points in the coinage of 
Charles VIII. 

Part 2 contains : 

F. Lenormant. The Cretan archer : comparing the type of 
the coin of Eleuthernae published by M. Muret with a figure on 
a bronze plate. 

E. Babelon. Greek royal coins. Among these is a gold 
tetradrachm, which M. Babelon attributes to an alliance between 
Ptolemy Soter and Seleucus I. The piece has no legend ; but 
most specimens come from India or the far East. We should 
prefer to call it a gold coin struck by Seleucus with the types 
of Alexander the Great. 

J. Roman. Merovingian coins of the towns of Embrun and 
Gap. 

A. Castan. Merovingian triens of Antre (Franche-Comte). 

L. Blancard. The Gros Tournois an imitation of a Christian 
coin of Acre. 

L. Deschamps de Pas. The first coins of the Counts of 
Flanders, a propos of an unpublished coin of Sens. 

P. de Cessac. Unpublished denier of Hugues XL de Lusig- 
nan, Comte de la Marche. 

L. Maxe-Werly. Unpublished or little-known baronial coins 
of France. 

A. Sorbin-Dorigny. Rights of coinage in the non-Mussulman 
communities of the Ottoman Empire. 



NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 267 

Annuaire de la Societe Frangaise de Numismatique et d'Arche- 
ologie, 1888. 

Part 1 contains : 

J. P. Six. Dropion of Paeonia. A base belonging to a statue 
of this king has been found at Olympia. M. Six proposes to 
attribute to him some Paeonian coins which bear the mono- 
gram^. 

R Garrucci. An Etruscan coin of the Borgia Museum. 
Types: Obv., head of Pallas ; Rev., a crescent. 

E. Babelon. Coins of Cilicia. Bare imperial coins of 
Cilician cities. 

Ponton d'Amecourt and More de Previala. Merovingian 
coins of Gevaudan. 

E. Caron. A hoard of the 14th century discovered at Paris. 
H. Sauvaire. Unpublished dirhems of the Seljuks of Roum. 

Part 2 contains: 

F. Imhoof-Blumer. Mallos, Megarsos, Antiochia, ad Pyra- 
mum. The writer discusses these cities with his accustomed 
thoroughness from the geographical and numismatic stand-points. 
He shows that the coins inscribed MAP or MA PA, bearing 
the types of a winged deity and a swan or pyramid, belong not to 
Marium in Cyprus but to Mallus in Cilicia. This rectification was 
made in the collection of the British Museum many years ago. 

Ponton d'Amecourt and More de Previala. Merovingian coins 
of Gevaudan (continued). 

G-. Leroy. A mint at Melun in the sixteenth century. 

The Zeitschrift fur Numismatik, vol. x. part 4, contains : 

H. Dannenberg. A find of Tour.nois at Wittmund, coins of 
the Counts of Berg, Dukes of Brabant, &c., of the fifteenth cen- 
tury ; also two finds at Vietmannsdorf and Herzsprung respec- 
tively. 

J. Friedliinder. A medallion of Peter de Domo Fani. 

E. Bahrfeldt. On the find at Daelia. Coins of Brandenburg, 
Meissen, and Saxony. 

F. Friedensbnrg. The heller of Neisse in Silesia. 
H. Dannenberg. A picture bearing on numismatics. 

F. Imhoof-Blumer. Points in the numismatics of Cilicia : 

I. On the coins of Hieropolis, Castabala, and the geo- 
graphical position of the various towns called Casta- 
bala. 



268 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

II. Coins and eras of the Cilician towns Augusta, Mop- 
suestia, and Pompeiopolis. 

A. von Sallet. The denarii of Margrave Otto II. of Branden- 
burg. 

The same. Small corrections of papers previously published. 

Vol. xi. part 1 contains : 

A. Kotelmann. History of the numismatics of Brandenburg 
under the lines of Wittelbach and Luxemburg, and the two first 
Hohenzollerns. 

Louis Blancard. The Gros Tournois an imitation of a coin 
of Acre struck by the Christians with Arabic inscription. 

J. Friedlander. Greek proper names on coins. Additions 
and corrections to the Lexicon of Pape. 

J. Friedlander. Acquisitions of the Royal collection at Berlin 
in 1882. These acquisitions are not on the same grand scale 
as those of recent years, but still contain interesting things, 
including a splendid gold stater of Panticapaeum. 

A. Erman. Oriental coins acquired by the same Cabinet. 

Th. Mommsen. The denarius of Q. Salvidienus, and the 
hoards of Peccioli and Metz. 

Vol. xi. part 2 contains : 

H. Dannenberg. On the numismatics of the Harz. 

F. Friedeusburg. The earliest coins of the Electors of the 
Palatinate Otto Heinrich and Philip. 

Fr. Earth. The find at Lieberose. 

A. von Sallet. German cast medals of the sixteenth and 
the beginning of the seventeenth centuries. 

Th. Mommsen. The hoard of denarii at Ossolaro. 

Fr. Hultsch. Approximate determination of the proportions 
of gold and silver in certain electruin coins. 

A. von Sallet. Fulvia or Octavia ? Discussion of the por- 
trait on an unpublished aureus of Mark Antony. 

C. F. K. 



XYIII. 
ATHENIAN COIN-ENGRAVERS IN ITALY. 

AMONG the coins of Magna Graecia, dating from the 
best age of Greek art, there is a group which shows a 
marked difference from the general qualities of the schools 
of Italy and Sicily. Instead of the gem-engraver's in- 
fluence and the sameness of type, however varied in beau- 
tiful details, which mark the Western school, we notice the 
influence of sculpture and the variety of treatment which 
characterize the school of Greece. The work of the 
money of Thurium, recolonised by Athens in the age of 
Perikles, has naturally suggested the source of this special 
character, nowhere more marked than in this city. Yet, 
so far as I am aware, no one has yet attempted to link to- 
gether the various exceptional issues of Italy which bear 
out the hypothesis of a direct Athenian influence, though 
the coinage of Terina supplies exactly the evidence that is 
needed. 

It may be objected d priori that the school of the West 
was strong enough to produce great work in two styles ; 
its own, rich and delicate, and that far more vigorous 
manner which marks the art of Hellas. But if we com- 
pare the Syracusan dekadrachms with the finest copies of 
them in the money of the Locri Opuntii, Pheneus, and 
Messene, we shall see at once that even in copying with 
an inferior technical skill, the engravers of Greece Proper 

VOL. 111. THIRD SERIES. N N 



270 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

excelled in strength, simplicity, and purity, the originals 
which they admired and followed. Consequently, we must 
allow them that higher expression which a practised eye 
will recognise in all they executed as an unfailing test of 
authorship, a test strengthened in the present instance by 
direct and probable links which make up a logical chain 
not to be disregarded. 

The coins of Terina afford us evidence only second in 
directness to that derived from the neighbouring town of 
Thurium, though more forcible. First, they have the pecu- 
liar art which comes in like an Athenian colony in Magna 
Grsecia ; secondly, the theme in which their engravers 
delight, the figure of Nike, is not a "memory-sketch," 
like the recumbent Herakles of Croton and Heraclea, 
suggested by a work of art, but is developed in a free 
series of variations, and thus indicates a strong school. 
In the third place, the subject has a remarkable re- 
semblance in some of its forms to the exquisite con- 
temporary balustrade - relief of the Temple of Nike 
Apteros, at Athens, while the earliest coin of Terina, 
dating about B.C. 480, presents the goddess in the wing- 
less shape with her name written beside her figure. 
Of course, there is much to explain in this agreement. 
We do not know of an older temple of Nike Apteros 
at Athens than the famous one dating from before circ. 
B.C. 400. It is a startling hypothesis that an engraver 
carried away the general form of the reliefs of the balus- 
trade, and reproduced them in another country. Yet a 
later temple generally preserved an older worship, and we 
must look on the relief of the temple at Athens as typical 
of the school rather than as a solitary example, merely be- 
cause to us it was long so. A new instance is rather a proof 
of the individual force of a style than of mere copying, 



ATHENIAN COIN-ENGRAVERS IN ITALY. 271 

and no one who had the facility of the great engravers of 
Terina would have condescended to copy a relief. The 
conscious or unconscious copying of coins, especially of 
the same series, is obviously another matter, due to the 
inevitable influence of the older type or to popular feeling, 
and is the key to the slow change of style in coin-art. 

The coins here engraved (Pis. XI., XII.) do not need a 
detailed description, the object of this essay being artistic 
and not numismatic in the special sense, and suggestive, 
with no dream of finality. 

The earliest coin, like all the rest, except where speci- 
fied, is a didrachm (PI. XI. No. 1). The date is about B.C. 
480, the art the later archaic, much resembling the 
^Eginetan style. The obverse bears a head in profile 
bound with a simple diadem, resembling the Syracusan 
coins of the time of Gelon. Around it is the name of the 
goddess Terina. Her place in mythology is mere matter 
of speculation. Unhappily, Pindar, in his remaining Odes, 
commemorates no citizen of Terina, and speculation is 
useless. On the reverse is a dignified form of Nike, 
accompanied by her name A^I^Vl ; she is clad in a long 
chiton, and carries an olive-branch, while the whole sub- 
ject is encircled by a wreath of olive. 

The works of the period next following do not present 
anything bearing on the present subject. It is when we 
reach the age of finest art that we find two groups of 
didrachms, the earlier marked by the engraver's initial <t>, 
the later by a pupil who signs P. The works of the 
earlier master, <!>, are in style somewhat before B.C. 400. The 
severity of the transitional age is not wholly lost by him, 
though when he is severe, he is so by choice, not of neces- 
sity : and one type of the Terina head, that of PI. XI. Nos. 
4, 5, 6, is strikingly similar in composition to some of the 



272 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Syracusan transitional tetradrachms. The heads require 
no detailed analysis. They are remarkable for beauty, 
skill, and balance, and the presence of two types ; that 
already noticed and another (PL XI. 2, 3), surrounded 
by an exquisitely drawn wreath of wild olive, affording 
another proof of the power in variety that marks the en- 
gravers of Terina. The reverse presents Nike in changing 
attitudes of a singular playful grace, alone paralleled by 
the similar types of the Fountain Nymph of the Thessalian 
Larissa. We see her resting on an overturned hydria ; 
seated on a base and drawing water with the same vessel 
from the fountain in the wall ; in a chair, throwing and 
catching two balls on the back of her hand, repeated in a 
different form at Larissa, and also in two instances seated 
on a base. In all subjects but that of the game of ball she 
holds the caduceus. In the first case a little bird rests on 
her hand (No. 2), in the last but one (No. 5), she has a 
wreath besides the herald's staff. The composition in all 
cases is masterly. In the first instance (PL XI. 2, XII. 1), 
Nike has just alighted, and sits with perfect balance, her 
half-open wings aiding her in a position otherwise difficult 
to maintain. Her drapery is still drawn back by the wind. 
The figure is seen beneath the drapery, in the manner of 
the balustrade in the Temple of Nike Apteros. A stream 
flows from the overturned hydria, and a flower springs 
up from the watered earth. The skill of the work as a whole 
is marvellous. The large curves suggested and returning 
inwards, the equal proportion of the subject to the space 
thus naturally filled in, and little subtleties such as the man- 
ner in which the shoulder of the right wing forms a kind 
of nimbus for the head, are truly admirable. With all 
this care for detail the work is large. Note especially the 
grand forms of the wings depicted with the usual sagacity 



ATHENIAN COIN-ENGRAVERS IN ITALY. 273 

of the Greeks in the inner side, where the orders of the 
feathers are longer in appearance than on the outer side. 
The Nike at the fountain is as masterly in poise. She 
balances the weight of the hydria held on her right arm 
by striking the foot of the herald's staff into the ground 
behind, and resting her right foot against the base on 
which she sits. The subject is unusual in the background 
of delicately drawn stone wall, and the swan swimming 
in the basin beneath the fountain. The third type is the 
game of ball, another picture of every-day life, yet more 
playful than the last, leading us from the motives of 
sterner art to those of the terra-cottas, though treated 
more severely than the familiar post- Alexandrine works 
in that material. The remaining forms are similar, but 
the subjects more dignified. 

A smaller coin (PL XI. No. 7), signed 4>IAIZ, bearing 
the types of the head of Terina and Nike seated on a base 
wreathed with olive, a bird on her hand, seems a little later 
in date. The type of head is not dissimilar from that 
surrounded by the wreath (PI. XI. No. 2, 3), yet has more 
affinity with the Maenad's head on the coin of Elea or Velia, 
signed <|> (PI. XI. No. 13), to be presently noticed as possibly 
a work of the Terinsean <|>. Is <I>IAIS for 0IAIZTIHN ? 
That name occurs on coins of Elea about two generations 
later, and it may be suggested very tentatively that if 
the <|> of Elea is the Terinaean <!>IAIZ, then the later 
Elean engraver may possibly have been grandson of the 
Terinsean, according to the Greek fashion of giving a 
name in alternate generations. The possible identity 
of <f> at Terina and Elea with 4>IAIX at Terina has 
nothing to do artistically with the descent of <t>l A I ZT I HIM, 
who has a purely Italian style, like all his contemporaries 
of Magna Grsecia. 



274 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

The mention of the coin of Elea, possibly by the engraver 
of Terina, suggests the comparison of a group of coins 
signed <l>, of other towns of Lower Italy, and clearly of the 
same school, if not by the same hand. These are of Heraclea, 
Thurium, Elea, and Pandosia. A careful study shows points 
of contact with the money of Terina signed 4> throughout 
this group, which stands apart from the surrounding work. 
"We must note that the obverse of the coin of Heraclea 
(PI. XI. No. 9) is signed 2> apparently the initial of another 
artist of the same school. Certainly, the hand is not that of 
the Terinaean, but the composition of the reverse, signed <!>, 
while true to the Attic instinct of the age of Pheidias in 
representing a supreme struggle, is for skill of composition 
quite comparable to the Terinsean series of the engraver <l>. 
The subject is too dissimilar for more than a conjecture of 
similar origin, and the size of the head of Herakles is unlike 
the better proportion of the coins compared. While the mat- 
ter is thus in suspense, an additional evidence for identical 
authorship is seen in the small coin of Heraclea signed 4> 
(No. 8), which, in the obverse, particularly in the form of 
the eye, resembles that of the Terina series of 0, while the 
exceptional springing lion of Elea (No. 13) is like the same 
subject of the reverse. The head of Athene of Thurium 
(No. 10), copied at Neapolis (No. 12), is acknowledged to 
be of Attic style. It is signed <l>. The similarity to the 
coin of Terina (No. 2) is very striking. The reverse, a 
butting bull, is too different a type from the Nike for us to 
institute a comparison, except in the skill of composition, 
which is singularly shown in the position of the fish in 
the exergue, which fits the round of the coin, and is 
exceptional when a single fish is represented. The little 
bird beneath the bull again recalls Teriua. The signature 
at Thurium occurs in a long series, in which the helmet of 



ATHENIAN COIN-ENGRAVERS IN ITALY. 275 

Athene is bound with the olive-wreath or adorned with 
the figure of Scylla, and which includes the well-known 
splendid tetradrachm, the signature on which is doubtful 
(Head, "Brit. Mus. Guide," PI. 25, 17). These coins 
may be classed together by the style of the head of Athene 
and the drawing of the bull, particularly in the position 
of the head and the treatment of the dewlap. One speci- 
men of the olive-wreath group has the letters <|> R Y on the 
reverse (PL XI. 11), recalling the <l>PYriA (PhrygiUos) 
of Syracuse, whose work is a little later ; but the style of 
the animal is so different from that of <|> that it may reason- 
ably be conjectured that <1>PY worked with <f>, and wrote 
his name more fully for distinction. Some may prefer to 
identify the two, but the balance is rather in favour of 
<f>l AIS as the longer form of 4>, at least at Terina. 

Probably, the splendid three-quarter face of Hera 
Lakinia, at Pandosia (No. 14), is by the artist of Terina ; 
the reverse is signed <|>, and presents a not less beautiful 
subject, Pan seated on a rock before a term, his hound 
crouched at his feet. It is very hard to compare these 
works with the Terina subjects. Perhaps it would be best 
to say that both are by engravers of the highest power in 
design, and specially noteworthy for skill in composition. 
Yet there is something in the head of Hera, and more in 
the calm repose of the resting hunter, which recalls the 
delightful subjects of Terina ; the figure, for pose and 
fulness of detail, may be especially compared with the 
fountain subject (No. 3). 

The coins of Terina signed P (PI. XII.), are in part 
contemporary with, in part later than, those with <|>. We 
may venture to think them works of a pupil and in general 
not equal in force and beauty to those of his master. In 
the heads of Terina he follows the type which is not sur- 



276 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

rounded by a wreath (comp. PL XII. 1 8, with PI. XI. 
4 6), and the execution is that of a copyist, unmistakably 
inferior. One of these heads has for reverse the splendid 
figure of Nike resting on her hydria by the older artist 
(PL XII. 1), showing that at one time the two engravers 
worked together. Another example is combined with 
the reverse of Nike on a base in the manner of <|> (comp. 
PL XII. 2 with PL XI. 6). But the younger artist 
shows himself truly great in the signed reverse of the 
stooping Nike, which startlingly reminds us of the figures 
of the balustrade at the Temple of the wingless Victory. 
This is in all respects a most charming composition, 
though not so skilfully placed in the field as the works 
of the other artist. Nike is clad in a long chiton and 
a peplos, passing round her left arm, with which she 
supports her drapery as she stands in arrested movement, 
the herald's staff in her hand. In her figure partly seen 
through the drapery, the fall of her wings, and her whole 
attitude (PL XII. Nos. 3, 9), there is that perfect har- 
mony that suggests a rhythmical series of movements, 
treated in the style of the balustrade-relief, indicating a 
strong influence, though not necessarily that of a par- 
ticular work. In the other subjects, Nike is usually half- 
draped (Nos. 4 7) ; her figure is short, and her attitude 
in some cases too much bent (Nos. 7, 8). Three unsigned 
coins have been added (Nos. 10 12) partly for compari- 
son (with PL XI. No. 7), which are probably the work of 
a second pupil of the engraver who signs <1>. The head is 
of a style wholly new to Terina and of a distinctly Sici- 
lian character, as shown by the exaggerated lines of the 
throat ; and the reverse, in one case dignified (PL XII. 10), 
is otherwise weak (Nos. 11, 12). 

To sum up, we find in Lower Italy a distinctly 



ATHENIAN COIN-ENGRAVERS IN ITALY. 277 

Athenian school, probably owing its first acclimatisation 
to Thurium. The greatest engraver or engravers of this 
school sign <|>, the abbreviation of the fuller form either 
<NAIZ or less probably <I>PY. The works with the 
initial <j> form a series of Thurium, Terina, Elea, Heraclea, 
and Pandosia. The distinct link with Athens is in the 
famous balustrade-relief of the Temple of Nike Apteros, 
worshipped in common at Athens and at Terina. 

This is but a small contribution to our knowledge of 
the local schools of Greek art, but it is of use if it 
warn us not to disregard special characteristics when 
they occur in the midst of a local school. In another 
paper I hope to examine fully the evidence of the money 
of Thurium, which was apparently the earliest art-colony 
of Athens in the West. 

REGINALD STUART POOLE. 



VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. O O 



XIX. 

FURTHER NOTICE OF SOME ROMAN COINS DIS- 
COVERED IN LIME STREET, LONDON. 

ON a former occasion, 1 1 had, through the kindness of Mr. 
John E. Price, F.S.A., Mr. Alfred White, F.S.A., and 
Mr. F. G. Wilson Price, F.S.A., the opportunity of giving 
some account of a large hoard of denarii found in Lime 
Street. At that time it seemed probable that by far the 
greater part of the coins had fallen into the hands of these 
three gentlemen, by whose courtesy I was enabled to give 
a description of the hoard. 

It now, however, appears that a very considerable num- 
ber of the coins were diverted into another channel, and 
are now in the possession of a member of this society, Mr. 
Thomas Bliss, who has kindly submitted them for my 
examination. I am thus enabled largely to supplement 
the list of coins, both by the addition of new types to 
those of the various emperors and empresses recorded in 
my former list, and of coins struck under several emperors 
whose names do not there appear. 

I have thought it best to give in this supplemental list 
all the varieties in Mr. Bliss's possession, though in many 
instances the same types are recorded in my first list as 
having occurred in the hoard. The series, as before, 

1 "Num. Chron.," Third Series, vol. ii. p. 67. 



ROMAN COINS DISCOVERED IN LIME STREET. 279 

begins with Commodus, but comprises coins of Trajan 
Decius, so that the hoard cannot have been deposited earlier 
than about A.D. 249 or 250. In my former notice, I have 
inferred, from the absence of coins of this emperor, that 
the date could not be much later than A.D. 248, and attri- 
buted the deposit of the hoard to the period of confusion 
which ensued in the Roman empire after the death of the 
two Philips. The fact of there being these coins of their 
successor present in the hoard does not, however, mate- 
rially affect my inference. 

In my former notice, I observed that coins such as were 
rarely discovered in Britain were present in this deposit, 
and I instanced those of Albinus, Julia Paula, Aquilia Severa, 
and Pupienus. To these names may now be added those of 
Macrinus, Diadumenianus, Gordianus Africanus II., and 
Balbinus. Of these coins I have given the reverse legends 
and types, besides the reference to Cohen, which, in the 
case of the majority of the coins, seems to be all that is 
necessary. Some of these, however, are by no means 
common coins, and, in a few instances, varieties exist 
which are not to be found in the pages of Cohen, and which 
I have, therefore, placed on record. 

An interesting object, found, it is presumed, with the 
coins, is a thin ring of gold, now somewhat oval in shape, 
but of an average diameter of about J inch. Externally, 
it is somewhat irregularly octagonal. It is only about 
J- inch in thickness, and its weight does not exceed 
18 grains. 

I have only to add that the total number of the Lime 
Street coins described in this and my former notice of the 
find amounts to nearly 500. 

JOHN EVANS. 



280 NUMISMATIC CHUONICLE. 

COMMODUS. Cohen, 325. 

SEVERUS. C., 62, 78, 126, 181, 208, 216, 230 (2), 273, 285, 
291, 304, 324, 861, 400. As No. 232, but IMP. VII., 
and the Victory carrying a wreath and a trophy. 
As No. 366, but reading ROMA AETERNA. 

JULIA DOMNA. C., 81, 32, 38 (2), 83, 90, 96 large, 111 large, 
112, 119. 

CAEACALLA. C., 38, 89, 139, 141, 154, 156, 171 large, 255, 
360 (2). 

GETA. C., 86, 48, 56, 77, 111. 

MACBINUS. PONTIF. MAX. TR. P. COS. P. P. Abundantia 
seated, holding a cornucopia? and two ears of corn above a 
modius. C., 27. 

DIADUMENIANUS. PRINC. IVVENTVTIS. Diadumenian stand- 
ing facing, but looking to r., holding a standard and 
sceptre; behind, two standards. C., 3. 

ELAGABALUS. C., 1 (2 varieties), 43, 52, 55, 114, 131, 150. 
JULIA PAULA. C., 9. 
JULIA SOJEMIAS. C., 8. 
JULIA M^SA. C., 14, 17 (3). 

ALEXANDER SEVERUS. C., 4 (4), 49, 61, 70, 78, 107, 115, 129, 
143 (2), 135 (2), 138, 141, 163, 172 (2), but reading IMP. 
SEV. ALEXAND. AVG ; 189, 192, 197 (2), 211, 222. 

JULIA MAMJEA. C., 5 (2), 27 (3), 29 (2). 
MAXIMINUS. C., 14, 28, 29, 37. 

Obv. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG. GERM. Laureate 
bust. 

Eev. VICTORIA AVG. Victory marching to 1., holding 
wreath and palm- branch. 

GORDIANUS AFIUCANUS II. PROVIDENTIA AVGG. Provi- 
dentia standing to 1., holding a wand and a cornucopiae, 
her left arm resting on a column, at her feet a globe. 
C., 2. 



ROMAN COINS DISCOVERED IN LIME STREET. 281 

BALBINUS. P . M . TE . P . COS . II . P . P. The emperor 1., 
holding a branch and a sceptre. C. 10. 

PUPIENUS. PAX PVBLICA. Peace seated, holding an olive- 
branch and sceptre. C., 14. 

GORMAN III. C., 6, 7 (2), 9 (3), 15 (5), 25 (8), Supp. 7 (2), 
39 (3), 40, 49 (5), 52 (3), 57, 59, 62, 64 (8), 70, 75, 82, 
85, 91 (2), 94, 107 (2), 109, 114 (5), 125 (2), 126, 128 
(2), 186, 143 (3), 145 (2), 151, 152 (2), 160, 161, 163, 
166 (6). 

PHILIP I. C., 6 (2), 9 (4), 10 (2), 14 (2), 16 (5), 22, 88, 44, 
50 (2), 52 (3), 72 (6), 83, 89, 93, 97 (8), 103, 109 (3). 

OTACILIA SEVEBA. C., 3 (2), 6, 7, 20 (2), 25 (2). 
PHILIP II. C., 30 (3), 83, 34, 48. 
TBAJANUS DECIUS. C., 2, 26. 




XX. 

SAXON COINS FOUND IN IRELAND. 

I PUBLISHED in the " Numismatic Chronicle " (vol. ii. 
Third Series, p. 103) a descriptive catalogue of nine coins 
of Eadweard the Elder, and eight of ^thelstan, his son 
and immediate successor. 

This small hoard, now in the Royal Irish Academy, 
contributed five additional names to the list of Eadweard's 
and three to the list of ^Ethelstan's moneyers in Ruding's 
third edition, 4to, 1840. 

I have now to describe thirty-one l Saxon coins found 
in the County Dublin, in April, 1883, along with a small 
ingot or cast bar of silver, and also a piece of silver near 
three inches in length, its surface ornamented with spiral 
fluting well executed, not the result of twisting. This 
slightly curved fragment seems to be a portion of a torque, 
as each end had been cut with a chisel. There was a third 



1 Two of ^Ethelstan's coins, moneyer Pinele, are duplicates 
of 9 and 10. 



SAXON COINS FOUND IN IRELAND. 283 

piece of silver, about an inch in length, and as thick as a 
goose quill, with numerous indentations made on its sur- 
face with a punch, and arranged in lines. It was pro- 
bably a portion of a Saxon armlet. 

EADWEAKD THE ELDER. A.D. 901 924. 

Type. (No. 2, Hawkins.) Obv. King's head to the left, within 
a plain circle. Eev. Moneyer's name in two lines, witli three 
crosses between the lines. 

_ Grains. 

1. .frEXDVVEftED BEX DEOKV.fr fr .frVSLDMO 23-7 
A 4* above the upper, and three pellets, two and one, 
under the lower line. 

Type. (No. 4, Hawkins.) Obv. A fr in the centre, 
within a plain circle. Rev. Moneyer's name in 
two lines. Nos. 3 and 9 have a single pellet above 
the upper and under the lower line ; No. 6, three 
pellets above and only one under the name ; all the 
others have three pellets above and under the 
name (see Euding, XYI. 7 and 28). 



2. .frESDWEftED BEX 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. .frESDVYESBDEX 
7. .frETtDWESED BEX 
8. 
9. 
10. 
11. 
12. .frEVD WETTED BEX 
13. .frEVDWEBD BEX 


7VBB7T .fr.fr .frMON 24-5 
BE7VHS .fr.fr .frTSNMO 24-2 
BE0BN .fr.fr .frEBEM0 21-2 
BEOBN .fr.fr .frBEDM0 24-5 
BEEN ^.^^.GTVBMO 18- 
ESLHS ^.^.^TTVNMO 23-8 
FBIDEB & ^ ^BHTMO 24-6 
FBIDEB * fr ^.EHTMO* 24-7 
VYE7TL .fr.fr .frDELMMO 21-7 
VVIL ^.^.^.LVFM 22-9 
OIEIOI ***DIOMI 21-2 
3)MK0 ^^^0M^a 24-5 



Type. (No. 6, Hawkins.) Obv. Same as type 4. 
Rev. Moneyer's name in one line with foliage. 

14. .frESDWEftBD BEX HEEEMOD 24-2 

The type of this very fine coin is accurately represented 
in Ruding, PI. XXVIII. Fig. 1, and a variety of this 
type in PI. XYI. Fig. 9. 



284 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Heremod is probably a Danish name, same as " Her- 
mod, the messenger of the gods." 2 The symbol under the 
name has eight rays terminated by dots ; it is identical 
with some of the symbols called "suns and roses" by 
Worsaae in his description, p. 183, of the devices on the 
fourth and fifth bands of the gold horn, Fig. 227. If the 
eight rays be a symbol of the sun, it is possible that the 
"foliage " may be intended to represent wings as a symbol 
of the Mercury of Scandinavian mythology. 

The average weight of the fourteen coins is 23*3 grains; 
eight of them weigh above 24 grains each. 

Hawkins has DEORVVALD (type 4) ; BEORNRED 
and VVEALDELM are only varieties of BIORNRED 
and VVEALDHELM in Hawkins; BERNGAR and 
YVILLVF are now first published. 

The reverse of No. 12 is unintelligible ; the name on 
No. 13 reads OAMDE-ERMO, retrograde. The first 
TV in the king's name is inverted on these two coins. 

J?ETHELSTAN, OR ETHELSTAN. A.D. 924 940, SON AND 
SUCCESSOR or EADWEARD. 

Type. (No. 5, Hawkins.) Olv. A ifc in the centre within a plain 
circle. Rev. Moneyer's name in two linea. No mint is men- 
tioned on these coins. No. 1 has a J above the upper, and an 
amulet below the lower line. No. 3 has a single pellet above 
the upper and under the lower line ; all the others have three 
pellets above and below the name. See Ruding, XVII. 14. 

Grains. 

1. ^.^DELSTTVN EEX TtLFETV * * * VMON 16-9 

2. TtLHS ^^^.T.TV.NM 20-3 

3. ifiSIDiMiSTSN EEX SEEM ^.^^ONETTT 21-8 

4. ifrSITDELgTSN EEX EEIO I ^.^.^MONET 22-5 



2 The " Industrial Arts of Denmark," p. 178. By J. A. A. 
Worsaae. London. 1882. 



SAXON COINS FOUND IN IRELAND. 285 

Grains. 

5. .fr^DELXTSN RE LSND ifr.fr ifrVCMON 238 

6. .fr^DELXTSN EEX MSNM ** DONETS 25-3 

7. .fr^EDELXTSN EE PINE .fr.fr .frLEMO 23-9 

8. .fr.fr .frLEMO 215 

9. ,, .fr.fr .frFEM 224 

10. .frJEDELXTSN EEX DVEL .fr.fr .frTYEMO 206 

11. .fr^DELXTSN EE WIL -fr.fr.frLVFM 23- 

Hawkins gives the name ALFEAV, as moneyer, type 
3. ALHSTAN is probably the same as EALHSTAN 
on No. 7 of Eadweard's coins, and LANDVC, the letter 
A inverted, is the same as LANDAC (5) in Hawkins's 
list. 

The Roman P on Saxon coins in the names of moneyers 
and of places of mintage is frequently read as "W. It 
would be satisfactory to know if there is any rule for such 
reading, because I find in Hawkins's list of Athelstan's 
moneyers the names Pauls, Paulus, and Pilit, all of type 5, 
and in the same list, Winele (5). In Ruding (PI. XVII. 
Fig. 14) there is a coin of ^Ethelstan with PINELE MO. 
on the reverse, and the letter L inverted as on No. 9 in 
the preceding list, but the name Winele only is in the list 
of moneyers. It seems to me that Pinele is as intelligible 
as Winele. 

The formation of letters by the combination of separate 
punches is well illustrated by the different forms of the 
letter S, on 4 and 5, and of C on the reverses of 4, 5, and 
10 ; and examples of inverted letters A, being represented 
by Y, occur on 12 and 13 of Eadweard's coins ; and on the 
reverse of 9, L is inverted in Pinele. 

Type. (No. 7, Hawkins.) " Obv. Small cross, with 
king's titles as Eex totius Britannia) or Saxorum. 
Rev. Small cross, with sometimes an additional 
ornament, moneyer's name, title, and mint. A 
few coins of this type have the king's name and 
titles on both sides." 
VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. P P 



286 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

12. ^EDELSTT^N REX TO BEIT .frEEENTUD Mo 

EFoEj/c : 22-7 grs. 

The form of M on the reverse is unusual, and the Saxon 
P is very different from the P on 9, which Ruding reads 
asW. 

Type. (No. 8, Hawkins.) " Same as 7, except that 
instead of the small cross there is a rosette of dots 
on one side or other. This is not distinguished 
from type 7 in our list of mints and moneyers." 

13. ^JEDELSTTVN EE*TO BE *OSL7YE M0N LEIEE* 

22-7. 

The rosette on the reverse only of this coin consists of 
a dot within a circle of eight dots. 

The average weight of the fifteen coins, including two 
duplicates, is 22'3 grains, which is one grain less than the 
average weight of Eadweard's fourteen coins. 

The following names, Alhstan, Eric, Man, and Thurlac, 
are additions to Hawkins's List of Aethelstan's moneyers. 

ST. PETER, ABOUT 905 TO 941. 

Type. (No. 1, Hawkins.) " Obv. A sword across the field, to the 
right or to the left, between the two lines of the legend ; between 
the letters of the lower line is the unknown object which on 
Sitric's coins has been called a hammer. Rev. A cross with a 
pellet in each quarter." 

14. SCIPE | sword * \ TE, hammer, 110 

IEOBQ($)EOSOC0EOI0 17-2 

tO above the upper line, and below the lower (see 
Euding, PI. XII. Fig. 4). 

15. The coin represented in the woodcut at the head of 
this article weighs 22'7 grains, which is 5'5 more than the 
penny of St. Peter. The cross on the reverse resembles 
that on the coins of St. Eadmund in Ruding (PI. XII. 
Figs. 1 to 6, and Hawkins, 139 and 606), and I was at 
one time inclined to regard the penny as being of St. 
Eadmund. 



SAXON COINS FOUND IN IRELAND. 287 

There is, however, much difficulty in appropriating this 
piece with any degree of confidence. The type of the 
obverse differs materially from that of any of the known 
coins of St. Eadmund, while the reverse, both in type and 
character of workmanship, closely approximates to that of 
some of the coins bearing the name of that saint and the 
usual X on the obverse. But the obverse of the coin now 
under consideration bears a remarkable resemblance to 
the reverse of some coins of Eadweard the Elder (Ruding, 
PI. XVI. 12 and 13), on one of which the name of the 
moneyer OZVLF occurs ; and Mr. Evans has suggested 
that what I have described as the obverse of the coin 
may, after all, be a blundered imitation of the coin minted 
by Osulf, while the reverse, if not taken from the obverse 
of a coin of Eadweard, may be a barbarous imitation of the 
reverse of a St. Eadmund penny. The size is also smaller 
than usual with the coins of Eadweard, though the same 
as the usual run of those of St. Eadmund. 

AQUILLA SMITH. 



XXI. 

THE MEDALLION OF PHILIBERT THE FAIR OF SAVOY 
AND MARGARET OF AUSTRIA. 

IN his monograph on the medal of Philibert the Fair and 
Margaret of Austria, M. Natalis Rondot has rendered a 
very important contribution to the study of this fascinat- 
ing branch of art. In former publications the writer has 
shown his great zeal in searching out from the inmost 
recesses the history of the coinage and medals of Lyons, 
notably in the case of the famous medallion of Louis XII. 
and .Anne of Brittany, and also of the works of Niccolo 
Fiorentino while domiciled in that city. But with regard 
to the medal in question of Philibert and Margaret, M. 
lloiidot has now ascertained and published not only the 
name of the author of that piece, but the whole circum- 
stances of its production, even to the metals in which both 
the original " proof " and the finished presentation medal 
were cast. 1 He also gives a description of all the examples of 
the work now known to exist, whether in public or private 
collections, with the exact measurement and weight of each, 
thus affording most valuable evidence as to the probable 
number executed, due allowance being made for the por- 

1 It may be noticed that M. Armand, to whom M. Rondot 
had communicated his discovery, gives Marende a doubtful 
place among his " Medailleurs italiens " (2nd edition, i. 118) ; 
but M. Rondot contests this view of his nationality, showing 
that Bourg was the home not only of himself, but of his family 
for many generations. 



THE MEDALLION OF PHILIBERT THE FAIR. 289 

tion lost to view or no longer in existence. It appears, 
then, that the goldsmith to whom the execution of this 
medal was entrusted was one Jean Marende, of Bourg-en- 
Bresse, into which city the young Duke and Duchess of 
Savoy were about to make their solemn entry on August 
2nd, 1502, nearly a year after their marriage. The regis- 
ters of the Syndics and Council of Bourg, though in an 
imperfect state, are the documents which have chiefly fur- 
nished the information on the subject. Following the 
precedents established at Lyons in 1494 and 1500, when 
Anne of Brittany entered the city in state, first as the wife 
of Charles VIII., and secondly of Louis XII., it was 
decided by the authorities of Bourg to present Margaret 
with a medal of gold. After due deliberation it was settled 
that the weight of the medal, fashioned after the pattern 
of a specimen in lead, first submitted to the Council, should 
be that of 140 ducats (about 490 grammes). 

M. Rondot takes great pains to show that this first 
specimen piece does not correspond in respect of the 
legends and of some minor points with the medal in its 
ultimate form. Unfortunately, both the lead and the gold 
originals have been lost, but in a bronze example now 
preserved in the Lyons Museum of Art and Industry, and 
formerly in the rich collection of the Prince of Monte- 
nuovo, M. Rondot thinks that a casting from Marende's 
first lead is to be found. It is in red bronze, and measures 
106-1 mm. in diameter. M. Rondot cites in all twenty- 
nine specimens of the medal from different collections, this 
being the total number now known to exist. They are 
chiefly in plain bronze, but also in silver, silver gilt, 
bronze gilt, bronze silvered, brass, and lead, the diameter 
varying from 98'5 to 105. The largest, therefore, is rather 
less than the bronze model of the earliest type above referred 



290 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

to in the Art Museum of Lyons. It is to be noticed that 
there is much difference between these twenty-nine exam- 
ples with respect to the small ornamentation of the daisies 
and love-knots in the field, the full number of these 
twenty-two, representing, perhaps, the common ages of 
the Duke and Duchess being curtailed in various ways. 
Some of these variations may be attributed to defects in 
the casting, but M. Rondot considers that the original 
" proof" in lead had the full number of twenty-two, and 
that in the medal's final form the number was reduced to 
nineteen. 

Had the records of the contract with Marende been 
perfect, we should probably have known the exact num- 
ber of medals prepared for presentation or distribution in 
gold, silver, or bronze, according to the rank of the reci- 
pients, but, unfortunately, they are not. However, among 
the twenty-nine examples described in the text only two 
are of silver, but of these one is partly enamelled, the 
spaces between the busts, the devices, and the legend being 
so filled up. This piece has no reverse, and the back is 
finished off in concentric circles, produced by turning the 
metal in a lathe. 2 But unless it be the half of a complete 
medal cut in two, it can hardly have been destined for 
presentation, as M. Rondot supposes, in this incomplete 
state. It is much more probable that this was an original 
casting of one side only, kept by the goldsmith as a me- 
morial of his work, and either enamelled by him at the 
time or by some subsequent owner. One other specimen 
of bronze silvered, in the Turin Museum, is also enamelled, 
but the quality is inferior to that on the silver medal. 



2 Italian plaques were sometimes finished in this way at the 
back. 



THK MEDALLION OF PH1LIBERT THE FAIR. 291 

M. Rondot suggests from the analogy of these two 
pieces that the gold medal itself may also have been 
enamelled, and his opinion that it was so is strengthened 
by the observation that in the bronze examples the devices 
appear to stand out in too strong relief. This defect, he 
thinks, would not have occurred if it had not been intended 
to overlay the lower part or base of the medal with 
enamel. The fact that enamelled gold medals were of 
frequent occurrence in Germany later in the century does 
not bear much on the question, and as nothing appears to 
be said about such additional decoration in the archives of 
Bourg, further evidence is necessary to decide the point. 
But it is easy to take one more step in the way of con- 
jecture, and that is that if Margaret's medal was enamelled, 
that of Louis XII. and Anne of Brittany was also. 

The history of the second specimen in silver, or rather 
silver gilt, is interesting as giving some guarantee of 
authenticity, though it is to be feared that its size 
(98*5 mm.), to be noticed hereafter, is fatal to such a claim. 
The medal is at Bourg, in the collection of M. A. Bouvier. 
It was preserved up to the time of the Revolution in the 
Convent of the Augustins at Brou, and they, according to 
tradition, received it from the hand of Margaret of Austria 
herself. At the time of the Revolution it was given by 
the last Prior of the Augustins to a female relative, who in 
turn presented it to the father of its present possessor. 

Another example in brass, with only the obverse, and 
with concentric circles at the back, reaches the extraor- 
dinary measurement of 113 mm., but it seems by some 
flattening process to have gained in circumference what it 
has lost in solidity, its maximum thickness being only 
2 mm. 

The comparison of so many examples of the same medal 



292 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

affords a convenient opportunity of examining the value 
of measurement as a test of authenticity. Taking, there- 
fore, the bronze specimens, if we single out those described 
as " fine " or " very fine," we get the following diame- 
ters : 

mm. 

Collection, G. Dreyfus (Paris) . T '.''- ^ - 103 

PP. Jesuites (Lyons) . . 108-7 

South Kensington Museum (bronze gilt) . 101-6 

Collection, J. C. Robinson (London) 3 i' 102 

,, Austrian Institute (Vienna) . 108 
,, Prince John II. of Liechtenstein 

(Vienna) . ;. . " " ? 103-2 

Milan Museum . ' *wWtw.'l * ( ^95 

Berlin Museum < ^. 1 ; . . >v *t . 108-2 

Those in the Cabinet de France and the royal collection 
at Brussels are also said to be " fine," but, at the same 
time, " retouched," and they are therefore excluded. The 
size, however, is small in both cases. 

The average diameter of these eight undoubted examples 
is therefore 103. M. Eondot is not certain that all the 
bronze specimens he cites are genuine, and probably at least 
three or four are not. Copies of this medal (as of many 
others) were made about the middle of the seventeenth 
century, the casting being good, but the execution rather 
finer than that of the originals. 

If we now turn to the silver and lead medals, we find 
the case thus : 

mm. 

1. Turin Cabinet (silver, enamelled, obverse 

only) 105 

2. Collection Bouvier at Bourg (silver gilt) 98-5 
8. Turin Cabinet (lead, obverse only) . 102-5 

It thus appears (1) that the full size, both for silver and 
bronze, is 105 ; and (2) that any medal under 101 is of 



3 The autotype illustration is taken from this medal, which 
has been kindly lent by Mr. Uobinson for the purpose. 



THE MEDALUOX OF 1'HILIUKRT THE FAIR. 293 

doubtful authenticity, seeing that a surmoule of this size 
would suffer a reduction of about 2 mm., and it is stated 
by M. Rondot that re-castings vary from 99 '5 to 101 '5. 

When a medal is freshly cast it generally has a larger 
rim than the founder intends it to retain, and this super- 
fluous metal is got rid of by filing or " turning " it off. 
It naturally follows that this process is not always equal, 
and slight variations in diameter are constantly to be 
found, as in the case of the bronze medals above quoted, 
which give a range from 101*6 to 105. 

The evidence is therefore valuable, as showing that 
because a medal is not of the largest size known, it by no 
means follows that it is not genuine ; some of the very 
finest and best patinated of these " Philiberts " being 
more than 2mm. below the maximum. Of course, too, 
exceptional cases may occur, as when an original medal is 
cut down to be inserted in an extra rim or frame for suspen- 
sion. Collectors, therefore, who find in M. Armand's work 
that some of their specimens do not come up to the standard 
there given, need not assume that they are necessarily 
false. 

"What we really need to make measurement a true test, 
is to have some such comparative table as M. Rondot has 
prepared in his account of this medal. At present public 
museums on the Continent have been very slow in supply- 
ing proper catalogues of the medals they possess, but now 
that M. Armand's second edition has made this so easy, 
it may be hoped that they will not be much longer 
delayed. If owners of important private collections would 
also publish their treasures, we should soon have a guide 
which would be almost infallible, except, of course, in cases 
of great rarity. It is also most desirable that a common 
standard of measurement should be universally adopted, 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. QQ 



294 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

rather than that each country should follow its own, 
seeing that the study of art as well as its commerce is 
daily becoming more and more international. 

We are told that the price of a good bronze example of 
the Philibert and Margaret medal in Paris is now about 
2 > 000f., which, considering the great scarcity of fine 
specimens, is not relatively high ; but the augmentation 
has been somewhat rapid. One result of M. Rondot's 
work will inevitably be to make its pecuniary value still 
greater. 

There is another interesting point revealed by the 
archives of Bourg, and that is that Marende had an 
assistant in the work " quern misit quaesitum Luffduni," and 
who is mentioned in the contract not by name, but as 
" Ejus servitor," sharing the payment with his master, 
"pro illam componendo, profacturd ejusdem" This servitor 
therefore came from an atelier in the neighbouring Lyons, 
where medals had been made before, and where Marende 
himself had probably studied his craft. Marende had 
also a brother at the Bourg Mint (at least he was Master 
of it in 1516), who may possibly have helped him with 
the portraits. 

In the medal of Charles VIII. and Anne of Brittany 
(Armand, i. 89, 22) we touch the hand of that prince of 
medallists, Niccolo Fiorentino, by whom, in conjunction 
with Louis le Pere, his father-in-law, a goldsmith like 
himself, it was actually executed during his sojourn at 
Lyons. 4 This was the first French medal of the kind 



4 Niccolo died at Lyons in 1499. M. Rondot is able to trace 
him in the city documents from the year 1485 till his death, 
but it was not till 1492 that he permanently established himself 
there. 



THE MEDALLION OF PHIL1BERT THE FAIR. 295 

ever produced, and it was in connection with the same 
that the word medaille, instead of metallic or metalle, was 
first used in France. It was struck at the Mint in 1494. 

It seems at first sight strange that the fashion of portrait- 
medals, which had been growing so rapidly in Italy from 
the time of Pisano, fifty years before, should have taken so 
long to reach other countries. The simple reason was 
that there were no artists capable of making them. In 
Germany, medals by native artists were unknown till 
after 1500. In England, we had nothing till a much later 
date. In the case of France, it needed a great master 
of the art like Niccolo to go and settle in the country 
before an impulse could be given. By associating himself 
with a family of Lyonese goldsmiths, he created the "school 
of Lyons," which produced, among others, these three 
pioneers of French portraiture in medals. One he helped 
to execute himself, and in the other two, dedicated respec- 
tively to Anne of Brittany 5 and Margaret of Austria, while 
there is much in the composition and ornamentation that 
stamps them with the individuality of a separate school, 
it is impossible not to see that the most important parts 
the faces breathe under Italian inspiration. 

In conclusion, then, although the imperfect state of the 
Bourg archives leaves something to be desired in the 



5 M. Rondot gives the following interesting particulars as to 
the medallion of Louis XII. and Anne of Brittany. It was 
modelled by two sculptors, Nicolas le Clerc and Jean de St. 
Priest ; it was cast in the atelier of Jean le Pere by himself and 
his brother Colin both goldsmiths, and both sons of Louis le 
Pere and brothers-in-law of Niccolo Florentine with the help 
of a founder whose name is unknown. The medal is dated 
1499 (old style) ; it was made in 1500, and presented to Anne 
of Brittany on the day of her second entry, March 15th, 1499 
(1500). 



295 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 

account, M. Rondot has won thanks and congratulations 
by his successful researches. How many noble medals 
still remain to be thus identified as to their authors, and 
some even as to their subjects ! He has thrown a clear 
obscurity, and he has done much to advance the cause of 
light on things that but yesterday were wrapped in 
the difficult study of the medals of the Re laissance, which, 
though young and backward, is entitled to and will com- 
mand respect, for it occupies itself with the portraiture of 
many of the leading personages in history, _and with the 
works of some of the greatest artists that the modern 
world has produced. 

Parva metu primum, mox sese attollit in auras, 
Ingrediturque solo. 

T. WHTITCOMBE GREENE. 



v XXII. 

THE OLD NUMERALS, THE COUNTING-RODS AND 
THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 



BY PROF. TERRIEN DE LACOUPERIE. 



1. Researches in the literary productions of the Chinese 
present considerable difficulty in arriving at the precise 
date of the original invention or introduction of anything; 
as in many cases, where we consult a native author, we 
find reference to some still earlier work, and almost on 
every point we find a statement connecting the matter 
with the deeds of the sages of antiquity. The high 
veneration of the Chinese for the works of the ancients 
has made them more desirous of elucidating these, than 
of seeking fame in unbeaten tracks ; and some of their 
most important statements have reached their present 
shape by an almost innumerable series of increments. 
Their records, as compiled by later writers, are for this 
reason open to a criticism of peculiar interest. In their 
ultra-reverence for the sages of their primitive period, who 
are supposed to have been the models of all virtue, the 
possessors of all knowledge (lost after them and sometimes 
found again), the Chinese cannot admit, nor even suppose, 
that these sages may have been deficient on some point or 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. R R 



298 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

another, or may have been ignorant of anything whatever. 1 
A protracted effort has been made by the commentators, 
in order to find supposed allusions, in the early books, 
to all that has been known afterwards to them, either 
by some progress of their own, or by acquisition from 
foreign countries. 

2. The result has been that the commentaries gradually 
come to occupy in their esteem a position almost equal 
to the original text. Often by the fault of the transcribers 
under the Han period (about the Christian era), when the 
ancient texts were rewritten in a style of writing more 
ideographical than the old one, 2 the original text being 
not clear, these commentaries are invaluable, but at the 
same time they have opened the way to the strengthening 
of mere suggestions and guesses made according to the 
wishes and knowledge of the writer, though indifferent 
to the primitive text. Things to which there are no 
allusions in the ancient classics or commentaries are not 
considered worth studying ; they are left in the dark, and 
it is often impossible to find any record concerning them. 

3. Besides the difficulties inherent in Chinese litera- 
ture, we have, sometimes in Europe, to face some ready- 
made solutions which have passed into currency from the 
unwarranted assertions of some early writers on China 
unaware of these difficulties, solutions which are still 
accepted and repeated everywhere. For instance, in 
regard to the subject of the present note, we read that 



1 Vid. on such a view concerning paper-money, my article 
Paper-money of the Ninth Century and supposed Leather Coinage 
of China, p. 4 (London, 1883, 8vo. reprinted from The Numis- 
matic Chronicle, 3rd series, vol. ii.) 

2 Vid. my paper, The oldest Book of the Chinese, 26 (London, 
1883, 8vo. reprinted from the J.R.A.S. vols. xiv. and xv.) 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 299 

the Chinese have used the Swan-pan from time imme- 
morial, 3 and that they ignore the value of position, 4 two 
statements which are erroneous and against the weight 
of evidence gathered in the following pages. 

4. In Europe, the Chinese Abacus does not seem to have 
been known to the learned much before Martini and 
Spicelius, who gave a description and picture of it in 
comparison with the European abacus? De La Loubere 
in the valuable relation of his embassy to Siam has also 
described the implement. 6 And in many other works we 



3 Joseph Hager, in 1801, thought that the "suon-puon had 
preceded the use of writing in China. The fact (he says) is, 
that this instrument represents again nothing more than knotted 
cords, as may appear by the figure . . . But as the processes of 
subtraction or of addition would have made it necessary to untie 
the knots at every instance, or to form new ones, moveable 
knots, or sliding beads, were contrived, which being put on 
strings of wire, instead of cords, are to this day employed by the 
common people in China" . . . Cf. his book, An explanation of 
the elementary characters of the Chinese, p. x (London, 1801, fol.). 
But this hypothesis is not justified, and we might say is not true 
so far as regards the Chinese. Among the MS. papers of 
Father Brotier, from the early Jesuit missionaries in China, the 
following is not without an interest of some kind for our subject : 
Confirmatio systematis temporum prophetic, petita ex magica 
constructione et mysticis numeris figurae ue Kipan tu, seu Abaci 
ma jorum latruncularum a diluvii tempore usque ad praesentem 
aetatem in hieroglyphica Sinarum traditione servatae. In fol. 
pp. 18. Via. H. Cordier, Bibliotheca Sinica, col. 509. 

4 I bave at band, for the first statement, P. Pemy, Grammaire 
de la langue Ckinoise, vol. i. p. 108 (Paris, 1873, 8vo.) ; L. Rodet, 
Le Souan-pan et la Banque des Argentiers, in Bulletin de la Societe 
Mathematique de France, vol. viii. 1880, Paris, 8vo. ; and for 
the second, Sir Jobn Davis, The Chinese, vol. iii. p. 66 (London, 
1844, 32mo.) repeated everywhere. 

6 Vid. De re liter aria Sinmsium, p. 215 (Lugd. Bat. 1660). 
P. Martin Martini two years previously had described it as 
invented about 2600 or 2700 B.C., in bis Sinicae Historiae Decas 
prima, lib. i. published at Munich in 1658, and at Amsterdam 
in 1659. 

6 In his second volume, with a figure. 



300 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

find it properly described and figured, 7 but we must except 
John Barrow, in his Travels in China, 8 who has repre- 
sented it increasing from left to right instead of the con- 
trary, repeating the same error as a writer in the Philo- 
Bophical Transactions 131 years previously. 9 Properly 
speaking, the two descriptions of the increase from the 
right or from the left are inaccurate, as the increase from 
the right is the true one. In order to avoid any miscon- 
ception, we shall quote the short description given by 
E. Bridgman : " The Swan-pan consists of an oblong frame 
of wood, with a bar running lengthwise forming two 
compartments ; through this bar, at right angles, are 
usually placed seventeen (but sometimes more) small pins, 
having on each seven balls, five on one side, and two on 
the other side, of the bar. Any ball in the larger com- 



7 Vid. Sir John Davis, The Chinese, vol. iii. p. 66, with figure 
turned wrong. Du Halde, Description de la Chine, vol. i. p. 276. 
Staunton, Embassy to China, vol. ii. p. 95. Le Souane-pane, ou 
Machine arithmetique des Chinois, in De la Chine by L'Abbe 
Grosier, liv. x. 5, Paris, 1819, vol. v. pp. I54-l5S. Comptes 
Rendus de r Academic des Sciences, 16 Juillet, 1860, Lettre de M. 
ftEscayrac de Lauture sur le Souan-pan des Chinois. Purely de- 
scriptive. The Chinese Abacus, by J. Goschkewicz (in Russian), 
"Works of the Russian Mission, vol. ii. 1853, or Ueber das Chine- 
sische Rechnenbret, in Arbeiten der Kaiserlich Russischen Oesandt- 
scha/t zu Peking iiber China, Berlin, 1858, 2 vol. 8vo. Transl. C. 
Abel, Vid. vol. i. pp. 293-310. An able descriptive paper. A. 
Westphal, Ueber die Chinesisch-Japanische Rechenmaschine, fasc. 
viii. pp. 27-35. Ueber das Wahrsagen auf der Rechenmaschine, 
ibid. pp. 48-49. Ueber die Chinesische Swan-pan, fasc. ix. pp. 
43-53 ; in M. d. D. G. f. N. und V. Ostasiens, vol. i. Yokohama, 
1873-1876, 8vo. On the Abacus of China and Japan, by Mr. A. 
Van Name of Newhaven in J. Am. Or. Soc. vol. x. Proc. 19th 
May, 1875, pp. cx.-cxii. 

8 1804, in 4to. p. 296. The description in Wells Williams, 
The Middle Kingdom, t. ii. p. 146, is also faulty. 

9 Vol. xvi. London, 1688, p. 85. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 301 

partment, being placed against the bar, is called unity ; 10 
and on the left of this they increase, and on the right they 
decrease, 11 by tens, hundreds, etc ; the corresponding 
balls in the smaller compartment, 12 increase or decrease by 
fifths, fiftieths, etc." 13 It is on the whole a convenient 
instrument. 

5. The frame with beads on wire used in this country 
for school children learning to count has come from the 
French boullier, used for the same purpose, and intro- 
duced from Russia and Poland 14 at the beginning of the 
present century by General Poncelet, who had learnt 
during his captivity how to use the tchotu. The Russians 
had received it from the Mongol conquerors at the end 
of the middle age. ^ 

The Sican-pan has been communicated to the various 
countries which have received the Chinese culture and 
inventions, but we have no information as to the date of the 
introduction, except in Japan, where the oldest mention is 
comparatively modern and dates only from Mori Shigejoshi, 
a well-known mathematician of the sixteenth century. 16 
And a treatise on Mathematics, the Sampd daizen, pub- 
lished in 1825, states that the implement was introduced 



10 Any one in the smaller compartment is called 5. 

11 As in our system of numeration. 

12 Chinese Chrestomatky (Macao, 1841), p. 378. 

18 The Swan-pan is used flat down, the wires perpendicular, and 
the division nearest to the calculator is the largest with five beads. 

14 VIA, M. Chasles, Developpements et details historiques sur 
divers points du systems de V Abacus, 10, p. 17, n. 1 ; and also 
Th. H. Martin, Recherches nouvelles concernant les origines de noire 
systeme de numeration ecrite (Revue Archeologique, Janvier, 1857), 
p. 601. 

15 Cf. P. Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Uhiversel, vol. i. p. 636. 

16 Vid. A. Westphal, Beitrag zur Geschichte der Mathematik in 
Japan, in Mitt. d. D. G. f. N. u. V. 0. vol. i. fasc. ix. pp. 54-55. 



302 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

into China about the middle of the fourteenth century, 
and passed thence into Japan. 

6. No Chinese records of the Abacus or Swan-pan=Co\mt,- 
ing-board, exist as far as we know, in Chinese literature, and 
its origin is shrouded in mystery. The small collections, 
the Poh wuh tche 11 of the third century, the Suh poh wuh 
iche 18 in ten books of the twelfth century, the Kwang poh 
u'U/i tclie 19 in fifty books, issued in 1607, as well as the great 
cyclopedias the Tai ping yu Ian 20 in 1000 books, issued in 
983, the San tsai t'u huey^ in 106 books, issued about 1590, 
the Yuen Men ley han 22 in 450 books, issued in 1710, the 
Pel Wen yun fu 23 in 106 books, issued in 1711, and the 
Kin ting T'u shu tsih tctieng^ the monster cyclopedia, in 



n || jfa jjfc by Tchang Hwa, in 10 books. 

18 ifi t$ ^ J& ^ ^ ^ih ; supplement to the preceding. 

19 Jet II tffo J^ by Tung Sze Tchang; an extension of the first. 

20 -j Zf ^jj |i by Li Fang and others ; made up of quota- 
tions from 1690 principal works and many others. An edition 
of 1807 is in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society. A most 
valuable work. 

21 ~^ "jf jjjj ^H" by "Wang K'i. For a rather unfavourable 
appreciation of this work, vid. A. Wylie, Notes on Chinese Litera- 
ture, pp. 149-150. 

22 $f3 HH IK Hi ky several authors. A precious work. The 
index has been published by Prof. Summers in his Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Chinese, Japanese and Mandchu Books in the Library 
of the India Office (London, 1872), pp. 11-12. And there is a 
notice by Mr. Herbert A. Giles, A Chinese Encyclopedia, pp. 
753-764, in Time (a monthly magazine) for Oct. 1882. 

23 M 3$C fl M Compiled under the special superintendence 
of the Emperor. The largest collection of compound expressions 
and quotations of phrases where they occur in literature. A 
notice of the work, by the late W. F. Mayers, is in China Review p , 
April, 1878, vol. vi. pp. 288-290. 

24 A valuable description of this wonderful work, now in 
the British Museum, of which one hundred copies only were 
printed, has been published by F. W. Mayers, Bibliography of the 
Chinese Imperial Collections of Literature, in China Review (Feb.- 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 303 

10040 books, issued in 1726, do not contain any entry about 
this ingenious implement. And as each of these large 
works may be considered as a compendium of Chinese 
knowledge, this absence is rather startling. It is only in 
a late work the Kill tche king yuen^ a cyclopedia of arts 
and sciences, in 100 books, issued in 1735, that we find a 
few lines under the title Swan-pan. But curiously enough 
they do not bear on the instrument, and refer only to swan, 
a word meaning "to reckon with counting rods/' 

7. In the absence of direct records, we have no other 
line to follow than the negative process. "We must try to 
reach the truth by ascertaining the time when it did exist 
in China and the time when it was still unknown. And 
for that purpose we shall consider successively the various 
data that linguistics and palaeography, numismatic nota- 
tion, mathematical and historical evidence can offer for 
the elucidation of this interesting problem in the history of 
the progress of general civilization. 26 

A. LINGUISTIC AND PAL^EOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCE. 

8. The Chinese, who profess for their writing a peculiar 
reverence, almost like a worship, have been so careful in 
preserving the old forms of their characters, that when 



Apr. 1878), vol. vi. ; cf. pp. 218-223. The title is translated: 
" Compendium of Literature and Illustrations, Ancient and 
Modern, drawn up under Imperial Authority," in Chinese 



_ 

25 $? 3ifc il M by Tch'in Yuen-lung. It is divided, as justly 
says Mr. A. Wylie (Notes on Chinese Literature, p. 151), into thirty 
sections ; the origin and history of every subject being traced by 
a long series of quotations from the native literature, ancient 
and modern. 

26 See below, 42-43. 



304 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

these forms are available, it is almost always possible to 
obtain valuable information from their study. In case of 
inventions or introduction of a new thing, a new character 
was made, or an older one (with a slight modification) 
was applied to it. Now the abacus has no name in 
Chinese, and if it was an ancient invention of the Sons of 
Han, we should certainly find a special group or ideogram 
in the writing describing it. And if the introduction had 
taken place at an ancient period such as the Han period, 
or even later, we should again find for its appellation 
an older character modified, for the purpose, as usual, 
by the addition of an ideographic determinative. But 
such is not the case, and the double name or qualificative 
swan-pan 1 ** 3j. ff " counting dish or board" shows plainly 
that it is a comparatively modern acquisition for the 
Chinese. 

9. We have nothing to say of the second word pan, 
which is the common expression (pan-tze) for "dish, plate." 
The first word swan is the proper one, meaning " to 
reckon, to plan" 28 (swan-shu, swan-tu) ; it is sometimes 
translated in Sino-European dictionaries (Morrison, W. 
Williams, Eitel) 29 by abacus or swan-pan by an abuse 
of extension of meaning ; abuse much too frequent, which 
prevents the proper understanding of the language, and 
for which the Chinese lexicographers themselves are 
sometimes responsible ; because two words when associated 
have got a certain meaning, it does not follow that each 
of them ipso facto has gained the meaning when separated. 



27 The expression Swan-pan itself is more modern than the 
knowledge of the implement. See below 41. 

28 Of. JTang-hi Tze-tien: Pu 118+8 str., f. 26. 

29 Medhurst, Glemona, Stent have remained faithful to the 
Chinese definition. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 305 

The official dictionary, the K'ang-hi Tze-tien (1716), 
positively states that sican means " to calculate with 
the counting-tallies," and quotes various passages from 
the three Rituals in support. 

This is conclusive against the supposed high antiquity 
of the Swan-pan. Now let us see if something more can 
be learnt from this line of study. 

10. No conclusion about the antiquity of sican can be 
drawn from the three rituals ; the Tcheu-Li, the I-li, 
and the Li-Ki, as we now have them, are spurious 
compilations of the Han period ; what parts of them 
are not genuine, we know not. That the greatest part 
of their contents existed during the last period of the 
Tcheu dynasty (fourth century B.C.) 30 seems pretty sure, 
but what existed at an earlier period is doubtful. In 
the case of the Tcheu-Li, i.e. "Institutes of Tcheu," it 
is commonly said that the authorship is attributed to the 
Duke of Tcheu (eleventh century), a man of great ability, 
who was the first lawgiver of the new dynasty which 
he had largely contributed to establish ; now we have 
a check against this supposed antiquity in the dis- 
crepancies presented by this work with the Tcheu Kican, 
i.e. " The Officers of Tcheu," a genuine chapter of the 
Shu-King, i.e. " Book of History." The explanation 
is to be found in countless additions and improvements 
successively introduced ; but the proof that such has been 
the case detracts a great deal from their authority in 
matters of precise investigation on special points. As the 

30 The supremacy of the Royal or Central Kingdom, ruled by 
the Tcheu dynasty, over the other states of the Chinese agglomera- 
tion, was no longer recognized at that time. The period called 
that of the Civil Wars extends from 481 B.C. to the foundation of 
the Empire 255 B.C. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. S S 



306 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

very passages may be interpolations which have crept 
in from later commentaries, and have got mixed up with 
the primitive text, their authority, to be trusted, requires 
confirmation from other quarters. 

11. The character 3jji Swan does not teach us much. 
It does not seem to be older than the fourth century B.C., 
when it occurs in the works of Meng-tze (372-289 B.C.) 
and it seems to be a simplification made at that period of 
more complicated characters, 31 because of the apparent 
picture of "hands disposing something" which it had 
assumed in the writing, a picture which could not have 
been fancied in the older forms in the previous style of 
writing. Hii Shen, the learned author of the Shicoh Wen 
(first century A.D.), who was rewarded only a few years 
ago by a shrine in the temple of Confucius, 32 was unable to 
find an older form, and gives 33 an etymology, suitable only 
in the style of writing Siao-chuen preconised in his work, 
which is not supported by the palaeographic form of the 
principal character to which he refers ; 34 but he indicates 
another character jjf of the same sound and meaning, with 
which it is sometimes interchanged. 35 This character fil 



31 |= , 0d , of which we have Ku-wen forms. Vid. Min tsi 
kill, Luh shu fung, k. vii. f . 2 ; viii. f . 4. Cf. also k. viii. f. 7. 

32 In 1875, vid. T. Watters, A Guide to the Tablets in a Temple 
of Confucius, pp. 98-100 (Shanghai, 1879, 8vo.) 

88 Vid. Shwoh Wen tchen pen, edit, of 986, reprinted in 1598, 
k. x. f. 390. 

34 The sounds agree in no case. The derivation indicated by 
Hii Shen is f& and J^ ; the older form of the latter is not the 
same as in the characters quoted above n. 29, cf. Tung "Wei Fu, 
Tchuentze Wei (1691), s.v., they were composed of ^j- and tijfa or 
J|, whereas in the others we recognize ff f g, and -4K 
Cf. Min tsi kih, I.e. 

35 Cf. K'ang-M Tze-tien, Pu 118+7; f. 20. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 307 

is more interesting for our subject. The description given 
by Hii Shen himself 35 at once attracts the attention, as more 
definite in its obscurity than anything else we have seen : 
" Long of six inches, to calculate calendar and numbers." 37 
This points undoubtedly to the " counting- rods," as no 
other implement would be suited by these words. The 
character jji| is apparently of the same period as the pre- 
ceding ; it has no pedigree in the older style of writing, 
and no other form is known than that given in the Shwoh 
Wen and substantially the same as that in the modern 
style of writing. 

12. Finally there is another character jpjjj of the 
same period described by Hii Shen : "to see anything 
clearly and take an account of it," 38 which has a very 
curious shape. It is described by the learned lexico- 
grapher as composed of two characters jf; " reveal ; " this 
looks more like a graphical than an historical etymology ; 
but as we have no example of an older shape nor of its 
form in an older style of writing, must we be satisfied with 
it and consider as of later date the definition of " six-inch 
measure" found in modern books? It is not unlikely 
that there is a shade of truth in the last statement. Hii 
Shen, 39 besides the definitions here reproduced of this 
character and of the first 3j, adds in each case : " same 
as ;," the second character we have described, and 



36 Shwoh Wen tchen pen, ibid. f. 40 v. ||. 

37 The description continues as follows : made of Yf tuh reeds 
and ^p lung to play, sound as *ffc (tcKang}, ^p (Jung} is not 
pronounced, ibid. In Sinico-Annamite jpjt, ]p| are read : tsan 
and *f thuonff] in Mandarin: suanandtchang. pp means ideo- 
graphically "reeds to play with." 

38 Vid. Shwoh Wen tclwn pen, k. ix. f. 90. 

39 Vid. 0. C. at the passages referred to above. 



808 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

we have seen that this one || indicates "slips of 
wood as counters to reckon with." 40 Now the whole 
matter shows that the Chinese hierogrammatists have 
combined the ideographic value of a previous charac- 
ter with its apparent picture to frame a new character 
having the external pictorial appearance suggesting either 
the six-inch length of the rods, or the separation required 
to make an account of anything. A quotation given by 
the Shwoh Wen from the Th Tcheu Shu : 41 " The Sage 
separates the people to take an account of them, he adjusts 
and divides to take an account," seems to show that the 
last view is the proper one. 

13. There is another character f|i Tch'eu, which has 
some claim to be mentioned here ; it means notably 
" to reckon" and also ''tallies, counters." But in the 
Shwoh Wen it is only described as " pitching arrows into 
a jar," 42 a favourite game or sport from very ancient 
times. By a most natural extension of ideas, the meaning 
of the character has come to that stated above. 

To resume, we learn from palaeography that the Swan- 
pan is a modern introduction into China, and that pre- 
viously to this convenient implement, the Chinese used 
" counting-rods," which were known about the fourth 
century B.C., and do not seem to be much older. 

.. 40 Cf. "Wells Williams, Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Lan- 
guage, p. 833. 

41 A Record of the Tcheu dynasty. VOL. on this work, A. 
"Wylie, Notes on Chinese Literature, p. 23. If the quotation in 
the Shwoh Wen is from Hii Shen's pencil, this work cannot have 
been found in the tomb of the Wei princes, along with the 
"Bamboo books Annals" in the year A.D. 279, after having 
remained buried some 575 years, unless Hii Shen had access to 
a copy which disappeared after him. 

42 Or jar-pitching arrows. Cf. Shwoh wen tchen pen, k. x. f. 
38. Cf. also, Min tsi kih, Luh shu tung, k. iv. f. 46. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 309 

B. NUMISMATIC NUMERALS EVIDENCE. 

14. The evidence adduced from the coinage is more 
momentous than any other, as the coins are the most 
reliable witnesses of history. In the case of the Chinese 
coinage of the centuries before the Christian era, their 
evidence will be found of an exceptional interest, as it is 
the first time, we believe, in scientific research, that their 
testimony is called for. This might be, if required, our 
excuse for the brief explanations, that the novelty of the 
case requires to be introduced here. 43 

15. Barter in China, as everywhere else, preceded 
coinage. Gold, silver, copper, silk-cloth, tortoise-shell, 
precious stones, grains and shells of some kind, were used 
for that purpose, according to certain regulations after- 
wards introduced for the measures and equivalents of 
weight. Various sorts of small implements or tools in 
bronze, more convenient to pass from hand to hand, were 
soon preferred to the other materials. Tradition attributes 
the casting of that kind of objects in ancient times only 
for the sake of the people impoverished by droughts or 



43 The only works of any value on the history of Chinese 
Coinage in ancient times, the paper by Ed. Biot, Memoire swr 
le Systeme monetaire des Chinois in Journal Asiatique, m e ser. 
vols. iii. and iv. (Paris, 1837, 8vo.); and "W. Vissering, On 
Chinese Currency, Coin and Paper Money (Leiden, 1877, 8vo.), 
are utterly worthless for the coinage previous to the Han period 
(200 B.C.). They have followed blindly one authority, that of 
Ma Twan-lin in his Antiquarian researches ( Wen hien lung Had), 
an immense work, wonderful in the variety of its subjects, but 
which has been much too highly praised by Remusat, who had 
not in his time the possibility of verifying its accuracy. We 
must take a more sober view, and admit that this Chinese author 
was utterly deficient in criticism. What Dr. Bretschneider says 
of his Geography, we can repeat of his numismatic notions, that 
they are full of blunders and confusion. 



310 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

otherwise. Small spades, adzes and knives, 44 improper 
for the work for which their shape was intended, and 
later on, flat rings, were multiplied and entered into 
currency. Trustworthy statements are scanty for the 
reasons expressed above ( 1, 2). Strict regulations for this 
barter were issued after the establishment of the Tcheu 
dynasty (eleventh century B.C ). At the beginning of the 
sixth century, Tchwang, King of Tsu (one of the states 
of the Chinese confederation), attempted, without success, 
to make all this differently sized bullion exchangeable, 
indiscriminately, regardless of its weight. 45 

16. In 523 B.C. the King King of Tcheu (the Middle- 
Kingdom) issued, but without success, the bullion (then 
coinage), in various sizes and weights regularly pro- 
portioned. But the habit of weighing, still in use in, 
the present day for precious metals, was already too 
strong to be overcome. A fiduciary coinage has never 
been willingly accepted in China, and the coins, whatever 
mark they bore, were never taken for more than their 
intrinsic value without great objection. The above de- 
scribed bullion does not appear to have been turned 
into a coinage by a regular stamp, before the time of 
the last-named King, and the traditions pointing to an 
earlier date are obviously spurious improvements on 
ancient texts which do not bear such a construction. 



44 Knives were not long ago, and are perhaps still, in use as 
a currency on the S.W. borders of China. According to R. 
Wilcox, Survey of Assam and the neighbouring countries executed 
in 1825-6-7-8 (Asiatic Researches, vol. xvii.), "the Khamti 
and Sing-Pho were supplied by the Kha-Nung with salt and 
thin iron dhas, the latter forming the currency of the district." 
The name of dha, a small square knife, is obviously connected 
with the Chinese tao, the name of the knife-money. 

45 It was the first attempt in China of a fiduciary money. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 311 

Coins were not largely multiplied before the last 
hundred years of the Contending States period (481-255 
B.C.) during the desperate struggle of the various Princi- 
palities against the encroachments of the rising State of 
Ts'in, of which the Ruler, having nearly subdued under 
his sway the whole country, established the Chinese 
Empire. 

17. Their legends are generally very scanty ; the name 
of a city, or more cities associated for the issue, and 
besides that, sometimes together or isolated, the intended 
weight value, and a serial number (of the issues or quan- 
tities ?) are the only information to be found on the 
coins of that period. The serial number is, of course, 
the only one of real interest for the subject of the present 
paper. 

Graphically, excepting the earliest, the figures are very 
loose. In fact they offer the same carelessness as the 
other characters of the legends. This is the result 
of the freedom of issuing coins almost impossible to 
repress when the limit is the intrinsic value more or less 
visible, and which has made China the home of counter- 
feiters. The accompanying table exhibits the figures 46 and 
their variants, according to the legends of the coins, spades, 
weeders, and knives of the fourth and third centuries B.C. 



46 These figures and numbers, which have never before been 
compiled, even by the Chinese, have been collected by me while 
preparing the Catalogue of Chinese Coins in the British Museum. 
They are entirely new material offered to the investigator of 
mathematical history. They are found on coins issued by the towns 
of Ping-yang, "Wen-yang, Ta-yn, Ping Tcbeu, Ping tcheu, 
Ea-shi, Shang-ching, Tze-tu, Ming, etc. Cf. Li Tsin Li, Ku 
Tsuen hwei, yuen, kk. v. vi. vii. viii. ; Su Tsuen hicei, pei, ii. ; 
and also Ho Pu Wen tze Itao, k. ii ; Ku kin so Men luh, kk. i. ii. 





IXll 








X 








X 











Kill 




q 


1X111 


W K-X 


pt O 


PQ 







^^M^ ^^* t^^ 


1 


1C O 


CO TH O CO 

o 10 to o 


}> OO O5 O O 
O O iO CO CO 







= 


r; v 


P 




~w 


= ^ XJ4- 


M 

a 


si =11 


n it si :: 


1-^ =X E^ XP 


,H 


T-H CO 


CO rt< >O CO 


^ 00 O5 O 


P 


^ ^ 


^ ^ "* ^ 


^ ^ ^ 


5 




~x 


if 


w 


=1 =11 


~lll ^1111 =y r:/ 


. _ *~ KN 


H 




~A -~\ 


> ^A *-\ y>^ 


M 


rH CO 


CO ^ O CO 


h- 00 O5 O 


O 


CO CO 


CO CO CO CO 


CO CO CO "tfl 


EH 

PR 




ll " 11 
txi i; 


11 ^ 





1 ~\\ 


n\\\ ri\\l ^K =< 


/|v -% r<o t" 


CO 


%Mfl 




^ ^ 


g 


i-H CO 


CO TJH O CO 


J^ OO OJ O 


O 


CO CO 


C CO CO CO 


CO CO CO CO 


o 




~ W tw 


=:4- 


5 




i-K -x 


if 




O 


fi -HI 


-ill +ii 4-x -v 


^ 


W 






"X -\n ^T 


w 






x * 


EH 


tH CO 


CO ^^ tc^ CO 


l^- 00 Oi O 


,. 




11 


i-4 < I T-I CO 







V" 









,_ -r 




PH 




B 








B ^ 


H! 


1 




tffl" X < 


Ih HII o 


g 




^ 1X1 H^ 


r v i> 

* ^ HI" 


00 

t 1 


1 II 


= ^ p<* 

III 1111 X" ^ 


^ \ He -' 




i-H CO 


00 "* O CO 


1> CO O5 O 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 313 

19. A necessary remark is that the form JL for 6, which 
seems to be a simplification of the more complicated forms 
for this figure, is most likely the ancestor of J. ^ ^ 
which occur on later coins of the third century B.C., 47 
whereas JL occurs, on earlier coins which are marked 
seriatim, with other forms for 7, 8, 9. These new shapes 
for 6, 7, 8 and 9, which recall the principle of the swan- 
pan where the upper bead is worth five, were apparently 
connected with the counting -rods. Wang Mang, the 
usurper, who ruled over China A.D. 9-23, between the two 
Han dynasties, and to whom all sorts of wild reforms are 
attributed, caused the revival of a notation older than his 
time, and in which 6, 7, 8 were indicated by "[", TT'TTT- 
This is again in evident connexion with the counting-rods, 
and it is worth noticing that these figures composed of 
straight lines do not appear on the earlier coins of the 
fifth century, where the ordinary shape (the first of the 
above list) alone occurs. 

20. Hitherto we have dealt only with the single figures; 
we have now to consider the numbers with two figures as 
they exhibit the most curious revelations. The collection 
of examples displayed in the above table shows that they 
are not exceptional, and that they are genuine specimens 
of the current system of notation. They are not open to 
the doubts which may arise from the possibility of having 
been subjected to emendations, additions or improvements 
through successive commentators and copyists; they are 
copied without falsification from coins of the period indi- 
cated above, and consequently it follows that we have nothing 



47 Specially on the coins issued by the small state of Ki, which 
protracted the struggle against Ts'in during the greater part of 
the third century B.C. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. T T 



314 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

to do but to register what they show, i.e. the knowledge of 
the value of position, and a great step towards the use of the 
zero. This is as curious as unexpected, inasmuch as this 
progress, which is proved to have been accompanied by 
such great difficulties in the West, is here the natural 
outcome and self-improvement of the ordinary and older 
systems of writing the numbers in full, by dropping the 
appellatives of values for the mere sake of that brevity 
always sought for in Chinese. 48 "We can see plainly how 

^g 

the process has been going on ; for instance in r, 55, the 

f^ 

tens are still written, though reduced to a single stroke 
instead of -p as in 14=^. Too much stress as to the 
actual date of the beginning of the process of shortening, 
and then dropping, the appellative of quantities, ought not 
to be put on that instance, as very likely it is older ; the 
ancient process would have been revived in that special case 
because the two figures for 5 being superposed could have 
been mistaken for a character of the writing ^ hiao 
" communicate." Now other instances are to be preferred, 
such as , *&, where the circle (the zero ?) or triangle, 
an abridged form of -p, exhibit undoubtedly the process 
of transition. These last instances are of the fourth, and 
the preceding is of the third century B.C. It is quite clear 
that the knowledge of the value of position existed at that 
later period. 

21. As to the question of its existence in earlier cen- 
turies, we find a very curious instance of the growing 
process. It is in the invaluable chronicle of Tso Kiu 
Ming, the Tso Tchuen, which almost always accompanies 
the Tchun Tsiu of Confucius, that we find it. It was 



48 From a coin of Ei. Vid. Eu Tsuen hwei, yuen, k. vii. f. 3. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 315 

in the thirtieth year of the reign, of Duke Siang, of 
the State of Lu (542 B.C.), about an old man of 73, 
who did not know how to compute his years, and in 
answer to a question says that since his hirth, which 
happened at a first moon the first day of the cycle (of 
60 days), 445 cycles. and ^ of days (or 26660 days) have 
elapsed. The Music master present having said that 
consequently the age of the old man was 73 years, the 
historiographer went on saying : " The character ffi ^ 49 
is composed of two at the head and sixes in the body of 
it. If you take the tico and place it alongside the 
sixes of the body (JJJ||), you get the number of the 
man's days/' 50 Another officer said : " Then they are 
26660." The last number in the text is written in 
full : " 2 myriads 6 thousands 6 hundreds and 6 tens " 
in column as the current text. But in the character hai 
the three 6 are placed horizontally one next to the other, 
but the text does not say if the two 51 is to be placed on the 
left (as with the swan-pan, the counting-rods, the com- 
mercial figures of the present day) or on the right (as 
would be the horizontal writing of any sum in full with 
the ordinary characters). But inasmuch as we know 
from the coin-instances, that it ought to be placed on 
the right, this uncertainty is . immaterial to the value of 



49 Now % the 12th of the cycle of 12. 

50 Vid. Chinese Classics, ed. Legge, vol. v. pp. 552 and 556. 
The translator has given, in brackets the disposition with the || 
on the left, but without stating his reasons. But the numbers 
exhibited by the coinage (cf. 20c, 25b, 26i, 270, 52b, of the 
table above) show that the two is to be placed on the right. 

81 Also called the weight- character and written f[$| ^ or j^ ^ 
r 3$i ^ an( ^ a ^ so J^ 5^ which is the earliest and appears at 
the end of the sixteenth century. 



316 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

position of the three sixes, one for the tens, the next for 
the hundreds, the next for the thousands and the following 
2 for the tens of thousands. This looks more like a puzzle 
than anything else, and as if the dropping of the appella- 
tive of quantities was a mere supposition of the said music 
master. Unless supported by contemporaneous evidence, 
we must not see there a proof of a current knowledge of 
the value by position, but certainly it was a hint, which 
not long afterwards suggested the possibility of dropping 
the appellatives and letting the figures stand by them- 
selves. We have seen how usual was the process on the 
coinage of the fourth and third centuries B.C. 

22. Considering again these numbers from the coins, 
we see that the figures could be written vertically as the 
ordinary Chinese characters, or horizontally from right to 
left, the increase by tens going from left to right, contrary 
to our numerical notation. 52 This was also contrary to the 
modern Chinese cursive notation, contrary to the order 
in which were used later on the counting-rods, contrary 
to the order followed in calculating with the swan-pan, 
and consequently it offers but a negative proof as to the 
existence of the counting-board at that time. 

23. The last use on coins of these numerals made of 
straight lines occurs in the sixth century, on the Wu chu 
= 5 chu coins of the Liang dynasty (A.D. 502-557), 53 with 

62 An ancient Chinese work, the |t |^ |g jg Shu-shuh-ki-y, 
might have helped our investigations. It was written by f& Jg. 
Siu Yoh of the Han dynasty, and in a rather obscure style ; it 
gives details of the Buddhist numeration, and particularizes 
fourteen professedly ancient systems of calculation. But it has 
disappeared after the Tang dynasty, and the work now existing 
under that title is supposed to be a spurious fabrication. Vid. 
A. "Wylie, Notes on Chinese Literature, p. 92. 

53 Cf. Ku tmen hicei, Li, k. vii. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 317 

the series nearly complete but with some slight alterations 
as follows : 

I II III 1111 X H HI ' v P X 

where the 9 only is missing. And excepting ^ for 23, 
which is scarcely satisfactory, we have no means of veri- 
fying if the value of position was still in practical and 
daily use. 

24. A long while before the disappearance of the ancient 
(tally) numerals from the coinage, we meet the ordinary 
characters used to write the numbers. They occur in 
isolated cases not in series, from the time of the Han 
dynasty downwards ; and on the coins of the Sung dynasty 
(420-477 A.D.) they are nearly like their modern shape. 54 
They are found first according to the Siao tchuen style of 
writing, or small seal characters, as follows : 

E: H ft ii X ; ft+ (Siao tchuen) 
nH05.^^A^L + (modern form) 

But these numerals have nothing to do with a knowledge 
or ignorance of the value of position ; they are phonetic 
expressions used to write the numbers ; the appellation of 



64 Cf. Ku tsuen hwei, Li, k. vi. ff. 5, 6. 

65 Through their oldest shapes (J&i-iceri} I have traced up the 
pedigree of these characters to their phonetic origin as intended 
compounds or as adopted words of the language. The sign for 
FOUB in its oldest shape is most likely an alteration of a character 
now written Jf]J tse "regulation of affairs." For FIVE it was 
adapted from // ngai " grass cut." For Six it was the primi- 
tive character for "mushroom," now fixed into L loJc by the 
addition of the determinative jj 3 "a sprout." For Seven, it 
was a phonetic compound of -f- and ^=Smp-\-Aior shat. For 
Sight it was the word /^ pat " separate." For Nine it was an 
alteration of ^ ku " ancient." "With the exception of the 
specially made compound character for " seven " all are nothing 
else than the adaptation of mere homophones. 



318 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

classes, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc., have to be written 
after their corresponding number. For instance 1883 is 
written : ONE thousand EIGHT hundred EIGHT tens THREE. 
The order is from top to bottom in columns, or from right 
to left in horizontal lines, as the ordinary writing. They 
have no connection whatever with the system of the 
swan-pan nor with that of the mathematicians of the 
middle ages. 56 

25. Coins of a much later period (thirteenth century) 
exhibit for 1, 2 numerals called Tasieti shumuh fee 57 or 

56 The Note on the Chinese and Indo- Arabic numeral symbols by 
J. R. Logan (App. C to ch. vi. of his Ethnology of the Indo- 
Pacific Islands, Language, Part II. Singapore, 1855, 8vo.), is now 
antiquated ; the learned author in his endeavour to trace a 
Chinese ancestorship for the European numerals was not- aware 
of the extensive ground covered by this problem, and the solu- 
tion he proposes is entirely at variance with the facts. Since 
this paper was in the hands of the printers, Mr. G. KLeinwachter, 
unaware of the unsuccessful attempt of Logan, has also ven- 
tured the derivation of the European numerals from the Chinese 
figures. Cf. his articles in the China Review, May-June 1883, 
The Origin of the Arabic Numerals, pp. 379-381; July- August, 
1883, More on the Origin of the Arabic numerals and the Intro- 
duction of the Sino-Arabic numerals in Europe, pp. 25-30. "With- 
out entering into the many errors of detail in these papers, the 
transformations of shape proposed by the author are so violent 
as to allow the derivation by the same process of any character 
whatever from any other character ; if tbe supposition of so 
many alterations was admitted without tbe slightest docu- 
mentary evidence, there would be an end of scientific metbod in 
palaeograpbic matters. But his system is open ab initio to a 
still more sweeping objection, viz. that there is no room for it. 
The historical and graphical derivation of the European nu- 
merals, tbrougb Kabul and Persia, from one Indian notation by 
alphabetical characters, is proved in the whole, and secondary 
points only remain to be settled. Sir E. Clive Bayley in the 
J.R.A.S. vol. xiv. and xv. On the Genealogy of Modern Numerals, 
parts i. and ii., is the last writer on the subject, and be has done 
a great deal towards the definitive solution. 

57 ;fc H $j fC @ * c f- Phil - Sinensis (E. Giitzlaff), 
Notices on Chinese Grammar (Batavia, 1842, 8vo.), p. 66. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 319 

" numerals in capital writing," which consist of a selection 
of characters similar in sound, but of various meanings, 
used in official and important documents, to prevent their 
alteration, 58 or for the sake of ornament and the display 
of learning. The series runs as follows : 






The first five of these numerals with the variants here 
indicated instead of the upper figures which are now cur- 
rent and are the complete forms, occur in books of the 
sixteenth century ; but nothing is known exactly as to the 
time or when they were finally systematized. 

26. The K'ang-hi Tze-iien^ does not give any informa- 
tion on these figures, but under the entry of Pah ^1} 
"Eight," where it says that it is the fictitious character 
for eight in the official documents. The Telling tze tung 60 
says that in the laws of Ts'in, 61 for the isolated characters 
of numerals, they took flourished and elegant characters 
and changed "one" into jj ; ~ "two" into |. On 
this the editors of the K'ang-hi Tze-tien remark, "the 
inscriptions of Ts'in make , ~, -^ and from 4 use the 
ordinary characters, and as Siu she 62 is the first who did 
employ ${j for ' eight,' it follows that the actual series from 
1 to 10 is not made of the ancient characters of Ts'in." 



58 As being less liable to alteration of any kind, they are used 
on drafts, pawn-tickets, etc. Cf. Herbert A. Giles, A Glossary 
of Reference (Hongkong, 1878, 8vo.), p. 179. 
9 Cf. Pu 64+7, f. 53. 

60 An important dictionary published at Nanking in 1634. 

81 The short-lived dynasty of the founder of the Chinese 
Empire, 255-206 B.C. 

62 f$; ,R > wno li ve ^ under the Posterior Tang dynasty, tenth 
centuiy. 



320 OLL) NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

This is true as far as it goes, for if we look at the inscrip- 
tions of the Ts'in period, of which the fac-siniile is repro- 
duced in the epigraphical collection Taih-Ku-tsi Tchung-ting 
i-ki kwan-tsi, 63 we find only a series represented by the fol- 
lowing numbers : = 1 ; = = 3 ; / S = 8 ; 3 = 26 ; 
|fi = 24, etc. 

27. Now, if we look at more ancient texts, we are bound 
to recognize that the habit of writing complicated characters 
of the same sound instead of the ordinary numerals had 
begun earlier, but not as a regular series. The examples we 
find are much more ancient than the time of the Ts'in, and 
have been handed down by the native palaeographers from 
the oldest MSS. recovered after the Burning of the Books 
(213 B.C.), 64 and from the ancient inscriptions. Besides the 
ordinary numerical characters, we find, as might be expected 
from analogy with the fate of the other characters or words 
of the writing, three kinds of substitutes : combined pho- 
netics transcribing the spoken sound, homophones, and 
ornamented characters. 65 As they do not occur on coins, 
it will be sufficient, for our present purpose of showing the 
origin of this system, to transcribe the examples in (Kiai- 
shu] strokes of the modern style of writing. 1, 2, 3, are 
often written ^, ^, = ; for 6 we find ^ ; for seven 5J?^, 



_ 

64 And reproduced in the excellent palseographical dictionary 
Luh shu fung by Min tsi kih (1661), k. ix. ff. 15, 16. Of course 
the same forms are given in other dictionaries, as the Luh shu fen 
luy, by Fu Lwan Tsiang, and the Tchuen Tze-Wei by Tung 
"Wei-fu (1691), in which the characters being classified accord- 
ing to the 214 pu, do not require reference of book and page. 

65 On this principle of archaic orthography and the symbolico- 
syllabic use of the characters in compound, vid. my paper On 
the history of the Archaic Chinese writing and texts, p. 4 (London, 
1882), The oldest look of the Chinese, 23, 2, 3 (London, 1883). 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 321 

which is an homonym ; for 2 = nit, we find the phonetic 
transcriptions ^Jl = xok-Tiik and U Ij = NJ-TWO, or N-T, 
the latter being also an homonym with a distinct meaning ; 
and also for 6 = luk we find the phonetic transcription ;^yf 
= xok-Kan or NK (n=l) for L-K. 66 The symbolico- syllabic 
characters in compounds had the value for their initials. 

They do not present in any way the slightest connection 
with the system of the swan-pan. 

C.-^ MATHEMATICAL EVIDENCE. 

28. It is most important to remark that the value of 
position increasing from right to left (as on the Swan- 
pan), about which so many things have been said, was 
known at least six centuries ago by the Chinese. In 
his valuable paper on Chinese Arithmetic, 67 a great 
scholar, speaking of a native work on mathematics 
written at the close of the twelfth century, says : " It 
is not a little remarkable, that while it has been gravely 
asserted by most respectable authorities in Europe, that 
the Chinese are ignorant of the meaning of local value, 
we find here on the contrary, that they have pushed the 
principle to a degree of refinement unpractised in the West. 
It may be noticed, too, that instead of the old form of 
writing the equation, used in Europe, ir 3 +15 a;2 -r-66 a: =360 
the method invented by Hariot, of placing all the sig- 
nificant terms on one side, is precisely that used by the 



66 Cf. Min tsi kill, Luh shu t'ung, kk. ix. f. 18; vii. f. 6v. ; 
iv. f. 61v. ; vii. f . 7 ; v. f. 29; ix. f. 6; ix. f. 15; ix. f. 29; 
vi. f. 31 ; x. f. 25v. 

67 The science of the Chinese. Arithmetic. By (A. Wylie). 
Extracted from the North China Herald, 1852, in The Chinese 
and Japanese Repository, 1864, vol. i. pp. 411-417, 448-457, 
494-500 ; vol. ii. pp. 69-73. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. U U 



322 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

Chinese some five centuries earlier; 68 and though this is 
in itself but a variation in algebraical language, yet it is 
said by De Morgan to have been the foundation of most 
important branches in the science. In (Tsin Kiu Shao's 
8u shit kiu tchang, A.D. 1247) Tsin's original work, positive 
and negative numbers are distinguished by the former 
being in red ink, and the latter in black ; and this custom 
seems to have been in use long before his time; for we 
find Liu Huei 69 referring to it in the middle of the 
third century. It is said to represent the bamboo tally 
numerals, used in ancient times." 70 

29. In the said work of Tsin Kiu-Shao, the numeral 
expressions are all written horizontally, and it is from his 
time that the process seems to have been introduced. And 
as the same work contains obvious evidence of a direct or 
indirect North Indian influence, 71 it may be asked, if this 
influence is not to be recognized in the notation. 72 



68 Here is the equation : 

| 1 Cube of Monad. 
IfH 15 Square of Monad. 

66 Monad - 
360 Natural number. 

69 About 263 A.D. 

70 I have quoted word for word, excepting the dates, etc., 
which I have borrowed from another and later work of the same 
author; cf. Notes on Chinese Literature, pp. 91, 93. 

71 It is in this work that is given for the first time a new 
formula for the resolution of indeterminate problems, called Ta yen 
^C fit > being analogous to the better known Hindoo process 
Cuttaca which Colebrooke translates "Pulverizer." Cf. Wylie, 
O.C. p. 93. 

72 It is in the eighth century that the Hindus were in posses- 
sion of the value by position and the use of the zero. And it is 
not unlikely, that the advantage of the abridgment, which as a 
fact produces the value of position but which the Chinese have 
not carried to a regular system in practice, had been perceived 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 323 

The Th ku yen twan, by Li Yay, published in 1282, 73 
contains in the notes 74 two sets of numbers, made of hori- 
zontal or vertical 75 lines as follows : 

I U tl! 111! 1 T T T f 

-=E = ^-L*f4 

123.456789 
and the numbers are written as shown in the following 
instances: 83592= HlEl^ '> 1082= oill; 20000 
= |lO Goo; and the fractions: 075 = o JLl|||| , etc., 
a system which is the same as that of Tsin Kiu-Shao, where 
we find 64,464 written thus: TX1IIU.X. and 1,405,536 
= 1 =Op||||j=T making a total of 1,470,000 = | {EfT 
OO oO, which proves the respective value of the nu- 
merals. All this shows the ease with which the calculators 
could vary their numerals to avoid any mistakes. The 
last three numerals could be written ]"[, JIJ, Hir =: ^ 8, 9, 
also, and interchange with the other forms. 

An interesting feature of the preceding examples is the 
appearance at that period (1247) of the numeral X for 4, 



in Kashmir at the time when Chinese numerals were there 
known, and that the usual contraction of the sip -f- figure for 
ten into a point or a small circle, has not been without some 
influence on the improvement of the Indian notation and the 
systematisation of the zero. Indeed, the name itself is rather 
suggestive, and I leave to the specialists the care of carrying 
further the suggestion given in this note. 

Cf. Wylie, O.tt, p. 94. 

74 Cf. Ed. Biot, Note sur la connaissance que les Chinois ont eue 
de la valeur de position des Chijfres (Journal Asiatique, Decembre, 
1839, in e serie, vol. viii. pp. 497-502). The learned author 
shows that the Chinese had the knowledge of the value of 
position at the Mongol period ; he had no earlier material at his 
disposal. 

76 In the Seng li ta tsuen, k. xxv. f. 3, are given the numerals 
with vertical strokes, and not the others. This work was pub- 
lished in 1415 under the Ming dynasty. 



324 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

which is one of the Ma-tze or cursive numerals of the 
present time in China, and the main reason why some 
persons have sought for a Bactrian origin for this modern 
set of Chinese numerals, a question which we shall con- 
sider hereafter. 76 

30. The notation exemplified from the native works 
of mathematicians of the thirteenth century was totally 
different from the ancient numismatic numerals, not so 
much in the shapes of the figures, which excepting *X~ 
are all variations of the old forms, than in direction ; it 
increases from right to left and has to be read from left to 
right as our numerals. 77 This is a change of primary 



76 "It may not be generally known that these signs are not 
Chinese, but Bactrian or Phoenician," Notes and Queries on China 
and Japan, vol. iv. p. 6 (Hong Kong, 1870, 8vo.). See also 
Herbert A. Giles, A Glossary of Reference, p. 179, who wrongly 
maintains this statement against, which Dr. Bushell had already 
protested in the same N. and Q. vol. iv. n. 103, p. 102. Cf. our 
remarks below, 32. 

77 It may prove interesting to read the following account 
which I translate from the Grammaire Coreenne (p. 44) pub- 
lished by the French Missionaries at Yokohama in 1881, about 
the Corean "Counting Rods" (^j. >[ > Xa-tji san ^ *j). 
" The Coreans to make their calculations use small rods in non- 
fixed number, which are placed from right to left, isolated or in 
groups, in order to represent the units, tens, hundreds, etc. Dis- 
posed vertically they indicate each a unit of the order of the 
units or of the tens, etc. ; disposed horizontally, they are worth 
five units of the same order. Ex. : 

TIT 111 W T I =83,961 || =: (\\\ m =2,248 
83961 2248 

Instead of rods, they use also small stones, but more often 
sapeques (or coins) and, according to the same rules. For instance : 

O 

O O e> OOo & 
12 9 

Another system of numeration is indicated by the populai saying : 
^1 <&l "' u Tchyen-hsing Paik-rip, etc., i.e. thousand hori- 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 325 

importance, against the old tradition, and which cannot 
with any probability have been initiated in China. 

31. The cursive numerals now in current use resemble the 
tally numerals of the middle ages not only in shape, which 
is nothing else than their cursive alterations with the 
addition of a new compound for nine and a cursive form 
of the regular numeral for five, but also in order; the 
numerals increase from right to left and have to be read 
as in our notation from left to right, in the same way as in 
the works of the mathematicians we have quoted. The 
main difference consists in this that the value of position 
is not implied as understood, and the names of the classes 
have to be written underneath. For instance 6544 has to 
written thousands hundreds tens *. This is an ample evidence that 
the value of position in mathematical works is confined to 
the learned and does not in reality exist in the Chinese 
mind ; the suppression of the written indications of classes 
is but a temporary dropping for the sake of brevity, 
a process of constant practice for everything in speech and 
writing among the sons of Han. 

The series runs as follows : 

I II III * & JL Js & -P 78 

or 



zontal, hundred upright; ten horizontal, units upright." 
Whence the formula : 



342 5=3,425 

But the first system, as widely known as this one, is nearer the 
abacus which the Corean traders use as the Chinese." 

78 We find them so shaped in the pagination of native works 
and also in the Swan fah fung tsung of 1593, k. 1 f. 3. E. C. 
Bridgman ( Chinese Chrestomathy, Macao, 1841, 4to.) gives a still 
more cursive shape than those of our text ; the only difference 
is in |4- for 10 instead of -f- . 



326 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

32. It is quite clear from a close examination of these 
shapes, that we do not want to look outside China for 
their explanation and origin. It looks as if they were a 
partial revival of the most ancient figures, combined with 
a cursive alteration and combination of the regular ones. 
The forms for 1, 2, 3, do not require any remark. That 
for 4 is an abridged form of 55? the old combination for 
this numeral ; the upper horizontal stroke is ornamental, 
then remain four strokes which most likely have been 
simplified into two crossing each other, as in the process 
of simplification the four rays of such a cross may have 
been considered as sufficiently suggestive of the required 
number. That cross-shape for 4, 79 as we have seen, occurs 
since the 13th century, it does not seem that we have to 
suppose for it a Bactrian or a Phoenician origin for several 
reasons. First, the Phoenicians had long disappeared and 
had never known this shape. Second, the Bactrians, like 
the Phoenicians, had also ceased to exist long before the 
adoption by the Chinese mathematicians of this disputed 
numeral. Therefore we must consider it as a mere coinci- 
dence and worthless similarity. On the other hand, we 
find it with a totally new direction of notation, in which 
we might see an Indian influence, but India had not this 
shape and cannot have given it. 80 

The form of 5 is obviously the cursive of 3L 

79 Tai Tung, the author of the Luh shu leu, who lived in the 
thirteenth century, describes the X, the old sign for five, and 
does not allude to the use of the same symbol for 4 in his time. 
See the passage in L. C. Hopkins, The six Scripts, a translation 
(of the introduction of the Luh shu leu, Amoy, 1881, 8vo.), p. 
15, n. 

80 Of. the comparative table I., given by Sir E. Clive Bayley, 
On the Genealogy of Modern Numerals, Part i. in J.R.A.S. vol. 
xiv. (1882). 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 327 

For 6, 7, and 8 we have the familiar combinations of 
straight lines, met with on early coins and in the mathe- 
matical works of the middle ages. 

The form for 9 is a composite made of the preceding 
shapes of 5 and 4 superposed, and as to 10 it is the 
ordinary cross which does not vary. 81 

33. Very little information is available on these cursive 
numerals. Their name Su-tcheu Ma shutmth fze, or "Ma 
numerals of Su-tcheu," 82 indicates perhaps the place where 
they were invented. As Su-tcheu, the great and rich 
manufacturing town of Kiang-su province, received its 
name under the Ming dynasty, 83 and as we find these 
cursive numerals quoted in the Stcanfa tung isitng of 1593, 
it seems that we have in this concurrence pritnd facie 
evidence of the sixteenth century being the time of their 
invention. 84 On the other hand, they have various other 
names, but they are of no help in the solution of the 
question. 

81 They are abbreviated forms used to facilitate the writing 
and expedite the drawing of accounts. 

82 I JH Bi tfc @ ^ c f- Philosinensis, 0. C. p. 67, who 
indicates also another name ;? $J| fify ijjfc *^ Hwa-ma-ti Shu-tze. 

83 It bore the same name under the Sui dynasty (sixth century), 
but was called otherwise under the subsequent dynasties. Cf. 
G. M. H. Playfair, The Cities and- Towns of China (Hong Kong, 
1879, 8vo.), n. 6666. 

84 In the name Hica-Ma-ti Shu-tze, Ma means "weight," and 
it seems to me that hwa is here a word of disparagement showing 
that they are of a lower standard than the plain numerals ; hwa 
should be taken here with its meaning of "indistinct vision." 
This view is justified by another name Ngan-ma ^ M instead 
of hwa ma, in Wy lie's "Compendium of Mathematics" (in Chinese 
|$; Ijl jgfc IR Shu hioh Hi mung, Shanghai, 1853) ; ngan means 
" obscure, secret," and corresponds to hwa ; though ma is there 
deprived of the ideographic determinative (^ "stone") which 
precises its sound in the sense of "weight," we have no doubt 
that hwa-ma and ngan-ma have the same meaning in the com- 



328 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

D. HISTORICAL EVIDENCE. 

34. The historical traditions concerning the counting- 
rods and the swan-pan, though very few, are not without 
interest. 

We can dismiss without difficulty the statement accord- 
ing to which the swan-pan was invented by Li Sheu, the 
chief mathematician of the mythic emperor Nai Hwang-ti 



pound name. We do not see any sufficient reason to suppose 
with Bazin (Grammaire Mandarine, p. 31) that ngan-ma is the 
name of an unknown foreign country. In the most ancient work 
where we find them, they bear that name of ngan-ma (cf. Swan 
fah fung tsung (1593) k. i. f. 3v.) and also ngan-fae ma-shu fl|f ^ 
^jj !*, which most likely, as the above-quoted names, means 
nothing else than abridged numerals for weights. We find also 
the Ma-tze, called fl| *, JS| *, 3$f * and also || ^. 
A non impossible supposition to explain the variations of ma, 
should be that this would be the name of a mathematician who 
made these abbreviations, or at least who improved them and 
gave them the regularity and convenience they present for quick 
calculation. And it is not unlikely that an European influence 
should have acted there. The Swan fah ting tsung was published 
in 1593, or eleven years after the arrival of Matteo Ricci, in 
Chinese J|J 3^ Jj[ Li Ma-teu, who devoted his first efforts to 
the subject of mathematics, and translated a treatise on European 
arithmetic as a preliminary step. He also translated Euclid. It 
will be remarked that the first character of his surname, Ma-teu, 
is also used for the Ma-tze numerals. The author of the article 
Arithmetic in the Encyclopedia Britanniva (eighth edit.) has not 
overlooked a European influence when he writes the following 
interesting passage : " About the close of the seventeenth 
century the Jesuit missionaries Bouvet, Gerbillon, and others, 
then residing at the court at Peking, and able mathematicians, 
appear to have still further improved the numeral symbols of 
the Chinese traders, and reduced the whole system to a degree 
of simplicity and elegance of form scarcely inferior to that of 
our modern ciphers. With these abbreviated characters they 
printed at the Imperial Press, Vlacq's 'Table of Logarithms,' 
extending to ten places of decimals, in a beautiful volume, of 
which a copy was presented by Father Gaubil, on his return to 
Europe, about the year 1750, to the Royal Society of London." 



OLD NOIERALS AND THE SWAN -PAN IN CHINA. 329 

(Nakhunta). This tradition, which we find still repeated 
in recent European books of sinology, 85 has been developed 
out of another one which has not any better foundation, 86 
and according to which the said Emperor Hwang- ti com- 
missioned Li Sheu to invent mathematics and to lay down 
the principles of calculation. 87 The mythological growth 
of the legend is here apparent, the translation of the name 
of Li sheu "chief mathematician" speaks for itself, and 
the " swan-pan " business has made its appearance through 
the single word ^[ swan " to reckon," used in the text of 
the record, 88 according to the process we have mentioned 
above (2). 

35. The invention of the " Nine sections of arithmetic " 



85 Vid. for instance P. Perny, Grammaire CMnoise, vol. i. p. 108. 

fc6 Tch'ing Ta-wei in his work Swan f ah fung hung, published 
in A.D. 1593, states very clearly that the ancients did not know 
the Swan-pan. Vid. kiuen xii. f . 9v. 

87 In the great historical compilation, called Tung kien kang 
muh under the direction of the celebrated Tchu Hi (A.D. 1130- 
1200), and which is considered as the standard History of China 
(cf. Mayers' Chinese Reader's Manual, i. n. 79), it is stated, 
under the reign of Hwang- ti, that he caused his minister, Li-sheu, 
to form the Kiu-tcTiang "Mne sections of Arithmetic." These 
nine sections, which have formed the nucleus of arithmetical 
science in China, contain several things which deserve attention. 
Divided into 20 phrases by the great sinologist A. Wylie, they 
exhibit allusions to the quadrature of the circle and to plane 
mensuration ; one gives the ratio of the hypothenuse to the short 
sides of a right-angled triangle ; others state that a quadrangle 
bounding the three angles contains double the area of the said 
triangle, and that the whole is equal to the sum of the several 
parts; one is the well-known 47th proposition of the first book 
of Euclid ; the application of trigonometry to the measurement 
of distant objects, and the fundamental principle upon which 
the area of the circle is calculated, were also known to the 
author, as well as some ancient instrument for representing the 
appearance of the heavens and earth. 

88 Vid. Liu Fung sze she, in Kin tche king yuen jjjfa ^ -Hi /^> 
k. 49, f. 7. A Cyclopaedia compiled in 1735. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. X X 



330 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

is attributed to Tcheu Kung, 89 and he is reputed to have 
also invented the beginnings of the Swan-pan. 90 This 
statement, which is to be considered as an ingenious device 
of a recent writer to combine the reputed authorship of 
the ancient sage with the more sober notions of later times, 
has no other support, than the part played by Tcheu kung 
in the exposition of the said " nine sections," and we hear 
no more of the Swan-pan. 

It is of the counting-rods that we hear in history. The 
oldest references refer to the fourth century B.C., and it 
seems by the rather contemptuous manner with which 
they are mentioned, that they were considered as a new 
invention or improvement for the facility of calculation by 
the unlearned. This is important because it agrees with 
the indications derived from palseography and numismatics, 
which tend to show that the counting-rods do not seem to 
be older than the fourth century B.C. With this new 
information from a different quarter, the question may be 
considered as pretty well settled. 

36. Hiao-tze, the ruler of Ts'in from 361 to 337 B.C., 
who had proclaimed 91 offers of high reward to men of 
ability from other States, considered 92 that good mathema- 
ticians ought not to use counting stalks (f(| H). It will be 
remarked that the written expressions 3|C, M, do not seem 
to have existed at the time. 

Tchwang tze (torn about 330 B.C.), the -author of such 
childish and useless speculations, 93 is reputed not to have 

39 On this great man, see above 10. 
)0 ^ 3|[ ^ ^ $fj . Vid. Liu Fung sze she, ibid. 
91 Cf. Mayers, Chinese R.M., i. n. 845. 
8 Cf. Tai Ping yii Ian, k. 750, f. 3v. 

3 The work which goes by his name, though many parts are 
not his (ef. "Wylie, Notes on Chinese Literature, p. 174), the Nan 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 331 

used the counting-rods. 91 This second tradition about the 
counting-rods does not come from the same work, nor the 
same class of information as the preceding. "We have not 
to connect the second with the first, and we have only to 
consider it as a negative indication, which might prove 
that the practical knowledge of the implements had not 
yet reached the region of Liang, the native country of the 
philosopher. 

37. The next tradition in chronological order that we 
meet with contains some material information on these 
famous rods. Tchao T'o (B.C. 240-137), 95 formerly ofiicer 
of the first Emperor She Hwang-ti, and who ruled over 
Kwang-tung and Kwang-si as an independent sovereign, 
had several sorts of counting-rods made to suit his fancy, 
when he went to the South. This would be about 215 B.C. 
The Emperor Ngan (397-419 A.D.) of the Eastern Tsin 
dynasty kept them preciously in his Museum of An- 
tiquities. 96 They were one cubit long, some were white, 
made of bone, others were black, made of horn. Under 
the reign of Wu-Ti (140-86 B.C.) of the Han dynasty, 
Sang Hung was renowned about 118 B.C. for his ability in 
using the counting-rods for his calendaric calculations. 97 

38. In the annals of the Western Tsin dynasty (A.D. 
265-317), it is recorded that. Wang Jung, a minister .of 
Hwei-Ti who ruled A.U. 290-307, when he had taken in 



Jiwa tclien king, has been rewritten lately in English by Mr. F. 
H. Balfour, The Divine Classic of Nan hwa, Shanghai, 1881, 8vo. 

94 Vid. Yuen lien Lei han, k. 331, f. 12v. 

95 On Tchao T'o Prince of Yuen, vid. a short biographical 
notice in Mayers' Chinese H.M., i. n. 50. 

96 Cf. Tai Ping yii Ian, k. 750, f. 3v-. The expression here 
used is : J^- jj|; not yet the swan of Swan-pan. 

97 Cf. Tai Ping yu Ian, k. 750, f . 1 . The expression used is |!p . 



332 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

hand his ivory tallies, he spent his nights in calculating, 
as if he could not stop. 98 This is quoted as a proof of his 
great wealth, as he used his tallies to calculate his income." 
The expression " reckon with ivory tallies " ^p f|| ff , 
which still remains in literature as an allusion to wealth, 100 
is extracted from the above statement. 

During the reign of the Emperor Tch'eng (326-343 A.D.) 
of the following dynasty (the Eastern Tsin), the counting- 
rods were made of wood, of ivory or of iron. Under the 
Wei dynasty the Emperor Siuen Wu (500-516 A.D.) regu- 
lated the currency, and made counting-rods cast in iron 
for the use of the people. 101 

39. It will be deemed unnecessary to accumulate such 
proofs of the use of the counting-rods during the following 
centuries ; it is plain enough that the swan-pan was not 
known, and we shall jump at once to the last period where 
we find the counting- rods in use ; it is most likely when the 
Swan-pan made its appearance. In the Meng K'i pih 
fan, a work compiled about the middle of the eleventh 
century, 102 we hear of an able mathematician, 103 who could 
move his bamboo tallies as if they were "flying men" (fH A 
=puppets?), and this so quickly that the eye could not 



98 Cf. Eih tcJie king yuen, k. 49, f. 7. Cf. also Tai Ping yu Ian, 
k. 750, f. 2. 

93 Vid. a short "biography of this man, one of the Seven 
Worthies, in Mayers' Chinese R. M., i. n. 799. 

100 Gallery, Dictionnaire Encyclopedique de la langue Chinoise, 
(an adaptation of the Pei wen yun fu) vol. i. (only published 
Paris, 1844, 8vo ), p. 53-54, has been mistaken on the origin of 
this expression. 

101 Of- 'Jpf Jpl $ in Kih tche king yuen, ibid. Here the ex- 
pression used is J|f -^p. 

1)2 A. Wylie, Notes on Chinese Literature, p. 131. 
ios ^y e i p ^ a man Q Uwai-nan. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 333 

follow the moving nor see anything before the account or 
result was obtained. 104 

Now this description is exactly what we should expect of 
a man knowing the Swan-pan, perhaps only by hearsay, and 
who wants to show that the tallies had been practised with 
the same peculiarities as those offered by the counting- 
board, where the beads are really moved as flying men, 
and the result only can be seen. 105 This. assumption of 
ours is confirmed, to a certain extent, by this fact, that at 
the beginning of the Kin dynasty (twelfth century), 106 
mention is made, with praise, of the ability to move the 
bamboo tallies and dispose the written strokes in order 
that the eyes might see the calculation. As if in opposi- 
tion to the Swan-pan which has not this advantage. 

These conflicting descriptions show most distinctly the 
appearance of the counting-board, and the usual struggle 
of Chinese conservatism, to uphold their ancient systems 
and to find in them the qualities which are conspicuous 
by their display or absence in the new. 

40. Afterwards we hear no more of the counting-rods 
or bamboo tallies, as they were ousted by the more con- 
venient swan-pan, but we find nowhere a record of its 
introduction, for which the Chinese are most likely in- 
debted to foreigners. It is under the Mongol period that 
we find the notation in strokes, horizontally to be read 
from left to right as in our notation, and as in the swan- 
pan practice. The two processes seem to be dependent 
one on the other or at least narrowly connected, and 
their parallelism is highly suggestive. 

104 Yuen lien lei han, k. 331, f. 11. 
103 Yuen kien lei han, k. 331, f. llv. 

106 The Kin dynasty ruled over the North of China from 1115 
to 1234 A.D. 



334 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

41. An acute student and one of the most voluminous 
writers on astronomical and mathematical matters, Mei 
Wuh-ngan, at the end of the seventeenth century, directed 
his inquiries to ancient calculating instruments; 107 in a 
special work in which are embodied the results of his 
researches, which I have not seen, he shows that the use 
of the abacus in China is comparatively recent, probably 
not earlier than the twelfth century. 

The Swan fah t'ung tsung, published in 1593, enables 
me to give a confirmation of the statement of Mei Wuh- 
ngan ; in a bibliographical list of works on mathematics 
which I find in the last book or kiuen of this treatise are 
quoted 108 the titles of two works published during the 
period Shun-hi (i.e. A.D. 1174-1190), the Pan tclm tsih 
and the Tseu pan tsih, 110 which are the earliest describing 
the counting pan or board. It will be remarked that the 
compound expression sican-pan was not yet made, and that 
the implement is still described as late as the sixteenth 
century by the name of Pan shih m " board to measure." 
The two works just quoted are called "Collected notes 
on the board beads," and " Collected notes on moving 
the board ;" these titles show how necessary it was to 
describe the new implement. 

CONCLUSION. 

42. The various inquiries we have instituted in Lin- 
guistics and Palaeography, ancient and modern numis- 



107 In his work "j^f flF & ^| " Inquiry regarding ancient cal- 
culating instruments." ViA. A. "Wylie, Notes on Chinese Litera- 
ture, p. 91. 108 Vid. kiuen xii. f. 25v. 

109 $ Kb m 110 A J|S -^ 

111 llf 5^ Of- Swan fah tfung tsung, k. ii. f . 1 . Cf . pdthi, 
the common Sanskrit term for the abacus. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 335 

matics, mathematical works and historical traditions, have 
all tended to the same result, a convergence of negative 
evidence against the supposed antiquity of the Swan-pan 
in China. 

Its name itself is quite modern, and the ancient words 
meaning " to calculate or reckon " indicate the use of 
counting rods and tallies from the fourth century B.C. and 
nothing of any board of any kind. 

The coin legends of the fourth and third centuries B.C. 
show a curious and special series of numerals, obviously 
connected with the counting-rods by their shapes made of 
straight strokes, and exhibiting a knowledge of place- value 
which seems to be supported by an example of two 
centuries earlier. These numerals, as well as the regular 
ones, were disposed like the writing from right to left, or 
vertically, and not at all in the swan-pan order. The 
regular numerals which occur on coins since the first 
century A.D. no more exhibit series over ten. But the 
knowledge of the value of position and a limited use 
of the zero, both gained by abridgment, though imperfect 
as they were, have no more been lost. The numbers 
on these coins were written with the ornamented nu- 
merals which we have seen are nothing else than the 
written words, and they have .nothing to do with any 
system connected with the Sican-pan. 

In another line of research we have seen that a great 
scholar, Ts'in Kiu Shao of the thirteenth century, almost 
the only mathematician of the Sung dynasty, did use 
numerals, like the ancient numismatic ones, made of 
straight strokes with place-value, but in reversed order 
and increasing from right to left and read as the swan-pan 
and our notation ; it is worth remarking that the learned 
author does not introduce these numerals as newly in- 



336 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

vented or improved, and that his silence on the subject 
implies an extensive and practical use of them by all his 
readers in his time. The cursive characters which later 
on are introduced to his readers by the author of the Swan 
fall fung tsung (1593) are abridged from the preceding, but 
their practical use does not necessarily imply place- value, 
and they do not seem to be of foreign origin. 112 

The historical traditions, excepting those of the mythical 
period, bear only on the counting-rods, which were used 
with great ability from the fourth century B.C. to the 
twelfth century A.D., where a curious conflict of testimony 
in favour of the ancient tallies shows without doubt that 
the counting-board being introduced at that time, the 
conservative Chinese endeavoured to uphold the qualities 
of the ancient instruments, and to find in them not only the 
same but also some more advantages than in the newly 
introduced implement. In accordance with this result, the 
oldest works describing the counting-board appeared at 
the end of the twelfth century, and an eminent Chinese 
mathematician, who investigated the matter two hundred 
years ago, and could dispose of other material than we do, 
has arrived at the same conclusion, viz. that the Swan-pan 
did not exist in China previously to the twelfth century. 

43. Now the question arises to know from where the 
Chinese have obtained the abacus, as there is no doubt 
that it is a foreign introduction. Not direct from India ; 
it is principally about or before the time 113 of the celebrated 
Buddhist astronomer Ih Heng fx (717 A.D.) that the 

112 On a probable European influence on this simplification, 
see above n. 84. 

113 Vid. A. "Wylie, in Chinese and Japanese Repository, p. 416. 
The other traces of Indian influence on Chinese mathematics are 
posterior to the introduction of the Swan-pan. Vid. above 28. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 337 

Chinese received what little they seem to have obtained 
from India. 114 We have seen that the Swan-pan was not 
known till four centuries afterwards, and if we consider 
what China was at the time, not only surrounded in the 
north, but half swallowed by two powerful states, the 
Tangut or Ho-si and the Liao and Kin Tartars, in which 
learning and improvements were far from being despised, 
and that one had relations with central and western Asia, 
the probability of its western origin begins to appear. 
The Tangutans were great traders and carried extensive 
relations for that purpose ; their civilization had a good 
deal of Indian in it ; it is not unlikely that through them 
the use of this useful instrument was carried to the 
knowledge of some Chinese. On the other hand, there is 
a general remark to make on this late appearance of the 
Swan-pan. It occurs after the Tang dynasty, after so 
many foreign elements and notions had found their way to 
China. The Arabs and Persians at Canton in the eighth 
century, the Nestorians in the north-west, the relations 
with Central Asia not interrupted since the same dynasty, 
present so many channels by which the Chinese have 
obtained many notions and elements of progress. 

The Swan-pan was undoubtedly used in China at the 
time of Ser Marco Polo, but no. mention is made of it in his 
marvellous book. However, the other absence of reference 



114 When M. Eeinaud (Memoire sur VInde, p. 301 ; Th. H. 
Martin, Recherches Nouvelles concernant les Origines de notre nu- 
meration ecrite, p. 605, in Revue Archeologique, 1857, Paris, 8vo.) 
said that the Chinese borrowed the system of the value by 
position and the use of the zero, from the Indians after the fifth 
centuiy, he was not aware of the peculiarities offered by the 
numeration on ancient coins which we have seen above 17-21. 
The reverse may have been the case to a certain extent. See 
above n. 72. 

VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. Y Y 



338 OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

by the great Venetian traveller to the Chinese art of 
printing, which was very flourishing in his time, does not 
permit us to draw any inference from it. "We might sug- 
gest that he had some dubious reasons to do so ; as it is a 
curious and rather suspicious coincidence that a connection 
of some kind might be traced up to Venice, for the European 
art of printing and the knowledge of a peculiarity of the 
Chinese abacus in the practice of the Bank 115 of the 
bankers. 

Having shown in the preceding pages that the Chinese 
abacus is not of Chinese origin, and that, on the contrary, 
it is of comparatively modern introduction (twelfth 
century) into the Middle .Kingdom, two results opposed to 
the opinion hitherto expressed in Europe, we should 
pass beyond the scope of the present paper and our 
own capacity, should we go into the rather complicated 
historical problem presented by the European Abacus and 

115 The system of calculating on the Swan-pan is much like 
that which the authors of the fifteenth century called super lineas 
et per projectiles, used in the middle age by the Argentarii (Mr. 
Trentlein has explained this calculation in his work Das Rechnen 
im IGten Jahrhundert, 1st fasc. of Abhandlungenzur Geschichte der 
Mathematilc) ; their calculations were made on a small table, a 
bank, whence "faire la banque" and later on the qualification of 
bankers given to the Argentarii. On the table were traced hori- 
zontal lines representing the different orders of decimal units ; 
pebbles or projectiles were placed on the lines to indicate the 
units of the line, but the pebbles placed over were worth 5. 
This peculiarity has been considered lately (cf. L. Rodet, Le 
Souan-pan des Chinois et la Banque des Argentiers, pp. 165, 166, 
168, in Bulletin de la Societe MatMmatique de France, t. viii. 
(1880, Paris, 8vo.) as of prime importance, inasmuch as it 
exists in the Swan-pan calculation, without any attempt at 
a connection, which, however, does not seem unlikely, if the 
Venetian traders in Central Asia have brought back that notion 
to their brethren. Are not the Venetians those who have 
renewed the ancient trade and began again the business of the 
Argentarii ? 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. '339 

the Indian Pdthi, with its further complication of the 
undefined (improved combination of the earlier dust- 
writing and pehbles- (or cowries-)heaping boards) Asiatic 
antecedent of the latter and of the Chinese Swan-pan, 
and the questions of derivation, improvement, or parallel 
descent implied by their obvious connection. 

TERRIEN DE LACOUPERIE. 

LONDON, May, 1883. 



For easier reference, I add a summary of the whole 
paper. 

PROLEGOMENA. 1. Curious difficulty of researches in Chinese 
literature. 2. Commentaries and texts. 3. Ready-made 
solutions in Europe. Another difficulty. 4. The Swan-pan 
known in Europe. 5. In Russia, France, England; in 
Japan. 6. No special record of the Swan-pan. 7. We 
shall follow the negative method. 

A. LINGUISTIC AND PAL^OGRAPHTCAL EVIDENCES. 8. No special 

pictorial character for the "counting-board." 9. Pan and 
swan in the rituals. 10. The three Rituals, spurious com- 
pilations of the Han period. 11. Swan= counting-rods. 
12. Another character Swan. 13. The Sheu or tallies. 

B. NUMISMATIC NUMERALS EVIDENCE. 14. Evidence of ancient 

Chinese coins; first time adduced. 15. Barter at early 
period. 16. Coinage begins in the sixth century B.C. 17. 
Characteristics of the legends. 18. Table of the numerals 
of the fourth and third centuries B.C. 19. Remarks on the 
single figures. 20. The double figures exhibit the value ly 
position. 21. An example of the value by position in the 
sixth century B.C. 22. Order of these numerals contrary to 
the Swan-pan. 23. These numerals still used in the sixth 
century A.D. 24. Numerals in small seal character contrary 
to the Swan-pan. 25. Ornamented numerals. 26. Their 
origin according to the K'ang-hi Tze-tien. 27. According 
to palaeography. No connection with the Swan-pan. 



OLD NUMERALS AND THE SWAN-PAN IN CHINA. 

C. MATHEMATICAL EVIDENCE. 28. Value by position known in 

the thirteenth century. 29. Instance of numbers and 
numerals. X for 4. 30. Different in order from the 
ancients. 31. The cursive numerals. 32. Their Chinese 
origin. 33. Their various names. 

D. HISTOEICAL EVIDENCE. 34. Mystic traditions worthless. 

35. References to the counting-rods. 36. Hiao-tze (fourth 
century), Tchwang tze (fourth century). 37. Tch'ao T'o 
(third century), Sang Hung (second century B.C.). 38. 
"Wang Jung (third century A.D.) and others of the fourth 
and sixth centuries. 39. Conflicting evidence of the twelfth 
century. 40. Corresponds with the new direction of nu- 
merals. 41. Other proofs in favour of the twelfth century. 

CONCLUSIONS. 42. Eesume of the various evidence. 43. The 
Swan-pan known in China from Central Asia in the twelfth 
century. 



INDEX. 



AtMsy Khalifs, 220 
Abu-Muslim, Dirhem of, 219 
Adramyttium, Cistophori of, 184 
JElhelstan, coins of, 284 
^Etna, coin of, 165, 171 
Alexander, coinage of an explana- 
tion, 18 

Alexander I., Bala, coins of, 98 
Alexander II., Zebina, coins of, 103 
Alexander the Great, Tetradrachms 

of, 1 

Alexander Severus, coin of, 280 
Annuaire de la Societe franchise de 

Numismatique, noticed, 267 
Antiochi, coins of the, 65 
Antiochus Hierax, coins of, 83 
Antiochus IV., coin of, 97 
Antiochus VII., coin of, 100 
Antiochus VIII., coin of, 104 
Apameia, Cistophori of, 190 
Armand, Les Medailleurs italiens, 

noticed, 264 
Athenian coin-engravers in Italy, 

269 

Attrebates, their capital, 25 
Australian currency, 119 

B. 

Balbinus, coin of, 281 
Beni-Umayyeh Khalifs, 203 
Bermuda Hog-Money, 117 
Bombay, coins of, 14 
BUNBURY, E. H., ESQ., M.A. : 
Tetradrachms of Alexander the 

Great, 1 

Hare and unpublished coins 
of the Seleucidan Kings of j 
Syria, 65 

Unpublished Cistophori, 181 
VOL. III. THIRD SERIES. 



C. 

Calixtus III., medals of, 154 

Carallia, coins of, 177 

Charles II., Indian coins of, 40 

Charles VIII., medal of, 294 

Cistophori, 181 

Cos, coins struck at, 5 

COUPERIB, PROF. A. TERRIEN DB 

LA: 

The old numerals, the counting- 
rods and the Swan-pan in 
China, 297 

D. 

Dalisandus, coins of, 178 
Dandy-prats, 62 
Demetrius II , coin of, 100 
Diadumenianus, coin of, 280 
Diocletian, medallion of, 20, 263 
Dollars improved in value, 119 

E. 

JSadweard the Elder, coins of, 283 
Eanbald, silver stycas of, 28 
Eanred, stycas of, 27 
East India Company, coins of, 40 
Edward III., noble of, 61 
Edward IV., noble of, 62 
Elea, coins of, 273 
Enna, coin of, 169 
Ephesus, Cistophori of, 182 
Eugenius IV., medals of, 142 
Eumenes II., Cistophorus of, 195 
EVANS, JOHN, D.C.L., F.R.S. : 
Further notice of some coins dis- 
covered in Lime Street, Lon- 
don, 278 

Exchanges, note on Indian, 48 
z z 



342 



INDEX. 



F. 

Finds of Coins : 

Lime Street, London, 278 
Linton, Kent, 108 

G. 

GARDNER, PHOF. PEBCY, D.Lrr., 
FS.A.: 

The types of Greek coins, no- 
ticed, 55 

The Griffin on coins, 261 
The coinage of the Seleucidte, 261 
Gel a, coins of, 1G6 
GILL, H. 8., ESQ. : 

Seventeenth century tokens of 

Hampshire, 121 
G<>rdi>mu8 Africanus II., ccin of, 

280 

GREENE, T. WHITCOMBE, ESQ. : 
The medallion of Philip the Fair 
of Savoy and Margaret of 
Austria, 288 
Griffin, thu, in Greek Art, 23, 261 

H. 

Hampshire tokens, 121 
HEAD, BARCLAY V., ESQ.: 

Coinage of Alexander an ex- 
planation, 18 

Remarks on two unique coins of 

Aetna and Zancle, 171 
Henry I., coins of, 108 
Henry IV., noble of, 61 
Heraclea, coin of, 273 
HIRSCH DE GEREUTH, BARON L. 

DE : 

Rare and inedited Sicilian coins, 

165 

Hog-Money threepence, 117 
HOWORTH, H. H., Esq, F.S.A : 

Some Re- attributions, 20 
Human hand on Hiberno-Danish 

coins, 32 

I. 

Iconium, coins of, 179 

llistra, coin of, 180 

Indian gold, 52 

Indian silver, 51 

Ireland, Saxon coins found in, 282 

Isaura, coin of, 178 

Isauria, coins of, 177 

Italy, Athenian artists in, 269 

J. 
James II., Rupee of, 48 



L. 

Laodicea, Cistophori of. 190 
LEFKOY, GEN. SIR J. H., F.R.S. - 
On a new piece of Bermuda Hog- 
Money of the value of II Id., 
117 

Australian currency, 119 
London, Roman coins found in, 278 
Lycaoiiia, coins of, 177 

M. 

Macrinus, coin of, 280 
Marende, the engraver, 288 
Margaret of Austria, medallion of, 

288 

Martin V., medals of, 136 
Maximian, medallion attributed to, 

20, 264 

Maximinus, coin of, 280 
Medals, Papal, 136 
Mohammadan coins, 181 
MONTAGU, H., ESQ. : 

Silver stycas of N orthumbria and 
York, 26 

Unpublished nobles, &c., 61 

N. 

Nacona, coin of, 170 

Natantes nummi, 62 

Neapolis, coin of, 274 

New South Wales, currency of, 119 

Is'iccolo Fiorentino, the engraver, 

294 

Nicolaus V., medals of, 146 
Nike, representations of, 272 
Northumbrian silver stycas, 26 
Numerals, early Chinese, 297 

O. 

OZVLF, the moneyer, 287 
P. 

Pandosia, coin of, 275 

Papal medals of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, 131 

Pariuin, Cistophorus of, 184 

Pergamum, Cistophori of, 184 

Peter, St., coin of, 286 

Philibert of Savoy, medallion of, 
288 

*IAISTIQN, the engraver, 273 

*PYriAAO2, the engraver, 275 

Pius II., medals of, 158 



INDEX. 



343 



POOLE, REGINALD STUAKT, ESQ., 

LL.D.: 

Athenian coin-engravers in Italy, 

269 
POWNALL, CANON, F.S.A. : 

Rose M.M. on Irish money, 60 

R. 

Re-attributions of coins, 20 
Revue numismatique, noticed, 265 
ROGERS BEY, E. T., Catalogue of 

his Mohammudan coins, 202 
Rohde Theodor, his Miinzen des 

K. Aure'ianus und Seiner Frau 

Severina, noticed, 56 
Rose M.M. on Irish money, 60 
Rupees of Bombay, 45 

S. 

Sardes, Cistophori of, 188 
Schlickeysen, F. W. A. : 

His work on abbreviations, no- 
ticed, 58 

Seleucidae, coins of the, 22, 65, 261 
Severus, coin of, 280 
Sicilian coins, 165 
Sicyon, coins struck at, 7 
Side, coins of, 199 
Sihtric III., coins of, 33 
Silchester as Calleva, 24 
SMITH, AQUILLA, M.D. : 

The human hand on Hiberno- 
Danish coins, 32 

Did Suein coin money in Eng- 
land ? 63 

Saxon coins found in Ireland, 282 
Smyrna, coins struck at, 5 
Stephen, coins of, 108 
Suein, coinage of, 63 



1TMMAXIKON, the legend, 169 
Swan-pan, the Chinese, 297 
Syrian coins of the Seleucidse, 66 

T. 

Tavernier's travels, 40 
Terina, coins of, 270 
THOMAS, EDWARD, ESQ., F.R.S. : 
Coins of the E^st India Co. in 
Bombay, under Charles II., 40 
Thurium, coins of, 274 
Tokens, Hampshire, 121 
Tralles, Cistophori of, 189 
Tyra, Sarmatise, coin of, 180 

V. 

Velia, coins of, 273 

W. 

WAKEFORD, G., ESQ. : 

On a hoard of English coins of 

Henry I. and Stephen, 108 
Wererlc, coins reading, 110 
Winchester, Proclamation concern- 
ing tokens at, 123 
WROTH, WARWICK., ESQ. : 

Coins of Isauria and Lycaonia, 
177 

Y. 

York, silver stycas of, 26 

Z. 

Zancle, coins of, 165, 171 
Zeitschrift fur Numismatik no- 
ticed, 58, 267 
Zeus JEtnseus, 172 



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